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*Soine colonial mansions 
and those who lived in them 

Thomas Allen Glenn 



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SOME COLONIAL MANSIONS. 



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Eleanor Parke Custis. 



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Some 

Colonial Mansions 

AND THOSE WHO LIVED IN THEM 

With Genealogies of the Various 
Families Mentioned 



BY 



THOMAS ALLEN GLENN 



SECOND SERIES 




PHILADELPHIA 

HENRY T. COATES & COMPANY 

1 900 



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SB (d 



Copyright, 1899. by 
HENRY T. COAXES & CO. 



•: • • •-•!••••• 

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PREFACE. 



In the following pages the plan pursued in the first 
volume of "Some Colonial Homes and those who lived in 
them/' has been closely followed, the only deviation being 
the introduction of homes of national fame, as Mount 
Vernon and Monticello. The great interest attaching to 
these is, perhaps, a sufficient apology for turning for a 
moment from the humbler to the greater folk, and for 
introducing, in one instance — that of Monticello — a resi- 
dence finished only some years subsequent to that period at 
which all things Colonial are supposed to terminate. The 
reader, however, will find many examples of several periods 
of earlier architecture, and all such houses have a story 
worth the telling. 

There is, indeed, scarcely a house standing now, built 
during Colonial days, that is not, in one way or another 
intimately connected with some person, the actor in an 
important event in the history of our country. 

Nor do we refer particularly to great soldiers or eminent 
statesmen. The story of John Bowne of Flushing, the simple 
Quaker, who, by his firm adherence to the great doctrine of 
non-resistance, compelled the government of the New Neth- 
erlands to grant the precious boon of religious liberty to his 



ivil70339 

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6 PREFACE. 

persecuted co-religionists, the stern resistance to arbitrary 
force shown by Preston, the early lawmaker of Maryland, or 
the heroic death at Quebec of the gende Macpherson, each 
mark as important links in the chain of events that finally 
gave us Independence and made us a great people, as do the 
well-known achievements of Anthony Wayne, the statesman- 
ship of Alexander Hamilton, or the diplomatic services of 
Benjamin Franklin. 

The sketch of Laurel Hill and the Rawle family will be 
found most interesting in illustrating the social and political 
life of one of the most prominent of Pennsylvania families. 
As this article was left unfinished at the breaking out of the 
Spanish War, owing to the writer's absence in the Volunteer 
army. Colonel William Brooke Rawle most kindly completed 
it, and largely amplified the accompanying genealogy. 

The thanks of the editor are also due to Captain Frederick 
Schober of Philadelphia, who furnished the principal data for 
the Wayne genealogy; also to John W. Jordan, Assistant 
Librarian of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, to 
William Macpherson Hornor of Bryn Mawr, Pa., and to 
many others for assistance and suggestions. 

Thomas Allen Glenn. 

Arumore, Pa., June 8, 1899. 



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CONTENTS, 

SECOND SERIES. 



PAGB 

MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS 17 

Ancestry of Gen. Washington 73 

Genealogy of the Washington Family 74 

Sharpless Portraits 85 

THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, L. 1 91 

Df^cent of the Bowne Family from the Feakes, the 

WiNTHROPS, AND THE FONES Il6 

Winthrop Line 117 

Some of the Desckndants of Thomas Bowne of Flush- 
ing, L. 1 118 

LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY 123 

Descendants of Francis Rawle of Philadelphia .... 184 

Descendants of Benjamin and Hannah (Hudson) Rawle . 191 

DF5CENDANTS OF JOHN AND ANNA (RAWLE) CLIFFORD ... I9I 

Descendants of Isaac and Margaret (Rawle) Wharton . 194 

MONTICELLO 199 

The Jefferson Genealogy 241 

THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH 243 

Philipse Genealogy 277 

WAYNESBOROUGH 279 

Descendants of Captain Anthony Wayne 302 

Copy of the Will ok .\nthony Wayne 302 

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8 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

PRESTON AT PATUXENT 341 

Appendix. Acts of Assembly 372 

Descent of the Carpenter Branch from Samuel Preston . 376 
Descendants of Richard Preston through Naomi (Pres- 
ton) Berry 389 

THE SCHUYLERS 395 

Schuyler Genealogy 43^ 

MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS 443 

Macpherson Genealogy 480 




old POHICK church, where WASHINGTON WAS MARRIED. 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

SECOND SERIES. 



PAGB 

Eleanor Parke Custis Photogravure . . Frontispiece. 

PoHicK Church, near Mount Vernon, Va., where Washington was Married . g 

Old Barn, Mount Vernon 12 

Washington's Book-plate 19 

SuLGRAVE Church, Northamptonshire, Burial-place of Lawrence Washing- 
ton 22 

Sulgrave Manor-house, Northamptonshire . 23 

Washington Arms (formerly in a window in Sulgn'ave Manor-house) 26 

Mount Vernon, River Front 31 

Mary Washington, Mother of George Washington (from an oil painting by 

Middleton) 37 

Washington (by Charles Willson Peale, at Shirley, Va.) 41 

Washington (by Charles Willson Peale) 45 

Daniel Parke Custis, First Husband of Mrs. Washington 49 

Martha Washington Photogrmmre 51 

Mount Vernon, Wf-st Front 52 

Martha Custis, Daughter of Mrs. Washington (from small oil portrait on 

copper) 54 

John and Martha Custis, Children of Mrs. Washington (from an original oil 

painting by Woolaston) 55 

Library, Mount Vernon . 58 

Banqueting-hall, Mount Vernon 59 

Gen. Washington's Chamber 61 

Mrs. Washington's Chamber 62 

Nellie Custis (from a pastel by Sharpless) 64 

" Billy," Washington's Body-servant (from a painting by Charles Willson 

Peale) 65 

Reception-room, Mount Vernon 66 

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lO LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, 



PAGB 

George Washington Custis (from a miniature presented to La Fayette) 69 

Tomb of the Washingtons, Mount Vernon 71 

George Washington (from a pastel by James Sharpless) 86 

Martha Washington (from a pastel by James Sharpless) 89 

The Bowne House, Flushing, L. I. (from the road) Photogravure 92 

Old Clock in Dining-room, Bowne House 93 

Bowne House, Flushing, L. I., Side View 96 

Dining-room, Bowne House, Showing old Fireplace and Furniture . 97 

Old Chair in Dining-room, Bowne House 99 

Chamber, First Floor, Bowne House 100 

John Winthrop loi 

WiNTHROP Arms 103 

Adam Winthrop 107 

Old Bed and Chairs, Bowne House 109 

Chest of Drawers, Bowne House 112 

Mrs. William Rawle (Sarah Coates Burge) . . .Photogravure 124 

The Rawle Arms 125 

Sweedland, on the Frankford Road, the Residence of Francis Rawle, 

A. D. 1703 126 

Oare Church, Somerset, England 129 

Laurel Hill (Present appearance) 137 

Mrs. Isaac Wharton (Margaret Rawle), after Sully's portrait 141 

Hall and Stairway, Laurel Hill 153 

Drawing-room, Laurel Hill (Present appearance) 156 

Fireplace in Drawing-room, Laurel Hill 157 

William Rawle (after portrait painted in London in 1782 by Benjamin 

West) 161 

William Rawle (after the portrait painted by Inman) 171 

Mrs. Jacob Ridgway Smith (Rebecca Shoemaker Wharton), after Sully's 

portrait) 174 

Samuel Shoemaker and his son Edward (from the original portrait painted by 

Thomas Spence Duch6) 175 

Thomas Jefferson (from the painting by Sully belonging to the American Philo- 
sophical Society) Photogravure 200 

MoNTiCELLo, North Front 205 

Hall, Monticello . 212 

Parlor, Monticello 213 

Dining-room, Monticello 215 



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LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, II 



PAGB 

Saloon, Monticello 217 

Tea-room, Monticello 219 

House in which Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence . . . 223 

Writing-room, Monticello 227 

Mrs. Thomas M. Randolph (Martha Jefferson) from a painting by T. Sully . . 229 

Monticello, South Front 232 

Tomb of Thomas Jefferson, Monticello 238 

Mary Philipse Photogrcnmre 244 

Old Mill at Tarrytown 245 

Old Dutch Church at Tarrytown 247 

Philipse Coat of Arms 250 

Philipse Manor-house, West Front, Yonkers 251 

Philipse Manor-house, East Front, Yonkers 255 

Hallway, Philipse Manor-house 257 

Col. Frederick Philipse 259 

Castle Philipse, Tarrytown 263 

Mantle and Ceiling in Drawing-room, Philipse Manor-house 266 

Fireplace in the Washington Chamber 267 

Mantle and Mirror in Second-story Front Room, Philipse Manor-house . 268 

Bed-chamber at Philipse Manor-house 270 

Memorial Tablet to Frederick Philipse. Fac-simile of Original in Chester 

Cathedral, England 273 

Old St. David's at Radnor Photogravure 280 

The Wayne Arms 281 

Waynesborough, near Paoli, Pa 283 

Interior, Waynesborough 290 

Major-General Anthony Wayne 296 

Taney House, Calvert County, Md 344 

Bond Castle, on the Chesapeake 346 

Preston on the Patuxent, Front View 352 

Preston on the Patuxent, Rear View 333 

Elizabeth Schuyler (Mrs. Alexander Hamilton) Photogravure 395 

Schuyler Arms 397 

Original Schuyler House, Built in 1666 399 

Schuyler Mansion, Albany 403 

Parlor in Schuyler Mansion, Albany 405 

Major-General Philip Schuyler 409 

Schuyler House, Schuyler ville, N. Y 415 



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12 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, 

PACB 

Schuyler House Pompton, N. J., Rear View 419 

Schuyler House Pompton, N. J., Front View 425 

Captain Colfax 428 

Pistols Belonging to Captain Colfax 429 

Hall in Schuyler House, Pompton, N. J 431 

Dining-room, Schuyler House, Pompton, N. J 436 

Major John Macpherson (killed at Quebec) . . . Photogravure 445 

Macpherson Coat of Arms 445 

Captain John Macpherson 447 

Mount Pleasant House, Fairmount Park 450 

Interior, Mount Pleasant 452 

Interior, Mount Pleasant 458 

Peter Grayson Washington 467 

Mrs. Peter Grayson Washington 473 

Mary Keen 475 




old barn, mount VERNON. 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE 
WASHINGTONS. 



Although a man may well be the architect of his own 
fortune, yet it is now very generally conceded that those 
qualities which serve 
as the foundation for 
that fortune are usu- 
ally inherited, though 
sometimes from a 
remote ancestor. An 
inquiry, therefore, 
into the progenitors 
of such a leader as 
Washington is not 
without fascination 
to the general public, 
as well as to those 
especially interested 
in genealogical re- 
search. 

Few families so 
well typify the better 
class of those adven- 
turers who, under 
the friendly shadow 
of the Virginia Com- 
pany, during the first half and middle of the seventeenth 
century planted the Old Dominion, as do the Washingtons. 

19 




WASHINGTON BOOKPLATE. 



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20 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 

In land, in slaves, in tobacco, or in ready gold, and in the 
social prestige that these things brought, the earlier owners 
of Mount Vernon, indeed, might not rank the peers of 
many of their fellow-colonists ; but few in Virginia, in 
their day, could boast a fairer lineage or a more honored 
name. 

Although, in 1788, George Washington declined to accept 
the dedication of Burton^s Essay ojt Heraldry because a 
number of Americans at that time *' were clamorously endeav- 
oring to propagate an idea that those they wish invidiously to 
designate by the name of the ' well-born ' are meditating, in 
the first instance, to distinguish themselves from their com- 
patriots, and to wrest the dearest privileges from the bulk 
of the people,** and although he once wrote that his ancestry 
was a matter which had given him very little concern, yet his 
constant use of armorial bearings, his refined and scholarly 
tastes, his distinguished carriage, and, above all, the infinite 
gentleness of his lofty spirit, marked in Washington not only 
a natural tendency toward the aristocratic, but also the assidu- 
ous cultivation of those virtues and graces inherited from the 
*• well-born '* race whence he sprang. Yet the English Wash- 
ingtons never attained the distinction of being a governing 
family, as did the Stanleys, the Herberts, the Howards, the 
Percys, the Mortimers, or the Sydneys. Gentlemen, indeed, 
they were, and God-fearing men enough — stout aldermen, 
who drank deeply to the king*s health, whoever he might be ; 
learned justices, reputable merchants, and grave clergymen ; 
but few soldiers, though good ones, and no statesmen ; nor 
do the various marriages indicate the infusion of more 
famous blood. 

The pedigree originally accepted was that drawn up by 
Sir Isaac Heard of London in 1797. In it John and Lawrence 
Washington of Virginia were claimed as sons of Lawrence 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHJNGTONS, 21 



Washington of Sulgrave, and subsequent writers added to 
the line there given ; but this having been disproven in 1867 
by the late Colonel Joseph L. Chester, who showed that none 
of the sons of this Lawrence Washington of Sulgrave emi- 
grated to Virginia, the matter rested until 1879. 

In this year one Albert Welles, ** President of the Amer- 
ican College of Genealogy and Heraldry," issued a book 
entitled the Pedigree and History of the Washington Family, 
derived from Odin, the Fotnider of Scandinavia, b. c. 70. As 
several genealogists remarked at the time, Mr. Welles might 
just as well have traced the family back to Adam. It was, 
indeed, a clumsy attempt to connect the Virginia family with 
a certain Leonard Washington, who subsequendy turned out 
to be some one else other than a Washington. 

Colonel Chester was just on the eve of a discovery which 
would have led to important results when his death left it for 
Henry F. Waters, Esq., to definitely ascertain the English an- 
cestry of the first President of the United States. Mr. Waters 
published the result of his discoveries in the New Efigland 
Genealogical Historical Register in 1889, and, with others, 
subsequently added information making the pedigree a cer- 
tainty. Articles on the same subject and confirming Mr. 
Waters's work appeared also in Harpers Monthly, the IVil- 
liafn and Mary College Quarterly of Williamsburg, Va., and 
other magazines. Without going into details regarding the 
preliminary work which achieved such good results, we will 
simply give briefly the Washington genealogy as now ac- 
cepted by all genealogists in this country. 

One John Washington of Whitfield in the county of 
Lancaster, and who lived about 1450, is the first ancestor 
of George Washington of whom we have any account. 
Although it has been asserted that he came from the York- 
shire Washingtons, there is absolutely nothing, at present, to 



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22 



MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 



base this claim upon except the fact that the arms and crest 
of both families seem to have been identical. 

John Washington appears to have belonged to the minor 
gentry, and had several children, the second son being Robert 
Washington of Warton, County Lancaster, gentleman, who 
married as his first wife a daughter of Miles Whittington, and 
had John Washington of Warton, who married Margaret, 
daughter of Robert Kitson of Warton, by whom he had 
Lawrence Washington of Sulgrave, who is at once the first 

of the line of whom 
we have any def- 
inite information, 
and likewise the 
most considerable 
personage in the 
early history of the 
family. This Law- 
rence Washington 
had studied in 
Gray^slnn, London, 
and subsequently 
engaged in com- 
merce, becoming a 
great and rich wool- 
merchant. At the 
time of the disso- 
lution of the monasteries he obtained from Henry VIII. (in 
1538-39) a grant of the manor of Sulgrave, with lands lately 
belonging to the dissolved priories of St. Andrews, North- 
ampton, Canons Ashby and Catesby, Northamptonshire, 
where he built the manor-house of Sulgrave, and where, hav- 
ing been mayor of Northampton from 1532 until 1545, he 
died, first desiring to be buried ''in the south aisle before my 




SULGRAVE CHURCH, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE. 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



23 



seat," in the sweeping fur-bordered gown of mayoralty, his 
hands piously folded in prayer, and there, in old St. James's 
Church, with Aimee, his wife, he still sleeps, all unmindful of 
the career of his great American descendant. In Sulgrave 
Church, for three centuries were to be seen the brasses of 
the doughty mayor, his wife, four sons, and seven daughters. 
These interesting 
monuments, badly 
damaged by time, 
were unfortunately 
wrenched off and 
stolen by some 
*' relic-hunters" a 
f e w years ago. 
They were, how- 
ever, replaced by 
fac-similes pre- 
sented to the church 
by descendants of 
the Sulgrave Wash- 
ingtons, the chil- 
dren of Admiral 
John Washington 
of England. 

The manor-house of Sulgrave, built by the first Lawrence, 
is now quite dilapidated. Mr. Moncure D. Conway, who 
visited it in 1890, describes it as then for sale and in wretched 
condition. It was then owned by a Mr. Bartholomew, unfur- 
nished and unoccupied, except by a housekeeper. Mr. Con- 
way says that the Washington arms on spandrels of a door 
are the only remaining trace of its builder. 

Baker, a historian of Northamptonshire, in writing of 
Sulgrave about 1820, says : *' Within these last few years the 




SULGRAVE MANOR HOUSE, NORTHAMPTONSHIRE.* 



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24 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



arms and alliances of the family ornamented the kitchen 
window/' Sir Henry Dryden, the Northamptonshire anti- 
quarian, "traced two of these shields to Lady Hanmer's 
possession/' and '*six to the windows of Tawsley Church/' 
They are all in good condition save one, and full-sized copies 
in colors have been made. From these windows we are able 
to give the descent and marriages just noted. 

Lawrence Washington married Aimee (or Amy), daughter 
of Walter Pargiter of Gretworth, gentleman. She departed 
this life 7 October, 1564, and was laid in the church at 
Sulgrave. 

Robert Washington, son of Lawrence and Aimee, was aged 
forty in the twenty-sixth year of good Queen Bess. He was 
twice married, and, having become involved in debt, the over- 
mortgaged lands of Sulgrave were sold before his sixth son 
was born. After the sale Robert Washington removed to 
Brington, and passed the remainder of his days in a smaller 
house, which, it is said, he purchased with the little saved from 
the wreck of his once ample fortune ; he also leased a windmill 
on the Althorp estate, near his new home. Here, at Brington, 
'*in a humble cottage, which may be known by a tablet over 
the door, lived the ancestors of George Washington." The 
tablet bears this appropriate inscription: "The Lord giveth, 
the Lord taketh away. Blessed be the name of the Lord. 
Constructed 1606/* Lawrence, the eldest son, died at Bring- 
ton December 13, 1616, and was buried two days after. It is 
said that he removed to the neighborhood of the new home 
of the Washingtons a few years before the sale of Sulgrave 
Manor, say in 1606, and it may even be true that it was he 
who erected the Brington residence. If so, he doubtless 
caused the above inscription to be carved upon the house in 
reference to their scattered fortune. He married, August 3, 
1588, Margaret, daughter of Walter Buder of Tighes in the 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 25 

county of Sussex. They had several children, most of whom 
did exceeding well after the fashion of this world. The eldest 
son, Sir William Washington, called of Packington in the 
county of Kent, was knighted in 1622, and espoused the 
half-sister of George Villiers, the great Duke of Buckingham 
and the unfortunate favorite of Charles I. ; the second son, 
Sir John Washington of Thropston, was knighted in the year 
1623. Thomas Washington, the third son, went as a page 
to Charles I. on the latter's visit to Madrid, Spain, **to woo 
the Infanta," and died there in 1623. There are some lines 
upon his death, published in England at the time, extant. 

Colonel Henry Washington, the eldest son of Sir William 
of Packington, ranks, perhaps, as the best soldier that the 
Washingtons had produced up to that time. He served, says 
Irving, under Prince Rupert at the storming of Bristol in 1643, 
**and when the assailants were beaten off at every point he 
broke in with a handful of infantry at a weak part of the wall, 
made room for the horse to follow, and opened a path to 
victory." 

We hear of him again in 1646, being then in command of 
Worcester, the governor being a prisoner in the hands of 
Cromwell's army. *Tt was a time of confusion and dismay. 
The king had fled from Oxford in disguise,' and gone to the 
Parliamentary camp at Newark. The royal cause was des- 
perate. In this crisis Sir Henry received a letter from Fair- 
fax, who, with his victorious army, was at Haddington, 
demanding the surrender of Worcester. The following 
was Colonel Washington's reply : 

**Sir: 

** It is acknowledged by your books and by report of your 
own quarter that the King is in some of your armies. That 
granted, it may be easy for you to procure his Majesty's 



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26 



MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 



commands for the disposal of this garrison. Till then I shall 
make good the trust reposed in me. As for conditions, 
if I shall be necessitated shall make the best I can. The 
worst I know and fear not ; if I had, the profession of a 
soldier had not been begun, nor so long continued by your 
Excellency's humble servant, 

'* Henry Washington." 



He held out three months longer, but finally, having been 

shown the printed gen- 
eral order of the king, 
he surrendered on the 
19th of July, 1646. 

We now return to 
Lawrence Washington, 
the uncle of Henry, 
fourth son of Lawrence 
and Margaret (Butler) 
Washington, and the 
father of John and Law- 
rence Washington, the 
emigrants to Virginia. 

We are told that this 
Lawrence was six years 
old when the financial 
misfortune overtook the 
family which necessi- 
tated a removal from 
Sulgrave to Brington. 
He was, perhaps, too 
young to feel the change 
in the family fortunes, and the beautiful park of Althorp, the 
noble seat of Lord Spencer, whose lady was a kinswoman 




WASHINGTON ARMS, FORMERLY IN A WINDOW IN 
SULGRAVE MANOR HOUSE. 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 27 

to his relatives, the Kitsons, where, we may imagine, he was 
permitted to roam, duly compensated him, doubtless, for the 
loss of Sulgrave fields. In 161 9 he entered Brasenose, 
Oxford, being described as a fourth son, and '' generosi 
filius,'' or indicating that he was of the minor gentr>\ 

We take the liberty of quoting here, somewhat at length, 
from a paper by Edward D. Neill, D. D., of St. Paul, Minne- 
sota, which appeared in the Pennsylva7iia Magazine,^ Dr. 
Neill says : 

** Lawrence Washington, the fourth son of Lawrence Wash- 
ington of Sulgrave, Northampton, a younger brother of Sir 
William Washington of Packington and Sir John Washington 
of Thrapston, entered Brasenose College, Oxford, when he was 
nineteen years of age, on the 2d day of November, 1621, and 
in 1624 was one of its Fellows, and from 1627 to 1632 he held 
the responsible position of lector. He resigned his fellowship 
to accept the rectorship of Purleigh, Essex, to which he was 
presented by the widow Jane Horsmanden, the aunt of 
Warham Horsmanden, in 1657-58 a member of the Gov- 
enor s Council in Virginia, and for several years a prominent 
citzen of that Colony. He remained rector of Purleigh until 
November, 1643, and then was ejected on the charge of 
being * a common frequenter of ale-houses, not only himself 
sitting daily, tippling there, but also incouraging others in 
that beastly vice.' He was permitted after this to hold a 
poor living, which it had been difficult for any one to accept.'' 

Beginning as Lawrence Washington did with so many 
advantages on his side, the failure by him to keep pace with 
his brother, his sudden resignation from Brasenose, and the 
subsequent cold shoulder that seems to have been turned 
upon him by most of his relatives, are very surprising until 
the solution presents itself. 

* Vol. xvi. page 261. 



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28 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



The facts in the case are — that while a Fellow at Oxford 
the Rev. Lawrence was secretly married, probably in 1630, 
to one Amphillis, daughter of John Roades of Middle Clay- 
don, a farm-servant or bailiff of Sir Edmund Varney. Middle 
Claydon was a farm belonging to the Varney family, and near 
Tring, some fifteen miles from Oxford. 

Lawrence Washington had a kinsman, one Sir Richard 
Anderson, who lived near Tring, and with whom he was on 
affectionate terms, so that we may well imagine that after Sir 
Richard's death, in 1630, the trips to the quiet farm in the 
neighborhood of Tring were continued. Unfortunately, the 
record of the marriage of Amphillis to Lawrence cannot be 
found, nor the baptism of their first child, John, who was born 
about 1 63 1. 

There is certainly nothing surprising that these records 
are not to be discovered at Tring, as young Lawrence would 
naturally want the matter hushed up until he could get a 
living, so that these ceremonies were probably performed 
in a distant parish, far away from Oxford. After Lawrence 
Washington secured the rectorship of Purleigh in Essex, as 
above mentioned, his marriage was probably at once made 
public, but, strange as it may seem, all the remainder of his 
children were baptized, not at Purleigh, but at Tring, Amphil- 
lis having returned to her parents' home before the birth of 
each of her children. This, however, was an ancient custom 
in England. 

If the rector of Purleigh was unlike his brothers in some 
ways, they could certainly find no fault with him for lack of 
loyalty to their royal master, Charles Stewart. So unneces- 
sarily pronounced did he become on this subject that he lost 
his living of Purleigh just three years before his nephew, 
Colonel Henry, lost Worcester. 

To clap the climax, it was charged, as we have seen, that 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 2g 



he was often drunk. Let us examine this serious charge 
against the great-great-grandfather of the first President of 
the United States. 

In Walkers Sufferings of the Clergy (London, 1714) is 
the following: ** Washington, Lawrence, A.M., Purleigh, R., 
one of the best Livings in these Parts : To which he had been 
Admitted in March, 1632, and was Sequestered from the year 
1643. which was not thought Punishment enough for him, and 
therefore he was also put into the Century, to be transmitted 
to posterity, as far as that Infamous Pamphlet could contribute 
to it, for a Scandalous as well as a Malignant Minister, upon 
these weighty considerations : 

*'That he had said, ' Parliament had more Papists belong- 
ing to them in their Armies than the King had about him or in 
his Army, and that the Parliament's Armie did more hurt 
than the Cavaliers, and that they did none at all ;' and hath 
published them to the Traitours that lend to or assist the 
Parliament. 

''It is not to be supposed that such a Malignant could 
be less than a Drunkard. .... altho' a Gentleman (a Jus- 
tice of the Peace in this country) who personally knew 
him assures me that he took him to be a very Worthy, 
Pious man ; that as often as he was in his Company he 
always appeared a very Moderate, Sober Person ; and that 
he was received as such by several Gentlemen who were 
acquainted with him before he himself was : adding withal 
that he was a Loyal Person, and had one of the best Bene- 
fices in these Parts ; and this was the Only cause of his 
expulsion, as I verily believe. After he subjoyns, That 
Another Ancient Gentleman of the Neighborhood agrees 
with him in this Account. Mr. Washington was afterwards 
permitted to Have and Continue upon a Living in these 
Parts ; but it was such a Poor and Miserable one, that it 



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30 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



was always with difficulty that any one was persuaded to 
Accept it." 

It seems that after his expulsion from Purleigh his wife, 
as usual in such cases, brought suit against the new rector, 
Mr. Roger Jones, for a part of the tithes of Purleigh, and 
eventually she recovered one-fifth of them, in 1649 from 
a committee, sitting at Chelmsford, on *' Plundered [or 
deprived] Ministers." 

The '* Poor and Miserable " living Lawrence Washington 
was forced to accept was near Maldon, where he was buried 
January 21, 1652, having evidently been making his head- 
quarters in that town, his church having no parsonage. He 
also acted as surrogate at Whethamsted. 

Amphillis died January 19, 1654, and was buried at Tring, 
to which place she removed after her husband^s decease. 

They left three sons, John, William, and Lawrence, and 
three daughters, Martha, Elizabeth, and Margaret. John 
went to sea, and Lawrence, before his removal to Virginia, 
which was later than John's emigration, was a merchant, 
probably in a small way, at Luton. 

The children had friends in England and Virginia, and 
they doubtless assisted them, despite the rector's unfortunate 
marriage. 

**The Washington family," says Dr. Neill "had been con- 
nected by marriage with those who had been prominent in 
the colonization of Virginia. The widow of Colonel Henry 
Washington, a royalist during the Civil War, and uncle of 
the immigrant John, became the wife of Samuel Sandys, 
whose cousin. Sir Edwin, was once the head of the Virginia 
Company of London, and Edwin's brother George was the 
treasurer of the Colony resident at Jamestown. An aunt of 
this Samuel Sandys was the wife of Francis Wyatt, an early 
governor of V^irginia. Then Robert Sandys, a nephew of 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 33 



the Colonial treasurer, married Alice Washington, the aunt 
of the immigrant. It is also worthy of note that Sir Henry 
Moody, the only son of the Lady Deborah, who, with his 
mother, obtained a patent for the town of Gravesend, Long 
Island, where they and others could * enjoye the free libertie 
of conscience according to the custom and manner of Hol- 
land,' sold his old home at Garsden, Wilts, to Sir Lawrence 
Washington, Kt, register of the Court of Chancery and 
a relative of John. 

'* There is no evidence that John Washington was, before 
1658, in Virginia. That year he arrived in the Potomac 
River in a ship owned by Edward Prescott, a merchant, the 
master of which was John Greene. On the voyage Elizabeth 
Richardson, suspected of being a witch by Captain Greene 
and his sailors, was hung and then tossed into the sea. 
Washington felt it was an outrage, and complained against 
Prescott, the Maryland trader. Governor Fendall of that 
Province notified Washington in 1659 that the case would be 
examined at the October Court that year, and wished him 
to come over from Virginia, with others who were on the 
ship and witnessed the execution. The summons received 
the following reply : 

** * Hon'ble Sir : YoVs of this 29th instant, this day I 
received. I am sorry y*t my extraordinary occasions will 
not permit me to be at ye next Provincial Court to bee held 
at Mary Land ye 4th of this next month. Because then, God 
willing, I intend to gett my young sonne baptized. All ye 
company and Gossips being already invited. Besides, in 
this short time witnesses cannot bee gott to come over. But 
if Mr. Prescott be bound to answer at ye next Provincial 
Court after this, I shall doe what lieth in my power to get 
them over. So I shall desire you to acquaint mee whether 

3i 



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34 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



Mr. Prescott be bound over to ye next Court, and when ye 
Court is, that I may have some time to provide evidence. 

^**Yo'r friend & Serv't 

**'JoHN Washington. 
'* *30 Sept. 1659.' 

'*The name of the officiating minister at the baptism of 
his infant has not been preserved. There were two clergymen 
at that period living on the west shore of the Potomac whose 
social and educational advantages had been superior to the 
clergymen of a later period in the Colony. In Sittingbourne 
parish, not far from the Washington plantation, lived Francis 
Doughty, a son of an alderman in Bristol, England. He 
was^the brother-in-law of Governor Stone of Maryland, and 
was at one time in charge of the parish of the Eastern Shore 
of Virginia. While in Sittingbourne parish complaint was 
made against him because *'he denied the supremacy of the 
King, contrary to the canons of the Church of England.'* 
Not many miles from Washington parish lived, in the words 
of the court records, ** Mr. David Lindsay, Minister." He 
officiated in the parish of Wicomico for several years, and 
upon his tombstone, the oldest in that portion of Virginia, in 
a burying-ground on Cherry Point, Wicomico River, North- 
umberland, is this inscription : 

'' ' Here lyeth interred ye body of That Holy and Reverant 
Devine Mr. David Lindsay late Minister of Yeocomico, born 
in ye Kingdom of Scotland, ye first and lawful sonne of ye 
Rt. Honorable Sir Hierome Lindsay, Kt, of ye Mount, Lord 
Lyon King at Arms, who departed this life in ye 64th year 
of his age, ye 3d April, Anno Dom. 1667.' 

*'The first wife of Washington and her two children were 
buried in Virginia. After his first wife's death," continues 
Dr. Neill, **he married Anne, widow of Walter Brodhurst, 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 35 



the eldest son of William of Lilleshall, Shropshire, and the 
daughter of Nathaniel Pope. Pope and Brodhurst had been 
among the early settlers of Maryland. The former was 
a member of the jury as early as 1637, and sat in the Legis- 
lature of 1 641 and 1642, but in 1647 ^^s in sympathy with 
those who recognized Captain Edward Hill of Virginia as 
governor. 

**Soon after this he was identified with Virginia, and in 
1650 is mentioned as Nathaniel Pope of * Appomattocks, 
gent.' He obtained in September, 1654, a grant of one 
thousand acres in Westmoreland County, and Pope's Creek 
bears his name. In August, 1657, he is called Lieutenant- 
Colonel Nathaniel Pope. Walter Brodhurst is mentioned as 
early as 1639 in the Maryland records, and was accused of 
saying, in June, 1647, ^^ ^he house of Surgeon Thomas 
Gerard, * that there was no Governor in Maryland, for Capt. 
Hill was Governor.* He removed to Virginia as early as 
1653 to represent Northumberland County in the Legislature, 
which then included what was that year set off as Westmore- 
land County. At that time he was about thirty-four years 
of age. He died and left one child, Walter. His will was 
proved in November, 1658, in the Prerogative Court, Can- 
terbury, England, and among the records of Northumberland 
County, Virginia, there is reference to a suit brought on 
September 30, 1659, by Anne Brodhurst, relict and admin- 
istrator of Walter Brodhurst. It must have been after this 
that the widower John Washington married the widow Anne 
Pope Brodhurst. 

** In the will of John Washington of Washington parish, 
Westmoreland County, Virginia, made on the 21st of Sep- 
tember, 1675 (O. S.), he alludes to his sister Martha, to 
whom he had advanced moneys for transporting herself to 
America, and directed his brother-in-law, Thomas Pope, to 



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36 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



attend to the bringing up of his son John, and his wife to 
care for his daughter Anne, until the eldest son, Lawrence, 
is of age. 

**To his daughter he gives the * diamond ring and her 
mother's rings.' He provided for the preaching of a funeral 
sermon, and wished to be procured from England for the 
lower church at Washington parish a tablet with the *Ten 
Commandments ' and also the * King s Arms.* 

*' Lawrence, the eldest son of John Washington, married 
Mildred, the daughter of Augustine Warner, who in 1652 
represented York County in the Virginia Assembly. He 
died in 1699, leaving his wife and three children, John, 
Augustine, and Mildred. In his will he provided for a 
funeral sermon at the church, and to the upper and lower 
church of Washington parish, Westmoreland, he gave a 
pulpit cloth and cushion. 

**The widow Mildred went to England and married 
George Gale of White Haven, Cumberland. She lived but 
a short period after her second marriage, and was buried on 
the 30th of January, 1700-01, at White Haven. 

** Augustine, the son of Lawrence and Mildred Warner, 
born in 1694, when only twenty-one years old married Jane, 
daughter of Caleb Butler of Westmoreland County, and 
took her to his home on the Potomac River, between Pope's 
and Bridge's Creeks. The house was plain, one story high, 
with a spacious attic under a *hip roof,' and a brick chimney 
outside at each end, the style of most of the houses of the 
period. He was a quiet, just, honest, and thrifty planter. 
John Fothergill, an English physician and Quaker preacher, 
in 1 72 1, after visiting Miles Cary of Warwick, who was 
a member of the * Society of Friends,' came to the * Mattocks,' 
and in his journal mentions that he was received at * Justice 
Washington's, a family man.' 



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MARY WASHINGTON, MOTHER OF GEORGE WASHINGTON, FROM AN OIL PAINTING 

BY MIDDLETON. 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 39 

** The first wife of Augustine Washington died November 
24, 1728, and was buried in the family vault at Bridge's 
Creek, and on the 6th of March, 1 730-3 1» he married Mary, 
the daughter of Colonel Joseph Ball, who lived in Lancaster 
County on the bank of the Rappahannock River. Her first 
Virginia ancestor, William Ball, was a merchant who came 
about the same time as John Washington. The tradition 
that he had been a colonel in the army of King Charles, 
and was entitled to a coat of arms, is without foundation. 

** In the family Bible of Mary Washington, still preserved, 
is written : * George Washington, son to Augustine and 
Mary his wife, was Born ye nth Day of February, 1731-32, 
about 10 in the morning, and was Baptized the 5th of April 
following. Mr. Beverly Whiting & Capt. Christopher Burks 
Godfathers, and Mrs. Mildred Gregory Godmother.* " 

" About the year 1 734 the home of Augustine Washington, 
which we may well presume, from the above description, to 
have been a modest enough farm-house, was entirely de- 
stroyed by fire, and the family moved to a plantation which 
Augustine owned nearly opposite Fredricksburg, on the 
Rappahannock Neck. * This latter residence,' writes one of 
the first of Washington's biographers, * is still to be seen. It 
lifts its low and modest front of faded red over the turbid 
waters of Rappahannock.' " 

Education was hard to obtain in Virginia at that time, 
unless one's parents belonged to the rich planter class that 
sent their children to England for that purpose. So late as 
1 744, we are told, it became necessary to depose the entire 
vestry of a Virginia church by an act of the Legislature 
because, although well-to-do-farmers, not one of them could 
write his name. Washington's mother, it is true, had had 
some educational advantages, but the extent of these, judging 
from the following letter to her son John, were not of such 



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40 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 



magnitude as to induce her to undertake, with a reasonable 
prospect of success, the instruction of her children. Here is 
the letter of Mary Washington, above referred to, as given 
by Moncure D. Conway : 

'' Dear Johnne, I am glad to hear you and all the family 
is well, and should be glad if I could write you the same. 
I am a going fast, and it the time is hard. I am borrowing 
a little cornn, no cornn in the cornn house. I never lived so 
poor in my life. Was it not for Mr. French and your sister 
Lewis I should be almost starved, but am like an old alma- 
nac, quite out of date. Give my love to Mrs. Washington all 
the family. I am dear Johnne your loving and affectionate 
mother. 

** P. S. I should be glad to see you as I dont expect to hold 
out long." 

This was written, of course, after her son George had 
become the first citizen of America, but there is no reason 
to suppose that her mode of expression was more elegant 
in her youth. 

The most convenient way to secure a schoolmaster, either 
in Virginia or Pennsylvania, at that time, seems to have been 
by purchase, and, accordingly, Washington's tutor was a 
transported convict, although not necessarily a criminal. 

The Rev. Boucher, before referred to, who was a scholarly 
clergyman of the Church of England, writes of this early 
tutelage of George, and was afterward tutor to the general's 
step-son, **who,'' he says, **like most people thereabouts at 
that time, had no other education than reading, writing, and 
accounts, which he was taught by a convict servant whom 
his father bought for a schoolmaster.'* 

Ford, in his The True George Washington, doubts this 
assertion of the Rev. Mr. Boucher, without, we think, suf- 
ficient grounds, for the fact that this worthy clergyman was 



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PORTRAIT OF GEORGE WASHINGTON BY CHARLES WILLSON PEALE, AT SHIRLEY, VA. 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 43 

a loyalist, was prejudiced, and, indeed, mistaken in some of 
his statements regarding Washington's career, does not prove 
his want of accuracy in this incident of the general's boyhood, 
of which he had so good an opportunity to be accurately 
informed. 

Weems the inaccurate — who was, however, not always 
mistaken — seems to allude to such an early instructor 
when he writes: *'The first place of education to which 
George was sent was a little *old field school' kept by 
one of his father s tenants, named Hobby — an honest poor 
old man, who acted in the double character of sexton and 
schoolmaster." 

It must be remembered that the so-called ** convicts " sold 
to planters were not always criminals, but sometimes political 
offenders or prisoners of war, and such transported men 
often, after serving out their time, settled on their masters' 
plantations. That many schoolmasters were actually sent 
here as convicts or to be sold on the plantations is evident 
from the existing records of that day, and it was a common 
saying, when a schoolmaster died, that one or another of the 
neighboring planters would go to the next ship in and buy 
one, 

Augustine Washington, the general's father, died April 
II, 1743, and his will was probated by his son Lawrence, 
May 6th following. 

Although rich in land, we find him poor in ready cash ; 
such was the condition of two-thirds of the planters then in 
Virginia. 

The Hunting Creek plantation he left conditionally to 
Lawrence, who called it Mount Vernon in honor of Admiral 
Vernon, under whom he had served in 1 740 as a captain in 
one of the Virginia expeditions against Carthagena, but, 
getting into some scrape with a brother officer, and not, it 



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44 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



is said, acquitting himself *' quite as well as he ought," he 
sold out. 

Four miles below Mount Vernon lay Belvoir, the planta- 
tion of Colonel William Fairfax, the son of Henry Fairfax 
of Yorkshire, and agent for his cousin, Thomas, sixth Lord 
Fairfax. 

In 1743, Lawrence Washington married Anne, Colonel 
Fairfax's daughter, who made a comfortable home for him 
at Mount Vernon. Here George, Lawrence's half-brother, 
then about twelve years old, was always welcome, and here 
he formed an acquaintance with the Fairfaxes in general, 
but especially with George William Fairfax, the Colonel's 
son, and Thomas, another son, who was afterward killed 
June 26, 1746, when on board the ship *'Harwick," which 
he had entered as an officer, in an engagement with the 
French. 

Says Dr. Neill : *' George Washington lived with his 
mother for some time after she became a widow, and. was 
a dutiful son. In 1746, Thomas, Lord Fairfax, came to 
Virginia to be a permanent resident. He lived for a period 
at Belvoir, and then established a * lodge in the wilderness * 
thirteen miles south-east of Winchester. Colonel William 
Fairfax, the lord's agent, with a party of surveyors and 
assistants, on his way to the Shenandoah Valley, in Septem- 
ber, 1746, stopped at Fredericksburg. In a letter to his son- 
in-law, Lawrence Washington, he wrote on the loth of the 
month : * I have not yet seen Mrs. Washington. George has 
been with us, and says he will be steady, and thankfully follow 
your advice as his best friend.' .... * I have spoken to Dr. 
Spencer, who, I find, is often at the widow's, and has some 
influence to persuade her to think better of your advice in 
putting him to sea, with good recommendation.' Lawrence 
wished him to be a common sailor, and there is no foundation 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 



45 



for the tradition that he procured him a midshipman's com- 
mission in the British navy/' 

On the 1 8th of September, Robert Jackson, a friend, wrote 
to Lawrence: **I am afraid Mrs. Washington will not keep 




GEORGE WASHINGTON, BY PEALE. 



up to her first resolution. She seems to intimate a dislike 
of George's going to sea, and says several persons have told 
her it's a very bad scheme." The anxious mother then ap- 
pears to have written to her brother, Joseph Ball, a lawyer in 



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46 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 

London, regarding George's future, for under date of May 
19, 1747, he wrote her as follows: **I understand that you 
are advised, and have some thoughts, of putting your son 
George to sea. I think he had better be put apprentice to 
a tinker ; for a common sailor before the mast has by no 
means the common liberty of the subject, for they will press 
him from a ship where he has fifty shillings a month, and 
make him take twenty-three, and cut and slash, and use him 

like a negro, or rather like a dog And if he should 

get to be master of a Virginia ship (which is very difficult to 
do), a planter that has three or four hundred acres of land 
and three or four slaves, if he be industrious, may live more 
comfortably, and leave his family in better bread, than such 

a master of a ship can He must not be too hasty to 

be rich, but go on gently, and with patience, as things will 
naturally go. This method, without aiming at being a fine 
gentleman before his time, will carry a man more surely, and 
comfortably, through the world, than going to sea." 

Of course good Lawyer Ball did not really intend that 
Washington should be apprenticed to a tinker, but it was his 
way of expressing his disapproval of sending the boy to sea, 
saying, in so many words, **as well apprentice him to a tinker 
as send him to sea \' nevertheless, George's father, Augustine, 
and his great-grandfather, John, had been for a time in their 
lives sailors, the former a captain, and the latter first mate, 
of merchantmen. 

It must not be thought, however, that George Washington 
was not without both means and prospects of his own. The 
will of his father, Captain Augustine Washington, dated April 
II, 1743, and proved May 6 of the same year, contains these 
provisions : 

** I give unto my son George Washington and his heirs the 
land [283 acres] I now live on which I purchased of the 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 47 

Executrix of Mr. Wm. Strother deed, and one moiety of my 
land lying on Deep Run [several hundred acres], and Ten 
negro slaves. 

**It is my will and desire that in case my son Lawrence 
should dye without heirs of his body Lawfully begotten that 
then the Land and Mill [Mount Vernon] given him by this 
my will, lying in the County of Prince William, shall go and 
remain to my son George and his heirs.** 

He also left to George a share in the remainder of his 
personal estate and slaves, and three lots of land in Fred- 
ericksburg. 

Shortly after this all idea of a **life on the ocean wave" 
was dismissed from Washington's mind, and he turned his 
whole attention to surveying. ** Early in 1748, under his 
friend George Fairfax, he went on a surveying expedition. 
They passed through Ashby's Gap to the lodge of Lord Fair- 
fax, and ** from thence '* through Winchester to the south branch 
of the Potomac, as far as the house of Cresap, an Indian 
trader. For his services in this tour he wrote in his note- 
book, *A doubloon is my constant gain every day that the 
weather will permit of my going out ; sometimes six pistoles.* 

After the marriage of Lawrence Washington to Colonel 
Fairfax's daughter, George Washington was for a time living 
in the same house with the bride. He writes to a friend : *T 
might, was my heart disengaged, pass my time very pleasantly, 
as there's a very agreeable young lady lives in the same house, 
Colonel George Fairfax's wife's sister; but as that's only 
adding fuel to fire, it makes me very uneasy, for by often 
and unavoidably being in company with her, revives my 
passion for your Lowland Beauty." 

Conway, in George Washington and Mount Vernon^ gives 
the following as written about the same date ; 

** Dear Sally : This comes to Fredericksburg in hopes of 



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48 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 



meeting with a speedy Passage to you if your not there, 
which hope you*l get shortly, altho* I am most discouraged 
from writing you, as this is my fourth to you since I received 
any from yourself. I hope you*l make the Old Proverb good, 
out of sight out of mind, as its one of the greatest pleasures 
I can yet foresee of hearing in Fairfax, in often hearing from 
you, hope you'l not deny me. I pass the time much more 
agreeable than what I imagined I should, as there's a very 
agreeable young lady lives in the said house where I reside 
(Colo. George Fairfax's wife's sister), which in a great 
measure cheers my sorrow and dejectedness, tho' not so as 
to draw my thoughts altogether from your parts. I would 
wish to be with you down there with all my heart, but as it 
is a thing almost impractikable shall rest myself where I am 
with hopes of shortly hearing some Minutes of your trans- 
actions in your Parts, which will be very welcomly received." 

At the early age of seventeen Washington was sufficiently 
versed in his profession to receive his first public trust, and,, 
accordingly, in the records of Culpeper County Court, un- 
der the date of 20th July, 1749 (O. S.), we find this entry: 
** George Washington, Gentleman, produced a commission 
from the President and Masters of William and Mary College, 
appointing him to be Surveyor of the County, which was read, 
and thereupon, he took the usual oath to his Majesty's person 
and government, and then took and subscribed the adjuration 
oath and test, and then took the oath of Surveyor, all to 
hand." 

*'The health of Lawrence Washington required a change 
of climate. Accompanied by his brother George, he sailed 
for Barbadoes, an island where his wife's uncle occupied a 
prominent position in the British service. During the visit 
George was attacked by small-pox, traces of which remained 
through life." The disease, he tells us, was contracted 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



49 



because he ** reluctantly '* dined with a planter in whose 
house the scourge was raging. 

Under date of December 12, 1751, he wrote: '*Went to 
town, and called on Major Clark's family, who had kindly 




DANIEL PARKE CUSTIS, FIRST HUSBAND OF MRS. WASHINGTON. 

visited me in my illness, and contributed all they could in 
sending me the necessaries the disorder required.** 

George Washington returned to Virginia before his brother, 
and ** took up again the thread of his old courtship of the fair 
maid of the name of Fontleroy in the Valley of the James.** 



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50 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



He had now attained the rank of adjutant-general of 
Virginia, with pay amounting to ;^i50 per annum, so that, 
with what he was able to earn at his profession of surveyor 
or otherwise, he felt, very reasonably, that with prudence he 
might, indeed, support a wife. 

On May 20, 1752, he wrote to the young person's father, 
William Fontleroy: **I was taken with a violent pleirisie 
which has reduced me very low, but purpose, as soon as 
I recover my strength .to wait on Miss Betsy, in hopes of 
a revocation of the former cruel sentance, and see if I can 
meet any alteration in my favor. I have enclosed a letter 
to her which should be much obliged to you for delivery 
of." 

We know right well that the haughty Miss Elizabeth did 
7tot revoke her " cruel sentance ;" and we seem to see young 
Washington riding sadly away from her father s door, disap- 
pointed in his love for woman, but greatly in favor in the 
council of men. 

Proud Miss Betsy married a planter of the ordinary stripe 
named Adams, who lived in the James River Valley, and lived 
to regret it. 

Of the military career of Washington, commencing some 
years before Braddock's defeat at Fort Duquesne, and con- 
tinuing, with but slight intermission, until the close of the 
Revolution, it is not the purpose of this sketch to treat, so 
that rather than describe the ill-fated expedition against the 
French and Indians, to join which Washington left Mount 
Vernon on the 6th of May, we will give room to a very 
accurate description of him written almost on the eve of this 
expedition by Colonel Peyton : 

** He is,*' says this genial Southerner, ** about twenty-three 
years of age, with a countenance both mild and pleasant, 
promising both wit and judgment. He is of a comely and 



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Martha Washington. 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 5^ 

dignified demeanor, and at the same time displays much self- 
reliance and decision. He strikes me as being a young man 
of extraordinary and exalted character, and is destined, I am 
of opinion, to make no inconsiderable figure on our country/* 

From Fort Cumberland, September 12, 1758, Washington 
wrote to his friend Miss Gary of Hampton, then at Belvoir, 
of his intended marriage with the widow Custis. **Tis true,'* 
he says, ** I profess myself a votary of Love — I acknowledge 
that a lady is in the case/' 

It appears that Miss Gary was in love with Washington, 
and, although knowing well of his engagement to Mrs. 
Gustis, continued to misinterpret the young colonel's letters, 
and answered them in so warm a vein that he was for a time 
quite at a loss what to do. 

On January 6 (O. S.), 1759, in the presence of Rev. 
David Mossom of St. Peter s Ghurch, New Kent Gounty, 
Martha Gustis, nie Dandridge, became the wife of George 
Washington, and for several years he lived at Mount Vernon, 
to which he had now succeeded by the death, without issue, 
of his brother Lawrence, attending to his plantations **and 
in the discharge of the social duties of a country gentleman." 

Washington could scarcely have selected a more desirable 
wife. She was yet young, extremely good-looking, and the 
wealthiest widow in the Old Dominion, if not in all the 
Golonies. 

At the time of Washington's courtship Mrs. Gustis was 
but twenty-seven years old. Miss Wharton, in her Martha 
Washington, says that she was then **a handsome woman in 
the bloom of early matronhood, a dignified and essentially 
feminine personality, serene and well-poised." Some, who 
are inclined to look for faults, tell us that she was short, well- 
formed, and had a firm opinion of her own. Washington 
was evidently of the former opinion. To a London corre- 



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52 



MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



spondent, under date of September 20, 1759, he wrote: **I 
am now I believe fixed, at this seat, with an agreeable con- 
sort for life, and hope to find more happiness in return than 
I ever expected amidst a wide and bustling world. I thank 
you heartily for your affectionate wishes. Why wont you 
give me an occasion of congratulating you in the same 
manner?'' 




MOUNT VERNON, WEST FRONT. 

His diary for the year 1760 gives us some account of the 
daily life at Mount Vernon of the newly-wedded couple. On 
the 2d of January, Mrs. Washington is quite sick, and on 
the 4th the physician is sent for. On the 5th, Mrs. Geo. 
Fairfax is at dinner, and on the 6th, Sunday, with Mrs. 
Dassett, his wife's sister, he attends church at Alexandria. 
On the 20th he visits Belvoir with Dr. Craik. In Febru- 
ary, on Sunday the 3d, he goes to church at Alexandria ; 
on the 5th, Colonel and Mrs. Fairfax and Dr. Laurie dine 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 53 



at Mount Vernon ; on the 7th he attends Mr. Craig's 
funeral sermon at Alexandria, and on the 15th is at a ball in 
the same place ; on the 25th he has dinner company, at which 
were present Lord Fairfax, Colonel George Fairfax and wife, 
Mr. Brian Fairfax, Colonel Carlyle, and the clergyman Charles 
Green and wife. On the 9th of April, Dr. Laurie came drunk, 
and the next day Mrs. Washington was blooded by Dr. Laurie, 
who stayed all night (drunk again, perhaps); on the 15th 
called at Rev. Charles Greenes and left Mrs. Washington, and 
on the nth of May went with his wife to church. His home- 
life at Mount Vernon in those days was quiet and orderly, 
*' and all in his employ were encouraged to industry.'' Wash- 
ington finally setried down to the usual life of a Virginia 
planter, and we note a tone of quiet contentment in his every- 
day life. 

And so it chanced that the great-great-grandson of the 
stout old Royalist rector of Purleigh came to live on the 
broad Potomac. 

Mount Vernon plantation, the home of Washington, lies 
along the right bank of the Potomac River, and is about 
seventeen miles south of Washington City. The mansion 
stands on a high bluff, from which a winding pathway slopes 
gently to the river-brink at a spot where the old wharf, part 
of which is said to have been constructed under Washington's 
personal supervision, still serves as a landing-place. 

From this wharf Washington shipped to England and to 
the West Indies the products of Mount Vernon, principally 
tobacco and flour, as well as numberless barrels of shad and 
herring from his fisheries along the river. Concerning these 
fisheries he writes to a friend in London, and says of the 
Potomac " that it is a river well stocked with various kinds of 
fish at all seasons of the year, and in the spring with shad, 
herring, bass, carp, sturgeon, etc. in great abundance. The 



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54 



MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 



borders of the estate [Mount Vernon] are washed by more 
than ten miles of tide-water ; several valuable fisheries apper- 
tain to it ; the whole shore, in fact, is one entire fishery/* 

It is said that the flour ground at his own mill and stamped 
** George Washington, Mount Vernon/* was so fair in quan- 
tity and excellent in grade that it was frequently passed at 
the ports without the customarj^ official inspection. 

During the Revolution a British sloop-of-war lay off this 
wharf and demanded provisions under a threat to burn 

Mount Vernon to the ground. 
Washington's steward, fearing 
that the officer in command 
would carry his threat into 
execution, determined to save 
the mansion by yielding to the 
exaction, and the English were 
presently better off by a choice 
assortment of Mount Vernon 
flour and fish. When Wash- 
ington heard of the affair he 
was exceedingly angry, and 
wrote to his overseer to let 
them burn the house next time 
rather than afford the enemy 
any relief. 

Proceeding up the path we 
have mentioned, the visitor 
passes the tomb of the ** Father of his Country/' of which 
we will speak presently, and approaches the house by way 
of the river front. It is built of wood cut and painted to 
resemble stone. So far as we are able to judge, the original 
building was not only much smaller, but quite unlike the 
present mansion. 




MARTHA CUSTIS, DAUGHTER OF MRS. 
WASHINGTON, FROM SMALL OIL POR- 
TRAIT ON COPPER. 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



55 



The first structure was erected on the site by Lawrence 
Washington in 1 743, and afterward enlarged by the general, 
who gradually altered the style of architecture until it assumed 
its present form. 

The chimneys of Lawrence's house were built out from 
each end of the main building, presenting an appearance 




JOHN AND MARTHA CUSTIS, CHILDREN OF MRS. WASHINGTON, FROM ORIGINAL OIL 
PAINTING BY WOOLASTON. 

which we might now consider an unique feature, but which 
at that time (1743) was, with but few exceptions, the com- 
mon mode in Virginia of constructing the better sort of 
farm-houses. The roof was deep-pitched, and no such porch 
or cupola or dormer windows as we now see there existed. 



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56 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASH/NGTONS. 



As Mount Vernon was, in General Washington's time, 
nearly always approached by land, the west front may be 
considered to have been the principal entrance. 

Attached to the main building by the usual corridors are 
the house-servants' quarters, the buttery, and offices, and from 
the west side wind the avenues shaded by trees which were 
planted under the President's direction. 

The corner-stone of the original structure, with the 
initials **L. W.," the date, and certain Masonic marks, is yet 
pointed out in the cellar. 

The east piazza, facing the Potomac, is fifteen feet wide, 
twenty-five feet high, and is paved with flagstones brought, 
it is said, from the Isle of Wight. These are twelve inches 
square and one-half inch thick. From this porch you enter 
the main hall, a relic of Lawrence Washington's construction, 
and wainscoted in quaint woodwork. On the door one no- 
tices a ponderous knocker that many a distinguished guest 
has clanged. In the hall also may be seen, in its original 
glass case, the great iron key of the Bastille, sent to Wash- 
ington by the Marquis La Fayette, Thomas Paine being the 
messenger. • A pencil sketch representing the destruction of 
this famous prison accompanied the key. 

** Give me leave, my dear General," wrote La Fayette, "to 
present you with a picture of the Bastille just as it looked 
a few days after I ordered its demolition, with the main key 
of the fortress of despotism. It is a tribute which I owe as 
a son to my adopted father — as an aide-de-camp to my general 
— as a missionary of liberty to its patriarch." 

To this Washington replied as follows : ** I have received 
your affectionate letter of the 17th of March by one convey- 
ance, and the token of the victory gained by liberty over 
despotism by another, for both of which testimonials of your 
friendship and regard I pray you to accept my sincerest 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 57 

thanks. In this great subject of triumph for the New World, 
and for humanity in general, it will never be forgotten how 
conspicuous a part you bore, and how much lustre you re- 
flected on a country in which you made the first displays 
of your character." 

Regarding this memento of the French Revolution, it 
may be remarked that a doubt has been cast, from a proba- 
bly reliable source, upon its authenticity. 

The Viscount de Chateaubriand, who dined with Washing- 
ton, refers to the key thus: "The conversation turned almost 
entirely on the French Revolution. The general showed us 
a key of the Bastille : these keys of the Bastille were but silly 
playthings which were about that time distributed over the 
two worlds. Had Washington seen, like me, the conquerors 
of the Bastille in the kennels of Paris, he would have less faith 
in the relic.'* 

From the hall you enter the east parlor, where there are 
now many relics of Mount Vernon's great owner, among 
other things a large globe, which probably served as a 
model for the globe in Savage's picture of the Washington 
family, and a sideboard which, tradition declares, once be- 
longed to Lawrence Washington. 

Before passing from the great hall, however, we must 
notice the superb chimney-piece, made of sienite and Parian 
marble in Italy, and sent to Washington in 1785 by Samuel 
Vaughan, a rich Welshman and an admirer of the general. 
Domestic scenes of an agricultural nature, which the great 
patriot loved so well, are sculptured in high relief in white 
marble. The story goes that the vessel bearing it hither was 
captured by a French pirate, but upon it being represented 
to the buccaneer captain that the ship was the bearer of a 
gift for Washington, he permitted her to continue the 
voyage. 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



From the east parlor the north extension may be entered. 
In this was the large state banqueting-hall, but the family 
dining-room was toward the west side of the mansion. 

The library, a square room full of closets, is in the south 




LIBRARY, MOUNT VERNON. 

extension. Here Washington repaired at daylight every 
morning, winter and summer, until breakfast was served. 

A broad stairway from the main hall leads to the sleeping 
apartments. The first room on the left of the landing in the 
upper hall is "La Fayette's chamber," so called from his 
having occupied it on his visits to Mount Vernon. 

Between Washington and the French marquis there 
existed a friendship unusual in public men of ages so at 
variance. Washington has sometimes been blamed for 
allowing Robert Morris, the financier of the Revolution, 
to linger in prison in Philadelphia, but to his conduct during 
La Fayette's imprisonment no such blame can be attached. 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



6i 



The marquis, having become disgusted with the scenes 
in Paris, attempted to make his way to America through 
Austria, but was arrested by order of the Court of Vien- 
na and confined in the citadel of Olmutz. When Wash- 
ington heard of this, as De la Colombe relates, he " made 
instant application to the Cabinet of Vienna to obtain his 
friend's liberty, but met with a formal refusal. A plan of 
escape was then arranged over here, and Congress devoted 







r«^ - JM^V ' 


IL"1S 


3 


i Jl 


' "^^ ^ 




^: 



GEN. WASHINGTON'S CHAMBER. 

a sum of four hundred thousand francs to its execution.*' 
One Ballman, a German doctor residing in Philadelphia, was 
selected to carry the scheme into effect. The plot was so 
far successful that the marquis escaped, but was recaptured, 
owing to his imprudence. 

One. of the last rooms of Mount Vernon that the visitor 
enters is the chamber made sacred by the closing scene of 
Washington's life. Here, on the night of the fourteenth 



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62 



MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



of December, 1799, he died. Although since that memor- 
able hour it has remained unchanged in architecture, yet 
there is nothing now in the chamber that belonged to the 
great chieftain ; the bedstead at present in the room, almost 
its sole furniture, being only a representation of the bed on 
-which he expired. 

From the death-chamber of Washington a steep flight of 
steps leads us to the room occupied by Martha Washington 




MRS. WASHINGTON S CHAMBER. 



during the last years of her life. In this poorly-furnished 
apartment, with no fire during the coldest winter weather, 
with no companion but her pet cat, for whose convenience 
of ingress and egress a hole was cut in the door, and within 
sight of her husband's grave, the wife of Washington passed 
in extreme grief the last years of a life that afforded her the 
gratification of every ambition. 

In Washington's day the garden must have been delight- 
ful ; it was, indeed, one of his chief cares and pleasures. 
The large conservatory was destroyed by fire on the i6th 
of December, 1835, " '^ being the same day upon which twenty 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 63 

millions of dollars went up in smoke in the city of New 
York/* A defective flue seems to have been the cause, and 
the building, with the adjoining servants* quarters, was a 
mass of smouldering ruins within an hour after the blaze was 
discovered. Out of the vast collection of rare plants, most 
of which Washington had obtained from various parts of 
the world, but few were saved. A fine century-plant, a sago 
palm, and a lemon tree were some years since preserved as 
relics snatched from the flames. They may be still alive. 

The original entrance to Mount Vernon was about one 
mile due west of the house. From the porter*s lodge the 
carriage-road wound its way through vale and over wooded 
hills until it connected with the more elegantly cared-for 
avenue leading across the lawn to the house. Washington 
laid out the avenues himself, and took great pains in select- 
ing the proper trees which he intended should, at a later day, 
overshadow them. On the north side of the lawn was the 
flower-garden, and on the south the vegetable-garden. 

Seed-houses were erected at the corners of both gardens. 
Like the porter s lodge and some other buildings, they were 
built of adobe or blocks of sun-dried clay. The seed-houses 
were of octagon form. 

Washington seems to have often had difficulty in getting 
a good head-gardener. Of one he says that he thinks he 
should be prosecuted for false pretense, because he claimed 
to be able to manage slaves and failed. Yet he gave him 
a recommendation for honesty, industry, and intelligence. 
With another servant he made a singular contract. This 
man was to receive "four dollars at Christmas, with which 
he may be drunk for four days and four nights ; two dollars 
at Easter, to effect the same purpose ; two dollars at Whit- 
suntide, to be drunk for two days ; a dram in the morning 
and a drink of grog at dinner at noon." We would infer 



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64 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 

that here was a valuable man who would drink, and that 
Washington reduced the habit to a system. Another man, 
however, he forces to a promise that he will drink nothing 
at all whilst in his employ. 

From the end of the Revolution to Washington's death, 
except when the mansion was closed during the busier por- 
tions of those years which he served as President, Mount 




NELLIE CUSTIS, FROM A PASTEL BY SHARPLESS. 

Vernon was a busy household. Both Americans and foreign- 
ers, friends and strangers, were constantly arriving and were 
entertained at dinner and frequently remained overnight. 

Washington wrote to his mother that " in truth it may be 
compared to a well-resorted tavern, as scarcely any strangers 
who are going from North to South, or from South to North, 
db not spend a day or two at it/* There were few French- 
men, especially of those driven here by one reason or other 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



65 



during the French Revolution, who did not, from motives 
of admiration, policy, gain, or curiosity, call at the general's 
home. Some of these people, accustomed to the extremes 
of etiquette practised at the court of Louis Seize, were 
astonished, as well as amused, by the simplicity observed 
at Mount Vernon. 

One of them observes that when the princes of Orleans 
visited Mount Vernon the negro who announced them, 
probably the famous Billy, called to Washington, " Excellency ! 




" BILLY," WASHINGTON'S BODY-SERVANT, FROM PAINTING BY CHARLES WILI-SON PEALE. 

Excellency ! there are three Equalities at the door/' " Differ- 
ent countries,*' observes the writer, " have different manners." 
The princes, however, were usually so termed throughout 
the country during their visit. The same authority informs 
us that Mount Vernon was closed against Talleyrand, De 
Noailles, and Duportail. 

36 



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66 



MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



Washington, however, used great finesse in complying with 
the awkward request of Volney, who asked him for a letter 
of recommendation to the American people. It was as 
follows : 

" M. de Volney needs no recommendation from 

" George Washington/* 

The evenings at Mount Vernon were always gay. Cards, 
billiards, and dancing were favorite amusements of the 
general, and, according to the custom of the day, money 




RECEPTION-ROOM, MOUNT VERNON. 

was the stake in these games. He was careful, however, 
that the sums risked were within bounds, and his gains or 
losses in this sort of amusement never amounted to more 
than a few hundred dollars a year. 

Fox-hunting was a sport of which he was always very 
fond, and up almost to the time of his death he rode to 
hounds as often as possible during the hunting season. 
He was a liberal contributor toward the maintenance of the 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 67 



neighboring pack, which was, indeed, kept at Mount Vernon 
a great part of the time. 

We have spoken of Billy, the body-servant of Washing- 
ton, and whose portrait was painted by Peale. Billy accom- 
panied his master all through the Revolution, and acquitted 
himself so well that the general left a provision for him in 
his will setting him free, with a home at Mount Vernon. 
Poor Billy, however, could not stand prosperity, and he 
became a bo7i-vivant. In his old age delirium tremens finally 
seized him in its terrible grasp. A negro on the plantation 
called Westford, who had been brought up by Judge Wash- 
ington, was accustomed to relieve him of the paroxysms by 
bleeding. One day, about 1828, Westford was sent for in 
a hurry for this purpose, but the blood refused to follow 
the incision of the lancet. Billy was dead. 

We have left the saddest and yet the most interesting 
feature of Mount Vernon, the grave of Washington, until 
the last. 

The original family vault was upon the brow of a hill 
some three hundred yards south of the mansion and facing 
the river. It is now a mere ruin. In it, however, the remains 
of Washington, contrary to the explicit instructions in his 
will, reposed for thirty years. 

An attempt to steal his body, resulting only in the larceny 
of a skull of some one else, which was afterward fortunately 
recovered, forced the execution of his wish, worded in his 
will as follows : 

"The family vault at Mount Vernon requiring repairs, 
and being improperly situated besides, I desire that a new 
one, of brick and upon a larger scale, may be built at the 
foot of what is called the Vinyard-Inclosure, on the ground 
which is marked out, in which my remains, and those of my 
deceased relatives (now in the old vault), and such others of 



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68 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 



my family as may choose to be entombed there, may be 
deposited." 

The new tomb of Washington was finally built in accord- 
ance with these instructions. It is in a slight depression at the 
upper entrance to a wooded vale, near the margin of the path- 
way leading to the river. It is of brick with an arched roof, 
and its iron door opens into a vestibule, also of brick, in which, 
viewed through a picketed gate of iron, are seen the marble 
coffins of George and Martha Washington. On a stone 
panel over the vault door are carved the words, " I am the 
Resurrection and the life ; he that believeth in Me, 

THOUGH he were DEAD, YET SHALL HE LIVE.*' In the arch 

surmounting the tomb is a white marble tablet inscribed, 
"Within this enclosure rest the remains of General 
George Washington." 

Mr. John Struthers of Philadelphia, a marble-cutter, who 
had manufactured a number of handsome monuments, hear- 
ing of the proposed removal, very kindly offered to present 
the marble coffins. The offer was accepted. That of Mrs. 
Washington is quite plain, with a simple inscription. That 
of the general has a design upon the lid representing in 
relief the American shield, but incorrectly represented sus- 
pended over the stars and stripes. Over the shield is the 
American eagle. 

Mr. William Strickland, who designed the lid of Washing- 
ton's coffin, and who accompanied Mr. Struthers when the 
remains were to be removed, has left us an accurate account 
of that event: ** On entering the vault they found everything 
in confusion. Decayed fragments of coffins were scattered 
about, and bones of various parts of the human body were 
seen promiscuously thrown together. The decayed wood 
was dripping with moisture. *The slimy snails glistened in 
the light of the door-opening. The brown centipede was 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 69 



disturbed by the admission of fr^sh air, and the mouldy cases 
of the dead gave a pungent and unwholesome odor/ The 
coffins of Washington and his lady were in the deepest recess 
of the vault. They were of lead, enclosed in wooden cases. 
When the sarcophagus arrived the coffin of the chief was 
brought forth. The vault was first entered by Mr. Strick- 
land, accompanied by Major Lewis (the last survivor of the 
first executor of the will of Washington) and his son. When 
the decayed wooden case was removed the leaden lid was 




GEORGE WASHINGTON CUSTIS, FROM A MINIATURE PRESENTED TO LA FAYETTE. 

perceived to be sunken and fractured. In the bottom of the 
wooden case was found the silver coffin-plate, in the form 
of a shield, which was placed upon the leaden coffin when 
Washington was first entombed. 

"At the request of Major Lewis,*' says Mr. Strickland, 
"the fractured part of the lid was turned over on the lower 
part, exposing to view a head and breast of large dimensions, 
which appeared, by the dim light of the candles, to have 



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70 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 



suffered but little from the effects of time. The eye-sockets 
were large and deep, and the breadth across the temples, 
together with the forehead, appeared of unusual size. There 
was no appearance of grave-clothes ; the chest was broad, 
the color was dark, and had the appearance of dried flesh 
and skin adhering closely to the bones. We saw no hair, 
nor was there any offensive odor from the body; but we 
observed, when the coffin had been removed to the outside 
of the vault, the dripping down of a yellow liquid, which 
stained the marble of the sarcophagus. A hand was laid 
upon the head and instantly removed ; the leaden lid was 
restored to its place ; the body, raised by six men, was carried 
and laid in the marble coffin, and the ponderous cover being 
put on and set in cement, it was sealed from our sight on 

Saturday, the 7th day of October, 1837 The relatives 

who were present, consisting of Major Lewis, Lorenzo Lewis, 
John Augustine Washington, George Washington, the Rev. 
Mr. Johnson and lady, and Mrs. Jane Washington, then 
retired to the mansion.'' 

On the east side of the tomb He the remains of Mrs. 
Eleanor Parke Lewis and her daughter, Mrs. M. E. Conrad. 
The first-named lady was the granddaughter of Mrs. Wash- 
ington and adopted daughter of the general. There are 
two monuments in front of Washington's tomb. On the 
right lies Judge Bushrod Washington, the nephew to whom 
the great patriot left Mount Vernon. On the left may be 
seen the last earthly abiding-place of John Augustine Wash- 
ington, a nephew of the judge and the father of the last 
Washington who lived at Mount Vernon. 

Here, on the spot which, in his simplicity, he selected for 
its last home, amid the garden he loved, where the magnolias 
each spring might breathe their fragrance over his tomb, 
rests the clod that for a little time clothed the immortal 



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MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS, 



71 



spirit of him who was childless that he might become the 
father of his countr}'. 

Here constantly from every clime a host of pilgrims 
gather, and ever up from the broad bosom of the Potomac 




TOMB OF THE WASHINGTONS, MOUNT VERNON. 

echoes from each passing steamer the solemn clang of a 
tolling bell in grateful recollection of that hero soul wafted 
from these shores into the vasty space of an uncertain 
eternity. 

Just prior to the late war Mount Vernon passed into the 
hands of the Mount Vernon Association, which purchased it 
from the Washington heir for two hundred thousand dollars. 
The association has kept the place in excellent repair after 
making a number of long-needed improvements. Each 
State represented in the association has a special room in 
the mansion. Of the purchase-money nearly seventy thou- 
sand dollars were raised by Edward Everett, through his 
lectures on Washington, and the balance by the ladies of 



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72 MOUNT VERNON AND THE WASHINGTONS. 

the association. During the late war Mount Vernon was, 
by mutual agreement, neutral ground, and the wearers of 
the blue and the gray frequently met before the tomb of 
the Great American loved equally by both. They always 
came unarmed, by the request of those in charge of the 
grounds. 



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ANCESTRY OF GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON, 
FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. 



JOHN WASHINGTON of = 
"Whitfield, Co. Lancaster. | 



JOHN WASHING- 
TON of Whit- 
field. 



Dau. of 

Westfield. 



ROBERT WASHINGTON = dau. of Miles Whit- 



of Warton, Co. Lancaster, 
gent., 2d son. 

AGNES, dau. of Bate- 
man of Haversham, West- 
moreland ; 3d wife. 



tington of Bar- 
wick, Co-, 

Lane; 2d wife. 



Issue. 



Issue. 



THOMAS 
WASH- 
INGTON, 
2d son. 



ELLEN, m. 
James 
Mason of 
Warton. 



i 



JOHN WASH- = MARGARET, dau. of Robert Kitson of 



INGTON of 
Warton, Co. 
Lancaster. 



LAWRENCE WASHINGTON of North- 
ampton aud Grays' Inn ; Mayor of North- 
ampton; Grantee of Sulgrave, 30 H. VIII. ; 
ob. 19 Feb. 26. Elizabeth. 



Warton : sister to Sir Thomas Kitson, Kt., 
Alderman of London. 



AMY, dau. of Robert Pargiter of 
Gretworth, gent.; ob. 7 Oct., 1564; 
2d wife. 



ROBERT W^ASHINGTON, Esq., of Sul- = ELIZABETH, dau. and heir of Robert Light 
grave, aet. 40, 26 Elizabeth ; sold Sulgrave I of Radway, Co. Warwick; 1st wife. 
8 Jac. I 

LAWRENCE WASHINGTON -MARGARET, eldest dau. of William 
of Sulgrave and Brington ; ob. I Butler of Tighes, Sussex ; m. 3d Aug., 
13 Dec, 1616. I 1588; living 1636. 

I 
LAWRENCE WASHINGTON, fourth son ; = AMPHILLIS ROADES. 
M. A.y Fellow of Brasenose Coll., Oxford ; I 
Rector of Purleigh, Essex (1633-43). | 



JOHN W^ASHINGTON, b. LAWR 
in England, 1633-34; emi- 
grated to Virginia; ancestor 
of General George Wash- 
ington. (See infra.) 



EN 



CE WILLIAM WASH- 



WASH ING- 
TON, bapt. at 
Tring,Co. Herts, 
23 June, 1635; 
emigrated to Vir- 
ginia. 



INGTON, bapt. at 
Tring, Co. Herts, 
14 Oct., 1641. 



ELIZABETH, bapt. 
at Tring, 17 Aug., 
1636. 

MARGARET. 

MARTHA. 



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GENEALOGY OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY. 

I. Col. John Washington of Bridge's Creek, Westmoreland County, Va. ; died January, 
1677. Will dated 26 February, 1675; proved 10 January, 1677. He married, first, in 
England, but bis children by this marriage died young. He married, secondly, near 
Pope's Creek, Westmoreland County, about 1660, Anne Pope. 
H. Childrfn of John Washinpon by Anne^ his (2d) wifi : 

1. I^wrence, b. circa 1 66 1. 

2. John, b. circa 1663. 

3. Elizabeth, b. circa 1665 ; m. Thomas Lanier. 

4. Anne, b. circa 1667. 

H. (i) Lawrence Washington, son of John and Anne, bom at Bridge's Creek, Westmore- 
land County, Va., circa 1661 ; died in Westmoreland County, 1697. He married, in 
Gloucester County, Va., circa 1690, Mildred, daughter of Col. Augustine Warner of 
Gloucester County. She married, secondly, George Gale. 

HL Children of Lawrence Washington by Afiidred^ his wife : 

5. John, b. circa 1692. 

6. Augustine, b. 1694. 

7. Mildred, b. 1696. 

H. (3) Elizabeth Washington, daughter of John and Anne, bom circa 1665; married, 
about 1687, Thomas Lanier, son of I^wis Lanier of Bordeaux, France. 
HL Children of Thomas Lanier and Elizabeth IVashingtony his 7vife : 

8. Richard, b. at Bridge's Creek, Va., circa 1688. 

9. Thomas, b. at Bridge's Creek, Va., circa 1690. 

10. James, b. at Bridge's Creek, Va., circa 1692. 

11. Elizabeth, b. at Bridge's Creek, Va., circa 1 695. 

12. Samson, b. at Bridge's Creek, Va., circa 1700. 

HL (5) John Washington, son of Lawrence and Mildred, born at Bridge's Creek, West- 
moreland County, Va., r/>ra 1692; he removed to Gloucester County, where he died. 
He married Catharine Whiting of Gloucester County. 

IV. Children of John Washington by Catharine^ his wife : 

13. Warner, b. circa 17 15. 

14. Henry, b. circa 1 7 18. 

15. Mildred, b. circa 1 7 20. 

16. Elizabeth, b. circa 1 722; d. unm. 

17. Catharine, b. circa 1724; m. Fielding Lewis. 

18. Lawrence, b. circa 1726. 
74 



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GENEALOGY OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY. 75 



19. Augustine, b. circa 1728. 

20. Frances, b. circa 1730. 

III. (6) Augustine Washington, son of Lawrence and Mildred, bom at Bridge Creek, 
Va., circa 1694. He removed to Fredericksburg, Va., 1722, and died there 12 April, 
1743. He married, first, 20 April, 17 1 5, Jane, daughter of Caleb Butler of Westmore- 
land County. She died in Stafford County, 24 November, 1728. He married, secondly, 
in Lancaster County, Va., 6 March, 1730-31, Mary, daughter of Col. William Ball of 
Lancaster County. She died 25 August, 1789, aged 82 years. 

IV. Children of Augustine Washington by JanCy his (1st) wife: 

21. Butler, b. 1 7 16; d. young. 

22. Lawrence, b. 17 18. 

23. Augustine, b. 1720. 

24. Jane, b. 1722; d. 17 Jan., 1735. 

IV. Children of Augustine Washington by Mary^ his {2d) wife : 

25. George, b. 11 Feb. (o. s ) 1732. 

26. Betty, b. 2 June, 1733. 

27. Samuel, b. 16 Nov., 1734. 

28. John Augustine, b. 13 Jan., 1736. 

29. Charles, b. 2 May, 1738. 

30. Mildred, b. 21 June, 1739; d. 23 Oct., 1740. 

III. (7) Mildred Washington, daughter of Lawrence and Mildred, born circa 1696; 
married, first. Gregory; secondly, Col. Henry Willis of Fredericksburg. 

IV. Children of Gregory and Mildred Washington^ his wife : 

31. Frances, b. at Bridge's Creek, Va., circa 1716; m. Colonel Francis Thornton. 

32. Mildred, b. at Bridge's Creek, Va., circa 17 18; m. Colonel John Thornton. 

33. Elizabeth, b. at Bridge's Creek, Va., circa 1720; m. Reuben Thornton. 
IV. Children of Col. Henty Willis by Mildred ( Washington) Gregory^ his wife: 

34. Col. I^wis Willis of Fredericksburg; living 1792. 

III. (12) Samson Lanier, son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Washington), his wife, was bom 
at Bridge's Creek, Va., circa 1700. 

IV. Children of Samson Lanier : 

35. Lewis, b. circa 1726. 

36. Buckner, b. circa 1728. 

37. Burrill, b. circa 1732. 

38. Winnifred, b. circa 1 735. 

39. Nancy, b. circa \1Z1- 

40. Rebecca, b. circa 1 740. 

IV. (35) Lewis Lanier, son of Samson, bom circa 1726; married Miss Ball, sister to Mary, 
mother of George Washington. 

V. Child of Lewis Lanier : 

41. James, b. 2 Feb., 1759. 



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76 GENEALOGY OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY, 



V. (41) Jamks Lanier, son of Lewis, born 2 February, 1750; died 27 April, 1806 in Pen- 
dleton, Ky. He married, 1774, Sarah Chalmers (born 30 October, 1755), of Scotland. 
VL Children of James Lanier by Sarah, his wife : 

42. Alexander Chalmers, b. 31 Jan., 1779. 

43. James Walters, b. circa 1 781 ; Surgeon in U. S. Army, i8i2; d. s. p. 

44. A daughter, d. s. p. 

45. A son, d. s. p. 

VL (42) Alexander Chalmers Lanier, son of James and Sarah, bom 31 January, 1779. 
He died in I^ancaster, Garrard County, Ky., 25 March, 1820. He married, in South- 
ampton County, Va., 30 April, 1797, Drusilla Qeaves Doughty (who was born 27 March, 
1778; died at Madison, Indiana, 8 February, 1838). 

VH. Child 0/ Alexander Chalmers by Drusilla, his {ist) wife: 

46. James Franklin Doughty, b. 22 Nov., 1800. 

VHL (46) James Franklin Doughty Lanier, only son of Alexander Chalmers and 
Drusilla, his wife, was bom at Washington, in Beaufort County, North Carolina, 22 
November, 1 800. He was taken to Eaton, Preble County, Ohio, 1 807, and to Madison, 
Indiana, in 1817. Removed to New York, 1849. ^^ BMMrried, first, at Madison, 
Indiana, December 8, 1 81 9, Elizabeth, daughter of John Gardner of Lexington, Ky. 
She died 15 April, 1846. He married, secondly, at Madison, Indiana, 20 January, 1848, 
Mary, daughter of John McClure of Carlisle, Pa. 

IX. Children of James F, D. Lanier, by Elizabeth, his wife : 

47. Alexander Chalmers, b. 6 Oct., 1830; unm. 1878. 

48. Elizabeth Frances, b. 26 Feb., 1822; removed to Washington, D. C. She 
m., Madison, Indiana, ii March, 1841, General William McKee Dunn, Judge 
Advocate and General in U. S. Army. Issue (surname Dunn) : 

1. William McKee, b. at Madison, Ind., 20 Aug., 1843. Major in U. S. A. 
He was on General Grant's staff at the battle of Vicksburg. He married 
Mary, daughter of Hon. Lott Morrell, Secretary of Treasury, U. S., 1876, 
of Augusta, Me. 

2. Francis Elizabeth, b. 6 Dec, 1847 ; m. David R. McKee of the Associated 
Press. 

3. Lanier, b. 2 Aug., 185 1. 

4. Mary, b. 22 Sept., 1855. 

5. George Marshall, b. 20 March, 1856. 

49. Drusilla Ann, b. 21 December, 1824; m., at Madison, Ind., 1844, to John 
Robert Cravens of Madison. Issue, ten children. 

50. Margaret D., b. 25 Feb., 1827. 

51. John James, b. 23 July, 1829; d. 20 April, 1836. 

52. Mary, b. 20 Aug., 1832; m. John Cameron Stone of New York. 

53. I^uisa Morris, b. 31 Jan., 1835; unm. 

54. Charles, b. 19 Jan., 1837; removed to New York. He m., in New York, 7 
Oct., 1857, to Sarah E., daughter of Thomas Egleston of New York. Issue: 

1. James Frederick Doughty, b. 25 July, 1858. 

2. Sarah Egleston, b. 8 April, 1862. 



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GENEALOGY OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY, ^^ 



3. Fannie, b. 17 Aug., 1864. 

4. Elizabeth Gardner, b. 29 Oct., 1870. 
IX. Children 0/ James F. D. Lanier by 2d wife : 

55. Jane, b. Jan., 1849; ^^ *^57- 

56. James, b. 1851 ; d. 1856. 

57. Katie McClure, b. 7 Jan., 1858, unm. 

IV. (13) Warner Washincjton, son of John and Catharine, bom in Gloucester County, Va., 
circa 1715. He went to Frederick County and died 1791; married, first, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Col. William Macon of New Kent County, Va. He married, secondly, at 
Fairfax Court House, Va., Hannah, daughter of Hon. William Fairfax of Fairfax, Clarke 
County, V^a. 

V. Child of Warner Washington by Elixabethf his ( \st) wife : 

58. Warner, b. 15 April, 1751. 

V. Children of Warner Washington by Hannah Fairfax^ his {2d) wife : 

59. Mildred, b. 1765. 

60. Hannah, b. April, 1 767; m. P. B. Whiting of Elmington, Gloucester County, 
Va. 

61. Catharine, b. 7 April, 1769. 

62. Elizabeth, b. 1771. 

63. Louisa, b. 1775. 

64. Fairfax, b. 1778. 

65. Whiting, b. 1780. 

IV. (14) Henry Washington, son of John and Catharine, b. at Bridge's Creek, Va., circa 
17 18. He married a daughter of Thacher of Middlesex County, Va. 
V. Children of Henry Washington : 

66. Thacher, b circa 1 740; m. a daughter of Sir John Peyton and had is>sue. 
[There were also three daughters, names unknown, of Henry Washington.] 

IV. (17) Catharine Washinchon, daughter of John and Catharine, bom circa 1724, 
married Colonel Fielding Lewis. 

V. Children of Col. Fielding Lewis by Catharine (Washinj^topt), his wife: 

67. John Lewis, b. circa 1745. 

68. Francis Lewis, b. circa 1748. 

IV. Augustine Washington, son of John and Catharine, bom circa 1728. 
V. Child of Augustine Washington : 

69. William, b. circa 1750. 

IV. (26) Betty Washington, daughter of Augustine and Mary, bora in Stafford County, 
Va., 20 June, 1733. She married Colonel Fielding Lewis, whose first wife was Catharine 
W^ashington (17). 

Children of Col. Fielding Lewis by Betty ( Washington)^ his {2d) 7vife : 

70. Fielding, b. 1755. 

71. Betty, b. 1758. 

72. George Fielding, b. 1760. 



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78 GENEALOGY OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY, 



73. Robert, b. 1765. 

74, Howell, b. 12 Dec, 1770. 
7$. Lawrence, b. 1775. 

IV. (27) Colonel Samuel Washington, son of Augustine and Mary, born in Stafford 
County, 16 November, 1734. He was a Colonel in the Continental Army and died at 
Harewood, in Berkeley County, Va., in 1781. He married, first, Jane, daughter of 
Colonel John Champe, by whom he had no issue. He married, secondly, Mildred, 
daughter of Col. John Thornton ; and thirdly, Lucy, daughter of Nathaniel Chapman. 
He married, fourthly, Anne, daughter of Col. William Steptoe (widow of Willoughby 
Allerton), and, fifthly, the widow Perrin. 

V. Children of Col, Samuel Washington by Mildred^ his (2d) wife : 

76. Thornton, b. 1760. 

77. Tristam, b. 1763. 

V. Children of Col. Samuel Washington by Anne, his (^h) wife: 

78. Frederick, b. 1773. 

79. George Steptoe, b. 1773. 

80. Lawrence A., b. 1776. 

81. Harriett Parks, b. 1780. 

IV. (28) John Augustine Washington, son of Augustine and Mary, bom in Stafford 
County, Va., 13 January, 1736; died February, 1787, on his estate on Nomony, in 
Westmoreland County. He married Hannah, daughter of Colonel John Bushrod of 
Westmoreland County, Va. 

V. Children of John Augustine Washington by Hannah, his wife : 

82. Jane, b. 1758. 

83. Mildred, b. 1760. 

84. Bushrod, b. 5 June, 1762. 

85. Corbln, b. 1 767. 

86. William Augustine, b. 1767. 

IV. (29) Colonel Charles Washington, son of Augustine and Mary, bom 2 May, 1738; 
Colonel in the Continental Army ; married Mildred, daughter of Colonel Francis Thom- 
ton of Spottswood County, Va. 

V. Children of Col. Charles Washington and Mildred, his wife : 

87. George Augustine, b. circa 1 763. 

88. Samuel, b. circa 1765. 

89. Frances, b. circa 1 77 2; m. Col. Burgess Ball. 

90. Mildred, b. circa 1777; m. Hammond. 

V. (58) Warner Washington, son of Warner and Elizal^eth, born 15 April, 1751; died 

in Clark County, Va. He married, first, in Gloucester County, 18 October, 1770, Mary, 
daughter of Francis and Frances (Perrin) Whiting of Gloucester County, Va. She died 
at Clifton, Va., 1794. He married, secondly, at Elmington, Gloucester County, 13 June, 
1795, Sarah Warner Rootes. 

VI. Children of Warner Washington and Maty, his (ist) 7uife : 

91. Wamer, b. 7 Dec, 1771. 



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GENEALOGY OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY. 79 



92. John, b. 4 Oct., 1773. 

93. Frances, b. 30 April, 1775. 

94. Emily, b. 8 May, 1778. 

95. Sydney, b. 31 May, 1780. 

96. Henry, b. 8 March, 1782. 

97. Francb Whiting, b. 18 June, 1784. 

98. Beverly, b. 25 Aug., 1787. 

99. Perrin, b. 7 Feb., 1790. 

VI. Children of Warner Washington and Sarah ^ his (2d) wife: 

100. Reade, b. 18 May, 1796. 
loi. Thacher, b. 5 Dec, 1797. 

102. Elizabeth, b. 28 Sept., 1800. 

103. Fairfax, b. 30 March, 1802. 

104. William Herbert, b. 30 May, 1803. 

105. Alexander Hamilton, b. 5 March, 1805. 

106. Mary Herbert, b. 25 Sept., 1808. 

VI. (64) Fairfax Washington, son of Warner and Hannah, bom circa 1778. Removed 
to Elkton, Kentucky, and died there i860. He married, 1804, Sarah Armistead of 
Hesse, Gloucester County, Va. She died at Elkton. 

VII. Children of Fairfax Washington and Sarah ^ his wife : 

107. William Armistead, b. 1805. 

108. Warner Washington. 

109. Mary. 

110. Anne Olive, b. circa 1812. 

111. Fairfax. 

112. Virginia, b. circa 1820. 

IV. (65) Whiting Washington, son of Warner and Hannah, bom about 1780. Removed 
to Logan County, Kentucky, where he died. He married, about 1805, Rebecca, daughter 
of Charles Smith of Berry ville, Clark County, Va. 

V. Children of Whiting Washington and Rebecca^ his wife : 

113. Charles Henry. 

114. Daughter. 

115. Daughter. 

IV^ (66) Thacher Washington, son of W^nxy, circa 1740. He married a daughter of 
Sir John Payton of Gloucester County. He resides upon the estate left to his grand- 
father, John, at Mahodoe, Westmoreland County. Issue : Names not ascertained. 

IV. (23) Augustine Washington, son of Augustine, bom 1720. He married, 1743, Anne, 
daughter and co-heiress of Col. William Aylett of Westmoreland County. 
V. Children of Augustine Washington and Anne^ his wife : 

116. Elizabeth, b. circa 1 750; m. Alexand Spotswooder. 

117. Jane, b. circa 1752; m. Col. John Thornton. 

118. Anne, b. circa 1753; m. Burdet Ashton. 

119. William Augustine, b. 25 Nov., 1757. 



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8o GENEALOGY OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY, 



VI. (119) Colonel William Augustine Washington, son of Augustine and Anne, bora 
in Westmoreland County, Va., 25 November, 1757; died at Geoi^etown, Va., 10 
October, 1810; buried at Mount Vernon. He mamed, 25 September, 1777, Jane, 
daughter of Colonel John Augustine Washington of Bushfield, Westmoreland County, 
Va. She died about 1791 ; he married, secondly, 10 July, 1792, Molly, daughter of 
Richard Henry Lee of Chantilly, Westmoreland County, Va., by whom he had no issue. 
He married, thirdly, II May, 1799, Sarah, sister to Colonel John Taylor of Mount Airy, 
Richmond County. 

VH. Children of Col. William Augustine Washingion and Jane y his (isi) wife : 

120. Augustine, b. circa 1 778; d. y. 

121. Corbin Aylett, b. circa 1 780; d. y. 

122. Hannah Bushrod, b. 1782; d. y. 

123. Bushrod, b. 4 April, 178$. 

124. Ann Aylett, b. circa 1 787. 

125. George Corbin, b. 20 Aug., 1 789. 

126. I^wrence, b. 26 Feb., (i 791?). 

Vn. Children of Col. William Augustine Washington and Sarah ^ his {"^d) ivife: 

127. Sarah Taylor, b. 14 April, 1800. 

128. William Augustine, b. 30 Aug., 1804. 
Other children died young. 

VI. (76) Thornton Washington, Ensign in the Continental Army, son of Samuel and 
Mildred, born 1 760; died in Jefferson County, Va., before 1799. He married, first. 
Miss Berry of Berry Plain on the Rappahannock River; married, secondly, Miss 
Washington. 

VH. Children of Thornton Washington by his (U/) wife : 

129. John Thornton Augustine. 

130. Thomas. 

131. Samuel. 

VI. (79) George Steffoe Washington, son of Samuel and Anne, bom 1773. He removed 
from Jefferson County, Va., to South Carolina. Buried in Augusta County, Ga. He 
married, at Philadelphia, 1796, Lucy Payne, daughter of Payne of Va. and Phil- 
adelphia. His widow married Hon. Thomas Todd of Kentucky, Associate Justice of 
the Supreme Court of the United States. 

Children of George Steptoe Washington and Lucy, his 7vife : 

132. George, b. 1797. 

133. Samuel Walter. 

134. William Temple, b. 16 July, 1800. 

135. George Steptoe, b. 15 Oct., 1806. 

VI. (80) Lawrence A. Washington, son of Samuel and Anne, bom Stafford County, Va, 
He died at Wheeling, Va., Feb., 1824. He married, at Winchester, Va., 1798, Mary 
Dorcas, daughter of James and Comfort Wood of Winchester. 

VII. Children of Lawrence A. Washington and Mary^ his 7vife : 

136. Robert Wood, b. 1808; d. 1843. 



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GENEALOGY OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY, 8l 



137. Emma Tell, b. 181 1 ; d. 1838. 

138. Eh". Lawrence A., b. 5 Dec, 1813; of Denison, Texas. 

139. Mary Dorcas, b. 1815; d. Colorado County, Texas, 1861. 

V. (85) CoRBiN Washington, son of John Augustine and Hannah, bom 1767, at Bushfield, 
Westmoreland County. He lived at Walnut Farm, in the same county, and died about 
1800, at Selby, Fairfax County, Va. He married, at Chantilly, Westmoreland County, 
1786, Hannah, daughter of Hon. Richard I>ee of Chantilly. His will is dated 19 
October, 1799. 

VI. Children of Corbin Washington and Hannah^ his wife : 

140. Richard Henry Lee, b. 1787. 

141. Bushrod, b. 1 790. 

142. John Augustine, b. 1 792. 

143. Mary l^e, b. 1795. 

144. Jane, b. 1800. 

V. (87) Colonel George Aiuiustine Washington, son of Colonel Charles and Mildred, 
bom in .Stafford County, Va., about 1763. Will dated 24 January, 1793. He served as 
a colonel in the Continental Army. He married, 15 October, 1 785, Frances, daughter 
of Colonel Burwell Bassett of New Kent County, Va. 

VI. Children of CoIon<^l George Augustine Washington and Frances^ his ivife : 

145. (ieorge Fayette, b. lo April, 1787; d. infant. 

146. Anna Maria, b. 3 April, 1788. 

147. George, b. 17 Jan., 1790; d. Sept., 1867. 

148. Charles Augustine, b. 3 Nov., 1 791 ; d. Cadiz, unm. 

V. (88) Captain Samuel Washington, son of Colonel Charles and Mildred, born in 

Stafford County, Va. He resided at Fredericksburg, Va., and was captain in the U. S. 
Army. Afterward removed to Kanawha, W. Va. 

VI. Children of Captain Samuel Washington and Dorothea^ his wife: 

149. Samuel T. 

150. Augustine C. 

151. (ieorge F. 

152. Frances A. 

VI. (96) Henry Washington, son of Warner and Mary, bom Clifton, Va., 8 March, 1782. 
He removed to .Alabama, 1836; returned to Clark County, 1841 ; died there 1852. lie 
married at Berry ville, Va., 15 May, 1815, Ix)uisa, daughter of P. B. (and Hannah 
Washington) Whiting. 

VIT. Children of Henry IVashington and Louisa, his wife : 

153- Warren Blair. 

154. Beverley. 

155. Henry Sharp. 

156. Harriet Anna. 

157. Virginia Meade. 

158. Hannah. 

159. John Cary. 
37 



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82 GENEALOGY OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY. 



VI. (99) Perrin Washington, son of Warner and Mary, bora 7 February, 1790. He 
removed to Washington, D. C, where he died 1857. He married, at the old chapel in 
Clark County, Hannah Fairfax, daughter of P. B. Whiting. 

Vn. Children of Perrin Wiishington and Hannah Fairfax, his wife: 

160. Plannah Fairfax. 

161. William Dickinson. 

162. Louisa. 

163. John Henry. 

VI. (100) Reade Washington, son of Warner and Sarah, bora at Audley, Va., 18 May, 
1796. He removed to Chambersburg, Pa., and thence to Pittsburg, Pa., where he died. 
He married Miss Crawford of Chambersburg, Pa. 

VII. Children of Reade Washington: 

164. Warner Fairfax, d. infant. 

165. Crawford, k. in battle. 

166. Augustine. 

167. Virginia. 

168. Bushrod. 

169. Thomas. 

170. Kate. 

171. Mary. 

172. Louisa. 

173. Herbert. 

174. Rebecca. 

VII. (103) Fairfax Washington, son of Warner and Sarah, bora at Audley, Va., 30 
March, 1802. He removed to Mississippi. He married, first, Emily, daughter of Lewis 
Burwell. He married, secondly, . 

VH. Child of Fairfax Washington and Emilv^ hu (I5/) wife : 

175. Louisa. 

VII. Children of Fairfax Washington by his second wife : 

176. Sarah. 

177. Waraer. 

178. Martha. 

179. John. 

180. Mary. 

181. Elizabeth Warner. 

182. Reade. 

VII. (123) Bushrod Washington, son of William Augustine, bom at Haywood, Va., 
4 April, 1785. He settled at Mount Zephyr, Va. He married Henrietta, daughter of 
General Alexander Spotswood of Spotsylvania County, Va. He died 1830 ; buried at 
Mount Vernon. 

