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Copyright, 1900, 


The Frkk Library ok Philadelphia. 





So many inquiries have been made in the Free Library of Philadel- 
phia for information concerning the history and literature of the Philip- 
pines, that an earnest effort was made some time ago to gather together 
books bearing on these subjects. The fact that a short catalogue of 
Philippine literature, prepared by the bibliographer, W. E. Retana, 
comprises as many as three thousand separate works, is a matter known 
to comparatively few persons, and it was therefore with considerable 
interest that the Philobiblon Club of Philadelphia obtained the promise 
of the Rev. Thomas Cooke Middleton that he would read a paper upon 
the bibliography of the Philippines before the Club. This Bulletin is 
a copy of that paper, as read in substance, and it would have been 
published several months since but for the unfortunate loss of the manu- 
script in the office of the newspaper to which the author had confided 
it. In answer to the urgent requests of the members of the Philo- 
biblon Club, Father Middleton very kindly re-wrote it and consented 
that it should be printed by the Free Library of Philadelphia for the 
use of the students and patrons of the Library. An evil fate, however, 
seemed to pursue the manuscript, and within four days after it had been 
completed for the second time it perished in the great fire which de- 
stroyed the printing house of J. B. Lippincott Co. Once more the 
author took courage, and again wrote out the paper, and these facts are 
recorded both as a matter of interest, and to explain why this Bulletin 
has been so long delayed. 

A collection of books on the subject of the Philippines is being 
gradually accumulated, and it seems desirable both to furnish the 
readers in the Library with information upon the subject, and also to 
take an opportunity to counteract the popular misapprehension as to 
what has been done by the residents of the Philippines in the way of 

Since the collection of works on this subject was commenced the 
Free Library has prepared and mimeographed from time to time for the 
use of its readers " Finding Lists " of the books on the shelves relating 

to the Philippine Islands. The latest of these lists, prepared May 4, 
1900, shows that fifty-four volumes have been collected and also gives 
references to nearly six hundred magazine articles in the Library. 

Possibly one of the most interesting books received in the Library 
is the Flora de Filipinas, consisting of four folio volumes of text 
(printed in Spanish and Latin on the same page) and two of colored 
lithographed plates. It was published at Manila 1877-1883 for the 
friars of St. Augustine under the direction of H. Ex. the late Sebastiano 
Vidal y Soler, assisted scientifically by the able botanists, the Rev. 
Fathers Fr. Andres Naves and Fr. Celestino Fernandez Villar, both of 
the Augustinian order of friars. It was composed from manuscripts of 
the late Father Blanco of the same order. The plates were drawn and 
colored from nature by native artists, and sent to Barcelona where they 
were lithographed, and after six hundred copies were printed off, the 
stones were destroyed. As will be noticed, in many cases the speci- 
mens are given both in fruit and flower, necessitating in most instances 
a gathering of the specimens at distinct seasons of the year. 

The book was published as a serial work, two or three parts with 
four plates each (with corresponding descriptions) appearing monthly. 
There were several stoppages during the printing of the work, caused 
by a large fire at one time and an earthquake at another, from both of 
which the printing establishment at which the book was being published 
suffered. In this manner the time occupied in the publication was pro- 

The original editor was Sr. Domingo Vidal, who unfortunately, after 
only two or three parts of the work had been given out, was obliged to 
leave the Islands on account of poor health. Several months later he 
died and his brother, who had assumed the editorship, upon his depart- 
ure from Manila, continued the work until it was finished. 

The Trustees of the Free Library of Philadelphia desire to express 
their thanks to the Rev. Dr. Middleton for the contribution to bibli- 
ography which follows. A short index has been added, which it is 
believed will fit the paper for general use. Many thanks are due to 
Mr. John Ashhurst for his assistance in this tedious part of the Bulletin. 

Tohn Thomson. 



The following pages, embodying a survey (on a broad scale) of the 
chief characteristics of Philippine intellectual energy, in its various 
lines of art, science, letters, seem an objective worthy of the American 
scholar, who, to his own large group of aboriginal tongues at home, 
has now to add to his field of study a similarly far-reaching family of 
the many-toned dialects of Malaysia, — twenty-seven idioms at least in 
number, — according to Rctana's tabulation, whereof I give a list 
drawn from his latest bibliography of the Philippines, 1 where, enumer- 
ating the various works published in the several dialects in use in that 
archipelago, he has summarized them in the following table : 

Bisaya, or Visaya, generic name for 

i. Ckbuano, Isle of Cebu ~\ 

2. Panayano, Hiligayno and Harayo, Isle of Panay C ... 352 

3. Leyte, or Leite, and SAmar Isles . . .J 

4. Tagalo, Isle of Luzon 230 

5. Ilocano, ibid 143 

6. BIcol, OR Vicoi., ibid 61 

7. PangasinAn, ibid 24 

8. Pampango, ibid 22 

9. Ibanag, ibid 15 

10. Moro-MaguindAnao 8 

11. Cuyono 7 

12. TlRURAY 6 

13. Bagobo 3 

14. Aeta, or Negrito, Isle of Negro* 2 

15. Gaddan, Isle of Luzon 2 

16. Isinay, ibid 2 

17. JOLOANO 2 

18. Manobo, Isle of Mindanao 2 

19. Tagbanua, Isle of Paragua 2 

20. Tino, or Zambale, Isle of Luzon 2 

21. Batanes, or Vatanes, Isle (of same name) I 

22. Bilaan I 

1 See his Caiilogo Abreviado dt la Biblioteca Filipina (Madrid, 1898), pp. xxix— xxxi. 



23. Bisaya-Montrs, Isle of Mindanao 1 

24. Calamiano I 

25. econgot, or llongote, isle of luzon i 

26. SAmal 1 

27. Tagacaolo I 

This bibliography, which we rightly may term wealthy in its two 
thousand six hundred and ninety-seven titles 2 of numbered pieces of 
literature, besides being based largely on the author's own choice col- 
lection of Philippina, cites also fourteen other bibliographies of that 

In his own list of Philippine languages, or branch-tongues, of this 
quarter of Malaysia, in all (as he gives them) thirty-seven in number, 
some are mentioned, that, except in a broad sense, will not easily be 
recognized as members of the distinctively Philippine family ; such as 
Sanscrit, Chinese, Japanese, Javanese, Nahuatl of Central America, 
along with Kanaka or PonapeV Chamorro and Malgacho, or Malagasy, 
as we more familiarly style it, three dialects spoken in lands outside 
of the Philippine zone, — of Yap, or Guap, in the eastern Carolines, 
the Marianas, or Ladrones, and Madagascar respectively. 

Wherefore, subtracting these nine foreign localized idiom-groups 
along with Malay (presumably ancestral tongue of the Philippines, as 
of other western Polynesian languages), though herein many scholars 
hold that Aeta, or Papuan, is mother, I have reduced the idioms pecu- 
liar (in large measure) to that archipelago itself to the number (given 
ahead) — twenty-seven. 

On this question of race and idiom unity Zufiiga, whom I cite fre- 
quently in this sketch, says that the vocabularies of New Zealand, New 
Holland, New Guinea, and part of New Hebrides (gathered by Captain 
Cook) were all easily understood by him through his familiarity with 
Philippine dialects ; that, moreover, from his knowledge of the racial 
and linguistic characteristics of nearly all South Sea islanders, especially 

1 These figures are given by Retana— a faulty enumeration, however, in that they fail to 
include all the titles in his work. Thus (p. 338), instead of a series-number we read four 
ciphers, to be met with elsewhere the same as his bit mark (pp. 59, 90, 118, 565). Again 
Mentrida's Arte and Diccionario of 1637, mentioned twice (Nos. 100, 173) have not been 
entered by Retana in his lists ; neither has the first edition (Tayabas, 1703,) of Santos' Tagal 
dictionary, (pp. 31 , 32.). In reality then, instead of only 3697 titles in his Biblioteca, one should 
count, I venture to guess, at least some twenty or thirty more than are given. 

* Biblioteca, vii-xi. 

* Singularly varied are the names given by writers to this dialect of Yap, as Bonabe, 
Bonibet, Bornabi, Funopet, Panapee, Ponape, Puynipet, while to the French the island 
Itself is known as Ascension. (Art. "Caroline Islands," Encyl. Brit.) 


of the peoples from Madagascar to Easter Island, including (he dis- 
tinctly declares) the natives of the Friendly, or Society Isles, of the 
Sandwich and Marquesas groups, he was of opinion that aboriginal 
stock of all, in tongue and blood, including even the natives of Central 
America, was Aeta, or Papuan, otherwise styled (in the Philippines) 
Negrito. * As far back as the early part of the seventeenth century this 
same question of race and language identity of the Philippine people 
was treated by the Jesuit Chirino, of whom we shall say more further on ; 
then later by another Jesuit scholar, at one time provincial superior of 
his society in the Philippines, Francisco Colin, in his Lavor evangelica, 
(Madrid, 1663); and by Lorenzo Hervas y Panduro, a linguist of 
deserved eminence in the world of letters, formerly Jesuit. See his 
Catalogo (in six quarto vols., Madrid, 1800-1805), and you will learn 
very much about many strange things, among others, that the theory 
maintained by the English Wallace, the German Blumentritt, and 
later ethnologists, as to the identity of these Polynesians — Papuans and 
Malays — perhaps the only one now held by scholars — is venerably old, 
by two centuries and more. But really, in view of the apparently 
irreconcilable opinions of linguists on this topic, further discussion of 
it seems unprofitable. 

As concerns the Philippines themselves, neither have their isles all 
been numbered, nor their sub-races and branch-idioms classified, except 
in what we may style a generic scheme. 

Back now to our bibliographer. No study in mere humanities, it 
seems, could be more fascinating to your all-round scholar, and more 
fruitful especially to anthropologist, than with the guidance of Retana 
and other like gifted students of Philippina, to enlarge somewhat on this 
bibliographical theme, since in letters chiefly do men of upright mind 
find equipment for meditation of spirit, main source of all healthful, 
sober, intellectual recreation and work. 

Our list of Philippina, as you will notice, although given merely in 
outline, embraces in its sweep across the literary horizon of that quarter 
of Malaysia many works of recognized merit in the several lines of 
intellectual energy — of history, archaeology, ethnology, philology and 
natural philosophy ; books, all of them, which, if perchance not master- 
pieces according to the higher standard of Caucasian scholarship, will 

* Read, however, his observations thereon in full in his Estadismo, i, 426-439. The same 
opinion as to Aeta being mother-tongue in the Philippines is pronounced also by Buseta, 

yet be acknowledged of much interest, nay, of great value in the inspi- 
ration and development of scientific thought. 

In this bibliographical skeleton, then, I shall point out those sources 
of information anent the Philippine Islands, wherein the scholar can 
best find a general description or history of them, the most trustworthy 
works on their very varied and multiform language, as well as other 
topics cognate with these. Hence these sub-sections into which my 
paper is split : (i) Works of General Information ; (2) Authorities on 
Philippine Dialects; (3) Some Literary Curios among Philippina; (4) 
Philippine Presses; (5) Introduction of Printing into the Philippines. 

First, I name the chief works of reference,' of the highest, most 
authoritative character, bearing on the distinctive peculiarities of the 
Philippines, — works that will be recognized as serviceable to the gen- 
eral reader and scholar, to him that seeks to learn of the history of that 
archipelago, of its antiquities, and characteristics of the many tribes 
that people it, — of their customs, religious beliefs, superstitions and 
rites; of the fauna, flora, geology of those islands; in brief, of 
whatever refers to this part of Malaysia. For no matter how much the 
Malay, — Javan, Bornese, Sumatran, as well as Philippinian — has been 
civilized — Christianized, so far (as must be conceded) he has not 
become Caucasian in mind, nor will, nor spirit. He remains as he 
was, (nor any wonder), wholly Asiatic. Albeit, for three centuries and 
upwards, taught, ruled, elevated (at times, too, disedified) by white 
men, the Malay, or brown man, is not, perhaps never will be, employed 
by Europeans, save in very limited sphere, in wholly subordinate 
trusts, whether in commerce, trade, or whatsoever other field of human 

' Throughout this sketch, unless otherwise noted, I follow only Spanish authorities. 

Works op General Information. 

But let us on to our list of works of general reading. Sifting the 
treasure-stores of authorities named in Retana and others, I find the 
following books of most value and service, whereof, though some few 
among them, and for that matter the highest in their respective classes, 
are no longer in print, yet these very masterpieces, if not obtainable by 
purchase, like many another priceless blessing, still are worth knowing 
by title to book-lover and scholar, who, if perchance he cannot have 
these repertories of human lore on his shelves, will know at least by 
what title to seek them on others. 

Of the Philippines and their neighboring archipelagos these works 
rank of the highest worth : 

The history of Mindanao, Jolo, and their adjacent islands (Madrid, 
1667), written by the Jesuit, Francisco Combes — the most ancient de- 
tailed account of that region of Polynesia, known as the Archipelago del 
Sur, and invaluable beyond other guides to the ethnologist especially. 

Then an account of the establishment of Christianity in the Marianas 
Islands (Madrid, 1670 ?) similarly the oldest and at the same time most 
reliable history of these Ladrones, or robber, islands, so styled by early 
Spanish voyagers because of the thievish proclivities of the natives, every 
one of them in theory and practice an annexationist and protectionist 
to the back-bone, till the Jesuit missionary and scholar, Diego Luis 
de Sanvitores, author of this history, rechristened them Marianas, in 
honor (according to some chroniclers) of Dofla Mariana of Austria, 
Queen of Spain, in loving and tenderest-hearted homage (according to 
others) of the Blessed Virgin, whose rosary that savant was wont to 
recite every day. 7 

Then the story of the various religious missions in the Philippines 
entrusted to members of his Society by another Jesuit, Pedro Murillo 

T See the Aujjustinian ZtSnigVs Estadismo, ii, '395, to which further reference will 
be made. 

Velarde (Manila, 1749), a rare and valuable work, whereof an accom- 
panying chart, drawn in 1734, should, strictly speaking, be styled the 
earliest detailed topographical map of the Philippines. From the pen 
of the same scholar issued, too, an historical geography of that archi- 
pelago (Madrid, 1752), of much worth, the same as his chart, for its 
scientific details — albeit little known, it seems, to Philippinologists. 

Then we have the rare and deeply interesting history (Madrid, 1756) 
of some tribes in Luzon, hardest to convert — the Igorrotes, Tinguianes, 
Apayaos and Adanes, four races of Indians in the hill-country of Uocos 
and Pangasinan, in spiritual charge of the Augustinians, a member of 
which brotherhood, Manuel Carillo, is the author. 

Another bock, that because of its manifold literary merit, of histor- 
ical accuracy and statistical detail, is styled by Retana "an historical 
work/)ar excellence" is the general history of the Philippines (Sampaloc, 
1788-1792), by the Recoleto missionary, Juan de la Conception, 
copious source of varied aud valuable information, wherein — albeit 
somewhat prolix in style, at times, too, rather digressive — the author 
may fairly be said to be without rival. 

Then comes the descriptive and historical account of the Marianas 
Islands (Madrid, 1875), by Felipe La Corte y Ruano Calder6n, the best 
work on that little-known archipelago, and a rich source of general 
information anent these Malaysian islands. 

On the botany of the Philippines, a monumental work of the highest 
character is the Philippine Flora (classified according to the sexual 
system of Linnaeus), by the Augustinian, Manuel Blanco, printed at 
Manila, first in 1837, again in 1845, and finally republished a third 
time in 1877-1883, in superb style, in four folio volumes of text in 
Spanish and Latin, embellished with two volumes of colored litho- 
graphed plates descriptive of the plants, flowers and fruits of those 
islands. One of the co-laborers on the third edition of this Flora was 
Ignacio Mercado, a Philippine botanist himself, and professed member 
of the Augustinian brotherhood. 

The same Father Blanco also translated into Tagal the French phy- 
sician Tissot's work on medicine, enriched with his own life long obser- 
vations on Philippine plant-lore. 

Along with Blanco's Flora should be named the catalogue of fauna 
of the Philippines (Manila, 1895-1896), by the Dominican zoologist, 
Casto de Elera, an expert in that line of biological science, — a work in 
folio (in three volumes) of two thousand three hundred pages and up- 

wards, termed by Retana not only a monumental work— -easily to be 
believed — but one unique of its character. 

The geology of the islands (Madrid, 1840?), treated by Isidro 
Sainz de Baranda, government inspector of mines, besides being well 
worth reading, is the earliest study on this topic made on strictly scien- 
tific lines. 

Two works, sole representatives of their kind, are named by Retana 
as of singular value to the physician not only, but to ethnologist and 
scholar especially, — one the Embriologia Sagrada (Manila, 1856), by 
the Recoleto missionary Gregorio Sanz, written in aid of his fellow 
caretakers of souls, whose services in behalf of suffering humanity in 
out-of-the-way districts were often called upon by the natives, whose 
practice of the curing art, based on their own traditional formulas, 
especially in cases of child-bearing, was, despite the efforts of the 
missionary to uproot their unnatural and utterly heathen disregard for 
human life, attended too often with destruction of progeny and mother. 

