SOME Pennsylvania Women DURING THE WAR OF THE REVOLUTION. BY WILLIAM HENRY EGLE, M. D. Harrisburg, Pa.: HARRISBURG rUBLISHING COMPANY l8q8. ^\^^ > ^" •^■^*=^^ic^</ 13 J J 12581 • ». • . * . I » . * PREFATORY. Little is known of many of the heroes of the " Days of Seventy-Six," and much less of the noble women of that most interesting period of our Nation's history. The object of the writer of these brief sketches is not only to present some facts concerning those to whom as Children of Revolutionary Sires we owe so much; but to bring, in sharp contrast, the patriotism, sufferings, and self-denials, of that band of American dames, with the frivolity and disloyalty of those women of the metrop- olis, which made the occupation of Philadelphia by the British in the Winter of 1777-78 a round of gayety. It is a well-known fact, lost sight of by many readers of historic fiction, that the saviors of our country at Valley Forge, in their raggedness and misery, would have starved, had it not been for that devoted band of true- hearted loving women whose homes were on or lying near the frontiers of our grand old Commonwealth. Without embellishment or fulsome laudation, facts are simply given — and these solely to teach that patriotism is one thing, while loyalty without philanthropy is another. These brief sketches of the Matrons of the Declaration are inscribed to "The Daughters" who will find harvest- fields in Pennsylvania revolutionary history which will yield them richer, nay, worthier gleanings than the too- oft threshed straw of New England fiction. **These are Deeds that shall not pass away, And Names that must not wither." BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. Allison, Elizabeth Wilkins, 9 Allison, John, 9 Armstrong, Rebecca Lyon, 11 Armstrong-, John, 12 Atlee, Sarah Richardson, 15 Atlee, Samuel John, 15 Brady, Mary Quig-ley, 18 Brad}', John, 18 Brodhead, Elizabeth Depui, 22 Brodhead, Daniel, 23 Brown, Eleanor Lytle, 26 Bro^^^l, Matthew, 26 Bull, Mary Phillips, 29 Bull, John, 29 Burd, Sarah Shippen, 33 Burd, James, 34 Chambers, Katharine Hamilton, 38 Chambers, James, 39 Clark, Elizabeth Zane, 42 Clark, John, 44 Clingan, Jane Roan, 45 Cling-an, William, Jr., 46 Cook, Martha Crawford, 47 Cook, Edward, 47 Cooke, Sarah Simpson, 49 Cooke, William, 49 Corbin, ]\farg-aret Cochran, 58 Corbin, John, 52 Covenhoven, Mary Kelsey Cutter, 55 Covenhoven, Robert, 55 Crawford, Hannah Vance, 58 Crawford, William, 58 Davidson, Catharine Martin, 62 Davidson, James, 63 (6) Davies, Annie Schenck, 65 Davies, Hezekiah, 65 Foster, Hannah Blair, 67 Foster, William, 67 Gibson, Anne West, 70 Gibson, George, 70 Graydon, Eachel Marx, 73 Graydon, Alexander, 74 Hand, Catharine Ewing-, 78 Hand, Edward, 79 Hamilton, Margaret Alexander, 81 Hamilton, John, 81 Hartley, Katharine Holtzinger, 83 Hartley, Thomas, 83 Hays, Mary Ludwig, 85 Hays, John 85 Henry, Ann Wood, 87 Henry, William, 87 Hepburn, Crecy Covenhoven, , 90 Hepburn, William, 91 Irvine, Sarah Harris, 92 Irvine, James, 92 Irvine, Anne Callender, 94 Irvine, William, 95 Irwin, Jean McDowell, 98 Irwin, Archibald, 98 Johnston, Alice Erwin, 100 Johnston, Francis, 100 Johnston, Martha Beatty, 103 Johnston, Thomas, 103 Lowrej'^, Ann West ( Alricks) , 105 Lowrey, Alexander, 105 McAlister, Sarah Nelson, 108 McAlister, Hugh, 108 McClean, Sarah Holmes, 110 McClean, Alexander, 112 McCormick, Martha Sanderson, 113 McCormick, llobert, 113 McFarland, Margaret Lewis, 115 McFarland, Andrew, 115 (7) McKee, Martha Ilog-e, 117 MeKee, Thomas, 117 Macpherson, Margaret Stout, 110 Macpherson, William, 1-0 Magaw, ;Marritie Van Brunt, 122 Magaw, liobert, 122 Mickley, Susanna Miller, 124 Mickley, John Jaeob, 124 Mifflin, Sarah Morris, 127 Mifflin, Thomas, 12S Montgomery, Rachel Rush (Boyce), 130 Montgomery, Joseph, 131 Moorhead, Elizabeth ThomjDson, 134 Moorhead, Fergus, 134 Morris, Mary AVhite, 137 Morris, Robert, 13^' Murray, ^Margaret Mayes, 140 Murray, James, 141 Neville, Winifred Oldham, 142 Neville, John, 143 O'Hara, Mary Carson, 14.') O'llara, James, 14G Orth, Rosina Kucher, 148 Orth, Balzer, 148 Piper, Sarah McDowell, I'jO Piper, William, IjI Plumer, ^largaret Lowrey, 152 Plumer, George, lo2 Poe, Elizabeth Potter, 157 Poe, James, 158 Pollock, Margaret O'Brien, 100 Pollock, Oliver, 101 Porter, Elizabeth Parker, 104 Porter, Andrew, 166 Reily, Elizabeth Myer, 168 Reily, John, 168 Rosbrugh, Jane Ralston, 171 Rosbrugh, John, 171 St. Clair, Phoebe Ba3ard, 174 St. Clair, Arthur, 174 (8) Simpson, Margaret Murray, 178 Simpson, John, 178 Sproat, Maria Tliomptson, 180 Sproat, William, 180 Stewart, Martha Espy, ... 182 Stewart, Lazarus, 182 Swetland, Hannah Tiffany, 184 Swetland, Luke, 185 Thomas, Ursula Muller, 187 Thomas, Martin, 187 Thompson, Catharine Eoss, 189 Thompson, William, 190 Thomson, Hannah Harrison, 192 Thomson, Charles, 193 Traill, Elizabeth Grotz, 195 Traill, Robert, 195 Wallis, Lydia Holling-sworth, 198 Wallis, Samuel, 198 Watts, Jean IMurray, 201 Watts, Frederick, 201 Wayne, Marj^ Penrose, 204 Wayne, Anthony, 205 Weyg-andt, Mary AgTieta Bechtel, 207 Weygandt, Cornelius, 207 MATROiNS OF THE REVOLUTION. ELIZABETH WILKINS ALLISON. Elizabeth Willdns, daughter of Eobert Wilkins, was born in Donegal township, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, July 7, 1749. Her parents were early settlers and prominent per- sons in that hive of Scotch-Irish pioneers. She was a woman of education and refinement. In 1762 she married John Allison, a native of the Cumberland Valley, where he was born December 23, 1738. His father, William Al- lison, was a native of the north of Ireland, came to America about the year 1730, located at first in Donegal, and subse- quently in what was afterwards Antrim township, Cum- berland county. John Allison, the second son, received a thorough English and classical education, and became a man of prominence on the frontiers. In October, 1764, he was commissioned one of the provincial magistrates, and recommissioned in 1769. At a meeting of the citizens of the county, held at Carlisle on July 12, 1774, he was ap- pointed on the committee of observation for Cumberland, and became quite active in the contest for Independence. He was a member of the Provincial Conference held at Carpenters Hall, 18th of June, 1776, and chosen by that body one of the judges of the election of members of the first Constitutional Convention for the second division of the county at Chambersburg. He commanded the Second Battalion of Cumberland County Associators during the Jersey campaigns of 1776 and 1777. He was a member of the General Assembly in 1778, 1780 and 1781. In the latter year he laid out the town of Greencastle which has grown to be one of the most prominent to^Tis in the (10) Valley. In 1787 lie was elected a delegate to tlie Penn- sylvania Conyention to ratify the Federal Constitution, and in that body boldly seconded the motion of Thomas Mc- Kean to assent and ratify it. At the first Federal Conference held at Lancas- ter, in 1788, John Allison was nominated on the general ticket for Congress, but defeated through the efforts of both parties to "catch the German vote." He died June 14, 1795. No more patriotic servant to the State ever lived than Colonel Allison. Conservative to the highest degree, he was nevertheless firm in his convictions of duty, and to him the Federal Constitution was the great Magna Charta of the Confederated Union. Of Mrs. Allison, much of an historic character has come down to us through tradition. During her early years she lived on the frontier borders — when Indian maraud and savage cruelty held sway, desolating the homes of the back- woodsman. Twice during the later or French and Indian war was she obliged to leave her pleasant home and flee to the town of Carlisle, where there were friends to wel- come; and even after her marriage during the Pontiac war was she compelled, with her little ones, to seek safety in the stockade at Falling Springs (Chambersburg). During the frequent absence of her husband in the service of the State, Mrs. Allison had not only the care of a large farm, but assisted her neighbors in gathering their crops, as well as ministering to the wants of others, the absence of whose husbands and sons in the army really impoverished them. Sympathetic in the highest degree, she bestowed that charity which tended to lift up, with blessings on the humble giver. Mrs. Allison died at Greencastle, Novem- ber 15, 1815, and with her husband is buried at Mossy Spring graveyard, adjoining that town. (11) REBECCA LYON ARMSTRONG. Eebecca Lyon, daughter of William Lyon, was born in Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, Province of Ulster, Ire- land, May 3, 1719. She died at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, No- vember 16, 1797. Her father was a large landed pro- prietor, who gave to his children all the advantages of a superior education and at his death left them a handsome competency. x\t about the age of twenty, Rebecca Lyon married John Armstrong, and, a few years after, with him and her little family, came to America. They settled in the Kittatinny Valley, west of the Susquehanna, then the frontier of the Province of Pennsylvania. During the period of the Provincial wars, and subsequently the war of the Revolution, Mrs. Armstrong, then residing at Car- lisle, became one of the most prominent women of the Cumberland Valley. Apart from her husband's distin- guished career, which made her more or less well known, it w^as chiefly owing to her services during the Indian wars in caring for the settlers, who fled to Carlisle from the dis- tant frontiers, that she became noted for her sympathy and great benevolence. T\Tien the war of the Revolution opened, she led the women of Carlisle into the active preparation for assistance to the patriots who had enlisted to battle for their country's independence. Organizing a societ}^, the first in Penn- sylvania, she superintended the furnishing of many of the comforts, as well as clothing, required by the soldiers of the Declaration; she was unstinted in her philanthropy, and was willing to sacrifice everything for the welfare of her fellow- eountr3^men. In the lapse of a centur^^, her deeds and her (12) fame are contrasted favorably with, those of the women who have followed her in benevolent actions — and her glory has not been dimmed. So to the latest moment of her life no other woman was more respected — nor one whose pa- triotism and patriotic services were more highly appre- ciated. At the time of her death the Carlisle Gazette, among other things, said this of her: "This excellent woman in her very advanced age continued to enjoy the free exercise of a well-cnltivated understanding and of her every faculty with much liveliness and vigor. * * * jf a disposition, benevolent in a very high degree and ever ready to sympathize with and relieve the suffering; if a heart framed to delight in all the characteristics of social life, all the various and important duties of the consort, the mother and the friend; if a constant attendant to the duties and the piety, and the ordinances of that Divine Ee- deemer in whom she trusted for salvation, in perfect con- cert with the pious partner of her cares for the long period of half a century, can give ground for the most pleasant hopes, her surviving friends may solace themselves with this most important of considerations, that death is to her in- valuable and eternal gain."^ John Armstrong, was born in County Fermanagh, Ire- land, October 13, 1717, and died at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, March 9, 1795. He was well educated, and by profession a surveyor, and emigrated to Pennsylvania with his brother- in-law, John Lyon, about the year 1740. When the county of Cumberland was formed by direction of the Proprie- taries, the town of Carlisle was laid out by Mr. Armstrong. Most of the land tracts west of the Susquehanna, in what is now Cumberland and Franklin counties, were surveyed by him. In 1763 his office in Carlisle, with all his books and papers therein, was destroyed by fire. This was a se- vere loss, and was the cause of very many land suits in the (13) Cumberland County Courts. Upon the defeat of General Braddock, when the frontier settlements were overrun by savages, John Armstrong was commissioned captain of a company in the Second battalion of Provincial troops; and on the 11th of May, 1756, its lieutenant colonel. Of the expedition for the destruction of the Kittanning-on- the-Allegheny, by Colonel Armstrong, in September of that year, the various histories of the State give full accounts. For its success he was awarded the highest praise, and the corporation of Philadelphia presented him a silver medal. Upon recovery from his wounds received at the Kittanning, he was actively employed in defending the frontiers and was in the campaign of the army under General Forbes, which resulted in the fall of Fort Duquesne. During the Pontiac war he was sent against the Indian towns on the West Branch of the Susquehanna, and destroyed those at Great Island, and Mayanaquie. After the close of the war, he retired to private life; but, when the storm of the Eevo- lution burst upon the country, he became a prominent member of the County Committee of Correspondence. He was elected by Congress a brigadier general, February 29, 1776, and directed to report to South Carolina, where he took command of the forces in that colonv. On the 4th of April, 1777, General Armstrong resigned his commission in the Continental service, and on the day following he was appointed brigadier general of the State of Pennsylvania. On the 5th of June the Supreme Executive Council com- missioned him major general and commander of the State troops, and General Washington expressed "his pleasure at this honorable mark of distinction conferred upon him by Pennsylvania." He directed the erection of the defensive works at Billingsport, and participated in the battle of Brandywine, and also at Germantown. In 1778 he was (14) elected a member of the Continental Congress, and again in 1779 and 1780. He also served in 1787-88. At the close of his public career, he returned to Carlisle, where he resided nntil his death. The Gazette, in an ex- tended obituary, presented these characteristics of General Armstrong: "It may be truly said of this worthy citizen, that his life was eminently useful and exemplary. There are but few characters in which so many amiable and shin- ing qualities are found united. His easy and engaging manners, his sympathy for the distressed, and above all his unfeigned piety, gained him the love and esteem of all true judges of merit. He was the ever-zealous friend of liberty, learning and religion, the advancement of which in the world seemed to be the grand object of his habitual wishes and prayers. His mind was abundantly stored with useful knowledge, especially of the religious kind. He possessed a very clear and sound judgment, and had acquired the habit of communicating his ideas on every topic, in an easy, flowing and perspicuous manner. Al- though, as to his body, he experienced great debility — in the last weeks of his life — the powers of his mind seemed to be little, if at all, impaired. His conversation was as usual, mild, candid and edifying; and his character for real piety consistently supported to the last. Indeed his zeal for the glory of the Eedeemer, and delight in the duties and ordinances of religion, formed the fairest traits in his character; as they ever must in every character that will command the lasting admiration of mankind. His talents in the military line, have been abundantly conspicuous; and the world has been long acquainted with his spirited enter- prises against the savage tribes at an early period of his life, and his exertions and sacrifices in the common cause of American liberty and independence." (15) SARAH RICHARDSON ATLEE. Sarah Eicliardson, the daughter of Isaac and Alice Richardson, was born in Salisbury township, Lancaster county, Pa., September 7, 1742. Her father was a suc- cessful farmer, residing in the Pequea Valley. Although brought up on the paternal acres, the daughter received a good education, and became an accomplished woman. She was married April 19, 1762, by Rev. Thomas Barton, to Samuel John Atlee, then a prominent young officer in the Provincial service. At that period she was an exceedingly handsome woman, and just as lovely in disposition and manners. Samuel John Atlee, son of William Atlee and Jane Al- cock, was born July 15, 1739, at Trenton, New Jersey, dur- ing the temporary residence of his parents at that place. Commencing at Lancaster the study of law at the breaking out of the French and Indian war, a sense of duty induced him to enter the military field. He was commissioned en- sign in the Augusta regiment, x\pril 23, 1756, and pro- moted to a lieutenancy December 7, 1757. He participated in the Forbes campaign of 1758, and for gallant service at the battle of Loyalhanna was commissioned captain May 13, 1759. When the war of the Revolution came Captain and Mrs. Atlee were quietly residing with their little family on their farm in Salisbury township. It was then that the charac- teristics of the noble woman and patriotic wife and mother shone out resplendent. She bade that gallant officer God speed, as her husband, so well versed in arms, went forth to the field of war in behalf of his beloved country. Dur- (16) ing liis service nothing came sweeter than the words of en- couragement from his home in Pennsylvania, and amid the darkest hours of the Eevolntion none so cheerfnl and hopeful as the loving wife. When the enemy occupied Philadelphia, and while some of her old school acquaint- ances were ministering to the frivolities of the British offi- cers — ^participating in that disgraceful affair "the Knights of the Blended Eose/^ Mrs. Atlee was exerting all her ener- gies to relieve the distress of her countrymen — and con- tinuously her industry was the occasion of gladdening the hearts of some of the needy soldiers of Washington's army. It was at a time when frugality was necessary, but gener- osity and hospitality were not wholly ignored. Her coun- try and its gallant defenders, of whom her husband was one, aroused her to a spirit of self-sacrifice, and thus throughout the long and weary struggle of eight years, Mrs. Atlee showed the highest type of true womanhood, never grow- ing weary in well doing. When the war was over, her husband settled down to the quiet of domestic life and enjoyment. But duty called him away to fresh fields of honor and usefulness. He had served during the latter period of the war in the Con- gress of the United States, and in the General Assembly of the State. In 1784 he was one of the commissioners to treat with the Indians at Fort Mcintosh, on the Ohio, dur- ing which time he contracted a cold from which he died suddenly in Philadelphia on the 25th of jN"ovember, 1786, and was there buried. Of him it was truly said, "the sa- cred pen of history will record and hand down to posterity his name among the foremost of those worthies to whom Pennsylvania is indebted for her liberties and independ- ence." Colonel Atlee was a prominent character in all public affairs, and his death in the prime of his career was a serious loss. After the decease of her husband the sub- (17) sequent years of Mrs. Atlee were devoted to the care and education of her children. Her later years were spent with her daughter, Alice Amelia, who became the wife of Cap- tain Thomas Boude, of the Pennsylvania Line, at Colum- bia, where she died on the 27th of December, 1823, aged upwards of four score. She was a beautiful type of the his- toric dames of the Revolution, and one whose memory should be a household treasure in patriotic Pennsylvania homes. (18) MARY QUIGLEY BRADY. Mary Quigley, daughter of James Qnigley, was born in what was subsequently Hopewell township, Cumberland county, Pa., August 16, 1735. Her parents emigrated from the North of Ireland three or four years prior to the birth of their daughter, and were well-to-do people in the Cum- berland Valley. The property on which her father settled is yet in the possession of his descendants. In 1755 Mary Quigley married John Brady, whose father, Hugh Brady, was a near neighbor. He was born near Newark, Del., in 1733. He received a fair education and taught school in the Province of New Jersey prior to the settlement of his father in Pennsylvania, some time in the year 1750. John and Mary Brady^s first son, Samuel, who became so fa- mous in the border wars of Western Pennsylvania, was born in 1758, and it has been truly said of him that he came into existence " in the midst of tempestuous waves of trouble that rolled in upon the frontier settlements in the wake of BraddocFs defeat.