(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Some lessons of the revised version of the New Testament"

.W51 



Some Lessons of the Revised Version 
of the New Testament 



Some Lessons of 
the Revised Version 
of the New Testament 

By the Right Rev. 

Brooke Foss West cot t, d,d.,d.c.l. 

Lord Bishop of Durham 



LONDON 

HODDER AND STOUGHTON 

27 PATERNOSTER ROW 

1897 



Edinburgh : T. and A. Constable, Printers to Her Majesty 



PREFACE 

The greater part of the contents of this volume 
appeared in the Expositor for 1887. Hitherto 
the pressure of other work has hindered me 
from complying with the request to publish 
the papers in a collected form. But a space of 
enforced leisure in the summer of 1895 enabled 
me to revise and supplement them by much 
new matter ; and I issue them now in the hope 
that they may contribute to a fuller under- 
standing of the aim and character of the 
Revised Version of the New Testament, and 
lead English readers to the systematic study of 
it. I have found the illustrations which are 
given helpful in guiding large and small classes 
to independent and interesting inquiries. 



vi Preface 

The revisers have no reason to complain of 
the reception which their labours have found. 
It does not appear that the * Authorised ' Ver- 
sion made more rapid progress in public favour 
in the sixteen years after its publication ; and, 
as far as I can judge, the Revised Version is 
more commonly used by preachers now than 
the ' Authorised ' Version was after the same 
period of trial. 

Whatever may be the ground for the state- 
ment on the title-page of the revised version 
of 1611, that it was * appointed to be read in 
churches,' there is no evidence whatever that 
the authorisation was more than permissive. 
The circumstances under which both the 
Genevan and the Bishops' Bible continued to 
be used are decisive against an exclusive 
authorisation.^ The * Authorised ' Version 

1 The evidence is given in some detail by the present Bishop 
of Winchester in an article in MacmillarCs Magazine for 
October 1881, pp. 436 ff. 



Preface vii 

slowly won its way to universal use by its 
merits in competition with earlier English 
Bibles. 

These facts have a bearing on a question 
which is not unfrequently proposed at the 
present time : Is it lawful to read the Revised 
Version in churches ? I can only answer, look- 
ing at the history of the * Authorised ' Version, 
that I am not aware of any law, ecclesiastical 
or civil, which forbids the practice. No doubt 
long custom must be dealt with very reverently : 
the utmost consideration must be shown to the 
feelings of congregations. But if the use of the 
Revised Version is welcomed by a congrega- 
tion, I do not think that a bishop has any 
power, even if he had the will, to prohibit it. 
For a long time, however strange it may seem, 
the Great Bible, the Genevan Bible, the Bishops' 
Bible, and the * Authorised ' Bible were used 
concurrently, and at last the * fittest ' prevailed. 



viii Preface 

We may, I believe, still trust to the action 
of the same law.^ 



B. F. DUNELM. 



Auckland Castle, 
Feb. sth, 1897. 



^ As illustrations of the liberty which was allowed, I may 
quote an edition of the Genevan Bible, with the Prayer-Book 
of 1698 ('by the Deputies of Christopher Barker'), in which 
the Epistles and Gospels, as determined by the opening words, 
are taken from the Genevan Version, while the Psalms are 
printed at length from ' that translation which is commonly 
used in the Church'' (z.^. the Great Bible). A Prayer-Book 
with the same Epistles and Gospels {i.e. taken from the 
Genevan Version), and the Psalter with the same heading, was 
printed ' by Robert Barker and the assigns of John Bill ' in 
1633. The copy before me is bound up with an edition of the 
Authorised Version, published by the same printers in 1634. 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION I 

1. The book designed to give hints for study. 

2. Objections foreseen and weighed. 

3. What has been done by the Revision. 

4. Faithfulness the aim of the Revisers. 

5. Possible conflict with a literary standard. 

6. Minute changes. 

7. Greater changes in text and rendering. 

8. The Revision recognises varieties of opinion by the 

margin. 

9. Four elements in the Revision. 

10. Illustrations from John i. 

11. Changes of the Authorised Version without margin. 

12. Various readings noticed with and without changes 

of rendering. 

13. Changes of rendering. 

14. The exact meanii.g of the Greek noted. 

ix 



X Contents 

PAGE 

Introduction — continued. 

15. The value of the margin, 

16. Perfect faithfulness unattainable. 

17. Difficulties of rendering words, 

18. groups of words, 
ig, synonymes, 

20. tenses, 
21-3. the article, 

24. pronouns ; and of 

25. giving the force of the order of words. 

26. Importance of these details. 

CHAPTER I 

EXACTNESS IN GRAMMATICAL DETAILS . -31 

1. Increased exactness attainable. 

2. Peculiarities of the language of the New Testament. 

3. Genitive of quality. 

4. Words characteristic of special Books. 

5. Changes taken in connection, e.g. Luke xxii. 55/. 

6. Changes in rendering of tenses : present ; 

7. imperfect \ 

8. aorist ; 

9. perfect. 

10. Rendering of the definite article. 



Contents xi 

PAGE 

Exactness in Grammatical Details — continued, 

11. Omission when wrongly inserted. 

12. Insertion when wrongly omitted. 

13. Exact renderings of prepositions and particles. 

CHAPTER II 

UNIFORMITIES OF LANGUAGE RESTORED . . 67 

1, Contrast of the Authorised Version and the Revised 

Version as to consistency of rendering. 

2, A practical question. 

3. The practice of the Authorised Version arbitrary. 

4. The same phrases of the original differently rendered. 
5-7. Variations in the translation of parallel passages in 

the Synoptic Gospels. 

8. Inconsistency in the rendering of words— e.g. robber 

{thief) ; 

9. love ^charity). 

10. Inconsistent rendering of repeated words. 

11. Variations in the rendering of words in the same 

context. 

12. Variations in the rendering of the same word in 

different places. 

13. Neglect of the corresponding rendering of kindred 

words. 



xii Contents 

PAGE 

Uniformities of Language Restored — continued. 

14. The title ^a<5^^. 

15. Old Testament names. 

16. Marginal notes. 

CHAPTER III 
DIFFERENCES OF LANGUAGE MARKED . . 96 

I. Difficulty of rendering synonymes. 
2, 3. Examples : to be, to becofne. 

4. Different words for knowledge. 

5. Fashion siadiform. 

6. Unbelief, disbelief, disobedience. 

7. Sons, childre?i. 

8. Hell, Hades ; i?icorr?iption, immortality. 

9. TJie Servant of the Lord in the early chapters of 

the Acts. 
10. Words of singular occurrence. 
II, 12, Variations in the use of prepositions. 

13. Synonymes distinguished : crown and diadem ; 

14. fold sxidi flock ; 

15. temple and sa?ictuary : other examples. 

16. Difficulties removed by the distinction of synonymes. 

17. Various words rendered world, devil. 

18. Gal. vi. 2, 5, burden, load. 



Contents xiii 

CHAPTER IV 

PAGB 

VIVID DETAILS : LOCAL AND TEMPORAL COLOURING 1 29 
I. Exactness preserves vivid marks of time and place. 
2, 3. Examples of fresh vigour gained by exact rendering. 
4, s, The force of expressive images restored. 

6. Close rendering of unusual words. 

7. Wrong renderings corrected, 

8. The force of the original construction restored. 
9, 10. Local and temporal details correctly marked. 

11. Trace of the earliest stage of the history of the Church. 

12. The Way and The Name. 

13. References to the second coming of Christ. 

14. The ages, this a^e, and the age to come. 

15. Vivid traits introduced by changes of text. 

CHAPTER V 

LIGHT UPON THE CHRISTIAN LIFE . . . . 160 

1. Different aspects of salvation distinguished. 

2. Ideal completeness of Christ's work. 

3. The permanence of Christ's work. 

4. The mystical union of the believer with Christ. 

5. The life of the believer in Christ. 

6. The believer appropriates the work of Christ. 



xiv Contents 

PAGE 

Light upon the Christian \ay-&— continued. 

7. The transforming pov/er of the Christian Creed. 

8. Present Divine action. 

9. Man's response to God's action. 

10. Christ's continual victory. 

11. Christian ambition. 

12. The discipline of suffering. 

13. Moral deterioration. 

14. Retribution involved in sin. 

CHAPTER VI 

LIGHT UPON CREATION, PROVIDENCE, THE PERSON 

OF THE LORD 185 

1. The conception of * the world * as ' the ages.' 

2. Creation in time answering to the Divine idea. 

3. Things ' become ' in obedience to a law of life. 

4. Unexpected sequences in the order of Providence. 

5. The Divine sovereignty guarded. 

6. Completeness of redemption. 

7. Correspondences. 

8. Christ's work transcends time and space. 

9. Hope. 

10. Christ Himself the Gospel, 1 Tim. iii. 16. 

11. The Lord's true Divinity, John i. i8 ; Col. i. 19. 



Contents xv 

PAGE 

Light upon Creation, Providence, ^tq.— continued. 

12. The Lord's true humanity, Luke ii. 40, 49. 

13. The Incarnation and its circumstances. 

14. The importance of the name Jesus. 

15. The evil one. 

16. Christians one man in Christ. 

CHAPTER VII 

CHANGES DUE TO ALTERATIONS OF THE TEXT . 2o8 

1. Changes due to new readings. 

2. The conditions of the textual revision. 

3. Exaggerated estimate of the importance of the 

changes made in the text. 

4. Omissions. 

5. Additions. 

6. The change of reading— 

i. Adds vividness to the language. 

7. ii. Gives fresh vigour. 

8. iii. Preserves traces of contemporary feeling. 

9. The first apostolic preaching. 
10, The Churches and the Church. 
n. iv. Suggests fresh thoughts. 
12. Summary. 

INDEX 223 



INTRODUCTION 

I. It is my purpose in the following chapters 
to offer some hints and helps to those who 
desire to study the Revised Version of the 
New Testament. I have no intention of 
entering into controversy. I shall take the 
book as it lies in our hands, and endeavour to 
show what fresh lessons we may learn from 
it. I shall assume, therefore, that my readers 
are anxious to use to the best purpose the 
fresh materials which the Revised Version 
offers for the understanding of the apostolic 
writings ; and that to this end they will test 
for themselves the typical illustrations which 
I shall give of the purpose and nature of the 
changes which the Revisers have introduced. 

I have, I say, no intention of entering into 
controversy; but I shall be disappointed if 
those who are able to follow out the lines of 
A 



2 Objections to 

inquiry which I shall suggest, do not feel in 
the end that most of the popular objections 
which are brought against the Revision are 
either altogether groundless, or outweighed by- 
corresponding gains. 

2. These objections, dealing with textual 
changes, and ' pedantic literality,' and * faulty 
rhythm,' and the like, were of course constantly 
present to the Revisers during their ten years' 
labour. They are perfectly natural. Objec- 
tions of a similar character and no less violent 
in expression were directed against Jerome's 
Latin Version, which in due time became * the 
Vulgate ' of the Western Church, and the 
Version of Tyndale, and the Revision of 
1611 ;^ and it has certainly been a satisfaction 

^ A single illustration will be sufficient. Among the most 
indefatigable English Biblical students of the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James i. was Hugh Broughton, sometime 
Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge. He had published, in 
1597, * An Epistle to the learned Nobility of England, touching 
translating the Bible from the original, with ancient warrant 
for every word, with the full satisfaction of any that be of 
heart'; and afterwards separate translations of Daniel, Job, 
and Lamentations. He was not, however, included among 
the Revisers, when * in 1607 the translation of the Bible was 
begun, from which work why he was secluded, whose abilities 
that way were known so well, may rather be wondered at, 



the Revision 3 

to those who gave time and thought to the 
work, that no criticism has come upon them 
by surprise. They heard in the Jerusalem 
Chamber all the arguments against their con- 
clusions which they have heard since ; and I 
may say for myself, without the least reserve, 
that no restatement of old arguments has in 

than resolved.' But the surprise which Lightfoot thus ex- 
presses will hardly be felt by any one who has considered 
Broughton's manner towards those who differed from him. 

When the revision appeared, Broughton sent a brief notice of 
it to * a right worshipful knight, attendant upon the king ' : 
*The late Bible (Right Worshipful) was sent me to censure, 
which bred in me a sadness that will grieve me while I breathe. 
It is so ill done. Tell his Majesty that I had rather be rent in 
pieces with wild horses than any such translation by my con- 
sent should be urged upon poor churches.' He then gives 
ten points in which opinions that he had advocated were not 
adopted, and concludes : ' I blame not this, that they keep the 
usual style of former translations in the Church, that the people 
should not be amazed. For the learned, the Geneva might 
be made exact ; for which pains whole thirty years I have been 
called upon, and spent much time to my great loss, by wicked 
hindrance. When you find the king at leisure, show his 
Majesty this short advertisement. And if his Highness bid me 
again, as once by the Earl of Pembroke, show faulty places, 
I will in a few sheets translate what I blame most, that they 
might be sent to all churches that have bought Bibles. So all may 
be well pacified. The king meant royally ; but froward would 
be froward ; who have felt it as I was sure they would. . . .' 

So the learned and impracticable scholar wrote ; but in due 
time the judgment of English-speaking Christendom went 
against him. 



4 Faithfulness 

the least degree shaken my confidence in the 
general results which were obtained. 

3. It has been, I repeat, a satisfaction to the 
Revisers to find, from the attacks which have 
been made upon their work, that they were 
able to take account of all that could be said 
against the conclusions which they deliberately 
adopted with a full sense of their responsibility. 
But it is a far deeper satisfaction to them that 
their work has given a powerful impulse to a 
close and patient investigation of the apo- 
stolic texts. And the claim which they con- 
fidently make — the claim which alone could 
justify their labours — is that they have placed 
the English reader far more nearly than before 
in the position of the Greek scholar ; that they 
have made it possible for him to trace out 
innumerable subtleties of harmonious corre- 
spondence between different parts of the New 
Testament which were hitherto obscured ; that 
they thave given him a copy of the original 
which is marked by a faithfulness unap- 
proached, I will venture to say, by any other 
ecclesiastical version. And while they have 



the Aim of the Revisers 5 

done this, they have at the same time given 
him the strongest possible assurance of the 
substantial soundness of the familiar English 
rendering which they have reviewed with the 
most candid and unreserved criticism. 

4. This endeavour after faithfulness was 
indeed the ruling principle of the whole work. 
From first to last, the single object of the 
Revisers was to allow the written words to 
speak for themselves to Englishmen, without 
any admixture of gloss, or any suppression 
of roughness. Faithfulness must, indeed, be 
the supreme aim of the Biblical translator. 
In the record of a historical Revelation no 
sharp line can be drawn between the form 
and the spirit. The form is the spirit. The 
Bible is, we believe, not only a collection of 
most precious literary monuments, but the 
original charter of our Faith. No one can 
presume to say that the least variation is un- 
important. The translator, at any rate, is 
bound to place all the facts in evidence, as 
far as it is possible for him to do so. He 
must feel that in such a case he has no right 



6 Significance of 

to obscure the least shade of expression which 
can be rendered; or to allow any prepossessions 
as to likelihood or fitness to outweigh direct 
evidence, and still less any attractiveness of a 
graceful phrase to hinder him from applying 
most strictly the ordinary laws of criticism to 
the determination and to the rendering of the 
original text. He will accept, without the 
least misgiving, the canon that the Bible must 
be interpreted * like any other book ' ; and his 
reward will be, to find that it is by the use of 
this reverent freedom he becomes assured with 
a conviction, rational and immovable, that it 
is not like any other book. 

5. Difficulties and differences of opinion 
necessarily arise in determining the relative 
claims of faithfulness and elegance of idiom 
when they come into conflict. But the ex- 
ample of the Authorised Version seems to 
show that it is better to incur the charge of 
harshness, than to sacrifice a peculiarity of 
language, which, if it does nothing else, arrests 
attention, and reminds the reader that there 
is something in the words which is held to be 



minute Changes 7 

more precious than the music of a familiar 
rhythm. The Bible, indeed, has most happily 
enriched our language with many turns of 
Hebrew idiom,^ and I believe that the Revision 
of the New Testament does not contain any- 
thing unusual either in expression or in order 
which is not justified by the Old Version. 

6. But it will be observed that the continu- 
ous effort to give in the Revision an exact 
representation of the original text, has neces- 
sarily led to a large number of minute changes 
in form and order. We shall see afterwards, 
I trust, the reason of many of these variations. 
I notice them now in passing, because such 
comparatively trivial changes arrest the atten- 
tion of the reader first, and he is inclined to 
ask, as the Revisers were constantly asking 
themselves. Is it worth while? With their 
experience and their responsibility, he would, 
I believe, feel regret that here and there they 
lost the courage of their convictions, and so 
have failed to conform even such details as 

^ Who, for example, would alter, ' With desire I have desired ' 
(Luke xxii. 15) ? 



8 Problems of Text 

* heaven' and 'heavens' rigorously to the 
Greek forms. 

7. Substantial variations of text and render- 
ing are matters of more serious importance. 
We might, perhaps, have wished, in thoughtless 
haste, that there had been no room for doubt 
as to the apostolic words or as to their exact 
meaning. But further reflection wull show 
how greatly we gain by the fact that the record 
of revelation, even as the revelation itself, 
comes to us in the way of human life, exer- 
cising every power of man, and hallowing the 
service of his whole nature. The fact, when 
we face it, is seen to be a part of our religious 
discipline. And a version of the New Testa- 
ment for popular use and study, ought to 
take account of the existence of variations in 
the reading of the original text, and of con- 
flicting interpretations of it. There can be no 
legitimate authority, no prescription of use, 
to decide questions of criticism. When the 
Caliph Othman fixed a text of the Koran and 
destroyed all the old copies which differed from 
his standard, he provided for the uniformity 



and Rendering 9 

of subsequent manuscripts at the cost of their 
historical foundation. A classical text which 
rests finally on a single archetype is that which 
is open to the most serious suspicions. A 
book which is free from all ambiguities can 
hardly deal with the last problems of human 
experience, or give natural expression to 
human feelings and impressions. 

In both these respects — in the determination 
of the Greek text and in the translation of it 
— the Revised Version exhibits a loyal regard 
to wide general consent tested again and 
again by successive discussions. It exhibits 
no preponderance of private opinion. It is, so 
to speak, the resultant of many conflicting 
forces. Each Reviser gladly yielded his own 
conviction to more or less serious opposition. 
Each school, among the Revisers, if the term 
may be used, prevailed in its turn, yet so as 
to leave on record the opinion which failed 
to obtain acceptance. The margin, therefore, 
offers the reader continually alternative read- 
ings and renderings, which form one of the 
most important lessons of the Revision. 



lo Four Elements in 

8. It is true that individual critics may be 
able to satisfy their own doubts, to lay down 
with confidence exactly what the Apostles 
wrote and what they meant, but the ablest and 
best disciplined scholars, no less than the 
boldest, know that their conclusions do not 
find universal acceptance. They will be the 
last to wish, even if they were able, to impose 
the peculiarities of their private convictions 
upon a popular and public work. But ex- 
perience gradually fixes the area of debate 
within recognised limits ; and a faithful version 
of the New Testament will take account of all 
cases of reasonable uncertainty. This the 
Revised Version has done with general (if not 
uniform) consistency and completeness. And 
in this respect there is no feature of the 
Revised Version which is more important than 
the margin. For the margin contains a com- 
pact record of such variations in reading and 
rendering as seemed to the Company, by a 
repeated vote, to require consideration. The 
margin, it must be remembered, is an integral 
part of the revision. It very frequently records 



the Revised Version 1 1 

the opinion of the majority of the Revisers, 
And it is the more important to lay stress on 
this point, because it is constantly overlooked, 
not only by the assailants of the work, but also 
by careful students. 

9. The Revision consists in fact of four 
distinct elements, of which the reader must 
take separate account. 

(i) The continuous English text. 

(2) The alternative readings in the margin. 

(3) The alternative renderings in the 
margin. 

(4) The American suggestions, which are 
printed in an Appendix. 

Let me endeavour to show how the student 
will estimate the value of their several elements 
in relation to the Authorised Version. 

Four main cases will arise, according as 
there is or is not a note upon any particular 
passage in the margin or in the Appendix. 

{a) The Revised Version may agree with the 
Authorised Version, without any margin or 
comment. 
• (J)) The Revised Version may differ from 



12 Prerogative of Authorised Version 

the Authorised Version, without any margin or 
comment. 

{c) The Revised Version may agree with the 
Authorised Version, with a margin or com- 
ment, or both. 

(d) The Revised Version may dififer from 
the Authorised Version, with a margin or 
comment, or both. 

The first case includes the main body of 
the Engh'sh text ; and, in regard to this, the 
reader has the fullest possible assurance that 
it adequately represents in substance, form, 
and expression, the original Greek. 

The second case includes a large proportion 
of the changes made in the revision ; and here 
the reader has an assurance of the validity of 
the English text scarcely less complete than 
in the former case. He knows that the text 
as it stands was for the most part approved 
or acquiesced in by all the members of the 
English and American Companies, who took 
part in the final revision of the passage; for 
it very rarely happened that a strong; opinion, 



in the Work of Revision 13 

even of a small minority, failed to obtain 
recognition in the margin. 

The two remaining cases require to be very 
carefully distinguished. 

If the text of the Revised Version gives the 
reading or rendering of the Authorised Version 
with a margin, it is sufficient that the text 
should have been supported by one-third of 
the Company who voted on the question, while 
the margin may record the judgment of the 
remaining two-thirds.^ If, on the other hand, 
the text presents the change, then this change 
must have approved itself to at least two-thirds 
of the scholars who took part in the division. 
The Authorised Version, in other words, and 
the Greek text which presumably it renders, 
had a preference in the proportion of two to 
one. Such a preference was a reasonable 
safeguard against the influence of private 
opinion ; and the general and perfectly inde- 
pendent concurrence of the American Revisers 
in the results which were finally adopted by 
^ See Rule 5, and the Revisers' Preface, iii. § i, 



14 Illustrations from the 

the English Company shows how well fitted 
these simple rules were to secure a Greek text 
and a rendering suited by the common consent 
of Biblical scholars for ordinary use. 

10. Let me, even at the risk of tediousness, 
illustrate these various cases by examples taken 
from the first chapter of St. John's Gospel. 

I need say nothing of the general coincidence 
of the Authorised and Revised Versions. 
Nearly eight-ninths of the old words remain 
wholly unchanged ; and here, as elsewhere, 
careful attention is needed to note the differ- 
ences. Yet there are differences between the 
Old and the New, and those of moment. And 
it may be added that changes due to changed 
readings in the original Greek form about one- 
sixth of the whole number. 

II. There are variations both in reading and 
in rendering which are adopted without any 
margin ; for example, in verse 27, the words, 
who is preferred before me^ were omitted by the 
English Company by general consent : and 
again in verse 14, the rendering, the Word 
became fleshy was similarly adopted without 



First Chapter of St. John 15 

difference of opinion for the Word was made 
flesh. 

The American Revisers make no comment 
on these changes. The reader may therefore 
accept these changes as practically unquestion- 
able ; and they are types, as I said, of a large 
proportion of the changes in the revision. 

12. So far we have dealt with results which 
represent substantial unanimity among the 
Revisers ; but there are also marginal notes 
both on readings and on renderings. These 
record differences of opinion in the Companies 
and illustrate the third and fourth cases. 

Thus in verse 18 there is a very remarkable 
reading. The text preserves the words 01 
Authorised Version, the only begotten Son ; but 
we find in the margin, ' Many very ancient 
authorities read, God only begotten.* The English 
reader, therefore, will know that at least one- 
third (if not more) of those who voted on the 
question of reading were in favour of the read- 
ing rendered by the Authorised Version ; and, 
on referring to the American Appendix, he 
will find that the American Revisers did not 



1 6 Illustrations from the 

dissent from their judgment. But the marginal 
reading may express the opinion of a majority 
of the English Company, and in fact did so. 

In verse 28 the Revised Version reads Bethany 
for the Authorised Version Bethabara. Here, 
therefore, at least two-thirds of the members 
who voted (and not as before, one-third) must 
have supported the reading Bethany \ while 
the margin records the variations which were 
set aside by the majority. 

13. From disputed readings we pass to dis- 
puted renderings, to which also the same rule 
applies, requiring a majority of two-thirds for 
a variation from Authorised Version in the 
text. 

In verse 29 the rendering of Authorised Ver- 
sion (which) taketh away the sin {of the world) is 
kept with the margin or beareth the sin. It is 
therefore at least possible that a majority of 
the English Revisers preferred the margin ; but 
in that case they were not supported by two- 
thirds of the American Company, who do not 
propose any change. On the other hand, it 
will be seen that the American Revisers wish 



First Chapter of St. John 1 7 

to substitute the rendering through for by in 
verses 3, 10, 17, and their concurrence with the 
margin against the Authorised Version suggests 
the true inference that there was in the English 
Company a preponderance of opinion in favour 
of the margin, though less than two to one. 

In verse 5, the rendering of the Authorised 
Version comprehended ^2J^ not supported by one- 
third of the English Revisers. Of the other ren- 
derings which were advocated, apprehended was 
adopted by a simple majority, with the variant 
overcamey and in this conclusion the American 
Company agreed. 

14. It may be worth while to notice another 
form of margin, which calls attention to the 
exact form of the original. Thus in verse 14 
on dwelt we read the note * Greek tabernacled' 
The peculiar word is marked in order to bring 
to the reader's mind two passages of the Apoca- 
lypse : vii. 15, He that sitteth on the throne shall 
spread His tabernacle over the^n ; xxi. 3, Behold^ 
the tabernacle of God is with men. 

15. I shall have an opportunity hereafter, 
I hope, of calling attention to some of the 

B 



1 8 Complete Faithfulness 

marginal notes. I wish now only to point out 
one most important service which they render 
to the English reader. They show with fair accu- 
racy and completeness the extent of the uncer- 
tainty which attaches to the Greek text and to 
the literal rendering of the text. Popular con- 
troversy is apt to convey a false view of this 
uncertainty, by dwelling on a few passages of 
exceptional interest. In this respect nothing, 
I believe, can be more reassuring to the ordin- 
ary student than to notice the number and the 
character of the variants in a chapter or a book, 
and to remember that, with these exceptions, 
the text in his hands represents the united 
and deliberate judgment of a larger and more 
varied body of scholars than has ever on any 
other occasion discussed together a version of 
the New Testament into another language. 

i6. I have said that faithfulness, the most 
candid and the most scrupulous, was the 
central aim of the Revisers ; but perfect faith- 
fulness is impossible. No two languages are 
absolutely commensurate in vocabulary and 
construction. Biblical English is indeed, I 



unattainable 19 

believe, the best modern representative of 
Biblical Greek, but still it cannot preserve all 
the suggestive features of the original. The 
best translation can be no more than an 
imperfect copy, made in different materials : 
under the most favourable circumstances, an 
engraving, as it were, of the master's drawing. 

Thus the student of a version of the New 
Testament will take account of the difficulties 
which beset the translator, before he passes 
judgment on the work ; and nothing will tend 
so powerfully to remove the objections to a 
version necessarily imperfect, as a just estimate 
of the complexity of the questions involved in 
rendering words which we feel to be * living 
oracles.' I am anxious, therefore, to help 
English readers to feel how arduous the work 
of revision was, before I enter on a considera- 
tion of the changes which were made in the 
Revision. 

17. Sometimes a single Greek word conveys 
a fulness of meaning for which we have no 
English equivalent expression. Repent^ to take 
one example only, is nearer in thought to the 



20 Some Words cannot be 

Greek than agite poenitentiam of the Latin 
Vulgate (inadequately rendered in the Rhem- 
ish Version, do penance)^ but it falls far short 
of the idea of a complete moral change which 
is described by the Greek fieTavoetre ('alter 
your thoughts of the world and men and God '),^ 
and it has to do duty (with a slight modi- 
fication) for a very different word (Matt. xxi. 
29, 33; xxvii. 3; Heb. vii. 21, repent himself: 
yet see 2 Cor. vii. 8, regret \ comp. 2 Cor. 
vii. 10). 

18. Sometimes terms in a series of forms 
connected in Greek are supplied in English 
from different roots. Thus we say righteous^ 
righteousness^ justify^ justification. We have 
indeed the words justy and justice ; but even if 
we could without loss use 'just' for 'righteous,' 
we could not substitute 'justice' for 'righteous- 
ness,' or ' injustice ' for ' unrighteousness,' with- 
out introducing great confusion of thought. 

So again the close connection which is often 
deeply impressive in the original between /^?V^, 
faithful^ believe, believer, is necessarily lost (e.g, 
^ Comp. chap. iii. § 6 note. 



represented adequately 2 1 

John XX. 27, 29 ; i John v. 4, 5 ; and see, for 
another example, 2 Cor. v. 6, Z)} 

19. Sy nonymes offer peculiar difficulties. 
Greek, for example, distinguishes sharply two 
types of love and two types of knowledge^ and 
these distinctions give a power and pathos to 
the charge of the Risen Lord to St. Peter, 
which cannot be reproduced in an English 
translation (John xxi. 15-17). Here the margin 
directs the careful reader to seek for fuller 
light ; but it would be scarcely possible to 
adopt this expedient in John xx. 2, compared 
with xxi. 20, though the use of different words 
for * love ' in the two places has an important 
bearing on the interpretation of the former 
verse. Examples of the contrast of the two 
words for * know,' which cannot be expressed 
in English except by a paraphrase, are of con- 
stant occurrence: e.g. Mark iv. 13; John xiii. 
7 ; Rom. vi. 6, 9 (compare, for another kind of 
example, Matt. xvi. ^ ff^. 

So again the phrase 'good works' stands 

^ In like manner, it is impossible to mark in a translation the 
connection of ' Christ ' and ' Christians ' which is emphasised in 
2 Cor. i. 21 ; i John ii. 20^ (X/3t(rT6j, xp^w» 'Kfi^'^V'^)- 



22 Subtleties of Greek Expression 

necessarily for two distinct phrases, in one of 
which the word for ' good ' {opfaQo^) marks the 
essential moral character of the actions, and in 
the other {koKo^) their attractive nobility (Heb. 
X. 24), as when the word * good ' is applied to 

* the good Shepherd.' 

To take examples of a somewhat different 
kind, the original Greek distinguishes the 

* weeping' of Jesus by the grave of Lazarus 
(John xi. 35, iBaKpvo-ev only here) from his 

* weeping' over Jerusalem (Luke xix. 41, 
eKkavaev) ; the one loud cry of the excited 
multitude (John xviii. 40, eKpav^aaav) from 
their reiterated clamour (John xix. 12, eKpa^ov); 
the many different utterances {prjiJiaTa) which 
are * words of eternal life * (John vi. 6d>) from 
the one ' word of life,' the unchanging Gospel 
(i John i. i) ; the one abiding mission of the 
Son from the mission of those sent in His 
Name (John xx. 21, airia-ToXKa, Tre fiTrco)} 

^ It would be easy to multiply examples of synonymes which 
cannot be distinguished easily and naturally in an English 
Version. The student will find it worth while to consider a 
few. 'AvT^p, dvOpicrros : John viii. 40 ; i Tim. ii. 5 ; Acts ii. 22 ; 
xvii. 31 — Acts xxi. 39 j xxii. 3 ; but still notice John vi. 10, 



often untranslatable 23 

20. So far I have spoken only of questions 
of vocabulary. Difficulties increase when we 
take account of grammatical forms and con- 
struction. 

It is especially in the power of its tenses 
that Greek is unapproachable by modern 
languages. A slight change of form in the 
verb distinguishes at once an action which is 
inceptive or continuous from one which is 
complete in idea and execution. Thus when we 
read in John xix. 2, 3, The soldiers arrayed 
Him in a purple garment ; and they came unto 
Him^ and said, Hail, King of the fews ! there 
is in English no distinction in the verbs ; but 
the Greek, by a simple and most natural 
change of tense, draws a vivid picture of the 
stream of soldiers coming one after another to 
do mock homage to the King once invested in 
the imperial robe (comp. Acts viii. 17). So 

Revised Version. 'AKTjdrjs, d\7]div6s : John xix. 35—1 John ii. 
8, etc. Bcjfids, ducnaaTTipLov: Acts xvii. 23; Luke xi. 51. 
AafJL^dv€Lv, irapaXaix^dveLV : Johni. II /". Aa6s, 5?7/ios: Actsxii. 
4, II, 22 ; xvii. 5 ; xix. 4, 30, 33. HepLekelv, dcpatpelv d/xaprias: 
Heb. X. 4, II. N^os, Kaivos : Heb. xii. 24; ix. 15— Col. iii. 
10; yet notice Matt. ix. 17, Revised Version. $t\os, cTocpos : 
Matt. xxii. 12; xxvi. 50; John xv. 13, 14, 15. 



24 Difficulty of giving 

again, when it is said in Rom. vi. 13, Neither 
present your members ; . . . but present your- 
selves unto Gody . . . the distinction marked 
in the original between the successive acts of 
sin and the one supreme act of self-surrender 
which carries all else with it is necessarily lost. 

Sometimes the idea of purpose, or of begin- 
ning, or of repetition, conveyed by the imperfect 
can be expressed simply, eg. : — 

Matt. iii. 14, John would have hindered him. 

Mark iv. 37, the boat was now filling. 

Luke i. 22, he continued 7naki?tg signs. 

„ i. 59, they would have called him (comp. 
iv. 42). 

Luke iv. 42, would have stayed him. 
„ V. 6, their nets were breaking. 
„ viii. 23, they were filling with water. 
„ xviii. 3, she came oft unto him. 

Acts xxvi. 1 1, strove to make them blaspheme. 
And so also the corresponding sense of the 
present, e.g. : — 

Matt. XXV. 8, our lamps are going out. 

Gal. V. 4, ye who would be justified by the 
law. 



the force of Greek Tenses 25 

Sometimes, as I cannot but think, the Re- 
visers have shrunk too much from an apparent 
heaviness of rendering, and so lost the full 
effect of the original. Thus (for example) in 
Luke xxi. 20, the sign of the desolation of 
Jerusalem was the gathering of the hosts, and 
not the complete investment of the city {being 
compassedy not compassed) ; and again, in John 
vii. 37, there is a contrast between the attitude 
of watchful, expectant waiting {was standing) 
and the sharp, decisive cry which followed. 
But in very many cases the vividness of the 
original is unavoidably lost in the translation ; 
and the commentator only can mark it in a 
paraphrase.^ 

1 This subject will come before us again {ii. §§ 6, 7). The 
student will find instructive illustrations in the following 
passages : — 

Matt. viii. 9, TropeiOrjn . . . ^pxo^ • • • 

xvi. 24, apdroi . . . /cai &K6\ov6eiT(a . . . 
xxiii. 3, TTOLTjcraTe . . . kuI rrjpeLTe. 
XXV. 5, evicrra^av . . . koL eKadevdov. 
xxvi. 38, /xeivare (bSe Kal ypyjyopeire. 
xxvii. 30, ^Xa^ov rbv KoXap-ov /cat '4tvittov . . . (comp. 
Mark xv. 19). 

Mark xiv. 35, ^irLirTev irl ttjs 7^s . . . 
Luke V. 16, tJv vTToxwpwv . . . 

,, xviii. 13, 'irvtrTe rb ffTTjdos. 
John xi. 29, TjyipdTj . . . Kal ijpxeTo. 



26 The force of the Greek Article 

21. The Greek article again gives the lan- 
guage a singular power of expressing subtle 
and significant shades of meaning. Greek, for 
example, distinguishes clearly between that 
which has a particular quality and that which 
presents the type or ideal of the quality under 
the particular point of view, the ideal righteous- 
ness (for example) towards which men are ever 
striving (Matt. v. 6, Tr)v hiKaioavvr^v) and that 
partial righteousness which in detail embodies 
it {id. 10, BcKai,o(7vvr]<; : comp. I John iii. lO 
note) ; salvation as a state and the salvation 
which crowned the Divine purpose of love 
(John iv. 22, y acoTrjpia) ; that which appears 
under the form of law, and ' the law ' ; and, in 
another relation, the Son, and Him who is Son 

Acts iv. 31, iirX-ricrdrjaav . . . Kal iXdXovv . . . 

,, xiv. 10, rjkaTO Kal TrepierraTei, 
I Pet. ii. 17, rifx-qcrare . . . Ti/xdre . . . 

„ V. 5, vTroTdyrfTe : Col. iii. 1 8, uirorda-ffeade. 

1 Cor. vii. 14, 7}yia<TTaL. 
,, xi. 23, TrapedidoTO. 

Gal. vi. 2, ^aard^^Te . . . dvaTr\rjpd}aaT€ . . . 

Eph. ii. 22, a-vvoLKodofieiade (comp. Col. ii. 7, ippL^(»}fiivoi. /cat 
eTTOLKodo/J-ovfievoi). 

Eph. iv. 22 /., dirodicrdai. . . . (pdeipd/xevov . . . dvaveovffdai 
, . . evdvaaadaL . . , KTiadivTa . . . 

Phil. ii. 6, Tjyrj(xaTO, 

2 Tim. iv. 5, vrjcpe . . . KaKowddrjcrov . . . (comp. ch. i. § 8). 



sometimes cannot be preserved 27 

(Heb. i. 2). Such differences cannot in many 
cases be reproduced in English ; though it has 
happened sometimes that the Revisers have 
failed, through fear of unusual phraseology, to 
express a turn of thought which might have 
been expressed (e.g, Rom. iii. 21-23).^ 

22. So again, while the English idiom com- 
monly specialises a predicative noun, the Greek 
leaves it simply predicative. Thus we say 
naturally * he is the shepherd of the sheep,' as 
the one to whom the title belongs, or 'a 
shepherd of the sheep,' as one of many ; but 
the Greek emphasises the character, * he is 
shepherd of the sheep ' (John x. 2). 

