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Full text of "Some account of the Worshipful company of clockmakers of the city of London"



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,SY;.¥ii~ ACCOUNT 



OV THE WORSHIPFUL 



•ANY OF CLOCKMAKERS 



0¥ THE 



CITY OF LONDON. 









frr^M^'^'^^'^^^^^'^'^' ^■'''' ^ ^ ^ 




THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 



^ 






>v 



SOME ACCOUNT 



OK TIIK WORSHIPFUL 



COMPANY OF CLOCKMAKERS 



CITY OF LONDON. 




<:o>rrii.Ki) I'Rincii'ai.i \ irom iiikik hwn kkcdkds, r.v 
SAMUEL T'JJ.IOrr ATKJXS, iok.mkki.v Cikkk of tiik Compaw, 

AM) 

WILLIAM HENR^' OM'.RALL, KS.A.. Lii!Rari.\\ to the Corhoratiox 
OF iHK Cnv of I^OXDON". 



1881 



PRIVATKI. V PRIX'JED. 



HT) 

I'HE COURT OF THE WORSHIPFUL , ^ 

COMPANY OF CLOCKMAKEKS. 



MASTER. 
CHARLES WELLBORNE, Esq. 



WARDENS. 
JAMES SCOVELL ADAMS, Esy. 
SAMUEL ELLIOTT ATKINS, Es(.. 
SAUL ISAAC, Esq. 



ASSISTANTS. 
JOHN GRANT, Esq. 
GEORGE WILLIAM ADAMS, Esq. 
JOHN GARRETT CURTIS ADDISON, Esq. 
WILLIAM LAWLEY, Esq. 
GEORGE MOORE, Esq. 
WILLIAM WING, Esq. 
COL. ALEXANDER ANGUS CROLL. 
WILLIAM PARKER, Esq. 
EDWARD DANIEL JOHNSON, Esq. 
EDWARD JOHN THOMPSON, Esq. 
HERBERT JORDAN ADAMS, Esq. 
JOHN NEATE DYMOND, Esq. 



CLERK. 

Mr. HENR\' CHARLES OVERALL. 



^^^)iC^^ir^;k^^r^k^^/,:^i/irAi 






CONTENTS. 



Introuuctiox ... 



l-'unds 



i'ai;e 
i 



'Jnii CO.MI'ANV — 

Charters and Uyc-luw.s ... ... ... ... ... i 

Arms, Seals, Badges, Colours, (I^vic. ... ... ... ... 72 

Court of Assistants... ... ... ... ... ... 7- 

ihe Livery ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ^6 

Freemen ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 112 

Apprentices ... ... ... ... ... ... ... i-© 

Biographical Notices of Members ... ... ... 161 

Meeting Places ... ... ... ... ... ... ... kji 

Fea.sts 196 

Archives... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... xyy 

Plate 206 



12 



Charities ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 217 

Gifts to the Compan\ ... ... ... ... ... ... 226 

TiiK Tradk — 

Regulations of Workmen ... ... ... ... ... 231 

Searches... ... ... ••. ... ... ... ... 235 

Patents and Inventions ... ... ... ... ... 242 

Importation and Exportation, False Marking and Engraving, 

Hall Marking, ^:c., (!v:c. ... ... ... ... ... 255 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Initial Letter of Charter . 

Arms .... 

Seal of Edward ^Valker, Garter King-at-Arms 

Master's Badge . ; . . 

Wardens' Badge . . . , 

Inscription on Tompion's Tomb . 

The Restoration of Harrison's Tomb . 

Plate of the Company 

Adams's Cuj) (three plates) 



PACK 

7 
72 

74 

75 

75 
174 
180 

209 




INDEX. 



NOTE. The Fi>;H);-s in thuk- type (161) irfcr to liiographical Notices. 



Abbott, John, 234, 235 

Sir Morris, Alderman, 52, 53 

Adair, Mr. Serjeant, Opinion of, as to 
power of Comixiny, 6S, 69 

Adams, Francis Dryant, S9, 90 — Banner 
presented l)y, 76 

Geor<^e William, 89, 90, 198,209 — 

Three silver-gilt badges pre- 
sented by. to be worn by the 
wardens, 75 — A silver cup and 
cover presented by. 210 

James. 89 

James Scovell, 90, 94 

Adderley, Sir Charles, 342 

Addis, (ieorge Curson, loS 

William, 87 — Admitted to the 

livery, 104 

Addison, John (larrett Curtis, 90, 179, 19S 

Airy, .Sir G. 15., K.C.B., Astronomer- 
Royal, 344 

Aldermen, Court of. Steps taken by, to pre- 
vent the grant of letters patent 
to the French CMockmakers, 2, 
3 — Petition of the Chjckmakers' 
Com])any for incorporation re- 
ferred to a committee, 5 — Report 
and certificate agreed to, 6 — 
Petition of the 151acksmiths' 
Company to, 52 — report upon, 
53 — Petition of the Clock- 
makers' Company to, 53, 55 — 
report upon, 56 — Petition to, 
for a livery, 97, 98, 99, 100, 
101 — Livery granted by, 102-4 
— Petitions to, for increase to 
the livery. 106, 109, no — 
granted, 108, 109. no 

Alcock, Thomas, 5, 51, 59, 85, 201 

Aliens not to be employed by members of 
the Trade, 234 —Working in the 
City to be prosecuted, 232, 233 

Allen, Elias, 85 

CJeorge, 1S4 

Mr., 235 

Allenson, William, 60 

Almond, Ralph, 73, 85 — A silver watch 
case i)resented by. 207 

Alsop, Robert, Aklerman, 104 

Althorp, Lord, Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, Letter to, 294 



Ambrose, Edward, 153 

Ames, Richard, 73, 84, 85, 86, 237 

Andrewes, Henry. Aldermr.n, 56, 57 

Antrolius, Richard, 65 

Appleby, Joshua, 87, 98 

Apprentices, to produce their masterpiece, 
iii, 1 50- 1 — Authority exercised 
over, iii. — Petition of, to the 
Lord Mayor, 60, et seq. — 
Regulations with regard to the 
taking of, 70 — Bye-Laws re- 
lating to, 150 — Questions as to 
the number of, 151 — Thomas 
Loonies charged \\ith keeping 
five, 151 — Ahasuerus Froman- 
teel and his Son charged with 
keeping too many, 15 1-2-3 — 
Females bound as, 155 — Fees 
upon binding reduced. 156 — 
Advice to, 156 — Gretton's 
gift to, 168, 218 — Roll of, 202 
— Persons to be prosecuted for 
unduly talcing, 233 

Archer, Henry, n, 20, 23. 49, 50, 51, 53, 
78, 85, 172 

Archives, 199, ct saj. — Chest to preserve, 
199, 200 

Arms, grant of, 72, 73 — F. B. Adams 
presented the Company with 
a silk banner of the, 76 — in 
painted glass presented to 
Christ's Hospital and the 
Chiildhall Librarv. 76 

Arnold, fohn, 161 

John Roger. 88, 89, 2S2 

Artisans", Emigration of, to America. France. 
&c., 277 

Ash. Mr.. 20 

Aske, Henry. 166 

Askell, Elizabeth, apjKentice, 155 

Assistants. The Court of— The first for- 
mal meeting of, 77 — Resolution 
passed to preserve their secrets, 
77 — Regulation made to en- 
courage good feeling, 78 — 
Fines for non-attendance, &C., 
78, 79, 80, 81 

Atchison. Robert, gift to the poor, 221 

Atkins, Francis, 87, 88— Elected clerk, 92 

(;eorge, 88, 89, 134, 173, 185, 215 



INDEX. 



Alkins, George, elected clerk, 93— Protest 
of, against removal of monu- 
mental stone from grave of 
Tumpion ami Graham. 174 

Samuel Kiliott, junior warden, 

<KD— Klected clerk, 93— Letter 
to Mr. j. (irant upon increasing 
the usefulness of the lihrary, 
Cvc, 204 

Thomas, 92 

Atkinson, James, 114. 214 

Atlantic and Pacific .Ship (.'anal, 1S6 

Aveline, 1 )aniel, 87 

Richard, admitted to the livery. 

104 

.\venell, Edward, chosen beadle, 05 

John, chosen beadle, 95 

liackquett, Davyd, 51 

liagge. Mr.. Defective rules seized at shop 
of, 336 

Hailey, Jeffery, 7:i„ 85 

Itaker Henry, 1S4 

John, 1S4 

IJarber, Elizabeth, 177 

liarkham, .Sir Edward, Alderman. 6 

r.arlow, Mr., 79 

Edward, Application of, for patent 

for pulling or repeating watches, 
170 — Application successfully 
opposed, 244 

r.arometers. tirst made, 169 — Patent 
for making, granted to Daniel 
<^)uare, 170 

l?arraud, Erederick, 204 

Henry, a silver gilt spoon pre- 
sented bv, 107 

Paul Philip, 88, 232 

Harrow, John, 65. 86 

Nathaniel, 86, 116, 12:5, 154, 

233 
P.artram, Richard, 11, 20 
Simon, 5, 23, 49, 50, 51, 59, 78, 

81. 85 
P>asire. John, admitted to the livery, 105 
ISate, Robert Prettel, 142, 145, 146 
I'attin, Thomas, fmed for having a faulty 

contrate second wheel, 236 
Paufre, Peter de. 163 
ISayes. John, 85 
Hayley, Jeffery, 237 

Thomas, 108 

lieadles of the Coni|)nny, list of. 95 

Heardmore, Arthur. 127 

Heck, Christopher, 108 

Meckner, Abraham, 85— Silver beer bowl. 

presented by, 208 
liedford, Helkiah. 114. 236 
I'.eeckman, Daniell. the Company's Arms 

engraved by, 74 
l'.ell, lienjamin. 65, 73, 84,85. 153. 239 

John, 1 14 

Hellas, (;ef)rge, 127 

Henn, Anthony. 87. loi, 104 

Hennelt, Sir John, 181 



Bennett, Thomas, f.iulty watch movement 
belonging to. condemned and 
broken, 239 

lieraud, James, admitted to work as the 
servant of Mr. Charlton, 232 

Harry, John, 86 

Hertram, William, 86 

Hidlake. Thomas, no 

llillinghurst, Henry, admitted to the 
livery. 105 

Hirchmore, William, faulty rules seized in 
the sho]) of, at Newgate, 239 

Bird. .Samuel Joseph, 134, 135 

P>ishop, Samuel, 184 

Hisse, Mr., prohibited from using the 
clockmakers' art. 232 

Bittleston, John, 184 

Black, William Henry, E..S. .\.. i. v 

Blackborow, James, 87 

Blackburn, William, 108 

Blackett, Robert, 117. 124 

Blacksmiths, the early makers of large 
clocks, I — The art of the, 
described, 1 18 

Company, petition of, against 

the formation of this Company, 
2, 52 — Extractsfrom the records 
of,. 3. 52, 53. 54, 57— Reso- 
lution of, for disenfranchising a 
member, 58 — Petition to the 
Common Council against the 
grant of an act for regulating the 
freedom of the Clockmakers' 
Company, 117, 124. 125 — 
Reasons against the bill, 118, 
123 — Agreement made with the 
Clockmakers, 1 19 — To be heard 
against the granting of the bill, 
124 

Hall. 192 

Blagrave, Daniel, 59, 60 

Blew Bell, the sign of, in the Strand, 23S 

Blisse Amlirose, 62 

lilundell, Richard, to be prosecuted for 
exercising the art of a clock- 
maker not being free, 233 — 
Appeared and promised to take 
up his freedom, 234 

Boddington, Colonel, James, 122. 123 

BomlDay Medical (College, inscription on 
foundation stone of, 187 

Booth, Richard, chosen beadle, 95 

Samuel, chosen beadle, 95 

Bosley, Charles, admitted to the liverv, 
105 

Joseph, application of, for patent 

for an improvement in making 
watches. 255 

Bouquet, David, 50 

Bouquett, .Solomon, 159 

Bowen, Francis, 151 

Bowly, Devereux, 87. 100. 105 — Left ^^500 

for the poor, 220 
Bowyer, Mr., 20 — A chamber clock, pre- 
sented by. 207 



INDEX. 



HI 



Bradley, Dr., Astronomer, 167. 
Brafeild, William, charged with making a 

bad gold watch-case, 240 
Brewerton, Mr., 75 
Bridger, Peter, Attorney, 239 
Bridges, Mr., 246 

Mr., Alderman, 285 

Briggs, John, a soldier, admitted a freeman, 

"5 

Briscoe or Bristoe, Mr., 120, 124 

Broad Street, Mr. Cabriere's residence in, 

162 
Broderer's Company, see Imbroderers 
Bromfield, Sir Edward, Alderman, 56, 

57 

Brooke, John. 51. 109 

Brown, James, 87, 219, 220 — Admitted to 
the livery, 105 

Browne, Ilenton, 87, 97. 98 — Admitted to 
the livery, 105 

Browne. John, 66, 73, 85, 86, 114, 237 

Browning, Dr., Report on the commerce 
and manufactures of Switzer- 
land, 322 

Bruhl, Count de, 169 

Buck, William, 117, 124 

Bucket, Mr., 21 

Buckingham, Sir Owen. Alderman, 122, 
127 

Bucklee, David, 108 

Bull, John, 51 

Mr., 20 

Bullby, John, 51 

Bunhill Fields, Daniel Qunre, buried in, 
171 

Burgis, John, 20, 51 

Burnaby, Rev. .b. B., M. A., Vicar of 
Hampstead, 179 

Bumell, John, Alderman, loS 

Burrill, Boys Err, 182 

Bushman, John Baptist, loS 

Butcher, William, 90 

Butchers' Company, Charter, 69 

Butlin, Mr., defective rules seized at the 
shop of, 23S 

Butter, Miss, a watch made by Henry 
Jones, presented by, 169 

Bye-Laws for regulating the Company. 22- 
29 — Ordered to be entered on 
record, 49 — For compelling 
freemen to take up their livery, 
71 — Cost of obtaining, 71. 

Byfield, Mr., defective rule seized at the 
shop of 236 



Cabriere, Charles, 87, 162 — Anderson 
prosecuted successfully for 
putting his name upon foreign- 
made watches, 259 

Cabriere v. Anderson, the case of, 162 

Csesar. Mr.. 246 

Cambell, Sir James, Lord Mayor, 6 

Campbell, Mr., opinion of, as to thegr.int 
of a livery, 100 



Carpenter, Thomas, 108 

William, 184 

Carriage clocks smuggled into this country, 

327 
Carrington, Colonel, admitted to the 

livery, 104 

George, 108 

James, 87 

Robert, admitted to the livery, 

105 
Thomas, admitted to the livery, 

105 

Carter, John, F.R.A.S.. Alderman, 89, 
90,182, 198,223— Lord Mayor, 
procession to Westminster, 76 
— Arms of, 76 — Banquet to, 198 

Cartwrighl, John. Alderman, 104 

Carver, Isaac, 114 

Cateaton Street, meeting held at the Paul's 
Head Tavern in, 194 

■Cater, Widow, 237 

Cathay, Daniel, chosen beadle, 95 

Caveat, form of, agreed to, 131 

Cavendish, Richard. 1 10 

Cext, Catherine, Apprentice, 155 

Chamberlain, Nath. . 86 

Chamberlain, fee paid to. 1 12, 1 13 — Form of 
Caveat to be lodged with. 131 — 
Petition of the Company to, 138 

Change Alley. Cornhill, Mr. Frodsham's 
residence in, 166 

Chaplin, Robert, 120 

Charities, 217. et seq. 

Charles I, charter granted by, 7, et seq. — 
Gold alarm watch made for, 165 

Charles IL when Prince of Wales, 165 — 
A watch with a pendulum spring 
made for, 174 

Charlotte, Queen, a watch made for, 170 

Charlstrom, William, 109, 1 10 

Charhon, John, 5, 11. 20, 21, 23, 49. 50. 5 r, 
78, 81, 85, 232 

Charmes, David de, 163 

Simon de, 163 

Charter of Incoiporation, 7-19 — Descrip- 
tion of. 19 - Enrolled in the city 
archives, 20 — Cost of obtaining, 
and list of subscribers, 20, 21 - 
Copies of, written by Mr. Good- 
win, 202 — A MS, volume, con- 
taining copies of, purchased, 202 

Chater, Eliezer. 87, 88 — Admitted to the 
livery. 105 

Cheney, Wither, 86 

Chequers" Inn. Holborn, 236 

Chest of the Company, keys belonging to, 
83 — Kept at Painter- Stainers' 
Hall, 191 — Removed to .St. 
Dunstan's Vestry. 199 — To Mr. 
John Pennock's house in 
Lothbury. 199— Directions how 
to unlock, 2cx>— New one 
ordered to be provided, 200 — 
Deposited in the Guildhall 
Library. 201 



Child, Henry, 83, 85 

Mr., 21, 58 

Mrs., widow of the late Master, 

the cliest, books, and keys, 
delivered up by, 83 

Richard. 51, 85 

China Bowls presented to the Company, 
210-11 

Chisman. Timothy, 88, loS 

Chitty, Mr., 125 

Christ's Hospital, Arms of Company for 
painted window presented to, 
76 — Sir George Merttins, Alder- 
man, elected Treasurer and 
President of, 183-4 — Dr. 
Thomas Simpson Evans, F. L. S. , 
Mathematical Master of. ad- 
mitted an Honorary Freeman, 
187 

Chronometers, improved by Thomas Earn- 
shaw, 164 — The perfection of, 
276 — The first marine pro- 
duced in England, 298 — The 
importance of, 333 — Prizes for 
the most accurate established, 
344 — Regulations as to the 
competition, 344-6 

Clark, Richard, Chamberlain, 138 

Clarke, George. 51 

Henry, 89, 173, 185, 186. 204, 215 

— Portrait of, 186 

Mr., defective rules seized at the 

shop of, 238 

Claxton, Mr.. 236 

Thomas, 63, 85, 114 

Clay, Charles, petition of, for patent for 
repeating watch or clock, 250- 

254 

Clay, William, 62 

Clayton, Sir Robert, Alderman, 246 

Thomas, 73 

Clement, William. 86 

Clements, Mr., 123 

Clerk, George, 108 

Clerks of the Company, a list of. 90-95 

Clewes. James, 159 

Clitherowe. Mr. Alderman, 52, 53 

Clocks, the Blacksmiths, makers of early, i — 
Improvements in striking, 174 
— In large public, by Benj. 
Lewis Vulliamy, 176 — The 
manufacture of, in .Switzerland, 
322 — Carriage, smuggled into 
England, 327 

Clockmakers' Company, foundation of, i, 
ct seq. — Petition for incorpora- 
tion referred to the Court of 
Aldermen, 5 — Report and cer- 
tificate upon, 6 — Charter 
granted, 7, et Jtv/.— Bye laws, 
22, 49 — To be advertised, 67 — 
Oaths of the Master, Wardens. 
Livery, Freemen, Clerk. Beadle, 
45. 47— First Court held, 49— 
Second Court held, 50— Petition 



Clockmakers' Company, continued. 

to the Court of Aldermen, 53. 
55, 56 — Charter submitted to a 
Committee of Parliament, 59 — 
Referred to John Farwell to 
examine, 60 — Returned to the 
Master and Wardens, 60 — 
Differences between the Free- 
men and Court of Assistants as 
to the charter, 60 — Petition of 
Freemen and Apprentices to 
the Lord Mayor, 60, et seq. 
— Charter and Ordinances, 
digest of the, 67 — Ordered to 
be annually read at the Christ- 
mas Court, 67 — Compulsory 
powers of, 69 — Reasons and 
petition against the Bill for re- 
gulating the, delivered in by the 
Blacksmiths' Company, 123-4 — 
Bill brought in to the Common 
Council, 123 — Bill rejected, 126 
— Petitions presented to the 
Common Council for an Act, 
117, 126 — Referred to a Com- 
mittee, 127 — Act passed, 128 — 
Certificate to be given to Free- 
men, 136, 137 — Petition to the 
Chamberlain and the Court of 
Aldermen against the Spectacle- 
makers' Company, 138, 143, et 
seq. — ^Jews admitted to the Free- 
dom of, 149 

Clocks and Watches as articles of dress, 2 

Clock and Watchmakers to be required to 
take out a license, 281 

Clock and Watchmakers' Asylum, 223-4 

Closen, Mr., 20 

Closon, Peter, 85 

Clothworkers' Company, a silver cup given 
to, 112 

Clows. John, 86 

Cokayne, Francis. Alderman, 104 

Coleman, John, 184 

Collingridge, Edmund, 109, 1 10 

CoUingwood, Samuel, J., 109 

Colours of the Company to be provided. 

75' 76 , 

A banner with the, presented, 76 

Colts Dinner, the last held at Greenwich, 
198 

Comfort, William, 63 

Common Council, Act of, regulating Free- 
men, 70 — Petitions to, for an 
Act, 115, 126 — Petition of the 
Blacksmiths' Company against, 
117 — Report to. upon Free- 
men, 121 — Bill for regulating 
the Clockmakers' Company, 
brought into, 123 — Petition of 
the Blacksmiths' Company 
against the Bill presented, 124 
— Bill rejected, 1 26 — Act passed. 
128 — Act of, to provide loan of 
^50.000 to the King. pa.ssed, 207 



INDIA 



Common Cryer, fees paid to. U2, 1 1 j 

Coningsby, Lord, 246 

Cook, Captain, chronometers made for, 

161 
Cooke, John, 62 

Lewes. 5. 51 

Robert, 114 

Cooks' Hall, fe.-isl held at, 197 

Copeland, Alex, 1 10 

Copley, .Sir Godfrey, 246 

Thomas, 19, 50. 78. — Appointed 

Clerk. 90 
Cordwell. Robert. 59 
Corporations, Committee of Parliament 

upon, 59 
Coulson, Robert, 109. no 
Coventry, Thomas Lord. Lord keeper of 

Great Seal, 22. 48 
Coxeter, John, 85 

Mr.. 65, 79, 191 

Nicholas. 73, 85, 199,200,237.238 

Cracraft, William. Alderman. 104 

Cragg, Jno.. 224 

Crawford, R. W., M.P., 235 

Crayle, Richard, 3. 5 

Creek, Mr., 152 

Creeke. Henry, submitted to the rules of 

the Company, 232 
Croll, Colonel A. Angus, C.E.. 90, 182 
Crosby, Brass. Alderman. 104, loS, 127 
Cross, John Berryhill, gift of ten guineas 

to the poor, 226 
Cross Keys, the sign of within Newgate, 

238 
Crouch, Edward. 86 
Cubitt. Messrs. W. & Co.. 179 
Camming, Alexander. F.R.S., 167. 184, 

186 

Cundee. Mr., 212 

Cuper or Cwper, Josias, 3, 21, 51. 153 

Customs, Commissioners of, Memorial to. 
upon the illicit importation of 
foreign watches and clocks, 267- 
268 

Custom House Sale, foreign watches in 
metal cases, adverti.sed as gold 
in the catalogue of. 331 

Cutlers' Hall, 68 — Meetings held .it, 193— 
Leased to the Clockmakers' 
Company to hold their meetings 
in, 193. 194 

Cutts, Lord, 246 

Cylinder Escapement, invented by Tnm.- 
pion, 174 

Daniel, Mr., 236 

Daniell. Isaack, 62. 73, 85 

Thomas, 63 

William, 51 

Danley, Charles, defective sun-dials seized 

at the shop of, 237 
Danvers, J. , 60 
Darling. Sir Robert. Alderman. 183 — Cift 

of ;^ioo to the poor. 219-20 
Davis. Mr., 153 



Davis, Samuel, chosen beadle, 95 
Samuel, of Ldthbury, fined for 

having faulty work, 236 
Dawson, Thomas, 5, 21, 51, 113, 196 
Day, Thomas. 117 
Deane, George, engraver, copper plate of 

the Company's Arms, presented 

t^y. 74 

Debaufree, Peter and Jacob, application of, 
lor an enlargement of a patent 
for applying precious stones. &c., 
to watches and clocks, 245-7 

Delafaye, Ch., letter upon Clay's applica- 
tion for a patent for repeating 
watches, 253 

Delander or Delaunder. James, 159 

John, 160 

Nathaniel, 87, 97, 98. 159 — Con- 
vened before the Goldsmiths' 
Company for making a false 
gold watch-case, 257 

Dent, William, 160 

Devereux Court, fleet Street. 161 

Deveris, Josyas, 120 

Devil Tavern, 184 

Devis, John, 1S4 

Dewell. Mr., 20 

Dhunjeebhoy, Sapooorjee. 189 

Dial Plates, project for stamping, 254 

Dickinson, Marshe, Alderman. 127 

Dobree, Robert, 90 

Dolley, Thomas, 88 

Dorrell, William, 108 

Downinge, Humfrey, 58 

Drake, John, 54, 63, 151 

Mr., 20 

Drew. John, chosen beadle, 95 

Dripping pan. the sign of, at Charing 
Cro.ss, 236 — At Smithfield. 236 

Droeshout. John, 51 

Slartin, engraver, 20i« 

Drury. James. 86 — l-^lected Clerk, 92 

Ducie, .Sir Robert, Alderman, 5, 6. 53 

Dudds, Mr., admitted to the livery. 104 

Dudley, Sir Matthew. 246 

Duncombe, R., junr.. 88 

Dunlop, Conyers. 87 — Admitted to the 
livery. 104 — Left by will £^0 
to purchase a piece of plate, 226 

Dunstan's, St., Ve.stry house. Fleet Street, 199 

Durant, Oswald, 5, 21. 51. 85. 113, 196 

Dutton, M.atthew, 88 

Willi.im, 169 — Admitted to the 

liver)'— 105 

Dwerrihouse, John. 1S4 

Earnshaw, Thomas. 164 — Portrait of 164 

East. Edward, 11, 20,23,49, 50, 51, 72. 73, 
78, So, 85, 164, 16S, 199. 213 
^Appointed Treasurer, 90, 208 
— 3^100 given to the poor of the 
Company by, 217, 218 

Jeremie, 62 

Ea.st India Company, chronometers made 
for. 161 



VI 



INDF.N. 



Ebsworth. John, Si). ii6. 125 

Kcllin. Georjje, 109 

Kchvards. Hum., 60 

Electric Telei^raph Company, the United 
Kingdom, established by Col. 
Croll. 1S2 

Elmes, William, 114.237 

Ellicott, Edward, 89 

John. F.R.S., S7. 165 

Elwes, Sir Gervase, Alderman. 246 

Emery, Josiah. 1S4 

Epicycloid scape wheel, patented by Arnold, 
162 

Erbery, Henry, 62 

Erj-les, Mr., 21 

Etherington. George. 86 

Evans, Dr. Thomas Simpson, F.L.S.. 187 

Ewart. Mr., return of the value of foreign 
watches imported, moved for 
in l^arlianient by, 316-17 

Exchange Alley. 169 

Exchequer, Chancellor of the, deputation 
received by. 337 

Tallies, two ordered to be pur- 
chased. 212 

Eyre. Sir James, Lord Chief Justice of the 
Common Pleas, 49 

Facio or Faccio, Jacob, and Nicholas. 163 
and Jacob Debaufree. applica- 
cation of. for letters patent for 
applying precious stones in 
clock and watches opposed suc- 
cessfully, 245-47 
Fage. Edward. 1 14 

Fairfa.x, Sir Thomas, letter of. to the Lord 
Mayor, on the approach of his 
corps to London, 217 
Farwell, John. 60 
Faulkingham, Mr., defective rules seized at 

the shop of, 238 
Faulkner, Edward, 87 

William, 109 

Feasts of the Company, where kept. &c., 

196-8 
I'ebuce, Charles le, 160 
l-'eilder, Thomas, 16 
Fen, .Sir Richard, .-Vlderman. 52. 53. 57 
Fenn, Daniel, 87. 88. 221 — Admitted a 
liveryman. 104 

Joseph, 89, 90, 114. 221 

Samuel, 88 — ^200 left to the poor 

by. 221. 222 
Ferdinand VI of Spain, watch made for, 170 
Fines inflicted on Members for using abu-sive 
words, 78. 79. 80, 81— James 
Marwick. for speaking disres- 
pectfully to the Master, 79 — 
Imposed on Mem])ers neglect- 
ing their duties. 80 — Altera- 
tion of, 81— To l)e paid by 
Members elected on the Court 
of Assistants, 81 
linch. Sir Heneage, f\ecorder, 5. 6. 56 
John. 86, 125. 214 



Fish, John, 130 

"Mary, 130 

William, 130 

Fisher, Rebeckah, apprentice, 155 
Fishmongers' Mall, to be inspected, 192 
Fladgate, John. 184 
Fleet, the, money lent for the maintenance 

of, 213 
Fleet Street, resi<lences of Mr. East, Mr. 
Tompion. and Mr. Grant, in, 
165-6-7 — The Dial and One 
Crown in, 169 — The Bolt and 
Tun in, 169 
Fletcher, Thomas, prosecuted and fined for 
unduly taking apprentices. 233-4 
Fole, Robert, 114 
Foley, Mr., 246 

Foreign Clocks and Watches, duty upon. 
294, 295, 269.299 — Complaints 
as to the illicit importation of, • 
301 — The marking of. 307 — 
The right of search and seizure 
of, 307 
Foreign Gold Watches, the number of, im- 
ported, 301, 302 
Foreign Office, the. smuggling carried on 
through the messengers of, 317 
Foreman. Francis, 4, 5. 11. 20. 23. 49. 50. 
51,78,85 

Michl., no 

Mr., fined for not attending 

Court of Assistants. 81 
P'ounders' Hall, meetings of the Company. 

held at. 192, 193 
l'>ance, money lent for carrying on the war 
with, 213 — Trade opened with, 
in clocks and watches. 262, et seq. 
— Commercial treaty with. 294 
Francis, ^Yilliam, no 
Freedom, the steps taken to obtain an Act 
of Common Council to regulate 
the n5, et seq. — Draft of Bill 
read, 117 — Petition of Black- 
smiths' Company against, 1 17 — 
Reasons of IJlacksmiths' Com- 
pany against, 1 18 — Agreement 
between this Company and the 
Blacksmiths as to. 1 19 — Report 
of the Common Council upon 
121 — A design for a Certificate 
of, agreed to, 136, 137 — Fees 
upon taking, 149 — Persons to 
be prosecuted for carrying on 
the trade, not having been ad- 
mitted to the, 233 
I""reeman, Edward, 120 

John, 73, ;^io, left to the poor 

of the Company by, 217 

Sir Ralph, Alderman, 5, 6, 53 

Samuel, 127, 128 

Freemen, .Sureties for their good behaviour, 
exacted, i — Authority exercised 
over, iii — Petition of, to the 
Lord Mayor, 60-63 — Act of 
Common Council, regulatmg, 70 



INDEX. 



Vll 



Freemen, continued. 

— Decrease in the number of, 
137 — Honorary, A list of, 184 

French Clockmakers, Proposed grant of 
Letters Patent to, 2, 3 

French Watchmakers, to be admitteil to 
the Freedom, 115 

Frewen, Mr., defective rules seized at the 
shop of, 237 

Frodsham, Charles, 89, 90, 198 

William, 184 

Willi.imJames,F.R.S.89.166— 

;[^looo left to the poor l)y, 222 

Fromanteel, Ahasuerus, 3, 62, 63, 150. 166, 
236 — Charged with keeping too 
many apprentices, 15 !> 152 — 
Fined for steward. 196 — Fined 
forhaving a journeyman without 
orders, 232 

Frying pan, the sign of at, Ludgate, 237 

I'unds of the Company, 212. et scq. 

Funeral ceremonies, iii — Palls, the Com- 
panies who still preserve them, 
iiirt 

Furnivalls Inn, Holborn, 91 

Gadlingstock, Samuel, defective rule 
seized at the shop of, 237 

Ganion, Robert, deputy. 127. 128 

Ganthony. Richard, 89 

Richard Pinfold, 89 

Gardiner, Thomas, Recorder, 57 

Garle. Thomas, 87^Admitted to the livery, 
104 

Gas (.-"umpany. the Great Central Gas Con- 
sumers'. Colonel CroU appointed 
Engineer, 182 

the Imperial founded, 186 

Gatty, Mr., 68. 71 

Gayre. Sir John, Alderman. 56, 57 

George III, a watch presented to, l6t 

George. Daniel, chosen beadle, 95 

George Inn, Ironmonger Lane, Feast 
held at. 197 

Gibbons, Benjamin. ;^"i!0 left to the poor 
by, 219 

Gibbs. I homas, 86 

Gibson, Edward 88, 108 

James. 159 

Gillpin or Gilpin. Edward. 5. 51, 73 

Gltnny, Joseph, 109, no 

(jlover, Boycr, 87 

Mr., one of the Wardens, Death 

of, 83 

Glyn, Sir Richard, Bart., Alderman, 104 

Godbud, William, 63 

CJold, Christopher, chosen beadle, 95 

Gold, The duty on wrought, 269 — The 
standard of, reduced, 271 — 
And Silver Manufacturers. Ilall 
marking of, 342 

Goldsmiths' Company, James Masters, 
transla ed to, I13 — Loans to 
the, 212, et seq. — Assaying of 
Goldsmiths' work by, 257//. — 



Goldsmiths' Conij)any, eontinuid. 

N. Delaunder summoned before 
them for making a false gold 
watch-case 257 — a silver tan- 
kard presented to, 192 — Two 
watches in gold cases with 
forged marks jjroduced by 
their assay olticer, 339 — Corres- 
pondence with, upon hall- 
marking, 340, 341 

Goldsmiths' Hall The Company's meetings 
at, 192- Feasts at, 79, 197 — 
Marks counlerfeitecl on foreign 
watciies, 287 

Goods. Bill in Parliament to prevent the 
clandestine running of, 258 

Goodwin, Thomas, chosen Clerk, 91 

Gosling, Sir Francis, Alderman, 127 

Goujon, Stephen, 87 

Graham, George, F.R.S., 86, 98, 166, i6-j, 
178 — E.xecutor of Tiiomas 
Tompion, 174 — £zo left to the 
poor of the Company by, 219 

Grant. John. 88, 89, 184, 167— Letter 
addressed to, concerning the 
Library, dvc, 204 

Gravell, William. 89 

Graves, Benjamin. 86, 214 — Elected 
Clerk, 1)2 

Gray, Timothy, 159 — Fined for leaving the 
Court, 81 

Graye, Mr., 20 

Gregory, Ann, 78 

Jeremy. 62, 66. 72. 73, 78, 79, 83, 

85. 153, 233 — A silver cup and 
dish, prcseiued by, 208. 

Mr., Warden. 199. 236 

Green, James, 88 — Green, Mackliii. 117. 

Greene, John. Alderman, 65, 57 

Gresham, Sir Thomas. 116 

Gretton. Charles. 86, 116, 168— .^5° 
lell by, to apprentice sons t>f 
deceased freemen. 218 

Greville. Mr., 125 

Griffith, James, 1 14 

Griffiths, Edward, 109, no 

Griliat, Mr., project of, for stamping dial 
plates, 254 

Grimes, Thomas, 159 

Grinkin, Edmond, 62 

Robert, 51 58,85,199,207 

Grocers' Company, livery woin by, iv. 

Grove, Ricliard, 108 

Guildhall Library, Arms of the Company 
placed in window of, 76 — 
Company's Library and Mu- 
seum deposited in, 206 

Guilds of London, the origin of, i. — Divi- 
ded into two kinds, ii — Founda- 
tion of Ecclesiastical, iii — Es- 
tablishment of trading, iii— 
Adulterine Guilds fined, iii — 
Charter of the earliest, iii — 
Distinguishing dress worn by. 



\nn 



INDEX. 



llabenlashers' Company, Igiritius Hugger- 
ford, a freenian of, 247 
Hackett, Sir Cuihbert, Alderman, 6 

Mr., 21, 199 

Symon, 51.59. 78. 85. 112,113, 

201 — N'ominated for treasurer. 90 
Hales, Sir Charles. 246 
Halley. Charles 1S4 

Dr. Edmund. 190 

Hall Marking. goUl watches with forged 
marks, produced by an Assay 
officer of the Goldsmiths' Com- 
pany. 339 — Correspondence 
with the Board of Trade thereon. 
340 — Select Committee of the 
House of Commons appointed 
to enquire into, 342 — Report of 
Select Committee, 342, 343 
II aisled. Robert, 86, 116, 125 — Bad 
movements seized in the shop of 
condemned and broken. 239. 240 
Hamilton, George A., letter from, 338 

Rev. Ur. Robert, 88, 204 

Hamlin, Richard, a defective watch be- 
longing to. seized, 239 
Hammersley. Sir Ilugh. Alderman, 6 
Hammersmith, Grove Hall at. 163 
Hampstead Churchyard. John Harrison's 
tomb in, restored. 177, 179 — 
Inscription on the tomb, 179-80 
Hampton Court Palace, Clock at. made by 

Daniel Quare, 170 
Ilancorne. Thomas. 66, 86/1, 116 
Hardy, Mr., admitted to the livery, 104 
Hare, Alexander, 184 
Harker, George, 89, 90 
Harley, Right Hon. Thomas, Lord Mayor, 

75. 105 
Ilarmer, Jasper, 154 

Harper, Henry, some defective watch or 
pocket clock chains seized at 
the shop of, 240 
Harri.s, John, 11, 20, 23, 49, 50, 51, 59, 
66, 78. 85, 86, 116, 209 

Mr., 80 — Defective rules seized 

at the shop of, 238 

William, 89 

Harrison, Mrs. Elizabeth, 180 

Henry, 177 

John, the father of chronometry. 

177 — Invented the Gridiron 
pendulum, 177— Made his first 
timekeeper, 177— Sent with it 
to Lisbon to test its perform- 
ance, 178 — /500 given to him 
by the Board of Longitude, 
178 — Obtained the gold medal 
of the Royal Society, 17S — 
Produced a second instrument 
in 1739. 178— A fourth tried in 
a voyage to Jamaica, 179 — 
Invented the metallic compen- 
sation and remontoir, 179— 
;^20,000 awarded to him by the 
Board of Longitude. 179 — His 



Harrison, John, contiiiueJ. 

death andburial, 179 — Histomb 
in Hami)stead churchyard re- 
restored by the Company. 179, 
180 — The works of, in the Com- 
pany's library and museum, 
180, 181 
Harrison, William. F.R.S., 179, 180 
Hartington. Marquis of, 146 
Hartley, Mr., sword cutler. 66 
Harvey John, 122 

Mr.. 123, 125 

Hassell, Joshua. 92 
Hatton, Jos. York, 109 
Hayes. Walter, ^i, 85, 1 14, 237 
Hearne, Mr., 20 

Heath, Sir Robert, Knt., Lord Chief Jus- 
tice of the Common Pleas, 22,48 
Heathcot, Sir Gilbert, Alderman. 246 
Heerman, John, 160 
Heldon or Holden, Onesipherus, 5, 20, 21. 

5I1 59) 85, 90,201 
Helena. St., Mr. Ellicott's clock at, 165 
Helical or Cylindrical Spiral Spring pa- 
tented, 161 
Henshaw, Walter, 86, 114, 116 
Herbert, Cornelius, 86, 97, 98 

Estme, name of falsely put upon 

a watch, 256 

Sir Thomas, gold alarm watch 

for, 165 
Heriot, Master, 171 
Hewes, Mr., 20 
Hewitt, Francis, defective rule seized at 

the shop of, 238 
Heywood, Mr., 20 
Hicks's Hall, 235 
Higgs, Peter, 83. 87 
Hill, Benjamin, 85 

John, 5, 20, 21 

Mr., Warden, 191 

Mr., 199, 236 

Thomas, pocket dials taken from, not 

being perfect, 235 
Hiorne, John, 87, 98 
Hobler, Paul, 1S4 
Hobson. John, 5 
Hoddle, John, petition against his project 

for stamping dial plates, 254 
Hodges, Sir James, Knt., Town Clerk, 202 
Hoe, Robert. 124 

Holborn, High, Thomas Earnshaw's resi- 
dence in, 161 
Holborne Bridge. 236 
Holden, Onesiphorus, sec Heldon 
Holker, Laurence, 127 
Holland, George, 5 

Mr. J., 21 

Thomas. 20, 51, 85, 236 — Ap- 
pointed clerk & beadle, 91,95 — 
Suspended, 91 — Discharged, 91 
Ilollidaie, Edward, 62 
Holloway, Mr., 20 

Robert, 51 

Home, Henry, 98 



Hopkins, Sir Jolin, Alderman, loS 

Horizontal escapement greatly improved 
by George Graham. 167 

Hornblower, William, chosen beadle. 95 

Home, Henry, 87 — Admitted to the livery, 
105 

Home, Mr., 65 

Samuel. 7^, 85, 237 — Master, 200 

How. William, 214 

Howes, John, 160 

Wiliam, admitted to the livery, 104 

Howse. Charles. 88 

Thomas, 21. 51, 85 

William, 87, 114 

Hubert, Charlotte, apprentice, 155 

David, 87, 98 

Elizabeth, 155 

James, 155 

Hue, Pierry, 51 

Huggerford, Ignatius, 159 — Old watch with 
a stone fixed in the cock and 
balance made by, purchased, 247 

Hughes, Thomas, 87, 260 — Chosen clerk. 
92 — Admitted the first livery- 
man. 104 

William. 184 

Hulst, Jacob, a chaste oval sugar dish, pre- 
sented by, 208 

Hunt, John, 159 

Hussey, William, 127 

Hutchinson, John, pretended invention of, 
to keep dust out of watches. 
248-50 

Richard, a sum of money left 

to the poor by, 219 

Hutton, Dr., 177 

Imbroderers' Company, 113 

Hall, the Company to meet 

at, 191 
Inner Temple Gate, 169 
Irland, Mr., 153 
Ironmonger Lane, meetings held at the 

" George," 192, 197 

Jackson, John, 88. 130, 143 

John, jun., 88, 89, 204 

Sir Henry, a Bill introduced into 

Parliament by. upon the subject 

of hall-marking, 342 

Martin. 86 

Richard, 51 

Jacques, William, 86 

James I, David Ramsay, clockmaker to. 

171 
James II, a watch made for. by Daniel 

Quare, 171 
Jardin. John, 184 
Jarratt, John William. 108 

Richard, 66, 86. 197 

Jeejeebhov, Sir Cursetjee. 2nd Baronet. 

' 188 

Sir Jamsetjee. ist Baronet. 

187 — ;^25o left by. for the poor. 
222-3— 3rd Baronet, 189 



Jcejeebhoy, The Hon. Rustomjee Jamsetjee 

188 — ^200 given to the poor 

by, 225 
Jefteryes, .Sir Jcffry, 246 
Jekyll, Sir Jos., 246 
Jesson, Mr., defective rules seized at the 

shop of. 238 
Jews, first admitted to the freedom of the 

City, 148 — Of the Company, 

149 
Johnson, Roger, 5 
Jole, Robert, defective rules seized at the 

shop of, 237, 238 
Jones, Evan, 62, 73 
Henry. 65, 66, 74, 80, 86, 154, 

168,169, 213,223— 2" 100 given 

to the poor of the Company by, 

217, 218 

John, 87 

Mr., 236 

Owen, 108 

William, 108 

Kellett, Thomas, fined for having a defective 

watch, 235 
Kemp, William, 109 

Kennedy, Richard Hartley, M.D., Alder- 
man, 76, 89, 90, 183, 222 
Kenney, William, to be prosecuted for 

execising the art, not being free, 

233 
Kent. Henry, 73 
Kenyon, Lord, Lord Chief Justice of the 

King's Bench, 49 
Ker. J., letters from the Commissioners of 

Customs signed by. 305.309,316 
Kilborne, Robert, 120 
King. Mr., 68, 71 
King's Head Tavern. Poultry, meetings 

held at, 194 
Knottsford, William, 86. 233 

Lack, Thomas, letter from, upon the com- 
plaint of the Liverpool watch- 
case makers, 304, 305 — Reply 
of the Company, 305 

Ladbroke, Sir Robert. Alderman, 127, 128 

Ladies' feast to be discontinued. 198 

Lafayette, General. 186 

Laidlaw, Thomas, 1S4 

Lambe, Thomas, 51 

Land Tax, ;i^500 lent upon the security of 
the, 213 — Loan lent upon the 
credit of. 214 

Lane, Mrs. Jane, 168 

Langford, Thomas. 184 

Latham. Mr., a clock given to. 1 12 

Thomas, 151 

Laundre Peter de, 159 

Lawe, Mr., prohibited from working at the 
trade, not being free of the Com- 
pany, 232 

Lawley, William, 90. 198 — Legacy of Mr. 
Warre. paid by, 226 

Layher. Mr., Master of the Blacksmiths' 
Company. 3 



INDLX. 



Lea. Tliomas, 88. 124, 171— Aiimiltcd lo 

the livery. 1 05 
Leach. Thomas, 235 
Leather Lane. Holiiorn, no 
Le.itherielicrs' Hall, 99— Meetings held at, 
194 — The Feast.-, held at, 196, 
197. 198 
Lecount. Peter. 109, 1 10 
Lecming. Edward, 109 
Lello. James, 151 
Lcm.in, Sir John, Alderman, 2 
Lentall. Mr., 54 
Leroux. John, 1S4 
Levant Company, 173 

Trade. 185 

Lever escapement invented by Thomas 

Mudge, 170 
Levett, Sir Richard, Alderman, 122, 123 
I..evy, Jonas, the first Jew admitted to the 

freedom, 149 
Lewes. Sir NValkin, Alderman, 108 
Lewis, Sir George Cornewall, letter from. 

335> 337 
Library, The, letter upon increasing the use- 
fulness of. 104 — The establish- 
ment of, 203, etseq. — Catalogue 
of, completed and issued, 204, 
206 — And museum to be depo- 
sited in the new library of tlie 
Corporation at Guildhall, 206 
Licence, proposal made by the Companj- 
that dealers in foi eign watches 
and clocks should lake out an 
annual, 312 
Lidiard, Richard, 117 
Lindsay, Captain Sir James. 179 
Liverpool, Lord, letter lo, asking his 
assistance for the benefit of the 
watch trade, 276, et seq. 
Livery. Distinguishing dress worn by the 
Companies, iv — Description of, 
iv — Mr. .Sergl. Adair's opinion 
of, as to the power of the Com- 
pany to compel freemen to take 
up their, 69, 70, 71 — Bye-law, 
fixinga penalty for not taking the, 
69, 71 — Attendances of, in the 
pageants on Lord Mayor's day, 
75, 76, 105 — Bye-Ian' referring 
to the, 96 — Atiempts made to 
obtain the. 96 — Committee ap- 
pointed lo petition for a, 97 — 
Petition to the Court of Alder- 
men for a, 97-10I— Not granted, 
100— Granted, 102-104 — First 
liverymen admitted, 104, 105 — 
Fine fixed, 104;^ — Petition to 
the Court of Aldermen for an 
increase lo the 106-1 10 — Com- 
plied with, and fine fixed, 107, 
loS-ili — Members admitted to 
the, 108. 109— William Mansell 
and W illiam Welbome fined for 
not takii g up, no — Invited to 
dine, 198 — Admission book of 
the, 203 



Lloyd, Sir Richard, opinion of, as to the 
livery. 100 

Locker, John, elected clerk, 92 

Loddington. Isaac, 155 

London and Middlesex Archaeological 
Society, 76 

London Tavern, Meetings held at, 194 

Longitude ut sea, ofi'er of ;i^20 000. by the 
board of longitude for the 
best instrument for deter- 
mining the, 162. 178 

The Board of, ^300 voted to 

Thomas Earnshaw by, for his 
improvements in chronometers, 
164—^3,000 given to Thomas 
Mudge for the like, 170 — ;^500 
to John Harrison, by, to help 
him to proceed with his experi- 
ments, 178 — /20,ooo voted to 
him by, 179 

LongLane,meetingheldat "TheCaf'in, 192 

Loomes, Thomas. 62. 159. 232 — Charged 
with having live apprentices, 151 

Lord Mayor's day, the livery walked for 
the first time in procession, 76 

Lord. Richard, 51 

Lothbury, the White Hart Tavern in. 66 — 
The Mermaid in, 166— Mr. 
I'cnnock's house in, 199 

Lowell, Paul. 21 — a silver wine bowl pre- 
sented by, 208 

Lucas, Ml-., portrait of George Atkins 
made by, 93 

Lynaker or Linnaker, Samuel, n. 20. 23. 
49. 50. 51. 78 

Lyons, Richard, 85, 86 

Maberley, John. 87, 98 
McCabe, James, 88, 109, 184 
Magson. Henry, watch made by Hugger- 
ford purchased of, 247 
Maisterson, Mr., 20 
Major, Henry, 127, 128 
Mansell, W^iiliam, no 
Mansfield, Lord, the case of Cabrierc, v. 

Anderson, tried before, 162 — 

His judgment thereon. 259 
Marchant, Samuel. 86, 214 
Marke. John, 114 
Markham, Mr. , 123 
Robert, defective rules seized at 

the shop of 23S 
Markwick, James, 79,86, n5. 116 
Man iott, John. 88 
Marsden, John. 86 
Marsh, Anthony, chosen beadle, 95 

Mr.. City solicitor, 54 

Marston, John, fined for having deceitful 

work on his premises, 236 
Martin, John, fined for unduly taking 

apprentices. 233 
Martin, Mr., 184 
Maskelyne, Rev. Dr. Nevil, Astronomei' 

R<.yal. 181, 189 
Mason, Charles. 165 
Massam, Sir Francis, 246 



INDEX. 



Master, Election ol', 8i, 82— None to be 
elected until he has been three 
years an assistant, 82 — Steps to 
be talcen on the death or resig- 
nation of, 82, 83 

Masterpiece, to be produceil liy appren- 
tices before being admitted as 
skilled workmen, iii, 150, 151 

Masters, James, no — Translated to the 
Goldsmiths' Company, 1 13 

Masterson, Richard, 85, 112, 120, 159 

Mathematical Instrument Makers admitted 
freemen of the Company, 1 14 

Shops searched for defective 

work, 236-239 — Dispute be- 
tween the Clockmakers' and 
Spectaclemakers' Companies, as 
to the admission of, 137-47 

Mattchett, John. 63, 73, 60, 85 

Matthew, Francis, 62 

Matthews, William, 87— Admitted to the 
livery, 105 

Mattocks. John, 108, 109 

Maynard, George, 127 

Maypole, the, the sign of, in the Stand, 238 

Meeting places, 191-96 

Melvdl. Joiin, 184 

Meniall, James, a Frenchman, to be prose- 
cuted for exercising the art, not 
beingfree, 233 — Appeared, paid 
his charges, and took up his 
freedom, 234 

.Mercer, Mr., defective rule seized at the 
shop of, 237 

Mercers' Hall, feast kept at, 197 

Merchant. Samuel, 125 

Merchant Taylors' Company, terms for 
meeting in the hall of, 193 

Mercurial pendulum invented by (jeorge 
(jraham. 167 

Meredith, Launcellott, 63 

Merigeot, John, admitted to the livery, 105 

Merrill, Charles, 109, no 

Merry, Charles, 87 — Admitted to the 
livery, 104 

Merttins, SirGeorge. Alderman, 86,188,184 

Metcalf, George Marmaduke, 108 

Micabius, John, 20 

Midfllcton, .Sir Thomas, Alderman, 2, 5, 6 

Middiiall, John, siv Mydnall 

Miles, Septimus, no 

Miller, Mr., 153 

Miliington. Gilljert, 60 

Million, William. 159 

Mills, Sir Edward, 123 

Thomas, sketch by, of the position of 

the graves of Tompion and 
Graham in Westminster 
Abbey, 175 

Mina, General, 186 

Mirehouse, J., Opinion of, as to enforcing 
the bye-laws, n I 

Mitchell. Robert, admitted to the livery, 
105 

Mitford, Mr., admitted to the livery, 105 



-Mitre Tavern, Wuoil Street, feast held at, 
197 

Moliere, Mr., 76 

Moodie, David, 62 — A silver dish presented 
by. 207, 208 

Moore, George, 90, 198 

Mopes Alley, Soulhwark, 166 

Morgan, Richard, 4. 5, n, 20, 23, 78, 120 
— A volume, containing copies 
of the charter, bye-laws, giant 
of arms, &c., presented by, 201 

Thomas, chosen clerk and beadle, 

91, 95 

Morris, Edward, 1 16 

Samuel, defective rules seized at 

the shop of. 236 

Mosely, Elinor, 155 

Moss, Mr., 54, 57 

Tliomas, 108 

Motto, the Company's, 73 

Moulinie, M., 323 

Mowlson, Mr. Alderman, 5 

Mudge, Thomas, admitted to the livery, 
105. 169 — Reward given to, 
by the Board of Longitude, for 
improvements in chrono- 
meters. 170 — Lever escapement 
invented by, 170 

Kev. Zachary, 169-170 

Mulford. John, 87 

Mullett. Edward, elected beadle, 95 

Mydnall or Middnall, John, n, 20, 23, 49, 
50, 51, 78, 81, 85 

Naked Boy, the sign of, in Cheapside. 237 

Nash, John. 114. 237 

Naval Architecture, society established for 

the improvement of, 173 
Neale, Henry, 124 

Samuel, 60 

Needlemakers, the, proposal as to their 

incorporation with the Black- 
smiths, 3 
Negus, Willy, chosen assistant beadle, 95// 
Nelson, George, Alderman, 127, 128 
New, Mr., Warden of the Blacksmiths' 

Company, 3 
Newcomb, Jos. , no 
New Street, Shoe Lane, €6 
Newell, William, 109 
Newman, John, no 

Robert, 109 

Newnham, Mr., Alderman, 107, io8 

Nicaragua, 1 he Lake of, 186 

Nicasius, John, 59, 63, 72, 73, 85, 237— 

Suspended for using abusive 

words. 80 
Noakes, James, defective rules seized at 

the shop of, 237 
Non-freemen, carrying on the trade, 

powers of the Company over, 

69, 70 
Norris, Edward, 66, 86, 197 
North, William, a silver drinking cuj) 

presented by, 208 



INDEX. 



Noursc, Thomas, admitted to the livery, 
105 

Oatlands, clock repaired at. by David Ram- 
sey. 172 

Okeham, Edward, 51 

Orrery, Lord, the first planetarium made 
for, 167 

Overall, Henry Charles, chosen clerk, 95 

William Henry, F.S.A., 189— To 

prepare a new catalogue of the 
Company's libr.iry, MSS.. and 
collection of watches and 
clocks, 206 

Overzee, Gerard, 160 

Painter-Stainers' Company, a chamber 
clock presented to, 191 — Meet- 
ing of this Company held at 
their hall, 191 

Pall Mall, residence of Edward East in, 165 

Parker. John. 239 

William, 90. 180 — The master's 

badge made by, 75 

Parkinson. William. 222 

Parkwick. James, 125 

Partridge, William, two apostle spoons, 
presented by, 20S 

Patents for Inventions, opposition of the 
Company to grants of, &c., 
242-255 

Paterson, John, Deputy, 127 

Patmore, Peter, 135 

Patrick, John, 244 

Pattee, Thomas, 109 

Paul, Nowell, an alien, to be prosecuted 
for working in the city, 233 

Paul's Churchyard, St., meetings held at 
the Queen's Arms Tavern in, 194 

Paul's Head Tavern, meetings at, 105, 107 

Pawnbrokers, proposal of the Company to 
prohibit their receiving un- 
finished watches in pledge, 282 

Payne, Nicholas, 73 

Southern, 87 — Admitted to the 

livery, 105 

Peachy, Newman, admitted to the livery, 

105 
Pearce, William, 108 
Peckham, Dr. Milner's school at. 173 
Peel, Arthur W,, letter signed by, 340 
Peers, Richard, Alderman, 104 
Pemberton, Mr., Serjeant, 65 
Pembroke, the Earl of, 165 
Pendulum, two seconds, first employed by 

Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy, 176 

— The Gridiron invented by 

John Harrison, 177 
Pennington. Sir Isaac, Alderman, 60 
Pennock, John, 73, 85, 191, 199 — A house 

clock presented by, 208 
Pensioners of the Company, a list of the, 

227 
Pensions, Two new created, 215 — The 

whole augmented, 215 



Pepper, Thomas, 109 
Pepys, John, 86. 87, 98, 214, 240 
Perkins, Eysum, to be prosecuted for 
e.xercising the art, not being 
free. 233 — Appeared, and pro- 
mised to take up his freedom, 

234 
Perigal, Francis, 87, 89, 184 — Admitted 

to the livery, 105 

Francis, jun., 108 

F. S., jun., 88 

John. 184 

Perry. J, A,, 89 

Petit, Guillaume, 5, 20, 51 

William, Silver gilt cup and cover 

presented by, 207-209 
Peto, Mr., forbidden to work at the trade, 

not being free, 232 
Pheasant, Peter, Recorder, 56, 57 
Phillips, Thomas. 124 
Pickett, William. Alderman. 108 
Pierce, William. 88 
Piggott, Mr., defective rules seized at the 

shop of, 237 
Pinchbeck. Christopher, 184 
Pinson, John, apprentice, 239 
Pitt, Thyar, 109 

William, 109 

The Right Hon. William, 267, 269, 

270, 271, 294, 331 
Pitts, Captain, 123 

Thomas, 122 

Planetarium, the first, made by George 
Graham, for Lord Orrery, 167 
Plate belonging to the Company, descrip- 
tion of, 206, ct seq. 

The duty upon gold, 266 

Plumley, William, 87" 

William, jun., 88 

Poll Tax, loan upon the credit of the, 213, 

214 
Pond, John, F.R.S., Astronomer Royal,189 
Poole, Anthony, defective rules seized at 

the shop of, 238 
Robert, 87, 88— Admitted to the 

livery, 104 
Pope, Mr., to paint colours and streamers of 

the Company, 75 
Porter, Harry, jun. , 88 
Potter, James, no 

John, beadle, 78, 95 

Harry, senr., death of, 83, 88 

Pound, Francis, 117 

Prigg, John, admitted to the livery, 105 

Procter, William, no 

Purefoy, William. 60 

Pyrometer, an improved one made, 165 

Quare, Daniel, 86, 170 — Inventor of the 
repeater movement in watches, 
170 — A watch made by, for 
James II, 171 — Buried in Bun- 
hill Fields, 171 — Patent granted 
to, for portable weather glasses, 
244 



INDEX. 



Quarterage, Powers of the Company to 
enforce payment of. 68 

Queen Street, Cheapside. The Rummer 
Tavern in, i68 

Rainier, John, io8 

Rainton, or Raynton Sir Nicholas, Alder- 
man, 2, 52, 53 

Ramsey, David, the first Master, 11, 23, 
49. 50. 85, 171 

Rawlings, Charles. ^^200 given to the poor 
by, 223 

James, loS 

Recusancy, John Mattchelt, charged with, 
80 

Red Lion Square, John Harrison's resi- 
dence in, 179 

Reead, Thomas, 51 

Reeve, Mr., 21 

Thomas, 78 

Reid, Thomas, 190 

Renter Warden, duties of the, 84 

Rice, Spring, letters on the illicit importa- 
tion of foreign clocks and 
watches, 300, 306, 311 

Richards. Hugh, 87 

Richardson, James. 88 

John, no 

Sir Thomas, Knt., Lord Chief 

Justice of the King'sBench, 22,48 

Richmond, the King's private observatory 
at, 179 

Riddlesdon, Samuel. 130 

Rigby, Joshua, 184 

Rivers, David, 87 — Admitted to the livery, 

105 

William, 88 

Robins, William, 88, 143 

Robinson, Christopher, 127, 128 

Francis, 86 

Robert. 62 

Robson, William, 88, 89 

Rogers, Isaac, 83, 88, 89. 143, 173' 185. 
282 — Plan matured by for the 
resuscitation of the Company, 
173, 215 — Thanks awarded to 
him, 173 

Thomas. 109 

William, 219;/ 

Rogerson, William, 87 — Admitted to the 
livery, 105 

Rooke, John, 184 

Rookes. Mr. , 79 

Rosoman Street, Clerkenwell, 1 10 

Ross. Mr., Surveyor-General of Customs, 
326 

Rothwood, Robert, 51 

Rowlands, Christopher, 224 

William, 89, 90. 198 — A silver 

salver, silver alms dish, a glass 
jug and two goblets, presented 
by, 209 — His bequest for the 
benefit of the inmates of the 
clock and watchmakers' asylum. 
223 



Royal Observatory, Greenwich, deposit of 
chronometers at, for trial, 162, 
344 — Transit clock at, 164 — 
Mr. P'rodsham's chronometers 
tested at, 166^ A mural arch 
and sector made for, by George 
Graham, 167 

Russell, Conelius, 219 

Lord Edward, 246 

George, translated to the Salters' 

Company, 113 

Mr., 240 

Mrs., ;,<^io given to the poor by, 

218. 219 

Captain Nicasius, 86. 116. 219,233 

Saddlers' Hall, report as to holding the 

meetings of the Company at, 192 
Sadleir, Samuel, 86 
Saldanha, General, 186 
Salters' Company, George Russell, trans- 
lated to, 113 
Sanderson, James, Alderman, 108 
Sargeant, Nathaniel, 88 
Saunders, Daniell, 51 

Mr., 20 

Savory, Thomas Cox, 320. 321 
Scafe. William, 87, 98 
Scott, James, 130 

John, 184 

Scovell, C.A., Secretary of the Customs, 

letter from, 310 
Scriven, Mr., 125 
Scale, Mr. William, 247 
Seals of the Company, 74 
Search Courts, receipts and expenditure of, 

241-42 
Searches made for bad or defective work, 

235-242 
Seguier, Baron, .Swiss consul, 338 
Seignoir, Robert, 169 
Sellars, John. 86, 114 — Defective mles 

seized at the shop of, 237 
Sewell, John, 142 
Sharp, John, 89 
Shaw, Anna Alaria, apprentice, 155 

John, 86 

Shelton, John, admitted to the livery. 105 
Sampson, 4, 11, 20. 23, 49, 50, 

51, 59, 78, 85, 120 — Bequest of 

2"5ol)y, 217 

Thomas, Elected clerk, 91 

.Shepherd, Mr., 20 

Shepheard, Thomas, 51 

Sherwood, William, 87 

Shirley, John, Translated to the \'intners" 

Company. 113 
Sidey, Benjamin, 87 — Admitted to the 

livery, 104 — Bequest of;^300 to 

the poor, by, 221 
.Silver. Frederick, 1 10 
Silvester, Joseph, several defective rules 

seized at the shop of, 237 
Simpson, William Ellison, 184 
Sinderby, Francis H., 109. no 



INDEX. 



Skiiinev, Matllicw, S7 

Skinners' Company, bir Georjje Mcrttiii.-., 
Alderman, translated to, 183 

Sk)'nner, John, Deputy, 127 

SnicUie. (ieorge. elected beadle, 95 

Smith, James, 1S4 

John, II, 20, 21,23,49.50,51,59, 

78. 85 — Fined for non-atten- 
dance. 81 — Fined for putting 
Estme Herbert's name upon a 
watch, 256 

Phillip, 114 

Robert, 85, 207 

Susanna, apprentice. 155 

Smugglers bringing over watches, &c.. 
295.298 

Smuggling, proposal of the Company to 
put a stop to, 300, 301. 316 

Snagg, Mr., 168 

Snellmg, James. 87. 97, 98 

Soldiers, discharged. Act enabling them 
to trade, 115 

Somersall, Richard. loS 

South Sea Stock purchased, 214. 215 

Sparkes, Nicholas, a piece of plate pre- 
sented by, 208 

.Speakman, William, 86. 116, 154 

Spectacle Makers' Company, dispute with 
as to admission of mathematical 
instrument makers to the 
freedom, 138. 146 

Speidell, Franc s, appointed clerk, 91 — 
Charges bi ought against him, 92 

Spelter Metal, a watch made of 232 

Spencer, Thomas, prosecuted for unduly 
taking apprentices, and fined. 

233. 234 

Ssmidt, Gersen, 4 

Staff, to be provided for the beadle, 75, 76 

Stafford, John, 87 — Elected clerk, 92 — 
Petition of, against a project for 
stamping dial plates, 254 

Stamper, Mr. Francis, to be prosecuted for 
refusing to permit his work- 
rooms to be searched, 240 

Standards, three of brass received from the 
Court of Exchequer, 337 

Stanley, Dean, his account of the restora- 
tion of the monumental stone 
over the graves of Tompion and 
Graham, 175 

Stanton. Edwai d, 86, u6, 125 

.Starey, John, 109 

Starr, Robert, 114 

Stars, catalogue of, i, 113 

Stationers' Company, to be treated with 
for the use of their hall, 194 

Stationers' Hall, feasts kept at, 197, 198 

Steevens, Samuel, to be prosecuted for 
unduly taking apprentices, 233 

Stephens, Daniel, chosen beadle, 95 

Josejjh, 87, 98— Admitted to the 

livery, 105 

Stephenson, Thos. .Samuel, 109, no 

.Steveningham, William, 60 



Stevenson, Adam, 108 

Stewart, J., Letter from the Treasury ami 
answers thereto, 313, 318, 319 

Stocks, Conlinement in the, iii 

Stone, Mr., 52-54, 57 

Stones, Thomas, 86 

Stones, precious and common, applieil to 
clocks and watches, 244-247 

Storer, Robert, 184 

Storr, William, 184 

Strachan, Abraham, 155 

Andrew, 154 

Strange, Sir John, Attorney-General, lOO 

Street, Richard, 86 

Strigil, George Philip, 184 

Style, Nathaniel, 87, 98, 183— Admitted 
to the livery, 104 — ;^io given 
to the poor by, 220 

Richard, 88 — Admitted to the 

livery, 104 

Stubbs, Gabriel!, 160 

Mr., letter from, as to the gift of 

Conyers Dunlop, 226 

Sun dials seized, being defective, 237 

Sutton, Charles, 125 

Swale, Jaques, an alien to be prosecuted 
for working in the city, 233 

Sweeting's Alley, Cornhill, 165 

Swindells, Jasper. 134 

Swiss Consul, 293 

Watches, increase in the number im- 
ported, 295 — Those sold in 
France marked as to the quality 
of the gold, 307 

Swithin's, St., London stone, 156 

Switzerland, report on the commerce and 
manufacture of. 322 

Swordhilts, bill in Parliament for per- 
mitting the exportation of, 257-S 

Tailour, Edward, 3 

John, 3 

Tankards, Two Silver, purchased, 209 

Taverns, A list of Old City, 195-196 

Tayler, Edward, 109, no 

Taylor, George, 155 

Jasper, 87, 97, 98 — Elected clerk, 

92 — ;^io given to the poor by. 

220 

Lucy, 155 

Samuel, 88 

Thomas, 62, 65, 66, 73, 85, 86 

William, 124 

Tebbatt, Benoni, a gold watch case made 

of unwarrantable gold seized at 

his shop in Little Old Bailey, 

240 
Theobalds, clocks at, repaired and a chime 

of bells made for, 172 
Thorold, Sir John, 246 
Thwaites, John, 88, 108, 143, 282 
Tolley, Charles, ciiosen beadle, 95 
Tomlinson, William, 86 
Tompion, Elizabeth. 166 
Tames, i66 



INDEX. 



Tompion, Thomas, 86, ii6, 125, 166, 174 
— Buried in Westminster 
Abbey, 174 

Tovie, Mr., 54 

Town Clerk, 100— Fees paid to, 112, 113 

Townsend, John, forbidden to work at the 
Trade, 231 

Trade, abuses in, referred to a committee, 
65 — Regulations of Workmen, 
. 231-35— The distressed condi- 
tion of the trade, petition to 
Parliament thereon. 283 84 

Trade, Lords of the Committee of Council 
for, questions by and answers as 
to opening up trade with 
France, 262, cl set/. — Represen- 
tation to, as to the duty upon 
watches and clocks, 264 — Me- 
morial to, for preventing false 
names being added to watches, 
272 

Trade, the Board of, Memorial to, upon 
the alteration of the Ware- 
housing Act, 289-91 — Memo- 
rial to, upon the illicit impor- 
tation of foreign clocks and 
watches. 320 — Their answer, 
322 

Translations to other Companies, 112, 113. 
183 

Treasurer. Edward East appointed, 90, 165 

Simon Hackett, nominated, 90 

Treasury, The Lords of the. Memorial to, 
for prei^enting the pirating of 
names on watches and clocks, 
272 — Memorials to, upon the 
illicit importation of foreign 
watches and clocks. 293, et sey. 
— Letter to 307 — Letter from, 
upon the illegal importation of 
watches and clocks, 313 — Me- 
morial to, 294, (■/ scq. , 300,t'/ scq. , 
322.330, 331, 336— Replies to, 

334 337, 338 
Trecothick, Barlow, Alderman, 104 
Tregent, James, 184 
Trevithick, Richard. 185 
Trubshaw, John, 86 
Turner, Samuel, Alderman, 127 
Tutet, Edward, 88 — Admitted to the livery, 

105 
T\v)'ford, Robert, 184 

Upjohn, Francis, 108 

Valentine, Charles, D.F., no 

Vansittart, Hon. Nicholas, Memorandum 

sent to, upon the importation of 

foreign watches and clocks. 

284-S 
Wmtrollier or Vaulrollier James. 1 1. 20, 23, 

49, 50, 51, 78, 81 
Vernon, Samuel, 63, 73. 85 
Vick. Richard, 86 
Viet, Claude, 155 



Viet, Mariane, apprentice, 155 
Vigne. James, 184 
Vincent, John, 235 
Viner. Sir Robert, ;!{^ioo lent to, 212 
Vintners' Company. John Shirley, trans- 
lated to, 113 
Voland, or Volant, Elias, or Ely, 21, 

51,. 153 
Vulliamy, Benjamin, 184, 204 
lienjamin, Lewis. F.R.A.S,, 88, 

89. 176— Presentation of plate 

to, 176 

Justin, 204. 

Justin Theodore, 88, 89 

Waldron, John, 93 

Wales, Henry Prince of. 3 watches made 
for, by David Ramsey, 171 

Walker. Sir Edward, Garter King at Arms, 
72, 73— Seal of, 74 

John, 51 

Mr., 21 — Defective rules seized at 

the shop of 236 

Wallace, the Right Hon.. Lord President 
of the Board of Trade, 285, 
324, 325. 326 

Walter, Mr., 20 

Warburton, — , chosen beadle. 95 

Ward, John. 88 

Mr. ,21 

Thomas, 51 

Warden, Thomas, 155 

Wardens, steps to be taken upon the death 
or resignation of, 82 — Election 
and removal of 83, 84 

Warehousing Bill, petition of the Company 
against, 285-86 — Proposition of 
the Company inserted in the 
Bill, 286 

Act, petition presented by the 

Company to Parliament for 
an alteration in, 288 — Clause 
inserted for the ])rotection of the 
watch trade repealed, 288 — 
Memorials to the board of trade 
upon 289-92 — Amended, 292 — 
Notice of the clause in, adver- 
tised, 293 

Warre, William Henry, .^loo left to the 
Company by, 224 

Watches, the smallest repeating made. 161 
— Mudge'sworkonthe improve- 
ment of, particularly those for 
use at sea. 169 — The repeating 
movement in. invented by 
Daniel Quare, 170 — One made 
by him for James H. 17 1 — One 
with a spiral balance or pen- 
dulum spring made for Charles 
n, 174 — The use of precious 
and other stones in. 245-47 — 
A patent for repeating, applied 
for by Mr. i?arlow, 170 — 
Opposed successfully, 243 — 
Pretended invention to keep 



XVI 



IN' OKA. 



Watches, continiud. 

the dust out of, 248-9— Applica- 
tion of Charles Clay for a pa- 
tent for repeating watches or 
clocks, 251-254 — Application 
by J. Bosley for a patent for an 
improvement in making. 255 — 
A tax imposed upon all wearers 
of. 269-70 — Repealed, 271 — 
Petition of the Company to 
Parliament against a Clause in 
the Customs Bill, relating to, 
330 — Memorial of the Com- 
pany to the Treasury, upon, 
330 — Foreign, in metal cases, 
advertised in the Custom House 
sale as gold, 331 — Memorial of 
the Company to the Lords of 
the Treasury and the House of 
Commons, upon. 332-337— 
Answer from the Lords of the 
Treasury, 334-337— The rate 
of duty upon, in France. 319 — 
Duty upon, Foreign, 294-296, 
299, 303, 323 — Endeavours of 
the Company to prevent the 
illegal importation or exporta- 
tion of 255. 262, 263, 267-268, 
27S-281, 284-285. 293, et set]., 
305, 308, 316, 324 — None to be 
exported without the name and 
residence of the maker engraved 
upon them, 280, 281, 304 — 
Material for the manufacture of, 
exported from England, 297, 
299, 304 — The number of 
foreign, imported, 301-302 — 
Return to the House of Com- 
mons of the value of foreign, 
imported, 316 — Dealers in 
foreign. proposed to be compelled 
to take out a licence. 281.312 — 
Marking of, &c. , at Goldsmiths' 
Hall. 21'^.et seq. — Forged marks 
of Goldsmiths' Hall, discovered 
upon, 288. 339 — Proposal that 
they be marked when the duty 
has been paid, 325-26 — Seizure 
of, with false names engraved 
upon, 239 — Proposal to in- 
crease the penalty for putting 
false names upon, 268 — Bill 
brought into Parliament for 
preventing other than free- 
men of London from putting 
•• London " upon. 257-58 — The 
Names of Tompion, Wmdmills, 
Quare, , Cabrier, Lamb, and 
others falsely engraved upon, 
258-59 — Committee appointed 
to consider the best means of 
preventing the practice of put- 
ting false names upon. 272-6 — 
Foreign made, to have the name 
and residence of the maker en- 



Watches, contimted. 

graved upon them. 280 — The 
forging of names to be punished 
as a felony. 282 — A case of 
foreign, with forged English 
names, imported and ware- 
housed, steps taken by the Com- 
pany, 287 — Great quantities of, 
smuggled into this country, 279 
— Representation to Lord Liver- 
pool, as to the decay of the 
trade in, 276, ct scq. — iSIemorial 
to the Lords of the Treasury 
upon the state of the trade, &c.. 
322 — The manufacture of, in 
Switzerland. 322 

Watch Cases, Reduction of the standard of 
gold in, 269 —The difference in 
the cost of English and foreign 
made, compared, 269 — The 
number of gold and silver, 
marked in, 1796-97, 270, 271 — 
The duty on gold and silver 
repealed, 271 — The difference 
in quality of the gold made into 
w^atch-cases in England and 
abroad, 327 — 

Watch Makers, A public register of all 
proposed to be kept, 268 

Watkins. Rev. H. G.. M.A., his book 
entitled "'Affectionate Advice 
to Apprentices," 156 

Watson, Samuel, an invention by, to dis- 
cover the hour of the day at 
sea, offered to the Company, 250 

Weather Glasses,patent for making, granted 
to Daniel Quare, 170 

Weavers' Company, charter granted to, iii 

Hall, inquiries to be made as to 

the terms for holding meetings 
at, 194 

Webb, Benjamin. 184 

Webster, John, 117 

Richard. 89, iio 

Robert, 86, 214 

Samuel, admittedtothe livery, 104 

William. 87 — admitted to the 

livery, 105 

Weekly Assessment ordered by Parliament. 
206-7 

Weeks, Thomas, charged with abusing 
Warden Coxeter and Ann Gre- 
gory, 78 

Welborne, William, no 

Wellborne, Charles, 90 

Wellke, Christianus de, 4 

Wellowe or Willow, John. 11. 49, 50. 51, 
59. 78. 85 

Wells, Joseph, 114. 237 

West, Mr., admitted to the livery, 104 

Westminster, clocks at, repaired, 172 

Abbey. Thomas Tompion and 

George Graham, burial of, in. 
166. 174 — Protest against the 
removal of the monumental 



Westminster Al)bey, continued. 

stone over their graves. 174, 175 
— Restoration of, 175 

Whaplett, Thomas, a silver tankard pre- 
sented by, 209 

Wheeler, Thomas, 85, 86, 240 

Whichcote, Samuel, 87, 98— Admitted to 
livery, 104 

Whifflers, to attend the livery on Lord 
Mayor's day, 76 

White Hart-court. Lombard-street, 173 

Whitehead, John, 117 

Whitlach. John, a silver cup. presented by, 
208 

Whitmore, Sir George. Alderman, 5. 6, 

49- 50.53- 172 

Whittingham. William, 154 — To be pro- 
secuted for exercising the Art, 
not being free, 233, 234 

Whitwell, Robert, three silver spoons and 
a silver wine bowl, presented 
by, 207-8. 

Wickes, John, 108 

J. Houghton, no 

Wightwick. John, 184 

Wilbraham, Mr., 100 

Williams, Mr., a china bowl, presented by, 
210 

Williamson, Jos. , 86 

Robert, 86. 116,125 

Willin, William, no 



Willow, John, see Wellowe 

........ .Mr., 20, 81 

Wills, Edward, 122 

Wilson, Alexander, 184 

James, 155, 184 

Hannah, 155 

Richard, faulty rules seized in 

the shop of, at Newgate. 239 

Windham, Sir William, 250 

Windmills, Joseph, 86. n6. 159 

Wing. William. 90 

Winnie, Henry, 233 

Wise, Peter. 86 

Wontner. John, no 

Woodfielde. Mr., warden of the Black- 
smiths' Company, 3 

Woodmongers' Company, 52. 53 

Wray, Hilton, 88 

Wright, John. 184 

Wrightson. Thomas, 87 

Wyeth, John, a watch and box made of 
spelter metal, exhibited by, 232 

Wynn Henry, 65, 66, 86, n6, 233 

Mr. Warden of the Blacksmiths' 

Company, 3 

Wythe, Lionel, 168— Chosen beadle, 95 

Young, James, 108 

John, 109 

Richard, Sheriff of London, 181 

William, 154 





INTRODUCTION. 




HE "Guilds" or "Mysteries" of London had 
their origin in the Old Saxon Law which 
exacted sureties from every Freeman above 
the age of 14 years for his good behaviour, 
and gave rise to associations called "Guilds" 
from the payment of money into one com- 
mon fund for meeting any claims which 
might be made against their brethren of 
the craft. 

Mr. W. H. Black, F.S.A., in his intro- 
duction to the history of the Leathersellers' 
Company, traces the origin of these Guilds back to a very 
early period of our history. 

Gild is a true and pure British noun, signifying contribution or what 
is produced or contributed ; and together with the British verb gi/diaw (signi- 
fying to yield, produce, or contribute) and other derivations of the root gi/: it 
may be found in any Welsh Dictionary. Both the idea, and the thing signified, 
are Roman ; and the name is purely British, adopted by Saxon and Norman 
conquerors to express what they found existing among the natives. Hence came 
the gi/d or geld (whether as a verb or as a noun) of the Anglo-Saxon laws, and 
the ge/dsd/>c, the gcldiim and gcldare of the Normans : the latter occurring 

1! 



ii INTRODUCTION. 

perpetually in Domesday Book in the sense of yielding as revenue to the 
public Exchequer. The Anglo-Saxon legal woxAgafol (sometimes confounded 
with geld in sense) is but the British word gafael, meaning a tenure or holding; 
and is in like manner the origin of gavelkind, and of other terms occurring in 
our laws and records. These and many other words, hitherto referred to the 
Anglo-Saxon dialect for their etymology, and by consequence to a supposed 
Anglo-Saxon origin, can be more satisfactorily traced to the old British 
language, and be explained by existing usage among the Welsh people; in 
the same manner as the most ancient names of places, throughout Britain, 
Gaul, and Northern Italy, can be demonstrably explained by that language, 
and by it alone. — Page 3. 

An important part of the functions attributed to the Roman Urbi 
Prcefectus consisted in the supervision and regulation of trade, labour, 
markets, and prices ; and in restraining or punishing " Illicit Colleges," that 
is, Companies or Societies which held nocturnal assemblies, or otherwise 
acted against the public good. So the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of 
London have from time beyond memory, regulated the tradesmen and 
artificers of London, both in their collective capacity as Crafts or Companies 
by framing ''Ordinances" or rules and regulations, or by issuing Procla- 
mations for the conduct of their affairs, and for allowing or disallowing, 
uniting, consolidating or severing Companies voluntarily associated ; and 
also in their individual capacity upon complaints or accusations against 
fraudulent or disobedient craftsmen. The records of the City, so far back 
as they reach in regular series (into the thirteenth century) abound with 
such Ordinances and wath instances of corrective and coercive jurisdiction, 
extending to forfeiture of wares, to fines and imprisonments, and to exposure 
on the pillory. The masters, or other chief officers of the several Societies 
or Companies, were commonly presented to the Mayor to be sworn as the 
Mayor himself was presented to the Imperial Court; and the Mayor and 
Aldermen received petitions, supplications, or "bills," as Senators in their 
" inner Chamber," where they held a Court of Record, and consulted on the 
laws and regulations which were proposed to them by Societies or their sworn 
Officers. This practice is so ancient, that there is no appearance of novelty 
in the earliest Ordinances now extant ; on the contrary, some of the oldest 
refer to precedent regulations, and in some instances the largest terms of 
antiquity are applied to this part of the municipal jurisdiction, which was 
highly valued, and much frequented by the trades thereby regulated. — 
Page 7. 

The Guilds were divided into two kinds, ecclesiastical 
and mercantile, the former devoted to religion and charity, the 
latter to the protection of trade. About the 14th century 
they became more blended, the mercantile being grafted on 
the ecclesiastical or devotional. 



INTRODUCTION. Ill 

Mr. John Xicholls, F.S.A., in the history of the Iron- 
mongers' Company,' sets out several Anglo-Saxon Charters 
of foundation of Ecclesiastical Guilds. By the reign of 
Henry II, many Guilds — some being exclusively Trading 
Guilds — had been established in the City. Eighteen of 
these, termed " Adulterine Guilds," for forming themselves 
into Fraternities without the King's licence, were fined. 

The earliest existing Charter of a Trading Guild is that 
of the Weavers, granted by Henry II in 1184, in which 
he confirmed all the privileges granted to them b}- his 
grandfather, Henry I. 

The system of apprenticeship became general in the 
early part of the 13th century, and the test of good workman- 
ship before admission into a Fraternity was adopted about 
the 15th century, each Apprentice being compelled to produce 
his " Masterpiece " and to satisfy the Master and Wardens of 
his ability before being admitted to Membership as a skilled 
workman. 

The authority exercised over the Apprentices and Free- 
men by some of the ancient Companies was of a very severe 
nature; not only had they power to inflict fines- and prohibit 
men from working at their trades, but in some cases confine- 
ment in the Stocks^ was awarded to the refractory. 

The whole body of each Company met upon certain days 
for the regulation and government of their trade, for convivial 
and social purposes, and also for making provision for the 
aged and helpless. ^lany of the crafts upon the decease of 
their members, and in some instances of their wives, took 
part in their funeral ceremonies, and the "Palls^" used upon 
these occasions are, in a few cases, still preserved. 



' "Some Account of the Worshipful Company of Ironmongers." Py John Nicholls, 
1S66, pp. 2 — 5. 

- "History of the Carpenters' Company." By E. B. Jupp, p. 138 cV se;/. 

' " History of the Vintners' Company,"' 186S, p. 18. 
• * The following Companies still preserve their Palls : — Fishmongers, Vintners, Sackllei-s, 
Merchant Tailors, Ironmongers, Watermen, and the Parish Clerks. 

B 2 



iv INTRODUCTION. 

It does not appear until the reign of Kino^ Edward I 
that the Guilds had assumed a distinguishing dress or 
common habit to be worn by every Member alike. This 
distinguishing dress was known as the " Livery " or clothing 
of the Guild or Company. The word is probably derived 
from the P^rench verb "Z/z'/rr" to deliver, since upon 
admission to full Membership the Badge, Cognizance or 
Clothing of the Fraternity was livree, i.e., delivered to the 
Member. It must not be understood, however, that the use 
of this word was confined to the common habit of these 
Guilds alone, since it was also applied to the retainers and 
adherents of the King, Noblemen, and others at an early 
period. 

The term " Livery," as describing the clothing of a 
Fraternity, is thus used by Chaucer in his prologue to the 
" Knio-ht's Tale :" — 



't> 



"An Haberdasher, and a Carpenter, 
A Webbe, a Deyer, and a Tapiser, 
\\'ere alle yclothed in O livere. 
Of a solempne and grete fraternite.'*' 

The earliest Ordinances upon record, determining the 
dress to be worn by any of the existing City Guilds, are 
those of the Grocers' Company, in 1348. The Livery is 
particularized "An upper and under garment called a 'coat 
and surcote,' " being referred to as the common habit, whilst 
the cloak or gown, and the hood, which were reserved for 
ceremonials, completed what was termed " the full suit." 
Herbert' is of opinion that there also existed an undress, or 
part dress, called " the hooding," probably worn by Freemen 
only, who were not esteemed " full brothers," like the Livery, 
since in the Fishmongers' Ordinances, some years later, it is 
enacted that once in every year, every Member should have 
the livery, be it "hole clothing or elles bodying." 

These Liveries varied in colour in the different crafts in 
early times, some of them being described in their ordinances. 



■ See his Introduction to the "History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies."— Page 59. 




INTRODUCTION. 




HE "Guilds" or "Mysteries" of London had 
their origin in the Old Saxon Law which 
exacted sureties from every Freeman above 
the age of 14 years for his good behaviour, 
and eave rise to associations called "Guilds" 
from the payment of money into one com- 
mon fund for meeting any claims which 
might be made against their brethren of 
the craft. 

Mr. W. H. Black, F.S.A., in his intro- 
duction to the history of the Leathersellers' 
Company, traces the origin of these Guilds back to a very 
early period of our history. 

Gild is a true and pure British noun, signifying contribution or what 
is produced or contributed ; and together with the British verb gildiaw (signi- 
fying to yield, produce, or contribute) and other derivations of the root gil: it 
may be found in any Welsh Dictionary. Both the idea, and the thing signified, 
are Roman ; and the name is purely British, adopted by Saxon and Norman 
conquerors to express what they found existing among the natives. Hence came 
the gild or geld (whether as a verb or as a noun) of the Anglo-Saxon laws, and 
the ge/dsa'pr, the geldinn and gcldare of the Normans : the latter occurring 

1! 



11 INTRODUCTION. 

perpetually in Domesday Book in the sense of yielding as revenue to the 
public Exchequer. The Anglo-Saxon legal word ^'■<7/"^^/ (sometimes confounded 
with geld in sense) is but the British word gafacl, meaning a tenure or holding; 
and is in like manner the origin of gavelkind, and of other terms occurring in 
our laws and records. These and many other words, hitherto referred to the 
Anglo-Saxon dialect for their etymology, and by consequence to a supposed 
Anglo-Saxon origin, can be more satisfactorily traced to the old British 
language, and be explained by existing usage among the Welsh people ; in 
the same manner as the most ancient names of places, throughout Britain, 
Ciaul, and Northern Italy, can be demonstrably explained by that language, 
and by it alone. — Page 3. 

An important part of the functions attributed to the Roman Urbi 
Prafectiis consisted in the supervision and regulation of trade, labour, 
markets, and prices ; and in restraining or punishing " Illicit Colleges," that 
is. Companies or Societies which held nocturnal assemblies, or otherwise 
acted against the public good. So the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of 
London have from time beyond memory, regulated the tradesmen and 
artificers of London, both in their collective capacity as Crafts or Companies 
by framing ''Ordinances" or rules and regulations, or by issuing Procla- 
mations for the conduct of their affairs, and for allowing or disallowing, 
uniting, consolidating or severing Companies voluntarily associated ; and 
also in their individual capacity upon complaints or accusations against 
fraudulent or disobedient craftsmen. The records of the City, so far back 
as they reach in regular series (into the thirteenth century) abound with 
such Ordinances and with instances of corrective and coercive jurisdiction, 
extending to forfeiture of wares, to fines and imprisonments, and to exposure 
on the i)illory. The masters, or other chief officers of the several Societies 
or Companies, were commonly presented to the Mayor to be sworn as the 
Mayor himself was presented to the Imperial Court ; and the Mayor and 
Aldermen received petitions, supplications, or "bills," as Senators in their 
" inner Chamber," where they held a Court of Record, and consulted on the 
laws and regulations which were proposed to them by Societies or their sworn 
Officers. This practice is so ancient, that there is no appearance of novelty 
in the earliest Ordinances now extant ; on the contrary, some of the oldest 
refer to precedent regulations, and in some instances the largest terms of 
antiquity are applied to this part of the municipal jurisdiction, which was 
highly valued, and much frequented by the trades thereby regulated. — 
Page 7. 

The Guilds were divided into two kinds, ecclesiastical 
and mercantile, the former devoted to religion and charity, the 
latter to the protection of trade. About the 14th century 
they became more blended, the mercantile being grafted on 
the ecclesiastical or devotional. 



INTRODUCTION. Ill 

Mr. John Nicholls, F.S.A., in the history of the Iron- 
mongers' Company,' sets out several Anglo-Saxon Charters 
of foundation of Ecclesiastical Guilds. By the reign of 
Henry II, many Guilds — some being exclusively Trading 
Guilds — had been established in the City. Eighteen of 
these, termed " Adulterine Guilds," for forming themselves 
into Fraternities without the King's licence, were fined. 

The earliest existing Charter of a Trading Guild is that 
of the Weavers, granted by Henry II in 1184, in which 
he confirmed all the privileges granted to them by his 
grandfather, Henry I. 

The system of apprenticeship became general in the 
early part of the 13th century, and the test of good workman- 
ship before admission into a Fraternity was adopted about 
the 15th century, each Apprentice being compelled to produce 
his " Masterpiece " and to satisfy the Master and Wardens of 
his ability before being admitted to Membership as a skilled 
workman. 

The authority exercised over the Apprentices and Free- 
men by some of the ancient Companies was of a very severe 
nature; not only had they power to inflict fines- and prohibit 
men from working at their trades, but in some cases confine- 
ment in the Stocks ^ was awarded to the refractory. 

The whole body of each Company met upon certain days 
for the regulation and government of their trade, for convivial 
and social purposes, and also for making provision for the 
aged and helpless. Many of the crafts upon the decease of 
their members, and in some instances of their wives, took 
part in their funeral ceremonies, and the "Palls'" used upon 
these occasions are, in a few cases, still preserved. 



' "Some Account of the Worshipful Company of Ironmongers," By John Nicholls, 
1866, pp. 2—5. 

- " History of the Carpenters' Company." By E. B. Jupp, p. 138 «'/ sr.j, 

3 "History of the Vintners' Company,"' i86S, p. 18. 

* The following Companies still preserve their Palls: — Fishmongers, Vintners, Saddlers, 
Merchant Tailors, Ironmongers, Watermen, and the Parish Clerks. 

B 2 



iv INTRODUCTION. 

It does not appear until the reign of King- Edward I 
that the Guilds had assumed a distinguishing dress or 
common habit to be worn by every Member alike. This 
distinguishing dress was known as the " Livery " or clothing 
of the Guild or Company. The word is probably derived 
from the French verb '' Livrcr" to deliver, since upon 
admission to full Membership the Badge, Cognizance or 
Clothing of the Fraternity was /ivrec, i.e., delivered to the 
Member. It must not be understood, however, that the use 
of this word was confined to the common habit of these 
Guilds alone, since it was also applied to the retainers and 
adherents of the King, Noblemen, and others at an early 
period. 

The term " Livery," as describing the clothing of a 
Fraternity, is thus used by Chaucer in his prologue to the 
" Knieht's Tale :" — 



't>' 



"An Haberdasher, and a Carpenter, 
A Webbe, a Deyer, and a Tapiser, 
Were alle yclothed in O livere, 
Of a solempne and grete fraternite." 

The earliest Ordinances upon record, determining the 
dress to be worn by any of the existing City Guilds, are 
those of the Grocers' Company, in 1348. The Livery is 
particularized " An upper and under garment called a ' coat 
and surcote,' " being referred to as the common habit, whilst 
the cloak or gown, and the hood, which were reserved for 
ceremonials, completed what w^as termed " the full suit." 
Herbert' is of opinion that there also existed an undress, or 
part dress, called " the hooding," probably worn by Freemen 
only, who were not esteemed "full brothers," like the Livery, 
since in the Fishmongers' Ordinances, some years later, it is 
enacted that once in every year, every Member should have 
the livery, be it "hole clothing or elles bodying." 

These Liveries varied in colour in the different crafts in 
early times, some of them being described in their ordinances. 



' See his Introduction to the "History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies."— rage 59. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 7 

The favourable Certificate thus made on their behalf 
by the Court of Aldermen appears to have produced 
satisfactory results, and accordingly in the following year 
163 1, a Charter of Incorporation was granted by the King 
dated the 22nd of August, in the 7th year of His reign, 
constituting them a body corporate under the name of " The 
Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of 
Clockmaking of the City of London," the terms of which 
Charter are as follow : — 



l^'^ii%eM>, by the 

Grace of God, King 
of England, Scotland, 
France, and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith, 

&C. To ALL MEN tO 

whom these presents 
shall come, greeting. 

" Know ye, Petition to the 

-' ' Kino by the 
that Ave, at Clockmakers, 
thp hlimhlp &c., praying to 
ine^ nUIUUie be incorporated. 

petition of (7 Car. i.) 
the Clock- 
makers, as well freemen 
of our city of London, 
residing and inhabiting 
within the liberties and 
suburbs thereof, as also 
those that are foreigners, 
using the same trade, 
not of the freedom of 
the said city, and re- 
siding in or near the 
said city, liberties, and 
suburbs thereof, for the 
better order, rule, and 
government of them and 
every of them, and of others using the same Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, 
and also upon certificate made unto us from the Lord ^Layor, Recorder, and 
Aldermen of the said city of London on their behrrlf, of our especial grace, 
certain knowledge and mere motion, have willed, ordained, constituted, and 
granted, and by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, do will, 
ordain, constitute, declare, and grant : 




8 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

Incorporation of ' That*/// and singular the Clockiiiakets and other person and 
makers \^'th (ret />eTsons 7(>hatsoa'er, as ivell freemen of or in our city of London, as 
and foreign ;/'««•. ^j,^^ ^// other our natural frecbom subjects, using the Art or 

persons not Irce ./• i • i • ti • 

of the city of Mvstcry of Clockniaking unthtn the said city, Iwerties, or suburbs 
praake thi'art thereof, or within any place 7C'ithin ten miles of the said city, as well 
i.f Clockniaking i^iifhiu liberties and places exempt, as in other places, be and shall be, 

withm the city of , . ^ , , r i r, i i , , t 

London and ten by virtuc of tlicse prcscuts, for ci'cr hereafter, one Iwdy corpoiate and 

miles compass ; p^^ntic, in deed and name to have continuance for ever, by the name 

r.icceS'""''' '/ 'I'he Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery 

Title of the of Clockmaking, of the city of London, and them by the name 

Company. Qf Master, ^^'ardens, and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of 

Clockmaking, of the city of London, we do for us, our heirs 

and successors, really and fully create, erect, make, ordain, and 

constitute, by these presents, one body corporate and politic, in 

deed and in name, to have continuance for ever. 

And that by the same name they may and shall ha^•e perpetual 
succession. 

j\nd that they and their successors, by the name of Master, 
Wardens, and Fellowship of the Art and Mystery of Clock- 
making, of the city of London, be, and shall be for ever 
hereafter, persons able and capable in law to purchase, have. 
Power to pur- receive, and enjoy any manors, messuages, lands, tenements, 
u^menV'&c. liberties, privileges, jurisdictions, franchises, and other heredita- 
ments whatsoever, of whatsoever kind, nature, or quality they be, 
to them and their successors in fee and perpetuity, or for term of 
life or lives, year or years, or otherwise in what sort soever, not 
held of us, our heirs, or successors, in capite or by knight's 
Power to sell and service ; AND ALSO all manner of goods, chattels, and things 
whatsoever, of what name, nature, or quality soever they be: and 
ALSO to give, grant, alien, assign, and set over and dispose of any 
manors, messuages, lands, tenements, and hereditaments; and 
ALSO to do and execute all and singular other acts and things 
whatsoever, by the name aforesaid. 

And that by the name of Master, Wardens, and Fellowship 
of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, of the city of London, 
fnd''defe°nd ant ^^^^^ ^"'^ ^^^^'' succcssors shall Or may be able to plead and be 
cause as any impleaded, to auswer and be answered unto, to defend and be 
si'jjec. defended, in any court or courts, place or places whatsoever, and 
before whatsoever judge or judges, justice or justices, or other 
persons or officers of us, our heirs and successors whatsoever, in 
all and singular actions, pleas, suits, plaints, matters, and demands 
of whatsoever kind, quality, or sort they shall be, in the same 
manner and form as any other of our liege people and subjects, 
of this our realm of England, being persons able and capable in 
law, or any other body corporate and politic, within this our realm 
of England^ can or may have, purchase, receive, possess, enjoy, 
retain, give, grant, let, alien, dispose, and assign, implead or to 
be impleaded unto, answer or to be answered unto, defend and 
be defended, do permit or execute. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 9 

"And that they the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of 
the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, of the city of London, and 
their successors for ever hereafter, sliall and may have and use a 
Common Seal, for the expediting of the causes and business of To have a Com- 
them and their successors. And that it shall and may be lawful """" ''"' " 
to and for the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the said 
Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, and their successors, to alter "''h power to 
and make new the said seal from time to time, at their wills and new from Time^to 
pleasures, as they shall think fit. t'"i«' 

"And further, we will and ordain, and by these presents for Power to elect 
us, our heirs and successors, do grant unto the said Master, t'enowsht to be 
Wardens, and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, Master -, 
of the city of London, and their successors, that for ever hereafter 
there be and shall be one of the said Art^ Mystery, or Fellowship, 
in inanner and form hereafter in these presents mentioned, to be 
chosen and named, which shall be and shall be called the Master 
of the said Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, of 
the city of London. 

"And that likewise there be and shall be three of the said Fellow- and three of the 
ship, in manner and form hereafter mentioned to he nominated and w^ar'dens'-^ '" ^ 
elected, which shall be and shall be called, the Wardens of the 
Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, of the city of 
London. 

And also, that there be and shall be ten or more Freemen of aXsoimoOhe 
the said Fellowship, in manner and form hereafter in these presents caU^^Asl'iJtants, 
expressed, to he named and chosen, which shall be, and shall be 'o -iss'st and aid 
called the Assistants of the said Fellowship of the Art or Mystery war'de^nslrof the 
of Clockmaking, of the city of London. And from time to '■'"^ ^^'"s- 
time shall be assisting and aiding to the Master and Wardens of 
the said Fellowship for the time being, in all causes, matters, and 
business, touching or concerning the said Fellowship. 

"And that the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the said What persons 

must be present 

Fellowship for the time being, or the greater part of them (whereof to constitute a 

the Master and one of the Wardens for the time being to be two), po""'r'jo make 

shall and may have full power and authority by these presents, to laws and orUi- 

make, constitute, ordain, and set down, from time to time, such "^J^Hen. \'li. 7.) 

reasonable laws, statutes, decrees, ordinances, and constitutions, /;/ 

writing, whatsoe\-er, which to them, or the greater part of them, 

whereof the Master and one of the Wardens as aforesaid for the 

time bemg to be two, shall seem good, wholesome, profitable, 

honest, and necessary, according to their discretions, as well for f'^>' the govern- 

"^ . . mcnt 01 its own 

and concerning such oaths as shall be fit to be administered to the members, 
Master, Wardens, and Assistants, or any other of the said Fellow- ^^^^^^^fli.l''^ 
ship, free, foreign, or stranger. As also, for, touching, or concerning also concerning 
the said Trade, Art, or Mystery, in the making of clocks, ^catches, Vrad^'in any""^ 
Uatums, boxes, or cases for clocks, zoatches, or'larums, or any other ^'^'■v^'^^- 
manner of work concerning their Art, Mystery, or Profession of 
Clockmaking. As also for the punishment and reformation of Deceitful prac- 
such abuses, deceits, and other wrongful practices, as shall from *"^*^ ^""""^ ' ^' 



lO 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



Power to make 
1.1 tt-; and orili- 
naiices for tlie 
government of 
all persons 
using the art, in 
all things apper- 
taining thereto, 
within the city of 
London and ten 
miles compass of 
the s;xmc. 

Power to 
regulate the 
manner in which 
all persons using 
the art through- 
out England 
shall carry on 
the same. 



time to time be practised, either in making, mending, or uttering 
any bad, deceitful or hurtful wares, whereby our loving subjects 
may be wronged, deceived, or abused, or any other wrong, cozen- 
age, deceit, or abuse concerning the said art and mystery, offered 
or committed at any time within the said city, liberties, and 
suburbs thereof, or in any other ]ilacc or places, privileged or not 
privileged, within ten miles compass of the said cit)'. And also, 
for the good rule and government of the Master, Wardens, and 
Fellowship of the said Art or Mystery of Clockmaking aforesaid, 
and their successors, and of all and singular persons using, 
exercising, or trading in the said Art, Trade, or Mystery of Clock- 
making, and every of them, both within the city of London and 
liberties thereof, and ten miles compass of the said city, in all 
matters and things touching or in any wise concerning the said 
Art, Trade, or Mystery of Clockmaking aforesaid. And for 
declaration after what manner, order, and form, the said Master, 
\\'ardens, and Fellowship, and their successors, and all and every 
other person and persons using and exercising the said Art, Trade, 
and Mystery of Clockmaking^ within this our realm of England, 
shall behave, demean, carry, and use themselves in their said 
offices, mysteries, and work, for the public good and common 
profit of the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, and of the 
rest of our people, and for all other matters, things, and causes 
touching or concerning the said Art, Trade, or Mystery of Clock- 
making, by any manner of means. 



Power to fine "And WHENSOEVER the sai.l Master, JFardens, and Assistants 
ofTenders'against ^o^ the time being, or the greater part of them (whereof the 
their laws. Master and one of the Wardens for the time being to be two), do 

make, ordain, constitute, and establish such laws, ordinances, 
decrees, orders, and constitutions, to ordain, provide, and limit 
such pains, punishments, and penalties, either by fine or amerce- 
ments, breaking the works deceitfully made, or by any other 
lawhil ways or means whatsoever, upon all offenders or breakers 
of such laws, ordinances, decrees, orders, and constitutions, or 
any of them, as to them or any of them, or the greater part of 
them (whereof the Master and one of the JFardens for the time 
being to he two), shall seem necessary, fit, and convenient to be 
made, set, imposed, limited, and provided for the keeping of the 
same laws, orders, and constitutions. 

" That then, and at any time after, the said Master, Wardens, 
and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, of the city 
of London, and their successors, shall and may by virtue hereof, 
have and levy the same fines and amercements to their own use, 
and put in execution the said other penalties^ without the let or 
hindrance of us, our heirs and successors, or without giving or 
rendering any thing therefore to us, our heirs or successors, or 
any other persons whatsoever. 

All laws and " Ai>i, which laws. Ordinances, statutes, decrees, and con- 
obeyed!'^^'' " * stitutions so as aforesaid to be made, we will to be observed and 
kept upon the pains therein contained. 



To recover fines 
and penalties to 
their own use. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 7 

The favourable Certificate thus made on their behalf 
by the Court of Aldermen appears to have produced 
satisfactory results, and accordingly in the following year 
163 1, a Charter of Incorporation was granted by the King 
dated the 22nd of August, in the 7th year of His reign, 
constituting them a body corporate under the name of " The 
Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of 
Clockmaking of the City of London," the terms of which 
Charter are as follow : — 



i$%ti%<e^, by the 

Grace of God, King 
of England, Scotland, 
France, and Ireland, 
Defender of the Faith, 

&C. To ALL MEN tO 

whom these presents 
shall come, greeting. 

" Know ye, f.^tit'O" '" ''le 

, ■' ' King by tlie 

that we, at Clockmakers, 

petition of (7 Car. i.) 
the Clock- 
makers, as well freemen 
of our city of London, 
residing and inhabiting 
within the liberties and 
suburbs thereof, as also 
those that are foreigners, 
using the same trade, 
not of the freedom of 
the said city, and re- 
siding in or near the 
said city, liberties, and 
suburbs thereof, for the 
better order, rule, and 
government of them and 
every of them, and of others using the same Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, 
and also upon certificate made unto us from the Lord Mayor, Recorder, and 
Aldermen of the said city of London on their behalf, of our especial grace, 
certain knowledge and mere motion, have willed, ordained, constituted, and 
granted, and by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, do will, 
ordain, constitute, declare, and grant : 




8 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

Incorporation of " That all and Singular the Clockmakers and otJier person and 
makers hTth free />tTsons whatsoroer, tts ivell freemen of or in our city of London, as 
and foreign ;c/.^. ^^ ^ 0f}igf (,j,j. natural freebom subjects, using the Art or 

persons not Irce .;. ? • i • t-i ■ 

of the city of Mystcr)' of Clockmaking tcnthin the said aty, liberties, or suburbs 

pr^cfke the^art thereof Or witJiin any place within ten miles of the said city, as well 

of Clockmaking u'lthlii liberties and places exempt, as in other places, be and shall be, 

London and'ten" by virtuc of thcsc prcscuts, for cvcr hercaftcr, one body corpoi'ate and 

miles compass ; ^^////^^ /,^ ^/^y^/ and name to have continuance for ever, by the name 

MicceS""'' of The Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery 

Title of the of Clockmaking, of the city of London, and them by the name 

Company. of Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of 

Clockmaking, of the city of London, we do for us, our heirs 

and successors, really and fully create, erect, make, ordain, and 

constitute, by these presents, one body corporate and politic, in 

deed and in name, to have continuance for ever. 

''And that by the same name they may and shall have perpetual 
succession. 

And that they and their successors, by the name of Master, 
Wardens, and Fellowship of the Art and Mystery of Clock- 
making, of the city of London, be, and shall be for ever 
hereafter, persons able and capable in law to purchase, have, 
Power to pur- rcceive, and enjoy any manors, messuages, lands, tenements, 
t^ei^men'ts,''&c. liberties, privileges, jurisdictions, franchises, and other heredita- 
ments whatsoever, of whatsoever kind, nature, or quality they be, 
to them and their successors in fee and perpetuity, or for term of 
life or lives, year or years, or otherwise in what sort soever, not 
held of us, our heirs, or successors, in capite or by knight's 
Power to sell and scrvice ; AND ALSO all manner of goods, chattels, and things 

alienatelands,&c , , c \ ^ ^ ^■l Ju u 

whatsoever, of what name, nature, or quality soever they be : and 
ALSO to give, grant, alien, assign, and set over and dispose of any 
manors, messuages, lands, tenements, and hereditaments; and 
ALSO to do and execute all and singular other acts and things 
whatsoever, by the name aforesaid. 

And that by the name of Master, Wardens, and Fellowship 
of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, of the city of London, 
and defend any ^'^^^ ^"^ *^^^'' succcssors shall or may be able to plead and be 
cause as any impleaded, to auswer and be answered unto, to defend and be 
defended, in any court or courts, place or places whatsoever, and 
before whatsoever judge or judges, justice or justices, or other 
persons or officers of us, our heirs and successors whatsoever, in 
all and singular actions, pleas, suits, plaints, matters, and demands 
of whatsoever kind, quality, or sort they shall be, in the same 
manner and form as any other of our liege people and subjects, 
of this our realm of England, being persons able and capable in 
law, or any other body corporate and politic, within this our realm 
of England, can or may have, purchase, receive, possess, enjoy, 
retain, give, grant, let, alien, dispose, and assign, implead or to 
be impleaded unto, answer or to be answered unto, defend and 
be defended, do permit or execute. 



other subject. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 9 

'And that they the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of 
the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, of the city of London, and 
their successors for ever hereafter, shall and may have and use a 
Common Seal, for the expediting of the causes and business of To have a Com- 
them and their successors. And that it shall and may be lawful '"°" ■"'^^' ' 
to and for the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the said 
Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, and their successors, to alter with power to 
and make new the said seal from time to time, at their wills and new from Time%o 
pleasures, as they shall think fit. t''"e, 

" And further, we will and ordain, and by these presents for Power to elect 
us, our heirs and successors, do grant unto the said Master, peUowshtp to be 
Wardens, and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, Master'; 
of the city of London, and their successors, that for ever hereafter 
there be and shall be one of the said Art, Mystery, or Felloivship, 
in manner and form hereafter in these presents mentioned, to be 
chosen and named, which shall be and shall be called the Master 
of the said Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, of 
the city of London. 

And that likewise there be and shall be three of the said Fellow- and three of the 
ship, in manner and form hereafter mentio7icd to he nominated and wardens'f '° ^^ 
elected, which shall be and shall be called, the Wardens of the 
Fdloivship of the Art or M)-stery of Clockmaking, of the city of 
London. 

And also, that there be and shall be ten or more Freemen of a\=.ot^noUh^ 
the said Felloivship, in manner and form hereafter in these presents cSkTAss^s'tants 
expressed, to be named and chosen, which shall be, and shall be to assist and aid' 
called the Assistants of the said Fellowship of the Art or Mystery wlrde^n'lbfthe 
of Clockmaking, of the city of London. And from time to '™^ '^<='"s- 
time shall be assisting and aiding to the Master and Wardens of 
the said Fellowship for the time being, in all causes, matters, and 
business, touching or concerning the said Fellowship. 

"And that the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the said what persons 
Fellowship for the time being, or the greater part of them (whereof to"constiuue a" 
the Master and one of the Wardens for the time being to be two), powei- ^ make 
shall and may have full power and aiithoj'ity by these presents, to laws and ordi- 
make, constitute, ordain, and set dozen, from time to time, such 'TJ^Hen. \u. 7.) 
reasonable laws, statutes, decrees, ordinances, and constitutions, in 
writing, whatsoever, which to them, or the greater part of them, 
whereof the Master and one of the Wardens as aforesaid for the 
time being to be two, shall seem good, wholesome, profitable, 
honest, and necessar}', according to their discretions, as well for fo"" '^e go\em- 
and concerning such oaths as shall be fit to be administered to the members'/""" 
Master, Wardens, and Assistants, or any other of the said Fellow- ^''''^' foreign and 

' . ' ' -' -^ stranger: and 

ship, free, foreign, or stranger. As also, for, touching, or concerning also concerning 
the said Trade, Art, or Mystery, in the making of clocks, watches, Trlde'fn an'y""^ 
'latums, boxes, or cases for clocks, watches, or 'larums, or any other respect. 
manner of work concer?iing their Art, Mystery, or Profession of 
Clockmaking. As also for the punishment and reformation of Deceitful prac- 
such abuses, deceits, and other wrongful practices, as shall from '"^^^ pumshabie. 



lO 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



Power to make 
laws and ordi- 
nances for the 
government of 
all persons 
using the art, in 
all things apper- 
taining thereto, 
within the city of 
London and ten 
miles compass of 
the same. 

Power to 
regulate the 
manner in which 
all persons using 
the art through- 
out England 
shall carry on 
the same. 



Power to fine 
and punish 
offenders against 
their laws. 



To recover fines 
and penalties to 
their own use. 



All laws and 
ordinances to be 
obeyed. 



time to time be practised, either in making, mending, or nttering 
any bad, deceitful or hurtful wares, whereby our loving subjects 
may be wronged, decei\od, or abused, or any other wrong, cozen- 
age, deceit, or abuse concerning the said art and mystery, offered 
or committed at any time within the said city, liberties, and 
suburbs thereof, or in any other place or places, privileged or not 
privileged, within ten miles compass of the said city. And also, 
for the good rule and government of the Master, \Vardens, and 
Fellowship of the said Art or Mystery of Clockmaking aforesaid, 
and their successors, and of all and singular persons using, 
exercising, or trading in the said Art, Trade, or Mystery of Clock- 
making, and every of them, both within the city of London and 
liberties thereof, and ten miles compass of the said city, in all 
matters and things touching or in any wise concerning the said 
Art, Trade, or Mystery of Clockmaking aforesaid. And for 
declaration after what manner, order, and form, the said Master, 
^^''ardens, and Fellowship, and their successois, and all and every 
other person and peisofis j/sing and exercising the said Art, Trade, 
and Mystery of Clockmaking within this our realm of England, 
shall behave, demean, carry, and use themselves in their said 
offices, mysteries, and work, for the public good and common 
profit of the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, and of the 
rest of our people, and for all other matters, things, and causes 
touching or concerning the said Art, Trade, or Mystery of Clock- 
making, by any manner of means. 

"And whexsoever the said Master, Uuirdens, and Assistants 
for the time being, or the greater part of them (whereof the 
Master and one of the JJ'ardens for the time being to be two), do 
make, ordain, constitute, and establish such laws, ordinances, 
decrees, orders, and constitutions, to ordain, provide, and limit 
such pains, punishments, and penalties, either by fine or amerce- 
ments, breaking the works deceitfully made, or by any other 
lawful ways or means whatsoever, upon all offenders or breakers 
of such laws, ordinances, decrees, orders, and constitutions, or 
any of them, as to them or any of them, or the greater part of 
them (whereof the Master and one of the Wardens for the time 
being to be two), shall seem necessary, fit, and convenient to be 
made, set, imposed, limited, and provided for the keeping of the 
same laws, orders, and constitutions. 

'That then, and at any time after, the said Master, Wardens, 
and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, of the city 
of London, and their successors, shall and may by virtue hereof, 
have and levy the same fines and amercements to their own use, 
and put in execution the said other penalties, without the let or 
hindrance of us, our heirs and successors, or without giving or 
rendering any thing therefore to us, our heirs or successors, or 
any other persons whatsoever. 

All which laws, ordinances, statutes, decrees, and con- 
stitutions so as aforesaid to be made, we will to be observed and 
kept upon the pains therein contained. 



THE CLOCK.MAKERS COMPANY. II 

" So ALWAYS, as such laws, ordinances, constitutions, fines, Provided that no 
amercements, or other ways or means be reasonable, and not cm,'trary"to law 
repugnant or contrary to the lajvs of this our reahn of England, nor o"" custom 
to the customs or usage of this our city of London. 

"And further, our royal will and pleasure is, for the better ah apprentices 
strengthening of the said government, that if any person or persons [hJ'art'tTb"'""^ 
hereafter professing the trade of Clockmaking, and being free of bound to a free 
that Company, or of any other company whatsoever, within the on"y. 
city of London, liberties, and suburbs thereof, or the limits hereby 
proposed, and shall take unto him or them an apprentice for the 
term of seven years or otherwise, according to the custom of the 
said city, that the said apprentice or apprentices shall for ever 
hereafter be bound to some free brother of the said Company of 
Clockmakers, to the end the said Brotherhood in time may become 
an able body of itself without the disturbance of any other society or 
government. 

" And for the better executing of this our grant in that behalf. Creation of the 
we have assigned, named, constituted and made, and by these name; ^'^'^ ' 
presents, for us, our heirs, and successors, do assign, name, 
constitute, and make our well-beloved servant David Ramsey, 
Esquire, to be the first and present Master of the said Felhnvship, 
he being or having been a professed Clockmaher, and to cortinue in who is to con- 
the same office until the feast-day of Saint Michael the Aichans:eL next "'""f '}'^ '^^'^'^. 

. . until the ensiiMi"' 

ensuing the date of these presents, if he shall so long live; and Michael mas-day 
from thence until one other of the said Fellowship shall be ekct'ion'of a*^ 
chosen and named unto the office of Master of the said Fellow- successor, 
ship in due manner, according to the ordinances and provisions 
hereafter in these presents mentioned and expressed. 

"And also, we have assigned, named, and constituted, and by Creation of the 

.■1 .J- 1 • 1 J • first Wardens by 

these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, do assign, name, name ; 

constitute, and make our well-beloved Henry Archer, John 

Wellowe, and Sampson Shelton, to be the first and present 

Wardens of the said Felloioship, they being also, or having been, 

professed Clockmakers, and they and either of them respectively 

to continue in their said office until the said feast-day of Saint to continue their 

,,.,,,., •'■ . r ^ -'J office until the 

Michael the Archangel next ensuing the date of these presents, if ensuing Michaei- 
they or either of them shall so long live. And from thence until umtuhe' election 
three other of the said Fellowship, according to the ordinances of successors. 
and provisions in these presents expressed and declared, shall be 
newly chosen. 

"And we have assigned, named, constituted, appointed and Cre.ationofthe 
made, and by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, do by nameT^"'* 
assign, name, constitute, and make our well-beloved James 
VautroUier, John Smith, Francis Forman, John Harris, Richard 
Morgan, Samuel Lynaker, John Charlton, John Midnall, Simon 
Bartram, and Edward East, to be the first and present Assistants to continue dur- 
of the said Fellowship, to continue in the said oflice of Assistants [hfy'IhaiTbr^ 
during their natural lives, unless they or any of them resj^ec- removed for 
lively shall fortune to be removed for the misbehaving him q^ "•"""■ 



some reasonable 
cause. 



12 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



themselves in their said office, or for some other reasonable cause, 

whom for such reasonable cause we will shall be removable from 

Assistants re- time to timo, at the jileasure of the Master, IViirde//s, and 

Xt'autho"•il>^^ Assistants of the said Fellowship or the greater part of them, 

whereof the Master and one of the Wardens to be two. 

"Nevertheless, our will and pleasure is, that the said David 

Ramsey, before mentioned, to be Master of the said FelloivsJiip, 

First Master bcfore he enter into the exeeution of the said place and office, taJic his 

rTK^*^"""* '""* corporal oath upon the Holy Evanoelists, for the faithful and due 

Lord Mayor, as r ^ ^, •■\~•^r■\T■\•\lr 

also the three executiou of the Said othcc before the Lord Mayor of our city of 
first Wardens. j^Qudon, unto which Lord Mayor we do hereby give power and 
authority to administer an oath unto the said first and present 
Master, and the three first Wardens, by virtue of this our present 
grant hereby mentioned accordingly, without any further commis- 
sion or warrant from us, our heirs or successors, to be procured 
in that behalf. 



Power to elect 
officers annually 
on Michaelmas- 
day. 



One of the 
Freemen to be 
elected Master, 
who must be or 
have been a 
professed Clock- 
maker: 



'' And afterwards we will, and by these presents for us, our 
heirs, and successors, do for ever hereafter grant and give unto 
the said Master, A\'ardens, and Fellowship of the Art and Mystery 
of Clockmaking, of the city of London, and their successors also 
That the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the said Fellowship 
for the time being, or the greater part of them (ivhercof Ave will 
the Master and one of the Wardens for the time being to be two), 
from time to time, for ever hereafter, shall have full power and 
authority, yearly and every year, upon the said feast-day of Saint 
Michael the archangel, if it fall not out to be on the Sabbath-day, 
or in such case the next day following, and so from day to day 
until election and acceptation of officers as after followeth shall 
be made, to elect and nominate one of the Freemen of the said 
Fellowship, lie being or having been a professed Clockmaker at the 
time of his election, to be the Master of the said Fellowship, for one 
year then next ensuing, and from thence until one other of the 
said Fellowship be chosen into the said office of Master of the 
said Fellowship, according to the ordinances and provisions in 
these presents expressed and declared, unless in the mean-time 
he shall die, or be removed as aforesaid. 



