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SOME ENGLISH GARDENS 



PHLOX 

from l-he picture in the possession of 
Mr. George E. B. Wrey 



SOME ENGLISH GARDENS 

AFTER DRAWINGS BY 

GEORGE S. ELGOOD, R.I. 

WITH NOTES BY 

GERTRUDE JEKYLL 



LONGMANS, GREEN AND CO. 
39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 
NEW YORK AND BOMBAY 1904 



mm»IN aUBAT BUtTAtH. 



PREFACE 

The publication of this collection of reproductions of 
water-colour drawings would have been impossible 
without the willing co-operation of the owners of 
the originals. Special acknowledgment is therefore 
due to them for their kindness and courtesy, both 
in consenting to such reproduction and in sparing 
the pictures from their walls. On pages xi. and xii. 
is given a flill list of the pictures, together with the 
names of the owners to whom we are so greatly 
indebted. 

We have also had the valuable assistance of Mr. 
Marcus B. Huish, of The Fine Art Society, who has 
taken the greatest interest in the work from its 
inception. 

G. S. E. 

G.J. 



102211 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Brockenhurst i 

Hollyhocks at Blyborough ............ 5 

Great Tangley Manor 8 

Bulwick Hall ii 

Bramham • ^5 

Melbourne . . . . . 18 

Berkeley Castle 23 

Summer Flowers ............. 26 

The Yew Alley, Rockingham 33 

Brympton ... . 36 

Balcaskie 39 

Crathes Castle 42 

Kellie Castle 47 

Hardwick 52 

Montacute 55 

Ramscliffe 58 

Levens 63 

Campsey Ashe .............. 67 

Cleeve Prior .............. 70 

Condover ............... 74 

Speke Hall • 7^ 

Garden Roses .............. 79 

Penshurst 82 

Brickwall 87 

Stone Hall, Easton 90 

ix b 



Pag. 

The Deanery Garden, Rochester .......... 93 

Compton Wynyates. ............ 96 

Palmerstown .............. 99 

St. Anne's, Clontarf . . . . . . . . . .101 

Auchincruive .............. 104 

Yew Arbour : Lyde ............ 107 

Autumn Flowers . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 

Mynthurst . . . . . -115 

Abbey Leix .............. 1 18 

Michaelmas Daisies . . . . • . .121 

Arley . . 125 

Lady Coventry's Needlework . . . . . . . . . . .129 



ILLUSTRATIONS 





Fro»: Piauret m ,he 
fctstision of 


To face 


Phlox 


Mr. George E. B. Wrey Fro„,hf., 


ece 


The Terrace, Brockenhurst 


Mr. G. N. Stevens 


1 


Brockenhurst : The Garden Gate . 


Miss RadclifFe . 


■ 4 


Blyborough : Hollyhocks .... 


Mr. C. E. Freeling . 


. 6 


The Pergola, Great Tangley . 


Mr. Wickham Flower 


8 


Bulwick : Autumn 


Lord Henry Grosvenor 


II 


Bulwick: The Gateway .... 


Lord Henry Grosvenor 


12 


The Pool, Bramham .... 


Sir James Whitehead, Bart. 


i6 


Melbourne 


Mr. W. V. R. Fane . 


i8 


Melbourne : Amorini 


Mr. J. W. Ford . 


20 


The Lower Terrace, Berkeley Castle 


Mr. Albert Wright 


24- 


Orange Lilies and Larkspur 


Mr. George C. Bompas 


26 


White Lilies and Yellow Monkshood 


Mr. Herbert D. Turner 


28 


Purple Campanula 


Miss Beatrice Hall . 


30 


The Yew Alley, Rockingham . 


MissWillmott . 


34 


The Gateway, Brympton .... 


Mr. Edwin Clephan . 


36 


The Apollo, Balcaskie .... 


Miss Bompas 


40 


The Yew Walk, Crathes 


Mr. Charles P. Rowley . 


42 


Crathes 


Mr. George C. Bompas 


44 


Crathes : Phlox 


Mrs. Croft 


46 


Kellie Castle 


Mr. Arthur H. Longman . 


48 


The Forecourt, Hardwick 


Mr. Aston Webb 


52 


Montacute : Sunflowers . . . . . 


Mr. E. C. Austen Leigh . 


56 


Ramscliffe : Orange Lilies and Monkshood 


Mr. C. E. Freeling . 


58 


RamsclifFe : Larkspur .... 


Miss Kensit . . . . 


60 



Levens ..... 

Levens : Roses and Pinks 

The Yew Hedge, Campsey Ashe 

The Twelve Apostles, Cleeve Prior 

Cleeve Prior : Sunflowers . 

Condover : The Terrace Steps 

Speke Hall 

"Viscountess Folkestone" 

" Gloire de Dijon," Penshurst 

Penshurst : The Terrace Steps 

Brickwall, Northiam . 

Stone Hall, Easton : The Friendship Garden 

The Deanery Garden, Rochester 

Compton Wynyates . 

China Roses and Lavender, Palmerstown 

St. Anne's, Clontarf . 

Auchincruive . 

The Yew Arbour, Lyde . 

Phlox and Daisy 

Mynthurst 

Abbey-Leix 

Michaelmas Daisies, Munstead Wood 

The Alcove, Arley . 

The Rose Garden, Arley . 

Lady Coventry's Needlework 



From Pklum in lie 


To face 


posifuion of 


fage 


Major Longfield 


63 


Mrs. Archibald Parker 


65 


Mr. H. W. Search . 


68 


Sir Frederick Wigan . 


70 


Mr. James Crofts Powell . 


72 


Miss Austen Leigh . 


74 


Mr. George S. Elgood 


76 


Mr. R. Clarke Edwards . 


80 


Sir Reginald Hanson, Bart. 


82 


Mr. Frederick Greene 


84 


Mr. R. A. Oswald . 


88 


The Countess of Warwick 


90 


Mr. G. A. Tonge 


94 


Mr. George S. Elgood 


96 


Mrs. Kennedy-Erskine 


99 


Miss Mannering 


102 


Mr. R. A. Oswald . 


104 


Mr. George E. B. Wrey . 


107 


Lady Mount-Stephen 


112 


Miss Radcliffe . 


116 


Sir James Whitehead, Bart. 


118 


Mr. T. Norton Longman . 


122 


Mrs. Campbell . 


125 


Mrs. Huth 


126 


Mrs. Appleton . 


129 



BROCKENHURST 



The English gardens in which Mr. Elgood delights to paint are for the 
most part those that have come to us through the influence of the 
Italian Renaissance ; those that in common speech we call gardens of 
formal design. The remote forefathers of these gardens of Italy, now so 
well known to travellers, were the old pleasure-grounds of Rome and the 
neighbouring districts, built and planted some sixteen hundred years ago. 

Though many relics of domestic architecture remain to remind us that 
Britain was once a Roman colony, and though it is reasonable to suppose 
that the conquerors brought their ways of gardening with them as well 
as their ways of building, yet nothing remains in England of any Roman 
gardening of any importance, and we may well conclude that our gardens 
of formal design came to us from Italy, inspired by those of the Renais- 
sance, though often modified by French influence. 

Very little gardening, such as we now know it, was done in England 
earlier than the sixteenth century. Before that, the houses of the better 
class were places of defence ; castles, closely encompassed with wall or 
moat ; the little cultivation within their narrow bounds being only for 
food — none for the pleasure of garden beauty. 

But when the country settled down into a peaceful state, and men 
could dwell in safety, the great houses that arose were no longer fortresses, 
but beautiful homes both within and without, inclosing large garden 
spaces, walled with brick or stone only for defence from wild animals, 
and divided or encompassed with living hedges of yew or holly or horn- 
beam, to break wild winds and to gather on their sunny sides the life- 
giving rays that flowers love. 

1 A 



D. H. HILL LIBRARY 

North Carolina State ColleKe 



So grew into life and shape some of the great gardens that still 
remain ; in the best of them, the old Italian traditions modified by 
gradual and insensible evolution into what has become an English style. 
For it is significant to observe that in some cases, where a classical model 
has been too rigidly followed, or its principles too closely adhered to, 
that the result is a thing that remains exotic — that will not assimilate 
with the natural conditions of our climate and landscape. What is right 
and fitting in Italy is not necessarily right in England. The general 
principles may be imported, and may grow into something absolutely 
right, but they cannot be compelled or coerced into fitness, any more 
than we can take the myrtles and lentisks of the Mediterranean region 
and expect them to grow on our middle-England hill-sides. This is so 
much the case, with what one may call the temperament of a region and 
climate, that even within the small geographical area of our islands, the 
comparative suitability of the more distinctly Italian style may be clearly 
perceived, for on our southern coasts it is much more possible than in 
the much colder and bleaker midlands. 

Thus we find that one of the best of the rather nearly Italian gardens 
is at Brockenhurst in the New Forest, not far from the warm waters of 
the Solent. The garden, in its present state, was laid out by the late 
Mr. John Morant, one of a long line of the same name owning this 
forest property. He had absorbed the spirit of the pure Italian gardens, 
and his fine taste knew how to bring it forth again, and place it with a 
sure hand on English soil. 

It is none the less beautiful because it is a garden almost without 
flowers, so important and satisfying are its permanent forms of living 
green walls, with their own proper enrichment of ball and spire, bracket 
and buttress, and so fine is the design of the actual masonry and sculpture. 

The large rectangular pool, known as the Canal, bordered with a 
bold kerb, has at its upper end a double stair-way ; the retaining wall 
at the head of the basin is cunningly wrought into buttress and niche. 
Every niche has its appropriate sculpture and each buttress-pier its urn- 
like finial. On the upper level is a circular fountain bordered by the 
same kerb in lesser proportion, with stone vases on its circumference. 
The broad walk on both levels is bounded by close walls of living 

2 



THE TERRACE, BROCKEN HURST 

from the picture in the possession of 
Mr. G. N. Stevens 



greenery ; on the upper level swinging round in a half circle, in which 
are cut arched niches. In each leafy niche is a bust of a Cssar in 
marble on a tall term-shaped pedestal. Orange trees in tubs stand by 
the sides of the Canal. This is the most ornate portion of the garden, 
but its whole extent is designed with equal care. There is a wide 
bowling-green for quiet play ; turf walks within walls of living green ; 
everywhere that feeling of repose and ease of mind and satisfaction that 
comes of good balance and proportion. It shows the classical sentiment 
thoroughly assimilated, and a judicious interpretation of it brought forth 
in a form not only possible but eminently successful, as a garden of Italy 
translated into the soil of one of our Southern Counties. 

Whether or not it is in itself the kind of gardening best suited for 
England may be open to doubt, but at least it is the work of a man who 
knew what he wanted and did it as well as it could possibly be done. 
Throughout it bears evidence of the work of a master. There is no 
doubt, no ambiguity as to what is intended. The strong will orders, the 
docile stone and vegetation obey. It is full-dress gardening, stately, 
princely, full of dignity ; gardening that has the courtly sentiment. It 
seems to demand that the actual working of it should be kept out of sight. 
Whereas in a homely garden it is pleasant to see people at work, and 
their tools and implements ready to their hands, here there must be no 
visible intrusion of wheelbarrow or shirt-sleeved labour. 

Possibly the sentiment of a garden for state alone was the more 
gratifying to its owner because of the near neighbourhood of miles upon 
miles of wild, free forest ; land of the same character being inclosed 
within the property ; the tall trees showing above the outer hedges and 
playing to the lightest airs of wind in an almost strange contrast to the 
inflexible green boundaries of the ordered garden. 

The danger that awaits such a garden, now just coming to its early 
prime, is that the careful hand should be relaxed. It is an heritage that 
carries with it much responsibility ; moreover, it would be ruined by 
the addition of any commonplace gardening. Winter and summer it is 
nearly complete in itself ; only in summer flowers show as brilliant 
jewels in its marble vases and in its one restricted parterre of box-edged 
beds. 



It is a place whose design must always dominate the personal wishes, 
should they desire other expression, of the succeeding owners. The 
borders of hardy and half-hardy plants, that in nine gardens out of ten 
present the most obvious ways of enjoying the beauty of flowers, are here 
out of place. In some rare cases it might not be impossible to introduce 
some beautiful climbing plant or plant of other habit, that would be in 
right harmony with the design, but it should only be attempted by an 
artist who has such knowledge of, and sympathy with, refined architecture 
as will be sure to guide him aright, and such a consummate knowledge 
of plants as will at once present to his mind the identity of the only 
possible plants that could so be used. Any mistaken choice or intro- 
duction of unsuitable plants would grievously mar the design and would 
introduce an element of jarring incongruity such as might easily be 
debased into vulgarity. 

There is no reason why such other gardening may not be rightly 
done even at Brockenhurst, but it should not encroach upon or be mixed 
up with an Italian design. Its place would be in quite another portion 
of the grounds. 



BROCKENHURST : THE GARDEN GATE 

from the plcn.'rk in the posssesion ok 
Miss Raucliife 



HOLLYHOCKS AT BLYBOROUGH 



The climate of North Lincolnshire is by no means one of the 
most favourable of our islands, but the good gardener accepts the 
conditions of the place, faces the obstacles, fights the difficulties, and 
conquers. 

Here is a large walled garden, originally all kitchen garden ; the 
length equal to twice the breadth, divided in the middle to form two 
squares. It is further subdivided in the usual manner with walks 
parallel to the walls, some ten feet away from them, and other walks 
across and across each square. The paths are box-edged and bordered 
on each side with fine groups of hardy flowers, such as the Hollyhocks 
and other flowers in the picture. 

The time is August, and these grand flowers are at their fullest 
bloom. They are the best type of Hollyhock too, with the wide 
outer petal, and the middle of the flower not too tightly packed. 

Hollyhocks have so long been favourite flowers — and, indeed, what 
would our late summer and autumn gardens be without them ? — that 
they are among those that have received the special attention of raisers, 
and have become what are known as florists' flowers. But the florists' 
notions do not always make for the highest kind of beauty. They are 
apt to favour forms that one cannot but think have for their aim, in 
many cases, an ideal that is a false and unworthy one. In the case of 
the Hollyhock, according to the florist's standard of beauty and correct 
form, the wide outer petal is not to be allowed ; the flower must be 
very tight and very round. Happily we need not all be florists of this 
narrow school, and we are at liberty to try for the very highest and 

5 



truest beauty in our flowers, rather than for set rules and arbitrary 
points of such extremely doubtful value. 

The loosely-folded inner petals of the loveliest Hollyhocks invite 
a wonderful play and brilliancy of colour. Some of the colour is 
transmitted through the half-transparency of the petal's structure, 
some is reflected from the neighbouring folds ; the light striking back 
and forth with infinitely beautiful trick and playful variation, so that 
some inner regions of the heart of a rosy flower, obeying the mysterious 
agencies of sunlight, texture and local colour, may tell upon the eye 
as pure scarlet ; while the wide outer petal, in itself generally rather 
lighter in colour, with its slightly waved surface and gently frilled edge, 
plays the game of give and take with light and tint in quite other, but 
always delightful, ways. 

Then see how well the groups have been placed ; the rosy group 
leading to the fuller red, with a distant sulphur-coloured gathering at the 
far end ; its tall spires of bloom shooting up and telling well against the 
distant tree masses above the wall. And how pleasantly the colour of 
the rosy group is repeated in the Phlox in the opposite border. And 
what a capital group that is, near the Hollyhocks of that fine summer 
flower, the double Crown Daisy {Chrysanthemum coronarium), with the 
bright gUmpses of some more of it beyond. Then the Pansies and 
Erigerons give a mellowing of grey-lilac that helps the brighter colours, 
and is not overdone. 

The large fruit-tree has too spreading a shade to allow of much 
actual bloom immediately beneath it, so that here is a patch of Butcher's 
Broom, a shade-loving plant. Beyond, out in the sunlight again, is the 
fine herbaceous Clematis {C. recta), whose excellent qualities entitle it 
to a much more frequent use in gardens. 

The flower-borders are so full and luxuriant that they completely 
hide the vegetable quarters within, for the garden is still a kitchen 
garden as to its main inner spaces. These masses of good flowers are 
the work of the Misses Freeling ; they are ardent gardeners, sparing 
themselves no labour or trouble ; to their care and fine perception 
of the best use of flowers the beauty and interest of these fine 
borders are entirely due. Indeed, this garden is a striking instance 

6 



BLYBOROUGH : HOLLYHOCKS 

FROM IHK PICIIRK IN IHE POSSKSSION OF 
Mr. C. E. pRlitLING 



of the extreme value of personal effort combined with knowledge and 
good taste. 

These qualities may operate in different gardens in a hundred varying 
ways, but where they exist there will be, in some form or other, a 
delightful garden. Endless are the possibilities of beautiful combinations 
of flowers ; just as endless is their power of giving happiness and the very 
purest of human delight. So also the special interest of different gardens 
that are personally directed by owners of knowledge and fine taste would 
seem to be endless too, for each will impress upon it some visible issue of 
his own perception or discernment of beauty. 

About the house and lawns are other beds and borders of herbaceous 
flowers of good grouping and fine growth ; conspicuous among them is 
that excellent flower Campanula pyratnidalis, splendidly grown. 

Though Blyborough is in a cold district, it has the advantage of 
lying well sheltered below a sharply-rising ridge of higher land. 



GREAT TANGLEY MANOR 



Forty years ago, lying lost up a narrow lane that joined a track across 
a wide green common, this ancient timber-built manor-house could 
scarcely have been found but by some one who knew the country and its 
by-ways well. Even when quite near, it had to be searched for, so much 
was it hidden away behind ricks and farm-buildings ; with the closer over- 
growth of old fruit trees, wild thorns and elders, and the tangled wastes of 
vegetation that had invaded the outskirts of the neglected, or at any rate 
very roughly-kept, garden of the farm-house, which purpose it then 
served. 

What had been the moat could hardly be traced as a continuous 
water-course ; the banks were broken down and over-grown, water stood 
in pools here and there ; tall grass, tussocks of sedge and the rank weeds 
that thrive in marshy places had it all to themselves. 

But the place was beautiful, for all the neglect and disorder, and to 
the mind of a young girl that already harboured some appreciative 
perception of the value of the fine old country buildings, and whose home 
lay in a valley only three miles away, Tangley was one of the places 
within an easy ride that could best minister to that vague unreasoning 
delight, so gladly absorbed and so keenly enjoyed by an eager and still 
almost childish imagination. For the mysteries of romantic legend and 
old tale still clung about the place — stories of an even more ancient 
dwelling than this one of the sixteenth century. 

There was always a ready welcome from the kindly farmer's wife, and 
complete freedom to roam about ; the pony was accommodated in a cow- 
stall, and many happy summer hours were spent in the delightful 

8 



THE PERGOLA, GREAT TANGLEY 

from ihe picilre in i'he possession of 
Mr. Wickham Flower 



wilderness, with its jewel of a beautifully-wrought timbered dwelling 
that had already stood for three hundred years. 

In later days, when the whole of the Grantley property in the district 
was sold, Great Tangley came into the market. Happily, it fell into the 
best of hands, those of Mr. and Mrs. Wickham Flower, and could not 
have been better dealt with in the way of necessary restoration and 
judicious addition. The moat is now a clear moat again ; and good 
modern gardening, that joins hands so happily with such a beautiful old 
building, surrounds it on all sides. There was no flower garden when 
the old place was taken in hand ; the only things worth preserving being 
some of the old orchard trees within the moat to the west. A space in 
front of the house, on its southward face, inclosed by loop-holed walls of 
considerable thickness, was probably the ancient garden, and has now 
returned to its former use. 

The modern garden extends over several acres to the east and south 
beyond the moat. The moat is fed by a long-shaped pond near its 
south-eastern angle. The water margin is now a paradise for flower- 
lovers, with its masses of water Irises and many other beautiful aquatic 
and sub-aquatic plants ; while Water-Lilies, and, surprising to many, 
great groups rising strongly from the water of the white Calla, commonly 
called Arum Lily, give the pond a quite unusual interest. To the left is 
an admirable bog-garden with many a good damp-loving plant, and, best 
of all in their flowering time, some glorious clumps of the Moccasin 
Flower [Cypripedium spectabile), largest, brightest, and most beautiful of 
hardy orchids. 

Those who have had the luck to see this grand plant at Tangley, two 
feet high and a mass of bloom, can understand the admiration of others 
who have met with it in its North American home, and their description 
of how surprisingly beautiful it is when seen rising, with its large rose 
and white flowers, and fresh green pleated leaves, from the pools of 
black peaty mud of the forest openings. But it seems scarcely possible 
that it can be finer in its own home than it is in this good garden. 

Beyond the bog-garden, on drier ground, is a garden of heaths, and, 
returning by the pathway on the other side of the pond, is the kitchen 
garden, a strip of pleasure-ground being reserved between it and the 

9 B 



pond. Here is the subject of the picture. The pergola runs parallel 
with the pond, which, with the house and inclosed garden, are to the 
spectator's right. To the left, before the vegetable quarters begin, is a 
capital rock-garden of the best and simplest form — just one long dell, 
whose sides are set with rocks of the local Bargate stone and large sheets 
of creeping and rock-loving plants. Taller green growths of shrubby 
character shut it off from other portions of the grounds. 

The picture speaks for itself. It tells of the right appreciation of the 
use of the good autumn flowers, in masses large enough to show what 
the flowers will do for us at their best, but not so large as to become 
wearisome or monotonous. Roses, Vines and Ivies cover the pergola, 
making a grateful shade in summer. Each open space to the right gives 
a picture of water and water-plants with garden ground beyond, and, 
looking a little forward, the picture is varied by the background of roof- 
mass with a glimpse of the timbered gables of the old house. 

The new garden is growing mature. The Yews that stand like 
gate-towers flanking the entrance of the green covered way, have grown 
to their allotted height, doing their duty also as quiet background to the 
autumnal flower-masses. In the border to the left are Michaelmas 
Daisies, French Marigolds, and a lower growth of Stocks ; to the right is 
a dominating mass of the great white Pyrethrum, grouped with pink 
Japan Anemone, Veronicas and yellow Snapdragon. Japan Anemones, 
both pink and white, are things of uncertain growth in many gardens of 
drier soil, but here, in the rich alluvial loam of a valley level, they 
attain their fullest growth and beauty. 



BLTLWICK : AUTUMN 



FROM IHE I'lClTRK IN IHK POSSESSION OF 

L.oRi) Henr-i- Grosvenor 



BULWICK HALL 



BuLwicK Hall, in Northamptonshire, the home of the Tryon family, 
but, when the pictures were painted, in the occupation of Lord and Lady 
Henry Grosvenor, is a roomy, comfortable stone building of the seven- 
teenth century. The long, low, rather plain-looking house of two stories 
only, is entered in an original manner by a doorway in the middle of a 
stone passage, at right angles to the building, and connecting it with a 
garden house. The careful classical design and balustraded parapet of 
the outer wall of this entrance, and the repetition of the same, only with 
arched openings, to the garden side, scarcely prepare one for the un- 
adorned house-front ; but the whole is full of a quiet, simple dignity that 
is extremely restful and pleasing. Other surprises of the same character 
await one in further portions of the garden. 

Passing straight through the entrance gate there is a quiet space 
of grass ; a level court with flagged paths, bounded on the north by the 
house and on the east and west by the arcade and the wall of the kitchen 
garden. The ground falls slightly southward, and the fourth side leads 
down to the next level by grass slopes and a flight of curved steps 
widening below. Trees and shrubs are against the continuing walls to 
right and left, and beds and herbaceous borders are upon the grassy 
space. The wide green walk, between long borders of hardy plants, 
leading forward from the foot of the steps, reaches a flower-bordered 
terrace wall, and passes through it by a stone landing to steps to right and 
left on its further side. A few steps descend in twin flights to other 
landings, from which a fresh flight on each side reaches the lowest garden 
level, some nine feet below the last. The whole of this progression, 

1 1 



with its pleasant variety of surface treatment and means of descent, is in 
one direct line from a garden door in the middle of the house front. 

The lowest flight of steps, the subject of the first picture, has a simple 
but excellent wrought-iron railing, of that refined character common to 
the time of its making. It was draped, perhaps rather over-draped when 
the picture was painted, with a glory of Virginia Creeper in fullest 
gorgeousness of autumn colouring. This question of the degree to which 
it is desirable to allow climbing plants to cover architectural forms, is one 
that should be always carefully considered. Bad architecture abounds 
throughout the country, and free-growing plants often play an entirely 
beneficent part in concealing its mean or vulgar or otherwise unsightly 
character. But where architectural design is good and pure, as it is at 
Bulwick, care should be taken in order to prevent its being unduly 
covered. Old brick chimney-stacks of great beauty are often smothered 
with Ivy, and the same insidious native has obliterated many a beautiful 
gate-pier and panelled wall. But the worst offender in modern days has 
been the far-spreading Ampelopsis Veitchii, useful for the covering of 
mean or featureless buildings, but grievously and mischievously out of 
place when, for instance, ramping unchecked over the old brickwork of 
Wolsey's Palace at Hampton Court. Some may say that it is easily 
pulled off ; but this is not so, for it leaves behind, tightly clinging to the 
old brick surface, the dried-up sucker and its tentacle, desiccated to a 
consistency like iron wire. These are impossible to detach without 
abrasion of surface, while, if left, they show upon the brick as a scurfy 
eruption, as disfiguring to the wall-face as are the scars of smallpox on a 
human countenance. 

The iron-railed steps in the picture come down upon a grassy space 
rather near its end. Behind the spectator it stretches away for quite four 
times the length seen in the picture. It is bounded on the side opposite 
the steps by a long rectangular fish-pond. The whole length of this is 
not seen, for the grass walk narrows and passes between old yew hedges, 
one on the side of the pond, the other backed by some other trees against 
the kitchen garden wall, which is a prolongation of the terrace wall in 
the picture. 

The garden is still beautifully kept, but owes much of its wealth of 

12 



BULWICK. THK GATEWAY 

KROM -l-HF. PICrURK IN IHF. I'OSSKSMON OK 

Lord HE^JR^• CiRosvicxoR 



hardy flowers to the planting of Lady Henry Grosvenor, whose fine taste 
and great love of flowers made it in her day one of the best gardens of 
hardy plants, and whose untimely death, in the very prime of life, was 
almost as much deplored by the best of the horticultural amateurs who 
only knew her by reputation, but were aware of her good work in 
gardening, as by her wide circle of personal friends. 

She had a special love for the flag-leaved Irises, and used them with 
very fine effect. The borders that show to right and left of the steps 
had them in large groups, and were masses of bloom in June ; other 
plants, placed behind and between, succeeding them later. Lady Henry 
was one of the first amateurs to perceive the value of planting in this 
large way, and, as she had ample spaces to deal with, the effects she 
produced were very fine, and must have been helpful in influencing 
horticultural taste in a right direction. 