23. Another advantage which is perfectly 
possessed by . Greek is only imperfectly re- 
presented in English, that of distinguishing 
between a predicate which simply defines 
character and a predicate which is identical 
with the subject. For example, when we say 

1 See also Matt. vii. 13, -^ dTrwXeia ; Luke xviii. 13, rt? 
afxapTuXf ; John xii. 24, 6 k6kko9 ; xvi. 21, ^ 7^17 ; Acts xi. 18, 
7] fierdvoia ; xx. 21, ij eZs tou Qehv /jLerdvoLa ; I Cor. xi. 3, i] 
Ke^aXT], KecpaX-q ; Col. iii. 5, iropveiav, aKadapaiav . . . Kai ttiv 
irXeove^lav ... On Qeds and 6 Qeds, see Additional Note to 
I John iv. 12. 



28 Force of Pronouns and 

^ Sin is lawlessness^ (i John iii. 4), we may 
mean one of two distinct things : either that sin 
has this feature of lawlessness among others, 
or that sin and lawlessness are convertible 
terms. The Greek admits no ambiguity, and, 
by presenting sin as identical with violation of 
law, gives a view of the nature of sin which is 
of the highest practical importance. 

24. In Greek, again, the unemphatic personal 
pronouns are included in the verbal forms. 
We cannot, except by some device of printing, 
determine whether in the words ^ ye think that 
in them ye have eternal life' (John v. 39; comp. 
ix. 35; xiii. 6, 7, 13, 33 [contrast verse 36]; 
xix. 4, 9, 12 ; XV. 3), the emphasis lies upon 
the false supposition (ye think)^ or upon the 
character of the people addressed {ye think). 
The Greek, by expressing the pronoun, leaves 
no doubt. The Lord contrasts the type of 
Pharisaic character with that of the true dis- 
ciple ; and then in the following clause the full 
stress can be laid on the want of moral purpose : 
* and ye will not come to Me.' ^ 

* Other instructive examples are found in Matt. vi. 9; xiii. 18 ; 



Order of Words 29 

25. Yet once more : the eloquent significance 
of the original order is often untranslatable 
{e.g. Luke xii. 48 ; John iii. 2 ; xiii. 3 ; xiv. i ; 
I John ii. 19; Rom. i. 14, 17, 18 ; vi. 3 ; i Cor. 
xiv. 12; Heb. i. 5). Sometimes, however, it 
can be preserved ; e.g. : — 

Luke ii. 25, according to thy word, in peace ; 
xxii. 33, Lord, with thee I am ready. . . . 

Luke xxiii. 25, hvX Jesus he delivered up . . . 
(comp. Matt, xxvii. 26). 

1 Cor. v. 7, for our Passover hath been 
sacrificed, even Christ. 

2 Cor. vii. 6, even God. . . . 

Gal. V. 25, ^j/ the Spirit let us also walk. 

Philem. 10, my child . . . Onesimus, 

Heb. ii. 9, we behold Him who hath been 
made a little lower than the angels, even Jesus. 

Heb. xii. i, therefore let us also, seeing we 
are compassed about ... 

xxviii. 5 ; John iv. 38 ; xi. 49 ; xii. 26 ; xv. 15, 16 ; xviii. 21 ; Acts 
iv. 7 ; 2 Cor. xi. 29 ; James ii. 3. So also it is impossible in 
many cases to give the force of avrbs and iKeTuos (John xviii. 17), 
though an attempt has sometimes been made to do so: Matt. 
i. 21; xiii. i; xviii. i; Mark iii. 135 John ii. 25; xx. 19; 
Acts xvii. 25 ; xx. 35. See on the other hand i John ii. 2. 



30 Effect of small Details 

See also Luke vii. 12 ; ix. 6i ; John iii. 31 ; 
Eph. V. 12. 

26. These illustrations, a few taken from an 
endless number, will show how many questions 
must present themselves to the translator of 
the New Testament at every turn. There is 
not one detail that I have mentioned which a 
reader would not be glad to have made plain, 
if it could be done. Not one, I believe, was 
left unconsidered in the process of revision. 
And those who have followed me so far will, 
I think, be prepared to be patient and sym- 
pathetic critics, both of what has been done, 
and of what has been left undone. The points 
raised seem perhaps to be small in themselves : 
they are not small in their total effect. It is 
by studying them in their whole range that 
the reader gains the assurance, that the words 
of the Bible are living words. 



CHAPTER I 

EXACTNESS IN GRAMMATICAL DETAILS 

I. So far I have noticed some examples of 
the necessary shortcomings of an English 
version of the Greek Testament. Let me now 
point to some typical changes, in which the 
Revised Version has been able to convey to 
the English reader more of the exact force 
and colouring of the original than he could 
see before. 

2. This is not the place to discuss the 
peculiarities of the Greek of the New Testa- 
ment It must be enough to recognise the 
fact that it is marked by unique characteristics. 
It is separated very clearly, both in general 
vocabulary and in construction, from the lan- 
guage of the LXX., the Greek Version of the 
Old Testament, which was its preparation, 

31 



32 Genitive 

and from the Greek of the Fathers, which was 
its development. It combines the simple 
directness of Hebrew thought with the pre- 
cision of Greek expression. In this way th^ 
subtle delicacy of Greek expression in some 
sense interprets Hebrew thought. 

At the same time the several writers and 
the constituent books of the New Testament 
present individual features. The first three 
Gospels differ in style from the fourth ; the 
Epistle to the Galatians differs from that to 
the Ephesians ; and both differ from the Epistle 
to the Hebrews. 

3. A faithful translation will therefore en- 
deavour to preserve even minute traits which 
are characteristic either in construction or in 
vocabulary. In Biblical Greek, for example, 
the quality of an object is often expressed by 
the genitive of a substantive, in imitation of 
the Hebrew idiom (' the steward of unrighteous- 
ness,' i.e. * the unrighteous steward,' Luke xvi. 
8) ; but in many cases it is a most serious loss 
to represent this vivid and suggestive form of 
expression by an adjectival rendering. Every 



of Quality 33 

one will feel that to substitute (as in the Author- 
ised . Version) gracious words for words of 
grace in Luke iv. 22 ; true holiness for holiness 
of truth (I should have preferred of the truths 
* the holiness which is the practical embodiment 
of Christianity') in Eph. iv. 24 (comp. Rom. 
viii. 6, mind of the fleshy mind of the spirit \ 
2 Thess. ii. i\^ a working of error) ; godly sin- 
cerity for sincerity of God (followed by the 
grace of God) in 2 Cor. i. 12 ; His mighty angels 
for the angels of His power in 2 Thess. i. 7 
(followed by the glory of His might) ; His dear 
Son for the Son of His love in Col. i. 13, is to 
obscure the truth. The last phrase, indeed, is 
an enrichment of English Scriptural language 
which cannot fail to pass into common use. 
In one familiar passage the injury was greater. 
Archbishop Whately, in his last illness, begged 
a friend to read to him St. Paul's description 
of the Christian's hope, as he looks ^for the 
Saviour^ the Lord fesus Christ^ ' who shall 
change (so the friend read from the Authorised 
Version) our vile body^ that it may be fashioned 
like unto His glorious body! * No, no,' inter- 
C 



34 Words characteristic 

rupted the archbishop ; ' give his own words. 
He never called God's work vile.' And so 
now we read, ' who shall fashion anew the body 
of oitr humiliation^ that it may be conformed to 
the body of His glory ^ (Phil. iii. 21). 

One characteristic thought of the Bible, 
suggested by this last passage, has been 
placed clearly before the English reader by 
the preservation of this idiom. The revelation 
of the manifold perfection of God, as man can 
apprehend it, is for us 'the glory of God.' 
' The glory of God ' is that which we are en- 
abled to see in Him, and not something which 
we bring of our own to Him. As we ponder 
this truth we come to understand what is 
meant by the gospel of the glory of the blessed 
God {i Tim. i. 11); the light of the Gospel of 
the glory of Christ (2 Cor. iv. 4) ; the blessed hope 
and appearing of the glory of our great God and 
Saviour fesus Christ (Tit. ii. 13) ; strengthened 
with all power, according to the might of His 
glory (Col. i. 11); the liberty of the glory of the 
children of God (Rom. viii. 21). 

In place of a vague epithet we find that the 



of special Books 35 

symbolical appearances of ' the glory of the 
Lord' in the Old Testament (comp. Exod. 
xxiv. 16) have obtained their fulfilment in the 
manifestation of God in Christ, who is * the 
image of the invisible God' (Col. i. 15); and 
in Him we look forward with wondering hope 
to the destiny of the creature made by His 
counsel of love that he might attain His 
likeness. 

4. The illustration which has been just given 
is taken from the common features of New 
Testament Greek. The several writers have 
also, as I have said, their distinguishing pecu- 
liarities. Sometimes a single word produces a 
striking effect in a book. Thus the student of 
the Greek of St. Mark's Gospel cannot fail to 
observe the singular frequency with which the 
Evangelist uses the adverb evOew^ (€v6v^). 
The word might be adequately rendered 
^ forthwithl ' immediately! ' straightway! ' anon '; 
and so it was variously rendered in the Author- 
ised Version. But obviously the fidelity of 
the translation was distinctly injured by the 
loss of the recurrent word ; and so evOeco^ has 



36 Exactness in 

been represented (I think) uniformly in the 
Revised Version of the Gospel by its most 
exact equivalent, ' straightway^ The effect of 
the repetition of the adverb, which occurs about 
forty times in the Gospel — more times than in 
all the other books of the New Testament 
together — may be pleasing or unpleasing to a 
literary taste ; but the translation conveys to 
the English reader exactly the same impression 
as the original conveyed to a Greek. 

St. John, again, uses most commonly for his 
connecting particle a word {pvv) which might be 
rendered ' therefore^ ' so^ * then ' ; and which was 
in fact represented in the Authorised Version 
by these words, and also by ' btitl ' nowl * and! 
But such variety of rendering necessarily tends 
to obscure the sense of the dependence of 
events one on another, of that inner sequence 
of life, which St. John specially points out.^ If 
therefore the English reader is struck in the 
Revised Version by this constantly repeated 
* therefore ' in the fourth Gospel, he is naturally 

1 The * then ' often appears as merely temporal ; e.g. xii. 28. 
In John xi. 12, 14, we have ovv and rbr^^ both rendered then in 
the Authorised Versioni 



grammatical Details 37 

led by the monotonous ringing of the word to 
ponder one of its deepest lessons. 

The reality of this lesson of the deep-lying 
relation of things is illustrated by another 
characteristic word of St. John's Gospel, which 
may be noticed here by anticipation. St. John 
habitually speaks of the Lord's mighty works 
as ' signs' The teaching which he suggests is 
neutralised when, as in the Authorised Version, 
the original term is rendered three times more 
often ' miracles ' than * signs,' and that too in 
places where the preservation of the same 
rendering throughout is of moment for the 
understanding of the argument {eg. ii. 18, 23 ; 
vi. 26, 30). Step by step the ' signs ' are laid 
open in the Gospel, luminous with spiritual 
meaning ; and when the reader has followed 
the use of the word throughout the narrative, 
he can first understand the language in which 
the Evangelist reviews the Lord's life at the 
end, as it stands in the Authorised Version : 
* Many other signs did Jesus in the presence of 
His disciples, which are not written in this book : 
but these are written, that ye might believe that 



^S Changes to be consiaerea 

Jesus is the Christy the Son of God' . . . (John 
XX. 30/V 

5. Such slight but consistent changes as 
these, which preserve peculiarities of structure 
and language, affect the character of the trans- 
lation of a whole book. If each case of change 
were considered separately, the necessity of 
change (with the consequential changes it pos- 
sibly entails) ^ might reasonably be questioned, 
but a wider view discloses the necessity ; and 
the combination of small changes often brings 
light and harmony into difficult sections, both of 
the narrative and of the argument. Let any one, 
for example, note all the changes which have 
been made in the translation of the following 
passages, passages which are very different 
in character, and he will feel, unless I am 
mistaken, how much is gained in force and 
clearness by the whole effect of the revision : 
Matt, xxviii. 18-20; Mark viii. 23-26; Acts 

^ It will be noticed that the phrase * did signs, ' which has 
caused a good deal of confident criticism on the Revisers' 
English, is found here in the Authorised Version (comp. Ex. 
iv. 17, 30). 

2 Comp. Revisers' Preface, iii. § 2. 



all together 39 

xxvii. ; I Cor. xi. 20-34 ; 2 Cor. iv, 7-10 ; Col. 
iii. 1-4 ; Heb. ix. 11- 15 (use of the article). 

To examine these passages in detail here 
would be impossible. It would occupy all the 
space at our disposal. But an examination of 
two verses, not chosen for any special purpose, 
will indicate the points which require attention 
if a student desires to learn the lessons which 
the Revision is fitted to convey. For the 
meaning of a change is by no means obvious 
without the exercise of patient and sympathetic 
thought. And it is on this that I wish particu- 
larly to lay stress. The criticisms on the Re- 
vised Version which I have seen have not been 
deficient in vigour, in confidence, in subtlety, in 
learning ; but they have been singularly defi- 
cient in considerate intelligence. The patient 
use of a concordance would have answered 
many of them. And in graver variations 
nothing is easier than to criticise one aspect 
of a novel phrase. But the phrases of Scrip- 
ture are many-sided ; and a hasty or super- 
ficial critic is in danger of missing more than 
he observes. At least, let me repeat, the critic 



40 Changes 

of the Revised Version should remember that 
each change which he is called to consider is 
not the irresponsible opinion of a single scholar, 
but a judgment supported by an overwhelming 
majority of representative scholars after keen 
discussion, and reconsidered after a long interval. 
Their work then deserves to be examined at 
least in the same spirit with which it was done. 
No labour was spared in forming the judgment 
which has to be reviewed. The reader who con- 
demns the conclusion should be sure that he 
has taken pains to understand why it was 
deliberately adopted. 

We may take then Luke xxii. 55 /as an 
average example of the revision where the 
changes have been numerous.^ The changes of 
reading in the Greek text do not affect the 
rendering : the vivid Trepcaylrdvrcov of the origi- 
nal could only be represented by a paraphrase. 
We notice then the following changes : 

(i) Aall : Revised Version, r^2^r^ (comp. Mark 
xiv. 66). 

(2) were set down^ Peter sat down : Revised 
Version, had sat down^ Peter sat. 

^ The student may take Luke vi. 48 as another instructive 
example. 



in Luke xxii. 55 f 41 

(3) among : Revised Version, in the midst of. 

(4) but : Revised Version, and, 

(5) beheld . . . and earnestly looked . . . and 
said : Revised Version, seeing . . . and looking 
steadfastly . . . said. 

(6) by the fire : Revised Version, in the light 
of the fire. 

(7) was also : Revised Version, also was. 
Now of these changes (3) and (7) are perhaps 

in themselves of little moment, but they repre- 
sent the original more closely than the Author- 
ised Version, and are in agreement with it 
elsewhere (iv fiiao), Matt, xviii. 20 ; Luke xxiv. 

36). 

The variation in the conjunction (4) must be 
taken in connection with the rendering of verse 
57. The same particle (Se) is used in the original 
in both verses ; and it appears that the struc- 
ture of the narrative is best represented by 
giving to it a conjunctive force in verse 56 and 
a disjunctive force in verse 57, while the Author- 
ised Version gives the opposite view. 

In (2) the original gives two verbs, which are 
distinguished in the Revised Version. * When 
they had all sat down, Peter sat (was sitting). . . .' 



42 Typical Changes 

Our attention is directed to St. Peter as he 
formed one of the group, and not as joining 
it afterwards or separately. 

The Revised Version gives in (5) the natural 
progress of the incident, which is disturbed by 
the inaccurate introduction of the strong word 
beheld in the Authorised Version (ISovaa). The 
two other changes are essential to a true repro- 
duction of the picture. It is essential that the 
reader should feel that the scene is in the open 
air ; in the courtyard {avXrj), not the covered 
hall ; and the vivid touch (6) ' in the light of 
the fire ' comes directly from the experience of 
some spectator. It is just one of those touches 
which assures us that we have the record of an 
eye-witness. We seem to see again the light" 
falling on the troubled face of the anxious 
apostle, while the Authorised Version gives us 
only a general phrase wholly inadequate to the 
Greek. 

All the changes then, I believe, fully justify 
themselves when they are studied ; but without 
study much of their meaning would be missed. 
An impatient reader might easily dismiss them 



in rendering of Tenses 43 

with the verdict of ' trivial ' or * pedantic/ and 
lose a lesson on the vivid power of the Gospel 
narrative.^ 

6. Having made these general remarks, I 
wish now to notice examples of some classes 
of change, of which the student of the Revised 
Version will take account. And in the first 
place I wish to give some representative illus- 
trations of changes due to exactness of gram- 
matical rendering, in a strict observance {a) of 
the force of tenses, {V) of the article, {c) of pre- 
positions, and id) of particles. A reader who 
has once felt the nature of the gain, most real 
if minute, which is thus secured, will not after- 
wards be content to dismiss changes of a like 
kind without patient questioning. 

ia) I have already spoken (Introduction, § 20) 
of the marvellous expressiveness of the tenses 
of the Greek verb, which often baffles the trans- 
lator. The Revision has at least done much 

^ A careful [study of the following passages will help the 
reader to gain for himself a sense of the real force of the 
Revision : Matt, xxviii. 18-20 ; Luke xxii. 55 /; Acts xxvii ; 
2 Cor. iv. 7-10; Heb. ix. 11-15. 



44 Force of the Present 

to help the English reader to appreciate this 
subtle power. A few simple instances will 
bring out the vividness of the /^resent. 

Thus in Matt. x. 12, the perfectly indefinite 
statement, when ye come into a house^ salute it^ 
becomes instinct with life and movement by 
strict adherence to the original, as ye enter into 
the house, salute it. The benediction is part of 
the entrance (comp. Rom. xvi. 17, are causing). 
In John xiv. 18 (as elsewhere) the Lord says, 
/ come to yoUy not, / will come to you. His 
Advent, if it is in one sense future, is in an- 
other sense continuous. So again in the pro- 
spect of his imminent death, St. Paul says 
(2 Tim. iv. 6), not, / am ready to be offered, 
but, / am already being offered. The sacrifice 
has begun, of which the apostle's sufferings 
were a part. In the Epistle to the Hebrews 
(and this is an important detail in relation to 
the date of the epistle) the ministrations of 
the Temple (representing those of the Taber- 
nacle) are shown as present and not (as in 
the Authorised Version) as past (Heb. ix. 6f)} 

* The student will find other instructive examples in — 



and Imperfect Tenses 45 

7. A single word, though it happens that 
the form is irregular, will illustrate the force 
of the imperfect. St. John, in describing the 
attitude of the Baptist after Christ had re- 
Matt, xi. 14, which is to come (comp. xvii. ii). 
,, xviii. 12, ^\i\Q\\ goeth astray. 
,, xxvii. 24, that a tumult was arising. 
Mark i. 37, all are seeking Thee. 
„ X. 17, as He was going forth. 
,, xii. 43, are casting (change of reading). 
„ xiii. 25, shall befalling. 
,, xiii. 29, coming \.o pass. 
,, xiv. 42, let us be going. 
Luke ii. 40, marg., becoming f till of vfisdom. 

,, viii. 14, and as they go their way. 
John iv. I, was making and baptizing. 

,, XV. 27, ye also bear (not shall bear) witness. 
,, xvi. 15, He taketh\ 16, 19, ye behold', 17, ye behold 
me not. 

I John ii. 18, the darkness is passing 2.-yNz.y . 

1 Cor. i. 18 (comp. 2 Thess. ii. 10 ; Acts ii. 47 ; 2 Cor. 
iv. 3, etc. ), are perishing . . . are being saved . . . 

,, ii. 6, are coming \.o nought. 

,, vii. 31 is (unhappily) left unchanged. 

2 Cor. ii. 17, corrupting with mg. 
„ iv. 6, is decaying. 

Col. iii. 10, is being renewed. 

I Thess. i. 10, which delivereth. 
,, V. 3, when they are saying. 

These renderings may indeed appear to be wanting in ele- 
gance, but there can be no doubt as to the importance of the 
truths which some of them bring home to the English reader. 

The compound present in Col. iii. i. (where Christ jV, 
seated on the right hand of God) is of special importance. 

The force of the present is seen where it is in close con- 
nection with \ht future: e.g. John xiv. 3, 18 ; xvi. 15. 



46 Force of the Imperfect 

turned from the Temptation, brings up before 
the reader his personal recollection of the 
scene. On the next day^ he writes, John was 
standing, waiting in watchful expectation for 
the issue (i. 35 ; elaTrJKeb, not stood, as in the 
Authorised Version). And in six other pas- 
sages of his Gospel in which he uses the 
word, there is the same pictured distinctness 
of the figure to which the eyes of many were 
turned. On the great day of the Feast of 
Tabernacles, Jesus was standing, till at last 
the silence was broken, and He cried . . . 
(vii. 37 ; eldTrjKei . . . koX e/cpa^e). At the be- 
trayal, Judas was standing with the enemies 
of Christ (xviii. 5). St. Peter was standing at 
the door, when Jesus had entered the palace 
of the high priest (xviii. 16, comp. 18). By 
the cross of Jesus were standing His mother 
and His mothers sister . . . (xix. 25). When 
the disciples had returned from the empty 
tomb Mary was standing there still (xx. 11). 
In all these places the Authorised Version has 
* stoodl for which the Revised Version has sub- 
stituted the strict rendering, except in vii. IJ, 



and Aonst 47 

where the combination ' was standing, and he 
cried' seemed unhappily (I think) to many 
too harsh. The detail is perhaps a small 
one ; but still is it not just the master-touch 
which kindles each scene with life ? ^ 

8. The force of the aorist, which answers, 
in the main, to the simple past tense in 
English, will come before us in other connec- 
tions. One or two examples will direct the 
English reader to consider the effect which 

^ The following examples are all of interest : — 
Matt. xxiv. I, Jesus went out, . . . and was going on His 
way. 

Mark xv. 6, used to release. 

,, xvi. 3, were saying. 
Luke ii. 38, were looking for. 
,, ii. 43, were returning. 
,, xxiv. 32, was not our heart burning} 
Tohn iv. 30, they . . . were coming to Him. 
,, vi. 18, the sea was rising. 
,, x. 23, Jesus was walking. 
, , xi. 8, were seeking. 
Acts xxvii. 41, began to break tip. 

Comp. Mark ii. 23 ; ix. 9 ; Luke vi. i ; vii. 37 ; viii. 23, 
52; ix. 43; X. 30 /; xi. 29; John X. 40; xi. 8, 31 ; Acts iii. 
I ; vi. I ; xiii. 42 ; xvi. 25 ; i John ii. 26 ; 2 Cor. iii. 7, 13. 

The student will feel in every case that the narrative gains 
in directness and life by the exact rendering. 

The compound imperfect is always expressive : Mark x. 32 ; 
xiv. 52 ; XV. 43 ; Luke i. 21 ; ii. 33 ; v. i, 29 ; John xviii. 18. 
Comp. Introduction, § 20. 



48 Force of the A ovist 

it has in giving precision to a fact or 
thought. ' 

When the wise men ask, ' Where is He that 
is born King of the Jews ? for we saw {eUo^ev) 
His star in the east/ they place their convic- 
tion of the Divine birth in immediate con- 
nection with a sign which had been granted 
to them. So the unfaithful disciples appeal 
to a past which rises sharply before them 
when they say, ' Lord, Lord, did we not pro- 
phesy by Thy name, and by Thy name cast 
out devils ?' (Matt. vii. 22 ; comp, 2 Cor. i. 21/; 
iii. 6 ; vii. 14). The period of the instruction of 
Theophilus is clearly marked by the words, 
* . . . the certainty concerning the things 
wherein thou wast instructed ' (Luke i. 4). 
The experience of Israel is vividly brought 
out in the Revised Version of Acts vii. 52/; 
John vi. 49. We are carried also to higher 
thoughts. The issue of the Divine counsel 
is placed in closer relation to the eternal 
order when we read, 'for the elect's sake, 
whom He chose^ He shortened the days ' (Mark 
xiii. 20; comp. Luke x. 21 ; John xv. 15/; 



in connection with other Tenses 49 

xvii. 2; Eph. i. 4, 6, 8, 11). On the Divine 
side the work" of making redemption is com- 
pleted though he has to reah'se it by 'faith.' 
If then ye are raised (Authorised Version, be 
risen), seek the things that are above. . . . For 
ye died (Authorised Version, are dead) . . . Mor- 
tify therefore . . . (Col. iii. i ff\ comp. i Cor. vi. 
1 1 ; Rom. vi. 4). There is again, as it were, a 
glimpse of the court of heaven opened to us 
(Job i. 6 ff) when the Lord says, * Simon, 
Simon, behold, Satan asked to have you : . . . 
but I made supplication for thee . . .' (Luke 
xxii. 31/).^ 

The distinctive sense of the aorist is shown 
with marked emphasis when it is in close com- 
bination with other tenses. In many cases, 
as we have already seen (Introduction, § 20), 
the expressiveness of the connection of the 
aorist and the imperfect cannot be reproduced 
directly in English, though sometimes it may 
be indicated by a fuller rendering of the im- 
perfect (Acts iii. 8, he stood, and began to 

^ The student should pay particular attention to the use of 
the aorist in the Lord's last discourses in St. John {e.g. John 
xiii. 31, marg. ; xvii. 4, 26). 

D 



50 Aorist and Perfect 

walk \ Gal. V. 7), or by the introduction of a 
pronoun which separates the two verbs and 
gives special distinctness to the second action 
{e.g. Acts xi. 23 ; xv. \2)} 

When, on the other hand, the aorist is joined 
with the perfect, the force of the combination 
can generally be expressed. It will be enough 
to refer to one or two typical passages. 

Thus in the beginning of his first epistle 
St. John distinguishes between the abiding 
evidence of sight to the message of the Gospel 
and that peculiar experience which he had 
himself had in the historical Presence of the 
Lord : * That which we have seen with our 
eyes, that which we beheld, and our hands 
handled . . .' (i John i. i). There is a corre- 
sponding distinction in the beginning of his 
Gospel between the fact of creation and the 
continuance of created things : * All things 
were made by Him ; and without Him was 

^ In addition to the passages already quoted, the following 
are worthy of study in the original: Matt. iv. ii; viii. 15; 
ix. 6f,xxi. 8; Mark xvi. 2 ; Luke iii. 21 ; v. 5; vii. 32, 38; 
viii. 46; ix. 9; X. 24; xi. 52; xii. 49; xviii. 38/; Acts xv. 
19/; xvi. 7; Jas. ii. 22; Rom. vii. 4; viii. 2; i Cor. iii. 6; 
X. 4 ; Eph. iii. 2 ; 2 Tim. iv. 10. 



Use of the Perfect 51 

not anything made that hath been made' (John 
i. 3 ; compare the rendering in the margin ; 
viii. 42). The same contrast is found in 
Colossians i. 16, ' in Him were all things 
created {eicTiGQr]) ; ... all things have been 
created (eKTco-Tai) through Him and unto Him.' 
9. The Greek perfect can generally be 
adequately represented in English, and it was, 
in fact, for the most part rightly rendered 
in the Authorised Version {e.g. John xx. 21). 
But the exact meaning of some passages has 
been first given in the Revised Version. The 
affirmation of the continuous virtue of the 
Resurrection, as shown by the remarkable 
language of i Cor. xv., has been already 
noticed, and the same abiding power belongs 
to the other facts of the historic life of Christ 
(Heb. ii. 9, 18 ; iv. 14, 15 ; xii. 3). In Matthew 
V. 10 blessedness is assigned to those who 
have borne the trial of persecution success- 
fully, and not to those who are suffering in 
the conflict (contrast i Cor. iv. 12). The 
crown of righteousness is kept for those who 
have loved the Lord's appearing to the end 



52 Use of the Perfect 

(2 Tim. iv. 8). So too the words and the facts 
of Scripture are not infrequently presented 
in their abiding force, 'that which hath been 
spoken' (Acts ii. 16; Heb. i. 13 ; iv. zff\ x* 9> 
etc. ; Acts vii. 35 ; Heb. xi. 17 marg. ; comp. 2 
Cor. xii. 9) ; and the labours of earlier toilers 
for God are regarded not merely in the past, 
but as bearing fruit in the present (John iv. 38). 
In one famous verse of St. John's Gospel 
the tense is not without bearing on the author- 
ship of the Gospel. We read in the Authorised 
Version of chap. xix. 35, -^^ that saw it bare 
record^ and his record is true. ' What words,' 
I remember to have read, ' could show more 
clearly that the Evangelist quotes an earlier 
witness, who has passed away ? If it were not 
so, he must have used the perfect' And so 
indeed he did. What he wrote is rightly 
translated, he that hath seen hath borne witness; 
and the force of the argument is turned in the 
opposite direction.^ 

^ Other instructive examples of the exact rendering of the 
perfect are found: Matt. xix. 8; Mark ix. 21; John i. 32/; 
vi. 69; ix. 29; xi. 11/, 27; xii. 29; xiv. 22; xvi. 11; xvii. 



Omission of the Article 53 

10. ib) The definite article is a second most 
important element in the power of Greek. 
This fared badly in the Authorised Version, 
for the Latin versions, which greatly influenced 
our early translators even when they were 
unconscious of the influence, were incapable 
of expressing it. Thus it came to pass that 
the definite article was both wrongly introduced 
in the Authorised Version, and also wrongly 
omitted. 

A few examples of each kind of error, which 
have been corrected in the revision, will direct 
the English reader to details which constantly 
require his attention. 

II. It has been frequently urged against 
St. Paul that he is guilty of exaggeration in 
stating that the love of money is the root of all 
evil{i Tim. vi. 10). But in point of fact what 
he does say is that the love of money is a root of 
all kinds of evil \ it possesses this evil power, 
but does not monopolise it, — a truth which 
finds daily illustration. The same apostle 

6; xviii. 9> 37; I Cor. xiii. ii ; 2 Cor. xii. 9; Gal. iii. 19; 
Heb. iv. I ; x. 10 (contrast verse 14) ; xii. 11. Comp. Matt. i. 22 ; 
xxi. 4; xxvi. 56 (7^7o;'ev of a /r^j^w^ fulfilment) ; John i. 15. 



54 Omission of 

again, when he describes the privileges of his 
office, insists on its character and not on its 
exclusive and exhaustive endowment; let a 
man so account of us, as of ministers of Christ 
— not the ministers (i Cor. iv. i). The words 
which Moses received from God were not the 
lively oracles y but living oracles (Acts vii. 38). 
St. Stephen, in using the phrase, wished to 
emphasise the power and not the completeness 
of the revelation. The wonder of the disciples, 
when they saw the Lord conversing by the 
well at Sychar was not that He was speaking 
with the woman, but that He was speaking 
with a woman (John iv. 27 ; comp. Luke ii. 
12; iii. 14; vii. 3 ; x. 6 ; Acts iv. 9 ; xiv. 27; 
2 Cor. iii. 6; vi. 16; Heb. ii. 5). The teaching 
of the parable of the pounds is changed in an 
essential particular if we read that the noble- 
man called his ten servants, his whole house- 
hold, instead of called ten servants of his (Luke 
xix. 13). This special charge is not presented 
as universal. The altar which the Athenians 
erected was not, as we are tempted to suppose, 
to one whose supreme and mysterious majesty 



the Article 55 

they recognised (the unknown God), but simply 
to an unknown God (Acts xvii. 23). When 
the Lord delivered the address recorded in 
Luke vi., He stood not in the plain, but on 
a level place, a plateau on * the mountain ' 
(verse 17). 

In many cases the effect of the absence of 
the definite article is not felt without a 
moment's reflection; but then it will appear 
that the change has rightly thrown the 
emphasis on the character of the subject 
instead of the concrete subject itself. The 
English reader will appreciate the shade of 
difference between the Jews have no dealings 
with the Samaritans, and Jews have no dealings 
with Samaritans (John iv. 9 ; comp. Mark xii. 
25 ; Acts xviii. 4 ; i Cor. i. 22 ; ix. 20).^ Our 
thoughts are rightly guarded when we read, 
Know ye not that ye are a temple oj Godf 
(i Cor. iii. 16;) Know ye not that your bodies 
are members oJ Christ? (i Cor. vi. 15.) The 
Divine Sanctuary and the Divine Body is 

1 Comp. 2 Pet. ii. 4 ; iii. 5 ; Rev. xiv. 6. The indefinite 
rendering in Matt. xii. 41 and Luke xi. 31 /would, I think. 



have been a 



gam. 



56 Omission of the Article 

vaster and more complex than we can yet 
comprehend. 

Sometimes the idea involved in the indefi- 
nite form is of more considerable importance. 
In Rev. i. 13, xiv. 14, the whole conception 
is destroyed by the use of the definite title 
the Son of man : and, as it seems to me, the 
loss is no less in John v. 27, though here 
the -two-thirds majority was not obtained to 
change the text ; but it will be observed that 
the American Revisers adopt the margin 
absolutely (comp. Heb. i. 2).^ In all three cases 
the peculiar phrase of the original, which occurs 
nowhere else in the New Testament, marks 
true humanity and not the representative man 
(comp. I Tim. ii. 5, Himself man). 

Not less important is the difference between 
' the Holy Spirit ' (personal : to irvevfjua to aycoVj 
TO dyiov TTv.) and the gift, or the operation of the 
Holy Spirit {rrvevfia dycov), though it has not 

^ In some cases, like this, it were to be wished that the 
Revisers had boldly adopted an anarthrous form in English {Son, 
not a Son, or Ms Son). John x. 2, shepherd of the sheep (not 
the or a shepherd) ; i Cor. xii. 27, Christ's body ; John xii. 36, 
as light (not a light) (comp. Introduction, § 22). 



Insertion of the Article 57 

been always found possible to express it. 
This has been done by a bold paraphrase in 
John vii. 39, for the Spirit was not yet given 
(after the Authorised Version); Acts xix. 2, 
whether the Holy Ghost was given. 

In I Tim. iii. 11, the wrong introduction of 
the article (their wives) is a serious error in 
another direction. It has wholly removed the 
probable allusion to deaconesses, side by side 
with deacons.^ 

I2._ These illustrations will show the general 
effect of the omission of the article in the Revised 
Version in accordance with the original, where 
it had been wrongly inserted in the Authorised 
Version. On the other hand, the introduction 
of the definite article into the Revised Version 
in places where it had been wrongly omitted 

1 In some cases, the power of association was too strong to 
allow the disturbance of a familiar phrase. Every reader will 
feel, upon reflection, the difference between * a living God ' 
and 'the living God,' between the conceptions of the One 
Sovereign Father, regarded in His character and regarded in 
His personality. But the definite form remains in Heb. iii. 
12 ; ix. 14 ; X. 31 ; xii. 22 ; i Tim. iv. 10 ; Acts xiv. 15, 
though in every case the argument gains by the strict render- 
ing (see I Thess. i. 9). Here and there, however, the Revisers 
ventured to use a new form: e.g. Rom. i. 17; iii. 21, a 
righteousness (comp. Introduction, § 21). 



58 Insertion of 

in the Authorised Version, frequently gives a 
local distinctness to a phrase which is vividly 
marked in the original. Thus, whatever may 
be the meaning of the pinnacle of the Temple 
(Matt. iv. 5), it is no longer left in its mislead- 
ing indefiniteness. In the narrative of the 
Gadarene demoniacs, the steep (Matt. viii. 32) 
gives back the touch which had disappeared in 
the Authorised Version (a steep place). The 
mountain is restored to its proper place in 
the familiar scenery of the Galilean lake 
(Matt. V. I ; xiv. 23, etc.) like * the wilderness ' 
(Matt. iv. i). The liberality of the centurion 
at Capernaum is seen as it was described, htm- 
self built us our synagogtie (Luke vii. 5). The 
band of soldiers (not a band), in John xviii. 3, 
at once suggests the thought of the Roman 
garrison of Antonia (comp. Acts xxi. 38). 

In other places the definiteness fixes atten- 
tion on some custom or fact which might other- 
wise be overlooked. The question which St. 
Peter was over-hasty to answer becomes intelli- 
gible in its full import when we read : Doth not 
your Master pay the half shekel? — the contribu- 



the Article 59 

tion of the faithful Jew to the Temple (Matt, 
xvii. 24, 27 ; Exod. xxx. 15). If at first hearing 
the seats of them that sold the doves (Matt. xxi. 
12) sounds harsh, the pointed reference to the 
common offering of the poor is more than a com- 
pensation (comp. Luke ii. 16, the manger \ Mark 
iv. 38, the cushion). The phrase, how shall he 
. . . say the Amen at thy giving of thanks . . .? 
(i Cor. xiv. 16 ; comp. 2 Cor. i. 20 ; Acts x. 47, 
the water ; Mark xvi. 20) gives a glimpse of 
the early Christian service. St. John nowhere 
mentions the call of the apostles, but in due 
course he refers to the twelve (vi. 70, did not I 
choose you the twelve ?) as a well-known body 
(comp. Acts ii. 42, xx. 11, the bread). 