^^ Soon after the breaking out of the French and Indian war he offered his services as a soldier, and on the 19th of Ju.ly, 1763, was commissioned captain in the Second bat- talion of the Pennsylvania regiment commanded by Colonel Asher Clayton. He was with Colonel Bouquet in the ex- pedition westward the year following, and participated in the land grant to the officers in that service. In 1768 Cap- tain Brady removed to the Standing Stone (now Hunting- don) — the year after settling upon a tract of land selected out of the survey on the West Branch, nearly opposite the present town of Lewisburg. In the spring of 1776 he went (19) with his family to Miincy Manor. The Eevolution called him to the tented field, and as a Captain of the Twelfth Eegiment of the Pennsylvania Line, Colonel William Cooke, he participated in the honors as well as misfortunes of that gallant body of soldiers. On the invasion of Wyom- ing Valley, in the summer of 1778, being at home he retired with his family to Sunbnry, and on the 1st of September following returned to the army. In the early spring of 1779 he was ordered by General Washington to join Colonel Hartley's command, operating on the West Branch. On the 11th of April, not far from his residence, Cap- tain Brady was assassinated by a concealed body of Indians — and thus perished one of the most gallant warriors of the Eevolutionary era. His death cast a gloom over the set- tlement, as he was a man upon whom all relied for advice and assistance. This was a terrible blow to his heroic little wife, who was already bowed down with grief on account of the melancholy death at the hands of the Indians of her son James, near Sunbury, the 13th of August, 1778. Now her husband and protector was cruelly stricken down with the same bloody hand that had slain her beloved son. Hurriedly collecting her children together, ^Irs. Brady fled to the residence of her father in the Cumberland Yal- le}^ Here she tarried until October following, when she re- turned to the Bujffalo Valley, upon a tract of land her hus- band had located. It is stated that when she started home- ward Mrs. Brady performed the wonderful feat of carrying her youngest child before her on horseback and leading a cow all the way from Shippensburg. The animal was a gift from a brother. The journey was long, the roads bad, the times perilous, but her energy and perseverance sur- mounted all, and she and her cow and children arrived in safety. If ever there was a true woman and loving mother, that (20) brave little soul was Mary Brady. The winter of 1779 and 1780 was a very severe one, and the depths of the snow in- terdicted all traveling. Neighbors were few, and the set- tlement scattered, so that the winter was solitary and drear}^ to a most painful degree. Her distinguished son, General Hugh Brady, in writing up his recollections of events, states that while the depths of snow kept the family at home, it had also the effect to protect them from the in- roads of the savages. But with the opening of the spring the marauding Indian returned and massacred some of their neighbors. This obliged Mrs. Brady to take shelter with ten or twelve other families about three miles distant. Pickets were placed around the houses, and the old men, women and children remained within door during the day; while those who could work and carry arms returned to their farms, for the purpose of raising something to subsist upon. Many a day the son Hugh walked by the side of his brother John, while he was plowing, carrying a rifle in one hand and a forked stick in the other to clear the plow-shear. Frequently the mother would go with her brave boys to pre- pare their meals, although contrary to their wishes, but she said that when she shared the dangers which surrounded them she was more content than when left at the fort. Thus the family continued until the close of the war, when peace, happy peace, again invited the people to return to their homes. After enduring, as we have seen, much suffering and hardships, Mrs. Brady died on her farm in Buffalo Valley the 20th of October, 1783, and was buried in the old Luth- eran gravej^ard at Lewisburg. Years afterwards her re- mains were carefully taken up, and those of her son John and wife, and tenderly laid in the new burial ground. Mr. and Mrs. Brady were the parents of thirteen children — Captain Samuel being the eldest, and Liberty, born August (21) 9, 1778, the youngest. The latter was so named because she was their first daughter born after Independence was declared and there were thirteen original States and thir- teen children. (22) ELIZABETH DEPUI BRODHEAD. Elizabeth Depni^ youngest daughter of Nicholas Depui, was born in 1740, in what is now Monroe county, Pa. She was a descendant from Nicholas Depui, a Huguenot, who fled from France to Holland in the year 1685, at the time of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. Little is known of her early childhood. She received a pretty fair educa- tion at one of the Dutch schools in New York — ^but the major portion of her youthful days were spent on the frontiers of civilization, the wily savage ever hovering around the settlements of the Minisink. On more than one occasion she was obliged to flee to either the block- houses or the more populous settlements for safety. Shortly after her marriage she accompanied her husband to the town of Eeading, where she made her home until after the promulgation of peace. During that trying pe- riod the care of a young family was hers, and yet among that coterie of bright and heroic women of the Eevolution who were in exile in Eeading, she shone with lustre. Nothing was too great for her to undertake — and her patriotic ardor was always aroused for the welfare of the soldier of the Declaration. She administered to the com- fort of the sick and wounded, who found their way after convalescence to their several homes upon the frontiers. In those days the women kept many in clothing, as well as the necessaries of life. Help was needed everywhere, and as we of the present day minister to our troops from our abundance, the women of the Eevolution did the same out of their poverty. It is true they accomplished much more than we at this distance of time can either appreciate (23) or calculate. Theirs was a day of self-denial. They de- lighted in homespun dresses, while luxuries were prepared only for the sick and loving who were battling for the rights of mankind and the independence of their country. And yet, we must honor the women of all crises in the his- tory of our beloved land, who lead in every philanthropic work to alleviate distress. Their forbears during the strug- gle for independence were animated by that enlarged patri- otic spirit which will enshrine their names to the latest posterity. It was so eminently characteristic of them that a British officer, a prisoner of war, remarked that no sol- diers, whose mothers, wives and daughters were so devoted to the cause, and so self-sacrificing, could ever be conquered. Mrs. Brodhead died in the city of Philadelphia toward the close of the year 1799, but exact date, with place of burial, have not been ascertained. Daniel Brodhead, son of Daniel Brodhead and Hester Wyngart, was born at Marbletown, Xew York, May 20, 1735. He was the fourth in descent from Daniel Brodhead, the ancestor of those who bear the name in the United States. Daniel Brodhead — who was the son of Eichard, who was the son of Daniel — came to Pennsylvania in 1738, and settled on land known locally as the "Brod- head Manor." The son Daniel received a good edu- cation and learned the occupation of surveyor. Located upon the frontiers, he was in military service during the French and Indian wars. On the 11th of December, 1755, the Indians attacked the Brodhead house at Dansburv, which had been hastily fortified. The attack was a fierce one, but was unsuccessful, and the repulse which the In- dians met, ended the war for a long time in that section. To young Brodhead was given the credit for the defeat of the Indians. In 1771 he removed to Eeading and was ap- pointed Deputy Surveyor under John Lukens, who was (24) then Surveyor General. In July, 1775, he was appointed a delegate from Berks county to the Proyineial Convention at Philadelphia. On March 13, 1776, he was commissioned Lieutenant Colonel of the Second Battalion of the Penn- sylvania Eifle Eegiment, commanded by Col. Samuel Miles. This regiment was raised in six weeks and given its first rendezvous at Marcus Hook, on the Delaware, where it was ordered to support the Pennsylvania State fleet in the attack on the "Eoebuck" and "Leonard," vessels which were menacing Philadelphia. After this attack, which served its purpose of preventing the enemy's advance, the regiment was sent to join the army near New York, and upon the capture of Colonel Miles at the battle of Long Island, the command of the remainder devolved upon Lieutenant Colonel Brodhead, who was in fact, after the battle, in command of the whole Pennsylvania contingent, being the senior officer remaining with the army. On the 25th of October following, he was transferred to the Fourth Eegiment of the Pennsylvania Line. Shortly after he seems to have gone home on sick leave, and when he re- joined the army in April, 1777, it was as Colonel of the Eighth Eegiment Pennsylvania Line, commissioned March 12, 1777, to rank from September 29, 1776. The history of Colonel Brodhead during his connection with this regiment is given in the history of the Pennsyl- vania Line. While in command of the Western Depart- ment he made some important treaties with the Indians, but the honor of pushing west into the Indian country, greatly to his chagrin, devolved upon Colonel Clark, of Virginia. The war was now virtually ended. Colonel Brodhead was not again assigned to command. In the reorganization of the army, in January, 1781, he was trans- ferred to the First Eegiment. He served to the close of the war, and was brevetted a Brigadier General September (25) 30, 1783. He afterwards was elected a member of the Gen- eral Assembly. On November 8, 1789, General Brodliead was appointed Surveyor General of Pennsylvania, an office which he held during the incumbency of Governor Mifflin, who was a warm personal friend. He died at Milford, Pa., November 15, 1809. He was twice married, his second wife being Eebecca, widow of General Thomas Mifflin. (36) ELEANOR LYTLE BROWN. Eleanor Lytle, daughter of Nathaniel Lytle^ was born January 7, 1739, in Donegal township, Lancaster county. As the wife of Matthew Brown she was called upon to endure much suffering and privation incident to the Revo- lutionary war, as well as the incursions of the savages into what was then the territory of Northumberland county. "We have no date of her marriage, but as her husband — ^^dio was born July 15, 1732, on the Swatara — settled near Car- lisle in 1760, it is probable that she was married about that time. As her youngest son, Matthew, was born in 1776, and seven children preceded him, we are warranted in fix- ing her marriage about that date. In the course of a few years Matthew Brown and his wife Eleanor, with their young family, were attracted to the West Branch Valley of the Susquehanna, and the}^ settled in White Deer Valley. The location, on account of its fertility and natural sur- roundings, is one of the most beautiful to be found on the river. As early as 1775, the name of Matthew Brown ap- pears on the assessment list of White Deer township as the owner of sixt}^ acres of land. That he was a representative man and a patriot is evidenced b}^ the fact that he was a member of the Committee of Safety of Northumberland county in 1776. In July of that year he was a member of the Provincial Conference that met in Philadelphia to form a State Constituton, and was one of the eight dele- gates from Northumberland county. On the 28th of Sep- tember, 1776, the first Constitution was adopted and signed by all the delegates present, the name of Matthew Brown appearing among those attached to that instrument. This (27) great duty performed^ he hastened to join the army under Washington as a private soldier. Those were excit- ing and stirring times, and every patriot who couki carry a gun was in demand. During the severe campaign in New Jersey Mr. Brown contracted camp fever, and not receiving the attention which he shoukl, owing to the inadequacy ol* the medical department and hospital service, he applied for sick leave, which was granted, and he returned to his White Deer home in the autumn of 1776. The disease, however, had obtained siich a severe hold on him that it would not yield, and after lingering to the 2 2d of April, 1777, he died, aged nearly forty-five years. His faithful wife buried him on their own ground in a clump of trees which stood not far from their humble cabin on Spring creek, and watched over his grave with tender care until August 9, 1814, when she was laid by his side, thirty-seven years after- wards. Left with a family of eight children, the eldest scarcely sixteen and the youngest only about one year old, her trou- bles and sorrows commenced. Yet like the Eoman matron of old, she did not despair, but struggled along with a heroic devotion that was truly sublime, and cared for her family. Wlien the "Big Runaway^^ was precipitated and every set- tler had fled she reached her relatives in Paxtang, where she remained until the storm of war blew over. On the return of peace she made her way back to her desolated home in White Deer, with part of her family, and there she lived near the lonely grave of her patriot husband until death beckoned her to his side. In the later years of her life she became known as "iSTellie" Brown. Her youngest son, ^latthew, born in 1776, less than a year before his father died, was adopted by an uncle, William Brown, of Paxtang, together with Thomas, who was a little older, and bv him raised. Mat- (28) thew was educated at Dickinson College, graduated in 1794, studied theology and was licensed to preach by the Presby- tery of Carlisle in 1799. He became a distinguished Pres- byterian divine, and was the first president of Washington College, serving from 1806 to 1816. In 1822 he was chosen president of Jefferson College, which position he filled until 1845, a period of twenty-three years. He died at Pittsburgh, July 23, 1853, in the 77th year of his age. As one of the old time Presbyterian divines, few stand higher in the an- nals of that church than Eev. Matthew Brown, D. D. Soon after her death her children erected plain tomb- stones to mark the graves of their parents, which bear the following inscriptions: MATTHEW BROW^T^ Died April 22, 1777. ELEANOR BROWN, - Wife of Matthew Brown. Died August 9, 1814. As the ground came to be cleared around the graves, a rude, unmortared stone fence was erected as a protection. This, in time, tumbled into ruin, when a wooden fence was put up. This, too, has rotted down, and there is scarcely any protection now to the graves. The tombstones, much time-stained, remain. A clump of trees overshadow them, but as they are now in the midst of a cultivated field, the time will soon come when the srraves of the Eevolutionarv patriot and his heroic wife may be desecrated by the plow- share of civilization, which will rudely pass over them and remove every trace of their existence. B}^ a recent sub- division the graves now lie in Gregg township. Union coun- ty, close to