Another important portion of the garden at Bulwick is a long double 
flower-border backed by holly hedges, that runs through the whole middle 
length of the kitchen garden. It is in a straight line with the flagged 
walk that passes westward across the green court next to the house, and 
parallel with its garden front. The flagged path stops at the gate-piers 
in the second picture, a grass path following upon the same line and 
passing just behind the shaded seat. 

The holly hedges that back the borders are old and solid. Their top 
line, shaped like a flat-pitched roof, is ornamented at intervals with 
mushroom-shaped finials, each upon its stalk of holly stem. The grass 
walk and double border pass right across the kitchen garden in the line 
of its longest axis. At the furthest end there is another pair of the same 
handsome gate-piers with a beautiful wrought-iron gate, leading into the 
park. The park is handsomely timbered, and in early summer is 
especially delightful from the great number of fine old hawthorns. 

In Lady Henry's time several borders in the kitchen garden were 
made bright with annuals and other flowers. Such borders are very 
commonly used for reserve purposes, such as the provision of flowers for 
cutting, with one main double border for ornament alone. But where 
gardens are being laid out from the beginning, such a plan as this at 
Bulwick, of a grass path with flower borders and a screening hedge at the 

13 



back, passing through a kitchen garden, is an excellent one, greatly 
enlarging the length of view of the pleasure garden, while occupying 
only a relatively small area. It is also well in planning a garden to 
provide a reserve space for cutting alone, of beds four feet, and paths two 
feet wide, and of any length suitable for the supply required. This has 
the advantage of leaving the kitchen garden unencumbered with any 
flower-gardening, and therefore more easy to work. 

Such a long-shaped garden is also capable of various ways of treatment 
as to its edge, which need not necessarily be an unbroken line. The 
length of the border in question is perhaps a little too great. It might 
be better, while keeping the effect of a quiet line, looking from end to 
end, to have swung the edge of the border back in a segment of a circle 
to a little more than half its depth, every few yards, in such a proportion 
as a plan to scale would show to be right ; or to have treated it in some 
one of the many possible ways of accentuation where the cross paths 
occur that divide it into three lengths. The thinking out of these details 
according to the conditions of the site, the combining of them into 
designs that shall add to its beauty, and the actual working of them, the 
mind meanwhile picturing the effect in advance — these are some of the 
most interesting and enlivening of the many kinds of happiness that a 
garden gives. 

Be it large or small there is always scope for inventive ability ; either 
for the bettering of something or for the casting of some detail into a 
more desirable form. Every year brings some new need ; in supplying 
it fresh experience is gained, and with this an increasing power of adapting 
simple means to such ends as may be easily devised to the advancement 
of the garden's beauty. 



H 



BRAMHAM 



The gardens at Bramham in Yorkshire, laid out and built near the end 
of the seventeenth century, are probably the best preserved in England or 
the grounds that were designed at that time under French influence. 
Wrest in Bedfordshire, and Melbourne in Derbyshire of which some 
pictures will follow, are also gardens of purely French character. 

It is extremely interesting to compare these gardens with those of a 
more distinctly Italian feeling. Many features they have in common ; 
architectural structure and ornament, close-clipped evergreen hedges 
inclosing groves of free-growing trees ; parterres, pools and fountains. 
Yet the treatment was distinctly different, and, though not easy to define 
in words, is at once recognised by the eye. 

For one thing the French school, shown in its extremes! form by the 
gardens of Versailles, dealt with much larger and more level spaces. The 
gardens of Italian villas, whether of the Roman Empire or of the 
Renaissance, were for the most part in hilly places ; pleasant for summer 
coolness. This naturally led to much building of balustraded terraces 
and flights of steps, and of parterres whose width was limited to that ot 
the level that could conveniently be obtained. Whereas in France, and 
in England especially, where the country house is the home for all the 
year, the greater number of large places have land about them that is 
more or less level and that can be taken in to any extent. 

At Bramham the changes of level are not considerable, but enough to 
furnish the designer with motives for the details of his plan. The 
house, of about the same date as the garden, was internally destroyed by 
fire in the last century. The well-built stone walls still stand, but the 

IS 



building has never been restored. The stables and kennels are still in 
use, but the owner. Captain Lane-Fox, lives in another house on the 
outskirts of the park. The design of the gardens has often been attri- 
buted to Le Notre, and is undoubtedly the work of his school, but there 
is nothing to prove that the great French master was ever in England. 

The way to the house is through a large, well-timbered park. 
Handsome gate-piers with stone-wrought armorial ornament lead into a 
forecourt stretching wide to right and left. A double curved stairway 
ascends to the main door. To the left of the house is an entrance to the 
garden through a colonnade. Next to the garden front of the house, 
which faces south-west, is a broad gravelled terrace. The ground rises 
away from the house by a gently sloping lawn, but in the midmost 
space is a feature that is frequent in the French gardening of the time, 
though unusual in England : a long theatre-shaped extent of grass. 
There is a stone sundial standing on two wide steps near the house, and 
a gradually heightened retaining wall following the rise of the ground. 
Not more than two feet high where it begins below, and there accen- 
tuated on either side by a noble stone plinth and massive urn, the retain- 
ing wall, itself a handsome object of bold masonry, follows a straight 
line for some distance, and then swings round in a segmental curve to 
meet the equal wall on the further side ; thus inclosing a space of level 
sward. Midway in the curve, where the wall is some twelve feet high, 
there appear to have been niches in the masonry, possibly for fountains. 

The wide gravel walk next the house-front falls a little as it passes to 
the left, divides in two and continues by an upward slope on either side 
of a wall-fountain in a small inclosure formed by the retaining walls of 
the rising paths. The path then passes all round the large rectangular 
pool, one end of which forms the subject of the picture. This shows 
well the graceful ease and, one may say, the courteous suavity, that is 
the foremost character of this beautiful kind of French designing. The 
high level of the water in the pool, so necessary for good effect, is a 
detail that is often overlooked in English gardens. Nothing looks worse 
than a height of bare wall in a pool or fountain basin, and nothing 
is more commonly seen in our gardens. The low stone kerb bordering 
the pool is broken at intervals with only slightly rising pedestals for 

i6 



THE POOL, BRAMHAM 

trom the picture in the possession ok 
Sir James Whitehead, Bart. 



flower vases. Tubs of Agapanthus stand on the projections by the side 
of the piers that flank the small fountain basin, whose overflow falls 
into the pool. 

All this portion of the garden has a background of yew hedges 
inclosing large trees. From this pool the ground rises to another ; also 
of rectangular form, but with an arm to the right, in the line of the cross 
axis, forming a T-shape. Between the two, on a path always rising 
by occasional flights of steps, is a summer-house. The path swings 
round it in a circle. To right and left are flower-beds and roses ; 
outside these, also on a curved line, are ranged a series of gracefully 
sculptured amorini, bearing aloft vases of flowers. 

The path soon reaches the upper pool, again passing all round it. 
At the point furthest to the right, at the end of the projecting arm, and 
looking along the cross axis to where, beyond the pool, the ground 
again rises, is a handsome wall fountain, with steps to right and left, 
inclosed by panelled walls. All this garden of pool and fountain, easy 
way of step and gravel, and ornament of flower and sculpture, is bounded 
by the massive walls of yew, and all beyond is sheltering quietude of 
ancient trees. From several points around the highest pool, as well as 
from the rising lawns to right and left of the theatre, straight grass- 
edged paths, bordered by clipped hornbeam, lead through the heavily 
wooded ground. From distant points the main walks converge ; and here, 
in a circular green-walled court, stands a tall pedestal bearing a handsome 
stone vase. The prospects down the alleys are variously ended ; some 
by pillared temples set in green niches, some by the open park-landscape ; 
some by further depths of woodland. It is all easy and gracious, but full 
of dignity — courtly — palatial; bringing to mind the stately bearing and 
refined courtesy of manner of our ancestors of two centuries ago. It is 
good to know that some of these gardens and disciplined woodlands still 
exist in our own land and in France; these quiet bosquets de 'verdure oi 
those tar-away days. Though the scale on which they were planned is only 
suitable for the largest houses and for wealthy owners who can command 
lavish employment of labour, yet we cannot but admire the genius of those 
garden artists of France wlio designed so boldly and yet so gracefully, and 
who have left us such admirable records of their abounding ability. 

17 c 



MELBOURNE 



The gardens of Melbourne Hall in Derbyshire, the property of Earl 
Cowper, but occupied for the last five-and-twenty years by Mr. W. D. 
Fane, though perhaps less well preserved than those of Bramham, still 
show the design of Henry Wise in the early years of the eighteenth 
century. There had formerly been an older garden. Wise's plan 
shows how completely the French ideas had been adopted in 
England, for here again are the handsome pools and fountains, the 
garden thick-hedged with yew, and the bosquet with its straight paths, 
green-walled, leading to a large fountain-centred circle in the thickest 
of the grove. 

The whole space occupied by the house and grounds is not of great 
extent ; it is irregular and even awkward in shape, and has roads on two 
sides. 

The treatment is extremely ingenious ; indeed, it is doubtful whether 
any other plan that could have been devised would have made so much 
of the space or could have so cleverly concealed the limits. 

The garden lies out forward of the house in a long parallelogram. 
Next to the house-front is the usual wide gravel terrace, from which paths, 
inclosing spaces of lawn, lead down to a lower level. The whole lawn, 
with its accompanying paths, slopes downward ; where a steeper slope 
occurs above and below, the path becomes a flight of steps. 

The lower level is intersected by paths. As they converge, they 
swing round the pedestal of the Flying Mercury that stands upon a 
circular grass-plot. The main path soon reaches the edge of the 
handsome pool known as the Great Water. It is four-sided, with a 

i8 



MELBOURNE 

FROM THE PICTURE TN THE POSSESSION OF 

Mr. W. V. R. Fane 



further semi-circular bay, A wide grassverge and turf slope form the edging. 
Broad walks pass all round, with pleasant views at various points into the 
cool and shaded woodland alleys. Near the further angles of the pool's 
green court, the great yew hedge, which bounds the whole garden, 
swings back into shallow segmental niches to take curved stone seats. 
Just beyond, on the return angle, the view from the path, here passing 
the right side of the pool, is ended by the lead figure of Perseus, 
of heroic size, also standing in a niche cut in the yews. The com- 
panion statue of Andromeda occupies the corresponding niche on the other 
side. 

After passing the Mercury, the view across the pool is met by a 
curious piece of wrought-iron work in the form of a high, dome-topped 
summer-house ; a masterpiece of Jean Tijou. It is entered by steps, 
and leads, through the trees, to higher ground beyond. 

Right and left of the middle and upper portions of the garden the 
great yew hedges are double ; planted in parallel lines, with an open 
space between. Scotch Firs, now very old and towering high aloft, give 
great character to this part of the garden. In one place there are 
three parallel hedges of yew, the two outermost forming the " Dark 
Arbour," a tunnel of yew a hundred yards in length, only broken near 
its lower end, where a small fountain marks the crossing of a broad 
path. 

All the lower portion of the garden is surrounded by a dense grove of 
trees, in which other tall Scotch Firs stand out conspicuously. Its most 
extensive area is on the right side of the Great Water, where several 
grassy paths, bounded by clipped hedges of yew and lime, radiate from 
a large circular space where there is a wide, round basin and fountain-jet. 
Looking along one of the pleasant green ways, other jets are seen springing 
from further fountains where more paths cross. The ends of some of the 
walks are finished with alcoves or arbours. One of them, that runs 
diagonally from the right-hand side of the large pool, crosses the great 
wood fountain, and passing on some distance further ends at a magnificent 
lead urn on a massive pedestal. This is also the terminal point of view 
of another of the longest of the green paths. 

The water that supplies the pools and fountains comes from a wild 
19 



pond, the home of many wild-fowl, that is on a higher level, outside the 
grounds and beyond one of the roads that bounds them. A stream from 
the pond meanders through the wooded ground, and is conducted by a 
culvert to the large pool ; the overflow passing out on the opposite side 
in the same way. 

Important in the garden's decoration are the unusual number of lead 
statues and other accessories, of excellent design. The upper lawn has 
two kneeling figures of negro or Indian type, bearing on their heads, 
partly supported by their hands, circular tables with moulded edges that 
carry an urn-finial. The central ornament of the next level is the Flying 
Mercury, after John of Bologna. Referring to this example, Messrs. 
Blomfield and Inigo Thomas tell us in " The Formal Garden in 
England " that " lead statues very easily lose their centre of gravity." 
This is exemplified by the Mercury at Melbourne, which has already 
come over to a degree which makes its evident want of balance 
distressing to the eye of the beholder, and forebodes its eventual 
downfall. 

Lead as a material for such use in gardens is much more suitable 
to the English climate than marble. It acquires a beautiful silvery 
colouring with age, whereas marble becomes disfigured with blackish 
weather-streaks. During the eighteenth century the art of lead casting 
came to great perfection in England. Some good models came from 
Italy ; the original of the kneeling slave at Melbourne is considered 
to have come from there. Others were brought from France. The 
inspiration, if not the actual designs or moulds, of the many charming 
figures of amorini in these gardens must have been purely French. The 
pictures show how they were used. They stand on pedestals at several 
of the points of departure of the green glades. In fountain basins they 
form jets ; the little figure appearing to blow the water through a 
conch-shell. They are also shown, sometimes singly, sometimes in 
pairs, disputing, wrestling or carrying a cornucopia of flowers. One 
little fellow, alone on his pedestal, is whittling his bow with a tool like a 
wheelwright's draw-knife. All are charming and graceful. They are 
probably more beautiful now than of old, when they were painted and 
sanded to look like stone. 



mklbourxj:: amorini 



I'lCITRK IN IHK l>()hSK> 

Mr. I. W. Fori. 



There were several lead foundries in London early in the eighteenth 
century for the making of these garden ornaments. The foremost was 
that of John Van Nost. Mr. Lethaby in his book, on Leadwork tells us 
that this Dutch sculptor came to England with King William III. ; 
that his business was taken in 1739 by Mr. John Cheere, who served his 
time with his brother. Sir H. Cheere, who made several of the Abbey 
monuments. The kneeling slave, bearing either a vase, as at Melbourne, 
or a sundial as in the Temple Gardens in London, and in other pleasure 
grounds in different parts of the country, was apparently a favourite 
subject. The figure, not always from the same mould in the various 
examples, but always showing good design, was evidently of Italian 
origin. Towards the end of the century, designs for lead figures 
became much debased, and such subjects as people sitting round a 
table, painted like life, could not possibly have served any decorative 
purpose. The natural colour of lead is so good that no painting can 
improve it. In Tudor days it was often gilt, a much more permissible 
treatment. 

In the old days there was probably a parterre at Melbourne, now no 
longer existing. The figures of kneeling slaves were possibly the centre 
ornaments of its two divisions, on what is now the upper lawn. This 
portion of the garden is rather liberally, and perhaps somewhat 
injudiciously, planted with a mixture of conifers, put in probably 
thirty to forty years ago, when the remains of good old garden designs 
were not so reverently treated, nor their value so well understood, as now. 
Some of this planting has even strayed to the banks of the Great Water. 
The pleasure ground of Melbourne is a precious relic of the past, and, 
even though the ill effects of the modern planting of various conifers 
may be less generally conspicuous there than it is in many places, yet it 
is distinctly an intrusion. The tall trees inclosed by massive yew hedges, 
the pools and fountains, the statues and other sculptured ornaments, all 
recall, with their special character of garden treatment, the times and 
incidents that Watteau loved to paint. Such a picture as his Bosquet de 
Bacchus, so well known by the engraving, with its gaily-dressed groups 
of young men and maidens seated in the grassy shade and making the 
music of their lutes and voices accompany that of the fountains' waters, 

21 



might have been painted at Melbourne. For here are the same wide, 
green-walled alleys, the pools, the fountains and the ornamental details of 
the great gardens of courtly France of two hundred years ago acclimatised 
on English soil ; not in the dreary vastness of Versailles, but tamed to 
our climate's needs and on a scale attuned to the more moderate dimen- 
sions of a reasonable human dwelling. 



22 



BERKELEY CASTLE 



This venerable pile, one of the oldest continuously-inhabited houses in 
England, stands upon a knoll of rising ground at the southern end 
of the tract of rich alluvial land known as the Vale of Berkeley, 
that stretches aw^ay for ten miles or more north-eastward in the 
direction of Gloucester. Within two miles to the west is the Severn, 
already a mile across and rapidly widening to its estuary. On the 
side of the higher ground the town creeps up to the shelter of the 
Castle and the grand old church, on the lower is a level stretch of water- 
meadow. 

Seen from the meadows some half-mile away it looks like some great 
fortress roughly hewn out of natural rock. Nature would seem to have 
taken back to herself the masses of stone reared by man seven and a half 
centuries ago. 

The giant walls and mighty buttresses look as if they had been carved 
by wind and weather out of some solid rock-mass, rather than as if 
wrought by human handiwork. But when, in the middle of the twelfth 
century, in the earliest days of the reign of Henry Plantagenet, the castle 
was built by Robert, son of Harding, he built it with outer walls ten 
to fifteen feet thick, without definite plan as it would seem, but, as the 
work went on, suiting the building to the shape of the hillock and to the 
existing demands of defensive warfare. 

When the day is coming to its close, and the light becomes a little 
dim, and thin mist-films rise level from the meadows, it might be an 
enchanted castle ; for in some tricks of evening light it cheats the eye 
into the semblance of something ethereal — subUmate — without substance 

23 



— as if it were some passing mirage, built up for the moment of towering 
masses of pearly vapour. 

So does an ancient building come back into sympathy with earth and 
cloud. Its stones are carved and fretted by the wind and rain of 
centuries ; tiny mosses have grown in their cavities ; the decay of these 
has formed mould which has spread into every joint and fissure. Here 
grasses and many kinds of wild plants have found a home, until, viewed 
from near at hand, the mighty walls and their sustaining buttresses are 
seen to be shaggy with vegetation. 

These immense buttresses on the meadow side come down to a walled 
terrace ; their foundations doubtless far below the visible base. The 
terrace level is some twelve feet above the grassy space below. The 
grass then slopes easily away for a distance of a few hundred feet to the 
alluvial flat of the actual meadow-land. 

Large fig-trees grow at the foot of the wall, rising a few feet above the 
parapet of the terrace, from which the fruit is conveniently gathered. 

It is in the deep, well-sheltered bays between the feet of the giant 
buttresses that the most interesting of the modern flower gardening at 
Berkeley is done. 

White Lilies grow like weeds in the rich red loam, and there are fine 
groups of many of the best hardy plants and shrubby things, gathered 
together and well placed by the late Georgina Lady Fitzhardinge, a true 
lover of good flowers and a woman of sound instinct and well-balanced 
taste respecting things beautiful both indoors and out. 

The chief relic of the older gardening at Berkeley is the remains of 
the yew hedge that inclosed the bowling-green on three sides ; the fourth 
side having for its boundary the high retaining wall that supports the 
entrance road beyond the outer gate. The yews, still clipped into bold 
rounded forms, may have formed a trim hedge in Tudor days, and the 
level space of turf, which is reached from the terrace by a flight of 
downward steps that passes under an arch of the old yews, lies cool and 
sheltered from the westering sun by the stout bulwark of their ancient shade, 

The yew arch in the picture shows where the terrace level descends 
to the bowling-green. The great buttresses of the main castle wall are 
behind the spectator. A bowery Clematis is in full bloom over the steps 

24 



Tllh: F.OWKR TERRACE, I^.ERKEITA" CAS'lLE 



-RDM THK Pll. rCRK [N llll-. POSSESS! 

Mr. Ai.keri Wright 



to the shorter terrace above, and near it, on the lower level, is one of the 
great pear-trees that have been trained upon the w^all, and that, with 
others on the keep above, brighten up the grim old building in spring- 
time. Campanula pyramidalis has been sown in chinks on the inner side 
of the low parapet, and the picture shows how handsomely they have 
grown, supported only by the slight nutriment they could find among 
the stones. But, like so many of the Bell-flowers, it delights in growing 
between the stones of a wall. It should be remembered how well this 
fine plant will succeed in such a place, as well as for general garden use. 
It is so commonly grown as a pot-plant for autumn indoor decoration 
that its other uses would seem to be generally overlooked. 



25 



D. H. Hll_l_ LIBRARY 
North Carolina State College 



SUMMER FLOWERS 



The end of June and beginning of July — when the days are hot and long, 
and the earth is warm, and our summer flowers are in fullest mass and 
beauty — what a time of gladness it is, and of that full and thankful delight 
that is the sure reward for the labour and careful thoughtfulness of the 
last autumn and winter, and of the present earlier year ! 

The gardens where this reward comes in fullest measure are perhaps 
those modest ones of small compass where the owner is the only gardener, 
at any rate as far as the flowering plants are concerned ; where he thinks 
out good schemes of plant companionship ; of suitable masses of form and 
stature; of lovely colour-combination; where, after the day's work, 
comes the leisurely stroll, when every flower greets and is greeted as a 
close friend, and all make willing off^ering of what they have of scent and 
loveliness in grateful return for the past loving labour. 

This is the high tide time of the summer flowers. It may be a week 
or two earlier or later according to the district, for our small islands have 
climatic diversities such as can only be matched within the greater part 
of the whole area of middle Europe, though inclining to a temperate 
average. For the Myrtle of the Mediterranean is quite hardy in the South 
and South-West, and Ivy and Gorse, neither of which is hardy in North 
and Middle Germany, are, with but few exceptions, at home everywhere. 
Given, therefore, a moderately good soil, fair shelter and a true love of 
flowers, there will be such goodly masses as those shown in the pictures. 

Advisedly is the word " true " lover of flowers used, for it is now 
fashionable to like flowers, and much of it is pretence only. The test is 
to ascertain whether the person professing devotion to a garden works in 

26 



ORANGE LILIES AND LARKSPUR 

from ihk picture in ihf. possession ok 
Mr. Gkorge C. Bompas 



wr^. -m 




it personally, or in any way likes it well enough to take a great deal of 
trouble about it. To those who know, the garden speaks of itself, for it 
clearly reflects individual thought and influence ; and it is in these lesser 
gardens that, with rare and happy exceptions, the watchful care and happy 
invention of the beneficent individuality stamps itself upon the place. 

There is nothing more interesting to one of these ardent and honest 
workers than to see the garden of another. Plants that had hitherto 
been neglected or overlooked are seen used in ways that had never been 
thought of, and here will be found new combinations of colour that had 
never been attempted, and methods of use and treatment differing in 
some manner to those that had been seen before. 

There is nothing like the true gardening for training the eye and 
mind to the habit of close observation ; that precious acquirement that 
invests every country object both within and without the garden's bounds 
with a living interest, and that insensibly builds up that bulk of mentally 
noted incident or circumstance that, taken in and garnered by that 
wonderful storehouse the brain, seems there to sort itself, to distribute, to 
arrange, to classify, to reduce into order, in such a way as to increase the 
knowledge of something of which there was at first only a mental 
glimpse ; so to build up in orderly structure a well-founded knowledge of 
many of those things of every-day out-door life that adds so greatly to its 
present enjoyment and later usefulness. 

So it comes about that some of us gardeners, searching for ways of 
best displaying our flowers, have observed that whereas it is best, as a 
general rule, to mass the warm colours (reds and yellows) rather together, 
so it is best to treat the blues with contrasts, either of direct comple- 
mentary colour, or at any rate with some kind of yellow, or with clear 
white. So that whereas it would be less pleasing to put scarlet flowers 
directly against bright blue, and whereas flowers of purple colouring can be 
otherwise much more suitably treated, the juxtaposition of the splendid 
blues of the perennial Larkspurs with the rich colour of the orange 
Herring Lily {Liltum croceum) is a bold and grand assortment of colour of 
the most satisfactory effect. 

This fine Lily is one of those easiest to grow in most gardens. The 
true flower-lovers, as defined above, take the trouble to find out which are 

27 



the Lilies that will suit their particular grounds ; for it is generally 
understood that the soil and conditions of any one garden are not likely to 
suit a large number of different kinds of these delightful plants. Four 
or five successful kinds are about the average, and the owner is lucky if 
the superb White Lily is among them. But Lilies are so beautiful, so full 
of character, so important among other flowers or in places almost by 
themselves, that, when it is known which are the right ones to grow, 
those kinds should be well and rather largely used. 

The garden in which these fine groups were painted has a good 
loamy soil, such as, with good gardening, grows most hardy flowers well, 
and therefore the grand White Lily also thrives. A few of the LiHes like 
peat, such as the great Auratum, and the two lovely pink ones, Krameri 
and Rubellum. But the garden of strong loam should never be without 
the White Lily, the Orange Lily, and the Tiger Lily, an autumn flower 
that seems to accommodate itself to any soil. The Orange Lilies are 
grandly grown by the Dutch nurserymen in many varieties, under the 
names bulbiferum, croceum, and davuricum, and their price is so moderate 
that it is no extravagance to buy them in fair quantity. 

Flowers of pure scarlet colour are so little common among hardy 
perennials that it seems a pity that the brilliant Lilium chalcedonicum of 
Greece, Palestine, and Asia Minor, and its ally L. pomponium, the Scarlet 
Martagon of Northern Italy, should be so seldom seen in gardens. They 
are some of the most easily grown, and are not dear to buy. Another 
Lily that should not be forgotten and is easy to grow in strong soils is the 
old Purple Martagon ; not a bright-coloured flower, but so old a plant of 
English gardens that in some places it has escaped into the woods. The 
white variety is very beautiful, the colour an ivory white, and the flower 
of a waxy texture. They are the Imperial Martagon, or Great Mountain 
Lily of the old writers ; the scarlet pomponium, of the same shaped flower, 
was their Martagon Pompony. The name "pompony,"no doubt, came 
from the tightly rolled-back petals giving the flower something of the 
look of the flattened melons of the Cantaloupe kind, with their deep 
longitudinal furrows ; the old name of these being " Pompion." Another 
name for this Lily was the Red Martagon of Constantinople. It is so 
named by that charming old writer Parkinson, who gives evidence of its 

28 



WHITE LILIES AND YELLOW MONKSHOOi; 

from the picture in iiie possession ok 
Mr. Herbert D. Turner 



popularity and former frequency in gardens in these words : " The Red 
Martagon of Constantinople is become so common everywhere, and so 
well known to all lovers of these delights, that I shal seem unto them to 
lose time, to bestow many lines upon it ; yet because it is so fair a flower, 
and was at the first so highly esteemed, it deserveth his place and 
commendations, howsoever increasing the plenty hath not made it 
dainty." 