Sometimes the definite article calls up a 
familiar image. Thus the Baptist is not spoken 
of vaguely as a burning and shining lights but 
the lamp that burneth and shineth (John v. 35), 
the lamp which is used before the sun has risen, 
and which is consumed while it illuminates. 
Elsewhere we have a natural allusion to a 
familiar object : the bushel and the lamp-stand 
(Matt. V. 15) are a part of the furniture of every 



6o Use of 

cottage (comp. John xiii. 5, the basin). 'The 
dogs ' and * the swine ' (Matt. vii. 6) are placed 
side by side as repulsive objects, which men 
were likely to encounter. The wise builder 
digs down till he reaches the rock (Matt. vii. 24 ; 
comp. xiii. 5, 7, 8), which underlies the super- 
ficial soil. A vision is opened to us of the inner 
harmonies of nature when we read that the fig- 
tree has her parable for our instruction (Matt, 
xxiv. 32). 

In this connection it is of interest to notice 
how the language used of the coming of Christ 
and the last things has received again in the 
Revised Version the vividness with which it had 
been coloured by the popular imagination. The 
great tribulation (Rev. vii. 14), the weeping and 
gnashing of teeth (Matt. viii. 12, etc.), the crown 
of righteousness (2 Tim. iv. 8) are living and 
familiar figures, under which the common belief 
was embodied (comp. Luke iii. 16 ; i Cor. iv. 5 ; 
2 Thess. ii. 3 ; I Tim. i. 18 ; ii. 6 ; 2 John 7). 

In close relation with this definite, popular 
imagery stand other phrases which express 
current spiritual conceptions in a concrete form, 



the Article 6i 

as ' the light ' and ' the darkness ' (John iii. 19), 
'the wretched one '(Rev. in. 17; comp. Luke 
xviii. 13 marg.). To the same general form of 
expression belong * the sound doctrine ' (Tit. i. 
9 ; n. i) and ' the Way ' (Acts ix. 2 ; xix. 9, 23 ; 
xxiv. 22). 

Sometimes classes are separated by the re- 
petition of the article where the distinction is of 
importance to the sense. Thus the vengeance 
of the Lord is revealed (Revised Version) to 
them that know not God, and to them that obey 
not the gospel of our Lord (2 Thess. i. 8). Two 
kinds of offenders are contemplated, and not 
two,pffences of one class (Authorised Version). 
Yet once again the Greek article is able also 
to mark the gender of words which are them- 
selves ambiguous. Thus when the Authorised 
Version says that Herod slew all the children 
that were in Bethlehem, the original (and 
Revised Version) limits his violence to the 
male children (comp. Luke xv. 6, 9- John 
i.ii.)i 

^ Every page of the Revised Version will furnish examples of 
changes such as have been illustrated in the last two sections. 



62 Exact rendering 

13. (c) It would not be possible to give even 
the most meagre series of representative ex- 
amples to illustrate the shades of meaning in 
prepositions and particles, disregarded in earlier 
versions, which have obtained an adequate ex- 
pression in the Revised Version. Half a dozen 
passages will be enough to show the kind of 
changes which have been brought in by faith- 
fulness in these details, and to give a clew which 
the reader can follow in his private study. 

Two alterations of this class, each of a single 
syllable, are sufficient to illuminate our whole 
conception of the Christian faith. How few 
readers of the Authorised Version could enter 
into the meaning of the baptismal formula, the 
charter of our life ; but now, when we reflect 

The reader is apt to disregard them, and even to feel irritated 
by them, till he is induced to ask what is their exact force. Any 
one who will carefully compare (to take two passages) i Tim. vi. ; 
2 Tim. iv. in the Revised Version and the Authorised Version 
will, I think, feel that such details are not unimportant. Other 
isolated examples of interest occur : Matt. i. 23 {the virgin)', Luke 
xvii. 17 [thtten)', xviii. 16 {jthe little children)-, John xvi. 13 
[all the truth) ; xviii. 4 [all the things . . .) ; Actsi. 13 [the upper 
room) ', Acts iv. 11 [you the builders) ; Rom. v. 15 (^ . . . the 
many died . . . abound unto the many) ; i Cor. i. 21 [the preach- 
ing)', X. 13 [the way of escape)'. Col. i. 19 [all the fulness). 
See also Matt. vi. 25; vii. 4; 2 Cor. v. 17; xii. 18; Eph. ii. 
12 ; Phil. iii. 2 ; Heb. x. i, 20. 



of Prepositions 6 3 

on the words, make disciples of all the nations y 
baptizing them into (not in) the name of the 
Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost 
(Matt xxviii. 19), we come to know what is 
the mystery of our incorporation into the body 
of Christ. And as we learn this we enter into 
St. Paul's words, The free gift of God is eternal 
life in (not through) Christ fesus our Lord 
(Rom. vi. 23). It is indeed most true that the 
Son of God won life for us, but it is not any- 
thing apart from Himself We live, as He has 
made it possible for us to realise life, only 
in Him (comp. John xx. 31 ; i Cor. i. 4 ; Eph. 
iv. 32 ; Phil. iv. 19). Am I then wrong in say- 
ing that he who has mastered the meaning of 
those two prepositions now truly rendered — 
'into the Name,' 'in Christ' — has found the 
central truth of Christianity? Certainly I 
would gladly have given the ten years of my 
life spent on the Revision to bring only these 
two phrases of the New Testament to the 
heart of Englishmen.^ 

* Comp. Acts iv. 12 ; xiii. 38 /; i Pet. v. 10 ; i John v. 11 ; 
I Cor. i. 4 /. 



64 Force of Greek 

The other examples which I have set down 
are necessarily of less significance, but still they 
mark thoughts or traits in the apostolic writ- 
ings not without interest. We can all feel the 
difference between ' believing a man ' and ' be- 
lieving in ' or * on him.' The first marks intel- 
lectual assent, and the second active devotion. 
The preservation of this contrast, lost in the 
Authorised Version, explains the tragic develop- 
ment of the history in John viii. Some believed 
on Christ (verse 30), and they were safe in their 
readiness to follow Him, wherever He might 
lead them. Some Jews believed Him (verse 
31), and, while they admitted His claims, would 
have made Him the Messiah of their own hearts. 
In such a state lay the possibility of the fatal 
issues of the chapter.^ 

In John xix. 24/, the pathos of the descrip- 
tion is grievously marred by the separation of 
the two groups at the cross which the Evan- 
gelist closely connects. TJiese things therefore 
the soldiers did. Now there stood . . . (Author- 

i;./^ The student will find the variation of the prepositions in 
I Cor. xii. 7 ^ {through, according to, in) a suggestive lesson 
in the laws of revelation. 



Particles 65 

ised Version). Once again we feel the real 
meaning of the contrast by the help of a slight 
change in accordance with the original : These 
things therefore the soldiers did. But there were 
standing. . . . 

In the familiar sentence, Let your tight so 
shine before men that . . . (Matt. v. 16), it is 
perhaps hardly possible to separate the *so' 
from that which follows, as if it were descrip- 
tive of the aim of Christian conduct {so . . . 
that . . . ) ; but the Revised Version has done 
something to restore the true connection : Even 
so tet your light shine ... as the lamp, placed 
in its proper and conspicuous position. The 
Christian must not shrink from the respon- 
sibility of faith. 

A last illustration shall be taken from the 
form of a question. In Greek, even more 
simply than in English, the questioner can 
indicate the nature of the expected answer, 
and so reveal his own thoughts. When, there- 
fore, we read now in John iv. 29, Can this be the 
Christ? we feel that the woman gives utter- 

^ Comp. Luke xxiii. 56; xxiv. i. 
E 



66 Form of Questions 

ance to a thought which, she implies, is too 
great for hope. Her words grammatically 
suggest that it cannot be so, but faith lives 
still (comp. John xviii. 17, 25, y,y] ; vii. 26, 
iiT] ; Luke xxiii. 39, ov^O* 



CHAPTER II 

UNIFORMITIES OF LANGUAGE RESTORED 

I. The Revisers of the New Testament of 
1 88 1 aimed, as we have seen, at the most 
scrupulous faithfulness. They endeavoured to 
enable the English reader to follow the corre- 
spondences of the original with the closest 
exactness, to catch the solemn repetition of 
words and phrases, to mark subtleties of 
expression, to feel even the strangeness of un- 
usual forms of speech. The Revisers of 1611 
adopted and defended a very different mode of 
procedure. 'Another thing,' they say in their 
preface, 'we think good to admonish thee of, 
gentle Reader, that we have not tied ourselves 
to an uniformity of phrasing, or to an identity 
of words, as some peradventure would wish 
that we had done. . . . Truly, that we might not 
vary from the sense of that which we had 

67 



68 Uniformity of 

translated before ... we were especially care- 
ful. . . . But that we should express the same 
notion in the same particular word ; as, for 
example, if we translate the Hebrew or Greek 
word once by purpose, never to call it intent ; 
... if one where joy^ never gladness, etc., thus 
to mince the matter, we thought to savour 
more of curiosity than wisdom, and that 
rather it would breed scorn in the atheist than 
bring profit to the godly reader. For is the 
kingdom of God become words or syllables? 
. . . We might also be charged (by scoffers) 
with some unequal dealing towards a great 
number of good English words ... if we 
should say, as it were, unto certain words. 
Stand up higher, have a place in the Bible 
always ; and to others of like quality, Get you 
hence, be banished for ever ; we might be 
taxed peradventure with St Jameses words, 
namely, To be partial in ourselves, and judges 
of evil thoughts. Add hereunto, that niceness 
in words was always counted the next step to 
trifling ; and so was to be curious about names 
too. . . : 



rendering 69 

. 2. Now I do not wish to discuss these state- 
ments in the abstract. It is easy to imagine 
cases in which the method of translation here 
indicated would be not only harmless but even 
right. We may then put aside the theory in 
itself, as it is thus stated in justification of the 
varieties of rendering admitted in the Author- 
ised Version, and simply consider some of the 
variations themselves. The English student 
will be perfectly able to judge whether the 
gain which is secured by such uniformity as 
the new Revision offers is sufficient to com- 
pensate for the disturbance of some familiar 
rhythms, some graceful turns, in the old 
Version. 

3. The faithful consistency of the Revision, 
which I desire now to illustrate, is shown in 
two ways : (i) in the restoration of approxi- 
mate unity to the rendering of the same words 
under similar circumstances, when they had 
been diff'erently rendered in the Authorised 
Version ; and (2) in the distinction of different 
words which had been left undistinguished in 
the Authorised Version. It is unfaithfulness 



70 Uniformity of rendering 

of the same kind to create differences in a 
translation which do not exist in the original, 
and to hide differences which are found in it. 

In both respects the arbitrariness of the 
older English Versions appears to be incapable 
of any serious or substantial defence ; and the 
Revisers of 1611 were content in this respect 
to leave the translation as they found it. 

4. The variations in rendering the same 
original words sometimes extend to whole 
clauses, and it is difficult to see how the con- 
siderations advanced by the 'translators' in 
their preface can apply to such cases. For 
example, the words of Deut. xxxii. 35 are 
quoted identically from the LXX. ('EyLtot 
iK^Urjo-L^ij iyoi) avraTToScoaco) in Rom. xii. 19 and 
Heb. X. 30 : in the former passage the ren- 
dering is, Vengeance is Mine ; I will repay ; 
and in the latter. Vengeance belongeth unto Me, 
I will recompense. It may be urged that the 
general sense is the same in the two sentences. 
Of that I say nothing now ; but a careful 
reader would necessarily suppose that St. Paul 
and the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews 



the same Phrases 71 

had different copies of the Old Testament 
before them, and might draw important con- 
clusions from the imaginary fact. And what 
shall we think when even in the same Epistle 
the same words from Ps. xcv. are translated in 
one place, They shall not enter into My rest 
(Heb. iii. 11, with a marginal note), and in 
another place. If they shall enter into My rest 
(iv. 3, without any note)? It is hard to see 
why the literal rendering of the Hebrew idiom 
is not given in the first case, if it is allowable 
in the second case without a margin. 

5. The strictest fidelity of rendering is 
specially necessary in parallel passages. It is 
well known, for example, that the first three 
gospels have a large common element, the 
primitive oral gospel of the Apostles, as I 
believe, which has been variously modified and 
supplemented by the several Evangelists to 
meet the wants of different classes. The 
English reader has therefore a right to expect 
that he will find in the version which is placed 
in his hands a faithful indication of the verbal 
concordance or difference between the several 



72 Uniformity of rendering 

narratives. These afford the clew, often slender 
and subtle, to the particular meaning of a 
passage. And here at least there is no ques- 
tion of language or style. A rendering which 
has been once adopted may be repeated. 

However obvious this principle may be, it 
does not appear to have been taken into 
account in the Revision of i6ii; and there 
can be no doubt that the real relation of the 
Synoptic Gospels to one another, with all the 
lessons which follow from the minute differ- 
ences of the record, have been greatly obscured 
by the arbitrary discrepancies and concordances 
to which King James's Revisers gave a place in 
the Authorised Version. 

6. Why, for instance, should the words 
addressed to Bartimaeus, which are the same 
in the original texts of the two Gospels, be 
rendered in St. Mark, Thy faith hath made thee 
whole (Mark x. 52, with a marginal note), and 
in St. Luke, Thy faith hath saved thee (Luke 
xviii. 42)? What shall we say to the almost 
continuous difference in the renderings of iden- 
tical phrases, such as the following ? — 



ill Parallel Passages 73 

St. Mark xii. 38-40. St. Luke xx. 46/. 

Beware of the scribes ^ Beware of the scribes, 

which love to go in long which desire to walk in long 

clothing, robes, 

and love salutations in the and love greetings in the 

market-places, markets, 

and the chief seats in the and the highest seats in the 

synagogues, synagogues, 

and the uppermost rooms at and the chief rooms at feasts ; 

feasts : 

which devour tvidows' hozises, which devour widows^ houses, 

and for a pretence 77iake long and for a shew make long 

prayers : prayers : 

these shall receive greater dam- the same shall receive greater 

nation. damnation.^ 

7. It will of course be said that in this case 
the general sense is the same in both versions. 
Whether this is so or not, it is clear that the 
careful English reader has lost the important 
fact of the general identity of expression. 
Sometimes also the sense is seriously affected. 
If we read in Mark xv. 33 that there was dark- 
ness over the whole land (without margin), and 
in Luke xxiii. 44 that there was a darkness over 
all the earth (with margin), we naturally infer 
that the incident is differently described in the 
two narratives ; and the margin in St. Luke 

^ It may be added, that the Revisers of 1881 have not distin- 
guished the opening verbs, which are different in the two Gos- 
pels (/SXeTrere, Trpoo-exere). 



74 Uniformity in rendering 

suggests an attempt at reconciliation. The 
Greek, however, is absolutely the same in the 
two places (tc^' 0X771^ ttiv (yrjv). 

8. But the offences of the Authorised Ver- 
sion against consistency are most conspicuous 
in the treatment of single words ; and no 
changes in the Revised Version have provoked 
more hasty criticism than those which were 
due to the effort of the Revisers to give to the 
English reader in this respect a faithful reflec- 
tion of the original. 

We can all remember the general cry which 
was made on the day after the publication of 
the Revised New Testament, when it was 
found that in the record of the Passion it was 
said that two robbers were crucified with Jesus. 
Could there, it was asked, be a more foolish 
piece of pedantry? At the time it seemed 
sufficient to ask in reply what the critic pro- 
posed to do with the phrase, Now Barabbas 
was a robber (John xviii. 40), where the same 
original word was correctly rendered in the 
same connection. But it may be worth while 
to notice now how that simple word * robber ' 



single Words: Robber 75 

O^'TjaTrj^) appears as a sign of the wild disorder 
of the times. Aspirations after freedom were 
used as a cloke for brigandage, as in oppressed 
nations at all times. Open violence affected 
to be resistance to foreign oppression. The 
' robber ' is at one end of the scale of dishonest 
dealers, and the 'thief at the other. The 
'thief has his own place in the imagery of 
Scripture {e.g. i Thess. v. 2, 4 ; 2 Pet. iii. 10 ; 
Rev. iii. 3). He is placed side by side with 
the ' robber ' in the Lord's condemnation of the 
false Christs (John x. i, 8). But in every case 
where the * robber ' is mentioned in the New 
Testament, the idea is that of open violence, 
and not of cunning stealth. The rulers of the 
people had made the house of God a den of 
robbers (Matt. xxi. 13), as the phrase stands in 
the Old Testament (Jer. vii. 11); they did not 
plunder secretly, but used bold extortion and 
tyranny. The traveller from Jerusalem to 
Jericho fell among * robbers ' (Luke x. 30 ; 
comp. 2 Cor. xi. 26), who needed no hidden 
ambush for the repetition of their crime. And 
the circumstances of the Passion become more 



"](} Uniformity in rendering 

vivid and more impressive, when we realise 
that the 'robber' — the false patriot, — one of 
the men who in the insurrection had committed 
murder (Mark xv. 7), was chosen by the people 
for release before the true Saviour, and that 
the penitent 'robber,' to whom the Lord dis- 
pensed His royal promise from the cross, was 
one who in his wild life might have had con- 
fused thoughts of a kingdom of God, as the 
final aim of his lawless struggles. The narra- 
tive of the betrayal receives a new touch when 
we hear the Lord's question in its true form : 
Are ye come out as against a robber with swords 
and staves to seize Me? (Matt. xxvi. 55, and 
parallels.) In apprehending a 'thief there 
would be no need of an armed force. 

9. It is not, I suppose, seriously argued now, 
that in this case consistency of rendering is 
not a clear gain. We have grown familiar 
with the thought and the rhythm. But many 
feel still a natural regret that the word ' charity ' 
has no place in the Revised Version. The 
word was deliberately retained in some pas- 
sages of the Authorised Version, and especially 



single Words: Love ^'] 

in I Cor. xiii., on the ground of its ecclesiasti- 
cal associations, though the word so rendered 
{a<ydiT7]), was more than three times as often 
rendered 'love.' Charity is indeed a word of 
most touching sweetness. It can never lose 
its position in the vocabulary of Christian 
graces. But to retain it in the New Testament 
is to hide the source of its strength and glory. 
No one, as far as I am aware, ever proposed 
to adopt into our English Version the Latin 
rendering, Detis est caritas, * God is charity,' 
which stands in the Rhemish translation ; and 
yet no loss to Christian morality could be 
greater than the separation of the grace from 
its Divine archetype. The strength of the 
Christian character lies in the truth that he 
who has love shares according to his measure 
in the Divine nature. Thus by using in English 
different words to express the relation of God 
to man and of man to men, calling the one 
'love' and the other 'charity,' where the 
original Scriptures use one word only to de- 
scribe in this aspect the relations of God to 
man, and of man to God, and of man to man, 



78 General significance 

we weaken the bond which unites the human 
and Divine, we remove the revelation of that 
harmony which exists, according to the idea of 
creation, between man made in the image of 
God and God Himself. It is still further of 
great importance that 'charity' has no corre- 
sponding verb. We cannot express in terms 
of charity, so to speak, St. John's words: 
^Beloved^ if God so loved us, we also ought to 
love one another. . . . God is love ; and he that 
ahideth in love abideth in God, and God ahideth 
in him (i John iv. ii-i6).^ And when we say 
*God is love' (i John iv. i6), and 'charity 
never faileth ' (i Cor. xiii. 8), we have lost the 
connection between the two thoughts ; we have 
lost, that is, a link which unites by an essential 
bond the teaching of St. John and St. Paul. 

Am I not then right in believing that when 
once the facts are seen in their fulness, the 
English reader will recognise his gain in having 
the greatest of human graces indissolubly con- 

1 It will be interesting to compare the Rhemish Version. 
My dearest, if God so loved tts, we also ought to love one another. 
. . . God is charity, and he that abideth in charity, abideth in 
God, and God in hi?n. 



of such Changes 79 

nected with the very being of God, and seen 
to be eternal because He is eternal.^ 

10. The two signal examples of restored 
unities of rendering which have just been 
given are evidently fitted to arrest and to 
keep attention. They illustrate conspicuously 
two typical classes of similar changes. The 
one gives back to us the true sense of the 
outward setting, so to speak, of the apostolic 
history ; the other lays open a deeper view of 
Christian truth. In other cases the lesson 
which flows from uniformity in rendering may 
easily be overlooked. But even so the effect, 
if it be less striking, is not to be neglected. 
Sometimes, for example, the repetition of an 
identical phrase gives to a statement a pathetic 
emphasis, which is destroyed by difference of 
rendering. No one, I think, can fail to feel 
(dare I say so ?) the music of the words of the 

•^ An examination of all the passages in which ' charity 
(Authorised Version) has been replaced by Move' (Revised 
Version) is instructive: i Cor. viii. i ; xiii. ; xiv. i ; xvi. 14 (comp. 
verse 24) ; Col. iii. 14 (comp. ii. 2) ; i Thess. iii. 6 (comp. verse 12) : 
2 Thess. i. 3 (comp. i Thess. i. 3) ; i Tim. i. 5 (comp. verse 14); 
ii. 15 ; iv. 12 (comp. vi. 11) ; 2 Tim. ii. 22 ; iii. 10 ; Tit. ii. 2 ; 
I Pet. iv. 8 ; v. 14 ; 2 Pet i. 7 ; 3 John 6 ; Rev. ii. 19. 



8o Repetition of the same Word 

Baptist as they stand now in John iii. 31, in 
exact conformity with the original : He that is 
of the earth is of the earth (not is earthly), and 
of the earth he speaketh. And the correction 
involves more than an altered rhythm. Earthly 
stands in the same chapter for a different word 
{k'Tri^eio<;) and a different idea (verse 12). 

So it is that very frequently the solemn 
repetition of one word fixes attention on the 
central thought of the writer, and materially 
helps to its interpretation. A patient English 
student will feel what he gains by the faithful 
representation of St. Paul's language in the 
recurrence of recko7ied in Rom. iv. 3-8 ; of 
abolished in i Cor. xv. 24, 26; of subjected 
{subject) in i Cor. xv. 28 ; of affliction {afflict) 
and comfort in 2 Cor. i. 4-8 ; of made manifest 
in 2 Cor. v. 10, 11 ; oi glory, 2 Cor. xi. i6#; of 
comfort in 2 Thess. ii. 16/; and of St. John's 
characteristic words, witness in John \. y ff, ig 
ff\ viii. 13-18; oi judgment in John v. 22-29.^ 

1 1. In the majority of cases the repetition of 
the same word in the same context is essential 

1 Sometimes a correspondeece has been left unmarked j e.g. 
John xi. 19, 31. 



throughout a Passage 8i 

to the full expression of the thought or argu- 
ment. No one, after a little patient thought, 
can miss the force or pathos of the original 
form of expression in the following passages, 
which had been neglected in the Authorised 
Version and have now been restored. 

Matt, xxiii. 12 (comp. Luke xiv. 11 ; xviii. 14), 
Whosoever shall exalt himself shall be humbled 
(Authorised Version, abased) ; and whosoever 
shall humble himself shall be exalted. There 
is an absolute correspondence between the 
Divine retribution and the human action. Per- 
haps the words offer a glimpse of the working 
of the chastisements of God. Matt. xxv. 46, 
These shall go away into eternal (Autho- 
rised Version, everlasting) punishment: but 
the righteous into eternal life. The issues 
of our conduct, both bad and good, are 
shown in relation to the same unseen order, 
and as answering to its laws (comp. 2 Cor. 
iv. i8).i 

^ Comp. Matt. iv. 20, 22; xiii. 20 / {straightway^ four 
renderings in the Authorised Version) ; xviii. 33 {had mercy) ; 
XX. 20 {sons) ; xxi. 25 {from) ; xxii. 2 j {marriage feast) ; 
xxiii. 16, 18 {is a debtor) ; xxv. 32 {separate, separateth). 



82 Repetition of the same Word 

Mark xii. 41 /: He beheld how the multitude 
cast money into the treasury: and many that 
were rich cast in much. And there came a poor 
widow, and she cast (Authorised Version, threw) 
in two mites. . . . The identity of the outward 
form of the acts is an important point in the 
narrative. 

Mark xiii. 12 : Brother shall deliver up brother 
to death, and the father his child (Authorised 
Version, son) ; and children shall rise up against 
parents. . . . The repetition of the word which 
expresses the natural relation deepens the gloom 
of the picture.^ 

Luke xi. 33 / (comp. Matt. v. 15, 18): No 
man, when he hath lighted a lamp (Authorised 
Version, candle), putteth it . . . under the bushel, 
but on the stand, that they which enter in may 
see the light. The lamp (Authorised Version, 
light) of thy body is thine eye : when thine eye is 
single, thy whole body also is full of light. It is 
essential to the understanding of the passage 
that there should be a distinction between the 

^ Comp. Mark iii. 5 {stretch forth, stretched forth) ; \. 1*] f 
{garment, garments) ; v. 38 / {tumult) ; vi. 35 {far spent) ; 
X. 1}, f {little children). 



throughout a Passage 83 

organ through which the illumination is given 

and the light itself (comp. Matt. vi. 22 ; John 

V. 35 ; 2 Pet. i. 19 ; Rev. xxii. ^)} 

John vi. 27 /: Work (Authorised Version, 

labour) not for the meat which perisheth. . . . 

They said therefore unto Him, What must we 
do, that we may work the works of God ? The 
question takes up the word of the Lord. 

John XV. 26/: The Spirit of truth . . . shall 
bear witness (Authorised Version, testify) : . . . 
and ye also bear witness. . . . The twofold wit- 
ness must be regarded in its common features 
(comp. Acts V. 32).2 

Acts xxvi. 24 f: Festus saith with a loud 
voicey Paul, thou art mad (Authorised Version, 
beside thyself). . . . But Paul saith, I am not 
mad, most excellent Festus. . . . The correspond- 
ence is exact in the original {fialvrj, ov fjiaivo/jiat), 

1 Comp. Luke ii. 4 {called) ; v. 3 / {/)ui out) ; vii. 33 f{ts 
come); ix. 28, 37 {l/ie mountain); xvii. 21, 23 {Lo, here); 
xviii. 25 {enter) ; xix. 13, 15 {trade herewith, gained by 
trading) ; xxii. 8/ (comp. 12/, make ready) ; xxiv. 29 {abide). 

2 Comp. John i. 39 {abode) ; ii. ^f {ruler of the feast) ; iii. 2, 
10 {teacher) ; iii. 1 1 {bear witness, witness); iii. 12 {told you, 
tell you); viii. 33 ff {bondage, bondservant); ix. 19, 21 {how); 
XV. 2, 4, 5 {bear) ; xv. gf {abide) ; xx. 25 {ptit). 



84 Repetition of the same Word 

and the intervening words must not be allowed 
to obscure it.^ 

Rom. XV. 4, 5 : Whatsoever things were writ- 
ten aforetime were written . . . that through 
patience and through comfort of the Scriptures 
we might have hope. Now the God of patience 
and of comfort (Authorised Version, consola- 
tion) grant you. . . . The very point of the 
prayer lies in the fact that the living God is 
the one source of the characteristic blessings, 
which come through His word. 

This appeal to the nature of God is seen even 
in a more striking form a little later on in the 
same chapter. 

Rom. XV. 12, 13 : There shall be the root of 
fesse; . . . on Him shall the Gentiles hope 
(Authorised Version, trust). Now the God of 
hope fill you with all joy ^ . . . that ye may abound 
in hope. . . . The God of revelation, the God of 
the Covenant, can alone inspire and support 
this expectation of a world-wide gospel.^ 

^ Comp. Acts xvii. 18, 23 {sei forth) ; xix. 24 /{business) ; 
xxi. 39/ {give leave) \ xxiii. 25, 33 {letter)', xxvii. 10, 21 
{injury, loss). 

2 Comp. Rom. i. i^ {manifest, fnanifested)', ii. 2 f {practise)-, 



throttghout a Passage 85 

, I Cor. iii. 17: If any ;;^<^;^ destroyeth (Autho- 
rised Version, defile) the temple of God, him 
shall God destroy. The punishment is the 
exact correlative of the offence (comp. 2 Cor. 
V. 10 ; Col. iii. 25, marg. ; 2 Pet. ii. \2f^ Revised 
Version). 

I Cor. xii. 4 ^ : There are diversities of gifts ^ 
but the same Spirit. And there are diversities 
(Authorised Version, differences) of ministra- 
tions , and the same Lord. A nd there are diver- 
sities of workings (Authorised Version, opera- 
tions), but the same God, who worketh all things 
in all. In such a description of the Divine 
action, it is obviously of the highest import- 
ance to preserve the uniformity of St. PauFs 
language. 

Gal. ii. 8 /": He that wrought (Authorised 
Version adds ' effectually ') for Peter unto the 
apostleship of the circumcision wrought (Autho- 
rised Version, the same was mighty) /d7r me also 
unto the Gentiles ; and . . . they . . . gave to 

V. 2, 3, II {rejoice, Gk. glory) ; vii. 7, 8 (covet, coveting) ; viii. 
6 /{the mind of the flesh, the mind of the spirit) ; xi. 22 /{con- 
timie); xv. 19 {power); xvi. 3, $ff, 11 {salute) ; xvi. 3, 9, 21 
( fellow -worker). 



S6 Repetition of the same Word 

me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowships 
that we should go unto the Gentiles (Authorised 
Version, heathen), and they unto the circumcision. 
The two arbitrary variations in the Authorised 
Version mar the symmetry of the picture which 
St. Paul draws of the twofold apostolic endow- 
ment and mission.^ 

In Heb. xii. the full force of a quotation from 
the Old Testament is twice lost by failure to 
preserve the significant word in the applica- 
tion : 

Verse 5 : Ye have forgotten the exhortation, 
which reasoneth with you as with sons (Author- 

^ Comp. I Cor. i. 19 imprudence, prudent)', ii. i^f {judged, 
Judgeth) ; vii. 16 {how) ; ix. 22 {become, am becotne) ; x. 16, 
18, 20 {commtmiott, have cofnmunion, contrast partake) ; 
xiii. 8, 10, II {done away, put away); xvi. i f {collection, 
collections). 

2 Cor. ii. 'i^ff {sorrow, made sorry, caused sorrow) ; v. 6, 8, 
9 {\to be] at home) ; vii. 9, ii {made sorry) ; x. 4/, 8 {casting 
down) ; xii. 3 {know not, knoweth) ; xii. 9 {weakness, weak- 
nesses). 

Gal. iii. 2.2. f {shut up) ; iv. 8/([/^ bel in bondage). 

Eph. V. 15 {unwise, wise). 

Phil. i. 4 {supplication) ; ii. 13 {worketh, to work) ; iii. 4 
(have confidence). 

Col. ii. 13 {trespasses). 

1 Tim. i. iSf {chief) ; ii. 7 {trtith). 

2 Tim. iii. 8 {withstood, withstand). 
Heb. iv. 10 {rest, rested). 



throughout a Passage %"] 

ised Version, children), My son, regard not 
lightly the chastening of the Lord. . . . 

Verses 27 / : This word, Yet once more, signi- 
fieth the removing of those things that are shaken, 
. . . ^hat those things which are not shaken may 
remaiyi. Wherefore, receiving a kingdom that 
cannot be shaken (Authorised Version, moved), 
let us have grace. . . . ^ 

I Pet. ii. 4 /: Unto whom coming, a living 
stone, . . .ye also, as living (Authorised Version, 
lively) stones, are built up a spiritual house. . . . 
The wholly unwarranted change of rendering 
obscures the thought of the relation of the 
Head to the members, to borrow St. Paul's 
image. 

I John V. 18/: We know that whosoever is 
begotten of God sinneth not ; but He that was 
begotten of God keepeth him, and the evil one 
(Authorised Version, that wicked one) toucheth 
him not. We know that we are of God, and the 
whole world lieth in the evil one (Authorised 
Version, wickedness). The ' world ' is ' in the 

1 Comp. Heb. xi. 27, 28, 29 {by faith) ; xi. 35 {resurrec- 
tion). 



SS Repetition of the same Word 

evil one,' even as believers are ' in Christ ' 
(comp. John xvii. 15).^ 

12. In most of the passages which have been 
hitherto noticed, an identical rendering has 
been restored to a word variously translated by 
the Authorised Version in the same context. 
Very frequently the variation occurs in passages 
widely separated. But it is no less important 
in these cases also to preserve the identity 
which discloses to the careful student a fresh 
sign of the clear precision of view which marks 
the apostolic writings. 

Thus, to take an illustration from a single 
book. One word in the Revelation {Opovos;), 
variously rendered in the Authorised Version 
by ' throne ' and ' seat,' conveys in the original a 
far-reaching vision of the spiritual order, which 
is wholly obliterated by the diversity of trans- 
lation. / know where thou dwellest, is the 
message to the angel of the Church of Per- 

1 Comp. James i. /\ f {lacking, lacketh) ; ii. 2 f {clothing). 
I Pet. i. 7, 13 {revelation) ; iii. 14 {fear). 
I John ii. 24 {abide); iii. 12 {evil) ; 3 John 14 {sahite). 
Rev. xiii. 13 / {signs) ; xviii. 2 {unclean); xx. 3, 5, 7 
{finished); xx. 13 {gave tip) ; xxi. iS {pure). 



in related Passages 89 

gamum, even where Satan^s throne (Authorised 
Version, seat) is : and thou holdestfast My name 
. . . (Rev. ii. 13). There is a kingdom of the 
evil one upon earth ; and a brute force which 
represents its power: The dragon gave [the beast] 
his power, and his throne (Authorised Version, 
seat), and great authority (Rev. xiii. 2). But 
it is doomed to overthrow : The fifth [angel] 
poured out his bowl upon the throne (Authorised 
Version, seat) of the beast ; and his kingdom 
was darke7ied (Rev. xvi. 10). Meanwhile the 
prospect is opened of a sovereignty of the 
saints. They are allowed to share the royal 
dignity of their Lord in their representatives : 
Round about the throne were four and twenty 
thrones (Authorised Version, seats) : and upon 
the thrones (Authorised Version, seats) / saw 
four and twenty elders sitting, arrayed in white 
garments ; and on their heads crowns of gold 
(Rev. iv. 4). And when the proclamation was 
made, The kingdom of the world is become the 
kingdom of our Lord, and of His Christ, . . . 
the four and twenty elders, which sit before God 
on their thrones (Authorised Version, seats). 



90 Repetition of the same Word 

fell upon their faces y and worshipped God . . . 
(Rev. xi. 15, 16. Comp. Matt. xix. 28). 

More commonly the correspondences must 
be traced through several books. A remark- 
able verb, for example (aireKSexofJiai,), is used, 
and used exclusively, with one exception, of 
the attitude of the Christian towards the future 
revelation of the Lord. This is rendered in the 
Authorised Version five times 'wait for,' and 
twice * look for.' It is obviously a clear gain 
to conform these two last passages (Phil. iii. 
20, Heb. ix. 28) to the others ; but no one, 
till he had learnt the facts, could rightly under- 
stand the reason for the change.^ 

So again St. Paul uses a characteristic verb 
(/caTaX\d(7(T6Lv), and the derivative noun (/car- 
aXKwyrj), to express the establishment of the 
right relation between God and man. The 
verb is uniformly rendered ' reconcile ' ; the 
noun, which occurs four times, has three ren- 

^ Sometimes the form of association was (unhappily) strong 
enough to resist a required conformity. For example, in Luke 
xxii. 20 we read poured out, but in Matt. xxvi. 28 shed was 
retained, the different connection being supposed to justify the 
retention of the familiar word. Nor did the American Com- 
pany dissent from this conclusion. 



in related Passages 91 

derings, 'reconciliation' (2 Cor. v. 18, 19), 
* atonement' (Rom. v. 11), 'reconciling' (Rom. 
xi. 15). Faithfulness requires a single trans- 
lation, and the word ' reconciliation ' is in 
every way an appropriate equivalent of the 
Greek. It is the more important to fix the 
use of the form ' reconciliation ' because it 
has been wrongly used in Heb. ii. 17 (Author- 
ised Version) to express a totally different 
root (JXdo-KeaOai, IXao-fios;), which is elsewhere 
rightly expressed by ' propitiation.' 

13. The last illustration shows the necessity 
of preserving, if possible, a corresponding 
translation through a group of kindred words. 
We have seen already how important is the 
application of this principle to the group of 
words connected with ' love.' It has an illus- 
tration also from the words expressing 'fear.' 
No one can fail to catch at once the difference 
between ' fear ' and ' fearfulness,' the fact and 
the temper. When therefore the adjective 
(SetXo?) is most happily rendered ' fearful ' 
(Matt. viii. 26 ; Mark iv. 40 ; Rev. xxi. 8), it 
is desirable to represent the same thought in 



92 Retention of Aramaic Words 

the noun, * Tearfulness ' (2 Tim. i. 7), and in the 
verb, * to be fearful ' (John xiv. 27).^ 

14. A familiar title will furnish another illus- 
tration. The Aramaic Rabbi is sometimes 
given in the Gospels in its original form, and 
sometimes by the Greek equivalent rendered 
* Master ' (or ' Teacher '). The retention of 
the Aramaic word may indicate something 
as to the sources of the particular narratives, 
or perhaps give a touch of personal feeling to 
the address ; but in any case, it is desirable 
to preserve in the English Version a feature 
which can be made as clear as in the Greek. 
So it is that Rabbi has been introduced in 
Matthew xxvi. 25, 49; Mark ix. 5, xi. 21, xiv. 
45 ; as it was already given in the Authorised 
Version in Matthew xxiii. 7, 8. 