.nnd he shall take " And that hc which shall bc SO choscn and named into the 
Ihe bst^LalTtrr ^^^6 of Master of the said Fellowship, before he be admitted or 
.-ind two Wardens exccute ]iis Said officc, shall take his corporal oath before the last 
admitted into his Master of the said Fellowship then living, and the Wardens of the 
*''^^'"-'^- said Fellowship for the time being, or two of them, well and truly to 

execute the said office of Master of the said Fellowship, unto 
whom, and their successors, we do hereby give full power and 
authority to administer an oath or oaths accordingly. And that 
after the said oath or oaths so as aforesaid taken, he shall have 
and exercise the office of Master, until one other be chosen and 
sworn into the said office, in manner and form aforesaid. 



Power for the 
old officers to 
administer the 
oaths to the new 
ones. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 3 

*' And that then likewise they may elect, nominate, and choose, Three of the 
three other of the Freeiiten of the said Fellowship to be Wardens ^'^^^-^-^W^, '°,''® 
of the said Fellowshij), which shall be, 07- have been, professed Clock- who must be 01" 
makers as aforesaid, to continue in the same office one year then professed"ciock- 
next ensuing, and from thence until three others of the said makers- 
Fellowship be chosen in the said office of Wardens of the said 
Fellowship, according to the ordinances and provisions in these 
presents expressed and declared, unless, in the mean-time, any of 
them shall die or be removed as aforesaid. 

" And that they which shall be so chosen and named into the New Wardens to 
office of Wardens of the said Fellowship, before they be admitted before^l^e'Ya'it 
to execute the said office, shall take their corporal oath before the w'^'^'f '"^"^ '^'■° 
Master and last Wardens of the said Fellowship then living, or they b "admitted 
t%vo of them, well and truly to execute the said office of Wardens """ t''^"- offices. 
in all things touching and concerning the said offices, unto whom 
and their successors we do hereby give power to administer an 
oath accordingly. And that after such oaths so as aforesaid taken, 
they shall and may execute their office from thence, until three 
other be chosen and sworn in form aforesaid into the said office 
of Wardens of the Fellowship, in manner and form afore in these 
presents expressed and declared. 

"And FURTHER, by these presents for us, our heirs and sue- power to elect a 
cessors, we will and do grant unto the said Master, \\'ardens, and ^^i^ster on death 

' . o . ' ' or removal of the 

Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmakmg, of the city of old one. 

London, and their successors. That if it happen the Master of the 

said Fellowship for the time being, at any time within one year 

after that he be chosen into his office, do die, or be removed from Master re- 

the same (whom we will shall be removable upon ixasonable and J^°sonibircaiise 

just cause, at the pleasure of the Wardens and Assistants of the 

said Fellowship for the time being, or the greater part of them, 

whereof one of the Wardens to he one). That then, and so often, it Election to take 

shall and may be lawful to and for the Wardens and Assistants 0^ l^loinh^ifc" °"^ 

the said Fellowship for the time being, or the greater part of them death or re- 

{ivhereof one of the JVardens to be one), within one month next after be^dthe^a 

such decease or removal, to choose, elect, and swear one other ^^s[ftant°^and 

the Wardens or Assistants of the said Fellowship for the time to continn'e'oniy 

being, to be Master of the said Fellowship, to execute and exercise ma^day'"''''^'' 

the said office of Master of the said Fellowship 7intil the feast <?/" following; 

St. Michael the Archangel then next folhnmng, and from thence 

until one other be chosen in the said place in manner aforesaid, 

he or they first takinsr his or their corporal oath or oaths, in bwtnot to act 

until sworn 

manner and form aforesaid. And so as often as the cause shall 
so require, 

"And if it shall happen the Wardens of the Fellowship, or one Power to elect 
of them, at any time within one year after they or any of them be death orremovai. 
chosen into his or their office or offices to die, or be removed from 
his or their office or offices, whom 7i<e will upon reasonable and Just Wardens re- 
cause shall be removable at the pleasure of the Master, Wardens, J^asonlbkcanse; 
and the Assistants of the said Company, or the greater part of 
them for the time being, that then and so often it shall and may 

C 2 



14 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



and other ofjhe jjg lawful to and for tlic Said Master. Wardens, and Assistants, 
and their successors, luJiiclt shall be then living or remaining, or 
the greater part of them, at their pleasure, to elect, choose, and 
give oath unto one, two, or three other of the said Fellowship to 
be Warden or Wardens according to the orders and pro\isions 
before in and by these presents expressed and declared, to 
execute and exercise the said office of W^arden or Wardens of the 
said Fellowship until the said feast of Saint Michael the Archangel 

M'iciiaeimas^day. then next following, in form as aforesaid, and so as often as the 
cause shall happen or require. 



Fellowship may 
be chosen 
instead. 



New Wardens 
not to act until 
sworn, 



and to continue 
luitil ensuing 



Power to elect 
Assistants on 
vacancies oc- 
casioned hy 
tieath or 
reiiiiK'at, 



which elections 
may be made 
at the pleasure 
of the Court as 
often as the case 
may require. 



New Assistants 
not to act till 
sworn. 



Power to ad - 
minister oath to 
any person 
admitted under 
the government 
of the Company, 
for the due per- 
formance of all 
things appertain- 
ing to the art. 



"And further, we will, and by these presents, for us, our heirs 
and successors, we do grant unto the said Master, Wardens, and 
Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, of the city of 
London, and their successors, that whensoever It happeneth any 
the Assistants of the said Fellowship for the time being to die, or 
to be removed by the greater part of the said Master, Wardens, 
and Assistants, for the time being (%vhereof the Master and 
one of the Wardens for the time being to be two), for evil 
government or misbehaviour, or for any other reasonable cause, 
that then and so often, it shall and may be lawful to and for the 
said Master, JVardens, and so many of the said Assistants for the 
time being, luhlch shall then survive and icmaln, or the greater 
part of them (whereof the Master and one of the Wardens as 
aforesaid, for the time being to be two), at their will and pleasure, 
from time to time, to choose or name one other, or more of the 
Fellowship aforesaid to be Assistant or Assistants of the said 
Fellowship, in his or their place or stead, which shall so happen to 
die or to be removed as is aforesaid. And that he or they after they 
be so chosen and named to be Assistant or Assistants of the said 
Fellowship as aforesaid, before that he or they, or any of them, be 
admitted to the execution of the office or offices of Assistant or 
Assistants of the said Fellowship, shall take his or their corporal 
oath or oaths, before the Master and Wardens of the said 
Fellowship, well and truly to execute the said office and offices, 
and so, as often as the cause shall so require. Unto which 
Master and Wardens, and their successors, we do by these 
presents gi\e power and authority to administer an oath or oaths 
accordingly, for the general good of the said Society or Fellowship 
of Clockmakers. 

"And further, that it shall and may be lawful to and for the 
said Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the said Fellowship for 
the time being, or the greater part of them (whereof the Master 
and one of the Wardens to be two), to give and administer an oath 
or oaths, from to time, to every particular freeman, foreigner, 
denizen, or stranger, or any others that shall be admitted by the 
Master, JFardens, and Court of Assistants, or the major part of 
them (whereof the Master and one of the Wardens to be two), 
under the government of the said Fellowship, for performance of 
such things as shall be requisite and necessary by them to be 
done and performed in their several Arts and Mysteries of 
Clockmaking. 



THE CLOCK-MAKERS CUMTANV. 15 

"And we will, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and Po"er to govern 

r ^ 1 1 1 ^' ^ ii i •'"'" make laws 

successors, for the better order, rule, and government of all and for the regulation 
singular person and ptrsons which shall be admitted by the who'ii'rany wise 
A/aster, IVardens, and Court of Assistants, a member of that u^e tiie an, or 
Fellowship, of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, or which now w"hatsoveiv.vi'thln 
do use, or hereafter shall use, either making, mending, buying ^*^,"^'''',"'^ ^""^ 
selling, ingrossing, or retailing, or do any manner of work ,,., !' , 

11 -1111 • . r,, , . , ;r whether the 

generally or particularly belongnig to the Irade, Art, or Mystery several prodnc- 
of Clockmaking, or the making, buying, selling, transporting, and a^' made'll home 
importing any bad, deceitful, and unsufficient Clocks, IVatchcs, o"" brought from 
'larums, Sun-dials, Boxes or Cases, for the said Trade, Art, i^r o'thefwis^'e!'^''' ""^ 
Mystery of Clockmaking, be they of what metal or of lahat nature, Productions of 
condition, or fashion soa'er; or any other work peculiarly belonging en^me'rated 
to the said Trade of Clockmaking, coming either from foreign jjarts 
or provinces forth of our dominions, or within our dominions, and 
made, sold, or brought to be sold within the said city of London, 
liberties, and suburbs thereof, or ten miles of the said city, or 
within our realm of England or dominion of Wales. We do 
will, and for us, our heirs and successors, do grant to the said Power to make a 
Master, and Wardens and Assistants, or any two of them (whereof g"^"^"^?' search 

' ,- 1 • 1 nT 1 r 1 • and View of all 

the said Master or one of the said Wardens for the time productions cf 
being, to be one), or their lawful sufficient deputy or deputies in made"wi?hin this 
that behalf lawfully deputed and assigned, together with a con- [f^'""'. ""f 
stable or other officer or officers of us, our heirs or successors, foTeifn'partTfor 
from time to time, when they shall think necessary or expedient "^^'^ > 
to enter into any ship bottom, vessel, or lighters, or any other 
warehouse or warehouses, houses, shops, or any other place or 
places whatsoever, where they or any of them shall suspect any 
such watches, 'larums, sun-dials, or any the premises before men- 
tioned, to be so brought in, made, or wrought as aforesaid, to be 
and remain, and then and there to make search for all the said 
clocks, watches, 'larums, sun-dials, or cases made for any clocks, 
watches, or 'larums, or any other w-orks as aforesaid peculiarly 
belonging to the said trade of Clockmaking, made \vithin this 
realm, or brought into the same to be put to sale and them to 
view and survey, and such of them as shall be faulty and deceit- f^'"^ [_" ^^'f^-. 
fully wrought, to seize on them and to break them, or cause them, unlawfully made, 
if they shall think fit it may be well done, to be amended, and to ^ made of bad 

-' . ' ' ' materials, or to 

take such order and security, that none of them that shall not be cause the same 
substantially and truly wrought be put to sale, or not made of a°dmade^pfrfect; 
good and lawful metals, or by such men who have not served out „„ , , 

, , ,, ^ •' ,. , . , Ihe work of per- 

the full term of seven years, according to the statute in that case sons who have 
made and provided, and the parties themselves suppressed, or ""' '^^^^'j^-^^^^'j ^ ^^^ 
such of them, and all such works as shall be deceitfully wrought, seven years to be 
and cannot be by art well and sufficiently amended, that then it panics ^^^ '^'^ 
shall be lawful for the said Master and A\'ardens, or one of them, suppresed. 
or their sufficient deputy so assigned from time to time, upon due 
search, as often as they shall think fit, to seize the same faulty and Faulty and de- 
deceitful work or works, and every part and parcel thereof, into be seized"m the 
their hands, in the names of us, our heirs and successors; and in king's name: 
presence of the Mayor, Sheriff, Bailiff, Constable, Headborough, 
or other chief officer or officers of the place or county where such --hhI upon proof 
seizure shall be made, shewing the deceitfulness or insufficiency before' the^'"'^ 



i6 



THE CLOCKMAKEKS CO.MrANY, 



Mayor. &c. ihe of tlic work to hiiii or them, and he or they approving thereof, to 
rroTen"*" break the same. 



•' But if in such case the Mayor, Sheriff, Bailiff, or other chief 
officer of that place or county cannot sufficiently judge of the 
reasons, that the said Master, Warden or AV^ardens, or some of 
the Assistants of the said Fellowship of Clockmaking, of our city 
of London, or their sufficient and lawful deputy or deputies, shall 
give and shew them that the work or works is deceitful and fit to 
be broken, then our will and pleasure is, that the said work or 
wares, by virtue of these presents, shall be brought to the 
common hall or place of meeting of the Fellowship of Clock- 
making, in our city of London, there to be viewed by the 
Master, Wardens, and the whole Court of Assistants, and there to 
be adjudged by them or the greater part of the assembly (whereof 
the Master and one of the Wardens to be two.) And then if 
they shall think fit to break or deface it, they then to do it so that 
it may not hereafter be put to sale, except the owner thereof 
do appeal to the Lord Mayor of our city of London, to be further 
judged there. 

"And in case the said Master, Wardens, or Assistants, or their 
sufficient deputy or deputies and officers aforesaid, shall be 
denied entrance into any the places aforesaid, or shall be denied 
to have the sight of any such wares as aforesaid, that then it shall 
and may be lawful for them, or any of them with such assistants 
and to seize work g^g aforcsaid, to break open any locks, doors, bolts, latches, chests, 
concealed. ^^^"^ truuks, boxes. Or Other thing or things whatsoever, where they 
shall suspect any such work, wares, or tools to be, and the same 
to take and seize as aforesaid. 



In case the 
Mayor, &c. can- 
not judge of such 
insufficiency, 



then the seized 
work to be 
brought to the 
Company's hall 
to be adjudged 



and if con- 
demned, to be 
broken, except 
the owner appeal 
to the Lord 
Mayor for 
further judgment 



Power to break 
open any place 
if refused 
entrance to 
search it. 



Power to sue in 
the Exchequer 
all such as act 
contrary to this 
Charter. 



No Alien or 
Stranger shall 
work within the 
limits of this 
grant, but with 
an allowed and 
professed 
Clockmaker. 



"And if the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants, or the 
greater part of them, shall so think fit to make presentment or 
information of the workers or putters to sale, either by wholesale 
or retail, or by piece-meal or otherwise, of all such deceitful work, 
works, or wares, or other the offenders, aforesaid, in our 
Exchequer as aforesaid, of us, our heirs and successors, to the 
end that the said workers or putters to sale thereof, and other the 
said offenders, may receive such condign punishment, as by the 
laws or our prerogative royal can, or may be, required for the 
same. 

"And our pleasure is that no alien or stranger whatsoever, 
born out of our dominions, not naturalized or denized, (saving 
such as are already allowed of by us), shall attempt to work 
in any place whatsoever, either chamber, house or any other place 
or places whatsoever, within the limits and circuits of this our 
royal grant, either privileged or not privileged, saving only to or 
with an allowed and professed Clockmaker. 



To prevent "Anu for the further preventing of abuses and frauds in 

frauds and uttcrini' and selling such deceitful wares, made or imported to 

abuses on lliu , , r i- t • •uti i i 

public, the abuse ol our subjects; It is our will and pleasure, and we do 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 7 

hereby for us, our heirs and successors, straightly charge and "°^^"^°^^ 

command that no person or persons, whatsoever, Enghshmen, import any 

or denizens strangers, which shall import or bring into this our ^vatehes, &c. 

realm of England, or the dominions of Wales or any part of them, 

or either of them, any clocks, watches, 'larums, boxes, sun-dials, or 

cases for watches, clocks, or 'larums, or any other wares properly 

belonging to the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, by way of 

merchandize, do presume, attempt or go about at any time or 

times, to utter, vent, or make sale of the same, or any of them, to c oft'er the 

any person or persons within the said realm or dominion, before 

the same be brought to the hall or meeting-place of the said before such 

Clockmakers, in our said city of London or elsewhere, to be viewed ^°[he^com°"°'" 

and approved of, and recei\e a mark by them to be ordained, pany's Haii to 

testifying the allowance of the Master, Wardens, and Assistants nrarkeXu'pon' 

of the said Company, upon pain of forfeiture of such clocks, p^ "\°j^ [r^k'""^*^ 

watches, 'larums, boxes, cases, or sun-dials, or cases for watches, 

clocks, or 'larums, or any other wares or works so uttered or sold, 

or attempted or offered to be sold, (which do properly belong to 

the Art of Clockmaking) contrary to this our pleasure, and upon 

such further pains and penalties as by the laws or statutes of this ^"^^ funher 

realm may be inflicted upon the offenders for contempt of this 

our royal command. 

"Nevertheless, if the maker, merchant, or owner of such clock, shouia the 
watch, alarum or other such work, shall not rest satisfied with the noifn'^rd byThe 
judgment of the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants, of and ^^"|P^J^y ^e 
in the goodness or deceitfulness of the same, that then and in ^^^ ^^.^^.J ^^^^^ 
every such case our will and command is, that the said Master, not be defaced 
Wardens, and Assistants, do forbear to break or deface the said „"ade"to?hr 
work, until such further trial thereof be had as the Lord Mayor of the Lord Mayor, &c. 
city of London, and the Court of Aldermen of the said city (if the the work in the 
same shall be in London) shall allow of and direct. And in the ^f^iy'i^pt ^j!"^ 
meantime the same to be safely kept by the Master or Wardens, the Master and 
until such further trial thereof shall be had as aforesaid. 

"And therefore, we do by these presents, for us, our heirs p°"'^'' t°'Ji': 

• Ti- ^ Tir ^ Master, \Var- 

and successors, give power and authority unto the Master, dens, and 
Wardens, and Assistants of the said Fellowship, for the time a'nj.'of "henr 
being or any of them, with the assistance of a constable, or some "ith the assist- 
other officer or officers of us, our heirs and successors in due and constable, to 
lawful manner, to make search in all and every place and places =^^a'''-;h through- 

' . ., , ... -1 ^ . , . ^ ., out England and 

convenient, as well privileged as not privileged, withm our said Waies for such 
realm and dominion, or either of them, as well within liberties as ^c?'fnd*^for'the 
without, for such clocks, watches, or 'larums, sun-dials or cases, several produc- 
for either of them, great or small, or any other work or wares ind^buch'^^'arl ' 
peculiarly belonging to the Art of Clockmaking, as shall be so "^'j'j'j'^^H^' '"*' 
imported, made, uttered, or sold, or offered to be sold, contrary to marked to seize, 
the true meaning hereof And having found any such, to seize 
and take the same as forfeited to the use of us, our heirs and 
successors. And if the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants, fh^J|f°nders^ 
or the greater part of them as aforesaid, shall so think fit, 
further to prosecute the offenders, according to the laws of this 
realm. 



i8 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMTAxW. 



One half of all 
forfeitures to \>e 
to the use of the 
king and the 
other half to be 
taken by the 
Company. 



.Vll ofticers of 
Justice are to 
assist the 
Company 



and contained. 



"And lor the care pain and expence of the said Master, 
Wardens, and Assistants, in the execution thereof, and toward 
the supportation of the pubHc charge of the said Fellowship or 
Company: We do hereby, for us, our heirs and successors, so far 
as in us lieth, give and grant unto the said Master, Wardens, and 
Fello'ii'ship, and their successors, the moiety or one half of all and 
singular the said forfeitures, without any account or any thing 
therefore to us, our heirs and successors, to be rendered, paid, 
made, or given. 

"And FURTHER, we will, and by these presents for us, our heirs 
and successors, we do straightly charge and command, all and 
singular Mayors, Justices of Peace, Sheriffs, Bailiffs, Constables, 
Headboroughs, and all other officers, ministers, and subjects of us, 
our heirs and successors whatsoever, that they and every of them, 
from time to time, and at all times, as often as cause shall require, 
with their best power and ability, to be aiding, helping, assisting, 
and comforting to the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of 
Clockniakers of London, for the time being, and every of them 
and their successors, in the doing, enjoying, having, and 
ofthe ^'''f,f"s°" executing all 'and singular thing and things whatsoever, by us 
herein granted beforc by thcsc prcscnts granted unto the said Master, Wardens, 
and Fellows/lip as aforesaid, and every or any part or parts 
thereof, according to the tenor and true meaning of these 
presents. 

" And further, we will, and by these presents for us, our 
heirs and successors, do grant unto the said Af aster. Wardens, 
and FelUnuship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking of the 
city of London aforesaid, and their successors, that they and 
their successors shall and may have one honest and discreet per- 
son, in manner and form hereafter, in these presents expressed, to 
be chosen and named, which shall be, and shall be called the 
Clerk of the said Fellowship of that Art or Mystery of Clock- 
makers of the city of London. 

" And we have assigned, constituted, and made, and by these 
presents for us, our heirs and successors, do assign, constitute, 
make, name, and ordain, our well-beloved subject Thomas Copley, 
to be the first and present Clerk of the said Fellowship, to con- 
tinue in the said office during the term of his natural life, (unless 
upon some misdemeanor there shall be just occasion to remove 
him.) 

" And that from time to time, and at all times, after the death 
of the said Thomas Copley, the Master, Wardens, and Assistants 
of the said Fellowship for the time being, or the greater part of 
them as aforesaid, shall and may choose, name, and make one 
other discreet person, to be Clerk of the said Fellowship. 

" And that he which shall be chosen and made Clerk of the said 
Fellowship, after the death of the said Thomas Copley as is afore- 
said, shall and may exercise and enjoy the said office of Clerk of 
the said Fellowship during the good-will and pleasure of the said 



To have a clerk 
of the said 
fellowshii) 



The first clerk 
named, and to 
continue for life 
unless removed 
for misconduct. 



On death or re- 
moval, one othc 
to be chosen. 



who shall con- 
tinue during the 
pleasure of the 
M aster, 
Wardens &c. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 9 

Master, Wardens and Assistants, of the said Fellowship for the 
time being, or the greater part of them as aforesaid. 

" The said Clerk so to be named and appointed after the death to be sworn uuiy 
of the said Thomas Copley as aforesaid, first taking //is corporal ^°f^^^^\ly^X^ 
oath before the Master, Wardens, and Assistants, iox the time ^^ allowed to act 
being, or the greater part of them, well and truly to execute tli^ 
said office of Clerk of the said Felhnuship, in and by all things 
appertaining to the said office, according to his best skill and knoiv- 
ledge, and according to the tenor and true meaning of these presents. 

"Unto which Master, Wardens, and Assistants, and tlieir Power granted 
successors, now and for the time being, or the greater part of wlrdens^'and 
them, we do by these presents for us, our heirs and successors, Assistant's, to 
give and grant full power and authority, to administer such oath uj "irderL"^ 
and oaths as aforesaid, as M'ell to the said present Clerk, as to all '"'f''^''^V^,"':', 
other future Clerk or Clerks, or to any other Officer, Beadle or 
Beadles, whom they shall choose or think fit to entertain in and 
for the service of the said Fellowship, without any further warrant 
or commission from us, our heirs or successors, to be in that 
behalf had, procured, or obtained. Although express of the 
true yearly value or certainty of the premises, or any of them, or of To iiave and to 
any other gift or grant, by us or by any of our progenitors or se°!fra^'^Ta es 
predecessors, to the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the privileges, 
Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, of the city of London, here- any"iaw ^ th^"' 
tofore made in these presents, is not made, or any statute, act, contrary notwith- 
ordinance, provision, proclamation, or restraint, to the contrary * ^" '"^' 
thereof, heretofore made, ordained, or provided, or any other 
matter, cause, or thing whatsoever, in any wise notwithstanding. 

" In witness whereof, we have caused these our letters to be -^"»o Domini 
made patent. Witness ourself at Canbury, the two-and-twentieth ' ^'' 
day of August, in the seventh year of our reign. 

" Per Breve dc privato Sigillo. 

" WOLSELEV." 



The foregoing Charter is engrossed on two large skins 
of parchment richly emblazoned, having in the right-hand 
corner a full-length Portrait of King Charles the First in his 
Coronation Robes, holding the Sword of Justice in his right- 
hand, and in his left the Orb. At the top are the Arms 
of Endand, in the rio-ht-hand marorin the Arms of Scotland 
and Ireland, and in the left-hand margin the Arms of France. 
The border consists of tlowers, fruits, birds and insects, beau- 
tifully entwined.' 

' Alt a Court hulden the 3rd day of November 1634 was paid unto Mr. John Chappell 
£,\ for the flourishing and finishing of the Companys Charter. Company's Journal I. 



20 TllL CLlJCKMAKKRS COMPANY. 

A copy of tliis Charter is enrolled in the Archives of the 
Corporation. (Journal No. 36, fol. 54-5^^-) 

The costs of obtaining the Charter were defrayed by 
the subscriptions of individual Members. In addition to those 
alreatly referred to in the Memorandum of Agreement of the 
31st March, 1630, the following List of Contributors, pre- 
served among their Records, affords evidence of the number 
of persons engaged in the trade in London at the date of 
the application, "and includes names of men whose works 
have since rendered them celebrated, and to whom reference 
will be hereafter made : — 



"The particular names ( 


■)t such persons as 


the 


Company 


have concluded 


the Collectors shall deman 


d money of for 


the 


accomplishment of their 


Incorporation viz. : — 














1630. 




^ 


s. 


d. 


" Lent jCs- Imprimis of Mr. Archer 




10 










Mr. Peteet 




10 










Mr. Bull 




3 










Mr. fforeman 




3 










Mr. Smith 




3 










Mr. Harris 




I 








hath Lent ^5. 


Mr. Vaultroleir 




3 








hath Lent /^,^. 


Mr. Shelton 




3 








hath Lent ^,"5. 


Mr. AVillow 
Mr. Morgan 




3 








hath Lent ^^5. 


Mr. Charlton 




I 


t5 





hath Lent ;£^5. 


Mr. Lynnakcr 




I 








hath Lent ^'5. 


Mr. East 




1 


15 





hath Lent ;^'5. 


Mr. Bowyer 




5 








hath Lent ^5. 


Mr. Closen 




5 










Mr. Holden 




J 


15 







Mr. Burgis 




1 


16 





hath Lent ^5. 


Mr. Bartram 




3 










Mr. Tho. Holland 


1 


10 





hath Lent ^^5. 


Mr. Maisterson , 




2 










Mr. Ash 




2 










Mr. Graye 




2 


10 







Mr. Shepherd 












Mr. Saunders 




1 










Mr. Walter 










hath Lent ^5. 


Mr. Midnall 












Mr. Drake 




I 


10 







Mr. Haywood 




4 










Mr. Holloway 




■^ 










Mr. Hill 




2 










Mr. Dewell 




2 










Mr. Hearne 











THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 






1630. 
hath Lent ;^5. Mr. Hewes 

Mr. Jo. Holland 


£ 
I 


s. 

15 


d. 



Mr. Volant 








Mr. Josias Cuper 
Lent ^5. Mr. Dawson 


2 
2 











Mr. Eryles 
Mr. Bucket 


2 








Mr. Walker 


2 








Mr. Smith 


3 








Mr. P. Lowell ... 


5 








Mr. Howse 


5 








Mr. Hackett 


5 








Mr. Reeve 


2 








Mr. Charlton ... 


3 








Mr. Helden 


3 








Mr. Josias Cuper 


2 


10 





Mr. Oswell Durant 


2 


10 





Mr Thomas Dawson 


5 








Mr. John Hill ... 


5 









21 



Some of them did not immediately fulfil their promises, 
and as soon as the Company was regularly constituted, 
measures were taken to enforce the payment of their share of 
the expenses, as the following extracts shew : — 

1632. October 23rd. "This daye the Court have Ordered that John 
Micabius shalbe taken Course withall by Law for not paying his contribution 
towards the Companie's Charter Ordinaunces and other charges according to 
his promiss." ' 

1632. November 19th. "This daye Mr. Child paid in Court the some 
of ;^3 3s 6d in part of five pounds formerly promissed towards the Corporation 
the remainder he faithfully promissed to pay at Christmastide." - 

1633. April I St. " This day Mr. Ward did pay twenty shillings in part 
of three pounds that he promissed to the Company towards the procuring of 
the Charter and Ordinances." "^ 

1633. September 2nd. "This day Onesepherus Holden did faithfully 
promiss to pay the 3'' which he subscribed unto by the ist of November 
following which was towards the procuring of the Charter and Ordinances. "•♦ 

Mr. Paul Lovell promissed to pay £^ for the same purpose, and the 
names of others follow who had made promises to the same effect. 



In conformity with an Act of Parliament of the 19 
Henry VII 1503-4, Cap. 7, which enacts — 

"... That no Maisters, Wardens & felishippes of Craftes or mysters, 
nor eny of them, nor eny rulers of guyldes or frat'nities, take uppon them to 

I. 2. 3. 4 Company's Journal I. 



2 2 THK CLUCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

make eny uctes or ordinaunces, ne to execute eny actes or ordinaunces be 
them hereafore made, in disheritaunce or diminucon of the ]>Vogatyfife of 
the King, nor of other, nor ageynste the comen |ifite of the people, but yf 
the same actes or ordinaunces be cxamyned & approved by the Chaunceller 
Tresorer of Englonde & cheffe Justices of ether Renche, or thre of them; or 
before bothe the Justices of Assises in tlier cyrcuyte or ^,)gresse in that Shyre 
wher suche actes or ordinaunces be made, uppon the peync of forfeytoure 
of \1. li for ev-y tyme that they doo the conf'rie." 

Bye- Laws for the good government of the craft were duly 
submitted for approval, and were granted and confirmed on 
the 1 ith of August, 1632, in these words : — 

" To ALL XTiAN PEOPLE to whom this present writing shall como 
Thomas, Lord Coventrye, /on/ keeper of the great seal of England. 
Sir Thomas Richardson, knight, lord chief Justiee of his Highness'' 
Court of King' s-Bench ; and Sir Robert Heath, Knight lord chief - 
justice of his Highness' Court of Com7non Pleas : send greeting in 
our Lord God Everlasting. 

19th Hen. 7th, ''Whereas, /// a Certain Act, of Parliament, MoXAoxi dXW^^X- 

minster, the five-and twentieth day of January, /// the nineteenth 
year of the reign of the late king, of famous memory, Henry, 
after the conquest the Seventh, made and ordained for the weal 
the enacting of (tud profit of his subjccts : it was amougst other things ordained, 
Eufidror fra- established, and enacted, that no Master, ^^'ardens, or Fellowship 
temities, of Grafts or Mysteries, or any of them, nor any i-ulers of guilds 

or fraternities, should take upon them to execute an\- acts or ordi- 
nances by them thentofore made in disinheritance or diminution of 
the prerogative of the king, nor of any other, nor against the com- 
hy wiiom the mou profit of the people. But // the same Acts and Ordinances 
examine'd'an'd ^'^ examined and approved by the chancellor treasurer of England ; 
.-ipproved, under or chiefjusticcs of either bcuch, or three of them ; or befo^'c both the 
or eiture o £''>°- justices of assizc, in their circuit or progress in the shire ivhere such 
Acts a?id Ordinances should be made, upon pain of forfeiture of 
forty pounds for every time they did thereunto conti ary, as by the 
said Act of Parliament more plainly doth and may appear. 

Acts and ordi- " Know ye, that the Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the Art 

2d"jan. ^16*32"'^'^ or Mystery of Glockmaking, of the city of London, the second 

day of January, in the seventh year of the reign of our sovereign 

lord Gharles, by the Grace of God, King of England, Scotland, 

France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. Have exhibited 

and presented unto us a book, wherein are contained divers Acts, 

Ratification by Ordinances, and Gonstitutions, heretofore devised, ordained, and 

applied for, made by the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the same Eelhnc- 

ship, being thereunto enabled by letters patent of our said sovereign 

lord the King, bearing date the two and twentieth day of August, in 

the seventh year of the reign of our said sovereign lord Gharles ; and 

thereupon have instantly desired us, that we, all and ever)- the said 

Acts, Ordinances, and Gonstitutions, set down and by them unto 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COiMPANY. 23 

US exhibited, would examine ; and if there should be cause, to alloiu 
and approve, and those and every of iJieni to correct and amend in 
due and convenient manner and form, if need should so recjuire, 
as the said recited Act of ParHament requireth. 

"We, well perceiving and considering their supplications to be aiui obtained. 
good and acceptable, according to their said petition, and desires, 
by the authority of the said Act of Parliament, to us in that 
behalf gi\'en, all and every the said Acts and Ordinances have seen, 
read, and 7vell understood ; and considered of, and them and all 
and every of them examined, corrected, n formed, and so examined, 
corrected, and reformed, have approved: all which Acts, Ordinances, 
and Constitutions, so examined, corrected, reformed by us, follow- 
ing in these words : 

" Acts, Ordinances, and Constitutions, made and ordained by an'd const"tu"io'n^i 
David Ramsey, Master of the Fellowship of the Art or ^^ ^'■'^°'" '^^^^ < 
Mystery of Clockmaking of the city of London ; Henry 
Archer, John Willowe, and Sampson Shelton, Wardens of 
the said Art or Mystery of Clockmaking ; and James 
^''autrollier, John Smith, Francis Foreman, John Harris, 
Richard Morgan, Samuel Linnaker, John Charlton, John i„ „.hat manner 
Midnall, Symon Bartrum, and Edward East, Assistants of orriained ; 
the said Fellowship, of the said Art or Mystery being d^ted Nov. 30, 
assembled at a public meeting, the last day of November, in ''^31; 
the seventh year of the reign of our Sovereign lord, Charles, 
by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France, p,y ^^^^^ ^^_ 
and Ireland, defender of the faith, ^z. for that purpose : by thority; 
virtue of letters patents of our said sovereign lord the King, 
bearing date the two and twentieth day of August, which ^^'"? f '"^' , , 

t" , ^ . . ■' 1 1 puolicly read to, 

Acts, Ordmances, and Constitutions, were made and and 
ordained in the presence, and with the advice of divers approved by, 
others of the said Fellowship, to whom the same were i general meeting 
then publicly read, and were by them approved, viz. : t^'iiy assembled. 



" Imprbiis, where there hath been a long time (as time out of 
mind), a great multitude of Clockmakcrs in number, which have 
wrought within the City of London, liberties and suburbs thereof, 
although never incorporated, until it hath of late pleased his 
Majesty, of his especial grace, by his highness's letters patents, 
bearing date at Westminster, the two and twentieth day of I'l.e first incor- 
August, /'// the said seventh year of his Majesty's reign, to make aockmakers in 
them a body corporate and politic, and thereby ordained that '^/^^"g"''"^'','/''' 
the same Fclhnvship there should be a Master, three Wardens, and lohtxx^a. 
ten Assistants or more, wherein is expressed in what manner the ward^ens, Ind 
said Master, \Vardens, and Assistants, should be chosen, as by the '|;";'^',^,i^'^^^'^' 
said letters patents doth appear for the better order and rule to be conformably to 
held amongst the said Company here incorporated. \^l Sin' °^ 

IL 

" It is hereby ordained, that of the said Master, Wardens, and 
Fellowship, and of the Fellowship and of the Felhnvs thereof, there ^.^ _ 

shall be a Livery of Company, as is used in other companies of°companyr*^'^ 



2 1 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

who .hall be of within the city of London, for the better service of his Majesty 
.he iivcr>-. and j^^^j of the Said city. And that the Master, ]\ arde/is, and 
shant^h'^'.: ^Assistants of the said Fellowshij) ; and so many othei^ of the 

Felhnvs of the said Fellowship, as the said Master, IVardens, and 

Assistants, being assembled, or the more part of them (w/iereqf 
every pen«>n tfu Master and one of the Wardens shall be two) shall elect irom 
chosen Uiaii lake ji,^^g jq ti,„e^ shall be of the said Livery. And that every person 
Il;^'oL7hs"»uMM of the said Fellowship chosen into the said Livery, shall accept 
founr.M .i.v-,. ^j^j j.^|.^, ^ij^Qj^ i^jj^^ tQ ijg of the said Livery, and shall within 

fourteen days after notice of such election, take such oath as by 

these ordinances shall be appointed for him. 

in. 

Courts to be "Item, it is ordained, that upon the first Monday of every 

Monday^inl'^^ry month, and that day fortnight, shall be the usual and ordinary 
month, and thai Jays of assemblies for the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of this 
day forin.ght. pgjJQ^^.gj^jp^ ^^^ upon cvcry of thcsc days a court to be held at 
""hir^-Mecifn the hall or other meeting-place of the said Company, for vieiv and 
place ofihe corrcction of such things as to the same Art or Mystery pertaineth, 
company. ^^^ ^^j^^^. ^j^^ ^^^[^s and busincss of the said Master, Wardens, 

Master and r^^^ FcUowship. And if occasion do require, then such court or 
summon'^o^he^r assembly to be oftener, and at such times as by the Master and 
?orm.^r^ui're. Wardens of the said Company shall be thought fit and caused to 
be summoned. 

In case the said " PROVIDED always, that if any such Monday shall happen to be 
""""rta^n hoiu''" '^^ ^^^^"^ °^ ^^"^ Saints, the feast of the Birth of Christ, the feast 
days, ii>e court of the Circumcision, the feast of the Epiphany, or the feast of the 
ITex^d*!-.'-^ °" '^^ Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary : then such assembly 
shall be the day next following. 

IV. 
A general as- " Item, thcrc shall also be a general assembly or court of the 

Xk^'company ^^^^ Mastcr, Wardens, Assistants and Fellowship of the said 
to be held four Company, four times in every year, which shall be called quarter- 
ySrV"*"'^"^^ day courts, which shall be in every year, one of them upon the 

first Monday sevennight after the Annunciation of the blessed lady 
on what days g^^ Mary the Virgin ; the second quarter-day upon the first Monday 

sevennight next, and immediatelyafter the feast of St. John Baptist; 

the third-quarter-day upon the first Monday sevennight next, and 

immediately ensuing the feast of St. Michael the Archangel, and the 
to be kept v.\ih\n fourth quarter-day upon the Monday next and immediately ensuing 
doV;''be°w^n" ^'"^^^ ^^ it-di^X of the Epijjhany, between the hours of nine in the 
the hours of nmeforenoon and three in the afternoon of the same days : All their said 
."ml ihrerinThe courts to be kept at their common hall, or other convenient 
afternoon. meeting place of the said company within the city of London. 

V. 

Quarterage to be 

memw^an7 " Item, that iu a'ery of the said quarter-days, or quarter courts, 

other persons cvcry persou of the said Fellowship or Incorporation, and ever)" 
ofthe^ncor-'^"'^'' pcrson of the said Fellowship or otherwise, using, selling, buying, 
poratedarts. importing, exporting, or any way trading in clocks, watches, 

other than ,, j- i i • • ^ • , • 

sen,antt, laruiiis, suu-dials, casemaking, graving, mathematical-instruments- 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 25 

making, in any nature, condition, or material whatsoever, by ^>' ^I^^J" '° ^e 

piecemeal, wholesale, or retail, or by way of merchandizing, under 

the government of this Company, (o^/wr than sen'ants,) shall then 

and there satisfy and pay /o>- quarteridge, hvelve-pencc in money iti 

every quarter, to the hands of the Master of the said Company 

for the time being, for the common use of the Master, Wardens, 

and Fellowship, as by every fellow of the said Company ought to 

be done. 

VI. 

" Item, that every person of the said Fellowship making default of Fines for default 
appearance, after reasonable summons and warning to him or them of appearance 

'.^ 1 1 • 1 • r 1 • when .summoned 

given, to be at the said court or meetings, or any of them, at any tmie, to attend courts. 
shall so often forfeit as ensueth : (viz.) The Master, or any of the 'I'he Master not 
Wardens, not appearing there by the hour appointed, having no houra'^ljpointed! 
reasonable excuse, the Master to forfeit and pay one shilling ana six- '^^ ''o'"''^'' ^-f- ^'*- 
pence, and the Wardens d-;/^/ Assistants each of them t^velvepence.'^'^f^^^^^^'''''^ 
And not coming at all to the said court, (having no laivful excuse), ^j^^ Master not 
or departing without licence before the court be ended, the Master to coming at aii, 
pay six shillings eight-pence, and the Wardens and Assistants eachofZn]wui]\cmce, 
them five shillings, every other member of the said Company or to ioxUt\\.t,s. id. 
Fellowship, or person under their government as aforesaid, sum- Assistants 5^-.' 
moned or warned according to the nature of the court or meeting, 
and not appearing there by the hour appointed (except he can 
shew some lawful impediment, such as the Master, Wardens, and 
Assistants, or the most part of them .shall allow of), shall fo>feit Vex not^p-pe^rmz. 
sixpence, and not coming at all to the said court, or departing g'y^^^' ,'01'°'^'^" 
thence w'lihoni licence before the court be ended, shall f 07 fe it /■Z-;r(f appearing at aii, 
shillings four-pence. And if the Master, or any of the JVardens, '" ^'^ '^"^ ^^' ^ 
or any of the Assistants, or any of the Livery of the said Company 
shall repair to any of the said courts or meetings without his 
livery gown, or being otherwise undecently attired, he shall forfeit ^^^^^^'y^H^^.f'^^ 
for every such time, and so often as he shall offend, twelve-pence, s'laii appear in 

AJ J. Jii i.r^i-- j^- court without his 

And every person under the government of this mcorporation, gown, 
denying, refusing or neglecting to pay his quarterage, or any other 
right or duties to be as aforesaid paid and answered at any the under penalty of 
said quarter days or quarter courts, for every such default shall ever7person not 
forfeit thi?ieeu shilliniTs four-pence. Except the same be moderated 'hen paying is 
and dispensed with, by the Master, JVardens, and Assistants of the forfeit 13". ^d. 
said Company, in the same or the next assembly. 

YII. 

"Item, //for attendance upon the King's Majesty, his heirs or 
successors, at his or their repair, to or towards the city of London, 
or for other reasonable or just occasion or consideration, rt'/;_y ^/" Members of the 
the Assistants or Livery of the said Company, or other of the said mon«rv!'pon'."ny 
Company or Fellowship, shall be by the Master and Wardens P"'^'''^°<:casion, 
appointed to any reasonable or convenient service ox attendance, in to attl'iid under' 
livery or otherwise, by horse or foot ; and upon warning tliereof, pe^-^'ty of so^y- 
shall not attend, and in good sort provide attire and furnish him- 
self, and perfoi-ni and do accordingly what he shall be so appointed, 
he shall for e\ery such default and neglect, forfeit the sum of 
twenty shillings : except he shall make and have allowed unto him 
in like sort as aforesaid, some reasonable matter of excuse. 



26 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMrANY, 



grat'c, within 
ihree miles of 
lA>ndon. under 
penalty of lar. 



VIII. 

Member* of the " Item, Uiat if nujuest at any time shall be made, by the Master 
Liver>- <""|'*;^j and Wardens of the said ("ompany, to have those of the livery of 
Jiiraiadbidyof the said Company to accompany to the gtm'e within the circuit of 
hi^'wi'(?'r'ihe°' London, liberties, and suburbs thereof, or within three miles 
compass of the same, t/te dead corpse of any one of the livery of the 
said Fellowshij) or Company deceased, or of his wife, at the time of 
the funeral of such man or woman, then the said Master and 
Wardens (if they shall think it fit) shall cause a warning of all 
those of the said livery accordingly ; and every one of the said 
livery shall, upon reasonable warning, attend with his livery at the 
time and place api)ointed, i/pon pain of ten shillings by every 
l)articular person of the said livery, who shall make default upon 
such warning, so often as he shall make default to attend (except 
he shall make and have admitted some reasonable excuse for his 
absence). 

IX. 

" Item, that at such Yearly assemblies as shall be held for the 
choice of Master and JFardens for the year next ensuing, there 
shall l>e chosen at that court, before the election of the new Master 
and Wardens, three other fit persons of the said Assistants to take 
obligation of the Master and JVardens that be neicly chosen. And 
that none nominated and agreed upon to be the neia Master, or 
any of the neia JFardens, for the year following, shall be admitted 
or sworn until each of them shall have become bound by a several 
obligation in the sum of fifty pounds (or more or less according 
to the discretion of the Master, Wardens, and Assistants, or the 
greater part of them, as cause shall require) tinto the said three 
Assistants, with two sufficient sureties, who shall then be none of 
the Assistants of the said Company, that he shall so use, employ, 
and dispose all, every, and any such sum and sums of money, 
rents, plate, and other things of the said Master, Wardens, and 
Fellowship, which he shall receive and be possessed of, or shall 
any way come to his hands or custody, in the time of his being 
Master or Warden, as shall be orderly directed or appointed by 
the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants o{ the same Fellowship 
from time to time, and not otherwise ; and that within one month 
after the determination of his Mastership or Wardenship, by time, 
death, removal, or otherwise, he shall make and deliver to the use 
of the said Master, \\'ardens, and Fellowship, a perfect, true, and 
full account of the said money, plate, and other things, to and before 
such persons, and at and by such time, as by the said Master, 
Wardens, and Assistants, shall be for that purpose nominated and 
appointed ; and after such account so made, whatsoever remain 
shall be found in his hands or custody belonging to the said 
Master, AVardens, and Fellowship, he shall without diminution, 
covin, or delay, deliver over the same at such time and place, and 
to such person and persons to the use of the said xMaster, A\'ardens, 
and Fellowshii), as by the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the 
said Fellowship shall be appointed ; and after such account and 
delivery made, the said bond shall be re-delivered to them that 
shall be so bound respectively to be cancelled. 



Three of the 
Assistants to be 
chosen, to take 
bond of the new- 
Master and 
Wardens, 
previous to their 
election ; 

who shall not be 
admitted or 
sworn, until they 
have severally 
given bond in 
two securities. 



who shall then 
be none of the 
.\ssistants. 



Accounts to be 
rendered within 
one month after 
expiration of 
their ollice, to 
the auditors 
appointed. 



and the balance, 
&.C., to be de- 
livered up to 
such persons 
who shall be ap- 
pointed. 



on true account 
rendered anj 
Inlance, &c., 
paid, the bonds 
to be given up 
to be cancelled. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 2^ 

X. 

" Item, it is further ordained, that if any Person^ Freeman of the Any freeman 
said Company, which shall be chosen Master or Warden of the [he'oSof '"' 
said Company, shall upon notice thereof deny, refuse, or neglect ^^^^^^J'^^''"^^ ^^ 
to take the same office upon him ; or to become bound as aforesaid ; give bond, or to 
or to take such corporal oath as by these ordinances or by any '^•'^ ^'^^ °*'^^' 
other hereafter, shall be lawful and lawfully appointed, approved, 
or allowed, then for every time so offending, he shall forfeit the shall forfeit lo/. 
sum of ten pounds, to the use of the said Master, Wardens, and 
Fellowship ; and then after there shall be proceeding to a new ^^^ proceed to a 
nomination or choice of any other ifi his place, in like sort, as shall new election. 
be done when any Master or Warden shall decease in the time of 
his said office, or as if such person had never been so elected and 
chosen, and that like forfeiture and proceeding shall run and be 
upon every such person of the said Fellowship being chosen of the 
said Assistants, after he is so chosen to take such oath as by these 
ordinances, or any other hereafter shall be lawfully appointed, every person 
approved, and allowed; and every person hereafter chosen to be of the chosen an Assist- 
Assistants since his Majesty's Charter of Incorporation, shall pay io the Company 
the sum of six pounds, thirteen shillings, four-pence, to the ^^- g^^-. ^^^^^^"^ 
Company, or more or less according to the quality, and true 2^. 6d. 
propriety and worth of the party, and to the clerk, six shillings, 
eight-pence, and to the beadle two shillings, six-pence. 

XI. 

" Item, that if for service of the King's Majesty, his heirs or 
successors, or of the city of London, or of the proper affairs of 
the Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, or for other reasonable and 
just consideration, any taxation or assessment shall be by the Every member 
Master and Wardens for the time being, or two of them, whereof J^'^g'"^,^'^"?^°''j^p^y 
the Master to be one, and the Assistants of the Company, or the any assessment 
greater i)art of them, be assessed or imposed, and to be rated jipon ^rvice^oVthe 
particular person and persons, members of the said Fellowship ; King, the city of 

1 1 /- 1 1 n 1 • 11 1 • 1 J J London, or this 

then and so often the same shall be m all thmgs obeyed and per- company, shall 
formed, according to such orders as shall be by them set down ^°^^^^^ ^°'- 
for the collection of the same ; and that every person denying, 
refusing, or omitting to satisfy and pay such, and so much of the 
said assessment or taxation, as shall so at any time be rated and 
assessed upon him or them, shall forfeit to the use of the said 
Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, the sum of ten shillings, or more 
or less according to the quality of the said assessment, for such 
denial or refusal. 

XII. 

" Item, that no person, member of this Fellowship, or any other ^^J^^^^^^^l ^r 
under the government of the said Fellowship, .yZ/rt'// at any time using oppro-' 
revile, give any blows, or opprobrious or scornful speeches or 70ords, compiaTnTthere" 
or other acts, to, of, or towards the Master, or any of the Wardens, of being made 
or other person, member of the said Fellowship, whereby the King's months, '^^ 
peace or brotherly love may be broken or impaired amongst them ; 
and if any shall offend in this behalf, then if upon complaint of 
such mis-behaviour, any such person shall at an assembly of the 
said Master, Wardens, and Assistants, be thereunto called, and 

D 



28 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

shall be found to have so offended, he shall obey, undergo, and 
] >crform such reasonable order and sentence, as by the said Master, 
ITarJins, and Assistants, shall be set down concerning the same; 
so as Complaint shall be made witJiin the spate of three months ; 
shall forfeit 4..f. and if he shall refuse and neglect so to do, then he shall forfeit 
the sum oi forty shillings, or more or less, according to the quantity 
or quality of their offence or offences, to the use of the said Master, 
^\■ardens, and Fellowship. 

XIII. 

To prevent '"Item, for that maH)' persons of ill behaviour, and so known in 

Ch^N^our '" places where they have dwelt in the country, and from other parts 

resorting to and provinccs beyond the seas, and elsewhere, do much resort to the 

a^tm.ike''r. city of London, and places near thereabouts; for better discovery 

within^teji^mUes ^f g^,}^ persons, as for other good purposes, it is ordained that 

entpi^y'any none usiug. Or which shall use or occupy within the said city, 

mal|i!ir^sli!nany' liberties, and suburbs, or within ten miles thereof, the Art, 

presenting him. Mystery, or Trade of Clockmaking, in any kind whatsoever, shall 

remfirate of hu reccivc, entertain, employ, or use in the Art, Trade, or Mystery of 

iwme. birth, ^c.. dockmaking, any person or persons whatsoever, except he shall 

jwny's approval, prcseut every sucli person personally by true certificate, both of the 

certainty of his name, and place of his or their birth or abode, 

vnto the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants, being assembled, 

the next court day after his or their entertainment ; expressing also 

the time and purpose of his retainer, to the end the same court 

may examine, take view, and notice of him, and, if they shall find 

him fit to be allotoed, then to enter his or their names, with other 

certainties, j/pon pain of every fault found to the contrary in the 

under penalty of master SO offending in not certifying, to pay the sum of twenty 

^ the ^^n shillings to the Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, to the use of the 

employed 2i. (>d. p^^f.^ ^^^ the party so entertained ttvo shillings six-pence; but, if he 

w' cierif^r&^f' ^^ certified, then there shall be paid to the clerk for such entrance, 

beadle M. one shilling six-pence, and to the beadle six-pence. 



XIV. 

t^ke'afa" ''*'*" " Item, it is Ordained, that no person, or persons, using the Art, 

prentice, or into Trade, or Mystcry of Clockmaking, within the said city, liberties, 

onVwUhout^the suburbs, or limits aforesaid, shall hire, receive, take, or entertain, 

consent of his to his apprentice, or into his service, any person whatsoever, 

former master, or /• , ' ' , . ^ . i ■ ,i , i r ^^ ^ 

by order of the jomierty apprentice unto or serving and using the trade of Clock- 

ficcfand^the**"' """^'^•"g? 7t'/M/« any the limits aforesaid, without the consent of his 

same registered, former master, (if any such be), or by order of the Master, 

Wardens, and Court of Assistants, or the more part of them, and 

notice given with all like certainties as aforesaid; to the end the 

entertainment, passage, honest departure, and setting over of such 

an -apprentice, servant or servants, may be truly known ; with like 

4^^«r^f^onJi°'^P''iy''"*-'"t only to the clerk, for entrance thereof, and upon pain that 

untifpresented. cvery jjerson offending contrary to the true meaning of this article 

in any thing, shall /<?;' for such offence the sum o( forty shillings for 

rc'ery month for his so entertaining any servant contrary to this act, 

to the use of the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship; and so 

monthly, until he make his jjresentment of the said servant before 

\hc Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants, 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMrANY. 29 

XV. 

"Item, for the avoiding of confusion and disorder in the said T°^'^e^«^^^'^at^_ 
Fellowship, which may grow and arise by taking of apprentices as men who have 
many in number as they please ; and to the end that journeymen app^rem?cesh'ii?" 
freemen, having truly served all their time of apprenticeship, may may be bette^ 
be the better employed and provided for, it is hereby ordained, that p^rso°i^of th^ 
no person or persons whatsoever of the said Fellowship hereafter, ^^^'["a^naster' 
but such as shall be allowed a master workman, as in these presents workman, shall 
is hereafter mentioned, shall take to himself any apprentice or uce^^thouUe'^ve' 
apprentices, but first to have leave and licence of the Master, of the Master, 
Wardens, and Assistants, (the which ivithout just cause shall not only one'imtii he 
be denied) and then to have but one, until he shall be called to bear xvarden'^or'As!"^' 
office of Master, JVarden, or Assistant, in the said Comjxany, and sistant, and then 
ajter he shall be so called as aforesaid, not to exceed the number of "°' Sesame dn™: 
two apprentices at any time whatsoever. 

"Nevertheless, it is thought fit, that any one of the said 
Fellowship before the said first apprentice shall have so served 
forth his full term of years for which he became bound an 
apprentice, that, by virtue hereof, // sliall and may be la^vful for 
every jjarticular master to bind one other apprentice at his pleasure but when the first 
the full term of fti'e years, and no sooner, befo7'e his said former •^ppl■entice has 

-/ ^ J ^ > I ^ ^ served nve yenrs 

apprentice his time be expired, by reason that for the present time he complete, he may 
shall not be left destitute of an apprentice ; iipon forfeiture, for n''o't^sooner,''unde^ 
every time so offending, the sum of ten pounds, or more or less, penalty of 10/. 
at the discretions of the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants, 
to the use of the said Master, \\'ardens, and Fellowship. 

XVI. 

" Item, that for the better ordering of dissolute and ill-disposed 
pcjsons, such as will hardly be brouglit under the rule of any good 
government, it is hereby ordained and established, that what Freemen foiiow- 
person or iiersons soever free of the said Fellowship, or under their '"s ''^f "■^'^''^' , 

-^ '■ ,•'•'.,. -\^ though removed 

government, now or hereafter using the said trade or mystery of from London to 
Clockmaking, shall depart this city and liberties as aforesaid, into fa"nd^shaii'^sUii°" 
any other remote place within the realm of England, j-//fl'//, besilbjectto the 
notwithstanding, observe the rules and orders, and be subject to live company!'' 
under the government of the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, 
according to the Charter in that behalf granted; and if default be 
made by any such person or persons whatsoever hereafter, that 
then it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Master and 
Wardens, according to the tenor of his Majesty's Grant of Incor- and may be pro- 
poration, to proceed against them for misdemeanor, /^/'«t'/^^zV;,^rt';/rt^"^^^^''*sainst 
performing such duties, as shall be appointed by the Master, duties," deceitful 
JVardens, and Court of Assistants, (whereof the Master and one sJc'I'^s'^rthiy 
of the Wardens for the time being to be two) either in themselves, yet resided in 
or in the deceitfulness and false workmanship of or in their trade ; ' ^ ^""^ '^"^' 
upon their due search and oversight, by 7vay of fine or otherwise, 
as if they yet lived and did reside 7oithin the said city and liberties 
aforesaid ; which^//c is likewise to be imposed by and at the discretion 
of the Master, Wardens, and Assistants, according to the quality di'^fcretion of Ihe 
of his or their offence or offences, to the use of the said Master, Coun. 
Wardens, and Fellowship. 

1) 2 



30 TIIF. CLOCKMAKKRS COMPANY. 

XVII. 

^Td"i'^* *ed' " I lEM, it is ordained, that every a/pre/itiic /laving truly served his 

and*b«lJn^^' ' apprenticeship, and l>eing admitted a Freeman of the said society, 

'hi-!!uen"r*wo*"' •^'*''^A according to the custom of other Companies, serve' his 

ycarv as journey- ^Master, Or sovic othcr of the same Fellowship, by the space of two 

'"'"' rears as journey mati ; and, at the end of the same two years, it 

shall I'e, by virtue hereof, lawful for the Master, or Warden, or 

Wardens, of the said Fellowship, ^uith the consent of the greater 

l)art of the Assistants of the said Fellowship, to call any person or 

persons ichatsoei'cr, l>eing a member or p/vfessor of the same trade, 

before he or they be admitted, or allowed of, to be a lawful master, 

hil^iia^'er'T^cr ''' ^'''".< ^" ''•'s oi" their masterpiece or masterpieces, toliich he or 

before he i>e tlic)' shall be appointed to make by the Master, JVardens, and 

w'i.Tkmatter. Assistauts, OX tlie uiajor i)art of them, (whereof the Master and 

one of the AVardens to be two), what piece, or what manner of a 

whole or intire ])iece, he shall make, and where he shall make it, 

which, being by the Master, JVardens, and Assistants, of the said 

Company or Fellowship, or the more jjart of them, allowed and 

approi'ed of he shall, from thenceforth, be admitted to be a work- 

*"'"'* payable on tnastcr, of the said Society, and not before : for ivhich said 

such adinissiun .' 7 7. 7 1 /-1 ■ 1 \r titi 

aoj.; clerk 3J.4</.; admittance, he shall pay to the use of the said Master, Wardens, 
beadle \s. ,^,^ j Fellowshij), the sum of twenty shillings, and to the clerk three 

shillings four-jience, and to the beadle twelve-pence. 

whoteen'^d"' " ^'^^'^^ ^f^^ ^"^y ^"^"'e- "fi^'' *^^^ t^^"'"'^ ^'^d expiration of the first year, 
one year, may any journc)-man whatsoever shall jnake suit unto the Master, 
Ii^'<^'hUm.iMe'r- JVardcus, and Court of Assistants, to have the privilege and leave 
piece. •'>"d if" to make and bring in his masterpiece, to be allowed of by them at 
aiimitted a work- a Ciencral Court of Assistants to be by them holden, that then, 
Ineni"? T^ne'at "P*^'^ ^"^^^ ^^^"^ made, if upou his sufficiency it shall please the said 
thu discretion of Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants, or the major part of 
them, upon view of his workmanship, to admit of the same, then 
// shall be, by virtue of these presents, lawful to admit him or 
them accordingly, upon such reasonable fine or fines as, in the 
discretions of the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants, or 
the major part, shall be thought fit. 



XVI n. 

" Item, it is ordained, that no person or persons whatsoever using, 

or that shall use, the Trade, Art, or Mystery of Clockmaking ; 

and hath or shall have any apprentice or more once bound, and 

l)resented to the Master or ^\'ardens of the said Company, by him 

No apprentice to Or them allowcd, shall, at any time after, assis-n, set, or turn over 

\M assigned or /xxj- 'o^i 

turned over to a ^^)' ^"<''' apprentice to any i)erson or persons whatsoever, 7c>ithout 
T^c'l^uTulo^t. '■'■^^ presenting him to the Master and Wardens of the said Com- 
Co.irt. jtany for the time being, to the end their consents may be thereunto 

re(iuired, u])on pain io forfeit to the said Master, Wardens, and 
under penalty of Fellowship, for cvery act done to the contrary, the sum of /v/)- 

Sc"''^'*'''-^''"^^''''^-*"' ^^^^ ^° ^^^ ^^^'■^ t^''^^ shillings four-pence, and to the 
beadle twelve-pence. 



the Court. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 3 1 

XIX. 

" Item, it is ordained, that no person or persons whatsoever, w/iich ,^e frade"or "ny 
hereafter shall not have served seven years at the least as an pan thereof, (as 
apprentice to the said Trade, Art, or Mystery of a Clockmaker, who'shTiniLe'"' 
Mathematical Instrument-maker, Sundial-maker, Graver, Case ^'=''v«d seven 

, , . ,.,.,,,. , years as an ap- 

maker, or any thmg otherwise peculiarly belonging to the same prentice, (ciock- 

trade, (unless such as be the Ciocknmkers' widows of the city of "l^'t^g ^'\i"^^^' 

London, and of the said sn'cral arts and professions as ^/vj-^z/Vz.- they shall remain 

and for so long time only as they shall so continue widows,) shall ^""^ owbexceptet; 

use the said Trade, Art, or Mystery of a Clockmaker, or any thing 

thereunto appertaining, as his Trade, Art, or Mystery ; nor shall, oJ^gr^^ha,;"},^,, 

within the city of London, or liberties thereof, teach or instruct own apprentice, 

any person or persons other than his apprentice or apprentices, /// 

the same Trade or Mystery, upon pain to forfeit to the said Master 

and Wardens and Fellowship, for every tnonth he or they shall so 

use the said Trade as a Trade, or teach or instruct any person or 

persons other than his or their apprentice or apprentices, in the under penalty of 

said Trade, the sum of forty shillings, and to the clerk three cierk'si.'^rr'"' ' ' 

shillings four-pence, and to the beadle twelve-pence. beadie is. 

XX. 
*' Item, it is ordained, that no Fi-ceman of the said Company No foreigner 
using the said Trade, Art, or INIystery, do keep in his service, to by''a„^lvrema''n 
work in and about the said Trade or Mystery, any foreigners, ""'ess presented 
alien or English, not being free of the said Company of Clock- by "the c'oun^'' 
makers, or bound as an apprentice thereunto, unless he be (at the 
next court after he shall be first received into the said service,) 
presented unto the said Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants, 
and be by them allotved, upon pain to forfeit to the said Master, under penalty 
Wardens, and Fellowship, for every time so doing, the sum of |^°^-^,^'^[''3^-t"'-' 
forty shillings, and to the clerk three shillings four-pence, and to 
the beadle twelve-pence. 

XXI. 

" Item, it is ordained, that no Freeman of the said Company of No person shall 
Clockmakers, or any person or Persons using the Trade, Art, or j'o^„n?eymln'^who 
Mystery of a Clockmaker, shall set at work, keep, or maintain, any has not been 
foreigner or journeyman, not being admitted into the freedom of se°ved"se'v^ir 
the said Company, ^r «(?/ being ox having been retained, /;;-(W a/// years to the trade, 
up, or bound seven years to the same Trade, Art, or Mystery, to 
tuork as a journeyman or servant in any shop, shops, chamber, or 
any other place or places, either public or private, within the said 
city, or liberties thereof, upon pain to forfeit to the said Master, under penalty 
Wardens, and Fellowship, for every day so doing, ten shillings, cSk^iI ed. { 
and to the clerk one shilling six-pence, and to the beadle four- ^^-'^'"^ ^' 
pence. 

XXII. 

" Item, it is also ordained, that every person. Freeman of the said Apprentices lo be 

. . presented to nn(.i 

Company of Clockmakers, using, or which shall use the Trade, aj.proved by the 
Art, or Mystery of Clockmaking within the said city, or within ten nionii,'"''''" """^ 
miles cotnpass of the same, shall, within one month after he or they 
take any apprentice to serve him in the said Trade, Art, or 



32 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMTANV. 

Mystery, />rt'sf /if the same apprentice or apprentices unto t/ie said 
Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants, of the said Company, 
to the end that they may admit and al/o7c> si/ch apprentice to serve 
such freeman or foreigner, i//>on pain to forfeit to the said Master, 
Wardens, and Fellowship, to the use of the said Company, /<?/- 
under penalty (^'crv niontli SO ott'endinc;, three shillings four-pence ; and to the 

«. 41/. per month; , •, , . , •'"1 , ^^ ^ 1 

clerk xs. clerk for entering the said presentment, twelve-pence. 

No alien Jtaii " And that no denison or foreigner using the said Trade, Art, or 

lic'lTorfoVmcr '^lystery of Clockmakiiig within the said city, liberties, and 

man any cne suburbs thereof, Or within ten miles compass of the same, shall 

M'aj'es'iy's ° "" take any apprentice or apprentices, servant or servants, not born 

Jominions, xcithin his Majesty's dominions, to work in or about the same Trade, 

Art, or Mystery, and, if any, alien or others, shall do contrary to 

this ordinance, or anything therein contained, he shall forfeit and 

pay to the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, for the use of 

under penalty 5/.; the Company, the sum oi five pounds lawful money of England, 

bwidi^i'f^/! and to the clerk six shillings eight-pence, and to the beadle one 

shilling six-pence. 

XXIII. 
No ioumeynian " Item, it is Ordained, that no journeyman that is or shall be 
M^'m^t^w™ ^'''^*^ **^ \^o\\i to or with any brother of the Company, shall depart 
vice from the Master with whom he or they shall be liired, except he 

without giving or they give his or their said Master three months'' warning at the 
w'aTiii^T' " least, of his or their intention to depart from his or their said 
nor shall any Mastcr. And that no Master or Brother of the said Company 

.Master turn awav »» 1 r ; • 7 

.-iiiy journeyman' shall hereafter turn or put away any such journeyman, except he 
wanting! "^ ' "" OX thcy give his or their said journeyman three months' warning at 
No Master shall the Icast J and that no Master or Brother of the Company having 
nr'mM w^io^h'"^ knowledge or notice of any journeyman departing without consent 
left his former as aforcsaid, shall hereafter entertain into his or their work or 
sudh w^ing," service aiiy such journeyman that shall so depart, without such 

warning to be given to him as aforesaid, upon pain to forfeit and 
under penalty 5/. pay for his and their offence therein five pounds to the said 

Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, to the use of the said 

Company. 

No JJroiher shall " And that uo Brother of the said Company using the said Trade, 

nc"yman^i'[o'hxs Art, Or Mystcry of Clockmaking, shall hereafter set at work, or 

a°Br"her'''"'"^'^ cmploy any journeyman that is not admitted a Brother of the 

Company, upon pain to forfeit to the said Master, Wardens, and 

Fellowship, for every week he or they do the contrary, the sum of 

under penalty j/,v shUUngs eightpcuce, to the clerk for entry of such departure 

clerk \s. ; beadle twclve-pcnce, and to the beadle four-pence. 
4./. 

XXIV. 

No iourncyman " Item, it is ordaiucd, that no person j-Zm// hereafter be admitted a 
^"^^^^^^"^^^^^ journeyman, or otherwise, to use tKe Trade, Art, or Mystery of 
served an appren- Clockmakiug, uulcss lic shdll bring t/'uc testimony of his true service 
Ihar^t^'hllcd for of apprenticeship, and every such journeyman shall be hired for one 
a fixed time, and whole year, OX for a longer or shorter time, and inake trial of his 
t/day"" ° 'workmanship by the space of fourteen days, and such trial being 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 2>3 

made, f^e/i the said iounievnuin s/ia// be presented before the ''''•'" \'^ i'"'?- 

J J -i •/ sented to the 

Master and Wardens of the same Company, and shall not depart Master and 
from his Master without cspeeial licence obtained, upon such penalty ^^\^\u^i\^^^^^ 
as shall be thought fitting by a Court of Assistants, or else upon his employer 
three months' warning to be orderly given as aforesaid; and that ilccnc'e'orThTee 
every such journeyman received into the said Company shall work months' warning, 

, , ^ * under u p(^nciltv ' 

only with such as -wo. free Bivthers admitted of the said Company, journeymen only 
and with no other person or persons whatsoever ; and whoso- freemenr"*^ 
ever shall do contrary to this ordinance, shall forfeit to the said under penaky of 
Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, for every offence, to the use 2°^- p'^'' ^^^^k -. 
of the said Company, the sum of twenty shillings a week, and for ''"' ''^' 
such entry to the clerk, by every particular party, twelve-pence. 

XX \'. 
" Item, it is ordained, that no person, shall teach or instruct /// ^"^'o person ^haii 
the Art of Clockmaking any other person or persons whatsoever, hTv'e not been ^ 
not being presented or admitted into the said Cofnpany, \x\)on pain to ''»ci'"'"ed, 
forfeit and ])ay to the said Master, ^Vardens, and Fellowship, to "^'l^er month • 
the use of the said Company, the sum of five pounds of lawful clerk li. ditto': 
money of England, for every month so offending, and to the clerk '^^ ^ ^^' 
for every such month twelve-pence, and to the beadle four-pence. 

XXVI. 

" Item, it is ordained, that no person using the said trade of No person thaii 
Clockmaking shall take as his apprentice the son of any zuhich irc''e%''r'tea?h'thc 
is free of the said Company^ or shall teach or instruct any ^yz^;^/; son of a freeman, 
freeman's son in the said Art, except the said son be his own, upon "o^^,^"^ P<="'i'ty of 
pain to forfeit to the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, to the 
use of the same Company, forty shillings for taking such and also ^os. per 
api)rentice, and forty shillings for every month he shall keep and iTshaiMje'first 
instruct him (except the said freeman's son shall he first presented v^c^^^rMed lo \hc 
to the said Company before he shall be taught and instructed), derk atdilcre''- 
and to the clerk such fine as the Company shall think fit. ''°"- 

XXVII. 
" Item, it is ordained, that no Brother of the Company shall No journeyman 
receive^ into work any manner of journeyman Clockmaker 7c////5(7/// w/thol^t a'ct^ifi- 
a certificate of his departure from his former master, upon pain to '^^'^ ^'^^^ '"'^ '•'"'^ 
fo?feit to the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, to the use of ^e'liafty iT^.^i'/.; 
the said Company, thirteen shillings four-pence for every such t^^xl^'j^' ' 
offence, to the clerk two shillings six-pence, and to the beadle 
four-pence. 

XXVIII. 

" Item, it is ordained, that what person of this Company that Every apprentice 
taketh any apprentice or apprentices into his service, after the withinlhe"fi°rst'^ 
custom of London, and causeth not him or them, 7uithin one month, under 
tnonth after the beginning of the term of such an apprentice, to be derk Vs.t'beadie 
inroUed before the Chamberlain of the said city, shall forfeit and '♦'^• 
pay to the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, to the use of 
the said Company, six shillings eight-pence, without remission or 
pardon, to the clerk twelve-pence, and to the beadle _/t7/;--/^wc-. 



34 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY, 



party 401. anil 10 
the clerk at Jii 



Every freeman 
within the city 
and liberties, 
>hall be warncil 
to attend at the 
quarter-day 
Courts, 



XXIX. 

Persons making " Ithm, it is ordaincd, that those persons that shall vine and 

«arc or rau =. ^^^^^^^ ^^^yxch for frauds and deceits in the said trade as aforesaid, 

shall make diligent search and im/iiiry of all disorders and incon- 

>hiii..K,.c...|uire renienees used in the said art of Clockmaking. And all such dis- 

\cs orders and abuses as they shall find, they shall justly and truly 

*" present to the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 

*ho'timiVfiiic"he said Company, at the next court of Assistants after the discovery 

or finding thereof ; and such person or persons as shall commit any 

such disorder, shall forfeit and pay to the said Master, Wardens, 

and Fellowship, the sum oi forty shillings, or such lesser sum as 

shall be inii)osed by the discretions of the Master, Wardens, and 

Assistants of the said Company ; and such fee to the clerk as they 

shall think fit. 

XXX. 

" Item, it is ordained, that every person or persons, being free of 
the said Company, or using the Trade, Art, or Mystery of a 
Clockmaker, 7C'ithin the city of London, or the liberties thereof, shall 
by the beadle, or some other known officer of the said Company, be 
warned to appear ^//^^ every quarter of a year, (that is to say) upon 
the first Monday sevennight after every of the quarter days, (as they 
are formerly ordained and appointed) before the Master, Wardens, 
and Assistants of the said Company of Clockmakers, or the greater 
number of them, there to hear read such good filing and wholesome 
orders as are or shall be made for the betteri?ig of the said trade, 
and suppressing of enormities and abuses therein; and that if any 
such person being smnmoned as aforesaid, or tiotice thereof left at 
his or their dwelling-houses, or other places of abode, he being at 
home, do make default and be absent from any the Quarterly 
Meetings aforesaid and cannot nor will not shew, (or otherwise 
prove) to the Master and Wardens for the time being, some 
lawful impediment or lett, which was the cause of his absence; or 
if a7iy freeman of the said Company, or any person or persons 
using the said Trade, Art, or Mystery, of Clockmaking, or a?iy thing 
thereto pertainifig, and being warned before the said Master, 
Wardens, and Court of Assistants, either against a Monthly Court 
(as aforesaid,) or upon any other occasion, shall ?iot, at the place 
and time appointed, appear there to remain and abide, unless he 
be by the Master and Wardens, or some of them discharged, not 
having such lawful excuse as aforesaid; that then every person 
and jiersons so offending shall forfeit and pay to the said Master, 
^^'ardens, and Fellowship, for every such offence, t'wo shillings, 
six-pence, and to the clerk for entering such default, six-pence. 



and being absent 
therefrom with- 
out reasonable 
cause, 



as also every 
person using the 
Art not appearing 
whenever sum- 
moned, shall 
forfeit 2j. M. ; 
clerk 6d. 



Every Freeman 
or person using 
the Art within 
ten miles of the 
city, and obsti- 
nately refusing 
to attend and 
perform re.ison- 
able service, 



XXXL 

"Item, it is ordained, that if any person or persons, free of the 
said Company of Clockmakers, or using the said Trade, Art, or 
Mystery, within the said city or liberties, or within ten miles 
compass of the same, being specially required thereunto, shall 
obstinately and wilfully 7-efuse to appear or meet at any place 
appointed by the Master and Wardens for the time being, or to pay 
or bear any sum or sums of money, or any other common charges 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 35 

whatsoever, for or to the King's Majesty, Lord Mayor, or city of 

London, or for the Commonwealth or worship of the said 

Company, or to do or perform any public service, meet or decent to 

be performed or done as aforesaid, within the same Company, or 

by any members of the same: that then every person and persons, 

being free of the said Company of Clockmakers, so refusing to do 

or perform all or any those things, shall forfeit to the said Master, shall forfeit 40*. ; 

AX'ardens, and Fellowship, for such refusal, the sum of forty ^'^'"'^ ^^' '♦''■ 

shillings, and to the clerk three shillings, four-pence. 

XXXIL 

"Item, it is ordained, that tio person of the said Company shall Any person of the 
discover or disclose any of the lawful secrets concerning the said ^h^aTdisciose^o 
Trade, Art, or Mystery of Clockmaking, in their own occupation, any person of 
or any secret counsel of the said Compatiy, which ought in reason any'secreTcounsei 
and conscience secretely to be kept, without any utterance thereof, 
to any other person, of another Mystery, and out of the same 
Company, to the hurt and prejudice of this Company, upon the ^^^^x\ forfeit 40^. ; 
penalty and forfeitu7-e of forty shillings, to be paid to the said clerk 3^. ^d. ; 
Master, ^Vardens, and Fellowshi}), and to the clerk three shillings 
four-pence, and to the beadle twelve-pence, for every time so 
offending. 

XXXIIL 

"Also, it is ordained, that every man of the said Company using Every man of tiie 
the said Trade, Art, or Mystery of Clockmaking, from this time comribuiary^toaTi 
forthwards, after his degree and po7oer, shall be contributary and |"'*f charges, or 
bear charge of, and iti, all mantier of Sessings, Prests, Costs, Coniri- clerk 3^. ^a. 
butions. Impositions, and all other charges appertaining to the 
worship, benefit, and credit, of the said Company: upon the pain of 
forfeiture oi forty shillings, to be paid to the said Master, Wardens, 
and Fellowship, for every such offence, and to the clerk three 
shillings four-pence. 

"And that all and every person and persons, as well strangers, ah persons what- 
denizens, foreigners, and others whatsoever, free of the said Com- An^YhaiTobe'y^ 
pany, or usijig the said Trade, Art, or Mystery of Clockmaking, or all rules and 
any thing thereunto appertaining or belonging within the said ""^ '"^"'-^^ • 
city and liberties thereof, shall obey, observe, and keep all the lawful 
orders, rules, atid ordinances, made and W7-itten in this present 
Book; and if any person or persons shall offend or tra?isgress 
any of the same orders, rules, and ordinances, or refuse to pay such ^nd if any trans- 

•' ■'- ^ frress or rerusc to 

penalties and forfeitures as are here set down for the breach thereof; pay the penalties, 

that then it shall and may be lawful to and for the same Master, may^'istS'i'/and 

Wardens, and Fellowship, by their officer or lawful \attorney to detain the same 

distrain, and the distress and distresses so from time to time taken, 

to lead, drive, carry, or bear away, and the same to keep and detain 

to the use of the Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, of the said until the fines or 

Company, until the said penalties, forfeitures, fines, or sums of ^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

money for 7ohich the said distress so be taken shall be fully satisfied 

and paid, with caution and provision, notwithstanding, that if the 

party, oioner of these goods and chattels so taken and distrained as . 

aforesaid, shall within fourteen days next after such taking and fourteen days, 



36 



the goods di-- 
trained to l>c 
restored. 



All Qocks, 
Watches, and 
Cast-s for the 
same, and sundry 
other articles 
enumeiatcd, im- 
ported. 



shall be first 
customed, and 
then brought to 
be viewed, and if 
approved, re- 
ceive the mark 
of the Company, 
before the same 
shall be offered 
for sale, under 
penalties which 
shall be ap- 
pointed. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

distress, satisfy or pay to the Master or one of the ^Vardens, to 
the use of the said Fellowship, such duties, rig/its, and sums of 
money for wiiich the said distress was so taken, then he or they 
shall have to him or them restored all the goods and chattels so 
taken and distrained for all and every the pains, penalties, for- 
feitures, sum and sums of money so forfeited, or to bring an action 
of debt for recovery thereof. 

XXXIV. 

" Item, it is also ordained, that all Clocks, Watches, Larums, and 
all Cases for Clocks, Watches, and Lamms, plain or graven, made 
of metals or of any other nature, condition, or fashion w/iatsoirer, or 
an\ otiur work or works, as Sun-Dials, Mathematical-Instruments, 
or any other work peculiarly belonging to the Art of Clockmaking, 
be it for great or small, brought info this realm of England, or 
dominion of JVales, or from the parts beyond the seas, to be put to 
sale, shall be first customed, and then brought to the hall of t/ie said 
Clockmakers in London, or their meeting place, and there presented 
to the Master, Wardens, and Assistants, to be vieivcd and approved 
of according to the said Letters-patents of Incorporation ; and 
upon the approbation of the Master, Wardens, and Assistants, or 
the greater part of them, shall, according to the usual custom of 
the said Company in such cases, receive the mark and allowance of 
the said Company, before the same be offered or put to sale, upon 
l^ain of such reasonable penalties as by the said Master, IVardens, 
and Court of Assistants, or the more part of them (whereof the 
ALaster and one of the ^^'ardens for the time being to be two) shall 
in such cases appoint and ordain. 

XXXV. 

" Item, it is also hereby ordained, that the Master, V\'ardens, and 
Fellowship of Clockmakers of London, for the time being, and 
their successors, in respect of their said extraordinary care and pains, 
which shall from time to time be taken, in the vieiving, search, and 
oversight of all such Clocks, Watches, Larums, Sun-Dials, and 
Mathematical-Instruments coming from beyond tlie seas, or othei-wise. 
cither by themselves, or such other person or persons, their laivful 
deputy or deputies, as shall be appointed for tJie same, to receive of 
every such person and persons, accordins; to the ivortJi and value of 
all such as shall be so found as aforesaid, or in any other work or 
wares by the way of merchandizing, pecidiarly belonging to t/ie same 
trade, how many or few, and of what nature, kind, or propert)-, 
soever they be, either for quantity or number /// a^ery pound sterling, 
the sum of fotir-pence, for the correcting and 7ie7i.'ing the insufficiency 
of the said work, and for marking and alloiving the same to be good, 
sufficient, and merchantable. 

XXXVI. 

The Mast.r " "^^^^ ^'^ ^^ Ordained, that the Master, Wardens, and Assistants of 

Wardens, &c., the Said Company of Clockmakers, or the major part of them 
maj shut"Jp^'hc' (whereof the Master and one of the Wardens for the time being 
^n who^li^air'" "^^ ^^ ^^°^ ^^ '^^^y "^^^^ ^'^\ri^ fit to call togctJier with them for 
take any apprcn- their better Strength, a constable, headborough, or some other, his 



The Company 
shall receive ^d. 
in the pound 
sterling, for their 
care and trouble 
in viewing and 
marking all work 
and wares pecu- 
liarly belonging 
to their trade. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 37 

Majesty's chief officer or officers, who, loirether with the said i'"; ""7 ^^'^o ^l'^" 

J -y J jj / / o work in a,ny plucc 

Master ^ Wardens, and Assistants, or some of them, shall shut up wiiais oever, he 
the shops of all such person and persons whatsoever, either free or h^vrng'^ser' ed 
foreign, that shall or 7i.'ill attempt to take any apprentice, or to work seven years. 
in any shop, chamber, or other place or places whatsoever, privi- 
leged or not privileged, exempt or not exempt, he himself having with a professed 
not served, with a professed Clockmaker, the full term and time of ,^.|°hhrihe^King's 
seven years within his IMajesty's dominions, according to the dominions, or 
several statutes and laws in that case made and provided, ^'//^ have madeTiis 
having likewise not formerly made his allowed masterpiece. master-piece. 

XXXVII. 

" Item, it is ordained, that if any person or persons, hereafter Everj' person 
professing the Trade, Art, or Mystery of Clockmaking, and being ^'^^^^If^ "^^l 
free of that Company, or of any other Company whatsoever, within taking any ap- 
the city of London, liberties, and suburbs thereof, or the limits b[,id'him tofome 
hereby projiosed, and shall take unto him or them an apprentice free brother of 
for the term of seven years, or otherwise, according to the custom '" °"p^">' 
of the said city ; and shall ?iot bind him or them to some free 
brother of this Company, according to the letters-patent of incor- 
poration granted to this Society, to the end the same brothej-hood 
in time may become an able body of itself, without the disturbance of 
any other society or government, he shall forfeit the sum of ten under penalty of 
pounds to the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, to the said '^" pounds. 
Company's use. 

XXXVIII. 

" Item, it is ordained, that if any person or persons, alien or .\ny aHen who 
stranger whatsoever, coming from beyond the seas or otherwise, shall place ThatsoeTe'r 
work in a shop, chamber, cellar, warehouse, or any other place or within ten miles 

, , ^' . , ' ' ' -; . , ^ .. ^ of the city, and 

places whatsoever, either exempt or not exempt withm the city oi not yielding obe- 
London, liberties, or suburbs thereof, or within ten miles compass, complny.'may 
and being iwt conformable, and yielding obedience, in all due have his tools and 
respects, to the government of this society, and his Majesty's afore- rn^d^d"tained%- 
said letters of incorporation ; that then it shall be lawful for the t^.e Master 

T, r TT7- 7 ^ A ■ 1-1/-1J i Wardens, &c., 

Master, \Vardens, and Assistants, or their lawful deputy or until compliance 
deputies in that behalf, in such case to seize, and take into their ^"es'^^^iratcd."' 
hands, on his Majesty's behalf, all such working-tools, or other 
materials whatsoever, as often as cause shall require, and them 
detain, and keep, iintil he or they, or any of them, shall be con- 
formable herein, and likewise pay such fine or fines as shall from 
time to time be imposed upon him or them by a court of 
Assistants, in that behalf 

XXXIX. 

" Item, it is ordained, -where many journeymen and others are Any journeymen 
from time to time set at work by several workmen, admitted into celving mo'itey 
this Society, which upon their first entertainments, and afterwards t'^fore hand, or 
in their several services, in respect of their wants and necessities, 
and other pretended employments, they have obtained several sum ^mplo"|rs''^ervice 
or sums of money of those several masters they do or have so without com- 
wrought unto, before any part of the same be by his workmanship workf ^" 



38 



THE CLOCK-MAKERS COMPANY. 



earned, and be/ore the same be wrought out, go from their several 
li'orkmasters to others of the same trade, supplying only their wants 
and necessities, and very dishonestly : 

and ihe same " Be it therefore ordained, that // any master workman of this 

lhi«condT,"-.I'ter Socicty shall at any time hereafter, (after notice given by the said 

he shall immeji- former workmaster,) set any such tvorkman or journeyman a work, 

M.!h woVknwn. in any manner of work whatsoever, peculiarly belonging to the 

under P^jJ'^»'|yj^»'' sauic trade, either at home or abroad, in any place or places what- 

due'w the^ormcr soevcr, but presently disemploy the same man, and take away such 

Xrfine"as'"''' work from him, if" any such delivery were, to the intent the said 

shall be imposed y^^;//^,^ Dtastcr, which so trusted him and was so deceitfully dealt 

N^aHen^! &'"' withal, may be fully satisfied, he shall f off eit, besides the full debt of 

arrearage due to the former workmaster, such other fine and penalty 

to the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowshii), to the use of the 

said Comixan)- as shall be adjudged by the Master, Wardens, and full 

Court of Assistants. 

XL. 

Master and " Item, it is ordaiucd, that if any suit, controversy, disagreement, 

.irbit^ufan^''" discord, or falling out, by or between any brothers or freemcfi, of 

disputes which ^^ ^^^^ Company, happen to arise, grow, or be between or 

.imongsTthe auiongst any of them, other than debt or in point of interest or 

freemen, property that then each suit, disagreement, controversy, and falling 

out, shall be made known to the Master and Wardens of the said 

Company, or the Master, IVardens, and Assistants of the said 

Company, for the time being, before such time as suit in latv be 

commenced and begun by and between them, upon i:)ain to forfeit 

who wilfully for every one wilfully refusing, or contemning this order, the sum 

contemning the Qf f^rty sliilUn^Js, to the end that the Master and IVardens may 

award made, shall •' -' " 777, ,7 7 ,; 7 , j 

forfeit 4of. endeavour to make peace and love betiveen them, and thereby prevent 

suits in law, if it so ?nay be. 

XLI. 

Wa^rd^ir'rnd siT " I'^'^M, it is also Ordered, that if\x happen the Assistants of the 
AssisL-inis, at tiie said Company be sent for by the Master and Wardens, for matters 
prelcn^toVorm a ^^^^ causes, and othcr things concerning the common profit of the 
court ; same, then it is ordained, they shall have and take six Assistants, 

besides the Master and one of the IVardens at the least, for the 
mider'seai'^'to redressing and ordering of such matters, causes, and doubts, 
pass but in open as before them shall be alleged and shewed; and also it is 
^^ty^f !o/. for ordained, that no grant or gift pass under their common seal, 
every particular fyj- \_(^xn\ of years Or term of life, to any person or persons, nor 

person so OiicikI- * •^ j. x < 

ing. and the acts judgment, nor sentence, pass under the same seal, without it be 
nun'and voi^d"^^'' ^or^t in open court, where the said Master, Wardens, and 
"Assistants, according to the number aforesaid, shall be present, or 
the more part of them, and consenting to the same, upon pain of 
every particular man so offending to forfeit ten pounds to the said 
Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, as often and when as such case 
shall hap])en, besides the disannulling of the said act or deed, and 
the same pain to be levied of the Master, Wardens, and Assistants 
doing the contrary, to the use of the said Company. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 39 

XLII. 

" Item, to the intent enormities and abuses in the trade aforesaid 
may be the better found out and reformed, it is further ordered, For the better 
that it shall and may be lawful to and for the Master «^/^ fe}o!-",fing ab^es 
Wardens of the same ComT:)anv, for the time beine, or two of'^'^ '^e trade, the 

,, 1 4. J r 1 ^ 1 1 Master and War- 

theni, as also to and tor such otlier person and persons whom dens or their 
they shall bring with them, or in that behalf any wise authorize or D^;p"ty '"ay 

• 1-11 r 11 • ■ , ■ enter any house, 

appomt, and will answer for, at all convenient time and times &c. within ten 
hereafter, to enter and come into the house, shop, 7varehouse, or rnlTsearc'h'fo'r"^'' 
working-house, sellers, soUars, or other ijlace or places, of any ^nd survey the 

, u i • • • 7 • 7 7 77 workinir and 

person or persons whatsoever, using or exejrising, or which shall making, and 
use or exercise the Trade, Art, or Mystery of Clockmaking, within and'^def-'iceail''^' 
the city of London, liberties and suburbs thereof, or within ten wares deceitfully 
miles compass of the same, to seai-ch, survey, and vieiv the one hhid'eHng"^^ 
making and working of any wares or merchandizes, or other works such search to 
belonging to the Trade, Art, or Mystery of Clockmaking, without ° ^" ^ ' 
the hindrance or interruption of such person or persons to whom 
the said shops, warehouses, workhouses, or rooms aforesaid, do 
appertain, and all things found by them deceitfully and insufficiently 
wrought, to take, carry away, and after sufficient trial to deface, 
and that evoy one j-ef using and hindering such view and search to 
be made as aforesaid, shall forfeit and pay to the said Master, 
AVardens, and Fellowship, to the use of the said Company, the 
sum oi five pounds. 

XLIII. 

" Item^ it is ordained, that no person whatsoever, being once No freeman shall 
made free of the said Art or Mystery, shall without licence of the pany to\nt°e?' 
Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the said Company for the a"other under 
time being, or the greater part of them change or leave his unikss^he be° " 
Company to be free of another Fellowship or Company, upon pain chief^officeln"ihe 
of foffeiture of twenty pounds, except he change his copy by city, 
reason of his election into any head or chief office in London. 

XLIV. 

" Item, that if any apprentice shall misbehave himself toivards his Disorderly and 
master or mistress, or that he shall be of a rude behaviour, that pren'tice's''to be" 
the persuasion or reasonable correction of his master or mistress '''ought before 
will not cause him to reform his misbehaviour, or if he shall be dens, &c and oii 
any drunkard, haunter of taverns, ale-houses, bowling-alleys, P''°5C'°'"eceive 

-' , , ; J , ' . ^ ^ to ] t condign punish- 

or other lewd suspected places, or evil company, or houses ment; 
where unlawful games shall be used, or gamester, dicer, or 
runneraway, or shall be out of his master or mistress's house 
without his or her privity, or shall be an enticer of other 
men's servants to the like ; he shall be brought to the hall 
of the said Company by his said master or mistress, and 
there these or such like notorious faults justly proved against 
him, at or before the said Master, JVaj-dens, and Assistants, . 
the party so offending shall receive such condign punishment 
as shall be reasonable and suitable to his offence, by corporal 
penance, or otherwise, in presence of the Master or some of the 
Wardens, and six of the Assistants of the Company, at the least. 



^O THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

for second offence ^nd for anv his second offence, or oftener offending, being proved, 
menSnd mitbe as aforcsaid, he shall be punished in like sort as aforesaid, and it 
deciare.1 disabled gj^^^u j^g ^^^ ^^.gj jjj jj^g power of the Miistcr, Wardens, and 
d'oni!'' '" "" Assistants, to order and publish him disabled, and he shall from 
thenceforth stand, and for ever be disabled and barred to demand, 
enjoy, or ha\e his freedom of this Society ; or if any sen'inj^- 
aiiy journeyman Journeyman, or hired servant, s//a// offend in any the like kinds 
shan'^^'ofl-rnd'' and degrees aforesaid, and the same being proved against him at 
shall undergo ' a Court of Assistants, in like sort aforesaid, kc ska// satisfy and 
Pl^^iiit"as1ihaii undergo suck reasonab/e pecuniary pena/ties as by the said Master, 
btn'r^kh if'he ^^ ''^'''^<''"->"> and Assistants shall be imposed on him; and if keska// 
rtJfu'sc to pay, he rcfusc OX omit to satisfy the same, he shall be and stand, (if by 
from working af the %va6. Master, Wardens, and Assistants, he shall be so ordered,) 
the trade. for evcr after dismissed and debarred /;w// using and working at 

the trade of Clockmaking. 

XLV. 

Masterand War- " Item, it is Ordained, if upon search hereafter made by the 
search for ?nd ^ faster. Wardens, and Assistants, or any of them at any time, by 
seize insufficient virtue of his Majesty's charter, any insufficient or deceitful Clocks, 
work made or Watchcs, Larums, or other loorks to tke said Trade, Art, or 
and*bfeak°tre'*' ^lystery, bc/ouging, be made or put to sale shall he found; then it 
same, unless the shall be lawful for t/ie Master, JFardens, and Assistants to seize 
p^y'he"fin'^' ° upou tkcui, and after sufificient trial of the said insufficiencies or 
imposed,and 5ive deceits, to break suck Clocks, Watches, or Larums, or other rvork 

security that it ' . . . - ' ' , . ' 

shall be amended thereto appertaining, if tke party so offendmg ska// not desire to 

"°** be admitted io pay a reasonab/e fne by the said Master, JFardens, 

and Assistants, to be made and rateably assessed, which they 

again viewed and shall admit of On tkat bcka/f ; so in such case, tkat no suck C/ock, 

altered previous xi-.jr ,7 ?i •• i n 1 /■/• . 

to sale, otherwise u atck, Laruni, or otker work thereto pertaining, ska// be offered to 
it shall be broken, j^g p^ ^^ ^^j^ j^^^f^ ^y ^j^^^ ^^^ mcndcd and made sufficient in all 

things ; and that therefore the party so offending ska// put in 
security tkat it ska// not be so/d before it be mended, in all points, 
according to the order, direction, and appointment of the Master, 
Wardens, and Court of Assistants ; and tkat tJie same so amended 
ska// not be so/d or offered to be put to sale, before it be vie^ued 
again, and allowed of by the said Master, Wardens, and Court of 
Assistants, or the major part of them, or else to be broken without 
any further view or order. 

And for the care " And it is also Ordained, that in regard of the extraordinary care 
v"ewmg"'eirery ^"^ pains to be taken in viewing and searching as aforesaid, ei'ery 
memheTsha.\] pay pa7-ticu/ar person, members of tke said Fe//owsJiip, ska/l pay to tke 

4rf. quarterly. • j t r 7 rrV? 1 a ■ . ■, ^■^,- 

said AJ aster, i] ardens, and Assistants, the sum oi four-pence 
quarter/y to the use of the said Fellowship. 

XLVI. 

To remedy the " Item, whercas tkcrc hatk forme7-ly been divers and great a/mses 

ThlTn'the names offcrcd to divcrs cxpcrt and sufficient workmen in tke said Art or 

^kersUingput "^^'"^^ ^f Clockma/iifig, as 7ve// by importing from beyond tke seas, as 

upon work, by making ^i'itkin tke realm, fau/ty and deceitful 7C'ork, upon 7vkick 

kave been set tke names or marks of some otker aoorkmen who made 

it not, to tke discredit and disgrace of tkem tke said wronged 7C'ork- 

inen, wkerely tke otkers diskonesty and deceit is not discovered. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 4 1 

"It is therefore ordained, that wJiosoeverYvQ.XQ'^Sx.tx shall he found 
by the Master, Wardens, and Assistants, of the Fellowship of whoever shall 
Clockmakers, or by any of them, or their lawful deputy or deputies, 'f"]P°|y ni°rj^ed, 
to have imported such 7vork from beyond the seas, falsely waj-ked, ">■ p"' ^»y name 
to sell or exchange by way of merchandizing, or to have set any thali'^tha't Jf^he 
man's name or mark upon any loork made within this kingdom or '"■"? maker, shall 

J- -^ o lorieit the Stimc 

dominion of Wales, other than the name or mark of the true maker to the king, and 
or finisher thereof ^\\o\\ forfeit the said work or works to the King's Com'pa*!iy^4^.*'or 
Majesty, his heirs and successors, and also be fined to the use of more or less ac- 
the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of Clockmakers, for nature^of°the^ 
every time so offending, and for every piece of work which he or they o^^^nce. 
shall be found to offend in, the sum of forty shillings, or other 
greater or lesser sum, according to the 7iature and quality of the said 
offence, to be taxed by the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants 
of the said Company. 

XLVII. 

" Item, it is ordained, that if any person or persons whatsoever, None but admit- 
other than a free licensed and admitted Clockmaker, either a shaiiSlawk"Thdr 
freeman, foreigner, denizen or stranger, or any other for them, or wares within the 
by their means, go about the streets, hawking or proffering /'//^?> or within°ten°" 
wares to 'a€^.from shop to shop, or in any inn, or any other place [^ther than^ w 
or places, within the liberties and franchises of this city, or within admitted ciock- 
ten miles compass thereof, (being made and wrought within his jTenlltyo'fforfeit- 
Majesty's dominions, or coming from beyond the seas) other than i"g '^e same, and 
to a free Clockmaker, admitted by t/ie said Company, and being not as t'hel;ourt shau 
by the said Master and W^ardens of the said Company sufficiently determine. 
allowed of according to his Majesty's aforesaid letters-patents, that 
thereby his Majesty s subjects may not be deceived, shall \\QXQhy forfeit 
the same to his said Majesty, his heirs and successors, according as 
is hereby set down and proposed : and the parties themselves, for 
their several contempts from time to time fined, as iji the discretion 
of t/ie Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants, or the major part 
of them, from time to time, shall be thought fit, according to the 
cjuantity and quality of their offences. 

XLVIII. 
" Item, it is ordained, that all person and pei'sons dwelling within ah persons what- 
the city of London and the liberties thereof, or within ten miles the Art^vtthin"" 
compass, as well within places privileged and exempt as not «'>« city of 

. .' , . -^ ^ i -1 /-I .^ . 1 ,7 London or within 

privileged and exempt, free of the said Company, thzX doth, ^r ten miles thereof. 
shall jcse or exercise the said Art, Trade, or Mystery, or any thing ^|^^^^"'^'^^'j°^'j^jj^"; 
appertaining thereunto, shall be contributary and bear, and pay pany, 
unto the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of Clockmakers, to 
the use aforesaid, all such i-easonable sums of money as shall be 
thought good and reasonable, to be assessed hy the Master; Wardens, 
and Assistants of the said Fellowship, or the more part of them for 
the time being, as well for the affairs of his Majesty, this honour- 
able city, as also for any other thing belonging to this Society, in such 
manner as other Freemen of the said FelloivsJiip, and of other 
companies of the said city, from time to time are and shall be under the penalty 
charged, according to their abilities, upon pain of forfeiture of ten of ^°i- 



42 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

ponmh to the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants, to the use of 
the said I'cllowship. 

XI. IX. 
A chest shall be " Item, It is Ordered, that the said Company or Fellowship shall 
Fo™r 'il^crai* ' have one substantial chest, with four several locks thereupon, with 
locks in which four different several keys to the same : which chest shall stand in 

sljall be kept such -^ . , •' ■ , r -i i ■ 7 77 7 

effect^asare somc convenicnt i)lace appointed for the same; wherein shall oe 

ke'>"''u!'be'kept P"l '^^^ •>■"'■''' "lonies, plate, Jeicels, books, and such like treasure, as 

by the Master, shall bclong to the Said Company or Fellowship ; which keys 

Warded" who shall be in the custody of the Master and three \\'ardens, every one 

shall all four of Qf them to have a key ; so that they shall all four of them in persoji 

them in person -'' -^ ■' •' ■' 

togeiher open the together, go to the soid chcst, and open the same when and so 

onTt'wo.trYhree oi\.Q\\ as there shall be occasion to put any thing therein, or to 

of them alone, take any tiling forth of the same ; and ?iot one, two, or three of them 

to have all the keys ; neither to go alone to the said chest about the 

occasions aforesaid, but all four. Master and Wardens, to go 

together; and // it happen any the said Master or Wardetis to be 

sick, or out of town, or to have any other lawful business, that the 

same Master or Warden shall appoint one of the ancientest that 

hath been Master or Warden before, to take his key, and in his 

^f'^icknMsr&c. absence /^r that time, to go and help to the opening of the chest to 

the occasions aforesaid. 



Recital of abuses " Item, M'herc divcrs of the nobility themselves attending his royal 
persons.'^'^^^*^ majesty at court, and elsewhere, as also divers others in the like kind, 
and not only they, but divers other persons of quality, both of the 
city and country, many times, by the bad condition of ill-disposed 
persons, by way of purloining, or plain felonious stealing, taking, 
or other indirect embezzling from such noble and right honourable 
personages, and the rest as aforesaid, have and may, from time 
to time, lose all sorts of JVatches, Clocks, Zarums, Cases, Dials, 
Mathematical-Instruments, and such other commodities, being tvrought 
and sold by the Master, \Vardens, and Assistants, and the whole 
body of the said Conpany, or by some of them detained, or by any 
other : 

Stolen work " AxD whercas by common experience it hath been heretofore 

to^gordsmtht^ found by those, that it hath pleased his Majesty to make, in his 
by°arterin^''th*^° ^^^'°"^ letters-patcnts. Master, Wardens, and Assistants, that 
names and marks divcrs watches that have, from time to time, in such purloining 
offendiirs'!" ^"^ felouious manner been houghx from and by such several persons 
who, after their purloining and false taking as aforesaid, have 
delivered the same to some JVbrkmen coming from foreign parts, and 
others 7c>ho have sold the same to some goldsmith, broker, or 
others, and have, by altering the names, and other particular parts 
or marks of the said work, defaced and obscured the same, whereby 
the same might not be known, either from what party the same 
was so stolen or purloined, or who made it, that the parties them- 
selves might not be apprehended : 

^ns'ma7feaych' " ^'^'^ '^ therefore ordained hereby, for prevention of the like 
in any place abuscs hereafter, that it shall and may be lawful to and for the 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 43 

Master and Wardens of the said Company of Clockmakers, (;r whatsoever, for 
any two of them, their or any two sufficient deputies allowed ^"y ha^^ been 
by the said Master and Wardens, by and with a full Court of '^o ^'^le". so that 

.•' . , . r ^ 7 1 1 Ti- the ofTenders may 

Assistants, or the major part of them, to make and take diligent be discovered, 
View, Search, Inquiry, and Oversight, in all places suspicious, and p"ftjI'obfa1n"^^^'^ 
in all and every the houses, shops, warehouses, working-houses, redress. 
cellars, soUars, place or places, af any person or persons 
whatsoever, either of Clockmakers, goldsmiths, brokers, or any other 
whatsoever, whereby, by their true search, care, and oversight, as 
aforesaid, the same wicked and evil actors and offenders may be 
rooted out and reformed, and his Majesty's true and lawful 
subjects, in such case and cases, righted and relieved. 

LI. 

" Item, where, in the fifteenth ordinance made it is ordained. Fifteenth bye- 
that none liereaffer admitted to be a In other of this society, shall take a BroThS'to hate 
to himself any apprentice or apprentices, but first to have leave ^'''^ |'i"e°a^Vard^^nm• 
//r^;/r^ of the Master, Wardens and Court of Assistants, or the moi'e Assistant may 
part of them, and then to have but one until he shall bear office <^ [feet and no'^more" 
JVarden or Assistant of or in the said Company; and after he shall 
be so called to be JVarden or Assistant of the said Company, not 
to exceed the mimber of two at any time whatsoever ; now forasmuch 
as the benefit of being admitted to be Warden, or one of the 
Assistants, in not payitig the several fines of admittance into the 
clothing and to the place of stewardship, will be of great 
advantage to the party or parties, so to be admitted Warden or 
Assistant : 

"Be it therefore ordained, that every such /^/r/y that shall be so Persons admitted 
admitted, before he be called to the clothing, or being Steward, sistant"before' 
shall pay to the Master and Wardens of the said Company, to the _^j^^ij'jgj''(Q^f^," 
use of the said Fellowship or Society, the sum of twenty pounds, clothing, or been 
and to the clerk thirteen shillings four-pence, and to the beadle 2oZc!eVi°3r4^</., 
three shillings four-pence. beadle 3^. 4^'. 

LI I. 

" Item, it is also ordained, that no servant or apprentice that is, no apprentice 
or hath unlawfully, without just and reasonable cause, departed ''^^^.^^^^^^^^^^ 
from his master, mistress, or dame, not having served the full time self, or for hire, 
of his or their Apprenticeship, or Term of Covenant, shall be have^dMiy"erved 
admitted to work for himself or 7vith any Master, befoi-e such time ^'s full time. 
that the said servant or Apprentice hath fully accomplished his Time 
or Term of his or their Apprenticeship as aforesaid, and given 
content to his said Master, Mistress, or dame, their or any of their 
Executors, Administrators, or Assigns; And their Departure shall unlawful 
be registered in the Common Hall of the said Company, upon a departure to be 
Court-Day, before the Master, Wardens, and Court of 
Assistants, or the major part of them, whereby Notice may be 
taken of such unlawful Departure as aforesaid; that they thereby, 
may give no permission to any such Apprentice or Apprentices, 
unlawfully departed, to work; and those that shall set any such to whoever shall 
7vork, having been forewarned thereof, shall pay to the said ['.niawfuiTy'^Ihaii 
Master, IVardens, and Felhm'ship, to the Company's L^se, the sum forfeit i; 5. 

E 



, , THE CLOCK.MAKERS' COMPANY. 

Clerk 6s. 8d. of five poiinds, to the Clerk six shillings, eight pence, and to the 
jv..die ^s. 6d. jjg^jjie j^-o shillings sixpence ; And for his or their further Offence 
.\.,j for further ID that dcgrco, from time to time, to be further punished, according 
offence to »* jq (^g discretion of the Master, Wardens, and Court of 
furOier punished ^^^,^.^,^^..^.5^ ^^ ^1,^ „,^^jor Part of them, until he or they leave off 
Servants unlaw- scttin-^ any such unlawful Servant to work. And that Servant so 
fully ic.vmsjheir y^jj^^^ff^jH^. departed, never to have the Benefit, Freedom, or Liberty 
' 1 to work for himself, or for or with any other, until such time as 

'uMtutr.c.r ■ r.ncr the Said Master, Mistrm, or Dame, their or any of their Executors, 
nTtlow'S'c''" Administers, or Assigns, come in open Court as aforesaid, and 
i!iii"factfonL there publiclj- achnotcledge satisfaction for such Wrong received, as 
"JT.j^^s'm!*''" formerly; and for the Entry, to pay the Company two shillings, to 
Clerk .V (i^e Clerk twelve pence, and to the Beadle four pence. 

Beadle 4d. ' 

LIII. 

To prevent abu- " Ite.m, whcrcas, of late, many Abuses have crept up by bad and 

trough in^^f^^ insufficient Workmen, that have no true knowledge in the finishing 

ficient workmen, ^ny Work they take in hand, whereby it may prove saleable, and 

apprlmicVt'h^'t no deceit used to the Subject, and especially those that should 

""^""become".!" ^^^^'"^ \ittxi instructcd by \\it\\\, Non< therefore to the end that all 

l^e A^^s^° "^ and rvery Apprentice and Apprentices hereafter, that shall become 

bound to any Person or Persons whatsoever using the Art, Trade, 

or Mystery, of a professed Clockmaker, may in time become a\ true 

Artist in the said Trade and Profession of a Clockmaker, after the 

full expiration of their term. 

Ever>' person " Be // hereby ordained, that evety Person or Persons whatsoever 

!^th!n*the1[mits usiug, or that hereafter shall use the Trade, Art, and Mystery of 

of" 'h's Charter^ Cloclcmaking, within the City of London, Liberties, and Suburbs 

his Apprentice thereof, or within Ten Miles compass, according to the Letters 

telidem in his Patent of Incorporation, shall hereafter teach and instruct his said 
house) the whole Apprentice and Apprentices in such manner and form as their 

that he may " Predecessors formerly have done, which is to keep daily and duly him 

make up his ^^^ f/,gi„ i,i /^/^ Housc, and there, by himself or his sufficient 

masterpiece with .' .'-^ 1 • x /-• n 

Credit. Journeyman, teach or instruct them in the making of Cases or noxes 

of Silver or Brass, and likewise the several Springs belonging to a 
Watch, Clock, or Larum^ and likewise all other particular and 
peculiar things belonging to such Watches, Clocks, Larums, Mathe- 
matical Instruments, and Sun-Dials, his or their said Master shall 
teach and instruct them in ; to the end they may, in time, make up 
their Masterpiece with sufficiency of credit, and truly understand 
both the beginning and ending of their Work, from time to time, 
None to buy the which they shall take in hand. And none to buy any Boxes, Cases, 
biu"f a professed ^^P^'^"S^^ ^'' Otherwise, but of such a professed and allowed Clock- 
ciockmaker or maker, OX such Other sufficient Workman, as by the said Master, 
mai'i'^i'md'er "^ ' WARDENS, and CouRT of ASSISTANTS, or the major Part of them, 
penalty of /Is. ghall bc thought fit and allowed of, and as is hereby set down, 
whereby the sufficiency and true goodness thereof may be known, 
upon Penalty for the first Offence, to pay the Master and Wardens, 
to the use of the Company, fve pounds, or such other reasonable 
penalty, as by the Master, AVardens, and Court of Assistants, 
of the said Company, or the greater Part of them (whereof the 
Master and one of the Wardens for the time being, to be two) 



THE CLOCKAfAKERS COMPANY. 45 

shall be thought meet, according to the nature and quality of the 

Offence ; Ajidfor the second Offence^ such Fitie or other Punishment, and for the 

according to the quantity and quality of their Offence or Offences, as such"othI^^fine'as 

in the discretions of the Master, Wardens, and Court of the Coun may 

Assistants, or the major Part of them (whereof the Master and 

one of the Wardens for the time being, to be two), shall be thought 

fit. 

LIV. 
"Item, to the end \t shall appear rx'/^rt-/ Oath and Oaths, ^z'^ry Every person 
Person and Persons which shall become Master or JVai'dens, or of warden, Assist-' 
the Assistants or Livery, or a Freeman of this Company, Fellow- Fre'emarcierk 
ship, or Fraternity, or the Clerk, Beadle, or Beadles, of this or Beadie. shall 
Fellowship, and every Person at any time to be alloiued to work required, 
as Serva?its to any of this Fellowship, or within their Government, 
shall take, or enter into ; 

" // is ordered and oj'dained, that they and every of them, shall and also the Oath 
severally take such several Oaths as are here respectively set down, supr^emacyi'" 
and the Oath of loyalty and supremacy to the King's Majesty, his 
Heirs and Successors, according to the Laws of this Realm, as 
they now be, or hereafter shall be, provided. 

LV. 

" Item, every Master or Warden agreed upon, in sort as aforesaid, 
to be Master and Warden for the succeeding Year, to take Oath 
before the ancient Master, and both or one of the JVardens and 
Court of Assistants, in this sort ensuing, viz. 

" You shall be true to our Sovereign Lord the King and to his I'l^e Oath to be 
Heirs and Successors, you shall endeavour yourselves the best you p^erson admiued 
can, whilst you continue in the Office whereunto you are now derand°bcfOTe 
chosen, justly and indifferently to execute, and cause to be whom. 
executed, your Offices in every respect, and to put in due execution 
all the good and lawful Laws and Ordinances in the Book of 
Ordinances expressed and contained, without assessing or punishing 
any Person for envy, hatred, or malice, or sparing any Person for 
reward, meed, dread, favor, or affection : And of all and every 
such Goods, Plate, Jewels, Sums of Money, or any other thing or 
things, that, by reason of your said Office, shall come to your 
hands, charge, and custody, you shall, according to the Ordinances 
made touching the same, yield and make a good, true, and plain 
Account within convenient time, after you shall be thereunto 
required by the Master and Wardens of the Company and Fellow- 
ship for the time being ; or else you shall i)ay your Fines according 
to the same Ordinances. So help you God. 

LVI. 

"Item, the Oath of every one chosen from time to time of the 
Assistafits, to be taken before the blaster, and all or one of the 
JFardeus and Court of Assistants, to the effect ensuing, viz. 

. . The Oath to be 

"You shall swear to be true to our Sovereign Lord the King, his taken by every 
Heirs and Successors ; you shall assist the ALaster and ^^'ardens of Pv'si°t"antrany " 
this Fellowshi]^ of Clockmakers for the time being, in their Rule before whom. 

E 2 



46 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY 



and Government of the said Fellowship, so long as you shall 
continue one of the Assistants, with your best and soundest 
advice : and shall endeavour yourselves, to the utmost of your skill 
and knowledge, justly and indifferently to execute your said Place 
and Office in every respect ; and to put in due execution all the 
good and lawful Ordinances of this Society, contained, and which 
shall be expressed and contained, in the Book of Ordinances, 
without punishing or assessing any Person for envy, hatred, or 
malice, or sparing of any Person for love, fear, dread, favor, or 
affection, or for reward, or for hope or promise of reward. So 

HELP YOU GOP. 

LVII. 
" Item, the Oath of rcery one of the Liveiy to be taken in sort 
aforesaid, and to the effect ensuing, viz. 

The o.ith to be " You shall swear to be true to our Sovereign Lord the King, his 
s'?ontothei.ivery Heirs and Successors; and that you shall perform and obey all 
that to you appertaineth to be done, by the true meaning of this 
Book of Ordinances of this Society, and be honest for you to 
perform, and approved or warranted by the Laws of this Realm. 
So HELP vou God. 

LVIIL 

" Item, 7C>hen any of the said Livery of this Society shall be at any 
time chosen and appointed, according to the said Booh of Ordinatices, 
to be Auditor for any accounts or reckonings toi/ching this Fellowship, 
to be passed or taken by or from any Master, Wardens, or others, 
he shall take Oath in sort aforesaid, to the effect ensuing, viz. 

" Vou shall foithfully, and to the best of your skill and knowledge, 
hear and examine all such Accounts and reckonings, which by any 
Person or Persons shall be made and offered, in any wise touching 
or concerning the Affairs of this Fellowship or Company ; and the 
same accounts and reckonings so by you heard and examined, 
shall deliver up in writing under your hand, to the Master, 
Wardens, and Assistants, of this P'ellowship or Society for the 
time being, upon reasonable request to you made, and at such 
time as the Master and Wardens for the time being shall appoint, 
with your allowance and disallowance of the said account : you 
shall not allow any thing for love or favor, nor disallow any thing 
for hatred, or malice ; but shall justly and indifferently hear and 
examine the same account, so near as God will give you Grace. 
So HELP vou God. 

LIX. 

" Item, that the Clerk of the Fellowship shall take his Oath in 
manner and to the effect here ensuing, viz. 

" You shall be true to our Sovereign Lord the King's Majesty, and 
his Heirs and Successors, and to the Master, IFardens, and Fellow- 
ship of this Society ; and all the commandments of the Master and 
Wardens of the same Fellowship, being lawful and honest, and 
touching and concerning the affairs and business of this Fellow- 



The Oath to be 
t.iken by every 
person chosen 
Auditor. 



The Oath to bt 
taken by the 
Clerk. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 47 

ship, belonging to your Office, willingly you shall do and execute. 
True entries of all things belonging to your Office, you shall make, 
without any partiality for favour or affection, lucre or gain, hatred, 
envy, or malice whatsoever. You shall not wittingly or willingly 
do or commit any thing that may be hurtful and prejudicial to the 
said Master, ]Varde)is, and Fellowship ; but shall honestly, justl)', 
and truly execute your Office of Clerkship in all things apper- 
taining to the same, as the Clerk of the said Master, JVardens, and 
Felloivship of this Society ought to do, so long as you shall 
continue and be in the same Office, according to your best skill, 
power, and ability, without any partiality. So help you God. 

LX. 

" Item, that every one that shall be, at a Court of Assistants, 
chosen and allotved to he a Beadle of this Company, Fellowship, or 
Society, shall take his Oath to the effect here ensuing, viz. 

"You shall be true to our Sovereign Lord the King's Majesty, TheUathtobe 
his Heirs and Successors ; and obedient shall be to the Master Beadle.^ 
and Wardens of this Fellowship for the time being ; their com- 
mandments lawful and honest touching the affairs and business of 
this Fellowship, to the utmost of your power, willingly you shall 
do ; And generally you shall justly and truly do and execute all 
and every thing and things appertaining to the said Office, as the 
Beadle of the said Master, JVardens, and Fello70ship, ought to do, 
to the utmost of your skill, power, and ability, as long as you 
shall continue in the said Office, without any partiality whatsoever. 
So HELP vou God. 

LXI. 

'"' Item, eve/y one that shall hereafter be received to be a Freeman 
or Brother of this Felloioship, shall take the Oath of Supremacy, 
and likewise another Oath to the effect here ensuing, viz. 

" You shall swear to be true to our Sovereign Lord the King's The Oath to be 
Majesty, his Heirs and Successors, and at all times obedient to the mission" o the 
Master and ^^'ardens of this Fellowship and Society, and their fellowship. 
Successors after them, in all honest and lawful things touching the 
affairs of this Fellowship. You shall be ready at all manner of 
Summons, and bear scot and lot in all manner of reasonable 
Contributions of, and to, this Fellowship ; and the Fellowship of 
the Company of Clockmakers of the City of London, you shall, 
to the best of your skill, power, and ability, uphold and maintain. 
You shall not know nor suspect any manner of Meetings, Con- 
spiracies, Plots, and Devices against the King's Majesty, his Heirs 
or Successors, or the Government of this Fellowship, but you 
shall the same, to the utmost of your power, let and hinder, and 
speedily disclose to the Master or one of the Wardens of this 
Society. And this City of London, and Fellowship of Clock- 
makers, you shall keep harmless, as much as in you lieth : also 
you shall be ready at all times to be at the Quarter Days, and 
every other Assembly, ALatter, or Cause, that you shall be warned 
or called unto for the affairs of this Fellowship ; unless you shall 



^8 THE CLOCKMAKERS' CO-MrANV. 

have lawful and reasonable excuse in that behalf. And all other 
Ordinances of this Fellowship or Society, ratified according to 
the Laws of this Realm, or otherwise lawful for this Fellow^ship or 
Society to make and ordain, you shall, to the utmost of your 
power, well and truly submit yourself unto and keep. So help 
YOU God. 

LXII. 
" Item, that forasnnuh as it may often happen, by reason of 
sickness or other necessities, that the Master or Wardens of this 
Fe/Io7C'ship or Society may be absent, 

rhc Master aiid " It ts Ordained, That the Master or IVardens of this Company, 

Wardens m.iy^^^ (,y (ff^gf pj „ Court of Assistonts, sholl hovc power to make a Deputy 

bpppJobatmn ^ in any of their Places, for such time as shall be allowed at the 

notto.^rumiii"' said Court ; And that all things touching the Affairs or Ordinances 

sworn. of this Company, which shall be done, by, to, or before, such 

Deputy, of any Master or Warden, (so as such Deputy shall have 

taken such Oath as is there before in this Book of Ordinances, 

appointed for the Master, or Wardens to take, the same Oath, being 

taken before the Master and Wardens, or any two of them and 

before the whole Court of Assistants, or the greater part of them) 

shall be held in state and case, as if the same were in the presence of, 

or done, or executed by, to or before, the Master or Warden himself, 

who shall have made or assigned such deputy without any quarrel, 

tjuestion, or exception to be made or moved, of, to, or upon the 

same. 