One more of the Lilies, indispensable for loveliness, should be grown 
wherever it is found possible. This is the Nankeen Lily {L. testaceum). 
It is a flower as mysterious as it is beautiful. It is not found wild, and 
is considered to be a hybrid between the White Lily and the Scarlet 
Martagon. Whether it occurred naturally, or whether it was the 
deliberate work of some unknown benefactor to horticulture, will now 
never be known ; we can only be thankful that by some happy agency 
we have this Lily of mixed parentage, one of the most beautiful in 
cultivation. The name Nankeen Lily nearly, but not exactly, describes 
its colour, for a suspicion of pinkish warmth is added to the tender buff- 
colour usually so named. 

Many other Lilies may be grown in different gardens, but the 
tenderer kinds from Eastern Asia are not for the hardy flower-border, 
and the vigorous American species have not yet been with us long enough 
to be familiar as flowers of old English gardens. 

A July garden would not show its true character without some masses 
of the stately blue perennial Larkspurs. No garden plant has been more 
widely cultivated within the last fifty years, and our nurserymen have 
produced a large range of beautiful varieties. They have, perhaps, gone 
a little too far in some directions. The desire to produce something that 
can be called a novelty often makes growers forget that what is wanted is 
the thing that is most beautiful, rather than something merely exception- 
ally abnormal, to be gaped at in wonderment for perhaps one season, and 
above all for the purpose of being blazoned forth in the trade list. The 
true points to look for in these grand flowers are pure colour, whether 
light, medium or dark, fine stature and a well-filled but not overcrowded 
spike. There are some pretty double flowers, where the individual 
bloom loses its normal shape and becomes flattened, but the single is the 

29 



truer form. They are so easily raised from seed that good varieties may 
be grown at home, when, if space may be allowed for a line of seedlings 
in the trial-ground, it is pleasant to watch what they will bring forth. 
Such a good old kind as the one named " Cantab " is a capital seed- 
bearer, and will give many handsome plants. They must be carefully 
observed at flowering time, and any of poor or weedy habit in their 
bloom thrown away. Some will probably have interrupted spikes, that 
is to say, the spike will have some flowers below and then a bare 
interval, with more flowers above. This is a fault that should not be 
tolerated. 

The Monkshoods {Aconitum) are related to the Larkspurs [Del- 
phinium) ; indeed, it is a common thing to hear them confused and the 
name of one used for the other. It is easy to understand how this may 
be, for the leaves are much alike in shape, and both genera bear hooded 
flowers on tall spikes, mostly of blue and purple colours. For ordinary 
garden knowledge it may be remembered that Monkshood has a smooth 
leaf and that the colour is a purplish blue, the bluest of those commonly 
in cultivation being the late-flowering Aconitum j'aponicum, and that the 
true pure blues are those of the perennial Larkspurs, whose leaves are 
downy. 

The great Delphiniums love a strong, rich loamy soil, rather damp 
than dry, and plenty of nourishment. 

There is a handsome Monkshood with pale yellow flowers that is 
well used in the garden of the White Lilies, and most happily in their 
near companionship. It is Aconitum Lycoctonum ; a plant of Austria 
and the Tyrol. The widely-branched racemes of pale luminous bloom 
are thrown out in a graceful manner, in pleasant contrast with the equally 
graceful but quite different upright carriage of the White Lily. The 
handsome dark green polished leaves of this fine Aconite are also of 
much value ; persisting after the bloom is over till quite into the late 
autumn. 

Many of the charming members of the Bell-flower family are fine 
things in the flower-border. The best of all for general use is perhaps 
the well-known Campanula persicifolia, with its slender upright stems 
and its numbers of pretty bells, both blue and white. There are double 

30 



PURPLE CAMPANULA 

KROM IHF. PICILRK IN IHK l'(KSES;.|()> 

Miss Bkatrici; Hali. 



kinds, but the doubling, though in some cases it makes a good enough 
flower, changes the true character so much that it is a Bell-flower no 
longer ; and we think that a Bell-flower should be a bell, and should hang 
and swing, and not be made into a flattened flower set rather tightly on 
an ungraceful, thickened stem. 

Another beautiful Campanula is C. /atifo/ia, especially the white- 
flowered form. It is not only a first-rate flower, but it gives that 
pleasant impression of wholesome prosperity that is so good to see. The 
tall, pointed spike of large milk-white bells is of fine form, and the 
distinctly-toothed leaves are in themselves handsome. Like all the Bell- 
flowers, the bloom is cut into six divisions — " lobes of the corolla," 
botanists call them. Each division is sharply pointed and recurved or 
rolled back after the manner of many of the Lilies. This fine Cam- 
panula is not only a good plant for the flower-border, but also for half- 
shady places in quiet nooks where the garden joins woodland, in the 
case of those fortunate gardens that have such a desirable frontier-land ; 
the sort of place where the instinct of the best kind of gardener will 
prompt him to plant, or rather to sow, the white Foxglove, and to 
plant the white French Willow [Epilobium). 

Nothing is more commonly seen in gardens than wide-spread 
neglected patches of Campanula gramiis. The picture shows it better 
grown. It spreads quickly and in many gardens flowers only sparingly, 
because the tufts should have been oftener divided. It is perhaps the 
most commonly grown of all, and though, as the picture shows, it can 
be more worthily used than is ordinarily done, it is by no means so pretty 
a plant as others of its family. 

In good soils in our southern counties the tall and beautiful Chimney 
Campanula (C. pyramidalis)^ commonly grown in pots for the con- 
servatory, should be largely used in the borders ; it also loves a place in 
a wall joint. It is a plant that we are so used to see in a pot that we are 
apt to forget its great merit in the open ground. 

Of the smaller Bell-flowers, C. carpatica, both blue and white, is one 
of the very best of garden plants ; delightful from the moment when 
the first tuft of leaves comes out of the ground in spring till its full 
blooming time in middle summer. No plant is better for the front edge 

31 



of a border, especially where the edge is of stone ; though it is just tall 
enough to show up well over a stout box-edging. 

The biennial Canterbury Bells are well known and in every garden. 
Their only disadvantage is that they flower in the early summer and then 
have to be cleared away, leaving gaps that may be difficult to fill. The 
careful gardener, foreseeing this, arranges so that their near neighbours in 
the border shall be such as can be led or trained over to take their places. 
It should not be forgotten that the Canterbury Bell is an admirable rock 
or wall plant, where the size of a rock-wall admits of anything so large. 
The wild plant from which it came has its home in rocky clefts in 
Southern Italy. 



32 



ROCKINGHAM 



In large gardens where ample space permits, and even in those of narrow 
limits, nothing is more desirable than that there should be some places, 
or one at least, of quiet greenery alone, without any flowers whatever. 
In no other way can the brilliancy of flowers be so keenly enjoyed as by 
pacing for a time in some cool green alley and then passing on to the flowery 
places. It is partly the unconscious working out of an optical law, the 
explanation of which in every-day language is that the eye, being, as it 
were, saturated with the green colour, is the more ready to receive the 
others, especially the reds. 

Even in quite a small garden it is often possible to arrange something 
of the sort. In the case of a place that has just one double flower-border 
and a seat or arbour at the end, it would be easy to do by stopping the 
borders some ten feet away from the seat with hedges of yew or horn- 
beam, and putting other seats to right and left ; the whole space being 
turfed. 

The seat was put at the end in order to give the whole view of the 
border while resting ; but, after walking leisurely along the flowers and 
surveying their effect rrom all points, a few minutes' rest on one of the 
screened side seats would give repose to the eye and brain as well as to 
the whole body, and afford a much better preparation for a further 
enjoyment of the flowers. 

It was probably some such consideration that influenced the designers 
of the many old gardens of England, where yew, the grand walling tree, 
was so freely used. The first and obvious use was as a protection from 
wind and a screen for privacy, then as a beautiful background, and 

33 ^ 



lastly perhaps for resting and refreshing the eye, and giving it 

renewed appetite between its feasts of brilliant colouring and complex 

design. These green yew-bordered alleys occur without end in the 

old gardens. They were not always bowling-greens, though now often 

so called, but rather secluded ambulatories ; places either for solitary 

meditation and refreshment of mind, or where friends would meet in 

pleasant converse, or statesmen hold their discourse on weightier matters. 

Such a place of cool green retreat is this straight alley of ancient yews. 

Almost better it might have been if the path were green and grassy too 

— Nature herself seems to have thought so, for she greens the gravel with 

mossy growths. Perhaps this mossiness afflicts the gardener's heart — let 

him take comfort in knowing how much it consoles the artist. Though 

a garden is for the most part the better for being kept trim, there are 

exceptional cases such as this, where to a certain degree it is well to let 

natural influences have their way. It is a matter respecting which it is 

difiicult to lay down a law ; it is just one for nice judgment. Had the 

path been freshly scratched up and rolled, and the verges trimmed to a 

perfectly true line, it would not have commended itself to the artist as a 

subject for a picture, but, as it is, it is just right. The mossy path is in 

true relation for colour to the trees and grassy edges, and the degree of 

infraction of the canons of orderliness stops short of an appearance of 

actual neglect. 

Among the interesting features of the grounds at Rockingham is a 
rose-garden, circular in form, bounded and protected by a yew hedge. 
Four archways at equal points, cut in the hedge, with straight paths, 
lead to a concentric path within which is a large round bed, with poles 
and swinging garlands of free-growing Roses. The outer quarters have 
smaller beds, some concentric, some parallel with the straight paths. 
The space is large enough to give ample light and air to the Roses, while 
the yew hedge affbrds that comforting shelter from boisterous winds 
that all good Roses love. 

Close to the house a flight of steps leads to a flower garden on the 
higher level. A sundial on steps stands in the midmost space, with beds 
and clumps of bright flowers around. There is other good gardening 
at Rockingham, and a curious " mount " ; not of the usual circular 

34 



THE YEW ALLEY, ROCKINGHAM 



ik picture in ihk po: 
Miss Wili.mott 



shape, but in straight terraces. But it is these grand old hedges of yew 
that seem to cHng most closely to the fabric and sentiment of the 
ancient building — half house, half castle, whose windows have looked 
upon them for hundreds of years, and whose inmates have ever paced 
within their venerable shade. 



35 



BRYMPTON 



Brympton d'Evercy in Somersetshire — not far from Montacute, the 
residence of the Hon. Sir Spencer Ponsonby-Fane — is a house of mixed 
architectural character of great interest. A large portion of the earlier 
Tudor building now shows as the western (entrance) front, while, facing 
southward, is the handsome fa9ade of classical design, said to be the 
work of Inigo Jones, but more probably that of a later pupil. The 
balustraded wall flanking the entrance gates — the subiect of the picture 
— appears to be of the time of this important addition, for it is better 
in design than the balustrade of the terrace, which was built in the 
nineteenth century. 

But the terrace is of fine effect, with the great flight of steps midway 
in its length that lead down to a wide unspoilt lawn. This again passes 
to the fish-pond, then to parkland with undulating country beyond. 

The treatment of the ground is admirable. Fifty years ago the lawn 
would probably have been cut up into flower-beds, a frivolity forbidden 
by the dignified front. 

Gardening is always difficult, often best let alone, in many such 
cases. When the architecture, especially architecture of the classical 
type, is good and pure, it admits of no intrusion of other forms upon its 
surfaces. It is complete in itself, and the gardener's additions become 
meddling encroachments. When any planting is allowable against 
houses of this type — as in cases where they are less pure in style and 
have larger wall-spaces — it should be of something of bold leafage, or 
large aspect of one simple character ; the strong-growing Magnolia 
grandiflora as an upright example, and Wistaria as one of horizontal 

36 



THK GATEWAY, BRVMl'TON 



■RDM IHl-: I'KllRK IN IHK I'OsSKhSH 

Mr. Kuwin Ci.kphw 



growth. There is some planting between the lower windows at 
Brympton, but it is doubtful whether it would not have been better 
omitted. It is a place more suitable (if on this front any gardening is 
desirable) for the standing of Bays or some such trees, in tubs or boxes 
on the terrace. 

There is sometimes a flower-border at the base of such a house ; 
where this occurs it is a common thing to see it left bare in winter and 
in the early year dotted with bulbous plants and spring flowers ; to be 
followed in summer with bedding-plants. No such things look well 
or at all in place directly against a building. The transition from the 
permanent structure to the transient vegetation is too abrupt. At least 
the planting should be of something more enduring and of a shrubby 
character, and mostly evergreen. Such plants as Berberis Aquifolium, 
Savin, Rosemary and Laurustinus would seem to be the most suitable, 
with the large, persistent foliage of the Megaseas as undergrowth, 
Pyrus japonica for early bloom, and perhaps some China Roses among 
the Rosemary. 

But happily this house has been treated as to its environment with 
the wisest restraint. No showy or pretentious gardening intrudes itselt 
upon the great charm of the place, which is that of quiet seclusion in 
a beautiful but little-known part of the county. The place lies among 
fields — just the House, the Church and the Rectory. There is no 
village or public road. The house is approached by a long green fore- 
court inclosed by walls. Between this and the kitchen garden is the 
quiet, low, stone-roofed church, in a churchyard that occupies such 
another parallelogram as the forecourt. The pathway to the church passes 
across the forecourt into the restful churchyard with its moss-grown tombs 
and bushes of old-fashioned Roses, and the grassy mounds that mark 
the last resting-place of generations of long-forgotten country folk. 

The church has a bell-cote built upon the gable of its western wall 
of remarkable and very happy form, stone-roofed like the rest. Among 
the graves stands the base — three circular steps and a square plinth — of 
what was once an ancient stone cross. The church seems to lie within 
the intimate protection of the house, adding by its presence to the 
general impression of repose and peaceful dignity. 

37 



The picture shows the walled and balustraded entrance, probably 
contemporary with the classical fa9ade, wrought of the local Ham Hill 
stone ; a capital freestone for the working of architectural enrichment. 
It is of a warm yellowish-brown colour ; but grey and yellow lichens 
and brown mosses have painted the surface after their own wayward but 
always beautiful manner. A light cloud of Clematis Flammula peeps 
over the bushes through the balusters. Stonework so good as this can 
just bear such a degree of clothing with graceful flowery growth ; no 
doubt it is watched and not allowed to hide too much with an excess of 
overgrowth. Where garden architecture is beautiful in proportion and 
detail it is not treating it fairly to smother it with vegetation. How 
many beautiful old buildings are buried in Ivy or desecrated by the 
unchecked invasion of Veitch's Virginia Creeper ! 



38 



BALCASKIE 



Equidistant from Pittenweem and St. Monan's, in Fifeshire, and a 
mile from the sea, stands Balcaskie, the beautiful home of Sir Ralph 
Anstruther. 

The park is entered from the north by a fine gateway with stone 
piers bearing "jewelled " balls, dating from the later middle of the 
seventeenth century. The entrance road is joined by two others from 
east and west, all passing through a park of delightful character. The 
road leads straight through a grassy forecourt walled on the three outer 
sides by yew hedges, and reaches the door by a gravelled half-circle 
formed by the projection on either side, of the curved walls of the offices 
and stables. The house, of the middle seventeenth century, though just 
too late to have been built as a fortress, retains much of the character of 
the older Scottish castles, but adds to it the increased comfort and com- 
modiousness of its own time. There have been considerable later 
additions and alterations, but much of the old still remains, including 
some rooms with very interesting ceilings. 

The main entrance on the north leads straight through to a door to 
the garden on the south. The garden occupies a space equal to about 
five times the length of the house-front. The ground falls steeply, 
something like fifty feet in all, and is boldly terraced into three levels. 
Looking southward from the door and across the garden, the eye passes 
down a great vista between trees in the park to the Firth of Forth, and 
across it to the Bass Rock, some twelve miles away and near the further 
shore. 

The upper garden level, reached from the house by a double flight of 
39 



descending steps, has a broad walk running the whole length, with an 
excellently modelled lead statue at each end ; to the west an Apollo, a 
singularly graceful figure, and to the east a female statue, possibly a 
Diana. The space in front of the house is divided into three portions ; 
the two outer compartments having hedges of yew from four to five feet 
high. One of these incloses a bowling-green, the other a lawn with 
some beds. The middle turfed space has a sundial and beds of flowers. 
Here is also the remaining one or what was formerly a pair of fine 
cedars, placed symmetrically to right and left. Adjoining the house 
and next to the end ot the broad walk where stands the Apollo, is the 
rose-garden, which, with this graceful statue, forms the subject of the 
picture. The rose-garden is of beds cut in the grass, containing not Roses 
only but also other bright garden flowers. A female statue of more 
modern work stands in the centre. 

The great terrace wall, eighteen feet high, that rorms the retaining 
wall of the upper portion of the garden, rises towards both ends to its 
full height as a wall, but the middle space is lightened by being treated 
with a handsome balustrade. At the extreme ends flights of steps lead 
down to the next, the middle level. The first long flight reaches a wide 
stone landing, the lower, shorter flight turning inwards at a right angle. 
Great buttresses, projecting forward eight feet at the ground-line, add 
much to the dignity and beauty of the wall. They are roofed with 
stone, and each one carries the bust of a Roman emperor. From the 
steps on each side come broad gravelled walks, leading by one step down 
to a slightly sunk rectangular lawn, which occupies the middle space. 
On each side of the paths are groups of flower-beds on a long axial line 
that is parallel with the wall. They have a broad turf verge and a 
nearly equal space of gravel next to their box-edges. Piers and other 
important points have stone balls or flower-vases. Stone seats stand upon 
the landings above the lowest flights ot steps, against the walls which 
bound the garden to right and left. Beyond these boundaries are tall 
trees, their protecting masses giving exactly that comforting screen that 
the eye and mind desire, and forming the best possible background to the 
structure and garnishing of the beautiful garden. 

It is one of the best and most satisfying gardens in the British Isles ; 
40 



THK APOLLO, BALCASKIF 



ktl'rk in thf possession 
Miss Bommas 




'^X^t-•^=" 



Italian in feeling, and yet happily wedding with the Scottish mansion of 
two and a half centuries ago, and forming, with the house and park-land, 
one of the most perfect examples of a country gentleman's place. All of 
it is pleasant and beautiful, home-like and humanly sympathetic ; the 
size is moderate — there is nothing oppressively grand. 

More than once already in these pages attention has been drawn to 
the danger of letting good stone-work become overgrown with rank 
creepers. At Balcaskie this is evidently carefully regulated. The wall- 
spaces between the great buttresses, and the buttresses themselves, are 
sufficiently clothed but never smothered with the wall-loving and 
climbing plants. The right relation of masonry and vegetation is carefully 
observed ; each graces and dignifies the other ; the balance is perfect. 

The lowest level is given to the kitchen garden. It is not put out of 
the way, but forms part of the whole scheme. It is reached by a single 
flight of handsome balustraded stone steps. 

Balcaskie occurs as a place-name early in the thirteenth century. 
From 1350 to 161 5 it was owned by a family named Strang, afterwards 
by the Moncrieffs, till 1665. It is not known whether any portion of the 
present house and garden belonged to these earlier dates, but it is probable 
that the designer of both was Sir William Bruce, one of the best 
architects of the time of Charles II., and an owner of Balcaskie for twenty 
years. 



41 



CRATHES CASTLE 



Crathes Castle in Kincardineshire presents one of the finest examples 
of Scottish architecture of the sixteenth century. It is the seat of Sir 
Robert Burnett of Leys, the eleventh baronet and descendant of the founder. 

Profoundly impressive are these great northern buildings, rising 
straight and tall out of the very earth. As to their low^er w^alls, they are 
grim, forbidding, almost fiercely repellent. There is an aspect of 
something like ruthless cruelty in the very way they come out of the 
ground, w^ithout base or plinth or any such amenity — built in the old 
barbarous days of frequent raiding and fighting, and constant need of 
protection from marauders ; w^hen a man's house must needs be a strong 
place of defence. 

This is the first impression. But the eye travelling upward sees the 
frowning wall blossom out above into what has the semblance of a fairy 
palace. It is like a straight, tall, rough-barked tree crowned with fairest 
bloom and tenderest foliage. Turrets both round and square, as if in 
obedience to the commanding wave of a magician's wand, spring out of 
the angles of the building and hang with marvellous grace of poise over 
the abyss. There seems to be no actual plan, and yet there is perfect 
harmony ; the whole beautiful mass appears as if it had come into being 
in some one far-away, wonderful, magical night ! It is a sight full of 
glamour and romantic impression — grim fortalice below, ethereal fantasy 
aloft. Rough and rugged is the rock-like wall, standing dark and dim in 
the evening gloom ; intangible, opalescent are the mystic forms above, in 
the tender warmth of the afterglow ; cloud-coloured, faintly rosy, with 
shadows pearly-blue, 

42 



THE YEW WALK, CRATHES 

FROM THE PICIURE IN THE POSSESSION OF 

Mr. Charles P. Rowley 



Direct descendants of the old Norman keep, these Scottish castles, for 
the most part, retain the four-sided tower, as to the main portion of the 
structure. The walls need no buttresses, for they are of immense 
thickness, and the vaulted masonry, usually of the simple barrel form, that 
carries the floors of, at any rate, the lower stories, ties the whole structure 
together. The angle turrets carried on bold corbels that are so conspicuous 
a feature of these northern castles, broke away from the Norman forms 
and became a distinct character of the Scottish work. They were a 
helpful addition to the means of defence, and, as long as they were built 
for use, added much to the beauty and dignity of the structure. The 
only detail that shows a tendency to debasement in Crathes is the 
quantity of useless cannon-shaped gargoyles, put for ornament only, in 
places where they could not possibly do their legitimate work of carrying 
off rain-water from the roof. 

There could have been no pleasure garden in the old days ; but now 
these ancient strongholds, mellowed by the centuries, seem grateful for 
the added beauty of good gardening. The grand yew hedges may be 
of the seventeenth century. They stand up solid and massive for ten 
feet or more, with roof-shaped tops, and then rise again at intervals into 
great blocks, bearing ornaments like circular steps crowned with a ball. 
The ornament is simpler, a low block and ball only, in the first picture, 
where they accentuate the arches that lead right and left into the two 
divisions of the flower garden. This plainer form is perhaps more suitable 
to this grand old place than the more elaborate, just because it is simpler 
and more dignified. 

The flower garden, as it is to-day, is quite modern. The finest of 
the hardy flowers are well grown in bold groups. Luxuriant are the 
masses of Phlox and tall Pyrethrum, of towering Rudbeckia, of Bocconia, 
now in seed-pod but scarcely less handsome than when in bloom ; of the 
bold yellow Tansy and Japan Anemones ; all telling, by their size and 
vigour, of a strong loamy soil. 

Many are the arches of cluster and other climbing Roses ; at one 
point in the kitchen garden coming near enough together to make a 
tunnel-like effect. 

Wonderful is the colouring and diversity of texture ! — the bright 
43 



flowers, the rich, dark velvet of the half-distant yew^s, the weather-worn 
granite and rough-cast of the great building. 

If the flowers in the second and third pictures were in our southern 
counties the time would be the end of August or at latest the middle of 
September, but the seasons of the flowers in Scotland are much later, 
and these would be October borders. 

The Castle stands upon a wide, level, grassy terrace, which is stopped 
on the north-eastern side by the parapet of a retaining wall, broken by a 
flight of steps down to the path that is bounded by the two hedges of 
ancient yews shown in the first picture. These hedges divide the 
flower garden into two equal parts on the lower level, for, from where 
the Castle stands, the ground falls to the south and east. On each side 
of the steps, just beneath the terrace wall, is a flower border. Imme- 
diately on entering the double wall of yew there is an opening to right and 
left — an arch cut in the living green — giving access to the two square 
gardens, in both of which a path passes all round next the yews. There 
is also a flower border on two sides. The middle space is grass with 
flower beds ; in the left-hand garden (coming from the Castle) are bold 
masses of herbaceous plants in beds grouped round a fountain ; in the 
one on the right, for the most part, Roses and Lilies. 

To the south-east, and occupying the space next beyond the rose 
garden and the end of the lawn adjoining the Castle, is the kitchen 
garden. The main walks have flower borders. Where the two cross 
paths intersect is a Mulberry tree with an encircling seat. The subjects 
of the second and third pictures are within the kitchen garden. 

Many are the beautiful points of view from the kitchen garden, for 
there the grand yew hedges show beyond the flowers ; then, towering 
aloft, comes the fairy castle, and then fine trees ; for trees are all 
around, closely approaching the garden's boundaries. 

The brilliancy of colour masses in these Scottish gardens is some- 
thing remarkable. Whether it is attributable to soil or climate one 
cannot say ; possibly the greater length of day, and therefore of daily 
sunshine, of these northern summers, may account for it. Of the great 
number of people who go North for the usual autumn shooting, those 

44 



CRATHES 

from the picture in the possession of 
Mr. George C. Bomi'as 






m 



h 



fe^l^ 







who love the summer flowers find their season doubled, for the kinds they 
have left waning in the South are not yet in bloom in the more northern 
latitude. The flowers of our July gardens. Delphiniums, Achilleas, 
Coreopsis, Eryngiums, Geums, Lupines, Scarlet Lychnis, Bergamot, 
early Phloxes, and many others, and the hosts of spring-sown annuals, 
are just in beauty. Sweet Peas are of astounding size and vigour. Straw- 
berries are not yet over, and early Peas are coming in. The Gooseberry 
season, that had begun in the earliest days of August with the Early 
Sulphurs and had been about ten days in progress in the Southern English 
gardens, is for a time interrupted, but resumes its course in September in 
the North, where this much-neglected fruit comes to unusual excellence. 
It is a hardy thing, and appears to thrive better north of the Border than 
elsewhere. 

It is one of the wholesomest of fruits ; its better sorts of truly 
delicious flavour. It is a pleasure, to one who knows its merits, to extol 
them. It is essentially a fruit for one who loves a garden, because, for 
some reason difficult to define, it is less enjoyable when brought to table 
in a dessert dish. It should be sought for in the garden ground and 
eaten direct from the bush. Perhaps many people are deterred by its 
spiny armature, and it is certain that, when, as is too often the case, the 
bushes are in crowded rows and have been allowed to grow to a large 
size, the berries are difficult to get at. 

But the true amateur of this capital autumn fruit has them in espalier 
form, in a few short rows, with ample space — about six feet — between 
each row. 

The plants may be had ready trained in espaHer shape, but it is 
almost as easy to train them from the usual bush form. The vigorous 
young growth that will spring out every year is cut away at the sides in 
middle summer ; just a shoot or two of young wood being left, when 
the bushes have grown to a fair size, to train in, to take the place of 
older wood. The plants being restricted to the fewer branches that form 
the flat espalier, more strength is thrown into the ones that remain, so 
that the berries become larger ; and, as plenty of light and sun can get 
to the fruits, even the best kinds are sweeter and better flavoured than 
when they are allowed to grow in dense bushes. 