The other repository of singular and very curious information is a 
treatise in Visaya-Cebuano and Spanish by another Recoleto evangelist, 
Manuel Vilches (Manila, 1877), written similarly in benefit of Indian 
sick, the Manual, that is, of the Visaya Physician, or native doctor — 
mediquillo y as in the Philippines these votaries of Hippocrates are styled, 
a work praised by Retana as replete with Indian plant-lore. 

The richest and most valuable collection of statistics relating to the 
Philippines, so at least acknowledged by experts, more reliable too than 
the Spanish government's own work, is the Estado general of all the 
pueblos — Christianized settlements — in the islands, drawn up by the 
Dominican archbishop of Manila, Pedro Payo (Manila, 1886), whereof 
the data were gathered by his vicars- forane and parochial -cures 
throughout the archipelago. While the most artistic map of Luzon, 
so styled by Retana, is the chart of that island (Madrid, 1883), pub- 
lished in four sheets by Enrique D'Almonte y Muriel. 

With mention of two other authors I close this section of Philippina, 
— one the history of the islands, or rather a detailed account of his 
travels therein, by the Augustinian scholar and voyager Joaquin Marti- 
nez de Z6fiiga (Sampaloc, 1803), a work known by its Spanish title as 
Esiadismo de las Filipinas o mis viaj'es, which, translated into English 
by John Maver, was published in London in 1814; and lately edited 
by Retana himself at Madrid in 1893. 

As will be easily apparent to even the most cursory reader, Zufiiga's 

travel*, critical throughout in spirit, display on well nigh every page 
the results of keen observation of affairs during his wanderings, com- 
bined moreover with sober reflections on the character and condition 
of the various races of people of the chief Philippine islands. 

In acknowledgment of its scientific worth, Retana has enriched 
Zufiiga's history (in the edition just noted) with twelve scholarly 
appendices replete with copious erudition, among other topics on the 
ethnography and geography of the islands; on animals, plants, and 
minerals. In these appendices, too, will be found copious bibliographies 
on special topics, as trade, commerce, the nao de Acapulco, taxation, 
finance, and the like. 

And, — I feel that attention shall be called thereto, first because 
the subject itself is deeply interesting to lovers especially of folk-lore, 
then again, because commonly much misunderstood, — in one of his ap- 
pendices to Zufiiga(ii*66 — *&3), Retana has reproduced some twenty-five 
pages of a Pangasinan Charm-Book, covered with strange words — jumbles, 
most of them, of mutilated Church Latin, with crosses and queer-looking 
symbols. This charm-book in MS. (as are all its fellows), whereof 
copies without count are circulated among the lowest, most superstitious 
classes of islanders — Indians and mezfizos, that is, Spaniard, or Chinese, 
mixed with native, — is wont to be worn around the neck, in the dis- 
guise of a Catholic scapular, as safeguard to the wearer against perils of 
any kind, chiefly the knife, or bullet, of hisenemy. Again, — I am quoting 
Retana, who gives his own personal experiences in Luzon, — so jealously 
and closely (he says) do these Indian charm-bearers guard their secret 
heathenish practice from their missionaries, who, for ages, albeit not 
always with good result, have been striving to detach their wards from 
such superstitious usages, that the same scholar and curio-hunter, 
despite his keenest research in Luzon, has never been able to catch 
even a glimpse but of three of these pagan scapularies, the ones 
shown to him by a Dominican missionary, Father Casimiro Lafuente, for 
many years cure at the pueblo of Santa Barbara, in Pangasinan, now 
(1893) a member of the house of his brotherhood at Avila, in Spain. 
Moreover, it appears, from the same Retana, that Father Lafuente, 
so many years resident in the islands, had never succeeded in un- 
earthing other scapularies than these self-same three. 

Many other forms of heathenism, some of them not even yet wholly 
banned from the Philippines, the reader will find described in another 
of Retana's works — de Aniterias (Madrid, 1894). 

Ziifiiga also tells all worth knowing of the abominable rites practised 
among Luzonians, — of their Nonos, Duendes, the Pag-Papasipin, Tigba- 
lag, Patianac, Bongsol, and Bilao. Much of what he says regarding the 
attachment of these peoples to unclean and impious ceremonies he has 
gathered from that rarest of books — one copy only believed to be extant, 
at the colonial museum of the Augustinians at Valladolid (in Spain), the 
Pr&ctica (Manila, 1731), of Father Tomas Ortiz, one-time missionary 
of that brotherhood in China, then for thirty years resident in Luzon, 
where he died in 1742. 

Better, however, consult Zufiiga himself, 8 and the notes thereon by 
Retana, who singularly has failed to insert Ortiz' Pr&ctica in his Bibiio- 
teca, and you will find much of interest ; — among other things about 
tattooing, common practice at one time among all Polynesians, the 
same as among our own aborigines, until taught more refined ways by 
Christian missionaries ; and about wakes too, — solemn ceremonials of 
grief, with banquetting and chants — on the occasion of the death of 
kindred. 9 

Anent these and similar breaches of the Divine commands against 
Satanism, it is surprising (I would observe) to reflect how many forms 
of spirit and idol-worship 10 are (to their degradation be it said) common 
with Malaysian and Caucasian. (See in our own periodicals, published 
presumably by bright-minded, clean-souled Christian philosophers, 
yes, see in these oracles of our fireside, advertisements of magicians, 
diviners, fortune-tellers, charm-workers, not to speak of other law 
breakers, whose mere self-interest seems to have dulled all true intel- 
lective sense.) 

The last authority on general topics I name here as invaluable as well 
as deeply interesting to the scholar is the Encyclopedia (in two volumes) 
of the Augustinian travelers, Manuel Buzeta and Felipe Bravo (Madrid, 
185 1 ) — a work replete with most varied information along with statistics, 
now, of course, out of date, on the ethnology, geography, topography, 
dialects, customs and rites of the aborigines in the Philippine archi- 

Barring, as is only fair, any eulogy on the antiquated features of this 
Encyclopedia, which yet will be recognized of much service to the his- 
torian, the writer himself, who herein is supported among others by 

• Estadismo, i, 4»6 — 439. 

• For these usages, see Zuftiga, Estadismo, i, 533—534. 

10 Various heathen rites, practised by these islanders, are described in Buzeta (i, 60, etc.), 
a* well as names of deities, and other enormities of man's distortion of truth. 


Retana, would style this monument of varied scholarship and research a 
masterpiece of all-round learning ; within its lines an indispensable guide 
to every Philippinologist. 

Such, then, are the books most trustworthy and serviceable in their 
respective fields of history, antiquities, ethnology, and other sciences 
relating to Philippina. 

Before leaving this subject to dwell on Philippinian linguistics, I ven- 
ture a brief digression on a class of works of general historic character — 
repertories of all ethnic science, little known, however, albeit to their 
serious disadvantage, to most students, and prized only by your true- 
hearted book-lover, who has sense to value what he reads for its own 
worth mainly, not because stamped with popular approval. 

These are annals of the religious brotherhoods in the East, to be 
recognized in Retana and other catalogues under the various titles of 
chronicles — sometimes as Conquistas, a by no means unfamiliar term — 
stories, that is, of the conquest of heathendom, woven oftentimes, no 
doubt, as recreation by the missionary amid his cares ; sometimes as 
relief from thoughts of his far-away native land — journals, as it were, 
drawn up by the wanderer, who, besides being traveler, usually was a 
more or less keen eyed observer, at home wherever Providence sent him; 
where, too, he studied (for self-interest was also at stake) whatever 
regarded the natives in his care — the lands they dwelt in, the skies above 
them, the waters around them. 

Scholars such as these on life-long service in their foreign homes 
were wont to make themselves conversant with every characteristic of 
the natives — with the language first of all, then the legends, poetry, 
chants; with the traditions and customs of the people, the industries 
and sports of their dusky-hued friends and brothers. 

As a rule, these plain, simply-told recitals of matters of fact, chron- 
icle among other curios of literature, all kinds of even the most 
out-of-the-way learning anent the races of men ; of plants and animals, 
of the various oftentimes most singular phenomena of air, earth, and 
water — subjects, all of them, of eagerest quest on the part of scientist, 
ethnologist, linguist, philosopher, naturalist. 

These stories, albeit at times verbose, at others digressive, will be 
acknowledged by the honest-minded critic as rich, indeed, in many- 
sided lore, enough to repay amply whatever time or trouble you have 
spent in their reading. 

With the exception of one collection of missionary annals — the Re- 


lations of the Jesuits in North America, now being edited by Reuben 
Gold Thwaites, Secretary of the State Historical Society of Wis 
consin — I know of no exact counterpart in the field of English litera- 
ture to these delightful narratives of old-time missionary travelers, 
Maver's translation of Zufliga's Estadismo, in 1814, being not only out 
of print, but I suppose unpurchasable. 

With the aid of such monuments as these — all original records of 
old-time conquistadores and their fellow-missionaries in the Americas, 
it has resulted (to the delight and blessing of students) that the cyclo- 
pedias of Americana (thirty nine volumes of them), wherein you will 
find enshrined whatever is worthy of preservation in the various chequered 
cycles of aboriginal and Spanish polity and art, massed together by the 
Western historian Bancroft, are veritably invaluable to the antiquarian, 
besides being wholesome and refreshing food for men of intellective 
genius, as therein, along with abundant matter for romance and epic, 
you will see unraveled and laid bare many a drama of life. 



Authorities on Philippine Dialects. 

Now a few words anent the chief authorities on Philippine linguist- 
ics — treatises, namely, bearing on the various dialects employed in that 
archipelago, twenty-seven in number, as observed ahead, all, however, 
akin in their common stock — Malay, of which these idioms, or patois, 
are daughters, yet with countless, sharply-marked differences between 
one another. 

A working knowledge of the many fashions of speech so much needed 
as obvious, nay, indispensable to traveler or missionary, will be gained 
most quickly and thoroughly, it should be premised, from books of two- 
fold character, — (i) namely, from grammars and dictionaries of the 
several idioms, based on scientific rules of philology; then (2) from 
devotional works — books of Christian piety, very numerous in the 
Philippines, as are religious manuals, prayer-, sermon-, and confession- 
books, whereof titles abound in Retana, all pretty much from the busy 
pen of missionaries themselves, to whose zeal and ability in the instruc- 
tion of their brown and black many-tongued wards is due largely, nay, 
wholly, whatever of humanizing, Christian character is found in 
Malaysia, as in fact is true also in other countries now civilized and 
enlightened, albeit once barbarian. 

In his latest bibliography," where the number of published works 
in each of the twenty-seven dialects of the Philippines is set down by 
Retana, you will observe from a study of his lists, that though in many 
dialects there are no grammars so entitled, or other scientific aids to 
learning a given idiom, yet there are many works of religious cast 
printed therein, — hand-books of practical religion, which you will find 
useful beyond measure to linguists. Since from these prayer-books, 
wherein are set down plainly the simplest and commonest rules of 
Christian ethical conduct, you can easily gather a working knowledge 

11 Biblioteca, xxix— rxxi. 


of the language itself, as the missionary who composed them was care* 
ful to put matters of every-day interest in the plain, every-day speech 
of the islanders. Before closing this brief digression on manuals of 
piety, I must observe what will prove very useful, I judge, to the 
scholar, that with works of the first class, as grammars and dictionaries, 
is to be associated on shelf and desk a goodly number of works of 
another class — books and treatises that bear the name Arte = Aids to 
Learning, whereof you will encounter very many in Retana. 

The Arte of a given dialect, as will be found true also in a measure 
for grammars and other school-manuals, will be recognized as a com- 
pendium of not only literary rules, but of many practical maxims of 
daily life, whereby the pupils are urged not only to correct speech, but 
to upright conduct as well through sobriety, piety to the Supreme Being, 
obedience to rulers, respect for parents and fellows, according to the 
noblest ideals of refined Christian manhood and womanhood. Thus, 
with grammar were taught ethics \ with politics, religion. 

Referring here to class-books in the Philippines, where from the 
earliest years of the conquest every pueblo had its school of primary 
instruction, it will not be irrelevant to point out the fact very stoutly 
that though education (as admitted by well-nigh every chronicler) was 
primitive in character, — and in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries 
where was it not ? yet the course of instruction given in the common 
schools of bamboo-thatch was (as results amply testify) deep and solid 
enough for the intellectual calibre of the people. Since, so far as known, 
Malaysia, however saintly, heroic, innocent, the same as our own abo- 
rigines, albeit now civilized for three centuries and upwards, has, 
despite the heartiest aid in teachers and funds, fairly lavished on them 
by Church and state, turned out no man of shining mark, no scholar, 
no artist, no genius in statecraft or commerce. The first college-insti- 
tution with pretensions to higher courses of intellectual training was 
opened (formally at least) by the Jesuits in 1601, less than half a 
century, that is, after the arrival of Europeans in Luzon. 

In regard to common Indian schools, so zealously guarded by the 
Leyes de las Indias, I have picked up here and there from old-time 
chroniclers scraps of many ordinances passed by the crown relative 
to their foundation and conduct. Among them the following bits of 
quaint old-fashioned oversight of the dominies in charge. Thus, in 1754, 
I have read that each maestro of a mission-school was to get, in lieu of 
support, "a. peso and one caban — a measure— of rice a month." (A 


caban was equal to 75 litres, about the same number of quarts, English.) 
Again, every mission-priest was called upon to supply (free to his pupils) 
" paper and ink." Moreover, as early as the beginning of the century 
just closing, in 181 7, it was ordained that boys' schools were to be kept 
on the ground-floor of the mission-house; while the girls were to be 
taught at their mistress' home. (Malaysia — thus it was ordained — was 
not to experiment with the "co-educational theory.") 

Now for the promised works of chief authority on Philippine lin- 
guistics, — monuments of the various dialects of that archipelago, that, 
along with their purely technical value to the student of idioms, will be 
acknowledged as useful to scholars in even far different lines of intel- 
lectual play. 

Of the best works for the study of Visaya, or Bisaya, first dialect in 
the islands acquired by missionary and conquistador, wherein he gives 
352 titles (p. xxix), Retana has the following: "Up to a few years 
ago the dictionary held in highest repute by linguists was the work 
of the Augustinian scholar Alonso de Mentrida," a vocabulary of the 
Hiligueina, or Hiligayno, and Haraya tongues — two of the three 
chief dialects spoken in Panay, not very different from the Visaya of 
Cebu, used, however, by the less cultured tribes of hillsmen in that 
island. This vocabulary, first printed in 1637, and in 1841 republished 
at Manila, with diagrams of Indian alphabets, enlarged in another 
edition in 1842, by a brother missionary, Julian Martin, has now been 
supplanted by the Visaya-Spanish dictionary (in two volumes), of another 
Augustinian scholar, Juan Felix de la Encarnaci6n, printed at Manila, 
first, in 1851-1852, then in 1866 and again in 1885. 

Another work deserving of praise is the Arte of the Visaya 
idiom in use in the islands of Samar and Leite (Binomlo, 1872), 
composed by the Franciscan traveler, Antonio Figuerroa, in which 
latter language — Leite, that with slight changes is similar to Cebuano, 
the first grammar was published by the Jesuit missionary, Domingo 
Ezquerra, in 1662. 

Helpful, too, as much as the former Arte in philology is the Chris- 
tian Doctrine translated into Visaya Cebuano by the Recoleto scholar 
and orator, Tomas de San Jer6nimo, known to his contemporaries as 
" the Cicero of Cebu." His school book re issued at Binondo in 1876 
is a reprint of his edition of 1731. 

Of the Tagal dialect, — a form of speech so hard to acquire with 
nicety that, according to a Spanish saying, one needs therefor " un 


afio de arte y dos de baAacue," " that is to say, unless I am wrong in 
my interpretation of the last word — " bahaque" which likely is Aeta, 
the scholar needs " a year of study and two of practice." 

The earliest Tagal Arte, so styled in chronicles, for what with the 
universal destructive touch of time, and in Luzon especially, the voracity 
of that pest of librarians, the anay, — an ant that in a few hours, it is 
said, will devour a library,— cases as well as books, not a sole copy, 
apparently, has survived, was composed in 1580 by the Augustinian 
voyager and missionary, Agustin de Albuquerque, fourth superior of 
his brotherhood in the Philippines, and printed at Manila in 1637. 

In Tagal the works most highly praised are the following : The 
Critical Treatise on Tagalisms (Mexico, 1742), by the Franciscan 
linguist, Melchior Oyanguren, the only work known wherein that 
tongue is contrasted on scientific lines with the classic Latin, Greek, 
and Hebrew, and Mandarin Chinese. The author was moved to pre- 
pare his manual for the instruction of his brother missionaries prior to 
their entrance into their field of work in Luzon. 