the line of Washington township, Lycoming county. They should be marked by a permanent monu- ment to perpetuate the name and memory of an early pa- triot and his noble wife. (29) MARY PHILLIPS BULL. Mary Phillips, daughter of James Phillips, a -Quaker emi- grant from Wales, was born in Chester county, Province of Pennsylvania, August 3, 1T31. Her mother dying when Mary was a small child, she was taken to the home of a maternal uncle, Mr. Bowen, who educated her as well as her brother Stephen, caring for them as if they were his own children. Xear neighbors to the Bowens were the Bull family, one of whom, John Bull, subsequently married her on the loth of August, 1752. John Bull was born in Provi- dence township, Philadelphia, now Montgomery county, Pennsylvania, June 1, 1731. His ancestors had come to Pennsylvania at a ver}^ early period. Of his youthful life we know but little. He was appointed captain in the Pro- vincial service May 12, 1758, and in June following w^as in command of Fort Allen, a very important post on the fron- tier. The same year he accompanied General Forbes ex- pedition for the reduction of Fort Duquesne, and rendered important service in the negotiations with the Indians. In 1771 he owned the Morris plantation and mill, and was re- siding there at the opening of the Revolution. John Bull was a delegate to the Provincial Conference of January 18, 1775, a member of the Constitutional Con- vention of July 15, 1776, and of the Pennsylvania Board of War, March 14, 1777. On November 25, 1775, he was ap- pointed colonel of the First Pennsylvania Battalion, from which he resigned January 21, 1776, on account of some slight on the part of his officers. He was one of the com- missioners at the Indian treaty held at Easton January 20, 1777; in February following he was in command of the de- (30) fenses at Billingsport on the Delaware, and on the 16th of Jnly appointed Adjuutant General of the State. In Octo- ber of this year his barns were bnrned and stock carried away by the enemy. In December, when General James Irvine was captured. Colonel Bull succeeded to the com- mand of the Second Brigade of the Pennsylvania militia under General Armstrong. In 1778 and 1779 he was en- gaged in strengthening the defenses of Philadelphia, and in 1780 was commissary of purchases in that city. During the entire revolutionary struggle he was an ac- tive patriot. In 1785 he removed to jSTorthumberland county; in 1805 elected to the Assembly, and in 1808 was the Federal candidate for Congress, but defeated. He died at the town of JSTorthumberland August 9, 1824. Among the incidents connected with the life of Mrs. Bull, one or two must suffice in this sketch of her. The British General, Lord Howe, when in Pennsylvania, took posses- sion on a certain occasion of Colonel Bull's farm and store. Most of the contents of the latter had previously been dis- tributed among the soldiers of the patriot army. Upon the entrance of the British commander into her residence, Mrs. Bull retired to a little back room. Two days and nights did she watch the enemy's proceedings. She had her youngest child with her and begged Howe's washer- women for a piece of bread for her. The women gave her some bread, went into the room, opened the drawers and took all the sheeting, table linen and clothing. They dressed themselves in her best gowns and swore that "^^the rebel's clothes fitted very well." Subsequently General Howe came to Mrs. Bull and said: "Madam, if you will send or write to your husband and prevail upon him to join us, I will take you to England, present you to the King and Queen, you shall have a pension and live in style." Mrs. Bull looked him full in the face and said: "General, niv (31) husband would despise me, and I should despise myself if I did so." He said no more. One of his aides came to her and said: "Madam, had you not better send and have your stock gathered somewhere out of the way to protect them?'^ This was done to save themselves the trouble, for they were taken directly to the slaughter. A large old-fashioned clock stood in one corner of the dining-room. One of Howe's aides went to open it. The General said, ''Let that alone," and it was not disturbed. In the bottom of this clock Mrs. Bull had, in a moment of desperation, thrown two hundred pounds in hard mone}^, paid her a few days before. \Yhen the stock had all been taken for the army and ever3^thing possible had been destroyed, the General came again to her and said: "Is there anything I can do for you, madam?" Mrs. Bull went to him and took hold of the buttons of his coat, looking him full in the face, said: "Gen- eral, I only wish you to deal by me as you would wish God to deal with you." He lowered his ej^es and said: "Madam, there shall be no further mischief done," and then left. However, a party of Hessians were sent back to burn what w^heat was left. Two thousand bushels of fine wheat were taken or destroyed by them. On hearing of the approach of Howe's army, a man employed by Mrs. Bull drove off a load of kitchen utensils and a young heifer, and these were all that was saved. The old negroes were left, but the young ones were carried off. Two young men, servants of Mr. Bull, dressed themselves in their master's clothes and bade their mistress farewell. They told her freedom was sweet and left. The officers put them on board a vessel and sent them to the West Indies, where they v/ere sold. Tliey had a petition sent back asking to be brouglit home. When Howie's army left, fire was found in the cellar, which was put out by Mrs. Bull with a bag of common salt. She then went out and threw herself down at the foot of a (32) big tree, and prayed to God that if He took everything else from her. He would not take away His love and favor. She said afterwards that if any one had spoken to her, she could not have heard more distinctly these words, "I will be a father to you, and you shall be my daughter, saith the Lord Almighty.*^ Her remark afterwards was, "I have lived in the faith of that promise ever since/'' Upon their settlement at Northumberland, Mrs. Bull won the esteem and admiration of all her neighbors by her sweet- ness of disposition and charming manners. She died in that town on the 23d of February, 1811, aged nearly four score. Her husband, although much reduced by sickness at the time, was present at the funeral, and before the grave was closed he addressed the assembled friends in these re- markable words: " ^The Lord gave and the Lord hath taken awa}^, blessed be the name of the Lord;^ may we who are soon to follow be as well prepared as she was." Colonel and Mrs. Bull left seven children, of whom Eebecca married Capt. John Boyd, of the Eevolution; Maria, m. Jacob Eitten- house, brother of David Eittenhouse, the astronomer, and Anna, m. Gen. John Smith, of Winchester, Ya. (33) SARAH SHIPPEN BURD. Sarah Shippen, daugliter of Edward Shippen and his wife, Sarah Phimley, was born Februar}^ 22, 1730-1, at Phil- adelphia, and baptized March 21 following. Her father was a prominent man in the Province, and was generally distinguished from others of the name, as "Edward Shij)- pen of Lancaster." The daughter was educated in Phila- delphia, at the best of schools, and by private tutors. She was a young lady, quite handsome and much admired, when she married. May 14, 1744, the young Scottish cavalier, James Burd. It was a notable event in Philadelphia society, but the surprise was. greater wdien she accompanied her hus- band to the then frontiers of the Province of Pennsylvania. They settled first at Shippensburg, but a few years later at Tinian on a fine tract of land overlooking the Susque- hanna six miles below Harris' Ferry. Here, during the long years of the French and Indian war, while her husband was in the military service of his country, Mrs. Burd hos- pitably entertained many prominent personages. Forbes and Bouquet, of the English army, with the officers of the Proprietary government found at Tinian an accomplished mistress of the household, and away from the glare and glitter of city life in the metropolis, the moments passed only too rapidly. Among the unpublished Shippen correspondence are many entertaining references to social and domestic life at Tinian. For a period of ten years peace reigned on the frontier, and until the struggle for independence began, the mistress of Tinian was occupied solel}^ with the cares of her family, a stone structure giving place to the log building (34) erected twenty years prior. Tlie War of the Eevolution brought new responsibilities, while the produce of a large plantation and the great assistance rendered by her negro slaves so well instrncted in homespun and other labors, was of the greatest benefit not only to her neighbors whose entire "help'^ were "off to the war/^ but to those who were in the military service of their country. Many a neighbor's field was plowed and harvests reaped by the slaves on Colonel Burd's farm. And it continued thns nntil long after the war was over, for some returned wound- ed or otherwise disabled, and assistance was really necessary for their support. After the peace, life at Tinian was not so gay as prior to the Eevolution. Mrs. Burd and her husband had grown to that age when the festivities of life had little enjoyment for them, but the friends of other days found the same hospita- ble welcome — the same enthusiastic greeting — while the reminiscences of an illuminated historic past were as enter- taining as ever. Mrs. Burd died at Tinian September 17, 1784, and was buried in the Presbyterian graveyard at Mid- dletown. Her remains with those of her husband were re- moved to the cemetery at that place about twenty years ago. James Burd, eldest son of Edward Burd and his wife, Jean Haliburton, was born at Ormiston, in West Calder, Scotland, March 10, 1725. His parents belonged to the Scotch gentry, his mother being descended from the Bruce of Scotland. James Burd received a good education, came to America in July, 1747, and became a merchant in Phila- delphia. About the year 1751, he went to Shippensburg, where he was manager for his father-in-law. In 1755 he first entered the Provincial service when he received the appointment as a commissioner, with George Croghan, John Armstrong, William Buchanan and Adam Hoopes, to lay out a road from Harris' Ferry on the Susquehanna to the (35) Ohio river. During tlie Braddock campaign he was com- missioned a captain, and it was fair to presume that he had received a military training before coming to Philadelphia. He was subsequently promoted major. In the year 175G he built Fort Granville, which he commanded for several months. He also laid out Pomfret Castle and was at Fort Augusta during 1756, and succeeded Col. William Clapham in command of that post on December 8, 1756, being then lieutenant colonel of the Augusta regiment. His journals of affairs transpiring there have been preserved to us. They give very interesting details of events during an eventful period of the French and Indian war. Colonel Burd was in command of that important post almost a year. On December 3, 1757, he was promoted colonel of the regi- ment. In the Forbes' expedition of 1758 for the reduction of Fort Duquesne, three battalions were raised, of the second battalion of which James Burd was commissioned colonel commandant, May 28, 1758. He took part in the various skirmishes with the French and Indians, and to him is the credit due for the magnificent victory at the Loyalhanna, and which compelled the French army to evacuate their fort at the confluence of the Ohio, and made General Forbes' expedition so eminently successful. In 1760 we find Colonel Burd again in command at Fort Augusta, the most important post on the northern frontiers of Pennsyl- vania. During the Pontiac conspiracy of 1763 he was with the gallant Bouquet on his expedition for the relief of Fort Pitt, and in the following year accompanied that com- mander on his march to the Muskingum, where he com- pelled the savages to sue for peace, which virtually ended the Indian war. For his services in that war. Colonel Burd participated in the land grant by the Proprietaries. At the outbreak of the struggle for independence Colonel (36) Burd was active in his efforts in behalf of the patriot cause. On the 8th of January, 1774, he was chairman of a meeting held at Middletown, where resolutions written by him were adopted endorsing the position taken by America in its op- position to the tyrannical proceedings of Great Britain. These resolves antedated any concerted action taken by the Whigs in Pennsylvania. In 1774 and 1775 he was on the Committee of Observation for Lancaster county, and when beleaguered Boston asked for help, none gave assistance more cheerfully than Colonel Burd and his neighbors, who collected large quantities of grain, had it ground in flour and expeditiously forwarded it to the poor of Boston. He was commissioned colonel of the Fourth Battalion of Lan- caster County Associators, September 18, 1775. During the following year his entire command was in service in the Jerseys, covering the retreat of the patriot army. Colonel Burd resigTied his position December 26, 1776, owing partly to the difficulty of getting his men into the field; too fre- quently were demands made and then countermanded. In the second place, some adverse criticisms were made by the Council of Safety, and a brave old soldier like Colonel Burd could not brook the manner of men who had "never set a squadron in the field.^' However, this did not change his enthusiasm, and as long as the war lasted that stalwart pa- triot rendered valiant service to the cause of his countrv. He was always in accord with the leading Whigs, as is fully shown by his correspondence, while his son and several of his sons-in-law served in the army. In civil affairs Colonel Burd filled the office of a justice of the peace during the Provincial era; was a commissioner to settle disputes with the Connecticut settlers, and held other positions of honor during the years which followed. His entire life was an active and eventful one. We con- sider him one of the heroes of Pennsylvania, whose services (37) to the State have never been properly appreciated. His correspondence was extensive, and our Provincial records and the archives of the State prove what a 1)usy man he was in its affairs. Colonel Burd died at his residence, ''Tinian," October 5, 1793; and his remains rest beside those of his noble wife. (33) KATHARINE HAMILTON CHAMBERS. Katharine Hamilton, only daughter of John Hamilton by his wife Isabella Potter, was born November 19, 1737, in Ballygally, County Tyrone, Province of Ulster, Ireland. Her parents came to America in 1741, her mother dying the day of the landing of the vessel at New Castle, Delaware, September 25, 1741, and was there buried. Mr. Hamilton first settled near New London Cross Roads in Chester coun- ty, and some years later in the Cumberland Valley region. This was shortly after his second marriage, to Jean Allen, sister of a captain in the English navy. Katharine was scarcely ten years old when her education and care were committed to her foster mother. The latter proved faith- ful, and throughout the daughter's long life she ever spoke of her in glowing terms as a woman notable for domestic virtues and force of character. At the age of twenty-two, Katharine Hamilton married James Chambers, of Loudoun Forge. This was at a time when the frontiers were exposed to the marauding savages. The people lived in constant dread, and very frequently were obliged to seek protection in the forts and blockhouses. We, who live in the quiet enjoj^nent of property and existence, cannot fully compre- hend the circumstances under which our ancestors lived — or comprehend the impending danger of the tomahawk or scalping knife — the destruction of homes and the ruthless desolation which tracked the march of the bloodthirsty In- dian. Only a few years of peace intervened when the thun- ders of the Revolution reverberated through the Kittatinny valley. Outside of the Quaker and Mennonite settlements, patriotism was a leading trait among the people of Penn- (39) sylvania. Especially was this the case among backwoods- men who — as borderers and Provincial troops throughout the old French War, and the su])sequent harrassing Indian wars, and as independent maintainors of their isolated posi- tion — were conspicuous in bearing the severest portion of the defense of their arms; and it is not surprising that the dream of independence floated through the popular mind ere its national existence was clearly apparent. In June, 1775, James Chambers raised the first company in the Cumberland Valley against British aggression. From that time onward to near the close of the struggle, Mrs. Chambers saw but little of her husband. We have pre- served to us, however, many letters written throughout the war to his "Dear Kitty." Loving and dutiful wife and mother that she was, she had not only domestic cares but the management of an extensive farm, while the welfare of the families of many of the men who had enlisted with her husband and were at the front with him devolved upon her. In 1781 Colonel Chambers returned from the armv to the great relief of his noble and patriotic wife, although she had never tired in well-doing. After the death of her husband, Mrs. Chambers made her home with her daughter Charlotte, who had married Israel Ludlow, the man to whom the citizens of Cincinnati owe more than to any other individual, as its principal founder and benefactor. At what was called Ludlow Station, in the suburbs of Cincin- nati, the Queen City of the Ohio, Mrs. Chambers passed the remnant of her days — reaching a beautiful old age, amid the happy surroundings of her beloved and faithful daugh- ter and her grandchildren, dying January 14, 1820, aged eighty-two years. James Chambers, son of Benjamin Chambers, was born April 5, 1736, at Falling Springs, headwaters of the Cone- eochoague. His father was an earlv settler on the Susque- (40) lianna, but removed in 1735 to the Falling Springs in the Cumberland