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Full text of "Some account of the life and writings of Lope Felix de Vega Carpio"

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V-a. Spev,, EL G.I4-S2 






SOME ACCOUNT 

OF TQE 

£JFE AKD fVRXTIXGS 

or 

LOPE FELIX DJE VEGA CARPIO, 



Vet . Voa A .T 



"TTT - T^ ' A 



h 



r 



'A. 



fuf .^,'/i/--, y'/'^t/- /t;/jw, 

?ffll.ii»(i2. Ob. 1035. 



v/f_.«fe- -) 



r 



SOME ACCOUNT 



OF THE 



LIFE AKD WRITINGS 



OP 



LOPE FELIX DE VEGA CARPIO. 



«Y 



HENRY RICHARD LORD HOLLAND. 



LONDON : 

PRIMTfiD POR LONGMAN, HURST, RE£S, AND ORME, 
PATERNOiTER-ROV; E. JEF^RT, PALL MALL; 
» AND J. RIDGWAT, PICCADILLY ; 

BY RtClfAIlD TAYLOR AMD Ca, SHOB-LAMB, FLEBT-STflEBT. 



/ » 



• L 










'- I. 






■ r 
K 



< 4 »' 



*-< . 



DEDICATION. 



TO 

DON MANUEL JOSEF QUINTANA, 



In dedicating the following .pages 
to you, I am not without appre^ 
liensions that my readers may 
accuse me of being actuated by 
motives very different from those 
which I should wish to assign. 
What is offered as a testimony of 
friendship, and an acknowledg- 
ment of obligations, they may 



VI 



very jdausiMy: Imspeot . of b^flg 
an artifice pf ,ai;t]iQrs|iip, a^d A 
gpitifi€atioi|.ftf,;yaiij|;y,. JMepcli 
if I iyere:di8p94^ tQ-^^sume JEiwr 
tbority with my .cQu^tryiQen. :oo 
subjects of Castilian literature^ 

l^w i^\^ I , acoomp^^k ittf mow? 
effectually than by iiMfiuuatitig 
that my res^arche@, were directed^ 

am^ my studieti . lam^^, > > by • a 

Spaniard so lemiii^iit for • pilrity 
of tasEte .-anid dificemmeat in. li* 
t^ratn^ a9 .yoitrself? Howconld 
i morO: laitiuUy iit^y my ipiali*- 
6c9ti<m forjudging, of ceJebrated 
^paa^shvpoets who ^e dead; ^thaii 
by prdi^aiming the intimacy and 
fn«d.liip ,«d. AriiicL li am ho. 



VB. 



hoW^er/l'had tatfcfei* ibcu'i?' the 

public, tbatf ' cfeserVe'^tKht' ttf 'iJi 
gratitude frbm yoti^ 1 cantibt aU 
ld\if ' f hese sheets lo ' go to the 
presi^ without adiiibi^l^dgitigth^ 
^dr^titages I haye derived: from 
youradvic. tod «»tersation ia 
45olle€tirig' the' iha^^rikls necessary 
to the task which I had under* 
taketi. Indeed, the only circum- 
ka^ice which could make hk^ con- 
template a work so imperfect and 
superficial with any coUiplacencyJ 
woufld be, that it is dissociated 
iti' ftiy mind with ihe recollection 
of- the many pleasant hours I 



vm 



jKUsed, and ilie many yaluable 
accpauitances I formed^ in the 
eountry to the literature of which 
it is devoted. 

VASSALL HOLLAND. 



BoUaad Houe, KeMii^faMi, 
Jnlj 19, laotf. 



SOME ACCOXJNT . r .^ 

■ ■ ■ • i 

OF T^ 



^•0 



LIFE AND WRITINGS' 



OF 



LOPE DE VfeOA. ' J 

^ • " ■ ▼ * •• • 

• t < « • ■* 

It is so trite an observation, that the 
life of a man of letters is too uniform to 
render the relation of it iHtCTestfarg, that 
the remark is become m r@gu|9yc«An in-* 
troductiori to literary biography, as the 
title-page and dedication are to a book. 
But if in compliance with established 
usage we place it in our account of a 
Spanish poet, it must be for the sole 
purpose of refiiting it. The advance- 
ment of literature has, in many instances, 
kept pace with the political influence of 
a country ; but it has happened more 
frequently in Spain than elsewhere, that 
the same persons have contributed to 

B 



2 

the progress pf both. Garcilaso* de la 
Vega, whose family is celebrated for 
military es;ploits both in history and ro- 
mance, and who is himself, from the 

• .) 

harmony of his verse, called the Petrarch 



* The sainame of ha^ V^fft-was, according to the ro- 
mantic history of the wars of Grenada, bestowed on Gar- 
dlaso, a young Spaniard, for his prowess in Tanquishiiig 
a' gigantic Mooi* who had defied the ChiiStian warriors 
by pacadiDg befote Perdiaaiid's camp in the Fega de 
Granada with the words Ave Maria £xed to his horse^s 
tail : but this story is'related of another man, with yery 
little TariaitHnij in the Ghreiude of Alonzo XI., wri^t^a 
long btfore ti;e sifBge of <Traiada. The poe£ Gardlaso, 
though Jie has written little more than pastorals and son. 
hets^ may'safdy be' pronounced the most classical poet ifi 
the CaaiiiUtti language. lodetd there are i few. authors, 
antient or modern, who, had they died at the same period 
of life, would have left more perfect compositions behind 
than. He' unfokunately did not fire long enough to .fix 
the tPiste, of his countrymen ; and the race of poets who 
succeeded him were more remarkable for wit and imagi* 
nation than for cbri'ccthess of thought^ or purity of ex^ 
l^ttessitm; JBeoaase Horace rsin away from PhlKppi, or for 
SQill^ reason equally cogent, courage has been supposed to 
be a rare rirtue among poets ; and Menage observes, that 
Oarcilaso is the only bard upon record who actually fell 
in the field; * . 



3 

I 

of Spain, fell at the age of thirty-three 
before a little fortress near Frejus ; and 
his death became the more remarkable, 
frem the merciless manner in which 
Charles V. avenged it, by putting the ^ 
whole garrison to the sword. The ne- 
gotiations and personal character of 
Mendoza* had no inconsiderable influ- 

* Don Di^o. Hartado de Mendosa was bom at Grenada 
Tery early in the 16di century. His abilities in Tarious 
embassies to Rome, Venice, and Trent, were nnirersally 
axsknowledged by his contemporaries, though an in&mous 
plot formed by him against the liberties of Sienna seems 
to have been as imprudently conducted as it was wickedly 
designed. His literary reputation is founded on his munl^ 
ficodt patronage of learning, as well as on his own works* 
He wrote the history ^f the revolt of the Moriscoea of 
Grenada, which is highly esteemed both for style and matter. 
It is a professed imitation of Sallust; but his terseness often 
degenerates into affectation, and he wants that perspicuity <^f 
method so remarkable in his model. He does justice how« 
e?er to the Moors ; and as they had a better cause, the 
speech in which their motives to insurrection are urged, does 
not yield to that of Catiline in energy of diction or senti- 
ment. He is the supposed author of Lazarillo de Tormes, 
a popular noyel. Some of his best poems are too licen- 
tious for the prudish press of Spain, which' tolerates no 
indecency but in the works of a casuist. His printed 

B 2 



ence on the &te of Italy and Europe. 
£rcilla * was a witness of the scenes he 
describes^ an actual soldier in the wild 
wars which he recounts ; and Cervantes, 
the inimitable Cervantes, went through 

« 

a series of adventures -f* which might 
have composed a volume in the library 
of Don Qttixotte himself. 
. The wonders of Lope de Vega's life 
consist indeed more in the number of 
his productions than the singularity of 
his adventures ; yet at an early period of 
life he was not exempt from that spirit 
of enterprise which pervaded all ranks 



▼enes afe fall of spiigfatliiiess, and display wit as weU as 
learning; bot in correctness of taste and sweetness of 
numbers he falls rery short of Gkucilaso. 

^ The author of the Araacana. For an account of him 
and his work, I most refer the reader to Bir. Hajley's 
notes on his Epistle on Poetry. If that good*natared cri-> 
tic's judgment of the poem be somewhat too fayoarable, 
he gains orer the English reader to it by the most agree- 
able of methods, the improrement of the Spanish author 
in his translation, 

+ Various Lires of Cerr antes. 



.' 



and descriptions of his countrymen^ Ifis 
friend and encomiast Perez de Montal- 
yan* relates that • at about the age of 
thirteen or fourteen he was impelled by 
so restless a desire of seeing the world, 
that he resolved to escape from -school ; 
and having concerted his project with a 
schoolfellow, they actually put it into 
execution. They had taken the pre- 
caution of providing some money for 
their expedition, but they had not been 
equally provident in calculating the du- 
ration of their finances; for, after buying 
a mule at Segovia, it was not till their ar- 
rival at Astorga that they perceived that 
the scantiness of their purse would not 
permit them to proceed any farther on 
their travels. This unforeseen difficulty 
disconcerted our young adventurers, arid 
they resolved to abandon their scheme 
as hastily as they had undertaken it. 

* Elogio por Montalyan, published in Sancha's edition 
of Lope de Vega's works. 



They bad returned as far as Segovia^ 
when the necessity of procuring money 
compelled th^m to ofii^r some trinkets to 
sale at a silversmith's. The tradesman 
was a cautious Spaniard : he suspected 
that they had stolen the trinkets, and 
prudently conducted them before the 
magistrate of the place. He was fortu- 
nately a man of moderation, and con- 
fined the exercise of his authority to ap* 
pointing a constable to conduct them 
back to Madrid. 

The admiration and surprise with 
which the wisdom of this decision and 
the small expence attending its execution 
are mentioned by, Montalvan, are strike 
ing proofs that vexatious and expensive 
practices had already infected the ad-» 
piinistration of police in Spain. 

Lqpe, according to his biographers*^ 
betrayed marks of genius at a very early 

* Pamaso Espaiiol. — Montalraiu 



I 



age, as well as a singular propensity, to 
poetry- They aasure us thit at two 
years old these qualities were percep- 
tible in the brilliancy of his eyes ; that 
ere he attained the age of five he could 
read Spanish and Latin; and that before 
his hand was strong enough to guide the 
pen, he recited verses of his own com** 
position, which he had the good fortune 
to barter for prints and toys with his 
playfellows. Thus eyen in his childhood 
he not only wrote poetry, but turned 
his jK)etry to account ; an art in which 
he must be allowed afterwards to have 
excelled all poets antient or inoderUf 
The date however of his early produce 
tions must be collected from his own 
assertions, from probable circumstances, 
and the corresponding testimony of his 
friends and contemporaries ; for they 
. were either not printed at the time, or aU 
copies of the impression have long since 
been lost. 



8 

He was bora at Madrid on the 25th 
^f November 1562 ; and as he inforni& 
ns in the Laurel de Apolo that his father 
was a poet, we may conjecture that his 
example had its effect in deciding Lope's 
early propensity to versification. He 
implies, however, in the same passage, 
that the discovery of his father's talent 
was accidental and after his death. The 
exact period when that event happened 
is uncertain ; but Lope was an orphan 
when he escaped frotn school, and be-- 
fore that time he had by his own ac- 
count not only written verses, but com- 
posed dramas in four acts, which, as 
he tells us, was then the custom : 

£1 capitan V irues, insigne ingeuio, • 
Pu8o^tiesacto^l|i«coni9(Ua, que antes 
I Andaba en quatro omiio pies de nifio, 
Oue eran eiitonces ninas las oomedlas.— 9 
V yo las'escribt deon^e y do^eafios 
{)e,a qii^trp actos, y de a quatro pliegos, 

Porque cada acto un pliego contenia*. 

' • ; • ■ ♦ 

* ^rte de hacer comedias* 



Phj^ of thiee acts we owe to Virues' pen, 
Which ne'er had crawFd but on all fours till then; 
An action suited to that helpless a^, 
The infancy of wit, the childhood of the stage. 
Such did I write ere twelve years yet had run, 
Plays on four sheets, an act on every one. 

Upon his return to Madrid * he aban« 
doned this mode of composition, and 
ingratiated himself with the bishop of 
Avila by several pastorals, and a co- 
medy in three acts called La Pastoral 
de Jacinto. In his prologue tp the Pele- 
grino, ^here he enumerates the plays 

» 

he had then published, this comedy is 
not mentioned ; from which we must 
infer that he did not print it, or that it 
is there inserted by some other name ; 
as it is extremely common for Spanish 
plays of that period to have two titles. 
His friend Montalvan represents the 
production of this comedy as an epoch 
in the annuls of the theatre, and a pre- 



■ ?• I 



* Pamaso Espanol. — ^IVIontalrui. 



10 

lude to the lefonn which Lope was 
destined to introduce. It is probable 
that during this interval^ between school 
and university, he composed several 
juvenile poems, which he may have re- 
touched at a period when his name was 
sufficient to make any peribrmance ac- 
ceptable to the public. But the ob* 
seurity in which this part of his life is 
involved seems to prove that his efforts 
for literary fame were not hitherto at- 
tended with any extraordinary success. 
He shortly after studied philosophy at 
Alcala ; and Mpntalvan malEes a pom- 
pous relation of the satisfaction and de- 
light which the duke of Alva experi- 
enced in receiving the young poet 
among the crowds that tluronged to pay 
him court, and of the es^emess with 
which he engaged him in his service 
upon his return from the university* A 
passage in the eclogue to Claudio im- 
plies that this event did not take place 



11 

till after the unsuccessful expedition of 
the Armada. At any rate it does not 
appear what wonders he had hitherto 
performed to render his incense so pe- 
culiarly acceptable at so powerful a 
shrine, and the subsequent events of his 
life seem to contrajlict Montalvan's im- 
probable relation. He wrote however 
his Arcadia at the instance of the duke 
of Alva. It is a mixture* of prose and 
verse ; of romance and poetry ; of pas- 
toral and heroic ; the design of which 
was avowedly taken from Sann^aro, 
though its execution is pronounced by 
the Spanish critics to be decidedly su- 
perior to the model. 

Pastoral works, however, in prose and 
verse, had already met with consider- 
able success in Spain ; of which the 
Diana by Montemayor was the first in 
point of merit, and I believe in time. 

m 

* Montalvan. 



12 

The species of composition is in itself 
tedious^ and the conduct of the Arcadia 
evidently absurd. A pastoral in fire 
long books of prose run mad, in which 
the shepherds of Arcadia woo their Dul- 
cineas in the language of Amadis rather 
than of Theocritus, in which they occa^ 
sionally talk theology, and discuss in 
verse the origin and nature of grammar, 
xhetofie, arithmetic, geometry, music, 
astrology, and poetry, • and which they 
enliven by epitaphs on CastUian gene- 
rals, and a long poem on the achieve- 
ments of the duke of Alva, and the birth 
of his son, is not well adapted to the 
taste of common readers, or likely to 
Escape the censure of critics. In most 
instances, however, the abstract of a 
work of this nature, for it must be con^ 
iidered as a poem, forms a very unfair 
criterion of its merit. The chief objects 
of .poetry are to delineate strongly the 
characters and passions of mankind, to 



13 

paint the appearances of nature, and to 
describe their effects upon our sensa- 
tions; To accomplish these ends the 
versification must be smooth, the lan- 
guage pure and impressive, and the 
images jjist, natural, and appropriate ; 
our interest should be excited by the 
nature of the subject, and kept up by 
the spirit of the narration* The proba- 
bility of the story, the connexion of the 
tale, the regularity of the design, are in- 
deed beauties ; but beauties which are 
ornamental rather than necessary, which 
have often been attained by persons 
who had no poetical turn whatever, and 
as often neglected by those whose ge- 
nius and productions have placed them 
in the first rank in the province of 
poetry. Novels and comedies derive 
indeed a great advantage from an atten- 
tion to these niceties. But in the higher 
branches of invention they are the less 
jiecessary, because the justness of the 



14 

imitation of passions inherent in the ge«* 
neral nature of man, depends less upon 
the probability of the situations, than 
that of manners and opinions resulting 
from the accidental and temporary forms 
of society. 

To Judge therefore by another crite- 
rion of the parts of the Arcadia which 
I have read, and especially of the verses, 
there are in it many harmonious lines, 
some eloquence, great facility and oc- 
casionally beauty of expression, and 
^bove all a prodigious variety of maxims, 
similes, and illustrations. These me* 
rits however are disfigured by great de- 
formities. The language, though easy 
and fluent, is not the language of na- 
ture ; the versijication is often eked out 
by unnecessary exclamations and un- 
meaning expletives, and the eloquence 
is at one time distorted into extravagant 
hyperbole, and at another degenerates 
into low and tedious common-place. 



15 

The maxims, as in all Spanish authors 
of that time, are often trivial and often 
untrue. When they have prdduced an 
antithesis^ they think they have struck 
out a truth* The illustrations are some- 
times so forced and unnatural, that 
though they ihay . . displ^^y ^inidition 
and excite surprise, they cannot ilv^-- 
date the subject, and are not likely to 
delight the imagination. They.Boein 
to be. the result of labouf,, md, not the 
creation of fancy, and }»f take more of 
the nature of conundrums ; and enigmas 
than qf similes and images^ Forced 
conceits and play upon ^ords are in- 
deed common in this as in every work 
of Lope de Vega ; for he was oiJe of the 
authors who contributed to introduce 
that taste for false wit, which soon 
afterwards became so universally preva- 
lent throughout Europe. Marino*, the 

I 

* EsMeqvM poetiche, vol. xxi. L«pe de Vega. 



l5 

champion of that style in Italy, with 
the highest expressions of admiration for 
his modely acknowledges that he im- 
bibed this taste from Lope, and owed 
his merit in poetry to the perusal of his 
works. There is one species of this false 
taste^ which is particularly common in 
the Arcadia, and at the same time very 
characteristic of the poet^s style in ge- 
neral. It is an- accumulation of strained 
mustrationsupon some particular sub- 
ject, each generally included in the 
same number of lines, and all recapi- 
tulated at the end of the passage. The 
song of the Giant to Chrisalda in the 
first book is the most singular instance 
of this conceit, but is much too long to 
be transcribed. It is divided into seven 
strophes or paragraphs, most of which 
are subdivided into seven stanzas of four 
lines; in each stanza the beauty of 
Chrisalda is illustrated by two compa- 
risons; and the names of the things to 



17 

which she is compared are enumerated 
in the last stanza of each strophe, which 
alone consists of six lines, and which is 
jnot unlike a passage in the Propria qua 
maribm^hemg chiefly composed of nouns 
substantive without the intervention of 
a single verb. In the first strophe shle 
is compared to fourteen different celes* 
tial objects ; in the next to ten species 
of flowers ; in the third to as many me- 
tals and precious stones ; in the fourth 
to eleven birds of different sorts ; in the 
fifth to twelve trees of different names ; 
in the sixth to as many quadrupeds: 
and in the last to the same liumber of 
marine productions. After having re- 
capitulated each of these in their re- 
spective strophe, in a strain not un- 
worthy of a vocabulary, he sums up the 
whole by observing with great truth, 

Y quanto el mar, el ayre, el suelo encierra, 
Si mi quieres, oirezco a tu belleza. 




18 

lliw iduit ooatBuns or 860, or eaftii^ or aiiv 
I to thy fbnoi if yoa approve^ compaie. 

I subjoin another instance of this 
strange and lai>orious species of conceit 
in a sonnet from the first book of the Ar* 
Gadia> which contains many of the com- 
mon^plaoe illustrations which form so 
hurge a portion of that yoluminous work : 

No queda mas Iiistroso j cristiedino 

Por altas sierras el arroyo hdado; 

Ni esta mas n^io el eyano labiado; 
Ni mas azul la flor del vestde lino ; 
Mas mbio el oro que de oriente yino; 

Ni mas puio,* lasctvo y legalado 

I2q[)kar olor d ambar estimado; 
Niestae^ la concha el carmesi mas fino^ 

Qne fiente, cejas, ojos, y cabellos, 
Aliento, y boca de mi nympha beUa^ 
Angelica figuia en yisia hnmana. 

Que pnesto que ellase paiece a ellos. 

Vivos estan alii, muertos sin ella, 

CSristaly evano, lino, oro, ambar, grana. 
■ 
Not mnter crystal ever was more clear, 

That checks the current of the mountain stream ; 

Not high-wrought ebony can blacker seem ; 

Nor bluer doth the flax its blossom rear ; 



19 

Kot ydlower dotk tiie eosEtem gdcl appeal ; 

Nor purer can arise-the scented steeun 

Of amber, which luxurious men esteem i 
Nor brighter scailet doth the sea-shell bear; 

Than in the fixehead, ey^umiKBj eje^y and. hm^ ' 
ThebieathandIips:of mjmostbemteonsqiie^a . 
Are seen to dwell dn earth, in face diyine. 

And since like all together is my fidr, 
LifeiesB ebewh^e, alive in her aie seea^^ 
loe, ebon, flax, gold, amber,, and carmine. 

In the second book there are some 
verses on jealousy in the metre de Re- 
dondilla mayor, which are not devoid 
of that peculiar merit 'which distin- 
guishes what Johnson has called meta- 
physical poetry. They are full of inge- 
nuity and fancy, which 

*^ Flaj round the head, but come not to the heart." 

The Spanish writers, I know not on 
what authority, affirm with great confi- 
dence that Metastasio was a constant 
reader and avowed admirer of Castilian 
poetry. Tliosei who recollect the cele- 
brated verses tq Nice, niay compare the 

G 2 



20 

different sentiments which a similar sub^ 
ject suggests to Lope in the following 
ode of the fifth book. It is no unfa- 
vourable specimen of his style ; and from 
the satisfaction with which he mentions 
it in the second part of his Philomena, 
we may infer that it was a great favorite 
with the author : 

La yeide primaveiu 
De mis floridos anos 
fa8s6 caatiydy amor, esk tils prisione^, 

Y en la cadena fieia 
Cantando mis engafiosy 

Ll0r6 COB mi lazon tus siniazones; 

Amargas confosiotics 
Del tiempo, que ha tenido 
Ciega mi alma^ y loco mi sentidol 

Mas ya que el fiero yugo 
Que mi cerviz domaba, 
Desata el deseugaSo con tu afientai 

Y al mismo sol enjugo*. 
Que un tiempo me abrasaba^ 

La ropa que saque de la tonnenta, 
« Con voz libie y essenta 
. _ 

* Here is an evident confasion of metaphor ; for though 
the sun uiay formerly have scorched him, and may now 



21 

Al desengano santo 

Consagro altares^ y alabsmzas canto. 

Qaantb contento encierra, 
ConiBx su herida el sano, 
Y en la patria su carcel el cautivo^ 
Entre la paz la guerra^ 
Y el Ubre del tyrano ; 

dry his gannents dripping from the storm, it cannot possi- 
bly be identified with the storm, nor in any way be repre- 
sented as the cause of the condition of his gannents : but 
such are the unaroidable blunders of hasty writers. Though 
Lope imitated Horace and Garcilaso, he learnt this careless 
way of writing neither from the Quis mult^ gracilis, &c., of 
the former, nor from the following sonnet of the latter, in 
which most of his allusions may be found, but in which there 
is no confusion of metaphor, nor, as far as I can judge, any 
thing inconsistent with the strict simplicity of a sonnet : 

Gracias al^delo doy, queya del cneUo 

Del todo el grave yugo he sacudido ; 

Y que del viento el mar embraTecido 
Vere desde la tierra, sin temello ; 
Yere colgada de un sutil cabdlo 

La Tida del amante embebecido. 

En engaiioso error adormecido, 
Sordo a las voces que le avisan dello. 

Alegrarame el mal de los mortales ; 
Aunque en aquesto no tan inhumano 
Ser6 contra mi s6r quanto parece ; 
Alegrareme, como hace el sanp, 



32 

Tantoen cantar mi libertad mabo. 

Omar! Ofbeg;oviTo! 
Que fhiste al akna mia ^ 

Herida^ caiod^ goemt, y tytania. 

Para engaftar aquettos - 
' QoenempieesiaaooiiteiiliisyqiiejoBot; 

No de ¥6r 4 los otros ea los malei, 
Sino de rer (pie detlos el carece *• 

A giMd soBBet u not eaflU J tnnslaled iato aay laligiiage^ 
cspedallj into Eof^Mi ; and as in flie fcAowIng Hiave not 
snruioimted flie difficulties^ I subjoin it merely to show tiio 
Englisli resder liow mudi Lope de Y^g» bas bonowed 
litnn bis predecessor ; 

Thank hearen. Pre lired then from my neck to tear 
The heaTj yoke that long mj strength opprest; 
The heafing sea which boisteroos winds molest 

I now can view from shore, and fed no fear ; 

Can see soq^ended by a single hair 
The lover's fife, with fended Uiss pomest, 
In danger slombenng, dieaied into rest, 

Beaf to adfice tbit wonld his ills dedaie. 

So shafll smile at other mortals^ HI ; 
Nor yet, thoo^^ joy to me their pains afford^ 

Shall I nnfeeiing to my race be found ; 
For I wiD siule as me to health restorad 
Joys not to jee his feDows saffienqg still, 
Bnt joys indeed to find himsdf is soond. 

« Fanaso E^p^id, & M. 



?3 

Que desde aqui maldigo 
Los mismos ojos beIIo% 
Y aquellos lazos dulces y amorosos 
Que un tiempo tan hermofios 
TttYieron, auuque injusto, 
Asida d alma y euganado el gusto. 

I. 

In the green season of my flowering years, 
I liv'd, O Love ! a captive in thy chains ; 

Sang of delusiye hopes and i(fle feans. 
And wept thy follies in my wisest strains : 
Sad sport of time when under thy controul, 
So wild was'grown my wit, so blind my soul. 

But from the yoke which once my courage tam'd 
I, undeceiy'd, at length have slipp'd my head, 

And in that sun whose rays my soul enflam'd, 
What scraps I rescued at my ease I qxread. 
So ^laU I altars to bidifferenoe* mse^ 
And chaunt without alarm returning fieedom's praise. 

3. 
So on their chains the ransom'd captives dweB; 
£o ^caiols ^le who cured leli^ieB faJB wound ; 
So slaves of ma«ta^, iro(q;>s of battle teU^ 
As I my cheeifiil liberty resound. 
Freed, sea and burning fire, from thy contnml, 
i^ison, wound, war, and tyrant of my soul. 



•^'■••^^■■■^■■•i-«i«««»»"i»ii»i*«i*W*»^«W*»W*i 



* "IChei^e is iM> wprd in oiur Imignage for 



24 

ftiendythj 



On such as couit alternate joy and pain ; 
For me, I dare her very eyes defy, 

I scorn the amoioos snaie, the pleasing chain^ 
That hdd enthrallM my cheated heart so long, 
And charm'd my erring soul unconscious of its wrong. 

There are several imitations and even 
translations of the antients in the course 
of this pastoral which have great merit ; 
for as the chief defect of Lope was want 
of judgment, and liis great excellence 
facility of verse and happiness of ex- 
pression, his genius was peculiarly 
adapted to translation, where the sense 
of the original confined his imagination 
and gave a full scope to the exercise of 
his happiest talent. The Arcadia fur- 
nishes striking instances of the defects 
and of the beauties of Lo.pe's style; and 
by the passionate defence he published 
of it in his prologue to the Pelegrino, and 
in the Philomena, he seems himself to 
have been singularly partial to it. These 



25 

reasons have induced me to dwell upon 

it lopger perhaps than its merits appear 
to justify. 

Soon after he had executed the com- 
mand of the duke of Alva, he left his 
service and married. The duties of ma- 
trimony did not interface with his favo- 
rite studies, which he seems to have 
cultivated with increased enthusiasm, 
till an unfortunate event compelled him 
to quit Madrid and his newly-esta- 
blished family*. A gentleman of con- 
siderable rank and importance having 
indulged his wit at the expence of Lope 
and his compositions, the poet was in- 
censed, hitched his critic into verse, and 
exposed him to the ridicule of the town 
in a poem called a Romance f. His an- 



m ■■^■ f I i M < > 



* Pamaso Espaaol. 

f Romancef which was originally the name of the Ter- 
nacular tongue in Spain, has become to signify a lallad in 
that country, a novel in France^ and a tale of knight* 
^rranjry or wonderful adventures m Engkmd. 



26 

»' 

tagoDist took fire, and challenged him to 
m contest in which he b<4>ed to meet a 
poet to greater advantage than in a war 
of wit ; but Lope de Vega had not neg<* 
lected his fencing-master in his educa-^ 
tion, and accordingly 

TomaBdoyalaopada, y»Iaplma% 
How iakmg up ibe sweid, and mm tbe pen, 

wounded his adversary so severely, that 
his life was despaired of, and Lope com- 
pelled to fly. He fixed upon Valencia 
as the place of his retreat. Here he 
probably first farmed a friendship with 
Vicente Mariner, a Latin poet of that 
town, whose muse was as prolific as that 
of Lope himself, and not more parsimo- 
nious of her praise-f-. He wrote pane- 
gyrics on most contemporary poets, and 
comp o se d Ihose on Quevedo in Greek. 
Among the millions of lines preserved 

* JLauielde Apolo. 

i Pdiioer^ lifeof Cerfsiiles. Tebfqneik 



27 

m the king of Spain's libraries, are to be 
found several to the honour aod memorj 
of Lope, and one written in answer to 
his enemies, which, if it does not leave 
a favourable impression of the manneni 
or of the poetry of the author, proves 
that he made common cause with ta** 
lents so congenial to his own. The un* 
happy critic who had ventured to attack 
the phoenix of Spain, was sufEcientljr 
refuted by being called an ass : 

Toce imager, vultuque onager, pedlbusque sinoque, 
Ut nil iKm onagri nunc tua vita nfert*. 

An ass in Yoioe, fiu:e, leet, and senses too^ 
Noting lemains that is not ass in you* 

It is to be hoped that the two bards 
employed themselves better at Valencia 
than in composing such strains as these* 

Lope returned to Madrid in a few 
years, when allapprehensions of evil con*- 
sequences from his ^venture were al- 



* Pellicer, Life Df Cerrmtes. 



28 

layed. He was probably soothing his 
imagination with prospects of domestic 
happiness, which his late absence had 
suspended, when he had the misfortune 
to lose his wife*. The residence of 
Madrid, which he had so lately regarded 
as the summit of his wishes, now be- 
came insupportable ; and scenes which 
had long been associated in his mind 
with ideas of present comfort and future 
reputation served only to remind him 
of their loss. To fly from such painful 
recollections he hastily embarked on 
board the memorable Armada*f , which 
was then fitting out to invade our coasts. 
The fate of that expedition is well 
known ; and Lope, in addition to his 
^hare in the difliculties and dangers of 
the voyage, saw his brother, to whose 
society he had run for refuge in his lato 



mmitimmmmm^''m^ 



* Montalvan. 

i MoaM^axij andEdoga a Claudio. 



29 

calamity, expire in his arms. If there 
be any truth in the supposition that 
poets have a greater portion of sensibi- 
lity in their frames than other men, it is 
fortunate that they are furnished by the 
nature of their occupations with the 
means of withdrawing themselves from 
its effects. The act of composition, 
especially of verse, abstracts the mind 
most powerfully from external objects. 
The poet therefore has always a refuge 
within reach ; by inventing fictitious 
distress, he may be blunting the poi- 
gnancy of real grief ; while he is raising 
the affections of his readers, he may be 
allaying the violence of his own, and 
thus find an emblem of his own suscep* 
tibility of impression in that poetical 
spear, which is represented as curing 
with one end the wounds it had inflicted 
with the other. Whether this fanciful 
tlieory be true or not, it is certain that 
poets have continued their pursuits with 



do 

ardour under the pressure of calamity^ 
Smne indeed assert that the genius of 
Ovid drooped during his banishjnent ; 
but we have his own testimony, and 
what, notwithstanding all such criti- 
cisms, is more valuable, many hundreds 
of his verses, to prove that this event, 
however it might have depressed his 
spirits, riveted him to the habits of 
composition, and taught him to seek for 
consolation, where he had hitherto only 
found amusement Thus, in an eclogue 
which the friendship of Pedro de Me« 
dina Medivilla consecrated to the me- 
mory of Lope^s wife, the lamentations 
of the husband are supposed to have 
been actually furnished by our author. 
Two or three odes on the same sulD^ect 
are to be found in his works, and he in«« 
forms us himself that during his unfor- 
tunate voyage he composed* the Her- 

» 

■ ■■*<iwi ■ ■ ■■■■»■ ■■■■■II ^i^^^^n^— ^— w^— ^— i^^iwi^» 

* Ecloga a Gkmffio. 



SI 

mosura de Angelica, a poem which pro^ 
fesses to take up the story of that ptir^ 
cess where Ariosto had dropped it. Tha 
motiye he assigns for this choice is cn-t 
rious. He found^ in Turpin that most 
of her remaining adventures took place 
in Spain, and, thinking it for the honour 
of his country, related them in twentjF 
cantos. 

To complete what Ariosto hq,d begun 
was no light undertaking, and the dif- 
ficulty was not diminished by the pub« 
lication only two years before of a poem 
on the same subject called Las La- 
grimas de Angelica. This was wrkten 
by Luis Barahona de Soto, and has al- 
ways been esteemed one of the best 
poems in the Spanish language. It iii 
mentioned with great praise by the 
curate in the examination of Don 
Quixotte's library. 

The first tjanto of Lope^s poem is taken 
up with the, invocation, and with the ri- 



32 

valship between Lido king of Seville and 
Cardiloro son of Mandricardo ; in the se* 
condy. the latter enters a cave where are 
painted the Moorish wanr in Spain, and 
all the events of Ariosto's poem. These 
are related in about twenty stanzas 
without spirit, circumstance, or poetry, 
if we except the indignation of Cardi- 
loro at the sight of his father's death : 

Y con Riigero 
Viene a dar de su vida d postrar passo, 
QUe aun viendole pintado Cardiloro 
Matar quisiera al victorioso Moro. 

How with Rogero in unlucky strife, 
He closed the last sad passage of his life. 
Fain, as he saw, had angry Cardilore, 
E^en in the picture, slain the conquering M oor» 

The death of Clorinarda, who died of 
grief on her marriage with Lido, is la- 
mented at length by her disconsolate 
husband ; but in a strain which bears no 
traces of the author having so lately ex- 
perienced a similar calamity. But if 
the grief expressed in t^Jie speech of his 



33 

hero falls short of that which we must 
suppose to have, passed in the breast of 
liope, yet in the violence of its effects it 
must be allowed to surpass it ; for Lido 
actually dies of his despair, and leaves 
his kingdom of Seville to the most beau- 
tiful nian.and woman who shall appear. 
Most, of the third and all the fourth 
canto are taken up with the enumera- 
tion and description. of the persons who 
thronged to Seville for the prize* There 
is some sprightliness and more quaint- 

ness in his remarks on the old, the ugly, 

* 

and the decrepid, leaving their homes, 
and travelling through dangers and dif- 
ficulties in the hopes that their personal 
charms may procure them a kingdom. 
After much discussion, he seems inclined 
to attribute this vanity to the invention 
of looking-glasses, and ridicules with 
some spirit the pedantry of those who 
wished to decide the contest by the ex- 
actness of proportion in features and 

D 



34 

limbs, and to prove the beauty of a 
woman by rule and by compass* An-< 
gelica and Medoro arrive the last ; and 
immediately after Zerdan king of Nu-* 
midia, and Nereida queen of Media, the 
most hideous of mafikind. Of Aiigelica 
he gives a long, cold, minute, and com-^ 
mon-place description ; but there is more 
discrimination in the character of Me-^ 
doro's beauty than is usual in Lope's 
poetry : 

■ 

Entro con ella aquel que tantos danos . 
CausQ en el mundo por su dicha j gozo, 
Aqttel esclavo rey de mil estrafios, 
Aquel dicho^ y envidiado moaEo ; 
Era Medoro un mozo de veinte anoe, 
Ensortijado el pefo, y rubio el bozo, 
•De mediana estatura, y de bjos graves, 
Graves mirados, y en mirar suaves. 

Tiemo en extremo, y algo afeminado, 
Mas de lo que merece un caballeio, 
Gran Ilorador, y musico extremado, 
Humilde en obras, y en palabras fieib ; 
Guardado en ambar, siempre legalado, 
Sutil, discrete, vsanoy lisongiere^ > 



35 

NoMe, apacible, alegre, generosd^ • • 

A pie gaUardo, y a caballo ayroso. 

And with her he^ at whose success and joy 
The jealous world such ills had sufier'd, came, 
Now king), whom late as slaye did kings employ^ 
The young Medoro, happy envied name ! 
Scarce twenty years^had seen the lovely boy, 
As ringlet locks and yellow down proclaim ; 
Fair was his height ; and grave to gazers seemed 
Those eyes which where they turned with' love and 
softness beamed* • 

Tender was he, and of a g^itler kind, 
A softer firame than haply knighthood needs ; 
To pity apt, to faiusic much inelin'd, 
In language haughty, somewhat meek in deeds ; 
Dainty in dress, and of accomplished mjnd, 
A wit that kindles, and a tongue that leads ; 
Gay, noble, kind, and generous to the sight^ 
On foot a gallant youth, on horse an airy knight. 

After the decision in their favour, and 
a short but not inelegant compliment to 
his mistress Lucinda, who at this time 
must have been an imaginar3r person, he 
pi^oceeds to the love which the beauty 
of Medoro and Angelica inspired in 
some of their rivals, and the rage which 

D 2 



N 



36 

they excited ia others. Among these, 
the speech of Rostubaldo, king of To- 
ledo, affords a specimen of a different 
kind of poetry from any we have hitherto 
inserted : 

Qu6 furia, dixo, O barbaro senado 
De mugeres al fin cenado entomo, 
Te incita inadvertido, acelerado, 
Movido de lascivia y de sobomo 
A dar el piemio a iin hombre afeminado. 
Con habla, trage, y mugeril adomo, 
Adonde estan can tan £unosas ncHnbies 
Robustos cuerpos de perfectds hombres? 

Mandaba el muerto rej, 6 mandar quiso. 
Si bien la ley entiendo y interpreto, 
Que en este breve terraino iniproviso 
Juzgassedes qual era el mas per&to. 
En un caso tan grave y indeciso, 
DigDO de advertlmiento y de secreto, 
Por un estruendo de mugeres locas 
Dais lanro a un hombre que merece tocas ? 

A un hombre que es verguenza que se llame 
Hombre, quien tanto a la muger parece. 
Nercmpor qn£ file vil? Comodoin£une? 
Bastante causa su retrato ofrece. 
|f lie, tuerza, devane, texa, tranre, 
Gnarde el estiado, oficios que raeieoe, 



37 

O oque & su muger, pues cs su espcjo^ 
Mas no trate las annas, ni el consejo. 

JBordarle puede ropas y basquinas 
Con perlas y oro, lazos y perfiles ; 
O con ella cazar por las campinas 
Liebres cobardes y conejos viles ; 
Los ojos alee, &c. &c. &c. 

What rage your barbarous councils has possert^ 
Senate beset with Women round ? he cries; 
That heedless, hasty thus, by lovecarest, 
Won by the wanton tricks their sex devise, 
To one in lisp, in di'ess, in air confest 
A woman more than man, you grant a prize 

Due to the nervous arm and daring fece 

Of those whose mighty limbs proclaim a manly race ? 

The dying king or said or meant to say, 

For so I dare interpret his bequest. 

That you ere long should choose, the realm to sway. 

Of graceful knights the direst and the best. 

Then in the mighty business of the day 

Shall the wild noise of women half possest 

Accord the prize to_one whose girlish afr 

Deserves, instead of crowns, the caps his patrdns wear ? 

One whom I call not man, for that's a name 
I blush to squander on so soft a mien. 
What covered Nero, Commodus with shame ? 
In their immanly cheeks the answer's seen. — 



38 

Theldom, thedistaffy be Medoro*s feme, 
So let bim qMn^ or deck his beauteous queen. 
Fat mirror^like bis fonn leflects her cbarms, — 
Biot quit tbe cares of state, and shnn the din of aimst 

So may he trim bar robe, her gons may place, 
Adjust the gold, and wreathe her flowing hair; 
V Secure with her o'er open meads may chase 
Tbe harmlesB rabbit or the timorous bare ; 
May turn his ^es enamolir'd on her lace, &c. &c« 

He pursues the same train of thought 
for several stanzas, and concludes his 
speech with an igsult and threat that 
many will deem too ludicrous for any 
thing approaching to epic poetry ; 

Pues defended el reyno rdstros bellos, 

Que yo pondre la planta en yuestros cuellos. 

Your crown then let your pietty looks defiaid, 
For on your abject necks Xo trample I intend. 