The Tagal dictionary, by the Jesuit missionary, Juan de Noceda, 
and others of his society (Manila, 1754), a lexicographical treasure, 
was reprinted at Valladolid in 1836, and (in its most highly-prized 
form) again, in i860, at Manila, with valuable additions by some 
Augustinian experts. 

For the scholar unacquainted with Latin, the most serviceable work 
for learning Tagal is the Essay on Tagal Grammar (Manila, 1878), 
composed by the Recoleto missionary and linguist, Toribio Minguella 
de la Merced, whose Grammar (in the same language) for the use of 
children (Manila, 1886) was adopted for schools by the Spanish 

While another helpful work for the study of that same dialect is the 
Tagal catechism, by the Augustinian, Luis de Amezquita, a popular 
booklet, first printed in 1666, and (in its thirteenth edition) in 1880, 
at Manila. 

A rare and precious treatise, praised for its critical spirit, is the study 
on Tagal poetry — a compendium of that dialect reprinted at Sampaloc 

u Relative to this term bakaque, which I have met only once, in the Historia Franciscans, 
{parte I, lib. i, cap. 39,) is the following description of the black men, the Aetas, or negroes, of 
Negros, " and an totalmente desnudos," (the author says,) "ysolotraen cubiertas las partes 
verendas con unos como Lienzos, tirantes de atras a adelante, que se llamen Bahaques, los 
quales hacen de cortesas de Arboles majadas con gran tiento, de modo que ay algunos, que pare- 
cen Lienzo fino; y rodeandose por la Cintura un Bejuco, en el amarran el Bahaque por sua dos 
extreme*." See Zufiiga, i, 433, wherefore, perhaps, the significance of bahaque in the proverb. 


in 1787, from the first edition of 1703; and again at Manila, in 1879, 
by another member of the same brotherhood, Gaspar de San Agustin, 
author, besides, of one of the most valued Conquistas, or histories of 
the islands. 

For the study of Tagal refrains — for this people is ballad- lover to the 
core — and similar turns of speech, an excellent work, one unique of its 
kind, is the Coleccibn (Guadalupe, 1890), by two well-known Fran- 
ciscan linguists, Gregorio Martin and Mariano Martinez Cuadrado. 

The Tagal Arte (Sampaloc, 1745), along with a manual (also in 
Tagal) for the administration of the Sacraments, composed by the 
Franciscan missionary, Sebastian de Totanes, "is" (according to our 
bibliographer) " the best edition of the best grammar " written by mis- 
sionaries of that order. 

In Ilocano, another of the unnumbered dialects of Luzon, there is a 
good dictionary (Manila, 1849), by the Augustinian scholar, Andres 
Carro (aided by others of his brotherhood) — the first work of its kind, 
reprinted only a few years ago, in 1888. Serviceable, too, for the study 
of the same dialect — Ilocano — as doubtless easy to obtain, is the 
Catecismo, by another member of that same order, Francisco Lopez 
(Manila, 1877), whereof editions fairly without number have issued. 

In Batanes, or Vatanes, a dialect used in the islets north of Luzon, 
mission-field of the Dominicans, hard to reach, nor easy at best to live 
in, is composed the Catechism of the Christian Doctrine (Manila, 1834), 
by a missionary of that order — the only work, perhaps, printed in that 
language, wherein Retana states he is about to edit a grammar and 
dictionary. In his Biblioteca (p. 51) he gives the Ave Maria in 
Batanes, Ibanag and Ilocano, in order to show (he says) the diversities 
between these idioms. 

The Pampanga Arte (Manila, 1729), by the Augustinian, Diego 
Bergafio, an estimable aid to the would-be learner of that language, was 
reissued at Sampaloc in 1 736. By the same author is a dictionary of 
Pampanga — the only work of its class, printed at Manila, first in 1732, 
and again in i860. 

In the Ibanag tongue, otherwise Ibanay or Cagayan, the dictionary 
by the Dominican linguist, Jos6 Bugarin, and companions (Manila, 
I 854), we have what Retana styles a masterpiece of philological craft, 
"the first and (in fact) only vocabulary of that dialect," whereof of 
all Philippine tongues " the orthography is the most difficult to manage." 
In another place, however (p. 102), he has named another Ibanag die- 

tionary (Manila, 1867), constructed from Dominican MSS., to which 
similarly (by error I suppose) he has awarded seniority of press. Prior 
to the above date — 1854 — in that vast region of Cagayan, where, by 
the way, is grown the choicest tobacco in the Philippines, the mission - 
aries, for generation and generation of island-pupils had relied wholly 
on MS. copies of Padre Bugarin's dictionary. 

In Pangasinan, or Caboalan, dialect used in the province of the 
same name in Luzon, we have another linguistic treasure — the Arte of 
Mariano Pellicer, of the same brotherhood, reprinted at Manila, in 
1862, from the edition of 1690, whereof in the course of time, as writers 
tell us, it came to pass that up to about the middle of the present cen- 
tury only one copy survived. Then re-cast by Pellicer, in 1840, it was 
re-published by him some twenty years later. 

Of the Cuyona dialect I note two works of merit, — one (p. 113) an 
explanation of the Christian Doctrine (Manila, 1871), by the Recoleto 
missionary, Pedro Gibert de Santa Eulalia, edited by the Dominican 
Mariano Cuartero, first bishop of St. Isabel, or Elizabeth, of Jaro, in 
the island of Panay, one of the four suffragans of Manila, an industri- 
ous scholar, editor of many works in Indian dialects, whom the reader, 
however, is not to confound with another prelate of the same name, 
Recoleto bishop of Nueva Segovia, in Luzon, nephew of the former, 
who, in this one respect, was like his uncle — author of no book : 
while the other Cuyona treasure, whereof there are very few in that 
language, (" poquisimos libros," says Retana, p. 230), seven titles in 
all comprising the bibliography of that tongue, is the Plan of Religion 
(Manila, 1886), by the same industrious and scholarly Gibert. 

In the Gaddan idiom, wherein only two books have been printed, 
both very devotional in character, is a Catechism (Manila, 1833), 
and the Pathway to Heaven (Jb., 1873), by Dominican missionaries in 
the provinces of Nueva Vizcaya and Isabela, in Luzon. 

In the Aeta language of the Negritos, or little black men, perhaps 
the primitive race of the Philippines — whose name I have encountered 
in many forms of spelling, as Ata, Ataa, Aeta, Agta, Aita, Ita, 
Itaa, u there are similarly, only two works known to Retana, whose 
bibliographical notices have been of so much value, — one a Report 
on the Philippine Islands (Paris, 1885), addressed to the French Min- 
ister of Public Instruction by J. Montano, a book of over two hundred 
and nine pages, illumined with numerous phototypes, and, what 

u Retina's Appendix G. in Zfifiiga's Estadismo, ii, '49a. 


renders it of exceptional value, enriched with vocabularies, "the first," 
Retana declares, in Aeta, Bilaan, Manobo (of the natives of Mindanao), 
Satnal and Tagacaolo dialects. 

As companion volume to the above, though far smaller in bulk, is a 
little treatise (Dresden, 1893), °f double authorship, the German A. 
B. Meyer giving therein a very interesting Aeta vocabulary, and his 
Dutch co-laborer, H. Kern, a comparative study of the same tongue, 
which he traces to Malay ancestry. 

For the study of Chamorro, idiom of the Marianas Islands, one will 
find serviceable the little book of devotions (Manila, 1887), with 
counsels for the worthy reception of the Sacraments of God, (p. 248) 
— the only work, in fact, we have in this dialect, by the Recoleto linguist 
and traveler, Aniceto Ibafiez del Carmen. 

Finally, with three other samples of the Philippine press as proofs 
of the variety of its polyglot fonts, and I shall have done with this 
digression on the many languages used in this part of Polynesia, — one 
a grammar in the dialect of Yap or Guap (p. 248), in the western 
Caroline archipelago (Manila, 1888), composed apparently by the 
Capuchin missionary, Ambrosio de Valencia; the second (p. 332) a 
Hispano- Kanaka dictionary (Tambobong, 1892), by another Capuchin 
wanderer, according to Retana, Agustin Maria de Arifiez. While the 
last, a work, as will readily be acknowledged, of interest as well as im- 
portance to ethnologists, linguists, Americanists especially, is the list of 
Nahuatlisms of Costa Rica (San Jos6 de Costa Rica, 1892), by Juan 
Fernandez Ferraz, a goodly-sized volume of over two hundred pages, 
wherein, on purely linguistic grounds, the author has maintained the 
kinship of our own Central Americans and the Philippinians, from the 
fact especially that in the respective countries ot these two antipodal 
peoples, abound very many terms of every-day use, with identical spell- 
ing and meaning. In his Biblioteca (p. 340), Retana has gathered a 
few of these homonyms and synonyms. 

Such, then, are the chief authorities on language among our Philip- 
pina that, while entertaining, nay instructing the philologist, will delight 
also the general student, the writers whereof, as the reader will not be slow 
to observe, were in far larger number all churchmen and missionaries. 

In fact, of the 1142 authors, whose works he has enumerated {Bib- 
lioteca, xxxv — xxxvi), Retana states that four hundred and sixty-six are 
ecclesiastics, that is, ninety-eight secular clergymen and three hundred 
and sixty-eight members of religious brotherhoods, whereof the Augus- 


tinians — the writer's own order — numbering one hundred and forty-one 
authors, inclusive of thirty-seven Recoletos — the bare-footed branch of 
that fraternity — figure highest. Next in rank, we have one hundred 
Dominicans, then fifty-seven Jesuits, fifty-six Franciscans, and fourteen 
authors of orders not specified. 

Of these brotherhoods, who thus in Malaysia, as in other quarters of 
the globe, brought forth so brilliant an array of scholars and philanthro- 
pists, the first-named, the Augustinians, with Legazpi, crossing two 
oceans and one continent therefore, found a home in the Philippines at 
the conquest of that archipelago in 1565 j in 1577 the first Franciscans 
reached the isles; in 158 1, the Dominicans, with the first bishop of 
Manila (by actual possession), Domingo Salazar, member of the same 
brotherhood, accompanied too by some Jesuits, while the Recoletos first 
crossed the Pacific in 161 1. 

These churchmen, with very few exceptions Spanish, with later on 
a sprinkling of Portuguese, Dutchmen, Germans, Italians and Irishmen, 
scholars, as a rule, of fair repute, some even of European eminence, 
from their advent into Polynesia, besides their care in implanting 
Christian altruism, wherewith only (as history attests) thrive science 
and art, have toiled ever since to imbue these islanders, whom they 
found heathen — without letters, laws, or settled abode — with learning, 
the arts of husbandry, building, carving, painting, weaving, and the 
like graces of intellectual grandeur — in brief, with whatever of civili- 
zation now marks Malaysian genius. 

From Manila, as centre of intellectual enlightenment for all eastern 
Asiatic and Polynesian lands in the sixteenth century, were transplanted 
the germs of philanthropy — of wisdom and charity — to Borneo, the 
Carolines, Moluccas, as well as the mainland of Asia, to China and 
Japan, while in India the Portuguese, with headquarters at Goa, ful- 
filled the same destiny as their Iberian brothers. 

Speaking of the heroism of these self-exiled churchmen and worshipers 
of the Christian Minerva in Asiatic tropics, I quote the words of the famed 
French savant, Elis6e Reclus, a witness, by the way, in no measure par- 
tial to cloister life. In his Universal Geography " he declares that " Los 
Filipinos son de los pueblos mas civilizados del Extremo Oriente. Los 
han civilizado los frailes" — that is, "The Philippines are one of the 
most civilized people of the Far East. The friars have civilized them." 

14 This quotation is from page 28 of Apostolado de la Prensa, No. 83 (Madrid, 1898). which 
locates it in tome xiv, p. 541, of Reclus. 


Some Literary Curios among Philippina. 

Among the curios of artistic and literary cast, your bright-minded 
reader, if on the alert to spy anything deserving of notice, will find here 
and there in Retana's pages enshrined many a bit of out-of-the-way 
information. The following half dozen or so of oddities will probably 
be acknowledged, not unworthy of mention among these Philippina: 

They are La Razon : A Plea Against Certain Vexatious Encroach- 
ments of the Crown on Mexican and Manila Trade, by Jose Nufio de 
Villavicencio (Sampaloc, 1737), which bears on its cover the most tasty 
design by Philippine burin — a plate illustrative of the contents of the 
Plea, engraved by Francisco Suarez, a Tagal artist. 

El Cosmopolita — The Cosmopolitan — (Manila, 1895-1896), the first 
periodical (p. 458), with phototypes, published in the islands. 

The first Almanac and Guide-Book for strangers and travelers, with 
a Map of the Archipelago, was issued at Manila for the year 1834. 

The newspaper — El Ilocano — a biweekly, published in Spanish 
and Ilocano at Manila (p. 464), from 1889 to 1896 (?) was the first 
periodical written in Indian dialect. 

Again, another periodical — El Hogar (p. 464), The Fireside — a 
weekly, of 16 pages, started at Manila in 1892, under the direction 
of Madam Amparo G6mez de la Serna, was the first paper devoted to 
science, letters, beaux-arts, and useful information published almost ex- 
clusively in the interests of women, while the Revista de Filipinas 
(p. 132), a bi-weekly, that, starting at Manila in 1875, lived only two 
years, is the worthiest of Philippine periodicals, noticeable chiefly for 
the deeply scientific cast of its papers. 

The Romancero Filipino, a work of fancy (Manila, 1892), by Man- 
uel Romero Aquino, is styled (p. 554) by Retana the neatest and best 
piece of work by Philippine pen. 

While The American Soldier, a four-page daily newspaper, whereof 
the opening number is dated Manila, September 10, 1898, is the first 


periodical, maybe print of any sort, in the English language, published 
in the islands. 

With the foregoing extravaganzas of literature we note that the series 
of Philippine periodicals, which in Retana's own collection number 
(he says) one hundred and twelve, in their entirety do not surpass 
one hundred and sixty. Of his own he gives the titles (Bib/iofeeo, 
xxiii-xxviii) from Del Superior Gobierno, the first newspaper issued in 
the islands, with the imprint of Manila, August 8, 1811, down to the 
latest — Thi Kon Leche (Tea and Milk) — a four-page weekly satirical 
periodical, with illustrations (in two colors), published at Manila 
in 1898. 

The oldest piece of what we may style distinctively Philippine 
literature, whereof, moreover, only one copy is believed to be extant, 
albeit printed abroad in Europe, is an Account of Legazpi's Expedition 
from Mexico to Cebu in 1565, sent from Seville to one Miguel 
Salvador, of Valencia, and printed one year later at Barcelona. This 
Copia — thus entitled in Retana — heads his list of Philippina, a study of 
which, with the supplement (p. 505 et sea.), discloses the fact that of the 
books that head his Biblioteca, the first nineteen were printed abroad — 
eighteen in Europe ; that is, nine in Spain, at Barcelona, Madrid, 
Burgos, Valencia and Seville ; seven in Italy, at Rome, Genoa and 
Venice; one each in France, at Paris, and in Flanders, at Antwerp 
("Amberes" in the Spanish), where a Mendoza's History of China 
was printed in 1596, by Bellero ; and the nineteenth in Mexico. 

The first fruit itself of the Philippine press — thus styled by Retana, 
though mistakenly, we judge — was the Spanish- Japanese Dictionary of 
1630, on which I will make some remarks when treating of the early 
Philippine press. 

Moreover, it is noticeable that of these earliest Philippina not one of 
them treats distinctively of religious matters, but — with the exception 
of two, Fragoso's and Acosta's Botanies, or works on Eastern flora — are 
wholly historical in character, embracing, as they do, along with the 
Copia of 1566, eleven editions of the still estimable history of China and 
other Asiatic lands, by the Augustinian traveler, Juan Gonzalez de 
Mendoza, whereof the Roman edition (by Vincenzo Acolti in 1585) gives 
plates illustrative of Chinese typographical symbols — the first shown to 
Europeans. Of this history, it may be observed, thirty-eight editions 
have appeared in all — in Latin, Spanish, Italian, French, German, 
Dutch, and English. Among these early Philippina — to continue our 


analysis — is a history of that archipelago, by the Franciscan chronicler, 
Marcelo de Ribadeneyra ; a report on the same islands, by the Jesuit 
scholar, Pedro Chirino — the first work of its kind published in Europe 
(Rome, 1604), with diagrams of Philippine characters — signs, namely, 
employed by the natives in writing, whereof, says Retana, '* a miser- 
able edition " was printed at Manila in 1890. Then follow other works, 
among them a story of the conquest of the Moluccas, one of the six- 
teenth century names of the Philippines, a work of utmost value to the 
historical writer, composed by the presbyter, Bartholome Leonardo de 
Argensola (Madrid, 1609) > tnen a trustworthy account of the triumph 
of Spanish arms in the Philippines, by Antonio de Morga, auditor- 
general of the crown in those colonies, printed in Mexico in 1609; 
and lastly the report of Governor Francisco Guzman de Tello, eleventh 
captain-general of those islands (Seville, 1598 ?). 