"All which Acts, Ordinances, and Oaths, inform aforespecified, 

at the request of the said Master and Wardens of the Company or 

Society of Clockmakers of the City of London, by authority of the 

said Act of Farliament, We the said Chancellor, and Justices of 

either Bench aforesaid, for good, laudable, and lawful Acts, 

Ordinances, and Oaths, do accept and admit, and as much as in us 

.Ml the Bye '■^> f^lif}\ l<^tid oud opprovc by these presents ; In Witness whereof 

Laws ratified fp fhis present Book, we have subscribed our Names and set to our 

1632, SiMJar: Seals, the eleventh day of August, in the year of the Reign of 

'*'• our Sovereign Lord Cha^-les, by the Grace of God, King of 

England, Scotland, France, and Ireland, the eighth ; Anno Domini, 

1632. 

"Tho. Coventrye. 

" Tho. Rychardson. 
" Ro. Heath. 

" Examinat' per me Johem Page in Cur"* Cancellar' Magrm." 

Additional Bye-Law passed 4th April, 1 796 : — 

LXII I. 

" Item, // is further ordained, that if any Person of the said 
Any Freeman Fellowship, being so, as aforesaid, chosen to be of the said Livery, 
gtl^'and *''"'""' ^^"^^ (without any reasonable and sufficient cause, to be allowed 
sufficient cause) and admitted by the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants) 



THE CLOCKMAKERS CCJMPANV. 49 

refuse to acceht and take upon him io he oi the said Lii'e/y; And \'^\H^'^y^^o 

■ 1 ■ / /- XT ;l' i I." take the Livery 

shall refuse to fake, within fourteen days next after Notice to nim after being 
given of such his Election as aforesaid, such Oath, as by the f^'^"'' '" '"°'<"'^'^ 
Ordinance in that behalf made, is appointed to be taken ; That 
then, and in every such Case, every such Person so refusing, shall 
forfeit and pay to, and for the use of, the said Master, Wardens, 
and Fellozaship, the sum of fifteen pounds, to be recovered by 
action of debt, or levied by distress. 

" We have perused and do appi'ove of and allow this 
Order, Rule, and Ordinance, to be one of the Orders, 
Rules, and Ordinances of the Company of Clock- 
makers of the City ^London. 

' " Loughborough. C. 

" Kenvon. 

"Ja. Eyre." 

The Bye- Laws were in accordance with custom sub- 
mitted to the Court of Aldermen, and by them ordered to be 
entered on Record, as is shewn by the following entry on their 
Minutes : — 

"1632. October nth. Whitmore Mayor. Item: this day upon a 
mocon made unto this Court for and in the behalfe of the Company of 
Clockmakers lately incorporated it is ordered by this Court that their 
ordinances be entered upon Record."' 

The necessary preliminaries having thus been gone 
through, the several persons designated in the Charter as 
the first Master and Wardens of the Company, attended 
before the Lord Mayor and took the Oath of Office thereby 
prescribed. On the same day, the 12th October, 1632, 
the Assistants being summoned to attend, the first duly 
constituted Court of the Company was held, and as the 
proceedings at this and the subsequent Court Meetings 
are of considerable interest, they are given at length, as 
follows : — 

"Whittmoore Maior. 
" "At a Court holden the 12th daye of October 1632. present 

Davyd Ramsey Esc^uier Master. Frauncis Foreman 

Henry Archer 1 John Harris 

John Willow , Wardens. Samuell Lynnaker 

Sampson Shelton I John Charlton Assistants. 

James VaultroUier John Mydnall 

John Smith Symon Bartram 

Edward East 

' Repertory 46, fol. 426*^'- = Company's Journal I. 



50 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



Item : this daye the Master and ^\'ardens above named 
KeytLw' having taken their Corporall Oathcs before the R' Ho'''^' George 



Master and 
Wardens sworn 



Mayor. 



I.O ; Covenir>- 
Ix> : Richardson 
Lo : Heath 

Clerk sworn. 



Whittmore now Lord Maior of the Citty of London, according 
to his >La''" most gratious graunt of Incorporation did afterwards 
assemble themselves togeather, callinge before them the whole 
Assistants of which such as are abo\e named did appeare, And 
by vertue of their said Charter, and the Judges Ordinaunces of 
the Lawe, made by the R' ho''" the Lord Keeper and the two 
Lord Chief Justices on either bench the said Master and Wardens 
did their in Open Court give Thomas Copley their Clarke by 
Corporation his Oath according to the said ordinaunces, and after 
he was soe sworne he did likewise give Oath to the severall 
Assistants above named, who were also sworne accordingly. 



Comon Prayer " This daye the Court hath ordered, That at all Courts 

ajes. j^ggj.g^f{gj. jQ jjg holden by the Master Wardens and Assistants 
of this Fellowshipp of Clockmakers, before the said Court begin 
their shalbe Common Prayers redd by the Clarke or some other 
free Brother of this Societie in his absence, to th'end such pro- 
ceedings as the Court shall (from tyme to tyme) take in hand, 
and what discourse either in privacy or publiquely the companie 
may mutually have in love and Brotherhood may be all donn 
in the feare of God and sincerity of hert. 

Mr. Archer " This daye the Court hath elected Mr. Henry Archer as 

eputy aster. j)gpy^y faster untill Mr. Davyd Ramsey returned forth of the 
Country or untill his opportune occations fitt him to take the 
same place upon him againe." 

' "At a Court holden the i6th of October 1632. present 



Henry Archer Deputy Master. 
John Willow 1 ,,. , 
Sampson Shelton}^^^^^^"^- 
James Vaultrollier 
John Smith 
Frauncis Foreman 



John Harris 
Richard Morgan 
Samuell Lynaker 
John Charlton 
John Middnall 
Symon Bartram 
Edward East 



) Assistants. 



A n.<i o( submis- " M'' Wee whose names are hereunder written have publiquely 

'^!"n°J\nf' ^^ere read in open Court His Ma"^^ Charter of Incorporation 
charter grauntcd to the Clockmakers of London and elswhere within 

His Ma"" Dominions, As also the Judges Ordinaunces of the 
Lawe, by which said Charter wee being all of us Incorporated 
into a Brotherhood as well Free as Forreyne, And by vertue 
therof enjoyned to submit ourselves to be under that govour- 
ment, have with a willing and free consent submitted our- 
selves to the same accordingly the daye and yeare first above 
written. 



Company's Journal I. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY 



" The particular names of those that did this day subscribe, viz. 



Henry Archer Deputy Master. 
John Willow ] y^r^^. 

Sampson Shelton/ 
James Vaultrollier 
Frauncis Foreman 
John Smith 

Robert Rothwood 
Thomas Holland 
Thomas Dawson 
John Brooke 
Onisipherus Heldon 
Symon Hackett 
Pierry Hue 
Oswold Durant 
Richard Child 
Thomas Shepheard 
Josias Cuper 
Thomas Alcock 
Davyd Backquett 
Ely Volant 
Robt Grinkin 
Thomas Howse 
William Petit 
John Burgis 



John Harris . 

Richard Morgan | 

Samuell Lynaker ( 

John Charlton ' Assistants. 

John Middnall 

Symon Bartram 

Edward East I 

William Daniell 

John Droeshout 

Edmund Gillpin 

Lewes Cooke 

John Walker his mark x 

Thomas Reead 

Edward Okeham 

Thomas \\'ard 

Thomas Lambe 

George Clarke 

Robt HoUoway 

John Bullby 

John X Bull his mark 

William Daniell 

Richard Jackson 

Richard x Lord his mark 

Daniell Saunders. 



" Itm : forasmuch as it hath pleased his Ma'''-' out of his ^" °j<^^' fo"^ 

_,,, . i ^ .. . . ,,. admittaunces. 

prerogative Royall to graunt to this fellowshipp power by his 
Charter of Incorporation to admitt such Bretheren as by vertue of 
the same ought to be subject to the orders, rule and govournment 
of the said Companie. Now this daye the Master Wardens and 
Assistants according to the marginall directions of the now Lord 
Keeper signified by his hand in the booke of ordinaunces of the 
Lawe have hereby ordered that Avhat person or persons shalbe 
hereafter thought fitt to be allowed of and admitted into this 
Society shall pay such Fees as hereafter enseweth viz'- 

" Imprimis to pay noe Fees to the Companie but to be 
admitted gratis. 

" Itm : to the Clarke for entring of every Freeman 2S and to 
the Beadle 8d and for every Forreigner 3s and to the Beadle i2d. 

" At a Court holden on the 23 of October 1632 the Deputy 
Master together with his Wardens and Assistants tooke their 
Oathes of Brotherhood as the rest of the body of the Companie 
have donne formerly." 



The newly incorporated body, notwithstanding the favour 
shewn them by the King and the Court of Aldermen, seem 



32 THE CLOCKMAKLRS' COMl'ANY. 

soon to have incurred the displeasure of the Blacksmiths, 
some of whose Members and Office-bearers were found 
taking- prominent i)ositions in the new Company, accordingly 
they "determined to petition the Court of Aldermen against 
them, as the undermentioned order shows : — 

" At a Court of Assistants of the Blacksmiths' Company held on the ist 
November 1632. 

" 7'his dale it is Ordered that ye Clarke shall draw a Petictm to y= Lord 
Mayor & Courte (of Aldermen) to shew the Clockmakers that are made free 
into ye Woodmongers to bee disfranchised and y'= Clockmakers to p'duce 
their Charters and y"' Clark to be paid ' for what he shall do therein." - 

Their Petition was accordingly presented to the Court of 
Aldermen in the following January, and by them referred to 
a Committee for consideration in these terms : — 

" 1632-3, 8 Charles I. January 22. Raynton Maior. Item : this 
day upon reading of a peticon exhibited in the name of the Wardens and 
Assistantes of the Company of Blacksmithes London whereby they shewe 
that the Clockmakers have lately obteyned a Chre of incorporation to 
the great piudice of the peticoners who humbly desire that they may 
sue the recognizances of such as being Clockmakers by trade are made 
free of other Companys, It is thought fitt and soe ordered by this 
Court that Mr. Recorder, Mr. Aldran Clitherowe, Mr. Aldran Fen and 
S' Morrice Abbott Knight and Aldrfm and Mr. Stone or any three or more 
of them shall peruse the said Chre and ordinances confirmed to the said 
Clockmakers, and examine how and in what manner the same were procured 
and take consideracon thereof as alsoe what is fitt to be done for releife of 
the peticoners in what they have desired as aforesaid, And certifie unto this 
Court in writing under their hands how they finde the same and their 
opinions." ^ 

Before the Committee had made a Report, a second 
Petition from the Blacksmiths was presented, and permission 
was given them to put in suit the recognizances of such 
Clockmakers as had become free in other Companies. At a 
subsequent Court of Aldermen, held two days afterwards, 
a counter-petition was submitted by the Clockmakers, in 
which reference is made to the fact, that some of the trade 
(probably after the negociations of 1628 with the Blacksmiths 

' Entry among receipts and payments, 

27 Nov, 1632. Spente at Guildhall about y<^ Clockmakers 220 

IS Jan. 1632-3. Spent at Guildhall about y= Clockmakers 1 o o 

' Extract from Minute Book of Blacksmiths' Company. Vol. V. 

i Repertory 47, fol. gS^- 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 53 

had fallen through) had become Members of the Woodmongers' 
Company, and the Court of Aldermen thereupon withdrew 
their sanction to the Blacksmiths to commence hostile pro- 
ceedings pending the report of the Committee. 

** 1632-3. 8th Charles I. February 26. Raynton Mayor. Item : 
this day upon the humble peticon of the Wardens and Assistants 
of the Company of Blacksmithes London It is thought fitt and soe 
ordered by this Court that Mr. Recorder, Sir Robert Ducie Knight and 
Baronett Sir George Whitmore Knight and Aldran Mr. Aldraii Freeman 
Mr. Aldran Clitherowe Mr. Aldran Fen Sir Morris Abbott Knight and 
Aldran and Mr. Stone or any five or more of them shall j^use and consider 
of the Chre of late obteyned by the Clockmakers and of their ordinances, 
as also of the first draught of the said Chre allowed by some of the said 
Comittes who formerly certified their opinions unto this Court touching 
the same, And examine whether any alteracon or addicon hath bine made 
thereunto since it was pused and allowed of by the said former Comittees 
and what prejudice is thereby likely to happen unto the said peticoners, 
And consider what is fitt to be done for their reliefe, And the said Comittees 
to certifie unto this Court in writing under their hands how they finde the 
same and their doings and opinions. And this Court doth give libty unto 
the said peticoners to put in suite the Recognizances of such Clockmakers 
by trade as are not free of the Blacksmithes but have obteyned their free- 
dome of this City by redempcon of other Companys." ' 

''1632-3, 8th Charles I. February 28. Raynton Mayor. Item : 
this day upon the humble Peticon of the Company of Clockmakers 
London it is ordered by this Court that the Company of Blacksmithes shall 
forbeare to put in suite the Recognizances of such Clockmakers by trade 
as are free of the Company of Woodmongers untill the Comittees lately 
appoynted by this Court to heare the differences betweene the said Company 
of Blacksmithes and Company of Clockmakers have made Certificate unto 
this Court of their pceedings and opinions touching the same. And soe as the 
said Clockmakers doe }?nte unto the said Comittees the first draught of their 
Chre wch is now in question betweene them and the Blacksmithes." - 

The Records of the Court of Aldermen do not contain 
any evidence that the subject was further pursued before 
them by the Blacksmiths, but from the following entries 
taken from their Records, it will be seen that they took 
proceedings in the Exchequer Court against several Mem- 
bers of the Clockmakers' Company — Drake, Archer and 
others. 

"At a Court of Assistants of the Blacksmiths' Company held on the loth 
October, 1633. 

« Repertory 47, fol, I38''- - Repertoiy 47, fol. 142*^- 



c^. TIIL CLOCK.MAKKRS' COMPANY. 

" This dale it is ordered that ye Clockmakers shalbe forthwith pceeded 
against in the Excheciuer and that the Clerk shall take care in the followinge 
and psecucon thereof. ' 

"Book of receipts and payments of the Blacksmiths' Company, 1631 
to 1633:— 

" Paid to Mr. Mosse for his advise to goe unto the 
Court of Aldermen about our petition to disin- 

franchise 3 Clockmakers x^ 

" Paid Mr. Mosse and Mr. Clarke for going unto ye 

Court about ye same vj' ^iij'' 

" Paid Mr. Clarke in y"' suite against ye Clockmakers 

Archer, and Drake xl\f vj'' 

'• Paid Mr. Tovie his fee in ye Chequer . . . iij' iiij'' 

••Paid Mr. Stone his fee xx'- 

• Paid Mr. Stone more xx' 

• Paid Mr. Mosse for his paines thereon . . . xx"" 
■• Paid to Mr. Clarke for his paines .... iij' iiij'' 
•• Paid to Mr. Lentall his fee x' 

•• 1633—1635 

" Received of the Clockmakers for a composition in 

Drake's business ..... vj'' 

•• Paid to Mr. Recorder his fee against ye Clockmakers 

touching Drake's suite ..... xP 

" To I\Ir. Marsh the Cities Solicitor for his paines in 

going to Mr. Attorney General and Mr. Recorder x' 

" To Mr. Attorney General for his fee in that suite . xP 

" Paid the Clarke for his paines in John Drake's suite 

and against the Clockmakers upon ye Committee xlvij^ ij'' 

" Spent in attending Mr. Attorney General and Mr. 

Recorder about Drake's business . . . vj^ viij'' 

" 1633. November 5. This daie att a full Court itt was agreed that if 
the Clockmakers would give ;^6 and a supper they spendinge xx^ more att 
the supper than our Company, that then a peace shall be concluded for 
John Drake suite. 

"That the 14 of November the Clockmakers did agree to give us a 
supper, touchinge Drake business and Drake paid ^vj which is afterwards 
accounted in the Wardens accompt as by the next accompt daie appeareth."- 

' 1633. October 17. 

Spente att seveiall dales (upon the Clockmakers' business) cVc. ^'2 i6 10 
Paid to Mr. Attorney his fee about the Clockmakers . .200 

2 Extracts from Minute Book of Blacksmiths' Company. Vol. V. 

1633-4. January 23. Account brought in by Mr. Warden Murron. 

Spent att a supper with the Clockmakers at the ending of 

Jo. Drake business ....... /^2 3 5 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



o:) 



In the year 1635 the Clockmakers again addressed 
themselves to the Court of Aldermen, and after reciting 
their Charter, they set out the difficulties under which they 
laboured, being freemen of other Companies, and they 
sought permission to bind their Apprentices to themselves, 
not through the intervention of the Companies of which they 
were free, but through the new Company of Clockmakers of 
which they were members. 

The Court thereupon referred the application to a Com- 
mittee for consideration. 

"1635. nth Charles I. October 22. Parkhurst Maior. Iteim : This 
day the Maister Wardens and Society of the Clockmakers in and about this 
Citty p'ferred unto this Court their humble peticon thereby intymating that it 
hath pleased his Ma'^ to incorporate the said peticoners thereby to inhable 
them the better to search and governe the workemen and workemanshipp 
belonging to the Arte of Clockmakers within this Citty and places 
adioyning and to jPvent and reforme the abuses therein comitted the which 
they are not hable to doe in regard that (they) are not free of the corporacon 
of Clockmakers and therefore humbly desired being free of this Citty of 
di^■erse Companyes who have noe relacon to their said trade that they may 
have liberty to binde their Apprentices to themselves as Citizens and Clock- 
makers of London and at th' end of their termes they may bee made free of 
this Citty the peticoners being willing to remayne unto the severall Companyes 
whereof they are now free and to pay their quarteridge during their lives 
upon consideracon whereof it is thought fitt and soe ordered by this Court 
that Sir Thomas Mowlson Knight & Aldran Mr. Aldran Bromfeild Mr. Aldran 
Garoway Sir William Acton Knight and Baronett Mr. Aldran Andrewes 
Mr. Aldran Gurney Mr. Shereife Gayre or any three or more of them and 
Mr. Greene and Mr. Pheasaunt shall take due consideracon of the peticoners 
said peticon and certifie unto this Court in writing under their hands how 
they finde the same and their doings and opinions." ' 

The subject was some time under the consideration of 
the Committee, who in December of the following year, 1636, 
presented a Report in which the)- recapitulated the several 
proceedings taken to establish the Clockmakers in accordance 
with the custom of the City ; and recommended that their 
petition should be complied with, and that such of them as 
were willing to be translated from other Companies of which 
they were free, might, with the consent of such bodies, 
be admitted to Citizenship as Clockmakers, and that such as 
could not get the assent of their Companies to their trans- 
lation, should nevertheless cause their Apprentices, using the 



Repertory 49, fol. 345. 



^6 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

trade of Clockmaking. to be bound to a Freeman of that 
Craft, and at the end of their Apprenticeship to be admitted 
Citizens and Clockmakers. 

' " 1636. nth Charles I. December i. Bromfeild Maior. Item : This 
day was op^-nly read heere in Court a report in writing under the hands of 
Mr. Recorder, Edward Bromfeild now Lord Maior, Richard ffen, Henry 
Andrewes, and John Gayre Aldren and Mr. Greene ; and Mr. Pheasant the 
tenor whereof is as followeth vizt. : — 

" To the right hono''''' the Lord Maior of the Citty of London and to the 
right Worshipfull the Aldren of the same. 

" According to an order of this hono^'*^ Court of the nynteenth day of 
November last. Wee whose names are subscribed have taken consideracon 
of the matters thereby referred unto us concerning the Watchmakers and 
Clockmakers in and about London beeing Freemen of the said Citty, who 
doe desire that by the favour of this hono'''^ Court, they may bee intituled 
and called by the name of Cittizens and Clockmakers of London and that 
they may bind theire App'ntices unto them and make them free by that name. 
And haveing called the Company of Blacksmiths before us who opposed them 
in their said desire and haveing heard them and their Councell sev^all tj^mes 
wee find that his Mai'^ • in his tender care and respect to the Citty and the 
Goverment thereof was graciouslye pleased before he would incorporate the 
said Clockmakers to require" a Certificate from this Court concerning the same. 
And wee alsoe find that after consideracon had and taken thereof by 
Sir Henneage ffinch kt. then Recorder and diverse Aldermen Committees 
appointed for that purpose, who found the same fitt to be granted, and Certifi- 
cate thereof by them piade unto this Court a report was made unto his 
Ma"" by this bono'''"-' Court that they had taken consideracon of the petition 
and reasons of the Clockmakers and of the draught of a Charter desired by 
them which had bin perused by the said Recorder and did conceave that the 
incorporating of them would not bee piudiciall to any other Corporacon or 
gov'ment then established. But they did think it a likely meanes to incourage 
them in their trade and increase their number of good and sufficient workemen, 
and reforme abuses w"^'' did and might happen for want of gov^ment. And 
wee alsoe find that the said Sir Henneage ffinch beeing required by the right 
hono''''= the Lord Keeper did certify that the clause for the binding of Appren- 
tices to some free brother of the Company was very fitt to bee inserted into the 
Charter and noe inconvenience to other Companies of the Citty. And 
thereupon his Ma"^ was pleased to incorporate the said Clockmakers by the 
name of Mr. Wardens and ffellowship of the Art or Mistery of Clockmaking 
of the Citty of London, and that they should have succession for the con- 
tinuance of their said Corporacon for ev^ And for that purpose they are 
thereby authorized to bind Apprentices to themselves, whereby in tyme they 
may beecome an able body without the disturbance of any other Society or 
Gov^ment and alsoe to make lawes and ordinances for the better rule and 
Gov'ment of the said Clockmakers. And after mature and deliberate con- 
sideracon there upon had and taken in regard it appeares that the Corporacon 
was obtayned upon the Certificate of this Court, and upon such consideracon 
had as aforesaid. Wee doe therefore think fitt that such psons as use the Art 



' Repertory 51, fol. 18'' 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 57 

of making Watches and Chamber Clocks beeing freemen of this Citty who 
are willing to bee translated and can proove the consent of the Company 
whereof they are free to give way thereunto shall forthwith be translated from 
the sev^all Companies whereof they are free mito the said Society of Clock- 
makers in such manner as in translations is used within this Citty. And 
further wee think fitt that such persons as shall use the Art of making Watches 
and Chamber Clocks and will not bee translated to the said Society of 
Clockmakers or cannot p'cure the Company whereof they are free to give 
their consent thereunto shall not withstanding bee enjoyned to bind their 
Apprentices to some freemen of the said Society of Clockmakers of London 
by the names of Cittizens and Clockmakers. And soe having serv-ed their 
Tearmes according to the custome to be made free of the said Society of 
Clockmakers. And wee think fitt that the Chamberlaine of this Citty shall 
soe receave and inrolle them and admitt them into the freedome of this Citty 
by that name and title when they are to be made free. And that he bee 
directed and ordered by this Court to take notice thereof and doe accordingly. 
All which notwithstanding wee humbly submitt to the grave judgement of this 
hono'''*' Court. This 16 day pf June 1636. 

"Thomas Gardiner, Recorder. 
"JohnGayre. " Edw Bromfeild. 

" John Greene. "Rich Fenn. 

" Peter Pheasant. " Hen Andrews. 

" The which report was allowed of by this Court and ordered to be entered 
into the Repertory and to bee accordingly j^formed." 

The Blacksmiths' Company lost no opportunity of 
opposing the Company of Clockmakers as well as the in- 
dividual Members. The accompanying Extracts abundantly 
show the steps taken Counsel being retained to urge their 
claims before the Committee and to prosecute offending 
Members. 

"1635— 1637. 

' "Paid Mr. Mosse to move the Court of Aldermen 

about the Clockmakers ..... v' 

" Paid Mr. Stone his fee twice when the Committees 

sate about the Clockmakers .... xx' 

" Paid Mr. Mosse his fee about the Clockmakers . v'' 

" Spent when we went to the Comityes about the 

Clockmakers ....... ij^ vj'' 

" Spent when we went to Mr. Mosse about ye 

Clockmakers ....... iiij^ vj' 

" Spent when we went to the Court of Aldermen . viij*^ j'' 

" Spent when the Comityes sate about ye Clockmakers vij* iiij'' " 

' The Receipts and Payments Account Rook of the Bl.icksmiths' Company, 1625 to 1646. 



58 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

At a meeting of the Court of Assistants of the Black- 
smiths' Compan)- on February 8, 1637, the following resolution 
was passed : — - 

■ " It is ordered that some course shall be taken to disfranchise Humfrey 
Downinge a Clockmnker being inrolled and bound to Mr. Grinkin yet havinge 
ohtayned his freedome by patrimony of the Barbar Surgeons." 

" 1638. 9th May. Court of Company. Audit: 

" Spente the 6th of March in goinge to the Courte 
of Aldrcn about disfranchinge Downinge the 
Clockmaker 3' o'' 

" Spente the 1 3 March upon the same occasion . -33 

" 1638. 19th of July. 

" Spente att a Meetinge the 24 May aboute the 

Clockmakers att my Lord Maiors . . . 37 

"Spente the 13th of June in goinge to my Lord 

Maiors about the Clockmakers . . . . 18 

" 1638. July 19. 

" This daie it is ordered that our ^L^ster and Wardens 
shall take advice to sue Child the Clockmaker in 
the spiritual court for breach of his oath and shall 
do therein accordinge as they shalbe advised. 

"Spent the third of July in goinge to my Lord 
Maiors with Child when wee served warrant 
on him ........ 2 5 

" Spent att Guildhall the loth of July in going to the 

Court of Aldreii about Child . . . .21 

" Paid my Lord Maior's officer for carryinge Child 

to the Compter ....... 2 6 

"Spent on Thursday the nth day of July in goinge 

to Guildhall about the Clockmakers . , -55 
"Spent this 19th of July 1638, in goinge to Guild- 
hall about Childc . . . . . .50 

" 1638. 

" .\ccounts from the 9th of May to the 19th of July 1638. 

" For copy of the Clockmakers' reporte of the 

Aldreii 34 

" For the order and fee to Mr. Clarke touching 

Child the Clockmaker before my Lord Maior . 5 o 
" For a Warrant for him 10 

" For my attendance [The Clerk] about Child many 
tymes att my Lord Maiors and Court of Aldreii 
. and Meetinge att the hall sjjcciall about the 
Companies business . . . . . .150" 



' Journal V of the Blacksmiths' Company. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 59 

The powers conferred by the Charter and Bye-Laws 
were soon found In practice to be insufficient to prevent the 
abuses practised by unskilful workmen and unscrupulous mas- 
ters, and the Court of Assistants long debated the propriety 
of applying to the Legislature for an Act of Parliament con- 
firming the Charter and conferring increased powers on the 
Company, but the expenses attendant upon such a proceeding 
appear to have deterred them. In 1646 an attempt was made 
to get over the difficulty by raising a subscription among the 
Members for that purpose, but it failed. 

" 1646. October 12. This day Mr. Wansey said in open Court that 
when the Charter was confirmed by Parliament, he would give the Company 
^10 there being present in Court Simon Hackett, Mr. Thomas Alcock and 
Onesipherus Holden, Wardens, Sampson Shelton, John Willow, John Harris, 
John Smith, Symon Eartram, David Bouquet, Robert Cordwell and John 
Nicasius." ' 

On the 14th September, 1652, the House of Commons 
passed the following order, viz. : — 

" ' Ordered that it be referred to the Committee for Corporations to take 
into consideration how Corporations may be settled as may be suitable to and 
agreeable with the Government of a Commonwealth and how their respective 
Charters may be altered and renewed to be held from and under the authority 
of this Commonwealth.' " = 

The Company subsequently received a letter directing 
them to submit their Charter for inspection. The letter, 
together with the proceedings which thereupon ensued, are 
detailed In the following documents : — 

^ " Gentlemen, — The Committee for Corporations having taken into 
their consideration an Order of Parliament of the fourteenth of September 
1652, touching the alteration and renewing of the several and respective 
Charters of this Nation, and upon serious debate had thereon (judging it most 
agreable with, and suitable to, the Government of a Commonwealth, that 
they be held from and under the authority of the same) commanded me to 
signify unto you their pleasure therein (viz') that in pursuance of the said 
order of Parliament, you fail not to bring or cause to be brought unto the said 
Committee upon the fourth day of January next at two of the clock in the 
afternoon (sitting in the Queen's Court in Westminster) the Charter or 
Charters by which you are incorporated, this being all I have in command 

" I remain, Gentlemen, 

" Your friend and Servant, 
" Queen's Court, Westminster, " Daniel Blaorave. 

" ]!)ecember 21st, 1652." 

' Company's Journal I. = Journals of the House of Commons. 

3 Original Letters, No. 2. 

1- 



6o THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

"By the Comitee for Corporations, January 4th, 1652. Ordered 
that ye Charter of the Company of Clockmakers this day brought unto this 
Coinittee bee referred to John Farwell Esq. Councell to this Comittee in 
behaUe of the CoiVionwealth, who is desired to \)cn\se the same, and give 
this Comittee an accompt of the heads thereof. ' 

" Da. Blagrave 
" Hum. Edwards 

" GiLBT. MiLLINGTON 

"A tnie coppy examined by " J. Danvers 

Sam"- Neales Clerk to ye s'' Comittee " Is. Penington => 

"By the CoiTiittee for Corporations, January 27th 1652. Upon 
Report made by John Farwell Esq. Councell unto this Comittee in behalfe 
of the Comonwealth that he hath in his hands a true coppy of the originall 
Charter by which the Company of Clockmakers are incorporated, it is ordered 
that the said Mr. Farwell do deliver unto the Master and Wardens of the said 
Company their originall Charter back againe, they giveing him a receipt for 
the same. ^ 

" Da. Blagrave 
" AViLLM. Allenson 
"Wm. Purefoy 
'•A true coppy examined by " Wm. Steveningham 

Sam"" Neale Clerk to ye said Comittee " Hum. Edwards." 

In 1656 a serious difference of opinion arose between the 
Freemen of the Company and the Court of Assistants as to 
the manner in which the latter carried out the powers granted 
by the Charter and Bye- Laws which led to great dissatisfaction 
among the Apprentices and Workmen, and at last found its 
expression in a petition to the Lord Mayor, of which the 
following is a copy : — 

" To the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of the Citty of London. 

" The humble peticon of several Freemen of the Company of Clockmakers. 

" Sheweth, — That having obteyned a Charter of the late King about 25 
yeares since for the better improving and regulating of the same trade and that 
the nation might not be abused with unserviceable worke, and the members 
of it live honestly by their calling, which reformaron we have for many years 
patiently expected, but notwithstandinge many complaints both public and 
l^riN-ate wee finde ourselves now in a worse condiciin then ever we were before 
the Charter was granted, for then such as were agrieved sought their remedy 
by the law of the land and ye customs of this Citty, but since the power 
hath bin in the Courte of Assistants all manner of evils have flowed in upon 

' Original Documents No. 3. 

» He was a Member of the Fishmongers' Company, and \\ as elected Alderman of Bridge 
Ward Without 29th January, 1638. .Served the office of Sheriff in 1638, and the office of 
Lord Mayor in 1641-42. He was one of the Commissioners who sal upon the trial of King 
Charles the first, for which he was condemned to death at the Restoration, but was not exe- 
cuted. He was imprisoned in the Tower, where he died 17th Decemlier, 166 1. 

3 Original Documents No. 4. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 6 1 

us, as may appear by theis particulars. First, whereas, considering the 
exacting of xii''- per quarter besides money from each member and many dona- 
tions at admissions some place might have bin purchased, where we might 
have mett in an orderly and decent manner, we have bin constantly sumoned 
to Taverns and Ale houses and such disorderly places to ye great desparage- 
ment of ye Company. 

"Whereas the Charter was in especiall manner procured for ye restraint 
of strangers and foreigners, they have not only countenanced and abetted them 
but entertayned for many years in their own houses although never soe often 
complained of to the great trouble and hindrance of the Freemen, and not 
only so but have frequently bound Apprentices to Freemen for foreigners and 
strangers and with them they have served their whole time, and then the 
Court of Assistants by their Warden presents them to the Chamberlaine and soe 
they become Freemen, as if they had served their whole time with Freemen, by 
which the Citty is abused and the Company prejudiced nor can wee reasonably 
expect reliefe while Frenchmen who are foreigners are admitted to rule the 
Freemen, yea they have lately endeavoured to bring in another Frenchman to 
their Assistants who was no wayes capable to judge of our Art and to effect 
this, they privately in an evening sumoned a Taverne Court or a Court at a 
Taverne, such Government being suitable to such place. 

" Whereas there is an Order, which hath bin often renewed, for restraining 
the multiplicity of Apprentices, they have yet contrary to the said Order 
permitted Apprentices to be multiplied whereby the Trade is almost ruined. 

" And that these abuses might be without remedy, when from time to time 
complaints have bin made by severall of ye Company, as if they were con- 
scious of their guilt, instead of reforming they have presently taken into ye 
Assistants the most active of such complayners and soe ye complainte ceased. 
Now the unreasonableness of such practises hath bin so evident that several 
of our Apprentices having observed it, and fearing that the end of their services 
would be the beginning of beggary, they made their address to the late Lord 
Mayor for reliefe, and being sensible of the reasonablenes of their demands 
have since taken it into our own hands and did then acquaint his honour 
how the case stood, whereupon the Master and Wardens being warned to 
appear before his honour they chose to invite us to meet them at ye Rose 
Tavern that if possible there might be an accofiiodacon, where being mett they 
tould us, as they had done many yeares before, that they were resolved to reforme 
the abuses wee complained of, but wee being wearied out with such promises 
and no performance we had no ground to believe them. Several expedients 
were propounded and at last it was agreed that for our better security two of 
our number should attend every Court to see the execucon of these Orders, 
and as it was then also agreed, there should bee delivered to the said two sub- 
joined officers a Register of all the Masters and Apprentices, all which was 
after confirmed at a full Quarter Court, and accordingly the same subjoined 
Officers did meet and act with them several Courte Dayes in the execucon of 
the said Orders, though with their great regrett as appeared by their reproaching 
them that the Company needed noe Supervisors and asking them what they 
came for, and when they saw all this would not beate them from their duty, and 
that we would noe longer accept of dead orders without execucon, they then 
at a Court held at the Rose Tavern declared the said Orders null, and that 
y'= sub-ofificers should noe more bee suinoned to attend at their Courts. 

F 2 



62 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" And whereas it was agreed by them lately that if we would bring in a 
list of those foreigners and strangers by whom we were agrieved they would 
ioine with us in the prosecuting of them, when at a Court we since presented 
them with a list, they asked us if wee would have them tear out the bowells of 
yeCompanie, soe deare are those strangers and foreigners to them, and bad us 
seek our remedy ourselves. 

" All which promises considered and your peticoners observing a more 
then ordinar)- readiness in your Lordship to reform abuses wee are encoraged 
to beseech and implore your honour's assistance and power for our relief. 
'• Signed by Thomas Loomes 

" Ahasuerus Fromantei.l and 31 other Members." 

A counter petition was also presented to the Lord Mayor 
from some other Freemen of the Company denying^ the fore- 
going allegations and stating that several who had signed that 
Petition were not even Members of the Company, and further 
praying his Lordship not to allow this false clamour to injure 
the best interests of the Company. 

" To the Right Honourable the Lord Maior of the Cittie of London. 

" The humble peticon of the Freemen and Clockmakers of the Citty 
of London. 

" Humbly Sheweth, — That whereas your Petitioners are given to 
understand that severall peticons have been lately presented to your Honour 
by divers persons who style themselves by the name and title of the Company 
of Clockmakers of London, whereas indeed some of them are not members 
of the said Company and many of them most guilty of the grievances 
complained of by them in the said peticons. 

"And Whereas there was a meeting the 8th of this instant September by 
the Maister and ^^■ardens of the said Company divers of the said grevances were 
presented, and your former petitioners found all readiness and willingness in 
the said ^Iaister, Wardens and Assistants to the utmost of their power to redresse 
the same. But notwithstanding all their endeavours in order to a reconciliation 
nothing would content or satisfy them, but pressed to have the eleccon of Maister, 
Wardens and Assistants amongst themselves, or soe many of them to be joyned 
to the Assistants as might equalize them in number, which is contrary to the true 
intent and meaning of the Charter and thereby would make a final distruccon 
of the whole Company. 

" Your Petitioners therefore humbly beseech your Honour that the Cor- 
poracon and Government of the said Company may continue as now it doth, 
and that no obstruccons or disadvantages may happen to the said Company 
by any such false clamours and pretences, and that your peticoners may find 
all lawful! favour for the suppression of the said disorders. 

" And your Petitioners shall pray &c. 

" Thomas Taylor " Jerimie Gregory 

" Edmond Grinkin " Edward Hollidaie 

" Jeremie East " Francis Mathew 

" Evan Jones " William Clay 

" Uavid Moodie " Robert Robinson 

" Henry Erbery "John Cooke 

" Ambrose Blisse ** Isaack Daniell." 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 63 

The Company appear to have submitted an answer to the 
Lord Mayor in which they gave a general denial to the com- 
plaints alleged, especially as to strangers ruling the Company, 
except one who was a principal man in procuring the Charter 
in which his name was inserted. 

The intervention of the Lord Mayor does not appear to 
have brought matters to a peaceable solution, as is shewn 
by the following supplementary Petition of some of the 
Freemen : — 

' " To the Right Honourable the Lord Maior of the Citty of London. 

" The humble petition of [the several Freemen of] the Company of 
Clockmakers. 

"Sheweth, — That your Petitioners having formerly made their addresse 
to your Lordship for redresse of their greevances we thought it our duty to 
give your Lordship this further accompt that your Lordship may understand 
our moderation and readines to compose our differences in an orderly way, 
wee desire your Lordship to take notice that according to an agreement 
between us since our being with your Lordship wee gave a meeting to the 
Court of Assistants and wee did then deliver to them in writing some of our 
principall greivances, which they having examined and also abundantly 
acknowledged to be true, they desired us to propose a remedy, which we then 
also gave them in writing, which according to our understanding they might 
justly grant as an effectual remedy to our grevances. 

" The Copies of both which writings are hereunto annexed, and when 
upon their refusall wee saw no hopes of a right understanding or composure of 
our differences, wee then propounded that the matters in debate might be 
referred to the determination of your Lordship and the honourable Court of 
Aldermen, to whose wisdome and censure we still desire to refer ourselves, but all 
our tenders were with much scorne rejected so that we are againe necessitated 
to cast ourselves againe upon your Lordship for direction and assistance herein. 
My Lord we doe humbly beseech your Lordship to compassionate the 
grievances of a poor expiring Society. If our demands were the sence of a 
factious parte wee should not dare to approach to your Honour, but both the 
greevances and the remedy wee have proposed being the joint sence of the 
, whole Company being a greate number of Artists made poore by these 
grievances wee thought our desires to your Honour might be the more 
considerable. 

" Samuel Vernon 

*' William Godbud " Thomas Claxton 

** Launcellott Meredith " Ahasuerus Fromanteel 

" John Mattchett " John Drake 

" Thomas Daniell " William Comfort. 



■ Original Documents. No. 12. 



64 'I'lIK CLUCKMAKliRS COMrANV. 

"8 September 1656. 

' " Wco the Company of Clockmakers doe present our Agrievances in 
gcnerall 

*' I. Imprimis for allowing fforiners to worke & trade w"'in ye citty and 
y'= Liberties thereof. 

" 2. For ye number of Prentices sufferd to be bound by your orders 
contrary to ye Ciiarter. 

" 3. For making free prentices w"'out their proofe 4,)fecte. 

" 4. For making men free turnd-over to fforiners and strangers. 

*' 5. For presenting men to be made free of y" City w"'out satisfying 
y" Company. 

" 6. For not being diligent in their searches. 

*'8th September, 1656. 

- " To the end that we may for the time to come enjoy the benefit of 
our Charter we make these proposals (viz.) 

" Imprimis, that an order be made that for time to come such as are 
admitted to be members of the Company, should have their voyce in chusing 
of Master, Wardens and Assistants, and to the end that it might be done 
orderly wee desire to make choice of so many and no more as are in the Court 
of Assistants and they jointly to have their vote with the Court of Assistants 
in the choice of their Officers from time to time as often as there shall be 
need of chusing of Officers for the Company, for as wee are all the freedome 
we have is to make our Complaints to the Court of Assistants and wee find 
them so generally disaffected to the publick good and so troubled at our 
proceedings that wee have rather cause to feare that some order or other will 
be made to crosse us, and so wee lesse able to relieve ourselves in time to 
come. 

" 2. And therefore our next proposition is that the Master and Wardens 
and Assistants doe governe the Company according to the orders in being, and 
that no alteration be made by making new orders without the consent of such 
who shall have power to chuse the Officers of the Company. 

" 3. And if you are free to these propositions wee shall not desire to lay 
open our greevances imto the magistrate any farther, but shall endeavour to 
the best of our abillities both in purse and person to assist you to recover the 
Company out of that confusion wherein wee are brought." 

What steps, if any, were taken by the Court to satisfy 
the Complainants, whose chief object appears to have been to 
obtain a voice and authority in the government of the Com- 
pany, which belonged to the former, and the concession 
whereof would have been in contravention of the Charter, 
does not appear, and for several years afterwards no further 
reference to such matters is contained amongst the Records. 

' Original Documents, No. 6. - Original Documents, No. 7. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 65 

In the year 1677 the abuses in the trade became so great 
and patent that the attention of the Court of Assistants was 
again directed to the question how best to deal with them. 
Several plans were proposed and examined, and after con- 
siderable debate a Committee was on the 23rd of August in 
that year appointed to advise the Court thereon, and the 
terms of the reference as entered in the Minute Book are as 
follow: — 

" Whereas there hath been and is some doubt made of the sufficiency of 
the authority and power which the Company hath and a suspect that there 
needeth some further and better power in some especiall cases for the better 
government of the Members thereof, and for their proficiency in the Art and 
performance of workes and matters relating thereto, and especially that such 
deceipts or abuses as might otherwise be put upon his Majesties subjects may 
be prevented for the future. This Court for these ends did desire and appoint 
that the Master and Wardens and these five Assistants, namely, Mr. Home, 
Mr. Bell, Mr. Barrow, Mr. Wynn, and Mr. Jones, or any four, should be a 
Committee to peruse the Charter and Ordinances of the Company and 
consult and consider all things conducing or relating to those ends, and if 
need shall be to cause a breviate to be drawne by the Clarke fitt to be perused 
by such Councell as they shall thinke fitt to apply themselves to and receive 
their opinion and advice in the case and to report." ' 

On the 4th of September, 1677, Mr. Coxeter, Mr. 
Nicasius and Mr. Taylor, of Holborn, were added to the 
Committee. 

On the 17th September, 1677, the Charter and Ordinances 
having been abbreviated, and a Case prepared for Counsel's 
opinion, it was ordered that Mr. Serjeant Pemberton be waited 
upon and his^ opinion obtained. 

In 1680 the subject was again brought under the notice 
of the Court of Assistants, and their Minutes bear evidence 
of their anxiety to obtain some satisfactory settlement of the 
difficulty. 

3 At a Court held on the 21st February, 1677-8, a con- 
sultation was had as to the desirability of obtaining an Act of 
Parliament for strengthening the Company's Charter and 
Ordinances, and for additional or enlargement of power where 
wanting. It was resolved that Mr. Richard Antrobus should 
be consulted as to the matter, and that the Court should meet 



Company's Journal I. = Fee to be paid Two Guineas. 

3 Company's Journal I. 



66 THE CLOCK.MAKERS COMPANY. 

at the White Hart Tavern, Lothbury, on the 4th of March, 
then following, for that purpose. 

\_No entry is to be found of the results of this action]. 

' "16S0. Mays- Upon consideration that there are many refractory 
and unconformable Members of this Company and divers who exercise the 
Art or some branch of it and do not come into the Company or conform to 
the search, rule, and government thereof, and many irregularities inconve- 
niences and abuses are grown in and put upon the Company and the Art. It 
was thought fit, resolved and ordered That 

•• The Master and Wardens " Mr. Thomas Taylor (Holborne) 

" Mr. Jeremie Gregory " Mr. John Harris 

" Mr. John Browne " Mr. Nathaniel Barrow 

" Mr. Richard Jarratt ." Mr. Henry Wynn 

" Mr. Edward Norris and 

" Mr. Thomas Hancome " Mr. Henry Jones 

or any five of these before named ten Assistants with the Master and Wardens, 
or the Master and one Warden, or in the absence of the Master two of the 
Wardens, shall be and are a Committee to continue for three months to be 
accounted from this day, to meet from time to time, at such time and place 
as the Master shall think fit and appoint and to consider consult and resolve 
upon the wayes and meanes of bringing those refractory Members of the 
Company and others exerciseing the Art to conformity, and for reformation and 
future prevention of those or the like irregularities inconveniences and abuses, 
which are grown and put, or may grow and be put upon the Company, and the 
Art and for punishment of the Offenders. And that the said Committee shall 
from time to time acquaint the Court with their proceedings therein." 

The Committee thus appointed met from time to time, 
and from their proceedings entered in the Court Minute books 
the following Extracts have been taken : — 

"1680. May 21. The said Committee Resolved to acquaint the next 
Monthly Court That they conceive it fit and needful 

" I. That the Company's Charter shall be publicly read to the Master 
Wardens and Assistants at the next Quarter Court. 

" 2. That the Ordinances of the Company shall be perused and those 
put in due execution that are for the good of the Company. 

*' 3. That the Members of the Committee shall at the next Court give in 
their opinions what are the reasons of the decay of the trade. 

"4. And that Mr. Hartley, Sword Cutler, living in New Street near Shoe 
Lane, who maketh pin cases and tradeth in Watches and Clocks, not having 
served seven years to the Trade, and such others as at the next Monthly Court 
shall be thought fit and appointed, shall be summoned by a particular Sum- 
mons to appear at the next Quarter Court. 

' Company's Journal I. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 67 

"1680, May 24. The Committee Resolved to acquaint the next 
Monthly Court that they conceived it fit and needful 

" I. That the Clerk write a copy of the Ordinance of the Company of 
Blacksmiths, which is ingrossed in the Book of Ordinances of this Company 
giving allowance, That those free of the Blacksmiths and professing Clock- 
making (not being great Church Clockmakers of Iron) may bind their Appren- 
tices to some free Clockmaker to the intent that some of the Committee may 
(as they are intended) discourse the Master of that Company and endeavour 
to have the full consent of that Company for the performance thereof for the 
future." 

On the 7th June, 1680, the Reports of the Committee 
were submitted to the Court, who selected a certain number 
of persons, carrying on the trade in Watches, Clocks, &c., to 
be summoned to attend at the next Quarter Court, some of 
whose names appear at the next Meeting as having been 
admitted to the Freedom. 

For more convenient reference, and to facilitate the 
business of the Company by affording its Members a better 
knowledge of its powers, rights, and privileges, a Committee 
was appointed in the year 1722 to digest the Charter and 
Ordinances, and suitably arrange the several provisions 
thereof under proper heads : — 

** 1722. February 4. Whereas the severall points contained in the 
Companies Charter and book of Ordinances have not as yett been putt into 
any regular method, and the severall orders and constitutions since made from 
time to time by the said Company are only entered in the books of the 
Company in order of time as they were made, whereby the search for any one 
single point is rendered difficult and troublesome. To remedy which it is this 
day ordered that the Master and Wardens or any three of them, whereof 
the Master to be one, be appointed a Committee to examine Charter and 
Ordinances, and all the severall orders since made, and digest them under 
proper heads for the more ready turning to the same, and report their pro- 
ceedings to the next Quarter Court with what they shall think further needful! 
to compleat the end proposed, and the said Committee are hereby empowered 
to defray the necessary expences of their proceedings out of the Companies 
stock." ' 

In order that the Charter might be better understood by 
all, it was on the 4th November, 1765, determined that the 
Clerk should in future read it, immediately after dinner at the 
Christmas Quarter Court. 

On the 2nd of December following the Bye- Laws were 
ordered to be advertised in the Gazette on the Saturday 
before Christmas Day, and in the Daily Advertizer and 

■ Company's Journal III. 



68 IHK CLUCKMAKKKS COMPANY. 

Gazetteer on the Tuesday before Christmas Da)', and in the 
Public Ledger on the 5th or 6th of January following. ' 

Hy their Charter the Company was authorised to consist 
of Members using- the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, 
whether freemen of London or otherwise, within ten miles of 
the City, and to make laws and ordinances for the good rule 
and government of all persons using the trade within those 
limits, or within the realm of England or dominion of Wales, 
but doubts appear to have arisen as to their authority to 
enforce some of their powers, notably those for compelling 
the trade outside the City to become Freemen of the Com- 
pany or to pay Quarterage, and accordingly the Court on the 
2nd November, i 795, determined to obtain legal advice thereon, 
and appointed a Committee to consult a Solicitor, Mr. King, 
of Cutlers' Hall, being selected for that purpose. The Com- 
mittee, whose proceedings are duly recorded in the Minutes, 
determined to obtain the opinion of Mr. Serjeant Adair 
(afterwards Recorder of London), and on the ist February, 
I 796, they duly presented their Report, which was taken into 
consideration by the Court on the nth of the same month, 
and the Report, together with the proceedings of the Court 
thereon, are contained in the following Extract : — 

" 1 796. February 1 1. The Master declared the purpose of the Meeting, 
agreable to the order of the last Monthly Court, when a motion was made 

" That the report of the Committee be now read, which being seconded 
and carried the report was accordingly read, and is as follows, viz. 

"The report of the Committee appointed by the Court of Assistants of 
the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers of the City of London, pursuant to 
a resolution made by the said Court on the 2nd day of November 1795, 
whereby it was 

"Resolved that application should be made to some professional Gentle- 
man of the Law to examine the Charter and Bye Laws of the Company, and 
that Mr. King, of Cutlers Hall, should be applied to for that purpose. 

" That in pursuance of the said resolution the Committee applied to the 
said Mr. King, and that he with Mr. Catty his partner have examined the said 
Charter and Bye Laws, and that several doubts existing thereon, they have 
prepared a case and submitted tlie same with several Queries thereon to the 
opinion of Mr. Sergeant Adair, 

" That the first Query stated for the said Counsel's opinion, was whether 
the Court could by any and what means, under the Charter and Bye Laws, 
compel Freemen of the Company to take upon them the Livery. 

' Company's Journal IV. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 69 

" That the said Counsel is of opinion that the l^ye Law is certainly defi- 
cient, in not having annexed a specific penalty and though he is inclined to 
think (upon the authority of the case, in the 2 Leo: 200 & 5 Mod : 319) that 
upon complaint to the Mayor, and Aldermen of London, the Court might 
commit the party elected to the Livery, for refusing to take upon him such 
Livery, yet as such proceeding has not been very usual, and he knows of no 
instance later than that reported in 5 Mod., he would rather advise the Com- 
pany to make a new Bye Law annexing a reasonable penalty. 

" That the Committee have considered of the ist Query and the opinion 
of Counsel thereon, and are of opinion that it will be beneficial to the said 
Company, that a Bye Law should be immediately made annexing a penalty of 
Fifteen Pounds on any person refusing to take up the l>ivery of the said 
Company. 

"That the 2nd Query stated for the said Counsel's opinion was — Are 
Freemen of the Company and Freemen of other Companies, but carrying on 
the business of Clock and Watchmakers, and Non-Freemen who reside out of 
the City of London, but within ten miles thereof and carry on the business of 
Clock and Watchmakers, liable to pay Quarterage or any and which of them. 

"That the said Counsel in his opinion says, he has entertained great 
doubts respecting the validity of the Charters of those Companies of the City 
of London which extended their jurisdiction beyond that City and the liberties 
thereof and also of the efficacy of such their Bye Laws, as professed to bind 
persons without those limits, and not free of the Company, but in a late Case 
of the Butchers Company, whose Charter incorporated all those of the City 
of London or within two miles thereof, upon a Case reserved for the Opinion of 
the Court of Common Pleas, upon the validity of a Bye Law, both these 
objections were taken, and were overruled by the unanimous opinion of that 
Court. He is therefore of opinion that all the persons who are the subject of 
this Query are liable to the payment of Quarterage, under the Bye Laws on 
that subject. 

"The Committee are therefore of opinion and recommend, that all 
persons who are the subject of the above Query should be immediately applied 
to for payment thereof, and in case of refusal, proper steps should be taken to 
enforce it. 

" That the 3rd Query stated for the said Counsel's opinion was — Can the 
Clockmakers Company compel Clockmakers, who are free of another Com- 
pany, to become Ivlembers of the Clockmakers' Company, and can they also 
compel Non-Freemen who follow the business of Clock and Watchmakers and 
reside within the City, or ten miles thereof, to become Members of the same 
Company, by any and what means. 

"That the said Counsel in his opinion says that he does not think the 
Clockmakers' Company have any means of compelling persons exercising that 
Trade to become free of their Company, otherwise than by the aid of the Act 
of Common Council above stated ' which cannot operate beyond the City and 
liberties of London, and therefore they cannot compel persons exercising the 
trade within ten miles of London, but beyond the liberties thereof, to take up 
their Freedom, but such persons may continue to exercise the Trade under 

' This Act is dated 15 October, 1765, and is given at length under the Chapter on 
Freemen. 



70 



THE CLOCKMAKERS CoMl'ANV 



the direction and government, and subject to the reasonable Bye Laws of the 
Comivany, without being free thereof, the Act however of the Common Council 
apjjears 'to him to be valid in itself and binding upon all persons, within the 
City and liberties of London, this and similar Acts being supported by the cus- 
toms of the City of London, confirmed by divers Acts of Parliament ; he is 
therefore of opinion that Freemen of other Companies, who were not so in 
December, 1765, and Non-Freemen, resident within the City and liberties of 
London, using the Trade in question, may be compelled to become free of the 
Clockmakcrs'Company, or desist from their business, by enforcing the Act of 
Common Council of the City of London which affixes a penalty of ;^5 for every 
such offence. 

" The Committee are therefore of opinion and recommend that Freemen of 
other Companies who were not so in December 1765, and Non-Freemen resi- 
dent within the City and liberties of London using the Trade in question be 
immediately called upon to take upon them the freedom of the Clockmakers' 
Company, and in case of refusal, that proper steps be taken to enforce the due 
observance thereof. 

" The 4th Query stated, for the said Counsel's opinion was — Are Members 
of the Clockmakers' Company who are of other Companies and Clock and 
Watchmakers, who are free of other Companies, but not of the Clockmakers', 
and those who follow the Trade, but are Non-Freemen, liable to any, and what 
penalty in case they take an x\pprentice who is bound to any other person 
than a free brother of the Clockmakers' Company and properly entered as such 
in the Company's Books. 

"That the said Counsel is of opinion: that Members of the Clockmakers' 
Company, and Freemen of other Companies, are liable to the penalty of Ten 
Pounds if they take an Apprentice who is bound to any other person than a free 
Brother pursuant to the Clause of the Charter above stated ; but neither the 
words of the Charter relative to this, nor the Bye Law imposing the penalty 
extend to Non-Freemen, and therefore he does not think the penalty could be 
levied against them, but as no person can exercise that, or any other Trade, 
within the City and liberties of London without being free, the provision of the 
Charter and Bye Laws taken together with the Act of Common Council, which 
oblige all persons exercising that Trade to be free of the Clockmakers' Com- 
pany, seemed to be sufficient within the limits of that City and Liberties, but 
as to persons residing out of those limits, though within ten miles, he saw no 
remedy provided for this Case of Apprentices, but by a prosecution under the 
Statute of the 5th of Eli/.., Chap. 4th., Sec. 31st. 

" The Committee are therefore of opinion that it will be proper and right 
to proceed against any one who shall bind an Apprentice contrary to the 
Charter and Bye Law. 

" The 5th Query stated for the said Counsel's opinion was— That if he 
should be of opinion that the Charter, Bye Laws and Act of Common Council 
were not sufficient to enforce the above objects or either of them, in what 
manner would he advise the Company to act, so as to obtain power to carry 
the several matters into effect. 

" That the said Counsel in his opinion says, the Cases in which it appears 
to him that the powers of the Company were insufficient to effectuate the 
objects referred to in the Case, were 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 7 1 

" I. In the means of compelling Freemen of the Company to take upon 
them the Livery — where he had already suggested the remedy for that to be, 
by making a new Bye Law, afifixing an adequate penalty, payable to the Com- 
pany, to be recovered by action of debt or levied by distress. To which the 
Committee has already submitted its opinion. 

" 2. The means of compelling persons exercising the Trade to become 
free of the Clockmakers' Company either as to those residing within or without 
the City and Liberties of London ; as to those resident within the said City 
and liberties, the Act of Common Council is sufficient for that purpose ; as to 
those resident without the City and Liberties, but within ten miles, he thought 
nothing short of an Act of Parliament could enable the Company to compel 
them, and he did not incline to think that such an Act of Parliament could be 
obtained. 

" 3. In the means of preventing persons taking Apprentices in the Art or 
Mistery of Clockmaking who are not free of the Clockmakers' Company, and 
reside out of the City and liberties of London, this also he thought could only 
be done by Act of Parliament." 

The Court having debated on the report by putting- 
each Article separate, it was moved, that this Court do agree 
with the Committee in their report, which was accordingly 
carried. 

"1796. April 4. Resolved, That the following be an additional Bye 
Law of the Company, viz. 

" It is further ordained that if any person of the said fellowship being so 
as aforesaid chosen to be of the said Livery shall, without any reasonable and 
sufficient cause, to be allowed and admitted by the said Master, Wardens and 
Assistants, refuse to accept and take upon him to be of the said Livery, and 
shall refuse to take, within fourteen days next after notice to him given of such 
his election as aforesaid, such Oath as by the Ordinance in that behalf made 
is appointed to be taken ; That then and in every such case, every such 
person so refusing, shall forfeit and pay to, and for the use of the said Master, 
Wardens and fellowship, the sum of Fifteen Pounds to be recovered by action 
of debt or levied by distress." 

On the 14th of April, 1796, Messrs. King and Gatty 
were ordered to apply to obtain a confirmation of the proposed 
Bye-Law. They submitted the same to the Lord Chancellor, 
and the Chief Justice, of the King's Bench and Common Pleas, 
who approved and allowed it in the terms above stated.' 

The costs incurred, amounting to ^52 10^. od., were 
on the loth of October, 1796, ordered to be paid by the 
Renter Warden. 



] Ide page 49. 



72 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



ARMS. SHALS, lUDGHS, COLOIRS, &c. 

It was not until the year 1671 that the Company obtained 
the right to bear Arms. On the 15th of January of that year 
the Court of Assistants determined to apply for a grant, their 
Resolution being in the following terms : — 

*' ' It was agreed voated and ordered That the Company shall take upon 
them a Coat of Amies fitt and proper for them to beare and that for 
the procureing thereof all fees whatsoever for perfecting the same and the 
pattent as shall be needfuU in the case, so that it may be brought and shall 
be brought free of all further charge to the Master or Wardens of the 
Company, the Renter Warden shall expend and pay ffive and twenty pounds, 
And the Master and Wardens Mr. East Mr. Nicasius and Mr. Jeremie Gregorie 
are desired and ordered to treat and agree with Sir Edward Walker King at 
Armes and to act in this business according to this order.' " ' 

The following is the text of the Grant of Arms eventually 
obtained : — 

Co aff a)xi emgufiir 

UNTO whom these presents 
shall come S'^- EDWARD 
WALKER Knight Gar- 
ter PRixciPALL King of 
Armes of Englishmen 
sendeth greeting 

J-H^rrraS the generous 
Actions and \'irtuous En- 
_^ deavours of Worthy Men, 
as also of Bodyes Politi- 
que and Incorporate have 
beene from time to time 
remembred to Posterity by 
certaineHonourable signes 
and niarkes commonly 
called Armes, as proper 
testimonyes of the worth 
and meritt of those to 
whom such have been 
assigned. .Hnti SlJit^TrSS 
his late Maiestie KING 
CHARLES the first of 
ever glorious and blessed 
memory, for divers Causes and Considerations him thereunto moveing Did 
of his especiall grace certaine knowledg and meere motion by his Letters 




' Companys Joum.il I. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 73 

Patents under the Great Seale of England, bearing Date the Two and Twentyth 
day of August in the seaventh yeare of his Reigne, Incorporate, Create, Make, 
Erect, Ordeyne, and Constitute The CLOCKMAKERS resideing in the City 
of London, Suburbs thereof or within Tenn Miles of the said City, To be one 
Body, Corporate and Politique by the name of The Master Wardens and 
Fellowship of the Art or AIistery of Clock>l\king of the City of 
London, To have perpetuall Succession and Continuance for ever With 
divers other Grants, Libertyes, Priviledges and Franchises, as in the said Letters 
Patents the same are more amply expressed. Amongst which his said late 
Maiestie Did authorise the said Master Wardens and Fellowship of the Art 
and Mistery of Clockmaking To use a Common Seale for the Expediting of 
the Causes and Businesses of them and their successors In which regard 
And also for the greater Honour and Splendor of the said Company and 
Fellowship it is and will be necessary that proper and peculiar Armes and 
Ensignes be assigned them to be used in their Comon Seal and all other fitt 
occasions. 

iinob) gff therefore that I the said S'^- EDWARD WALKER 
Knight Garter Principall Kixg of Armes by the power and authority 
annexed unto my Office and confirmed unto me by Letters Patents under the 
Great Seale of England Do by these presents give grant and assigne, unto the 
said Incorporate Company and Society useing the Art and Mistery of Clock- 
makeing in the City of London the Suburbs and within Tenn Miles thereof, 
whereof at present Nicholas Coxeter is Master, Samuell Home and Jeffery 
Baily are Wardens as also Edward East the only person now living of those 
mentioned in the said Letters Patents of Incorporation, John Nicasius, John 
Pennock, Edmond Gilpin, Jeremie Gregory, Thomas Taylor, Thomas Clayton, 
John Freeman, Evan Jones, Isaac Daniell, John Matchett, Ralph Almond, 
Samuell \'ernon, Henry Kent, Walter Hayes, John Browne, Nicholas Payne, 
Richard Ames and Benjamin Bell are Assistants and to the rest of the Fellow- 
ship and Company thereof, and to their successors for ever The Armes, Crest, 
Supporters and Motto hereafter mentioned, vizt. Sable, a Clock v^ 4 Pillars 
thereof erected on four Lyons, and on each Capitall a Globe with 
A Crosse, and in the Middest an Imperiall Crowne all Or, and for 
their Crest upon an Helmet Proper Mantled Gules Doubled Argent 
AND Wreath of their Colours a Spheare Or, the Armes Supported 
BY THE Figures of a Naked Old Man holding a Scithe and an Hour 
Glasse representing Time, and of an Emperour in Roabes Crowned 
HOLDING A Scepter ; Their Motto 

*TEMPVS RERVM IMPERATOR* 

As in the Margent they are all more lively Depicted. The which Armes, 
Crest, Supporters and Moito, the said Master Wardens, Fellowshij^p and 
Company useing the Art and Mistery of Clockmakeing commonly called 
Clockmakers and their successors for ever, may and shall lawfully use in their 
Common Seale and beare and sett forth in Shield, Coat Armour, Standard, 
Pennon, or otherwise, upon all occasions without the lett or interruption of 
any person whomsoever. 

Jn 5:2;^ltnfSS whereof I have hereunto subscribed my Name and affixed 
the seale of my Office, this One and Thirtyth day of January in the Four and 
Twentyth yeare of the Reigne of our Soveraigne Lord CHARLES the Second, 



74 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

by the grace of God, King of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland. 
Defender of the Faith, etc, Annoq Domini 167^ 




F.DW WALKER 
Oarikk 



The Grant which bears the Signature of Sir Edward 
Walker,' and the Seal of his Office, cost the Company ;^2 5. 

The Arms thus obtained have since been in constant use 
by the Company, and the following references to their employ- 
ment on plates, seals, badges, etc., have been gathered from 
their Records. 

"1677. September 24. Mr. George Deane, Engraver, a Member of 
this Company, having by the hands of Mr. Henry Jones presented to this Court 
the Company's Coat of Arms engraved on a copper plate fit to be used for 
tickets and divers other occasions of the Company which was very well liked, 
This Court did kindly accept it and returned him thanks." 

" 1695. June 3. It was Ordered that Daniell Beeckman be paid by the 
Renter Warden forty shillings for engraving the Company's Coat of Arms on a 
new Copper Plate to be used on Quarter Court days Bills or Summonses. 

SEALS. 

" 1692. March 6. It was resolved and ordered that for the Coinpany's 
occasions and convenience the Master shall with what speed he conveniently 
can cause a Common Seal of Silver about the breadth or circomference of a 
milled Half Crown ]jiece, or Oval to be made as the Company are impowred to 
do by their Charter of Incorporation. Which seal is to be so and according to 
the Company's Coat of Armes, Supporters, Mantling, Crest and Motto.^ 

" 1819. October 1 1. It was resolved to provide an Official Seal engraved 
with the Company's Arms in lieu of that now in custody of the Clerk. This 
was carried into effect at a cost of;^7 .17.6, 

» Appointed by King Charles I in 1645, but upon the death of the King he was 
deprived of his Office, restored by Charles II, October 1662, died February 19. 1677. 
= Company's Journal I. '^ Company's Journal 11. 




MASTER'S BADGE. 




WARDEN'S BADGE. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 75 

BADGES. 

" 1873. January 13. The desirability of providing a Badge to be worn 
by the Master on all official occasions having been suggested by several 
Members and Mr. Parker Member of the Court having been requested to 
furnish a design for the same, that Gentleman laid before them a sketch of one 
which he had specially prepared for that purpose when it was Resolved unani- 
mously That a Badge composed of the Company's Arms, Crest and Motto be 
furnished for the use of the Master for the time being, to be worn by him on 
all official occasions, and that the same be made in 1 8 Carat Gold and Enamel 
at an expence not exceeding sixty pounds/ 

"1873. April 7. Mr. Parker laid before the Court the Gold Badge to 
be worn by the Master on all official occasions. The same having been 
inspected was pronounced to be a highly artistic specimen of Goldsmith's 
work and received the unqualified approval of the whole Court. The Master 
was then formally invested with his insignia of office. 

" 1874. July 6. George William Adams Esq. presented to the Court a 
set of three Silver Gilt official Badges containing the Arms of the Company in 
accordance with the design submitted at the last Court to be worn by the 
Wardens during their tenure of office. The Master having accepted the same 
on behalf of the Court and having invested each of the Wardens with his dis- 
tinctive Badge, it was Resolved unanimously That the best thanks of this Court 
be and are hereby presented to G. W. Adams Escp for the very handsome gift 
so kindly presented for the use of the Wardens and that the Clerk be instructed 
to convey to that Gentleman the Court's high appreciation of his kind and 
liberal consideration.'' ^ 

In 1767, the year following the grant of a Livery by the 
Court of Aldermen, the Company provided the necessary 
paraphernalia to enable them to take their place in processions 
on State and other occasions, and from the following Extracts 
having reference thereto, it would seem that they first appeared 
as a Livery Company in the pageant of the Right Hon. 
Thomas Harley, Lord Mayor in the above-mentioned year:— 

" 1767. April 6. Ordered that Colours and Beadle's Staff be provided 
by the Company against Lord Mayor's Day and that application be made to 
the City Surveyor to know where the Stand for the Company should be. 
Ordered that there be a Committee of the whole Court for the above business 
and that five of them be a Quorum to do business, of which the Master and 
one of the Wardens to be two. 

"1767. May 4. Ordered that the Crest on the Beadle's Staff be of 
Silver, and that Mr. Pope be employed to provide and paint the Colours and 
Streamers proper for the Company. 

" 1767. September 29. Ordered that Mr. Brewerton do attend the next 
Quarter Court with a dress proper for the porters. 

' - Company's Journal X. 



j6 Till-: CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

" Ordered the Whifflers and the lads to hold up the Train : the Beadle's 
Staff and a Wainscot 13ox for Colours, and the Ribbons and the Music, and 
all the other things necessary for the Lord Mayor's Day be left to the Master 
and Wardens to provide.' 

" 1767. October 28. Paid Mr. Moliere for chasing the Beadle's Staff, 
and for Silver and for making it ^36 95. 

" 1767. November 9. The Master attended by the Livery, walked in 
procession, agreable to the precept sent by the Lord Mayor and Court of 
Aldermen." " 

The costs incurred by the Company on the above occasion 
were not inconsiderable, as will be seen from the following 
items from their accounts : — 

" 1768. March 14. £ s. d. 



" Expence of the Dinner on Lord Mayors Day 

" do for ordering the last mentioned 

" do for 8 Staves 

" do for Music 

" Paid for Robes for Lord Mayors Day 

'* do • Mr. Pope for painting the Colours 

" do for a Chest for the Colours 



2 1 12 9 
I 3 II 
060 
440 

5 8 o 

49 2 o 

212 6 



On the 9th of November, 1859, Mr. Alderman Carter, the 
Master of the Company, being Lord Mayor, the Company 
occupied the post of honor in the Civic procession to West- 
minster Hall, to present him in accordance with ancient custom 
to the Barons of the Exchequer, for which occasion a hand- 
some silk banner of the Arms of the Company was presented 
by Francis Bryant Adams, Esq., a Member of the Court. 

The Company also possesses the following Colours: — 

The City Arms and Supporters. 
The Arms of Mr. Alderman Carter. 
The Arms of Mr. Alderman Kennedy. 

In connexion with the subject of the Arms of the Com- 
pany, it may be mentioned that upon applications made to 
them they have aided in the embellishment of public buildings 
in the City, by presenting their Armorial bearings in painted 
glass; thus in the year 1841, at the request of the Governors 
of Christ's Hospital, they gave part of a window for the Great 
Hall of that establishment ; and again in 1872, at the instance 
of the Council of the London and Middlesex Archseological 
Society, they joined with other Companies in similarly contri- 
buting to the decoration of the New Library and Museum of 
the Corporation at Guildhall. 



' - Company s Journal IV, 




COURT OF ASSISTANTS. 




Y the terms of the Company's Charter, the 
governing body is to consist of the Master, 
three Wardens, and ten or more Assistants, 
the first holders of those Offices being named 
in the Charter. 

Their first formal Meeting was held on 
the 1 2th October, 1632. At their second, on the 23rd of 
the same month, they determined by Resolution their usual 
hour of Assembling. 

" 1632. October 23rd. This daye the Court have thought and soe 
ordered that the howerly meetinges at the severall Courts hereafter for the 
Master Wardens and Assistants shalbe at the hower of Nyne, and their depar- 
ture from the said Courts by Twelve at the furthest the same day upon the 
penalty conteyned in the ordinaunces of the Lawe." ' 

They next passed a Resolution intended to ensure the 
preservation of their secrets, and bound themselves by a 
penalty to observe the same. 

^ " 1632. October 23rd. Forasmuch as many Inconveniences may happen 
in not keeping the secrettes of the Companie that from tyme to tyme may be 
spoaken of and done at a Court of Assistants, It is thereupon hereby ordered 
that if Master, \\'ardens, Assistant or Servaunt shalbe at any tyme found to be 
guilty of such a fault committed in that kind in falsefying his oath of trust in not 
keeping the Companies secrettes which may tend to the prejudice of the 
Companie in generall or of any particular Member, he or they soe offending 
shall forfeit the some of fifive pounds. In wittnes whereof and for confirmation 



Company's Journal I. 



G 2 



Assistants 



78 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

of the same wee hereundernamed did setto our hands to the same order of 

Court viz. 

Henry Archer Deputy Master Samuel Lynnaker 

lohn Willow \ Av^rHpnc; ^°^^ Charlton ^ 

Sampson Shelton j ^^ ^'"^^"^ John Middnall 

James VaultroUier ) Symon Bartram 

John Smith / Edward East 

Frauncis Foreman > -'^nd 

John Harris I Thomas Copley, Clarke." 

Richard Morgan J 

A regulation was also made to encourage good feeling and 
brotherhood, and for prohibiting the use of profane and uncivil 
language. 

" 1632. October 23rd. This daye the Court have ordered That if any 
person or persons admitted of this Societie shall hereafter be found to be 
profane or lavish in uncivil manner to blaspheame in takinge the Name of the 
Lord in vaine to the dishonor of his name and discredditt both of the Companie 
and himself he shall for ever hereafter be subject to what censure the Com- 
panie in their judgment shall thinke fitt either by fine or other punishment.'" 

Numerous instances of Fines being imposed are contained 
in the Court Minute Books, but a few will suffice to show the 
custom : — 

" 1638. October 8. At this Court Mr. Thomas Reeve did justifye ye 
abusive words spoken by John Potter, Beadle against Mr. Symon Hackett 
Warden, which were not to passe without punishment or fine according to the 
judgement of this Court and the words were further to be considered on at the 
next Quarter Court and likewise all other matters as shall be then objected 
against him. 

" 1657. April 20. The same day upon complaint of Mr. Jeremy 
Gregory against Thomas Weeks, the said Weeks having abused Warden Coxeter 
Ann (iregory and others that were in the search, He was fined a Marke in 
English Money for his offence, and in not coming to this court day."" 

" 1668. September 29. Forasmuch as Mr. John Nicasius one of the 
Assistants of this Company did at an Assembly of the Master Wardens and 
Assistants of this Company upon the 30th day of July last utter divers unde- 
cent words and opprobrious speeches revileing and villifying Mr. Jeremy 
Gregory the Master of the Company and to the breach of brotherly love, of 
which the Master made his comjilaint at the last Court, and thereupon and by 
order of the same Court the said Mr. Nicasius hath bin duly sumoned to 
appeare at this Court that he might make his defence and that such proceed- 
ings might be therein as by the ordinances of the Company is in such case 
appointed and he hath nevertheless made default in appearance : — therefore 
this Court have thought fit and doe judge determine and order that he shalbe 



- Company's Jouin.il I. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 79 

againe soiiioned to appeare, att the next Court being Monday the 5th day of 
October next, and in case he doe not appeare then and give fitting satisfaction 
he shall pay for such his misdemeanor, the sume of fforty shillings (being the 
ffine sett by the Ordinances in this Case) to the Master and Wardens of the 
Company for the use of the Company.' 

" 1668. December 7. The difference betweene Mr. Nicasius and Mr. 
Gregory arisen upon occasion of some passionate words by each to the other 
at a meeting the 30th of July last was by this Court, composed, and the ffine 
sett upon Mr. Nicasius by the Court on the 29th of September last was 
remitted and the said parties were fully reconciled. ■ 

" 1673. April 7. Whereas at this Court, It was proved That Mr. John 
Nicasius hath spoken divers opprobrious and reproachfull words of the Master, 
one of the Wardens and one of the Assistants of the Company, tending much 
to their damage and disreputation and also as to the lessening the validity of 
the Charter, he for that his offence and misdemeanour is fifined and ordered 
to pay Forty Shillings to the use of the Master Wardens and ffellowship. ' 

" 1673-4. February 2. Mr. Nicasius appeared and laid downe his ffine 
of fforty shillings which at the Court of the 7th of April last he was ordered to 
pay, and did acknowledge himselfe to be sorry for the injury he had by his 
passionate words done to the Master Warden and Assistant agrieved, and in 
regard of that his acknowledgment this Court did return him 355. and ordered 
him to put the other ffive shillings into the poores Box which he accordingly did."* 

" 1677. August 23. Whereas at the time of solempnity of the ffeast at 
Goldsmiths' Hall upon the 26 day of July last, the then Stewards especially 
Mr. Barlow, Mr. Rookes and Mr. James Markwick did utter words which tended 
to the diminution of the worth of the Master Mr. Jeremie Gregory and did soe 
demeane themselves as that the peace of the Company was then disturbed and 
Brotherly love impaired, the said Mr. Rookes and Mr. Markwick haveing been 
summoned to appeare this day, that they might be discoursed and soe proceeded 
with as the Court should according as the case, and the Ordinances of the 
Company in such behalfe doe require and direct, they did appeare, and those 
their words and demeanoure were debated. ^ 

Mr. Rookes and Mr. Markwick were fined 5^. each but they did not pay 
at that time desiring time to consider. 

1677. September 4. Mr. Rookes paid his fine. 

1677. September 24. Mr. Markwick not having paid his fine of 5 J. 
was fined 20s. 

iS-jj. December 3. Mr. Markwick not having paid his fine pro- 
ceedings against him before the Lord Mayor were ordered to be taken to 
compel him to pay. 

1677-8. February 1. The difference between Mr. Markwick and the 
Company was settled by the good offices of Mr. Coxeter the Master. Mr. 
Markwick acknowledged his misdemeanor and paid los. of which ^s. were 
returned to him and the other put in the poor's Box. 

■ = 345 Company's Journal I. 



So THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" 1679. May 5. Whereas Mr. Henry Jones one of the Assistants 
did att this Court make complaint against Mr. John Nicasius one other of the 
Assistants for that att the Meeting after the search made the 9th of Aprill 
last he had uttered many abusive words and coiTiitted some abusive acts 
against him the said Mr. Jones and other Members there, all which the 
Master and divers Assistants then present were eye and eare witnesses of, 
and the Company was thereoy much disturbed. It was therefore at this Court 
ordered that the said Mr. Nicasius before he shalbe admitted to sitt att any 
Court for this Company shall pay to the use of the poor of the Company 20s. 
which this Court hath fined him for that his misdemeanor against the Com- 
pany, and if he shall hereafter offend he is from thenceforth to stand suspended 
from being an Assistant. 

"1679. June 2. The Order of the last Court which relateth to Mr. 
Nicasius being read in his hearing he refused to pay the fine of 205. then 
sett ui)on him and so departed the Court : It was resolved that he be sum- 
moned before the Lord Maior. 

"1679. July 7. After considerable debate it was resolved until Mr. 
Nicasius paid the fine and cost of proceeding he should stand suspended from 
all priviledges of an Assistant." ' 

In the year 1678 one of the Court of Assistants charged 
with recusancy was suspended from his attendance at the 
Meetings of the Court. 

" 1678. November 4. Forasmuch as Mv. John Matchett an Assistant 
of this Company is Avell knowne to be a popish recusant, this Court did by 
vote (noe man gainsaying) suspend him from being warned to appear att and 
sitting in any Court or Meeting with the Master Wardens and Assistants of 
this Company or any of them upon the Company's occasions or concerns 
untill it shalbe otherwise thought fitt and ordered. ^ 

By the Ordinances of the Company, fines were imposed 
upon the Members of the Court who neglected their duties. 

If late the penalty was : — 

s. d. 
For the Master - - -16 

For Wardens and Assistants - -10 

If absent, or leaving without permission before the Court 
ended : — 

i-. d. 
For the Master - - - 6 8 

For Wardens and Assistants - -50 

" 1632. October 23rd. This day Mr. Harris paid his fine of xii''' 
according to the Ordinaunces of the Lawe for not appearing in dew tyme after 
the Court was sett, and likewise prayers and the booke of orders being read. 

" This daye Mr, East for the like occasion in comeing late to the Court 
paid his fine accordingly. 

' -■ Company's Journal I. 



THE CLUCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 8 I 

"This daye Mr. Foreman was fined for not appearing at all two Court 
dayes formerly, and Mr. John Smith for one, according to the Ordinaunces of 
the Lawe. 

'•' 1632. November 29. This daye Mr. Vaultrollier, Mr. Bartram, 
Mr. Charlton, Mr. Middnall, Mr. Smith, Mr. Willow and Mr. Foreman all 
paid their fines for coming too late to the Court. 

" 1633. August 5. This Court day Timothy Gray appeared and was 
fined for his contempt in going away the last quarterday without leave 
iii'- iiij'"- which he laid down and the Court took but one shilling." 

In 1676 and 1704 the Fines were varied, the alterations 
being shewn in the following Resolutions : — - 

" 1676. February 5. It was ordered on account of the neglect of divers 
of the Members of the Court of Assistants to attend the Court at the appointed 
time, that there should be paid to the use of the Company by the person 
making default the undermentioned fine, viz. : If the Master or Warden 1 2 
pence If an Assistant 6 pence ; and in case of not appearing at all If the 
Master or AVarden 5^. If an Assistant 35. 4^. 

"1704. November 6. Ordered that each Member of the Court of 
Assistants not appearing by the first hour after summons shall pay dd. the 
second hour \s. and not appearing the 3rd hour be deemed as not coming at 
all, The Master in each case to pay for the ist hour \s. 6d. 2nd hour t,s. and 
the 3rd hour as not coming at all and to pay 6s. Sd., The Wardens in each case 
of default to pay is. for the first hour 2s. for the 2nd and not appearing the 
3rd hour to be deemed as not coming at all. 

"All defaults to be decided as Members come to Court." 

The fee paid by Assistants upon their election to the 
Court in 1761 was ^7 2s. 6d. ; in 1827 it was increased to 
;^30, with 20s. to the Clerk and 105-. to the Beadle ; and in 
1864 it was again increased to Fifty Guineas, the Clerk being 
allowed thereout 40^'. and the Beadle 10s. 

On the 8th of October, 1 759, it was agreed that a Member 
chosen an Assistant might be excused for the usual fine of Ten 
Pounds, though he had not served the office of Steward. 



MASTER. 

In the Company's early days it was not an unusual thing 
for the Master to be re-elected and to serve for two years in 
succession, or to be elected a second time after a lapse of a 
short interval. This practice, however, which prevented junior 



82 THE CLOCKMAKKRS COMTANY. 

members of the Court from attaining the Chair, was success- 
fully opposed, and on the 29th September, 1683, the following 
entry appears in the Minutes of the Court : — 

"1683. September 29th. Memorandum That upon debate and by vote 
it was determined and accordingly ordered That neither the now present 
Master nor for the future either the then present Master nor any old or former 
Master shall either upon the Annual or other Election of a Master be put in 
nomination for Master of the Company, but that only those three persons 
who are next in course in point of seniority, and as they are in seniority shall 
be put in nomination, that one of them may be chosen Master of the Com- 
pany for the year ensuing. ' 

A few years later the practice was again amended, and the 
past Masters made eligible for re-election, one of them being 
required to be put up with the Upper and Renter Wardens for 
election, as appears by the following Extract : — 

" 1 701. July 7. At this Court the consideration was resumed of putting 
again in nomination those of the Court of Assistants that have been Master 
of the Company to be chosen again Master : — and it was upon the question 
put agreed unto, that one that had been Master shall be again put in nomination 
by putting all that have been or are Masters so that he of the past Masters that 
has the majority of votes shall be one of the three to be put up for Master at 
the election with the Upper and Renter Wardens yearly." 

On the 5th of July, 181 3, it was Resolved : That no 
person should be elected to the office of Master or Warden 
imtil he had been five years an Assistant, the regulation not 
to affect either of the then Members of the Court ; but on the 
6th of April, 1824, in consequence of the great inconvenience 
experienced by the operation of this rule, the term was reduced 
to three years. 



DEATH OR RESIGNATION OF MASTER OR WARDENS. 

It is provided by the Charter that in the event of the 
Master or Wardens dying or resigning during his or their 
year of office, the Court shall meet within one month and 
elect one of the Wardens or a Member of the Court of Assist- 
ants to exercise the office so vacant for the remainder of the 
term, and swear him in accordingly. 



Company's Journal II. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 83 

The following Extracts upon this subject shew instances 
of the course of proceeding adopted on these occasions : — 

"1665-6. February 9. Mrs. Child the Widow of Mr. Henry Child' 
our late deceased Master appeared upon the summons given her, And it was 
determined and ordered that to-morrow being Saturday the loth instant 
Mr. Warden Gregory shall receive from her the Company's chest and bag of 
bookes and keys in her custody and upon receipt of them in good and true 
state shall deliver to her the bond which he and his surety gave to the 
Company for the true execution of his Office the said bond being delivered to 
Mr. Warden Gregory for that end." ' 

"1768. February i. At this Court a letter was read from Mr. Higgs 
wherein he desired to resign the office of Master and that the Court would 
accept his resignation on account of his ill state of health ; and the question 
being put, the majority of the Court agreed to accept thereof. 

"Ordered that a special Court be called for Wednesday the loth instant 
on the occasion at five o'clock in the afternoon. 

"1768. February 10. At this Court Mr. Higgs' letter was read and the 
Court were unanimously of opinion to accept his resignation on account of 
his ill state of health, and appointed the next Monthly Court for the Election 
of a Master in his room, and ordered the Clerk to send him a letter of the 
resolution of the Court thereon, and the Company ordered thanks to him for 
his past services. 

"The Master then declared the office of Warden vacant by the death of 
Mr. Glover, and the Court ordered that the vacancies occasioned by the resig- 
nation of Mr. Higgs and the death of Mr. Glover be filled up the next Monthly 
Court, and that in the notices it be mentioned a special Monthly Court, reciting 
the extra business. 

"1813. September 6. The Wardens and Court of Assistants met for 
the election of a Master in the room of Mr. Harry Potter deceased. A letter 
was read from his executors stating that on the 30th of August he died very 
suddenly. 

"The Clerk having read so much of the Charter and Bye Laws as 
related to the election and swearing of a New Master in the event of a death, 
the Court proceeded to the election by ballot, when the ballot fell upon 
Mr. Isaac Rogers, who was sworn in and the various Books and the Key of 
the Chest given to him." ^ 

WARDENS. 

According to the power given in the Charter of Incorpor- 
ation three Wardens are to be elected on Michaelmas-day and 
upon death or removal from their office a fresh election is to 
be held. 



' The last Court he attended was held on the 3id of July, 1665. 
- Company's Journal I. 
"' Company's Journal IV. 



§4 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

In the troublous times at the latter part of the reign of 
King Charles I, it appears that only two Wardens were ap- 
poin'ted, for what reason is not explained. The practice was 
continued throughout the Commonwealth and the reign of 
King Charles II until the year 1677, when the following 
Resolution for returning to the original course, which has 
since been uninterruptedly followed, is found in the Records : — 

"1677. September 29. This Court for divers reasons did think fit and 
vote, That there shall (be) according as the Charter directs and impowers that 
there should be and as heretofore was, but for some years past hath been 
discontinued a third Warden of the Company, And thereupon Mr. Richard 
Ames and Mr. Benjamin Bell were put in nomination and Mr. Ames was 
chosen the third and youngest Warden for the year ensuing." 



RENTER WARDEN. 

It is the duty of the Renter Warden to receive and pay all 
moneys, to keep an account of the same ; and he is required to 
deliver in his Statement of Receipts and Expenditure at the 
close of his year of office. 

The following Resolution was passed July 6th, 1640, 
whereby his duties were specifically defined : — 

" 1640. July 6. It was ordered, whereas divers inconveniences are found 
to growe in this fellowshipp by the confusion of severall notes of paper 
and loose accounts, and the never orderly enteringe the same in the booke 
prepared for that purpose. It was therefore ordered by this Court, that the 
Renter Warden then beinge or hereafter to be chosen shall betweene the 
severall quarter dayes of the yeare fitt his accompt exactly drawne upp of 
his payments and receipts and present the same to the Clarke of the 
Company, to be fayrely entred and publicly read on every quarter daye before 
the whole Court upon payne of every default, to pay the somme of Twenty 
Shillings to the use of the Company, and in case there shall be any Court 
of Assistants betweene the said quarter dayes, then the said Renter Warden 
is ordered to deliver up the same to the Court without farther delay upon 
payne of los. for every neglect : — -This Court also considering whereas 
there hath not formerly bin bond given for the true accompt of the Renter 
Warden to the said Company to re-deliver the Charter, Ordinances and other 
things trusted with him whereby the Company may receive much prejudice ; It 
was therefore ordered, that every Renter Warden hereafter to be chosen shall 
immediately upon his election enter into bond of ^200 penalty to the Com- 
pany to deliver up his accompts, and all that trust reposed in him exactly 
without confusion, and every such Warden soe refusing shall forfeit and pay 
to the use of the Company Five Pounds." ' 

' Company's Journal I. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



85 



A LIST of the MASTERS and WARDENS, from the 
formation of the Company to the present time. 



Year. Month. 



1632 
1634 
1635 
1636 
1638 
1639 
1640 
1641 
1642 

1643 
1644 

1645 
1646 

1647 



1649 
1650 
1651 
1652 
1653 
1654 
1655 
1656 
1657 
1658 
1659 
1660 
1661 
1662 
1663 
1664 
1665 
1666 
1667 
1668 
1669 
1670 
1671 
1672 

1673 
1674 

1675 
1676 
1677 
1678 
1679 
1680 



Oct. 12 

„ 13 
Jan. 18 

,, 19 
July 29 

„ 13 

Sep. 29 
,, 29 
,, 29 

X 

Sep. 29 
,> 29 

Oct. II 
Sep. 29 

Oct. 8 

,, 14 
,, 20 

,, 4 
Sep. 29 

,, 29 
Oct. I 
Sep. 29 
Oct. I 

\ 
Oct. 3 
,, I 

,. 7 
,, 6 



Master. 



Senior Warden. 



Feb 


3 

27 


Jan. 


14 




20 


Sep. 


29 


) J 


29 


)> 


29 


,, 


29 


>> 


30 


,, 


29 


>> 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


)) 


29 


>i 


30 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 



David Ramsey 

Sampson Shelton 
John Willow 
Elias Allen 
John Smith 
Sampson Shelton 
John Charleton 
John Harris 
Richd. Masterson* 
John Harris 

Edward East 
Simon Hackett 

do. 
Robert Grinkin 

do. 
Simon Bartram 

do. 
Edward East 
John Nicasius 
Robert Grinkin 
John Nicasius 
Thomas Holland 
Benjamin Hill 

.Simon Hackett 
John Pennock 
John Coxeter 

do. 
John Pennock 
Henry Child § 
Jeremy Gregory 
Do. to Michaelmas 

do. 
Thomas Taylor 

do. 
Thomas Claxton 
Nicholas Coxeter 
Samuel Home 

do. 
Jeffery Bailey 

do. 
Jeremy Gregory 
Nicholas Coxeter 
Ralph Almond 
Samuel Vernon 
Walter Hayes 



Henry Archer 
John Willow 
John Charleton 
Peter Closon 
Peter Closon 
Peter Closon 
Simon Bartram 
Simon Hackett 
Simon Bartram 
Simon Hackett 

Robert Grinkin 
Thomas Alcock 

do. 
Onesipherus 
Helden 

do. 
[ohn Nicasius 

do. 
Thomas Holland 

do. 
Benjamin Hill 

do. 
John Pennock 

do. 
Nicholas Coxeter 

do. 
Henry Child 
John Bayes 

do. 
Jeremy Gregory 

do. 
Thomas Taylor 

do. 

do. 
Thomas Claxton 

do. 
Samuel Home 

do. 
Jeffery Bailey 

do. 
Isaac Daniel 
John Matchett 

do. 
Ralph Almond 
Samuel Vernon 
Walter Hayes 
John Browne 



Renter Warden. 



John Willow 
John Harris 
Elias Allen 
Richard Masterson 
Richard Masterson 
Edward East 
Edward East 
Robert Grinkin 
Robert Grinkin 
Robert Grinkin 

Oswell Durant 
Onesipherus 
Helden 
do. 
John Nicasius 

do. 
Robert Smith f 

do. 
Benjamin Hill 

do. 
John Pennock 

do. 
Nicholas Coxeter 

do. 
John Bayes 

do. 
Jeremy Gregory 

do. 
Thomas Taylor 

do. 
Abraham Beckner 
Abrhm. Beckner 
Thomas Claxton 

do. 
Samuel Home 

do. 
Jeffery Bailey 

do. 
Isaac Daniel 

do. 
John Matchett 
Ralph Almond 

do. 
John Browne 
Richard Ames 
Benjamin Bell 
Richard Lyons 



Junior Warden. 



Sampson Shelton 
Francis P'orman 
John Midnall 
Simon Hackett 
Simon Bartram 
Simon Bartram 
Robert Grinkin 
Richard Child 
Thomas House 
Richard Child 

Thomas Alcock 



Richard Ames ^ 
Benjamin Bell 
Richard Lyons 
Thomas Wheeler 



* Died in 1653. Journal I, p 64. % No entry of Election. 

t Died 1654. Jonrnal I, p. 71. § Died in office. 

|i Died in office. 
IF The re-appointment of a third Warden agreed upon at this date. 



86 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



Year. 



Month. 



681 Sep. 29 

682 „ 29 



683 
6S4 
6S5 
686 
6S7 
688 
689 
690 
691 
692 
693 
694 
695 
696 

697 
698 
699 
700 
701 
702 

703 
704 

705 
706 
707 
708 
709 
710 

711 

712 

713 
7>3 
714 
715 
716 

717 
718 

719 
720 
721 
722 
723 
724 
725 
725 
726 
727 
728 
729 
730 



Master. 



.. 29 

M 29 

.. 29 

„ 29 

M 29 

M 29 

,, 30 

,, 29 

,. 29 

., 29 

„ 29 

„ 29 

., 30 

M 29 

.. 29 

M 29 

., 29 

M 30 

,, 29 

„ 29 

,. 29 

,, 29 

,, 29 

,, 30 

,, 29 

,, 29 

., 29 

,, 29 

,, 29 

,, 29 

,, 29 

Oct. 30* ♦ 

Sep. 29 

M 29 

.. 29 

M 30 

,, 29 

., 29 

.. 29 

.. 29 

.. 29 

„ 30 

.. 29 
June — 
Sep. 29 

>, 29 

,, 29 

,, 30 

., 29 

,, 29 



John Browne 
( Richard Ames • i 
I Benjamin Bell ' 
Richaril Lyons 
Thomas Wheeler 
Richard Jarratt 
Edward Norris 
Thomas Taylor 
John Harris 
Natlianiel Barrow 
Henry Wynne 
Henry Jones 
Nicasius Russell 
William Knotsford 
William Clements 
Walter HenshawJ 
Edward Stanton § 
John Ebs worth 
Robert Williamson 
Robert Halsted 
Charles Gretton 
William Speakman 
Joseph Windmills 
Thomas Tompion 
Robert Webster 
Benjamin Graves 
John Finch 
John Pepys 
Daniel Quare 
Geo. Etherington 
Thomas Taylor 
Thomas Gibbs 
John Shaw 
Sir Geo. Merttins 

do. 
John Barrow 
Thomas Feilder 
William Jaques 
Nath. Chamberlain 
Thoma> Windmills 
Edward Crouch 
James Markwick 
Martin Jackson 
George Graham 
John BeiTy 
Jos. Williamson f f 
Francis Robinson 
Peter Wise 
Langley Bradley 
Cornelius Herbert 
James Drui-y 
Richard Vick 
Thomas Stones 



Senior Warden. 



Richard Ames 

Thomas Wheeler 

Richard Jarratt 
Edward Norris 
Thoma.s Taylor 
John Harris 
Nathaniel Barrow 
Henry Wynne 
Henry Jones 
Nicasius Russell 
William Knotsford 
William Clement 
Wither Cheney 
Walter Henshaw 
Edward Stanton 
John Ebsworth 
Robert Williamson 
Robert Halsted 
Charles Gretton 
William Speakman 
Joseph Windmills 
Thomas Tompion 
Robert Webster 
Benjamin Graves 
John Finch 
John Pepys 
Daniel Quare 
Geo. Etherington 
Thomas Taylor 
Thomas Gibbs 
John Shaw 
John Barrow 
Thomas F^eilder 
John Barrow 
Thomas Feilder 
William Jaques 
Nath. Chamberlain 
Thomas Windmills 
Edward Crouch 
James Markwick 
Martin Jackson 
George Graham 
John Berry 
Jos. ^Williamson 
Francis Robinson 
Peter Wise 
Langley Bradley 
Cornelius Herbert 
James Drury 
Richard Vick 
Thomas Stones 
John Marsden 



Renter Warden. 



Thomas Wheeler 

Richard Jarratt 

Edward Norris 
Thomas Taylor 
John Harris 
Nathaniel Barrow 
Henry Wynn 
Henry Jones 
Nicasius Russell 
William Knotsford 
William Clement 
Wither Cheney 
Walter Plenshaw 
Edward Stanton 
John Ebsworth 
Robert Williamson 
Robert Halsted 
Charles Gretton 
William Speakman 
Joseph Windmills 
Thomas Tompion 
Robert Webster 
Benjamin Graves 
John Finch 
John Pepys 
Daniel Quare 
Geo. Etherington 
Thomas Taylor 
Thomas Gibbs 
John Shaw 
John Barrow 
George Merttins || 
William Jaques 
Thomas Feilder 
William Jaques 
Nath. Chamberlain 
Thomas Windmills 
Edward Crouch 
James Markwick 
Martin Jackson 
George Graham 
John Berry, 
Jos. Williamson 
Francis Robinson 
Peter Wise 
Langley Bradley 
Cornelius Herbert 
James Drury 
Richard Vick 
Thomas Stones 
John Marsden 
William Bertram 



Junior Warden. 



Richard Jarratt 

Edward Norris 

Thomas Taylor f 
John Harris 
Nathaniel Barrow 
Henry Wynn 
Henry Jones 
Nicasius Russell 
WilliamKnotsford 
William Clement 
Wither Cheney 
John Sellars 
Edward Stanton 
John Ebsworth 
Robt. Williamson 
Robert Halsted 
Charles Gretton 
Wm. Speakman 
Josh.WindmillsJr. 
Thomas Tompion 
Robert Webster 
Benjamin Graves 
John Finch 
Samuel Marchant 
Daniel Quare 
Geo. E-therington 
Thomas Taylor 
Thomas Gibbs 
John Shaw 
John Barrow 
George Merttins 
Thomas Feilder 
John Clows ^ 
William Jaques 
John Trubshaw 
Richard Street 
Edward Crouch 
James Markwick 
Martin Jackson 
George Graham 
John Berry 
Jos. Williamson 
Francis Robinson 
Samuel Sadleir 
Langley Bradley 
Cornelius Herbert 
James Drury 
Richard Vick 
Thomas Stones 
John Marsden 
William Bertram 
W^m. Tomlinson 



• Died the I2lh of October following, before he was sworn in. 

t Thomas Hancorne elected, but excused upon a fine both for this and all the other offices. 

t VVither Cheney elected Master for this year, but was excused at his own request upon making a suitable 
acKnowledgment to the Poor Box. 

} John .Sellar chosen .Master, but excused on account of bad health. 

11 Alderman of Bridge Ward. 

4 Unable to serve the office on account of ill health. 
•* A re-election took place, 
tt Died in office June, 1725. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



87 



Year. 



173I 
1732 
1733 
1734 
1735 
1736 
1737 
1738 
1739 
1740 
174I 
1742 
1743 
1744 
1745 
1746 

1747 
1748 
1749 
1750 
1751 
1752 
1753 
1754 
1755 
1756 

1757 
1758 
1759 
1760 
1761 
1762 

1763 
1764 
1764 

1765 
1766 
1767 
1768 
1768 
1769 
1770 
1771 
1772 
1773 
1774 

1775 
1776 

1777 
1778 



Month. 


Sep. 


29 


>) 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


30 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


)> 


29 


») 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


»> 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


30 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


2) 


,, 


29 


,, 


30 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


30 


»j 


29 


,, 


29 


>) 


29 


)> 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


>> 


29 


>» 


29 


>> 


5 


,, 


29 


)» 


30 


>> 


29 


>» 


29 


Mar 


• 7 


Sep 


29 


») 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


30 


»> 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


,, 


29 


»» 


30 


,, 


29 


„ 


29 1 



Master. 



John Marsden 
William Bertram * 
Wm. Tomlinson 
Edward Faulkner 
Hugh Richards 
James Snelling 
Thos. Wrightson 
John Maberly 
John Pepys 
William Sherwood 
John Stafford 
Thomas Hughes 
David Hubert 
John Hiorne 
Joshua Appleby 
Matthew Skinner 
Nathaniel Delander 
Samuel Whichcote 
William Scafe 
Henry Home 
Nathaniel Style 
Joseph Stephens 
Henton Browne 
Jasper Taylor 
William Webster 
Francis Perigal 
Charles Cabrier 
Conyers Dunlop 
Devereux Bowly 
Stephen Goujon 
Benjamin Sidey 
John Jones 
Anthony Benn^ ] 
Sam. Whichcote ) 
William Addis 
Thomas Hughes 
Daniel Fenn 
Peter Higgs** 
S. Charrington ft 
Charles Merry 
Thomas Garle 
James Brown 
Daniel Avelinel+ 
Eliezer Chater 
David Rivers 
William Rogerson 
Francis Perigal 
Joseph Stephens 
William Howes 
Southern Payne 



Senior. Warden. 



William Bertram 
Wm. Tomlinson 
Edward Faulkner 
Hugh Richards 
James .Snelling 
Thos. Wrightson 
John Maberly 
John Pepys 
William Sherwood 
John Stafford 
Thomas Hughes 
David Hubert 
John Hiorne 
Joshua Appleby 
Jas. Blackborow§ 
Nathaniel Delander 
Samuel Whichcote 
William Scafe 
Henry Home 
Nathaniel Style 
Joseph Stephens 
Henton Browne 
Jasper Taylor 
William Webster 
Francis Perigal 
Charles Cabrier 
Conyers Dunlop 
Devereux Bowly 
Stephen Goujon 
Benjamin Sidey 
John Jones 
Anthony Benn 

William Addis 

Thomas Hughes 
Daniel Fenn 
Peter Higgs 
Boyer Glover ** 
Charles Merry 
Thomas Garle 
James Brown 
Daniel Aveline 
Eliezer Chater 
David Rivers 
William Rogerson 
Francis Perigal 
Joseph Stephens 
William Howes 
Southern Payne 
William Plumley 



Renter Warden. 

Wm. Tomlinson 
John Ellicottf 
Hugh Richards 
James Snelling 
Thos. Wrightson 
John Maberly 
John Pepys 
William Sherwood 
John Stafford 
Thomas Hughes 
David Hubert 
John Hiorne 
Joshua Appleby 
James Blackborow 
Matthew Skinner 
Samuel Whichcote 
William Scafe 
Henry Home 
Nathaniel Style 
Joseph Stephens 
Henton Browne 
Jasper Taylor 
William Webster 
Francis Perigal 
Charles Cabrier 
Conyers Dunlop 
Devereux Bowly 
Stephen Goujon 
Benjamin Sidey 
John Jones 
Anthony Benn 
William Addis 

Thomas Hughes 

Daniel Fenn 
Peter Higgs 
Boyer Glover 
James Carrington 
Thomas Garle 
James Brown 
Daniel Aveline 
Eliezer Chater 
David Rivers 
William Rogerson 
Francis Perigal 
Joseph Stephens 
William Howes 
Southern Payne 
William Plumley 
Francis Atkins 



Junior Warden. 



John Plllicott 
Edward Faulkner 
James Snelling 
William Webster J 
John Maberly 
John Pepys 
Wm. Sherwood 
John Stafford 
Thomas Hughes 
David Hubert 
John Hiorne 
Joshua Appleby 
Jas. Blackborow 
Matthew Skinner 
Nathanl. Delander 
William Scafe 
John Mulford || 
Nathaniel Style 
Joseph Stephens 
Henton Browne 
Jasper Taylor 
William Webster 
Francis Perigal 
Charles Cabrier 
Conyers Dunlop 
Devereux Bowly 
Stephen Goujon 
Benjamin Sidey 
John Jones 
Anthony Benn 
William Addis 
Thomas Hughes 

Daniel Fenn 

Peter Higgs 
Boyer Glover 
WilliamMatthews 
Charles Merry 
James Brown 
Daniel Aveline 
Eliezer Chater 
David Rivers 
William Rogerson 
Francis Perigal 
Joseph Stephens 
William Howse 
Southern Payne 
William Plumley 
F'rancis Atkins 
Robert Poole 



* Died during his year of office (August). . 

t Succeeded upon his decease, June, 1733, by Edward Faulkner. Hugh Richards chosen Junior 
Warden in the room of Faulkner. 

t Thomas Wrightson chosen in the room of William Webster, deceased, September ist, 1735. 
5 Died in July, 1746; Skinner was chosen Upper "Warden, Delander INIiddle Warden, and Samuel 
Whichcote was chosen Junior Warden. 

!i Died April, 1748 ; Henry Home chosen in his room. 

1[ Died in office. ,,-,/-. t^i • 

** In conequence of the illness of the Master, Mr. Higgs, and the death of Boyer Glover, a new Election 
was held on March 7th, 17^8 [see New Election]. . 

tt September 13th. Henry Home elected Master for the remainder of the year, in the room of Samuel 
Charrington, deceased. 

ti Died in his year of office [August], 



88 



THE CI.OCKMAKERS COMI'ANV. 



Year. 


Mmth. 


1779 


Sep, 29 1 


1780 


.. 29; 


1781 


M 29 1 


1782 


,. 30 


i7«,^ 


.. 29 


I7«4 


.. 29 


«785 


M 29 


1786 


,. 29 


1787 


,, 29 


1788 


„ 29 


1789 


M 29 


1790 


.. 29 


1 791 


„ 29 


1792 


., 29 


1793 


., 30 


1794 


,, 29 


179s 


„ 29 


1796 


., 29 


1797 


., 29 


1798 


., 29 


1799 


„ 30 


1800 


M 29 


1801 


,, 29 


1802 


., 29 


1803 


.. 29 


1804 


M 29 


180S 


„ 30 


1806 


„ 29 


1807 


„ 29 


1808 


M 29 


1809 


,. 29 


1810 


,, 29 


1811 


„ 30 


1812 


.. 29 


1813 


,. 6 


1813 


,, 29 


1814 


., 29 


1815 


,, 29 


1816 


„ 30 


1817 


„ 29 


1818 


M 29 


1819 


,. 29 [ 


1820 


M 29; 


1821 


,, 29 



Muter. 



William Plumley 
Franc i-. Atkin-i 
Robert Toole 
Thomas I,ea 
Nath. Sergeant 
James Green 
Hilton Wray 
Etlwanl Tiitet 
Charles Huwse 
James Richardson 
Benjamin Sidey 

Richard Style 

Daniel Fcnn 

Rev. Dr. Robert 

Hamilton 
Samuel Fenn 
William Rivers 
Harry Potter 
John Jackson 
John Ward 
Richd. Duncombt 
[ohn Marriott 
Matthew iJiilton 
William Plumley 
Kdward Gibsf;n 
Timothy Chisman 
William Pearce 
William Robins 
F. S. Perifjal, Jun 
Samuel Taylor 
Thomas iJollev 
William Robson 
Paul P. Barraud 

do. 
Harry Potter J | 
Isaac Rogers ( 
William Robins 

do. 
John Thvvaites 



William Robson 

John RogerAmold 

William Robson § 

29 [ John Thwaites 

do. 

29 I Benjamin Lewis 
VuUiamy 



Senior Warden. 



F"rancis Atkins 
Robert Poole 
Thomas Lea 
Xath. Sergeant 
[ames (jreen 
Hilton Wray 
Edward Tutet 
Charles Howsc 
[ames Richardson 
Benjamin Sidey 
Richard Style 

Daniel Fenn 

Rev. Dr. Robert 

Hamilton 
Samuel Fenn 

William Rivers 
Harry l^otter, Sen. 
John Jackson 
John Ward 
Richd. Duncombe 
John Marriott 
.Matthew Dutton 
■ William Plumley 
I'^dward Gibson 
Timothy Chisman 
William Pearce 
William Robins 
1'". S Perigal, Jun. 
Samuel Taylor 
'I'homas Dolley 
William Robson 
J'aul P. Barraud 
James McCabe t 
Harry Potter 
Isaac Rogers ) 
William Rollins ) 
John Jackson 

do. 
William Robson 

John RogerAmold 

John Thwaites 

William Plumley, 

Jun. 
Benjamin Lewis 

VuUiamy 
do. 

John Jackson, Jun. 



Renter Warden. 



Robert Poole 
Thomas Lea 
Nath. Sergeant 
James Green 
Hilton Wray 
Edward Tutet 
Charles Howse 
James Richardson 
.\ath. .Sergeant 
Richard Style 
Daniel Fenn 

Rev. Dr. Robert 

Hamilton 
.Samuel Fenn 

William Rivers 

Harry Potter 
John Jackson 
John Ward 
Richd. Duncombe 
John Marri<jtt 
.Matthew Dutton 
William Plumley 
Ivlward (jibson 
Timothy Chisman 
William Pearce 
William Robins 
F. .S. I'erigal, Jun. 
Samuel Taylor 
Thomas Dolley 
William Robson 
Paul P. Barraud 
James .McCabe 
Isaac Rogeis 
do. 

John Thvvaites 

John Thwaites 

do. 
J oil 11 Roger. \rnold 

Benjamin Lewis 
V'^uUiamy 

<\o. 

do. 

PaulPhilipI'arraud 

John Jackson, Jun 

Justin Theodore 
VuUiamy 



Junior Warden. 



Thomas Lea 
Nath. .Sargeant 
James Green 
Hilton Wray 
Edward Tutet 
Charles Howse 
James Richardson 
Eliezer Chater 
Richard Style 
Daniel Fenn 
Rev. Dr. Robert 

Hamilton 
.Samuel Fenn 

William Rivers 

Harry Potter, Jun. 

John Jackson 
John Ward 
R. Duncombe, Jr. 
John Marriott 
Matthew Dutton 
W. Phunley, Jun. 
Edward (jibson 
Timothy Chisman 
William Pierce 
William Robins 
F. :S. Perigal, Jun. 
.Samuel 'Taylor 
Thomas Dolley 
W. Robson 
Paul P. Barraud 
James McCabe 
(jeorge Atkins * 
John 'Thwaites 
do. 

John R. Arnold 

John R. Arnold 

do. 
Benjamin Lewis 

VuUiamy 
Matthew Dutton 

William Plumley, 

Jun. 
JohnJackson,Jun. 

do. 

Justin 'Theodore 

VuUiamy 
William Robson 



•Resigned upon his election .is Clerk the 22nd December, 1809; John Grant elected Junior Warden, 
January 8th, 1810; Mr. Grant's death announced May 7th, and Isaac Rogers elected Junior Warden, 
June 4lh, 1810. 

t Deceased ; Harry Potter elected in his room, October 7th, 181 1. 



him 



X Deceased 30th Atit;ust, 1813; Isaac Rogers elected Septcnibei 6th, 1813. 

5l'hird time elected .Master. At tlie close of his year of office the thanks of the Co 



mpany were voted to 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



89 



Year. 


Month. 


Master. 


Senior Warden. 


Renter Warden. 


Junior Warden. 


1822 


Sep. 30 


John Jackson, Jun. 


Justin Theodore 
VuUiamy 


William Robsori 


Henry Clarke 


1823 


,. 29 


l>enjaniin Lewis 
V'ulliamy 


do. 


Isaac Rogers 


do. 


1824 


,, 29 


Isaac Rogers 


Francis Perigal 


Henry Clarke 


Richard Webster 


1825 


,, 29 


Benjamin Lewis 
\'ullianiy 


Henry Clarke 


Richard Webster 


RichardGanthony 


1826 


,, 29 


John Jackson 


do. 


Richard Ganthony 


AVilliam Harris 


1S27 


,, 29 


Benjamin Lewis 
\'iilliamy 


Richard Ganthony 


William Harris 


John Sharp 


182S 


M 29 


Ricliaid (lantiionN- 


Wiliam Harris 


John Sharp 


Edward Ellicott 


1S29 


n 29 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


1830 


,, 29 


William Harris 


John Sharp 


Edward Ellicott 


William James 
Frodsham 


1S31 


,, 29 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


1S32 


,, 20 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


1S33 


„ 30 


John Sharj) 


Edward Ellicott 


William James 
Frotlsham 


John Grant 


1834 


,, 29 


Edward Ellicott 


William James 
Frodsham 


John Grant 


William Gravell 


1835 
1835 


.. 29 

July — 


do. * ) 
Jolm Sharp j 


do. 


do. 


do. 


1836 


Sep. 29 


William James 
Frodsham 


John Grant 


William Gravell 


Joseph Fenn 


1837 


M 29 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


1S3S 


,. 29 


John Grant 


William Gravell 


Joseph Fenn 


Richard Pinfold 
Ganthony 


1839 


„ 30 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


1840 


„ 29 


William Gravell 


Joseph Fenn 


Richard Pinfold 
Ganthony 


JohnRoger Arnold 


184I 


.. 29 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


1842 


„ 29 


Josepli Fenn 


Richard Pinfold 
Ganthony 


JohnRogerArnoldf 


George Atkins 


1843 


,, 29 


do. 


do. 


George Atkins 


B. L. VuUiamy 


1S44 
1845 


.. 30 
Jan. 24 


Richard Pinfold ^ 

Ganthony J ? 

George Atkins ' 


George Atkins 


Benjamin Lewis 
\'ulliamy 


Francis Bryant 
Adams 


1845 


Sep. 29 


George Atkins 


John Grant 


B. L. VuUiamy 


F. B. Adams 


1S46 


.. 29 


John Grant 


B. L. VuUiamy 


F. B. Adams 


J. A. Perry 


1847 


,, 29 


15. L. VuUiamy § 


F. B. Adams 


J. A. Perry 


G. Harker 


184S 


„ 29 


F. B. Adams 


J, A. Perry 


G. Harker 


J. Ad.ams 


1849 


,, 29 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


1850 


., 30 


J. A. Perry 


George Harker 


James Adams 


Charles Frodsham 


1851 


.. 29 


do. 


do. 


do. 


do. 


1852 


,, 29 


George Harker 


J. Adams 


C. Frodsham 


John Carter, Aid. 
and SheritT 


1853 


., 29 


do. 


do. 


do. 


John Carter, Aid. 


1854 


,, 29 


James Adams 


C. Frodsham 


John Carter, Aid. 


R. H. Kennedy, 
Aid. 


1855 


„ 29 


Charles Frodsham 


John Carter, Aid. 


R. H. Kennedy, 
Aid. and Sheriff 


John Grant 


1856 


,, 29 


Aid. Carter 


Aid. Kennedy 


John Grant 


Wm. Rowlands 


iSs7 


., 29 


James Adams 


John Grant 


William Rowlands 


G.W. Adams. 


1S5S 


,. 29 


John Grant 


\Vm. Rowlands 


George W.Adams 


Charles Frodsham 


1S59 


.. 29 


Aid. Carter 


do. 


do. 


do. 






Lord Mayor elect 


' 







* Died in July. 

t Died ill Febru.iry, 1S43, and George Atkins elected in his room, .ind B. L. VuUiamy elected Junior 
Warden. 

t Died in January, 1845. 

J Five times Master. The Court presented him with a piece of Plate. July, 1849. 



90 



THE CI.OCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



Ye«r. 



i860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1868 
1869 
1870 
187 1 
1872 
1873 
1874 
187s 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 



Month. 



Sep. 29 



Master. 



M 30 


,. 29 


,. 29 


» 29 


M 29 


,, 29 


., 30 


„ 29 


.. 29 


., 29 


., 29 


M 29 


., 30 


,. 29 


.. 29 


M 29 


M 29 


M 29 


» 29 


„ 29 



W. Rowlands 
Georjje W. Adams 
Charles FrocUham 
Joseph Fenn 
Aid. Carter 

F. B. Adams 

J. G. C. Addison 
\V. Rowlands ♦ ( 
John Grant f ) 

G. W. Adams 
William Lawley 
George Moore 

J. G. C. Addison 
Wm. Wing 
Charles Well borne 
William Lawley 
George Moore 
J. S. Adams 
Col. A. A. Croll 
William Parker 
William Wing 



Senior Warden. 



G. W. Adams 

Charles Frodsham 
Joseph Fenn 
Aid. Carter 
V. B. Adams 
John Addison 
Wm. Rowlands j 



Renter Warden. 



C. Frodsham 
Joseph Fenn 
George Marker 
F. B. Adams 
J. Addison 
William Rowlands 
G W. Adams 



G. W. Adams ! W. Lawley 



Wm. Lawley 
George Moore 
Chas. Frodsham § 
Wm. Wing 
Charles Wellborne 
W. Lawley 
George Moore 
J. S. Adams 
Col. A. A. Croll 
Wm. Parker 
William Wing 
Charles Wellborne 



George Moore 
Chas. Frodsham 
Wm. Wing 
C. Wellborne 
Wm. Lawley 
George INIoore 
J. S. Adams 
"Col A. A. Croll 
Wm. Parker 
Robert Dobree ^ 
Charles Wellborne 
J. S. Adams 



Junior Warden. 



J. Fenn 
George Ilarker 
Aid. Carter 
J. G. C. Addison 
R. H. Kennedy 
G. W. Adams 
William Lawley 

George Moore 

Charles Frodsham 
F. B.Adams, Jr. J 
Chas. Wellborne 
Wm. Lawley 
George Moore 
J. S. Adams 
Alex. Angus Croll 
Wm. Parker 
Wm. Butcher || 
Wm. Wing 
J. S. Adams 
S. Elliott Atkin.s, 
Deputy 



In 



TREASURER, 
the year 1647 a Treasurer was appointed for the 



reasons given in the following Resolution : — 

" 1647. October 11. The day above said it was likewise ordered, That 
whereas Mr. Helden being Renter Warden and refusing to give security for 
the stock of the Company, the Company thought it fit that it should be put 
to voices that Mr. East and Mr. Hackett should be putt in nomination for 
Treasurer and then Mr. East was chosen and it was ordered that the money 
should be paid unto him, and he to give bond to the Company for it." ' 

The office ceased with the death of Mr. East. 



CLERK. 

The following is a list of the Clerks of the Company 
since its formation ; with extracts, where obtainable, from the 
minutes of proceedings of their admission, etc., to office : — 

1 63 1. August 22. Thomas Copley appointed by the Charter to hold 
oflSce for life. 



• Deceased during his year of office, 22nd September, 1868. 

t Five times Master. Sen distinguished Members. 

t Deceased nth March, 1870, W. Wing elected April 4th, 1870. 

} Died during his year of office, J. G. C. Addison elected July 3rd, 1871. 

!, Died on the 4th of January, 1877. K. Dobree elected January 8th, 1877. 

IF Died during his year of office, W. Wing elected April 8th, 1878. Charles Wellborne being elected 

Jun.or Warden. 
' Company's Journal L 



THE CLOCKMAKERS CO.MPANY. 9 1 

Sworn into office at the first Court held 12th October, 
1632. Power was given to the Master, Wardens and Court 
of Assistants by the Charter from time to time and at all times 
after his death to choose, name, and make, one other discreet 
person, to be Clerk of the fellowship to hold office during the 
good will and pleasure of the Court. 

1636. August I. Thomas Shelton was elected. 

"This day was freely elected and chosen and sworn Clerk of the Com- 
pany of Clockmakers Thomas Shelton of Furnivalls Inn in Holborne, Gent, 
and it is ordered that the said Clerke shall not at any tyme receive any writings 
or copies from henceforth in anywise touching the Company but shall from 
time to time bring in and redeliver the same from one court day to another 
as occasion shall require for the confirmation of him in the said place." ' 

165 1-2. January 5. Thomas Morgan was chosen. 
1659. January 16. Thomas Holland was admitted. 