Being f ehemently opposed by Tur* 
catheo th6 Scythian, a general war en- 
sues ; and in the course of two or three 
cantos, in which the adventures of Li*- 
nodoro and Thisbe are related, ^ind » 



39 • 

long li^t of Spanish kings t^ince Tubal 
inserted, Nereida succeeds in bewitch- 
ing Medoro to love her. She conveys 
him and Angelica to an island, where 
the latter is carried away by Zerban. 
In the mean while Rostubaldo besieges 
Seville. The thirteenth canto is taken 
up with the story of a man who falls in* 
]fi>Ye with Belcorayda upon seeing her 
picture; which, as it has no connexion 
with the subject of the poem, seems to 
have been introduced for the sake of an 
eulogium upon painting, and a compli- 
ment to Spagnoletto and the king of 
Spain. Lope was extremely fond of 
painting, and, among his many accom- 
plishment§, had I believe made some 
little proficiency^in that art. Medoro is 
persecuted in various ways by Nereida, 
and Angelica is in the utmost danger, of 
violence from Zerban. Rostubaldo visits 
a cave where the glories of the Spanish 
arms till the final conquest of Grenada 



40 

are foretold. In the seventeenth canto^ 
the subject of which is the siege of Seville, 
Cardiloro, the original lover of CJori- 
narda, coming to the assistance of the 
besiegers, vents his grief at her death, in 
dull, common-place, and miserable anti- 
theses. At last Nereida changes the ob- 
ject ©f her love from Medoro to Rostu- 
baldo ; and, after a variety of adventures, 
Medoro finds his son in an island, and his 
speedy recovery of Angelica is foretold 
by a prophetess. This fortunate event is 
however delayed ; for the poet sees a 
vision in the beginning of the twentieth 
canto, in which all the kings of Arragon 
as well as Castile, and most of the battles 
, of Philip II. and the duke of Alva are 
represented by images. He sees also an 
inscription under a golden statue of Phi- 
lip HI., which, unless the imaginary 
vision was a real prophecy, proves that 
much of the poem was written after the 
period to which he refers it. I transcribe 



4i 

ttfe passage, as they are probablyr the 
only eight Latin lines of titles and 
names which are to be found in modern 
metre, and in a poem written in a mo- 
dern language : 

Phillippo Tertio, Caesari invictissimo, 
Omnium-maximo regum triumphatori, 

Orbis utiiusque et maris felicissimo, 
CathoUci segimdi succe^sori, 

Totius Hispaniae principi dignissimo, 
Ecclesiae Christi et fidei defensori, 

Fama, praeGingens tempora alma lauro, 

Hoc simulacrum dedicat ex auro. 

At the end of this canto Medoro finds 
Angelica ; laments his late delusion ; 
embraces her as Atlas does the heavens; 
she dies away with joy, and the converse 
of the soul beginning, the lovers, as well 
as the recording muse, with great pro- 
priety-become mute.. 

Such was the employment of Lope 
during this voyage of hardships, which, 
however alleviated, seem never totally 
to have been forgotten. The tyranny. 



43 

ci:ueltj, and above all the heresy of 
queen Elizabeth) are the perpetual ob- 
jects of his poetical invective. When 
in 1602 he published this poem, writteji 
on board the Armada, h^ had the satis-* 
faction of adding another on the death 
of a man who had contributed to com- 
plete the discomfiture of that formidable 
expedition. The Dragon tea is an* epic 
poem on the death of sir Francis Drake; 
and the reader is informed, by a note in 
the first page, that wherever the word 
Dragon occurs, it is to be taken for the 
Bame of that commander. Tyrant, slave, 
bujtcher, and even coward, are supposed 
to be so applicable to his character, that 
they are frequently bestowed upon him 
in the course of the work without the 
assistance of an explanatory note. 

H^ returned a second time to Madrid 
in !t590, and soon after married again. 

In 1598, on the canonization of St. 
Isidore, a native of Madrid, he entered 



43 

die list Svith several authors, and over- 
powered them all with the number if 
not with the merit of his performances* 
Prizes had been assigned for every style* 
of poetry, but above one could not be 
obtained by the same person. Lope 
succeeded in the hymns ; but his fertile' 
muse, not content with producing a 
poem of ten cantos in short verse, as 
well as innumerable sonnets and ro-# 
mances, and two comedies on the sul>t 
ject, celebrated by an act of superero-^ 
gation both the saijit and the poetical 
competition of the day, in a volume of 
sprightly poems under the feigned name 
of Tom6 de Burguillos*. These were 



* Parnaso EspaSoI, and late edit, of Lope de Vega'i 
works. It is trae that these poems were lately printed at 
the Imprenta Real with i preface, asserting Tom6 de 
Burguillos to be a real personage, and author 6f the wo^ks 
which bear his name : but there seems to be no ground for 
depriving Lope of compositions which his contemporaries, 
as well as subsequent critics, hare all concurred in attri<* 
butkig to him* 



44 

probablj^ the best of Lope's productions^' 
on the oocasion; but the coneurring 
testimonies of critics agree that most of 
his verses were appropriate and easy, 
and that they far excelled those of his' 
numerous competitors. This success 
raised him no doubt in the estimation- 
of the public, to whom he was already 
known by the number and excellence of 
his dramatic writings. Henceforward 
the licences prefixed to his books do not 
confine themselves to their immediate 
object, the simple permission to pub- 
lish, but contain long and laboured en- 
comiums upon the particular merit of 
the work, and the general character and 
style of the author. This was^ probably 
the most fortunate period of his life. 
Jle had not, it is true, attained the 
summit of his glory, but he was rising 
in literary reputation every day ; and as 
hope is often more delightful than pos- 
session, and there is something more 



45 

animating to our exertions while we are 
panting to acquire than when we are 
labouring to maintain superiority, it was 
probably in this part of his life, that he 
derived most satisfaction from his pur- 
suits. About this time also we must 
fix the short date of his domestic com- 
forts, of which, while he alludes to the 
Iqss of them, he gives a short but feeling 
description in his Eclogue to Claudio :. 

. Yo vi mi ppbre mesa intestimouio, 

Cercada y ricR de fragmentos mios, ^ 

Dulces y araargos rios 

• ■ * 

Del mar del matrimonio, ' ' f I 

Y vi'pagando su fatal tributo, ♦ . * 

Oe tan alegre bien tan triste luk>. 

The expressions of the above are very 
difficult, if not impossible, to translate, 
as the metaphors are such as none but 
the Spanish language will admit. The 
following is rather a paraphrase than a 
tnmslatiob : 

I saw a. group ray board surround, 
And sure to me, though poorly spi^d^ 



46 

♦ > 

T was rich with such fair objects crowned. 
Dear bitter presents of my bed ! 
I saw them pay their tribute to the tomb. 
And scenes so cheerful change to mourning and to 
gloom. 

Of the three persons who formed this 

family group, the son died at eight 

< 

years and was soon followed by his 
mother: the daughter alone survived 
our poet. The spirit of Lope seems to 
have sunk under such repeated losses. 
At a more enterprising period of life, 
he had endeavoured to drown his grief 
in the noise and bustle of a military life; 
he now resolved to sooth it in the exer- 
cise of devotion. Accordingly, having 
been secretary to the Inquisition, he 
shortly after became a priest, and in 
1609 a sprt of honorary member* of the 
brotherhood of St. Francis. But devo- 
tion itself could not break in upon his 

habits of composition ; and as he had 

« 

— — — ii— ^— ■— ■ I ■ " ■ ■ ■ ■■■■»— ^M^—^p»^^——*^— 

♦ Pellicer life of Cerrantes. 



47 

about this time acquired sufficient re- 
putation to attract the envy of his fellow 
poets, he i^pared no exertions to main- 
tain his post, and repel the criticisms of 
bis enemies. Among these the Spanish 
editors reckon the formidable names of 
Gongora* and Cervantes -f-. 

The genius and acquirements J of 
Gongora are generally acknowledged by 
those most conversant in Spanish lite* 
ratur6, and his historical ballads or ro- 
mances have always been esteemed the 
most perfect specimens of that kind of 
composition. But his desire of novelty 
led him in his other poems to adopt a 
style of writing so vicious and affected 
that Lope with all his extravagancies i^ 



* The jealousy between Gongora and Lope sufficient]/ 
spears from their works. For further proof, Tide Pro- 
logo to the Treatise Sobre el Origen y Progressos de la 
Comedia, by Casiano. Pellicer ed. Madrid^ 1^4. 

' f La Hnerto and Pellicer* 

X Don Nicholai Antonio in Bibllotheci NoTi. 



48 

t 

a model of purity in comparison with 
him. He was however the founder of a 
sect in literature*. The style called in 
Castilian cultisfno owes its origin to him. 
This affectation consists in using lan- 
guage so pedantic, metaphors so strain- 
ed, and constructions so involved, that 
few readers have the knowledge requi- 
site to understand the words, and yet 
fewer the ingenuity to discover the allu- 
sion or patience to utiravel the sen- 
tences. These author^; do not avail 
tliemselves'of the invention of letters for 
the purpose of conveying, but of con- 
cealing their ideas. The art of wtitiiig 
reduces itself with them to the talent of 
puzzling and perplexing ; and they^rc^; 
quire in their readers a degree of inge- 
nuity at least equal to their own-f-. The 
. « • I I. I ■ 

* Luzan's Poetica, c. 3. 1. 1. * 

+ For a specimen of this style I have only to refer m;^ 

readers to Luzan's criticism on a sonnet of Gongora, 

€h. 15. 1.2. of bis Poetica. He Mill there £nd that the 



49 

obscurity of Persius is supposed to have 
ruffled the temper of a sain t, and an indig- 
nant father of the church is said to have 
condemned his satires to the flames, with 
this passionate but sensible observation : 
Si nqn vis intelligi nan deb.es legu It might 
be reasonable to suppose that the public 
would generally acquiesce in the truth 
of this maxim, and that the, application 

■ 

of it would be one of the few points of 
taste in which jtheir judgment might be 
trusted. But it is the fate of genius un- 
directed by judgment to render its very 
defects the chief object of applause and 
imitation : of this the example of Gon- 



p€n of the historian opens the gates of memory ^ and that me* 
mofy stamps shadows on mounds of foam. By these ex- 
pressions Gongora means to give a poetical description of 
the art of writing on paper. Luzan, whose object was to 
explode this ti^ste, which was prevalent even in his time| 
dioes not do ample justice to the merits of Gongora, and 
quotes only his defects without mentioning those poems 
which are exempt from them, or those beauties which ren- 
dered this extravagant style so palatable to the public. 



50 

gora furaifthes a smgular iUnstratkrau 
For oear a^ century after his death, his 
works had such an influence on Castilian 
poetry, that litUe or nothing was ad'* 
mired which could be easily understood. 
Every word appeared a metaphor, and 
every sentence a riddle. This revolu- 
tion in the taste of his countrymen wbs 
«ot however sudden or immediate : for 
Gongora himself was disappointed at 
the reception given to what was termed 
the new poetry^ and the little success that 
attended his first efforts at innovation is- 
supposed .to have inflamed his animosity 
against his more popular contempora* 
ries*. Lope did not escape his cen- 
sures ; and galled by his virulent . lam- 
poons, as well as alarmed at the progress 
which his new style of writing was gra* 
dually making, he occasionally satirised 
the style without naming the authors. 



mm 



* Pfemiaso Espafiol^ Yol. ri. 



51 

Bren hk his p\B.ys are to be foubd seve- 
ral strokes of ridicule on this subject 
Thusj when Severo comes to recommend 
himself as a poet to a bridegroom in the 
Amistad y Obligacian, Lope the bride- 
groom asks him : 

Lop. Sois vulgar o culterano ? - ^ 

Sev. XMtosoy. 

Lop. Quedaos ^i casa 
Y escribiteis mis secretes. 
Sev. Sus secretes ! por qne causa ? 
Lop\ Porque nAdie losentiezida •«.•••». 

Lop. A plain or pc^Ifd baid ? 

Sev. My style's polite. . 
Lcp. My secrets then remain .with me to write. 
Sev. Your secrets ? Why ? 

Lop, Because, picAtdijrpaiii'tl^ 

And again in the Bizarrias de Belisa^ 
the faeroine of that piece, in describing 
the bad qualfties of her rival, i^presents 
her as a pupil of the new school : 

Aquella que escribe en culto, 

For aqud Griego knguage ; 

Que no le supo Castilla, 

Ni se le enseno su madv^. 

» 

E 2 



She vrho ivtites in that fiae pdilh'd ityliv ' 

That language so charmingly Groek, 
, Which never was heard in Castile, 

And her mother ne'er taught her to speak. 

His plays indeed abound in such pas^ 
sages ; but not content with these ran-: 
dom shafts of wit, he seriously examined 
its principles, and exposed its absiirdi* 

. ties, in a letter prefixed to an eclogue 
on the death of dona Ysabel de Urbiao 
in 1621. This is written with great 
temper and judgment, but in a toad 

, which evinces an apprehension that the 
stamp of Gongora's authority might very 
possibly give currency to his new inveur 
tion. The character of Lope through- 
out this contest appears indeed to great 
advantage, and exhibits a degree of 
moderation, which though generally at* 
tributed to him by his admirers, is not 
discernible in any other of his literary diff* 
putes. For though the virulence of his 
antagonist's expressions was suqh as tp 



• * • 



5^ 

* 

prevent the piablication of most of his 
satirical jperformances, Lope confined 
himself to a calm investigation of the 
system of writing; and to a few 'good- 
humoured parodies of the extravagant 
style with which he was contendmg« 
He had also the generosity to celebrate, 
in his Laurel de Apolo, the unquestion-i' 
able merits of Gongora, without ^ny 
allui^ion to those defects which had been 
the objects of his anjmadvprsipn. In 
the mean while^ though Gongora was 
himself neglected, the contagion, of his 
gtyle spread pvery day*, and perhaps 



. ^ I > J J . ' JJ> "V 



f Among tbose of his coi^tempomrie^ w)|o professedlj 
fmifaUiiw^ his 9tylef the most rexoarkable both for rank and 
talents was the count of Yill?. Me^na, the extraordinary 
l^cumstances of whose 4!^th are now better known ia 
Spain than his poetry. Few dap had elapsed after the 
accession of Philip IV. when the confessor of Balthazar 
de ZnSiga (oncle to' the cpQiit duke Oliya^) bade ViHi^ 
Mediana^ Uok io Mmseff^for kk Ufe was in danger. He not 
only receiyed this advice with great confidenee in his own 
security^ but with the utmost disdain and insolence to the 
^tddser.- Ht>^ever, that very eyemiig) as he waatddtiu^ 




54 

the latter works of Lope himself are not 
altogether free from the mfection. 

The origin of his dispute with Cer^ 
vantes is unknown^ and the existence 
of any open warfare between them id 

with don Lewis de Haro along one of the principid AtrectB 
of Madrid, the coach was stopped, and he by name was 
requested to get out upon some important business. He 
had scarce reached the carriage step in his haste to descend^ 
when he received a blow n^r the heart, and in atttopting 
to follow the assassin he fell lifeless and bloodj on the 
ground. No inquiry was made, no suit was institnted, 
and one of the principal men. of ihfa countrj was IhUt 
openly murdered in the streets of the capital without any 
public notice being taken of the crime. Queredo seems 
. to attribute this murder to the vengeance which a dissolute 
life, a satirical muse, and a sarcastic tongue, might nata. 
rally excite ; but the rashness of the attempt, the impunity 
of the assassin, and the unusual supineaess of the poBce, 
joined with other circumstances, have given rise to a snsp. 
cion that it was perpetrated at the instigation of the con^ 
Gongora, in whose ambiguous phrases it always seems thai 

^^ More is meant than meets the ear^" 

says that the hand tvus ireaiherous, hU the impulse «oo^ 
ftign. There is indeed a tra«fitkm ottrrsBt in Spain, whidh^ 
eonld it be ascertanied, woald leave Uttle doobt to wlpose 
jealonsy and revenge the conat fell a victim* It is^ said 
Ihat Vmp IV., huting impereq^My ^ed^behiBd Ito 



in some ifi^urare problematicaL La 
Huerta, the editor of a late collectioa 
of Spanish plays, and himself no despi^* 
cable dramatic writer, in a zealous de- 
fence of Lope accuses Cervantes yery 



queen in a passage of the palace, clapped his hands before 
her eyes with the intention of surprising or alarming hen 
She was off her guard, and having often permitted such 
liberties, and probably jet greater, to Villa Mediana, ex- 
daimed^ ^zce quieresy CondeP-^^What would you^ Count? 
aod thus InadTertently betrayed the familiarities which had 
passed between her and a person of that title. She thought 
howeTer that she had quieted the king's suspicions, when 
tpon being questioned on her exclamation, and discoYering 
iier husband, she reminded him that he was count of Bar* 
celona. But the king, who only affected to be contented 
jdth this explanation, was^oon satisfied of her attachment 
to Villa Mediana, and in the space of a few days he fell a 
Tictim to his ambitious gallantry. Of this queen, sister to 
our Henrietta Maria, a more idle story is related of a 
grandee setting fire to the palaoe for the pleasure of touchy 
ing her person in rescuing her from the flames. Yet more 
idly this story is told of Villa Mediana, though he died 
.aereral years before die fire at the Buen Retiro,' which 
»09t probably gare rise to tjiis anecdote. I am more iiw 
dined, to gire credit to the account which shows, that ip 
order to approach the royal beauty, it was not necessary 
io have reiBOurse to snch desperate ezpedieiitf. 



imf datljr ^of . detracdonr rasd inialtgiiiiy^ 
Wherever Cervantes hd» mentkitied . the 
fEoet in ills printed works, heios spokeft 
of his^nius not only with respect but 
aclmhatidn. It is true that he implies 
that his better judgment occasionall J 
yielded to the temptation of immediate 
^ofity ^ and tliat he sometimes saorifioed 
-hisr permanent fame to fleeting popular 
fity with the comedians and the public 
.But in saying this, he says little more 
ithan Lope himself has repeatedly ac* 
danowledged: ; and throughout his woxhs 
ehe speaks of him in a manner wliich, if 
Lope had possessed discernment enougt^ 
'to^hare pecceived theseal superiority of 
2 Cervantes, would have afforded him as 
': much pleasure as the slight mixtmre of 
r^censure seems to have given hiofi pon- 
jcsxa. The.admirers or rather the adorers 
>of Lope^ who had christened him. the 
J Phoenix pf Spain, were very anxious to 
< eirush theTep^tation of Cervantes*. With 



ti^s/^wrttl^lTr'e^citediriva^^ on whom 
^y 3ai^islied extravagaBt praises j they 
at one time ' decried novels and ro^ 
mances^ ^nd at another extolled all 
;thd9e who wrote them, ^except the oiue 
who was most deserving of their praise. 
If the sonnet published in the Life pm- 
jferod to Don Quixotte of Pellicer be 
g^nume, Cervantes was at length pito- 
yoked to attack more directly the for- 
midable reputation of their idol. In 
-tills sonnet, which contains a sort of 
pky upon words, by the omission of the 
:}ast syllable of each, that cannot he 
translate^;^ the works of Lope are some- 
•what severely handled; a sonnet c(»n- 
^piled ' in four languages from various 
' authors is lidiculed, the expediency of 
a sponge is suggested, and he is above 
all advised not to pursue his Jerusalem 
Coni|uistada, a work upon which he was 
then employed. Lope, who parodied 
the sonnet of Cervantes, r^ected his 



advice, and published that epic poem^ 
in which his failure is generally acknow- 
ledged even by his most fervent ad- 
mirers. Marino the Italian . poet must 
however be excepted ; who, as he does 
not hesitate in his funeral eulogium to 
prefer the Angelica to the Orlando Fu* 
rioso, and the novels of Lope to those 
of Boccace, could not decently exempt 

» 

Tasso from this act of general homage^ 
and makes his poejp bpw submis^ipn 
to the Spanish Jerusalem Conquistada^ 
Cervantes, though discouraged by Lope» 
^nd decried by his admirers, had modera- 
tion or prudence enough, to acknowledge 
his merits iniiis Viage del Parnasso, and 
still more strongly in the prologue* to 



•«^ 



* Nasarre, the editor of the eight comedies of CeryaateS| 
considers them as parodies of Lope de Vega, and maintains 
tiiat Ms description of a bad play alludes to a pari{ciilar 
composition of our fuithor. But Nasarre'a opuiioBs are 
too paradoxical to have any wdght, and those who will 
giTe themselves the troable of examining his assertions will 
ind them still less deserving attention or respect 



59 

hm comedies. . In the former he ad^. 
dresses him thns : 

'Insigne poeta^ acuyo verso o prosa 
:Nii^uii(» le avanitaja ni aim llega* 

- Distingnislied bard, ^rhoin no one of oar time - ■ 
Could pass or even match in prose or rhyme. 

The passage in the prologue we shall 
have occasion to refer to in another 
place* Whether these expressions of 
pmise were the genuine sentiments of 
Cervantes, and whether they satisfied 
Lope • and his friends, we cannot now * 
ascertain. Lope had not long to con- 
tend with so formidable a rival; for 
Cervantes died soon after this publica- . 
tion, and left his enemy in full possession 
of tlie admiration of the public. How 
diflferent has been the judgment of 
posterity on the writings of these two 
men ! Cervantes, who was actually 
starving ife the same street* where Lope 

« F^Bicer. 



w 

was liviog in splendour and pcQsp^irity:^ 
has beeu for near two centaiies the det 
light and admiration of every nation in 
Europe; and Lope, notwithstanding the 
late edition of his works in twenty*two 
Yolumes, is to a great degree neglected 
ia his Qwn, 

. Before the death of Cervantes^ which 
hstppened on the same day as that of 
Shakspere^y the admiration of Lope 
was he^ofSie a species of worship in 
Spain^ It was hardly prudent in anj[ 
author to withhold incense from hi» 
shrine, much less to interrupt the d^yo*^ 
tion of his adherentSt Such indeed was 
their intolerancje, that they gray^y as- 
serted that the author of the Spongla, 
who bad severely censured \m works, 
and accifsed him of ignorance Qf the 
Latin language, deserved nothing short 
of death for such literary heif^y. Nof 

•Pd]ic«r. 



€^1 

twts L<^e tlttiself entirely exempt frc«n 
ttte irritability which is supposed to 
attend poets : he often speaks With 
peevishness of his detractors, and an* 
swers their criticisms, sometitries in al 
querulous, and sometimes in an insolent 
tone. The word Vega in Spanish signi- 
fies garden. In the title-page of hisr 
book was engraved a beetle- ^xpiritig 
6ver some flowers, which he is upkm tfe6 
poiiit of attacking. That the embleilj 
might not be misunderstood, this dhti^eh 
was also subjoined : ; • -, 

Audax dum Yegae imimpit scarabaeus in hortos, 
Fragraiitis paiit yictia odore rMe. 



f t . 



'" ' At Vega's garden as the beetle flia, 'r . > 

. ( P'eipfMfer'd with smets the daring inject )d{^ . ^ 

The vanity of the above eonfceh is at 
least equal to the wit. 

But in the prologue to the Pelegrino, 
aiid in some posthumous poems*, he 
most unreasonably complains of the 

* Haeirto deshechp. 



63 

neglect, obscurity, and poverty iii \7faicb . 
his talents have been left. How are the 
expectations of genius ever to be ful- 
filled, if Lope, laden with honours and 
with pensions, courted by the great, and 
followed by the crowd, imagined that his 
fortunes were unequal to his deserts ? - 
He seldom passed a year without 
giving some poem to the press ; and 
scarcely a month or even a week with- 
out producing some play upon the stage. 
His Pastores de Belen, a work in prose 
and verse on the Nativity, had confirmed 
his superiority in pastoral poems ; and 
rhymes, hymns and poems without 
number on sacred subjects had evinced 
his zeal in the profession he embraced. 
Philip IV., the great patron ctf the 
Spanish theatre, to which he afterwards 
is said to have contributed * composi^ 

* Conde de Sex (Earl of Essex) o dar la vida par su 
iamay and others under the name of the Ingerdo de estii 
€9rte are ascribed to Mm : but, I suspect, up^L ▼ery-flligfet 
authority.. 



65 

tions of his own, at the era of his ao 
cession, found Lope in full possession 
of the stage, and in the exercise of unli- 
mited authority over the authors, come-* 
dians, and audience. New honours and 
benefices were immediately heaped on 
our poet, and in all probability he wrote 
occasionally plays for the royal palabe^ 
He published about the same time Los 
Triumphos de la Fe ; Las Foriunas de 
Diana; three novels in prose (unsuccess- 
ful imitations of Cervantes) ; Circe, an 
heroic poem, dedicated to the count 
duke of Olivarez ; and Philomena, a sin- 
gular but tiresome allegory, in the se-* 
cond book of which he vindicates him'- 
self in the person of the nightingale from 
Ihe accusation of his critics, who are 
there represented by the thrush. 

Such was his reputation that he be« 
gan to distrust the sincerity of the pub- 
lic, and seems to have suspected that 
there was more fashion than real opinion 



64 

in tbe extravagance of theijr applause^ 
This en^ged him in a dangerous expe- 
rimen Vthe publication of a poem with* 
out his name. But whether the number 
of his productions had gradually formed 
the public taste to his own standard of 
excellence, or that his fertile and irre- 
gular genius was singularly adapted to 
the times, the result of this trial con- 
finned the former judgment of the pub- 
lie; and his Soliloquies to God*, though 
printed under a feigned name, attracted 
as much notice and secured as many 

admirers as any of his former produc- 

» 

tions. Emboldened probably by this 
success, he dedicated his Corona Tra- 
gica, a poem on the queen of Scots, to 
pope Urban Vlll.-f-, who had himself 
composed an epigram on the subject. 
Upon this occasion he received from 
that pontiff a letter written in his own 

* PiMrBMO EtfisioL MoBtalYWu 
f DedkstiM ta Corona TngioL 



'•Ci 



><■*■• 



Jiand, and the dcgfee of d6ctor of thled- 
logy. SucH a flattering tribute of ad* 
iniration sanctioned the reverence in 
which his name was held in Spain, arid 
spread his iame through every catholic 
country. 'Kie . * cardinal Barberini ' fol- 
lowed him with veneration in the streets j 
the king would stop to gaze at such, a 
prodigy ; the people ctowded round him 
wherever he appeared ;[ the learned. >and 
the studious*^ thronged to Madrid from 
every part of Spain to see this phoenix* 
of iheir country^ this " monster of litet 
rature ;*' and even Italians, no eixtrjava-^ 
gant admirers in general of poetry that 
is not their own, made pilgrimagfes from 
their country! for.the splft purppse of 
conversing with Lope* ( So associated' 
was the idea of excellence with his hatuie^ 
that it grew in' common cpiiversatiori tQ 
signify any thingperfect/in its kind ;^ 



mid a Lope diamond, a Lope day, otr si 
Lope wcunan, becanie fashionable and 
familiar modes of expressing their good 
qualities* His poetrjr was as adran^ 
tageous to his fortune as to his fame : 
Peking enriched him with pjensiona and 
chaplaincies; the pope honoured him 
irith dignities and preferments; and 
ever J nobleman at court aspired to thQ 
character of his Mioecenas, by conferring 
upon him frequent and valuable pre^ 
sents. His annual income was not less 
than 1500 ducats, exclusiye of the price 
of fai& plays, which Cenrantes insinuate 
that he was never mclined to forgo, and 
Montalvan estimates at.80,000. He re- 
ceived in presents from individuals as 
much as 10,500 more. .His application 
of these sums partook of ^ the spirit of 
the nation from which he drew them, 
improvident and indiscriminate charity 
ran away witb these gains, immense as 
they were, and rendered^ his^Hfe unpro- 



67 

fitable to his friends and uncomfbrtabte 
to himself* Though bis devotion gradu- 
ally became more fenreat, it did not ia- 
terrapt his poetical career. In 1630 he 
published the Laurel de Apolo^ a poeih 
of iiie&timaMe i(^alue to the Spanish pfe^ 
lohgisiSj as they ai^ called in the jaiv 
gon of our day.^ for it contains the names 
of more than 330 Spanish poets and 
their works. They are ihtroducedi - as 
claimants for the Laurel, whi^ Apotto 
is to bertow ; and as Lope observes? of 
himself that he was more inclined to 
panegyric than to satire^ thei^e are few 
or any that have not at least a strophe 
of six or eight lines devoted to their 
praise* Thus the multitude of Castilian 
poets, which at that time was prodi*- 
giouis, and the exuberance of Lope% 
pen, have lengthened out to a^ work of 
ten books, or sylvas, an idea which has 
often been imitated in' oth^ countries^ 
but generally coofinedi within the limits 



68 

of a song*. At the end of the last sylva 
he makes the poets give specimens of 
their art, and assures us that many 
equalled Tasso, and even approached 
Ariasto himself ; a proof that this cele- 
brated Spanish poet gave the preference 
to the latter* After long disputes for 
the Laurel, the controverey at length 
ends, as controversies in Spain are apt 
to do, in the interference of the govern- 
ment ; and ApoUo agrees to refer tha ^ 
question to Philip IV., whose decision, 
either from reserve in the judge, or from 
modesty in the relator, who was himself 
a party concerned, is not recorded. 
Facts however prove that our poet could 
be no loser by this change of tribu- 
nal. He continued to publish plays and 
poems, and to receive every remunera* 
tion that adulation and generosity covld 
bestow, till the year 1635, when religi- 



* Sesnon of the Poets ; &c. &c* 



69 

ous thoughts had rendered him so hjpo- 
chondriac that he could hardly be con- 
sidered as in full possession of his un- 
derstanding. On the 22d of August, 
^hich was Friday, he felt himself more 
than usually oppressed in spirits and 
weak with age; but he was so much 
more anxious about the health of his 
soul than of his body, that he would not 
avail himself of the privilege to which 
his infirmities entitled him, of eating 
meat; and even resumed the flagellation*, 
to which he had accustomed himselfj 
with more than usual severity. This 
discipline is supposed to have hastened 
his, death. He fell ill on that night, and 
having passed the necessary ceremonies 
with excessive devotion, he expired on 
Monday the 26th of August 1635. 
The sensation produced by his death, 

was, if possible, more astonishing than 
\ 

* Montalvan. 



70 

the reverence in which he was held while 
living.., T[lie spletidour of his fiin^al^ 
whjch was conducted at the charge 6f 
the most munificent of his patrons, the 
duke of Sesa, the numbeir qtnd language 
of the sermons on that occasion, the 
competition of poets of all countries in 
celebrating his genius and lamenting his 
loss, are unparalleled' in the annals of 
poetry,, and pediaps scarcely equalled 
in thp^e of royalty itself. The ceremo- 
nies attending his interment continued 
for nine days. The priests ♦ described 

ft 

hiDi;' as a saint in his life, and repre* 
sented his superiority over the classics 
in poetry as great as that of the religion 
which he professed was over the heathen. 
Tl?e writings which were selected from 
the mpltitiide produced on the occasiofi 
fill. more than two large volumes. Seve- 
xal circmnstances indeed concurred ta 



« > 



* See Funeral Seniioii8.--Saacki'8 edit of Lope. 



71 

wAi&e his iieputadoii ftt the peridd of hih 
death* Had he fe.Uen 3oooiei\ the pub- 
lic .would Bot hare been disj>osed to jrci- 
gret a dramatic writer so 4^ply i had 
be lived longer, they . would have had 
more certain prospects of supplying the 
loss. The passion of Philip IV. for the 
Iheatre had directied the attention, and 
interest of Spaniards to all that con^ 
eemed it. Calderon and Moreto, who 
BJbortly after enriched the st&g^ with 
{)}ays at least equal, and in the judg^ 
ment of many supieriprto those of Lope, 
.were as yet so young that they might be 
considered a& his scholars rather tha& 
* his rivals.--^We may add that his post>- 
humous wdrks were calculated not only 
to maintain but. advance his poetical 
ichairacter. .... 

Of the many encomiasts of Lope 
(among whom are to be fpund Marino 
and several Italiaas), not one gives any 
account of his life, if We except hi| in« 



I 



.' 72 

timate friend Mohtalvan ; and even, bi 
Jiis euldghim ^ there k little that can 
throw any light upon hisi character as a 
inan^ of ;his> history as an author. He 
praises l;^m in general terms as a person 
of; a mild and amiable disposition, of 
very temperate habits, of .great erudir 
tion,! singular charity, and extreme gcxxi 
•breeding. His temper, he adds, was 
never raffled but: with those who took 
snuff before (bompany ; with ;the gray 
who dyed their locks; with men wfao^ 
born of women, spoke ill of. the sex ; 
with • prie§ts who believed : in gipsies ; 
4tnd with persons who, without inten-^ 
ti(»i6 of kndrriage, asked ethers their 
age. nin^iese (antipathies, which are rather 
qujBiint sallies of wit than traitS; of cha^ 
racter, are the only peculiarities which 
h}6 intimate friend has thought proper 
to comniunicate. 

i\s he is mentioned more than once^ 
by himself and his encomiasts, employed 



/ 



73 

to fcmnming a garden, vre may collect 
that he was fond of .that, occupation ; 
mdeed his frequent description of par- 
terres and fountains, and his continual 
allusion to flowers, seem to justify his 
assertion — that his garden furnished him 
with: ideas as well as vegetables and 
amusement. But I fear we cannot from 
the primitive simplicity of this employ- 
ment conclude, with his partial friend 
Montalvan, that his fortunes did not 
alter the modesty of his address, or the 
unaffected mildness and humility of h^ 
temper. His ostentatious display of 
vanity in assuming arms to which, he 
was not entitled, and bi& ill-founded 
pretensions to an illustrious pedigree 
circumstances which escaped not* the 
keen observation of Cervantes and of 
Gongora, seem to imply that he was far 
from that philosophical eq>uability of 
temper which meets the buffets and re- 
wards of fortune with great indif^erencQ^ 



74 

On the otber hand ; if he was ii 

prosperitj^ be was not contented t 
nor could wealth, honoars, or fepata>- 
ilion, cure him of the habit of complaun* 
ing of ill usage, neglect, and eyen po^- 
^ertjr. Who can read without surprise 
bi»ed with indignation his letter tobift 
son, dissuading him from the study of 
-poetry as unprofitable ; and, in confics- 
knation of his precepts, lamenting his 
own calamities^ in a strain more suited 
to the circumstances of Camoens and 
Cervantes than to the idol of the public 
Wid fdvoiirite of princes * r^ 
'^ i This unreasonable propensity to nrap- 
at his lot is the greatest blemish in 
is: character* The prodigious success 



t^mtmmm^ ■ H I I i — i^— i— lil— ^i^i 



'\.i^ J^dl^f, Pf 16^/ ^ Origeo j Frogrefso de la Camediii, 
Tluft is there traascribed from the dedication to the 
Verdadero Amarite : and if, as Pellicer sapposei, il was 
amttca fti IfiSO, the qveralotis tone in which Lope ipeaki 
jif Jiimself is qnite inexcnsabie ; bat I am inclined to ass^ 
it an earlier period, because his son died before his wife, 
mAid she coald'not be aKve when he took orders. 



75 

of hli compositions, and the general 
adulation of his cbnterixporaries, were: 
sufficient to palliate some occasional 
instances of vanity ; and though he 
speaks in some passages of his perform- 
ances with complaceticy, in others hci 
criticizes his own works with consider- 
able severity. ^ This is' however a privi- 
lege which he was by no means inclined 
to extend to others ; on the other hand 
he was extremely lavish of his praise 
where he expected a reasonable portion 
inreturn. 

As an author he is most known, as 
indeed he is most wonderful, for the 
prodigious number of his writings *♦ 
Twenty-one million three hundred thou- 
sand of his lines are said to be actually 
printed ; and no less than eighteen hun- 
dred plays of his composition to have 

— — ^— I I — — — II ■ I ■ ■111* , 

* Panuuso Espanol. 



76 

» 

been acted on the stage. He nevertheless 
asserts in one of his last poems, that. 

No es minima parte, aunque es exceso, ' 
De lo que estk por imprimir, lo impreso; 

The printed part, though far too large, is less 
Tlutn that ^hich yet unpriuted waits thcTpressI* 

It is true that the Castilian language 
is copious ; that the verses are often, 
extremely short, and that the laws of 
metre and of rhyme* are by no means 
severe. Yet wei'e we to give credit to 
such accounts, allowing him to begin 
his compositions at the age of thirteen^ 
we must believe that upon an average 
he wrote more than nine hundred lines 
a day ; a fertility of imagination, and a 
celerity of pen, which, when we consi- 
der the occupations of his life as a sqI- 
dicl*, a secretary, a master of a family, 
and a priest; his acquirements in Latin^ 

* Appendix, Nq. III. 



77 

Italian, and Portuguese ; .and his repu-. 
tation for erudition, become not only 
improbable, but absolutely, and, one 
may almost say, physically impossible, 
. As the credibility however of mira- 
cles must depend upon the 'weight of 
eyidence, it will not be foreign to the 
purpose to examine the testimonies we 
possess of this extraordinary facility and 
exuberance of composition. There does 
not now ! exist the fourth part of the 
works which he and his admirers menr 
tion, yet eboiigh remains to render him 
one qf the iriost, voluminous authors 
that ever put peri to paper. Such wan 
his facility, that he informs us in his 
Eclogue to Claudioj. that more than 
a hundred : tinies he. composed a play 
and produced it. on' the stage in twenty- 
four hours, Montalvan declares that 
he latterly wrote in metre with as 
much rapidity as in prose, and in con- 



78 
finnation of it he relates the following 

t 

story*: 

^' His pen was unable to keep pace 
with his mind, as he invented even more 
than his hand was capable of transcribe 
ing. He wrote a comedy in two days^ 
which it would not be very easy for the 
most expeditious amanuensis to copj 
out in the time. At Toledo he wrote 
fifteen acts in fifteen days, which make 
five comedies. These he read at a pri- 
vate house, where Maestro Joseph de 
Valdebieso was present and wa$ wit-t* 
Bess of the whole ; but because this is 
variously related, I will mention what I 
myself know from nky own knowledge. 
Roque de Figueroa, the writer for the 
theatre at Madrid, was at such a loss for 
comedies that the doors of the theatre 
de la Cruz were shut ; but as it was in 

*|l ^lll ' !■■■■ ■■> ■■in H ill III! 

» MoBtalTan^s Eulogiiuii* 



f9 

tlie Carnival, he was so' anxious Up6*l 
the subject that Lope and myself B,gc6e4 
tb coiApose a joint comedy as fast asf 
possible. It was the Tercera Orden d& 
San Francisco, and is the v6ry one iri 
ilrhich Arias acted the part of the saint 
more naturally than was ever witneased 
oil the stage. The first act fell to Lope'* 
lot, and* the second to mine; we dis-^ 
pat'cfeed the^e in two days, and the third 
wa. to be' divided into eight leave, each. 
As it was bad weather,' I remained in 
his hoiisfe that night, and knowing that 
I cou'M -not eqii^l him in the exetution, I 
had a fancy to beat him in the dispattrb 
€)f the business ; for this jpurpose I 'got 
lip' at two o'clock, and at televen had 
tromjileted my shfafe ^ of the work. I 
immediately went out to'lOok for him, 
arid foUnd hirn very deeply occupied 
with an brange-tree that had beeti frest- 
bittea in the mght. Upon my asking 
him how he had gone on with his task, 



80 

he answered, * I set about it at five } 
but I finished the act an hour ago ; took 
a bit of ham for breakfast; wrote an 
epistle of fifty triplets; and have watered 
the whole of the garden : which has not 
a little f^^tigued me/ Then taking out 
the papers^ he read me the eight leaves 
and the triplets; a circumstance that 
would have astonished me, had I not 
known the fertility of his genius, and the 
dominion he had over the rhymes of our 
language/^ 

As to the number* of his plays, all 
contemporary authors concur in repre- 
senting it as prodigious. " At last ap- 
peared,'' says Cervantes in his prologue, 
" that prodigy, of nature, the great Lope, 
and . established his monarchy on the 
stage. He conquered and reduced un- 
der his jurisdiction every actor and au- 
thor in the kingdom. He filled the world 

■ ,1 I ! ■ | l I I III i ■ H ■ ■■ I » —^^B^— ^— — — »^i»^».—i^, 

* For the list of those bow extant see Appendix, No. \j^* 



81 

• with plays written with purity, and the 
plot conducted with skill, in number so 
many that they exceed eighteen hundred 
sheets of paper ; and what 
Tonderful of all that can b 
the subject, every one of t 
seen acted, or heard of thf 
&om those that had seen 
though there have been many who hare 
attempted the same career, all their 
works together would not equal in quan- 
tity what this single man has com- 
posed */' Montalvan asserts that he 
wrote eighteen hundred plays, and four 
hundred autossacramentales-f-; and as- 
serts, that if the works of his literary idol 
were placed in one scale, and those of 
all antient and modem poets in the other, 
the weight of the former would decide 
the comparison in point of quantity, and 

* This wu written near tweatyyeua before Lope's deatb. 
i A ipeoiM of-dniMtic cotnpontioa reumbling our old 



9& 

be a fair onbtem of the superiority ia 
pointof merit of Lope's verses over those 
of all other poets togetben^ What X^pe 
himself says upon this subject will be 
most satisfactorily related in his ^ own 
words, though the passages are far from 
poetical. Having given a list in his pro- 
logue to the Pelegrino, written in. 1604, of 
three hundred and forty-^three plays, in 
his Arte de hacer Comediais, published 
five years afterwards, he says : 

Mas ninguno de todos Ilamar puedo 
Mas barbam que jOy piies oontm d aite^ 
' " Me atrevo & daf pfece^fiM, ymedeai 
Uevar de la TU^r cerrieote, adonde 
Me Uamen ignorante iCaKa j Fmncia. 
Pelo qtie poedo haoer ? si tengo escfitas, 
Can una que he acabedo erfa senmna^" ' ^^ ' 
Qoatro dentos y ocheiita 7 ties comedias, . 
Por que fiieia (fe seis, las demas todas 
Pecaion contra el arte gTaTemente. 

Wbo l|iumd^ by tbe .Tulgar tas^ .aldii|^ • 

I)aie^fe.i^]t|nepqpto iaikf^ 

Whence Fiance and Jta^ pronounce me fooL 



..*j 



V ♦ 



88 



; fi^t wh^^m I/to^ ? i|^o WW of pbj9| 

With one complete withip ib^ seyea days^ 
Four hundred eighty-three in all have writ, 
AndaU, savesiz^, agaiirt themleaof wit. 

„ In tbe jeclogue to Claudio, one of his 
last works, are the following curious 
though prosaic passages : 

Pero St lAora el numero infimto 

Do h» fiibalas ooanicas inteiifo, 

Diras que es fingimiento 

Tanto papd escrito, 
Tantas imitaciones, taiitas flared 
Vestidos de rhetoricos colores. 