The two merely scientific works, alluded to ahead, are " Discourses 
on Aromatic Things — Plants, Fruit, and the like simple Medicines 
employed in the East Indies," composed by Juan Fragoso, a rare and 
curious work (Madrid, 1572) ; and a Treatise on the Drugs and Medi- 
cines used in the East Indies, with plates representing various plants, 
by Cristobal Acosta, published first in Spanish at Burgos in 1578; in 
Latin (in two editions) in 1582 and 1593; in French (also in two 
editions) in 1602 and 1619; lastly in English in 1604. 




Philippine Presses. 

Now for a description of the different printing-presses— or, rather, 
places — in the Philippines, from the earliest named by Retana in his 
Biblioteca, in all fourteen distinct localities, where printing was carried 
on in the three islands of Luzon, Panay and Cebu. 

I# — From an analysis of the titles I find that Manila ranks earliest, 
where (with limitations to be set later) a printing-press was established 
in 1630, in which year, at the Dominican College of St. Thomas, a 
Spanish- Japanese dictionary, the work of Portuguese Jesuit missionaries 
and scholars, now translated into Spanish, was printed by Tomas 
Pinpin, a native Tagal, and Jacinto Magaurlua. This dictionary (now 
extremely rare), even though not the first book printed in the islands, as 
stated by Retana, must yet be ranked among the earliest specimens of 
Philippine literature. 

In his Bibliography three different titles (we may observe) bear the 
imprint of Manila, with the name of this city spelled according to the 
ancient aboriginal form, albeit but slightly varied from the present — 
"Maynila" — otherwise, as I have read it, " Mainilla," a variant in 
orthography one encounters in old chronicles — a Tagal word (it seems) 
signifying a species of shrub or bush, in the Spanish rendered arbusto, 
that in 15 71 was found to cover the site of the new city projected by the 
conquistadores, under the leadership of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi. 

In this same year, it may be added, the site of the future metropolis 
of Malaysia was taken possession of by Spanish arms, with due observ- 
ance of ceremonial, sealed with the three local chieftains, 15 Lacandola, 
Matanda and Soliman, by blood-bargain — pacto de sangre. 1 * Here, too, 

15 In old Spanish chronicles it is a common thin); to meet such titles of these Indian rulers, 
as Ladia, Radia, Raxa, and Raja. Lacandola was rajah of Manila. 

18 The Augustinian chronicler, Grijalva, is one of the earliest writers to describe this rite, 
which, according to him, is performed as follows: " La cerimonia se haze, sacando delos 
pecbos delos que conttaen la amistad una poca de sangre, y mezclando la una, y la otra en un 
poco de vino, le veuen por iguales partes los contrayentes." (Cronaca del Orden, from 
1533-1592, Mexico (in the Augustinian Convent), 1624.) Quotation from Zufiiga, ii, 215. 
From Buzeta, i, 395, it appears that blood-bargain was first entered into by Legazpi (in 1565) 
at Bohol, with Chief Sicatuna. 


at Manila, the second church in Malaysia devoted to the Supreme Being, 
the first having been founded at Cebu, was dedicated the same year 
(1571) to God, under the most fitting title of the Conversion of St. Paul 
the Apostle, first great missionary to heathendom. At Cebu, by agree- 
ment with Chief Tupas, the standard of Christian comity — the Cross — 
had been reared in 1565, and its church dedicated in honor of St. Michael 
Archangel, name-saint of Legazpi, though shortly after rechristened 
El Santo Nino — the Holy Child — its title today. 

The three works then printed at " Maynila," or Bush Town, in 
Luzon, are a Manual of Devotions to St. Roch, translated into Tagal by 
the Augustinian missionary, Esteban Diez, a skilled Tagalist, in 1820; 
a periodical — the Revista Catblica — whereof the first and only number 
(p. 309) was issued in 1890; and lastly, a weekly paper (the same as 
the former) in Tagal, published in 1896. 

2. — The second place to witness the establishment of a press was 
Sampaloc, in Zambales province, in Luzon, where, in 1736, at the 
Franciscan convent of Our Lady of Loreto, was printed the Augustinian 
Diego Bergafio's Arte, in Pampanga — first fruit, it seems, of typo- 
graphical genius in that pueblo. While the last imprint with the name 
of Sampaloc is an almanac, or church calendar, for the year 1838 (more 
probably, however, printed the year ahead), when the old press, founded 
by Franciscan friars a hundred years before, disappears. 

3. — At Tayabas, in the province of the same name, in Luzon (p. 31), 
was printed a Tagal dictionary, by the Franciscan, Totanes, now sup- 
planted, however, by Noceda's far superior work on philological score, 
especially with the additions made thereto by the Augustinians in the 
Manila edition of i860. This Tayabas imprint is the only work I have 
encountered with the name of that pueblo. 

4. — The first Cavite imprint (p. 38) dates (it seems) from 18 15 — a 
church calendar for the following year; while the last, with the name 
of this Manila suburb written, however, with a K — " Kavite" — is an 
appeal of the revolutionary party in 1898 (p. 451), under the official 
seal of the Gobierno Dictatorial de Filipinos. 

5. — Binondo is the fifth place, whereof the first work — statistical 
reports of Franciscan missionaries — was printed in 1865 ; the last, 
Jose Patricio Clemente's Moral Lectures for Youth (p. 540), in 1872. 
In regard, however, to this town, it should be observed that in his 
earlier bibliography (ed. 1893) Retana names a work printed by Pinpin 
in the Hospital of St. Gabriel, at Binondo, in 1623. 


6. — At Vigan, the old Villa Fernandina of the Ilocos, known also to 
Spaniards as Nueva Segovia, a city founded in the sixteenth century by 
Juan Salcedo, one of the captains under Legazpi, and so christened by 
him in memory of his native place in Spain, but now known as Lalo, or 
Lal-lo, — here was started a Sunday newspaper, El Eco de Vigan, pub- 
lished in Ilocano in 1883, that died, however, a year after birth. 

7. — In Iloilo (on the island of Panay) was printed, in 1885, the 
pastoral letter of Alejandro Arrue, Recoleto bishop of St. Isabel, or 
Elizabeth, of Jaro. 

8. — Then comes Guadalupe, eighth place on our list, a sanctuary 
village on the left bank of the river Tasig, a couple of leagues from 
Manila, a shrine founded by Augustinians in 1601, in honor of St. 
Nicholas, the wonder-worker of Tolentino, a place visited yearly by 
great numbers of Chinese Confucians, as well as Christians, who hold 
that saint in highest and most singular veneration. At Guadalupe, in 
1886, issued two works from the orphanage press — An Abridgment of 
the Christian Doctrine of Pouguet and Fleuri, drawn up in Bisaya by 
Father Mateo Perez, Augustinian cure of Argao; and Lozano's Novena 
to St. Thomas of Villanova. The last imprint of Guadalupe — a Tagal 
Catechism, by Luis de Amezquita, a brother missionary of P6rez — bears 
the date 1890. 

9. — The earliest sample of Cebu print — the island where, under 
Legazpi, three centuries earlier, civilization first found a footing in 
Malaysia — is a work that elicits from Retana remarkable praise, in view 
of the difficulties that attended its printing ; the paper — such was the 
dearth in the Visayas of proper material for good press-work — being of 
five or six different qualities in body, make, color. This work, that 
I think we may style a triumph of adaptive art, is the Ensayo para una 
GaUria de Asturianos ilustres, a genealogical monument (in three 
volumes), by the Augustinian antiquary, Fabiano Rodriguez, begun in 
1888 and completed in 1893. While the last Cebu imprint, a govern- 
ment statistical report on crime and the like, is dated 189a. 

10. — Tamb6bong, a pueblo near the coast, in Tondo province, about 
three miles from Manila, comes tenth in our list, where, at the orphan 
asylum of Our Lady of Consolation, in 1889, was printed a weekly 
newspaper — the Rtvista Catblica de Filipinas — discontinued in 1896. 
While the last imprint from this press — An Abridgment of the History 
of Spain (of only eight pages) — was issued, presumably, in 1897. 

11. — At Nueva Caceres, or Camarines, in Luzon, a town founded in 


the sixteenth century by Governor Francisco Sande, in memory of his 
birthplace in Estremadura, but now known even officially as Naga, 
the first work bearing the name of that pueblo — a hand-book of devo- 
tions — issued from the press of the Sagrada Familia, in 1 893 ; and 
two years later (in 1895) the last — A Life of St. Monica and her son, 
St. Augustine — written, the same as the former, in Blcol dialect. 

12. — In 1895, we read the earliest printed samples of Malab6n art — 
a poetical tribute of gratitude to Our Lady of Welcome — Bien-Venida, 
one of the many titles of the Mother of God, so dear to Philippine soul, 
by Fructuoso Arias Camis6n, from the orphan-press of Our Lady of Con- 
solation (in care of August inians). Only once, it may be noted, is the 
name of this pueblo — encountered quite frequently in Retana, the same 
(he says) as Tamb6bong, written " Malabong," a somewhat unusual 
form of spelling — employed by Manuel Sastr6n, in his description of 
Batangas, printed in 1895. 

From several specimens of Malabon press- work, now before me, I 
may observe that, for accuracy in composition, neatness — in brief, of 
general excellence in workmanship — these samples of the orphanage 
establishment at Malabon would not fail to honor even a Philadelphia 

Two years ago (in 1898), just prior to the siege of Manila, under the 
care of two Fathers and four lay-brothers of the Augustinians, resident 
at this orphan asylum, one hundred and one lads were being taught the 
following trades: 13 compositors, 12 press- workers, 30 bookbinders, 
3 gilders, 43 candlemakers, while 44 other youngsters, too small for 
hard work, were, the same as their seniors, given food, clothing, and 
shelter ; " while similarly, at Mandaloya orphan asylum for girls, con- 
ducted by twenty- two sisters (of the same order), a hundred and 
twenty-two lassies were taught music (piano), painting, drawing, em- 
broidery, flower-, lace- and dress-making, hair-dressing, laundry-work, 
and sewing. 18 

But alas ! it is feared that through the grim fate of war a like dis- 
aster, as has wrecked many another fair shrine of learning and art in 
countries even nearer our own, has befallen our studios and laboratories 
at Malab6n and Mandaloya, that therefrom their inmates — orphans, 
instructors and care-takers are now wanderers, with their treasures 
ravished, their homes destroyed. 

" From the report of the Orphanage for 1897-1898, in Estado General, Malabon, 1898. 
11 From the report of the Orphanage at Mandaloya, in Estado (as ahead). 



13. — Then we meet with a work printed in 1896, at the revolution- 
ary press at Imus, in Cavite province, in Luzon, — a proclamation (in 
Tagal) — the only imprint bearing the name of l\\\s pueblo. 

14. — Finally, in 1898, at Mandaloyon, or Mandaloya (named ahead), 
an old hacienda of the Augustinians in Tondo province, in Luzon, the 
morning-paper — La Republica Filipina — began publication with the 
flag of the new-born republic in colors for heading, — the first journal 
of the Tagal insurgents, that had so much to do in bringing about the 
downfall of Spanish rule in the Philippines. 

Before concluding this section on early presses, we may add the 
references made by Retana to other Philippine prints than the ones given 
in his Biblioteca. In a former work 19 he states that by certain writers, 
whom he names, presses were said to have been established on 
the isle of Luzon, viz: at Bacolor in 1619; Macabebe in 1621 ; 
and Tayabas in 1703. Similarly, he cites two works, named by 
the Franciscan antiquarian Huerta as having been printed at Manila 
earlier than the Bugarin dictionary — the Devocion Tagalog in 1610; 
and a Diccionario in 16 13, both (according to Huerta) from the press 
of Tomas Pinpin, the Tagal printer. Moreover, under the heading of 
"Manila" and "Pinpin," Retana gives the dates of several still older 
imprints than the Japanese dictionary of 1630, which in his Biblioteca 
has been accorded the honor of senior of the Philippine press. 

The reason for the omission of these titles in Retana's later bibli- 
ography, that otherwise would seem unaccountable, is perhaps a doubt 
as to their genuinity. But why he should fail to mention this flaw in 
their line of ancestral title, is like many another perplexing problem 
that the scholar is apt to encounter in his wanderings through the 
shadowy, albeit delightful and fascinating realm of letters. 

We now pass on to the question of the introduction of the press into 
the Philippines. 

19 See Appendix B, in ZuAiga's Estadismo, ii, *I05— *U3, where Retana baa given, with a 
list of the early presses in the Philippines, the names of the printers. 



Introduction op Printing into the 

As regards the introduction of printing itself into that archipelago, 
wherein (as writers agree) the first press was set to work in the opening 
years of the seventeenth century, yet there is dispute as to two points, 
— the precise date, namely, when the printing-press was first established 
there, and the country whence it was carried to those islands. 

Though in his Biblioteca Retana inferentially states that the Spanish- 
Japanese Dictionary of 1630 was the earliest Philippine imprint, yet in 
another work of a few years ahead, one of his numerous valuable appen- 
dices to Zufiiga's Travels, 10 the same author has maintained, rightly and 
soundly enough it would seem, a wholly different opinion. There he 
reproduces the title-page of a work printed twenty years earlier, in 1 610, 
which he himself saw in the Museo Biblioteca de Ultramar, whereof 
the title (he declares) is as follows : 

Arte y Reglas | de la Lengua | Tagala. | Por el Padre. F. Fray 
Francisco de. S. Joseph de la | Orde de. S. Domingo Predicador 
General en la Prouincia | de. N. Senora del Rosario de las Islas 
Filipinas. | 

\Here the Grand Seal of the Dominican Order (in wood) with this 

I Mihi avtem ab | sit glorianisi incruce Dni Nri IESVXPIAD — | 
GAL. 6. I 

I En el Partido de Bataan | galo, Aflo de 16 10. | 

Substantially the aforesaid title means that the book — a Tagal gram- 
mar — was composed by Father Francisco de S. Joseph (whose family- 
name (as otherwise known) was Blancas), of the Dominican Order, 
preacher-general of his province of Our Lady of the Rosary in the 
Philippines, and printed at Bataan, a.d. i6io. w 

80 Zufliga Estadismo, H, 101. 

» Provinces of the other friars in Malaysia (including the Philippines) are entitled as fol- 
lows : Augustinians— Most Holy Name of Jesus ; Franciscans— St. Gregory the Great ; Hos- 
pitallers— St. Raphael Archangel ; Recoletos— St. Nicholas of Tolentino. 

In one of his Appendices to Zufliga," Retana affirms that the 
printer of this Arte was the Tagal Tomas Pinpin. 

Why, then, with this sample of early Philippine typography before 
his eyes, presumably yet extant on the shelves of the Museo de Ultra- 
mar, Retana (whose interesting description of Blancas' Arte of 1610 
will shortly follow) should have deemed it right to omit all mention of 
it in his latest bibliography, wherein, so far as I can read, there is not the 
slightest reference to it, seems truly a literary conundrum— one that, for 
me at least, baffles all power of solution. 

However, accepting facts in the world of letters, as in the objective 
universe of God's creation, as they stand, as we see them and know 
them, with the guidance of Retana himself, we now proceed (as prom- 
ised) to a description of this Tagal grammar, the earliest specimen of 
Philippine typography known at least to be extant. 

Blancas' Arte is a book printed on rice paper — papel de arroz — with 
a preface of sixteen unnumbered pages and three hundred and eleven 
(of text) numbered, that is, three hundred and twenty-seven in all, yet 
in one instance wrongly paged, since the observant eye of our bibliog- 
rapher has detected that what really is page 157 in the Arte has been 
printed "156," the body of the grammar thus comprising, not 311 
pages, as the printer has made it, but in reality 312. 

On the verso of the title (that is, page 2) are given various licenses 
to print, issued among other officials by Miguel Ruiz of Binondoc (an 
old form apparently for the town now known as Binondo), this permit 
being dated February 6, 1609. Then follow the licenses of Father 
Blancas' own provincial superior, dated Manila, June 3, and another 
official's, whose name (Retana says) is missing by reason of the page 
having been torn, dated from Quiapo, on (month too wanting) 24, of 
the same year — 1609 — with the former. 

On the third page, with the date July 28, 1609, we read the names 
of several Manila church-officers, eight in all, licensing Father Blancas' 
Arte, among them the dean of the cathedral-chapter of Manila, the 
archdeacon Arellano, and Pedro de Rojas, who, as secretary apparently 
of that body, adds his attestation to the chapter-action above. 