VIII. Children of Bushrod Washington and Henrietta, his wife : 

183. Spotswood Augustine. 

184. Anne. 



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GENEALOGY OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY, 83 

185. Jane Mildred. 

186. George. 

187. John. 

188. Mary. . 

189. Corbin. 

190. Francis. 

VII. (125) George Corbin Washington, son of William Augustine and Jane, born 
20 August, 1789. He removed to Georgetown, D. C, where he died 17 July, 1854. 
He married first, at Dunbarton, near Georgetown, 1807, Eliza Ridgely Beall, daughter 
of Thomas Beall. He married, secondly, Ann Peter, daughter of Col. John Peter. 
She died I July, 1820. 

VIII. Child of George Corbin Washington and Eliza R., his (isl) ivi/e : 

191. Lewis William, b. 30 Nov., 181 2. 

VIII. Children of George Corbin Washington and Ann, his (2d) wife: 

192. Eleanor. 

193. George Corbin, d. July, 1854. 

VII. (127) Sarah Taylor, daughter of William Augustine and Jane, born at Haywood, 
Va., 14 April, 1800; died 15 March, 1875. She married, 20 October, 1819, Lawrence 
Washington, third child of Henry Washington, of Westmoreland County, Va. 

VIII. Children of Sarah Taylor and La7vrence Washington : 

194. Henry Augustine, b. 24 Aug., 1820. 

195. John Taylor, b. Blenheim, Va., 20 Dec, 1822. 

196. George, b. Cedar Hill, Va., 24 July, 1825. 

197. Richard Bushrod, b. 21 June, 1827. 

198. Mary West, b. 13 Oct., 1828. 

199. Sarah Ashton, b. 17 Aug., 1 83 1. 

200. William Augustine, b. 5 March, 1 833. 

201. I>awrence, b. i May, 1836. 

202. Elizabeth, b. 23 Nov., 1838. 

203. Robert J., b. 16 Sept., 1841. 

204. Lloyd, b. 2 Nov., 1846. 

VII. (129) John Thornton Washington, son of Thornton, born 20 May, 1783; died 
9 October, 184 1. He married, at Shephardstown, W. Va., 2 September, 18 10, Elizabeth 
Conrad, daughter of Major Daniel Bedinger of Shepardstown. He married, secondly, 
Sarah, daughter of Hon. Robert Rutherford, 1793. Died 21 October, 1837, at Cedar 
Lawn. 

VI I L Children of John Thornton IVashingion by Elizabeth C.y his (\st) wife : 

205. I^wrence Berry, b. 26 Nov., 181 1. 

206. Daniel Bedinger, b. 8 Feb., 1814. 

207. Virginia Thornton, b. 2 March, 1816. 

208. Sally Eleanor, b. 7 April, 1818. 

209. Benjamin F., b. 7 April, 1820. 

210. Georgiana Augusta, b. 3 March, 1822. 



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84 GENEALOGY OF THE WASHINGTON FAMILY, 



211. Mary Elizabeth, b. 4 March, 1824. 

212. John Thornton, b. 22 Jan., 1826. 

213. Mildred Berry, b. 3 Sept., 1827; d- infant. 

214. Mildred Berry, b. 8 March, 1829. 

215. George, b. 9 Dec, 1830. 

216. Susan Ellsworth, b. i April, 1833. 

217. Henrietta Gray, b. 30 Sept., 1855. 

Note. — The above is not presented as a complete genealogy of the numerous Washing- 
ton family, but merely a brief outline of some of the branches neaiest in consanguinity to the 
greatest of all Virginians, the owner of Mount Vernon. 

A number of the descendants in the male line from the first Washington, ancestor of 
George, who landed in Virginia, remain unrecorded even in the exhaustive work of Wells, 
who was quite industrious in gathering data on ihis side of the ocean, but whose genealc^ 
of the emigrant is, of course, absolutely wrong. 



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• ••• 




George Washington (from a pastel by James Sharpless). 



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THE SHARPLESS PORTRAITS. 

The last sitting Washington gave to a painter was in 
Philadelphia in 1796, when James Sharpless made a profile 
likeness of the President in pastel. An Englishman by 
birth, Sharpless had been educated in France for the Roman 
Catholic priesthood ; but forsaking the church for the fine 
arts, he returned to his native country, married a lady 
of congenial tastes, and adopted the profession of paint- 
ing, in which he attained eminence. In 1796, when in 
middle life, he came to this country with his wife and three 
children, and landed at New York, which he made his head- 
quarters. He visited all the principal cities and towns in the 
young republic, carrying letters of introduction to various 
prominent personages, requesting them to sit for their por- 
traits for a collection of his own. He sometimes painted in 
oil, but generally in crayon or pastel, taking the profile by an 
instrument which assured a correct likeness upon a small 
scale, and finished the portrait in less than three hours. So 
much admired were the portraits for their faithfulness and spirit 
that generous orders, sometimes for whole families, followed. 
As his charge was invariably fifteen dollars for a profile, and 
twenty dollars for a full head, dnd as his wife was almost as 
skilful with the brush, he made a very comfortable income 
for those days. He travelled in a curious four-wheeled 
carriage, made after his own design, and arranged to 
carry^ the whole family and all his painting apparatus, and 
drawn by one large, uncomplaining horse. He was a 
mechanic of no mean skill, and a chemist as well, and manu- 
factured the crayons which he used in his profession. He 
was a plain and frugal man, and when he died suddenly in 

87 



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88 THE SHARPLESS PORTRAITS. 



New York, February 6, iSi i, at the age of about sixty years, 
left quite an estate. His body lies in the burying-ground 
attached to the Roman Catholic Chapel on Barclay Street. 

Washington was delighted with Sharpless, and ordered por- 
traits of every member of his family, including young George 
Washington Lafayette, who was then with him ; the other 
members of the family were equally warm in their commen- 
dation. Irving, in his Life of Washington, says : " The 
profile likeness of Washington, by Sharpless, is a valuable 
item of the legacy which art has bequeathed of those noble 
and benign features ; he evidently bestowed upon it his 
greatest skill, and there is no more correct facial outline of 
the immortal subject in existence ; a disciple of Lavater would 
probably find it the most available side-view for physiognomical 
inference ; it is remarkably adapted to the burin, and has been 
once, at least, adequately engraved ; it also has the melan- 
choly attraction of being the last portrait of Washington taken 
from life." 

George W. P. Custis says in a letter, written four months 
before his death, to Thomas William Channing Moore, of 
New York : '* The finest and purest likeness of the chief is 
the original picture in crayon by Sharpless, done in 1796, and 
with the original by Peale in 1772, of the Provincial Colonel, 
forms the first and last of the originals of Washington most to 
be relied upon in the world. Stuart is the great original of 
Xki^ first president of the U, S, ; Peale, of the colonial officer ; 
Sharpless, of the man." In another letter to the same, a 
month later, he says: **I assured Lord Napier, who made 
me an especial visit to inspect the treasures, that the Sharp- 
less {original from life) was the best likeness of the man 
extant. Trumbull for the figure, Stuart for the head, and 
Sharpless for the expression, and you have all you can have 
of the portraiture of Washington." 



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Martha Washington (from a pastel by James Sharpless). 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, 
LONG ISLAND. 



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BowNE House, 

Flushing, L. I. 



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• ••• .•• 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, 
LONG ISLAND. 



Although a number of the principal settlements in the 
American plantations were established by religious enthusiasts 
whose avowed purpose in braving the 
many dangers and hardships of a new 
world was ** freedom to worship God," 
yet, after they had secured, at a great 
cost, that privilege, they were mostly 
unwilling to permit others to enjoy it, 
except in strict accord with their own 
prescribed rules. 

The Catholics in Maryland, indeed, 
were the first to hold out a semblance 
to religious tolerance. The Puritans of 
New England, if they can properly be 
so called, formed themselves into a 
religious community, and even went so 
far, it is claimed, as to defy the pro- 
visions of their charter by persecuting 
the Quakers and even hanging some 
of them. It is true that these Puritans 
were only carrying out, but with much 

greater rigor, the laws enacted by Parliament in England 
for the purpose of suppressing those harmless but fre- 
quently irritating people, and it may therefore be argued 
with some truth that they did not in any way violate that 




OLD CLOCK IN DININC- 
ROOM, BOWNE HOUSE. 



y:j 



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94 THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, 



clause of their charter which provided "all liberties and 
immunities of the free and natural subjects of the realm to 
air Englishmen which shall go to and inhabit Massachu- 
setts/' or "which shall happen to be born there, or on the 
seas in going thither or returning from thence/' Such a 
guarantee did not include those who transgressed the laws, 
and this the Quakers certainly did. Religious freedom had 
not yet come to England when the Society of Friends com- 
menced to spread its belief broadcast among the people; 
but even in England the treatment accorded to the Quakers 
during the most trying period of their persecution never 
reached the stern punishment that the Pilgrim Fathers 
meted out. 

The crime, if we may use that expression, for which the 
Quaker suffered in England was far more serious than 
any transgression of his upon New-England ground. The 
more severe penalties inflicted in England were for refusals, 
in times of great political danger, to take the oath of 
allegiance and supremacy, and for refusal to pay the tithes 
due to the church of the parish in which they resided. In 
one or two cases, indeed, for the former offence the defend- 
ants were condemned as traitors and ordered to be exe- 
cuted as such according to the act of Parliament, but these 
sentences were never carried into effect, the officials at the 
time realizing that the refusal was on account of conscience 
sake, and not because of disaffection to the government. 

But no such reasons or excuses existed in the Plymouth 
Colony for the brutal treatment which Friends received there. 
Their worst offence was unlawful gatherings, " conventicles," 
or disturbing the public peace, and none of these, though 
treated, as we have observed, by special acts of Parliament, 
might be punished by death or extreme rigor by such acts 
or under the common law of England. 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND. 95 

The Puritans, however, made their own laws so far as the 
Quakers were concerned, and they attempted to carry these 
with them from Massachusetts to Long Island. 

It cannot be for a moment doubted that the Quakers were, 
in their principles of religious freedom, on a much higher 
plane, both morally and in equity, than the Puritans. They 
were, indeed, a better-hearted, harder-thinking, and, therefore, 
broader-minded class of men. They were perfecdy aware 
that their acts were frequently such as to make them felons 
in the strict sense of the written law, yet their strong instincts 
of right and justice were such that they dared to render a 
passive resistance so powerful that these laws were finally 
repealed. 

During almost the entire period of persecution for religion 
in England and in Europe, Holland had been the general 
asylum for the oppressed. Hither fled the Puritan, the 
Huguenot, the Covenanter, the Quaker, and the Catholic, 
and in Amsterdam and other places they were all kindly 
received, and, although not always liked, were often assisted. 
The Dutch inhabitants of the New Netherlands, however, 
being either tinged with the bigotry of their New England 
neighbors or else moved by commercial interests, became 
almost equally bitter against the Society of Friends. 

In the year 1649 a certain Thomas Bowne arrived in 
Massachusetts, and shortly afterward settled in Flushing, 
Long Island, then under the Dutch government. He was 
born at Matlock in Derbyshire, England, in the Fifth month, 
1595, and was baptized the 25th of that month. His family 
consisted of himself, a daughter, and his son John, who was 
born at Madock 9th of Third month. 1627, and baptized 
there the 29th of the same. 

John Bowne returned to England in 1650, and again 
arrived in America in 165 1, landing at Boston, Fifth month 



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96 THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING. LONG ISLAND. 



25th. "On the Sixth month 15th following he visited Flush- 
ing in company with Edward Farrington, who is supposed 
to have married his sister Dorothy.** Soon after this the 
entire family settled in Flushing, and in 1661 he built the 
Bowne house, *' which was used as a meeting-place for 




i;0\VNE HOUSE, FLUSHIN(;, L. I., SIDE VIEW. 

Friends for nearly forty years." On the 7th of Fifth month, 
1656, John Bowne married Hannah Feake, a woman de- 
scended maternally from, and nearly allied to, the powerful 
Winthrop family of New England. 

In the year of her marriage Hannah Bowne became 
acquainted with some of the Flushing Friends, who at that 
time were in the practice of holding meetings for worship in 
the woods. She soon after became a member of the Society. 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING. LONG ISLAND. 97 



** Her husband from curiosity attended a meeting, and was 
deeply impressed with the beauty and simpHcity of their wor- 
ship. He invited them to meet at his house, and soon after 
he joined in membership with them."* 

Flushing, as we have suggested, was then largely, if not 
altogether, setded by English people from Massachusetts, but 




DINING-ROOM, BOWNE HOUSE, SHOWING OLD FIREPLACE AND FURNITURE. 

under the government of the Dutch. Quaker meetings right 
in the centre of their town in the beautiful new house of John 
Bowne were more than they could stand, so it was not 
long before complaints were entered against Bowne, as 
appears from the following record yet preserved at Albany : 
"Complaints made 24th August, 1662, by the magistrates 
of Flushing that many of the inhabitants are followers of 
the Quakers, who hold their meetings at the house of John 
Bowne.** 

38 



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98 THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, 



It seems that the influence of the English settlers on 
Long Island had resulted this year (1662) in the creation 
of an ordinance by the West India Company, providing that, 
" besides the Reformed religion, no conventicles should be 
holden in the houses, barns, ships, woods, or fields, under 
the penalty of fifty guilders for the first offence, double for 
the second, and arbitrary correction for. every other.'* 

The excuse given for this act was the trouble the Quakers 
had given their fellow-colonists, and their failure to conform 
precisely to the instructions long before issued by the directors 
of the West India Company that the official oath required 
•* the maintenance of the Reformed religion in conformity 
with the decrees of the Synod of Dordrecht, and not to 
tolerate in public any other sect;'* nevertheless, persecution 
of persons quietly professing other beliefs had been frowned 
upon by the company. 

The new ordinance gave the magistrates greater authority 
in this respect. It was the opportunity which the enemies 
of the Quakers had patiently waited for. Under this new 
law a great number of well-meaning people, many of them 
women, suffered most severely, not only by the direct and 
arbitrary action of the governor, but also under direction 
of the local court at Gravesend. 

On the 1st day of the Ninth month of the same year John 
Bowne was arrested and charged with "harboring Quakers 
and permitting them to hold their meetings at his house.** 
He was carried from his home to the prison at Fort Amster- 
dam to await his trial. 

Leaving John Bowne in his dreary cell at the governor's 
military prison, awaiting the scant justice to be meted out, we 
may well pause to describe the home and family from which 
he was so rudely torn. 

Bowne, as we know, was a prosperous merchant, and his 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING. LONG ISLAND. 99 




residence was of the size and convenience that befitted one 
of his respectability and standing in those times. 

So far as can be ascertained, this house is about the oldest 
dwelling in the neighborhood. In point of architecture and 
proportion it is vastly superior to 
a number of residences erected at 
much later dates by the best class 
of settlers throughout the Colonies. 
It remains to-day, inside and out, 
much as it did when John Bowne 
first brought his young wife to make 
it their home. The house stands on 
a principal street in Flushing and 
on a litde space of open ground, 
the end of the large "town lot" 
which formerly belonged to it. It 
is of wood, square, or rather oblong, 
in ground-plan, and two stories high. 
The roof is high-pitched and shingled, broken by ancient 
dormer windows, and gabled. At the principal entrance is 
a quaint old porch, with Early Colonial door and windows. 
The interior is well arranged for comfort, the rooms large 
and old-fashioned, and a charm of past memories is insepara- 
bly associated with the place. A feature of the building is the 
immense fire-place in the kitchen, seeming large enough to 
cook the food for him 

"That every day, under his household roof. 
Did keep ten thousand men.'* 

Very antique furniture, doubtless the same that stood here 
on the morning of its owner s departure to prison, yet abounds 
in the old mansion. Tradition states that this furniture was, 
after the fashion, or rather custom, of those primitive days, 



OLD CHAIR IN DINING-ROOM, 
BOWNE HOUSE. 



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lOO THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING. LONG ISLAND. 



made within the house, for then cabinet-makers, as well as 
tailors, tinkers, and cordvvainers, travelled from place to 
place, doiny what was needful, and living with the family 
during thcMr stay. 

Let us glance for a moment at the household. There 
is Mrs. Bovvne, John's first wife, yet in the bloom of youth, 
a sweet Quakeress who was the immediate cause of all the 




CHAMBKR, FIRST FLOOR, BOWNE HOUSE. 

trouble to follow. There are also the young Bownes, just 
beginning to be old enough to wonder at the strange doings 
and frightened faces of the men and women who every " First 
Day*' gather at their home. Old Thomas Bowne, we are 
told, has long before been gathered to his fathers. 

Hannah Bowne, they say, was fair to look upon in 
face and figure. From her Saxon forefathers she inherited 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND. loi 

her fair hair, bright color, and white teeth, but her bright 
brown eyes, sprightly manner, and elastic tread were a herit- 
age from the wild princes of Cornwall claimed as the ances- 
tors of her mother's ancient race. She was the daughter of 




JOHN WINTHROP. 



Robert Feake, of Watertown, Mass. Her mother, Elizabeth 
Fones, the widow of Henry Winthrop, son of Governor John 
Winthrop, was the daughter of Thomas F'ones, an apothe- 
cary of London, by his first wife, daughter of Adam Win- 



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I02 THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND. 



throp of Groton. Henry Winthrop had therefore married 
his cousin. 

The Fones family is, or was, a very respectable one in Corn- 
wall. An old pedigree commences with one William Fones, 
Esquire, who married the daughter of Sir Robert Hyelston, 
knight, and was father of George Fones of Saxbie, from 
whom, in direct descent, the line is continued to a certain 
Fones of Saxbie, who was grandfather to the London apoth- 
ecary, who was grandfather to Hannah, the wife of John 
Bowne. Hannah Bowne was thus descended from many of 
the best families in England, including the Winthrops, and 
closely allied by blood to the Winthrops of Massachusetts. 

John Bowne was a well-educated man of considerable 
property and an increasing trade. He came from honest 
Derbyshire stock, and, like his kinsmen, was something of a 
sailor. We left him on his way from home to the governor s 
jail. Here he remained about two weeks. On the 14th day 
of the same month as that upon which he had been arrested 
the ** court held by the Lords, Director General, and Council 
at Fort Amsterdam in the Netherlands '' entered the follow- 
ing judgment: "Because John Bowne, at present prisoner, 
dwelling at Flushing upon Long Island, has made no scruple 
in vilipendation of the orders and mandates of the Director 
General and Council of the New Netherlands, we do, in 
justice to the high and mighty states of the United Provinces 
and the administrators of the West India Company of the 
Chamber of Amsterdam, havinor heard the demand of the 
substitutes and the acknowledgement of the prisoner, have 
condemned and do condemn the said John Bowne by these 
presents, boete 5 and 20 pounds Flemish, with the charges of 
the Justician, and with express admonition and interdict to 
abstain from all such fore-mentioned meetings and conven- 
ticles, or else for the second boete he be condemned in a 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND. 103 








double boete, and for die diird boete to be banished out of 
this province of New Netherlands." 

John Bowne refused to pay the fine, ''and was then con- 
fined in a dungeon and restricted to bread and water, no 
person whatever be- 
ing allowed to speak 
with him. As this 
did not change his 
steadfastness of pur- 
pose, he was some 
time afterward taken 
to the Staddiaus and 
put in the prison- 
room there, and was 
allowed to see his 
wife and other 
friends. He was 
then notified that 
the Court had re- 
solved that he must 
pay the fine that had 
been imposed or be 
sent out of the 
country, or he would 
be set free if he 
would promise to 
leave the country in six months. He still remained firm in 
his purpose not to compromise his principles in any way. On 
Tenth month 21st he was permitted to visit his friends under 
a promise to return in three days, and on the 31st of that 
month he was put on board ship and sent a prisoner to Hol- 
land. He arrived at Amsterdam on the 29th of Second 
month, 1663. **The statement forwarded by the authorities 




THE WINTHROP ARMS. 



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I04 THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, 



of New Netherlands to the West India Company read as 
follows : 

'* Honourable, Right Respectable Gentlemen : We omitted 
in our general letter the trouble and difficulties which we and 
many of our good inhabitants have since sometimes met with, 
and daily are renewed, by the sect called Quakers, chiefly in 
the county and principally in the English villages, establishing 
forbidden conventicles and frequenting those, against our 
published placards, and disturbing in a manner the public 
peace, in so far that several of our magistrates and well- 
affectioned subjects remonstrated and complained to us from 
time to time of their insufferable obstinacy, unwilling to obey 
our orders or judgment. Among others has one of their 
principal leaders named John Bowne, who for his transgres- 
sions was, in conformity to the placards, condemned to an 
amends of 1 50 Guilders in suevant, who has been now under 
arrest more than three months for his unwillingness to pay, 
obstinately persisting in his refusal, in which he still continues, 
so that we at last resolved, or were rather compelled, to 
transport him in this ship from this province in the hope that 
others by it be discouraged. If nevertheless by these means 
no more salutary impression is made upon others, we shall, 
though against our inclinations, be compelled to prosecute 
such persons in a more severe manner, and which we 
previously solicit to be favored with your Honours* wise 
and foreseeing judgment. With which after our cordial 
salutations we recommend your Honours to God*s protection, 
and remain, Honourable and Right Respectable Gentlemen, 
your Honours' faithful servants.'* 

The officials of the West India Company carefully consid- 
ered the case and drew up a paper for John Bowne to sign. 
In reply he sent to the company the following dignified state- 
ment: •* Friends, the paper drawn up for me to subscribe I 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND. 105 

have perused and weighed, and do find the same not accord- 
ing to that engagement to me through one of your members 
— viz. : that he or you would do therein by me as you would 
be done unto, and not otherwise. For which of you, being 
taken from your wife and family without just cause, would be 
bound from returning to them unless upon terms to act con- 
trary to your conscience, and deny your faith and religion, 
yet this in effect do you require of me and not less. 

** But truly, I cannot think that you did in sober earnest 
ever think I would subscribe to any such thing, it being the 
very thing for which I rather chose freely to suffer want of 
the company of my dear wife and children, imprisonment of 
my person, the ruin of my estate in my absence there, and 
the loss of my goods here, than to yield or consent to such 
an unreasonable thing as you thereby would enjoin me unto. 

** For which I am persuaded you will not only be judged 
in the sight of God, but by good and godly men, rather to 
have mocked at the oppressions of the oppressed and added 
afflictions to the afflicted than herein to have done to me as 
you in the like case would be done unto, which the royal 
cause of our God requires. I have with patience and mode- 
ration waited several weeks expecting justice from you, but 
behold an addition to my oppression in the measure I receive. 

** Wherefore I have this now to request for you, that the 
Lord will not lay this to your charge, but to give eyes to see 
and hearts to do justice, that you may find mercy with the 
Lord in the day of judgment. 

**JoHN BoWNE.'' 

"In the Fourth month John Bowne was released. He 
returned to America by the way of England and the island 
of Barbadoes, but did not reach Flushing until First month 
30, 1663. 



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lo6 THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, 



The authorities in Amsterdam sent to the officials in New 
Netherlands the following decision, dated Amsterdam, April 
1 6, 1663: **We, finally, did see from your last letter, that 
you had exiled and transported hither a certain Quaker 
named John Bowne, and, although it is our cordial desire that 
similar and other sectarians might not be found there, yet, as 
the contrary seems to be the case, we doubt very much if 
rigorous proceedings against them ought not to be discontin- 
ued, except you intend to check and destroy your population, 
which however, in the youth of your existence, ought rather 
to be encouraged by all possible means. 

"Wherefore it is our opinion that some connivance would 
be useful that the consciences of men, at least, ought ever to 
remain free and unshackled. Let every one be unmolested 
as long as he is modest, as long as his conduct in a political 
sense is unimpeachable, as long as he does not disturb others 
or oppose the government. This maxim of moderation has 
always been the guide of the magistrates of this city, and the 
consequence has been that from every land people have 
flocked to this asylum. Tread thus in their steps, and we 
doubt not you will be blessed. 

** (Signed) The Directors of the West India Company, 
Amsterdam Department. 

** Abraham Wilmandonk, 
** David von Baerle.'' 

This document has peculiar historic interest because of the 
fact that it was the first official proclamation of religious 
liberty for any part of America except Maryland. With 
this decree the persecution of Friends on Long Island 
ceased. 

While in Holland, John Bowne wrote letters to his wife 
and numbers of Friends, which are still preserved. They 



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THE BOIVNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND. 107 



are remarkable for the illustrations they give of unflinching 
steadfastness of purpose, for the beautiful and lofty ideas 
expressed in them, and for their elegant and sometimes 




ADAM VVINTHROP. 



scholarly diction. In one of these he said : ** Dear George 
Fox and many more Friends desire their dear love and 
tender salutations remembered to all Friends/' From this 



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lo8 THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND. 



we may infer that he was visited at Amsterdam by George 
Fox, the famous Quaker, and others of that Society. 

Hannah Bowne, wife of John Bowne, became a minister 
among Friends, and made two religious visits to England 
and Ireland, and one to Holland. The letters of her husband 
sent to her there are admirable in their expressions of tender 
affection and of interest in her religious work. In one of 
these he quaintly remarks : ** Dear heart, to particularize all 
that desire to be remembered to thee would be exceedingly 
large, but this I may say for all Friends in general, relations 
and neighbors, and people, the like largeness of love for one 
particular person I have seldom found amongst them, as it 
is for thee.'* John Bowne joined his wife in England in 1676, 
and accompanied her in her religious service until the Twelfth 
month, 1677, when she died in London. His testimony 
concerning her, given at her funeral at the Peel meeting, 
was remarkable for its tenderness and beauty. 

The estimation in which John Bowne was held by Friends 
is shown by the following curious certificate recorded upon 
the minutes of the Flushing Monthly Meeting: 

"In the Men's and Women's meeting on Long Island 
in America : 

** These are to certify to all whom it may concern, that 
our dear and well-beloved Friend John Bowne of Flushing 
(his occasion at this time requiring his being in Ould England 
by the first conveyance) is for his life and conversation un- 
blamable and of good report, and is likewise in true love 
and unity with all Friends in the truth here, as by large 
experience we have all found and witnessed." It is signed 
by many Friends. 

The records of the same meeting nineteen years later 
contain the following minute : ** John Bowne died at Flushing, 
20th day of Tenth month, 1695, and was buried the 23d of 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND. 109 

the same, being about sixty-eight years of age. He did 
freely expose himself, his house, and estate to the service 
of truth, and had a constant meeting at his house near about 
forty years. He was thrice married. His second wife was 




OLD BED AND CHAIRS, BOWNE HOUSE. 

Hannah Bickerstaff, and his third was Mary Cock. He also 
suffered much for the truth's sake.'* 

The meeting-house now standing in Flushing was erected 
in 1696. The circumstance of its erection is explained by 
a petition of Samuel Haight of Flushing, bearing date June 
17, 1697, preserved with the State archives at Albany, in 
which he says that his stepfather-in-law, Wm. Noble, is lately 
deceased, and having no issue of his own body, left his estate 
to his widow during her life, and at her death to the people 
called Quakers, the land then being in the possession of die 



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no THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, 



widow and the petitioner. In consideration of the request 
of the deceased, the petitioner had erected a meeting-house 
for the Quakers in that town at his own charge, and prays 
that certain tracts of land may be confirmed to him at the 
death of the widow. On the same date a patent was issued 
in accordance with the petition.*' 

Very near the home of John Bowne, in Bowne Avenue, 
stood the historic Fox Oak. This tree has ever been held 
in veneration by members of the Society of Friends because 
it once sheltered the famous George Fox when, on a visit to 
his dear friend John Bowne, he preached to the multitude 
under the friendly shade of this giant of the forest. 

Fox arrived in America in 1672, and, after passing through 
Maryland and West and East Jersey, arrived at Gravesend, 
Long Island. The Fox Oak at the time of its fall was pre- 
sumed to be about four hundred years old. Its circumference 
two feet above the ground was sixteen feet. 

There is a letter extant from John Bowne to his wife, 
written at the time he was on trial at Amsterdam. It reads 
as follows : 

Most dear and tender wife : 

In the truth of our God I dearly salute thee, and unto 
thee doth my love and life flow forth exceedingly. But my 
dearest desire for thee is, that thou mayest be preserved 
faithful to the Lord, and may grow and prosper in his living 
truth. So, my dear heart, be bold for the Lord, and let noth- 
ing discourage thee, for he is a sure reward to all those who 
truly and sincerely give up all, for his truth's sake, the truth 
of which I believe thou canst truly witness with me ; and this 
I can in verity say, that in all my trials, I find the Lord to be 
my sure helper, my rock, and my Defence. He hath brought 
me to be content with what He is pleased to direct me in, etc. 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, ill 

I manifested my case to the West India Company, by send- 
ing in a writing which they read, and accordingly appointed 
a committee upon it ; but it being feasting-time, and they who 
are great not regarding those who are little, we were delayed 
a hearing for fourteen days ; but when we came before them 
they were not disposed to take offence at our manners or the 
like, neither one word against me in any particular, nor one 
word tending the approval of anything that was done against 
me, but freely and with joint consent promised without any 
scruple, that the next day, at the tenth hour, my goods should 
be delivered to me ; and the next day when we came there, 
orders were given to the keeper of the guard-house to that 
purpose, but he, with others of the underling officers, con- 
sulted together, and asked me if I had paid my passage- 
money, and the company (though ordered by the governor), 
not willing to pay money on such an account, they do not 
only detain my goods, but also deny me a passage home, 
except upon such gross and unreasonable conditions (which 
I would rather lay down my life than yield unto), which may 
appear in those writings which I think to send, and if I do, 
would not have them published until I come. Neither the 
papers nor any copies to pass from thy hands, thereabouts, 
etc., etc. 

So, my dear Lamb, my having been up all this night to 
write, and having no more time, I must and do conclude in 
tender love to thee and my dear children, in which Love the 
Lord God of my life preserve and keep you all. Amen. 

Thy dear Husband, 

John Bowne. 

Amsterdam, this 9th of 6th Month, 
called June, 1663. 

P. S. Dear George Fox and many more friends desire 
their dear love and tender salutations to all Friends. 



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112 THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND. 

The children of John Bovvne were : John, born 1657, died 
1673; Elizabeth, born 1658, married Samuel Titus, and died 
1691 ; Abigail, born 1662, married Richard Willets ; Hannah, 
born 1665, ^"d married Benjamin Field; Samuel, born 1667, 
married, first, Mary Becket in 1691, secondly Hannah Smith 
in 1709, and thirdly Grace Cowperthwaite in 1735: he died 




CHEST OF DRAWERS, BOWNE HOUSE. 



1 745, having been an eminent minister among Friends. The 
other children of John Bowne were: Dorothy, born 1669, 
married Henry Franklin ; Martha, born 1673, married Joseph 
Thorne ; Sarah, John, and Thomas, the three last of whom 
died young ; John the Second, born in 1686, married Elizabeth, 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, 113 



daughter of the first Joseph Lawrence, in 17 14; Ruth, who 
died young ; and Amy, who married Richard Hallett in 1 707. 
Samuel Bowne, as we observed, was a Quaker preacher and 
married his first wife, Mary Becket, at the Falls of the Dela- 
ware in Pennsylvania. The young woman whom he made 
his wife was brought up in the family of Phineas Pember- 
ton of Bucks county, an eminent Friend. 

There is preserved the copy of a love-letter which Samuel 
Bowne wrote to his intended wife, and, although not quite 
in the style of modern communications of a similar nature, 
readily illustrates the trend of courtship, at least among 
the Quakers, two hundred years ago : 

Flushing, 6th Mo., 1691. 

Dear M. B. : 

My very dear and constant love salutes thee in yt with 

which my love was at first united to thee, even the love of 

God ; blessed truth in which my soul desires, above all things, 

that we may grow and increase, which will produce our 

eternal comfort. Dear love these few loynes may inform 

thee that I am lately returned home where we are all well 

blessed be the lord for it. Much exercise about the concern 

that we have taken in hand and now dear hart my earnest 

desire is yt we may have our eyes to the Lord and seek 

him for counsel that he may direct us in the weighty concern 

and I am satisfied that if it be his will to accomplish it he in 

his own time will make way for the same, so my desire is yt 

all may be recommended to the will of the Lord then may 

we expect the end thereof will redown to his glory and our 

comfort forevermore Dear hart I have not heard sertenly but 

live in great hopes that it hath pleased the Lord health our 

dear friend and elder brother P. P. to whom with his dear 

wife remember my very kind love for I often think upon you 
39 



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114 THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, 



all with true brotherly love as being all children of one father. 
So dear Mary it was not in my hart to write large but to give 
thee these few lines at present. 1 doe expect my father and 
I may come about the latter end of this month. My dear 
I could be very glad to hear from thee but not willing to press 
the trouble upon thee to write so I must take leave and bid 
farewell. My dear farewell. 

Samuel Bowne. 

They were married two months afterward at the Falls 
meeting-house. Their children were : Samuel ; Thomas ; 
Eleanor, born 1695, who married Isaac Hornor, and became 
ancestress to the Hornor family of Burlington County, New 
Jersey, afterward of Philadelphia ; Hannah, who married 
Richard Lawrence ; John ; Mary, who espoused John Keese ; 
and Robert. 

Samuel Bowne had also several children by his second 
marriage. The family continued to reside in the old mansion, 
which is yet owned by descendants. 

We have mentioned the marriage of Hannah, daughter 
of John Bowne, to Benjamin Field. The courtship of this 
young couple is not without romance. It was, apparently, 
carried on in the old Bowne house during the absence of 
Hannah's parents in England. The following letter shows 
how Friends were taught to exercise great care in reference 
to marriage, and how this training outweighed other consid- 
erations: ** And, dear Father and mother, I may also acquaint 
you, that one Benjamin Field, the youngest son of our Friend 
Susanna Field, has tendered his love to me, the question he 
has indeed proposed is concerning marriage, the which as yet 
I have not at present rejected, nor given much way to, nor 
do I intend to proceed, nor let out my affections too much 
toward him until I have well considered the thing, and have 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING, LONG ISLAND, 1 15 

your and friends advice and consent concerning it/' It goes 
without saying, however, that they were married after all in 
the meeting-house at Flushing. 

Although persecution of Quakers did not cease with 
Bowne's return from Holland, yet the bold stand he made 
in behalf of religious liberty against the existing laws had 
its weight toward the ultimate attainment of that object, and 
the old Bowne mansion stands to-day not only as the oldest 
house on Long Island or the earliest meeting-place of Friends, 
but also as the monument of the batrie-ground whereon was 
waged in New York the earliest fight, by the weapon of pas- 
sive resistance, against oppression and injustice. If the suf- 
ferings of John Bowne did not immediately achieve results 
in other places, they at least did, as we have seen, in Flushing ; 
and this town at once became the stronghold of Quakerism 
and the asylum for the persecuted in this part of the New 
World. 

From Flushing the industrious Quaker pushed his settle- 
ments to the mainland, and then North and West into the 
unbroken wilderness, and much of the pioneer work in these 
directions, in the beginning of the eighteenth century, may be 
traced to the settlement of old John Bowne at Flushing, 
where in erecting the old house that has weathered the storms 
of so many winters he ** builded better than he knew." 



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DESCENT OF THE BOWNE FAMILY FROM THE 
FEAKES, THE WINTHROPS, AND THE FONES. 



WILLIAM FONES, Esq., of Saxbie,= 
Devonshire. 

GEORGE FONES, Esq., 
of Saxbie. 



I 
WILLIAM FONES of 
Saxbie. 

JOHN FONES of = 
Saxbie. 

I 
JOHN FONES of 
Saxbie. 



JOHN FONES of Dedford, in the parish of 
Bransgrove, Wighorn, second son. 



THOMAS FONES, second son and heir to 
his father, of Dedford, Worcester. 



— , dau. of Sir Robert Hyelston, 
knight. 

, dau. of Mal- 

banck of Malpas. 

, dau. of Tel- 
ham of Telham. 

, dau. of 

Bradley of Bedham. 

, dau. of 

Lawellof Lawell. 



I (ist wife) 

THOMAS FONES, apothecary in London - ANNE, dau. of Adam Winthrop of Groton. 



at the sign of the Three Fawns, Old Bay- 
ley; d. 15 April, 1629; will proved 1629. 



ELIZABETH FONES, eldest dau. ; came to 
New England 163 1, after death of her first 
husband ; living in 1652. She m., 1st, Henry 
Winthrop, second son of Gov. Winthrop, 
who d. 2 July, 1630; m., 3dly, William 
Hallett. 



Co. Suffolk, and sister of Gov. John Win- 
throp of Massachusetts; b. 16 Jan., 1585; 
m. 25 Feb., 1604; d. 16 May, 1619; bur. 
Church of St. Sepulchre, London, Eng. 

(2d husband) ROBERT FEAKE of 
Watertown, Mass. 



HANNAH FEAKE. = JOHN BOWNE of Flushing, L. L, son of 

I Thomas Bowne of Matlock, Derbyshire, 
England, b. 1627; d. 1695. 
THE BOWNE FAMILY 
of Flushing, Long Island, N. Y. 



116 



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THE BOWNE HOUSE AT FLUSHING. LONG ISLAND, 117 



WINTHROP LINE.* 

ADAM WINTHROP of I^venham, Co. = JOANE, dau. of Burton. 

Suffolk, 1498. _ I 

ADAM WINTHROP, citizen and cloth- - AGNES, dau. of Robert Sharpc of Islington, 



worker, of London and of Groton, Suffolk, 
b. at Lavenham, 9 Oct., 1498 ; d. 9 Nov., 

1562. 



Co. Midd., gent. 



ADAM WINTHROP, third son, b. 10 Aug., =ANNE, dau. and co-heir of Henry Browne 



1548, of E^wardstone and afterward of 
Groton, Eng., lawyer and magistrate ; 
tomb in Groton Churchyard; d. 28 March, 
1623. 



of Edwardstone, Suffolk; m. 20 Feb., 
»579; <i- 19 April, 1629. 



ANNE WINTHROP, b. 16 Jan., 1585; m., 25 Feb., 1604, 
Thomas Fones of London; d. 16 May, 1 619. (See supra.) 



* The Editor is indebted to Robert C. Winthrop's book, Evidences of the Winthrops of 
Grototi^ 1S941 for some of the data in this and the Fones line. 



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SOME OF THE DESCENDANTS OF THOMAS BOWNE 
OF FLUSHING, L. I. 

I. Thomas Bowne, baptized May 25, 1595, at Matlock, Derbyshire, England ; died 

September 18, 1677. 

II. Children of Thomas Bo^vne : 

1. John, b. March 9, 1626-27. 

2. Dorothy, b. Aug. 14, 1631, who removed to Boston, New England, 1649. 

3. Truth, remained in England. 

II. (i) John Bowne, son of Thomas, bom March 9, 1626-27 ; married, first, August 7, 

1656, Hannah, daughter of Lieut. Robert Feake. She died February 2, 1677-78, at 
the residence of John Edson of London, England. He married, secondly, February 
2, 1679-80, Hannah Bickerstaff, who died June 7, 1690. He married, thirdly, June 
26, 1693, Mary, daughter of James and Sarah Cock of Matlinecott, L. I. John Bowne 
died December 20, 1695. 

III. Children of John Bowne and Hannah^ his first wife : 

4. John, b. March 13, 1656-57 ; d. Aug. 30, 1673. 

5. Elizabeth, b. Oct. 8, 1658 ; m. Samuel Titus ; d. Feb. 14, 1721-22. 

6. Mary, b. Jan. 6, 1660-61. 

7. Abigail, b. Feb. 5, 1662-63 ; m., March 25, 1686, Richard Willets of 

Jericoe, on Long Island ; d. May 14, 1703. 

8. Hannah, b. April 10, 1665 ; m. Benjamin, son of Anthony Field, yeoman, 

of Long Island ; d. Dec. 30, 1707. 

9. Samuel, b. Sept. 21, 1667. 

10. Dorothy, b. March 29, 1669 ; m., May 27, 1689, Henry Franklyn of Flush- 

ing, son of Matthew, and d. Nov. 26, 1690. 

11. Martha Johannah, b. Aug. 17, 1673; m., Nov. 9, 1695, Joseph, son of 

John Thome, who d. in May, 1727. His wife d. Aug. 1 1, 1750. 

III. Children of John Bo7vne and Hannah, his second wife: 

12. Sarah, b. Dec. 14, 1680; d. May 18, 1681. 

13. Sarah, b. Feb. 17, 1681-2. 

14. John, b. Sept. 10, 1683 ; d. Oct. 25, 1683. 

15. Thomas, b. Nov. 26, 1684 ; d. Dec. 17, 1684. 

16. John, b. Sept. 9, 1686; m., July 21, 1714, Elizabeth, dau. of Joseph and 

Mary (Townley) Lawrence. 

17. Abigail, b. July 5, 1688 ; d. July 13, 1688. 
118 



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DESCENDANTS OF THOMAS BOWNE, 119 



III. Chiidnn of John Boivne and Mary Cock, his third wife :- 

18. Amy, b. April I, 1690^. 

19. Ruth, b. Jan. 30, 1695-96. 

III. (9) Samuel Bowne, second son of John and Hannah (Feake), born September 21, 
1667 ; he was a minister of the Society of Friends. He married, first, 4 October, 
169 1, at Philadelphia Meeting, Mary, daughter of Captain Becket She died August 
21, 1707. He married, secondly, December 8, 1709, Hannah Smith of Flushing, who 
died October 1 1, 1733. He married, thirdly, November 14, 1735, Mrs. Grace Cow- 
perwaite, widow, who died November 22, 1760. He died May 30, 1745. 

IV. Children of Samuel Bawne and Mary, his first wife : 

20. Samuel, b. Jan. 29, 1692-93. 

21. Thomas, b. April 7, 1694. 

22. Eleanor, b. April 20, 1695 ; m., Oct. 9, 1718, Isaac Homer of *♦ Mansfield," 

Burlington County, New Jersey. 

23. Hannah, b. March 31, 1697 ; m., April 6, 1717, Richard Lawrence. 

24. John, b. Sept. 11, 1698. 

25. Mary, b. Oct. 21, 1699 ; m., Jan. 14, 1719-20, John Keese. 

26. Roabord, b. Jan. 17, I70C>-I ; m., Nov. 16, 1724, Margaret, dau. of Joseph 

Latham of Cow Neck, Hempstead, L. I., and d. before July 3, 1746, 
when dau. Mary, m. Henry, son of Robert and Rebecca Haydock. 

27. William, b. April I, 1702 ; d. April 15, 1702. 

28. Elizabeth, b. Oct. 1 1, 1704. 

29. Benjamin, b. March 13, 1707 ; d. May 13, 1707. 

IV. Children of Samuel Bowne and Hannahy his second tvife : 

30. Sarah, b. Sept. 30, 1710; m., March 12, 1729, William, son of William 

Burling. 

31. Joseph, b. Feb. 25, 1711-12; m., first, Nov. 13, 1735, Sarah, dau. of 

Obadiah Lawrence, who d. Jan. 5, 1740; and m., secondly, June 13, 
1745, Judith, dau. of Jonathan Morrell. 

32. Anne, b. Oct. 17, 1715. 

33. Benjamin, b. Aug. I, 1717. 

34. Elizabeth, b. Nov. 26, 1720. 

IV. (20) Samuel Bowne, eldest son of Samuel and Mary, bom January 29, 1692-93 ; 
married, September 20, 1716, Sarah Franklin, Jr., and died 1769. 

V. Children of Samuel Bowne and Sarah, his wife : 

35. William, b. March 6, 1719-20. 

36. Samuel, b. May 14, 1 721. 

37. Mary, b. March 3, 1723-24; m. Joseph Farrington. 

38. Amy, b. 1 724 ; m. George Embree. 

39. Sarah, b. 1726 ; m. William Titus. 

40. James, b. 1728. 

V. William Bowne, eldest son of Samuel and Sarah, bom March 6, 1719-20 ; married 

Elizabeth Willett, and died October 18, 1747 ; his wife died the same year. 



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I20 DESCENDANTS OF THOMAS BOWNE. 



VI. Children of William Bawne and Elizabeth ^ his wife : 

41. Willett, b. Aug. 8, 1745; m., first, Deborah ; secondly, Hannah 



VI. (41) Willett Bowne, son of William and Elizabeth, born August 8, 1745 ; married, 
first, Deborah ; married, secondly, Hannah (bom March 26, 1755). 

VII. Children of Willett Bottme and Deborah ^ his first wife: 

42. William, b. March 15, 1771 ; m. Mary . Issue: 

Isaac Willett, b. Aug. 2, 1793. 

VII. Children of Willett Bowne and Hannah^ his second wife: 

43. Philip, b. Aug. 5, 1785. 

44. James, b. Oct. 26, 1787. 

45. Samuel, b. Jan. I, 1789. 

46. John, b. Oct. 17, 1790. 

47. Hannah, b. July 23, 1792. 

48. Benjamin, b. Feb. 9, 1794. 

49. Scott, b. Sept. 30, 1796. 

VII. (36) Samuel Bowne, second son of Samuel and Sarah, bom May 14, 1721 ; married 
Abigail Burling (born February 25, 1723-24). 

VIII. Children of Samuel Bowne and Abigail, his wife : 

50. Edward, b. Sept. 3, 1742 ; d. Sept 22. 

51. James, b. March 20, 1743-44. 

52. Samuel, b. Aug. 4, 1746 ; d. Aug. 21, 1746. 

53. Elizabeth, b. Nov. 19, 1748 ; d. Nov. 22, 1752. 

54. Samuel, b. June 25, 1750 ; d. July 23, 1752. 

55. Matthew, b. July 19, 1752. 

56. Abigail, b. Oct. 21, 1754. 

57. SaMh. b. Jan. 14, 1757 ; d. May 22, 1760. 

58. Mary, b. Aug. 8 ; d. Aug. 24, 1761. 

59. William, b. March 9, 1763. 

60. .Samuel, b. April 5, 1767 ; ra. Hannah and had issue: 

Eliza, b. Jan. 15, 1790, Thomas P., b. Nov. 30, 1792. 

V. (40) James Bowne, youngest son of Samuel and Sarah, bom 1728 ; married, 1767, 

Caroline Rodman. 

VI. Children of James Bowne and Caroline , his wife: 

61. Catherine, m. John Murray. 

62. Walter, b. Sept 26, 1770. 

63. Elizabeth, b. March 10, 1772. 

64. John R., b. May 27, 1774 ; m. Grace Sands. 

65. Caroline, b. March 25, 1779. 

VI. (62) Walter Bowne, eldest son of James and Caroline, bom September 26, 1770. 
Mayor of New York City, 1828-33 ; married May I, 1803, Eliza, daughter of Dr. 
Robert and Mary (King) Southgate. 



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DESCENDANTS OF THOMAS BOWNE, I2i 



VII. Children of Walter Bmvne and Eliza ^ his wife : 

66. Eliza, m. Spencer Smith. 

67. Walter, d. young. 

68. Simon, m. Emma Smith. 

69. Helen, m. Sylvanus Riker. 

70. Frederic, m. Mrs. Huntington. 

71. Robert, m. Jessie Draper. 

72. Mary, m. James Murray. 

73. Caroline. 

IV. (21) Thomas Bowne, second son of Samuel and Mary, bom April 2, 1694, lived at 
Oyster Bay, L. I. ; married, March 7, 1715-16, Hannah, daughter of John Underbill of 
Mattinecock. 

V. Children of Thomas Bowne and Hannah, his wife : 

74. Mary, b. July 4, 1717. 

75. Thomas, b. May 12, 1719. 

76. Daniel, b. Feb. 6, 1722-23 ; m., Dec. 1 1, 1746, Sarah, dau. of Samuel and 

Hannah Stringham. Issue : 
Thomas, b. March 27, 1748 ; d. Sept. 12, 1 75 1. 
Ann, b. July 31, 1751. 
Mary, b. Jan. 5, 1754. 
Sarah, b. Feb. 19, 1763. 

77. Jacob, b. Oct. 6, 1724. 

IV. (24) John Bowne, third son of Samuel and Mary, bom September 11, 1698; m., 
1738, Dinah Underbill ; died 1757. 

V. Children of John Bowne and Dinah , his wife : 

78. Thomas, b. May il, 1739. 

79. Mary, b. April 14, 1741. 

80. John, b. Jan. 31, 1742-43; m. Anne . Issue: 

Mary, b. Jan. 7, 1784. 
Anne, b. Sept. 5, 1785. 
Elizabeth, b. Sept. 30, 1787. 
Catherine, b. Sept. 20, 1789. 

81. Robert, b. Jan. 31, 1744-5 ; m. Elizabeth . Issue: 

Mary, b. Sept 7. 1774. 
Robert H., b. Oct. 27, 1776. 
John L., b. Feb. 1 1, 1781. 
Sarah, b. Sept. 7, 1 781. 
Hannah, b. Aug. 14, 1784 
Elizabeth, b. Oct. 4, 1789. 
Jane P., b. Jan. 31, 1792. 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 



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Sarah Coates Burge, 

{Mrs. William Rau'h.) 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE 
FAMILY. 



There were few places in the American Plantations, in 
Colonial times, where the inhabitants were less given to 
ostentatious living than in Philadelphia. This condition was 
largely the natural result of Quaker training and Quaker 
example, but partly the effect 
of other influences. In many 
respects the settlers of Penn- 
sylvania were unlike those of 
other Colonies. Amongst the 
English were many men from 
families that had long been en- 
gaged in trade in England, or 
had for centuries been honest, 
God-fearing yeomen — the kind 
of men who meddled not at all 
with politics, and who did not 
much concern themselves what king was on the throne, so 
long as trade was brisk, or crops were good, and who spent 
just enough to live comfortably, whether their income was 
one hundred or three hundred pounds per annum. 

Such men, even when they acquired fortunes, did not see 
the necessity of investing them in houses larger than were 
absolutely necessary for their needs ; and this frugality was 
in accord with the simplicity of living which their religious 

125 




THE RAWLE ARMS. 



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126 



LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 



belief, according to the teachings of George Fox, imposed 
upon them. 

This peculiarity of disposition in the ruling body of peo- 
ple soon attracted or overshadowed the more worldly desires 
of ostentatious persons not of the Quaker faith, or who, if 
belonging to it, were descended from families accustomed to 
liberal expenditure and showy surroundings, so that as time 










— °T7n^ 

^p A hf K. "^ o f? D -Ho a o 

< V ( \ \ 

»^ OR THE ^N-Li ee «T I e^ 







went on they too were satisfied to live in modest homes of 
no very large proportions. 

The first houses of important persons in Philadelphia strike 
us as being small indeed. The country-houses were some- 
what larger, but even they, with the exception of those 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 127 



erected by the Welsh in Merion, Radnor, and Haverford, 
appear too cramped for the large families that occupied them. 
They were of all kinds of architecture, according to the 
traditions or fancies of their owners or builders. Some were 
of brick, others of stone, a few roofed with slate, but a larger 
number shingled. Many of the first houses were of logs, 
especially in the country, and in some localities it was a long 
time before they were replaced by stone, even when the 
owners had acquired ample means. 

There are still standing in Philadelphia two striking 
specimens of its very early brick dwelling-houses. One of 
them, erected for William Penn in Letitia Street, but recently 
removed to West Fairmount Park, was known at first as 
"Penn's Cottage,** and subsequently as **The Letitia House.*' 
After Penn*s occupancy of it, and that of Markham, his 
Lieutenant-Governor, it was for a time used as the State 
House of the Colony, and the offices of the Government. 
The other one, which is somewhat larger, was the country 
home of Francis Rawle of Philadelphia, known as *' Sweed- 
land,** on the Frankford Road, in that portion of the city 
formerly the ** Northern Liberties.** A picture of the last- 
mentioned house as it now appears is given on the opposite 
page. Over the front door is a tablet of tiles, with lettering 
as follows : 

R T 

R 

F M 

R R 

1703 
[Robert Turner ; Rawle, Francis, Martha ; Robert Rawle ; 1 703.] 

Another peculiarity of early Colonial Philadelphia is the 
lack of portraits of the first settlers. With a very few excep- 
tions there are no portraits extant of Philadelphians prior to 



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128 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 



1750, for even the rich merchants were so imbued with 
Quaker notions that they considered portraits a vanity not 
to be tolerated. In their plain, unostentatious, but com- 
fortable homes, however, the Friends enjoyed life to its 
full measure. Good things to eat and drink there were in 
plenty, and hospitality to correspond. 

There had always been in Philadelphia a class of people 
who, whilst they were ** convinced of the Truth *' as preached 
by Fox and Penn, had continued to cling more or less firmly 
to old habits. These sprang from a different stock from 
the majority of the followers of the Founder. They were 
mostly to be found in important official positions, or were 
opulent merchants, or semi-professional men, for no pro- 
fession in the first years of the settlement could alone 
have supported a family. Such men were the Lloyds, the 
Norrises, the Carpenters, the Shippens, the Logans, and 
the Rawles. 

The Rawles of Philadelphia sprang from an ancient family 
in Cornwall. England. Lyson, in his Magna Britannia, states 
that ** Rawle of Hennett in St. Juliot, settled at that Barton 

as early as the reign of Edward IV. [1461-1483] The 

manor of Tresparrett or Tresparvett in this parish [St. Juliot] 
belongs to William Rawle, Esq., in whose family it has been 
for many generations. Mr. Rawle has also the manor of 
Tremorill, or Tremorvill, which belonged to the baronial 
family of Bottreaux.*' And again : ** The manor of Tre- 
gartha, which had been purchased of the Eriseys by Trelaw- 
ney before the year 1620, is now the property of Francis 
Rawle, Esq.'* 

The ancient home of the Rawles of St. Juliot is situated 
on the north coast of Cornwall, near Boscastle, and is still 
in possession of the family. ** Hennett'* the barton house of 
the Rawle manorial estate is still standing, the walls being in 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 



129 



some places from three to four feet thick, and until some 
recent alterations the arms of the family, sculptured of a very 
early date, could be seen carved on the ancient stone-work 
over the fireplace in the hall : — Sable, three swords in pale, two 
with their points in base and the middle one in chief, argent. 

Recently there has been gathered by Edwin John Rawle, 
Esq., a member of the Somersetshire Archaeological and 




OARE CHURCH. 



Natural History Society, material for an account of the family, 
several generations of which are buried in the church of Oare, 
made famous by the story of Lorna Doone. It was in this old 
church, it will be remembered, that Carver Doone attempted 
the assassination of Lorna at the moment she became the 
wife of John Ridd of doughty memory. A tablet to three 
members of the Rawle family may be seen in the church- 
yard, and the many who make their pilgrimages thither — 



40 



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I30 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 



for although there was no John Ridd and the Doones never 
existed except in the imagination of the novelist, the charm 
of the story draws one irresistibly to the spot — can read 
the inscription relating to one who lived at Oare when the 
Doones are supposed to have flourished. 

These Rawles who sleep so quietly in Oare Church were 
the owners of Yvnworthy, which is said to have been one of 
the places that die Doones attacked. 

The following is the inscription : — 

HERE LYETH THE BODY OF DAVID 
RAWLE OF YVNWORTHY WHO 
WAS BURY ED THE 5TH DAY OF 
FEBY ANNO D. 1 685 AGED 53 



t t t 



HEARE VNDERNEATH THREE OF 
ONE NAME DOE LY BY GODS DECREE 
THAT LIVED SUCCESSIVELY 
AND ALSO t)YED AND DID YIELD 
TO DEATH CAVSE PAINE AND LA 
BOVJiS MADE THEM OUT OF BREATH 
THEY LIVD TO DY AND DYD TO LIVE 
AGAINE AND NOW REAP PLEASVRES 
FROM A WORLD OF PAINE IN PEACE 
THEY LABOVRED TILL THEIR 
LABOVRS PAST IN SERVING TRUTH 
THEY REST IN PEACE AT LAST. 

The allusion to " three of one name " refers to the deceased, 
his father, who died in 1667, and his grandfather, who died in , 
1648 — all having been baptized " David.*' 

But we must leave the Rawles of Exmoor and return to 
those of St. Juliot. Unfortunately, as in many other places 
in England, St. Juliot suffered in the destruction of property 
and church records during the Great Rebellion (1648-1660), 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 131 

in consequence of which its parish records prior to 1657 
have disappeared. The records of the Court of Chancery, 
however, prove that to one William Rawle of St. Juliot the 
lease of the rectory of St. Juliot was transferred in 1576 by 
his second son, Nicholas Rawle, of the Inner Temple, Lon- 
don, who had purchased it from John Symon. William Rawle 
subsequently surrendered this lease to his eldest son, ** William 
Rawle, of St. Julett, in the countie of Cornwall, gent.,*' who 
obtained a fresh grant of the rectory of St. Juliot in 1580. 
In his direct descendants of the family name for nine gener- 
ations the St. Juliot estates remained until the death of the 
Right Reverend Richard Rawle, D. D., Bishop of Trinidad, 
without children, on May 10, 1889, when they passed by his 
will to the son of his sister. 

William Rawle, the first of that name above referred to, 
had a younger son, also named William (the custom of dupli- 
cating names among brothers being a common practice at the 
time), who was the father of William Rawle, also of St. Juliot, 
who departed this life in the year 1 646. 

Francis Rawle, the third son of this last-mentioned William, 
emigrated from his home in Plymouth, England, to Pennsyl- 
vania in the year 1686, with his son Francis, then aged twenty- 
three years. They settled in Philadelphia, and there founded 
the family of that name, which ever since has held a position 
of respectability and importance. 

Like many others in Cornwall and Devonshire, some 
members of the Rawle family became ** convinced of the^ 
Truth*' according to the preachings of Fox and his followers, 
and Besse in his Sufferings of the Quakers makes frequent 
mention of Francis Rawle as having been fined for not 
attending public worship, for attending Friends' Meetings, 
and for not paying fines, and in the year 1683 ^is having 
been confined, together with his son Francis, in the high jail 



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132 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 

at Exeter, for like recalcitrant conduct. Three years later, 
as we have seen, they removed to Penn's province, where 
they could worship God as their consciences dictated, without 
fear of fine or imprisonment. They sailed in the ship Desire, 
from Plymouth, and landed in Philadelphia on the 23d of 
June, 1686, with five servants. 

Francis Rawle, the elder, was an aged man at the time of 
his emigration. He seems to have come over to end his days 
here in peace. Upon the large tract of land purchased in 
England by his son from Penn on the 13th of March i68|, and 
located in Plymouth township in what is now Montgomery 
(then Philadelphia) County, he joined with others in estab- 
lishing the community known as '*The Plymouth Friends." 
He died in Philadelphia on the 23d of Twelfth month (Feb- 
ruary), i69f. His wife, Jane, who at the time of his leaving 
England had remained behind to care for their dying daughter, 
subsequently joined him in their new home. She died before 
her husband and was buried in the Friends' burial-ground in 
Arch Street, Philadelphia, on the 9th of Twelfth month (Feb- 
ruary), 1695. 

Of Francis Rawle, the younger, a manuscript found among 
the papers of his greatgrandson William Rawle (the second 
of the name in Pennsylvania), which appears to have been 
written in the year 1824 at the request of Watson the 
Annalist, and which was quoted in the Biographical Memoir 
of William Rawle, by Thomas I. Wharton, Esquire, says: 
** He was a man of education, though I believe of mod- 
erate property. He married the daughter of Robert Turner, 
a wealthy linen draper from Dublin, who took up the whole 
lot from Second Street to the Delaware, between Arch 
Street and McComb's Alley. He resided on this lot, and 
I have seen an old draft of it, in the centre of which 
was the figure of a house, with this description : * Robert 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 133 



Turner's large House.' Probably in these days his mansion 
would not be so described. William Penn had that confi- 
dence in Robert Turner that he sent him from England 
a blank commission for the office of Register-general for the 
Probate of Wills, etc., with power, if he did not choose to exer- 
cise the office himself, to fill the blank with any other name 
he pleased. Robert Turner accepted the office and appointed 
his son-in-law his deputy. 

** Francis Rawle published a book which, as far as I know, 
was the first original treatise on any general subject that 
appeared in this Province. Religious and political controversy 
had before this alone appeared from the press. The title of this 
work (I have unfortunately lost the book itself) was, I believe, 
* Ways and Means for the Inhabitants on the Delaware to 
become Rich.* One day at Dr. Franklin's table at Passy he 
asked me if I had a copy of the work, observing that it was 
the first book that he had ever printed. The greatness of 
Franklin's mind did not disdain to refer to his early occupa- 
tion in the presence of some men of the first rank of that 
country with whom his table was crowded." 

The wedding, on the i8th of Eighth month (October), 
1689, <^f Francis Rawle (the younger) with Martha Turner, 
a great heiress, was one of the ** Society functions " of the time 
among the quiet Quakers. It was attended by the Governor 
and most of the important people in the City, who signed their 
marriage certificate as witnesses. Her father, Robert Turner, 
was one of the most prominent, influential, and wealthy of the 
early settlers under Penn, his intimate friend, a member of his 
Provincial Council, one of his Commissioners of State, and 
the holder of many important offices and positions. As part 
of the marriage portion of his daughter, Turner settled upon 
her husband and herself and their male issue, by deed dated 
May 10, 1695, ^" estate of two hundred and seventy acres 



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134 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 



designated therein as **Swead Land/* in what is now the 
north-eastern part of the city of Philadelphia, upon which the 
country house before referred to, and which is still standing, 
was erected in the year 1703. 

Almost from the time of his arrival in Pennsylvania, 
Francis Rawle, the younger, took a prominent part in public 
affairs. In 1688 he was commissioned a Judge of the County 
Courts of Philadelphia, and in the same year and subsequently, 
he held the then important office of Justice of the Peace. In 
the first Charter of the City of Philadelphia granted by Penn 
on 20th Third mo. (May) 1691 he was named as one of the 
Board of Six Aldermen who constituted the upper Chamber 
of its government. For some time, as has been already men- 
tioned, he was Deputy Registrar-general for the Probate of 
Wills, and in 1694 he was appointed one of Penn's Commission- 
ers of Property. He sat for many years in the Colonial Assem- 
bly as a member of the ** popular'* or anti-proprietary party. 
His name appears in most of the important committees of 
the House, and as one of those active in most matters under 
discussion during his terms of service. In 1724 he was 
appointed a member of the Provincial Council, a position 
held only by the most eminent men in the community. He 
styled himself at times as a ** Merchant,*' more frequently as 
** Gentleman,'' and his name appears also as a practitioner at 
the Philadelphia Bar — one of those semi-professional men 
who have been alluded to. 

Francis Rawle took much interest in the important ques- 
tions of the day. In 1725 he wrote the book already referred 
to, the title of which is as follows : 

''Ways and Means for the Inhabitants of Delazvare to 
become Rich ; wherein the several growths and products of 
these countries are demonstrated to be a sufficient fund for 
a flourishing trade. Humbly submitted to the Legislative 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 135 



authority of these Colonies. Nemo seipsum natus est. Printed 
and sold by S. Keimer in Philadelphia^ MDCCXXVJ' (65 
pages, 12 mo). 

Upon this an attack was made anonymously during the 
same year, by the celebrated James Logan, it is supposed, 
in a pamphlet entitled : ** A Dialogue Shewing W/iafs therein 
to be founds which brought forth a reply (also anonymous), 
by Rawle, in a pamphlet published in 1726 entitled: ''A Just 
Rebuke to a Dialogue. . . . And that Short Treatise entitled 
Ways and Means &c. Rescued from the Dialogist's unjust 
Charge of Inconsistences and Contradictions'' 

Previous to the publication of the above-named works 
there appeared, in 1721, another anonymous pamphlet, the 
authorship of which has also been attributed to Francis Rawle, 
entitled: ** Some Remedies proposed for the Restoring tite sunk 
credit of the Province of Pennsylvania^ with some Remarks on 
its Trade. . . . By a Lover of this Country!' 

These writings of Francis Rawle show him to have been 
a hard-thinking, broad-minded, and public-spirited man, who in 
his youth had evidently been thoroughly well educated, and 
who, in later years, had acquired mjjch practical experience in 
commerce, general business, and even the affairs of nations. 
He died in Philadelphia on the 5th of March, i72f, at the 
age of sixty-four years. 

Martha, the wife of Francis Rawle, survived him eighteen 
years, dying on the i8th of July, 1745. She had a numerous 
family, six sons and four daughters, of whom only three sons 
have left descendants living at the present time. 

We cannot do better than continue to quote in part from Mr. 
Wharton's admirable Biographical Memoir of William Rawle : 
"William, the third son of Francis and Martha Rawle, married, 
on the 29th of August, 1728, Margaret, daughter of Henry 
Hodge of Philadelphia, merchant, who died shortly after the 



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136 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 



birth of their only child [Francis]. He was a man of parts 
and education. His library was extensive for those days, 
especially in classical literature.''. . . . He was a prominent 
merchant, largely engaged in the West India trade. He 
is also mentioned as a (semi-professional) practitioner at 
the Philadelphia Bar. He died on the i6th of December, 
1741. 

" Francis, the only child of William Rawle, was born on 
the loth of July, 1729. He received a liberal education, 
possessed a robust and active mind, and is said to have been 
a person of very attractive manners and conversation. He 
was a contributor to a literary journal of the time.*' 

In the year 1755, Francis Rawle sailed for Europe, where 
he travelled extensively, visiting a number of countries. 
He kept a journal of his trip, which showed a bright and 
inquiring mind. 

Very soon after his return from abroad Francis Rawle 
married Rebecca, daughter of Edward Warner of Philadel- 
phia. In the summer of 1757 he attended the celebrated 
conference held at Easton with the Indians, at the head of 
whom was the great chief Tedyuscung. In one of his letters 
to his wife dated Easton, July. i6th, 1757, he says : 

''There are now here about two hundred and seventy or 
two hundred and eighty Indians ; upwards of one hundred of 
whom are men, the rest women, with abundance of young 
cubSy who seem already to share a good deal of that ferocity 
which they may one day express in a greater degree under 
the tutoring and excellent example of their glorious fathers, 
if we do not conclude a lasting peace with them. These last 
appear dressed, painted, and set off to the best advantage ; 
not to procure admiration, but to strike terror; and their 
appearance only seems sufficient to frighten faint-hearted 
folks when they come in a hostile way." 



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H 
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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 139 



In September, 1 760, Francis Rawle and his brother-in-law, 
Joshua Howell (their wives being sisters), purchased a tract of 
seventy-six acres of land on the east bank of the Schuylkill 
River above Fairmount, the title thereto being taken in How- 
eirs name, who, a few days afterward, conveyed to the former 
the lower thirty-one acres with the fine Colonial mansion, still 
standing in fairly good condition. To this, Mr. Rawle gave 
the name of " Laurel Hill.*' Mr. Howell built for himself a 
country house upon his portion of the property, which he 
called '*Edgely,** and which was taken down a few years 
ago, after the acquisition of the land by the city of Phila- 
delphia as part of Fairmount Park. ** Laurel Hill '* (which 
should not be confounded with *'The Laurels,'* the country- 
seat of Joseph Sims, and which latter was many years ago 
converted into what is now the North Laurel Hill Cemetery, 
nearly a mile farther up the river,) stands on a high bluff 
above the river bank, and commands a view up and down the 
Schuylkill, which is probably unsurpassed in the neighbor- 
hood. The house is of stone, most quaintly shaped, one wing 
being octagonal in form, and the interior is in accordance with 
the handsome Colonial architecture of that day. Here the 
Rawles were surrounded by most congenial neighbors. The 
Francises, the Swifts, the Howells, the Galloways, the Mifflin s, 
and others had their summer homes in the neighborhood. 
Not far off, on the opposite bank of the river, was ** Lans- 
downe,*' the country-seat of the Penns, and ** Belmont,*' 
that of the Peterses, and farther down the river the Ham- 
iltons* country-seat, "The Woodlands,** then in the zenith of 
its glory. Many other noble country-seats lined the banks 
of the *' Hidden River.** Isaac Wharton, who subsequently 
married Margaret, a daughter of Francis Rawle, had " Wood- 
ford *' for his country-home, while John Clifford, who married 
Anna, the other daughter, had ** Clifford Farm ** for his, both 



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I40 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 



of which places He back from the river, on the Ridge Road, 
in the near vicinity of '' Laurel Hill/' To the owners of some 
of these mansions the Rawles were akin, with all of them they 
were on intimate terms, and the little circle that constituted 
all that was best in Philadelphia society of that day — whether 
of the ** World's People" or of the *^ Friends'' — the wits and 
beaux, the brilliant Tory beauties that dazzled King George's 
officers and mocked the blue and buff— men of letters, artists, 
and scientists — made up the throng that from time to time 
were entertained there. 

Francis Rawle, while shooting on another country place 
belonging to him, at "Point-no-point," on the Delaware, 
above Philadelphia, was mortally wounded by the accidental 
discharge of his fowling-piece, and died a few days afterward 
at his house in Philadelphia on June 7, 1761. 

He left to the care of his surviving widow three infant 
children : Anna, who afterward became the wife of John 
Cliffocd, an opulent merchant of Philadelphia; one son, 
William, then but two years old, and Margaret, still younger, 
who afterward married Isaac Wharton, another wealthy mer- 
chant of the same city. Their grief-stricken mother, with her 
children, continued to reside at ** Laurel Hill " for some months 
each year, devoting her life to their care. As he approached 
manhood, her son developed a scholarly mind and an 
inclination toward the profession of the law, in which he 
subsequently became so justly celebrated. 

At the breaking out of the Revolution young Rawle was 
but sixteen years old. His mother was allied to or upon 
terms of intimacy with many of the powerful Loyalist families, 
and family traditions of loyalty to the Crown were not to be 
lightly thrown aside. The position of the Loyalists of Phil- 
adelphia has never, perhaps, been properly presented. They 
were, as a class, the best people in the Province and the 



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MRS. ISAAC WHARTON. 

(MARGARET RAWLE.) 
After Sully's portrait. 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 143 



descendants of those settlers who, by hard work and unceasing 
effort, had brought Philadelphia to be the chief city of Great 
Britain's American Colonies. They were, most of them, 
people of wealth, education, culture, and refinement. Many, 
like the Rawles, were descended from the best of those 
who in Penn's time had planted the Province. Belonging 
to families that for generations, despite persecution, at times, 
for religious belief, had continued unswervingly loyal to 
their king, they hesitated now to cut themselves loose from 
an authority which they had so long and faithfully obeyed, and 
which, taken all in all, had treated them well. They had, 
indeed, waxed rich and prospered under the rule of King 
George and his predecessors, and the great principles of 
liberty and self-government were to such people but shadowy 
phantoms of a dream. Not for a single instant did they 
believe that the Continental army would ultimately conquer, 
or that the Continental Congress would achieve aught save 
ruin to its members. The Loyalists, or "Tories,*' as their 
enemies called them, had property at stake which in money 
value far exceeded that of those engaged in the struggle 
for independence, and they cared not to bring, as they 
thought, irretrievable ruin upon their families, their kindred, 
and themselves. It was not, with some of them, that they 
were Friends, or Quakers, for many of that belief either 
entered the Continental army or else, because of religious 
scruples, declined to take part on either side ; but they felt 
that in turning their backs upon Washington and the cause 
he represented they were doing loyal service to their king 
and country. Had the American Revolution failed, they 
would have been loudly praised instead of scorned, ap- 
plauded instead of hissed. 

William Rawle's widowed mother had married, secondly, 
November lo, 1767, Samuel Shoemaker of Philadelphia, a 



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144 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 



prominent merchant, and an ardent Loyalist, though, like 
some of his fellow- thinkers, he fully appreciated the errors 
into which those at the head of the government in England 
had fallen, and was a signer of the celebrated " Non-Importa- 
tion Agreement" in 1765. **Mr. Shoemaker,** says a sketch 
of him, *'was a highly educated gentleman, of courdy man- 
ners and fine presence, and before the Revolution a man 
of large means. He held many important ofifices in Phila- 
delphia. From 1755 to 1766 he was a member of the 
Common Council, and in the latter year was chosen a 
member of the Board of Aldermen. He served as such 
until 1769, when he was chosen Mayor of the city, and 
again in 1770. At the close of his second term he resumed 
his seat in the Board of Aldermen, and retained it until the 
fall of the city government in 1776. Whilst in that ofifice he 
was chosen, in 1 767, to succeed his father as Treasurer of the 
city, and continued as such until 1776. He also served two 
terms, from 1771 to 1773, as a member of the General Assem- 
bly of the Province. In 1761, Mr. Shoemaker was chosen a 
Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, Quarter Sessions, and 
Orphans' Court of the county, and in 1776 an Associate Jus- 
tice of the City Court. In 1761 he was also commissioned a 
Justice of the Peace, and held that office also until 1 776. During 
the occupation of Philadelphia by the British army he was, as 
Justice of the Peace, associated with Joseph Galloway in the 
administration of civil affairs, which rendered him especially 
odious to the Whig party.'' 

During the first years of the Revolution the Rawle-Shoe- 
maker family continued to reside in Philadelphia, spending, 
as usual, much of their time at "Laurel Hill." Until the 
occupation of Philadelphia by the British, Samuel Shoemaker 
had taken practically no part in the struggle. His associa- 
tion with Galloway in the Civil Government of the city during 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 145 

its occupation by the British Army in the winter of 1777-78 
brought matters to a crisis, and on March 6, 1778, the State 
Legislature, then sitting at Lancaster, had declared him and 
other prominent citizens guilty of high treason, and all their 
estates forfeited to the State, unless they surrendered them- 
selves by the twentieth day of April following. This Mr. 
Shoemaker did not do, and suffered the consequences. On 
June 17, 1778, a few days before the evacuation of Philadel- 
phia by the British army, Mr. Shoemaker sailed from that city 
with the fleet, and arrived in about two weeks in New York. 
William Rawle, then nineteen years old, at the urgent request 
of his mother, accompanied his stepfather in his flight. Some 
idea of the discomforts which the unfortunate refugees must 
have endured in travelling is afforded by a letter of William 
Rawle to one of his sisters, in which he states that they were 
two days and nights on board a small sloop on their way down 
the Delaware River to Reedy Island, near which they found 
the fleet lying, and thirteen days on the passage from Phila- 
delphia to the Capes. 

No sooner had the Revolutionary authorities returned to 
Philadelphia than they proceeded to carry out the strenuous 
measures against the Tories that the Confiscation Act had 
provided for. As we learn from the diary of Charles Wilson 
Peale, the artist, who was an ardent patriot and one of the 
Agents for securing and selling the forfeited estates, they 
immediately after the evacuation set about fulfilling the 
duties of their offices. They began, he says, with the 
property of those who were of the most consideration among 
the unfortunates. Mrs. Joseph Galloway, who remained after 
his departure, in the house of her husband, one of the at- 
tainted ones, was the first to be visited. When they went 
there to dispossess her, they found her counsel, Mr. Boudinot, 
with her. Against her will, and, at first, her physical opposi- 

41 



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146 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 

tion, Peale succeeded in conducting her to General Arnold's 
carriage, which was at the door, having been supplied for the 
occasion. *'The same sort of business,'* he writes, "they 
were likely to have with Mrs. Shoemaker, but on that occa- 
sion Mr. Boudinot agreed to give peaceable possession on 
the morning following, which terms were accepted by the 
Agents as they wished to make things as easy as they could 
with those whose misfortune it was to come within their 
notice.'* 

The Act provided that after twelve months the real estates 
of the attainted Tories should be sold. Consequently, all 
of Mr. Shoemakers landed property, which was extensive, 
was on April 12, 1779, ordered to be sold at public sale 
by the State Agents for the confiscated estates, his delightful 
home on the north side of Arch (then Mulberry) above 
Front Street, one of the finest residences in the city, among 
the rest. The deed for the house, which was dated Novem- 
ber 30, 1779, shows that the sum of ;^39,ioo was paid for it by 
the purchaser to the State authorities. In their eagerness 
they likewise seized and sold much of Mrs. Shoemaker's 
own property and that of her first husband, Francis Rawle, 
who had made her the sole devisee of his estate, including 
** Laurel Hill." But of ** Laurel Hill" and its fate mention 
will be made hereafter. 

The members of a united family living together in har- 
mony have litde occasion to record the details of their daily 
lives, so there is not much of this nature preserved relating 
to "Laurel Hill" and its occupants, until the troublous times 
of the Revolutionary struggle came upon them. After the 
breaking up of the family home communication between 
those who went to New York and those who remained in 
Philadelphia became exceedingly difficult. The sending of 
correspondence through the military lines without permission 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, H7 

was prohibited. Notwithstanding this, however, frequent 
opportunities were taken to elude the authorities. There 
was one method of communication which seems to have been 
winked at, if not allowed — that of sending the local news- 
papers from New York to Philadelphia, and from Philadelphia 
to New York. Advantage was taken of this to convey to 
each other information of different sorts. Many numbers 
of Rivington's "Royal Gazette'* which Mr. Shoemaker sent 
to his wife, with brief messages written on the margins, have 
been preserved, and are now in the Loganian Library in 
Philadelphia. 

Mrs. Shoemaker was a woman of decided character, strong 
in her feelings, and apparently of great fluency in expressing 
what she wished to say, and she was an ardent Loyalist. 
Women then, as now, were apt to go to extreme lengths 
in their feelings and expressions, especially in times of great 
political excitement, and were thus apt sometimes to get them- 
selves into trouble. After her husband and son had been 
some months in New York Mrs. Shoemaker applied to the 
State authorities for permission to go there. This was refused, 
and refused again in May, 1779, as it would be, they said, 
** inconsistent with the interest of the State." She was sum- 
moned before the Supreme Executive Council in March, 
1780, in consequence of the interception of her journals, 
which showed that she had among other things assisted 
prisoners and other enemies of the Government to pass clan- 
destinely to New York. What was done with her is not 
recorded in the Minutes of the Council, but when, two months 
later, she again applied for leave to go to New York and to 
return in one year, she got more than she asked for, and was 
told to go and give security that she would not return at any 
time without leave first obtained from the Council. She 
remained in New York for a year, and returned to Philadel- 



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148 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 



phia in April, 1782. There she remained until April, 1783, 
when she again went to New York and stayed there until 
November 7, 1 783, a few days before her husband and their 
only child Edward, then a young boy, sailed for England, 
preparatory to the evacuation of New York by the British 
army. 

Previous to this time, William Rawle had, on June 13, 1781, 
sailed for England for the purpose of continuing his legal 
studies, which, since his arrival in New York, in June, 1778, 
he had been pursuing with Mr. Kempe, the British Attorney- 
General. It has been said that his object in leaving America 
was the '* seeking of greater advantages and to escape the 
din of Torjasm, with which he was not in accord.'' Such is 
the tradition among his descendants. Though, while a young 
boy in Philadelphia, love for his mother and sisters may have 
made him somewhat of a Loyalist, as he neared manhood, 
notwithstanding that he was living in the atmosphere of New 
York Toryism, his growing admiration for Washington (with 
whom later in life he became upon intimate terms) and the 
cause which Washington represented caused him to waver 
still further from the political faith of the rest of the family. 
He was always, however, an adherent of the Quaker doctrine 
of non-resistance, and his religious principles forbade him fol- 
lowing any other than a peaceful, forbearing line of conduct. 
But the ladies of the family never wavered in their steadfast 
loyalty to their '*good King George.'* 

The correspondence between the separated members of 
the family, some of which took the form of diaries, is in part 
preserved, in manuscript, chiefly that written between the 
years 1780 and 1786. Covering as it does a most interest- 
ing period of time, and treating of the events of those 
days from the Loyalist point of view, it is not less 
valuable than interesting. While Mrs. Shoemaker was in 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 149 



New York with her husband the correspondence was chiefly 
between herself and her two daughters, Anna and Margaret 
Rawle. There is preserved the complete series of Mrs. 
Shoemaker's letters to her husband after he had sailed for 
England in November, 1783, until his return to America in 
May, 1786, as also a concise diary kept for the entertainment 
of his wife by Mr. Shoemaker from the day they parted in 
New York until October, 1785. 

Many of the letters treat of business matters, and show 
the great losses and terrible sufferings which the Loyalists 
endured ; others are in a lighter vein and give us vivid pen- 
pictures of Philadelphia and New York society of that day. 
They shed, indeed, a strong light on the history of those event- 
ful times. In this correspondence fancy or fictitious names, 
as was common in social circles during the Revolution, were 
frequently given to the different members of the family and 
their friends. Thus William Rawle was known as ** Horatio ;'* 
Anna Rawle as ** Fanny;" Margaret or Peggy Rawle as 
"Adelaide;'* and Sally Burge, their intimate friend and 
subsequently the wife of William Rawle, as *' Juliet." In 
memory of the days of their youth Mr. and Mrs. Rawle 
accordingly named their two youngest children " Horatio " 
and ** Juliet." But this is anticipating. It is to be regretted 
that the scope of this sketch precludes the possibility 
of giving more than a few extracts from the letters and 
diaries. 

After the breaking up of the family home, which had 
been Mr. Shoemaker's house in Arch (then Mulberry) Street, 
Mrs. Shoemaker, while in Philadelphia, and her daughters 
lived sometimes with Mrs. Edward Warner, Mrs. Shoemaker's 
mother, in her house, which was directly opposite their former 
home ; at other times with Benjamin Shoemaker, who was 
Samuel Shoemaker's son by his first wife (Hannah, daughter 



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I50 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 

of Samuel Carpenter), and who lived on the south side of 
High (now Market) below Eighth Street; and also at times 
in the house adjoining, this last also belonging to Benjamin 
Shoemaker. Mrs. Benjamin Shoemaker was Elizabeth War- 
ner, the sister of Mrs. Samuel Shoemaker. 

In the Spring of 1780, as has been mentioned, Mrs. Shoe- 
maker journeyed to New York to visit her husband. Her 
daughter, Anna Rawle, writing to her from Philadelphia under 
date of June 30, 1780, says : 

" By the person who brought thy letter from Rahway 1 
wrote a long one which he promised, if thee should be gone 

from there, to forward into New York P^ggy and I staid 

with my Aunt till B[enjamin] returned.* Tho* so little in the 
housef belonged to us, packing them up furnished employ 
for several mornings ; one day, when thus engaged up stairs, 
Polly Birk, who was the only person w^ith me in the house, 
exclaimed, * Bless me if there is not a whole company of 
soldiers at Mr. S.'s door!* J I was frightened, and was 
going down to my aunt and sister, when at the foot of 
the stairs I observed a man placed, rattling the lock of his 
gun, as if trying to alarm. I ran up again, and in a few 
minutes two men entered the room, and I soon found their 
business was to search for arms. They looked in the closet, 
and desired me, not in the mildest terms, to unlock my trunks. 
I told them they were already undone. They then put their 
canes in, and by the greatest good luck in the world, the little 
plate that belonged to me remained undisturbed at the bottom 
of the trunk ; they would have taken it, I am certain, from 
their behaviour. Not finding arms they went away. They 
treated my Aunt in the same manner, rummaging the closets 

* He had accompanied Mrs. Shoemaker to the British lines. 

f The house in High Street secondly above mentioned. 

\ Benjamin Shoemaker's — the adjoining house on High Street. 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 151 



and drawers, and placing a guard at the stairs. One of them 
said, when Peggy went up, that it was to hide guns. There 
were but one or two houses where they treated people with 
so little ceremony. At other places they took their word. 

**But of all absurdities the ladies going about for money 
exceeded everything; they were so extremely importunate 
that people were obliged to give them something to get rid 
of them. Mrs. Beech [Bache] and the set with her, came up 
to our door the morning after thee went, and turned back 
again. The reason she gave to a person who told me was 
that she did not chuse to face Mrs. S. or her daughters. 

**H[annah] Thompson, Mrs. [Robert] Morris, Mrs. 
[James] Wilson, and a number of very genteel women, 
paraded about streets in this manner, some carrying ink 
stands, nor did they let the meanest ale house escape. The 
gentlemen also were honoured with their visits. Bob Wharton 
declares he was never so teased in his life. They reminded 
him of the extreme rudeness of refusing anything to the fair, 
but he was inexorable and pleaded want of money, and the 
heavy taxes, so at length they left him, after threatening to 
hand his name down to posterity with infamy." 

Under date of November 4, 1780, she says :....** Speak- 
ing of handsome women brings Nancy Willing to my mind. 
She might set for the Queen of Beauty, and is lately married 
to Bingham, who returned from the West Indies with an 
immense fortune. They have set out in highest style ; 
nobody here will be able to make the figure they do ; 
equipage, house, cloathes, are all the newest taste, — and yet 
some people wonder at the match. She but sixteen and such 
a perfect form. His appearance is less amiable.'' 

From New York, Mrs. Shoemaker writes to her daughters, 
January 8, 1781 : 

** P[eggy] A[rnold] is not so much admired here for her 



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152 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 



beauty as one might have expected. All allow she has great 
Sweetness in her countenance, but wants Animation, spright- 
liness and that fire in her eyes which was so captivating 
in Capt. L[loyd*s] wife. But notwithstanding she does not 
possess that Life and animation that some do, they have 
met with every attention indeed^ much more than they could 
have promised themselves, and the very genteel Appointment 
which he [General Benedict Arnold] holds in this Service, 
joined to a Very large present, (which I am told he has 
received,) is fully sufficient for every Demand in genteel 
Life." Speaking of Mrs. Arnold, again, Mrs. Shoemaker 
writes that she attended a ball at head quarters in New 
York, and that *'she appeared a star of the first magnitude, 
and had every attention paid her as if she had been Lady 
Clinton. Is not this fine encouragement for generals to 
follow A[rnold's] example?" 

The Act of Attainder and Confiscation further provided 
that the President, or Vice-President, and Supreme Executive 
Council might let forfeited real estates for a time not exceed- 
ing two years, paying the taxes and other expenses, and 
managing them until they should be sold in the manner there- 
inafter directed. As " Laurel Hill," which had belonged to 
Mrs. Shoemaker s first husband, Francis Rawle, had been left 
by his will to her, Mr. Shoemaker, as her second husband, had 
a life estate in the property as '* tenant by the curtesy." In 
their patriotic zeal the people in authority disregarded the 
principle of law that the sale of such a life estate had no other 
effect than to free a wife's houses and lands from all of her 
husband's estate when he had been attainted for high trea- 
son, and vested the title in her to as full an effect as if he 
had died. The State Agents took possession of ** Laurel 
Hill " before its sale, and apparently allowed the President 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 



153 



of the State, Joseph Reed, to occupy it as a summer residence, 
perhaps as a lessee. Reed was the most ardent and active 
of the persecutors of the Philadelphia Loyalists. His ani- 
mosity had been particularly visited upon Mr. and Mrs. 
Shoemaker and her children, and the letters often refer to 
him in by no means an affectionate manner. 



w 


1 


1 

; ' 1 i , 


] 



HALL AND STAIRWAY, LAUREL HILL. 



Anna Rawle writes to her mother under date of September 
20, 1780: **The wife of a certain person can never spend 
another summer at Laurel Hill. Her pleasure there had a 
melancholy -and short termination. She is dead, and of 
a disorder that made some people whisper about * that she 



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154 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 

eat too many of Mr. S. . /s peaches \ her husband fainted at 
the grave/' The person here referred to was no other than 
the wife of the President himself. She had died in Philadel- 
phia two days previously, September i8th, having shortly 
before removed there from ** Laurel Hill.** 

It was not until February 20, 1782, that Mr. Shoemaker's 
life estate in "Laurel Hill'* was sold by the State Agents, 
and on March 20, the Patent therefor was executed by the 
President, William Moore, to Major James Parr, the purchaser, 
in consideration of ;^5,ooo Pennsylvania money. Parr was an 
extensive investor in the confiscated estates. Before, how- 
ever, the title had been actually conveyed to him. Major Parr, 
on February 26, 1782, in consideration of ;^5Chd, gold or silver 
money, had leased the place to " His Excellency, the Chevalier 
de Luzerne, Minister of France " to the United States, for 
the term of five years thence ensuing, ** if the said Samuel 
Shoemaker should so long live." In her diary Mrs. Shoe- 
maker, then in New York, pathetically writes, February 4, 
1782: '*I see our last litde spot poor ** Laurel Hill," is to 
have another possessor. We cannot see any more advertised ; 
they have sold all." And her daughter Anna, writing to 
her two days later, says : " The P[resident] has not given 
up his town house, as my dear Mother imagined ; he still 
keeps it, the wife of his successor * being one of those simple 
hearted women who chuse to live in nobody's house but their 
own. I must confess that I am not sorry that ' Laurel Hill ' 
is to have another master ; he never was a favourite of mine. 
They say he pays his addresses to Belle White. I shall think 
the girl out of her senses if she has him." 

The Chevalier of course had his French cook, and the 
French cook his truffle-dog, which, in the pursuit of his 

* William Moore, whose wife was Sarah, daughter of Thomas and Susanna [Kearney] 
Lloyd. 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 1 55 

vocation in life, is said to have discovered truffles in the 
grounds around the house, much to the astonishment and 
delight of his master — one of the few instances — and it 
is believed the first — of the finding of the article in its 
natural state in this country. Mr. Hazard, in his third 
volume of Watson's Annals^ quotes this family tradition ; 
but whether the tradition is truthful or not, or whether the 
absence or scarcity of truffles in America is to be attributed 
to the shortcomings of the comparatively few enterprising 
French cooks who bless us with their presence, or to the 
absence of truffle-dogs, has not been ascertained. 

In her letters to her husband and son Edward in England 
Mrs. Shoemaker often refers to their much loved country 
home. When the fanaticism against the Loyalists had some- 
what abated after the Peace the civil authorities seem to have 
come to view in the proper legal light the matter of the sale 
of Mrs. Shoemaker's property in consequence of the attainder 
of her husband. The learned in the legal profession gave it 
as their opinion that the only effect of the sale was to vest the 
title to the property in her clear of any of her husband's 
rights therein. Some years subsequently this principle was 
affirmed by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania when a 
similar question arose concerning the estate of Mrs. Joseph 
Galloway. 

Major Parr also seems to have appreciated the doubtful 
elements in his title, and to have been not unwilling to con- 
sider proposals from the family for a surrender of his interest 
in the place. But the lease to Luzerne apparently com- 
plicated the matter. '* Major Parr,'' as Mrs. Shoemaker 
wrote from Philadelphia to her husband on January 14, 1784, 
**has offered Laurel Hill for £^c^ — but that is certainly too 
much, as the minister has three years yet to come, and I 



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156 



LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 



believe is so well pleased with it that he does not wish to 
part with it/' 

The enjoyment of ** Laurel HilP' by His Excellency was 
not, however, to continue the full length of his term. The 
failure of his government to appropriate the means for the 
support of his office, it has been said, caused him to contem- 
plate a return to his home. A satisfactory arrangement of 




DRAWING ROOM, LAUREL HILL. (Present appearance.) 

the matter of the lease was eventually arrived at, and Parr, 
in consideration of ;^300, silver money, on February 27, 
1784, by endorsement upon his Patent, conveyed to William 
Rawle (who had returned from Europe in January 1783) all 
his estate and interest in "Laurel Hill," irrespective of the 
remainder of the Chevalier's term. 

*T believe I mentioned,'' wrote Mrs. Shoemaker on May 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 157 

12, 1784, **that the Minister of France was going home 
soon ; it is fixed for next month, and I have had a specimen 
of French generosity in an Ambassador bargaining with the 
owner of a little country house for the remainder of a lease. 
Nothing less than the rent he gave will do, and I must agree 
to that or not have it. I suppose he will think he has been 
extremely liberal and genteel in agreeing to be paid yearly as 
rent, and not insisting upon the money down as he paid it. 




FIRE PLACK IN DRAWING ROOM, LAUREL HILL. 

He keeps possession until the loth of June, which will not 
be as convenient to me to let it as if 1 had it now, but there 
is no remedy. I shall try to let it for one year, but 1 fear 
people will be generally provided with summer retreats 
before that time." 

On June 16, 1784, she again wrote: ** Benjamin, William 
and myself took a ride last week to Laurel Hill, the first time 
1 had been there since the year 1779. I am now tenant to the 
Minister and have engaged to pay him the yearly rent of ;^ioo 



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158 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 



per an. for the remainder of his lease, almost three years to 

come Thee expected the Minister would have been so 

generous and liberal if he was made acquainted with the real 
circumstances of it as to restore it. A. Benezet who was inti- 
mate with him was the person who called on W. R. and told 
him that the Minister was going home and desired to see some 
of the family. William went there twice with Anthony, and 
as he, William, speaks french, gave him the fullest information 
respecting it. He said he had several applications for the 
place, but he chose to offer it to the family, and I am to con- 
sider myself favoured in having it upon rent instead of pay- 
ing the money down. I myself had a good deal of conver- 
sation with A. B. about it. I told him how contrary this was 
from the language they spoke when they first came here, of 
the bad policy and illiberality of the Americans to sell estates ; 
that their court would not have done so, but now I found it 
was all talk. Poor A. could not say much but that his country- 
men did not love to part with their money for nothing, and he 
must own it was inconsistent from their sentiments ; he was 
very partial to his own Nation.'* 

**I put thy letter," she wrote to her son Edward, Sept. 29, 
1784, "into thy [step]brother William's hands, and he smiled 
at thy remarks on His Excellency. I had rather it had not 
been so, and did not know it was to be so till I saw it, but 
these times have made many characters comply and do things 
that we should not have thought of once. We first advertised 
it as a place on Schuylkill and no offer was made, and then I 
thought that some persons might take it of tis if they knew 
we could let it, that would not of the Frenchman, and desired 
William to mention the place lately used by the Minister, and 
apply to W. R. but it produced no offer, and sister M[argaret] 
and I do not retire there.*' 

The correspondence makes frequent mention of the beau- 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 159 

tiful aspect of ** Laurel Hill ;" of the meadow along the river, 
which has now entirely disappeared owing to the raising of 
the water by the dam at Fairmount ; of the many beautiful 
trees, some of them of very large size ; of the fine apples, 
peaches, cherries, and strawberries, but we must return to 
further mention of the family. 

As has been already stated, William Rawle sailed from 
New York on June 13, 1781, bound for England for the pur- 
pose of continuing the study of the law, and Mrs. Shoemaker 
writes to her daughters : ** I have now set down to write a few 
lines to my Dear Girls, tho' very Unfit for it, having this morning 
felt the pangs of another parting — a scene which gave me such 
paine this time twelve month. My Dear Billy went on board 
a Sloop at 5 this morning to go down to the Hook, where all 
the fleet lay. He goes in the Ship Fishbourne, Capt. Gill, to 

Cork I am sure he is gone with the best Intentions, to 

qualify himself for his future support and establishment in 
the world, which could not be done in America, while it is in 
such a distracted state.*' 

He arrived in London in August, 1781, and a few days 
afterward entered the Middle Temple as a law student, on 
the recommendation of Mr. Eden (afterward Lord Auckland), 
to whom he had become known during the latter s visit to 
America as one of the commissioners in the abortive attempt 
to bring about a settlement of the dispute between the mother 
country and the colonies. He took a lively interest in England 
and in the manners and customs of the people. He writes to 
his mother and sisters soon after his arrival : •* London is indeed 
a vast collection of people ; but these people are much like 
those I have left behind, — virtue is honoured and vice despised, 
much the same in both countries ; and, whatever satirists may 
say to the contrary, I am convinced that the world ever 



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l6o LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 

applauds virtue as it deserves. In defense of herself, vice 
throws out a variety of allurements which make but a faint 
and transient impression — so soon as we recollect that they 
are but the allurements of vice : contrary to Pope's lines on 
the subject, I am of opinion that they are the most forcible 
at first sight, and that it is only in consequence of contem- 
plating them seriously that we discover and abhor their 
internal deformity. — In that pursuit of happiness to which 
the mind is naturally disposed, a very little reflection will 
induce us to leave vice behind, and to follow the footsteps 
of virtue, from whom alone we may expect those * lasting hours 
of waking bliss,' that durable felicity, with which she always 
rewards her votaries, and without any commonplacing on 
the subject, I am so seriously convinced of this argument, 
that I should always lament the first step to vice as the first 
step to misery/' 

In a later letter he gives us a glimpse of court-life and 
society as it then existed in London. 

*' I was very early gratified," he writes, **with the sight 
of the king, which most strangers are desirous of. He is 
tall and well made ; and were it not for his white eye-brows 
and gray eyes, would be a very handsome man. He talked 
and laughed incessantly during the whole play, with some 
of the lords in waiting ; contemplated every part of the 
house with his opera glass, and behaved more like a young 
man of abundant gaiety, than what I had always conceived 
to be a style of royalty. The queen, who is by no means 
handsome, but much resembles the picture Governor Frank- 
lin had of her at Burlington, was received at entering the 
house with the loudest applause ; she paid her respects both 
in coming in, and going out, with great affability, and behaved 
during the whole time with a modest dignity, truly attrac- 
tive. The Prince of Wales resembles neither his father nor 



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WILLIAM KAWLE. 
(After portrait painted in London in 1782 by Benjamin West.) 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 163 



mother; he has dark hair and eyes, and looks something 
like Lord Cathcart ; though a very large man, he is exceed- 
ingly graceful and genteel, and appears infinitely more serious 
than his father. The play was such as, one would suppose, 
none but a depraved taste would have thought of, and a 
vitiated age received. The Beggar's Opera was performed 
in reversed characters, the women acting the men's parts, 
and the men the women's; yet the royal family appeared 
perfectly pleased with it ; and it has been performed eighteen 
times with infinite applause." 