The common title received a fuller form, 
as expressive of higher respect, in the unusual 
form Rabboni (Rabbuni), which is found twice 
in the Gospels. This was simply rendered 

^ Comp. Acts iv. 36, xi. 23 {son of exhortation, exhorted) ; 
Col. ii. 9 / {fulness, made full) ; i Thess. ii. 4 {approved, 
proveth)', 2 Thess. ii. 16 /{gave us comfort, comfort); 2 Tim. 
iii. 17 {complete, furnished completely). 



Adoption of Old Testament Names 93 

'Lord' in Mark x. 51, and the interpretation 
given in St. John (xx. 16) is 'Master.' The 
two passages are now brought into harmony ; 
and some will be inclined to see more than 
an accidental coincidence in the use (and the 
record of the use) of the peculiar form on 
these two occasions. 

15. The changes which have been noticed 
so far were made with the view of bringing 
the different parts of the New Testament into 
harmony. One other series of changes was 
made to bring out the connection between the 
Old and New Testaments more clearly. The 
familiar forms of the Old Testament names 
are given by the Revised Version in place of 
the Graecised forms of the Authorised Version, 
when a person or place known in the Old 
Testament is referred to in the New Testa- 
ment. The misunderstanding which has been 
caused by the use of the Greek form Jesus for 
Joshua in two places (Acts vii. 45 ; Heb. iv. 8) 
is known to every one ; and such forms as 
Osee, Elias, Sarepta, are puzzling to many 
readers, though in a less degree. Where the 



94 Uniformities of Language 

old form has a distinct English equivalent, 
as James, it seemed well to notice the original 
(Jacob) in the margin. 

1 6. In a few cases a coincidence of language 
in the original has been noticed in the margin, 
when an identical rendering was not accepted 
for the text. The most remarkable example 
is furnished by the treatment of the word 
which is now almost naturalised among uS 
as ' Paraclete.' As applied to the Holy Spirit 
in the Gospel of St. John this is rendered 
* Comforter,' and as applied to the Son in St. 
John's first Epistle, * Advocate.' In each case 
a note is added (John xiv. 17, 26 ; xv. 26 ; 
xvi. 7 ; I John ii. i), which brings the identity 
of the original term clearly before the reader. 
So again, a peculiar word {€^oSo<;) is rendered 
closely ' departure,' and a marginal note records 
this sense in the two other places in which it 
is found (Luke ix. 31 ; 2 Pet. i. 15).^ 

The illustrations which have been given are 
of very unequal interest. Some include changes 
of great importance ; others may appear to be 

1 Comp. Acts iii. 15 ; Heb. ii. 10, xii. 2. 



noted in the Margin 95 

trifling. Some are obvious; others are re- 
quired by considerations which spring from 
careful study. But no one, I believe, will 
question that they are required by faith- 
fulness ; that they give fresh vigour and 
meaning to the apostolic words when they 
are allowed to have their full weight ; that 
any disturbance of familiar phrases is far 
more than balanced by the fuller expression 
of the original message. And, so far, it may 
be added, no change has been noted which 
involves alteration of the 'received' Greek 
text. 



CHAPTER III 

DIFFERENCES OF LANGUAGE MARKED 

I. The representation of differences of expres- 
sion in the original Greek, often subtle and yet 
significant, which had been neglected in the 
Authorised Version, was no less important for 
the faithfulness of the Revision than the re- 
moval of differences which the Authorised 
Version had introduced, or retained from the 
earlier Bibles. In endeavouring to satisfy this 
claim, the revisers had to face the difficult ques- 
tion of Greek synonymes (Introduction, § 19 : 
and if it was found impossible in some cases 
to convey to the English reader simply and 
sharply the shades of thought given by the 
original terms, yet, for the most part, his atten- 
tion could be turned in the right direction. 
He would be aroused to seek for further light. 
A few illustrations from different classes of 

96 



Differences of Language marked 97 

words will show how far success was attained 
in this respect. 

2. Three verbs in Greek are rendered, and 
sometimes necessarily and not inadequately 
rendered, by the substantive verb to be\ but 
they could not be interchanged in the original 
text without a distinct modification of the 
sense of the passages in which they occur. 
One of the words (vTrdp'^^^eLv) is comparatively 
rare, and has no English equivalent.^ The two 
others (ehao, ylyvecrdat), roughly represented by 
to be and to become^ are very common. 

It was therefore necessary to consider, espe- 
cially when these verbs stood in near connection, 
whether their exact force could be suggested 
without a cumbrous paraphrase. Not unfre- 
quently the problem was insoluble, or it ap- 
peared that the context sufficiently implied 
the idea of results reached {e.g. Luke xx. 14, be 
ours ; Gal. iii. 24, hath been our tutor ; Heb. ii. 
17, that He might be . . .). In other cases the 

1 The verb is characteristic of the Pauline group of writings. 
Instructive examples of its use occur : Luke xi. 13, xvi. 14, 23, 
xxiii. 50 ; Acts ii. 30, iii. 2, iv. 34, viii. 16, xvii. 24 ; Rom. iv. 
19 ; I Cor. xi. 7 ; Phil. ii. 6 marg., iii. 20 (2 Pet. iii. Ii). 



98 Diffe7'e7ices of Langttage 

original Greek found a fair expression in Eng- 
lish. Thus we read : 

John xii. 36, Believe on the lights that ye may 
become {not be) sons of light (comp. i. 12). 

*Acts iv. 4, The number of men came to be 
(not was) (comp. ii. 41) about five thousand. 

I Cor. iii. i^. If ciny man thinketh that he is 
wise among you in this worlds let him become a 
fool, that he may become (by this very change, 
not be) wise. 

1 Cor. vii. 23, Ye were bought with a price ; 
become not (for be not) bondservants of men. 

2 Cor. iii. 7/, If the ministration of death . . . 
came with glory {not was glorious) : . . . how 
shall not rather the ministration of the spirit be 
(the verb is changed) with glory ? 

2 Tim. iii. 9, Their folly shall be evident, . . . 
as theirs also came to be {not was). 

1 Pet. iv. 12, The fiery trial among you, which 
cometh upon you to prove you. 

2 Pet. i. 4, . . . that through these ye may be- 
come partakers of the Divine nature} 

^ Comp. Matt, xxiii. 26, xxiv. 32, xxvii. 24 ; Luke i. 20 ; 
Johni. 6, viii. 58 marg. ; Acts viii. i, xv. 25 ; Heb. ii. 2, vi. 20 ; 
Rev. i. i8 marg., ii. 8 marg. 



to be, to become 99 

. In all these examples the reader will perceive, 
with a little reflection, how much the words 
gain in living force by the distinct suggestion 
of progress, movement, change, which lies in 
the original word, and is now reflected in the 
Revised Version. 

In the same way the question in the parable 
of the good Samaritan receives fresh point by 
the more exact translation. Which of these 
three, thinkest thou, proved {not was) neighbour 
unto him that fell among the robbers ? (Luke x. 
36.) The point at issue was not the essential 
being, but the practical manifestation of char- 
acter. The lesson of the progressive deteriora- 
tion of the moral nature in the absence of the 
Divine Spirit is preserved in Matt. xii. 45 by 
the Revised rendering, The last state of that man 
becometh {not is) worse than the first. 

3. In other passages the same form of render- 
ing (' become ') guards the expression of the 
great principle of a Divine counsel, a ' law,' 
fulfilled in the course of things, which had been 
obscured by the too specific translation (' is 
made') of the Authorised Version. Thus the 



lOO Importance of the rendering h^covcie 

Lord declares that He * came into the world ' 
that they which see may become (not be made) 
blind (John ix. 39) by the action of forces 
already at work within them. And in the 
announcement of the central fact of the faith, 
we feel the presence of an eternal purpose 
wrought out in Him when we read the Word 
became flesh {for was mdidQ flesh) (John i. 12) ; 
and again, the first w,an Adam became a living 
soul: the last Adam became a life-giving spirit . 
(I Cor. XV. 45).i 

The importance of the thought thus indi- 
cated is seen in another connection in 2 Cor, 
V. 21, where ' being made' and ' becoming ' are 
set in contrast, though the difference was lost 
in the Authorised Version : Him. who knew no 
sin He made to be sin on our behalf ; that we 
might become (not be made) the righteousness of 
God in Him. The transformation of the be- 
liever follows from his vital union with God in 
Christ. 

4. It was far more easy to suggest to the 
English reader the shades of thought repre- 
* See also Rom. vii. 13 ; 2 Cor. iii. 7/; Heb. i. 4. 



Various words expressing Knowledge loi 

sented by the different Greek words answering 
to ^ to be' than of those answering to * to know.' 
Three words clearly distinct in conception 
{elSivat, yLva)(TK€Lv, iirio-TaaOai) are commonly, 
and for the most part necessarily, so trans- 
lated.^ Of these, two are very common {elhevav, 
fyi,va>crK€Lv), one of which (elSevat) describes, so 
to speak, a direct mental vision, knowledge 
which is at once immediate and complete ; 
and the other (yivcoaKecv) a knowledge which 
moves from point to point, springing out of 
observation and experience. The third word 
{eTrLcrraa-OaC) is much rarer, and expresses the 
knowledge which comes from close and familiar 
acquaintance. It will be evident that in many 
cases nothing but a paraphrase could convey 
the precise meaning of the original. Else- 
where the context gives the appropriate colour 
to the general term (know). In some places, 
however, it seemed desirable to mark the con- 

^ A fourth word {(svvihaC), which expresses an intelligence 
of the meaning of that which is said and done, was generally 
and adequately rendered in the Authorised Version by under- 
stand', and this rendering has been given in the two passages 
where it was otherwise translated, Mark vi. 52, 2 Cor. x. I2. 



I02 Various words 

trast when two of the words were placed in 
close connection. Thus in John iii. lo, ii there 
is a contrast between the absolute knowledge 
of the Lord and that power of recognising 
truth which an accredited master might be 
expected to possess ; and thus the Revised 
Version gives, in strict conformity with the 
Greek, Art thou the teacher of Israel^ and under- 
standest (Authorised Version, knowest) not these 
thhigs f Verily^ verily ^ I say unto thee^ We speak 
that we do know. ... So again we see a little 
more of the meaning of the words by which the 
Lord replies to the impetuous question with 
which St. Peter met His offer of lowly service, 
when we read in the Revised Version, What I 
do thou knowest not now ; but thou shalt under- 
stand (Authorised Version, know) hereafter^ 
taught in the solemn school of apostolic work 
(John xiii. 7).^ In one or two places the sub- 
stitution of learn for know {r^LvdaaKeiv) adds to 
the narrative the touch of life which belongs to 
the progress of events ; as when it is said, on 

^ It is, I think, to be 'regretted that the distinction was not 
made in Mark iv. 13; Heb. viii. ii ; i John ii. 19. Comp. 
Acts xix. 15 marg. 



expressing Knowledge 103 

the eve of the triumphal entry in Jerusalem, 
that the commoii people of the Jews learned 
(Authorised Version, knew) that [Jesus] was [at 
Bethany] . . . (John xii. 9). The phrase sug- 
gests the idea of lively interest and inquiry, 
which prepare for what followed.^ There is a 
similar vividness in the use of perceive ; the 
disciples perceived (Authorised Version, knew) 
not the things that were said when the Lord 
spoke of His passion ;(Luke xviii. 34) ; they 
could not read the signs before them.^ The 
use of this word {perceive) of the Lord empha- 
sises a trait in His perfect humanity. Looking 
on the anxious faces of the disciples He per- 
ceived (Authorised Version, knew) that they 
were desirous to ask Hi^n . . . (John xvi. 19).^ 

5. Sometimes, as we have already seen, a 
slight variation in language suggests a far- 
reaching thought. Life, for example, has a 
twofold aspect, the outward and the inward. 
We move in a visible order, and we move also 

^ Comp. Mark xv. 45. 

^ Comp. Mark xii. 12, xv, 10; Luke vii. 39, ix. 11 ; Acts 
xix. 34. 

^ Comp. Mark v. 30. 



I04 Contrasts of Fashion and Form 

in an invisible order. We have duties in 
regard to both. St. Paul fixes our attention 
on the truth by a significant change of verb 
in Rom. xii. 2, which has been represented 
in the Revised Version : Be not fashioned^ he 
says — 'fashioned,' that is, in your external 
character and bearing — according to (Author- 
ised Version, conformed to) this world: but be ye 
transformed by the renewing of your mind ... in 
that which is essential and eternal. The differ- 
ence which is thus indicated to the attentive 
student was happily preserved by the Author- 
ised Version in the important passage Phil. ii. 
6, 8, Christ fesus being in the form of God . . . 
taking the form of a servant and being found 
in fashion as a man . . . humbled Himself . . . 
And now it has been also marked in the 
remaining passages where the words are 
found : 2 Cor. xi. 13 #; Phil. iii. 21. 

6. There is again a most significant progress 
in man's opposition to the truth, which is greatly 
obscured in the Authorised Version. First 
comes the simple absence of belief (ou in(jTeveiv)\ 
this is followed by disbelief {amiGTelv) \ and at 



^Unbelief, Disbelief, Disobedience 105 

last disbelief issues practically in disobedience 
(diretdeLv). Thus we are able to follow a 
natural moral movement when we read in the 
record of the appearances of the risen Lord, 
that the disciples ' disbelieved ' the first tidings 
of Mary Magdalene, and 'believed not' the 
later statements which came to them (Mark 
xvi. II, 13). So also 'disbelief,' and not 
absence of belief, is the ground of men's con- 
demnation (Mark xvi, 16 ; comp. Acts xxviii. 
24) ; and the English reader can enter now more 
fully than before into the meaning of St. John's 
words when he reads, He that believeth on the 
Son hath eternal life ; but he that obeyeth not 
{not believeth not) the Son shall not see life 
(John iii. 36). The same change gives a fresh 
touch to the portraiture of the adversaries of St. 
Paul at Ephesus, where, we now read, some were 
hardened and disobedient (Authorised Version 
believed not: Acts xix. 9; comp. Rom. xv. 
31). These gainsayers of the truth felt the 
authority of the teaching which they opposed."^ 

1 Comp. Rom. xi. 30-32 ; Heb. iii. 18, iv. 6, 11, xi. 31. 
One most important group of words, rendered in the 
Authorised Version repent^ repentance {fieTauoelv, iierdvoia, 



io6 Difference of conception 

7. In these examples we can see how the 
Revised Version has accurately preserved traits 
in man's attitude of opposition to God. It has 
also carefully distinguished the two distinct 
forms in which the apostolic writers have pre- 
sented our filial connection with Him. There 
is the position of 'sonship' (characteristic of 
the teaching of St. Paul), which suggests the 

fierafxiXeadaL), offered great difficulties in translation. The 
first two Greek words {fieravoeLv, fierdvota), describe character- 
istically in the language of the"=New Testament a general change 
of mind, which becomes in its fullest development an intel- 
lectual and moral regeneration ; the latter {fxerafxeXeadaL) 
expresses a special relation to the past, a feeling of regret for a 
particular action which may be deepened to remorse. It was 
of paramount importance to keep one rendering for the former 
words, which are key-words of the gospel, and it was impos- 
sible to displace repent, repentance, which, though originally 
inadequate, are capable of receiving the full meaning of the 
original. No one satisfactory term could be found for 
IxeTatxfKeaOai. In the passage where it occurs in the same 
context with fierdvoLa, it has been adequately rendered by 
regret (2 Cor. vii. 8^) ; and elsewhere the limited application 
of the feeling has been indicated by the reflexive rendering 
repent oneself (never repetit absolutely) : Matt. xxi. 29, 32,. 
xxvii. 3 ; Heb. vii. 21. Yet without repentance {d/xeTafiiXriTos), 
Rom. xi. 29, is unchanged. Dr. T. Walden has expounded 
the apostolic force of /xerdvoLa with great power and truth in 
an essay on T/ie Great Meaning of the word Metanoia, lost in 
the Old Version, unrecovered in the New (New York, 1882) ; 
but he has overlooked the fact that the idea of repentance, like 
that of fxerdvoia itself, can be transfigured by Christian use, and 
that the force of words is not limited by their etymology. 



in Son and Child 107 

thoughts of privilege, of inheritance, of dignity ; 
and there is also the position of 'childship' 
(characteristic of the teaching of St. John), which 
suggests the thoughts of community of nature, of 
dependence, of tender relationship. Sons may 
be adopted ; children can only be born. The 
two conceptions are evidently complementary ; 
but they must be realised separately before 
the full force of the whole idea which they 
combine to give can be felt. The English 
reader has now, for the first time, the materials 
for the work. Yet even here it was felt to be 
impossible to change the phrase, ' the children 
of Israel' for 'the sons of Israel,' though the 
exact phrase has a clear significance (contrast 
I Pet. iii. 6). With this exception (and one 
accidental omission of the mark of reference 
in Matt. xxi. 28 1°), I believe that the use of 
* child,' ('children') is always marked in the 
Revised Version; and that with the clearest 
gain to the peculiar force of the narrative 
(Mark ii. 5 ; Matt. ix. 2 ; Luke xv. 31, xvi. 25 ; 
Matt. xxi. 28) and of the address (i Cor. iv. 14 ; 
I Tim. i. 2, 28 ; Tit. i. 4, etc.), no less than to 



io8 Children and Sons of God 

the exact definition of spiritual relations. On 
the other hand, the grand title, ' sons of God,' 
holds its true place, according to the exact 
usage of the original. 

Two or three illustrations will be sufficient 
to indicate the gain to the student of Scripture 
from the faithful preservation of this distinc- 
tion between the general conceptions of a 
Divine inheritance and a Divine nature. Thus 
we now read that the Lord gave to them that 
received Him the right to become children 
(Authorised Version, sons) of God, which were 
born . . . of God (John i. 12). And again: 
Behold what manner of love the Father hath 
bestowed upon us, that we shotdd be called 
children (Authorised Version, the sons) of God: 
and such we are ( i John iii. i /). So, conversely, 
m other places the title of privilege is restored 
to the English text. They that are accounted 
worthy to attain to that world . . . are equal unto 
the angels, and are sons (Authorised Version, 
the children) of God, being sons of the resur- 
rection (Luke XX. 35). Where it was said unto 
them. Ye are not My people, there shall they be 



Hell, Hades: Immortality, I ncorruption 109 

called sons (Authorised Version, the children) 
of the livhig 6^^^ (Rom. ix. 26)} 

8. If we carry our thoughts still further to 
that unseen and future order, of which with our 
present powers we can form no definite con- 
ception, we find the Revised Version has 
distinguished between hell {r^eevva), the place 
of suffering, and hades, the place of spirits (the 
unbounded, sheol) (see Matt. xvi. 18 ; Luke xvi. 
23 ; Acts ii. 27 ; Rev. i. 18). It has also 
adequately presented the most characteristic 
claim of the gospel, which was obliterated 
before, in the familiar phrase that Christ 
brought life and immortality to light through 
the gospel (2 Tim. i. 10, Authorised Version) ; 
whereas we now read that He brought life and 
incorruption to light. The revelation of the 
resurrection is incorruption (a(j)6apaLa), the 
preservation of all that belongs to the fulness 
of humanity (comp. Rom. ii. 7 ; i Cor. xv. 42, 
50, 54, Authorised Version), and not simple 
continuance of being. Immortality (adavaala), 

1 Comp. Matt. v. 9, 45 ; Luke vi. 35 ; Gal. iii. 26. See 
also Exod. xiii. 13, 15 (Revised Version). 



I lo Importance (?/" the Servant of the Lord 

is a separate idea (i Cor. xv. 53/; i Tim. vi. 
16), which falls far short of the completeness 
of assurance which comes through the revela- 
tion of the risen Lord. 

9. The importance of preserving an unusual 
phrase may be shown by an example of a 
different kind, where a peculiar word gives the 
clew to the understanding of the real course of 
apostolic thought. One of the most decisive 
steps in the historic interpretation of the work 
and person of Christ was the perception that 
in Him was fulfilled the prophecy of ' servant 
of the Lord ' {irah Kvplov, Isa. Hi. ^), which 
fact is clearly marked in the early chapters of 
the Acts. In the Authorised Version the fact 
was wholly hidden by the adoption of the 
translation *child ' or * son ' for * servant' (Acts iii. 
13, 26, iv. 27, 30). Now the careful reader 
cannot fail to observe how the meaning of 
Isaiah's teaching was brought home by the 
Spirit to the Apostles, and through this the 
real significance of the sufferings of Christ.^ 

^ Comp. Luke i. 54 (Israel), i. 69 ; Acts iv. 25 (David). 
See also Matt. xii. 18. 



Passing over : Divinity 1 1 1 

10. So far the illustrations have been taken 
from words which are of frequent occurrence. 
In the Authorised Version of Rom. iii. 25 the 
confusion of a word, which is found there only 
• in the New Testament (irdpeo-L^), with another 
common word from the same root (a^eo-^?), 
has led to the complete inversion of St. 
Paul's meaning. The sins of former time were 
neither forgiven nor punished : they were 
simply passed over ; and for this reason there 
was need of the vindication of the righteous- 
ness of God, because of the passing over of the 
sins do7ie aforetime, in the forbearance of God, and 
not (as the Authorised Version) for the remis- 
sion of sins that are past, through the forbearance 
of God. The distinction between the unique 
words, divinity (^etor???, Rom. i. 20) and God- 
head {deity, ^eor?;?, Col. ii. 9) is not less im- 
portant.i And under this head reference may 
be made to the care taken by the Revisers to 
represent words of a single occurrence in the 
original by words of single occurrence in the 
English version. A considerable number of 

^ Comp. Acts xvii. 29 marg. (t6 Q€iqv). 



112 Words of single 

the novelties of language are due to this 
necessary endeavour ; and a student who has 
the patience to work through the following 
examples will gain a new sense of the richness 
of the apostolic vocabulary, which has been 
hidden in the Authorised Version. ^ Apparition 
{(j)dvTaa/jLa, Matt. xiv. 26 ; Luke vi. 49) ; awe 
(Seo9, Heb. xii. 28) ; billows {(toKo^, Luke xxi. 
25) ; concealed {TrapaKoXvirTecrOaL, Luke ix. 45) ; 
conduct {a'ycor^rj, 2 Tim. iii. 10) ; confute (Bca- 
KureXey'^ecrdaCy Acts xviii. 28) ; demeanour 
{Karda-TTj^ay Tit. ii. 3) ; discipline {croa^povKnio^y 
2 Tim. i. 7) ; disrepute {direke'yfjbof;, Acts xix. 
27) ; effulgence {diravyaa^ay Heb. i. 3) ; goal 
((T/co7r6<;, Phil. iii. 14) ; impostor {yo'r]^^ 2 Tim. 
iii. 13); to interpose {fiecnTeveiv, Heb. vi. 17); 
justice (rj Alk7j, Acts xxviii. 4) ; to moor (irpo- 
aopfjbi^ecrOaLy Mark vi. 53); sacred (lepo^;, I Cor. 
ix. 13 ; 2 Tim. iii. 15); to shttdder ((pptcro-eij/f 

^ The words quoted occur, I believe, in the Greek and 
English texts of the New Testament only in the places quoted ; 
and the new English words cannot fairly be said to be inhar- 
monious with the old. In making the list I have found great 
help from Messrs. Bemrose and Sons' excellent Stiidenfs Con- 
cordance to the New Testament {Revised Version). London 



Occurrence 1 1 3 

Jas. ii. 19); stupor {Karavv^i^^ Rom. xi. 8); to 
train (acoippovi^ecVj Tit. ii. 4) ; tranquil {r\peyuo<^^ 

1 Tim. ii. 2); undressed {a'yvajyo^^ Matt. ix. 16; 
Mark ii. 21); without self-control (aKparT^ff^ 

2 Tim. iii. 3). 

II. A variation in the use of prepositions 
often suggests instructive lines of thought. A 
good illustration of such significant differences 
of expression lost in the Authorised Version is 
supplied by a passage to which we have already 
referred for examples of differences introduced 
into the Authorised Version which have no 
place in the original (i Cor. xii. 4 ff). Here 
in the description of the manifestation of the 
Spirit we read in the Authorised Version, To 
one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom ; 
to another the word of knowledge by the same 
Spirit ; to another faith by the same Spirit 
Thus 'the word of wisdom,' 'the word of 
knowledge,' and 'faith' are presented in ex- 
actly the same connection with the Spirit, as 
simply given ' by ' Him. But in the original 
three different prepositions are used to describe 
the relation of these three gifts to the Spirit, 
H 



114 Variations in the use 

represented exactly in the Revised Version by 
^through the Spirit,' ^according to the Spirit/ 
^ in the Spirit' (Vulgate, per^ secmidum^ in). 
The English reader is necessarily led to con- 
sider whether this unexpected variation does 
not throw some light upon the gifts themselves. 
Even if he finds no answer to the question at 
once, it will be something to have proposed 
it. He will at least be led to reflect on the 
difference between ' wisdom ' and ' knowledge.' 
He will feel perhaps that ' wisdom ' is absolute, 
unchangeable, belonging to things eternal ; 
that 'knowledge' is progressive, and 'grows 
from more to more.' If this be so, he will 
understand that, in the one case, the Spirit is, 
as it were, the speaker of the word in the soul ; 
that, in the other case. He is the guide who 
directs and rules and regulates the observation 
which finds expression through man. And 
when he has realised this twofold action of 
the Spirit, he will be prepared to consider 
that there is yet a third relation in which we 
may stand to Him. We may be, as it were, 
lost in Him, enwrapped in His transfiguring 



of Prepositions 115 

influence. Then the faith which wields the 
powers of the world to come has its scope. 
Now even if this particular interpretation be 
faulty or imperfect, still it will not have been 
without use that the English reader has been 
constrained, as the Greek reader, to take 
account of the manifold action no less than 
of the manifold gifts of the Spirit. 

12. It is easy to multiply instances of other 
shades of thought conveyed by variation in con- 
struction which are neglected by the Author- 
ised Version. For example, the key to the 
understanding of the narrative in John viii., 
as has been already summarily noticed (Ch. i. 
§ 13), lies in the change of phrase in verses 
30, 31. As the Lord spoke many believed on 
Him {eiricTTeva-av ek avrov), with the devotion 
of perfect self - surrender ; but there were 
others, ' Jews ' in the technical language of 
the evangelist, who believed Him {ireirLo-TevKOTa^ 
avT(S), who acknowledged the truth of His 
statements, and the justice of His claim to 
Messiahship, but who could not give up their 
own conception of what the Messiah should be, 



1 1 6 Variations in Prepositions 

and by the force of that prepossession were pre- 
pared for fatal unbelief^ The difference in the 
view of the destiny of Christian ministrations 
marked in the Revised Version of Eph. iv. 12 is 
less striking at first sight, but it will repay con- 
sideration. The Divine gifts, as we now read, 
are made for (7rp6<;) the perfecting of the saints, 
unto (et9, Authorised Version, for) the zvork of 
ministering, unto (Authorised Version, for) the 
building up of the body of Christ. Our concepr 
tion of the Divine word is made clearer when 
we distinguish the first Author of the message 
from the prophet who delivers it. The word 
is spoken by (yiro) God, and through (Blo) His 
messenger (Matt. i. 22; ii. 15; xxi. 4; xxii. 
31).^ So again there is a difference in the 
conception of spiritual activities where they 
are referred to an origin regarded as apart 
(aTTo), or to a source from which they flow as 
in continuous connection with it (ef), or as 
belonging to the agent (gen.). It is indeed 
most difficult to do more than suggest to the 

1 Comp. Johniv. 21, 39; xiv. 11, 12 ; v. 24, 38, 46/ 

2 Comp. John i. 3, 10, 17 ; Acts ii. 43 ; xii. 9 ; ^i Cor. 
viii. 6. 



Confusion of different Words 117 

English student a subject for reflection, but 
this is the effect of the Greek upon the reader 
of the original (comp. 2 Cor. iii. 5 ; iv. 7).^ 

13. It may be objected that there is some- 
thing of over-refinement in the distinctions 
which have been just noticed. No such charge 
lies against the distinction of separate and yet 
related words in the same context. The book 
of the Revelation furnishes good illustrations 
of the loss or confusion which has arisen from 
the neglect of this obvious duty of a translator. 
One main thought of the book is the conflict 
between the brute forces of earthly empire 
and the spiritual force of the risen Saviour. 
According to the imagery of the Old Testa- 
ment there is on the one side * one like to a 
son of man' (i. 13; xiv, 14); and on the other 
' a seven-headed beast ' (xi. j ff), which becomes 
the organ of the false spirit So far the picture 
is clear; but it is strangely disturbed when 
the same name ' beast ' is applied to the four 
'living creatures' before the throne which 

^ Not unfrequently it is impossible to convey the impression 
of the original, even where the thought involved is of import- 
ance (John xvi. 27, 28, 30, Trapct, e^, cLtto ; i. i, 7r/3(is). 



1 18 Crown and Diadem 

render to God the unceasing homage of 
creation (iv. 6 ff\ v. 6 ; wi. i ff; xiv. 3 ; xv. 7 ; 
xix. 4). The reader misses the pregnant con- 
trast between the world as God made it and 
as it is still so far as it remains in fellowship 
with Him, and the world as it is in isolated 
self-assertion opposed to Him. 

We have already noticed how seriously the 
two renderings of * throne ' mar the representa- 
tion of the conflict of good and evil in the 
Apocalypse (chap. ii. § 12). The rendering of 
two words by the one word 'crown' has not been 
less injurious in another aspect. The common 
word for crown {(TT€^avo<>:) — the significant 
name of the first martyr — suggested to the 
Greek reader simply the victor's wreath. This 
is the thought of * the crown of life ' (Rev. ii. 
10; comp. iii. 11), *the incorruptible crown' 
(i Cor. ix. 25), 'the crown of righteousness' 
(2 Tim. iv. 8), ' the crown of glory that fadeth 
not away' (i Pet. v. 4), 'the crown of gold' of 
the elders (Rev. iv. 4, 10), the crown of the great 
Conqueror (vi. 2), and the very crown of thorns, 
the victor's wreath of ' the Man of sorrows.' 



in the Apocalypse 1 1 9 

But in contrast with this there is the * diadem ' 
— the fillet of the Persian king — the symbol of 
sovereign dignity. The word is found in the 
New Testament only in the Apocalypse. It 
occurs three times, and in each case its force is 
unmistakable. The great dragon had ' upon 
his head seven diadems' (Rev. xii. 3). The 
ten-horned beast had *on his horns ten dia- 
dems' (Rev. xiii. i). And then, in significant 
contrast with this unholy and usurped domin- 
ion, when the Word of God is revealed in His 
Majesty, bearing His Name as ' King of kings 
and Lord of lords,' He has 'upon His head 
many diadems' (Rev. xix. 12), bearing sway 
not in one order only but in many. 

14. In these cases the distinction of the 
synonymes belongs to the right understanding 
of the imagery of the whole book. Elsewhere 
it affects the full meaning of the particular 
passage, and the importance of distinguishing 
the related words becomes even more apparent 
when they are found in the same context. 
Probably the most striking illustration of the 
harm which may follow from the neglect of 



1 20 Fold and Flock 

this consideration is furnished by John x. 16, 
where the whole character of the Lord's pro- 
mise has been obscured by the unhappy ren- 
dering of two perfectly distinct Greek words by 
' fold.' The Revised Version has now restored 
the rendering of Tyndale and Coverdale, and 
we read : Other sheep I have which are not of this 
fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear 
My voice; and they shall become one flock 
(Authorised Version, fold), one shepherd (Ezek. 
xxxiv. 23). 

The false rendering came from the Latin 
Vulgate, and the phrase ' one fold, one shepherd' 
had probably been made familiar in English by 
Wiclif. But the old Latin, like the other ancient 
versions, marked the difference, which is clear 
in the original ; and it would be difficult to 
overrate the evil influence which the confusion 
of the ' fold ' and the ' flock ' has exercised on 
popular theology. Elsewhere the great lesson 
of the corporate union of the Church is taught, 
but here the thought is of the spring of unity 
in personal relationship with Christ. 

15. The example which has been given is of 



Temple and Sanctuary 121 

exceptional interest. The force of the correc- 
tion is felt at once. In other cases the gain of 
exactness is less conspicuous, and yet of real 
moment. This will be seen from a few repre- 
sentative passages, which shew the general 
character of the changes made in order to dis- 
tinguish synonymes in close connection. 

Matt. xxvi. 55, xxvii. 15 : Jesus said, / sat 
daily in the temple teachings and ye took me not. 
. . . Judas cast down the pieces of silver into the 
sanctuary (Authorised Version, temple), and 
departed The distinction between the temple 
with its courts (lepov) and the sanctuary, the 
dwelling-place of God (va6<;:), is essential to the 
understanding of the outward ritual of Judaism, 
and of its spiritual counterpart. The temple 
(lepov) has no place in the Apocalypse. The 
sanctuary (va6<;) is the image of the body of 
Christ and of Christians (John ii. 19, 21 ; i Cor. 
iii. 16 f; vi. 19; 2 Cor. vi. 16 ; Eph. ii. 21), and 
in all these places the attention of the reader is 
called to the exact word by a marginal note. 

Luke ix. 24 : Whosoever would (Authorised 
Version, will) save his life shall lose it; but who- 



122 Synonymes distinguished 

soever shall (Authorised Version, will) lose his life 
for My sake, the same shall save it. The differ- 
ence between the desire of saving (o? av OeKy 
(TOicraL) and the fact of losing (09 av airoXearj) is 
entirely lost in the Authorised Version, though 
it is obviously required for the meaning of the 
passage. 

John i. II: He came unto his own (ra lBlo), 
and they that were His own (ot Ihioi ; Author- 
ised Version, and His own) received Him not. 
The separate mention of the * holy land ' and 
' holy people ' applies to the Word that which 
is said of Jehovah in the Old Testament with 
singular fulness. 

John vi. 10 : fesus said. Make the people (rov? 
avdpwTTov'i ; Authorised Version, the men) sit 
down. . . . So the men {pi dvBpe^) sat down, in 
number about five thousand. The change of 
word calls up at once the additional clause in 
St. Matthew (xiv. 21). 

Acts iv. 27, 28 : Herod and Pontius Pilate, 
with the Gentiles and the peoples (\aoi<;) of Israel, 
were gathered together, to do whatsoever Thy 
hand and Thy counsel foreordained to come to 



in the same Context 123 

pass {fyeveaOai ; Authorised Version, to be done). 
The variation of expression illustrates what has 
been already said in § 2. 

I Cor. xiv. 20 : Brethren^ be not children 
{iraiZld) in mind : howbeit in malice be ye babes 
(v7}7rLd^€T€ ; Authorised Version, be ye children), 
but in mind be men. The literal translation of 
the verb (vrjirtd^eiv), which occurs here only 
in the New Testament, brings out the climax 
of the thought (comp. i Cor. iii. i ; Heb. v. 

13). 

Heb. iv. 9 /: T/iere remaineth therefore a 
sabbath rest (Ga^^aTLayuo^ : Authorised Ver- 
sion, rest)/^r the people of God. For he that is 
entered into his rest {KardiravaL^) hath himself 
also rested from his works ^ as God did from His. 
The peculiar word significantly connects the 
character of the promised rest of man with that 
of the rest of God. 

I Pet. V. 7 : Casting all your anxiety {fiepi^iva : 
Authorised Version, care) upon Himy because 
He careth {fieXei) for you} 

1 Other instructive examples will be found in Matt. iv. 19 ff" 
{come yc after Me^ followed) ; v. 17/ {fulfil ^ accomplished) ; 



124 Synonymes 

1 6. Sometimes the exact rendering of con- 
nected words removes that which is embarrass- 
ing in the text of the Authorised Version. 
Thoughtful readers of the English Testament 
must often have been perplexed by the appar- 
ent discrepancy between the two sayings as to 
the Baptist in John i. 8, v. 35, which now are 
brought into a most significant harmony. He 
was not the light : he was the lamp that burneth 
and shineth (Authorised Version, a burning and a 
shining light), kindled from another source, and 
ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his light} 

Mark v. 40 ff {child, damsel) ; Luke xii. 3 {said, spoken) ; xiv. 
12/ [call, bid)', xvii. 26 {coim to pass, be); John viii. 49, 54 
{honour, glorify) ; xvi. 16 {behold, see) ; xvii. 12 {kepi, guarded) ; 
XX. 5 f {seeth, beholdeth); xxi. i^^f {feed, find)'. Acts i. 2, 9 
{received up, taken up); iii. 2, 10 {door, gate); vii. 13 {made 
known, became matiifest) ; viii. 20 {silver, money) ; Rom. xiii. 2 
{resisteth, withstandeth) ; i Cor. x. 16/ {partake of, have com- 
vitinion with) ; xi. 30 {many, not a fevj) ; xi. 31 {discerned, 
judged) ; xiv. 7 {voice, sound) ; xiv. 36 {went, came) ; 2 Cor. iv. 
4, 6 {dawn, shine) ; Gal. i. 6/ (a different, another) ; iii. 15, 17 
{?naketh void, disannul); Phil. iv. i*j f {increaseth, abound); 
Col. iii. 23 {do, work); i Thess. ii. 13 {received, accepted); 
I Tim. iii. i {seeketh, desireth) ; 2 Tim. iv. 16 f {took my part, 
stood by me) ; Heb. i. 14 {minister, do service) ; xii. 26 {shake, 
make to tremble); James i. 17 {gift, boon). Even when the 
English rendering is inadequate the reader is led to seek for 
completer help. 