From pages 4 to part of 7 is a Tagal Hymn to the Holy Virgin, 
Mother of Our Lord ; then following the finale of this hymn, a prayer 
to God, Almighty Giver of all intellectual light, for power to be granted 
His servants to learn of His wisdom and ability to tell it to the Tagals. 

n Zfifiiga Estadismo, Appendice B, ii, *I03, *io4, and *H5. 


Then, following some ancient Tagal characters, comes the grammar 
in chief, which has been printed (as is obvious) 13 from type, bearing 
distinct marks of use. Wherefore, since we have now concluded Re- 
tana's description of this Arte, we, in tum, may observe — the inference 
seems lawful — that our Bataan press of 1610 had been at work before 
that year, and Father Blancas' Arte is not the earliest Philippine imprint. 

A point made by Retana with reference to Bataan, place of imprint 
on the title thereof, is to this effect that instead of Bataan, name (he 
says) of a province, and in olden time of a very unimportant pueblo 
(known, however, more correctly as "Batan"), 1 * one should read 
Abucay, capital of the province of Bataan, a far likelier place for the 
establishment of a printing-office. 16 

So much, then, for the still more ancient work than Bugarin's dic- 
tionary of 1630. 

But how much earlier than 16 10, date of the Tagal Arte, or in 
what part of the Philippine archipelago, the press was at work, is 
a puzzle, that relying on the only authorities bearing in any manner 
on the priority of the press, we shall now seek to unravel. 

When referring to this question of early typography* Retana declares 
that there are only two authors that treat of the introduction of the press 
into the Philippines,— one the history of his province (of the Holy 
Rosary), which with the Philippines embraced also China and Japan, by 
the Dominican traveler and missionary, Father Diego Aduarte, whose 
work, published at Manila, in 1640, is the second title in our Biblioteca, 
bearing the name of that city as place of imprint, and the only old- 
time authority (in print) treating of ancient Malaysian typography. 

The other is a history (published a few years ago) entitled La 
Orden de Predicadores , of the Dominicans (Madrid, 1884), by a 
member of that brotherhood, Father Martinez-Vigil, at one time 
resident at Manila, where he held a chair in the university of that city, 
and now (1900) bishop of Oviedo in Spain. 

We shall, therefore, summon these two witnesses in the question in 
point of primeval Philippina. 

Aduarte's reference to early typography" contains substantially the 

** Thus Retina, ii, ^103 (as above). 
•* Zufiiga Estadismo, ii, •350. 

* Id., ii, •io*— 'ios. 

* Id., ii, *<)5-*!oo. 

** For the original in full (too long to quote here) see Re*zna in Estadismo (as above), ii, 
*95~*98, where it covers nearly three pages. 

following statements : that living with the Fathers of his Order (at 
Binondo) was a Christian Chinese, named Juan de Vera, a most 
worthy man, printer by trade, who had learned his art at home, and 
" the first printer " in the Philippines ; that moreover he was employed 
by Father Blancas in getting out divers hand-books of devotion for the 
Indians, as well as for the missionaries themselves; and that as the said 
Juan was a good worker, always busy at his trade, he printed very many 
books, among them a Memorial of the Christian life ; book on the 
postrimerias — that is, the Four Great Last Truths — Death, Judgment, 
Heaven, Hell; Preparation for Communion ; Confession-Book; the 
Mysteries of the Rosary; an Arte for the Tagals, or Aid to learn 
Spanish, and the like. Such are the titles of some of the books printed 
at Binondo by Juan de Vera. 

Commenting on the above statements of Aduarte, our bibliographer, 
however, makes this very sensible observation, — the omission, namely, 
of any positive information on two points of utmost importance to the 
antiquary and historian, — at what time, that is, was de Vera's press set 
up in the Philippines ; and whence was it brought to those islands ? 
Anent the first press it is noteworthy (according to the unanimous 
opinion of critics) that it certainly was not carried thither from Spain, 
though maybe sent over from Mexico, where printing was established 
in the early years of the sixteenth century, Retana, however, maintaining 
as likelier that the first printing-outfit introduced into the Philippines 
was brought thither from Japan, where (as we otherwise know) a 
book, the Sanctos no Gosagueo, or Compendium of the Lives of the 
Saints, was printed at the Jesuit College at Katsusa, in 1591. In the 
same kingdom I find printed (at another Jesuit College) at " Nanga- 
saki," in 1603, the Vocabulario de Japbn, Japanese ancestor of the 
old Bugarin dictionary elsewhere referred to (in this paper) as having 
been published at Manila in i63o. M In Japan, — the fact is worth 
noting, — ten different works were printed in Roman characters prior 
to the year 1599. 

But let us return to Luzon. If Aduarte is right in his assertion that 
Juan de Vera was " the first printer in the Philippines," then the press 
was at work prior to the year 1610, and the Tagal Arte (just described) 
is not the forerunner of Philippine imprints. 

* The Jesuit Mixtion Press in Japan. 1591-1610. By Ernest Mason Satow. [Privately 
printed.] 18S8, where you will find reproduced in photographic facsimile the title-page of 
the above-named books. 


So much for one of Retana's oracles. Now pass we on to consider 
the second and only other writer that, with original sources at hand, 
has treated of this bibliographical problem, Father Martinez-Vigil, who, 
in the story of his order (named ahead) mentions this fact, that when 
resident at Manila he was shown a very rich codex — a MS. — of over 
six hundred folios, on Chinese paper, in perfect condition, for many 
reasons (all duly set forth) of unassailable authenticity, and albeit (he 
remarks) somewhat hard to decipher, except to a palaeontologist, yet 
written with marvelous clearness and neatness of penmanship. In this 
MS., which (the Father says) was written during the years 1 609-1610, 
besides an account of all notable occurrences in the islands from 1581 
to 1606, with which latter year the story ends, four years earlier, you 
should observe, than Pinpin's Arte of 161 o, are also to be read these 
words : "Los que primero imprimieron fueron del 6rden de San Agus- 
tin el P. Fr. Juan de Villanueva, algunos tratadillos ; mas del 6rden de 
Sto. Domingo el P. Fr. Francisco de San Joseph cosas mayores y 
de mas tomo el primero que escribio en lengua araya fue de la 

Whereof, the meaning substantially is, that " the first printers (in 
the Philippines) were of the Order of St. Augustine, among them 
Father Juan de Villanueva, publisher of some small treatises — tratadil- 
los ; then others of the Order of St. Dominic, of whom Father Fran- 
cisco de San Joseph printed works of larger bulk, and was the first of 
his brethren to write in araya (Tagal ?)." 

Here then, in these quotations from two Dominican monu- 
ments — Aduarte's history and the MS. (quoted by Martinez- Vigil), 
the latter ending with events of the year 1606 — you have all that 
antiquity tells of the introduction of the printing-press into the 

To the assertion (in the MS.), relative to the Augustinian press, may 
be appended an item or so in regard to the art-establishment of that 
order at Lubao, in Pampanga province in Luzon, which I have picked 
up from one of their chroniclers, Gaspar de San Agustin, a Tagal and 
Visaya linguist, who died, some say at Tondo, others at Manila, in 
1724, after nearly fifty years' mission -service in the islands. In his 
history (Madrid, 1698), are the following words in reference to Lubao 
convent: "Se han celebrado en este Convento algunos Capitulos in- 
termedios y mucho tiempo huvo Estudios menores de Gramatica y 
Retorica ; y teniamos tambien en el una muy buena I mprenta, traida 


del Jap6n, en que se imprimian muchoa libros, assi en la lengua Espa- 
fiola como Pampanga y Tagala." " 

In brief, that is, Father Caspar says that "in Lubao convent, 
where the order maintained a school of grammar and rhetoric, there 
was a press (brought from Japan), whereon many books were printed 
in Spanish, Pampanga, and Tagal." May we not, then, be justified in 
surmising that this Lubao press was the one referred to in the MS. ad- 
duced by Martinez-Vigil, that attributes to Augustinians the introduction 
of typography into the Philippines? And, moreover, since the said 
ancient MS. ends with the year 1606, that this Lubao press was at 
work at a still earlier date ? 

But, enough. With no originals at hand, we feel disinclined to pur- 
sue this topic further as to the priority of printing in the islands, nor 
do we care to press the question, whether, namely, the first book of 
Philippine manufacture was Bugarin's dictionary of 1630, Blancas' Arte 
of 1610, or the Lubao tratadillos of 1606. 

In our own colonies (we may observe) printing was introduced, first 
at Cambridge in Massachusetts, in 1638 ; while in Pennsylvania the first 
book printed — an almanac — by William Bradford, of Philadelphia, is 
dated 1685, a full half century later, that is, than the introduction of 
this "art preservative of arts " into Malaysia. 

 Zfifiiga, Estadismo, ii, •m— *na. 








BORIGINESof Philippines, their 

rites, etc. . .13 

Abridgment of Christian Doctrine of 

Pouguet and Fleuri . 29 

History of Spain, at Tambobong 29 

Abucay, capital of province of Pataan 34 

Acolti, Vincenzo . . .25 

Acosta, Christ6bal, Treatise on Drugs 

and Medicines used in 

East Indies, by 

various editions of his Treatise 

on Drugs 

Acosta' s Rotany 

Adanes, difficulty of conversion of 

Aduarte, Diego, Dominican mission 


on early Philippine typography 

Retana on statements of 

Aeta dialect or language : 

a parent tongue • 

antiquity of 

comparative study of 

Dictionary by Meyer, A.B. 

first vocabulary in 

meaning of the word bahaque in 19 

mother tongue in the Philippines 7 

Report on the Philippine Isl 

ands, in 
traced to Malay 
used in Negros 
various forms of spelling the 

word . . . .21 
Aetas of Negros described . .19 
Agta, a form of word Aeta . .21 
Aita, a form of word Aeta . .21 






, 22 

, 22 


Albuquerque, Agustin de, Augustin- 

ian missionary 
earliest Tagal Arte by 
fourth Superior in the Itiilippines 
Almanac printed at Sampaloc, 1838 . 

the first in Manila, 1834 
American colonies, when printing first 

introduced in 
American Soldier, first periodical in 

English, in Manila 
Amezquita, Luis de, Augustinian mis- 
sionary . . 1 '1, 
Tagal Catechism by . . 19, 
Aftay, a book-destroying ant described 
Annals of religious brotherhoods in 

the East 
Ant, see Anay 

Apayaos, difficulty of conversion of . 
Apostolado de la Prensa, quoted 
Aquino, Manuel Romero, author of 

Romancero Filipino 
Araya dialect, query same as Tagal . 
Archipelago del Sur, history of, by 

Arellano, archdeacon of cathedral 

chapter of Manila . 
Argao, Perez Mateo, Augustinian cure 


Ariiiez, Agustin Maria de, Capuchin 22 

Hispano- Kanaka Dictionary by . 22 

Arrue, Alejandro, pastoral letter by . 29 

Recoleto bishop . . .29 

Arte by Bergafto, Diego, in Pam- 

panga dialect, 1736 20, 28 
by Figuerroa, Antonio, described 1 8 












Arte by Mentrida . ... 6 

by Pellicer, Mariano, in Caboalan 

dialect . . . .21 

by Pellicer, Mariano, in Panga- 

sinan dialect . . .21 

earliest Tagal, 1580, described . 19 
equivalent to u aids to learning " 17 
for the Tagals printed at Bin- 

ondo . . . .35 

in Tagal, by Totanes, described 20 
M.S. account of tratadillos, in 

1606, before Pinpin's, 36, 37 
of Blancas in 1610 . . .37 

not earliest Philippine im- 
print . ... 34 
recast by Pellicer in 1840 . .21 
Arte y Reglas de la Lengua Tagala 

described . . .33 
Retana infers Pinpin to have 

been printer of .33 

Retana quotes this as earliest 

Philippine imprint . 32 

Ascension Island, various names of . 6 
Asia, mainland of . . . .23 
Ata, a form of word Acta . . 21 

Ataa, a form of word Aeta . .21 
Augustine, Saint, see Saint Augus- 
Augustinian : 

Amezquita, Luis de .19 

Bergafto, Diego . 20, 28 

Lopez, Francisco . . 20 
Mercado, Ignacio, the bot- 
anist . . . .10 
San Agustin, Gaspar de . 20 
Villanueva, Juan de . .36 
Zufiiga, Joaquin Martinez 
de, see Zuniga 
antiquary, Rodriguez, Fabiano 29 
chronicler, Grijalva . . ,27 
experts revised Tagal Dictionary 19 
missionary, Albuquerque, Agus- 
tin de . . . . 19 
Amezquita, Luis de . .29 
Diez, Esteban . . .28 

Augustinian : 

missionary, Martin, Julian 
Ortiz, Tomis 
Perez, Mateo 
order of Friars 
scholar, Cairo, Andres 

Encarnaci6n, Juan Felix 

dela . 
Mentrida, Alonso de 
traveler, Gonzalez de Mendoza 
writer, Blanco, Manuel 4, 

Carillo, Manuel 
Augustinians, colonial museum at 
Valladolid of 
founded shrine of Guadalupe 
1601 .... 
furnished first Philippine print- 
ers .... 
held old hacienda at Mandaloya 
in charge of orphan-press of 

managed Malabon Orphanage 

Mandaloya Orphanage 
one hundred and forty-one in 
eluded in Retana' s cata 
Province of Most Holy Name of 


settled in Philippines 1565 

Authorities on Philippine dialects 8 

Ave Maria in various dialects de 

scribed . 
Avila, Lafuente, Casimiro, membei 
of brotherhood at . 



►ACOLOR, printing-press 

lished, 1619, at 
Bagobo dialect or language 
Bahaque, likely is Aeta . 

meaning of word doubtful . 
Bancroft, Hubert, indebted to annals 

of religious brotherhoods 

for his material 
Baranda, Isidro Sainz de, government 

inspector of mines . . 



















Baranda, I si dm Sainz dc, on geology 

of the Philippines . .II 
Barbara, Santa, see Santa Barbara 
Barcelona, books published at, see 
oldest piece of Philippine liter- 
ature printed at .25 
plates of Flora lithographed at . 4 
Bataan, books published at, see Books 

Retail* upon .34 

Batan, original spelling of Bataan . 34 

see Bataan 
Batanes dialect or language . . 5 
Ave Maria in . . . .20 

Catechism of Christian Doctrine 

in .... 20 

used in Isle of Batanes . 5 

islets north of Luzon . . 20 

Batangas, by Sastron, Manuel . . 30 

Bergaflo, Diego, Arte by . . .28 

Arte in Pampanga dialect by . 20 

Augustinian . . 20, 28 

Dictionary of Pampanga dialect 

by . . . .20 

Biblioteca by Retana, enumerates 

1 142 authors . . 22 

first nineteen books enumerated 

were printed abroad . 25 
Ortiz' Practica omitted in . .13 

quoted, 5, 6, 16, 20, 22, 25, 31, 32 
Bicol dialect or language . . .5 
hand-book of devotions in . 30 

Life of Saint Monica in -3° 

Bien- Venida, by Camison, Fractuoso 

Arias . . . -30 

Bilaan dialect or language . . 5 

first vocabulary in .22 

Bilao, described by Zuniga . . 13 

Binondo, Arte of Visaya idiom used 

in, described . . .18 

books published at, see Books 
early Philippine books printed by 

Juan de Vera . . 35 

fifth printing-press in Philippines 

at 28 

Binondo, Retana authority for a work 
printed by Pinpin at 
Ruiz, Miguel, an official of 
see Binondoc 
Binondoc, old form of Binondo 

see Binondo 
Bisaya dialect or language : 

Abridgment of Christian Doc 

trine in . 
best works for the study of, de 

first dialect in the Philippines 
generic name . 
Bisaya- Montes dialect or language, 
Blancas de San Jose, Francisco 
Arte of 1610 . 
assisted by Vera, Juan de . 
Dominican . . . 32 
his Arte described . 

not earliest Philippine im 
Tagal language written by 
Blanco, Manuel, Augustinian writer 4, 10 
author of Flora, . . 4, 10 

translator into Tagal of Tissot's 

work on medicine . . 10 
Blood-bargain, rite of, described . 27 
Blumentritt, Fernando, on identity 

of Polynesians . . 7 

Bohol the scene of Legazpi's blood- 
bargain .... 
Bonabe, a dialect of Yap 
Bongsol, described by Zaftiga . 
Bonibet, a dialect of Yap 
Books published at : 

Barcelona, Legazpi's Expedition, 

1566 .... 

Bataan, Arte y Reglas de la 

Lengua Tagala, 1610 . 

Binondo, Arte for the Tagals . 

Arte of the Visaya idiom, 

1872 .... 