Of the English people he says : 

"They are sincere, generous, benevolent and brave; they 
are liberal in their charities, and warm in their friendships ; if 
they are slow in forming intimacies, they are more constant 
to them when formed ; if they are not so indiscriminately 
hospitable as in Ireland, it is, perhaps, because they pay 
a proper regard to their own satisfaction in the admission 
of guests. In Ireland it is sufficient to be a stranger, to be 
hospitably entertained ; in London, when strangers, that char- 
acter procures relief to the distressed ; but a man is laughed 
at who supposes nothing else necessary for him to be taken 
notice of" 

His letters contain frequent references to American friends 
and acquaintances in London, and to persons who had been 
connected with the stirring events at home. ** I saw Mrs. 
[Benedict] Arnold," he writes February 6, 1782, **a few days 
after her arrival in town and was really pleased she looked 
so well, as general expectation was raised so high by the 
incessant puffers of the newspapers, and the declaration of 
Col. Tarleton that she was the handsomest woman in Enor- 
land. She has not yet been to Court, tho' the General has, 
having been introduced by Sir Walter Stirling. They have 
taken a house and set up a carriage and will I suppose be 



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l64 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 

a good deal visited, if the General does not return to America 
on a Northern expedition which is said to be on the tapis. 
The Cabinet I am told consider him as a very sensible man. 
Lord Cornwallis has not as yet appeared either in the house 
or at Court; it is confidently reported that a proposal which 
was made to him at the time of his capture, and which he 
rejected with the sullen dignity of a British peer, will now be 
afccepted at the instance of the ministry, and that an exchange 
between him and Laurens will take place. The latter is 
returned from Bath, and tho* not yet able to use his limbs 
is much visited and caressed by the minority. It is added 
that after the exchange effected his lordship will be sent to 
replace the discountenanced and disgraced Sir Harry [Clin- 
ton]. If so Mr. G[alloway] has been writing to very little 
purpose and I am afraid the friends to government out of 
the lines will not rejoice. But the people of England caught 
by brilliant actions, and too indolent for close reflection, are 
prepossessed in favour of Lord Cornwallis that it will not be 
an easy task to convince them of his incapacity or disaffection. 
Tarleton it is said has been honored with a private conference 
in which his Majesty took no other notice of his services than 
just to say, ** Well, Col. Tarleton, you have been in a great 
many actions ; and had a great many escapes!' 
Of the Loyalist refugees in London he writes : 
"When I see the numerous Americans that are to be 
found in this city, many of them once lords of thousands, 
now torturing themselves to subsist upon the scanty stipends 
allowed them in compensation for the loss of their estates, 
I must confess it fills me with compassion. Hitherto I have 
in some measure escaped the wreck of fortunes that so 
many have undergone. At least something, though small, 
remains secure ; and I think myself obliged to risk it no 
longer, and not to involve myself in that want which would 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 165 



throw me into an unwilling and burdensome dependence on 
my father in law \i. e., step-father], for whose virtues I have 
too much regard to wish to add to his sufferings. I doubt not 
you will approve of my intention of returning to Philadelphia, 
and submitting to that authority which is there established. 
Though the step may be in some degree humiliating, yet I 
have nothing to fear, as I have nothing to charge myself with. 
I have in no instance taken a decisive part on either side ; 
unless that voyage to New York, which was the result of 
filial duty, should be urged as a crime.'* 

Young Rawle was advised by his friend Mr. Eden to 
apply to the British Government for a pension, **as a com- 
pensation for the loss of his paternal property, which had 
been confiscated.'' This, however, he positively refused to 
do, or to allow any steps to be taken on his behalf, though 
he was assured by many friends that his application would 
be successful. *' Besides that, the measure would tie me 
down in a manner that I do not approve of," he wrote. "I 
do not think myself entitled by anything I have done to ask 
for and receive that allowance from the Government which 
ought only to be extended to the loyalist who has sacrificed 
his fortune in support of his Sovereign, and who is therefore 
entided on the plainest principles of reason as a recompense 

for it." 

In a letter to his mother from London, dated March 20, 
1782, he says : 

** I have written several times my intention to return to 
America by the way of France. I wished to have heard from 
you on this subject before I left the country, but some intelli- 
gence I received two days since from a friend at Brussels has 
determined me to accelerate the plan, and to give no longer 
into a delay which may prove highly disadvantageous. His 
brother in America, with a kindness for which I shall be 



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l66 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 



eternally obliged to him, desires him to inform me that * hints 
have been given of an intended proscription in which my 
name was likely to appear' — 2. piece of intelligence which 
struck me with surprize, as my conduct has I think been 
altogether irreproachable in a political light, as I have never 
in the smallest degree opposed, but on the contrary highly 
approved at first of, the measures pursued by my country- 
men, and as, if I should be punished for accompanying my 
[step] father, I should be punished for nothing more criminal 
than the exercise of filial duty and affection. I mistakenly 
supposed my voyage to England would be less obnoxious 
than my continuance at New York, as I was certainly more 
likely to imbibe inimical sentiments there than here. Indeed 
I have had very little political conversation since I have been 
in London, as it is by no means such a daily topic as in 
America. That I have fallen into has been chiefly on the 
minority [Whig] side, which the main body of the people, 
particularly the Frie?ids, seems most inclined to. However, 
to wipe ofiF every objection and to refute every charge, which 
I trust I shall be able to do, I propose to leave England very 
speedily and make my appearance in Philadelphia.'' 

Before returning home, however, young Rawle determined 
to visit the continent. After leaving London on April 23, 
he travelled extensively through France, Belgium, and Hol- 
land. Whilst in Paris, he visited Dr. Franklin, and was kindly 
received and entertained by him, upon one of which occasions 
the conversation already quoted took place. At Ostend and 
Boulogne he was unexpectedly detained by the difficulty of 
obtaining a berth on a suitable ship. He sailed from Ostend 
on November 17, and arrived back again in Philadelphia on 
January 17, 1783, after an absence of over four years and 
a half. 

Upon his return home, as Professor Vethake wrote in a 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 167 



biographical sketch of Mr. Rawle, "he immediately declared 
his allegiance to the existing government, to the principles 
of which he had always been sincerely attached, though the 
circumstances in which he was placed had prevented him 
from following the dictates of his own inclination and judg- 
ment/' As Mr. Wharton wrote in the Memoir which has 
been quoted from, ** the circumstances by which Mr. Rawle's 
early life and character were influenced or colored have 
already been adverted to. A deep and abiding sense of 
filial duty estranged him for a time from the govern- 
ment of his native country ; but when he was enabled, 
consistently with that (to him) paramount sentiment, to 
return and take his place as a member of the new com- 
munity, he became with sincerity and earnestness, in heart 
as well as in fact, a republican citizen. He gave in his 
adhesion (to use a modern phase) to the existing govern- 
ment from a sincere opinion of its superiority over those 
founded upon the monarchical principle — an opinion derived 
from a thorough and careful examination of the subject, as 
the writings which he left behind him exhibit.*' 

He resumed his law studies, and was admitted to practice 
in the courts of Philadelphia on September 15, 1783, and on 
the 13th of November following he married Sarah Coates 
Burge, the ** Juliet" already mentioned, **a lady whose 
virtues and accomplishments gladdened nearly forty years 
of his life, and whom he had the misfortune to survive." 
Miss Burge was the daughter of Samuel Burge, a wealthy 
merchant of Philadelphia, who had died in 1779, and Beulah, 
the sister of Samuel Shoemaker. She is said to have been 
a beautiful woman, sprightly and gay in her youth, albeit a 
Quakeress. It is related that notwithstanding the protesta- 
tions of her family, she was present as a guest at the cele- 
brated fete of the Meschianza given in honor of General Sir 



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1 68 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 



William Howe by his officers during the British occupation 
of Philadelphia. The portrait of her which accompanies this 
sketch is taken from Gilbert Stuart's charming painting which 
has been considered one of the best productions of that 
distinguished artist. 

Mr. Rawle, like many others among the great in his pro- 
fession, was slow in obtaining that recognition of his abilities 
which was subsequently accorded him. His first efforts were 
discouraging, and he feared at times that his practice would 
not produce sufficient income to support the simple needs 
of his family. At one time, we are told, he contemplated 
abandoning his profession and devoting himself to agricult- 
ural pursuits, in which he had always delighted. 

Slowly but surely, however, he acquired a reputation. In 
October, 1787, he was chosen a member of the Assembly as 
one of the representatives from Philadelphia, notwithstanding 
his positive refusal to be a candidate, but he would serve no 
longer than the year for which he had been elected. This 
was his first and last appearance upon the stage of political 
life, as he always preferred the distinctions won in the realms 
of his profession. He was a decided Federalist and a per- 
sonal friend and admirer of Washington. The only public 
office which he ever was induced to hold was that of Attorney 
of the United States for the District of Pennsylvania, which 
was conferred upon him by Washington in 1791 without 
solicitation, and voluntarily resigned by him in 1800. Wash- 
ington also offered him the Attorney-Generalship of the 
United States, which, however, he declined to accept. 

Under date of January 3, 1792, he wrote in his journal: 
'' Mr. Lewis having this day resigned the office of Judge of 
the [United States] District Court for Pennsylvania it was 
by order of the President offered to me. Considering my 
time of life, my increasing family, my emoluments and profits 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 169 



at the bar, I thought fit to decb'ne it" He had not then 
reached the age of thirty-three years. 

In 1796 Mr. Rawie was elected one of the Trustees of 
the University of Pennsylvania, holding that office until his 
death, to which duties he applied himself during the period 
of forty, years with zeal and punctuality. For many years 
he was actively connected with the management of the 
Library Company of Philadelphia, at first as secretary, and 
subsequently as a member, of its Board of Directors. His 
public spirit was shown in many other ways. 

In 1787 he joined with some of the most prominent and 
influential men in the community, limited in number to fifty, 
in forming the *' Society for Political Inquiries," which met 
fortnightly in the house of its President, Dr. Franklin, 
for the discussion of matters relating to "Government and 
Political CEconomy." In 1789, he was elected a member 
of the American Philosophical Society, and in 1805 he was 
prominent in the founding of the Pennsylvania Academy of 
the F'ine Arts. 

In 1822 he was made Chancellor of the "Associated Mem- 
bers of the Bar of Philadelphia,'' and upon its union in 1827 
with the ** Law Library Company of Philadelphia *' under the 
corporate name of "The Law Association of Philadelphia," he 
was elected Chancellor of the new institution, and continued 
in that office until his death. He was one of the founders in 
1824 of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, and its first 
president, continuing in that office until his death. In 1830 he 
was appointed, with Thomas I. Wharton and the Hon. Joel 
Jones, to revise the Civil Code of Pennsylvania, and was the 
principal author of the reports of the Commission. He was 
always looked up to as one of Philadelphia's most influential, 
important, and honored citizens, and in later life as the Nestor 
of the Philadelphia Bar. 



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I70 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 



Of Mr. Rawle's writings, that which was periiaps best known 
was A View of the Constitution of the United States (1825), 
which continued to be the chief text-book on that subject for 
nearly forty years. The degree of LL.D. was conferred 
upon him by the College of New Jersey in 1827, and by 
Dartmouth College in 1828. 

Mr. Rawle had for his summer home a charming house and 
twenty-six acres of land which he called ** Harleigh." It was 
situated on the east bank of the Schuylkill about half a mile 
above ** Laurel Hill," his mothers country seat. It is now 
known as South Laurel Hill Cemetery. 

Mr. Wharton, in his memoir, thus refers to some of the 
features of his character : 

" Mr. Rawle was an accomplished jurist, a good scholar, 
and a person of great taste and great general acquirements. 
His reading in early life had been extensive, and he brought 
to his professional studies a discriminating and healthy mind, 
which enabled him to make the best use of what he read. 
His learning was not confined to the jurisprudence of Eng- 
land and America, but extended much deeper into that of 
the ancient and modern law of the Continent of Europe 
than was usual in the last century. His professional busi- 
ness for the twenty years between about 1793 and 18 13 was 
very great and his income large. His name appears in most 
of the important cases of that period, and his arguments 
always commanded the attention and respect of the court. 
His address to a jury was simple in diction, always free from 
unnecessary ornament, but earnest and impressive.'* 

He died at his home in Spruce above Twelfth Street, Phil- 
adelphia, on April 12^ 1836. 

To return to the unfortunate "Loyalist Refugee** who 
was the chief cause of the bringing of so much trouble upon 



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WILLIAM RAWLE. 
(After the portrait painted by Inman in 1831 for the Bar of Philadelphia.) 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 173 



"Laurel HilP' and its former occupants. On November 19, 
1783, a few days before the evacuation of New York by the 
British troops, Samuel Shoemaker and his son Edward, then 
a boy nearly fourteen years of age, sailed from that city for 
England. After an uneventful and speedy voyage they 
landed in Portsmouth on December 29th and reached Lon- 
don on the 31st. Shoemaker's home in London, where he 
remained for nearly three years and a half, was a social 
centre of all that was best among those of his countrymen 
who took advantage of the restoration of peace to visit the 
homes of their ancestors. He was closely thrown also with 
many of those of his own political faith, who, like himself, 
were refugees from their native land. Men of refinement, 
of culture, and of education there mingled with officers of 
high rank and other persons of prominence whom they had 
met in America. Among Shoemaker's valued friends was 
Benjamin West, the artist. It is related that West, when a 
plain country boy living near Philadelphia, had inspired Shoe- 
maker with much interest in the evidences of his artistic 
talent, and that the first painted picture West ever saw had 
been shown to him by Shoemaker. He and other affluent 
citizens of cultured tastes had encouraged West in his early 
crude efforts at painting, and by concerted action made it 
possible for him to go to study in Europe. It was while 
Shoemaker was on a visit to West at Windsor that a memo- 
rable interview between the King, George the Third, and 
himself took place. The latter kept a diary, as has been 
mentioned, for the entertainment of his wife, who remained 
with her daughters in Philadelphia during his absence from 
her. Under date of First day, October 10, 1784, he 
wrote : 

** This morning at 8 '^Clock thy son [Edward] accompanied 
B. West's wife to the King's Chappel where he had the oppor- 



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174 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 



tunity of seeing the King and several of the Princesses. 
They returned before 9 when we were entertained A^ith 
breakfast, at which we had the Company of Mr. Poggy the 
Italian Gent'n, Mr. Trumble * Mr. Farrington,f and West's two 




MRS. JACOB RIDGWAY SMITH (REBECCA SHOEMAKER WHARTON). 
(After Sully's portrait.) 

sons. About 10 thy son accompanied Farrington, Trumble, 
and West's eldest son in a ride through Windsor Forrest, 

* Colonel John Trumbull, the well-known officer of the Revolutionarj' Army, son of Gov- 
ernor Jonathan Trumbull, of Connecticut. He was at this time studying painting under 
West, and afterward became a distinguished artist. 

f George Farrington, a noted English landscape and historical painter. He studied 
under West, removed to India, and died there at the age of 34 years. 



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SAMUEL SHOEMAKER 

AND HIS SON 
EDWARD SHOEMAKER. 

(From the original portrait painted by Thomas Spencer Duche in London, 1784.) 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 177 



having first been with West and I to his Room in the Castle 
to see a picture of the Lord's Supper which he had just 
finished for the King s Chappel. After part of our Company 
were gone to take their Ride, West informed me that the 
King had order'd him to attend at his Painting Room in the 
Castle at one 'Clock, when the King and Queen and some 
of the Princesses, on their return from Chappel, intended to 
call to see the Painting of the Lord's Supper which he had 
just finished, and West told me it would be a very proper 
time and Opportunity for me to see the King, Queen, and 
the rest of the family, as they came from the Chappel, and 
therefore requested me to accompany him and his Wife and 
the Italian Gent'n, and walk at the Castle near the Chap- 
pel, till service was over, when he must repair to his room 
to attend the King, and would leave me with his Wife 
in a proper Station to have a full view of the King and 
family. 

"Accordingly, a little before one O'Clock, West and his 
Wife, the Italian Gent'n and I, walk'd up to the Castle and 
there contin'd walking about till the Clock struck One, when 
we observed one of the Pages coming from the Chappel. 
West then said he must leave us ; presently after this two 
Coaches pass'd and went round towards the Door of the 
Castle leading to West's Room. In these two coaches were 
the Queen and Princesses ; presently after the King appeared, 
attended by his Equer)^ only, and walk'd in great haste, 
almost ran to meet the Coaches at the door of the Castle 
above mentioned, which he reach'd just as the Coaches got 
there, as did West's Wife, the Italian Gent'n and I, when we 
saw the King go to the Door of the Coach in which the 
Queen was, and heard him say, ' / have got here in time' and 
then handed the Queen out, and up the Steps, into the Castle 
— the Princess Royal, Princess Elizabeth, Princess Mary, and 



43 



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178 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 

Princess Sophia, with Col. Goldsworthy the King s Equery, 
the Hanoverian Resident, and Miss Goldsworthy, sub Gov- 
ness to the two young Princesses, followed. They all went 
into the Castle, when I hear'd the King say, * tell him to come 
in,' but little did I think I was tlie Person meant, and West's 
Wife, the Italian Gent*n, and I were about going off, when 
West came out of the Castle and told me the King had 
ordered him to come out and bring me and Mrs. West in. 
I was quite unprepard for this; however, it was now too 
late to avoid it. The Italian Gent'n now left us and went to 
walk the Terras, and West and his wife and I went into the 
Castle and were ushered up to the Room where the King . 
and Royal family were, and there introduced. Flattered and 
embarrassed thou may suppose, on my entering the Room, the 
King came up close to me, and very graciously said, * Mr. 
S. you are well known here, every body knows you,* &c., 
(complimentary w'ch I can't mention). He then turned to the 
Queen, the Princesses, &c., who stood close by, and repeated, 
* Mr. S.' I then made my bow to the Queen, then to the 
Princess Royal, to the Princess Eliza., Princesses Mary and 
Sophia. The Queen and each of the Princesses were pleased 
to drop a Curtesy, and then the Queen was pleased to ask 
me one or two Questions ; the King and Queen and the four 
Princesses, the Hanoverian Resident, Col. Goldsworthy, Miss 
Goldsworthv, West and his Wife and I were all that were in the 
Room. The King condescended to ask me many questions, 
and repeated my answers to them to the Queen and to the 
Hanoverian Resident, and when to the latter, I observed he 
spoke it in German, which I understood. Among other 
Questions, the King was pleased to ask me the reason why 
the Province of Pennsylvania was so much further advanced 
in improvement than the neighboring ones, some of which 
had been settled so many years earlier. I tol.d his Majesty 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY. 179 

(thinking it w'd be a kind of Compliment to the Queen's 
Countrymen) that I thought it might be attributed to the 
Germans, great numbers of whom had gone over in the 
early part of the settlement of that Province, as well as since. 
The King smiled and said, ' It may be so, Mr. S., it may in 
some measure be owing to that, but I will tell you the true 
cause, — the great improvement and flourishing State of Penn- 
sylvania is principally owing to the Quakers ' (this was a full 
return for my compliment to the Queen's Countrymen) for 
whom I observe the King has a great regard. Finding the king 
so repeatedly mention'd what I said to the Hanov'n Resident 
and to the Queen 171 German, on the King s asking me a 
particular question, I took the liberty to answer in German, 
at which the King seemed pleased, and with a smiUy turned 
to the Queen and said, ' Mr. S. speaks German,* and also 
mentioned it to the Hanoverian Resident, after which the 
King was pleased to speak to me several times in German. 
Then the Queen condescended to ask me several Questions, 
one of the last, whether I had a family. On my telling her 
that I was once bless'd with a numerous family, but that it 
had pleased Providence to remove them all from me, except 
a Wife and two Sons, this visibly touched the Queen's delicate 
feelings, so much that she shed some Tears, at which I was 
greatly affected. She is a charming woman, and if not 
a Beauty, her manners and disposition are so pleasing that 
no Person who has the Opportunity that I have had can avoid 
being charm'd with the sweetness of her disposition. The 
Princess Royal is pretty, has a charming Countenance indeed ; 
the Princess Elizabeth very agreeable, but rather too fat or 
bulky for her height. Mary and Sophia are pretty, but being 
so young their looks will alter. 

** After my being graciously indulged with the opportunity 
of conversing with the King and Queen, and being in the 



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i8o LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 

Room with them three-quarters of an hour, they all departed 
and went to the Queen's House. 

**I cannot say but I wished some of my violent Country- 
men could have such an opportunity as I have had. I think 
they would be convinced that George the third has not one 
grain of Tyrany in his Composition, and that he is not, he 
cannot be that bloody minded man they have so repeatedly 
and so illiberally called him. It is impossible ; a man of his 
fine feelings, so good a husband, so kind a Father, cannot be 
a Tyrant, 

"After the Royal family were gone, West and his Wife 
and I returned to West's house where we were soon join'd 
by the Italian Gent'n and those who had been out Riding, 
and at three O'clock were entertained at a genteel Dinner 
and spent the afternoon and evening together very pleasantly 
till II 'Clock when we retir'd to Bed. This happens to be B. 
West's birthday; he has now enter'd his forty-seventh year." 

As the animosities engendered by the War had subsided 
to a considerable extent, Shoemaker and his son Edward 
sailed homeward from England on April 21, 1786, and arrived 
in New York on May 27th. They at once went to Burling- 
ton, New Jersey, where Mrs. Shoemaker met them. There 
they resided for a while and then moved to Philadelphia, where, 
and at ** Laurel Hill," they happily lived in peace and quiet- 
ness. During his later years his means had become much 
straitened by reason of the losses he had suffered owing to 
his loyalty to the King, but these were in a measure recouped 
by the compensation voted to him by the British Parliament. 
He seems to have made a favorable impression upon the 
King, for in 1787, **as a token of the high respect His 
Majesty had for his character," Mr. Shoemaker, after his 
return to America, received from him a copy of a very 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, i8i 

scarce engraving by Sir Robert Strange of West's painting of 
the " Apotheosis of the King's Children Octavius and Alfred." 
Mr. Shoemaker died in Philadelphia on October lo, 1800, 
" in the seventy sixth year of his age, after a short illness, 
which he bore with Christian and manly fortitude. 'Samuel 
Shoemaker Esquire," as a published obituary notice of him 
continues, **was highly respected by all who had the advant- 
age of cultivating his acquaintance, not only on account of 
his private virtues, but of his unshaken integrity and firm- 
ness in the arduous administration of various public duties, 
to which he was called, in the most critical times, by the 
approving voice of his Countrymen, to exercise his great tal- 
ents, on the most important occasions ; in particular, before 
the late revolution, he executed the office of Mayor of Philadel- 
phia, in a manner which reflected reputation upon his charac- 
ter, and dignity on those who appointed him to fill that honor- 
able station. During the existence of the revolutionary war, 
he was continued the first Magistrate of the Police of Phila- 
delphia, by an appointment from the King of Great Britain, 
to whom he never forfeited his fidelity; but, in the execution 
of his office he proved that Loyalty to his Sovereign was 
not incompatible with acts of friendship, civility and kindness 
to the inhabitants of his native city ; for the truth of this we 
can appeal to the memory of numbers yet living who received 
marks of his attention : — they will not fail to acknowledge it, 
when their memory awakens to the recollection of the services 
he rendered them, abstracted from that spirit of envy, which 
the fervor of political opposition too often engenders. Few 
have distinguished themselves more than he has done in 
private life, by an affable, courteous and obliging behavior 
to all his neighbors, and none have sustained with greater 
propriety in their families the amiable character of an affec- 
tionate husband, father and friend." 



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i82 LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 

Mrs. Shoemaker survived her second husband nineteen 
years, surrounded by her devoted children, grandchildren, 
and great-grandchildren. She died at her home, in Sansom 
below Eighth Street, Philadelphia, on December 21, 18 19. 
A writer of an obituary notice of her, published in one of 
the Philadelphia journals of the time, wrote: — "The grave 
ought not to close over the remains of this excellent and 
admirable woman without some public memorial of her life 
and character. A life which, protracted beyond the usual 
term allotted to our species, and passed amid trials and 
vicissitudes of no ordinary nature, was marked by the 
exercise of every virtue, and a character so entirely fault- 
less, so free from even the trivial blemishes of human 
nature, that to know her, and not to love and respect her, 
was impossible. It is seldom indeed that such a mind and 
such a heart have been joined in any individual, and still 
more rarely has Providence permitted them to continue unim- 
paired to such an age. The intellectual faculties of Mrs. 
Shoemaker were in every stage of her life remarkable. 
Her understanding, originally clear and powerful, was im- 
proved by a thorough acquaintance with books and mankind. 
She had read and observed much ; her memory was uncom- 
monly retentive, and never perhaps was any mind less clouded 
by prejudice. These circumstances, with a native grace of 
manner, rendered her conversation unusually attractive to 
the last moment of her existence. Over her warm and 
generous heart too, age had stolen with light and printless 
feet. Nothing of the selfishness, nothing of the moroseness, 
none of the gloom, which often accompany advanced years, 
existed in her. The moral sensibility which time (happily 
perhaps for mankind) almost always deadens, was in her 
undiminished and unaltered. The interest she felt for her 
numerous descendants, (of whom she lived to see the third 



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LAUREL HILL AND THE RAWLE FAMILY, 183 

generation) was deep, tender and anxious, and it was requited 
by those who were the objects of it, with all that * honour, 
love and obedience ' of which the great poet speaks as the 
dues and accompaniments of old age. To this imperfect 
sketch of the character of one so truly lamented, it may be 
added, that she was sincerely and unaffectedly pious, and 
without the slightest taint of bigotry or austerity/* 

"Laurel Hill," the old Rawle homestead, long since passed 
out of the ownership of the family. In 1828 it was sold by 
William Rawle to Dr. Physic from whom it subsequently 
passed to the Randolphs. In 1869 the property was taken 
into Fairmount Park. It is now owned by the City of 
Philadelphia, and under its care the house will long continue 
to stand, we hope, as a reminder of those eventful days of 
the American Revolution. 



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DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RAWLE. OF PHILA- 
DELPHIA. 

Francis Rawle of Philadelphia and " Swead Land " (son of Francis Rawle of Philadel- 
phia, formerly of Plymouth, England, and Jane, his wife, and grandson of William 
Rawle of St. Juliot, Cornwall, England,) emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1686 with his 
father, who died in Philadelphia, 12 mo. 23, 1696-7. His mother, Jane Rawle, died in 
Philadelphia, and was buried 12 mo. 9, 1695-6. Francis Rawle the younger married, 
Philadelphia, 8 mo. 18, 1689, Martha, daughter of Robert Turner of Philadelphia, 
formerly of Dublin, Ireland, and died in Philadelphia, 5 March (l mo.), 1726-27; 
Martha Rawle was born 7 mo. 24, 1668 and died in Philadelphia 18 July, 1745. (See 
preceding Sketch.) 

Children of Francis Rawle and Martha Turner^ his loife : 
Robert, d. 1730, unmarried. 
Francis, removed to Surinam, where he married Margaret Fickes of Paramarilx), 

26 Sept., 1733, and died there 14 May, 1779, leaving issue. 
William, m. Margaret Hodge. (See l)elow.) 
Joseph, removed to Somerset Co., Md. ; d. there 1762, unmarried. 
John, d. 1759, unmarried. 

Benjamin, m. Hannah Hudson. (See Table A^J>ost.) 
Mary, m. William Cooper of Camden, New Jersey, d., leaving a dau., Rebecca, 

who d. before 1761, unmarried. 
Rebecca, who was buried 10 mo. 2, 1 759, unmarried. 
Elizabeth, who was buried 8 mo. 19, 1758, unmarried. 
Jane, m. Abraham England, d. s. p. 

"William Rawle of Philadelphia, third son of Francis and Martha, married there, 6 mo. 29, 
1728, Margaret Hodge, daughter of Henry Hodge of Philadelphia, merchant. She 
died there and was buried 6 mo. 12, 1729. William Rawle died there and was buried 
10 mo. 16, 1 741. (See preceding Sketch.) 

Child of PVilliam Rawle and Margaret Hodge^ his wife : 

Francis, b. 10 July (5 mo.), 1729; m. Rebecca Warner. (See next.) 

Francis Rawle of Philadelphia and " laurel Hill," son of William and Margaret, born in 
Philadelphia, 10 July, 1729; married there, December, 1756, Rebecca, daughter of 
Edward Warner; he died there 7 June, 1761. She married there, secondly, 10 Nov., 
1767, Samuel Shoemaker of Philadelphia, who died there 10 Oct., 1800. She died 
there 21 Dec, 1819. (See preceding Sketch.) 

Children of Francis Rawle and Rebecca IVarftery his wife : 
Anna, m. John Clifford. (See Table My post.) 
184 



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DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RA WLE. 185 



William, b. 4 mo. 28, 1759; m. Sarah Coates iJurge. (See below.) 
Mnrgaret, m. Isaac Wharton. (See Table il^post.) 

William Rawle of Philadelphia and •* Harleigh," son of Francis and Rebecca, bom in 
Philadelphia, 4 mo. 28, 1759; married, Philadelphia, IJ mo. 13. 1783, Sarah Coates 
Hurge, daughter of Samuel and Beulah (Shoemaker) Burge. She was born 13 Nov., 
1 761, and died, Philadelphia, 14 Sept., 1 824. He died there, 12 April, 1836. (See 
preceding Skefch.) 

Children of William Rawle and Sarah Coates Burge^ his wife : 

Elizabeth Margaret, b. Philadelphia, 15 Oct., 1784; d. 23 June, 1794. 
Francis William, b. Philadelphia, 27 Jan., 1786; d. 15 Sept., 1795. 
Samuel Burge, b. Philadelphia, I July, 1787; m. Ann Wain. (See below.) 
William, b. Philadelphia, 19 July, 1788; m. Mary .Anna Tilghman. (See below.) 
Beulah, b. Philadelphia, 25 March, 1790; d. s. p. 7 July, 1876; m., 23 May, 1 839, 
William Craig of Philadelphia, who d. 14 July, 1869. She was his second wife. 
Rebecca Shoemaker, b. Philadelphia, 20 Feb., 1792; d. unm., 26 Sept., 1814. 
Sarah, b. Philadelphia, 7 Jan., 1794; d., unm., II Sept., 1822. 
Francis William, b. Philadelphia, 28 Sept., 1795; m. Ix>uisa Hall. (See below.) 
Bxlward, b. Germantown, 22 Sept., 1797; m. Appolina S. Claiborn Saul. (See 

below.) 
Henry, b. '» Harlei<;h," lo July, 1799; graduated 1815 A. B. (U. of P.); d. unm., 

2 June, 1816. 
Horatio of Philadelphia Bar, b. Philadelphia, 20 March, 1801, d., unm., 25 Jan., 

1830. 
Juliet, b. "Harleigh," 26 Aug., 1804; m. Rev. William Herbert Norris. (See 
below.) 

Sami'kl Burc.e Rawle, son of William and .Sarah C, bom in Philadelphia, i July, 1787. 
He was a merchant in Philadelphia, and subsequently in China, and U. S. Consul at 
Hong Kong and Macao; died at Macao, 2 September, 1858. He married, Philadel- 
phia, 2 January, 181 1, Ann, daughter of Jesse Wain. She died there 26 October, 1875. 

Children of Samuel Burge Rawle and Ann IValn^ his wife : 

William, b. Philadelphia, 12 Nov., 1811, merchant, d. Mobile, Alabama, I Sept., 
1S40; m., lima, Peru, 12 Nov., 1831, Maria, dau. of Count Jose KIcorrobarutia 
of Lima, and had (surname Rawle) : 

Emilia, b. Lima, 29 Aug., 1835; m., Hong Konjj, i June, 1852, Charles 
Delano Williams, merchant, formerly of Boston, who d. Hong Kong, 26 
March, 1 87 1. No ii^sue. 
Ann Isabel, b. Lima, 9 Nov. 1836; d. Singajx)re, 18 Feb., 1855 ; m. Macao, 
15 Jan., 1854, Walter Henry Medhurst, afterward knighted, British Consul 
at Fou Chou. No is.«iue. 
Samuel Perit, b. Philadelphia, 3 April, 1837; m., St. Ix)uis, 24 Oct.. 1864, 
Jane, dau. of (Jeorge Newbury, and had (surname Rawle) : 
Isalxfl, b. St. lx)uis, I May, 1865. 
Francis, b. St. lx)uis, 3 April, 1867. 
Jane Emilia, b. Newark, N. J., 23 Dec, 1871. 



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l86 DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RA WLE, 

Francis William, b. Philadelphia, ii April, 1839, of Newark, N. J. 
Rebecca, b. Mobile, 29 April, 1842: ni. (1st), Singa|X)re, I Sept., 1859, 
George Williams, formerly of Boston, merchant, and (2d) Lima, Teru, 28 
Dec, 1867, Professor J. Arnaldo Manjue^. By her second husband, she 
had (surname Marquez): 

Juanita Isabelita, b. 26 Dec, 1877. 
Mary Wharton, b. 12 Jan. 181 3, d. Philadelphia, unm., i Feb., 1886. 
Rebecca Shoemaker, b. 28 March, 1814; d. Philadelphia, 14 Nov., 1892; m., ii 
Sept., 1833, James Smith I^wis of Philadelphia, and had (surname l^wis) : 
Ann Emily, b. 5 July, 1834; m. William Hay, M. D. of Clark Co., Va., Lieut. 
** Stonewall Brigade " and Surg., C. S. A., who d. I June, 1864. They had 
(surname Hay): 

James, b. 9 Jan., 1856; M. C. from Va., m. ( ist), Constance Tatem of 
Richmond, Va. ; m. (2d), Fanny (iordon of. same city. He had 
issue by both marriages. 
William, b. 20 May, 1857; d. 3 July, 1857. 
(ieorge Burwell, b. 27 July, i860; d. 20 Dec, 1861. 
Nathaniel Burwell, b. 7 May, 1863; d. Sept., 1894. 
Charles, b. 3 Feb., 1836; d. 21 Aug., 1837. 

Samuel Burge Rawle, b. 3 Sept., 1838; d. s. p. Shanghai, China, 29 Oct., 1881. 
William Rawle, b. 23 Sept., 1840; d. I July, 1841. 

Mordecai of Clarksburg, W. Va., b. 20 June, 1843; served in 2<1 Va. Inf., 
".Stonewall Brigade," C. .S. A.; m., 21 Feb., 1871, Myra Haymond of 
Clarksburg, and had (surname l^wis) : 
William Hay, b. 22 March, 1872. 
Wirt, b. 10 Nov., 1876. 
James, b. 18 Jan., 1846; d. 20 July, 1847. 
Francis Rawle, b. 9 June, 1848; d. 27 Jan, 1849. 

Josephine, b. 22 Feb., 1856; m., Wilmington, Del., Nov., 1891, Theodore D. 
Trapier of Charleston, S. C. 
Burge, b. 29 July, 1815; d. 6 Aug., 1815. 

Elizal>eth Margaret, b. 30 Oct., 181 7; d. Philadelphia, 3 July, 1883; m. there, 
16 July, 1835, Thomdike Deland of New Vork, merchant, formerly of Salem, 
.Mass. He died 18 April, 1890. They had (surname Deland) : 
Annie Rawle. 
Thorndike, d. 1 884. 
Laura Carlile. 

Horace, m. Frances Emily Monroe of Englewood, N. J. 

Mary Rawle, m. J. Randall Williams of Philadelphia, now of Haverford, Pa., 
and had (surname Williams) : 

Elizabeth Deland, b. 18 April, 187 1. 

Susan Randall, b. 14 Aug., 1872. 

Ellen Poultney, b. 17 .Sept., 1874, 

J. Randall, b. 8 April, 1878. 

Maud Rawle, b. 21 Oct., 1881 ; d. 3 Oct.. 1891. 

Thomdike, b. 19 July, 1S86. 



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DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RAWLE, 187 

Rawle, m. Ella Wheelwright of Jioston, Mass. 
Ellen Douglass. 

William Rawi.k, born in Philadelphia, 19 July, 1788, son of William and Sarah C; edu- 
cated at Princeton College; admitted to Philadelphia Bai% 21 May, 1810. During the 
War of 1812 he served as Captain of the Second Troop, Philadelphia City Cavalry. He 
was an eminent lawyer, and Reporter of Decisions of Supreme Court of Pennsyl- 
vania. He served as a member of Common Council of Philadelphia, being president 
for four years, member of the American Philosophical Society, one of the founders, 
and Vice-President of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Secretary and afterward 
Director of the Library Company of Philadelphia, and a Trustee of the University of 
Pennsylvania. He died at his son's country-seat in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 
9 August, 1858. He married, Philadelphia, 7 October, 1817, Mary Anna, daughter of 
Edward Tilghman of Philadelphia, and granddaughter of Chief Justice Benjamin 
Chew. She died in Philadelphia, 4 February, 1878. 

Children of William Rinvle and Alaty Anna Tilghman^ his wife : 

Elizabeth Tilghman, b. Philadelphia, 16 July, 1818; d. there, 10 April, 1897; m. 
there, 18 June, 1840, Charles Wallace Brooke of the Philadelphia Bar, who died 
there, 22 Oct., 1849, and had (surname Brooke) : 

Elizabeth Tilghman, b. Philadelphia, 7 July, 1841 ; d. there, 28 Sept., 1894, 

unm. 
William Rawle (who by legal authority took the name of William Brooke 
Rawle), b. Philadelphia, 29 Aug., 1843; A. M. (U. of P.); served during 
the American Civil War as lieutenant and afterward captain in Third 
Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry from 1863 to 1 865 ; brevet major, and brevet 
lieutenant-colonel. U. S. Vols. ; admitted to Philadelphia Bar, 18 May, 1867; 
member of American Philosophical and other learned, literar\', military, and 
patriotic societies; m., F^hiladelphia, 7 Feb., 1872, Elizabeth Norris, dau. 
of Henry Pepper. 
Charlotte, b. Philadelphia, 9 Feb., 1846; d. there, 21 Nov., 1885, unm. 
Charies Wallace, b. Philadelphia, 22 Feb., 1848; d. there, 17 Nov., 1854. 
William Henry, b. in Philadelphia, 31 Aug., 1823; d. there, 19 April, 1889; A. M., 
and LL.D. (U. of P.); admitted to the Philadelphia Bar 12 Oct., 1844. He 
was a distinguished lawyer and author of a number of legal works ; Secretary 
and afterward Director of the Library Company of Philadelphia; Vice-Chan- 
cellor of The Law Association of Philadelphia; member, of the American 
Philosophical and other learned and literary societies. He m. (ist), Phila- 
delphia, 13 Sept., 1849, Mary Binney, dau. of Hon. John Cadwalader of Phila- 
delphia. She d. there, 26 May, 1861. They had (surname Rawle) : 

Mary Cadwalader, b. Philadelphia, 12 Dec, 1850; m. there, 24 March, 1870, 
Frederic Rhinelander Jones of New York, and had (surname Jones) : 
I^atrix Cadwalader. 
William, b. Philadelphia, 3 Sept., 1855; d. there, 25 April, i860. 
Edith, b. Philadelphia, 29 April, 1861 ; m., Trenton, N. J., 20 Oct., 1883, 
Louis (lodfrey Rousseau, M. D. of Pittsburg, Pa., and had (surname 
Rousseau) : 



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l88 DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RA WLE. 



Marie Clarisse. 
William Henry Kawle m. (2d), Trenton, N. J., 7 Oct., 1869, Emily, dau. of Gen. 
Thomas Cadwalader of Trenton and Philadelphia. She d. s. p. Philadelphia, 
24 Nov., 1892. 

Francis William Rawle, born in Philadelphia, 28 September, 1795, son of William and 
Sarah C. ; A. M. (U. of P.); Lieutenant in Washington Guards of Philadelphia in 
War of 1812; became a civil engineer, and afterward an iron-master in Mifflin and 
Huntingdon Counties, Pa. He was at one time Lay Judge of ClearHeld County, Pa. ; 
died at his country-seat "Fairfield," Lycoming County, Pa., 27 October, 1881. ile 
married, at " Hardwicke" near Lancaster, Pa., 16 December, 1828, Louisa, daughter of 
Charles Hall of Sunbury, Pa., by his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Coleman of 
Lancaster and Cornwall, Pa. Mrs. Rawle died 13 April, 1884. 

Childrgn of Francis William RazvU ami Louisa Hall, his wifi : 
Charles of Lycoming Co., Pa., b. Sunbury, Pa., 14 June, 1 830; d. So. Bethlehem, 
Pa., 17 Jan., 1891 ; m., 18 Nov., 1868, Mary, dau. of Oliver Watson of 
Williamsport, Pa., and had (surname Rawle) : 
James, b. 6 Sept., 1 869. 
WiUiam, b. Oct.. 1871 ; d. March, 1873. 
Juliet, b. 25 April, 1874. 
Henry of •' Fairfield," Lycoming Co., Pa., b. Mifflin Co., Pa., 21 Aug., 1833; civil 
engineer Pennsylvania Railroad, principal assistant engineer Western Division 
Sunbury and Erie R. R. ; Mayor of Erie, 1874-76; Treasurer of the State of 
Pennsylvania, 1876-78; m. (ist), 20 Dec, i860, Harriet G., dau. of Charles 
M. Reed of Erie. She d. 23 Oct., 1869. They had (surname Rawle) : 
Alice Reed, m. Henry Laussat Geyelin, and had issue. 
Marion lx>uisa, m, Thomas Paton of New York. 
Henry Rawle m. (2d), 1 1 Feb., 1890, Encie, dau. of Judge John W. Maynard 
of Williamsport, Pa. 
William, b. 21 Jan., 1835; ^- ^larch, 1846. 

Emily, b. Mifflin Co., Pa., 10 April, 1838; m., 27 June, 1861, Rev. Albra Wadleigh, 
Rector of St. Luke's church, Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa., who d. 25 May, 
1873. They had (surname Wadleigh) : 

Francis Rawle, b. 25 Oct., 1 863; m. Mariana Rogers of Petersburg, Va. 
Atherton Blight, b. i April, 1867 ; m. Clara Whyte of Petersburg, Va. 
Henry Rawle, b. 31 Oct., 1871. 
Anne Caroline, b. 12 March, 1840; d. July, 1844. 

James of "Castlefin," Delaware Co., Pa., b. Lancaster, Pa., 15 Nov., 1842; 
A. M. (U. of P.); Civil engineer; Treasurer Brill Car Co., Philadelphia.; First 
Lieutenant First Troop, Philadelphia City Cavalry; President Radnor Hunt; 
m., 29 Nov., 1 87 1, Charlette Collins, dau. of Charles Collins Parker, M. D. 
They had (surname Rawle) : 

Francis William, b. 22 Sept., 1873; A. b. (Williams), LL.B. (U. of P. and 

Harvard). Admitted to Philadelphia Bar 9 July, 1898. 
Edward Peace, b. 4 May, 1876. Private First Troop, Philadelphia City 
Cavalry in W^ar with .S})aiu (Porto Rico), 1898. 



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DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RA WLE. 189 



Edith, b. 31 Aug., 1878. 

Louisa, b. 30 July, 1879. 
Francis of Philadelphia; b. Mifflin Co., Pa., 7 Aug., 1846; A. M. and LL.B. (Har- 
vard); admitted to Philadelphia Bar 4 Nov., 1871 ; Treasurer of the American 
Bar Association since 1878; Overseer Harvard University since 1 890; m., 25 
Nov., 1873, Margaretta C, dau. of James M. Aertsen of Germantown, Phila- 
delphia. She d. Philadelphia, 29 May, 1894. They had (surname Rawle) : 

James Aertsen, b. 29 Aug., 1874; d. 31 Aug., 1893. 

Francis, b. 19 Feb., 1876. Private First Troop, Philadelphia City Cavalry in 
War with Spain (Porto Rico), 1898. 

Pereifor Frazer, b. 7 Feb., 1878; d. 22 Feb., 1882. 

Russell Davenport, b. 15 Feb., 1882; d. 6 Aug., 1882. 

Harry Romeyn, b. 8 Oct., 1883. 

Edward Rawle, bom in Germantown, Philadelphia, 22 September, 1797, son of William 
and Sarah C. ; A, M. (U. of P.); admitted to the Philadelphia Bar 2 January, 1823; 
removed to New Orleans, and admitted to the bar there, 19 April, 1824; Associate Judge 
of the City Court, 1825. From 1839 to 1846 he was Attorney of the Second Municipality 
and President of the School Board. He died in New Orleans, 4 November, 1880. He 
married. New Orleans, 19 April, 1827, Appolina S. Claibom Saul, daughter of Joseph 
Saul of New Orleans. She died there, 27 February, 1844. 

Children of Edward Ra^vU and Appolina S. C. Saul, his wife : 
Mary Josephine, b. New Orleans, 3 Feb., 1828; d. 10 Nov., 1829. 
Edward William of Coushatta, La., b. Jefferson Parish, La., 22 July, 1829; served 
as Captain C. S. A. ; m., Shreveport, La., 2 Dec, 1880, Virginia G. Frazer, 
nei Sprawls, and had issue (surname Rawle) : 

Edward Hill, b. Claibom Parish, 1^., 16 May, 1882. 
Mary Roseline, b. Natchitoches, La., 15 Nov., 1885. 
Mary Josephine, b. 9 Nov., 1831 ; m. 14 May, 1856, Charles J. I^eeds of New 
Orleans, who d. June, 1898. They had (surname Leeds) : 
Lina Rawle, b. 10 March, 1 857; d. 3 Aug., 1891. 
Edith, b. 30 Jan., 1859. 
Helen, b. 14 June, 1 861. 

Charles Thomas, b. 16 Oct., 1863; d. 29 Sept., 1894. 
Ada, b. 8 Dec, 1865. 
Bertha, b. 28 Jan., 1868. 
Olivia, d. I Aug., 1869. 
Ruth, b. 27 Jan., 1873. 
Juliet, b. 26 July, 1833; d. New Orleans, 6 May, 1834. 
Francis of New Orieans, La., b. there, 26 July, 1835 ; served as Major on staff of 

the Ix>uisiana Brigade, C. S. A. 
John of Natchez, Miss., b. Plaquemine Parish, La., 21 Aug., 1837 ; entered C. S. A. 
as a private in the Ix>uisiana Guards, and .served as Major and Chief of Artillery 
on the stafis of Generals Polk, Forest, and Wheeler; and Chief of Staff of Dist. 
of Alabama. He married, Natchez, 14 Jan., 1867, Elizabeth Helen, dau. of 
Frederick Stanton of Natchez, and had (surname Rawle) : 



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190 DESCENDAN7S OF FRANCIS RA WLE. 



Juliet, b. 19 Oct., 1867 ; m., 16 April, 1890, Lewis Randolph Martin of 

Natchez, son of Major-General W. T. Martin, C. S. A. 
Bessie, b. 29 July, 1868; m., 17 Dec, 1890, William Conner Manin of 

Natchez, son of Major-General W. T. Martin, C. S. A. 
Ethel, b. 21 Aug., 1870; m., 4 Oct., 1893, Farar Conner Martin of Natchez, 

son of Major-General W. T. Martin, C. S. A. 
Hulda, b. 24 Sept., 1873; m., 21 Oct., 1896, Douglass Starke Bisland of 

Natchez. 
John, I). Natchez, ii .Sept., 1875; served as Courier of Gen. Fitzhugh l>ee 

in War with Spain (Cuba), 1898. 
Georgine, b. i Sept., 1877; d. 6 March, 1878. 
Cecil, b. II Nov., 1887. 
Appolina, b. July, 1839; ^- 29 May, 1842. 

Julia, b. 5 July, 184I ; m., 23 Jan., 1866, James Buckncr, of New Orleans, and had 
(surname Buckner) : 
Francis. 

Helen, m. William Brand. 
Henry. 

Laura, m., Nov., 1895, Newton Kearny. 
James. 
Frederick. 
Rawle. 
Euslis. 
Archilmld. 
^ Julia. 
Christine. 

Juliet Rawle, b. "Harleigh," near Philadelphia, 26 Augu.st, 1804. daughter of William 
and Sarah C. ; died Philadelphia, 20 October, 1883; m., I Oct., 1839, Rev. William 
Herbert Norris of Alexandria, Virginia, afterward Rector of Christ Church, Woodbury, 
New Jersey, who died at Philadelphia, 18 February, 1880. 

Children of Rev. William Herbert Norris and Juliet Rawle^ his wife : 

Edward Carlyle, b. Alexandria, Va., 21 June, 1841 ; A. B. (Trin. Hartford) ; served 
in the American Civil War as Lieutenant and Captain Seventy-first Pennsylvania 
Volunteer Infantry, wounded in battle of Antietam and d. of wound, Philadel- 
phia, May 12, 1863, unm. 
Herbert of Philadelphia, M. D., b. Carlisle, Pa., 12 June, 1843; ™» Philadelphia, 
3 June, 1886, Elizabeth Gibson, daughter of John George Ogilvie. She d. s. p., 
Philadelphia, May 24, 1893. 
PVancis Rawle, b. Carlisle, Pa., 14 Feb., 1845; d. Woodbury, N. J., 24 Nov., 1862. 



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DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RAWLE, 191 



DESCENDANTS OF BENJAMIN RAWLE (SON OF FRANCIS RAWLE AND 
MARTHA TURNER, HLS WIFE) AND HANNAH HUDSON, HIS WIFE. 

Benjamin Rawle of Philadelphia, merchant, d. 1784; m. Hannah, daughter of William 
Hudson of Philadelphia, and had (surname Rawle) : 

Children of Benjamin Rawle and Hannah Hudson^ his ivife : 
Robert Turner, d. s. p. 
William Hudson, d. inf. 

Rebecca, m. Jacob Ridgway of Philadelphia, merchant, nnd had (surname 
Ridgway) : 

Susan, m. (ist) Thomas Roach and (2d) J. Rhea Barton, M. I). She d. s. p. 
Phcebe Ann, m. James Rush, M. D. She d. 1857, s. p. 
Benjamin, d. unm. 

John Jacob of Paris, France, m. Elizabeth, dau. of Richard Willing of Phila- 
delphia, merchant, and had (surname Ridgway) : 

Emily, m. Etienne, Comte de Ganay of France and had (surname 
de Ganay) : 

Marguerite F)lizabeth, m. Arthur O'Connor and ha.l issue. 
Charles Anne Jean Ridgway. 
Jacques Andr6. 

Charlotte Gabriellc Madeleine. 
G6rard. 
('harles Henry. 
Caroline, d. unm. 

B. 

DESCENDANTS OF JOHN CLIFFORD AND ANNA R.\WLE, HIS WIFE 
(DAUGHTER OF FRANCIS RAWLE AND REBECCA WARNER, HIS 
WIFE). 

Anna Rawle was born in Philadelphia, 30 October, 1757; died there in July, 1828; 
married there, 16 September, 1783, to John Clifford of Philadelphia and "Clifford Farm," 
merchant, who died 10 mo., 1821. 

Children of yohn Clifford and Anna A'awle, his 7vife : 
Rebecca, b. 9 mo., 1787; d. 12 mo. 30, 1 791. 
Thomas, b. 1 788; d. ii mo., 1795. 
Elizabeth, b. 1789; d 12 mo., 1792. 
Rebecca, m. John Pemberton. (See next.) 

Rebecca Clifford, born i January, 1792, daughter of John Clifford and Anna Rawle, his 
wife; died 17 August, 1869; m., 15 July, 1812, John Pemberton of Philadelphia, mer- 
chant. He died 12 January, 1847. 



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192 DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RA WLE, 

Chiidren of yohn Pembeiion and Rebecca Clifford^ his wife : 
Israel Pemberton of Philadelphia, merchant, born ii May, 1813; A. M. (U. of P.); 
d. 13 September, 1 885, unmarried. 

John Clifford Pemberton, born 10 August, 1814; graduated West Point Military 
Academy, 1837 ; Lieut. -Gen., C. S. A. ; died 13 July, 1881 ; married, 18 January, 184S, 
Martha O., daughter of William Henry Thompson of NorfoHc, Virginbt, and had (sur- 
name Pemberton) : 

Martha, b. 14 Jan., 1850 ; m. (ist), 7 Jan., 1874, John C. Baylor of Norfolk, Va., 
who d. 13 Jan., 1879. They had (surname Baylor) : 
Mary Rowland, b. 27 Jan., 1875. 
Martha Pemberton, b. April, 1876; d. 29 May, 1878. 
She m. (2d), 14 Dec, 1880, Isidore Hermann, M. I)., and had (surname 
Hermann) : 

Leopold Clarence, b. 23 July, 1882. 
Mary, b. 2 Sept., 185 1 ; d. 9 Sept., 1853. 
John Clifford of New York City, b. 31 Jan., 1853. 

William Henry, b. 15 Dec, 1854; d. I Aug., 1885 ; m., 23 Dec. 1880, Jane 
Crowell of Perth Amboy, N. J., and had (surname Pemberton) : 
Daughter, d. inf. 
William H. T., b. 3 Feb., 1885. 
Francis Rawie of New York City, b. 3 May, 1856; m., 2$ June, 1890, Josephine 
Stanard, dau. of Judge William H. Lyons of Richmond, Va., and had (surname 
Pemberton) : 

John Cliflford, b. 13 May, 1 893. 
Francis Rawle, b. i Oct., 1894. 
William Lyons, b. 16 April, 1897. 
Anna, b, 6 Sept., 1858. 
A child b. July, 1862; d. inf. 

Anna Clifford Pemberton, bom 17 Mi^, i8i6j died 28 June, 1884V m., 12 October, 
1848, Samuel Lovering Hollingsworth, M. D., who died 14 December, 1872. They had 
(surname Hollingsworth) : 

Clifford, b. 20 Aug., 1849; d. 20 April, 1853. 
Samuel, b. 13 Dec, 1851; d. 20 April, 1853. 

Rebecca Clifford, b. 13 Nov., 1854; m., 25 Feb., 1879, William lx)gan Fox of Fox- 
burgh, Pa., who d. s. p. 29 April, 1880. 
Pemberton of Philadelphia, b. 13 March, 1856; m., 28 Dec, 1897, Mariana M. 

Morris. 
Anna, b. 17 April, 1859; d. 23 Dec, 1862. 

Mary Pemberton, bom 5 February, 1818; died 25 September, 1820. 

Rebecca Pemberton, born 22 April, 1820; died i August, 1883; married, 2& November, 
1844, Charles Newbold, who died 23 December, 1863, and had (surname Newbold) : 
Rebecca Clifford, b. 22 Oct., 184^. 

John Pemberton of Philadelphia, b. 27 Jan., 1848; m., 23 March, 1876, Ann 
Pauline, dau. of Albert Denckla, and had (surname Newbold) : 



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DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RA WLE. 193 



Sarah, b. 10 Jan., 1877. 

Caleb, b. 2 April, 1878. 

Clifford (a daughter), b. 24 Aug., 1881. 
Elizabeth Ross, b. 6 Nov., 1849, d. 3 Nov., 1850. 
Charles Ross of Philadelphia, b. 5 Feb., 185 1. 
Mary, b. 27 Jan., 1853. 

Caleb, b. 17 Sept., 1854; d. s. p. 6 Jan., 1873. 
Alice, b. 30 May, 1859. 
Edith, b. 26 Feb., 1861. 

Mary Pemberton, bom 8 May, 1822; died 13 December, 1848, unmarried. 

Henry Sergeant Pemberton, bom 23 June, 1824; died 21 May, 1825. 

Henry Pemberton of Philadelphia, born 11 Februar\', 1826; married (ist), 3 June, 1851, 
Caroline T., daughter of Samuel I lol lings worth. She died 24 November, 1862. They 
had (sumame Pemberton) : 

John, b. 9 May, 1852; d. 19 July, 1853. 
Samuel Hollingsworth, b. 11 June, 1854; d. 20 April, 1855. 

Henry of Philadelphia, b. 13 Sept., 1855; m., 28 March, 1894, Susan, dau. of 
Joseph S. Lovering, and had (surname Pemberton) : 
Joseph Ix)vering, b. 6 April, 1895 ; d. 18 Jan., 1896. 
Caroline Hollingsworth, b. 14 June, 1896. 
Henry Rawle, b. 27 April, 1898. 
Caroline H., b. 20 Jan., 1857. 
Cliflford, Jr. of Philadelphia, b. 28 Dec, 1859. 
Annie Hollingsworth, b. 13 Sept., 186 1. 

Samuel Lovering Hollingsworth of Philadelphia, b. 17 Nov., 1862. 
Henry Pemberton married (2d), 10 October, 1 867, Agnes, daughter of Thomas Williams 
of Allegheny, Pa. They had : 

Sarah Williams, b, 7 Sept., 1870; m., 12 May, 1896, Quincy Adams Shaw, Jr. of 
Boston, Mass., and had (sumame Shaw) : 
Quincy Adams, 3d, b. 22 April, 1897. 
Daughter, b. 24 Nov., 1875 ; d. 24 Nov., 1875. 
Ralph, b. 14 Sept., 1877. 

Frances Pemberton, born 12 November, 1827; died 17 July, 1858, unmarried. 

Sarah Pemberton, bom 23 August, 1829; died 18 July, 1847, unmarried. 

Andrew Jack.son Pemberton of New York, born 8 August, 1831 ; served in the American 
Civil War as Private First Troop, Philadelphia City Cavalry, April-July, 1861 ; Captain 
Third Maryland Volunteer Cavalry, 1863-64, and First Lieutenant Third Pennsylvania 
Volunteer Cavalry, 1865. 

Clifford Pemberton of Philadelphia, born 30 March, 1835 ♦ *^'^^ ^ ^'*y» '^97; married, 
29 April, 1862, Helena Augusta, daughter of William Henry Fryer of England, and 
had (surname Pemberton) : 

Helen Clifford, b. 18 March, 1863; d. 17 July, 1896, unm. 
44 



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194 DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RA IVLE. 



Rebecca Clifford, b. i Sept., 1864; m., 8 May, 1884, Hobort Amory Hare, M. D. 
of Philadelphia, and had (surname Hare) : 
Mary Amory, b. 30 Aug. 1885. 
Mary, b. 12 Sept., 1868; m., 22 April, 1889, Alfred Thornton Baker, and had 
(surname Baker) : 

Alfred Thornton, Jr., b. 12 June, 1890. 
Hobart Amory Hare, b. 15 Jan., 1892. 
John, b. 14 Sept., 1873. 

Augusta, b. 17 Feb., 1877; m., 8 March, 1898, Harry Ellwood Keller, and bad 
(surname Keller) : 

Mildred Pemberton, b. 5 Jan. 1899. 
Frances Rawle, b. 26 Nov., 1879. 



c. 

DESCENDANTS OF ISAAC WHARTON AND MARGARET RAWLE, HIS 
WIFE (DAUGHTER OF FRANCIS RAWLE AND REBECCA WARNER, 
HIS WIFE). 

Margaret Rawlk was born in Philadelphia, 1760; died there, 25 August, 1831 ; married 
there, 14 November, 1786, to Isaac Wharton of Philadelphia and "Woodford," mer- 
chant, who died 31 March, 1808. 

Children of Isaac Wharton and Margaret Rawle^ his wife : 
Francis Rawle, m. Juliana Matilda Gouvemeur. (See below.) 
Hannah Margaret, b. 7 July, 1789; d. Philadelphia, 14 Oct., 1875, unm. 
Thomas Isaac, m. Arabella Griffith. (See below.) 
Joseph, b. 29 April, 1793; d. 1822, unm. 
Rebecca Shoemaker, m. Jacob Ridgway Smith. (See below.) 

Francis Rawle Wharton of Philadelphia and ** Woodford," son of Isaac Wharton and 
Margaret Rawle, his wife; bom 11 January, 1788; died 10 February, 1869; married, 
5 April, 1826, Juliana Matilda, daughter of Isaac Gouvemeur of New York. She died 
7 March, 1870. 

Children of Francis Rawle Wharton and Juliana Matilda Gouvemeur^ his wife : 

Alida Gouvemeur, m., 25 June, 1856, John Teakle Montgomery of the Philadelphia 
Bar. He d. there, s. p., 20 Feb., 1895. 

Francis Rawle, b. April, 1828. 

Robertson, b. 29 Sept., 1829; d. 31 March, 1863, unm. 

Edward, b. 9 Dec, 1830; d. 27 May, 1873, ""™- 

Gouvemeur, b. 23 May, 1832; d. 15 March, 1850, unm. 

Margaret, b. 2 Oct. 1833; d. &4 March^ 1849, *"*™- 

Alfred of St. Paul, Minn., M. D., b. 5 Sept., 1839; m. Susan Budd, and had (sur- 
name Wharton) : 



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DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RAWLE. 195 

Margaret, b. 24 June, 1863; m. (1st), 26 April, 1888, James C. Fitzgerald; 
m, (2d), 30 June, 1897, Juhn W. Willis. 

Thomas Isaac Wharton of Philadelphia Bar, son of Is3ac Wharton and Margaret Rawie, 
born 17 May, 1791 ; A. M. (U. of P.) ; Lieutenant in Washington Guards of Philadel- 
phia in War of 1812; Trustee of University of Pennsylvania; author; distinguished 
lawyer; died 7 April, 1856; married, il Sept., 1817, Arabella, daughter of John Griffith 
of Philadelphia. She died 27 February, 1866. 

Children of Thomas I. Wharton and Arabella Griffith, his wife : 

Mary Griffith, b. 24 Aug., 1818; d. Sydenham, Kent, Eng., 31 March, 1899; ™m 
12 Aug., 1852, George Davison Bland of Kippax Park, Yorkshire, England, 
and had (surname Bland ) : 

Godfrey Davison, b. St. Germains-en-Laye, France, 26 July, 1853; d. 
Washington, D. C, 10 April, 1899, while First Secretary of the British 
Embassy. 
Emily Augusta, b. 7 Nov., 1854; d. Philadelphia, 2 Sept., 1855. 
George, d. y. 
William Wharton, d. y. 
Francis of Philadelphia Bar, A. M. (Yale); Clergyman, Prot. Epis. Church; 
Solicitor Department of State, Washington, D. C. ; author; D. D., LL.D. 
(Kenyon and Edin.) ; b. Philadelphia, 7 March, 1820 ; d. Washington, D. C, 21 
Feb., 1889; m. (ist), 4 Nov., 1852, Sydney, dau. of Comegys Paul of Philadel- 
phia; she d. 8. p. Sept., 1854. He m. (2d), 27 Dec, i860, Helen Elizabeth, 
dau. of Lewis R. Ashhurst of Philadelphia, and had by her (surname Wharton) : 
Mary Ashhurst, b. 13 Oct., 1861 ; m., 1 .Sept., 1887, Herman Knickerbocker 

Viel6 of New Y'ork. 
Ella, b. 29 May, 1863; m., 14 April, 1887, John Caldwell Poor, and had (sur- 
name Poor). 

Wharton, b. 10 March, 1888. 
Emily, b. 12 Oct., 1823; d. 10 Feb., 1875; m.,8 Sept., 1842, Charles Sinkler of 
South Carolina. They had (surname Sinkler) : 

Elizabeth Allen, b. 7 July, 1843; m., 14 June, 1870, Charies Brinton Coxe of 
Philadelphia, who d. 4 Jan., 1873, and had (surname Coxe) : 
Eckley Brinton, b. 31 May, 1872. 
Wharton of Philadelphia, M. D., b. 7 Aug., 1845; m., lo Feb., 1872, Ella, 
dau. of John Penn Brock of Philadelphia, and had (surname Sinkler) : 
Julia Ursula, b. 5 Nov., 1872. 
Charies, b. 6 Feb., 1874. 
John Penn Brock, b. 10 Sept., 1875. 
Francis Wharton, b. 14 July. 1877. 
.Seaman Deas, b. 18 May, 1879. 
Emily, b. 24 Dec, 1880; d. 16 Jan., 1884. 
Wharton, b. 2 July, 1885. 
Ella Brock, b. 29 June, 1887. 
Arabella, b. 24 Nov., 1847; ^- '2 June, 1848. 
Charles St. George, b. 20 Oct., 1853; m., 5 Dec, 1883, Anne Wickham, dau. 



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196 DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RA WLE, 

of Julius T. Porcher of Berkeley Co., South Carolina, and had (surname 
Sinkler) : 

Emily Wharton, b. 24 Oct., 1884. 
Anne Wickham, b. 4 Nov., 1886. 
Caroline Sydney, b. 7 Nov., 1895. 
Mary Wharton, b. 25 May, 1857; m., 20 feb., 1884, Charles Stevens of St. 
John's Parish, South Cnrolina, and had (surname Stevens) : 
Elizabeth Allen, b. 31 Dec, 1884. 
Henrietta, d. y. 

Laura Anne, b. ii Sept., 1889. 
Henry I^ Noble, b. 23 May, 1892. 
Caroline Sydney, b. 2 Sept., 1896; d. Nov., 1896. 
Caroline Sydney, b. 23 April, i860. 
Henry of Philadelphia Bar, b. 2 June, 1827; A. M. (U. of P.); author; distin- 
guished lawyer; d. II Nov., 1880; m. 21 Oct., 1858, Katharine Johnstone, dau. 
of Edward L. Brinley of Nevv|X)rt, R. I., and had (surname Wharton) : 

Thomas of Philadelphia Bar, b. i Aug., 1859; A. M. (U. of P.); d. unm., 

Piiiladelphia, 3 April, 1896. 
Frances Brinley, b. ii Nov. 186 1. 

Mary Elwyn, b. I Jan., 1864 ; m., 28 June, 1894, Henry Middleton Fisher, M. D. 
of Philadelphia and ** Alverihorpe." They had (surname Fisher) : 
Mary Frances, b. 29 April, 1896. 
Emily, b. 14 Nov., 1866; m.. 29 June, 1891, Adolfo Carlos MunOz del Monte 
y Poey of Lns Cafias Plantation, Cuba, and had (surname MuiiOz): 
Katharine Johnstone, b. 20 March, 1894. 
Henry, b. i Dec, 1867; m., 4 April, 1891, Francis Willing, dau. of Benoni 
Lockwood of New York, and had (surname Wharton) : 
Henry, b. 23 July, 1895. 
Thomas, b. 18 Jan.. 1 898. 
Katharine, b. 7 June, 1870; d. Philadelphia, 19 Feb., 1874. 

Rebecca Shoemaker Wharton, daughter of Isaac Wharton and Mai^ret Rawle, bom 
I September, 1795; died 16 July, 1846; m., 12 November, 1817, Jacob Ridgway Smith 
of Philadelphia, merchant. 

Children of Jacob Ridgway Smith and Rebecca Shoemaker Wharton^ his wife : 
Margaret Wharton, b. 4 April, 1819; d. 26 Dec, 1895; m., 8 Nov., 1838, George 
Harrison White, Paymaster U. S. N., who d. 18 Nov., 1867. They had (sur- 
name W^hite) : 

Isaac Wharton, b. 8 Sept., 1839; Lieut. U. S. A. 1867-1870; d. unm. 5 

June, 1895. 
William of Philadelphia Bar, b. 26 Feb., 1842; served in the American Civil 
War as Private Seventeenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, April to July, 
1861 ; Lieut, and Captain Sixth Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry, 1862-1864. 
George Harrison, b. 4 March, 1845. 
Alfred Henry, b. 11 Feb., 1847; d. 5>ept., 1847. 
Thomas Harrison, b. 21 May, 1849; d. unm. 7 June, l89i>. 



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DESCENDANTS OF FRANCIS RA WLE, 197 



Charles Eugene, b. 31 July, 1851 ; d. 17 April, 1853. 
Caroline Ridgway, b. 24 Oct., 1820; d. s. p. 27 Sept., 1858; m., 25 Feb., 1851, 

Samuel Pleasants. 
Anna Ridgway, b. 30 April, 1822; d. 31 March, 1858; m., 30 April, 1845, William 
Elbert Evans, who d. 7 March, 1869. They had (surname Evans) : 

Harriet Varena, b. 19 April, 1848; d. , unm. 

Emily Sophia, b. 13 Feb., 1850; d. s. p. 7 April, 1894; m., 30 Oct., 1880, 

John Henry Livingston of Clermont, N. Y. 
Harriet Varena, b. Jan., 1855; d. June, 1855. 

Glendower of Boston Bar, b. 23 March, 1858; d. s. p. 28 March, 1886; ra., 
18 May, 1882, Elizabeth, dau. of Edward Gardiner of Boston, Mass. 
Emily Sophia, b. 3 June, 1824; d. 10 May, 1892; m., 30 April, 1850, James C. 
Worrell of Philadelphia, who d. 22 Oct., 1865. They had (surname Worrell) ; 
Henry, b. 2 June, 1851. 
John Ridgway, b. 18 Nov., 1852. 

Rebecca Wharton, b. 31 May, 1854; m., 26 April, 1877, William H. Gaw of 
Philadelphia, and had (surname Gaw) : 
Emily Worrell, b. 15 April, 1878. 
Henry L., b. 10 May, 1882. 
Emily, b. 25 June, 1856; d. 28 June, 1856. 

Anna Ridgway, b. Oct., 1858; m. (ist), 19 April, 1887, Douglas Hilger, and 
had (surname Hilger) : 

Emily Douglas, b. 25 Nov., 18SS, 
She m. (2d), Michael Ehret of Philadelphia. 
James Charles, b. 6 Jan., 1827; d. .s. p. 13 Dec. 1893; m., 7 Nov., 1869, Heloise, 
dau. of Francis M. Drexel of Philadelphia. She d. 15 Oct., 1895. 



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MONTICELLO. 



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Thomas Jefferson, 

hro}}L the paiutiii'^ by Sully, in possession of tJic American 
Philusophical Socidy, PJiiladelpliia. 



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MONTICELLO. 



Soon after the adoption of the Constitution two parties 
contested for political supremacy in the United States. The 
Federalists believed in the maintenance and enlargement of 
the Federal power, while the Democrats were opposed to 
such a policy, and urged in its stead a system of extreme 
local government. , with but feeble administrative control by 
the Executive. 

Of the Federalists, John Adams, Henry Knox, and Alex- 
ander Hamilton were among the first leaders. Opposed to 
them were Peyton Randolph, Thomas Jefferson, the third 
President of the United States, and Albert Gallatin. Of the 
last three named the greatest was Jefferson, 

It has often been asserted that during the American Rev- 
olution and in the years succeeding that struggle a larger 
proportion of those men who rose to national repute were 
furnished by Virginia than by any other State. 

Admitting this to be true, it seems probable that one 
of the chief causes may be found in the fact that Virginia 
had always contained a larger proportion of persons inde- 
pendent in means and time than other sections of the 
country. 

This seems to have been due to the nature of her resources. 
Almost all of her people were land-holders, and many were 
rich in slaves. They were, in fact, principally planters. There 
was, therefore, a very large leisure class, who, employing good 

201 



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202 MONTICELLO, 



overseers, had at times comparatively little to do. If they 
belonged to a family famed for office-holding talents, they 
took to politics as naturally as a duck takes to water. 

In military matters it was the same : perfection requires 
education, money, and time, and the Virginians had all three 
of these forces at their disposal. 

In the North, on the contrary, where men were largely 
engaged in mercantile and manufacturing pursuits, it was 
a serious, and sometimes impossible, matter for many of 
them to devote considerable time to the perfection of a 
political or miUtary career without incurring considerable 
losses and probable ultimate ruin. 

It is true that a number of Virginians, eminent during and 
subsequent to the Revolution in public affairs, had been 
admitted to the practice of the law ; but few of them pursued 
their profession with that same energy as their legal brothers 
in the North. Those who did so, however, were not called 
upon then, as now, to devote their entire time, or even a 
principal part of it, to their clients. They were required, 
indeed, to attend the court sessions, but the nature of the 
cases which came under their care was not such as to occupy 
a great deal of time for either preparation or conduct. A 
large part of their business was carried on by correspondence, 
and they were not required to remain away, at long intervals, 
from their plantations or their many social engagements. 

Such a law-practice, indeed, was advantageous to a political 
career, and those who were thus engaged, half-planters, half- 
lawyers, often ended by securing the highest offices within the 
gift of the people. 

Of this class was ThoinasJeff*erson of Monticello. 

When, in the year 1770, Jefferson heard the news of the 
burning of Shadwell, the ancient family homestead, it is 
related that the first inquiry he made was after the manu- 



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MONTICELLO, 203 



scripts and books. "Oh, Master Thomas/* the slave who 
brought the news replied, joyfully, "they were all burnt; 
but we saved your fiddle P' Amongst the papers thus sacri- 
ficed for the musical instrument so dear to the negroes' heart 
were doubtless many family archives that would have ampli- 
fied Jefferson's own account of his ancestry, which reads as 
follows : 

" The tradition in my father's family was, that their ances- 
tor came to this country from Wales, and from near the 
mountain of Snowdon, the highest in Great Britain. I noted 
once a case from Wales in the law reports where a person 
of our name was either plaintiff or defendant, and one of 
the same name was secretary to the Virginia Company. 
These are the only instances in which I have met with the 
name in that country. I have found it in our early records, 
but the first particular information I have of any ancestor 
was of my grandfather, who lived at a place in Chesterfield 
called Osborne's, and owned lands, afterward the glebe of 
the parish. He had three sons : Thomas, who died young ; 
Field, who settled on the waters of the Roanoke and left 
numerous descendants ; and Peter, my father, who setded on 
the lands I still own, called Shadwell, adjoining my present 
residence. He was born February 29, 1707-08, and inter- 
married (1739) with Jane Randolph, of the age of nineteen, 
daughter of Isham Randolph, one of the seven sons of that 
name and family, who settled Dungeness in Goochland. 
They trace their pedigree far back in England and Scot- 
land, to which let every one ascribe the faith and merit he 
chooses." 

Notwithstanding the lack of interest which the last sen- 
tence implies, Jefferson was not entirely indifferent to a cer- 
tain kind of family pride, or at least ostentation, for he writes 
from Monticello, under date of February 20, 1 771, to Thomas 



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204 MONT/CELLO. 



Adams, about to leave for England, thus : ** One further favor 
and I am done : to search the Herald's Office for the arms 
of my family. I hs^ve what I have been told were the family 
arms, but on what authority I know not. It is possible there 
may be none. If so, I would with your assistance become 
a purchaser, having Sterne's word for it that a coat of arms 
may be purchased as cheap as any other coat." 

In extenuation of the above, which certainly places Jefifer- 
son in the light of wishing to set up a pretentious claim to 
something which did not, of right, belong to him, it may be 
observed that he was at the time the letter was penned but 
twenty-nine years old, whereas the above simple and unpre- 
tentious statement regarding his family was written, as he 
himself informs us, at the age of seventy-seven, " for my 
own more ready reference and for the information of my 
family." 

From other sources we are able to set down more clearly, 
yet concisely, some interesting facts concerning the earlier 
generations of the Virginia Jeffersons, and furnish the partic- 
ulars which in Jefferson's narrative are so conspicuously 
lacking. 

It appears from the records of Henrico County, Virginia, 
that Thoriias Jefferson was living there in the year 1677, 
having a plantation on the south side of the river. He 
married Mar)% daughter of William Branch, and died in the 
year 1697, leaving the following children: Captain Thomas 
Jefferson, appointed Justice of Henrico County in 1706, 
Sheriff" J 718-19, and he married Mary, daughter of Major 
Peter Field (and his wife Judith, daughter of Henry Soane, 
Speaker of the House of Burgesses 1663-66), and died in 
1731 ; and Martha Jefferson, who married one Wynne. 

Captain Thomas and Mary Field Jefferson had the follow- 
ing children: Field Jefferson of Lunenburg County, where 



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MONT/CELLO, 207 



he was a vestryman of Cumberland Parish in 1750; Colonel 
Peter Jefferson, born February 29, 1 708 ; removed to Shad- 
well, now Albemarle; Sheriff of Goochland 1739; Justice of 
Albemarle, 1744; County Lieutenant, Burgess, 1754 to 1755; 
assisted in running the boundary-line of Virginia and North 
Carolina and in preparing a map of Virginia ; vestryman of 
Northam Parish; and died August 15, 1757; Judith, married 
M. Farrah ; Mary, married Thomas Turpin ; and Martha. 

Thomas Jefferson, son of Peter, the author of the Decla- 
ration of Independence, and the third President of the 
United States was born at the Shadwell mansion April 2, 
1743. He had six sisters and three brothers, some of whom 
died in infancy, others married. Thomas was the eldest son, 
and inherited the estate of Shadwell, including the land upon 
which he subsequently built Monticello. The youngest son 
inherited the James River plantation. 

At the age of five years Thomas Jefferson was placed at 
an English school, where, it is traditionally asserted, the 
Randolphs also attended. After his fathers death, in 1757, 
he was placed under the tuition of the Reverend Mr. Maury, 
having previously attended a school where Latin was taught 
from the age of nine years. Of Mr. Maury of Fredericks- 
ville, Louisa County, Mr. Jefferson says that he was "a cor- 
rect classical scholar.** With this good man he continued 
two years, and then " went to William and Mary College — to 
wit, in the spring of 1760— where I continued two years. It 
was my great good fortune, and what probably fixed the 
destinies of my life, that Dr. William Small of Scotland was 
then professor of mathematics, a man profound in most of 
the useful branches of science, with a happy talent of com- 
munication." After finishing his education Jefferson studied 
law, and was admitted to practice **at the Bar of the General 
Court." In 1769 he was elected to the Legislature. He 



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2o8 MONT/CELLO. 

writes : " I made one effort in that body for the permission of 
the emancipation of slaves, which was rejected." In Virginia, 
under the act of 2 George II.. no slave could be set free by 
his master except for especial services, such services to be 
approved and allowed by the Governor and his Council. 

In 1772, Thomas Jefferson was married to Martha, widow 
of Bathurst Skelton, and daughter of John Wayles. The 
wedding was celebrated at The Forest, in Charles City 
County, the home of the bride's father. Mrs. Skelton was 
only twenty-three at the time of her marriage to Jefferson, 
and is spoken of as being extremely handsome. 

** A litde above middle height, with a lithe and exquisite- 
formed figure, she was a model of graceful and queen-like 
carriage. Nature, so lavish with her charms for her, to great 
personal attractions added a mind of no ordinary calibre. 
She was well educated for her day and a constant reader ; 
she inherited from her father his method and industry, as the 
accounts kept in her clear handwriting, and still in the hands 
of her descendants, testify. Her well-cultivated talent for 
music served to enhance her charms not a little in the eyes 
of such a musical devotee as Jefferson.'' 

It may well be supposed that such a charming young widow 
as her whose picture is so cleverly drawn in the above para- 
graph by her great-granddaughter, Sarah N. Randolph, was 
surrounded by suitors. Her beauty was great ; her fortune, 
already acquired and in prospect, was very large. Some men 
win beauty, some fortune, but Thomas Jefferson, like George 
Washington, won both. 

It is said that two other suitors were making fair prog- 
ress, each uncertain of the other's chances, when Jefferson, 
entering the list at the eleventh hour, carried off the prize. 
An amusing story is related that the two unhappy lovers one 
evening together entered the hall of her father s home, having 



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MONTICELLO. 209 

accidentally met on the steps. They were about to proceed 
to the door of the drawing-room when the sound of music 
smote their ear; the voices of Jefferson and his lady-love, 
mingled in song, were recognized, and frequent pauses in 
the music told their own tale. The two discarded lovers, 
picking up their hats, tiptoed out into the cold, unsympathetic 
world after exchanging significant glances. 

The wedding took place in January, and the bridal couple, 
after the wedding and New Year's festivities were over, left 
for Monticello, the home that Jefferson had built the year 
before after the destruction of Shadwell. 

The following is the account given of their wedding- 
journey by their daughter, Mrs. Randolph: 

" They left The Forest after a fall of snow, light then, but 
increasing in depth as they advanced up the country. They 
were finally obliged to quit the carriage and proceed on horse- 
back. Having stopped for a short time at Blenheim, where 
an overseer only resided, they left it at sunset to pursue their 
way through a mountain-track rather than a road, in which 
the snow lay from eighteen inches to two feet deep, having 
eight miles to go before reaching Monticello. They arrived 
late at night, the fires all out and the servants retired to their 
own houses for the night. The horrible dreariness of such 
a house at the end of such a journey I have often heard both 
relate.'' 

They soon, says their biographer, found a bottle of wine 
**on a shelf behind some books," and, having refreshed 
themselves with its contents, "startled the silence of the 
night with song and merry laughter." 

Thus does the story of Monticello begin. The young 

couple could well laugh and be right merry, for from his 

account-books we find that Jefferson's income, from all 

sources, at this time was five thousand dollars a year, 
45 



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2IO MONT/CELLO, 



besides his wife's fortune, largely increased at her father's 
death. 

Like Washington, Jefferson was noted for the pleasure 
his estate afforded him and for his love of gardening, horses, 
and, in fact, all the attributes of the life of a country gentle- 
man. He commenced, shortly after his marriage, to improve 
the house and grounds of Monticello and to fill his estate 
with the best blooded horses that Virginia then afforded. 
Another similitude to the first President was Jefferson's 
love of detail, and he kept his accounts in the most exact 
manner. 

Monticello '* is quite a mountain, five hundred and eighty 
feet high, in the shape of a sugar-loaf." From the base a 
road winds to the mansion, which occupies the loftiest site 
upon the summit of the hill. In Jefferson's time the forest 
trees on the very top and around the house were cut down 
and about ten acres cleared and graded. The entire planta- 
tion consisted of about ten thousand acres, and the income 
from it and from the other plantations when Jefferson was 
quite a young man was two thousand dollars per annum — a 
sum the purchasing power of which was much greater then 
than now. 

The north-eastern site of the mountain falls off* abruptly 
and even precipitously, the base through coundess ages hav- 
ing been exposed to the frequent floods of the Rivanna. 

The following is from a description of Monticello written 
by a member of Jeff*erson's family long resident there : 

" On the south-west it is separated from the next mountain 
of the range, rising three hundred feet above it, by a road- 
pass two hundred and twenty feet below. This obstructs 
the view to the south-west. From the south-west to the 
north-east is a horizon unbroken, save by one solitary 
pyramid-shaped mountain, its peak under the true meridian. 



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MONTICELLO, 21 1 



and distant by air-line forty-seven miles. North-east the 
range pointing to the west terminates two miles off, its late- 
ral spurs descending by gentle slopes to the Rivanna at your 
feet, covered with farms and green wheat-fields. This view 
of farms extends north-east and east six or seven miles. 
You trace the Rivanna by its cultivated valley as it passes 
east, apparently through an unbroken forest; an inclined 
plane descends from your feet to the ocean two hundred 
miles distant. All the western and north-western slopes 
being poor, and the eastern and south-eastern fertile, as the 
former are presented to the spectator, and are for the most 
part in wood, it presents the appearance of unbroken forest 
bounded by an ocean-like horizon." 

The view most admired is that toward the north-east. 
Two mountains are seen in this quarter — one forty, the other 
only ten, miles distant. The surrounding lands, sloping 
upward from your view and extending to your vision its 
cultivated slopes, are most pleasing to the eye. Toward 
the west and north one vast space, tremendous in its extent, 
reaches to the foot of the Blue Ridge, which mingles with 
the horizon nearly one hundred miles away. 

Directly west the Rivanna, flowing five hundred feet 
below you, dashes its mud- red waters in a long line of 
yellow-white foam over the barrier which the hand of man 
has built in opposition to its gentle progress. 

On every hand, no matter which way you turn, such 
magnificent reaches of view meet you that your eyes grow 
tired and your soul weary in attempting to comprehend the 
vast panorama in its entirety. 

On the very apex of the pivot, around which revolves 
the various scenes we have described, stands the mansion 
of Monticello, the home of Jefferson. The mansion occu- 
pies the centre of the cleared space we have mentioned, arid 



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212 



MONTICELLO. 



is about fifty feet from the brow of the mountain upon every 
side. 

The house is of Grecian architecture of the Doric order 
externally, but the interior is mostly, in heavy balustrades, 
cornices, and sweep of rooms, Ionic. 

The entrance-hall, of the same height as the house, 
recedes six feet within the front wall of the building, and is 




HALL, MONTICELLO. 



capped by a portico projecting twenty-five feet and of the 
height of the building, with stone pillars and steps. 

The main hall extends upward to the roof. From the 
middle of the hall, which is really a square room, passages 
lead off to either extremity of the mansion. The apartments 
at the end of the passages terminate in octagonal projections, 



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MONTICELLO. 



213 



leaving a recess of three equal sides, into which the passages 
enter ; porches the width of the recess project six feet beyond. 
The roofs of these piazzas are of the height of the house 
and rest on brick arches. On the east side of the passages 
mentioned as leading from the hall are sleeping-rooms. This 
front is one and a half stories high. In the west front the 




PARLOR. MONTICELLO. 



apartments are of equal height with the house, except the 
parlor or reception-room, which is surmounted by an octag- 
onal story, **with a dome or spherical roof" This upper 
story was built for a billiard- room, but "before completion 



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214 MONTICELLO. 



a law was passed prohibiting public and private billiard-tables 
in the State/' 

The reception-room juts out about twenty-five feet beyond 
the main building, and is covered by a portico of one stor}', 
over which runs the billiard-room just mentioned. 

*'The original plan of the projection," writes a member 
of the Jefferson family who once resided at Monticello, " was 
square; but when the cellar was built up to the floor above 
the room was projected beyond the square by three sides of 
an octagon, leaving a place beyond the cellar-wall not exca- 
vated ; and it was in this space that the faithful Caesar and 
Martin concealed their master's plate when the British visited 
Monticello. The floor of the room is in squares, the squares 
being ten inches, of the wild cherry, very hard, susceptible 
of a high polish, and the color of mahogany. The border 
of each square, four inches wide, is of beech, light colored, 
hard, and bearing a high polish. Its original cost was two 
hundred dollars." 

Jefferson's bed-room was reached from the main hall 
through the library by way of one of the passages referred 
to. The library also connected with the sitting-room and one 
of the piazzas. On the opposite side of the hall come the 
dining- and tea-rooms. Of the bed-rooms toward the east 
front, the one next to the piazza is called Mr. Madison's 
room, and that nearest the hall the Abbe Correa's room. 

Captain Bacon, who acted for a number of years as 
Jefferson's overseer, says that "under the house and the 
terraces that surrounded it were his cisterns, ice-houses, 
cellar, kitchen, and rooms for all sorts of purposes. His 
servants' rooms were on one side. They were very com- 
fortable, warm in the winter and cool in the summer. Then 
there were rooms for vegetables, fruit, cider, wood, and 
every other purpose. There were no negro and other out- 



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MONTICELLO, 



215 



houses around the mansion, as you generally see on planta- 
tions. The grounds around the house were most beautifully 
ornamented with flowers and shrubbery. There were walks 
and borders, and flowers that I have never seen or heard 




DINING-ROOM, MONTICFI.LO. 

of anywhere else. Some of them were in bloom from early 
in the spring until late in the winter. A good many of them 
were foreign. Back of the house was a beautiful lawn of 
two or three acres, where his grandchildren used to play 
a great deal. His garden was on the side of the mountain. 
I had it built mostly while he was President. It took a great 
deal of labor. We had to blow out the rock for the walls 

for the different terraces, and then make the soil It was 

a fine garden. There were vegetables of all kinds, grapes, 
figs, and the greatest variety of fruit. I have never seen 



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2i6 MONTICELLO. 



such a place for fruit. It was so high that it never 
failed. Mr. Jefferson sent home a great many kinds 
of trees and shrubbery from Washington. I used to send 
a servant there with a great many fine things from Mon- 
ticello for his table, and he would send back the cart loaded 
with shubbery from a nursery near Georgetown that belonged 
to a man named Maine, and he would always send me direc- 
tions what to do with it. He always knew all about every- 
thing in every part of his grounds and garden. He knew 
the name of every tree and just where one was dead or 



missmg. 



It may not be out of place here to give at length the 
charming description of Monticello and its inmates written 
by the Marquis de Chastellux, an accomplished Frenchman 
who spent some time as the guest of Jefferson in the spring 
of the year 1782. After giving the reader a graphic descrip- 
tion of the approach to the foot of the mountain-range to 
the south-west of the house, he writes : 

**On the summit of one of these we discovered the house 
of Mr. Jefferson, which stands pre-eminent in these retire- 
ments ; it was for himself, who built it and preferred this 
situation ; for, although he possessed considerable property 
in the neighborhood, there was nothing to prevent him from 
fixing his residence wherever he thought proper. But it was 
a debt Nature owed to a philosopher and a man of taste that 
in his own possessions he should find a spot where he might 
study and enjoy her. He calls his house Monticello (in 
Italian *Litde Mountain*) — a very modest title, for it is ^ 
situated upon a very lofty one, but which announces the own- 
er's attachment to the language of Italy ; and, above all, to the 
fine arts, of which that country was the cradle and is still 
the asylum. As I had no further occasion for a guide, I 
separated from the Irishman, and after ascending by a 



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MONTICELLO, 



217 



tolerably commodious road for more than half an hour, 
we arrived at Monticello. This house, of which Mr. Jeffer- 
son was the architect, and often one of the workmen, is 
rather elegant and in the Italian taste, though not without 
fault : it consists of one large square pavilion, the entrance 
of which is by two porticos ornamented with pillars. The 
ground floor consists of a very large, lofty saloon, which 




SALOON, MONTICELLO. 



is to be decorated entirely in the antique style; above it is 
a library of the same form ; two small wings, with only a 
ground floor and attic story, are joined to this pavilion, and 
communicate with the kitchen, offices, etc., which will form 
a kind of basement story, over which runs a terrace. My 
object in this short description is only to show the difference 
between this and the other houses of the country ; for we 



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2l8 MONTICELLO, 



may safely aver that Mr. Jefferson is the first American who 
has consulted the fine arts to know how he should shelter 
himself from the weather. 

" But it is on himself alone I ought to bestow my time. 
Let me describe to you a man, not yet forty, tall and with 
a mild and pleasing countenance, but whose mind and under- 
standing are ample substitutes for every exterior grace — an 
American who, without ever having quitted his own country, 
is at once a musician, skilled in drawing, a geometrician, an 
astronomer, a natural philosopher, a legislator, and states- 
man ; a Senator of America, who sat for two years in that 
body which brought about the Revolution, and which is never 
mentioned without respect, though, unhappily, not without 
regret ; a Governor of Virginia, who filled this difficult 
station during the invasion of Arnold, of Phillips, and of 
Cornwallis ; a philosopher, in voluntary retirement from the 
world and public business because he loves the world in- 
asmuch only as he can flatter himself with being useful to 
mankind, and the minds of his countrymen are not yet in 
a condition either to bear the light or suffer contradiction. 
A mild and amiable wife, charming children, of whose educa- 
tion he himself takes charge ; a house to embellish, great 
provisions to improve, and the arts and sciences to cultivate 
— these are what remain to Mr. Jefferson after having played 
a principal character on the theatre of the New World, and 
which he preferred to the honorable commission of Minister 
Plenipotentiary in Europe. 

"The visit which I made him was not unexpected, for he 
had long since invited me to come and pass a few days with 
him in the centre of the mountains; notwithstanding which 
I found his appearance serious — nay even cold — but before 
I had been two hours with him we were as intimate as if we 
had passed our whole lives together. Walking, books, but, 



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MONTICELLO. 



219 



above all, a conversation always varied and interesting, 
always supported by the sweet satisfaction experienced by 




TEA-ROOM, MONTICKLLO. 



two persons who, in communicating their sentiments and 
opinions, are invariably in unison, and who understand each 



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220 MONTICELLO. 



Other at the first hint, made four days pass away Hke so 
many minutes." 

That we might describe Monticello, not so much as it was 
at first, but as it became, under Jefferson's tender care, in 
later years, we left the household life of the mansion at the 
very threshold. We imagine it was gloomy enough and right 
lonely for Mrs. Jefferson at first, despite the great affection 
which the young couple seem to have had for each other and 
the few bright days marked by the visits of friends and their 
brief sojourn under the hospitable roof. It must have, there- 
fore, been with an infinite satisfaction of companionship that 
Mrs. Jefferson watched her children commencing to grow up 
around her, especially as, soon after their marriage, her hus- 
band's political affairs, upon which we propose to touch but 
lightly, called him very frequently from home, often for long 
intervals, at the commencement of the Revolution. 

It was during the first years of her marriage that Martha 
Jefferson must have been most happy, for then her husband, 
engrossed in country life, was most often by her side in the 
garden or the halls of Monticello. We have already spoken 
of the care he bestowed upon his garden and lawn. He was 
equally interested in — and, indeed, passionately fond of — 
blooded stock of all kinds. Not only horses, but sheep, 
cattle, and hogs of the very finest breed, occupied his atten- 
tion. An especially fine horse filled him with admiration. 

Jefferson was a strong and graceful horseman, and for 
his riding kept only the best stock that could be procured. 
When a young man we are told that he was most exacting 
of his groom, and when his horse was led up for him to 
mount he always passed his fine handkerchief over the 
animal's coat. If the handkerchief seemed soiled from such 
usage, the horse was sent back in anger to the stables. 

"The horse,'* writes Mr. Bacon, his manager, who we 



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MONTICELLO. 221 



have already quoted, "was Mr. Jefferson's favorite. He was 
passionately fond of a good horse. He generally walked 
unless on the plantation, but he would not ride or drive any- 
thing but a high-bred horse. Bay was his preference for 
color; he would not have any other. After he came from 
Washington he had a fine carriage built at Monticello from 
a model he planned himself. The woodwork, blacksmithing, 
and painting were all done by his own workmen. He had 
the plating done in Richmond. When he travelled in this 
carriage he always had five horses — four in the carriage, and 
the fifth for Burwell, who always rode behind him. Those 
five horses were Diomede, Brimmer, Tecumseh, Wellington, 
and Eagle. In his new carriage, with fine harness, those four 
horses made a splendid appearance. He never trusted a 
driver with the lines. Two servants rode on horseback, 
and each guided his own pair. About once a year Mr. 
Jefferson used to go in his carriage to Montpelier, and 
spend several days with Mr. Madison, and every summer 
he went to Poplar Forest, his farm in Bedford, and spent 
two or three months." 

Captain Bacon also tells us some interesting facts con- 
cerning Jefferson's life and habits at Monticello. ** He 
was six feet two and a half inches high, well propor- 
tioned, and straight as a gun-barrel. He was like a 
fine horse — he had no surplus flesh. He had an iron 
constitution and was very strong. He had a machine for 
measuring strength. There were very few men that I have 
seen try it that were as strong in the arms as his son-in-law. 
Colonel Thomas Mann Randolph, but Mr. Jefferson was 
stronger than he. 

** Mr. Jefferson was always an early riser — arose at day- 
break or before. The sun never found him in bed. I used 
sometimes to think, when I went up there very early in the 



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222 MONTICELLO, 



morning, that I would find him in bed ; but there he would 
be before me, walking on the terrace. 

** He did not use tobacco in any form. He never used 
a profane word or anything like it. He never played cards. 
I never saw a card in the house at Monticello, and I had par- 
ticular orders from him to suppress card-playing among the 
negroes, who, you know, are generally very fond of it. I 
never saw any dancing in his house, and if there had been 
any there during the twenty years I was with him, I would 
certainly have known it." 

We learn also from Captain Bacon that Jefferson was 
a light eater, preferring delicacies to a substantial repast, but 
that he was fond of vegetables and fruit. He passed much 
of his spare time in inventing new farm implements or 
machines for various kinds of work. 

^^ 1775* Jefferson left Monticello for Philadelphia as a 
delegate to the Continental Congress. The very prominent 
part which he took in its proceedings, which led to his draft- 
ing the Declaration of Independence, to which he, among 
the first, affixed his signature, is too much a matter of history 
to be dwelt upon at length in an article treating especially 
of his connection and home-life at Monticello. 

The committee appointed by Congress " for drawing the 
Declaration of Independence ** ** unanimously pressed '' Jeffer- 
son to undertake the task assigned them. This committee 
was appointed June 11, 1776, and it is a tradition in Virginia 
that Jefferson, in the interval, visited Virginia and drafted the 
first rough copy of the immortal document at Rosewell, the 
home of the Page family, with whom he was on the most 
intimate terms, and that he finished his work at Philadelphia 
in the house where he lodged on Seventh Street, corner of 
Market. 

This story is briefly referred to under the Page article. 



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MONTICELLO, 



223 



with the comment that Jefferson's intimacy with Page, for 
whom he had a high regard, made the story worthy of inves- 
tigation. The only real foundation for the story is a fair 
certainty that Page and Jefferson discussed such a document 
prior to the appointment by Congress of the committee to 
draft it, and that Jefferson made some rough notes there 
of some such form of document. We have Jefferson's own 




HOUSE IN WHICH JEFFERSON WROTE THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. 

Statement that he " at the time of writing that instrument .... 
lodged in the house of a Mr. Graaf, a new brick house, 
three stories high, of which I rented the second floor, con- 
sisting of a parlor and bed-room, ready furnished. In that 
parlor I wrote habitually, and in it wrote this paper particu- 
larly [the Declaration of Independence]. So far, I state from 
written proofs in my possession. The proprietor, Graaf, was 



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224 MONTICELLO. 



a young man, son of a German, and then newly married. 
I think he was a bricklayer, and that his house was on the 
south side of Market Street, probably between Seventh and 
Eighth Streets, and, if not the only house on that part of the 
street, I am sure there were few others near it. I have some 
idea that it was a corner house, but no other recollection 
throwing light on the question or worth communication." 
This was penned by Jefferson in 1825, in reply to a query 
regarding the matter by Dr. John Mease of Philadelphia. 

Jacob Graaf s house, the one referred to by Jefferson, 
stood at the south-west corner of Seventh and Market 
Streets, directly opposite Hiltzheimer's livery-stables. Hiltz- 
heimer purchased the property from Graaf in 1777. It seems 
probable also that Hiltzheimer's stables are referred to in 
the following anecdote. The stables were south of Seventh 
and Market Streets, probably near Chestnut Street, and 
therefore but a short distance from Independence Hall : 

** A gentleman who had been a frequent visitor at Monti- 
cello during Mr. Jefferson's life gave Mr. Randall (Jefferson's 
biographer) the following amusing incident concerning this 
venerated body and the Declaration of Independence : * While 
the question of Independence was before Congress it had 
its meetings near a livery-stable. The members wore short 
breeches and silk stockings, and with handkerchief in hand 
they were diligently employed in lashing the flies from their 
legs. So ver)' vexatious was this annoyance, and to so great 
an impatience did it arouse the sufferers, that it hastened, if 
it did not aid, in inducing them to promptly affix their signa- 
tures to the great document which gave birth to an empire 
republic' This anecdote I had from Mr. Jefferson at Monti- 
cello, who seemed to enjoy it very much, as well as to give 
great credit to the influence of the flies. He told it with 
much glee, and seemed to retain a vivid recollection of an 



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MONTICELLQ. 225 



attack from which the only relief was signing the paper and 
flying from the scene/* 

If there is any truth in this story, Jefferson must have 
been one of the first few who affixed their signatures, or per- 
haps the term ** signing" is used in a figurative sense, and 
that Jefferson intended to refer to the formal adoption of 
the Declaration by Congress. 

The mother of Jefferson died just before he went as a 
delegate, on the 31st of March, 1776. 