Valley, where he subsequently laid out the town of Chambersburg. He was one of the most promi- nent citizens of the Cumberland Valley, and his son was no less distinguished; yet no biographical sketch of either of them has ever appeared in any of the numerous histories relating to that locality. James Chambers was brought up on his father^s farm, receiving the best education which the frontiers then afforded, including a private tutor. Early in life he established Loudoun Forge, and until the Eevolu- tion, operated it successfully. As previously stated, when the struggle for independence began, he entered heartily into the service, raised a full company in a few days and marched to Boston as a part of Col. William Thompson's battalion of riflemen. He took an active part in raising the siege of Boston and was pro- moted lieutenant colonel of the battalion March 7, 1776. On the re-enlistment of this battalion becoming the First Eegiment of the Pennsylvania Line, Lieutenant Colonel Chambers continued in the same position under the new arrangement. He participated in the battle of Long Island and assisted that portion of the command covering the retreat. There never was a greater feat of generalship shown than this — to bring off an army of 12,000 men, with- in sight of the enemy, possessed of as strong a fleet as ever floated on our seas, and saving all the baggage. At the battle of Brandywine, Colonel Chambers received a Hessian bullet in his side which gave him a great deal of trouble in after years. With the exception of about one month. Colonel Chambers remained with the First Penn- sylvania, and the history of that famous regiment is so inti- mately connected with his own life, that reference must here be made to the history of the Pennsylvania Line. He was promoted colonel, to rank from September 28, 1776, (41) and assigned to the Tenth Pennsylvania Regiment of the Line March 7, 1777. On April 12, 1777, he was transferred from that regiment to the First Pennsylvania, Colonel Hand having been promoted brigadier general. The Colonel dis- tinguished himself at the battle of Monmouth, and in the subsequent campaigns of the army participated with great honor. Under the re-arrangement of the Pennsylvania Line, which went into effect January 1, 1781, Col. Chambers re- tired from the service, after six years unremitting devotion to it. Although starting with a liberal estate, his retirement at the close of the war was not marked by exemption from the melancholy fact of shattered constitutions and dilapi- dated fortunes which awaited the majority of the heroes of the Revolution upon their return to private life. During the Whiskey Insurrection of 1794, Colonel Chambers com- manded a brigade which marched to the seat of insubordi- nation. For several years he served in the capacity of As- sociate Judge, from 1785, of the Franklin Court of Com- mon Pleas. In 1798 he was appointed brigadier general of the Pennsylvania quota of militia called for by Congress in anticipation of difficulties with France. The brigade was organized and ordered for duty, but its services were not required in the field. General Chambers was one of the original members of the Society of the Cincinnati, and took great interest in its welfare. He lived in the bland consciousness of having clearly striven to promote his country's welfare, and en- couraged in his children and his neighbors by precept and example the sincere love of liberty and direct accountability to God. He died at his residence at Loudoun Forge on the evening of the 25th of April, 1805, and was buried with military and Masonic honors, in the last resting place con- secrated by his father in the churchyard at Falling Springs. (42) ELIZABETH ZANE CLARK. Elizabeth Zane, the youngest daughter of Isaac Zane^ was born in Berkeley county, Virginia, about the year 1764. She was a sister of Col. Ebenezer Zane, celebrated in the history of our western frontiers, and the founder of the city of Wlieeling. In 1773 Elizabeth's father accompanied his sons to the Bedstone settlement in Pennsylvania, where, having married a second time, unhappily it seems, the daughter was sent to a school at Philadelphia. Upon her return she took up her abode in the home of her eldest brother, who previously had established his cabin on the Ohio river just above the confluence of Wlieeling creek. About sixty or seventy yards from Colonel Zane's cabin was erected just prior to the Bevolution, for the protection of the frontiers. Fort Henry, which commanded the river ap- proaches, chiefly as a refuge for the settlers. Only a guard of five or six soldiers was deemed sufficient. During the war an attack having been made by the savages. Colonel Zane having fled with his family to the fort, his cabin was burned by the marauders, whose assault against Fort Henry proved unsuccessful. In rebuilding his home everjrthing was done to make it defensible, for, as the brave colonel de- clared, that never again would he desert his cabin. Within the enclosure he erected a magazine for his own use as well as his neighbors. On the 17th of September, 1782, a spy on the frontiers gave the alarm that an Indian army was approaching. Im- mediately the women and children were gathered into the fort, which for some time previous had been garrisoned by a small body of men. Colonel Zane, with two or three (43) others, remained within his own enclosure, while those who retired into the fort took with them what was considered an ample su23ply of ammunition. The savages made a ter- rific assault but were promptly repulsed. The fort had only about sixteen men all told. Elizabeth Zane occupied during the attack the sentry box with her brother, Jona- than, who was one of the pilots in the Crawford campaign, and John Saltar, loading their guns. This position was the post of observation, and the best riflemen and those having the most knowledge of the modes of warfare were selected for the place. Of course it was a prominent mark for the enemy, and the brave women, w4io were cooling and loading the rifles during the attack would frequently have to stop and pick the splinters out of their bodies, which the bullets split off and drove into their flesh. So secure was Colonel Zane and his little party that the Indians dare not venture near -without danger of being picked off by the gallant marksmen, the fire therefrom being very galling. The sup- ply of powder in the fort, however, by reason of the long continuance of the siege and the repeated endeavors of the enemy to storm the defenses, was soon almost exhausted; a few loads only remaining. In this emergency, it became necessary to replenish their stock from Colonel Zane's house. During the continuance of the last assault, ap- prised of its insecurity and aware of the danger which would inevitably ensue, should the savages after again be- ing driven back return to the assault before a fresh supply could be obtained, it was proposed that one of the fleetest men should endeavor to reach the' house, obtain a keg and return with it to the fort. It was an enterprise full of dan- ger, but many of the chivalric spirits then pent up within the fortress were willing to encounter them all. Among those who volunteered to go on this enterprise was Elizabeth Zane. She was then vouns:, active and ath- (44) letic; witli precipitancy to dare danger and fortitude to sustain her in the midst of it. Disdaining to weigh the hazard of her own life against the risk of that of others, when told that a man would encounter less danger by reason of his greater fleetness, she replied, "and should he fall, his loss will be more severely felt. You have not one man to spare; a woman will not be missed in the defense of the fort.^^ Her services were accepted. Divesting herself of some of her garments, as tending to impede her progress, she stood prepared for the hazardous adventure; and when the gate was opened she bounded forth with the buoyancy of hope and in the confidence of success. Wrapt in amaze- ment, the Indians beheld her spring forward and only ex- claiming, "A squaw, a squaw," no attempt was made to in- terrupt her progress. Arrived at the door she proclaimed her embassy. Colonel Zane fastened a -tablecloth around her waist, and emptying into it a keg of powder, again she ventured forth. The Indians were no longer passive. Ball after ball passed whizzing harmlessly by. She reached the gate and entered the fort in safety. The effort had not been made too soon. Another assault was made by the sav- ages, with the former result. At this juncture relief came, and the Indians, dismayed, fled to the opposite side of the river. It was the last attack ever made against Fort Henry. In this signal victory credit was freely accorded to Eliza- beth Zane, and the pages of history may furnish a parallel to the noble exploits herein set forth, but such an instance of self-devotion is not to be found anywhere. Elizabeth Zane was twice married. Her first husband was Henry Mc- Laughlin, a man of some prominence on the frontiers. He died early; when his widow married secondly Capt. John Clark, who survived his brave-hearted wife several years. Mrs. Clark died about the year 1829 — a woman honored and revered for that one heroic act, which will be told of her in all the years to come. (45) JANE ROAN CLINGAN. Jane Eoan, the second daughter of John Roan and his wife Anne Cochran (Leckey), was born May 3, 1753, in Derry township, Lancaster, now Dauphin, county, Penn- sylvania. Her father was for thirty years the honored and revered pastor of the united congregations of Derry, Pax- tang and Conewago, whose remains are interred in Derry church gravej^ard. Her mother was a daughter of James Cochran and his wife Anne Rowan, having for her first husband "William Leckey. She was a sister of Dr. John Cochran, one of the most distinguished surgeons of the Revolutionary army. Jane Roan, besides being one of the most beautiful of frontier women, was well educated and possessed of refinement. Her marriage, on the 11th of June, 1778, was the occasion of a notice in the "Pennsyl- vania Packet," which was so characteristic and unusual for that or any other newspaper of the period that it is here- with embodied: "Was married, last Thursday, Mr. William Clingan, jr., of Done^i^al, to Miss Jennv Roan, of Londonderry, both of the county of Lancaster — a sober, sensible, agreeable young couple and very sincere "Whigs. This marriage promises as much happiness as the state of things in this our sinful world will admit. "This was truly a Whig wedding, as there were present many young men and ladies, and not one of the gentlemen but had been out when called on in the service of his coun- try, and it was well known that the groom in particular had proved his heroism, as well as AYhigism, in several battles and skirmishes. After the marriage was ended, a motion (46) was made, and heartily agreed to by all present, that the young unmarried ladies should form themselves into an association by the name of the ^Whig Association of the Unmarried Ladies of America/ in wdiich they should pledge their honor that they would never give their hand in marriage to any gentleman until he had first proved him- self a patriot, in readily turning out when called to defend his country from slavery, by a spirited and brave conduct, as they would not wish to be the mothers of a race of slaves and cowards/'' Mr. Clingan had already participated in the battles of Trenton, Princeton, Brandywine and Germantown, and subsequently several tours on the frontiers. He was the son of William Clingan, of Chester county, whose services in behalf of his country are of permanent historic record. After the war of the Eevolution, Mr. and Mrs. Clingan re- moved to Buffalo Valley, where they resided until their death. Their home in that locality was, widely celebrated for its hospitality, and none shone the brighter in all that adorns woman than Jane Eoan Clingan. Mr. Clingan died May 24, 1822, aged sixty-six years, while his wife survived until May 7, 1838. They left seven children who reached maturity, five of whom married and left families. Their de- scendants are scattered over the Union. (47) MARTHA CRAWFORD COOI- V. Martha Crawford, daughter of James Crawford and sister of Colonel Josiah Crawford, was born December 25, 1743, in the Cumberland Valley. Her father was an early pioneer in the Conecocheague settlement, and although brought up amidst the clearing of the forest and in the rude cabin of the frontiers, Martha Crawford received from her mother, a woman of superior mental endowments, every advantage of education which home training and the instruction of the minister, who was the school teacher of the neighborhood, could give. She inherited what is ever lovely in woman, amiability of temper, and was during her long life noted for her charming manners. She married, in 1770, Edward Cook, son of Joseph Cook, also born in the Cumberland Valle}^, January 1, 1739. In 1772 they removed to the "Forks of the Yough," between the Monongahela and Youghiogheny rivers, now Fayette countv, and between that date and 1776 built a stone house, yet standing, where they lived and died. When he first set- tled in the western part of the State he kept a store, had a mill and owned slaves. He was a member of the Committee of Conference which met at Carpenter's Hall, June 18, 1776, and of the Convention of July 15, 1776. In 1777 he was ap- pointed by the General Assembly one of the Commissioners from Pennsylvania to meet those from other States which assembled at New Haven, Conn., November 22, 1777, to regulate the prices of commodities. In 1781 he was in command of the Battalion of Rangers for frontier defense; was appointed sub-lieutenant of Westmoreland county in 1780-1, and lieutenant January 5, 1782, which latter office (48) he held at the time of the erection of Fayette county in 1783. NoYember 21, 1786, Colonel Cook was appointed a jus- tice with jurisdiction including the county of Washington, and August 17, 1791, Associate Judge of Fayette county. He was a man of influence, and during the excise troubles, in 1794, was chosen chairman of the Mingo Creek meeting, and was largely instrumental in allaying the excitement, thus virtually ending the "Whiskey Insurrection." Colo- nel Cook died on the 28th of November, 1808. Prominent as he was during not only the early organiza- tion of Westmoreland county, but throughout the Eevolu- tionary era and the subsequent events of frontier warfare, his wife was no less distinguished for her patriotic zeal and her great hospitality. Amid these trying times with the cares of the family, as well as the work of the store, mill and farm, she was the same noble wife and mother. During her long life she was greatly beloved by the entire com- munity, and when on the 20th of April, 1837, she passed awa}^, in the old stone house into which she had moved, as she always said, in "Independence year,'' there was sor- row at many hearthsides. Colonel and Mrs. Cook left but one child, James Cook, who was born in 1772, and died in 1848. (49) SARAH SIMPSON COOKE. Sarah Simpson, daughter of Samuel and Eebecca Simp- son, was born in Paxtang township, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, May 7, 1742. Her grandfather, Thomas Simpson, was one of the first settlers in that locality, his name being upon the assessment list of Conestoga township, Chester county, afterwards Donegal, and then Paxtang in Lancaster. The children of the first pioneers, whatever the circumstances of the parents, received a limited educa- tion. Mr. Simpson was a well-to-do farmer, and yet so re- mote was he from the town that his children were educated chiefly at home — a few months in the year of winter school scarcely amounted to more than the rudiments. In house- hold accomplishments, Sarah Simpson excelled. She could spin and weave, and was, therefore, personally fit for the wife of a frontiersman. She married, in 1762, William Cooke. He was the son of John Cooke, born about the year 1739, the father being an earl}^ emigrant into Pennsylvania, coming from near Londonderry, Ireland. In 1767 Mr. Cooke removed his familv to Fort Auo^usta, now Sunburv. He was elected the first sheriff of Northumberland county, October, 1772, and at the opening of the struggle for independence one of its firmest supporters. He was a member of the Com- mittee of Observation for the count}', of the Provincial Conference of June 18, 1776, and of the Constitutional Convention of July following. On the last day of the ses- sion of the latter body he was chosen and recommended as colonel of the battalion to be raised in the counties of Northampton and Northumberland. This became the (50) Twelfth Eegiment of the Pennsylvania Line, and being composed of riflemen, Avas employed upon picket dnty and covered the front of General Washington's army during the year 1777, while detachments were sent from it to General Gates, materially assisting in the capture of Burgoyne. His regiment was so badly cut up at the battles of Bran- dywine and Germantown,that it was disbanded and Colonel Cooke mustered out of service. He was appointed deputy quartermaster of stores during the years 1778, 1779 and 1780. In 1781 and 1782 he was chosen to the General Assembly; commissioned one of the justices October 3, 1786, and January 16, 1796, an Associate Judge of North- umberland county. He died at the town of Northumber- land April 22, 1804, the family having removed thither as early as 1775. It was during this year that the Eev. Philip Fithian, in his journal, alludes to the invitation of Sheriff Cooke to stop with him. Mrs. Cooke was certainly an agreeable woman — hospitable and kind in the extreme. During the war, her husband in the patriot army, many duties devolved upon her, apart from the care and educa- tion of her children. Amidst the gloom, her strong old Calvinistic faith buoyed up her heart, and her firm reliance upon the God of Battles nerved her for whatever might be- fall her. Finally her hu.sband returned from the war, re- lieving her anxiety. During the summer of 1778 their house was a