AGI y quiiiieiitas ftbulas adniif a ' 
Que la m^ror el maHMopsaecei: 
Yeidady qtife deaaMeee ; : 

For paxeoer mflotira, 
Pues maa de ciofilo«eB fa^m viente quati# ^ 
PafiBim de h&^imisaftdi^eatiai. ^ 

Should I tli(;liflaiidwiditei> , ' | ; 

Of pUgmaqftcadknibboar Imv^ ..'. .' 
^IfT'cHfl^lityoadewdb* the Itttao great, I 

RotSjlMiMiiiii^ 96taety and tSkUbe Mat, 
T«'i(aqpiN4iiMd,m4aqvto«oCrtMMio4R^ 

■-'■•"•■■'■■■- o a 



84 



The nmdber of mjr &bles told 

Would seem the greatest of them all ; 
For, strange, of dramas you behdd 
Full fifteen hundred mine I call; 
And full a hundred times,--«-withm a day 
Passed fitto my muse upon the stage a play. 

And again : 

Mas ha Ui^gado^ Claudio, lacodicia 
A imprimir con mi nombre las agenas 
D^ mil errores llenas ; 

O ^;iKN!ancia I O Maiicia t 

4 

Yannaue esto siento nnw i m win B condeno 
Algunas mias con d nombre ageno* 

G)rtes pqdgn% O CSa^dio^ .4 1«^^^ 

De mis esciitos l^aibaina la copiai 

Fero puedo sin i^Mqiia . / . 

Alabanaea dedrte . . .. ^ .^q 

Que |io fs.mi94ma.pa4b|>;iW9l9«e m^tfemH 

Deloqueestf^.poiijivysriiair^ lo^Sip 



ij-: I 



1 ..I •:»■ 



The public, AvaiilxiaffcdeDei^^ 

Yile wotiEs4 iriiich Tgnondee'miiie MIeted/ 

Or Malice fcall^d, to wciqid mf^tmAt • 

That crime I can't ^gite, - boimiMA*liiidhie >VJ^ 

To pardon some ^ifiio Iflbt'd tMr simMrM «iie/» « 



65 

% 

I 

Then spare, indulgeiit Glaudio, spare 
The list of all my Mrbarous plays ; 
For this with truth I can declare, 
And though tis tmtti, itis not praise, 
The printed part, though lar too large, is less 
Than that which yet unprinted waits the press. 

ft _ 

Though these passages seem to con- 
firm the assertions of his biographers 
and contemporaries ; yet the complaint 
contained in the last, which is yet more 
strongly urged in his prologue to tbe 
Pelegrino, proves the Ijight authority 
upon which his name was given to dra- 
matic compositions^ and consequently 
may suggest a probable mode of exr 
plaining the exaggeration which must 
have taken place with regard to their 
number. That there must be some ex- 
aggeration all will be disposed to admit 
It is but jmst however to observe, that 
though Lope is the most wonderful, be 
is not the only Spanish author the num- 
ber of whose verses approaches to a mi- 
racle. La Cueba mentions one who had 



66 

written one thousand playg in fouricts; 
some millions of Latin lines were com« 
posed by Mariner ; tad many hundred 
dramatic compositions are still extant of 
Calderon, as well as of authors of inferior 
merit. It was not uncommon even for 
t^ nobility of Philip the Fonrth^s time 
to'e^ttverse for some minutes ^ in extenk^ 
pore jJoetry ; and in carelessness of me-> 
tte^ as well a9 in comtnon-plaee images^' 
the verses of that time often remind ush 
of the improvisatori of Italy; - ^ 

' . Whiit^ver mky have been the original 
number of Lope's productions, enotigl? 
jret remain to render an examination'^ 
thbm aH nfearly impossible/ The merfli; 
iiidependent of those intended forirepre^ 
sbntatioii, consists chiefly in smoothnesir 
of versification and purity of language^^ 
kad in facility rather than- 'Strength i^ 
imagination. He has much ' to say otf 
every subject, and he explresses MrhaEt Ifd 
has to say in an easy style and^ flowing 



87 

Qombemif but. bs^ seldom interests the^ 
fe^llngs^* and never warms the imagina- 
tk^ of'the reader, though he often 
pleases by the facility and beauty of his 
htngiiage, and ocoasionally surprises by 
the exuberance and ingenuity of his 
ittustratioQs. From this character q£ 
his writings it will naturally be supposed 
that his epic poems are among the least 
l^lliant of his compositions. Even the 
faculty of inveaiitiQg an interesting story^ 
for which as a dramatic writer he was so 
deservedly celebrated, seems to have for- 
saken him when he left the. stage, Hisi' 
movels and epic poems are aJike tedious . 
ao4 uninteresting* The Hermosura de 
Angelica, which I have examined aboyci 
is pejrhaps the best of his heroic poem9» 
thoughduringhislifetbeCoponaTragica, 
his poen» on Mary queen of Scots, at^ 
tracted more notice and secured him 
store praise. When however we consider 
the ..iuar.»r » whici *e« encomium. 



88 

originated, we may suspect that they 
were bestowed on the orthodoxy rathef 
than the poetry of the work. When Lope 
published it, the passions which rdigious 
dissension had excited throughout Eu- 
rope had not subsided. The indiscrimi* 
nate abuse of one sect was still sufficient 
to procure any work a favourable recep- 
tion with the other; and the Corona Tra^ 
gica, the subject of which was fortunately 
chosen for such a purpose, was not d^* 
dentin that recommendation. Queen 
Elizabeth is a bloody Jezebel, a second 
Athaliah; an obdurate sphynx, and the 
incestuous progeny of a harpy. He tells 
us also in the preface, that any author 
who censures his kii^ and natural master 
is a perfidious traitor, unworthy and in-* 
capable of all honours, civil or military. 
In the second book he proves himself 
fully exempt from s|ich a reproach by 
selecting for* the topics of his prai&e the 
actions of the Spanish monarch, which 



89 ' 

seem the leasjt^ to^ admit of apology or 
excuse.. He finds nothing in the wisdom 
or activity of Charles V. so praise-wor^ 
thy as his treachery to the protestants* 
Philip II,, whom he does every thing' 
but blame for not murdering queen Eli* 
zabeth during her sister's reign, is most 
admired for sacrificing. the interest of hif 
crown, the peace and prosperity of his 
dominions, at the shrine of orthodoxy : 

Que le oosto de Fiandes al s^undo 
No conceder I4 libertad irgusia! 
Que antes de daria aventurara el mundo, 
Catholico valor, graadeza augusta :r-r 
Por el tercero santo, el mar profimdo 
Al Afiica passo, sentencia^'z^/o, 
Despreciando sus barbaros tesoros, 
Las ultimas reliquias de \o8 Moros. 

How much the second Philip did it cost 

Freedom urgust from Flanders to withbpid ! 
Rather than yield the world hje would have lott, 

His &ith so steady, imd hi3 heart so bold : 
The third, with jiwf decree, to Afric's coast 
Banish'd the remnants of that pest of old 
The Moors ; and nobly ventured to cdntemn 
Treasures which flowed from barbarous hordes like 
them; 



^ 90 

pnitte of the ^feitrtfa ¥bAhp is 
founded on an anecdote with which I 
am unacquainted, viz. of his adoralipn 
of the sacrament in the presence of En- 
glish heretics *. There is no superna- 
tural agency in this poem ; but it has 
not sufficient merit in other respects to 
allow us to draw from its failure any ar- 
gument in favour of such machineiy. 
The speech of Mary when her sentence 
is annoimced is the only passage I found 
in it rising at all above mediocrity; 

Giacias ob debo dar, nobles yanmes^ 
For esta nueva ayentma dixa; 
Amiqiie terrible de sufirir lastima^ 
EsCa porcum mortal que el alma anima. 

Confiesso ingemiameiite que A iiieia 
Ed Frtoda 6 en Esoocia oon mi esposo^ 

Aimqne en exliema edad^ la nneva ojeni^ 
Me diem honor el caso lagfimoeo* 



^TUsjIfiupecty alluded to aometnuifactionwliidi took 
plaoe daring the celebrated nat of prince Qiarks and the 
duke of Bnckingham at Madrid. 



m 



cinoo Imtros de una cavcel fiera, 
Donde solo escuchaba el temeroso 
Ruido de las annas circimstaQtes 
T el miedo de la muefite por instantes. 

Que genero de pena puede darla 

Mas -peosL que las penaa en que vive 
A quien solo pudieia ccnsolarla 

La muerte que la vida apercijbe ? 
La muerte es m&im pma que espeiarla ; 
Una vez quien la sufre la recibe ; 
Pero por mucho que en valor se extreme 
Mttcbas veces le passa quien la teme. 

Que noche en mi aposento recogida 

No yi la muerte en su silendo'evcuroF^ 
Que aurora amanecio de luz vestida 

Que el alma no assaUasse el flaco muro 
En que ftustento no perdi la vida ? 
Que lugar para mi dexo seguro 
Naturaleza, sin ponenne luego 
Yeneno al labio^ 6 a la tone fu^o. 

Ahora que ya ves & luz tan chra 

Ll<^r mi fin^ carissimos amigos, 
Donde la vida en solo un golpe para 

Y de ml fe tendre tantos testigoB 
Mi firme aspecto lo interior dedara 

Y libre de asecfaanzas y enemigos 
La muerte esperar6, mejor dixera * 
Que esperar^ la vida quando muera. 



99 

Thanks foryout news, illnstrioiis Idrds, she cried; 

I greet the doom tbat must my griefi decide: 
Sad though it be, thiMigh sense masjt shrink from pain. 
Yet the immortal soul Xh^ trial shall suMain* 

Bat had the fittal entente reached my ears 
In France, in Scotland, with my husband crowned, 

Kot age itself could have allayed my fears. 
And my poor ^eart had shudder-d at the sotknd. 

But now imtmur'd for twc»ty tedious years. 

Where nought my listening cares can catch around 

But fearful noise of danger and alarms. 

The fiequent threat of death, and constant din of 
arms. 

Ah ! what have I in dying io bemoui ? 

What punishment in death can they devise 
For her who living only lives io g^oan. 

And see continual death before her eyes ? 
Comfort's in death, where 'tis in life unknown ; 

Who death expects feels nu»ie than he who 



Though too much valour may our fortune tiy. 
To liye in fear of death is many times to die. 

Where have I e'er repos'd in silent ni^t, 
But death's stem image staUc'd around my bed? 

What morning e'or arose <m me with light. 
But on my health some sad disast^ bied? 

Did Fortune ever aid my war or flight. 
Or grant a refuge for ray hapless JKad ? 



93 

My dran^bte^^b .poison jdrii^*d, my tpwecsVUh 
treachery flamed* 

And now with &tal certainty I know 
Is come the hour that my sad being ends, 

Where life must perish with a single blow ; 
Then mark her deatli whom steadlfast fiuth attends i 

My ehee^ unchang'd^ my inward ca^m s^allshaw, 
Whilefree from foes, serene, my generous friends^ 

I meet my death— or rather I shouM say, 

Meet my eternal life, my everlastiag daj. 



» T 
I > 



The last line of the second stanza, 
quoted above, reminds one of a similar 
sentiment in Shakspere : , 

I 

'.^ Cowards die many times before their deaths, ^ 
The Yi^Uant nqver tasteof death but pncp.'* 

Julius Ccesar, act 2. sc, f • 

With regard to Lope's other epic 
poems, I have never read the Circe of 
the Andromeda. The Dragontea is full 
of virulent and unpoetical abusef, aiid 
gives a ftilse Account of the death of sit 
Trancis^ Drake. The Arcadia is, 1 be- 

r 

lieve^ thfe ' b^l of his pastdrals. Thfey 



X 



are not in general very a€curate ropie- 
sentations of the manners of ghepherds, 
nor do they even afford many &pecimen» 
of simple or natnral poetry ; but they 
all, especially the Pastores de Belen^ 
contain translations, elegies, 80»gs,and 
hymns, of considerable merit. In them 
are also to be found some of his mo^^ 
celebrated odes*. Indeed Spanish ciir 
tics, and more especially Andres, who. 
is far from being partial to his country- 
men, seem to consider him as a great 
lyric poet. 1 do not venture to express 
any opinion uppn compositions of that 
nature, because, after humorous and 
burlesque works, they are those of which 
a foreigner is least capable of forming a 
judgment. If indeed the admiraticm of 
strangers be an object. Lope must.t^e 
considered as unlucky. His light /tv^ 
burlesque poems, most of which he pu^ 
lished under the feigned name ^f Thoijq^ 
de Burguillos, are those most gfper^Ij^ 



^mliedhylm c6lintryf»eii; Ofthes^ 
the Gatomadbia^ a mock heroic pobitt^ 
is esteemed the best, aiid often cited as. 
a model of versification. They are all 
sprightlyj and written with ease; but 
their length makes oiie 6ccasidnally la-^ 
ment a facility which rendered the ter- 
mination of any work' of Lope an act of 
grace to his readers, and not a tiiatter 
oif necessity to him. ' 

His epistles and didactic works are not 
mndi admired in Spain; but though not 
exempt from the same defect, they seem 
to me replete with observation, aiid good 
sense convey ed in very pleasant larigaage 
and flowing versification. 

•Jnthe time of Lope there were several 
poetical academies at Madrid, in imita* 
tion of similar institutions in Italy. The 
Arte de hacer Comedias, undertaken at 
the instance of that to which it is in- 
$eribed, ^iclusive of its intrinsic mferit, 
derives an additional portion of interest 



96 

from being connected with the lustory 
of the Spanish stage, and written by a 
man whose productions decided its cha- 
racter, and to whose genius, therefore, are 
in some measure to be ascribed the pe* 
culiarities which distinguish the modern 
' drama from the antient. Whatever may 
be their comparative merit, it is surely 
both absurd and pedantic to judge of the 
one by rules laid down for the other, — a 
practice which had begun in the time 
of Lope, and is not altogether aban-* 
doned to this day. There are many ex*- 
cellencies to which all dramatic authors 
of every age must aspire, and their suc- 
cess in these form the just points of 
comparison : but to censure a modem 
author for not following the plan of 
Sophocles, is as absurd as to object to 
a fresco that it is not painted in oil co* 
lours ; or, as Tiraboschi, in his parallel 
of Ariosto and Tasso, happily observes, 
to blame Livy for not writing a poem 



97 

instead of a history. The Greek trage- 
dians are probably superior to all nio^ 
dems, if we fexcept Racine^ in the cor- 
rectness of their taste, and their equaU 
at least in the sublimity of their poetry, 
«.nd in the just and spirited delineation 
of those events and passions which they 
represent. These, however, are the me- 
rits of the execution rather than of the 
design; the talents of the disciple rather 
than the excellence of the school ; and 
prove the skill of the workman, not 
the perfection of the system. Without 
dwelling on th6 expulsion of the chorus 
(a most unnatural and . inconvenient 
machine), the moderns, by admitting a 
coinplication of plot, have introduced a 
greater variety of incidents and charac- 
ters. The province of invention is en- 
larged ; new passions, or at least new 
forms of the same passions, are brought 
within the scope of dramatic poetry. 
Fresh sources of interest are opened, and 

H 



98 

^ditional powers of imaginatioti caUe4 
into activity. Can we then deny what 
extends its jurisdiction and enhances its 
interest to be an improvement, in an art 
whose professed object is to. stir the 

passions by the imitation of human ac« 

« 

tions ? In saying this I do not mean to " 
justify the breach of decorum, the neg* 
lect of probability, the anachronisms 
and other extravagancies of the founders 
of the modern theatre. Because the 
£rst disciples of the school were not mo- 
dels of perfection, it does not follow 
that the fundamental maxims were de« 
fective. The rudeness of their work- 
manship is no proof of the inferiority of 
the material ; nor does the want of skill 
4eprive them of the merit of having dis- 
covered the mine. The faults objected 
to them form no necessary part of the 
.system they introduced* Their followers 
in every cottntry have either completely 
j:orrected or gradually reformed such 



99 

abuses. Those who bow not implicitly 
to the authority of Aristotle, yet avoid 
isuch violent outrages as are commoa' in 
our^^rly plays. And those who pique 
themselves on the strict observance of hi$ 
laws, betray in the conduct, the se^ti-. 
ments, the characters, and the dialogue 
of their pieces (especially of their come* 
dies), more resemblance to the modem 
than the antient theatre : their code may 
be Grecian, but their manners in spite 
of themselves are Spanish, English, or 
Fxench : — rthey may renounce their pe- 
digrefe, and even change their dress, but 
they cannot divest their features of a 
certain family likeness to their poetics^l 
progenitors. The beginning of this race 
of poets,; like the origin of nations^ is 
sOmewh&t obscure* It w6uld be idle to 
^^amine where the first play upon such 
a model was written; because many of 
Ae earliest dramas in every modern lan- 
guage are lost. But to whatever nation 

H z 



100 

the invention is due, tlie prevalence of 
the modern system is in a great measure 
to be attributed to Spain ; and perhaps 
more to Lope de Vega' than to any othei* 
individual of that country. The nutn- 
ber and merit of his plays, at a peri&d 
When the Castilian language was gene- 
rally studied throughout Europe, di-^ 
iected the attention of foreigners to the 
Spanish theatre ; and probably induced 
thenl more thaii the works Of any one 
Writer to form their compositions upon 
the model which Comeille and others 
afterwards refined. Yet Lope in all 
probability confirmed rather than in- 
vented the style of drama then usual ih 
Spain ; for it is clear that plays were not 
only common but numerous before his 
time: indeed his own assertions, the 
criticisms of Cervantes, and the testi- 
monies iff contemporary authors, all 
concur in establishing this fact ; and in 
the very poem that we are now exs^- 



9 

mining, he assigns as an eKCUse for his 
dejparture from antient models the state 
in which he found the comedies of his 
native country. 

Mandanme, iiigemo$ nobfes, flordeEspaSay 

Que en esta jimU y academia inngiie 

En breTe tiempa excedereis no wio 

A las de Italia, que, enyidiando k Giecia, 

Ilustro Ciceron del mianio nombre 

Junto al avenio lago, sino & Athenas 

A donde e^i su Ratonico lyceo 

Se yio tan alta. junta de philosophos,— « 

Que un arte de cdmedias os escriba 

Que al estilo dd yvlgo ae lecibat 

FacO paieoe este mjetD,*-*-^ fiunl 

Fnera paia qualquiera de vosotros 

Que ha escrito m^os dellaa, y mas sabe 

Del arte de escribirias, y de todo, 
, Que lo que 4 nii me dana en esta parte 

Es haberlas escrito sin el arte ; 

No por que jo ignorasse los pieoeptos, 

Gracias'a Dios, que, ya t jr^^fam&tioo, 

Passe los libros que trataban desto 

Antes que huyiesse visto al sol diez veces 

Discurrir des de el aries ^ los peces; 
^ Mas porque en fin haI16 que las comedias 

Estaban^i &pafia en aquel tiemjpo 

No como sus primeros inventorcB 



102' 

^ ^enstom que tm d mmido « eBCt&ienm, 
Mas cooio hs tnittion miu^ofi baxbaras 
. Que ensenaioii el irulgo a sus rudezas, 

Y assi se introdux6rQQ de tal inodo 

^ Que quien con arte aluxia las esctiUa- 
Mueresinfiunajgalaidon; quepuede 
JEiiitie }oB (pie careioeii de su lumfave 
Mas^que laaoti y foeraa la odstiUDbre 
Yerdad es que 70 he eietito algunas veoas 
Siguieado d alike qae conooeii pocoB ; 
Mas luego queiafir por dm {Kitie 
Yeo los monslros de apariencias Uenos^ 
A doude acude d yq^ y las mugeie% 
Que este fariate exciticio canantaoi, 
A aquel habito baibam me vudvo ; 
£ quando he de escribir una oomedia^ 
EncieriD los pieoqilos pon SOB llaves ; 
Saco a Teiencio j Flantode mi estadio 
Fara que no me den Tooes, quesode 
Dar gritos la yerdad en librosmudos; 

Y escribo jKir art&que inventaicn, 
Ii06 que d vulgar apfauiso pietendjeimiy 
Porque como los paga d vulgd, es justo 
Hablarle en nedo para darle gusto* 

Bright flow'19 of Spain, ifhosejoungacademj 
£r6 long shall tbt^lL by Tuily nam'd outyie, 
And match th' Athenian porch irhere Plato taught. 
Whose sacred shades such througs. of sages sought,^- 
You bid me tell the art of writing plays 
Such as the crowd would please, and you might praise. 



103 

The work seems eas y caDy itmigiit be ' * . 

To you who write not miicb^ but not to zae : 

For how can I the rules of art impait, 

Who for myself ne'er dreamt of rule or ait ? 

Not but I studied all the antient rules : 

Yes, God be praised 1 kmgHBoe^ in gmmm a ry schobis, > 

Scarce ten years old, with all the patience due, 

The books that subject treat I waded thn^ugh : 

My case was stmple.^^In these latter daysj 

The tmant authors of our Spanist^ plays. 

So wide had wander'd from the narrow road 

Which the strict fithers of the drama trod, 

I found the stage with barbarous pieces stor*d :^-!* 

The critics ceusur'd ; but the crowd ad<Nr'd, 

Nay more ; these sad corrupters of the stage 

So blinded taste, and so debauchM the age. 

Who writes by rule must please himsdif alone, 

Be damn'd without remorse, and die unioiown* 

Such force has habit— £)r the untaught fopls^ 

Trusting their own, despise the antient rulest 

Yet, true it is, | too have written plays, . t 

The wiser few, who judge with dull, might praise i , 

But when I see how show, and ncmseqse, draws 

The crowd's, and, more than all, the fair's applause. 

Who still are forward with indulgent rage 

To sanction ev&y monster of the stage, 

I, doomed to write, the public taste to hit. 

Resume tlie barbarous dress 'twas vain to quit : 

I lock up every rule before I write, 

Plautus and Terence drive from oiit my sight, 



104 

lAt rage diooU ioiii^ tlute iqiu'd wite to jo^ 
And tbeiriliimb hooks ciy fihanie on works Uke mine* 
To Yolgar standaida then I sqaareiny plajt 
Writing at ease ; for> tinoe the pabKc pay, 
Tis just, methinks, ^mby their compass steer, 
^Bd write the nonsense that they love to hear. 

Some critics have disputed the tnith 
of the apology contained in this poem, 
and alleged, that previous to Lope, 
the Spaniards had I^a^y regular dramas, 
and that he in fact created the taste for 
those extravagancies which he pretends 
to have adopted from his predecessors 
and ccmtemporaries. It is indeed well 
ascertained, that upon the first revival 
of the stage, several translations and 
imitations of the Greek and Roman 
dtematic writers appeared in Spain as 
well as in Italy. A greater attention 
also to the unities than is common in 
Xope or his contemporaries, may per- 
liaps be discernible in some few produc- 
tions of that period, which are not ab* 
solutely wrought according to the GrQ- 



105 



cian patteiD. But that such was 
the general character of their represen- 
tations is evident from plays still extant, 
and might be inferred even from those 
of Cervantes himself; who, though the 
champion of the antient rules in theory, 
is in practice one of the least successful 
followers of the modern* Any minute 
jproof of this would be tedious; and a 
reference to the third book of Luzant's 
Poetica^ as well as to an excellent poem 
of Juan de la Cueba, published in 1582, 
and reprinted in the Pamaso Espanol, 
renders it unnecessary. From that poem 
it is clear that the unities had been 
absmdoned before the time of Virues ; 
and it is but reasonable to suppose, that 
the moment their repr^entations ceased 
to be lifeless copies of the antients, they 
would be animated by the spirit of the 
times. Accordingly La Cueba, who 
had himself contributed to these inno- 
vations, vindicates them upon that 



106 

ground, and appeals with eonfideiice td 
the interests they excite. 

Mas la inyencimi, la ^cia, j traza es propia 
A la ingeniosa fiibula de Espafia. 
No qiial dieen sub emulos impropia 
Soena« y ados nvojih la mamda 
Tan intrincada y la soltura dc ella, 
Inimitable de ninguna estrafia. 

Pamaso Espafiol, vol, t/tit. p. 62* 

Invention, interest, sprightly turns in plays, 
Say what they will, are Spain's peculiar praise ; 
Heis are the plots which strict attentbn seize. 
Full of intrigue, and yet disclos'd with ease : 
Hence scenes and acts her fertile stage afibrds, 
Uidaiown, unrivall'd, on the foreign boards. 

This eulogium, thou^ written bj the 
predepessor of Liope, is applicable to 
him ^nd his followers ; and amounts to 
a proof that the plays of Virues and La 
Cueba, as well as the greater part of 
those represented at that period^ were 
formed upon a similar modeh There 
had been rude exhibitions of farces 
and autos before the time of PerdiT 



r-^f^-t 



107 

Hand and Isabella; but most authort 
agree that the. first mention of a regular 
representation is that of a play at the 
celebration of their memorable marriage; 
Thus the Inquisition "^ and the Stage 
were neafly coeval. But the gloomy 
reign of Philip, in which the former 
thrived so vigorously, proved nearly fatal 
to the latter. It had to struggle against 
the prejudices of the clergy -f*. The 
maxims of the church of Rome in Spain 
have be^n at various periods as austere 
as that of the Scotch reformers them-* 
selves. It is remarkable enough that 
the Jesuit Mariana, one of the most in-? 



•*•« 



* Aecording to Pulgar, the Inqiiisitkm was establided ia 
.1489. An institution, however, of a similar nature had 
certainly been introduced in the South of France, and per. 
hi^ in Arragon, against the AlbigeOis, by the famous 
St. Dominic, more than two centuries before. 

f Vide Infonne sobre Juegos, Espectaculos^ y Direr- 
siones publicas, por Don Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos. 
Appendix, No. II. 



JOS 

tolerant, as well as successful, supporters 
€f the church of Rome, y^as a repubiir 
can in his principles of government, and 
a rerj puritan in his zeal for the sup* 
pression of innocent amusements. His 
voric De Re^ et Re^ Institutione^ in 
which the origin of government is uur 
^(Juivocally traced to the will of the pea^ 
phi and in which their political rights, 
dedudble from that principle, are boldly 
asserted and eloquoitly maintained, is 
nevertheless disfigured by a fanatical 
apology for assassination^ and an acrir 
teonious invective against public diver- 
sions and national gaiety. The political 
maxims of his book, long since aban* 
doned and condemned by the Church, 
seem to have been forgotten by his 
countrymen ; but the fanatical zeal 
against public exhibitions has never en- 
tirely subsided, and it has frequently 
threatened the total extinction of the 



109 

only rational amusement which the per* 
verse and meddling spirit* of their laws 
has li&ft the inhabitants of Spain. Even 
the patronage of Philip the Fourth was 
not Sufficient to dbteor Bome austeM 
monks from condeihning amuseoientis 
which their ascetic habits prevented 
them from partaking; tior could the 
orthodoxy of Lope^s works, or the saiio^ 
tity of his profession, screen him from 
that personal virulence which such con* 
troversies invariably inspire. In ar. 
rsugning his. writings and railing at hiil 
character, they lost sight of truth as 
well as candour; they styled him the 
disgrace of the age and of the nation ; 
the shame of hi$ profession ; and the 
author^ ai^ a reverend writer expresses 
it, of more mischiefs td the world than, 
thousands of devils. By such invectives 
they endeavoured to ruin his fortunes 



♦ Vide Appendbt, No. II. 



110 

and harass his conscieiioe. The tempo- 
' my prohibition of his plays, which these 
censures extorted from the court, shoirs 
that they made considerable impression 
on the public, and the severity of the 
discipline which Lope afterwards in- 
flicted upon himsdn might gratify his 
uncharitable enemies with the r^ec- 
tion, that though they bad failed in 
suppressing his works, they had embit- 
tered his satisfaction at their success 
with strong feelings of remorse. Since 
' this war between the pulpit and the 
stagie first commenced, no permanent 
reconciliation has ever l^ken place ; and 
though dramatic representations have 
generally kept their groitnd^ their ad- 
Tei8arie» hav^^obtained maoy temporary 
and local advantages over them, which 
have ofteft impeded their progress, and 
sometimes have seemed to threaten their 
existence. Even during the reign of 
Charles the Third all the theatres were 



in 

s^tippressed for several years. Some \h^ 
^faops during the present reign have for- 
bidden plays in their diocese ; ajad the 
inhabitants of Seville, in the late epide-^ 
mical disorder, solemnly renounced, m 
a fit of devotion, the amusement of the 
theatre, as the surest method of ap- 
peasing divine vengeance* Since that 
^ct of self-denial they have confined the 
gratification of their taste for public 
exhibitions^ to the butchery of bulls, 
horses, and men, in the arena* These 
feasts are encouraged by the munifi* 
cence> and often honoured by the pre- 
sence, of the. king. . But no monarch 
since Philip the Fourth has ventured to 
sanction a public play by his presence* 
Some indeed have indulged their taste 
for operas virithiu the vralls of the pa* 
lace, but the present king is said to be 
convinced of their evil tendency ; and, 
if he has not exerted himself to the ut- 
most of his power to deter others, has 



113 

unifonnly and scrapulously preserved 
himself from the contamination of a 
theatre. If such scrnples can exist, even 
in our times, it may readily be supposed 
that Philip the Second was not pro^f 
against arguments so congenial to his 
gloomy habits and saturnine temper* 
He was accordingly staggered by the 
censures of Mariana and the clergy; 
but luckily for the interests of poetry 
and the gaiety of Europe, he referred 
the question to the university of Sala^ 
manca, where, after much discussion^ 
it was decided in favour of the stage. 
It appears however that Philip, though 
induced by this decision to tolotite, and 
even- for a time to attend the theatr^s^ 
was soon disgusted with the practices 
introduced upon them; 

El prndente 

Philipo* tcy de Espaila, y aenor nnestie. 
En nendo ua Rey en elloB, ae enihdaba ; 

* It is tints printed in Lope de VegsL 



il3 

O fuanse d ?er que al arte contiadiGe ; 
O que la autoridad Real no debe 
Andar fingida entre la humilde plebe. 

Arte de hacer Camedias* 

Once to behold a monarch on the stage, 

Enflam'd, 'tis said, our prudent Philip's rage ; 

Or that he deem'd such characters unfit 

For lively sallies and for comic wit ; 

Or crowns debasrM, if actors were allow'd 

To bring the state ei kings bdbre a low-bom crowd. 

Nevertheless this practice, and many 
others, which were considered as innova- s 
tions, ate excused, if not justified, by 
Lope in this poem. 

After acknowledging his deviaticMis 
from the. antient, he proceeds to give a 
code of laws for the modem drama, or 
rather an account of what is requisite in 
^\th^ CQjnic iponsters of the stage/'. In 
doing this he contrives with great shrewd-^ 
ness, but apparent simplicity, to urge 
nearly all that can be said in their de- 
fence, at the same time that he ridicules 
the occasip]ial,>extrayd£ance of himself 



and his contemporaries. As aa B^pology 
for the mixture of conric with tragic 
scenes^ he says : 

Lo tragico con lo comioo mezclado, 
Y Temcio con Seneca, annque am 
Como otro minoianro de Pasiphai^ 
Haiin grave nna parte otoa ridicnla; 

Que a^questa YSMiedad deleyta mncbo; 
Sipen exanplo not da natoKpleaa) 
Que pcMT tal yariedad tiene belleou 

The tra^c 'with the comic mtuic combined, 
- Gha?e Seneca with i|Mrigfally' Teieiii» jm 
^ May 8eem^ I grant, Pasiphae's monstions birth, 

Whereone half moves our sorrow, oneourmirthr 

But sweet variety must still delight ; 

And, spite ef rules, dame Nature says we 're right. 

Who throughout aU her woarks th' example gives, 

And from variety her charms derives. 

Wit:h regard to the unities of time, he 
asserts that an obseryance of them would 

disgust a Spanish audiencd : 

. . . ' • 

, De vn Espai)ol lentado pio se templf^ 
SinbleiepiesentaneDdos'lioias ' 

fhitadiuMl^jiiiciotfad«cI)Gteiab.- > 



!• -1 



* * ^ 



I 



115 

Who l«!Bted once, disdaiii io go awaj, 
Unless in two short boats they see the play 
Brotight from creation down to judgment day. 

But though he justifies, or at least pal- 
liates, these irregularities, he considers 
the unity of action, and the preservation 
of character, as two essential requisites 
in a good play. In practice he had 
frequently neglected them, but he offers 

no apology for such a license in this 

« 

poem. On the contrary, he enforces 
the observance of them by injunctions 
as positive as those of Boileau, or of 
Aristotle himself. 

After some common-place maxims on 
the choice of the subject and the con- 
duct of the fable, he recominends adapt- 

V 

ing the metre to the nature of the sen- 
titnents and situations, and makes some 
observations on the different species of 
Castiliab verse, which are not reckoned 
very distinct by Spaniards, and are ut- 
terly incomprtehensible to foreigners. 

I 2 



Xl6 

He UineBts the little pains iaken to 
appropriate the scenery and dresses to 
the country and character of the per- 
sonages represented ; and is very parti- 
cular in his rules for the length of a 
comedy and. its component parts. 

On the wliole, he is ready to avow his 
conviction that the great object of a 
play is to divert and interest the audi- 
ence ; and he seems to have despaired 
of accomplishing it without a quick suc- 
cession of incidents, and a large mixture 
of the marvellous. I have read some^ 

w » 

where, that before the establishment of 
a regular system of jurisprudence in 
JSurope, every individual was at liberty 
to choose the code by which he was to 
be tried ; and it surely would be unrear- 
sonable to refuse a similar privilege^ to 
poets who lived before the standard ojf 
taste was fixed, or any uniform pnnci- 
pies of criticism acknowle<^ed. Ac- 
cording to bis own canons, therefore^ 



lir 

tfee gf eatef part • of his plays must - be' 
judged.^ In tliis poem, however, he 
submits six to tlie ' cognizance of a ge* 
verer tribunal; by declaring that they 
were -written according to the rules of 
art — ' 

Porque fuera de seis las deraas todos 
Pecardn contra el arte gravemente— 

And all save six against the rul^ of mU 

The Spanish critics have sought for 
these faultless models in vain. La 
Huerfa would fain console his country- 
men for their loss, by inferring their 
dulness from their regularity, and ac- 
counting from the same circumstance 
for the oblivion into which they ate 
fallen. It is probable,* however, that 
the difficulty of the discovery does not 
proceed from their insipid regularity, 
but froni the inaccuracy of the descrip- 
tion. The pieces alluded to by Lope 
may be extant to this day, though no 



118 

modem critic would recognise in them 
the regularity he describes. Don Aur 
gustin Montiano y Lujano cites indeed 
six plays of Lope, which he 'Seems to 
consider as distinguished from the rest 
of his productions by the name of tra* 
gedies. The merits and defects of these 
he examines at some length ; but even 
from his criticisms, as well as from a 
perusal of three, it is clear to me that 
they differ from the rest in nothing but 
in name. The Duque de Viseo, which 
is the first in the list, is among the most 
wild and irregular of his productions ; 
not only all the unities of time, place, 
and action are neglected, but the inci-* 
dents themselves are often as uhdigni^ 
fied, and even ridiculous, as they are 
unnatural. Of this the following in-* 
stance will be sufficient proof : One of 
the heroes of the piece dissuades dona 
In6s from marrying^ the man she loves^ 
by informing her that his grandmother 



U9 

was a Moor ; and hift bfOthet the duke 
of Guimarans afterwards boxes her ears 
for following his advice, but disclosing 
the author and motive of it to' her lover. 

DaaUE D£ GuiMAftA^S, pONA IxES. 

Gui. Mirad que 8oy 70 d prioiero 

Y mi hermano d agraviado. 
Inis. Dexadme, que soys cansado 

Y enfadoso cabaUero^ 
Gui. Palabra me habeis de dar 

De cansaros auaque esteb 
Tan brava. 

- J^^f. Vwaoficdieis 

Ql|e no se dexan forzar 

Las mugeres cofiM y o ; 

No me dsgali que sok itn necio-^ 

Gui. Ya para tanto despreccio 

. LapacieticifKHiefiilto; 

(dale un lofeton. 
Aprended coa esto hablar 
Ya gawcdsff s^ci^.-— 

. . In^s. A Dios! 
Ami bofbton!' . . . , 

Sale el Rey^ (fie. dc. 

Bey. ?Queesesto? 

(M: PehlMor s6y. 



ito 

BiBs. ?YaiMil0Tm.(niiiidfta 

Que de la mano dd duqne 

£gt& pidiendo venganza ?-— 

(las ires hermanosdel duque searimana eL 

A asto Ilegan los aobarios 

liOK tiianos de tu casa, 

Los que murmuran de te, 

Los que en corilloB te infiunan, 

Los que tu mumte desean, - 

Jjo» que dan en ius espaklaft - • 

For no poder en el pecho - • 

Mil heridas de palabra ; 

Tu tieoes senor la culpa 

Que yo soy muger, y basta ' 

Decirte que soy muger. • 

Dan Egos. Teote. 

(Vase 'bis. 
Rey, Ay maldad tan esbrana 

Dexadlayo Don:£ga8^ Sec* &€• . 



t 
I 



Duke of Guucabaits and Dohkk Imi$4 

Gvi* My biother fett ; you, lady, gave th'oflfence. 

Lns. Unhand me, gracdess knigbt. 

CkiL Y6U stir not hence. 
Proud dame, to Bgas tfll you pledge your hand. 

Inb. My nobk spirit ill you undetstand, ' ' «^ 
Who hope to force my will; but hij^y hom^ 
I treat thy threats, poor angry man, with scc»n. 

Gui. Patience I lose. 

« 

{Gives her a box <m ihetta-. 



in 

■ 

To keep thy seQP9t5>and to curb thy speech. 
Inis. Great heaven, a blow ! a blow to me ! 



t » t 



Enter the Ki^g wdCoufiiers^ 

King. WhsiVs here} 
What is this broil ? 

Gui. (aside,) My ruiri fhen is clear. 
Inis. You in my face may see this bold man's deed ; 
My face, where blushes, for my vengeance plead. 
To such a height the insolent^' is grown 
Of these proud lords, the tyrants of fliy throne, 
Who 'gainst thy fame to factiotis bands resort ; 
Who plot thy death, embroil thy peaceful 
court ; i : ' / i . ; 

Who with mean malice urge each base report ; 
' Who dare not fece to face their king attack, 
But aini their sland'rous shafts behind his back. 
Thine then thfe faiilt ; a ting the >Veak jiroteCts : 
A woman I, and of the 'weakef sex. ' 
Need I say more ? Farewell ! 
i'.\' ., . '. DcfTvEgas^ AiVliife jp^ain. 

JiCing. Outrage most strange! but why. her «teps4e» 

tain ? &c. &c. , , 



ri 



» J • %. \ 



i The play indeed ikias^. twigi6 in ita 
ctmeiiision as atrocious and almost un^ 
prof bked murdefas caq tnake .^ i^.\ The 
kkig!s favaur]te5 whoAhadf<iiistigated him 



12« 

to some crimes, and been instrumental 
to the commission of others, is himself 
stabbed in the street by a squire of the 
duke of Viseo, who in his turn is killed 
on the spot by the guards : on this cata- 
strophe the king with great composure 
observes : 

r 

Yaliente escudero 7 noble ! 
Haganle un honroso entierro : 
y alame Dios si don Egas 
£n estas cosas me ha puestO| 
Pues Dios le castiga ansi. 

A valiant squire— let &me his deeds attend ; 

An honourable tomb shall mark his end. 

Dqn Egas set me on thes^ bloody deeds, 

And thus, no doubt, through heavenlj justice bleeds* 

« -• . : . . - * 

The above moral seems to be very ge- 
nerally received among Lope^s kings; 
who think the death or banishment of a 
iavourite: mx amplie atonement for their 
own crimes. Indeed they may plead 
atrong. poetical pDccedents. for shifting 
thdbr; 'guilti hoisL their/ own shoaldeiB %^ 



12S 
and don Egas, or don Arias, are to the 

* # 

dramatic monarchs of Castile, what Ju- 
piter, Fate, and Erinnys, were to Aga- 
memnon in Homer. In poetry as in 
politics the king can do no wrong. In 
this play, however, he kills or banishes, 
all his best subjects, and ends by stab- 
bing with his own hand his nearest re- 
lation, after all his courtiers had refused 
to be accessary to the mijrden Yet 
with ^11 these defects sqme gopd lines,^ 
and some spirited sentiments, may he 
found even in the duke de Viseq, though^ 
more thinly scattered . than in most pf 
Lope's compositions. : The following 
verses, extravagant in any other Ian-, 
guage, in Spanish a^^e raagnificept : 

Tea sec|«ta & la^ cos^ quQ pie cRieata^ ; oa'i' 
Que TO sin aUeranne estos hermanos 

For donde a la Tengonza yail la» itianos. 

Alter^se la mar con sus tormeotas, 

Levants a, las estrellas montescanos, 

Que ha de sa: rib un principe discreto 

Que va donde mai hondo^ muy mas quietb. ' * ' 



124 

Be flilmt theity nAfle I the mode devise, 
Seciel, bmt nue, these bcDllieiB (o clmstise ; 
Untroubled in my loclksj thej shall not know 
What breeds the yengeance, or whence came the blow. 
When the storm howls, the sea may troubled rise,* 
And lift iU toamj monntains to the skies ; 
But the wise prince is like the riyer stream, 
And wheie most deep should there most tranquil seem. 