"This day Thomas Holland according to his petition was admitted for 
Clerk and Beadle to the Company and to officiate in the said places that so 
his abilities may be seen for them by Ladyday next being the next quarter day. 

" 1662. August 20. This Court day Mr. Thomas Holland was suspended 
from acting any more as Clerk or Beadle to this Company (nemine contra- 
dicente). 

" 1662. September i. This Court day Mr. Holland the former Clerk 
to this Company delivered up the Bookes and all other things belonging to the 
Company and was paid what the Company did owe him and discharged of his 
service for the time to come." 

1662. September i. Thomas Goodwin chosen. 

"This Court day Mr. Thomas Goodwin (upon his petition) was chosen 
to execute the place of Clerk to this Company. 

" 1683. April 2. Ordered that annually on the 29th of September 
when the Master and Wardens are put in nomination and chosen so shall the' 
Clerk and Beadle likewise be then nominated and chosen." 

1 7 — . Francis Speidell. The date of his election is not 
recorded, but in 1704 appear the following entries with 
reference to him : — 

' Company's Journal I. 

H 



92 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



" 1 704. September 29. This Court was petitioned by the present Clerk 
Franc Speidell acknowledging his faults and misapplication of some of the 
Company's money come to his hands, promiseing amendment and reparation 
and praying to be continued Clerk. It was upon debate and consideration 
had thereon, Ordered That the said Speidell shall have time till the Monthly 
Court in November to make out his accounts of what money is in his hands 
unanswered of the Orphan duty received by him, and also shall make up the 
account of the Law Charges and the Moneys paid to the Attorney in the suit 
against Bird, and produce the receipts for the same, and what the whole of 
that charge amounts unto, and also that he perfect his entries and other 
business of the Company by that time and deliver the books belonging to the 
Company to the Master, and then the Company will come to a resolution 
whether they continue him the said Speidell as their Clerk or suspend or 
discharge him from that Office. 

"1704. October 4. the Master reported that there had been received 
at several times of the Clerk towards the Money paid at Guildhall and for 
Stamps ;^i8 . 16.9. 

"1704. November 6. It was Ordered that the settlement of the Clerk 
be adjourned to the next Quarter Court." 

The matter was finally allowed to pass over, and he 
continued in office until 1719. 

1 719. April 6. Benjamin Graves was elected Clerk in 
the room of Francis Speidell, deceased. 

1 73 1. December 6. James Drury elected in the room 
of Benjamin Graves, deceased, was sworn accordingly, and 
thereupon surrendered his place as an assistant. 

1740. May 5. John Stafford was elected Clerk in the 
room of William Drury, deceased. 

1740. June 2. John Locker was elected in the room 
of John Stafford, deceased. 

1760. July 15. Jasper Taylor was elected in the room 
of John Locker, deceased. 

1770. March 14. Thomas Hughes chosen Clerk. 

1785. December 5. Francis Atkins was elected. 

The son of Thomas Atkins Citizen and Barber Surgeon. Born in 1730. 
Apprenticed to Joshua Hassell December i 1746 ; admitted to the Freedom of 
the Company April 2 1759; to the Livery December 4 1769 ; chosen on the 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 93 

Court of Assistants April 5, 1773; served the office of Warden 1777-79; 
chosen Master September 29, 1780 ; elected Clerk of the Company 
December 5, 1785; died 1809. 

1809. December 22. George Atkins elected. 

The Son of the above Francis Atkins; born March 25 1767; ap- 
prenticed to John Waldron, admitted to the Freedom September i, 1788 
and to the Livery October 13, 1788. Chosen on the Court Assistants 
April 4, 1808; resigned upon succeeding his Father as Clerk to the Company 
December 22, 1809. He held this office for Thirty-one years. He was again 
elected on the Court of Assistants upon his resigning the office of Clerk, 
October nth 1841. He served the office of Warden 1842-44 and upon the 
decease of Mr. R. P. Ganthony, January 24, 1845, '""^ was elected Master, 
which office he held again the following year. At the termination of his 
year of office the following resolution was passed unanimously and ordered 
to be presented to him by the Master of the Company in Open Court. 1847. 
January 4th. "That the Thanks of this Court be presented to George 
Atkins Esq., the late Master, for the very able and zealous manner in which 
he had for two successive years filled that office ; for the undeviating punctu- 
ality of his attendance, his obliging demeanour at all times towards the whole 
of its members, and for his sincere desire to promote the best interests of the 
Trade in general and this Corporation in particular. But the services of the 
late Master have been so multifarious and have extended over so long a period 
that the Court feels specially called upon to enumerate them on the present 
occasion. In the year 1788 he was admitted to the Livery, and elected a 
Member of the Court of Assistants in 1808, which situation he relinquished 
after having served the office of Warden to accept the much more useful but 
arduous duty of Clerk to the Company, which he filled to the great advantage 
of the Corporation and with infinite credit to himself for the long period of 
Thirty-One Years, when he resigned and was again elected a Member of the 
Court. And this Court on his retiring from the Chair feels that it cannot too 
strongly express the high sense it entertains of his past services in the various 
situations he has filled, and earnestly prays that they may long continue to 
enjoy the advantage of his society and the benefit of his assistance. By order 
of the Court (Signed) S. Elliott Atkins, Clerk to the Company." In 1852 
he was requested by the members of the Court of Assistants to sit for his 
portrait to Mr. Lucas. This is now preserved with the other portraits be- 
longing to the Company in the Guildhall Library. He died in 1855 in his 
88th year having been connected with the Company for the long period of 
67 years. 

1842. January 10. Samuel Elliott Atkins was elected 
to succeed his Father. 

He was born April 13, 1807 ; apprenticed to his Father May 7th 
1821 ; admitted to the Freedom March 7th 1831, and to the Livery Decem- 
ber 2, 1839 ; succeeded his Father as Clerk January 10, 1842. In 1865 he 
was chosen to represent the Ward of Cornhill in the Court of Common Council 
and was appointed Deputy to the Alderman of that Ward. In 1874 upon 

II 2 



94 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

his completing his thirty-second year of office as Clerk to the Company he 
received the unanimous thanks of the Court of Assistants with a presentation 
of Plate. 

1874. Tuly 6. On the conclusion of the business of the Court 
Mr. Adams laid before the Members for their inspection the Plate he had 
manufactured at their request, and for which they had individually subscribed, 
to be presented to Mr. S. E. Atkins, the Clerk of the Company, consisting of a 
large Silver oval Salver and a Claret Jug engraved with the Arms of the 
Company, as well as those of Mr. Atkins, each piece bearing the following 
inscription. 

" Presented to Samuel Elliott Atkins Esq., by the Master, Wardens and 
Court of Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers of the City of 
London, in acknowledgement of the great and valuable services rendered by 
him as Clerk of the Comi)any during the long period of Thirty two years, 
and as a tribute of their personal regard and esteem a.d. 1874." 

On the 13th of January, 1879, he was chosen on the Court 
of Assistants, having previously resigned the office he had held 
for 3 7 years, but at the request of the Court continued to act 
as Clerk, pro. tan., until the appointment of his successor, when 
on his giving up the office, the following Resolution was unani- 
mously passed, and ordered to be ornamentally written and 
presented to him in open Court: — ■ 

" That the best thanks of this Court be presented to Samuel Elliott 
Atkins Esq. Deputy, on his retirement from the office of Clerk to this Company, 
after filling that position for the long period of thirty seven years, during the 
whole of which time this Court and the Livery have received more attention 
and devotion than is ordinarily found in the discharge of mere official duties ; 
and this Court cannot omit from their notice the fact that the zeal evinced by 
Mr. Atkins in promoting the display of their collection of articles pertaining 
to the Art and Mystery of Clockmaking in the Guildhall of this City, as well 
as the collation of the past Records of the Company again entitle him to more 
than ordinary thanks. It is right that reference should be made to the 
circumstance that the Father and Grandfather of the retiring Clerk have 
conjointly with him contributed to the advantage of this Company by the 
faithful and honourable discharge of the duties of the office during Ninety- 
six years. By order of the Court (Signed) H. C. Overall, Clerk to the 
Company." 

Upon his resignation becoming known to the Livery, a 
subscription was set on foot among themselves, which resulted 
in a silver tea and coffee service being presented to him by 
that body, bearing the following inscription : — 

" Presented to Samuel Elliott Atkins, Esq., Deputy for the Ward of 
Cornhill, by the Livery of the Clockmakers' Company, in testimony of their 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



95 



high esteem and regard for his long and valuable services as Clerk to the 
Company, 1879." 

On the 29th of September, 1879, he was elected to the 
office of Junior Warden, the Resolutions of the Court of the 
6th of April, 1824, which directs that Members of the 
Court shall be required to be three years thereon before they 
are eligible to take the office of Warden, being specially 
suspended to enable him to take that office. 

1879. April 7. Henry Charles Overall chosen Clerk. 



BEADLE. 



1633. 


October 3. 


John Potter was admitted and sworn. 


I64I. 


September 29. 


— Morgan admitted and sworn. 


1659. 


January 16. 


Thomas Holland. ' 


1662. 


August 20. 


William Rogers. 


1665. 


February 9. 


Lionel Wyth. 


1674. 


January 18. 


Samuel Davis. '' 


1680. 


September 29. 


Daniel Stephens. 


1697. 


January 17. 


Richard George. 


I7I2. 


April 7. 


John Drew. 


1713- 


September 29. 


Christopher Gold. 


I7I8. 


January 16. 


— Warburton. 


17—- 




Charles ToUey. 


1730. 


September 29. 


Edward Avenell. ^ 


1749. 


January 22. 


John Avenell. ■* 


1756- 


July 4- 


Anthony Marsh. 


1775- 


April 3. 


Daniel Cathay. 


1779. 


April 12. 


William Hornblower. ^ 


1798. 


April 2. 


Richard Booth. ^ 


1830. 


January 11, 


Samuel Booth. ' 


1851. 


October 13. 


George Smellie elected. ® 


1864. 


September 29. 


Edward Mullett elected. 



* Elected Clerk and Beadle ; suspended from his Office, August 20, 1662 ; discharged 
September i, 1662. 

= Discharged for neglect of duty September 29, 1680. 

^ Chosen in the room of Charles Tolly, deceased. 

'' Chosen in the room of his father, deceased. 

5 On account of the great age of William Hornblower, Willy Negus was chosen Assis- 
tant Beadle, September 7, 1795 ; resigned October 12, 1795 ; and was succeeded by Richard 
Booth. 

* Died November 2, 1829 ;' he had fiUed the office for 30 years. 
' July 7, 185 1. The death of Samuel Booth reported. 

* Deceased 1864. 





THE LIVERY. 

HE Bye- Laws made by the Company on the 
iith of August, 8th Charles I, 1632, and 
confirmed by the Lord Keeper and the 
Lord Chief Justices of the King's Bench and 
Common Pleas, contain in Bye-law 2 an 
Ordinance to the following effect : — 

" It is hereby ordained, that of the said Master, Wardens, and Fellowship, 
and of the Fellowship and of the Fellows thereof, there shall be a livery of Com- 
pany, as is used in other Companies within the City of London, for the better 
service of his Majesty, and of the said City. And that the Master, Wardens, 
and Assistants of the said Fellowship ; and as many others of the Fellows of 
the said Fellowship, as the said Master, Wardens, and Assistants, being 
assembled, or the more part of them (whereof the Master and one of the 
Wardens shall be two) shall elect from time to time, shall be of the said 
Livery. And that every person of the said Fellowship chosen into the said 
Livery shall accept and take upon him to be of the said Livery, and shall 
within fourteen days after notice of such election, take such oaths as by these 
ordinances shall be appointed for him." 

This, however, it was not within the power of the 
Company to create. It is difficult to understand at this distance 
of time how such a provision was confirmed by the Judges ; 
a Livery being, according to the custom of the City of London, 
granted to a Company by the Court of Aldermen only, and 
that upon a proper application made to them for that purpose. 

The Clockmakers made several fruitless attempts to obtain 
such a grant, but it was not until the year 1 766 that their 
efforts were crowned with success, and then the number of the 
Liver)Mvas limited to Sixty. Their first application was made 
in the year 1 748, and the circumstances which gave rise to it 
and the results which ensued may be best gathered from the 
following Extracts from the Minutes of the Court of Assistants, 
and the Repertories of the Court of Aldermen respectively. 

On the 1 6th of January, 1748, the Court of Assistants 
met, and after a long and serious debate upon the decline of 
the Company, they passed the following Resolution : — 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 97 

" It being observed that the whole number of the Members of this 
Company is considerably decreased, fewer persons coming now to be bound 
or made free than formerly, an evil among others which seems to be owing 
to the want of the Livery of the City : — it was therefore resolved, that a petition 
be drawn up and presented to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen and all 
proper means used for the obtaining of a Livery, and that there be a Com- 
mittee of the whole Court which the Master may call together from time to 
time, as he shall think fit : that seven of them (of which the Master and one of 
the Wardens to be two) are empowered to draw and present such a Petition, 
and the Company will defray the attending charges.' 

" 1748. January 23. The Charter was read, and the Bye Laws with the 
Oath intended for the Liverymen of the Company. 

"The Committee agreed to attend the Lord Mayor in relation to the 
Company's design of applying for the Livery of this City. 

" The Master and Wardens, Mr. Herbert, Mr. Snelling, Mr. Delander, 
Mr. Browne and Mr. Taylor or any four of them Avere desired to prepare heads 
for a Petition. 

" 1748. January 28. The Committee met, and agreed to a Petition 
to be presented on Tuesday next to the Lord Mayor and Court of 
Aldermen." 

The Petition was presented to the Court of Aldermen 
and was by them referred to a Committee for consideration, 
as appears from the following Extract from their Repertory: — 

-"1748. January 31. This day the humble Petition of the Master 
Wardens and Assistants of the Company of Clockmakers was presented unto 
this Court (of Aldermen) and read in these words 

"To the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor 

and Court of Aldermen of this City of London. 

"The Petition of the Master Wardens and Assistants of the Company of 
Clockmakers 

" Sheweth, — That a Charter was granted to the said Company in the 
Seventh year of the Reign of King Charles the First by which they became 
an incorporated Body Avith power to make Ordinances for the well governing 
their Corporation. 

"That in pursuance of this authority in the succeeding year of the said 
Reign it was ordained that there should be a Livery of the said Company and 
directs among other things the Oath to be taken by those admitted thereon. 

"That it having been found by experience that the not being of the 
Livery hath been in many instances of great disadvantage : — that the number 
coming to be bound Apprentices and others to be made free either by 
servitude or purchase is considerably decreased which your Petitioners cannot 
ascribe to any other cause than that before mentioned. 

"Your Petitioners therefore pray your Lordship and this Honourable 
Court to grant them the honour and priviledge of the Livery of this City in 
order to remove those inconveniences and put them in a respectable con- 
dition with the rest of their fellow Citizens in such manner as to your 
Lordship and this Court shall seem meet. 

' Company's Journal I\'. - Repeilory 153, fol. 12^ el se(j. 



gS THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

"Signed by the Master Wardens and Assistants of the said Company 
28th January 1748. 

VV"- Scafe j 
Sam'- Whichcote, Master. Henry Home \ Wardens. 



Geo"- Ciraham 

John Pepys 

Langl. Bradley 

John Maberly ^ Assistants. ■{ Nath' Delander 



Nat'- Style 

Corn'- Herbert 
Henton Brown 



David Hubert 
Jphn Hione 
Josh*- Appleby 



James Snelling 

Jos. Stephens 

Jasper Taylor. 



"Whereupon it is referred to a Coinittee of the whole Court or any three 
of them who are desired to examine the allegations and report their opinions 
thereon to this Court." 

Whilst the matter was still under the consideration of the 
Court of Aldermen, some differences of opinion arose amongst 
the Members of the Company as to the propriety of the 
course adopted, although their action was ultimately confirmed 
by the unanimous vote of the Company and a new Petition 
agreed to be presented to the Court of Aldermen. 

' " 1749. April 3. Resolved that the Committee of the whole Court be 
continued to proceed in the business of the Petition before the Court of 
Aldermen. 

"" " 1 749- J^ine 19. The Petition of the Master, Wardens and Assistants 
to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to be made a Livery Company 
was read. 

*' And an additional Petition of the other members in favour of it was 
also read. 

" Then the question was put, whether this Court doth approve of the 
said Petitions ? 

'* Resolved unanimously in the affirmative. 

" Resolved unanimously, that it appears to this Court that no undue in- 
fluence hath been used to induce the freemen to sign the additional Petition, 
but that the same was obtained fairly and with their free and ready consent. 

" Resolved unanimously, that there is not the least shadow of pretence 
that the application for the Livery is founded on any consideration of Party, 
and that whoever are the authors of such an insinuation, can in no wise be 
looked on as friends to the Company. 

" Resolved, that the several steps that have been taken by the Master, 
Wardens and Assistants for the obtaining a Livery are entirely agreeable to 
this Court and they are desired to continue their care therein, and to take 
all other measures which they shall judge proper to accomplish it, it appearing 
to this Court that a Livery is absolutely necessary to raise the Company from 
the low estate in which they are at present, which can be ascribed to no other 
cause than the want of a Livery. 

' - Company's Journal IV. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 99 

" Resolved unanimously that the Master, Wardens and Assistants be em- 
powered to draw up and present a fresh Petition to the Right Hon. the Lord 
Mayor and Court of Aldermen, in the name of themselves and the rest of the 
Members of this Company, for the purposes aforesaid if they shall see occasion. 

"Ordered, that the resolutions of this Court be printed in the public 
papers. 

" After these proceedings several persons subscribed the Petition, who 
had not done it before. 

" 1749. June 27. A Petition to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen 
of the Master, Wardens and Assistants in the name of themselves and the rest 
of the freemen of the Company, was signed by the Members present, sealed 
with the Company's seal and afterwards presented to the Court of Aldermen." 

The entries in the Repertory of the Court of Aldermen in 
relation thereto are as follow : — 

" 1749. June 27. This day a new Petition of the Master Wardens and 
Assistants of the Company of Clockmakers in behalf of themselves and the 
rest of the Freemen of the said Company, pursuant to the power unanimously 
given to them at a General Court held at Leathersellers Hall the Nineteenth 
instant, under their Coiiion Seal was presented unto this Court and read. 
Whereupon this Court doth appoint Tuesday the Eleventh day of July next to 
take into consideration the matter of the said Petition And it is Ordered that 
the said Master Wardens and Assistants do then attend this Court." ' 

" 1749. July II. This Court proceeded (according to the Order of the 
27th June last) to take into consideration the Petition of the Master Wardens 
and Assistants of the Company of Clockmakers in behalf of themselves and 
the rest of the Freemen of the said Company, pursuant to the power given 
unanimously to them at a General Court held at Leather-sellers Hall, the 
Nineteenth of June last, which was then presented unto this Court ; and the 
said Master Wardens and Assistants attending they were called in and the said 
Petition was read setting forth that a Petition of the said Master Wardens and 
Assistants was presented to this Court the thirty first day of January last, 
for the reasons therein contained, praying to be admitted on the Livery, which 
Petition was referred to a Comittee of the Whole Court: — That the Petitioners 
laid before the Comittee the proofs necessary to support the allegations of that 
Petition but some objections arising thereto, as not being done by consent of a 
General Court, in order to remove those, and every other objection a General 
Court was called by six days publick notice, and held the nineteenth day of 
June last at Leather-sellers Hall, when the Court came to several Resolutions 
which they were ready to produce : — That the Petitioners conceived there 
cannot now remain one possible objection against them : — They therefore 
prayed this Court to admit the said Company to the priviledge of the Livery 
of this City, in coiiion with the other Companies, in order to raise them from 
the low estate to which they were reduced, and which can only be ascribed to 
the want of a Livery : — And after hearing what the said Petitioners had further 
to offer in support of the said Petition they were ordered to withdraw : — And, 

' Repertory 153, fol. 332. 



lOO THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

after this Court had fully debated the matter, at length a Motion was made and 
Question put, That this Court do grant the said Company a Livery accordmg 
to the prayer of their said Petition? The same was Resolved in the Negative." ' 

The entries in the Company's Minute Books of their 
proceedings and the course they determined to adopt, are 
thus recorded : — 

" 1749. July II. The Committee met and attended the Lord Mayor 
and Court of Aldermen. And, being called in, the Petition drawn and pre- 
sented according to the direction of a general Court on the 19th of June was 
read by the Town Clerk, the resolutions of the general Court were also read, 
and several questions relating to the Company being asked and answered, the 
Committee withdrew. After waiting a considerable time a message was 
brought by the Common Crier, that it was not the pleasure of the Court to 
admit the Company to the Livery. 

" Resolved that the Master and Wardens with the Clerk, draw up a Case 
for the opinions of the Attorney General and Sir John Strange with respect to 
the proceeding on Mandamus or otherwise to obtain the Livery of the City. 

" 1749. August 7. Resolved that a Committee of the whole Court (of 
which the Master and one of the Wardens to be two) be empowered to take 
such measures as they think fit for obtaining the Livery either by Mandamus 
or otherwise. 

" 1 749. October 9. Resolved that the Committee concerning the 
Livery be revived and the opinion of Council taken in the Case as the Master 
and Wardens shall think fit. 

"1750. November 5. On reading the Opinions of Mr. Wilbraham, 
Sir Richard Lloyd and Mr. Campbell on the Company's Case with respect 
to the Livery, Resolved that it be considered at another summoned Court. 

" 1 75 1. March 28. On a question, whether the Minute made to empower 
the Committee to take all proper measures for obtaining the Livery, be a 
standing Minute? It passed in the affirmative. 

" 1 75 1. April I. The Master reported from the Committee of 28th 
March their resolution that the Minute made to empower the Committee to 
take all proper measures for obtaining a Livery be a standing Minute. And it 
was ordered accordingly." 

The Members of the Company were still dissatisfied, and 
on the I St of July following — 

" Mr. Devereux Bowly, and several other Members of the Company 
attended the Meeting and being called in desired to know what had been done 
in consequence of the orders of the General Court 19 June 1749. The said 
Orders being read, after some debate the question was put, whether the Court 
would proceed in consequence of the said Orders respecting the Livery ? — and 
it was agreed in the affirmative. Being called in the Members were made 
acquainted with the said Resolution." 

' Repertory 153, fol. 352 et seg. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. lOI 

The subject appears to have been quiescent during the 

ensuing three or four years, the next entry relating to it being 

as follows: — 

i 

"1755. April 7. The affair of the Livery being again under consider- 
ation and it appearing to the Court that the Company have a right to the Livery 
by the Ordinances confirmed according to the directions of the Act of Henry 
VII, It was solemnly first put to every Assistant present whether the Company 
should on the foundation of the Ordinance take up the Livery ? — And a motion 
being made for balloting on that question, it was carried in the affirmative ten 
against five, Wherefore the Court doth order, that the Livery be taken up 
according to the Ordinance of this Company, as they are directed and 
empowered by the Ordinance to do." 

The Company, however, in 1766, again determined to 
apply to the Court of Aldermen, and the following pro- 
ceedings were thereupon agreed to : — 

" 1766. April 7. Ordered that the Livery be applied for, it being voted 
almost nem. con. advantageous for the Company. Ordered that the Committee 
be of the whole Court and that five of them be a quorum. 

"1766. April 22. Ordered that the Clerk do prepare a Petition on 
account of obtaining the Livery for the Recorder, Common Serjeant, and Town 
Clerk to settle, and that he be allowed the assistance of an Attorney, and 
Mr. Benn being named was accepted. Ordered that Mr. Benn be invited to 
the next Monthly Court. Ordered that the Livery Fine be not less than Ten 
pounds. 

"1766. April 30. At this Court the question was put, whether there 
should be an application to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen for the 
obtaining the Livery of the City of London ? 

" It passed in the affirmative. And the next question was put whether the 
Livery Fine should be fixed for Ten pounds? It passed in the affirmative. 
And that the Court will use their utmost endeavours not to exceed that sum." 

The Company's Minutes record that on the loth June, 
1 766, the Petition was presented to the Court of Aldermen, 
and by them read and referred to a Committee. The terms 
of the Petition are as follow : — 

" To the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor 

and Court of Aldermen of the City of London. 

" The Humble Petition of the Master, Wardens and Assistants and Fellow- 
ship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City of London, 

" Sheweth,— That his late Majesty King Charles the First (with the consent 
of this Honorable Court) by his Charter dated the 22nd of August in the 7th 
year of his reign 1631, did constitute and grant that all the Clockmakers 
and other persons as well Freemen of London as also all other natural born 



I02 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

subjects using the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking within the said City or Ten 
Miles thereof should be for ever thereafter One Body Corporate by the name 
of the Master, U'ardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking 
of the City of London, And thereby gave and granted to them divers Immuni- 
ties and Privileges and particularly a power to make Bye Laws and Ordinances 
for the better Rule and Government of the said Corporate Body. 

" That in pursuance of such authority the said Company made several 
Bye Laws and Ordinances which were approved of and signed on the nth of 
August 1632 by the then Lord Keeper and the two Chief Justices of the King's 
Bench and Common Pleas, agreable to the Act of Parliament amongst which 
Ordinances there is one to the following effect — That of the Master, Wardens 
and Fellowship there should be a Livery Company as was used in other Com- 
panies for the better service of his Majesty and of the City, and that the 
^L'lster, Wardens and Assistants should elect such as should be of the Livery, 
and that such person so chosen should take the Oath therein mentioned. — 
That divers of the Members of the said Company are of considerable substance 
and are able and willing to bear the expence of a Livery and to contribute 
and assist on all public occasions for the honour and service of this City. 

"That by an Act of Common Council made on the 15th day of October 
r765 all persons following the trade of Clockmaking are obliged to be free of 
the said Company whereby the said Company will in a short time be greatly 
increased — the number of Shopkeepers at this time following the said trade 
within the City and not free of the said Company exceeding that of the present 
Members thereof 

" That your Petitioners humbly apprehend that if a Livery was granted to 
the said Company it would be a great benefit and advantage thereto and an 
encouragement to an ingenious, valuable and extensive branch of trade, as 
by means thereof the persons using the Art or Mystery of Watch and Clock- 
making would be upon a respectable footing, equal with the rest of their fellow 
Citizens who are entitled to the benefit and privileges which by the customs 
of this City can be enjoyed by Liverymen only. 

" Your Petitioners therefore most humbly pray this Honorable Court 
to grant them the Livery of this City under such restrictions 
and regulations as to this Honorable Court shall seem meet. 

" And your Petitioners shall ever pray &c." 

On the 24th of June, 1766, the Committee of the Alder- 
men met, and in the Company's Minutes it is stated that they — 

" Examined the validity of the allegations mentioned in the Petition and 
declared that the Court had fully answered them and ordered a Report 
accordingly, which they would report to the Court of Aldermen the next Court 
day, which would be next Tuesday and that we should attend accordingly." 

On the ist of July, i 766, it is recorded that — 

" The Court of Aldermen received the Report of the Committee, and 
after some time, the Petitioners being called in, the Lord Mayor was pleased to 
declare that they were constituted a Livery Company, and that the Fine 
should be Ten Pounds, and the number allowed to be Sixty — after which his 
Lordship wished us joy thereof, with peace and unanimity." 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. IO3 

The Extract from the proceedings of the Court of 
Aldermen is as follows : — 

"1766. 6 George III. i July. This day the Committee appointed the 
tenth day of June last to examine the allegations of the Petition of the Master, 
Wardens, Assistants and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking olE 
the City of London relating to their being made a Livery Company of this 
City, did deliver into this Court a Report in writing under their hands which 
was read in these Words, 

"To the Right Honorable the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, 
"In obedience to an Order of this Honorable Court of the tenth day of 
June last, We whose Names are hereunto subscribed being appointed (amongst 
others) to examine the allegations of the Petition of the Master, Wardens, 
Assistants and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City 
of London relating to their being made a Livery Company of this City, and to 
report out opinions thereon to this Court. Do humbly certify that We have 
accordingly met and examined into the allegations of their said Petition, and 
do find that His late Majesty King Charles the First by his Charter dated the 
twenty-second of August in the seventh year of his Reign, 1631, did constitute 
and grant that all the Clockmakers and other persons as well Freemen of 
London as also all other natural born subjects using the Art or Mystery of 
Clockmaking within the said City or Ten Miles thereof should be for ever 
thereafter One Body Corporate by the Name of the Master, Wardens and 
Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City of London, 
And thereby gave and granted to them divers immunities and privileges and 
particularly a power to make Bye Laws and Ordinances for the better Rule 
and Government of the said Corporate Body — That in pursuance of such 
authority the said Company made several Bye Laws and Ordinances which 
were approved of and signed on the eleventh of August 1632 by the then 
Lord Keeper and the two Chief Justices of the King's Bench and Common 
Pleas agreable to the Act of Parliament, amongst which Ordinances there is 
one to the following effect. That of the Master, Wardens and Fellowship, 
there should be a Livery Company as was used in other Companies for the 
better service of His Majesty and of the City, And that the Master, Wardens 
and Assistants should elect such as should be of the Livery, And that such 
person so chosen should take the Oath therein mentioned — That divers of 
the Members of the said Company are of considerable substance and are able 
and willing to bear the expense of a Livery and to contribute and assist on all 
public occasions for the honour and service of this City. That by an Act of 
Common Council made on the fifteenth day of October 1765, all persons 
following the trade of Clockmaking are obliged to be free of the said Company, 
whereby the said Company will in a short time be greatly increased, the number 
of shopkeepers at this time following the said trade within the City not free of 
the said Company exceeding that of the present Members — And after duly 
considering thereof it does appear to us that the complying with the prayer 
of their Petition will be beneficial to the said Company by encouraging and 
promoting, the increase of their Members and contribute to the dignity and 
service of this City by enabling them to attend and assist on all public 
occasions ; We are therefore of opinion that they should be created and made 
a Livery Company of this City and that the said Livery be granted unto them 
under the qualifications and conditions following (that is to say) That their 



I04 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

Livery fine be set at the sum of Ten Pounds Sterling — That the number on 
their Liver>' shall not at any time exceed Sixty — That they shall be subject 
to the several Orders of this Court respecting Livery Companies — That no 
Member of their Company who is of the Clothing of any other Company of 
this City shall be called on the Livery of their Company before he be translated 
from such other Company openly in this Court according to the ancient 
custom of this City — That they be enjoined to a constant attendance upon 
the Lord Mayor for the time being upon all public solemnities — And that 
their Charter and Bye Laws shall be enrolled among the Records of this 
Court. All which nevertheless We humbly submit to the judgement of this 
Honorable Court. Dated this first day of July 1766. 

" f. cokayne. 
"Robert Alsop. 
" Richard Peers. 
"Richard Glyn. 
"John Cartwright. 
"William Cracraft. 
" Barlow Trecothick. 
" Brass Crosby. 

" Which was well liked, approved of and confirmed by this Court, and 
ordered to be entered in the Repertory, and in all things performed — And it is 
further ordered that the Attorneys of the Outer Court do take care that 
Precepts be for the future sent to the said Company of Clockmakers upon all 
occasions as to the other Livery Companies of this City." 

The Court of Assistants was summoned to meet on the 
7th of July, 1766, when the Master was admitted the First 
Liveryma7i. 

' " Mr. Thomas Hughes the Master was admitted on the Livery, put on 
the Clothing, and was sworn accordingly, as were afterwards the following 
gentlemen : — - 

Mr. Fenn and Mr. Higgs, Wardens. 

Mr. Whichcote ] [ Mr. Sidey 

Col. Carrington / \ Mr. Style 

Mr. Dunlop > Assistants. I Mr. Merry 

Mr. Webster i ) Mr. Addis 

Mr. Garle J ( 

Mr. Dudds Mr. Aveline 

Mr. Rd. Style Mr. West 

Mr. Benn Mr. Rt. Poole 

Mr. Howes Mr. Hardy 

All which put on the Clothing and were sworn accordingly." 

' Company's Journal IV. 

» Each Liveryman was required to pay to the Clerk 6^-. 2>d, and to the Beadle 3^. 4rf. for 
their fees. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. IO5 

' " 1766. July 16. At a Summoned Court held at the Paul's Head near 
Guildhall, the fifteen following were admitted on the Livery — 

Mr. Stephens I a • 

Mr. Matthews / Assistants. 

Mr. Mitford 1 Past Stewards and fined 

Mr. Mudge j for Assistant. 

Mr. John Shelton 

Mr. Robt. Carrington { „ . o. j 
Mr. Robt. Mitchell > ^^'^ Stewards. 
Mr. Chas. Bosley 
Mr. Wm. Rogerson 
Mr. Wm. Button 
Mr. Davd. Rivers 
Mr. Eliezer Chater 
Mr. Jno. Basire 
Mr. Hen. Billinghurst 
Mr. Newman Peachy 
" 1766. July 29. 

Mr. Henry Home ) 

Mr. Henton Browne > Assistants. 

Mr. Devereux Bowly ) 

Were admitted on the Livery. 

" 1766. August 6. The five following were admitted to the Livery — 

Mr. Edward Tutet 
Mr. John Merigeot 
Mr. John Prigg 
Mr. Tho. Nourse 
Mr. Tho. Lea. 

" 1766, September 3, The five following were admitted on the Livery — 

Mr. Francis Perigal ] a • ^ ^ 
Mr. James BrowSe | Assistants. 
Mr. Tho. Carrington 
Mr. Saml. Webster 
Mr. Southern Payne." 

On the 9th of November, 1767, at the Inauguration of 
the Right Hon. Thomas Harley, brother to the Earl of 
Oxford, as Lord Mayor, the Master, attended by the Court 
and Livery, walked in procession for the first time ; Robes, 
Flags and Music being provided for the occasion. - 

The grant of the Livery gave new life to the Company, 
and in a few years the number limited to sixty was found to be 
insufficient for the full requirements of the Trade, which had 
then made great strides ; and at a Meeting of the Master, 

' Company's Journal IV. 
= Vit/e pages 75, 76. 



Y06 THE ri.OCK>rAKF.RS COMPANY. 

Wardens, and Court of Assistants on the 3rd of July, 1786, it 
was determined to apply to the Court of Aldermen for an 
increase in the number of the Livery, when it was — 

" Moved and resolved that the Clerk do give notice in the summonses 
for the next Court, that the Company intend to take into their consideration 
the expediency of enlarging the number of the Livery and the fines." ' 

And on October the 9th it was — 

" Resolved unanimously that it be referred to the Master and Wardens to 
make application to the Court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen to increase the 
number of the Livery to one hundred, and to endeavour that the fine be not 
less than Ten Pounds or more than Fifteen.'' ' 

Accordingly on October 23rd, a Draught of a Petition to 
the Court of Aldermen being produced, was read in the 
following words, viz.: — 

" To the Right Honorable the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen. 

"The humble petition of the Master Wardens and Assistants of the 
Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmakers of the City of 
London, 

" Sheweth, — That on the tenth day of June One Thousand, seven hun- 
dred and sixty six a Petition of the said Fellowship of Clockmakers was 
presented to this Honorable Court which after reciting several parts of the 
Charter of the said Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmakers prayed 
that they might be allowed and constituted a Livery Company of this City ; 
that this Honorable Court did on the same day refer the said Petition to a 
Committee of Aldermen who were desired to examine the allegations thereof 
and report their opinion thereon. 

" That on the first day of June following the said Committee did report 
their opinion that the prayer of the said petition should be complied with, and 
this Honorable Court was pleased to approve and confirm the said report, and 
the said Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmakers was constituted one 
of the Livery Companies of this City accordingly. 

" That your Petitioners beg leave to represent that when a vacancy happens 
by the death of any one of the Livery they are under great embarrassments 
from the various applications of a considerable number of respectable Freemen 
of the said Fellowship of Clockmakers who have been for a long time and now 
are desirous to take upon them the Clothing of the same, which number is 
greatly increased by persons becoming free of this City and following the pro- 
fession of Clock or Watchmaking, being prohibited by Act of Common Council 
from being admitted into any other Company. 

" Your Petitioners therefore humbly pray that this Honorable Court will 
be pleased to take the premises into consideration and grant an increase to the 
number of the Livery of the said Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clock- 

' ^ Company's Journal V. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANV. lOJ 

makers under such regulations and orders for tlic honour and dignity of this 
City as this Honorable Court shall think fit. 

"And a question being put That the said Petition be approved by this 
Court ? the same was unanimously resolved in the affirmative. 

" Ordered that the said Petition be fairly copied, sealed with the Com- 
pany's Seal and presented to the Court of Aldermen forthwith. ' 

" 1786. October 31. The Master with the Wardens and Messrs. Rivers, 
Stephens, Sergeant and Wray met at the Paul's Head Tavern, and affixed 
the Company's Seal to the Petition agreed to on the 23rd instant, in order to 
present it to the Court of Aldermen, and being clothed in their Livery Gowns, 
attended by the Clerk and Beadle proceeded to Guildhall. The Petition 
being given by the Master to Mr. Alderman Newnham who had passed the 
chair and was one of the City Representatives, he having previously undertaken 
to present it to the Court, in a short time the Master, Wardens (S:c. were 
called in and heard it read, and being asked by the Lord Mayor whether they 
had anything farther to say the Master answered no, and withdrew, and was 
presently informed by one of the Aldermen that their Petition was referred to 
a Committee. 

"1786. November 28. The Master and Wardens with the Clerk 
attended a Committee of Aldermen, and being called in were examined 
concerning that part of the Petition (presented the 31 October) which sets 
forth that the Company were embarrassed by the number of applications on a 
vacancy in the Livery, and being satisfied with regard to the number and 
respectability of the applicants, they were desired to withdraw, and being 
called in again were informed that the Committee had agreed to report to the 
Court of Aldermen that the Livery should be extended to 120 and the fine be 
raised to jQ^Si ^^<i made no doubt but the same would be confirmed by the 
Court. 

The following are the proceedings of the Court of Alder- 
men thereon : — 

"1786. Decembers. This day the Committee appointed the thirty 
first day of October last to examine the allegations of the Petition of the 
Master, Wardens and Assistants of the Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of 
Clockmakers of this City, praying an increase to the number of their Livery, 
did this day deliver into the Court, a Report in writing under their hands 
which was read in these words 

" To the Right Honorable the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen. 

"In obedience to an order of this Honorable Court of the thirty-first day 
of October 1786, We whose names are hereunto subscribed being appointed 
amongst others to examine the allegations of the Petition of the Master, 
Wardens nnd Assistants of the Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clock- 
makers of this City, praying an increase to the number of their Livery, and to 
rei)ort our opinions thereon to this Court, Do certify that we have accordingly 
met and examined into the allegations of their said Petition. 

" After duly considering thereof it does appear to your Committee that 
the comjjlying with the prayer of their Petition, will be beneficial to the said 
Fellowship by encouraging and promoting the increase of their members. 

' Company's Journal V. 



loS 



THE CLOCKMAKERS CO.MPAXV. 



" We are therefore of opinion that the number of their Livery should be 
increased to One Hundred and Twenty, and shall not at any time exceed the 
same ; and that their Livery Fine be set at the Sum of Fifteen Pounds Sterling 
instead of Ten Pounds as heretofore directed by this Honorable Court. 
Dated this twenty eight day of November 1786. 



*• Wm. Pickett. 
"John Hopkins. 
"Ja'- Sanderson. 



" Brass Crosby. 
" Watkin Lewes. 
" Nath^- Newnham. 
"John Burnell. 



" And a Motion being made and Question put, That this Court doth agree 
with the Committee in their said Report ? the same was resolved in the 
Affirmative and ordered accordingly." 

A Special Meeting of the Court of Assistants was con- 
vened on the nth of December following, when — 

"The Master informed the Court that their application had been 
successful and that this Court was called for the particular purpose of considering 
who were proper to be called on the Livery. 

" Ordered that the following Twenty-seven Gentlemen be summoned to 
take up their Livery at the next Quarterly Court to be holden on the 8th day 
of January 17 87 viz. 



Mr. Francis Perigal, Jun'- 

,, Christopher Beck 

,, Richard Grove 

,, Thomas Carpenter 

„ William Blackburn 

„ Richard Somersall 

,, Adam Stevenson 

,, John Baptist Bushman 

„ James Rawlins 

,, Edward Gibson 

,, ^Villiam Jones 

,, Timothy Chisman 

,, Owen Jones 

,, Geortre ]\Larm'^- Mctcalf 



Mr. George Clerk 

,, John Thwaites 

,, George Carrington 

„ John Will'"- Jarratt 

„ John Wickes 

„ William Dorrell 

„ John Mattocks 

„ David Bucklee 

„ Thomas Bayley 

,, William Pearce 

,, Thomas Moss 

,, James Young 

„ [ohn Rainier." 



On the 8th of January, 1787, the following seventeen 
Gentlemen were admitted on the Livery, paid their fines, 
were clothed and sworn : — 



"Mr. Francis Perigal Jun'- 

„ Chris"- Beck 

,, Thos. Carpenter 

., Rich''- Somersall 

,, Edw''- Gibson 

„ Will'"- Jones 

,, Tim^- Chisman 

,, Geo. Curson Addis 

,, Fran. Upjohn 



Mr. Geo. Marm^- Metcalf 

,, Geo. Clarke 

„ Jn'^- W"- Jarratt 

„ W'"- Dorrell 

,, David Bucklee 

., W'"- Pearce 

,, Thos. Bayley 

,, John Rainier." 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



109 



On the 2nd of April — 

" Mr. Will'"- Faulkner 
,, Tho'- Pepper 
,, Edw''- Leeming 
„ Jas. Mc Cabe 

On the 7th of May — 

" Mr. Sam'' Jn"- CoUingwood 
,, John 13rooks 



Mr, ^Yi\\"'■ Kemp 
„ Thyar Pitt 
,, Jno. Mattocks 
„ Bern^' Jarrett." 



Mr. Jn°- Starey 
,, John Young." 



And on the 24th of May — 

" Mr. William Pitt was admitted. 



The Company still continued to make steady progress, and 
the numerous applications that were made by Freemen 
to take up their Livery, rendered it in the opinion of the Court 
of Assistants desirable to make a further application to the 
Court of Aldermen to increase the number, and accordingly 
on the 2nd of April, 18 10, they again referred the matter to a 
Committee for consideration, who after consulting precedents 
submitted a form of Petition to the Court of Aldermen, which 
was adopted in similar terms to the last recited. It was 
presented to the latter body on the 15th May, 18 10; the usual 
course of referring it to a Committee for consideration was 
followed by them, and the report of their Committee, recom- 
mending that the number should be increased to 200, was 
sanctioned and approved. 

On the 26th July the Court of Assistants met to give 
effect to the permission thus obtained, and 

"The following Gentlemen, Citizens and Clockmakers, were (on their 
respective solicitations) elected upon the Livery by shew of hands : — 



Mr. Will™- Newell 

„ Chas. Merrill 

,, Rob*- Coulson 

,, Joseph Glenny 

„ Peter Lecount 

,, Tho''- Pattee 

„ Jos"- York Hatton 

„ Sep'^- Miles 

,, Will'"- Procter 

,, Jas. Hatton 



A[r. Thos. Sam'- Stephenson 
,, Frans. Hay''- Sinderby 
„ Edw^- Tayler 
„ Edm''- Collingridge 
,, Rob*- Newman 
,, Thos. Rogers 
,, Rob'- Newman 
,, Geo. Edlin 
„ Will'"- Charlstrom 
,, Edwd. Griffiths 

I 2 



no THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

Mr. Mich'- Foreman Mr. Chas. D'"^- F"- Valentine 

„ Jn" Haughton Wickes ,, Jas. Potter 

„ John Wontncr ,, Alex. Copeland 

„ Jos"- Newcomb „ Thos. Bidlake 

„ kich''- Webster „ Jas. Masters 

„ Jn"- Richardson ,, John Newman 

„ Will'"- Francis „ Fred''- Silver 

„ Rich''- Cavendish „ Will'"- Willin 

and they were directed to be summoned to take upon them the Clothing at the 
next Monthly Court which was held on the 3rd of September when the follow- 
ing Gentlemen attended and were sworn : — 

Mr. Chas. Merrill, jun'- Mr. Thomas Pattee 

„ Robert Coulson „ Septimus Miles 

„ Joseph Glenny ,, William Procter 

„ Peter Lecount „ James Hatton 

„ Thos. SanV' Stephenson ,, Richard Cavendish 

,, Frans. Hay'*- Sinderby „ James Potter 

,, Edmund Collingridge „ Alexander Copeland 

„ Edward Tayler „ Thomas Bidlake 

„ William Charlstrom „ James Masters 

„ Edwd. Griffiths „ Robert Newman 

,, John Haughton Wickes ,, Frederick Silver 

,, John Richardson ,, William Willin. 

„ Richard Webster 

" 1813. November 2. William Mansell of Rosoman Street Clerkenwell 
Watch Case Maker who was summoned to take the Livery on the 19 August 
1 81 2, again on 7 September 18 12 and repeated on the nth October last was 
peremptorily summoned to be at this Court and being now in attendance for 
the first time refused to take the Clothing and the penalty of Fifteen Pounds 
being awarded against him for such refusal he paid the same in Court and his 
Election to the Livery was thereupon discharged. 

" William Welborne of Leather Lane Holborn having been summoned to 
take the Livery in November 181 1 and also in January, February and July 181 2, 
but having failed so to do was again summoned for that purpose to the last 
Quarter Court when he attended and requested until this day promising either 
to take the Clothing or pay the penalty for refusal, he being now present and 
declining to take the same, the penalty of ^^15 was ordered to be enforced, 
which being paid in Court his Election to the Livery was likewise thereupon 
discharged." ' 

In the year 1826, the Livery, upon the appHcation of 
the Company, was again increased by the Court of Aldermen, 
the usual proceedings having previously been adopted as on 
former occasions. Their order, dated the nth April, 1826, 
authorises the number of Liverymen to be 250, and directs 
the Livery Fine to be set at £21, including the fees payable 
to the Clerk and Beadle, at which it still remains. 

' Company's Journal. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPxVNY. I I I 

The Court having- had some doubts as to the abiHty of 
the Company to enforce their Bye-Laws for compelHng 
Members to take upon them the Livery when elected thereto, 
the Master was requested to have a Case drawn and to obtain 
the opinion of Counsel thereon, which he accordingly did, and 
submitted the same to Mr. Mirehouse, one of the Common 
Pleaders of this City, and subsequently Common Serjeant, 
who was requested to advise the Company whether they could 
compel Freemen to take up their Livery, and by what means, 
and in case of refusal, whether the Company could safely adopt 
the course prescribed by the 63rd Bye- Law to recover the 
penalty thereby inflicted on individuals refusing to take up the 
Livery. 

The opinion thereon is as follows : — 

" 1830. July 5th. I am of opinion that the Company may compel 
Freemen to take up their Livery, and that if they refuse to do so, the 
Company may recover the penalty under the Bye Law by an Action of Debt. 

"(Signed) J. Mirehouse. 

" 12, Paper Buildings, Temple, 
June 30, 1830." 








J3-T~"T--V"+"X--T"V-V-"X-»X--T"T"ir"T-'lf*'T"T-'T^^^ 



FREEMEN. 

Upon the Incorporation of the Company, the original 
Members were Freemen of the Blacksmiths' and other Guilds, 
and, as has been shewn in the Chapter on the Charter and 
Bye- Laws, such of them as could obtain the consent of their 
Companies were translated and recorded as Citizens and 
Clockmakers ; those, however, who could not obtain such 
consent, bound their Apprentices to other Freemen of this 
Company, whereby in time they acquired the right of 
admission to the Freedom thereto by servitude. 

The ranks of the Freemen were also constantly being 
augmented by the admission of persons using any of the 
varied branches of the trade who took up their Freedom by 
purchase or redemption. 

The cost of translation varied, and was in some cases 
very considerable. One or two Extracts, shewing early 
instances of the custom in connection with this Company, 
are here introduced : — 

" 1636-7. January 19. The following sum was laid out by Symon 
Hackett Renter-warden about the translation of Mr. Richard Masterson from 
the Clothiers to the Clockmakers.' 



Item. S])ent with Mr, Williams at two several times jT^ 

Mr. Masterson being then present 
Item. Paid to Mr. Williams Clarke .... 
Item. Paid to the Chamberlayne of London for his fee i 
Item. Paid to the Towne Clerke .... 
Item. Paid to the Common Cryer .... 
Item. Paid to the Clothworkers Beadle to warn the 

Company ....... 

Item. Civen to the Clothworkers a Silver Cupp price 
Item. (}iven a watch ..... ^jrice 

Item. Given to Mr. Latham a Clock . , price 

Sum total ;^io 9 6 



s. 
2 
2 
2 

5 
3 

5 

10 
o 
o 



Company's Journal I. 



THE CLOCKMAKKRS COMPANY. II3 

'• 1636-7. February 20. These monejs following were allowed unto 
he Renter-warden Simon Hackett for the translation of INIr. Dawson and 
Jr. Durant from the Imbroderers to the Clockmakers." 

Item. To the Beadle of the Imbroderers Company to £^ s. d. 

warn their Company ..... 26 

Item. The Towne Clarkes fees for both . . . 100 

Item. To the Common Cryer for his fees for both . 6 o 

Item. To the Chamberlayne for his fees for both . 240 

Item. To j\Ir. Dawson and Mr. Durant . . . 216 



Sum total ^5 4 o 

"1724. April 6. Mr. John Shirley appeared at this Court and con- 
sented to pay twenty pounds to the use of the Company pursuant to an order 
of the last Quarterly Court, on condition that this Court translate him to the 
Vintners Company, but desired this Court would take his bond for twelve 
months for the payment thereof which was agreed to, and the Clerk is ordered 
to prepare a bond for that purpose. - 

" 181 1. November 4. James INIasters, a free Clockmaker and a Member 
of the Livery, attended the Court for the purpose of requesting their permission 
to be translated unto one of the Twelve Companies, urging that he had very 
particular reasons which made him desirous of obtaining the freedom of the 
Goldsmiths' Company. 

" Ordered — That the Clerk do inform James Masters that the Company 
cannot part with its Members, but with the utmost regret and reluctance, 
notwithstanding which the Court is induced, upon the representations made, to 
comply with his request upon payment to the Company of the sum of Fifty 
Pounds. 

" 1S12. January 13. James Masters who had applied at the November 
Court for permission to be translated from this Company to the Goldsmiths' 
and to which this Court had returned their answer, again applied and declared 
himself willing to pay the sum of Thirty Pounds for such permission and hoped 
the Court would agree to the same. 

" Resolved — That this Court do comply with the request of James 
Masters to translate him to the Goldsmiths' Company upon his payment of the 
sum of Thirty Pounds. 

" 1812. April 14. The Master accompanied by Messrs. Potter, Thwaites, 
D. Rivers, Jackson and Marriott, together with the Clerk and Beadle all 
clothed attended the Court of Aldermen this day at Guildhall and translated 
James Masters unto the Company of Goldsmiths, he having previous thereto 
paid unto the Renter Warden the sum of Thirty Pounds, conformable to the 
resolution of the last Christmas Quarter Court. 

" 1844. February 5. A letter was read from Mr. George Russell a 
Liveryman requesting permission to withdraw himself from this Company for 
the purpose of being translated to the Company of Salters. 

" Resolved that his request be complied with on his paying a Fine of;^3o 
together with J[^^ for calling a special meeting to attend the Members of the 
Salters Company to the Court of Aldermen. 

' Company's Journal I. = Company's Journal III. 



114 '^"'^^ CLUCKMAKEKS COMPANY. 

" The Master, Mr. Joseph Fenn, with several Members of the Court, 
attended the Court of Aldermen on his being translated."' 

By the B)c-La\vs of the Compan)-, made on the 30th 
November, 1631, and approved on the i ith Augu.st, 1632, in 
accordance with the Act of ParHament of the 25th January, 
19 Henry VII, it was enacted that no person should use the 
Trade. Art. or Mystery of a Clockmaker, Mathematical Instru- 
ment Maker, Sun-dial Maker, Graver, Casemaker, or any 
thiiT^- otherwise peculiarly belonging to the same trade, unless 
lie had served as apprentice for seven years ; and the view, 
search, and survey of the goods of such trade were also given 
to the Compan)'. 

There is no reason to doubt that thenceforward the 
persons using the various branches of the trade enumerated in 
the Bye- Laws, who carried on business within the City of 
London and its liberties, were required to take up their 
Freedom in this Company, and from time to time were 
admitted as Members of the Fellowship. 

In the year 1677 there is an entry on the Minutes of the 
Court of Assistants of the admission of a number of Mathe- 
matical Instrument Makers at one time, a fact which is a 
strong evidence in favor of the claim subsequently put forward 
by this Company in opposition to the Spectacle Makers, to 
which reference is hereafter made. 

" 1667. February 24. The persons whose names are hereunder sub- 
scribed being by trade Mathematical Instrument Makers and free of severall 
Companyes in London were admitted Brethren of the Company of Clockmakers 
of London, and all of them (except Helkiah Bedford, Robert Fole, Isaac 
Carver, and John Sellars, who in their judgements dissent from taking an 
Oath) did take the Oath of the Company ffor which their admission they 
altogether paid to Mr. Thomas Claxton, Renter Warden of the said Company 
the sume of twelve pounds for the use of the said Company, and have sub- 
mitted and severally promised and obliged themselves to conforme and yield 
obeydience unto the Constitutions, Ordinances, Orders and Government of the 
same Company of Clockmakers ' :— 

Walter Hayes 

Helkiah Bedford John Marke James Atkinson 

John Browne Phillip .Smith Edward P'age 

Walter Henshaw Joseph ^Vel!s John Bell 

^V'illiam Howe John Nash Robert Starr 

^Villiam Elmes Isaac Carver John Sellars 

Robert Fole Robert Cooke James Griffith." 

' Company's Journal I. 



THE CLOCKMAKERb' CU.Ml'xVNY. II5 

Others were subsequently admitted upon payment of a 
fine of Twenty Shillings each. 

" 1669. September 29. John Briggs a Cutter of Glasses for Watches, 
formerly a Soldier under the Duke of Albemarle, when the king was restored, 
produced the Act of Parliament 12" Car. II'' enabling Soldiers of the Army 
then to be disbanded, to exercise trades, and a certificate according to the 
said Act, and prayed to be admitted a Brother of the Company, who was 
thereupon admitted and sworn a Brother and for his admission did promise 
to pay to the Company twenty shillings within a week's time and to be con- 
formable to the orders of the Company.' 

"1719. September 29. It was ordered that the P'rench Watchmakers 
and other P'oreigners be informed that they may be admitted into the Freedom 
of this Company, but that none be admitted unless at a summoned Court.- 

" 1719. October i. Paid by Mr. Warden Markwick at a Meeting at the 
' Angell and Crowne,' with the Master elect, to consider of proper Frenchmen 
to be invited to take up their Freedome ^o . 8 . o." ^ 

The Court of Assistants tried for many years to obtain 
an Act of Common Council for regulating the Freedom of the 
Company, but they did not succeed until 1 765. 

The following Extracts refer to the various proceedings 
in reference to this object : — 

" 1694-5. January 14. It was ordered that the Company do endeavour 
to procure and obtain an Act of Common Council to oblige all persons for 
the future who have right to the Freedom of the City of London, and work in 
any branch or part of the Art of Clockmaking and Watchmaking, or either of 
them, to take the Freedom of this Company, and that all persons free of other 
Companies working in either of the said Arts shall bind their Apprentices to 
this Company for the future.'' 

" 1696. April 6. Ordered that the Master and Wardens of the Company 
do endeavour to procure an Act of Common Council according to the order 
of the Court of the 14th January 1695 at the charge of the Company." ^ 

The subject did not come before the Common Council 
until the 20th of April in the following year, when the Petition 
of the Company is found entered at length in the Journals 
of that Court, in the following terms : — 

"1677. April 20. At this Court the Petition of y'^ Master Wardens 
and Assistants of y^ Company of Clockmakers London 
was read w'^'' follows in these words * 

" To the Right Honoble y"-' Lord Mayor and Aldrcu of the City 
of London and the Coiiions in Comon Councill assembled 
"The humble Petition of y° Master Wardens and Assistants of the 
Company of Clockmakers London 



' Company's Journal I. - Company's Journal III. 

s Company's Journal II. * Journal of Common Council, No. 52, ful. 97. 



Il6 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" Sheweth — That whereas it hath been found convenient y' persons of 
p'ticular trades or mysteryes should be incorporated w"' imunityes and powers 
to y' end y' some expert and skilUull in each Art might take by search and 
inspection to suppress and regulate y'= abuses daily comitted by y'' ignorant 
and unskillfull y' y'-' subject might not be imposed on, nor the creditt of such 
Arts or Mysteryes diminished. 

"And whereas by y' Petitioners Charter of Incorporaeiin dated y'^ 22nd 
day of August in y^ 7"' yeare of the reigne of King Charles y'= first, inrolled 
amongst y*-" Records of this Citty, All psons who shall use y"" Art Trade or 
Mystery of makcing Clocks ^Vatches and Alarums, Boxes or Cases for such, 
Mathematical! instruments, dialling and other worke p^perly belonging thereunto 
w"'in y' Limits of y' Petitioners grant ought to be subject unto and regulated 
by y" rules and ord'' of y*" said Company. 

" And whereas many psons useing y" said Arte or part thereof do daily 
endeavour to become Freemen, and are made free of other Companyes, not 
practizing any part of y' Petitioners Art, who have no skill nor knowledge of 
y" goodness or insufficiency of any of y*^ worke belonging thereto, and such 
psons, beinge exempted from y" Governm' of y' Peticoners and the subjection 
to such orders as are needfull for y" reforming y" abuses coiiiitted in y*^ said 
Art, do make up much bad and deceitfull worke both in y*" materialle and 
workemanship to y'-' scandall of the said Arts and the abuse of the Citizens 
of this Citty and others. 

" And for y^ continuance of such practizes will tend to make y^ consti- 
tucons and priviledges, obteyned by y' peticoners predecessors, rather a burthen 
y" an advantage to such ingenious Artists as are conformable to good orders 
and rules both in respect of their worke and y" numb' of their App"tices. 

" Your Petitioners therefore humbly pray this honoble Court will please 
to pass an Act of this Court in behalfe of y' Petitioners that all persons 
now or hereafter using y*" said Trade Art or Mystery of Clockmaking, 
Watchmaking, Mathematicall Instrument makeing. Dialling or any 
branch thereof that are Freemen of this Citty shall cause all their 
App'ntices for the time to come to be bound to and made free of 
y'' Company of Clockmakers, and that the App'ntices now bound to 
the said Trade shall at y'' expiracon of their App'nticeshipps take 
their freedom of y*" said Company, that in time they may be incor- 
porated into one body whereby y"" Petitioners humbly conceive they 
may be enabled to regulate and reforme y" abuses in y"" said Arts, 
and keep up y'^ reputacon thereof att home and abroad. 

" And y' Petition""' shall pray &c. 

Edward Stanton, Master. Walter Henshaw 

John Ebsworth ) Henry Wynne 

Rob'- Williamson • Wardens. Tosei^h ^^'indmille 

Rob'' Halsted j Thomas Tompion 

Edward Morris James Markwick 

John Harris Charles Gretton 

Nathan' Barrow Thomas Hanconne 

Nicasius Russell William Speakman. 
" And thereupon y'^ consideration thereof was referred to y^ Committee 

for letting and demiseing y^ lands and tenements given to this Citty by 
S' Thomas Gresham, Knight, deceased, who are to report their opinions 
thereof to this Court." 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. I I 7 

At a Meeting of the Court of Assistants on the 3rd of 
May, 1697, the draft of a Bill intended for an Act of Common 
Council, was read and approved, and the Master and Wardens 
were desired to prosecute the same with all care and dispatch, 
and to disburse what charges were necessary therein. 

Before, however, the matter had proceeded further, the 
Blacksmiths' Company, from whom, as has been already 
shewn, the Clockmakers emanated, petitioned the Common 
Council against the Bill in these words : — 

" 1697. May 14. At this Court y= Peticon of y^ Keepers or Wardens 
of y" Society of Blacksmiths London was read and follows in these words ' 
" To y^ right honoble the Lord Mayor Aldermen and 
Comons of y'' City of London in Comon Councell assembled 

" The humble Peticon of y'= Keepers or Wardens and society of y'' Art or 

Mystery de Lez Blacksmiths London 
" Sheweth — That y' Company of Clockmakers haveing lately petitioned 
y' by an Act of this honoble Court all Clockmakers may be obleiged to bind 
and make free w"' y™ (or to such like purpose) And forasmuch as y*= same will 
be a great intrenchm* upon your Petitioners and irreparably injurious to 
them — 

" Your Pef' therefore most humbly pray y' they may be heard by them- 
selves or their Councill as need may require against y'' subject matter 
of y^ said Peticon and any Bill y' may thereupon be brought in and 
may have a copy of y*" said peticon and notice from time to time of 
y' fPceedings therein. 

" And y"" Pet"^ shall ever pray &c. 

Thomas Day ) WnvHpn.; Francis Pound 

Robert Blackett j ^^^^^^^"S- Thomas Lee 
John Webster Macklin Green 

W'"- Buck John Whitehead 

Richard Lidiard. 

" And thereupon y'^ consideracon thereof was referred to the Coniitee 
app'^^ to consider of y*' petition lately p'sented to this Court by y= Company 
of Clockmakers London." 

Whilst the Petition was before the Committee of the 
Common Council, the Blacksmiths appear to have taken very 
active measures in opposition to the Bill, and the following 
Extracts from the Records of that Company serve to elucidate 
the causes which led to a state of feeling between the two 
bodies, happily now only matter of history : — 

" At a Meeting of the Court of x\ssistants of the Blacksmiths' Company 
18th May 1697. This Court being acquainted with the petition of the 

■ Jnurnal of Common Council, No. 53, fol. 99''- 



Il8 THE CLOCKMAKEKS COMPANY. 

Clockmakcrs and their purpose to obtain an Act of Common Council to have 
all Clockmakers and others made free of them, Resolved that this Company 
will opi)ose the Clockmakers in their present designe and that the utmost 
endeavours be used to prevent their obteying the Act prayed for in their 
petition. That the management thereof be left to the Wardens.' 

" 1697. June 8. The Committee appointed by the Court of Common 
Council met, when the following reasons against the Bill were delivered in on 
behalf of the Blacksmiths' Company 

" That one maine part of their Peticcin for having all Clockmakers bind 
in their Company (tho' free of others) is impracticable, the late Act of Parlia- 
ment for releife of the orphans enjoyning every jVson to bind in ye Comp^ 
whereof he is a member. 

'' That the reasons assigned for such Bill which are that psons useing 
the s"' art or part thereof become free of other Comp'^' not practising any ])art 
of their art and have no skill nor knowledge of any of the workes thereto be- 
longing doe not at all concern the Blacksmiths, for it is well knowne that they 
are the originall and proper makers of Clocks &c. and have full skill and 
knowledge therein and that many of their employments are wholly in such 
worke Therefore hope the Clockmakers intend not to include the Smiths in 
such their Bill, nor can it be thought reasonable that all p'sons exerciseing the 
Clockmakers art or any branch (part) thereof shalbe within the limitts or 
meaning of such act (as they pray) because it will necessarily take in the 
Artists in Smithery. 

" That the Blacksmiths are Artists (yea the most curious) in such worke is 
undeniable matter of fact and doth plainly appear, not only in that ye most 
Artists therein at this day were Smiths in their originall, but it appears in that 
no Clockmakcr can finish any Clocks &c. without the distinct and peculiar 
workmanship of ye Smith, yet the Smith can entirely do of himself iDecause 
the whole (indeed) is but a branch of ye Art of Smithery and having been 
always so accompted the Blacksmiths Comp^' have therefore hitherto enjoyed 
all Clockmakers, ^Vatchmakers &c. that were members of them, And highly 
just and reasonable it is That in regard the said Art of Smithery is not only 
of great antiquity and use but absolutely necessary it should be encouraged, 
And the ingenious improvers thereof permitted to continue in the society to 
which they originally and of a right, belong for the benefit and reputacon 
thereof And that all the Grants heretofore made to them by the Kings and 
Queens of this Realme should be construed to their greatest advantage, and 
that no subseciuent Grant or Charter should be taken or interpreted to ye 
p'-judice or diminution thereof. 

" The Clockmakers grand plea or allegation y' abuses are committed in the 
Trade because psons exerciseing it are made ffree of other Comp'^' unskilled 
therein, and are exempted from Goverment is of no force with respect to the 
Blacksmith, who is as good if not a better and more competent judge thereof 
then they, and indeed it is but a specious pretence of theirs, for ye Clockmakers 
have never yet given any instance of their ability or care in that matter. Nor 
is it apprehended how they ever can. Whereas the Comp^ of Blacksmiths have 
(as need required) reformed the abuses of their trade and particularly a few 
months since expended a considerable sume for the publick good in detecting 
and inmishing ye makers and owners of some bad and deceitful wares and 
workmanship apperteying to their Art, and while the Clockmakers work in 



Journal of lllackhiuitlih' Ldnipaiiy X. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. II9 

part of their Art ofSmithery they must be subject to the Blacksmiths searches 
agreable to Charter and Ordinances of said Blacksmiths Comp^ and antient 
Custome of this City. • 

"Such act will not only be injurious to ye Blacksmiths Comp^ but highly 
p^juditiall to ye City in that it will incapacitate those who have and may be 
bound in a Livery Comp*' from serving the Publick in many things in such a 
Comp^ which they will be p'-vented in doing when removed (contrary to their 
will and designe) to one that neither enjoys that priviledge nor is constituted 
of such members as ever yet shewed a willingness (tho otherwise able enough) 
to contribute (as such) to the support of the City Grandeur, and it must 
necessarily be injurious to the jiPsons so removed because then their dutys of 
Quarteridge &c. will be double and the fifines for Steward &c. as great and yet 
they deprived of an equell right with their fellow citizens and hindered in 
doing y' service for ye publick which otherwise they might have had and done. 

" The Company of Blacksmiths have from antient times had a Livery, 
and as such have all along sustained great charges in contributing to ye 
grandeur of this hono'''" City, have been at great costs in building a Hall, do 
pay considerable taxes to the Kings Maj''"' they also pay to the church and 
poor, and bear Amies in the Militia &c. none of all which is done by the 
Clockmakers Comp'- 

" The said Company of Blacksmiths by meanes of the great charge they 
have been at in building their Hall, and other incident charges as a Livery, 
have been a long time and still are in Debt, and if such a Branch (w'''' for so 
long time they have enjoyed) should be taken from them, and ye Clockmakers 
Watchmakers &c. (their members) prohibited ye making of their apprentices 
Df them, especially at this time when the decay of Trade in^generall and im- 
poverishment of the said Blacksmiths' Art in particular is so great, they shall 
not be able to sustain their necessary charges. 

"1697. June 10. The Committee of the Common Council met and 
some of the Wardens and Assistants appeared ag" the pet'^ where the pef^ gave 
their reasons for the Bill but forewent our part of their peticon, to witt that 
concerning binding, and then objected an agreement said by them to be made 
bet''' their Comp^ and ours and some other things as a barr to our opposicon — 
Concerning which matter the Clerk in behalf of the Comp^ denied their un- 
acquaintedness, and being therefore altogether unprovided to give an answer 
thereto desired 14 days time to inquire and consider thereof, which was 
granted, and also craved that the Com'^ would order that they might have 
coppeys of these things the Clockmakers produced which was ordered wee 
paying therefore." ' 

COPY OF AGREEMENT. 

" Item : That no [?son or p'sons now inhabiting or dwelling or which 
hereafter shall inhabit or dwell within the said City or within Four Miles of 
the same and there use or exercise either the s'^ Art or Mistery of a Black- 
smith or a Spurrier (excepting those psons free of the Comp^ of Armorers 
London) nor no other jPson being the s'' Society De lez Blacksmiths London 
shall hereafter take any pson or psons to be his or their Apprentice or Ap- 
prentices not being borne within the Kings obeysance nor shall by any Cullor 
or Device bind or cause to be bound his Apprentice or Apprentices to himselfe 



Journal of Blacksmiths' Company XI. 



I 20 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

or to any other pson being free of any other Society or Comp^' whereby 
his said Apprentice and Apprentices may not be a ffreeman and ffreemen of 
the s'' Society De lez Blacksmiths London. But tliat all jVsons useing the 
said Arts or Misterys or either of them and being free of any Society Guild or 
Fraternity whatsoever (except as afores'') shall bind theii Apprentices to some 
ffreeman of this Society to the intent they may become ffreeman of the same 
according to their Letters Patents in that behalfe granted, And excepted and 
provided alwaves That those that now are or hereafter shall be free of this 
Society and pr'ofesse the Art and Trade of Clockmaking (so they be not great 
Church Clockmakers of Iron) may bind their Apprentice or Apprentices 
to some ffree Clockmaker of London to become ffreemen thereof, this 
Constitu^on notwithstanding, Nor shall any pson of the Society teach or 
instruct any other ^Lan Serv' or Apprentice above the space of one month 
unless he be presented and admitted by the Keepers or Wardens of this 
Society, Nor shall sett to worke any other man's Apprentice neither shall 
retain keep or sett to worke in the Art or Mistery which he useth any p'son 
or psons other then his owne child or children above the space of one month 
before he shall take and binde him to be his Apprentice by Indenture to be 
made by the Gierke of this Society for the terme of seven years at the least, 
And that if any pson shall offend in any point of this Ordinance That then he 
shall forfeit and pay to the s'' Keepers or Wardens and Society for every his 
offence Ten pounds of lawful! English money or such less sume of like money 
as by the s'' Keepers or Wardens and their Assistants or the more part of them 
for the time being (whereof two of the Keepers or ^^^ardens to be two) shall 
be ordered and adjudged to be paid for e\ery such offence. 

of ye 

Glock- 
makers. 



Josyas Deveris 1 Wardens of ye Sampson Shelton Master l 

Robert Ghaplin j Blacksmiths. Richard Masterson ) Wnrd^-nc; f 
Themarke[RK]ofRob'Kilborne Richard Morgan p^^^raensj 



" 1697. June 29. The Warden INIarkham and Renter Warden and 
Mr. Briscoe and Ed. Freeman who had the manageing of this affair [met 
the Gommittee appointed by the Gourt of Gommon Gouncil]. They desired 
that the Glockmakers might prove that which they had produced and called 
by them an agreement, wee apprehending it not to be any such thing as not 
having any date nor place expressed, no due confirmation, nor any witnesses, 
which they could not directly do but produced their Records which set forth 
that there had formerly been a contest between the two Companies, their plea 
and our answer, and then an order of my Lord Keeper about 1638 or 9 for 
both Companies to attend him in order to have the business settled where- 
upon they afhrm'd this agreement was made and argued that it was in our 
books and thereupon the Gourte asked for our books whereto was answered 
that we had no directions from this Gourt, therefore they were not brought, 
but should be ready to observe their ord'' therein, the Gourte seemed to take 
it for granted that it was in our Books whereupon the Clarke further objected 
that it could have no binding or conclusive force as an agreement being signed 
by the Wardens only and one other person when there were 4 Wardens always 
equall in power and trust and for that a thing of this nature ought to be done 
under the Gomon Scale of the Company. The Gourt thereupon wav'd the 
consideration thereof and directed to proceed to the meritts of the case as now 
it stood that they might judge whether it were now fitt to be allowed of w''" 
accordingly was done in substance much the same with what is herein before 
inserted and the comprehensive clauses in Charter and Ordinances relative 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 121 

to binding making free turning over &c. were read and urged. It admitted of 
a long debate in Committee and their Clerk informed us they had agreed 
upon a Report Speciall."' 

The Report of the Committee of the Common Council 
on the subject was presented to that Court on the 8th October 
following, in which they recommended that the Petition of the 
Clockmakers should be complied with and a Bill brought in 
accordingly, which was done, but being still opposed by the 
Blacksmiths, it was recommitted and stood over for some time. 
Eventually on the Petition of the Clockmakers, a new Com- 
mittee was appointed who brought in another Bill against 
which the Blacksmiths continued their opposition, both sides 
being heard by Counsel,^ and the Bill was finally thrown out 
on the third reading, on the 31st November, 1698. The 
proceedings are given at length in the following Extracts : — 

"At a Common Council held on the 8th October 1697, Clarke Mayor. 
This day the Com''^'' to whom the Petietin of the Master and Wardens and 
Assistants of the Company of Clockmakers was referred did deliver into this 
Court a Report in writeing under their hands touching the same the tenour 
whereof follows, viz. 

"To the Right Hono"^ the Lord Mayor Aldreii and Comons in Conion 
Councill assembled. 

" In obedience to an Order of this Hono^''^ Court bearing date the 20th 
day of Aprill last past We whose names are hereunto subscribed being of 
the Com''*' appointed by the said Order to consider of the Peticon of the 
Master Wardens and Assistants of the Company of Clockmakers And 
also an Order of this bono''"'' Court bearing date the 14th day of May last to 
consider of the Peticon of the Keepers or Wardens and Society of the Art 
or Mystery de lez Blacksmiths London have sev^'all times mett and considered 
of the mres sett forth in the said Peticons and have heard the AUegacons on 
both sides and have seen entries in the Bookes of the said Companies and a 
Report made and confirmed in Bromfeild's Mayoralty dated the i6th June 
1636 purporting that such persons as used the Art of makeing watches and 
chamber clocks and would not be translated to the Society of Clockmakers or 
could not procure the Companies whereof they were free to give their consent 
thereto should notwithstanding bind their App"tices to some freeman of the 
said Company of Clockmakers and be made free of the said Company And 
also an agreem' made and signed by the then Master Wardens and Assistants 
of the Company of Clockmakers and the Wardens of the Blacksmiths pur- 
porting that those which then were or should hereafter be free of the Society 
of Blacksmiths and profcsse the Art or trade of Clockmaking (except great 
Church Clockmakers of Iron) might bind their App"tice or App"tices to some 
free Clockmaker of London to become free of the Clockmakers Company. 

' Journal of Blacksmiths' Company XI. 

= By the Company's Minutes of the 25th November, 1698, it appears that the Counsel 
selected by the Clockmakers were Sir Bartholomew Showers, Mr. Northey, Mr. Cowper, 
and Mr. Dee. 



122 THE CI.OCKMAKERS COMTANV. 

And being satisfied of the great losse of trade the said Company of Clock- 
makers have and may sustein by reason of the gxportacon of great quantities 
of badd goods both in Workmanship and Mreialls made up and sold by sev'all 
persons exerciseing the Trade or Mystery of Clockmaking and Watchmaking 
being free of other Companies and keeping more App"tices then the said 
Conipany lawfully can, whereby the number of Clockmakers are extreamly 
multiplied and not well educated in the said Trade, and doe procure their 
freedomes in other Companies, by reason whereof they are not subject to nor 
under the governm' views searches and correctHms of the said Conipany of 
Clockmakers, nor oblidged to observe the Rules Lawes and Ordinances of the 
same Company. For remedy whereof and to the intent that all freemen of 
this Citie using any of the said Arts or Trades of making Clocks Watches 
Larrums and Boxes and Cases for them and Mathematicall Instrum'^ Sunn 
Dyalls or other Workes belonging (yperly to the said Art or Trade of Clock- 
making may in time be compelled to be made free of the said Company of 
Clockmakers And that the Master and Wardens of the said Company for the 
time being may hereafter have lawfull power to make a more free and effectuall 
search inspectxSn and correcc<)n of all frauds deceipts and defaults comitted 
and done by persons useing the said Arts and Trades last mencxmed within 
this Citie and Libties thereof then heretofore they have had whereby such 
frauds deceipts abuses and offences may be discovered and punished accord- 
ing to the Antient Lawes and Customes of this City, We are humbly of 
opinion That it may be enacted by this bono"'' Court that all and every 
person and persons using and exercising the Art Mystery or Trade of 
making Clocks \Vatches Larums Boxes and Cases for them Mathematicall 
Instrum" Sunndyalls or any other Worke properly belonging to the said Art 
Trade or Mistery or any part thereof (being free of other Companies) or the 
Clerkes of the Companies such persons are free of doe from and after the 
day of next immediately after the binding of any App"tice 

or App"tices, deliver the names of the App"tice or App"tices soe bound and 
the date of the indres of such App"tice or App"tices soe bound to the Master, 
Wardens or Assistants of the said Company of Clockmakers for the time 
being or one of them to th'end such App"tice or App"tices soe bound may 
for the future be compeleable to take up their freedomes in the Company of 
Clockmakers And that all App"tices already bound or hereafter to be bound 
to any person or persons useing or exerciseing the said Art Trade or Mistery 
of making Clocks or Watches Larums Boxes and Cases for them, Mathe- 
maticall InstrunV Sunndyalls, or any other Work properly belonging to the 
said Art Trade or Mistery or any parte thereof free of any other Company 
whatsoever And also that all and every person or persons whatsoever useing 
or exerciseing the Art Trade or Mistery last menconed or any or either of 
them having any right to their freedoms of this Citie by Patrimony Redemp- 
cbn or otherwise be for the future oblidged to take up their freedomes and be 
made free of the said Company of Clockmakers only. All which neverthe- 
lesse is humbly submitted to the great wisdome and judgm^ of this bono'''*" 
Court. ]^ated this 7''' day of October, 1697 

Ric. Levett O. Buckingham Edw. Wills 

James Boddington Tho. Pitts John Har\-ey 

Which being read and the Question being put Whether a Bill should be 
brought in upon the said Report It was carried in the Affirmative and referred 
to the said Com'" to bring in a Bill pursuant to the said Report. ' 

' Journal of Common Council, No. 52, fol. 143 et se<j. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMrANY. 1 23 

"1697. October 27. Clockmakers' affair. The major part of the 
Committee favouring the Clockmakers' cause did agree upon a report after 
our hearing in June kist and signed the same severally without having a 
Committee therefore which gave offence to some of the Committee and there- 
upon diverse Committees were summoned in the month of September but 
without effect and on the 7th of October was a Committee where were psent 
S'' Richard Levett S"" Owen Buckingham S' Edw'' Mills Col. Boddington Mr. 
Harvey and Capt Pitts when the Report was read, and it being our Quarter 
day Mr. Holland Mr. Markham and Mr. Clements only appeared who en- 
deavoured to possess ye Court with the disadvantages upon y' account but 
they required our reasons now against the Report ; ye Clerk then endeavoured 
further to evince that allegation of Clockmaking was originated in ye Smith 
and that they were the sole makers thereof The Clockmakers asserted the 
contrary and urged that they forged all ye ironwork. Mr. Harvey spoke 
much on our behalf and in vindication of those points but all availed nothing. 
The report was passed, and the next day a Common Council was held and 
the report read and a Bill ordered to be brought in.' 

Additional Reasons against the Bill delivered in to the Committee by 
the Blacksmiths. 

"The Blacksmiths Company yet willing to deal ingeniously and to 
conceal nothing within their knowledge concerning this matter doe therefore 
own That in certain By Laws by them heretofore made there is a clause of 
like import with that paper which the Clockmakers have urged as an 
agreement signed &c. concerning which it is humbly submitted to con- 
sideration. 

" I. That it does not appear by the Company's Records to be any Act 
of theirs either in signing any such agreement (as before) or admitting any 
such exception in their By Laws and therefore have reason to suspect that it 
was obteyned by some indirect manner. 

" 2. That the said exception is but in one Clause of the By Laws, to wit 
that for takeing of Apprentices, but in those for presenting, turning over and 
makeing free of Apprentices &c. it is not inserted, whereas Armorers who were 
indeed designed to be excepted are so excepted in those aforesaid and all 
other clauses needfull thro'out both Charter and Ordinances, soe that this 
exception is directly contrary to the Blacksmiths' Charter and runs counter 
to the general scope of all their other By Laws. 

" 3. That the clause in which this exception is conteyned is but a 
part of the Blacksmiths' By Laws which they can revoke, alter &c. as need 
requires.'"" 

"At a Common Council held on the loth of November 1697. Edwin, 
Mayor. This day the Com"'^ to whom the Report of the Master Wardens and 
Assistants of the Company of Clockmakers was referred to bring in a Bill 
pursuant to the said Report did in pursuance of the same deliver into this 
Court a Bill which being read and the Question put Whether the said Bill 
should be read a second time at the next Com on Councell it was carried in 
the Affirmative. 

'■ ^ Journal of Blacksmiths' Company XI. 

K 



124 TJJE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" A Peticon of the Keepers or Wardens and Society of the Company of 
Blacksmiths London was |?sented unto this Court relating to the Clockmakers 
Bill which foUowes in these words, viz. 

"To the Right Honoble the Lord Mayor Aldren and CoiTions 
of the Citie of London in Comon Councell assembled. 

'• The humble Peticon of the Keepers or Wardens and Society of the 
Art or Mistery de lez Blacksmiths London, 

"Sheweth — That the Com'""" to whom the Peticon of the Company of 
Clockmakers was referred having been pleased to prepare a Bill in their 
behalfe ag' which your Petitioners have many iTireiall and weighty objeccons 
and reasons to offer (besides what they in genall offered to the said ConV'^'' 
ag' the bringing in thereof) which will fully shew that the said Bill (should it 
pass into an Act) will be a great encroachm' upon and very injurious to your 
Petitioners and which they humbly hope will prevaile with this hono'''" Court 
to set aside the same soe farr as it relates to the Blacksmiths Company. 

" Your Petitioners therefore most humbly pray that they may be heard 
by Councill ag' the said Bill at the Barr of this Hono^''' Court or 
otherwise. 

"And your Petitioners shall ever pray &c. 

Robert Blacket ] Thomas Bristoe 

Thomas Lee > W'ardens, William Taylor 

Thomas Phillips j Robert Hoe 

William Buck Henry Neale. 

"Which being read and the Question being put whether they shall be 
heard by their Councell at the Barr of this Court according to the prayer of 
the said Peticon It was carried in the Affirmative. And the INP Wardens and 
Assistants of the said Company of Clockmakers are hereby ordered to have 
notice thereof and are at liberty to be heard at the same time by their Councell 
ag' the said peticon.' 

"At a Common Council held on the 20th December 1697. Edwin, 
Mayor. This day being appointed for the hearing the Councell as well for 
the Blacksmiths as the Clockmakers Companies touching a Bill depending in 
this Court for the regulating the Art of Clockmaking they were accordingly 
called in And the said Bill was read a second time. And after hearing the 
Councell on either side and a long debate The Question was put Whether the 
said Bill should be recommitted And was carried in the Affirmative.- 

" At a Common Council held on the 8th July 1698. Edwin, Mayor. A 
Peticon of the Master Wardens and Ass'^ of the Comp^ of Clockmakers of 
London was presented unto this Court and read in these words 

" To the Right Hono*"'" the Lord Mayor Aldren and CoiTions 
of the City of London in Comon Councell assembled. 

" The humble Peticon of the M' Wardens and Assistants of the Comp*' 
of Clockmakers London, 

" Sheweth — That a Bill for regulateing the Art of Clockmaking brought 
in by order of this bono'''" Court hath been twice read and recoiTiitted and 
hath so stood ever since the 20th day of December last. That by reason of 

' Journal of Common Council, No. 52, fol. 157. 
'Journal of Common Council, No. 52, fol. 161. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. I 25 

the new CoiTion Councill and the alteration of some of the Members of the 
Com""^ to whom the said Bill was comitted your Petitioners Bill hath layn still 
ever since. They therefore humbly pray this honoble Court will now please 
to noiate and appoint a Com""^ to consider of the said Bill. And your 
Petitioners shall pray &c. 

J""- Ebsworth, M''- 

Rob'- Williamson ] James Parkwick 

Rob'- Halstead > Wardens. Thos. Tompion 

Charles Sutton j Sam. Merchant 

Nath. Barrow J""- Finch. 
Edw''- Stanton 

" And upon the Question put Whether so many Members of this Court 
with an addition of two Comoners to be added in the roome of Mr. Scriven and 
Mr. Harvey as were a Com''^*' to consider of a Bill formerly in this Court shall 
be a Com'*^'^ to consider of the said Bill or noe It was carried in the Affirm- 
ative And thereupon Mr. Chitty and Mr. Greville were added to the said 
Com"=^- ' 

"At a Common Council held on the 26th October 1698. Edwin, 
Mayor. This day a Com""" appointed to prepare and bring in a Bill for the 
regulateing the Art of Clockmakeing delivered in a Report with a Bill annexed 
into this Court w"'' being read the Question was put whether the said Bill 
should be read a second time the first thing the next CoiTion Councell or no. 
It was carried in the Affirmative.'' 

"At a Common Council held on the i8th November 1698. Child, 
Mayor. At this Court the Bill for regulateing the Art of Clockmaking was 
read a second time and upon the Question put whether it should be read a 
third time at the next Comon Council or no? It was carried in the Affirmative. 

" This day the Master and Wardens of the Company of Blacksmiths 
London as well as the Master Wardens and Assistants of the Company of 
Clockmakers London were called in and their sev'all Peticthis being read for 
the passing of the said Bill and thereupon the Question was put whether Council 
for or against the said Bill shall be heard at the Barr of this Court at the 
reading the said Bill a third time or no, It was carried in the Affirmative and 
Ordered accordingly.'' 

"At a Common Council held on the 23rd of November 1698. Child, 
Mayor. The Bill for regulating the Art of Clockmaking was this day read a 
Third time. And the Counsel as well for as against the said Bill appointed to 
be heard at the barr of this Court were accordingly heard and afterwards 
withdrawing and a debate ariseing thereon the Question was put whether this 
Court would adjourne the debate of the said Bill to the next CoiTon Council 
or no. It was carried in the Affirmative and Ordered accordingly.'' 

"At a Common Council held on the 31st of November 1698. Child, 
Mayor. Att this Court the Bill for regulating the Art of Clockmaking was 
read a third time and the blanks being filled up and some amendments made 
thereto and also sev^ill debates thereon were had, and upon the Question put 
whether the s'' Bill now read a Third time with the amendments made thereto 

' Journal of Common Coimcil, No. 52, fol. 213. 

= Journal of Common Council, No. 52, fol. 221''- 

3- •» Journal of Common Council, No. 52, fol. 227. 

K 2 



126 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

and the blanks filled up should pass into an Act and be a law of this Court 
or no, It was carried in the Negative and a Poll being demanded and 
granted there were Sixty for and Eighty-five against the passing of the said 
Bill. And the said Bill was thereupon ordered to be rejected.'" 

Upon the failure of this attempt on the part of the Com- 
pany to procure the passing of the Act of Common Council 
the matter remained in abeyance for a lengthened period. In 
the year 1764, however, it was revived, and the following 
entries appear in the Minutes of the Court of Assistants : — 

"1764. January 10. On a Motion made by Mr. Matthews that the 
Court of Common Council be applied to, to oblige all persons of the trade of 
a Clockmaker, hereafter applying for the freedom of this City to take it up of 
the Clockmakers' Company, It was ordered that the Clerk do inspect the 
Bye Laws, and enquire the expence of such application as well as he possibly 
can, and lay them before the Court that the same be argued and finally ap- 
proved or disapproved of, at the next Court." 

" 1764. July 2. Ordered that the Clerk do apply to the Court of 
Common Council for an act of theirs to oblige all persons using or exercising 
the Trade of a Watch or Clockmaker, hereafter applying for the freedom of 
the City of London, to take it up of this Company.^ 

"1764. October II. The Master and Wardens presented a Petition 
to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen and Common Council of the City 
of London, praying for the Bye Law of the City to be granted to them to 
empower them to oblige all persons exercising the business of a Clockmaker 
hereafter applying for the freedom of the City of London to take it up first of 
this Company." ■* 

The following is the record of the proceedings in the 
Court of Common Council : — 

"At a Common Council held on the nth of October 1764. Bridgen, 
Mayor. The humble Petition of the Master Wardens and Fellowship of the 
Art or Mistery of Clockmaking of the City of London was this day presented 
unto this Court and read in these words 

" To the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor Aldremen and 
Commons of the City of London in Common Council assembled. 

" The humble Petition of the Master Wardens and Fellowship of the Art 
or Mistery of Clockmaking of the City of London, 

" Sheweth — That his late Majesty King Charles the First by his Charter 
or Letters Patent dated the 22'' of Augiist in the 7th year of his reign did 
will, ordain, constitute, and grant that all and singular the Clockmakers and 
other person and persons whatsoever as well Freemen of the City of London 
as also all other natural Free Born Subjects using the Art or Mistery of Clock- 
making within the said City, Liberties or Suburbs thereof, or within any place 



' Journal of Common Council, No. 52, fol. 227^ 
»■ 3. 4 Company's Journal IV. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 27 

within Ten Miles of the said City, as well within Liberties and places exempt 
as in other places, should be for ever thereafter one Body Corporate and 
politick by the name of the Master Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or 
Mistery of Clockmaking of the City of London, to the end that all frauds and 
deceits in the said Trade might be discovered and reformed, and for prevention 
of such abuses and evils as might occur therein. 

" That notwithstanding the said Charter many Persons who exercise the 
Art or Mistery of Clockmaking have obtained their Freedoms of other Com- 
panies by redemption or otherwise, and many others who are Free of the said 
Company of Clockmakers do obtain people of other Companies to bind 
Apprentices for them, and afterwards turn them over to them, by reason 
whereof the said Company of Clockmakers is much diminished in its number 
of Members and may fall into decay. 

•" Your Petitioners therefore humbly pray this Honourable Court will be 
pleased to order that from henceforth no person or persons using or 
exercising the Art or INIistery of Clockmaking be permitted to take 
up his Freedom of this City by redemption or otherwise unless he 
be first Free of your Petitioners said Company. And that you will 
grant them such further or other relief in the premises as to you 
shall seem meet. 

" And your Petitioners shall pray, &c. 

" Signed by order of Court 

"Jasper Taylor, Clerk. 

" Whereupon it is referred to Sir Robert Ladbroke Knight, Marshe 
Dickinson, George Nelson, Esquires, Sir Francis Gosling Knight and Samuel 
Turner Esquire, Aldermen, Mr. Deputy John Skynner, Mr. Christopher 
Robinson, Mr. Deputy John Paterson, Mr. William Hussey, Mr. Deputy 
Robert Gamon, George Bellas Esquire, Mr. Henry Major, Brass Crosby 
Esquire, Samuel Freeman Esquire, Mr. Arthur Beardmore, Mr. George 
Maynard and Mr. Laurence Holker, Commoners, or any two of the said 
Aldermen and four of the said Commoners to be a Committee to examine 
the allegations thereof, and report their opinions thereon to this Court." ' 

On the nth of December, 1 764, notice was received from 
Sir Robert Ladbroke, Knight and Alderman, that he had 
summoned a Committee to sit at Guildhall on that day, and 
the Master with the Wardens and some of the Court attended 
the Committee, who, after the proper allegations in the Petition 
had been proved, stated that they were of opinion the said 
allegations were fully made out, and that they should so report 
to the next Common Council. 

This appears to have been done, and in the Journals of 
the Common Council of the 7th February following, the 
Report of the Committee is entered, together with an in- 
struction to the Committee to prepare a Bill. This Bill was 
introduced and discussed in July and October of that year, in 
which latter month it was passed into a law. 

' Journal of Common Council, No. 63, fol. 203'^' 



I 28 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

" At a Common Council held on the 7th of February 1765. Stephenson, 
Mayor. The Committee appointed by this Court the nth day of October 
last to examine the allegations of the Petition of the Master Wardens and 
Fellowship of the Art or Mistery of Clockmaking of the City of London did 
this day delivered into this Court a report in writing under their hands which 
was read in these words 

" To the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor Aldermen and 
Commons of the City of London in Common Council assembled. 

" Whereas by an order of this Honourable Court bearing date the 
Eleventh day of October last, It was referred to us amongst others to examine 
the Allegations of the Petition of the ]\Laster Wardens and Fellowship of the 
Art or Mistery of Clockmaking of the City of London praying for the reasons 
therein mentioned that this Court would be pleased to order that from thence- 
forth no person or persons using or exercising the Art or Mistery of Clock- 
making be permitted to take up his freedom of this City by Redemption or 
otherwise unless he be first free of the Petitioners said Company, Now we 
whose names are hereunto subscribed do humbly certify that in obedience to 
the said order we have met and examined the allegations of the said Petition 
and likewise heard what the said Master Wardens and Fellowship had to offer 
in support thereof and we are of opinion that they have proved the same and 
may have a By Law under proper regulations and restrictions which we sub- 
mit to this Honourable Court this nth day of December 1764. 

" Chris. Robinson. " Sam. Freeman. 

"Rob. Gam AN. " Hen. Major. 

" Rob'^- Ladbroke. " Geo. Nelson. 

" And a Motion being made and Question put that this Court doth agree 
with the Committee in their said report the same w^as resolved in the Affirm- 
ative and it is referred back to the said Committee to prepare and bring in a 
Bill pursuant to the prayer of the said Petition. ' 

"At a Court of Common Council held on the 25th of July 1765. 
Stephenson, Mayor. The Bill for regulating the Master Wardens and Fellow- 
ship of the Art or Mistery of Clockmaking of the City of London, was this 
day presented unto this Court and read a first and second time, and referred 
back to the Committee who brought in the same to fill up the blanks therein 
and report the same to this Court. - 

"At a Court of Common Council held on the 15th October 1765. 
Stephenson, Mayor. This day the Committee having pursuant to the order 
of this Court of the Twenty-fifth day of July last filled up the blanks in the 
Bill for regulating the Master AVardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mistery 
of Clockmaking of the City of London, did deliver the same so filled up into 
this Court and the same was read a third time, and a motion was made and 
question put. That the Bill as now read do pass into a law and become the 
act of this Court it was resolved in the Affirmative and ordered accordingly, 
which Act follows in these words 

"An Act for Regulating the Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Art 
or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City of London. 

' Journal of Common Council, No. 63, fol. 244. 
- Journal of Common Council, No. 63, fol. 302. 



THE CLUCKMAKERS COMPANY. I 29 

" Whereas the Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of 
Clockmaking of the City of London are and have been an ancient Company 
and Fraternity of this City and long since Incorporated into one entire body 
by the name of the Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of 
Clockmaking of the City of London, and whereas many persons who exercise 
the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking within the City of London have obtained 
their Freedoms of other Companies by redemption and otherwise by reason 
whereof the said Company of Clockmakers is much diminished and im- 
poverished. For remedy whereof be it enacted, ordained and established by 
the Right Honorable the I,ord Mayor, Aldermen and Commons of this City 
of London in this present Common Council assembled and by the authority 
of the same that from and afier the Twenty-fifth day of December 1765 every 
person not being already free of this City using or exercising or who shall use or 
exercise the Art Trade or Mystery of Clockmaking within this City of London 
or liberties thereof shall take up his or her Freedom and be made free of the 
said Company of the Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery 
of Clockmaking of the City of London, and that no person or persons now 
using or exercising or which shall hereafter use or exercise the said Art or 
Mystery of Clockmaking within the said City or Liberties thereof, shall from 
and after the said Twenty-fifth day of December be admitted by the Cham- 
berlain of this City for the time being into the Freedom or liberties of this 
City of or in any other Company than the said Company of the Master, 
Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City 
of London, any law, usage or Custom of this City to the contrary notwith- 
standing. Provided always that all and every person and persons not being 
already free of this City and who now are or hereafter shall be entitled to the 
Freedom of any other Company within this City by patrimony or service and 
ought in pursuance of this Act to be made free of the said Company of the 
Master, Wardens or Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking of the 
City of London shall be admitted into the Freedom of the said Company 
upon payment of such and the like fine and fees and no more as are usually 
paid and payable upon admission of the Child or Apprentice of a Freeman of 
the same Company into the Freedom of the said Company. And be it further 
enacted and ordained by the Authority aforesaid that if any person other than 
and except such person who is already free of this City doth or shall at any 
time or times from and after the said Twenty-fifth day of December, 
occupy, use or exercise, the Art, Trade or Mystery of Clockmaking within 
this City or Liberties thereof not being free of the said Company of the 
Master, Wardens and Fellowship of Clockmaking of the City of London then 
every such person, other than except as aforesaid, shall forfeit and pay the 
sum of Five pounds for every such offence. 

" And be it further enacted and ordained by the authority aforesaid that 
the forfeitures and penalties made payable by this Act shall and may be 
recovered by action of debt, bill or plaint to be commenced and prosecuted 
with the privity and consent of the Master and Wardens of the said Company 
for the time being in the name of the Chamberlain of the said City of London 
for the time being in any of His Majesty's Courts of Record to be holden 
within the said City, security being first given by the Master and Wardens of 
the said Company to indemnify the said Chamberlain against all costs, damages, 
and expenses that may hapjjcn or arise on account of commencing and prose- 
cuting the said action, and that the said Chamberlain of the saidCity for the 
time being in all suits to be prosecuted by virtue of this present Act against 



I ^Q THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

any offender shall recover his ordinary costs of suit to be expended in and 
about the prosecution of the same, and that in case the said Chamberlain for 
the time being shall be nonsuited or discontinue the same action or judgement 
shall be given against the said Chamberlain in any such action to be brought 
by virtue of this Act that the defendant in such action shall and may recover 
his or her ordinary costs of such nonsuit discontinuance or judgement any Law 
usage or custom of the said City to the contrary, notwithstanding. And be it 
further enacted and ordained by the authority aforesaid that all penalties and 
forfeitures to be had and recovered by virtue of this Act, the costs of the suit 
for the recovery thereof being first deducted, shall after recovery and receipt 
thereof be divided into two equal parts, the one moiety thereof shall be paid 
to him or them that shall prosecute the suit in the name of the Chamberlain 
of the said City for recovery of the same, and the other moiety thereof to the 
Treasurer of the London Workhouse for the time being to be applied towards 
the maintenance of the Poor harboured therein. ' 

" Rix." 

This Act came into force on the 25th of December, 1765, 
and soon bore fruit. On the 5th of May, 1766, John Fish, 
son of Wm. Fish, Citizen and Draper, of London, bound to 
his mother, Mary Fish, for seven years, was admitted to the 
Freedom of the Clockmakers' Company agreeably to the Act, 
being by Trade a Clockmaker. On the 7th July, i 766, James 
Scott, late Apprentice of John Jackson, Citizen and Carpenter, 
by indenture, dated September ist, 1752, was admitted agree- 
ably to the Act, being by Trade a Clockmaker ; and Samuel 
Riddlesdon, Citizen and Joiner, was admitted by patrimony, 
being by Trade a Clockmaker. 

Many more examples might be given, but these are 
sufficient to show the effect produced by the Act. 

In the year 181 2, the attention of the Court was directed 
to the necessity for some effectual means being taken to ensure 
a more complete observance of the provisions of the above 
Act, and after the following recital, viz. : — 

" 18 1 2. August 13. The Court having taken into consideration the 
frequent evasions of the provisions of the Act of Common Council passed in 
the year 1765 and the means proper to prevent the recurrence thereof And it 
appearing that by a certain Ordinance of this Comi)any made 7th day of 
October 1672 It was ordained that a Caveat should be entered in the Cham- 
berlain's Office to prevent persons engaged in the practice of the Art and 
Mystery of Clockmaking from transacting business in the Chamber of London 
but as Citizens and Clockmakers only, And it appearing also that the said 
Caveat has proved ineffective as the persons usually attending in the said 
Chamber have not hitherto had any competent inducement to give full 
operation to the objects proposed to be attained by this Corporation." 

■ Journal of Common Council, No. 63, fols. 314 — 316. 



Tllli CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. I3I 

it was Resolved that certain premiums should be paid to 
the Clerks in the Chamberlain's Office for stopping persons 
applying for the Freedom in other Companies who by right 
belonged to the Clockmakers, and obliging them to take it up 
therein, and also for each Apprentice to any person using the 
Art of Clockmaking, not free of the Company, applying to 
be enrolled or turned over in any other Company, provided 
an endorsement upon the Indenture and an entry in the 
Chamberlain's Books were made to secure his admission at 
the expiration of his servitude in this Company. 

The Clerk of the Company was also ordered to prepare 
and keep perfect a Book containing the names, alphabetically 
arranged, with companies, residences, trades, and other needful 
information concerning all persons practising the Art of 
Clockmaking, but not free of the Company, or free of any 
other, and to lodge a copy of it, to be called the " Caveat 
Book," at the Chamberlain's Office, for the information of the 
Clerks, and to be used for the purposes above mentioned. 

On the 29th September following, a form of Caveat was 
agreed upon by the Court, and ordered to be lodged with the 
Chamberlain, and on the 12th October it was duly sealed, 
and ordered to be presented in these words : — 

" To thtj Right Worshipful Richard Clark Esquire 

Chamberlain of the City of London. 

" The Memorial of the Master Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or 
Mystery of Clockmaking of the City of London, 

" Sheweth, — That by Letters Patent under the great Seal of England 
bearing date the 31st day of August 1631, His late Majesty King Charles the 
first was graciously pleased to grant and constitute that all and singular the 
persons engaged in the practice of the Art and Trade of Clockmaking in all 
and every of its various parts and branches should be and be incorporated 
into one Body Politick and Society by the name of The Master Wardens and 
Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City of London. 

" And whereas by a certain order bearing date the 25th day of May 1630 
the Right Hon'''" the Lord Mayor and the Right Worshipful the Court of 
Aldermen of the City of London were pleased to ratify and approve the 
granting by his said Majesty King Charles the first of the said Charter of 
Incorporation. 

" And whereas by a certain other order of the said Court of Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen bearing date the nth day of October 1632 the said Charter 
was ordered to be entered upon Record that it might thenceforth be acted 
upon and carried into effect. 



132 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



" And whereas by a certain other order of the said Court of Lord Mayor 
and Aldermen bearing date the i6th day of June 1636 it was ordered that 
all and every the Apprentice and Apprentices taken by or to any person 
practising the Art of Clockmaking shall be bound to some Free Brother of the 
said Company by the name of Citizens and Clockmakers of London only, 
conformably to the directions of the Charter for the Incorporation of the said 
Company of Clockmakers in the said order in part recited. 

" And whereas by the said last in part recited order it further appears 
that previous to the granting of the said Charter for the Licorporation of the 
said Company so much thereof as requires that the Aijprentice and Aj^prentices 
of every person whatsoever taken to practice or learn the said Art of Clock- 
making shall be bound to some Free Brother of the said Company of 
Clockmakers only, that the said Company might in time be strengthened and 
become an able body of itself, was especially referred by the Lord Keeper of 
the Great Seal to Sir Henage Finch, Knight, Recorder of London, with 
directions that his Lordship should be satisfied of the legality and propriety of 
the said provisions for the binding of Apprentices as aforesaid and that the 
said Recorder did thereupon certify unto his Lordship that the said Charter 
had been carefully perused and approved by him, that the said clause was fit 
to be inserted therein, and he did not see any inconvenience that could result 
therefrom. 

" And whereas by the said last recited order It is further ordered that the 
Chamberlain of this City for the time being shall receive, enroll, and, having 
served their terms, admit the said Apprentices into the Freedom of this city by 
the name of Citizens and Clockmakers of London, and further that the 
Chamberlain of this City shall take notice of and in all respects see the order 
duly executed. 

" And whereas by a certain Act of Common Council of this City bear- 
ing date the T5th day of October 1765 entitled 'An Act for regulating 
the Master Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking of 
the City of London;' It is among other things enacted That from and after 
the 25th day of December 1765 every person (not being then already Free of 
this City) using or exercising or who shall use or exercise the Art Trade or 
Mystery of Clockmaking within the City or the Liberties thereof shall take up 
his or her Freedom and be made free of the said Company of the Master 
\\'ardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking in the City of 
London. 

" And it is by the said part recited Act further enacted That no person 
or persons now using or exercising or who shall hereafter use or exercise the 
said Trade Art or Mystery of a Clockmaker within the said City or the 
Liberties thereof shall from and after the said 25th day of December be 
admitted by the Chamberlain of this City for the time being into the freedom 
of this City of or in any other Company than the said Company of the Master 
Wardens and Fellowship of the Art and Mystery of Clockmakers of the City 
of London. 

" And it is by the said part recited Act further enacted That if any person 
other than except such persons who are already Free of this City doth or shall 
at any time or times from and after the said 25th day of December 1765 use 
occupy or exercise the Trade Art or Mystery of a Clockmaker within this City 
or the Liberties thereof and not being Free of the said Company of the 
Master Wardens and Fellowship of the Art and Mystery of Clockmaking of 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 133 

London, then every such person, other than except as aforesaid, shall forfeit 
and pay the sum of Five Pounds of lawful money of Great Britain for every 
such offence. 

"And whereas it appears to be expedient for the better performance and 
due execution of the several provisions and regulations by the said hereinbe- 
fore in part recited Charter and Act and Orders appointed and directed to be 
fulfilled, that the principal parts and branches of the said Art of Clock- 
making should be set forth so that none hereafter may plead ignorance as to 
what persons properly appertain to and are liable to be and become free and 
take up their freedom of and abide by the Rule and Government of the 
said Company of Clockmakers, Your Memorialists therefore by this present 
Memorial take occasion to state for the information of your worship. That 
the Art and Mystery of Clockmaking consists of and in the making or 
construction of, selling and dealing in either in part or in the whole, of 
the Machinery, Instruments and Apparatus used or employed in Mensuration 
and to ascertain or set forth the several portions parts and divisions of Time 
and space, which Machinery, Implements and Apparatus are usually called 
Clocks, Watches, Larums, Sun-Dials and Mathematical Instruments of 
various kinds, and the several parts thereof, or by whatever other names 
tne same may be known, and also all those persons practismg as Clock 
or Watchmovement Makers, Dial Makers, Enamellers, Engravers, Gilders, 
Silverers, or Varnishers of Clock or Watch Work, Watch Jewellers or 
Escapement Makers, or Motion Makers, or Wheel or Pinion Makers, Clock 
or Watch Case Makers, Clock or Watch Spring Makers, Chain Makers, or 
Weight Makers, Watch Glass Makers, Watch Pendant or Key Makers, Secret 
springers or Liners or Coverers or other Qrnamenters of Clock or Watch 
Cases, Clock or Watch Hand Makers and all other persons employed in the 
making ornamenting compleating and sale of Clocks, Watches, Larums, Sun- 
Dialsand Mathematical Instruments or otherwise using the said Art are by 
the said Act of Common Council designated by and comprehended in 
the general name of persons using or exercising the Trade Art or Mystery of 
a Clockmaker, and have been ahvays so considered by your Worship's 
predecessors in the office of Chamberlain of this City, and conformably with 
the said Act are to be and become Free and Freemen of the said Company 
and to be admitted as Citizens and Clockmakers of London, and not otherwise 
or contrary thereto. 

" But so it is may it please your Worship further to be informed that the 
aforesaid Charter of Incorporation, Act of Common Council and Orders of the 
Court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen from time to time granted and made for 
the protection of the Public against fraud and deception, and to encourage the 
said Master Wardens and Fellowship in the exercise of their Art and Mystery 
of Clockmaking, are in a great degree rendered inoperative and fail to produce 
their intended effect, inasmuch as great numbers of the persons using and 
practising the said Art of Clockmaking or some or other of its parts or 
branches herein-before specified or set forth have by divers frauds and 
pretences contrived to obtain their freedom of this City in other Companies 
wherein they afterwards bind their apprentices and also such apprentices 
acting in the like manner contrary to the Charter and Act and Orders aforesaid 
such persons thereby evade the laws and proper government of the said 
Company of Clockmakers and His Majesty's subjects are left without 
protection from the frauds and abuses frequently practised by such illicit 



134 'I'lIE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

practitioners of the said Art, and the said Company is not only deprived of 
the natural flow of the growing increase of Members lawfully appertaining to 
its Body but is threatened with utter decay by the decrease of the number of 
the Freemen and cannot have redress but by the aid and assistance of your 
Worship. 

" Your Memorialists therefore trust that your Worship will be 
pleased to take such measures and to establish such orders in the 
office of Chamberlain of this City as may give practical effect and 
operation to the said Charter of Incorporation and Act of 
Common Council and Orders of the Lord Mayor and Court of 
Aldermen so that no person whatever now using or practising or 
that may hereafter use or practise the said Art of Clockmaking or 
any of its parts or branches as aforesaid may henceforth become 
free or be made a Freeman of this City or the Liberties thereof 
but as Citizens and Clockmakers of London only, And also that 
upon the Apprentice of any person using practising or following 
the said Art of Clockmaking either in the part or in the whole 
as aforesaid appearing or applying in the Chamber of this City for 
the purpose of being enrolled or entered as having been 
turned over That your ^Vorship will be pleased to order and 
cause an Indorsement to be written upon the Indentures of 
such apprentice and a like entry to be made in the books 
of the Chamberlain that at the expiration of his term such 
Apprentice shall be admitted to the Freedom as a Citizen and 
Clockmaker of London and not otherwise, and that your Worship 
will be pleased to afford to your Memorialists such further and 
other relief in the premises as to your Worship shall seem meet. 

"Sealed by Order of the Court this 12th day of October 1812 ( LS j 

"Witness G. Atkins, Clerk 

35 Clements Lane, Lombard Street." 

As a result of this action numerous opportunities of 
enforcing their rights in due course presented themselves to 
the Company, the following being a few of the instances : — 

" 1813. June 7. Samuel Joseph Bird of Little Compton Street, Soho, 
Watch Case maker, late apprentice of Jasper Swindells of Salmon and Ball 
Court, Bunhill Row, in tlie Parish of St. Luke's Old Street, Watch Case 
maker, Citizen and Goldsmith of London, having some time past contrived 
to procure his admission as a Free Goldsmith^, contrary to the Act of 
Common Council for regulating this Fellowship, the said Jasper Swindells 
presented his said late apprentice at the Chamber of London in order to 
obtain his admission and the Copy of his Freedom as a Citizen and Gold- 
smith. The which Freedom was there stopped by virtue of the said Act of 
Common Council, he having been bound Apprentice to or served a Watch 
Case maker and all such are by the Charter of this Company required to be- 
come Free as a Citizen and Clockmaker only. And the Beadle of this 
Company then being present in the name of this Fellowship demanded 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 35 

possession of the Indenture by which the said Samuel Joseph Bird was 
bound, so that he might not obtain the Freedom of the City contrary to 
the said Act, which indenture being handed over accordingly by the Clerk 
of the Chamber, the said Samuel Joseph Bird was thereupon named to 
attend this Court in May last past which he did, but declined then to 
take up his Freedom of or in this Company. And the said Samuel Joseph 
Bird having been again warned for his appearance and being in attendance 
this day, stated that in consequence of this Company having claimed him 
to become a Member, he had applied at the Court of the Goldsmiths' 
Company for directions how he should act therein, that the said Company 
had relinquished all claim to him as a Member, had returned to him 
the money which he had paid for his admission therein, and likewise had 
absolved him from all connexion and obligation whatsoever as a Member of 
that Company. And the said Samuel Joseph Bird was this day by virtue of 
the said Act of Common Council admitted a free Clockmaker. ' 

"1813. June 7. Peter Patmore of Ludgate Hill, Pawnbroker, Citizen 
and having commenced trade to deal in, buy and sell watches and 

at the same time circulating printed Watch Papers or Shop Bills setting forth 
himself to the Public as a Watchmaker was summoned to appear at the Monthly 
Court in May last ; but, not having attended thereon, was again peremptorily 
summoned to appear this day, and being in attendance accordingly before the 
Court, was required to show cause why he should not discontinue to practice 
in the Trade placed under the Government of this Company or forthwith take 
up his freedom of the same. And the said Peter Patmore on being questioned 
as to his practical abilities or skill in the Art of Clock and Watchmaking after 
some equivocation declared that he did not pretend to any such knowledge, 
and then pleaded that the Act of Common Council for regulating the Master, 
Wardens and Fellowship of Clockmakers was not obligatory on him to become 
a Member of this Company, which compliance he persisted to refuse saying 
he would continue so to do until he was informed of some stronger law to 
oblige him, and then he would conform to its provisions; the said Peter Patmore 
was then informed that in the case of John Allen, formerly of Barbican, Gold 
and Silver Watch Case maker. Citizen and Goldsmith, which was tried in the 
Mayor's Court in 1785 in which the said John Allen was condemned with 
costs and judgement given against him for trading in the said Art con- 
trary to the Act of Common Council contemptuously refusing to become a 
Member of this Company, thereupon the said Peter Patmore declared that he 
was satisfied of the Jurisdiction and Authority of this Company in the case, 
and having consented to come under its Rule and Government was, by virtue 
of the said Act of Common Council and the Charter, admitted." - 

It having been suggested to the Court of Assistants that 
it might conduce to the welfare of the Company if a Certificate, 
signed by the Master and Clerk, were given to each Member 
upon his admission to the Freedom, it was, on the 1 2th of 
October, 1812, determined to carry out the suggestion, and 
on the I St of February, 18 13, "A design for a Freeman's 

'• ^ Company's Journal VT. 



136 THE CLOCK makers' COMPANY. 

Certificate was produced and approved, and the Senior 
\\'arden was directed to have it engraved and executed in 
the best manner." 

The proceedings at the Court of Assistants in the follow- 
ing June are of sufficient interest to be inserted verbatim, as 
follows : — 

" 1 8 13. June 7. Whereas by an order made on the 12th October last 
directions were given for the preparation and engraving of a Copper Plate 
for a Certificate of the admission of certain persons as Members of this 
Company. And whereas the necessity for issuing such Certificates by this 
Corporation has been occasioned by the many persons who have of late pre- 
tended and attempted to carry on the Trade of Clock and Watchmaking 
without having served seven years as Apprentice or being otherwise in any 
respect qualified to practice the said Art whereby the fair course of Trade has 
been diverted from the hands of the real Artist and qualified Workman. And 
whereas Clocks and Watches from their complicated nature and intricate 
construction must ever be objects of confidential purchase and the public has 
not heretofore had any certain means whereby to know what persons are 
actual Clock and Watchmakers and so to distinguish the bona fide Artists 
from such mere pretenders who have often deluded and do not unfrequently 
defraud the unwary purchaser by boldly warranting and assuring as good 
Machines such Articles as are wholly insufficient and of which the purchasers 
being ignorant of the Art of Clock and Watchmaking could not in most 
instance be qualified to judge. And forasmuch as it is desirable to protect 
the public as much as possible from the recurrence of such frauds and abuses 
in future as also to give encouragement to those Members of this Corporation 
who are practical workmen in the Art of Clock and Watchmaking, and as 
such are entitled to the confidence and patronage of the public, and at the 
same time to prevent the issuing such Certificates to improper or unqualified 
persons. It is ordained and declared 

" ist. That those Members of this Company only who have served 
Seven years as Apprentice or Journeyman to a Clock or Watchmaker, a Clock 
or Watch Movement maker, a Clock or Watch Finisher or a Repeating motion 
maker, shall be deemed eligible to receive Certificates of his or her qualifi- 
cation. 

" 2nd. That such Certificates shall not on any account be granted to 
any person using any other part or branch of the Art whatsoever other than 
is particularized in the first Item of this order. 

" 3rd. That every Member of this Company who may be desirous to 
obtain such Certificate shall if he reside within five miles of the Royal 
Exchange make his personal appearance in Court for that purpose. 

" 4th. That any Member of this Company who is resident at more than 
five miles distance from the Royal Exchange may make application for such 
Certificate by writing under his or her hand. 

5th. That to prevent the granting of any Certificate improperly to any 
person who does not fully answer and come within the description of persons 
qualified as in the first Item of this present Order is specified, any Member 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 37 

of the Court of Assistants may and shall be at his entire liberty to require the 
Applicant for such Certificate to produce his or her Masterpiece duly and law- 
fully made pursuant to the Seventeenth Bye Law of this Corporation, and in 
case of any Assistant so requiring, the said Bye Law shall be strictly enforced 
and no Certificate shall upon any consideration whatsoever be made out for 
such applicant until he or she hath in open Court produced his or her Master- 
piece duly made as aforesaid. 

'* 6th. That when any applicant has duly and satisfactorily set forth his 
qualifications without objection as aforesaid, he shall be deemed eligible to 
receive the said Certificate of his or her admission. 

" 7 th. That no Certificate shall be made out for any person whatsoever 
but by the especial Order of this Court, and proof shall previously be given 
to the satisfaction of this Court that each applicant is duly qualified to receive 
such Certificate conformably to this present Order. 

"8th. That for each and every such Certificate of Admission, and 
qualification previous to the same being issued to Members as aforesaid 
there shall be paid to the use of the Company the Sum of Ten shillings and 
sixpence, to the Clerk for filling up and entering the same Three shillings 
and sixpence, and to the Beadle one shilling." ' 

On the iith October, 18 13, in consequence of the 
decreasing number of Freemen admitted and Apprentices 
bound, the Court of Assistants appointed a Committee to 
investigate and ascertain the powers of the Company, and, if 
necessary, to endeavour to obtain additional powers, either by 
Act of Common Council, Order of Court of Aldermen, or 
otherwise. 

On the loth January, 18 14, the Committee presented 
their Report, which was received and adopted by the Court, 
and which recommended that the Clerk of the Company 
should write to the Clerks of all the other Companies of the 
City stating the facts and requesting that their respective 
Courts would order that the irregularities hitherto prevailing 
might in future be avoided by their officers directing to this 
Company at once all persons applying to them to Bind or 
to make Free, who in anywise used the Arts, Trades or 
Mysteries placed under the government of this Corporation. 

The Committee for the affairs of Freemen and Appren- 
tices made a further Report on the 3rd April, 18 15, in which 
they state as follows : — 

" Your Committee herewith presents for the information of your Worshipful 
Court, the Copy of a Memorial which on the 20th day of February last past, 

' Company's Journal VI. 



138 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

your Committee addressed to his Worship the Chamberlain of this City, in 
support of the rights of the Company, and soHciting attention to the Memorial 
under Seal presented to him on the 12th day of October last. 

" Your Committee has now prepared for the approbation of your Worshipful 
Court, a Petition in the name of the Company that the same (if approved) 
may, under the sanction of the Common Seal, be presented to the Right 
Honourable the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen of this City; your 
Committee having duly considered the same and in the present state of the 
business judged it necessary for the proper service of the Company. 

'• To the Worshipful Richard Clark Esq. 

Chamberlain of the City of London. 

" The Memorial of the undersigned being a Committee of the Company 
of the Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Art and Mystery of Clockmaking 
of the City of London in support of the Memorial of the said Company 
presented on the 12th day of October 181 2, and in reply to a Memorial of the 
Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Spectacle Makers of London, 

" Sheweth, — That in reference to the Memorial presented to your Worship 
by the Company of Spectacle Makers under date the 19th day of January 181 5 
your Memorialists have not denied that the Master, Wardens and Fellowship 
of Spectacle Makers of London are an Incorporated Company of this City. 