1 Comp. Matt. vi. 22, The lamp of the body is the eye 



distinguished 125 

There is again, to take a different kind of 
illustration, an unmeaning harshness in the 
words, he that is washed needeth not save to 
wash his feet^ which is at once removed when 
we know that there is a contrast in the original 
between the washing of the whole body and 
the washing of some small part : he that is 
bathed (o XeXou/i-ei/o?) needeth not save to wash 
(vl^lrao-Oat) his feet (John xiii. 10), just as the 
guest who rests in the evening after his day's 
journey (i Tim. v. \Q)> Stress is often laid upon 
a supposed change in St. Paul's opinions as to the 
coming of the Lord. A reader of the Author- 
ised Version would naturally suppose that he 
had a conclusive proof of the fact, whatever 
use he might make of it, in a comparison of 
2 Thess. ii. 2, be not . . . troubled . . . by letter 
as fro7n us, as that the day of Christ is at hand, 
with Rom. xiii. 12, The night is far spent, the 
day is at hand. The Revised Version now 

(Luke xi. 33^; 2 Pet. i. 19, The word of prophecy . . . a 
lamp shining in a dark place ; Rev. xxi. 23, The glory of God did 
lighten it, and the lamp thereof was the Lamb. 

1 For ' bathed ' comp. Eph. v. 26 ; Tit. iii. 5. It is to be 
regretted, I think, that 'bathed' was not substituted for 
' washed ' in Heb. x. 22 (Exod. xxix. 4 ; Lev. xvi. 4). 



126 Synonymes distinguished 

marks the peculiar word in the former passage 
{evea-TrjKev, not rjyyiKev), as that the day of the 
Lord is now present, and points to the false 
opinion involved (comp. i Cor. xv. 12 ; 2 
Tim. ii. 18). The rendering in Luke xxiv. 25, 
O foolish men {avor\Toi), and slow of heart to 
believe ... is no doubt less vigorous than O 
fools, and slow of heart to believe • • • ; but the 
English reader will be glad to know that the 
Lord does not apply to the disciples the con- 
demnation of Scribes and Pharisees (Matt 
xxiii. 17, jjbwpol). 

17. It happens not unfrequently that no 
simple rendering can represent the distinctions 
between synonymes conveyed by the original. 
In such cases, where there seemed to be a 
likelihood of misunderstanding, a marginal note 
directs the attention of the reader to the shade 
of meaning of which he must take account 
For example, our English word 'world' has 
to do duty for three Greek words most distinct 
in meaning. Most commonly 'world' stands 
for a word (/coo-fiof;) which has been naturalised 
in modern English as cosmos. This presents 



in the Margin 127 

the thought of the whole sum of finite being as 
apart from God, and specially it describes all 
that falls under our observation which is ac- 
tually estranged from God. Again, 'world' 
answers to a plural or singular, 'the ages,' or 
'the age' (0/ alcdve^, alcDv), in which creation 
is regarded as a vast system unfolded from 
aeon to aeon, as an immeasurable and orderly 
development of being under the condition of 
time, of which each 'age,' or 'this age' and 
'the age to come,' has its distinguishing 
characteristics, and so far is ' the world.' And, 
thirdly, the ' world ' renders a term (97 oUov^ievr]) 
which describes the seat of settled government 
and civilised life, practically conterminous with 
the Roman Empire. The occurrence of the 
two latter forms in the original is marked by 
the margins 'ages' or 'age' and 'the inhabited 
earth.' (See Heb. i. 2, vi. 5 text, ix. 26, xi. 3 ; 
Matt. xii. 32, xiii. 22, 39, etc. ; Heb. i. 6, ii. 5 ; 
Matt. xxix. 14; Luke ii. i.) In like manner 
' devil ' has been retained as the translation of 
three words (8ta^oXo9, haifxcov, Saifzovtov) ; but 
a margin (Gk. demon) is added when either of 



128 Synonymes distinguished 

the two latter words is so rendered. Elsewhere 
a marginal note calls attention to the occur- 
rence of an unusual word {KaTa^ikelv : Matt, 
xxvi. 48 ; Luke vii. 45), or to a difference of 
moment, either for the interpretation of the 
passage {hovXo^y BidKovo<^, Matt. xxii. i ff; 
Mark x. 43/; (j^tXelv, dyaTrdv, John xxi. 16; 
KXaleiv, BaKpvecvy John xi. 31, 33, 35), or for the 
identification of the incident {K6(j)tvo<;, cr^upt?, 
Matt xvi. 9; Mark viii. 19). 

18. We may conclude with an example of a 
different kind which is found in Gal. vi. 2, 5, 
where we read in close sequence, Bear ye one 
anothef^s burdens^ and . . . every man shall bear 
his own burden. But we are now informed that 
'burden' represents two Greek words (ySa/309, 
(popTo^;)^ and that in the second case many- 
think the rendering ' load ' preferable. In any 
case the English reader is guided to a true 
discernment of that which sympathy can and 
cannot do. It is indeed most true that we 
must all support that which God assigns to us, 
but friendship can lighten the weight of that 
which we are required to bear. 



CHAPTER IV 

VIVID DETAILS : LOCAL AND TEMPORAL 
COLOURING 

I. We have seen how the Revised Version 
enables the English reader to gain a clearer 
view of the exact form of the original Greek 
by preserving significant identities of language 
and by marking significant differences. In this 
way light is thrown upon the relations of the 
evangelic narratives one to another, and upon 
the manifold expression of apostolic teaching. 
At the same time minute faithfulness of render- 
ing brings out innumerable details of vivid 
description, and of local and temporal colour- 
ing, which convey a living sense of the direct 
originality of the writings. 

2. Sometimes the effect of the change in 
translation is obvious at once. A vague or 
general phrase is filled with a fresh force by 
I 



130 Fresh vigour gained 

the restoration of the original image. Thus 
in John xvi. 2, the substitution of the fuller 
rendering, The hour co^neth^ that (lvo) whosoever 
killeth you shall think that he offereth service 
unto Gody for the colourless doeth God service^ 
brings out the thought that the persecution of 
Christians to death would be regarded as an 
act of religious devotion, according to the say- 
ing, * Every one that sheds the blood of the 
wicked is as he that offereth an offering.' In 
Gal. vi. 17, the addition of the word branded — 
I bear branded on my body the marks of Jesus — 
points the reference to the slaves who bore the 
names of the deities to whose service they were 
consecrated. The marks of the scourges and 
the stones were for St. Paul the indelible brands 
of his absolute devotion to his Lord. In 2 Cor. 
ii. 14, the whole thought is inverted by the 
rendering of the Authorised Version, Thanks be 
unto Gody which always causeth us to trimnph 
in Christy instead of which always leadeth us in 
triumph in Christ. The gratitude of the apostle 
is poured out characteristically not for his own 
triumph, but for Christ's triumph. He thanks 



by exact rendering 131 

God, not that he has conquered, but that he 
has been conquered. His joy is that he is led^ 
in triumph in Christ as one of those whom 
Christ has taken captive (comp. Col. ii. 15). 
In Heb. ii. i a new word is introduced to 
express a new and startling thought : We ought 
to give the more earnest heed to the things that 
were heard, lest haply we drift away from them 
(Authorised Version, lest we should let them 
slip). The peril of the Hebrews lay in that 
stream of habit and circumstance which is ever 
tending to bear us along with it, if our watch- 
fulness is relaxed. Again, in the same epistle 
(xi. 13), the faith of the patriarchs appears in 
its full energy when we read that these all died 
in faiths not having received the promises, but 
having seen them and greeted them from afar 
(Authorised Version, having seen them afar off 
. . . and embraced them). Like wayworn 
wanderers, they recognised their God-given 
home. 

' Italiam primus conclamat Achates, 
Italiam Iseto socii clamore salutant.' 

So too in I Pet. v. 5 humility is now shown as 



132 Fresh vigour gained 

the indispensable condition for service which 
the Christian must resolutely assume : gird 
yourselves with humility ^(Authorised Version, 
be clothed with humility). 

3. Expressive touches will be no less plainly 
recognised in the following passages : 

Mark x. 21 f, Jesus looking upon (Authorised 
Version, beholding) him loved him^ and said . . . 
But His countenance fell at the i-^jj//;^!^ (Author- 
ised Version, He was sad at that saying). The 
thought is of the soul-piercing glance by which 
the character is laid open (comp. verse 27, xiv. 67; 
Luke XX. 17, xxii. 61 ; John i. 36, 42), and of 
the cloud which overshadows the man who 
cannot receive the call to self-surrender (cf. 
Matt. xvi. 3 v.l^. 

Luke i. 52, He hath put down princes from 
their thrones (Authorised Version, the mighty 
from their seats). 

Luke xix. 48, The people all hung upon 
Him^ listening (Authorised Version, all the 
people were very attentive to hear Him). The 
unique expression (i^eKpifjLaTo) is a transcript 
from life. 



by exact rendering 133 

Acts XX. 35, In all things I gave you an 
example, how that so labouring . . . (Author- 
ised Version, I have showed you all things, 
how that . . .). The whole conception of the 
apostolic pattern (verse 34) disappears from 
the Authorised Version. 

1 Cor. ix. 27, / buffet my body, and bring it 
into bondage : lest by any means . . . / myself 
should be rejected (Authorised Version, / keep 
under my body, and bring it into subjection, 
lest that by any means . . . I myself should be 
a castaway). The vigour of St. Paul's language 
in the first clause is lost in the Authorised 
Version, and in the second clause an image 
is suggested wholly foreign to the original 
thought of trial and judgment (Heb. vi. 8). 

2 Cor. iv. 8, We are pressed on every side, 
yet not straitened (Authorised Version, we 
are troubled on every side, yet not distressed). 
The image is kept in the Revised Version, 
and also the rendering of an unusual word 
(a-Tevoxcopetadac), which is given in the other 
place where it occurs (vi. 12). 

2 Cor. vii. 2, 4, Open your hearts to us. . . . 



134 Fresh vigour gained 

I overflow with joy in all our affliction (Author- 
ised Version, receive us. ... I am exceeding 
joyful in all our tribulation). 

Col. ii. 14, The bond written in ordinances 
that was against us (Authorised Version, the 
handwriting of ordinances that was against 
us). 

1 Thess. ii. 17, Being bereaved o^ you for a 
short season (Authorised Version, being taken 
from you for a short time). The suggestion 
of the relation of parent and child, on which 
St. Paul delights to dwell (Gal. iv. 19 ; i Cor. 
iv. 15 ; Philem. 10), is essential to the under- 
standing of the tenderness of the Apostle's 
words (comp. John xiv. 18). 

2 Tim. i. 8, Suffer hardship with the gospel 
(Authorised Version, be thou partaker of the 
afflictions of the gospel). The characteristic 
personification of the gospel ought not to be 
lost or obscured (comp. 2 Tim. ii. 9). 

2 Tim. ii. 4 /J No soldier on service entangleth 
himself \ . . . that he may please him who en- 
rolled him as a soldier. And if also a man 
contend in the games . . . (Authorised Ver- 



by exact rendering 135 

sion, No man that warreth entangleth himself \ 
. . . that he may please him who hath chosen 
him to be a soldier. And if a man also strive 
for masteries. . . .) The urgency of a present 
campaign, and the force of the second image 
are obliterated in the Authorised Version. 

Rev. vii. i^^He that sitteth on the throne shall 
spread His tabernacle over them (Authorised 
Version, shall dwell among them). Com p. Isa. 
iv. 5/; Rev. xxi. 3. 

4. Sometimes, as will perhaps appear even 
from the illustrations which have been already- 
given, some reflection is required before the 
full significance of the original imagery is 
realised. In the parable of the sower it can- 
not be unimportant that persons are identified 
with the seed sown (Matt. xiii. 19 ff, he that 
was sown, not, as the Authorised Version, he 
that received seed). The completeness of the 
disciples' sacrifice is shown in the figure, the 
cup that I drink (not, as the Authorised Ver- 
sion, drink of) ye shall drink (Mark x. 38 f). 
The measure of suffering must be drained to 
the last (comp. John xviii. 11). Love rejoiceth 



136 The force of 

not simply in the truth (Authorised Version), 
but with the truth (i Cor. xiii. 6). Truth, no 
less than love, is a minister of God, who has 
her own sorrows and her own victories. It 
cannot be otherwise, for at present we see in 
a mirror (Authorised Version, through a glass) 
darkly (literally, in a riddle^ : we look upon 
that which is only a reflection, and not the 
very object of our desire ; and this reflection 
itself is a parable, and suggests far more than 
it plainly shows. There is also a double use 
of the Divine gifts as being a supply for the 
personal needs of those who receive them, 
and a means whereby they may in turn make 
provision for the needs of those who shall 
come after them — food at once and seed. 
This thought, lost in the Authorised Version, 
is now marked in 2 Cor. ix. 10 (comp. Isa. Iv. 
10 jf^ for the careful reader: He that supplieth 
seed to the sower, and bread for food, shall 
supply and multiply your seed for sowing, and 
increase the fruits of your righteousness. We 
have become familiar with the true meaning of 
' mystery,' a Divine truth made known to the 



expressive Images restored 137 

members of a sacred brotherhood, and once 
St. Paul uses the corresponding verb : / have 
learned {eixaOov), he writes, to be content. . . . 
In all things have I learned the secret {fjue^iv- 
Tjfiac) to be filled and to be hungry . . . (Phil, 
iv. II, 12). A remarkable change of reading 
in Jas. iv. 4 will furnish another illustration. 
In place of the common text. Ye adulterers 
and adulteresses, know ye not that the friend- 
ship of the world is enmity with God? we now 
have, Ye adulteresses, know ye not . . . ? The 
superficial harshness of the figure disappears 
when we recall the teaching of the prophets. 
Israel is the bride of the Lord. The unbelief 
of the chosen people is the guilt of a faithless 
wife. So the characteristic voice of the Old 
Testament is heard once again through the 
apostolic writing which most directly repre- 
sents its style. In Jude 12, which offers other 
remarkable corrections in the Revised Ver- 
sion, another prophetic phrase now finds a 
place in the description of false teachers : 
These are they who are hidden rocks in your 
lovefeasts when they feast with you^ shep- 



13B The force of 

herds that without fear feed themselves (Ezek. 
xxxiv.). ^ 

5. Not unfrequently the faithful reproduc- 
tion of the original form of thought serves 
to convey an impressive revelation of the 
strength, the obligations, the perils of the 
Christian life. Perhaps there is no word of 
the Lord which opens a deeper vision of the 
harmonies of redemption than that which is 
at length restored to its true form in John x. 
14 /": / am the good Shepherd: and I know 
Mine own, and Mine own know Me, even as 
the Father knoweth Me, and I know the Father, 
The relation of the Son to the Father is the 
pattern of the relation of those that are Christ's 
to Christ. The proclamation of such a truth 
is a paramount obligation upon all to whom 
it is given. So St. Paul can say (i Cor. ix. 
17 ; comp. iv. i): If I do this . . . not of mine 
own will, I have a stewardship intrusted to 

^ Any one who will carefully study in detail the changes 
introduced into John xiii. 22 ff (comp. xxi. 20) and i Cor. ix. 
25-27 — to take two passages widely removed from one an- 
other — will be able to judge of the importance of such minute 
variations as we are now considering for the general effect of 
the translation. 



expressive Images restored 139 

me (Authorised Version, a dispensation of the 
gospel is committed unto me). The Christian 
himself, as he contemplates the truth, is slowly 
transfigured by it : We all, with unveiled face 
reflecting as a mirror (Authorised Version, 
with open face beholding as in a glass) the 
glory of the Lord, are transformed into the 
same image from glory to glory (2 Cor. iii. 18). 
This fact gives emphasis to the charge that 
we should be not followers only (Authorised 
Version), but imitators {fjuifiT^rai) of God (i Cor. 
xi. I ; Eph. V. I ; I Thess. i. 6) and of His 
chosen apostles (i Cor. iv. 16 ; i Thess. ii. 14 ; 
Heb. vi. 12). Such an end alters the character 
of Christian ambition. We make it our aim 
(marg. 'Gk., are ambitious'), St. Paul writes, 
to be well-pleasing unto \the Lord] (2 Cor. v. 9, 
(jxXoTLfioviJLeOa ; comp. Rom. xv. 20 ; i Thess. 
iv. 11). And so the rest to which the believer 
looks forward is a rest answering to the rest 
of God, a sabbath rest (Heb. iv. 9 ; contrast 
verse 10). In this connection, too, it may be 
observed that one aspect of the work of Christ 
was in danger of being overlooked when, in 



1 40 Close rendering of 

the apocalyptic hymns of triumph, He was 
said to have redeemed us (Rev. v. 9 ; xiv. 3, 4), 
where the Greek speaks of a purchase^ which 
is far more. We have not only been delivered 
from the enemy, but we have also been made 
wholly Christ's : we are not our own ; we were 
bought with a price (i Cor. vi. 19, 20). 

6. These vivid traits are often due to the full 
rendering of an unusual word. Thus we read, 
Matt. xxi. 44 (Luke xx. 18), On whomsoever 
[this stone"] shall fall, it will scatter him as 
dust (kLKfirjo-et). In St. Mark's narrative of 
the baptism (i. 10), it is said that Christ saw 
the heavens rent asunder {<jyjL\l,oiikvov<;\ The 
point of the Lord's parable addressed to 
Simon (Luke vii. 41) is made clearer by the 
use of the word lender {haveto-TTj^; here only) for 
creditor. Both debtors had received a loan 
(Matt, xviii. 27 marg.). The action of St 
Paul at Corinth is seen to be more expressive 
when we read that he shook out his raimeyit 
(Acts xviii. 6 ; comp. Matt. x. 14 ; Mark vi. 
II ; Acts xiii. 51). And not a few of the un- 
usual words which provoked criticism on the 



unusual Words 141 

first appearance of the Revision are close 
renderings of unusual words in the Greek 
(comp. chap. iii. § 10). However familiar we 
may have become with the phrase, 'tinkling 
cymbal^ no one can seriously suppose that it^ 
gives the force of St. Paul's words (i Cor. xiii. 
I, Kv\i^aKov a\a\d^ov)y which are adequately 
expressed by 'clanging cymbal! The phrase, 
* reverent in demeanour,' no doubt contains 
two words new to the English Version of the 
New Testament, but the two corresponding 
words in the original are also unique (Tit. ii. 3, 
eV KaTacTTrifiaTi lepowpeTreh). Nothing could be 
more natural than that a critic should con- 
demn the change in the description of the 
spirit which God has given us as being '0/ 
power and love and discipline ' (2 Tim. i. 7 ; 
Authorised Version, and of a sound mind), 
till he realised that the peculiar word used by 
St. Paul describes not a result, but a process 
(a(0(j)povi,(T/jL6<; ; comp. marg. ' Gk., sobering'). 

7. For in many cases words were not only 
inadequately, but also wrongly rendered in the 
Authorised Version. No word, perhaps, fared 



142 Wrong renderings of 

worse in this respect than that which repre- 
sents ' gaining,' or * winning ' {jcTaaQai). The 
perfect of this verb is naturally used for 

* possessing ' (equivalent to ' having gained '), 
and this sense was wrongly transferred to the 
present. So it was that the most inspiring 
promise by which the Lord crowns endur- 
ance with victory, In your patience ye shall 
win your souls (Luke xxi. 19, reading fcrrjaeade 
for KTTjaaade ; comp. Matt. v. 48), was given 
as a mere command to hold what is our 
own already : In your patience possess ye your 
souls (Authorised Version). The boast of the 
Pharisee loses its force when he is made to 
say (Luke xviii. 12) : I give tithes of all that I 
possess (Authorised Version), instead of of all 
that I get (Revised Version). It is vital for 
us to remember that our own bodies also must 
be won : we must not only ' possess them,' but 

* possess ourselves of them' (i Thess. iv. 4). 
There is a converse error in the rendering of a 
unique word in Eph. i. 11. The confidence of 
Christians is most surely founded in the fact 
that they were made a heritage (Revised 



Words corrected 143 

Version, eKXrjpdDdrjixev), and not that they have 
obtained an inheritance (Authorised Version). 
God has taken them for His own ; that is 
enough (comp. Tit. ii. 14, Revised Version). 
The very word * testament ' itself misrepresents 
the Divine relation to men. God has been 
pleased to make a ' covenant ' with them, a 
covenant indeed of which He fixes the terms 
in His own good pleasure {hiaOrjKT], not 
o-vvdrjKr)) ; but still our trust rests on a 
' covenant ' (Matt. xxvi. 28 ; Mark xiv. 24 ; 
Luke xxii. 20 ; i Cor. xi. 25), of which 
the ' covenant ' with Israel was the type. 
The new fellowship thus established between 
believers, in virtue of their common union 
with Christ, becomes the sure foundation of 
a regenerated humanity. The love of man 
rests on the love of God : love in the widest 
sense grows out of ' love of the brethren ' 
(Revised Version, ^iXaSe\(f)Ld), and not out of 
an indefinite ' brotherly kindness '; and if some- 
thing is lost in the rhythm of 2 Pet. i. 5-7 in 
the Revised Version, the loss is compensated 
a thousandfold by the true representation of 



144 The force of the 



that moral growth which answers to the 
Incarnation.^ 

8. Faulty renderings of constructions con- 
tributed no less than faulty renderings of 
words to obscure the clear force of the original 
language. There is a mysterious pathos of 
Divine knowledge in the sentence addressed to 
Judas by the Lord, * Friend, do that for which 
thou art come' (Matt. xxvi. 50, kTolpe, i<j> 

Trdpei), which is wholly lost in the impossible 
question of the Authorised Version, 'Where- 

^ The student will find the following examples worthy 
of careful consideration : Matt. iv. 24, xvii. 15, epileptic 
{(xeXTjuLa^o/xeuos, Authorised Version, lunatic) ; Mark vi. 20, 
kept kim safe {crweTripei, Authorised Version, observed him) ; 
vi. 53, fnoored to the shore [Trpocfjipfilad-rjaav, Authorised 
Version, drew to the shore) ; Luke vi. 35, itever despairing 
{fjt,7]dev cLTreXiri^ovTes, Authorised Version, hoping for nothing 
again) ; Acts ii. 6, when this sound was heard ; xix. 2, whether 
the Holy Ghost was given (et Trvevfia dycov 'iariv, Authorised 
Version, whether there be any Holy Ghost : comp. John vii. 
39); xxiv. 22, / will determine your matter; i Pet. ii. 2, 
spiritual milk {XoyLKof yaXa, Authorised Version, piilk of the 
word) ; Jude 12, autumn trees without fruit {deudpa (pdivoTrojpiva 
&Kap7ra, Authorised Version, trees whose fruit withereth, without 
fruit) ; Rom. viii. 4, ordinance [diKaicofxa, Authorised Version, 
righteousness) ; xi. 7> hardened {iirupudrjixav, Authorised Ver- 
sion, blinded; comp. verse 25; 2 Cor. iii. 14; Eph. iv. 18); 

1 Thess. V. 22, form of evil; Heb. ii. 16, not of angels doth 
He take hold {ovk dyy^Xcov eTriKafi^dveTai, Authorised Version, 
He took not on Hijn the nature of angels). 



original construction restored 145 

fore art thou come?' The Greek of Mark 
V. 30 suggests the thought that the healing 
energy of the Lord was, as it were, a Divine 
effluence. This is adequately conveyed by the 
Revised Version, ' perceiving . . . that the 
power proceeding from Him had gone forth,' 
in place of the vague phrase of the Authorised 
Version, 'that virtue had gone out of Him.' 
The power of the false Christs is left undeter- 
mined in the Greek and the Revised Version to 
'lead astray, if possible, the elect,' and not 
limited, as in the Authorised Version, ' if it 
were possible' (Mark xiii. 22). The answer of 
' the boy Jesus ' to His mother (Luke ii. 49) 
becomes perfectly intelligible when it is trans- 
lated, ' How is it that ye sought Me ? wist ye 
not that I must be in My Father's house } ' He 
could be in no other place ; to look for Him 
elsewhere was to misunderstand His person 
and work. The principle of discipleship has 
a universal application. The disciple is not 
above his master ; but every one when he is 
perfected (not, as Authorised Version, every one 
that is perfect) shall be as his master (Luke 
K 



146 Force of the 

vi. 40). The progress of character answers to 
the progress of knowledge. The secret of the 
difference between Samaritan and Jew lies in 
the words, Ye worship that which ye know 
not (not, as Authorised Version, ye know not 
what) : we worship that which we know (John 
iv. 22). Jew and Samaritan alike worshipped 
the true God, but the Jew alone worshipped 
Him with that growing intelligence which 
answered to the later stages of revelation. 
There is a personal profession in the words of 
St. Peter, * If ye call on Him as Father' (i Pet 
i. 17), which is lost in the Authorised Version, 

* If ye call on the Father,' so that the neglect 
of the construction mars the force of the 
argument. Our creed indeed moulds us, 

* that form of teaching whereunto [we] were 
delivered' (Rom. vi. 17), and not simply 

* which was delivered [us] ' (Authorised Ver- 
sion). Once again we catch (as it seems) a 
glimpse of St. Paul's physical infirmity when 
he writes to the Galatians, See with how large 
letters (not, as the Authorised Version, how 



original restored 147 

large a letter) / have written unto you with 
7ni7ie own hand} 

9. In all these cases the English reader 
must feel that it is a clear gain to be able to 
catch the fresh vigour of the original language. 
Other changes, especially in the historical 
books, present lifelike traces of temporal or 
local colouring. The following need no illus- 
trative comment : 

Matt. xxvi. 25, /j it /, Rabbi ? 
„ xxvii. 15, The governor was wont to 
release unto the multitude ono, prisoner. 

Mark ii. 18, John's disciples and the Pharisees 
were fasting. 

Mark xiv. 6^^ Thou also wast with the 
Nazarene, even Jesus (comp. Matt. xxvi. 71 ; 
Mark xvi. 6). 

Luke xxii. ^6, the assembly of the elders of the 
people^ . . . both chief priests and scribes . . . 

John iv. 15, come all the way hither (comp. 
Acts ix. 38). 

^ Comp. also Matt. vi. i8; Luke iii. 23, xxiii. 15; Col. ii. 
23 ; Heb. i. 14. 



148 Local and temporal Details 

John xii. 13, the branches of i\iQ palm trees 
(Bethany = house of palms). 

John xxi. 12, Come and break your fast 
(comp. verse 4). 

Acts viii. I, And there arose on that day . . . 
„ xix. 35, temple - keeper of the great 
Diana. 

Acts xxi. 38, Art thou not then the Egyp- 
tian? ... 

Acts xxiii. 27, / came upon them with the 
soldiers. 

Acts xxvii. 14, There beat down from it a 
tempestuous wind. 

2 Cor. xi. 26, in perils ^rivers. 
One uniform change of this kind, the substitu- 
tion of boats for ships^ has restored to a right 
scale the features of the fisherman's life by the 
Sea of Galilee. 

10. In this connection the technical terms for 
offices, coins, measures, and the like, received 
careful attention. But it was found impos- 
sible to give simple equivalents for the 
original terms, and the words which had be- 
come familiar in the Authorised Version 



correctly marked 149 

{publicans, penny, measure, etc.) were left un- 
changed, except in some cases, where the exact 
rendering is of historical importance; as, for 
example : 

Luke ii. 2, enrolment (Authorised Version, 
taxing). 

Acts xiii. 7 / xviii. 12, xix. iZ, proconsul 
(Authorised Version, deputy). 
Acts xxi. 38, the Assassins. 
„ xxii. 28, citizenship. 
„ XXV. 21, the e^nperor (Authorised Ver- 
sion, Augustus). 

So also the two meanings of * praetorium ' (Mark 
XV. 16), as the word was respectively under- 
stood at Rome and in the provinces, have been 
rightly distinguished: Phil. i. 13 ; the prcetorian 
guard (Authorised Version, the palace) ; Matt, 
xxvii. 27 (and parallels), Acts xxiii. 35, the 
palace (Authorised Version, common hall; judg- 
ment hall, John xviii. 28, etc.). A trace of the 
popular divisions of the Pentateuch is preserved 
in the reference to * the place concerning the 
Bush ' (Mark xii. 26 ; Luke xx. 37). 

In some cases a marginal note guides the 



150 The use of the title 

reader to the special meaning of a wide term 
(Rev. vi. 6 ; Acts xvi. 20, 35, 38, xix. 31) ; and 
a general note of the American Revisers (xil.) 
suggests additional information. 

1 1. Of the traces of contemporary knowledge 
and feeling, none are more interesting than 
those which note transitory and progressive 
phases of religious thought. It is, for example, 
most significant that in the historical narrative 
of the Gospels (contrast Matt. i. i ; Mark i. i ; 
John i. 17) the title Christ does not occur as a 
proper name, with two most interesting excep- 
tions {Jesus Christy Matt. xvi. 21 ; John xvii. 3; 
comp. Matt. i. 18), which we cannot now dis- 
cuss. Except in these two passages the original 
term always describes the office, 'the Christ,' 
' the Messiah.' Thus John * heard in prison the 
works of the Christ,' the works which were 
characteristic of the Messiah, and not ' the 
works of Christ' simply, that is, the things 
which Jesus did (Matt. xi. 2 ; comp. i. 17 : see 
also Mark xii. 35, xiii. 21 ; i Cor. i. 23 marg.). 
So also the titles, ' Jesus the Galilaean,' * Jesus 
the Nazarene' (Matt. xxvi. 69, 71), 'the 



the Christ 151 

Nazarene ' (Mark xiv. 6j, xvi. 6), evidently be- 
long to the earliest stage of the gospel.^ 

Another slight trait which might easily be 
overloqked marks the very early date of the 
• substa/ice of St. Matthew's narrative. Both 
St. Matthew and St. John quote passages of 
Scripture as fulfilled at the Passion. In St. 
Matthew we read (xxvi. 56), * all this is come to 
pass {<ye<yov6v), that . . . ' ; in St. John (xix. 36), 
' these things ca^ne to pass {e<yeveTo)^ that . . .' 
The first phrase took shape while the events 
were still, so to speak, actually present in the 
experience of the narrator ; the second is the 
natural language of one writing when the fact 
had become part of a (relatively) distant history. 
(Comp. Matt. i. 22 ; xxi. 4.) 

So in the record of the early preaching in 
the Acts we have a view of the first gospel. 
The apostles 'preached' (not Jesus Christ, 
Authorised Version, but) Jesus as the Christ 
(Acts V. 42 ; comp. ii. 36). 

1 It is, I think, to be regretted that the adjective, ' the 
Nazarene,' could not be uniformly given for the Greek adjec- 
tives (Nai-ypaios, Na^ap77i/6s), as distinguished from the substan- 
tive form (6 CL-Ko ^alapkr^ John i. 45). 



152 Traces of 

It is a trait of the same kind that we read in 
Jas. ii. 2, of the Christian assembly under the 
Jewish title synagogue (Authorised Version, 
assembly)^ which belongs to the first age, though 
it naturally lingered in the circle of the Pales- 
tinian Churches. 

12. Two religious titles which are placed in 
simple distinctness in the Revised Version de- 
serve particular study, 'the Way' and 'the Name.' 
The first is characteristic of the Acts (ix. 2.; 
xix. 9, 23 ; [xxii. 4 ; ] xxiv. 14, 22 ; comp. xvi. 
17 ; xviii. 25 /"), and presents vividly a very 
early aspect of the Faith. The second has a 
wider range, and practically expresses the 
primitive Christian creed (Rom. x. 9 marg. ; 
I Cor. xii. 3). It is related in the account of 
the first persecution that the apostles rejoiced 
that they were counted worthy to suffer dishonour 
for the Name (Acts v. 41). St. John speaks of 
faithful teachers who went forth for the sake of 
the Name (3 John 7 ; see note ad loc). And 
St. James appears to allude to the title when 
he speaks of those who blasphemed the honour- 



Primitive Thought 153 

able name by which believers were called 
(James ii. 7).^ 

13. In this respect the definiteness of the 
term§ used of the second coming of Christ and 
of the Messianic age, to which reference has 
been already made (chap. i. § 12), is particularly 
striking. No one can fail to feel the increased 
power of the scene in the Apocalypse (vii. 13/) 
as it is given in the Revised Version in close 
accordance with the Greek : One of the elders 
answeredy saying unto me^ These which are 
arrayed in the white robes, who are they^ and 
whence came they ? And I say unto him^ My 
lord, thou knowest. And he said to me. These 
are they which come (pi kpyoybevoi ; Authorised 
Version, which came) out of\h.Q great tribulation 
(e/c T779 OXi-ylreo)^ Trj<; fjL6yaX7](; ; Authorised Ver- 
sion out of great tribulation), and they washed 
their robes, and made them white in the blood of 
the Lamb. Nor is it too much to say that the 
whole relation of the seen to the unseen, the 

1 Another title of deep interest in Jewish history has been 
given to the English Version, the Dispersion : John vii. 35 ; 
Jas. i. I ; I Pet. i. i (SiacTTropd). 



154 The Ages, this Age, and 

great parable of life, is illuminated by the cor- 
respondence disclosed in the expectation of 
' the father of the faithful ' : He looked for the 
city which hath the foundations (r^i/ rot*? 
6efjbekiov<^ ^^(ovaav ttoXlv : Authorised Ver- 
sion, a city which hath foundations), whose 
builder and maker is God^ the city of which 
all earthly organisations are only transitory 
figures. 

14. This view of the world {the ages^ ol 
alo)ve^) as a gradual unfolding of the Divine 
counsel in time is embodied in the contrast be- 
tween ' these days ' and ^ those days,' * this age ' 
and ' the age to come,' the preparatory period 
and the period of the Messianic kingdom, which 
runs through the New Testament, though it 
may in some cases be easily lost sight of Thus 
in the singularly pregnant comparison of the 
Old and New with which the Epistle to the 
Hebrews opens (Heb. i. 1-4), the writer speaks 
of the coming of Him who was Son * at the end 
of these days/ at the close, that is, of the pre- 
paratory stage of the Divine order. An over- 
hasty critic, who had forgotten the technical 



the Age to come 155 

sense of ' these days,' not unnaturally pro- 
nounced the phrase ' impossible.' 

These two periods ('this age,' 'the age to 
come') were sharply distinguished. But the 
New was significantly regarded as the child of 
the Old ; and the passage from the one period 
to the other was habitually presented as a new 
birth. The sufferings by which it was accom- 
panied were thus shown to be fruitful in final 
blessing. It is of importance therefore that 
* travail ' — the exact rendering — should be sub- 
stituted for 'sorrows' in Matt. xxiv. 8 (Mark 
xiii. 8 ; comp. John xvi. 21 f;^Rom. viii. 22). 

15. Nearly all the illustrations which have 
been given hitherto have been taken from exact 
renderings of the common Greek text ; but 
sometimes the change which gives the lifelike 
touch is due to an alteration of reading in the 
original. In such cases the increased vigour 
of the expression supplies internal evidence of 
the truth of the most ancient text. Few, for 
example, will miss the point of the lesson that 
we are scholars of our creed : Every scribe who 
hath been made a disciple to the kingdom of 



156 Vivid Traits introduced by 

heaven (/jba67}T€vdel<; rf ^aa-CKeia, for eh rrjv 
jSacr., Authorised Version, instructed unto the 
kingdom . . .) ... bringeth forth out of his 
treasure things new and old (Matt. xiii. 52 ; 
comp. § 8). The difficulty in Mark vii. 19 dis- 
appears when, adopting the masculine participle, 
which refers back to v. 18, we read This He 
saidj making all meats clean. Several details in 
the record of the Passion are of considerable 
interest. The narrative of the feet- washing is 
placed in its true connection (John xiii. 2) by 
the introductory clause, during supper {^dirvov 
fyivofievovy Authorised Version, supper being 
ended, 8et7r. ^evoy^kvov). The action of the 
multitude is described with an additional trait 
of lifelike vigour when it is said by St. Mark 
(xv. 8), that they went up (ava^m^ Authorised 
Version \cried'\ aloud, dva^orjaa^i) and began to 
ask [Pilate] to do as he was wont to do unto 
them. The mockery of chief priests and scribes 
is made uniform in its scornful bitterness in the 
text of St. Matthew : He saved others ... He 
is the King of Israel (Authorised Version, if He 
is . . . d jSao-cXev^ 'I. 'o-tlv) ; let Him now come 



changes of Text 157 

• 
down from the cross. . . . (Matt, xxvii. 42 ; 

comp. Luke xxiii. 39, Revised Version, Art not 
Thou the Christ f) And the prayer of the peni- 
tent robber (Luke xxiii. 42) seems to gain an 
impressive and natural pathos from the use of 
the Lord's human name : He said^ Jesus, re- 
member me when Thou comest in Thy kingdom 
(Authorised Version, He said unto Jesus, Lord, 
remember me . . .). 

Two small variations in the records of the 
Resurrection may also be noticed. The lan- 
guage in which Mary first addressed the risen 
Lord — the language of familiar intercourse — 
is noticed in the true text of St. John : She 
saith unto Him in Hebrew, Rabboni (John xx. 
16). And in the narrative of the walk to 
Emmaus, as we now read it, the first question 
of the Lord was followed by a most solemn 
pause, which seems to bring the incident before 
our eyes. He said unto them^ What communi- 
cations are these that ye have one with another y 
as ye walk ? And they stood still, looking 
sad {koX i(TTd6r]aav aKvOpwiroiy Luke xxiv. 

17). 