After the battle of Saratoga a large number of British 
prisoners of war were sent to Virginia and quartered in the 
neighborhood of Monticello. When it was proposed by 
Patrick Henry, then Governor of Virginia, to remove these 
prisoners to parts of the country where they might not con- 
sume food necessary for the American forces, the suggestion 
met with a vigorous opposition from Jefferson, who wrote : 
**Is an enemy so execrable that, though in captivity, his 
wishes and comforts are to be disregarded and even crossed ? 
I think not/* 

Jefferson became most intimate with the British officers, 
especially with the Baron de Riedesel and his wife (the 
baroness, the same lady who was accustomed to ride to 
Monticello en cavalier), one Phillips, and a young officer named 
De Ungar. With these Jefferson subsequently corresponded. 
They and other British and Hessian officers, even those of 
"the lowest rank,** were always cordially received and ele- 
gantly entertained by Jefferson and his wife at Monticello. 

Jefferson was chosen Governor of Virginia in 1779, and 
it was expected, when Tarleton reached Charlottesville after 
his unsuccessful chase after La Fayette, that Monticello would 
be sacked, but the recollection of his treatment of the British 
prisoners prevented any such occurrence. The party de- 
spatched to Monticello to secure the arrest of the Governor 

46 



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226 MONTICELLO, 



was commanded by Captain McLeod, who had most positive 
orders from Tarleton " to allow nothing in the house to be 
injured/* When Captain McLeod found that Jefferson had 
escaped, he called for a servant of the house and bade him 
indicate the master s private apartments, which having been 
done he locked the doors and ordered that nothing should 
be disturbed. This conduct was not just what was expected 
by the house-servants of Monticello, and upon the approach 
of the English forces Caesar and Martin, two trusted slaves, 
concealed the plate in a trench dug under the floor of the 
house a few feet above the ground. A plank had been 
removed, and Caesar, having slipped down through the cavity, 
stood below to receive the plate as it was handed down by 
Martin. The last piece had been handed down when the 
soldiers came in sight. There was not a moment to lose, 
and Martin, thinking only of his master s plate and not of 
Caesar's comfort, nailed the plank down on top of the poor 
fellow, and there he remained for three days and three 
nights. 

Martin also gave a sufiFicient exhibition of his attachment 
to his master s interests. A soldier having clapped a pistol 
to his breast, threatening to fire unless he divulged the 
Governor's hiding-place, exclaimed, ** Fire away, then, for 
I will not tell you.'* 

Elk Hill, Jefferson's James River estate, was not treated 
so handsomely by Cornwallis. This plantation was greatly 
damaged, the crops destroyed, and the slaves, to the number 
of thirty, carried off to die of the small-pox and putrid fever 
then raging in the British camp. **In fact, the plantation," 
says its owner, *'was a complete waste." 

Toward the close of the second year of his term Jefferson 
resigned his commission as Governor of Virginia. The 
motive in thus relinquishing the office seems to have been 



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MONTICELLO. 



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the failing health of his Ayife. This, for some time, had been 
a source of great anxiety to him. She had not been well 
enough to accompany him to Philadelphia when delegate to 
Congress, and her health, instead of improving, was growing 
worse. The death of several of her children added a settled 
melancholy to her other ailments, and her husband promised 




WRITING-ROOM, MONTICELI.O. 

her that no public service should again separate them. He 
continued her faithful and untiring nurse until the end. Mrs. 
Jefferson soon sank so rapidly that there was no hope of her 
recovery. 

This trying period and the closing events of Martha 
Jefferson*s life Mrs. Randolph describes most touchingly, yet 
simply, in the following words : 

'• For four months that she lingered he was never out of 



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228 MONTICELLO. 



calling ; when not at her bedside He was writing in a small 
room at the head of her bed. A moment before the closing 
scene he was led from the room in a state of insensibility by 
his sister, Mrs. Carr, who, with great difficulty, got him into 
the library, where he fainted, and remained so long insensible 
that they feared he never would revive. The scene that 
followed I did not witness, but the violence of his emotions 
when, almost by stealth, I entered his room by night, to this 
day I dare not describe to myself. He kept his room three 
weeks, and I was never a moment from his side. He walked 
almost incessantly night and day.'' 

It was, indeed, a long time after his wife's death before 
Jefferson could be induced to eat or to take any exercise. 
A deep melancholy chained him to the scene of his great 
bereavement, and opportunity for communion with the great 
busy world softened the pangs of the sorrow which he so 
deeply felt. 

In time he returned to his usual out-of-door exercises and 
employments, a change sadly needed. During the hours he 
remained at Monticello nursing his dying wife he had occu- 
pied his spare moments in writing his Notes on Virginia, 
which he presently published. Although this work involved 
no great labor or deep research, being principally the arrange- 
ment of material gathered from many sources at different 
times, yet the mere clerical work and the application neces- 
sary to complete it while under a great mental strain assisted 
to impair even the iron constitution of Thomas Jefferson. 

Three children survived Martha Jefferson. One of them, 
Lucy, was yet an infant. Martha, the eldest, was sent to 
school at Philadelphia under the care of Mrs. Hopkinson. 
Her father's letters to her whilst at school show with what 
intelligent care he watched over her, and how every detail of 
her school and social life demanded his thoughtful attention. 



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229 



He is anxious that she shall be proficient in music — of which 
he was ever fond — in drawing and painting, and in dancing, 
and constantly urged the importance of such accomplishments 
upon her, taking care to advise her as to the time to be devoted 
to each lesson. *' Patty," as her father called her, grew up 
to be as industrious as he, and it is said that she was the 
busiest woman alive, always at work at something. 




MRS. THOMAS M. RANDOLPH (MARTHA JEFFERSON), FROM AN ORIGINAL PAINTINC BY 

T. SULLY. 

Shortly after this Jefferson was appointed Minister to 
France. He had never been abroad, and the change of 
scenes which presented themselves in so gay a capital as 
Paris must have deeply impressed him. He was, by nature, 
fond of lively discourse and the companionship of the wits 
and scholars of his day, and of the wits more than the 



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230 MONTICELLO, 



Students. Craving a reputation as a clever man of letters 
and a brilliant scholar, Jefferson assumed the polish of the 
savant of the period without being very deeply impressed 
with facts and figures, or, more properly speaking, useful 
history. He possessed a fair knowledge of Greek and 
Latin, and spoke French well. He understood Italian and 
several other tongues, but he knew little of English histor)^ 

Jefferson's house in Paris was the resort of those French 
officers and others who were enthusiastic in the cause of 
liberty in America, and of many of those who afterward 
fanned the flame of the French Revolution. 

He was equally popular at Court, and his brilliant con- 
versation and happy faculty at repartee were not lost upon 
the witty and beautiful women who formed the society at 
St. Germains. Among the residents in Paris at this time 
were John Adams and his wife : the friendship then estab- 
lished between Adams and Jefferson survived the rancor of 
their subsequent political careers. 

Jefferson had taken the place of Franklin, who had won 
the love and esteem of the French people. 

**You replace Dr. Franklin,'* remarked the Count de 
Vergennes, the French Prime Minister, to Jefferson. — **I 
succeed him ; no one could replace him,*' replied the master 
of Monticello. 

Passing over Jefferson's gay Hfe in Paris, his witty and 
interesting correspondence with Mrs. Cosway and others, we 
return to the time when, bidding farewell to Paris, he came 
again to Virginia and to Monticello. 

Of his mission in France, Webster wrote thus: **Mr. 
Jefferson's discharge of his diplomatic duties were marked 
by great ability, diligence, and patriotism ; and while he 
resided at Paris in one of the most interesting periods his 
character for intelligence, his love of knowledge and of the 



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MONT/CELLO. 231 



society of learned men, distinguished him in the highest 
circles of the French capital. No Court in Europe had at 
that time a representative in Paris commanding or enjoying 
higher regard for political knowledge or for general attain- 
ments than the Minister of this then infant republic." 

On the 23d of October, 1789, he sailed for America. 

Of his arrival at Monticello his daughter writes : ** There 
were no stages in those days [to Monticello]. We were 
indebted to the kindness of our friends for horses, and, 
visiting all the way homeward, and spending more or less 
time with them all in turn, we reached Monticello on the 23d 
of December. The negroes discovered the approach of the 
carriage as soon as it reached Shadwell, and such a scene 
I never witnessed in my life. They collected in crowds 
around it, and almost drew it up the mountain by hand. 
The shouting etc., had been sufficiently obstreperous before, 
but the moment it arrived at the top it reached the climax. 
When the door of the carriage was opened they received 
him in their arms and bore him to the house, crowding 
around and kissing his haad — and feet — some blubbering 
and crying, others laughing. It seemed impossible to satisfy 
their anxiety to touch and kiss the very earth which bore him. 
These were the first ebullitions of joy for his return after 
a long absence, which they would of course feel ; but perhaps 
it is not out of place here to add that they were at all times 
very devoted in their attachment to him. Such was the 
beginning of the old home-life, again taken up only to be 
soon again laid down at the call of his country and the 
urgent solicitation of his countrymen." 

Of Jefferson's position and doings as Secretary of State, 
and of his refusal to act in that capacity during Washington's 
second term, and his final resignation, we will not speak : his 
public life is part of the history of our country, and should 



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232 



MONTICELLO. 



be sufficiently well known to need no especial comment in 
these pages. 

During 1795, Jefferson remained at Monticello, engaged 
as usual in adding to the beauties of the estate, and absorbed 
in attentions to his three grandchildren, of which his daughter, 
Mrs. Randolph, had now become the mother. 

Maria Jefferson, another daughter, now seventeen years 
of age, had developed into a beautiful and charming young 




MONTICELLO, SOUTH FRONT. 



woman, and received her due share of her father's care, 
affection, and attention. 

In June, 1796, the Due de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, 
formerly Lieutenant-general of France and President of the 
National Assembly, spent some time as the guest of Jefferson 



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MONTICELLO. 233 



at Monticello, and has left us quite a graphic description of 
the place. With that of the Marquis de Chastellux, already 
given, we have a very accurate picture of the mansion. This 
eminent emigre says : ** Mr. Jefferson had commenced its 
construction before the American Revolution ; since that 
epoch his life has been constantly engaged in public affairs, 
and he has not been able to complete the execution of the 
whole extent of the project which it seems he at first con- 
ceived. That part of the building which was finished has 
suffered from the suspension of the work, and Mr. Jefferson, 
who two years since resumed the habits and leisure of private 
life, is now employed in repairing the damage occasioned by 
this interruption, and still more by his absence ; he continues 
his original plan, and even improves on it by giving to his 
buildings more elevation and extent. He intends that they 
shall consist only of one story, crowned with balustrades ; 
and a dome is to be constructed in the centre of the struct- 
ure. The apartments will be large and convenient ; the 
decoration, both outside and inside, simple, yet regular and 
elegant. Monticello, according to its first plan, was infinitely 
superior to all other houses in America in point of taste and 
convenience ; but at that time Mr. Jefferson had studied taste 
and the fine arts in books only. 

** His travels in Europe have supplied him with models ; 
he has appropriated them to his design ; and his new plan, 
the execution of which is already much advanced, will be 
accomplished before the end of next year, and then his house 
will certainly deserve to be ranked with the most pleasant 
mansions in France and England. 

** Mr. Jefferson's house commands one of the most exten- 
sive prospects you can meet with. On the east side, the 
front of the building, the eye is not checked by any object 
since the mountain on which the house is seated commands 



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234 MONT/CELLO. 



all the neighboring heights as far as the Chesapeake. - The 
Atlantic might be seen were it not for the greatness of the 
distance, which renders that prospect impossible. On the 
right and left the eye commands the extensive valley that 
separates the Green, South, and West Mountains from the 
Blue Ridge, and has no other bounds but these high moun- 
tains, of which, on a clear day, you discern the chain on the 
right upward of a hundred miles, far beyond James River ; 
and on the left as far as Maryland, on the other side of the 

Potomac A considerable number of cultivated fields, 

houses, and barns enliven and variegate the extensive land- 
scape, still more embellished by the beautiful and diversified 
forms of mountains, in the whole chain of which not one 

resembles another The land, left to the care of stewards, 

has suffered, as well as the buildings, from the long absence 
of the master ; according to the custom of the country it has 
been exhausted by successive culture.'* 

The narrator continues: *Tn private life Mr. Jefferson 
displays a mild, easy, and obliging temper, though he is 
somewhat cold and reserved. His conversation is of the 
most agreeable kind, and he possesses a stock of information 
not inferior to that of any other man. In Europe he would 
hold a distinguished rank among men of letters, and as such 
he has already appeared there. 

** At present he is employed with activity and perseverance 
in the management of his farms and buildings ; and he orders, 
directs, and pursues in the minutest details every branch of 
business relative to them. I found him in the midst of 
harvest, from which the scorching heat of the sun does not 
prevent his attendance. His negroes are nourished, clothed, 
and treated as well as white servants could be. As he can- 
not expect any assistance from the two small neighboring 
towns, every article is made on his farm : his negroes are 



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MONT/CELLO. 235 

cabinetmakers, carpenters, masons, bricklayers, smiths, etc. 
The children he employs in a nail-factory, which yields already 
a considerable profit. The young and old negresses spin for 
the clothing of the rest. He animates them by rewards and 
distinctions ; in fine, his superior mind directs the manage- 
ment of his domestic concerns with the same abilities, activity, 
and regularity which he evinced in the conduct of public 
affairs, and which he is calculated to display in every situation 
in life. In the superintendence of his household he is assisted 
by his two daughters, Mrs. Randolph and Miss Maria, who 
are handsome, modest, and amiable women. They have 

been educated in France Mr. Randolph is proprietor 

of a considerable plantation contiguous to that of Mr. Jeffer- 
son's. He constantly spends the summer with him, and, 
from the affection he bears him, he seems to be his son 
rather than his son-in-law.'* 

In 1796, Jefferson was elected Vice President of the 
United States, and on the 20th of February, 1797, set out 
for Philadelphia to be installed in his new office, to which we 
will not follow him. In his sixtieth year he returned to Mon- 
ticello to be joyfully welcomed by his children and grand- 
children. 

In April, 1804, Monticello was again saddened by the 
death of Mrs. Eppes, Jefferson's second daughter. She 
had become the wife of John Wayles Eppes, son of Francis 
Eppes, in 1797. She left two children — Francis, born in 1801, 
and Maria, who died while yet an infant. 

In 1806, Jefferson took his seat as President of the United 
States. During his residence at Washington, which had then 
become the seat of the Federal Government, he ever kept 
in mind his home at Monticello, and its support and improve- 
ment furnished some relaxation from the cares of official 
life. 



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236 MONTICELLO. 



The close of Jefferson's life was pleasantly occupied in 
perfecting his plans for the University of Virginia. He had, 
says one of his biographers, first interested himself in this 
institution in the year 18 17. * The whole of 1824 seems to 
have been taken up by him in this absorbing topic. The 
original plan was merely to found a college to be named 
the *' Central College of Virginia/' but through Jefferson it 
was extended so as to constitute the University of Vir- 
ginia. He daily visited the buildings during their erection, 
and took the most lively interest in the matter. His toil 
in behalf of this ** child of his old age'' was excessive and 
unremitting. 

Few of those men whose theatre of action was the Amer- 
ican Revolution were unconnected with military life. It is 
impossible to write of most of them without touching, at 
least, upon their military career. Dickinson fought as a 
volunteer in the Revolution, so did Stockton, Rodney — in 
fact, almost all of the Signers. Jefferson, almost alone, 
neither held nor courted military rank or military services. 
As a Virginian he stood almost alone in this respect, yet he 
was esteemed and honored by army officers throughout the 
country and in France, and among these none possessed 
a warmer friendship for him than La Fayette. On the latter's 
visit to the United States in 1824, Jefferson, writing him to 
hurry his promised visit to Monticello, says : 

** What a history have we to run over, from the evening 
that yourself, Monsnier, Bernan, and other patriots settled 
in my house in Paris the outlines of the constitution you 
wished !" 

On La Fayette's arrival at Monticello, Jefferson met him 
on the eastern side of the house, where the lawn con- 
tains less than an acre. The carriage bearing La Fayette 
halted at the edge of this open space. The escort — one 



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MONTICELLO, 237 



hundred and twenty mounted men — formed on one side in 
a semicircle extending from the carriage to the house. La 
Fayette alighted from the carriage, and at the same moment 
Jefferson descended from the portico. The latter was fee- 
ble with age, the former lamed and broken by his impris- 
onment in the dungeon of Olmutz. **As they approached 
each other,*' writes Mr. Jefferson Randolph, who was present 
upon that occasion, ** their uncertain gait quickened itself 
into a shuffling run, and exclaiming, * Ah, Jefferson !* * Ah, 
La Fayette !' they burst into tears as they fell into each other's 
arms. Among the four hundred men who witnessed this 
scene there was not a dry eye, no sound save an occasional 
suppressed sob. The two old men entered the house as the 
crowd dispersed in profound silence." 

In the same year Daniel Webster visited Monticello and 
spent a few days there. 

One of Mr. Jefferson's granddaughters, writing to Randall, 
his biographer, says, respecting visitors: ** They came of all 
nations, at all times, and paid longer or shorter visits. I have 
known a New England Judge bring a letter of introduction 
to my grandfather and stay three weeks. The learned Abbe 
Correa, always a welcome guest, passed some weeks of 
each year with us during the whole time of his stay in the 
country. We had persons from abroad, from all the States 
of the Union, from every part of the State — men, women, 
and children. In short, almost every day, for at least eight 
months of the year, brought its contingent of guests — people 
of wealth, fashion, men in office, professional men, military 
and civil, lawyers, doctors, Protestant clergymen, Catholic 
priests, members of Congress, foreign ministers, mission- 
aries, Indian agents, tourists, travellers, artists, strangers, 
friends." 

The life of the great owner of Monticello was now draw- 



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238 



MONTICELLO. 



ing to a close. The vigorous constitution which had lasted 
so many years was at last breaking down. 

It would be tedious to recite the history of the gradual 
wearing out of the bearings and journals of such a perfect 
and exquisite machine as Jefferson's. 

** Thomas Jefferson still survives!'* exclaimed the dying 
Adams, yet at that moment the families of both Monticello 
and Quincy were watching and waiting for the last breath 
of both men. On the 4th of July, 1826, the souls of both 
these great patriots were summoned before the bar of a 




TOMB OF THOMAS JEFFERSON AT MONTICELLO. 

greater tribunal than any at which during their lives they had 
ever pleaded. 

Jefferson desired that there might be engraved upon his 
tomb these lines : 



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MONTICELLO, 239 



" Here was buried 

Thomas Jefferson, 

Author of the Declaration of American Independence, 

of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, 

and Father of the University of Virginia." 

To the fact that he was President of the United States, 
Governor of Virginia, Secretary of State during Washing- 
ton's administration, and Minister to France he did not 
refer. 

And now we must indite the saddest record in the history 
of Monticello. Toward the close of his career the resources 
of Jefferson began to fail. As a young man he had started 
life with an income augmented by his fees in the practice of 
the law to an amount which exceeded his necessities or even 
his luxuries. His wife brought him a still larger sum, and 
the amounts he received at various times from different 
sources were considerable. To counterbalance this, his 
expenditures were always very large. His outlay on Monti- 
cello, even toward the latter part of his life, was very great, 
and the entertainment of visitors a constant tax on his income. 
A number of his investments were failures, notably the flour- 
mill which he built near his home. The general depression 
which extended throughout the country during the years 
preceding his decease tended to the loss of income in various 
directions and the dwindling of his estate. To meet his 
expenses Jefferson had mortgaged his property and borrowed 
money upon his personal notes or from any other source that 
presented itself. 

It has been asserted that Jefferson's financial difficulties 
were largely due to having indorsed a friend's paper. 
Although he did lose money in this way, yet the sum was in- 
considerable when compared with the total of his indebtedness. 



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240 MONTICELLO, 



When it became known that Jefferson was in financial dif- 
ficulties several States raised and forwarded to him consid- 
erable sums, which, although thankfully received, did not help 
him but temporarily. His want of money had been known 
for a long time. After the destruction of the Congressional 
Library at Washington in 1814 by the British, Jefferson 
offered his own books to partly replace it at any sum Con- 
gress chose to allow him. The sum finally agreed upon 
was less than twenty-five thousand dollars, and he perhaps 
received twenty thousand additional in gifts from the various 
States. Large sums were never claimed by private individ- 
uals, amounting to many thousands more, yet when he died 
his debts exceeded his property by over forty thousand 
dollars. It would appear that Jefferson was not fully aware 
how serious his affairs were, for he left Monticello and other 
property to trustees to be held for the benefit of his daughter 
Martha Randolph, whose husband had become very poor. 

Within six months after Jefferson*s death his property, and 
even the household furniture of Monticello, were sold at 
sheriff's sale to satisfy his creditors, and the home of Jefferson 
passed into the hands of strangers. 

Even his last resting-place was not permitted to exist 
undisturbed, but relic-hunters chipped away his tomb, bit 
by bit, until nothing remained. The graves of his family 
were treated in the same way. 

To-day, however, *Monticello, reclaimed, cared for, and 
rejuvenated as in the days of its former owner, bids fair to 
endure as a lasting monument of Thomas Jefferson. 



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THE JEFFERSON GENEALOGY. 



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THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 



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Mary PhilipsBv 

( Mrs. Roger Morris.) 



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THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 



Few who are familiar with the writings of Washington 
Irving will fail to remember the Sleepy Hollow legend, 
popularly localized near Tarrytown. Others recall the spot 
because it brings to mind the melancholy death of the 




OLD MILL AT TARRYTOWN. 



talented but unfortunate Major Andre ; few, however, associ- 
ate the name with the Tory family of Philipse. The ancient 
Dutch church at Tarrytown, made famous by Irving, is still 
standing, and here, surrounded by the hills and valleys that 



245 



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246 THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 



his pen made famous, reposes the remains of this gifted 
author. On the front of the sacred building, the oldest of 
its kind, it is believed, in New York State, there still exists 
a tablet stating that it was built in the year of our Lord 1699 
by Frederick Philipse and Catharine Van Cordandt, his wife, 
both of pious and honored memory. 

Near the church, almost hidden amongst the trees and 
undergrowth on the banks of the Pocanteco, is an ancient 
mill, another relic of this early member of the Philipse 
family which, with each succeeding generation, rose higher 
and higher in wealth and power until it stood in the front 
rank of those Colonial families for which New York is 
famed. 

Concerning the church, Bolton in his history of West- 
chester County speaks as follows: "This venerable edifice, 
believed to be the oldest church now standing in the State, 
is built of stone and brick, the latter having been imported 
from Holland for the express purpose. Its antique belfry 
^nd hipped roof present quite a picturesque appearance. 
The entrance was formerly through a porch on the south 
side; this has been recently changed to the western end, 
facing the road. On the north side of the doorway is 
inserted a stone tablet inscribed as follows: 

** Erected and Built by Frederick Philipse and Catharine Van 
cortlandt his wife, in 1 699. 

"The interior of the building has undergone considerable 
repairs and alterations, semi-Gothic lights having supplanted 
the old-fashioned square-headed windows. The pulpit and 
Heilig Avondmaal (holy communion-table) were like the 
bricks originally imported from Holland. The former being 
a capacious affair surmounted by a sounding-board.'* "The 
bell of the church,*' continues Mr. Bolton, **was cast to 



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THE MANOR OF PHIUPSBOROUGH. 



247 



order in Holland, and presented by Frederick PhlHpse. It is 
richly ornamented, and bears the following inscription : 

" SI . DEUS . PRO . NOBIS . QUIS . CONTRA . NOS . 1685. 

"The western end of the church bears an odd vane, 
shaped like a flag, and bearing the initials of the founder, 
Vrederick Felypsen. 

"The communion-service, presented by the Philipse fam- 
ily, consists of two silver bekers, the first, richly engraved 




OLD CHURCH AT TARRYTOWN. 



with floriated tracery, bears the name of Fredrych Flypse, 
and stands about seven inches high. The second is also 
richly engraved with antique figures, representing angels, 
birds, fruits, and flowers, besides three ovals containing 
emblematic figures of Faith, Hope, and Charity. Near the 



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248 THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROVGH. 



top is engraved the name of Catharina Van Cortlandt, this cup 
stands nearly six inches and a half high. There is likewise a 
baptismal bowl composed of solid silver, eight inches and a 
half in diameter, bearing the name of Fredrych Felypse/* 

Having thus described the old church, let us discover, if 
we can, something regarding the generous couple who 
founded it. 

According to a pedigree of the family published many years 
since from family papers, Frederyck (or Vrederyck) Felypsen 
is said to have been the son of a person of the same name, 
of Bolswaert, Holland, who emigrated to New Amsterdam 
in 1658, and Margaret Dacres, his wife. This colonist, in turn, 
is claimed as the son of the ** Right Honorable Viscount 
Felypse of Bohemia,* by Eva, the daughter of a noble Bohe- 
mian family, who fled with her son Vrederyck to East Fries- 
Ifind." It appears, however, that the first setder was here 
before 1658, for we find his name mentioned as an inhabitant 
of New Amsterdam among a number of citizens taxed " to 
defray the expense incurred in erecting the city defences.** 
This list, which includes the names of all the taxable inhab- 
itants of the town, shows Mr. Philipse as assessed the sum 
of twenty guilders. The smallness of this amount (less than 
eight dollars) indicated him to have been at that time a 
person of very moderate means, so that we may justly sup- 
pose him to have been a " young man who had, in common 
with the other citizens of that period, wended his way hither 
to seek his fortune in the wilds of the West.** Shortly sub- 
sequent to this, he is said to have been engaged in the 
remunerative pursuit of fur-trading; but the foundation of 
his success was, undoubtedly, his marriage, October 28, 1662, 

* The family appears to have held very high rank in Bohemia, as nobles, and also to 
have had the office of Grand Veneurs, or keepers of the deer forests in that country. Their 
collar and badge of office, a gold chain set with amethysts, diamonds, rubies, and emeralds, 
is still possessed by the family. 



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THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 249 



with Margaret Hardenbroch, widow of Pieter Rudolphus 
de Vries. 

De Vries, from a very small beginning as a trader, had 
by untiring industry accumulated a very large fortune, which 
he left to his wife, who by her second marriage placed it at 
the disposal of Philipse. He at once entered into various 
enterprises and speculations, most of which terminated suc- 
cessfully. His trade in corn and in general merchandise 
with the Indians brought him a good profit, which, with true 
Dutch frugality, he took care to place at large rates of inter- 
est, until at last he became the possessor of a great fortune. 
He was within a few years after his marriage accounted a 
richer man, even, than old Cornelius Steenwych, burgomaster 
of New Amsterdam and afterward mayor of New York, 
" who up to that time had been regarded as possessing the 
largest fortune of any one in the place. When, in 1664, 
New Amsterdam came into English hands, we find the name 
of Frederick Philipse as "about to be taxed" four florins 
weekly for six weeks " in lieu of the disagreeable alternative 
of having British soldiers billited upon him.** At this time, 
we are informed, Philipse resided in old Bronner Street, now 
the north side of Stone Street, between Whitehall and Broad. 
This street had been lately paved by the inhabitants along 
it, and, being thus the first paved street in New York City, 
it finally got the name of Stone Street, which it still retains. 
On this street resided also Oloff Stevenson Van Cortlandt, 
and it is whispered that the attractions of Catharine Van 
Cortlandt were noted by Philipse at an early period, long 
before his rich wife so obligingly consented to die. Van 
Cortlandt was a wealthy brewer who had come to New York 
in 1637. He was one of the "Nine Men,'* and opposed 
Stuyvesant, who retaliated by turning the entire nine out 
of church and tearing up their pews, which very useless and 



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250 



THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 




PHILIPSE COAT OF ARMS. 



unreasonable performance was in keeping with the governor's 
usual bad taste. When, after the city was retaken by the 
Dutch in 1674, an estimate of the value of the property of 
several citizens was drawn up, that of Philipse was stated 

to be eighty thousand florins, the 
largest amount given to any one 
on the list. As early as 1672, 
Philipse began to acquire lands 
in Westchester County, in con- 
nection with Thomas Lewis and 
Thomas Delavol. Their first pur- 
chase was near the present town 
of Yonkers. He soon after this 
bought the interest of his partners, 
becoming sole owner of the land 
to which he gradually added. In 
1680 he purchased from one Gho- 
harius, brother of Weskora, Sachem of Weckquaskeck, 
strips of land on each side of the Pocanteco. and had 
the same confirmed, with the privilege of " erecting a 
mill, making a dam, or whatsoever shall be requisite and 
necessary thereunto, with all profits, commodities, and emol- 
uments, unto the said creek, river, and land belonging.'* 
He bought, in 1685, from the Indians of Ossining all their 
land, ** commencing at the Pocanteco, and so running up 
Hudson's River to the creek or river called Ketchawan " 
(Croton River). This last acquisition perfected an estate 
that stretched from the Croton River to Spuyten Duyvel. 
" He next petitioned the government to grant him the 
island of Paperinemo, or Paperinemen, as it was called, a 
neck of land stretching out among salt marshes on the West- 
chester side of the present King's Bridge, and also for 
authority to erect a bridge at this point, and to receive 



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THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 253 



toll from whomsoever should pass over it These requests 
were conceded to him on the ground * that he had been at 
great charge and expense in the purchasing and settling of 
the aforesaid tracts of land/ '' 

The bridge he erected he called King's Bridge. By a 
charter bearing date June 12, 1693. these entire tracts of 
land were erected into a manor, and confirmed to Philipse 
'by the name and tide of " the lordship and manor of Philips- 
borough/' This charter gave to Philipse and the heirs of 
his body ** full power and authority at all times for ever here- 
after in the said lordship or manor, one court leet and one 
court baron, to hold and keep at such times and so often, 
yearly and every year, as he or they shall see meet,'' with 
" full and ample power and authority to distrain for the rents, 
levies, or other sums of money payable by virtue of the 
premises ;" together with the avowson or right of patronage 
of all churches within the manor; and directing that the 
" tenants of the said Frederick Philipse within the said manor 
shall and may at all times hereafter meet together and choose 
assessors within the manor aforesaid, according to such rules, 
ways, and methods as are prescribed for the cities, towns, 
and counties within our province, .... such sums of money 
so assessed or levied to collect and dispose of as the acts 
of General Assembly shall appoint, to have and to hold, 
possess, collect, and enjoy all and singular the said lordship 
and manor of Philipsborough .... unto the said Frederick 
Philipse." 

He was to pay for this grant, at the fort in New York, 
yearly, on the Feast of the Annunciation, the sum of four 
pounds twelve shillings rent. 

His first wife died in the year 1662, and some time after- 
ward he espoused the fair Catharine Van Cordandt, whose 
name appears with his upon the church atTarrytown and the 



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254 THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 



old communion-service which we have described. Through 
her also a large fortune was brought to the family. 

On this manor Philipse erected a residence, but not the house 
now standing, known as the Philipse Manor House, although 
the latter is partly upon the foundation of the first. The 
first house was probably erected after the church, for we 
read that Catharine Philipse, during the erection of the 
sacred building, was accustomed to ride "up from the cit/ 
of New York on horseback, mounted on a pillion behind her 
favorite brother, Jacobus Van Cortlandt, for the purpose of 
superintending the erection of this church ; her husband was 
at that time a merchant in the city. These journeys were 
generally performed during moonlight nights. Who could 
relate the interesting conversations that must have passed 
between the affectionate brother and sister as they sat on 
horseback pursuing their lonely route from the metropolis, 
and the joy of the latter when the glorious work was com- 
pleted?" **This illustrious lady,** continues the writer from 
whom we quote, " must certainly have taken a very active part, 
not only in the building, but in the procuring and subsequent 
settlement of the ministry therein, which plainly appears from 
the ancient records of the Dutch church, where her name 
occurs as first on the list of its members m 1697," and later, 
thus : " First, and before all, the right honorable. God-fearing, 
very wise and prudent, my lady Catharina Philipse, widow 
of the lord Frederick Philipse of blessed memory, who have 
promoted divine service here in the highest praiseworthy 
manner." 

Washington Irving thus describes the church which Cath- 
arina founded here for ** the sake of her soul and that of her 
worshipful lord." 

"The sequestered situation of this church seems always to 
have made it a favorite haunt of troubled spirits. It stands 



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THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH, 



257 



on a knoll surrounded by locust trees and lofty elms, from 
among which its decent whitewashed walls shine modestly 
forth, like Christian purity beaming through the shades of 
retirement. A gentle slope descends from it to a silver sheet 
of water bordered by high trees, between which peeps may 




HALLWAY, PHILIPSE MANOR-HOUSE. 

be caught at the blue hills of the Hudson. To look upon 
its grass-grown yard, where the sunbeams seem to sleep so 
quietly, one would think that there at least the dead might 
rest in peace. On one side of the church extends a wide 
woody dell, along which laves a large brook among broken 
rocks and trunks of fallen trees. Over a deep black part of 
the stream, not far from the church, was formerly thrown a 

48 



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258 THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 



wooden bridge ; the road that led to it and the bridge itself 
were thickly shaded by overhanging trees, which cast a gloom 
about it even in the daytime, but occasioned a fearful dark- 
ness at night. 

It was in this church that the never-to-be-forgotten Yankee 
pedagogue, Ichabod Crane, in rivalry of the old dominie, led 
off the choir, making the welkin ring with the notes of his 
nasal psalmody. It was, too, in the ravine just back of the 
church that this redoubtable hero, Ichabod, had his fearful 
midnight encounter with the headless horseman, and for ever 
disappeared from the sight of the goodly inhabitants of Sleepy 
Hollow." 

At this church were buried the Paulding family, one of 
whom aided in the capture of Andre. 

Frederick Philipse, first lord of the manor of Philips- 
borough, after a most successful and in many ways remark- 
able career, departed this life in the year 1702. By his last 
will and testament, dated 26th October, 1700, proved 1702, 
he desired to be buried at Sleepy Hollow, where, accordingly, 
his remains were duly deposited. His wife Catharine survived 
him for many years. Her will is dated 7th January, 1730. 
By the will of Frederick Philipse "all that portion of the 
manor north of Dobb's Ferry, including the present town, 
became vested in Adolphus Philipse, his second son. This 
individual "was also proprietor'* of a great tract of land 
north of "Anthony's Nose*' and the executor of his brother 
Philip Philipse's estate, the latter having died in 1714. 
Adolphus died without issue in 1750, and the whole manor of 
Philipsborough descended to his nephew, Frederick Philipse, 
the nearest male heir of the grandfather. This nephew was 
born in 1698 upon the island of Barbadoes, at an estate 
called Springhead belonging to his father. 

Adolphus Philipse is spoken of as a man of considerable 



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COL. FRKDERICK PHILIPSE. 



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THE MANOR OF PHIUPSBOROUGH. 261 

talents. He had been baptized in the Dutch church in New 
Amsterdam, November 15, 1665. When a young man he 
engaged in mercantile pursuits. As a member of the Pro- 
vincial Council from Cornbury*s administration to the year 
1 72 1, and as Speaker of the Assembly, and in many other 
positions of public and private trust, he filled ^all with great 
honor. 

It was probably Adolphus who rebuilt the manor-house, 
enlarging it considerably beyond the original plan. 

The New York Gazette of 22d of Januar}^ 1750, says: 
" On Saturday morning last Adolph Philipse, Esq., departed 

this life, in the eighty-fifth year of his age The minutes 

of Council and Journal of Assembly for upward of forty 
years past will remain evidences of his great diligence and 

constant attendance upon the service of his country 

His funeral obsequies are this day to be performed in this 
city, and then his remains are to be carried up to the manor 
of Philipsborough and there deposited in his own church 
and family vault.'* 

The Hon. Frederick Philipse, the heir of Adolphus, did not 
long enjoy the vast estate which it was his fortune to inherit. 
He died upon the 26th day of July, 1751, leaving a widow, 
daughter of Anthony Brockholst, and five children. Of these, 
Frederick Philipse, being the eldest, became lord of the 
manor. He was a colonel in the militia and a member of 
the Assembly, but in other ways he took but little part in 
public affairs. He lived, probably more than others, on the 
manor. In 1775, April nth, the freeholders of Westchester 
met at White Plains to take measures in regard to the election 
of delegates to Congress. " Colonel Philipse and the Rev. 
Mr. Wilkins were present also, but when the meeting con- 
vened Mr. Wilkins denounced the meeting, and announced 
to the crowd that he and his companions ** would not have 



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262 THE MANOR OF PHIUPSBOROUGH. 



anything to do with the deputies or Congress, but that they 
came there for the sole purpose of protesting against such 
illegal and unconstitutional proceedings ; after which they 
departed/' Various other acts showing his Tory sentiment 
finally compelled Colonel Philipse to sail for England, and the 
manor of Philipsborough, which had now been in possession 
of the family for nearly a century, " became by bill of attainder 
confiscated to the State of New York/' 

He remained in England, and died there in 1785, at the 
age of sixty-five. He was, says a writer, " a man of very 
large size, on account of which his wife seldom rode in the 
same carriage with him. In his character he is said, by one 
who knew him well, to have been a worthy and respectable 
man, not often excelled in personal and domestic amiableness.*' 
Shortly before his death the British Government voted him 
;^62,075 sterling as a compensation for the loss of the manor. 

Colonel Philipse, as we have noted, made extended im- 
provements to one of the manor-houses which is thus described 
by a historian : *' Casde Philipse, the ancient residence of the 
lords of Philipsborough, occupies a pleasant position on the 
west side of the millpond, nearly facing the old Dutch church, 
having acquired the appellation from the fact that in the early 
days of the Colony it was strongly fortified with cannon, a 
necessary precaution against any sudden attack of the 
Indians. The embrasures or port-holes can yet be traced 
in the cellar walls. The western end of the building is 
evidently the remains of a much older edifice, probably 
coeval with the erection of the mill in 1683. At the present 
time the house is completely modernized. 

**The mansion is seen to the best advantage from the 
Sleepy Hollow Bridge. The principal entrance is through 
a porch on the north-east front. Here, within the compass 
of a broad territory, the Philipses enjoyed every distinction^ 



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THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH, 265 



feudal and ecclesiastical, which the Colonial Government 
could bestow — the manor, baronial courts, hunting, fishing, 
advowson, and family sepulture, together with all the bless- 
ings which the retirement of a country life and religion could 
afford;^ 

To the lord's mill, near the manor-house, the tenants on 
the vast estate, and from the country near by, brought their 
grain to be ground into flour, and when ground it was shipped 
to market by the superintendent, the lord's toll being first 
deducted. 

But the Philipse family were not content with one home. 
The original fortified house, called Castle Philipse, was not large 
enough, although spacious, to satisfy their longings for mag- 
nificence, so they started to build another home on the site of 
an old farm building at the present town of Yonkers ; and it 
in turn came also to be called the manor-house, and probably 
later was occupied by the family during most of the year. 
There is little question that the rich old bachelor Adolphus 
Philipse designed this house, and that his nephew and heir and 
grand-nephew, both of whom bore the name of Frederick 
Philipse, added to the architectural features and interior dec- 
orations. " The front of the manor-hall," writes a historian of 
Yonkers, " presents quite a handsome elevation for a country 
residence of the olden time. It is built in the Dutch style, so 
fashionable at that period ; its roof is surmounted by a heavy 
line of balustrade, forming a terrace that commands extensive 
views of the river. The principal entrance is through the 
eastern porch, ornamented with light columns and correspond- 
ing pilasters. There are likewise two porches on the eastern 
front, looking upon the lawn. The interior is fitted up with 
wainscoted walls, ceilings highly ornamented in arabesque- 
wolrk, and carved marble mantels. The view from the south 
commands the old stone mill, village spires, and the wooded 



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266 



THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 



banks of Philipse Point. On the west are beautiful prospects 
of the dock and river ; on the east a verdant lawn skirted by 
garden-terraces, horse-chestnuts, and the main road, above 
which rises Locust Hill. The hall is capacious, and its wide 




MANTEL AND CEILING IN DRAWING-ROOM, PHILIPSE MANOR-HOUSE. 

staircase with antique balustrades and banister has a fine effect. 
The bed-rooms are large panelled apartments with old-fash- 
ioned fireplaces faced in Dutch tile, representing thereon 
Scripture stories with appropriate references." 

Around the grounds were laid long, noble terraces, fringed 



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THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 



267 



with box hedges, and there was an extensive and magnificent 
garden " enriched by valuable fruit trees and shrubs. The 
splendid orange and myrtle trees that once adorned the 
green-house were formerly in the possession of Mrs. Macomb 
of Kingsbridge. The lawn, sloping by easy grade to the 




FIREPLACE IN THE WASHINGTON CHAMBER. 



banks of the Hudson, was dotted with rare ornamental trees 
and shrubs, and included a large deer-park which was always 
kept well stocked with English deer. 

Toward the close of the Philipse reign, if we may so call 
their sway over these broad acres, the tenants on their domain 
were, on the great rent-day, feasted here. This mansion, 
exclusive of Casde Philipse, maintained thirty white and 
twenty negro servants. The lesser rent-day was, it appears, 
always kept at the Sleepy Hollow house for the convenience 
of the lower tenants. 



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268 THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH, 



" In lieu of rent/* says the History of Westchester County, 
" was frequently received a couple of fat hens, a day*s work, 
or a trifling sum amounting to three or four pounds. The 
farmers bordering on the river, having greater privileges. 




MANTEL AND MIRROR IN SECOND-STORY FRONT ROOM, PHILIPSE MANOR-HOUSE. 

paid higher rents. The courts leet and baron were held 
yearly at the house of John Cockles, the site of the present 
Nap-pecka-mah tavern. This court took cognizance of all 
criminal matters, and sometimes inflicted punishments that 
were even capital. In the administration of justice the 
baronial lord presided, either in his own person or in that of 
his steward. 



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THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 269 

Tradition, that winsome but treacherous handmaiden of 
history, tells us that the lady Joanna, wife of the third lord, 
was as talented and haughty as she was beautiful. A dash- 
ing and fearless horsewoman, she pounded her unwieldy 
coach across the rough roads of the neighborhood, and with 
a hand of iron ruled the four black stallions that few but her 
could hold. Her skill and courage drew each day fresh 
flattery and homage from the officers that lounged at Philips- 
borough, spurring her in her foolish pride to fresh feats of reck- 
lessness and daring. The common folk, whom she openly 
despised, shook their heads, indeed, solemnly in stolid Dutch 
fashion ; some of them may have remembered her grandfather, 
once poorer than they. 

Sometimes, when there was no one within hearing, the 
farmers took their pipes out of their mouths long enough 
to mutter that pride goes before a fall, and then continued 
to puff away as usual. And why not? They tilled the 
manor lands, paid their rent, and having, like dutiful Dutch- 
men, eaten their lord's dinner, departed. With the wild 
ways of the lady Joanna they had no concern. One day 
a Mohawk squaw, whose father, for a few poor kegs of rum 
had bartered with old Frederick Philipse for these same acres, 
choking in the dust-cloud that swirled up from under the 
stallions' hoofs, cursed the fair driver, her horses, and the 
house of Philipse. Did she know that a tree had fallen at 
the turn of the road? 

The sun was sinking in golden splendor beyond the blue 
hills that marked the boundary of that fair domain, when they 
laid her softly in the hall of the manor-house. Her gay frock 
was smirched with blood ; dirt, twigs, and leaves were in her 
hair ; on her forehead was still the angry frown that marked 
it when the maddened brutes ground the coach to splinters 
amid the rocks and hurled her, still gripping the reins, into 



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270 



THE MANOR OF PHIUPSBOROUGH. 



the black gulley below. So runs the story, but stern facts 
tell us only that she was killed by being flung from her coach 
on the manor-grounds. 

The second son of the Hon. Frederick Philipse, called 
Philip Philipse, had inherited large estates in the Highlands, 
beyond Philipsborough, and likewise became very rich ; he died 




BED-CHAMBER AT PHILIPSE MANOR-HOUSE. 



while yet in middle life some time prior to the Revolution, 
and his children being still minors when the war opened, they 
were not included in the bill of attainder, nor was their estate 
disturbed, in spite of their expressed and very pronounced 
views. They were, indeed, all Tory in sentiment. 

Frederick Philipse, the third lord of the manor of Philips- 
borough, had two daughters who reached womanhood — 
Susanna and Mary. They are both said to have been very 
beautiful, but tradition gives to Mary, the youngest, charms 



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THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 271 



that lend additional interest to the romance by which she is 
especially remembered. Both of these young women had in- 
herited considerable property from their father on his death in 
1 75 1. Susanna, the eldest, soon after married Beverly Robin- 
son, afterward widely known for the part he played in Arnold's 
treason. To Mary the youngest daughter, who married 
Captain Roger Morris, an officer of the English army, belongs 
a story told by every one who has written of the Philipses, 
the story of Washington's attachment for her. As the story 
is told, the general, then a youth of twenty-six, met her at 
the home of Beverly Robinson, with whom he was quite 
intimate, and, according to the Tory side of the story, was 
refused point-blank by the haughty heiress, who was then 
nearly thirty years of age and getting rather passe, because 
" she loved another.*' 

One version of this historic love-affair tells how they sat 
together in conversation until daybreak, and, as the gray 
light of morning crept in, mocking the flickering light of the 
candles burning low in their sockets, Washington at last 
found courage to propose, only to be refused. The story 
continues that the handsome young Virginian colonel grew 
ashy pale — which is the proper thing, by the way, to do under 
such circumstances — and rushed out of the house, upsetting 
one of the slaves who was up getting breakfast. Another 
account tells us that Washington, always on the lookout in 
his younger days for a rich wife, paid considerable attention 
to Mary Philipse, but never summed up courage to propose 
— a fact that was always extremely regretted by the heiress 
of Frederick Philipse. 

The narrator of the former version adds a sequel which, 
though manifestly untrue, is too picturesque to omit. It 
seems, we are informed, that after Andre was seized, Beverly 
Robinson protected by a commission, called at the American 



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272 THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 

headquarters and demanded a secret interview with Washing- 
ton in the name of the ancient friendship that had existed 
between them. His request having been granted, he was 
secretly conducted, with a companion, heavily cloaked and 
masked, into the general's presence. At the moment of their 
meeting Washington and Robinson fell into each other's 
arms. After a few moments of deep emotion Washington 
asked, *' And now, pray, what can I do for you, sir?" Robin- 
son began to plead for Andre's life, but was informed that he 
must die — that nothing now could save him. The Tory 
colonel recommenced his pleading, and, forgetting the days 
that passed since their youthful intimacy, addressed the 
commander in chief as George. " Ge^ieral Washmgton, 
Colonel Robinson^ exclaimed the former quickly, and added 
that he would call one of the guard to escort him back. ** I 
have here, general," exclaimed the Tory, " an old friend whom 
you will treat more affectionately ;" and, to Washington's aston- 
ishment, Mary Philipse, now Mrs. Morris, presented herself. 
The general's reply was even more severe ; it was silence 
for a moment, and then he called loudly for an officer of the 
guard. " Show these persons through the lines !" he exclaimed, 
and left the room abruptly in disgust. 

Such is the tale. When we remember that at the time it 
is alleged that it occurred, Mary Philipse, now Mrs. Morris, 
was aged about fifty, it does not appear so probable or 
romantic. What we do know is that Captain Morris and 
Beverly Robinson both fled to England, and that their prop- 
erty was forfeited to the State. Parliament allowed them 
a good sum for the same, and a further sum for the reversion 
to the heirs, then minors. The Chief Justice of England, 
however, subsequently decided that the trust estates of the 
minors were not affected, as minors could not be attainted for 
high treason. The heirs of Captain Morris upon this decision 



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MEMORIAL TABLKT TO FREDERICK PHILIPSE. 
(Fac-simile of original in Chester Cathedral, England.) 



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THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH, 275 

began preparation for a suit against the State of New York. 
In 1828, John Jacob Astor offered one hundred thousand 
dollars for the claim, which was accepted. He won the case, 
and a profit of four hundred thousand dollars by the trans- 
action. 

Thus ends the history of the Philipse manor, its Colonial 
lords, and its Tory owners. By one of those strange turns 
of fortune which are sometimes observed, the Philipse manor- 
house became, after the Revolution, the residence of Mrs. 
Cornelia Bleecker, wife of Gerard G. Bleecker and daughter 
of Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Van Cortlandt. Although 
allied distantly to the Philipses, Mrs. Bleecker was noted for 
her patriotism. It is related that upon one occasion her 
personal courage, as well as her patriotism, was tried most 
severely. Some soldiers belonging to a Tory regiment called 
at the house and behaved most insolently. Upon her expos- 
tulating with them one fellow exclaimed, "Ah, you are the 
daughter of that old rebel Pierre Van Cortlandt, are you 
not?" — "Pierre Van Cortlandt is my father,'* she said, and 
then added firmly, " but it is not for such as you to call 
him rebel." The soldier clubbed his musket to strike 
her down, but, standing her ground, she reproved him so 
sternly for his insolence that he went off with his comrades, 
leaving her unhurt. 

Some of the descendants of old Frederick Philipse have 
won for themselves wealth and position, but none have 
attained the greatness of their gallant old ancestor, the first 
lord, who in his manor-house of Philipsborough, with his cannon 
shotted, his colors hoisted, lord of a tract of land that 
stretched in blue hills and vales for miles and miles in all 
directions, could, like the Van Rensselaers, bid defiance to 
the world. Such old manors and the buildings upon them, 
wherever situate, have the charm of relics of the Colonial 



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276 THE MANOR OF PHILIPSBOROUGH, 



period of our country, and are always invested with interest- 
ing legends and local traditions that have been long handed 
down from father to son, by the county folk about them. 

The manor of Philipsborough and Philipse Castle have less 
of these and fewer stirring incidents connected with their 
history than some others, but they possess one magnet, that 
will, for all time, attract attention to their forlorn desolation, 
their proximity and connection with the scene of Arnold*s 
treason, the tragic death of Major Andre, and, almost greater 
than these historic events, the fact that the manor is the 
scene of some of the legends and the last resting-place of 
Washington Irving. 



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PHILIPSE OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 



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PHILIPSE OF PHILIPSBOROUGH. 



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WAYNESBOROUGH. 



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Old St. David's, Radnor. 



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WAYNESBOROUGH 



In the churchyard of old St. David's, Radnor, near Phila- 
delphia, are two graves of more than passing interest. 

At the church-door, capped with a broad engraven slab, 
and serving at once for tombstone and doorsill, is that of the 
haughty William Moore of Moore 
Hall, whilst near by, to the right of 
the narrow path, lies the body of 
Captain Isaac Wayne, father of the 
gallant Mad Anthony whose modest 
monument, originally intended to 
have been erected over his uncof- 
fined bones, then on the desolate 
shore of Lake Erie, and the only 
tribute that Pennsylvania has ever 
paid to the memory of her first great 
soldier, the hero of Stony Point, the 
friend of Washington, in return for 
the blood which he shed for her 
*• from the frozen fields of Canada 

to the burning sands of Florida,*' crumbles gently away a 
little to the westward of the church. 

Isaac Wayne and William Moore, although they sleep so 
close together without notable disturbance, were not only 
mortal enemies, but represented the extremes in society and 
politics of their day. They were both of good family, large 

281 




THE WAYNE ARMS. 



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282 WA YNESBOROUGH, 



landholders, and equally prominent in their county of Chester. 
They had many accomplishments and tastes in common, and, 
had the times and conditions been different, they might have 
been not only friends, but as fast allies and boon-companions 
as any of their hard-riding and hard-drinking, fox-hunting 
neighbors. 

The Wayne family are mentioned in the early records of 
Yorkshire and Derbyshire, where for centuries they held a 
most respectable position among the lesser gentry, and down 
almost to the present time the name is to be found in certain 
parishes of Derbyshire in which the family held lands. These 
old Waynes bore the Christian names of Anthony, Gabriel, 
and Francis, and divers of them were soldiers by profession, 
some in the great Civil War in England, and mostly upon the 
side of the king. One of these latter was Captain Gabriel 
Wayne, a good officer, who was apparently a near kinsman 
to Captain Anthony Wayne, the ancestor of the family in 
this country. There is yet extant in England a roll of Derby- 
shire families entitled to bear arms, and among them is men- 
tioned the Wayne family, the coat being given as gules, a 
chevron ermine, between three inside gauntlets, or, and these 
arms were cut on a seal ring belonging to the first Captain 
Anthony Wayne of Easttown, Chester County, Pennsylvania. 
This ring is still extant, and in the possession of a descendant. 
Miss Mary Wayne of Philadelphia. The crest on the old ring 
is a stags head erased, pr,, which is different from the crest 
now used by the Derbyshire Waynes, but crests cannot be 
trusted to form any part of a genealogical augment, as they 
were frequently changed at the mere caprice of their owners. 

Anthony Wayne was born near the border-line of York- 
shire and Derbyshire in the year 1666. He adopted at an 
early age the profession of arms, for which, doubtless, he 
inherited a decided preference. Whilst yet a lad he was in 



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IVA YNESBOROUGH, 



283 



Holland, and saw service in the Low Countries, it is said, 
under John Churchill, afterward the great Duke of Marl- 
borough. 

It may have been that Captain Wayne was one of those 




WAYNESBOROUGH. 



picked soldiers who accompanied William of Orange to Eng- 
land on his expedition against King James, or he may have 
subsequently joined William's army in Ireland. Be this as it 
may, however, it is a pretty well established fact that he com- 
manded a troop of horse at the Boyne Water, in company 
with his lifelong companion, John Hunter, and that sub- 
sequently Wayne and Hunter retired from the army, and 
settled down as graziers in the County of Wicklow, one 
having married a French woman, and the other a native of 
Holland. 



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284 WA YNESBOROUGH, 



This stor)^ seems much more probable than the tradition 
which relates that Anthony Wayne and John Hunter were farm- 
ers in County Wicklow, and that at the battle of Boyne they 
gathered their farm-hands together and joined the Protestant 
forces, arming themselves with rude weapons constructed from 
implements of husbandry, returning to their farms after the 
fight. As against this last tale it may be urged that there 
were but few, if any, English Protestant settlers in Wicklow 
during the years immediately preceding the Boyne fight, most 
of them having left the neighborhood. Nor, indeed, were the 
conditions such that the Protestant English settlers of Wick- 
low could have remained undisturbed by the Catholics at 
that time. While their brethren were standing siege at 
Derry cruel massacres of English were perpetrated in other 
places, and it was after the defeat of the Irish at this place 
that their leaders devised new methods to harass the trans- 
planted men. 

'* After the siege of Londonderry' was raised,'* writes 
Green, ** the routed soldiers fell back to Dublin, where 
James lay helpless in the hands of the frenzied Parliament 
which he had summoned. Every member returned was an 
Irishman and a Catholic, and their one aim was to undo the 
successive confiscations which had given the soil to English 
settlers, and to get back Ireland for the Irish. It was to 
strengthen this work by ensuring the legal forfeiture of their 
lands that three thousand Protestants of name and fortune 
were massed together in the hugest bill of attainder which 
the world has seen." The name of Wayne is not in this 
bill, nor do the Wicklow records contain it at any period 
before the accession of William of Orange. On the contrary, 
there seems to be every reason to believe that Wayne, like 
other soldiers serving in Ireland, was granted the confiscated 



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WA YNESBOROUGH. 285 

lands of the rebellious Irish in lieu of his pay, for such was 
the policy of King William. 

It is therefore most probable that Anthony Wayne settled 
near Rathdrum, Wicklow, after 1690. 

The following is a copy of a letter in possession of Major 
William Wayne of Waynesborough, Paoli, Chester County, 
Pennsylvania : 

Waterford, March 8th, 1795. 
General Anthony Wayne, 
Sir : 

This comes from your near kinswoman, Mary 
Wayne, daughter of your Uncle Gabriel, who was married to 
a Captain Keating, belonging to Ireland. He brought me to 
Ireland, where I have resided ever since the first year of his 
present Majesty to the throne, and I am now a widow and my 
children have grown up, able to provide for themselves. I 
feel an earnest desire to return to my native country, but (on 
account of my long absence from it) I know not where to find 
one branch of my family, except yourself, dear cousin, whose 
name is made popular by the active part you took in the 
American War, which you have gallantly continued in pursu- 
ing the enemies of your country. May it please God to 
grant you success and preserve you from the dangers which 
your courage and gallant conduct stand open to. 

I wish this letter may come to your hand, for I am assured 
you will answer it to my satisfaction. In the first place, I 
wish to know if my brother William is alive or where I may 
write to him, or if you can give me any information of my 
sister Susannah or where to write to her ; and please inform 
me if your own two sisters are living, Peggy and Nancy, or, 
if they are married, their names and where they live. Now, 
my dear cousin, I have written to you very often unsuccess- 



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286 WA YNESBOROUGH, 



fully, yet I do not attribute it to you or any neglect of yours. 
I think my letters must not have reached your hand, as you 
have been mostly upon some expedition or other. I hope by 
the time this comes fo your hand you will have conquered all 
these difficulties and have returned to your own house, sat 
down in peace, and are enjoying the fruits of your toil, with 
both the congratulations of your friends and relations, as I 
am one of those who will rejoice at your felicity. 

I think this letter can't fail coming to your hand, as I shall 
direct it to General Washington to be forwarded to you. I 
am confident from your noble character that you will be ready 
to fulfil the desire of your near kinswoman, one you could 
not forget, as we spent our infant years under the roof of 
your dear father's house, Isaac Wayne, as sister and brother. 
If my brother is alive, let him know where to write to me. 
Your ever affectionate kinswoman, 

Mary Keating. 

P. S. If you will be pleased to answer this, direct to Mary 
Keating, Michael Street, Waterford, Ireland. 

Another letter in reference to the family genealogy is here 
given. The statement that Anthony Wayne was from Ger- 
many is, of course, erroneous, and he is confused with his 
wife, Hannah Faulkner, probably of Holland : 

Philada., May 17, 181 7. 

Sir: 

I have communicated to Mr. Peters some facts rela- 
tive to the genealogy of your family, which I rec'd from one 
of the oldest of them now living. Mr. Wayne, who is now 87 
years of age, relates, that the name of your great-grandfather 
& mine was Anthony ; that he left Germany on acct. of per- 
secution, but whether political or religious he cannot tell, nor 



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WA YNESBOROUGH. 287 



the period when. He settled in Ireland and married a lady 
named Faukner & had seven sons, viz : Francis, Gabriel, Jacob, 
Isaac, John, William and Abraham [Humphrey]. The two last 
remained in Europe, the first five emigrated to America, and 
arrived at Boston whence they removed and all setried in 
Chester County, Pa. Isaac, the 4th. Son, was your grand- 
father, and Francis, the oldest son, was mine. Each of the 
five brothers had several children, some of whom & many of 
their descendants are living in this City, in Savannah, in 
Washington City & in other parts of the U. S., but of 
the two who remained in Ireland & of their descendants I 
cannot learn anything. My g.father Francis had five sons, 
three born in Ireland & two in Chester County ; of the 
latter, Abm. was my father. I learned several particulars 
relative to the different branches of the family which I 
deemed unnecessary to detail to Mr. P., presuming that the 
principal object was to ascertain the g.g.father s name & 
whence he came. 

Mr. W.'s. information is entirely from memory, having no 
written documents on the subject, but I think he may be relied 
on, particularly as his statement is confirmed by some others 
of the family. 

I shall not cease to pursue the inquiry in hope of obtain- 
ing further information from written documents, and, if I am 
successful, will not fail to acquaint you. 

Yrs. very respectfully, 

C. P. Wayne. 
Col. Isaac Wayne, 
Chester County. 

Anthony Wayne and his family removed to America in 
1723, landing at Boston, Massachusetts, and proceeding 
thence, immediately, to Chester County, Pennsylvania, where 



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288 WA YNESBOROUGH, 



his old companion-in-arms, John Hunter, had previously (in 
1722) located. 

By deed of May nth, 1724, he purchased from Thomas 
Edwards 386 acres of land in Easttown, Chester County, 
being described in the conveyance as *' Anthony Wayne, 
gentleman/' He also acquired a further lot of 39 acres by 
patent from the Proprietors in 1735. On May 31st, 1729, 
Anthony Wayne and Hannah his wife conveyed 40 acres of 
this tract to their son Francis, and 10 acres additional in 1759. 
They also subsequently conveyed their entire plantation to 
their son Isaac Wayne, February 20th, 1739-40, on condition 
that Isaac pay them a certain annuity during their natural 
lives, and do other things therein specified. The particulars 
of these and other transactions are more especially referred 
to in the genealogical account of the family given in another 
chapter. The property mentioned they called Waynes- 
borough, and upon it stood the older portion of the present 
Waynesborough mansion, yet the home of the family. 

Captain Anthony Wayne died in Easttown, December 2d, 
1739, and was buried in old St. David's, Radnor, where he 
was a vestryman and pewholder with John Hunter, and where 
his tombstone is still to be seen on the right of the path lead- 
ing to the church. He had the following children : Francis, 
Gabriel, Isaac, Humphrey, Jacob, William, John, Sarah, Ann, 
Mary, for all of whom he provided during his lifetime. 

Isaac Wayne, the third son, was born in Ireland in 1699, 
and died in Chester County. He succeeded to Waynes- 
borough by a deed of confirmation from his brother John, his 
father s executor, greatly improved the property', and became, 
in time, a very prominent man in his county. Like his father, 
he was a staunch member of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
and a vestryman and pewholder at old St. David's. 

Here, on the old plantation, he continued to live. A man 



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JVA YNESBORO UGH. 289 

of great force of character, he took an active part in the 
politics of Provincial times, and the bitterness of the day 
made him some enemies, among them Colonel William Moore 
of Moore Hall ; but his strict integrity and superior ability 
multiplied his friends and admirers. It so happened that an 
unexpected turn of affairs gave him an unexceptionable oppor- 
tunity to distinguish himself. 

It was in 1754 that the Indians, under contract with the 
French and commanded in some cases by French officers, 
commenced serious warfare against the frontier settlements 
of Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia. During the early 
spring of 1754, Captain William Trent, under authority of 
Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia, began the erection of Fort 
Duquesne at the forks of the Ohio River, in order to protect 
the operations of the Ohio Company. The fort was yet 
incomplete when the French, in force, under the command of 
Contrecoeur, came down the Allegheny River and demanded 
the garrison to surrender, which demand was at one complied 
with, and the French took possession as a part, as they 
claimed, of their territory of Louisiana. 

This overt act of war was followed by prompt action on 
the part of the Colonies and of Great Britain. In April, 
1754, the first expedition against the French and Indians 
marched from Alexandria. Colonel Joshua Fry was com- 
mander-in-chief, and Washington, then a lieutenant-colonel, 
second in command. The expedition was a failure, and the 
French remained in possession of the neighborhood of Fort 
Duquesne, and, indeed, of the entire frontier. 

** To make themselves more secure,*' says Mr. Albert in 
his paper on Fort Duquesne in The Frontier Forts of Western 
Pennsylvania, **the French worked on the Indians of this 
region by every device. They were eminently successful in 
their dealings with them, and they had little trouble to make 

50 



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290 



WA YNESBOROUGH. 



them their allies and dependants. There had grown a feeling 
of distrust on the part of the Indians of the Virginians, and an 
antagonism against them by the tribes along the rivers ; they 
were losing their ancient regard for the Pennsylvanians on 
account of the manner in which they had been duped out of 




INTERIOR, WAYNESBOROUGH. 



their hunting-grounds, and they were thus the more easily pre- 
vailed upon, by plausible argument and by substantial evidence 
of friendship, to become allies of the French. Many tribes were 
sustained by bountiful donations ; the post was frequented by 
chiefs and warriors who came from distant tribes, and quite 
a settlement of natives was gathered in huts around the fort, 



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WA YNESBOROUGH, 291 

to whom were served rations from the public stores. To this 
point the representatives of the tribes came, and were here 
fed in time of need. Here traders and governmental agents 
carried on their exchange of furs and peltry, and from here 
went forth those predatory bands, sometimes led by French- 
men or Canadians, which carried terror, destruction, and death 
to the border settlements of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and 
Maryland. To here were carried the captives taken in these 
ventures, whence they were from time to time sent to other 
posts or to Canada. And this continued so long as the place 
remained in their possession." 

After the defeat of the first expedition of the Colonies 
against this powerful stronghold the troops of Fry and Wash- 
ington and other officers were content to guard, as well as 
they were able, the inner lines of settlements from the attacks 
of the natives and their French allies, leaving the frontier 
unprotected and awaiting whatever action might be taken. 

They had not long to wait. General Braddock arrived in 
Virginia on the 20th of February, 1755, with instructions to 
take command of the Crown and Provincial troops in North 
America. 

In July, Braddock's army advanced against F'ort Duquesne, 
and was ambushed and defeated with terrible loss. The 
division under Dunbar was seized with panic, and fled to the 
settlements in the greatest confusion and haste, whilst the 
Provincial troops, who had behaved, amid the general dis- 
order, with the greatest prudence and gallantry, were obliged, 
for want of numbers, ammunition, and supplies, to follow the 
general rout, thus leaving all of the settlements at the mercy 
of the enemy, who were prompt to take advantage of their 
victory. The Indians now closed in on the settlers, and the 
smoke of burning cabins and farm-houses went up along the 
entire line of settlements east of the Blue Mountains, and in 



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292 WA YNESBOROUGH, 



Pennsylvania the interior towns within fifty miles of Philadel- 
phia were threatened by scalping-parties. 

It is difficult to describe the panic that followed. All 
thought of resistance at first seems to have been abandoned. 
The roads leading to Philadelphia were choked with farmers* 
wagons stuffed with household furniture, with the live stock 
driven behind. Many persons took passage on the first ships 
for England, others fled to New England or New York, and 
daily newsletters brought fresh advices of horrid murders and 
arson. 

At this juncture the authorities took heart and commenced 
to prepare for the defence. The Pennsylvania Assembly 
voted to establish several military companies, and a number 
of officers were duly commissioned. Among those who vol- 
unteered for this difficult and dangerous service was Isaac 
Wayne. It is a tradition in the family that he had served, 
when a young man, in the English army, and that as a vol- 
unteer had been with the Braddock expedition ; and, no mat- 
ter what evidence is wanting to establish the latter surmise, it 
is quite evident that the former statement is correct, because 
it is scarcely likely that without any previous knowledge of 
military affairs he would, at his advanced age, have been 
trusted with so important a command, or been able in so 
short a time to acquire the necessary experience to lead and 
drill a company. 

In the early fall of 1755 his company was ready for service, 
and he at once advanced to the frontier under instructions 
from Governor Morris. 

Captain Wayne's first active service was probably beyond 
the Blue Mountains, and afterward at Depuis*, where a 
blockhouse had been hastily erected. The faulty records 
of the military operations of the time give us but very imper- 
fect information regarding the actual engagements with the 



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WA YNESBOROUGH. 293 

marauding Indians in which he participated, but it is known 
that Wayne remained at Depuis* and neighborhood until 
Januar>% 1756. 

At this time the points most exposed to Indian attacks were 
the Moravian settlements, especially Bethlehem, Nazareth, 
and neighborhood, and the destruction of Gnadenhutten and 
the massacre of Captain Hayes and his soldiers necessitated 
immediate action. A bold and experienced officer was needed 
to take charge of so important a post, and the choice fell on 
Captain Wayne. 

The instructions to him from Governor Morris, January 
3d, 1756, are as follows: 

Cap. Wayne : 

You are upon your return from Depuis' to Halt with 
your Company at Nazareth, and there to remain until further 
orders, taking care all the while you are there to keep your 
company in good order, and to post them in such a manner 
as most Effectually to guard and secure that place against 
attack ; and if you should be past Nazareth when you receive 
these orders, you are then to return thither, and remain there, 
posting your men as above you are directed. You are, as 
soon as you can, to augment your company with the number 
of twenty men, each man to find himself with a gun and a 
Blanket, for the use of which a reasonable allowance will be 
made by the government. And, in making this Augmentation 
you are to take care to keep an exact account of the time 
when each man enters himself with you, so that you may be 
enabled to make a proper return to me upon oath. You are 
to inform the men of your company and such of the other 
companys as you shall joyn or have occasion to send to, that 
they shall receive a reward from the government of forty 
Pieces of Eight for every Indian they shall kill and scalp in 



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294 IVA YNESBOROUGH. 

any action they may have with them, which I hereby promise 
to pay upon producing the scalps. 

As there may be occasion for the immediate use of your 
Company in another part of the Country, you are to Hold 
yourself in readiness to march upon an Hour's warning/' 

It seems probable that Captain Wayne had been stationed 
at Depuis' since the preceding December, having been 
ordered there, doubtless, directly after the first fight in the 
neighborhood. He was succeeded at this post by Captain 
Wetterholt. '' His stay at Nazareth was short. Benjamin 
Franklin, who shortly after took command of the frontier, 
reported on January 14th, from Bethlehem, that he found 
Wayne posted at Nazareth, as ordered ; that he had sent a 
convoy of provisions and supplies to Trump and Ashton, 
who were erecting the forts on the Delaware, which was to be 
escorted as far as Nazareth by Lieutenant Davis and the 
twenty men of McLaughlin's company who had come with 
him, Franklin ; they then to remain at Nazareth to guard that 
place, while Captain Wayne, whose men were fresh, pro- 
ceeded with the convoy." Upon his return Captain Wayne 
accompanied Franklin to Gnadenhutten to assist in the erec- 
tion of Fort Allqn. In the spring of 1756, writes Colonel 
Miles, who was then a young man and one of Captain 
Wayne's company, the command was disbanded, their terms 
of service having expired, and they returned to their respect- 
ive homes. 

There is evidence that Captain Wayne recruited another 
company from Chester County for service against the French . 
and Indians in 1757-58, and it seems probable that his com- 
mand joined in the Forbes expedition against Fort Duquesne ; 
at least there is a record of his drawing pay for ser\Mce in the 
field about this time. 

Soon after his return to civil life he was elected to repre- 



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WA YNESBOROUGH. 295 



sent his county in the General Assembly, where he served 
several terms with honor to himself and benefit to his country, 
and, notwithstanding the opposition of his ancient enemy, Col- 
onel William Moore, acted for a long time as a magistrate for 
his county. 

Had not his death occurred just on the eve of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, it is possible that, notwithstanding his age, he 
would have taken a prominent part in the impending struggle, 
if not in arms, at least in the halls of Congress. 

Captain Isaac Wayne is described as a tall, handsome 
man, of soldierly bearing, somewhat blunt in his speech, after 
the fashion of those much in garrison life ; a good horseman, 
a high liver, but temperate in many ways. 

Captain Wayne managed to accumulate a handsome estate 
and enlarged the Waynesborough mansion considerably. 

Isaac Wayne was succeeded at Waynesborough by his 
only surviving son, Anthony, William, the oldest, having died 
in infancy or early boyhood. 

Anthony Wayne early displayed that inclination for mili- 
tary matters which subsequently made him famous. From a 
letter extant, it appears that his uncle, Gabriel Wayne, had 
established a large academy for boys, and thither young An- 
thony was sent. His worthy relative writes to Isaac Wayne 
that young Anthony does not exhibit a marked preference for 
any particular profession, except that of a soldier. Regard- 
ing this, he says that Wayne has drilled the boys at che school 
and formed them into companies, and is constantly organizing 
sham battles and throwing up intrenchments and the like. As 
a compromise, the profession of a surveyor was decided upon, 
and after a course of study Wayne, like Washington, com- 
menced with compass and chain his adventurous career. A 
map made by him whilst deputy surveyor in Chester County 
still remains in the Surveyor-General's office at Harrisburg. 



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296 WA YNESBOROUGH. 



The career of *' Mad " Anthony Wayne is too well known, 
and has been too much written of, to admit of extended com- 
ment here. The breaking out of the Revolution found him 
busy in politics, and it was but a step to obtain a commission 




MAJOR-GENERAL ANTHONY WAYNE. 

in the army. His early fondness for military matters had 
indeed served to make him more fitted to command than a 
large number of his fellow-officers, and his want of actual 
experience in the field was overbalanced by his natural mili- 
tary talent. Although we are prone to judge Wayne's 



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WA YNESBOROUGH. 297 



career principally by his most dashing exploits, such as the 
storming of Stony Point, yet those who have made a study 
of his character assert that it was as a tactician that he 
excelled, and, far from being rash and headstrong, which 
might be inferred from his prefix of ** Mad,'* he was prudent 
and cautious, and his advice was eagerly sought and frequently 
followed in councils-of-war when a question of great import- 
ance arose. 

Another quality sometimes overlooked in Wayne was his 
ability as a diplomat, which was so strikingly shown during 
his negotiations with the Indians whilst commander-in-chief 
of the Army of the United States, and just prior to his death. 

General Wayne, it appears, spent little time at Waynes- 
borough, although he is said to have made extensive altera- 
tions in the house ; yet at one time, in the midst of the war, 
he writes that he is so disgusted with the turn matters have 
taken that he is tempted to return to his ** Sabine Fields,'' as 
he calls Waynesborough. 

Early in life he married Mary, daughter of Bartholomew 
Penrose, the descendant of an old Pennsylvania family. 
She died a few years before him, and it is claimed that at the 
time of his death he was engaged to be married to a famous 
belle of Wilmington. Many have doubted this, but it may be 
remembered that Wayne was but forty-eight years of age at 
the time of his wife's decease, and for some years appears to 
have regarded himself neglected by his family. 

The frame of mind he was in just before his wife's death 
is best illustrated by the following letter, which we reprint 
from the Philadelphia Inquirer : 

'* Legionville, Dec. 28, 1792. 

** Dear Sir — It's now been seven months since I left 
Waynesborough, without having received a single line, either 



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298 IVA YNESBOROUGH, 



from my own family or you — you may reply that this is the 
first from me — true, but that is not the case with Mrs. 
Wayne — besides, every moment of my time is absorbed in 
publick business. The defence of a portion of upwards of 
one thousand miles, and in providing for and disciplining a 
new army who have yet to learn the dreadful trade of death. 

*'You have undoubtedly had rumors of a general peace 
with the Indians, but the contrary is the fact ; in the western 
country it is serious war. 

'* However, neither war nor politicks were the motives of 
this letter. I will therefore come to the point. When I parted 
with you you had the goodness to promise to see that satisfac- 
tion was entered upon all judgments obtained in the Supreme 
or other courts against me. Is that business done ? I have 
very recently had a serious caution to be prepared for an 
awful change, and my monster still continues to visit and warn 
me of its approach. 

"I have had a most serious and an alarming attack from a 
violent lax and bilious vomiting, nor has it been in the power 
of the physicians to check it, but as I have some knowledge 
of my own constitution I peremptorily insisted upon taking an 
emetic which they assured me was both improper and danger- 
ous to the last degree in my present weak condition. How- 
ever, I have found considerable relief from it, and by the aid 
of the barks, which I have also taken contrary to their opin- 
ion, I have the tone of my stomach altered for the better, yet 
I am very weak and rather more reduced than when I first 
arrived with the army from Georgia in 1783. 

'* Notwithstanding I have almost every fair day been able 
to ride for one or two hours at a time to direct our redoubts 
and chain of defenses which are so far perfected that all the 
Indians in the wilderness could not force them. 

*' But as life's uncertain and mine at this time rather more 



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WA YNESBOROUGH. 299 



SO than usual, I wish to settle the property I may leave behind 
me so as to prevent any litigation after I am gone hence, for 
should I survive this attack, my breast is not bullet-proof, nor 
can I step a single foot aside to shield it. Therefore, I pray 
you to let me know what you have done in the premises as 
soon as possible. 

*' My best — perhaps last — and kindest love and wishes to 
my poor old mother, sister, and friends, and believe me to be 
with sincere esteem, 

*' Your affectionate humble servant, 

** Anthony Wayne. 
** Captain William Hayman '' 
(Addressed) 

Captain William Hayman 
in 
Willistown, Chester County. 
Per favor of Sharp Delany, Esq. 

The public services of General Anthony Wayne may be 
thus briefly summed up : 

He was elected from Chester County as a member of the 
Pennsylvania Assembly of 1774-75; commissioned Colonel 
of the First Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers in 1775, 
and took part in the Canada campaign of 1776, in which he 
distinguished himself for his personal courage and conduct, 
and was severely wounded. In February, 1777, Congress 
conferred upon him the rank of Brigadier-General. On the 
loth of October, 1783, he was created a Major-General, 
United States Army, by brevet, and on the 13th of April, 
1792, Washington nominated him as Commander-in-chief of 
the Army, which position he held until his death, at Presque 
Isle, near Erie, December 15th, 1796. 

He was first buried in the fort at Presque Isle, but his 
bones were afterward removed by his son, Isaac, to St. David's 



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300 WA YNESBOROUGH, 



Church, where they were interred — according to some, under 
the present monument, or, as others say, in the tomb of his 
wife. It may be observed here that there is a slight inaccuracy 
in the account given by Mr. Lewis in Dr. Stille's Major-Gen- 
eral Aftthofiy Wayne, regarding the reinterrment. The cere- 
monies mentioned by Mr. Lewis as held at St. David's, July 
4th, 1809, never took place. The First Troop, as appears by 
orders, dined July 4th, 1809 at Falls of Schuylkill, and the 
newspapers contained no notice of any such event at old 
Radnor church. In addition to this, it may be observed that 
on that day (July 4th, 1809) the Pennsylvania Society of the 
Cincinnati met at Independence Hall, and there, upon the 
statement of a member that the bones of their late comrade- 
in arms, General Wayne, still lay tmcojffined on the shores of 
Lake Erie, with no stone to mark them, it was voted to apply 
the sum of $500 to a monument to be erected over his remains 
at Presque Isle. 1 his accounts for the date upon the monu- 
ment. In 181 1, Wayne's body having been removed to St. 
David's, the monument was erected there. The Rev. David 
Jones, however, was not the orator upon that occasion. 

Here, however, with no other monument than the modest 
stone erected by his companions-in-arms, he rests. Pennsyl- 
vania has never thought proper to commemorate his name in 
any way, and were it not for the lately published work of Dr. 
Stille, he would probably by this time have been effectually 
forgotten. 

General Wayne left two children: Margaret, born 1770, 
and Isaac, born 1772. 

Of the latter there is, perhaps, little to say. He lived the 
life of a quiet country gentleman at Waynesborough, mixing 
somewhat in politics, and at one time ran for Governor of 
Pennsylvania, and was defeated by a heavy majority for that 
day. During the War of 181 2 he raised and armed at his 



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WA YNESBOROUGH. 30I 

own expense a troop of horse in Chester County, and rode 
into Philadelphia at its head, and offered it for service during 
the balance of the war. His offer was rejected, and the 
troop subsequently disbanded. It is said that he subse- 
quently held a commission as Colonel in the War of 1812, 
but there is no evidence of active service in the field. 

He married Elizabeth Smith, by whom he had four chil- 
dren, who all died in their father's lifetime. Isaac Wayne 
died at Waynesborough, October 25, 1852, at the age of 
eighty years. On his death the property, by Isaac's will, came 
to William Evans, the son of Mary Atlee, the daughter of 
Margaret Wayne (daughter of Anthony), wife of William 
Richardson Atlee. Mary Atlee married Isaachar Evans of 
Chester County, and William Evans was the only son. He is 
the present owner of Waynesborough, and some years since 
changed his name by act of Legislature to William Wayne. 
He graduated at the University of Pennsylvania in 1844. 
During the War of the Rebellion he served, with the rank of 
Captain, in the Ninety-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, and 
retired with the rank of Major. He was a member of the 
Pennsylvania Legislature in 1883, ^"^ is now President of the 
General Society of the Cincinnati and President of the Penn- 
sylvania Society of the Sons of the Revolution. 

He married Hannah J. Zook, and has one son, William 
Wayne. 



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THE DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE. 

This is the first time that a genealogy of the Wayne family of Pennsylvania has been 
attempted, and, like all first attempts, it will be found imperfect and lacking in particulars. 
It is hoped, however, that the data here presented will serve as the basis of a more complete 
genealogy. 

I. Caffain Anthony Wayne (b. 1666), originally of the border of Yorkshire and Derby- 
shire, England, emigrated to County Wicklow, Ireland, during the reign of Charles II. 
He had had some years' service in the army under William III., and commanded a 
squadron of dragoons at the battle of the Boyne. He emigrated with his wife, Hannah 
P'aulkner, and sons, P>ancis, Gabriel, William, Humphrey, Jacob, and John, and 
daughters, to America in 1722-23, and settled in Easttown, Chester County, Pennsyl- 
vania. His son Isaac came to America in 1724, and also settled in Easttown. It is 
believed that Francis was married before coming to America, as no record of his 
marriage in this country has been, so far, found. 
Anthony W^ayne by deed of May 1 1, 1 724, became the owner of 386 acres of land in 
Easttown, Chester County, Pa., by purchase of Thomas Edwards. May 31st, 1729, 
Anthony and wife conveyed to their son, Francis Wayne of Easttown (was of Willis- 
town, 1724), 40 acres of land in Easttown, also 20 acres more in 1 739. He died Dec. 
2d, 1739, aged 73 years; bur. at St. David's, Radnor. 

COPY OF THE WILL OF ANTHONY WAYNE. 

In the name of God, Amen, I, Anthony Wayne, of Easttown in the County of Chester 
and Province of Pennsylvania being weak in body but of sound and jjerfect memory thanks 
be to God and calling to mind uncertainty of this Life do make this my last Will and Testa- 
ment Revoking and quite Disannulling all other Will and Wills heretofore made by me 
Either by Word or writing and this only and no other to be taken for my last Will and Testa- 
ment & first and Principally I Bequeath my Soul to God that gave it and my Body to the 
Earth to be buried in such Decent manner as shall be thought fit by my Executors and for 
such Worldly substance as it hath pleased God to Give me I dispose of as foUoweth. Item 
I give and bequeath unto my son Francis Wayne one shilling Sterling. Item I Give and 
Bequeath unto my son Gabriel W^ayne one shilling Sterling. Item I Give and bequeath unto 
my son Isaac Wayne one shilling Sterling. Item I give and bequeath unto my daughter 
Anne Wayne one shilling Sterling. I give and bequeath unto my daughter Mary Wayne one 
shilling Sterling. Item I give and bequeath unto my Daughter Sarah Wayne one shilling 
Sterling. Item I give and bequeath unto my grandson William Wayne one shilling Sterling. 
Item I give and bequeath unto my grandson Abraham Wayne one shilling Sterling. Item I 
give and bequeath unto my well beloved wife Hannah Wayne all my household goods & 
fifteen pounds a year while she remains a widow. Item I give and bequeath unto my son 
302 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 303 

John Wayne one hundred and twenty five pounds as it becomes due to me from Isaac Wayne 
and I nominate Constitute and appoint my well beloved son John Wayne sole Executor of 
this my last Will and Testament. 

Signed Sealed and published this >| 

thirteenth day of June in the year ^^^.^^^^ ^^^^^ C^^IT) 

of our l^rd God Seventeen hun- y ^ ^^ 

dred and thirty nine. j 

In the presence of 
James Samson, 
Robert Gay, 
Humphrey Wayne, 
Isaac Wayne. 

Chester December 13th, 1739. Then personally appeared James Samson and Robert Gay 
two of the witnesses to the above written Will who on their oath of the Holy Evangelist of 
Almighty God say that they were present and saw the testator therein named sign seal pub- 
lish pronounce and declare the said writing to be his last Will and Testament and that at 
the doing thereof he was of sound mind and memory to the best of their understandings. 
Jurat Coram Jo. Parker, D. Regr. 

I do hereby certify that the within and forgoing writing is a true copy of the last will and 
testament of Anthony Wayne dec'd, taken from and compared with the original remaining 
in the Registers Office for Chester County this fifth day of October a. d. 1784. 

Witness my hand and seal of said Office. 
^ >w^ Jo. Beaton, Reg. 

He it remembered that the thirteenth day of Deceml>er 1739, the last will and testament 
of Anthony Wayne deceased was proved in due form of law and Prol)ate and letters of 
administration were granted to his son John Wayne Sole Executor in the sd. will named he 
being first attested according to law well and truly to administer and to bring in an inventory 
of the said Dec'd.'s Estate mto the Regr.'s office for the said County of Chester on or before 
the first day of February next & to exhibit a just account of his administration when legally 
thereunto required. Given under the seal of the sd. Oflfice, 

Jo. Parker, I). Reg. 
Oct. 5, 1784. 

A true copy from the Record. 

Jo. Beaton, Regr. 

II. Children of Captain Anthony Wayne and Hannah^ his wife : 

1. PVancis, b. 1690; d. 1763; m. Elizabeth Jackson. 

2. Gabriel, b. about 1694, had a son, Gabriel, who d. June 30, 1 736 (Christ 

Church) ; m. Hall. 

3. Isaac, b. 1699; d. 1774; m. Elizabeth Iddings. 

4. Humphrey, b. about 1700; m. Priscilla Iddings. 

5. Jacob, m. Elizabeth . 

6. William, b. 1708; d. Apr. 22, 1726. 



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304 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE. 



7. John, b. prior to 1718; exec, of his father's will, 1739. 

8. Sarah, m. James Norton. 

9. Ann, m. Samuel McCue. 

10. Mary, named in Anthony's will. 

II. (i) Francis Wayne (Anthony ») b. 1690; d. Jan. 31, 1763; came with his father from 

County Wicklow, Ireland, and settled at Easttown, Chester County, Pa., in 1722; 
removed to WiUistown 1724, and again to Easttown 1729; is in the list of taxablcs, 
Chester County, in 1753; was a surveyor, and by his will, dated 1 763, bequeathed his 
surveying instruments to his son Abraham.* He is mentioned in the records of St. 
David's Church, Radnor, Pa., continuously from 1725 to 1761. Owned pews in St. 
David's and St. Peter's churches, which were "to be retained after his death for the use 
of his wife, children, and grandchildren." With his brothers Isaac and Humphrey he 
witnessed his father's will, dated June 13, 1739. He married Elizabeth Jackson (b. 
1692; d. Aug. 27, 1771). 

III. Children: 

11. Anthony, b. 1724; d. 1755. 

12. Abraham, b. 1730; m., 1st., Mary Holland; 2d, Tabitha Parry. 

13. Humphrey, m. Mary Ann Parker, at Old Swedes' Church, Philadelphia, Dec. 

6, 1781. 

14. Michael, m. Elizabeth Hall, Aug. 3, 1762. A Revolutionary soldier; Cori^oral 

in Capt. Adam Foulk's company of Col. Jonathan Bayard Smith's Regiment 
of Philadelphia Militia [/Vw/i<?. Archives, second series, vol. xiii. p. 666]. 

15. John, m. Sarah Evans. 

16. Rebecca, m. Gardner.f 

17. Hesther, m. John Thomas. 

18. Elizabeth, b. 1739; d. Jan. 18, 1791 ; m. John Lyle (d. Nov. i, 1815, aged 87 

years). 

III. (11) Anthony Wayne (Francis*, Anthony *),b. 1724; d. Mar. 14, 1755; m. . 

IV. Children : 

19. Isaac, d. Dec. 22, 1765. 

20. Jacob. 

21. Hannah. 

III. (12) Abraham Wayne (Francis,' Anthony^), b. 1730; d. at Philadelphia Apr. 21, 
1792; m., 1st, Mary Holland, Oct. 6, 1753, at Christ Church, Philadelphia; m., 2d, 1760, 
Tabitha Parry, b. 1737; bapt. March 3, 1717 [Ab. C] ; dau. of Capt. David Parry, and 
Elizabeth Jones; d. October 15, 1781 ; bur. at Christ Church, Philadelphia. 

IV. Children: 

22. Elizabeth, b. 1760; d. July 6, 1761. 

23. Dinah, b. 1763; d. Dec. 25, 1800; m. Richard Carpenter, s. p. 



* In the Walker genealogy of Chester Co. is a cut of a survey made by him in 1754. 

t Some MS. genealogies say that she married Isaac Hughes, and had five children, 
names unknown ; other MSS. say that Francis Wayne had another daughter who married 
Hughes. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE. 3^5 



24. Parry, b. 1765 ; d. July 24, 1768. 

25. Mary, b. 1 769; d. May 28, 1790; unm. 

26. Esther, b. 1772; m. Beujamin Clark, Feb. 14, 1795, Christ Church; d. July 3, 

1841. 

27. Caleb Parry, b. May 18, 1776; d. 1849; ™- Mary Stokes, Eliz. Twamley. 

28. Anthony, b. July 26, 1779; d. Sept. 14, 1779. 

III. (16) Rebecx:a Wayne (Francis,* Anthony ^),m. Gardner. 

IV. Children : (Refer to note, page 486.) 

29. Mary. 

30. Sarah. 

31. Rebecca. 

Two other children, names unknown. 

III. (17) Hesther Wayne (Francis,* Anthony »), m. John Thomas of Radnor. 
IV. Children: 

32. Hannah Thomas, m. Matthias Keely. 

III. (18) Elizabeth Wayne (Francis,* Anthony*), b. 1739; d. Jan. 18, 1791; m.John 
Lyle (d. Nov. i, 1815, aged 87 years). 

IV. Children: 

33. Martha. 

34. Francis. 

IV. (27) Caleb Parry Wayne (Abraham,* Francis* Anthony >). b. May 18, 1776; d. Jan. 
25, 1849; w*^ ^ vestryman of Christ Church from 1813 to 1837; m., 1st, Mary Stokes, 
dau. of James and Sarah Magill Stokes, Jan. 19, 1804, at Ch. Ch. She died Oct. 27, 
1 818, aged 34 years. 

V. Children: 

35. James S., b. Mar. 5, 1805; d. Mar. 23, 1828; unm. 

36. Edward Clark, b. Mar. 14, 1807; m. Henrietta Beagle; d. Jan., 1883. 

37. William Henry, m. Emma, dau. of George Gorgas and Rachel Clemens, and 

had a son, William H. Wayne, d. 1863, aged 24 years. 

38. Anthony, d. infant. 

39. Frances Clarke, m. Alexander Chambers. 

40. Sarah Stokes, b. 181 1; d. July 18, 1841 ; m. Edwin Meredith. 

41. Charles Stokes, m. 1st, Annie Hopkins; m., 2d, Eliz. Harper. 

42. Alfred. 

Caleb Parry Wayne m., 2d, Elizabeth Twamley, b. 1794; d. 1832. 
V. Children: 

43. Mary Elizabeth, b. 1832; died young.* 

IV. (32) Hannah Thomas (Hesther,' Francis,* Anthony'), b. 1759; d. 1804; m., 1779, 
Matthias Keely, merchant of Philadelphia,. who died 181.1. 
V, Children: 

44. Samuel. 



* There is said to have been a son, Josiah T., by 2d marriage ; see page 491. 
51 



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3o6 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE. 



45. Horatio Nelson. 

46. William. 

47. Maria. 

48. Hannah. 

49. Esther, b. about 1780; m., Aug. 3, 1799, at Old Swedes* Church, Charles fVtit 

Heath. 

50. Elizabeth, d. infant. 

51. Elizabeth. 

And others, names unknown — thirteen in all. 

V. (41) Charles Stokes Wayne (Caleb,* Abraham,' Francis,* Anthony *), d. 1865; m., 
1st, Annie Hopkins, dau. of John and Martha Parry of Lexington, Va. She died July 
31, 1847, aged 35 years. 

VI. Children : 

52. Annie Harris, d. Oct. 7, 1846, aged ii mos. 

53. Susan E. 

54. Fannie Chambers, d. Oct. 17, 1850, aged 10 years. 

55. Charles Stokes, b. about 1845. 

56. Mary P. 

Charles Stokes m., 2d, Elizabeth Harper, dau. of J. L. and C. M. Harper. She died 
Feb. 13, 1855, aged 31 years. 

VI. (49) Esther Keely (Hannah,* Esther,' Francis,* Anthony '), b. about 1781; d. Aug. 

29, 1837; m., at Old Swedes' Church, Phila., Aug. 3, 1799, Charles Petit Heath (b. 
1773; d- Jan. I, 1857). 

VI. Children: 

57. Mary, unm. 

58. Joseph R., unm. 

59. Louisa Adelaide, m. Peter Penn-Gaskell. 

60. Charles, unm. 

61. Matilda, m. ? 

62. Amanda, m. W. L. Hobson. 

63. Esther Wayne. 

64. Fannie, m., ist, J. T. McLaughlin, Lieut. U. S. N., d. July 6, 1847; m., 2d. 

W. L. Hobson. 

65. Emma, m. Francis A. Thomas. 

66. Caroline Julia, b. Oct. 9, 181 7; d. 1886; m. David Seeger Heyl of Phila- 

delphia. 

67. William Henry, m. Amanda Gorman. 

68. Virginia, m. Alfred Ward. 

VI. (66) Caroline Julia Heath (Esther,* Hannah,* Hesther,' Francis,' Anthony >), b. 
1817; d. 1886; m., Oct. 12, 1836, David Seeger Heyl (b. Oct. 31, 1814). 

VII. Chihirm: 

69. Theodore Clement, m. Emma Green. 

70. Helen Louisa, m. William J. Sewell. 

7J. Edwin Miles, b. Feb. 14, 1844; m., 1886, Delphine Turner. Served in the 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE, 307 



Third Pennsylvania Cavalry during the Rebellion, 1861-65, and attained the 
rank of Colonel. Entered the regular army 1866. They had: Julia Turner 
b. July 2, 1888; Edward Randolph, b. Oct. 22, 1889; Helen, b. July 13, 
1894. 

72. Caroline Julia, d. aged six years. 

73. Amanda Hobson. 

74. Mary Heath. 

75. Charles Heath. 

VI. (59) Louisa Adelaide Heath (Esther,* Hannah,* Hesther,' Francis,* Anthony*), m. 
Peter Penn-Gaskell, a descendant of WILLIAM PENN, Founder of Pennsylvania. 
Vn. Children: 

76. Elizabeth, b. 1828; d. 1869; m. Samuel Ruff Skillem, M. D. 

77. Louisa, m. William Gerald Fitzgerald, May 15, 1845; d. s. p. 1853. 

78. Mary Gulielma, d. unm. 

79. Gulielma, d. unm., 1852. 

80. Hetty, d. unm. 

81. Mary, m. Dr. Jesse Coates, and had Harold Penn-Gaskell, m. Jarvis of 

Phila. Mary d. Aug. 22, 1877. 

82. William, d. unm., Dec. 6, 1865. 

83. Jane, m. Washington Irving, nephew of the author, d. s. p. 

84. Emily, m. Dr. John Paul Quin, U. S. N. Issue : Granville, d. 1893, ^^d 22 

years. 

85. Peter, m. Mary Kathleen Subbs, July 6, 1869. Issue : William, Winifred, Percy. 

VH. (76) Elizabeth Penn-Gaskell (Louisa Adelaide,* Esther,* Hannah,* Hesther,* 
Francis,* Anthony*), m. Samuel Ruff Skillem, M. D., of Huntsville, Ala. 
VIII. Children: 

86. Peter Penn-Gaskell Skillern, M. D., of Philadelphia, Pa., b. April 28, 1856; 

m., Oct. 7, 1878, Anna Dorsey, and has issue : Peter Penn-Gaskell, b. Mar. 
26, 1882; Violet, b. Nov. 13, 1879. 
A dau., Louisa, d. young. 
Note. — The following additional data concerning the descendants of Francis Wayne 
came to me after the above material was arranged \^Editor'\ : 

IV. (27) Caleb Parry Wayne, son of Abraham Wayne, b. May 18, 1776; m., ist, January 
19, 1804, at Philadelphia, by Rev. Dr. Black well, Mary, dau. of James Stokes and 
Sarah Magill; she was b. at Philadelphia, Jan. 20, 1784, and d. Oct. 27, 1818; he m., 
2d, Elizabeth Twamley, Dec. 19, 1822, who was b. 1794, and d. July 3, 1832. He was 
head of the publishing firm of**C. P. Wayne & Sons." He d. Jan. 25, 1849. He and 
his first wife were buried at Christ Church yard, Philadelphia. 
Issue by first marriage : 

1. James Stokes, b. Mar. 5, 1805 ; d. Mar. 23, 1828. 

2. Edward Clark, b. Mar. 14, 1807; m. Henrietta Beagle; d. Jan., 1883. 

3. William Henry, b. Mar. 30, 1809; m., Apr. 26, 1838, Emma Matilda, dau. of 

George Gorgas and Rachel Clemens. She was b. Feb. 20, 1817. He d. 
June I, 1890. 



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3o8 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE. 



Issue : 

1. William Henry, b. Mar. 29, 1839; d. Apr. 12, 1863. 

2. Sarah Stokes, b. Oct. 3, 1840; ni., Dec. 8, 1864, John Ashhurst, Jr., 

M. D., second son of John Ashhurst and Harriet Eyre. He was b. 
Aug. 23, 1839; graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, A. B., 
1857; i860, received A. M. and M. D. ; substitute for resident 
physician at Pennsylvania Hospital ; served in U. S. Cuyler Hospital 
during the war ; published Injuries of the Spine ; Surgeon of the 
Chester, Germantown, Episcopal, Children's, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and Pennsylvania Hospitals; 1877, Professor of Clinical Sur- 
gery at the University of Pennsylvania; 1888, Barton Professor of 
Surgery; 1 871, published first edition of Principles and Practice of 
Surgery; 1893, sixth edition; 1881-86, edited The International 
Encyclopedia of Surgery^ Supplement, 1895; 1895, LL.D. from 
La Fayette University ; same year Vice-President of the College of 
Physicians. 

Issue : 

1. John, b. Dec. 31, 1865. 

2. William Wayne, M. D., b. May 22, 1867 ; m., Dec. 8, 1892, 

Ellen Eyre, dau. of Edwin Gaillard, M. D., and Mary 
Gibson, who was daughter of C. B. Gibson, M. D., and 
Ellen Eyre, sister of Harriet Eyre, who married John 
Ashhurst. 

3. Mary Jane, b. Jan. 13, 1869; m., Oct. 15, 1891, Edwards 

Fayssoux, U. S. N., son of John Clapier Leiper and Mary 
Fayssoux, b. Oct. 29, 1858. 