" But your Memorialists confidently state that the Charter and Bye Laws 
of the said Company of Spectacle Makers do not mention or contain any 
notice of or allusion to any other Article, Ware, production or trade whatsoever 
but the making of ' Spectacles o\ly' of which your Worship maybe satisfied 
by reference to their said Charter, and moreover it is important to the right 
understanding of the Question now at issue, that your Worship should observe 
that the words ' in all its branches ' introduced into the said Memorial 
of the said Company of Spectacle Makers are not contained in the Charter or 
Bye Laws of the said Company. 

"Your Memorialists admit that the rights conveyed by the Charter of 
Incorporation to the Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Art and Mystery 
of Clockmaking are extensive and properly so, inasmuch as the persons who 
practised the Art of Clockmaking were the only makers of Clocks, Watches 
and Mathematical Instruments, however various in their construction and use, 
and the practice thereof hath ever since been continued by their sucessors the 
Clockmakers in all parts of the kingdom. 

" And your Memorialists are satisfied of the legality of the rights so granted 
to them by their said Charter and Bye Laws which (previous to the same 
being granted) were most strictly scrutinized and examined by the Lord Mayor 
Aldermen and Recorder of this Hon'''^ City and by His Majesty's Lord Keeper 
of the Great Seal of England and the Chief Justice of His Majesty's Court of 
Common Pleas, during more than three years that the said Incorporation was 
in progress, by whom respectively the said Charter and Bye Laws were approved 
and declared to be no infringement upon the rights or privileges of any other 
Body or Government then existing and thereupon the said Charter and Bye 
Laws were granted to your Memorialists and ratified and carried into effect 
accordingly. 

" Your Memorialists have further to state that when in attendance in 
the Chamber of London on the i6th day of December, 18 14, in pursuance of 
the summons of your Worship they did there shew that in consequence of the 



THE CLOCK-MAKERS COMPANY. 1 39 

great number of persons who had unlawfully evaded their jurisdiction rule 
and government, the Act of Common Council of this City for regulating the 
Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking was 
in the year 1766 made for the protection of the ' Chartered Rights ' of your 
Memorialists. 

" And that in the first twenty years after the passing of the said Act 
(without reference to the instances which occur in the later periods) the 
law had been carried into effect as to eighteen branches of the Arts or 
Mysteries of Clockmaking, Watchmaking, Mathematical Instruments making 
and engraving placed under and within the Incoporation of the said Master, 
Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking and that in 
the same period more than two hundred persons, who had intended to 
obtain their freedom and be recorded as of or in other Companies of this 
City were pursuant to that Act recorded as Citizens and Clockmakers of 
London. 

" And further that in the instance of a Gold and Silver Watch Case maker 
who (pretending analogy of his trade to the Goldsmiths by the materials he 
worked upon) had unlawfully taken his freedom and become recorded as a 
Goldsmith although according to Law, he ought to have been recorded a 
Clockmaker, Your Memorialists upon suit in the Mayor's Court obtained 
judgement against him for the penalty and costs incurred by such his offence. 

" That although your Memorialists have never been desirous to assume 
to themselves Rights that belong to others, they nevertheless are bound to 
maintain the ' Chartered Rights ' to which their Body is lawfully entitled ; and 
however great the number of branches into which their Mathematical Art of 
making Clocks, Watches, Larums, Sundials, Boxes and Cases for the said 
trade, Art or Mystery of Clockmaking be they of what metal or of what nature, 
condition or fashion soever or any other Work particularly belonging to the 
said trade of Clockmaking, has in course of time been extended as well before 
as since the Incorporation of your Memorialists they most earnestly deprecate 
the doctrine now for the first time assumed by the Company of Spectacle 
Makers that any of such branches are to be abstracted from the Rule, Govern- 
ment and Incorporation of your Memorialists by which that Company has 
denominated ' Assimilation ' or by any other means than by a new law to take 
such branches out of the Fellowship and from under the Government of your 
Memorialists. And however some persons, who by law ought to be members 
of this Company may have joined any other Fellowship, such Company has no 
rightful cause to complain when your Memorialists reclaim such persons into 
their proper jurisdiction so soon as they are discovered to have evaded the 
law on that behalf And your Memorialists submit that this is the only way 
in which any other Company of this City can be affected by the claims of your 
Memoriahsts notwithstanding what the Company of Spectacle Makers has 
asserted on that head. 

"That your Memorialists have further to complain that of late years the 
Company of Spectacle Makers has used every endeavour silently to withdraw 
' Mathematical Instrument Makers ' from the Incorporation and Government 
of your Memorialists nor can your Memorialists pass without- observing the 
unbecoming attempt now made to convert such unlawful aggressions into an 
assumption of right. 

" Your Memorialists have to complain of a further aggression on their 
Chartered Rights by the Company of Spectacle Makers who have within these 

L 



I^O THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

Four or Five years last past unlawfully taken and assumed as Armorial 
Bearings and Crest in their Common Seal newly made about the year 1810 
certain articles apjiertaining to the Art and Trade of Clockmaking and which 
has been so long since as the year 1672 duly granted to your jSIemorialists by 
Patent under the proper authority vested in Garter King-at-Arms, but which 
assumption on the part of the Company of Spectacle Makers might if suffered 
to pass unobserved be taken at a future period as a collateral proof of right to 
have the rule and government of the persons using the Art and Trade of 
Mathematical Instrument making. Your Memorialists are therefore obliged to 
state that the Armorial Bearings of the Company of Spectacle Makers as used 
on their Common Seal until this late period accorded with the nature of their 
Incorporation viz. ; Argent three pair of Spectacles Vert, garnished 
Or ; TWO and one, no Crest the motto appropriate ' A Blessing to the 
Aged,' sufficiently setting forth the sole object of their Institution. 

" That your Memorialists have duly weighed the claims lately assumed 
and set up by the Company of Spectacle Makers whereby among other things 
they seek to deprive your Memorialists of the rule and government of the 
' Mathematical Instrument Makers ' which has always been and now is a 
branch of your Memorialists Art of Clockmaking and as such has been carried 
on by the Clockmakers as well Freemen of this City as Foreigners beyond the 
walls and liberties thereof both before their Incorporation and from thence- 
forward to the present day by a regular train of Artists as aforesaid. 

" That your Memorialists in pursuance of their Charter and Bye Laws 
have always had and exercised the inspection, rule and government of the 
' Mathematical Instrument Makers ' and ' Mathematical Instrument Making ' 
as practised by Freemen of this City as also by Foreigners not resident therein. 
And if some persons from time to time have fraudulently and unlawfully 
avoided to become free of your Memorialists Company or by living in con- 
cealed places have evaded their Bye Laws, your Memorialists confidently 
trust that such evasions cannot be received as precedents or allowed to affect 
or destroy their ' Chartered Rights ' further explained and set forth in their 
Bye Laws drawn up together in the year 1628 and produced to the Court of 
Lord Mayor and Aldermen and the Recorder of the City of London on the 2nd 
March 1629 and by that Court approved before the Company of Spectacle 
Makers was incorporated. 

" Moreover it may not be immaterial to remark tliat the same Attorney 
(Thomas Copley who was in both Charters created and named as the first 
Clerk to each of the said Companies) drew up the Charters and Bye Laws 
both of the Clockmakers and of the Spectacle Makers so that no doubt can 
arise concerning the original design and constitution of those Bodies. 

"That your Memorialists have already set forth that every Member of 
their Fellowship using the Art, Trade or Mystery of a professed Clockmaker 
and taking an Apprentice is by their Bye Law bound to ' teach and instruct 
his said Aj^prentice and Apprentices in such manner and form as their prede- 
cessors formerly have done, which is to keep daily and duly him and them in 
his house, and thereby himself or his sufficient Journeyman teach and instruct 
him in the making of Cases and Boxes of Silver or Brass, and likewise the 
several springs belonging to such Watches, Clocks or Larums, and likewise all 
other particular and peculiar things belonging to such Watches, Clocks, 
Larums, Mathematical Instruments and Sundials his or their said Master shall 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. I4I 

teach and instruct them in to the end they may in time make up their Master- 
piece with sufficiency of credit and truly understand both the beginning and 
the ending of the work from time to time which they shall take in hand. 

" And your Memorialists challenge contradiction when they assert that 
the best workmen in Mathematical Instrument making were, have been, and 
still are Clockmakers, as well Freeman of this City as Foreigners not residing 
therein, and that the most celebrated Clockmakers have been from time 
immemorial and yet are the inventors, improvers and makers of Mathematical 
Instruments, and such practical Clockmakers and their Workmen are 
constantly resorted to for such Instruments by the Spectacle Makers and 
other persons keeping Shops for the Sale thereof. 

" Your Memorialists further deny the assumption of the Company of 
Spectacle Makers, that the trade of making Spectacles, and Mathematical 
Instrument making have ever been practically united, although there are 
persons who keep Shops wherein Spectacles as also Mathematical Instruments 
are bought and sold, the trade of grinding glasses and making Spectacles 
being to this day distinct from that of Mathematical Instrument making, 
moreover of such Sale Shop Trade that of selling Spectacles forms but one 
Article out of an almost infinite number of variety when compared with 
Mathematical and Philosophical Instruments and Apparatus prepared and 
made by the Clockmakers and their AVorkmen. 

" Your Memorialists deny it to be true that the Spectacle Makers are 
resorted to by the Clockmakers for Mathematical Instruments it being a well 
known fact that no practical Spectacle Maker can make a Mathematical 
Instrument, the Grinding and forming of Glasses and setting them in 
Spectacle Frames being the sole and only rightful object of the Spectacle 
Makers' Art and trade. 

" Your Memorialists are also constrained to deny that the Spectacle 
Makers teach their Apprentices the practice of * Mathematical Instrument 
making ' however such Apprentices may be taught how to take orders from a 
Customer for or to buy and sell ' Mathematical Instruments ' in their Shops. 

" And although the Company of Spectacle Makers assert that your 
Memorialists ' have never molested or claimed any person who was a recorded 
Freeman of the Spectacle Makers' Company' your Memorialists are prepared 
to prove that they have compelled persons using the Trade of * Mathematical 
Instrument Making' who had been Apprenticed as Citizens and Spectacle 
Makers to become recorded Freemen as Citizens and Clockmakers of London. 

*' Your Memorialists therefore deny that the Company of Spectacle Makers 
are by Charter or by Assimilation, or by any other right or title, real or implied, 
entitled to claim or have the rule or government of the persons using the Art 
or trade of ' Mathematical Instrument Making.' And your Memorialists are 
bound to assert that by virtue of the Charter of the Company of Clockmakers 
and their Bye Laws at the same time duly made as aforesaid for the better 
and more full explanation of their said Charter, your Memorialists are 
lawfully and of right entitled to claim and have all persons using the Art or 
Trade of ' Mathematical Instrument making ' to be recorded Freemen and 
Members of their Fellowship of the Art and Mystery of Clockmaking to 
which fellowship alone such persons lawfully appertain, since both trades are 
not only incorporated together but are carried on and accomplished by one 
and the same course of practical A\'orkmanship. 

L 2 



142 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" Your Memorialists now proceed to the particular case of Robert Brettel 
Bate whom in the year 1813 your INIemorialists had discovered to have opened 
and set up a jNIathematical Instrument Maker's shop in the Poultry within this 
City, he not being a Freeman thereof. \V' hereupon your Memorialists in pur- 
suance of their Charter and Bye Law and the Act of Common Council on 
that behalf, summoned the said Robert Brettel Bate to appear on the nth 
day of October 1S13 and to take up his Freedom and be recorded as a 
Citizen and Clockmaker of London, but he not appearing as required your 
Memorialists lodged with the Clerk of the Chamber in the Guildhall of the 
City of London an especial caveat against the admission of the said Robert 
Brettel Bate to the freedom of or in any other Company or Fellowship 
of this City, and they again summoned him to appear at their Court for the 
purpose aforesaid on the 6th day of December 1813 but which he did not 
comply with. 

" Your Memorialists did not hear any more of the Case of Robert Brettel 
Bate until the 30th day of March 1814 when your Memorialists were informed 
that on the preceding day the said Robert Brettel Bate accompanied by two 
Members of the Company of Spectacle Makers appeared in the said Chamber 
and then and there the said Robert Brettel Bate was by John Sewell (then a 
Minor) Clerk to the said Company of Spectacle INIakers, sworn a Member of 
the said Company of Spectacle Makers alike contrary to the common law and 
to the Charter, as also the 30th 31st and 36th Bye Laws of the said Company 
of Spectacle INIakers which require that the Oath to be taken by any person 
upon his admission to be a Freeman shall be administered by and in the 
presence of the Master and Wardens in a lawful Court of Assistants of the 
said Fellowship duly convened. 

" Your Memorialists cannot pass from this part of the subject without 
protesting seriously against such illegal mode of administering the Oath to 
persons desiring to be admitted to the Freedom which as now appears hath 
of late been but too much practised by the Clerks and other Officers of several 
Companies of this City, because such persons so illegally sworn are not 
either in Law or fact Freemen of the Body to which it has been so pretended 
that they were admitted, such abuse therefore being subject to occasion the 
most injurious consequences not only to the Persons upon whom it is practised 
but also as it affects in secret the rights of all other Companies of this City 
ought to be suppressed. 

" Your Memorialists further submit that they having in pursuance of their 
Charter and Bye Laws summoned the said Robert Brettel Bate, as the keeper 
of a ' Mathematical Instrument maker's shop,' to become a recorded Clock- 
maker at least six months before his name was known to the Company of 
Spectacle makers. And the trade of the said Robert Brettel Bate consisting 
almost entirely in the Sale of all sorts of Instruments and Apparatus usually 
denominated ' Mathematical Instruments ' and composing part of the Incor- 
poration and trade of your Memorialists whereas the sale of ' Spectacles ' (for 
he doth not make any of the Articles sold by him) forms but one small article 
of his trade. 

" Wherefore your Memorialists with all due deference claim by Law and 
Chartered Right that the said Robert Brettel Bate be recorded as a Citizen 
and Clockmaker of London, and they trust that upon reference to the 
authority given in and by the Charter, Bye Laws, Orders of the Court of 
Aldermen, and Act of Common Council made and contained for the protec- 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 43 

tion of the Rights of your MemoriaHsts, your Worship will be pleased to 
pronounce for them accordingly notwithstanding the assumption, and pretence 
of the Company of Spectacle Makers to the contrary, as it is not true in law 
or in fact that the said Robert Brettel Bate has ever been admitted a Member 
of the Company of Spectacle Makers, and even if he had been so admitted 
the Company of Clockmakers is upon every view of the Case entitled to claim 
and have as Members all the Persons using the Art or Trade of Mathematical 
Instrument making and to take the precedence of having the said Robert 
Brettel Bate as a recorded Clockmaker as well for the nature of his trade as 
the number of the productions of the Clockmakers Art in which he deals. 

" And your Memorialists for all these considerations respectfully solicit 
that the protection of Your Worship may be afforded to the Chartered 
Rights and Privileges of the Art and Mystery of Clockmaking of the 
City of London which of late have been much encroached upon. 

" And that Your Worship will be pleased to afford them such further and 
other relief touching the premises as to Your Worship shall seem 
meet. 

"London, February 20th, 1815. 

W"- Robins, Master. 

Jno. Jackson ( Warden^ 

John Thwaites j 

Isaac Roofers 



Henry Clarke ' Assistants." 

" The which Report was read and together with the Copy of the Memorial 
therein referred to approved. 

" The form of Petition referred to in the said Report was then read in 
the words following, viz. 

"To the Right Honorable the Lord Mayor and 

Court of Aldermen of the City of London, 

" The humble Petition of the Master Wardens and Fellowship of the Art 
or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City of London, 

" Sheweth, — That your Petitioners are an ancient Company of this City 
and were long time incorporated into one body or society with divers rights, 
privileges, powers and immunities and amongst other things to make Bye 
Laws for the better order, rule and government of all and singular person 
and persons now using or who hereafter shall use their several Arts and 
Mysteries, as by their said Charter and Bye Laws doth more fully appear. 

" That long previous to their incorporation their Trade consisted of and 
in the making and sale of the various Articles of ^Vorkmanship, Machinery, 
Instruments and Apparatus used or employed in Mensuration and to ascertain 
or set forth the several parts, portions and divisions of matter and space which 
Mathematical and Mechanical contrivances are usually called Clocks, Clock- 
work, Watches, Larums, Sundials, Mathematical Instruments and Apparatus, 
Engraving, Gilding, Silvering and Varnishing of their several kinds and the 
various parts thereof, or by whatsoever other names the same may be known. 
And which several Arts and Mysteries (however the same may at this date be 
divided and sub-divided in the modern divisions of labour) were at the time 
of their said Incorporation used and carried on by the same individual and 
were all included under the generic name or appellation of Clockmaking, the 
name by which your Petitioners are incorporated. 



1^4 I'lIE CLOCK.MAKERS CUMTANY. 

'* That for a considerable period after the Incorporation of your Petitioners 
the Clockmakers were the only makers of Mathematical Instruments and 
at this day every practical Clockmaker is by the nature of his Mechanical 
Education, Tools and Emi)loyment C'lually qualified tO;,and in fact does v.-ork 
at or upon making Clocks or making Mathematical Instruments as his occasions 
may require. 

" That in the ilux of time, your Petitioners said several Arts and 
Mysteries respectively have in divers instances been sub-divided into different 
branches and parts whereunto at this day Apprentices are separately taken as 
distinct Trades, 

" That persons using or practising such branches and parts of the several 
' Arts and ^lysteries ' as aforesaid had by divers evasions sought to obtain 
their freedom and be recorded of or in other Companies and Fellowships 
contrary to the Charter and Bye Laws of your Petitioners, whereby the Com- 
pany of your Petitioners was so far injured as to induce an application to be 
made for remedy of such abuses, and an Act of Common Council of this 
Honorable City was passed in the year 1765 * for regulating the Master 
Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or INIystery of Clockmaking of the City 
of London ' whereby amongst other things it is enacted ' That no person or 
persons now using or exercising or who shall hereafter use or exercise the said 
Art, Trade or Mystery of Clockmaking within the said City or Liberties 
thereof shall from and after the said 25th day of December (1765) be ad- 
mitted by the Chamberlain of the said City for the time being into the Free- 
dom or Liberties of this City of or in any other Company than the said 
Company of the Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of 
Clockmaking of the City of London, any law, usage or custom of this City to 
the contrary notwithstanding.' 

"That the said Act of Common Council at the time it was passed was 
considered beneficial and proved in some degree beneficial for the proper 
recording in the Chamberlain's Office, upon their admission to the Freedom 
of the said City, of the persons using the said several Arts and Mysteries of 
your Petitioners and the various parts and branches thereof and during several 
years thereafter many persons were reclaimed and recorded as Citizens and 
Clockmakers pursuant to the said Act notwithstanding they had endeavoured to 
procure their freedom to be recorded of or in other Companies of this City. 

" But the said Act of Common Council not mentioning any one of the 
parts or branches of the ' several xA.rts and Mysteries of Clockmaking' but only 
the generic name by which the said Artizans your Petitioners are incorporated, 
which generic name was justly considered to and in fact does include the 
whole of the branches of the said Art, the evasions of the provisions of the 
said Act had become so great as to oblige your Petitioners to present on the 
1 2 th day of October 181 2 a Memorial and claim the protection of his 
Worship the Chamberlain of this Honorable City on that behalf and to which 
Memorial, v/hereof a Copy is annexed, your Petitioners crave leave to refer. 

"That your Petitioners sometime in the year 1813 discovered that one 
Robert Brettel Bate, a Foreigner not of the freedom of this City, had opened 
in the Poultry a Mathematical Instrument-Maker's shop wherein he sells 
Sundials and various other Instruments of the Clockmaking Art whereon his 
own name is engraven as the maker, and they caused him to be summoned 
in the accustomed manner to take up his freedom and be recorded as a 
Citizen and Clockmaker pursuant to the said Act of Common Council. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS CO-MTANY. 1 45 

" But that instead of appearing and taking his freedom as a Citizen and 
Clockmaker as by Law he ought to have done, your Petitioners were some 
months thereafter informed that the said Robert Brettel Bate had petitioned 
your Worshipful Court to be admitted to the freedom of this City and 
recorded as of the Spectacle Makers Company, and that the progress of the 
said Freedom according to the said Petition had been suspended in the 
Chamberlain's Office upon the Caveat of your Petitioners, who by virtue 
of their Charter and Bye Laws further enforced by the said Act of Common 
Council claim that the said Robert Brettel Bate should be recorded as a 
Citizen and Clockmaker only. 

" That his Worship the Chamberlain having called before him the said 
Robert Brettel Bate and the Master and Wardens of the Company of your 
Petitioners as also the Master and Wardens of the Company of Spectacle 
Makers respectively for the purpose of investigating the claim of each of the 
said Fellowships to have the said Robert Brettel Bate as a Recorded Freeman, 
your Petitioners produced an attested Copy of their said Charter, Bye Laws 
and Ordinances, also of divers Orders of this Honourable Court and Act of 
Common Council made on their behalf as aforesaid, as also such other persons 
as they conceive are conclusive of the right of your Petitioners to have and 
maintain the rule and government of the persons using any and every the 
parts and branches of their said ' several Arts and Mysteries ' respectively 
and Mathematical Instrument making in particular and that all such persons 
should be recorded as Citizens and Clockmakers only. 

" That finding that the said Company of Spectacle Makers had presented 
to the Chamberlain a Memorial claiming to exercise rights which are adverse 
to the rights of your Petitioners and not consonant with either the Charter 
or Bye Laws of the said Company of Spectacle Makers, which are restrictive 
to the Art and Trade of Spectacle Making only, and do not refer to or take 
cognizance of any other branch or article whatsoever, your Petitioners by 
their Committee on the 20th day of February last presented to his Worship 
the Chamberlain a further Memorial in support of their Chartered Rights and 
Privileges to which they crave leave to refer by a Copy of the same hereunto 
annexed. 

" That your Petitioners upon the further hearing of the Case on the 23rd 
day of March last past were much surprised to hear his Worship the Cham- 
berlain declare his opinion that ' Mr. Robert Brettel Bate is entitled to take 
his Freedom of the Spectacle Makers' Company,' And the Master of the 
Company of your Petitioners found it necessary thereupon to give notice of 
the intention of Your Petitioners to make the present appeal and application 
to your Worshipful Court for protection in the exercise and enjoyment of 
their Chartered Rights and Privileges further assured to them by the several 
grants of this Honorable City and the Act of Common Council on their behalf, 
his Worship the Chamberlain having kindly consented to suspend further 
proceedings in the Case of Mr. Bate pending the opinion and order of your 
Worshipful Court touching the same. 

"Your Petitioners therefore humbly pray that your Worshipful Court 
taking consideration of the premises will be pleased to make such order as 
every person and persons using or practising the ' several Arts and INIysteries ' 
of your Petitioners in or by the making or construction of, selling or dealing 
in, either or part or in the whole, of Clocks, Watches, I\Lathematical Instruments 
and Engraving, or any part or branch of their said several Arts or Mysteries 



146 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

whatsoever, and being hereafter admitted or to be admitted by the Chamberlain 
of this City for the time being to the freedom and Uberties of this City, may 
be recorded as Citizens and Clockmakers only, pursuant to the said Act of 
Common Council passed for the protection of the Company of your Peti- 
tioners in the enjoyment of their Charter, Rights and Privileges, and that the 
obvious intentions of the said Charter and Bye Laws and Act of Common 
Council for the good government of their said Arts and Mysteries so incor- 
porated in and with the Company of your Petitioners, or intended so to be, 
may not hereafter be evaded upon any pretence whatsoever. 

"And further that the said Robert Brettel Bate whose chief trade consists 
in the making or sale of Sundials and divers Mathematical Instruments so 
included in and with the Company of your Petitioners as aforesaid may not 
be admitted into the Freedom and Liberties of this City of or in any other 
Company than the said ' Company of the Master, Wardens and Fello^vship 
of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking ' and also the Chamberlain of this City 
under direction of your Worshipful Court may cause the said Robert Brettel 
Bate to be recorded as a Citizen and Clockmaker accordingly. 

" And that your Worshipful Court will be pleased to afford to your 
Petitioners such further and other relief in the premises as to your Worships 
shall seem meet. 

"And the same being approved the Common Seal was thereunto put and 
the Committee were authorized to take measures for causing the same to be 
in due form presented unto the Court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen. 

"1815. May I. The Master reported that the petition to the Court 
of Lord Mayor and Aldermen had been presented in due form, and that a 
Committee of Aldermen had been appointed to consider the same and to 
report thereon. 

" It was Resolved, — That the Master and Wardens do from time to time 
take out of the Chest of this Company the Charter, Bye Laws, Patent for 
Armorial Bearings, Records, and other documents according as the same 
may be necessary in order to their being produced by the Committee for the 
affairs of Freemen and Apprentices in or towards the support of the petition 
of this Company." 

The final decision of the Court of Aldermen upon this 
question was not given until the 4th of November, 1817, 
when a report from their Committee was presented, in which 
the decision of the Chamberlain of the 3rd March, 18 15, was 
recommended to be affirmed ; this was accordingly adopted by 
the Court. This decision was in favour of the Spectacle- 
makers, upon the ground that Bates was a maker of Spectacles, 
and was therefore entitled to take up his Freedom in that 
Company, that he neither made or sold Clocks or Watches, or 
professed the Trade of Clockmaking, and was therefore not 
compellable to take up his Freedom in the Clockmakers' 
Company; but as he sold Mathematical Instruments he 
subjected himself to the penalties inflicted by the Clockmakers' 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 47 

Bye-Laws (if good in Law), unless he also became a Freeman 
of the Clockmakers' Company ; that if any Mathematical 
Instruments he made or sold were within the intent and 
meaning of the Charter and Bye- Laws, as peculiarly belonging 
to the Trade of Clockmaking, the Company might prevent the 
dealing therein by enforcing the penalties of the Bye-Laws. 

This opinion was reported to the Court of Assistants on 
the I St of December following, and ordered to be entered on 
the Company's Journal, no further action being taken in the 
matter. 



QUARTERAGE. 

The payment of Quarterage by the Freemen was long a 
vexed question, which the Court of Assistants again and again 
tried to solve. Members refusing to pay were proceeded 
against ; but this leading to much ill feeling, a scale of pay- 
ments for redemption of such Quarterage was agreed upon 
in the year 1820, the particulars of which are contained in 
the following Minute : — 

" 1820. April 3. The Court of Assistants having taken into con- 
sideration the desire expressed by many of the Members of this Fellowship 
for permission to redeem their Quarterage, has Resolved : ' That such of the 
Members of this Fellowship as may be inclined to redeem their Quarterage 
(being four shilllings per annum during life), be permitted so to do, upon 
payment of the sums set forth in the following table : first having paid and 
discharged all arrears due up to the time of such redemption.' 



TABLE. 

£ s. ci. 

Members of 30 years of age and under 35 to pay 280 being 1 2 years' purchase. 



35 




40 


2 





10 


40 




45 




16 


9 


45 




50 




12 


8 


5° 




55 




8 


7 


55 




60 




4 


6 


60 




65 







5 


65 




70 





16 


4 , 


70 




75 





12 


3 


75 




80 





8 


2 



1^8 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

ADMISSION OF JEWS, &c., TO THE FREEDOM. 

On the loth of December, 1830, an Act of Common 
Council was passed, enabling persons not professing the 
Christian religion to be admitted to the Freedom of London, 
which Act is in these words : — 

" A Common Council holden in the Chamber of the Guildhall of the 
City of London on Friday the loth day of December 1830. 

"An Act for enabling all persons born within this kingdom, and 
all natural born subjects whatsoever not professing the 
Christian Religion but in other respects duly qualified, to be 
admitted to the Freedom of the City of London upon taking 
the Freeman's Oath according to the forms of their own 
religion. 

" Whereas it is expedient that all persons born within this kingdom, and 
all natural born subjects whatsoever, not professing the Christian Religion 
but in other respects duly qualified, should be entitled to be admitted to the 
Freedom of the City of London upon taking the Oath of a Freeman of the 
said City according to the forms of their own religion. 

" Be it therefore enacted ordained and estabhshed and it is hereby 
enacted, ordained and established by the Right Honorable the Lord Mayor, 
the Aldermen his Brethren and the Commons in this Common Council 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, that from and after the first day 
of January now next ensuing it shall be lawful for any person born within this 
kingdom, and for any natural born subject whatsoever not professing the 
Christian Religion but in other respects duly qualified, to be admitted to the 
Freedom of the City of Loudon upon taking the following Oath of a Freeman 
of the said City according to the forms of his own religion and in such manner 
as is binding upon his own conscience." ' 

\_Here follow the words of the Oath.'\ 

On the loth of October, 1831, it was determined by the 
Court of Assistants that in consequence of the passing of the 
above Act of Common Council permitting the admission of 
Jews, etc., to the Freedom of the City, the proceedings of 
the last Lady- Day Quarter Court, respecting the admission 
of John Grafton alias Solomons to the Freedom of this 
Company, should be stopped. 



Company's Journal VIII. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 49 

The following entry records the admission of the first 
Jew to the Freedom of the Company : — 

''183 1. December 5. Jonas Levy (a Jew) of Bevis Marks, St. Mary 
Axe, Watchmaker, admitted a Free Clockmaker by Redemption. ' 



CITY FREEDOMS. 

On the 17th day of March, 1835, the Court of Common 
Council passed a Resolution in the following terms : — 

" Resolved that in the opinion of this Court persons should be admitted 
to the Freedom of this City without the intervention of the Trading Com- 
panies." 

The effect of this Resolution was speedily felt by the 
various Companies. Many persons to enable them to carry 
on their business within the City took up their Freedom 
under the terms of the order ; and to this cause may doubtless 
be attributed the gradual weakening of the connexion of the 
various Companies with the Trades over which they had 
previously exercised such extensive and useful powers of 
control and government, although in some instances, notably 
in the case of the Goldsmiths, Vintners, Brewers, Clockmakers, 
Stationers, Coachmakers, Gunmakers and others, they are 
still associated therewith, and a great many of their Members 
carry on the Trades with which the Crafts are identified. 

Fees now payable on taking up the Freedom of this 
Company: — 

By Servitude . . . £^ 3. 

„ Patrimony . . . ^6 13. 

,, Purchase ^ . . . ^20 o. 

' Company's Journal \'^III. 
=^ Increased 1st January, 1876, from^S 12 o. 




APPRENTICES. 




HE Company's Bye- Laws, Nos. XV, XVI, and 
XVII, provide that every Freeman, being 
a Master Workman, may take one Apprentice, 
and the Master, Wardens, and Assistants two, 
but, in order that he may not be left destitute 
of an Apprentice, every Master may take 
another at the expiration of two years after 
the binding of the former one. 

Bye-Law XIV, however, provides for the taking of 
Turnover Apprentices, with the consent of their former 
Masters, or of the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants. 

An Apprentice having truly served his Master for seven 
years, and having been admitted to the Freedom of the Com- 
pany, was required to serve as a journeyman for two years, at 
the expiration of which period he was to make his Master- 
piece, and submit the same to the Master, Wardens, and 
Assistants. If the work was allowed and approved, he was 
then admitted to be a W^ork-Master of the Company. 

The following Extracts will explain this trade custom : — 

" 1632. October 23. This daye the Court have thought fit that 
Edward Buck shalbe allowed of and admitted after he hath performed seven 
years service and made his Maista-pecce. And the said Court will consider of 
his fine for his admittaunce. ' 



Company's Journal I. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. I5I 

" 1654. April 2. This Court day Francis Bowen, Apprentice to Mr. Bowyer, 
brought his Masterpiece, having served his Master 7 years, and was admitted 
and sworn a free Clockmaker and paid 20s to the Company. 

"1656. April 14. This day was admitted a free brother of this 
Company James Lello. He shewed his Masterpiece or Watch with the day of 
the month with his own name, attested to be of his handy work by Mr. Samuel 
Betts, and he promised conformity to the orders.' 

" 1 68 1. January 16. Ordered that each person who shall hereafter 
come to be admitted into this Company shall before their admission shew to 
the Court assembled a Masterpiece of his own making as heretofore hath been 
used. - 

" 1639. April I. John Drake, for not binding his Apprentice to some 
free Brother of this Company according to the Charter and Ordinances of Law 
under the Judges' hand, and likewise an order from the Court of Aldermen, 
and confessing that he had bound him to the Blacksmiths, is fined by this 
Court £,\o to be lea vied and recovered as is directed by the Ordinance of 
Law. 3 

" 1646. December 7. This Court day it is ordered by reason of many 
abuses that do arise that every Member of this Company before he maketh 
any Apprentice free of the City that hath been bound to any other Company 
he shall first bring him to be admitted and sworn a brother of this Company 
before he makes him free of the City or else forfeit the sum of ^5." ■* 

The question of the number of Apprentices to be taken 
b}' each Member of the Company was one which occasioned 
much trouble. Some, defying the authority of the Bye- Laws, 
took several. On the 25th of February, 1656, Thomas 
Loomes was charged before the Lord Mayor with having 
five, when the following order was made : — 

"Tichborne Mayor. The 25th day of February 1656. Upon complaint 
made to his Lordship by the Company of Clockniakers against Thomas 
Loomes, for keeping of five Apprentices contrary to the orders of the said 
Company — It is ordered by his Lordship that the said Thomas Loomes shall 
forthwith ])ut away three of his said Apprentices and keep only but two, and 
his Lordship doth likewise declare that all persons that use the said Trade of 
a Clockmaker shall observe the orders of the said Company concerning their 
number of Apprentices. 

" Thomas Latham. 

"On July 5 1658. Thomas Loomes was fined 40s. for taking an 
Apprentice without the consent of the Company." ^ 

Shortly afterwards Ahasuerus Fromanteel and his son 
were charged with keeping more Apprentices than the Law 
permitted. The case was brought by the Master, Wardens, 

' Company's Journal I. = Company's Journal II. 

3- •«■ 5 Company's Journal I. 



152 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

and Court of Assistants, under the notice of the Lord Mayor, 
who heard both parties, when it would appear from the 
following- letter addressed by Mr. Fromanteel to the Court of 
Assistants, that strong words had been used on either side, 
but the Lord Ma)or ordered Mr. Fromanteel to comply with 
the Law. The Letter runs as follows : — 

"Gentlemen, — Upon serious consideration of what passed before my 
Lord Mayor on Wednesday last I find that, in the managing of that business, 
there were such things uttered that did not become Christians nor Civil men, 
and forasmuch as the law of God commands us as much as in us lay to live in 
peace with all men, and that an account must be given as well for words as 
actions to the Lord, I do in order to the discharge of my duty towards God 
and man lay myself open before you, and that with all plainess, for the clearing 
of my conscience, and desire this one thing from you, that is, that prejudice 
may be laid aside, that you may be the better able without partiality to 
consider of ivhat I write ; and I begin with myself, whereas I said that my 
journeyman could do that in the Trade that no five of the Assistants could 
do, I do confess I spake rashly, and it savoured most of vain boasting, and I 
resolve by the help of God for time to come to be more cautious how 
I express myself, but withal I must desire you to consider how vainly I was 
charged by some of you, nay I must say falsely, for so it is, and that in several 
things — one thing was that I taught Mr. Creek the Trade — another was that 
my son Louis had three prentices more than the Company allowed him, and 
was by my means — a third was that I had taken a mere smith that was never 
trained up in Clockwork and taught him the trade, all which are as opposite to 
truth as light to darkness, upon which I was provoked and said what I said, 
and what I said is true, but not seasonable then to be spoken; I can but admire 
how it could be affirmed with so much confidence that my man was never 
trained up in Clockwork, forasmuch as several of the Court of Assistants know- 
that two men that had known him long came to the Clockmakers' Court, and 
testified that he had served one five years in the country that made Jacks and 
Clocks and Guns and Locks and several sorts of work beside, and these men 
were not strangers but Citizens of London. 

" I wonder also what reason you have to send me word that I should 
put him away which you must not expect as long as I have employment for 
him ; now I desire of you, which is but reason, that you see me righted in 
those charges that were laid against me, either in the clearing of me or else to 
prove those things I am charged with, for till that be done I am much wronged; 
and concerning my son Louis I wonder why he should be so faulted by you 
for multiplying apprentices more than any of the Company, he employs none 
but such as are bound by the Company, if there be any multiplying of 
apprentices it is your own doing, for he doth not employ any but as are bound 
and approved of by the Company, or by your officer, he never entertained any 
other. Now the reason why he employs other men's prentices as well as his 
own you may know if you will enquire of their Masters, And if he detains 
them wrongfully from them they have a clear way against him, and may 
recover them again. If all that have prentices had done as he have done, take 
none till they have been 4 years out of their time theere would not have been 
so many as are and where others have three apiece bound to them for their 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 153 

own use as Mr. Irland, Mr. Davis, Mr. Miller, and others all with them at one 
time, he never had but two and one turned over to serve the remnant of his 
time, and therefore I pray consider how prentices are multiplied and by 
whom ; but forasmuch as I find you cannot endure to have your actions 
questioned I shall be willing to wait and see what you will do for our release 
and reforming the whole Company, but in case of oppression I must relieve 
myself as well as I can, in the meantime I shall expect that you will make an 
appearance of that reformation you promised before my Lord Mayor, and so 
I shall leave you to the Lord that will one day judge righteous judgement 
upon all mens words and actions. 

" Ahasuerus Fromanteel. 
"Moses Alley 3rd of March 1656." 

The following Resolutions have been passed by the 
Court of Assistants from time to time for the management 
and control of Apprentices : — 

" 1634. October 13. It was ordered by this Court that Edward Ambrose, 
Apprentice unto Elias Voland, upon the complaint of Josias Cuper shall work. 
Avith the said Josias untill ye watch be finished which he is about, and that no 
man shall set him at work during that tyme.' 

" 1676. November 6. This Court, taking into consideration the great 
inconvenience arising to the Company by the multiplicity of the Apprentices 
taken, have ordered the Clarke to issue out ticketts to all and every the 
Members, of the Company to give notice to them That henceforward noe 
Apprentice will be allowed to be bound unto, or taken by any Member of the 
Company otherwise then according to the ordinances of the Comjoany.- 

" 1681. January 16. It was ordered that all Members of the Company 
who hath or have unduly taken and bound any Apprentice or Apprentices, or 
who shall hereafter unduly take and bind any Apprentice or Apprentices to 
any other Company than this Company to which they are sworn shall be 
therefore prosecuted by the Master Wardens and Assistants of this Company, 
as the Company's Charter and Ordinances and the Laws of the Land enableth 
them." 3 

" 1684. September 29. Whereas for some years past there hath been 
some restraint upon the Members of the Company as to the time when they 
might first bind an Apprentice, and when a second, and so successively, and by 
reason thereof divers Menibers have by secret shifts and undue means 
procured Apprentices to be bound to other Companies, and to be turned over 
or committed to themselves contrary to the Company's Ordinance in that 
behalf, whereby this Company hath been, is and will be much damaged, and a 
great increase made of Artists or Clockmakers and Workers in the Art, which 
are or will be freemen of these other Companies to which they are bound. 
Tlais Court therefore thought fit and ordered that before they do take off the 
restraint, or make any alteration therein they will advise with good Counsell 
whether they may not legally prosecute those persons who have so transgressed, 
or shall so transgress and how and in what manner it best may and ought 
to be done. And the Master and Wardens and Mr. Gregory, Mr. Bell, 



-• 3 Ccmpany's Journnl I. 



154 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

Mr. Barrow and Mr. Jones are appointed a Committee in this behalf and that 
they or any 5 or more of them the Master and one or more of the Wardens 
or 2 or more of the Wardens without the Master being of the number are to 
act therein accordingly, And to report their proceedings and success to the 
Court. ' 

"1684. December 11. The matter relating to binding Apprentices to 
other Companies, which, at the Court of the 29th of September last, was by 
order referred to this Committee was debated, but, upon consideration of the 
unsuitableness of the present time for punishing such transgressions as are 
intended in that order of reference, nothing was done or concluded therein 
save that it was left to the consideration of the next (juarter Court.^ 

*' 16S5. March i. Some complaints were made against Jasper Harmer, 
Ironmonger, neer Smithfield Bars (against whom the Company hath formerly 
had suit) he exercising the Art of Clockmaking not having served seven years 
Apprentice in the Art of Clockmaking, and doing things to the discredit 
of the Art and prejudice of the good Artists, It was thought fit that the 
Company should by all legal means endeavour to suppress or punish him 
therefore, But first that Mr. Henry Jones should ask the advice of the 
Recorder how it may be best performed. ^ 

" 1688. April 2. Ordered that William Whittingham shall be prosecuted 
at Law for exercising the Art or Trade of Clockmaking, he having not served 
seven years in or to the same Art or Trade. ■* 

" 1691. July 6. Whereas at a Court holden the 6th of November 1676, 
the then Master Wardens and Assistants of this Company for good reason 
and cause them moving thought fit to put some restraint upon the Members 
of the Company, in the time and manner of their taking of Apprentices from 
which time it hath hitherto been practiced and insisted upon as a Rule, 
That no Member having one apprentice might take a second till his former 
should have served full five years of his time. Now forasmuch as it hath 
appeared and by many and frequent examples it doth appear That many great 
inconveniences have arisen, and will further arise to this Company, if that 
restraint, practice, and rule be not ceased, wholly taken off and nulled, this 
Court therefore for the prevention of those or any other inconveniences 
which may hereafter happen by or from that restraint, practice, rule, Did and 
do by their vote and order cease, wholly take off and null the said restraint, 
practice, and rule, for and concerning binding of Apprentices, And did and do 
leave and refer each Member of the Company in and as touching the 
binding his Apprentice or Apprentices to the rule, time, manner and method 
prescribed, and ordeined in and by the Ordinance entered fol. 48 of the 
Company's Book of Ordinances, by which ordinance this Court was sensible 
and did and doth judge that he who hath one Apprentice bound for seven 
years may bind a second when his first hath served two years and he who hath 
one bound for 8 years may bind a second when his first hath served three 
years, the first Apprentice in either case having five years to serve. ^ 

"1691. July 22. Memorandum, That the Master Wardens and 
Assistants together with William Young and William S])eakman two of the 
Members of the Company of Haberdashers appeared before the Chamberlain 
of London upon occasion of a complaint by the said INLister and Wardens by 
promotion of the said Wm. Young That one Andrew Strachan a Scotchman 



'• =■ 3. 4. 5 Company's Journal II. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 55 

accompted to be between 30*^ and 40'^ years of age, and no Freeman, hath for 
several years past worked in the Art of Clockmaking within the Limits of this 
Company's Charter of Incorporation, not submitting to the Charter Ordinance 
Search and Rule of this Company, hath in order to his prosecution been 
served with Exchequer Writs, to avoid which he hath shifted from place to 
place and at last by the contrivance of the said Thomas Warden and Abraham 
Strachan, he the said Abraham Strachan hath upon the loth day of this last 
July bound himself Apprentice by Indenture unto the said Thomas Warden 
for the term of seven years thereby intending under his Countenance, and as 
his Apprentice to carry on without control a Trade for himself in the Art of 
Clockmaking, and gain a freedom of this City. Upon hearing of the matter 
It was by the Chamberlain adjudged and ordered by consent of the said 
Thomas Warden that the said Indenture of Apprenticeship should be cancelled 
(which was forthwith accordingly done) and he declared that as it was illegal 
and contrary to the Custom of the City of London that any person being 
under the age of 14 years should be bound Apprentice So v/as it also that any 
person above the age of 21 years should be bound Apprentice.' 

" 1692. April 4, It was resolved voted and ordered that the Master, 
with such as he shall think fit of the Wardens and Assistants to concern 
therewith, shall endeavour to obtain an Act of Common Council in favour of 
this Company of like nature as the Company of Spectacle Makers have relating 
to binding Apprentices to Freemen and committing them to Foreigners to be 
taught." = 



FEMALE APPRENTICES. 

In the year 1715, it appears that the Company recognized 
and sanctioned the taking of Female Apprentices, and the 
followinof amonof numerous other instances are to be found in 
their Records :— 

"17 15. January 27. Mariane Viet was bound Apprentice to her 
Father Claude Viet for seven years from this date. ^ 

" 1715. April 28. Rebeckah Fisher was bound Apprentice to George 
Taylor and Lucy his wife for seven years from this day. 

"1725. October 4. Charlotte Hubert bound to James Hubert and 
Elizabeth his wife for 7 years. 

"1730. April 6. Catherine Cext Apprentice to James Hubert and 
Elizabeth his wife. 

"1733- January 3. Anna Maria Shaw, bound to Isaac Loddington 
and Ann his wife for seven years.'' 

" 1734. February 3, Elizabeth Askell bound to Elinor IMosely.^ 

"1747. July 18. Susanna Smith to Hannah the wife of James 
Wilson.^ 

' Company's Journal II. ~ Act of Common Council, ist July, 1650, 

3 Company's Journal III. 4. 5. 6 Company's Journal IV, 

M 



156 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



ADVICE TO APPRENTICES. 

"1827. October 8. The Clerk having laid before the last Court a 
printed circular from the Rev. H. G. Watkins, M.A., Rector of St. Swithin's 
London Stone, containing a small pamphlet entitled ' Affectionate Advice ' 
which he requested to submit to the consideration of this Company (it having 
been adopted by several of the Corporations of this City) to present to youths 
on being bound Apprentice, whereupon the Master directed that, for perusal, 
each Member of this Court should be furnished with a Copy of the same 
previous to taking the sense of the Court this day on the propriety of its being 
adopted by this Company, and the same being taken into consideration it was 
on the motion of Mr. Harris and seconded by Mr. Ganthony ' 

"Resolved unanimously, — That the pamphlet entitled 'Affectionate 
Advice to Apprentices' by the Rev. H. G. Watkins be adopted by this 
Company, and that the Clerk do procure One Hundred Copies thereof stitched 
in a cover bearing the Company's Arms and stating its having been presented 
on the day the Apprentice was bound in this Company." 

On the 3rd of July, 1865, it was resolved that the fee to 
be paid upon binding an Apprentice, " The consideration 
being Faithful service only," should be reduced from two 
Guineas to one, and on July 8th, 1867, it was 

"Resolved unanimously — That in future all Apprentices serving seven 
years to the satisfaction of their Masters and where the consideration is 
' Faithful Service ' only, who shall take up their Freedom within 1 2 months 
after being out of their time shall be admitted at half the usual fees." ^ 

Charges for binding Apprentices : — 



" Charity 


Indentures 








£^ 


5 





If 


no Premium 


... 









17 


6 




any sum under ^^ 


[Q 






3 


1 1 







p£"io and under ;^20 






3 


16 







20 


// 


30 


.. 




4 


I 







30 


// 


40 






6 


I 


6 




40 


// 


50 


.. 




6 


6 


6 




50 


II 


100 






8 


6 


6 




100 


II 


200 • 






13 


6 


6 




200 


II 


300 






19 


6 


6 




300 


II 


400 


.. 




27 


16 


6 




400 


II 


500 






37 


16 


6 


" Fee to the Clerk in each 


case 


3x. 6^." 









' Company's Journal VII, 



Company's Journal X. 




p^nin^y 



BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES 



MEMBERS OF THE COMPANY 



WHO HAVE 



Distimnxsiieb ^fymselves, 



IN CONNECTION WITH THE TRADE, 



OR WHO HAVE FILLED MUNICIPAL OFFICES. 




M 2 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 



159 



A LIST 

OK SOME OF THE 

CELEBRATED CLOCKMAKERS 

ADMITTED 

MEMBERS OF THE COMPA^''Y 

DURING THE 





SEVENTEENTH CENTURY, 




Not included i 
ate of Admission. 


in the succeeding Biographical Notices. 


D 




1633- 


September 9. 


Timothy Gray. 


1633. 


October 3. 


Richard Masterson. 


1640. 


October 12. 


Peter de Laundre. 


1649- 


50. January 14. 


Thomas Loomes.' 


165I. 


December 18. 


Solomon Bouquett. 


1655- 


January 10. 


Ahasuerus Fromanteel." 


1668. 


January 18. 


Nathaniel! Delander. 


>> 


M >> 


James Delander. 


1669. 


November i. 


James Gibson, 

A great Clockmaker. 


1670- 


I. March 9. 


Jame Clewes, 

A great Clockmaker. 


1671. 


July 3- 


John Hunt, 

A Clockmaker, and Brother of the Society 
of Tobacco Pipe Makers of London. 


>) 


M )> 


Ignatius Huggeford, 

Clockmaker, and free of the Company of 
Haberdashers. 


167I. 


September 4. 


Thomas Grimes, 

A great Clockmaker. 


1671. 


September 29. 


Joseph Windmills. 
A great Clockmaker. 



' He resided at the ' ' Mermayd, " in Lothbury, and was charged before the Lord Mayor, 
by the Company, for keeping more than two Apprentices. A specimen of his workmanship 
is in the Company's Collection. 

= Ahasuerus Fromanteel, admitted November 29th, 1632, was probably the father of 
the above. 



l60 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

1 67 1. January 15. William Million, 

A great Clockmaker, and Free of the 
Merchant-taylors. 

1672. January 20. John Howes, 

A great Clockmaker. 

1674. September 29. William Dent, 

A great Clockmaker. 

1675. March 29. Gabriell Stubbs, 

A small Clockmaker. 

1675. February 7. John Delaunder, 

Watchcase Maker. 
1678. September 30. Gerard Overzee, 

Clockmaker. A naturalized subject. 

1687. September 29. Charles Le Febuce, 

A Frenchman, and a great Clockmaker. 

1 69 1. September 29. John Heerman, 

A Dutchman. A Watchmaker. 




CELEBRATED MEMBERS OP THE TRADE. 



JOHN ARNOLD. 

Born at Bodmin, Cornwall, in 1 744, and apprenticed to his 
Father, a Watchmaker there. Some family disagreement 
arising, he went to Holland and obtained employment at The 
Hague, where he remained for several years. On returning to 
England, he earned a scanty livelihood as an itinerant mechanic. 
A gentleman, whose repeater he repaired, was so struck with 
his superior talent, that he assisted him to establish himself in 
London, where he commenced business as a Watch and Clock- 
maker in Devereux Court, Fleet Street, and afterwards re- 
moved to Cornhill. His patron having introduced him to 
the notice of George HI, the King gave him ^100 to enable 
him to commence experiments for the improvement of Chro- 
nometers. He was subsequently assisted by the Board of 
Longitude. In t 764, he made the smallest repeating Watch 
ever attempted, which he presented on the 4th of June as a 
birthday gift to George III ; it was set in a ring, and was 
less in size than a silver twopenny piece ; it contained one 
hundred and twenty different parts, and weighed 5 dwts. 
7f grains, including the first ruby cylinder ever made. The 
King was so pleased with it, that he presented the donor 
with five hundred guineas. The improvements introduced by 
this ingenious Mechanician are too numerous to particularize. 
In 1775, Arnold obtained ' a patent for a helical or cylindrical 
spiral spring. He was employed by the East India Company 
to make Chronometers for use in their ships. He made 
two, which were supplied to Captain Cook, one for the 
"Adventure." 

• See Patent No. 1 113, Dec. 30, 1775. 



102 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

and the other for the "Resolution." In 1782,' he patented 
the Epicycloid scape-wheel. Admitted a Free Clockmaker 
by redemption April 7, 1 783, and chosen on the Livery 
October 2 7, 1 796. Was one of the competitors for the 
reward offered by the Board of Longitude, under the Act of 
Parliament, 12 Anne, cap. 15, passed in 1713, which promised 
^20,000, upon certain conditions, to those who should submit 
the best instrument for determining the Longitude at Sea, and, 
although he did not gain the prize, the Board in 1805 awarded 
his son, John Roger Arnold, ;^3,ooo for the improvements his 
father had made in Chronometers. In 1780, he published 
'by permission of the Board, an account of the going, during 
13 months, of a pocket chronometer of his manufacture, 
deposited at the Royal Observatory ; the greatest difference 
from mean time shown in one day had never amounted 
to four seconds. He died August 25, 1799, and was 
buried at Chislehurst. In the Company's Horological Collec- 
tion are several specimens of his work presented by Messrs. 
Charles Frodsham and Co., in 1875. In the Library will 
also be found several works upon the Chronometers constructed 
by him. 

CHARLES CABRIERE, 

Watchmaker, of Broad Street ; made Free of the Company in 
1726, chosen on the Court of Assistants, 4th October, 1750; 
served the office of Warden in 1754-56 ; elected Master, 29th 
September, 1757. 

On the 7th of July, 1777, Mr. Cabriere attended and 
acquainted the Court of Assistants that he had entered a 
prosecution against sundry persons for putting his name, 
without his knowledge or consent, to Watches which they had 
made up, and prayed their assistance and advice, which was 
unanimously promised. 

The case Cabriere v. Anderson,^ recorded in the Annual 
Register of 3rd December, 1777, was tried before Lord 
Mansfield, in the Court of King's Bench, and was considered 
a remarkable cause, the first of its kind. The defendant was 
sued for putting the plaintiff's name to five Watches made by 

» See Patent No. 1328, May 2, 1782. 

=^ Volume 20, page [212] Gents' Magazine, vol. 47, p. 608. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 1 63 

the former, and thereby hurting the reputation of the 
plaintiff. A verdict was given for ;!^ioo, being £20 for each 
Watch, agreeably to an Act of Parliament of William III. 

This led to a Meeting being called by the Master, 
Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the Company, who 
passed a Resolution that the Bye- Law XLVI, together with 
an Extract from the Act of the 9th and loth of William III, 
cap. 28, paragraph 2, be printed in the Gazette and the 
Public Newspapers, etc., etc. See Trade, etc. 

The Company have in their collection of Watch move- 
ments, three by this maker. 

PETER DE BAUFRE, 

Watchmaker, admitted to the Freedom of the Company, 
I St July, 1689. He in conjunction with his brother Jacob, 
and Mr. Nicholas Faccio, of Duiller, a Member of the Royal 
Society, obtained from Queen Anne a grant of letters patent 
for the sole use in England, etc., for 14 years, of a new art, 
invented by them, of figuring and working precious or common 
stones, crystal or glass, and »certain other matters different 
from metals, so that they might be employed in Watches, 
Clocks, and many other engines, etc. The Inventors were not 
satisfied with their 14 years' patent, and therefore applied to 
Parliament for an extension of the term, and also for an Act 
for the sole monoply. This application met with the strenuous 
opposition of the Company, and was defeated. For full 
particulars, see Patents and Inventions. The Company have 
in their Collection a Silver Watch, made by him, with original 
lever escapement, and with a small crystal at back to show the 
balance. It beats half-seconds, and has stop-work, etc. 

SIMON DE CHARMES, 

Whose ancestors came over to England upon the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes, was admitted to the Freedom of the 
Company, 6th of April, 1691, and became eminent in his 
profession. A Gold Repeater and two Movements, made 
by him, are in the Company's Collection of Watches. He 
purchased an Estate at Hammersmith, and built a house 
subsequently called Grove Hall. His son David De Charmes 
resided there, and was buried in Hammersmith Churchyard 
in 1783. 



164 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

THOMAS EARNSHAW. 

Born at Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire, in 1749. He resi- 
ded in Higfh Holborn, and was summoned before the Court 
of Assistants of the Company for carrying on the trade of a 
Watchmaker without pa)'ing' quarterage to the common fund. 
He appeared before them May 2, 1796, and the law relating 
thereto being read to him, he declared himself fully convinced 
of the power of the Company, and paid the amount claimed. 
In 1 78 1, he began to use the improved spring detent. In 
1802, he made a great improvement in Chronometers by em- 
ploying a single balance instead of two combined as used by 
Arnold, He succeeded in making Timekeepers so simple and 
cheap, that they were within the reach of private individuals. 
There is a curious transit Clock at the Greenwich Observatory, 
made by Graham, but greatly improved and simplified by 
Earnshaw. He was one of the unsuccessful competitors for 
the rewards offered by the Board of Longitude ; the Com- 
missioners voted him ^500 in 1800, but upon an application 
being made to them they again considered his claims, and on 
the 3rd of March, 1S03, came to the following Resolution : — 

" Resolved, — That the Board are convinced that Mr. Earnshaw's Watches 
have gone better than any others that have been submitted to trial at the 
Royal Observatory, and therefore are of opinion that he deserves a reward 
equal at least to that given by Parliament to Mr. Mudge, provided he will 
disclose the construction of his timekeepers in such a manner as shall satisfy 
the Board that other Watchmakers will be enabled to construct them with 
equal accuracy, etc. 

" That the President of the Royal Society be desired to wait upon the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and request him to consent to the additional 
grant intended for the reward of Mr. Earnshaw." 

This was done, and on the 27th December, 1805, he 
received ;^2,5oo, making ^3,000. 

His appeal to the public, stating his claims to the original 
invention of the improvements in his Timekeepers, is in the 
Company's Library, They also have his portrait, engraved 
by Bellin, from a painting by Sir Martin Archer Shee, R.A. 

EDWARD EAST, 

Watchmaker to King Charles I. One of the ten original 
Assistants appointed by the Charter of Incorporation in 1632. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 1 65 

He was a Watchmaker of great repute, and resided in Pall 
Mall, near the Tennis Court. It is reported of Charles II, 
when Prince of Wales, that he frequently played at Tennis, 
the stakes being an " Edwardus East," as His Royal High- 
ness called it ; that is, a Watch of East's making.' It would 
appear that East afterwards removed to Fleet Street. 

"Another night His Majesty (Charles I) appointed Mr. Herbert to 
come into his Bed Chamber an hour sooner than usual in the morning ; but 
it so happened that he overslept his time, and awaken'd not untill the King's 
Silver Bell hasten'd him in. Herbert, (said the King) you have not observ'd 
the command I gave last night. He acknowledged his fault. Well (said 
the King) I will order you for the future ; you shall have a Gold Alarm-Watch, 
which, as there may be cause, shall awake you ; write to the Earl of Pembroke 
to send me such a one presently. The Earl immediately sent to Mr. East, 
his Watchmaker in Fleet Street, about it ; of which more will be said at his 
Majesty's coming to St. James's .... The Earl delivered to a Mihtary 
Officer who was going to St. James's the Gold Watch that had the Alarm 

desiring him to give it to Mr. Herbert, to present it to the King 

The King commanded his Gold Watch to be given to the Duchess of 
Richmond." - 

He was Warden of the Company in 1638 and 1639 ; 
elected Master 29th of September, 1645-, and again 4th 
of October, 1652. He was also appointed Treasurer 
nth of October, 1687, and was the only occupant of that 
Office. 



JOHN ELLICOTT, F.R.S., 

Clockmaker to King George III. Resided in Sweeting's 
Alley, Cornhill, and was a Mathematician of considerable 
ability. Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1738. In 
.1752, invented the compensated pendulum (see his work in 
the Company's Library)- He had also submitted an improved 
Pyrometer to the Society in 1736. In the proceedings of the 
Royal Society for 1762 (page 534 ct seq.) are printed some 
observations, by Charles Mason, concerning the going of 
Mr. Eliicott's Clock at St. Helena. His portrait, engraved by 
Dunkarton, from a painting by Nathaniel Dancel, is in the 
Company's Collection. _^___ 

' In the Company's Museum is a specimen of one of the small Oval Hunting Watches, 
and a Clock with an Alarum, by the same maker. 

= ]\Iemoirs of the two last years of the reign of King Charles I, by Sir Thomas Herbert, 
Groom of the Chambers to his Majesty, edition 1815, pages 148 and 173. 



1 66 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

WILLIAM JAMES FRODSHAM, F.R.S., 

Of Change Alley, Cornhill, admitted a FreeClockmaker, Octo- 
ber II, 1802 ; and to the Livery of the Company, 7th October, 
1811 ; chosen on the Court of Assistants, January 12, 1824; 
served the office of Warden, 1833-35 ; twice elected Master, 
1 836- 1 83 7. He published several works, among them one in 
1838 on the results of experiments on the vibration of pen- 
dulums. Two Chronometers, made by Frodsham, were tested 
at Greenwich in 1830, and after a twelve months' trial one 
varied 86-100 of a second, and the other 57-100 parts of a 
second. He died June 28, 1850, and left a legacy of ^1000 
to the poor of the Company. — [^^^r^ Charities.] His portrait, 
by Miss Ada Cole, is preserved in the Collection. 

AHASUERUS FROMANTEEL, 

The elder, a great Clockmaker, admitted and sworn a Free 
Member of the Company, November 29, 1632. He resided in 
Mopes Alley, Southwark, on the Bankside, and also at the 
sign of the Mermaid, in Lothbury. Noted for his Steeple- 
clocks. Evelyn in his Diary, May 3rd, 1661, says, "returned 
from Fromantil's ye famous Clockmaker to see some pendules." 
He took an active part in the Trade disputes between the 
Freemen and the governing body of the Company. 

GEORGE GRAHAM. 

Born in the parish of Kirklinton, Cumberland, July 7, 1673, of 
parents who were members of the Society of Friends. In 1688, 
he came to London, and was apprenticed to Henry Aske, 
Clockmaker, July 2 in that year. During his apprenticeship 
he made the acquaintance of the family of the celebrated 
Thomas Tompion, Watchmaker, of Fleet Street, who ulti- 
mately received him into his employ. He married Elizabeth, 
the daughter of Tompion's brother James, and at his master's 
decease in November, 1713, succeeded to the business. 
Made Free of this Company July 2, 171 5; chosen one 
of the Court of Assistants April 2, 1716; Warden 1 719-21 ; 
Master September 29, 1722. He died November 20, 1751, 
and was buried by the side of his friend and benefactor, 
Tompion, in Westminster Abbey. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 1 67 

He was acknowledged to be the greatest Horologist of 
his day, and a most ingenious Mathematical Instrument- 
maker. In 1 71 5, he applied a compensating power to counter- 
act the effects of heat and cold upon the length of the pendulum. 
He also invented the repose or dead escapement. In 1724, he 
greatly improved the horizontal escapement invented by 
Tompion, and also constructed a great mural arch at the 
Greenv/ich Observatory, as well as the sector, by means of 
which Dr. Bradley first discovered two new motions in the 
fixed stars. When the French Academicians were sent to the 
north, to make observations for ascertaining the figure of the 
earth, Graham was selected to supply them with instruments. 
The first Planetarium made in England was the work of his 
genius ; it was made for Lo7'd Orrery, whose name has ever 
since been given in this country to all machines of this descrip- 
tion. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, March 9, 
1720, and communicated to that Society several very important 
discoveries. He greatly improved the horizontal or cylinder 
escapement which was used in most of the best watches of his 
day, while his mercurial pendulum and dead-beat escapement 
are still used in the best regulators and astronomical time- 
keepers. 

By his will, dated 23rd June, 1747, he left to the poor of 
the Company, twenty pounds. 

The Company have in their Collection a long Eight-day 
Clock and a Watch-movement of his work, and also his 
portrait, engraved by Faber, from a painting by T. Hudson. 

JOHN GRANT. 

John Grant, the elder, was a Watchmaker of considerable 
repute, who carried on business for many years in Fleet 
Street. He was apprenticed to his uncle, Alexander Gum- 
ming, F.R.S., an honorary Freeman of the Company, and 
the author of several valuable works upon Horology, 'and 
ultimately succeeded to his business. Grant himself was also 
admitted ar\ honorary Freeman April 2, 1781, and was called 
to the Livery April 6, 1789. On October 9, 1809, he was 
elected to the Court of Assistants, and was chosen Junior 
Warden January 8, 18 10, but died on May 4th in that year. 
Four curious and valuable examples of his workmanship the 
gift of his son, are in the Company's Collection. His son and 



1 68 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

Eleve, the subject of the present notice, who succeeded to his 
business, was admitted to the Freedom February 3, 181 7, and 
to the Livery March 3 in the same year. On the 8th January, 
1827, he was chosen one of the Assistants of the Company, 
and served the office of Warden from 1833 to 1837, again in 
1845, and from 1855 to 1857. He has five times filled the 
office of Master, viz., in 1838, 1839, 1846, 1858, and 1867, 
and is now the Father of the Company. His portrait, painted 
by order of the Court of Assistants in 1880, when in his 84th 
year, is among the Company's Collection. 

CHARLES GRETTON. 

Apprenticed to Lionel Wythe, 30th of June, 1662 ; admitted 
to the Freedom, June 3, 1672 ; chosen on the Court of Assist- 
ants, July I, 1689; served the office of Warden, 1697-99; elected 
Master 30th September, 1700. On the ist September, 1701, 
he gave upon trust to the Company the sum of ^50, to pay 
fifty shillings a year to apprentice the sons of deceased Free- 
men of the Company, to the trade of Watch and Clockmaking. 
Two specimens of his workmanship are in the Company's 
Museum. 

HENRY JONES. 

Apprenticed to Edward East, 22nd August, 1654 ; admitted to 
the Freedom, July 6, 1663; served the office of Warden, 
1687-1689; elected Master, September 29, 1691. He resided 
in the Temple. In the " London Gazette," No. 2499, for October 
2 1 St to 24th, 1689, appears the following advertisement: — 
"Lost, the 2 1 st instant, between the Haymarket, near Charing 
Cross and the Rummer in Queen Street, near Cheapside, a 
round Gold Pendulum Watch of an indifferent small size, 
shewing the Hours and Minutes, the Pendulum went with a 
straight Spring, it was made by Henry Jones, Watchmaker in 
the Temple, the Out-case had a Cypher pinn'd on it, and the 
Shagreen much worn off. Whosoever gives notice of it to 
the said Mr. Jones, or Mr. Snagg, a Goldsmith in Lombard 
Street, shall have 2 Guineas Reward." 

Charles H, according to tradition, gave to Mrs. Jane 
Lane a Clock, in memory of her services, after the battle of 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 1 69 

Worcester. On the Clock was engraved the name " Henricus 
Jones, Londlni." 

"1673. January 19, Mr. Henry Jones, Clockmaker, acquainted the 
Court of the Company that he had made for The King (Charles II) a Clock 
of the value of ^150 whereon was engraven Henricus Jones Londini, and 
which stood in His Majesty's closet for about seven years, but being by his 
Majesty given unto a Lady it came into the hands of Robert Seignior, 
Clockmaker, of Exchange Alley, to be repaired, and he caused Edward 
Staunton, Clockmaker, or some other person to take out the maker's name 
and inserted his own." • 

This was doubtless the Clock above referred to. After 
some inquiry, no further action appears to have been taken by 
the Company. 

In North's Life of the Lord Keeper Guildford, vol. II, 
page 203, it is stated that Barometers were first made and 
sold at his suggestion, by one Jones, a Clockmaker in the 
Inner Temple Gate. 

In the Company's Collection is a Vertical Watch by this 
maker, in a metal covered case, presented by Miss Butter 
to the Company in 1876. 



THOMAS MUDGE. 

Second son of The Rev. Zachary Mudge, a learned divine and 
master of the Grammar School at Bideford, Devon. Born at 
Exeter about 1716. At the age of 14 he was apprenticed to 
George Graham, then the most famous of Watchmakers, 
May 4, I 730. Whilst in his apprenticeship he became known 
far and wide as one of the best authorities upon Timekeepers. 
He succeeded to his Master's business, carried on at the 
" Dial and One Crown," opposite the " Bolt and Tun," Fleet 
Street. Admitted a Free Clockmaker, January 15, 1738. 
In 1750 he entered into partnership with Mr. William Dutton, 
and in i 763 published " Thoughts on the means of improving 
Watches, and particularly those for use at Sea." In 1760 
he was introduced to Count de Bruhl, envoy extraordinary 
from the Court of Saxony, a great admirer of the Art, who 
became his friend and patron. He made a Watch with a com- 
pensation curb for Smeaton, the Engineer, and also several 



' Company's Journal I, 



170 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

Timekeepers for Ferdinand VI, of Spain. He was the 
inventor of the Lever Escapement, the first instrument to 
which this improvement was apphed, being made in 1770 for 
Queen Charlotte. In 1771 he retired from active business, 
and turned his attention to Chronometers. In 1789 he, with 
several others, competed for the reward offered by the Board 
of Longitude for the most accurate Timekeeper for deter- 
mining the longitude at sea, but was unsuccessful. In 1793, 
a Select Committee of the House of Commons, assisted by 
several men of science, reported that Mr. Mudge was one of 
the first Watchmakers this country had produced, and 
recommended the Parliament to give. him a reward of ^3,000 
for his improvements in the construction of Chronometers. 
He died at his Son's house in Walworth, November 14, 1794. 
Several specimens of his work are preserved in the Company's 
Collection. 

They also possess Portraits both of him and his Father, 
the Rev. Zachariah Mudo^e. 



DANIEL OUARE, 

"A great Clockmaker," admitted a Brother, April 3, 1671 ; 
chosen on the Court of Assistants in 1697 ; Warden 1 705-1 707 ; 
Master September 29, 1708. In 1676, he invented the 
repeating movement in Watches, by which they were made to 
strike at pleasure, and in 1687 gained well-deserved credit 
for placing the minute hand concentric with the hour hand in 
Clocks. Upon an application by Mr. Barlow for a patent for 
the sole making of Repeating Clocks and Watches, the 
Company petitioned the King in Council against the grant, 
and at the hearing of the case in March, 1687, the Council 
having tested the merits of Mr. Barlow's Repeaters with those 
of Mr. Quare, refused to grant the patent. 

In the bedroom of William III, at Hampton Court 
Palace, is a Clock standing at the head of the bed, made by 
Daniel Quare, it goes 12 months without winding up.' 

A patent was granted to him, August 2, 1695, for the 
invention of a portable Weather Glass or Barometer, which in 
the words of the patent, " may be removed and carried to any 

• Wood's '* Curiosities of Clocks and Watches," edition 1866, p. 64. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. I / I 

place, though turned upside down, without spiUing one drop 
of quicksilver, or letting any air into the tube." 

A description of the identical Watch, made by him for 
King James II, was given in a letter to the "Morning 
Chronicle," dated December ii, 1823, re-printed in Wood's 
"Curiosities of Clocks and Watches," edition 1866, page 295. 

He died in i 724, and was buried in the Quakers' burying 
ground at Bunhill Fields, March 30, 1724. Most of the 
W^atchmakers in London attended his funeral.' 



DAVID RAMSEY, 

Clockmaker to King James the First, and the First Master of 
the Company. He was the friend of Master Heriot " Gingling 
Geordie," Jeweller to James I, and was an eminent Scotch 
Artificer. In 16 10- 12, he made three Watches for Henry, 
Prince of Wales, son of James I. Wood, in his "Curiosities 
of Clocks and Watches," edition 1866, pages 266-7, says : — 

In "The Accompte of the money expended by Sir David Murray K'- as 
Keeper of the Privie Purse to the late Noble Prynce Henry, Prynce of Wales, 
from the first of October 16 10, to the sixth of November 161 2 (the daye of 
the decease of the said Prynce) as likewse for certaine paymentes made 
after the deathe of the said Prynce in the monethes of November and 
December 161 2."" 

In the Audit Office, Somerset House, is the following 

entry : — 

"Watches, three bought of Mr. Ramsey the Clockmaker Ixi''- (^61). 
In the list of Guyftes and Rewardes in the same account will be found, 
Mr. Ramsey the Clockmaker, xjs. " 

The following Particulars and Extracts from the Calendars 
of the State Papers, give some interesting details of his 
history : — 

He held the appointment of Groom of the Bedchamber to the Prince, 
and in 161 3 a Pension of p/^200 per annum was granted to him. In 
1613, King James gave him a pension of ;^5o per annum.- In the grant 
he is styled Clockmaker Extraordinary. In M616, a warrant was signed 
to pay him ;^2 34 los. for the purchase and repair of Clocks and Watches for 
the King. November 26, 1618, he was appointed to the Office of •* Chief 
Clockmaker to His Majesty, with fees and allowances for workmanship. ^ On 
July 27, 1 6 19, a grant of denization was passed to David Ramsay, the King's 

■ Wood's "Curiosities of Clocks and W.itches," edition 1866, pp. 64-297. 

.State Papers (Domestic) 1611-18, - p. 211. 3 p. 419. 4 p. ^^s, 5 1619-23, p. 67. 

N 



172 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMTANY. 

Clockmaker, born in Scotland. ' March 30, 1622, a warrant was signed to 
pay him ^{^113, for work for the late Prince Henry, and for \Vatches and 
Clocks for the King. = September 30, 1622, he received ^232 15^- for 
repairing Clocks at Theobalds, Oatlands, and Westminster, and for making 
a chime of bells adjoining to the Clock at Theobalds. ^ January 25, 1626, 
a warrant to pay to David Ramsey ^{^150, for coins to be given by the King 
(Charles I) on the day of his Coronation was signed. 

1627. March 17 Warrant to David Ramsay, Page of the Bedchamber 
and Clockmaker ^^441 3s. ^d. for work done for his late Majesty; and 
^^358 i6j-. Zd., in lieu of diet and bouche of Court.-* 1628. July 10. A 
warrant was signed to pay him ;j^4i5 for Clocks and other necessaries, 
delivered for the king's service.^ In 1632 ^219 was paid to him on his bills 
for one year. ^ 

He appears to have been a man of considerable ability, 
from the number of inventions for which he sought, and in 
several cases obtained, grants of Patents. 

Although no official grant to him from King Charles I, 
as his Clockmaker, has been found, yet from the entries in 
the State Papers he seems to have continued the office he 
held under his father. His appointment by the king as first 
Master of the Company tends to confirm this. He Avas 
sworn into office as Master by Sir George Whitmore, Lord 
Mayor, on the 12th of October, 1632. He did not, however, 
take an active part in the affairs of the Company, Henry 
Archer, who was appointed Deputy-Master, having presided 
at the several Courts held during his term of office. 

Sir Walter Scott, in the Foi^tunes of Nigel, thus speaks of 
Ramsey : " Memory Monitor, Watchmaker and Constructor 
of Horologes to His Most Sacred Majesty James I." The 
novelist then goes on to say : 

" Although his profession led him to cultivate the exact sciences, Hke 
many at this period, he mingled them with pursuits which were mystical 
and fantastic. David Ramsey risked his money on the success of the 
vaticinations, which his researches led him to form, since he sold Clocks and 
Watches under condition that their value should not become payable till King 
James was crowned in the Pope's chair at Rome." 



State Papers (Domestic) 1619-23, ■ p. 365. = p. 451. > 1625-26, p. 558. 4 1627-28, p. 97. 
5 1628-1629, p. 202. ''1631-1633, p. 484. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMrANY. I '] ^^ 

ISAAC ROGERS, 

Son of Isaac Rogers, Citizen and Baker, a Levant Merchant 
and Watchmaker. Born in White Hart Court, Lombard 
Street, 13th of August, 1754. Upon the completion of his 
education at the Rev. Dr. Milner's School, Peckham, he was 
apprenticed, and in 1776, succeeded to his father's business. 
On the 2nd of September, 1776, he was admitted to the Free- 
dom of the Clockmakers' Company by Patrimony, and on 
January 1 1, 1 790, became a Liveryman. Like his father, he was 
a member of the Levant Company, and carried on an extensive 
trade with Turkey, Smyrna, Philadelphia, and the West Indies; 
and although thus occupied with business, he devoted con- 
siderable attention to scientific pursuits. Chemistry and Miner- 
alogy being his favourite studies. He designed and constructed 
two Regulators, one with a mercurial pendulum, and the other 
with a gridiron pendulum. The improvement of Naval 
Architecture was also a project in which he took an active 
part ; he was one of the projectors of a Society for that purpose, 
many of its meetings being held at his residence. In 1799, 
he was appointed the Treasurer of the Society. Later in life 
he became largely engaged in mining operations both in 
Cornwall and Wales. The best method of lighting the streets 
with gas also occupied his attention, and upon the establishment 
of the Imperial Gas Company, in 18 18, he was elected one of 
the Directors, and subsequently became Chairman of the 
Board. 

Reverting to his connection with this Company, on the 
9th of October, 1809, he was chosen one of the Court of 
Assistants, and served the office of Warden, 18 10- 12, and 
again in 1823. On the 29th of September, 1824, he was 
elected Master. Whilst servins^ the office of Renter Warden, 
his attention was directed to the state of the Company s 
finances, and with the able and zealous co-operation of his 
friends, Mr. Henry Clarke, and Mr. George Atkins the then 
Clerk, he projected a well-digested and sound plan for the 
resuscitation of the Company upon a good financial basis ; and 
on the 30th of September, 181 1, laid the same before the 
Court of Assistants, when, after mature consideration, it was 
adopted, and the thanks of the Court were presented to him 
for his attention to the finances of the Company, and the plan 
devised for insuring its future prosperity. 

N 2 



r 74 THE CLOCK MAKERS COMPANY. 

With his friends, Mr. Clarke and Mr. Vulliamy, he was 
ever ready to defend the interests of the Trade before the 
Ministers of the Crown or the pubhc, and he helped to direct 
public attention to the pernicious system of affixing the names 
of the best English Watchmakers to foreign work, and then 
exporting them as English made ; and also to the method of 
stamping Gold and Silver Cases at Goldsmiths' Hall. He died 
in December, 1839, at the age of 85, the Father of this 
and also of the Levant Company. 

A Portrait of him is preserved in the Company's Collec- 
tion in the Guildhall Library. 

THOMAS TOMPION, 

Called the " Father of English Watchmakers," was a native 
of North-hill, Bedfordshire, and is said to have been originally 
a Blacksmith. He resided at No. 67, Fleet Street, at the 
corner of Whitefriars Street. He was made free of the 
Company, 4th September, 1671 ; chosen one of the Court of 
Assistants, 7th September, 1691 ; served the office of Warden, 
1700-3; Master 29th September, 1704. He died 20th 
November, 1713, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
His will, dated 21st October, 1713, was proved by his friend 
and successor, George Graham, one of the Executors. He 
made a Watch with a spiral balance, or pendulum spring, for 
King Charles H. One end of the spring was made fast to 
the arbor of the balance wheel, whilst the other was secured 
to the plate, the oscillations being rendered equal and regular 
by its elastic force. He invented the cylinder escapement, 
with horizontal wheel, in 1695, and greatly improved Striking 
Clocks (src Patent for Watch and Clockmaking, No. 344, 
dated September 23, 1695). 

The monumental stone over the grave of Tompion and 
Graham was removed by the authorities of the Abbey about 
1838. Mr. George Atkins, then Clerk of the Company drew 
attention to this act of desecration in the following letter, 
which was inserted in the newspapers : — 

" Previous to 1838, visitors to Westminster Abbey may remember to have 
read on a slab in the nave of that Church the following inscription: — 

" ' Here lies the body 
OF Mr. THO tompion 

WHO DEPARTED THIS LIFE THE 20TH OF NOVEMBER 1713 IN THE 
75TH YEAR OF HIS AGE.' 



Hbre lies the Body 

Ofm'Tho TOMPION 
Who departed this 

Life the 'io'or 
November j jj3 in the 

JjTTYEAR of H15 AGE 



ALSO THE BODY OF 

GfEORGE Graham of London 

WaTCHMAKE R AND F. R . S , 

Whose curious inventions 
DO HONOURTOY British genius 
whose accuratePerformances 
Are y Standardof Mech an icskill 
He diedyxviofNovembermdccli 
In the lxxviii year of his Age 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



175 



" ' ALSO THE BODY OF 

GEORGE GRAHAM of London Watchmaker and F.R.S. 

WHOSE CURIOUS INVENTIONS DO HONOUR TO YE BRITISH GENIUS 

WHOSE ACCURATE PERFORMANCES ARE YE STANDARD OF 

MECHANIC SKILL 

HE DIED YE XVI OF NOVEMBER MDCCLI IN THE LXXVIII YEAR OF HIS AGE.' 

" No7ci, all that remains to commemorate the ' Father of Clotkmaking,' 
Thomas Tompion and ' Honest George Graham,' is this inscription, cut upon 
a small lozenge-shaped bit of marble : — 

'Mr. T. Tompion 17 13. 
' Mr. G. Graham 1751.' 

" I presume the Very Reverend the Dean and his Chapter consider it 
i/ifni dii^. to allow a tablet to the memory of two Watchmakers to remain 
amongst the monuments of the mighty dead which adorn the walls of their 
Cathedral. Death is said to level all distinctions. It appears these holy men 
have forgotten that axiom. 

"Yours obediently, 

"A Detestor of Intolerance. 
" yune 2nd 1842^ 



The following notice appears in the Historical Memorials 
of Westminster Abbey, by Dean Stanley, 1 869, page 348 : — 

"In the centre of the Nave, in the same grave, were laid master and 
apprentice — Tompion and Graham, the fathers of English Watchmakers. 
The slab over their grave, commemorating their 'curious inventions and 
accurate performances ' was removed at the beginning of the century. This 
change called forth many an indignant remonstrance from the humble but 
useful tribe who regarded this gravestone as their Caaba. ' Watchmakers,' 
says one of them, ' the writer amongst the number, until pre\ented by recent 
restrictions, were in the habit of making frequent pilgrimages to the sacred 
spot : from the inscription and the place they felt proud of their occupation ; 
and many a secret wish to excel has arisen while silently contemplating the 
silent resting place of the two men whose memory they so much revered.' 
Their memory may last, but the slab is gone." ' 

Dean Stanley, with commendable good taste, had a 
search made for the missing stone ; happily it was found un- 
impared, and has since been restored to its place. 

' Thompson's Time and Time Keepers, p. 74. The passage was pointed out to me by 
a friend in conseciuence of the strong irritation expressed on the subject by an obscure 
Watchmaker in a provincial town. The gravestone happily had not been destroyed, and 
has since been restored. 



1/6 



THE CLOCKiMAKERS COxMl'ANY, 



The inscription on the stone and accompanying sketch 
shewing the exact position in which it is placed, have been 
kindly Vurnished by Thomas Mills, Esq., whose drawings of 
Westminster Abbey are well known. 









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BENJAMIN LEWIS VULLIAMY, F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., 

Watch and Clockmaker to the Queen. Son of Benjamin 
VuUiamy, Clockmaker to the King ; he resided in Pall Mall ; 
was made a Free Clockmaker by Redemption, December 4, 
1809; admitted to the Livery, January 8, 1810; chosen on 
the Court of Assistants, April, 18 10; served the office of 
Warden, 1815-20, and again in 1843-6; and that of Master 
five times, viz., 182 1, 1823, 1825, 1827, and 1847. On the 2nd 
July, 1849, a presentation of plate was made to him by the 
Court, on which the following inscription was engraved : — 

"Presented to Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy, Esq., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., 
Associate of I.C.E., Sec, &c., by the Master, Wardens and Court of Assistants 
of the Company of Clockmakers of the City of London in token of the high 
sense they entertain of the eminent services rendered by him as a member 
of the Court during the long period of Forty years with a degree of zeal 
and ability which have greatly advanced the interests and character of the 
Corporation.'' 

He was the first Clockmaker in this country to employ a 
two-seconds pendulum. In 1827-8, he effected great improve- 
ments in the make of large public Clocks. He died January 8, 
1854, aged seventy-four, leaving to the Company, by will, 
three portraits of members of his family, and one picture, see 
Catalogue 1875, P- 9 7- 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. I77 

JOHN HARRISON. 

This celebrated Horologer and Mathematician, who has 
been aptly called the Father of Chronometry, not having been 
enrolled as a Member of the Company, his name for that 
reason is not included amongst the preceding Biographical 
Notices of distinguished Men connected with the Trade. 

The Company, however, having in September, 1879, 
determined to undertake the restoration of his tomb in 
Hampstead Churchyard (previous efforts to obtain the 
necessary funds by public subscription having failed), have 
thus identified themselves with the desire which was felt 
to perpetuate the memory of so great a benefactor to 
mankind in general, and the navigator in particular. 

The following particulars, collected from various sources, 
with respect to Harrison's career, seem, therefore, to find an 
appropriate place in this volume, in which reference is made to 
so many of the members of a Craft with which his name must 
ever be associated : — -He was born at Foulby, near Pontefract, 
Yorkshire, in the year 1693, his father, Henry Harrison, a 
carpenter at that place, having been married in the month of 
July, 1692, at the parish church of Wragby, to Elizabeth 
Barber, of the same parish, where John, their eldest son, was 
baptized, it is said, on March 31st in the following year. The 
father was in the habit of repairing Clocks, indeed much of the 
mechanism of the larger Clocks being, in those days, frequently 
made of wood, the carpenter was very often called upon to 
repair them. In the year 1 700, his parents removed to Barrow, 
in Lincolnshire. Here he attracted the attention of a clergyman, 
who lent him a MS. copy of the lectures of Nicholas 
Saunderson, the blind Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at 
Cambridge, which he copied with all the diagrams. His early 
devotion to mechanical pursuits led him to give his attention 
to the improvement of Clocks, and in 1726 he had 
constructed two, chiefly of wood, in which he applied the 
escapement and compound, or, as it is called, gridiron 
pendulum, of his own invention. Stukeley, in his manuscript 
Journal, 1728, says, "I saw his famous Clock last winter at 
Mr. George Graham's. The sweetness of the motion, the 
contrivances to take off friction, to defeat the lengthening and 
shortening of the pendulum, through heat or cold, cannot be 
sufficiently admired." In the year 1726, he made his first 



[78 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

Timekeeper, which Ur. Hutton asserts did not err a second 
in a month. In 1713 an Act of ParHament, 12 Anne, cap. 15, 
was passed, the preamble of which recites as follows : 
" Whereas it is well known by all that are acquainted with the 
art of navigation, that nothing is so much wanted and 
desired at sea as the discovery of the longitude for the 
safety and quickness of voyage, the preservation of ships, and 
the lives of men ; and whereas in the judgment of able 
mathematicians and navigators several methods have already 
been discovered, true in theory, though very difficult in 
practice, some of which, there is reason to expect, may be 
capable of improvement, some already discovered may be 
proposed to the public, and others may be invented hereafter ; 
and whereas such a discovery would be of particular advantage 
to the trade of Great Britain, and very much to the honour of 
this kingdom." A commission was appointed under tlie Act, 
upon which a large number of officers of state, and men 
distinguished as mathematicians, mechanics, and navigators, 
were appointed, and a reward of ^20,000 was offered to any 
one who could discover a method whereby the longitude at 
sea could, within certain stated limits of exactness, be 
ascertained. Harrison came to London in 1728 with drawings 
of an instrument for the purpose, hoping to get assistance from 
the Commission for its construction, but the Astronomer Royal 
referred him to the then great Watchmaker, George Graham, 
a member of the Company, who advised him to make his 
machine first, and then apply to the Commission. He returned 
home, and in 1735 again came to London with his first Time- 
piece, which was examined by several members of the Royal 
Society (H alley, Graham, and others), who certified its ex- 
cellence to the Board of Longitude ; and in 1735-36 Harrison 
was sent with it on a voyage to Lisbon and back to test its 
performance. In this voyage he is said to have corrected the 
dead reckoning nearly a degree and a-half In 1737 the 
Commissioners presented him with ^500, and encouraged him 
to proceed in his improvements. 

In 1739, he produced a second instrument, and in 1749 a 
third, which erred only three or four seconds in a week. For 
this he obtained the annual gold medal of the Royal Society. 
Some time afterwards, practising improvements upon Watches, 
he was induced to make a fourth machine in the form of a 



THE CLUCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 79 

Pocket Watch, about six inches in diameter, which he finished 
in 1759. Trial of its accuracy was made during two voyages, 
when his son WilHam went in charge of it ; one to Jamaica, in 
1 761-2, and the other to Barbadoes, in 1764, in H.M.S. 
" Tartar," Captain Sir James Lindsay. In both voyages it cor- 
rected the longitude within the nearest limits required by the 
Act of Queen Anne, and entitled him to the reward of ^20,000. 
At a meeting of the Board of Longitude, held on February 
9, 1765, it was unanimously determined that the performance 
of Harrison's Timekeeper had been such as to entitle him to 
the offered reward, part (^10,000) being shortly afterwards 
paid to him, and in 1773 the other ^10,000. In later years 
he made a fifth instrument which, on a ten weeks' trial at the 
King's Private Observatory at Richmond, was found, it is said, 
to have erred only four and a-half seconds. His invention of 
the Metallic Compensation, his Remontoir, and his addition of 
a secondary spring as an equivalent substitute for the main- 
taining power during the time of winding up, which is an 
essential requisite in producing permanent motion, may fairly 
entitle him to be considered as the parent of Chronometry. 
As will be seen by his works in the Company's Library, he 
had a musical ear, and made experiments on sound with a 
curious monochord of his own invention, from which he con- 
structed a new musical scale or mechanical division of the 
octave, according to the proportion which the radius and 
diameter of a circle have respectively to the circumference. 
He died at his house in Red Lion Square. 

Harrison, as has been already stated, was buried in 
Hampstead Churchyard, and the Company, at the instiga- 
tion of Mr. J. G. C. Addison, a Member of the Court, 
determined to restore his tomb, which was of a Corinthian 
character, and of Portland Stone with marble panels. It 
was found, however, on examination, to have so far suc- 
cumbed to the influences of time and weather, that this was 
impracticable. Its entire reconstruction was therefore 
determined upon, and, with the sanction and concurrence of 
the Vicar, the Rev. S. B. Burnaby, M.A., the work was 
entrusted to Messrs. W. Cubitt & Co., by whom it has 
been carefully performed. In form it is an exact repro- 
duction of the original, but it has been executed in Ketton 
Stone, with Sicilian marble panels, the plinth being of 
Spinkwell Stone. 



I So thp: clockmakers' company. 

The inscription on the tomb, which has been preserved 

in its entirety, is as follows : — 

" In memory of Mr. John Harrison, late of Red Lion Square, London. 
Inventor of the Timekeeper for ascertaining the Longitude at Sea. He was 
born at Foulby, in the county of York, and was the son of a builder at that 
place, who brought him up to the same profession. Before he attained the 
age of 2 1 he, without any instruction, employed himself in cleaning and 
repairing Clocks and Watches, and made a few of the former, chiefly of wood. 
At the age of 25 he employed his whole time in chronometrical improvements. 
He was the inventor of the gridiron pendulum and the method of preventing 
the effects of heat and cold upon Timekeepers by two bars of different metals 
tixed together ; he introduced the secondary spring to keep them going while 
winding up ; and was the inventor of most, or all, of the improvements in 
Clocks and Watches during his time. In the year 1735, ^""i^ ^''St Timekeeper 
was sent to Lisbon, and in 1764, his then much-improved fourth Timekeeper 
having been sent to Barbadoes, the Commissioners of Longitude certified that 
it had determined the longitude within one-third of half a degree of a great 
circle, having erred not more than forty seconds in time. After near sixty 
years' close application to the above pursuits, he departed this life on the 24th 
day of March, 1776, aged 83. Mrs. Elizabeth Harrison, wife of the above 
]\Ir. John Harrison, departed this life, March 5th, 1777, aged 72." 

On the reverse side of the tomb is left a similar panel, on 
which it is intended to recut the original inscription, if it can 
be ascertained, recording the death of his son, Mr. William 
Harrison, F.R.S., who died April 24, 18 15, at the ripe age of 
88, at Caroline Place, Guildford Street. He was a Deputy- 
lieutenant of the Counties of Monmouth and Middlesex, and 
in his earlier years had materially assisted his father in his 
great undertakings, and especially in making voyages to sea 
in charge of his instruments whilst in process of trial. On 
the edge of the upper stone of the tomb are inscribed these 
words : — " Reconstructed at the expense of the Worshipful 
Company of Clockmakers of the City of London, 1879. 
William Parker, Master." 

The tomb having been completed, was formally uncovered 
in the presence of the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assist- 
ants, and the Vicar of Hampstead, on the i6th January, 1880. 

The followinof works relating to Harrison and his dis- 
coveries, some of which are written by himself, are preserved 
in the Company's Library, whilst their Museum also contains 
two of his early achievements in the shape of two long Eight- 
day Clocks, the works being almost entirely of wood, and 
one of them having his gridiron-pendulum attached : — 

" The principles of Mr Harrison's Timekeeper, with plates of the same. 
Published by order of the Commissioners of Longitude. London : Printed 
by W. Richardson and S. Clark. 4to. 1776." The preface and the following 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. l8l 

chapter, entitled " Notes taken at the Discovery of Mr. Harrison's Time- 
keeper," are written by the Rev. Nevil Maskelyne, F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. 

" An Account of the going of Mr. John Harrison's Watch at the Roval 
Observatory, from May 6th, 1766, to March, 4th 1767, together with the 
original Observations and Calculations of the same. By the Rev. Nevil 
Maskelyne, x^stronomer Royal. Published by order of the Commissioners of 
Longitude. London: Printed by W. Richardson and S. Clark. 4to. 1767." 
Thereto is added an "Appendix, containing observations of Equal Altitudes of 
the Sun, taken at Portsmouth, Jamaica, and Barbadoes, according to the time 
of Mr. Harrison's Watch, upon the two voyages made to the \\'est Lidies for 
the trial of the same." Published by order of the Commissioners of Longitude. 

" A description concerning such mechanism as will afford a nice or true 
mensuration of time, together with some accounts of the attempts for the 
discovery of the Longitude by the Moon ; as also an account of the discovery 
of the Scale of Music. By John Harrison, Inventor of the Timekeeper for the 
Longitude at Sea. London: Sold by T.Jones, No. 138, Fetter Lane. 8vo. 1775." 

An engraved Portrait, by Reading, of " Longitude Har- 
rison," as he was called, appeared in the European Maoazine ; 
another, by P. L. Tassaert, was also published in Knight's 
Portrait Gallejy, a copy of this is in the Company's Collection. 

MEMBERS OF THE COMPANY WHO HAVE FH.LED 
IMPORTANT CIVIC OFFICES. 



Sir JOHN BENNETT, Knight, 

The son of Mr. John Bennett, Watchmaker, of Greenwich. 
Born in 18 14. Educated at Colfe's Grammar School, 
Lewisham. Upon the death of his father, he successfully 
carried on the business. In 1846, he commenced business in 
Cheapside, and in 1862 was chosen by the inhabitants of the 
Ward one of their representatives in the Court of Common 
Council. Admitted a Freeman and Liveryman of the Com- 
pany, November 6, 1871; served the office of Sheriff of 
London and Middlesex during part of the year 1871-2, on the 
decease of Richard Young, Esq ; received the honour of 
Knighthood on the occasion of the visit of Her Majesty to 
St. Paul's, upon the National Thanksgiving for the recovery 
of His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, February 27, 
1872. He was elected a member of the London School 
Board in 1872. In 1877, he- was three times elected Alder- 
man of the Ward of Cheap, but the Court of Aldermen 
refused to ratify his election. 



I 82 THE CLOCKMAKERS' CUMPANV. 

JOHN CARTER, F.R.A.S., Alderman, 

The son of William Carter, of Tooley Street, Southwark, 
Watchmaker. Bound apprentice to Boys Err Burrill, of Great 
Sutton Street, Clerkenwell, January 13, 181 7; admitted to the 
Freedom and Livery of the Company, October 14, 1829 ; 
chosen on the Court of Assistants in 1852 ; elected Alderman 
of Cornhill, March 10, 185 1; served the office of Sheriff of 
London and Middlesex, 1852-3 ; Warden of the Company 
in 1852-5, and again in 1862-3; served the office of Master 
three times, viz., in 1856, 1859, and 1864; chosen to the 
exalted office of Lord Mayor in 1857. He died May 5th, 
1878. 



COLONEL A. ANGUS CROLL, C.E., 

Son of George CroU, of Perth. In 1849, he was appointed 
Engineer to the Great Central Gas Consumers' Company, 
which had then been started for supplying Gas at a cheap rate 
and with greater illuminating power. Through his scientific 
skill and energy many difficulties were overcome, and a 
new era in the manufacture and supply of Gas began, which 
brought about great advantages to the consumers. In 1852 
he was chosen one of the Sheriffs of London and Middlesex. 
On the loth of October, 1859, he was admitted to the 
Freedom and Livery of the Company; chosen on the Court 
of Assistants, October 10, 1870 ; served the office of 
Warden, 1874-6; and was elected Master in 1877. One of 
the great projects with which his name will ever be associated 
is that of the establishment of the United Kingdom Electric 

o 

Telegraph Company, founded for carrying messages to every 
part of the United Kingdom at one uniform rate of one 
shilling a message. He was elected Chairman of the Com- 
pany in i860, and by his skill and determined energy he 
carried the project to a most successful issue in spite of all 
difficulties. In 1868, he was presented with a very flattering 
Testimonial by his Brother Directors, and on March 22, 1871, 
at the conclusion of the negociations for transferring the 
Company to Her Majesty's Postmaster General, the Share- 
holders also presented him with a Testimonial of the value of 
a Thousand Guineas. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 1 83 

Sir ROBERT DARLING, Knight, 

Sheriff of London in 1766. Admitted on the Livery of the 
Company, September 16, 1766, and on the same day chosen 
on the Court of Assistants. On the 29th of September he 
was elected Master, but was excused serving the office upon 
payment of a fine of ^10. In 1770, he gave ^100 to the 
poor of the Company, and his friend, Mr. Nathanael Styles, 
gave ^10. 

RICHARD HARTLEY KENNEDY, M.D. F.R.A.S., 

Alderman. 

Served more than 30 years in the East Indies. Was 
Physician-General and President of the Medical Board of 
Bombay, and chief of the Medical Staff of the Bombay 
division of the Army of the Indus during the campaign 
in Sind and Kaubool in 1838-9. He was the friend of 
Sir Jamsetjee Jejeebhoy, the first Baronet. Returning to 
London he entered into public life, and was admitted to the 
Freedom and Livery of this Company, April 26, 1851; chosen 
on the Court of Assistants, April 4, 1853; elected Alderman 
for the Ward of Cheap in 1854; served the office of Warden 
of the Company in 1854-6 ; elected Sheriff of London and 
Middlesex in 1855. He resigned his Aldermanic Gown, 
March 30, 1858. Died July 24, 1865. His portrait is in the 
Company's Collection. 

He was the Author of a Narrative of the Campaign of 
the Army of the Indus, in Sind and Kaubool, in 1838-9; 
published in 1840; and Notes on the Epidemic Cholera, 
written in 1826, and re-published in 1846. 



Sir GEORGE MERTTINS, Knight, Alderman. 

Son of . . . Merttins, of Cornhill, Goldsmith and Jeweller. 
Admitted to the Freedom of the Company . . . Served 
the office of Warden, 171 1- 12 ; chosen Master, 1713 ; elected 
Alderman of Bridge Ward, December 9, 1712; knighted, 
April II, 1 713. Translated by permission to the ^Skinners' 
Company, June 16. 1713. Appointed Treasurer to Christ's 
Hospital in 1716. In 1721, he was elected to the office of 



1 84 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



Sherift, and in 1724 to that of Lord Mayor. He became 
President of Christ's Hospital in 1727, but did not long 
occupy that distinguished office, dying November 11, 1727. 
He was buried in the South Cloister of Christ's Church, 
Neweate Street. 



HONORARY FREEMEN. 

The desire which the governing body of this Company has 
ever evinced to maintain the closest possible relationship with 
the Trade, and to gather into its ranks men whose practical 
knowledge of the Art would be valuable in the protection of 
the rig-hts and privileges of the Craft, and whose social 
position would enable them to render useful service in the 
defence of its interests, especially in its opposition to the 
deceits practised by the importation of Foreign Watches, etc., 
probably induced the Court to pass the following Resolution, 
by which a number of gentlemen, many of whose names are 
still familiar to us, were enrolled amongst the Fellowship as 
Honorary Freemen, some of whom also subsequently became 
active and most useful Members of the Company : — - 

"1781. January 8. Resolved that a Special Court be summoned to 
meet on Monday the 5th of February next at 9 o'clock in the morning in 
order to admit a number of Gentlemen of the trade and profession into the 
Freedom of this Company. 

"Ordered that Mr. Martin who attended be acquainted with the fore- 
going resolution for the information of the Gentlemen of the Trade who meet 
at the Devil Tavern. 



" 1781. April 2. 

Benjamin Vulliaray 
John Fladgate 
James McCabe 
William Frodsham 
John Dwerrihouse 
William Storr 
Alexander Wilson 
Will'"- Ellison Simpson 
Josiah Emer)-- 
James Vigne 
Alexander Hare 
Charles Haley 
Robert Twyford 

"1781. July 2. 

John Wright 
Alexander Cumming 



John Eeroux 
James Tregent 
George Allen 
John Grant 
John Jardin 
Joshua Rigby 
Christopher Pinchbeck 
Thomas Langford 
John Wightwick 
Benjamin Webb 
John Scott 
James Wilson 
Henry Baker 

William Hughes 
James Smith 



Robert Storer 
Paul Hobler 
George Philip Strigil 
William Carpenter 
John Bittleston 
John Melvill 
Thomas Laidlaw 
John Devis 
John Coleman 
John Rooke 
John Baker 
Samuel Bishop. 



Francis Perigal 
John Perigal " 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMrANY. 1 85 

A LIST OF GENTLEMEN ENROLLED HONORARY 
MEMBERS OF THE COMPANY. 



HENRY CLARKE, 

Son of John Clarke, Citizen and Goldsmith. Born 4th 
November, 1 780. Admitted to the Freedom of the Gold- 
smiths' Company, 3rd March, 1803. Upon the decease of his 
Father he was taken under the paternal care of Mr. Isaac 
Rogers, and continued closely associated with him throughout 
a long active life. Under his auspices he had every oppor- 
tunity of acquiring a thorough practical knowledge of many 
branches of Science, the run ot a good Laboratory, and a 
well-selected Library. He became associated with him in 
mining operations in Cornwall and Wales, and they suc- 
ceeded in introducing several improvements in smelting, etc. 
While thus engaged he became acquainted with Richard 
Trevithick, the subsequently celebrated Engineer, whom he 
assisted in carrying out some important scientific investiga- 
tions. His business connection with the Levant Trade 
brought him into association with the principal men of Smyrna, 
Turkey, etc. 

In 1 8 10- 1 1, he aided Mr. Rogers and Mr. George Atkins 
in an examination of the affairs of the Company, and helped 
materially in the preparation of the scheme of a permanent 
Accumulation Fund, the result being that on the 6th of July, 
1 8 1 2, the Court of Assistants passed the following Resolution: — 

" The Court having taken into consideration the voluntary and gratuitous 
services rendered to this Company on various occasions by Mr. Henry Clarke 
Citizen and Goldsmith. It was thereupon 

" Resolved unanimously, — That the thanks of the Court be given to 
Mr. Henry Clarke for the essential Services rendered by him to this Corpor- 
ation, and that the Freedom and the Livery thereof be presented to him, as a 
mark of the sense the Company entertains of his exertions in its behalf" 

He attended on the 3rd of August following, and was 
duly clothed and sworn. 



[86 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

On the 1 2th of October, 1812. the following Resolution 
was passed : — 

" The Court having taken into consideration the continued services 
rendered by Mr. Henry Clarke to this Corporation and a motion thereon 
having been made and seconded pursuant to notice given it was 

'• Resolved, — That Mr. Henry Clarke be summoned to take his oath and 
his seat as an Assistant and he was duly elected an Assistant accordingly." 

In 1 8 18, he founded the Imperial Gas Company, which 
became one of the most successful in the metropolis. In 
1820-21, in connection with several friends, he took active 
measures and had preliminary surveys made for promoting 
the Atlantic and Pacific Ship Canal for connecting the two 
Oceans by the Lake of Nicaragua. 

He served the office of Warden of the Company in 
1822-26. 

His sympathy with the Portuguese in their misfortunes 
led him to spend much of his time on the Continent, assist- 
ing the Emperor Don Pedro, Generals Lafayette, Mina, 
Saldanha, and others, with his great experience and advice at 
that critical juncture. He subsequently visited the United 
States. 

He died in 1865, the Father of the Company, aged 84, 
a Portrait of him is preserved in the Company's Collection. 



ALEXANDER CUMMING, F.R.S. 

An ingenious Scotch Mathematician, born at Edinburgh. 
Carried on business in Fleet vStreet. He made a Clock for 
George HI, which registered the height of the barometer 
during every day throughout the year. It cost nearly ^^2,000 : 
he was allowed ;^200 a year to attend to it. In 1766 he 
published "The Elements of Clock and Watch Work." His 
works are in the Company's Library. They also have 
an engraved Portrait of him, from a painting by 
S. Drummond, A.R.A, Made an Honorary Freemen of 
the Company July 2, 1781. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. I 87 

Dr. THOMAS SIMPSON EVANS, F.L.S. 

Master of the Royal Mathematical School, in Christ's Hos- 
pital, from 1813 to 18 19. Admitted an Honorary Freeman, 
November 2, 18 13. 

" Resolved unanimously, — That the Freedom of this Company be pre- 
sented to Thomas Simpson Evans, Esq., Master of the Royal Mathematical 
School in Christ's Hospital, London, and Fellow of the Linneean Society, as 
a permanent mark of the sense, in which this Fellowship views his exertions 
towards the improvement of the Art of Chronometry in this kingdom, and in 
the general promotion of the Mathematical Sciences." 

Sir JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY, ist Baronet. 

Born in Bombay July 15, 1783; married March i, 1803, 
Awabaee Framjee, daughter of Framjee Pestonjee, of Bombay. 

His public endowments were said to be nearly ^300,000. 
Her Majesty conferred upon him the honour of Knighthood, 
accompanied by the gift of her Portrait, set in Diamonds^ 
March 2, 1842. The following is a copy of an inscription on 
the Foundation Stone of the Medical College which he 
founded in Bombay in 1842 : — 

THIS EDIFICE 

WAS ERECTED AS A TESTIMONIAL OF DEVOTED LOYALTY TO 

THE YOUNG QUEEN OF THE BRITISH ISLES 

AND OF UNMINGLED RESPECT FOR THE JUST AND PATERNAL 

BRITISH GOVERNMENT IN INDIA ; 

.\LSO IN AFFECTIONATE AND PATRIOTIC SOLICITUDE FOR THE WELFARE OF 
THE POOR CLASSES OF ALL RACES AMONG HIS COUNTRYMEN THE 

BRITISH SUBJECTS OF BOMBAY, 

BY 

SIR JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY, Knight, 

THE FIRST NATIVE OF INDIA HONOURED WITH BRITISH KNIGHTHOOD, 

WHO THUS HOPES TO PERFORM A PLEASING DUTY 

TOWARDS HIS GOVERNMENT, HIS COUNTRY, AND HIS PEOPLE, 

AND IN SOLEMN REMEMBRANCE OF BLESSINGS BESTOWED 

TO PRESENT THIS HIS 

OFFERING OF RELIGIOUS GRATITUDE TO 

ALMIGHTY GOD, 

THE FATHER IN HEAVEN, 

OF THE CHRISTIAN, THE HINDOO, THE MAHOMEDAN AND PARSEE, 

WITH HUMBLE EARNEST PRAYER 

FOR HIS CONTINUED CARE AND BLESSING UPON 

HIS CHILDREN, HIS FAMILY, HIS TRIBE AND HIS COUNTRY. 

C) 



1 88 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

The Freedom of the City of London was also tendered 
to him on the 14th of April, 1855, when the following 
Resolution was passed by the Common Council : — 

" Resolved unanimously, — That the Freedom of this City be presented 
to Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, of Bombay in the East Indies, Knight, as a 
testimonial of the high estimation entertained of him by the Corporation of 
the City of London, and from respect for his justly renowned character as a 
princely benefactor of his Country and mankind, a noble example of blameless 
private life and public worth as a Citizen of Bombay, and of spotless com- 
mercial integrity as a most eminent British subject and Merchant in India. 

" Ordered, — That the said Resolution be ornamentally written on vellum, 
signed by the Town Clerk, properly emblazoned, framed and glazed, and 
presented to Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy." 

He was unanimously elected to the Honorary Freedom 
and Livery of this Company, July 2, 1855. He presented 
;^2 50 to the poor of the Company, and a Pension has been 
founded, called after his name. Created a Baronet of the 
United Kingdom, August 6, 1857. Died April 14, 1859. A 
portrait of him is in the possession of the Company. 



Sir CURSETJEE JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY, 

2ND Baronet, 

Eldest son of Sir Jamsetjee. Born October 9, 181 1; married 
first, Deenbaee, daughter of Dinshaw Corvarjee, of Bombay ; 
second Ruttonbaee Cursetjee, November 29, 1835. He suc- 
ceeded his Father as second Baronet, April 14, 1859, and, by 
a Special Act of the Legislative Council of India, (passed with 
the sanction of Queen Victoria in i860,) he assumed the name 
of the First Baronet, and by this Act all future holders of the 
title are to relinquish their own names and to assume that of 
the First Baronet. He was elected an Honorary Freeman 
and Liveryman of the Company, July 2, 1855. He died 
July II, 1877. Photographs of him are in the Company's 
Collection. 

RUSTOMJEE JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY, 

The second son of Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, Bart, was born 
January 23, 1824. Married Sonabaee Murcherjee, January 
24, 1836. Died April 13, 1872. He was elected an Honorary 
Freeman and Liveryman of the Company in October, 1864. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 1 89 

He presented ^200 to the Company for the benefit of its 
poor, and a Pension has been estabUshed therewith, called 
after his name. 

Sir JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY, 3RD Baronet. 

Succeeded to the title on the death of his Father, July 11, 
1877. He was born March 3, 185 1, and married Terball, 
daughter of Sapoorjee Dhunjeebhoy, February 8, 1869. 
Elected an Honorary Freeman and Liveryman of the Com- 
pany, January 7, 1879. 

WILLIAM HENRY OVERALL, F.S.A., 

Librarian to the Corporation of London, was elected to the 
Honorary Freedom and Livery of the Company on the 2nd 
of July, 1877. 

" Resolved, — That the Honorary Freedom and Livery of this Company 
be presented to Mr. W. H. Overall, the Librarian of the City of London, in 
recognition of his valuable services in connection with the Company's Library 
and Museum." 

JOHN POND, F.R.S., Astronomer Royal. 

Born about 1767. Educated at Maidstone Grammar School, 
from which he proceeded to Trinity College, Cambridge. 

In 1800, he made a journey to Lisbon and Malta, to 
pursue his observations on the fixed Stars. The researches 
then made were published in the " Philosophical Transactions 
of the Royal Society" in 1806, and attracted the attention of 
Astronomers and scientific men, by their accuracy and 
clearness of detail. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society, 
and in 181 1 was chosen to succeed Dr. Maskelyne as 
Astronomer Royal. In 18 13. the Company passed the 
followinof Resolution : — 

" 1813. October 11. Resolved unanimously, — That John Pond of the 
Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in the County of Kent, Esquire, Astronomer 
Royal and Fellow of the Royal Society be, and he is hereby elected a Member 
of this fellowship That he be reciuested to accept and take upon him the 
Freedom of this Corporation as a mark of the sense this Court entertains of 
his exertions for the promotion of Science." 

O 2 



IQO THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

He retired from his high office in 1835 ; died Septem- 
ber 7, 1836 ; and was buried at Lee, Kent, in the same tomb, 
with Dr. Edmund H alley. 

As a practical Astronomer Mr. Pond had no superior; 
few, if any, equals. His perception of the capabilities of 
instruments generally, and of the mode of using them, and his 
sagacity in detecting and avoiding error, placed him in the 
front rank of observers. The numerous folio volumes of his 
observations, so highly appreciated by scientific men in every 
part of the globe, are alone sufficient to show the extent and 
utility of the work performed at Greenwich during the time 
the establishment was under his direction. He finished his 
catalogue of 1,113 stars in 1833. His skill has been admitted 
by Astronomers of all nations. 



THOMAS REID, Esq., 

Of Edinburgh, was presented with the Honorary Freedom of 
the Company, October 10, 1825. 

"As a testimony of the estimation in which this Court holds his exertions 
for the advancement of the Arts placed under its Government." 

He dedicated to the Company his work, published in 
1826, entitled a "Treatise on Clock and Watch-making, 
Theoretical and Practical." 

An engraved Portrait of him, presented by Messrs. 
Charles P^rodsham and Co., in 1874, is in the Company's 
possession. 



I 




MEETING PLACES 




I HIS Company have never been the fortunate pos- 
sessors of a Hall or permanent Place of Meeting, 
but have been wanderers since their incorpor- 
ation. They have usually met at one or other of 
the Livery Companies' Halls, and sometimes, 
especially during the last century, at Taverns. Since the 
removal of the London Tavern, they have held their Meetings 
at Guildhall. The following Extracts from their Records 
show the different Meeting Places, etc. : — 

" 1642. September 29. The day aforesaid the Company of Clock- 
makers delivered and gave to the Company of Paynter-Stayners as a free 
Guift according to the agreement of both Companies unto their first propo- 
sitions One Chamber Clock for the which they were to have the use of their 
Hall for some Meetings as occasion should require.' 

''1653. January 20. At this Court were opened and perused the 
writings and papers that were in the Company's Chest in Paynter-Stayners 
Hall for the standing of which Chest several years we did pay unto the Com- 
pany of Paynter-Stayners three pounds, which the Master and Wardens and 
Court of Assistants of the Paynter-Stayners at a Court of theirs did order we 
should pay unto them.- 

" 1654. January 8. Mr. Warden Hill and Mr. Warden Pennock and 
Mr. Coxeter were ordered by the Company to treat with the Company of 
Imbroderers for the use of their Hall/ and agreed for one year at the rate of 
four pounds and if we use it at the general feast to give twenty shillings more, 
and if there be any mislike to give half-a-year's warning at any time to each 
other.-* 

"1655. July 12. It is this day ordered that the Quarter Court shall 
be held at the Imbroderers Hall in the afternoon the i6th of this month at 
3 o'clock in the afternoon.^ 



Company's Journal I. 3 In Gutter Lane. *• s Company's Journal I. 



192 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

"167 1. October 16. Ordered that for the space of the yeare next 
ensuing Monthly Courts shall be kept upon the first Monday in each month 
at the sign of the Catt in Long Lane bet\vi\-t the houres of ten and twelve 
and that for the three next Quarterly Courts the Master Wardens and As- 
sistants shall be summoned to appear by Nine of the clock and other 
Members of the Company be summoned to appear at two in the afternoon.' 

" 1680. September 29. It was discoursed That the Company might 
have the use of Blacksmiths' Hall for eight pounds a year And it was there- 
upon appointed and desired that six of the Assistants will go and judge of the 
conveniences and give their report at the next Court." ^ 

A^o further entry on the subject appears. 

"1684-5. January 19. This Company having for some time past kept 
their Courts in Goldsmiths' Hall this Court referred and left it to the 
discretion and liberty of the Master and Wardens and Mr. Jeremy Gregory 
(being of the Goldsmiths' Company) to give them (the Goldsmiths) what 
satisfaction for it they (the Referees) shall think fit.^ 

" 1685. September 10. Resolved that a piece of Plate of the value of 
j[^\o shall be presented and delivered to the Goldsmiths.'* (A Silver Tankard 
was presented to the Goldsmiths 2nd October 1685.)" 

How long the Company continued to use the Goldsmiths' 
Hall does not appear, the next entry on the subject of their 
place of Meeting occurs on the 31st August, 1698, when the 
Master moved that instead of the "George" in Ironmonger 
Lane, some other convenient place in the City might be 
found for the Company to keep their Courts in. Founders' 
Hall being proposed as a proper place, a Committee was 
appointed to treat with the Founders' Company for the 
purpose, and to agree with them for the use of their Hall for 
one year, on such reasonable terms as they might think fit.^ 

On the 5th September, 1698, the Master reported that 
an agreement had been entered into with the Founders' 
Company for the use of their Hall, for all the meetings of 
this Company for one year, for ^5 lOi-. to the Company, 
and ^2 to the Clerk.^ 

" 1701. January 19. Ordered that the Master and Wardens with such 
of the Assistants as they shall from time to time call in to their assistance 
shall inquire into the nature and quality of Fishmongers' Hall in Thames 
Street (which it is said is to be sold) and also to look out some other Hall or 
convenient place for hire for the Company's Meeting and report their 
proceedings therein to the next Court.' 

" 1 701. February 2. The Master reported that he with the Wardens 
and one or two Assistants had viewed Saddlers' Hall and found the same 
convenient for this Company's use, but the rent thereof they could not tell 
what it would be. Ordered that they do inquire the rent, &c.® 

'• 2 Company's Journal I. 3. 4. 3. 6 Company's Journal II. ^' ^ Company's Journal III. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 93 

" 1702. August 2. The Clock Makers' Company to have the use of 
the Parlour (at Founders' Hall) for their meetings, at a rental of ten pounds 
per annum. ' 

" 1702. September 29. Ordered that the Master and Wardens for the 
time being with such Assistants as they shall think fit to call in, do consider 
of continuing at this (Founders') Hall, or do find out some other hall, or other 
convenient place. "" 

"1706. February 3. Committee of the Founders' Company appointed 
to confer with the Clock Makers' Company, concerning their continuing in 
the Hall, and to raise the rent, or give them warning, as they shall think fit. ^ 

"1706-7. April. The Master acquainted the Court that the Com- 
pany of Founders, by their Master, had given him warning to lea\e their Hall 
at Midsummer next, and had acquainted them that they expected more rent if 
this Company continued the use of their Hall, Thereupon the Court thought 
fit to put the two Questions following, viz. : — 

" I St, Whether the Company shall advance any more rent for the use of 
the Hall. This was carried in the negative. 

" 2nd, Whether this Company shall not advance any more rent, and 
shall accept the warning. This was carried in the affirmative. 

" Ordered that the Master of the Founders be acquainted that this 
Company do not think fit to advance any more rent for the use of their 
Hall. 

"Ordered that the Master and Wardens and such Assistants as they 
shall call in be a Committee to provide a convenient place for the Company 
to meet in at next Quarter Court.-* 

"1707. July 7. The Master and Wardens reported the matter about 
finding a convenience for the Meeting of this Company and the terms they 
had agreed upon for the use of this (Cutlers') Hall viz' Ten Pounds p Annum 
and 5^-. p Quarter for cleaning the Hall and that the Cutlers' Company had 
proposed a method by Lease between the Master and Wardens of each 
company for certainty of terms. Ordered that this Company will indemnifie 
the Master and Wardens from any damage they may sustain by their entering 
into the said lease in trust and for the use of the said Company.^ 

"1708. November i. Paid for the Lease from the Cutlers' Company 
to this Company for the use of their Hall ^2 7^. 6^." * 

In 1 7 10, negotiations were opened with the Merchant 
Taylors' Company for the use of their Court Room and Hall, 
and it was subsequently reported — 

" That the Company might have the use of their Court Room, Hall, 
Kitchen and other conveniences for the business of this Company for the 
Sum of ;^2o a year and not under." 

'•=•3 Annals of the Founders' Company, William M. Williams, p. 201, 

*• 5 Company's Journal III. 

6 This Lease, dated 7th July, 1707, and signed by John Finch, John Pepys, Daniel 
Quare and George Etherington, was purchased at an old bookseller's and presented to the 
Company in 1S77, by Sidney Young, Esq. 