158 Vivid Traits introduced by 

It is unnecessary to add further illustra- 
tions of the manner in which the Revised 
Version has reproduced details which stamp 
the writings of the New Testament as con- 
temporary records of the Lord and the 
Apostles. Those which have been given 
will serve to stimulate and to guide patient 
inquiry ; and their significance extends be- 
yond the immediate field of investigation 
from which they have been taken. For 
while some of the variations which we have 
noticed are in themselves trivial, some are 
evidently important : but they all represent 
the action of the same law ; they all hang 
together ; they are samples of the general 
character of the Revision. And, even if we 
estimate differently the value of the particular 
differences which they express, we can cer- 
tainly see that they do express differences ; 
and they are sufficient, I cannot doubt, to 
encourage the student to consider in any case 
of change which comes before him, whether 
there may not have been reasons for making 
it which are not at once clear ; whether it 



changes of Text 159 

may not suggest some shade of thought un- 
defined before ; whether, at any rate, it is not 
more reverent to allow the apostles to speak 
to us as nearly as possible in the exact form 
in which they first spoke. 



CHAPTER V 

LIGHT UPON THE CHRISTIAN LIFE 

I. We have already noticed summarily the 
singular clearness with which Greek distin- 
guishes between a fact regarded simply as 
past and a past fact regarded in relation to 
the present, by the use of the aorist and the 
perfect respectively. We do not habitually 
mark the distinction so sharply in English, 
though the language is perfectly able to do 
so, and the Authorised Version furnishes 
abundant precedents to justify the exact ex- 
pression of the difference in every kind of 
connection. At the same time the constant 
and almost consistent use of the aorist in the 
Revised Version occasions on first hearing an 
impression of harshness ; and the reader is 
required not unfrequently to exercise some 
patient reflection before he realises the corre- 

160 



Different Aspects of Salvation i6i 

spending gain. Yet, to take a general illus- 
tration, it is obvious that while it is equally true 
to say of men in regard to the efficacy of the 
work of Christ, * ye were saved,' ' ye have been 
saved,' ' ye are (are being) saved,' the forms 
of thought suggested by the three tenses are 
perfectly distinct, and ought to be represented 
in a faithful translation. So we now read in 
Rom. viii. 24, By hope were we saved (not we 
are saved by hope) ; and thus we are reminded 
that the thought of the Apostle goes back to 
the critical moment when the glorious prospect 
of the gospel made itself felt in the heart of 
the believer with transforming power. And 
again, 2 Tim. i. 8, Suffer hardship zvith the 
gospel according to the power of God, who saved 
us . , . (not who hath saved us . , .\ comp. 
Tit. iii. 5, Authorised Version). On the other 
hand, in Eph. ii. 5, 8, St. Paul insists on the 
present efficacy of the past Divine work : God 
. . . when we were dead . . . quickened us to- 
gether with Christ — there is the decisive fact : 
by grace have ye been saved — there is the con- 
tinuous action of that one vivifying change. 
L 



1 62 Different Aspects of Salvation 

The use of the present is even more significant. 
When we read in the Authorised Version the 
preaching of the cross . . . (is) unto us which 
are saved . . . the power of God (i Cor. i. i8), 
it is almost impossible not to regard salvation 
as complete ; but the very aim of the Apostle 
is to press home upon his readers the thought 
of a progressive work wrought out under the 
living power of the gospel: The word of the 
cross is to them that are '^^xi'^xvi^ foolishness ; 
hut unto us which are being saved it is the 
power of God. And so again in 2 Cor. ii. 15, 
We are a sweet savour of Christ unto God, in 
them that are being saved, and in them that 
are perishing. . . . The same rendering in 
Acts ii. 47, ' The Lord added to them day by 
day those that were being saved/ no doubt 
lacks neatness, but it avoids the false sugges- 
tion of the Authorised Version, such as should 
be saved, and brings the rendering of an unusual 
phrase into harmony with the rendering in 
other places. 

2. It will be evident from what has been 
said, that the force of the Greek aorist is 



Ideal completeness of Christ's Work 163 

nowhere more expressive in the New Testa- 
ment than when it is used to describe the 
ideal completeness of Christ's work for man. 
No reader who weighs the words can fail to 
feel the difference between walk in love, as 
Christ also hath loved us, and hath given 
Himself for us (Eph. v. 2, Authorised Version), 
and walk in love, as Christ also loved you, and 
gave Himself up for us (Revised Version). 
In the latter rendering, which reproduces the 
form of the Greek, the Divine purpose is 
shown to us in its essential fulfilment from 
the side of God. In the historic life and 
death of Christ there is the perfect revelation 
of love absolutely accomplished : He is our 
peace, who made both one, and brake down the 
middle wall of partitio7i (Eph. ii. 14 ; not, as 
Authorised Version, hath made, hath broken 
down.) 

This cardinal thought, by which our minds 
are concentrated on the historic work of the 
Incarnate Word, is presented in many lights. 
It is an encouragement in the fulfilment of our 
work. The presbyters at Miletus are charged 



164 Ideal completeness of 

to feed the Church of Gody which He purchased 
(not hath purchased) with His own blood (Acts 
XX. 28). Those whom they have to serve are 
already the property of God ; and the Christian 
pastor has the historic assurance of the fact 
when he looks to the Cross. And so, under 
the same image, it is said of Christians : Ye are 
not your own ; for ye were bought (not ye are 
bought) with a price (i Cor. vi. 20, vii. 23) ; and 
again in Christ we were made a heritage (Eph. 
i. 11). Thus the consciousness of blessing be- 
comes also a motive to labour : Be ye kind one 
to another, St. Paul writes . . . forgiving each 
other y even as God also in Christ forgave (not 
hath forgiven) you (Eph. iv. 32). And he speaks 
of his own efforts as answering to one sovereign 
act of the Lord : I press on, if so be that I may 
apprehend that for which also I was (not ani) 
apprehended by Christ fesus (Phil. iii. 12). 

A fresh element is added to the conception 
of the Divine work when we read that God . . . 
reconciled us to Himself through Christ (2 Cor. 
V. 18) ; that the Father . . . made us meet to be 
partakers of the inheritance of the saints in li^ht: 



Christ's Work for Man 165 

ze;^ . delivered us out of the power of darkness^ 
and translated us into the kingdom of the Son of 
His love (Col. i. 12 /) ; that Christ fesus . . . 
was made (not is made^ Authorised Version) 
unto us wisdom from God^ and righteousness 
and sanctification, and redemption (i Cor. i. 30). 
And so we pass to the other side of the truth, 
which presents the change in the individual 
believer as accomplished once for all : Such 
were some of you : but ye were (not are) washed, 
but ye were sanctified, but ye ^n^x^ justified in the 
name of the Lord fesus Christ, and in the Spirit 
of our God (i Cor. vi. 11.; comp. Rom. viii. 
30, Authorised Version). In this sense we 
are enabled to draw near to God, and for 
this end the Son of man, fesus, . . . dedicated 
for us a new and living way, through the veil 
(Heb. X. 20).i 

3. This is one aspect. There is another com- 
plementary aspect. That which Christ did and 

^ A study of the use of the aorists in the last discourses of 
the Lord in the Gospel of St. John, as I have noticed before, 
suggests many thoughts of deep interest {e.g. chap. xiii. 31 
marg.). We may notice, for example, in chap. xvii. aorists in 
verses 2, 3, 4, 6 (so Authorised Version), 8, 14, 18, 21, 25, 26, 
and perfects in verses 2, 4, 22. 



1 66 The permanence of 

suffered, completely, absolutely, from the his- 
toric point of sight, abides unchangeable in its 
virtue. All that He experienced in His earthly 
life still remains as a present power for our 
salvation. Thus we read now in Heb. iv. 15, 
We have a high priest . . . that hath been in all 
points tempted like as we are . . . The temp- 
tation is not only a past fact (was tempted, 
Authorised Version), but even now an effectual 
reality (comp. vii. 28 ; ii. 18, Authorised 
Version). 

So again, in the original, the Crucifixion of 
Christ is spoken of in i Cor. i. 23 as having a 
present reality, though it seemed impossible to 
convey the thought in a popular English ver- 
sion {a Christ that hath been crucified). But the 
corresponding relation of the believer to Christ 
is given exactly in Gal. ii. 20 : / have been (not 
/ am) crucified with Christ, 

This use of the perfect is very impressive in 
I Cor. XV. In that chapter, with one natural 
exception (verse 15), the Resurrection of Christ 
is uniformly spoken of as an event which has a 
continuous power. The message of the Apostle 



Christ's Work 167 

is ' Christ hath been raised,' not simply * Christ 
was raised.' The risen Christ, in virtue of His 
rising, with all the fruits of His victory, lives as 
the Saviour of men. The very strangeness of 
the language, as strange in Greek as in English, 
must arrest attention when we read : I delivered 
unto you, . . . t/ial Christ died . . . ; and that 
He was buried : and that He hath been raised ; 
. . . and that He appeared to Cephas . . . (verse 
3/; comp. verses 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20); and 
even a slight pause is sufficient to allow the 
vivid image of the present Lord to make itself 
felt in place of the simple record of the fact. 
So also in 2 Tim. ii. 8, the only other passage 
where the form is used of the Lord, the same 
idea is indicated by the translation : Remember 
Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, in place of 
Remember that Jesus Christ vfd^s ra.ised /rom the 
dead. The latter words simply recall the inci- 
dent of the Resurrection ; the former bring 
before the mind the figure of the living 
Chnst.1 

4. The redemption of men is referred, as we 

^ Compare for other examples chap. i. § 8. 



1 68 The Mystical Union of 

have seen, under one aspect, to the historic 
work of Christ, past and complete. There is a 
corresponding description of the position of the 
Christian. His redemption is connected with 
an historic fact in his life. As many ofyou^ St. 
Paul says to the Galatians, as were (not have 
been) baptized into Christ did (not have) put on 
Christ (Gal. iii. 27) ; and again to the Corin- 
thians : in one Spirit were (not are) we all bap- 
tized into one body (i Cor. xii. 13). For him, 
ideally, on the Divine side, all is done. His 
historic incorporation into Christ included 
potentially whatever is wrought out little by 
little in the conflicts of time. The Death and 
Resurrection and Life of Christ, with whom he 
is united, are in a true sense his also. 

In accordance with this view we read, in 
regard to Christ's death, We thusjudge^ that one 
died for all^ therefore all died (2 Cor. v. 14). 

We have been discharged from the law, having 
died to that wherein we were holden (Rom. vii. 
6 ; comp. vi. 6/). 

If ye died with Christ, . . . why . . . do ye 
subject yourselves to ordinances? (Col. ii. 20). 



the Believer with Christ 169 

Ye died, and your life is hid with Christ in 
God {Co\. iii. 3). 

Faithful is the saying, For if we died with 
Him, we shall also live with Him (2 Tim. ii. 1 1). 

And in regard to His Burial and Resurrec- 
tion St. Paul says : — 

We were buried with Him through baptism 
into death; and then, with a most significant 
change of tense, If we have becom^e united with 
Him by the likeness of His death, we shall be 
also by the likeness of His Resurrection (Rom. 
vi. 5/). 

In Him ye are made full: . . . having been 
buried with Him in baptism, wherein ye were 
also raised with Him through faith in the work- 
ing of God, who raised him from the dead {Co\. 

ii. 10 ff). 

When we were dead . . . [God] quickened us 
together with Christ, . . . and raised us up with 
Him (Eph. ii. 5 /). 

If then ye were raised with Christ . . . (Col. 
iii. i). 

5. This truth of the mystical union of the 
believer with Christ finds its simplest and most 



170 The Mystical Union of 

complete expression in the Pauline phrase ' in 
Christ/ which is itself a full gospel. This 
phrase, it will be felt at once, corresponds with 
the formula of baptism, We were baptized into 
the name of the Father and of the Son and of the 
Holy Ghost (Matt, xxviii. 19, Revised Version), 
and in virtue of that act we are * in Christ' 

The phrase, which is a charter of life and 
union and strength, has been frequently ren- 
dered with exactness in the Authorised Ver- 
sion ; but in many memorable passages it has 
been obscured, to the great loss of the English 
reader. When, for example, we read in Rom. 
vi. 23, the gift of God is eternal life, through 
fesus Christ our Lord, we recognise a general 
description of the work of Christ, of what He 
has wrought for us, standing apart from us. 
But all is filled with a new meaning when the 
original is closely rendered : the free gift of God 
is eternal life in Christ fesus our Lord. Life is 
not an endowment apart from Christ : it is 
Himself, and enjoyed in Him. / am, He Him- 
self said, the Way, and the Truth, and the Life. 
We are alive unto God, not only through Christ 



the Believer with Christ 1 7 1 

Jesus (Authorised Version), but in Christ Jesus 
(Rom. vi. II ; contrast John xv. 5, apart from 
Me). We seek therefore to be justified, not only 
by Christ, but in Christ (Gal. ii. 17) ; the bless- 
ing of Abraham came upon the Gentiles, not 
simply by the agency of Christ, through Christ 
Jesus, but in Christ Jesus (Gal. iii. 14). 

Three additional examples, taken from a 
single chapter, where the force of the preposi- 
tion has been obscured in Authorised Version, 
will show how the truth thus distinctly ex- 
pressed becomes a spring of peace and power 
and mature growth. 

The peace of God, St. Paul writes, which pass- 
eth all understanding, shall guard your hearts and 
your thoughts in {through. Authorised Version) 
Christ fesus (Phil. iv. 7). 

/ can do all things in {through, Authorised 
Version) Him that strengtheneth me (Phil. iv. 

13). 

My God shall fulfil every need of yours accord- 
ing to His riches in glory in {by. Authorised 
Version) Christ fesus (Phil. iv. 19). 

And here it may be noticed that as man 



172 The Believer appropriates 

i 

receives * in Christ ' the fulness of Divine bless- 
ing, so God fulfils * in Christ ' His purpose of 
salvation. Thus He showed the exceeding riches 
of His grace in kindness to us in (through^ 
Authorised Version) Christ Jesus (Eph. ii. 7). 
Be ye kind one to another^ St. Paul writes, tender- 
hearted^ forgiving each other, even as God also in 
Christ (Authorised Version, for Chrisfs sake) 
forgave you (Eph. iv. 32 ; compare 2 Cor. v. 19, 
Authorised Version).^ 

6. But the relation of the believer to Christ, 
which has been historically established, has to 
be realised and maintained. Everything as we 
have seen, is done by Christ once for all ; and 
still man is required freely to make his own 
that which has been won for him. The change 
of a single word brings out the responsibility of 
man from the first. Thus, when we read in 
Acts iii. 19, Repent ye, and be converted, the 
passive form of the second clause puts out of 
sight the thought of man's willing action, which 
lies in the original Repent ye, and turn again — 

* Other examples which deserve consideration are found in 
Rom. XV. 13, 17 ; Gal. ii. 20; Eph. ii. 22. 



the Virtue of Christ' s Work 173 

* turn ' with a glad response to the Divine voice 
which you have recognised. So the charge to 
St. Peter in Luke xxii. 32 receives its full force 
in Revised Version, Do tliou, when once thou 
hast turned again, stablish thy brethren. 

But man does not originate the force which 
he uses. He can do nothing ' of himself He 
makes his own, as has been said, what Christ 
has done. This truth finds a striking expres- 
sion in Col. iii. 3, 5, Ye died . . . mortify there- 
fore . . . The one death in Christ makes each 
subsequent victory possible. 

Under this aspect, the advance of the 
Christian is likened to a natural growth : If 
we have become united with Hint [Christ] by 
the likeness of His deaths we shall be also by the 
likeness of His resurrection (Rom. vi. 5), The 
power of the risen Christ will reveal itself in 
those who are one with Him. 

In another passage this gradual transforma- 
tion is presented under a different figure. It 
has been often said that we grow like those 
with whom we live; and so St. Paul writes, 
We ally with unveiled face reflecting as a mirror 



174 ^-^^ present 

the glory of the Lord^ are transformed into the same 
image from glory to glory (2 Cor. iii. 18). The 
rendering here indeed is not certain ; but even if 
we adopt the marginal translation, beholding as 
in a mirror (Authorised Version) the main con- 
ception is the same. The believer grows like 
the Lord whom he intently contemplates. 

7. The truth of the transforming power of 
the faith is affirmed in the Epistle to the 
Romans with singular force. In place of the 
words, that form of doctrine which was delivered 
to you (vi. 17), we must read, that form of teach- 
ing whereunto ye were delivered. Our creed is 
indeed our sovereign lord, which fashions our 
character; and therefore we read. Every one 
when he is perfected (not that is perfect) shall be 
as his master (Luke vi. 40). Since this is so, 
we can understand the full significance of the 
words with which the Lord closes His long 
line of parables : * We are disciples to the 
kingdom of heaven ' ; we are not simply 
* instructed unto it,' but placed under its sway ; 
and every scribe who hath been made a disciple to 
the kingdom of heaven is like unto a man that is 



Action of God 175 

a householder^ which bringeth forth out of his 
treasure things new and old (Matt. xiii. 52). 
The thought is of wide application, and finds 
its ultimate expression in a most remarkable 
passage of the Epistle to the Ephesians : 
Everything that is made manifest is light (Eph. 
V. 13). All that bears the light shares the 
nature of the light, and becomes in its turn 
a centre of illumination.^ 

8. In correspondence with this view of man's 
life, as brought little by little nearer to its 
ideal, it is important to preserve the exact 
force of those passages in which the Divine 
action is described as present, as, for example, 
I Thess. i. 10, fesus^ which delivereth (not 
delivered) us from the wrath to come ; i Thess. 
ii. 12, Walk worthily of God, who calleth (not 
hath called) you — with a call answering to every 
changing circumstance of life — into His own 
kingdom and glory, words which find an echo 

^ In this connection a change may be noticed, which depends 
on a change of reading, of which the full meaning may easily 
be overlooked : The old things are passed away ; behold, they 
(Authorised Version, all things) are become new (2 Cor. v. 17). 
The joy of the thought lies in the assurance that the old is not 
lost, but transfigured. 



176 Mans Response to 

at the close of the epistle, where they are 
rightly rendered in the Authorised Version, 
Faithful is He that calleth you, who will also do 
it (v. 24). And in this connection we can feel 
the full meaning of Heb. ii. 16, For not of 
angels doth He take hold [to help], but He 
taketh hold of the seed of Abraham. The 
hand once laid on the believer (Phil. iii. 12) 
still rests upon him with sustaining power. 
' Notice,' Chrysostom says on John i. 29, ' he 
does not say, " The Lamb which will take," 
or " which took," but " which taketh the sins 
[so he wrongly quotes] of the world," as always 
doing this.' 

9. Such changes as have been already 
noticed give us a clearer and more consistent 
view than was offered before of the essential 
relations of the Christian to God. It follows 
necessarily that not a few features in his life 
are brought out now with fresh distinctness. 

One word which was mistranslated in the 
Authorised Version in two critical passages 
marks the Christian life as a continuous con- 
quest. This is the will of God, St. Paul writes 



the Action of God 177 

to the Thessalonians, . . . that each one of 
you know how to possess himself of (not to 
possess, Authorised Version) his own vessel in 
sanctification and honour. . . . (i Thess. iv. 3/) 
• In your patience, such was the Lord's promise 
to the disciples in the prospect of the over- 
throw of all they held to be most sacred, ye 
shall win (not possess) your souls (Luke xxi. 
19). Even that which seems to be most our 
own, our bodies and our souls, must be won.^ 

They must be won, but not by our own 
strength. The Apostle's command is not, as 
we are accustomed to read it. Be strong, but, 
Be strengthened (2 Tim. ii. i). Abraham in 
the trial of his faith waxed strong, * was strength- 
ened,' and not simply was strong (Rom. iv. 20 ; 
comp. Eph, vi. 10, marg.).^ And in the pro- 
spect of this Divine help, nothing short of a 
Divine ideal is set before us. The prayer of 
St. Paul is that the Lord would direct the 

^ Comp. Chap. v. § 7. 

2 It is greatly to be regretted that in Heb. vi. i, the revisers 
have obscured this truth by giving let us press on tmto perfection 
for the close rendering let us be borne on {(pepwfxeda) unto per- 
fection, yielding ourselves to the influence of the Holy Spirit 
who is waiting to fulfil God's will in us. 

M 



178 Christ's Triumph 

hearts of the Thessalonians into the love of 
God, and the patience of (not patient waiting 
for) Christ (2 Thess. iii. 5). The charge of 
St. Peter to the elders is that they should 
tend the flock of God, . . . not of constraint, but 
willingly, according unto God (i Pet. v. 2). 
And St. John speaks of love 7nade perfect 
with us (not our love made perfect: i John 
iv. 17), as man responds to the inspiration of 
God. 

10. Viewed therefore from another side, 
the advancing victory of the believer is the 
advancing power of the revelation of Christ 
over him. When this is checked there is 
fatal danger. Ye seek to kill Me, the Lord 
said to the Jews, because my word hath not 
free course (not no place. Authorised Version) 
in you (John viii. 37). And the thought finds 
a characteristic expression in the paradox of 
St. Paul already quoted,^ where he offers 
thanks to God, not which always causeth us 
to triumph in Christ, but which always leadeth 
us in triumph in Christ (2 Cor. ii. 14). His 

1 Comp. Chap. v. § 2. 



Christian Ambition 179 

joy was that of a soul wholly surrendered to 
a sovereign conqueror. 

11. We can understand therefore that while 
the Cljristian is stirred by a generous * ambi- 
tion ' in the conflict of life, his ambition is 
widely different from that of the world. We 
make it our aim {we are ambitious^ marg.), St. 
Paul writes, . . . to be well-pleasing unto [the 
Lord] ' (2 Cor. v. 9) ; ... making it my aim 
(being ajnbitious, marg.) so to preach the gospel, 
not where Christ was already named (Rom. xv. 
20). And the term points an expressive 
paradox when we read in i Thess. iv. 1 1 (marg.), 
be ambitious to be quiet^ and to do your own 
business. If the progress of the Christian is 
* without rest,' it is also * without haste.' Few 
changes of reading give a more remarkable 
thought than that in 2 John 9 (Trpodycov for 
irapa^aivcdv) : Whosoever goeth onward {Author- 
ised Version, trangresseth) and abideth not in 
the teaching of Christy hath not God. To 
advance over-eagerly and to hang back are 
alike violations of duty. 

12. Life as it is on earth necessarily includes 



i8o The Discipline of Suffering 

suffering, and in several passages light is 
thrown by the Revised Version upon the 
discipline of pain. The rendering of Heb. xii. 
7, which represents the addition of a single 
letter in the Greek text, furnishes a good 
illustration of the kind. At first sight, the 
Authorised Version seems to give a more 
natural thought {If ye endure chastening . . .)j 
but a little reflection will show how important 
it is to bring out that patient endurance con- 
verts the pain into a beneficent lesson : It is 
jor chastening that ye endure. The fact is 
assumed and explained. And so a few verses 
after the apostolic writer marks the permanent 
effects of chastening : it yieldeth peaceable fruit 
unto the^n that have been exercised (not are 
exercised^ Authorised Version) thereby^ evejt the 
fruit of righteousness (xii. ii). At the same 
time we are taught in several places to 
recognise more plainly than before the inten- 
sity of the trial which must be endured and 
made a source of blessing. False Christs . . . 
shall show signs^ . . . that they may lead astray 
if possible (Authorised Version, if it were 



Moral Deterioration 1 8 1 

possible)^ the elect (Mark xiii. 22): even this 
extreme result is not excluded. Abraham 
without being weakened in faith considered 
(Authorised Version, considered not) his own 
body now as good as dead (Rom. iv. 19). The 
patriarch made a true estimate of the natural 
impossibility of the event for which he looked. 
Look carefully how ye walky is St. Paul's 
command (Eph. v. 15). Every step must be 
determined beforehand with wise calculation. 

13. There is necessarily another side to the 
thought of Christian progress. In correspon- 
dence with the growth of the Christian there 
is also the possibility of deterioration. There 
can be no moral stationariness. This law is 
recognised in Eph. iv. 22 : Put away . . . the 
old man which waxeth (Authorised Version, is) 
corrupt after the lusts of deceit ; Rev. xxii. 1 1 : 
He that is unrighteous^ let him do unrighteous- 
ness (Authorised Version, be unjust) still: and 
he that is filthy ^ let him be made filthy (Author- 
ised Version, be filthy) still: and he that is 
righteous, let him do righteousness (Authorised 
Version, be righteous) still : and he that is holy^ 



1 82 Retribution 

let him be made holy (Authorised Version, be 
holy) still. And we can better understand the 
peril of the Hebrews when we read (v. ii), Ye 
are become dull. Their fault was not one of 
nature, but of neglect. They had failed to go 
forward, and so they had degenerated. 

14. The fulfilment of this law reveals the 
Divine law of retribution. The sin becomes 
its own punishment. Men receive what they 
wrought, the things done in the body (2 Cor. v. 
10 ; comp. Eph. vi. 8). Thus we read (Col. iii. 
25, marg.). He that doeth wrong shall receive 
again the wrong that he hath done ; and a most 
difficult passage of the Second Epistle of St. 
Peter gains an impressive meaning by the 
help of this thought : These . . . shall in their 
destroying surely be destroyed^ suffering wrong 
as the hire of wrong-doing (2 Pet. ii. 12/). It 
cannot be otherwise. Sin^ St. John says, is 
lawlessness (i John iii. 4), and not, as the 
Authorised Version, the transgression of the 
law J a phrase which by its definiteness obscures 
the real significance of the original words. 
' Sin ' and * lawlessness ' (' violation of law ') 



Sin is Lawlessness 183 

are convertible terms. Law is the expression 
of the will of God for us in regard to ourselves, 
to our fellow-men, to creation, to God Himself 
To transgress this in any direction is to sin, 
and to sin is to realise just so far the will of 
God against us. 



CHAPTER VI 

LIGHT UPON CREATION, PROVIDENCE, THE 
PERSON OF THE LORD 

The illustrations of the work of Revision, 
hitherto given, have been taken for the most 
part from isolated words and phrases. Such 
changes as have been noticed unquestionably 
increase the vividness and the force of the 
version. They enable the English reader to 
weigh the significance of identity and differ- 
ences in the parallel passages of the New 
Testament with a confidence which was before 
impossible. But the value of the Revision is 
most clearly seen when the student considers 
together a considerable group of passages, 
which bear upon some article of the Faith. 
The accumulation of small details then pro- 
duces its full effect. Points on which it might 
have seemed pedantic to insist in a single 

184 



Corruption {?/* the world' by 'the ages' 185 

passage become impressive by repetition. I 
wish, therefore, now to call attention to some 
places in which the close rendering of the 
original Greek in the Revised Version appears 
to suggest ideas of creation and life and pro- 
vidence, of the course and end of finite being, 
and of the Person of the Lord, who is the 
source of all truth and hope, which are of the 
deepest interest at the present time.^ 

I. We have already touched upon the sig- 
nificant term which is used to describe 'the 
world' under the conditions of progressive 
development, 01 alo)ve(;y * the ages. ' The term 
itself includes the thought of cycles of life, age 
growing out of age ; and this thought is 
emphasised by the imagery which is used to 
portray the passage from one ' age ' to another. 
This passage is described (as we must re- 
member) as a birth accomplished under the 

^ If it appear that a series of selected passages must give a 
false impression of the general effect of the Revision, the 
student will find it a most instructive exercise to compare 
carefully the confessions in St. John as given in the Authorised 
Version and the Revised Version, and note all differences, and 
then estimate the loss and gain: John i. 29-34; i. 47-51; 
iv. 27-30; iv. 41/; vi. 66-69; ix. 35-38; xi. 21-27. 



1 86 Creation in time answering to 

present condition of things, with what are 
truly, for society, pangs of travail. The truth 
finds not unfrequent expression in the Author- 
ised Version (as e.g. Rom. viii. 22), but it has been 
consistently preserved in the Revised Version 
{e.g. Matt. xxiv. 8), and, when once its meaning 
is grasped, the marginal notes which inform 
the reader that the familiar clause 'for ever 
and ever ' stands for the Greek ' unto the ages 
of the ages,' gain a new interest No one, I 
think, who has striven to follow with * the eyes 
of his heart' (Eph i. 18) the course of this 
growing purpose of God will think it pedantry 
to notice in the margin of Matt, xxviii. 20 that 
'always' represents a most unusual Greek 
phrase, 'all the days'; and that 'the end of 
the world' is literally 'the consummation of 
the age.' The one margin suggests the idea 
of the manifold changes in the conditions 
of our earthly being ; the other the com- 
pleteness of each period of the discipline of 
creation. Some perhaps are even led to pause 
on the wonderful phrase in Eph. iii. 21, marg., 
' for all the generations of the age of the ages/ 



the Divine idea 187 

which is represented in English by to all 
generations for ever and ever ; and to reflect on 
the vision so opened of a vast aeon of which 
the elements are aeons unfolding, as it were, 
stage after stage, the manifold powers of one 
life fulfilled in many ways, each aeon the child 
(so to speak) of that which has gone before. 

In this connection we can see the full 
meaning of the words used of creation in 
Heb. xi. 3 : By faith we understand that the 
worlds {the ages^ i.e. the universe under the 
aspect of time) have been formed by the Word of 
God. . . . The whole sequence of life in time, 
which we call ' the world,' has been * fitted 
together' by God. His one creative word 
included the harmonious unfolding on one plan 
of the last issues of all that was made. That 
which is in relation to Him * one act at once ' 
is in relation to us an evolution apprehended 
in orderly succession. 

2. In one passage, the force of which may 
easily escape a reader who does not carefully 
dwell upon it, the visible creation, seen in time, 
is carried back to the archetypal Divine idea 



1 88 Things 'become' in obedience to 

beyond time. We read in Apoc. iv. ii, 
Worthy art thoUy our Lord and our Gody to 
receive the glory and the honour and the power ; 
for thou didst create all things^ and because of 
thy will they were (not they are^ Authorised 
Version) and were created ; were, in the Divine 
thought, were created under the conditions of 
finite existence. 

The student who has mastered this thought 
will consider with deep interest the margin in 
John i. 3, 4, which represents the unanimous 
punctuation of early versions and fathers : That 
which hath been made was life in him. . . . What 
we see in time as a transitory phenomenon was in 
the mind of God, if we may so speak, absolutely, 
eternally as life, not as phenomenon. 

3. Starting from this conception we can notice 
intelligently how, from time to time, that which 
' was ' in the Divine idea is said to ' become.' 
Thus the thought of a sequence of life {became) 
supplements the thought of a manifestation 
of will {was made). A few examples will 
show the importance of the rendering. Of 
the Incarnation it is said, the Word became 



a Law of Life 189 

(not was made^ Authorised Version) ^^^^ (o"«pf 
etyevero, John i. 14, comp. Gal. iv. 4) ; this 
transcendent fact was included in the pur- 
pose of creation. So again in regard to the 
accomplishment of His earthly work, St. Paul 
says : Christ redeemed us frorn the curse of 
the law, having become {ryevofievo^. Authorised 
Version, being made) a curse for us (Gal. iii. 
13). And, His earthly work ended, the Son 
ascended to glory, having become (not being 
made. Authorised Version) so much better than 
the angels, as he hath inherited a more excellent 
name than they (Heb. i. 4) ; and, through what 
we may speak of as the natural fulfilment of 
His earthly work, Jesus hath become (not was 
made, Authorised Version) the surety of a better 
covenant (Heb. vii. 22 ; comp. Apoc. i. 18, marg.). 
Thus the Creation and the New Creation 
answer one to the other : the first man Adam 
became (not was made, Authorised Version) a 
living soul: the last Adam became a life- 
giving spirit (i Cor. xv. 45). And generally 
the issues of life follow in obedience to a 
moral ' law ' : fesus said, For judgment came I 



iQO The Divine Sovereignty guarded 

into this world . . . that they which see may 
become (not be m,ade^ Authorised Version) blind 
(John ix. 39 ; comp. Matt. xii. 45). Hi^n who 
knew no sin [God] made to be sin on our be- 
half ; that we might become the righteousness 
of God in him (2 Cor. v. 21).^ 

4. This thought of life as being on one 
side the fulfilment of a sovereign law, helps 
us to understand the inner dependence of 
events one on another on which St. John 
lays especial stress. Strange and unexpected 
consequences form part of the design of Pro- 
vidence (John xvi. 2, that whosoever . . . shall 
. . .). Difficulties which perplex us have a 
place and a purpose in the Divine discipline : 
The flesh lusteth against the Spirit^ and the 
Spirit against the flesh . . . that ye may not 
ijiva fjuTj . . . so that ye cannot, Authorised Ver- 
sion) do the things that ye would (Gal. v. 17). 

^ It is greatly to be regretted that the literal rendering of 
yevfjceTaL was not given in Matt, xviii. 19. This was one of 
those cases in which familiar associations made change practi- 
cally impossible. The contrast between the personal Divine 
action and the action of the Divine law is marked, as Origen 
pointed out in Rom. ii. ^ff: aTrodiaaei, . . . rots fji.4u . . . ^(arjv 
aifhvLOV ToTs 54 . . . opyq /cot 6vfJL6s, 



The Divine Sovereignty guarded 191 

And in the widest possible relation, redemption 
and consummation through the Son corresponds 
with the creation of the world through Him 
(Heb. \f 2), where it is to be regretted that the 
true order (So' ov koX eiroi'qaev t. al.) was not 
given in the Revised Version. 

5. But while we find this recognition of 
* natural law' in the apostolic teaching — one 
expression of the will of God — the absolute 
sovereignty of God is carefully guarded. In 
contrast to * the ruler of the world ' (John xiv. 
30), * the world-rulers ' (ol KoafioKpdrope^, Eph. 
vi. 12), He is ' ruler of all things ' (iravTOKpaTcop, 
Apoc. i. 8, etc.) ; and King of the ages (i Tim. 
i. 17, marg. ; Apoc. xv. 3), as the supreme Lord 
of him who is, by His permission (Luke iv. 6, 
eyLtol irapaSeSoTai), ' the god of this age ' (2 Cor. 
iv. 4, marg.). There is room for surprises, 
for apparent interruptions of that which we take 
to be the Divine order : Lord^ Judas asks, what 
is come to pass {ji fye^yovev ; kow is it, Author- 
ised Version) that thou wilt manifest thyself to 
us, and not unto the world? (John xiv. 22). 
And the time of the fulfilment of the counsel 



192 Completeness of Redemption 

of God depends on human effort : Repent and 
turn again is St. Peter's plea to the Jews, that 
your sins may be blotted out^ that so there may 
come seasons ioirui^ av, Authorised Version, 
when the times . . . shall come) of refreshing 
from, the presence of the Lord (Acts iii. 19). 
Here the horizon of Faith is immeasurably 
extended. The immediate forgiveness of the 
sins of believers is shown to have a wider in- 
fluence than on their own salvation. ' Seasons 
of refreshing' are placed in dependence on 
their personal faith. They work not only for 
themselves, but for the world. 

6. Thus we are reminded of the far-reaching 
efforts of Faith beyond the believer. In the 
same way we are reminded by the exact ren- 
dering of the original in the Revised Version, 
that the revelation of the hope of the gospel 
extends to the whole of our complex nature. 
The central fact of our creed in this aspect 
is not the immortality of the soul, but the 
Resurrection of the Body : Our Saviour Christ 
fesus brought life and incorruption (not imm,or- 
tality) to light (2 Tim. i. 10 ; comp. i Cor. xv. 



Completeness of Redemption 193 

42, 50, 53). 'Eternal life' is rendered by God 
to them that by patience in well-doing seek for 
glory and honour and incorruption (not immor- 
tality, Rom. ii. 7 ; comp. 2 Cor. v. 4, that which 
is mortal). 

Bearing this truth in mind, we can feel 
the force of St. Paul's words which we have 
quoted before : The Lord Jesus Christ . . . 
shall fashion anew the body of our humiliation^ 
that it may be conformed to the body of his 
glory, according to the working whereby he is 
able even to subject all things unto himself 
(Phil. iii. 21). And, again, the marginal ren- 
dering of Heb. X. 34 is seen to give the Divine 
crown to man's * winning' of body and soul: „ 
ye . . . took joyfully the spoiling of your 
possessions, knowing that ye have your own 
selves for a better possession and an abiding 
one. 

7. The vision of correspondences of earth 
and heaven which is opened to us in the last 
section, finds its fullest disclosure in the words 
of the Lord (John x. 14 /), in which the re- 
lation of believers to Christ is declared to answer 
N 



194 Correspondences 

in some sense to the relation of the Son to the 
Father : / know mine own, and mine own me, 
even as the Father knoweth "ine, and I know 
the Father. A similar truth is indicated by 
the marginal rendering in Eph. iii. 15 : every 
earthly ' fatherhood ' is a partial and imperfect 
image of the Divine Fatherhood. ' All things 
are double, one against another.' Life has 
spiritual lessons. When St. Paul says of the 
history of the two sons of Abraham, which 
things contain (Authorised Version, are^ an 
allegory, he points to a general truth. There 
is a connection between sin and the sufferings 
of men (comp. Matt. ix. 6). One word is used 
for ' saving ' and ' healing ' (Matt. ix. 22, marg. ; 
Mark v. 23, 34, marg. ; x. 52, marg., etc. In 
Mark vi. 56 there is, by oversight, no marg.). 
That for which we look is not the destruction 
but the transfiguration of things seen. When 
St. Paul speaks of the believer in Christ he 
says : The old things are passed away ; behold, 
they — the very 'old things' to which we look with 
tender affection — are beco^ne new (2 Cor. v. 17 ; 
Authorised Version, behold, all things are become 



Christ's work transcends space and time 195 

new). That which seemed to have been lost 
is given back in a nobler form. 