hospital, as well as an asylum, where the wounded and sick, the helpless women and children re- ceived care and succor. Mrs. Cooke was never weary in well-doing. When peace dawned plenty was added to their stores, for in a letter to a brother in London, in 1786, Colonel Cooke writes declining the offer of money, but says: "You desire me to make out such a list of books as Johnny requires to complete his li- brary and you would send them in the spring, and I thought (51) that would be sufficient at present, and yet I would take it as a kindness if yon would pack up a piece of chintz along with Johnny^s books that would make each of the girls a pattern of a go^wTi." He also adds, that he had "just com- pleted a grist mill two and a half miles from here, which goes very well/^ Mrs. Cooke died at Northumberland in 1822. The Johnny referred to was her second child who, as Mr. Linn so fitly observed, "was cradled amid the din of arms." It was while he had entered the practice of the law, in 1792, that a call was made upon him, and he received a captain's commission in the Fourth Sub-legion of the United States Army. His company was chiefly recruited at Northumber- land. It was under "Wayne at the Miami, and assisted in checking the power of the confederated Indians in the Northwest Territory. Upon his return from the army, he married and settled down to works of peace at Northumber- land. Colonel Cooke's daughter Mary married Eobert Brady, while Jane became the wife of William P. Brady, sons of the gallant Capt. John Brady. Eebecca Cooke mar- ried William Steedman, Elizabeth married Martin, and Sarah, the youngest daughter, married first, William McClelland, and secondly. Judge Samuel Harris, of Ly- coming county. William Cooke married Martha Lemmon, daughter of James Lemmon. The descendants of Colonel and Mrs. Cooke are among the best citizens of the State, people who appreciate and revere the patriotic virtues of their ancestors. (52) MARGARET COCHRAN CORBIN. Margaret Cochran, daughter of Robert Cochran, was born in what is now Franklin county, Pa., Noyember 12, 1751. During the Indian maraud of 1756 her father was killed by the Indians and her mother taken prisoner. In No- vember, 1758, the latter was seen one hundred miles west- ward of the Ohio. It is probable that Margaret and her brother John, were away from home at the time. In 1765 nothing had been heard from the mother, and the children were yet under the guardianship of their maternal uncle. About the year 1772 Margaret married John Corbin. Of him or his antecedents little is known save that he was a Virginian by birth. At the commencement of the war of the Revolution, John Corbin enlisted as a matross in Captain Francis Proctor^s First company of the Pennsylvania Artillery, and his wife accompanied her soldier to the wars. Childless, she felt that the patriot cause demanded this self-sacrificing duty on her part, and as the sequel shows, she proved how brave a woman could become. At the attack upon Fort Wash- ington, a shot from the enemy killed her husband. There being no one to fill his place the officer in command directed the piece to be withdrawn. Hearing this order, Margaret Corbin unhesitatingly took her husband^s place, and hero- ically performed his duties with skill and courage, until seriously wounded. Her services were appreciated by the officers of the army. The State of Pennsylvania made prompt provision for her, but it was not until the Supreme Executive Council called the attention of Congress to her case did that body offer her any relief. (53) On the 29th of June, 1779, the Council ordered: "That the case of Margaret Corbin, who was wounded and utterly disabled at Fort Washington, while she heroically filled the post of her husband, who was killed by her side serv- ing a piece of artillery, be recommended to a further con- sideration of the Board of War, this Council being of opinion that notwithstanding the rations which have been allowed her, she is not provided for as her helpless situation really requires." A few days afterward, in July, we have the first acknowledgment of her services by Congress, which unanimously resolved: "That Margaret Corbin, wounded and disabled at the battle of Fort Washington while she heroically filled the post of her husband, who was killed by her side serving a piece of artillery, do receive during her natural life, or continuance of said disability, one-half the monthly pay drawn by a soldier in the service of these States; and that she now receive, out of the public stores, one suit of clothes or value thereof in money." With this documentary evidence, it is a strange thing that ]\Ir. Lossing, in his "Field Book of the Revolution," as well as other historians of greater or lesser note, should attempt to give the credit of these heroic achievements to some one else. On the rolls of the Invalid regiment in Pennsylvania, commanded by Colonel Lewis Nicola, as it was discharged in April, 1783, is found the name of Mar- garet Corbin. She was properly pensioned by her native State at the close of the war and until her death, caused by her wounds received in battle. She resided in Westmore- land county, beloved, honored and respected by every one. She died about the year 1800, the precise date not being ob- tainable. For her distinguished bravery in these days when patriotism has to be taught, it would be well that the women of Pennsylvania, so proud of their Revolutionary ancestry, should honor her devotion and loyalty to country (54) and liberty, by perpetuating her virtues in bronze or mar- ble. Mr. De Lancey, in writing of the eapitnlation of Fort Washington, enthusiastically wrote: "The deed of Au- gustina of Arragon, the Maid of Zaragoza, was not nobler, truer, braver than that of Margaret Corbin, of Pennsyl- vania." J (55) MERCY KELSEY CUTTER COVENHOVEN. Among the matrons of the Revolution who lived on the northern frontiers of the State during the dark and gloomy days of the struggle for liberty, there were few who en- dured more sufferings, trials and privations than Mercy Kelsey Cutter Covenhoven. She was born in New Jersey, January 19, 1755, and was raised in that Province. Very little is known of her parents. They emigrated to the West Branch Valley of the Susquehanna probably as early as 1776, and settled near the mouth of Loyalsock creek, in what is now Lycoming county. About that time there was a large emigration from New Jersey to the West Branch, the attraction being the report of the fine lands in that sec- tion and the opportunity for acquiring homes. That the family yet lived in New Jersey when Washing- ton and the British were operating in that Province is at- tested by the story of a romantic incident in her life. It is related that Miss Cutter was captured by the Hessians near Trenton, robbed of her silver shoe buckles, partly denuded of her clothing and tied to a tree. In this condition she was found hj young Covenhoven and released. Soon after this both families emigrated to Pennsylvania and settled at Loyalsock, as stated above, for the records show that Robert Covenhoven and Mercy K. Cutter were married February 22, 1778. The marriage evidently grew out of the roman- tic incident in New Jersey. He was the son of Peter Co- venhoven and born in ]\Ionmouth county. New Jersey, De- cember 7, 1755. At this period the times were perilous on the West Branch. The Indians were incited by the British to commit the most atrocious acts of butchery on the set- (56) tiers, and soon the Big Ennaway followed b}^ tlie flight of all to Fort Augusta for safety. The savages soon followed and swept the valley as with a besom of destruction, leav- ing nothing but blackened ruins in their rear. Eobert Covenhoven early became a noted scout and partisan ranger. Active, fearless and sleepless, he rendered invalu- able service to the commander of the county militia, and the notches cut on the back of his big hunting knife (which has been preserved) clearly tell that he caused at least nine savages to bite the dust. He was most active preceding the Big Eunaway in warning the settlers of the approach of the large body of Indians, and in preparing them for the mem- orable flight down the river. Before the panic was fairly precipitated, he removed his wife and father's family to Fort Augusta, and it was while returning up the river, near where Watsontown now stands, that they met the motley procession of canoes, flat-boats and "hog troughs,'' loaded with women and children and household goods, fleeing down the stream for saftey. The men, armed with rifles and driving cattle, marched on shore to protect their fam- ilies from the lurking foe. Mrs. Covenhoven was a woman noted for coolness and personal bravery, and her presence always greatly aided in inspiring confidence among the weak and easily discour- aged, ^o woman of her time displayed more courage or truer heroism in those dark and gloomy days. Her hus- band accompanied Colonel Hartley in his daring march to Tioga Point as a guide and spy, and with his own hands as- sisted in burning the wigwam of the bloody Queen Esther. It would require the space of a whole volume to relate all the stirring incidents in the life of CoA^enhoven. As soon as the panic was over Mrs. Covenhoven returned to her home on the Loyalsock, and there she continued to live till independence was fairly won. (57) On the restoration of peace Robert Covenlioven pur- chased a farm in what is called "Level Corner/' Lycoming county, in 1785, and there he and his wife — one of the true heroines of the Revolution — settled. In the later years of their lives their names were changed to Crownovcr, and as such their few male descendants are now known. On this farm the faithful, brave and courageous wife of the veteran ranger died November 27, 1843, and her remains were laid at rest in the old "Williamsport graveyard, where they were undisturbed until the "march of improvement" demanded their removal to Wildwood cemetery a few years ago. Borne down by the weight of years, her husband did not long survive her. Soon after the death of his wife he went to live with a daughter near Xorthumberland and there he died October 29, 1846, at the patriarchal age of ninety years. He was buried in the graveyard of the old Presbj^- terian church at Northumberland — now a common — and his plain marble tombstone may be seen standing alone and as erect as a sentinel on duty. It has always been a source of deep regret that the descendants of this hero and heroine of the Revolution permitted their remains to lie forty miles apart. They were the parents of eight children, three sons and five daughters. James, the eldest, was born September 9, 1782, date of death unknown; and Maria, the youngest, was born April 4, 1804; was married three times, and died in Kansas, January, 1879. A fine painting of the old ranger, and his pistol, hunting-knife, axe and pocket com- pass are now in the possession of George L. Sanderson, a grandson, and are treasured as sacred relics of "the daj^s that tried men's souls," and for the thrilling associations that cluster around them. (58) HANNAH VANCE CEAWFOED. Hannah Vance, dangliter of John Vance, was born in the valley of the Shenandoah in 1732. Her father was an early settler there, and was surveyor. One of the principal assistants was William Crawford, the youthful companion of Washington, and it was through this circumstance that the daughter and the yonng surveyor became acquainted, and were subsequently married. When Crawford, in 1767, fixed his home upon the banks of the Youghiogheny, all around was to a great extent an unbroken wilderness. But there were many features of the country very pleasing to a newcomer. The fertility of the soil and the immense growth of the forest trees, so different from the eastern side of the mountain ranges, gave a romantic charm to this region. In June of that year the youthful enthusiast erected a cabin and immediately set to work clearing the forests. To this place he afterwards brought his little family. Here, from that time forward until the events which led to his death, Crawford lived, always taking an active and frequently a leading part in public affairs, and making his home "Craw- ford^s Place" — as it was known far and wide — a famous resort for backwoodsmen, and a tarrying place for new- comers to the valley. William Crawford, son of Valentine Crawford, an emi- grant from the North of Ireland, was born October 17, 1732, in Orange county, Virginia. Young Crawford was brought up as a surveyor. His education seems to have been more or less limited, but his knowledge of men and affairs took a wide range. It was while acting in this ca- pacity, as a surveyor, that he became acquainted with (59) George Washington. As an ensign in the Virginia forces which accompanied Braddock, he was specially distin- guished for gallantr}^, and subsequently promoted to a lieu- tenancy. He accompanied the Virginia troops under Forbes, and after the Bouquet expedition took up the tract of land in Pennsylvania already referred to, near New Haven. Mrs. Cra^vford was no less widely known for that gener- ous hospitality so dearly appreciated by pioneers in search of homes in the wilderness, and so, of all the women on the frontiers of Western Pennsylvania, none were more highly respected and lovingly remembered. During the years when her brave husband was serving his country faithfully as an officer in the struggle for independence, Mrs. Craw- ford kept faithful watch and ward over the younger mem- bers of her family, and to her they were largely indebted for their education, and what measure of life they entered upon. The war drawing to a close. Captain Crawford being declared a supernumerary officer, gladly accepted the op- portunity of returning to his home. Having, as he verily believed, done his whole duty to his country, he now thought only of spending the remainder of his days in quietude and peace. This was, unfortunately for him, to be ordered otherwise. The depredations of the Ohio Indians on the frontiers of Pennsylvania called loudly for redress. No one could remain an indifferent spectator of the terrible scenes then enacting in the exposed settlements, and much less Captain Crawford. When therefore the project of at- tacking the savages in their stronghold at Sandusky, all eyes were turned to that gallant officer who had served with such conspicuous daring on many a battle-field of the Revo- lution. Of the events which followed — of the disastrous ending of what should have been a brilliant campaign — of the inhuman death by torture of the lamented Craw- (60) ford, it is not our province in this place to dwell. As long, however, as our country endures and the heroic deeds of the soldiers of the Eevolution shall be cherished by their descendants, so long will the sad, sad story of Crawford and his men live in kindly memory. Colonel Crawford perished at the stake on the afternoon of June 11, 1782. Washington, upon hearing of the ter- rible ending of his friend^s life, said: "It is with the great- est sorrow and concern that I have learned the melancholy tidings of his death. He was known to me as an officer of great prudence, brave, experienced and active." In a let- ter to General Irvine he says: "I am particularly affected with the disastrous death of Colonel Crawford." Of the fate of the expedition, intelligence was long in coming. However, of all those who suffered from hope de- ferred until the heart grew sick, indeed, and then when the facts vv^ere known, from a recital of them, none was more to be commiserated than the "wife of the unfortunate com- mander. Hannah Yance Crawford had parted from her husband with a heavy heart. As the volunteers one after another returned to her neighborhood, with what anxiety did she make inquiries of them concerning her companion. But no one could give the disconsolate wife a word of infor- mation concerning him. Her lonely cabin by the Youghio- gheny was a house of mourning now. After three weeks of dreadful suspense, she learned the sad news of her husband^s death in the wilderness, from her daughter. The widow was left in embarrassment as to property. Colonel CraAvford^s private affairs had come to be in a very unsettled condition on account of his military and other duties having called him so frequently from home. The result was that his estate was swept away, most of it by a flood of claims, some having no just foundation. For losses sustained upon the expedition, the State of Penn- (61) sylvania afterwards reimbursed his estate. Mrs. Craw- ford drew a pension from the State on account of the mili- tary services of her husband; but Consrress seems to have turned a deaf ear to her application for relief, deeming, no doubt, the Pennsylvania pittance ample. It is related by a grandson that when he was a little boy his grand- mother took him behind her on horseback, rode across the Youghiogheny, turned to the left into the woods when they both alighted by an old moss-covered white oak log. "Here,^' said the good old lady, as she sat down upon the log and cried as though her heart would break, "here I parted with your grandfather!'^ Mrs. Crawford lived at her old home where she had resided nearly fifty years, until her death in 1817. The mournful fate of her husband saddened her declining years, for like one of old she would not be comforted, because he was not. (62) CATHARINE MARTIN DAVIDSON. Catharine Martin, daugliter of Robert Martin, was born May 16, 1768, on the site of the town of Northumberland, where her father was the first permanent settler. Mr. Mar- tin came originally from New Jersey, and had attempted to make a settlement at Wyoming nnder a Pennsylvania title, bnt this design was frustrated by the opposition of the ^^Connecticut Intruders.