Roma Abrasada is the history of 
Rome, in dialogue, from the accession 
of Claudius to the death of Nero. There 
is certainly nothing comic in it, and 
there are soiAe brilliant passages ; but it 
is by no means exempt from the extra- 
vagancies and irregularities so common 
on the Spanish stage. £1 Marido mas 
firma is founded on the story of Or- 
pheus and Eurydice, and is yet more 
unlike a tragedy than the other two. 
The truth is, that the plays of that pe- 
riod do not admit of the distinction of 
tragedies and comedies, according to 
the. common, or at least the French ac- 
ceptation of those terms. They are not 

* • - * 

comedies ; for not only distressing situ- 



125 

attons and personages of high raak, but 
assassinations and murders are adihitted* 
into their plots : on the other hand, the 
sprightliness of ,the dialogue, the low- 
ness of some of the chamcters^ the fami« 
liarity of the language, and the conclu- 
sion of the piece, which is generally 
fortunate, deprive them of all claims to 
the title of tragedies. Yet even in Lope's 
works there is an evident difference in 
his conception as well as execution of 
two distinct species of dramatic com- 
positions. In one, th6 characters and 
incidents are intended to excite surprise 
and admiration; in the other, meniment 
mixed occasionally with interest. I.ove 
indeed is the subject of both : but in 
one it is the love which distinguished 
the ages of chivalry ; in the other, th6 
gallantry- which succeeded to it, and 
whicl^the poets had only to cojpy from 
the times in which they lived. The 
pl^ys of the latter description, when the 



126 

diaiiuition became more marked, ao 
quired the name of Comedias de Capa 
7 Espada, Comedies of the Cloak and 
Sword, from the dresses in which they 
were represented; and the former that 
of Heroic Comedies, firom the character 
of the personages and incidenU which 
compose them* It is true, that in seve- 
ral of Lope de Vega, which would come 
under the description of heroic come- 
dies, there is an underplot, of which 
the characters are purely comic ; an in* 
vention which, if it is not his own, se^ns 
to have been of Spanish origin, and, as 
is well known, was adopted almost uni« 
yersallj on our stage from the time of 
Fletcher to that of Addison and Bowe. 
Lope was contemporary with both 
Shakspere and Fletch^. In the choice 
of their subjects, and in the conduct of 
their fables, a resemblance may often 
be found, which is no doubt to be at- 
tributed to the taste and opinions of the 



127 

times, rather than to anj knowledge of 
each other's writings. It is indeed in 
this point of view that the Spanish poet 
can be compared with the greatest ad- 
vantage to himself, to the great fonnder 
of our theatre. It is true that his ima?- 
gery may occasionally remind the Eng- 
lish reader of Shakspere ; but his senti-» 
ments, especially in tragedy, are more 
Hke Dryden and his contemporaries 
than their predecessors. The feelings of 
Shakspere's characters are the result of 
passions common to all men ; the extras 
vagant sentiments of Lope's, as of Dry- 
den's heroes, are derived from an arti^ 
ficial state of society, from notions 
suggested by chivalry and exaggerated 
by romance. In his delineati^ii' of chA- 
racter he is yet mote unlike, and it is 
scarce necessary to add, greatly infe- 
rior ; but in the choice and tonduct *of 
his subjects, if he e^als hiitt in extr^ 
vttgaoce and improbability, he d6es trnt- 



128 

Cdi} short oi him in interest .and varieiy/ 
A rapid succession of events, and mdr 
den changes in the situation of the per* 
sonages, are the charms by which he 
interests us so forcibly in his plots. 
These are the only features of the 
l^miish stage which Comeille left un- 
improved ; and /to these some sli^t 
neseinblance may be traced in the opeiast 
<^ Metastasio, whom the Spaniards re- 
present as the admirer and imitator of 

'J 

their theatre. In his heroic plays there 
is a gr^^ter variety of plot than, in his 
comedies; though it is not to be ex-r 
pected that in the many hundreds he 
••coniposed he should not often repeat 
thc^ same situation and events. On the 
whple^ hpwever, the fertility of )iis g^ri 
nius, m th^;.€optriyance of int^festingc 
plots, is 9» surprising as in the compo* 
sition Qf y/erse. Among the ipany I h^ve. 
residy J.have not fallen op one which 
doQS.not strongly fix the attmtkm; siid. 



*«9 

though ' man j of 'his plots hiwe hem 
tmnAferred to the French and Ei^ish 
stage, and' rendered more correct and 
more probable/ they have seldom or 
never been improved in the great article 
of exciting curiosity and interest. This 
was the spell by which he ^achanted'thiS 
popnlace, to whose taste for wonders he 
is accosed of having sacrificed so mucl^^ 
solid reputation. True it is that his 
eatraordinary and embarrassing situa* 
tions are often as unprepared by pr^ 
vioas' events as they are unforeseen by 
the audience ; they • come upon one by ^ 
aittpriae, and when we know ' them; ^e ; 
ari as much at a loss to account for such 
^ strange occurrences as before ; they -ate - 
produced, not for the purpose of eadii-- " 
hitbig the peculiarities of character, et 
the workings of nature, ' but with a view 
af astonishing the audience with strange, 
unexpected, unnatural^ and often in^ 
CK^nsastoit conduct in some of ^the priii«* 

K 



ISO 

cipal characters* Nor is this the only 
defect in his plots. The personages^ 
like the* author, are fnll of intrigue and 
invention ; and while they lay schemei 
and devise plots, with as much ingennity 
as Lope himself, they seem to be ac«* 
tuated by the same motives also; for it 
is difficult to discover any other timn 
that of diverting and surpriBing ^ au- 
dience» Their efforts were generally 
attended with success^ All contempo^ 
rary authors bear testimony to the por 
pularity of Lope's pieces ; and for many 
years he continued the favourite of the 
public. Stories are related of the audi^ 
ence taking so lively an interest iac fail 
^ys, as totally to give way to the 
illusion, and to int^nipt the repies^ 
tation. A spectator on one occasion Ml 
said to have interfered with, great aiuu& 
ety for the protection of an tmforti^ 
Hate piincessr— ^^ dando / voces/ J8f^ 
my author, ^^ contca el cruel homicida 



131 ^ 

que degollaba al parecer una dama ino^ 
cente** — crying out against the cruel 
murderer, who to all appearance was 
slaying an innocent lady. 

A mere relation of the stories on which 
his plays aire founded, would give a very 
insufficient idea of the attraction which 
they possess. Nor can they be collect* 
ed fiom a perusal of detached parage, 
only. T^e chief merit of his plays is a 
certain spirit and animation which per* 
vades' the whole, but which is not to 
be preserved in disjointed limbs of the 
composition* From these considera- 
tions I determined to give the following 
sketch of one of his most interesting 
plays. It is called the Estrella de Se- 
viHa, but has lately been altered and 
revived at Madrid, under the name of 
Sancho Ortus de las Roelas ; and, as the 
tmginal is become extremely seance, 
«)ic}i an abstract may be an object of 

K z 




133 

cuiositj to those who are acgnaintfJl 
with the htte levival of it 

LA ESTRELLA DE SEVILLA. 

» 

DRAMATIS P£RSONJ& 

Savcmo, Idi^ofGafltile. 

Don AmiAs, Ids firmmtey 

Doir PcDBo DB GmniAir, aleolde nuiyor* 

Fabfav db Bubba, ilie laiDe. 

Dob GonzAJJO oe Uixoa. 

FebbajT Pbbbz be Kebuta, an old oapfda. 

Don Sabcho Obtib bb imb Roblai, MorBaawd tba 

Cidof AodalnsiRy and ib love witll EnuMUsA. 
Buvf Of Tabeba^ bioCha' to Ebtbeixa. 
Ci^BiHDo, GBACioto^and senrant to Sakcho Obtix« 

Ebteella, sutartoBoBToSy and in lofc niflLOBTiB. 
Theodoba, hg confidante, 

lifATII<DA, ibw to BOBTOa. 

ACT I. SCENE I. 
Kuro, AjuAMf alealdet. 

Complifnents are exchanged between 
tHe King sind the alcaldes. The King 



133 

is profuse in his praises of Sevilk, where 
he declares his intention of residing for 
some time* When the alcaldes with- 
draw, he and Don Arias '' pursue the 
same subject; and mentioning the beau- 
tiful women they had ^seen since their 
ftirival, the King learns from Don 
Arias that the person with whom he was 
most struck is cisilled Kstrella, and is 
sister to Bustos Tabera* On this 4na$ 
is dispatched for Bustos.' 

... .Enter io the Kino^ Gonzalo in mourning. 

He informs the King that his father is 
dead 9 and solicits his staff. 

Enter Fernan Pbrbz de Medina, 

He comes to solicit the same vacant 
staff ; but both are dismissed by the 
King with equivocal answers; when 
Arias arrives with Bustos Tabera. • He 
i^throws himself at the King's feet, and 
refuses to rise, by observing ; 



134 

Qde ti d ray le ha de tmtar 
Como 4 Santo en A altar 
Digno lugar escogi. 

If sacred kings, like saints npon a shrine, 
Ador'd shouhl be, this place is suidj mine* 

The King, affecting to be struck with 
his loyalty, infonns him of the two 
competitors for the vacant staff, but 
adds that he prefers him to both, and 
offers to promote him to it immediately. 
At this Bustos expresses some surprise^ 
and then generously observes that the 
claims of the two candidates are better 
founded than any he can advance. The 
King leaving it entirely to his judg* 
ment, he displays his disinterested love of 
justice by conferring the staff on Feman 
Pere2;, an old and distinguished com- 
mander, and promoting Gon;;:alo, the 
son of the deceasfed, to the post which 
Feman Perez formerly held. The King, 
loud in his praises of him, artfully in- 
troduces questions concerning the stfite 



136 

of his family ; aiSDcts a lingular interest 
in all hi;^ affairs, ^nd ypluntarily under- 
tafce$ to procure ^marriage for his sisten 
He at length dismisses him by granting 
him the privilege of access at all hours 
ta;t)ie royal chamber. 

The whole of this dialogue is natural^ 
spirited, and well contrived. The dig^ 
aified and stem character of Busto^ 
is throughout preservedf He a^know^ 
ledges his pbligatipns fo^ the honours 
conferred, but in a manner that evjncei^ 
that he is neither duped by the King's 
artifices, nor overset by this sudden gust 
of court favour. As he retires ftonj thp 
preseifpe, he observes aside ; 

ISosp^chowy ypy— -Querenne. 
Y sin conocerme hoiirani|Le 
Mas parece sobornarme 
Honor, que favorecenoe. 

T&ese sudden fevours -with mistrust I view — 
Why should he love a man he never knew ? 
Such honours savour more of bribes than meeds ; 
To gain my virtue, not reward my deeds. 
^ lExii Busfos. 



136 



» 



* • ■ 

\j perc6iSring that thte King is 
touched with the gfeflferbsity fend startled 
at the high spirit of Tabera, takes gtfeat 
pains to depreciate these qualities^ He 
betrays a very courtier-like detestation 
of independence, and inculcates with 
great earnestness the maxim so ^gree« 
able to jprinces, that all men are cor- 
rupt, and all unable to withstand the 
temptations which a king has it in hik 
power to oflfer. 

[ExetmU 

SCENE II. 
Don Sancho Ortiz and Donna Establla. 

The firgt part of this scene is taken up 
with protestations of love. Bustos then 
arrives, and, having desired his sister to 
withdraw, informs his friend qf his late 
honours, and o^ the King's offqr to pro- 
cure a . husband fot Estrella ; but he 
adds, that he will urge Sancho's Suit, 
and does not doubt of bis success. Ortiz 



asr 

aftet soine. com{daiiits of : the King's 

injustice^ '<iiot veipj suitable to his cha^ 

racter or to bis subsequent 'Conduct, r^ 

tires^ 

SCENE IB. 

Tabera meets the King at the door of 

his house, and, by many artful pretences 

and overstrained professions of humility 

and loyalty, prevents him from entering 

it. The King,^ having given private in- 

stnictions to Arias, carries off Tabera in 

his coach. • ^ ■ , 

SCENE IV. 

EstRELLA, Matilda, and Arias. 

Arias delivers a message from the 
King, to which Estrella gives no answer, 
but leaves the room in disdain. Arias, 
left with Matilda, gains her to his ni^as- 
ter^s interests, and she engages to intro- 
duce tlie King at night intQ Estrella's 
chamber. 

SCENE V. 
The King's cabinet*, 

The chamberlains, and -Tabera as one 



188 



of -thfim, are dismissed, and die l^g 
with great joy hears of the.i»ucoess >f 
;'s negotiation. 



' ACTIJ. SCENE I. 

The street. Kivg, Matilda, oniABiAJi. ' 

The King \^ fidmitted ioto Tabera's 
house by Matilda, Exit Arias; and 
enter Tabera and his Mends, of whom 
he takes leave at the door of his house. 

SCENE U. 

Tabera's h€^se» 

'. Tabera enters, surprised at the ab-v 
sence of Matilda and the dfj^rkness of 
the apartments. He overhears ]\Iatild^ 
and the King ; and, alarmed at a man's 
voice, jealous of his sister's honour^ and 
perplexed bj the equivocal answers of 
the stranger, he draws upon him. The 
Kii)g, to extricate himself from the dan- 
ger, is compelled to declare his name ; 
which Tabera, galled and alarmed at 
the discovery, affects to disbelieve. In 



m 

urging the impossibility of the King en- 
gaging in such an attempt, he contrives 
ijo upbraid him most bitterly fpr his bdse 
and dishonourable conduct*. He allows 
him however to ejicape, but puts to 
death the female slave who procured 
)iim admittance. 



* A story somewhat similar to this is rdated of Philip 
the Foi&|rth.— rHe and the count duke of Olivarez^ after 
h^Ting eqgaged'the duke Albuquerque at play, suddenly 
left the room ; but Albuquerque, suspecting the king's de. 
sign upon his wife, feigned yioient sickness, and, rising 
kastily from hjs ses^ty mcade th^ best of hh way to his own 
palace. There he perceii^ two men muffied in cloaks 
lurking near the gate. He instantly fell upon the one 
whose height showed him to b® the king, and, employing 
Us stick fa. a most luimerdful m^ner, obliged the coont 
duke Oliyarez to interfere ; who, to rescue his soT^rdgu 
from SQ severe a drubbing, stepped forward and informed 
the duke that the man whom he was striking was the 
king. Albuquerque aiSected great indignation on such an 
imputation on his majesty ; and repeating that such designs 
were as incongenial with the character as incompatible 
with the honanr of the monarch, under the pretence of 
▼indicating royalty from such an aspersion, made the mi. 
nister, who had shared his master's guilt, partake also of 
his chastisement. 



140 

SCENE m. . 

ThepaJaoe. 

The King relates his adventure with 
great indigqation to Arias, who stimu- 
lates him to revenge While talking on 
the subject thej recognise the corpse of 
Matilda, which Tabera has contrived to 
convey to the palace. This exasperates' 
the King ; but the original cause of his 
animosity is so dishonourable, and me 
character of Tabera so popular, that he 
is at a loss for a pretext for his execu« 
tion ; and at last adopts an expedient 
suggested by Arias of instigating Sancho 
Ortiz de las Roelas, a loyal andf intrepid 
soldier, sumamed the Cid* of A&dalusia, 
to murder him. 



SCENE ly. 
Tabera relates the story to. his s^ter, 
and to her great joy expresses his ear- 
nestness to complete her marriage with 
Sanclio. 

[Exeuni. 



y 



Ul 

SCENE ?.- 
The palace. 

Arias having announced Sandhp is or- 
dered to withdraw* 

Sancho Ortiz enters. 
San. yiiestra alfeza & mis do8 laMoB 

Les conceda los dos pies. 
Ifey. Alfad que OS hiziem agnftvkiB 
Alf ad'— 

San. iSeHmV 

Beg. Galanei. 
San* No' es mucho que yo sefior 
Meturbe, no sieodo aqui 
Betorico^ nioradon 
ifey. PnQfr-- f deeid que tm ea mi ? 
Son, La magestadi y d vabr, 
Y al fin una imagen veo 
De diosy plies k Imita d Iqr ; 
Yilospueftddy ea^vo»€Mo4 
A vuestia Cesaiea legr i 
Gran sefior aqui nul empleo. 
, Sjey. jComoestais? ^"'h 

San. NunDa me he vkb 
Tan honiado oomo estoy. 
Jby. Pues aficionado OS soy 

For pnidente^ y par bien quisto 
P<»que esMi^ con cuydado 
de saber, i 



us 

Fen qoe'A te Ikaimdo 
DedioB lo quiero, y ynx 
, tQiie en wm teqgo un gian soldado.— i» 
ii mi me importa malar 

£a secreto a on hombie^ y qoienr 
Este cas^ confiar 

Solo de T06» q«e 00 fteSao 
A todos los dd Ittgar; 
San. ^Esttciil^Mdo? 

Itey* Sly esta*.. 
San. Puesoomomiierte^naeareCa^ 

A unculpad^jBe lada-^ 
Pixiar sa mueile en decto 

Poblicamente podi4 
y uestea jiuticia) ondaDey 
Mneite en «ecneito^ que aasi . 

Yob 06 cn^MiB^cn Ciil^Mlfe ; 
Phies dais A enlendcf aneaani 

Sin ctdna maBriaifi malaUe* 
8ieaKhttniilde<#,haofeBdida. ' 

Enlerecalpa, senor,. 
Que le perdonqb 06 pido. 
Rgy. Fnia sn pfoeuador, 

Sanclio Oitioi no halieiB voudo ; 

Sioo p(u« daUe mnert^ 
Y plies ae la nando dar 

Eaoondiendo el Ixaao fteitey 
Ddbe imi booor impoitar 

Matatts de a(|aa|la siHfte > 



145 

^ Meieoe el qae ^ Gometido 
Crimeii kse muerte? 

Sm. ]&ifiiego« 
Aey. ; Y si crimen kse ha sido 
.Mdeste? 

San. Que mu^fa Ine^ 
AvoaBes^ sefimr 06 pido ; 

Y si es asi, la dart 
ISenor k mi mismo hennaao 

Y en nada lepailtrt* 
Itey. OadmeessiEt palabraymanot 

S€ai. Y en eDa d alma y la ii. 
Rey. Hallandole descuidado 
Puedes mataile. 

Son* Sefior, 
; Siendo Rodas y sddftdo^ 

Me qiiievesbacer traidor ? 
{ Yo muerte en ca|M> pensadoN^ 
Cuerpo & cuerpo he-de m«tadle> 
Ddnde SeriHa la vea 

£n la i^laasa^ 6 en fat caUe, 
Que, el que mata y no peka 
Nadie puede diseiripifle; 
Y gana laas A que muere 
A traicion, que d qu6 fe mata ; 

Y el vivo oon quantos tiata 
Su alevosia lefieie'^ 

Hey. Matalde, como queiais ; 
Que este-papd paia 4bfiMio •' -t.W 



144 

I>3 mifinnadoibTaSs 
Qualquier delilo que hagais 
Referido. [Dofe on papeL 

San. Diceaa 
'< Al que esse papd advierte 

^< Sancho Ortiz In^o por mi^ . 
<< Y en mi nombie dadle muerte, 
^^ Que 70 pof V08 salgo aqui 
^* Y si OS halhusen aprieto 
^< Por este papd finnado 
^^ Sacaros de prameto . 

"YoelRey." 
Esto 7 admiiado 
De que tan poco ocnoepto 
Tenga de mi Vuestra Alleza« 

I Yo ceduIa?-^Yo papdl— 
Que mas en vos que no en d 

Coyifia aqui mi nobloa ; 
81 vnestias palaliras oobran 

Yalor, quelosmimialabm 
Y eUas quanta diaai obmn 
Dandome aqui la palahra 
Se&yr k» papdes sobian. 

Rompedlo, potqnennd 
La muerle le solidta 

Mcgor selkHr que con d ; 
Que en parte desaciediCa 

y uestm palabra fi papd* [Mompelo. 

fin pa|)d, sdor, aqui 



» 



145 

Nos obligamos los dos, 

Y prometemos assi, 

Yo de vengaros a vos, 

Y vos de librarme a mi. 

Si es assi no hay que hacer 
Cedulas, que estorbos ban $ido ; ^ 
Yo OS voy luego a obedecer ; 

Y solo por premio os pido 
Para esposa la muger 

Que yo eligi6ra. 

Rey. Aunque sea 
Rica fembra de Castilla, 
Os la concedo. 

San. Possea 
Yuestra pie la alarbe silla . 
*E1 mar de Castilla vea. 
Gloriosos y dilatados 

Y por sus climas elados. 
R^. Yuestros hechos excelentes^ 

Sancbo, quedaranpremiados: 
^ En este papel va el nombre 
Del hombre que ha de morir 

{dale un papel. 
Quando lo abrais^ no os assombre ; 
Alirad, que he oido.decir 

En Sevilla que es muy hombre. 
San, Presto, senor, losabiemos. 



* This passage is eyidently corrupt; a line has probably 
been omitted. 



146 

JRey. has doB, Sanclio, wlaiBente 
Este secieto sabemos ; 
No Bj advertiniS) pudente 
Sois Tos— obrad 7 calkmos* 

TA« King imd Sakcho Ortiz. 

San. I kiss thy feet. 

ISng^ Rise, Sancho ! rise^ and know 
I wrong thee much to let thee stoop so low. 

San. My liege, confounded with thj grace I stand ; 
Unskilled in speech, no words can I command 
To tell the thanks I feel. 

King. Why, what in me 
To daunt th j noble spirit can'st thou see ? 

San. Courage and majesty that strikes with awe; 
My sovereign laid; the fountain of the law ; 
In fine, God*s image, which I come t'obey, 
Never so honoor'd as I feel today. 

Khtg^ Much I ap^od thy wisdom, much thy aseal. 
And now, to try thy caurage, will reveal 
That which you covet so io learn, the cause 
That thus my soldier to the presence draws. 
Much it imports the safety of my leign 
A maa'should die-*-in secret should be slain ;-— 
This must some firiend perfonn; search Seville 

through, 
None can I £iid to trust so fit as you. 

San. Guilty he needs must be— 

King. He is. 

San, Then why. 
My sovereign Uege, in secret should he die ? 



147 

If public law demands the ctdprit^s head. 
In public let the culprit's blood be shed. 
Shall Justice' sword^ which strikes in face of 

day, 
Stoop to dark deeds ?«-^a man ia secret slay ? 
The world wiU think, who kills by means un<* 

known, 
No guilt avenge, but implies his owA« 
If dight his ibutt, I dare for mercy piay^ 
King. Sancho, attend ;^— you came not here today 
The adrocate to plead a traitor's cause, 
But to p^orm my will, to execute my laws. 
To day a man ;-*-and why the culprit bleed 
Matters not thee, it is thy monarch's deed. 
If base, thy inonarch the dishonour bears ; 
But say, to draw against my life who dares, 
Oeserres he death ? 

San. O yes, a thousand times. 
King. Then strike without removse, these are the 

wretch's crimes. 
San. So let him die, for sentence Ortiz pleads ; 

Were he my brother, by tbb arm he bleeds. 
King. Give me thy hand. 

San. With that my heart I pledge. 
King. So, while he heeds not, shall thy rapier's edge 
Reach his proud heart. 

San. My liege, my sovereign 
lord, 
JSancho's my name, I wear a soldier's sword. 

L a 



148 

Would you with treacherous acts, and deeds 

of shame, 
Taint such a calling, tarnish such a name ? 
Shall I — Shall I, to shrink from open strife, 
Like some base coward, point th'assassin^s knifet 
No-r&ce to face his foe must Ortiz meet. 
Or in the crowded mart, or public street, 
Defy and combat him in open light. 
Curse the mean wretch who slays but does not 

fight! 
Nought can excuse the vile assassin's blow ; 
Happy, compared with him, his murder'd foe! 
With him who, living, lives but to proclaim, 
To all he meets, his cowardice and shame. 
King. ITen as thou wilt, but in this paper read. 

Signed by the king, the warrant of the deed. 
(Sancho reads the paper aloud, which pro^ 
mises the king^s protection, if he is brought 
into any jeopardy in consequence of killing 
the person alluded to, and is signed, Yo 
el Rey, I the King.) 
King. Act as you may, my name shall set you free. 
San. . Does then my liege so meanly deem of me ? • 
I know his power, which can the earth control^ 
Know his unshaken faith, and sted£i&t ^ul. 
Shall seals, shall parchmenta then to me afford 
A surer warrant than my sovereign's word ? 
To guard my actions, as to guide my hand, 
I ask no surety but my king's command. 



149 

Perish such deeds— (Tears the pdpeTm 

they serve but to record 
Some doubt, some question, of a monarch's 

word* 
What need of bonds ? By honour bound are 

we, 
I to avenge thy wrongs, and thou to rescue me. 
One price I ask, the maid I name for bride.— 
X King. Were she the richest and the best allied 

In Spain, I grant lier.— 

San, So throughout the world, 
May oceans view thy conqueiing flagunfurl'd. 
King. Nor shall thy actions pass without a meed. — 
This note informs thee, Ortiz, who must bleed. 
But reading, be not startled at a name ; 
Great is his prowess ; Seville speaks his fame. 
San. I'll put thai prowess tq the proof ere long. 
King. None know but I that you avenge my wrong ; 
So force must guide your arm, but prudence 
check yo^r tongue. (Exit, 

Manet Sanoho, to wham enter Clarindo. 

He brings the joyful tidings of his 
approaching nuptials, and delivers a 
letter from Estrella, in which she tells 
him that Bustos Tabera is in search of 
him, and conjures him with great ten- 
derness to avail himself without delay 



150 

of her brother's earnestness to bring the 
agreement to a conclusion. Sancho Or- 
tiz, delighted at the letter, gives instant 
orders for festivities and rejoicings in 
his house, and after rewarding Clarindo 
for his news with a gem, dispatches him 
to make the necessary preparations, Im^- 
patient to meet Tabera, he is upon the 
point of setting out to overtake him, 
when he recollects the commands of the 
king, and resolves to ascertain first, what 
man he is destined to dispatch* - He 
opens the note and reads : 

** The. man, Sancho, whom you must 
kill, is Bustos Tabera/' 



HiB excessive anguish at this disco- 
very makes him half doubt the truth of 
it ; and he reads the fatal words repeat- 
edly, in hopes of finding some mistake. 
In his soliloquy, which is very long, 
there is a great mixture of natural pas^ 
sion, misplaced wit, and trivial conceit. 



151 

I should have inserted it, but he begins 
by comparing, in a metaphor of consi- 
derable length, the vicissitudes of life, 
to a particular game of cards ; with 
which I, and probably my readers are 
unacquainted. A part of the speech is 
in the style of Ovid. Sancho is alter- 
nately a good lover and a loyal subject; 
and with great impartiality devotes near- 
ly an equal number of verses to each 
sentiment. He is at last, however, sway- 
ed by the consideration, that a king is 
responsible to God alone for his actions, 
and that the only duty of a subject is to 
obey him. He infers also from these 
premises that the merit of his obedience 
is enhanced, if, by executing the king's 
mandates, he sacrifices his own affec- 
tions, and incurs the enmity of the per- 
son he loves best on earth. He has 
scarce made up his mind to the dis- 
charge of this dreadful and mistaken 
duty, when Bustos enters. 



152 

BusTos Tabera y Saxcho Ohtisk. ^ 

Bus. Cunado, suerte dichosa 

He tenido en encontraros. 
San. Y yo des^icha en hallaros ; (aparte) 

Porque me buscais aqui 

Para darme vida a mi, 

Pero 70 para mataros. 
Bus. Ya, hermano, el plazo llego 

De yuestras dichosas bodas. 
San. Mas de mis desdichas todas (aparte) 

Decirte pudiera yo 

O valgame Dios. quien se vio 

Jamas en tanto pesar ! 

Que aqui tengo de matar 

Al que mas bien he querido ? 

Que a su hermana aya perdido 

Que con todo he de acabar ! 
Bus. Ya por escritura estais 

Casado con dona Estrella. 
San. Casarme quis6 con ella, 

Mas ya no, aunque me la dais. 
Bus. Conoceis me ? assi me hablais ? 
San. Por conoceros aqui 

Os hablo, Tabera, assi. 
Bus. ^Si me conoceis Tabera 

Como hablais de essa manera ? 
San. Habl6 porque os conoci. 
Bus. Habrais en mi conocido 

Sangre nobleza y valor 

Yvirtud, que es el honor 



153 

Que sin ella honor no ha habido. 

Y.estoy, Sancho Ortii, corrido— 
San. Mas lo estoy yo. 
Btis. Vos, de que — 

San, De hablaros. 
Bus. Pues si en mi honor, y mi fe 

Algun defecto advertis 

Corao villano mentis^ 

Y aqui lo sustentar^. (meiemano) 
San. Que has de sustentar villano ? 

Perdone amor esfe exceso, 

Que el Rey me ha quitado el seso 

Y es el resistirme en vano. 
Bus. Muerto soy ; deten la mano. 
San. Ay, que estoy fuera de mi 

Y sin seutido tc herj, 
Mas aqui hermano te pido 
Que ya que cobre scntido, 
Que in me mates & mi. 
Quede in espada enbaynada 
£n mi pecho; de con ella 
Puertia al alma. 

Bus. A dios, Estrella 
Os dexo hermano, encargada — 
A dios. (muere. 

San. Rigurosa espada ! 
£angrienta y fiera homicida ! 
Si me has quitado la vida 
Acabarme de matar ; 



154 

Potque le pueda pagar 
£1 alma poc otra herida.. 

Salen Los Alcaldes mayores. 

P. Que es esto ? Deten la mano« 

San. Como ? Si a mi vida he muerta. 

Far. Ay tan grande desccH^cierto I 

P. Que es esto ? 

San. He muerto & mi hermano; 
Soy un Cain SeviUano 
Que vengativo j cruel 
Mat£ un inocente AbeL 
Yeisk aqiii, matadme aqui^ 
Que pues el muere por mi 
Yo quiero mwir por eL 

Sate Ariar. 

Arias. Que es esto? 

San. Un fksro rigor 
Que tanto en los hombres labra^ 
Una cumplida paiabra,^ 

Y un acrisolado honor* 
Dezidle al Rey mi senor 
Que tienen los Sevillanos 
Las palabras en las manos 
Ciomo lo yeis, pues por ellas 
Atropellaa las Estrellas, 

Y no hazen caso de hermanos* 



155 

Fed. Dio mueite & Boston Tabd-a. 

Ar. Ay tan temenulo exceso. 

San. Prendedme, Ileyadme preso. 

Que es bien que el que mata^ muera. 
M irad que bazana tan fiera 
Me bizo el amor intentar, 

Y pues me ha obligado d matar, 

Y me ha obligado k morir ; 
Pues por el vengo a pedir 

La mueite que el me ha de dan 
Fed. Llevadle & Triana preso, 

Porque la ciudad se altera. 
San. Amigo Busto Tabera. 
Far. Este hombre ha perdido el seso. 
San. Dexadme llevar en peso 

Senores, el cuerpo elado 

En noble sangre banado, 

Que assi su Atlante ser6 

Y «itre tanto dar6 

La rida que le ha quitado. 
Ar. Loco estk-^ 

San. Y si atropeOo 
Mi gusto, guaido la ley. 
Esto, sefior, es ser 11^ 

Y esto, sefior, es no sello— «• 
Ent^idello y no entendello 
Importa'*— pues yo lo callo 
Yo lo mat^, no hay negaUo, 
Mas el porque no dir^; 



156 

Otio confiene d pcMrqne ; 
Puas JO confiesso d malaUo. 

(Uevanle y van* 

Salea Estrella y Teodora. 

Est. No s£ si me vesti bien 

Conio me yesti de prisa : 

Dame Teodora esse e^KJo. 
Tea. Teste senora en tu misma 

Ppedesy porqiie no ay cristal 

Que tantas Terdades diga, 

Ni de hermosuia tan gninde 

Haga verdadera cifia. ^ 
Est. Alterado tengo el rostra 

Y la color enomdida. 
Te». £s seoora que la sangie 

Se ha assomada a las mexillas 

£ntie temor jr yeiguenza ^ 

Solo celebrar tus dichas^ 
Est. Ya me pareoe que Ikgar 

Badado el rostro de risa 

lUi esposo a darme la mano 

Entre mil tiemas caricias ; 

Ya me parece que dice 

Mil temezas, y que oidas 

Safe el alma por los ojos 

Disimulando sus ninas. 

A J yentfiroso dia 

Estahasido, Teodora, Estidla mia. 



157 

Teo. Pareoe que gente suena ; . 
Todo el espejo de embidia ' 
£1 cristal dentro la oja 
De una luna hizo infinitas. 

Est. Quebrose? 

Tec. Senorasi. 

Est. Bien hizo porque imagina. 

Que aguardo el cristal Teodora 
£n que mis ojos se mimn, 

Y pues tal espejo aguardo 
Quiebrese el espejo, amiga^' 
Que no quiero que con e 
Este de espejo me sirva* 

Sale Clarinda muy gdUm. 

Clar. Ya aquesto suena senora 
A gusto y volateria 
Que las plumas del sombrero 
Los casamientos publican 
A mi dueiio di el papel 

Y dio me aquesta sortija 
En albricias. 

Est. Pues JO quiero 
Feriarte aquessas albricias 
Damela y toma por ella 
Este diamante. 

Clar, Partida 
E&ik por medio la piedrai 
Ser& de melancolia 
Que los jacintos padecen 



158 

Deeseemal, annqiie le quitoii^ 

Futida por medio esla. 
Est. No impoita que eati partida 

Que es Uen que las piedias iientan 

Mis cootoitos y akjgfias. 

Ay veuliii4No dia ! 

Erta, amigoi, ha ado Estoda mia. 
Teo. Gfan tropel Mieaa en In patioB. 
CZor. YyaJaefcaleiaarriba 

Bueoe que siibe goite. 
£sl. Que Talor ay que leriflta ^ 

Alplaoer, peio que es erio. 
(Salen las dot alcaldes mayores con el 
fttueriOm 
Fed. Lob desMlio y dodicbas 

8e hicieron paia los hombm. 

Que es mar de Uanto esta vida 

£1 senor Bustos Tabern 

£b muerto. 

Est. Soerteeiiemiga! 
Fed. El consoela que aqui OS queda 

Eb que esAk €L fiero homicida 

Sancbo Ortiz de las Rodas 

Piegp; ydelseiiarajiisticia 

Manana sin £iUa. 
Est. Dezadme giente enenuga! 

Que ea Tncstras iengnas tracis 

De los infemos las iias ; 

Mi hermano es muertoy le ba muerto 

Saucho Ortiz! ^ Ay quiea lo diga, 



159 

Ay quicn lo escuche j no muem ? 
Piedra so j, pues estoy viva, 
Ay riguroso dia ! . . 

Esta, amigos, ha sido EstieUa mia ? 
Pero si hay piedad humana 
Matadme. 

Ped. El dolor le pfiya ; 

Y con razon. 

Est. Desdichada 
Ha sido la Estrdla mia 
Mi hennano es muerto, y le ha muerta 
Sancho Oitiz, de quien divida 
Tres almas de un corazon. 
Dexadme« Que estoy perdida. 
' Fed. Ella esta desesperada 

Far. Infeliz beldad. (vase EstreUa. 

Fed. Sequidk. 

Clar. Senora. 
Est. Dexame ingrato 

Sangre de aquel fratricida^ 

Y pues acabo con todo 
Quiero acabar con la yida : 
Ay riguroso dia! 

Esta ha sido, Teodora, Estiella mia. 

BusTos Tabeba and Sancho OnTkz. 

Bus. In meeting thus my fortune do I greet* 
San. Alas ! I curse the chance that makes us meet. 

. {aside. 



160 

Yaa cmneto maike a ftiend, a biother ble^. 
And I to plungie a dagger in thy bieai^. 

(aside. 

Bus. . Biother, the hour of long sought bliss is come. 

San. My hour of grief, of all my woes the doom ! 

God! did man e^er bear snch weight of ill? 
Him whom I loye next heayoi my swcmd must 

kiU: 
And with tbe yeiy blow that stabs my friend. 
My love is lost, and all my risions end. (aside. 
Bus. The deeds aie drawn; to teU tbe news I came; 

They o^ly wait for Sancho Ortiz' name. 
San* Once it is true, by fickle fitncy led, (aUmd. 
Tabiera's sister Ortiar&in would wed ; 
But now, though drawn the strict agteemoits 
stand, 

1 scorn the offer, and rgcct her hand. 

Bus. Know'st thou to wh<Mn, or what thou speaks^? 

San. I know 

To whom I speak, and tberefoie qieak I so. 
Bus. How, knowing me, can woids of msult dwell 

On Ortiz' tongue ? 

San. Because he knows thee well. 
Bus. And knows he aught but gi»ierons pride of blood. 

And honour such as prompts the brave and good ? 

Vktue and g»iuine honour are the same ; 

Pride uninspired by her, usurps the name. 

But yet, though sknr of anger to a fii^d. 

Thy words my virtue as my pride offend. 



« 



^ 



161 



San, Not more offisnded can thy viitue be, 

Than I so long to talk with one like thee. ' 

Bus. Is 't come to this ? and dost thou taunt my fiime 
With aught that bears not himour's sacred name ? 
IVovethen this sword which dares thy rage defy, 
My foe a villain, and his charge a lie. 

(Draw andjight. 

San. What cto the swords of traitorous villains prove ? 
Pardon me, sacred friendship ! jiardon, love ! 
My king impels— I madden as I fight, 
And phrensy lends my arm resistless might. 

Bus. Enough, nor further press thy blow — ^I bleed-— 
My hour is come — (Bustos falls. 

San. Then am I mad indeed ! 
Yes, when I struck thy death, my sense was 

gcme; 
Restored, I fh>m thy arm implore my own. — 
Sheath in this breast, for pity sheath thy sword, 
And tomy troubled soul an instant flight afford. 

Bus. My motives &te denies the time to tell. 

Wed thou my sister, Ortiz, and — ^&rewell ! 

(dies. 

San. Come then, destructive unrelenting blade. 

Dispatch the life thy work has wretched made : 
Come, while Tabera's gore is reeking yet. 
With a fresh wound to close the bloody debt. * 

Enter Farfan and Peoeo, Alcaldes mayores. 

Ped. Wretch! stay that weapon, rais'd thyself to kill. 
San. 'Twajsrais'd against a life yet dears: still. 

H 




162 



Enter Aria*. 
jtt. Whales ibis disofder ? 

Sam, The disoider' 
I've kard a brother, like anolher 
Ruthless and fierce, a guittlesB Abd 
Heie, here be bes, snrv^ each mangled Umb ; 
Andasbediedfiirme, so let me die fiir him. 
j(r. Why , what is this ? 

San. What is it, do yon ask ? 
T is a kept promise, an accompiisb'd task; 
Tisbonoar inafierytrial proT'd; 
Hooomr that dew the man be deaiiy lov'd. 
Yes, tdl the King, that fiir our i^bted woids, 
Wescmsof Seville bear tbem onoor swoids; 
Tefl bim Ibrtbem we do our stan* defy; 
For than oax laws expire, onr brotbos die. 
Ped. He's kilTd Tabeia. 

jir. Bash, flagitious deed ! 
San. Tim seize me^ — bind me,— 4et bis mnnkrer 

bked! 
Where are we? Do not law and reason say, 
Roflbins shall die, iind Uood shall blood iq^y? 
Bat maik'd yon bow the mi^ty crime was done ? 
No bate was hoe ; 'twas bve, and love alone; 
And lore that did the dime shaU for the crime 

atone. 
Bnstoslslew, I now fixr Bostos plead. 
And b^ of jastioe--4liat his mmderer Ueed. 

* Tiiis in the or^jntl is a qoibUe on the name Ethdla 
which in SpaaiA^ifnifes a 8lar« 



165 

Thy friend that tiibute to thy memory pays. 

^. The man is mad, and knows not what he says. 

^ed. Then to Triana's tower the culprit lead, 
Lest at the noise of such a lawless deed 
Sevilleshoiildrise, and some new tumult breed. 

Saru Yetl would raise my brother from the ground, 
Clasp IiiscoldUmbs, and kiss the sacred wound,' 
And wash the nqble blood that streams his^ 

corpse around. 
So I'll his Atlas be; nor wouhi repine, 
The life I Ve taken to redeem with mine. 

Ped. 'Tis madness this— 

San. When I from friendship swerv'd. 
Against my pleasure I the laws observ'd ; 
That's a king's part^-in that I'm king alone; 
But in this act, alas 1 I am not one--* 
The riddle's easy when the clue is found. 
But 'tis not mine the riddle to esipound. 
'Tis true I slew him — ^I not that deny ; 
I own I slew him-^-^^ut 1 s^y not why: 
That why-*^ others, if they like tt, plnd, 
Clnough for me that I ccmfess the deed. 

lExit guarded. 

Scene chaises to EstrsLla^s chamber* 

EsTREiiiiA and Theodora. 

J5^/. So qmdL my toSet was, I scarce can guess 
How set my garments and how looks my diess. 
Give me the glass. 

TA^. The glass is needUess hem ; 

Look on thyself-— no mirror is so dear ; 

M 2 



1# 

Nor can in mimic forms reflected shiiie 
Such matchless charms, and beauty bright as 
' thinl;. (holds the kokhg^glaifi 

Est* Whence can ^uch crimson colours fire my bheek ? 
Theo. Thy joy, and yet thy modesty, tliey speak. 
Yes, to thy &ce contending {mssions rusfc. 
Thy bliss betmying with a maiden Uush. 
Est. 'Tis true he comes; the youth. my h^rt ap- 
proves 
Comes fraught with joy, and led by smiling 

loves. 
He claims my hand ^ f hear his soft calress, 
^ See his soul's bUss tome beaming from his eye. 

partial stars t unlook*d for faappiiness ! 
Can it be true ?— Is this my destiny* ? 