45 



Then when the kinds are ripe how pleasant it is to take a low seat 
and sit at ease before each good sort in succession ! The best and ripest 
fruits can be seen at a glance and picked without trouble, in pleasant 
contrast to the painful, prickly groping that goes on among the crowded 
bushes. No one would ever regret planting such excellent sorts as Red 
Champagne, Amber Yellow, Cheshire Lass, Jolly Painter, a large, well- 
flavoured and little-known berry, and Red Warrington, a trusty late kind. 
To these should be added two admirable Gooseberries lately brought out 
by Messrs. Veitch, namely, Langley Green and Langley Gage, both fine 
fruits of delicious flavour. 

If such a little special fruit space were planted in these large Scottish 
gardens, and the merits of the kinds became known, the daily invitation 
of the hostess, " Let us go to the gooseberry garden," would be gladly 
welcomed, and guests would also find themselves, at various times of day, 
sauntering towards the gooseberry plot. 

How grandly the scarlet Tropsolum {T. speciosum) grows in these 
northern gardens is well known ; indeed, in many places it has become 
almost a pest. It is much more difficult to grow in the South, where it 
is often a failure ; in any case, it insists on a northern or eastern exposure. 
Where it does best in gardens in the English counties is in deep, cool 
soil, thoroughly enriched. When well established, the running roots 
ramble in all directions, fresh growths appearing many feet away from 
the place where it was originally planted. It looks perhaps best when 
running up the face of a yew hedge, when the bright scarlet bloom, and 
leaves of clear-cut shape, are seen to great advantage, and many of the 
free growths of the plant take the form of hanging garlands. 



46 



CKATHES: PHLOX 

from the picture in ihk possession ok 
Mrs. Crokt 



KELLIE CASTLE 



Kellie Castle in Fifeshire, very near Balcaskie, is another house of the 
finest type of old Scottish architecture. The basement is vaulted in 
solid masonry, the ground-Hoor rooms have a height of fourteen feet ; 
the old hall, now the drawing-room, is nearly fifty feet long. A row of 
handsome stone dormers to an upper floor, light a set of bedrooms, 
which, as well as the main rooms below, have coved plaster ceilings 
of great beauty. 

There is no certain record of the date of the oldest part of the castle. 
It is assigned to the fourteenth century, but may be older. The earliest 
actual date found upon the building is 1573, and it is considered that 
the mass of the castle, as we see it now, was completed by that date, 
though another portion bears the date 1606. It belonged of old to the 
Oliphants, a family that held it for two and a half centuries, when 
it passed by sale to an Erskine, who, early in the seventeenth century, 
became Earl of Kellie. In 1797, after the death of the seventh Earl, it 
was abandoned by the family and soon showed signs of deterioration 
from disuse. About thirty years later the Earldom of Kellie descended 
to the Earl of Mar, and the family seat being elsewhere, Kellie was 
allowed to go to ruin. 

In 1878 the ruined place was taken, to its salvation, on a long lease 
by Mr. James Lorimer, whose widow is the present occupier. It has 
undergone the most careful and reverent reparation. The broken roofs 
have been made whole, the walls are again hung with tapestries, and 
the rooms furnished with what might have been the original appoint- 
ments. 

47 



The castle stands at one corner of the old walled kitchen garden, 
a door in the north front opening directly into it. The garden has no 
architectural features. There are walks with high box edgings and 
quantities of simple flowers. Everywhere is the delightful feeling that 
there is about such a place when it is treated with such knowledge and 
sympathy as have gone to the re-making of Kellie as a delightful human 
habitation. For two sons of the house are artists of the finest faculty — 
painter and architect — and they have done for this grand old place what 
boundless wealth, in less able hands, could not have accomplished. 

Close to the house on its western side is a little glen, and in it a 
rookery. When strong winds blow in early spring the nests in the 
swaying tree-tops come almost within hand reach of the turret windows 
of the north-west tower. 

How the flowers grow in these northern gardens ! Here they must 
needs grow tall to be in scale with the high box edging. But Shirley 
Poppies, when they are autumn sown, will rise to four feet, and the 
grand new strains of tall Snapdragons will go five and even over six feet 
in height. 

As the picture shows, this is just the garden for the larger plants — 
single Hollyhocks in big free groups, and double Hollyhocks too, if one 
can be sure of getting a good strain. For this is just the difficulty. The 
strains admired by the old-fashioned florist, with the individual flowers 
tight and round, are certainly not the best in the garden. The beautiful 
double garden Hollyhock has a wide outer frill like the corolla of the 
single flowers in the picture. Then the middle part, where the doubling 
comes, should not be too double. The waved and crumpled inner petals 
should be loosely enough arranged for the light to get in and play about, 
so that in some of them it is reflected, and in some transmitted. It is 
only in such flowers that one can see how rich and bright it can be in 
the reds and roses, or how subtle and tender in the whites and sulphurs 
and pale pinks. Other flowers beautiful in such gardens are the taller 
growing of the Columbines, the feathery herbaceous Spiraeas, such as 
.S". Aruncus, that displays its handsome leaves, and waves its creamy 
plumes, on the banks of Alpine torrents, and its brethren the lovely pale 
pink venustUy the bright rosy palmata and the cream-white Ulmaria, the 



KELLIE CASTLE 

from the picture in the possession of 
Mr. Arthur H. Longman 




\j .V €M ^ Six 



garden form of the wild Meadow-sweet of our damp meadow-ditches. 
Then the tall Bocconia, with its important bluish leaves and feathery 
flower-beads, which shows in the picture in brownish seed-pod ; and the 
Thalictrums, pale yellow and purple, and Canterbury Bells, and Lilies 
yellow and white, and the tall broad-leaved Bell-tiowers. 

All these should be in these good gardens, besides the many kinds or 
Scotch Briers, and big bushes of the old, almost forgotten garden 
Roses of a hundred years ago, many of which are no longer to be 
found, except now and then in these old gardens of Scotland. For 
here some gardens seem to have escaped that murderously overwhelming 
wave of fashion for tender bedding plants alone, that wrought such havoc 
throughout England during three decades of the last century. 

Here, too, are Roses trained in various pretty simple ways. Our 
garden Roses come from so many different wild plants, from all over the 
temperate world, that there is hardly an end to the number of ways in 
which they can be used. Some of them, like the Scotch Briers, grow in 
close bushy masses ; some have an upright habit ; some like to rush up 
trees and over hedges ; others again will trail along the ground and even 
run downhill. Some are tender and must have a warm wall ; some will 
endure severe cold ; some will flower all the summer ; others at one 
season only. So it is that we find in various gardens, Roses grown in 
many different ways. In one as small bushes in beds, or budded on 
standards, in another as the covering of a pergola, or as fountain roses, 
throwing up many stems which arch over naturally. Some of the oldest 
garden Roses, such as The Garland, Dundee Rambler and Bennett's Seedling 
are the best for this kind of use. 

The Himalayan R. polyantha will grow in this way into a huge bush, 
sometimes as much from thirty to forty feet in diameter, and many of 
the beautiful modern garden Roses that have /»o/y^«M<j for a near ancestor, 
will do well in the same way, though none of them attain so great a size. 
Roses grown like this take a form with, roughly speaking, a semi-circular 
outline, like an inverted basin. If they are wanted to take a shape higher 
in proportion they must be trained through or over some simple frame- 
work. This is called balloon-training. Some roses are grown in this 
fashion at Kellie, the framework being a central post irom which hoops 

49 o 



are hung one above the other. The Rose grows up inside the frame- 
work and hangs out all over. If this kind of training is to be on a larger 
scale, long half-hoops have their ends fixed in the ground, and pass across 
and across one another at a central point, where they are fixed to a strong 
post, thus forming ten or twelve ribs. Horizontal wires, like lines of 
latitude upon a globe, pass all round them at even intervals. Then 
Roses can be trained to any kind of trellis, either a plain one to make a 
wall of roses or a shaped one, whose form they will be guided to 
follow. Then again, there may be rose arches, single, double or grouped ; 
or in a straight succession over a path ; or alternate arches and garlands, 
a pretty plan where paths intersect ; the four arches kept a little way 
back from the point of intersection, with garlands connecting them 
diagonally in plan. Then there are Roses, some of the same that serve for 
several of these kinds of free treatment, for making bowers and arbours. 

And there are endless possibilities for the beautiful treatment ot Rose 
gardens, though seldom does one see them well done. There are many 
who think that a Rose garden must admit no other flowers but Roses. 
This may be desirable in some cases, but the present writer holds a more 
elastic view. Beds and clumps of Roses where no other flower is allowed, 
often look very bare at the edges, and might with advantage be under- 
planted with Pinks and Carnations, Pansies, London Pride, or even annuals. 
And any LiHes of white and pink colouring such as candidum, longijiorum, 
Brownii, Krameri, or rubellum suit them well, also many kinds of Clematis. 
The gardener may perhaps, object that the usual cultivation of Roses, 
the winter mulch and subsequent digging in and the frequent after-hoeing 
precludes the use of other plants ; but all these rules may be relaxed if 
the Rose garden is on a fairly good rose soil. For the object is the 
showing of a space of garden ground made beautiful by garden Roses — 
not merely the production of a limited number of blooms of exhibition 
quality. 

The way the bushes of garden Roses grow and bloom in close com- 
panionship with other strong-growing plants, at Kellie and in thousands 
of other gardens, shows how amicably they live with their near neigh- 
bours ; and often by a happy accident, they tell us what plants will group 
beautifully with them. 

50 



The Roses that are best kept out of the Rose garden, are those 
delightful ones of the end or June ; the Damasks, and the Provence, the 
sweet old Cabbage Rose of English gardens. These, and the Scotch 
Briers of earlier June, bloom for one short season only. Of late years 
the possibilities of beautiful Rose gardening have been largely increased 
by the raising of quantities of beautiful Roses of the Hybrid Tea class 
that bloom throughout the summer, and that, with the coming of 
autumn, seem only to gain renewed life and strength. 



5« 



HARDWICK 



Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire, one of the great houses of England, 
is, with others of its approximate contemporaries of the later half of 
the sixteenth century, such as Longleat, WoUaton, and Montacute, an 
example of what was at the time of its erection an entirely new aspect 
of the possibilities of domestic architecture. 

The country had settled down into a peaceful state. A house was 
no longer a castle needing external defence. Hitherto the homes of 
England had been either fortresses, or had needed the protection of moats 
and walls. They had been poorly lighted ; only the walls looking to an 
inner court, or to a small walled garden could have fair-sized openings. 
No spacious windows could look abroad upon open country, field or wood- 
land. But by this time such restriction was a thing of the past, and we 
see in these great houses, and in Hardwick especially, immense window 
spaces in the outer walls. The architects of the time, John Thorpe, 
the Smithsons and others, ran riot with their great windows, as if 
revelling in their exemption from the older bonds. The new free- 
dom was so tempting that they knew not how to restrain themselves, 
and it was only later, when it was found that the amount of lighting 
was overmuch for convenience, that the relation of degree of light to 
internal comfort came to be better understood and more reasonably 
adjusted. 

The famous Countess of Shrewsbury (Bess of Hardwick), to whose 
initiative this great house owes its origin, set an imperishable memorial 
of her imperious arrogance upon the balustrading that crowns the square 
tower-like proiections at the angles and ends of the building, where the 

52 



THK KORKCOURT : HARDWICK 



from ihf picrvrk in ihk poss 
Mr. As ion Wfbr 



stone is wrought into lace-like fretwork of arabesque, whereof the chief 
features are her coronet and the initials of her name. 

A spacious forecourt occupies the ground upon the western — the 
main entrance front. It stretches the whole length of the house, and 
projects as much forward ; its outer sides being inclosed with a wall 
that bears in constant succession an ornament of a Jieur-de-lys with tall 
pyramidal top, a detail imported direct from Italy, from the Renaissance 
gardens of earlier date. Such an ornament occurs at the Villa d'Este at 
Tivoli, crowning a retaining wall. The entrance to the inclosed forecourt 
is by a handsome stone gateway. This gateway forms the background of 
the picture, which shows one of the well-planted flower borders that 
abound at Hardwick, and that strike that lightsome and cheerful note of 
human care and delight that is so welcome in this place whose scale is 
rather too large, and somewhat coldly forbidding, in relation to the more 
ordinary aspects of daily comfort. 

Indeed — for all the good planting — the long wall-backed flower 
border facing south, whose wall is in part of its length that or the house 
itself, looks as if, in relation to the great building towering above it — its 
occupants were still too small, although they include flowering plants 
seven to nine feet high, such as Gyneriums and the larger herbaceous 
Spirasas. A well-directed effort has evidently been made to have the 
planting on a scale with the lordly building, but the items want to be 
larger still and the grouping yet bolder, to overcome the dwarfing effect 
of the towering structure. In such a place the Magnolias, both evergreen 
and deciduous, would have a fine effect, though possibly they would 
hardly thrive in the midland climate. 

Within the forecourt, along the wall parallel to the house and 
furthest from it, this need is not so apparent. In the subject of the 
picture, the Honeysuckle, the magnificently grown purple Clematis upon 
the wall, the Mulleins, Bocconia and Japan Anemones, are in due pro- 
portion ; the Tufted Pansies and Mignonette bringing their taller brethren 
happily down to the grassy verge. Approaching the pathway from the 
right, stretch some of the long loose growths of one of the two large 
Cedars that are such prominent objects in the forecourt garden. 

The main open spaces of this garden repeat in flower beds on grass 
53 



the big E.S. of the self-asserting founder. It is not pretty gardening nor 
particularly dignified. No doubt it is only a modern acquiescence in the 
dominating tradition of the place. Even making allowance for, and 
retaining this sentiment, a better design might have been made, embodying 
these already too-often-repeated letters. Moreover, the servile copying 
of the lettering in its stone form only serves to illustrate the futility of 
reproducing a form of ornament designed for one material in another of 
totally different nature. 

There is some excellent gardening in a long flower-border outside the 
forecourt wall. Here the size of the house is no longer oppressive, and it 
comes into proper scale a little way beyond the point where the broad 
green ways, bounded by noble hedges of ancient yews, swing into a wide 
circle as they cross, and show the bold niches cut in the rich green 
foliage where leaden statues are so effectively placed. 

By the kindness of the owner, the Duke of Devonshire, Hardwick 
Hall, illustrating as it does a distinct form of architectural expression with 
much of historical interest, is open to the public. 



54 



MONTACUTE 



MoNTAcuTE in Somersetshire, built towards the end of the sixteenth 
century by Sir Edward Phelips, is another of that surprising number of 
important houses built on a symmetrical plan that arose during the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth. 

As the house was then, so we see it now ; unaltered, and only 
mellowed by time. The gardens, too, are of the original design, includ- 
ing a considerable amount of architectural stonework. 

The large entrance forecourt is inclosed by a high balustraded wall, 
with important and finely-designed garden houses on its outer angles. 
The length of the side walls is broken midway on each side by a small 
circular pillared pavilion with a boldly projecting entablature, crowned 
with an openwork canopy and a topmost ornament of two opposite and 
joining rings of stone. 

The piers of the balustrade are surmounted by stone obelisks, and the 
large paved landing, forming a shallow court at the top of the flight of 
steps a hundred feet wide, that gives access to the house on this side has 
tall pillars that now carry lamps, though they appear to have been 
designed merely as a stately form of ornament. 

The forecourt has a wide expanse of gravel with a large fountain 
basin in the middle. Next the wall there are flower-borders ; then the 
wide gravelled path, and, following this, a broad strip of turf with Irish 
yews at regular intervals. The general severity of the planning is 
pleasantly relieved by the bright flower-border, the subject of the picture. 
To right and left are openings in the wall leading to other garden spaces. 
The one of these to the left, just behind the spectator as in the picture, 

55 



leads by an upward flight of steps to one side or a wide terrace walk, that 
encompasses on all four sides a large sunk garden of formal design. This 
garden runs the whole length of the forecourt and depth of the house, 
and has a width equal to some two-thirds of its length. A large middle 
fountain-basin, with shaped outline of angles and segments of circles, has 
a balustraded kerb with a stone obelisk on every pier. In the centre is a 
handsome tazza in which the water plays. Wide paths lead down flights 
of balustraded steps from all four sides to the gravelled area within which 
the fountain stands. The spaces between, and the banks rising to the 
level of the upper terraces, are of turf. Rows of Irish yews stand ranged 
on both levels. It is all extremely correct, stately — dare one say a trifle 
dull ? Opposite the forecourt the garden is bounded by a good yew 
hedge protecting it from wind from the valley below. Midway in the 
length is an opening where a low wall and seats give a welcome outlook. 
The same yew hedge returns eastward to the south-east angle of the 
house ; the garden's opposite boundary being a low wall with a sunk 
fence outside, giving a view into the park. 

There is an entrance from the garden to the house on its southern side 
by a flight of balustraded steps, and niches with seats are on either side of 
the door. 

Wonderful are these great stone houses of the early English 
Renaissance — wonderful in their bold grasp and sudden assertion of the 
new possibilities of domestic architecture ! For it may be repeated that 
it was only of late that a man's house had ceased to be a place of defence, 
and that he might venture to have windows looking abroad all round, 
and yet feel perrectly safe without even an inclosing moat. 

In the present day it is somewhat difficult to account tor the designer's 
attitude of mind when deciding on such a lavish employment of the 
obelisk-shaped finials. One can only regard it as the outcome of the 
taste or fashion of the day, when he borrowed straight from the Italians 
everything except their marvellous discernment. One accepts the many 
obelisks at Montacute as showing the reflection of Italian influence on 
the Tudor mind ; to-day and new, they would be inadmissible. The 
modern mind, with the vast quantity of material at hand, and the 
easy access to all that has been said and done on the subject, should 

56 



MON lACUTE : SUNFLOWERS 



■rom ihk picture in the fossessioi 
Mr. K. C. Austen Leigh 



accept nothing but the best and purest in this as in any other branch 
of fine art. 

There is one other possible way of accounting for the prevalence of 
these all-pervading obelisks. The name of the place is taken from a 
conical wooded hill {mons acutus). The same play on a word, a favourite 
fashion of Elizabethan times, and a custom in heraldry from a remoter 
antiquity, is seen in the shield of the ancient Montacute family, where 
the three sharp peaks denote that the surname had the same origin. The 
connexion of this name with the acute peak or obelisk form would 
therefore the more readily commend itself to the Elizabethan mind. 

The house has never gone into other hands, the present owner, Mr. 
W. R. Phelips, being the descendant of the founder. 



57 



RAMSCLIFFE 



It would seem to be a law that the purest and truest human pleasure in 
a garden is attained by means whose ratio is exactly inverse to the scale 
or degree of the garden's magnificence. The design, for instance, of a 
Versailles impresses one with a sense of ostentatious consciousness of 
magnitude ; out of scale with living men and women ; whose lives 
could only be adapted to it, as we know they were, by an existence full 
of artificial restraints and discomforts ; the painful and arbitrarily 
imposed conditions of a tyrannical and galling etiquette. 

So we think also of our greatest gardens, such as Chatsworth. It is 
visited by a large number of people who go to see it as a large expensive 
place to gape at, but surely not for the truest love of a garden. So it is 
with many a large place ; the size and grandeur of the garden may suit 
the great house as a design ; it may be imposing and costly, it may 
be beautifully kept, and yet it may lack all the qualities that are needed 
for simple pleasure and refreshment. It is not till we come to some old 
garden of moderate size that has always been cherished and has never 
been radically altered, that the true message of the garden can be 
received and read ; and it is from thence downward in the scale of 
grandeur that we find those gardens that are the happiest and best of all 
for true delight and close companionship ; the simple borders of hardy 
flowers, planted and tended with constant watchfulness and loving care 
by the owner's own hands. 

Such a garden is this of Mr. Elgood's ; in a midland county, and 
on a strong soil that throws up good hardy plants in vigorous 
luxuriance. Here grow the great Orange Lilies — the Herring Lilies of 

58 



RAMSCl-IKF-K: ORANCiK l.II.IKSer MONKSHOOD 



Mr. C K Krhemnt, 




j^a!a.\ m>. 



the Dutch, because they bloom at the time of the herring harvest — six 
and seven feet high, and with them the Monkshood, with its tall spikes 
of hooded bloom. In poorer soils or with worse culture these fine 
flowers are of much lower growth, the Monkshood often only half the 
height, with its deeply-cut leaves yellowing before their time with the 
weakness of too-early maturity. The pleasure with which one sees this 
fine old garden flower is, however, always a little lessened by the 
knowledge of the dangerously poisonous nature of the whole plant, and 
especially of the root. It is the deadly Aconite of pharmacy. Another 
of the same family is grouped with it ; the yellow Aconite of the 
Austrian mountains, with branched heads of sulphur-coloured bloom and 
singularly handsome leaves — large, dark green, glistening and persistently 
enduring — for, long after the bloom is past, they are beautiful in the 
border. 

How well an artist knows the value of grey-leaved plants, and their 
use in pictorial gardening in the way of giving colour-value by close 
companionship, to tender pinks and lilacs, and, above all, to whites ! A 
patch of white bloom is often too hard and sudden and inharmonious to 
satisfy the trained eye, but led up to and softened and sweetened by 
masses of neighbouring tender grey it takes its proper place and comes 
to its right strength in the well-ordered scheme. Lavender, Lavender- 
cotton {Santolina), Catmint, Pinks and Carnations, and the Woolly 
Woundwort {Stachys) with some other plants of hoary foliage, do this 
good work. In this garden the Woundwort, there known by its old 
Midland name of " Our Saviour's Blanket," throws up its grey-pink 
heads of bloom from a thick carpet of rather large leaves, silvery soft 
with their thick coating of long white down. Here a groundwork of it 
leads to the group of white Peach-leaved Bell-flower on the right and to 
the tall white Gnaphalium, a plant of kindred woolliness, on the left, 
while the precious grey quality runs through the left-hand flower-group 
by means of the downy-coated pods of the earlier-blooming Lupins, 
purposely left among the later flowers for this and for their handsome 
form. 

How finely the Orange Lilies tell against the background of the 
holly hedge, at the path-end cut into an arbour, may well be seen in 

59 



the picture, and how kindly and gracefully the Greengage Plum-tree 
bends over and plays its appointed part. 

Such a flower border makes many a picture in the hands of a garden- 
artist. His knowledge of the plants, their colours, seasons, habits and 
stature, enables him to use them as he uses the colours on his palette. 

How grandly the tall Delphiniums grow in this strong soil. A 
little of the colour has been lost owing to technical difficulties of 
reproduction, for the blue is purer and stronger in effect both in the 
original picture and in nature than is here shown. They are grouped, as 
blue flowers need, with contrasts of yellow and orange ; with yellow 
Daisies and the feathery Meadow-rue {Thalktruni) ^ and the tall yellow 
Aconite and nearly white Campanulas, woolly Stachys and purple Bell- 
flowers beyond. Only one small patch of brighter colour, the scarlet of 
Lychnis chalcedonica, is allowed here. On the other side is the loose- 
growing and always pictorial white Mallow {Sidalcea Candida), taking 
some weeks to produce its crop of flowers that, like Foxgloves and most 
of the flowers of the tall-spiked habit of growth, begin to bloom below, 
following upward till they finish at the top. 

Some sort of garden knowledge is so generally professed in these days, 
and so much more gardening of the better kind is being attempted, that 
people are gradually learning the advantage of planting in good groups 
of one thing at a time. The older way of putting one each of the same 
plant at regular intervals along a border — like buttons on a waistcoat — 
is now no longer tolerated, but a great deal has yet to be learnt. Even 
planting in bold groups, however good the plants, will be ineffective if 
not absolutely unfortunate, if relationships of colouring are not understood. 
The safest plan is to plant in harmonies more or less graduated as to the 
warm colours, such as full yellow with orange and scarlet, and to plant 
blues with contrasts of yellows and any white flowers. Then delightful 
effects may be obtained with masses of grey foliage, such as Lavender, 
Lavender-cotton, and Stachys, and white Pink, with flowers that have 
colourings of tender pink, white, lilac and purple. To acquire a colour 
eye is an education in itself, founded on the needful natural aptitude, a 
gift that is denied to some people even if they are not actually colour- 
blind, Bwt it is a precious possession where it occurs, and £^U the better 

6q 



RAMSCI.IM'J. : I.AKKSITN 



Miss Kkns. 



when it has been so well trained that the eye is enabled to appreciate the 
utmost refinements of colour-values, and when this education has been 
carried to the point necessary for the artist, of justly estimating the colour 
as it appears to be. This is the most difficult thing to learn ; to see colour 
as it is, is quite easy ; any one not colour-blind can do this ; but to see 
it as it appears to be needs to be learnt, for upon this acquired proficiency 
depends the power of the artist to interpret the colours of objects and to 
represent them in their right relation to each other. 

There is another good double flower-border in this pleasant garden. 
In the sunny month of August the fine Summer Daisies {Chrysanthe- 
mum maximum). Phloxes and Lavender are in beauty, and some bloom 
remains upon the climbing Roses. The Box-edging, stout and strong, 
can withstand the temporary encroachments of some of the border 
flowers, for in such a garden, rule is relaxed whenever such latitude tends 
to beauty. Here and there, where the little edging shrub showed signs of 
unusual vigour, it has been allowed to grow up on the understanding 
that it shall submit to the shears, which clip it into rounded ball-shapes 
of two sizes, one upon another, like loaves of bread. 

A garden like this, of moderate size, and needing no troublesome 
accessories of glasshouses, or even frames, and very little outside labour, 
is probably the very happiest possession of its kind. As the seasons 
succeed each other new pictures of flower beauty are revealed in constant 
succession. After the day's work in the best of the daylight is over, its 
owner turns to it for pleasant labour or any such tending as it may need. 
Every group of plants meets him with a friendly face, for each one was 
planted by his own hands. His watchful eye observes where anything 
is amiss and the needful aid is immediately given. 

In a great garden this vigilant personal care of plants as individuals is 
impossible. However able a man the head gardener may be, or however 
much he may love and wish to cherish the flowers under his care, his duties 
and responsibilities are too many and too onerous to admit of his being able 
to enjoy this intimate fellowship ; but in the humbler garden the close 
relationship of man and flowers, with all its beneficent and salutary 
serviceableness to both, seems to be exactly adjusted. 

Such a garden it is that fulfils its highest purpose ; that giving of the 
6i 



pleasure — the rich reward of the loving toil and care that have gone to 
its making ; every plant or group in it doing its appointed work in its 
due season — that giving of " sweet solace " according to the well-fitting 
wording of our far-away ancestors. 

And when the day's work is done, and the light just begins to fail, 
no one knows better than the artist that then is the best moment in the 
garden — when the colours acquire a wonderful richness of " subdued 
splendour " such as is unmatched throughout the lighter hours of the 
long summer day. Then it is that the flowers of delicate texture that 
have grown faint in the full heat, raise their heads and rejoice ; that the 
tall evening Primrose opens its pale wide petals and gives off its faint 
perfume ; that the little lilac cross-flowers of the night-scented Stock 
open out and show their modest prettiness and pour forth their enchant- 
ing fragrance. This early evening hour is indeed the best of all ; the 
hour of loveliest sight, of sweetest scent, of best earthly rest and fullest 
refreshment of body and spirit. 