194 THE CLOCKiMAKERS COMPANY. 

In 1/12, the Master, Wardens, etc., were authorized to 
treat with the Master and Wardens of the Stationers' Com- 
pany, about the use of their Hall. 

In 1 713, it was proposed to remove the Courts from 
Cutlers' Hall to Weavers' Hall, and inquiries were directed to 
be made as to terms, etc. ; and the Clerk of the former Com- 
pany was to be applied to as to the use of the Room next the 
Court Room, which the Company formerly enjoyed. The 
Master stated at the next Meeting that the Clerk of the Cutlers' 
Company had directed the little Room to be cleared when 
this Company met.' 

This arrangement seems to have satisfied all parties for 
some years, but in 1741 it was determined to remove to 
Leathersellers' Hall, and to give notice of leaving Cutlers' 
Hall at the ensuing Lady-day.^ The cost of Meeting at 
Leathersellers' Hall was ^10 a year. 

In 1757 it was agreed to leave Leathersellers' Hall at 
Michaelmas, but on acquainting their Clerk with the order he 
offered the use of it without rent, which was referred for further 
consideration. 3 No rent appears to have been paid after this 
date. 

Their Meetings ceased to be held at Leathersellers' Hall 
in 1 764. At the close of that year the Court met at the 
"Paul's Head Tavern," Cateaton Street. In November, 1772, 
it was resolved that for the future the business of the Company 
should be transacted at the " Queen's Arms Tavern," St. Paul's 
Churchyard, but this place not being found convenient, the 
Court returned to the " Paul's Head Tavern." 

In September, 1800, the "Paul's Head Tavern," being 
closed, the Company met at the " London Tavern," where 
they remained until 1802, when they removed to the " King's 
Head Tavern," Poultry, which was their permanent abode 
until 1851. Ini8ii,an attempt was made to purchase or rent 
premises in Garlick Hill for the Meetings of the Company, 
but it failed. The " King's Head Tavern," being taken down, 
they returned to the "London Tavern" in November, 1851. 
In May, 1876, this property having been disposed of, the 
Court of Assistants resolved that their future Quarterly 
Meetings should be held at the Guildhall, where they still 
continue. 

'• ^' 3 Company's Journal III. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 1 95 

SEARCH COURT MEETINGS. 

It was the custom for the Members of the Search Courts, 
with the Master and Wardens, to hold their Meetings in the 
district where they intended to carry out the powers granted 
by the Charter and Bye-Laws — viz., to search, survey, and 
view the making or working of any wares or merchandizes, or 
other works belonging to the Trade, Art, or Mystery of 
Clockmaking. The following list of old City Taverns, where 
such Meetings were held, will be interesting to many : — 

1660. The "George Inn," Ivy Lane. 

1663 The " Feathers Tavern," St. Paul's Churchyard. 

The "Three Sugar Loaves," in Lothbury. 
1664. The " Dolphin," in Abchurch Lane. 

1666. The " Castle Tavern," Fleet Street. 
The " Crown Tavern," Smithfield. 

1667. The "Cat," Long Lane, Smithfield. 

1692. The "Bull Head Tavern," Gracechurch Street. 

1693. The " Half Moon Tavern," Cheapside. 
The " Swan," Old Change. 

The " Swan," Exchange Alley, Cornhill. 
1696. The "Rose Tavern," Birchen Lane. 

1698. The "Angel and Crown," Threadneedle Street. 

1699. The " Swan," in Old Fish Street. 

The " Bell Tavern," St. Nicholas Lane. 

1700. The " Greyhound," in Fleet Street. 
I 701. The " Crown Tavern," Fleet Street, 
1702. The " Half Moon Tavern," Cheapside. 

The " Sun Tavern," Threadneedle Street. 

The " Globe," in Hatton Garden. 
171.?. The "Angel and Crown Tavern," Ludgate Hill. 
1 7 18. "Sarah's Coffee House," Cheapside. 

1722. "Peele's Coffee House," in Fleet Street. 
The " Sun Tavern," behind St. Paul's. 

1723. The " Castle Tavern," Lombard Street. 

1725. The " King's Arms," by Temple Bar. 
The " Naggs-head Tavern," Cheapside. 

1726. The " Crown and Cushion," in Bread Street. 

1727. The " Mitre," in Fenchurch Street. 

1728. The " Sun," in Fish Street Hill. 
The " Fleece," Cornhill. 

1730. The " Feathers Tavern," Cheapside. 

1732. The " Globe Tavern," in Stocks Market. 

1733. The " Fountain Tavern," in Bartholomew Lane. 
The " George Inn," George Yard, Lombard Street. 

1734. The " Globe Tavern," Moorgate. 

" Steele's Coffee House," in Bread Street. 
The " Pope's Head Tavern." 

1735. The " Ship Tavern," in Bartholomew Lane. 
The " King's Arms Tavern," Lombard Street. 



196 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

1735. The " Salutation Tavern," Budge Row. 

1736. The " Runner's Tavern," Queen Street. 
The " Globe and Sceptre," Old Bailey. 

1743. The " White Hart," Bishopsgate. 
1760. The "White Lyon Tavern," Cornhill. 
The " Sun Tavern," Milk Street. 

1771. The " Dog Tavern," Garlick Hill. 

1772. The " Queen's Head," St. Paul's Churchyard. 




FEASTS. 

THE social meetings of this Company were originally few, 
and were held at different Companies' Halls, mostly at 
that of the Leathersellers. Prior to the Master's Feast- 
day, it was the custom to elect from among the Members 
not on the Court of Assistants, three or four to the office of 
Steward, the distinction entailing upon them the payment of 
certain fees or fines, which went towards the expenses of the 
Feast. This custom, however, has long since fallen into 
disuse. 

The following entries from the Journals of the Company, 
give some interesting particulars as to the arrangements made 
for the Feasts, and the places at which they were held : — 

" 1639. October 7. At a Court holden the 7th day of October, 1639, 
were chosen Stewards for the Master's feast Oswell Durant and Thomas 
Dawson for the year ensuing, and willingly did accept of it, and then it was 
ordered that the Master Wardens and Assistants should pay for them and 
their wives 4 shillings and the rest of the Company to pay for themselves 
2 shillings a piece and the Assistants that brought not their wives to pay but 
2 shillings and sixpence.' 

" 1656. July 23. The same day Mr. Fromantle voluntarily and freely 
promised p^5 by way of fine to be paid to the Company the next feast day to 
be excused for holding Steward. - 



- Company's Journal I. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COxMPANY. 1 97 

" 1664. July 22. The feast appointed to be held at the Mitre Tavern 
Wood Street and the order of the 23rd July 1663 to be observed and 
that none but the Court of Assistants and their wives and such as have 
passed the degree of Stewards and their wives to come to the feast this year, 
and that for the prevention of disorder and exception the Clerk shall make a 
list in writing of the Assistants and Stewards according to their priority 
according to which they and their wives shall be called by the Clerk and 
placed at the table.' 

"1672. July 3. Edward Norris having been summoned appeared and 
being acquainted that he was next in course to be one of the this year's 
Stewards, accepted of the place and was content to hold it with Mr. Richard 
Jarett, whereupon it was appointed that the dinner shall be kept on 
Thursday the 8th of August, at the George Inn Ironmonger Lane, And that 
the Master, Wardens, and Assistants, present Stewards, and those that have 
served or fined for the office of Steward and their wives, and those only shall 
be invited, and each couple to pay to the present Steward 4/0 and each single 
person 2/6, upon receipt of their ticketts of Invitation.^ 

" 1673. July 23. Ordered that the annual feast be held at Cooks' Hall 
Aldersgate Street on Thursday the 14th of August. ^ 

" 1674. July 6. Ordered that on the next Michaelmas Quarterly Court 
day and on all Michaelmas Quarter Court days for the future only the Court of 
Assistants and such as have served or fined for Stewards and such as shall be 
made free upon those respective Michaelmas Quarter Court days shall dine 
at the dinner for that day.-* 

1677. July 26. The Feast held at Goldsmiths Hall 

" 1678. July I. Ordered that whatsoever Member of the Company or 
his wife or person representing her shall at the Company's feast take upon him 
or her the liberty to set him or herself at the Table above his true degree in 
the Company or above the degree of her husband or of the wife she 
represents, the Member who, or whose Avife or wife's representative shall so do 
shall therefore forfeit and pay 5/0 to the use of the poor.^ 

1693 August 3. 1 ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^, ^^j^ without 

'* 1690. September 17. J 
Aldersgate. 

" 1 701. April 7. Ordered at the Stewards' feasts of this Company the 
Masters' friends shall always sit next him and the Wardens' friends with and 
next them at the tables they are placed at, and not to be displaced upon any 
account, and this to be a standing order.* 

1 701. -3. -4. The Stewards Feasts were kept at Stationers' Hall. 

" 1705. August 29. Paid by Mr. Warden Finch for the use of 
Leathersellers' Hall for the Stewards' Feast this year ^2 and more ^i which 
the Company allowed Mr.Wareham the Cook, &c.' 

In 1707-8 and 9 The Stewards' Feasts were kept at Leathersellers' 
Hall. 

In 1 7 10 At Mercers' Hall Cheapside. 

'• =• 3 Company's Journal I. 

4 At this time the Dinner was provided for out of the Stewards' fines, a fourth part of 
the expenses only being defrayed by the Company. 
5' 6. 7 Company's Journal III. 



198 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

In 1711-1712 and 13 At Stationers' Hall, 
In 1714-1715 and 17 16 at Leathersellers' Hall. 

In 1 7 1 7 at the same Hall. The entry records that Mr. Davies (a Quaker) 
performed the Cookery thereof but very indifferently." ' 

For some years afterwards, the Feasts were annually 
held in the month of August, at Leathersellers' Hall. 

In the years 1743 and 1757, the following Resolutions 
were passed : — 

"1743. September 29. Resolved that the custom of treating the 
Stewards after their Feast be wholly laid aside, and instead of it that the 
sum of Eight pounds be continued by quarterly payments to the poor.^ 

" 1757- Januar)' 17. It was agi^eed that the Ladies' Feast should be 
discontinued." ^ 

In 1804, several regulations were made limiting the 
expenditure for the Company's Festivities, which were further 
modified in 1807, and again in 18 12. 

In 1829, it was determined to invite a portion of the 
Livery in rotation according to seniority to dine with the 
Court of Assistants, 20 being selected each year. In 1843, 
the whole of the Livery were ordered to be invited, which 
practice has since been continued, and they are now enter- 
tained tw^ice a year ; with the occasional privilege of bringing 
a friend. 

To commemorate the completion of the second century 
of the incorporation of the Company, the Members dined 
together on Monday the 22nd of August, 1831. 

On the 8th of June, i860, a special banquet was given in 
honour of the Right Hon. John Carter, F.R.A.S., then Lord 
Mayor and Master of the Company ; and on the 2nd of July, 
1866, a banquet was held to celebrate the First Centenary of 
the Company's existence as a Livery Company. 

It is customary in this Company, when the Junior Mem- 
bers of the Court of Assistants reach the number of eight, 
that they should invite the Court of Assistants and their 
Ladies to a banquet at their expense. This is called the 
" Colts Dinner." The last was given at Greenwich on June 14, 
1866. The "Colts" being C. Frodsham, Mr. Alderman 
Carter, W. Rowlands, G. W. Adams, J. Addison, W. Lawley, 
and G. Moore. 

' Company's Journal III. -• ^ Company's Journal IV. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. I99 




ARCHIVES. 

THE Company having- no Hall, it was the custom for the 
Master for the time being to have the charge of the 
Records, together with the Plate and any other valuables, these 
being deposited for safety in the Company's Strong Chest. It 
will be seen from the followinof Extracts that the Chest was 
frequently conveyed from one end of the City to the other, 
yet, in spite of its vicissitudes, the Archives and Documents 
are still perfect. 

" 1658. April 5. This Court and quarter day the Assistants before 
named being present, It being put to the vote concerning the removing the 
great Chest wherein is the Charter and ordinances in the hands of Mr. 
Edward East, he desiring it may be removed; Now it is agreed with the 
consent of Mr. Robert Grinkin to be removed to the said Mr. Grinkin's 
House in Fleet street but because it would not enter into his house. It is set 
up to be kept in St. Dunstan's Vestry house, there to remain till further order 
be taken.' 

" 1659. November 9. Memento that the Keyes of the ould Chest 
which is in St. Dunstan's church are in Mr. Hill's hands.- 

" This Court day Mr. Hill delivered to Mr. Hackett all the Plate, the 
Charter, Mr. East's bonds one of ;^ioo and another of j[^\o with ye chest 
and both the Wardens Bonds with severall Books of Records of the Company, 
all which are put into the chest and sent unto our Master's house, which our 
Master is to give a Bond of ;^2oo to give a true account of, when he shall 
be required to it by ye Company, casualty with Fier excepted only. 

" 1660. October 8. This Court day the Plate, the Chest, with the 
Charter and ordinances and other things were delivered to the New Master 
and Wardens and they did give bond to make a true account, The Wardens, 
bonds are put into the Chest, The Master's bond is in Renter Warden 
Gregory's hand and the schedule is with the bond.^ 

" 1663. October 15. Mr. John Pennock now Master of the Company 
received from ]\Ir. Nicholas Coxeter the last Master of the Company all the 
Plate, the Charter and ordinances, and all other things lately in his possession 
and keeping as Master, the which were locked up in the Chest and carried 
to Mr. Pennock's house in Loathbury, the particulars whereof are mentioned 
in a Schedule annexed to the Bond now given by Mr. Pennock according to 
the order of the last Court.* 



' 3. 4 Company's Journal I. 



200 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" 1672. October 7. Mr. Samuel Home the new Master was thereupon 
sworn and tooke his place, and Mr. Nicholas Coxeter the late Master, 
delivered up to him the Company's Books, Chest, Charter, Ordinances, Plate, 
and other things usually kept therein, and also the Pattent for the Company's 
Coat of Amies, the Hatchment upon Wainscott, and the three brass 
Standards.' 

"1676. October 9th. 

" Directions to Unlock and Lock the Companyes Chest. 

' It hath 3 Locks and 3 Keyes, the Locks are marked or numbered 
from the Left hand to the Right, i. 2. and 3. and each key hath a labell 
of Parchment fixed to it marked or numbered according to the Lock which 
it serveth.- 

" ' To unlock the Chest the Key 3. must be put into the Lock 3. and 
the Lock unlocked and the Key to remayne in it, next the Key 2. into the 
Lock 2. and that unlocked, and the Key to remayne in it, And last the Key i. 
into the Lock i. and that unlocked and the Key to remayne in it. Then 
will the Chest open. 

" 'To lock it, turne towards the left hand the Key i. and take it out, 
next the Key 2. soe, and next the Key 3. soe. Then is the Chest fast. 

" 'The Master is to keepe the Key — 3. 

" ' The Upper Warden the Key — 2. 

" 'The Renter Warden the Key — i.' 

" 1688. February 4. The Chest was this day removed from the 
Clerk's House to the Master's house and the ;^5oo paid by the Goldsmiths' 
Company locked up in the said Chest. ^ 

" 1 70 1. June 2. Ordered that there be a book provided for the use of 
the Company wherein to enter all cases, orders and proceedings of this 
Company in relation to any advice of counsel had or to be had upon the 
Charter or Bye Laws of the Company or any suit of law begun or prosecuted 
or upon any of them, and the original Papers to be lockt up in the Chest." '• 

There is no evidence of what became of the Old Chest, 
but in 1766 a new one was provided made of Oak. It has the 
following inscription on a brass plate on the lid. ^ 

" THE CHEST OF THE 
WORSHIPFUL COMPANY OF 
CLOCKMAKERS, 
August 2, 1766. 

Mr. Thomas Hughes, Master. 
Mr. Daniel Fenn, j 
Mr. Peter Higgs, Wardens." 
Mr. Boyer Glover, ) 



•^ Company's Journal I. "^ Company's Journal II. 

* Company's Journal III. 5 Company's Journal IV, 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 20I 

It has four Locks," The Keys being labelled : i. — The 
Master. 2.— The Senior Warden, 3. — The Renter Warden. 
4. — The Junior Warden. 

October 30th, 1766. Paid for Chest ;^ii 8. o. 

On the 13th of October, 1873, the Court determined to 
have this Chest properly repaired before depositing it in the 
Guildhall Library. 

In 1803 several Members of the Court of Assistants 
expressed a desire that the Records of the Company should 
be examined, and a list made of their various official and 
other documents, and on the 9th of January, 1804, a Com- 
mittee was appointed for the purpose. Subsequently, a 
lengthened report was presented in which they stated in detail 
the property belonging to the Company and then contained in 
the Chest. 

Most of the documents enumerated in the report with 
many others have since been arranged, catalogued, and bound 
in volumes under the following heads : — 

Charter, Bye- Laws, and Act of Common Council, for 
establishing and regulating the Company. 

Apprentices. The Payment of Quarterage, Watch 
Papers, Petitions to Parliament, &c., relating to the 
importation and exportation of Watches, Clocks, &c., Gifts 
to the Company for the Poor, &c., see the printed Catalogue 
of the Library, pages 40 to 61. 

Also, a volume entitled, " The Charter, Bye- Laws, Grant 
of Arms, Charitable Bequests, and other Official Documents 
illustrating the History of the Company." 

On the cover is an engraved brass plate, with the Arms 
of the City of London and the Company, bearing the following 
inscription — 

" Death could not cause my love to dye ; 
My love doth live though dead am I." 

"The free guift of Richard Morgan to the Clockmakers of London. 
Symon Hackett, Master, 1647; Thomas AUcock, Onesiphorus Helden, 
wardens. Engraved by I. Droeshout, 176^.^ 

A volume containing the Copy of the Charter and Bye- 
Laws, with several other matters connected with the history 

Vide Bye Law XLIX. Page 42. 

A relative, doubtless, of Martin Droeshout, who engraved the Portrait of Shakespeare 
or the first edition of his works. 



202 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



of the Company, also a list of the Masters from 1632 to 1716 ; 
Wardens from 1632 to 1712; Assistants from 1632 to 1697. 

"Note. — This book is all that I had of Mrs. Goodwin, after her 
husband's disease, for my nine years' service in assisting him in the 
Clerkship of the Clockmakers' Company. The collection was made for his 
private use and no ways belongs to the Company ; when I die it will be 
worth to my successor (whomsoever he shall be) twenty guineas, which I 
charge them whose hands it shall fall into not to part with it under. Witness 
my hand, this 20th day of February, anno dui. 17 17. Francis Speidell." 

" ist April, 1745. — The Renter Warden was desired to give a guinea to 
Mr. Shuckburgh for a Book, now produced, which appeared to be of the 
handwriting of Mr. Goodwin, a former clerk, containing copies of the 
Charter, Bye Laws, and other things relating to the Company." 



A Copy of the Charter incorporating the Company, with 
the Bye-Laws, examined by Tutet and Howse. The Act of 
Common Council for Regulating the Fellowship authenticated 
by Sir James Hodges, Knt., Town Clerk, 1765. 

Copy of the Charter, Bye Laws, Act of Common 
Council, &c., with Index. 

The Roll of Apprentices, with the date of their Appren- 
ticeship, to whom they were bound, and when they were 
admitted to the Freedom, from the time of the incorporation 
in 1632 to 1694, alphabetically arranged. The names of the 
Stewards from 1639 to 1696 (some years, however, are wanting), 
also a List of 246 persons carrying on the trade in or near the 
City in 1782. 

The series of Records, called the Journals of the Company, 
begin in 1632, and are continued to the present time : — 



Journal i 



9 
10 



FROM 

1 2th October, 1632 6th 

13th January, 1680 27th 

27th October, 1699 23rd 

23rd October, 1729 22nd 

2nd November, 1778 29th 

5th November, 1804 9th 

26th October, 18 15 2nd 

7th July, 1828 4th 

13th January, 1845 5th 

1 1 th January, 1864 3rd 



December, 1680. 

October, 1699. 

October, 1729. 

October, 1778. 

October, 1804. 

October, 181 5. 

June, 1828. 

January, 1845. 

January, 1864. 

January, 1878. 



The first 5 volumes were repaired in 18 13. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 203 

FREEDOM BOOKS. 



TO 



1. 5 th July, ^73^- ■•• I St December, 1777. 

2. 1 2th January, 1778. ... 4th December, 1809. 

These books were signed by the Freemen upon 
admission. The first volume has an Alphabetical 
Index. 

STAMP BOOKS. 

3. 3rd November, 1712. ... 7th October, 1723. 

4. 5th September, 1720. ... 5th September, 1757. 

These have no Indexes. 

5. 7th November, 1757. ... 6th March, 1786. 

6. 3rd April, 1786. ... 2nd December, 1811. 

These are both Indexed. 

7. A Record of the admissions to the Freedom from 
1775, down to the present time. Arranged alphabetically. 

8. The Livery Admission Book, 7th July, 1766, to 
the present time, Indexed. 



LIBRARY. 

The difficulty of acquiring a general knowledge of the 
various inventions and improvements which had been made, 
from time to time, in the Science of Horology, was long felt 
by the Members of the Court of Assistants, as well as by 
some of the prominent Trade Members of the Company. 
The few works of value written in English, relating to the 
theory and practice of the Art of Clock and Watchmaking, 
made them desirous of securing several treatises of great 
interest and importance written in French. 

It was also thought that much valuable time might be 
saved to the practical mechanic, and even to the amateur, if 
an opportunity could be given them, of seeing what advance- 
ment had been made in this very important branch of 
industry. 



204 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

The Court of Assistants, on the 2nd of November, 18 13, 
Resolved — 

" That it is expedient that this Company should possess, and from time to 
time procure such Books, Pamphlets and Tracts as have been written and 
published respecting or appertaining to the subject of the Art placed under 
the government of this Ccft-poration.' 

" 1 8 14. January 10. Resolved unanimously That a permanent Com- 
mittee be appointed and empowered to carry this object into effect. That 
the said Committee do report progress at every Midsummer and Christmas 
Quarterly Court respective!}'. That the said Committee do meet at the 
expense of its several Members and that the Junior Member of the said 
Committee from time to time in attendance do write the Minutes of its 
proceedings in a Book to be kept for that purpose. 

" That the said Committee do consist of Dr. Robert Hamilton 
Benj"- Vulliamy, Henry Clarke, John Jackson Jun"'- Fred*"' Barraud, and 
Justin Vulliamy." 

Valuable additions were, from time to time, made both 
by presentation and by purchase, and in 1830 a Catalogue 
of the Library was completed, printed, and issued to the 
Members. 

The difficulty of granting access to the Library, and also 
to the collection of specimens of Chronometers, Clocks, 
Watches, and Watch Movements, possessed by the Company, 
the want of space for properly arranging the specimens, etc., 
led to the following communication being addressed to the 
Senior Member of the Court of Assistants, by Mr. Deputy 
Atkins, then Clerk of the Company : — 

" Cowper's Court, Cornhill, 

^^ December ^th^ iSyi. 

" My Dear Mr. Grant, 

" I am reminded by the near approach of the coming year, 
that in January next I shall have completed the 30th year of my service, as 
Clerk of our Company, and I cannot- ignore the fact, that in the ordinary 
course of events, circumstances may occur, and that at no very lengthened 
period, when my connection with the Company, so far as relates to the official 
position I occupy, must cease. I may say that I have no present intention to 
resign a position I have held for so many years, and one in which it has been 
my privilege to make so many friends, but I feel it is not out of place to 
make this communication to you as the Senior and only surviving Member 
(\\ath one exception) who was on the Court at the time of my appointment. 

" The more immediate object, however, of my writing to you, is upon the 
subject of our Library and Museum, which in former years occupied so much 
of your attention, but which, as you are aware, has now become almost 
a dead letter, and I should very much like before the time arrives, when 

' Company's Journal VI. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 205 

I may cease to have any active interest in the affairs of the Company, to see 
them placed upon a more solid and secure foundation. I have thought 
a great deal on this matter, and as to the best way of making them not only 
useful, but to place them in a position where by free access on the part of the 
Pubhc, and thereby becoming better known, they might form the nucleus of a 
much larger and more important collection. You are doubtless aware that 
the Corporation of London are building a magnificent Library and Museum 
which is fast approaching completion, and which I believe will be second to 
none in the kingdom, and my proposition is, if it meet with the concurrence 
of the Court, to open negociations for their reception by the Corporation, upon 
terms hereafter to be agreed, whereby they would be at all times open to the 
Public, and those interested in Horological matters. I of course do not for 
a moment, mean that the Company should part with a single iota of their 
right or interest in their property, it should still be theirs and called by their 
name, and subject to removal, on proper notice, at the pleasure of the 
Court. Being a Member of the Library Committee of the Corporation, and 
knowing the great desire they have to avail themselves of every opportunity of 
extending its usefulness, I feel sure almost that such a proposition would be 
gladly received, and that in the event of arrangements being come to for their 
transfer to Guildhall, they would have the greatest possible amount of care 
and attention bestowed upon them. 

" I enclose a few suggestions which have occurred to my mind as to 
the regulations under which they might be deposited, should the Court 
be willing to negociate for their transfer, and the Corporation agree to accept 
the responsibility of their care. 

" As you are the only remaining Member of our Library Committee, I 
have ventured to address you on this subject, and should what I have 
shadowed forth coincide with your views, and be thought worthy of being 
entertained, I should feel greatly obliged if you would kindly bring the 
matter formally before the Court at an early opportunity. 

" I am, my Dear Mr. Grant, 

" Yours very truly, 

" S. Elliott Atkins, Clerk." 

The foregoing letter having been laid before the Court 
of Assistants by Mr. Grant, at their Meeting on the 8th of 
April, 1872, and the suggestions contained therein having 
been duly considered and unanimously approved, the Court 
passed the following order : — 

" Resolved unanimously. That the Clerk be requested to communicate 
with the Corporation of the City of London so as to ascertain upon what 
conditions they would undertake the charge of the Company's Library and 
Museum maintaining the same in proper order and finding suitable accom- 
modation therefor in their new Librar)' subject to removal by either party 
on proper notice, and to report to this Court. 

" 1872. July 8. The Clerk reported that the Library Committee of 
the Corporation had presented a report to the Court of Common Council 
recommending the acceptance of the offer made by this Company to deposit 
its Library and Collection of Ancient Watches in the New Library and 
Museum of the City of London and that the report had been referred back 
to the Committee to prepare a deed upon terms mutually to be agreed upon. 

P 2 



2o6 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



" 1S73. April 7. The Deed of Trust conveying the Company's 
Library and Museum to the Corporation of London was read, and it was 
unanimously Resolved That the Corporate Seal of the Company be affixed 
thereto which was accordingly done in open Court." 

The City's seal having been attached by the Corporation 
to the Deed of Trust, shortly afterwards the transfer took 
place, the Library being deposited in the new Committee 
Room of the Guildhall Library, and the Collection of Ancient 
Watches, Clocks, etc., in the Museum. 

On the 6th of April, 1874, it was — 

" Resolved unanimously That the Master and Wardens, together with 
such Members of the Court as may desire to accompany them, do visit 
the Company's Library and Museum at the Guildhall of the City of London 
some time during the month of March in each year, and that they do report 
the state and condition thereof at the Lady-day Quarter Court then next 
ensuing. 

" It was also ordered That a new Catalogue of the Books in the 
Company's Library be compiled by Mr. W. H. Overall, the Librarian to the 
Corporation, the said Catalogue to contain the MSS. recently arranged by him 
and also the Watches and Watch Movements and all other articles belonging 
to the Company recently deposited in the Guildhall Library and Museum of 
the City of London,"' 




PLATE. 

IN the troublous period of 1643-48, many of the Com- 
panies were compelled to part with their Plate to meet 
the heavy demands made upon them, first by the King, and 
then by the Parliament. In 1643, Parliament passed an 
ordinance for a weekly assessment throughout the Kingdom, 



' This was completed and issued in the following year. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 207 

the City of London's share being ;^ 10,000 per week. The 
Common Council, on the i8th of July, 1643, passed an Act to 
provide a Loan of ;^5o,ooo, and on the iith of August 
following, another for the same amount ; each Company had to 
provide a certain proportion according to its position. On 
November 30th, 1648, the Lord Mayor and Common Council 
received a Letter from Sir Thomas Fairfax, informing them of 
the approach of the Parliamentary Forces, and directing the 
City to raise an immediate supply of ^40,000, when more 
Plate was sacrificed. This Company had several pieces of 
Plate presented by different Members, which escaped the 
melting pot. 

Numerous entries referring to gifts of Plate, etc., by 
Members, some in part payment for their admission, and 
others to be excused serving Offices, etc., are to be found in 
the Company's Journals. 

In 1652 the Plate was described and weighed, but a 
few years afterwards the whole, with the exception of a Silver 
Gilt Cup and Cover, the gift of Mr. William Petit, was sold, 
the proceeds being devoted towards the purchase of two large 
Silver Tankards. 

Some additions have, however, been made in recent 
years, amongst others a valuable Cup, used on festive 
occasions, to which further reference is made hereafter. 

" 1635. October 26. Received of Mr. Almond the 26th of October 
being a Court and Quarter day a Silver Incase and Outcase to the value of 
XXs. which he gave to the use of the Company. 

" 1636. January 18. Mr. Henry Barraud presented a silver and gilt 
spoon. 

" 1642. July 25. Mr. Bowyer did present to this Fellowship one 
great chamber Clock desiring in consideration thereof hereafter to be freed 
from all Offices in this Fellowship with which this Company are contented, and 
do order that the said Mr. Bowyer shall for ever hereafter be exempted from 
place, office, and service except in case he be willing thereto, and except only 
his usual quarterage, and search money, formerly paid and hereafter to 
be paid to this fellowship, and binding his Apprentices thereto according 
to his oath.' 

"165 1. April 7. Robert Grinkin delivered up to the Renter Warden 
Mr. Robert Smith one Silver Dish being the gift of David Moody one Silver 
Wine Cup being the gift of Robert Whitwell and three Silver Spoons with 
gilt heads."" 

'■ - Company's Journal I. 



2oS THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

"1652. October 4. Mr. John Pennock did give unto the Company 
a fine House Clock of his own making, in consideration of his fine, being an 
Assistant.' 

" 1652. November 20. There several! peeces of plate followinge were 
weighed being then in the hands of Mr. Edward East, Treasurer of the 
Company. 

" Imprimis one silver flatt Cupp being the guifte of John Whitlach, 
Clockmaker weighing 7 ounces 4 pennyweight. 

" One ovall chast sugar dish being the guift of Jacob Hulst, Clockmaker 
weighing 7 ounces 7 pennyweight. 

" One round chast sugar dish of silver weighing 6 ounces and a halfe 
being the guift of David Moody. 

"One silver Wyne Bowie weighing 6 ounces 10 penny weight being the 
guift of Robert Whitwell, Clockmaker. 

" One silver Beere Bowie weighing 9 ounces one penny weight being the 
guift of Abraham Beckner, Clockmaker. 

" Likewise foure silver spoones weighinge 6 ounces 14 penny weight being 
the severall guifts of severall other Clockmakers. 

"Likewise two Silver and guilt spoones, one of them the guift of 
William Partridge, Clockmaker, having the figure of a Bishopp on the topp. 

" Likewise there is in Mr. East's hands one flat Silver Cupp weighing 
4 ounces 14 pennyweight which Mr. Jeremy Gregorye gave unto the Company 
the 4th of April 1653. 

"1653. April 4. Mr. Jeremy Gregory presented a silver dish to the 
Company weighing 4 ounces 14 penny weighty which w^as the gift for his 
admittance.- 

" 1654. July 3. Mr. Paul Lowell the elder did deliver to the 
Renter Warden one Silver Wine bowl weighing in full of all demands 

due to the Company.^ 

" All which severall parcells of Plate doe weigh in all fifty foure ounces 
and thirteene pennyweight." 

" 1656. June 2. This Court day Mr. Grinkin did deliver to the 
Master, John Nicasius, one Silver Boale being the guift of Mr. Guiliam Petitt." ^ 

It bears the following inscription : — 

" ' Dono datum Horologicorum Societati a Guillielmo Petit, 1655.' 

" 1959- J^^y 28. This Court day Mr. Nicholas Sparkes presented the 
Company with a piece of plate being a charge in lieu of his fine for not 
holding Steward.* 

"1660. November 12. This Court day all the Plate was weighed 
particularly and it was found to be all right and never a piece missing.^ 

"1664. October 3. William North presented the Company with a 
Silver Chased drinking Cup marked W. N. and weighing 7 ozs. and 2 dwt 
being his fine to be excused from serving Steward.^ 

I, s, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Company's Journal I. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 2O9 

" 1686. March 7. All the pieces of plate belonging to the Company 
which have been usually kept in the Chest and expressed in a Schedule 
annexed to the Bond given by each Master upon his coming into his Master- 
ship were brought to and seen at this Court, And upon consideration all the 
pieces (except the Gilt Cup and Cover the Gift of Mr. Wm. Petit and the 
Tankard the Gift of Mr. Thomas Whaplett) are small pieces useless or unfit 
for the Company. It was determined and ordered That all of them except 
the said Cup and Cover and Tankard shall be weighed and disposed of by 
the Master and Wardens and that therewith they cause Two Tankards of the 
same or a fitting value to be made with the Companys Arms engraven thereon 
for the credit and service of the Company at such times and upon such 
occasions as shall be thought fit. 

" 1687. Apiil 4. In pursuance of the order of the Court of the 7th of 
March last all the pieces and parcels of plate belonging to the Company 
(except the Cup and Cover the Gift of Mr. AVilliam Petit and the Tankard, the 
gift of Mr. Thomas Whaplett) having since been weighed and found to weigh 
together 85 ozs. which at 5s. 2d. the oz. amounts in Money to ^2\ 19s. 2d. 
And two New Tankards having been since made which are reported to 
weigh together 1 00 ozs. 1 9 dwt. 

£ s. d. 

" And the same at 6s. 4d. the ounce amounts in money to ' 3 1 19 5 

And tliat the Engraving of the Companys Coat of Arms 

on both of them .= 100 

And the Two Cases for them Cost 100 

In all Z2> 19 5 

Deducting the value of the old plate 21 19 2 

It appears That the Company are debitor to Mr. John 
Harris the Upper Warden who provided the New 
Tankards and their Cases - 12 o 3 



" 1872. July 8. Mr. G. W. Adams returned the two recently discovered 
Tankards which he had sent to Goldsmiths' Hall for verification of the Hall 
Mark which proved to be of the year 1686. The Clerk having looked 
through the Records of the Company at that period, found the entry containing 
full particulars relating to them, the weight 100 oz. 19 dwts. exactly agreeing 
with the original weight when manufactured. 

" It was Resolved unanimously That the best thanks of this Court 
be presented to Mr. George William Adams for having restored the 
Company's Loving Cup and provided a Case for its better security in future. 

" 1861. January 7. W. Rowlands, Esq., Master, presented to the 
Company, a Silver Salver, bearing the Company's Arms, together with a Silver 
Alms Dish and a large Glass Jug and two Goblets engraved with the 
Company's Crest and the initials of the Donor. 

' Company's Journal II. 

= These two Silver Tankards were missed for some years, but upon examination of the 
old Plate Chest in 1872, they were discovered beneath a false bottom of the Chest. 



2IO THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" 1863. April 6. The Clerk placed before the Court a handsome and 
elaborately finished Silver Gilt Cup and Cover emblematical of the Company 
and of the Trade, which had been forwarded to him by the late Master, 
G. W. Adams, Esq., with a request that he would beg the Court's acceptance 
of the same on his retiring from the Chair. 

" DESCRIPTION OF THE FOREGOING CUP. 

"The design of engraving is to represent the various stages of time. 
Around the foot is entwined a fillet, inscribed with the twelve hours of the 
day, the stem, an hour-glass, indicating the early method of measuring time. 
On the body, an artizan is depicted at work : on his bench is seen the entire 
work of a Turret Clock shewdng the great improvements of the present age ; 
on the reverse, the Arms of the Company. Figures of Time with his desolating 
scythe form the handles. On the cover, the four quarters of the day. 
Morning represented scattering flowers and odours from a Vase. Noon in 
a Chariot surrounded by the full rays of the Midday Sun. Evening shrouded 
in flowing drapery with the evening star and flitting bat. Night with a sleeping 
child reposing at her feet keeping watch in the spangled firmament. The 
whole surmounted by the celestial globe being the Crest of the Company. 

" Resolved — That the best thanks of this Court be and are hereby 
presented to George William Adams, Esq., the late Master, for the very 
handsome and unique present, he has this day made to the Court, which they 
trust will be preserved for generations to come as a Memorial of its kind and 
liberal donor. 

" It was also further resolved that a short inscription, stating under what 
circumstances it was presented, together with the date, be engraven on the 
interior of the cover." 

The inscription is as follows : — 

" The Gift of George William Adams, Esq., to the Worshipful Company 
of Clock Makers, on his retiring from the Chair, January, 1863." 



CHINA BOWLS. 

" 1848. November 6. Mr. Williams, of Baldwin Street, St. Luke's, a 
Liveryman, presented a handsome large China bowl which had been in his 
possession 46 years, which was accepted with Thanks. 

" 1876. July 3. The Clerk informed the Court that a large old China 
Bowl belonging to the Company, which had been lost for some years, had 
come to light on the sale of the effects of the London Tavern Company, 
Limited, and had been restored to the Company by Mr. Bathe, one of the late 
proprietors, the description of which is as follows : — 

" Chinese Porcelain Bowl jiainted in Colors with gilding between each 
Compartment. 

" In one compartment an Acrobat is balancing a female who is 
performing with a dagger in either hand — the band consisting of six 
performers are playing in concert, the instruments being, the Tambour, 
Cymbals, Flute, Guitar, Hand Bells, and Dulcimer. The next compartment 
represents the Mansion of a Mandarin whose family are witnessing the 
performance from the Balcony and Casement. 




ADAMS'S CUP. 




ADAMS'S CUP. 




ADAMS''S CUF 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 2 I I 

" In another compartment is a procession through the City — The 
Emperor of China accompanied by the Empress and their Court mounted, 
preceded by Attendants carrying banners. 

"At the bottom of the Bowl is a grotesque figure of a Chinaman 
attended by his Flappers." 

The Company also possess three large China Punch 
Bowls, of Lowestoft manufacture, with their Arms and those 
of the Donors, on the sides. 

At the Audit in 1877, it was reported by the Clerk that 
the following Articles of Plate belonged to the Company, 
viz. : — 

2 Loving Cups, i Alms Dish. 

2 Covered Tankards. i Snuff Box. 

1 Salver. i Beadle's Staff Head. 



PORTRAITS, &c. 

A descriptive list of the Portraits, etc., belonging to 
the Company has been included in the recently-published 
Catalogue of the Library, etc., pages 97 — 103. 



FUNDS. 



This Company cannot be classed among the wealthy 
Guilds of the City, and this may in some measure be 
accounted for from the fact that they did not obtain a grant of 
Livery from the Court of Aldermen till i 766. The following 
Extracts from their Journals afford evidence of their early 
care in the disposal and investment of their funds, which, as 
may be seen, were very limited. 

" 1663. July 6. Warden Taylor received of Mr. Edward East 39 
shillings for one quarter of a years interest ending at Midsummer last for the 
^130 by him owing to the Company, and in regard he hath declared that 
he will not keep the money longer. It is ordered that endeavours shall 
be made that the same may be lent to the Company of Goldsmiths, and to 
be made up to ^^150.' 

" Memorandum That this ^^150 was accordingly lent unto the Company 
of Goldsmiths for which they have given their Bond to this Company of the 
penalty of ^^300 dated 24 July 15 Charles 2 1663 for the payment of 
;;i^i53. 15^ the 26th of January next at Goldsmiths Hall in Foster Lane. 

" 1665. February 9. The Goldsmiths Company paid ;^'j — 10. for a 
12 months interest on the ^150 borrowed of the Company.- 

" 1667. May 6. The sum lent to the Goldsmiths increased to ;^205 
and a new bond given.^ 

" 167 1. October 16. ^100 was lent to Sir Robert Viner at 3 per cent.* 

" 1674. May 4. It was ordered that ^50 should be lent to the Gold- 
smiths' Company making ;^2 5o at 5 per cent.^ 

"1675. January 17. Ordered that ^^50 more be lent to the Gold- 
smiths' Company making ;^3oo at 5 per cent.* 

" 1676. February 5. Ordered that another ;!^ioo be lent to the Gold- 
smiths' Company making ;^4oo at the same rate of interest.' 

"1678. April 27. It was resolved to accept an assignment upon the 
Exchequer of ;^ioo owing by Sir Robert Viner to the Company.^ 

" 1681. January 16. It was consented and ordered that the Clark shall 
endeavour to get two or more Talleys as he shall think fit for the five quarters 
payment due at Christmas last of the ^6 per annum payable out of the 
Exchequer.' 



1. 2, 3. 4. 5. 6, 7. 8 Company's Journal I. 



9 Company's Journal 11. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. , 213 

" 1681. July 4. The Goldsmiths' Company agreed from this date to 
pay 4 per cent, for the ^^^400 they have belonging to the Company.' 

1682. September 19. Another ;^ioo lent to them on the same 
terms.^ 

1685. November 2. The Goldsmiths' Company increased their in- 
terest upon the ^^500 lent to them to 5 per cent.' 

1 688. February 4. The Goldsmiths' Company repaid to the Company 
the ^500 lent by them.'' 

" 1689, January 20. Order, that ;z^3oo of this money be lent to King 
William upon the security of the late Act of Parliament at 7 per cent. Carried 
into effect by the Master and Wardens 22 Jan. 1689.5 

1690. July 28. The ;^3oo was transferred into the Chamber of 
London at the same rate of interest.* 

1690. November 19. ^^150 added to the above ;^3oo at the same 
interest in the Chamber of London. ^ 

"1692. July II. Resolved that the sum lent to the King upon the 
security of the Land Tax at seven per cent, be increased to ;;^5oo.* 

1693. December 4. The ;2^5oo was re-invested as follows.' 

" Received the 19 day of December 1693, of the Master Wardens and 
fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City of London the 
sum of ^500 by them lent on credit of a vote passed on the 18th of 
November 1693 in the Honorable House of Commons where it was resolved 
that whosoever should lend any money (not exceeding ;^4oo,ooo) on the 
Exchequer in general towards the maintenance of the Fleet for the year 1694 
the House would take care to see them repaid with interest after the rate of 
j[^'] per cent, perann. out of the next Aids to be granted to their Majesties for 
the Fleet next after moneys borrowed on the clause of credit on the Million 
Ad and the Act for review of the Quarterly Poll. 

" I say received, 

" Len Robinson Chamberlain. 

" 1694. January 15, It was resolved to invest the JQ200 given by 
Mr. Edward East and Mr. Henry Jones on the security of the first Act of 
Parliament passed to raise money for the King.'° 

"Received the 31st day of January 1693, of the Master Wardens and 
Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking London the sum of Two 
hundred Pounds by them lent on credit of an Act of Parliament entitled an 
Act for granting to their Majesties an Aid of 4 shillings in the pound for one 
year for carrying on a vigorous War against France. To be repaid with 
interest for the same after the rate of j[^i per cent, per Annum. 

" I say received, 

• '* Len Robinson Chamberlain. 

" 1694. October 23. Notice being given to the Company that the 
;i£"20o which was lent the King at Guildhall on the 31st of January would be 
repaid, it was resolved to continue it on loan to the King upon the credit of 
the Poll Tax at the same rate." 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, II Company's Journal II. 



2t4 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" ;^5oo and ^200 invested at the Chamber of London for the King. 

" 1697. June 9. This Court was summoned concerning the Company's 
Money lent to the King at Guildhall, And upon the Master and "Wardens 
giving an account to this Court how far the ;^5oo that was lent upon 
the loth of March 1695 upon the 4 shillings in the pound Land Tax was 
behind in the deficiency upon that fund and also upon proposing, that 
;3^5oo may be subscribed to the additional stock of the Governor and 
Company of the Bank of England as a readier or more likely means to come 
into the money sooner, and also upon, discoursing what way to raise ^^125 
in Bank bills or notes to add to that subscription pursuant to the intent of 
the Act of Parliament, i^nd upon discourse and debate of the whole matter, 
It was voted and ordered That the sum of ;£s°° should be subscribed to 
the additional Stock of the Governor and Company of the Bank of England. 
And upon debate which way to raise part of the ;^i25 in Bank bills or notes 
There were three following ways proposed 

" I. By calling in some persons on the Court of Assistants and by their 

paying their fines. 
" 2, By borrowing so much money as should be wanting. 

" 3. By each Member of the Court of Assistants lending ;£s ^ piece for 
the present. 

" And it was voted and ordered that there should be a choice of 6 new 
assistants. 

"It was also ordered that the Master and Wardens are desired to take 
care of subscribing the money and procuring the Bank Bills, and the money 
now in the Company's Chest is ordered to be applied to that use, &c.' 

" 1697. July 5. At this Court 6 New Assistants were chosen. 



William How. 
Robert Webster. 
Benjamin Graves. 



Samuel Marchant. 
John Finch. 
John Pepys. 

" 1697. July 9. The six Gentlemen above named attended and 
accepted office with the exception of William How who was excused, James 
Atkinson being chosen in his room, and sworn. 

"1701. January 19. Ordered that with the Money (now in the 
Company's Chest) be bought : ;^2oo stock in the Bank of England.^ 

" 1702. May 4. The Master acquainted the Court that notice was given 
from the Chamber of London that ;^2oo the Company's Money lent some 
time past at Guildhall on the Act for Births, Burialls and Marriages &c. 
was become payable at the Exchequer the 29th of April last. Ordered that 
the same be received and invested in Capital stock of the Bank of England.^ 

"1704. November 6. A motion made that ;^2oo of the Company's 
Money in the Chest and Renter Warden's hands might be lent at Interest 
at ^5 per cent, upon small remote Tallys on the Two shillings Aid and 
some debentures to a friend of the Master's who made the Motion, Ordered 
that ;^3oo of the Company's Money be put into the Bank on their sealed 
Bills at 2'^- per cent, per diem, or such Bills bought till further order 
concerning the same.* 

" 1720. July 19. It was resolved to invest £,2q>o in South Sea Stock.^ 
' Company's Journal II. =• 3. 4. 5 Company's Journal III. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMl'ANY. 215 

" 1730. January 18. ;^4oo was invested in the South Sea Stock.' 

" 1781. November 5. An order was passed to invest the funds of the 
Company in Bank of England Stock." ^ 

In 181 1 the then Renter Warden, Mr. Isaac Rogers, in 
conjunction with his friends Mr, Henry Clarke and Mr. George 
Atkins, prepared with much skill and labour, a well-matured 
plan of a Permanent AcciLimilation Fiuid, whereby a sum of 
money was to be invested in Government Stocks, and a fixed 
proportion of all moneys received by the Company added 
thereto. This was adopted by the Court of Assistants, and 
has been continued clown to the present time. Payment of 
Quarterage was thereby abolished, and in lieu thereof each 
person upon his admission to the Freedom, was required to 
pay an equivalent to the credit of this Fund. Upon the 
binding of every Apprentice, and the admission of each new 
Member on the Court of Assistants, portions of the fees pay- 
able were also to be devoted to the same purpose. In order 
to form a nucleus for the Fund, a number of new Liverymen 
were made, and the proceeds and fines were invested, half 
the dividends thereon being from time to time added to the 
corpus. The result has been materially to improve the finan- 
cial position of the Company, and to enable them from time 
to time to vary the number of Pensioners, and increase the 
amounts given to them. In i860 a scale was agreed upon 
regulating in future the sums to be added to the Accumulating 
Fund from fines, etc., received for admission to the Court, 
Livery, Freedom, Apprentices, etc. On the 8th of October, 
it was Resolved unanimously — 

"That in future the uniform sum of ;^ 150 being part of the interest 
arising from the ' Accumulating Fund ' of this Company be annually added 
to such fund — such amount being ^^t^o per ann. in excess of the average 
investment from that source during the last 10 years. 

" That the whole of the present Pensions of ;^8 ^ ann. (twelve in 
number) be augmented to ;j^io per ann. 

"That 2 new Pensions of ;^io per ann. be created and paid out of the 
ordinary funds of the Company to be open at the discretion of the Master, 
Wardens and Court of Assistants either to Freemen, Widows or unmarried 
daughters of Freemen subject to such rules and regulations as the Master 
Wardens and Court of Assistants for the time being may deem expedient. 

" That in future the sums to be invested and added to the 'Accumulating 
Fund ' from Fines &c. received for admission to the Court, Livery, Freedom, 



' Company's Journal IV. ^ Company's Journal V. 



2l6 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

Apprentices &c. be continued as heretofore such amounts to be invested 
together with the aforesaid sum of ;!^i5o arising from the interest of the 
'Accumulating Fund' in new 3 per ct. Annuities. 

" That all the foregoing resolutions take effect as from the next January 
Quarter Day Court. 

" And it was also Resolved That such Freemen, Widows and unmarried 
daughters of Freemen who may be Candidates for the foregoing two new 
pensions of ^10 per annum be respectively not under the age of Fifty years 
except such as by reason of mental or bodily infirmity are prevented obtaining 
their own livelihood." 



CHARITIES. 

One of the first duties of the Livery Companies has ever 
been the care of their poor, decayed Members and their 
Widows ; this Company has not been behind in this respect. 
The first gift recorded in their Archives is that of Sampson 
Shelton in 1650. He was one of the first Wardens, being 
named in the Charter, and was chosen Master in 1634. 



" 1649-50. January 14. The same day Mr. Richard Broughton paid 
the Legacy of Mr. Sampson Shelton which he bequeathed to this Company 
amounting to the sum of ;^5o and the Master and Wardens of the said Com- 
pany gave their acquittance under their hands and seals.' 

" 1650. March 25, This Court day it was agreed by the Court of 
Assistants that the parish of Annes' Aldersgate should have Mr. Shelton's 
Legacy at the rate of ^^'j per centum and the Churchwardens bonds to be 
taken for six months for the said sum of jQs°- ^ 

" 1650. November 8. This Court day it was ordered that the half 
years interest of Mr. Shelton's Legacy should be distributed as followeth : To 
the widdow of Richard Child 10= To the widdow of Daniell Howell 10^ To 
the widdow of Jasper Lowart i o'' and to the widdow of David Elson 5^ which 
was paid accordingly by the Renterwarden." ^ 

In 1680, John Freeman left to the poor of the Company 

" 1680. April 16. Warden Bell received from Mr. John Freeman's 
Executors a Legacy of;^io which the deceased had left to the poor of the 
Company." "* 

1693. Edward East and Henry Jones each gave ^100 
to the Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Company in 
trust, to pay to five Freemen, or their Widows, twenty 
shillings annually by two half-yearly payments. East was 
one of the first Assistants appointed by the Charter. — [See 
Biographical Notices, pages 164 and 168.] 



'. ^. 3. Company's Journal I. 



2l8 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

" 1692. October 20. Mr, Henry Jones the present Master this day 
acquainted the Court That Mr. Edward East formerly Master was pleased to 
give ;!^ioo now in his lifetime to this Company for the benefit of the poor. 
And the said Mr. Jones after the charitable example of his said Master having 
promised to give one hundred pounds more for the benefit of the poor like- 
wise in such manner as shall be hereafter appointed and declared by the said 
Mr. East and Mr. Jones. Whereupon and in consideration that security 
could not be yet had nor the Money disposed at present as is desired, There- 
fore it was agreed voted and consented by this whole Court (not one dis- 
senting) that for the reasons aforesaid the said Mr. Jones shall have free 
liberty for one year to enter or caused to be entered a Memorial in the 
Charter Book or other Book or Books of the Company of Mr. East and 
himself as done in the year when he was Master. ' 

" 1693. June 20. Mr. Edward East gave the ;!^ioo. Ordered that it 
be put into the Company's chest and that the Master and Wardens do go 
to Mr. East and give him hearty thanks for this his charity.- 

" 1693- July 18. Mr. Henry Jones did give the ;^ioo promised to 
the Company and it was resolved to place the same in the Chest and to 
thank Mr. Jones." 

1 701. Charles Gretton gave by deed of Gift dated the 
I St of September, 1 701, to the Master, Wardens and Fellow- 
ship upon trust, the sum of ;^50, to pay yearly the sum of fifty 
shillings to apprentice the sons of deceased Freemen of the 
Company to the trade of Watch and Clock making. 

" 1 701. April 7. At this Court the Master (Charles Gretton) declared 
his intention and will of giving ^2^50 to this Company upon condition that 
they will allow 50' p ann. for such purposes as he shall appoint in a deed 
for that purpose which this Court thankfully accepted to do. ^ 

" 1 70 1. July 7. At this Court the draft of a Deed of Settlement for 
distribution of 50^ ^ ann. for ^S° the gift of Mr. Charles Gretton the 
present Master was read and approved and ordered to be engrossed against 
such time as the Master shall appoint for sealing thereof and paying in the 
;:^5o which he now again said should be before Michaelmas day next.* 

" 1 701. September i. Mr. Charles Gretton paid the ;^5o and the 
Deeds were signed. ^ 

" 1 719. October 5. Ordered that whenever five pounds or more is in 
the Company's hands notice be thereof given in the next Quarter Court bills 
and in every succeeding Quarter Court bills till the money be disposed of 
according to the intent of the donor." ^ 

1 701. Mrs. Russell's Gift of Ten Pounds to the Poor 
of the Company. 

'• - Company's Journal II. 3. 4. 3. (> Company's Journal III, 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 219 

"1701. January 19. At this Court Mr. Cornelius Russell Son of 
Captain Nicasius Russell ' deceased a late Member of the Court of Assistants 
came from the widow Russell his mother and brought as her gift to the poor 
of the Company ;;^io, which was left to the distribution of the Court of 
Assistants, amongst such of the poor of the Company as they should see 
fit, which Mr. Warden Tompion received, and is to be distributed at 
another time." 

1736, Richard Hutchinson, a Freeman of the Com- 
pany, left the interest of a sum of money to the Poor. 

" 1736- J^Jy 5- At this Court Mr. Richard Hutchinson made an offer 
of giving the Company ;^ioo to be allow'ed an annuity during his and his 
Wife's lives, which the Court took into consideration, and after some 
debates the Question was put to allow them Six pounds per annum and after 
their deaths what appeared to be in the Company's hands the interest of it 
to be given to the poor at the discretion of the Master and Wardens and 
Assistants for the time being and the Master and Wardens were then em- 
powered to meet and fix the Company's seal to a Bond." 

The Bond was sealed on the 1 5 th, and the Renter Warden 
received the Money. 

1747. George Graham, by his Will, dated 23rd June, 
1747, left to his Wife one-half of his personal Estate, etc., and 
to the Poor of the Company Twenty pounds. He died in 
1 75 1. — [^See Biographical Notice, page 166.] 

" 1752. January 18. Mr. George Graham, an Assistant, late deceased, 
having left the sum of twenty pounds to be given to the poor of the Company, 
the same was paid by his Executor Mr. Barkley." ^ 

1769. Benjamin Gibbons, a Member of the Company, 
left ;^i 10 to the Poor. 

" 1769. February 6. Mr. Cundee the executor of Mr. B. Gibbons 
deceased, attended and produced the probate of the will of the said testator, 
wherein was the following bequest. 

" To the poor of the Clockmakers' Company, not on full pension, the 
sum of One Hundred and ten pounds Bank Stock. 

" And the said Executor will call on Mr. Jas. Brown the Renter 
Warden and transfer it accordingly." ^ 

1770. Sir Robert Darling, Knight, a Member of the 
Court of Assistants, gave ;^ioo, and also induced his friend 

' He was apprenticed to William Rogers on the 3rd of July. 1653, and admitted to the 
Freedom 6th of July, 1663 ; was chosen on the Court of Assistants, and served the office of 
Warden from 16SS to 1690 ; elected Master in 1692. 
-• 3 Company's Journal IV. 

Q 



2 20 THE CLOCK-MAKERS COMPANY. 

Mr. Nathaniel Styles to give £10. — [_Scr Biographical Notice, 
page 183.] 

"1770. September 3. On the 6 November 1769, Sir Robert Darling 
Knt., of his own kindness and generosity offered to pay into the hands 
of Mr. Jas. Brown of Lombard Street, Banker, the sum of One Hundred 
Pounds if Mr. Nath'- Style of Wood Street would pay into the same hands 
the sum of Ten Pounds, which the said Mr. Nath'- Style cheerfully and 
generously accepted to do. And the said One Hundred Pounds from Sir Robert 
Darling and the Ten Pounds from Mr. Nath'- Style making together One 
Hundred and Ten Pounds were paid into the hands of Mr. Jas. Brown and 
laid out in the purchase of Seventy Three Pounds Bank Stock, in Trust to the 
Worshipful Company of Clockmakers, the Interest thereof for the use of the 
Poor of the said Company for ever, to be paid quarterly at every Quarter 
Court, agreeable to the order and design of the said benevolent Sir Robert 
DarHng Knt. and Mr. Nath'- Style." ' 

1770. September 3. Mr. Jasper Taylor, Clerk of the 
Company, left ^10 for the Poor. 

" Ordered that the Renter Warden do wait on the Executors of 
Mr. Jasper Taylor the late Clerk, deceased, to receive the legacy of Ten 
pounds left by his will bearing date 3 March 1770, unto the poor Pensioners 
of the Clockmakers' Company, and that at the same time, he pay his Salary 
&c. which was due the 25th March last to the Executors. 

"1770. September 29. Mr. Jasper Taylor the late Clerk by his last 
will and testament bearing date 3 March 1770, left the sum of Ten pounds 
unto the poor of the Clockmakers' Company to be paid to the Renter Warden 
at Christmas next after his decease, which Ten pounds were paid on the 25th 
of this instant September by Thos. Taylor his Executor to Mr. Dan'- Aveline, 
the Renter Warden." - 

1773. Devereux Bowly, a Freeman and Liveryman, 
chosen on the Court of Assistants, October 16, 1754, served 
the Office of Warden 1756- 1758, elected Master of the 
Company in 1759, left a legacy of ^500 for the benefit of 
the Poor Freemen and their Widows. 

" 1773. April 5. The Clerk reported from the Commons, that 
Mr. Devereux Bowly deceased had by his will bearing date 17 July 1772, left 
to the Master, Wardens and Court of Assistants of the Clockmakers' Company 
for the time being the sum of Five Hundred Pounds 4 per Cent. Bank 
Annuities, the Interest and Dividends thereof for the benefit of so many poor 
Freemen and the Widows, as they shall deem worthy, and to be distributed 
twice a year." ^ 

1773. September 6. The Master reported that the Upper and Renter 
Wardens had received the sum of Five Hundred Pounds, Four per Cent. 
Bank Annuities, from the Executors of the late Devereux Bowly. 

'- ''' 3 Company's Journal IV'. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMI'ANY. 22 1 

1795. Benjamin Sidey, Watchmaker, of Moorfields, a 
Freeman and Liveryman, left by his Will Three Hundred 
Pounds for the relief of the poor Members of the Company. 
He was chosen one of the Court of Assistants, October i6, 
1754; served the office of Warden in 1758- 1760, elected 
Master in 1761. Again served the office of Upper Warden 
in 1788. Elected a second time Master of the Company 
in 1789. He was a most active Member in everything 
affecting the interest of the Trade. 

" 1 795. September 7. The Renter Warden informed the Court that he 
had received of the Executors of the late Mr. Benjamin Sidey deceased the 
sum of Three Hundred Pounds which he had left by his last will to the 
Company of Clockmakers, to be invested in the public funds, in their names, 
the interest thereof to be applied to the relief of their poor Members, in their 
accustomed manner." ' 

The Renter Warden also informed the Court that he had, in compliance 
with Mr. Sidey's Will, purchased ;^4oo in the Three per Cent. Reduced 
Annuities, at 7o| per Cent., which, with the Commission and some other 
necessary expenses, amounted to ;^2 88 is. 6d. 

1 8 19. Robert Atchison apprenticed to Robert Hardin, 
Watchmaker, July 2, 1753, and admitted to the Freedom, 
September 9, 1760, left a legacy of ^10 to the Company. 

"i8ig. June 7. The Renter Warden reported that he had received 
from the Executors of the late .... Atchison deceased, a Member of the 
Eellowship, the sum of Ten pounds, the same was directed to be invested in 
the Funds and the interest applied to the poor of the Company." - 

1828. Samuel Fenn, the son of Daniel Fenn, the cele- 
brated Tool Manufacturer, of Newgate Street, left a Legacy 
of ^200 Bank Stock for the poor Members of the Company. 
He was admitted to the Freedom and Livery of the Com- 
pany by patrimony, March 2, 1767 ; chosen on the Court of 
Assistants in 1789; served the office of Warden 1790- 1792, 
and was elected Master in 1 793. 

" 182 1. October 8. The Clerk laid before the Court a letter he had 
received from the Executors of the late Mr. Fenn, of which the following is a 
copy : — ' 

" ' Mr. Joseph Fenn respectfully informs the Master and Court of the 
Worshipful Company of Clockmakers that his late uncle Mr. Samuel Fenn 
has bequeathed Two Hundred Pounds Bank Stock to the Company to be 
transferred to them at the decease of Mrs. Fenn his late uncle's widow. 

" 'Newgate Street, Sept. 29th, 1S21.' 



Company's Journal V. -• ^ Company's Journal VII. 

Q 



2 22 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" Whereupon the Clerk was directed to acknowledge the receipt of 
Mr. Joseph Fenn's letter and to thank him for the communication. 

"1828. May 5. The Clerk reported that he had received from the 
Executors of the late Mr. Samuel Fenn a Stock Receipt for ;^i8o Bank 
Stock transferred by them to this Company in trust for its poor Members, 
being the amount of a Bequest of ^200 Bank Stock, after deducting 
;3^io per Cent. Legacy duty on the sterling value thereof. Also that he had 
received from the same parties the sum of £\ 3s. yd. for 119 days Interest 
from i2th December 1827 to 9th April 1828 on the above named Stock after 
deducting 14/3 being the charge for Stamps and Commission on transferring 
the same." ' 

1850. William James Frodsham, F.R.S., Watchmaker, 
of Exchange Alley, Cornhill, an active Member of the 
Company f9r many years, left by his Will a Legacy of ;^iooo 
for poor, decayed Members of the Company, and their 
Widows. Two Pensions of ^15 10^. each, designated the 
Parkinson and Frodsham Charity, are bestowed annually 
upon decayed Members, or their Widows. \See Biographical 
Notice, page 166.] 

" Extract from the Will. 

" ' I bequeath to. the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers in the City of 
London the sum of One Thousand Pounds to be invested in the Three 
Pounds per Cent. Consolidated Bank Annuities to the intent that the dividends 
and annual income thereof may be from time to time for ever applied in 
aiding and assisting decayed Workmen, Freemen of the said Company or their 
Widows in such manner as the Master and Wardens for the time being of the 
said Company shall from time to time think fit, and I declare that the said 
Master and Wardens shall be the sole judges as to the intent and meaning of 
the expression ' decayed Workmen.' And I further declare that the receipt 
of the said Master and Wardens for the time being or other the Officer or 
Officers of the said Company competent in that behalf shall be a conclusive 
discharge to my Executors for the said sum of One Thousand Pounds 
and fully exonerate them from seeing to the investment or due application 
thereof And out of respect to the memory of my late Partner William 
Parkinson, I direct that the said bequest shall be for ever known and 
distinguished by the name or description of Parkinson and Frodsham's 
Charity. And I further direct that the Legacy to the said Clockmakers' 
Company shall be paid free of Legacy Duty out of such part of my personal 
estate as may by Law be applicable to that purpose.'"^ 

1855. Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, Baronet, of Bombay 
\see Honorary Members, page 187], on behalf of himself and 
his son Cursetjee Jamsetjee, presented through his friend, 
Richard Hartley Kennedy, Esq., Alderman, a Member of the 

' Company's Journal VII. - Company's Journal IX. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 223 

Court of Assistants, i^200, which the Court apphed to the 
formation of a Pension of ^lo per annum, entitled, The Sir 
Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy Pension. Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, the 
second Baronet, visited this country in i860, and prior to his 
return to India, placed in the hands of the Lord Mayor 
(Alderman Carter) a further sum of ^50, which was invested 
to increase the Pension. It has since been further augmented 
and now amounts to ^13 2^-. 6^., which is given to a poor 
Freeman, or the widow of a Freeman. 

1 86 1. Charles Rawlings, Watchmaker and Silversmith, 
of Brook Street, Holborn, admitted to the Freedom in Sep- 
tember, 18 18, and to the Livery, July 3, 1826, gave ^100, 
the interest thereof to be given annually to the poor of the 
Company; and left by his Will a further sum of ^100, to 
be appropriated in augmenting the Casual Relief Fund. 

" 1861. April 8, The Clerk reported that Charles Rawlings Esq. of 
Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, one of the Gentlemen of the Livery has presented 
to the Company the sum of One hundred Pounds to be invested in the new 
Indian 5 jj ct. Loan, the dividends arising therefrom to be annually given 
in one sum of Five Pounds to such deserving object connected Avith the 
Company as the Court should deem worthy to receive it, whereupon it was 
Resolved unanimously, That the best thanks of this Court be given to Charles 
Rawlings Esq. for the munificent donation of ;^ioo — this day communicated 
to the Court by the Clerk of the Company, and that the same be gratefully 
accepted and the interest arising therefrom be placed at the credit of the 
Casual Rehef Fund and dispensed in accordance with the expressed wish of 
the benevolent donor. ' 

" 1864. July 4. The Renter Warden informed the Court that he had 
received the Legacy of One Hundred Pounds bequeathed by the late Charles 
Rawlings Esq. whereupon it was Resolved, — That the same be invested in the 
India 5 p ct. Stock in addition to the Accumulating Fund and that the 
interest arising therefrom be carried annually to the Casual Relief Fund." - 

1864. William Rowlands, Gold Watch-case maker, of 
Smith Street, Clerkenwell, presented ^1000, the interest to 
be devoted for the benefit of the inmates of the Clock and 
Watchmakers' Asylum, Colney Hatch, and the poor of the 
Company. He was admitted to the Freedom of the Com- 
pany, by servitude, October 9, 1820; to the Livery, Novem- 
ber 4, 1820; chosen on the Court of Assistants, July 3, 1854 ; 
served the office of Warden, 1856- 1859, and was elected 
Master in i860. 



* Company's Journal IX. 



2 24 '^^^ CLOCKMAKEKS COMPANY. 

" 1864. July 4. On the conclusion of the business of the day William 
Rowlands Esq. a Member of the Court of Assistants, placed in the hands 
of the Master a Bond of the value of One Thousand Pounds of the Imperial 
Ottoman Loan of 1862 bearing interest at six j) ct. p ann. together with 
Thirty Pounds being half a year's interest due 30th June last. The said 
Bond to be held upon trust by the Master, Wardens and Fellowship for 
the joint benefit of the Clock and Watch Makers' Asylum and the 
Company. 

"Resolved unanimously That this Court gratefully accepts the Trust 
imposed upon it by William Rowlands Esq. and authorizes the present 
custody of the Bond of ;^iooo so munificently placed in its hands — to be 
committed to the Master and Wardens.' 

" 1S64. October 10. The following communication accompanied the 
Turkish Bond for ;^iooo presented at the last Quarter Court by William 
Rowlands Esq. 

"The Gift of William Rowlands, of Smith Street Clerkenwell, Gold 
Watch Case Maker, in trust to the Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the 
Worshipful Company of Clockmakers of the City of London the sum of One 
Thousand Pounds in a six p ct. Bond for that amount of the Imperial 
Ottoman Loan of 1862 with full power and control to receive and apply 
as follows, that is to say, they shall on the 27th day of August of each and 
every year pay to each Male and Female Pensioner in the Clockmakers' 
Asylum Colney Hatch the sum of T^uenty Shillings, but if any Pensioner be a 
Freeman of the Company of Clockmakers or a Widow of a Freeman of the 
said Company the sum to be given shall be Thirty Shillitigs, but if a 
Liveryman, or the Widow of a Liveryman, then the sum to be given is to 
be increased to Forty Shillings. 

"The Clerk of the Company is to receive annually the sum of Five 
Pounds for keeping the accounts, the Beadle is to receive Forty-two Shillings, 
for paying and taking receipts for the amounts of the payments as above 
specified, out of which sum of Forty-two Shillings he is to defray any 
expenses he may incur. 

"The Secretary of the Clock and Watchmakers' Asylum Colney Hatch 
who shall render to the Clerk of the Clockmakers' Company annually at the 
end of June a list of Pensioners in said Asylum, shall receive for his trouble 
the sum of Ttventy Shillings. 

"The residue after payment of the above is to go to an Accumulating 
Fund from which the Court of the Clockmakers' Company is to have the 
power of appropriating the sum of Ten Pounds annually to be distributed at 
their full discretion among the Poor Applicants of the Company, and if at any 
time the Clockmakers' Company should become possessed of any Alms 
Houses the Pensioners therein are to receive the same amounts as if they had 
been Pensioners in the Clockmakers' Asylum. 

" (Signed) W. Rowlands, 

" 23rd January 1864. 
" Witnessed by Jno. Cragg | 
and Chris""- Rowlands." ) 

' Company's Journ.al X, 



THE CLOCK MAKERS COM PAW. 2 25 

" Referring to the above it is to be understood, that if at any time the 
Thousand Pound Bond be paid off in full, the Trustees shall in such case 
have full control and power to reinvest the amount in such manner as they 
may deem best for the purpose of carrying out the objects above specified. 

" 1864. loth October. The Master reported that he had, in his official 
capacity, in conjunction with several members of the Court of Assistants, 
attended on the 27th of August last, the day appointed by W. Rowlands, Esq., 
to distribute for the first time the gift of that gentleman to the inmates of the 
Clock and Watchmakers' Asylum, Colney Hatch, on which occasion a hand- 
some entertainment was given by the aforesaid benevolent donor to the friends 
of the Institution, including the inmates, in the grounds of the Asylum." 

The Court of Assistants have since annually voted the 
sum of Five Pounds for entertaining the Pensioners in the 
Asylum on Founder's day, the 2 7th of August. 

1864. The Hon. Rustomjee Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy, 
Member of the Legislative Council of Bombay (see Honorary 
Members, page 188), presented ^200 to the Funds of 
the Company. The Court of Assistants passed a resolution 
establishing a Pension, amounting to ^10 per annum, to be 
called after the generous Donor. 

" 1864. October 10. 

"71, Old Broad Street, 

" 31st August, 1864. 
" Dear Sir,— My friend the Honorable Rustomjee Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy 
Member of the Legislative Council of Bombay has requested me to offer a 
contribution of ^200 to the funds of the Clockmakers' Company of which 
his father the late Sir Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy was for some years a member. 

" I have the pleasure to hand a Cheque for the amount in question the 
receipt of which I shall be obliged by your acknowledging.' 

" I am Dear Sir, 

" Yours faithfully, 
"(Signed) R. W. Crawford. 
" Mr. S. E. Atkins, 

" Clerk to the Clockmakers Company." 

" It was Resolved unanimously That the Honorary Freedom and Livery 
of this Worshipful Company be, and is hereby presented to the Hon'''^- Rus- 
tomjee Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy of Bombay as a tribute of respect to the 
private virtues and i)ublic character of a highly distinguished British subject 
and native merchant of India. 

"That the sum of p^2oo so generously presented by the Hon'''=- Rus- 
tomjee Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy to this Company, through the medium of 
R. W. Crawford Esq. M.P. for the City of London, be invested, and the 
interest arising therefrom be applied to the formation of a pension to be 
entitled "The Rustomjee Jamsetjee Jeejeebhoy Pension" for the benefit of 
needy Freemen of the Company or their Widows. 

Company's Journal X. 




GIFTS TO THE COMPANY. 

1779. Conyers Dunlop, a Freeman and Liveryman of 
the Company, was chosen on the Court of Assistants 
September 29, 1750; served the office of Warden 1755-175 7; 
chosen Master in 1758. He left by Will ^50 to the 
Company to purchase a piece of Plate ; but it appears from 
the Records that his estate was thrown into Chancery by his 
relatives, and the Company did not receive the Legacy. 

1779. March i. " The Clerk reported that Mr. Stubbs of Suffolk Street, 
Charing Cross, Attorney, had acquainted him in writing that Mr. Conyers 
Dunlop is dead, and by his Will gave some freehold Estates in London and 
Westminster to the Master and Wardens of the Clockmakers' Company upon 
Trust, to receive and divide the moneys accruing by such sale among several 
persons in his Will mentioned. And he gave the Company Fifty Pounds to 
purchase a piece of Plate. Mr. Stubbs is concerned for the reiDresentatives of 
Mr. Dunlop and will send Mr. Hughes a copy of the Will." 

1845. John Berryhill Cross, Watchmaker, of Jewin 
Street, Cripplegate, admitted a Freeman by redemption 
April 4, 1 83 1, and chosen on the Livery October 13, 1834, 
presented Ten Guineas to the Company. 

" 1845. November 3. John Berryhill Cross, Esq., a Liveryman of the 
Company, presented a Donation of Ten Guineas to be applied to such 
purpose as the Court might see fit. Resolved that the same be invested." 

1866. William Henry Warre, of Skinner Street, Snow 
Hill, Silversmith, was admitted to the Freedom and Livery 
of the Company by redemption April 6, 1857 ; chosen on the 
Court of Assistants January 12, 1863. He left a Legacy of 
;^ioo for the use of the Company. 

" 1866. January 9. Mr. William Lawley, as Executor of the late 
Wm. Henry Warre, Esq., Member of the Court of Assistants, handed to the 
Court a Cheque for One Hundred Pounds being the amount of a legacy 
left by that Gentleman to the Corporation." ' 



Company's Journal X. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



227 



A list of the Company's Pensioners, being Freemen,Widows, &c., 
with the Amount of their respective Pensions, 1880. 



PARKINSON AND FRODSHAM CHARITY. 

WHEN 
ELECTED. AGE. 

1865-70 76 William John Lloyd, Clock & Watch Makers' Asylum, Colney Hatch 
1866-77 84 Martha Hoskins, 183, Holloway-road, N 



AMOUNT. 
C S. d. 

15 10 O 
15 10 O 



SIR JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY CHARITY. 
1874-77 Z'Ty Ann Elizabeth Pretty, Ann's-place, Creek-road, Deptford . 



13 2 6 



HONOURABLE RUSTOMJEE JAMSETJEE JEEJEEBHOY CHARITY. 
1873 79 James Martin, 40, Gerard-street, Colebrook-row, Islington ... 10 o o 



1871-73 


84 


I87I 


70 


1876 


70 


i860 


80 


1863 


79 


1874 


69 


1875 


69 


1875 


67 


1877 


76 


IS77 


85 



ORDINARY PENSIONS. 

Richard Musgrove, Providence House, College-st., Highbury, N 
Samuel Taylor, 151, Keppell-street, King's-road, S.W, 
William Henry Bagnall, 12, Lenham-road, Lee, Kent 

Sarah Margaret Keel, 84, Fetter-lane 

Maiy Neale, 18, Mayton-street, Hornsey-road, N.... 
Hannah Mitchell, 164, St. Paul's-road, Camden Town 
Mary Ann Ely, Colney Hatch... 
Ann Elizabeth Bond Doorey, 33, Queen's-row, Walworth 

Eleanor Ellis, 37, Ferndale-road, Brixton 

Lydia Hale, 29, Packington-street, Islington 



20 








12 








12 








12 








12 








12 








12 








12 








12 








12 









EXTRA PENSIONS TO UNMARRIED DAUGHTERS OF FREEMEN. 

1872 53 Elizabeth Jane Hicks, 211, Marylebone-road 10 

1879 75 Jane Bagnall, 10, Park-road-terrace, Forest Hill 10 

;^202 




wr 



THE TRADE. 



THE TRADE. 



REGULATIOiNS OF WORKMEN, SEARCHES, &c. 

The powers of control over the workmen, and articles 
manufactured by them, or imported from foreign parts, given 
to the Company by their Charter and Bye- Laws, were very 
extensive, and for some time were strictly enforced. 

The Master, Wardens, and Assistants, or any two of 
them, the Master or one of the Wardens being one, had 
power to search and view all productions of the Art made 
within the Realm or imported for sale, and to seize and break 
work unlawfully made, or composed of bad or defective 
materials, or in any way faulty; to carry the same to the 
Company's Hall or meeting place, to be adjudged, and, if 
condemned, to be broken ; to break open any place, if refused 
admission, to search it, and to seize work and tools therein 
concealed ; to prevent aliens or strangers from working except 
with an allowed and professed Clockmaker, and also all 
persons who had not served a seven years' apprenticeship to 
the trade. 

The authority thus exercised had the effect of bringino- 
them into frequent conflict with members of the trade, 
but they seem to have carried out what was sometimes 
a difficult duty with moderation and firmness, thus protecting 
the public from being imposed upon, and the manufacturer 
from unfair and ruinous competition. 

The following extracts selected from numerous instances 
to be found in their records, explain the steps taken to give 
effect to their powers : — 

"1632. October 23. This daye John Townsend covenaunt servaunt 
to Mr. Clarke is forbidd the working at the trade either with him or any other 
using the Arte of a Clockmaker.' 



' Company's Journal I. 



232 THE CLOCK-MAKERS COMPANY. 

" This daye Mr. Lawe was prohibited from working hereafter in the 
Trade of a Clockmaker being never bound to the Arte, but to the Arte of a 
Graver. 

" This daye Mr. Bisse was prohibited in the like manner for using the 
Arte any longer and likewise for keeping an Apprentice contrarie to the 
Statute. " 

" 1632. November 29. This day Mr. Peto was forbidden to work 
any longer in the trade of a Clockmaker. 

" This day James Beraud was admitted to be the ser\-ant and journey- 
man of Mr. Charlton. - 

" 1646-7. January 18. It was ordered, Forasmuch as divers abuses 
come by imj^loying of journeymen and chamber-workers that deceive the 
Masters of their Boxes, Watches and Money to the damage and scandall of 
the profession, It is therefore ordered by full consent that if any Master 
hereafter shall give any Box or trust any journeyman or chamber-worker with 
any Watch to mend or Money beforehand, and hee shall fraudulently make it 
away or pawne it, and then take worke of any other man before satisfaction be 
given to the former Master that imployed him, the party wronging the former 
Master having warning given him by the Beadle of the Company to make 
satisfaction, and he not appearinge at the next Court to give an account why 
hee hath so done, then by order of the Company the Beadle shall print upon 
the next Bills for warninges of Watches lost and stolen, the dishonest dealing 
of that man, that every Master may take notice of his deceite, and if any 
Master shall imploy him before satisfaction be given to the former Master 
complayning, hee shall be lyable to the penalty of the ordinances. ^ 

" 1654. May 2. The same day it was ordered by general consent that 
Henry Creeke having been sued by the Company for using the Clockmakers' 
trade contrary to the statute, in regard he is a poor man he is content to 
submit to the rules and orders of the Company, and promiseth to present the 
Company with a new house clock and larum and 20s. of money the next 
quarter day, and Thomas Loomes promiseth likewise to see it performed. "• 

" 1656. July 7. The same day John Wyeth shewing a Watch and Box 
made of a Spelter Mettle being utterly disliked by this Court and counted 
fraudulent in regard it may deceive the good people of this land, being in 
imitation of Gold, It is ordered by this Court that from henceforth there be 
noe more of that Mettle wrought in the fashion of Watch Boxes or Cases on 
the penalty for the first offence 40s. and for the second ^5 sterling and the 
officer to give notice to the Boxmakers of this order. = 

"1657. April 20. This Court day Mr. Fromantle being called to 
account for having a Journeyman without orders was fined 40s. ^ 

" 1668. Januaty 18. A petition was presented to the Court by several 
Members of the Company shewing that sundry Aliens do work in and about 
the City of London contrary to the Laws of the Kingdom and the Charter of 
the Company, and the petition prayed that the Company would speedily take 
a legal course for finding out and prosecuting such Aliens so working, which 
petition was publickly read, and in regard the petitioners have not named 
what Aliens or where or when any such Aliens have so worked, the Court 



I. 2, 3. 4. 5. 6 



Company's Journal J. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 233 

did give to the petitioners for answer to their petition, That when they shall 
make known to the Master Wardens and Assistants of the Company the 
names of the Aliens so working, and the time and place thereof, by sufficient 
proofs which they will make good, the Company will take such legal course 
therein as they are enabled by the Laws of the Kingdom and the Charter 
and ordinances of the Company. ' 

*' 1668. February 8. Leave was given by the Company to five of the 
Petitioners to prosecute at their own charge, but in the name of the Company, 
Nowell Paul and Jacjues Swale, two Aliens who worked at the trade of 
Clockmaking within the liberties of the grant of the Charter of the 
Company. - 

" 1682. April 3. Whereas special summonses have been sent out to 
divers persons members of the Company, some being much in arrear of 
Quarterage, some having unduly and irregularly taken and bound apprentices, 
and others exercising the Art of Clockmaking or some branch thereof within 
the extents and limitts of the Company's Charter, and are not admitted into 
the Company, and some of them have appeared at this Court and given 
satisfaction, but others have neglected and seeme to slight all fair meanes used 
to bring them to a conformity, It was thereupon thought fitt and ordered that 
there shall be sued and prosecuted in the Exchequer for undue taking and 
bindeing of apprentices these following, viz, > 

John Martin in White Gate Alley 
Samuel Steevens in Grub Street 
Thomas Spencer in the Strand 
Thomas Fletcher in St. Martins 

And for exercising the Art not being admitted these following 

Eysum Perkins of Rederiffe the end of Love Lane 

Richard Blundell 

William Whittingham 

William Kenney 

James Meniall, Frenchman 

And for the effectual management and carrying on of the suites and prosecu- 
tions against them, this Court did Nominate and Appoint the committee 
following viz. 

The Master Mr. Henry Winne 

The 3 Wardens Mr. Henry Jones 

Mr. Jeremy Gregory Mr. Nicasius Russell 
Mr. Nathan Barrow and Mr. William Knottsford 

who, or so many of them as shall appear, are desired and authorized to meet 
consult, advise and determine of and concerning the same as the case shall 
require, a,t such times and places as the Master shall appoint. 

" 1682. May I. The following appeared and acknowledged they were 
wrong after being served with an Exchequer writ 

" John Martin, fined thirty shillings, ten being subsequently returned to 
him. 

" Samuel Stevens did not appear. 

'• -• ' Company's Journal I. 



234 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

"Thomas Spencer appeared and paid his share of the charges, and 
promised to take up the Freedom the next Quarterly Court. 

" Thomas Fletcher appeared and he could not come to any certaine issue. 

" Eysum Perkins promised to take up his Freedom at the next Quarterly 
Court. 

" Richard Blundell paid his fine, and promised to take his Freedome the 
next Quarter Court. 

" Richard Whittingham appeared, but the Court and he could not come 
to any certaine issue. 

" William Kenney appeared, but the Court and he could not come to 
any certaine issue. 

" James Mesniell appeared, paid his proportion of the Exchequer charge, 
and was admitted to the Freedom.' 

" 1682. June 5. Thomas Fletcher submitted himself and was fined ;^5.^ 

" 1688. April 2. Ordered that WiUiam Whittingham shall be prosecuted 
at Law for exercising the Art or Trade of Clockmaking, he having not served 
seven years in or to the same Art or trade. ^ 

" 1698. May 2. This Court being summoned in pursuance to the order 
of the last Quarter Court touching the Members of this Company imploying 
Foreigners, Aliens and others not Freemen of this Company contrary to the 
ordinances thereof, which each Member is sworn to observe, And it being at 
this Court seriously debated and considered that if those ordinances or Bye 
Laws were duely observed by the Members of this Company, it would tend 
very much not only to the advantage thereof but be for the good of the Art 
and Artists in generall. It is therefore ordered That for the future no Freemen 
of this Company doe employ, trade or deale with any such Foreigners, Aliens 
or Unfreemen as they tender their Oaths, and will avoid the penalties which 
by the said ordinances are to be and will be inflicted upon them in case of 
the contrary, to the intent that all Members of this Company may be 
incouraged and imployed, and other persons useing the Art be induced to 
take their Freedoms of this Company, for the good thereof and preservation 
of the Art in esteem of posterity."* 

" 1787. December 3. The Master produced two letters which he had 
received since their last meeting purporting that various attempts had been 
making for some time past, to entice our Artists out of the Kingdom con- 
trary to the Laws of the Realm ; that a Bill had been preferred to the Grand 
Jury, against the person attempting to seduce them, but the most material 
witnesses not being produced, the Bill was thrown out and the person 
enlarged ; but a workman named John Abbott who had made an agreement 
to go to St. Petersburgh in Russia, to work at Clockmaking, was now in 
custody, to be tried for the offence ; and the writers of the letters requested 
the assistance of the Company, to produce the necessary witnesses ; upon 
which a motion was made seconded and carried unani.nously. 

" That the Master and Wardens be desired to wait on the Solicitors for 
the Treasury to know the state of the Action, against the said John Abbott, 
and that they be empowered from the information they receive, to give such 
directions as they shall think necessary in support of the prosecution. ^ 

I. 2. 3. 4 Company's Journal II. s Company's Journal V. 



TIIK CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



■OD 



" 1788. February 4. Ordered that the Company do give two Guineas, 
to John Vincent, and Thomas Leach, in consideration of their loss of time 
in attending the trial of John Abbott a Clockmaker who was convicted at 
Hicks's Hall of having made an agreement to go to Russia to follow his said 
business of a Clockmaker contrarv to 'Act of Parliament.'" 




SEARCHES. 

In order to carry out practically the powers given them 
of searching for deceitful or bad work or materials, the Court 
of Assistants divided the City into walks, viz. : — The City 
walk — South-west walk — North-west walk — Eastward walk. 
To meet the necessary expenses of attending the several 
Searches, every Member of the Fellowship was required to 
pay quarterly, the sum of fourpence. 

Even with this small fee, the Searches produced a revenue 
in the year 1 708 of over twenty-eight pounds. 

"1634-5. January 19. Memorandum: That the 17th of January our 
Master going a general search Westward there was a Cross Cristal Watch 
garnished with Brass, and a silver Watch and 2 boxes seized upon by the 
Master and Wardens and some of the Assistants of the Company, which had 
been brought from beyond the seas, and not brought to our Common Hall or 
meeting place to be approved or allowed, therefore accordinge to the Charter 
of Incorporation granted to this Society, this Court ordered that such course 
should be taken by law for the condemnation thereof as ye Company shall be 
advised by their learned counsel, and this to be the Master and Wardens 
discharge in that behalf." 

" 1635-6. January 18. The same day Thomas Hill a dyall maker at 
the Tower had 4 pocket dyalls cutt and did affront Mr. Allen with opprobrious 
words, 

" The Court day aforesaid Thomas Kellett paid a fine of 55. and had his 
Watch delivered to him again. = 



- Company's Journal I. 



236 TlIK CLOCKMAKKRS' COMrANV. 

" 1652. November 3. Whereas at a general search by the Master 
and Wardens the 24 of October there was a Chamber Clock seized by 
Mr. Thomas Holland, Warden, according to the orders of our Charter, being 
the work of Samuel Davis dwelling in Lothbury, London, the work being 
found very unserviceable and deceitful by the Court aforesaid. It was 
therefore adjudged to be defaced and broken that it might not be put to sale 
to deceive the people, which was done accordingly, Samuel Davis ■ being 
present gave his consent thereunto and was fined forty shillings according to 
the orders and he submitted thereunto. 

" 1657-8. March 24. This search day a contrate second wheele of a 
dyall wheele being taken from Thomas Eattin was viewed by the said 
Company and adjudged to be so bad as not fitting to be put into any worke, 
and he was fined according to the orders of the said Company.' 

" 1661. July 18. This day a movement being seized, present 
Mr. Warden Gregory, Mr. Hill, Mr. Claxton, Mr. Jones and Mr. Daniel 
did seize a movement which was judged not merchantable ware nor fit to 
be sold until made good and mended, and he is ordered to be summoned 
to answer the defects of the worke, Mr. Fromantel being upon the view at 
the time. 

" 1661. August 19. The movement of John Marston, which was seized 
on the late search for deceitful work, was by this Court condemned, and for 
his not appearing, being warned, he is by the Court fined forty shillings. 

" 1 668. April 15. At a search there being present the Master and 
AVardens 4 Assistants and 3 Mathematical Itish-uiuciit Alakcis being Assistants. 

" There was seized by them who went the Western part of the Search 
where Hilkiah Bedford, Mathematical Instrument Maker was present and 
carried the Standard Measure, these Rules and Measures following which 
were found disagreable to the Standard (vizt.)- 

" In the shop of Samuel Morris, Ironmonger, at the sign of the Dripping 
pan near Charing Crosse, 3 yards and 2 joynted 2 foot rules. 

*' In the shop of Byfield, Ironmonger, near the Chequers Inne in 

Holborne one plaine Joynt rule. 

'• In the shop of Bagge Ironmonger att Holborne Bridg 3 plaine 

Joynt Rules and one brassed Joynt rule. 

" In the shop of Walker, Ironmonger, at the Dripping pan in 

Smithfield Six Rules. 

•' All which are delivered into the Custody of Warden Claxton. 

" 1668. May 4. Samuell Morris Byfield and Walker, Ironmongers, 

from v.'hom severall faulty Rules and Measures were seized at the last search 
appeared at this Court, and being convinced, by proofe of the Standard, that 
the said Rules and Measures were faulty, each of them received back what 
was seized from them and each broak one and promissed the others should 
be amended before they be exposed to sale. 

" 1668. July 6. Bagge, Ironmonger, from whom some faulty Rules and 
Measures were seized at the last search, appeared and pleaded his ignorance 
of their faultyness, and it was consented that Warden Claxton deliver them 



Company's Journal I. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 237 

both to him soe as he break one ; which he promised to doe and the rest 
shall be amended before they be put to sale ' 

" 1 67 1. September 4. Three Brass Standards received from the Court 
of Exchequer under the Statute 12 Hen: VII. - 

" 167 1-2. February 21. At a search made the 21st day of February 
167 1, upon and for the concerns onely of the Mathematicall instrument 
Makers ^ 

Present 
Nicholas Coxeter Master 

fT'^T^^rn Wardens 
Jenery Bayley j 

John Nicasius, John Browne } Assistants 
Walter Hayes — Richard Ames J 

" There was seized in Shopps, within the limitts of the search of the 
Company, of severall Tradesmen who buy and sell and severall persons who 
make Mathematical measures and instruments, the workes and measures 
hereafter particularly expressed for that they are (as the said Walter Hayes, 
and John Browne, who are Mathematicall Instrument Makers and carried with 
them the company's standards ■* sealed in his Majesties Exchequer to trye and 
prove the same, doe finde and affirme them) not agreeable to the said 
standards and the rules and proportions of art, but are faulty and therefore 
not fitt to be put to sale (vizt.) 

*' Of Mr. Samull Gadlingstock a seller of canes &c. in Exchange Alley 
seized one Joynted Yard Rule 

" Of Mr. John Sellars, a seller of Globes, Mapps instruments and other 
like wares, in the same place seized one 2 foot Rule and one yard Rule. 

" Of Mr. James Noakes a seller of Canes in Popes head alley seized two 
foot Rules of three joynts. 

" Of Mr. Frewen, a seller of Canes &c. next the signe of the Naked Boy 
in Cheapside, seized two sun dialls for posts, affirmed by him to be made or 
sold to him by the Widow Cater in Moorfields. 

*' Of Joseph Silvester, Ironmonger, at the signe of the Frying pan within 
Ludgate, seized thirteene streight Rules and ten two foot Rules joynted, 
affirmed by him to be made or sold to him by William Elmes. 

" Of Mr. Robert Jole, Mathematicall Instrument Maker in Fleet street, 
seized two 2 foot Rules affirmed by him to be made by AVilliam Elmes or 
Joseph Wells. 

" Of Mr. Mercer, a seller of Canes &c. at the signe of the Feathers in 
Fleet street, seized one yard Rule or Measure affirmed by him to be made or 
sold to him by John Nash. 

" Of Mr. Charles Danley, a seller of Canes &:c. at the signe of the Grapes 
in Fleet street, seized two Sun Dialls for Posts, affirmed by him to be made or 
sold to him by the aforesaid Widow Cater. 

" Of Mr. Piggott, a seller of Canes &c. in Fleet street over against Chancery 
Lane, seized three 2 foot joynted Rules, affirmed by his servant to be 
made or sold to his Master by the aforesaid William Elmes. 



1. 2. ^. 4 Company's Journal I. 



2 38 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" Of Mr. Francis Hewitt, a seller of Canes &c. at the signe of the Blew 
Bell in the Strand near Charing Crosse, seized one 2 foot joynted Rule 
affirmed by him to be made or sold to him by the aforesaid Robert Jole. 

" Of Mr. Faulkingham, a seller of Canes &c. under the south East corner 
of the Royall Exchange, seized six plane joynted Rules of 18 Inches, ffive 
plaine joynted 2 foot Rules, foure the like tipped with brasse, two the like 
being brasse joynted and 2 yard rules in three joynts, all affirmed by him to 
be made or sold to him by the aforesaid John Nash. 

" Of Mr. Anthony Poole, Ironmonger in Foster Lane, seized two plaine 
joynted two foot Rules and five plaine two foot Rules foure of them being 
tipped with Brasse and one untipped. 

" Of Mr. Jesson, an Ironmonger, neer the Barrs without Aldgate, seized 
two plaine joynted 2 foot Rules and one Brasse joynted tipped. 

" Of Mr. Clarke in the Minories seized two plaine joynted two foot 
Rules. 

" And upon the same day the said Mr. Anthony Poole appeared at the 
Court then holden and being fully satisfied upon tryall and proofe by the 
standards that the measures which were seized from him were faulty, one of 
them the most faulty was then broken by him and the rest were delivered 
back to him upon his promise not to put them to sale till made perfect. 

" Likewise the said Mr. John Nash, the maker of the Measures which 
were seized from Mr. Faulkingham, appeared and being fully satisfied upon 
tryall and proofe by the Standards that they were faulty did promise to make 
good to him so many true measures of like sort as those seized, and that those 
seized should not be put to sale untill made perfect, whereupon they were 
delivered to Mr. Faulkingham's servant, who, on behalfe of his Master, appeared 
with Mr. Nash as to this concerne. And all other things so seized and not 
broaken or redelivered as aforesaid were committed to the custody of 
Mr. Nicholas Coxeter the present Master. 

" The rest were given up upon promise that they were to be made 
perfect. 

" 1672-3. March 3. There was seized in the Shopp of Mr, Harris, an 
Ironmonger at the sign of the May-Pole in the Strand, three two foot Rules 
tipped with Brass which tryed by the standard were found to be too long, 
about the tenth part of an Inch, the which were committed to the custody of 
the Master. ' 

" At a search and Court the 3rd day of June 1672, 

" Seized in the shopp of Mr. Robert Markham, Cane seller over against 
St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet Street, seven one foot Rules Two 2 foot Rules 
of Brasse Joynts, One two foot Rule plaine, and one Joynted Rule of Three 
foot, all which compaired with the Standards were found to be faulty. 

" Seized in the shopp of Mr. Butlin, Ironmonger, at the Crosse Keys 
within Newgate, 2 two foot Rules which being compaired with the Standards 
were found to be faulty, but Mr. Butlin did afterwards appeare and promise 
that they should not be exposed to sale till they were made perfect, and 
thereupon they were redelivered to him. 

' Company's Journal I, 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 239 

" Seized in the Shopp of Mr. Richard Wilson, Ironmonger, within 
Newgate, Two 2 foot Joynt Rules which being compared with the Standard 
were found to be faulty. 

"Seized in the Shopp of William Birehmore, Ironmonger, without 
Newgate, Two 2 foot Joynt Rules tipped with brasse, which being compared 
with the Standard were found to be faulty. ' 

1676-7. March 13. The Master haveing lately seized a new Movement 
of a Watch proffered to him in his shop to be sold by an Apprentice, which 
he found to be very faulty and insufficient work, and which watch as the 

Apprentice affirmed belonged to Howse but hath been since challenged 

by Richard Hamlin, the said Watch was viewed at this Court and found to 
be very bad and not capable to be made fitt to be exposed to sale, which the 
Master hath in his hands, with a note of those faults and defects which were 
found in it. 

"1677. April 2. The movement formerly seized by the Master and 
owned by Richard Hamlin, was again viewed at this Court, and such parts 
of it as were faulty were broaken, and such of it as were useful were delivered 
to John Pinson, Apprentice of John Parker, on behalf of Hamlin. 

" 1677. April 2. Another Movement lately seized by the Master made 

by one Jackson of Newington, Surrey, was viewed at this Court and 

judged to be so insufficient that it was fitt to be broaken, but remayned yet 
in the Masters hands unbroken. - 

1677. [May 19. It appears by an entry of this date that Mr. Thomas 
Bennett claimed the above Movement ; such parts of it as were faulty were 
broken and afterwards handed by consent to Mr. Savage.] ^ 

" 1 68 1-2. January 16. Ordered that more frequent and strict view 
and search then hath heretofore been shall hereafter be made of all such 
Clocks, Watches and Works belonging to them, as well those made in England, 
as those imported into England by way of Merchandize, And if upon view 
they be found sufficient and approved they shall, before being exposed to sale, 
receive a Mark by the Master Wardens and Assistants of the Company to be 
ordained, testifying their allowance of the same. And those persons that deny 
to show their work or ware to be viewed shall be presented by the Master 
Wardens and Assistants of this Company as the Companies Charter and 
Ordinances and the Laws of the Land enableth them. ■» 

"1682-3. March 5. Mr. Bell, Master, with some of the Assistants 
having lately seized in the shop of Robert Halsted in Fleet street two very 
bad or insufficient unfinished movements for Watches, the same were at this 
Court produced and exposed to a view in the presence of the said Robert 
Halsted. The Court referred the further view of them to some more 
convenient time by open daylight. The Master with some of the Assistants 
haveing also lately seized at the house, shop or workroom of some workmen 
or persons working or using the art of Clockmaking or some part or branch 
thereof four unfinished Movements, two whereof have engraven thereon 
(Ambrose Smith, Stamford, and William Burges, Fecit, and Jaspar Harmar, 
London, another) all which names are greatly suspected to be invented or 
fobbed, a Committee was appointed to take proceedings therein and 
Mr. Peter Bridger, of Freeman Yard Cornhill was appointed Attorney." ^ 



• =• 3 Company's Journal I. ■•• = Company's Journal II. 



240 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANV. 

" 1683. September 29. Mr. Robert Halsted's movements seized about 
six months since being viewed were judged to be absolutely insufficient, and 
uncapable of amendment and were therefore in their severall parts either 
broken or defaced soe as that they could never be usefuU and in that 
condition were delivered to the Beadle that he should deliver them to 
Mr. Halsted. 

" 1687. August I. It was ordered that Mr. Francis Stamper be 
prosecuted in the Exchequer for refusing to admit the Master and Wardens 
into his ^^'ork Room when they were upon a search. ' 

1687. [November 7. He attended the Court and submitted himself 
and was fined 20s and 7s for the Law expenses.] - 

" 1688. April 2. Some Watch or Pockett Clock chaines having been 
before that time seized at the house or shop of Mr. Henry Harper, Watch- 
maker, and judged to be insufficient ware, It was ordered that the said 
Mr. Harper shall be warned to appeare before the Lord Mayor to answer 
the complaint of the Master and Wardens as to this matter. ^ 

" 168S. July 26. The twelve steel chains for watches heretofore seized 
as insufficient at the house or shop of Mr. Henry Harper in Cornhill, 
concerning which a jury hath been impanelled and a hearing in the 
Mayor's Court, which jury gave verdict that they were insufficient, and there- 
upon judgement was given that they should be broken and spoyled, were at 
this Court broken and spoyled, and in such condition delivered to one 
Thomas Tom whome the Court appoynted to deliver them to Mr. Harper, and 
he accordingly forthwith went to Mr. Harper's house, and upon his return 
acquainted the Court that he had delivered them to Mr. Harper. ^ 

" 1688. September 13. In this (days) search there was seized by the 
Master with Mr. Wheeler and Mr. Russell, two of the Assistants, in the Shop 
of Benoni Tebbatt, Watchmaker, in Little Old Bailey, a Gold Watch case both 
for that it was made of coarse and unwarrantable Gold, as less in value then 
the legal Standard, and also of soe little weight and consequently soe extreamly 
thinn as that it was insufficient in the strength thereof, and great fraud would 
be put upon ye person who should happen to buy it, and an abuse and 
disparagement redound to the Art, and all good and honest Artists, The 
which Avatchcase was by ye person then in the said shop affirmed to 
belong unto Brafeild as made by him.^ 

"1688. September 29. At this Court William Brafeild attended and 
admitted his fault and was fined 5s., the Case being broken up."^ 

" Receipts and Expenditure. 

" 1708. At a search the 25th day of August 1708 in 5 Walks. 

" Present John Pepys, Master, Mr. Quare Mr. Etherington and Mr. 
Taylor, Wardens. 

Mr. Hancorn Mr. Speakman 

Mr. Henshaw Mr. Windmills 

Mr. Stanton Mr. Graves 

Mr. Shaw Mr. Barrows 

Mr. Gibbs, and the last Stewards. 

1, 2. 3, 4, 5, 6 Company's Journal II. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 24 1 



" Received by Mr. Warden Etherington 
as folio weth from the 



" Paid by him the charges for the day ... ... 813 7 

Entries of a similar nature to the above appear in 
subsequent years, the results only of which are given below. 



City Walk ... 8 
South West Walk 8 
North West Walk 5 
Eastward Walk i 
New Walk ... 4 


s. 

14 

8 
3 

7 


d. 

5 
I 

4 
8 
8 


^28 


9 


z 



"1709. 


July I. 


Receipts 


... 25 iS 10^ 






Expenditure 


... 5 9 6" 


" 1710. 


June 16. 


Receipts 


... 20 4 o\ 






Expenditure 


II 16 4 


"1712. . 


September 17. 


Receipts 


26 16 






Expenditure 


696 


"1713. 


September 1 1 . 


Receipts 


... 27 2 9 






Expenditure 


6 16 6 


" 1714 


May 28. 


Receipts 


*' ... 23 19 X 






Expenditure 


626 


"1717. 


September 12. 


Receipts 


... 28 6 5 






Expenditure 


616 


" 1718. 


September 24. 


Receipts 


... 34 6 7 






Expenditure 


... 6 13 6 


" 1721. 


September 21. 


Receipts 


... 24 9 10 






Expenditure 


3 10 


" 1722. 


September 12. 


Receipts 


... 38 8 3 






Expenditure 


4 II 9 


"1723. 


September 19. 


Receipts ... 


... 27 4 I 






Expenditure 


4 14 II 


" 1724. 


September 17. 


Receipts 


... 25 6 5 






Expenditure 


2 II 4 


"1725. 


September 15. 


Receipts 


... 27 15 8i 






Expenditure 


386 


" 1726. 


September 15. 


Receipts 


... 22 II I 






Expenditure 


... 3 17 


"1727. 


September 28. 


Receipts 


... 26 5 14 






Expenditure 


••• 3 7 7i 


" 1728. 


September 12. 


Receipts 


... 23 14 2 






Expenditure 


... 636 


" 1729. 


September 18. 


Receipts 


... 24 18 4 






Expenditure 


520 


" 1730. 


September 17. 


Receijits 


... 21 19 9 






Expenditure 


■•• 543 


"1731. 


September 16. 


Receipts 


... 18 8 6 






Expenditure 


... 440 


"1732. 


September 14. 


Receipts 


2 1 18 






Expenditure 


'••• 3 15 9 



242 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMTANV. 







C s. 


(/. 


"1733- 


September 20. Receipts 


29 I 


9 




Expenditure 


... 4 8 





" 1734- 


September 18. Receipts 


... 19 7 


4 




Expenditure 


••• 5 17 





" 1735- 


September iS. Receipts 


... 27 7 


5 




Expenditure 


... 5 6 


10^ 



Soon after this date the Searches were discontinued, as 
interfering- with the Hberty of the trade. 




PATENTS AND INVENTIONS. 

The entries in the Company's Records on these subjects 
are not numerous, nor indeed could they be so, seeing that 
apphcations for Patents for improvements in Time measurers 
were themselves but few before the year 1755, since which 
date no active steps against such applications appear to have 
been taken by the Company. 

In their opposition to Patents, moreover, it is but fair to 
observe that they do not seem to have been actuated by a 
desire to stifle invention, but rather to prevent the granting 
of monopolies to individuals for so-called improvements, which 
were not in themselves novelties, and which, if granted, would 
have precluded the trade at large from manufacturing the 
articles sought to be patented ; in fact, as a public body, fully 
cognisant with all the details of their profession, they rather 
sought to render assistance and advice to the Crown upon 
matters of a technical character connected with the craft, for 
the oversight, government, and protection of which they had 
been incorporated. 



Till': CI.OCKMAKKRS CO^^ITANY. 243 

In the prosecution of these objects they spent con- 
siderable sums of money out of their Funds, and though 
their attempts were not always rewarded with success (in one 
instance apparently owing to notice of the intended applica- 
tion for a Patent having been brought to their knowledge, only 
after it had actually been granted, and of the details of which, 
as appears from their Minute, they were but imperfectly 
acquainted), they at least seem to have been undertaken for 
the benefit of the Trade when it appeared in their judgment 
to be imperilled by the Patents sought for. 

" 1687. February 8. Whereas it was intimated at the Court of the 
6th of February that some person or persons as Inventor or Inventors were 
endeavouring to obtain from the King a Patent for their sole making and 
managing of all Repeating Clocks and Watches, which Patent was then 
accounted would be both discreditt and damage to the whole Company, It 
w^as then thought fitt that a petition should be speedily presented to his 
Majesty praying his leave to enter a Caveat that the Patent should not pass 
the Seale till the Company have given their reasons against it, and although 
their was but a slender appearance of the Assistants at the said Court, a 
Petition was accordingly presented on the 7th to his Majesty by the 
Master and Wardens, who granted them leave to enter their Caveat, and told 
them they should be heard, and they forthwith entered the Caveat ; Now 
this Court (which was summoned only upon this occasion) did not only 
allow and approve of such the actings and proceedings of the Master and 
Wardens, but did also desire and order them, with such of the Assistants or 
others as they shall think fitt to concern therewith, to pursue the same matter, 
according to their discretions, or advice of Counsel in such manner as they 
best may and the nature thereof will admit, the charge whereof is to be 
borne by the Company." ' 

" 1687. March 5. The Master acquainted the Assistants present with 
the good success of the endeavours by him, the Wardens, and others, pursuant 
to the order of the Court of the 8th of February last, for prevention of passing 
the intended Patent relating to. pulling repeating pockett Clocks, which 
was that upon a hearing before the King and Council it was determined 
that the Patent should not be passed and that the same was utterly quashed 
and annulled. 

[The disbursement by the Renter Warden with regard to the proceedings 
amounted to ^25 4^.j 

The following is the Order in Council in relation to the 
intended Patent referred to :- - 

"At a Court at Whitehall 2nd March 1687 

" Present 
" The Kings most excellent Maj'^' in Councill. 
" Whereas on the 24th of February last his Maj"*' thought fitt to appoint 
this day to hear the Master Wardens and Assistants of the Fellowship of the 



> Company's Journal II. 



244 TJIE CI.OCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

Art or Mistery of Clockmakeing of the City of London against Edward Barlow, 
in whose name a Patent is passing for the sole makeing and manageing all 
pulling Clocks and Watches, usually called Repeateing Clocks, And both 
parties attending accordingly were called in and heard by their Councill 
learned. 

" His Majesty in Councill haveing fully considered what was alleadged 
on either side, Is pleased to Order and it is hereby ordered, That no Patent 
be granted to the said Edward Barlow or any others for the sole makeing 
and manageing of pulling Clocks and \Vatches as aforesaid. The same being 
now made by several! Clockmakers, whereof all persons concerned are to 
take due notice. 

" 1688. October 12. Be it remembered That in pursuance of the 
order of the Court of the 8th of February 1687 and according to the Report 
at the Court of the 5th of March 1687, the Patent endeavoured to be 
obtained by one Mr. Edward Barlow (a Priest) and to be granted to him by 
the King's Majesty for his sole making and manageing of all pulling repeating 
pockett Clocks and Watches (he pretending to be the True and Jirsi Inventor 
of that Art, or Invention) was by the diligence and endeavours of the Master 
and Wardens of this Company, and divers others of the Assistants, Members 
and Ofifiicers of the Company, and with great Charge and Expence (which was 
borne by and out of the stock and income of the Company) very successfully 
prevented, and upon the second of March 1687 ordered by the King in 
Councill not to be granted, the copie of which intended Patent with the 
Petitions, Reasons, Testimonies, Orders and other things relating thereto are 
tyed together in one bundle and put into the Company's chest.' 

" 1695. June 3. Upon a motion and discourse concerning Daniell Quare 
and his endeavouring to obtayne a Patent for the sole makeing of portable 
Weather-Glasses, It was resolved and ordered that the Company doe forthwith 
endeavour to put a stop to the passing of that Patent.- 

"1695. September 30. The Master and Wardens made a report of* 
their proceedings against Mr. Quare's Patent for portable Weather-glasses, 
and that the patent was passed, and there may be suits of law or trouble to some 
Members that make or sell those Weather-glasses, It was unanimously voted 
and ordered that the Company will defend any Members of the Company or 
their servants, and also Mr. John Patrick (who assisted the Company) in any 
actions or suits that may be brought against them on that account.^ 

" 1704. December 11. This Court was called upon the occasion of 
Nicholas Facio and Peter Debaufree and Jacob Debaufree having petitioned 
the House of Commons for an Act for the sole applying precious and more 
common stones in Clocks and Watches and for enlarging the term in 
their patent. 

" A Paper called their reasons for such an Act was read, 

" And reasons of several Members of the Court were heard by way of 
answer. 

" Ordered that the Master and Wardens with such of the Court of 
Assistants as they shall call in from time to time shall be a Committee to 
meet from time to time and employ a fit person or persons to be Solicitor or 

'• -• 3 Company's Journal II, 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COxMPANY. 245 

Solicitors, and to retain Counsel to draw a petition to the Parliament and to 
give and pay all necessary fees charges and expences, and do all other 
matters in order to stop the said bill," ' 

The following Extracts from the Journals of the House 
of Commons, and the Company's Records, explain the pro- 
ceedings taken against the application, and show the success 
of the opposition, which was grounded on the fact that the 
supposed invention was not new, evidence in support thereof 
being submitted to the Committee of the House in the shape 
of a Watch, made at an earlier date, in which the principle 
was introduced. This Watch is still in the Company's 
possession. 

" Mecurii 6" die Decembris 3° Annae Reginae 1704 
"A Petition of Nicholas Facio, Gentleman, and Peter and Jacob 
Debaufree, Watchmakers, was presented to the House and read setting forth 
as follows : — 

" To the Hono''"-- the Comons of England in Parliam*- assembled 

" The humble Petition of Nicholas Facio, Gent"- and Peter Debaufree and 
Jacob Debaufree, Watchmakers 

" Sheweth, 

" That Her most Gracious INIaje''- was pleased by Letters-Patents dated 
I May in the 3"' Year of her Reign to Grant to Your Pef'- the sole use and 
exercise within the Kingdoms of England and Ireland & Dominions there- 
unto belonging of a Certain new Art or Invention or working & Figuring 
precious or more coiTion stones & certain other matters different from Mettals, 
so that they may be imployed and made use of in Clock work or watch 
work and many other Engines, not for ornament only, but as internall and 
usefuU part of the work or engine itself, in such manner as have not here- 
tofore been used, and very much conducing to the greater perfection of 
Watches and Clocks, together with the advantages arising thereby for the 
space of fourteen yeares from the date of the said Letters Patents. 

" That your Pef ^- by their great pains and expenses, both before and since 
the granting the said Letters Patents, have greatly imjjrovcd the said 
inventions which are likely to be of great use and advantage to the publick, 
but the same will require a far greater expense, whereby your Pet" may 
deserve a better encourage""- by having a longer term of years allowed, than 
by the s''- Letters Patents is granted them, otherwise they will not be able to 
prosecute the same effectually. 

" Yo'- Pet'^- therefore humbly i)ray your Hon'"- to give them leave to 
bring in a Bill fpr granting them such further term for the sole use of their 
said Inventions, after the expiration of the said Letters Patents as to your 
Hon'' in your great wisdom shall seem meet. 

" And y'- Pet"- shall ever pray &c. 
" Nicolas Facio Peter Debaufree Jacob Debaufree. 



Company's Journal III. 



246 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

" Ordered, — That leave be given to bring in a Bill according to the 
prayer of the said Petition and that the Lord Marquis of Hartington and 
Sir Mathew Dudley do prepare and bring in the Bill. 

"Sabbati 9° die Decembris 3° Annae Reginse 1704. 

" The Lord Marquis of Hartington (according to order) presented to 
the House a Bill for the further encouragem' of the new Art or Invention of 
working and applying of precious «Sc more common Stones for the greater 
perfection of watches clocks and other engines, And the same was received 
and read the first time. 

*' Resolved that the Bill be read a z""* time. 

" Jovis 14° die Decembris 3° Annae Reginse 1704. 

" A Bill, for the further encouragement of the new Art or Invention of 
working and applying of precious and more common Stones, for the greater 
perfection of watches, clocks, and other engines, was read a Second time. 

" Resolved, — That the Bill be committed to Mr. Foley, Lord Marquis 
Hartington, Sir Math. Dudley, Mr. Bridges, Lord Orrery, Sir Godfrey Copley, 
Mr. WooUaston, Mr. Stanhope, Mr. Hysham, Mr. Winnington, Lord Coningsby, 
Mr. Palmes, Mr. Freeman, Mr. Crosse, Sir Jos. Jekyll, Mr. Cesar, Mr. Pagit, 
Mr. Brett, Mr. Roberts, Sir Chr. Hales, Mr. Pitfeild, Lord Cutts, Mr. Grevill, 
Lord Edw. Russell, Sir Fra-Massam, Sir Gerv. Elwes, Mr. Nicholas, Mr. Yates, 
Mr. Bridgman, Mr. Vaughan, ]\Ir. Comyns, Mr. Harley. And they are to 
meet this afternoon at Five a Clock, in the Speaker's Chamber.' 

" Veneris, 15° die Decembris 3° Annae Reginse, 1704. 

" Ordered, — That Sir Gilbert Heathcot, Sir Jeffry Jefferyes, Sir Robert 
Clayton, Mr. Moncton, Sir John Thorold, Mr. Wentworth, be added to the 
Committee, to whom the Bill, for the further encouragement of the new Art 
of applying precious, and more common Stones, for the greater perfection of 
Watches, Clocks, and other Engines, is committed.- 

"Luna, 18° die Decembris 3° Annse Reginse, 1704. 

" A Petition of the Clock-makers and Watch-makers in and about the 
Cities of London and Westminster, and Liberties thereof, on behalf of them- 
selves, and all the Watch-makers and Clock-makers throughout the Kingdom, 
was presented to the House and read, setting forth, that the Bill depending 
in the House, for the further encouragement of the new Art or Invention of 
working and applying of precious and more common Stones, for the greater 
perfection of watches, clocks, and other engines, is founded upon false 
pretences, and, if it should pass, will greatly predjudice the Petitioners 
Trades in general : and praying to be heard by Counsel against the said Bill. 

" Ordered,— That the consideration of the said Petition be referred to 
the Committee ; to whom the said Bill is committed and that the Petitioners 
be heard by their Counsel, if they think fit, before the Committee, thereupon ^ 

*' A petition of the Jewellers, Diamond-cutters, Lapidaries, Seal-cutters, 
Engravers in Stone, and others dealing in Jewels, and precious Stones, and 
more common Stones, in and about the Cities of London and Westminster, 
was presented to the House, and read ; setting forth, that they conceive, the 
Bill now in the House for the further Encouragement of the new Art or 



'■ -■ 3 Journal of tlie House of Commons, pages 45S. 459 and 462 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 247 

Invention of working and applying of precious and more common Stones, 
for the greater Perfection of Watches, Clocks, and other Engines, will, in a 
great measure, infringe upon the Petitioners in their several Arts and Trades, 
and abridge them of working and applying Jewels, and Stones in many 
Things : And praying, that they may be heard by Counsel against the said 
Bill. 

" Ordered, — That the Consideration of the said Petition be referred to 
the Committee, to whom the said Bill is committed.' 

" 1704-5. January 15. The Master reported that pursuant to the 
orders of the last Court there has been a constant application and diligence 
used in obstructing the Bill in Parliament for the sole applying of precious 
and more common Stones in Clocks &c. (viz.) That the Parliament had 
been petitioned and ordered that the petition should be referred to the 
Committee to whom the bill was committed. That the petitioners had been 
twice heard by Counsel and themselves against the bill, and that the Com- 
mittee had made such amendments that they thought best to destroy it, and 
therefor had therefore struck out all the parts of the bill but these words, 
* Be it enacted,' and directed a report to be made accordingly.' 

" The Master also acquainted the Court that in the proofs brought 
against the Bill, there was an old Watch produced, the maker's name Ignatius 
Huggerford, that had a stone fixed in the cock and balance work, which was 
of great use to satisfy the Committee. 

" Ordered, — That the Renter Warden do buy the said Watch (if he can) 
to be kept for the Members of the Company's use to defend them in case 
the Patentees should commence any suit. 

" Memorandum, — The said Watch was bought of Henry Magson for 
;£2 IOJ-. and the Watch was left with the Master of the Company.'' 

" Ordered, — That ten shillings be given to Mr. Wm. Scale who attended 
to prove his having the Watch above mentioned before the date of the Patent, 
and that he sold it to Mr. Magson.^ 

" 1705. 1 6th October. Paid all ffees charges and expences in and 
about obstructing the Bill in Parliament for makeing Jewell Watches, viz. : — 

" Under Clerk in Parliament ... 
Clerks Fees at Committees &:c. 
Mr. Lawton SoUicitor 50 Guin 
Mr. Harvey SoUicitor 10 Guin 
Gierke of the Company for Copys &:c. 
Beadle of the Company for his pains 
Fees to Councill at severall times 
To severall Witnesses for their Attendance 
For Printing Reasons and paper 
Messengers Charges and Expences &c. 

Paid in all on this occasion ... 



^11 16 


6 


1710 


6 


53 15 





10 15 





20 





5 





8 II 





13 17 


6 


7 3 


6 


20 19 


9 


^169 9 


9 





• Journal of the House of Commons, 21st December, 1704, p. 467. 