7%eo. Hark t ttome onib rings-^^^t, h> ! with envy smit, 

One mirror into thoustod thi;rh>rs split. 
Est. b 't bipken P'^ 

Theo. Yes. 

Est. 'And sure with reason too, 
Since soon, witliout its aid, I hope to vieW 
Another self; with him before my eyes, 

1 need no glass, and can its use despise. 

» 

* Here again the word Estrellais used for the sake of a 
pun. I have been obliged to render it by the word destiny ; 
and it is pr^bftUy At only advantage wfiicfa- n^'lnuisla^ 
tion has over the original, that the En^^ish language does 
not admtl of atqiubhle, ■ which in ibe Sfiaaish ctiaB through 
•.^iiS^fiffiCSLtfefi wMe sc^ne, :....„... . - _ 



ids 

Enter Clabindo. 

Plar. AU;. 1^7) ^ ^ merriment and cheer, 

, ; And tbe plum'd hats arniounce the wedding 
near* 
I.^ve the letter^ and received a ring. 
Est. Take; top this diamond £»- the news you bring. 
Clar^ Alas I the precious gem is split in two ; 
. Is it for grief? 

, ^ Ejii. Ob no, Clarindo, no ; 

It burst for joy— the very gems have caught 
JVfy h^'s Qcmt^tp my gweiy pf thoug^. 
Thrice happy dsi^j^ . and kind iiidulgei^ sky ! 
C^ it b^triiie ?•"•!§ this my^ ^tiny*?.. . 
Theo, Hark ! steps below ? 

Chr. And.now the i|0ls« dr^irs Qea^< 
:Es(. Mjr joy o'er<»m« wlr- ' 






Enter Alcaldes tuith the dead^dody of B^ ~ 

Gracious God ! what 's here ? 
P«?. Giief^ nought but grief was made Jor ma^below, 
Life is itself one troubled sea of woe ?r— ^ 
Lady^ Tabera's slain. — . - 

£5/. O sad, O cruel blow! 
Fed. One comfort still-^in chains his murdetet lies ; 
Tomorrow judged by law, Uie guiUy Oi^iz 
di?s« 
Sft* He9ce9 fiends 1 I'll.beaarnamove^^yourtidiligs 

bear 
The.blaslBof heU^ thewammtoC despedr^ 



f - ^ 



t^i^mmmmim'tmmm^ii^ 



♦ Vide note, p. 164. 



166 

My bttitlier 's dain !->-b7 SoBcho'fi aim he fiA( 
What! are there tongues the dismal tak to (dl ? 
Can I too know it, and the blow survive ? 
Oh! I am stone, to hear that sound and Sve. 
ff ever pity dwelt in human breast- 
Kill— murder — stab me — 

Fed. With such grief oppresty 
Well may she rave. 

Est. O sentence fraught with pain! 
My brother dead — by Sancho Ortiz shun E 

(going. 
That crud stroke has rent three hearts in one ;— 
Then leave a wretch, who *s hopdess and undone. 
Ped» Ah ! who can wonder at her wild deqpair ?— 
Follow her steps. 

Far. Alas! iU-fitedfeir! 
Clar, Lady, onemstant— 

EsL Would yon have me stay 
For him, the wr^h, that did my brother slay ? 
'My love, my hopes, my all for ever gone^ 
Perish life too, fer life is hatefid grown ! 
Inhuman stars ! unheard-of misery! 
Can it be so?— 'Is this my destiny*? 

ACT m. SCENE I. 

The third act opens with the King re- 
ceiving an account of Sancho Ortiz' be- 
haviour ; his avowal of the murder, but 

« Vide note, pa^e 104. 



167 * 

rdftisal to allege the motives of it. The 
King is struck with his magnanimity, 
but at the samfe time embarrassed by it. 
" Tell him/' at length he says,^ " to de- 
clare who instigated him to this crime, 
though it be the Kinghimsfelf : tell him 
I am his friend; but that, unless he im- 
mediately explains his conduct, he must 
tomorrow perish on a public scaffold/f 
Arias is intrusted with this message; 
Estrella enters; she throws herself at 
the King's feet; and after a contrast of 
her late prospects in life, and attach* 
ment to her brother, with her present 
forlorn and dismal condition, which, 
though poetically conceived, is neither 
well placed nor happily executed, she 
ends her petition by claiming a privi- 
lege, sanctioned, I believe, by the antient 
usages of Spain, of deciding, as nearest 
relation of the deceased, the fate of her 
brother's murderer. The King, moved 
by her beauty and tears, has not force 
enough to resist her entreaties ; and, in 



|6S 

oieotft <m h^r cbafSBSj pnosonta'lier'iratU 
a royal kej, wbidb will admit faerjto: His 
prison of Triuia» and secuie 4be prison- 
er's being delivoed OTer tobfer mercy. 
She leaves the royal presence with some 
ambiguous expressions^ whieh the King 
construes into vows of revenge. . From 
the moment that he. ceases to contem- 
plate her features he condemns his owm 
weakness, and feels the deepest remorse 
at the perfidy and cruelty of his conr 
duct. In the dialogue between Estrell^ 
and him, there are some very piet^, 
verses ; but both the sentiments aed eXr. 
pressions seem better suited to a spiui^t 
(han to a tragedy t 

SCENE IL 4 prisM. 

Clarindo gives Sancho Ortiz his rea^> 
sons for not composing a ppem on his. 
misfortunes; and a short dialogue be- 
tween Sancho and the ^Icaldps takios 
pla<:e; in which the former inculcate a 



^. r. 



Ufe-ofniisei^ is'a {Hwxtrticteid death, aiid 
tbit to; the' unbappy, death is life: 






No hdcy vida como la maerte 
Biradque 



.t 



Arias enters, and delivers the King's 
message, which Sancho answers in am- 
biguous terms: ** Let those," he says, 
" whose duty it is to speak, speak ; my 
duty was to act, and I have acted/' On 
Arias retiring, Clarindo and his master 
discuss the subject of honour; aijd San- 
cho^s passion, mixed with his romantic 
liotions, very naturally persuades his Ser- 
vant that he is inad. Oh such occasions 
thte poet Very often criticises himself, 
and puts into the mouth of the Gracio- 
so the censures which he is conscious 
that the improbability of his hero's sen- 
timents deserves tb incur. At length 
ettbers a lady veiled, td whdm, in virtue 
of' the Klng^s order, the prisoner is de- 
livered oVer. She offers him his liberty, 
ytkAth he refuses to accept, tiiiless She 



170 

unveils herself. She, after some import 
tunity, consents, and discovers hoself 
to be Estrella* Sancho, struck with her 
love, thinks some flight of generosity 
equally extravagant is required of him, 
and obstinately refuses to leave his pri* 
son. After several witticisms on his 
conduct, they separate ; both resolving 
to die — one literally on a scaffold, the 
other figuratively of love. This scene, 
where the situation seems to suggest 
some fine sentiments, is, in my judg- 
ment, the coldest and worst in the play* 

SCENE m. 

The KufG and Abias. 

The King, stung with remorse for his 
conduct, is nevertheless overruled by 
the sophistry of Arias, and consents to 
avail himself of Sancho^s generosity, by 
not acknowledging himself the criminal ; 
but at the same time to exert his influ- 
ence with the judges to procure an ac- 
quittal of Sancho Ortiz, or at least a 
mitigation of the sentence, which would 



171 

ensble him, under pretence of banish- 
ment, to reward Sancho Ortiz for his 
fidelity. 

The Alcalde of Triana enters, and re- 
ports what had passed between the pri- 
soner and Estrella; which excites the 
King^s admiration, and he directs San- 
cho Ortiz to be secretly conveyed to him. 
In the mean while he speaks with the 
judges, who profess great attachment 
and obedience to their sovereign; which 
he misinterprets into a compliance with 
his wishes. In this scene there is an 
observation, 

Monies la lisonja allana — 
Flattery can level mountains — 

which, in tiie modem play, has, with 
great propriety, been transferred to the 
King's soliloquy, when he thinks he has 
won over the judges, and is there en- 
larged upon with great success. The 
judges, to the King's great dismay, re- 
turn wit|i the sentence of death, and ex- 



6a}pa«e > 4^eais^l^a f^i^M'tikb ^dy%r^^ 

appealiog to the nature of their dffiefe^ (9l? 
rather to that of their WjaSidfi^, which ^f ^ 
the cmigma^of itl If tJtiereismuehquaiht- 
iiess id this appeal, it is at lea^t in the 
character of the times which they repre- 
seBt4 Maby^ of thfei^ sayings and max- 
ims, odnvey^d in qtiaint language, which 
are so common in the plays on early 
%iaiiigh histdry,' and which are hastily 
eoDdeiimfediby foi^igners as instances of 
bad? toslet fbrmipaft <if the traditions doe 
which thei$to^ie» ai^ fduhded ; *ai«$ th€!^ 
omission ^of them would dfest^y that aii^ 
of truth and origi»alifcy, firbkn wHici 
derfMi much of thfeir merit in this '^yfes 6f 
a Spaaish audience^ ' Shakspekre hds 
preserved some colloquiar phrases of 
Henry the Vlllth arid Richard the Hid, 
which had bcJeii handed down to Mm by^ 
traditional report ; and I beliteve most' 
English critics will acknowledge, tliat 
though they would be grotesque were 




if3r 

1;;rgits^ tbjsy^eao af^arance of roaiitjj 
^, t]^et9pejgqhes^ ^whicji enbanccs the m-^ 
te^€$t of/tha >irepre9entafion* 

ToTfet^iro'^ Lope : The Kkig^ uiiable 
to shake the integrity of the judges, 
promi,s^& to ^^uurry E^trella to a graiviee 
of Castile, oa qcaiditi^D that she shall 
withdraw the prosecution a^nst her 
brother's murderer* To this she con*; 
sents. The King pronounjces the pardo^ 
of Ortiz, I , but, the }u4g©s loMdly M3at>Q»r 
Hlrate agjain^t jia^h ji^ . pix>Qeed^Kkg^ and 
at length extont JrpiBb tl^ King the ooii^ 
fess^ o^ the murder .h^^Yiflg beeii eom« 
i^i^ttf d^t^ hi^ ii^ig^.tiaik £$ treUa, prcssr 
cjfJjjy.th&iKing.t^ 9)a^y 39)3<?ho Ortiz; 
y^k^e )8ihe ; ac^iao wle<i^ges : her love for 
^im, is umable to overcome her repug- 
n^^Q^ at seeing the man who murdered 
her brother at h<^^ bed and board, en^ 
m^^^y w cut^^l and obstinately persiHts 
in her r^fuisfiL This conduct prod aces. 



•A^ - - 



J rrr v^c' 



/ 



174 

an exclamation of wonder at tHe heroic 
qualities of the Sevilians from all pre-* 
sent, except the Gracioso, who observer, 
that to him theiy all appear mad. 

Whether we agree with him in this 
judgment, or with the King, who, after 
promising to procure a great match for ^* 
Estrella, compliments the author on the 
poem, and thinks the subject worthy to 
be written on tablets of brass, we can- 
not but acknowledge that there are ma- 
ny situations in the play truly tragic^ 
that it excites great interest in the per- 
usal, and is calculated to produce yet 
greater effect upon the stage. 

In the revived, as in the original play, 
the vigour of the composition is exhaust- 
ed in the second act; and after the death 
of Bustos, and the disappointment of 
Estrella, the interest flags, for the events, 
though ingeniously conducted, seem 
comparatively insipid* This fault, how- 
ever great, Lope has in common with 



175 

many oiP the most admired authors. It 
is, in this instance, a natural conse- 
quence of the great beauty of the se- 
cond act. A more spirited or more in- 
teresting dialogue than that between 
the King and Sancho can scarce be 
found on any theatre; and Estrella's 
eager expectation of the bridegroom, as 
well as her sanguine prospects of hap- 
piness, which form so strong a contrast 
with her subsequent calamities, are ad- 
mirably conceived; and though the sen- 
timents, as well as the frequent recur- 
rence of the same verse at the end of 
the period, may be somewhat too lyrical 
for representation, there is much natural 
expression, as well as poetical language 
and invention, in the course of that 
scene. 

On the whole this play may be coa-^ 
sidered -as a favourable specimen of 
Lope's art, of conducting a plot, and the 
more so, as it derives no assistance from 
the operation of jealousy ; a passion^ 



176 

wliich he, and after him all Spuikh 
dramatic writers, seem to think essential 
in a composition for the stage, as well 
as sufficient to explain any absurdity, 
and warrant any outrage. It is indeed 
a received maxim in their country, as 
well as on their theatre, that love can- 
not exist without jealousy. But Lope 
does not conclude, from such premises, 
that the passions are inseparable. Jea- 
lousy, in his plays, often exists where 
there is no affection, and, what seems 
yet more singular, often precedes and 
produces love. To excite love in one 
woman, the most efficacious philtre, ac- 
cording to these doctors, is to become 
enamoured of another. By a natural 
consequence, that passion has more 
particles of pride than of tenderness in 
its composition, and the lover's chief 
gratification consists in ascertaining 
the power they possess over each oUier. 
These prepo&terous principles pervade 
iall his plays ; but are more prevalent in 



||lft3^ K^,»\jI)p(Osed to aspire .tp th^ cji»? 
f»pXex^ pf ,itragj5dies., lo the latter there 
h ge^px9(\\y. plot, enough to form si. least 
fpiHf .^Iftys : oa »uy otb^r. theatre ; of 
:wbich thp Fmrza lastimosa is a striking 
iDstaiiQe ; as yf^ell as of th^ great venera- 
tion in wjiicb Lope's plays were lieI4 -by 
^ coot^mi^qrariesi Many,»'ere. repjpe^ 
sep^d wltb gr^at success in Italy, but 
I;li)i9;,ha4 t^e lingular hqnour of beiog 
(5:^hibite4. wiAicL t^e wsiU* of the serar 
^|ig at,Cq»sfa^ti?^op^ef._Spl3^,^9e^e8 
^(^unded.. oi| a..4orx.*mi% t<i,3tj^.^ 

3^/g;lvetip ^^^9pss us. .pot, however* the 
gene?;^ i?|}^factpr oif JUjpe'f^wQd^ctions^ 

m^^ PW l|ay,ea|:uture opportw^ity of 
s^^frii^,. tb,at vk tlia-t respec|t^^..^U.as 

^^— »it»— "^ I II ■ I ■ ■ I I I ^^tm>^^ 

I ^ I J ■ . : . ; V - .'■>•..'••. i •♦■ ♦ ^- -■--•. >, 



/ 



17» 

otheiBy Guillen de Csstro bean a mue^ 
stronger resemblance to Otway* 

In Lope's comedies, the firequency of 
duels, and the constant recurrraice of 
disguises, have drawn upon him the 
censure of the critics, who argue from 
thence a defect in his talents both of 
observation and invention. There not 
only appears a want of variety in such 
artifices, but the artifices themselves are 
alleged to be of a nature too extrava* 
gant to warrant such fiiequent repeti* 
lions. The answer to such objections is 
to be found in the memoirs and histo^ 
lies of the times. It is not my purpose 
to enter into a discussion which would 
more properly be reserved for an ao 
count of Calderon's writings ; but it is 
cotain, that if the Spanish poets ad- 
mitted more violent incidents into their 
comedies than the writers of the present 
age, the common state of society was 
also more open to the intrusion pf sur<- 



m 

prising adventures* We have learnt 
from the stage to consider many con* 
trivances as theatrical, which the thea- 
tre itself borrowed from the actual oc* 
currences of life. Al any rate, neither 
Lope nor Calderon himself will be 
found to have abused the advantages 
which the cloak and sword, the basquina 
and mantilla*, supplied, so much as our 
writers of Charles the Second's time ex- 
aggerated the facility afforded to the 
accomplishment of improbable designs 
by the prevalent fashion of masks. It 
is true, that from the frequent exhibi- 
tion of such adventures, the theatre was 
accused of instructing the^anish pub- 
lic in those arts of intrigue w:hicb it 
professed to copy from their practice. - 
Calderon almost pleads guilty to the 
charge, since one of his characters, on 
being the dupe of a disguise,^ exclaims; 

* The Teil and WaQung-dress of u Spanish woman. 

N 2 



\ 



V 

V 



180 



• • • • • 



• •JMEalhiibicflBa 
Las coniedias que enstfaroa 
EngBScs ten aparaites* 

Fhgue on our comedies, which shewed the ease 
Wiih wUch {he woiU m^t practise tridci like these ! 

To prevent sucli evil consequences, 
or with some view equaUy absurd, the 
government is said for a time to have 
prohibited all Lope's plays, and to have 
Confined the exercise of his talents by a 
royal injunction to the composition of 
sacred dramas-f** This circumstance ren- 
ders the government, as well as the taste 
of the times,' accountable for the choice 
of subjects, so unsuitable to representa-^ 
tion as the lives of saints, and perform*^ 
ance of miracles* They are indeed truly 
ridiculous. In the Animal profeta, St. 
Julian, after having plotted the murder 
of his wife, and actually accomplishing 
that of his father and mother, enters in- 
to a controversy with the Devil, as to the 

* CaMeroqu JKm vmgas wui, d vmgas fvb. 
f PeUicer. 



181 

possibtlitj of being sared ; and when 
Jesns Christ descends from heaiFen to 
efiect a miracle for that purpose in hia 
£atvour^ the DeviU with much logical 
lu^ecision, alleges such mercy to be a 
bleach of the original contract between 
him and the Almighty. He insinuates^ 
indeed, that if he cannot reckon upon 
a parricide, he may as "well give over his 
business in souls, as there is no appear* 
ance of &ir . dealing in the trade. The 
mysteries of religion ari^ so^ietimes 'disr 
cassed by his characters, and much po-* 
lemical divinity is to be found in his 
dialogues. The birth, the passion, the 
crucifixion of Christ are 

«<— oculis subjecfa fiddibus.— 

The Virgin, and even tlie Almighty, 
are aittoog his dramatis personae; the 
resurrection of a dead man is no un* 
usual incident, and the forgiveness of 
fiins futmshes a fortunate conclusion 
for more than one of his tragedies. 



182 

Id addition to these skcrifices of taste 
and judgment to public piety, he wrote, 
several Autos Sacramentaksj allegorical 
dramas on the mysteries of rdigicm. 
This species of representation cohtinu* 
ed popular in Spain till die middle c^ 
the last century. There is scarce a 
poet of any note in their language, 
who has not employed his pen on these 
subjects ; and for the disgusting absur- 
dities which abound in them. Lope 
could plead as many precedents as he 
famished. It was difficult foe him to 
divest any of his writings of aO poetical 
merit ; and in his Autos, the patience 
which could wade through such nonsense 
would no doubt be occasionally reward* 
ed with some striking passages. Hiey 
are not, however, so celebrated as those 
of many other authors, and I believe 
that the greater number of them, for 
he composed some hundreds, are lost* 
There are still extant, in addition to the 
autos and plays ascribed to him, innu* 



183 

xnerable Enirimeses^ or interludes^ and 
in the few I have read there is no defi- 
ciency of humour or merriment. In- 
deed, there is always some sprightUnesSi 
and often much invention, in his come-? 
dy. The French and English writers 
are indebted to him for some of their 
most successful productions; and the 
outline of an excellent comedy is often 
faintly delineated in an episode or a 
scene of Lope. To him Comeille 
ascribes the Sospechosa verdad, which he 
acknowledges to be the original of the 
Menteur. But Voltaire, who is more 
diligent in his literary reseitrches jthan 
tho^e, who, because they possess not 
his wit, think they h^ve a right to mis- 
trust his learning, are disposed to allow, 
implies a doubt of the fact*. Such au* 
thority is npt lightjy to be disputed, 
especially 99 it seepis to be confirmed 
by no such Qame occurring in any lijst 



w\U ■ 



■* Notes on Corndlle's Menteiu:. • 



184 

of Lope's productions. The MelMbr^ 
M, the Azero de Madrid^ the Esektva 
de $u geUan^ la Bella mal maridada^ at 
well as many others, have in part been 
imitated, su)d are among the best of hia 
eomedies. Those, however, of a more 
anomalous description, where there ia 
more elevation in the main characters^ 
and nearly as much distress as merri^ 
ment in the action^ excite a more lively 
interest in the perusal. Humour is, at 
best, formed of very perishable mate* 
rials. Sonie author remarks, that man* 
kind laugh in various ways, but always 
cry in the same. The truth of that ob- 
servation is strongly illustrated in the 
history of the theatre. Scarce a season 
passes without producing several suc-^ 
cessful pieces of humour; yet, after 
some years are gone by, how few bear 
a revival! There is less variety, bat 
there, iis more permanence, in works of 
which an interesting plot forms the ba- 
sis. AccQrdiSQgly, many of this des^yip-^ 



id5 

tiotk (for Ldpe abounds in tliem) have 
been lately revived with considerable 
success at Madrid. Such are the Her* 
m>sd feaj lo Cierto par lo dudoso^ &c. 
&c. It is almost unnecessary to repeat, 
thM innone x)f these are the unities of 
time preserved. This violation of rules 
incurred the censure of the French cri- 
tics at a very early period ; and has 
been condemned with yet greater rigour 
by the Spanish writers during the last 
century. Boileau no doubt alludes to 
the Phoenix of Spain when he says r 

Un lioieaT sans p^ril au-cleUxles Pjrin^es 

Siir k seine en ua jour renfenne des annuSoB* 
La souyent le h^ros d'un spectack grassier, 
Enfiint au premier acte, est barbon au dernier. 

Art Poeiique^ 

The Spanish bard, vfho no nice censure fears, 
In one sfiort day includes a lapse of years. 
In those rode acts the hero fires so fiist, 
CbUd ufL ihe, first, he's gieybeard in the last. 

That such should be the judgment of 
Boileau is not extraordinary; but a 



186 

Spaniard of considerable eloquence ^^ 
editor of Cervantes^ plays^ lays aH tbesa 
extravagancies to the charge of Lope» 
terms him the corrupter of the theatre^ 
and endeavours to prove that the yet 
more extravagant tragedies, to which 
the dissertation is prefixed^ were design* 
ed as burlesque satires upon his compo* 
sitions* In this whimsical theory he is 
indeed as unsupported by authority as 
by reason ; but though no critics follow 
his opinion in this respect, they all con* 
cur with him in anathematizing the irre- 
gulaiity of Lope's theatre. ^^ We must 
not look inhis comedies,^' says Velasquez^ 
^^ for the unities of action, time, or place; 
his heroes come into the world, walk 
about it, thrive in it, grow old, and die. 
They wander like vagabonds from East 
to West, and North to South ; he flies 
with them through the air to fight bat- 
tles in one place, and make love in an- 
other; sometimes they turn monks, some- 

♦ Nasarre. 



times they die, and even after death they 
Occasionalij perform miracles on the 
stage. One scene is in Flanders, another 
in Italy, Spain, Mexico, or Africa. His 
lacqueys talk like courtiers, and his 
kings like pimps; his principal ladies 
are women without education, breeding, 
or decorum. His actors enter like le« 
Tie». in battalions, or in squadrons. It 
is not unusual to sec twenty-four or 
thirty dramatis persons, or even sev^d^t 
ty, as in the Bautismo del princtpe de 
Fezy where, because these did not seem 
enough for him, he throws in a proces- 
sion by way of bonHe boucke/' Lu^an, 
the most temperate and judicious of 
their critics, dwells on the same topics; 
but, like Andres, asserts that the total 
disregard of decorum, the little differ-^ 
ence preserved in the character and 
language of the prince and the peasant^ 
the noble and the plebeian, is a yet 
heavier charge, and one which no bar* 
niony of verse nor eloquence of Ian* 



188 

goage can possibly counterbalance. Tbe 
Utility of such censures eyeiy reader oB 
Sbakspeare has ielt, and JohnscMi in hia 
preface most admirably exposed. Were 
the <jiaracten of Lope's dramas as 
strongly conceived, and as well preserr-- 
ed, lie might set the shafts of such cri*-. 
tics at defiance ; but though he is not 
utterly ignorant of that great object of 
kis art, the ddineation of human cfaa^ 
facter, nor by any means destitute of 
tibe faculties necessary to attain it, he 
neithar possessed the genius of our in^ 
imitafole poet, nor was he so attontiTe 
to the icultivation of that particular ta* 
knt. Ni^vertheless, traits of nature are 
often to be found in his plays, and he 
seems to have aimed at great variety of 
cfaacacters; but they are faintly traced^ 

out the piece. His plan admitted of 
greater perfection in this respect^ than 
that of mosit of his immediate £[^owas» 
His lovers are not always a class apart» 



IS9 

iidr his in>men constaotijr and ex:clui> 
diirely actuated by the same passiona 
operating in the sanu^ forms. He is^ 
however, answerable for the introduce 
t^on of acharaxrter, which in all Spankh 
plays* hi the same person under diffismnt 
names, vi2. the Gracioso. This iikno- 
vation, if it is indeed to be ascribed, to 
him, must be acknowledged to be an 
abuse, and not an imprdvement. Tlie 
Francesilla* is said to be the first play in 
which he is introduced. Lope not oniy 
wrote but performed the part of such 
a bulEbon at Valencia in 15999 on the 
celebration of Philip the Third's nup- 
tials*^. This circumstance may have colv* 
tributed. to mislead. Voltaire, who has 
met with most unmerciful and dispro^ 
portionate ridicule from the Spanish 
editors, for having alleged Lope to 
have been an actor. They ought to 
ha^re known that such an assertion was 

■ >> II jll I I I I i ■ . ■■!«> 1 ^ I I ^— >— hW<i^ 

* Pellicer'8 Notes to Cerrantes. 

f Continua^n of Mariana*8 History. 



190 

not entirely void of foundaticm. He 
who writes of foreign litenrtnie is liable 
to trivial mistakes; and whether the 
above quoted fact, or a conftision of 
Lope de Rneda the founder of the 
Spanish theatre, who was reaUy an actor, 
with Lope de Vega, misled the French 
critic, the fact is in either case to his 
purpose, as £ur as it proves that authors 
who are accustomed to act are likely to 
encourage by their example irregularity 
and extravagance in theatrical compo* 
sitions. Till Voltaire appeared, there was 
no nation more ignorantof itsneighbours' 
literature than the French. He first ex* 
posed; and then corrected, this neglect 
in hb countrymen. There is no writer 
to whom the authors of other nations, 
especially of England, are so indebted 
for the extension of their fame in France, 
and, through France, in Europe* There 
is no critic who has employed more 
time, wit, ingenuity, and diligence in 
promoting the literary intercourse be- 



191 

fweeti country and country, and in ce- 
lebrating in one language the triumphs 

» 

of another. Yet, by a strange fatality^ 
he is constantly represented as the ene- 
my of all literature but his own; and 
Spaniards, Englishmen, and Italians, 
vie with each other in inveighing against 
his occasional exaggeration of fa:Ulty 
passages ; the authors of which, till he 
pointed out their beauties, were scarce 
known beyond the cbuntry in which 
their language was spoken. Those who 
feel such indignation at his misrepresen- 
tatiom and mistakes, would find it diffi. 
. cult to produce a critic in any modem 
language, who in speaking of foreign 
literature is bfetter informed or more 
candid than Voltaire; and they certain* 
ly never would be able to discover one, 
who to those qualities unites so much 
sagacity and liveliness. His enemies 
would hin persuade us th^t such exube- 
rance of wit implies a want of informal 
tumyhvitthey oply succeed in shewing 



fkat a wast of wit byna meaiito iiD]4icA 
an exuberonce of informatioa.' If*4ia 
mdnlges liis prt>peaiatj taridical4^ia'^k^' 
posing the abBnrdities of the Spaniril 
stage, he makes ample amends hj' ti> 
knowledging that it is foil of saUima 
passages, and not deficient in infceresting 
scenes. He allows the Spanish poet| 
fulPetedit fbr their origioalitj, and ae* 
knowledges them to* have been 'Cbfs^ 
ndllc^s masten, Ihoa^ muck e«iditd 
by their disciple* He objects, indeed^ 
ta^ the baffoonery of many of ^Xhen* 
scenes ; and the Gnu^oso xxjA^tmx^l^^ 
ofl^d a critic who had less right to* ImL 
ftstidioasthan tiie aathM* of Ifahomet 
and of ZanL That prepostetous pcnoo^ 
age not only interlards tlie most inters* 
esting scenes with the grosseM baffoon^ 
eries, but, assuming the ampfailMOiift 
character of spectator and: a<^r, at oaa^ 
time intefrupts with his remarks die 
performance, of which he forms ^n ei^ 
sential 4Hit ^ery defeetiire • psM kr 'tfi^* 



193 

Otl|ier»;{ Ifa^semBB, indeed^ invented to 
9|kve the codscience of the author, who 
after any extravagant hyperbole puts a 
C^n&iire en* ridicule of it in the mouth of 
his: buffoon, apd thereby hopes to disarm 
the critic, or at least to record his own 
consciousness and disapprobation of the 
pjeuisage. This critical acumen is the 
only estimable quality of the Gracioso. 
His strictuires on the conduct of the 
cbsraoters, the sentiments, expressions, 
9^d even the metre, are generally just, 
tibtoitgh they would better become the 
pit than the stage* In other respects 
be is uififormly a designing, cowardly^ 
interested knave: but Lope found his 
account in the preservation of this cha» 
jracter, and was happy to reconcile the 
public tp an invention so convenient to 
^e poet. As any topic could be intro- 
dii^d in this part, he was thus ^enabled 
to fill up whole scenes with any verses 
he might have by him ready composed: 
new wa9 this all; at the conclusion of ji 



194 

complicated plot, Trhen the author is 
unable to extricate himself from the 
embarrassmeDts he has created, in any 
probable manner, the bufFoon steps for- 
ward^ cuts the Gordian knot, explains 
away the difficulty, discloses the secret, 
and decides upon the fate and maniages 
of all who are present. His oracles, 
•like those of fools in some courts, are 
looked upon as inspired; and rivals who 
had been contending during the whole 
play, . acquiesce without a murmur in 
his decisions. In addition to this merit he 
•gives Lope a frequent opportunity of 
displaying his talents for sprightly and 
burlesque poetry; in which, as I have 
"remarked before, he Was most uniformly 
successful* As a specimen of the ge- 
neral style of his part in the dialogue, 
I subjoin Julio's defence of his mast^*, 
who, in the Hermosa fea, had affected 
to be insensible to the chardis of the- 
duchioss of Lorrain : 



-196 

Jjjuo y Ceua. 
Jul. Un mal gusto es fundamento 

De que le pare^ca asi 

Faera de ser cosa liana, 

Que no hay disputa en los gustos. 
CeL Si, pero gustos injustos 

Hacen la razon viilana^ 
JiiL Hamhves hay, que un dia escuio 

Para salir apd;eceii, 

Y el fiol heimoso aborrecen 
Quando sale claro y puro. 
Hombres, que no pueden ver 
Cosa dulce, y comerdn 
Una cebolla sin pan, 

Que no hay mas que encarecer ; 
HomiMeffen Indias -cafia4o6 
Coo bhiiqiusinias mugeres 
De estr^oaadoB paracer^ 

Y & SU8 n^pras inclinados. 
Unos'que mueien por dar 
Qunato en su vida tuvieron ; 

Y otros que en su vida di^mi 
Smo es ehojo, y pesar; 
Machos duermen todo el dia 

> Ytoda.lanocherelan; 

Y muchos que se desvelan 
En una eterna porfia 

De amar sola una muger; 

Y otro que como aya tocas 
Dos milles parecen pocas 
Para^mpiezar a querer 

O 2 



id6 

' t^o den de aer liennoBa ^-Z 

Par tm fiidl,giulO|^-&c. &c« 

,: : ' - ... - 

Julio an3L Cjblia. - 

JU. JBad tasfe— 4iiit *t V9s allowed long rinoep. 

That tasfta of BO dkpafe admit. 
Gsl. Bat^ when so bad as in your prinoe^ 

The want of taste shews want of wiC 

Mm Why men theie aie in cloudy days^ 

l¥hb,spiieof rain, idrnjadwiOlioam; 

Who hale the son's all-cheediq; ngfi^ 

. ibdwha'tisfiiiewillniopeathioine; ., 

' Mmtoo1ftemaicwilolafltlivhat%Mn^\ 

What lie file nio$t fli^ idish kas^ 

They withont bread their onions eat,. 

And deem the sorry meal a feasts; 

' • ' ' ' '\ '^ 

Spaniaiiis in India thene hare beeUf 

Who to their wives eztienid[y dack^ 

Haw Ioedt*d c fl^ snd soowy sUi^ :' ' ' 

And sii^4 inarcqA Ar ail^ipk;^ 

Some withont cause theksdMahoegiTev '-' 

S^nmder away ttiehr time and peneo ; 
Othos give ncf^jivg while they liv^ 

Buttrooble, nmbiage, anddflbice; 

• • •• » 

Some deqp by day, and watch by nigfat; . 
Some to one nymph their fife devofe^ ' 



; . 



V, 



1 1 



r I 



197 

Oihm their feitti itAAtHty pBgKC 
To all who wear tlie j^etticdi^. 



. Then, that one man her charms decries^ 
ShouUI give the l)eauteous dame no care; 
Because my master wants his eyes. 
Your mbtress sure b not less fidr. 

Such thoughte and language are no 
doubt more suited to an epigrammatic 
song than to a dialogue in a play» It has 
often appeared to me/ that the frequent 
recurrence of antithesis on the Spanish 
stage .tras a natural txmsequiaip^ of' the 

short verses, in which most of their old 

' ' ' - . •- 

scenes are composf^d. As the public 
are extremely partial to that metre, 
which is^ nearly the same as that of the 
old ballads or rom^yices, ^nd as they 
think it peculiarly adapted to Tecitation, 
a stranger should speak with great di£l«- 
dence in his own judgm^it, when it is 
at variance Avith the Spaniards on such 
a subject; but it is certain that such 
dialogues as contain most points, are 



198 

* 

those which are best received on th«r 
»tage ; and few couplets in that metre 
are quoted with approbatton bj theii* 
critics, but such as abound in antithesis, 
or such as are contessedly of a nature 
too lyrical for representation. The love 
of epigram may have rendered a metre 
peculiarly favourable to it, popular; 
but, from the history of their poetry, I 
am inclined to believe that the epigram 
rather owes its popularity to the culti-* 
vation of a metre, which, when the lan« 
guage is somewhat refined, becomes io* 
sipid without it. Such short pauses are 
evidently more calculated for the ex<» 
pression of wit than of passion. Hence 
it is not unusual for the characters of 
Lope, when placed in embarrasdng 
situations, and wavering between the 
most violent and opposite affections, to 
express their wishes, describe their feel-- 
iligB, and justify their conduct in a long 
string of reasoning epigrams ; of which 



^1^: logic. IS ]K>t very cooviacmg, and 
the wit evidently misplaced* The most 
preposterous metaphors are, in such 
casesi, tak^i in their literal sebse ; and 
the poetical jargon,^ more offensively hy- 
perbolical in Spanish than in any . other 
^European language, employed in scho- 
lastic forms of dispute, as if it were 
composed of terms logically precipe* 
Lope indeed seems not to have been ig- 
norant of the dangers, to which these 
shpTt numbers e?:posed him. He ac-^ 
cordingly assumed the privilege of vary- 
ing them as he pleased ; but he wanted 
either leisure or judgment to bring his 
plan to perfection. He has laid dowii 
some xules on* this subject in the Arte^ df 
haciP Comedias ; but as he has: neither 
abided by < them himself, . nor alleged 
any ^reason &)r his opinions; and sine^ 
tbey^ aii& as jsiich at variance with coiht 
iDon criticism^ as with his own practice; 



too 

I4w idaciones piden Iob romanoes ; 
AmiqiK. e» odavas lao«> por (kbemoi 






>» 



* • 



In ienJine stages AoqU waiUng grief be snewn ; ^ ^ 
-* Tli6 «oimet sidte a nutti ^hd s{Makfr akn^; ' . *- > 

. Ii< ifajp iprirtioii few in 

^ Thoagfa raiH:hatakmcopioii8<xte?eBsli]iie8; 

^ Gnmd weighty thooglils the triplet shoald contain ; 



. . I , . ... ^. ; . ^ J . • ' : » 



' In tli^Bse, the'^heroio verse (whi<^ ib 
Spanish, as'in Itafian, is «f five fteti 
mdjgeaeially catBpoBtd <»f'€levtiir}syli 
tables) is liot mentiofned : yH he otikk 
emj^oyed it for deelamaticm as wdiai 
fyr description in the first scenes of kia 
plajs; and being a rhjthok, better lad^ 
apted to'ti^agedj, it'seldom^feite^ to 



901 

tm a^}on£» nmm niajastic tad:«ri9l43 
simple. The dialogue in Carlos el Per- 

seguidoy^ HfkicW i» jchieAy^eoiidocted iu 
long ihetre, preserves all the rfigmty of 
tragedy^ ^Q^5 fMS it has the advantage of 
a very interesting: plet^ is amooig the 
most valaafole of his plays. He. does 
not, I^Qw^BVf^rj^ confine himself to one or 
two variations of ver^ ; but though he 
is allowed to be a great master of bar« 
mony, iu aJl^ he generally prefers th^ 
numbers .wJbiQh.6e«in.4Qvente^ fc^ lyfic 
rather than dramatic composition. In 
tiiesev bis * sjyj^ ii. always i flpweTy t^d 
poatic^lf agd/ hi^ j l^ougbts, too often 
ftpeedb *pwiitural$ m4 r^^^»y^^^ 
Wh^m0X siijgular c^^iumstaflce att^n^r 
mg bis verse is the frequency and di&r 
^ty of >j^ jasks which he^ imposes on 
itWdsellc : At tvety step we ^ meet with 
mro(^ici9 tokn^. ^nd compositions c^ 
that perverted but laborious kind, from 



202 

attmptsng which another author irotM 
be deterred by the trouble of the uih 
dertaking) if not by the Uttle-real merit 
attending the achievement. They, re-^ 
qoite no genius, but they exact much 
time; which one should think that such 
ft voluminous poet could ^little afford to 
waste* But Lope made a parade of Ms 
power over the vocabulary ; he was not 
contented with displaying the various 
order in which he could dispose the syl- 
lables and Aiarshal the rhymes of his 
language, but he also prided himself 
upon the celerity with which he brought 
them to go through the most whimsical 
but the most difficult evolutions. He 
seems to have been partial to difficul- 
ties, for the gratification of surmount^ 
iDg them. 

The sonnet, which, of a short com* 
position, is that which requires the 
greatest command of rhyme, harmony^ 
and language, seems to have be^i- his 



203 

fet^arite'etiijplbyittettt Thet-e are few of 
his plays which do not contain three or 
four of these little poems; many of them 
have gre^t merit as sonnets, though they 
are surely tnisplaced in the mouth of an 
actor. In the Nina de Plata, the cele- 
brated sonnet to Violante is very hap- 
pily introduced; but it is there recited 
by the Gracioso as a poetical effusion. 

Un soneto me manda hacer Violante ; 
Que en mi vida me lia visto en tanto aprieto ; 
Catorce versos dicen que es soneto; 
Buria burlando, van los ties delante ; 
Yo pense que no hallara consonante, 

Y estoy a la mitad de otro quarteto ; 
Mas si mi veo ^i el primer terceto ; 

Que hay cosa en los quaxtetos que me espante 
En el primer terceto voy entrando 

Y me parece que entre con pie dereclio, 
Pues fin con esto verso le voy dando ; 

y a estoy en el secunik), y aun sospeeho 
Que voy los trece versos acabando ; 
Contad si son catorce — ^Ya esta hecbo. 

This has been imitated or translated 
in all languages. In Italian, I believe, 
by Marino ; in French, by Voiture and 




:>U/ 



ti 



?j. 



264 

author of Canons of Cri^eytii *=:''- 

Capricbiis Wtdy a soimc^ heeds must tiave ; * '^ 
. >I ne^er was s^ put toi-t befiiien-Hi iidta6lt^ > 
Why y $>urtee9i Terses mqfit be. «pmt fipoi^ it.;, 
Tis good, however, I Ve conquer'd the first ^aye. 
Tet I shall ne^er find rhjrmes encmgh by haU^i 
Said I, and found myself in the kiidst l)f ibe ^ecoti^i 
If twice Ibur vecses were but fiurly veel^m'd , ^ \ 
I should turn back on the hardest part^ and laugh^ ^ 
"^ trhus far with good success I think I Ve »cribbled^ ' 
' And of twice seven lines have dear gdt dVlitMk. ^ ' 
; Cowige.! Motherllfinisli the fir)rt ti^et^ 
Thanks to themuse^ my^ ^^^ begins tp^shortepj^^^ , 
There^s thirteen fines got through, driblet t)y d^blet^ 
' Tist^cme r ebmit how you wiB^^ I warrant fli^4 
^ \; ;&urtf«iu., :. ; .^; ,,; •.,..--.. . 7 tJ. j 

To iB»»y ;of Uisipliiyd l»afe& pre$«^ 
ix^ei^i a speeies df prologti^, in ^boirl 
verse; on which some roaxini. coiipetDti* 
ed with the play is getnerf^Hy enforoeil; 
or some apposite story rdated^i Th^ 
merit of the most laboured parts of his 
lijtgedies^ consists chiefly io exuberanim 
of images ; and, as most Spanish criticft 



^ Vide Appendix. 