62 



LEVENS 

from the picture in the possession of 
Major Longfield 



LEVENS 



There is perhaps no garden in England that has been so often 
described or so much discussed as that at Levens in Westmorland, the 
home of Captain Jocelyn Bagot. 

It was laid out near the beginning of the eighteenth century by a 
French gardener named Beaumont. There is nothing about it of the 
French manner, as we know it, for it is more in the Dutch style of the 
time, and has become in appearance completely English ; according 
perfectly with the beautiful old house, and growing with it into a com- 
plete harmony of mellow age, whose sentiment is one of perfect unison 
both within and without. 

Forward of the house-front, in a space divided by intersecting paths 
into six main compartments, is the garden. Flower-borders, box-edged on 
both sides, form bordering ornaments all round these divisions. The inner 
spaces are of turf. At the angles and at equal points along the borders 
are strange figures cut in yew and box. Some are like turned chessmen ; 
some might be taken for adaptations of human figures, for one can trace 
a hat-covered head — one of them wears a crown — shoulders and arms 
and a spreading petticoat. Some of the yews, and these mostly in the 
more open spaces of grass or walk, rise four-square as solid blocks, with 
rounded roof and stemless mushroom finial. These have for the most 
part arched recesses, forming arbours. One of the tallest, standing clear 
on its little green, is differently shaped, being round in plan above and 
the stems bared all round below, with an encircling seat. 

No doubt many of the yews have taken forms other than those that 
were originally designed ; the variety of shape would be otherwise too 

63 



daring ; but these recklessly defiant escapes from rule only add to the 
charm of the place, presenting a fresh surprise at every turn. The play 
oflight and variety of colour of the green surfaces of the clipped ever- 
greens is a delight to the trained colour-eye. Sometimes in shadow, cold, 
almost blue, reflecting the sky, with a sunlit edge of surprising brilliancy 
of golden-green — often all bright gold-green when the young shoots 
are coming, or when the sunlight catches the surface in one of its many 
wonderful ways. For the trees, clipped in so many diversities of form, 
offer numberless planes and facets and angles to the light, whose play 
upon them is infinitely varied. Then the beholder, passing on and 
looking back, sees the whole thing coloured and lighted anew. This 
quantity of Yew and Box clipped into an endless variety of fantastic 
forms has often been criticised as childish. Would that all gardens were 
childish in so happy a way ! Is not the joy and perfectly innocent 
delight that the true lover of flowers feels in a good garden in itself akin 
to childishness, and is not a fine old English garden such as this, with 
its numberless incidents that stir and gratify the imagination, and its 
abundance of sweet and beautiful flowers, just the one that can give that 
happiness in the greatest degree f Does not the oldest of our legends, 
so closely bound up with our youngest apprehension of religious teaching, 
tell us of the earliest of our race of whom we have any record or even 
tradition, living happily in a garden in a state of childish innocence ? 
Why should a garden not be childish ? — perhaps when it truly deserves 
such a term it is the highest praise it could possibly have ! 

However this may be the fact remains that those who own this garden 
of many wonders, and watch and tend it with unceasing love and 
reverence, and others who have had the happiness of working in it for 
many days together, find it a place that never wearies, but only continues 
day by day to disclose new beauties and new delights. Doubtless it is 
a garden that cannot be fairly judged from a hasty glance or a few hours' 
visit. Like many of the places and things that we call inanimate — 
though to one who knows and loves a garden nothing is more vitally 
living — such a place has its moods and can frown upon an unsympathetic 
beholder. 

The garden is filled with many Roses and well-grown hardy plants ; 
64 



LEVENS: ROSES AND PINKS 



from the picture in the possession of 
Mrs. Archibald Park.er 



those especially of tall stature making a fine effect. The Rose garden 
has White Pinks in its outer beds. Immediately beyond the garden's 
bounds is wild ground of a beautiful character. The river Kent, a rock- 
strewn stream with steep wooded banks, flows within fifty yards of the 
house. The contrast is a great and a delightful one. Wild parkland and 
untamed river without ; and within the walls ordered restraint ; then 
again, the quiet of the wide bowling-green, with its dark clipped hedges, 
and beyond it a long, tree-shaded walk. 

Precious, indeed, are the few remaining gardens that have anything 
of the character of this wonderful one of Levens ; gardens that above all 
others show somewhat of the actual feeling and temperament of our 
ancestors. They show personal discrimination combining happily with 
common-sense needs ; walls and masses of yew and box to make shelter 
from the violence of wind, and yet to admit the welcome sunlight ; so 
to provide the best conditions in the inner spaces for the growing 
of lovely flowers. Then the shaping of some of the yews into strange 
forms, shows perhaps the whimsical humour of some one of a line 
of owners, preserved, with careful painstaking, by his descendants. 

A garden many generations old may thus be a reflection of the 
minds of several of such possessors — men who have not only thankfully 
paced its green spaces and delighted in its flowery joys, but who have 
held it in that close and friendly fellowship whose outcome is sure 
to be some living and lasting addition either to its comfort, its interest, 
or its beauty. The original design may have become in some degree 
lost, but unless the doings of the several owners have been in the way 
of destruction or radical alteration, or something of obvious folly or 
bad taste, the garden will have gained in a remarkable degree that 
quality of human interest that is not easy to define but that is clearly 
perceptible, not only to a trained critic but to any one who has know- 
ledge of its most vital needs and sympathy with its worthiest expression. 
This precious utterance is not confined to this or to any one special 
kind of gardening, but may pervade and illuminate almost any one 
of the many ways in which men find their pleasure and delight in 
ordering the sheltered seclusion of their home grounds, and enjoying 
the varied beauty of tree and bush and flower. 

65 



It is only in gardens of the most rigidly formal type, such as are 
full of architectural form and detail and admit of no alteration of the 
original plan, that personal influence can least be exercised. This is no 
doubt the reason why such gardens, correctly beautiful though they may 
be, are those that give in smallest measure that wonderful sense of the 
purest and most innocent happiness, that of all earthly enjoyments seems 
to be the most directly God-given. 

Yet, even in such gardens, it is not impossible that some impress of 
the personal influence may be beneficently given, but the range of 
operation is extremely limited, the greatest knowledge and ability are 
needed, with the sure action of the keenest and most restrained 
judgment. 



66 



CAMPSEY ASHE 



In Eastern Suffolk, within a few miles of the sea, is this, the country 
home of the Hon. William Lowther. 

The house, replacing an older one that occupied the same site, is of 
brick and stone, built in the earlier part of the nineteenth century. A 
moat, inclosing an unusually large area, and formerly entirely encompassing 
the house and garden, is now partly filled up ; but one long arm remains, 
running the greater part of the length of the house and garden ; a 
shorter length bounding the inclosed garden on the opposite side. The 
longer length of moat approaches the house closely on its eastern face, 
and then forms the boundary of a large and beautifully-kept square lawn, 
with fine old cedars and other trees. Following this southward is a 
double walled garden, with the main paths, especially those of the nearer 
division, bordered with flowers. Beyond these again is the portion of the 
garden that forms the subject of the picture — a small parterre of box- 
edged beds with a row of old clipped yews beyond. This leads westward 
to a grove of trees, with a statue also girt with trees standing in an oval 
in the midmost space. 

The garden has beautiful incidents in abundance, but is somewhat 
bewildering. Traces of the older gardening constantly appear ; but their 
original cohesion has been lost. The moat, always an important feature, 
ends suddenly at four points. Garden-houses and gazebos, that usually 
come at salient points with determinate effect, seem to have strayed into 
their places. Sections of the park seem to have broken loose and lost 
themselves in the garden. The garden is not the less charming in detail, 
but is impossible to gather together or hold in a clear mental grasp, from 
the absence of general plan. 

67 



Besides the old clipped yews in the picture, others, apparently of the 
same age, inclose an oval bowling-green. In form they are as if they 
had been at first cut as a thick hedge with a roof-like sloping top. From 
this, at fairly regular intervals, spring great rounded masses, that, with 
the varying vigour of the individual trees and the continual clipping 
without reference to a fixed design, have asserted themselves after their 
own fashion. Though symmetry has been lost, the place has gained 
in pictorial value. Four ways lead in ; the larger bosses guarding the 
entrances. 

So it is throughout this charming but puzzling garden. Ever a 
glimpse of some delightful old-world incident, and then the bafiled effort 
to fit together the disjointed members of what must once have been a 
definite design. 

The portion of the garden that is simplest and clearest is a broad walk 
opposite the house, on the further side of the moat, and raised some ten 
feet above it ; backed by an old yew hedge some twenty feet high, of 
irregular outline. Just opposite the middle of the house the line of the 
hedge is interrupted to give a view into the park, with a vista between 
groups of fine elms ; but the hedge stretches away southward the whole 
length of the long arm of the moat and the walled gardens. At regular 
intervals along the old hedge are ranged, on column-shaped pedestals, 
busts that came from an Italian villa. About half way along steps lead 
down to the moat, where there is a ferry-punt propelled by an endless rope, 
such as is commonly used in the fenlands. At the end of the long walk 
is a curious seat with a high carved back, that looks as if it had once 
formed part of an old ship or state barge, in the bygone days of two 
hundred years ago, when a fine style of bold and free wood-carving was 
lavishly used about their raised poops and stern-galleries. 

Towards the end of the second division of the walled garden is an old 
orangery or large garden house, that probably was in connexion with the 
scheme of the yew hedges. It has the usual piercing with large lights 
but no top-light. The original purpose of these buildings was the housing 
of orange and other tender trees in tubs, and the fact of its presence might 
possibly throw some light on the mystery of the garden's former 
planning. 

^3 



THE YEW HEDGE, CAMPSEY ASHE 

from the picture in the possession of 
Mr. H. W. Search 



Good hardy flowers are everywhere in abundance. Specially beautiful 
in the later summer is a grand pink Hollyhock of strong free habit, 
with the flowers of that best of all shapes— with wide, frilled outer petals 
and centres not too tightly packed. 

It would be interesting work for some one with a knowledge of 
the garden design of the past three centuries in England to try to 
reconstruct the original plan of some one time. Though on the ground 
the various remaining portions of the older work cannot be pieced 
together, yet, if these were put on paper to proper scale, it might 
be possible to come to some general conclusions as to the way in which 
the garden was originally, and again perhaps subsequently, laid out. 
Some of the remaining portions of the older work of quite different 
dates may now seem to be of the same age, but the expert would 
probably be able to discriminate. The result of such a study would 
be worth having even if actual reconstruction were not contemplated. 



69 



CLEEVE PRIOR 



Near a quiet village in Warwickshire, and in close relation to its 
accompanying farm buildings, is this charming old manor house. It is 
not upon a main road, but stands back in its own quiet place on rising 
ground above the Avon. Everything about it is interesting and quite 
unspoilt. The wooden hand-gate, with its acorn-topped posts, that 
stands upon two semi-circular steps may not have been of the pattern of 
the original gate — it has an eighteenth-century look — but it is just right 
now. It leads into a half dark, half light, double arcade of splendid old 
clipped yews. Looking from the gate they seem to be tall walls of yew 
to right and left, showing the projecting porch of the house at the end ; 
but, passing along, there are seen to be openings between every two trees, 
each of which gives a charming picture of the lawns and simple flower 
beds to right and left. The path is paved with stone flags ; the garden is 
bounded with a low wall of the local oolite limestone that rock-plants 
love. A few thin-topped old fruit-trees, their stems clothed with ivy, 
are another link between the past and present, and the somewhat pathetic 
evidence of their having long passed their prime and being on the down- 
ward path, is in striking contrast with the robust vigour of the ancient 
yews, already some centuries old, and looking as if they must endure for 
ever. 

Eight yews stand on either side — sixteen in all. They are known as 
the twelve Apostles and the four Evangelists. The names may have 
belonged to them from the time of their planting, for the whole place 
belonged in old days to Evesham Abbey, and is pervaded with monastic 
memory and tradition. This may also account for the excellence of the 

70 



THE TWELVE APOSTLES, CLEEVE PRIOR 

from the picture in the possession ok 
Sir Frederick Wigan 



I 




buildings, for the old monks were grand constructors, and their structures 
were not only solid but always beautiful. 

One of the older of these at Cleeve Prior is a large circular dovecote 
of stone masonry with tiled roof and small tiled cupola. Such buildings 
were not unfrequent in the old days, and many of them remain. Some- 
times they are round in plan, sometimes four-, sometimes eight-sided. 
Occasionally there is a central post inside, set on pivots to revolve easily, 
with lateral arms carrying a ladder that reaches nearly to the walls, so 
that any one of the many pigeon-holes can be reached. 

To the left of the Apostles' Garden, as you stand facing the house, a 
little gate leads into the vegetable garden. It has narrow grass paths 
bordered with old-fashioned flowers. A further gate leads into the 
orchard. Behind the house is the home close with some fine trees ; on 
two other sides are the farm buildings, yard and rickyard. 

How grandly the flowers grow in these old manor and farm gardens ! 
How finely the great masses of bloom compose, and how beautifully they 
harmonise with the grey of the limestone wall and the wonderful colour 
of the old tiled roof; both of them weather and lichen-stained ; each 
tile a picture in itself of grey and orange and tenderest pink. 

The yews have got over their paler green colour of the early summer 
when the young shoots are put forth, and have settled into the deep 
green dress that they will wear till next May. For the time is 
September ; wheat harvesting is going on and the autumn flowers are in 
full vigour. There are Dahlias, the great annual Sunflowers and the tall 
autumn Daisy ; Lavender and Michaelmas Daisies, with sweet herbs for 
the kitchen, just as it should be in such a garden. 

Some of these old pot-herbs are beautiful things deserving a place in 
any flower garden. Sage — for instance — a half shrubby plant with 
handsome grey leaf and whorled spikes of purple flowers ; a good plant 
both for winter and summer, for the leaves are persistent and the plant 
well clothed throughout the year. Hyssop is another such handsome 
thing, of the same family, with a quantity of purple bloom in the 
autumn, when it is a great favourite with the butterflies and bumble 
bees. This is one of the plants that was used as an edging plant in 
gardens in Tudor days, as we read in Parkinson's " Paradisus," where 

71 



Lavender-cotton, Marjoram, Savoury and Thyme are also named as 
among the plants used for the same purpose. Rue, with its neat bluish- 
green foliage, is also a capital plant for the garden where this colour of 
leafage is desired. Fennel, with its finely-divided leaves and handsome 
yellow flower, is a good border plant, though rarely so used, and blooms 
in the late autumn. Lavender and Rosemary are both so familiar as 
flower-garden plants that we forget that they can also be used as neat 
edgings, if from the time they are young plants they are kept clipped. 
Borage has a handsome blue flower, as good as its relation the larger 
Anchusa. Tansy, best known in gardens by the handsome Achillea 
Eupatorium, was an old inmate of the herb garden. Sweet Cicely 
{Myrrhis odorata) has beautiful foliage, pale green and fern-like, with a 
good umbel of white bloom, and is a most desirable plant to group with 
and among early blooming flowers. And we all know what a good 
garden flower is the common Pot Marigold. 

The old farm buildings at Cleeve Prior are scarcely less beautiful than 
the manor-house itself, and are remarkable for the timber erections, open 
at the sides but with tiled roofs, that give sheltered access, by outside 
stairways, to the lofts. 

Throughout England the older farmhouses and buildings are full of 
interest, not only to architects, but to many who are in sympathy with 
good and simple construction, and have taken the pleasant trouble to 
learn enough about it to understand how and why the buildings were 
reared. And in these restless days of hurry and strain and close com- 
petition in trades, and bad, cheap work, it is good to pass a quiet hour in 
wandering about among structures set up four or even five centuries ago 
by these grand building monks. The present writer had just such a 
pleasure not long ago in the South of England, where a large group of 
monastic farm buildings stands within sound of the wash of the sea. They 
are on sloping ground, inclosing three sides of a square ; a wall, backed 
with trees, forming the fourth side. On the upper level is a great barn ; 
a much greater, the tithe barn, being opposite it on the lower. Buildings 
containing stables, cattle-sheds and piggeries connect the two. Between 
these and the wall opposite is a spacious yard ; across the middle is a 
raised causeway dividing the yard into two levels. 

72 



CLEEVE PRIOR: SUNFLOWERS 

from the picture in the possession of 
Mr. James Crofts Powell 











r^ 



;-^^ 



.^ t 



The barns are of grand masonry. Some of the stones, next above the 
phnth-a feature that adds so much to the dignity of the building, and 
by Its additional width, to its solidity-measure as much as four feet six 
mches m length by twenty inches in height. In every fifth course is a 
row of triangular holes for ventilation, such as every brick or stone-built 
barn must have. They are cleverly arranged as to the detail of the 
manner of their building, and though only intended for use have a 
distinctly ornamental value. Where the walls rise at the gable ends 
they are corbelled out at the eaves and carried up some two feet above 
the hne of the rafters, finishing in a wrought stone capping, thus stop- 
ping the thatch. For the buildings are, and always have been, thatched 
with straw, the ground around being good corn-land, a rich calcareous 
loam. 

There is a delightful sense of restfulness about these fine solid 
buildings, built for the plainest needs of the community of the material 
nearest to hand, in the simply right and therefore most beautiful way. 
With no mtentional ornament, they have the beauty of sound, strong 
structure and unconsciously right proportion. There is also a satisfaction 
m the plain evidence of delight in good craftsmanship, and in the 
unsparing use of both labour and material. 



73 



CONDOVER 



CoNDOVER Hall near Shrewsbury is a stately house of important size 
and aspect — one of the many great houses that were reared in the latter 
half of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Its general character gives the 
impression of severity rather than suavity, though the straight groups of 
chimneys have handsome heads, and the severe character is mitigated on 
the southern front by an arcade in the middle space of the ground floor. 
The same stern treatment pervades the garden masonry. No mouldings 
soften the edges of the terrace steps ; parapets and retaining walls, with 
the exception of the balustrade of the main terrace, are without 
ornament of light and shade ; plainly weathered copings being their 
only finish. Only here and there, a pier that carries a large Italian 
flower-pot has a little more ornament of rather massive bracket form. 

The garden spaces are large and largely treated, as befits the place 
and its environment of park-land amply furnished with grand masses of 
tree-growth. On the southern side of the house, where the ground falls 
away, are two green flats and slopes, leading to a lower walk parallel with 
their length and with the terrace above. The steps in the picture are 
the top flight of a succession leading to these lower levels. The lower 
and narrower grassy space has a row of clipped yews of a rounded cone- 
shape. The upper level has a design of the same, but of different 
patterns. 

The balustrade in the picture is old, probably of the same date as the 
house ; much of the other stonework is modern. The circular seat on a 
raised platform, with its stone-edged flower-beds, has a very happy 
effect, and its yew-hedge backing joins well into the older yews that 

74 



CONDOVER: THE TERRACE STEPS 

from the picture in the possession of 
Miss Austen Leigh 



overlap the parapet of the steps ; their colour contrasting distinctly with 
that of the more distant Ilex, a magnificent example of a tree that 
deserves more general use in English gardens. The parterre above the 
steps and on a level with the house has box hedges, after the Italian 
manner, three feet high and two feet wide. These, with some of the 
yew hedges, were planted a hundred years ago, though much of the 
garden, with its ornaments of fine Italian flower-pots, was the work 
of the former owner, the late Mr. Reginald Cholmondeley, a man of 
powerful personality and fine taste. 

The most important part of the garden lies to the west of the house, 
where there is a double garden of stiff pattern with high box borders 
and clipped evergreens. At a right angle to this, the spectator, standing 
at some distance westward, and looking back towards the east and 
straight with the space between the pair of gardens of angular design, 
sees a broad space flanked on either side by a row of handsome upright 
yews. The ground between is a flower garden of large diamond-shaped 
beds in two sizes, with cleverly-arranged green edgings. But now that 
the large Irish yews have grown to their early maturity, dominating the 
garden and insisting on their own strong parallel lines, it is open to 
question whether it would not have been better to have had a wide, 
clear middle space of green straight down the length, with the flowers in 
shapely, ordered masses to right and left. The close succession of large 
beds gives the impression of impediments to comfortable progress. 

It was wise to leave the Irish yews undipped. Though the common 
English yew is the tree that is of all others the most docile to the 
discipline of training and shearing, the upright growing variety will 
have none of it. In some fine English gardens they are clipped, always 
with disastrous effect. They will only take one form : that of an ugly 
swollen bottle, or lamp-chimney with a straight top. Their own form is 
quite symmetrical enough for use in any large design. 



IS 



SPEKE HALL 



There are, alas ! but few now remaining of the timber buildings of the 
sixteenth century that are either so important in size or so well-preserved 
as this beautiful old Lancashire house. 

They were built at a time when the country had settled down into 
a peaceable state ; when houses need no longer be walled and loopholed 
against the probable raids of enemies ; when their windows might be of 
ample size and might look abroad without fear. Many of them, however, 
were still moated, for a moat was of use not only for defence but as a 
convenient fish-pond, and as a bar to the depredations of wolves, foxes 
and rabbits. 

The advance of civilisation also brought with it a greater desire for 
home comforts, and the genius of the country, unspoilt, unfettered, 
undiluted by that mass of half-digested knowledge of many styles that 
has led astray so many of the builders of modern days, by a natural 
instinct cast these dwellings into forms that we now seek out and study 
in the effort to regain our lost innocence, and that in many cases we are 
glad to adopt anew as models of what is most desirable for comfort and 
for the happy enjoyment of our homes. 

Still, in these days we cannot build such houses anew without a 
suspicion of strain or affectation. When they were reared, oak was the 
building material most readily to be obtained, and carpenters' work, 
already well developed in the construction of roofs, now given free scope 
in outer walls as well, seemed to revel in the new liberty, and oak-framed 
houses grew up into beautiful form and ornament in such a way as has 
never been surpassed in this country. 

'76 



SPKKK HAL 



•ROM IHK HILII RK IN IHF I'OSSKS 

Mr (iKORCE S. Ki.G(>() 



It was satisfying and beautiful because every bit of ornamental detail 
grew out of the necessary structure. The plainer framing of cottage and 
farmhouse became enriched in the manor-house into a wealth of mould- 
ing and carving and other kinds of decoration. External panel ornament 
gained a rich quality by the repetition of symmetrical form, while the 
overhanging of the successive stories and the indentations between pro- 
jecting wings and porches threw the various faces of the building into 
interesting masses of light and shade. Then, in delightful and restful 
contrast to the " busy " wall-spaces, are the roofs, with their long quiet 
lines of ridge and their covering of tile or stone, painted by the ages with 
the loveliest tinting of moss and lichen. 

Within, these fine old wooden houses show the good English oak as 
worthily treated as without. For the whole structure is of wood from 
end to end, built as soundly and strongly as were the old wooden ships. 
The inner walls, where they were not panelled with oak, were hung with 
tapestry. Ceilings of the best rooms were wrought with plaster ornament ; 
lesser rooms showed the beams and often the thick joists that fitted into 
them and upheld the floor above. Where, as was usual, there was a 
long gallery in the topmost floor, its ceiling would show a tracery of oak 
with plaster filling, partly following the line of the roof. The whole 
structure, blossoming out in its more important parts into beautiful 
decorative enrichment, showed the worker's delight in his craft, and 
his mastery of mind and hand in conceiving and carrying out the possi- 
bilities offered by what was then the most usual building material of 
the country. 

Such another house as Speke is Moreton Old Hall in Cheshire, but 
the latter is still more richly decorated, with carved strings, some of which 
were painted, and wood and plaster panels of great elaboration, and lead- 
quarried windows of large size and beautiful design. 

The destruction of large numbers of these timber buildings in the 
eighteenth century can never be sufficiently deplored. There was a time 
when the fashion for buildings of classical form was spreading over 
England, when they were considered barbarous relics of a bygone age, 
and when the delightful gardens that had grown up around them were 
alike condemned and in many cases destroyed. 

n 



There is not a large garden at Speke, but just enough of simple groups 
of flowers to grace the beautiful timber front. The picture shows that 
the gardening is just right for the place ; not asserting itself overmuch 
but doing its own part with a restful, quiet charm that has a right relation 
to the lovely old dwelling. 



78 



GARDEN ROSES 



Those who follow the developments of taste in modern gardening, cannot 
fail to perceive how great has been the recent increase in the numbers of 
Roses that are for true beauty in the garden. 

It is only some of the elders among those who take a true and lively 
interest in their gardens who know what a scarcity of good things there 
was thirty years ago, or even twenty, compared with what we have now 
to choose from. Still, of the Roses commonly known as garden Roses, 
there were even then China Roses, Damask, Cabbage and Moss, 
Sweetbriars and Cinnamon Roses, and the free-growing Ayrshires, which 
are even now among the most indispensable. 

But the wave of indifferent taste in gardening that had flooded all 
England with the desire for summer bedding plants, to the almost entire 
exclusion of the worthier occupants of gardens, had for a time pushed aside 
the older garden Roses. For whereas in the earlier half of the nineteenth 
century these good old Roses were much planted and worthily used, with 
the coming of the fashion for the tender bedding plants they fell into 
general disuse ; and, with the accompanying neglect of many a good 
hardy border plant, left our gardens very much the poorer, and, except 
for special spring bedding, bare of flowers for all the earlier part of the 
year. 

Now we have learnt the better ways, and have come to see that good 
gardening is based on something more stable and trustworthy than any 
passing freak of fashion. And though the foolish imp fashion will 
always pounce upon something to tease and worry over, and to set up on 
a temporary pedestal only to be pulled down again before long, so also it 

79 



assails and would make its own for a time, some one or other point of 
garden practice. Just now it is the pergola and the Japanese garden ; and 
truly wonderful are the absurdities committed in the name of both. 

But the sober, thoughtful gardener smiles within himself and lets the 
freaks of fashion pass by. If he has some level place where a straight 
covered way of summer greenery would lead pleasantly from one quite 
definite point to another, and if he feels quite sure that his garden-scheme 
and its environment will be the better for it, and if he can afford to build 
a sensible structure, with solid piers and heavy oak beams, he will do well 
to have a pergola. If he has travelled in Japan, and lived there for some 
time and acquired the language, and has deeply studied the mental 
attitude of the people with regard to their gardens, and imbibed the 
traditional lore so closely bound up with their horticultural practice, and 
is also a practical gardener in England — then let him make a Japanese 
garden, if he will and can; but he will be the wiser man if he lets it alone. 
Even with all the knowledge indicated, and, indeed, because of its 
acquirement, he probably would not attempt it. When a Japanese 
garden merely means a space of pleasure-ground where plants, natives of 
Japan, are grown in a manner suitable for an English garden, there is but 
little danger of going wrong, but such danger is considerable when an 
attempt is made to garden in the Japanese manner. 