Clemente, Jose Patricio, 

Moral Lectures, 1872 . 28 
Confession- Book . . 35 













Books published at : 

Binondo, Memorial of the Chris- 
Han Life . . .35 
Mysteries of the Rosary . 35 
Postrimerias . . .35 

Preparation for Communion 35 
re-issue of school book of San 

Jeronimo, Tomasde, 1876 18 
statistical reports of Fran- 
ciscan Missionaries, 1865 28 
work by Pinpin, 1623 . 28 

Burgos, Treatise on Drugs and 

Medicines, 1578 . . 26 
Cavite, Church calendar, 1 81 5 . 28 
Gobierno Dictatorial de 
Filipinos . . .28 
Cebu, Ensayo . . . Asturianos, 

1888-1893 . . .29 
statistical report on crime, 
1892 . . .29 

Costa Rica, San Jose de, Na- 

huatlisms . . .22 
Dresden, Acta dialect, vocabu- 
lary of, 1893 . . 22 
Guadalupe, Abridgment of Chris- 
tian Doctrine, 1886 . 29 
Novena to St. Thomas of 

Villanova . . .29 
Tagal Catechism, 1890 . 29 
Tagal Refrains, by Martin 
and Cuadrado, 1890 . 20 
Iloilo, pastoral letter of Arrue, 

1885 . .29 

Imus, Proclamation in Tagal, 

1896 . .31 

London, Estadismo ( transla- 
tion), 1814 . .II 
Madrid, Catahgo, by Panduro, 

1800-1805 • 7 

Discourses on Aromatic 

Things, 1572 . .26 

Encyclopedia of Buzeta and 

Bravo, 1851 . . .13 
Geology of the Philippines, 
1840? . .11 

Books published at : 

Madrid, Historical Geography of 

Philippines, 1752 . . 10 
History of Marianas, 1875 . 10 
History of Philippines, 1698 36 
History of tribes in Luzon, 

I7S 6 • • • 10 

Ladrones, History of, 1670? 9 
Lavor Evangelica, 1663 7 

Map of Luzon . . .11 
Mindanao, History of, 1667 9 
Moluccas, Conquest of the, 

1609 .26 

Orden de Predicadores, La, 

1884 . . . .34 

Re tana's de Aniterias, 1894 12 

Zuniga's Estadismo, 1893 . 11 

Malabon, Bien- Venida, 1895 . 30 

Mala bong, Description of Ba- 

tangas, 1895 . .30 

Mandaloya, Republiea Filipino, 

La, 1898 .31 

Manila, Almanac and Guide- 
book with Map of Archi- 
pelago, 1834 . .24 
American Soldier, first peri- 
odical in English, 1898 . 24 
Arte in Pampanga dialect, 

1729 . . .20 

Arte of Pellicer, Mariano, 

1690 .21 

Arte of Pellicer, Mariano, 

1862 .21 

Book of Devotions in Cha- 

morro idiom, 1887 . . 22 
Catechism in Batanes dia- 
lect, 1834 . .20 
Catechism in Gaddan idiom, 

1833 . .21 

Catecismo, by Lopez, 1877 . 20 
Christian Doctrine in Cu- 

yona dialect, 1 87 1 . .21 
Cosmopolite, El, first peri- 
odical with phototypes, 
1895-1896 . .24 


Book* published at : 

Manila, Devotion Tagmleg, 1610 3 1 
Diccumario, 1613 .31 

I 'ic tionary by Mcntrida, 

1637 . .18 

Dictionary by Mcntrida, 

1841 . . .18 

I >u tionary by Mcntrida, en 

larged, 1842 . .18 

Dictionary in Ilocano dia 

lect, 1849 
Dictionary in Ilocano dia 

lect, 1888 
Dictionary of Ibanag dia 

lect, 1854 
Dictionary of Ibanag dia 

lect, 1867 
Dictionary of Pampanga dia 

lect, 1732 
I >ictionary of Pampanga dia 

lect, i860 . . .20 
Emoriologia Sagrada, 1 856 1 1 
Essay on Tagal grammar, 

1878 . . .19 

Estado general, 1 886. . 11 
Fauna of the Philippines, 

1895-1896 . . .10 

Flora de Filipinas, 1837 . 10 
Flora de Filipinas, 1 845 . 10 
Flora de Filipinas, 1877- 

1883 . . 4, 10 

Grammar in dialect of Guap, 

1888 . .22 

Grammar in dialect of Yap, 

1888 . . .22 

History of Province of the 

Holy Rosary, 1640. . 34 

History of Religious Mis- 
sions, 1749 . . .10 
Hogar, El, first women's 

paper, 1892 . .24 

Ilocano, El, first periodical 

in Indian dialect . . 24 

Manual for Physicians, 

1877 . . . .11 

Rooks published at : 

Manila, Noccda's Tagal I >u 

ary, i860 .28 

Pathway to Heaven, 1873 . 21 
Plan of Religion, 1886 . 21 
Practica, 1731 . . .13 

Report on Philippines, by 

Chirino, 1890. . . 26 

Jtevista de Filipinos, scien- 
tific paper, 1 875 . . 24 
Romancero Filipino, 1892 . 24 
San Agustin's Treatise on 

Tagal Poetry, 1879 . 20 

Superior Gobiemo, Del, first 

newspaper, 181 1 .25 

Tagal Arte, 1637 . . 19 
Tagal Catechism, 1666 . 19 
Tagal Catechism, 1880 . 19 
Tagal Dictionary, 1754 . 19 
Tagal Dictionary, i860 . 19 
Tagal Grammar for Chil- 
dren, 1S86 . . .19 
The Km Leche, 1898 . 25 
Visaya — Spanish Diction- 
ary, by Encarnaci6n, 
1851-1852 . . .18 
Visaya — Spanish Diction- 
ary, by Encamaci6n, 1866 18 
Visaya — Spanish Diction- 
ary, by Encarnacion, 1 885 1 8 
Maynila, Manual of Saint Roch, 

1820 . . .28 

Revista Catolica, 1890 . 28 
Revista Catolica in Tagal, 
1896 . . . .28 

Mexico, Critical Treatise on 

Tagal isms, 1742 . .19 
Triumph of Spanish Arms 
in Philippines, 1609 . 26 
Naga, Hand-book of Devotions, 

1893 . . .30 

Life of St. Monica and St. 
Augustine, 1895 . . 30 
Pampanga, Arte by Bergafio, 

Diego, 1736 . . .28 



Books published at : 

Paris, Report on Philippine Isl- 
ands in A eta, 1885 . 21 
Rome, Report on Philippines, 

by Chirino, 1604 . . 26 

Sampaloc, Almanac, 1838 . . 28 

Arte in Pampanga dialect, 
1736 . . . .20 

Estadismo de las Filipinos, 
1803 . . . .11 

History of the Philippines, 

1788-1792 . . .10 

Razon, La, 1 737 . 24 

Tagal Arte, 1745 . . 20 

Treatise on Tagal Poetry, 

1787 . . .20 

San Jose de Costa Rica, Nahu- 

atlisms, 1 892. . 22 

Seville, Report of Guzman de 

Tello, Francisco, 1598 . 26 
Tambobong, Revista Catolica, 

1889-1896 . . .29 

Spain, Abridgment of His- 
tory of, 1897 . .29 
T a y a b a s, Tagal Dictionary, 

1703 . . 6, 28 

Valladolid, Tagal Dictionary, 

1836 . . .19 

Vigan newspaper in Ilocano, 

I 883-1 884 . . .29 
Bornabi, a dialect of Yap . .6 

Borneo . . . . . .23 

Bornese Malay, how far civilized . 8 
Bradford, William, introduced print- 
ing into Pennsylvania, 
1685 . .37 

Bravo, Felipe, writes encyclopedia . 13 
Bugarin, Jose, Dictionary in Ibanag 

dialect, 1 854 edition . 20 
Dictionary of 1630 . . .37 
Dictionary of 1630 not earliest 

imprint . . . .34 

Dominican linguist . . .20 

manuscripts of his dictionary . 21 

Bulletin, delay in publishing . . 3 


Burgos, books published at, see 


Bush Town, meaning of Manila . 28 
Buzeta, Manuel, on the blood-bargain 

by Legazpi . . .27 

quoted as to Aeta . . .7 

quoted as to heathen rites . .13 

writes Encyclopedia . . .13 

CyABOALAN dialect, Arte by Pelli- 

cer, Mariano, in . .21 

Cagayan dialect, otherwise Ibanag . 20 

tobacco . . . . .21 

Calamiano . . . . .6 

Calderon, Felipe, La Corte y Ruano, 

history of the Marianas . 10 
Camarines now known as Naga . 29 
see Naga 

see Nueva Caceres 
Cambridge, Mass., printing intro- 
duced, 1638 . . .37 
Camison, Fructuoso Arias, Bien- 

Venida, by . . .30 

Capuchin, Arifiez, Agustin Maria de 22 
missionary, Valencia, Ambrosio 

de .... 22 

Carillo, Manuel, Augustinian writer . 10 

history of tribes in Luzon, by .10 

Caroline Islands, aided from Manila 23 

Entyl. Brit, quoted on .6 

Carolines, Eastern, dialects used in 

the .... 6 
Carro, Andres, Augustinian scholar . 20 
Dictionary in Ilocano dialect, 

by .... 20 

Catalogo by Lorenzo Hervas y Pan- 

duro . ... 7 

Catechism, in Batanes, of Christian 

Doctrine . . .20 
in Gaddan idiom . .21 

in Tagal, by Amezquita, Luis de 29 
Catecismo, in Ilocano, by Lopez, 

Francisco . . .20 

Caucasians and Satanism . . .13 

Cavite, books published at, see Books 


Cavite, fourth printing-press in Philip- 
pines at .28 
suburb of Manila .28 

Ceba, books published at, see Books 
Cebuano dialect used in . .5 
dialects compared with those of 

I'.Ul.lV . .18 

early printing at, described . 29 
first Christian Church in Malay- 
sia founded at . .28 
first civilized by Legazpi . . 29 
Legazpi's Expedition from Mex- 
ico to, 1565 . .25 
ninth printing-press in Philip- 
pines at ... 29 
San Jeronimo, Tomas de, known 

as the Cicero of . .18 
Cebuano dialect or language . . 5 
Central America, original language 

used in . . . 1,7 
Central Americans, kin with Philip- 

pinians . . . .22 

Chamorro dialect used in Philippines 6 
idiom of the Marianas Islands . 22 
only one book in this idiom . 22 
Charm-Book, in Pangasinan, de- 
scribed . . . .12 

China . . . . . .23 

popularity of Gonzalez de Men- 

doza's History of . .25 

Chinese language used in Philippines 6 
typographical symbols first shown 

to Europeans . . 25 

Chirino, Pedro, a Jesuit writer and 

scholar . . . 7, 26 
first published work giving Phil- 
ippine characters . . 26 
treats on race and language iden- 
tity of Philippine people 7 
" Christian Doctrine," by San Jero- 
nimo, Tomas de . .18 
explanation of, in Cuyona dialect 21 
Christianity established in Marianas 9 
Church Calendar for 1816 printed at 

Cavite . . . .28 

Cicero of Ceba, San Jeronimo, To- 
mas de, known as . 

Class-books in the Philippines . 

Clemente, Jose Patricio, Moral Lec- 
tures for youth 

Coleccidn, Tagal refrains, described . 

Colin, Francisco, author of Lavor 
Jesuit Provincial Superior, and 
writer . 

Combes, Francisco, history of Minda- 
nao, Jolo, etc., by . 
Jesuit writer .... 

Compendium of Lives of the Saints, 
see Sanctos no Gosagueo 

Concepci6n, Juan de la, History of 
Philippines by 
Recoleto missionary . 

Confession- Book .... 

Confucians and Saint Nicholas of 

Conquista of Philippine Islands by 
San A gust in . 

Conquistadores .... 

Conquistas in the East 

Conversion of Saint Paul the Apostle, 
name of first Christian 
Church in Manila 

Cook, Captain, familiar with Philip 
pine dialects . 

Copia, oldest piece of Philippine lit 
erature described . 

Cosmopoliia, El, first periodical pub 
lished in the islands 

Costa Rica, Nahuatlisms of 

San Jose de, books pub- 
lished at, see Books 

Crime, statistical report on, 1892 

Critical Treatise on Tagal isms, de 
scribed . 

Cronaca del Orden quoted 

Cuadrado, Mariano Martinez, Fran 
ciscan linguist 

Cuartero, Mariano, Dominican bishop 
at Jaro in Island of Panay 












Curios, Literary, among Philippina 8, 24 
Cuyono dialect, description of two 

works in . . .21 

dialect or language . . .5 


''ALMONTE y Muriel, Enrique, 

map of Luzon by . .11 
De Sanvitores, see Sanvitores 
Devocion Tagalog, from press of Pin- 
pin, T6mas . . .31 
Devotions, Handbook of, 1893. . 30 
Diccionario, by Mentrida . . 6 
from press of Pinpin, Tomas . 31 
Diez, Esteban, Augustinian mission- 
ary . . .28 
Devotions to St. Koch in 28 
skilled Tagalist . . .28 
Discourses on Aromatic Things, by 

Fragoso . . .26 

Dominican : 

Blancas de San Jose, Fran- 
cisco . . . .32 
Francisco de S. Joseph, 
otherwise known as 
Blancas . . 32, 36 

Martinez- Vigil, Father . 34 
Payo, Pedro, Archbishop of 

Manila . . . .11 

Pellicer, Mariano . .21 

Salazar, Domingo . . 23 

Bishop, Cuartero, Marino . .21 

linguist, Bugarin, Jose . . 20 

manuscripts on Ibanag dialect . 21 

missionary, Aduarte, Diego . 34 

author of Catechism in 

Gaddan idiom .21 

author of Pathway to 

Heaven in Gaddan idiom 21 
l.atuiii'.c, Casimiro .12 

wrote only work in Batanes 
dialect . . . .20 

zoologist, Elera, Casto de . .10 
Dominicans furnished early printers . 36 
one hundred in Retana's Cata- 
logue . . . .23 

Dominicans settled in Philippines in 

1581 . .23 

worked in islets north of Luzon 20 

Dresden, books published at, see 

Duendes, described by Zuftiga . .13 

EASTER ISLAND, language used 

in . . . . .7 

Ecclesiastics, four hundred and sixty- 
six in Retana's Catalogue 22 

Eco de Vigan, El, Sunday newspaper 

started at Lalo, called . 29 

Egongot dialect or language . . 6 

Elera, Casto de, Fauna of Philippines, 

by .... 10 

Embriologia Sagrada, by Sanz Gre- 

gorio, described . .II 

Encamaci6n, Juan Felix de la, Au- 
gustinian scholar .18 
Visaya — Spanish Dictionary by . 18 

Encyclopedia Britannica, Article 

quoted . . . . 6 

Encyclopedia of Buzeta and Bravo 

described . . .13 

Ensayo para una Galeria de Asturi- 
anos i lustres, by Rodri- 
guez .29 

Estadismo, as to origin of name of 

Marianas 9 

by Zuniga quoted, 7, 13, 21, 31, 32, 

33, 34, 37 
compared with Thwaites' Rela- 
tions of Jesuits in North 
America . . .15 

de las Filipinos o mis viajes, de- 
scribed . . . .II 
Estado General, by Payo, described . 1 1 
Malabon, quoted . . .30 
Estremadura, Governor Sande founds 
Nueva Caceres in memory 

of 3° 

Ezquerra, Domingo, first grammar in 

Leite language by . .18 

Jesuit missionary . . .18 


_, fACB 

FAUNA of riulippinrs by Castro 

de Elcra .10 

Ferraz, Juan Fernandez, Nahuatlisms 

of Costa Rica . . 23 

Figuerroa, Antonio, Franciscan trav- 
eller . . .18 
Filipino t, Flora de, described . 4 

see Philippines 
Finding Lists of The Free Library . 3 
Fireside, The, see Hogar, El 
Fleuri, Claudio, Abridgment of 

Christian Doctrine by . 29 

Flora de Filipinos, described . 4 

in Free Library .4 

monumental work . . . IO 

Folk-lore in Philippines . . .12 

Four Great Last Truths, see Postri- 

merias . . .35 

Fragoso, Juan, Discourses on Aro- 
matic Things, by . 25, 26 
Franciscan antiquarian, Huerta, Fe- 
lix de . . . 31 
chronicler, Ribadeneyra, Mar- 

celo de . . .26 

Convent of Our Lady of Ix>reto 28 
linguist, Cuadrado, Mariano Mar- 
tinez . . . .20 
Martin Gregorio . . 20 
Oyanguren, Melchior . 19 
missionary, Totanes, Sebastian 

de . . . 20, 28 

traveller, Figuerroa, Antonio . 18 
Franciscans, fifty-six in Retana's Cata- 
logue . . . .23 
Province of St. Gregory the Great 32 
settled in Philippines in 1577 . 23 
Francisco de S. Joseph, see Blancas . 32 
Free Library of Philadelphia, The . 3 
its Finding Lists . . .3 
Friars civilized the Philippines . . 23 
Friendly Islands, language used in . 7 
Funopet, a dialect of Yap . . 6 