Issue : 

1. Mary Fayssoux, b. July 22, 1892. 

2. Edwards Fayssoux, b. Dec. 5, 1893. 

3. John Ashhurst, b. Aug. 26, 1895. 

4. Anna Wayne, b. Oct. 13, 1870; m., Apr. 28, 1897, Rev. 

Elliston Joseph, son of Joseph Samson Perot and Mary 
Lea, b. 1868. 

5. Sarah W^ayne, b. Nov. 29, 1874. 

6. Astley Paston Cooper, b. Aug. 21, 1876. 

7. Emma Matilda, b. Oct. 17, 1882. 

3. Anna Smith (dau. of Wm. Henry Wayne and Emma M. Goi^as), b. 

Nov. 12, 1842; d. Oct. 28, 1889. 

4. George Gorgas (son of W^m. Henry Wayne and Emma M. Gorgas) 

b. 1845 ; d. 1879. 

5. Frances C. (dau. of Wm. Henry Wayne and Emma M. Gorgas), b. 

May 23, 1852. 

4. Frances Clark Wayne, dau. of Caleb Parry Wayne and Mary Stokes, b. July 3, 181 1, 
at Philadelphia; m.. Mar. 25, 1835, Alexander Chambers; d. July 25, 1888. He 
was b. June 4, 1808. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE, 309 

Issu^ : 

I. Thomas Preston, b. at Philadelphia, Feb. 20, 1836; m., Oct. 16, i860, Hannah 
Hough, dau. of John Barasley and Mary Hough, b. Sept. 30, 1839. 

Issue : 

1. Mary Barnsley, b. Aug. 10, 1 861. 

2. Henry Wayne, b. Apr. 19, 1863 ; m. Robert Emmet liopkins, Feb. 

17, 1886. Issue : Robert Emmet, b. Mar. 25, 1888. 

3. Alexander, b. Oct. 20, 1865. 

4. Helen Troth, b. Dec. 28, 1869; m., Dec. 28, 1892, Erastus Titus 

Roberts, Issue: Walter Van Braam, b. Nov. 13, 1893. 

5. Anna Pickering, b. Apr. 24, 1872. 

6. John Barnsley, b. Feb. 28, 1874. 

7. Elizabeth Comfort, b. June 24, 1 879. 

8. Clarissa Wilhelmine, b. Nov. 12, 1880. 

5. Sarah Stokes Wayne, dau. of Caleb Parry Wayne and Mary Stokes, b. July 23, 1813; 
m. Edwin Meredith. 

Issue : 

I. James Wayne, m. Fox. 

6. Charles Stokes Wayne, son of Caleb Parry Wayne, b. Oct. 31, 1815; m., ist, Anne 
Parry of Lexington, Va. ; m., 2d, Elizabeth W. Harper ; m., 3d, Elizabeth Mattson. 

Issue by first marriage : 

1. Parry, d. s. p. 

2. Francis, d. s. p. 

3. Mary Parry. 

4. Susan, d. s. p. 

5. Anne H., d. 1846, aged ii months. 
Issue by third marriage : 

I. Charles Stokes, b. Oct. 8, 1865 ; m. Dougherty. 

7. Alfred Wayne, son of Caleb Parry Wayne, b. Oct. 6, 181 7 ; d. Apr. 28, 1819; bur. 
at Christ Church yard, Philadelphia. 

/ssue of the second marriage of Caleb Parry Wayne : 

1. Josiah Twaniley, b. Aug. 27, 1828; m. Annie Huckerby; d. Feb. 17, 1893. 

2. Mary Elizabeth, b. May 18, 1832; d. Feb. 23, 1833. 

H. (2) Gabriel Wayne (Anthony^), b. in County Wicklow, Ireland, about 1694; came to 
Pennsylvania with his father in 1723. It is probable that he had lands in Wicklow, for 
he seems to have returned there, although he lived some time in Chester County, Pa. 
III. Children: 
87. William, probably removed to Georgia.* 



* The Wayne family of Savannah, Georgia, has been quite distinguished during the first 
half of the present century. They claimed a near relationship to General Anthony Wayne, 
and it is possible that they are the descendants of this Gabriel Wayne. Another Wayne 
family, in which the Christian names of Gabriel and Anthony frequently occurred, was early 
seated in North Carolina. See Appendix. 



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3IO DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 



88. Susanna. 

89. Mary, b. in Pennsylvania ; m. Captain Keating of Waterford, Ireland, and had 

issue; living 1795, ^^ which time her children were grown up. 

II. (3) Isaac Wayne (Anthony *), b. 1699, in County Wicklow, Ireland; d. Nov., 1774, at 

Easttown, Chester County, Pa.; m. Elizabeth Iddings (b. 1709; d. May, 1793), aged 
84 years, dau. of Richard Iddings and Margaret Philij>s of Chester County, Pa. 

1727, May 16. Deed recorded at West Chester, Nov. 22, 1784, by which Morgan 
Hughes, cooper, of Easttown, Chester County, conveys to Francis Wayne, hus- 
bandman, and Isaac Wajme, of the same place, 100 acres of land in Easttown 
Township. 

17} J, Feb. 20. Francis Wayne and Elizabeth his wife convey to Isaac Wayne the tract 
as recited in deed dated Feb. 19, I7f §. [Recorded at West Chester Nov. 22, 1784. 

1739, May 8. Signed an agreement, recorded at West Chester Nov. 26, 1784, by 
which Anthony Wayne and Hannah (Faulkner) Wayne, his wife, conveyed 360 
acres of land, etc. to Isaac Wayne upon the payment of a yearly sum of money ; 
further, he was to provide for John Norton, a grandson of Anthony Wayne, and 
son of Sarah Wayne and James Norton, then under age; as also for William 
Wayne, a son of Isaac and Elizal^eth (Iddings) Wayne. 

1739, June 13. Named in the will of his father, proved Dec. 13, 1739, and a witness 
thereto. 

1744, May 5. John Wayne of Wilmington, New Castle County (now Delaware), 
administrator of the will of Anthony Wayne of Easttown, Chester County, Pa., 
conveys to Isaac Wayne, in fee (confirming the agreement of 1739), the tract of 
360 acres named. [Recorded at West Chester.] 

One of the original subscribers to the fund for the erection of St. Peter's P. E. Church, 
East Whiteland, Chester Co., Pa., 1749. 

In the list of taxables, Easttown, Pa., 1753. 

Captain of a company in the Provincial service, stationed at Nazareth, Northampton 
Co., after Braddock's defeat, 1755. 

Member of the Provincial Assembly from Chester Co., 1757 to 1763. 

Named as Trustee in a codicil to the will of Francis Wayne, his brother, dated Dec. 
30, 1762. 

Find mention in the records of St. David's Church, Radnor, in which congregation 
he was active from 1 725-1 773. 

Letters of administration upon his estate granted to his wife, Elizabeth (Iddings) 
Wayne, and son Anthony Wayne, Jan. 3, 1776. [Recorded West Chester.] 

III. Children: 

90. William, b. prior to 1739; d. an infant. 

91. Anthony, b. Jan. I, 1745; d. Dec. 15, 1796; m. Mary Penrose. 

92. Hannah, m. Samuel Van I>ear. 

93. Ann, b. 1751 ; d. June 9, 1807; m. (mar. license dated Oct. 15, 1772, Penna. 
Archiv.y sec. ser. vol. ii., p. 302), Captain W^m. Hayman of Continental Navy. 

III. (91) Anthony Wayne (Isaac,* Anthony^), b. Jan. i, 1745, at Easttown, Chester Co., 
Pa. ; d. Dec. 15, 1796, at Presque Isle, Erie Co., Pa. ; m., at Christ Church, Philadelphia. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 31 1 



Mar. 25, 1766, Mary Penrose (b. 1749; d. Apr. 18, 1793), dau. of Bartholomew Pen- 
rose, merchant of Philadelphia. Surveyor and landowner. 

IV. Children: 

94. Margaretta Wayne, b. 1770; d. Mar. 13, 1810 ; m. W. R. Atlee. 

95. Isaac Wayne, b. 1772; d. 1852; m. Elizabeth Smith. 

Landowner in Easttown Township, Chester Co. Farmer, surveyor, engineer, and 

astronomer, 1774. 
1774, July 13. At a meeting of the Freeholders of Chester Co. for the appointment 

of a committee to meet similar conmiittees in conference at Philadelphia on July 15. 

Elected a member of the Committee of Conference. 
Deputy to the Provincial Conference at Philadelphia, July 15, 1774. 
Member of the General Assembly, 1774-75. 
1774, Dec. 20. Convention at Chester. Chosen one of the committee to carry into 

execution the association of the late Continental Congress. Elected chaurman of 

the committee. Branson Van Leer also a member. 
Delegate to the Provincial Convention, Jan. 23, 1775. 
Member of the Committee of Safety, when he resigned, and was commissioned Colonel 

of the Fourth Battalion of the Pennsylvania Line, June 30, 1775, to Jan. 3, 1776. 

1776. In the Canadian campaign, in which he distinguished himself by his bravery 
and conduct. Wounded at Three Rivers. 

Assigned to the command of the fortress at Ticonderoga and garrison composed of 

three battalions, Nov. 23, 1776. 
Congress conferred on him the rank of Brigadier- General, Feb. 21, 1777. 
Joined the main army under Washington, at his own request. May, 1777. 

1777, Sept. II. With Washington at the battle of Brandywine. 

1777, Sept. 20. Surprised at Paoli. Acquitted by court of inquiry, which convened at 

his own request. 
1777, Aug. 21. At council of general oflScers held at Neshaminy Camp, Bucks 

Co., Pa. 
1777, Sept. 28. At council of war held at headquarters at Pemberton's Mills. 

1777, Oct. 4. Wounded at the battle of Germautown. 

1778, June 12. At council of general officers held at headquarters, Middlebrook, 
N. J. 

1778, June 28. Distinguished himself at the battle of Monmouth, N. J. 

1782, Jan. I. Sent to Georgia, and in a campaign of five weeks drove the British 
army into Savannah. 

1782, April. The Georgia Legislature, convened at Augusta, passed a resolution com- 
plimentary to Gen. Anthony W^ayne on the success of his campaign, and appointed 
a commission ** for the disbursement of an appropriation of 4000 guineas in the pur- 
chase of an estate for him in any part of the State he might appoint." On July 31, 
1782, the commission reported the purchase of 840 acres for 3900 guineas. 

1782, June 16. Takes possession of Savannah, Ga. 

Commissioned Major-General U. S. Army, by brevet, Oct. 10, 1783. 

Member of Council of Censors for Chester County, 1783-84. 

Member of the General Assembly for Chester County, 1784-86. 



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312 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 



1785. First subscriber to the fund for shingliDg St. Peter's Church, Chester Co.: 
"Gen. Wayne, £,\. 2. 6." 

1785. While a member of the General Assembly from Chester County lived with 
Sharpe Delaney, druggist and collector of customs. Second and Walnut Streets 
(Philadelphia Directory). 

1786, June 13. At the residence of Gen. Nathaniel Greene, Mulberry Grove, 14 
miles above Savannah, Ga., when Greene died on that date. Wrote to Col. James 
Jackson announcing the death (Stevens's History of Georgia). 

Member of the convention to ratify the Federal Constitution, 1787. 

Elected President of the State Society of the Order of Cincinnati of Georgia at its 
organization at Savannah 1790. 

1792-94. The Legion of the United States ordered and organized by President 
Washington for the protection of the North-west frontier, commanded by Wayne as 
Major- General. 

1792, Apr. 13. Major- General and Commander-in-Chief of the U. S. Army, nomi- 
nated by Pres. Washington. 

1792, Aug. 20. Gained the battle of Falling Timbers against the Indians in the 
North-west. 

1794, Aug. 8. Established Fort Defiance, Ohio. 

1794, July 14, date of will proved Philadelphia, Feb. 15, 1797. Mentions son Isaac, 
law-student, and only daughter, Margaretta. Land in Georgia at the head-waters 
of the Little Setilla, Camden Co., known as " Hazzard^s Cowpen." 

1794. Member of Congress from Georgia. 

1795. Appointed Commissioner to the North-west to receive from the English the 
posts stipulated by the Jay Treaty. 

1796. Feb. 6. Arrived in Philadelphia from his campaign in the Indian country, 
escorted by the three troops of City Cavalry. Salute of 15 guns in Centre Square 
{Hilizhfimer^s Diary). 

1796, Dec. 15. Died at Presque Isle, near Erie, Pa., and buried in the fort. 
1809. Remains removed from Presque Isle to Chester County by his son, Isaac* 
181 1. The Society of the Cincinnati, of which he was an original member, erected a 
monument to his memory in St. David's church -yard, Chester Co. 

III. (93) Ann Wayne (Isaac,* Anthony i), b. 1751 ; d. June 9, 1807; m., Oct. 15, 1772, at 
Christ Church, Captain William Hayman, b. Exeter, England, Feb. ii, 1740, O. S.; d. 
Delaware Co., Pa., Sept. 21, 1823. He served in the Continental Navy during the Rev- 
olutionary War, and was the son of Sir William Hayman, Surveyor- General of Exeter. 

IV. Children: 

96. Sarah Wayne, b. Mar. 21, 1794; d. Dec. I, 1863. 

97. Isaac Wayne, b. Aug. 26, 1792; d. Oct. 5, 1850. 

98. Ann, b. June i, 1788; d. July ii, 1826; m. Aaron Vodges. 

IV. (95) Isaac Wayne (Anthony,* Isaac,' Anthony *), b. 1772; d. Oct. 25, 1852, at 
Waynesborough ; m. Elizabeth Smith (b. 1778; d. April 17, 1852). 

Admitted to the bar of Chester Co., 1795. 
Member of the Assembly, 1800-01. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE. 313 



V. Children: 

99. Anthony, b. 1804; d. July 5, 1833. 
100. William, b. 1807; d. Sept. 25, 1815. 
loi. Richard, b. 1812; d. Sept. 23, 1815. 

102. Sidney, b. 1812; d. July, 13, 1817. 

103. Mary Wayne. 

IV. (94) MARGARETfA Wayne (Anthony,* Isaac,* Anthony*), b. 1770; d. Mar. 13, 1810 ; m., 
Nov. 3, 1790, at St. Jameses Church, Perkiomen, William Richardson Atlee (b. May 27, 
1765 ; d. Nov. 24, i844,at Winfield, Carroll Co,, Md.). 
V. Children: 

104. Mary Wayne, b. July 26, 1802; d. Mar. I, 1838; m. Issachar Evans. 

IV. (97) Isaac Wayne Hayman (Ann,» Isaac,* Anthony^), b. Aug. 26, 1792; d. Oct. 5, 
1850; m. Sarah Williams. 
V. Children: 

105. Elizabeth, b. June 29, 1815; d. Feb. 16, 1867. Twice married. First, Robert 

Lewis ; two daughters, one son. Second, Eli Lewis ; no children. 
105^. Ann H., b. Feb. 3, 1817 ; d. Sept. 4, 1898; m. John Haley. Three children. 
1053. John and William (twins), b. Sept. 15, 1818; John d. Sept. 21, 1818, William, 

Sept. 23, 1818. 

106. Samuel Brinckley, b. June 5, 1820; m. Mary Clark; graduated West Point 

Military Academy July i, 1842; retired, after thirty years' service, as Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel of the Seventeenth U. S. Infantry, July I, 1872. He was twice 
married : issue, two sons, one daughter. 

io6tf. William A., b. Nov. 28, 1822; d. Aug. 22, 1898; m. Elizabeth A. Bane, Feb. 
16, 1854; one daughter, four sons. 

106^. Margaret H., b. March 29, 1825; unm. 

lo6r. Mary Ann, b. Aug. 4, 1827; d. Sept. 3, 1845; unm. 

Io6</. John H., b. Jan. 2, 1830. Twice married. First, Sarah Steele; one daughter. 
Second, Lydia Smedley ; no children. 

lo6<f. Sarah Jane, b. Dec. i, 1832; d. Aug. 21, 1888; unm. 

106/ Charles H., b. Oct. 2, 1835 J ^i* Mary Foy ; three daughters, two sons. 

IV. (98) Ann Hayman (Ann,* Isaac,* Anthony i),b; June i, 1788; d. July 11, 1826; m., 
Nov. 26, 1807, Aaron Vogdes (b. 1780 : d. Nov. 21, 1836). 

V. Children: 

107. Ann H., b. July 21, 1808; d. Aug. 7, 1826. 

108. Elizabeth, b. 181 1 ; d. July 3, 181 1. 

108^. William Hayman, b. Aug. 25, 1812; m. Hannah Pennell. 

109. Anthony Wayne, b. Jan. 1815; d. June 18, 1816. 
no. Israel, b. 1813; d. Dec. 7, 1889.* 

V. (103^ Mary Wayne Atlee (Margaretta,* Anthony,* Isaac,* Anthony*), b. July 26, 1802 ; 

d. Mar. i, 1838; m. Issachar Evans of Chester Co., Pa. 

VI. Children: 

III. William Wayne, b. Dec. 6, 1828; m. Hannah J. Zook. 



* Said to have been a daughter, Mary Thomas, b. 1822; d. Dec. 21, 1828. 



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314 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 

V. (no) Israel Vogdes (Ann,* Ann,' Isaac,* Anthony'), d. Dec. 7, 1889; m., ist, Mary 

Thomas (b. 1822; d. Dec. 21, 1828); m., 2d, Barard. Graduate West Point 

Military Academy July I, 1837, served continuously until his retirement, Jan. 2, 1 881, as 
Colonel of the First U. S. Artillery; Brigadier-General U. S. Volunteers, Nov. 29, 1862; 
brevetted Brigadier-General, U. S. A., Apr. 9, 1865, **for gallant and meritorious ser- 
vices in the field during the war." Member of the Loyal Legion, Commandery of 
Pennsylvania. 

VL ChiUren: 

112. A daughter,* m. Lord. 

113. A son,* unm. 

114. Anthony Wayne, Second Lieutenant, One Hundredth N. Y. Infantry, Aug. 13, 

1863 ; hon. mustered out as First Lieutenant Aug. 28, 1865 ; Second Lieu- 
tenant Fourth Infantry U. S. Army, Apr. 26, 1866; First Lieutenant, May 15, 
1867; transferred to Fifth Artillery May 22, 1875; regimental Quarter-master, 
Apr. 15, 1887, to Oct. I, 1889; Captain Fifth Artillery, Oct. I, 1889. 

115. Ann, m. Orlando L. Wieting, U. S. A. 

116. Charles B., cadet West Point Military Academy, Sept. 4, 1876; Second Lieu- 

tenant First U. S. Infantry; First Lieutenant Mar. 20, 1889. 

117. Emily R.. 

VI. (in) William Wayne Evans (Mary,* Margaretta,* Anthony,* Isaac,* Anthony*), b. 
Dec. 6, 1828; m. Hannah J. Zook, Mar. i, 1853, and occupied the "Old Wa3me Man- 
sion," near Paoli, Pa. Graduate of the University of Pennsylvania 1844. By act of 
Legislature assumed the name of William Wayne. Served in the war of the Rebellion 
as Captain Ninety-seventh Pennsylvania Volunteers, Nov. 5, 1861 ; resigned and honor- 
ably discharged May 9, 1863 ; member of the Pennsylvania Commandery of the Loyal Le- 
gion, May I, 1867. One of the founders of the Pennsylvania Society of the Sons of the 
Revolution, 1888; President of Pennsylvania Society of the ** Order of the Cincinnati." 

VIL Children: 

118. Mary Atlee, b. Jan. 21, 1854; John M. Wirgman. 

119. William, b. Aug. 27, 1855; m. Mary Valentine, dau. of George Fox, M. D, 

Issue : William, Edith. 

II. (4) Humphrey Wayne (Anthony*), b. 1700 ; came to America with his father Anthony,* 
who settled in Chester County, Pa., in 1722 ; witness to an agreement between his father 
and brother Isaac, dated May 8, 1739, (West Chester records); with his brother Isaac 
witnessed his father*s will, dated June 13, 1739 (West Chester records) ; in the list of 
the original subscribers to the fund for the erection of St. Peter's Church, East White- 
land, Chester Co.; member of the vestry, 1752^54; resigned his right to pew No. 14 
in favor of John Wayne, 1753; in the list of taxables, Chester Co., 1753; named in the 
records of St. David's Church, Radnor, 1725 to 1755; m. Priscilla Iddings, b. 1707; d. 
June II, 1781, dau. of Richard Iddings and Margaret Phillips*. She died June 11, 
1 781, aged 74 years. 



* Richard Iddings (d. 1726) m. Sarah Iddings of Nantmeal, and had: 

Richard Iddings y^ yiho m. Margaret Phillips, (b. 167 1; d. 1755) at St. Paul's Church, 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 3^5 



III. Children: 

1 20. Elizabeth, b. Jan. 20, 1745; d. Aug. 28, 1758. 

121. Margaret, b. 1748; d. Jan. 1 1, 1764. 

122. William, b. 1 749; d. Apr. 25, 1752. 

All buried in the Seventh-day Baptists' ground at Newtown, Chester Co. 

II. (5) Jacob Wayne (Anthony *), living in Philadelphia in 1731 ; member of Christ Church ; 

letters of administration on his estate granted to Elizabeth W^ayne, his wife, Sept. 15, 
1736, at Philadelphia. He married Elizabeth . 

III. Children: 

123. William, bapt. Christ Church, Jan. 2, 1731 ; m., ist, Sarah Gillinghara; 2d, 

Sarah Hardy. 

124. Jacob, bapt. Christ Church, June 23, 1733 ; m. Elizabeth Lloyd, Nov. 15, 1781, 

at the First I'resbytenan Churcii, Philadelphia. 

125. Abraham, bapt. Christ Church, July 3, 1734; m. Mary Holland. 

III. (123) William Wayne (Jacob,» Anthony*), b. Dec. 31, 1730 (?); ra., 1st, Sarah 
Gillingham (b. Sept. 4, 1737), at Christ Church, Feb. 27, 1754. She was the dau. of 
John and Ann Gillingham of Philadelphia. 

IV. Children: 

126. John, b. June 25. 1755, ^- J"ly '8, 1 758. 

127. Mary, b. Sept. 29, 1756; m. (mar. license dated Nov. 11, 1775, Penna. Archiv,)^ 

Samuel French. 

128. Jacob, b. Jan. 4, 1760 ; m., 1st, Elizabeth Lloyd; 2d, Sarah Fisher. 

129. Samuel, b. Feb. 10, 1763 ; m., Christ Ch., Phila., Dec. 28, 1784, Elizabeth Curtain. 

130. John, b. Oct. 7, 1767. 

131. Sarah, b. Sept. 9, 1772; unm. 

132. Ann, b. Sept. 9, 1772 ; m. Cooper. 

Sarah (Gillingham) Wayne, d. Sept. 19, 1773, at Philadelphia. Her husband, 
William Wayne,' m., 2d, Sarah Hardy by Friends' ceremony, July 4, 1775. 
There was no issue by this second marriage. 

III. (125) Abraham Wayne (Jacob,'' Anthony*), bapt. 1734; m. Mary Holland, at Christ 
Church, Oct. 6, 1753. 
IV. Children: 

133. Ehzabeth, bapt. Christ Church, Oct. 14, 1759; d. July 6, 1761. 

134. Abraham, bapt. Christ Church, Oct. 14, 1759. 

135. Jacob, bapt. Christ Church, Oct. 14, 1759; d. Dec. 5, 1759. 

136. Perry, d, July 25, 1768. 

IV (127) Mary Wayne (W^illiam^, Jacob,^ Anthony »), b. Sept. 29, 1756; m. Samuel French, 
Nov. II, 1775, ^"^ ^^^ ^ daughter, Sarah French,* who m., 1795, Stephen Corneille in 
Tours, France, a native of Hayti. 



Chester, Pa., Aug. 18, 1705 ; and a daughter^ who was supposed to have m. William Thomas, 
a Quaker, who in 1708, at Newtown, joined the Seventh-day Baptists. 

Richard Iddings and Margaret,.Jiis wife, had two daughters: Priscilla (b. 1707; d. 1781) 
who m. Humphrey Wayne, and Elizabeth (b. 1709; d. 1793), who m. Isaac Wayne, the 
father of Gen. Anthony Wayne. 



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3i6 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE. 



VI. Children: 

137. Marie, d. unm., aged 97 years. 

138. Augustine, m. Eugene Portier. 

139. Georgette, m. Rousseau. 

140. Henriette, m. James de Mazarredo, a native of Bilboa, Spain, and had : 

Frederico. 

Santiago, d. young. 

Ramon, b. at Philadelphia, 1836; d. at Philadelphia Jan. 31, 1897, a physician 
and resident of Cienfuegos, Cuba ; m. Matilda Griiner, dau. of Herman - 
Frederic Griiner of Osnabruk, Hanover, and had: Clara, James, John, 
Marie, Ramon, Herman, Matilda, Adele, Joseph, Julia, Francis, Nathalie. 

IV. (128) Jacob Wayne (William,' Jacob,* Anthony'), b. Jan. 4, 1760; d. 1857; m., ist, 
Elizabeth Lloyd. 

V. Children: 

141. Margaret, d. young. 

142. Elizabeth, d. young. 

143. Emeline, d. young. 

144. Edward Fisher. 

145. Ann. 

146. Anthony ; moved to Cincinnati, O. 

Jacob Wayne, m., 2d, Sarah Fisher. 

V. Children: 

147. Mary. 

148. William, m., 1st, Rebecca Polts; 2d, Rebecca Walker; 3d, Elizabeth Tomlinson. 

149. Sarah. 

150. John. 

151. Elizabeth. 

152. Samuel. 

153. Thomas. 

154. Harriet. 

155. Charles. 

156. Susannah. 

157. Jacob Lloyd, m. Palmer. 

V. (148) William Wayne (Jacob,* William,* Jacob,* Anthony '), m., ist, Rebecca Potts; 

m., 2d, Rebecca Walker; m., 3d, Elizabeth Tomlinson; d. 1870, Philadelphia. 

VI. Children:* 

158. Isaac Potts, d. young. 

159. Ruth Anna, m. William Betts. 

160. Rebecca, m. El wood Byerly. 

161. Joseph, m. Mary F. Gove. 

* See also page 318, where the order of birth of bis children is given somewhat dif- 
ferently. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 2>l7 



162. Elizabeth, m. Edw. S. Wayne. 

163. Sarah Ann, m. D. D. Byerly. 

164. Margaret W., unm. 

165. William, m., 1st, Edith Blackfan ; m., 2d, Sarah E. Leslie. 

166. Mary W., m. Wm. H. Woods. 

167. Martha Jones, unm. 

168. Henry, m. Lizzy Perry. 

V. (157) Jacob Lloyd Wayne (Jacob,* William,' Jacob,* Anthony >), m. Palmer. 

VL Children: 

169. Jacob Lloyd, m. Charlotte Wright. 

170. Thomas. 

171. Dudley. 

172. Lottie. 

173. Bessie. 

174. William Lloyd. 

175. Henry Woods. 

VL (159) RiTTH Anna Wayne (William,^ Jacob,* William,' Jacob,' Anthony >), m. William 
Betts. 

VH Children: 

176. Ruth Anna. 

177. Sallie, m. Marshall. 

178. Rebecca, m. Sellers. 

179. Mary, m. Russell. 

VL (160) Rebecca Wayne (William,* Jacob,* William,' Jacob,* Anthony*), m. Elwood 
Byerly. 

Vn. Children: 

180. William W., m. Martha G. . Issue : Francis Parkman, Robert. 

181. Alice. 

VL (161) Joseph Wayne (William,* Jacob,* William,' Jacob,* Anthony >),m. Mary F. Gove, 
vn. Children: 

182. Galie. 

183. William G., m. Laura . Issue : Byron, Josephine. 

VI. (163) Sarah Ann Wayne (William,* Jacob,* William,' Jacob,* Anthony >), m. D. D. 
Byerly. 

VIL Children: 

184. Homer R. 

185. Frances. 

186. Herbert Eells. 

187. Lizzie W., m. M. C. Bragdon. Issue: Bessie, Wayne, Carl, Francis, Merritt. 



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31 8 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 



VI. (165) William Wayne (Willam,* Jacob,* William," Jacob,* Anthony*), m., ist, Edith 
Black fan. 

VII. Childrm: 

188. Mary E. 

M., 2d, Sarah E. Leslie. 
VII. Childrtn: 

189. George H., m. Ilattie . Issue : Bessie, Stella. 

190. Margaret L. 

191. Clara J., m. H. Crampton. Issue: Geneva \V., Wayne. 

192. Charles, m. Sarah Breckenridge. Issue : James B., Carl D., Mary E., William 

Harold. 

VI. (168) Henry Wayne (William,* Jacob,* William,' Jacob,' Anthony'), m. Lizzie Perry. 
VII. Children: 

193. William. 

194. Perry. 

IV. (129) Samuel Wayne (William,* Jacob,* Anthony*), b. Feb. 10, 1763; m. Elizabeth 
Curtain at Christ Church, Philadelphia, Dec. 28, 1784. 

V. Children: 

195. Joseph, b. Sept. 11, 1793. 

196. Ann, m. Benj. Crawford, dau. Sarah Ann Wayne Crawford and Louisa Craw- 

ford. 

197. Hannah, m. Thos. Owen. 

198. Benjamin. 

IV (132) Ann Wayne (William,* Jacob,* Anthony*) b. Sept. 9, 1772; m. Cooper. 

V. Children: 

199. Hannah, d. Feb. 15, 1866, at Burlington, N. J.; unm. 

200. William, resides with his wife, Mary E. Cooper, at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

V. ( 148) William Wayne * (Jacob,* William,' Jacob,* Anthony *), hardware merchant, Phila- 

delphia, d. 1857; m., 1st, Rebecca Potts; d. Feb. 5, 1816; 2d, Rebecca , d. Sept. 

16, 1834 1 3d, Elizabeth Tomlinson (Records Phila. Monthly Meeting). 

VI. Children: 

201. Joseph, b. Feb. 17, 1821 ; m. Mary Frances , and had: Laura, William G. 

202. Henry, m. Elizabeth , and had : William, Perry. 

203. William, b. Apr. i, 1827; m. Elizabeth Blackford, and had: Margaret, Clara, 

Henry, Charles. 

204. Ruth Anna, m. Betts , and had : Fanny. 

205. Mary W., m. W. H. Woods of Cincinnati, Ohio. Both drowned in Lake 

Superior. 

206. Elizabeth, b. June 4, 1822; m. Edward Simmons,** b. 1819, (Joseph,* Samuel,* 

William,' Jacob,* Anthony *) : no issue. 

* See page 316, where his marriages and children appear, but in difTerent order. The 
data here given came in too late for comparison with account on page 316. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 3^9 

207. Rebecca, m. Byerly, and had issue : Annie J., Martha J., E. 

208. Sarah Ann, b. Aug. lo, 1823; m. Byerly, who was drowned in Lake 

Erie. Issue : Rebecca Frances, m. Eells ; Elizabeth. 

209. Margaret W.,« b. Aug. 14, 1825; unm. 

210. Martha J., living in Philadelphia, 1897. 

V. (144) Edward Fisher Wayne (Jacob,* William,' Jacob,* Anthony *),b. Nov. 10, 1810; 
d. 1882; m. Frances Vandegrift. 
VI. Children: 

211. Albert Barnes, m. Margaret Stevens of North Carolina. 

212. Sarah A., m. Harry Lloyd. 

213. Walter, m. Amelia Snakenburg. 

214. Edward Howard, m. Hannah Freedman. Issue: Oscar, Edward F., Albert 

F., Frances C, Joseph A. Theodore. 

V. (146) Anthony Wayne (Jacob,* William,' Jacob,' Anthony *), b. Oct. 16, 1816; m., 
1st, Jane Anne Youle. 
VL Children: 

215. Catharine, d. young. 

216. Anthony, d. young. 

Anthony, m., 2d, Elizabeth Hitchcock. 
VI. Children: 

217. Anthony, m. Ella Richards 

218. Clarence Bishop, m. Mary B. Torrence. 

219. Linda, m. Charles L. Miller. 

220. Alice Helen, m. Hubert Weis. 

221. Florence Fisher. 

222. Warren, m. Versie Glenn. 

V. (195) Joseph Wayne (Samuel,* William,' Jacob,' Anthony >), b. Sept. ii, 1793; ^' 

Dec. 30, 1864; was m. by the Rev. Jacob Broadhead, June 3, 1818, to Ann Dallam (b. 
Oct. 14, 1799; d. Sept. 2, 1853), dau. of Samuel and Susannah Dallam of Maryland. 
VI. Children: 

223. Edward Simmons, b. Apr. 17, 1819. 

224. Rebecca Simmons, b. Jan. 19, 1 821. 

225. Susan Elizabeth, b. Feb. i, 1823. 

226. Ann Eliza, b. June 12, 1825. 

227. Emeline Dallam, July 15, 1828. 

228. Samuel Richard, b. Apr. 17, 1830 ; d. Aug. 3, 1841. 

229. Joseph, b. Dec. 3. 1832. 

230. Mary Ann, b. Mar. 20, 1835. 

231. Stephen Simmons, b. Jan. 19, 1839. 

VI. (223) Edward Simmons Wayne (Joseph,* Samuel,* William,' Jacob,' Anthony M» b. 
Apr. 17, 1819; m. his second cousin, Elizabeth Wayne (William,^ Jacob,* William,' 
Jacob,' Anthony *) ; no issue. 



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320 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 



VI. (224) Rebecca Simmons Wayne (Joseph,* Samuel,* William,' Jacob,* Anthony'), b. 
Jan. 19, 1821 ; m. Robert B. Sellers of Philadelphia. 
VII. Children: 

232. Mary. 

233. Emma. 

234. Annie. 

235. George. 

236. Waller. 

237. Joseph. 

VI. (225) Susan Elizabeth Wayne (Joseph,* Samuel,* William,' Jacob,* Anthony >), b. 
Feb. I, 1823; m. Charles D. Knight of Philadelphia. 
Children : 

238. Clara. 

239. Elizabeth. 

240. Rebecca. 

241. Laura. 

VI. (226) Ann Eliza Wayne (Joseph,* Samuel,* WiUiam,' Jacob,* Anthony i), b. June 12, 
1825; m. Edwin A. Merritt. 
VII. Children: 

242. Joseph. 

243. Annie. 

244. Elizabeth. 

245. Gertrude. 

246. Sally. 

VI. (227) Emeline Dallam Wayne (Joseph,* Samuel,* William,' Jacob,* Anthony >), b. 
July 15, 1828; m. Edwin Shee. 
VII. Children: 

247. Parke. 

248. Edward. 

249. Annie. 

VI. (229) Joseph Wayne (Joseph,* Samuel,* William,' Jacob,* Anthony*), b. Dec. 3. 1832; 
m., Nov. 13, 1856, Julia Earnest Vamey, dau. of Jesse Vamey of Dover, N. H., and 
Margaret Burr (b. Feb. 7, 1811 ; d. Sept. I, 1894), of Burlington Co., N. J. 
VII. Children: 

250. Edward Francis. 

251. Ann Dallam. 

VI. (230) Mary Ann Wayne (Joseph,* Samuel,* William,' Jacob,* Anthony'), b. Mar. 
20, 1835; m., 1st, Charles Jordan. 
VII. Children: 

252. Laura Martin. 

253. Annie de la Puente. 

254. Ophelia, m. Thomas Martran. 

255. Leona, m. Seeds. 

Mary Ann, m., 2d, Jacob Fox. No issue. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 12\ 



VI. (231) Stephen Simmons Wayne (Joseph,* Samuel,* William,* Jacob,' Anthony *), m., 
1st, Isabella Ross. 

VII. Children: 

256. Joseph. 

257. Edith. 

M., 2d, . 

VII. (250) Edward Francis Wayne (Joseph,* Joseph,* Samuel,* William,* Jacob,* 
Anthony^), b. Aug. 28, 1857; m., Nov. 7, 1882, Jane Clevenger Schober, dau. of 
Samuel and Hannah (Clevenger) Schober of Philadelphia. 

VIII. Children: 

258. Frederick Schober. 

259. Joseph Exiward. 

260. Orville Samuel. 

II. (7) John Wayne, 1739, June 13, named as "son John, Executor," in the Will of 
Anthony Wayne, proved Dec. 13, 1739 ( West Chester Records). 
1744, May 5. Deed, "John Wayne of Wilmington, New Castle Co. (now Delaware)," 
administrator of the will of Anthony Wayne,* of Easttown, Chester Co, Pa., 
deceased, to Isaac Wayne,* in fee (confirming the agreement of 1739), the tract of 
360 acres, etc., etc. (recorded West Chester). 
1750, June 3. Minutes of the vestry of St. Peter's Church, East Whiteland, Chester 
Co. Pa. : " John Wayne built the pulpit, reading desk, and communion table 

for c^ir 

1750, Nov. 26. " Paid John Wayne, joiner, on account, ;^8." 

1752, May 18. Chosen a member of the vestry. 

1753, May 14. Chosen a member of the vestry, and made owner of pew No. 14, 
formerly the property of Humphrey Wayne, " who has resigned his right thereto." 
Present at the meeting of the vestry on this date. 

1754, May 6. Chosen as a member of the vestr)- at a meeting held this date. 

II. (9) Ann Wayne (Anthony Wayne*), b. probably in County Wicklow, Ireland; m. 
Samuel McCue of Ballnakill, County of Wicklow, Ireland (papers of Joseph Lewis, Jr., 
dec'd, 1895). I** ^750 ^c was Overseer of the Poor for the township of Willistown; 
1752, Constable; 1769, Superintendent of Highways. His will is dated Jan. 15, 1777, 
wherein he is styled of Willistown (Chester Co.), and was probated May 29, 1777. 
Mention is made of his wife, Ann, enceinte^ and his children, Anthony, Mary Farrow, 
Hannah Butler, Ann Jaudon, Thomas, Alice. He also mentions his " kinsman Anthony 
Wayne" and Richard Richison. Samuel McCue was a taxable in Willistown in 1734 
and probably earlier. 
Anthony Wayne, the Colonist, mentions his daughters by their maiden surname, as though 
they were unmarried, although most if not all were married before he died. Ann 
McCue is merely named as " my daughter Ann Wayne," 
III. Children: 

261. John, d. Aug. 16, 1739, aged 22 years (epitaph at St. David's). 
52 



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322 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE. 



262. Anthony, m. Lydia (or Elizabeth?) Lloyd (m. license dated Dec, 1747). 

263. Samuel. 

264. William. 

265. Thomas. 

266. Hannah, about 4 years old when her father came to this country; m. John 

Butler from England. 

267. Mary, m. James Farrow. 

268. Ann, m., isi, Harper; m., 2d, Peter Jaudon. 

269. Alice, m. Robert Armstrong. 

HI. (263) Samuel McCue (Ann,» Anthony*), d. Apr. 28, 1760, aged 28 years (epitaph at 
St. David's, Radnor); his will styles him of Willistown, is <lated Apr. 27, 1760, and 
was probated May 19, 1760. He mentions his brother Anthony and his (Anthony's) 
sons, Thomas, John, and Abraham, and his (Anthony's) daughters, Elizabeth, Mary, 
and Ann ; his father, Samuel McCue ; his brother, Thomas ; his brother-in-law, James 
Farrow, and sister, Maiy Farrow ; James Farrow's sons, William, Joseph, Samuel, and 
Abraham ; his daughters, Rebecca, Mary, and Sarah ; his brother-in-law, John Butler, 
and his wife; "my sister," Hannah, Hannah's son, Samuel Butler; his "kinsman,'* 
John Butler, Jr. ; sister, Ann Harper, and her four children ; his sister, Alice McCue ; 
cousin, John Norton ; executors, his father, Samuel McCue, and " Uncle Isaac Wayne." 

HI. (262) Anthony McCue (Ann,* Anthony*), m. Lydia Lloyd. 
IV. Children: 

270. Thomas. 

271. John. 

272. Abraham. 

273. Elizabeth. 

274. Mary. 

275. Ann. 

III. (266) Hannah McCue (Ann,* Anthony*), m. John Butler. 
IV. Children: 

278. Samuel. 

279. AUce, m. Samuel Moore. 

280. Hannah, m., 1st, John Rouse; m., 2d, John Caldwell. 

281. Elizabeth, m. William Steele, Chester Co. 

282. John of Virginia, m. Deborah Douglass. 

283. James. 

284. Abraham, m. Hannah Farrow. 

III. (267) Mary McCue (Ann,* Anthony*), m. James Farrow. (For references to mar- 
riage and issue see her brother Samuel's will.) 
IV. Children: 

285. William. 

286. Joseph. 

287. Samuel. 

288. Abraham. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE. i^Z 



289. Rebecca. 

290. Mary. 

291. Sarah. 

III. (268) Ann McCue (Ann,* Anthony*), m., ist, Harper (see her brother Samuel's 

will); m., 2d, Peter Jaudon (see Jaudon genealogy; see her father's will, where she is 
mentioned as Ann Jaudon). 

IV. Children: 

292. Daniel, b. July 7, 1767; m. Anna McNeil. 

293. Samuel, b. 1770; d. Oct. 7. 1794. 

294. Elizabeth. 

IV. (292) Daniel Jaudon (Ann,* Ann,* Anthony*), m., Dec. 25, 1793, Anna McNeil; d. 
July 23, 1826. 

V. Children: 

295. Anna Maria. 

296. Samuel. 

297. William Latta. 

298. Ashbel Green. 

299. Charles Bancker, M. D. 

300. Elizabeth. 

301. Harriet Snowden, b. Aug. 27, 1807; d. Mar. 18, 1874. 

302. Caroline Matilda. 

303. Alexander Henry, b. Aug. 5, 1812; d. Jan. 16, 1886. 

V. (295) Anna Maria Jaudon (Daniel,* Ann,' Ann,* Anthony*), b. Jan. 3, 1795; *"• 

Peter Conrey; d. Jan., 1870. He d. Apr. 9, 1872. 

VI. Children: 

304. Henry Parrish,b. 1832; d. June 25, 1857. 

305. Charles Jaudon, d. June 25, 1838. 

V. (296) Samuel Jaudon (Daniel,* Ann,' Ann,* Anthony*), b. May 14, 1796; m., Aug 4, 
1823, Marguerite Peyton Alricks; d. May 31, 1874. 
VI. Children: 

306. Annie Peyton, b. May 26, 1824; m., June 2, 1857, Philip Livingston of New 

York. He d. Aug. 9, 1874, 

307. Frances Orne, b. July 21, 1825; d. June 25, 1827. 

308. Julia Webster, b. Sept. 25, 182$; m., Oct. 27, 1846, Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, 

Jr., of Boston. Issue: Augustus Van Cortlandt, b. Mar. 24, 1848; Peyton 
Jaudon, b. Dec. 19, 1863. 

309. Peyton, b. Aug. 23, 1828; d. May 31, 1829; bur. at New Orleans, May 31, 

1829. 

310. Samuel Peyton, b. at New Orleans, May 21, 1831 ; d. Dec. 23, 1896; m. in 

city of Veddo (now Tokio), Oshidzu, b. Mar. 18, 1855, dau. of Goro Isami 
Matsura, a Hatamoto of Japan (rank of Baronet). Issue: Julia Ayame, b. 
Tokio, Japan, Aug. 9, 1880. 



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324 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE. 



311. Rev. Francis Duncan, b. July 8, 1833; ™-» ^ct. 29, 1857, Elizabeth McDonald 

Strong. Issue : Frank Duncan, b. Mar. 17, 1859; William, b. Oct. 15, 1861 ; 
Margaret Peyton, b. Oct. 26, 1863 ; d. May 29, 1865. 

312. Lawson White, b. Aug. 26, 1836; d. Aug. 18, 1852. 

313. Ada Mary Caroline, b. Jan. 7, 1839; m., Nov. 18, 1874, Van Bnigh Livingston 

of New York. 

V. (297) WiLLLAM Latta, SOU of Daniel Jaudon, b. June 9, 1798, in Philadelphia; m., 
Nov. 20, 1823, Susan Gibson Lea ; d. Oct., 1832 ; bur. Spring Grove Cem., Cinn., Ohio. 
He was a merchant. His wife, b. March 19, 1799; d. Aug., 1836; bur. same place. 
They had issue : 

314. Anna Caroline. 

315. Elizabeth Lea. 

VL (314) Anna Caroline, dau. of Wm. Latta Jaudon, b. Oct. 10, 1824; m.. May 27, 1850, 
Henry Charles Lea of Philadelphia, author and publisher, b. Sept. 19, 1825. They had 
issue : 

316. Frances Henry, publisher, b. March 24, 185 1. 

317. Charles Matthew, publisher, b. March 7, 1853; m., Oct. 28, 1880, Helen Vaughn 

Cope, b. Feb. 16, 1857; d. June 3, 1886; bur. at St. Timothy's, Roxborough. 
They had issue : 

Maijorie Vaughn Lea, b. Oct. 6, 1881. 

318. Anna, b. May 13, 1855. 

319. Arthur Henry, publisher, b. Sept. 17, 1859. 

VL (315) Elizabeth Lea, dau. of Wm. Latta Jaudon, b. May 28, 1827 ; m., Oct. 5, 1847, 
Wm. W. Bakewell, merchant ; d. Mar. 19, 1881 ; bur. in Latirel Hill Cem., Phila. Her 
husband, Wm. W. Bakewell, d. Nov. 28, 1850; bur. at Spnng Grove Cem., Cinn., Ohio. 
She m. again, Matthew Carey Lea, lawyer, of Phila , July 14, 1852. He was b. Aug. 
18, 1823. Hy the first mamage they had issue: 

320. Anna Lea Bakewell, b. Aug. 15, 1848. By the second marriage they had 

issue : 

321. George Henry Lea, merchant, b. June 9, 1853 ; m., June 10, 1879, Alice Van 

Antwerp, b. Mar. 3, 1 856, and had issue : 
Elizabeth Jaudon, b. July 28, 188 1. 
Van Antwerp, b. Nov, 19, 1882. 
Francis Carey, b. Sept. 18, 1884. 

V. (298) Ash BEL Green, son of Daniel Jaudon,* merchant, of the firms of *« Whitall, Jaudon, 
& Co.," "Jaudon & Mason, Manufacturers," "A. G. Jaudon & Sons, Bankers," b. in 
Philadelphia, Apr. 13, 1800; m., May 28, 1833, Lucy Ann Bainbridge, dau. of Com- 
modore William Bainbridge ; d. Feb. 7, 1864; bur. in Jaudon Vault, Mt. Vernon Cem , 
Philadelphia. His wife was b. in Boston, Nov. 19, 1814; d. Jan. 9, 1884, and bur. in 
same place. They had issue : 

322. Lucy Bainbridge, b. in Philadelphia, Mar. 13, 1834. She and several of her 

sisters have a school in New York. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE, 325 



323. Mary Louisa Bainbridge, b. in Phila., Apr. 22, 1835; m., Mar. i, 1859, Capt. 

Thos. Cadwalader Harris, U. S. N., b. Nov. 9, 1826; d. at U. S. N. Asylum, 
Phila., Jan. 24, 1875; bur. Jan. 27, 1875, in ^^^ Jaudon Vault, Ml. Venion 
Cem., Phila. They had issue : 

Thomas Cadwalader, b. Jan. 10, i860. 
Mary Campbell, d. Dec. 23, 1861. 

Lucy Jaudon, b. Dec. 25, 1866; m.. May 22, 1888, Theodore Frothingham 
of Philadelphia, b. Mar. 22, 1848, and bad issue : 
Theodore, b. May 19, 1889. 

324. William Bainbridge of New York, b. in Phila., Sept. 5, 1836; m., Nov. 25, 

1874, Kate Kearney Smith, b. July 30, 1836. He was formerly of the firm 
of " A. G. Jaudon & Sons." 

325. Caroline, b. in Phila., Feb. 16, 1838; d. Mar. 17, 1838; bur. in Jaudon Vault, 

Mt. Vernon Cem., Phila. 

326. Harriet, b. in Phila., July 29, 1839; d. July 12, 1841 ; bur. in same place. 

327. Charies of New York, formerly of the firm of " A. G. Jaudon & Sons," b. in 

Phila., Mar. 28, 1 841 ; m., Aug. 15, 1 88 1, Emily Comfort Avery, who d. 
Dec. 6, 1882, and was bur. in same place as 327. 

328. Maria Conrey, b. in Phila., Mar. 5, 1843; m, June 8, 1870, Henry Silliman 

Bennett, b. Oct. 15, 1833, lawyer, of New York, and had issue: 
Henry Martin, b. Mar. 23, 1 87 1. 
Bainbridge Jaudon, b. Dec. I, 1873. 
Mary Emily, b. Apr. 17, 1877. 

329. Elizabeth, b. in New York, Sept. 27, 1845; di Nov. 6, 1856; bur. in Jaudon 

Vault in Mt. Vernon Cem., Phila. 

330. Fanny, b. in New York, Mar. 16, 1847 ; l^as a school with her sisters in New 

York. 

331. Aletta Campbell, b. in New York, Mar. 3, 1849; same as 330. 

332. Susan Bainbridge, b. in New York, Feb. 19, 1851 ; same as 330. 

V. (299) Charles Bancker, M. D., son of Daniel Jaudon, b. Sept. 17, 1802; m., June 14, 
1849, Mary Taylor Bainbridge, dau. of Commodore William Bainbridge; d. in New 
York, May, 1 882; bur. June i, 1882, in Jaudon Vault, Mt. Vernon Cem., Philadelphia. 
His wife was b. Apr. 8, 1810; d. Feb., 1877 ; bur. Feb. 21, 1877, in same place. 

V. (300) Elizabeth, dau. of Daniel Jaudon, b. Dec. 12, 1804; m., Oct. 8, 1828, Wade 
Thring Smith; d. June 3, 1882; bur. in Jaudon Vault, Mt. Vernon Cem., Phila. Her 
husband, b. Oct. 28, 1803; d. Oct. 10, 1851; bur. in same place. He was a member 
of the firm of " Rockhill, Smith & Co." They had issue : 

333. Elizabeth Jaudon, b. July 25, 1829; d. June 21, 1830; bur. in Jaudon Vault in 

Mt. Vernon Cem., Phila. 

334. Caroline Jaudon, b. in Phila., Aug. 5, 1832; m., at Harrisburg, Mar. 2, 1854, 

John Hastings Berryhill of Davenport, Iowa. Her husband was b. in Phila., 
July 18, 1815; d. at Davenport, Iowa, Mar. 3, 1880. He was a lawyer. 
They had issue : 

Charles Jaudon, of .St. Paul, Minn., lawyer, b. at Harrisburg, Sept. 7, 1856; 
m., Oct. 6, 1886, Margaret Ix)uise Porter, b. at St. Paul, Oct. 23, 1863. 



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326 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE. 



Caroline, b. at Harrisburg, Nov. 7, 1858; m., Nov. 4, 1888, Frank Le Roy 
Dodge, lawyer, of Davenport, Iowa, b. at Buffalo, Iowa, July 20, 1856. 
They bad issue : 

Helen, b. July 7, 1882. 
Elizabeth, b. at Harrisburg, Feb. 9, i860; m.. May 28, 1878, Frank Henry 
Shelley, ranch-owner, of New Kiowa, Kan., b. at Davenport, Iowa, Nov. 
21,1856. They had issue : 

Caroline Elizabeth, b. Sept. 19, 1881. 

Katherine Berryhill, b. Oct. 24, 1882; d. at Medicine Lodge, Kan., 

Mar. 31, 1883. 
Frank Henry, Jr., b. Aug. 18, 1884. 
Mary, b. at Harrisburg, Dec. 21, 1862; m., Oct. 13, 1881, Charles Davison, 
lawyer, of St. Paul. Minn. He was b. at Davenport, Iowa, Apr. 29, 
1857. They had issue : 
Katherine, b. May 17, 1887. 
Rebecca, b. at Davenport, Iowa, July 20, 1865. 
Anna, b. at Davenport, Dec. 22, 1868. 
John Hastings, Jr., b, at Davenport, Jan. 19, 1870. 
Harrieite, b. at Davenport, Dec. 20, 187 1. 

335. Percy George, b. at Phila., July 20, 1834; m., Feb. 29, i860, Marie Jane 

Miller, b. at Sinking Springs, Berks Co., Pa., June 7, 1839. He is a passenger 
agent in the B. and O. R. R. at Washington, D. C. They had issue : 

Harry Jaudon, b. at Williamsport, Pa. Jan. 7, 1861. He is in the service 
of the Government at Washington. ' 

336. Thomas Rockhill, b. Apr. 25, 1837; m., Dec. 28, 1864, Emma A Kirke; d. 

Aug. II, 1882; bur. at Harrisburg. He was a banker. 

337. Jaudon, b. Apr. 4, 1839; m., Oct. 25, 1871, Elizabeth H. Miller, b. Sept. 20, 

1842. He is express agent of the Adams Express Company at Williams- 
port, Pa. 

338. Ormsby Hite, b. July 10, 1841.; d. Sept. 27, 184I. 

339. Estelle Mercken, b. Sept. 10, 1843; d. Nov. 7, 1843. 

340. Gertrude Elizabeth, b. Apr. 30, 1845; m., Feb. 15, 1865, Sidney H. Browne, 

druggist, of Hunnewell, Mo., b. Dec. 23, 1841. They had issue: 
Harriet Harper, of Hunnewell, Mo., b. Feb. 18, 1866. 
Wade Jaudon Saulnier, of Renovo, Pa., b. Mar. 30, 1867. 
Ivins Arrell, of Renovo, Pa., b. Nov. 17, 1870. 
Peter Irrell, of Hunnewell, Mo., b. Mar. 31, 1881. 

\^ (302) Caroline Matilda, dau. of Daniel Jaudon, b. May, 1810; m., 1829, Rev. James 
Saul, D. D. ; d. Aug. 7, 1830 ; bur. in Jaudon V'ault, Mt. Vernon Cem., Phila. Dr. 
Saul d. Nov. 16, 1887, and is bur. in Germantown. 

IV. (294) Elizabeth, dau. of Peter Jaudon, b. 1763; m., July 31, 1794, at St. Peter's 
Church, Phila., by Bishop White, Finnix Stretcher; d. Jan. 4, 1850; bur. Jan. 7, 1850. 
Her husband, b. 1771; d. Jan. 30, 1847; bur. Feb. i, 1847 (St. Peter's Rec). Both 
bur. in St. Peter's Church yard in Finnix Stretcher's family vault. There are jxirtraits 
of both in |X)ssession of Mrs. David W. Sellers, Phila. They had issue : 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE, 32? 



341. Caroline, b. June, 1797, d. July 24, 1798; bur. in St. Peter's Church yard. 

342. William W., b. Oct. 9, 1799; d. Aug. 19, 1800; bur., in same place. 

343. Matilda, b. 1801 ; bapt. May 24, 1805 (St. Peter's Rec.) ; d. Aug. 10, 1827 ; 

bur. Aug. 12, 1827, in St. Peter's, Phila. She graduated from her uncle, 
Daniel Jaudon's, school. 

344. Elizabeth. 

345. Anna Maria Jaudon, b. 1808; d. July 13, 1836; bur. July 15, 1836, in Finnix 

Stretcher's family vault, St. Peter's, Phila. She graduated from Daniel 
Jaudon's school. 

V. (344) Elizabeth, dau. of Elizabeth Stretcher, b. Dec. 27, 1800; bapt. May 24, 1805 

(St. Peter's Rec.) ; graduated from Daniel Jaudon's school ; m., Dec. 3, 1829, Rev. 
Joseph Jaquett at St. Peter's, P^ila., Bishop White officiating ; d. May 25, 1882 ; bur. 
in the Stretcher vault, St. Peter's/ Phila. Her husband, b. Mar. 11, 1794; bapt. May 14, 
1794 (see Pres. Ch. Rec); d. May 24, 1869; bur. May 26, 1869, in Stretcher vault, 
St. Peter's, Phila. He was ordained Nov. 16, 1821 ; Deacon and Presbyter, Dec. 22, 
1822, by Bishop White. He was rector of St. James' the Greater, Bristol, Pa., and sub- 
sequently of St. Matthew's, Francisville, Phila. He revised and edited the first American 
edition of the Hebrew Bible, which was the cause of the loss of his sight. He was a 
great Oriental linguist. There are portraits of both in possession of Mrs. D. W. Sellers. 
They had issue : 

346. Finnix Stretcher, M. D., b. Sept. 12, 1831 ; student of the University of Penn- 

sylvania, class '49; graduated from the Medical College of Pennsylvania, 
Mar. 4, 1854; sui^eon in the Sixty-fifth Pennsylvania Regiment (Fifth 
Cavalry); mustered into service Dec. 22, 1 861, for term of three years; 
resigned Feb. 24, 1862; d. Dec. II, 1870; bur. Dec. 13, 1870, in the 
Stretcher vault, St. Peter's, Phila. His portrait is in possession of Mrs. D. 
W. Sellers. 

347. Anna Frances. 

348. Joseph Pfeiffer, b. 1841 ; bapt. July 9, 1841 (St. Peter's Rec); d. Nov. 24, 

1852; bur. Nov. 26, 1852, in Stretcher vault, St. Peter's, Phila. His portrait 
is in possession of Mrs. D. W. Sellers. 

VI. (347) Anna Frances, dau. of Elizabeth Jaquett, b. at Phila., Jan. 23, 1838 ; m., July 22, 
1858, David Wampole Sellers, lawyer, of Phila., b. May 11, 1833. They were m. at 
St. Peter's, Phila., Rev. Wm. H. Odenheimei" officiating. They had issue : 

349. Anna Frances, b. Aug. 16, 1859; m., Apr. 21, 1892, Edward Page Vogels 

Hewes, b. Apr. 2, 1 85 5. Issue: 

Eleanor Stockton, b. at Atlantic City, N. J., Sept. 19, 1896. 

350. Elizabeth Louisa, b. Mar. 21, 1 86 1. 

351. Mary, b. Dec. 31, 1862; m., at St. Peter's, Phila., June 3, 1895, Ceorge Howard 

Stirling. He was b. Apr. 25, i860. Issue : 

David Sellers, b. at Greenspring Valley, Baltimore Co., Md., Aug. 16, 1896. 
Philip Sellers, b. at Greenspring Valley, Baltimore Co., Md., June i, 1898. 

352. Florence, b. Apr. 22, 1864; m., June 2, 1885, Marcellus Coxe, b. Nov. 7, 1857, 

son of Ferdinand Coxe of Phila. They had issue : 
Francis Travis Coxe, b. Mar. 1 3, 1 889. 



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328 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE, 



353. Edwin Jaquett, b. July 25, 1865 ; graduated from the University of Pennsyl- 

vania, June 10, 1886, with the degree A. B. ; graduated from the Law 
Department of the University of Pennsylvania, June 9, 1889, with degrees 
of LL.B. and A. M. ; admitted to the bar June 15, 1889; m., at St. Peter's, 
Phila., June 6, 1894, Blanche Bingham Ehret. She was b. Oct 15, 1871. 
Issue: 

Ellen Jaquett, b. at Phila., Mar. 6, 1895 ; bapt. at St. Peter's, Dec I, 1895. 

354. Charles Jaquett, b. Mar. 21, 1867; d. Feb. 9, 1868; bur., Feb. 12, 1868, at St. 

Peter's, Phila., in Stretcher vault. 

355. Sydney Jaquett, b. Nov. 29, 1868; d. Aug. 21, 1887; bur. Aug. 24, 1887, at St. 

Peter's, Phila., in Stretcher vault. 

356. Agnes, b. July 21, 1873. 



(92) Hannah Wayne (Isaac,* Anthony*), married Samuel Van Leer (Von L5hr), and 
had: William R. Van Leer, who married Sarah Hunter, and had : Isaac Wayne Van 
Leer, who married (ist) Phebe Ann Speakman, and had : 

1. Ellen Frances, m. George H. EUu-le. 

2. Hunter Evans, m. Clara Wills. 

3. Archer W., m. Josephine Colladay. 

4. Anne, m. William Huddleston. 

5. Isaac W., b. June 15, 1846; d. June 19, 1862 from wound received at battle of 

Seven Pines. 
Isaac W. Van Leer, married (2d) Lydia Thomas, and had: 

6. Mary T., unm. 

Ellen Frances Van Leer (daughter of Isaac W.), married April 5, 1849, George H. 
Earle, and had : 

1. Florence V., b. July I, 1850; m. (ist), Sept. 28, 1872, William Nicholson, who d. 

Sept. 9, 1877, and had: Alice E., b. Oct. I, 1873. She m. (2d), Jan. 7, 1879, 
Edward H. Coates. 

2. Alice Earle, b. Jan. 5, 1852 ; m. Reginald H.Jones. 

3. Mary, b. Sept. 20, 1853; m. William Cook. 

4. George H., b. July 6, 1856; m. Catharine H. French, and had: Catharine A., 

Caroline F., Mary, Frances Von L5hr, George H. 3d, Ralph 3d, Clayton French, 
Eleanor, Edith Newlin. 

5. Frances V., b. Oct. 27, 1858; m. Edward H. Johnson. 

Hunter Evans Van Leer had issue : Isaac Wayne, b. Jan. 10, 1857 ; Anthony Wayne, 
b. Jan. 3, 1859; d. June 26, 1859; Sarah, b. Sept. 3, i860; m. Charles S. Albertson; 
Clara Virginis, b. Jan. 23, 1862 ; d. May i, 1892, unm. ; Francis Earle, b. Mar. 28, 1867 ; 
Hunter Evans, b. Aug. 24, 1868; m. Mary Reginia Horton ; Andrew Wills, b. Jan. 22, 
1870; Marion Cook, b. Oct. ii, 1874; Morgan Wills, b. Aug. 7, 1877. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE. 329 



AUTHORITIES. 

Authorities in reference to the genealogy of Isaac Wayne,' son of Anthony,^ the immi« 
grant to Chester County, Pa. (By Captain Frederick Schober) : 



Penna. Archives , sec. series, vols, ii., ix. 

Miles' Journal, 

Lewis's History of Chester County. 

Penna. Magazine, 1 887, i^, 1 891, 1895, 

1897. 
The Literary Era, 1 896-97. 
Records of West Chester. 
Wills of Anthony Wayne -} 

Isaac Wayne ;' 

Anthony Wayne.* 
American Hist. Register, Feb. 1 895. 



American Ancestry, 1 889. 

Christ Church Records. 

St. David's Church Records, 

St, Peter's Church Records. 

History of the Pennsylvania Line. 

Stevens's History of Georgia. 

Sanford's History of Erie County, Pa. 

Hiltzheimer* s Diary. 

U. S. Army and Navy Registers. 

Hey I Record of Wayne family. 



Authorities with reference to the parentage and genealogy of Jacob Wayne, one of the 
sons of Anthony Wayne, the immigrant, who settled in Chester County in 1722 : 



Records of Christ Church, Phila. — Marriages, 

Baptisms, Burials. 
Records of Phila. Monthly Meeting, 1687- 

1826. 
The Literary Era, Phila., Thomas Allen 

Glenn. 
Phila. Directory, 1 785 and 1 791. 
Interview with Dr. Ramon de Mazorredo, 

Cienfuegos, Cuba. 
Wills of Anthony Wayne ;* 
William Wayne;' 
Sarah Wayne;* 
William Wayne;* 



Wills of Hannah Cooper ;* 

Margaret W. Wayne « [Philadelphia]. 
Genealogy of the Fisher Family, 1 682- 1 895. 
Family Bible of Joseph Wayne.* 
Family Bible of William Wayne.' 
American Historical Register. 
Records of Chester County, Pa. 
Records of St. Peter's Church, East White- 
land, Chester Co., Pa. 
Wayne Genealogy, by Heyl. 
Pennsylvania Archives, 2d series. 
Cope's History of Chester Co. 



Authorities in reference to the genealogy of Humphrey Wayne,* one of the sons of 
Anthony Wayne, the immigrant to Chester County, Pa. : 



West Chester Records. 
American Historical Register. 
Walker Genealogy, Chester Co. 
Records St. Paul's Church, Chester, Pa. 
Records St. Dai/id's Church, Radnor. 



Records St. Peter's Church, Chester Co. 
Cope's History Chester Co. 
Moore's Ltfe of Gen. Wayne. 
Will of Anthony Wayne.' 



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330 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE. 



APPENDICES TO WAYNE GENEALOGY. 

A. Hayman-Vogdes. — Aaron Vogdes, son of Jacob and Elizabeth Vogdes, bom June 
20, 1780; died Nov. 23, 1836. He married, Nov. 26, 1807, Ann, daughter of William 
Hayman. She was bom June I, 1788; died July 1 1, 1826. 

William Hayman, son of Aaron and Ann (Hayman) Vogdes, bom Aug. 25, 1812. He 
married Hannah Pennell, daughter of Nathan and Beulah (Hall) Davis, Dec. 27, 1838. 
Hannah Pennell Davis was born Feb. 15, 181 7 ; died Feb. 8, 1885. 

Children : 
Adelaide Hunter, b. Feb. 1 1, 1840; d. Nov. 25, 1888. 
William Wayne, b. Feb. 5, 1843 ; d. June 10, 1892. 
Emma, b. Sept. 7, 1844; d. Aug. 5, 1885. 

Mary, b. July 24, 1847 ; d. . 

Lewis Davis, b. Oct. 20, 1849; d- Jan- 6, 1851. 
Anna Duff, b. Jan. 19, 1852; d. Mar. 17, 1855. 
Frank, b. Aug. 8, 1854; d. May 16, 1863. 
Reginald Heber, b. Jan. 6, 1 86 1. 

Adelaide Hunter Vogdes, married Francis M. Brooke, July 21, 1862. He was bom 
July 4, 1836. She died Nov. 25, 1888. 

Children : 
Estelle Hunter, b. Sept. 25, 1863; m., Jan. 9, 1890, Isaac Marselis Longhead. 

Children : 

Adelaide, b. July 14, 1893. 

Gertrude, b. Apr. 28, 1895. 
Hugh Jones, b. Dec. 16, 1867. 
Wayne Vodges, b. Apr. 4, 1874; d. Nov. 25, 1882. 
Florence, b. Jan. 18, 1879. 
Francis M., Jr., b. June 19, 1883. 

Emma Vogdes, married Francis James McBeath, Nov. 14, 1866. 

Children : 
Sarah Moffatt, b. Oct. 4, 1867. 
Francis James, b. May i, 1872. 

William Wayne Vogdes, married Lydia Weaver, d. 1872. No children. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WAYNE. 331 



Reginald Heber Vogdes, married Elizabeth Fairlamb Van Ingen, July 14, 1891. 
Children : 
William Keen, b. July il, 1894; d. Mar. 18, 1896. 
Francis Brooke, b. Feb. 1 5, 1 897. 

B. McCue Data. — Will of Samuel McCue, Sr. — In the name of God Amen, this 15 
day of Jany. in the year of Lord one thousand seven hundred and seventy seven I Saml. 
Macue of the Township of Willis Town in the County of Chester and Province of Penn- 
sylvania being of sound mind and memory do make this my last Will and Testament in 
manner following. First I recommend my Soul to God that gave it, my body to be commited 
to the earth in a deasent manner and all worldly substance I dispose of as follows viz : First 
I order that all my just debts and funeral expenses be paid or answerd by my Extrs. here- 
after named. Item, I will and order that my eanchant and beloved wife Ann be carefully 
and tenderly norsed and attended with all suitable necessarys found her during her natural 
life and after her decease to have a deasent burial all at the charge of my Exects. and paid 
out of the issues and proBtts of my estate. Item, I give and bequeath to my son Anthony 
Macue the sum of ten pounds to be paid him in one year after my decease by my Exetrs. 
Item. I give and bequeath to doughter Mary Farrow the sum of ten pounds to be paid her 
in two years after my decease by my Exetrs. Item. I give and bequeath to my doughter 
Hannah Butler the sum of fifteen pounds to be paid to her in one year after my decease by 
my Exetrs. Item. I give and bequeath to my doughter Ann Jodgon the sum of ten pounds, 
to be paid her in one year after my decease by my Exetrs. Item. I give and bequeath to 
my son Thomas Macue and to the heirs of his body if any such are in being the sum of five 
shillings to be paid i)y my Exetrs, 

Imprimis, I give and bequeath to my doughter Allice Macue all and every my plantation, 
lands and premises together with all my personal estate which I am now possed of to her 
and the heirs of her body and its assigns forever in manner hereafter mentioned that is to say 
in case my doughter Allice Macue should happen to die without an heir of her body then I 
will and order that my said plantation land & premises be immediately sold and convead 
according to law by my Kinsmen Anthony Wayne and Richd. Richison or the sorvivor of 
them or their heirs and Exetrs. for the time being and all the money arrising of and from the 
said sale I will and order the one third part thereof to be paid to my doughter Hannah 
Butler the two other parts to be paid to my son Anthony my doughters Mary and Ann share 
and share alike and if any or all of my said children be deceased then their share or shares 
to decend to their lagual representatives and I further Will and order that if my said dough- 
ter Allice should have issue of her body and they die before they arrive to age and without 
lawful issue as aforesaid that then but not until then I order and impower my said friend 
Anthy. Wayne and Richd. Richison their heirs & Exetrs. aforesaid to sell and conved my 
said estate as aforesaid and all the money arrising of and from said sale to be paid to the 
persons aforesaid and in like manner aforesaid and by the persons so selling the said 
estate, and I do here appoint and impower my trusty friend Anthy. Wayne and Josa. Evans 
and their heirs from time to time hereafter to inspect and prevent any willful waste or dis- 
truction being commited on the premiss any person or persons whomesoever and also see and 
have kept the said premises and improvements in good and tenantable repair during the afore- 
said tearms, and amongst other things I will and order that a toome stone be had in the usual 
manner and fixed on my grave by my Exetrs. And I do here constatute and appoint 



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Samuel MaCue. t SEAI- 



332 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE. 

my said doughter Allice Macue and my Friend Rich. Richison. my sole Exetrs. of this my 
last Will and Testament, ratafieing this and no other to be my said Will word enterd heirs & 
Exetrs. v. sd. before seald. 
Signed sealed published and pronounced ' 
by the Sd. Saml. MaCue as his last 
Will and Testament in the presence of 
Richard Morris. 
Samuel Bell. 
Will Book F, Vol. 6, Pg 320, 
No. 3075. 

Will of Samuel McCue, Jr. — In the name of God Amen, I Samuel McCue Junr. of 
the township of Willtston in the County of Chester in province of Pensilvania being sick and 
weak in body but of sound mind and memory and calling to mind the shortness and uncer- 
tanly of this life do make publish and declare this to be my last Will and testament in manner 
and form following that is to say I bequeath my soul into the hands of Almighty God hoping 
and believing a remission of my sins by and thr6ugh the merrits and mediation of my Lord 
and Savour Jesus Christ and my bodey I commit to the earth to be decently buried at the dis- 
cretion of my Executor and as to such worldly estate as it hath pleased God to bless me 
with I give bequeath and devise in the following manner viz. I will that all my just debts 
and funerall expences be fully paid and discharged by my Executor. Item. I give and 
bequeath to my brother Anthony McCue the sum of thirty Pounds lawful! money out of my 
estate. Item. I give and beqneath to my said brother Anthony Mecues sons Thomas McCue 
John McCue and Abraham McCue the sum of ten Pounds each to be paid as they arrive at 
the age of twenty one years in current money of Pensilvania but if any or either of them 
should happen to dey before he or they arrive to the said age of twenty one years my will is 
that if another son be born to my said brother Anthony McCue hereafter that the legacy of 
the deceased shall go to him and not otherwise. Item. I give and bequeath to my said 
brother Anthony Mecues three daughters Elizabeth McCue, Mary McCue and Ann McCue 
the sum of five pounds each lawfull money aforesaid as they shall arrive at the age of eighteen 
years but if either or any of them should dey before they arrive at that age then to be divided 
among the survivors or survivor of them. Item. I give to my father Samuel Mecue the sum 
of thirty Pounds lawfull money aforesaid for the use of my Brother Thomas Mccue if he be 
living. Item. I give and bequeath to my brother in law James Farra and my sister Mary 
Farra each five pounds lawfull money aforesaid. Item. I give and bequeath to my said brother 
in law James Farras four sones William Farra, Joseph Farra, Samuel Farra and Abraham 
Farra to each of them the sum of ten pounds as they arrive to the age of twenty one years 
money aforesaid. Item. I give and bequeath to my said Brother in law James Farras three 
daughters Rebecca Farra, Mary Farra and Sarah Farra the sum of five pounds each lawfull 
money aforesaid to be paid as they arrive at the age of eighteen years. Item. I give and 
bequeath to my Brother in law John Buttler and to his wife my sister Mannah Buttler all that 
plantation and track of land that they now live on to them and their heirs forever. Item 
I give and bequeath the sum of twenty pounds lawfull money aforesaid to be paid at the dis 
cretion of my Executors to the said John Buttler and Hannah Buttler or their children. Item. 
I give and bequeath to my sister Hannahs son Samuel Buttler the sum of fifteen pounds law 
full money aforesaid with their interest when he arriveth at the age of twenty one years. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE. 333 



Item I give and bequeath to my Kinsman John Buttler Junr. the sum of twenty five pounds 
when he arrives at the age of twenty one years the interest arriseing therefrom to be applyd 
at my fathers discretion until he arriveth to the age of ninteen years. Item 1 give and 
bequeath to my sister Ann Harper the sum of fifty pounds lawfull money aforesaid to be paid 
to her out of my estate. Item I give and bequeath to my sister Ann Harpers four children 
the sum of twenty pounds lawfull money to be paid as they arrive at the age to be paid shear 
and share alike. Item. I give and bequeath to my sister Aliase McCue the sum of one 
hundred pounds lawfull money aforesaid to be paid in the space of six months or sooner after 
my deceas at the discretion of my Executors. Item I give and bequeath to Cuzin John Norton 
the sum of seven pounds lawfull money aforesaid to be paid in six months after my deceas. 
The legicy that I bequeathed to my sister Ann Harper is fifty pounds as enterlined aforesaid. 
Item. I make constitute and ordain my Father Samuel McCue and my Uncle Isaac Wayne 
my only and sole Executors of this my last will and testament and I do hereby utterly disalow 
revoke and disanuU all and every other former Testaments wills legacies and Executors by 
me in anywise before this time named willed and bequeathed Ratifying and confirming this 
and no other to be my last will and Testament. In Witness whereof I have hereunto set 
my hand and seal the twenty seventh day of April in the year of our lord one thousand seven 
hundred and sixty. Signed sealed published and declared by the said Samuel McCue Junr. 
as his last will and testament in the presence of us the subscribers. 

Thomas Lloyd, ^^ >^ 

Thomas Rowland, Samuel M ague Junr. TsEiXy 
Samuel Hall. 

Chester May 19, 1760. Then personally appeared Thomas Rowland & Samuel Hall, 
and the Sd. Thomas Rowland on his Oath on the Holy Evangelists of Almighty God, and 
the Sd. Samuel Hall on his solemn affirmation according to law did severally declare & say 
that they were personally present and did see and hear Samuel Macue Junr. the Testator 
above named sign seal publish pronounce and declare the above writing to be his last will 
and Testament, and that at the doing thereof he was of a sound and well disposing mind 
and memory to the best of their understandings, and also that their names thereunto sub- 
scribed as Witnesses were of their own proper handwritings respectively. 

Sworn & affirmed before 

Henry H. Graham, 
f Will-Book D, Vol. 4, pg. 207, ) D. Reg. 

\ No. 1848. ) 

Whereas Samuel McCue Junior by his last will and Testament in writing bearing date the 
27th. day of April Ano Dni. 1760 (since duly Proved and Registered in the Regr. Generals 
Office at Chester) did appoint me the subscriber one of the Executors thereof. But for cer- 
tain reasons me hereunto moving. I do renounce and refuse to act as an Executor to the 
same and do desire that probate and letters Testamentary on the said last Will & Testament 
may be (by the proper Officer) granted to Samuel McCue Senr. the other Executor therein 
named. Witness my hand & Seal the 5th. day of September Ano. Dni. 1760. 
Sealed & Delivered in the 



presence of us, 
Anthony Wayne, 
Robert Colhoon. 



Isaac Wayne. I SEAIj 



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334 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE. 



C. Some Wayne Deeds.— Deed, May ii, 1724, Thomas Edwards, of Easttown, 
Chester County, Pa., *' yeoman," and Elizabeth, his wife, to Anthony Wayne, of same place, 
*' gentleman," tract of 386 acres of land in •* Easttown," said county, in fee ; bounded by 
land of Mordecai Moore, William Evan, Michael Jobson, Richard Evans, and John David. 
Wits.: Jon. Evans, Joseph James. [Recorded Nov. 18, 1784; D. B. Y. 23, page 269, etc., 
\\. C] 

Agreement, May 8, 1739. Anthony Wayne, of "Easttown," Chester Co., " yeoman," 
and Hannah, his wife, and Isaac Wayne, son of said Anthony, whereby the said Anthony 
and Hannah convey unto Isaac the plantation of the said Anthony, which he purchased, 
consisting of about 360 acres of land, houses, stock, sheep, cowkind, etc. ; the said Isaac 
paymg unto the said Anthony and Hannah a certain yearly sum of money, and with, also, 
further provision for one John Norton, grandson of said Anthony Wayne, then (1739) under 
age, and also covenant respecting William Wayne, a young son of said Isaac and Elizabeth 
(Iddings?), his wife. Wits.: Francis Wayne, Robert (lay, Huphrey [Humphrey] Wayne. 
[Recorded November 26, 1784; D. B. Y. 23, page 276, etc., W. C] 

Deed, May 16, 1727, Morgan Hughes, of "Easttown," Chester County, " cooper," to 
Francis Wayne, of same place, "husbandman," and Isaac Wayne, of same place, "yeoman," 
100 acres of land in " Easttown," bounded by Evan Ellis, Benjamin Ellis, and land formerly 
of Owen Rogers, and by Anthony Wayne. [Recorded November 22, 1784, D. B. Y. 23, 
page 273, etc., W. C] 

Deed, February 20, 1739-40, Francis Wayne and Elizabeth, his wife, to Isaac W^ayne 
(reciting deed Isaac and wife to Francis, February 19, 1739-40), the said above described 
tract. [Recorded as above, W. C] 

Deed, May 5, 1744, John W'ayne of Wilmington, New Castle County (now Delaware), 
Adm. of will of Anthony Wayne, of " Easttown," Chester County, dec'd., to Isaac W^ayne 
in fee (confirming agreement of 1739) the tract of 360 acres, etc., above named. [Recorded, 
W. C] 

D. Atlee. — William Richardson Atlee, eldest son of Samuel John and Sarah Richardson 
Atlee,born 27th May, 1765. He married Margaretta, daughter of Gen. Anthony Wa>Tie. 
For a number of years he was Prothonotary of the Supreme Court of the Eastern District of 
Pennsylvania, and subsequently followed the calling of a conveyancer. He died 24th Nov., 
1844, at Winfield, Carroll Co., Md. Address of Samuel Yorke Atlee is 1424 N. Y. Ave., 
Washington, D. C. 

E. Col. E. M. Heyl.— Col. E. M. Heyl, of the United States Army, died Jan. 2, 1895, 
at Chicago, after a long illness. He was born in Pennsylvania, and entered West Point as a 
Cadet from that State. He was made quartermaster- sergeant of Com|)any E, Third Penn- 
sylvania Cavalry, August 12, 1861, and in October first sergeant. He was discharged on 
September 8, 1862, and appointed second lieutenant of the Third Pennsylvania Cavalry on 
the same day; first lieutenant. May I, 1863, and captain on May 2, 1864. He was mustered 
out August 24, 1864, made first lieutenant, and assigned to the Ninth Cavalry in 1866; was 
made captain in July, 1867, and was transferred to the Fourth Cavalry on January I. 187 1. 
From that time he served as assistant inspector-general for the Department of the Missouri, 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE, 335 

under Gen. Ruger, until about six years ago, when he was transferred to department head- 
quarters at Chicago. 

F. Maryland and Georgia Wajrnes (American Hist. Reg.^ Nov., 1894.) "Thos. 
Gresham Wayne Smyth, Wilmington, Del., had a daughter, Juliana, who married Richard 
Wayne, Jr., of Augusta, Ga." 

Colonel R. A. W^ayne, ■\ 

Lieutenant Thos. S. Wayne, V C. S. A., from Savannah, killed 1861-65. 

Lieutenant Robt. Wayne, J 

(Roll of Honor y Savannah Records.) 
Rev. Henry H. Wayne, New Britian, Conn., has a genealogy of Georgia Waynes (Capt. 
Wm. Wayne, Paoli). 

Miss Elizabeth Clifford Neff, 361 Russell Ave., Cleveland, O., in letter addressed to Capt. 

Wm. Wayne mentions Richard Wayne, Jr., who married Smyth. Came to America 

1760. She says, ** Crest same as on Wayne seal." 

Geo. Hist. Coll , vol. i., 1840, list of officers of Society: 
Judge James M. Wayne, Vice Pres. 
Judge James M. Wayne, Pres., 1842. 
*^ Distinguished A fen of Ga. :'^ Judge City Court, Savannah, 1820. Judge Superior 
Court Eastern District, Nov. 8, 1822, to Nov. 12, 1825. 

James M. Wayne was Judge of U. S. Court at Savannah during the trial of the 
" Wanderer " case, the last case in the country in which any one was tried for engaging in 
the slave-trade. The trial occurred late in the " fifties." He was a fine-looking old gentle- 
man, of elegant manners, and was highly regarded. He had a son. Gen. Henry C. Wayne, 
who was once a teacher at West Point, and was quartermaster-general of the Georgia State 
troops during the Civil War. He was also a man of culture in mind and manners. His 
widow (second wife) was a Miss Annie Hartridge, now living in Savannah (1896), aged 
seventy years. 

A Richard Wayne was Mayor of Savannah about 1850. 

(Letter from Dr. H. Orme, Atlanta, Ga., Dec, 1896.) 

Hist. Coll. Georgia, 1 854, by Rev. Geo. White: Judge James Moore Wayne came to this 
country early in life. Son of English parents. Married Miss Clifford of South Carolina. 
Established himself at Charleston. Removed to Savannah. Had thirteen children. Two 
survive in 1854 — James M. Wayne, Jr., and Gen. W. C. Wayne, his younger brother, residing 
in South Carolina, 1854. 

Union Society, Savannah Members: Richard Wayne, 1793; James M. Wayne, 1813; 
W. C. Wayne, 1819; Richard Wayne, 1819; R. Wayne, 1849; Thomas S. Wayne, 1856- 
59; R. Alexander Wayne, 1857-59. 

Journal of the Council of Safety, Maryland Archives, 1 776, p. 549: 
** Benjamin Rumsey to Council : 

" Mr. John Wayne would accept a Lieutenancy under him (Capt. Jas. Talbot of the 
8th Battalion). He is a native of Great Britian, married into a family of this neighborhood, 
seems much attached to the cause of Liberty, is well acquainted with military manoeuvres, and 
would make a good officer." 

Benjamin Rumsey." 



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336 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE, 



G. Inscriptionsi Radnor Baptist Church, Newtown Square, Delaware Co., Pa. 

These are not all of the Wayne inscriptions at St. David's, but the balance, being recent, 
are omitted for want of space. The inscription on General Wayne's monument has been 
copied so often that its insertion here would be unnecessary. 

Margaret Wayne, 

Departed this Life jj of January 

1764 Aged 16 years 

(five lines of verse.) 

Dedicated 

To the Memory of 

Elizabeth Wayne 

Relict of Isaac Wayne Esquire 

who departed this Life 

in the month of May 1793 

Aged 84 years. 

She was a woman of distinguished 

Piety and Benevolence. 

Here Lyeth the Body of 

Priscilla Wayne, 

the wife of Humphrey 

Wayne, who departed 

this life the i ith day 

of June 1 781 Aged 74 ys. 

In this world I had 

Tribulation 

But by Jesus Christ 

Great Salvation. 

In Memory of Eliza 

beth Wayne, Daughter 
of Humphrey and Priscilla 

Wayne, who departed 
This Life August the 28th 

1758 

Aged 13 years 

7 months and j8 daysi 

I am not saved 

by work of mine 

But by the grace That is Devine. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE, 337 



William Wayne 

son of Humphrey and 

Priscilla Wayne Departed 

This Life April the 25th 

1752 Aged 3 years 

7 moiitlis and 6 days. 

My infants Race 

was Ran Apace 

By Gods free Grnce 

1 En Joy Peace. 

Here Lyeth ye Body 

of David Thomas who 

Departed this Life on 

the I7nth day of ye 9nt mon. 

Anno Doni. 1734 Ag, 64 yers. 

Here Lieth the Body 

of Jane Thomas who Departed 

this life the 23 Day of 

the 7 mo. Anno 1 738 

aged 55 yeai-s. 

In Memory of 

David Thomas 

Son of David and Jane 

Thomas who Departed 

this Life April 14th, 1789, in the 79th year of his age. 

Richard Iddintjs 

Departed this life May 3 1 753 

Aged 78 years. 

Margaret Iddings 

Departed tliis Life Nov. 2jth 1755 

Aged 84 years. 

Inscriptions on Tombstones in St. David*s Churchyard, Radnor, Pa. 

In memory of 

Anthony Wayne 

who dyed Dec. 2nd, 1739 

Aged 73 years 

And of his son 

William Wayne 

who Dyed Aprl. 22, 1726, Aged 18 years. 

53 



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33^ DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE. 



In memory of 

Anthony Wayne 

who departed this Life 

March I4ih, 1755 Aged 31 years. 

Here lieth 

the body of 

Francis Wayne 

who departed this Life 

ihe 31st Day of January 1763 

Aged 73 years. 

Also of Elizabeth Wayne 

his wife who died 

the 27th Day of August 1771 

Aged 79 years. 

The sweet remembrance of the Just 

shall flourish when they sleep in dust. 

In 

memory of 

Elizabeth 

Daughter of 

Aaron and Ann 

Vogdes Died 

July 3d, 181 1 Aged 

Five months and Eleven Days. 

In 

memory of Anthony Wayne Vogdes son of 

Aayon and Ann 

Vogdes who 

Departed this Life June 18th A. D. 1 81 6 

Aged Eighteen 

months. 

In memoiy of 

Elizabeth Lyle 

The wife of John Lyle 

who departed this Life January the 18, 1791 aged 52 years 

and 7 months 

The Daughter of Francis and Elizabeth Wayne 

Friend for me do not weep 

I am not dead V am goon to sleep 

In the dust 1 must stay 

unlill the Resureciion dav. 



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DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE. 339 



In memory of 

John Lyle 

who departed this Life 

November 1st 1815 

in the Eighty Seventh year of His Age 

Oh Lord i own thy 

sentence Just 

And Naime must decay 

i yield my body to the dust 

To Dwell with Fellow Clay. 

Sacred 

In the memory of 

Isaac Norton, Died Feb. 3, 185 1 

In the 80th year 

of his age. 

In memory of 

Elizabeth 

wife of Isaac Norton 

who departed this Life 

October 19th A. D. 1842 

In the 68lh year of 

Her age. 

In 

memory of 

John Norton son of 

Isaac & Elizabeth Norton 

who departed this Life 

May 27th, 1812 Aged 9 years & 4 months. 

.Since its so that All must 

Die and Death no age 

will spare Oh Let us all To Jesus 

Fly and seek for 

Refuge there. 

Dedicated 

To the memory of 

Isaac Wayne Esquire 

and his daughter Ann. Isaac Wayne was a native of the 

County of Wicklow in the Kingdom of Ireland 
He emigrated to the Province of Pennsylvania in the year 
1724. He discharged with dis- 
tinguished reputation several civil and military 
offices under the Provincial Government 
of his adopted Country. He died in the month of Novem- 
ber 1774 Aged 75 years. 



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340 DESCENDANTS OF CAPTAIN ANTHONY WA YNE, 



Ann Hayman 

daughter of Isaac Wayne and late amiable consort of 

Capt. William Hayman 

died the 9th day of June 1807 

aged 56 years, 8 month 

and 21 days. 

Sacred 

to the memory of 

Captain William Hayman 

of the United States Navy in the Revolutionary War 

Was born in the City of Exeter, England 

Fel)ruary 22nd, 1740 and died at his Farm 

in Delaware County, September 21st 1823 

In the 84th year of his age. 

Note.— The Editor is greatly indebted to Captain Frkderick Schoher of Philadel- 
phia for the use of his valuable manuscript history of the Wayne family, which forms the 
basis of the present article. 

Grateful acknowledgment is also due to Edwin Jaquett Sellers, Esq., for information 
tendered. 



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PRESTON AT PATUXENT. 



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PRESTON AT PATUXENT. 



Probably no portion of our original colonies affords the 
antiquary richer fields of research than the counties of Anne 
Arundel, Calvert, and St. Mary's in Maryland, bordering the 
western shore of Chesapeake Bay. 

The Patuxent, Potomac, Rappahannock, York, and James 
Rivers were highways of travel from the Chesapeake Bay 
inland for the first settlers of Maryland and Virginia, offering 
easier access to thousands of acres of virgin soil than by the 
ordinary hardships of pioneer overland experience ; hence 
we find that the earliest grants of land were selected upon 
bay and river sides. 

Population gathered along the waterways ; legislative 
halls, county courts of justice, ports of entry, with their 
appropriate custom-houses, flourished in the early days 
where now farm-house and barn, the cattle and the plough- 
man, and the quiet country life tell no tale of the busy scenes 
of yore. But thanks to the old official archives still pre- 
served, we may yet trace with book and map, court record and 
family tradition through the silent country side where towns 
once stood but have left no mark of their existence. 

Last summer the writer overlooked from the porch of the 
old Taney house in Calvert County a large corn-field between 
Battle Creek and Patuxent River, where more than two 
centuries ago stood Calverton or Battle-Towne, a port of entry 
with street by the waterside, stores and dwellings, a court- 

343 



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344 



PRESTON AT PA TUX E NT, 



house, where the Provincial Council of Maryland held their 
sessions in 1683, ^ prison, chapel, and other buildings, upon 
land given for town purposes by William Berry, Richard 
Preston's son-in-law, and Michael Taney, the immigrant 
ancestor of Chief Justice Roger B. Taney. 




TANEY HOrSE, CALVERT COUNTY. 



Here and there near bay and river we may yet find an 
old homestead and rooftree which sheltered some of the first 
families of Maryland. The old " Bond Casde," as Mary- 
landers delight to call it, the home of the Bond family of 
Maryland, situated upon Chesapeake Bay, near Governor s 
Run, shows the English custom of adding to the old house 
instead of tearing down and building anew ; w^hile the Taney 



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PRESTON AT PA TUXENT 345 



house at Battle Creek, although said to be colonial, gives 
evidence of later reconstruction. 

Many of the original planters of Calvert County are sdll 
represented by their farmer descendants. It is an agricult- 
ural county; no factories, few telegraphs, no railroads, and 
not a town with as many as four hundred inhabitants. This 
accounts for a primitive condition of land tenure, pride of 
ancestry, family tradition, and a respect for old associations 
which the historian may find here as nowhere else ; but alas ! 
a railroad now building through the county may soon change 
conditions, bring new comers, send away old, efface old land- 
marks, and blot out oldtime memories. 

Here was the scene in the middle of the seventeenth 
century, of the latter days of Richard Preston, of "Preston 
at Patuxent,** the fighting Puritan and peaceful Quaker. No 
poet has sung his praise ; no child or grandchild written an 
**In Memoriam ** of the *'man of the world.** Upon entering 
the peaceful Quaker fold the carnal sword, exchanged for 
that of the spirit, was cast into the river of oblivion, and, by 
Quaker custom, all wrathful memories, as far as possible, 
were expunged from the household. Therefore only by years 
of research have we at last gathered up the broken threads 
of history relating to one of the most notable founders of 
Maryland, and fashioned a fabric to show his numerous 
descendants of what stuff he was made. 

Richard Preston came from England probably in the year 
1635, for the earliest record of his presence in this country 
is found in Volume i of Virginia Land Grants, at the Land 
Office in Richmond, as follows : 

**From Cap' John West Governor to Richard Preston 150 
acres about four miles up Warwicksquake river southerly 
upon the north side of the river bounded with two creeks for 
the breadth and the land being known by an Indian name 



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346 



PRESTON AT PATUXENT, 



of Husquanups, for the transportation of his now wife and 
two other persons into this Colony. Dated the 22nd Decem- 
ber 1636." 

In addition to other grants of several hundred acres there 
is this record in Volume 2 of the Land Grants : " From Sir W"" 
Berkeley to Richard Preston Gent., five hundred acres in the 




BOND CASTLE, ON THE CHESAPEAKE. 

County of Upper Norfolk and being upon the miles end of 
the land of Thomas Jordan and Richard Young the said land 
lying on New Town haven river beginning at a marked oak 
etc. to a poplar standing in a Valley etc. to a black Walnut 
standing in a Valley, being the head of a small creek belong- 
ing to New Town haven river etc. adjoining land of Thomas 



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PRESTON AT PATUXENT, 347 



Jordan and Richard Young etc. One hundred acres of said 
land being formerly granted by patent 23rd 9 ber 1637 and 
one hundred and fifty acres by patent nth May 1639 and 
two hundred and fifty acres the residue thereof being due 
unto him by caveat entered according to their order the 31st 
May 1 641 and the same absolutely and fully confirmed by an 
order of a full council held the 25th of November 1644 and 
is for the transportation of five persons into the Colony, yield- 
ing and paying unto our said Sovereign etc. at the feast of 
St Michaell the Archangell the fee rent of one shilling for 
each fifty acres etc. etc. Dated the i8th of December 1646.'' 

The old Court Records at Portsmouth, Virginia, have sev- 
eral references to Richard Preston. In a document dated 
twenty-fifth of February, 1644, ^"^ signed Ri : Preston, he is 
styled of Chuckquotuck in the County of Upper Norfolk. 
In another dated 30th October, 1642, he is allowed payment 
for transporting of soldiers and for a chest lost. He was one 
of the Justices of the County Courts as the following shows : 

** Commission of Nansemond County, Virginia." 

29th November 1646 Justices Present 

Mr Oliver Sprye Mr Phill. Bennett 

Mr Richard Preston Mr Epa. Lawson 

John Fiske. in his late work, '* Old Virginia and her Neigh- 
bors," says : ** There were usually in each county eight justices 
of the peace, and their court was the counterpart of the 
quarter sessions in England. They were appointed by the 
governor but it was customary for them to nominate candi- 
dates for the governor to appoint, so that practically the court 
filled its own vacancies and was a close corporation like the 
parish vestry.'* 

Evidently Richard Preston must have held a high social 
and political position in the Virginia Colony or his opposition 
to the Established Church would have debarred him from 



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348 PRESTON AT PA TUXENT 



such active participation in the County government. It is 
probable, however, that the Puritans were numerous enough 
in Nansemond County to control such appointments, as 
almost one thousand of them went from that region into 
Maryland in 1649. 

In commenting upon the influence of the County Court, 
Fiske says : ** Each year the Court presented the names of 
three of its members to the governor, who appointed one, 
generally the senior justice, to be the Sheriff of the County 
for the ensuing year. Here again we see this close corpora- 
tion, the County Court, keeping the control of things within 
its own hands.*' 

By these meagre bits of information gleaned here and 
there from old official manuscripts and published records we 
are enabled to learn something of the sterling worth and 
influence of this Puritan leader, and thus account for his 
immediate prominence in affairs of government upon enter- 
ing the Maryland province. 

The Court records at Portsmouth Courthouse, Virginia, 
comprising Norfolk and Nansemond Counties, give evidence 
that during this period frequent warrants for arrest were 
issued and fines charged against men like the Lloyds, 
Durands, and Bennetts, who, under conscientious conviction, 
refused to. attend the religious services of the Established 
Church of England, and themselves held conventicles in non- 
conformity with the authorized form of worship. It may 
seem strange to us that these people after many years of 
residence would leave their settled home in Episcopal Vir- 
ginia to seek religious toleration in Catholic Maryland, but 
by a study of times and conditions* we may see more clearly 
the motives and anticipations by which they were influenced. 
Virginia was a royal colony, subject to kingly rule, and con- 
trolled by the current ecclesiastical domination of the dynasty 



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PRESTON AT PATUXENT 349 



in power, whatever its religious proclivity, or possibly of 
none ; while Maryland, on the other hand, was a proprietary 
province, subject by its charter to popular will, restricted 
only by the veto power of its proprietary, and provided that 
its laws " be consonant to reason, and be not repugnant or 
contrary, but (so far as conveniently may be) agreeable to 
the laws, statutes, customs and rights of this our kingdom 
of England.'* 

The Episcopal Church at this time was the recognized 
ecclesiastical power in England over religious thought and 
practice, and by the strong hand of government demanded 
the social and financial support of the subjects of the 
kingdom. 

Bishop Meade, in his **01d Churches and Families of 
Virginia,'' tells of the clerical condition in Episcopal Virginia 
in its early days that confronted the upholders of a pure 
religion. He says: "Laws now seem to be required to 
keep the ministers from cards, dice, drinking and such like 
things ; and even to constrain them to preach and administer 
the communion as often as was proper, — yea even to visit the 
sick and dying. It is true, the inducements as to earthly 
comforts, which might help to bring over respectable minis- 
ters, were very small. The Assembly, by various preambles 
and acts, declares that without better provision for them it 
was not to be expected that sufficient learned, pious and 
diligent ministers could be obtained and admits that some 
of a contrary character did come over, while there were not 
enough of any kind to do the work required. From that 
time, until the close of the Colonial establishment. Governors, 
Commissaries and private individuals, in their communications 
with the Bishops of London and the Archbishops of Canter- 
bury, all declare that such was the scanty and uncertain sup- 
port of the clergy, the precarious tenure by which livings 



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350 PRESTON AT PATUXENT 



were held, that but few of the clergy could support families, 
and therefore respectable ladies would not marry them. 
Hence the immense number of unmarried, evershifting clergy- 
men in the Colony/' Here we see the social aspect of the 
Puritan colony in Virginia. Whatever good remained, it is 
evident that some of the best element deserted Virginia when 
the Puritans left the Old Dominion. By removal to Mary- 
land their children were taken from the immoral exposure 
which Bishop Meade describes, and themselves relieved from 
church tithes and other penalties incident to their religious 
opposition to the Virginia government. Neither the Catholics 
nor the Puritan Independents could conscientiously favor 
Episcopal domination ; in this respect they had a common 
interest, but the Independents were especially desirous to 
establish a home wherein they could carry out their own 
peculiar ideas of religious government ; therefore, when 
Lord Baltimore, in order to make his Province profitable by 
the cultivation of its soil, promised the Virginia Independents 
of Nansemond and Norfolk Counties a religious freedom in 
his territory with possession of land at a small rental, they 
quickly appreciated the favorable prospect of betterment by 
such change of residence, accepted the offer and formed new 
Colonies in Maryland on the Severn and Patuxent Rivers 
away from the main body of Catholic influence which, after 
fifteen years from Lord Baltimore's advent, was almost con- 
fined to St. Mary's, the lowermost county of the Province. 