^^ He built the first honse at Nor- thumberland, and at that time it was the only dwelling in sight of Fort Angnsta on the Sunbury side of the river. We first hear of his daughter Catharine during the summer of 1778, when ministering to the relief of the distressed peo- ple who fled from Wyoming upon the terrible massacre there on the 3d of July, 1778. She was in verity an angel of consolation, assisting her mother and her younger sisters in ministering to the wants of the half-starved fugitives, and in caring for the sick and disabled who had crowded their house and barn. During the "great runaway" on the West Branch, of 1779, and the subsequent capture of Fort Freeland by the British and their savage allies, she was again called upon to minister to the relief and necessities of the many women and children who took refuge at Nor- thumberland. She was a woman of untiring devotion, and, like a sister of charity, was regarded by her friends and neighbors as one of the most philanthropic of women. After the Revolution, March 31, 1785, Catharine Martin married Dr. James Davidson, who was then temporarily lo- cated at Sunbury. Soon after their marriage, having pur- chased a farm near the mouth of Pine creek, about two miles above Jersey Shore, they located there, where her (63) husband followed his profession, and for a long period was the only physician in that part of the country. Here Mrs. Davidson died about the year 1816 and was interred in the little cemetery on the farm, which her husband set aside for burial purposes. For many years it was known as the "Davidson Burial Ground'^ and now as the Pine Creek graveyard. A large number of the early settlers were buried there, and occasionally an interment is still made in it. Dr. James Davidson was born in 1750 in Essex county, New Jersey. His father was a man of means and gave his son a liberal education. Upon leaving school he studied medicine under Jonathan Dayton. After practicing two years in Orange county, New York, he entered the general hospital at Philadelphia, of which he was appointed assist- ant surgeon by Dr. William Shippen. On the 5th of April, 1777, he was commissioned surgeon of the Fifth Eegiment of the Pennsylvania Line, commanded by Colonel Francis Johnston. Dr. Davidson served faithfully to the close of the war, and was one of the most successful surgeons of the Army of the Eevolution, doing most excellent service in re- lieving the wounded, the sick and suffering, on the various battle-fields during the struggle for independence. After the close of the war he w^as appointed surgeon of the Second Battalion of Infantry of Northumberland county by the Supreme Executive Council, and upon the erection of L3Toming county in 1795, commissioned by Governor Mifflin one of the first judges of the new county. He was a gentleman of culture, refinement, highly intelli- gent, modest and unassuming, fond of anecdote, cheerful, hospitable, and benevolent. He died on the 16th day of January, 1825, and was buried by the side of his wife in the Pine Creek graveyard. Dr. Davidson had five sons and three daughters. Eobert was appointed a lieutenant in the army on the breaking out of the War of 1812, and was killed (64) at the battle of Lundy^s Lane^, while gallantly leading his company. Asher Davidson succeeded his father in the practice of medicine and became a prominent physician. The other sons were Oliphant, William P. and James. The daughters were Catharine, married Captain Eobert Eobin- son, of Pine Creek, the son of Colonel Robinson; Maria, married William Watson, of Watsontown, and Elizabeth, married William Epley, of Jersey Shore. (G5) ANNE SCHENC'K DAVIES. Anne Schenck was born March 19, 1763, on Long Island. She was the daughter of Nicholas Schenck (1732-1810), and his wife, Wilhelmje Wyckoff. The Schencks, it is said, could trace their ancestors back to the time of Charlemagne, in the eighth century. They were a very prominent family in the early days of the settlement of Long Island. Anne Schenck was married October 29, 1780, at Flatlands, L. I., Kings county, by the Eev. Vansinder, to Hezekiah Davies. She was a young lady of good education, and a patriotic lover of her country. It has been stated in some of the his- tories that the Schencks were Tories. This was not cor- rect. So far as regards Anne's parents they were patriots, devoted to their country's cause. It may be well, perhaps, to refer to her husband's services in the War of the Eevolu- tion. Hezekiah Davies, the son of Nathaniel and Hannah Davies, was born November 22, 1747, in Charlestown town- ship, Chester county, Pennsylvania. At the commence- ment of the war of the Eevolution he entered heartily into the service, and when the "Flying Camp" was formed, he was commissioned a lieutenant in Colonel Montgomery's Chester County Battalion of that formidable body. He par- ticipated in the battle of Long Island, where he was slightly wounded. Upon the surrender of Fort Washington to the British, on the 16th of November, 1776, he was sent to the prison ships then in Wallabout Bay. Subsequently he was paroled and allowed to remain on Long Island. It was during this period that he met Miss Schenck, a girl with such charming and winning manners that it was (66) little wonder the patriot soldier ofiered his hand in mar- riage. There was some opposition on the part of her par- ents, and it is owing to this fact that the statement was made in regard to their Tory proclivities. The objection, however, was simply on account of the youth of their daughter and their want of knowledge of the personal char- acter of Lieutenant Davies, who was an entire stranger to them. The}^ were married at the time stated, but the lieutenant was not exchanged until the 7th of December following, when he returned to his home in Pennsylvania, taking his bride with him. Owing to the financial circumstances of her husband, Mrs. Bavies was obliged to practice much self-denial during the years of the Revolution which followed, from the fact that her husband was almost continuously in the service, and the pay being in Continental money was so depre- ciated as to be almost worthless. Their married life, how- ever, was happy and peaceful and quiet. After the close of the struggle for independence, Lieutenant Davies took an active part at the beginning of the present century in the political affairs of the day. He was elected a member of the General Assembly in 1803 and re-elected in 1804. In that body he was prominent on some of the most import- ant committees. Mrs. Davies died February 11, 1826. Her husband died December 27, 1837. They were both buried in the Presbyterian graveyard in the Great Valley, Chester count}^. Pa. They left a numerous posterity, some of whom have become prominent in the various sections of the Union where they reside. (67) HANNAH BLAIR FOSTER. Hannah Blair, daughter of the Rev. Samuel Blair, was born in Fagg's Manor, Chester county, Pa., March 15, 1745. Her father dying in 1751, she was brought up under the careful training of one of the best of mothers, a daughter of Lawrence Van Hook, of New York. In 1767 she mar- ried the Rev. William Foster, recently licensed by the New Castle Presbytery, and then under a call to the congrega- tions of Upper Octorara and Doe Run. The Eev. William Foster was born in Little Britain township, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, August 17, 1740. He was the son of Alexander Foster, who emigrated from the North of Ireland and settled in that township. He graduated from Princeton in 1764, having as his contemporaries David Ramsey, the historian; Judge Jacob Rush, Oliver Ells- worth, Nathan Niles and Luther Martin. In the war of the Revolution Mr. Foster engaged heartily in the cause of civil liberty, and encouraged all who heard him to do their ut- most in defense of their rights. In the beginning of 1776 he preached a very patriotic and stirring sermon to the young men of his congregation and neighborhood upon the subject of their duty to their country, in its then trying situation. It had its effect in kindling the fire of patriot- ism, and many of his hearers joined the army of the Decla- ration. On another occasion he was called to Lancaster to preach to the troops collected there previous to their joining the main army. It did much to arouse the spirit of patriotism among the people. Indeed, with all deference to those of our own fold, the Presbyterian clergymen contributed (68) greatly to keep alive tlie flame of liberty, and frequently but for them it would bave been impossible to obtain sufficient recruits to keep up the patriotic forces requisite to oppose a too often victorious foe. It may here be stated, that it was a great object among certain British officers to silence the Scotch-Irish Presby- terian preachers as far as possible, and they frequently dis- patched persons into the country to surprise and take them prisoners. While the British were in possession of Wil- mington, Delaware, a party of light horse was sent one Sunday evening to take Mr. Foster prisoner and burn his church. Mr. Foster received word of it on the morning of that day at Doe Eun, and, hastening home called his neigh- bors, who removed his family and library remote from the public road. The expedition after proceeding twelve or fifteen miles on their way were informed by a Tory that their purpose was known, and that militia were stationed to intercept them. They then returned to Wilmington without accomplishing their object. Mr. Foster was much esteemed and beloved by his con- gregation for zeal, talents and piety, and at his death, September 30, 1780, at the early age of forty years, was uni- versally lamented. In the great respect of the people for Mr. Foster, his wife was a sharer. She was distinguished by an equanimity of temper that adorned those principles which she constantly practiced through life. After the close of the Eevolutionary war, and the quiet- ing of the Indian depredations on the western frontiers of Pennsylvania, Mrs. Foster removed to the Cussewago set- tlement (now Meadville) with her family. She died at the residence of a daughter in Mercer, Pa., on the 14th of May, 1810. Two of her sons, Samuel Blair and Alexander W., became members of the bar, were among the most eminent lawyers in Western Pennsylvania, and long recog- (69) nized as the leaders of the profession in that section of the State. A son of the first named, Henry D. Foster, of West- moreland county, was a member of Congress, and promi- nent at the bar — the soul of honor, and a life without stain of reproach. (70) ANNE WEST GIBSON. Anne West, daughter of Francis West, Jr., was born at Clover Hill, near Sligo, Ireland, March 4, 1750. She re- ceived a fair education during her parents' residence in Philadelphia, which, in addition to her natural endow- ments of heart and mind, rendered her a most lovable woman. In 1772 she married George Gibson. He was the son of George Gibson, bom at Lancaster, Pa., October 10, 1747; educated at Philadelphia, where he entered a mercan- tile house and made several voyages as supercargo to the West Indies. When the Eevolution began, living in that section of Western Pennsylvania claimed by Virginia, he raised a company which was credited to the Continental service. His men were distinguished for good conduct and braver}^, and known in the army as '^^Gibson's Lambs.'' In order to obtain a supply of gunpowder he descended the Mississippi river with twenty-five picked men, and after a hazardous journey, through the assistance of Oliver Pol- lock, succeeded in accomplishing his errand. On his re- turn he was commissioned colonel of the First Virginia Eegiment, joined General Washington before the evacua- tion of New York, and was engaged in all the principal bat- tles of the war. After the close of the contest. Colonel Gibson returned to his farm in Cumberland county, and received the ap- pointment of county lieutenant. In 1791 he accepted the command of a regiment in St. Clair's unfortunate expedi- tion against the Indians on the Miami, in which he was mortally wounded, dying at Fort Jefferson, Ohio, December 14, 1791. He was one of the most brilliant officers of the Revolution. (71) V Mrs. Gibson, during the very frequent absence of her husband, busied herself with the cares of the farm, and it is said of her that following the flight of the settlers from the West Branch during the years 1778 and 1779, her hospita- ble house and surroundings furnished an asylum for many of the refugees. Her generosity was unstinted, and in the years when the patriot army required all the supplies ob- tainable, the granary of Gibson^s mill on Shearman^s creek, furnished large quantities of flour. It was never paid for, nor was it expected. It was given by that patriotic matron in aid of her suffering neighbors, who, with her husband, were struggling for libertyj At last independence dawned, yet after a brief term of peace came the Indian war, and that disastrous campaign which caused perchance the pro- foundest sensation of that decade in our history, the battle of Miami. The death of Colonel Gibson was a severe blow to that devoted and heroic wife and mother. Her position was assuredly a forlorn one, yet, the fact that there were those who required her maternal care, buoyed up her spirits, and although, from thence onward she lived in the sweet memories of the past, there were duties to perform — the education of her children. With the determination not to permit her sons to degenerate, she built a school house near the homestead and succeeded in educating her boys — and the prominent part those sons played in public affairs proved how well this was done. Mrs. Gibson was a devout member of the Episcopal church, and very frequently attended the services at Car- lisle fifteen miles distant. An incident in this connection is told of her. On one occasion meeting Bishop White at Carlisle she prevailed upon him to accompany her to Shear- man's Valley that he might baptize one or more of the boys who had not yet received that Christian rite. It so happened that all four of the boys were off that day on a hunt in the (72) inountaiiis, and as they did not return until late, the house- hold with its distingnished visitor was sound asleep before they came in — the baptism was necessarily postponed nntil the morrow. The boys knew nothing of the arrangement, and as game tracked best in the early morning, they started before daj^break to conclude the chase abandoned the even- ing before. Just how the mother explained matters to the good Bishop at "coffee and muffins" that morning, and the boys absent from the table, has not come down to us. Mrs. Gibson survived her husband upwards of seventeen years, djdng on the 9tli of February, 1809, at the home farm on Shearman^s creek. Of her children, Francis, the eldest, entered the army, but relinquished the service after a few years and filled several civil positions with honor and fidel- ity. G-eorge, the second son, also entered the army, and for forty years was commissary general. William, the young- est, died earlj in life. John Bannister was her most distin- guished son. He became Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania, a position he filled with such emi- nent ability that his name is revered wherever the common law is known. (73) RACHEL MARX GRAYDON. Rachel Marx was a native of the Island of Barbadoes, born August 22, 1734:. She was the eldest of four daugh- ters, all of whom, through marriage, were connected with some of the most influential families in Pennsylvania. Her father, who was engaged in the West India trade, was of German birth — her mother a native of Glasgow, Scotland. At the age of seven years her parents removed to Phila- delphia, where Rachel was well educated. She formed the acquaintance and married, about the year 1750, Alexander Graydon, a native of Longford, Ireland, doing business at that time in the old town of Bristol, Bucks county. Pa. He was a gentleman of considerable prominence, was thor- oughly patriotic, and in 1747, when there was threatened a general Indian war, he was colonel of the associated regi- ment of Bucks county. He died in March, 1761. At the time of her marriage Mrs. Graydon was considered the fin- est girl in Pennsylvania, "having," according to the cele- brated Dr. Baird, "'the manners of a lady bred at court." Left thus early in life a widow with four children, the eld- est being scarcely nine years of age, the estate being en- cumbered, it became expedient for her to remove to Phila- delphia, where there were greater opportunities for "widows reputably brought up," not only to obtain a livelihood, but also to educate her children. In this she succeeded, and when some fourteen years later, Mrs. Graydon found that her boys were nearly all able to take care of themselves, she removed prior to the breaking out of the E evolution to Beading, where during the contest for libert}^, she contin- ued to reside. Two of her children became prominent in (74) tlieir lives, and it is of these, that in this connection, we essay to refer. Alexander, the oldest, was born at Bristol, Pa., April 10, 1752; educated in the academy at Philadel- phia, he studied law, hut the War of the Eevolution com- ing on, he accepted a commission as captain in the Third Pennsylvania Battalion, Colonel John Shee, January 5, 1776. He served with distinction at the battle of Long Island, bu.t was taken at the surrender of Fort Washington, the 16th of November, 1776. He was confined some time at Flatbush, and while there a prisoner, we have the account of the efforts made by his most excellent mother to effect his release on parole. As it exhibits not only the strength of maternal affection, but the fortitude and patriotic spirit worthy of an American matron, we herewith give it as con- densed from that most excellent work of Captain G-raydon, "Memoirs of a Life Chiefly Passed in Pennsylvania." Addressing a letter to General Washington, who could do nothing to accomplish the release of her son, she re- solved on going herself to New York, notwithstanding the opposition of her friends, on account of the difficulties of traveling, for the purpose of soliciting his freedom on pa- role from the British commander. She accordingly set out for Philadelphia, and on her arrival in the city, a distant relative was over officious in tendering his service to drive her to New York. The offer was accepted, but