2 It is a Silver Watch (still preserved in the Company's Museum), with tortoiseshell 
outside case, mounted and studded with silver, silver di»l, with rotary day of the month 
circle. Ignatius Hugfjerford was a Freeman of the Haberdashers' Company. Tie was 
admitted and sworn a Brother of this Company July 3rd, 1671. 

3 Company's Journal III. 



24S THE CLOCKMAKKRS' COMPANY. 

"171 1. November 5. The Master acquainted the Court that one 
Mr. Hutchinson had been with him and offered to discover a new Invention 
or Improvement (as he called it) in Watchwork to preserve and keep 
Watches from dust and that the same (as he alledged) would be of great 
use to the trade in general, if the Company would consider hini for his 
Invention. Ordered that the Master and Wardens with such Assistants as 
they shall call in, shall be empowered to discourse with Mr. Hutchinson 
about his Invention and report the same and their opinion thereon to next 
summoned Court.' 

'•I 71 1. January 14. The Master reported that he with several of the 
Court of Assistants had met Mr. Hutchinson and discoursed with him upon 
his jiretended invention, which is to keep dust out of Watches, and the 
Master and several others present giveing their opinions that the same did 
not deserve the notice of the Company so as to give him anything, and it 
being alledged that something to the like purpose had been done before : — 
The Question was put whether Mr. Hutchinson should have anything from 
the Company for his showing his Invention ? It passed in the Negative. 

" Ordered, — That a Caveat be entered with the Attorney and Solicitor 
General against any Patent to pass to Mr. Hutchinson for his pretended 
Invention." 

"1712. May 16. The Printed Votes of the House of Commons of 
Wednesday the 14th inst. were produced to this Court and part thereof, in the 
following words, read 

*A Petition of John Hutchinson was presented to the House and read 
praying that leave may be given to bring in a bill for securing to him a new 
Invention of a portable movement with what improvements he shall make 
thereof to measure time, by such powers and for such (time) as shall be 
thought meet ; Ordered That leave be given to bring in a bill according to 
the prayer of the said petition And that Sir William Windham, Mr. Auditor 
Harley, Mr. Foley and Mr. Lownds do prepare and bring in the same.' 

"Whereupon this Court made the following order viz. Ordered That the 
Master and Wardens do take care to get a copy of the said petition forthwith 
and communicate the same to the Members of this Court and also a copy of 
the said Bill as soon as they can and acquaint the Court of Assistants with 
the same in order to their speedy opposing the passing such Bill." ^ 

The following is the text of Hutchinson's Petition above 
mentioned : — 

"To the Honorable the Commons of 

Great Brittain in Parliament assembled. 

" The humble petition of John Hutchinson, 

"Sheweth, — That your Petitioner having invented and brought into 
Practice a portable movement to measure Time, which instead of the severall 
cross Motions, hollow Wheels with Teeth paralel to their Axes, used in 
former Movements, hath all the Axes paralel and streight, all the Wheels, 
the Plates, and the Ballance paralel and flat, all the Teeth streight in the 
Lines of the Diameter of the Wheels : The Axes, or Spindle of the Ballance. 



Company's Journal III. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 249 

moved by two Wheels alternately, and traversing equall Distance in equal 
Time, without Pause : in such sort that none of its moveing Parts can move 
nearer to, or farther from each other : Whereby in the Opinion of the 
greatest Mathematicians, and the best Judges of such Movements it is 
capable of moveing more equally, and less lyable to be disturbed by external 
motion, so that it may be of great Use to the Publick for finding the 
Longitude, and in several other respects. Besides what is here set forth 
your petitioner can make severall further additions, and Improvements. And 
has likewise a contrivance to wind up this, or any other Movement without 
an aperture in the Case through which anything can pass to foul the move- 
ment. Now your Petitioner is advised that the time granted by a Patent, 
the ordinary reward of such Inventions, cannot be sufficient in a thing of this 
nature, because it will require much time, contrivance, and nicety of work- 
manship to bring it to the perfection it is capable of before your Petitioner 
can be reimbursed the great expence he has and shall be at therein, and that 
Patents are also defective in never describing the Essentiall parts of the 
Invention to secure it, and the Improvements thereon, to the Inventor ; and 
that for want of assigning a Penalty, the damages to be recovered for makeing 
a thing of this value will not be worth sueing for, and that for want of power 
to discover the Maker or Seller these things may be made, and carried away, 
privately and so used at sea. 

"Your petitioner therefore humbly prays, that this Honorable House 
will be pleased to give leave. That a Bill or Clause may be brought in for 
securing these inventions and the improvements therein to your Petitioner by 
such powers and for such term of Time as to your Honours in your great 
wisdom, and justice shall seem meet. 

" And your Petitioner shall ever pray, &c. 

'' John Hutchinson." 

1712. May 21. A copy of the Bill was read, Mr. Charles Lawton and 
Mr. Harvey Solicitors in Parliament were ordered to oppose its passing. 

" Petition of the Master Wardens and several Assistants praying to be 
heard by counsel or otherwise against the Bill was agreed to and signed. 

" Ordered, — That the Master, Wardens, and such Assistants as they shall 
call in do take care to get the said petition presented and to draw up Reasons 
against passing the Bill, and do all other Acts necessary thereunto, and the 
Renter Warden is to pay and defray all charges and expenses relating to and 
concerning the same." ' 

The Petition, which was presented to ParHament on the 
22nd May, and referred to a Committee, was in the following 
terms : — 

" To the Honorable the Commons of 

Great Britain in Parliament assembled. 
" The humble Petition of the Master Wardens and Assistants of the 
Company of Clockmakers of the City of London in behalfe of themselves and 
all other Members of the said Trade, 

" Sheweth, — That your Petitioners are informed that there is a Bill 
now depending in this honorable House entitled A Bill for securing to 

' Company's Journal II. 



250 THE CLOCK.MAKERS COMPANY. 

Mr. John Hutchinson the Property of a Movement invented by him for the 
more exact measuring of time both in Motion and at Rest. 

" That your Petitioners humbly conceive that they shall be able to prove 
that in case the said Bill should pass into a Law, it would be highly pre- 
judicial and destructive to their Trade, as well as a very great discouragement 
to all farther Improvements of their Art. 

" Wherefore your Petitioners humbly pray they may be heard by their 
councill or otherwise against severall matters conteyned in the said Bill. 

" And your Petitioners shall ever pray &c. 

(Signed) Tho. Gibbs Tho. Tompion 

John Barrow Robt. Webster 

George Merttins Benj" Graves 

Robt. Halsted Geo. Etherington 

Charles Gretton Tho. Taylor 

Joseph Windmills John Pepys." 

Reasons for and against the Bill were also printed and 
circulated amongst the Members of Parliament. 

The following account of the proceedings in Committee 
on the Bill is taken from the Records of the Company : — 

" 17 12. July 7. The Report of the proceedings in opposing 
Mr. Hutchinson's Bill in Parliament was read in Court and approved, and 
the same with the several Reasons and other Papers therein mentioned 
were ordered to be put into the Book where Counsel's opinion upon several 
matters are entered or else put into the Company's Chest. 

(Fees and expences for opposing the same - ^^143 13^". 4id.) 

" 1712. June 2. The Committee sat and heard both parties; the 
Counsel for the Company produced a movement made by Mr. Charles Goode 
about 14 years ago, and Mr. Hutchinson's movement was also produced to 
the Committee and several questions were asked Mr. Goode and Mr. Graham, 
and they also asked Mr. Hutchinson severall questions, to which he could 
make little or no answer, but confest Mr. Goode's movement was made as his. 
So the Committee seemed satisfied that Mr. Hutchinson's movement was not 
a new invention and adjourned till this day fortnight. 

" June 14. The Master, Mr. Warden Shaw, and Mr. Harvey the Solicitor 
attended Sir William Windham, the Chairman of the Committee, to know if it 
was his pleasure to proceed further upon the said Bill, and he gave for answer 
that he would not proceed further therein. 



" 1712. November 3. A proposal in writing of Mr. Samuel Watson's 
about an instrument to discover the hour of the day at Sea and several other 
useful Mathematical matters, which he therein offered to deliver and sell to 
the Company on certain conditions therein specified was read and considered. 
And the result was that this Court do not concern itself therein, 

"1716. February 18. The Clerk acquainted the Court that he had 
received a Letter from the Attorney General's Clerk giving notice that a 
Petition of Charles Clay for a Patent for a Machine to answer the end of 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 25 I 

a Repeating Watch or Clock was referred by His Majesty to the Attorney 
General to consider of, and that the Company may be heard if they think 
convenient, And thereupon this Court came to the following Resolutions (viz.) 

"That Mr. Gretton, Mr. Renter Warden, Mr. Jackson and the Clerk 
do forthwith go to Mr. Attorney General's and desire a time for the Company 
to be heard, and also that they fee S' Robert Raymond to be of Council 
for the Company in this Case. 

" And that the Master and Wardens or any of them with such Assistants 
as they shall call in shall be a Committee to meet from time to time to draw 
up Reasons and oppose the said Patent, And the Renter Warden is to lay out 
such sums of money for Fees and expences as shall be advised necessary 
therein." ' 

The following is a Copy of Clay's Petition above 
referred to : — 

" To the King's most excellent Majesty 

" The humble petition of Charles Clay of Flockton in the County of 
York, Watchmaker, 

" Sheweth, — That your petitioner hath lately invented a Machine that 
repeats the hours and quarters either upon a single Bell or upon more bells 
by changes or tunes from the communication of a pocket Watch, without 
taking off the outward case or fixing the same on the Fuzee of the said 
Watch or any way obstructing or hindering the motion ; which Machine is 
very small and portable and wholly answers the end of a Spring Clock or 
Repeating Watch or Clock as to repeating the hours and quarters, and may be 
put into the machine with no more trouble than laying the Watch out of 
one's pocket. 

" That your Majesty's petitioner hath spent several years and con- 
siderable sums of money by separate trials and alterations to bring the said 
Machine to perfection and is the first and only inventor thereof (which when 
seen may be easily made by other Artists) and will be a great discouragement 
to rare and new inventions. 

" Your petitioner therefore humbly beseeches your Majesty to be 
graciously pleased to grant him a patent, as the first and only inventor of the 
said Machine, for the sole making and selling thereof for the term of 14 years, 
with prohibitions to the making using or selling such Machines, or any other 
of the like nature or use proceeding from the said inventions, within your 
Majestys dominions &c. 

" And your Petitioner as in duty bound shall every pray &c. 

' Charles Clav." 

Both parties were heard by the Attorney-General on the 
25th of February, when the Master of the Company left a 
series of Reasons against the proposed Patent. On the 20th 
March they again attended, and Mr. Ouare produced a Watch 
and Machine to answer the same end as Mr. Clay's, but the 
Attorney-General reported in favour of Clay. 

' Company's Journal III. 



2:^2 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

17 1 7, January 20. The Clerk read a report of the Company's pro- 
ceeding, against Clay's Patent from the beginning, which was approved, and 
ordered' to be entered in a book for that purpose, for the better direction of 
the Company in like Cases for the future, By which Report it appeared That 
the Lords of the Council were of opinion. That the Patent sued for would 
be prejudicial and a discouragement to our Trade. 

17 17. February 3. The Clerk acquainted the Court that he had 
received a Letter from the Council Chamber that His Majesty was unable to 
hear Clay's affair in Council ; the Letter was read and thereupon the Court 
ordered the Clerk to take out a Copy of the said Order if any was made 
relating thereto. 

" 1717. April 8. A Petition to his Majesty against INIr. Clay's Patent 
was agreed upon and Ordered to be signed by the Clerk on behalf of the 
Company and carried to the Secretary's Office. 

*' To the King's most Excellent Majesty 
" The humble Petition of the Master Wardens and Assistants of the 
Fellowship of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City of 
London as well on behalf of themselves and many hundred 
Artists of your Maj'^'^ antient Company of Clockmakers London 
as of all others of that Trade within your Maj'^^ Domin"^' 

" Sheweth, — That whereas one Charles Clay, of Stockton in the County 
of York, Watchmaker hath presented his Petition to your Maj'^' Praying a 
Patent for the term of 14 Years for the sole making, using, and selling 
within your Maj'-'^ Dominions of a small portable Machine, which he alledges 
repeats the hours and quarters upon one or more bells by Changes or Tunes 
from the communication of a pocket Watch, without fixing the same on the 
Fuzee of the said Watch or any way obstructing or hindering its motion, and 
of any other of the like nature or Use proceeding from his Invention which 
he affirms to be new. And your Maj'^ having been pleased to refer his said 
Petition to Mr. Attorney Gener" who hath reported in favour of the said 
Charles Clay. 

"And your Pet'^ humbly conceiving the said Machine is not a new 
invention and that a Patent for the same will be prejudicial and inconvenient 
to the Public both at home and abroad as they can make appear, if your 
Maj'*' will be graciously pleased to vouchsafe them a hearing as your 
Predecess" have indulged them upon like unreasonable applications for 
such Patents. Wherefore your Pef^ most humbly beseech your Maj'^ to be 
graciously pleased to hear what Reasons by themselves and Councill they 
have to offer against a Patent for the said Mr. Clay's Machine. 

" And your Pef' as in duty bound shall ever pray &c. 

" Signed by order of the Pef^ this 8th day of Aprill 17 17 in the 3rd year 
of your Maj'>'' Reign by Fra. Speidell, Clerk of the said Company. 

"Some Reasons Against Passing a Patent for Charles Clay's 
Pretended New Invention. 

"That Mr. Clay's Machine is not a new Invention may appear from the 
following Reasons : — 

" I St. — It being only a pockett watch, and the work of a repeating watch 
or clock that have communication one with the other and repeats the Houres 
& Quarters upon one Bell, or upon more Bells, by changes or tunes. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 253 

" 2nd. — Watches have been made time out of mind and are therefore not 
his Invention and the Repeating Watch or Clock, has been made in great 
numbers and by variety of Ways and Motions ; Repeating the Houres 
& Quarters on one Bell or upon more Bells by Changes or Tunes as the Maker 
thought fitt, and have been made by most of the Watchmakers & Clockmakers 
in London, and all over England between 30 & 40 yeares last past and 
therefore cannot be his invention. Now Mr. Clay alledges his invention 
is from the communication of a pockett watch without taking off the outward 
case or fixing the same on the Fuzee of the said watch or any way obstructing 
or hindering its motion. 

" All the Repeating Pockett Watches or Clocks that have been hitherto 
made have had the work of a pockett watch, and the work of a Repeating 
pockett watch made to them ; and those two separate pieces of work have 
communication one with the other, so that they do not interfere or obstruct 
one the other ; And are so well and artificially contriv'd that they are no 
bigger &: as portable as an ordinary pockett watch ; and less trouble than 
Mr. Clay's Machine, and are not of his Invention ; But he has rather 
borrowed or taken his Machine from them ; his, having the same works that 
are in them. 

" All Table repeating Clocks have two separate pieces of work to them, 
the one to show the hour and minute and any other motion that the 
maker thinks fitt to make to them, and is called the going or watch part, and 
the other is called the striking or repeating part that strikes the houres and 
repeats the quarters and if required are made to play severall Tunes on Bells 
to great perfection and have communication one with the other so that they 
do not obstruct or hinder one the other, as most gentlemen by experience 
have found that have bought them. 

" 3rd. — Had Mr. Clay been better acquainted with the many new 
inventions and improvements that have been made by members of the 
Clockmakers' Company in Watches & Clocks, and the many and various 
ways of communicating the severall parts of work one with the other within 
40 years past which has made their work famous through most parts of the 
world, yet none of them ever had a Patent for the greatest Invention they have 
made, Mr. Clay would have been so modest as not to desire a patent for what 
he has now done, since what has been done before apparently exceed his. 

" If this Patent should pass it would create great disturbance and Law 
suits between the Patentee and the other workmen of London, and all over the 
King's Dominions ; And it is impossible to see at present the mischief it may 
do. And every man that makes the least alteration for the time to come, 
that has not been done his way before will think himself entitled to a Patent 
as much as Mr. Clay was for his ; and then Patents will soon be innumerable 
as the alterations have been within 40 years past." 

The following Letter was received by the Company, 
Intimating that upon the Attorney-General's report, a Warrant 
had been prepared for the King's signature for passing Clay's 
Patent : — 

"Whitehall 6th Jinie 1717. 

" Sir, — In pursuance of a Report from the Attorney General in 
favour of Charles Clay, who pretends to have invented a Machine, that 
repeats hours and quarters from the communication with a pocket Watch. 

S 2 



^54 



TIIK CLOCKMAKERS COiMPANV 



a Warrant is prepared for His Majesty's signature for the passing of a Patent 
to secure to the said Charles Clay the benefit of his said invention, for 
fourteen years pursuant to the Statute in that behalf, but there lying also in this 
office a petition of the Master and Company of the Clockmakers against the 
said invention, My Lord Sunderland being desirous that if they have any 
further objections against the said patent than what they produced to the 
Attorney General, they might have an opportunity of setting them forth, will 
delay offering the said warrant to be signed till they have been heard before 
his Majesty's Privy Council, I have therefore transmitted the said petition of 
the Company of Clockmakers to the Clerk of the Council in waiting and give 
you notice of it (being informed it was brought by you to the Secretary's 
office) that you may acquaint the persons concerned therewith, to the end they 
may apply to the Council Office for a hearing, otherwise it will be unreasonable 
to delay passing of the patent above mentioned. 

" Your most obedient humble Servant 

"Ch. Delafaye." 

The Master, Wardens and Assistants immediately peti- 
tioned the Lords of the Privy Council to be further heard 
against the proposed Patent. And at a Meeting- of the Council, 
held on the 15th of July, it was determined to refer the matter 
to a Committee of the whole Council to hear objections against 
the Patent, and to report their opinion thereon. 

The Report being unfavorable, the Patent was not 
granted. The opposition cost the Company ^74 173-. iid. 

" 1719. December 7. The Master having reported to this Court that 
Mr. Clay had petitioned his Majesty for a rehearing of his affair in order to 
obtain a Patent for his pretended new invention, and that he had caused 
a Petition to be lodged at the Council Office at the Cockpit in opposition to 
Mr. Clay's, This Court did approve thereof and doth Order that all proper 
means be used by this Court to hinder the said Clay's Petition from taking 
effect." 

No further steps, however, were taken by Mr. Clay, and 
the subject dropped. 

" 1729. January 19. Upon reading a Petition of John Hoddle and 
John Stafford, Watch Engravers, on behalf of themselves and the rest of the 
Watch Engravers, setting forth that one Mr. Griliat is upon a project of 
stamping Dial Plates for Watches which, if carried on, will be very destructive 
to the business of ^Vatch Engraving: — It was upon the question put, voted 
and resolved that this Court will not only discourage the said undertaking 
themselves, but will also use their utmost endeavours to persuade others of 
the trade to discourage the said undertaking. ' 

' Company's Journal IV, 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COIVIPANY. 



255 



" 1755. March 6. This Court was called to consider of a Patent 
lately applied for by Joseph Bosley, Watchmaker, of Leadenhall Street and 
said to be for an improvement in the making of Watches. 

" Resolved, — That the Master and Wardens be desired to call to them 
such of the Assistants as they think fit, and enquire into the proceedings 
relating to it, and take proper measures to prevent it being carried into 
operation, and the Renter Warden to defray the charges of such an 
application." ' 

The Patent was granted by His Majesty March i, 1755. 

" ist. — For increasing the number of teeth in small pinions throughout 
the whole movement of repeating and other Watches, The pinions con- 
sequently become larger and the wheel that leads them goes farther from the 
centre, A wheel and pinion more than commonly used, is necessary to 
prevent the Watch going down before the usual time, but each wheel leading 
its pinion so much farther from the centre lessens the friction. The balance 
wheel goes the contrary way. 

" 2nd. — A new-invented slide, which slide has no wheel attached to it. 
The Index turns upon a brass socket, and points to an arch of a circle, 
divided with the word faster on one end, and the word slower on the other, 
and the Index may be made Avith a cock to keep it down, or with screws or 
with springs.* 

" 1755. April 7. The Renter Warden was desired to buy one of the 
Watches made according to the new Patent." ' 




IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATION, FALSE MARKING AND 
ENGRAVING, HALL-MARKINGj ETC., ETC. 

TN dealing with this branch of the subject, it must be pre- 
J- mised that it is not within the scope of the present work 
to enter upon an inquiry as to the Trade generally, or the 
development of the "Arts or Mysteries" embraced within the 



' Company's Tournal IV. 

- Abridgments of specifications of Tatents relating to Watches, &c., 1S58, p. 3. 

.1 Company's Journal IV. 



2r6 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

Sphere of the Company's oversight, but rather to record the 
action taken by the Court of Assistants in the interest of the 
pubHc. to prevent the sale of articles of inferior workmanship 
at home, and to prohibit the importation of foreign goods of 
a like character, which, in addition to bearing the name of 
some celebrated English Watch or Clockmaker, also had 
counterfeit Goldsmiths' Hall-marks, and were offered to the 
public as of English manufacture. 

In the Chapter on Searches, it has been shewn that from 
a very early period of their existence the Company availed 
themselves of every opportunity to protect the public and the 
trade from the fraudulent and deceitful practices of some 
of the more unscrupulous workers in the Art, whether 
English or Foreigners, who were to be found within the 
limits of the jurisdiction assigned by the Charter. 

There were, however, other methods by which the 
public were defrauded and the English maker injured, to 
which much attention was devoted. Amongst these may be 
enumerated the exportation of English Cases, Dial Plates, 
and other parts of Watches and Clocks, to be fitted to Foreign 
Works of inferior quality, and re-imported as of English 
manufacture ; the pirating of the names of well-known 
makers, the fraudulent imitation of the English Goldsmiths' 
marks, Hall-marks, etc., etc. 

The entries in the Company's Records concerning these 
and similar proceedings, which brought great discredit upon 
English work and great distress upon the workmen, are very 
numerous, and too lengthy to be given in extenso. More- 
over, owing to the close connection which these matters of 
trade regulation necessarily have with each other, and the 
circumstance that the Company, in many instances, dealt with 
several of them by the same operation, it is impossible so to 
classify them as to shew separately the results obtained in 
respect of each grievance for which a remedy was sought. 
It has therefore been deemed desirable to arrange chrono- 
logically, and in a condensed form, some of the proceedings of 
the Court of Assistants having reference to these objects. 

" 1657. October i. Mr. John Smith was fined and paid 10^. for 
putting Estme Hubert's name upon a watch. ' 

' Company's Journal I. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 257 

" 1682. November 16. The Company of Goldsmiths having lately 
convened before them Mr. Nathaniel Delaunder Watch Case Maker upon 
pretence of a Gold Case made by him which upon their Assay ' made is 
found not to be of the fineness appointed for Goldsmiths' work by an Act 
made in the i8th year of Queen Elizabeth (which was Anno 1576, entitled an 
Act for Reformation of Abuses in Goldsmiths •) this Court was called only 
upon this occasion, and it being judged that not only Mr. Delaunder but the 
whole Company, and especially Case Makers and small Clockmakers, were or 
would be concerned in this matter ; — the sense and resolution of the Court 
was that Mr. Jeremy Gregory (who is of the Company and Court of the 
Goldsmiths) should endeavour that the Goldsmiths would admit of some 
persons of this as a Committee to meet with some of their Company to 
discourse them, and if they can to take them off from any their intended 
prosecution by making them sensible of the great unfitness inconveniency 
and insufficiency of their works for the end they are made, if they should be 
made of the fineness in the aforesaid Act, which is conceived relates only to 
Abuses in Goldsmiths not Clockmakers or any professing any branch of 
that Art. A Committee was thereupon nominated ' to apply to such Counsell 
learned in the Laws and acquainted with the customs and usages of the 
City and Corporation therein as they might think fit for advice. The charge 
thereof to be borne out of the Company's stock.' " ^ 

In January, 1697, a Bill was ordered to be brought into 
Parliament permitting the exportation of Watches, Sword- 
hilts, etc. The Company thereupon considered the desirability 
of obtaining the insertion of a Clause in the Bill, for prohibiting 
the exportation of Dial Plates and empty Boxes and Cases 
for Clocks and Watches, and for preventing other than 
Freemen of London from putting " London " on their 
Watches and Clocks, and authorized the Master and Wardens 
to employ legal assistance to accomplish these objects. 

' According to Chaffers, the first instance on record of an attempt to reduce Goldsmiths' 
work to a certain standard was in the reign of Henry III, A. D. 1238. The assaying of the 
precious metals was a privilege conferred upon the Goldsmiths' Company by a Statute of the 
28th Edward I, cap. 20, A.D. 1300, by which it was enacted that no Goldsmith should use 
any gold which was worse than the touch (or assay) of Paris, or any silver inferior 
to the alloy of Stcrlin-^; that no vessels of gold or silver were to be delivered from 
the hands of the workman until they had been assayed by the Wardens of the Craft, and 
marked with the leopard's head. The Wardens were empowered to go from shop to shop 
and see if the gold was good, and, if not, they were to break it up, and such gold was 
forfeited to the King.— (F?'</i? " Hall-marks on Plate," by W. Chaffers, F.S.A., 1863.) 

The ordinances of the Goldsmiths' Company for 1336 direct the following marks to be 
put upon all assayed work : — i. The Goldsmith's Mark (his initials). 2. The Assay Mark 
(probably a letter of the alphabet). 3. The Mark of Goldsmiths' Hall (a leopard's head, 
crowned). By an Act of Parliament, 17th Edward IV, cap. I, 1477, the standard of gold 
wares was fixed at i8-carats, and silver at the same as sterling; and in 1576, the i8th of 
Elizabeth, cap. 15, it was fixed at 22-carats. In 1798, hy an Act of Parliament, 38th 
Geo. Ill, cap. 69, the standard of gold wares was again fixed at i8-carats. 

= 1 8th Elizabeth, cap. xv. By this Act, it is enacted that no Goldsmith's work should 
be less in fineness for gold than "twenty-two carrotks, and that he use noe Bother, Amell 
or other stuffinges whatsoever in anye of their workes more then ys necessarie for the fynyshing 
of the same .... for the ownce of Golde." For silver, the standard of fineness is set^at 
not less than "11 ownces 2 penye waightes .... for every Pounde waighte of Plate or 
Wares of Sylver." 

3 Company's Journal II. 



258 THE CLUCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

In February following- they submitted Clauses for the 
purpose, and also a Clause requiring all makers of Clocks and 
Watches to put their own names, and the City, Town, or 
place, of which they were free, on articles of their manufacture. 

Reasons in favor of the Clauses were approved and 
adopted, and directed to be distributed to Members of 
Parliament. 

The Company were successful in their endeavours, as 
may be seen from the Extract from the Act, 9th and loth 
William III, cap. xxviii, quoted in the Advertisement issued 
by them in December 1777. — (Vide pages 260-1.) 

In April, 1699, the Court directed an abstract of this 
Act to be prepared and printed, and to be distributed to the 
Trade for their information. 

In July, 1704, it was reported by the Master that certain 
persons at Amsterdam were in the habit of putting the names 
of Tompion, Windmills, Quare, Cabrier, Lamb, and other 
well-known London makers, on their works, and selling them 
as English. A Committee was thereupon appointed to 
determine what course could be pursued for the prevention 
of such abuses, but the results of their exertions do not 
appear. 

On the 6th June, 1 709, the Court were informed by the 
Master that he had been desired by the Lords Commissioners 
for Trade and Plantations to submit reasons for insisting upon 
the French King taking off the prohibition on the importation 
of Clocks and Watches into France. The reasons so prepared 
by him were read, and after modification approved and 
ordered to be signed by the Clerk and presented. 

In March, 171 7, a Bill was before Parliament to prevent 
the clandestine running of goods, and it is recorded in the 
journals of the House of Lords that the Clockmakers' Com- 
pany promoted the insertion of a Clause therein relating to 
the exportation of Clocks and Watches, which Clause was 
opposed by the Goldsmiths' Company. The Bill, however, 
does not seem to have become Law that year. 

In January, 1718, there is another entry in the Court 
Minutes upon the same subject, which shows that the object 
of the Clause was to get rid of the Oath required to be made 
on exporting Watches as to the quality of the gold or silver 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 259 

used therein. The Bill imposing the Oath was read and 
debated, and eventually a moditied Clause, as framed by the 
Goldsmiths' Company, was adopted. The Act became Law 
in 1 719 (5th George I, cap. xi.), but, as it contains no Clause 
to the effect desired, the Company's efforts do not appear to 
have been successful. 

In July, 1777. Mr. Charles Cabrier, having obtained 
evidence that his name had been falsely used upon foreign 
Watches, brought the subject before the Court, when the 
following entry was made in the Minutes : — - 

"1777. July 7. Mr. Charles Cabrier attended and acquainted the 
Court that he had entered prosecutions against sundry persons for putting his 
name to Watches which they had made up without his knowledge or consent, 
praying their assistance and advice, which was unanimously promised when- 
ever he applied again, if he would indemnify the Company from every expense 
that may arise from the prosecution of this business." ' 

The following paragraph upon the subject appears in the 
Annual Register, 3rd December, 1777: — 

" Was tried before Lord Mansfield in the Court of King's Bench, a 
remarkable case the first instance of its kind, Cabrier against Anderson, for 
putting his (Cabrier's) name to 5 watches made by the Defendant, and thereby 
hurting the reputation of the plaintiff. A verdict was given for ;!^ioo, being 
;^2o for each watch agreeable to an Act of Parliament of William III." = 

Upon the result of Mr. Cabrier's case being made known 
to the Company, a special meeting of the Court was convened 
for the purpose of determining as to the desirability of issuing 
some public notification, by way of caution, to offenders, and 
for the protection of the purchaser. The following is the 
Minute in relation thereto : — 

" 1777. December 18. The Master acquainted the Court that the 
occasion of the present Meeting being summoned was in consequence of an 
application made to him by several of the Business in order to consider of 
some method to prevent the illicit practices carried on by sundry persons of 
putting the names of respectable Watchmakers without their consent on 
Watches not made by them. Ordered that the Clerk do read the Bye Laws 
which concern the manufacturing of Watches and the Act of Parliament of the 
9th and loth of William the Third. On a motion it was unanimously resolved 
that the Bye Law page 23,' together with the extract from the Act of the 9th 
& loth of William the Third, Chapter 28 and paragraph the 2nd be printed 
in the Gazette and in the several Public Morning and Evening Papers with a 
declaration that the Court of Assistants are determined to prosecute all 
persons offending against the same." ■• 



Company's Journal IV. "This is the Act before referred to. 

Bye Law 46. ■• Company's Journal IV. 



26o THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

In consequence thereof the following advertisement was 

published : — 

" London iSth December 1777. 

" Whereas the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers of London have 
lately discovered that for a long time past illicit practices ha\ e been made use 
of by several persons here, in making up base and bad Watches and putting 
thereon the names of the most respectable and known London Watchmakers 
to the great prejudice and discredit of the said Watchmakers and contrary to 
an Act of Parliament and Bye Law of the said Company. Therefore that 
no Person or persons may hereafter plead ignorance of the said Act and Bye 
Law, the said Company have hereby caused the said Act and Bye Law to be 
published with notice that if any person or persons shall hereafter be found 
offending therein, that the said Act and Bye Law shall be put in force against 
such offender or offenders by the said Company. 

" Signed by order of Court 

" Tho. Hughes, Clerk. 

"THE BYE LAW. 

" Item, — Whereas there hath formerly been divers and great abuses 
offered to divers expert and sufficient workmen in the said Art or Trade 
of Clockmaking, as well by importing from beyond the Seas as by making 
within the Realm faulty and deceitful work upon which have been set 
the names or marks of some other workmen who made it not, to the discredit 
and disgrace of them the said wronged workmen, whereby the others 
dishonesty and deceit is not discovered. 

" It is therefore ordained that whosoever hereafter shall be found by the 
Master Wardens and Assistants of the Fellowship of Clockmakers, or by any 
of them or their lawful deputy or deputies, to have imported such work from 
beyond the Seas falsely marked to sell or exchange by way of merchandizing, 
or to have set any man's name or mark upon any work made within this 
kingdom or dominion of Wales other than the name or mark of the true 
maker or finisher thereof, shall forfeit the said work or works to the King's 
Majesty, his heirs and successors and also be fined to the use of the said 
Master, Wardens and Fellowship of Clockmakers for every time so offending, 
and for every piece of work which he or they shall be found to offend in the 
sum of Forty shillings or other greater or lesser sum according to the nature 
and quality of the said offence, to be taxed by the Master Wardens and 
Court of Assistants of the said Company. 

"THE ACT OF PARLIAMENT. 
" And whereas great quantities of empty boxes, cases and dial-plates for 
Clocks and Watches have been exported without their movements, and in 
foreign parts made up with bad movements, thereon some London Watch- 
makers Names engraven, and so are sold abroad for English work; and 
also there have been the like ill practices in England by divers persons, as 
well by some professing the Art of Clock and Watch making as others ignorant 
therem, m putting counterfeit names as also the names of the most known 
London Watch makers on their bad Clocks and Watches, to the great 
prejudice of the buyers and the disreputation of the said Art at home and 
abroad. For the prevention therefore of all such ill practices for the 
future. 



THE CLOCKiMAKERS' COiMPANY. 26 1 

" Be it enacted by the Authority aforesaid that no Person or persons 
whatsoever shall after the said 24th day of June export or endeavour to 
export, or send out of this kingdom of England, dominion of Wales or Town 
of Berwick-upon-Tweed any outward or inward box case or dial-plate of Gold 
Silver, Brass or other metal for Clock or Watch without the movement in or 
with every such box case or dial-plate made up fit for use, with the Clock or 
Watchmaker's name engraven thereon, nor any person whatsoever after the 
said 24 day June shall make up or cause to be made up any Clock or Watch 
without engraving or putting or causing to be engraven or put his or her own 
name and place of abode, or freedom, and no other name or place on every 
Clock or Watch he or she shall so make up or caused to be made up under 
the penalty of forfeiting every such empty box case and dial-plate, clock and 
watch not made up and engraven as aforesaid and also for each and every 
such offence the sum of Twenty pounds, one Moiety whereof to be to His 
Majesty his heirs and successors, and the other Moiety shall be to him, her or 
them that shall sue for the same in any of His Majesty's Courts of Record by 
Action of debt, bill, plaint or information, wherein no essoin, protection or 
Wager of Law shall be allowed, or more than one imparlance ; anything herein 
contained or any Law or Statute to the contrary thereof in anywise not- 
withstanding." 

Published in the Gazette 30 December in the General Advertizer 
23 December, in the Morning Chronicle 5 January ; in the London Evening 
Post 8 January 1778. 

An influential meeting of the trade was held in October, 
1 780, at which the subject of the grievances sustained by the 
English makers was discussed, and a Deputation appointed to 
confer with the Court of Assistants. The Court received 
them on the 6th November following, when they pointed out 
the great grievances sustained in the Watchmaking profession 
by the importation of foreign Watches, and requested the 
Court's advice and assistance in putting a stop to the same. 
Several Clauses in the Charter and Bye-Laws relative to 
foreign Watches were read, and it was determined by the 
Court to carry into execution the powers vested in them for 
preventing the clandestine importation of foreign Watches. 

On the 2 1 St May, 1781, an advertisement was ordered to 
be published in the Daily Advertiser, Morning Chronicle, and 
Morning Herald, in the following words : — 

'' CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" Whereas the Company of Clockmakers of the City of London are 
assured that for a considerable time past great numbers of Watches and 
Clocks have been illegally brought into this kingdom from France, Geneva 
and other foreign parts, to the great detriment of His Majesty's subjects, and 
which being contrary to the Charter and Bye Laws of this Comj^any and to 
the Law of this kingdom, The Master, \V'ardens and Court of Assistants do 



262 Till-: c;lockmaker.s company. 

hereby give notice that if any person or persons shall hereafter be found 
ofTending. that the said Charter and Bye Laws shall strictly be put in force 
against any such offender or offenders. And the said Master, Wardens and 
Court of Assistants do hereby further offer a reward of Ten Guineas, to be 
paid on conviction, to any one who shall give information to them or their 
Clerk of the person or persons carrying on such illegal trade. ' 
" Signed by order of the Court, 

"Tho. Hughes, Clerk." 

On the 3rd June, 1782, another Deputation from the 
Trade attended, and solicited the assistance of the Court to 
enable them to pursue some methods for putting a stop to the 
great number of Watches illegally brought into the Kingdom 
from foreign parts. 

A Committee was appointed to consult with the Deputa- 
tion on the most proper methods to be taken for such purpose. 

On the nth December, 1786, the Master reported that 
some members of the Trade had informed him that they had 
received a letter containing seven questions, proposed by the 
Lords of Council for Trade, which related to opening the 
trade with France, and desired their answers on the 13th 
instant, and that they requested the assistance of the Com- 
pany in framing proper answers to the said questions. A 
conference was therefore held with a Deputation who were in 
attendance, at which the questions were fully debated, and 
answers thereto agreed upon, as follow : — 

" Question i. — Do you think that upon an equal duty of Ten per cent, 
or lower, the Trade may be opened with France, in the articles of Clocks and 
Watches to the advantage of this country ; and will you state your opinions 
respecting those made of Gold, Silver and Metal distinctly ? 

" Ans. — We think it would be of disadvantage respecting Clocks, as well 
as Gold, Silver and Metal Watches. 

"Question 2. — Upon what circumstances do you found your opinion? 

"Ans. — We think the Trade to France would be disadvantageous to us 
because first, in the article of Clocks, we cannot manufacture them so cheap 
as the French, from the different principle on which they are made in the two 
countries, notwithstanding the same principles are known in both, the French 
trusting only to appearance, while the English depend upon the performance 
of theirs, which insures our Trade in Clocks ; the Gold Watches would be 
disadvantageous to us because we cannot make them so cheap as the French, 
from the standard of our Gold and the quality of our Avorkmanship, both of 
which we think necessary to continue in their present state, to maintain our 
credit, which we consider as the principal, and perhaps the only support to 

' Company's Journal V. 



THE CI.OCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 263 

this branch of Trade. The Metal and Silver Watches not being of the same 
general use in France as in other Countries, and we believe scarcely used at 
all, we do not foresee any probability of those Watches being introduced from 
this country into France ; for although we think we can make them as cheap 
as they can, yet we do not think that the appearance or quality of our cheap 
Silver Watches would induce the French to purchase ours, when they can 
have Gold ones (or Silver or Metal ones if they prefer them) of their own. 

" We therefore think it of the greatest consequence to the manufacture 
of this Country to preserve the difference as great as possible betwixt the real 
and ideal difference of this branch of Trade in the two Countries, which we 
apprehend could not be united in one of the branches of Gold, Silver, or 
Metal Watches without endangering the uniting the whole, which could not, 
from the above reasons, but be the ruin of this branch of manufacture. 

" Question 3. — To what Countries do you now export Clocks and 
Watches ? 

" Ans. — We export Clocks and Watches to all commercial Countries 
except France ; and particularly to Holland, Flanders, Germany, Sweden, 
Denmark, Norway, Russia, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Turkey, East and West 
Indies, China, &c. 

"Question 4. — Do you not suppose that the Clocks and Watches you 
export to Flanders are conveyed from thence into parts of France ? 

"Ans.— By enquiry of Merchants who have resided in Flanders, and who 
now trade considerably to that Country, we find that the Clocks and Watches 
exported from hence to Flanders, are not any of them afterwards conveyed 
into France; but on the other hand France, Geneva and Switzerland, have 
the whole of the Flanders trade in Gold Watches, while ours is confined 
wholly to the Silver Trade ; some of our Manufacturers have made attempts 
to introduce our Gold Watches into that Country, but without success, having 
been underworked by the French, Genevans &c. 

"Question 5.— In what does the export of Watches chiefly consist, in 
those of Gold, Silver or Metal, and to what Countries are they exported 
respectively ? 

"Ans. — To East India, chiefly Gold, to China, chiefly Metal, to Holland, 
many Gold, few Metal and a great many Silver; to other Countries, some 
of each, principally Silver, though to Spain, a great many valuable Gold 
Watches accompany the Silver ones. 

"Question 6.^ — What number of Watches do you conceive to be the 
whole of the exports to different parts of the World ? 

" Ans. — It is very difificult to determine the number of Watches exported 
from this Country, but by the nearest calculation we are able to make we 
presume about Eighty Thousand per annum. 

"Question 7. — Are there many French Watches brought into this 
Country? 

"Ans. — Great quantities of Gold Watches very detrimental to the 
Manufacture of this Kingdom, which numbers are greatly increased by 
the late duty of eight shillings per oz. on wrought Gold plate. 

" The Answers being thus agreed to, it was determined that they should 
be prefaced by the following resolution viz. At a Special Court of the 
Master, Wardens and Assistants of the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers 



264 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

holden on Monday the nth of December 1786. It was resolved unanimously 
that the following answers to the several questions delivered by order of the 
Lords of the Committee of Council for Trade to Mess''- VuUiamy, Upjohn, 
Jackson and Potter for their answers m writing, be fairly copied and signed by 
the Master and Wardens of the said Company, and presented by the 
aforesaid Gentlemen to the Lords of the Council on behalf of the trade at 
large, which being done the above Gentlemen concluded as follows. 

" We therefore pray your Lordships will, in consideration of the above 
reasons, continue the duty upon French Clocks and Watches as it has hitherto 
subsisted between the two Countries, and, if we might be permitted, we would 
endeavour on a future day, to propose a plan to prevent the illicit trade 
herein complained of." 

On the 8th January, 1787, it was reported to the Court 
that the Questions and Answers had been submitted to the 
Lords of the Committee of Council for Trade, who received 
them favourably, and intimated that they would be happy to 
consider any plan the Company and the Trade might submit, 
which they would communicate to the Treasury, to whose 
department the matter appertained. 

On the 5th February following, the Court, after further 
consultation with a Committee of the Trade, unanimously 
resolved, that, in their opinion, it would be advantageous to 
the Trade in general to enforce the Duty upon all Clocks 
and Watches imported into this Kingdom. 

A Committee was appointed to endeavour to carry the 
resolution into execution. 

The Committee met on the 9th February, and deter- 
mined that representations should be made to the Lords 
of the Treasury, and also to the Lords of the Committee of 
Council for Trade, desiring that the Company might, agree- 
ably to their Charter, put a mark upon all Foreign Clocks and 
Watches, to certify that they had paid the Duty. 

At a subsequent Meeting of the Committee, a Report to 
the Court of Assistants was agreed upon, which was adopted 
by the Court on the 19th February, when the following 
Representation to the Lords of the Committee of Council for 
Trade was ordered to be presented : — 

" To the Lords of the Committee of Council for Trade. 
" Mv Lords, 

" The Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Fellowship of 
the Art or Mystery of Clockmakers of the City of London, beg permission to 
offer the copy of a Representation drawn up for the purpose of presenting to 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 265 

the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury, stating certain grievances 
their Trade labours under; and humbly to request your Lordships' assistance 
in obtaining the desired redress. 

" In the first instance, we humbly conceive it our duty to inform your 
Lordships, that great numbers of Foreign Clocks and Watches have been, for 
some time past, clandestinely brought into this country, and exposed to sale, 
which numbers are daily increasing, to the great detriment of His Majesty's 
Revenue,' and very injurious to the manutacture of those articles in this 
country ; for which reason we presume it has become highly necessary to 
enforce the Duties which are by Law prescribed, on the importation of such 
goods, and which are at this time generally evaded. 

" By inquiry at the Custom-house, it appears very few, if any, such 
Foreign Clocks and Watches brought into this country, are there entered ; 
and from the facility of introducing such goods, by reason of their being so 
very portable, it will be difficult to oblige the importers of such articles to 
make regular entries of the same. 

" Since the Treaty with France has been generally known to the public, 
the Clock and Watchmaking branches are thought to be in most danger of 
suffering : this opinion we consider as founded upon such just grounds, and 
is of so much consequence to our Manufacture, that it requires the most 
serious attention of the Legislature ; for if those Foreign articles should 
continue to be brought into this country without paying the said Duties, it 
must be inevitable ruin to our Manufacture of Clocks and Watches, as such 
illicit trade will increase, when the intercourse between the two countries 
becomes more frequent, without any method of discovery. 

" With submission to your Lordships, we are of opinion, if the following 
Regulations were to take place, they would in a great measure remedy the 
evils complained of ; be truly beneficial to the Revenue, and of important 
service to this Manufacture : 

"The Master, Wardens, &c., of the said Company for the time being, to 
be empowered to strike or affix a certain mark on all Foreign Clocks 
and Watches imported ; and if found necessary or expedient, to be 
farther empowered to receive the Duties thereon, for the benefit of 
His Majesty's Revenue, under such restrictions and limitations as 
your Lordships may hereafter prescribe. 

" That it shall not be lawful for any person to expose such articles to 
sale, without the said Duty-mark being first struck or affixed thereto, 
and the Duties paid thereon, under the penalty of or 

forfeiture of the goods. 

" If such Clocks and Watches shall at any time be brought to the Clock 
or Watchmaker, or any other person, to repair, it shall not be 
lawful for them to amend or repair the same, until the said Duty- 
mark is struck or affixed thereto, under the penalty of 

" The present possessors of such Clocks and Watches, to be allowed a 
convenient time to bring or send such articles to the place appointed, 
to be there marked, in order to distinguish they were imported 
previous to such Regulations, or that their Clock and Watchmaker 
may be allowed to get such goods marked for the said time, free of 
expence. 



266 Till-: CLOCKMAKERs' COM PAW. 

" If it should be considered such Regulation would affect Foreigners 
travelling in this country, the remedy is easy, by giving power to the 
said Masters and Wardens to grant Licenses to Foreigners to get 
such Watches repaired during their stay here, for their own use ; 
but it shall not be lawful for them to expose to sale such Clock or 
Watch, until it has received the Duty-mark, and paid the Duty 
thereon. 

" A given power to the Master, to change the said mark once a year, or 
oftener, if found necessary, and to appoint Deputies in different 
districts, for the purposes before mentioned, subject to the control 
of the Revenue Officers in that district. 

"Authority to seize all such Foreign articles before named, if it shall 
appear such Duty-mark is copied or imitated ; which goods shall be 
forfeited for the benefit of the State ; and provision made to free 
the Company of any expence attending the execution of such 
Regulations. 

" As the Duty on the articles above mentioned is laid ad valorem, it is 
humbly presumed that the Clockmakers' Company are more competent to 
detect any fraud that may be offered to the Revenue, by an under value of 
such goods, than any other persons, as their experience in the various 
branches of this Manufacture, renders it wholly improbable that such frauds 
can or may be put in practice. 

"The disadvantage the manufacture of this country labours under, in 
the article of Watches, is great; the Duty of Eight Shillings per ounce on our 
wrought Gold Plate, gives the Foreign article the superiority in our market, 
which we consider as a substantial reason why the Duty on such articles 
should be enforced, particularly as the great influx of Foreign Watches herein 
complained of, consists chiefly of Gold ; farther, it appears reasonable to us, 
a countervailing Duty of Eight Shillings per ounce should be laid on all 
Foreign-wrought Gold, and Sixpence on Silver Plate, as an addition to the 
reduced Duty of 27^- per cent. 

"The foregoing Regulations, if considered as calculated to remedy the 
evils complained of, could not be offensive to the Court of France, as we 
understand they are in the practice of a similar mode of marking all Foreign 
Clocks and Watches brought into that country. 

" The following Extract from the Ordinances made in pursuance of the 
Charter of this Company, ratified and confirmed by 

Thomas Lord Coventry, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal ; Sir Thomas 
Richardson, Knight, Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench ; and Sir 
Robert Heath, Knight, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas : 

" Sheweth, 

"Article 34th. ' Item, It is also ordained, that all Clocks, 
Watches, Larums, and all Cases for Clocks, Watches, and Larums, plaine or 
graven, made of Mettals, or of any other nature, condition, or fashion 
whatsoever, or any other work or works, as Sun-dials, Mathematical Instru- 
ments, or any other work peculiarly belonging to the Art of Clockmaking, be 
it for great or small, brought into the Realm of England, or Dominion of 
Wales, from the parts beyond the seas, to be put to sale, shall be first 
customed, and then brought to the Hall of the said Clockmakers of London, 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COiMPANY. 267 

or their meeting-place, and there presented to the Master, Wardens, and 
Assistants, to be viewed and approved of, according to the said Letters 
Patent of Incorporation ; and upon the approbation of the Master, Wardens, 
and Assistants, or the great part of them, sliall, according to the usual custom 
of the said Company in such cases, receive the mark or allowance of the said 
Company, before the same be offer'd or put to sale, upon pain of such 
reasonable penalties as by the said Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants, 
or the more part of them (whereof the Master, and one of the Wardens for 
the time being, to be two), shall in such case appoint and ordain.' 

"Notwithstanding the powers granted by the above-recited Ordinance, 
we find it totally ineffectual to answer the purposes intended, as it is thereby 
directed, such goods shall be first customed, which, for the foregoing reasons, 
and the want of regulations to enforce obedience to the same, such Law 
never has or can be enforced without the interposition of the Legislature. 

" From all which premises we would conclude by observing, with humble 
submission to your Lordships, that the manufacture of Clocks and Watches 
in this country, is entitled to every possible encouragement and protection, as 
a very great part of its value consists in labour, and appertains to the 
employing many thousand artists in its various branches, to the great benefit 
and advantage of the State. 

"The great attention your Lordships constantly pay to the manufactures 
and commercial interest of this country, emboldens us to hope, this our 
Representation will be considered as entitled to your Lordships' countenance 
and support." 

An interview with the Secretary of the Treasury, on 
the subject of the Representation, was afterwards had by a 
Deputation of the Court, who were informed that Mr. Pitt 
would consider it. 

In September, 1789, a Committee was appointed to 
present a Memorial to the Commissioners of Customs, on the 
subject of the evil effects upon the Revenue, and to the 
English Manufacturers, caused by the illicit importation of 
Foreign Clocks and Watches, and the following Memorial 
was adopted by the Court, but the desired relief was not 
obtained: — 

" The Memorial of the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 
Worshipful Company of Clockmakers : 
" Sheweth, 

" That your Memorialists have certain information, that a 
great number of Foreign Gold Watches have of late years been imported into 
this country, though very few have paid the duty prescribed by Law ; and 
that a considerable number of such Watches were lately seized, and taken to 
His Majesty's Warehouse at the Custom House. 

" That this practice is carried on to such an extent, as must materially 
affect the Revenue, and prove greatly injurious to your Memorialists, and 
others concerned in the Watch Manufacture. 

T 



268 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" Your Memorialists beg leave to observe that the Manufacture already 
labours under very great disadvantages in this country, from the restraints 
imposed upon it, and the Duty to which it is liable. 

" That the Gold employed in the Cases, is required to be of a standard 
worth Eighty-one Shillings per ounce, on wrought Gold, whereas the Gold 
employed by Foreigners is of a quality greatly inferior; pays no Duty in 
manufacturing; and being rendered much harder by the great quantity of 
alloy, need not be of that substance requisite for Cases when made of 
purer Gold. 

" That from these circumstances, they cannot stand the competition with 
those who have already such great advantages over them ; and they have to 
apprehend, that the evil of which they complain, will, unless checked by a 
due execution of the Laws, increase to the utter ruin of your Memorialists, 
and others concerned in the Manufacture ; by which Government will suffer 
a considerable loss of Revenue, not only from the Importation Duty being 
evaded, but also by the loss of the Duty on wrought Plate. This country 
will lose a valuable Manufacture, which now employs a vast number of hands, 
and many thousand persons will be reduced to poverty, be deprived of all 
means of supporting themselves and families, and become burthensome to the 
community." 

" They therefore humbly pray, that your Honors will please to protect 
the Watch Manufacture, by carrying into effect the Laws, and by prosecuting 
to condemnation, the present and all future seizures. 

" And your Memorialists, as in duty bound, will ever pray." 

In the year 1790, the aid of the Company was invoked 
by the Trade for the purpose of obtaining an amendment of the 
Act of Parhament of the 9th and loth William III, cap. xxviii, 
regulating the exportation of Watches, manufactured Silver, 
etc., which the Trade were of opinion, though adapted to the 
infancy of the craft, was not sufficiently stringent in its pro- 
visions ; and they desired a considerable increase in the 
penalty for putting false names on Watches and Clocks, viz., 
^100 instead of ^20, and costs, with forfeiture of the goods ; 
they likewise suggested that a Public Register should be 
kept by the Company, in which the names and places of 
abode of all Clock and Watchmakers in Great Britain should 
be entered alphabetically, a number being assigned to each, 
which should be and remain his or their distinguishing mark, 
a penalty being enacted in case of non-registration. 

These propositions received the careful attention of the 
Court, but in the result they advised the Trade that the relief 
sought was to be obtained rather by the strict enforcement 
of the existing Law than in any increase of Penalties or keeping 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 269 

of Registers, whilst to enable them to compete with the 
foreiener, the standard of o'old should be reduced for Watch 
Cases. 

In 1797, it was proposed by Mr. Pitt, then Chancellor of 
the Exchequer, to impose a Tax on the wearing and use of 
Watches and Clocks, viz., 2s. 6d. per annum for a Silver or 
Metal Watch, loj-. for a Gold Watch, and 5^. for every Clock, 
and the Trade again approached the Company, by whom a 
Representation on their behalf was prepared and submitted to 
the Minister, in which the workers in the Art in the Metro- 
polis are stated to number 20,000 persons. The duty on 
Wrought Gold is quoted in this document as i6s., and Silver 
li-., per oz., in addition to which License was requisite to 
enable persons to carry on the trade, for which they paid 
annually £2 6s. od. It was suggested that the Tax, which 
would be a perpetual yearly expense to the wearers and users 
of Watches and Clocks, would ruin the trade ; and advantage 
was taken of the opportunity again to insist on the necessity 
for a reduction of the standard of gold, in Watch Cases, then 
22 carats peroz., to 18, or even 14 carats, for which purpose a 
comparison of the cost of English and Foreign-made Cases 
was inclosed, viz. : — 

"A CtOld Case made in Switzerland. 
2 ozs. of Gold 18 carat fine at 66x. 3^. per oz. ... 612 6 

"A Gold Case made in England. 

L s. d. 

2 ozs. of Gold 22 carat fine at £\. \s. per oz. ... 8 2 o 

Duty t6s I 12 o 

"But in addition to the above 15 dwts. of Gold at 18 carat fine, will 
expend in any manufacture as far as i oz. of Standard Gold of 22 carat, the fair 
statement will stand as under : — 

C s. d. 
I A- ozs. of Gold, 18 carat fine 4^9 4^ 



2 ozs. of Gold, 22 carat fine 
Duty 




2 70 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



The Act (3 7th George III,cap.cvIii)/ notwithstanding the 
opposition made to it, was passed, only however to be 
repealed in the year following. 

The Court were subsequently favored by Mr. Pitt with 
several interviews, in which they submitted to him undoubted 
evidence as to the distressed condition of the trade, in con- 
sequence of the passing of the Act, and at one of such 
interviews they left with him a Memorial which was also 
accompanied by the following statement, shewing the relative 
numbers of Gold and Silver Watch Cases marked before and 
after the passing of the Act. 

" The following Account of Cases marked was left with Mr. Pitt, viz. : — 
Number. Ozs. Dwts. Grs. 

"1796 May ... 442 522 16 ... Gold Cases. 

"2 



1797 



May 
June 
July ... 
August ... 
September 
October ... 



Number. 
442 

533 
557 
603 

577 
589 



661 

673 
692 

653 
635 



16 
13 
17 
14 



9 

22 

4 
23 
10 





3,301 


3.840 


20 




Number. 


Ozs. 


Dwts. Grs, 


May 


318 


388 


14 8 Gold Cases 


June 


302 


359 


9 15 


July ... 


335 


360 


12 „ 


August ... 


268 


305 


13 4 


September 


168 


205 


10 14 „ 


October... 


169 


206 


8 4 



1,560 



1,825 16 9 



A pair of Cases is considered as two. 







Number. 


Lbs. 


Ozs. 


Dwts 




"1796 


May 


12,692 


1,188 


3 


19 


Silver Cases. 




June 


16,172 


1,447 


8 


5 






July ... 


16,341 


1,343 




18 






August ... 


15,358 


1,337 


8 


7 






September 


16,179 


1,342 


5 


19 






October... 


16,734 


1,421 


6 


12 






93.476 


8,080 


10 


... 















' Many persons rather than pay the duty had their Gold and Silver Cases melted, and 
Metal Cases substituted. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



271 



797 May 


Number. 
14,801 


Lbs. 
1,222 


Ozs. 
4 


Dwts. 
7 Silver Cases 


„ June 


13,608 


1,275 


7 


3 


„ July ... 


13,198 


1,078 


10 


7 


„ August ... 


12,389 


1,008 


3 


2 ,, 


„ September 


10,780 


985 


8 


7 „ ■ 


,, October... 


9,543 


783 
6,354 


10 

7 


13 




74,319 


19 



Upon the strong remonstrance of the Company, backed 
by Petitions from the Provincial Centres of the Trade — 
Coventry, Bristol, Leicester, Prescot, Newcastle-on-Tyne, 
Liverpool, Derby, Edinburgh, etc., and from the Workmen 
employed in its different branches in the Metropolis, shewing 
that the Tax had reduced the operatives to the verge of 
starvation, a Committee of the House of Commons was 
appointed, who after sitting several days and hearing evidence 
in support of the Petitions, presented their Report. This 
was considered by a Committee of the whole House, who on 
the 23rd March recommended the repeal of the duties, which 
was effected by the Act, 38th George HI, cap. xl ; whilst the 
Company's representations with respect to the duty on Gold 
and Silver used in Watch Cases were so successful, that in the 
same year an Act was passed (38th George HI, cap. xxiv), by 
which such duties were wholly repealed. The Court also, 
doubtless, hailed with satisfaction the passing, during the 
same session, of the Act, 38th George HI, cap. Ixix, in which 
practical effect was given to the opinion they had expressed 
to the Trade in 1790, as to the necessity for reducing the 
standard of gold. 

By the last-named Act, two standards were permitted to 
be used, viz., 22 and 18 carats per oz., respectively. This 
result, however, was not obtained until another forcible 
Memorial had been submitted to Mr. Pitt. 

The combined effects of these Acts, by which the Tax 
on the manufactured articles and the Duty on the Gold and 
Silver in the Cases were repealed, and a lower standard of 
metal introduced, soon exercised a beneficial influence, so 
much, indeed, that in reply to a memorial from the Trade to 
the Company_jn 1802, the Court stated that they had placed 
them on the best footing to increase the home and foreign 
consumption. 



2^2 THK CLOCKMAKKKS COMPANV. 

In October, 1808, the Court appointed another Com- 
mittee to consider the best means of preventing the practice 
of pirating names of known makers of Watches and Clocks. 

In March, 1809, they brought up a Report which was 
ap-reed to, and the following Memorial to the Lords of the 
Treasury and to the Lords of the Committee of Council for 
Trade, in which their recommendations are embodied, was on 
the 5th May following adopted by the Court : — 

" The Memorial of the Master^ Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 
Worshipful Company of Clockmakers of London : 

" Humbly Sheweth, 

" That your Memorialists deeply impressed with the just 
cause of complaints which have been made to them by many of their Mem- 
bers of the present state of the Trade, arising from various innovations which 
have obtained much to its prejudice, feel themselves called on in duty to 
state the same for your consideration, in a firm reliance on your Lordships' 
assistance in procuring for the Trade such relief as Parliament in its wisdom 
may judge proper to afford. 

" Your Memorialists, in proceeding to set forth the evils complained of, 
conceive it necessary to a clear understanding of a true state of the Trade at 
this time to take a retrospective view of it, and to trace from their origin in as 
concise a manner as the subject will admit the causes which have led to its 
present situation. 

" As the Art of making a good Clock or Watch may be justly considered 
an achievement of human skill and industry superior to many and inferior to 
none of those mathematical and mechanical professions or arts which tend 
alike to the advantage of the public and of the individuals engaged in them, 
and as it is not to be obtained without a considerable period of labour and 
study being devoted to the attainment of a competent knowledge both of its 
theory and practice, and as persons brought up to this Trade are in general 
qualified from their habits and information to perform almost every description 
of mechanical operation, which has been most fully and incontestibly con- 
firmed by the improvements which have taken place in the Silk, Cotton, 
Woollen and various other manufactures, by the introduction of machinery, 
whereby great benefit has accrued to the Nation ; and as most of those 
improvements have been made by persons brought up to the Trade of Clock 
and Watchmaking, and as in the construction and reparation of those 
machines such workmen have been generally employed, — Your Memorialists 
therefore trust your Lordships will not consider the Watch and Clockmaker 
in the abstract, but hold in regard the services which he is capable of 
rendering the community in a more extensive scale, inasmuch as by protecting 
this class of society a succession of practical and excellent workmen is 
secured to the kingdom, equally beneficial to arts and manufactures 
as men engaged in the fisheries and the Coal Trade are to foreign 
commerce and navigation, to the latter of which the Watch and Clockmaker 
may be fairly allowed to claim the merit of having introduced considerable 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 273 

facilities by the perfection of Chronometers, whereby the Longitude has been 
so accurately ascertained, and in the construction whereof the Artists of this 
Country stand unequalled. 

" Your Memorialists, feeling the importance of supporting and en- 
couraging such persons as perfect themselves in the qualifications necessary 
to the proper exercise of their profession, conceive some particular advantage 
should be afforded them by the Legislature as a just reward for their expence, 
labour and study, and that the exclusive right of exercising their own Trade 
appears to be the most equitable remuneration. That this opinion is well 
founded has been evinced by the Grant of a Charter for the incorporation of 
the Trade in the year 1631, thereby acknowledging and confirming the 
exclusive right of exercising the same to the Members of the Corporation. 

" That your Memorialists observe that, in the infancy of this Trade, it 
was the uniform practice of every Maker to engrave his own name and place 
of abode upon all the Clocks and Watches he made, which was as natural as 
it was political, for on the one hand it gave to the public, with the verification 
of the Maker's own act, a pledge of his honest dealing, and the direct means 
of redress in the event of misconduct, and on the other it secured to himself 
the reputation which his works merited, together with the assurance of 
obtaining benefit by the increasing demand of his productions. This was 
formerly the state of the Trade, and to which your Memorialists most ardently 
hope it may again be restored, as far as relates to the mode in which it shall 
hereafter be conducted. 

" Your Memorialists perceive that in proportion as the utility of Watches 
and Clocks (thus made by Artists who considered their reputation as 
inseparable from their interests) was experienced, the demand for them 
increased both at home and abroad, and the Trade was in consequence 
considerably extended, but as this extension became apparent many persons 
ignorant of the Art, and in no respect qualified, insinuated themselves into it, 
and, being incapable of constructing Watches and Clocks either just as to 
theory or perfect as to workmanship, they adopted the practice of placing 
upon their bad machines the names of makers who had deservedly acquired 
reputation by the excellence of their performances, and were enabled, through 
these fraudulent means, to sell such spurious productions both at home and 
abroad; and to so great an extent has this pernicious practice prevailed that it 
became necessary for an application to be made to the Legislature for its 
suppression, and in the year 1698 an Act was passed prohibiting such practices 
in future {vide the Act of 9th and loth of William 3rd). 

" That your Memorialists have great cause to lament that the provisions in 
the said Act have not been found adequate to the prevention of the evil 
complained of, partly from its not being sufficiently explicit, — from the facility 
with which the offence is committed, the difficulty of detection, — the penalties 
being too small, and the time for prosecution too limited, owing to a 
subsequent Act of Queen Anne whereby the time for bringing penal actions 
is limited ; and the evil has increased to such a degree that it has considerably 
reduced the credit of the Trade. 

"As it is obviously the interest of the bond fide Watch and Clockmaker 
to place his name on all the Watches and Clocks he makes, it may be 
enquired, what are the inducements for persons to make use of other names 
than their own? v^hich though well known to the Trade require some 



2 74 THE CLOCKMAKEKS COMPANY. 

explanation to convey an idea of them to others. For this purpose the subject 
may be considered under three distinct heads, viz : — 

" I St. — That of one Maker assuming the use of the name of another 

Maker. 
" 2nd. — That wherein the Maker puts on his Watch or Clock a name 
that is neither his own nor that of any other known maker, with 
whicli may be also taken the practice of omitting to engrave any 
name whatever. 

" 3rd. — The practice of Dealers who are not Makers procuring Watches 
and Clocks to be made with their names engraven thereon, instead 
of the names of the bond fide ]\Iakers thereof. 
" The great object of persons who engage in the practice first above 
mentioned is, as aforesaid, to usurp the Trade of Makers of established reputa- 
tion by using their names, whereby the public is much injured by inadvertently 
purchasing spurious articles, instead of what were intended to be bought, and 
the person whose name is forged suffers both in property and reputation. 

"And further, the making use of the names of deceased Makers is 
highly prejudicial to the Public, for, if the Machine be badly constructed, not 
the maker of it, but a dead man is substituted to be made answerable for the 
deception, which of course escapes punishment, and should the Machine be 
fit for the purpose intended, the credit of a good performance would not 
attach to the person entitled to it : — so that in the perpetuation of dead men's 
names, the rising Artist is depressed from the encouragement being withheld 
which would stimulate him to exertion. 

" With respect to the second head, in principle it is a direct fraud towards 
the Public, because those who practise ihe use of other names than their own 
in this way, or omit to put any name whatever, generally do it with a view to 
avoid the responsibility that should in all cases attach to the Maker of the 
Clock or Watch for the honest performance of his duty to his Employer, or 
from pride that will not allow them to put their names to a Watch or Clock 
below certain prices. 

" In practice it is illusory, and no permanent benefit can accrue to those 
who follow it, as at best they are only endeavouring to raise a precarious Trade 
on a false foundation, and pursuing a phantom which constantly eludes their 
grasp ; for in proportion to their exertions in the establishment of such illicit 
trade (having no legal property in the use of any other name than their own) it 
follows as a consequence that other persons engage in a competition ruinous 
not only to the original promoter of such Trade, but also to the quality of the 
Machines, whereby such trades are inevitably destroyed by the same means 
as were used to establish them, and the working class of the community are 
alike cons^igned to poverty with their inconsiderate employers. 

"As to the third head, the dealers in Watches and Clocks have their 
own names engraven on the articles they sell with a view to engross the 
whole trade, by endeavouring to place themselves in the situation of the 
maker in addition to that of the seller; but as such persons are ignorant of 
the art or incompetent to make Watches and Clocks, and are averse to 
purchase them from and bearing the names of the bond fide Makers thereof 
for the reason aforesaid, they have recourse to the improper practice of 
seducing the workmen from their employments under the actual Watch and 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 275 

Clockmaker, and as the workmen know that such shopkeepers are not judges 
of the work, it is seldom executed in a proper manner, whereby the pubhc are 
deceived in the purchase of such articles from the badness of their quality, 
and the Watchmaker is doubly injured, first by the loss of a portion of his 
trade, and then in being deprived of his workmen to execute the remainder. 

" In foreign Countries the value of Watches and Clocks is very often 
estimated according to the name they bear, and therefore many persons who 
export them endeavour to procure bad and low-priced Watches to be engraven 
with the names of Makers whose works are in repute, by which means they 
gain the advantage of selling the same at superior prices, and at the same 
time, as they prejudice the reputation and trade of the persons whose names 
they forge, the^kingdom also suffers in the diminution of the trade, which goes 
into the hands of foreigners and those practices with other frauds have been 
carried on to such an extent that the trade in Watches and Clocks from this 
Country to China, Russia, Turkey, &c., which was formerly very lucrative 
and extensive has been considerably reduced. 

"That your Memorialists beg leave further to remark that from the 
extensive importation of foreign Watches and Clocks into these kingdoms, 
the internal manufacture has been materially injured ; for although the duty 
on their importation is high, yet, from their portability, very few of the many 
imported pay any duty, most of them being smuggled ; and whenever they are 
seized or stopped at the Custom House by His Majesty's officers they are 
sold for home consumption, by which means the same injury arises to the 
trade as if they were allowed to be imported free of duty, and moreover they 
serve as a colour to those which have been smuggled. 

" Your Memorialists therefore venture with great diffidence to suggest to 
your Lordships that such foreign Watches and Clocks as may be seized 
hereafter may be sold for exportation only, and that dealers in foreign Clocks 
and Watches may be subjected to the regulation of the Excise as the only 
effectual check upon smuggling, short of a prohibition of the articles. 

" Your Memoralists have also to remark that the above causes having 
long operated on the trade have occasioned such a scarcity of good workmen 
from the want of encouragement to initiate youth into it, that some of the 
material branches of the manufacture are nearly lost to the Country, and at 
present many unfinished Machines are imported into these Realms from 
foreign parts, particularly Repeating Watches, which being completed here are 
sold as English work, and on which English Makers' names are placed, which 
they conceive a strong proof of the serious injury the trade of these kingdoms 
sustains, and renders a prohibition of the import of such articles (whereby 
this practice can alone be checked) absolutely necessary. 

"Your Memorialists further remark that the making of Watches and 
Clocks is not always carried on in the house of the Manufacturer, as many of 
the workmen pursue their respective avocations at their own residences, and 
as the work must under such circumstances be entrusted to them, much loss 
and many inconveniences have accrued to their employers in consequence of 
some of those workmen occasionally pledging the same, and notwithstanding 
an Act of Parliament was passed in the year 1754 to prevent the recurrence 
of such abuses, the practice still continues. 

" Your Memorialists therefore hope that a further provision may be made 



276 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

to prevent Pawnbrokers from having in their possession any unfinished part 
or parts of Watches and Clocks on any pretence whatever. 

" Your Memoriahsts having thus stated the causes and consequences of 
the irregularities and innovations under which the Trade now 
labours, humbly request that your Lordships will be pleased to 
afford them your assistance in obtaining such relief as Parliament in 
its wisdom may think proper to grant." 

In this endeavour to improve the condition of the Trade, 
the Court do not seem to have achieved any material success. 

In the next year, however, they renewed their efforts, 
and addressed to the Prime Minister, Lord Liverpool, the 
following; letter, in which they endeavoured to acquaint 
him with the various objects for which they sought his 
assistance : — 

" Office of the Clockmakers' Company, 

" No. 35, Clements Lane, Lombard Street, 
" April ij, 18 13. 
" My Lord, 

"As the Master and Wardens of the Worshipful Company of 
Clockmakers who had the honor to be introduced to the attention of your 
Lordship by three of the Representatives in Parliament of the City of London, 
We avail ourselves of your liberal invitation and briefly represent — 

" I St. — The evils of which, on the part of 30,000 Manufacturers of 
Clocks and Watches, we complain, 

" 2nd. — The causes to which those evils may be attributed, and 

" 3rd. — Some of the remedies by which those evils may be mitigated or 
removed. 
"As preliminary to that statement we take the Hberty to remind you 

" ist. — That the art or science of Manufacturing Clocks and Watches 
had been cultivated in this country with great private and great 
consequent public advantage for at least 250 years and had attained 
unequalled excellence. 

"2nd. — That 120,000 Clocks and Watches had therefore been annually 
made, whereby the sum of at least ;^6oo,ooo had been produced by 
British Labour, on materials principally of British produce, and that 
many thousand Artisans were constantly and usefully employed. 

"3rd. — That to a 'Maritime, Manufacturing, and Commercial Country 
the extent and consequences of this productive source of domestic 
industry had been incalculably beneficial, as the perfection of 
Chronometers, &c., aided Navigation : — as the principles and in- 
genuity of Clockmakers enabled them to invent and to improve all 
the Machines of which in the silk, woollen and cotton trades labour 
has been diminished and Manufacturers have been supported : — 
and as the reputation and superiority of the workmanship of 
British Artisans had ensured to their articles universal preference, 
and constituted an object of commercial attention, and were 
extensively, increasingly, and profitably exported. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY, 



2/7 



'" 4th. — That on the accuracy of these Machines their value and 
ultimately their sale must depend ; such accuracy cannot be 
immediately distinguished by persons ignorant of their construction: — 
that they must be therefore subjects of confidential purchase:— 
that all frauds which injure that confidence must suspend, diminish, 
and eventually destroy that manufactory: — that the practice of 
those injurious, even if unintentional, frauds cannot be prevented 
unless the Manufacturer possess that competent knowledge which 
practical experience only can confer, and be responsible for its 
exertion: — and that purchasers and honest Manufacturers are 
equally interested that such competent knowledge should be 
possessed and manifested by every person who professes to be a 
maker of these Machines valuable but intricate and therefore 
presenting motives and affording facility for the exercise of 
successful frauds. 

" 5th, — That the British Statesmen and the British Legislature long and 
wisely desired to encourage that Manufactory, by increasing public 
respect for real Manufacturers indicated by the Patent for the Incor- 
poration of the Clockm.akers' Company in 1630, and by preventing 
the rivalry of other Nations, for which purposes the countervailing 
duties were imposed in 1786-7, and have been since increased: by 
endeavouring to restrain fraudulent Manufacturers manifested by 
the Act of 9th & loth William III, c. 28, sec. 2, prohibiting 
the exportation of a Box Case or Dial Plate for a Clock or Watch 
without the movement with the Clock or Watchmakers' name 
engraved thereon, and also forbidding any person from making up 
a Clock or Watch without engraving his own name and place of 
abode and no other on such Clock or Watch, on pain of forfeiting 
such article and paying a penalty of ;^2o recoverable only however 
by action and therefore unavailing. By other statutes, 5th Geo. I, 
23rd Geo. II, 27th Geo. 11, c. 7, 25th Geo. Ill, c. 64, 38th 
Geo. Ill, c. 24, c. 40 and 69 for additionally regulating the trade, 
preventing emljezzlement by servants, prohibiting pawnbrokers from 
receiving unfinished watches as pledges, and for other purposes, and 
which although ineffectual for all the objects designed are sufficiently 
indicative that the Legislature has regarded the Trade as sufficiently 
important to deserve such frequent and well intended protection 
from the state. 

" Having made these preliminary remarks we proceed to the first topic 
which we propose to introduce and intimate the evils private and public 
which at present exist. 

" ist. — The progressive decline of the Manufactory and the consequent 
impoverishment and misery of the Manufacturers : as the parishes 
of Clerkenwell, St. Lukes, and other places, near the Metropolis, and 
throughout the country, where they chiefly reside, and being destitute 
of employment, depend upon parochial relief, can unfortunately 
attest. 

"2nd. —The Emigration of the most ingenious Artisans to America, 
France, and other places in great numbers, thirty Manufacturers, 
collected by public advertisement, having embarked in one vessel 
to America. 



2yS THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

"3rd. — The institution and^ improvement by those emigrants of foreign 
Manufactories in those Countries which this Country formerly 
supplied. 

"4th. — The increasing incompetence, from decreasing practice and 
encouragement, of the remaining Manufacturers to execute repeating 
Watches and other Chronometers either curious in construction or 
accurate in effect. 

"5th. — The investment of the capital devoted to this national object 
in speculative and transitory pursuits, and 

"6th. — The individual suffering, parochial distress and national dis- 
advantage, which are the effects of these evils, which are so pro- 
fusely sown, and which flourish with a luxuriance mournfully 
productive. 

" From this imperfect and unexaggerated sketch of the evils which now 
e.xist, we invite your attention to the causes of these calamitous effects, being 
the second topic which we propose to discuss ; they may be considered as 
twofold, — 

"isL — The importation and exportation of Watches without the 
payment of the Duties which the Law has imposed, and 

"2nd. — The frauds which individual avarice and necessity have invented 
to the impairment of the confidence essential to the prosperity and 
even to the existence of the Trade, and for the preservation of which 
no law adequately remedial has been hitherto provided. 

"The first cause divides itself into two points, resulting, ist, from 
fraudulent importation, and, 2nd, from exportation, equally fraudulent. To 
prove the existence and operation of those causes, innumerable facts might 
be adduced and many observations might be made, but we will only repeat 
and remark. 

" As to Importation, — 

" I St. — That the comparative cheapness of articles of the first necessity, 
and of labor on the Continent has enabled its inhabitants not only 
to create a foreign competition but to undersell our Manufacturers in 
our own Markets. 

" 2nd. — To prevent this effect the countervailing duties have been 
progressively increased until they now amount to 50 per cent., and 
that even if they were invariably collected they would now scarcely 
countervail. 

" 3rd. — That they are not collected and that the duty is not paid on 
one hundredth part of the Watches which are imported. 

"4th. — That the facility of disposing of them when imported from 
their relative cheapness, and the impossibility of detecting and 
restraining the importer under the existing laws encourages 
smuggling which has so perpetually and progressively increased 
that the delivery of any quantity of smuggled Watches will be 
insured for 10 p cent., and the British Manufacturer is therefore 
compelled to require ^2^40 p cent, more for his goods if equally 
excellent than the fraudulent importer will demand, and cannot 
attempt to rival the Foreign Manufacturer with any expectation of 
success. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 279 

"5th. — That the demand of Foreign Manufacturers has consequently 
and incalculably increased. That not only do the old establish- 
ments in France, Switzerland and Geneva exist, but, our ablest 
artificers in jewelled work having been driven from England by 
necessity, and seduced to those countries by hopeful advantage, they 
prosper and improve ; but also new establishments are formed in 
America, in Sweden, in Denmark, at Berlin, Nuremburg, and Neuf- 
chatel, which will annihilate even our domestic trade, as they imitate 
completely British Manufactures, and as thousand of Watches are 
annually smuggled, not only formed after the English pattern but 
with the names of English Manufacturers, and the Hall Marks of 
the Goldsmiths' Company forged thereon, and 

" 6th. — That not only are these Countries impairing this Manufacture, but 
availing themselves of the ingenuity of the Watchmakers (whose 
emigration they have encouraged and whom they liberally support) 
they construct machinery for Cotton Manufactories (many of which 
have been recently established in America) and thus will exclude 
this Country from the most profitable commerce which it yet 
retains. 
" Second as to Exportation, — 

" As great quantities are annually smuggled into the Country, great 
quantities are also annually smuggled out of the Country with great, 
although not equal disadvantage to the nation and the Manu- 
factories. Facility is thereby afforded to the evasion of the 9th and 
loth Will. 3rd, c. 28. Stolen and imperfect Watches are thereby 
distributed, and upright Manufacturers and Merchants who pay 
the export duties amounting to about ^4 p cent, besides freight and 
other charges which Smugglers also elude, are unable to compete 
in foreign markets with the smuggler who has evaded those 
duties and charges, and who sells articles attractive in appearance 
but destitute of real worth. 

" To the second Cause of the fearful evils which exist we next proceed 
and we remark, — 

" ist. — That from the principles to which we have reference and the long 
and practical knowledge essential to the fabrication of a perfect or 
useful Watch, such fabrication must be attended with considerable 
labor and expence, but that imperfect Watches constructed by 
inferior workmen for persons destitute of experimental information 
may be sold for lower prices, but whilst such fraudulent Articles 
delude and injure the consumer, these frauds and the inadequate 
compensation for labor paid by the Vendors of those fraudulent 
Articles must ultimately destroy equally the Workman and the 
Employer and annihilate a Manufactory of great actual and relative 
advantage. 

"2nd. — That Pawnbrokers &:c. who are prohibited by statute from 
receiving unfinished Watches as pledges purchase those Watches of 
dishonest workmen and vend them in a state apparently complete, 
but really so imperfect as to deprive the article of value, and to be 
destructive of that public confidence on whicli the permanence of 
the Trade must depend. 



28o THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

" 3rd. — That to conceal such inferiority of Workmanship and to improve 
such opportunities for imposition various artifices have been 
adopted as, — 

" ist.— Clocks and Watches are made without the inscription of any 

maker's name. 
" 2nd. — They are made with moveable plates whereby other names can 

be capriciously and instantly substituted, and 

" 3rd. — They are made with forged and false names, whereby purchasers 
are scandalously deluded, and an injury is inflicted on the ingenious 
and able Mechanics whose names are generally adopted, which can 
never be repaired. 

" To trace the existing evils to the causes which we have announced, 
would superfluously and therefore improperly occupy your time — We therefore 
proceed rather to suggest the few and intelligible remedies which we request 
you to invite the Legislature to supply. And first as to the evils resulting 
from smuggle importation and exportation. 

" The only remedies must obviously be the enactment of some measures 
whereby the payment of the countervailing and export duties may be both 
enforced. 

" As to Importation, — 

" We expect by the following provisions to attain 

_ " I St. — That all dealers in foreign Clocks and Watches be required to 
take out an annual license, that their existence and residence may 
be known. 

" 2nd. — That all foreign Watches now in the possession of dealers should 
be brought in and marked on payment of a trifling charge. That 
insuperable obstacles may no longer prevent that detection of 
smuggled Watches which the Manufacturers and the Country must 
equally desire. 

" 3rd. — That no foreign Watches be imported but at London. 

" 4th. — That on all foreign Watches a number and the names of the 
actual foreign maker, and the place of his residence be engraved. 

"5th. — That all such Watches when imported shall be marked so as to 
be immediately cognisable, and 

" 6th. — That unmarked Watches may be seized and sold, and penalties be 
imposed on the possessors similar to those which possessors of other 
jxohibited articles are by various Acts liable to pay. 

"To these suggestions we flatter ourselves that no objections can be 
made, but we will observe that we do not propose that these regulations 
should have a retrospective operation, but that one year should be allowed 
for marking all the foreign stock already imported ; that the Custom House 
officers who have been consulted perceive no impracticability in the arrange- 
ment ; and that in all Cases and various other Articles imported similar 
restrictions, similar marking, and similar penalties have been long and usefully 
applied. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 28 1 

"As to Abuses on Exportation, we only propose — 

" I St. — That no Watch shall be exported on which the name and 
residence of the maker shall not be engraved as hereafter suggested, 
nor without due entry and endorsement on the Cocket at the 
Custom House. 

" 2nd. — That no ship master shall receive any of these Articles without 
liability to their seizure and to his punishment, and to obviate any 
objection to any ideal harshness in the operation of such regulation 
we subjoin. 

" 3rd. — That any person who may incur a penalty by cladestine shipping 
not being privy thereto shall have a remedy against the owner 
of the property which may have been so cladestinely deposited with 
them. 

"As to the Second cause of the calamities which we deplore, — 

" Justice to our experience, to our opinions, and to our consistancy 
induces us to avow that we believe the only adequate remedy to the frauds 
practised on the public and injurious to the Trade must consist in the 
prohibition of any person from professing to be a Manufacturer of Clocks 
or Watches, who has not either served an apprenticeship or officiated as a 
Journeyman for seven years to the Manufactory, or whose practical com- 
petence has not been previously ascertained by an examination similar to 
that Physicians, Surgeons and persons carrying on other professions (not 
more important) are compelled to undergo, or that every article should be 
examined and marked in the manner which the Charter of the Company 
directs, or in the same manner according to the same principles and for 
similar reasons which have induced the Legislature to submit Plate, Leather 
and many other articles to similar investigation for the public security. 
These remedies we therefore urgently request : But as we apprehend that 
even if the enlightened mind of your Lordship should disdain to be bound 
by the cobweb theories of Dr. Adam Smith and other modern Speculatists 
on political Economy (the temerity of which experience and observation 
cannot but proclaim), yet that your Lordship might not immediately be able 
to induce other persons to partake your liberation fiom such prejudices nor 
to resist the torrents of inaccurate and injurious opinion which flow with 
fearful rapidity, we will suggest some palliative improvements to which we 
presume the most enthusiastic friends to the freedom of trade cannot even 
momentarily object. On this point we indeed only require that the 
intention of the Legislature in 9th and loth William 3rd, c. 28, and the Act 
relating to Pawnbrokers should be rendered operative, and that the evasion 
of those Statutes should no longer exist. And we therefore suggest, — 

" ist. — That all Clock and Watchmakers be required to take out an 
annual License such as is required from all INIanufacturers of Plate, 
and that they certify every removal in the same manner which many 
laws require Manufacturers of other articles to adopt. 

" 2nd. — That the name and evidence of the actual maker of every Clock 
and Watch shall be engraven on a permanent part of the Watch. 

" 3rd. — That no subsequent substitution of any other name than that of 
the real maker shall be allowed, and that such provisions shall by 
adequate penalties be enforced. 



282 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" 4th. — That forgeries of the names and residences of other persons shall 
be punishable as felonies at the discretion of a judge — but not with 
a punishment exceeding Transportation for seven years, and 

" 5th. — That the existing law as to the receiving by Pawnbrokers of 
unfinished Watches shall be extended so as to prevent them from 
manufacturing Watches, whereby unfinished work fraudently obtained 
can be consumed, and also for taking into pledge any Watches 
which have not the name of the maker complete and engraven 
thereon, and of these provisions which innumerable analogies 
support and to which we cannot anticipate any objections which 
can require a reply, we should only add those general clauses 
which similar acts usually contain. 

^' Obedient to your wishes we have thus imperfectly explained the evils 
which we deplore, the causes by which they have been promoted, and the 
remedies we venture to suggest. We are conscious that those explanations 
cannot attain the effect which statements more detailed and more abundant 
in illustration might produce. Our reluctance to intrude on you iTas however 
restrained that desire for more expanded communications which we feel. — 
For we assure your Lordship that on this subject we are most anxious and 
sincere, representing thousands of distressed and suffering Mechanics we 
commisserate their affliction, and loving our country we are unwilling that a 
manufactory which has aided her triumphs and augmented her resources 
should be eradicated or transplanted to other and to hostile shores, such 
results however must occur unless some Parliamentary relief be immediately 
afforded. Knowing this fact and almost reduced to despair by official delays 
and obstacles which (since the death of Mr. Pitt) our suggestions have 
experienced, we have been revived by the liberal and stateman-like attention 
which your Lordship has condescended to display. We now cherish a hope 
that your compassion for thousands of ingenious and indefatigable men 
destitute of occupation — your respect for your illustrious predecessors who 
did not disdain to attend to our applications and to afford us redress— your 
anxiety to prevent our enemies from depriving us of a trade equally honourable 
and productive — and your solicitude to preserve to our native country this 
important manufacture, will induce you to grant to us your further and candid 
attention and your speedy and effectual support. 

" We will only take the liberty to add that we shall be most happy to 
afford to your Lordship any further personal explanations which you may 
require — and that as the remedies suggested can only be supplied by 
Parliament and ought not beyond the present session to be deferred, we will 
submit to your Lordship a draft of a Bill for effecting those objects which we 
shall earnestly entreat the Administration to introduce as soon as your 
Lordship has had the goodness to inform us whether our suggestions are 
honored with that approbation which we feel honestly confident that you 
will cheerfully confer. 

" We have the honor to be My Lord, 
" Your Lordship's most obedient, devoted, humble Servants, 
" Signed by Paul Philip Barraud, ])ro Master. 
Isaac Rogers 

John Thwaites J> Wardens." 

John Roger Arnold 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 283 

In May, 1814, in consequence of the distressed condition 
of the Workmen and the depressed state of the Trade, the 
Court presented the following Petition to the House of 
Commons : — 

" The Humble Petition of the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 
Art or Mystery of C/ockmaking, of the City of London : 

" Sheweth, 

"That the Art of making Clocks and Watches was long 
since established, and has been carried on in this country with great private 
and public advantage, and has attained unequalled excellence. 

" That till within a few years past, more than One Hundred Thousand 
Clocks and Watches have been annually made ; whereby the sum of at least 
p^5 00,000 has been produced by British labour, on materials principally of 
British produce ; and that many thousand artizans were thereby usefully 
employed. 

" That the national advantages derived from the perfection to which the 
Art of Clock and Watchmaking has been carried in this country, are not 
limited to the value of its produce, but extend to every branch of manufacture 
in which machinery is used. 

" That, from the operation of various causes, the value of the Clock and 
Watch Manufactory, as a source of national advantage, has of late years been 
greatly deteriorated, and continues rapidly declining : the Manufacturers, 
deprived of adequate employment, are obliged to seek other means of 
subsistence ; and the workmen, in all its branches, are in great numbers 
reduced to distress, or are dependent on parochial relief for support ; and 
many of the superior workmen, destitute of suitable encouragement at home, 
have been seduced to foreign countries, carrying with them their knowledge 
and ability to construct and employ the most valuable and useful machinery, 
whereby the principal Manufactures of Great Britain will be transplanted, and 
established in foreign countries, to the exclusion of the British Manufactures. 

" That the former prosperity of a Manufacture, intrinsically and relatively 
important, was in a great measure attained by the enforcement of the 
restrictions imposed by Act of Parliament on the importation of Foreign 
Clock and Watch-work, as well in an incomplete as in a complete state. 

"That in the year 1787, a Duty of 27^ per centum was imposed on all 
Foreign Clocks and Watches imported into this country; which Duty has 
subsequently, from time to time, been increased and now amounts to 75 per 
centum. 

"That, in consequence of the want of provisions adequate to the 
collection of such Import Duties, the illicit introduction into this country of 
Foreign Clock and Watch-work has obtained to an extent ruinously injurious 
to the British Manufactory; and, the advantage derived by the Smuggler 
having increased in proportion to the increase of the Duties, the illicit trade 
is now so regularly systematized that the Importers will undertake the safe 
conduct and delivery of Foreign Clock and Watch-work (without payment of 
Duty) in this country, for 10 per cent, on its value; thus affording the illicit 
trader a premium of 65 per cent., which enables him to undersell the British 
Manufacturer, and to the great injury of the Public Revenue. 

U 



284 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

"That this facility with which Foreign Clock and Watch-work is illicitly 
imported into this country, is one of the principal causes of the declining 
state of the British Manufactory. 

"That during the long continuance of the War, the exportation ot 
British Clock and Watch-work has very much diminished, while the iUicit 
importation of Foreign Clock and Watch-work has increased to an 
unprecedented degree during the same period ; and, unless some new remedy 
be opposed to the evil, there is reason to apprehend that whenever a general 
Peace shall be made, the condition of the British Manufactory of Clocks and 
Watches will become still more calamitous from the increased facilities with 
which Foreign Clock and AVatch-w^ork will then be illicitly introduced into 
this country, as well for home consumption as for the export trade. 

" That Foreign Clocks and Watches are illicitly imported for sale in all 
parts of the Kingdom ; and that in order to obviate any impediments w^hich 
national preference, joined to the acknowledged superiority of English work, 
might oppose to the sale of Foreign Watches, they are illicitly imported in an 
incomplete state; and being made to resemble, in their exterior appearance, 
English Watches, are sold as English, to the great injury of the public, and 
the ruin of your Petitioners. 

" That no permanent nor effectual relief to the distress of your Petitioners 
can be obtained, unless the wisdom of Parliament should interfere, and 
remove or mitigate those evils, the existence and consequence of which your 
Petitioners most humbly represent, and most sincerely deplore, and are prepared 
to prove to your Honorable House. 

" Your Petitioners therefore humbly pray, that your Honorable House 
will investigate the extent and the causes of the evils of which they 
complain, and will afford to your Petitioners such relief as to your 
Honorable House may seem meet." 

" In January, 1816, a Report was presented to the Court 
from a Committee appointed to acquire information respecting 
the iUicit introduction of Foreign Watches and Clocks and 
devising means for preventing the same, in which it is stated, 
as the result of an interview had in the previous December 
with the Right Hon. Nicholas Vansittart, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, that he had desired a memorandum might be sent 
to him of the means the Company proposed for remedying 
the evils complained of ; in consequence whereof they had 
forwarded to him the followine Statement : — 

" I St, No Foreign Clocks or Watches to be imported at any other Ports 
than those of London, Bristol, or Liverpool. 

" 2nd, No Foreign \\'atches to be imported in parcels of less than Fifty 
each, nor Foreign Clocks in packages of less than Twelve each. 

" 3rd, No Clocks or Watches to be imported in an incomplete state, nor 
without their Cases, nor out of their Cases, nor Clock or Watch Cases to be 
imported without their Movements fixed in them. 



THE CLOCK MA KF.RS' COMPANY. 285 

"4th, All Foreign Watches or Clocks having any name or place of abode, 
or freedom, purporting to be the name or place of abode, or freedom of any 
British Watchmaker, engraven or painted on any part thereof, to be strictly 
prohibited. 

"5th, All Foreign Clocks and Watches to have a mark permanently 
imprinted on some part of the Movement, or Cases, by the Officers of the 
Customs, when the Duties are paid. 

"6th, All Dealers in Foreign Clocks and Watches, to take out an 
Annual Licence so to do, not less in amount than the Plate Licence now 
necessary to be taken out by English \V'atchmakers, and to write over their 
doors, ' Dealer in Foreign Clocks and Watches.' 

" 7th, From and after the day of next {twelve 

months after the passing of this Act), all Foreign Clocks and Watches, which 
are unmarked, will be liable to seizure, unless the Proprietors (such 
Proprietors not being Dealers) make Affidavit that they were possessed of 
them previously to the passing of this Act. 

" 8th, All Foreign Clocks and Watches seized under the provisions of 
this Act, to be sold for exf)ortation only." 

On the loth of June, 1822, a Deputation from the Trade 
waited upon the Court, to request its co-operation in opposing- 
so much of a Bill then before Parliament, entitled, " An Act, 
to make more effectual provision for permitting Goods im- 
ported, to be secured in Warehouses, or other places, without 
payment of Duty on the first entry thereof, 12th of May, 
1823," as applied to Clocks and Watches. Upon which the 
Court determined to petition the House of Commons on the 
subject ; and a Petition against so much of the Bill as related 
to the warehousing, under certain restrictions, of Clocks. 
Watches, and Watch-glasses, for home consumption, upon pay- 
ment of Duty, and for exportation without payment of Duty, 
was accordingly presented by Mr. Alderman Bridges on the 
nth of June, and ordered by the House to be laid upon the 
Table and printed. The Bill was eventually adjourned for 
three months. ' 

On the 20th March. 1823, a Committee was appointed 
by the Court to communicate with the Right Honorable 
Mr. Wallace, President of the Board of Trade, on the subject 
of the Warehousing Bill, which had been again brought before 
Parliament; when it was resolved that, as Mr. Wallace was 
determined not to omit Clocks and Watches, and Watch- 
glasses, in his proposed Warehousing Bill, it would be de- 
sirable to obtain the introduction of certain clauses, to render 



Tournal of the House of Commons, 1822, p. 334- 

L' 2 



286 THE CL0CKMAK1:Rs' COMI'ANV. 

the measure as little mischievous as possible ; and the follow- 
ing Memorandum was thereupon prepared, and forwarded to 
Air. Wallace :— 

"That all Clocks and Watches admitted to entry, should have a 

distinguishing mark impressed upon them, before going out of the 

King's Warehouse. 
" That no Watch should be admitted to entry with marks on the cases 

similar, approximating, or purporting to be the marks of the 

Goldsmiths' Company. 
'' That no Clocks or Watches be admitted to entry with ' London 

engraved on them, or engraved in a way to purport or give colour to 

their being English. 

" That no Clocks or Watches be admitted to entry, unless they have 
engraved on them a name and place, purporting to be the name and 
place of abode of the person or persons who made them. 

" The object the Company of Clockmakers has in view, is principally 
that Foreign Clocks and Watches shall not come out of the King's Warehouse 
to be sold as English Manufacture. 

" The Company has only farther to observe, that by a late regulation of 
the French Government, all Foreign Watches brought into France are 
subject to a distinguishing mark, which is impressed upon them by the 
Government officers, without injury to the work." 

On the 7th of April, 1823, the Committee reported that 
Mr. Wallace had stated, that one of the propositions, by far 
the most material of the four contained in the Memorandum, 
namely, that of marking the Foreign Clocks and Watches, was 
inadmissible, but that the other three propositions would be 
adopted; and on the 2nd of June, 1823, the Clerk produced 
a printed Copy of the new Warehousing Act, passed the 1 2th 
of May, and read the following Clause, introduced at the 
request of the Company : — 

"And be it further enacted, That no Watch of Foreign Manufacture 
shall be imported and warehoused under the provisions of this Act, upon the 
Case or Cases of which any mark or stamp shall be impressed, which shall be 
similar to, or shall purport to be, or shall be intended to represent, any mark 
or stamp of the Goldsmiths' Company of London, or other legal British assay 
marks or stamps ; and that no Clock or Watch of Foreign Manufacture shall 
be so imported and warehoused, upon the face, or upon any part of which, 
the word ' London,' or the name of any other town or place of the United 
Kingdom, shall be engraven or painted, or shall in any way appear so as to 
purport OP give colour that such Clock or Watch is of the Manufacture of the 
United Kingdom; and that no Clock or Watch of Foreign Manufacture shall 
be so imported and warehoused, unless a distinguishing number, and the 
name or names of some person and place, shall be engraven, and shall appear 
visible on the frame or other part of such Clock or Watch, independent of the 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 287 

face, purporting to be the name and place of abode of the person or persons 
by whom such Clock or Watch was made ; and that no Clock or Watch of 
Foreign Manufacture, shall be imported or warehoused under this Act in any 
incomplete state, that is to say, not having the Movement, with all its con- 
comitant parts, properly fixed and secured in its Case, on pain of the forfeiture 
of such Watch or Clock." 

On the 8th September, 1823, the attention of the Court 
was directed by the Officers of the Custom House to a case 
of Foreign Watches imported and warehoused under the Act, 
for home consumption or for exportation, free of duty, which 
bore forged names of well-known foreign as well as English 
makers, amongst the latter being that of Eardley Norton, of 
Red Lion Street. An examination of them by Members of 
the Company proved that they were forgeries, and bore 
counterfeit marks of Goldsmiths' Hall. The Court thereupon 
determined to memorialise the Treasury on the subject, with 
a view to prevent their being taken out from the warehouses 
until destroyed as watches, and to direct the attention of the 
Goldsmiths' Company to the forgeries of their marks. They 
likewise resolved to caution the public by advertisements in 
the newspapers against purchasing such Watches as of English 
manufacture. 

A further similar importation being reported during the 
same month of September, the Court again memorialised the 
Treasury, and intimated that they had received information 
that a large number of such Watches were ready to be sent 
to this country if permitted to pass, and urged that those 
already received should not be released by the Customs, but 
so disposed of as to prevent the practice in future, protect the 
English purchaser, and support the home manufacturer. 

In the month of November following they received an 
intimation from the Treasury that proceedings would be 
taken for the condemnation of the articles in question, ac- 
cording to Law, and that the Customs Officers had been 
instructed to prevent their being warehoused in future. 

In March, 1824, the Court determined to petition the 
Treasury for an amendment of the Warehousing Act so far 
as related to Clocks and Watches, the Act not distinctly setting 
forth the manner in which they were to be disposed of when 
seized as forgeries, and to direct their attention to the fact 
that no obstacle existed to such importations, provided they 



28S THE CLOCKMAKKKS COMPANY. 

were entered for home use and the duty immediately paid, 
nor to the importation of unfinished and incomplete goods, 
which had afterwards an outward appearance put upon them 
here, and were then sold as entirely of English manufacture. 
The Petition adopted prayed for an alteration of the Law to 
meet these objections, and to provide for the destruction of 
such articles and the conversion of the gold and silver cases 
into bullion : for the infliction of a penalty for the importa- 
tion of such fraudulent goods, and for placing Foreign Watch- 
cases, bearing forged marks of Goldsmiths' Hall, under the 
same regulations as similar frauds against the Act for regu- 
lating the manufacture and duties on wrought gold and 
silver. 

In the following month a Deputation of the Court had 
interviews with the Government upon the subject. Whilst 
the Treasury were willing to accede to the wishes of the 
Company, the Chancellor of the Exchequer objected to the 
breaking of Watches, but thought it highly desirable some 
distinguishing mark or stamp should be impressed upon them. 

In the month of July, 1824, it was reported to the Court 
that a further seizure of Foreign Watches had been made, 
which were about to be sold by the Customs Commissioners, 
and that the forged names on them had, as far as practicable, 
been obliterated, and the marks punched out of the cases. 

It will thus be seen that, although not quite in the 
manner suggested by the Company, the objects they had in 
view — viz., the protection of the English Trade — were in a 
great measure secured, the defacement of the watches having 
rendered them almost valueless. 

This satisfactory result, however, had hardly accrued when, 
in the following year, 1825, an Act, 6th George IV, cap. cvii, 
was passed, intituled, "An Act for the General Regulation of 
the Customs," by which the Clause in the Warehousing Act 
before mentioned, which had been inserted at the express 
instance of this Company, was, in fact, repealed, and the new 
Act, whilst prohibiting the warehousing of forged Foreign 
Clocks and Watches, did not prevent their being entered for 
home consumption without being warehoused, or if ware- 
housed, for home consumption only. 

This unfortunate circumstance compelled the Company 
to recommence their agitation, and the following Memorial to 



THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 289 

the Board of Trade, agreed upon at a Court held on the 6th 
November, 1826, fully sets out their previous proceedings and 
the objects for which they again sought the intervention of 
the Government : — 

"Sheweth, 

" That in an Act passed in the 4th year of his present 
Majesty, cap. 24, entitled, 'An Act, to make more effectual provision for 
permitting Goods to be imported, to be secured in Warehouses, or other 
places, without payment of Duty on the first entry thereof,' r2th May, 1823, 
the following (LXXXI) Clause is introduced. [Here follows the Clause, for 
which vide page 286.] 

" This Clause was introduced into the Act, specially to prevent Foreign 
Clocks and Watches, made in imitation of British, and with British Makers' 
names and places of abode or freedom thereon, from being warehoused, and 
afterwards sold, either for home consumption or exportation, as of British 
Manufacture. 

"In or about September 1823, a large parcel of Gold, Silver, and Metal 
Watches, not less in number than 846, were imported from Hambro', 450 in 
the ship ' Thetis,' Reed, Master, and 396 in the ' London,' Rumbert, Master, 
and were seized for not conforming to the above-recited Act. 

"This being the first seizure under the Act, the Right Honorable the 
Lords of the Treasury were pleased to order all the Watches that had the 
names of British Makers or places thereon, or on the Cases of which were 
impressed imitative marks of the Goldsmiths' Hall (several of the Cases that 
purported to be Silver, turned out, on examination by the Officers of Gold- 
smiths' Hall, to be little better than base metal), to be destroyed, and the 
remainder restored to the owners, on their paying certain expences, and 
giving bond to send the Watches back by the same ships to Hambro'. No 
farther attempts, as far as is known to your Memorialists, have been made to 
warehouse Clocks and Watches contrary to the provisions of the Act. 

" In the 6th year of Geo. IV. an Act was passed, cap. 107, entitled, 'An 
Act for the general Regulation of the Customs,' (5th July, 1825). In the 
latter part of Clause LIII. of this Act, under the head of 'Exceptions to be 
Warehoused,' are the following words : ' Clocks or W^atches impressed wdth 
any mark or stamp, appearing to be, or to represent any legal British assay 
mark or stamp, or purporting by any mark or appearance, to be of the 
Manufacture of the United Kingdom, or not having the name and place of 
abode of some Foreign Maker abroad, visible on the frame, and also on the 
face, or not being in a complete state, with all the parts properly fixed in the 
Case;' the intention of which is evidently the same as the Clause before 
recited in the Warehousing Act, but not being sufficiently clear and explicit, 
the intention of the Legislature is consequently more easily evaded. 

" But the great omission in the Act 6 Geo. IV. cap. 107, before recited, 
and which it is the express object of your Memorialists to represent, is, 
that the Clause above recited is intended to prohibit the warehousing of 
Foreign Clock and Watches, purporting to be of British Manufacture, &c. «S:c. 
the same as is done by the Clause (LXXXI.) in the Warehousing Act, 
cap. 24. Yet the Act does not contain any provision whatever, to restrain the 
importing of such Clocks and Watches, upon their being immediately entered 
for home consumption, without being warehoused. 



290 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

*'Your Memorialists request to state, that in consequence of this 
omission, a parcel of Foreign Gold and Silver Watches, engraved ' Charles 
Stiffenone, Regent-street, London,' were imported on or about the loth July, 
1826, and entered at the Custom-house for payment of Duty, but which were 
stopped, under the impression that the restrictions in the Warehousing Act, 
applicable to Foreign AVatches and Clocks brought into this country, bearing 
the names of British Makers or places, &c. &c. were equally enforced by the 
Importation Act; but on reference to the latter Act, this was found not to be 
the case ; consequently, the Watches were necessitated to be restored to the 
owner, on the payment of Duty : Clocks have also been imported in a similar 
manner. 

" Your Memorialists beg to represent, that the prosperity, they may say 
the existence, of the Manufacture of Clocks and Watches in this country, 
solely depends on the superior character of the British articles to those 
manufactured in any other part of the world. The estimation in which 
English Watches and Clocks are held, is proved by the well-known fact, that 
an immense number are made on the Continent with British names and 
'London' on them, and the Cases impressed with marks purporting to be 
those of the Goldsmiths' Hall, London, and distributed as British to every 
part of the globe, to the great prejudice and loss of the British Manufacturer. 

'■This is a misfortune that cannot be prevented; but the immediate 
effects resulting from the facility now afforded to bring Clocks and Watches 
into this country, bearing British Makers' names, and places where made, 
afterwards to re-export or sell them in the home-market as British, will be, 
first, materially to diminish the Export Trade, already much reduced; and 
secondly, to greatly injure the Home Trade, which is the legitimate and only 
certain market left to the British Manufacturer; subsequently, from the bad 
performance of the articles sold as of British Manufacture, the reputation of 
the British Manufacturer will be destroyed, and the Export Trade, which 
depends solely on the superior character of the British Clocks and Watches 
over those of every other country, will eventually be entirely lost. The 
Home Trade will also suffer a progressive diminution, until, as an object of 
Commerce, it entirely ceases. 

" The high price of labour in this country (resulting from causes not 
necessary to be enumerated), compared with the Continent, particularly 
Switzerland, a country exempt from taxation, where the greater part of the 
Foreign Watches are made, operates in a peculiar manner on a Manufacture, 
of which the value of the raw material forms so very small a part of the 
total value, as is the case in Clocks and Watches, particularly the latter; 
the total value of the raw material in a Gold Watch of the value of jQ2>°i 
deducting ;^8:i5 for the Gold, is not Five Shillings; consequently, it is 
impossible for the British Manufacturer to enter the lists with the Foreigner 
on the score of price; the success of the former depends entirely on the 
superiority of the article he manufactures. 

"The evils resulting from these practices are not confined to the Manu- 
facturer alone : the Public are grossly imposed upon and defrauded by these 
Anglo-Foreign Clocks and Watches, which almost without exception are 
of a very inferior quality ; for it is very difficult, in the present state of the 
Art, for an individual not of the profession, or at any rate, not professing a 
knowledge of mechanics, to distinguish from the external appearance only, a 
Foreign from a British Watch or Clock 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY, 29 1 

"Your Memorialists therefore pray, tliat as soon as can consistently be 
done, the Act 6 Geo. IV, Cap. 107, Clause LIII, may be so 
amended, in relation to Watches and Clocks imported, to pay the 
Duty and also to be warehoused, that they shall in either case be 
subject to the same regulations and restrictions as are contained in 
the 8 1 St Clause of the Warehousing Act ; which Clause was inserted 
at the solicitation of your Memorialists, for the two-fold purpose of 
protecting the Public at large from fraud and deception, and of 
upholding and supporting the British Manufacturer " 

A second Memorial to the Board of Trade was adopted 
at the Court held on the 8th January, 1827, in which, after 
recapitulating the facts as stated in their former one, they 
continue as follows : — 

" As the Law now stands, Clocks and Watches bearing the names of 
British Makers and of British towns and places, with the Cases of the Watches 
impressed with marks resembling those impressed on British Gold and Silver 
Watch Cases, can be imported without let or hindrance, either on payment of 
Duty, -or to be warehoused, provided only that in the latter case they are not 
warehoused for exportation ; and the British Manufacturer has to compete 
with a Manufacture carried on in countries mostly exempt from taxes, rates 
and tithes (this is particularly the case with regard to the Watches made in 
Switzerland, where by far the greater number are made), the very existence of 
this Trade depending solely on the superior character of the article he manu- 
factures. 

" Your Memorialists therefore feel it incumbent on them to renew the 
prayer of their former Memorial, and to request, that as soon as can be 
properly done, the Act 6 Geo. IV. Cap. 107, Clause LIII. may be amended 
to this effect : That no Watch of Foreign Manufacture shall be imported, 
upon the Case or Cases of which, any mark or stamp shall be impressed, 
which shall be similar to, or shall purport to be, or shall be intended 
to represent, any mark or stamp of the Goldsmiths' Company of Lon- 
don, or other legal British assay marks or stamps ; and that no Clock 
or Watch of Foreign Manufacture shall be so imported, upon the face, 
or upon any part of which, the word ' London,' or the name of any other 
town or place, or person, of the United Kingdom, shall be engraven or 
painted, or shall in any way appear, so as to purport or give colour that such 
Clock or Watch is of the Manufacture of the United Kingdom ; and that 
no Clock or Watch of Foreign Manufacture shall be imported, unless a dis- 
tinguishing number, and the name or names of some person and place shall 
be engraven, and appear visible on the frame, and also on the face, jourporting 
to be the name and place of abode of the person or persons by whom such 
Clock or Watch was made ; and that no Watch or Clock of Foreign Manu- 
facture shall be imported in any incomplete state, that is to say, not having 
the Movement, with all its concomitant parts, properly fixed and secured in 
the Case, and finished in a state to go and shew the time, on pain of the for- 
feiture of such Clock or Watch. 

"Your Memorialists are aware, that it has been urged as an objection to 
their desire for protection for the Public and themselves, that if Clocks and 
Watches are prohibited from being legally imported (but subject to certain 



292 TflE CI.OCKMAKliKS COMPANV. 

restrictions), that they will be clandestinely brought into this country ; to 
which in reply they observe, that in its present state, the Law not prohibiting 
such fraudulent practices in the importation of Foreign Clocks and Watches, 
it may be said to countenance the evils complained of, and to encourage 
practices abroad which are realized here, although they could not be originated 
in these realms. It certainly is an anomaly, that Clocks and Watches can be 
imi)orted into, and openly sold in this country, that could not be legally 
manufactured in the country." 

In May, 1828, they again memorialized the Board of 

Trade, and expressed their disappointment at the great length 

of time which had elapsed without their receiving any answer, 

and called the attention of the Board to the following facts : — 

" In or about September 1S27, a parcel of Watches in Silver Cases, with 
the name ' Eardley Norton, London,' engraven upon them in the English 
fashion, and the Cases impressed with marks resembling those of the Gold- 
smiths' Hall of this City of London, \vere entered at the Custom-house for 
payment of Duty, and seized, not because they were engraven and marked 
as above described, but because they were entered for Duty at the supposed 
undervalue of Five Shillings each : at the following regular Custom-house 
sale, Mr. Owen, of Wallingford, a general dealer, purchased 23 of these 
Watches, all engraven and marked as above described, for about Nine 
Shillings each. 

" It is scarcely necessary to add, that these 23 watches, which were of 
the very worst quality, were purchased to be resold, and will supply the place 
of so many English Watches. The individuals who may eventually purchase 
these Watches as English, will be most grossly deceived, and the reputation 
of the English Artists suffer in consequence. 

" In conclusion, your Memorialists beg leave to state the following fact, 
connected with these Anglo-Foreign Watches, particularly deserving the 
notice of His Majesty's Government. Had the above mentioned Watches 
been manufactured in Great Britain, the parties making and selling them, 
would have been amenable to the Civil Law for using the name of another 
Maker, and to the Criminal Law, for applying false marks to the Cases ; from 
whence it follows that Foreigners can do that with impunity, for their own 
advantage, and to the great prejudice of His Majesty's subjects, which would 
subject the latter, were they to do the same, to severe pains and penalties." 

In July of the same year, the Court directed a Memorial 
to be prepared to the Treasury, but at the next Meeting it 
was reported that an Act had been passed which had rendered 
its presentation unnecessary. The Act referred to being the 
Act 9th, George IV, cap. Ixxvi, intituled : "An Act to amend 
the laws relating to the Customs," clause 4, of which enacts 
as follows : — 

IV. " 'And whereas it is expedient to prohibit the importation of Clocks 
and Watches having false marks or names thereon ; be it therefore enacted, 



THE CLOCKMAKItRS COMPANY. 295 

That it shall not be lawful to import any Clock, nor any Watch, impressed 
with any mark or stamp, appearing to be or to represent any legal British 
assay mark or stamp, or puporting by any mark or appearance to be of the 
manufacture of the United Kingdom, or not having the name and place of 
abode of some Foreign Maker abroad, visible on the frame, and also on the 
face, or not being in a complete state, with all the parts properly fixed in the 
Case ; and that such prohibition shall be complied with and enforced, in like 
manner as if the same were set forth in a certain Table, denominated, 'A Table 
of Prohibitions and Restrictions Inwards,' contained in the said Act for the 
general Regulation of the Customs.' " 

The Court, at a subsequent Meeting", held on the 
25th November, 1828, caused copies of the above Clause to 
be officially communicated to the Swiss and French Consuls 
General, with a view to its provisions being made known in 
their respective countries. 

Though, as has been shewn, the law was at length so 
amended as to meet the views of the Trade, it appears that 
the same illicit practices were continued, and Watches, etc., 
continued to be imported bearing the forged names, etc., of 
the same English makers as formerly, and within two years 
after the passing of the Act, viz., in February, 1830, the 
Court again memorialized the Treasury in the following 
terms : — 

" The Memorial of the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 
Company of Clockniakers of the City of London : 

" Sheweth, 

"That in or about the month of December last, three 
dozen of Foreign Watches, in Silver Cases, supposed to be the property of a 
Russian Jew, were seized, under the provisions of the Act 6 (ieo. IV. cap. 
107, sec. 53, in consequence of their being engraved with an English name 
and place thereon, viz. ' Eardley Norton, London,' in violation of the said 
Act, but without any marks or impressions on the Cases, purporting to be 
those of the Goldsmiths' Hall ; as all English Watches, Silver as well as Gold, 
must have the Cases assayed and marked at Goldsmiths' Hall, before the 
Watches CJin be sold, otherwise the party selling the same, are liable to a 
heavy penalty, and the articles destroyed. 

" Your Memorialists beg very respectfully to submit to your Lordships, 
that if these Watches are permitted to be sold at the Custom-house, as is 
customary with seized goods, they will eventually be resold in detail as 
English Watches, to the prejudice of the English Manufacture, which, from 
causes which it is unnecessary to refer to on the present occasion, is in a 
most depressed state, and a great number of industrious workmen are out of 
employment, and consequently in great distress — themselves and families 
wanting the necessaries of life. 



294 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" Moreover, should these Watches be subseijuently resold, as of English 
Manufacture, after having been sold at the Custom-house sale, such resale 
will, upon the face of the transaction, be illegal, in consequence of the Cases 
not bearing the marks of the Goldsmiths' Hall, which, being of Foreign 
Manufacture, they cannot have ; it becomes therefore very probable, that to 
render the \\'atches more saleable, false or forged marks will be applied to the 
Cases ; thus adding a second fraud to the first. 

'• It is further to be observed, that these Watches are of very inferior 
quality, and if exported, would certainly be sold for English, to the great 
prejudice of the character of the English work. 

"Your Memorialists therefore pray, that your Lordships will order these 
Watches not to be so sold, but that the Cases may be dealt with as 
with Plate seized of Foreign Manufacture, and the Movements to 
be destroyed."' 

To this an answer was received from the Treasury, 
intimating that instructions had been given to the Com- 
missioners of Customs for the destruction of the Watch 
Movements in question, and the rendering the Cases unfit for 
use as well, and for their disposal as Plate seized, of Foreign 
Manufacture. 

In January, 1S32, the distress existing in the Trade 
induced the Court again to take up the question, and they 
agreed to another Memorial to the Treasury, and a letter to 
Lord Althorp, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, in support 
of it. The Memorial itself contains a succinct statement 
of the case of the English makers, the disadvantages 
under which they had so long laboured, and the various 
alterations made in the law with a view to alleviate these 
disadvantages, and protect the King's subjects from undue 
and unfair foreign competition ; and is as follows : — 

" The Memorial of the Al aster. Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 
Company of Clockmakers of the City of London : 

" Sheweth, 

" That on or about the period of the Right Honourable 
William Pitt's Commercial Treaty with France, an ad valorem Duty of 
75 per cent, was imposed upon all Foreign Clocks and Watches imported 
into this country, which Duty was commonly known by the very appropriate 
appellation of 'a Countervailing Duty.' That so long ago as previous to the 
year 1787, the Manufacture of Clocks and Watches in this country was found 
to be materially affected by the illicit importation of Foreign Clocks and 
Watches ; and in consequence, a Representation was addressed to the Lords of 
Trade on the 19th of February, 1787 ; and the subject of the Representation 
being found to be one that immediately affected the Revenue, it was a few 
days after laid before the Lords of the Treasury. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 295 

"That the War with France, which commenced in 1793, and continued 
until the short Peace of Amiens in 1802, and subsecjuently until 1815, pre- 
vented in a great measure the increase of the evil ; and it does not appear 
that any further communications took place between His Majesty's Govern- 
ment and the Company, on the subject of Foreign Clocks and Watches 
(with one exception in 1789), until 1816 ; after which period they became 
much more frequent. But since the general Peace in 18 15, the evil has been 
progressively increasing, until it has arrived at so alarming a height, as to 
threaten the speedy and entire annihilation of the Manufacture of Clocks 
and Watches in this country. 

"That an Act was passed, 6 Geo. IV., cap. 105, entitled, 'An Act to 
repeal the several Laws relating to ' the Customs,' (5th July, 1825), whereby 
all former Acts were repealed; and that an Act was passed, cap. 107, entitled, 
'An Act for the general Regulation of 'the Customs,' (5th July, 1825), by 
which a Duty of only 25 per cent, ad valorem, was imposed upon all Foreign 
Clocks and Watches imported into these reahns. But from the absence of 
some Legislative Enactments, whereby the fact of the article having paid 
the Duty, can be satisfactorily ascertained, the provisions of the Act, par- 
ticularly as applied to Watches, are become a dead letter, and the intention 
of the Legislature is entirely frustrated. 

" Your Memorialists have been informed from good authority (the truth 
of which information may be easily ascertained by an application to the Hon- 
orable Board of Customs), that scarcely an entry of Watches for payment of 
Duty has been made at the Custom-house within the last two years, during 
which time the number of Watches illicitly imported, and exposed for sale 
in the public shops and private establishments, has increased twenty-fold, 
without the smallest benefit to the Revenue. A certain number of Clocks, 
though far from the total quantity brought into the country, are entered for 
payment of Duty ; but those are generally very much undervalued. 