Such were the mainsprings of action which induced the 
removal from Virginia to Maryland of the Lloyds, Bennetts, 
Fullers, Durands, Prestons, and other Puritan leaders from 
a settled home to a new country. 

The historian Neill says that Richard Preston came to 
Maryland in 1649, ^^^h seven in his family, and entered land 
for seventy-three persons. This information was probably 



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PRESTON AT PATUXENT 35 ^ 



obtained from some unpublished manuscripts in the Land 
Office at Annapolis. 

The first official record relating to Richard Preston in 
Maryland is as follows from Liber A B & H in the Annapolis 
Land Office. 

" By the Lieut etc. of Maryland 

"These are to authorize Mr Richard Preston, Commander 
of the North side of Patuxent River for one month next ensu- 
ing with the advice of his Lordships Surveyor Generall (if the 
said Surveyor shall now so long make his abode there) to 
grant warrants to the said Surveyor for the laying out of any 
convenient quantities of Land upon the said River on the 
North side thereof not formerly taken up to any Adventurers 
that shall make their just title appear, Provided that he the 
said Mr Preston do Testifie such Titles particularly into the 
Secretarys Office before the return of the Certificate of Sur- 
veyor. Given at St Leonards this 15th of July 1651. 

Will"*- Stone." 

"July 15th 1 65 1, Demands of Land made by the Inhabit- 
ants of Patuxent River before Mr Richard Preston, Com- 
mander and his Lordships Surveyor Generall. 

Mr. Richard Preston demandeth Land for the transporta- 
tion of himself, Margaret Preston the Elder, Richard Preston 
the younger, James, Samuel, Naomy and Margaret Preston 
and W"* Ennis, W"" Phillips, W"* Harper, Amos Hambleton, 
George Harmon, John Steward, John Pawley, Hugh How- 
lands, John Cobbington, Cornelius Abrahamson, Derrick 
Johnson, Martha Hill and Nicholas Lawes. 

Two several Warrants Thereupon to lay out two several 
parcells of Land on the north and south side of Patuxent 
River allowed by the Government." 

The rent rolls or tax returns of Calvert County show that 



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352 



PRESTON AT PATUXENT 



five hundred acres of land had been surveyed to Richard 
Preston 28th May, 1650. Four hundred acres called ''Pres- 
ton'' surveyed 21st July, 1651, on the north side of Patuxent 
River and south side of Preston*s Creek. It was on this 
property that the dwelling was erected, and the plantation 
is still known by the name of ''Preston!' 




PRESTON ON THE PATUXENT, FRONT VIEW. 

This house without apparent alteration, except having 
a smaller front entrance than in the original, is still standing 
upon the plantation yet known and also called by the survey 
name of " Presto7iy' given 21st July, 1651, and is the oldest 
building extant in Maryland. 

It is built of brick, two stories high, with three dormer 



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PRESrON AT PATUXENT, 



353 



windows front and two back. The lower room where the 
Assembly met has been divided by a plaster partition, but 
a large iron hook imbedded in a ceiling joist near this dividing 
wall still shows where the lamp was centrally suspended to 
light the room as arranged in the Assembly days. With the 
exception of this partition the inner walls of the house are 



|afj^jS|v 






KJ^k 


I 






\m 





PRESTON ON THE PATUXENT, REAR VIEW. 



panelled. In the second story a hall extends from end to 
end with chambers on either side. A porch the full length 
of the building is on the rear, with the house roof extending 
over and within eight feet of the ground. The whole house 
is much dilapidated and shows little evidence of renovation 
through its many years of lonesome existence. The Preston 



54 



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354 PRESTON AT PA TUX EN T. 



property at this particular location comprised the neck of 
land between Patuxent River and St. Leonard's Creek, con- 



taining I ICO acres. 



One thousand acres called " Preston's Clifts," or " Charles 
Gift/' was surveyed 5th May, 1652, on the west side of 
Chesapeake Bay, and two hundred acres called "The 
Neglect," surveyed 27th June, 1659, adjoining '' Preston^ 

Besides these plantations Richard Preston had at the time 
of his death, in 1669, land on the eastern shore of Chesa- 
peake Bay, as mentioned in his will. 

Most of the Virginia Puritans took up land and settled 
northerly upon the Severn River, far away from the Catholics 
in Saint Mary's County, intending, like the early Welsh immi- 
gration of Pennsylvania, to establish for themselves an isolated 
community ; and, like their brethren in New England, they 
hoped to build up, as it were, a pure democracy controlled 
by a spiritual theocracy. 

For reasons now unknown, Captain Wm. Fuller, Richard 
Preston, and some others, with their families selected their 
land and dwelling-place lower down the Chesapeake Bay 
and on the north side of the Patuxent River, bordering on 
Saint Marie's County, contiguous to the established seat of 
government. They may have been induced to settle near 
their friend. Governor William Stone, who lived on the south 
side of Patuxent River, in St. Marie's County, and whose 
house was the meeting-place of the Provincial Government, 
both executive and judicial, or possibly their old Virginia 
neighbors. Richard Bennett and Wm. Durand, who had pre- 
viously taken up land in St. Marie's County, may have been 
instrumental in planting a portion of the Puritan element 
where it could take part in the affairs of the existing govern- 
ment. This view seems plausible from Bennett's subsequent 
actions, as immediately upon obtaining the authority from the 



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PRESTON AT PA TUXENT 355 



Council of State for the Commonwealth of England, and 
having reduced Virginia to subjection, he and Wm. Claiborne 
came into Maryland and by proclamation, dated at St. Mary's 
the twenty-ninth day of March, 1652, deposed Governor 
Stone and placed the government in charge of Robt. Brooke, 
Esq., Col. Francis Yardley, Mr. Job Chandler, Capt. Edward 
Windham. Mr. Richd. Preston, and Lieut. Richd. Banks, all 
Calvert County men. Thus having become masters by 
force of numbers, they succeeded after two years' friendly 
co-operation with Governor Stone in bringing the Province 
fully into line with the Protestant principles and practice of 
the English government under Cromwell, who at the request 
of Richard Preston and over one hundred other Maryland 
planters, had empowered his Commissioners, Richard Bennett 
and Wm. Claiborne, to remove the seat of the Provincial 
government from the Catholic stronghold at Saint Maries to 
the dwelling-house of Richard Preston, on the north or Cal- 
vert County side of the Patuxent River near the mouth of 
St. Leonard's Creek. A few months after this seizure of the 
government. Governor Stone and his secretary, Thos. Hat- 
ton, having submitted to parliamentary rule, we find that, " At 
a Court held at St. Maries the 28th day of June Anno Dom. 
1652 being the first Sitting of the Court after the alteration 
of the Government the same day. Present. W"" Stone Esq. 
Governor, Thomas Hatton Secretary, Rob' Brooke Esq., Coll. 
Francis Yardley, Mr Job Chandler, Mr. Rich^ Preston." 

On the Dec. 2, 1652, the governor issues this proclama- 
tion. 

**By authority of Parliament to Authorize and require 
master Richard Preston one of the Council and Commander 
on the north side of Patuxent river to make and appoint what 
person or persons, officer or officers you shall think fitting, 
and to give his Warrant or Warrants to them for leavying and 



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356 PRESTON AT PATUXENT, 



raising one able man out of every seven irthabitants upon 
Patuxent river, both on the North and South side thereof as 
also unto the Bay side from the mouth of the said river as 
far as the Herring Creek, with victuals, armes and ammuni- 
tion etc. to meet at Mattapania upon the said Patuxent river 
etc. and to be from thence transported for the service in the 
said Order expressed under the command of Cap' W"* Fuller 
their Captain General or Commander in Chief. And the said 
persons or officers soe by you the said Master Preston to be 
appointed for the execution of the premises are diligently 
and carefully to perform and execute the same as they will 
answer the contrary at their peril. Given at St. Marys the 
2 day of December 1652.'* 

Thus the Puritan party was gaining that martial power in 
the Province by which, two years after, they completely 
defeated this same Governor Stone, when, at Lord Balti- 
more's command, he attempted to wrest the government 
from Puritan control, and by their court martial after the bat- 
tle of the Severn, condemned him to be executed. 

On the surface it appears difficult to reconcile the Puritan 
action in armed opposition to a man who provided them a 
shelter from religious persecution in Virginia, with the ordi- 
n2xy dictates of civilized humanity ; and to seize the Balti- 
more government with intent to establish an ecclesiastical 
domination in accordance with their own religious views to 
the exclusion of all others might, as Bozman. the Maryland 
historian, suggests, be a source of shame to the descendants 
of such ingrates. To understand their motives we must let 
them tell their own story. 

After the reducing of the Maryland province in 1652 the 
Parliament Commissioners, Bennett and Claiborne, having 
returned to Virginia, Lord Baltimore gradually regained his 
influence and reasserted his arbitrary and unreasonable rule, 



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PRESTON AT PA TUXENT, 357 



as shown by the following petition issued March i, 1653, by 
Richard Preston and others : 

** To the Honorable Richard Bennett and Colonel William 
Claibourn Esquire, Commissioners for the Commonwealth of 
England, within the Bay of Chesopiak. 

The humble Petition of the Inhabitants of the North-side 
of Patuxent River in the Province of Maryland, Sheweth: 
That we being reduced by your Honors from that Tyrannical 
power exercised over the people of this Province by the Lord 
Baltimore and his Agents, unto the Obedience of the Com- 
monwealth of England to which Government we have sub- 
jected and Engaged, and have by your Honors been often 
enjoyed reall conformity and obedience to the same, and not 
to own any other power or Authority as will answer the con- 
trary : In subjection whereunto we have had peace and free- 
dom hitherto, which with all thankfulness we cannot but 
acknowledge, and in our continued obedience do expect from 
the Parliament, next under God, continued peace, liberty and 
protection from the pride, rage and insolency of their and 
our adversaries: Now so it is, may it please your honors that 
of late the Lord Baltimore doth by his Order and Agents 
seek to set over us the old form of government formerly 
exercised by him in this Province, which we did conceive by 
the blessing of God upon your honors endeavors, had been 
fully made Null and void ; yet notwithstanding, by the Arbi- 
trariness of his own will he appoints Laws for us, and sets 
up Popish Officers over us, outing those officers of Justice 
appointed by you ; issuing forth Writs in his own name, con- 
trary to your honors Order and appointment : And doth by 
Proclamation under his own Hand, and in His own Name 
impose an Oath, which if refused by us, after three months 
all our Lands and Plantations are to be seized upon to his 
Lordships use : And if taken by us, we shall be ingaged at 



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358 PRESTON AT PA TUXENT, 



his will to fight his battels, defend and maintain him in his 
Patent as it was granted to him by the late King &c. Which 
Oath, we humbly conceive is contrary to the Liberty and 
freedom of our Consciences as Christians and contrary to 
the fundamental Laws of England ; contrary to the Engage- 
ment we have taken in Subjection to the Commonwealth of 
England, and unsutable to Freemen to own any other power 
than that to which we belong and to whom we are and have 
Engaged ; and contrary to the Word of God to fight for, 
defend and maintain Popery and a Popish Antichristian Gov- 
ernment ; which we dare not do unless we should be found 
Traytors to our Country, fighters against God and Covenant- 
breakers. The Premises considered, we humbly spread our 
Condition before your view and Consideration, hoping that 
as you are Commissioners for the Commonwealth of England, 
and that power which God hath put into your hands that you 
will up and be doing, in the name and power of our God, that 
we have not left for our faithfulness as a prey to ungodly and 
unreasonable men, before we can make our Complaint and 
Grievance known to the Supream Authority of England ; 
which with all readiness we shall endeavor to do by the first 
opportunity ; and from whom we do hope and shall expect 
by Gods blessing to have a gracious Answer and sutable 
Redress : And your Petitioners hereunto subscribed, shall 
pray &c 

Dated in Patuxent River in the Province of Maryland the first 
of March 1653. 

Subscribed Richard Preston, and 60, more 
of the House-keepers, and Freemen/* 

Another petition of similar character was dated ** Severn 
River the 3 of January 1653 '* 
** Subscribed Edw. Lloyd, and "]"] persons 
of the House-keepers and Freemen, Inhabitants/' 



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PRESTON AT PA TUXENT. 359 



In reply to these petitions from the Puritans of Severn and 
Patuxent, Bennett and Claiborne, by a communication dated 
** Virginia March the 12, 1653/' assured the petitioners that 
they should be supported, and advised them to stand fast in 
their opposition to the demands of Lord Baltimore. 

In 1654 the Commissioners came again into Maryland from 
Virginia, and at Richard Preston's house as headquarters, they 
issued a proclamation dated *' At Patuxent in Maryland the 
15 of July 1654,'' commanding obedience by the inhabitants. 
Their authority was soon recognized, for July 20th, 1654, 
Governor William Stone signed a formal *' Recognition of the 
Government/' and submitted **to such government as shall 
be set over us by the said Commissioners in the Name and 
under the Authority of his Highness the Lord Protector,'* 
and the first Puritan Assembly in consequence of this sub- 
mission met at the house of Richard Preston on Patuxent 
River near the mouth of St. Leonard's Creek, in Calvert 
County, as recited in the Appendix. 

Lord Baltimore at his home in England was dissatisfied at 
this surrender of his province without resistance, and sent an 
order to Governor Stone commanding him to retake the gov- 
ernment by force of arms. 

Then followed the events which led up to the battle of the 
Severn. A vessel from England, "The Golden Fortune,'* 
Samuel Tilghman, master, brought William Eltonhead with 
a commission from Lord Baltimore instructing Governor 
Stone to issue a proclamation commanding the people to 
refuse recognition of the Patuxent government, to raise 
a sufficient army from his loyal subjects, seize the rebellion 
records, and force the Puritans into subjection. In accord- 
ance with these instructions as narrated by Leonard Strong, 
a contemporary Puritan writer and one of the new Council, 
"the said Captain Stone gave several commissions to the 



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360 PRESTON AT PA TUXENT. 



papists and other desperate and bloody fellows, to muster 
and raise men in arms to be ready upon all occasions, giving 
out that he would go to Patuxent and seize the records of the 
province at the place where they were appointed to be kept 
by an act of the Assembly, and to apprehend Mr Richard 
Preston also, at whose house they were/' 

The Governor s recruiting was confined to St. Mary's 
County, where he succeeded in mustering about two hundred 
men for his expedition against the Puritan stronghold, at the 
Providence settlement, on the Severn River, near Annapolis, 
the present capital of the State. 

One party of the soldiery sailed across the Patuxent River, 
landed at Preston, captured the Assembly records, and took 
them back to the old Assembly place at the house of Gov- 
ernor Stone, in St. Mary's County, on the south side of the 
river. The St. Mary's forces in a fleet of small sailing craft 
proceeded up the Chesapeake Bay toward the Severn River, 
stopping on the route at the home of one of the Puritan 
councillors, near Herring Creek, to take him prisoner. 
While there some messengers from the Puritans met them 
with a remonstrance from the Providence people against their 
warlike attitude and questioning their authority for such 
action against the constituted representatives of the English 
Commonwealth. Stone gave this embassy no satisfaction, 
treating them rather contemptuously, so the messengers 
returned to Providence across country and notified their peo- 
ple of the approach of the St. Mary's navy. 

The Puritans at Providence were under the leadership of 
Captain William Fuller, a Commonwealth military officer, and 
the one who had already made good use of his recent provin- 
cial position as commander-in-chief of the Militia, to drill and 
discipline men favorable to his own partisan purpose, and no 
doubt had experienced soldiers to combat the raw recruits 



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PRESTON AT PA TUXENT 361 



from St. Marj'^s. On their arrival at the Severn the St. 
Mary's forces landed and prepared to attack the Puritan 
camp. 

With their color- bearer in front, holding up as an emblem 
of authority the banner of the Commonwealth of England, 
the Puritans stood on the defensive. The first shot from the 
enemy killed the standard-bearer ; then in the spirit of religious 
courage as men fighting for the right, they shouted out their 
battle-cry, ** In the name of God fall on ; God is our strength,*' 
and with a fierce charge they attacked the papists, as they 
termed them, killing and wounding about fifty, including 
Thomas Hatton, the former provincial secretary, and captur- 
ing Captain Stone and all of his officers. After such a signal 
victory, the Puritans held a thanksgiving service followed by 
a court martial, at which Captain Stone and others were tried 
for treason against the Commonwealth of England, convicted, 
and sentenced to be shot, but only William Eltonhead, Lord 
Baltimore's Commissioner, Lieutenant William Lewis, the 
military commander, and two others were executed, Governor 
Stone escaping with a temporary imprisonment, and the Puri- 
tan party held control of the province nearly four years longer, 
during which time the seat of government, place of Assembly, 
and Provincial Court was the old Preston mansion. 

The account of the capture of the provincial records, given 
by Leonard Strong, is as follows : **They beset and entered 
the house of Mr Richard Preston with intent to surprise him ; 
but not finding him at home, took away in guns, swords and 
ammunition to the value of ;^30 sterling ; ransacked every 
place in and about the house, to seek for the said Richard 
Preston ; and, as some of the company then said, with 
purpose to hang him for his rebellion against the Lord 
Baltimore.** 

Hammond, a writer for the other side, says: ** Governor 



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362 PRESTON AT PA TUXENT 



Stone sent me to the Patuxent to fetch the records. I went 
unarmed amongst these sons of Thunder only 3 or 4 to row 
me and despite all their braves of raising the country — calling 
in his servants to apprehend me — threatened me of the severity 
of their new made Laws — myself alone seized and carried 
away the records in defiance/' 

That Hammond was untruthful and a braggart is shown by 
a court entry December 26, 1655: ** Attachment granted to 
Mr Ri: Preston on the Estate of Cap' W" Stone to be liable 
to satisfie unto the said Richard Preston, the summe of Twenty 
nine pounds ten shillings sterling for Gunnes and Amunition 
taken from the house of the said Ri: Preston by Josias Fen- 
dall one of Cap' Stones ofificers and Complices in the last 
Rebellion." 

From all of these accounts we gather that the expedition 
was led by Josias Fendall, who was made governor when 
Lord Baltimore **came to his own'' again in 1658, and that 
the women of the Preston household in their weakness made 
some defence by threats. 

The termination of the Puritan control is recited in the 
Assembly records as follows : ** Acts made at a Generall 
Assembly held at St Leonards begining the 27th of April! 
Anno. Dom. one thousand Six hundred fifty Eight." 

** Whereas the Right Honnorable Lord Baltemore, Lord 
and Proprietary of this Province by his Commission and 
Instructions to his Lieutenant and PrinctpaU Secretary under 
his Lordships Hand, and Greater Seale at Armes, bearing 
date the Eighteenth day of November Anno Domini one 
thousand Six hundred fifty Seven, Did give power to the 
said Lieutennant and Secretary to treate with, and ratify and 
Confirme such Articles as should be agreed unto betwixt 
them, and the Commissioners in whose hand the Government 
then was. And whereas the Government hath been delivered 



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PRESTON AT PATUXENT. 363 

into the hands of the said Lieutennant and Secretary for the 
use of the said Lord Baltemore upon Certain Articles agreed 
upon, betweene the said Lieutennant and Secretary and the 
said Commissioners bearing date the twenty ffowrth of March 
one thousand Six hundred ffifty Seven, Signed and Confirmed 
by his Lops. Lieutennant and Secretary, under his Lordships 
Great Seale of the province as followeth (vizt.) 

Articles agreed upon & Consented to by Captaine Josias 
Fendall Lieutennant of this Province of Maryland & Philip 
Calvert Principall secretary of the same for and in the behalfe 
of the Right Honorable Caecilius Lord and Proprietary of the 
Provinces of Maryland and Avalon &c. upon the Surrender 
of the Government of the said Province to his Lordships 
said officers by Cap. William Fuller, Mr Richard Preston &c. 
this 24th day of march in the yeare of our Lord 1657. 

Imprimis. That All ministers of justice & officers military, 
with all other persons whatsoever, be & remaine indempnifyed 
on both Sides and freed from any Charge or questioning for 
any act or passage made or done in the transactions of the 
affairs of this Province since the first of December 1649 to 
the day of the date above written, without further considera- 
tion of restitution or satisfaction to be required or made on 
either side.*' 

During the whole period of Puritan rule Richard Preston's 
name appears in the annals of the province either at the head 
or next to Captain Wm. Fuller in the official Hsts of Council- 
lors and Judges of the Court, and in 1655 he acted as tempo- 
rary secretary, as recorded at a court held at Patuxent, March 
22d, 1655. 

'•Whereas Mr Durand Secretary of this Province is upon 
Urgent occasion at present out of this Province, Whereby 
the Records Cannot be duely attended, Mr Richard Preston 
is hereby Impowered and this Court doth order that the said 



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364 PRESTON AT PA TUXENT. 



Preston officiate that office during the absence of the said 
Secretary, And also to provide a Clarke to attend the 
Records and Court/' 

It is apparent by the wording of the Act surrendering the 
government to Lord Baltimore, that **both sides,*' as the 
Maryland factions are termed, agree that there shall be no 
ex post facto recrimination or resentment, and although the 
change of rule was brought about by the direction of Crom- 
well, who was interested in making the British Colonies profit- 
able commercially to the home country, yet a few years of 
relaxation from the high pitch of turbulent excitement and the 
mutual interests of the Colonists in their relation to present 
and prospective English exactions, made harmony desirable 
to all parties that before would have been impossible. 

Lord Baltimore also was not so much concerned about 
religious orthodoxy as his proprietary rights, so January 12th, 
1659, he instructed his brother, Philip Calvert, Secretary of 
the Province under the new Governor, Josias Fendall, to sum- 
mon his **deare friends'* Capt. Wm. Stone, Mr. Thos. Ger- 
rard, Col. John Price, Doctor Luke Barber, Col. Nathaniel 
Utie, Baker Brooke, and Edward Lloyd as his Councillors, 
*' to advise and consult with us touching the important affaires 
of our Province," and for this purpose to meet at the house 
of Mr. Thos. Gerrard, at St. Leonard's, where, under the 
reorganization, the General Assembly of the freemen of the 
province was held February 28th, 1659. 

The new Assembly or Lower House consisted of burgesses 
elected by county representation, and among them were such 
radicals as Capt. William Fuller and Richard Preston, but at 
this date the latter is reported as having **gon for England." 

For a year or more there was occasional bickering between 
the Governor's Council and the Lower House as to their 
respective authority, somewhat akin to the controversies that 



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PRESTON AT PA TUXENT, 365 



occurred in the early years of the Pennsylvania Assembly, 
but the friction never amounted to a long-continued rupture. 
Richard Preston is recorded as a representative from Calvert 
County from year to year until the last session of 1666; and 
at the sessions held April i8th, 1661, he was presented as 
the Speaker of the Lower House. There are no records 
among the Maryland Archives of any sessions of the Assem- 
bly held between 1 666 and 1 669 ; at the April session of the 
latter year Richard Preston, Jr., is recorded as representing 
Dorchester County, on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, that 
being the first year of the organization of the county. 

Soon after the government had shifted in 1658 from the 
narrow bounds of Puritan control into a broader democracy, 
and strife had given way to peaceful pursuits, a new element of 
disturbance was sprung upon the people, marking an impor- 
tant epoch in Maryland history. To appropriate a term of 
a late historian, there came a ** Quaker Invasion '' of Mary- 
land, insignificant in numbers, only two or three men and an 
occasional woman, but with a plea so insinuating that the 
Governor's Council and the Assembly were moved to pass 
laws driving the newcomers out of the province under a 
penalty of public whipping, in order, as was claimed, to pre- 
vent the spread of doctrines which bid fair to lure the people 
from civic loyalty. 

Taking Saint Peters dictum, '*We ought to obey God 
rather than men,*' these Quaker missionaries held that by 
the higher law it was unlawful to fight as soldiers, to repeat 
judicial oaths, or to manifest the customary respect to govern- 
ment officials by removing the hat in their presence. The 
effect of this teaching soon bore fruit. At the council held 
July 22nd, 1658 — **Then was the oath of Commissioner and 
Justice of Peace tendered unto them all and taken upon the 
holy Evangelists by all but William Burgess and Thomas 



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366 PRESTON AT PA TUXENT, 



Meares who pretended it was in no case lawful to swear, whose 
pleas was by the Board disallowed/' Capt. Thos. Besson and 
Capt. Thos. Howell were appointed Commissioners in their 
stead, and at the Council next day — Present : The Governor, 
The Secretary, Col. Nathaniel Utie, and Mr. Edward Lloyd, 
it was — **Took into consideration the insolent behavior of 
some people called Quakers who at the Court in contempt 
of an order then made and proclaimed, would presumptu- 
ously stand Covered and not only so, but also refused to 
subscribe the engagement, notwithstanding the Act of Assem- 
bly, alledging they were to be governed by God's law and 
the light within them and not by mans law, and upon full 
debate finding that this their refusal of the engagement was 
a breach of the Articles of the 24th of March last, and that 
their principles tended to the destruction of all government — 
Ordered — That all persons whatsoever that were residing 
within this Province on the 24th of March 1657 should take 
and subscribe the said engagement by the 20th of August 
next or else depart the Province by the 25th of March follow- 
ing, upon pain due to Rebells and Traytors if found within 
this Province after the said 25th of March." In a subsequent 
'* Order against Quakers." '*Upon consideration had of the 
disturbance in the Civil and mihtary part of the government 
by the Quakers " it is ordered, ** Whereas it is well known 
&c that Idle persons known by the name of Quakers have 
presumed to come into this Province as well dissuading the 
People from Complying with the Military discipline in this 
time of Danger as also from giving testimony or being 
jurors &c." 

These enactments, passed by sober-minded men of affairs, 
give us an insight, explanation, and excuse for what might 
otherwise be considered a harsh and unchristian expedient to 
suppress freedom of worship among a liberty-loving people ; 



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PRESTON AT PA TUXENT. 2^7 

from their point of view it was the endeavor of government 
to preserve its integrity. Men were necessary for legislators, 
jurors, and witnesses in courts of justice. An armed militia 
was needful for the protection of farmers' families from Indian 
hostilities. Therefore, as these Quaker emissaries were teach- 
ing disloyalty which tended to the destruction of all govern- 
ment, it became a duty to drive them away as soon as 
possible. 

But, '' Man proposes ; God disposes.'' Thomas Thurston 
and Josiah Cole, the foreign Quaker preachers, were sent 
out of the province, but not until they had sown seed which 
found lodgement in fertile ground and quickly produced fruit. 
The blood of the martyrs was truly the seed of the Quaker 
Church in this stage of Maryland history. 

It is difficult with the few and scanty bits of history that 
have been preserved of the social conditions of early Mary- 
land to follow clearly the progress in religious thought during 
this transition from Puritanism to Quakerism. Some of the 
most aggressive leaders of the Puritan revolution and officers 
of the Puritan Church joined the Quaker movement. Capt. 
Wm. Fuller, their military commander, William Durand, their 
minister, Richard Preston, William Berry, Thos. Meares, Philip 
Thomas, Peter Sharp, and other prominent church members 
changed their faith, and even Richard Bennett succumbed to 
Quaker influence before his death. 

The belligerent spirit for a time intruded itself into their 
peaceful profession as appears by the following affidavit : 

** John Arnold sworne and examined this 17th day of May 
1664 Sayth — That in February last past this deponent being 
at John Holmewoods house, there met Thomas Thurston, 
Thomas Meares, Thomas Turner, Maurice Baker, John Holme- 
wood, Sarah Fuller, Sarah Holmewood and Sarah Marsh, and 
in their discourse Sarah Fuller said that her husband could 



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368 PRESTON AT PATUXENT. 



freely spend his blood now to enjoy her company and the 
company of her friends about her ; Thomas Thurston also 
saying that it was a thousand pities he should be so kept out 
and John Holmewood said that he could now as freely fight 
to have him (to wit) Fuller in amongst them as he could then 
when he was one of the world, and all the rest then and there 
present concluded with the said John Holmewood, and said 
the like, and further sayth not 
Sworn before me Charles Calvert. John Arnold/' 

The Puritan Churches being, as a rule, dependent upon 
ordained ministers, were at this time in Maryland as sheep 
without a shepherd on account of their inability to secure 
and retain acceptable persons in that department of church 
work. 

Wm. Durand, their minister, who as a Nonconformist 
preacher, having been expelled from Virginia by the civil 
authorities, had held them together as a Church in Maryland, 
now deserted them and entered the Quaker fold. In contrast 
to Puritan Church necessities, the principles involved in the 
religious polity of the Quaker Society did not require ordinary 
Church machinery to spread its doctrines and ingather mem- 
bers. Consequently bands of men and women assembhng 
for silent worship in the house of a neighbor, all being on an 
equality, with an accepted privilege for any ** to speak as the 
Spirit gave them utterance,'* constituted an official meeting 
entitled to recognition in the business affairs of their General 
Assembly. This method of emancipation from the usual 
ecclesiastical restraint became so popular that before the 
close of the century their numbers made necessary as many 
as seven public houses of worship for their accommodation, 
with burial grounds attached, situated at convenient distances 
between the Severn and Patuxent Rivers, in what are now 
Anne Arundel and Calvert Counties. In 1663, Governor 



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PRESTON AT PATUXENT 369 



Charles Calvert, in a letter to Lord Baltimore, calls Richard 
Preston **the Great Quaker/' thus indicating somewhat the 
prominent position held by that one-time fighting Puritan in 
the peaceful Quaker fold. 

When Richard Preston left Virginia he brought with him 
his wife Margaret and five children : Richard, Jr., James, 
Samuel, Naomi, and Margaret. Two children, Rebecca and 
Sarah, were born in Maryland. Samuel probably died young. 
Richard, the eldest son, married and had one child, Samuel, 
born about 1655. who removed to Philadelphia. Richard, Jr., 
died in 1669, leaving no will, nor have any testamentary pro- 
ceedings been yet discovered among court or other records 
relating to his estate. His widow, Margaret, in January, 1670, 
married William Berry, who was born in Northampton County, 
Virginia, about 1635, son of James Berry. This family, origin- 
ally Episcopalian, became attached to the Puritan faction, and 
the father, James, was a member of the first Puritan Assembly 
held in 1654 at the Preston mansion. 

James Preston, second son of Richard, Sr., died in 1673, 
leaving a widow, Elizabeth, and one child Rebecca. In his 
will he is styled '*of Preston's Neck, Calvert County.'* 

Naomi Preston, the eldest daughter of Richard, Sr., married 

Wm. Berry as his first wife ; after her death, he married 

Margaret, the widow of his brother-in-law, Richd. Preston, Jr. 

Naomi Preston Berr}^ died about 1663, leaving three children, 

William Berry, Jr., who married Naomi Whalley, of Bucks 

County, Pennsylvania; James Berry who married first wife, 

Elizabeth Wilchurch, and second wife, Elizabeth Pitt; Rebecca 

Berry, who married James Ridley, and removed to Salem 

County, New Jersey, in 1702. Margaret Preston, daughter 

of Richard, Sr., probably died young. Rebecca married 

Lovelace Gorsuch, and Sarah married first husband, Wm. 

Ford, and second husband, Edward Pindar 
55 



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370 PRESTON AT PATUXENT 



Richard Preston*s will is dated **This sixteenth Day of the 
7th Month called Sept. 1669. 

He gives to his son James Preston ** (if he be now living 
or shall live to come again to Maryland) the whole and sole 
use of this plantation in Patuxent River where I now live, 
until my Grandchild Samuel Preston shall live and attain to 
the age of twenty one years ;" meantime for the use of said 
plantation, ten cows and one bull, four breeding sows, and 
four servants, etc. The said Samuel is to have "sufficient 
maintenance during his minority for food, raiment and educa- 
tion in learning.** Samuel is also to have a 200 acre planta- 
tion called *'The Neglect'* adjoining the homestead. ** Bar- 
ren Island,** 700 acres in Dorchester County, is given to son 
James, if he return from England. 

** Home,'* 600 acres in Dorchester County, is given to his 
daughters, Rebecca and Sarah. Two hundred acres in Dor- 
chester County to his kinsman, Ralph Dorsey. To his two 
grandchildren, William and James Berry, five thousand pounds 
of tobacco each, and to grandchild, Rebecca Berry, *'some 
plate which is this year to come from England." He gives 
to his daughter-in-law, Margaret Preston, *' to what she hath 
had already in useful goods to the value of twenty seven 
pounds sterling and to make up the aforesaid sum two 
hundred Pounds, I will and bequath unto her Ten hhds of 
this years sweet scented crop of Tobacco weighing net five 
thousand pounds which are to be valued at one hundred 
pounds sterling, and a copper kettle in the store loft at two 
pounds twelve shillings, the bed she used to lye on with the 
bedstead and other furniture at fourteen pounds ; also she 
shall have forty five pounds more in such goods as is now 
about the house or that shall be sent to me out of England 
this year ;** also plate to come from England. He names 
other kinsmen, John and James Dorsey and ** Thomas 



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PRESTON AT PATUXENT, 371 

Preston upon the Clifts/' the last named without signifying 
kinship. 

His executors were Wm. Berry, Peter Sharp, Thomas 
Taylor of Kent, and John Meares upon the Clifts. A codicil 
is dated 2nd of December, 1669, ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^s proved 
before Will. Calvert January the 8th, 1669. By old style 
New Year s day was March 25th. 

Samuel Preston, the grandson, who may have been born in 
the old house on the Patuxent, removed to Philadelphia prior 
to 1700, and became identified with its interests as mayor of 
the city and in other positions of trust. He married first 
Rachel Lloyd, daughter of Governor Thomas Lloyd of Penn- 
sylvania, and second, Margaret Burton Langdale, widow of 
Josiah Langdale, an ancestor of the Coates family of Phil- 
adelphia. 

The old Preston House at Patuxent kindles in imagination 
many a picture of men and things in Colonial Maryland as 
fancy reproduces the historical incidents within its walls. 

The Hall of Lawmakers and Court of Justice with its 
judges and jurors ; the rendezvous of Puritan soldiery with 
guns and swords and turmoil, and sudden shift to solemn 
silent worship of a Quaker meeting. The same actors, but 
unlike the mimic stage, hearts have changed as well as clothes, 
and the lion-like has become docile like the ox. 

F*ortunately for the Antiquary, the present proprietor, 
D. B. M. Dixon, Esq., has valued the old mansion for its 
history, and preserved its originality through the many years 
of his quiet possession. He takes pride in being the owner 
of the oldest historic house in Maryland, and delights to 
gratify the visitor interested in Calvert County folk-lore. 

Samuel Troth. 



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APPENDIX. 

PRESTON AT PATUXENT. 

This General Assembly of the Province of Maryland, at 
which the laws here quoted and several others, forming as it 
were a new Code, were enacted, was held at ''Preston,'' the 
home of Richard Preston on the Patuxent river. 

** Acts and orders of a Generall Assembly holden for the 
Province of Maryland at Patuxent the 20th of October 1654 
by Commission from his Highness the Lord Protector of 
England Scotland and Ireland and the Dominions thereunto 
belonging. 

" Cap*- W"»- Fuller 

Mr. Rich** Preston, Speaker 

Mr. Leo. Strong 

Mr. John Hatch 

Mr. Rich^ Wells 

Mr. Rich^- Ewen 

Mr. W*" Durand 

Mr. Tho. Hinson 

Mr. Pldw. Lloyd 

Mr. Arthur Turner 

Mr. W" Parker 

Mr. J no. Wade 

Mr. Sampson Waring 

Mr. James Berry 

Mr. W'" Ewen 

Mr. Joseph Weekes 

872 



Present 



{ 



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APPENDIX. 373 



The Act of Recognition. 

It is Enacted and Declared in the Name of his Highness 
the Lord Protector of England Scotland and Ireland and the 
Dominions thereunto belonging and the Authority of this 
present Generall Assembly. 

That the Reducing of this Province of Maryland by power 
of the Supreame Authority of the Commonwealth of England 
Committed to Rich** Bennett Esq' and Coll° William Cleyborne, 
and the Government as it is now Settled by Commission 
granted to Cap' W"" Fuller, Mr. Rich** Preston, Mr. W"* 
Duranci, Mr. Edward Lloyd, Mr. Leonard Strong, Mr. John 
Hatch, Mr. John Lawson, Mr. Richard Wells, Mr. W" Parker, 
Mr. Rich** Ewen, is acknowledged by this Assembly, and 
freely and fully Submitted unto. And that no power either 
from the Lord Baltimore or any other, ought or shall make 
any alteration in the Government aforesaid as it is now Set- 
tled, unless it be from the Supreame Authority of the Com- 
monwealth of England Exercised by his highness the Lord 
Protector, Imediatly and Direcdy granted for that purpose. 
That after publication of this Act, all the Inhabitants of the 
Province are required to declare in particular & Express 
Termes under their hands their owning and accepting of the 
present Government and Subjection thereunto; That all such 
person or persons that deny the present Government, or do 
either in word or deed traduce, vilifie or Scandalize the Same 
or by action Secret or open, disquiet, oppose, or disturb the 
said Government Shall be accounted offenders against the 
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England the peace 
and wellfare of this Province and be dealt with according to 
their offence. 

An Act Concerning Religion. 
It is Enacted and Declared in the name of his Highness 



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374 APPENDIX. 



the Lord Protector with the consent and by the Authority of 
the present Generall Assembly, That none who profess and 
Exercise the Popish ReHgion commonly known by the name 
of the Roman Catholick Religion can be protected in this 
Province by the Lawes of England formerly Established and 
yet unrepealed nor yet by the Government of the Common- 
wealth of England Scotland and Ireland and the Dominions 
thereunto belonging Published by his Highness the Lord 
protector but are to be restrained from the Exercise thereof, 
Therefore all and Every person or persons Concerned in the 
Law aforesaid are required to take notice. Such as profess 
faith in God by Jesus Christ though differring in judgement 
from the Doctrine worship and Discipline publickly held forth 
shall not be restrained from but shall be protected in the 
profession of the faith & Exercise of their Religion so as 
they abuse not this Liberty to the injury of others. The 
Disturbance of the publique peace on their part, Provided 
that this Liberty be not Extended to popery or prelacy nor 
to such as under the profession of Christ hold forth and 
practice Licentiousness. 

Concerning the Records. 
It is Enacted untill other Conveniency, And for the better 
Conveniency of the Inhabitants of Patomock and Patuxent 
that the Records be left in the hands of Mr. Richard Preston 
and there to be kept, And that John Sutton Act as Deputy 
from the Secretary to attend upon all matters that Concern 
the Records. 

Concerning Treating with the Indians. 
It is ordered by the present Generall Assembly That 
Mr. Richard Preston, Mr. William Parker, Mr. John Lawson, 
Mr. John Hatch, Mr. Sampson Waring, Mr. Cuthb* Fenwick, 



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APPENDIX, 375 



Mr. John Wade, Mr. Arthur Turner, Mr. William Parrott or 
any six of them are authorized by vertue hereof to treat with 
the Indians Empiro^ as in their Discretion they shall think fitt, 
Concerning the former Articles Concluded with him or to 
make others if need shall require, And it is further ordered 
that in case the aforesaid persons do not meet according to 
appointment by Mr. Rich** Preston then the said Mr. Rich** 
Preston shall have power to make Choice of such as in his 
discretion he shall think fitt for his assistance, And that the 
ablest Interpreters be procured to be with them in their 
Treaty and Service aforesaid.*' 



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DESCENT OF THE CARPENTER BRANCH, FROM 
SAMUEL PRESTON. 

Samuel Preston, b. 1665, in Patuxent, Maryland; d. in Phila., Sept. 10, 1743; son of 
Richard Preston, Jr., and grandson of Richard Preston, Sr. ; m., July 6, 1688, at the 

house of Francis Cornwall, in Sussex, Rachel, b. Jan. 20, 1667-68; d. ; daughter 

of Thomas Lloyd of Dolobran, Wales, President of the council and Deputy Governor 
under Penn of the Province of Pennsylvania, and 2d, m. Margaret, widow of Josiah 
Langdale. She d. 6, 23, 1742, leaving no issue by her second husband. Issue, all by 
first wife. 

1. Margaret, b. 1689; ra.. May 27, 1709, Richard Moore, son of Mordecai Moore, leaving 

issue, from whom, among others, descended Rear Admiral Louis M. Goldsborough. 
(For continuation of this descent, see Keith's Provincial Councillors^ page 74.) 

2. Hannah, b. 1693; d. March 6, 1772; m., July 2, 171 1, Samuel Carpenter, Jr., b. 

Feb. 9, 1688; d. Nov., 1748; eldest son of Samuel Carpenter, who was at one time 
the richest man in the Colony of Pennsylvania ; the intimate friend and adviser of 
William Penn, one of the trustees named in Penn's will, ** Assistant in the Govern- 
ment," or Deputy Governor under Markham, member of the Provincial Council, 
Treasurer of the Province, etc. Samuel Carpenter, the son, was a member of the 
Common Council of Philadelphia, Justice of the Peace, Trustee of the Loan Office, 
etc. Issue : 

1. Samuel, son of Samuel, Jr., and Hannah (Preston) Carpenter, b. ; d. Feb. 20^ 

1747. He emigrated to Jamaica and died there. He married and left issue : 

1. Samuel Inglesbe, of Kingston, Jamaica. Letters of administration were granted 

on his estate, Feb. 10, 1 785. He was unmarried. 

2. Hannah, d. before Nov., 1748. (See will of Saml. Carpenter, Jr., her grand- 

father.) 

3. Thomas, d. in Kingston, Jamaica. He left nine children, four sons and five 

daughters. Eleanor Jane m. Mr. Thompson, of Jamaica. Ann m. Mr. Longman, 
of Jamaica. They were, in 1849, the only surviving children of Thomas. 
Both Samuel Inglesbe and Thomas were educated in Edinburgh. A letter from 
Thomas describes his visit to London, and obtaining from the Herald Office a 
copy of the family coat-of-arms. 

2. Rachel Carpenter, daughter of Samuel, Jr., and Hannah (Preston) Carpenter, b. 

1716; d. 1794, unm. in Philadelphia. 

3. Preston Carpenter, son of Samuel, Jr., and Hannah (Preston) Carpenter, b. Oct. 28, 

1721 ; d. Oct. 17, 1785. The descent is through Preston Carpenter, of whom 
hereafter. 
376 



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DESCENT OF THE CARPENTER BRANCH, ijy 

4. Hannah Carpenter, dau. of Samuel, Jr., and Hannah (Preston) Carpenter, b. ; 

d. before Dec. 21, 1767; m., 2d mo. 8, 1746, Samuel Shoemaker, son of Benjamin 
Shoemaker. Samuel Shoemaker was member of the Common Council, and suc- 
ceeded his father as Treasurer. He was Mayor, Justice for the County, attorney 
for the Pennsylvania Land Co., of lx)ndon, etc., a prominent and successful mer- 
chant. He was a Loyalist, and suffered confiscation of his property during the 
Revolution. (For continuation of this descent, see Keith's Provincial Councillors^ 
page 243.) 

5. Thomas Carpenter, son of Samuel, Jr., and Hannah (Preston) Carpenter, b. ; 

d. 1772, unmarried. He was a prominent merchant in Philadelphia, and signed 
the non- importation resolutions of 1765. His will, dated Dec. 21, 1767, and 
proved March 26, 1772, gives his property to his mother, his maiden sister Rachel, 
Samuel and Thomas Carpenter, sons of his deceased brother Samuel, and the 
nine children of his brother Preston by his first wife. 

Preston Carpenter, son of Samuel, Jr., and Hannah (Preston) Carpenter (above named), 
b. Oct. 28, 1721 ; d. Oct. 17, 1785; m., Oct. 17, 1742, Hannah Smith, b. Dec. 21, 1723; 
dau. of Samuel Smith, a wealthy man of Salem County, N. J., and Hannah Pile, whose 
father, John Pile, was the owner of the whole Township of Pilesgrove in that county. 
Preston Carpenter married secondly Hannah, widow of Samuel Mason, and dau. of 
Benjamin Cripps and Mary Hough. Benjamin Cripps was the son of Nathaniel and 
Grace Cripps, who came to America in 1 67 8, and settled at Burlington, N. J. Nathaniel 
Cripps is said to have been the founder of Mount Holly. Preston Carpenter had no 
issue by his second wife. He removed from Philadelphia, and settled at Salem, N. J. 
He continued to reside here and upon his estate in Mannington Township near by until 
his death, Oct. 17, 1785. He was a commissioner of the I^an Office, Justice of the 
Peace, Judge of the Circuit Court, etc. Issue all by first wife : 

1. Hannah, dau. of Preston and Hannah (Smith) Carpenter, b. Oct. 4, 1743; d. Aug. 31, 

1820; m. (second wife of) Charles Ellet and secondly Jedediah Allen. From her 
were descended the Ellets, distinguished as engineers, lawyers, and general officers 
in the War of the Rebellion. (For continuation of this line, see Keith's Provincial 
Councillors y page 96.) 

2. Samuel Preston, son of Preston and Hannah (Smith) Carpenter, b. 1 745; d- young. 

3. Elizabeth Carpenter, dau. of Preston and Hannah (Smith) Carpenter, b. Dec. 18, 1748; 

d. Nov. 16, 1779; m., 1767, Ezra Firth, of Salem County, N. J., son of John Firth 

and Stubbins. He died April 17, 1779. From this line are descended the 

Firth, Jones, and Wistar families of Philadelphia, General Isaac Wistar, Lloyd P. 
Smith, formerly librarian of the Philadelphia Library, etc. (For continuation of this 
line, see Keith's Provincial CouncillorSy page 102.) 

4. Rachel, dau. of Preston and Hannah (Smith) Carpenter, b. Aug. 26, 1749; ^' ^ov. 20, 

1749- 

5. Mary, dau. of Preston and Hannah (Smith) Carpenter, b. Nov. 18, 1750; d. Oct. 30, 

1821 ; «., , 1777, Samuel Tonkin, son of Edward Tonkin and Mary Cole, of 

Burlington County, New Jersey. He was a lieutenant-colonel in the War of the 
Revolution. They left no issue. 



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37^ DESCENT OF THE CARPENTER BRANCH, 



6. Thomas Carpenter (of Carpenter's landing), son of Preston and Hannah (Smith) 
Carpenter, b. Nov. 2, 1752; d. Jaty 7, 1847; m., April 13, 1774, Mary Tonkin, b. 
Sept. 8, 1753; d. Aug. 5, 1822; dau. of Edward Tonkin and Mary Cole. Thomas 
Carpenter served in the Revolutionary War as ensign of Captain John Roane's 
company, Colonel Samuel Dick's Battalion of Salem County, N. J. Militia, 1776. 
Adjutant of the same, November, 1776, to January, 1777, and in 1778. He was 
commissioned, March 19, 1777, Paymaster of the Counties of Salem and Gloucester, 
and served in that capacity until the close of the war. He took part in the battles 
of Trenton and Princeton. After the war he settled at Carpenter's Landing, and in 
partnership with Colonel Thomas Heston he established large glass-works at Glass- 
boro, N. J., which were successfully conducted until the death of Colonel Heston 
took place, when the property, including a large landed estate, was divided, and 
Thomas Carpenter retired in favor of his son Edward, who continued to conduct the 
glass-works until his death in 1813. Issue: 

1. Samuel, b. Jan. 6, 177$; d. April 16, 1792. 

2. Edward, b. June 4, 1777; d. March 13, 1813; m., Sept. 5, 1799, Sarah Stratton (see 

below). 

3. Rachel, b. Oct. 23, 1782; d. Oct. 7, 1784. 

Edward Carpenter (above named), b. June 4, 1777; d. March 13, 1813; son of Thomas 
and Mary (Tonkin) Carpenter, m., Sept. 5, 1799, Sarah Stratton, b. Sept. 30, 1781 ; d. Feb. 
12, 1852; dau. of Dr. James Stratton and Anna (Harris), of Swedesboro, N.J. Edward 
Carpenter resided at Carpenter's I^anding, three miles below Woodbury, N. J. (now called 
Mantua), on Mantua Creek, in a house erected for him by his father near the old Carpenter 
mansion. Subsequently, upon the retirement of his father from business, he removed to 
Glassboro and entered into the control of tlie glass-works there. He died March 13, 1813, 
in the midst of a successful career. Issue : 

I. Thomas Preston* son of Edward and Sarah (Stratton) Carpenter, b. April 19, 1804; 
d. March 20, 1876; m., Nov. 27, 1839, Rebecca Hopkins, b. Sept. 23, 1813; d. 
Oct. 24, 1896; dau. of Samuel Clement Hopkins, M. D., and Susan (Barton). 
Thomas Preston Carpenter was born at Carpenter's landing. He studied law in 
the office of Hon. John Moore While, of Woodbury, N. J., and in 1830 was 
admitted to the Bar of New Jersey. In 1845 ^^ ^'^ appointed by Governor 
Stratton, one of the associate judges of the Supreme Court of New Jersey, his 
circuit comprising the counties of Burlington, Camden, and Gloucester. He 
resided for some years at Woodbury, N. J., and afterward in the city of Camden, 
where he died. He retired from the bench and resumed the practice of his pro- 
fession, in which he became a leader. He was for many years retained in most of 
the important cases which were litigated in the southern portion of New Jersey, 
and was noted for his profound learning, his personal integrity, and sound judg- 
ment, as well as for his genial manners and agreeable jiersonal qualities. Issue : 

1. Susan Mary, resides in Camden, K. J. 

2. Anna Stratton, b. June 10, 1843; d. Dec. 13, 1869. 

3. Thomas Preston, b. Sept. 23, 1846; d. Aug. 25, 1848. 

4. James Hopkins, b. Nov. 18, 1849; graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, 

studied law with his father, and was admitted to the Bar of New Jersey as 



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FROM SAMUEL PRESTON, 379 



Attorney in Nov., 1872, and as Counsellor in Nov., 1875. ^^ resides with his 
sister Susan M. Carpenter, in Camden, N. J. 

2. Mary Tonkin, dau. of Edward and Sarah (Stratton) Carpenter, b. Sept. 14, 1805 ; 

d. , 1893; m., March 24, 1830, Richard Washington Howell, b. Dec. 14, 

1799; d. May 12, 1859, son of Colonel Joshua L. Howell and Anna Blackwood, 
of " Fancy Hill," Gloucester County, N. J. Richard W. Howell resided in the 
city of Camden, N. J., from the time of his marriage until his death. ** He was 
a distinguished lawyer, a polished gentleman, and an unwavering patriot." Issue : 

1. John Paschall, b. April 12, 183 1 ; d. June 2, 1832. 

2. Edward Carpenter, b. July 24, 1833; d. March 5, 1834. 

3. Samuel Bedell, b. Sept. 20, 1834; m., April 13, 1859, Maria E. Neill. Issue: 

1. Wm. Neill, b. Aug. 8, i860. 

2. Richd. Washington, b. Aug. 17, 1862; m., April 20, 1892, Virginia Heath 

Crothers. Issue : 

Virginia Heath, b. Feb. 17, 1893; ^- ^"g- *6» '894- 

Mortimer, b. Sept. 27, 1895. 

Richard Washington, b. May 25, 1897. 

3. Henry Elmer, b. Dec. 8, 1866; m., June 23, 1897, Gertrude S. Ehret. Issue: 

Henry Elmer, b. June 8, 1894. 

4. Sophie Neill, b. July 21, 1876. 

4. Charles Strp.tton, b. Dec. 21, 1837; d. unm. 

5. Richard Holmes Offley, b. April 2, 1840; d. Jan. 3, 1850. 

6. Joshua Ladd, b. June 16, 1842; d. at Newport, R. I., Aug. 19, 1893; studied law 

with Judge Thomas I*. Carpenter, admitted to the Bar of N. J., but afterward 
resided in Philadelphia ; Secretary of the International Steamship Co. ; m., April 
15, 1875, Mary E. Savage, dau. of Wm. Lyttleton Savage. Issue : Evelyn Virginia. 

7. Thomas James, b. Oct. 10, 1844; killed iu action at the Battle of Gaines*s Mill, Va., 

June 27, 1862. He was 2d Lieut, in the 3d Regiment N. J. Volunteers, acted 
with great bravery, and was struck by a cannon ball at the close of the battle- 

8. Anna, b. Sept. 12, 1846; m., June lo, 1869, Malcolm Lloyd, b. July 18, 1838, son 

of John Lloyd and Esther Malcolm, now (1898) Vice-President of the Atlantic 
Refining Company. Issue : 

1. Howell, b. March 2, 1871 ; m., Feb. lo, 1897, Emily Innes. 

2. Malcolm, b. Jan. 18, 1874. 

3. Stacy Barcrofl, b. Aug. I, 1876. 

4. Francis Vernon, b. Aug. 31, 1878. 

5. Anna Howell, b. Dec. 2, 1880. 

6. Esther Malcolm, b Dec. 12, 1882. 

7. Mary Carpenter, b. Dec. 26, 1887. 

9. Francis I^e, b. May 20, 1849; ^' Aug. I, 1872, unm. 
10. Sarah Carpenter, b. Oct. 3, 1850; d. Dec. 4, 185 1. 

3. James Stratton Carpenter, son of Edward and Sarah (Stratton) Carpenter, b. in Glass- 

boro, N. J., Oct. 18, 1807; d. Jan. 31, 1872; m., Oct. 12, 1832, Camilla Julia 
Sanderson, b. Oct., 1815; d. May 19, 1897; dau. of John Sanderson, author of 
The Lives of the Signers of the Declaration of Indetendence^ and Sophie Carr6. 
James S. Carpenter studied with Dr. Joseph Fithian of Woodbury, N. J., and graduated 



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38o DESCENT OF THE CARPENTER BRANCH, 



M. D. at the University of Pennsylvania. In 1830 he settled in Pottsville, Pa., then a new 
settlement in the coal region. In 1835 he visited Europe and studied in the hospitals of 
Paris. Returning in 1837, he resumed his practice, which he continued, with great success, 
until his death in 1872. His reputation for great skill in his profession extended far beyond 
the limits of his practice, and his personal magnetism, genial manners, social qualities, and 
hospitality endeared him to all who came within their influence. Issue : 

1. John Thomas, b. in Pottsville, Jan. 27, 1833; ™'i I^ec. 4, 1855, Eliza Adelaide, b. 

; d. ; dau. of Charles M. Hill and Caroline Hammecken, and sec- 
ondly, Nov. 21, 1887, Anne, widow of General Henry Pleasants. Dr. John T. 
Carpenter graduated A. B., A. M., and M. D. from the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, succeeded to his father's practice at Pottsville. He was appointed 
Surgeon to the 34th Regiment, Pennsylvania Reserve Volunteers, April, 1861 ; 
Medical Director of General McCook's Brigade, West Virginia, Oct. 14, 1861 ; 
Medical Director in charge of General Hospitals, Cumberland, Md., March, 
1862; Medical Director of Mountain Department, Wheeling, Va., May 10, 1862; 
in charge of General Hospitals, Cincinnati, Ohio, Aug. 25, 1862; Medical 
Director and Superintendent of Hospitals, District of Ohio, March 19, 1864; 
President of the Army Medical Board, Cincinnati, May, 1863, and President 
of the Medical Society of the State of Pennsylvania. Issue (all by first wife) : 

1. Caroline Gertrude, b. Jan. 14, 1858; m., Nov. 9, 1880, Rev. John Brazer 

Draper, b. Nov. 28, 1853; d. Jan. 24, 1887. Issue: 
Mary Chandler. 
Eliza Adelaide. 

2. James Stratton, b. April 21, 1859; graduated A. B., Trinity College, and 

M. D., University of Pennsylvania; m., April 28, 1886, Lillian Louise 
Chapin, dau. of Asabel Chapin, of Brooklyn, N. V. Issue : 

James Stratton, b. Feb. 14, 1887. 

Chapin, b. . 

3. Laura Sherbrook,b. May 24, i860; m., Oct. 18, 1892, Lucian F. Brigbam. 

Issue: 

4. .Sophie, b. July lo, 1864; d. Aug. 27, 1864. 

5. Margaret Stuart, b. May 26, 1 865 ; d. Aug. 5, 1865. 

6. John Thomas, b. Oct. 29, 1866; m., Oct., 1890, Mary Burd Fuller, dau. 

of Wm. A. M. Fuller. Issue : 

7. Cornelia, b. Oct. 3, 1867; d. Dec. 2, 1867. 

8. Charles Montgomery, b. Jan. 22, 1872; d. July 12, 1872. 

9. Agnes, b. Oct. II, 1878; m., Feb. 16, 1898, Ollsen F. Raaen. 
10. Eliza Adelaide, b. Aug. 22, 1883; d. .Sept. 7, 1885. 

2. Sarah Stratton, dau. of Dr. James S. and Camilla (Sanderson) Carpenter, b. Potts- 

ville, June 14, 1835; ^' F«^- 28, 1895; m., Dec. 27, 1853, Rev. Daniel Wash- 
burn, b. Sept. 20, 1822, Rector of Trinity Church, Pottsville; d. Dec. 25, 1897. 
Issue: 

I. Mary Howell, b. March ii, 1855; ra.,Wm. Fish, of Scarsdale, New York. 
Issue: 

Edward. 

Ix)uis Washburn. 



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FROM SAMUEL PRESTON, 381 



2. James Stratton, b. May 22, 1856; d. in infancy. 

3. John Bohlen, b. Aug. 25, 1857; d. , unm. 

4. Louis Cope, b. Jan. 25, i860; Rector of St. Peter's Church, Hazleton, Pa., 

and subsequently Rector of St. Paul's Church, Rochester, New York ; 
m., April 8, 1890, Henrietta Saltinstall Mumford, dau. of . Issue: 

Henrietta Mumford, b. March 20, 1891. 

Helen Carpenter, b. April i, 1892. 

5. Thomas Preston, b. April 10, 1862; m., Oct. 11, 1892, Margaret Brack- 

enridge. 

6. Anna Carpenter, b. April 2, 1 864. 

7. Camilla Richards, b. Sept. II, 1865. 

8. Cornelia Sanderson, b. Sept. II, 1865; d. in infancy. 
Q. Daniel, b. Oct. 27, 1869. 

10. Sarah Stratton, b. Jan. 4, 1 872. 

11. Francis M., b. July 7, 1873. 

12. Emily, b. Aug. 19, 1875. 

13. George Herbert, b. Jan. 14, 1 877. 

3. Sophie Carr6, dau. of Dr. James S. and Camilla (Sanderson) Carpenter, b. Nov. 11, 

1837. 

4. Cornelia Maria, dau. of Dr. James S. and Camilla (Sanderson) Carpenter, b. Dec. 

18, 1840. 

5. James Edward, son of Dr. James S. and Camilla (Sanderson) Carpenter, b. Sept. 

29, 1843; d. Jan. 18, 1845. 

6. Preston, son of Dr. James S. and Camilla (Sanderson) Carpenter, b. Sept. 29, 

1843: m., April 15, 1869, Catharine Clarkson Wheeler, dau. of Edward 
Wheeler, d. July 7, 1875. He ra., secondly, Oct. 7, 1877, Henrietta M., widow 

of Parry, nei Wheeler, a sister of his first wife, and thirdly, . 

Issue by 1st wife ; 

Kate B., b. March 18, 1870. 

James Stratton, b. Nov. 17, 1871. 
Issue by 2d wife : 

Dale Benson, b. June 24, 1878. 
Issue by 3d wife : 
* 7. Camilla Sanderson, dau. of Dr. James S. and Camilla (Sanderson) Carpenter, b. 
June 10, 1 85 1. 

8. Mary Howell, dan. of Dr. James S. and Camilla (Sanderson) Carpenter, b. Nov. 

17, 1856. 

9. Richard Howell, son of Dr. James S. and Camilla (Sanderson) Carpenter, b. 

March 2, 1 858. 
4. Samuel Tonkin Carpenter, son of Edward and Sarah (Stratton), Carpenter, b. in 
Glassboro, N. J., Nov. 25, 1810; d. Dec. 6, 1864, of fever contracted in the 
hospitals in Cincinnati, Ohio, of which he was chaplain; m., May 26, 1841, 

Frances Champlain, b. Jan. 8, 1819; d. ; dau. of Adam Champlain, of 

Derby, Connecticut, and Henrietta Blakeslee, and secondly, Emilie D. Thompson, 
b. Aug. 31, 1830; d. Feb. 28, 1897, of Wilmington, Delaware, dau. of Richard 
Thompson and Elizal)eth S. Denny. 



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382 DESCENT OF THE CARPENTER BRANCH, 



Samuel T. Carpenter was a clergyman in the Episcopal Church, a graduate of the 
Divinity School at Alexandria, Va., ordained by Hishop Meade of Va., Rector of the 
Episcopal Church at Smyrna, Del., and at Litchfield, Conn., etc., and Chaplain U. S. Army 
during the Civil War. Issue by ist wife : 

1. Samuel Champlain Blakeslee, b. Nov. lo, 1842; d. Sept. 28, 1871; served in the 

Union Army during the Civil War ; unm. 

2. Frances Mary, b. July 23, 1844. 
Issue by 2d wife : 

1. Herl)ert Denny, b. June 2, 1 853. 

2. Florence, b. Dec. 22, 1854; m., April 7, 1881, Albert W. Fiero, civil engineer, of 

Joliet, 111. Issue : 

Albert Conro, b. Feb. 11, 1882. 

3. Horace Thompson, b. Oct. 10, 1857; m , Sept. 28, 1886, Mary Congill Conwell, 

dau. of Myers C. Conwell, of Wilmington, Del. Issue: 

Samuel, b. ' 

4. Richard Howell, b, Dec. 27, 1861. 

5. Lewis Tonkin Chatfield, b. Nov. 17, 1864. 

5. Edward Carpenter, son of Edward and Sarah (Slratton) Carpenter, b. in Glassboro, 

N. J., May 17, 1813; d. March 4, 1SS9; m., Nov. 16, 1837, Anna Maria Howey, 

b. Jan. I, 1818; d. May 16, 1883, dau. of Benjamin Matlack Howey, of '* Pleasant 

Meadows," of (iloucesler County, N. J., and Lsabella, dau. of Dr. James Slratlon. 

Edward Carpenter, 2d, during his early years lived with his mother and grandfather, 

Thomas Carpenter, at Carpenter's landing, which was then a place of active business in 

cordwood, lumber and ship timber, employing many sloops and small vessels in the trade. 

For a short time he resided at Glasslx)ro, subsequently a few years at Chesterfield, Kent Co., 

Maryland. In 1843 he came to Philadelphia, where he continued to reside until his death, 

March 4, 1889. He studied law, but devoted himself to conveyancing and matters relating 

to real estate. He was a prominent churchman, one of the founders of the Church of the 

Mediator, Philadelphia, was member of numerous vestries, and delegate to the Diocesan 

Convention. Issue : 

I. Louis Henry, son of Edward (2d) and Anna Maria (Howey) Carpenter, b. Feb. 11, 
1839; Brigadier-General of Volunteers and Colonel 5th U. S. Cavalry; entered 
the army at the l)egiiming of the Civil War as a private in the 6lh U. S. Cavalry. 
He had graduated A. B. at the Philadelpliia High School and entered -u^wn 
a course in the Medical Department of the University of Pennsylvania, but 
abandoned his studies and professional aspirations upon the commencement of 
the war, for the duties of a private soldier in the regular army. He was pro- 
moted to 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut,, Captain, Major, Lieut. -Col., and Colonel in the 
regular establishment, and to Brig.-Cieneral of Volunteers, and also received every 
brevet from 1st Lieut, lo Colonel for gallant and meritorious conduct. He com- 
manded a regiment with the rank of Colonel of Volunteers in the Civil War, 
served as aide-de-camp on the staffs of (ienerals Pleasanton and Sheridan, par- 
ticipated in most of the battles of the Army of the Potomac, and of the Cavalry 
Corps Upon several occasions he was specially mentioned for gallantry in the 
reports of his commanding officers. By a general order issued by General 
Sheridan from Department Headquarters the attention of the officers and 



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FROM SAMUEL PRESTON, 383 



soldiers of the Department of Missouri was called to the engagement on Beaver 
Creek, and the thanks of the commanding general tendered to Brevet Lieut.- 
Colonel L. H. Carpenter and the officers and soldiers of the detachment under 
his command for their gallantry and bravery in that action. For this service he 
received his commission as Brevet- Colonel U. S. A. He was awarded a medal 
of honor for distinguished services in relieving Maj. Geo. A. Forsyth and his 
command, who were in desperate straits, surrounded by a large force of hostile 
Indians on the Republican River, Kansas. He is now (1898) commanding 
a force comjwsed of the 8th U. S. Cavalry, 15th U. S. Infantry, and 3d Georgia 
(Volunteer) Infantry, with which he was the first of the army of occupation in 
the war wiih Spain to lake possession of territory in the Island of Cuba under 
the terms of the protocol providing among other things for the surrender of that 
island. He is unmarried. 
James Edward, son of Edward (2d) and Anna Maria (Ilowey) Carpenter, b. March 
6, 184I ; m., Oct. 17, 1867, Harriet Odin Dorr, b. July 22, 1842 ; d. Jan. 24, 1896, 
dau. of Rev. Benjamin Dorr, D. D., Rector of Christ Church, Philadelphia, and 
Esther K. Odin, of Boston, Mass. James Edward Carpenter entered the army at 
the beginning of the Civil War as private in the 8lh Pennsylvania Cavalry Vol- 
unteers, became 2d Lieut., 1st Lieut., Captain and Brevet-Major of Volunteers, 
served on the staff of General D. McM. Gregg, commanding 2d division of 
Sheridan's cavalry corps; wounded in the cavalry engagement at Philamont, Va. 
In the celebrated charge of the 8th Pennsylvania Cavalry at the battle of Chan- 
cellorsville his horse was shot under him, and of five officers who rode at the 
head of the column he was one of two only who survived the action. At the 
close of the war he was admitted to the Bar in Philadelphia (Oct., 1865). He 
was for nearly thirty years treasurer and is now ( 1898) vice-president and meml:)er 
of the executive council of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. For eight 
years one of the ofticers of the First Troop, Pliiladelphia City Cavalry. Chair- 
man of the Board of Managers of the Pennsylvania Society of the Sons of the 
Revolution. He is a churchman and a delegate to the Diocesan Convention of 
the Episcopal Church. Issue : 

1. Edward (3d), son of James Edward and Harriet Odin (Dorr) Caqwnter, 

b. Aug. 27, 1872 ; member of the First Troop, Philadelphia City Cavalry, 
and served with that organization in the war with Spain; now (1898) 
Lieut. 2d U. S. Artillery. 

2. Helen Dalton, dau. of James Edward and Harriet Odin (Dorr) Carpenter, 

b. Nov. II, 1874. 

3. Grace, dau. of James Edward and Harriet Odin (Dorr) Carpenter, b. Oct. 

25, 1876; d. May 27, 1877. 

4. William Dorr, son of James Edward and Harriet Odin (Dorr) Carpenter, 

b. June 26, 1879; now (1898) in Medical Department of the University 
of Pennsylvania. 

5. Lloyd Preston, son of James Edward and Harriet Odin (Dorr) Carpenter, 

b. March 28, 1884. 
, Sarah Caroline, dau. of Edward and Anna Maria (Howey) Carpenter, b. Jan. 18, 
1843; m., Jan. 18, 1865. Andrew Wheeler, b. , son of Charles Wheeler 



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384 DESCENT OF THE CARPENTER BRANCH, 



and Bowman. Andrew Wheeler is a well known iron merchant of Phil- 
adelphia, of the firm of Morris Wheeler & Co. Director of the Central National 
Bank and of the Delaware Insurance Company, and of various corporations. 
Treasurer of the American Iron and Steel Association, etc. He is descended 
from an ancient Swedish family who were settled on the Delaware before the 
arrival of Penn. Issue : 

1. Andrew, son of Andrew and Sarah C. (Carjjenter) Wheeler, b. Jan. 2, 1866; 

m,, May 14, 1 887, Mary Wilcox Watson, dau. of Rev. Exlward Shippen 
Waison and Sophia Wilcox. Issue : 

1. Sophia Wilcox, b. Nov. 18, 1 888. 

2. Eleanor Leslie, b. March 30, 1890; n. July 7, 1891. 

3. Andrew (3d), b. June 30, 1892. 

2. Anna, b. Dec. 23, 1866; d. Feb. 16, 1869. 

3. Samuel Bowman, b. Dec. 24, 1870; m., April 28, 1892, Laetitia Collins 

Ilulse, dau. of Charles F. and Elizabeth (Collins) Hulse. Issue: 
Frederick Collins, b. March 20, 1894. 
Elizabeth, b. May — , 1897. 

4. James May, b. Dec. 8, 1868; d. in infancy. 

5. Arthur Leslie, b. May II, 1873. 

6. Walter Stratton, b. July 31, 1875. 

7. Herbert, b. Jan. 7, 1878. 

4. Mary Howell dau. of Edward and Anna Maria (Howey) Carpenter, b. Jan. 22, 

1845. 

5. Caspar Wistar, son of Edward and Anna Maria (Howey) Carpenter, b. April 13, 

1847; d. Nov. 2, 1848. 

6. Thomas Preston, son of Edward and Anna Maria (Howey) Carpenter, b. April 30, 

1849. JIc resides at Buffalo, New York. Has been engaged in transportation 
business. Was General Passenger Agent, Lake Superior Transit Co. ; Commis- 
sioner of soft coal traffic, General Passenger Agent, Northern Steamship Co., etc. 
Unmarried. 

7. Henrietta Howey, b. Jan. 22, 1855 ; d. in infancy. 

8. Charies Creighton Stratton, son of Edward and Anna Maria (Howey) Carpenter, 

b. Nov. II, i860; d. Feb. 8, 1880, at Manitou Springs, Colorado. He was 
entered in the collegiate department of the University of Pennsylvania, but died 
before graduation. 

7. William Carpenter, son of Preston and Hannah (Smith) Carpenter of Mannington, 
Salem County, N. J., b. Nov. i, 1754; d. Jan. 12, 1837; m., ist. May 29, 1782, 
Elizabeth Wyatt, dau. of Bartholomew Wyatt, of Salem, N. J. He m. 2d, Dec. 2, 
1 801, Mary Redman, dau. of John Redman. Issue by ist wife : 

I. Mary Wyatt, b. June 3, 1783; d. ; m., , James Hunt, of Pennsylvania. 

Issue : 

1. Elizabeth Wyatt, b. Jan. 28, 1801 ; d. June I, 1825; m., Feb. — , 1823, Geoi^e 

Diehl. 

2. Rachel Gibbons, b. Jan. 12, 1803; d. Dec. 28, 1828; m., Jan. 23, 1828, George 

Ford. 



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FROM SAMUEL PRESTON. 385 



3. Mary Carpenter, b. Oct. 9, 180$; d. July 18, 1836; m., Oct. 15, 1835, John 

Richardson. 

4. John, b. Dec. 17, 1810; m., Jan. 5, 1832, Ann B. Smith. 

5. Naomi, b. Jan. 5, 1812; m.. May 8, 1832, Thomas J. Bonsall. 

6. William, b. Sept. 30, 1814. 

7. Hannah, b. April 28, 17 1 7. 

8. Sarah, b. June 10, 1819; d. Nov. 3, 1825. 

2. Hannah, dau. of William and Elizabeth (Wyatt) Carpenter, b. May 27, 1785; d. 
Nov. 30, 1785. Issue by 2d wife : 

1. William, son of William and Mary (Redman) Carpenter, b. Nov. 21, 1802; d. 

; m., 1st, Hannah Scull, dau. of Gideon Scull, of Salem County, N. J., 

by whom he left no issue, and 2d, Phcebe Warren. 

2. John Redman, son of William and Mary (Redman) Carpenter, b. April 16, 1804; 

d. Dec. 21, 1833. Cashier of the branch of the Bank of the United States at 
Buflfalo, N. Y. 

3. Rachel Redman, dau. of William and Mary (Redman) Carpenter, b. April 30, 

1807; d. Aug. 6, 1851; m., Dec. 6, 1826, Charles Sheppard, son of Thomas 
Sheppard. Issue : 

1. WilUiam C, b. ; m. Hannah E. I^mes. 

2. John R. C. 

4. Hannah, dau. of William and Mary (Redman) Carpenter, d. in infancy. 

5. Samuel Preston, son of William and Mary (Redman) Carpenter, b. Jan. 26, 1812; 

m., 1st, Nov. 8, 1837, Hannah H. Acton, dau. of Benjamin and Sarah Acton; 
she d. Dec. 30, 185 1 ; 2d, Sarah Sheppard, dau. of Thomas Sheppard. Issue 
by 1st wife ; 

1. John Redman, b. ; m., , Mary C. Thompson, dau. of Joseph 

B. Thompson. Issue : 

1. Preston. 

2. Elizabeth. 

3. Maurice. 

2. Sarah Wyatt, b, July 22, 1842; m., June 3, 1863, Richard H. Reeve, b. 

Oct. 5, 1840; son of William Reeve. Issue: 

1. Augustus Henry, b. Nov. 11, 1865. 

2. Hannah Carpenter, b. Feb. 16, 1867. 

3. Mary W., b. Aug. 8, 1871. 

4. Ahce M., b. Nov. 24, 1877. 

3. Samuel Preston, Jr., b. ; m., , Rebecca Bassett. Issue: 

Benjamin Acton. 

4. Mary Redman, b. ; m., Benjamin Reeve, son of Emmor Reeve. 

Issue : 

Rachel C. 

5. William, b. 

8. Margaret Carpenter, dau. of Preston and Hannah (Smith) Carpenter, b. Aujj. 26, 1756; 

d. Oct. 3, 1821 ; m., , 1 776, James Mason Woodnut, b. ; d. June 4, 1809. 

Issue : 
I. Sarah, b. Nov. 28, 1777; d. unm., Jan. 9, 1820. 
58 



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386 DESCENT OF THE CARPENTER BRANCH, 



2. Thomas, b. 1782; d. in infancy. 

3. Hannah, b. Oct. 12, 1784; d. ; m., , Clement Acton. Issue: 

1. Clement J., b. ; m., , Mary Noble. Issue: 

1. Margaret W., m. Augustus Durkee. 

2. Eliza N., b. ; m., , Frank Hickok. Issue : 

Margaret. 

2. Margaret, dau. of Clement and Hannah (Woodnut) Acton, b. Nov. 23, 1819; m., 

Nov. 6, 1839, John D. Griscom, M. D., a well-known physician of Philadelphia, 
whose ancestor, Andrew Griscom, signed the marriage certificate of Samuel 
Carpenter and Hannah Hardiraan in 1684. Issue: 

I. Clement Acton, a prominent merchant of Philadelphia, President of the 
International Navigation Co., owners of the American Line of Steamers 
between New York and Southampton, Director of the Pennsylvania R. R. 
Co., the Fidelity Insurance, Trust and Safe Deposit Co., the Insurance 
Co. of North America, the Bank of North America, etc., b. March 15, 
1841 ; m., June 18, 1862, Frances Canby Biddle. Issue: 

1. John Acton, b. March 31, 1863; d. July 1$, 1864. 

2. Helen Biddle, b. Oct. 9, 1866; m. Samuel Beltle of Haddonfield, 

N. J., June 20, 1889. Issue : 
I. Griscom, b. Feb. 19, 1890. 

3. Clement Acton, Jr., b. June 20, 1868; m. Genevieve Ludlow, 

Sept, 18, 1889. Issue: 

1. Ludlow, b. June 17, 1890. 

2. Acton, b. Aug. 13, 1891. 

3. Joyce Olive, b. Feb. 27, 1893; d. Dec. 3, 1897. 

4. Rodman Ellison, b. Oct. 21, 1870; m. Anna A. Starr, Feb. 17, 

1897. Issue. 
I. Clement Acton, 3d, b. March 13, 1899. 

5. Lloyd Carpenter, b. Nov. 4, 1872. 

6. Frances Canby, Jr., b. April 19, 1879. 

2. Hannah Woodnut, dau. of Dr. John D. and Margaret (Acton) Griscom, b. 

March 7, 1847; n™., Nov. 24, 1870, Frank Lesley Neall. Issue: 

1. Margaret Acton, b. Sept. 16, 1874. 

2. Cecelia Helen, b. Aug. 23, 1876. 

3. William Woodnut, son of Dr. John D. and Margaret (Acton) Griscom, 

b. July 7, 1851; d. Sept, 24, 1897; m, March 15, 1877, Dora Ingham 
Hale. Issue : 

1. Galbraith Stuart, b. Oct. 30, 1882. 

2. Arthur Acton, b. Jan. 18, 1884; ^- Jan. 24, 1895. 

3. Gladys Hale, b. Dec. 4, 1886. 

4. Jonathan, son of James Mason and Margaret (Carpenter) Woodnut, b. ; 

d. ; m., 1st, Mnry Goodwin, and 2d, Sarah Dennis. Issue: 

I. Richard, m. Lydia Hall. Issue: 

1. Mary. 

2. Emily. 

3. Sarah. 



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FROM SAMUEL PRESTON. 387 



4. Margaret. 
6. Richard H. 

2. William, m. Elizabeth Bassett. Issue : 

1. Joseph. 

2. Jonathan. 

3. Thomas. 

4. Anna. 

$. Clement. 

6. Howard. 

7. William. 

3. Thomas, m. Hannah H. Morgan. Issue : 

1. Abbie M. 

2. William. 

3. Clement A. 

4. Mary, m. Edward A. Acton. Issue : 

1. Walter. 

2. Isaac O. 

3. Jonathan. 

5. Preston Woodnut, son of James Mason and Margaret (Carpenter) Woodnut, b. Jan. 

24, 1787; d. ; m. , Rachel Goodwin. Issue: 

1. Elizabeth, m. Annesley Newlin, of Chester County, Pennsylvania. Issue : 

I. Frances. 

2. James M., m. Elizabeth Denn. Issue : 

1. Charles, m. Mary Leslie Garretson, of Philadelphia. Issue: 

1. James M. 

2. Charles Edward. 

3. Elsie. 

2. Henry C, m. Annie E. Frost, of Long Island. Issue : 

1. Hannah F. 

2. Henry C. 

3. Paul Clifford. 

4. Henrietta F. 

5. Mary H. 

6. Margaret. 

3. Frank, m. Emeline D. Ware, of Bridgeton, N. J. Issue : 

1. Elizabeth B. 

2. Alice D. 

4. John Preston. 
I. Margaret D. 

3. Edward. 

4. Preston C. 

5. Hannah Ann, m. Nathan Baker. Issue : 

1. Preston. 

2. Mary. 

6. Margaret Woodnut, b. 1774; dau. of James Mason and Margaret (Carpenter) Wood- 

nut; m. William T. Shinn. Issue: 



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388 DESCENT OF THE CARPENTER BRANCH, 



1. Emeline. 

2. Elizabeth. 

3. Samuel. 

4. Martha, m. Hon. Isaiah D. Clawsow, M. D., member of 34th and 35th Congress 

of the United States. Issue : 
I. W'iUiam. 

5. Mary, m. Thomas Reed, M. D., of Philadelphia. Issue : 

1. Charles. 

2. Emeline. 

7. Elizabeth Woodnut, dau. of James Mason and Margaret (Carpenter) Woodnut, m. 
Morris Hall, of Salem County, N. J. Issue : 

1. Margaretta W., m. John W. Righter. Issue: 

1. Elizabeth W. 

2. James H. 

3. William W. 

4. John C. 

2. James W. m., 1st, Jane Jarman, and 2d, Catharine Mulford. 

. Martha Carpenter, b. Aug. 19, 1 760; dau. of Preston and Hannah (Smith) Carpenter; 
m Joseph Reeve, of Salem County, N. J. Issue ; 

1. Samuel, d. s. p. ; m. Achsah Stratton. 

2. Milicent, d. s. p.; m. Joseph Owen. 

3. Joseph. 

4. Mary. 



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DESCENDANTS OF RICHARD PRESTON THROUGH HIS 
DAUGHTER NAOMI PRF:ST0N. WHO MARRIED WIL- 
LIAM BERRY OF BATTLE CREEK. CALVERT COUNTY. 

William Berry settled on 900 acres of land, surveyed for his father, James Berry, in 
1653 on the north side of Patuxent River, a few miles above the Preston homestead. He 
was a member of Assembly, and prominent in public affairs. 

By his first wife, Naomi Preston, he had three children : 

(2) William Berry, Jr., m., Sept. 9, 1686, Naomi, dau. of Shadrach Whalley of 

Bucks County, Pennsylvania; d. June 30, 1693. (3) James Berry, m., April 
14, 1686, 1st, Sarah, dau. of Henry and Elizabeth Wolchurch ; m., April II, 
1691, 2d, Elizabeth, dau. of John and Frances Pitt ; d. Feb., 1699. (4) Re- 
becca Berry, m., Nov. 28, 1686, James Ridley and moved to New Jersey. 

(3) James Berry and Sarah Wolchurch had one child : 

(5) Rebecca Berry, b. Nov. 3, 1688 ; m., at St. Peter's Parish, Md., Dec. 8, 1708, 
George, son of William and Isabel Troth. 

(3) James Berry and Elizabeth Pitt had five children : 

(6) William Berry, b. July 29, 1693. (7) Susanna Berry, b. July 29, 1693. (8) 
Elizabeth Berry. (9) James Berry, b. 1696; m., Nov. 12, 1724, Sarah, dau. 
of Kenelm and Lydia (Croxton) Skillington. (10) Margaret Berry, m., Jan. 
3, 17 16, William Edmondson. 

(9) James Berry and Sarah Skillington had ten children : 

(11) John Berry, b. Feb. 24, 1726; m. Rebecca, dau. of John and Elizabeth 
(Harrison) Dickinson. (12) Thomas Berry, b. Dec. 28, 1727. (13) James 
Berry, b. Dec. 19, 1729, m., 1st, June 28, 1758, Elizabeth, dau. of Daniel 
and Mary (Sherwood) Powell ; m., 2d, May 29, 1768, Susanna, dau. of Joseph 
and Sarah Maxfield ; m., 3d, April 15, 1776, Mary, dau. of Joseph and Hannah 
Bonsall. (14) Joseph Berry, b. Feb. 11, 1731 ; m., March 27, 1752, Sarah, 
dau. of Thomas and Sarah (Harwood) Cockayne. (15) Benjamin Berry, b. 
Sept. 24, 1734. (16) Benjamin Berrj*, b. Aug. 24, 1736; m.. May, 1769, 
Sarah, dau. of Thomas and Sarah Lightfoot. (17) Elizabeth Berry, b. Nov. 
7, 1739; m., April 24, 1763, (Jarrett Sipple. (18) Sarah Berry, b. June 30, 
1742. (19) Rachel Berry, b. April 10, 1745. (20) Lydia Berry, b. April 10, 
1745 ; m., Oct. 28, 1768, .Samuel, son of Samuel Hanson. 

(11) John Berry and Rebecca Dickinson had one child : 

(21) Elizabeth Berry, b. Veh. 7, 1754 ; d. Sept. 2, 1830 ; m.. May 16, 1774, James, 
son of James and Ann (Tilton) Morris. 

389 



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390 DESCENDANTS OF RICHARD PRESTON. 

(13) James Berry and Elizabeth Powell had three children : 

(22) Ann Berry, b. March 20, 1760 ; m., 1st., Feb. 28, 1780, Robert, son of Isaac 
and Mary Dixon; ra., 2d, Oct. 2, 1783, Samuel, son of Henry and Sarah 
(Paschall) Troth. (23) Mary Berry, b. Oct. 26, 1761 ; m., Jan. 3, 1788, 
Christopher BrufT. (24) Thomas Berry, b. May 13, 1764 ; d. June 8, 1764. 

(22) Ann Berry and Robert Dixon had one child : 

(25) James Dixon, b. July i, 1781 ; d. Dec. 22, 1848 ; m., Oct. 14, 1781, Ann, 
dau. of James and Mary (Pierce) Iddings. 

(22) Ann Berry and Samuel Troth had seven children : 

(26) Elizabeth Powell Troth, b. Sept. 4, 1784; d. Jan. 8, 1813, s. p. ; m., April 
18, 1811, Edward, son of Tristram and Anna (Buckbee) Needles. (27) 
Samuel Troth, b. Sept., 1786 ; d. inf. (28) Sarah Paschall Troth, b. Oct. 31, 
1787 ; d. unm. about 1822. (29) Ann Berry Troth, b. Oct. 2, 1 791 ; d. unm. 
March 13, 1858. (30) Henry Troth, b. Sept. 4, 1794 ; d. May 22, 1842 ; m., 
Nov. 29, 1816, Henrietta, dau. of Peter and Elizabeth (Osborne) Henri. 
(31) Mary Bonsall Troth, b. Feb. 8, 1797; d. Feb. 25, 1875; m., May 23, 
l8i6, William Kersey Austin. (32) Samuel Fothergill Troth, b. May 7, i8oi ; 
d. Nov. 18, i886; m., 1st, Aug. 28, 1828, Mary, dau. of John and Elizabeth 
(Brown) Trimble ; m., 2d, Aug. 14, 1856, Alice, dau. of Clayton and Elizabeth 
(Newell) Taylor. 

(23) Mary Berry and Christopher BrufT had six children : 

{^i) Daniel Bruff, b. ; d. 1806. (34) Hannah BrufT, b. ; d. March 16, 

1814 ; m.. May 19, 1808, Richard Levick. (35) Lydia BrufT, d. April 8, 1857 ; 
m., 1st, 1813, Godwin Pearce ; m., 2d, William Greaves. (36) Mary BrufT, 
d. young. (37) James Berry BrufT, b. Sept. 26, 1797 ; m., April I, 1821, 
Sarah, dau. of Anthony and Hannah (French) Morris. (38) Charles BrufT, 
b. Nov. 24, 1800 ; d. Nov. 8, 1841 ; m., May 12, 1825, Hannah Field, dau. 
of Harrison and Phebe Palmer. 

(25) James Dixon and Ann Iddings had seven children : 

(39) James Dixon, d. young. (40) Mary Ann Dixon, m. Charles Boyd. (41) 
James Norris Dixon, b. March 30, 1810 ; m. Elizabeth Coddington. (42) 
Franklin M. Dixon, b. April 15, 1819 ; d. June 4, 1893 ; m. Elizabeth, dau. 
of Solomon and Harriet (Alexander) Alter. (43) Caleb Iddings Dixon, b. 
1821 ; d. Dec. 22, 1890 ; m. Henrietta, dau. of William K. and Mary 
B. (Troth) Austin. (44) Henry Troth Dixon, d. unm. (45) William 
Bartlett Dixon, b. Nov. 30, 1827 ; m., Sept. 12, 1850, Mary, dau. of Eli and 
Sarah Merkins. 

(30) Henry Troth and Henrietta Henri had ten children : 

(46) Anna Troth, b. Dec. 30, 1818 ; d. Jan. lo, 1881 ; m., Oct. I, 1840, George 
Morrison, son of George M. and Rebecca (Homor) Coates. (47) Eliza Henri 
Troth, b. Oct. 10, 1820 ; d. Aug. 2, 1890 ; m., April 10, 1844, Joseph P. H., 
son of George M. and Rebecca (Homor) Coates. (48) William P. Troth, b. 
April 2, 1823; m., 1st, April 23, 1845, Emma M., dau. of Jacob M. and 
Keturah (Gorgas) Thomas ; m., 2d, May 9, i860, Clara Gordon, dau. of Samuel 



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DESCENDANTS OF RICHARD PRESTON. 391 



and Mira (Sharpless) Townsend. (49) Henry Morris Troth, b. April 15, 
1825 ; d. Oct. 17, 1826. (50) Henrietta M. Troth, b. March 8, 1827 ; m., 
Nov. 16, 1850, Edward Y., son of John W. and Sibilla (Kirk) Townsend. 
(51) Louisa Troth, b. Feb. 17, 1829 ; d. Sept. 10, 1850. (52) Henry Morris 
Troth, b. Sept. 29, 1831 ; d. Dec. 28, 1864 ; m.. May 18, 1853, Sarah J., dau. 
of Isaac and Lydia (Hart) Remington. (53) Edward Troth, b. Sept. I, 
1833 ; m., 1st, Nov. 1 1, 1858, Elizabeth, dau. of Andrew and Ann (Thomas) 
Manderson ; m., 2d, May 30, 1878, Linda H., dau. of David and Lydia (Gil- 
bert) Brooks. (54) Samuel Troth, b. Sept. i6, 1835, m., March ii, 1857, 
Anna, dau. of Nathaniel and Ann (Thomas) Speakman. (55) Emily Troth, 
b. March 31, 1838 ; d. April I, 1838. 

(31) Mary B. Troth and William K. Austin had four children : 

(56) Samuel T. K. Austin, b. Feb. 8, 1817 ; d. Aug. 10, 1827. (57) Rebecca 
Ann Austin, b. Oct. II, 1818 ; d. Sept. 3, 1822. (58) Sallie Ann Austin, b. 
Oct. 28, 1821. (59) Henrietta Austin, b. March 7, 1825 ; d. Feb. 2, 1897 ; 
m. Caleb Iddings, son of James and Ann (Iddings) Dixon. 

(32) Samuel F. Troth and Mary Trimble had nine children : 

(60) Samuel Troth, d. young. (61) Elizabeth Trimble Troth, b. June 15, 1831. 
(62) John T. Troth, b. Oct. 31, 1833 ; d. Nov. 20, i860; m., Oct. 30, 1856, 
Elizabeth Taylor, dau. of John H. and Alice (Taylor) Lippincott. (63) Mary 
J. Troth, d. young. (64) Samuel B. Troth, d. young. (65) Anna Berry 
Troth, b. April 19, 1840. (66) Mary Troth, b. Jan. 31, 1843. (67) Sarah 
Jane Troth, b. Oct. 18, 1844. (68) Samuel Henry Troth, b. Jan. 18, 1851 ; 
m., 1st, June 27, 1883, Anna M., dau. of .Samuel R. and Anna (Shinn) Ship- 
ley ; m., 2d, Oct. 6, 1887, Josephine, dau. of William L. and Laura (Pleasants) 
Corse. 

(37) James Berry Bruff and Sarah Morris had twelve children : 

(69) Lydia Bruff, b. Jan. 26, 1822; m., March 27, 1851, William H., son of 
Samuel and Rachel (Heald) Oliphant. (70) Hannah Bruff, b. Aug. 27, 1823 ; 
d. Oct. II, 1882; m., March 29, 1849, Edward, son of Richard and Sarah 
Williams. (71) Charies Bruff, d. young. (72) Joseph Bruff, b. March 16, 
1827 ; d. Nov. 14, 1885 ; m. Anna M., dau. of John and Ann Ogden. (73) 
Mary Bruff, b. May 3, 1829 ; m., July 27, 1848, Benjamin C, son of John and 
Edna Andrews. (74) James Morris Bruff, d. young. (75) Sarah Bruff, b. 
Aug. 4, 1833 ; ro» Aug. 30, 1859, Tristram, son of Edward and Sophia Cog- 
geshall. (76) Esther Bruff, b. Oct. 9, 1835 ; m., March 28, 1877, Isaac N., 
son of Benjamin Miles. (77) Henrietta Bruff, d. young. (78) Elizabeth 
Bruff, b. .Sept. 14, 1838 ; m., Oct. 27, 1864, Lindley M., son of Joel and Mary 
Ann Kirk. (79) Anna Louisa Bruff, d., aged 32. (80) Susan Bruff, d. 
young. 

(38) Charles Bruff and Hannah Palmer had six children : 

(81) Phebe Ann Bruff, d. young. (82) Richard P. Bruff, b. May 5, 1827 ; m., 
June 17, 1852, Phebe Jenkins. {S;^) Charies Bruff, b. Dec. 6, 1828; d. July 
12, 1878; m., Jan. 19, 1865, Katherine, dau. of Alfred Kearny. (84) Har- 



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392 DESCENDANTS OF RICHARD PRESTON. 



rison Bruff, d. young. (85) Phebe P. Bruff, b. Aug. 20, 1831 ; m. William B. 
Isaacs. (86) James B. Bruff, b. June 8, 1833 ; d. March 5, 1883 ; m., Nov. 
5, 1856, Sibyl, dau. of Lindsey and Anna W. Cobb. 

(41) James Norris Dixon and Elizabeth Coddington had seven children : 

George Cadwallader Dixon, Sarah Elizabeth Dixon, Bartlett Dixon and Harriet 
Jemima Dixon d. young. (87) Beulah Ann Dixon, b. 1832; m. Charles A. 
Rexstrew. (88) Mary Iddings Dixon, b. 1837 ; m. Joseph Montgomery. 
(89) Alexander Henry Dixon. 

(42) Franklin M. Dixon and Elizabeth Alter had nine children : 

Heber Alter Dixon, Harriett Ann Dixon, Catherine Alexander Dixon, Helen May 
Dixon and Emily Dixon d. young. (90) Alice Elizabeth Dixon, b. Feb. 27, 
1866. (91) Lilian Dixon, b. March 29, 1868. (92) Emily Dixon, b. June 
14, 1876. (93) Ethel Mendenhall Dixon, b. Nov. 9, 1879. 

(43) Caleb I. Dixon and Henrietta Austin had two children : 

(94) William Dixon, d. young. (95) Charles A. Dixon, m. Anna M. Hancock. 

(45) William Bartlett Dixon and Mary Merkins had seven children : 

(96) James Dixon, b. July 2, 1851. (97) William J. Dixon, b. June 28, 1852 ; 
m., 1877, Annie, dau. of Thomas Webster. (98) Sallie Dixon, b. Dec. 12. 
1854; m., Sept. 17, 1891, William J. Woodside. (99) Charles B. Dixon, b. 
Dec. 30, 1857. (100) Mary Ann Dixon, b. Nov. 20, 1861. (loi) Lizzie A. 
Dixon, b. Feb. 15, 1865; m., Oct. 8, 1889, William Baird. (102) I^wis 
Dixon, b. May 9, 1866. 

(46) Anna Troth and George Morrison Coates had six children : 

Emily Coates and Charles H. Coates d. young. (103) Henry Troth Coates, b. 
Sept 29, 1843; m., June 25, 1874, Estelle Barton, dau. of John and Esther 
(Malcolm) Lloyd. (104) William M. Coates, b. Oct. 19, 1845 ; m., Sept 30. 
1869, Anna Morris, dau. of John and Esther (Malcolm) Lloyd. (105) Joseph 
Homor Coates, b. Aug. 22, 1849 ; m., June lo, 1873, Elizabeth Gardner, dau. 
of Joseph C. and Elizabeth (Sherman) Potts. (106) Samuel Coates, b. June 
10, 1853 ; d. Oct. 5, 1871. 

(47) Eliza H. Troth and Joseph P. H. Coates had two children : 

(107) George M. Coates, Jr., b. March 27, 1845 ; d. Nov. 12, 1894 ; m., Nov. 9, 
1871, Laura, dau. of John and Esther (Malcolm) Lloyd. (108) Edward H. 
Coates, b. Nov. 12, 1846 ; m., April II, 1872, Ella Mary, dau. of Joseph C 
and Elizabeth (Sherman) Potts; m., Jan. 7, 1879, Florence, dau. of (Jeorge 
H. and F'anny (Van Leer) Elarle. 

(48) William P. Troth and Emma M. Thomas had two children : 

(109) Helen Troth, b. Sept. 2, 1846 ; d. Nov. 4, 1896 ; m., Nov. 24, 1880, Charles 
Ridgway. (no) Anna Coates Troth, b. June, 1848 ; m., 1866, Henry Serrill, 
son of James and Hannah (Serrill) Harper. 

(48) William P. Troth and Clara G. Townsend had five children : 

(ill) Emily Stackhouse Troth, b. May 23, 1861. (112) Henrietta Troth, b. 
Aug. II, 1863; d. Sept 18, 1868. (113) Alice Gordon Troth, b. Aug. 9, 



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DESCENDANTS OF RICHARD PRESTON 393 

1865 ; m., April 27, 1886, John R., son of Anthony J. and Ellen B. (Roset) 
Drexel. (114) Lillian Sharpless Troth, b. Jan. 2, 1867; m., May 3V 1898, 
Richard van Wyck. (115) Mabel Troth, b. Dec. 3, 1871 ; d. Aug. 2, 1872. 

(50) Henrietta M. Troth and Edward Y. Townsend had two children : 

(n6) Henry Troth Townsend, b. Oct. i, 1851 ; m., May 19, 1874, Maria, dau. of 
Robert and Lydia (Baldwin) Potts. (117) John W. Townsend, b. May 29, 
1855 ; m., April 28, 1881, May, dau. of Charles and Marianna (Shreve) Sharpe. 

(52) Henry M. Troth and Sarah J. Remington had two children : 

(118) William Penn Troth, Jr., b. Nov. 22, 1854; m., June I, 1898, Theodosia, 
dau. of Theodore Ashmead, M. D., and Catherine B. T. (Clark) Ashmead. 
(119) Clement Remington Troth, b. Sept. 7, 1856; m., April 29, 1880, Mar- 
garet S., dau. of Israel Elliot and Mary (Struthers) James. 

(53) Edward Troth and Elizabeth Manderson had two children : 

(120) Annette Troth, b. Aug. 6, 1859; d. Dec. 30, 1871. (121) Andrew Man- 
derson Troth, b. Oct. 8, 1863. 