VJADDAN dialect or language 5 

only two books in . .21 


Geology <<| Philippines by Haranda . II 
Gibert de Santa Eulalia, see Santa 

Goa 23 

Gobierno Dictatorial de Filipinos, 
last imprint of Cavite en- 
titled . . . .28 
Gomez de la Serna, Madam Amparo 24 
Gonzalez de Mendoza, Juan, Augus- 

tinian traveller . 25 

popularity of History of China 

by .... 25 

Grijalva, Augustinian chronicler . 27 
Guadalupe, books published at, see 
description of village of .29 

eighth printing-press in Philip- 
pines at . .29 
works published at . . .29 
Guap, dialects used in . .6 
grammar in dialect of .22 
Guide- Book, the first in Philippines . 24 
Guzman de Tello, Francisco, elev- 
enth Captain-General of 
Philippines . . .26 
report as Governor and Captain- 
General . . .26 

HACIENDA of Augustinians at 

Mandaloya . . .31 

Haraya a chief dialect in Panay . 18 

vocabulary of, by Mentrida . 10 

Harayo dialect or language . 5 

Hervas y Panduro, Lorenzo, author 

of Catalogo . . .7 

Jesuit writer .... 7 

quoted . . . . .7 

Hiligayno a chief dialect in Panay 5, 18 

vocabulary of, by Mentrida . 18 

Hiligueina, otherwise Hiligayno, 

which see . . .18 

Hispano- Kanaka Dictionary, by Ari- 

nez, Agustin Maria de . 22 
Historia Franciscana quoted . .19 

Hogar, El, first women's paper . 24 


"Holy Child, The," first Christian 
Church founded at Cebu, 
now called . . .28 

Hospitallers, Province of St. Raphael 

Archangel . . .32 

Huerta, Felix de, early Manila im- 
prints described by .31 
Franciscan antiquarian . .31 

1 BAN AG dialect or language . . 5 

Ave Maria in . . . .20 

Dictionary by Bugarin, Jose, in 20 

in, another . . .21 

hardest of all Philippine tongues 20 

Ibanay dialect, otherwise Ibanag . 20 

Ibaftez del Carmen, Aniceto, book 

of devotions in Cha- 

morro idiom, by .22 

Recoleto linguist . . .22 

Igorrotes, difficulty of conversion of . 10 

Ilocano, a dialect of Luzon . 5, 20 

Ave Maria in . . . .20 

Catecismo in . . .20 

Dictionary in . . . .20 

newspaper published in .29 

Ilocano, El, first periodical in Indian 

dialect, 1 889- 1 896 . . 24 

Ilocos, Indians of hill-country of . 10 
Iloilo, books published at, see Books 
seventh printing-press in Philip- 
pines at . . .29 
Ilongote . . . . .6 
Imus, books published at, see Books 

only one imprint . . .31 
revolutionary press established at 31 
thirteenth printing-press in Phil- 
ippines at . . .31 
India, Portuguese introduce Christian- 
ity into . . . .23 
Indian plant-lore . . . .11 
schools described . . .17 
Indians, hand-books of devotion for 

the . . . .35 

Introduction of printing into Philip- 
pines . . 8, 32 

Introductory . 

Isinay dialect or language 

Isle of Batanes, see Batanes 
Cebu, see Cebu 
Luzon, see Luzon 
Mindanao, see Mindanao 
Negros, see Negros 
Panay, see Panay 
Parayna, see Parayna 
Vatanes, see Vatanes 

Ita a form of word Aeta . 

Itaa a form of word Aeta 


• 5 

• 5 


J APAN, Christianity introduced into 23 
Jesuit mission press in, quoted . 35 
Retana maintains first printing 

outfit was from 
Sanctos no Gosagueo printed at 

Katsusa, 1 59 1 
ten works printed in Roman 

characters before 1599 
Vocabulario de Japin printed 
1603 . 
Japanese language used in Philippines 
Jaro, Arrue, Alejandro, bishop of St 
Isabel, of 
Cuartero, Mariano, first bishop 

of St Isabel, of 
St Isabel, otherwise St Eliza 
beth, of 
Javan, how far civilized . 
Javanese language used in Philippines 
Jesuit college at Katsusa . 
at Nangasaki 

mission press in Japan quoted 
missionaries prepare Spanish 

Japanese Dictionary . 27 
missionary, Ezquerra, Domingo 18 
Noceda, Juan de . .19 
scholar and writer, Chirino, 

Pedro . . 7, 26 

Colin, Francisco . . 7 

Hervds y Panduro . . 7 

Sanvitores, Diego Luis de . 9 
Velarde, Pedro Murillo . 9 











Jesuits came with Dominicans, 1 581 23 
in Re tana's Catalogue, 57 .23 

opened first college in Philip- 
pines, 1601 . .17 
Relations of the, by Thwaites . 15 
Jesus, Augustinians of Province of 

Most Holy Name of . 22 
Jolo, history of, by Combes . . 8 
Joloano dialect or language . 5 


lNAKA dialect used in Philip- 
pines . . .6 

Katsusa, Jesuit College at . .35 

Kavite, see Cavite 

Kem, H., comparative study of Aeta 

language, by . . .22 

L.ACANDOLA, the rajah of Manila 27 
part taken in founding of Manila 

by .... 27 

Ladrone Islands, oldest history of . 9 
Ladrones, dialects used in the . .6 

Lafuente, Casimiro, cure at Santa 

Barbara in Pangasinan . 12 
Dominican missionary . .12 
pagan scapularies shown to Re- 
tana by . . . .12 
Lal-lo, see Lalo 
Lalo, Sunday newspaper in Ilocano 

published at . . .29 
Vigan now known as . .29 

Lavor Evangelica . ... 7 
Legazpi, Miguel Lopez de . .23 
and the blood-bargain, see Buzeta 
first civilized Cebu . . .29 
his expedition from Mexico to 

Cebu, 1565 . . .25 
site of Manila projected by . 27 
took St. Michael as his name- 
saint . . . .28 
Leite, Arte of Visaya idiom used in, 

described . .18 

dialect or language . . .5 

first grammar of language of .18 
idiom similar to Cebuano  .18 


Leonardo de Argensola, Bartolome, 

Presbyter .26 

Ltyes de las India*, Indian schools 

zealously guarded by .17 
Leyte, see Leite 

Lippincott Co., J. B., loss of manu- 
script by . .3 
Literary curios among Philippina 8, 24 
London, books published at, see Books 
Lopez, Francisco, Augustinian . . 20 
Catecismo in Ilocano dialect by . 20 
Lozano, Raimundo, Novena to St. 

Thomas of Villanova by 29 
Lubao, art-establishment of Augus- 
tinians at . . .36 
Convent, books printed at, in 

Pampanga . . .37 

books printed at, in Spanish 37 

books printed at, in Tagal . 37 

San Agustin, Caspar de, 

quoted . . . .37 

discussion when printing-press 

started . . . .37 
tratadillos of 1606 . . .37 

Luzon, abominable rites in .13 

death of Ortiz, Tomas, at . .13 
dialect used in . . . .6 

Isle of . . . 5, 6 

its anay or book-destroying ant . 19 
map of, by D' Almonte y Muriel 11 
personal experiences of Retana 

printing-presses established at 

isle of . . . .31 
see Pampanga 

tribes hardest to convert in . 10 


LACABEBE, printing-press estab- 
lished, 1621 . . .31 
Madagascar, dialects used in . .6 
language used in . .7 
Madrid, books published at, see Books 
Magaurlua, Jacinto, prints first Span- 
ish-Japanese Dictionary . 27 
Malabon, books published at, see Books 



Malabon, description of works printed 
at .... 

Orphanage for boys . 

list of trades taught at 
managed by Augustinians . 
Report quoted . 
press- work criticised . 
see Tambobong 

twelfth printing-press in Philip- 
pines at ... 
Malabong, books published at, see 
see Malabon 
written for Tambobong 
Malagasy dialect used in Philippines 
Malay language, origin of 

races, how far civilized 
Malays, opinions as to identity of, 

with Papuans 
Malaysia, antiquities and character 
istics of 
did not adopt coeducational the 

first civilization of, at Cebu 
first two Christian churches in 
many dialects of 
many works of recognized merit 
in .... 

men of shining mark not turned 

out in . 
printing introduced fifty years 
earlier than in Pennsyl 



provinces of friars in 
works of reference bearing on 
Malaysian typography in History of 
Province of the Holy 
Rosary . . . . 

Malaysians and Satanism . 
Malgacho dialect used in Philippines 
Mandaloya an old hacienda of Au- 
books published at, see Books 
fourteenth printing-press in Phil- 
ippines at 


J 1 


Mandaloya Orphanage for girls . 30 

list of arts, etc. , taught at . 30 

managed by Augustinians . 30 

Report quoted . . .30 

Mandaloyon, otherwise Mandaloya . 31 

see Mandaloya 
Manila a Tagal word . . .27 

books published at, see Books 
Cuartero, Mariano, one of the 

four suffragans of . .21 

dean of cathedral-chapter of . 33 
different spellings of . . .27 

eight church officers of .33 

Flora de Filipinos published at . 4 
its influence . . . .23 
Lacandola was Rajah of . .27 

license to print Blancas' Arte, 

dated from . . .33 
means Bush Town . . .28 

Payo, Pedro, Dominican arch- 
bishop of . . .II 
printing-press established 1630 . 27 
Salazar, Domingo, first bishop of 23 
San Agustin, Caspar de, died at 36 
second Christian church in Ma- 
laysia founded at . .28 
see Guadalupe 
set Maynila 
see Tambobong 

site of projected by Legazpi . 27 
taken by Spanish . . .27 
Manobo dialect or language . . 5 

first vocabulary in . .22 

Manual for administration of the Sac- 
raments, by Totanes . 20 
of Devotions to St Roch, in Ta- 
gal . . . .28 
Manuals of piety, in the Philippines . 17 
Map of Archipelago, the first with 

almanac . . .24 

of the Philippines, by Velarde . 10 
Mariana of Austria, Marianas Islands 

named after . . .9 

Marianas Islands, Calderon's history 

of 10 




Mfri""** Islands, Chamorro the idiom 
of the . . , 
dialects used in the . 
establishment of Christianity in . 
so named by Sanvitores 
Marquesas Isles, language used in 
Martin, Gregorio, Franciscan lin- 
guist .... 
Martin, Julian, Augustinian mission- 
ary ... 
Martinez, Vigil, Ram6n, a resident 

at Manila .36 

as to earliest Philippine imprints 36 
Dominican, bishop of Oviedo . 34 
Matanda, part taken in founding of 

Manila by 
Maver, John, his translation of Zii Ri- 
ga's Estadismo 
now out of print 
Maynila, books published at, see 

Mediquillo, manual of . . 
Memorial of the Christian Life 
Mentrida, Alonso de, Arte and Die 
cionario by . 
Augustinian scholar . 
Dictionary by . 
Mercado, Ignacio, Philippine botanist 10 
Mexico, books published at, set 
to Ceb6, I5°5f by Legazpi 
Meyer, A. B., Aeta vocabulary by . 
Mextizos, Spaniard or Chinese mixed 

with native 
Middleton, Thomas Cooke, paper by 
paper re- written by . 
vicissitudes of his paper 
Mindanao, Isle of, dialect used in 5 
history of, by Combes 
natives of, use Manobo dialect . 
Minguella de la Merced, Toribio, 

Recoleto missionary 
Moluccas ..... 

Leonardo de Argensola's, Barto- 

lome, conquest of the . 26 

Montano, J., report on Philippine 

Islands, in . .31 

vocabularies of various native 

dialects, by . . .22 

Morga, Antonio de, triumph of Span- 
ish arms in Philippines . 26 

Mora, Maguindanao dialect . . 5 

Museo Biblioteca de Ultramar, Re- 
tana's account of early 
Philippine imprint in . 32 

Mysteries of the Rosary . . .35 


I AGA, books published at, see Books 
the eleventh printing-press in 

Philippines at . .29 

Nahuatl language used in Philip- 
pines . . . 6 
Nahuatlisms of Costa Rica, by Ferraz, 

Juan Fernandez . . 22 
Nangasaki, Vocabulario de Jap6n, 

printed at, 1603 . . 35 

Naves, Andres . . . .4 

Negrito dialect or language . . 5 

a parent tongue . . .7 

Negritos perhaps primitive race of 

the Philippines . .21 

used Aeta language . . .21 

Negroes of Negros described . .19 

Negros, Aetas of, described . .19 

Isle of, dialect .... 5 

New Guinea vocabulary and Captain 

Cook .... 6 
New Hebrides vocabulary and Cap- 
tain Cook . . .6 
New Holland vocabulary and Cap- 
tain Cook . . .6 
New Zealand vocabulary and Cap- 
tain Cook . . .6 
Noceda, Juan de, Jesuit missionary . 19 
Tagal Dictionary by . . .19 
Tagal Dictionary was added to 

by Augustinians . . 28 
Totanes' Tagal dictionary super- 
seded by that of . .28 
Nonos, described by Zaftiga . . 13 


Novena to St. Thomas ol Villanova, 

by Lozano . . .29 
Nueva Caceres, founded by Governor 

Sande, Francisco . . .29 
now known as Naga . 29, 30 

see Naga 
Nueva Segovia, Santa Eulalia, Pedro 
Gibert de, Recoleto bishop 
of .... 21 

Vigan known to Spaniards as . 29 

O RDEN de Predicadores, La, His- 
tory of . .34 

Orders not specified in Retana's Cata- 
logue . . 14, 23 

Orphanage at Malabon, list of trades 

taught . . . .30 
at Mandaloya, list of arts, etc., 

taught . . . .30 

Ortiz, Tomas, Augustinian missionary 1 3 
death of, 1 742 . . . .13 
on abominable rites in Philip- 
pines . . . .13 

Our Lady of Consolation, a Tambo- 

bong printing centre . 29 
orphan -press of . . .30 

Our Lady of Loreto, Franciscan Con- 
vent of . . . .28 

Our Lady of the Rosary, Fr. Fran- 
cisco Blancas de San Jos*, 
preacher-general of prov- 
ince of . . .32 

Our Lady of Welcome . . .30 

Oviedo in Spain, Martinez- Vigil, 

bishop of . .34 

Oyanguren, Melchior, Franciscan 

linguist . . .19 

his Critical Treatise on Tagal- 

isms described . . 19 

lACTO de Sangre, rite of, described 27 
Pag-Papasipin, described by Zufiiga . 13 
Pampanga, art establishment of Au- 

gustinians at Lubao . 36 

Pampanga dialect, Arte by Bergano, 

Diego, in . .20 

books in, printed at Lubao . 37 

published at, see Books 
Dictionary of, by Bergafio, Diego 20 
province in Luzon . . .36 
Pampango dialect or language . . 5 
Panapee, a dialect of Yap . . 6 

Panay, Cuartero, Mariano, first bishop 
of St. Isabel of Jaro in 
island of . . .21 

dialect or language . . .5 
Dictionary of chief dialects 

spoken in .18 

tee Iloilo 
Panayano dialect or language . . 5 
Pangasinan, Arte by Pellicer, Mari- 
ano, in . . .21 
Charm- Book, in, described . 12 
dialect or language . . .5 
Indians of hill-country of . .10 
Lafuente, Casimiro, cure at San- 
la Barbara in . .12 
Papuan language, a parent tongue . 7 
antiquity of . . .6 
Papuans, opinions on identity of . 7 
Paragua, Isle of . . .5 
Paris, books published at, see Books 
Pathway to Heaven in Gaddan idiom 21 
Patianac, described by Zufiiga . . 13 
Payo, Pedro, a Dominican archbishop 

of Manila .11 

Estado general, or statistics of 

Philippines by . .11 
Pellicer, Mariano, Arte in Pangasinan 

dialect by . .21 

Dominican . . .21 

Pennsylvania, printing introduced, 

1685 . . . .37 
Perez, Mateo, Abridgment of Chris- 
tian Doctrine, in Bisaya . 29 
Augustinian cure of Argao . 29 

Philadelphia, Philobiblon Club of . 3 
The Free Library of . 3, 4 

its Finding lists . . 3 



Philippiaa, historical character of 

earliest . .25 

literary curios among 8, 24 

Philippine archipelago conquered, 

1565 . . .23 

characters, diagrams of, first pub- 
lished . *6 
dialects, and Capt. Cook . 6 
some authorities on . I, 16 
Philippines, Aeta a mother tongue in 7 
bibliography of ... 5 
Blanco's Flora of . . IO 
books in Free Library 3, 4 
Coocepci6n's history of . . 10 
Fauna of, by Elera . . IO 
first printing outfit from Japan . 35 
first publication discussed . . 25 
folk-lore in . • 12 
geology of . . . .II 
historical geography of, by Ve- 
larde . . . .10 
introduction of printing into 8, 32 
languages enumerated . 5. 6 
manuscript history of, 1581- 