when they nearly reached Princeton they were overtaken, to their great astonishment, by a detachment of American cavalry, the gentleman being a loyalist. Pound in such company, she was also taken into custody and obliged to retrace her way to Philadelphia, under an escort of horse. When they reached Bristol on their return, means were found for the prisoner to go on, while Mrs. Graydon was acompanied by an old friend to the headquarters of the American Army, where proper measures were taken for proceeding within J (73) the British lines. After being thence conducted, she was committed to the courtesy of some Hessian officers. It happened, during the ceremony of the flag, that a gun was somewhere discharged on the American side. This in- fringement of military etiquet was furiously resented by the German officers, and their vehement gestures and ex- pressions of indignation, but imperfectly understood, alarmed her not a little. She supported herself as well as she could under this in- auspicious introduction into the hostile territory, and had her horse led to the quarters of the general who commanded in Brunswick, where she alighted and was shown into a parlor. Weary and faint from fatigue and agitation, she partook of some refreshment offered her, and then went to deliver a letter of introduction she had received from Mr. Vanhorne, of Boundbrook, to a gentleman in Brunswick. Five of the Misses Vanhorne, his nieces, were staying at the house, and with them Mrs. Graydon became well ac- quainted, as they avowed Whig principles. After a detention of a week or more at Brunswick, Mrs. Graydon embarked in a sloop or shallop for New York. The vessel was fired upon from the shore, but no one was injured, and she reached in safety the destined port. She was allowed to occupy a part of Mr. Suydam's house during her stay at Flatbush. Here in the society of her son her accustomed flow of good spirits returned; she even gave one or two tea drinkings to the "rebel clan," and "learned from Major Williams the art of making Johnny cakes in the true Maryland fashion." These recreations did not inter- fere with the object of her expedition, nor could her son* dissuade her from her purpose of proving the result of an application. When she called in New York on Mr. Gal- loway, who was supposed to have much influence at head- quarters, he advised her to apply to Sir William Howe by (76) memorial, and offered to draw up one for her. In a few minutes lie produced what accorded with his ideas on the subject, and read to her what he had written, commencing with: "Whereas, Mrs. Graydon has always been a true and faithful subject of His Majesty George the Third, and whereas, her son, an inexperienced youth, has been deluded by the arts of designing men — " "Oh, sir,^^ cried the mother, "that will never do! My son cannot obtain his re- lease on these terms.^^ "Then, madam," replied that gen- tleman, somewhat peevishly, "I can do nothing for you!" Though depressed by her first disappointment, she would not relinquish her object; but continued to advise with every one she thought able or willing to assist her. In accordance with the counsel received from a friend, she at length resolved upon a direct application to General Howe. After several weeks of delay, anxiety and disappoint- ment through which her perseverance was unwearied, the design was put in execution. Without having informed her son of what she meant to do, lest he might prevent her, through his fear of improper concessions on her part, she went one morning to 'New York, and boldly waited upon Sir William Howe. She was shown into a parlor and had a few moments to consider how she should address him who possessed the power to grant her request, or to destroy her hopes. He entered the room and was near her before she perceived him. "Sir William Howe, I presume?" said Mrs. Graydon, rising. He bowed; she made known her business — a mother's feelings doubtless giving eloquence to her epeech — and entreated permission for her son to go home with her on parole. "And then immediately to take up arms against us, I suppose," said the General. "By no means, sir; I solicit his release upon parole; that will re- strain him until exchanged." The General seemed to hesi- tate; bu.t on the renewal of her suit gave the desired per- (77) mission. The mother^s joy at her success was the prelude to a welcome summons to the prisoner to repair to Xew York for the purpose of being transported in a flag-vessel to Elizabethtown. After some adventures the travelers reached Philadel- phia, where the}^ dined at President Hancock's. He had opposed Mrs. Graydon's scheme of going to N'ew York, and though apparently pleased with her success, could not be supposed cordially gratified by an event which might give to the adverse cause any reputation for clemency. Such is the policy of war, and so stern a thing is patriotism. Until the close of the Revolution Mrs. Graydon con- tinued to reside at Eeading, and while there her house was the seat of hospitality and the resort of numerous guests of distinction. The Baron DeKalb was often there, and be- tween her 0T\Ti and General Mifflin's family there was a strong intimacy existing. When the county of Dauphin was organized, the appointment of her son Alexander as prothonotary occasioned her removal to Harrisburg. She was a lady much devoted to her family, and yet in the early days of the Capital City of the State, she was prominent in deeds of love and charity. She died at Harrisburg, January 23, 1807, and is there buried. Of her children, Alexander, of whom much has already been stated, was in later years a frequent contributor to literary and political journals. In 1816 he removed to Philadelphia, where he died May 2, 1818. William, another son, born September 4, 1759, was educated in Philadelphia, studied law, and was the author of several law books. He died at Harrisburg, October 13, 1840. He was a man of fine literary tastes, highly esteemed, a gentleman of the old school, in his man- ners refined and courteous, of unblemished integrity, and a worthy son of such a distinguished matron of the Revolu- tion. (78) CATHARINE EWING HAND. Catliarine Ewiiig, only daiigliter of Jolin Ewing and his wife Sarah Yeates, was born March 25^ 1751^ in Philadel- phia. She died June 21^ 1805, at Eockford, near Lancas- ter, Pennsylvania. Her father dying in November, 1754, her mother removed to Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The lat- ter was the sister of Jasper Yeates, who was one of the most eminent lawyers in Pennsylvania before the period of the Eevolntion. The daughter's early education was secured under private tutorage in Lancaster, and in one of the ad- mirable schools at Philadelphia. In the days of the Eevo- lution women were not "reformers," but they proved them- selves nevertheless "queens of society," and such was Mrs. Hand. Philanthropy was chaperoned by these matrons of '76. Now and then we hear of isolated cases in the pres- ent age, like Elizabeth Fry, Florence Nightingale, and Clara Barton, but the women of the Eevolution were just as self- denying. They were ministering angels to the sick and wounded, the convalescent and dying. The remnants of the forlorn hope of many a battle of the struggle for inde- pendence were accustomed to the day of their death to speak of the women of their era in terms of fervent gratitude and praise. Of Mrs. Hand it may well be said, that she was an ad- mirable companion for a brave and gallant officer. Her home at Eockford near the Conestoga, was a most hospita- ble one, and out from it there went philanthropic deeds, which in the early days of the Eepublic made her the ad- miration of Whig and Tory. In her youth, Mrs. Hand was considered a beautiful woman, and the profile of her (79) still in existence represents her with regular features and her hair worn over a cushion. She was frequently in camp with her husband, accompanied by her little daughter, then a baby. She was not "a woman of history" as one might suppose, but her husband was devotedly attached to her, and in his letters to Judge Yeates invariably mentioned her as his "dearest Kitty." Catharine Ewing married, at Lancaster, March 13, 1775, Edward Hand. He was born at Clyduff, Kings county. Province of Leinster, Ireland, 31st of December, 1744. He was educated as a surgeon, graduated from Trinity College, Dublin, and came to America in 1767, as a sur- geon's mate, of the Eighteenth Eoyal Irish Regiment, sail- ing from the cove of Cork, 20th of May, arriving at Phila- delphia, 11th of July. He was promoted to be ensign of the same regiment, February 27, 1772, and accompanied his command to Fort Pitt, returning to Philadelphia in 1774, when he resigned. In the same year he located at Lancas- ter, in order to practice his profession. At the beginning of the Eevolution he entered the Continental service, and was commissioned June 25, 1775, lieutenant colonel of Col- onel William Thompson's battalion of riflemen. He took part with his regiment in the battle of Long Island, and successfully assisted in protecting the retreat of the Ameri- can Arm}^ He subsequently took part in the battles of Wliite Plains, Trenton and Princeton. On the first of April, 1777, he was promoted brigadier general, and was in com- mand of the troops at Fort Pitt. In May, 1778, he was re- called from the western army, and succeeded General Stark in the command at Albany. In the spring of 1779, he w^as ordered to take part in Sullivan's expedition and campaign against the Six N'ations. On the 8th of January, 1781, he was appointed Adjutant General of the Army of the United States, and was present at the siege of Yorktown. (80) On the oOtli of September, 1783, General Hand was com- missioned Major Greneral of the Pennsylvania Line, and at the close of the war resumed the practice of his profession at Lancaster. He was a delegate from Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress in 1784-5, a member of the Assem- bly in 1785, and an elector in 1789. He was a member of the convention which framed the Constitution of 1789-90. March 21, 1781, he was appointed by President Washing- ton, Inspector of Eevenue, and retained that ofhce until the end of his life. In 1794 he was major general of the Sec- ond Division, Pennsylvania militia, and in 1798 appointed a major general in the Provisional Army of the United States. General Hand was an original member of the So- ciety of the Cincinnati, and in 1799 was elected president of the State Society of Pennsylvania. As a citizen he was highly esteemed; as a physician greatly sought after and beloved. His public services are part of his country^s his- tory. He died at Roekford on the Conestoga, September 3, 1802, and his remains, with those of his wife, are buried in St. James^ church-yard, Lancaster. (81) MARGARET ALEXANDER HAMILTON. Margaret Alexander, daughter ol: Hugii Alexander and Martha Edmeston, was born in Shearman^s Valley, Cum- berland, now Perry, county, Pennsylvania, March 17, 1754. Her father was one of the representative men of Cumber- land county during the Revolutionary era. The daughter received a fair education, probably among her relatives, the Edmestons, of Chester county, in addition to the home training of a most excellent and accomplished mother. In December, 1772, she married John Hamilton, and it was during the Revolutionary era, notwithstanding the cares of a small family, she assisted her neighbors and acquaint- ances, while the fathers, husbands and brothers were at the front, in the Jerseys or around Philadelphia. Few can have the remotest idea of the patriotic services, of the pa- tience and self-denial practiced by the women on the fron- tiers during the war of the Revolution. All the able- bodied men served their various tours of duty, and, apart from family cares, the duties of the farm required their constant attention. And yet this was all done uncom- plainingl}^, for they were none the less brave than were the men, and it may well be said that had it not been for the women of the Revolution, independence never would have been a successful issue. Wlien the war was over and peace came, and business resumed its usual sway. Captain Hamil- ton removed to Harrisburg, dying there early in life. His widow remarried, but survived her second husband, Andrew Mitchell, ten years, and died in Fermanagh, Juniata county, August 22, 1835. John Hamilton was born June 17, 1749, in New London, (82) Chester countyj Pennsylvania. He was educated at the celebrated academy of Eev. Dr. Alison. Having inherited a plantation on Shearman's creek, he went into the Juniata Valley, where he purchased a tract of land and erected a stone mansion. During the war of the Eevolution he raised a company of associators, and was in service in two or three campaigns. It may be mentioned to Captain Hamilton's credit, that at the outset of the struggle for in- dependence, when the people of Boston were asking for aid, he with some of his neighbors collected in the Juniata set- tlement money and grain in aid of the beleaguered people of Boston. Interior Pennsylvania has never received the credit for her generosity at that period of our Nation's his- tory which she should have, the larger towns and cities claiming the honor. A few years after the town of Harrisburg was laid out, Captain Hamilton removed thither, purchasing several lots, upon which he built. Several years after, the town was scourged by a pestilence resembling yellow fever, an epi- demic that then prevailed at Baltimore, Philadelphia and ISTew York. Among its victims was Mr. Hamilton, dying August 28, 1793. Few men were more greatly esteemed, not only in the Juniata Valley, but in the new town on the Susquehanna. He was a patriot and a man of mark, es- teemed and honored by all who knew him. (83) KATHARINE HOLTZINGER HARTLEY. Katharine Holtzinger, daughter of Bernhart and Eliza- beth Holtzinger, was born in the town of York, September 26, 1750. Her parents were among the earliest settlers of York and natives of Germany. The daughter was well educated, and on reaching womanhood married Thomas Hartley. During the occupancy of York by the Conti- nental Congress, in the winter of 1777 and '78, the home of Mrs. Hartley was one of generous hospitality, and few women of her native town left a more enduring impress of her character upon her friends and acquaintances than did she. Mrs. Hartley died on Tuesda}^ the 2d of October, 1798, in the town of York, and, we can give no better sum- mary of her excellent qualities than set forth by the news- paper of her day: "It may be truly said of her that she was a loving wife and tender parent, an intelligent mistress, a sincere friend, and a benefactress of the poor. Her breast was a fountain of mercy ever open to the call of distress. In this," continues the contemporary account, "reader, copy her example and the blessing of him who sanctifieth the gift and the giver, will light upon you." Mrs. Hartley was a member of the Episcopal Church of St. John at York, and her remains are interred in the graveyard attached thereto. Thomas Hartley, son of John Hartley, was born Sep- tember 7, 1748, near Reading, Berks county, Pennsyl- vania. He received the rudiments of a classical education, and at the age of eighteen removed to York, where he be- gan the study of law under Mr. Samuel Johnson. He was admitted to practice in the courts at York, July 25, 1769. (84) It lias been stated that his success at the York bar was due to the fact, chiefly, that haying spent his early days in Eeading, he was from childhood acquainted with the Ger- man language, which he spoke with the fluency of an orator. Mr. Hartley was early distinguished as a warm friend of his countr}^, and was elected in 1774 a member of the Provin- cial Meeting of Deputies, held on the 15th of July, that year, at Philadelphia. In the year following he was a member from the same count}^ of the Provincial Confer- ence, which was also held in Philadelphia. Wlien the war of the Eevolution began he was recommended to Congress by the Committee of Safety of Pennsylvania, and was com- missioned lieutenant colonel of the Sixth Pennsylvania Battalion, January 10, 1776. He subsequently was pro- moted to colonel of one of the additional regiments. For an account of his military operations on the "West Branch, in 1778 and 1779, reference is made, fully, in the first series of Pennsylvania Archives. He resigned his commission February 13, 1779, having been elected a mem- ber of the State Assembl}^, in October, 1778. In the year 1783 he was elected member of the Council of Censors and was also a delegate to the State Convention which ratified the Constitution of the United States. He was elected a member of the First Congress and continued a member of that illustrious body for about twelve years, when he was compelled to resign owing to ill health. Colonel Hartley died at his residence in York on the morning of December 21, 1800, and his remains were deposited besides those of his wife in the burying ground of St. John's Church. Colonel Hartley was a representative man of Pennsylvania, and his services rendered the nation and his State during the struggle for independence entitle him to a high place among the statesmen and heroes of '76. (85) MARY LUDWIG HAYS. - Mary Ludwig, the daughter of John George Ludwig, was born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, October 13, 1744. Her parents were emigrants from the Palatinate, Germany. Mary's early years were sj^ent in the family of afterwards General William Irvine, then residing at Carlisle. Here she became acquainted with John Hays, to whom she was married July 24, 1769. AATien the struggle for independ- ence began, John Hays enlisted in Captain Francis Proc- tor's independent artillery company. \ With almost every command a certain number of married women were al- lowed, who did the washing, mending, and frequently the cooking for the soldiers Among these was the wife of John Hays, who gladly availed herself of the privilege of sharing the privations and dangers of war with her hus- band. Two