(53) Edward Troth and Linda H. Brooks had two children : 

(122) Edward Osborne Troth, b. April 2, 1881. (123) Laura Brooks Troth, b. 
Aug. 4, 1882. 

(54) Samuel Troth and Anna Speakman had five children : 

(124) Louisa Troth, b. Jan. lo, 1858; m., April 20, 1887, Joseph, son of Joshua 
and Phebe (Moore) Price. (125) Henry Troth, b. Sept. 24, 1859. (126) 
Charles Speakman Troth, b. Dec. 30, 1862; d. July 19, 1863. (127) Emma 
Troth, b. March 5, 1869. (128) Anna Coates Troth, b. July 24, 1870. 

(68) Samuel Henry Troth and Anna M. Shipley had one child : 
(129) John Theodore Troth, b. May 30, 1884. 

(68) Samuel Henr>' Troth and Josephine Corse had three children : 

(130) Anna M. Shipley Troth, b. May 25, 1889. (131) Miriam Troth, b. June 14, 
1892; d. Aug. 27, 1893. (132) Frederick William Troth, b. Aug. 10, 1895 ; 
d. Sept. 24, 1898. 

(69) Lydia Bruff and William H. Oliphant had three children : 

(133) Anna Sina Oliphant, b. Feb. 22, 1855 ; d. March 9, 1886 ; m., March 24, 
1875, Charles C, son of Moses and Ann (Carr) Gruwell. (134) Sarah B. 
Oliphant, d. young. (135) William B. Oliphant, d. young. 

(70) Hannah Bruff and Edward Williams had one child : 

(136) Sarah B. Williams, b. Jan. 3, 1850; m., July 8, 1896, Abram Maris. 

(72) Joseph Bruff and Anna M. Ogden had six children : 

(137) Charies Bruff, b. June 28, 1851 ; d. Nov. 8, 1871. (138) James B. Bniff, b. 
May 29, 1853; m.. May 30, 1883, Jessie H. Cartland. (139) Martha Bruff, 
d. young. (140) Edward Ogden Bruff, d. young. (141) Sarah Bruff, b. Aug. 
18, 1866; d. Dec. 10, 1892. (142) Joseph Carroll Bruff, d. young. 



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394 DESCENDANTS OF RICHARD PRESTON. 



(73) Mary BrufF and Benjamin Crew Andrews had twelve children : 

(143) Edwin Andrews, b. May 3, 1849; m. Helen Sewward. (144) James B. 
Andrews, b. Oct. 30, 1850 ; d. March 20, 1868. (14S) Charles Andrews, b. 
April 14, 1852; m., Feb. 25, 1874, Axie Heald. (146) I^uisa Andrews, b. 
Dec. 28, 1853; m., Sept. 16, 1881, John S. McCracken. (147) Willis 
Andrews, b. Feb. 18, 1856. (148) Joseph John Andrews, b. Feb. 18, 1858; 
m., Feb. 24, 1883, Rhoda Hodson. • (149) Almira Andrews, d. young. 
(150) Albert Henry Andrews, b. Dec. 21, 1861 ; m., Sept., 1886, Hattie 
Frazey. (151) Benjamin F. Andrews, b. Feb. 26, 1864. (152) Alsina 
Andrews, b. Jan. 11, 1866. (153) Luther J. Andrews, b. April 29, 1868. 
(154) Sarah Bruflf Andrews, b. Dec. 30, 1870. 

(75) Sarah Bruflf and Tristram Coggeshall had five children : 

(155) William Coggeshall, d. young. (156) Anna Mary Coggeshall, d. young. 
(157) James Edward Coggeshall, b. March 23, 1869; m.. May 27, 1896, 
Margaret Stacy. (158) Alice Esther Coggeshall, b. Oct. 12, 1872. (159) Oliver 
T. Coggeshall, d. young. 

(78) Elizabeth Bruflf and Lindley M. Kirk had four children : 

(160) Alice Troth Kirk, b. Sept. 4, 1866. (161) Lorena J. Kirk, b. July 26, 
1869. (162) Willard B. Kirk, b. Aug. 18, 1870. (163) Anna Laura Kirk, 
b. April 26, 1877. 

(82) Richard P. Bruflf and Phebe Jenkins had two children : 

(164) Charles Bruflf, b. June 28, 1853 ; d. March 30, 1892. (165) William Jenkins 
Bruflf, b. Nov. 21, 1854; m., Dec. 3, 1878, Edith Mary, dau. of Edward 
Haynes. 

(83) Charles Bruff and Katherine Kearny had six children : 

(166) Emma K. Bruflf, b. May 23, 1866. (167) Isabel Bruflf, b. July 17, 1867. 

(168) Richard K. Bruflf, b. July 20, 1869. (169) Charies P. Bruflf, b. Nov. 

20, 1871. (170) Alfred K. Bruflf, b. Feb. 6, 1874. (171) Archibald L Bruflf, 
b. Dec. 2, 1875. 

(85) Phebe Bruflf and William B. Isaacs had four children : 
(172) Mary. (173) William. (174) Richard. (175) Charles. 

(86) James B. Bruflf and Sibyl Cobb had three children : 

(176) Hannah Bruflf, b. Sept. 30, 1857. (177) William W. Bruflf, b. Aug. 19, 
i860 ; m., March 21, 1888, Mary A., dau. of W. A. and Eleanor F. Covington. 
(178) Robert Bruflf, b. Sept. 28, 1868. 

(95 ) Charles A. Dixon and Anna M. Hancock had two children : 
(179) Edward Dixon, m. Lulu Brown. {180) Susanna Dixon. 



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Elizabeth Schuyler, 

(Mrs. AltW'iUidir I {(Dniltoii ) 



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THE SCHUYLERS. 



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THE SCHUYLERS. 



The interest in the Schuyler family naturally centres 
around the *' Schuyler House " at Albany, a mansion teem- 
ing with Revolutionary associations, family anecdotes, and 
interesting traditions. Correctly speak- 
ing, there are three Schuyler houses in 
New York State, around which many 
pleasant memories are woven. 

These old homes are yet all stand- 
ing. The first, and perhaps oldest of 
them, is that on the west bank of the 
Hudson River four miles north of 
Albany. The land upon which this 
house stands was purchased over two 
hundred years ago by Philip Pietersen 
Schuyler, whose descendants up to a 
few years ago occupied it, and proba- 
bly continue to do so. 

Near this house is the family grave- 
yard, wherein rest many of the Schuyler 
family of the earlier generation. Here 
reposes the dust of Johannes, father of 
General Philip Schuyler — of that Philip Schuyler who married 
** the American lady of social fame,'* and historic memory, and 
whose grave is near by. The original house, noted for the 
hospitality extended within its walls by its ancient owners, 




SCHUYLER ARMS. 



397 



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398 THE SCHUYLERS. 



especially during the French and Indian Wars, when it served 
as a place of retreat for many of the English officers, was of 
stone, and after the early Dutch style of architecture — steep- 
roofed with heavy gables. It was quite large and contained 
many comfortable apartments. The end of the French War 
brought it a sadder story. Here Lord Howe's corpse was 
brought, where so often he had contributed to the gayeties 
of the dinner- table, and here was established a hospital after 
Abercrombie's defeat. The mansion was afterward, just 
before the breaking out of the Revolution, destroyed by 
fire, but almost immediately after restored to its original 
aspect. 

At Schuylerville is another Schuyler mansion. The first 
house here was the property of an uncle of General Schuyler, 
who was burned to death with his home by the French and 
Indians. The land then came to General Schuyler. Here 
the latter built a new residence and also erected saw- and 
grist-mills, but they, with the house, were destroyed by Bur- 
goyne. Afterward General Schuyler built a third house 
there, which is of wood, and is not occupied now by any 
members of the Schuyler family. 

We now come to the third mansion of the name, and the 
one usually meant when the expression *' Schuyler Mansion" 
is used. It is situated at Albany, and was built when Albany 
was still a frontier town open to attack from the French and 
Indians. The mansion was built by General Bradstreet, 
probably shortly after his victory at Fort Frontenac, and was 
not, we are informed by its historian, Mr. Mather, erected by 
Mrs. Schuyler during her husband's absence in Europe, *'as 
frequently stated.*' Mr. Mather in his article in the Alag- 
azine of American History also denies that the grounds 
ever extended to the river, or that there formerly existed 
thereto an underground passage, because, as he truly says, 



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THE SCHUYLERS, 401 



a large portion of the land thereabouts was ** common 
pasturage/* 

According to the facts presented, therefore, the Schuyler 
house at Albany was finished about 1760, or a few years 
earlier or later, and was purchased by General Schuyler after 
Bradstreet*s death, which occurred in September, 1774. 
Schuyler, it must be remembered, was Bradstreet*s executor, 
and after his death went to England to settle up the estate. 

There are yet extant in Albany the remains of a building 
which might properly be designated as another Schuyler 
house, as some of the earlier members of the family are 
said to have been born within its walls. Here, also, General 
Schuyler is said to have resided prior to his marriage and 
before he purchased General Bradstreet's house. 

The great Schuyler mansion at the time of its erection stood 
about half a mile beyond the stockade and a quarter of a mile 
beyond the river. The grounds **were ample,** and the gar- 
den and orchard of General Bradstreet not only maintained, 
but greatly improved by the Schuylers, were long noted for 
rare flowers and choice fruits. The house, unlike most of the 
older buildings in Albany, is entirely of brick, and stands to- 
day in the midst of a busy city. It has been painted a colonial 
yellow, which blends it so pleasantly with the trees and 
shrubbery with which it is mingled that it often entirely 
escapes the visitor s notice. Rows of horse-chestnut trees 
grow upon the terrace before it, and the hedge of lilacs is 
obscured from view by a stout board fence and a nailed-up 
gate. Those who desire to enter the grounds must do so 
from the rear. 

The main building is about sixty feet square, having the 
front toward the east. An owner who lived subsequently 
to the General added a "hexagon,** which forms a sort 
of vestibule or *' outer hall.'* Seven great windows, gen- 



57 



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402 THE SCHUYLERS. 



erously glazed, pierce the front wall. Steps of an antique pat- 
tern, with accompanying railings, bring us from the terraced 
lawn to the vestibule. The roof is described as **double- 
hipped,*' and balustrades are ** carried all about the roof 
and across the dormers^''^ 

The hall is thirty feet long by twenty feet wide, and 
the ceiling is twelve feet from the floor. In either wall, 
besides the great double doors, are narrow windows, afford- 
ing additional light. The hall is wainscoted in oak painted 
white, in harmony with the beautifully carved cornices. A vivid 
blue paper, a late decoration, brings the whitened woodwork 
into strong relief. 

At the end of the great hall are the rear hall and the stair- 
way, approached by a smaller door with a glazed transom 
set in leaden sashes. There are only two other doors in the 
hall. One of these leads to a living-room, and the other to 
the famous drawing-room in which the wedding of General 
Schuyler's second daughter, Elizabeth, and Alexander Ham- 
ilton took place. This apartment is also noted for another 
historical wedding, for here ex-President Fillmore espoused 
Mrs. Mcintosh, who was a subsequent owner of the mansion. 

The interior decorations of the apartment thus made 
famous are unique and purely Colonial. Carved woodwork 
abounds. The panelling is in keeping with the general archi- 
tectural effects. There are four deeply-cased windows, which 
afford ample and cheerful light. 

The Hamilton wedding which here occurred, we are in- 
formed, is the only one in his family which gave General 
Schuyler any happiness, for his other daughters were married 
without his consent "and away from home.'' 

The study used by General Schuyler was in the rear of 
the drawing-room and connected with another apartment. 
"Accurate measurements," writes Mr. Mather have ** shown 



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THE SCHUYLERS. 



405 



that a space of about four feet square close to one of the 
chimneys cannot be accounted for in any other way than that 
it forms the access to a concealed way that led under ground 
to the barrack or fortified house about fifteen rods distant. 




PARLOR, SCHUYLER MANSION. 

The recent caving in of this covered way has revealed its 
location and direction, but the secret passage in the house 
cannot be explored without materially damaging the build- 
ing." 

The other apartments throughout are in keeping with 
those we have described, and the woodwork in all is richly 
carved. 

Having thus briefly given a description of the Schuyler 



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4o6 THE SCHUYLERS. 



houses of New York, we will speak of those who once lived 
in the old rooms, and of the many interesting and romantic 
stories and historical events connected with their lives. 

In the year 1650 there arrived at New Amsterdam the 
brothers David and Philip Pietersen Van Schuyler. They 
were, as their name implies, the sons of Peter Van Schuyler, 
who is said by tradition to have been an estimable merchant 
of the city of Amsterdam in Holland. These immigrants 
were the ancestors of the various Schuyler families of Amer- 
ica, some of whom have become sufficiently prominent in the 
times in which they lived to be remembered by posterity. 

At first the name appears as ** Van Schuyler/* which means, 
only, that they had originally lived at some town of that name 
in the Netherlands, very few Dutch families of that day 
amongst the middle classes having any fixed surname. Such 
a place, however, says an authority, cannot be found on 
the map of Holland, nor does the name appear among the 
names of recognized families in the Dutch records of that 
day. 

That the family, however, was early of some importance 
is evident from the fact that Philip Schuyler used a coat- 
of-arms directly upon his arrival in the province of New 
Netherlands. These arms may be thus described : 

** Argent, a falcon sable, hooded gules, beaked and mem- 
bered or, perched upon the sinister hand of the falconer, 
issued from the dexter side of the shield. The arm clothed 
azure, surmounted by a helmet of steel, standing in profile, 
open-faced, three bars or, lined gules, bordered, flowered, 
and studded or, and ornamented with its lambrequins argent 
lined sable.'* 

** Crest. — Out of a wreath, argent and sable, a falcon of 
the shield." 



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THE SCHUYLERS. 407 



An original copy of the arms on the old family plate has 
the legend **Filyp Pietersen Schuyler, Commissaris, 1656/* 

There is also a tradition that the family were connected 
in some way with the West India Company, and that they 
had a country-seat near Dordrecht in Gelderland. How true 
this story is it is impossible at present to say. 

The young men settled first at Fort Orange, the scene 
of the burlesque attempts of Peter Stuyvesant, the Director 
General, to engage Van Schlectenhorst, Van Rensselaer's 
agent, in mortal combat, resulting in one of the most harmless 
and, at the same time, famous encounters in modern history. 

David Schuyler, the youngest of the brothers, married 
Catlyntje, daughter of Abraham Isaacsen Planck, the owner 
of Paulus Hook, and settled at Albany, where his descend- 
ants remained and prospered. 

The other brother, whose name we will anglicize to Philip 
Peter, was born in 1628. married Margaretta, the daughter 
of Herr Brandt Arent Van Schlectenhorst, manager of the 
Patroonship of Rensselaerswyck, who was from Nieuwkirk 
in Gelderland. 

**The nuptial rites,** says Lossing in his Life of Philip 
Schuyler y ** were performed by Anthony de Hooges, the 
Secretary- of the Colony, in the presence of the officers of 
Fort Orange, the magnates of Rensselaerswyck, and some 
of the principal inhabitants. 

** Margaret Van Schlectenhorst was two-and-twenty years 
of age when she married young Schuyler, and ten children 
were the fruitful results of this union." She lived sixty years 
after her nuptials, and survived her husband more than a 
quarter of a century. She possessed great energy of char- 
acter and independence of spirit, like her father, and after 
her husband's death her wealth and position enabled her to 
exercise a controlling influence in public affairs at Albany. 



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4o8 THE SCHUYLERS, 



In 1689 she advanced funds to pay troops at Albany, and it 
is asserted that toward the close of that year she made 
a personal assault upon Milbourne, the son-in-law of Jacob 
Leisler (the usurper, as he was called, of political power at 
New York) when he came to Albany to assume command 
of the fort, then under charge of her second son, Peter, the 
first Mayor of that city and commander of the militia in the 
northern department of the Province of New York. 

Of old Philip Peter Schuyler, her husband, we know that 
he engaged in the fur-trade and made long journeys from 
home on that account, and in this way, and by assisting in 
victualling the troops at Fort Albany, he presently acquired 
a very respectable fortune. He was a magistrate at Fort 
Orange in 1656, 1657, and 1661. On April 6, 1661, he, 
with a number of others, received permission to establish the 
village of Great Esopus. In his will he is called ** Captain 
and Old Commissioner of Albany." He died on the ninth 
day of March, 1684, ^^^ ^^ the nth of the same month was 
buried in the ancient Dutch church at Albany, which stood 
then in the centre of State Street, at the intersection of 
Broadway. His wife died in 17 10. 

They had ten children : Gysbert, who died unmarried ; 
Geertruyd, who married Stephen Van Cortlandt ; Alyda, 
who married, first. Rev. Nicholas Van Rensselaer, and, 
secondly, Robert Livingston; Peter (Pieter), who married 
Maria Van Rensselaer, and became the first Mayor of Albany, 
and died in 1724; Brandt named after Van Schlectenhorst, 
his maternal grandfather, who married Cornelia Van Cort- 
landt, and settled in New York City: Governor Clinton, 
struck by his ability and influence, recommended Brandt for 
the Council, and he was accordingly elected ; Arent, married, 

first, Joanna , secondly, Swan Van Duykhuisen of Albany, 

and, thirdly, Maria , and who was ancestor of the New 



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MAJOR-GENKRAL PHILIP SCHUYLER. 



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THE SCHUYLERS, 411 

Jersey branch of the family ; Sybilla and Philip, who died ; 
Johannes (called John), of whom we will speak presently ; 
and Margaret, who espoused John Collins of Albany. 

All of the sons had been brought up among the Indians, 
Albany being then a frontier trading-post, and all were well 
versed in their ways. This gave them a great advantage in 
their earlier trading ventures, and their reputation for treating 
in Indian affairs was recognized early by the Government. 
From the time of their settlement in the New Netherlands, 
down to the Revolutionary War, the name of Schuyler is of 
almost continual occurrence in the history of New York. 

The wedding of young Philip Schuyler and the fair maid 
of Schlectenhorst took place, as we have observed, at Rens- 
selaerswyck, December 12, 1650. 

Of thirteen children. John, the grandfather of General 
Philip Schuyler, was probably the most active. **He was," 
says a writer, ** athletic, brave, and full of military aspirations.*' 

**When, in February, 1690,'' says Lossing, **a party of 
French and Indians came from the North, and at midnight 
set fire to Schenectady and butchered the unsuspecting inhab- 
itants, the vengeance of this young man was powerfully stirred, 
and he sought and obtained the command of a small force of 
white people and Indians with which to penetrate the country 
of the enemy on the borders of the St. Lawrence. He was 
then only twenty-two years of age. He received a captain's 
commission, and in August he set out *with twenty-nine 
Christians and one hundred and twenty savages,' whom he 
recruited at Lake Champlain * to go to Canada to fight the 
enemy.' They went down the lake in canoes, penetrated to 
Laprairie, destroyed considerable property, took quite a num- 
ber of prisoners, and returned with little loss after an absence 
of seventeen days. The journal of this expedition, kept by 
Captain Schuyler, reveals the fact that the elk deer were very 



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412 THE SCHUYLERS, 

abundant in Northern New York at that time. They have 
now entirely disappeared/' 

John's brother, Major Peter Schuyler, followed up his 
brother's success by another expedition of a similar nature 
and in the same direction, in June of the ensuing year. On 
account, however, of the desertion of a Mohawk to the 
enemy, the foray was not so very successful. It returned 
to Albany about the close of August, with the loss of nine- 
teen men in all, and claiming that they had killed about two 
hundred French and Indians. Of the two brothers, Peter 
was perhaps the most prominent in Colonial affairs. He 
rose to be President of the Council, and was of great use 
in Indian affairs. 

Captain John Schuyler meantime was busily employed. 
In 1698, Governor Bellomont sent him to Count Frontenac 
with a view of interviewing him regarding his attitude 
respecting the Five Nations. This delicate and exceedingly 
dangerous mission he accomplished with success and to the 
eminent satisfaction of the Governor. Not content with the 
successful interview with the French commander, young 
Schuyler on his way home quietly sounded the various 
Indians he met upon their attitude toward the French, and 
this he did m a manner that appeared so harmless and disin- 
terested that he was enabled, by taking notes, to give the 
government invaluable information. In May of the following 
year he was chosen, with John Bleecker, a commissioner to 
hold a general council with the Five Nations at a place desig- 
nated in the records as Onondaga Castle. This mission, 
requiring equally careful and diplomatic treatment, besides 
a thorough knowledge of the treacherous nature of the 
savages and of their several languages, or, rather, dialects, 
Captain Schuyler successfully conducted, and returned with 
his usual store of newly-acquired information. 



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THE SCHUYLERS. 4^3 



In the year 1 705 he was chosen a member of the Provin- 
cial Assembly, in which body he continued as a member until 
1 7 13. Having acquired a very large estate, principally in 
land in the neighborhood of Albany, his capital having been 
largely acquired in the fur-trade, he died in 1747. 

Captain John Schuyler had been married in April, 1695, 
in the little old Dutch church in Albany, by Dominie Dillius, 
to Elizabeth Staats, the widow of John Wendel, by whom he 
had several children, the eldest being John Schuyler, of whom 
there is nothing of especial importance to relate, except that, 
being his father s prospective heir, he never exerted himself 
more than was absolutely necessary. He was born in 1 697, bap- 
tized October 31st of that year, married his cousin, Cornelia, 
youngest daughter of Stephen Van Cortlandt of New York 
City, and died six years before his father, in 1741. He lies 
buried, as before mentioned, in the family graveyard at **The 
Flats " (now Watervliet), and left five small children, the 
eldest of whom was Philip, born 20th November, 1733, and 
baptized the same day, afterward famous as General Schuyler 
of the Revolutionary War, and the purchaser from the Brad- 
street estate of the famous Schuyler house at Albany. 

Of Peter Schuyler the brother of Captain John, usually 
designated as ** Major Peter** in the family annals, we have 
spoken briefly in connection with his expedition, partially 
unsuccessful, against the French and Indians. In many ways 
Peter was the most prominent of the Colonial Schuylers, and 
his name appears more often than others in the archives of 
the Province. 

Lossing, in his work above quoted, says : *' He inherited 
the talents and virtues of his parents, and for many years 
was one of the most prominent men in the Province. He 
was Mayor of Albany from 1686 until 1694, ^^^ was the first 
chosen magistrate of that city after its incorporation in 1683, 



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414 THE SCHUYLERS. 



the year before his father died. In 1688 he was commis- 
sioned major of the militia, and toward the close of the fol- 
lowing year he was placed in command of the fort at Albany. 
It was about that time that Milbourne went up with some 
armed men to take Schuyler s place; but the latter, aided by 
some Mohawk Indians who were in the neighborhood, suc- 
cessfully resisted his pretensions. 

** Over the Mohawks, the most noble of the nations of the 
Iroquois Confederation, Peter Schuyler then had almost un- 
bounded control ; and until that league was broken, and the 
nations had dwindled to a few hundreds in the State of New 
York at the close of the last century, the Schuyler family had 
no competitors in influence and friendship with those sons 
of the forest, except Sir William Johnson. They always 
treated the Indian as a brother and friend, dealt honorably 
with him, and never deceived him in word or deed." 

We have mentioned the destruction of the first Schuyler 
house at Schuylerville, and the death of young Philip Schuy- 
ler s uncle. 

The house was, as stated, of brick, and built for defence 
against the Indians, having the walls pierced for muskets. 
In 1745, Marin crossed Lake Champlain with the intention 
of attacking the English settlements on the Connecticut 
River. The expedition, which consisted, as usual, of equal 
numbers of French and Indians, was met at Crown Point by 
Father Picquet, the French prefect apostolique to Canada. 
At his suggestion and the representation of the Iroquois 
warriors the part)^ proceeded southward to attack Albany, 
or, as it was then called, Fort Orange. 

On the night of November 28th, Marin, accompanied 
by Father Picquet, approached with his savage warriors, 
the settlement of Saratoga, then a straggling town of some 
thirty families. The surprise was most complete. The fort 



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THE SCHUYLERS, 



415 



and the houses were burnt to the ground, a number of per- 
sons murdered, and one hundred and nine men, women, and 
children bound into a captivity worse than death. 

Beauvais, a French officer who knew Philip Schuyler and 
had some regard for him, hurried to his house and com- 
manded him to surrender, "assuring him at the same time 
that he should suffer no personal injury." 




SCHUYLER HOUSE, SCHUYLERVILLE, N. Y. 

It would have been prudent, probably, to have done so ; 
but perhaps Schuyler, from past experience, knew just how 
much reliance might be placed on assurances that the Iroquois 
would prevent their officers from fulfilling, and determined 
to die, like the brave man he was, in the ruins of his blazing 
home. He had barred the doors and armed himself, and by 
way of reply called Beauvais a dog and fired a fusee at him. 
**L'autre luy repon dit qu*il 6toit un chien et qu'il le voutait 
tuer en effet luy tira en coup de fusil.*' The Frenchman 
again implored him to surrender, but the only reply was a 



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4l6 THE SCHUYLERS. 



second shot, which came nearer than the first. Beauvais 
returned the fire, mortally wounding the gallant Dutchman, 
and then ordered his men to storm and pillage the house, 
which they did, and then set it on fire. The body of Schuyler 
and some persons concealed in the cellar were consumed in 
the flames. 

Early the following morning, with the shrieks of fatherless 
children and the loud weeping of widows, wretched captives, 
mingling strangely with the chanted Te Deum of their chaplain, 
the conquerors left the smoking ruins and turned their foot- 
steps to the North. 

In the mean time, the New Jersey branch of the family 
was climbing to distinction. It had been founded, as we have 
observed, by Arent, born 1662, fourth son of old Philip 
Pietersen. 

Arent went to New York and engaged in trade. Like 
his brothers, he was well versed in Indian affairs. It was on 
this account that Governor Fletcher in 1694 appointed him 
a commissioner to visit the Indians at Mennissinck, which he 
did, making a detailed report of his trip. " Y' 6th *' [Feb- 
ruary], writes Arent, '* Wednesday, about eleaven a clock 
I arrived att the Mennissinck, and there I- mett with two 
ther Sachems and several other Indians, of whome I enquired 
after some news, if the French or their Indians had sent for 
them or been in y* Mennisinck Country. Upon w'^'' they 
answered that noe French nor any of the French Indians 
were nor had been in the Mennissinck Country nor there- 
abouts, and did promise yt if the French should hapen to 
come yt they heard of it, that they would forthwith send 
a messenger an give y"" Excellency notice thereof;" which 
no doubt they had no intention of doing. Again, in 1709 
he held a meeting with the Sachems of the same tribe at 
Perth Amboy. 



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THE SCHUYLERS. 4^7 

On the 6th of June, 1695, Arent Schuyler, together with 
Anthony Brockholst, purchased of the Indians 4000 acres 
of land near Pequannock, and in the same year they bought 
the title of the Proprietors of East Jersey to that tract for 
the sum of ;^ioo. Governor Fletcher in 1697 granted 
Schuyler a patent for a large extent of land in the Minnis- 
sinck Country, called by the Indians Sankhekeneck, alias 
Maghawaem ; also a certain parcel of meadow land called 
Waimsagskmeck, containing about 1000 acres. 

Schuyler also purchased lands at New Barbadoes Neck in 
1 7 ID, from Edmund Kingsland, for the sum of ;^330, but 
afterward, having accidentally discovered copper on his land, 
quietly added to the purchase. 

In the deed of 17 10 he is described as of New Barbadoes 
Neck, so that it is probable that he had previously resided 
there. 

An amusing story is told regarding the discovery of cop- 
per on the Schuyler land : A negro slave, ploughing on the 
plantation, turned up a heavy greenish appearing stone which 
excited the fellow's curiosity. Some days after he called his 
master s attention to it. Schuyler, suspecting its nature, sent 
it to England to be analyzed. The report was that it con- 
tained eighty per cent, of copper. A path to wealth having 
thus been presented to Mr. Schuyler, he desired to reward 
the slave who had made the fortunate discovery. In due 
time he was summoned into his master's presence, and urged 
to ask for the three things which he most desired, and 
they would, if in reason, be speedily given him. The simple- 
minded fellow immediately replied : First, that he might be 
permitted to remain always with his present master ; second, 
that he might have all the tobacco he could smoke; and, 
thirdly, that he might have a dressing-gown made exactly 
like his master's, not forgetting large brass buttons. These 

58 



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4i8 THE SCHUYLERS. 



requests having been granted, he was asked to name some- 
thing else of value. After due reflection he said that he 
wanted nothing else, except more tobacco. 

The mine was well worked and was a source of revenue 
for the family for a long time. Arent Schuyler, up to the 
time of his death, had shipped to England 1386 tons, but his 
son John mined more extensively. In 1761 the mine was 
leased and an engine brought out from England. Josiah 
Hornblower, the father of Chief Justice Hornblower, is said 
to have come out from England with this machine as engineer. 
In 1765 the works were destroyed by fire, and until 1793 the 
mine was neglected. 

You may be sure that upon the acquisition of wealth the 
Schuylers of New Jersey built a fine residence. Arent 
Schuyler's residence, a large stone-and-brick building, was 
near the river, a little south of the Belleville road. John 
Schuyler and his son Arent had two fine deer-parks, stocked 
with about one hundred and -fifty deer, about three-quarters 
of a mile east from the house. 

John, the fourth child of Arent Schuyler, received by his 
father s will the copper-mines, the mansion, and the home 
plantation. He was a man of considerable talents, and was 
appointed, on the suggestion of Governor Cosby, to a seat 
in the Council of New Jersey in 1735, but resigned in 1746; 
he greatly extended and improved the mines. John Schuyler 
married in 1719 Ann Van Rensselaer, and died in 1773. leav- 
ing Arent John, who inherited the Schuyler mansion, and 
Mary, who died unmarried. 

In the journal of Lieutenant Isaac Bangs, commenced in 
April, 1776, under entries in June and July of that year, may 
be found many interesting references to Arent John Schuyler. 
Under date of June 26th we find this entry: "The party 
having finished their stints, we set off for Mr. Schuyler's, 



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THE SCHUYLERS, 421 



according to agreement. He met us about halfway with a 
chair; we had an Elegant Dinner. After Dinner Lieut. 
Wheeler returned and left Makepeace and myself with Mr. 
Schuyler. Towards Night we took a tour across the River 
west of his House, and recreated ourselves at a Public House 
by playing Bowles and drinking wine, grog, &c., in company 
with several gentlemen of Mr. Schuylers acquaintance. 
About 8 o'clock we returned to Mr. Schuylers.'* 

A few days later is this entry : " Since I have had Occasion 
to speak frequently of Mr. Schuyler, I must give a small 
Detail of his Family, which consisted of Himself, Wife, one 
small Daughter, a Mother, and Miss Polly [Mary], his Sister, 
about 13 or 14 years old, besides a Brother of his Wife and 
his family, who fled from York ; what can be said of one may 
be justly applicable to all ; viz. : considering the circum- 
stances, they are as agreeable People as ever I had the 
Pleasure of being acquainted with. Mr. Schuyler (though 
a Gentleman of Liberal Education, not more than 27 years 
of age, and one of the first estates in the Province), yet 
he inspects every work upon his Farm, which is vastly 
extensive. 

" Mrs. Schuyler (his wife and cousin, Swan Schuyler), tho 
not beautiful in her outward Form, is possessed of such 
a beautious Mind as makes her agreeable to every one 
that hath the pleasure to be acquainted with her. She, as 
dothe her Husband, taketh Pleasure in regulating the affairs 
of the Family, which, by her Diligence and Care is kept in 
the neatest order ; and the greatest Harmony and Decorum 
may be observed in every Department of the whole. Besides 
the Persons before mentioned, which compose the Family, 
are about 50 or 60 Blacks, all of whom, except those who 
are necessary for Domestic Service, live in a large convenient 
House, built for that Purpose, without the gate." 



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422 THE SCHUYLERS. 



Lieutenant Bangs thus describes the New Jersey Schuyler 
house: *'Mr. Schuyler's Mansion House is a large, grand, 
and magnificent building, built partly of stone and the rest 
of brick, most beautifully Scituate upon an eminence on the 
east Bank of what is called Hackensack River ; on the west 
side of the River, by the water, is the Road which leads to 
Hackensack, Albany, &c., by which are a considerable num- 
ber of Buildings and two churches, the one a Dutch, and 
the other an English church built by Mr. Schuyler s father. 
These, together with the Buildings standing by a straight and 
level road and the beautiful Groves on the Eminences on 
the West, afford a most delightful Prospect from the Groves 
of Mr. Schuyler's House. On the back part of the House 
is a large, neat garden, built partly for ornament and partly 
for Convenience. At the back of the garden is a prodigious 
high Hill covered with Woods. The House hath a sufficiency 
of out Houses on the South and on the North ; at a little 
distance are his Barns, sufficient to accomidate his Farm, 
which by accounts is three Miles across ; in fine, the Scitu- 
ation of this Gentleman's Dwelling, both for convenience and 
Pleasure, is the best that I ever beheld.'* 

Of Mrs. Schuyler the journal says : She ** seeth to the 
Manufacture of suitable cloathing for all the servants, all of 
which is the Produce of their own Plantation, in which she 
is helped by her Mamma & Miss Polly ; the whole is done 
with less Combustion and Noise than many Families who 
have not more than 4 or 5 Persons in the whole Family ; this 
whole Family seems to be still & quiet & serene, notwith- 
standing its magnitude and the multiplicity of Business which 
they have to transact. What added to my surprise after 
observing the regulations of this wonderful Family, was to 
understand that Mrs. Schuyler was born of & brought up 
in a Rich and genteel Family in the city of New York, where 



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THE SCHUYLERS. 423 



her Education must have been so vastly different, and noways 
connected with the Life which she now leads ; nor doth she 
cast off the Mein & Behaviour of the genteel bred Woman — 
but the whole Family live & dress in a very genteel manner, 
so far as gentillity is consistent with Reason/' 

They did not, the lieutenant continues, *' wholly slight the 
diversion of the Town, but frequently they were wont, while 
the Town was in Peace, to spend a few Days at a time in 
the City, and sometimes they make small excursions in the 
Countr)^'* 

Such was the home-life of the Schuylers of Bergen 
County. 

Not very far from the Schuyler house is the famous 
duelling-ground of Weehawken. Here, in the early morning 
of July II, 1804, fell Major-general Alexander Hamilton, 
shot by Aaron Burr in a duel not of the latter's seeking, 
and which, by every honorable means in his power, he tried 
to avoid. It is an odd coincidence that Hamilton's wife was 
a Schuyler, daughter, as we have seen, of General Philip 
Schuyler of Albany. 

We must not refrain from speaking of another member 
of the New Jersey branch of the family. Peter Schuyler, 
a son of the first Arent, is pre-eminently the head of this 
line. He was born about 1710, and married Mary, a daugh- 
ter of John Walter, a man of great wealth, residing in 
Hanover Square, New York City. In 1746, when the 
invasion of Canada was suggested, he was commissioned to 
recruit, and was placed in command of, five hundred men 
from New Jersey. He proceeded as far as Albany, but, not 
being joined by the promised reinforcements, he abandoned 
the expedition. During his encampment at Albany the 
sufferings of his men were considerable, and he wrote to 
the government that they needed **a surgeon, medicines, 



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424 THE SCHUYLERS. 



shirts, flints, colors, bread, and peas." He also made it clear "^ 
that unless they were paid they would desert in a body with 
baggage and arms. 

In answer to this appeal Governor Hamilton wrote Schuy- 
ler, May II, 1747, complimenting him upon his devotion to 
His Majesty's service, and assuring him that that very day 
there had been despatched to the men **two speckled shirts 
and one pair of shoes for each man." This noble self-sacri- 
fice on the part of the commissary department was lost upon 
both Colonel Schuyler and his troops. The former, to help 
matters out, advanced several thousand pounds out of his 
own pocket to relieve their necessities. He afterward 
marched to Saratoga to garrison the fort there, and returned 
home after the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle was concluded, in 
1748. 

In 1754, when the French and Indian War recommenced, 
the New Jersey troops were once more placed under the 
command of Colonel Schuyler. 

After a campaign of varying fortunes Schuyler was taken 
prisoner by Montcalm and sent to Quebec, where he 
remained until October, 1757, being then released upon 
parole to return in six months unless a cartel was agreed 
upon. Upon his arrival in New York he was met by a great 
public demonstration, and a handsome entertainment tendered 
him at the King's Arms Tavern. After the festivities here 
were over he set out for his home, Petersborough, a short 
distance above Newark, on the east bank of the Passaic. 
Here and in Newark he was saluted by the firing of cannon, 
and by illuminations, dinners, and other methods by which the 
Colonial folk were wont to manifest the general joy which 
** appeared amongst all the Inhabitants.'* At Princeton, 
which he shortly visited, he was magnificently entertained, 
and an address delivered him by a young lady of that town. 



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THE SCHUYLERS, 427 



who we suspect was Anice Boudinot, afterward Mrs. Stockton, 
which was partly as follows : 

" Dear to each Muse, and to thy Country dear. 
Welcome once more to breathe thy native air ; 
Not half so cheering is the solar Ray 
To the harsh Region of a Winter's Day ; 
Not half so grateful fanning Breezes rise, 
When the hot Dog Star burns the Summer Skies ; 
Caesarea's Shore with Acclamation rings, 
And, Welcome, Schuyler, every Shepherd sings." 

The expected exchange of prisoners not being effected, 
at the repeated demand of the Marquis de Vaudreuil, having 
long overstayed his parole, he returned to Montcalm, who 
sent him to Montreal. He carried with him, however, papers 
which enabled him to effect his own exchange for Sieur de 
Noyau, the commandant of Fort Frontenac, captured by 
General Bradstreet. He also succeeded in purchasing from 
the Indians at a very high price, with, it is said, his private 
funds, eighty-eight prisoners, of whom twenty-six were women 
and twelve children. During his captivity, being well sup- 
plied with money, he had fed and housed a great number 
of prisoners, principally women and children. His total 
expenditure in this way was about six thousand dollars, of 
which the authorities returned him but about one thousand 
dollars. 

In 1759 he again led his ** Jersey Blues'* into Canada. 
He spent the winter of 1759-60 at home, but rejoined the 
army, and entered Montreal when that city surrendered in 
1760. He died at his home March 7, 1762. 

Upon the death of Arent John Schuyler the Hudson 
County estate passed to his only son, John Arent Schuyler, 
born, 1779; died, 181 7. He married Catharine Van Rens- 
selaer, and had a number of children. 



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428 THE SCHUYLERS. 



There is yet another Schuyler house in New Jersey that 
deserves, at least, brief mention. 

It is that at Pompton, a most charming place and full o( 



legends of the olden time. 




CAFfAIN COLFAX. 



The Colonial building, near Pompton Lake, was acquired, 
if not erected, by Caspar, or as the family records call him, 
Casparus Schuyler, of the line of Arent the first, who was 
born in 1735. 

Caspar had an only and very beautiful and haughty 
daughter, Hester, or ** Mistress Hetty," whose memory seems 
to have lingered amongst the country people thereabout to 
the exclusion of other members of the Pompton Schuyler 
line. 



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THE SCHUYLERS. 



429 



She was, it seems, a great belle, and whilst the Conti- 
nental troops were encamped near here was courted by one 
Lieutenant, afterward Captain, Colfax, of Washington's staff, 
whose wife she eventually became, much to the subsequent 
discomfiture of this worthy officer. 

We are told that, being an heiress, she was most peculiar 
and exacting, and that in after years, even when her husband 
had become a General and a rich man on his own account, 
she frequently became most unreasonable. Once, we are 
creditably informed, she shut herself up for ten years in her 
room because her husband sold some of his own land with- 
out asking her consent. 




PISTOIi) FORMERLY BELONGING TO CAPTAIN COLFAX. 

She was, we learn, much adverse to all manner of black 
animals and fowls, and would neither permit them on the 
plantation nor eat them. It is related that her husband once 
played a practical joke upon her by ordering some beef from 
a black steer belonging to a neighbor, but he heartily repented 
of it, after his spouse ascertained the trick which had been 
played upon her. 

A handsome pair of pistols, which were presented to 



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430 THE SCHUYLERS. 



Captain Colfax by General Washington as a special token 
of his esteem, are yet in the possession of his descendants 
at Pomp ton. 

The neighborhood of Pompton Lake was the scene of 
several skirmishes during the Revolution and at times detach- 
ments of troops were encamped here. Many interesting 
relics have been picked up in the vicinity. 

Washington was a frequent visitor at the Pompton Schuy- 
ler house, and the memory of his presence is kept green by 
such interesting mementos as the pistols, above noted, and 
a number of other things incident to his intimacy with the 
family. 

The Pompton house, still Colonial inside and out, and 
with the same furniture that was used when Washington 
dined here, is yet owned by the descendants of Captain 
Colfax and Mistress Hester Schuyler, his wife. 

We now return to the ** Schuyler House in Albany, and 
to Philip Schuyler, its owner. 

So much has been written regarding General Schuyler s 
military career, besides the very exhaustive account of his 
life by Benjamin J. Lossing, that it would be gratuitous to enter 
into any extended account of it in these pages, which are 
intended to speak principally of those events intimately con- 
nected with the homes of the Schuylers, and not with their 
public lives or services. 

Young Schuyler, left fatherless at an early age, was 
brought up under the eye of his grandfather, old Captain 
Schuyler, and his mother. The latter is said to have been 
a most excellent disciplinarian, and it is related that upon one 
occasion, when Master Schuyler refused to eat a particular 
kind of food, it was placed before him for two days, until at 
last hunger made him succumb. He was given a good 
education for those times, and was sent to New Rochelle, 



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HAI.L IN SCIIIJYLKR HOISK, I*<)MI»TON, N. J. 



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THE SCHUYLERS. 433 



New York, where he was placed under the care of a Hugue- 
not minister. Upon the breaking out of the French and 
Indian War in 1755, he recruited a company and was commis- 
sioned a captain, served under General Phineas Lyman, and 
was under fire at the battle of Lake George. In 1756 he 
accompanied General Bradstreet to Oswego as commissary, 
and exhibited considerable military ability. He resigned in 
1757, but afterward engaged in the business of supplying the 
army with provision. In 1758 he again joined Bradstreet's 
forces as deputy-commissary with the rank of major. In 
1763 he returned to private life, but held a commission as 
colonel of militia. In 1768 he was elected to the Assembly, 
and immediately championed the cause of the Colonies 
against Great Britain. He was afterward chosen a delegate 
to the Continental Congress. 

Upon the breaking out of the Revolution he entered the 
Continental army and rendered signal service. 

Schuyler was charged in 1778 with permitting the evacu- 
ation of Fort Ticonderoga, and Congress replaced him by 
General Gates. A court-martial, however, convened in 
October of the same year, declared him **not guilty of any 
neglect of duty,'* and acquitted him ** with the highest honor." 
He continued with the army in a private capacity until the 
surrender of Burgoyne. In 1779. Congress confirmed the 
court-martial and he resigned on the 19th of April. He 
died at Albany, November 18, 1804, and was buried with 
military honors. 

We have spoken of the secret passage constructed by 
old General Bradstreet. Says Mr. Mather, in his article on 
the Schuyler mansion: **An emergency which would have 
called for the use of the secret passage, if there had been 
time, occurred just before the close of the Revolution. 
General Schuyler had left the army as soon as the campaigns 



5y 



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434 THE SCHUYLERS. 



of the North were at an end, and he was charged with the 
duty of intercepting all communications between the British 
generals, Clinton in New York and Haldimand in Canada. 
The general had been warned of attempts that would be 
made to capture him, and he had several guards about the 
place. A band of Tories and Indians organized themselves 
under Walter Meyer at the Whitehall farm, and burst in 
upon the general's premises while the guards were asleep. 
Their arms had been removed to the cellar by Mrs. Church 
through a mistake. General Schuyler retreated to an upper 
room and fired a pistol to alarm the garrison half a mile 
distant. The family were all gathered in the room with the 
general when their babe, Catharine, was missed. Mrs. 
Schuyler attempted to go after her, but was detained by her 
husband. The daughter, Margaret, slipped by and felt her 
way through the darkness to the cradle on the first floor. 
Although the enemy had entered the house, no one saw her 
till she had reached the stairs on her return. An Indian then 
threw a tomahawk, which cut the dress of the girl and buried 
itself in the railing of the stairway, where the mark is still 
visible. The girl fled to the upper room, having told the 
raiders that the general had gone to alarm the town. The 
raiders continued to plunder until the sound of the general's 
voice above appeared to be giving orders to some of his 
followers outside. They then fled/' 

This story reflects credit neither on the general, who left 
his child at the mercy of savages rather than be made prisoner, 
nor on the attacking party, who ran off" with the object of 
their expedition in their grasp. But perhaps it did not occur 
precisely as related. 

A number of distinguished persons have from time to time 
visited the Schuyler homestead. At the commencement of 
the Revolution Franklin, Chase and the two Carrolls, then 



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THE SCHUYLERS, 435 

on their Canadian mission, were entertained here. Of this 
visit Carroll says : ** He (Schuyler) behaved to us with great 
civility ; lives in pretty style ; has two daughters, lively, agree- 
able, black-eyed girls." The commissioners were also enter- 
tained at the summer residence at Saratoga, which had been 
rebuilt, and not yet reburned. 

General Gates, Schuyler's enemy, was handsomely enter- 
tained here, as was the Baroness Riedesel and Lady Harriet 
Ackland, after Burgoyne's defeat. Burgoyne made this house 
his headquarters during his stay in this neighborhood, and tlie 
chamber in which he slept is still pointed out. Baron Steuben, 
La Fayette, and on several occasions Washington himself, 
were guests within the old walls. It is claimed, indeed, that 
General Washington and his wife were present here once as 
sponsors of Catharine, the little daughter, who, it is claimed, 
had such a narrow escape from the tomahawk of an Indian 
on the occasion of the raid upon the house ; but Mr. Mather 
and others think that it is very questionable if this distinguished 
couple were present, except by proxy, upon that occasion. 

After General Schuyler s death the house passed into the 
hands of strangers, so that it really belonged to but one gen- 
eration of this widely-known family. The general was buried 
at first in the same vault in which reposed the remains of 
General Ten Broeck, but some years afterward his body was 
removed to the cemetery in Albany, and a handsome monu- 
ment erected over his last resting-place. 

He died a disappointed man. The accusations against 
him, although disproved by the finding of the court-martial, 
the tardy confirmation of that finding by Congress, and the 
suspicion that must always exist in the minds of the people 
when a soldier is accused of timidity or desertion of his post 
of duty, yet lingered in the minds of some to torment the 
last years of an otherwise successful life. 



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436 



THE SCHUYLERS. 



The marriages of two of his daughters without his consent 
also, it is said, weighed upon his mind. 

It cannot be denied, however, that General Schuyler, like 
the other members of his family in New York and New 
Jersey, deserved the recognition which they received. Like 




niNIN(;-RfW)M, SCIHYI-KR llOl'SK, T'OMPTON, N. J. 

other soldiers of the Revolutionary War, he did his duty and 
had circumstances been different his name, like that of Wayne, 
Putnam, Lee, Cadwalader, and a dozen others, might have come 
down to us immortal. The fates, however, ordained otherwise, 
and whether it was from his fault or the fault of another, that 
his career as a soldier was, from a popular point of view, a 
failure, few will now pause to inquire. 

The real usefulness of the Schuylers lay in their persistent 



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THE SCHUYLERS. 437 



efforts at settlement and civilization at a frontier trading-post, 
constantly exposed to attacks from the Indians, and cut off» 
so to speak, from the rest of the world. Here they engaged 
in the fur-trade and built up barriers against the French 
Indians, just as their Dutch ancestors had set up dykes against 
the sea, and by the same persistent effort they succeeded in 
their business until they had acquired wealth. After this 
they were among the first to introduce on the frontier the 
arts and refinements of civilization. They expended the 
money which they earned, not recklessly, but freely, for the 
people's good and their own comfort. They sat upright in 
the halls of assembly and judged impartially on the bench. 
Some of them were good soldiers ; but if we find them, like 
their Dutch relatives and neighbors, with somewhat less of 
the love of battle and more of the love of bargains than the 
fiery Scot or the Englishman who comes of the right bull-dog 
breed, blame it not upon their gentle spirit, but rather on the 
thick Holland blood that fiowed often right sluggishly, in their 
lowland veins. 



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438 



SCHUYLER GENEALOGY, 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 



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Major John Macpherson, 

{Killed at Quebec) 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE 
MACPHERSONS. 



** Captain John Macpherson/' says Westcott in his His- 
toric Mansions, "was one of the most noted citizens of 
Philadelphia. He was the first owner of the Mount Pleasant 
Mansion, where during many years of his life he resided, 
and where, surviving the recollec- 
tion of the greater splendour of 
later, but less patriotic owners, the 
memory of the old sea Comman- 
der and of his gallant sons still 
lingers and should ever remain." 

Captain Macpherson was born 
in the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, 
being the son of William Mac- 
pherson by Jean his wife, daughter 
of James Adamson, a respectable 
merchant of the same city. Wil- 
liam Macpherson, who is described 
as having been '*bred a writer in 
Edinburgh, and an agent before 
(the) Court of Sessions/* was, in 
turn, the son of and the William Macpherson called, of Nuid 
(by Isabel, the daughter of Lauchlan Mackintosh, Esquire), 
and descended from the ancient and famous Highland Clan 
Chattan, of which the family of Macpherson of Clunie (or 
Cluny) was '' the most prominent subdivision.'* A Macpher- 

445 




MACPHERSON COAT-OF-ARMS. 



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446 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 

son of Cluny was always Chief of this clan so long noted for 
their ferocity, and possessing the desperate courage of the 
wild-cat, the crest from which they derive their clan name. 

The fighting qualities of this historic clan have long, 
indeed, been traditional in the Scottish Highlands, and few 
who have read Sir Walter Scott's Fair Maid of Perth will 
forget the stubborn resistance made by the champions of 
Clan Chattan at the North Inch of Perth. 

The badge of the Clan is a sprig of box-wood, and their 
battle-cry '*The black Craig of the Clan Chattan \' their crest 
a wild cat, or catamount, as noted ; and their motto, 
** Touch not the cat but {i, e,, without) a glove.** 

One of the first of this brave race of whom we have any 
authentic account is one Gillicattan Mhor, ** Head or Chief 
of the Clan Chattan, who, on account of his large stature, 
rare military genius, and other accomplishments, had the 
epithet Mhor assigned him. He lived in the reign of King 
Malcolm Canmore.** From this chieftain down to the grand- 
father of Captain John Macpherson of Philadelphia — a long 
and illustrious line of soldiers — the pedigree is complete and, 
what is rare in American pedigrees, correct. 

Whilst the brothers of Captain Macpherson, James, Angus, 
David, Robert, and William seem to have preferred mercan- 
tile pursuits, John inherited from his forefathers the Highland 
love of daring and adventure, so that we find him going to 
sea at a very early age. After various adventures, he, in 
1757, assumed command of the privateer ship Britannia, of 
Philadelphia, where he was at that time living. Of his 
adventures with this ship, Westcott gives us a good account, 
which, as it is given in about the same words as several 
other sketches, we present verbatim : — 

**War with France was then raging, and the hope of 
preying successfully upon French commerce was sufiicient 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 447 



to incite the sailor element to action. The profits of this 
season were not heavy, and in the succeeding year there was 
more fighting than prizes. In May, 1758, the Britannia fell 
in with a Frenchman carrying thirty-six guns and well-manned. 
The superiority of the enemy was very considerable, and the 
Britannia was badly manoeuvred. In the heat of the action 
Captain Macpherson's right arm was carried away by a can- 



^^ 




CAPTAIN JOHN MACPHKRSON. 

non-shot, and he was taken below. The first lieutenant was 
disabled. The second lieutenant continued the fight until 
he also was wounded. The surgeon became the only officer 
in command and he ordered the colors to be struck. When 
the officers of the French vessel boarded the Britannia they 
beheld a bloody spectacle. Seventy of the crew had been 
killed or wounded. The deck was strewn with the bodies 
of the dead and dying. The action of the Frenchmen was 



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448 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 



inhuman. They carried the first and second officers on 
board their own vessel, cut down the mast and rigging, 
threw the cannon and ammunition overboard, and then set 
the vessel adrift, with a disabled and wounded crew, to the 
mercy of the waves. The crew managed to get up jury- 
masts, and navigated the ship into Jamaica, where upon 
survey it was found that two hundred and seventy shot had 
passed into the larboard side of the Britannia — some below 
water. The damage was repaired, and the ship was sent 
back to Philadelphia. In the succeeding year Captain Mac- 
pherson made up for his adverse fortunes. During 1759 he 
took eighteen prizes. Two of them were French sloops 
laden with plate and valuable effects, besides ;^i 8,000 in cash. 
He relinquished the command to Captain Taylor, who cruised 
in the spring and summer of 1760 with no success. Mac- 
pherson was induced to return to the command. He beat 
up for a crew in October, and in his proposal for enlistment 
said as an inducement, *' Seven hundred sail of ships lately 
employed as transports in the service of the French king are 
now converted into merchantmen, and the^e, with many more, 
encouraged by the great decrease in English privateers, are 
making voyages almost unmolested ; which is a great encour- 
agement for adventurers.'* These declarations were verified 
by the success which followed in the latter part of 1 760 and 
the beginning of 1761. Macpherson took nine prizes on his 
first cruise, which were worth ;^i 5,000. During that period 
he fell in with a French man-of-war of sixty guns, but man- 
aged to escape by the superior sailing qualities of the Britan- 
nia, by means of which the enemy was distanced. The scene 
of his operations was in the West Indies between Martinique 
and St. Eustache, and he was a protector of the commerce of 
that section of the West Indies. He carried into the ports 
of the island of Antigua two French privateers of ten guns, 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 449 



having on board fifty negroes, worth ;^4,ooo. He captured 
a letter-of-marque of four guns, loaded with coffee and cotton. 
The Council and Assembly of the island of Antigua consid- 
ered him a defender, and voted him a sword. In 1762 the 
Britannia cruised with less profit than in the previous year, 
and with more hard knocks. In May, near LaGuayra Mac- 
pherson attacked a large French ship, which proved more 
than his match. In fact, he was beaten off with a loss of 
three men killed. In July, war with Spain having been pro- 
claimed in the meanwhile, the Britannia came into Philadel- 
phia with two Spanish vessels laden with indigo and sugar, 
and Macpherson resigned the command. It was his last 
voyage during this war, as the preliminary treaty between 
France, Spain, and England at Fontainebleau was signed on 
the 3d of November, and was followed by the definitive treaty 
at Paris on the loth of February, 1763. 

Captain Macpherson was now a rich man, and he had the 
ambition to live in ease. He bought, in September, 1761, 
from Benjamin Mifflin, a fine piece of ground lying upon the 
east bank of the river Schuylkill, nearly opposite Belmont. 
The original purchase was something over thirty-one acres. 
He added to it by subsequent purchases two other tracts of 
twenty-one and a half and twenty-six acres and some perches. 
Here he built a fine stone mansion according to the general 
style of the best country-houses of the day. In appearance 
and interior decoration it was equal to any country-seat of 
that date, although it may be said that, looking at it from 
a modern standpoint, it must have been very uncomfortable. 
The rooms are small, but it must be conceded that the stair- 
ways, especially at the landings, are large. In the best rooms 
fireplaces in the corners, with chimney-pieces not very hand- 
some, but with pretentious panels above them, attract atten- 
tion. The woodwork is in the old fashion, and the entire 

60 



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450 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 

effect is of the old times. East and west of the mansion are 
detached buildings with hip roofs, which were used for kitchen 
purposes, there being no conveniences in the mansion for 
such necessity. To this country-seat, when it was finished, 





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MOUNT PLEASANT HOUSE. 



Macpherson gave the name of Clunie, after the seat of his 
clan. Subsequently he changed the name to Mount Pleasant, 
and as such it was known before the Revolution. Here, per- 
haps, he hoped to withdraw himself to the enjoyment of ease. 
The situation was singularly beautiful. The house was on 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 451 

an eminence, and commanded a fine view of the Schuylkill 
River. The natural forest was undisturbed, and the surround- 
ings were of the most romantic and pleasant kind. John 
Adams, who dined at this house in October, 1775, said of 
Macpherson that he had '* the most elegant seat in Pennsyl- 
vania, a clever Scotch wife, and two pretty daughters. His 
seat is upon the banks of the Schuylkill. He has been nine 
times wounded in battle, is an old sea-commander, made a 
fortune by privateering, had an arm twice shot off, shot 
through the leg.'* 

Captain Macpherson's first wife was Margaret Rodgers, 
daughter of Thomas Rodgers and Elizabeth Baxter. They 
came from Londonderry, Ireland, to Boston, Massachusetts, 
in 1 721, and removed thence to Philadelphia. She was 
sister to the Rev. John Rodgers, D. D., Chaplain of the 
New York Provincial Congress **of its Council of Safety, 
and of the first Legislature,** and was a most superior 
woman. 

She died at Mount Pleasant, 4th June, 1770, and the 
Pennsylvania Gazette of 7th June thus mentions the occur- 
rence : 

" On the 4th of this instance, June, departed this life in 
the 38th year of her age, Mrs. Margaret Macpherson, the 
wife of Captain John Macpherson ; a woman emmenent in 
the character of a duitiful and faithful Wife, an affectionate 
Mother, a tender Mistress, and benevolent Friend. She 
maintained that Integrity and Resignation to the Dispensa- 
tions of Divine Providence, which always accompanies a 
good Conscience. In her last illness, she was remarkably 
calm and serene ; she discovered no appearance of fear at 
the approach of Death ; she has left a hopeful offspring 
behind her, whose filial affection shews how sensible they are 
of so great a loss in a Mother, and yesterday her remains 



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452 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 

were accompanied by a large number of respectable persons 
to the Presbyterian Burying Ground/* 

Captain Macpherson did not remain long a widower, and 
his second wife is the spouse so pleasantly referred to by 
Adams in 1775. It is believed that he married her whilst on 




INTERIOR, MOUNT PLEASANT. 

a visit to Edinburgh, in 1772, he having again taken to the 
sea after the death of his first wife. 

There hangs at Sulgrave, in the hall of the country-seat 
of Captain Macpherson' s descendant, William Macpherson 
Hornor, Esq., near Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, the portrait 
of a very young man in the uniform of a Major in the Con- 
tinental army. He has a kindly face, somewhat melancholy 
in its expression, with large bright eyes and soldierly bearing. 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 453 



The likeness is that of John Macpherson — Major and aide-de- 
camp to General Montgomery — who fell at the storming of 
Quebec in 1775, and of whom Bancroft has written that he 
was **a youth as spotless as the new fallen snow, which was 
his winding sheet ; full of genius for war, lovely in temper, 
honored by the affection and confidence of his chief, dear to 
the army, leaving not his like behind him/' He was the 
eldest son of the ** hopeful offspring** that good Dame Mar- 
garet Macpherson had left behind her five years before. The 
other son was Major William Macpherson, of whom we shall 
speak presently. 

John Macpherson was intended by his father for the legal 
profession, and was, accordingly, carefully educated. There 
remain a number of letters written by him from Mount 
Pleasant and elsewhere whilst studying under Dickinson, 
which give so good a picture of the time that full abstracts 
of them are here given. 

The William Patterson to whom these letters are addressed 
was Attorney-General of New Jersey during the Revolution, 
a Framer of the Federal Constitution, Senator of the United 
States from New Jersey, Governor of that State, and an 
associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States 
at the time of his death, Sept. 9, 1806. He was a college 
mate of John Macpherson. Jr., who was an Alumnus of 
Princeton in 1766. The original letters are in the possession 
of Mr. William Patterson of Perth Amboy, the great-grandson 
of the above-mentioned Wm. Patterson. 

** Mount Pleasant Dec'. loth 1766 
** I expect next week to begin to study under Mr. Dickinson, 
& if you write to me after that, direct to John McPherson 
Jun' PhiK" 



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454 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 

** 12 o^clock, Philadelphia May 30th 1767 
" Studying very hard. ... As to the Play you speak of, 
I take it to be a Disappointment, & can only say it was very 
well rec"* by the people here, who found no fault in it, but that 
it savoured too much of partiality ; as the Collector actually 
seized the Chest as the King's property, &, with a great deal 
of trouble, conveyed it on board a vessel then in the River, 
intending to send it home. (Perhaps you may not have 
heard who were the actors of this real farce, & yet may be 
acquainted with some of them. Quadrant is intended for 
an old Instrument maker, by name Cappock, Hum for one 
Yeates a Tavern Keeper, Parchment for Reily the dec** 
Scrivener, Rattletrap for one Rudiman Robeson, formerly 
a Commander of a Vessel, Racoon for Swan the Hatter, 
Wasball for an old dec** Barber called Dixon, Trushood for 
a merry countryman of your*s, & M*^ S'nip for a foolish one 
of mine.) This play never was acted here, the opposition 
to It being so great as not to admit of it. Racoon swore that 
it might begin in a Comedy, but that he would make it end 
in a Tragedy. The authors of the Prologue & Epilogue are 
unknown to any.** 

" Phila Tuesday Nov. 17. 1767 
**This day was the Commencement held here, when only 
five commenced Bachelors. After Prayer, Bankson pro- 
nounced a Salutatory Oration. This was one of the best 
performances of the day. The Latin was well articulated, 
& but for a tone that ran thro the whole pronunciation, it 
was very compleat. We were then entertained with an 
English dispute, opened by Tilghman (who alone it is said 
composed his own piece) who was opposed by Johnson. 
Bankson wound up, & bore the bell as the phrase is. Then 
they produced a Latin dispute, in which Wallace was Resp, 
& Tilghman & Swift opponents. This was ill done. The 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 455 



Latin was ill pronounced, and there was no action, for they 
spoke from desks. White, a master of arts, then pronounced 
an Oration. I forbear to give any character of this, you will 
I dare say see one in the papers ; but (if as usual) far above 
the merit of the piece. The degrees were then conferred. 
Swift pronounced the Valedictory, Stolen almost every word 
from D^. Young on Composition. The whole was concluded 
with a Dialogue and ode, spoke by Bankson, Johnson & Swift. 
This was middling well done. It was wrote by Coombe. ..." 

** March 11. 1768. 

**As to the Farmer's letters; the reports are various. 
Some say they were wrote in N. England. Others alledged 
Mr. D-k-ns-n is the Author. While others suspect M' G-U-w-y : 
But nobody can certainly say who is the author. This how- 
ever is certain, he is a friend to his country, & has contributed 
(not barely his mite) towards the delivery of America from 
Slavery. ... As to the visitant, I have heard M' G-l-w-y also 
suspected for its author ; I believe with very little truth — Tom 
Minor is also said to be wrote by M*^ G-l-w-y, but others say 
(with more probability) it was wrote in your province, by the 
first person in it. 

** Political disputes here are at present very low, quite con- 
trary to what might be expected. It is very probable they 
will be something more bitter at the next meeting of the 
Assembly, which will be in May. The house sent their 
last message to the Governor & immediately adjourned, 
before he could possibly answer it. Those who know him 
best, say he is very angry & will send them a severe reply 
in May." 

** Philadelphia April 18. 1768 

" Doctor Chandler makes a great noise, or rather a great 
noise is made about him. Pray (if you know) who writes the 



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456 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 



Whig in N. York. That, the Centinel, & the Doctor, cum 
suis, are the common subjects of discourse here." 

**Phil* June 27th 1768. 
**In troth my sweet lad, Jack has been '' trampussing'' all 
"over Maryland since he rec'** your*s, and has had such a jaunt 
"as he would take again for twenty kisses of L. L. or B. R. 
" Riding in the rain all night & all day has incapacitated me 
** writing law, &'' 

"Phil* Nov' 27 1768. 
"as our court begins the fifth of Dec', & my father has 
*' employment for me this week.'* 

" Philadelphia February 13 1769 
" But must make an excuse for not writing by Ogden. I 
never knew he was in town till about 1 1 o'clock the day 
before he left it, & was all that morning very busy. As I 
was going to the Office in the Afternoon, Rush stopped me 
& told me, Sergeant & Ogden had appointed to meet him 
about that time to go & play billiards. Thus was I beguiled 
to play billiards ! What time in the evening we left it, Ogden 
may have informed you. Then the Dutch School took up the 
rest of the evening. Ogden and Sergeant started early next 
morning. Pray what time had I to write ?*' 

"Philadelphia April 9 1769 
** I shall set off next week to the back Courts viz Carlisle, 
York, Lancaster & Reading, which will employ me three 
weeks at least. Rush is going to be admitted at each of 
these Courts — /go to please him, but expect to find some- 
thing more pleasing than purling streams, or blooming fields, 
or even the noise of courts rattling with the silver sound of 
dollars. In vain will you puzzle your poor pericranium to 
find out what this is. 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 457 



**You must doubtless have seen some letters in the late 
Papers (Bradford's) wherein M' Wilkes expresses his great 
esteem for M' Dickinson. These letters were written by 
M*^ B. Rush. There were some things which were not 
thought proper to be published. 

" M*^ Wilkes said that since he read Locke he had been 
of opinion that there was no innate ideas ; that if that maxim 
was false with respect to the Scots it was only as to one par- 
ticular ; for added he if they have one innate idea it is that 
of slavery. He desired D^ Rush on his arrival in Philadel- 
phia to present his most respectful compliments to NP Dick- 
son. Is it not hard that I who had more trouble with the 
Farmer's Letters (for I copied the whole once, & some part 
twice) than M"^ Dickinson should have only labour (not a 
single fee) for my pains?'* 

" Phil^ Aug' 7—69 

** My father's situation subjecting me to great deal of 
business, has made it impossible for me to pursue my studies, 
or to write to my friends so frequently as my inclination 
prompts me." 

** Mount Pleasant Aug' 11 1769 

" If this should find you in Princeton I would be glad you 
would enquire the terms on which a second degree is to be 
granted as it will be needless for me to come to Princeton 
if they are not such as I will submit to." 

"Phil'' May 23^ 1770 
** Three London ships came in a few days ago in ballast 
(except as to the non prohibited articles) & inform that the 
people in England are now desperate & are determined to 
strike. I suppose you have the papers even at your fag end 
of the World, & so you may see the confusions of the nation. 
People here are very apprehensive of a civil war, as the King 



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458 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 

has formed two Camps, & laug^hed at the London Remon- 
strance. Should that be the case, unfortunate as I have been 
in America I beHeve I shall not stay here long. The Slaves 
of Rhode Island have dissolved their committee, & agreed 
to import ! O Tempora ! O Mores ! The last to make the 




INTERIOR, MOUNT PLEASANT. 

agreement, & the first to break it ! Indeed it is more to be 
wished than expected, that out of 14 there should be no bad 
member.'* 

**Phii/ July 24 1770 

** Last Thursday evening was married John Dickinson Esq 

of this City, Author of the Farmer's letters, to the amiable 

Miss Polly Norris of Fairhill, only surviving daughter of the 

late Isaac Norris Esq deceased. Sometimes Speaker of honour- 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 459 



able house of Assembly of this province. She is a young 
lady endowed with every qualification requisite to make the 
marriage state happy, & with a fortune of ;^50,ooo (some say 
;^8o,ooo). And a few evenings before the Rev** M' Joseph 
Montgomery of New Castle was married to M" Boice, relict 
of Cap' Boyce, & sister of Jacob Rush Escj'. So much in 
humble imitation of the Newspapers. I suppose you have 
seen our resolves relative to the N. Yorkers. I was present 
when they were passed, & had the pleasure to hear the 
redoubted D-1 C~m C-m-r exhibit a specimen of his Eloquence 
in a dispute with the Chairman about the opinion of the majority 
of the resolvers. After a tedious altercation, which consisted 
of asserting and denying, the gentleman of the long robe 
was silenced by superior authority. . . . On this head, I have 
indeed little to say, except that the New Yorkers have acted 
like scrubs, & deserve to be tarred & feathered, & it behoves 
every American to disclaim any connection with them. . . . 
I have some slight hopes of seeing England this fall. My 
father is going, & I expect M' Dickinson is now in such a 
good humour as to give up my indenture, which will put me 
on good terms with my father. This by the by, for nobody 
knows I intend to ask M' D, & I don't want any one should 
lest I should meet with a denial.'' 

(On same sheet under date "July 25 ") 

** I have spoken to M' D, about my indenture. He desired 
me to rest for a little while, & promised he would not prevent 
my going to England with my father. Say nothing of this ; 
for should my father hear of it, it will be a means to prevent 
my going." 

**Phil'' Oct 21 1770 

*' Martin Rush sailed last Monday for England, in a fine 
new ship, & with a large Company. Some cursed unlucky 
circumstances prevented my going, else perhaps instead of 



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46o MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 



sitting with quill in hand on hard ground I had been tossing 
on the great deep, & laughing at the poor devils casting their 
guts up. I am sorry I was from Philadelphia when you were 
last in it, but it is probable I may see you soon in Princeton, 
as I have something to do there about my second degree." 

"Phil'' Jan^ 13 1771 
"I was admitted in the Common Pleas here the ist Inst, 
so have no expectation of seeing England soon.'' 

"Phil* 26 June 1771 
"I am just setting sail for England. Pray write and 
direct to me at Penns* Coffee house London.*' 

"London 30 Sept' 1771 
" Dear Will 

**I wrote you a short letter just before I left Phit^, & 
arrived in Scotland \ki^ 10 Ult: I stayed there but six days; 
so cannot be supposed to have seen much of the Country. 
We sailed along the Coast from the North West part of it to 
the frith o{ Forth, & for two thirds of the way, I did see a single 
tree : but when we came within about 100 miles of Edinburgh, 
the country is very fine & well improved. That City stands 
partly upon a very high hill, & partly in the adjoining valley ; 
so that the prospects are very good, & the town very incon- 
venient. The sixth or seventh story of a house on one side 
will sometimes be just equal to the ground on the other. I 
shall attempt no description of Londoft, as you must have 
seen better accounts of it than I am able to give ; but will 
give you a little Idea of the Temple, which is a collection of 
houses owned by different men. Every student hires his 
chambers at the best rate he can, & is under no control at 
all, either as to study or behaviour. The gate is always open 
& we carry our keys in our pockets. Those who are admitted 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 461 



in any of the Societies of the Inns of Court are obliged to 
dine so many times every term, for 3 years, in the hall, if they 
mean to be called to the bar, & this is the only restraint the 
Templars are laid under. Westminster Abbey is the most 
venerable pile of building I ever saw, & strikes the beholder 
with a solemnity not felt from other objects. I have been 
twice to visit it, & the trifling circumstance of being obliged 
to enter it uncovered added to my reverence for the place 
which indeed was great enough before. You see there 

** Long sounding isles & intermingled graves.*' 

** There the dim windows shed a solemn light, 
** And awful arches make noonday night." 

''St Paul's Cathedral is very grand, & the whispering 
gallery pleased me very much. It is circular, about 140 
yards round, & a whisper on one side is distinctly heard on 
the other. The Driirylane & Covent garden Theatres have 
just opened. I have been to neither of them : as there have 
been no plays of consequence performed. While ^bote's 
Summer Theatre was open, I was several times there ; but 
as he performs only farces & trifling Comedies, I have had 
no opportunity to judge of the actors of tragedy here. 
Foote you know is only a mimic & it is therefore impossible 
to make any remarks upon him, intellegible to one who never 
saw him. 

"John Macpherson." 

** Philadelphia i June 1773. 
** I just sit down to inform you of my arrival here. 

"John Macpherson.'' 

Major John Macpherson was among the first to volunteer 
his services in the Revolution as well as among the first to 
fall. He wrote his father a letter the night before the assault 



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462 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 



on Quebec, addressed to be delivered only in case he fell. 
It was as follows : 

*' My Dear Father : 

"If you receive this it will be the last this hand shall ever 
write you. Orders are given for a general storm on Quebec 
this night, and Heaven only knows what will be my fate. 
But, whatever it may be, I cannot resist the inclination I feel 
to assure you that I experience no reluctance in this cause 
to venture a life which I consider as only lent to be used 
when my country demands it. In moments like these such 
an assertion will not be thought a boast by any one, by my 
father I am sure it cannot. It is needless to tell that my 
prayers are for the happiness of the family and for its preser- 
vation in this general confusion. Should Providence in its 
wisdom call me from rendering the little assistance I might 
to my country, I could wish my brother did not continue in 
the service of her enemies. 

**That the all-gracious Disposer of human events may 
shower on you, my mother, brothers, and sisters, every bless- 
ing our nature can receive is, and will be to the last moment 
of my life, the sincere prayer of your dutiful and affectionate 
son, 

"John Macpherson. 
" Heaivquarters before Quebec, 
30th Dec. 1775." 

This letter, accompanied by the following missive, was 
nearly six months later despatched to the father by General 
Philip Schuyler: 

"Permit me, sir, to mingle my tears with yours for the 
loss we have sustained — you as a father, I as a friend. My 
dear young friend fell by the side of his general, as much 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 463 

lamented as he was beloved ; and that I assure you, sir, was 
in an eminent degree. This, and his falling like a hero, will 
console in some measure a father who gave him the example 
of bravery, which the son in a short miHtary career improved 
to advantage. 

" General Montgomery and his corpse were both interred 
by General Carleton with military honors. 

"Your most obedient and humble servant, 

" Ph. Schuyler. 
"Albany, 14th June 1776.*' 

The following from the Pennsylvania Packet oi 13 Febru- 
ary 1787 closes the short chapter of Major John Macpher- 
son's life : 

**If the gentleman who called at my house, near Octorara, 
in the year 1778, and gave a particular account of my son*s 
fall at Quebec, and what became of his property there, 
will be so good as to favor me with a line and inform me 
where he now resides, he will much oblige his most humble 
servant, 

"John Macpherson. 
" Direct for me in Spruce Street, Philadelphia.'* 

We presume that this was an attempt upon Captain Mac- 
pherson's part to obtain some memento of his son. Whether 
he succeeded or not we do not know. 

The circumstances of Macpherson's death were well known 
at the time, and were long remembered by the people. When 
Bracken ridge wrote "The Death of General Montgomery, at 
the Siege of Quebec** in 1777, he did not omit the incident, 
and makes Macpherson a principal actor in the dramatic 
scene. " Of Macpherson the general is particularly fond," 
says Taylor, **and it is to him, in that deep stillness before 



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464 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 



the crash and agony of battle, that the elder man now reveals 
his own prescience of the near fate which then awaited them 
both." 

5* But yet methinks, Macpherson, that I feel, 
Within this hour some knowledge of my end, — 
Some sure presentment that you and I, 
This day, shall be with them, shall leave 
Our breathless bodies on this mortal soil. 
But this allotment, should it be our case, 
Fear not, young soldier, for our cause is just; 
And all those failings we are conscious of, 
Shall in the bosom of our God repose, 
Who looks with mercy on the sons of men. 
And hides their imperfections with his love. 
Say not, young soldier, that thy life was short — 
In the first bloom of manhood swift cut off. 
All things are mortal — but the warrior' s fame : 
This lives eternal in the mouths of men, * ' 

To which Macpherson makes answer : — 

** The light is sweet, and death is terrible ; 
But when I left my father and my friends, 
I thought of this, and counted it but gain, 
If fighting bravely in my country's cause, 
I tasted death, and met an equal fame 
With those at I^xington, and Bunker's Hill." 

Montgomery : — 

'* Sweet fame, young hero, shall attend thy years ; 
And linked in friendship, as we are linked in death. 
Our souls shall mount, and visit those fair hills 
Where never-dying bards and heroes stray." 

Thus closes the incident of the brief life of John Mac- 
pherson. Had he survived, there is no question that his 
name would have been enrolled amongst the most famous 
soldiers of the Revolution ; but it was not to be, and near the 
spot where he fell, at Quebec, 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 465 



" He sleeps his last sleep, 
He has fought his last battle, 
No sound can awake him to glory again.*' 

Whilst these events had been transpiring, William Mac- 
pherson, John's elder brother, was an officer in the English 
army, his father having purchased him a commission of 
Ensign, when he was barely fourteen years of age. At 
eighteen he became a lieutenant in the Sixteenth Regiment, 
of which he was afterward Adjutant. At first he was inclined 
to censure his brother for joining the "rebels," but after he 
learned of his fall at Quebec, it is said that his sentiments 
changed and that he immediately took steps to have his 
resignation accepted. He served on the British side, how- 
ever, for over two years after this, for he was at the Battle 
of Monmouth in the summer of 1778 when he was wounded, 
but in that fight not more active than his duty required. Of 
him General the Marquis De Lafayette writes: 

*'LaGrange, November 7, 1832. 
"My Dear Sir:— 

" It is to me a matter of patriotic duty and personal grati- 
fication to do justice to the memory of my accomplished com- 
panion in arms, the late William Macpherson. I knew him 
from the time when after numerous and fruitless applications 
to retire from the British service, he executed his declared 
determination to withdraw and at any loss or hazard, to join 
his fellow citizens in their contest for independence and 
freedom. 

" His situation at the Battle of Monmouth had been very 
particular, wearing still a British uniform, but forbearing to 
act against his countrymen, a sense of honor kept him a wit- 
ness, altho not an agent on the field where he received a 
slight wound from the friends he had openly avowed, and 
was determined not to fight. 

61 



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466 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 



" Major Macpherson has since for the greater part of the 
War been placed under my command where he distinguished 
himself on several occasions, namely at the head of a detach- 
ment during the Virginia Campaign. He was an excellent 
patriotic officer and friend. 

*' I am happy in the opportunity to give this testimony of my 
high esteem and cordial affection for a beloved brother soldier, 
who being placed at first under uncommon circumstances, and 
afterwards entrusted with remarkable commands, has nobly 
supported the character of an American Citizen and Warrior. 

** Receive, my dear Sir, the best wishes and regards from 

" Your sincere friend. 

** Lafayette. 
" P. G. Washington, Esq." 

Having, as stated by Lafayette, offered his resignation to 
Sir Henry Clinton many times, and finally having it accepted 
but without permission to sell it, or to leave N'ew York City, 
he ** resolved to join the Americans at any hazard, cind being 
allowed to shoot ducks froni a small boat near the British 
lines, he one day ordered his servant to row out, and putting 
a pistol in his hand, compelled him to proceed, amid a shower 
of bullets, until they reached the American forces.. He lost 
no time in offering his services to his country, and upon the 
recommendation of the Supreme Executive Council, *' in 
regard to the memory of his brother. Major John Macpher- 
son. who fell before the Walls of Quebec, as well as in con- 
sideration of his own merit" he received a commission, as the 
following extract from the Journals of Congress show: 

** Thursday September i6, 1779. 
** A memorial from Captain Wm. Macpherson was read ; 
whereupon RESOLVED That a brevet of Major in the Army 
of the United States be granted to William Macpherson. 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 467 

** ORDERED that Major Macpherson repair to the 
Southern Army, and receive the orders of Major General 
Lincoln/* 

For a time he was aide-de-camp to General Arthur St. 
Clair, and, in 1780, was appointed by Washington commander 




PKTF.R (IRAYSON WASHINGTON. 



of a Corps of Cavalry in the Virginia Campaign. During 
the campaign, as noticed by the Marquis Lafayette, he showed 
good judgment as a leader and received considerable credit 
for his readiness in any emergency. 

"At the affair at Spencer's Ordinary, Virginia,'* writes his 



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468 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 

descendant, Mrs. Julia Maria Washington Hornor, **he was 
thrown from his horse by the rush of a British trooper and 
severely injured. He soon recovered, and on the 6th 
of July, 1 78 1, led the cavalry of Armand and Mercer*s 
troops in a spirited encounter with the flower of Corn- 
wallis's army.'' 

** After the close of the war," continues Mrs. Hornor, 
" President Washington in token of his friendship for him, 
appointed Major Macpherson, September 19, 1789, surveyor 
of the Port of Philadelphia. March 8, 1792, he appointed 
him inspector of the revenue for the City, and on November 
28, 1 793, he became naval ofificer. This he retained during 
the administration of Adams and Jefferson and under Madi- 
son, until his death." 

Whilst his sons were thus actively engaged in the Revolu- 
tion Captain John Macpherson was not idle. The fighting 
spirit which he inherited, and which had kept him alive on 
the deck of the Britannia when bleeding almost to death, 
acrain blazed forth. 

Captain John Macpherson may be said to have been the 
first to propose to attack the British on the high seas. 

As early as 1775, when the establishment of a Continental 
Army was seriously considered, partly on account of his 
repeatedly calling attention to the subject, he applied to 
Congress for a Commission as Commodore and gave the 
Marine Committee litde rest. He had already, July 28, 
offered his services "for the defence of this Country" to 
the Council of Safety through Dr. Franklin, and had received 
their formal thanks. 

The Marine Committee of Congress, however, recom- 
mended Captain Flzek. Hopkins, to whom the commission 
was given, he being a near relative of Randolph Hopkins, 
om* of the Committee. Upon this. Captain Macpherson 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 469 

appealed to Congress, "claiming that he had been promised 
the appointment, but this was denied." 

He then offered a plan to Congress of destroying a vast 
number of the enemy's ships, promising to bear the main 
cost of the enterprise, if he might have the commission, but 
this was also refused him. 

Some of the correspondence on this subject, which has 
been preserved, is curious. In F"ord's writings of Washing- 
ton, under date of 8 November, 1775, is this letter on the 
subject from Cambridge : 

**To THE President of Congress: 
**Sir:— 

** The immediate occasion of my giving the Congress the 
trouble of a letter at this time is to inform them, that, in con- 
sequence of their order signified in your letter of the 20th 
ultimo, I laid myself under a solemn tie of secrecy to Captain 
Macpherson and proceeded to examine his plan for the 
destruction of the fleet in the Harbor of Boston with all 
care and attention, which the importance of it deserved, and 
my judgment could lead to. But not being happy enough to 
coincide in opinion with that gendeman, and finding that his 
scheme would involve greater expense, than (under my doubts 
of success), I thought myself justified in giving into, I pre- 
vailed upon him to communicate his plan to three gendemen 
of the artillery (in this army), well versed in the knowledge 
and practice of gunnery. By them he has been convinced, 
that, inasmuch as he set out upon wrong principles, the 
scheme would prove abortive. 

** Unwilling, however, to relinquish his favorite project, of 
reducing the naval force of Great Britain, he is very desirous 
of building a number of row-galleys for this purpose. But 
as the Congress alone are competent to the adoption of this 



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470 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 

measure, I have advised him (ahhough he offered to go on 
with the building of them at his own expense, till the Con- 
gress should decidej to repair immediately to Philadelphia 
with his proposals ; where, if they should be agreed to. or, 
vessels of superior force agreeable to the wishes of most 
others, should be resolved on. he may set instantly about them, 
with all the materials upon the spot, here, they are to collect. 
To him, therefore, I refer for further information on this 
head." 

Captain Macpherson was certainly very confident of his plan. 

•*He proposes," writes Adams, "great things, is sanguine, 
confident, positive, that he can take or burn every man-of-war 
in America. It is a secret, he says, but he will communicate 
it to any one a member of Congress, upon condition that it 
be not divulged during his life at all nor after his death, but 
for the service of this Country. He says that it is as certain 
as that he shall die, that he can burn every ship." 

The plan, although so strongly urged by him, was not 
entertained, even when he offered to bear all the expense if 
Congress would pay him for the first British war-ship he 
destroyed. So that his secret, whatever it was, died with 
him. and with those to whom he confided it. Macpherson, 
indeed, may have actually had an invention of merit, for he 
was of quite a mechanical turn of mind. ** About 1771/* 
says Westcott. *'he removed by machinery of his own con- 
trivance a one story brick house from the neighborhood of 
Front and Pine or Union Street to the West side of Second 
Street below Elmsley's Alley. The operation was effected 
by apparatus placed inside the building and worked by 
himself." Some of his other inventions will be noted 
hereafter. 

During the Revolution Captain Macpherson leased Mount 
Pleasant to Don Juan de Merailles, the Spanish Ambassador, 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 471 

but the place was not sold until the spring of 1779, when 
it was purchased by General Benedict Arnold, who made it 
a marriage-gift to his wife. 

After Macpherson left Mount Pleasant, he resided for 
a time at Octoraro, but was much at Philadelphia. He seems 
to have lost a considerable portion, if not all, of his property, 
probably by the decline of currency, and seems to have 
resorted to various enterprises to add to his income. 

In 1782 he advertised lectures on Astronomy, **at his 
house near Polle's Bridge, and he published, in 1791, lectures 
on Moral Philosophy." During the interval he was a ship- 
merchant and land-broker, and published every two weeks 
a paper which he called the Price Current, but he would 
allow any one to examine his latest foreign price-currents if 
they would ** put sixpence or more into the Charity box for 
the relief of the widows and orphans dependent upon the 
sea-captains' Club." 

He compiled and published the first directory for the city 
and suburbs of Philadelphia, which was published, according 
to the title-page, on the ist of October, 1785, but first adver- 
tised as **just published" on the 14th of November. A 
rival directory by Francis White was advertised as **just pub- 
lished" at the latter end of the same month. Macpherson 
was evidently an individual disposed to stand no nonsense, 
and when, during his canvassing, his inquiry was met with 
a crooked answer, that answer went into the director)' with 
the number of the house of the person who gave it. Thus, 
there are several instances in which grave and reverend 
citizens, as eccentric as the Captain himself, are put down 
among the **rs," as **I won't tell you," **I won't have it 
numbered," or among the **W's," as ''What you please," 
or among the " C's," as " Cross woman," 93 South Street. 
At the end of the directory he gives a long list of empty 



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472 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 

houses and of those in which persons would give no answer 
whatever. 

Macpherson was somewhat of an inventive genius. He 
advertised in 1785 that he was the inventor of an "elegant 
cot which bid defiance to everything but Omnipotence. No 
bedbugs, mosquito, or fly can possibly molest persons who 
sleep in it" In March 1792 he presented a petition to Con- 
gress setting forth that he had discovered an infallible method 
of ascertaining .the longitude and requesting of that body **to 
send him out in the character of a gentleman on a voyage to 
France, with proper recommendations to our good ally, the 
king of the French." This was his last appeal. He died 
September 6, 1792, and was buried in St. Paul's churchyard, 
a little to the eastward of the church. 

Returning to Major William Macpherson, the second son 
of Captain John, we find him in 1 794, in command of a bat- 
talion of State troops, which were called the Macpherson 
Blues. During the Whiskey Insurrection this body of troops 
elicited especial praise for their soldierly appearance and 
patriotism. It was during this campaign that he was commis- 
sioned by Governor Mifflin to be Colonel, and he was subse- 
quently promoted to be Brigadier-General of the Pennsyl- 
vania Militia. On March 11, 1799, President Adams com- 
missioned him Brigadier-General of the Provisional Army, 
raised to put down Fries' Rebellion, and he immediately 
took the field and proceeded to Northampton County. 

The Macpherson Blues were long the pride of Philadel- 
phia, and, in 1798, were the recipients of a standard by 
Mrs. Hopkinson. 

Mrs. Hornor, from whose paper on General Macpher- 
son we have freely quoted, thus entertainingly relates the 
incident : 

"From a public print of the time, July 1798, we have an 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 473 

account of the presentation to the * Blues ' of an emblematic 
painting and a standard by Mrs. Hopkinson and Miss Sallie 
Duane. "On Wednesday last (July 4, 1798), conformable 
to orders, Macpherson's Legion of Blues assembled at the 
Manage and performed some evolutions, after which they 




MRS. PETER GRAYSON WASHINGTON. 



formed a circle and faced inwards, the General in the center, 
who addressed the ' Blues.* ** 

Mrs. Hopkinson, in her letter, ** begs that it may be 
received as a weak acknowledgment of the obligation and 
respect she feels towards: her countrymen.*' 

The General replies : " As the approbation of the fair is 



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474 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 

the sweetest reward a soldier can experieace, this mark of 
her attention from an amicable and enlightened countrywoman 
is particularly grateful to them/' In her letter presenting the 
standard, Miss Sallie Duane, under date of Belmont, July 3, 
1798, states that **the art in which I am receiving instruction 
for amusement cannot be employed to better purpose than 
in endeavors to decorate the ensigns devoted to merit and to 
patriotism." To this, General Macpherson replies that *'the 
standard was received by the Corps with the strongest mark 
of enthusiastic sensibility." 

General Macpherson had his country seat at Stonton, on 
Poor Island, lately acquired by the City under the tide of 
Macpherson Park, being part of a tract of land which had 
belonged to his first wife's ancestors, the Keens. 

She was Margaret Stout, daughter of Joseph Stout and 
his wife Mary Keen, was born in Philadelphia in 1764, and 
became the wife of Major Macpherson at the age of eighteen 
years. Her father was a sea captain in the Merchant Service 
and subsequently Lieutenant in the Royal Navy. 

Of Mrs. Macpherson Dr. Egle writes: **She received 
a good education. It has been said of her she was one with 
whose sweetness, gentleness, simplicity and delicacy — so 
becoming a woman under all circumstances — were blended 
in her character, energy that was unconquerable, courage 
that danger could not blanch, and firmness that human power 
could not bend." She died in Philadelphia, December 25, 
1797, and was buried in Gloria Dei Churchyard. 

General Macpherson married, secondly. Elizabeth, daughter 
of Bishop White, formerly Rector of Christ Church, Philadel- 
phia. He died near Philadelphia, November 5, 181 3. 

He was one of the original members of the State Society 
of the Cincinnati of Pennsylvania, being Vice-President from 
1807 until his death, and was also Assistant Secretary of the 



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MARY KEKN. 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 477 



General Society in 1790, and Treasurer in 1799. In 1787 he 
was one of the delegates to the Pennsylvania Convention to 
ratify the Constitution. From 1788 to 1 789 he was a member 
of the General Assembly. Like his father, he was elected 
a member of the St. Andrew's Society, and for a number of 
years served as President of that body. 

Of the history of Mount Pleasant subsequent to Arnold's 
occupancy, Westcott writes : — 

**The next lessee of Mount Pleasant was the celebrated 
German baron, Frederick William Augustus von Steuben. 
On the 26th of October 1780, the Supreme Executive Council 
of Pennsylvania granted him permission to occupy the premises 
until the ist of April 1781, for ;^35, specie. He had been a 
member of the court-martial which tried and condemned 
Major Andre, and his occupancy of Arnold's house would 
have been the more appropriate. If he took possession of 
the premises, his tenancy was exceedingly short. He could 
scarcely have entered upon the premises before he received 
an order from Washington to proceed to the south with 
General Greene, who was directed to take command of the 
army hitherto commanded by Gates. This order was issued 
on the 14th of October, twelve days before the Supreme 
Executive Council resolved that the Mount Pleasant property 
should be leased to General Steuben. In the orders to 
Greene, Washington said : *' I also propose to them to send 
the Baron Steuben to the southward with you. His talents, 
knowledge of service, zeal, and activity will make him useful 
to you in all respects and particularly in the formation and 
regulation of the raw troops which will compose the Southern 
army. You will give him a command suitable to his rank, 
besides employing him as inspector-general. If the Congress 
approve, he will take your orders from Philadelphia." Greene 
went South as soon as possible, and was in Philadelphia on 



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478 MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS. 



the 27th of October, one day after the lease to Steuben. On 
the 30th, Congress approved of Greene's appointment and of 
the assignment of Steuben to the Southern army. They could 
not have delayed their departure for more than three or four 
days, for Steuben's aides, Walker and Duponceau, were at 
the Head of Elk, Maryland, on the 5th of November. Greene 
joined the army with Steuben, and was encamped at Char- 
lotte on the 2d of December. The operations of Steuben 
and Green were against Arnold, and, as the baron was on 
the court-martial which tried Andre, this circumstance, in 
connection with his pursuit of Arnold, would have formed 
a fine chapter of consequences. When he came back from 
the South he was in Philadelphia for some time, and one of 
his letters, of December 27, 1782, is dated '* Schuylkill/' 
showing that he resided somewhere near the river. It might 
have been at the Mount Pleasant house, but as at that time 
the estate had another tenant, it is not probable. 

"In 1 78 1, the property, having been confiscated, was con- 
veyed to Colonel Richard Hampton for Arnold's life-estate. 
He held it for two years, when it passed into the possession 
of Blair McClenachan, merchant, who did not hold it long. 
He disposed of the premises in 1784 to Edward Shippen, 
Chief-Justice of Pennsylvania, the father of Margaret Arnold, 
possibly with the intention to secure the entire property to 
her. It was held by him till 1792, when he conveyed it to 
General Jonathan Williams, an old-time patriot. Under 
proceedings, it is supposed, to protect the title still further, 
the property was sold on a mortgage which existed be- 
fore Arnold's purchase. The sheriff made title to Williams, 
and thus Mount Pleasant became firmly vested in the 
latter. 

** General Williams was a noted Revolutionary character. 
He was agent for the Continental Congress during the Amer- 



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MOUNT PLEASANT AND THE MACPHERSONS, 479 

ican Revolution, at Nantes in France. He was born at 
Boston in 1752. After the Revolution he settled in Philadel- 
phia, and was appointed a Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas in 1796. In 1801 he was appointed major of artillery 
in the United States army, was inspector of fortifications, and 
was the first superintendent of West Point Academy. After 
having been Brigadier-General of the New York militia in 
the war of 181 2, he came to Philadelphia, where he soon got 
into public life, was elected member of Congress as a Feder- 
alist in 18 1 5, and died the same year. He was a writer upon 
military subjects, including fortifications and the management 
of horse artillery. His son, Henry J. Williams, was for many 
years a recognized leader of the Philadelphia Bar. After the 
death of General Williams, his family retained possession of 
the property until 1853, when it was sold and in 1868 became 
the property of the City and a. portion of Fairmount Park.*' 
It is still in good repair. 

By his first wife, General Macpherson had a son and three 
daughters, the eldest dying unmarried. The second daughter 
married Philip Houlbrook Nicklin, and died childless. The 
third daughter, Maria, also died childless. 

The son, Joseph Stone Macpherson, was an officer in the 
Navy and died unmarried, in 1824. The second daughter, 
Margaret, married Hon. Peter Grayson Washington, a kins- 
man of General George Washington, and had a daughter 
who married Dr. Hornor of ** Sulgrave," Bryn Mawr. Their 
son, William Macpherson Hornor, is a member of the Penn- 
sylvania Society of Cincinnati, as representative of General 
Macpherson. 

By his second wife General Macpherson had two daughters, 
who married and left issue (see Genealogy). 



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THE MACPHERSON GENEALOGY. 

I. GiLLiCATTAN Mhor, head or chief of the Clan Chattan; lived during the reign of King 

Malcolm Canmore, and had : 

II. DiARMKD, chief of the Clan Chattan; succeeded his father about the year 1090, and 

had: 

III. Gii.MCATTAN, chief of the Clan ChatUn, time of David I., king of Scotland, and had: 

1. Diarmed, who died s. p. 1 153. 

2. Muriach, of whofn presently. 

IV. Muriach, chief of the Clan Chattan; he was bred to the church, and was rector of 
Kingussie, but upon the death of his brother, without issue, he became the head of the 
clan. He obtained a dispensation from the Pope 1 1 73, and married the daughter of 
the thane of Calder, by whom he had five sons, of whom 

V. EwAN Baen, the second son, finally became virtual chief of the clan. He lived in the 

time of Alexander II., and was called Macparson or son of the parson, by which name 
his posterity were afterward called, and his clan has been variously designated as Mac- 
phersons, Macuries, and Clan Chattan. He left issue — three sons, of whom 

VI. Kenneth Macpherson became chief of the Clan Chattan, on the death of his cousin, 
Dougal Phaol, and was called of Clunie. He married, in the reign of Alexander III., 
Isabel, daughter of Ferquhard Macintosh of that ilk, and had : 

VII. Duncan Macpherson, of Clunie, chief of the Clan Chattan. He lived in the time 
of Robert Bruce, by whom he was greatly trusted, and from whom he obtained consid- 
erable grants of land. He had : 

VIII. Donald Phaol Macpherson, of Clunie, who had: 

IX. Donald Macpherson, of Clunie, who succeeded him as chief, and was called Donald 
Mhor. 

*• In this Donald's time the dissensions between the Clan Chattan and the Clan Kay ran 
so very high that they took up the attention of the whole Court. The king, and the Duke 
of Albany sent the Earls of Crawford and Murray ^then two of the greatest men in the king- 
dom) to try to make up their differences, and, if jKJSsible, to bring about a reconciliation, but 
all to no purpose. It was at last proposed that each clan should choose thirty of their own 
number to fight in the North Inch of Perth, with their broadswords only, and thereby put an 
end to all their disputes. The combat was joyfully agreed to by both parties. They met 
accordingly on the day appointed. The king and an incredible number of the nobility and 
gentry were spectators. Prompted by old malice and inveterate hatred, they fought with 
480 



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THE MACPHERSON GENEALOGY. 481 

inexpressible resolution and fury. Twenty-nine of the Clan Kay were killed on the spot; 
the one who remained was unhurt, but made his escape by swimming over the river 'lay ; 
and, 'tis said, was put to death by his own clan when he came home, for not choosing to die 
on the field of honour with his companions, rather than save his life by flying. 

"Of the Clan Chattan, nineteen were killed on the field, and the eleven others so much 
wounded, that none of them were able to pursue their single antagonist who fled. This 
happened on the Monday before the feast of St. Michael, Anno 1396; and the victory was 
adjudged in favor of the Clan Chattan." 