This is a wide digression from the subject of garden Roses, and yet 
excusable in that it can scarcely be too often urged that any attempt to 
practise anything in horticulture for no better reason than because it is 
the fashion, can only lead to debasement and can only achieve futility. 

Now that there are large numbers of people who truly love their 
gardens, and who show evidence of it by giving them much care and 
thought and loving labour, the old garden Roses have been sought for 
and have been restored to their former place of high favour. And our 
best nurserymen have not been slow to see what would be acceptable in 
well-cared-for gardens throughout the length and breadth of the land ; 
so that the last few years have seen an extraordinary activity in the 
production of good Roses for garden effect. The free-growing Rosa 
polyantha of the Himalayas has been employed as a seed or pollen-bearing 
parent, and from it have been developed first the well-known Crimson 



VISCOUNTESS KOLKKSTONE " 



>M I HK PICrt'RE IN IHK I'OSSKSSH) 

Mr. R. Clarke Edwards 



Rambler, and later a number of less showy but much more refined 
flowers of just the right kind for free use in garden decoration. 

Valuable hybrids have also been raised from the Tea Roses, one of 
the best known of them being Viscountess Folkestone, the subject of the 
picture ; a grand Rose for grouping in beds or clumps, and one that 
yields its large, loose, blush-white flowers abundantly and for a long 
season. This merit of an extended blooming season runs through the 
greater number of the now long list of varieties of the beautiful hybrid 
Teas. 

Some of the new seedling Tea Roses have nearly single flowers, and 
are none the less beautiful, as those wise folk well know who grow 
Corallina and the lovely white Irish Beauty, and its free-blooming com- 
panion Irish Glory. These also are plants that will succeed, as will most 
of the hybrid Teas, in some poor hot soils where most Roses fail. 

Then for rambling over banks we have Rosa wichuraiana and its 
descendants ; among these the charming Dorothy Perkins, good for any 
free use. 

Those who garden on the strong, rich loams that Roses love will find 
that many of the so-called show Roses are grand things as garden Roses 
also ; indeed, for purely horticultural purposes there is no need of any 
such distinction. The way is for a number of Roses to be grown on 
trial, and for a keen watch to be kept on their ways. It will soon be 
seen which are those that are happiest in any particular garden, and how, 
having regard to their colour and way of growth, they may best be used 
for beauty and delight. 

In the garden where the picture was painted. Viscountess Folkestone 
has an undergrowth of Love-in-a-mist, that comes up year after year, 
and with its quiet grey-blue colouring makes a charming companionship 
with the faint blush of the Roses. 



8i 



PENSHURST 



The gardens that adorn the ancient home ot the Sidneys are, as to the 
actual planting of what we see to-day, with repairs to the house and 
some necessary additions to fit it for modern needs, the work of the late 
Lord de L'Isle with the architect George Devey, begun about fifty years 
ago. It was a time when there was not much good work done in 
gardening, but both were men of fine taste and ability, and the reparation 
and alteration needed for the house, and the new planting and partly new 
designing of the garden could not have been in better hands. 

The aspect and sentiment of the garden, now that it has grown into 
shape — its lines closely following, as far as it went, the old design — are in 
perfect accordance with the whole feeling of the place, so that there 
seems to be no break in continuity from the time of the original plant- 
ing some centuries ago. Such as it is to-day, such one feels sure it was 
in the old days — in parts line for line and path for path, but throughout, 
just such a garden as to general form, aspect, and above all, sentiment, 
as it must have been in the days of old. For when it was first planted 
the conditions that would have to be considered were always the same ; 
requirement of shelter from prevailing winds ; questions relating to various 
portions, as to whether it would be desirable to welcome the sunlight for 
the flowers' delight, or to shut it out for human enjoyment of summer 
coolness — all such grounds of motive were, just as now, deliberated by 
the men of old days, whose decisions, actuated by sympathy with both 
house and ground, would bring forth a result whose character would be 
the same, whether thought out and planned to-day or four centuries ago. 

So it is that we find the old work at Penshurst confirmed and renewed, 
82 



"GLOIRE DE DljON," PENSHURST 

FROM THE PlCiURE IN THE r'0b>:-ESSION OK 

Sir Reginald Hanson, Bari . 



and new work added of a like kind, such as will make use of the wider 
modern range of garden plants, while it retains the dignity and grandeur 
of the fine old place. 

The house stands on a wide space of grass terrace commanding the 
garden. On a lower level is a large quadrangular parterre, with cross paths. 
In each of its square angles is a sunk garden with a five-foot-wide verge 
of turf and a bordering stone kerb forming a step. The beds within, 
filled with good hardy plants, have bold box edgings eighteen inches high 
and a foot thick, that not only set off the bright masses of flowers 
within, but have in themselves an air of solidity and importance that 
befits the large scale of the place. They represent in their own position 
and on their lesser scale somewhat of the same character as the massive 
yew hedges, twelve feet high and six feet through, that do their own 
work in other parts of the garden. 

These grand yew hedges and solid box borders have responded well 
to good planting and tending, for the late Lord de L'Isle knew his work 
and did it thoroughly. Not only was the ground well prepared, but for 
several years after planting the young trees were provided with a surface 
dressing that prevented evaporation and provided nutriment. This was 
carefully attended to, not only in the case of the yews but of the box 
edgings also. 

The cross-walks of the parterre do not meet in the middle, but sweep 
round a circular fountain basin, in the centre of which stands a statue of 
what may be a young Hercules, brought from Italy by Lord de L'Isle. 
The slender grace of the figure might at first suggest a youthful Bacchus, 
but the identity in such a statue is easily established by looking for one 
or other of the characteristic attributes of Hercules ; these usually are 
the lion's skin, the upright-growing hair on the forehead, the poplar 
wreath or the battered, flattened ears. But the statue stands too far 
from the walk to be exactly identified. 

That the nearer portions of the garden are on the same lines as the 
older planting is shown by an engraving in Harris's "Kent," where the 
parterre is, now as then, bounded by terraces on two of its sides, the house 
side and that of the adjoining churchyard, to which access is gained by a 
beautiful gabled gateway of brick and stone, the work of Tudor times. 

83 



The old churchyard has its own beauty, while the church and a fine 
group of elms are seen from the garden above the wall, and take their 
own beneficent place in the garden landscape. 

The rectangular fountain, which, with its surrounding yew hedges, 
and the grass walks also inclosed by thick yew hedges, divides the two 
portions of the kitchen garden, are also parts of the old design, added to 
by the late owner. The yew hedges beyond the fountain pool have been 
set back to allow width enough for a handsome flower-border on either 
side. Water Lilies grow in the pool and the flower-borders display their 
beauties beyond, while the fruit trees of the kitchen garden show above 
the thick green hedges as flowering masses in spring, and in later summer, 
as the taller perennials of the border rise to their full height, as a thin 
copse of fruit and leafage. The turf walk and flower-border swing 
outward to suit the greater width of another fountain-basin at the end. 
This has straight sides running the way of the main path, and a 
segmental front. Instead of the usual rising kerb, there are two shallow 
stone steps, the upper one even with the grass, the lower half way 
between that and the water-level. Except that it is less of a protection 
than something of the parapet kind, this is a most desirable means 
of near access to the water ; welcome to the eye in all ways and allowing 
the water-surface to be seen from a distance. It is pleasantly noticeable 
in this pool that the water-level rises to the proper place. Nothing is 
more frequent or more unsightly than a deep pool or basin with straight 
sides and only a little water in the bottom. If the height of the 
water is necessarily fluctuating it is a good plan to build the tank in 
a succession of such steps ; they are pleasant to see both above and 
under water, and in the case of an accident to a straying child, danger is 
reduced to the smallest point. 

The picture shows one of the flights of steps from one level to 
another. To the left two handsome gate-piers and a fine wrought- 
iron gate lead to a quiet green meadow. Near by and just across it 
is the Medway, with wooded banks and groups of fine trees. The old 
wall is beautiful from the meadow side ; its coping a garden of wild 
flowers. Above it is seen the clipped yew hedge with its series of rising 
ornaments, rounded in the direction of the axis of the hedge, but flat on 

84 



THK TERRACE STEPS, PENSHHRST 

from the pici'crk in the possession' of 
Mr. Frederick Greene 



its two faces. This is seen in the picture on the upper level, above the 
steps to the left. 

Herbaceous plants are grandly grown throughout this beautiful 
garden. Specially noticeable are the fine taste and knowledge of garden 
effect with which they have been used. There are not flowers every- 
where, but between the flowery portions of the garden are quiet green 
spaces that rest and refresh the eye, and that give both eye and brain the 
best possible preparation for a further display and enjoyment of their 
beauty. 

Such an example the picture shows. On either side is a border with 
masses of strong-growing hardy plants — pale Monkshood, Evening 
Primrose, Sweet- William, Pink Mallow — then, above the steps, only the 
restful turf underfoot, and to right and left the quiet walls of yew ; at 
the end a group of great elms. At the foot of the steps, passing away 
to the right, is another double flower-border, passing again by a turn 
to the right into the quiet green walk leading to the large fountain 
basin. 

Many a good climbing Rose, with other rambling and clambering 
plants, find their homes on the terraces. A Gloire de Dijon or one of 
its class — Madame Berard or Bouquet d'Or, perhaps ; either of these the 
equal of the other for such garden use — rises from below the parapet of 
one of the flights of steps and comes forward in happiest fellowship with a 
leaden vase of fine design ; the dark background of Irish Yew making 
the best possible ground for both Rose and urn. 

In olden days these lead ornaments were commonly painted and gilt, 
but the revived taste for all that is best in gardening rightly considers 
such treatment to be a desecration of a surface which with age acquires 
a beautiful grey colouring and a delightful quality of colour-texture. 
The painting of lead would seem to be a relic of the many toy-Hke 
artifices in gardening that were prevalent in Tudor times. All these 
are rejected in the best modern practice, though all the old ways that 
made for true garden beauty and permanent growth and value have been 
retained. 

A clever way of utilising the stronger growing Clematises, including 
the large purple Jackmanii, is here practised. They are swung garland- 

85 



fashion between a- row of Apple-trees that borders one of the walks. 
Hops are used in the same way. It was perhaps a remembrance of 
Italy, where Vines are trained to swing between the Mulberries. 

The beautiful pale yellow Carnation, named Pride of Penshurst, was 
raised in this good garden, where everything tells of the truest sympathy 
with all that is best in English horticulture. Not the least among 
the soothing and satisfying influences of the pleasure-grounds of Pens- 
hurst, is the entire absence of the specimen conifer, that, with its 
wearisome repetition of single examples of young firs and pines, has 
brought such a displeasing element of restless confusion into so many 
pleasure-grounds. 



86 



BRICKWALL 



East Sussex is rich in beautiful houses of Tudor times ; many precious 
relics remaining of those days and of the Jacobean reigns, of important 
manor-house, fine farm building and labourer's cottage. These were the 
times when English oak, some of the best of which grew in the Sussex 
forests, was the main building material. The walls were framed of oak, 
and the same wood provided beams, joists and rafters, boards for the floors, 
panelling, doors, window-muUions and furniture. In those days the wood 
was not cut up with the steam-saw, but was split with the axe and wedge. 
The carpentry of the roofs was magnificent ; there was no sparing of 
stuff or of labour. Much of it that has not been exposed to the weather, 
such as these roof-framings, is as sound to-day as when it was put together, 
with its honest tenons and mortises and fastenings of stout oak pins. In 
most cases the old oak has become extraordinarily hard and of a dark 
colour right through. 

Brickwall, the beautiful home of the Frewens, near Northiam, is a 
delightful example, both as to house and garden, of these old places of the 
truest English type. A stately gateway, and a short road across a spacious 
green forecourt bounded by large trees, leads straight to the entrance in 
the wide north-eastern timbered front. The other side of the house, in 
closely intimate relation to the garden, has a homely charm of a most 
satisfying kind. 

The wide bricked path next the house, so typical of Sussex, speaks of 
the strong, cool soil. The ground rises just beyond, and again further 
away in the distance. The garden is divided into two nearly equal 
portions by the double flower-border, backed by pyramidal clipped yews, 

87 



that forms the subject of the picture, and is enfiladed by the middle 
windows of the house. In the left hand division is a long rectangular 
pool with rather steep-angled sides of grass, looking a Httle dangerous. 
There is a reason here for the water being a good way below the level of 
the lawn, for this is much above that of the ground floor of the house ; 
still it is a matter of doubt whether it would not have been better to have 
had a flagged or bricked path some four feet wide, not much above the 
water-level, with steps rising on two sides to the lawn, and dry walling, 
allowing of some delightful planting, from the path to the lawn level. 

On the two outer sides of the garden, parallel with the middle walk, 
are raised terraces, reached by steps at the ends of the bricked path. 
These have walls on their outer sides, and towards the garden, yew hedges 
kept low so that it is easy to see over. These low hedges run into a 
much higher and older one that connects them towards the upper end 
of the garden. 

The clipped yews which give the garden its character are for the 
most part of one pattern, a tall three-sided pyramid, only varied by some 
tall cones. One cannot help observing how desirable it is in gardens of 
this kind that the form of the clipped yews should for the most part keep 
to one shape, or at any rate one general pattern, just as the architecture, 
whatever its character or ornament, within some kind of limit remains 
faithful to the dominant idea. 

The picture shows a double flower-border in August dress ; good 
groups of the best hardy plants combining happily with some of the 
pyramids of yew. To the right is the fine summer Daisy {Chrysanthe- 
mum maximum)^ with the lilac Erigeron and the spiky blue-purple balls 
of the Globe Thistle, the tall double Rudbeckia Golden Glow, Lavender, 
Poppies and Phlox. To the left, Phloxes and the tall Evening Primrose, 
the great garden Tansy [Achillea Eupatorium), seed-heads of the Del- 
phiniums that bloomed a month ago, White Mallow, and the grand red- 
ringed Sweet-William called Holborn Glory. Everything speaks of 
good cultivation on a rich loamy soil, for those fine yews want plenty of 
nutriment themselves, and would also be apt to rob their less robust 
neighbours. But then the good gardener knows how to provide for this. 
There is always an opportunity for beautiful treatment, when, as in 



BRICKWALL, NORTHIAM 

)M l-HE I'lCrURK IN IHK PO.SsESSiON 

Mr. R. a. Oswald 



this case, the garden ground ascends from the house. The garden is laid 
out to view, almost as a picture hangs on a wall, in the very best position for 
the convenience of the spectator; and there is nothing that gives a greater 
sense of dignity, with something of a poetical mystery, than separate 
flights of steps ascending one after another in plane after plane-as they 
do m that magnificent example, Canterbury Cathedral. It matters not 
whether the steps are under a roof or not-the impression received is the 
same. And there is much beauty in the steps themselves being long and 
wide and shallow. Looking uphill we see the steps ; looking downhill 
they are lost. It is not the foot only that rests upon the step, it is the 
eye also, and that is why any handsome steps with finely-moulded edees 
are so pleasant to see. The overhanging edge may have arisen from 
utihty m that, where a step must be narrow it gives more space for the 
foot ; but in the wide step it affords still more satisfaction, giving a good 
shadow under the moulded edge, and accentuating the long level lines 
that are so welcome to the eye. 



89 



STONE HALL, EASTON 

THE FRIENDSHIP GARDEN 



It was a pleasant thought, that of the lover of good flowers and firm 
friend of many good people, who first had the idea of combining the two 
sentiments into a garden of enduring beauty. 

Such a garden has been made at Easton by the Countess of Warwick. 
The site of the Friendship Garden has been happily chosen, close to the 
remains of an ancient house called Stone Hall, which now serves Lady 
Warwick as a garden-house and library of garden books. 

The flower-plots are arranged in a series of concentric circles ; the 
plants are the gifts of friends. The name of each plant and that of the 
giver are recorded on an imperishable majolica plaque. Many well- 
known givers' names are here, from that of the very highest in the land 
downward. The plants themselves comprise many of the best and 
handsomest. 

The picture shows the garden as it is about the middle of September ; 
the time of the great White Pyrethrum, the perennial Sunflowers and the 
earliest of the Michaelmas Daisies. The bush of Lavender is blooming 
late, its normal flowering time is a month earlier. But Lavender, 
especially when some of the first bloom is cut, will often go on flowering, 
as later-formed shoots come to blooming strength. Let us hope that the 
giver is not shortlived like the gift, for Lavender bushes, after a few 
years of strong life, soon wear out. Already this one is showing signs of 
age, and it would be well to set a few cuttings in spring or autumn, or, 
still better, to layer it by one of the lower branches, in order to renew 

90 



STONE HALL, EASTON : THE FRIENDSHIP 
GARDEN 

FROM THE PICTURE IN THE POSSESSION OF 

The Countess of Warwick 



the life of the plant when the strength of the present bush comes to an 
end. 

Such a garden, full of so keen a personal interest, sets one thinking. 
What will become of it fifty or a hundred years hence ? The flowers, 
with due diligence of division, and replanting and enriching of the soil, 
will live for ever. The name-plates, with care and protection from 
breakage, will also live. But what will these names be one or two 
generations hence ? Will the plants all be there ? And what of the 
Friendships ? They are something belonging intimately to the lives of 
those now living. What record of them will endure ; or enduring, be 
of use or comfort to those who come after ? 

Then one thinks and wonders — what hand, perhaps quite a humble 
one — planted the old apple-tree that has its stem now girdled by a rustic 
seat. Its days are perhaps already numbered ; the top is thin and open, 
the foliage is spare ; it seems to be beyond fruit-bearing age, and as if it 
had scarcely strength to draw up the circulating sap. 

And then, for all the carefulness given to the making of the garden 
and its tender memories of human kindness in giving and receiving, the 
plant that dominates the whole, and gives evidence of the oldest 
occupation from times past, and promises the greatest attainment of age 
in days to come, is the Ivy on the old Stone Hall. Probably it was 
never planted at all — came by itself, as we carelessly say — or planted, as 
we may more thoughtfully and worthily say, by the hand of God, and 
now doing its part of sheltering and fostering the Garden of Friendship. 
Should not the Ivy also have its heart-shaped plate and its most grateful 
and reverent inscription, as a noble plant, the gift of the kindest Friend 
of all, who first created a garden for the sustenance and delight of man and 
put into his heart that love of beautiful flowers that has always endured 
as one of the chiefest and quite the purest of his human pleasures ? 

There is a rose-garden beyond the bank of shrubs to the left, where 
each Rose, on one of the permanent labels, here shaped after the pattern 
of a Tudor Rose, has a quotation from the poets. Here are, among 
others, the older roses of our gardens, the Damask and the Rose of 
Provence, the Cinnamon and the Musk Rose, the bushy Briers and the 
taller Eglantine that we now call Sweetbrier, 

91 



Close at hand there is also a Shakespeare Garden, designed to show 
what were the garden-flowers commonly in use in his time. Here we 
may again find Rosemary — that sweetly aromatic shrub, so old a 
favourite in English gardens. Its long-enduring scent made it the 
emblem of constancy and friendship. And here should be Rue, also 
classed by Shakespeare among " nose-herbs," and the sweet-leaved 
Eglantine, and Lads-Love, Balm and Gilliflowers (our Carnations), a few 
kinds of Lilies, Musk and Damask Roses, Violets, Peonies, and many 
others of our oldest garden favourites. 



92 



THE DEANERY GARDEN, ROCHESTER 



Those who know the Dean of Rochester,* either personally or by 
reputation, will know that where he dwells there will be a beautiful 
garden. His fame as a rosarian has gone throughout the length 
and breadth of Britain, and far beyond, and his practical activity in 
spreading and fostering a love of Roses must have been the means of 
gladdening many a heart, and may be reckoned as by no means the 
least among the many beneficent influences of his long and distinguished 
ministry. 

A few days' visit to Dean Hole's own home at Caunton Manor, 
near Newark, will ever remain among the writer's pleasantest memories. 
It must have been five and twenty years ago, and it was June, the time of 
Roses. To one whose home was on a poor sandy soil it was almost a 
new sight to see the best of Roses, splendidly grown and revelling in a 
good loam. Not that the credit was mainly due to the nature of the 
garden ground, for, as the Dean (then Canon Hole) points out in his 
delightful " Book about Roses," the soil had to be made to suit his 
favourite flower. In this, or some one of his books, he feelingly describes 
how many of the visitors to his garden, seeing the splendid vigour of his 
Roses, at once ascribed it to the excellence of his soil. " Of course," 
they said, " your flowers are magnificent, but then, you see, you have got 
such a soil for Roses." " I should think I had got a soil for Roses," was 
the reply, " didn't I mix it all myself and take it there in a barrow ? " I 
quote from memory, but this is the sense of this excellent lesson. .The 
writer's own experience is exactly the same. Of the quantities of garden 

* These lines were in print before the lamented death of Dean Hole. 

93 



visitors who have come — their number has had to be stringently limited 
of late — not one in twenty will believe that one loves a garden well 
enough to take a great deal of trouble about it. 

In fact, it is only this unceasing labour and care and watchfulness ; 
the due preparation according to knowledge and local experience ; the 
looking out for signal of distress or for the time for extra nourishment, 
water, shelter or support, that produces the garden that satisfies any one 
with somewhat of the better garden knowledge ; a knowledge that does 
not make for showy parterres or for any necessarily costly complications ; 
rather, indeed, for all that is simplest, but that produces something that 
is apparent at once to the eye, and sympathetic to the mind, of the true 
garden-lover. 

It must have been a painful parting from the well-loved Roses and 
the many other beauties of the Caunton garden, when the new duties of 
honourable advancement called Canon Hole from the old home to the 
Deanery of Rochester ; from the pure air of Nottinghamshire to 
that of a town, with the added reek of neighbouring lime and cement 
works. But even here good gardening has overcome all difficulties, 
and though, when the air was more than usually loaded with the foul 
gases given off by these industries, the Dean would remark, with a flash 
of his characteristic humour, that Rochester was " a beautiful place 
— to get away from," yet the Deanery garden is now full of Roses 
and quantities of other good garden flowers, all grandly grown and in the 
best of health. Roses are in fact rampant. A rough trellis, simply made 
of split oak after the manner of the hurdles used for folding sheep in the 
Midlands, but about six feet high, stands at the back of the main double 
flower-border. Rambling Roses and others of free-growing habit are 
loosely trained to this, their great heads of bloom hanging out every way 
with fine effect ; each Rose is given freedom to show its own way of 
beauty, while the trellis gives enough support and guides the general line 
of the great hedge of Roses. 

The Dean is not alone among the flowers, for Mrs. Hole is also one 
of the best of gardeners. 

The picture shows a portion of a double flower-border where a 
curving path connects two others that are at different angles. In the 

94 



THE DEANERY GARDEN, ROCHESTER 

from the picture in the possession of 
Mr. G. a. Tonge 







% iJ 




distance, rising to a height of a hundred feet, is the grand old Norman 
keep ; the rare Deptford Pink {Dianthus Armerid) grows in its masonry 
The ancient city wall is one of the garden's boundaries. Another old 
wall, that is within the garden, has been made the home of many a good 
rock-plant. On the left, in the picture, are masses of Poppies, Roses 
and White Lihes, with Alstromeria, Love-in-a-Mist, and Larkspurs 
both annual and perennial ; the background is of the soft, feathery 
foliage of Asparagus. The Roses are of all shapes ; single and double • 
show Roses and garden Roses; standards, bushes and free-growing 
ramblers. On the right are more Larkspurs, Irises in seed-pod. Lavender, 
and some splendidly-grown Lilium szovitsianum, one of the grandest of 
Lilies, and, where it can be grown like this, one of the finest things that 
can be seen in a garden. Its tender lemon colouring has suffered in the 
reproduction, which makes it somewhat too heavy. 

The upper part of a greenhouse shows in the picture. It is some- 
times impossible to keep such a structure out of sight, but one like 
this, of the plainest possible kind, is the least unsightly of its class. It is 
just an honest thing, for the needs of the garden and for a part of its 
owner's pleasure. The fatal thing is when an attempt is made to render 
greenhouses ornamental, by the addition of fretted cast-iron ridges and 
fidgety finials. These ill-placed futilities only serve to draw attention to 
something which, by its nature, cannot possibly be made an ornament in 
a garden, while it is comparatively harmless if let alone, and especially if 
the wood-work is not painted white but a neutral grey. In all these 
matters of garden structures; seats, arbours and so forth, it is much best 
in a simple garden to keep to what is of modest and quiet utility. In 
the case of a large place, which presents distinct architectural features, it 
is another matter ; for there such details as these come within the 
province of the architect. 



95 



COMPTON WYNYATES 



In the very foremost rank among the large houses still remaining that 
were built in Tudor times is the Warwickshire home of the Marquess of 
Northampton. The walls are of brick, wide-jointed after the old custom, 
with quoins, doorways, and window-frames of freestone, wrought into 
rich and beautiful detail in the heads of the bays and the grand old 
doorway, whose upper ornament is a large panel bearing the sculptured 
arms of King Henry VIII. 

Formerly the house was entirely surrounded by a moat, which 
approached it closely on all sides but one, where a small garden 
was inclosed. Now, on the three sides next the building, grass 
lawns take its place. On all sides but one, hilly ground rises almost 
immediately; in steep slopes for the most part, beautifully wooded with 
grand elms. 

To the north is the small garden still inclosed by the moat. Straight 
along it is a broad grass walk with flower borders on both sides, leading 
to a thatched summer-house that looks out upon the moat. Lesser paths 
lead across and around among vegetables and old fruit-trees. At one 
corner is a venerable Mulberry. 

The space within the quadrangle of the building is turfed and has 
cross-paths paved with stone flags. Bushes of hardy Fuchsia mark their 
outer angles of intersection. At the foot of the walls hardy Ferns are in 
luxuriance, and nothing could better suit the place. There are a few 
climbing Roses, but they are not overdone ; the beautiful building is 
sufficiently graced, but not smothered, by vegetation. So it is throughout 
the place both within and without ; house and garden show a loving 

96 



COMPTON WYNYATES 

from the picture in the possession of 
Mr. George S. Elgood 



reverence for the grand old heritage and that sound taste and knowledge 
that create and maintain well and wisely. 

From the portions of the site of the old moat that are now grass, a 
turf slope rises to a height of about eight feet. On the upper level is a 
gravel walk, and beyond it a yew hedge about four feet high, with orna- 
ments of peacocks cut in it at the principal openings, and of ball and 
such-like forms at other apertures. This is on the level of the main 
parterre. A wide gravel path divides the garden into two equal portions, 
swinging round in the middle space to give place to a circular grass-plot 
with a sundial. 