1606, described . . 36 
map of . . . .10 

Martinez- Vigil states order of St. 
Augustine furnished first 
printers to . . 36 

most valuable works on .9 

periodicals, one hundred and sixty 25 
printing-presses in . -8, 27 
religious missions in . . .10 

Retana's catalogue of Philippine 

literature . . .3 
list of early presses . .31 

list of printers . . .31 

rites, etc., of aborigines of . .13 
sources of information concerning 8 
statistics relating to . . .11 

surviving forms of heathenism in 12 
total number of islands un- 
known . ... 7 
Velarde published earliest topo- 
graphical map of . .10 

Philippines, Vera, Juan de, first 

printer in . .35 

works of reference bearing on . 8 
Philippinians, how far civilized 8 

kin with Central Americana . 22 
Philobiblon Clu!>, paper read before . 3 
Pin pin, Tomas, a native Tagal print- 
er .. . 27, 31 
alleged printer of Arte y Reglas 33 
Devotion Tagalog, printed by .21 
Diccionario printed by . .31 
first Spanish-Japanese Dictionary 

printed by . .27 

Ketaoa authority for work printed 

at Binondo, by . .28 

Polynesia, history of, by Combes . 9 

its early civilization . . .23 

languages in Western . . 6 

many languages used in . .22 

Polynesians, rites practised among . 13 

Ponape, a dialect of Yap . . .6 

used in Philippines . , .6 

Portuguese missionaries . . .23 

Postrimerias . . . . .35 

Pouguet, Abridgment ot Christian 
Doctrine, by "frances" 
[=Frenchmen] . . 29 

Prdctica, omitted in Bib Hot tea . 13 

Ortiz describes impious rites in 

Philippines . . .13 

Preface ...... 3 

Preparation for Communion . . 35 

Presbyter, Leonardo de Argensola, 

Bartolome . . .26 
Presses, Philippine . . . 8, 27 

Printing, introduction of, into Philip- 
pines . . 8, 32 
Printing-press, authorities on intro- 
duction of . .36 
Printing-press established at : 

Bacolor, 1619 . . . .31 

Bataan before 1610 . . .34 

Binondo, 1865 . . . .28 

Camarines, otherwise Nueva 
Caceres, 1893 . . .29 


Printing-press established at : 

Cavite, 1815 . . . .28 

Cebu, 1888 . . . .29 

Guadalupe, 1886 . . . 29 

Iloilo, 1885 . . .29 

Imus, 1896 . . . .31 

Lubao before 1606 . . .37 

Luzon . . . . .31 

Macabebe, 1621 . . .31 

Malabon, 1895 . . .30 

Malaysia . . . . .37 
Mandaloya, otherwise Manda- 

loyon, 1898 . . . .31 
Mandaloyon, otherwise Manda- 
loya, 1898 . . . .31 
Manila, 1 630 . . . .27 
Nueva Caceres, otherwise Cama- 

rines, 1893 . . . .29 

Philippines . . 8, 27 

Sampaloc, 1 7 36 . . .28 

Tambobong, 1889 . . .29 

Tayabas, 1703. . . 28, 31 

Vigan, 1883 . . . .29 

Visayas . . . . .29 

Proclamation in Tagal printed at Imus 3 1 

Puynipet, a dialect of Yap . . 6 

WUIAPO, license to print Blancas' 

Arte dated from . . 33 

I\.AZON, La, A Plea Against En- 
croachments on Mexican 
and Manila Trade . . 24 
Reclus, Elisee, quoted as to Philip- 
pine civilization . . 23 
Recoleto bishop, Arrue, Alejandro . 29 
Santa Eulalia, Pedro Gibert 
de .... 21 

evangelist, Vilches, Manuel . II 
linguist, Ibafiez del Carmen, 

Aniceto . . . .22 

missionaries first crossed the Pa- 
cific in 161 1 . . .23 
missionary, Concepci6n, Juan de 

la 10 





i 2 

2 3 


Recoleto missionary, Mmguella de la 
Merced, Toribio 
Santa Eulalia, Pedro Gibert 

Sanz, Gregorio . 
scholar, San Jer6nimo, Tomas de 
Recoletos are the barefooted Augus 
tinians . 
Province of St. Nicholas of 

thirty- seven in Re tana's Cata 
Reference, works of, referred to 
Relations of the Jesuits in North 
America compared with 
Religious brotherhoods, three hun- 
dred and sixty-eight mem- 
bers in Retana' s Catalogue 22 
Republica Filipino, La, described . 31 
first journal of Tagal insurgents 31 
Retana, W. E., annals of religious 

brotherhoods . . .14 
announces Dictionary in Batanes 20 
best works in Visaya or Bisaya 

described . .18 

bibliography by . . .5 

Biblioteca, quoted, 5, 6, 16, 20, 22, 

25. 3'. 3* 
contradictory statements as to 
earliest Philippine im- 
print by . . .32 
edits Zdfiigas Estadismo . .II 
enumerates one hundred and 
twelve of one hundred 
and sixty periodicals . 25 
forms of heathenism described by 1 2 
gifted student of Philip 
pina .... 7 
his enlarged Estadismo quoted 

7. »3» 21, 3*. 3 2 » 33. 34. 37 

idioms of Malaysia tabulated by . 5 
infers that Spanish-Japanese Dic- 
tionary is earliest Philip- 
pine imprint . • 3 2 



ReUna, \V. E., list of early presses 
and names of printers 
most valuable authorities named 
by .... 

omission of early Philippine im- 
prints from later bibliog- 
raphy of 
omits Practica in Biblioteca 
on Bataan imprints . 

Buzeta .... 
Chirino .... 
Concepci6n's history of the 

Philippines . . . IO 
Dictionary of Ibanag dialect 20 
Elera* s catalogue of fauna 1 1 
Embriologia 2>agrada . II 


first Philippine book 

Hispano- Kanaka Dictionary 22 
manual for Mediquillo . II 

map of Luzon . . .II 
printer of Arte y Reglas . 33 
printing in Cebii . . 29 

question of early typography 34 


Romancero Filipino . 
statements of Aduarte 
Vilches* Manual 
personal experiences in Luzon 
quotes Museo Biblioteca de Ul- 
tramar .... 
reference made to Philippine 
prints not mentioned in 
religious books mentioned by 
says few books in Cuyona . 
short catalogue by 
shown pagan scapularies by La- 
fuente .... 
writes appendices to Zuniga's 
history .... 
Revista Catolica, one number pub- 
lished, 1890 . 
in Tagal, 1896 
Revista Catolica de Filipinos, of 
Tambobong . 



Revista de Filipinos, scientific paper 24 


Ribadeneyra, Marcelo de, Franciscan 

chronicler .26 

history of Philippine archipelago 

by .... 26 

Rodriguez, Fabiano, Augustinian an- 
tiquary . . .29 
genealogical work by .29 
Rojas, Pedro de, secretary of cathe- 
dral-chapter of Manila . 33 
Romancero Filipino, work of fancy . 24 
Rome, books published at, see Books 
Ruiz, Miguel, of Binondoc and Arte 

of 1610 . .33 

OACRAMENTS, Manual for ad- 
ministration of, by Totanes 20 

Sagrada Familia, hand-book of devo- 
tions from press of . .30 

Saint Augustine, the friars of . .4 

Saint Elizabeth of Jaro, Cuartero, 

Mariano, first bishop of . 21 

Saint Gregory the Great, Franciscans 

of Province of . .32 

Saint Isabel of Jaro, Cuartero, Ma- 
riano, first bishop of .21 

Saint Roch, Manual of Devotions to 28 

Salazar, Domingo, Dominican . . 23 
first bishop of Manila . . 23 

Salcedo, Juan, captain under Legazpi 29 

. 29 
. 6 

Vigan founded by 
Samal dialect or language 

first vocabulary in 
Samar Isles, Arte of Visaya idiom 
used in, described . 
dialect or language 
Sampaloc, books published at, see 
second printing-press in Philip- 
pines at . 

San Agustin, Gaspar de, Augustinian 20 
biographical note on . . .36 
Conquista by . . . .20 

quoted . . . . -3° 
Tagal linguist . . . .36 
treatise on Tagal poetry by . 20 





San Agustin, Gaspar de, 

linguist , 

San Jer6nimo, Tomas de, known as 
the "Cicero of Cuba" . 
Recoleto scholar 

San Jose de Costa Rica, books pub- 
lished at, see Books 

San Jose, Francisco, see Blancas 

Sanctos no Gosagueo, printed in Japan, 

Sande, Francisco, founded Nueva 
Caceres .... 



Governor. . . . .30 

Sandwich Islands, language used in . 
Sanscrit language used in Philippines 
Santa Barbara, Lafuente, Casimiro, 

cure at pueblo of 
Santa Eulalia, Pedro Gibert de, Chris- 
tian Doctrine in Cuyona 

dialect by 
Plan of Religion in Cuyona dia 

lect by . 
Recoleto bishop of Nueva Se 

Santo Nino, Kl, name of first Chris 

tian Church in Cebii 
Santos' Tagal Dictionary 
Sanvitores, Diego Luis de, called 

Ladrone Islands the Ma 

rianas . 
Jesuit writer 
Sams, Gregorio, a Recoleto mission 

Sastron, Manuel, description of Ba 

tangas . . . 
use of " Malabong" by . 
Satanism in Polynesia 
Satow, Ernest Mason, quoted . 
Schools, description of Indian . 
Secular clergyman in Re tana's cata 

logue, ninety-eight 
Seville, books published at, see Books 
Sicatuna, Chief, made blood-bargain 

with Legazpi . . 










Society Isles, language used in . .7 
Soliman, part taken in founding of 

Manila by . .27 

South Sea islanders, Captain Cook 

and languages of . .6 
Spain, Abridgment of History of, at 

Tamb6bong . .29 

Queen of, Dona Mariana of 

Austria .... 9 
Spanish, books in, printed at Lubao . 37 
Spanish- Japanese Dictionary by Pin- 
pin and Magaurlua . . 27 
mistakenly styled earliest 

Philippine imprint . . 25 

ke tana states earliest Philip- 
pine imprint to be . . 32 
Statistical reports of Franciscan mis- 
sionaries .28 
Saint Augustine and Saint Monica, 

Life of . . . .30 
Gabriel, Hospital of, at Binondo, 
Retana authority for work 
printed by Pinpin at . 28 
Michael, Archangel, Church re- 
christened the Holy Child 28 
name of first Christian 

Church in Ceba . 28 

name-saint of Legazpi . 28 

Monica and Saint Augustine, 

Life of . . . .30 
Nicholas, of Tolentino, Guada- 
lupe founded in honor of 29 
ste Tolentino 
Raphael Archangel, Hospital- 
lers of Province of . .32 
Thomas, of Villanova, Novena 

to 29 

Suarez, Francisco, cover of La Raton 

illustrated by . . .24 
Sumatran, The, how far civilized . 8 
Superior Goiierno, Del, first news- 
paper in the Islands . 25 

1 AGACAOLO dialect or language 6 
first vocabulary in .22 


Tagal dialect or language . . 5 

Arte by Totanes described . 20 

not forerunner of Philippine 

imprints . . .35 

the earliest, described . 19 
artist, Suarez Francisco . . 24 
best book to leam language from 1 9 
books in, printed at Lubao . 37 
Catechism by Amerquita, Luis 

de 19, 29 

dialect, hard to acquire . .18 

Dictionary by Noceda described 19 

by Santos .... 6 

by Totanes . . .28 

Grammar, 1610 . . .32 

best is by Totanes . . 20 

Essay on, by Minguella de 

la Merced . . . 19 
same as Arte y Reglas . 33 
Hymn in, Arte y Reglas . . 33 
insurgents, first journal of the . 31 
linguist, San Agustin, Gaspar de 36 
Manual for the administration of 

the Sacraments in . .20 
poetry, San Agustin' s treatise on 19 
Prayer in, Arte y Reglas . . 33 
printer, Pinpin, Tomas . .31 

proclamation in, published at . 31 
refrains, by Martin and Cuadrado, 

described . . .20 
see Araya . . . .36 

translation of Tissot's work into. 10 
works in, described . . . 19 
Tagalisms, Critical Treatise on, de- 
scribed . . . .19 
Tagbanua dialect or language . . 5 
Tamb6bong, books published at, see 
Hispano - Kanaka Dictionary, 

1892 . . . .22 

otherwise Malabdn . . .30 
see Malabong 

tenth printing-press in Philip- 
pines at . . . .29 
works printed at . . .29 

Tastg river 29 

Tayabas, books published at, see Books 
only one book with this imprint . 28 
printing-press established 1703 . 31 
Tagal Dictionary printed at 6 

third printing-press in Philip- 
pines at ... 28 
Tea and Milk, see Thi Km Lethe 
Tki Kon Leche, illustrated satirical 

periodical . . .25 
Th wakes, Reuben Gold . . .15 
Tigbalag, described by Zufiiga . .13 
Tinguianes, difficulty of conversion 

of 10 

Tino dialect or language . .5 

Tiruray dialect or language . . 5 
Tissot, Blanco translates work of, into 

Tagal . .IO 

Tobacco in Cagayan region . .21 
Tolentino, Recoletos of Province of 

St. Nicholas of .32 

Saint Nicholas the wonder- 
worker of . .29 
Tondo province, see Tamb6bong . 29 
San Agustin, Gaspar de, died at 36 
Totanes, Sebastian de, Franciscan 

missionary . . 20, 28 
his Tagal Dictionary published at 

Tayabas . . .28 

Manual by . . .20 

Tagal Arte by . . . .20 

Tratadillos by Villanueva, Juan de . 36 

of 1606 printed at Lubao . . 37 

Treatise on the Drugs and Medicines 

used in the East Indies . 26 
Tupas, Chief at Cebti, 1565 . . 28 
Cross reared at Cebii by agree- 
ment with . . .28 



Capuchin missionary . 22 
Grammar in dialect of Yap, or 

Guap, supposed to be by 22 
Valladolid, books published at, see 


Vatanes, Isle of, dialect or language 5 
used in islets north of Luzon 20 
see Batanes 
Velarde, Pedro Murillo, earliest topo- 
graphical map of Philip- 
pines by . . .10 
Historical geography of Philip- 
pines . . . .10 
Jesuit writer . . . .9 
Vera, Juan de, assisted Blancas . 35 
books printed, Binondo . . 35 
Christian Chinaman . . .35 
first printer in Philippines . . 35 
titles of books printed by . .35 
Vlcol dialect or language . . 5 
Vidal, Domingo, original editor of 
Flora .... 
Vidal y Soler, Sebastian, later editor 

of Flora . . .4 

Vigan, bodk* published at, see Books 
founded by Juan Salcedo . . 29 
sixth printing-press in Philip- 
pines at . . . .29 
various names of . .29 

Vilches, Manuel, book on Indian 

plant-lore published by . 1 1 
Recoleto evangelist . . .II 
Villa Fernandina, Vigan known as . 29 
Villanova, Novena to St. Thomas of 29 
Villanueva, Juan de, Augustinian . 36 
Tratadillos by . . . .36 
Villar, Celestino Fernandez . . 4 
Villavicencio, Jose Nufto de, La 

Raton by .24 

Virgin Mary, Marianas Islands named 

for .... 9 

Tagal Hymn to the Holy . . 33 
Visaya, Arte written in, described . 1 8 
best works for the study of, de- 
scribed . . . .18 

Visaya, first dialect in the Philip- 
pines . . . .18 
generic name ... .5 
linguist, San Agustin, Gaspar de 36 
Spanish Dictionary by Encarna- 

ci6n described . .18 

Visaya- Cebuano dialect, book on In- 
dian plant- lore published 

in 11 

Christian Doctrine translated 

into . . . .18 

compared with Panay dialects . 1 8 
Visayas, dearth of printing-press ma- 
terial . . . .29 
Vocabulario de Japdn, printed in 

"Nangasaki," 1603 .35 


ALL ACE, on identity of Poly- 
nesians . . . .7 
Wisconsin, State Historical Society of 15 
Works of general information . 8, 9 

AP, dialect or language 
dialects used in 
Grammar in dialect of 



ZjAM BALE dialect or language . 5 
Zuftiga, Joaquin Martinez de, abom- 
inable rites practised in 
Luzon . . . .13 
Augustinian . . • 9, " 
Estadismo de las Filipinos of 1 1 , 12 
on Arte y Reglas, 1 610 . .33 

on earliest Philippine imprint . 32 
quoted . 6, 9, 19, 27, 31, 34, 37 
Retana writes appendices to his- 
tory by . .1* 
see Estadismo 
states Aeta is parent tongue of 

Polynesia . . 6, 7 




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