^^gfhSk^ the -parity t»f flftBg^^ei J .but 
they ar» .of^ii too , lyric^ .for the exr 
pressioQ of natural pi^ssion^.and more 
calculated to raise our admiratioa for 
the poie^t^ tiiaii to excite compassion for 
the character. This remark admits of 
ea^HceptioQS ; and from the passages al- 
ready qtaoted in the course of this wotk, 
thjB reader might infer the criticism to 
be too geseral : there is^ however, sel- 
dom much originality in those tragic 
sentiments K^hich he expresses, simply, 
^'liateyer was noble he thonght. should 
be gorgeously arrayed; and it was only 

i^d&i^ eardlefesiiess, or^ from ignorance of 
l«s merit, idiat ^ be left any p^ithetie 
tiftmghl to strike by its genuine beauty* 
^Ihe fdHowldg lines, takea from one of 
his moi^tililepestisg plays, oontaan just 
tbbiigbts; b^t^^^l^ as w^uM occur to 
most ^dthtxrs, in painting the feelings ctf 



' ' ' . . . , V • 



\ 



. 206 • 

Jfai0'» jQoe rigor, que. cai<%D de Iqb cUds 
Me causatal pesar, tales desTeks? 
^Quien mi yida condena 
A tan lafaiosa y dihtada pqia? 
Ko baBo parte segura, 
Sosi^gD en yano d alma ya procnia 
£ii el gostoy &i la mesa, hasta an d sueno, 
He nn de8coiiBDda.im otio me despena, 
La dcsdic|ia mayor caijga en am hcmbnw 
Donde qniera que yoy encuentro asombros. 
Esto cs reynar ? Para esto, Slaur^ato, 
£1 leyno adqnianB oan.aieye trato? 
Peio que iiApcNFta d-oetfo la grandasai 
Donde ya piedamina esta tristeza. 
O que descanso d alma le apercibe 
Sla oonciencui IniJ segnm viye! 

What wrath of Heaycn, what unielenting powers . 
Conjure fresh griefi,' ihyade my peaceful hours 
^Witk cam and fears, and doom my life to flow 
Li <vie IcHig cunent of incieasing woe ? 
In yain from thought my troubled soul would fly ; 
No rest, no refuge in this world haye I ; 
fii yain the sport I ply, the feast prepare. 
Grief tieads on jprief, and caie aocoeeda to caie ; • 
Nor joy my sp<Hts, nor mirth attends my board ; , 
Nor sleep itself a respite can afibrd. 
'Stffl at each turn, at some new fiend I start. 
And grief, fizt grief, ats heayy at my heart. 



207 

Is this to be a Idiig, is this to Yei^ ? 
Did I for this, by fraud, by treason, gain 
The sceptred pomp ? Aks! the prize how HiiaQ, 
If tyrant sadness lords it over alii ' 

Care chases. sleep>„ an4 thought aJt rest 4is{iel% 
From soute where ever-wakeful conscience clwells. 



It is, however, in the • more 
part of the dialogue, which is conduct- 
ed in short speeches, that the natu^ 
ral sentiments most ^friequently. occur; 
though they are often preceded or ifoL- 
lowed by some 4ttibble :so puerile, or 
some metaphor so ektravagaut, as entire- 
ly fo destroy their effect A simple exr 
pression of grief, tenderness, or indignar 
tion drops' unnoticed from the moutb^ 
an actor who ha& been turning points 6n 
carnations and roses, proving, in pun«- 
ning syllogisms the blessing of deaths 
or refining with scholastic learning 
on the duties of revenge. Sophocles 
modestly asserted that his most finisiied 
piece, we« composed of the crumbs 
that had fallen from the table of Ho- 



206 

mcr; hnt thdte {^emd tliey am^aotn few) 
who have fed on the leavings of $]jwiniil| 
writen, have ran away with tliM^i^rjopHitl 
valuable part of the feast, and pfofited 
as much from the bad taste as frcnn the 
profiifiion of their masters. In Lofie's 
dialogue there is a etrGumstasce wc«rthy 
of "(^sGrvatioft ; because,. UaKNigh either 
unknown or empk)ded on the Frendb 
and £ng]ish stages, it seems to have 
been as general on the Spanish as; the 
G«eek theatre^ and has been sanctioiied 
in^nodevn times bj the <»aaipfe of Me^ 
tastasi^w This is a combat of aenii*^ 
tttttits or opinions^ carrieil cm by tm» 
characters, in which an^ equal number 
af verses is allotted tot ea^ dispatattt; 
the speeches are short, and- each is a^ 
$peeiesiof ^ parody on the preceding, re^^ 
echoing noun for noun, .and ivc^b for 
vseirby witb the. roost mioDle precisieit, 
"She torigin^ of this invention may ym^ 
bably be learnt &001 the comm^ntanrs 






909 
9h t}ie aaitii^t Qid(>g«Mi^ ^n^MStfti it is «» 

S^AailifdS) ' the genial pxeimteoee €f 
scfaolnsliG e^hicatian i^&d^k^ it& adof^ 
tim easy to tiie poets, arid agMeiable t^ 
1^ a«dleiiee ; mid it aKSccH-dftii^y 19 &e* 
qmnt]y canied: on ia the let ms of logic^ 
^d cQQsiats in ^e €QftTef»iaii.aQdr]i»n 
nv^iba cif a fiVDp^siti^n, withr the aid c^ 
fl^ioa p}^ tipoa a word taken m v^ajrieua 
^ensesk ^Meta^staaio: found. ^.i^a^aai^ 
^t fi>r pff^r«i«m9g ^ Wnutmo oinv^Bs^^ 
lilach migh^ eia«i^ be set to musw^aad 
«h$9Ugho«r Ms. wqrHs shmiIi dt^logiwa 
^; wQce l^incal^ tl^ao epigj^amoiatk^ 
Th««t e^ifect on^'tiie Spanish plaj^ is^ not; 
jtoi Ibrtioxate ?« tlmy ^abound, ind^, ioi 
point, imt are. often^ de£i«i<fcol; i«t poettry*. 
They may praduoe strong, but se]4oih> 
j;i»l<$6ntiaionltei in tibte saxae spiiit,, l>til;r 
uri^ better »(ieces$9 Lope, in some.of hiai 
plays^ introdu!C68f towards the c^nola^ 

p 



um, rtffna iMig tipeedhto ;^iiiE vlddbi«ilMii 
priiictfial'<^ametms uig&>^car inretim? 
iUHis, Justify i^ixu motives;- . ao^ 5 <i W K B t 
bat each other's argiiiB<^^ h^oml^M^ 
mistress, tbeir- ooooarcbt. oi^^. sxHBei.ios^ 
CiDtilled to. dedde .thc»r ccMBtestj; -f.n* 
Sueb .scenes are not we}l ladaptod <lo 
nepr&sentation, tbou^: they <^aj|99 4^l| 
ic^lete with urit, and ; ^11. of ^nin^ioiC 
Gorntille, who suipassetji L<i|ke iii-aU.*^ 
t«ltu»ts- necessary to give etf'tfet.to /»«Oti 
passages, whose bwnsts of .ekxqwi^oejffflj 

perhi^ un^quaUed ia^i9od§tmiiili^t^# 
i|s .oftea opal^e to oxeAtetQ^ritfitQrNldif 

tibese contentions* inofQ«^»iM Ub:^^ 
fenun than the •.sta@9,> aDdij9l<lwi4^ 
rather in pthilosopbi^ jF6ft^gtip«s|j#A4 
exalted seatiaoeol^, th^Mi ini^fi.M^ ¥(^ 
character and natui;al^piewHKP.pftpfi93 
sion. .But-CotneiUe^'in tfaei^.spffeQlies, 
which be. too modesdy termd 'ftJea^Mlgfb 
has .<mly exohanged ^e. cbar<MSter);^rA 
^attimgic poet fw that ofan.wgiin 



filt 

« 

iiiiiiifyiiv snick plilbiHqdi^iotsk^r^ :^» 

^H^melit .^f 'aKlm seetns only to <cotv& 
^ iftirce «f: bis argiite^tig^/ aad 

tions. It^ifr ik>t so >With iLope de ¥«gtt.^ 
ile tv«0 ti^itber fottned hy nftture ^or 
jpr^paredt^jj sttui3^ lor such discttssitqisl 
^li^ip««ilsiic»'oi^4ii dispUtaii«s pi^^tsf^ 
tei^y.BdfU|)»idoii&l3r the formes of io^ 

ti^bk^lfVttiB liiiroagb tbese !i66!Q«s, and 

4Mi«pnM!A(^tibfi8 ott fiiora^ a3id'^ov«itii> 

44 tiiti tiBMre tttlhaokiad- and ^ of the 
ciQ^thietkiil of society. % 

,«IiFtbie<nvilder'^lays, which, in com^ 
{%ia^«i€» with f>opulft'r taste, he' coitiposed 
^'the itovnantic tales of earty Spanish 
lus^ory, -there v'are rants do extravagant, 

V 9 



'1^ 

* > . *■: 

aa well as kM^w sa ]ij fevboliitiil}) that 
thej tempt .one to suspect )u]n» like 
AFkisto, of iplajdng with 1m^ leadeFs aa4 
laugbiiig at tufi. aiibject. Such a license 
i4» for obyious reaaoiis, iiuKtmissible in 
dramatic epmpositioai A poet .may 
smile at his own inventions, but a ficti* 
tiQus personage cannot laugh at what is 
necessarily connected with his own ea^ 
istence. Diyden's Almanwr^froin which 
character that writer's acquaintanoe with 
Castilian poetry is vety manifest, is rnnitk 
and humble in oompanson of the JSm^ 
nardoB Mtd MudarrM of the SpaAisk 
nuthor; and ifj as. Johfison tejfs^ ^A6 
English poet hovws cm thB^0ORfillM0f 
isensense. Lope must he acKnowiedgdd 
to hare fiequ^ailly inv^ided &e tensto^* 
Bemardoj for instance, is not bonteated 
with being a noble savage, as^fipoeas 
nature first n\ade man^ and wiA having 
'neither I(Hd nor parent, but he goes so 
&r as to declare himself his own : 



I. 






y pues que padre ni madiie' Izi » 

JVo puedo conocer hoy, /\, , . *- / 



'^^^ 



* i » 



Since my high birth is. by my valour sho\yn^ , 
And y<^ my parehis are'iill now unknown, 
'^^M^iifis JB^hmMa i^X& thust be %is oWn; 



^'*:n )^ : ;: ,-. 



: i ' 



\\ Jn.CQUii^y bj^ thoughts. are gemerwJIijF 
8pri^tlj),tiiD(i bis Iflxigos^ ^fe£0^» easy* 

ly,ii(eiith^r;<|pill«i4 fbr by the dHuatiiMa^, jy^ 
He^^ariy^ ^ the plot» nqt coosktettt vrittl 
th^ (Ch^raotet. His .Qontinual anl^tlie^if 
^d p}ay upon words cannot : escif^ 
the cen8iure of rigorous critiqism» His 
apolpgkts pljBad in hi$ ; belM^f the tastse 
<>f his age and countrj^ emd his ad- 
mirers generally alledge his uhcommQ^ 
felicity in thes^^i^ifericflr efforts of wit. 
True it is, that a^c^j slight knowledge 
of a language ^tlabtes a foteigner to de- 
teetthis practipe in an. author, though 



none bat is TMiAte catt fk^'iS <6(nnpetent 
judge of his success. 



> ' 



As to the general style.of hm dialogue 
in comedy, it 19 difficnilt to select any 
short passages which wiD Cpnvey an 
idea of it to the reader, 9nd lyet mofe 
difficult to translate them so as to pre- 
serve the character of the biiginal. Of 
the two which I subjoin, the first is 
taken at random 6»m a pU^y of Uttle 
celebrity ; the second affoi^s a speci* 
men of easy satire, more uncommon in 
his dramas, but not less adapted to his 
genius: ' 

No di^an que ei'inaieBte 
Madia tiottpo pam amtf i '^^-^ 
Que d amor que ba de soarfar ^ 
De im gripe ha de ser. 

Y d tralo le da Talor, 
No se ba de Oaniar amor 
Sdo ooitambie de Into* 
£1 que no qidpo J laato • 



$16 

ia^i^qmolf ^fl'^f^^S^f^ sac 

Cwno d que te tengo 70. , . ^ 

Mirar, ^scribii', y^bbf 

_ Que m lo luui dado & criar. 

^ Hombre ha djs nacer Alitor. 
370 rrr ' /Lu€goa^dA^, yfeergalan'j - 

1/ No hade, teper valor. 

Marques de las Novas. 



L- ; 



'^^ Iietao\ciie|aythttttiieientieed 

Ah no! the love that kUls indeed 
" '" Dispatches at a blow. -' ■ • >; 

Jdifi .C-r ^ :vC:}r..)J. ..:/;> l':-.i. .:;.i ,Kiy\ x\\'[U r^.:i 

The spark which but bj slow degrees 

Is nursed into a flame, ' '* ':^ 

Is habit, fj^i^oddupiin^^ty^^ 
But f^yp,is^fl^ ^t^SWe, 1- jM 

For love to w completjely true, ^- 

It death ai sifi:ht shoiildileal/' 
Should be thl^ first oiie ever luiew, . i 

In short, lie thai' I fed. 

To write, ta%)^,1ettid'^t6^ converse, ' 
Forye^l6|^tayibefix]Ii: ^ 

'T is to put i^Ga^bn^ but %> iftuisfe^ '^ 
And send one's heart to school. 



me 

Start vpfiittgniimaBa tail ^ . ^ 
' - Jtf aolaa Adamatbalnrth^ - . . 

He 18 no Love «t al. 

* ^ « 

POUBIO jr CLAmUlBQ* 

Pol. En sa palna ningaiio fte jNfoAla, 

Falabias sm de Dioft, y oomo el ciote; 
Fueia de qne es antigao entre lieiSbieB 

Y am ailre ks demas dd misnio Tidgo ' 
No haoor t^mairfeii de oosas pixspiABm 

Y venenur las estrangeras imi€lM>--- 

Si qh hcnibK vkm luMaiidofift iMtoa In^inap 
Aqucflia deMr medioo fittfioao^ 
Aqndpinior, a^fud divino aififioe ; 
£1 ybio «i len^aa previa ao fie tfttttta; 
Ni lo qiie <7k aqaesla imania tiffta; 
* Porqueeliiocaiiooerlosdiie&Kddlas 
•^ Ertriba de las cosas todo d credilch 
a. Bien dibits, y assi vemos que la fiuna 
4 ' No «e de^ega de la propia embidia, 
SI no 68 que •amiffa d dii^fe iqpK ia ttenei 
Dido) imdkcieloqiieefa mateinMink^ 
Pal3>io^ d de b amUdia y de la finna^ 
X^tie se apaitava solo cum la miasitei 
De soerte que al que Baoe en algona arte 
Inline, le esfo bien de inoriite pnsto: 

Y 81 la Tida ha de ooBlar la fiuoa 
FamtMO en todo & mi enmigo llania. 

ha Ntcedad dd Discreio. 



i 



« 

Pel. No man %i ftpropheffin las naiHie land ; 

God aaid it onoe^- and what he ^id shall stand* 
The great lohg sinceaB nome^made wates despise ; 
They loatii wh&t^s near them, what's abroad they 

ptize. 
The Ti^IgBr tqp^i for they it^usjt ap^ the gfeet^ ! 
Ap^tid wJhaiV strange^ but what'6 at hand th^ 

hate* 

Hi^. ^r^gsi. sbofl. ciais^ btin leamii^, cfaarm th^ 

throi^g— . 
He shall their artist, he thdit leech hecfktke ; 
3iich skili^ moh genius, is aot bn^fath^ne^ 
Our natiTp Iftn^age x% but Tvlgai: ^fe ji 
Raised jfr(H& the dirt we tread,, the. fhiit Is vile; 
Know we the book who p^% jthe field t^Vo iea{>, 

W|f bold tl^ledfi^g^ ail4tilfe|«^^ 
CL Tistrus^frithmenTy U¥ing'T^orUvlitteiids$ 
Th^f^ hero dies, and the^ all envy ^diu 
£nvy tf'asHonour^s wife, a wise man skid^ 
N^'er t6 be parted tfll 4h^ man wa»^]6adv 
Ye&[$ wh# eKi^ m%y gain the glmoofl prite 
Of endless &me, pro^nided first he dies. 
If such indeed must be the price of fiim6, 
L^ otheiis abek it, I resign my claim. 
On tlieseremdi^ional wiU.j^adly gi^^ 
E'en to my foes, what portion they may want. 



-x" 



I 4id.Te, perhaps, been led intb ii 



m 

pmt the , subject s^quwe^i ftfXhtabif^ 

jjwperf^f t; kw?«l^^ 9i ^ IBOlMjKfrtll 
justify, :0f , loojne iJas^ti ;|vec^hui»drqd)6f 
hjj» play^ jpt ex^^tajBt* I bave^ read 4bcaft 
fiftjt vTib^,w^t$u||^iei|t t<», satisfy Imji, 
^iirio^ty ; )gflKi',.^e^ftoi^ur.. of . discdyei jr 
^ce |iba,ted,.. disguit at- tbe. difficulties^ 
aQ4 wg^drf Eiess a^ tkp laugthjQ^ Jthe* wB^f 
M|qgeefje(dat<?i it-: .Tb§ Sppfiiffe .edfttora 

1^^ ^t^^,^ttle ^ Pf'Ot;: pfklDS'jbp JieiQG^ 

1 

tl^e^pathaof tli^eirJ|tf'j?aktWft:tO/f<«eigiM»w 
Tj^etslpT^pljjrj Hegjjg^<?^ I p^i .Ibw 1 pswil 
j|pt only di^cpi^tages ttie. r0?id)(?ft bwtfitofc 
9^t«i. djsfigwe4,it^v,be^u^y ,glwfci«»^S 

pbU|je5at^^ ^,« u^fipi^^g.ififli^bsw^*^! 
Of late years th/^r> typos b^i^, not 'OtiljF 

be«i improved, but.the b^s^uty pfljiltfSHE 

let^rrpness . , ^iia^s^ ^ad^/ fiesba^ ;?<»? 

Qeeds, that of a^ oti^ aaitieft, ■ TJ(j© 

labours of the editor, however* hi^ve bj; 

no means kept pace with, the sldlL.Qf. 



V- * 



^19 

fteisii'elaborsldy c<Anmenfed- npoti; tmd 
taiiHitiid fd^r in&tances the teit hafs beett 
i^cftda^d by modem compilers. The 
bid poems iofa.'ufbdrs )»ye<tiou'^ to JuaA 
Ike Meba; ^ wellas it* selection of tM 
flEMrl^.^balkida op'romtaaices, ^^e bded 
neatly eiEid<'(3are(Vilfy"edllsed : but "the 
Ittte ! ipublictftioi^ of Lope' tfe ' Vegifi 
poems'/ tbcragb cdktly aikl volumhiouisi^i 
18 not' covveet^' and his plays can onl^ 
betead ' iu^ the> did ftnd'iinpeffbdt ef(S^ 
tmafffSi ¥tfll^6(ik) and :^fie#eri); dr'iil 
ItesmitteMble-sheeK tv4il^h are sbld itmh^ 
iio^if^ tbe'theatt^; ' It»eem« a^'lf tU(^ 
8|»)i,iudnili, iA'festhifating -the merits^ of 
^o^mt6idiias^ilii2i.ii; htid beetticru- 
flidcruAly' ^saxit -^ml striking the balance, 
audi dedtieted «very item of prepo^te-* 
ratts pqabe^^va&eed "to Mm'vhil& liv- 
iangV fpoio Ma dhoins on the admiration 
QSf 3 po^erity. So remarkable a fliictua- 

* ^^de Appendix. 



3S0 

1«M» in puMiC' teste is.noito be^fattiiii' 
huited ^ntitel^'^to: Ihe labgodr n^t^ 
ftncceecls tmy extravagant tranftpiortfr of 
a jinn ir9.tioD( nor t even to; i that > ? «ii*v$r| 
which i$ gratified in sinkkig the reputk^ 
tion.of ian author a» kpucii^ beloiv^ 9k 
favje^urj or .hcahAeai may haVe < osh-i^)^ 
ajsiovfiy itst jiiatJev9li..:'t£aterBal cirfcmii^ 
st^aA^^es Qonspired witii^ thes^ natural 
QWfimii . The iage of Glaldieroiiy the hnU 
^bncy of whose comedies^ aided by the 
xioveHy 0!nd ^agn^btoca* ofhexpenBivi 
^^fcery> had ^oiadwh^t ontsbone tlnl 
h)j9tre of Lopj^V. exhibitions^ .wasusufSi* 
needed h^y a period of. dacksmost aiivd^dAB^ 
giaeiQ^ as iatal to t^e^litearyrias^tod^P^ 
pojiitiota^ ;; influisace : lof &pal0.* r :: By ^aA 
|im«^;thit.tbe puhlite hadjsufficiehtly -ref 
covered fiXMniiiifae 'uiiia£eo«0»t ^wttioh 
Qald^kloir)!'$ i^rks •hadLvprodiicei^,:. to 
QOiapf^re him cahnlyindth iiib prodeces^ 
sons, they had biecome. too. indiffi^eftt 
about all that concerned the stage, to h^ 
at the pains of estiinatittg the beauties of 



lUB}^ dramatic author. The splendo\£ir of 
Phiiip 14» FQurtVs court survived tho 
defeat of fhis arai8> and the loss of bis 
pimfkices; but ii died widh thiat ioipro^ 
¥)ideot audi osteatatiousr monarch. Un^ 
der the feeble sovereign who succeeded 
hdiQr uot oivly were the theatres shut; 
ioid the plajs prohibited^ but all ardouf 
in literal^ pursuits^ all genius for poet 
try^ ail taste/ for the arts and ornaments 
of life, seemed to waste away aS: rapidly 
as ibe resourc^and glory ^f the kingdom 
lie miagovemed* In> the mean while 
BnQiQQ rose upQ4 thoe rains of her ri^* 
Tlie sueoesisors of Goroedll^ reined and 
ioeiproved a language^ which the increiets^ 
ijQg poorer of^he statehad invade it con^ 
4;ei]ttQnt to surronvdiilg nations to study^ 
iMiLd tp whwh the exitensive intrigues 
and^aes of I^ouis^ the XlVth had given, 
mitwfst^y an UAUtiyta^ currency in Btai^ 
Uf^p^. . Fashion, which is often as per^ 
iWtptQfy in literature as in dress^ en^ 



> •■ A 



gaitd' to the dlifeceDt get^itfi^f 'tei^fgottg)^' 

a^d the Yftriotis usages S&d^<fi]iiO*^'^ 
thinking Vf^ch distinguish dne p^pt^ 
£rotii tm<Mief. ' Heticse^' wtfen towafdfr 
the iititddk <df lust century thetdv^df 
letters^ seemed to revive in Sp«ifi» theKei 
&aiae a sect of critics, men' of feonatderH 
dh\e inforuqation' dtid ^oqnenee, tv*hoj 

piindiplet^' iof> 6010 position ' iaia tlteAh 

a^Ssc<»mis.^k>t»ithoi^ ritftioitftl' pi^ts 1^ 

^hbm^the'^m^ii^ tma^H^t ^aicibo^dg 
to ^h0^»'be«b «iri^lnal^J4<^ieMI^.-' >TleeP 
name^^of Vega, Caldet-ow; Motfetoi jfttd' 
othets, wMch,' in ' thtf general dediti# 'lif 
literatifre, had in a gteat ttiekiiiiTe fUIteit' 
iftto neglect and oblivion,- were ii&W' 
only quoted to expose theit faiilts, a«Sd 
to pdiflt out their inferiority to fcwrc^gtt 



4^ 

9i><3^#ft?>««dj abwe all, Fr^mioh nodes o€ 
tib^i^dAa^rOil^iiQattere. of ta$jt&, naturally 
l^f^yal^nt at a Bdurbou court, thrmr 
1^ ^Id Spanish stskge int^ disreputa;; 
^ad aja tadmtratioo of sqcli autibom 
p«aa96d wMk/ih^ wits for e peryei^ion ojB 
jatdgo^eiit, and with the fashicmable foie 
.a j?Qmaant^:pf>{mtioim^ prsjtidi^ anA 
Vj^lgwity^. B^a^y^ eplightened Jndiviri 
dmkh abcu; who.W^T^ aOKions tq^ refomr. 

f^om.ifjUc^ l^iteY ^ba4<th^'Pseive8 derived 
sfi^lich rinfl*ri}p!fi(P» a9d d^i^t» or jtlhey . 
D^gltt s^^dioii^ly; ({met. the atten^n^C 
t|(ie^jF ^fipwutrirmfin , to French pi9eUj^ 



9U 

tlie woi^s (^ RaciG^ «)4 Boiloau wcfuld 
' \iItuBately le^d tbem to aa aequamtr 
ance with tbose of Pascal and Moa-* 
tcsquieuy aod petbaps of Bajle and 
Voltaire. 

All Spaniards, however, did not con- 
form to this ignominious sacrifice of na- 
tional genius at the shrine of fi^rei^ 
criticism. Unfortunately the two cham-* 
pions of the cJd theatm adopted twor 
opposite modes of wajrfaie, each more 
calculated to confirm thaa to qheqk thA 
triumph of thar enemiesk Nasarre, in 
hctj betrayed the cause he piofessjedti 
and no doubt intended, to support.. 
While he abandoned Lope and CalderoA 
to all the fury of the critics, and evea 
brought fresh charges of his own tot 
sweXL the catalogue of their poetical de- 
linquencies, he absurdly pronounced 
authors whose names were forgotten^ 
whose works he avowedly had nev^^ 
teen, and whose existence even may be 



\ 



tss 

quQtttioa8dv«^;to be the ittait^n and rivsals 
of CoBieille and Moliereu 
-^^SiK^b-asstfrtkiQi hardly merited the 
pains taken to r^iate them. Some plaj^ 
of Lope de Rueda, as well as of others 
of his tiine^ are still extant in MS. They 
are not destitute, of • iwReiiAion, andf thk 
style is •often tame simple^ but far lets 
poetic^ and fofcible than that of their 
tnccesaors. Beit, whatever may be thisBx 
neiits, they by no means ' warranty eo 
strange an dmputatioii; 'on-the i^aniftrdft 
as that of having ponsssed writers 0ikhp 
fikst genms anid jodgment^'ttrithont ha^^ 
ing^e;taste to relish their beauties^tbe 
discemmeht to racognise their * exo^ 
ImsuXjtor the sense* to preserve Ihe&r 
writings. . / 

^ La Mneria vtbs a m«^ of more kniowr 
ledge^ and greater talents for literally. 
CiratroYersy;.he spo2«a too with s<>m« 
^n^wity. on maltos relating to th* 
Spanish, theatre^as he had supplied Mi^ 

Q 



y 



* 



xa^ffj stranger letxiome^tt^fffiifi^^ 
Jtbat of jbeing ei:cinpt fraWrUiQifji^bfift- 
obms aM trcegul^tiea .so .Qfteii^ (^^9lr 
ed to it»rproduotioos4 . -.. % mV MrtL.a 
. Whatever. a4Fiiintage8 «% ^ ><^spu^»|i^ 
lie. tplght po9«C88^ h^: ha4 .oc6||s|cii|i t for 

c^9^ t^/PiibliMk Hj|si^swi?7 to^Mmfick 
^ti9^4iQa :tb^ la^mir^rs is pontaiaed 

4mH^()/<Bri%-^P9«3 P¥«po§*>M.rtlt 
4if 9^v^hp, JW¥WW^<^] SiJ^ithjiUl^ 

and oibeWf in their ^^rew^apj^si op;tIi«df 
^dfi Yeg^ AnfL^a|derpii^,^4,,]iQ43!fll«W 
very satisfactorily the imperfectioAoftf 
m9ff^ tranAlatioiis.:^Qpi.,t^he^ ^.Qut, 
Jifeg^ jQipj . inJ94^oi^u».. i d§^fr^f -ijf 



>i 3 



<Shafeijfe8r^'^fee \lras ncii t6ritentE« iritli 
4eiiMb(Mtig' ttje beauties of his atitlidf, 
Afld Hnth eoirecting the mistaJces and 
=exposn^ 'ih6 ignorance of his oppo- 
nents. Instead of c6mbating the mjti^- 

l^ceof that eHtickftn whieb would sub- 

' It 

mit all dratilatic iv^o^ki to ohe standard 
iti iexbcilehce, he 'hiost 'linwarrant^fy 
iiu^riaiigne'd the mbdek iJiemselves ^s de- 
stitute of all "poetieAl merit nvhateVer. 
^uft was the cause Of his countrjda^n 
^ore injored ^ by hiai in tetoperanc^ W i 
tsi^tc, mtn b^efiidii'by lii^ liEBo&M^ 
titt editor. Jffew wei«'ifisp^erto}i%e 
ft^wiWy - 61^ pierfdrtoatre es hWs^ |la- 
^«gyrirt thought it'^iet^siir/ -to' "n^ft- 
tidfi that^th€! jfVidUeihb\i\^h&ie fcft^h 
mtki^nefd to the wall^ df a^onv^ ind 
tkttv the Tartujg^ Vas -a miserable ferc€!, 
«i^illibtit humour, character, or inven- 

.^"fiis ^^Vtfign rdaders may also reason- 
i*ly • t^^t 'the ohtisston of a commen- 



liarj, and, without much presumption, 
might dispute the judgment of the se^ 
lection. Lope de Vega at least might 
have been permitted to speak for him- 
self ; for, among the hundreds of his 
comedies yet extant, La Huerta could 
have found a better answer to his de- 
tractors than a pompous exposition of 
their numbers, a vague and indiscrimi- 
nate encomium on his talents, and a la- 
mentation over the sarcastic temper of 
Cervantes. Nothing concerning the 
most voluminous Spanish poet is to be 
learned from the Teatro Hespanol^ but 
the editor's opinion of him. On the 
whole, La Huerta, far from retrieving 
the lost honours of the Spanish theatre, 
^uly exposed it to the insults and ridi-^ 
cule of its antagonists. 

Insipid imitations of French dramas, 
and bald translations of modern pieces, 
in which the theatres of Madrid for 
some years abounded, have at leiigth^ 



««9 

done more to restore the wrlters;of Philip 
the Fourth's age to their du6 estimaticHat 
with the public, than the hazardous as- 
sertions of Nasarre, or the intemperate 
retorts of La Huerta. 

The plays of Calderon> Moreto^ and 
Roxas, are now frequently acted. Se* 
Teral of Lope de Vega have been suc- 
cessfully revived, with very slight, though 
not always judicious alterations. Au- 
thors of reputation are no longer asham- 
ied of studying his style; and it is evident 
that those most celebrated for the seve- 
rity of their judgment, have not disdain- 
ed to profit by the perusal of his co- 
medies. The most temperate critics, 
while they acknowledge his defects, pay 
a just tribute of admiration to the ferti- 
lity of his invention, the happiness of 
his expressions^ and the purity of his 
diction. All agree that his genius re- 
^ects honour on his country,, though 
some may be disposed to question the 



' bfoefidal iD^eiic6 of la$oWi^^(pn;^ 
taste and literature of their, natkor. jJ^pr* 
deed, bis careless and easy modej-^ 
writing made as many poets as poems. 
He so familiarised his countrynieili^i^ 
the mechanism of veise, he •S4p|>lied 
them with such a «tore of com'mon- 
place images and epithets, he coi9«d 
such a variety' of convenieiit ' e x pid t t - 
sionsj that the very fecility of versifi-^ 
cation seems to have prevented the efiu- 
uopf of ; gf9PUi8, and the r^dim^^^J pf 
poe^ai phJ^se? to J>a,?^ ,^|)ei;fe^{fmi 
Q^gin^ty of. Iflnguage^ ^ , .c^c^ittl lo 
The mipabet of poe^r ^ ^^m^^ma. 
fieri ^ of Ais time jls alinpst a|» .ijf^nslgs^ 

aft tl?at of h» <; wipowtion^ ^>ffifT^m»h 
di^ds, of his imitators are, to iie fpupi^^ 
tiie list, of Castili^ poe^ . ^A fppi^tPte 
porary authoir, X>on Ii;^vfg^ ^oy^n^i}]!^ 
Yijlegas, in ridioijaiiig tl)? b^.coigffd^ 
of his tijoie, beaw test^npny t^,^!^ 



0§gl 



QAe si bien considera^ en Toledo 



i » 



J, 



Y pnrar db las miisas el denaedo. 
^ .,, ]V(o2o de mutes ef^^--7ha« coinedi^ ^ 

A tf^Dk^ 0116^ cbiud comedies produce, 

Then be jour Jiights^ nfi is your ofliee, higher ; 
And, as jou drive a mule, to tragedy aspire* 



J 



r 



• t^ 



I rv 






■"i » 



« >. 



i 
• If 



of Improvisatori KikVe «c^uiffed-co»'i^Ef6i^ 
11*8%^ iaAa^^hirftMWiy' "the 6i!^lMde H)f 
^hifitarf i)6eihs has' deett*'6a f 'knd tfiS? 
tJidtirrtltogs of 'ttifejfc "Mrfifti^oUs^ISi^*^^ 

ttftlure of extcihjiol^nebus productipiiff, 
aiHyuld ¥e9eiiiWe thtehi 'also in encirvatinff 
A^ 'M^gnage, i^mii ' a verjr probable 
cettjectuife. 'Pterfiaps it Wa« in'thef ef-^ 
fin^ iv^B genias ina^ to^ deviate Irotir 



S38 

so beaten a track, that it wandered in^ 
to obscurity, and the easy but feeble 
volubility of Lope's school might in^ 
duce Gongora aud his disciples to hope 
that inspiration might be obtained by 
contortion. 

But the effect of Lope's labours must 
not be considered by a reference to Ian* 
guage alone. For the general int^est 
of dramatic productions, for the vanQty 
and spirit of the dialogue, as well as for 
some particular plays, all modem t^e« 
^tres are indebted to hiniu Peffectioft 
in any art is only to be atjtained by. mt^ 
eessive improvement; and th^ogh tHo 
last polish often effaces the iparks of 
the precediog workmen, his sklU W9a 
not less necessary to^the.accomplish--; 
ment of the work, than the ha^d of hia 
more celebrated successor. Th^ cqi^ 
sideration will,- I hope^ excuse the 
l<;i)gth of this treaty. Had Lope B0Y0B 
written, the master-pieces of C^mdlte 



233 

and Molkre might neverhave been pro- 
duced ; and were not those celebrated 
compositions known, he might still be 
regarded as one of the best dramatic 
authors in Europe. 

It seems but an act of justice to pay 
some honour to the memory of men 
whose labours have promoted literature, 
and enabled others to eclipse their repu- 
tation. Such was Lope de Vega ; once 
the pride and glory of Spaniards, who 
in their literary, as in their political 
achievements, have, by a singular fata- 
lity, discovered regions, and opened 
mines, to benefit their neighbours and 
their rivals, and to enrich every nation 
of Europe, but their own. 



-^ . A 



i *. 



^ '» 



. i : 



• » t 



•- - . 



r.:i 



» . *» I • . - 



V 

^ ' 



*5 I 



' ,." • 



o -r '^ 'jr 






V. - - - 



^^ 



•^0 :' ^./:*--Jin It- Jirjoniib 



IT., 






'J . 



- -\ - V 



• 


- -• 


: «-» 




•■ 


■ 


Ml. 


a 


\^ 




^ , ' 


3i 


• 




^^•' 


•"^r* 






235 



APPENDIX, 



No. 1. 



Don Nicolas Antonio, in his excellent 
Dictionary, under the article of Lope 
de Vega, p. 70, 71, of Bayer's edition, 
gives the contents of twenty-five vo- 
lumes of our author's plays ; which, he 
says, were printed originally at Madrid, 
between the years l6ll and 1630. He 
adds, that several of these volumes were 
separately reprinted in the provincial 
towns of Spain. It is, however, very 
difficult at present to complete the 
twenty-five volumes, even with the as- 
sistance of such provincial copies; and 
Don Nicolas Antonio, who wrote in 
1684, seems to acknowledge that he 
never had seen the genuine Madrid edi- 
tion CQQiplete. I )iave in my possesiSon 
two small vplumes, containing the same 



236 

plays as the two first of the abovemen^ 
tionecj edition, and printed at Antwerp 
in 1609» In the license to the printer^ 
these volumes are stated to be exact 
copies of two printed at Valladolid, in 
1607 ; which proves that part at least of 
the Madrid edition was merely a kct 
publication of plays already collected. 
To these twenty volumes in small quarr 
to> others perhaps were added after the 
de^th of Lope*: but the Antwerp vo- 
lumes are the only instances of any 
pther attempt to collect his dramatic 
works in an uniform publication. Many 
of his plays were printed and sold at 
the door of the theatre soon after thei? 
representation^ and in the sajne. sloven- 
ly .manner the most popular have fre^ 
quemtly been reprinted. An edition on 
coarse paper is coming out in number)^ 

* I have four v6lumes of his plays apparently intend^ 
as 8 aequd* tp -l&s Miidrid editidni jas the; Mch cquMb 
the same numl^ei^of plays, and the t^pe does notmateri* 
ally differ from the edition of 1615; biit the title-page of 
erery one' is either toni ont or defaced. 



at Madrid ; but no pains are taken to 
correct the text^ to ascertain the au-' 
thenticity or date of the plays, or to 
procure copies and manuscripts of those 
that are become rare. 

The other works of Lope were print- 
ed separately during his lifetime, and 
many have been frequently reprinted, 
A reference to Don Nicolas Antonio 
will satisfy the reader of the number 
and frequency of these editions. At 
length his poetical works were collected 
and published by Sancha, at Madrid^ 
1776- Had that work met with sue- 
cess, the sanie editor had engaged to 
publish hb dramatic works. 

The reader will jfind annexed to this 
note the contents of the twenty-five vo- 

• • * 

lunges of. plays motioned by Don Ni- 
colas Antonio, the table of contents of 
Sq^ncha^s edition of bis poetical works, 
and a Ibt of those of his plays' wbich 
aie still extant; .^ . 



C0MED1A8 . - 

LOPE FELIX D£ VEOAi cikinO'- 

ttDOKCH SDiaVU DOOIMCUf QOBnimnr'^': 



li Im Dooayn* db Mtflco. 

- B Oaco de 8airta I^ 

WanlML laTfticiM 

BOnuBkfltoaliMi 
' BudD ad Cupio. Im 
Amklad pagadk la C 
IMtmoniovengado: a 
TakBCteprias, drfMfel 
BMtilhM 1009, m 4l«L 
n. Iji Fnosa ludmcn. lit OocHna perdidbu El 
Gtdndo rrtlina: B Bfajram^ dodoMk I« 
CondoB Bbtilde. lot Beoarkfai. tn Coon* 
d«loni de Corion. La Ub ■"»■— -JJ-^ 



Los tres Omtamtes. La Qainla de Flotmcl*. 
£3 Pkdrino despoeado. Les Fmas de Madrid. 
——Matxia Sobs, ajthfl .Aij^oamm Martinum, 
e< 1618, Barcmcne 1611. 
in. Los HijoG de la Barimda. 1a adTcna FtHliuu 
del CarallCTO del Espiritn Santo. El Espejo dd 
01l9iS(i&OKi Nocbe Toleda™.' Lrf Tr^edii 
de Dcrihi lues de Castro. Las Mudanzas-de Fat' 
tDiiayJUtedb de O^-Beltnin de'lragon. La 
Privama y Caida de D. Alvato de Luna. La 
pn^M':K6MittB:M'eavbl)erb cl^'&pii^ San- 
to. £1 Esclaro dd Demonio. La prospoa 
Artidia'^^ fl1lP^-L«rti«* BawIM.""iitf itti'maBa 
Fuituna de Ruy Lt^iez Davaloe. Vida y Ma- 
erte del Santo ^fpTB M»"""^" Fr. Benedicto de 
Palermo : coo tres Entremeaes. Matriti, apad 

!»*[ 

[. fa 

ram. 
IGi- 
t U 

}pa^ 

PUID. 

>-Ma- 

tnpe- 

! 

^ ^ ^!fem#%; I^-.ifePf^rf'iWsiete 



f 



940 

VcfligBOKa hooiQia^ TfarniiMm ii <V ButMt pci- 
nwa 7 f^onda Faitfi. ELFlOBiOde'lMlielras 
por d Bejr D. Fdipeu \J^ Goaida cBidadnw 
£1 Loco Cuo^do. I4i Riieda d^ In fbttamu La 
EooBiga fiiTondile.— ^^Midiiti, I^IS^ 4to- . 

VL La BataDa del Honor. La OhedWicia lauteada, 
7 primar Cailos de Ungria. £1 Hombre de tHcn. 
El aervk con jnala fSttodla. £1 CiMvdo « n 
. Casa. La Bqjwa Jaajia de Nqpdoi. SLOaqae 
deVifeo. £1 Secretark^ de si miimou ElIIi^;ar 
ea Ocanoo* £1 Tes^go contia at £1 MamuA 
deFeliaaidc^ £1 iaejor Maertio d Tiempo.^*---* 
Ibidan, 1615, .i^iid Alphnawim IfaitiinDii* 

F([. £1 Vmano eani Rinooo*^ £1 CMigo dd Dia* 
I cicto. Lm Pol»ezaa de BdnaMna. £1 gian 
Daqae de Moacovia. Laa Ruxs de Joa Bl^ea, j 
Judiade Tokdou Los Porodos de Mntcia. La 
HennQBiiia abocredda* £1 prim^ FsyaidcK La 
Vinda Casada y DonQdla. £1 Prindpe deqpe- 
. oado. La Sorana de la Yenu S. ludro de 
Madrid.— ^Ibidem, \%VI^ apod emndfsn. 