This beautiful place offers so few details that can be adversely 
criticised that these few are the more noticeable. The sundial has a 
handsome shaft, but should stand upon a much wider step. The introduc- 
tion of pyramid fruit-trees at concentric points, both here and in other 
parts of the design, is an experiment of doubtful value, that will probably 
never add to the pictorial value of the design. The garden critic may 
also venture to suggest that the pergola, which is well placed at the eastern 
end of the parterre, deserves better piers than its posts of fir. Here 
would be the place for some simple use of specially made bricks, such as 
a pier hexagonal in plan built of bricks of two shapes, diamond and 
triangle, two inches thick, with a wide mortar joint. Each course would 
take two bricks of each shape, and their disposition, alternating with 
each succeeding course, would secure an admirable bond. 

The great parterre has main divisions of grass paths twelve feet wide, 
each subdivision — four on each side of the cross-walk and sundial — of 
eight three-sided beds disposed Union-Jack-wise, with bordering beds 
stopped by a clipped Box-bush at each end. Narrow grass walks are 
between the beds. The borders are roomy enough to accommodate 
some of the largest of the good hardy flowers, for the garden is given to 
these, not to " bedding stuff." Here are some of the tall perennial Sun- 
flowers, eight feet high ; the great autumn Daisy {Pyrethrum uliginosum) ; 
bushes of Lavender with Pentstemons growing through them — a capital 
combination, doing away with the need of staking the Pentstemons ; the 
last of the Phloxes ; for the time of the picture, which was painted in 
this part of the garden, is September. 

97 N 



This bold use of autumnal border flowers invites the exercise of 
invention and ingenuity ; for instance, August is the main time for the 
flowering of Lavender, and, though a thinner crop succeeds the heavier 
normal yield, yet the bushes then look thin of bloom. Clematises, 
purple, lilac and white, can be planted among them, and can easily be 
guided, by an occasional touch with the hand, to run over the Lavender 
bushes. The same capital autumn flowers should be planted with the 
handsome white Everlasting Pea. The Pea is supported by stout 
branching spray and does its own good work in July. When the bloom 
is over it is cut off, and the Clematis, which has been growing by its side 
with a support of rather slighter spray, is drawn close to the foliage of 
the Pea and spreads over it. 

The working out of such simple problems is one of the many joys of 
the good gardener ; and every year, with its increased experience, brings 
with it a greater readiness in the invention of such happy combinations. 



98 




. ^jy*t _.i.::_s.- .^,„. ._.. 



CHINA ROSES AND LAVENDER, PALMERSTOWN 

from the picture in the i'ossf.ssion (ik 
Mrs. Kennedv-Erskinf, 



PALMERSTOWN 



The Earl of Mayo's residence in County Kildare, Ireland, lies a few miles 
distant from the small market town of Naas. The house is of classical 
design, built within the nineteenth century. Around it is extensive 
park-land that is pleasantly undulating, and is well furnished with hand- 
some trees both grouped and standing singly. In the lower level is a 
large pool with Water-lilies, and natural banks fringed with reeds and the 
other handsome sub-aquatic vegetation that occurs wild in such places. 

There was an older house at Palmerstown in former days, whose 
large walled kitchen garden remains. It is a lengthy parallelogram, 
divided in the middle into two portions, each nearly a square, by a fine 
old yew hedge with arches cut in it for the two walks that pass through. 
The paths are broad, and some width on each side has been planted as a 
flower border, giving ample space for the good cultivation and enjoyment 
of all the best of the hardy flowers, so willing to show their full growth 
and beauty in the soft genial climate of the sister island. 

It is a place that shows at once the happy effect of wise and sure 
direction, for Lady Mayo is an accomplished gardener, and the inclosure 
abounds with evidences of fine taste and thoughtful intention. One 
length of border is given to Lavender and China Rose, always a delightful 
and most harmonious mixture. There is a length of some twenty yards of 
this pleasant combination — the picture shows one end — with a few groups 
of taller plants, such as Bocconia, behind. Fruit-trees, trained as espaliers, 
form the back of the border, or sometimes there is a hedge of Sweet Pea. 
Vegetables occupy the middle portions of the quarters. The flower- 
bordered paths pass across and across the middle space, with others about 

99 



ten feet within the walls and parallel with them. Quite in the middle 
the path passes round a fountain basin, and there are four arches on which 
Roses and Clematis are trained. 

Such flower borders give ample opportunity for the practising of 
good gardening. The task is the easier in that only one of the pairs of 
borders can be seen at a glance, and a definite scheme of colour pro- 
gression can easily be arranged. Such schemes are well worth thinking 
out. The writer's own experience favours a plan in which the borders 
begin with tender colourings of pale blue, white and pale yellow, with 
bluish foliage, passing on to the stronger yellows. These lead to orange, 
scarlet and strong blood-reds. The scale of colouring then returns 
gradually to the pale and cool colours. 

It is by such simple means that the richest effects of colour are 
obtained, whether in a continuous border or in clump-shaped masses. A 
separate space of flower-border may also be well treated by the use of an 
even more restricted scheme of colouring. Purple and lilac flowers, with 
others of pink and white only, and foliage of grey and silvery quality, 
the darkest being such as that of Rosemary and Echinops, make a 
charming flower-picture, with a degree of pictorial value that any one 
who had not seen it worked out would scarcely think possible. 

The right choice of treatment depends in great measure on the 
environment. When this, as at Palmerstown, consists of old walls and a 
grand hedge of venerable yews, a suitable frame is ready for the display 
of almost any kind of garden-picture. 

The yews are ten feet high and six feet through. Over a seat one of 
them is cut into the form of a peacock. To the left of the green 
archway in the Lavender picture, the yew takes the form of the heraldic 
wild-cat, the Mayo crest. Outside the garden is a yew walk of un- 
trimmed trees ; they show in the picture to the right, over the wall. 
Here, in the heat of summer, the coolness and dim light are not only in 
themselves restful and delightful, but, after passing along the bright 
borders, where eye and brain become satiated with the brilliancy of Hght 
and colour, the cool retreat is doubly welcome, preparing them afresh for 
further appreciation of the flower-borders. 



ST. ANNE'S, CLONTARF 



There is perhaps no place within the British islands so strongly 
reminiscent of Italy as St. Anne's, in County Dublin, one of the Irish 
seats of Lord Ardilaun. This impression is first received from the 
number and fine growth of the grand Ilexes, which abound by the sides 
of the approaches and in the park-land near the house. For there are 
Ilexes in groups, in groves, in avenues — all revelling in the mild Irish air 
and nearness to the sea. 

The general impression of the place, as of something in Italy, is 
further deepened by the house of classical design and of palatial aspect, 
both within and without, that has that sympathetic sumptuousness that 
is so charming a character of the best design and ornamentation of the 
Italian Renaissance. For in general when in England we are palatial, we 
are somewhat cold, and even forbidding. We stand aloof and endure our 
greatness, and behave as well as we are able under the slightly embarrassing 
restrictions. But in Italy, as at St. Anne's, things may be largely 
beautiful and even grandiose, and yet all smiling and easily gracious and 
humanly comforting. 

As it is in the house, so also is it in the garden ; the same sentiment 
prevails, although the garden shows no effort in its details to assume an 
Italian character. But apparent everywhere is the remarkable genius of 
Lady Ardilaun — a queen among gardeners. A thorough knowledge of 
plants and the finest of taste ; a firm grasp and a broad view, that remind 
one of the great style of the artists of the School of Venice — these are 
the acquirements and cultivated aptitudes that make a consummate 
gardener. 

lOI 



The grounds themselves were not originally of any special beauty. 
All the present success of the place is due to good treatment. Adjoining 
the house, at the northern end of its eastern face, is a winter garden. 
Looking from the end of this eastward, is a sight that carries the mind 
directly to Southern Europe ; an avenue of fine Ilexes, and, at the end, a 
blue sea that might well be the Mediterranean. Passing to the left, 
before the Ilexes begin, is a walk leading into a walled inclosure of about 
two acres. Next the wall all round is a flower-border ; then there is a 
space of grass, then a middle group of four square figures, each bordered 
on three sides by a grand yew hedge that is clipped into an outline of 
enriched scallops like the edge of a silver Mentieth ; a series of forms 
consisting of a raised half-circle, then a horizontal shoulder, and then 
a hollow equal to the raised member. 

The genial climate admits of the use of many plants that generally 
need either winter housing or some special contrivance to ensure well- 
being. Thus there are great clumps of the blue African Lily [Agapan- 
thus) ; and Iris Susiana blooms by the hundred, treated apparently as an 
ordinary border plant. 

The picture shows a portion of a double flower-border in another 
square walled garden, formerly a kitchen garden, and only comparatively 
lately converted into pleasure-ground. Yews planted in a wide half- 
circle form a back-ground to the bright flowers and to a statue on a 
pedestal. The intended effect is not yet finished, for the trellis at the 
back of the borders is hardly covered with its rambling Roses, which 
will complete the picture by adding the needed height that will bring it 
into proper relation with the tall yews. There is a cleverly invented 
edging which gives added dignity as well as regularity, and obviates the 
usual falling over of some of the contents of the border on to the path ; 
an incident that is quite in character in a garden of smaller proportion, 
but would here be out of place. A narrow box edging, just a trim line 
of green, has within it a good width of the foliage of Cerastium. The 
bloom, of course, was over by the middle of June, but the close carpet of 
downy white leaf remains as a grey-white edging throughout the summer 
and autumn. 

Though this border shows bold masses of flowers, it scarcely gives an 

I02 



ST. ANNE'S, CLONTARF 

FROM THE PICTURE IN THE POSSESSION OF 

Miss Mannering 



idea of the general scale of grand effect that follows the carrying out of 
the design and intention of its accomplished mistress. For here things 
are done largely and yet without obtrusive ostentation. They seem just 
right in scale. For instance, in the house are some great columns ; huge 
monoliths of green Galway marble. It is only when details are examined 
that it is perceived how splendid they are, and only when the master 
tells the story, that the difficulty of transporting them from the West of 
Ireland can be appreciated. For they were quarried in one piece, and 
bridges broke under their immense weight. At one point in their 
journey they sank into a bog, and their rescue, and indeed their whole 
journey and final setting up at its end, entailed a series of engineering 
feats of no small difficulty. 



AUCHINCRUIVE 



The mild climate of south-western Scotland is most advantageous for 
gardening. Hydrangeas and Myrtles flourish, Fuchsias grow into bushes 
eight to ten feet high. Mr. Oswald's garden lies upon the river Ayr, a 
few miles distant from the town of Ayr. The house stands boldly on a 
crag just above the river, which makes its music below, tumbling over 
rocky shelves and rippling over shingle-bedded shallows. For nearly a 
mile the garden follows the river bank, in free fashion as befits the place. 
Trees are in plenty and of fine growth, both on the garden side and the 
opposite river shore. Here and there an opening in the trees on the 
further shore shows the distant country. The garden occupies a large space ; 
the grouping of the shrubs and trees taking a wilder character in the 
portions furthest away from the house, so that, mingling at last with native 
growth, garden gradually dies away into wild. Large undulating lawns 
give a sense of space and freedom and easy access. 

That close, fine turf of the gardens of Britain is a thing so familiar to 
the eye that we scarcely think what a wonderful thing it really is. When 
we consider our flower and kitchen gardens, and remember how much 
labour of renewal they need — renewal not only of the plants themselves, 
but of the soil, in the way of manurial and other dressings ; and when 
we consider all the digging and delving, raking and hoeing that must 
be done as ground preparation, constantly repeated ; and then when we 
think again of an ancient lawn of turf, perhaps three hundred years old, 
that, except for moving and rolling, has, for all those long years, taken care 
of itself; it seems, indeed, that the little closely interwoven plants of 
grass are things of wonderful endurance and longevity. The mowing 

104 



AUCHINCRUIVE 

from the picture in the possession 
Mr. R. a. Oswald 



prevents their blooming, so that they form but few fresh plants from 
seed. Imperceptibly the dying of the older plants is going on, and the 
hungry root-fibres of their younger neighbours are feeding on the decay- 
ing particles washed into the earth. 

But whether lawns could exist at all without the beneficent work of 
the earthworms is very doubtful. Every one has seen the little heaps of 
worm-castings upon grass, but it remained for Darwin, after his own long 
experiment and exhaustive observation, partly based upon and compre- 
hending the conclusions of other naturalists, to tell us how largely the 
fertility of our surface soil is due to the unceasing work of these small 
creatures. Worms swallow large quantities of earth and decaying leaves, 
and Darwin's observations led him " to conclude that all the vegetable 
mould over the whole country has passed many times through, and will 
again pass many times through the intestinal canals of worms." This, 
indeed, is the only way in which it is possible for a person with any 
knowledge of the needs of plant-life, to conceive the possibility of any 
one closely-packed crop occupying the same space of ground for hundreds 
of years. The soil, as it passes, little by little, through the bodies of 
the worms, undergoes certain chemical changes which fit it afresh for its 
ever-renewed work of plant-sustenance. 

There are some who, viewing the castings as an eyesore on their 
lawns, cast about for means of destroying the worms. This is unwise 
policy, and would soon lead to the impoverishment of the grass. The 
castings, when dry, are easily broken down by the roller or the birch- 
broom, and the grass receives the beneficent top-dressing that assures 
its well-being and healthy continuance. 

The only part of the garden at Auchincruive that is obedient to 
rectangular form, is the kitchen garden and the ground about it. The 
kitchen garden lies some way back from the house and river, and, with 
its greenhouses, is for the most part hidden by two long old yew hedges 
which run in the direction of the river. One of these appears in the 
picture, with its outer ornament of bright border of autumn flowers. 
Here are Tritomas, Gypsophila in mist-like clouds, tall Evening Primrose 
and Campanula pyramidalis, both purple and white, with many other 
good hardy flowers. 

105 o 



The red-leaved tree illustrates a question which often arises in the 
writer's mind as to whether trees and shrubs of this coloured foliage, 
such as Prunus Pissardi and Copper Beech and Copper Hazel are not of 
doubtful value in the general garden landscape. Trees of the darkest 
green, as this very picture shows by its dark upright yews, are always of 
value, but the red-leaved tree, though in the present case it has been 
tenderly treated by the artist, is apt to catch the eye as a violent and 
discordant patch among green foliage. Especially is this the case with 
the darker form of copper beech, which, in autumn, takes a dull, solid, 
heavy kind of colour, especially when seen from a little distance, that is 
often a disfiguring blot in an otherwise beautiful landscape. 

The same criticism may occasionally apply to trees of conspicuous 
golden foliage, but errors in planting these, though often made, may 
easily be avoided by suitable grouping and association with white and 
yellow flowers. Indeed it would be delightful to work out a whole 
golden garden. 



1 06 



THE YEW ARBOUR, LYDE 

from the pici'ure in the possession ol 
Mr. George E. B. Wrey 



YEW ARBOUR: LYDE 



It is not in large gardens only that hardy flowers are to be seen in 
perfection. Often the humblest wayside cottage may show such a 
picture of plant-beauty as will put to shame the best that can be seen at 
the neighbouring squire's. And where labouring folk have a liking for 
clipped yews, their natural good taste and ingenuity often turns them into 
better forms than are seen among the examples of more pretentious 
topiary work. 

The cottager has the undoubted advantage that, as his tree is usually 
an isolated one, he can see by its natural way of growth the kind of 
figure it suggests for his clipping ; whereas the gardener in the large 
place usually has to follow a fixed design. So it is that one may see in a 
cottage garden such a handsome example as the yew in the picture. 

The lower part of the tree is nearly square in plan, with a niche cut 
out for a narrow seat. There is space enough between the top of 
this and the underside of the great mushroom-shaped canopy, to allow 
the upper surface of the square base to be green and healthy. The great 
rounded top proudly carries its handsome crest, that is already a good 
ornament and will improve year by year. The garden is raised above 
the road and only separated from it by a wall which is low on the garden 
side and deeper to the road. It passes by the side of the yew, so that the 
occupier of the seat commands a view of the road and all that goes along 
it, and can exchange greetings and gossip with those who pass by. 

The cottagers of the neighbourhood — it is in Herefordshire, about 
four miles from Hereford — have a special fancy for these clipped yews ; 
many examples may be met with in an afternoon's walk. Not very far 

107 



from this is a capital peacock excellently rendered in conventional fashion. 
It stands well above a high pedestal, one side of which is hollowed out 
for a little seat. 

One may well understand what a pride and pleasure and amusing 
interest these cHpped trees are to the cottage folk ; how after each year's 
clipping they would discuss and criticise the result and note the progress 
of the growth towards the hoped-for form. A pile of cheeses is a 
favourite pattern, sometimes on a square base, with the topmost ornament 
cut into a spire or even a crown. 

The English peasant has a love for ornament that always strives to 
find some kind of expression. In many parts the thatcher makes a kind 
of basket ornament on the top of his rick ; and the pattern of crossed 
laths, pegged down with the hazel " spars " that finishes the thatched 
cottage roof near the eaves, is of true artistic value. The carter 
loves to dress his horses for town or market, and a fine team, with 
worsted ribbons in mane and headstall, and quantities of gleaming 
highly-polished brasses, is indeed a pleasant sight upon the country high 
road. 

Now, alas ! when cheap rubbish, misnamed ornamental, floods village 
shops and finds its way into the cottages, the cottager's taste, which was 
always true and good as long as it depended on its own prompting and 
instinct, and could only deal with the simplest materials, is rapidly 
becoming bewildered and debased. All the more, therefore, let us value 
and cherish these ornaments of the older traditions ; the bright little 
gardens and the much-prized clipped yew. 

A usual feature of these cottage yews is that the seat is for one person 
alone. The labourer sits in his little retreat enjoying his evening pipe 
after his day's work, while the wife puts the children to bed and gets the 
supper. Probably he has been harvesting all day, and his strong frame is 
tired, with that feeling of almost pleasant fatigue that comes to a whole- 
some body after a good day's work well done ; and when the hardly-earned 
rest is thoroughly enjoyed. So he sits quite quiet, with one eye on the 
possible interests of his outer world, the road, and the other on the 
beauty of his flower-border. And what a pretty double border it is, 
with its grand mass of pink Japan Anemone and well-flowered clump of 

1 08 



Goldilocks (one of the few yellow-bloomed Michaelmas Daisies), looking 
at its near relation in purple over the way, 

A graceful little Plum-tree shoots up through the flowers ; its long 
free shoots of tender green seem to laugh at the rigid surface of the 
clipped yew beyond. Don't be too confident about your freedom, little 
Plum ; it is more than likely that you will be severely pruned next 
winter. But you need not mind, for if you lose one kind of beauty, you 
will gain others ; the pure white bloom of spring-time, and the autumn 
burden of purple fruit ; and be both handsome and useful, Uke your 
neighbour the old yew. 



109 



AUTUMN FLOWERS 



How stout and strong and full of well-being they are — the autumn flowers 
of our English gardens ! Hollyhocks, Tritomas, Sunflowers, Phloxes, 
among many others, and lastly, Michaelmas Daisies. The flowers of the 
early year are lowly things, though none the less lovable ; Primroses, 
Double Daisies, Anemones, small Irises, and all the beautiful host of 
small Squill and Snow-Glory and little early Daffodils, Then come the 
taller Daffodils and Wallflowers, Tulips, and the old garden Peonies and 
the lovely Tree Peonies. Then the true early summer flowers. 

If you notice, as the seasons progress, the average of the flowering 
plants advances in stature. By June this average has risen again, with the 
Sea Hollies and Flag Irises, the Chinese Peonies and the earher Roses. 
And now there are some quite tall things. Mulleins seven and eight feet 
high, some of them from last year's seed, but the greater number from 
the seed-shedding of the year before ; the great white-leaved Mullein 
(Verboscum olympicum), taking four years to come to flowering strength. 
But what a flower it is, when it is at last thrown up ! What a glorious 
candelabrum of branching bloom ! Perhaps there is no other hardy plant 
whose bulk of bloom on a single stem fills so large a space. And what 
a grand effect it has when it is rightly planted ; when its great sulphur 
spire shows, half or wholly shaded, against the dusk of a wood edge or in 
some sheltered bay, where garden is insensibly melting into woodland. 
This is the place for these grand plants (for their flowers flag in hot 
sunshine), in company with white Foxglove and the tall yellow Evening 
Primrose, another tender bloom that is shy of sunlight. Four o'clock of 
a June morning is the time to see these fine things at their best, when the 

no 



birds are waking up, and but for them the world is still, and the Cluster- 
Roses are opening their buds. No one can know the whole beauty of a 
Cluster-Rose who has not seen it when the summer day is quite young ; 
when the buds of such a rose as the Garland have just burst open and 
the sun has not yet bleached their wonderful tints of shell-pink and 
tenderest shell-yellow into their only a little less beautiful colouring of 
full midday. 

By July there are still more of our tall garden flowers ; the stately 
Delphiniums, seven, eight, and nine feet high ; tall white Lilies ; the 
tall yellow Meadow-Rues, Hollyhocks, and Sweet Peas in plenty. 

By August we are in autumn ; and it is the month of the tall 
Phloxes. There are some who dislike the sweet, faint and yet strong 
scent of these flowers ; to me it is one of the delights of the flower 
year. 

No garden flower has been more improved of late years ; a whole 
new range of excellent and brilliant colouring has been developed. I 
can remember when the only Phloxes were a white and a poor Lilac ; 
the individual flowers were small and starry and set rather widely apart. 
They were straggly-looking things, though always with the welcome 
sweet scent. Nowadays we all know the beauty of these fine flowers ; 
the large size of the massive heads and of the individual blooms ; the 
pure whites, the good Lilacs and Pinks, and that most desirable range of 
salmon-rose colourings, of which one of the first that made a lively stir in 
the world of horticulture was the one called Lothair. In its own 
colouring of tender salmon-rose it is still one of the best. Careful seed- 
saving among the brighter flowers of this colouring led to the tints 
tending towards scarlet, among which Etna was a distinct advance, to be 
followed, a year or two later, by the all-conquering Coquelicot. Some 
florists have also pushed this docile flower into a range of colouring which 
is highly distasteful to the trained colour-eye of the educated amateur ; a 
series of rank purples and virulent magentas ; but these can be avoided. 
What is now most wanted, and seems to be coming, is a range of tender, 
rather light Pinks, that shall have no trace of the rank quality that seems 
so unwilling to leave the Phloxes of this colouring. 

Garden Phloxes were originally hybrids of two or three North 
1 1 1 



American species ; for garden purposes they are divided into two 
groups, the earlier, blooming in July, much shorter in stature and more 
bushy, being known as the suffruticosa group, the later, taller kinds 
being classed as the decussata. They are a little shy of direct sunlight, 
though they can bear it in strong soils where the roots are always cool. 
They like plenty of food and moisture ; in poor, dry, sandy soils they 
fail absolutely, and even if watered and carefully watched, look miserable 
objects. 

But where Phloxes do well, and this is in most good garden ground, 
they are the glory of the August flower-border. 



In the teaching and practice of good gardening the fact can never be 
too persistently urged nor too trustfully accepted, that the best effects are 
accomplished by the simplest means. The garden artist or artist gardener 
is for ever searching for these simple pictures ; generally the happy com- 
bination of some two kinds of flowers that bloom at the same time, and 
that make either kindly harmonies or becoming contrasts. 

In trying to work out beautiful garden effects, besides those purposely 
arranged, it sometimes happens that some little accident — such as the 
dropping of a seed, that has grown and bloomed where it was not sown — 
may suggest some delightful combination unexpected and unthought of. 
At another time some small spot of colour may be observed that will 
give the idea of the use of this colour in some larger treatment. 

It is just this self-education that is needed for the higher and more 
thoughtful gardening, whose outcome is the simply conceived and 
beautiful pictures, whether they are pictures painted with the brush on 
paper or canvas, or with living plants in the open ground. In both cases 
it needs alike the training of the eye to observe, of the brain to note, and 
of the hand to work out the interpretation. 

The garden artist — by which is to be understood the true lover of good 
flowers, who has taken the trouble to learn their ways and wants and 
moods, and to know it all so surely that he can plant with the assured 
belief that the plants he sets will do as he intends, just as the painter can 

112 



PHLOX AND DAISY 

from the picture in ihe possession of 
Ladv Mount-Stephev 



compel and command the colours on his palette — plants with an unerring 
hand and awaits the sure result. 

When one says " the simplest means," it does not always mean the 
easiest. Many people begin their gardening by thinking that the making 
and maintaining of a handsome and well-filled flower-border is quite an 
easy matter. In fact, it is one of the most difficult problems in the whole 
range of horticultural practice — wild gardening perhaps excepted. To 
achieve anything beyond the ordinary commonplace mixture, that is 
without plan or forethought, and that glares with the usual faults of bad 
colour-combinations and yawning, empty gaps, needs years of observation 
and a considerable knowledge of plants and their ways as individuals. 

For border plants to be at their best must receive special consideration 
as to their many and different wants. We have to remember that they 
are gathered together in our gardens from all the temperate regions of the 
world, and from every kind of soil and situation. From the sub-arctic 
regions of Siberia to the very edges of the Sahara ; from the cool and 
ever-moist flanks of the Alps to the sun-dried coasts of the Mediterranean ; 
from the Cape, from the great mountain ranges of India ; from the cool 
and temperate Northern States of America — the home of the species from 
which our garden Phloxes are derived ; from the sultry slopes of Chili and 
Peru, where the Alstromerias thrust their roots deep down into the earth 
searching for the precious moisture. 

So it is that as our garden flowers come to us from many climes and 
many soils, we have to bear in mind the nature of their places of origin 
the better to be prepared to give them suitable treatment. We have to 
know, for instance, which are the few plants that will endure drought and 
a poor, hot soil ; for the greater number abhor it ; and yet such places 
occur in some gardens and have to be provided with what is suitable. 
Then we have to know which are those that will only come to their best 
in a rich loam, and that the Phloxes are among these, and the Roses ; and 
which are the plants and shrubs that must have Ume, or at least must have 
it if they are to do their very best. Such are the Clematises and many of 
the lovely little alpines ; while to some other plants, many of the alpines 
that grow on the granite, and nearly all the Rhododendrons, lime is 
absolute poison ; for, entering the system and being drawn up into the 

113 P 



circulation, it clogs and bursts their tiny veins ; the leaves turn yellow, 
the plant dies, or only survives in a miserably crippled state. 

An experienced gardener, if he were blindfolded, and his eyes 
uncovered in an unknown garden whose growths left no soil visible, could 
tell its nature by merely seeing the plants and observing their relative 
well-being, just as, passing by rail or road through an unfamiliar district, 
he would know by the identity and growth of the wild plants and trees 
what was the nature of the soil beneath them. 

The picture, then, showing autumn Phloxes grandly grown, tells of 
good gardening and of a strong, rich loamy soil. This is also proved by 
the height of the Daisies [Chrysanthemum maximum). But the lesson the 
picture so pleasantly teaches is above all to know the merit of one simple 
thing well done. Two charming little stone figures of amorini stand up 
on their plinths among the flowers ; the boy figure holds a bird's nest, 
his girl companion a shell. They are of a pattern not unfrequent in 
English gardens, and delightfully in sympathy with our truest home 
flowers. The quiet background of evergreen hedge admirably suits both 
figures and flowers. 