Donald Mhor married a daughter of the Clan of Macintosh of Manmore in Lochaber, 
and bad : 

X. Donald Oig Macpherson, of Clunie, time of James I., who married a daughter of 

Gordon of Buckie, and had : 

XI. EtGiNE Macpherson, of Clunie, who died in the end of the reign of King James III., 
and bad : 

XII. DoRMUND, Capt. of the Clan Cliattan, who had a charter under the great seal from 
James IV., dated 6 Feb., 1509, and had: 

XIII. Ewan Macpherson, of Clunie, a man of singular merit, and a firm friend of Queen 
Mary ; he married a daughter of Mackintosh, and had : 

1. Andrew, d. s. p. 

2. John. 

XIV. JoJFN Macpherson, of Clunie, Captain of the Clan, who got a charter under the great 
seal from James VI., 1594. In October of ihe same year he was with the Earl of Huntly 
at the battle of Glenlivet, where the king's troops, under the command of the Earl of 
Ai^le, were defeated ; but he suffered nothing on that account, for Huntly and his fol- 
lowers were afterward received into the king's favor. I le married a daughter of Gordon 
of Auchanassie, and died about 1600; had issue: 

XV. John Macpherson, of Clunie, got a charter under the great seal, 1613; had: 

XVI. EwAN, of Clunie, who got a charter 1623. He married a daughter of Duncan Forbes 
of Culloden, by whom he had three sons and one daughter, viz. : 

1. Donald. 

2. Andrew. 

3. John of Nuid. 

4. A daughter, m. John Macpherson of Inneressie. 

XVII. John Macpherson. of Nuid, third son of Ewan of Clunie, married a daughter of 
Farquharson of Monaltrie, and had : 

1. Donald. 

2. William. 

3. Andrew. 

4. Murdoch. 

5. Janet. 

6. Bessie. 
«2 



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482 THE MACPHERSON GENEALOGY. 

XVIII. Donald Macphkrson, of Nuid, time Charles II., married, first, a daughter of 
Hugh Ross of Kilravock, and had : 

1. William. 

2. James. 

3. John. 

Also seven daughters. 

XIX. William Macpherson, of Nuid, married Isabel, daughter of Lauchlan Macintosh, 
and had : 

1. Lauchlan. 

2. Andrew. 

3. James. 

4. William. 

Also six daughters. 

XX. William Macpherson, fourth son of William of Nuid and Isabel, was " bred a writer" 
in Edinburgh. He married Jean Adamson, a merchant of Edinburgh. His fourth son 
was: 

XXI. Captain John Macpherson, " who having been bred to the sea, was commander of 
the Britannia^ privateer of Philadelphia, during the late war, when by his conduct and 
bravery, he did honour to himself and his country. — He made a handsome fortune and 
is now settled near Philadelphia." [Baronage of Scotland^ edition of 1798 (written 
about 1765), page 358.] He was bom in Edinburgh, Scotland; died in Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania, Sept., 1792, and was buried in St. Paul's Churchyard, Philadelphia. He 
married, first, Margaret, daughter of Thomas Rogers and Elizabeth Baxter, who came 
from Londonderry to Boston, Mass., in 1 721, and removed to Philadelphia in 1728. 
She died in Philadelphia, June 4, 1770, and was buried June 6, in the burial-ground of 
the First Presbyterian Church, Philadelphia. Captain Macpherson married, secondly, 
probably in Edinburgh. 

Children of Captain yohn Macpherson and Margaret, his wife : 

1. Ma'or John Macpherson, bom at Mount Pleasant, 1754; killed at Quebec, Dec. 31, 

1775- 

2. General William Macpherson, bom at Mount Pleasant, 1756. 

3. Daughter. 

4. Daughter. 

General William Macpherson, second son of Captain John Macpherson, bom at Mount 
Pleasant, 1756; died at Stouton, Nov. 5, 1813; buried in St. Paul's Churchyard, Phil- 
adelphia. He married, first, 1 782, Margaret, daughter of Lieutenant Joseph Stout, R. N., 
by Mary Keen, daughter of Peter and Maigaret Keen. She died December 25, 1797; 
buried in Gloria Dei Churchyard, Philadelphia. He married, secondly, March 9, 1803, 
Elizabeth, daughter of Bishop White of Philadelphia. She was born 1776; died 1830. 
Children of General William Macpherson and Margaret, his first ivife : 

1. A daughter. 

2. Julia Macpherson, Iwrn at Stouton, Jan. 19, 1 785 ; die<i at Philadelphia, May, 1855 ; 

married Philip Holbrook Nicklin of Philadelphia. 



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THE MACPHERSON GENEALOGY. 483 

3. Margaret Macphenon, born at Stouton, July 20, 1786; died at "Sulgrave," Bryn 
Mawr, July 17, 1 874; married Hon. Peter Gra3rson Washington (bom 1796; 
died 1872), Sept. i, at Philadelphia, by Rev. Dr. Abercrombie. 

Children of General William Macpherson and Elizabeth^ his second wife : 

1. Esther, married Dr. Thomas Harris, Surgeon-general, U. S. N. She d. s. p. 1 858. 

2. Elizai3eth, married Rev. Edwin Wilson Wiltbank, and had: 

1. Elizabeth. 

2. William White, Judge of the Court of G)mmon Pleas, Philadelphia: mar- 

ried Edith Brinton and has issue. 

3. Mary White, married Rev. Charles A. L. Richards. 

4. George Maq)herson, took the surname of Maeherson by Act of Assembly; 

married Frances Lowndes Ellis, dau. of William Ellis, of Philadelphia, 
and has issue. 

Margaret Macpherson, daughter of General William Macpherson and Margaret his first 
wife, bom at Stouton, 20 July, 1 786; married Hon. Peter Grajrson Washington, as 
above, and had : 

Julia Maria Washington, married, i June, 1859, Caleb Wright Homor, M. D., bom 
26 March, 1828, of " Sulgrave." Bryn Mawr. 
Children : 

1. William Macpherson Homor, bom 10 April, i860; married at Grace Church, 

Chantry, New York City, by Rev. W. R. Huntington, 9 June, 1896, Julia Craw- 
ford, daughter of the late Peter Townsend, 3d, of New York City, and had : 
William Macpherson Homor, Jr., bora at " Sulgrave,'* Bryn Mawr, 1 1 Oct., 
1897. 

2. Louisa Stockton Horaor. 



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INDEX. 



Ahrrcrombik, Gen. James, defeat, 398. ' Astor, John Jacob, buys the Roger Morris 
Abrahamson, Cornelius, a Virginia Puritan, j claim, 275. 

351- Atlee, Margaret (Wayne), 300, 301, 313. 

Ackland, I^dy Harriet, entertained at the Atlee, William Richardson, m. Margaret 

Schuyler House, 435. Wayne, 301. 

Act concerning Records of Maryland, 374. 1 Attainder, Act of, 152. 

Act concerning Religion, 373. ' Auckland, l^rd, advises William Rawle, 

Act of Attainder and Confiscation, 152. 159. 

Act of Recognition, 373. 
Adams, Abigail (Mrs. John), meets Jefferson Bache, Sarah, an enthusiastic patriot, 

at Paris, 230. 151. 
Adams, Elizabeth (Fontleroy), rejects Wash- Bacon, Capt. , description of Monticello, 

ington's suit, 49, 50. ' 214-216; of Jefferson, 222. 

Adams, John (President), a Federalist leader, , Baker, George, History and Antiquities of 

201 ; friendship for Jefferson, 230, 238 ; Northamptonshire^ 23. 

dines at Mount Pleasant, 451 ; appoints ' Baker, Maurice, at the Quaker Meeting at 

Col. William Macpherson a Brig. -Gen., ' John Holmewood's, 367. 

472 ; continues him in office, 468 ; inter- Ball, Col. Joseph, grandfather of Washing- 

ested in his projects, 470 ; death, 238. ton, 39. 

Adams, Thomas, Jefferson's letter to, 203. i Ball, Joseph (of London), opposes Washing- 
Adamson, Jean, m. William Macpherson, ' ton going to sea, 46. 

445- Ball* Mary, m. Augustine Washington, 39, 

Albany, Schuyler House at, 397-406. 75. 

Albert, George Dallas, Frontier Forts of , Ball, William, the immigrant, 39. 

Penmylvania, 289. I Ballman, Dr. , aids I^fayette's escape 

Anderson, Sir Richard, friend of I^wrence from Olmutz, 61. 

Washington of Purieigh, 28. j Baltimore, Cecil Calvert, Ix)rd, induces Puri- 

Andr6, Maj. John, connected with Tarry- ' tan migration to Maryland, 350 ; refuses 

town, 245, 276 ; court-martial, 477 ; religious toleration, 357 ; his govern- 

fulile efforts to save him, 271. i ment overthrown, 359; ••comes to his 

Armand, Charles, Marquis de la Rouarie in ' own again," 362. 

Revolution, 468. I Bancroft, George, on Maj. John Macpherson, 

Arms, Washington, 26 ; Winthrop, 103 ; ; 453. 

Rawle, 125, 129; Philipse, 250; Wayne, Bangs, Lieut. Isaac, describes in his journal 

281, 282; Schuyler, 397, 406; Mac- Arent John Schuyler and his family, 

pherson, 445. 418-423. 

Arnold, Gen. Benedict, purchases Mount | Banks, Lieut Richard, assists in overthrow- 
Pleasant, 471 ; invades Virginia, 218, ing Gov. Stone, 355. 

478 ; in London, 152. Bankson, , at commencement of Univer- 

Arnold, John, affidavit against the Quakers, sity of Pa., 454. 

367, 368. Barbee, Dr. Luke, Provincial Councillor of 

Arnold, Margaret (Shippen), Mrs. Gen., Maryland, 364. 

interest in Mount Pleasant, 478 ; ** the Bartholomew, , owns Sulgrave Manor, 

handsomest woman in England," 163. | 23. 
Ashton, , in French and Indian Wars, ' Beauvais, , vainly tries to save Philip 

294- 1 Schuyler, 415, 416. 

485 



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486 



INDEX. 



Becket, Mary, m. Samuel Bowne, 112, II9 ; 

old-fashioned love letters, II3. 
Bellomont, Richard Coote, Earl of, sends 

Capt. John Schuyler to Count Frontenac, 

412. 
" Belvoir" home of the Fairfaxes, 44. 
Benezel, Anthony, friend of the Chevalier de 

la Luzerne, 158. 
Bennett, Philip, Justice of the Peace, 347. 
Bennett, Richard, Parliamentary Commis- 
sioner, 355 ; settles in Maryland, 354 ; 

appealed to by the Puritan party, 357 ; 

recognizes the new government, 359, 

373- 

Berkeley, Sir William, grants land to Rich- 
ard Preston, 346. 

Beman, M., friend of Jefferson, 236. 

Berry, James, of ** Preston's Neck," member 
of Maryland Assembly, 369, 372. 

Berry, James, m. Elizabeth Wilchurch, 369 ; 
m. Elizabeth Pitt, 369 ; bequest from 
Richard Preston, 370. 

Berry, Naomi (Preston), death, 369; de- 
scendants of, 389-394. 

Berry, Rebecca, m. James Ridley, 369 ; be- 
quest from Richard Preston, 370. 

Berry, William, a Virginia Puritan, 344 ; 
becomes a Quaker, 367 ; m. Naomi 
Preston, 369 ; m. Margaret Preston, 369 ; 
bequest from Richard Preston, 370 ; 
executor of his will, 371. 

Berry, William, Jr., m. Naomi Whalley, 

369. 
Besse, Joseph, Sufferings of the People called 

Quakers y 131. 
Besson, Capt. Thomas, appointed Justice of 

the Peace, 366. 
Bickerstaff, Hannah, m. John Bowne, 109, 

118. 
** Billy," Washington's body- servant, 65; 

portrait, 65 ; intemperate habits, 67. 
Bingham, Ann (Willing), a Philadelphia 

belle, 151. 
Bingham, William, 151. 
Birk, Polly, 150. 
Bleecker, Cornelia (Van Cortlandt), lives in 

Philipse Manor House, 275 ; spirited 

reply, 275. 
Bleecker, Gerard C, 275. 
Bleecker, John, Indian Commissioner, 412. 
Bolton, Robert, History of the P. E. Church 

in Westchester County^ 246. 
Book, first, printed in Pennsylvania, 133, 

134. 
Boucher, Rev. Jonathan, Washington's tutor, 

40, 43- 
Boudinot, Elias, lawyer for Mrs. Joseph 
Galloway, 145. 



Bowne, Family Genealogical Tables, 116- 
121. 

Bowne House, Flushing, I^. I., 91 -1 15. 

Bowne, Abigail, dau. of the immigrant, m. 
Richard Willets, 112, 118. 

Bowne, Amy, dau. of the immigrant, m. 
Richard Hallett, 113. 

Bowne, Dorothy, dau. of the immigrant, m. 
Edward Farrington, 96, 118. 

Bowne, Dorothy, sister of the immigrant, m. 
Henry Franklyn, 112, 118. 

Bowne, Eleanor, m. Isaac Homor, 1 14, 119. 

Bowne, Elizabeth, dau. of the immigrant, 
m. Samuel Titus, 112, 118. 

Bowne, Hannah, dau. of the immigrant, m. 
Benjamin Field, 112, 118; a Quaker 
romance, 1 14, 115. 
I Bowne, Hannah, m. Richard Lawrence, 1 14, 

119. 

I Bowne, Hannah ( Feake) , becomes a Friend, 

I 96 ; appearance, lOO ; ancestry, loi ; 

I religious visits to Europe, 108 ; letters 

from her husband, 106-111 ; death, 108. 

Bowne, John, the immigrant, 95 ; goes back 
to England, 95 ; return to America, 
96 ; builds the house at Flushing, L. I., 
96 ; m. Hannah Feake, 96 ; becomes 
a Quaker, 97 ; religfious persecution, 
97, 98 ; before the Governor, 102 ; 
sent to Amsterdam for trial, 103; firm 
stand for freedom of worship, 104; 
released, 105 ; letters to his wife, 106, 
no; joins his wife in England, 108; 
testimony of the Meeting, 108 ; death, 
108 ; thrice married, 109 ; children, 
112, 118, 119. 

Bowne, John, son of the immigrant, 1 1 2, 118. 

Bowne, John, son of the immigrant, d. s. p., 
112. 

Bowne, John, son of the immigrant, m. Eliz- 
abeth Lawrence, 1 1 2, 118. 

Bowne, Martha, dau. of the immigrant, m. 
Joseph Thome, 112, 118. 

Bowne, Mary, m. John Keese, 1 14, 119. 

Bowne, Robert, 1 14, 119. 

Bowne, Ruth, dau. of the immigrant, d. s. p., 

II3» "9- 

Bowne, Samuel, son of the immigrant, m., 
1st, Mary Becket ; 2d, Hannah Smith ; 
3d, Grace Cowperthwaite, II2; old- 
fashioned love letters, 113 ; death, 1 12 ; 
children, 114. 

Bowne, Samuel, 1 14, 1 19. 

Bowne, Sarah, dau. of the immigrant, d. s. p., 
112, 118. 

Bowne, Thomas, the immigrant, 95, lOO, II8. 

Bowne, Thomas, son of the immigrant, 
d. s. p., 112, 118. 



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INDEX. 



487 



Boycc, Mrs., m. Rev. Joseph Montgomery, I 

459- I 

Boyne Water, 284. , 

Bozman, John Leeds, Maryland historian, 

356. ! 

Brackenridge, Hugh Henry, Poem on Death 
of Gen. Montgomery, 463. 

Braddock, Gen. Edward, defeated at Fort i 
Duquesne, 291. 

Bradford, William, 457. j 

Bradstreet, Gen. John, in the French and 
Indian Wars, 433 ; builds the Schuyler 
Mansion at Albany, 398 ; Cien. Schuyler, 
his executor, purchases it for the estate, 
401 ; secret passage in his house, 433. 

Branch, Mary, m. Thomas Jefferson, ancestor 
of the President, 204, 241. 

Bnngton, ancestral home of the Washing- 
tons, 24. 

Brockholst, Joanna, m. Frederick Philipse, 
third lord of the Manor, 261, 277 ; 
haughty character, 269 ; tragic fate, 
269. 

Brodhurst, Anne Pope, m. John Washington, 
the immigrant, 34 ; lawsuit, 35. 

Brodhurst, Walter, settles in Maryland, 35 ; 
removes to Virginia, 35 ; will proved, 35. 

Brooke, Baker, Provincial Councillor of 
Maryland, 364. 

Brooke, Robert, assists in overthrowing Gov. 
Stone's government, 355. 

Buckingham, George Villiers, Duke of, 
family connection with Sir William 
Washington, 25. 

Bui^e, Samuel, 167. 

Burge, Sarah Coates, the ** Juliet'* of the 
Rawle correspondence, 149 ; at the 
Mescluanza, 167 ; m. William Rawle, 
167, 185 ; portrait painted by Stuart, 168. 

Burgess, William, refuses to take the oath, 

365. 

Bui^oyne, Gen. Sir John, destroys the Schuy- 
lerville Mansion, 398 ; surrender, 433, 
435 ; head-quarters at the Schuyler 
House, 435. 

Burks, Christopher, godfather of Washing- 
ton, 39. 

Burr, Aaron, kills Alexander Hamilton in 
duel, 423. 

Burton, William, Essay on Heraldry^ 20. 

Bushrod, Hannah, m. John Augustine Wash- 
ington, 78. 

Butler, Jane, m. Augustine Washington, 36 ; 
death, 39, 75. 

Butler, Margaret, m. I^wrence Washington 
of Brington, 24, 77. 

Cadwalader, Gkn. Thomas, 436. 



Calvert, Charles, Governor of Maryland, 
takes John Arnold's affidavit, 368 ; calls 
Richard Preston the "Great Quaker," 

369- 
Calvert, Philip, the Governor's secretary, 

signs the Agreement in behalf of Lord 

Baltimore, 363. 
Calvert, William, acknowledges Richard 

Preston's will, 371. 
Calverton or Battle Towne, Maryland, 343. 

Cappock, , an instrument maker, 454. 

Carleton, Gen. Sir Guy, inters Gen. Mont- 
gomery with military honors, 463. 

Carlyle, Col. , visits Mount Vernon, 53. 

Carpenter Family, Tables of Descent from 

Samuel Preston, 376-388. 
Carr, Martha Dabney, sister of President 

Jefferson, 228, 241. 
Carroll, Charles, entertained at Schuyler 

House, Albany, 434, 435. 
Carroll, Daniel, entertained at Schuyler 

House, Albany, 434. 
Cary, Mary, in love with Washington, 51. 
Cary, Miles, of Warwick, visited by Dr. 

John Fothergill, 36. 
Castle Philipse, 262. 
Cathcart, I^rd, 163. 
Chalmers, Sarah, m. James Lanier, 76. 
Champe, Jane, m. Col. Samuel Washington, 

78. 

Chandler, Job, assists in overthrowing Gov. 

Stone, 355. 
Chandler, Rev. Thomas Bradbury, 455. 
Chapman, Lucy, m. Col. Samuel Washing- 
ton, 78. 
Charlotte, Queen, 160 ; receives Samuel Shoe- 
maker, 177-180. 
Chase, Samuel, entertained at Schuyler 

House, Albany, 434. 
Chastellux, Francois Jean, Marquis de, 

visits Monticello, 216-220. 
Chateaubriand, Francois Auguste, Viscount, 
doubts the genuineness of the Key of 
the Bastile at Mount Vernon, 57. 
Chattan, Clan, 446, 480. 
Chester, Col. Joseph L., on the Washington 
genealogy, 21. 

, Church, Mrs. , removes arms from 

I Schuyler House, 434. 

; Claiborne, William, Parliamentary Commis- 
i sioner, 355 ; appealed to by the Puritan 

party, 357 ; recognizes the new govern- 
ment, 359, 373. 
I Clans, Battle of the, 446, 480. 

Clark, Maj. , cares for Washington in 

his illness, 49. 
j Clifford, John, m. Anna Rawle, 139, I40, 
184 ; descendants of, 1 91, 



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488 



INDEX, 



Clinton, Gov. Geoi^e, recommends Brandt 

Schuyler for Provincial Councillor, 

408. 
Clinton, Sir Henry, 434; accepts Capt. 

William Macpherson's resignation, 466; 

in disgrace, 164. 
Clunie, original name of Mount Pleasant, 

450. 
Cobbington, John, a Virginia Puriun, 351. 
Cock, Mary, m. John Bowne, 109, 118. 
Cockles, John Philipse, courts held at his 

inn, 268. 
Cole, Josiah, banished from Maryland, 

367. ' „ 

Colfax, Capt. , m. Hester Schuyler, 428 ; 

portrait, 428 ; pistols presented by Wash- 
ington, 429. 

Collins, John, m. Margaret Schuyler, 41 1. 

Colombe, De la. , account of Washing- 
ton's love for Lafayette, 61. 

Confiscation Act, 145, 152. 

Conrad, Mrs., M. E., present at Washing- 
ton's reinterment, 72. 

Contrecoeur, , captures Fort Duquesne, 

289. 

Conway, Moncure D., visits Sulgrave, 23; 
George Washington and Mount Vernon^ 
40, 47. 

Coombe, Thomas, mentioned in Maj. John 
Macpherson's letter, 455. 

Combury, Edward Hyde, Ix>rd, Governor of 
New York, 261. 

Comwallis, Charles, Lord, invades Virginia, 
226 ; exchange suggested for Henry 
Laurens, 164. 

Correa de Serra, Jos6 Francisco, visits Mon- 
ticello, 237 ; his room there, 214. 

Cosby, Gov. William, appoints John Schuy- 
ler Provincial Councillor, 418. 

Cosway, Maria H., Correspondence with 
President Jefferson, 230. 

Cowperthwait, Grace, m. Samuel Bowne, 
112, 119. 

Craig, , preaches a funeral sermon, 53. 

Craik, Dr. James, visits **Belvoir" with 
Washington, 52. 

Crane, Ichabod, and the headless horseman, 

258. 

Cravens, lohn R., m. Drusilla Anna I^nier, 

76. • 

Cresap, , Indian trader, 47. 

Cromwell, Oliver, authorizes the removal of 

the Maryland capital to Preston on the 

Patuxent, 355. 
Custis, Daniel Parke, portrait of, 49. 
Custis, Eleanor Parke, portrait of, 64. 
Custis, George Washington Parke, portrait 

of, 69. 



I Custis, John, son of Mrs. Washington, por- 
! trait of, 55. 

Custis, Martha (Dandridge), children by 
her first husband, 54, 55 ; m. Washing- 
ton, 51 ; description of, 51 ; happy mar- 
ried life, 52 ; tomb, 68. 
Custis, Martha, daughter of Mrs. Washing- 
ton, portrait of, 54, 55. 

Dacres, Margaret, mother of Fredeiick 

Philipse, the immigrant, 248. 
Dallam, Ann, m. Joseph Wavne, 319, 
Dassett, Mrs. , visits Mount Vernon, 

52. 
Davis, Hannah Pennell, m. William Hay- 
man, 330. 
Davis, Lieut. , in French and Indian 

Wars, 294. 
Delavol, Thomas, partner of Frederick 

Philipse, the immigrant, 250. 
Democratic leaders, 201. 
Dickinson, John, author of the "Farmer's 

Letters," 455 ; in the . Revolution, 236; 

m. Mary Norris, 458 ; Maj. John Mac- 

pherson indentured to, 459. 

Dillius, Rev. , officiates at Capt. John 

t Schuyler's wedding, 413. 

, Dinwiddie, Robert, Governor of Virginia, 

authorizes the building of Fort Duquesne, 
I 289. 

I Dixon family. See Preston Genealogy, 390- 

, 392. 

Dixon, D. B. M., owner of Preston, 371. 

' Dixon, , a barber, 454. 

Dorsey, James, mentioned in Richard Pres- 
ton's will, 370. 
I Dorsey, John, mentioned in Richard Pres- 
ton's will, 370. 
I Dorsey, Ralph, legatee of Richard Preston, 

370- 
I Doughty, Drusilla Cleaves, m. Alexander C. 

Lanier, 76 
I Doughty, Rev. Frances, denies the king's 
I supremacy, 34. 

, Dryden, Sir Henry, traces armorial bearings 
I in Sulgrave Manor House, 24. 

Duane, Sarah, presents standard to the Mac- 

pherson Blues, 473 ; letter to Gen. 

VVilliam Macpherson, 474. 
Dunbar, Gen. Thomas, defeated at F'ort 

Duquesne, 291. 
Duponceau, Peter S., aide-de-camp to Baron 

Steuben, 478. 
J Duportail, Ix)uis Lebeque, not received at 

Mount Vernon, 65. 
I Durand, Rev. William, a Virginia Puritan, 
t 348, 350 ; settles in Maryland, 354 ; 

I Secretary of the Province, 363 ; becomes 



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INDEX. 



489 



a Quaker, 367, 368 ; member of the 
Maryland Assembly, 372 ; the Act of 
recognition, 373. 
Duykhuisen, Swan van, m. Arent Schuyler, 
408. 

Earlk, (iKORGE H., m. Ellen F. Van Leer, 

328. 

Educational advantages in Virginia, 39-43. 

Edwards, Thomas, sells land to Anthony 1 
Wayne, the immigrant, 288. I 

Egle, Dr. William Henry, writes of Mrs. Mar- 
garet Macpherson, 474. 

Egleston, Sarah E., m. Charles I^nier, 76. 

Elizabeth, Princess, at George lll.'s recep- 
tion of Samuel Shoemaker, 177-179. 

Eltonhead, William, commissioner for Lord i 
Baltimore, 359 ; executed by the Vir- ' 
ginia Puritans, 361. | 

Ennis, William, a Virginia Puritan, settles ' 
in Maryland, 351. , 

Eppes, John Wayles, m. Maria Jefferson, 
235, 241 ; their children, 235. 

Evans, Issachar, m. Mary Atlee, 301, 313. 

Evans, William, name changed to Wayne, 
301. 

Everett, Edward, raises money for the Mount 
Vernon Association, 71. 

Ewen, Richard, member of Maryland Assem- 
bly, 372 ; Act of recognition, 373. 1 

Ewen, William, member of Maryland Assem- 
bly, 372. 

I 

Fairfax, Anne, m. Lawrence Washington \ 
of Mount Vernon, 44. 

Fairfax, Bryan, a visitor at Mount Vernon, 1 

53- I 

Fairfax, Col. Cieorge, and his wife, visitors at 

Mount Vernon, 44, 52, 53. 
Fairfax, (leorge William, friend of Washing- j 
ton, 44 ; surveyor, 47. | 

Fairfax, Hannah, m. Warner Washington, 77. ' 
Fairfax, Thomas, lx>rd. Parliamentary gen- 
eral, 25. I 
Fairfax, Thomas, Sixth Lord, settles in Vir- | 
ginia, 44 ; visits Mount Vernon, 44, 

53- 
Fairfax, Col. William, of *' Belvoir," 44; 

letters to Lawrence Washington, 44. 
Fairfax, Miss , Washington's admiration 

for, 47. 
Faithful servants, 226. 
Farah, M. , m. Judith Jefferson, 207, 

241. 
Farringlon, Edward, m. Dorothy Bowne, 96. 
Farrington, CJeorge, friend of Samuel Shoe- 1 

maker, 174. ; 

Farrow, James, m. Mary McCue, 322. | 



Feake, Hannah, m. John Bowne, 96, 118. 

Federalist leaders, 201. 

Feudal 1, Capt. Josias, Governor of Maryland, 
364 ; seizes guns and ammunition at 
Preston on the Patuxent, 362 ; signs 
agreement for the surrender of the Prov- 
ince to lx)rd Baltimore, 363 ; issues an 
"order" against the Quakers, 366; on 
the Richardson witch case, 33. 

Fenwick, Cuthbert, Indian Commissioner, 

374- 
Field, Benjamin, m. Hannah Bowne, 1 12, 

114. 
Field, Mary, m. Capt. Thomas Jefferson, 

ancestor of the President, 204, 241 ; 

their children, 204, 241. 
Field, Peter, Speaker of the Virginia House 

of Burgesses, 204. 
Fillmore, President Millard, m. Mrs. Mcin- 
tosh at the Schuyler House, 402. 
First book on general subjects printed in 

America, 133-135. 
Fiske, John, Old Virginia and her Neighbors^ 

348. 

Fletcher, Gov. Benjamin, grants Arent Schuy- 
ler patent of land, 417. 

Flushing, L. I., an English settlement, 97. 

Fones family, loi, 102. Tables of Descent, 
116. 

Fones, Elizabeth, m. Henry W^inthrop, loi, 
116. 

Fones, George, of Saxbie, 102. 

Fones, Thomas, grandfather of Hannah 
Bowne, lOi, 116. 

Fones, William, ancestor of the Fones fam- 
ily. 102, 116. 

Fontleroy, Elizabeth, rejects W^ashington's 
suit, 50 ; m. Adams, 50. 

Fontleroy, William, letter from Washington, 
50. 

Forbes, Gen. John, expedition against Fort 
Duquesne, 294. 

Ford, Paul Leicester, 7 he True George Wash- 
ingtony 40. 

Ford, William, m. Sarah Preston, 369. 

Ford, Worth ington C, Writings of George 
Washington, 469. 

Fort Duquesne, Exp)edition against, 289-292. 

Fothergill, Dr. John, visits Augustine Wash- 
ington, 36. 

Fox, (ieorge, visits John Bowne at Amster- 
dam, 108, III ; preaches under the oak 
at Flushing, L. I., Iio. 

Franklin, Benjamin, in command of Penna. 
Militia, 294 ; first book printed by, 133 ; 
President of Society for Political Inqui- 
ries, 169 ; entertained at the Schuyler 
House, 434 ; succeeded by Jefferson at 



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INDEX, 



Versailles, 230; visited by William 
Rawle, 166 ; pictures of Queen Char- 
lotte owned by, 160. 

Franklin, Sarah, m. Samuel Bowne, 1 19. 

Franklyn, Henry, m. Dorothy Bowne, 1 1 2. 

Freedom of worship, 93, 348. 

French and Indian Wars, 289-294, 411-416. 

French, Samuel, m. Mary Wayne, 315. 

Fries, John, Rebellion, 472. 

Frontenac, Louis de Buode, Comte de, 412. 

Fry, Col. Joshua, in the French and Indian 
War, 289-291. 

Fuller, Sarah, at the Quaker Meeting at 
John Holmewood's house, 367. 

Fuller, Capt. William, a Virginia Puritan, 
settles in Maryland, 350, 354 ; Com- 
mander-in-chief of Maryland Militia, 
356 ; commander of the Maryland Puri- 
tans, 360, 363 ; battle of Severn River, 
361 ; surrenders the province to Lord 
Baltimore, 363 ; member of Maryland 
Assembly, 364, 372 ; becomes a Quaker, 
367 ; Act of recognition, 373. 

Fur trading profitable, 248, 408. 

Gale, George, m. widow of I^wrence 
Washington of Virginia, 36, 74. 

Gallatin, Albert, Democratic leader, 201. 

Galloway, Ann, (Mrs. Joseph), estates con- 
fiscated, 145, 146, 155. 

Galloway, Joseph, authorship of the Farmer's 
Letters attributed to, 455 ; resides on the 
Schuylkill, 139 ; associated with Samuel 
Shoemaker, 144 ; guilty of high treason, 
145 ; estates confiscated, 145 ; estates 
restored, 155 ; writes in favor of Sir 
Henry Clinton, 164. 

Gardner, Elizabeth, m. James F. D. Lanier, 

76, 

Gates, Gen. Horatio, succeeds Gen. Schuy- 
ler, 433 ; entertained at Schuyler House, 
435 ; superseded by Gen. Greene, 477. 

George III. not apprehensive of trouble, 516 ; 
retort to Col. Tarleton, 164 ; receives 
Samuel Shoemaker, 174-180 ; praises 
the Quakers, 179 ; present to Samuel 
Shoemaker, 180. 

George IV. as described by William Rawle, 
160, 163. 

Gerrard, Thomas, Provincial Councillor of 
Maryland, 364 ; Assembly meets at his 
house, 364. 

Ghoharius sells land to Frederick Philipse, 
the immigrant, 250, 

Gill, Capt. of **the Fishbourne," 195. 

Gillingham, .Sarah, m. William Wayne, 315. 

Goldsmith, Col., Equerry to (ieorge III., 

178. 



Goldsmith, Miss, at George III.'s reception 

of Samuel Shoemaker, 178. 
Gorsuch, I>ovelace, m. Rebecca Preston, 

369. 

I Gouverneur, Juliana Matilda, m. Francis 

Rawle Wharton, 194. 
I Gove, Mary F., m. Joseph Wayne, 317. 
I Graaf, Jacob, owns house where Declaration 
i of Independence was written, 223, 224. 

Green, Rev. Charles, visited by Washington, 

I 53- 

, Greene, Capt. John, hangs Elizabeth Rich- 
I ardson as a witch, y^- 

Greene, Gen. Nathaniel, supersedes Gen. 
Gates, 477 ; operates against Arnold, 

, 478. 

' Gregory, Mildred, godmother of Washing- 

I ion, 39- 

Griffith, Arabella, m. Thomas I. Wharton, 

195. 
Griscom, John D., m. Margaret Acton, 386. 

Haight, Samuel, builds a Friends' Meeting 
house at Flushing, L. I., 109. 

j Haldimand, Gen., Sir Frederick, 434. 

' Hall, Louisa, m. Frances William Rawle, 
188. 
Hallett, Richard, m. Amy Bowne, 113. 

I Hambleton, Amos, a Virginia Puritan, settles 
in Maryland, 351. 

I Hamilton, Alexander, m. Elizabeth Schuyler, 

1 402 ; a Federalist leader, 201 ; killed by 

I Aaron Burr, 423. 

Hammond, John, seizes State Records at 

I Preston on the Patuxent, 361 ; unreli- 

ability as a historian, 362. 
Hampton, Col. Richard, leases Mount Pleas- 

I ant, 478. 

Hanging a witch, '^2^. 

I Hanmer, l^dy, owns shields formerly in 
Sulgrave Manot-house, 24- 
Harmon, George, a Virginia Puritan, settles 

I in Maryland, 351. 

1 Harper, William, a Virginia Puritan, setdes 

1 in Maryland, 351. 

I Hatch, John, member of Maryland Assembly, 
372 ; Act of recognition, 373 ; Indian 

I Commissioner, 374. 

I Hatton, Thomas, Secretary to Gov. Stone, 
355 ; killed at battle of Severn River, 

I 361. 

I Hayes, Capt. , massacred by the Indians, 

' 293. 

I Hayman, Ann, m. Aaron Vogdes, 313. 

I Hayman, Isaac Wayne, m. Sarah Williams, 

I m- 

I Hayman, William, m. Hannah Pennell 

I Davis, 330. 



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INDEX, 



491 



Hayman, Capt William, letter from Gen. 

Anthony Wayne to, 297 ; m. Ann 

Wayne, 312. 
Hazard, Willis P., Continuation of Watson' s 

Annals of Philadelphia^ 155. 
Heard, Sir Isaac, draws up Washington's 

pedigree, 20. 
Heath, Caroline Julia, m. David Seeger 

Heyl, 306. 
Heath, Charles Petit, m. Esther Keely, 306. 
Heath, lx)uiha Adelaide, m. Peter Penn 

Cask ell, 307. 
** Hennett,*' barton house of Rawle estate in 

England, 128. 
Henry VHI., grants Manor of Sulgrave to 

Lawrence Washington, 22. 
Henry, Patrick, on quartering British prison- 
ers at Monticello, 225. 
Heyl, Col. E. M., 334. 
Hill, Capt. Edward, virtual governor of 

Maryland, 35. 
Hill, Martha, a Virginia Puritan, settles in 

Maryland, 351. 
Hiltzheimer, Jacob, stables and the flies, 224. 
Hinson, Thomas, member of Maryland 

Assembly, 372. 
Hodge, Margaret, m. William Rawle, 135, 

184. 
Holland, Mary, m. Abraham Wayne, 315. 
Holland, the refuge of the oppressed, 95. 
Hollingsworth, Caroline T., m. Henry Pem- 

berton, 193. 
Hollingsworth, Samuel L., m. Anna Clifford 

Pemberton, 192. 
Holmewood, John, a Quaker meeting at his 

house, 367, 368. 
Holmewood, Sarah, 367. 
Hooges, Anthony de, officiates at Philip 

Peter Schuyler the immigrant's wedding, 

407. 
Hopkins, Capt Ezek., appointed Commodore 

U. S. N., 468. 
Hopkins, Randolph, member of Continental 

Congress, 468. 
Hopkinson, Mrs. , school in Philadel- 
phia, 228 ; presents standard to Mac- 

phcrson Blues, 472, 473. 
Hornblower, Josiah, comes from ?3ngland to 

work the Schuyler copper mines, 418. 
Homor, Dr. Caleb'W., 480. 
Hornor, Isaac, m. Eleanor Bowne, 1 14, 1 19. 
Hornor, Julia Washington, m. (ien. William 

Macpherson, 468, 472. 
Hornor, VVilliam Macpherson, 452, 480. 
Horsmanden, Jane, presents living of Pur- 

leigh to Lawrence Washington, 27. 
Horsmanden, Warham, Councillor of Vir- 
ginia, 27. 



Howe, George Augustus, Viscount, a corpse 

in the old Schuyler House, 398. 
Howe, Sir William, and the Meschianza, 

167, 168. 
Howell, Joshua, builds Edgely in Fairmount 

Park, 139. 
Howell, Richard Washington, m. Mary T. 

Carpenter, 379. 
Howell, Capt. Thomas, Justice of the Peace, 

366. 
Howey, Anna Maria, m. Edward Carpenter 

2d, 382. 
Howlands, Hugh, a Virginia Puritan, settles 

in Maryland, 351. 
i Hudson, Hannah, m. Benjamin Rawle, 191. 
Hunter, John, companion of Anthony Wayne, 

the immigrant, 283 ; at the Battle of the 

Boyne, 284 ; settles in America, 288. 

i lDniN(;s, Elizabeth, m. Isaac Wayne, 310. 
I Iddings, Priscilla, m. Humphrey Wayne, 

. Indian Commissioners, 374, 375. 

I Indian Wars, 289, 294, 411-416. 
Indians, purchases from the, 250, 417. 

I Irving, Washington, associated with Tarry- 
town, 245 ; description of the old Dutch 
church, 254-258. 

i Jackson, Elizabeth, m. Francis Wayne, 

304. 
Jackson, Robert, friend of I^wrence Wash- 
I ington, 45. 

I Jaquett, Anna Frances, m. David W. Sellers, 

327. 
I Jaquett, Rev. Joseph, m. Elizabeth Stretcher, 

I 327. 

Jaudon family. See Wa3me Genealogy, 323- 

326. 
Jefferson, Field, 203 ; vestryman of Cumber- 
land parish, Virginia, 207, 241 ; uncle 
of the President, 204. 
Jefferson Genealogy, 241. 
Jefferson, Judith, m. M. Farrah, 207, 241. 
Jefferson, Lucy Elizabeth, dau. of the Pres- 
ident, 228, 241. 
Jefferson, Martha (Skelton), wife of the 
President, 208, 241 ; appearance, 208 ; 
I **ihe wooing o' it," 208; happy mar- 

I ried life, 209, 220 ; failing health, 227 ; 

j death, 228. 

Jefferson, Maria, dau. of the President, 
232, 235 ; m. John Wayles Eppes, 235, 
241 ; their children, 235. 

Jefferson, Martha, m. Wynne, 204, 241. 

Jefferson, Martha, aunt of the President, 
I 207 ; m. Bennet Goode, 241. 

' Jefferson, Martha, dau. of the President, m. 



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492 



INDEX, 



Thomas Mann Randolph, 232, 235, 240, 
241. 

Jefferson, Mary, m. Thomas Turpin, 207, 
241. 

Jefferson, Col. Peter, father of the President, 
203, 207 ; m. Jane Randolph, 203, 241. 

Jefferson, Thomas, ancestor of the President, 
204 ; m. Mary Branch, 204, 241. 

Jefferson, Capt. Thomas, Justice of the 
Peace, 204 ; m. Mary Field, 204, 241 ; 
their children, 204, 205, 241. 

Jefferson, Thomas, birth, 207 ; ancestry, 
203-207 ; early years, 207 ; elected to 
the legislature, 207 ; anti-slavery pro- 
clivities, 208 ; m. Martha Skelton, 208 ; 
** the wooing o' it," 208 ; ** their wed- 
ding journey," 209; easy circumstances, 
202, 209 ; a country gentleman, 210, 
216, 220; Monticello, 210-218; Chastel 
lux's description of, 218; Capt. Bacon's 
description of, 216, 221, 222 ; happy 
married life, 220 ; a thorough horseman, 
220, 221 ; delegate to Continental Con- 
gress, 222 ; the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, 222-225 '■> patriotic reply, 
225 ; intimacy with British officers, 225 ; 
Governor of Virginia, 225 ; Monticello 
and Elk Hill raided, 226 ; death of his 
wife, 227, 228 ; their children, 228 ; 
Minister to France, 229-231 ; returns to 
Monticello, 231 ; visitors at Monticello, 
232-237 ; Due de Rochefoucauld's de- 
scription of Monticello, 232-235 ; Pres- 
ident, 235 ; domestic afflictions, 235 ; 
plans the University of Virginia, 236 ; 
financial troubles, 239, 240; continues 
(ien. William Macpherson in office, 468 ; 
closing years, 236, 237 ; death, 238 ; 
tomb, 238, 240. 

Johnson, Derrick, a Virginia Puritan, settles 
in Maryland, 351. 

Johnson, Rev. , present at Washington's 

re-interment, 70. 

Johnson, , at commencement of Univer- 
sity of Pa., 454, 455. 

Johnson, Sir William, friend of the Indians, 
414. 

Jones, Rev. David, not the orator at Wayne 
re- interment, 300. 

Jones, Rev. Roger, Rector of Purleigh, 30. 

Jordan, Charles, m. Mary Ann Wayne, 320. 

Jordan, Thomas, landowner in Virginia, 347. 

Keating, Mary (Wayne), writes to Cien. 

Wayne, 285. 
Keely, Esther, m. Charles Petit Heath, 306. 
Keely, Matthias, m. Hannah Thomas Wayne, 

305. 



; Keen, Mary, portrait of, 475. 
I Keese, John, m. Mary Bowne, 1 14, 1 19. 
King's Bridge, built by Frederick Philipse, 

the immigrant, 253. 
Kingsland, Edmund, sells land to Arent 

Schuyler, 417. 
Kitson, Margaret, m. John Washington of 

Warton, 22, 73. 
Knight, Charles D., m. Susan Elizabeth 
, Wayne, 320. 

Knox, Henry, a Federalist leader, 201. 

I Lafayetfe, Marquis de, chamber at Mount 
Vernon, 58 ; sends key of Bastile to 
Washington, 56 ; commendation of Capt. 
John Macpherson, 466 ; imprisoned in 
Olmutz, 61, 237 ; Washington's friend- 
ship for, 58 ; visits Monticello, 236, 237 ; 
entertained at the Schuyler House, 435. 
I^ngdale, Margaret Burton, m. Samuel Pres- 
ton, 371. 
l^nier, Alexander C, m. Drusilla Cleaves 

Doughty, 76. 
I^nier, James, m. Sarah Chalmers, 76. 
t I^nier, James F. D., m. 1st, Elizabeth 
Clardner ; 2d, Mary McClure, 76. 

I Lanier, Lewis, m. Ball, 75. 

I^nier, Sansom, 75. 
I Lanier, Thomas, m. Elizabeth Washington, 

74. 
laurel Hill, 125-183 ; described, 139. 
1 Laurens, Henry, captive in England, 164 ; 
' suggested exchange for IvOrd Comwallis, 

164. 
, I^urie, Dr. James, dines at Mount Vernon, 

I 52. 

I^wes, Nicholas, a Virginia Puritan, settles 

in Maryland, 351. 
I^wrence, Elizabeth, m. John Bowne, 2d, 

112, 118. 
I^wrence, Richard, m. Hannah Bowne, 1 14, 

119. 
Lawson, Epa, Justice of the Peace, 347. 
I^wson, John, Indian Commissioner, 374 ; 

Act of recognition, 373. 
Lea, Henry C, m. Anna Caroline Jaudon, 

324- 

Lea, Matthew Carey, m, Elizabeth Lea 
Jaudon, 324. 

Lee, Oen. Henry, 436. 

Lee, Mary, m. William Augustine Washing- 
ton, 80. 

Legend of Sleepy Hollow, 245, 258. 

Leisler, Jacob, **the usurper," 408. 

Letitia llouse (Penn's), removed to Fair- 
mount Park, 127. 

Lewis, Eleanor Parke, present at Washing- 
ton's re-intermcnt, 70. 



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INDEX. 



493 



Lewis, Col. Fielding, m. 1st, Catharine 
Washington ; 2d, Betty Washington, 77. 

Lewis, Joseph J., incorrect in his account 1 
of Wayne's re-interrnent, 3CX). 

Lewis, Judge, resigns the U. S. District Court 
judgeship, 168. 

Lewis, Ixjrenzo, present at Washington's 
re-interment, 70. 

Lewis, Major , present at Washington's 

re-interment, 69, 70. , 

Lewis, Thomas, partner of Frederick j 
Philipse, the immigrant, 250. 

Lewis, Lieut. William, executed by the 
Maryland Puritans, 361. 

Lincoln, Oen. Benjamin, 467. 

Lindsay, Rev. David, of VVicomico, Va., 34; 
inscription on his tomb, 34. I 

Livingstone, Robert, m. Alyda Schuyler, 
408. 

Lloyd, Edward, Provincial Councillor, 364, 
366 ; persecuted for his religious belief, 
348, 350 ; signs petition against Lord 
Baltimore, 358 ; member of Maryland As- 
sembly, 372 ; Act of recognition, 373. 

Lloyd, Elizabeth, m. Jacob Wayne, 316. 

Lloyd, Rachel, m. Samuel Preston, 371. 

I^ssing Benson John, Life of Philip Schuy- 
ler, 407, 411. 413, 414, 430. ^ 

lx)yalists, the best people of Penna., 142, 
143 ; estates confiscale<l, 145. 

Luzerne, Anna Cesar Chevalier de la, leases 1 
laurel Hill, 154; a '*tniffle" farm, 155 ; I 
returns to Europe, 156 ; ** French gen- ' 
erosity," 157. 

Lyson, Robert and Samuel, Ma^na Britan- 
nia y 128. 

Mackintosh, Isabel, m. William Macpher- 
son, 445. 

Macomb, Mrs., of Kingsbridge, 267. 

Macon, Elizabeth, m. Warner Washington, 77. 

Macpherson, Angus, 446. 

Macpherson, David, 446. 

Macpherson, James, 446. 

Macpherson, Capt. John, adventurous char- 
acter, 446 ; portrait, 447 ; privateering, I 
447-449 ; builds Mount Pleasant, 449 ; j 
m. Margaret Rodgers, 451 ; marries \ 
again, 451 ; oflfers his services to Con- | 
gress, 468 ; sells Mount Pleasant to \ 
Benedict Arnold, 47 1 ; publishes the 
first Philadelphia City Directory, 471 ; 
an inventive genius, 472 ; death, 472. 

Macpherson, Major John, portrait, 445 ; let- 
ters to William Patterson, 453-461 ; 
aide-de-camp to (ien. Montgomery, 453 ; 
letter to his father, 462 ; killed at Que- 
bec, 463 ; sympathy for, 462-464. 



Macpherson, Joseph Stone, U. S. N., 479. 

Macpherson, Margaret, m. Hon. Peter (i ray- 
son Washington, 479 ; portrait, 473. 

Macpherson, Margaret (Rodgers), lovely 
character, 45 1 ; death, 451. 

Macpherson, Maria, 479. 

Macpherson, Robert, 446. 

Macpherson, Gen. William, serves in the 
British Army, 465 ; Lafayette's tribute 
to. 465 ; resigns from the British .Anny, 
466 ; organizes the Macpherson Blues, 
472 ; appointed a Brigadier-General, 
472 ; replies to donors of standard to 
his corps, 473 ; country seat at Stonton, 
474 ; m. Margaret Stout Keen, 474, 
482 ; m. Elizabeth While, 474, 482 ; 
public services, 468, 474 ; death, 474. 

Macpherson, William, 446. 

Macpherson, William, of Nuid, 445, 482. 

Macpherson, William, of Edinburgh, 445, 
482. 

Macpherson Genealogy, 480, 483. 

Madison, James, room at Monticello, 214 ; 
visited by Jefferson, 221 ; continues Gen. 
William Macpherson in office, 468. 

Makepeace, , at Arent John Schuyler's 

house, 421. 

Marin, , destroys settlement at Saratoga, 

414. 

Markham, Gov. William, resides in Penn's 
Letitia Street house, 127. 

Marsh, Sarah, at the Quaker Meeting at 
John Holmewood's, 367. 

Mary, Princess, at George HL's reception 
of Samuel Shoemaker, 177-179. 

Maryland Public Records, 347 ; Assembly, 
372- 

Mather, Frederick G., in Magazine of Amer- 
ican History, 398, 433. 

Maury, Rev. , teaches Jefferson, 207. 

McBeath, Francis J., m. Emma Vogdes, 

330- 
McClenachan, Blair, owns Mount Pleasant, 

478. 
McCue. See Wayne Genealogy, 321-323, 

332, 333- 

Mcintosh, , m. Millard Fillmore, 402. 

Mclaughlin, Capt. , in French and 

Indian Wars, 294. 
McLeod, Capt. , endeavors to arrest 

Jefferson, 226. 
Meade, Bishop, William, Old Churches and 

Families of Virginia, 349. 
Meares, John, "upon the Clifts," executor 

of Richard Preston's will, 371. 
Meares, Thomas, refuses to take the oath, 365 ; 

becomes a Quaker, 367. 
Mease, Dr. John, writes to Jefferson, 224. 



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494 



INDEX, 



Merailles, Don Juan de, leases Mount Pleas- 
ant, 470. 

Mercer, Gen. Hugh, 468. 

Merritt, Edwin A., m. Ann Eliza Wayne, 
320. 

Meyer, Walter, raids the Schuyler home- 
stead, 434. 

Miflllin, Benjamin, owns Mount Pleasant, 
449. I 

Mifflin, Gov. Thomas, commissions Gen. 
William Macpherson, 472. 

Milbourne, quarrels with Margaret Van 
Schlectenhorst Schuyler, 408. 

Miles, Col. Samuel, serves under Capt. Isaac 
Wayne, 294. 

Montcalm, Louis Joseph, Marquis de, takes 
Gen. Schuyler prisoner, 424. 

Montgomery, Rev. Joseph, m. the Widow 
Boyce, 459. 

Montgomery, Gen. Richard, 453, 463. 

Monticello, 201-240 ; described, 210-217. 

Montpelier, home of President Madison, 221. 

Moody, Lady Deborah, obtains patent for 
Gravesend, L. L, 33. 

Moody, Sir Henry, sells his home to Sir 
Lawrence Washington, Kt., 33 ; obtains 
patent for Gravesend, L. L, 33. 

Moore, Richard, m. Margaret Preston, 376. 

Moore, Sarah (Lloyd), 154. 

Moore, Gov. William, executes patent for 
I^aurel Hill to Major Parr, 154 ; prefers 
his town house, 154. 

Moore, William, of Moore Hall, a Tory 
leader, 281 ; tomb at old St. David's, 
281 ; enemy of Capt. Isaac Wayne, 281, 
289 ; opposes his candidacy for Magis- 
trate, 295. 

Morris, Mary (Philipse), interview with 
Washington, 272. 

Morris Mary (Mrs. Robert), an enthusiastic 
patriot, 151. 

Morris, Robert, neglected by Washington, 
S8. 

Morris, Gov. Robert Hunter, commissions 
Capt. Isaac W^ayne, 292, 293. 

Morris, Capt. Roger, m. Mary Philipse, 271 ; 
flies to England, 272 ; pensioned by 
Parliament, 272 ; suit against State of 
New York, 272-275. 

Mossom, Rev. David, officiates at Washing- 
ton's wedding, 51. 

Mounier, Jean Joseph, friend of Jefferson, 
236. 

Mount Pleasant, 445-480. 

Mount VerncMi, 19-90 ; described, 53-64. 

Nap-pfcka MAH Tavern, Philipsborough, 
268. 



Neill, Rev. Edward Duffield, Penna. Alaga- 
zine of History^ 27, 30, 34, 44 ; Found- 
ers of Alary land y 350. 

Nicklen, Philip Hilbrook, m. Julia Macpher- 
son, 479, 382. 

Noailles, Louis Marie, Vicomte de, not 
received at Mount Vernon, 65. 

Noble, William, leaves his estate to the 
Quakers, 109. 

Norris, Isaac, Speaker, 458. 

Norris, Mary, m. John Dickinson, 458. 

Norris, Rev. William Herbert, m. Juliet 
Rawle, 190. 

Noyan, Sieur de, exchanged for Col. Schuy- 
ler, 427. 

Oak, the Fox, at Flushing, L. I., 1 10. 

Care Church, memorials to the Rawles in, 
129. 

Oath of allegiance, refusal to take the, 94, 
365, 366. 

Ogden, , mentioned in Maj. John Mac- 
pherson' s letter, 456. 

Page, John, the Declaration of Indepen- 
dence, 222, 223. 

Paine, Thomas, carries key of the Bastile 
to Mount Vernon, 56. 

Pargiter, Aim6e, m. Lawrence Washington 
of Sulgrave, 24; buried in St. James's 
Church, Sulgrave, 23, 24. 

Parker, William, member of Maryland Assem- 
bly, 372 ; Indian commission, 374 ; Act 
of recognition, 373. 

Parr, Maj. James, deals in confiscated estates, 
154 ; leases laurel Hill to de Luzerne, 
154 ; resigns it to William Rawle, 155, 

156. 

Parrott, William, Indian Commissioner, 375. 
Parry, Anna H., m. Chas. Stokes Wayne, 

306. 
Parry, Tabitha, m. Abraham Wayne, 304. 
Patterson, William, letters from Maj. John 

Macpherson, 453-;46i. 
Patterson, William, of Perth Amboy, owner 

of the Macpherson letters, 453. 
I Paulding, John, captor of Andr^, 258. 

Pawley, John, a Virginia Puritan, settles in 
' Maryland, 35 1, 

Peale, Charles Willson, activity in evicting 

Tories, 145, 146. 
Pemberton. See Rawle Genealogy, 191- 

194. 
Pemberton, Phineas, brings up Mary Becket, 

"3. 

Penn, William, proprietor of Pennsylvania, 
128 ; resides in the Letitia Street house, 
127. 



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INDEX, 



495 



Penn-Gaskell, Elizabeth, m. Dr. Samuel R. I 
Skillern, 307. I 

Penn-Gaskell, Peter, m. Louisa Adelaide | 
Heath, 307. I 

Penrose, Mary, m. Gen. Anthony Wayne, 

Perrin, Widow, m. Col. Samuel Washington, 

77. 

Peyton, Col. , describes Washington's 

appearance, 50. 

Philipse Family ancestry, 248 ; coat of arms, 
250 ; Cienealogy, 277, 278. 

Philipse, Adolphus, second lord of the . 
Manor, 258 ; Provincial Councillor, 261 ; . 
rebuilds the Manor-house, 261 ; death, - 
258, 261. 

Philipse, Catharine van Cortland t, 249 ; builds 
the old Dutch church at Tarrytown, 246, 
254 ; her will, 258. 

Philipse, Frederick, the immigrant, 248 ; m. 
Margaret Dae res, 248. 

Philipse, Frederick, first lord of the Manor, 
247 ; fur trader, 248 ; m. Margaret 
Hardenbock de Vries, 249 ; increasing 
prosperity, 249 ; a lordly manor, 253 ; 
m. Catharine van Cortlandt, 249, 253 ; 
builds the old Dutch church at Tarry- 
town, 246, 254 ; with his wife presents 
the bell and communion service to the 
church, 246; builds King's Bridge, 
253 ; death, 258 ; will, 258. 

Philipse, Frederick, third lord of the Manor, 
258 ; m. Joanna Brockholst, 261 ; death, 
261 ; daughters, 270. 

Philipse, Frederick, fourth lord of the Manor, 
261 ; rebuilds Casde Philipse, 262-265 ; 
a Tory, 262 ; sails for England, 262 ; 
estates confiscated, 262 ; death, 262 ; 
portrait, 259 ; iflemorial tablet, 273. 

Philipse, Joanna (Brockholst), haughty char- 
acter, 269 ; tragic death, 270. 

Philipse, Margaret Hardenbroch de Vries, 
wealthy, 249. 

Philipse, Mary, dau. of the third lord of the 
Manor, 270; refuses Washington, 271 ; 
m. Capt. Roger Morris, 271 ; interview 
with Washington, 272. 

Philipse, Philip, son of the first lord of the 
Manor, 258. 

Philipse, Philip, inherits estates in the High- 
lands, 270. 

Philipse, Susanna, dau. of the third lord of 
the Manor, 270 ; m. Beverly Robinson, 
271. 

Philipsborough, Manor of, 245-276. 

Philipse Manor House at Yonkers, 265-267. 

Philips, Gen. William, invades Virginia, 218. 

Phillips, , friend of Jefferson, 225. 



Phillips, William, a Virginia Puritan, settles 

in Maryland, 351. 
Physick, Dr. Philip Syng, buys Laurel Hill, 

183. 

Picquei, Francois, F'rench missionary to 
Canada, 414 ; accompanies Marin in 
his expedition against Saratoga, 414 ; 
chants a Te Deum for the massacre, 416. 

Pilgrim Fathers, intolerant, 93-95. 

Pindar, Edward, m. Sarah Preston, 369. 

Pitt, Elizabeth, m. James Berry, 369. 

Planck, Abraham Isaacsen, owner of Paulus 
Hook, 407. 

Planck, Catlyntje, m. David Schuyler, 407. 

Poggy, Mr. , at Samuel Shoemaker's, 

174 ; at Court of George IH., 177, 178. 

Pompton, Schuyler House at, 428. 

Pope, Anne, m. Col. John W^ashington, the 
immigrant, 78. 

Pope, Nathaniel, comes to Maryland, 35 ; 
removes to Virginia, 35 ; a large land 
owner, 38. 

Pope. Thomas, brings up John Washington. 35. 

Portraits against Quaker principles, 128. 

Potts, Rebecca, m. William Wayne, 316. 

Prescott, Edward, owns ship on which Eliz- 
abeth Richardson was hanged, '^^, 

Preston, James of Dorchester County, Va., 
trustee for his nephew, 370 ; inherits 
" Barren Island," 370. 

Preston, James, of ** Preston-neck, Calveit 
County," 369. 

Preston, Margaret, removes to Maryland, 
351 ; m. William Berry, 369 ; bequest 
from Richard Preston, 370. 

Preston, Margaret, removes to Maryland, 
351 ; dies young, 369. 

Preston, Margaret, m. Richard Moore, 376. 

Preston, Naomi settles in Maryland, 351 ; 
m. William Berry, 369. 

Preston, Rebecca, m. I^velaceGorsuch, 369 ; 
inherits ** Home," 370. 

Preston, Richard, the immigrant, 345 ; pur- 
chases land in Virginia, 345-347 ; Justice 
of the County Court, 347 ; a Virginia Puri- 
tan, 348 ; religious persecution, 348-350 ; 
settles in Maryland, 350 ; Preston on the 
Patuxent, 352-354 ; assists in seizing the 
government, 355 ; virtual governor of the 
Province, 355, 359, 375 ; petitions against 
Lord Baltimore's arbitrary government, 
357 ; Gov. Stone resigns authority, 359 ; 
Battle of Severn River, 359-361 ; Preston 
on the Patuxent the Capital of the prov- 
ince, 361 ; capture of the provincial 
records, 361 ; termination of Puritan 
control, 362; **gone for England," 
364 ; member of Maryland Assembly, 



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496 



INDEX. 



364 ; ** Quaker invasion," of Maryland, 
365-367; **the Great Quaker," 369; 
children, 369 ; will, 370, 371 ; Act of ' 
recognition, 373 ; Indian Commissioner, 
374 ; Speaker of the lA)wer House, 365, 

372. 
Preston, Richard, Jr., settles in Maryland, , 

351 ; in the Maryland Assembly, 365 ; 

dies intestate, 369. 
Preston, Samuel, son of the immigrant, dies 

young, 369. I 

Preston, Samuel, grandson of the immigrant, 

inherits** Preston," 370; m., 1st, Rachel 

Lloyd, 371 ; m., 2d, Margaret liurton 

Langdale, 371 ; Mayor of Philadelphia, 

371. 

Preston, Sarah, dau. of the immigrant, m., 
1st, William Ford ; 2d, Kdward Pindar, 
369; inherits "llorne," 370. 

PrcNion, Thomas, ** ujxjn the Clifts," men- 
tioned in Richard Preston's will, 370. 

Preston-at-Patuxent, 343-374 ; described, 

352, 354- 

•* Preston's Clifts," 354. 

Price, Col. John, Provincial Councillor, 364. 

Princess Royal at George III.'s reception of 
Samuel Shoemaker, 1 77-179. 

Puritans in Virginia, importance of, 347 ; 
persecuted, 348 ; remove to Maryland, 
350 ; gain possession of the govern- 
ment, 355 ; protest against I^rd Balti- 
more's rule, 357 ; Battle of Severn 
River, 360, 361 ; termination of their 
control, 362-364 ; become Quakers, 365. 

Putnam, Gen. Israel, 436. 

Qi'AKKRS persecuted, 93-95, 102-106, 365- 
368; frugality, 125; praised by George 
III., 179; conventicles, 94, 97, 98; intel- 
lectual and moral superiority, 95. 

Radnor Baptist Chitrch, Newtown Square, 
inscriptions on tombstones, 336. 

Randall, Hon. Henry Stephens, Life of 
Thotnasjfffersou, 224, 237. 

Randolph, Isham, grandfather of President 
Jefferson, 203, 241. 

Randolph, Jane, mother of President Jeffer- 
son, 203, 241 ; death, 225. 

Randolph, Jefferson, describes I^fayette's 
visit to Monticello, 237. 

Randolph, Martha Jefferson, jx)rtrait, 229 ; 
presides over Monticello, 232 ; fmancial 
troubles, 240. 

Randolph, Peyton, a Democratic leader, 201. 

Randolph, Sarah Nicholas, Domestic life of 
Thomas Jefferson^ 2o8, 209. 

Randolph, Gov. Thomas Mann, 221, 235 ; 



m. Martha Jefferson, 235, 24I ; describes 
I^fayette's visit to Monticello, 237 ; 
financial troubles, 240. 
Rawie, Anna, m. John Clifford, 140, 191 ; 
the ** Fanny " of the Rawle Correspond- 
ence, 149 ; letters to her mother, 150- 

153. 

Rawle, David, buried in Oare church, 130. 

Rawle, Edwin John, History of the A'awie 
Family^ 1 29. 

Rawle, Francis, of Trelawney, 128. 

Rawle, Francis, the immigrant, 136 ; a 
Quaker, 131 ; settles in Penn>ylvania, 
131,132,184. 

Rawle, Francis, the younger, settles in Penn- 
sylvania, 131, 132 ; m. Martha Turner, 
132 ; a lordly wedding dowry, 133 ; 
Sweedland, 126, 127, 134; Provincial 
Councillor, 134; public services, 134; 
writings, 133, 135; death, 135 ; high 
character, 132, 135 ; descendants of, 
184-197. 

Rawle, Prancis, y\^ m. Rebecca Warner, 
136 ; a scholar, 136 ; account of the 
Indians, 136 ; builds laurel Hill, 139 ; 
society there, 140 ; death, 140 ; children, 
140; leaves laurel Hill to his wife, 

'52- 

Rawle, Jane, wife of I'rancis, the elder, 
comes to America, 132 ; death, 132. 

Rawle, Margaret, m. Isaac Wharton, 139, 
140, 185, 194; the ** Adelaide" of 
Rawle correspondence, 149 ; portrait, 
141. 

Rawle, Martha (Turner), 132, 133 ; death, 
135 ; children, 135. 

Rawle, Nicholas, of lx)ndon, 131. 

Rawle, Rev. Richard, D. I)., Bishop of 
Trinidad, 131. 

Rawle, William, of St. Juliot, 128. 

Rawle, William of St. Juliot, grandson of 
William of St. Juliot, 131. 

Rawle, William, m. Margaret Hodge, 135 ; 
scholarly character, 136. 

Rawle, William, 2d, succeeds his father, 140 ; 
the ** Horatio" of the Rawle correspond- 
ence, 149 ; accomiMinies Samuel Shoe- 
maker, in his exile, 145 ; a patriot at 
heart, I48 ; Quaker principles, 148 ; 
regains '* laurel Hill," 156; French 
generosity, 157, 158 ; sails for England, 
159 ; student of the middle temple, 159- 
165 ; portrait, 161 ; visits Franklin at 
Paris, 166 ; returns home, 166 ; m. Sarah 
Coates Burge, 167 ; public services, 168, 
169 ; writings, 170; summer home, 170 ; 
sells laurel Hill, 183; death, 170 ; 
character, 170; portrait by Inman, 171. 



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INDEX. 



497 



Rawle Family, Genealogy of, 184-197 ; 

ancestry of, 1 28, 129 ; arms, 125. 
Reed, Gen. Joseph, occupies laurel Hill, 

153, 154 ; persecutes the Rawles, 153 ; 

death of his wife, 153, 154 ; attentions 

to Miss White, 154. 
Reily, John, a scrivener, 454. 
Religious toleration, 93, 348, 373. 
Rent day at Philipsborough, 268. 
Richardson, Elizabeth, hanged as a witch, 

Ridley, James, m. Rebecca Berry, 369. 

Riedesel, Frederika, Baroness von, visits 
Monticello, 225 ; entertained at Schuyler 
House, 435. 

Riedesel, Friedrich Adolph, Baron von, 
intimacy with Jefferson, 225. 

Rivers, first settlement along, 343. 

Rivington, James, Royal Gazette^ 147. 

Roades, Amphilles, m. Lawrence Washing- 
ton of Brington, 28 ; death, 30. 1 

Robeson, Rudiman, 454. 

Robinson, Beverley, m. Susanna Philipse, 
271 ; pleads for Andre, 272 ; flies to 
England, 272. 

RochefoucauM-Liancourt, Fran<;ois Due de 
la, visits Jefferson, 232 ; description of , 
Monticello, 233-235. 

Rodgers, Rev. John, D. D., Chaplain of 
N. Y. Provincial Assembly, 451. 

Rodgers, Margaret, m. Capt. John Macpher- 
son, 451. 

Rodman, Caroline, m. James Bowne, 120. 

Rodney, Qesar, distinguished in the Revolu- 
tion, 236. 

Rooles, Sarah Warner, m. Warner Washing- 
ton, 78. 

Ross, Isabella, m. Stephen S. Wayne, 321. 

Rupert, Prince, takes Bristol, 25. 

Rush, Dr. Benjamin, 457. 

Rush, Jacob, 459. 

Rush, Martin, 456 ; sails for Europe, 459. 

St. Cr.AiR, Sir Arthitr, 467. 

St. David's P. E. Church, at Radnor, 281 ; 
inscriptions on tomb stones, 337. 

St. Juliot, Rawle of, 128. 

Sandys, Sir Edwin, head of the Virginia 
Company, 30. 

Sandys, George, treasurer of the Virginia 
Company, 30. 

Sandys, Robert, m. Alice Washington, Tt'h' 

Sandys, Samuel, m. widow of Sir Henry 
Washinjjton, 30. 

Saul, Appolina S. C, m. Edward Rawle, 
189. 

Savage, Edward, paints portrait of Washing- 
ton, 57. 

63 



Saved his fiddle, 203. 

Schober, Jane Clevenger, m. Edward Frances 
Wayne, 32. 

Schuyler, Alyda, dau. of the immigrant, m. 
1st, Rev. Nicholas Van Rensselaer, and 
2d, Robert Livingston, 408. 

Schuyler, Arent, son of the immigrant, ances- 
tor of the New Jersey branch, 40)8, 41 1 ; 
m. Swan Van Duykhuisen, 408 ; goes to 
New York, 416 ; Indian Commissioner, 
416; Proprietor of East Jersey, 417; 
copper mines on his estate, 417. 

Schuyler, Arent John, of Bergen County, 
inherits the Schuyler Mansion, 418 ; en- 
tertains Lieut. Bangs and party royally, 
421 ; a country gentleman, 422. 

Schuyler, Brandt, son of the immigrant, m. 
Cornelia Van Cortlandt, 408 ; Provincial 
Councillor, 408. 

Schuyler, Caspar, builds the Pompton house, 
428. 

Schuyler, Catharine (Van Rensselaer), tries 
to save her child from the Indians, 434. 

Schuyler, Catharine, dau. of Gen. Schuyler, 
rescued from the Indians, 434. 

Schuyler, David Van the immigrant, 406 ; 
m. Catlyntje Planck, 407. 

Schuyler, Elizabeth, m. Alexander Hamilton, 
402. 

Schuyler, Geertruyd, m. Stephen Van Cort- 
landt, 408. 

Schuyler Genealogy, 439-441. 

Schuyler, Gysbert, son of the immigrant, 
d. s. p., 408. 

Schuyler, Hester, a Colonial belle, 428 ; m. 
Capt. Colfax, 428 ; her eccentricities, 
428. 

Schuyler houses, 397-437 ; Schuylersville, 
397* 398 ; Albany, 398-405 ; Hacken- 
sack, 422 ; Pompton, 428 ; arms, 397, 
406 ; family usefulness, 436. 

Schuyler, John, inherits the Bergen County 
estate, 418 ; works the copper mines, 
418 ; m. Ann Van Rensselaer, 418 ; 
Provincial Councillor, 418 ; children, 
418 ; death, 418. 

Schuyler, Capt. John, expedition against the 
Indians, 411 ; envoy to Count Frontenac, 
412 ; Indian Commissioner, 412 ; m. 
Elizabeth (Staats) Wendel, 413; Pro- 
vincial Councillor, 413 ; leaves a large 
estate, 413 ; buried in the family burying 
ground on the Hudson, 397. 

Schuyler, John, son of Capt. John Schuyler, 
m. Cornelia Van Cortlandt, 413 ; buried 
at Watervliet, 397, 413 ; children, 413. 

Schuyler, John Arent, m. Catharine Van 
Rensselaer, 427. 



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498 



INDEX, 



Schuyler, Margaret, daw, of the immigrant, 
m. John Collins, 411. 

Schuyler, Margaret, dau. of Gen. Schuyler, 
escapes from the Indians, 434. 

Schuyler, Mary, d. s. p., 418. 

Schuyler, Major Peter, son of the immigrant, 
first Mayor of Albany, 408 ; m.' Maria 
Van Rensselaer, 408 ; expedition against 
the Indians, 412 ; Provincial Councillor, 
408 ; influence with the Indians, 414 ; 
public services, 413 ; death, 415, 416. 

Schuyler, Col. Peter, head of the New Jersey 
branch, 423 ; m. Mary Walter, 423 ; 
sufferings for freedom' s cause, 423, 424 ; 
taken prisoner by Montcalm, 424; re- 
leased on parole, 424 ; public reception 
at Princeton, 427 ; returns to captivity, 
427 ; exchanged, 427 ;. liberality to his 
fellow- prisoners, 427 ; death, 427. 

Schuyler, Philip Petersen Van, the immigrant, 
406 ; coat of arms, 397, 406 ; m. Mar- 
garetta Van Schlectenhorst, 407, 41 1 ; 
fur trader, 408 ; ** Captain and old 
Commissioner of Albany,'/ 408 ; pur- 
chases land on the Hudson, 397 ; death, 

408 ; children, 408. 

Schuyler, Philip, son of the immigrant, 
d. s. p., 411. 

Schuyler, Gen. Philip, inherits land at Schuy- 
lerville from his uncle, 398 ;. early train- 
ing, 430; executor of Gen. Bradstreet, 
401 ; purchases the Bradstreet House 
at Albany, 401 ; description, 401-405 ; 
builds the Schuyler House, 398 ; portrait, 

409 ; m. Catharine Van Rensselaer, 438 ; 
military career, 433 ; letter of condolence 
to Capt. John Macpherson, 462 ; attacked 
by Indians, 434 ; as a host, 435 ; dis- 
appointment, 435 ; buried in the family 
burying ground on the Hudson, 397. 

Schuyler, Philip, refuses Beavais' kindly 
offer, 415 ; is killed, 416. 

Schuyler, Sybilla, dau. of the immigrant, 
d. s. p., 411. 

Schuyler, Swan, m. Arent John Schuyler, 
421 ; amiability of character, 421 ; 
domestic virtues, 422. 

Schuylerville, house at, 397-398 ; destroyed 
by the Indians, 414-416. 

Scott, Sir Walter, Fair Maid of Perth, 446. 

Sellers, David W., m. Anna F. Jacquett, 327. 

Sellers, Robert B., m. Rebecca S. Wayne, 320. 

Sergeant, , in the Macpherson corre- 
spondence, 456. 

Sharp, Peter, becomes a Quaker, 367 ; exec- 
utor of Richard Preston's will, 371. 

Sharpless Portraits of Washington and his 
wife, 85-87. 



Shee, Edwin, m. Emeline Dalian Wayne, 

320. 
Shoemaker, Benjamin, neighbor of the 

Rawles, 149 ; m. Elizabeth Warner, 150 ; 

house searched for arms, 150 ; visits 

Laurel Hill after the ** confiscation,** 

157. 
Shoemaker, Edward, letters from his step- 
mother, 155, 158 ; returns home, 180 ; 
portrait, 175. 
i Shoemaker, Rebecca Warner Rawle, 146 ; 
1 correspondence through the enemy's 

lines, 146-152 ; banished as a Loyalist, 
147 ; correspondence with her children, 
i 151- 157 ; death, 182 ; character, 182. 

Shoemaker, Samuel, m. Rebecca Warner 
Rawle, 143 ; public services, 143 ; at- 
' tainted for treason, 145 ; estates confis- 

j cated, 146 ; correspondence through the 

enemy's lines, 146 -1 52 ; ** tenant by the 
I curtesy" of laurel Hill, 152; life in 

London, 173 ; received by George HI., 
177-180 ; returns home, 180 ; lives at 
' Laurel Ilill, 180 ; compensation by 

I English Parliament, 180 ; present from 

the King, 180 ; death, 181 ; character, 
I 181 ; portrait, 175. 

Sims, Joseph, owns **the laurels," 139. 
Skelton, Martha W'ayles, m. Thomas Jeffer- 
' son, 208; **the wooing o' it," 208; 

appearance, 208. 
I Sleepy Hollow, Legend of, 245, 258. 
Small, Dr. William, Jefferson's preceptor, 
i 207. 

Smith, Elizabeth, m. Isaac Wayne, 312. 
' Smith, Hannah, m. Samuel Bowne, 112, 

j Smith, Jacob Ridgway, m. Rebecca Shoe- 
maker Wharton, 196. 
Smith, Rebecca, m. Whiting Washington, 

I 79. 

I Soane, Henry, Speaker of Virginia House 

of Burgesses, 204. 
! Soane, Judith, 204, 241. 

Southgate, Eliza, m. Walter Bowne, 120. 
I Sophia, Princess, at George III.'s reception 
I of Samuel Shoemaker, 178, 179. 

Spencer, Dr., friend of W^ashington' smother, 

I 44. 

Spencer, Lord, a connection of Lawrence 

Washington, 26. 
Sprye, Oliver, Justice of the County Court, 
I Virginia, 347. 

Steenwych, Cornelius, the richest man in 

New Amsterdam, 249. 
Steptoe, Ann, m. Col. Samuel Washington, 

77- 
Steuben, Gen. Frederich William Augustus, 



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INDEX. 



499 



Baron Von, leases Mount Pleasant, 477 ; ] 
assigned to Greene's army, 477 ; enter- 
tained at Schuyler House, 435. 

Steward, John, a Virginia Puritan, settles in 
Maryland, 35 1. 

Still6, Charles J., Maj.-Gen, Anthony Wayne 
and the Penna. Line in the Revolution^ 
300. 

Stirling, Sir Walter, introduces Mrs. Arnold 
at Court, 163. 

Stockton, Anice, Brudenot, delivers a poem 
on Col. Schuyler's return, 427. 

Stockton, Richard, the Signer, in the Revolu- 
tion, 236. 

Stokes, Francis C. W., m. Alex. Chambers, 
308. 

Stokes, Mary, m. Caleb P. Wayne, 305. 

Stone, John C, m. Mary Lanier, 76. 

Stone, William, Colonial Governor of Mary- 
land, 34 ; issues land-warrant to Rich- 
ard Preston, 351 ; influences Virginia 
Puritans to settle in Maryland, 354; 
deposed by the Puritans, 355 ; author- 
izes the removal of the seat of govern- 
ment to ** Preston on the Patuxent,** 
355 ; recognizes the Puritan government, 
359 ; ordered to retake the government, 
359 ; raises an army, 360 ; taken captive 
at Battle of Severn River, 361 ; sentenced 
to be shot, 361 ; sentence commuted, 
361 ; Provincial Councillor under the 
new regime, 364; Richard Preston's 
lawsuit against his estate, 362. 

Stout, Joseph, Lieutenant in Royal Navy, 
474 ; m. Mary Keen, 474. 

Stout, Margaret Keen, m. Gen. William 
Macpherson, 474 ; character, 474 ; por- 
trait, 473. 

Strange, Sir Robert, engraves West's apothe- 
osis of George IIL's children, 181. 

Stratton, Sarah, m. Edward Carpenter, 378. 

Stretcher, Elizabeth, m. Rev. Joseph Jaquett, 

327. 
Stretcher, Finnix, m. Elizabeth Jaudon, 226. 
Strickland, William, account of the opening 

of Washington's tomb, 68. 
Strong, Leonard, account of the capture of 

the Maryland records, 359 ; member of 

the Maryland Assembly, 372 ; Act of 

recognition, 373. 
Strother, William, owns Mount Vernon, 47. 
Struthers, John, presents the marble coffins 

for Washington's tomb, 68. 
Stuyvesant, Peter, Colonial Governor of New 

Amsterdam, retaliates on Olafi" van 

Cortlandt, 249; opposed by the **nine 

men," 249 ; quarrels with Brandt Arent 

van Schlectenhorst, 407. 



Sulgrave Manor-house, built by Lawrence 
Washington, 23 ; view of, 23 ; Church, 
22. 

Sutton, John, Deputy Recorder of Maryland, 

374. 

Swan the hatter, 454. 

Sweedland, 127 ; view of, 126, 

Swift, John White, present at commence- 
ment of University of Penna., 454, 455. 

Synod of Dordrecht, conformity to, 98. 

Talleyrand-Perigord, Charles Maur- 
ice, Prince de, not received at Mount 
Vernon, 65. 
' Taney, Michael, the immigrant, 344. 
Taney, Roger B., Chief Justice, 344. 
Tarleton, Col. Bannastre, spares Monticello, 
225, 226 ; praises Mrs. Arnold, 163 ; 
his "many escapes," 164. 
Tarrytown and its associations, 245 ; Dutch 
. church, 245, 248, 254-258. 

I Taylor, Sarah, m. Col. William Augustine 
j Washington, 80. 

I Taylor, Thomas, executor of Richard Pres- 
ton's will, 371. 
I Tedyuscung, an Indian chief, 136. 
Ten Broeck, Gen. Abraham, buried in the 

Schuyler family vault, 435. 
Thomas, Mary, m. Israel Vogdes, 314. 
Thomas, Philip, becomes a Quaker, 367. 
Thompson, Hannah, an enthusiastic patriot, 

151. 
Thompson, Martha O., m. Gen. John C. 

Pemberton, C. S. A., 192. 
Thome, Joseph, m. Martha Bowne, 112, 

118. 
] Thornton, Mildred, m. Col. Charles Wash- 
I ington, 78. 

! Thurston, Thomas, Quaker preacher, exiled 
. from Maryland, 367 ; participates in the 

' Quaker meeting at John Holmewood's, 

367* 368. 
Tilghman, Edward, present at commence- 
I ment of University of Penna., 454. 

I Tilghman, Mary Anna, m. William Rawle, 
! 187. 

Tilghman, Samuel, master of *'The Golden 
I Fortune," 359. 

Titus, Samuel, m. Elizabeth Bowne, 112, 
I n8. 

I Tomlinson, Elizabeth, m. William Wayne, 

318. 
I Trent, Capt. William, builds Fort Duquesne, 
289. 
Troth. See Preston Genealogy, 390-393, 
I 405-408. 

I Trumbull, Col. John, at Samuel Shoemaker's, 
I 174; visits Windsor, 177. 



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500 



INDEX. 



in French and Indian Wars, 



Trump, 
294. 

Turner, Arthur, member of Maryland Assem- 
bly, 372 ; Indian Commissioner, 375. 

Turner, Martha, m. Francis Rawle, the 
younger, 132, 133, 184. 

Turner, Robert, Provincial Councillor, 132 ; 
Registrar General for Probate of Wills, 
132 ; wedding dowry for his daughter, 
^2tZ » ^is ** large house," 132. 

Turner, Thomas, participates in Quaker 
meeting at John Holmewood's, 367. 

Turpin, Thomas, m. Mary Jefferson, 207. 

Underhill, Dinah, m. John Bowne, 121. 

Underbill, Hannah, m. Thomas Bowne, 121. 

Ungar, De, , Jefferson's intimacy with, 

225. 

University of Penna., commencement exer- 
cises, 454, 455 



Varney, Julia Earnest, m. Joseph Wayne, 
320. 

Vaudreuil, I^uis Philippe de Regaud, Mar- 
quis de, demands Col. Schuyler's return, 

427- 
I Vaughan, Samuel, presents marble mantle- 
piece at Mount Vernon, 57. 
Vergennes, Charles Gravier, Comte de, and 
I President Jefferson, 230. 

Vernon, Edward, Admiral, Mount Vernon 

named after, 43. 
Vethake, Prof. Henry, Biography of William 
KawUy 166. 
I Virginia, the home of Statesmen, 201, 202 ; 

educational advantages, 39-43. 
j Vogdes. See Wayne Genealogy, 313, 314, 
' 330. 

Volney, Constantine Francois, Comte de, 
receives a dubious letter of commenda- 



tion from Washington, 66. 
Utie, Col. Nathaniel, Provincial Councillor, , Vries, Margaret Hardenbroch de, m. Fred- 

364, 366. I erich Philipse, first lord of the Manor, 

I 248. 

Van Baerle, David, Director of the West Vries, Pieter Rudolphus de, accumulates a 

India Company, 106. fortune, 249. 

Van Cortlandt, Catharine, a New Amster- | 

dam belle, 249 ; m. Frederick Philipse, Wade, John, member of Maryland Assem- 

first lord of the Manor, 246, 249, 253. bly, 372 ; Indian Commissioner, 375. 
Van Cortlandt, Cornelia, m. Brandt Schuyler, Walker, , aide-de-camp to Gen. Steuben, 

408. 478- 

Van Cortlandt, Cornelia, m. John Schuyler, Walker, John, Sufferings of the Clergy, 29. 

41-5. Walker, Rebec»,a, m. William Wayne, 316. 

Van Cortlandt, Jacobus, accompanies his ! Wallace, Joshua Maddox, at commencement 

sister to Philipsborough, 254. of University of Penna., 454. 

Van Cortlandt, Olaff Stevenson, the wealthy Wain, Ann, m. Samuel Burge Rawle, 185. 

brewer of New Amsterdam, 249. | Waler, John, a wealthy resident of New- 

Van Cortlandt, Pierre, Lieut. -Governor of | York, 423. 

Walter, Mary, m. Peter Schuyler of N. J., 



New York, 275 

Van Cortlandt, Stephen, m. Gertrude Schuy- 
ler, 408. 

Vandegrift, Frances, m. Edward F. Wayne, 

319- 
Van Leer. See Wayne Genealogy, 328. 
Van Rensselaer, Ann, m. John Schuyler of 

N. J., 418. 
Van Rensselaer, Catharine, m. John Arent 

Schuyler, 427. 
Van Rensselaer, Maria, m. Peter Schuyler, 

the Mayor, 408. 



423. 

Waring, Sampson, member of the Maryland 
Assembly, 372 ; Indian Commission, 374. 

Warner, Mildred, m. Lawrence Washington 
of Virginia, 36, 74. 

Warner, Rebecca, m., 1st, Francis Rawle, 
136, 184 ; 2d, Samuel Shoemaker, 143. 

Washburn, Rev. Daniel, m. Sarah S. Car- 
penter, 380. 

Washington, Alice, aunt of the immigrant, 
m. Robert Sandys, 33. 



Van Rensselaer, Rev. Nicholas, m. Alida , Washington, Anne, dau. of John Washing 

Schuyler, 408. j ton, the immigrant, 36. 

Van Schlectenhorst, Brandt Arent, quarrels Washington, Augustine, m., 1st, Jane Butler, 



with Gov. Stuyvesant, 407. 
Van Schlectenhorst, Margaretta, m. Philip 

Peter Schuyler, the immigrant, 407 ; 

firmness of character 417 ; public spirit, 

408. 
Varney, Sir Edmund, 28. 



36 ; 2d, Mary Ball, 39 ; Justice of the 
Peace, 36; builds ** Mattocks*' on the 
Potomac, 36 ; visited by Dr. John Foth- 
ergill, 36 ; removes to Rappahannock 
Neck, 39 ; a sailor, 43, 46 ; death, 43 ; 
will, 43. 46. 



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INDEX. 



501 



Washington, Bushrod, interred at Mount ' 
Vernon, 70. 

Washington, Elizabeth, dau. of Rev. Law- 
rence Washington of Purleigh, 30, 73. 

Washington Genealogy, 73-84. 

Washington, George, ancestry, 20; book- | 
plate, 19 ; coat of arms, 26 ; birth, 39 ; 
baptism, 39 ; education, 39-43 ; death 
of his father, 43 ; wishes to become a , 
sailor, 44-47 ; friendship for the Fair- 1 
faxes, 44, 47 ; susceptible to female | 
beauty, 48-50 ; accompanies his brother 1 
to the Barbadoes, 48 ; commissioned a | 
sur\'eyor, 48 ; a victim of smallpox, 1 
48 ; Adjutant-Gen. of Virginia, 50 ; | 
appearance when young, 50 ; French 1 
and Indian Wars, 291, 292 ; refused by 
Mary Philipse, 271 ; inherits Mount 
Vernon, 51 ; m. the Widow Custis, 51 ; 
happy married life, 52 ; a country gentle- 
man, 51-54, 62-67 ; rebuilds Mount , 
Vernon, 55-58 ; friendship for Lafayette, 
58-61 ; interest in genealogy, 20 ; ne- 
glect of Robert Morris, 58 ; portraits , 
by Peale, 41, 45 ; ser\-ants, 63, 65, 67 ; ' 
visitors at Mount Vernon, 64 ; enter- 
tained at the Schuyler House, 435 ; nom- 
inates Gen. Wayne commander of the 
army, 299 ; interview with Beverly Robin- 
son, 272 ; appoints Maj. Macpherson to | 
a command, 467 ; appoints him Surveyor 
of the Port of Philadelphia, 468 ; letter , 
to Congress concerning Capt. John Mac- 
pherson' s projects, 469; orders Gen. 
Steuben to Greene's Army of the South, | 
477 ; death, 62 ; tomb, 67-69 ; reinter- 
ment, 69-71. 

Washington, George, descendant of the 
President, 70. 

Washington, Sir Henry, at the storming of 
Bristol, 25 ; holds Worcester for the j 
King, 25 ; reply to I>ord Fairfax, 25 ; 
surrenders by the King's command, 26. 

Washington, Jane, present at Washington's 
reinterment, 70. 

Washington, John Augustine, present at I 
Washington's reinterment, 70; tomb at 
Mount Vernon, 70. 

Washington, Sir John, of Thropston, knighted, | 

25. 
Washington, John, the immigrant, 20, 30, 33, 

73 ; baptismal records missing, 28 ; a 

sailor, 46; complains of Capt. Greene's 

cruelty, 33 ; letter to Gov. Fendall, 33 ; 

m. Anne Pope Brodhurst, 33 ; their 

children, 36^ will, 35. 
Washington, John, of Virginia, brought up I 

by his uncle, 36. | 



Washington, John, of Warton, ancestor of 
the President, 22 ; m. Margaret Kitson, 

22, 73- 

Washington, John, of Whitfield, ancestor of 
the President, 21, 22, 73. 

Washington, John, Admiral, ancestral brasses 
on Sulgrave Church renewed by his 
children, 23. 

Washington, John, brother of the President, 
letter from his mother, 40. 

Washington, Rev. Lawrence, of Purleigh, 
early days, 26 ; education, 27 ; m. 
Amphillis Roades, 28, 73 ; alleged intem- 
perate habits, 27-29 ; loses his living, 27 ; 
staunch royalist, 28 ; rector of Maldon, 
30. 

Washington, Sir Lawrence, Kt. Register of 
Court of Chancery, buys Garsden, 33. 

Washington, Lawrence, of Sulgrave, 21 ; 
prosperous wool merchant, 22 ; builds 
Manor-house of Sulgrave, 23 ; m. Aimee 
Pargiter, 24, 73 ; Mayor of Northampton, 
22 ; buried in St. James' Church, Sul- 
grave, 23 ; victim of the relic hunters, 

23. 

Washington, Lawrence, of Virginia, m. Mil- 
dred Warner, 36 ; death, 36 ; will, 36. 

Washington, Lawrence, inherits Mount Ver- 
non, 43 ; m. Anne Fairfax, 44, 47 ; 
letter from Col. \V. Fairfax, 44 ; wishes 
George to become a sailor, 44 ; builds 
Mount Vernon, 55 ; sails for Barbadoes, 
48. 

Washington, Lawrence, the immigrant, 20 ; 
merchant at Luton, 30. 

Washington, Margaret, dau. of Rev. I^w- 
rence Washington of Purleigh, 30, 73. 

Washington, Martha, dau. of Rev. Lawrence 
Washington of Purleigh, 30 ; comes to 
America, 35, 73. 

Washington, Martha (Dandridge), appear- 
ance, 51; portrait 51.; last years, 62; 
tomb, 68. 

Washington, Mary (Ball), mother of the 
President, 39 ; ancestrj', 39 ; opposes 
George's going to sea, 45 ; letter from 
her son, 64 ; portrait, 37. 

Washington, Mildred (Warner), m. George 
Gale, 36 ; death, 36. 

Washington, Peter Grayson, letter from La- 
fayette, 466 ; portrait, 467 ; m. Margaret 
Macpherson, 479. 

Washington, Robert, of Sulgrave, becomes 
involved in debt, 24 ; m. Margaret Butler, 
24 ; inscription on his cottage at Bring- 
to n, 24. 

Washington, Robert, of Warton, ancestor of 
the President, 22, 73. 



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502 



INDEX, 



Washington, Thonias, page to Charles I., 25 ; 
dies in Spain, 25. 

Washington, Sir William, of Packington, 
knighted, 25 ; m. half-sister of Duke 
of Buckingham, 25. 

Washington, William, son of Rev. Lawrence 
Washington of Purleigh, 30, 73. 

Washington Genealogy, 73-89 ; coat of arms, 
26. 

Waters, Henry F., discovers Washington's 
genealogy, 21. 

Wats>on, John fanning. Annals of Philadel- 
phia ^ 132. 

Wayne, Ann, dau. of the immigrant, 288. 

Wayne, Ann, sister of the General, 285. 

Wayne, Captain Anthony, the immigrant, 
282, 302 ; serves under Marlborough, 
283 ; at Battle of the Boyne, 283 ; in 
County Wicklow, Ireland, 284 ; m. Han- 
nah Faulkner, 286, 287, 302 ; settles in 
Chester County, Pa., 288 ; children, 287 ; 
vestrj'man at old St. David's, Radnor, 
288 ; death, 287 ; tomb, 288 ; leaves 
Waynesborough to his son Isaac, 288 ; 
descendants of, 302-340 ; will of, 342. 

Wayne, Gen. Anthony, 437 ; inherits Waynes- 
borough, 295 ; education, 295 ; military 
inclinations, 295 ; a surveyor, 295 ; m. 
Mary Penrose, 297 ; their children, 300 ; 
letter to Capt, Hayman, 297 ; public 
services, 299 ; death, 299 ; tomb at old 
St. David' s, Radnor, 300 ; portrait, 296. 

Wayne, Caleb Parr)', 305 ; letter in reference 
to a family history, 286, 287. 

Wayne, Francis, son of the immigrant, 287, 
288. 

Wavne, Capt. Gabriel, ** fought for the 
' King," 282. 

Wayne, Gabriel, son of the immigrant, 287, 
288 ; academy for boys, 295. 

Wayne Genealogy, 302-340. 

Wavne, Humphrev, son of the immigrant, 
287, 288. 

Wayne, Capt. Isaac, birth, 288 ; inherits 
Waynesborough, 288 ; vestryman, in old 
St. David's, Radnor, 288; a party 
leader, 281, 289 ; mentioned in Mary 
Keating' s letter, 286; military services 
in the French and Indian Wars, 289- 
294 ; public ser\'ices, 295 ; death, 298 ; 
appearance, 295. 

Wayne, Isaac, a country gentleman, 300 ; 
m. Elizabeth Smith, 301 ; candidate for 
Governor of Pennsylvania, 300 ; volun- 
teers in War of 1812, 301 ; children, 
301 ; death, 301. 

Wayne, Jacob, son of the immigrant, 287, 
288.* 



Wayne, Judge James M., 335. 

Wayne, John, son of the immigrant, 287, 
288. 

Wayne, Margaret, sister of the General, 285. 

Wayne, Margaret, dau. of the General, 300 ; 
m. William R. Atlee, 301, 313. 

Wayne, Mary, dau. of the immigrant, 288. 

Wayne, Mary, owns seal-ring of the immi- 
grant, 282. 

Wayne, Sarah, dau. of the immigrant, 288. 

Wayne, Susannah, mentioned in Mary Keat- 
ing' s letter, 285. 

Wayne, William, son of the immigrant, 287, 
288. 

Wayne, William, son of Captain Isaac 
Wayne, dies young, 295. 

Wayne, William, mentioned in Mary Keat- 
ing' s letter, 285. 

Wayne, William, Maj., 301, 313 ; public ser- 
vices, 301. 

Wayne, William, Jr., 301. 

Wayne arms, 281 ; arms of the Derbyshire 
branch, 282. 

Waynesborough, 281-301. 

Weaver, Lydia, m. William Wayne Vogdes, 

Webster, Daniel, tribute to Jefferson's abili- 
ties, 230 ; visits Monticello, 237. 

Weekes, Joseph, member of the Maryland 
Assembly, 372. 

Weems, Mason L., on Washington's educa- 
tion, 43. 

Welles, Albert, Pedigree and History of the 
Washington Family^ 21. 

Wells, Richard, member of the Maryland 
Assembly, 372 ; Act of recognition, 373. 

Wendel, Elizabeth Statts, m. Capt. John 
Schuyler, 413. 

Weskora, Sachem of Weekquaskech, 250. 

West, Benjamin, friend of Samuel Shoe- 
maker, 173 ; intimacy with George III., 
177 ; painting of the Last Supper, 177 ; 
his birthday, 180. 

West, Elizabeth (Shewell), at George III.'s 
reception of Samuel Shoemaker, 177- 

178. 

West, Captain John, Governor of Virginia, 
sells land to Richard Preston, 345. 

Westcott, Thompson, Historic Mansions of 
Philadelphia, 445-448, 470. 477- 

Westford, Washington's servant, 67. 

West India Company, a proscriptive ordin- 
ance, 98; considers John Bowne's case, 
104 ; grants religious liberty to the 
colonists, 106. 

Wetterholt, Capt. , succeeds Capt. Isaac 

Wayne, 294. 

WTialley, Naomi, m. William Berry, Jr., 369. 



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INDEX. 



503 



Wharton, Anne Hollingsworth, Martha \ 
Washington^ 5 1. 

Wharton, Isaac, m. Margaret Rawle, 194. 

Wharton, Rebecca Shoemaker, m. Jacob 
Ridgway Smith, 196 ; portrait, 174. 

Wharton, Robert^ ** teased" by the "patri- 
otic" ladies, 151. 

Wharton, Thomas Isaac, m. Arabella Grif- 
fiths, 195 ; Memoir of William Rawle^ 
132, 133, 167, 170. 

Wheeler, Lieut., at Arent John Schuyler's 
house, 421. 

Whiskey Insurrection, 472. ; 

White, Belle, and President Reed, 154. 1 

White, Elizabeth, m. Gen. William Macpher- , 
son, 474. 

White, Francis, and his City Directory, 471. j 

White, , at the commencement of the | 

University of Penna., 455. 

Whiting. See Washington Genealogy, 74- 
78. 

Whiting, Beverly, godfather of Washington, 1 

.39- I 

Whittington, Miles, father-in-law of Robert 
Washington, 22. ; 

Wilchurch, Elizabeth, m. James Berry, 369. ' 
Wilkes, John, admires John Dickinson, 

457. 

Wilkins, Rev. , a Tory, 261, 262. 

Willets, Richard, m. Abigail Bowne, 112, 

118. 
Willett, Elizabeth, m, William Bowne, 119. 
Williams, Henry J., sells Mount Pleasant, 

479. ' 

Williams, Gen. Jonathan, buys Mount Pleas- 



ant, 478 ; public and military career, 

479. 
Willing, Ann (Mrs. William Bingham), a 

Philadelphia belle, 15 1. 
Willis, Col. Henry, m. Mildred Washington, 

75. 

Wilmandonk, Abraham, director of the 
West India Company, 106. 

Wilson, Mrs. James,an enthusiastic patriot,l5i. 

Windham, Capt. Edward, in charge of the 
Maryland government, 355. 

Winthrop, Adam, lOl, 117 ; portrait, 107. 

Winthrop, Henry, m. Elizabeth Fones, loi. 

Winthrop, Gov. John, loi ; portrait, loi. 

Winthrop, Robert C, Evidences of the Win- 
throps of Grotony 1 17. 

Winthrop Genealogy, 117 ; coat of arms, 103. 

Witch -hanging, '^7,. 

Wood, Mary Dorcas, m. Lawrence A. Wash- 
ington, 84. 

Wyatt, Francis, Governor of Virginia, 30. 

Wynne, Martha ( Jefferson), 206. 

Yardley, Col. Francis, in charge of 

government of Maryland, 355. 
Yeates, Joseph, a tavern-keeper mentioned 

in John Macpherson's letter, 454. 
Youle, Jane Anne, m. Anthony Wayne, 319. 
Young, D., mentioned in John Macpherson's 

letter, 455. 
Young, Richard, owns land in Virginia, 346, 

347. 

ZooK, Hannah J., m. William Wayne, 301, 



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