Vlli. Despertar a qoien duenne. £1 AoznelodeFe* 
aisa. Los Locos por d Cidp* £1 mas galan 
Foitnguesy Duqiie de Boganxa. £1 Argd fin* 
gido, J Ileiiq;ado de Amor. £1 postior Godo 
de Espana* La Prision sin cu^mu ElEsdaiFo 
de Roma. La Imperial de Othoo* £1 Nitfa 
innoceole dela Goaxdia.— Ibideai^ apod earn* 
dem, eodem asno* 



Ml 

IX. La Pktieba d^ los ingenios. La DonzeHa Theo- 
doia* El Hamete de Toledo. £1 Auaente en el 
lAigar. La NiBa de Hata. £1 Aniifi^I de Un- 
gria. Del mal lo meniNs. La hermoi^ Alfreda. 
Los Ponces de Barcelona. La Dama boba. Lo» 
AMindies de Bdisa.— — *Ibid8m) apud eumdem^ 
eodem anno 1617. 

X. El Galan de la Membrilla. La Vengatiggi ven- 
tnresa. D. Lope de Cardona. La Humildad 
y la Sdbervta. £1 Amante agraifeGidQ. . Los 
Gttanches de Teneiife, y Conquista de Canaria. 
La otava MaraTfRa. El semhiar en buasa Ti- 
carra. Los Chates de Yillalva. Juan de Dios y 
Anton Martin. La Borgalesa de Lerma. £1 
Podervencido, j Amor piemiado.— -— ISIS^apud 
eumdem. 

XI. £( Perro del Hortelano. El Azero de Madrid. 
Las dos Estrellas, Trocadas y Biamilletes, de Ma- 
drid* Obras son Amores. Senrir & Senor dis- 
cteto. El Principe perfeto. £1 Amigo basta 
la Muerte. La Locum por la Honia. £1 Ma* 
yordomo de la Duquesa de Amalfi. £1 Arenal 

' de Seriila. La Fortuna inerecida. La Tragedia 
del Rey D. Sebastian^ y Bautismo del Principe 
de Mamiecos.— -^Ibidem, apud eamdem, anno 
1618: 

XII. EDo dira. La Sortija del Olvido. Los Ene- 
migos en cask. La Gortesia de Espana. Al 
pasar del Arroyo. Los Hidalgos de la Aldea. 

R 



342 

El MarqiM de Mfenttia. Las Fbics de IX iaaii^ 
7 iko y pobie trocados. Lo que hay que fiar 
dd Mando. La Fiimesa ea la Desdidnu La 
DeadK^ada Ent^fiuiia. FuentooingiiiBu^i^**— Ibi- 
dem, in eadem officuia, 1619. 

Xm. La Arcadia* El HakoD de Fedetioo. El 
Remedio en la Desdiclia. Los EBcIaTos filnes. 
El Desoonfiado. EI Oudeoal de Bdm. B Al- 
calde mayor. Los Locos de Yalencia. Santia- 
go d Vafde. La FranoeriDa. £1 Despofiorio 
encnbierto. Los E^anoles en Flandes. 
Ihidan, iiadem typis, 1630* 

XIV* Los Amanfes sin Amor. La VillanadeGetefe*. 
La GaDaida Toledana. La Goieaa moecida. 
La Vinda Yalenciana. EI CSavaOeio de lUescas* 
Fsdio Caibonero. £1 Tadadao AaBawtep Las 
Almenas de Toio. EL Boba del Coiegio. £1 
Cneido looo. La Ligmtitnd Tr ng ada. ■■ . I bi* 
dem, apnd Joanneoi Ciiesta, 16^. 

XV. La mal Casada. Qoeier la propria Dcsdiclia* 
La Yeagadota de las Mngeres. EIGaTaDerodf 
Sacmneiito. La Santa Liga. El Fanv agia- 
deddo. La^Hermosa Ertlier. El fad CSiiado. 
La bnena Giiaida;. Historia de Tobias. Elln* 
grstoanqKntido. £1 Cavallefo dd Milagio*^— — 
Ibidem, apnd Ferdinandnm CSonea, 1681. 

XVI. El Pmnio de la Iknaosoia. Adonis y Venns. 
Los Prados de Lecm. Mirad & ^puen alabais. 
Las Mugeies sin Hombies. La Fabula de B?r» 



us 

. AM)* El X^betyoto de Cieta^ lok Senma de 
TcxrmeB. Las Grandeaeas de Akxandro. La Fe* 
lisacda. La inoceitte Laura. Lo Fingido Yer* 
da^EO.-*--«— Apud Alphonsom Martmuxn^ anno 
1622. 

XVU. Cod su Pan se lo coma. Qiiien mas im 
puede» £1 Soldado amante. Muertos viyos* 
£1 priraet Bey de CastUIa. £1 Domine Lucas. 
Lucinda persegnida. £3 Buise&Nr de Sevilla. 
£1 Sol parado. La Madre de la Mejor. Jorge 
Tdedano. El Hidalgo Abencerrage.— *-«Iisdem 
typis, 1621. 

XVIII. Segunda Parte dd Principe perfeto* 1a 
Pobrezaeslimada. £1 divino Afiicano. La Pas- 
toral de Jacinto. £1 honr^do Hermano. £1 
Capdha de la Yirgen. La Pietad executada. 
Las fionosas Aslnrianas. La Campana de Ara- 
gm. £1 Rustico del Cielo. £1 Valor de las 
Mugeres*-*— ^Ibidouy apud Joannem Gonzalez, 
amio 1623. 

]S3X» De Oofiario 4 Ooslnrio. Amor isecreto hasta 
Zetos. La inocente Sangie. £1 Serafin buma- 
no. M H\jo de los Leones. £1 Conde Feman 
GonzaleiE. D. Juan de Castro^ primera y se- 
guncb parte. La Limpieza^ no manchada. £1 
Yellocino de Oro. La Mocedad de Boldan. 
Carlos v. en Fianda.^^'-'?— Ibidan, in eadem dBI* 
cina, 1623. 

XX. La discreta Yenganza. Lo Cierto por lo Du- 
doso. Pobreza no es Yileza. Arauco domado. 

R 2, 



La yenftwa sin Buscalla. £1 valiente Cespedes. 
£1 Hdmbie por sa Balabia. Roma abmsada. 
Yiitad, Fobreza y Muger. £1 Rey sin Reyiio. 
£1 mejor Moko de fispaAa. £1 Marido mas 
finne.—— -Ibidem, apud Tiduam AIph(»ud Mar- 
tini, 16125. 

XXI. La bdla Anioia. Ajr Vodades que en Amor. 
La Boba pant kw otoos, y DiacidA paia sL La 
Koche de 8. Juan. £1 Castigo rin Veaganza. 
Los Bandos de Sena. £1 m^or Alcalde d Hey. 
JES Pjtemio del bim habkur. La Yitoria de la 
Honra. £1 Fiadoso Aiagones« Los TeOos de 
Menesoi. Por la Poente Juana*-— Posthnma 
prodtit iMBC pais 16S6, apud Tiduam Alphonsi 
Martini. 

XXII. Qnion todo lo quieie. No son todos raise- 
fioies. Amar, Senrir, y Espenur. Vida de 8. Pe- 
dro Nolasoo. La prim^nt Infoimacion. Nadie 
seoonoce. La mayor Vitoiia. Amarsinsabor 
a qnien. Amor, Fleyto, y Desafio* £1 Labrador 
Vditurofio. Los Trabajos de Jacob. La CSar- 
bonera. ■ M atrita, ut supericnres, apud yiduiMn 
Joannis Gonzalez, anno 1635, in 4to. 

XXIII. Ckmlra Valor no hay Desdicha. Las Ba- 
tuecas dd Doque de Alva. Las Qoeiijtas dd 
Gran Capitan. £1 piadoso Yenedano. Porfiar 
hasta Morir. £1 Robo de Dina. £1 saber pu- 
ede dajiar. La Embidia de la NoUeza. Los 
Pfeytos de Ingaht^ta. Los Pdacios de Galiana. 

hace Reyes. £1 saber por no saber y Vida 



245 

de S. Julian de Alcala' de Henares.*— ^Has col- 
legit £mmanuel de Faria et Sousa, et excudit 
Maria de Quinones, Matriti, 1638, in 4to. 

XXIV . £1 Palacio confuso. £1 Ingrato. La Tra- 
gedia por los Zelos. £1 Labrador ventnroso. 
La primer Culpa del Hombre. La despreciada * 
qiierida. La Industria contra el Poder j el Ho* 
nor contra la Fuerza. La Porfia hasta el Temor. 
£1 Juez de su misma Causa. La Cruz en la Se- 
pultura. £1 Honr&do con su Sangre. £1 Hijo 
sin Padre.— «^HaBc Matriti edita fidt ; sed cC 
alia, hoc sub ipso titulo, XXIY. partis, Caesafw 
augustas lucem yidit apud Didacum Dormer, 
1 632, lias ComcBdias contincns :-— La Ley ex0« 
cutada. Selvas y Bosques de Amor. £xameii 
de Maridos. £1 que Diran. La Honra por la 
Muger. £1 Amor bandolero. La mayor D^ 
gracia del £mpemdor Carlos V. y Hecbizera d^ 
Argel. Veer y no cre^*. Dineros son Calidad. 
De quando aca nos Yiiao. Axaor^ Fleyto, y Dd- 
safio. La mayor Yitoria. 

XXY. La £sclava de su Gahn. £1 Desprecio agra- 
decido. Aventuras de D. Juan de Alarcos. £1 
mayor Imposible. La Yitoria del Marques de 
Santa Cruz. Los Cautivos de Argel. Castelvies 
y Monteses. De lo que ha de ser. £1 ultimo 
Godo. La Necedad del Discreto. £1 Juez en 
su Causa. Los £mbustes de Fabia.—— Caesar- 
augustaD, apud viduam Petri Yerjes, 1 647, in 4tQ, 



^46 
THE CONTENTS 

OF 

SZNCHZ'S EDITION 

OF THE 

POETICAL WOBKS OF LOPE DE VEGA. 



Vol. L 
Lattrel de Apolo, dividido en 10 Silvan. 
Bano de Diana. 
£1 Narciso. 

La Selya sin Amor. Diama diyidido en 7 Scena^. 
Epistolas. 
8one(o6. 

' £^Iog08. 

Fsalmos, 

Vol. II. 
La Hermosnra de Angelica. Poema dividido en 90 

Cantos. 
La Philomena. Poema dividido en 3 Cantos. 
S^onda Feute. 
Descripcion de la Tapada, insigne M(mte yReereacite 

del Excelentissimo Senor Duque de Berganza. 
La Andromeda. 

Vol. in. 

La Circe. Poema dividido en 3 Cantos. 

la Manana de San Joan de Madrid. 

La Rosa Bbnca. 

La Dragontea. Poema dividido en 10 Cantos. 



JM.7 

* Fiestas de Denia^ al Rey Catholicp Philipo III. di 
este nombie. Poema dividido en 2 Cantos. 

Poesias varias. 

Sonetos. 

Vol. IV. 

Corona Tragica. Vida j Mnerte de laReyna de 
Escocia, Maria Estuarda. Poenm dividido en 
5 labros. 

Soneto. Aunque te yere, o Reyna, d duro aceio. 
Traduccion del E^igianuna de la Santidadde 
UrbanoVIII. & la Mnerte de Maria Estnarda, 
que empieza Te quamquam immfritoijn ferity o 
Regina, securis. 

Rimas Hnmanas^ Parte I. 

Cancion a Don Juan de Arguijo^ Veinti^uatro dp S^ 
villa. 

Doscientos Sonetos. 

Rimas Humanas. S P^rte^ 

Eglogos, Romances, SicCf 
, Epitaphios^ 

Sonetos, Canciones, tec* 

VoL V. 
£1 Peregrino en su Patria, dividido en 5 Libros* 
, Poesias varias. 

Vd. VI. 
La Arcadia, prosas y versos, dividida en 5 Libros. 
Poesias varias. 

Epigramas. . 

Indice de las-Cosas Notables que se hallan en Ha Ar^ 
cadia. 



» • r 



348 

VoL Vtt 
La Dorotm, aeckm oi {nosa, oi 5 Ados. 
Poesias vaiias. ' 

Vol. vin. 

Las FortanaB de Diana. Norda I. 

desdicbado por la Honra. NoYda 2. 

toL mas pradente Yenganzal Novda 3. 

Guzman el Bravo. Noyda 4. 

las dps Yentiuas sin paisar. Novela 5. 

£3 i^nmostico cum^lido. . Novela 6. 

La Quinta de Laura. Novela 7. 

ISl Zelofio hasta morir. Novela 8. 

£1 Castigo sin Yoiganza. Tragedia en ttes Actos. 

YoL IX. 
La Y^a del Ptonaso. Parte 1. 
£1 Siglo de Oro. 

£1 Guante de Dona Blanca. Gxnedia* 
Yersos sudfos al Nacimiento dd Principe* 
La mayor Yirtud de nn Rey. Coroedia. 
Las Bizarrias de Belisa. Gxnedia. 
Egloga & Claudio. ' 

El Huerto deshecho. Metro Linco al Ilusirissimo 

Senor Don Luis de Haro. 
Porfiando vence Amor, Comedia; yotras 

YoLX. 
La Y^BL del Pamaso. Parte i. 
EL Despiecio agradecido. Comedia. 
B' Amor enanUnado. Gmiedia. 
Eglogas, y otras 



249 

VoL XI. 
El Isidio, Poena Gastdlano dividido en 10 CaiitaB4 \ 
Jiista Poetica, en la Beatificacion de San Isidro. 

Vol. XII. 
Relacion de la Fiesta, que la Villa de Madrid hizo en 
la Canonizacion de San Isidro, San Ignacio de 
Loyola, San Francisco IS^vier, San Phelipe Neri^ 
y Santa Teresa de Jesus. 

Vol. xm. 

Triumphos Divines. 
Canto 1. Triumpho del Pan divino. 
Canto 2. Triumpho de la Ley natural. 
Canto 3. Triumpho de la Ley de Gradia. 
Canto 4. Triumpho de la Religion yde la Virgmidad. 
Canto 5: Triumpho de la Qmz saiitisMina. 
Rimas Sacras. 
SO Sonetos. 

9 Sonetos a la santa Madre Taesa de Jesus. 
IS Sonetos & la Rosa. 
Otras Poesias. 
Segundas Rimas sacras. 
Cien SoneDos. 
Glosas. 
Romances. 
Terceras Rimas sacras. 

Vol. XIV. 
Jerusalen Conquistada, Epopqra iiagicay en octoviMi 

dividida en S Partes, y SO Caidos, contiene este 

tomo desded 1, hasta el IS. 
Notas del Autor a la primera de su Jenisaleiu 



250 
Vol. XV. 

Jerasafen Conqnistada, Parte S^ -que compiemfe 

desde el Canto J2, hasta el SO. 
La VirgeQ de la Almunenai Poema historico en oc- 

tayas, dlvidido eh 3 Cantos. 
Romancero Espiritual, para legalarse el Alma con 

Dies f y Redencion del genero humano, con las 

Estaciones de la Via Crucis^ &c. &c. 

Vol. XVI. 
Los Pastoies de Belen, prosas j yer^os ; Introduccion 
en tercetos. 

VoL XVII. 
T Solfloquios Amorosos de nn Alma & Dios. 
Otras Poesias. 
Romances sacados del Romancero geuenl* 

Vol. XVIII. 

Autos, LoaS) y Entremeses. 

«. ■ 

Vol. XIX. 
Rimas diyinas y humanas, del licenciado Tomi de 

Burguillos. 
Rimas diyinas. 

Vol. XX. 

La Fama Postnma de Lope, y Elogios Pan^yiicos a 

la Inmortalidad de su Nombre; recogidos por 

d Doctor Juan Peiez de MontaWan. 

La Lista Alphabetica de los Elogiadoies ya puesta al 

' Fin de dicho Tomo, y tambien yan insertq^ en 

d Indice Alpbabetico general de los Elogiadores 



251 

LIST 0¥ PLAYS 

OF 

LOPE DE VEGA 

STILL SXTSLNT. 



Thb following list is extracted from 
La Huerta's catalogue of Spanish plays; 
and though some are ascribed to Lope 
on very slight authority, and two or 
three reckoned twice over, under dif- 
ferent names, it is on the whole tolera- 
bly correct. I have marked those which 
I have read, with asterisks. The greater 
part of them are very rare ; and it was 
not without considerable difficulty that 
I collected at Madrid about a third of 
the number here enumerated : 

Acertar errando. 
Adonis y Venus. 

Adversa Fortima del In&nte Don Fernando de Por- 
tugal. 



Adversa Fortuna de Don Bernardo de Cabiiem. '' 

Adversa Fortuna del Cabatfero dei £spiritu Santo* 

Adversa Fortuna de Ruy Lopez Davalos. 

AI pasar del Arroyo. 

Alcalde (el) mayor. 

Alcalde (d) de Zalamea. 

Alia daras Rayo. 10 

Almenas (las) de Toro. 

Amante (el) agradecido. 

Amantes (los) sin Amor. 15 

r - 

Amftr SIB saber k quten. 

AmM G0ma se ba de amar. 

Amar ppr Burla. 

Amar^ Servir, y Esperar. 

Amete (el) de Toledo. 

Ami^tad y Ob%acion. 

Amistad (la) pagada. 20 

Amigo (el) por Fuerza. 

Amigo (cl) hasta la Muert6. * 

Amigos (los) ei)ojadpfi. 

Amor (el) bandolero. 

Amor (el) enamorado. 25 

Atnor, Heyto, y Desafio. 

htmx 9^r^o basta Zeloe* 

Amor (el) con Vista. 

Angelica en el Catay. 

Animal (el) Hungria. . . ^^^ 

Animal (el) Proplieta, San Juan. ^ . 

jjuiti? Chwio (el). rv. r, t 

» . »j • • ■ . ' *" 

Arauco domado. 



'SSS 



- - i 



Anenal (el) de Sevilla. • * • 

Argdan Rey de Alcida* 35 

Argel fingido, y Renegado de Amot. * 

Asalto (el) de Mastrique. • 

Avanillo (el). 

Ausente (el) en el Lugar. 

* Ay Verdades que en Amor. 40 

* Azero (el) de Madrid t. 

Bandos (los) de Seoa,. 
Bargas (los) (feC!ai^la. 
Balahan y Josaphat. 

* Bastardo (el) Mudarm* 45 
Batalla (la) de Dos. 

Batalla (la) del Honor. 

Batalla (la) Naral. 

Batuecas (las) del Duque de Alba. 

* Bautismo (el) del Rey de Marruecos. 50 

* Bella (la) malmaridada. 
Bella (la) Aurora. 
Benayides (los). 

* Bernardo del Carpio en Francia. 

* Bizarrias (las) de Belisa{. 55 

■ 

Blason (el) de los Ckaves* 

Boba (la) para los otros, y discieta para si. 



^mmmm^tmrmmmmmmmmmmm 



+ From this play the idea of the Midecm malgri bd was 
probably taken. 
X A Tery popular play, and f re^a^utly acted at MadrkL 



254 

Bobo (d) dd Cdkfpo. 

Boda (h) entir dos Moridos. 

Bdhemia amveitida. 60 

Bnena (la) Groaida. 

Buen (d) Yecino. 

Burlas (las) yenis* 

Buigaksa (la) de Lemia* 

CabaUero (d) de Hkscas. 65 

Caballero (d) de Ohnedo. 

C!aballeio (d) dd Sacramenta. 

Caballero (d) dd Milagro. 

Qumpana (la) de Aiagon. 

Capitan (d) Bdisario, j Ezonplo mayor dt la 

Desdicha. 70 

Capuchino (d) Ebcoc6i, j CSoodesa Matilde perae- 

guida. 
Caibonera (la). 
Cardenal (d) de Belen. 
Carlos (el) perseguido* 

Carlos Quinlo en FVancia. 75 

Casamiento (el) for Christo. 
Castelyies j Monsalyes. 
Castigo (el) sin Yenganza. 
Castigo (el) en d Discreto. 
Cautivo (el) Coronado. 80 

Cautivos (los) de Argel/ 
Cerco (d) de Santa F6. 
Cerco (d) de Yiena por Carlos QuiabK 
Chaves de Yillalva. 






25l> 

• Cierto (lo) por lo Dadosot. 
Ciudad (la) sin DioB« . 
Como se vengan los Nobles. 
Como se enganan los Ojos. 
Commendadores (los) de Cordova. ^ 
Competencia (la) en los Nobles. 90 
Conde (el) Don Pedro Velez. 

Conde (el) Feman GonQalez. 
' Contra Valor no hay Desdicha. 
Con su Pan se lo coma. 

Corona (la) Merecida. 95 

Cortesia (la) de £spana. 
Creacion (la) del Mundo^ primer Culpa del 

Hombre. 
Cruz (la) en la Sepultura. 
Cuerdo (el) eft su Casa. 
Cuerdo (el) loco. 100 

Dama (la) boba. 

* Dama(la)melindro5a:(. . 

Dayid perseguido, y Montes de Gilbo^. 

De Corsario a Corsario. 

De un Castigo tres Yenganzas. 105 

De (la) Mazagatos. 

De quando ac& nos Vino. 

De lo que ha de ser. 



+ Latefj revWed and acted at Madrid. 
J Lately reyired and altered. 



iS6 

Defensa (h) en h Veidad. 

Dd Moote sale quien el Monte qaauu 110 

Dd mal lo menos. 

DesoNifiado (d). 

Desdichada (la) E8t^6uiui« 

Desgiacias (las) del Rey Don Alenao. 

Despeitar & quien daerme. 115 

Desposorio (el) encnbieito. 

Despieciada (la) querida. 

* Despiecio (el) agiadecido. 
DesjHecios (los) en quien ama. 

Destru^on (la) de CioDstantmoph. 190 

Dicha (la) del Forasino y la Pcntugiiesa. 
Dichoso (el) Farricido. 
Dlnopos son C!alidad* 
^Dios haoe Reyes. 
Dios hace Justicia & todos. I2S 

Discieta (la) enamomda. 
DiscieCa (la) Yenganza. 
Dirino (d) Afiicano. 
Di Mentiia, sacar&s Yeidad. 
Domine (el) Lucas. iSO 

* Donayies (los) de Matico. 

Donayies (los) de Pedro Corchudo, y d qai dirfin. 
Doncdla, Yiuda, y Casada. 
Doncella (la) Theodom. 

* Doncellas (las) deSimancas. IS3 
Don Juan de Castro. 1,2, &SPts. 

Don Lope de Cardona. 
Don GSon^alo de (Tordova. 



''H 



S57 

Don Manuel de Sousa* 

Dona Iiaes de Castro. 140 

Bos Agravios sin Ofensa. 
Dos (las) Bandoleras. 
Dos (las) £strellas tnxsadas. 
Dos (los) Sddados de Christo. 
♦ Duque (el) Viseo. .145 

Ello dira. 

Embustes (los) de Ciekuro. 

Embustes (los) deFabio. 

Embaxador (d) fingido. 

Enemiga (la) &Yorable. 150 

Enemigo (el) enganado. 

Enemigos (los) en Casa. 

Enganar & quien engafia. 

Eogano (d) en la Yerdad. 

Enmendar un Dano & otro. 155 

. Envidia (la) c^e la Nobleza. . 

En los Indicios la Culpa. 

En la mayor Lealtad mayor Agravio^ y Fortuna del 
f Cido. 

* Esclava (la) de su Galan. . . 

Esdavo (d) deRoma. 160 

Esclavo (el) fingido. , , 

Esclavos (los) libres. ^ 

* Escolastica (la) zelosa. 

* EsfaelladeSeviUa.. 

Ezamen :det Maridos. 1^5 

Ezemplo de Ca«adas y Prueba de Padencia. 

• ft. 

s 



£zianplo majat de fe DdH&sAa^f GuflkmBA'' 
saiio* 

Fabula (la) de Pmeo. > 

FamoBa (la) Montanesa. 170 

I^amosas (las) Astturianas. ' ^ 

* Favor (d) agiadeddo. 
. Fe (la) lompida. 

• * 

Feli»rda (la). 

Ferias (las) de Madrid* l75 

Fenuui Meodez PintD. 
fianza (la)jKiti8feclia. 
Firmeza (la) en la Desdicba. 
Flofes (las) de Don Juan Rico. 
Forbma (la) meredda* 180 

Fortnna (la) advosa. 

FiancesQla (la). . r 

Foente (la) Oygmuu _.,.,. , 

^ Fuerza (la) lastimosa. -.. 

Fnndadon (la) de la AOianiliFi^ Graiiada*'' 185 
Fnndadoa (la) de la S^ Hemaiidad de ToleduL 

iSalan (el) delaMemlsilbu ^ '^ 

Galan (el) Castmdio* *^ - '^^ i '.'^:iJ 

* Gallaido (d) Catalan. '" '' rf.:>Jii 
Gallaido (d) Jadmin. ' "'^^*i90 
Genoires (d) liberal. > '• '-^ 
GkKia de San Fiandsoo. • * - - ^^J^- 
Gran (d) Doqi^ de Mosoafb. - ^ «;!-'- 1? 
Gam (d) CaidinaldeHfiqpaliaD^ Gi 

landSPts. 



\ 



9S^ 

! Gniiimi^ (^ dia Abbcnidid. T195 

^ Guante (el) de Dofia Blanca. 

Guanches (los) deTeoeiife. 
.^ Guarda (la) cuidadosa. 

Guardar y Guaidarse. 

Guenas de Amor y Honor. 900 

Halcon (el) deFederico. 
Hazanas (las) del Cid y su Muerte- 

* Hechos (los) de Bernardo dd Qarpio. 

* .Hermosa (la) Feat. 

Hermosa (la) Alfireda. 305 

Hermosa (la) Ester. 
Hermosura (la) de Raquel. 1 & S Pts. 
Hespanoles los) en Flandes. 
Hidalgo (el) de Avencerrage. 
Hidalgos (los) de la Ald^. 210 

Hijo (el) de los Leones. 
. Hijo (el) de Qeduan. 
' Hijo piadoso y Bohemia convertida. 
ffijo (el) sin Padre. 

Hijos (los) del Dolor. £15 

Historia (la) de Tobias. 
Historia (la) de Maragatos. 
Hombre (el) deBien. 
Hombre (el) por su P^bra. 
Honra (la) por la Muger. 920 

Honrado (el) consuSangre. 



/ 



f Sometimes acted. 
S Z 



«6o 

Honrado (el) Hennano* ) 

Horca (la) para su. Docdo. 
Humfldad (la) Soberbia. 

« 

* lUustre (la) Fi^ona. 925 

niustre (la) mas Hazana de Gareilaso de la YegBi. 
Imperial (la) de Oton. 
Industrias contra el Podar. 
Infante (el) Don Famando de Portogal. 
In&nzon (el) de Illescas. 230 

Ingrato (el) arrepentido. 
logratitud (la) Taigada. 
Ingrato (el). 
Inocente (la) Sangre. 

Inocente (la) Laura. 235 

Intoicion (la) castigada. 

Jardin (el) de Bargas. 

Jorge Toledano. 

Juan de Dios y Anton Martin. 

Judia (la) de Toledo. 240 

Julian Romero. 

Juventud (la) de San Isidio. 

Laberinto (el) de Creta. 

Labrador (d) del Tormes.. 

Labrador (el) venturoso. 215 

Lagrimas (las) de David. 

Lanza por Lanza de Luis de Almansa. 

Laura perseguida. 

Lealtad, Amoi:^ yAmistad* 



261 

Lealtad (la) en la Traycion. 250 

Leal (el) Criado. 

Leon (el) Apostolico. 

Ley (la) executada. 

Leno (el) de Mdeagro. 

Libertad (la) de Castilla. 255 

Libertad (la) de San Isidro. 

Limpieza (la) no manchada. 

Lindona (la) de Galicia. 

Llegar en Ocasion. 

Lo Fingido Verdadero. 260 

Lo que esta determinado. 

Lo que es un Coche en Madrid. 

Lo que puede un Agravio. 

Lo que hay de fiar del Mundo. 

Loco (el) cuerdo. 265 

Loco (el) santo. 

Loco (el) por Fuerza. 

Locos (los) por el Cielo. 

Locos (los) de Valencia. 

Locura (la) por la Honra. 270 

Lucinda perseguida^ 

Madre (la) de la Mejor. 

Maestro (el) de Danzar. 

Mai (la) Casada. 

Maldito (el) de su Padre. 275 

Marido (el) mas firme. 

Marmol (el) Felisardo. 

Marques (el) de Mantua. 



sd3 



♦ Marques (el) delasNaras'H ('i • r c. V' « «^ 
Marques (el) del Yalle. -^ '-jteO 
Martiies (los) deMadhrfd. . ^ r^l 
Mas Valeis vos, Antona, que la Corte todai ''' 
Mas vale salto de muta, que rucgo db buesMi^' - '^ 
Mas pueden Zelos que Amor*. . ' ^ '^ 
Mas mal hay en la Aldeguela. 885 
Mas (el) galan Portugues, Duque de Bergaacn.' 
Maydr (la) Corona. . • 

Mayor (la) Victoria de Alemania, - 
Mayor (la) Victoria. 

* Mayor (la) Virtud de un ifey . $90 
Mayor (la) DicUa en el Monte. 

Mayor (la) Disgracia de GaiSos Qttiiito. 
Mayor (la) Hazana de Alexo&dm Mugiio. i 
Mayor (el) de los Beyes. 
P Mayor (el) impossible. S95 

Mayor (el) Prodigio. 

• Mayorazgo (el) . dudoso. 
^ Mayordoino (el) de la Duqueza de Amalfi. /J; 

Medico (el) de su Honra. . ' [z 

Mejor (el) Alcalde el Rey. . 300 

Mejor (la) enamorada la Magdalena. 
Mejor (el) Maestro el Tiempo. 
Mejor (el) Mozo de Hespana. 



i"/ i 



<5f 



y 



t « 



n n ii»q>p»^— >iy— y.»» 



f The original of fiiis play, m Lop«'s own hand, inth 
his alterations, is in my possi^^n. I haSre oompui^d it 
with the printed copy, and find many of the pas^a|pe8 dis- 
figured by the carelessness of the editor^ . 



^»^«*t 



^ Melindies (los) de«i«if^.. . , 

^-Mentiioso (d). . . 305 

Merdbd (la) en el Cafit|g9si 

lifeiita (d) en h Tcanplwza. ^ 

Miliigiiros (las), del De^preciQ. 

Milagro (el) por las Zelost 

Mirad & quien a]abaia« . 310 

^ Mocedades de Bernardo del C^Q^I?^! 

• Molino (el). . . , 
Montanesa (la) Famosa. 

• Moza (la) deCantaisij:, ,. j... , , . . . \Blb 
Mudanzas de la Fontuna^ y SuomwideDan JSdito&fi. 
Muerfos (los) Vivqs^ \ 
MugereftuaJHrni^ltues^ ,.. .\, .; . •% 

Nacimiento (d) de Christo. 
Nacimiento (el) de Urson j Valei^tin. 330 

Nacimiento (d) dd ASosl. 
Nadie fie en lo que v6^ porque se engafian los OJo;. 
Nadie se conoce. 
. Nardo Antonio Bandol^o. 
Naufragio (el) prodigiaso» ^ ^5 

• Necedad (la) del Discreto. 
Negro (el) de mejor Amo. 

t Nina (la) de Plata, y Burla Vengada. 

Nifiez (la) de San Isidio. 
> NiSesses (las) dd Padr^^xjas. ^30 

Nino (d) Inooente ^ la Gnaxdia. . 

mmammm m ^mH u i w\% ■ i m ilii n i m i l n il i |i i > | ' J ' ■ I W VIH" ■ P » p ' f l' mt 

+ Frequently acted« . ► :. ^.'. 

t Lately reTi?ed, aodfr^u^ntly #ot^ 



1264 

Nino (d) Pastor. 

Nino (d) Diablo. 

No hay vida como la Hinm. 

Nobles (los) como ban de ser. 335 

Noche (la) de San Juan. 

Noche (la) Toledana; 

Noestra Senora de la Candderia. 

Nueva (la) Yictoria del Maiqnes de Santo Gmz. 

Nuevo Mundo descubiorto por Colon. 340 

Nunca mucho cnesta poco. 

Obedjenda (la) Lameada. 
Obras son Amoies. 
^ Ocasion (la) peidida. 
Octava (la) Maiayilla. 315 

* Padrino (el) desposado. 
Palacio (el) copAiso. 
Palacios (los) deGaleana. 
P^iloma (la) de Toledo. 

Paiaiso (d) de Laura. 350 

F^isar (el) dd Arroyo. 

Pastdero (el) deMadrigaL 

Pastor (d) Fido. 

Pastoral (el) :te Jacinto. 

Pazes (las) de los Reyes. 355 

Pedro Carbonero. 

* Pdigros (los) de la Aiisencia. 
Pena (la) de Francta. 

Pefibanez yOmunendadorde Ocana* 

Perro (d) ddHortdano. 360 

PiadoBo (d) Aiagonis. 



265 

Piadoso (d) Veneciano. 

• f 

Piedad (la) executada. 

Pleylo (el) por la Honia. 

Pleytos (los) de Inglaterra. S65 

Pobreza (la) estimada. 

Pobieza (la) no es Yileza. 

Pobrezas (las) de Reynaldos. 

Poder (el) Veneido. 

Ponces (los) de Barcelona* 370 

Por la puente Juanat. 

Porciles (los) de Murcia,< 

Postrer (el) Godo deHespana« 

Prados (los) de Leon. 

Premio (el) de la Hermosura. 375 

Premio (el) de las Letras. 

Premio (el) de bien hablar. 

Premio (el) en la misma Pena. ' 

Primer (el) Bey de Castilla. 

Primer (el) Carlos de Himgria. 380 

Primera (la) Culpa del Hopibre, u Creacion del 

Mmido. 
Primera (la) Informacion. 
Primero (el) Faxardo. 
Principe (el) Don Carlos. 

Principe (el) despenado. 385 

Principe (el) perfecto. 1 & 2 Pfs. 
Principe (el) ignorante.- 
' Principe (el) Escanderberg. 
Prision (la) sin Culpa. 



"I- Lately revived, and frequently acted. 



966 

IVodigio (d) deEtiopia« ., . 'B90 

Piofetisa (la) Casandia. .*'' 

Pkospera Fortmia dd Cebalkmdd£qpirita8«(D. 
Prospera Fortiina de Ruy Lopez Dairalae* 
Prodeocia (la) enelCasti^ ' -' 

Pnente (la) de Mantible. * > '995 

Quando Lope quioe, quiere. 

Querer la propria Desdicha. 

Qiieier mas, 7 sufrir menos. 

Quieii mas, no puede. 

Quienbi^aaiiia taideolvida. 400 

Qiuen todo lo qnieie. 

(la) de Fbiencia. 



Madxid* 



•t • t fc' 



I .-• 






J^amirez de Aidlano. 

Rcmedio (el) en la Desdichji, _. .J05 

Besistencia Honiada. . . , , ^ ,. ., 

* Rey (el) Don Sdnistian. , < t ,., ^ 
Rej (d) Bamba. 
J^y (el) sin Reyno. . . 
Reyna (la) Juana de Napoles. . , dlO 
ReyAa (la) Dona Maria. 

Rico (el) y pobre Trocados. 
Robo (el) de Dina. 

* RcHna abiasada. 
Rueda (la) de la Fortmia.' AIS 
Rustico (el) ddCido. 

(d) deSeyilla. 



I 



Saber (d) poede danar. 



■I' • 1 



m 

Saber (d) por no sabers ' .11: 

San Diego de Alcala. ~4S0' 

Sm hUlMode Madrid. 

San Ildefiiiiflo. 

San Nicolas de Tol^itioo. . ^ 

San Pedro Nolasco. . 

Sen Pablo. « 425 

Santa Brigida. 

Santa Casilda. 

Santa Polonia. 

Santa Teodora. ' -^ 

Santa Teresa de Jesiisy'su Vicb y MaeHe. 430 

Santa (la) Liga. 

Santiago el Verde. 

Santo (el) N^o Rosambuc. 

Secreto (el) de si mismo. 

Sdva (la) confusa. 435 

Selyas y Bosques de Amor. ^ 

Sembrar en buena Tierra. 

Serafin el dumano. ^ 

Servir con mala Estrella. 

Senrir & Senor discreto. '440 

* Servir a Buenost. 
Serrana (la) de la Vera. 
Serrana (la) deTormes. 

* Siete (los) Infantes de Lara j:. 

Sierras (las) de Guadalupe. ' 445 

' Sill Secreto no hay Amorl 

+ Frequently acted. ^ 

X Frequently acted, though a very extraTagant com. 
position. , > . * ; 



i68 

Si no Yieran las Mngeres. 

Sitio (el) de Yiena del Ano 1683. 

Sol (el) Parado. 

Soldado (el) Amante. 450 

Sortija (la) del 01bido« 

Sucesos (los) de Don Beltian>. 

Suerte (la) de los Reyes, 6 los CJaiboneros. 

Suenos hay que Yerdades son. 

Sufrimiento (el) de Honor. 453 

Tambien se Engana la Yista. 
Tanto hagas qiianto pagnes. 
Tellos (los) de Menezes, in Yalor^ Fortuna y Leal- 
dad. l&2Pts. 
Templo (el) Salomon. 

* Testimonio (el) yengado. 460 
Testigo (el) contrast 

Tirano (el) castigado. 

Toledano (el) vengado. 

Torneos (los) de Aragon. 

Tiabajos (los) de Jacob. 465 

Trabajos- (los) de Job. 

Trato (el) muda Costumbres. 

* Tniycion (la) bien acertada. 

* Tres (los) Diamantes. 

Triunfo (el) de la HnmiUad. 470 



Yaliente (d) Ccspedes. . 

Yaliente (el) Juan de Heredia. 

Yalor (el) de Femandico. 

YaloT (el) de las Mngeies. 

Yaquers de Moiana. 475 



S69 

Yarona (la) Castellana* 

Veflocino (el) deOro.* ' ' 

Venganza (la) honrosa. 

Yenganza (k) venturosa^ 

Yengadora (la) de las Mugeres. 480 

Yentura (la) sin buscarla. 

Yentura (la) en la Desgtacia. 

Yentura (la) de la Fe. 

Yer y no creer. 

Yerdad (la) sospechosaf. 485 

Yeidadeio (el) Amante. ' '\ 

Yictoiia (la) del Marques de Santa Cruz. > 

Yictoria (la) de lii Hoara. . ' i 

YiUana (la) de Getafe. 

Yillano (el) en su Rincon. 490 

Yirtud, Pobreza, y Mujer. 

Yiuda, Cas^ula, y Doncella* ] • ../. 

Yiuda la Yalenciana. 

UltiiiR> d Godo. 

Yerros por Amor. 495 

Zelos con Zelos se Curan. 

Zeloso (el) Estremeno. . ^ - . i 



ir<- 



X 



• I 



f ' V 

+ There does not appear any proof of thid play b^ing 
tlie composition of Lope^ nor of its being extant. 






am 

AUTOS SACRAMENTALES ALEGORICOS, 

T 

AL NACIMIENTO DM NUESTBO SENOR. 



Adultera (la) p^onada. 

Ave Maria j Rosano de Nnesira Senora. 

AventuiBs (las) del Hombre. 500. 

Cared (la) <ie Amor. ^ r , ^ . \ . ; . 
Canoepcioa (la) de Nuestra Senonu 
GMBario (d) dd Alma, y las Galens. 

Haaafias (ias) dd segundo David • 

Hijo (de) la Iglesia. 505 

^* 

Margarita Qa) preciosa. 



Natividad (la) de Nuestro Sefior. 

Nuem. (d) QiiBiiie dd Sol 7 mafl^dkIia6o'R«faL 



« '^ 



t • I 



Oi^(bQ i^adida. 

^*Pastor (d) ingrato. ' 510 

Prisumes (las) de Adui. ««:.*•- s-ro 

^ftiTaBza<la)4]d»iIoniln»4 . ^ ......: .. .. 

Puente (la) -dd Mpndo* _. : - 

Swata 0a) Liqiusicion. ' 

Triupfo (d) 4e Ut Igkm. fiifi 

Toj9on (d) dd Ckb. 



2Tl 



APPENDIX. 

No. 2. 



INFORME 



DADO a' la 



REAL ACADEMIA DE HISTORU, 

m 

Juegos, Espectactda^ y DtoerHones PtMcus. 






This treatise is tho wori of Thtt 
Gas^arJif elckcff de JoVeUands/^ate «i- 
nister of grace and justice ^n l^aiu ;> a 
m^n, who, after having devoted the J^ 
bours, and ev^n the amusements, of Bis 
usieful Hfe to the impro'Wibent and http-' 
piness of hiu fellow cduritrymen, is now 
languishing in the dungbCfUs df FsltiiA ; 
]iii|)risod€fd without an d^ccusMion^'aiikl 
eobdemned witbvut the^ f6rm 6f a triiaL 



m 

and public div^rniQiis of Spain, wa^ unr 

dertaken at the request of the Royal 

Academy at Madrid, and con^pleted ii^ 

1790, during hit retirement at Gijon; 

at a time when the displeasure of a mi- 

nister did not necessarily imply t]^, 

ruin, persecution, and. imprisonment of 

its object. It has never beffi printed, 

probably owing to the fastidious severi-, 

tjc with %YhJ.ch tins ^exc^^n^ aiitiipi; has. 

generally viewed his. own prpductions. 

As he is, howev^y,' tli<e only person who ^ 

is;dissa^sfi,34 wi^hjtl^m^ copips.. of* .the. 

tlga^ffil i». ;M^'., ,a?e flpt ,difficujt,,t» b^ . 