It is all quite simple — just exactly right. Daisies — always the 
children's flowers, and, with them, another of wide-eyed innocence, of 
dainty scent, of tender colouring. Quite simple and just right ; but 
then — it is in the artist's own garden. 



114 



MYNTHURST 



At the time the picture was painted, Mynthurst was in the occupation 
of Mrs. Wilson, to the work of whose niece. Miss RadclifFe, the garden 
owes much of its charm. 

It Hes in the pleasant district between Reigate and Dorking, on a 
southward sloping hill-side. The house is a modern one of Tudor 
character, standing on a terrace that has a retaining wall and steps to a 
lower level. The garden lies open to the south and south-westerly gales, 
the prevalent winds of the district, but it is partly sheltered by the walls 
of the kitchen garden, and by a yew hedge which runs parallel with one 
of the walls ; the space so inclosed making a sheltered place for the rose 
garden. Here Roses rise in ranks one above the other, and have a 
delightful and most suitable carpet of Love-in-a-mist. This pretty 
annual, so welcome in almost any region of the garden, is especially 
pretty with Roses of tender colouring ; whites, pale yellows, and pale 
pinks. A picture elsewhere shows it combined with Rose Viscountess 
Folkestone. 

Beyond the rose garden, a path leads away at a right angle between 
the orchard and the kitchen-garden wall. Here is the subject of the 
picture. A broad border runs against the wall, as long as the length of 
the kitchen garden. A border so wide is difficult to manage unless it has 
a small blind alley at the back rather near the wall, to give access to 
what is on the wall and to the taller plants in the back of the border. 
But here it is arranged in another way. The front edge of the border is 
not continuous, but has little paths at intervals cutting across it and 
reaching nearly to the wall. This method of obtaining easy access also 

115 



has its merits, though it involves a large amount of edging. Mynthurst 
has a strong soil, an advantage not always to be had in this district, 
so that Roses can be well grown, and some of the Lilies. Here the 
Tiger Lily, that fine autumn flower, does finely. It is one of the Lilies 
that is puzzling, or as we call it, capricious, which only means that we 
gardeners are ignorant and do not understand its vagaries. For in some 
other heavy soils it refuses to grow, and in some light ones it luxuriates ; 
but it is so good a plant that it should be tried in every garden. 

It is a pretty plan to have the orchard in connexion with the flower- 
borders; though from the point of view of good gardening the wisdom is 
doubtful of having clumps of flowers round the trunks of the fruit-trees. 
Shallow-rooted annuals for a season or two may do no harm, but the 
disturbance of the ground needful for constant cultivation, with the 
inevitable consequence of worry and irritation of the fruit-trees' roots, 
can hardly fail to be harmful, though the effect meanwhile is certainly 
pretty. The evil may not show at once, but is likely to follow. 

One does not often see so strong a Canterbury Bell in the autumn as 
the one in the picture. It must have been a weak or belated plant of 
last year that made strong growth in early summer. Sometimes one 
sees such a plant that had remained in the kitchen-garden reserve bed ; 
left there because it was weaker than the ones taken for planting out in 
autumn. It is not generally known that these capital plants will bear 
potting when they are almost in bloom, so that when a few are so left, 
they can be used as highly decorative room plants, and have the advan- 
tage of lasting much longer than when in the open border, exposed to the 
sun. One defect these good plants have, which is the way the dying 
flowers suddenly turn brown. Instead of merely fading and falling, and 
so decently veiling their decadence, the brown flowers hang on and are 
very unsightly. It is only, however, a challenge to the vigilance of the 
careful gardener ; they must be visited in the morning garden-round and 
the dead flowers removed. It is like the care needed to arrest the 
depredations of the mullein caterpillar. It is no use wondering whether 
it will come, or hoping it will not appear ; it always comes where there 
are mulleins, about the second week of June. When the first tiny 
enemy is seen, any mulleins there may be should be visited twice a day. 

Ii6 



MYNTHURST 



FROM THK PICTURE IN THE POSSESSION 

iMiss Radcliffe 



In the front of the picture, just under the red rose, is a patch of 
Mimulus, one of the larger variations of the brilHant little M. cardinalis. 
All the kinds like a cool, strong soil; they are really bog plants, and revel 
in moisture. The old Sweet Musk, so favourite a plant in cottage 
windows, likes a half-shady place at the foot of a cool wall. Many a 
dull, sunless yard might be brightened by this sweet and pretty plant. 
The Welsh Poppy, with its bright pale-green leaves and good yellow 
bloom, is also excellent for the same use, but is best sown in place from a 
just-ripened pod. 



117 



ABBEY LEIX 



In a picturesque, but little-known district in Queen's County, Ireland, 
lies Abbey Leix, the residence of Lord de Vesci. It is a land of vigorous 
tree-growth and general richness of vegetation. Hedge-rows show an 
abundance of well-grown ash timber, and the park is full of fine oaks, a 
thing that is rare in Ireland, and that makes it more like English park- 
land of the best character. This impression is accentuated in spring-time 
when the oaks are carpeted with the blue of wild Hyacinths, and when 
the broad woodland rides are also rivers of the same Blue-bells. 

In this favoured land the common Laurel is a beautiful tree, thirty 
feet high ; the mildness of the winter climate allowing it to grow 
unchecked. Only those who have seen it in tree form in the best 
climates of our islands, or in Southern Europe, know the true nature of 
the Laurel's growth, or the poetry and mystery of its moods and aspects. 
The long grey limbs shoot upward and bend and arch in a manner almost 
fantastic. Sometimes a stem will incline downwards and run along the 
ground, followed by another. In the evening half-light they might be 
giant silver-scaled serpents, writhing and twisting and then springing 
aloft and becoming lost to sight in the dim masses of the crowning 
foliage. Seen thus one can hardly reconcile its identity with that of the 
poor, tamed, often-clipped bush of every garden. The Laurel is so 
docile, so easily coerced to the making of a quickly-grown hedge or 
useful screen, that its better qualities as an unmutilated tree in a mild 
district are usually lost sight of. 

The house at Abbey Leix is a stone building of classical design of the 
middie of the eighteenth century. On the northern front is the entrance 

Ii8 



ABBEY-LEIX 

from the picture in the possession of 
Sir James Whitehead, Bart. 



forecourt; on the southern, the garden. Here, next the house, is a wide 
terrace, bounded on the outer side by the parapet of a retaining wall, and 
next the building, by a running guilloche of box-edged beds filled with low- 
growing plants. The terrace has a semi-circular ending, near the eastern 
wall of the house, formed of an evergreen hedge, with a wooden seat 
following the same line, and a sundial at the radial point. At the other 
end, the terrace ends in a flight of downward steps leading to large green 
spaces, with fine trees and flowering shrubs, and eventually to the walled 
gardens. Straight across the terrace from the house is the parterre, 
whose centre ornament is an unusually well-proportioned fountain of the 
same date as the house. It is circular in plan, with a wide lower basin 
and two graduated superimposed tazzas. From this, four cross-paths 
radiate ; the quarters are filled mainly with half-hardy flowers such as 
Gladiolus ; the design being accentuated at several points by the upright 
growing Florence Court Yews. The parterre is inclosed by a low wall, 
backed by a clipped evergreen hedge; on the wall stand at intervals 
graceful stone figures oi amorini^ identical in character with those shown 
in the picture of Phlox and Daisy, and apparently designed by the same 
hand. 

The steps at the western end of the terrace are wide and handsome, 
and are also ornamented with sculptured amorini. The path leads 
onward, at first directly forward, but a little later in a curved line 
through a region of lawn and stream, with trees and groups of flowering 
shrubs. Here and there, on the grass by itself, is one of the free- 
growing Roses, rightly left without any support, and showing the 
natural fountain-like growth that so well displays the beauty of 
many of the Roses of the old Ayrshire class and of some of the 
more modern ramblers. The path passes one end of an avenue of large 
trees, and, after a while, turning to the left, reaches the kitchen 
gardens, consisting of several walled inclosures. One of these, of 
which one wall is occupied by vineries, has been made into a flower 
garden, where hardy flowers, grandly grown, are in the wide borders 
next the wall. A portion of such borders, in an adjoining compartment 
of the garden, forms the subject of the picture. 

The inner space is divided into two squares, one having as a 
119 



centre a rustic summer-house almost hidden by climbing plants ; 
from this radiating grass paths pass between beds of flowers. The 
outer borders in the next walled compartment are ten feet wide, 
and are finely filled with all the best summer plants, perennial, annual 
and biennial. The fine pale yellow Anthemis tinctoria is here grown in 
the way this good plant deserves, and its many companions. Holly- 
hocks, Delphiniums, Japan Anemones, Phloxes and Lavender ; annual 
Chrysanthemums, Gladiolus, Carnations, Tritomas, and all such good 
things, are cleverly and worthily used, and, with the graceful arches of 
free Roses and white Everlasting Pea, make delightful garden pictures 
in all directions. 

The garden of Abbey Leix is one of those places that so pleasantly 
shows the well-directed intention of one who is in close sympathy with 
garden beauty ; for everywhere it reflects the fine horticultural taste 
and knowledge of Lady de Vesci, who made the garden what it is. 



MICHAELMAS DAISIES 



Early in September, when the autumn flowers are at their finest, 
some of the Starworts are in bloom. Even in August they have 
already begun, with the beautiful low-growing Aster acris, one of the 
brightest of flowers of lilac or pale purple colouring. From the time 
this pretty plant is in bloom to near the end of October, and even later, 
there is a constant succession of these welcome Michaelmas Daisies. The 
number of kinds good for garden use is now so great that the growers' 
plant lists are only bewildering, and those who do not know their 
Daisies should see them in some good nursery or private garden and 
make their own notes. As in the case of Phloxes, the improvement in 
the garden kinds is of recent years, for I can remember the time when it 
was a rare thing to see in a garden any other Michaelmas Daisy than a 
very poor form of Novi-Be/gii, a plant of such mean quality that, if it 
came up as a seedling in our gardens to-day, it would be sent at once 
to the rubbish heap. 

When the learner begins to acquire a Daisy-eye he will see what a 
large proportion of the garden kinds are related to this same Novi-Be/gii, 
the Starwort of New England. The greater number of the garden 
varieties are derived from North American species, but they hybridise 
so freely that it is now impossible to group the garden plants with any 
degree of botanical accuracy. But the amateur may well be content with 
a generally useful garden classification, and he will probably learn to know 
his Novi-Be/gii first. Then he wiU come to those Novi-Be/gii that are from 
the species /c^vis, rather wider and brighter green of leaf and only half 
the height. Then, once known, he cannot mistake Nova-Ang/ia, with 

121 Q 



its hairy and slightly viscid stem and foliage, and strong smell, and its two 
distinct colourings — rich purples and reddish pinks. Then again, if he 
observes his plants in early summer, he can never mistake the heart- 
shaped root-leaves of cordifoHus for any other. This is one of the most 
beautiful of the mid-season Starworts, with its myriads of small flowers 
gracefully disposed on the large spreading panicles. Of this the best 
known and most useful are A. cordifoHus elegans and a paler-coloured and 
most dainty variety called Diana. 

Once seen he can never forget the low-growing early A. acris or the 
good garden varieties of A. Amellus, both from European species. 
Several other kinds, both tall and short, early and late, will be added to 
those named, but these may be taken as perhaps the best to begin 
with. 

Where space can be given, it is well to set apart a separate border for 
these fine plants alone. This is done in the garden where Mr. Elgood 
found his subject. Here the Starworts occupy a double border about eight 
feet wide and eighty feet long. They are carefully but not conspicuously 
staked with stiff, branching spray cut out the winter before from oaks 
and chestnuts that had been felled. The spray is put in towards the end 
of June, when the Asters are making strong growth. The borders are 
planted and regulated with the two-fold aim of both form and colour 
beauty. In some places rather tall kinds come forward ; in the case of 
some of the most graceful, such as cordifoHus Diana, the growths being 
rather separated to show the pretty form of the individual branch. In others 
it was thought that their best use was as a flowery mass. Each kind is 
treated at the time of staking according to its own character, and so as 
best to display its natural form and most obvious use. Like all the best 
flower gardening it is the painting of a picture with living plants, but, 
unlike painting, it is done when the palette is empty of its colours. Still 
the good garden-planter who has intimate acquaintance and keen sym- 
pathy with his plants, can plant by knowledge and faith ; by knowledge 
in his certainty of recollection of the habit and stature and colour of his 
plants ; by faith in that he knows that if he does his part well the growing 
thing will be docile to his sure guidance. 

In these borders of Michaelmas Daisies one other flowering plant is 

122 



MICHAELMAS DAISIES, MUNSTEAD WOOD 

from the picture in the possession of 
Mr. T. Norton Longman 



admitted, and well deserves Its place, namely, that fine white Daisy 
Pyrethrum uliginosum, otherwise Chrysanthemum serotmum. There can be 
no doubt that it is a daisy flower and that it blooms at Michaelmas; facts 
that alone would give it a right to a place among the Michaelmas Daisies, 
But it has all the more claim to its place among them in that it is the 
handsomest of the large white Daisies, and, though there are white kinds 
and varieties of the perennial Asters, not one of them can approach it for 
size or pictorial effect. There is also the still taller Chrysanthemum leucan- 
themum or Leucanthemum lacustre^ but this is a plant that has an element of 
coarseness, and unless the spaces are large, and the Asters are thrown up 
to an unusual size by a strong and rich soil, it looks heavy and out of 
proportion. 

Towards the front of the main portions of the Aster borders are rather 
bold, but quite informal edgings of grey-leaved plants such as white 
Pink, Stachys and Lavender-cotton ; in places only a few inches wide, 
as where the rich purple, gold-eyed Aster Amellus comes to within 
a few inches of the path, in the white Pink's region, or again, where 
the grey, bushy masses of Lavender-cotton run in a yard deep among the 
Daisies. 

About fifteen sorts are used in this double border ; very early and very 
late ones are excluded, so as to have a good display from the third week of 
September for a month onward. They are mostly in rather large groups 
of one kind together. 

There is a more than usual pleasure in such a Daisy garden, kept 
apart and by itself; because the time of its best beauty is just the time 
when the rest of the garden is looking tired and overworn — evidently 
dying for the year. Some trees are already becoming bare of leaves ; the 
tall sunflowers look bedraggled ; Dahlias have been pinched by frost and 
battered by autumn gales, and it is impossible to keep up any pretence 
of well-being in the borders of other hardy flowers. 

Then with the eye full of the warm colouring of dying vegetation 
and the few remaining blooms of perennial Helianthus and half-hardy 
marigolds of the fading borders, to pass through some screening 
evergreens to the fresh, clean, lively colouring of the lilac, purple 
and white Daisies, is like a sudden change from decrepit age to the 

123 



brightness of youth, from the gloom of late autumn to the joy of full 
springtide. 

Another excellent way of growing the perennial Asters is among 
shrubs, and preferably among Rhododendrons, whose rich green forms a 
fine background for their tender grace, and whose stiff branches give them 
the support they need. 



24 



THE ALCOVE, ARLEY 

from the picture in the possession of 
Mrs. Campbell 



ARLEY 



Throughout the length and breadth of England it would be hard to find 
borders of hardy flowers handsomer or in any way better done than those 
at Arley in Cheshire, The house, an old one, was much enlarged by the 
late Mr. R. E. Egerton-Warburton, and the making of the gardens, now 
come to their young maturity, was the happy work of many years of his 
life. Here we see the spirit of the old Italian gardening, in no way 
slavishly imitated, but wholesomely assimilated and sanely interpreted to 
fit the needs of the best kind of English garden of the formal type, as to 
its general plan and structure. It is easy to see in the picture how 
happily mated are formality and freedom ; the former in the garden's 
comfortable walls of living greenery with their own appropriate orna- 
ments, and the latter in the grandly grown borders of hardy flowers. 

The subject of the picture is the main feature in the garden plan. A 
path some fifteen feet wide, with grassy verges of ample width, and deep 
borders of hardy flowers. What is shown is about one fourth of the 
whole length. At the back of the right-hand border is the high old wall 
of the kitchen garden ; on the left, as grand a wall of yew, ten feet high 
and five feet thick, its straight line pleasantly broken and varied by shaped 
buttresses of clipped yew, whose forms take that distinct light and shade, 
and strong variations of solidity of green colouring, that make the surfaces 
of our clipped English yew so valuable a ground-work for masses of 
brilliant flowers. 

The same yew buttresses are against the wall on the right, placed 
symmetrically with the ones opposite. Near the end, as shown in 
the picture, the last pair of buttresses come forward the whole width 

125 



of the border, each buttress ending in an important shaped finial to the 
front. Between these and the well-designed alcove in stone masonry that 
so satisfactorily ends the walk, is a space of turf, leading on the left, 
through an arch cut in the ten-foot-high yew hedge, to the bowling- 
green. Nothing can make a more effective shelter than such grand yew 
hedges ; the solid wall itself is scarcely better. Even on the roughest 
days, with a storm of wind of destructive power outside, the space within 
is calm and sheltered, and the flowers escape that cruel battering from 
fierce blasts that add so much to the difficulty of gardening in exposed 
places. But the planting and thus providing this much-needed shelter is 
just good gardening, and when, in addition, it is done to a design of 
happy invention and true proportion, with just such refinements of detail 
and ornament as are suited to the garden's calibre and the owner's 
endowment, then, with the addition of splendid masses of good flowers 
grandly grown, do we find gardening at its best. 

The time of year of this picture is in or near the second week of July, 
when the White Lily is at its finest, and the Orange Lily is in bloom, 
with the Blue Delphinium and many another good garden flower. One 
can see how all the best garden flowers are utilised here. There is the 
White Sidalcea at the front of the border, one of the many plants of the 
Mallow family that are so important in our borders ; for our grand 
Hollyhocks are Mallows too. This White Sidalcea has much the same 
value as the large White Snapdragon, one good variety of which, the 
precursor of the many good large kinds now grown, was the only one of 
its kind at the time the picture was painted. Of late their numbers have 
greatly increased, and also their stature and the variety of their beautiful 
colourings, so that now they can be used as tall plants of great effect. 
Six feet two inches was the measurement of one grand spike of soft, rosy 
colouring in the writer's own garden last autumn. These capital plants 
have been " fixed," as gardeners say, in ranges of different heights ; tall, 
intermediate, and the quite dwarf little cushions whose form is perhaps as 
little suited to the character of the plant as the foolish little dwarf Sweet 
Peas, that are only wilfully wanton, freakish distortions of a beautiful and 
graceful plant, whose duty it is to climb and bring its pretty blooms up 
to the level of our admiring eyes and appreciative noses. A good strong 

126 



THE ROSE GARDEN, ARI.EY 



FROM THK PR-JlRf 



IHE POSSESSION OK 



Mrs. Huth 



.^- 





soil is shown by the well-being of the White Lily and Phlox, Sweet 
Williams and double Scarlet Potentilla. Carnations are largely grown in 
the borders ; the great Orange Lily (L. croceum) has just given place to the 
White ; Canterbury Bells are in grand masses, and the sturdier plants are 
interspersed with graceful fragilities, such as the long-spurred yellow 
Californian Columbine. 

To the left of the alcove an archway cut in the yew hedge leads to 
the bowling-green. This also is inclosed and sheltered by yew hedges. 
There is a terrace all round, from which it is pleasant to watch the game. 
Next to this, and following along the line of the yew hedge, is a square 
inclosure of turf, with a few clipped yews. This is a kind of ante-room 
to the rose-garden. High walls of yew are all around except to this 
garden, where they are low and shaped. The middle space of the rose- 
garden has beds concentrically arranged, leaving spandrils of beds of other 
shape. At the end is a garden-house, and a wide way out to lawn spaces 
with fine trees and flowering shrubs. A broad gravel walk at the 
boundary of the lawn, with a wide grass outer verge and the knee-high 
top of the wall of a sunk fence, that separates it from the park, leads 
leftwards to the house. From this walk there is a very beautiful view 
across the steeply-falling gradient of the park to the lake. The park has 
grand old oak trees that fall into picturesque groups. Beyond the lake 
again are fine masses of timber. The lake is a sheet of water that takes a 
winding course and disappears among the trees. 

The kitchen-garden walls are interesting survivals of an old way of 
treating fruit-trees. They are three feet thick and honeycombed with 
flues for heating. It was a clumsy and unmanageable expedient practised 
in the days before the circulation of water in pipes heated from one boiler 
was understood. The modern orchard-house is much more convenient 
and its working absolutely under control. 

The kitchen garden lies between the house and the newer gardens 
that have been described. The maze should not be forgotten. It is at 
the back of the alcove and the bowling-green. These old garden toys 
are very seldom planted now. Perhaps people have not time for them. 
Also they are costly of labour ; the area of green wall of a maze of 
even moderate size, that has to be clipped yearly, if computed would 

127 



amount to an astonishing figure. Now that the possibilities of other 
forms of garden delight are so much widened, it is small wonder that the 
maze should have fallen into disuse. It must have been amusing in the 
older days when people's lives were simpler and more leisured ; but 
there are puzzles and difficulties enough in our more complicated days, 
and the influences that we now want in a garden are soothing tranquilli- 
ties rather than bewildering perplexities. Near the maze and alcove is 
a group of three great Lombardy Poplars that tells with extremely fine 
effect from many parts of the garden. 

On one side of the house is an old parterre of the kind now but 
seldom seen out of Italy ; with elaborate scrolls and arabesques ofcHpped 
box ; the more characteristically Italian form of the " knotted " gardens 
of our Tudor ancestors. The English patterns were much nearer akin to 
those used so lavishly on gala clothing in the form of needlework of 
cording and braiding, and the strap-work of wood-carving, while the 
Italian parterre designs were drawn more freely in flowing lines and less 
rigid forms. 

Opposite the porch is a sundial, supported by a kneeling figure of a 
black slave, of the same design as the one in the gardens of the Inner 
Temple, that was formerly at Clement's Inn, and is known as the 
" Blackamoor." Like this one the figure is of lead. 



128 







M^ 




LADY COVENTRY'S NEEDLEWORK 

from ruf. picture in the possession ok 
Mrs. Appletox 



LADY COVENTRY'S NEEDLEWORK 



This is a pretty Midland name for the good garden plant commonly 
called Red Valerian, or Spur Valerian {Centranthus ruber), that groups so 
well in the picture with the straw-thatched beehives. How the name 
originated cannot be exactly stated, but may easily be inferred. There 
are several estates in the Midland Counties belonging to the Coventry 
family, and, bearing in mind what we know of the home life of our great- 
great-grandmothers of the late eighteenth century, it may be assumed 
that some Lady Coventry of that date was specially fond of the pretty 
needlecraft so widely practised among the ladies of that time. 

Delightful things they are, these old needlework pictures, with a 
character quite different from that of their predecessors of Jacobean times. 
These were much stifFer in treatment and usually had figures ; a lady and 
gentleman and a dog being usual subjects, and trees looking like those 
out of a Noah's Ark, no doubt interpretations of the stiffly-cut yew and 
box trees of the gardens of the same times. 

But the workers of the flower-pictures of a hundred years later, and 
into the first quarter of the nineteenth century, for the most part chose 
flowers alone for their subjects. Sometimes a drawing was made, but 
many of them look as if they were worked direct from the flowers. It 
would appear that the worker would begin in the spring, with a 
Hyacinth ; then would come Anemones, Tulips, Auriculas, Lilac, Roses 
and Lilies ; a jumble of seasons but a concord of pretty things, and all 
done with a simplicity, a sweetness, a directness of intention and absence 
of strain or affectation, that give them a singular charm. One such 
picture that I have before me must have been begun in May, and 

129 R 



finished, perhaps, in August and September; for the first flower in the 
upper left-hand corner, where the work would naturally begin, is a 
thyrse of Lilac, and the last, low down on the right, is a Nasturtium ; 
while the intermediate flowers, following each other in what would be 
approximately their natural sequence, come in between. These are 
Pansy, Rose, Sweet Pea, Love-in-a-Mist, Lily, Larkspur, Convolvulus, 
Carnation, Jasmine and Passion-flower ; and one Daisy-shaped flower, 
whose identity, considering the numbers of possible Composites and the 
somewhat vague manner of the rendering, cannot be determined, though 
all the other flowers are capitally done and could not be mistaken. 

The disk of the Daisy-flower is worked in a mass of those little knots 
that sit closely together, the secret of whose making is known to every 
good needlewoman. They are a capital direct imitation of the group of 
anthers in the centre of a flower. 

The glory of the picture, and what was evidently the delight of the 
worker, is the Love-in-a-Mist, which stands above the others in the 
middle top of the picture. The tender blue of the flower, shading to 
white, the sharply-jagged edges of the petals, the green upstanding forms 
in the centre, and, above all, the fennel-like divisions of the involucre and 
the leaves, all lend themselves to satisfactory portrayal with the needle ; 
while the prominent position given to this charming midsummer flower 
shows how the worker rejoiced in its beauty and took pleasure in painting 
its form and colour in tender stitchery upon the white silken ground of 
her picture. The Jasmine flowers, too, are done with evident enjoyment 
as well as the neat, clear-cut leaves. The Rose is a Moss-Rose, shown 
in three stages of bud and half-blown bloom, when this charming Rose 
is at its best ; the mossiness of the calyx being cleverly suggested by 
short straw-coloured stitches that catch the light upon a ground of dull 
green. The working material is floss silk, whose silvery, shining surface, 
dark in some lights, makes a distinct effect of light and shade in the case 
of the white flowers, even though they are worked upon a ground 
that is also white. 

Sometimes these pictures are of a bunch of flowers without a 
receptacle, but often there is a basket or vase. In this case there is a 
basket of very simple form, standing on a darker table worked in the 

130 



chenilles, which were also much used. They are tiny ropes of silk velvet 
with an effect of rich short pile, like the old velvets of Genoa. 

It is easy to see how the Red Valerian came to be used as a model 
for needlework. Short stitches and long would easily render the small 
divisions of the calyx and the long slender spur and single pistil, and a 
quantity of this, representing the rather crowded flower-head, would have 
a very good effect on a white or light ground. 

The plant itself is a pretty one in any garden. Botanists say that it 
is not indigenous, but it has taken to the country and acclimatised itself, 
and now behaves like a native ; haunting quarries and railway cuttings 
in the chalk. It is a capital plant for estabHshing on or in walls or bold 
rockwork, as well as in the garden border. It is always thankful for 
chalk or lime in any form. 



Printed by Ballantyne, HANSON fr Co. 
London 6* Kdinburgh 



D. H. HIL.I. LIBRARY 

North Carolina State Collee*