8. In harmony with these aspects of Christ's 
work, here and there glimpses are opened of its 
wider effects. The Incarnate Son — * Jesus the 
Son of God' — hath passed through the heavens 
(Heb. iv. 14; not, as Authorised Version, simply 
into the heavens), ascending far above all the 
heavens, that he might fill all things (^^^^x. v. 10) ; 
while, at the same time. He takes His people 
on earth into Himself, and gives a definite 
application to the wonderful words. We must 
work (not as Authorised Version, / must work) 
the works of him that sent me while it is day 
(John ix. 4; comp. iii. 11) in the call, Saul, 
Saul, why persecutest thou me ? His work tran- 
scends, as we speak, the limits of space ; and it 
is not bound by the succession of time. By 
His coming it was, in the words of Zacharias, 
God's purpose to show mercy towards our 
fathers (Luke i. 72, irotrja-ai €\eo9 fiera tcjv 
irareprnv 97/ift>z/),and not only, as in the Authorised 
Version, to perfonn the tnercy promised to our 
fathers. The range of the effects of His work 



1 96 Redemption potentially 

is made parallel with the range of the effects of 
man's transgression : for as through the one 
maris (Authorised Version, through one man's) 
disobedience the many (Authorised Version, 
many) were made sinners^ so through the obedience 
of the one (Authorised Version, of one) shall the 
many (Authorised Version, many) be made 
righteous (Rom. v. 19; comp. verse 16). And 
in one passage it is not obscurely indicated that 
the return of the Lord shall be followed by a 
great outpouring of ' the spirit of grace and 
supplication.' Behold^ he cometh with the clouds; 
and every eye shall see him^ and they which 
pierced him; and all the tribes of the earth 
shall mourn over him. Even so^ Amen (Apoc. 
i. 7). All the tribes of the earth shall mourn 
over him in penitential sorrow, and not, as the 
Authorised Version, shall wail because of him ^ in 
the present expectation of terrible vengeance 
(comp. Zech. xii. \o ff). 

9. In this connection we may notice one most 
significant phrase which was found in the 
earlier English versions, but was unaccountably 
removed from the Authorised Version. In place 



co-extensive with Transgression 197 

of the words ' let us hold fast the profession of 
our faith' (Heb. x. 23) we must read/ /^^ us 
holdfast the confession of our hope' The apostle 
substitutes for the more general word that 
word which gives a definite shape to the ex- 
pectation of the Christian. 

In other places also the distinctness of the 
conception of * hope ' has been marred in the 
Authorised Version, e.g. Rom. xv. 12 /": There 
shall be the root of fesse . . . in him shall the 
Gentiles hope (Authorised Version, trust). Now 
the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in 
believing^ that ye may abound in hope. . . . 

I Tim. iv. 10 : We have our hope set on the 
living God (Authorised Version, we trust in the 
living God). 

10. The inspiring truths to which our atten- 
tion has been turned find their foundation in 
the revelation of Christ's Person. This also is 
brought into further light by some changes in 
the Revised Version. And here I will venture 
to place in the forefront a text which includes 
one of the most important changes of reading 
which have been adopted by the Revisers. 



198 Hope 

Writing to Timothy St. Paul says : Without 
controversy great is the mystery of godliness ; He 
who was (Authorised Version, God was) mani- 
fested in the fleshy justified in the spirit^ seen of 
angels, preached among the nations (Authorised 
Version, unto the Gentiles), believed on in the 
world, received up in (Authorised Version, into) 
glory (i Tim. iii. 16). The reader may easily 
miss the real character of this deeply instruc- 
tive change. The passage now becomes a 
description of the essential character of the 
gospel, and not simply a series of historical 
statements. The gospel is personal. The 
gospel — ' the revelation of godliness ' — is, in a 
word, Christ Himself, and not any propositions 
about Christ : He who was manifested, justified, 
preached, believed on, received up in glory. 
Under this aspect the sentence of St. Paul is in 
part a commentary on the Lord's own words : 
/ am the way, and the truth, and the life (John 
xiv. 6). The living Christ, the Son of God, the 
Son of Man, is the manifestation of the Father, 
the message of the glad tidings of the union of 
humanity with God, the spring of union with 



Christ is Himself the Gospel 199 

God for each man who is ' in Him.' The truth 
finds expression in another place, according to 
the most probable reading, when St. Paul, 
writing to the Colossians, expresses his earnest 
desire that they may know the mystery of God^ 
even Christ (Authorised Version, the mystery of 
God, and of the Father and of Christ), in whom 
are all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge 
hidden (Authorised Version, are hid all . . . 
Col. ii. 2) ; just as he has spoken before (i. 27) 
of the riches of the glory of this mystery — of the 
great counsel of God for the reconciliation of 
all things to Himself {v. 20) — which is Christ in 
you, the hope of glory. Thus all that is conveyed 
in the common reading in i Tim. iii. 16 {God 
was manifested) is given back, filled with a 
vital energy. 

II. Scarcely less suggestive to the student is 
the various reading noted in the margin of 
St. John i. 18 {God only begotten). No bare 
translation can convey the exact force of the 
original words thus represented {jxovor^evy]^ 6eo<^, 
as contrasted with 6 fiovo'yevr]^ vl6<;). They com- 
bine the two predicates which have been used 



200 The true Divinity of Christ 

of the word in the earlier verses (verse i ^€09, 
verse i/^ ixovor^evr]^), and mark * One who is God 
and only-begotten/ ' One who is God at once 
and Son.' Taken in this sense it will be seen 
that they help us to understand the full mean- 
ing of the alternative reading {the only -begotten 
Son). In such a connection the word ' Son ' 
carries with it the idea of identity of essence ; 
and the article in this case (0 fiov, vlo^) defines 
the Person as completely as the predicate (^eo?) 
in the other (compare note on John i. 18). 

And here one other text must be noticed. 
The rendering of Col. i. 19 in the Authorised 
Version, it pleased the Father that in Him [the 
Son of His love, v. 13] should all fulness dwells 
conveys at the most a vague notion of com- 
pleteness in Christ, but no direct relation of the 
Son to God. When, however, the reader now 
finds the remarkable phrase, which adequately 
represents the original, all the fulness^ with an 
alternative rendering, for the whole fulness of 
God was pleased to dwell in Him, he will 
necessarily be led to consider the meaning of a 
word {irXrjpoifia) which played an important 



The true Humanity of Christ 201 

part in early Christian speculation, and forms a 
link between the teaching of St. Paul and St, 
John on the Person of Christ (John i. 16, note). 
12. The passages which have been just 
quoted throw light upon the doctrine of the 
Lord's true Divinity (comp. Heb. i. 3, the very 
image of his stcbstance, not person as in Authorised 
Version). At the same time His true humanity 
stands out with fresh distinctness in the Revised 
Version. Two details in the history of His 
childhood peculiar to St. Luke gain in signifi- 
cance in this respect. A marginal note in 
Luke ii. 40 calls attention to the fact that 
' filled with wisdom ' expresses a continuous 
process and not a complete result (comp. v. 52). 
And the first recorded words of Christ, as 
we now read them. How is it that ye sought 
me ? wist ye not that I must be in my Fathers 
house f (Luke ii. 49) suggest the consciousness 
of a nature by which He is separated from 
those to whom He renders glad obedience. 
For Him there could be but one resting-place, 
though His Mother and Joseph had not thought 
of it. 



202 The Incarnation 

13. Yet once again the description which St. 
Paul gives (Phil. ii. 5-10) of the descent of the 
Lord from glory, of his acceptance of the Cross, 
and of his return in triumph to his heavenly- 
throne, gains in the Revised Version the full 
meaning and symmetrical form of the original 
text which are lost in the Authorised Version : 
Have this mind in you (Authorised Version, let 
this mind be in you) which was also in Christ 
Jesus: who 

(i) being in the form of God, counted (Author- 
ised Version, thoughf) it not a prize (Author- 
ised Version, robbery) to be on an equality 
(Authorised Version, to be equal) with God^ 
but emptied himself (Authorised Version, 
made himself of no reputation), taking (Au- 
thorised Version, and took upon him) the 
form of a servant, being (Authorised Ver- 
sion, and was) made (y6v6fi6vo<;) in the 
likeness ofm,en; 
and (2) being found in fashion as a man, he 
humbled himself, becoming {fyevofMevo^ : 
Authorised Version, and became) obedient 
even (Authorised Version, omit) unto death, 



and its Circumstances 203 

yea (Authorised Version, even) the death of 
the cross. 
Wherefore also God (Authorised Version, God 
also hath) highly exalted him^ and gave (Au- 
thorised Version, given) unto (Authorised 
Version, omit) him the (Authorised Version, 
a) name which is above every name^ that in 
(Authorised Version, at) the name offesus 
every knee should bow. 
The two main divisions of the description are 
completely obscured in the Authorised Version 
by the equal co-ordination of the different ele- 
ments of the Son's humiliation as finite state- 
ments. In the Revised Version these are clearly 
distinguished: the thoughts (i) of the condescen- 
sion of the Son in becoming man, and then (2) of 
His endurance of the Cross — in other words, of 
the Incarnation in itself, and of the circum- 
stances of the Incarnation as determined by 
the Fall. ' Being in the form of God,' He be- 
came man ; and ' being found in fashion as a 
man,' He humbled Himself to a death of shame. 
The parallelism of the structure determines be- 
yond doubt that the clauses rendered ' counted 



204 The importance of 

it not a prize . . .' and 'emptied himself are 
both aspects of the Son's self-sacrifice. Then 
follows as a consequence of the victory through 
death, the triumphant exaltation of the Incar- 
nate Son, Jesus (comp. Heb. ii. 9, because of the 
suffering of death). 

14. The emphasis which is here laid on the 
human name Jesus, which fixes attention on 
the fact of the true humanity of the Lord, is 
implied in many other passages where the 
inattention of scribes has led to the alteration 
of the simple name. For example, we read — 
I John i. 7 : the blood of Jesus (Authorised 
Version, Jesus Christ) his Son cleanseth 
us from all sin. 
I John iv. 3 : every spirit which confesseth 
not Jesus (Authorised Version, Jesus 
Christ ; comp. marg.). 
Heb. iii. i : consider the Apostle and High 
Priest of our confession, even Jesus 
(Authorised Version, Christ Jesus). 
Luke xxiii. 42 : he said, Jesus (Authorised 
Version, said unto Jesus, Lord) remember 
me when thou comest in thy kingdom. 



the Name Jesus 205 

Acts xvi. 31 : believe on the Lord Jesus 
(Authorised Version adds Christ). 

Acts xix. 4 : that they should believe on him 
which should come after him, that is, on 
Jesus (Authorised Version, Christ Jesus). 

15. We have already dwelt on the life of 
the believer * in Christ,' with whom he is mys- 
tically united (ch. v. § 5). The distinct image 
of Christ's sovereign humanity gives clearness 
to the personality of His adversary. As be- 
lievers are * in Christ,' so the whole world lieth 
in the evil one (i John v. 19, Authorised 
Version, in wickedness). *The evil one' (i 
John ii. 13, 14; Matt. xiii. 19, 38, Authorised 
Version, 'the wicked one'; iii. 12; v. 18, 
Authorised Version, that wicked one ; John 
xvii. 15, Authorised Version, the evil; Eph. 
vi. 16, Authorised Version, the wicked ; 2 
Thess. ii. 3, Authorised Version, evil), 'the 
prince of this world ' has, indeed, been finally 
defeated, but the fruits of Christ's victory 
have still to be gathered. Hence we can see 
the full force of the petition in the Lord's 
Prayer in which we pray for deliverance from 



2o6 Christians ' one man ' 

*the evil one' (Matt. vi. 13, Authorised Ver- 
sion, evil). We can appeal with confidence to 
the Father's love (bring us not into temptation), 
but there is an enemy, His enemy and ours, 
from whose snares He alone can preserve us. 
Our conflict is not with abstractions but with 
personal foes (comp. Eph. vi. \2ff). 

16. One phrase still remains to be noticed 
which crowns with an exceeding glory the 
thoughts of life and hope and unity which have 
come before us in the scattered notices of the 
work of the Incarnate Son, which are given in 
their original clearness in the Revised Version. 
Looking upon the perplexing differences by 
which humanity is broken upon into parts — 
differences of race and culture and state and 
sex, differences which we carry on into our dim 
foreshadowings of the future, St. Paul says there 
can be neither Jew nor Greek, there cmt be neither 
bond nor free, there can be no male and female : 
for ye are all one man (Gal. iii. 28, el?, one man ; 
not one, as in Authorised Version). Differences, 
he seems to say, the most fundamental and 
unalterable, as we now judge, are swallowed 



in Christ 207 

up in life, to the fulness of which they are 
made contributory. We cannot, indeed, see far 
into the mystery, but we can feel in some way 
that all that tends to separate us, to limit us, 
is done away in a fuller life, a personal life, 
in Christ, in whom all personality finds its 
consummation. 



CHAPTER VII 

CHANGES DUE TO ALTERATIONS OF THE TEXT 

I. In the preceding chapters some illustrations 
have been given incidentally of the fresh vivid- 
ness and power which the textual changes 
adopted in the Revised Version give to the apo- 
stolic records. In the present chapter I propose 
to review in conclusion, at the cost of some 
repetition, the general effect which the revision 
of the original text has exercised upon the 
English version. 

No part of the work of the Revisers has 
been more violently or unintelligently attacked 
than their revision of the Greek text : no part 
of their work will commend itself, I believe, 
more completely to scholars at least of the 
next generation. 

2. The text which was adopted was, it must 



Conditions of TexHtal Revision 209 

be remembered, supported by a majority of two 
to one on the final revision whenever a division 
was called for. It represents, in other words, 
speaking broadly, the decisive and deliberate 
judgment of a body of scholars widely different 
in character and training and personal pre- 
possessions, who applied to the New Testament 
the principles of criticism by which classical 
texts are determined. In cases of reasonable 
doubt the judgment was given against change : 
that is, the revision on the whole was distinctly 
conservative. At the same time, since the 
work was the work of a company, subject to 
fluctuations, and not of a single critic, it lacks 
perfect consistency. Here and there readings 
have been changed, or left unchanged, against 
the general practice of the Revisers, but these 
are too few to affect the general result. 

3. The popular interest felt in a few well- 
known variations, particularly in the omission 
of some familiar passages, has, no doubt, pro- 
duced an exaggerated impression of the im- 
portance of the textual changes. It cannot 
therefore be repeated too often that the text 
O 



2 lo Exaggerated view of its extent 

of the New Testament surpasses all other Greek 
texts in the antiquity, variety and fulness of the 
evidence by which it is attested. About seven- 
eighths of the words are raised above all doubt 
by a unique combination of authorities ; and 
of the questions which affect the remaining 
one-eighth a great part are simply questions of 
order and form, and such that serious doubt 
does not appear to touch more than one-sixtieth 
part of the whole text. 

4. The omissions to which reference has 
been made are generally well known. 

Matt. i. 25 : firstborn ; v. 22 : without a 
cause ; vi. 13: For thine is the kingdom and 
the power and the glory ^ for ever. Amen. 

John V. 3 : waiting for the moving of the water ; 
verse ^^for . . . disease he had. 

John vii. 53 : and they went . . . ; viii. 11... 
sin no more. 

I John V. 7 : there are three . . . these three are 
one ; with and . . . in earth in verse 8), and 
some others less familiar — 

Mark ix. 25 : with tears. 

Mark ix. 29 : and fasting (comp. Acts x. 30). 



Omissions 2 1 1 

Luke ix. 55 : and said ye know . . . are of. 

Luke xi. 2 : Our^ which art in heaven^ Thy 
will be done, as in heaven, so in earth. 

Acts viii. 37 : And Philip said . . . Son of 
God. 

Rom. xvi. 24: The grace . . . Amen. 

I Cor. vi. 20 : and in your spirit which are 
Gods. 

Eph. V. 30 : of his flesh and of his bones. 

Apoc. xxi. 24 : of them which are saved. 

These omissions are justified by evidence 
different in kind, but absolutely decisive in 
each case ; and the change of God into He who, 
in I Tim. iii. 16, is not less certain. Other 
phrases and passages which are marked as 
doubtful (Mark xvi. 9-20 ; Luke xxii. 19, 20 ; 
43/; xxiii. 17, 34; xxiv. 12, 36,40; 51, 52) 
are probably fragments of apostolic tradition, 
though not parts of the evangelic text.^ 

^ It will be interesting to the student to consider and classify 
other cases of omission : — 

Matt. V. 44 ; X. 3 ; xviii. ii ; xx. 7, 16, 22, 23 ; xxiii. 14 ; 
XXV. 13 ; xxvii. 35 ; and xii. 47 ; xvi. 2/5 xix. 9 ; xxi. 44 
(noticed in marg.). 

Mark vi. 11, 36 ; vii. 8, 16 ; viii. 26 ; ix. 44, 46, 49 ; xi, 26 ; 
xiii. 14 ; XV. 28. 



212 Additions 

5. On the other hand, some clauses which 
appear to have been omitted in the common 
text as superfluous have been restored : 

John xix. 3, And they came to him. 
I Thess. iv. i, even as ye do walk. 
I Pet. V. 2, according to God. 
I John iii. i, and such we are} 

6. Immeasurably more common than these 
substantial omissions or additions are substitu- 
tions of single words or phrases for others 
which are inadequately supported ; and it is 
not too much to say that it is possible to 
recognise in most cases a gain in the authentic 
text. 

i. Sometimes a new trait or colour is added 

Luke i. 28 ; iv. 4, 5, 8, 18 ; xi. 11 ; xvii. 36. 

John vi. 22; viii. 59 ; iii. 13 (marg.). 

Acts ii. 5; ix. 30/; xv. 18, 24, 34; xviii. 21 ; xx. 15; 
xxviii. 16, 29. 

Romans viii. i ; ix. 28 ; x. 15 ; xi. 6 ; xiv. 6, 21. 

I Cor. xi. 24. 

Gal. iii. i. 

I Pet. iv. 14. 

I John iv. 3. 

Apoc. i. II ; V. 14. 

1 Other examples of additions may be studied in Matt. xxiv. 
36; xxvii. 49 (marg.); John xx. 16; Acts ii. 43; iv. 27; 
I Cor. ix. 20 ; Apoc. viii. 7 ; xiv. i. 



Changes bring new Traits 213 

to the picture : Matt. ix. 8, were afraid (Author- 
ised Version, marvelled). 

Matt. ix. 36 : distressed (Authorised Version, 
fainted). 

Matt. xvii. 4 : / will make (Authorised Ver- 
sion, let us make). 

Mark v. 36 : But fesus^ not heeding the word 
spoken . . . (As soon as fesus heard the word 
that was spoken^ Authorised Version). 

Mark x. 50: sprang up {rose, Authorised Ver- 
sion) ; xvi. 4 : rolled back (Authorised Version, 
rolled away). 

John iii. 25 : a few {the fews. Authorised 
Version). 

John iv. 15: come all the way hither (come 
hither, Authorised Version).^ 

7. ii. In other cases a more pointed or vigor- 
ous form of expression is introduced : 

Matt. XXV. 6\ At inidnight there is a cry, 
Behold, the bridegroom ! Come ye forth to meet 
him (At midnight there was a cry made^ Behold, 
the bridegroom cometh, go ye out to rneet him, 
Authorised Version). 

^ Compare Matt. xv. 39 ; Mark v. 2 ; Gal. i. 18 ; ii. II, 14. 



214 Changes bring new Ti^aits 

Mark i. 27 : What is this ? A new teaching ! 
{What new doctrine is this? Authorised Ver- 
sion). 

Luke V. 39 : ^^ saith^ The old is good {lie saith, 
The old is better, Authorised Version). 

Luke xvii. 33 : Whosoever shall seek to gain 
(Authorised Version, save) his life shall lose it. 

The natural reasoning of Thomas appears in 
its full force when we read John xiv. 4/ : And 
whither I go ye know the way. Thomas saith 
unto him, Lord, we know not whither thou goest ; 
how know we the way f and at the same time it 
is seen that the conditions of earthly knowledge 
do not apply to our relations to Christ.^ 

8. iii. Sometimes a glimpse is opened into 
contemporary opinion or experience : Matt, 
vi. I, righteousness (Authorised Version, alms). 

Matt. xxii. 40, hangeth (Authorised Version, 

^ Other examples are found : — 

Matt. viii. 31 ; xi. 23 ; xiii. 25. 
Mark viii. 25 ; x. 49 ; xii. 17. 
Luke xviii. 28 ; xxiii. 45. 
Acts iii. 20. 

1 Thess. ii. 7 (marg.). 
Eph. V. 9. 

Hebr. xii. 34, 

2 Pet. i. 21. 



Changes bring new Traits 2 1 5 

hang) the whole law and the prophets — the 
prophets were simply an appendix to the law, 
which implicitly included all. 

The personal character of 'the abomination of 
desolation ' is noted in Mark iii. 14 : standing 
where he (Authorised Version, ii) ought not 
{kaT'qKora, comp. 2 Thess. ii. 4). In the Be7te- 
dictus the Nativity is spoken of, according to 
the true reading, in the future : Luke i. jZ, 
the dayspring from on high shall visit us 
{eiriaKey^reTai ; Authorised Version, hath visited 
us, eTreaKeyfraro). 

The confession of the Samaritans assumes 
a characteristic form when we read John iv. 42, 
this is indeed the Saviour of the world (Author- 
ised Version adds the Christ). 

According to the true text of John v. 16, 18, 
the Evangelist distinguishes two stages in the 
hostility of the Jews to Christ {persecute, sought 
to kill), determined by two elements in his 
teaching (violation of the Sabbath, making 
himself equal with God) which are confused in 
the later reading {v. 16, persecute and sought to 
slay him. Authorised Version). The parallel 



2 1 6 Changes drmg new Traits 

between the relation of the Son to the Father 
with that of the many sons to the Son, is seen 
in its completeness in John x. 14. f. According 
to the true reading, / am the good Shepherd ; 
and I know mine ozvn and mine own know me^ 
even as the Father knoweth me and I know the 
Father. ... In the first mention of the Christian 
congregation it is not without deep meaning 
that it is written (Acts i. 15), Peter stood up in 
the midst of the brethren (Authorised Version, 
the disciples). 

9. The words in Acts iii. 20, that he may send 
the Christ who hath been appointed for you, even 
fesuSj shows the main object of the first apo- 
stolic preaching that ' Jesus was the Christ * 
{and he shall send fesus Christ which before was 
preached unto you^ Authorised Version) ; and 
those who follow with reverent care the steps 
by which the early Church was enabled to 
realise the fulness of the Lord's Divine Person, 
will feel with what force, and, we may venture 
to say, with what fitness, the series is closed 
by the statement that St. Paul — the apostle 
called by the Lord in glory — straightway in 
he synagogues at Damascus proclaimed fesus 



The Churches and the Church 2 1 7 

(Authorised Version, Christ) that he is the Son 
of God} His message was not merely a teach- 
ing on the nature of the Christ, but an 
announcement of the Incarnation. 

This truth, expressed in its simplest form, 
appears in his Epistles as the first Christian 
creed : If thou shalt confess with thy mouth 
fesus as Lord (Authorised Version, the Lord 
fesus) . . . thou shalt be saved (Rom. x. 9 ; 
compare marg. and i Cor. xii. 3, fesus is Lord). 

So we find the name Christ in places where 
the common text gives God: Rom. x. 17; 
Eph. V. 21 (comp. I Pet. iii. 15 ; Acts xv. 40 ; 
xix. 20). And in Col. ii. 2, the end of our 
knowledge is set before us as the mystery of 
God, even Christ (Authorised Version, the 
mystery of God and of the Father and of Christ). 

10. Passing from the primitive faith of the 
first believers to their organisation, it is of 
importance to observe that while local 
* Churches ' are recognised (Acts viii. i ; xv. 
41 ; xvi. 5), all these form one Church, so 
that in Acts ix. 31 we read, not as in Author- 
ised Version, The7i had the churches rest 

^ Comp. I Cor. xv. 47 ; i Pet. iii. 21 ; Apoc. i. 5. 



2 1 8 The Chmxhes and the Church 

throughout all Judcea and Galilee and Samaria^ 
and were edified \ but, So the church through- 
out all Judcea and Galilee and Samaria had 
peace, being edified (comp. v. 1 1 [not ii. 47] ; 
XX. 28). And in one mysterious passage it 
appears that the office of the Church (Eph. iii. 
10) is connected with some larger manifestation 
of redeeming love : \unto God] be the glory in 
the Church and in Christ Jesus (Authorised 
Version, by Christ Jesus) unto all the generations 
of the age of the ages (Eph. iii. 21). 

An illustration of a different kind is found in 
James iv. 4, where the address, j^ adulteresses 
(Authorised Version, ye adulterers and adul- 
teresses) is a bold adaptation of the prophetic 
imagery to those who were disloyal to their 
God. 

And again in Heb. x. 34, the true text, ye 
had compassion on them that were in bonds 
(Authorised Version, jy^ had compassion on "ine 
in my bonds) opens a glimpse of a wide perse- 
cution, such as that described in Acts viii. i ff. 

II. iv. Elsewhere a new thought is sug- 
gested : 

The true scribe is not simply instructed unto 



New Thoughts 219 

the kingdom of heaven (Matt. xiii. 52, Authorised 
Version) ; he is made a disciple to the kingdom : 
the divine order itself is his effective teacher. 

The doctrine committed to the Christian 
teacher is to be considered as the subject of a 
divine 'stewardship' (i Tim. i. 4, olKovofila, 
a dispensation of God) com p. i Cor. iv. i) in 
regard to his obligations, and not in reference 
to the effect on his hearers (oUoBofMi], Author- 
ised Version, a godly edifying). 

The secret of the Christian life is given in 
the great promise: hi your patience ye shall win 
{KTTjo-eaOe) your souls (Luke xxi. 19), instead of. 
In your patience possess (KTrja-acrOe) ye your souls 
(Authorised Version) ; just as the true fulfil- 
ment of prayer is shown to lie implicitly in the 
petition of faith : All things whatsoever ye pray 
and ask for, believe that ye have received them 
(more exactly, ye received them — ekd^ere — at 
the moment of asking), and ye shall have them 
(Mark xi. 24). 

Our imagination is carried to the archetypal 
conception of creation in the mind of God 
(comp. John i. 3, marg.), when we read in Apoc. 
iv. II: Thou didst create all things, and because 



2 20 New Thoughts 

of thy will they were, and were rr^«/^<a^( Authorised 
Version, Thou hast created all things^ and for 
thy pleasure they are and were created). St. John 
distinguishes things as they ' were ' in the 
eternal order, and things as they have come to 
be under the conditions of time and space. At 
the same time the use of the august title of 
God, the King of the ages (Apoc. xv. 3 ; comp. 
I Tim. i. 17, marg.), opens a view of the divine 
sovereignty exercised through long periods of 
preparation through which the world was made 
ready for the Advent.^ 

12. The examples which have been given at 
length represent the general effect of the re- 
vised Greek text upon the Revised Version. 
These, taken together with those which have 
been noticed incidentally in the earlier chap- 

^ The following passages will repay study : — 
Matt. xi. 19 ; xix. 17. 
Mark i. 2 ; iii. 29 ; vi. 20. 
Luke ii. 14 ; iv. 44 (marg.) ; vi. i. ; ix. 35. 
John iii. 23 ; vi. 23 ; ix. 35 (marg.) ; xvi. 23. 
Acts xiii. 20 ; xviii. 7 ; xxvii. 14. 
Rom. v. I. 

1 Cor. vii. 3 ; xiii. 3 (marg. ). 
Eph. V. 9, 15. 

Hebr. xiii. 9. 

2 Pet. i. 3. 

Apoc. xiii. I ; xv, 6 (compare Yasna, xxx. § 5). 



Summary 221 

ters, and those to which references are given, 
include, I believe, a full representation of the 
new readings which materially affect the sense 
of the translation. It will be evident there- 
fore how little ground there is for any mis- 
giving in regard to the integrity and certainty 
of the text, and how clear is the gain from 
following the ordinary laws of criticism in 
deciding on the variations which exist. 

Here our inquiry comes naturally to an end. 
The illustrations which have been given in the 
last two chapters show the general effect of 
those small corrections which have been hither- 
to noticed in isolated details upon large views 
of the Faith. They will enable the student to 
see how fundamental truths are presented by 
the Revision with a force and consistency un- 
attained before. They will therefore, as I trust, 
be sufficient to guide him to the most impor- 
tant use of it. He will be encouraged to bring 
together for himself the familiar passages in 
which he has been accustomed to find the out- 
lines of apostolic teaching, and then to consider 
how they are affected by new renderings, which 



22 2 Conclusion 

he will at least have learnt to interrogate with 
intelligent patience. As he does this, carefully- 
investigating (for example) what is set before 
us in the New Testament on the person and 
work of Christ, or on the position and destiny 
of man, his own experience will teach him to 
look with something more than suspicion upon 
the criticisms of scholars who appear to find 
nothing better than solemn music in the English 
version of words of life, and to admit no hope 
of riper knowledge from the discipline of two 
centuries and a half. In any case, he will 
recognise that he must bring self-control and 
reverence to an inquiry which reminds us at 
every step of the feebleness of our own thoughts ; 
and, if any particular results prove disappoint- 
ing, he will draw strength from the modest 
endeavour to gain a clearer vision even of one 
fragment of the truth. 



INDEX OF SCRIPTURE REFERENCES 



Exodus 




Matthew . 








iv. 17, 3& 


. 38 n. 


iii. 14 . . . 24 


xiii. 13, 15 


109 «. 


iv. I, 5 






58 


xxiv. 16 . 


35 


iv. 11 






. 50 «. 


xxix, 4 . 


. 125 71. 


iv, 19 ff. 






. 123 71. 


XXX. IS . 


59 


iv. 20, 22 






81 71. 


Leviticus 




iv, 24 






. 144 «. 


xvi. 4 


. 125 n. 


V, I 






58 


Deuteronomy 




V, 6 






26 


xxxii. 35 , 


70 


V. 9. 45 






. 109 71. 


Job 




V. 10 






. 26, 51 


i. 6 ff. . 


49 


V. IS 






59 


Psalm 




V, 15, 18 






82 


xcv. 


71 


V, 16 






6s 


Isaiah 




V. 17 f. 






. 123 n. 


iv. S f. . 


135 


V. 22 






210 


Hi. . 


no 


V. 44 






. 211 n. 


Iv. 10 ff. . 


. 136 


V.48 






142 


Jeremiah 




vi. I 






214 


vii. 11 


75 


vi. 9 






28 71. 


Ezekiel 




vi. 13 




206, 210 


xxxiv. 23 


120 


vi, 18 




. 147 n. 


xxxiv. 


. 138 


vi. 22 




83, 124 n. 


Zechariah 




vi. 25 




61 n. 


xii. 10 ff. , 


. 196 


vii. 4 




61 n. 


Matthew 




vii. 6, 24 . 




60 


i. I 17, 18 


150 


vii. 13 






27 n. 


i. 21 


28 n. 


vii. 22 






48 


i. 22 . 52 71., n6, 151 1 


viii. 9 






25 «. 


i. 23 


61 n. 


viii, 12 . 






60 


i. 25 . . 


210 


viii. 15 . 






50 n. 


ii. 2 


48 


viii. 26 . 






91 


ii. 15 


116 


viii. 31 . 






214 «, 



2 24 Index of Scripture References 



Matthew 
viii. 32 
ix. 2 
ix. 6 
ix. 8 
ix. 6, 22 
ix. 13 
ix. 16 
ix. 17 
ix. 36 
X. 3 
x. 12 
x. 14 
xi. 2 
xi. 14 
xi. 19 
xi. 23 
xii. 18 
xii. 32 
xii. 41 
xii. 45 
xii. 47 
xiii. I 
xiii. s, 7, 8 
xiii. 18 
xiii, 19 ff. 
xiii. 19, 38 
xiii. 20 f. 
xiii. 22, 39 
xiii. 25 
xiii. 52 
xiv. 21 
xiv. 23 
xiv. 26 
XV. 39 
xvi. 2 f. 
xvi. 3 
xvi. 9 ff. 
xvi. 18 
xvi. 21 
xvi. 24 



^56. 



58 
107 

213 
194 
213 

113 

22 «. 

213 

211 n. 

44 

140 

ISO 

44 «. 

220 «. 

214 «, 

no n. 

127 

55 «• 

99. 190 

211 n. 

28 ;z. 

60 

28 n. 

135 

205 

81 «. 

127 

214 «. 

175. 219 

122 

58 

112 

213 «. 

211 n. 

132 

21, 128 

109 

ISO 

25 n. 



Matthew 




xvii. 4 


213 


xvii. II . 


44 


xvii, 15 . 


144;?, 


xvii. 24, 27 


59 


xviii. I . 


28 n. 


xviii, II . 


211 n. 


xviii. 12 . 


44 «. 


xviii. 19 . 


190 


xviii. 20 . 


41 


xviii. 27 . 


140 


xviii. 33 . 


81 «, 


xix, 8 


52^. 


xix. 9 


211 n. 


xix. 17 


. 220 n. 


xix. 28 


90 


XX, 7, 16, 22, 23 


, 211 ft. 


XX. 20 


81 n. 


xxi. 4 . S2«., 


116, 151 


xxi. 8 


50 n. 


xxi, 12 , 


59 


xxi. 13 . 


75 


xxi, 25 , 


81 n. 


xxi, 28 . 


107 


xxi. 29, 32 


105 «, 


xxi, 29, 33 


20 


xxi. 44 , .14 


0, 211 n. 


xxii. iff.. 


128 


xxii. 2 f . , 


81 n. 


xxii, 12 . 


22 n. 


xxii, 31 . 


116 


xxii, 40 . 


214 


xxiii, 3 . 


25 «, 


xxiii. 7, 8 


92 


xxiii. 12 . 


81 


xxiii, 14 , 


211 n. 


xxiii. 16, 18 , 


81 n. 


xxiii, 17 , 


126 


xxiii, 26 . 


98^2. 


xxiv. I . . . 


47 n. 


xxiv, 8 . 


155. 186 



Index of Scripture References 225 



Matthew 




Mark 




xxiv. 32 . 


60, 98 n. 


ii, 21 . . . 


"3 


xxiv. 36 . 


. 212 n. 


ii. 23 . , . 


47 «. 


XXV. 5 


25 «. 


iii. S . . . 


82 n. 


XXV. 6 


213 


iii. 13 . 


28 n. 


XXV. 8 


24 


iii. 29 . . , 


220 n. 


XXV. 13 . 


. 211 n. 


iii. 14 . . . 


215 


XXV. 32 . 


. 81 n. 


iv. 9 


47 «. 


XXV. 46 . 


81 


iv. 13 . . 2 


r, 102 n. 


xxvi. 25, 49 


92 


iv. 37 . 


24 


xxvi. 25, 71 


147 


iv. 38 


59 


xxvi, 28 . 


90 w., 143 


iv. 40 


91 


xxvi. 38 . 


• 25 «. 


V. 2 


213 n. 


xxvi. 48 . 


128 


V. 23, 24 . 


194 


xxvi. 50 . 


22 n,, 144 


V. 27f.. 38f. . 


82 «. 


xxvi. 55, 121 


75 


V. 30 . . 103 


n.^, 145 


xxvi. 56 . 


52«., 151 


V.36 . . 


213 


xxvi. 69, 71 


150 


V. 40 


123 «. 


xxvii . 3 . 


20, 105 n. 


vi, II, 36 


211 n. 


xxvii. 15 . 


121, 147 


vi. II 


140 


xxvii. 24 . 


. 44 «., 98 n. 


vi. 20 . , . 


220 n. 


xxvii. 26 


29 


vi. 20, 53 


144 «. 


xxvii. 27 . 


149 


vi. 35 . 


82 n. 


xxvii. 30 . 


. 25 «. 


vi. 52 


. loi n. 


xxvii. 35 . 


. 211 n. 


vi. S3 


112 


xxvii. 42 . 


157 


vi. 56 


194 


xxvii. 49 . 


. 211 n. 


vii. 8, 16 . 


2X1 n. 


xxviii, 3 . 


. 105 n. 


vii. 18, 19 


. 156 


xxviii. 5 . 


28 n. 


▼iii. 19 . 


128 


xxviii. 18-20 


38, 43 n. 


viii. 23, 26 


38 


xxviii. 19. 


• 63, 170 


viii. 25 . 


. 214 n. 


xxviii. 20 . 


186 


viii. 26 . 


. 211 n. 


xxix. 14 . 


127 


ix, 21 


. 52 «. 


Mark 




ix. 25 


92 


i. I . 


150 


ix, 25, 29 


210 


i. 2 . 


. 220 n. 


ix. 44, 46, 49 . 


. 211 «. 


i. 10 


140 


X. i3f. . . 


82 n. 


i.27 . 


214 


X. 17 


. 44 n. 


i. 37 


. 44 n. 


X. 21 f., 27 . 


132 


ii. S 


107 


X. 32 


. 47 ». 


ii. 18 


147 


X. 38 f. . 


13s 



2 26 Index of Scripture References 



Mark 








Mark 




X. 43 f. . . . 128 


xvi. 2 . . . 


X. 49 






214 n. 


xvi. 3 




X. 50 






213 


xvi. 4 . 