-h^M^-^Jmi ^t^ctJifket^ oft tk% 
ftflttian !estfth^9§ .mi ^p§ift» . and ^ 
sfe«r|^i.'^ppunjt M .tfiQ dijjej^Qnft ii^Qj 

dW£e<i.by.itbe;npjt^\eyh..b$|rb«riftP* a*d 
tljgip jdf scgn^ajijs, bfi 4 escrlb^ %h$ g^tel ' 



273 

bella's time, to the commencement of 
the present reign. He takes a yiew of 
the controversies to which it has given 
rise; and though he condemns such 
scandalous abuses of theatrical repre- 
sentations as have occasionally prevail- 
ed in Spain, he, vindicates the use of 
that rational diversion, from the impu<* 
tationis of the clergy, with bis usual elio^ 
quetice and success. The latter part of 
the work is devoted to the exposition of 
plans for the revival of antient exercisies 
and diversions, and to the suggestion of 
expedients for refining the character of 
the drama, exalting the profession of 
players, and animating the exertions of 
poets. Here it must be acknowledged 
that he allows his zeal for letters, and 
.n aoziety to di«ct them to be»efici.l 
purposes, to divert him £rom conclu-p> 
sions to which his own principles would 
more naturally conduct him; and he 
somewhat inconsistently expects from 



ttJL 

j&ience of ^vemmeats or atsademief 
was 6¥er yet able to .produce. Hiii 
aversiim to the buU feasts^ induced > him 
also to underrate their popularity, aad 
to exaggerate the evil conaequenibes 
produced, by that barbarous but not 
unmanly, amusenienti But eY4» whcare 
his reasoning is least conchisivef - one^ is 
fucm^ted by the beauties oi his sl^le^ 
ivhitA ^ always seem to.: arise: fiom tha 
discitttiiony aqd to ^be as n»Uch .the V9r 
suit of the fii«c«rity oS his «ooiri«6oi}i 
and tfa^. b^ierolence of his vicmrtiiy , as of 
au enlightened education, and a cor* 
Mot .taste in eoniposilioii and iaa^uage. 
Such, indeed^ is the dmrkcter of aD his 
writings, though it may possibly excito 
siurprise that a dissertatioii on.. games 
and exhiftttions should afford any room 
for displaying it Jovellahos has, how? 
ever, eontrived even on such a topie to 
tlirow mto the compass of a few pages 



philoi^ophical reflection, witfebut wan- 
deuing from the subject, or betra3ring 
flliy diipositiotf to pedantry or ftffecJta-^ 
tioa, ; 

To justify the above commendations 
ef his i«rotk, i subjoin a passage, which 
may serve also* to ilJttsttate a remark iti 
the text^ and tb show that the gloomy 
appeananc^y so often objected tc> S)ra^ 
nistrds, is to be a»cribed4o the pervert* 
spirit of their municipal laivs, and not 
td the natniaL dispositioiii of that hi^^ 
s^itlted'mid W4rin-hearted plg6^I«i 






t » 1 1 ..,<,, , 



divierta, per9 si que le dexe divertirse. £n los pocos 
dia5, en las breves boras, que {bede destinar & su so« 
laz y lecreo, elhascsuA AiuveaiBxi sus enteeteaimU 

la dii^frutarlas. Ui^ dia d^ fiesta^ claroyjsereao, ei^ 
que pueda libfemente pasear, correr, tirar & la barra, 
^Bgaf a^Ia pdotay al tgueb, & las, boIo% .aler^ari 
^4|^^ b^Iar J ^C9i. p<u; d, ca^^^Q ; U^i4 todof 
BUS deseos, y le ofreceri la diversion j el placer mas 

T 2 



<< Sin embargo, i como es que la mi^or part^ dd 
pueblo de Eqiafia no s^ divierte en iqaijiei^^.^lgmia? 
Qual^iMex?!, que hajft wrrido flpfift^ j^i;iiKa^> 
habra becbo mucbas y&x%, est^. dolproo^ obs^ryac^Qn.. 
Enlosdiasmas solenuics, en yes de la al^ia, j bi^- 
cio que debieian apunciar el.cQptentp.de$i|s.moia« 
4ove^,, ijeypa ^i laspbi^fi&j pas»».xifiat.p<;re70s^i«ac- 
ciwjL W *ri«te syenpKb qw w s^p\ie^.^4!!^..»vi 
admuaciou ni Mstium*. Si algiui9^.p^i]^qiussalen de 
sus casa$> no pai:ece sino que la ocio^dad bs ba. ecbar 
dod^dlaih j.la3:9^na|«ti;»ale9d4o9 &la,pl»Ba.Q^ per- 
liicd.dfi la Vfffcsi&i .doBde enboKados. en vsus'canas nl 
Mrriiopde alburn esqpina^ q 8i$^dpi> p Yaflwdo ap^ 
7 alia |in (^jgeto ni pifopesito deteiminadp^ pasadi tm- 

« ft 

de]osb|^il|3S).Ia:pQbce9»y.el desalipp d^tto i^eiMdq^ 
d aji39 tfiste.7 silenci^^o, J^ poqe^^i: f >,^(^.d« mMw 
quese^n^entodaspartesi .£quieD.^9a;»qua;||i^.s^Sf||V 
prenda 7 ^sAxvteasfiL 6 vistai de twto.fi^iWQWoi: . <Njp 
es deeste lugar descubrir las iaUas 1o4a$ que x)pQCwr«- 
fenaprodttcirie; seanla^quefbeseiH'iepiiedeQ3q;viar 
que emanaiia delas leyes, todas; Pen^ .6ia fialir de 
Huestio pi?c^)dsito^ no pode«aoa.ca]lap qu0 l^pri9RS|.de 
dbs es k niala. policia de pu€»tn»pudi>)a5« ' £1 9^ 
indiscreto de un gian numero de Jueces ae ba penu^ 
dido que la mayor peffboeion del gMffrno 'immicipcd 
9e cifta. en la sugacioD del pueblo y & ^pi^ Jo samo dd 
Ih wh o idc n c a n B irte en que sus m»mdorps -y HtremBZ' 



* 






277 

'^li ^ IA>(fe c^ K ^iem y rfaffie se atfeve •&' m&mtte 

m a respirar kl oir su ilbmbre. Eh consequencia, 

^qttalqbi^ra' blfllk, qualquiera gfesca^akazara, recibe 

et 'n^mbre^ de' asonada, 6 alboroto ; qudlqui^a di^encioh, 

^alqiiie^ pendeticia, es objeto de un procedimientb 

drlhlirial/y tmeieii poside si, perquisais y pixKjesos, pri- 

sidAesy hildliiis, y todo el seguWa de molestito y vexa- 

dbiies Senses. Baio tan'dtita policia, d f^eeblo ae 

alcflbatttte, y'tntris/t^eft^ y fcfdrlfitando stt gusto a su s^ 

^gtiridM, tenuricia ^la diVcfrskni pctblica e ihoqeiite, aui*- 

<][ue t^BgK, y phl^iri^ Ik sbledadyla inac^cioh, tri^tes a 

la vatf^V y doiotdsii^ ; pti!t6 a mismo tiempp s^urasf. 

' ^ B6 semgairte sy^nia^han tiacWo infinitos yegla- 

-maltos de pdieiay^96fi» cOHt^s^ios dr ia libettkd db 

4oilr {)u^!ildB/ §liMjrtkmblie^i ar'ia^pt^perid^ por 

<^ tib^Vadld^ ^on ameti^ rigor y durd^a; '''£iiiuii{(3 

^()art^>^l|fr5Mbi^iI^'n^idE» en 

<fVieekos' ai i^ni^Fmi^e^ k )susr easas, '& la queda ; y <m 
^^^tt^ & 'rid'^sfalH: eii la k^idle »tiK hi»^ a m^ pararse en 
ittr icsqfdn^j « 'ttt^' jiinltai^' elt oebiltos | y ^ & otras 
«emejatf««' pri"»iacio»e^ ^ El faror de maftdar, y algu- 
lini ¥^ laM[^i<)k>d&ldi9iliie(e^/ lia exiendida ft las mas 
ytfiived ald^^^ ir^Iam^ntbs^ que apefias pudiem exigk 
la 0(Hidb^ein d^ i^a Corte ; y el in&liss Ga&in que ha 
i^dbl^iglkd>i^ld$'ti»¥one»d^ en la 

«tl)^a loda M<j^m|isla| ^ndpudde en hi noche de Sabadd 
'^f{tarlibremestteeirla^pta2adesiiliigar,' nlentonar un 

i >/><(• Aun d pais en que i4vk>% a^Emqme sefiakdo ente 

* Las Astarias. 



978 

tedog par w hhrn iMSUA^ por ^ naUrtf degKit, y 
por la inooentia de sqs costumbres, Ho ha poiBOtip 1h 
brarse de la opresaun de sem ejante tq^hmeolo^' yd 
disgusto am que son lecibidos, y de que Ue AUty-tafi^ 
go, alguna vez^me sngieie ahoiaestas liefibdoiiesJ ^Ek 
dispenion de su poblacion no pennite pm* fiittaim^'lii 
pdicia municipal inventada para W pudblos alncgla>i 
dos; perolos nuestros se juntsm & dt^eitif&e eahm 
UomeriaSy y alU te donde Io6 te^isoQeatM de la pbKda 
loB siguen £1mportnnan. Se hi proldbido en dids, A 
vao de los palos que hace'aqui^ notts neoesiIKo que bt 
^efensa, la firagosidad del pais; fiehanTedadofasdani^ 
zas de h(Hi&Tes ; se ban becho oesar & mediartaidebis 
He mugeres; y finalmente l^feoHiga 4 'dfaoHfer iflte 
de bt oracion, bis Tomerias que Mmbi unutt di f cisbi t 
de estos bJboriosos € inocentes pueblos. ;Ocitno e^ 
posibfe que esten bien Ibafiados y cotilttboi con iah 
molesfa pofida ? Se dir& que todo se sikfie. — (Y'esYvIt^ 
dad; todo se sufire4— paro se E^me^db nuda' ^ana' jf 
qiikn BO pbndeta las consttmenciatf dfetanTairgby i^ 
zad6 sufiimiento ? ElestadodelJbertadc^unasEtii^ 
cion de paz y de alegria; el de sujecknrtr es fl^' f»- 
quietud ydisgusto; por ocins^^ui^te, dptimemca 
'durable, A sc^undo expuesto & viudanzas. 

^ No basta que los pudUos' esten qnietos^ es precis6 
que esten Contento^; ysoto en cotazonefeb iscifaibfcg, '^ 
en cabezas vacias de todd prindpb de poKfiea puefc 
abrigarsela idea deaspirar lib primero nnloKgdtiflA. 
Los que tnimn conindiferendaeste ptultd? 6 ndrpob- 
frania refadon que bay entre lalibertad f hipakpc- 
ridad detospUd)Ios; AporloibeMsbidesprtsdlilir'y 
fan inido'es uno comb tMro/ ' Snf t n S m pi dbtidt^ 



\ 



\ 



S79 

wm^bi^AigW 4e la atencioQ d^ muk administra* 
(mm jn^t^. y suave. Un pueblo libre y a^gre, seri 
procisaniexitf^ jactiyo y laborioso ; y sieiidola seii bieii 
morigcvado y obediente A la justicia. Quanto mas 
gtpse^ tanto^?!!^ amari el gobiemo en que vive ; tanto 
»ejor. ia 'ob(Bdecec& ; tanto mas de buen grado coa- 
cumra a sustentarle. y de&nderle. Quanto mas 
goze^ tanto mas tendra que perder ; tanto mas temer& 
d desorden^ y tanto mas r^petara la autoridad desti- 
iiada'i& leprimirle.. Eiite pueblo tendrt mas ansia de 
enriqueoQVse^ P<>^<1^ sabr& qme aumentar^ su placer al 
paao qu^ sufortuna*. £n una palabra, aspirara con mas 
sudor & su i^yU^idad, porque es»tara mas se^io de go« 
zarla. Sien^ pues este el primer objeto de todb 1)ued 
gobiemo, i como es que se ha descuidado ianto, entre 
pomttpSkl Ha^ lo que] se lli^na prospeijdad pub- 
ilica^ si acaso ^es ptra que el vesultado de la felicidaA 
de , los jparticail^rQs^ pende tambi^n de este objeto'; 
.porque^ dpqdeir y la fherza de un.estado no consiste 
soloes la muqb^umbre, ni en la riqueza, sino tambien 
en d qax^daclB jwx9i d& p\i» habitantes. £n efeto ; que 
fiietaga podia^ teoer yna imcion OHupuesta de hombres 
dd»ies y corroppidos^ duros, insaisibles^ y agenos de 
todo intefes y amor publico ? Pot el contr^o, los in« 
diiidnos de un pueblo frequentemente congregados & 
sdaxarse y, diverse librem«tite, formar&n siempre un 
.jm^o uaido y afectuoso, conocer&n un interes comun^ 
yr^9tar4n mas distastes de sacrificarle & su interes par^ 
ticulat; seii^n de animo nuis elevado pOrque seraa 
ms» lihtes^ y por lo mismo, aer&n tambien de co- 
.^razon n^i3 recto y enforzado. Cada uno estimari 
.tm^la^^ pcvqui^ pe e8timar& a si mismo; y estimai;)! 



luoaxttk 1 7 Ja dafeadeiin^V^pRMiJiinMlp^ cre}»idD qiie 

tad, y k deyria A job pg^Mog^crtaniiMtfif^HHtiltlft dd 

^de8C»rdea^que*htiistrza'7]asir|ciiki^ m - j ^^ 'vu 

^^ No se crea por esto^ ipjn^ jaimim<Poma*iatntii^ 

ofWPegiT»ia-magiateatai».ffwftrgafe i!wto. si>bi^ el 

80si^DfNlb%(»; 4aKo^)Nivd>cfirtiniiO)4iue.im.-tfipfl^ 

*fl«i* Dooftoua ^igiluicia^: -seta '>iippaabfeiSQaaaifrar. b 

' taMD^biu} y «l biitti oldea ;^ ae psstf inoaiqiw ]» li- 

-ecnoiaiiidi'aiidflf imiy.ceKaddia<i^^ jxftm^ti 

-oeeeMBa^im fr#ii9^ttedeteiig^.at jkia qna qiaiBBii tns- 

' d^ If jijai^>«ddiiiiQaici9^^ 

» itttN9«[s^(H(h0Mtnf qaiB(0Oirfbidaii U. yifibildi&)aHt>h 
^i^>t«ig|i{)ii4i' j^O'^hf^^fitttaByjOD^JKifriec^iininrax^ 
^ hii^'^\vML(Mjeniqim:n^<pBtsm^ al'jpadbbfloaJH^tni- 
'mditt<}tdel'fkMier'yj^^ vA>jiucgai pt»ij|s 

^i6innA'fseaiUfn4aAf$cl^ saMiteig >ti5:«de 

'iksfegmBXJsi jfs^w aiexpepflisdaisuiikeiteid 

ysu^ gusto* £»«!! vaikiov filipneblo^iio. se jdl^eftxia 

mientras no esteea plenaMbertad detdiitasiii^ 

enti^ ro&das' y^ pot^Ias, eq^awdiciesB y soidaidos, 

entie yaras y^baycmetas, la^'Iiba^tid-se'aiiiodteiitaijrJa 

timida 6 ifioodfcte* Idefiiia^ huyp y desipaieoe.^ M» <es 

este el camino de alcanzar el fin para que fu6 institui** 

do el ma^^istiado publico. Si es licito, comparar lo 

^%amilde cbn lb excdso, su Vigilaacia debla pdrecerse ' 

'A fe dersfer^uj^remo/ fecr cicrla y eobtbnm^, p^ Jiivi* 



/ 



Sffil 



cttidar iBBiipa]:»dcL'deBaikletit:]^anL iio|iriiiiifk^ f dis la B- 

dbe^ted^pnu^piBtegala. SA'ttflKpahibmaetfina de 

ibp nfadov;* apqpno ;>«Miido^^4aB ]m«MSi Ds otro 

"Mddo^ tet ■cBpetebiritp laip dd la Jiisiick sDccnmvtal 

lib iartiaiiiiBiirdiijqgraBtm 7 tindua, j obiafida coo- 

tiasu mismoiniiiteto^'Bfligii4 7tiirba]».4IaBmiamo8 

qaailAiw <xnMlar.y pmtegerr 

. ^^ flUn'scmflMLedias ideas, aoeroadehsdmi^^ 

pofidamB. • N(i> favf pnmmiiay wb Juy di^to^ »> 

haf ^^iliiit^ ai Idgacf que &o»leii§a okMmeaireftiiiniiear 

loi^ ^ dhabftlialn^ ya pemoiciiBy CBtabletadbs parens* 

tiuafar^ ecnmiiDsidi^laena, deagiKdadadeHK^^ 

ask^ lwgd» 6 ■mrJBridafi^'paaBfc, fiestary digfiraa» ^ii^Q" 

g^fingaa. 'tihaplDstque A]eiKi'iestoevn^gdcijo6'<^^d|« 

^<vttik)a08^«todbae(9ria[ Jiiii^ qUe 

rioMKfpublkds^ / id IniBi Jateyteq» faateg(fc>iil paoUo 

cacateflcofaHoapieitticatpeB^^iBsim^ arneglavlM/ 

- Jngai^B' .QfiMaa^tla •pua^iUps^ • abjar^dr jaH#/ qiiaalo 

llutdi^ ladaule/ y dekatieUbieriieiitaitatvegtoa^p^ides^ 

: Imfey aeibaBiHE Mfaj^awiitaifcaariybiqiteipMU.aniBdfap* 
^taaii^^ dad&anpqkm^. c Sca^effaiQ iiD.ipfid9» que se 
i €Omylao&«a^la'tlegrJa cfe sua Ujoo no «coiiio ua tinuio 
<efahWinan dd^cbniwteida'iMfl etfdaTOs. 

^^'£b aoB«iufiaoQy et froebio icaoio> diximoA al pm* 
,xipio^<d.paeUo'qte;tnd»aja:no^aec^ di gobier* 

•n^Ife diwrtafeol^si qa0iledoi0:diimtiss^ 



'I 



r.*^ 'I^Jl^e ]f(^ujriiw,,d9S9 of soci4y.Bpquii« diy^ 



£82 

tkemsDlvu* For the Am dBjBfi^tthmtwaoma^ 
which they oaa derate to i<ocitatifiii'iaiid.'ehlnrtaiB«' 
mmU they mtt ntetuiaOy.fieQhyBiidtiflilj.tiDdfiuanDf 
wmto iRnt theuselYes. Lettibrntnendyibe iinMlaU 
edy and protected in the cnjofmcfcit oE tlMdu i| 
bright 6ky and fine ivoother, oii« hdiday^ which'iali 
leave them at liberty 4d walh^ Twmy thnar the fauRy to 
ffa^atfaally coHa»or'ddttka^ortorjaalnnt^'drMd^ daiioo 
1^ caper OB the gnifis^ 'will: fill all jtbekdenea^ ami 
yidd' them oamiMe gfotifitedoB aad contoitBctil* 
JU*to€he|tp a nte may aj whole peopio^lMvdttep inh 

4^^H^v^^^mpy ^^^# ^^^^aa^H*^^^^A i^^pff^#* p^^^^p^^pif^^^v « 

. <« Hoii happow it thm^ thalrthe Migorily €€ d^ 
paopfeof S|Maba¥aaoditeaiiiakAt)alU^ For cMy 

00 "irbo Jw^wvielled.throiigh rittr^i^ aaiat 
hfina made tfafa* mdandidsr rnvwft^* «£iwii lOiiMtiMi 

and Bwe ^ilmkahoiAl heqpeafcithe jogBiof iha» iiilia« 
hitaats^ ihem.'retgaft! thfowghout' the nmrioBt |Jawi 
aadfteeMfl^ a dotbfiil iiia«thr^yi At^f^baaa^ 
Ifhitfh.ca0|iot berMackfid withoofcihe^ymi^miMH 
tioaa -of fiurpriae mA pity<» 13m. Jkm paoMa iiiho 
leave tbatrhoos^Meata be dkiveA fimo tkamby 
H g t i e»sfic»s wd dn^giodaafiur as ibe thwahaHj tho 
maifcet, or the oharoh-door^ Thei^ aMiflnd ift them 
cloaksh Igft^^ i fi g aMiMt aome comer* aeatad- on. aaoMi 
jbcDfih) or louigiiig badiiiwrda ami lanraida^ artthoat 
object^ aim, or purpose, thqr paiw their* hour^ayo^ 

1 Aday say their whole eveningB, irithoat mUth^ 9^ 
OKBtioiky or amUMsvmt. . Wbeo. yon add (o thk pic- 
toae^ the dmjrinem ami filtli^oC A^ viUof;^^ tliotpoof 



£85 



4I$»A dlooKe m£^ tbeilr airy the teviiiey, the want of ^ coiti- 
«CBl'Biid:iiiRi0iii8o «lfiUiif etseiy iv4ffire^ who bm 
'miQUji)6«0taBiiBhed ; ivlio but iivouldbe^afflieted hf 
^^.rinmtnfyik ^ksmanxfsnaai Thb ir nol imkiBd the 
I^lacerh»«bcpose-theen0n which coauq^ to pibduca 
ii;/biit ivhats^ar those enoiKs maj be^ cmo jpoiiit ui 
cdeaiH»4^hat they di^aiito<b^'fiRiiid.k the Uws^ Wkh«» 
eatiiaiideritigiftiiittiA^^ I may be permitti!id 

fa el^asrre^' that the dUef^mistaho^iies inr thelkuMf 
palkmo6iom iVBBgmi 'Mahjnnil^iiiiMleBaie-'i^ 
bf4in il]»^|iii%9d'i|Rad taisttppa^i thftlfthe perfectiMi 
of municipal goyarBiBieiit^Goii«tot« in tb^ *dul)jeeti«lii <if 
the peonk $ ilfaejr imagine thBt> the gieatol^el of gdb* 
onihiattoii is BJ&isdmflsami^ i if > ti«^hih«biti6t^ txiimUi 
i^4te voieie^of jJitttfec^Taittl *tid obe^^^toicis to m<niiej 

Heme amf^ mob^- oiijr hoiie ^or ^diUittirbdtt^, il ^MmsA 
arfiot ot^a tonoitt ; imA «|>«rf Idirtfoidiiiputift' ot 'seiiffli 
b«diiM»^llME^sfiBject>oFr cthifiiiai'proocediaj^^ inh^ 
tKohn^ dn: il9>toaieqH/dti0^» «aiaiifti^^ autt oi«ci^ 
iflq^niioiilipmite ^h aifiirthg (ttthi of^tegial 

peraedU(90fn:a]id>^extiiions4;^> U Mic% an 'op^i!«^ 
M^e^pdfifcdjll^ po^plb grbw dtepiriMt and dirit^ajrt^ 
ed s and ^koi^idA^ their tUMflfauH^Mii tb ^ir isecuiity; 
Ihe^* abjoK^diivieiiikms^ whiohy thoo^h ptifblic and m^ 
AOMity ato i«p1^e' if(^itbiiiMbim«M^ and faatd 
roodurge <!» MlUmde 4iitd >iii£feetion^ ^diitt imd painM 
itid^ to tb^ fe^ng^y but at. feast unjaMested% 
bilr, andUfilEtt^^kted^ith^dang^. - 

^1 ¥&fe dkftie^jNstij^ hafi^ occasioived* flambetfesi^ i^ 
{fdlttioits 6[-^it^^ nckoiAly ihjiirii!^ iolhelftialfi^^ 



^ 



^rilfages, yet iidt less littrslity drless tigoroiifly en* 
^finted'on that accoQBt. There are some places -vrlidfe 
tnlKic^aiid'riiigiiig^ of b^*, offato 'ikrhei^ b^ tmd 
«iiaitkig8*sappers are |)r(Aibi(ed. " In oiie yill^ ^S»b 
inhabitants mnst i^tire to their homes at (fi^ vi»feil>\ 
in another they most not appear m the^trebtsr irtflionl 
%- ygbt ; they must not lotter about the comefs, or 
stop m the pwches ; and in aU thcy^ are subject to 
QimU&rifestnints'andpiivations. ' ' 

^Theragt fi)r go^ildi^, in'sbnte cases perhkpft 
Ihe- arraride of the magistrates, has esttenided to the 
lHO0t nMseitfde hamlets, r^ufalti<Hls \vhich' irould 
balmily be necessary iit dS Ae confusion of a metropo- 
lis; and the Wretched Vosblaidjnan^hb has Wateifed 
thecMftf t^lth ^ M^tiftt'^of^ld^ bh)lr; and ^ept on 
tiia'grcMid^ttaoAigliottt^ "MSt^'tAastsk on Satnrdky 
liighl beftri at his -iHH in the stfeete'dP liis^ VHI^^ 
of olumBt Ms bftHM ^llre do<^ bF'hb s#d^^ 
■ <<^»^'flie province in'Wlilich Flive (Astiiri^), r^ 
nasdaAH^ f<^flie>iiattiM Ic^he^fufiiie^ '^A iibioc^t 
hMtfmds dTi^'hdisbitatMs, fe nbt ekettt]^ tfOdl^iaM 
hMdshtp of similar ^regnlatickis. Indeed the' discon* 
kill iHiich they produce, and wUoh'I hive ftequeni-' 
1^ witnessed, has suggested many 6f -these fdfectioni 
^ the subject. The dtspier^ioh df its popn&tim fbr- 
^OKotAj ptemils that* muntcipd pcdioe, HridcU ha^ 

»■■! ■ I I .1 It ■ , • .'r • r I 1. • ' I ■ , l"^ 

^ ^ Tliere'is a custom ia l^panlsh Tillages of parading mi^ 
lAreetS on hoilday nights with the bells' taken from the 
iBMHes and jtrMiei^. -The rude kiiftt of music th^y pro-' 
dttoe 18 called cnccrraia. 



4^ a>tt^g^.as9^bli^ iG;M;* their dineiisiwfi^ at a aert of 
^i^,(f9^,It(m^m^ CM? Pilgrim«we?, . A#di ttot^ 
|^,is tM<ti\i^ jREjful^tHWis of the policy ipui9il¥^ and hm^ 
]l^ .tbw« Stioiq^? ^rfakltajoe/used moie.on acooimt 
of ^il^iI]«qlpaUty of. ^e oimotry, tfaaa a$ a jHecaiitiw 
l^i;.{^4«MQer ^t;? projl»ibit€d in these waJtes. Mw 
4fuices.9xe.fai;hid(}eas; tbofi^ of ^pisu^n.must close etfljr 
ji^ itb« ;eveDJ|^^,^4 thie W9ifi^ HmTsmty^a the sote 
diversion of these ini^^^,^i^id>h^I]oiJQHa yil)^^ 
m^ lH;eftk up ^.tbe^ftion);; x>f .^Tfsniiw pr^^cyc* i How 
cw ^t^qjr.iic^ic^racil^ thei];i^K9$..iYithriuV^ Qbeor^Wiwl 
to. 9i^h Ye»tiQii9. iolM^qce.'? Xt jpMKjr indeed. he 
said ^'.ih^ iec^r^if.aH^' Y9^ it,iMf»ifi».tbeyido:hait 
it all; b^tiiqn fee^-^fw^ )^ i jU. wipLf ^^l^i^fao M 

^ufisimJ; ,Tli«,sta|e^,fipee4pw<.i|S^ *.M^ 
i^4fC^eq[ftllp^;,.^;>5t^^e i9f «M«e!rtioiif4sivAiftaile.af 

Wafipe8p^^^di^f»i4^*:. :flbe^^pmiifxtkm kv^^Mh 

m^i and 4v^Ue, tb^ )^r,pn^bI^^4,phMg|aUe. 
4. f* .All, itJfgr^WI^ ^is.Mfl9* MWtW»pW*^i ^Vihta^. tho 

<]99aix]te(i ^ijl^ithe^p^iples of gv^fmomemti that cm 
Wbbuir 1^ notjiii^pt^f ^ecmjiig the ficst of these objecta 

without^^tw^^s^yooifd. ,.Th»jwhodisN^|aiditv 
^^hef^do^t attune i)eces9iw.<x>mieiim]bQtwaeiiU^ 
and prosperitjj or, if they soe. it^ th^ nQgdect.iL The 
error in either case is equaDy mischievous. For.^uDdj 
this coiu;iexiqn,deserveS: th^ attention of t^j^y jn^t Md 
mild ^ymni^t^ ^ ^0ie^andjRheerfiil|iegpfe^«^ 



fatf 

taft. peopk aie lalnrajv iMeothrevtoi onemk^ ^lUvliobii 

ieimt «f tbeikms* The gpflator their. cig^jnttoalsf 

Ihe mNfethey love the' yv irmwiit vnAtifm l aA th gjd 

five, the bettor thi7 •bey it» awi 4fe iiMf» diMfiri^ 

MdirilliBgljr' do they oootrfbutetQ ili ■miat umiuu 

^Moiwpfoxi. The gnateK their.i«joy*a4s,4be4Mto 

ihi^ havete kwe; foid the'meiy; theidiim th^.fteo 

aoj diitiittnaoa, and the nam tfMy MfMt the aan 

thnritMioiioaded.lD lepratt it» Snriii^.peipkt iwl 

wwr eaodely to emieh tboMdves j. JMeaii9e.dii^ jmvA 

b^ooaeeionB that the mcraaBe'of <thtii ffcaiiaiM' '«i^ 

keep pafie nith the inplwvBniaiit'afithttrt loitiiaMU 

1m a ivmd^ th^f steife^imie aidtnlij 4o Ivttfar thott 

eonditioii, because Uiity 9ls» tctoiiim..af ♦cjgojdiig: tha 

fiiatt^^itf thcfrfcsMtiaB^ Jf.awd» tbeo: he )ODe.af ihe 

citteC <i^i9<<fi4<'*a.gM^fD?Bi^^ whiri^ ifcaoi.cttav 

icBa«dad'avi«9||^4n»? £fm imbiift^pioveiiMgr^ ac il 

k<alledy if it icimny Hmg buttbe agpsgirte alS iiH 

dMdiial fcainwieiB*^ 'deDeridb' UDM the^attainiluntiaf 

the oloedl iniptntiaai fm t|i» pqpanaiid Mmngthof 

artatedo^pot c e ari a t datimiy fariiamMtadg otoviidM% 

hatia the mowd chaaicter oCiit ftihahiiiate bpoiiift 

«f fiiet, caft aay liatiai be atRVD^iwfad^flabgacto'aaB 

voahf oemiiit^ haiab^ unfading^ nd §tamgas,k^4M 

ytimmt of poblki spirit aad -ptbittisml Oa tha^ 

otiber hand^ a paople who l aa atofle^ aad UtMiom^ 

m public, lor the pmponi of di^draiaD) omst .iieoca* 

floily bcoimie aat omted aad aftclkinate people ; Utty 

cut kd vhat a co m mpch intevotiB^ aad 

tjaiiiillji leu likdlj toiouaifiee it tp- thifepa'a 



S8? 

qtirily bepdose'^ftliuy'tile'jteesr; a coB8ck>v«ieBs W 
\«hiohiinptt>?efr thek notions of reetifodey and tcsjcaiti 
tbmt 0aAimeo4$f of luMioar ftnd cowmge* EvGpy i»* 
djtfiiimi'itesfi^is'lm (yun cla^w such w fioti0ly,. be* 
Muse ie Mspects' hitRself; and he lespecte tbot ^of 
<iflit«s, as the iMrt inidde of ensiiriiig re^^e^ ^ hii 
aunt. ; if onoeithe people respect the govemtae0^ 
moA the^ siibwiinadM)* ^staldiriied by hm^ tfaerf iegQ«i 
Iftte tbijr ^iidiieti by it^ ihe^ gro^ attached td thtf 
iiiiAiiAi^iiB •<rf'>>th^ GOimtvy^ iiiA 

spirit; teemie^«ia«o^dci^^>the}'4ra€biiti^^ 
tb^ 4Xi4 defeildiiig^ tbedtMdves. 8d ek«r i»ii. 4bal 
iw8dom tad ohe^ifidiies6«e0<gKalef eiinaiios of disoi^ 
d6tf tiiaii siAgefiMav 4iiid>iiidan^hblyv < 
! !.<( iiet me abt^* heweiwf/tbe €ttaj^«elied'Jof cdfiusfidetw 
ing amii^stiiaby ovpdlli^^ 4pp<)iiitdd %0'pti»ervB4fa# 
fyrtlc.pteeQ, 4asiiA^itjB0lC dlfe^ usetes$^«»io{)j^Mfii^^ 
On die jobtttmijry it^ ti»' my^Arm p^rsuawioti, i th^ > wi^ 
dutbudi anliistiMfiktkii^ 'mtiboqt itts -iitttiei^^ 

fht-.^iy ^^MfiMdi^bflibertyy asid.ihatitoiii£^;^ 
iwttst be de?i98d4of toep^in those ivho- WDidd«pek» the^ 
KNtiti. ^His 'is indeed' tbe'tnost ddicate^ point in civil 
jiitisj^nideiioe^ 4iiid'>4t sd thfi^/^hact s^ many iaja-^ 
41(^11^ mag jj^tfst^ mistlthe^ by cmfpmidiiig i%iiaiiGe 
ii<ilh 0{^eisiQfii Ifeiice^ at eveiy: festitQi, at every' 
psriolic direnpoti^ or hiUnDftie&s ainn^^ they ob^ 
trndrnpoB theipeopi&thfi.infiigiiiai of magistral^ aad) 
psnatoi':; To judge kf uppmrnumj ^ shcoild b^n; 



$88 

ofnmwmc^'M tbe €$ji:^piice ^ die ft ted i rti >'apdi plfi■^ 
i|H)&fQ£{1]ieipQUi04; Jii 6«6i^ filler. iifilii^«slidi'3ii«<9 
cmlM^ 4i9 ii^ , J^ thefpeifje 4ieiiet:^»n^tfaeBm 

flight f^st^ifK^mftl^yoii^ bwndm^a^d tttrinvN* 

1;^ Ji0t4jie iiiethpd^.^wiymqptwln fwrpoMt^te 

which magistracy iras established; whose vfgiJBnfMrjr 
if .Xmay be^ponnitti^^^ «viM a oonpttisoiiv dioald 
VQUPwbl^thQt ^ ttie SufHKipe Amg^ s^walAJbe 'pctfiv 
petualaiKiieeijtsaii, ^faiitt i9yi(Abhi;'^«wld»b^taliM«M' 
hdged by every body, but seen by nobody ; should 
watch license, in older to rqpnss it, and liboty, in 
Older to protect it. in one word, it shoohl operate 
as a restraint on the bad, as a shield and pnatoctioa 
to the good. The awfbl msignia c£ justice are othar* 
wise the mere symbob of oppression and tyranny ; 
and the.police, ii^g^Iirect oppositicNi to the views of iis 
institutt<m, only vexes and moiests the penoos wIkma 
it is bound to shelter, comfort, and protect. 

^'Such are my ideas upcm popular diversions. Hiero 
is neilhar province nor district, town nor village, but 
has particular usages in its amusements, practised ei- 
ther habitually, or at particular periods of the year; 
various exercises of rtrength, for instance, <Mr foats of 
agility; bafls too, and junketings, walks, hdidayS) 
diflfuises, nuuddngs, and mummeries. Whatever 



Ifeif attiiiitam^ mky be, if they aie piMe they nsim 
beinnooeitt. It h the duty then of the good magb^' 
straKe to protect Hae peofde in Aese idniple pasthnes, 
tp hy but" and ifeqp In Older Ae j^Mjes destiii^d to 
Uiem, to lemove aH obKtaoleSy and to leave ^ inhabi* 
tants at Ml Bberty to abandon HbgaaMdves to their 
b<nsteit)us menriment, their rude but harailess effii* 
sions of joy. If he appear somethnes among them, it 
diouM be to encourage, not to intimidate them ; it 
i^kould be Kke a ftther, gratified at the mirth of his 
children ; not like a tyrant, envious of the gaiety of 
UffdateK. .... 

^ fti dioft, te^itam to bir fennsr mMdt, liiepeo* 
^ -do nolcalt upon the goyemment to divert them^ 
but mardj Ui permit them to divert themsdves." 



* >>, * 



*^.i 



.s--: ■ f-' ?. ?'■ 



. ' 1 1 



f I 



* V 



'• '1 



? ' } 



U 



9S» 

]ar>«ddila(Mir'to:a;vaikalgr of )m^Mts$ibmh 

liant '>flq<renil dihe»iip0CiftUaf.{to-,tib«ilt? 
8*ttr&t0ifi«dh.'>Jsr» tile fiil^MdiBujHffj/ss 

adstaofililiflic piriitical{eoi|tpt»itii90fiiSfcf 
m \Afffmci • < rOf/ 1 bjrnwMii Jii^i ))nhre)/t«o 
tints ;<th^ ^oMOMMi/e? «ri>^,fltj[Oi$^ 
wtHch-ib'uearijr the salne ait dietitaUwM 
aiid :tlie:aiokni#ev ^irliksh >tbt '^ar ptiym 
fsocigBcr would akit immodigiiBl j ^til^ 
liaiah -fhMn « ibfaoik tdoiiiiatuiii. fAot 



m 

other in the vowel on which the last, 
accent falls, as well as the vowel or 
vowels that f<^ft)fw "d ;* Hife^very conso- 
nant after the acc^n^ vowel must be 
different from that in the corresponding 
syllable. Thus : tds and amdr, pecho', 
fuigOy dlamOf pdxaroy are all asonantes. 
In modern compositions where the aso- 

eill»i^eothi!tiikoac|nei^iiffl iba^peemM 
«^killM}n<{||(t 0^ tnsteiiDfliftre,«iii^ 
ftimf u&ctei'j<»d fiibh ErastrifstioBR 'Ebs 

49«iiSSati«txaitfe»bmis^iiuifly8assclaM)dritbo 
|tr(Hl^^vofH«at^ing>l4^wir ^^ttmbonosdi 
{fieaaa««il}8<fq^ioi9U»i4diK{ asaitidteJabft 
ra^0)%cfth(^ulbnMR^tli€yiQnterpoQdhd lA 
&»ip)kAy i|K<ioi]»et;>)ot)«)^dl rhj^Jne^etadi 

aietot. ut Widlteiierfivcij^tftihfaisD land imbds 
«tfi^diy]|ialgibiaa^uatfiardj'i.«tr/ wati^vaaA 
v4sy iroitffiqimrtly iifbit dtfar (fertilitijeiji^ 
iiCKi|)i&icleiy«ga4^iid4hlBTemor AiiAs^po9tB 



Ii^^l}(l 



cf his time wlio use it so sparin^y^. and 
none who laor^^iFfBqnfl^y display theif 
logenuitj in other more' difficult fopn, 
of compo8iti<m. 

that' p^iRi«r; tfadi asonantes are 
le mwe popular, but the public 
more severe in tJien-radgment of them. 
AU modem com^^ten in ven« 

T^ wek Ard v' lO f uiici ^i* mnr^at > eitmy 
other terminatioai thfouglioiit eaidt^MjItf 
and sow«^«pf#re?. jgc^k^a .(R^jject ,|p its 
being al l a wiili ^n^wy ml fkhm ecBpaec^f the 
play. SuclifliWevet/TO ftnrtlSty of 

the Ca8tilian,,4wa*9«e.. «!: . W???* . °f 
this na«»BpilmMhe.«Ui|«Mltji»aiid to 

eonsisf in a^orSiftg a iiese£tlt!a«M^ of 

sound in the blaiik. J^cfiSt^ rather' than 

in findin^it'for'lbe^^thanhr. 0. «. "^ ^' 



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No. 4. ^ 



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Quoi ! . tieize veiB, huif en eau, cinq ea erne f 
*^ Je lui fevois aufisitdt tm 6ftteaiC ^ ' * - ' 

1 J^iifW ^Ji«?t^ ®^ mvo(jpiaiit Brod^u, . 
. jEit puis mettons pai" qudque stratageme-* 
IVlafei, c'estfidt. * 
Sije pouYois^eoaor de non oepvestr; 
Tirer cinq vers, rouviage sera beau. 
" Mais cependant je suis dedans Tonzi^e ; 
Et si je ciois que je iais le douzi^me^ 
jBn YoSik treize^ ajustez au niyeau-^ 
Ma foi, c'estfiut 



894 

Dcvifl, qui aait qa'aiix jm qudqneiiis je me plai% 
Me demande un sonnet ; et jem'e&deseBp^ie. 
Quatorae vers ; Grand Dieu! femojendeksfiure! 
£n voiUi oependant quotre diqk de fidts* 
Jenepottvoisd'aboidtioayerderime; mais 
En fiusant on apprend k se tiior d' alfiure. 
Fboisuivons: les quatrains ne m'^iDnnoont gnhoMf 
S da piemior tercet je<|ii» Av ks fiais. 





Pnisqu'en si pea de%eini^fl%seDilmrd]i Jii^ 
J' entame le secimd, tt Ma j6te e^bftrtm^ 
Car des tm oomm]^^Yad^^% 

Bootqaatgra;^^;^; 

^*^t boi Vn ui lol .^8 ^01 
.\io*» i^w^f ^ *i^ loi ,#1 J^i 

.\r '- >^\ j.TP ,^» ^ gfg 



FINIS. 



!dti^i sail ab jat>/o(rr :'f « -• '.1 '•.■•;:^zD : o ?v ••»•<... -5.O 

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,72. u. for r«y «« «^«y' , , . 

101. S5. forilet ie read deMfe 

14^ IS. lor eito y read eitosf- 

195. SI* forfWMforeadfiuMlai 
SIS. ^ far msf read mi 

S14, SS. for 91M0 read futf^ 

S191 l%.fKmMMmdMUiM 



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Mrs; I. \Vaclc<m 

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