" The Foreign Manufacturers have their respective Agents in London, 
to whom they consign their goods ; and there are certain individuals, a 
species of nondescript Smugglers, who carry on a very lucrative business, 
without, as in the case of the operating Smuggler, any personal risk, by 
insuring the safe delivery of the articles, for a very small per centage upon 
their value. In like manner, private individuals procuring, or having Watches 
made abroad for their own use, have the option of having their Watches 
delivered to them free of Duty by the London Agent of the Foreign Maker, 
and are not required to pay for them until they are received in London. By 
these arrangements, the Foreign Manufacturer possesses great facilities for 
importing his Clocks and Watches, particularly the latter, into the country ; 
and the persons dealing in them are enabled to procure them to the best 
advantage, and without risk of loss : all this without in the smallest degree 
benefiting the Revenue, but to the utter ruin of the British Manufacturer. 

" Your Memorialists have lately been informed, and they believe the 
information to be correct, that in consequence of the decrease in the 
number of English who have visited Paris since July 1829, and consequently 
of the number of Swiss Watches sold there, that the Swiss ALanufacturers 
have it in contemplation, to remove their princijxal establishments from 
Paris to London; which, for the reasons above stated, they can do to 
great advantage to themselves, and i)roportionate injury to the English 
Manufacturer. 



296 TIIK CLOCKMAIvKRs' COMPANY. 

" 'I'liat the home market is ahiiost the only market remaining to the 
Englisli Clock and Watch Manufacturer ; for in consequence of the superior 
estimation in which English Clocks and ^^'atches have for a great length of 
time been held, and the consequent demand for them in most parts of the 
world, the Foreign Manufacturers have been induced to make Watches as 
nearly as possible to resemble English, and engraved with English names, and 
' London,' and with forged marks of the Goldsmiths' Hall of London im- 
pressed upon the Cases, for the purpose of being exported to the foreign 
markets commonly supplied by the British Manufacturer; who, from the 
comparative low prices at which they (the Foreign Manufacturers) can afford 
to sell them, compared with the unavoidable high price of the English 
A\'atches, the latter are completely driven out of the market, to the great 
prejudice of the English Manufacturer ; and Clocks and Watches will neces- 
sarily cease to be an article of export trade, except to a very limited extent. 
As a proof of the superior quality of the English Manufacture, your Memo- 
rialists beg particularly to call your attention to this circumstance, — that they 
are not aware that a single instance has been adduced, of English Clocks or 
Watches having been made to imitate Foreign, with Foreign names oi makers 
and places upon them. The disadvantages the English Manufacturer labours 
under, as above-mentioned, were much increased in the year 1822, by the 
passing of the Warehousing Act ; which, although it prohibited the ware- 
housing of any Clocks and Watches having English names or ' London ' 
engraved on them, or marks on the Cases in imitation of those of the 
Goldsmiths' Hall, still enabled the Foreign Manufacturer to keep his 
goods, free of expence, for a considerable period in the King's Warehouse, 
ready to be exported to the first market that offered, at a very much lower 
price than similar goods made here could be afforded. It is true, this 
particular Act was repealed by the Act 6 Geo. IV. cap. 105 (5th July, 1825), 
but its provisions are contained in an Act ' for regulating the Customs,' 
passed the same year, cap. 107; and the Foreign Manufacturer still enjoys 
the advantage of warehousing his goods at a very trifling expence, and of 
deferring the period for payment of the Duty, to suit his own convenience. 

"That with very few exceptions, the Watches brought into these realms, 
and commonly called French Watches, are not made in France ; but are in 
fact made, part at Geneva, but by far the greater number at Neufchatel, in 
Switzerland, in a country in which the price of the necessaries of life is not 
influenced by Corn- laws ; and where there are neither Taxes, Poor's-rates, or 
Tithes, or scarcely impositions of any sort or kind whatever ; and where the 
expence of living, and consequently the value of labour, is infinitely less than 
in a country like England, by far the highest taxed of any in Europe ; and 
where, moreover, the high price of labour is maintained by Corn-laws, the 
effect of which is to enhance the cost of the first necessaries of life. From 
these causes, the relative situation of the English and Foreign Manufacturer 
is so very different, and the advantage so decidedly in favour of the latter, 
that were the Duty of 25 per cent, imposed upon all Foreign Watches brought 
into this country levied, the same would afford a very inadequate protection 
to the home Manufacturer. Probably no amount of Duty short of 75 per 
cent., as first imposed by Mr. Pitt, upon all Foreign Clocks and Watches 
imported, would be equivalent to the relative situation in which the British 
and Foreign Manufacturers are placed. 

"That the cost of manufacturing Clocks and Watches, but more par- 
ticularly the latter, depends entirely upon the price of labour; because, 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 297 

exclusive of the Gold or Silver of which the Watch Cases are made, the value 
of the raw materials of which the \Vatch Movement is composed, compared 
with the article when finished, is exceedingly small. The cost of manu- 
facturing a Watch may be divided as follows : ist, The value of the labour 
employed, forming by far the greater part of the total value : 2nd, The value 
of the material. Gold or Silver, of which the Case is made : 3rd, The value 
of the raw material of which the Movement is made ; which last is by very 
much the smallest part. I'he average value of the raw material employed in 
making a Watch, may be estimated at from Two to l'"our Shillings each 
Watch Movement. 

" What is above described under the denomination of raw material, is not 
strictly so ; but has been brought into a certain preparatory state by the help 
of machinery, particularly the steel wire of which the pinions and ])endulum- 
springs are made. 

" That the raw materials, as above described, and generally all the steel 
employed in the manufacture of Watches, is exported from this country to 
Switzerland. Until the year 1825, the exportation of any unfinished part or 
parts of Watches was strictly prohibited by a former Act. In the present state 
of the Law, the Foreign Manufacturer draws his raw material, wrought into a 
preparatory state as above described, from this country ; and is thereby enabled 
to furnish better articles, and at a cheaper rate than he could otherwise do. 
To satisfy themselves of the truth of the above statement, your Memorialists 
employed a person to apply at Locle, in the Canton of Neufchatel, the 
principal seat of the Watch Manufactory in Switzerland, to purchase the 
above-named Articles (steel pinion wire, pendulum spring wire, and steel 
prepared for various purposes), where he was unhesitatingly told, they were 
all brought from England, and that if he required any quantity, his better 
plan would be to employ an agent to procure them direct from London. 

" That the assertions made by some writers upon Political Economy, and 
of sundry articles in some of the Encyclopediae, that machinery had been 
brought to such perfection, that little now was required in the manufacturing 
of Clocks and Watches, but what could easily be accomplished by the use of 
machinery, are entirely false. The contrary is the case ; for there is no 
manufacture so dependent upon manual labour and dexterity, or for v.-hich 
so little can be done by the aid of machinery ; except indeed as described 
under the head of raw material. But this, in the present state of the Law, is 
as much to the benefit of the Foreign as to the English Manufacturer. In 
the entire catalogue of articles manufactured in this country, there is probably 
not one in which manual labour forms so large a proportion of the cost of 
production, as in Clocks and Watches, but more particularly the latter ; and 
consequently so valuable in a thickly-peopled country like England ; and 
more especially at a time when it is the fashion, with a certain class of 
Political Economists, to attribute a considerable portion of the distresses 
under which the lower classes are at present labouring, to an excess of 
population. 

"That although the superiority ot the English Watches, as to quality and 
performance, is not disputed, still it has been asserted, and too generally 
credited, that English Watches cannot be made so flat and so neat as Foreign 
Watches. This is not the fact : Watches are, and can be made in London, 
as small, as flat, as neat, and as beautiful to the eye, as any made on the 
Continent ; but they cannot be made at the same cost, and consequently 



2gS THE clockmakp:rs' company. 

cannot be sold at the same price ; but the attempt on the part of the British 
Manufacturer to compete with the Foreign artizan in the price of Clocks and 
Watches, has a natural tendency to deteriorate the quality of the article and 
must eventually lose to the British Clock and Watchmaker the superior 
character he has hitherto maintained in his branch of manufacture. 

" That the Art of Clock and Watchmaking employs a great number of 
persons in various parts of the United Kingdom, particularly in London, 
Liverpool, Coventry, and Prescot in Lancashire ; not only in the immediate 
manufacture of Clocks and Watches, but also of various tools employed in 
that manufacture. 

" That for some time past, the situation of those individuals, from the 
want of employment, has been progressively getting worse ; and that the 
period is fast approaching, when, in the full enjoyment of the faculties Nature 
has given them to obtain a decent livelihood, and provide for themselves and 
their families, as their fathers had done before them, they will, for the want of 
employment, be reduced to a state of absolute pauperism, and become 
dependent upon the Poor's-rate for support : thereby increasing the total mass 
of pauperism, and the already overgrown amount of the Poor's-rates, and all 
the moral evils resulting from such an artificial state of society. 

"That for some time past, the earnings of the working classes, in 
consequence of the extent to which the illicit introduction of Foreign Clocks 
and Watches into this country has prevailed, have been gradually decreasing, 
and have now reached the minimum at which those who are fortunate 
enough to obtain employment, can earn a bare maintenance. That the only 
persons who really benefit by this state of things, are, ist, The Foreign 
Manufacturer; and, 2nd, The home wholesale Smuggler, who carries on a 
most profitable agency, with very little pecuniary risk, and without any 
personal risk whatever. 

" That the return of the number of Watch Cases assayed and marked at 
the Goldsmiths' Hall, forms no just criterion of the number of Watches made 
in this country. For some time past, but more particularly since the general 
Peace in 18 15, a practice has been carried on by certain Foreigners to a 
considerable extent, of illicitly importing Foreign Watches in a nearly or 
quite finished state, particularly Repeaters, but without Cases, which are put 
into Cases made here, and invariably sold as English Watches, and at as near 
the price of English Watches as the parties practising these frauds can obtain. 
Great numbers of these Watches are also exported, and sold as of English 
manufacture ; but being of very inferior quality, are doubly injurious to the 
British Manufacturer, as they not only deprive him of his legitimate share of 
trade, but, by their bad performance, bring unmerited discredit upon the 
British Manufacture. This practice has increased to so great an extent, that 
your Memorialists have repeatedly cautioned the Public against it by Adver- 
tisement in the Daily Papers. 

" That the Art of Clock and Watchmaking, which has universally been 
allowed to hold the first class in the mechanical arts, has been carried to the 
highest degree of excellence in this country. England produced the first 
Marine Chronometers deserving that appellation. English Clocks and Watches 
are valued and sought after in every quarter of the globe where civilization 
has made any progress ; and wherever the Foreign article has usurped the 
place of the English, it has been under the mask of English names, and 
disguised to resemble English Manufactures. 



THE Cr,OCKMAKKRS COMPANY. 299 

" That the claims of the individuals practising the Art of Clock and 
Watchmaking to the protection of the Legislature, have been fully allowed, 
upon every occasion, when a Deputation from the Court of Assistants of this 
Company has had business to transact with any of the Members of His 
Majesty's Government; and moreover, that Legislative Enactments have 
been made at the special solicitation of the Court of Assistants, of which it 
will be sufficient to notice two, viz. the Clause (LXXXL) in the Warehousing 
Bill, (i2th May, 1823), and the Clause (IV.) in the 'Act to Amend the Laws 
relating to the Customs,' (25th July 1828); but your Memorialists regret to 
add, that in consequence of the present state of the Trade, and the little 
prospect that exists of its improvement, that several workmen of the superior 
class, men of considerable talent as workmen, and possessing some property ; 
precisely those who, on every account, it is desirable should not leave the 
country, are about to emigrate to America. The inferior class of workmen, 
and consequently those the least useful, have not the means of emigrating ; 
and their entire ignorance of all agricultural pursuits, precludes their being 
engaged by individuals forming establishments in the British Colonies ; and 
the prospect that awaits them, from the want of employment in their legiti- 
mate calling, is to end a life of wretchedness and misery in a workhouse. 

" Your Memorialists therefore very respectfully beg to submit to your 
Lordships,^ — -That from the best consideration they can give the 
subject it appears to your Memorialists, that the only prospect that 
remains for restoring the Manufacture of Clocks and Watches to its 
former state of prosperity, and preserving it to the country, may be 
stated under the following heads : 

" I St, That the Duty upon Foreign Clocks and Watches imported, be 
made to assimilate to the relative situation of the working classes 
in this country, and in France and Switzerland. 

" 2nd, That the collection of the Duty be rigidly enforced ; for which 
purpose, all Foreign Clocks and Watches to be marked when the 
Duty is paid : the mark to be the proof of the Duty having been 
paid. That the said marking be done at the Custom-house, and by 
an Officer appointed by the Commissioners of His Majesty's 
Customs. The marking Foreign Goods imported, upon payment 
of Duty, is not new in principle ; and to adopt it in the case of 
Clocks and Watches, has been pressed upon His Majesty's Govern- 
ment since the year 1787. — If the principle of marking is conceded, 
there will be no difficulty in regulating the detail, and it can be 
effected without any prejudice whatever to the article marked. 

" 3rd, That no Clocks or Watches unfinished, or in an incomplete state, 
or without Cases ; or parts of Clocks or Watches finished or un- 
finished, or without name of maker, and place where made, be 
allowed to be imported. 

"4th, That no incomplete Clocks or ^^'atches, or parts of Clocks or 
Watches, or raw material prepared for the manufacture of Clocks or 
Watches (such as steel pinion wire, or pendulum spring wire), be 
allowed to be exported. 

X 



300 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMl'ANV. 

'•5th, That efficient Legislative Enactments be adopted, to cut short the 
proceedings of the home wholesale Smuggler, who furnishes the 
capital employed in the illicit trade, in a similar manner to what 
was adopted to put a stop to the investment of British capital in 
the Slave Trade." 

The reply of the Treasury to this Memorial was laid 
before the Court on the 5th March, 1832, in the following 
terms : — 

" Gentlemen, 

" I am commanded by the Lords Commissioners of 
His Majesty's Treasury to acquaint you, that on the fullest consideration of 
your Memorial, in which you request that you may be relieved from the 
injury sustained by the Trade from the illicit importation of Foreign Clocks 
and Watches ; and after having taken the opinion of the Board of Trade 
thereon, // does not appear to f>iy Lords, that any attempt to relieve yoti from 
Foreign competition, by rigid Custoni-iwuse regulations, would have a beneficial 
effect in protecting your Trade. 

" I am, Gentlemen, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " Spring Rice. 

" Treasurv Chambers, 
2nd March, 1832^ 

On the 6th of May, 1833, the Court determined again to 
appeal to the Treasury, more especially since the Trade had 
in the interim become still further depressed. 

The Memorial adopted by them and the correspondence 
which thereupon ensued with the Treasury, are set out at 
length, as follows : — 

'•'•To the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of His 
Majesty s Treasury : 

^^The Memo7-ial of the Master, Wardefis, and Court of Assistants, of the 
Company of Clock makers of the City of London, 

" Sheweth, 

"That upwards of Twelve Months have now elapsed since your 
Memorialists last addressed your Lordships, during which period the state 
of the Clock and Watch Manufacture in this Country has, from various 
causes, been progressively more and more depressed. The principal cause 
of this depression is indisputably the immense number of Foreign Clocks and 
Watches brought into the Country. 

"By an Act passed in the 6th year of George IV., cap. 107, entitled 
' An Act for the Regulation of the Customs,' (5th July, 1825), the Duty to be 
paid on the importation of Foreign Clocks and Watches was reduced to and 
definitely fixed at 25 per cent, ad valorem, which is a reduction of 50 per 
cent, from the protecting Duty established at the period of the late Mr. Pitt's 
Commercial Treaty with France. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 3OI 

" This reduced Duty of 25 per cent. Lord Wallace (then President of the 
Board of Trade), stated to a Deputation from your Memorialists he considered 
preferable to a higher Duty, because it afforded less inducement for Smuggling, 
adding that it was the determination of His Majesty's Government to take the 
necessary steps for enforcing the payment of the reduced Duty. Your Memo- 
rialists without entering at present into the question of the good policy of 
thus reducing the protecting Duty, beg to submit respectfully but firmly to 
your Lordships that they have a right to expect that the enforcement of the 
reduced Duty should be carefully and strictly attended to. They regret that 
this has not been the case. From the period of the reduction of the Duty 
to the present time the evil of the contraband importation has been daily 
increasing, but from the facilities afforded by the small bulk of the 
article, the SmuggUng of Watches has very far exceeded that of Clocks. A 
number of Foreign Clocks have certainly been entered for the payment 
of Duty, but even in this case the Home Alanufacture has not due protection ; 
since from the circumstance of their being under-valued, they have paid 
much less duty than they should have done. Moreover, your Memorialists 
have reason to believe that a great many Clocks have been clandestinely 
imported. With regard to Watches, the number which has been entered and 
has paid duty bears a very small proportion to those which have been illegally 
imported. Your Memorialists are aware that from the nature of the circum- 
stances upon which they address your Lordships, they cannot produce strict 
demonstration of the facts of which they complain, and the difficulty in this 
respect is increased by the defective manner in which the Custom House 
Registry of Watches imported is kept. In that Registry, as your Memorialists 
understand, no account is taken of the number of the Watches imported, or 
whether they are Gold or Silver, nothing is stated but their gross value. It is 
very desirable that this defective registration should be remedied. The fact, 
however, of the enormous amount of the contraband trade in the articles of 
your Memorialists' Manufacture, which they complain of will, they think, be 
as plainly apparent to your Lordships as it unfortunately is to themselves, 
from the following circumstance : The total value of the Clocks and Watches, 
for which duty was paid at the Port of London for the four years ending with 
1832, was as follows: — Clocks valued at ;j^99,6oo iis. i^.. Watches only 
valued at ;^2937 ijs. od., but, as has been before noticed, these articles 
being generally entered for payment of duty at very far below their real value, 
particularly when imported for sale, the above sum of ;^99,6oo \\s. id. was 
probably not much more than half their value, and it may fairly be inferred that 
the total value of the Clocks, only, imported was not less than ^200,000. With 
respect to Watches the disproportion of the value entered at the Custom 
House to the number everywhere publicly offered for sale, is so palpable that 
there can be no doubt of the immense contraband trade that must be carried 
on. Taking the value of Foreign Gold \\'atches at an average of £,^ 
each, it would appear that in the four years above mentioned, and 
supposing all the Watches imported to have been Gold Watches, 
no more than 420 Foreign Gold Watches were imported ! It is notorious 
to every man in the trade that ten times that number might be 
counted in the shop windows any morning in a walk from Whitechapel to 
Hyde Park, besides the immense number that are not open to public view. 
There cannot be a doubt therefore that the revenue is enormously defrauded, 
and the protection intended to be afforded to the Home Manufacturer wholly 
lost. Independently of the Watches publicly exposed for sale, Foreign 

X 2 



^02 THE CT.OCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

Watches (the same remark applies to Foreign Clocks) are now commonly 
sold as an article of commerce by Jewellers, Haberdashers, Milliners, Dress- 
makers, Perfumers, French Toy-shops, &c. ; and are even hawked about the 
streets. Probably at no period was so large a number of Foreign Gold 
Watches brought into the country as within the last four years, and your 
Lordships' Memorialists are of opinion that they do not estimate the value of 
these Watches at all too highly at the sum of ^700,000. Your Memorialists 
are fully aware of the difficulty of forming a correct estimate upon a question 
of this sort, with the very slender official data that can, in the present defective 
manner of making the entries, be obtained. But your Memorialists, with the 
sources of information which their intercourse in the trade supplies, are 
satisfied they are much under the mark when they estimate the number of 
Gold Watches brought into this country by various channels during the last 
four years to average not less than 25,000 each year, giving a total of 
100,000 Gold Watches. Now taking ^7 as the average value of each Watch, 
the total amount will be _;^7oo,ooo. The number and value of the Silver 
Watches imported is much less in proportion than that of Gold Watches ; 
they may fairly be estimated at 10,000 Watches each year, at an average 
value of I Si', each, which gives a total of 40,000 Watches, value ;;^3o,ooo, 
making the total value of Gold and Silver "Watches ^^ 7 30,000. The value of 
the Clocks has been previously estimated at ;^2oo,ooo, making the total 
value of the Clocks and Watches brought into the country the last four 
years ^^930,000, upon which sum, had the Duty been enforced, it would 
have amounted to ;^232,5oo, whereas the Duty paid has been only 
^25,634 i2s. o^d., being very nearly ^200,000 less than it would have been 
had the Duty been properly collected. 

" Your Memorialists very respectfully submit to your Lordships that if 
it is fitting a Duty should be imposed upon Foreign Clocks and Watches, it 
is equally so to enforce the payment. That to nominally protect a Home 
Manufacture by imposing an import duty upon a similar Foreign Manu- 
facture, and at the same time to omit to adopt such measures as can alone 
ensure the collection of the Duty, and thus virtually to sacrifice both the 
Revenue atid the Home Manufactuj'er for the benefit of the Foreigti Manufacturer 
who does not contribute one shilling tozuards the expense of the State or the 
support of the poor, is to practise a cruel mockery upon the heavily taxed and 
rated British Ma7iufacturer. Further, that the Foreign Watches of the illicit 
importation of which into these realms your Memorialists have so much 
cause to complain, are made principally in Switzerland, a country exempt 
from Taxes, Rates and Tithes, and without Corn Laws to force up the value 
of labour. Moreover, your Memorialists are not aware that any articles of 
British Manufacture are exported to Switzerland. 

"The Foreign Dealers openly boast of the facility with which they 
smuggle their Watches into this country, the few they enter for payment of 
Duty serving as a cover for the others ; and they do not scruple to avow that 
so long as the Legislature abstains from adopting some measure to identify 
the Clocks and Watches that have paid the Duty, and thus distinguish 
them from those that have not, that nothing as the law at present stands can 
or shall prevent their importing as many as they please without payment 
of Duty. 

"Your Lordships' Memorialists have been induced to trouble your 
Lordships at this time, in consequence of having noticed in the Reports of 



THE CLOCKMAKEKS COMPANY. 303 

the Proceedings in the House of Commons as given in the daily papers, that 
the various Acts for the regulation of the Customs were about to be revised 
and consolidated, in the hope that your Lordshi])s would be induced to 
embrace the present opportunity to bestow some consideration on a subject 
involving the interests, nay, the very existence, of a great number of in- 
dustrious and deserving mechanics and their families. For your MemoriaHsts 
regret to add that the distresses under which the English artizan has for a long 
time laboured have not diminished, but are, on the contrar)-, considerably 
aggravated, principally by the cause above mentioned. 

" No consideration but an imperative sense of the duty your Lordships" 
Memorialists owe the trade at large, of which they are the legally-constituted 
guardians, added to the interest they take in the happiness and well-being 
of the working classes, would have induced them to trouble your Lordships 
at the present conjuncture, but, having so done, they think it right to state un- 
reservedly to your Lordships that unless some efficient relief is afforded to the 
British Manufacturer, which cannot be done unless the payment of the duty 
as by law established is enforced, he must, from inability to meet the Foreign 
manufacturer in the home market — almost the only market now left to him — 
cease to manufacture, and thus throw out of employment a great number of 
workmen, thereby increasing the distress and misery which, for want of 
employment, now prevails among the lower classes, and is one principal cause 
of the existing discontent. Your Lordships' Memorialists beg leave here 
also to observe that the greater cheapness of Foreign Watches is no com- 
pensation whatsoever to the classes who are thrown out of employment by 
their illicit importation. It is not the industrious or the lower classes who 
use Foreign Clocks and Watches. 

" In conclusion, your Lordships' Memorialists think it right to state to 
your Lordships that, although they do not consider the duty of 2 5 per cent. 
ad valorem to be a sufficient protecting duty for the English Manufacturer, 
burthened as he is with taxes and poor's rates — particularly in the article of 
Watches, which are manufactured in an untaxed country — yet aware of the 
feeling that so generally prevails in the present day against high protecting 
Import duties, they abstain from urging any increase of the amount of duty, 
and only pray that they may possess in fact the protection which, according 
to the existing law, they ought to have. 

" Your Lordships' Memorialists will now briefly state to your Lordships, 
under the two heads of Imports and Exports, points to which they particularly 
wish to call your Lordships' attention. 

" IMPORTS. 

'• That the collection of the Duty upon all Foreign Clocks and Watches 
brought into these realms be enforced with the same exactness as is done in 
the case of various other articles, and in such a manner that those that have 
paid the Duty can be readily distinguished from those that have not. 

" That no Clocks or Watches be admitted to entry with ' London,' or the 
name of any other place in the United Kingdom, engraved on them, or 
engraved or painted in any way to give colour to their being English. 

" That no Clocks or Watches be admitted to entry unless they have en- 
graved on them a name and place purporting to be the name and place of 
abode of the person who made them. 



304 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" That no Clocks or Watches be admitted to entry in an incomplete state, 
that is to say, without having the movement and all its concomitant parts 
propel ly fixed and secured in its case. 

" That no Watch shall be admitted to entry with marks on the case 
similar or approximating to or purporting to be marks of the Goldsmiths' 
Company of the City of London. 



" EXPORTS. 

" That no incomplete Clocks or Watches, or parts of Clocks or Watches, 
or material prepared for the manufacture of Clocks or Watches (such as 
pendulum spring wire, and steel pinion wire) be allowed to be exported, as 
it is well known that the Foreign Manufacturer derives his supply of these 
articles (which are in fact the most useful parts of the material of Watches) 
from this country. 

" That all Clocks and Watches exported shall bear the name and place 
of abode of the person by whom they are made engraved upon them ; and 
Clocks and Watches without names not to be allow^ed to be exported. 



" Office of Committee of Privy Council for Trade, 

" Whitehall, 24th May, 1833. 
" Sir, 

" The Lords of the Committee of Privy Council for Trade 
have received an application on behalf of the Watch Case Makers of 
Liverpool, stating that the works of Watches made in England are exported 
without cases, and that they are afterwards put into cases of Foreign 
Manufacture on which imitations of the marks of British Makers and of the 
Assay Offices of this Country are impressed, the metal being far below the 
English standard, and that the Watches, w^hen so completed, are sold as 
entirely of British manufacture, to the injury and disrepute of the British 
makers ; and it is further stated that by the Act of the 9 and 10, Will. IIL 
chap, xxviii., the exportation of any case or dial plate for a Clock or Watch is 
prohibited, without the movement being put therein and made up for use, 
which Act was intended to protect the Watchmakers in this country; and the 
Watch Case Makers pray that similar protection may be afforded to their 
trade by a legislative enactment prohibiting the exportation of Watches, 
except in Gold and Silver Cases. 

" Before the Lords of this Committee proceed to take this matter 
into consideration, they would be glad to receive any remarks which the 
Members of the Company of Clockmakers in London may have to offer 
on the subject, and I have therefore been directed to communicate their 
Lordships' wish to you accordingly. 

" I am Sir, 
" Mr. G. Atkins, " Your obedient Servant, 

" Cowper's Court, Cornhill. (Signed) " Thomas Lack. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 305 

" Cowper's Court, 

" May 28th, 1833. 
" Sir, 

" I am directed by the Master and Wardens of the Company of 
Clockmakers of the City of London, to acknowledge the receipt of your 
letter of the 24th instant. 

" I am further directed to say that it is their decided opinion, as expressed 
on former occasions, that the exportation of Clocks and Watches without 
their cases, or in any respect in an unfinished state, as well as parts of Clocks 
and Watches, is highly prejudicial to the best interests of the British Manu- 
facturer. In the first place a number of workmen are thereby deprived of the 
means of gaining a livelihood, and in the second it opens a wide door to 
every species of fraud, as alluded to in your letter. 

" You will find this opinion expressly stated in two Memorials from the 
Company of Clockmakers of the City of London, addressed to the Lords of 
His Majesty's Treasury, dated February 8th, 1832, and the 8th instant. And 
in a Letter from Mr. Spring Rice, dated 2nd March, 1832, it is mentioned 
that the Memorial of the 8th February has been referred to the Board for 
Trade. 

" I am directed to add that, if you have not easy access to these 
Memorials, copies of the same will with much pleasure be furnished, as well 
as any information the Court can give that you may require. 

" I am, Sir, 
" T/ios. Lack, Esq. " Your obedient Servant, 

'■'■ Offices of the Commissioners of Privy (Signed) "George Atkins, 

Council for Trade, Whitehall^ " Clerk to the Company. 



" Custom House, 

" 4th yune, 1833. 

"Sir, 

"The Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury having 
transmitted to the Board of Customs a Copy of a Memorial from the 
Master and Wardens of the Company of Clockmakers, containing suggestions 
in order to prevent the illegal importation of Watches and Clocks, or their 
admission at under valuation, I have it in command to acquaint you 
that the Board of Customs are ready to consider any further regulations 
which the Company of Clockmakers may have to propose, with a view of 
attaining the object of their application. 

" 1 am, Sir, 

"Your most obedient Servant, 
'' Mr. G. Atkins. (Signed) "J. Ker. 



"Sir, 



" Office of Committee of Privy Council for Trade, 
" Whitehall, sik June, 1833. 



" I am directed by the Lords of the Committee of Privy Council 
for Trade to acquaint you that your letter of the 2Sth ultimo, on the subject 



306 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

of the exportation of Clocks and Watches in an unfinished state, has been 
duly received, and will be considered by their Lordships. 

" I am, Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
" Mr. G. Atkins. (Signed) " Thomas Lack. 

" Treasury Chambers. 
" I o 1 5 1 ;J ''7th June, 1833. 

" Gentlemen, 

" Having laid before the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's 
Treasury your Memorial on the subject of the Duties on Foreign Clocks and 
Watches, I have it in command to acquaint you that my Lords have given 
directions to the Board of Customs, to ensure the utmost vigilance on the 
part of their officers to guard against the illegal importation of Watches, as 
well as to ensure the payment of the full duties on Watches when imported. 
I am at the same time to add that if it be true, as now stated, that W^atches 
are smuggled in, the increase of duty would only increase the temptations to 
such clandestine traffic, and that the affixing the name of a foreign maker and 
a mark importing the payment of duty, could not give much additional 
security, unless means were adopted of searching and inspecting Watches 
worn by individuals, and of seizing Watches if not so marked. This power of 
search and seizure, it is obvious, never could be granted ; independently of 
which the facility of counterfeiting the proposed marks would in itself be a 
bar to a compliance with this suggestion. 

" I am, Gentlemen, 
" To'the Company of Clockmakers, " Your obedient Servant, 

''Mr. G. Atkins. (Signed) "Spring Rice. 



" Cowper^s Court., Cornhili, 

" yu?ie nth, 1833. 
"Sir, 

" I am directed by the Master and Wardens of the Company of 
Clockmakers of the City of London to acknowledge the receipt of your Letter 
of the 5th instant. 

" I am further directed to say that the object the Company have in view- 
in the Memorial, dated May 7th, to the Lords of the Treasury on the subject 
of Foreign Clocks and Watches not being the alteration of the existing law, 
but merely the botia fide and vigilant carrying the same into effect, they have 
in point of fact, no suggestions to make to your Board further than those 
contained in their Memorial, of which it appears by your Letter the Board of 
Customs have been furnished with a copy by the Lords of the Treasury. 

" I am, Sir, 
" Your most obedient humble Servant, 
^'To y. Ker, Esq., (Signed) " George Atkins, 

" Custom House, London. "Clerk to the Company. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPAiNY. ^ifO"/ 

"6, Cowper's Court, Co nihil I, 

''June ijth, 1833. 
" My Lords, 

" I am directed by the Master and Wardens of the Company of 
Clockmakers of the City of London, to address your Lordships in reply to a 
Letter I have received from Mr. Spring Rice, dated th 7th instant (and 
marked 10151I), in answer to a Memorial addressed to your Lordships dated 
the 7th May last, by the JNIaster, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 
Company. 

" I am directed in the first place to observe that Mr. Spring Rice's 
Letter appears to have been written under the impression that, in their 
' Memorial before mentioned, the Court had applied to have the amount of 
duty on Foreign Clocks and Watches imported increased. If your Lordships 
will have the goodness to refer to the Memorial you will find that it is especially 
mentioned that an increase of duty is not asked for. The words in the 
Memorial are : ' yet, aware of the feeling that so generally prevails in the 
present day against high protecting Import Duties, they abstain from urging 
any increase of duty, and only pray that they may possess in fact the pro- 
tection which, according to the existing law, they ought to have.' 

" I am directed, in the second place, to observe that Mr. Spring Rice, 
in his Letter, objects, in toto, to the proposed plan of marking Foreign Clocks 
and Watches imported, as affording no valid security, unless accompanied by 
the right of search and seizure, which, he says, never could be granted. In 
answer to this objection, I am directed to call your Lordships' attention to a 
case very much in point, namely : that the very considerable revenue derived 
from the duty upon wrought gold and silver in this country is entirely 
secured by the marks imposed upon the articles manufactured, which marks 
are imposed when the duty is paid ; and that all articles of gold and silver 
plate are obliged to be sent to certain offices, where they are marked and the 
duty paid before they can be offered for sale. Any breach of the law in this 
respect subjects the parties offending to very severe and heavy penalties, 
and there are but very few instances known of its being evaded. In reference 
to the second part of the objection — the right of search and seizure — it 
certainly does appear singular that British born subjects, dealers in wine, 
spirits, tobacco, &:c., &c., should be subject to inconvenience from which 
Foreigners, dealers in Foreign Watches and Clocks, are exempt; and also that 
so much vigilance to protect the revenue should be exercised unth regard to some 
per softs, and so much laxity be permitted with respect to others. 

" This right of search and seizure is not a new suggestion, and at one 
time (before the year 1823) was frequently acted upon by the Custom House 
Officers in reference to Clocks and Watches. 

" The securing to the Revenue the Duty upon Foreign Clocks and Watches 
by the operation of marking, to which so much objection is urged, would not be 
a difficult operation, and though at first it might be attended with some trouble 
would very soon work weW for the benefit of the Rrcenue and for the protection 
of the British Manufacturer. The Swiss Watches sold at Paris are marked 
with reference to the quality of the gold of which the cases are made, and 
what is feasible in Paris is equally so in London. The importance of this 
measure for the benefit of the Revenue and the protection of the English 
Manufacturer has been insisted upon in several communications that have 



J 



oS TIIL CLUCKMAKEKS' CUMl'ANY, 



taken place with the Lords of the Treasury, but as your Lordships may find 
it difficult to refer to the original documents, I am directed by the Master 
and Wardens to forward you the accompanying copy of ' A statement of the 
various proceedings and transactions that have taken place between the Court 
of Assistants of the Clockmakers' Com])any of the City of London and His 
Majesty's Government, in relation to the importation of Foreign Clocks and 
Watches into these realms. Ordered by the Court to be printed for the use 
of the Members of the Court the 6th February, 1832.' I am further directed 
more i)articularly to refer your Lordships to page 15, in which will be found 
the heads of a plan, which, if embodied in an Act of Parliament, would no 
doubt operate for the benefit of the Revenue, while it would give the home 
manufacturer the protection of which he so much stands in need, and to which 
he is so justly entitled. 

" Should the measures proposed in the Memorial be found upon trial 
insufficient to protect the interest of English manufacturers, the Master and 
Wardens then propose to submit to your Lordships the propriety of subjecting 
Foreign Clocks and Watches, and those who deal in them, to the operation of the 
Excise Laws. If that were done there can be no doubt that the grievance so 
justly complained of would be in a great measure, if not entirely, abated. 
There is nothing unreasonable in this proposition, as it does not appear why 
Foreign Clocks and Watches should not be under the supervision of the 
Excise, as well as other articles. The English Watchmakers have always been 
obliged to take out a licence amiually at the Excise Office, without which they 
catinot sell Gold or Silver Watches. 

*' In conclusion, I am directed to state to your Lordships that there is 
one fact connected with the importation of Foreign Clocks and Watches that 
should not be lost sight of, namely, that these articles are imported almost 
entirely for the use of the upper classes of Society ; that it is their pecuniary 
interests chiefly that will be affected by any measures that may be adopted to 
enforce the payment of the Duty, and that so long as the present state of 
things is suffered to continue both the revenue and the interests of the British 
Manufacturer and of the working classes are sacrificed for the pecuniary advan- 
tage of the higher classes. 

' ' That the revenue is completely sacrificed is sufficiently proved by the state- 
ment in the Memorial, dated the yth of May last, presented to your Lordships, of 
the value of the Watches efitered for payment of Duty at the poi't of London in 
the four years ending T^ist December, 1832. 

" To this state of things the Court has reason to beUeve the working 
classes are feelingly alive, and their complaint, that while they are heavily 
taxed, they are at the same time deprived of the means of earning where- 
withal to pay these taxes, is, in the case of the workmen employed in the 
manufacture of Clocks and Watches, but too well founded. 

" I have the honour to be, 
" My Lords, 
" Your Lordships' most obedient humble Servant, 
" To the Right Honourable the Lords (Signed) " George Atkins, 

Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury. ' Clerk to the Company. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COxMl'ANY. 3O9 

" Custom House, 

" 2ist June, 1S33. 
"Sir, 

" Having laid before the Uoard of Customs your Letter of the 
nth instant, stating, in reply to my letter of enquiry, dated the 5th pre- 
ceding, that the Master and ^\'ardens of the Company of Clockmakers have 
no suggestions to offer with a view of more effectually preventing the illegal 
importation of Foreign Watches and Clocks further than those contained in 
their Memorial to the Lords of the Treasury, of the 7th ultimo, their object 
not being the alteration, but the enforcement of the existing Law, I have it 
in command to acquaint you, for the information of the Master and Wardens 
of the Company, that the Board have issued a General Order to their Officers 
in London and at the several out-ports, enjoining them to the most vigilant 
attention, in order to prevent the illegal importation of Watches and Clocks, 
or their admission at an improper valuation. 

" I am, Sir, 
'■'■George Atkins, Esq., " Your most obedient Servant, 

CowJ)er's Court, Corn/nil. (Signed) "J. Kek. 



" Cozcper's Court, Cornhill, 

" 2gth June, i8jj. 
''Sir, 

" 1 am directed by the Master and Wardens of the Company of 
Clockmakers of the City of London, to acknowledge the receipt of your 
Letter of the 21st inst. 

" I am further directed to forward through you to the Honourable Com- 
missioners of His Majesty's Customs, a copy of ' A statement of the various 
proceedings and transactions that have taken place between the Court of 
Assistants of the Clockmakers Company of the City of London, and His 
Majesty's Government, in relation to the importation of Foreign Clocks and 
Watches into these realms ;' to which proceedings it will be necessary to refer 
in the course of this Letter. 

" The statement in your Letter that the object the Master and Wardens 
have in view is not the alteration, but the enforcement of the existing law, is 
perfectly correct. But the Master and Wardens beg to submit that for this 
purpose much more is requisite on the part of the Honorable Commissioners 
of the Customs than merely exercising vigilance at the Custom Houses of 
London and the out-ports. From the small bulk of the article many Watches 
(if not Clocks) will, in spite of the exertions of the Custom House Officers, 
be clandestinely brought into the country, and it becomes necessary, as well 
for the future security of the Revenue as the protection of the British manufac- 
turer, that the Clocks and Watches that have in the first instance escaped the 
vigilance of the officers, should be caught while in the hands of the wholesale 
dealers (who bear the same relation to their operative contrabandists as the 
receivers of stolen property bear to the thieves). For this purpose the Officers 
of His Majesty's Customs might, as was formerly done, exercise the right of 
search for and seizure of Foreign Clocks and Watches in the hands of dealers 
and importers, leaving on them the onus of shewing that they have paid the 
duty. This has been repeatedly done, and at no distant period, and recourse 
might again be had to similar measures. 



3IO THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" That a vast number of Watches have been clandestinely brought into 
this country, is a fact proved to a demonstration, by the great number 
exposed i)ubhcly for sale, (a great many of which are without names, which 
circumstance sufficiently proves that they have not passed the Custom-house ; 
since all Watches entered for Duty must ha\-e the maker's name and place of 
abode engraved on them) ; and the exceedingly small amount of the value 
(under 3000/.) of those entered for the payment of Duty at the Port of 
London, in the four years ending at Christmas 1832. It is the opinion ot 
persons well qualified to form a just opinion on the subject, that if the whole 
of those Watches had paid the Duty, they would have been valued at a sum 
little short of 500,000/., or perhaps even more ; the Duty upon which would 
have amounted to 125,000/. — to which amount, at the least, the Revenue has 
been defrauded, in consequence of the very imperfect manner in which the 
Duty has been levied. 

" It appears to the Master and Wardens of the Clockmakers' Company, 
that the most effectual, and the least expensive, and in all respects the best 
method, of securing the payment of the Duty, would be to mark all Clocks 
and Watches when the Duty is paid : the adoption of this method, by 
shewing which have, and which have not, paid the Duty, would prove highly 
advantageous to the Revenue ; and it has been repeatedly urged upon His 
Majesty's Government, but, unfortunately for the Revenue and the British 
Manufacturer, without success. 

" In conclusion, I am directed to say, that the Master and Wardens of 
the Company of Clockmakers of the City of London, trust the Honourable 
Commissioners of His Majesty's Customs will adopt such measures as will 
virtually, not nominally, enforce the existing Law ; and that it will no longer 
remain, to all intents and purposes, a dead letter ; which, from some cause or 
other, has been much too long the case. 

" I am. Sir, 

" Your most obedient humble Servant, 
'^ y. Ker, Esq., (Signed) "George Atkins, 

" Custom House, London. " Clerk to the Company. 

" Cusioin-Jiouse, 

'^ nth July, 1833. 
"Sir, 

" Having laid before the Board of Customs your Letter of the 
29th ultimo, transmitting, with reference to the communication made to you 
by Mr. Ker's Letter of the 21st preceding, some further observations on the 
subject of the illegal importation of Watches and Clocks, together with a 
Statement of the Proceedings between the Court of Assistants of the Clock- 
makers' Company and His Majesty's Government, relative thereto ; — I have 
it in command to acquaint you, for the information of the Masler and 
Wardens of the Company of Clockmakers, that the Board of Customs are 
not prepared to recommend any further measures for adoption in respect to 
the importation of Clocks and Watches. 

" I am. Sir, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

(Signed) "C. A. Scovell, 

'' George Atkins, Esq. "Sec^- 



THE CLOCKMAKERS CO.Ml'ANV. 3II 

" Treasury Chambers, 

•' 20th July, 1833. 
" 1 15067. 
" Gentlemen, 

" The Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury having 
had under their consideration your further Memorial of the 13th ultimo, on 
the subject of the injury done to your Trade by the unlimited importation of 
Foreign Clocks and Watches ; I have it in command to acquaint you, that 
my Lords have given every attention to this subject which its importance 
deserves, and that they have directed the utmost care to be given by the 
Customs department to guard against the fraudulent introduction of Foreign 
Watches without payment of Duty ; but that they apprehend any increase of 
protection, in the way of augmented Duty, could only add to the inducement 
to smuggling ; and that they are not aware of any other course that could be 
resorted to with beneficial results. To bring an entire branch of trade under 
the supervision of the Excise, appears to my Lords a very objectionable mode 
of proceeding, and not likely, with respect to the sale of Watches and Clocks, 
to attain the object sought for. 

'• I am, Gentlemen, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

" The Clockmakers' Company, (Signed) " Spring Rice. 

"^, Cowpet-'s Court, Corn hill. 

" Coivpe'f's Court, Cor /i hill, 

'''■ July 26, 1S33. 

"Sir, 

" I am directed by the Master and Wardens of the Company of 
Clockmakers of the City of London, to acknowledge the receipt of your 
Letter of the 20th inst., 11506^, addressed to the 'Clockmakers' Company.' 

" In the first place, I am instructed to express to you the great 
satisfaction it has afforded the Master and Wardens of the Company, which 
they are sure will be equally felt by all the members of their body, to learn 
that the Lords of His Majesty's Treasury have taken into consideration the 
peculiar situation of the British Clock and Watchmaker, and in consequence, 
given the directions you describe, with regard to enforcing the collection of 
the Duty upon Foreign Clocks and Watches imported into this country. For 
this they are exceedingly obliged to their Lordships, and beg to return them 
their best thanks. 

" At the same time I am directed to request the favour of you to state 
to their Lordships, that it is the decided opinion of the Master and Wardens, 
founded upon long experience, that something more is still requisite to be 
done for the security of the Revenue and the protection of the British 
Majiufacturer. From the small bulk of the article. Watches (if not Clocks) 
will, in spite of the exertions of the Custom-house Officers, be clandestmely 
brought into the country in great numbers; and it becomes absolutely 
necessary, to effectually put a stop to this contraband traffic, for the Custom- 
house Officers to exercise the right of seizure of such as have not paid the 
Duty, while in the hands of the dealer. Many of the parties who receive 
these Watches, do so as a matter of regular tr.ade, and stand in precisely the 
same situation to the smuggler that the receiver of stolen goods does to the 
thief. 



312 THE CLOCKMAKICRS COMPANY. 

" This right of search has been repeatedly exercised, and at no distant 
period ; and unless this is again done, — as the Watches, when once in the 
country, will be considered to be perfectly safe, — means will soon be dis- 
covered of clandestinely importing them ; and the good intentions of their 
Lordships will thereby be completely frustrated. 

" So vigilant were the Officers at one time, that it is a well-known fact, 
that the foreigners, who were then the wholesale dealers in Foreign Watches, 
rarely kept their Watches three nights consecutively at the same place ; and 
scarcely ever at their own place of residence. 

" This mode of proceeding may, at first sight, appear harsh and severe, 
but it must be borne in mind that the smuggler, and the person by whom he 
is employed, voluntarily expose themselves to this inconvenience. Equally 
sei'ere measures are daily had recourse to for the protection of the Revenue ; in 
proof of which fact, it 7vill be sufficient to notice the recent proceedings in 
connection with the collection of the Post Office Revenue. 

" That a vast number of Watches have been clandestinely brought into 
this country, is a fact proved by the immense number publicly exposed for 
sale, to say nothing of those not so publicly exposed, and the exceedingly small 
amount of the vahie (2937/. i7i'.) of those entered for pay/nent of Duty at the 
Port of London, in the four years ending Christmas 1832, upon which the 
amount of Duty paid 7C'as only 734/. gs. ;^d. The total value of the Watches 
brought into the country during those four years, is certainly considerably 
under-rated at the sum of 500,000/. / upon which the Duty would have been 
125,000/./ making- a positive loss to the Revemie of 124,265/. ioj-. gd. — an 
example of loss of Revenue, from waiit of attention to the collecting it, probably 
without example in modern times. 

" I am directed to again call your attention to the fact, that the English 
Watchmaker has from time immemorial, been obliged to take out an Annual 
Licence at the Excise, where he is duly registered, to enable him to sell Gold 
or Silver Watches. Now, it is the opinion of the Master and Wardens, that 
if all persons who deal in Foreign Clocks and Watches were compelled by 
Law to take out an Annual Licence, as is the case with persons dealing in a 
great variety of articles, viz. Lace, Plate, Watches, Horses, Tea, Coffee, 
Tobacco, Wine, Spirits, &c., &c., &c. ; and in a similar manner to write up 
os'er their door, * Licensed Dealet in Foreign Clocks and Watches,' that such a 
measure would, next to marking the Clocks and Watches when the Duty is 
paid, from the publicity that would be given to the parties dealing in these 
articles, afford the best security that can be adopted for the due collection of 
the Revenue, and the protection of the British Watch and Clockmaker. 
Moreover, it would benefit the Revenue, by the amount of the Licences 
taken out, without any expense in the collection. The INLaster and Wardens 
earnestly entreat of you to request the favour of the Lords of the Treasury to 
take this proposal of theirs into consideration at their earliest convenience : 
there cannot for an instant be a doubt of the facility with which it would be 
carried into execution ; it is divested of all feature of harshness or oppression, 
and is requiring no more of the dealer in Foreign Clocks and Watches than 
is required of the dealers in a great variety of other articles, as well luxuries 
as necessaries of life. Some individuals. Auctioneers for example, are obliged 
to take out a Licence as Auctioneers, and separate Licences to enable them 
to sell by auction Plate, Wine, Spirits, (S:c 



TIIE CLOCKMAKKRS COMPANY. 313 

" In conclusion, I am again directed by the Master and Wardens to call 
your attention to a misconception which (judging from the latter part of your 
Letter of the 20th instant) the Lords of the Treasury and yourself still appear 
to labour under. You there express yourself as though their Lordships 
supposed the ALaster and Wardens had asked for an increase of the amount 
of the Duty levied on Foreign Clocks and Watches : now the precise contrary 
is the case. If you will have the goodness to refer to the conclusion of the 
Company's Memorial to the Lords of the Treasury, dated the 7th May last ; 
and to the beginning of a Letter addressed to their Lordships, dated the 13th 
June last ; you will find the opposite sentiment expressly stated. The words 
in both are — ' Ve/, aware of the feelin^:; that so generally pramls in the present 
day against high protecting Lnport Duties, they abstain from urgiiig any increase 
of Duty ; and only pray that they may possess, in fact, the protection which, 
according to the existing Law they ought to have.' To setting this mistake 
right the Master and Wardens attach considerable importance. 

" I am Sir, 
" Your most humble Servant, 

(Signed) " George Atkins, 

" To the Right Hon. Spring Rice, '■ Clerk to the Company. 

Secretary to the Treasury, 

&'C. Q^C. &--C. 



" Treasury Chambers, 

'• igtli October, 1833. 
" Gentlemen, 

" I am directed by the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's 
Treasury to transmit herewith for your information the copy of a report of the 
Commissioners of Customs on the subject of the illegal importation of foreign 
Clocks and Watches, and I am to acquaint you that my Lords are willing to 
receive any further communication from you, and to take any steps which, on 
full consideration, may appear desirable for the purpose of preventing or of 
repressing any illicit importation of Foreign Watches. 

" I am, Gentlemen, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

'■'■ The Clockmakers' Company, (Signed) "J. Stewart, 

" Cowper's Court, Cornhill. 

(copv enclosed in the foregolvo.) 

" May it please your Lordships. — Mr. Spring Rice having, in his letter 
of the 13th September signified, that in consequence of a further application 
from the Watch and Clockmakers' Company, complaining of the injury done 
to their Trade for want of proper vigilance on the part of the Revenue 
officers, he (Mr. Spring Rice) was directed to desire that we would report 
to your Lordships whether we have reason to apprehend that any illegal 
importation of Watches and Clocks takes place, and in the event of such 
question being answered in the affirmative, that we would suggest whether 
any and what regulations, legislative or departmental, are necessary for 
checking such contraband traffic. 



:;i4 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPAXV. 

•• In obedience to your Lordships' commands, we report : — 

" That as regards Foreign made Watches, adverting to the portableness 
of the article, the faciUty with which they may be concealed, and the rate of 
duty payable thereon ; viz. 25 per cent., we are not prepared to deny the 
possibility of it being an article of traffic with the smuggler ; but we have no 
reason to believe that it is cairied on to any great extent as a system of 
smuggling. 

" The laws and regulations, howe^■er, which are in force for the preven- 
tion of smuggling, are equally applicable to Clocks and Watches as to any 
other goods liable to duty on importation into the United Kingdom ; and as 
regards the articles in question, we are not aware of any regulation, legislative 
or departmental, the adoption of which would eificiently check the illicit 
traffic therein. 

" With regard to the complaint of the Memorialists, that injury is done 
to their trade for the want of proper vigilance on the part of the Revenue 
officers, we have to observe, that in consequence of a former representation 
from these parties to the same effect (copy of which your Lordships were 
pleased to transmit to us in Mr. Spring Rice's letter of the i8th May last), 
we called upon them to propose such further regulations as might appear to 
them advisable, with a view to detect or prevent the improper introduction of 
Foreign Clocks and Watches ; and in reply, they stated that their object was 
not an alteration of the law, but merely the vigilant carrying the same into 
effect, and as they had asserted that the officers of the revenue had permitted 
the importers of Foreign Clocks and Watches to enter those articles for the 
duty at a less amount than their real value, we issued a circular notice, dated 
13th June, enjoining the officers at this port, and at all the outports, to the 
most vigilant attention, with a view to prevent the admission of Clocks and 
Watches at an improper valuation. 

"We beg to add, that in the case of recent importation of Gold Watches 
which were entered for duty as being of the value of ^90, the officers 
consulted some of the Members of the Committee of Watchmakers as to the 
correctness of the entry, and after having inspected the articles, they declared 
them to have been undervalued at least ;^5o. per cent, whereas, on their 
being sold, under the provisions of the Regulation Act, the articles only 
realized eight per cent, more than the Crown paid for them, a result tending 
to prove that the opinion of the Committee was not altogether to be 
relied on. 

(Signed) 
" Custom House, 

September /j, fSj^. 

" Cowper's Court, Cornhill, 
January 10, 1834. 
''Sir, 

" I am directed by the Master and Wardens of the Company of 
Clockmakers of the City of London to acknowledge the receipt of a letter 
from Mr. J. Stewart, dated Treasury Chambers, 19th October, 1833, 
I794.2.}!-, addressed to the Clockmakers' Company, Cowper's Court, 
Cornhill, and enclosing a copy of a letter, and report from the Honourable 
Commissioners of Customs to the Lords of the Treasury, dated 13th 
September, 1S33. 



TIIK CLOCKMAKF.RS COMPANV. 315 

" I am further directed to request the favour of you to thank their 
Lordships for this mark of their attention, as well as for the assurance 
contained in Mr. Stewart's letter of their Lordships' willingness to attend to 
any further suggestions the Master and Wardens may think proper to offer ; 
and to adopt such measures as may on further consideration appear desirable 
for repressing the importation of Foreign Watches and Clocks, particularly 
the former. 

" The Master and Wardens beg in the first ])lace to offer some remarks 
on the letter and report of the Honourable Commissioners of Customs, and 
then, availing themselves of their Lordships' permission, they will state what 
they conceive will most conduce to the security of the revenue and the benefit 
of the Trade at large. 

" To begin with the letter from the Honourable Commissioners of 
Customs to the Lords of the Treasury, which accomj)anics their report. The 
Commissioners there observe that the Company of Clockmakers, in a recent 
communication to the Treasury, complain of want of vigilance on the part of 
the Custom House Officers. The Master and Wardens of the Company 
certainly do complain of smuggling to an enormous and most injurious e.xtent ; 
from which they cannot avoid inferring the extreme negligence of the officers, 
and wdth very great reason. For, be it observed, that by a clause in the Act, 
entitled 'An Act to amend the Laws relating to the Customs ' (25th July, 
1828), passed five years ago, it is provided that all Clocks and Watches 
miported shall bear on two places, that is to say, on the works and on 
the dial, a name of a person and town, purporting to be the name and 
place of abode of the person who made them. This clause was added 
to the Bill at the express solicitation of the Company of Clockmakers ; 
and that no excuse might be afforded for evading this clause by the 
Foreign Manufacturer, or for pleading ignorance of its existence, the 
Clerk of the Company (see pages 51, 52, and 53 of a printed statement of 
proceedings between the Company of Clockmakers and his Majesty's Govern- 
ment, London, 1832, of which a copy was sent to the Treasury, 13th of June, 
1833), was directed to write to the French and Swiss Consuls, informing 
them of the circumstance, and enclosing a copy of the clause, not only in 
English, but translated into French The receipt of these letters and their 
enclosures was acknowledged by the two Consuls, accompanied by a j^romise 
to communicate their contents to their respective Governments. After this 
the plea of ignorance of the law cannot be offered, indeed it is one which is 
never allowed as an excuse when the revenue is concerned. Now, what is 
the fact ? Warehouses, and even shop windows innumerable, not merely in 
the Metropolis, but in all the principal Cities and Towns in the Empire, but 
more particularly the watering places, such as Brighton, are full of Foreign 
Watches, publicly exposed for sale, which, in the face of the Act of Parlia- 
ment, passed on purpose to meet the case, do not carry upon them a single 
name, much less a name of maker, and of place where made in two places, 
namely, on the dial and on the works, which, in conformity of the Act, they 
ought to bear. It follows as a matter of course, and to this fact your attention 
is particularly reciuested, that the whole of these Watches without names have 
been clandestinely brought into the country, because, in the state described, 
they are strictly prohibited, and could not be entered for payment of duty : 
and as a necessary consequence, that the revenue has been defrauded of the 
amount of duty they ought to have paid. So much in proof of the truth and 

Y 



3l6 TIIK CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

justice of the complaint of the want of vigilance on the part of the officers. 
Some few solitary examples of the contrary have occurred, but they are 
extremely rare, and only show what might be done if proper vigilance were 
exercised. 

"A seizure was recently made at a private house of 24 Gold Watches 
without names, and on the 15th November last 14 Gold Watches were seized 
in the Port of London, on board the William Jolliffe, from Hambro', Downie 
Master, addressed to H. Warburg, 17, Leman Street, Goodman's Fields, 
which were packed in a tin box, and attempted to be passed as a sample of 
clover seed. This last seizure was made in consequence of the suspicions of 
the Master of the vessel being raised by the weight of the box, and not 
through the vigilance of the officer on board. 

" Though it were admitted, that from the portable nature of the article 
it is extremely difficult to prevent the illicit importation of Foreign Watches ; 
still the immense quantity exposed for sale should lead to very strict measures 
for the prevention of a fraud so injurious to the revenue and ruinous to the 
British Watchmakers' Trade ; and, if even these measures did not prove 
successful, still the illicitly imported Watches might legally be seized wherever 
they are secretly deposited or openly exposed for sale. 

" I am now directed to offer the following observations upon the 
report : — 

" In the first paragraph of their Report the Commissioners say, in 
reference to the illicit importation of Foreign Watches, ' We have no reason 
to believe it is carried on to any great extent as a system of smuggling.' 
Surely the Commissioners must totally have lost sight of the return, which it 
is most natural to suppose was furnished by themselves, laid upon the table 
of the House of Commons on the motion of Mr. Ewart, and ordered to be 
printed 5th July, 1833, which not only fully contradicts the above statement, 
but officially proves that the direct reverse is the case. It appears by this 
printed return, that the total value of the Foreign Watches imported in the 
last four years, ending with 1832, was j^io,428. 12s. ; and of the same 
exported, ^f),"]!^. ; the value of the Watches remaining in the country being 
only ;£']i^. I2S. The absurdity of supposing such a conclusion to be even 
an approximation to the truth is so palpably evident, that it would be only a 
waste of time to contradict it further than by stating the fact that Foreign 
Watches to a greater amount in value may every day be seen exposed for sale 
in several individual shops in the Metropolis. 

" In the second paragraph they say, 'The laws and regulations, however, 
which are in force for the prevention of smuggling, are equally applicable to 
clocks and watches, as to any other goods liable to duty on importation ; and 
that they are not aware of any regulations, legislative or departmental, the 
adoption of which would effectually check the illicit traffic therein.' The first 
part of this statement is no doubt correct ; but it does not follow that such 
regulations as are fitting to prevent the smuggling of bulky goods, are the 
best that can be adopted for small articles like watches ; and the second part 
is evidently erroneous, inasmuch as a system of regulations has been distinctly 
pointed out to the Lords of the Treasury, and by their Lordships transmitted 
to the Board of Customs, (see letter signed J. Ker, dated Custom-house, 4th 
June, 1833), by the Company of Clockmakers, by the adoption of which, the 
evil complained of, though it would probably not be entirely done away with, 
yet would be very considerably diminished. 



THK CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 317 

"Your attention is now requested to the next paragraph of the Report, 
in which the Commissioners state that they had ' called upon them (the 
Cornpany) to propose such further regulations as might appear to them 
advisable, with a view to detect or prevent the improjjcr introduction of 
foreign Clocks or Watches, and in reply they stated, that their object was not 
an alteration of the law, but merely the vigilant carrying the same into effect.' 
What is here stated is true to a certain extent ; but the Company had at that 
time, in fact, suggested regulations for enforcing the payment of duties on 
foreign Clocks and Watches, and for detecting such as were clandestinely 
introduced into this country, without requiring a legislative enactment new in 
principle, as before mentioned. 

" In reference to the last paragraph of the Commissioners' Report, it is 
only necessary to observe, that the sales at which the Watches therein referred 
to were sold, are practically under the influence of the Jews, and that the 
Watches producing no more than they did, at sales conducted as these sales 
are, is no proof whatever that they were not worth more than they realised, 
which, however, it is admitted was more than the value at which they were 
attempted to be entered. 

" Thus far it appeared proper to the Master and Wardens to notice the 
erroneous statements contained in the Letter and Report from the Honour- 
able Commissioners of Customs to the Lords of the Treasury. 

" There is another circumstance which I am directed very briefly to 
notice, as the Company do not allude to it but with great reluctance ; it is the 
great quantity of smuggling understood to be carried on through the medium 
of the Foreign Office, by means of the immense bag brought over twice a 
week by the Messenger who is the bearer of the bag with the Government 
Despatches and Papers ; and also through the means of the Messenger of the 
French Embassy. A recent investigation has shewn, that even the French 
official seals have been surreptitiously made use of to forward such disgraceful 
proceedings. 

" I am now directed by the Master and Wardens to obser\-e, that when 
they addressed you on the 26th of July last, they were ignorant of the return 
moved for by Mr, Ewart, and ordered by the House of Commons to be 
printed the 5th of July, 1833. This return affords the most ample proof of 
the substantive correctness of the statements contained in the various 
Memorials and Letters addressed by them to the Lords of the Treasur}', the 
Commissioners of Customs, and yourself. 

"To insist further on the great number and great amount of value of 
the Watches clandestinely brought into the country, and the enormous amount 
of the loss that in consequence is sustained by the Revenue, and by the 
British manufacturer is quite unnecessary, and I am only directed to add, 
that the evil is daily and hourly increasing. 

" All that has been advanced on the subject in the long-protracted and 
unfortunately hitherto fruitless correspondence that has taken place between 
the Company of Clockmakers and his Majesty's Government, is fully borne 
out by the Parliamentary document so repeatedly referred to ; and this 
account, moved for by Mr. Ewart, may be considered, so far as regards the 
Manufacture of Clocks and Watches in these realms, as one of the most 
important documents ever laid on the table of the House of Commons. 



o 



1 8 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 



"In answer to the second part of Mr. Stewart's letter, in which that 
gentleman states that the Lords of the Treasury ' are willing to receive any 
further communication from the Company, and to take such steps as, on 
full consideration, may appear desirable for the purpose of preventing, or of 
repressing any illicit importation of Foreign Watches,' I am directed to state, 
that it is the opinion of the Master and Wardens that great good would result 
from a simultaneous seizure in all parts of the kingdom of all Foreign Clocks 
and watches not bearing names of Maker and Place where made (in strict 
conformity with the Act of Parliament before referred to) in the possession 
of all wholesale and retail traders and dealers of whatever description they 
may be, whether foreigners or natives, and whether calling themselves 
Watchmakers, Jewellers, Warehousemen, General Dealers, Milliners, or by 
any other denomination. Such a proceeding, which in itself is strictly legal, 
and perfectly in accordance with the usual practice for the protection of the 
Revenue, followed by the adoption of the plan so repeatedly pressed, but 
hitherto in vain, by the Company upon the notice of the Lords of the 
Treasury, of causing all Clocks and Watches imported to be marked when 
the Duty is paid, such mark to be the proof of the duty having been paid ; 
joined to compelling all persons dealing in those articles to take out an 
annual licence, as is the case with dealers in a variety of manufactured goods, 
and raw produce, would tend more to the benefit of the Revenue and the 
British Manufacturer, than any other measures that could be adopted. The 
watches seized would be sold for exportation, and the Home Market would 
thereby be relieved from a great quantity of Foreign Clocks and Watches 
now on sale ; moreover the Foreign Manufacturer and his agent would be 
taught that the law was no longer to be infringed with impunity, and that the 
demi-official countenance they for so many years fancied they enjoyed, was 
at an end. It is respectfully and earnestly desired that the Lords of the 
Treasury would come to a determination as to the course to be pursued in 
this matter. The question is reduced to a very narrow compass : is the law 
of the land to be set at naught — the Revenue to be sacrificed, and the British 
Manufacturer to be seriously injured for the profit of the Foreign Manufac- 
turer and the smuggler, and the pecuniary advantage of that class of British 
society, which, of all others, can best afford to pay for the article of home 
manufacture? This is what the question is reduced to — it is idle any longer 
to attempt to disguise the fact ; and although nothing can be further from 
the intention of the Clockmakers' Company, than to assume a tone of unbe- 
coming haste or positiveness ; yet they feel that in order to do their duty to 
themselves, and to save their Lordships any further doubt as to the real facts 
of the case, they should state plainly, that unless it be the desire of the 
Government to sacrifice both the Revenue and the interest of the Home to 
the Foreign Manufacturer, immediate means should be taken to put an end 
to the illicit traffic complained of 

'• 1 am. Sir, 
" Your most obedient humble Servant, 

(Signed) " George Atkins, 

" Clet-k to the Company. 
"■To the Right Hon. Spring Rice, 
"Secretary to the Treasitry, 6^<:., 6^^., ^c. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 319 

" Treasury Chambers, 

" May 7, 1S34. 
" Gentlemen, 

" I have laid before the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's 
Treasury your further Memorial on the subject of the illegal importation of 
Foreign Clocks and Watches. 

" In reply I am directed by their Lordships to inform you, that they do 
not consider that either of the suggestions submitted by you would be 
attended with any beneficial results, even if it were possible to carry them 
into practice ; and it does not appear to my Lords that any further measures 
can be adopted for the prevention of smuggling in Clocks and Watches. 

" I am, Gentlemen, 

" Your obedient Servant, 

''Mr. G. Atkins and Others, (Signed) " J. Stewart. 

" Watch and Chckmakers, Cowper' s-coiirt , Cornhill. 

"(COPY, No. 4.) 

" Seventh Article of the Ordonnance of the King of the French, 
^^ published in Paris on the 4th inst. 

" HoRLOGERiE. — Montres d'or 6 per 100 de la valeur : montres d'argent 
19 per 100 de la valeur. Mouvements de toutes sortes, sans boitiers, 10 per 
100 de la valeur. 

" L'importation en sera permise par les seuls bureaux ouverts au transit 
de marchandises prohibees. Les montres ainsi introduites seront dirigees 
par acquit a caution, et sous le plomb des douanes, sur I'un des cinq bureaux 
de garantie de Paris, Lyon, Besan(;on, Montbeliard, et Lons-le-Saulnier, pour 
y etre essayces et marquees et y acquitter le droit de garantie. 

"translation of THE ABOVE. 

" Watch-work. — Gold Watches to pay six per cent, ad valorem duty, 
Silver Watches ten per cent., movements of every description, not in cases, 
ten per cent. 

"Importation will only be permitted through the bureaux for prohibited 
goods. Watches thus introduced shall be forwarded, under bond, and under 
the seal of the Customs, to one of the five examining establishments at Paris, 
Lyons, Besanc^on, Montbeliard, or Lons-le-Saulnier, there to be examined 
and marked, and the duty paid." 

On the 6th of February, 1837, the Court of Assistants 
again approached the Board of Trade with a complaint as to 
the still increasing illicit importation of Foreign Clocks and 
Watches which, whilst continuing to cause great injury to the 
Revenue, was also destroying the Enghsh Manufacture. 



320 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

Their Memorial recapitulates the practical remedies for this 
state of things which they had so frequently urged on former 
occasions, unfortunately to no purpose, viz. : — 

ist. — Marking the Watches as in France. 

2nd. — Rendering all unmarked Watches exposed for sale liable to 

seizure. 
3rd. — Obliging the Dealers in them to take out an Annual Licence, as 

Dealers in a variety of other imported articles were obliged to do. 

The Memorial then proceeds to suggest two other remedial 
measures, for both of which it is urged abundant precedents 
exist, viz. : — 

I St. — A new enactment for regulating the conditions under which 
Foreign Clocks and Watches should be allowed to be imported. 

2nd. — To place the Customs Ofificers on the same footing with regard 
to the seizure of Watches and Clocks as they were with regard to 
the seizure of Silks, viz., to give them the benefit of the seizures to 
the full extent of their value instead of one half only as was then 
the case. 

And in support of the suggestions, advances the following 
arguments : — 

" From the very loose wording of so much of the last Act (viz. 3rd and 
4th William 4, Cap. 52, Sec. 58), for regulating the duties on imports and 
exports as relates to the importation of Clocks and Watches, those Articles 
are now allowed to be entered for the payment of duty with the name of the 
maker and the place where made merely painted on them, a former Act 
(4th George 4, Cap. 24, Sec. 81) required them to be engraved; the 
consequence resulting from Clocks and Watches being imported with the 
names, &c., only painted on them is that these names are subsequently taken 
out and English names and places substituted, and they are then sold as 
articles of Enghsh manufacture. 

"An individual of the name of Vieyres, residing at No. 40 Pall Mall, 
has sold a number of Foreign Watches with his name and address in full upon 
them, the cases of which were also Foreign. The same fraud is also practised 
in Clocks, the name, real or fictitious of the maker and his place of abode 
being painted on the back of the clock and the dial, and having passed the 
Custom House are then taken off without difficulty or injury to the work 
by Alcohol, and any other name that may be required substituted in their 
place. Mr. Thomas Cox Savory, of 47 Cornhill, in his innumerable daily 
advertizements advertizes Clocks, and among others Clocks to strike the hour 
and half hour, at Five Guineas each. 

"From the wording of the advertizement any person not alive to the 
imposition would suppose that these Clocks were made by Mr. Thomas Cox 
Savory, and consequently that they were English. The fact is otherwise, they 
have it is true his name and ' London ' on them, but every part is foreign. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPAIsV. 32 1 

" Very recently the late Master and one of the Members of the Court 
of Assistants, at the request of some of the Officers of H. M. Customs, 
inspected sundry Clocks and Watches at the Custom House that had been 
detained for further examination in consequence of the names being only 
painted on them. The Clocks were precisely similar to those sold by 
Mr. Thomas Cox Savory with foreign names painted on the back plates and 
dials. In the presence of the Officers of the Customs the names were 
removed from one of the Clocks by the application of Spirits of Wine 
without injury to any part of the work. The names on the Watches were 
affixed to little metal slips dovetailed into the work which could easily be 
removed, and other slips bearing different names substituted in their stead. 

" The whole matter was got up with a fraudulent intent to deceive the 
unwary and ignorant, for the Balances of some of the Watches shown to the 
Master and Assistants were made to resemble Chronometer Balances, but in 
point of fact were not such, and could not be converted into Chronometer 
Balances at all. These Watches were large, of the shape and appearance of 
English Watches, and evidently brought into this Country to be re-exported, 
and it is more than probable they were re-exported with an English name and 
' London ' upon them. 

*' A great number of other persons might be named who notoriously sell 
foreign Clocks and Watches with their own names and ' London ' engraved 
upon them, but it was thought sufficient to name only two, and the ungracious 
task of particularizing persons by name would not even now be resorted to, 
but for the purpose of meeting by anticipation a direct denial of the facts. 

" In reference to the condition in which foreign Clocks and Watches should 
be allowed to be entered for payment of duties, the Master, Wardens, and Court 
of Assistants beg to propose to your Lordships that the following Clause (being 
very similar to 4 Geo. IV., Cap. 24, Sec. 81) should be forthwith substituted 
for the one now in force. ' And be it further enacted. That no Watch of 
Foreign Manufacture shall be imported or warehoused under the provisions 
of this Act, upon the Case or Cases of which any mark or stamp shall be 
impressed, which shall be similar to, or shall purport to be, or shall be 
intended to represent any mark or stamp of the Goldsmiths' Company of 
London, or any other legal British assay marks or stamps, and that no Clock 
or Watch of Foreign Manufacture shall be so imported or Warehoused, upon 
the Face or upon any part of which the word ' London,' or the name of any 
other Town or place of the United Kingdom shall be engraven or painted, 
or shall in any way appear so as to purport or give colour that such Clock or 
Watch is of the manufacture of the United Kingdom, and that no Clock or 
Watch of Foreign Manufacture shall be so imported or warehoused unless a 
distinguishing number and the name or names of some person and place shall 
be permanently and visibly engraved, and shall ap])ear distinctly upon the 
frame or plate of such Clock or Watch, purporting to be the name or names and 
place of abode of the person or persons by whom such Clock or Watch was 
made ; and also upon the face or Dial of such Clock or \yatch, but, if made 
of Enamel or Glass, the name and place shall be thereon visibly painted, and 
the painting burnt in, and that no Clock or Watch of Foreign Manufacture 
shall be imported or warehoused under this Act in an incomplete state, that 
is to say, not having the movement, with all its component parts, finished and 
properly fixed and secured in its case, on pain of forfeiture of such Clock or 
Watch.'" 



^2 2 TllK CLUCKMAKEKS LUMl'ANV. 

" I now proceed to the second regulation to which the Master, Wardens, 
and Court of Assistants wish to call your Lordships' attention, viz., to place 
the Officers of the Customs on the same footing in reference to seizures made 
of Clocks and Watches, as they are with regard to seizures of Silks. In the 
case of Silks the Officers have the full benefit of the proceeds of the seized 
property. In the case of Clocks and Watches they have only the ordinary 
portion of the produce of the seizure. This boon was conceded to the 
British Silk Manufacturer some time since, and has been attended with the 
greatest advantage to them and to the Revenue : — Clocks and Watches, but 
more particularly Watches are articles that are very easily smuggled and much 
vigilance is requisite to detect the operations of the Smugglers, moreover 
they are Articles that are easily damaged and produce but little when sold at 
the different Custom house sales. These circumstances render it more 
necessary that the inducement to exertion on the part of the Officers should 
be made as great as possible." 

"There is no branch of Manufacture that requires legislative support 
more than that of Clocks and Watches, particularly the latter; the foreign 
Watches are made almost without exception in Switzerland, and the difference 
in the cost of production between that Country and England is so great that 
it is impossible for the English Manufacturer to enter into competition with 
the Swiss Manufacturer, for even in France where the value of labour is less 
than in England, the Watch Manufacturer has been ruined by the cheaper 
Swiss Watches. This is a fact that has been long known to the Master, 
Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the Company of Clockmakers, but which 
has never been so publicly stated as it is in Dr. Browning's Report on the 
Commerce and Manufactures of Switzerland, presented to both Houses of 
Parliament in the last Session by command of His Majesty, wherein it is 
mentioned at Page 34 that (recently) ' not ten Watches are made in Paris in 
one year.' Surely it is necessary to preserve the British Manufacturer from a 
similar fate." 

On the 6th of March following, an answer was read from 
the Board of Trade, dated 23rd February, intimating that they 
could not undertake to recommend to Parliament the enact- 
ment of any more restrictive or severe law than was then in 
force. 

On the 22nd November, 1841, the Court agreed to a 
Memorial to the Lords of the Treasury, in which reference is 
made to the history of their numerous previous communica- 
tions with the Government already set out in these pages. 
All that is material in this document is contained in the fol- 
lowing Extracts therefrom, viz, : — 

" The Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants had considered the 
matter set entirely at rest, by Mr. J. Stewart's Letter of the 7th of May, 1834, 
and that all further application to Her Majesty's Government on the subject 
would be perfectly useless ; they have however been induced to alter that 
opinion, in consequence of the Appointment of a Commission to enquire into 
abuses in the collection of the 'Revenue,' and of certain Proceedmgs that 



THE CLOCKMAKKRS COMrAXV. 323 

took place in reference to a seizure of Foreign Watches, to a yery considerable 
amount (the property of M. Moulinie, of Geneva), that took place last spring, 
and which, after a motion for a new trial in the Court of Exchequer, has very 
recently ended in the condemnation of the Goods seized. Another circum- 
stance has also caused the Master, Wardens, and Court to adopt the present 
course of proceedings. It would seem by an Official Letter, addressed to 
one of the Members of the Court, who had been subpcenaed to give evidence 
on the part of the Crown, on the trial above alluded to, by the Solicitor to 
the Customs, of which a copy accompanies this Memorial, that in the present 
state of the law no seizure can be made of Foreign Clocks and Watches, 
though they should, from the circumstance of their not carrying the name of 
a maker, as directed by the Act of Parliament, be known not to have paid the 
Duty, unless seized m transitu ; or, as in the case of Moulinie, seized in the 
possession of the original Importer or Smuggler. 

" One of the objects of the present Memorial is to call the attention of 
the Lords of the Treasury to the above fact of the defect in the legal enact- 
ments, for the protection of the Revenue and the Trade, trusting that, at the 
first convenient opportunity, the Law will be amended so as to render it as 
effective as the importance of the subject deserves. The subject brought 
before the consideration of their Lordships, is divided into two heads — 
ist. The Collection of the Revenue; and, 2nd. The Protection of the Home 
Manufacture. Both these considerations have been so repeatedly urged upon 
the notice of Her Majesty's Government, that the Master, Wardens, and 
Court have considered that the best mode of attaining the desired object 
would be to forward to their Lordships a printed Copy of all the proceedings 
that have taken place between Her Majesty's Government and the Company, 
from the 27th of February, 1787, to the present time, embracing a period of 
upwards of half a century ; and to refer to such parts of the same as appear 
to be most important in reference to the present state of things. 

" It appears that the Duty upon Foreign Clocks and Watches has varied 
from 75 to 25, the present duty, per cent, ad valorem. Such a Duty, if 
effectually collected, would have proved very productive to the Revenue : the 
contrary is well known to be the case. Indeed the fact is put beyond a 
doubt, by the return of the amount of Duty paid upon Watches imported 
during the four years ending with 1832, as shewn by an Official Return, made 
by order of the House of Commons, upon the motion of Mr. Ewart, and 
ordered to be printed the 5th of July, 1833 ; and there is every reason to 
believe that the duty has not been more productive since. 

" The following is a copy of the Return : — 

Value of Foreign ) 
Watches entered ] 

Value of Foreign 1 

Watchesexported ( ^g g ^ , g ^ ^ _ „ ^ ,088 5 o 

on which Draw- r -> -> 

back was paid . ; 

204 10 o 121 I o 179 2 o 209 19 o 
Shewing a total balance of the value of the Watches imported for home con- 
sumjjtion of 714/. 12^., upon which a Duty of 178/. i2,s. was paid, giving an 
average of 44/. 13^. 3^. for the amount of Duty paid in each of the four years. 



1829. 


1830. 


1831. 


i«3 


£. s. d. 


/:. s. d. 


£. s. d 


£• s. 


3043 5 


2399 I 


2688 2 


2295 4 



324 I'llli CLOCRMAKERS COMPANY. 

" The following may be quoted, as one of a great many facts that might 
be offered in proof of the correctness of the assertion that very few of the 
Watches brought into the country pay Duty. There were recently exposed 
for sale in one shop window in the Strand, 24 dozen or 288 Gold J'oreign 
Watches, and as many Silver. Taking the average value of the Gold at 7/. 
each, and of the Silver at 2/. los. each, as the import value, which is consider- 
ably less than their real value, the total amount will be 2736/., on which the 
amount of Duty that ought to have been paid is 684/., being only 30/. 12^. 
less than the total amount of Duty paid in the four years, 1829, 1830, 1831, 
and 1832. 

" The great increase in the illicit Importation of Watches has been since 
the Peace in 18 15. The value of the Watches brought into these realms, by 
dealers and private individuals, since that period does not average at the 
lowest computation, less than 200,000/. annually, upon which the amount of 
Duty, at 25 per cent, would have been 50,000/. annually. Twenty-six years 
have elapsed since the Peace, consequently, supposing the above calculation 
to be correct, which, from the data on which it is founded, there is good 
reason to believe it is, the total amount of Duty received would have been 
the very large sum of 1,300,000/. This calculation agrees very nearly with a 
similar one made in the year 1833. In a Memorial addressed to the Lords 
of the Treasury, dated the 7th of May, of that year, the value of the Watches 
imported, in the four years ending 1832, was estimated at 730,000/., averaging 
182,500/ each year. It may be said, in reply to this statement, that if the 
Duty had been rigidly enforced, the number of Watches imported would have 
been less. Suppose, for argument's sake. Watches to the amount of only 
half the value ; namely, ioo,oco/. a year to have been imported ; in that case 
the amount of Duty received would have been 25,000/. a year, or 650,000/, 
in the 26 years since 18 15. Whereas the total amount of the Duty received 
in 26 years, taking for data the average of the Duty paid in the years 1829, 
1830, 1 83 1, and 1832, which is 44/. i3i-. 3^/. a year, as shewn by the Return 
printed by the order of the House of Commons before-mentioned, will be 
only 1 164/. 4^. 6d. shewing a loss to the Revenue of 648,838/. 15^. 6d. If 
the correctness of this statement is doubted, the exact amount of the Duty 
paid on Watches imported since the Peace can, it is presumed, very easily be 
ascertained by reference to the Board of Customs, which will shew whether 
or not the average amount of Duty paid has increased since 1832. 

"The great loss sustained by the Revenue had been fully brought under 
the notice of His late Majesty's Government, on several occasions. 

" The second consideration to which the Master, Wardens, and Court 
of Assistants are anxious to call your Lordships' attention, is the situation of 
the Home Manufacture. So much has been said in the former communications 
from the Court to Her Majesty's Government on this subject, that the Master, 
Wardens, and Court abstain from doing more than to refer your Lordships 
to the same. 

"The suffering Foreign Watches to be bonded for exportation without 
payment of Duty, has proved extremely injurious to the British Manufacture. 
This most perfectly non-reciprocal measure was introduced in 1822 by the 
Right Hon. Mr. Wallace ; a measure that in the case of bulky goods might 
be useful as the means of employing British Shipping, but in the case of such 
small articles as Watches utterly useless, but to promote the interests of the 
Foreign Manufacturer to the prejudice of the English Manufacturer. In 



THE CLOCKMAKliRS COMl'ANV. 325 

order to obviate, as far as was practicable, the evil consequences that it was 
foreseen would result from this, so far as the Watch Manufacture was 
concerned, most mischievous measure, it was proposed to Mr. Wallace to 
introduce certain Conditions or Regulations, four in number, into the 
Warehousing Bill before Parliament, for the protection of the British 
Manufacture, a Copy of which was sent to that gentleman. By much the 
most important of the four, of which notice will be taken hereafter, was 
declared by Mr. Wallace to be inadmissible ; the others were adopted. The 
original Warehousing Bill, your Lordships' Memorialists believe, was subse- 
quently repealed, and embodied in the General Customs Bill since passed. 
Owing to the ambiguous mode in which the Clause in the Act is worded, it 
has not afforded the protection required ; and the permission granted by the 
Legislature to Bond \\^atches for exportation without payment of Duty, has 
proved most ruinous to the British Manufacturer, and opened a wide door to 
frauds and deceptions of various kinds. 

" The Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants, will now as briefly as 
possible allude to the measures which have been repeatedly urged upon the 
notice of Her Majesty's Government; and which, had they been adopted, 
they think they may confidently venture to assert would have secured the due 
collection of the Revenue, and the protection of the British Manufacture. 
The principal of these, and the only one that will at present be urged at any 
length, is marking the Watches when the Duty is paid. The immense 
advantage that would attend this measure is this ; that, as in the case of Gold 
and Silver Plate, so long as the article is in existence it carries on itself the 
proof of having paid the Duty. This plan of marking was proposed to the 
Lords of the Committee of Trade so long since as February 22nd, 1787. In 
a Memorial of that date, addressed to the latter, such a measure is very 
expressly recommended. In this Memorial the Company claims the right of 
marking the Watches by virtue of their Charter. But that in no \yay affects 
the general merits of the case, and the claim has not been pressed since. The 
same measure was again urged upon the Right Honourable Nicholas 
Vansittart, Chancellor of the Exchequer, in a Memorandum forwarded to him 
December 21st, 1815, as follows. '5th. All Foreign Clocks and Watches 
to have a mark permanently imprinted on some part of the movement or 
cases, by the Officers of the Customs, when the Duty is paid.' Again, in 
1823, at the period of the passing of the Warehousing Bill, in which the 
permission to Bond Watches was included, a Committee was appointed to 
communicate with the Right Honourable Mr. Wallace on the subject, when 
it was resolved, as Mr. Wallace was determined not to omit Clocks and 
Watches in his proposed Warehousing Bill, to endeavour to obtain certain 
Clauses to render the Measure as little mischievous as possible ; and a 
Memorandum was sent him, of which the following was the first Clause, 
'That all Foreign Clocks and Watches admitted to entry, should have a 
distinguishing mark impressed upon them before going out of the Kmg's 
Warehouse.' This proposition, without stating any reason for omittmg to 
adopt it, Mr. Wallace declared was inadmissible. The markmg was agam 
pressed upon the notice of the Lords of the Treasury, m a Memorial 
addressed to their Lordships, dated February 8th, 1832, as follows, '2nd. 
That the Collection of the Duty be rigidly enforced ; for which purpose a 1 
Foreign Clocks and Watches to be marked when the Duty is paid : the mark 
to be^'the proof of the Dutv having been paid. That the said marking be 
done at the Custom House, by an Officer appointed by the Commissioners of 
His Majesty's Customs.' 



320 THI-: CLUCKMAKKKS COMTANV. 

"The marking was again brought to their Lordships" notice, by implica- 
tion, in a Memorial addressed to the Lords of the Treasury, dated 7th May, 
1833, ^s follows. ' I St. That the Collection of the Duty upon all Foreign 
Clocks and Watches brought into these Realms, be enforced with the same 
exactness as is done in the case of various other articles ; and in such a 
manner that those that have paid the Duty can be easily distinguished from 
those that have not.' 

"No reason was ever directly given why the marking the Clocks and 
Watches was objectionable, or should not be adopted. Mr. Wallace con- 
tented himself with saying the proposition was inadmissible, without assigning 
any reason whatever. In a Letter from the Right Honourable Spring Rice, 
dated Treasury Chambers, 7th June, 1833, addressed to the Clerk of the 
Company, in reference to the proposed marking, that Gentleman makes the 
following remark, — ' The facility of counterfeiting the proposed marks would 
be a bar to a compliance with this suggestion.' The short Answer to this 
objection is, that a considerable revenue is derived from a duty imposed 
upon all manufactured Gold and Silver Plate, which is entirely realized and 
collected by marking the plate ; and that the marks and stamps impressed on 
the plate have very rarely been attempted to be counterfeited. The Master, 
Wardens, and Court are, however, aw\ire that it has been privately stated that 
such delicate articles as Watches could not be marked without, to a certain 
degree, damaging the same. That this is quite a fallacy is proved by the 
fact, that all the Foreign Watches imported into France have, for some time 
past, been marked on the case of the ^^'atch, without injury or detriment to 
the Watch in any respect. The Master, Wardens, and Court abstain from 
entering into any detail how the marking is effected, contenting themselves 
with confidently asserting that whatever results can be produced by mechan- 
ical skill and dexterity in France, the same can most certainly be done in 
England. The marking Foreign Watches was, your Memorialists believe, 
commenced in France some time in 1833 or 1834, and has been found to 
work extremely well. It is worthy of notice, that in France the Government 
mark on the Foreign Watches imported certifies not only that the import 
duty has been paid on the Watch, but also that the gold of which the case is 
made, is of the quality of 18 carats. For this purpose each case is assayed, 
which is a nice and difficult operation, much more so than mere marking, 
but still it is done, and most rigidly ; but without the least injury to the 
Watch or its Case. 

" All that the Master, Wardens, and Court ask of your Lordships is, 
that the mark should be the voucher of the import duty having been paid, 
without reference to the quality of the gold of which the case is made. The 
subject of marking the Watches, as practised in France, has recently been 
entered into very much in detail, in a Correspondence between Mr. Ross, 
Surveyor-General of the Customs, and the Member of the Court before 
alluded to, in which the mode of assaying and marking the Watches, and 
levying the duty, as practised in France, is fully explained. It is presumed 
your Lordships can, as a matter of course, have access to this Corres- 
pondence ; but if your Lordships prefer it, the papers being in the possession 
of the Clerk of the Company, a copy of the same shall be furnished. 

" Several minor regulations might be offered to the consideration of your 
Lordships, that would greatly tend to ensure the due collection of the 
Revenue, and at the same time protect the Home Manufacture. One of 



TlfFi CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 327 

these would be to require all dealers in Foreign Watches to take out an 
annual licence, (English Watchmakers are obliged to take out a licence in 
the shape of a Plate licence, at the annual cost of 2/. 6s. at the least,) but 
the Master, Wardens, and Court decline noticing them further at present. 
The result of the experience of upwards of 50 years, sufficiently proves the 
total uselessness of all Custom-House regulations unaccompanied by marking, 
and for this reason they will not propose any further measure, until made 
acquainted with your Lordships' determination, on the subject of marking all 
Clocks and Watches imported. 

" Should your Lordships, on mature consideration, determine to adopt 
a measure that has been found to answer the desired purpose in France, they 
Vv'ill request the favour of an interview for two or three Members of the Court 
with the Right Honourable the Chancellor of the Exchequer. Should your 
Lordships, on the other hand, decline to adopt the measure, the Master, 
Wardens, and Court, will not trouble you further on the subject, persuaded 
that so doing would be only needlessly to occupy your Lordships' most 
valuable time, to produce no beneficial result. 

" The Master, Wardens, and Court, will now mention a circumstance 
connected with the illicit importation of Foreign Watches, that they consider 
deserving of your Lordships' notice. In a Memorial addressed to thL; Lords 
of the Treasury, dated February 1832, it is stated, that the Foreign Manu- 
facturers had it in contemplation to remove their principal establishments 
from Paris to London. This has come to pass, and London is now the head 
quarters of a'll the principal Foreign Watch Manufacturers : and there is no 
description of Foreign Watch that, if wanted, cannot be immediately procured 
in this City. A further inducement with the Foreign Watch Manufacturer to 
prefer London to Paris is to be found in the following circumstance — That the 
Cases of all Gold Watches imported into France, must, as before-mentioned, 
be made of Gold of the value of 1 8 carats, otherwise they are liable to be 
seized, and the parties in whose possession they are found severely punished. 
Such is not the case with the Foreign Liiporter here. But the English 
Watchmakers are by law compelled to make the cases of their Gold W'atches 
of 18 carat Gold. The Act of Parliament not applying to Foreign Watches, 
the cases of a great many of the Gold Watches brought into these realms are 
made of Gold of 16 carats only; and your Memorialists are credibly in- 
formed that it is in contemplation to send over Watches in cases of the 
quality of only 14 carats. The making the Watches in cases of such inferior 
Gold is a great pecuniary advantage, though not very creditable, in a moral 
point of view, to the Foreign Manufacturer, for the whole of these Watches 
are sold as though the cases were of 18 carat Gold. This is a fraud that 
could not be practised in France. 

" With regard to the Foreign Clocks, the Master, Wardens, and Court, 
are of opinion, the article being more bulky, and comparatively of much 
less value than Watches, that the duty is more generally collected than it is 
upon Watches, with the exception of Clocks of a particular description called 
Balance or Carriage Clocks, of which great numbers are smuggled into 
the country, particularly at the different watering places on the coast ; 
but that, nevertheless, from the very loose manner in which the Customs Act 
is worded, many frauds are practised which might easily be prevented. For 
example, the name of the maker and place where made, required by the Act 
to be shewn on the dial, in the place of being indented by stamping, or cut 



328 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

into the dial by engraving, in the case of metal dials, or burnt in in the case 
of enamel dials, as is customary in English Clocks, is merely painted, and can 
be removed by the application of alcohol, without difficulty, or injury to the 
appearance of the dial. This experiment has been made with complete suc- 
cess in the King's \Varehouse at the Custom House. In the case of a great 
many of these Clocks, before they are exposed for sale, the painted name is 
removed, and an English name and ' London ' substituted in its place ; they 
are then sold as English Clocks. As these articles are almost always of very 
inferior quality, this fraud is extremely prejudicial to the character of the 
British Manufacture as well as to the interests of the Manufacturer. 

In conclusion, the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 
Company of Clock Makers of the City of London, very respectfully 
beg the favour of your Lordships, to take the subject of the present 
depressed state of the Manufacture of Clocks and Watches in this 
Country into your most serious consideration, in reference to the 
injury the trade sustains by the illicit importation of Foreign Clocks 
and Watches." 

To this Memorial an answer was received in a Letter from 
the Treasury, dated the 29th January, 1842, to the effect that, 
after consultation with the Board of Trade, the Treasury, 
whilst regretting the existing evils under which the Trade 
was stated to labour, were of opinion that they would not be 
removed by the stamping of Foreign Watches, which would, 
moreover, be attended with serious inconvenience. They 
further intimated that Vendors of Foreign or Home-made 
Gold or Silver Watches were equally liable to the usual plate 
licence duty ; that prosecutions had been equally instituted 
against both classes, and that there was no reason to think that 
the duty was not as regularly paid by one as by the other. 

This reply provoked a rejoinder from the Company in 
the shape of a fresh Memorial, in which they reminded the 
Treasury that whilst the Revenue lost to the extent of from 
;^20,ooo to ;^25,ooo per annum : — 

"The only persons who benefit from the present state of things are 
the Swiss Manufacturers and the Smugglers, for it is well to bear in mind 
that every (so called) French Watch smuggled into this country is made in 
Switzerland, the only country in Europe the inhabitants of which pay neither 
rates nor taxes, and with whom it is, therefore, impossible for the English 
Manufacturer to compete. It is further to be observed, and this is very 
important, that not anything new is asked of their Lordships, the prayer of 
the Company's Memorial of the 9th December last being merely that the 
existing Law should be put in force, and not suffered to become a dead 
letter for the benefit of Foreigners and Contrabandists. 

" Having thus shown the importance of the subjects the Master, Wardens, 
and Court of Assistants have with much reluctance resolved again to address 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 329 

your Lordships, being persuaded that the ' serious inconvenience,' which you 
stated in your answer of the 29th January would result from ' stamping 
Foreign Watches,' must be the result of some misconception as to the 
diiificulties attendant upon the marking, or mis-information derived from 
parties who have a personal interest in perpetuating a state of things equally 
ruinous to the revenue and to the individuals engaged in the manufacture of 
Clocks and Watches in this Country. 

" As the best and most convincing proof that can I)e offered to your 
Lordships, that the Cases of the Swiss Watches are marked in France without 
injuring them, the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants have forwarded 
to your Lordships the Gold Case of a Swiss Watch, particularly light and 
delicate, weighing only 9 dwts., which has been marked in France on the 
front of the pendant ; the mark, which is extremely distinct and visible, not- 
withstanding the Watch has been made and in use many years, is a voucher 
that the Gold is of the quality of 18 carats, and that the Watch has paid the 
import duty into France ; that the case has not sustained any injury from the 
marking is perfectly clear. This case is of no value but as bullion, and is 
quite at your Lordships' service as long as you choose to keep it. It may be 
asserted as an objection to stamping, that the marks may be counterfeited, 
but so may the marks mipressed on the Gold and Silver plate at Goldsmiths' 
Hall when the duty is paid, as a proof that it has been paid ; yet this is the 
only security for the collection of that branch of the Revenue, as instances 
are very rare of the marks having been attempted to be forged. 

" The Master, Wardens, and Court, from motives of delicacy, abstain 
from offering any opinion how the marking should be effected. Their Lord- 
ships will find no difficulty in obtaining information on this subject, and they 
will venture to name one individual, Mr. Holtzapffel, the well-known maker of 
machines of every description, who from his knowledge of the subject is 
peculiarly qualified to afford their Lordships the best information. In the 
present state of the relations between this country and France, there would 
probably be no difficulty in obtaining permission for an individual sent by 
the Government to see how the stamping is effected in that country. This 
would remove all practical objections, because no individual, however inter- 
ested in perpetuating the present state of things, will venture to assert that 
Watches cannot be equally well marked in England as in France. The 
Master, Wardens, and Court are sorry to observe that your Lordships have not 
taken any notice of that part of their Memorial which related to certain 
abuses in reference to the importation of Foreign Clocks. 

"■ The Master, Wardens, and Court regret that they did not express their 
meaning more distinctly in their Memorial of the 9th December on the 
subject of Licences. What they stated Avas not in reference to the Plate 
Licence as applied to Foreign Watches ; their intention was to suggest that a 
separate licence should be taken by all persons dealing in Foreign Clocks 
and Watches for permission so to do, without reference to any other licence. 
A licence of £,2 a year would produce a revenue of not less than ;^ 10,000. 

" There are abundant authorities for such proceeding. The case of an 
Auctioneer is particularly in point. An Auctioneer in an extensive Ime of 
business, independent of an annual licence oi £s 5^-' is obliged to take out 
additional licences to the amount altogether of ^35 4^'. For the details of 
these licences your Lordships are referred to a letter to, and answer f^rom, a 
Firm of the first respectability, copies of which accompany this Memorial. 



330 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

" In conclusion, the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 
Company of Clockmakers of the City of London would feel very much 
oblicred if the Right Hon. the Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the Vice- 
President of the Board of Trade, would have the goodness to grant an 
interview to two or three members of the Court, as they cannot help being 
convinced that such a proceeding Avould, by mutual explanation, remove the 
difficulties that at present exist, to the adopting the same mode of dis- 
tinguishing the Clocks and Watches that have paid the import duty from 
those that have not, as is practised in France. " 

This last Memorial only received the courtesy of an 
acknowledgment at the hands of the Government, and the 
return of the Gold Watch Case with which it was accom- 
panied. 

In July, 1843, a Bill was before Parliament, entitled "A 
Bill to amend the laws relating to the Customs," which, by 
Clause 10, proposed to repeal the restrictions and prohibitions 
which had been made in accordance with the Act, 3rd and 4th 
William IV, cap. lii, sec. 58, relating to the importation of 
Foreign Watches and Clocks ; and the Company agreed to a 
Petition to Parliament against such Clause, which they asserted 
would be absolutely fatal to the English manufacturer. They, 
moreover, on the 2nd August, presented a Memorial to the 
Treasury on the subject, and urged them to withdraw the 
Clause from the Bill, which, they alleged, if passed, would 
enable unprincipled individuals to import articles in parts 
at different periods, and in different places, incomplete and 
consequently of little value, the amount of duty being pro- 
portionately small ; a trick of a similar character having been 
played with gloves, by importing separately parcels of right 
and left-hand gloves. They contended that the' Clause would 
utterly destroy the very small amount of protection afforded 
to the British manufacturer who had suffered by the then 
recent reduction of duty on Foreign Watches, which re- 
duction the President of the Board of Trade had admitted 
in the House of Commons had proved a failure so far as 
preventing smuggling was concerned. 

The Memorial concludes as follows : — 

" It may not be amiss to notice that all English Clocks and Watches, 
entered for exportation, must carry the name and place of abode of the 
Maker on the frame and on the dial. In point of fact the Law is more 
indulgent to the Foreign than to the English Manufacturer. The justice of 
such a proceeding it is difficult to understand. 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 33 1 

" The Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants consider they have good 
reason to complain of the Uttle courtesy with which they have been treated 
by your Lordships. The first intimation that a measure of such great in- 
terest to the Trade was in progress came from the Member for Finsbury. 
During the long period the Right Hon. William Pitt was in office, a com- 
munication was regularly made to the Master, Wardens, and Court of 
Assistants, generally through the medium of the Secretary to the Treasury, 
whenever he had it in contemplation to make any alteration in the Laws relating 
to Clocks and Watches. During this period some very important measures 
were brought before Parliament, among others the Tax on Wearers of Watches, 
and the alteration of the Standard of the Gold of which the Watch Cases 
were made. 

" In conclusion, the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 
Company of Clockmakers of the City of London, very respectfully beg the 
favour of your Lordships to take this subject into your most serious con- 
sideration, not doubting but you will see the necessity that exists for continu- 
ing the Law as it now stands, and that you will direct Clause No. 10 to be 
withdrawn from the Bill, now in progress through Parliament, to amend the 
Laws relating to the Customs." 

On consideration of this Bill by the House of Commons 
in Committee, on the 5th August, Clause 10, to which the 
Company had thus objected, was thrown out. 

In January, 1849, the attention of the Court was directed 
to the fact, that a number of Foreign Watches in Metal Cases 
in imitation of Gold, had been advertized for sale as " Gold 
Watches " in the Catalogue of the Custom House Sale of the 
preceding Quarter, but had been subsequently withdrawn, 
and that they had been again catalogued in the then forth- 
coming Quarterly Sale as "Watches" only, but with the 
prices on which the advances were to be made as high as 
Gold Watches. 

It was thereupon determined to issue an Advertisement 
in the Daily Newspapers, cautioning the public with regard 
to them, seeing that they might be purchased by interested 
persons, who might avail themselves of the circumstance of 
their very great resemblance to Gold Watches, to sell them as 
such, and thereby defraud the public. 

On the 2nd February, in the same year, the Court agreed 
to the following Memorial, by way of protest, to the Lords of 
the Treasury : — 
" To the Right Honourable the Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury : 
" The Memorial of the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants, of the 
Company of Clockmakers of the City of London, 
<' Shfwfth 

"That there w^ere in the spring of 1848 imported into the Port of 
London, and entered at the Custom House for Duty, but without the 

I 



332 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

customary distinction of Gold, Silver, and Metal, a parcel of Watches, in 
number about 330, which were made at Lausanne, in the Canton de Vaud, 
for the express purpose of defrauding the Revenue of this Country. They 
are supposed to have been entered by a person calling himself Piccard, as 
Agent for the Maker, an individual of the name Bonnet, notorious for the 
manufacture of Gold Cases of only 6 and 8 carat Gold, but mark'd pur- 
porting to be 18 carat Gold. The Watches were made to resemble Gold 
Watches, but entered merely as Watches, that in the event of their being 
discovered to be not Gold, but Metal, they might not be liable to seizure. 
They were valued at an extremely low price, supposing them to be Gold, 
which they purported in appearance to be, but at very much above their value 
as Metal Watches which they really are. The Watches were seized for being 
under-valued under the supposition that they were Gold, and paid for with 
an addition of ro per cent, ad valorefn, and the parties concerned openly 
boasted in Switzerland of the trick they had played the Custom House 
in London. The Watches were brought forward at the November customary 
sale, and catalogued as ' Gold Watches.' While on public view it was first 
discovered that the Watches were not Gold, but Metal, and in consequence 
they were withdrawn. At the last sale (January 27th) they were again 
broujtht forward, but this time they were merely designated in the Catalogue 
as ' Watches.' Now this same Catalogue contains no fewer than 769 
Watches, and, these excepted, the whole are accompanied by the proper and 
customary description, of whether of Gold or Silver, with the prices at which they 
were put up and the advances to be made were quite as high as those of many of 
the Gold Watches. The Watches should have been described as what they are, 
' Metal Watches,' and a proportionate price put upon them. The omission of 
the word ' iMetal ' was repeated too often to be a mistake of the Printers, 
and no other construction can be put upon the omission but this, that it was 
for the same purpose it had been previously made by the Importer, which 
supposition is confirmed by the prices put upon the Watches in the 
Catalogue. 

" It is perfectly true that a gross fraud was practised by the foreigner, 
and that the Revenue was defrauded to a considerable amount, but it will 
ever be a subject of regret that an attempt should have been made to recover 
the loss at the expense of the public, by a similar mode of proceedmg to 
that by which the loss was occasioned. 

" Your Memorialists beg to submit to your Lordships that more caution 
should be used when Watches are entered for Duty, to ascertain 
whether they are bona fide Gold, Silver, or Metal. This description 
embraces all the Watches made ; and that the same should be duly 
noticed in the Catalogue of sale. There are one or two instances 
on record of Watches made in Steel and Platinum cases, but the 
number is so few that it is not necessary to notice them. In the 
year 1848 no fewer than 2,618 Watches and 770 Clocks were sold 
at the Custom House sales. Now the selling these Watches in 
lots of two each, and the Clocks singly, offers a convenience to 
private purchasers which was not contemplated by the Legislature, 
and is very prejudicial to the English Manufacturer and Shopkeeper, 
who is compelled to take out an Annual Licence to carry on his 
trade. Formerly, to obviate this inconvenience, the Watches were 
sold in lots of ten and twelve each, and the Clocks in a similar 
manner. As the sales are at present conducted the Great Ware- 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 



333 



house at the Custom House is converted into a Government Bazaar 
in which there are quarterly sales of Clocks and Watches, and the 
Commissioners of Customs into ordinary retail dealers. These 
two last, which are very serious inconveniences under which the 
Trade labours, are possibly of such a nature as can only be remedied 
by an Act of Parliament." 

On the 5th of the same month, they adopted the 
following Petition to the House of Commons, which was 
presented on the 9th, and ordered to lie on the Table. 

" The Humble Petition of the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants 
of the Art or Mystery of Clockmaking of the City of London, 
" Sheweth — 

"That some time in 1848, 326 Watches, merely designated as Watches, 
but omitting the ordinary description of Gold, Silver, or Metal, were entered 
for payment of Duty at the Custom House, London, and seized for being 
under-valued, and as is customary in these cases paid for with 10 per cent. 
ad valo7'em, in addition. At the periodical Quarterly Sale at the Custom 
House in November last, these Watches were offered for sale as ' Gold 
Watches,' and catalogued as such, but upon a close examination were found 
to be Metal, and in consequence withdrawn, it being then discovered that a 
fraud had been practised upon the Customs. x\t the Quarterly Sale, 
January 27th, however, these Watches were again brought forward, and 
entered in the Catalogue as Watches, but without the distinguishing appel- 
lation of Gold, Silver, or Metal, though at quite as high a price and subject 
to the same advances each bidding as Gold Watches, thereby leaving the 
public to infer that they were in reality what they appeared to be, namely, 
Gold Watches. 

" The remaining Watches in the sale, 443 in number, were distinctly 
catalogued as Gold and Silver Watches ; in liku manner the former ought to 
have been distinguished as Metal Watches. Their true character being 
detected at the sale, no biddings were made, and they still remain in the 
Queen's Warehouse. 

" That with very few exceptions the whole of these Watches were lotted 
in pairs, and the Clocks singly, the Commissioners thereby departing from 
a rule generally observed with other merchandise of selling goods in bulk 
(the correctness of this assertion is shown by the pnnted catalogue), or. 
as regards Watches, in parcels of not less than 10 or 12, as was formerly the 
practice. The Clock and Vwtlclimakers, therefore, complain of being made 
an exception to a general rule, and one which operates to their serious 
injury. 

" That in the year 1848, no fewer than 2,730 Watches and 789 Clocks, 
lotted as before described, were sold at the Custom-House sales, thereby 
converting the great warehouse into a bazaar, and the Commissioners of 
Customs into ordinary retail dealers in Clocks and Watches. 

" That the Chronometer is, next to the Compass, the most important 
instrument used in Navigation, and that, deprived of Chronometers, the War 
Navy of this Country would on Foreign service be very soon reduced to the 

Z 2 



334 THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

same state Lord Anson describes the Squadron under his command to have 
been after doubling Cape Horn in the memorable expedition to attack the 
Spanish Settlements in the West Coast of South America. 

" The workmen employed upon Chronometers may be designated as the 
elite of the workmen, selected out of the great mass, and unless the manu- 
facture of Clocks and Watches is duly protected and the makers placed upon 
the footing of the most favored manufacturers, the nursery for workmen 
will be destroyed and ultimately the War Navy become dependent upon 
foreigners for Chronometers. It is especially deserving of notice, that the 
Chronometers that have performed the best, have hitherto invariably been 
made in England. 

" Your Petitioners therefore humbly pray that your Honorable House 
will investigate the extent and the causes of the evils of which they complain, 
and will afford to your Petitioners such relief as to your Honorable House 
may seem meet." 

An answer, dated the 31st March following, was received 
from the Treasury to the Memorial to that body, to the effect 
that they saw no reason to depart from the existing Re- 
gulations. 

On 30th January, 1852, it was agreed to present a Petition 

to the House of Commons, and a Memorial to the Lords of the 

Treasury, directing their attention to the great injury likely to 

be done to the Trade by reason of the Treasury Minute to 

the Customs, on the subject of the importation or exportation 

of Foreign Watches havins: counterfeit British names and 

places of abode thereon, which Petition and Memorial are as 

follow :— 

" To the Honorable the Commons of Great Britain and Ireland 
in Parliament assembled, 

" The Hianble Petition of the Master, Wardens, and Fellowship of the Art 
and Mystery ef Clockmaking of the City of London, 

" Sheweth, 

"That in the 4th year of the reign of George 4, an Act was passed 
entitled an ' Act to make more effectual provision for permitting goods 
imported to be secured in Warehouses or other places without payment of 
duty on the first entry thereof, in which a clause was introduced specially to 
prevent Foreign Clocks and Watches made in imitation of British, and with 
British names and places of abode, from being warehoused and afterwards 
exported, and also by the 68th section of the 8 and 9 Victoria, Cap. 86, they 
are still further prohibited from being admitted into this Country ifi transitu 
agreeable to the above-named Act. 

" Your Petitioners have seen with much concern that, notwithstanding 
the above Acts, condemning all Watches imported into this Country with 
counterfeit British names and places of abode, the following letter has 
been addressed from the Lords of the Treasury to the Commissioners of 
Customs, whereby all Clocks and Watches in transitu, with counterfeit British 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 335 

names and places of abode, are placed upon the same footing as Watches 
imported without a name, and allowed to be exported, viz. : — 
" Gentlemen, 

" I have laid before the Lords Commissioners of Her 
Majesty's Treasury your Reports on the subject of the admission of goods 
into this country /// transitu^ which are included in the List of Articles 
prohibited by the 63rd Section of the 8 & 9 Victoria, cap. 86, from being 
admitted into this country for home use, and I am directed by their 
Lordships to transmit to you a copy of a Report which they have received on 
this subject from the Lords of the Committee of Privy Council for Trade. 
Upon a careful consideration of all the circumstances of the case my Lords 
are of opinion that some alteration may be made in the regulations which at 
present govern your Officers when cases of this description aiise. My Lords 
perceive that it has hitherto been the practice to allow the exportation of 
Foreign Watches brought to this country although not marked with the 
Foreign Maker's name, &c., as required by the above-named Act, but that 
Foreign Watches having a British Maker's name attached to them have been 
seized when discovered and condemned as prohibited to be imported. It is 
their Lordships wish that the regulation which has been applied to Watches 
without the Foreign Maker's name should be henceforth extended to Watches 
on which an English Maker's name is counterfeited, it being understood that 
the search by your Officers of Foreign Goods in Port, intended for tranship- 
ment, is to be confined to the prevention of the introduction of contraband 
goods into this country, and that the regulation in question is not to be 
extended to Watches in Warehouse. 

" I am, Gentlemen, 

" Your obedient Servant, 
"The Commissioners of Customs. (Signed) " G. Coknewall Lewis. 

"Your Petitioners .submit that the facility thus afforded to dishonest 
foreigners, to impose upon the purchasers of Watches, imported as above 
described, is immoral in principle and destructive to the character of the 
British manufacturer, for it must be recollected that the English name is 
assumed for the purpose of insuring a higher price for these Watches than 
could otherwise be obtained, the preference given to them in the market 
being the result of their acknowledged superiority over the Foreign. This 
deception is still further assisted by the facility the warehousing affords for 
exporting them in British ships. 

" Your Petitioners in calling the attention of your Honourable House 
to this important subject, desire to impress upon your Honourable House 
their firm conviction that the strongest necessity exists for condemning all 
Watches and Clocks imported into this country with counterfeit British names 
and places of abode, in accordance with the above recited Acts, whether 
intended for home consumption or to be bonded for exportation, as the only 
means of securing both the English maker and Foreign purchaser from the 
most gross and fraudulent imposition. 

" Your Petitioners therefore humbly pray that your Honourable House 
will take into consideration the serious evils arising to the Watch 
Trade of this country from the proposed adoption of the Treasury- 
minute above referred to, which will, if acted upon, speedily be 
converted into a measure for the encouragement of ever>' species 
of fraud and deception. 

" And your Petitioners will ever pray, &:c. 



^^6 THE CLOCKMAKERS' COMPANY. 

'' To the Right Honorable the Lords Commissioners of Her 
Majesty's Treasury. 

"■ The Memorial of the Master, Wardens, and Court of Assistants of the 
Company of Clockmakers of the City of London, 

" Sheweth — 

" That your Memorialists have seen with much concern the 
following communication from your Lordships to the Commissioners of 
Customs on the subject of Foreign 'Watches and Clocks in transitu for 
Foreign Counties, viz, 

\yide Letter in the preceding Petition to the House of Cotnmons.] 

'* Your Memorialists submit that the encouragement thus afforded to 
dishonest Foreigners to impose upon the purchasers of Watches exported as 
above described, whose object will be to export them in British Ships as a 
proof that they are of English Manufacture, is immoral in principle and 
destructive to the character of the British Manufacturer. It affords a facility 
for practising a gross fraud upon the Foreign Purchaser, who is led to 
suppose he is procuring an English Watch, while in fact he is obtaining a 
Foreign one, the inferior quality of which is very destructive to the character 
of the British Maker, for it must be recollected that the English name is 
assumed for the sole purpose of ensuring a higher price than could be other- 
wise obtained for the article, the prelerence given in the Market to the 
English Watch being the result of its acknowledged superiority over the 
Foreign. 

"Your Memorialists beg to call your Lordships' attention to the 
following clause in an Act passed in the 4th year of George 4, Cap. 24, 
entitled ' An Act to make more effectual provision for permitting goods 
imported to be secured in Warehouses or other places without payment of 
duty on the first entry thereof,' which Clause was introduced into the Act 
specially to prevent Foreign Clocks and Watches made in imitation of British, 
and with British names and places of abode, from being warehoused and 
afterwards exported, viz. — ' And be it further enacted that no Watch of 
Foreign Manufacture shall be imported and warehoused under the provisions 
of this Act upon the case or cases of which any mark or stamp shall be 
impressed, which shall be similar to, or shall purport to be or shall be 
intended to represent any mark or stamp of the Goldsmiths' Company of 
London, or other legal British assay marks or stamps, and that no Clock or 
Watch of Foreign Manufacture shall be so imported and warehoused upon 
the face or upon any part of which the Word ' London,' or the name of any 
other Town or Place of the United Kingdom shall be engraven or painted, or 
shall in any way appear so as to purport or give colour that such Clock or 
Watch is of the Manufacture of the United Kingdom, and that no Clock or 
Watch of Foreign Manufacture shall be so imported and warehoused unless a 
distinguishing number, and the name or names of some persons or place shall 
be engraven, and shall appear visible on the frame or other part of such 
Clock or Watch, independent of the face purporting to be the name and place 
of abode of the person or persons by whom such Clock or Watch was made, 
and that no Clock or Watch of Foreign Manufacture shall be imported and 
warehoused under this Act in any incomplete state — that is to say, not having 
the movement with all its concomitant parts properly fixed and secured in its 
case on pain of the forfeiture of such Clock or Watch.' 



THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 337 

" Your Memorialists in calling your Lordships' attention to this impor- 
tant subject desire to impress UDon your Lordships their firm conviction that 
the strongest necessity exists for condemning all Watches and Clocks 
imported into this country with counterfeit British names and places of 
abode, in accordance with the spirit of the above-recited Act, as the only 
means of securing both the English Maker and Foreign Purchaser from the 
most gross and fraudulent imposition. 

" Your Memorialists therefore pray that your Lordships will take into 
your most serious consideration the very grevious consequences to 
the trade of this country that will result from the adoption of the 
Treasury Minute above referred to, which will, if permitted to be 
acted upon, speedily be converted into a measure fpr the encourage- 
ment of every species of fraud and deception." 

An answer was received from the Treasury, dated the 
20th February, 1852, in the following terms : — 

" Treasury Chambers, 

" 20th February, 18$ 2. 
" Gentlemen, 

" I am commanded by the Lords Commissioners 
of Her Majesty's Treasury to acquaint \ ou in reply to your Memorial of the 
19th ultimo that the regulations respecting the admission of Foreign Watches 
and Clocks into this country when in transitu for Foreit^n Countries, were 
adopted after a careful consideration with a view of affording commercial 
facilities to the Mercantile interests of the country, and their Lordships are 
not prepared to revoke or make any alteration in such regulation. 

" I have the honor to be, 

" Gentlemen, 
" Your very obedient Servant, 
(Signed) " G. Cornewall Lewis. 

"The Master, Wardens, &c., 

" Comp^ of Clockmakers." 

A Deputation of the Court had an interview with the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer in the March following, who 
promised to give the subject his best attention, and requested 
that a further short Memorial, embodying the sense of the 
former, might be transmitted to the Treasury. This was 
accordingly done, and the Memorial was in effect a duplicate 
of the previous one, with an additional paragraph, as under : — 

" Your Memorialists have subsequently been informed, and are perfectly 
satisfied as to the correctness of the information, that a number of Watches 
had been prepared without names to be ready, in the event of this alteration in 
the law, to receive such names as it might at the time be more desirable to 
employ, and that Adams, French and McCabe, London makers, and Roskell 
and Tobias, Liverpool makers, have principally been used. The entire tran- 
saction is too recent to allow any practical results to have occurred, much less 



^7,S THE CLOCKMAKERS COMPANY. 

to be known, the whole has been managed with an unusual degree of privacy 
your Memorialists not being aware that such a minute was passed until it 
appeared in the ' Times ' of the 9th of January last. In former times your 
Memorialists would have been made aware of so important an alteration in 
the law, through a widely different channel than that of a public print. Of 
so much importance was this regulation considered at the time the Act 
passed, a.d. 1828, that immediately notice of the same was given by your 
Memorialists to the French and Swiss Consuls, the receipt of which was 
acknowledged by Baron Seguier, the Swiss Consul, under date of the 21st of 
November, 1828. It will be urged in extenuation of the evil complained of 
that Watches having English names have for a considerable period been 
manufactured abroad, to be sold as English, and that this is a practice that 
cannot be prevented. But from 1828 to the present time these Watches 
could not be exported in English bottoms or direct from this country, These 
circumstances were felt by the Foreign manufacturer to prove a considerable 
obstacle to the sale of his Watches, and one that it was important for him to 
get removed. 

" Your Memorialists therefore pray that Your Lordships will take into 
your most serious consideration the very grievous consequences to 
the Trade of this country that will result from the adoption of the 
Treasury Minute above referred to, which will, if permitted to be 
acted upon, speedily be converted into a measure for the encourage- 
ment of every species of fraud and deception." 

To this further Memorial the Treasury eventually caused 
the following reply to be sent : — 

" Treasury Chambers, 

'' 1st May, 1852. 

" Gentlemen, 

'• The Lords Commissioners of Her Majesty's Treasury have 
had under their consideration your further Memorial of the ist ultimo 
respecting the admission of Foreign Clocks and Watches in transit for Foreign 
Countries, in which Memorial you refer to the Act 4, Geo. 4, Cap. 24, 
which prohibits any Foreign Clocks or Watches bearing counterfeited names 
of English makers from being imported or warehoused for exportation, and 
state that 'the strongest necessity exists for condemning all Clocks and 
Watches imported into this country with counterfeit British names, as the 
only means of securing both the English maker and the Foreign purchaser 
from most gross and fraudulent impositions.' 

" I am directed by their Lordships to state that the Treasury Order of 
the 31st December last merely permits such articles, when brought from a 
Foreign Port in transit to another Port, and without any intention of being 
landed in this country, to be immediately transhipped for that purpose, and 
by no means permits them