X. 51 






93 


xvi. 6 




X. 52 






. 72, 194 


xvi. 9-20 . 




xi. 21 






92 


xvi, II, 13, 16 




xi. 24 






219 


xvi. 20 . 




xi. 26 






211 n. 


Luke 




xii, 12 






103 7l\ 


i. 4 




xii. 17 






214 n. 


i. 20 




xii. 25 






55 


i. 21 




xii. 26 






149 


i. 22, 59 . 




xii. 35 






150 


i. 28 




xii. 38-40 






73 


i. 52 




xii. 41 f. . 






82 


i. 54, 69 . 




xii. 43 . 






44 ?z. 


i. 72 




xiii. 8 






155 


i. 78 




xiii. 12 






82 


ii. I 




xiii. 14 






211 71. 


ii, 2 




xiii. 20 






48 


ii. 4 




xiii. 21 






150 


ii. 12 




xiii. 22 






145, 181 


ii. 14 




xiii. 25, 2c 


? 




44 «. 


ii. 16 




xiv. 24 






143 


ii. 25 




xiv. 35 . 






25 «. 


ii. 33 




xiv. 42 . 






44??. 


ii. 38, 43 • 




xiv. 45 






92 


ii. 40 




xiv. 52 






47 «. 


ii. 40. 49. 52 




xiv. 66 






40 


ii. 49 




xiv. 67 




132, 


147, 150 


iii. 14 




XV. 6 






47 ;z. 


iii. 16 . 




XV. 7 






75 


iii. 21 




XV. 8 






156 


iii. 23 




XV. 10 






103 n. 


iv, 4, 5, 8, 18 . 




XV. 16 






149 


iv. 6 




XV. 19 






. 25 ?z. 


iv. 22 . . 




XV. 28 






211 7?. 


iv. 42 




XV. 33 






73 


iv. 44 . 




XV. 43 






• 47 n. 


V. I, 29 . 




XV. 45 






. 103 n. 


V. 3 f. 





I 7idex of Scripture References 227 



Luke 








Luke 




V. 5 . . . tpn. 


xi. II 


. 211 n. 


V. 6 






24 


xi. 13 . 


■ 97 w. 


V. 16 






. 25 «. 


xi. 29 


• 47 «• 


V. 39 






214 


xi. 3if. . 


• 55 '^. 


vi. I 




• 47 


-2. , 220 ?Z. 


xi. 33f. . • J 


32, 124 n. 


vi, 16 






54 


xi. 51 


22 n. 


vi. 17 






55 


xi. 52 


. sow. 


vi. 35 




109 t 


t., 144 «. 


xii. 3 


. 123 n. 


vi. 40 






146, 174 


xii. 48 


39 


vi. 48 






40 n. 


xii. 49 . 


. son. 


vi. 49 






112 


xiv. II . 


81 


vii. 3 






54 


xiv. 12 f. . 


. 123 n. 


vii. 5 






58 


XV. 6, 9 . 


61 


vii. 12 






30 


XV. 31 


107 


vii. 32, 38 






. 50 72. 


XV. 33ff. . 


. 124 n. 


vii. 33f 






83 n. 


xvi. 8 


32 


vii. 37 






aj n. 


xvi. 14, 23 


• 97^. 


vii. 39 






103 «.2 


xvi. 23 . 


109 


vii. 41 






140 


xvi. 25 . 


107 


vii. 45 






128 


xvii. 17 . 


61 n. 


viii, 14 






44 «. 


xvii. 21, 23 


83 «. 


viii. 23 






24 


xvii. 26 . 


123 «. 


viii. 23, 5: 


; 




47 «. 


xvii. 33 . 


214 


viii. 46 . 






50 n. 


xvii. 36 . 


211 n. 


ix. 9 






50 «. 


xviii. 3 . 


24 


ix. II 






103 «.2 


xviii. 12 . 


142 


ix. 24 






121 


xviii. 13 . 27 «., 


25 n., 61 


ix. 28, 37 






83 «. 


xviii. 14 . 


81 


ix. 31 






94 


xviii. 16 . 


61 n. 


ix. 35 . 






220 «. 


xviii. 25 . 


83 n. 


ix. 43 • 






47 «. 


xviii. 28 . 


214 ??, 


ix. 45 






112 


xviii. 34 . 


103 


ix- 55 . 






211 


xviii. 38 f. 


son. 


ix. 61 






30 


xviii. 42 . 


72 


X. 6 






54 


Xix. I2f. . 


123 7Z. 


x. 21 






48 


xix. 13 . . 


54 


X. 24 






^on. 


xix. 13, 15 


83 «. 


X. 3of. . 






V7n.,7S 


xix. 41 . , . 


22 


X. 36 . 






99 


xix. 48 . . . 


132 


xi. 2 


. 


. 


211 


XX. 14 . . . 


97 



228 Index of Scripture References 



Luke 


1 


John 




XX. 17 . . . 132 1 


i.5 . . . 


17 


XX. 18 


140 


i. 6 . . . 


98^2. 


XX. 35 


108 


i. 7fif., I9ff. . 


80 


XX. 37 


149 


i. 8, 35 . 


124 


XX. 46f. . 


73 


i. 10, 17 . . I 


7, 116 n. 


xxi. 19 . 


142, 177, 219 


i. II . 22 n. 


61, 122 


xxi. 20 . 


2S 


i. 12 . 98, 


100, 108 


xxi, 25 


112 


i. 14 . 14 


17. 189 


xxii. 8f. I2f. . 


83 «. 


i. 15 


52 «. 


xxii. IS . 


7«. 


i. 16 


201 


xxii. 19, 20, 43f 


211 


i. 17 


150 


xxii. 20 . 


90«., 143 


i. 18 . 15, 


199, 200 


xxii. 31 ff. 


49 


i. 27 


- 14 


xxii. 32 . 


173 


i. 28, 29 . 


16 


xxii. 33 . 


29 


i. 29-34. 47-51 . 


185 


xxii. ss f. 


40. 41, 43 w. 


i. 29 


176 


xxii. 61 . 


132 


i. 32 f. . . 


52 n. 


xxii. 66 . 


147 


i. 35 


46 


xxiii. IS . 


. 147 «. 


i. 36, 42 . 


132 


xxiii. 17, 34 


211 


i. 39 


83 «. 


xxiii. 25 . 


29 


i- 45 


151 «. 


xxiii. 39, 42 


157 


ii. 8 f. . 


83^.2 


xxiii. 39 . 


66 


ii. 18, 23 . 


37 


xxiii. 42 . 


204 


ii. 19, 21 . 


121 


xxiii. 44 . 


73 


ii. 25 


28 n. 


xxiii. 4S . 


. 214 «. 


iii. 2 


29 


xxiii. so . 


. 97 n. 


iii. 2, 10, II, 12 


83«.2 


xxiii. 56 . 


65 n. 


iii. 10, II 


102 


xxiv. I 


65 n. 


iii. II 


195 


xxiv. 12, 36, 4 


D, 51, 52 211 


iii. 12, 31 


80 


xxiv. 17 . 


157 


iii. 13 


. 211 n. 


xxiv. 25 . 


126 


iii. 19 


61 


xxiv. 29 . 


. 83 n. 


iii. 23 . 


. 220 n. 


xxiv. 32 . 


. 47«. 


iii. 25 


213 


xxiv. 36 . 


41 


iii. 31 


30 


John 




iii. 36 


105 


i. I 


. 117 «. 


iv. I 


. 44 w. 


i. I, 14 . 


200 


iv. 9 


55 


i. 3 51, 210, i88, 17, 116;?. 


iv. 15 


147. 213 


i. 4 


188 


iv. 21, 39 


. 116 «. 



Index of Scripture References 229 



in 




John 




iv. 22 . . . 


26, 146 


ix. 4 


19s 


iv. 27 . . . 


54 


ix. 19, 21 


. 83 «.2 


iv. 27-30, 41 f. 


185 


ix. 29 


. 52«. 


iv. 29 . . . 


65 


ix. 35 • 


28, 220 ». 


iv. 30 . . . 


47 «. 


ix. 35-38 . 


. . 185 


iv. 38 


28«., 52 


ix. 39 


100, 190 


iv. 42 . . . 


215 


X. X. 8 . 


75 


V. 3. 4 • 


210 


X. 2 


27, 56 n. 


v, 16, 18 . 


215 


X. 16 


120 


v. 22-29 • 


80 


X. X4f. . 


138, 193. 216 


V. 24, 38, 46 f. 


116 w. 


X. 23 


. 47 n. 


v. 27 


56 


X. 40 


47 «. 


V. 35 


59.83 


xi. 8, 31 , 


47 n. 


V. 39 


28 


xi. II f, 2: 


7 . 52«. 


vi. 10 . . 2 


7.71., 122 


xi. 12, 14 


. . sen. 


vi. 18 


47 «. 


xi. 19, 31 


80 n. 


vi. 22 


211 n. 


xi. 21-27 


. . 185 


vi. 23 


220 n. 


xi, 29 


25 


vi, 26, 30 


37 


xi. 31. 33. 


35. • • 128 


vi. 27 f. . 


83 


xi. 35 


22 


vi. 49 


48 


xi. 49 


28 n. 


vi. 66-69 . 


185 


xii. 9 


103 


vi. 68 


22 


xii. 13 


148 


vi. 69 


52 «. 


xii, 24 


. 27«. 


vi. 70 


59 


xii, 26 


. 28 «. 


vii. 26 


66 


xii. 28 


. ■ 36 


vii. 35 • 


• 153 '^• 


xii. 29 


52 «. 


vii. 37 • 


. 25, 46 


xii. 36 


S6«.. 98 


vii. 39 • • f 


7, 144 «, 


xiii. 2 


. . . 156 


vii. S3 • 


210 


xiii. 3 


29 


viii. II . 


210 


xiii, 5 


60 


viii. 13-18 


80 


xiii, 6, 7, 


13.33.36. 28 


viii. 30, 31 


. 64, lis 


xiii, 7 


. 21, 102 


viii. 33 ff. 


. 83«.2 


xiii, 10 


125 


viii. 37 . 


. 178 


xiii. 22 ff. 


. 138 n. 


viii. 40 . 


22 «, 


xiii. 31 


■ 49«-.i6s 


viii, 42 . 


51 


xiv. I 


29 


viii. 49. 54 


, 123 n. 


xiv. 3, 18 


44 «• 


viii. 58 , 


98 «. 


xiv. 4 f. 


214 


viii, 59 . 


. 211 n. 


xiv. 6 


. . . 198 



230 Index of Scripture References 



John 




John 




xiv. II, 12 


116 n. 


xviii. 40 . 


22, 74 


xiv. 17, 26 


94 


xix. 2, 3 . 


23 


xiv. 18 . . . 


44. 134 


xix. 3 


212 


xiv. 22 . • 5- 


2 n., 191 


xix. 4, 9, 12 


28 


xiv. 27 . . . 


92 


xix, 12 . . . 


22 


xiv. 30 


191 


xix. 24 f. 


64 


XV. 2, 4, 5, 9 f. 


83 «. 


xix. 25 . . . 


46 


XV. 3 


28 


xix. 35 . 


22 7/., S2 


XV. 5 


171 


xix. s6 . . . 


151 


XV. 13, 14, IS . 


22 n. 


XX. 2 


21 


XV. 15 f. . 


48 


XX. s f. . 


123 «. 


XV. 15, 16 


28 «. 


XX. II 


46 


XV. 26 


83.94 


XX. 16 . 93, IS 


7, 212 n. 


XV. 27 


44 «. 


XX. 19 ., . 


28 «. 


xvi. 2 


130 


XX. 21 . . . 


22, 51 


xvi. 7 


94. 190 


XX. 2S . 


83«.2 


xvi. II 


52 «. 


XX, 27, 29 


21 


xvi. 13 


61 n. 


XX. 30 f. . 


38 


xvi. 15, 16, 17, 19 


44 «. 


XX. 31 . 


63 


xvi. 16 


123 n. 


xxi. 12 . 


148 


xvi. 19 


103 


xxi. 15 f. 


123 «. 


xvi. 21 . .2 


7«.. 15s 


xxi. IS, 17, 20 


21 


xvi. 23 


220 n. 


xxi. 16 . 


128 


xvi. 27, 28, 30 . 


117 ;^. 


xxi. 20 . 


. 138 n. 


xvii. 2 


49 


Acts 




xvii. 2, 3, 4, 6, etc. 


. 165 


i. 2. 9 , 


123 n. 


xvii. 3 


ISO 


i. 13 


6in. 


xvii. 4, 26 


. 49^2. 


i. IS • • 


216 


xvii. 6 


. S2 n. 


ii. s . . 


. 211 «. 


xvii. 12 . 


. 123 «. 


ii, 6 


. 144 n. 


xvii. 15 . 


. 88, 20s 


ii. 16 


52 


xviii. 3 


58 


ii, 22 


22 «. 


xviii. 4, 16 


61 n. 


ii. 27 


109 


xviii. 5, 16, 18 . 


46 


ii. 30 


. 97 «. 


xviii. 9, 37 


- S2 «. 


ii. 36 . . 


151 


xviii. II . 


13s 


ii. 41 . 


98 


xviii. 17, 21 


28 «. 


ii. 42 


59 


xviii. 17, 25 


66 


ii. 43 . 4i«., 11 


6n., 212 


xviii. 18 . 


. 47 «. 


ii. 47 . 44 n., 


162, 218 


xviii. 28 . 


149 


iii. I 


. 47 «. 



Inaex of 


c>crzpt 


lire Kejerences 


231 


ts • 




Acts 




iii. 2 . . . 


97 n. 


xi. 23 


50, 92 7t. 


iii. 2, 10 . 


123 71. 


xii. 4, II, 22 . 


22 71. 


iii. 8 


49 


xii. 9 . . . 


116 n. 


iii. 13, 26 


no 


xiii. 7 f . . 


149 


iii. 15 . . . 


94 «. 


xiii, 20 . 


220 ;«. 


iii. 19 


172, 192 


xiii. 38 f. 


63 «. 


iii. 20 . .21 


4«., 216 


xiii. 42 . . . 


47 n. 


iv. 4 


98 


xiii. 51 . 


140 


iv. 7 


28 «. 


xiv. 10 . . 


25 «. 


iv. 9 


54 


xiv. 15 . . 


57 «. 


iv. II . . . 


61 n. 


xiv. 27 . . . 


54 


iv. 12 . . . 


63 n. 


XV. 12 . . . 


SO 


iv. 25, 27, 30 . 


no 


XV. 18, 24, 34 . 


211 n. 


iv. 27 


212 n. 


XV. 19 f. . 


$on. 


iv. 27, 28 


122 


XV. 25 . . . 


98 «. 


iv. 31 


25 «. 


XV. 40 


217 


iv. 34 . 


97 n. 


XV. 41 . . . 


217 


iv. 36 


g2n. 


xvi. 5 • • • 


217 


v. II 


218 


xvi. 7 . . . 


So«. 


V. 32 


83 


xvi. 17 . . . 


152 


V. 41 


152 


xvi. 20, 35, 38 . 


150 


V. 42 


151 


xvi. 25 . . . 


47 «. 


vi. I 


47 «. 


xvi. 31 


20s 


vii. 13 . 


123 n. 


xvii. 5 . 


22 «. 


vii. 35 • 


52 


xvii. 18, 23 


84 «. 


vii. 38 


54 


xvii. 23 . 


22/Z..5S 


vii. 45 • 


93 


xvii, 24 . 


97 n. 


vii. 52 f. . 


48 


xvii. 25 . 


28 «. 


viii. I 98 ?i., 148, 


217, 218 


xvii. 29 . 


iii«. 


viii. 16 


. 97 fi. 


xvii. 31 . 


22 «. 


viii. 17 . 


23 


xviii. 4 


55 


viii. 20 . 


123 «. 


xviii. 6 . 


140 


viii. 37 . 


211 


xviii. 7 . 


. 220 n. 


ix. 2 


. 61, 152 


xviii. 12 . 


149 


ix. 30 f. . 


. 21171. 


xviii. 21 . 


. 211 71. 


ix. 31 


. 218 «. 


xviii. 25 f. 


152 


ix. 38 


147 


xviii. 28 . 


112 


x. 30 


210 


xix. 2 . . i 


)7, 144 n. 


X. 47 


59 


xix. 4, 30, 33 . 


2271. 


xi. 18 


. 27 71. 


xix. 4 


205 



2^2 Index of Scripture References 



Acts 




Romans 




xix. 9 


los 


i. 20 


III 


xix. 9, 23 


. 61, 152 


ii. 2 f. . 


. 84 «.2 


xix. 15 


. 102 n. 


ii. 6 ff. . 


. 190 n. 


xix. 20 


217 


ii. 7 


109, 193 


xix, 24 f. . 


. . 84 


iii. 21 


. 57 7Z. 


xix. 27 . 


112 


iii. 21-23 • 


27 


xix. 31 . 


ISO 


iii. 25 


III 


xix. 34 . 


, 103 «,2 


iv. 3-8 . 


80 


xix, 35 . 


. . 148 


iv. 19 


. 97«., 181 


xix. 38 . 


149 


iv. 20 


177 


XX. 11 


59 


v. I 


. 220 n. 


XX, 15 


. 211 n. 


V. 2, 3, II 


. 84 W.2 


XX. 21 


. 27 n. 


v. II 


91 


XX. 28 


164, 218 


V. IS 


61 n. 


XX. 34. 35 


133 


V. 16, 19 . 


. 196 


XX. 35 . 


28 «, 


vi. 3 


29 


xxi. 38 . 


58, 148, 149 


vi. 4 


49 


xxi. 39 f. . 


22 n., 84«.i 


vi. S 


169, 173 


xxii. 3 


22 n. 


vi. 6 f. . 


168 


xxii. 4 


152 


vi. 6, 9 . 


21 


xxii. 28 . 


149 


vi. II 


171 


xxiii. 35 . 


149 


vi. 13 


24 


xxiii. 25. 33 , 


, 84^.1 


vi. 17 


146. 174 


xxiii. 27 . 


148 


vi. 23 


. 63, 170 


xxiv, 14, 22 


152 


vii. 4 


50 «, 


xxiv, 22 . 


61, 144;?. 


vii. 6 


168 


XXV. 21 . 


149 


vii. 7, 8 . 


. 84^.2 


xxvi. II . 


24 


vii. 13 


. 100 n. 


xxvi. 24 f. 


83 


viii. I 


. 211 n. 


xxvii. 


39. 43 n. 


viii. 2 


epn. 


xxvii. lo, 21 . 


. 84«.i 


viii. 4 


, 144 «. 


xxvii. 14 . 


220 «., 148 


viii. 6 


33. 84 n. 


xxvii. 41 . 


. 47 «. 


viii, 21 


34 


xxviii. 4 , 


112 


viii, 22 


15s. 186 


xxviii. 16, 29 . 


211 n. 


viii, 24 . 


161 


xxviii. 24. 


los 


viii, 30 . 


• 16s 


Romans 




ix. 26 


109 


i. 14, 17, 18 


29 


ix, 28 , 


. 211 n. 


i. 17 


. 57 «. 


X. 9 


152, 217 


i. 19 


. 84^.2 


X, 15 


211 n. 



Index of Scripture References 233 



Romans 




I Corinthians 






X. 17 


217 


iv. 15 . . . 134 


xi. 6 


211 n. 


iv. 16 






139 


xi. 7, 25 


: 144 n. 


V. 7 






29 


xi. 8 


113 


vi. II 






49. i6s 


xi. 22 f. . 


. 84 «.2 


vi. IS 






55 


xi. 29, 30-32 


. 105 n. 


vi. 19 






121 


xii. 2 


104 


vi. 19, 20 






140 


xii. 19 


70 


vi. 20 






164, 211 


xiii. 2 


. 123 «. 


vii. 3 






. 220 n. 


xiii. 12 


125 


vii. 14 






2S«. 


xiv. 6, 21 


. 211 ;z. 


vii. 16 






. 86 n. 


XV. 4, 5 . 


. . 84 


vii. 23 






. 98, 164 


XV. 12 f. . 


197 


vii. 37 






44 «. 


XV. 13, 17 


. 172 n. 


viii. I 






79 n. 


XV. 19 


. 84«.2 


viii, 6 






116 «.2 


XV. 20 


139. 179 


ix. 13 






112 


XV. 31 . 


105 


ix. 20 




s 


S, 212 n 


xvi. 3. sff..9, 


11, 21 84;?. 2 


ix. 22 






86 n. 


xvi. 17 . 


44 


ix. 2S 






118 


xvi. 24 . 


211 


ix. 2S-27 






138 n. 


I Corinthians 




ix. 27 






133. 138 


i. 4 . 


63 


X. 4 






SOW. 


i. 18 


44 «. , 162 


X. 13 






61 n. 


i. 19 


. 86 n. 


X. 16 f. 






123 «. 


i. 21 


61 «. 


X. 16, 18, 


20 




86 «. 


i. 22 


55 


xi. I 






139 


i. 23 


150, 166 


xi. 3 






27 «. 


i. 30 


. 165 


xi. 7 






97 «• 


ii. 6 


. 44 «. 


xi. 20-34 






39 


ii. 14 f. . 


. 86 ». 


xi. 23 






25^. 


iii. I 


123 


xi. 24 






2zin. 


iii. 6 


50 n. 


xi. 2S 






143 


iii. 16 


55 


xi. 30 






123 «. 


iii. 16 f, . 


121 


xii. 3 






152, 217 


iii. 17 


8s 


xii. 4 






85. 113 


iii. 18 


98 


xii. 7 ff. 






64 «. 


iv. I 


54. 138. 219 


xii. 13 . 






168 


iv. 5 


60 


xii. 23 






26 ». 


iv. 12 


51 


xii. 27 






56 «. 


iv, 14 


107 


xiii. 






77. 79 



234 Index of Scripture References 



I Corinthians 




2 Corinthians 




xiii. I 


141 


iv. 4, 6 . 


123 n. 


xiii. 3 


220 n. 


iv. 7-10 . 


39. 43 n- 


xiii. 6 


. . 136 


iv. 7 


117 


xiii. 8 


. . 78 


iv. 8 


133 


xiii. 8, lo, 


II . . 86«, 


iv, 18 . . . 


81 


xiii. II . 


• 52 n. 


V. 4 . . . 


193 


xiv. I 


79 «. 


v. 6, 8 . 


21, 86 «. 


xiv. 7, 36 


. 123 n. 


V. 9 .86 71., 


139. 179 


xiv. 12 


29 


V. 10, II , 


80 


xiv. 16 


59 


V. 10 


85, 182 


xiv. 20 . 


123 


V. II 


91 


XV. 


SI 


V. 14 


168 


XV. 3-20 . 


. . 167 


V. 17 . 61 u., 17 


5 «.. 194 


XV. 12 


126 


V, 18, 19 . 


91 


XV. 15 


166 


V. 18 


164 


XV. 24, 26 


, 28 . . 80 


V. 19 


172 


XV. 42, 50 


, 54 . 109 


V. 21 


100, 190 


XV. 42, 50 


53 • • 193 


vi. 12 . 


133 


XV. 45 . 


100, 189 


vi. 16 


121 


XV, 47 


217 


vii. 2, 4 . 


133 


XV. 53 f. 


no 


vii. 6 


29 


xvi. I f. 


. 86 n. 


vii. 8, 10 


20 


xvi. 14, -21 


\ . • 79«- 


vii. 8 


105 «. 


2 Corinthians 




vii. 9, II 


86 «. 


i. 12 


33 


vii. 14 


48 


i. 20 


59 


ix. 10 . 


136 


i. 21 


21 «., 48 


X. 4 f. 8 . 


2,6 n. 


i. 48 


80 


X. 12 


loi n. 


ii. 3 ff- 


. 86 n. 


xi. 13 ff. . 


104 


ii. 14 


130, 178 


xi. 15 


91 


ii. IS 


162 


xi. 16 ff. . 


80 


ii. 17 


. 44 ;^. 


xi. 26 


75. 148 


iii. 5 


117 


xi. 29 


28 «. 


iii. 6 


• 48. 54 


xii. 3, 9 . 


86;?. 


iii. 7 f. 


98, 100 n- 


xii. 9 


52 «. 


iii. 7. 13 


. 47??. 


xii. 18 . 


. exn. 


iii. 14 


. 144 «. 


Galatians 




iii. 18 


139. 174 


i. 6 f. . 


. 123 n. 


iv. 3, 6 


. 44 «. 


i. 18 .- . 


. 213 n. 


iv. 4 


• 34. 191 


ii. 8 f. . 


85 



Index of Scripture References 2 3 5 



Gaiatians 
ii. II, 14 • 
ii. 17 
ii. 20 




. 213 «. 
171 

166, 172 n. 


Ephesians 
iv. 22 
iv. 24 
iv. 32 

V. I . 

V. 2 . 
V. 9. 

V. 9. 15 • 
V. 10 


25;/., 181 

33 

. 63, 164, 172 

139 


iii. I 
iii. 13 
iii. 14 




. 211 71. 

1B9 
171 


. 163 
. 214 n. 
. 220 n. 


iii. IS. 17 




. 123 n. 


195 


iii. 19 
iii. 22 f. . 
iii. 24 




52 n. 

. 86 «. 

97 


V. 12 

V. 13 
V. IS 

V. 21 
V. 26 


30 

17s 

sen., 181 


iii. 26 
iii. 27 
iii. 28 




. 109 n. 
168 
206 


217 

. 125 ?i. 

211 


iv. 4 

iv. 8 f. . 
iv. 19 




1B9 

. 86 n. 

134 

24 

50 

190 


V. 30 
vi. 8 
vi. 10 
vi. 12 


182 

177 

191, 206 


v. 4 




vi. 16 


20s 


V. 7 

V. 17 




Philippians 


86 n. 


V. 25 

vi. 2 




29 

26 «. 

T28 


i. 4 . 
i. 13 
ii. 5, 10 


149 
202 


vi. 2, 5 
vi. 17 


130 


ii. 6 
ii. 6, 8 


. 25«.,97«- 
104 


Ephesians 


ii. 13 


. 86 «. 


i. 4, 6, 8, II . . 49 


61 n. 


i. II 


142, 164 


iii. 2 


86 n. 


i. 18 

ii. 5 f- 
ii. 5. 8 
ii. 7 
ii. 12 
ii. 14 
ii. 21 
ii. 22 




186 

. . 169 

161 


iii. 4 
iii. 12 
iii. 14 


164, 176 
112 




172 

61 n. 

. . 163 

121 

. 25 n. , 172 n 


iii. 20 
iii. 21 
iv. 7 

iv. II, 12 
iv. 13, 19 


90. 97 «• 

. 34. 104. 193 

171 

137 

) . . 171 


iii. 2 




50 " 


iv. 17 f. 


123 «. 
. . . 63 


iii. 10, 2 


I 


218 


J iv. 19 


iii. 15 




19^ 


^ Colossians 




iii, 21 
iv. 12 




l8( 
ii< 


3 i. II 

5 i. 12 f. 


34 
. . 165 


iv. 18 


. 


. 144 » 


i. 13 


33 



236 Index of Scripture References 



Colossians 




I Thessalonians 


i. 13. 19 • 


200 


V. 22 


. 144 «. 


i. IS • 


3S 


V. 24 


. . 176 


i. 16 


SI 


2 Thessalonij 


ms 


i. 19 


61 n. 


i- 3 


79 «• 


i. 20, 27 . 


199 


i. 7 


33 


ii. 2 .7 


9«., 199, 217 


i. 8 . 


61 


ii. 7 . 


. 2S n. 


ii. 2 


125 


ii. 9 f . 


92«., Ill 


ii.3 


. 60, 205 


ii. 10 ff. . 


. 169 


ii. 4 


. . 215 


ii. 13 


. 86 «. 


ii. 10 


. 44 «. 


ii. 14 


134 


ii. II 


33 


ii. IS 


131 


ii. 16 f. 


80, 92 n. 


ii. 20 


168 


iii. S 


. . 178 


ii. 23 


. 147 n. 


I Timothy 




iii. I . 39, 


44 ?i. , 49, 169 


i. 2, 28 


107 


iii. 3 


. 169 


i. 4 . 


219 


iii. 5 


. 27 71. 


i. S. 14 


79 n. 


iii. 10 


22 «., 44 n. 


i. II 


34 


iii. 14 


■ 79 «• 


i. IS f. 


86«. 


iii. 18 


• 25 n. 


1. 17 


191, 220 


iii. 23 


. 123 n. 


i. 18 


60 


iii. 25 . 


■ 85, 182 


ii. 2 


. . . 113 


i»- 3S • 


173 


ii. 5 


22«.,56 


I Thessalonians 




ii. 6 


60 


i- 3 


44 n., 7gn. 


ii. 7 f. 


. 86 n. 


i. 6 


139 


ii. IS 


. 79 »• 


i. 9 


. S7 «• 


ii. 28 


107 


i. 10 


44^.. I7S 


iii. I 


. 123 n. 


ii. 4 


92 ?z. 


iii. II 


57 


ii. 7 


. 214 n. 


iii. 16 


198, 199, 211 


ii. 12 


175 


iv. 10 


57«., 197 


ii. 13 


. 123 ??. 


iv. 12 


. 79 «• 


ii. 14 


139 


V. 10 


I2S 


ii. 17 


134 


vi. 10 


53. 61 n. 


iii. 6, 12 . 


. 79 n. 


vi. II 


• 79 ^• 


iv. I 


212 


vi. 16 


no 


iv. 3 f . . 


177 


2 Timothy 




iv. 4 


142 


i. 7 


. 92, 112, 141 


iv. 11 


139. 179 


i. 8 


134. 161 


V. 2, 4 


75 


i. 10 


109, 192 



Index of Scripture References 237 



2 Timothy 




Hebrews 




ii. I 


177 


ii. I 


131 


ii. 4 f. 


134 


ii. 2 


. gSn. 


ii. 8 


. . 167 


ii.5 


. 34. 127 


ii. 9 


134 


ii. 9 


. 29, 204 


ii. II 


. . 169 


ii. 9, 18 . 


51 


ii. 18 


126 


ii. 10 


. 94 n. 


ii. 22 


. 79 n. 


ii. 16 


144 «., 176 


iii. 3 


113 


ii. 17 


. 91.97 


iii. 8 


. 86 n. 


ii. 18 


166 


iii. 9 


. . 98 


iii. I 


204 


iii, 10 


79«., 112 


iii. II 


71 


iii. 13. 15 


112 


iii. 12 


• 57^' 


iii. 17 


92 n. 


iii. 18 


. 105 n. 


iv. 


61 n. 


iv. I 


52 «. 


iv. 5 


. 25 JU 


iv. 3 


• 52, 71 


iv. 6 


44 


iv. 6, II . 


. 105 «. 


iv. 8 


. 52, 60, 118 


iv. 8 


93 


iv. 10 


50 n. 


iv. 9 f. . 


123 


iv. 16 f. . 


. 123 n. 


iv. 9, 10 . 


139 


Titus 




iv. 10 


S6n. 


i. 4 


107 


iv. 14, 15 . 


51 


i. 9 


61 


iv. 14 


19s 


ii. I 


61 


iv. 15 


166 


ii. 2 


. 79 n. 


v. II 


182 


ii. 3 


112, 141 


V. 13 


123 


ii. 4 


113 


vi. I 


. 177 ».2 


ii. 13 


34 


vi. 5 


127 


ii. 14 


143 


vi. 8 


133 


iii. 5 


. 125;^., 161 


vi. 12 


139 


Philemon 




vi. 17 


112 


10 


. 29, 134 


vi. 20 


98 «. 


Hebrews 




vii. 21 


20, 105 «. 


i. 1-4 


154 


vii. 22 


189 


i. 2 


27, 56, 127, 191 


vii, 28 


166 


i. 3 


112, 201 


viii. II . 


. 102 n. 


i. 4 


. 100 n., 189 


ix. 6 f. . 


44 


i. 5 


29 


ix. 11-15 . 


39. 43 ^^ 


i. 6 


127 


ix. 14 


' 57 »' 


i. 13 


52 


ix. 15 


22 n. 


i. 14 


12371., 147 n. 


ix. 28 


90 



238 / 


nde 


XOj 


f Scripture References 


Hebrews 


James 




ix. 26 . . . 127 


ii. 22 


50 n. 


X. I, 20 






61 n. 


iv. 4 


137, 218 


X. 4, II 






2.2.11. 


I Peter 




X. 9 






52 


i. I 


• 153 «• 


X. 10, 14 






52 «. 


i. 7, 13 • 


88 n. 


X. 20 






• i6s 


i. 17 


. . 146 


X. 22 






. 125 n. 


ii. 2 


. 144 n. 


X. 23 






197 


ii. 4 f. 


■ ■ 87 


X. 24 






22 


ii. 17 


25 n. 


X. 30 






70 


iii. 6 


107 


X. 31 




. S7 «. 


iii. 14 


. 88 n. 


X. 34 




218, 193 


iii. 15 


217 


xi. 3 




127, 187 


iii, 21 


. 217 n. 


xi. 10 




154 


iv. 8 


. 79 n. 


xi. 13 






131 


iv. 12 


• . 98 


xi. 17 






52 


iv, 14 


. 211 n. 


xi. 27, 28, 


29.: 


?5 


87 w. 


V, 2 


178, 212 


xi. 31 






105 «. 


v, 4 


118 


xii. 1 






29 


V. 5 


131, 25 n. 


xii. 2 






94 «. 


V. 7 


123 


xii. 3 






51 


v. 10 


63 w. 


xii. 5 






86 


V. 14 


. 79 n. 


xii. 27 f. 






87 


2 Peter 




xii. 7, II . 






180 


i- 3 


220 n. 


xii. II 






52 «. 


i. 4 


98 


xii. 22 






57 «. 


i. 5-7 


143 


xii. 24 






2.2 n. 


i. 7 


79^- 


xii. 26 






123 «. 


i. 15 


94 


xii. 28 






1X2 


i. I 


83, 124 n. 


xii. 34 • 






214 «. 


i. 21 


. 214 n. 


xiii. 9 






220 «. 


ii. 4 


• 55 '^' . 


James 








ii. 12 f. . 


• 85, 182 


i. I 






153 «• 


iii, 5 


• 55 «. 


i. 4f. . 






88??. 


iii. 10 


75 


i. 17 






123 «. 


iii. II 


. 97 «. 


ii. 2 f. . 




8( 


3«., 152 


I John 




ii. 3 






28 «. 


i. I . , 


• 22, so 


ii. 4 






68 


i. 7 


204 


ii. 7 






153 


ii. I 


94 


ii. 19 






"3 


ii. 2 


28 «. 



Index of Scripture References 239 



I John 




Revelation 








u. 8 


22 n. 


iii. II 




118 


ii. 13. 14 • 


205 


iii. 17 






61 


ii. 18 


. 44 «• 


iv. 4 






89 


ii. 19 


29, 102 n. 


iv. 4, 10 . 






118 


ii, 20 ff. . 


21 n. 


iv. 6 






118 


ii. 24 


. 88 n. 


iv. II 






188, 220 


ii. 26 


. 47 n. 


v. 6 






118 


iii. I f. . 


108, 212 


V. 9 






140 


iii. 4 


. 28, 182 


vi. I, 2 






118 


iii. 10 


26 


vi. 6 






ISO 


iii. 12 


88 ?z., 205 


vii. 13 f. 






153 


iv. 3 


. 204, 211 n. 


vii. 14 






60 


iv. 11-16 . 


77 


vii. 15 






17. 135 


iv, 17 


. . 178 


viii. 7 






212 n. 


iv, 12 


. 27 n. 


xi. 7 ff. 






117 


V. 4. 5 • 


21 


xi. 15, 16 






89 


V. 7, 8 . 


210 


xii. 3 






119 


V, II 


63 n. 


xiii. I 




II 


9, 220 n. 


V. 18 f. . 


. 87, 205 


xiii. 2 






89 


2 John 




xiii. 13 f. 






88 «. 


7 • 


60 


xiv. I 






212 «. 


9 • 


179 


xiv. 3 






118 


3 John 




xiv. 3, 4 






140 


6 , 


• 79 ^' 


xiv. 6 






55 «• 


7 . 


152 


xiv. 14 






56. 117 


14 . 


. 88 n. 


XV. 3 






191, 220 


Jude 




XV. 6 






220 n. 


12 . 


■ 137. 144 «• 


XV. 7 






118 


Revelation 




xvi. 10 






89 


i- S 


217 


xviii. 2 






. 88 n. 


i. 7 


. . 196 


xix, 4 






118 


i. 8 


191 


xix, 12 






119 


i. II, 14 • 


. "zixn. 


XX. 3. 5. : 


7. 13 




. 88 n. 


i. 13 


. 56, 117 


xxi. 18 






. 88 n. 


i. 18 


98 ?i. , 109, 189 


xxi. 3 






• 17. 135 


ii. 8 


98 n. 


xxi. 8 






91 


ii. 10 


118 


xxi. 23 






. 124 n. 


ii. 13 


89 n. 


xxi. 24 






211 


ii. 19 


79 


xxii. 5 






83 


iii. 3 


75 


xxii. II 






i8i 



Printed by T. and A. Constable, Printers to Her Majesty 
at the Edinburgh University Press 



BS188 .W52 

Some lessons of the revised version of 

iniiriJ Mil llil^"'"^'"' ^^'^'"^^y-Speer Library 




1012 00045 9174 



DATE DUE 




^ 
















































































































■•" 
















1