years had passed, of march, bivouac and bat- tle, and the devoted wife followed the fortunes of her part- ner in life. It was preserved for her, however, to immortalize her name by one heroic deed. It was in the action at Mon- mouth that her conduct became conspicuous. Sergeant Hays, who had charge of one of the guns, was severely wounded, and being carried away, the wife took his place in the forefront, and when the conflict was over assisted in carrying water to the disabled. This won for her the sou- briquet of "^loll Pitcher." \ There may have been other "Moll Pitchers," but this heVoine of Monmouth was none the less than Mollie Ha3^s. For her brave conduct, upon coming to the attention of the Commander-in-Chief, Gen- eral Washington, he personally complimented her, as she (86) departed for her liorae in Pennsylvania with her wounded soldier^ to show his appreciation of her virtues and her valuable services to her country. Hays never returned to the army, and died a few years after the close of the war from the effects of his wounds. Owing to the fact that other women were credited with this heroic act at Mon- mouth the State of Pennsylvania, as well as the Federal Government, in recognition of her distinguished services as herein set forth, granted her annuities for life. Mrs. Hays subsequently married George McCauly, and was afterwards familiarly known as Molly McCauly. She was a woman highly respected by the citizens of Carlisle, and at her death, January 22, 1833, was buried with the honors of war. In 1876 the patriotic people of Cumber- land county appropriately marked her grave, and the day is coming when the name of Molly McCauly will be honored and revered by patriots throughout the land. Inured to hardships, privations and sufferings in her life, she was a true matron of the Eevolutionary era. Poor, it is true, but conspicuous in her loneliness and poverty. Peace to her ashes. (87) ANN WOOD HENRY. Ann Wood, the daughter of Abraham Wood and his wife Ursula Taylor, was born in Burlington, New Jersey, Janu- ary 21, 1732. Her emigrant ancestors on her paternal side as well as maternal were English Quakers, who settled in the county of Philadelphia in 1690. Her paternal great- grandfather was John Bevan, who came to Pennsylvania from Grlamorganshire, Wales, in 1683, and took up a tract of three thousand acres in the "Welsh Tract," in Eadnor and Haverford townships, now Chester county. He was a justice of the peace and associate judge in 1685; member of Assembly for a long period, and returning to Wales, died there. Upon the death of Abraham Wood, his widow some years later married Joseph Eose, of the Lancaster bar, removing thither. It was here that Ann Wood became acquainted with William Henry, and whom she married in January, 1756, and "hereby hangs a tale." Henry's housekeeper was his sister. On a certain occasion the latter invited a few friends to tea, among them Ann AVood. In the entry of the house leading to the garden a broom had accidentally fallen to the floor. All of the young ladies either stepped over it or pushed it aside except Miss Ann, who picked it up and put it in its place. William Henry observed this and told his sister later that this trait of character had im- pressed him, and he would endeavor to make her friend his wife. He succeeded. William Henry, son of John Henry and his wife Eliza- beth Devinney, was born in Chester county, Pennsylvania, May 19, 1729. By occupation he was a gunsmith, and (88) located at Lancaster prior to the Braddock expedition of 1755, of wliieli lie was the armourer, and again under Forbes. In the year 1758 he was commissioned one of the justices of the peace; and in 1777 a commissioner to ex- amine the water way between the Delaware and Ohio rivers. He was a member of the Assembly in 1776; and treasurer of the county of Lancaster from 1777 to 1786. During the Eevolution he filled the positions of commissary, armourer, &c. He served in the Congress of 1784-85. Under the Constitution of 1776, he was commissioned president judge of the Lancaster courts. He was a member of the Ameri- can Philosophical Society, one of the founders of the Juli- ana Library, and the inventor of several mechanical appli- ances, the principal of which was the screw auger. Mr. Henry died at Lancaster Decem^ber 15, 1786. Mrs. Henry vied with her husband in all those character- istics which go to make up a patriotic woman of the Eevo- lution. During that momentous period in our history her children, being young, required her attention, and yet it is well known that she aided her husband in all the various duties assigned to him — in his business, and while State Armourer and Assistant Commissary. During the occu- pation of Philadelphia by the British, they entertained at their house David Eittenhouse, the State Treasurer (who had his office in one of the rooms on the first floor) and Tom Paine, who wrote his "Fifth Crisis" in the second story room, which he occupied. The habits of the latter, however, gave so much offense that finally he had to seek a home elsewhere. On the death of Mr. Henry, who was treasurer of Lancaster county, his widow was continued in office for nearly a year. Mrs. Henry died at Lancaster March 8, 1799, and is buried by the side of her husband in the old Moravian graveyard in that city. It can be well said of her that she (89) was a typical matron of the devolution, a "woman of great energy of character, and in full sympathy with her hus- band's active and patriotic life. They were the parents of the distinguished John Joseph Henry, the second son, who volunteered in Captain Matthew Smith's company in 1775, went to Boston, and from thence accompanied the expedition to Quebec under General Arnold, an account of which, the best ever written, was prepared by him. He subsequently studied law, was admitted to the Lancaster bar, and afterwards appointed by Governor Mifflin presi- dent judge of the Dauphin courts. Another son, William, removed to Northampton county, a few years later erected the Boulton gun works, Avhich are still conducted by his descendants of the name. He was judge of the Northamp- ton-Monroe district, and a Presidential elector for Wash- ington's last term, for whom he voted. (90) CRECY COVENHOVEN HEPBURN. Crecy Covenhoven was born in Monmouth county, New Jersey, January 19, 1759. Her parents removed to the West Branch Valley some years after her birth, and the daughter was thus reared amidst the privations and self- denials of a pioneer life, with but little advantages of edu- cation save that derived from the home training of one of the best of mothers. She inherited from the latter an amia- bility of temper, and yet with all an energy which was an important factor in the make-up of a woman on the fron- tiers of civilization. She married, in the summer of 1777, William Hepburn. He was the son of Samuel Hepburn, born in the north of Ireland in 1753, coming with his father and brothers to Pennsylvania about the year 1773. Shortly after locating on the West Branch, William became identi- fied with the ranging companies on the frontiers. In 1778 he commanded a company stationed at Fort Muncy, and had charge of the garrison there upon the departure of Colonel Hartley. During the Eevolutionary struggle Captain Hep- burn did valiant service. After the war he was appointed a justice of the peace. In 1794 he was elected a State Senator, and was chiefly instrumental in securing the erection of Lycoming county. Gov- ernor Mifflin appointed him, in 1795, one of the associate judges of the new county. In 1807 he was commissioned major general of the Tenth Division of militia. He died at Williamsport, June 25, 1821, aged sixty-eight years. It has been well said of Judge Hepburn, by Mr. Meginness, the historian of the West Branch, that "no man of his time of (91) that section of the State, figured more prominently that he." He was universally loved and respected. Mrs. Hepburn, dur- ing the eventful years when Indian forays almost depopu- lated the settlement of the West Branch, was one of the most heroic of women. She rendered great assistance to the helpless in their flight down the river to Fort Augusta, and years after it was related of her, by those who knew her well, that for thoughtfulness, tender care and strong womanly sympathy, Mrs. Hepburn was not excelled. A patriotic matron indeed! She died April 8, 1800, aged fifty-one years, and was the mother of three sons and seven daughters, some of whose descendants have become promi- nent and influential in this and other States of the Union. (92) SARAH HAREIS IE VINE. Sarali Harris, daughter of William and Catharine Harris, was born on the Swatara, in Lancaster county, Pennsyl- vania, March 20, 1741. Her father was a native of Ayr- shire, Scotland, and came to Pennsylvania about the year 1725. They were among the first members of the old Derry church, and their remains rest within the little stone-walled graveyard close by. Sarah was a young woman of varied accomplishments, when in 1760, by the Eev. John Elder, she was married to James Irvine. The bride was arrayed in a linen dress (her own handiwork from the loom), the material bleached to a snowy whiteness, and fifty couple of friends on horseback escorted the happy twain to their future home on the Conedoguinet creek, where her hus- band possessed a fine tract of land, well improved, and a comfortable stone dwelling, yet standing. Mr. Irvine was a brother of General William Irvine of the Eevolution, and also served as an officer during the same war. He was a native of Ireland, born in 1726, died May 5, 1811, and is buried in Silvers Spring graveyard. Influential in public affairs, he was none the less potent in the desperate struggle which freed America from the tyrannical dicta of Grreat Britain. A woman of culture, of refined tastes, Mrs. Irvine shone resplendent as wife and mother; and down to the close of her long life her endearing ways and manners made that life the more beautiful. She died at Carlisle on the 5th of March, 1837, and was there buried. During the French and Indian War, when from the marauding savage were laid waste the settlements on the Juniata, her house and (93) barn were frequently filled with fugitives. At those times none was more hospital)le, none whose loving sympathy amid distress more appreciated. A noble wife and mother, among a brave and hardy people, too often were demanded her ministering care and charity, and many are the little in- cidents which tradition has handed down through a cen- tury of descendants concerning that pioneer wife on the Conedoguinet. / During the Eevolutionary era she was none the less faithful, as she vied with her neighbors in assisting to supply clothing and food to the little army as it lay enshrined among the hills at Valley Forge — hungry and wan, and almost naked. One shudders when reading the story of that winter of suffering, and yet when the self- sacrifice and devotion of a thousand noble women in Penn- sylvania is rehearsed, one cannot but thank God that there was a struggle for independence, and that the women of the Eevolution assisted to make the Declaration possible. Of such was Sarah Harris Irvine. iS wa; kil (9-4) ANNE CALLENDER IRVINE. Anne Callender, dangliter of Robert Callender and his wife Mary Scull, was born in Middlesex, afterwards Cum- berland, county, Pennsylvania, February 18, 1758. Her father was an extensive Indian trader, and built several mills at Middlesex; and in his day was one of the most trusted on the frontiers by the wily Indian as well as the Provincial authorities. He was a man of means and sent his children to Philadelphia, where they received a good education. The daughter, Anne, was exceedingly bright, quick-witted, and although all her early years were spent in the "backwoods," as the frontiers were thus uniformly termed, she grew up to be a woman of refinement, bright and intelligent in conversation and manners, and it is not surprising that the young surgeon of the British army should have taken interest enough in her to make her his wife. Her mother dying when Anne was only in her teens, it left her in custody of the mansion at Middlesex. As her father's second wife came into charge, she passed out there- from to preside over that of the brilliant physician at Car- lisle, Doctor Vfilliam Irvine. Here for a period of forty years she was the loving wife and faithful mother. During the davs of the Declaration, when her husband was servim^ in the patriot army as a military officer of distinction, her energies were enlisted in the cause of humanity, and every endeavor m^ade to relieve distress and suifering. The lit- tle family of the soldier at the front received her first ^are, and out from the Middlesex mill, as w^ell as from the^'e^-- joining well-productive farm, went supplies. Wool ^i^cl (95) flax were furnished to those who could use them, and many stockings through this source went to the ahnost Ijare- footed soldiers during the winter cantonments. Mrs. Ir- vine thought little of self in that long stretch of 5^ears cov- ering the struggle, and her generosity was remarkable for the time and circumstance, ^^^e frequently read of the great philanthrophy of wealth when little is given out of an abundance, but in her case almost her entire substance was contributed to the support of the little patriot army. It is well, in all eras, to call to mind these narrations of the Eevolutionary days, not only as incentives to their descend- ants for a higher order of patriotism, but as examples for them to follow in every hour of their country's need and demand. Humanity and loyalty go hand in hand, and these are duties every American should be taught. Mrs. Irvine survived her husband nearly twenty years, dying at PhiladeljDhia, October 15, 1823. In Eonaldson cemetery that city, is a tombstone with this inscription: "Within the narrow lining which encloses the ashes of my beloved husband and son, lie also the remains of Ann Irvine, born at Carlisle, Pa., February 18th, 1758. Died October loth, 1823, aged 65 yrs. 8 m. 7 d. Exemplary in every relation of life, she was as a wife faithful, attentive and affectionate; as a mother, tender, anxious and indul- gent; as a friend, disinterested, ardent and sincere; as a benefactress, kind, condescending and liberal; and above all she was distinguished as a Christian matron of a re- signed, meek and humble spirit, and for fervent faith in the Redeemer of the World." AYilliam Irvine, son of James Irvine, was born near En- niskillen, County Fermanagh, Ireland, November 3, 1741. His ancestry came originally from Scotland. His father was a prosperous physician of the neighborhood of Ennis- killen, and the son was educated for the same profession. (96) After completing Ms studies at the College of Dublin, lie secured the appointment of an assistant surgeon of a Brit- ish ship of war. At the close of the old French war he re- signed, came to Pennsylvania with several members of his family, and settled at Carlisle in the practice of his pro- fession. He became a successful physician and had the utmost confidence of the people. At the outset of the Eevolutionary struggle he took a decided stand, and was chosen one of the Provincial depu- ties from Cumberland county to the Conference which met at Philadelphia July 15, 1774. To this and subsequent conventions he proved an influential member. On Janu- ary 6, 1776, the Congress authorized him to raise the Sixth Pennsylvania Battalion, of which he was commissioned the colonel on the 9th following. In March his command was ordered to join the Canada expedition. A record of its services there is published in the "History of the Pennsyl- vania Battalions and Line." On its return to Pennsyl- vania upon the expiration of service, the battalion re-en- listed for three years, or during the war, as the Seventh Eegiment of the Pennsylvania Line. At the battle of Mon- mouth, Colonel Irvine commanded a brigade. On May 12, 1779, he was commissioned a brigadier general, and served in Major General Wayne's division, until after the revolt of the Line in January, 1781; subsequently being placed in command of the Western Department, headquarters at Fort Pitt. It was while on this duty that General Irvine took the most active measures for the security of that post, and the defense of the frontiers then threatened by the sav- ages of the Northwest who were the allies of the British. He remained there in command until October 1, 1783, when he turned over the post to the Continental officer sent to relieve him, returning to his home at Carlisle, with health much impaired by exposure in the service. He was (97) an original member of the Society of the Cincinnati. Pennsylvania acknowledged her gratitude for his labors by the donation of a valuable tract of land on Lake Erie. General Irvine was a member of the Council of Censors, 1783-84, and in 1785, appointed by the State to examine and select the donation lands promised the troops of Penn- sylvania. It was chiefly through his influence that the State acquired by purchase from the United States of "The Triangle,^^ which gave the former one of the best harbors on Lake Erie. He was chosen by the Assembly a member of the Continental Congress, serving from 1786 to 1788, and elected a delegate to the Constitutional Convention of 1789-90. In 1791 he was on the commission to establish the boundary line between Huntingdon and Mifflin coun- ties; was a member of the commission to arrange the ac- counts between the States and the general government; and in 1794, a member on the State Commission to lay out the towns of Erie, Waterford and Franklin; as well as to lay out a road from the eastern part of the State to Presqu' Isle. He served as a member of the third Con- gress, 1793-95; v/as senior Major General in command of the troops raised by Pennsylvania in the so-called "Whiskey Insurrection;^' was a presidential elector in 1797; and in 1798 appointed commander-in-chief of the Pennsylvania forces ordered by Congress for the expected French war. Under President Jefferson, General Irvine was appointed superintendent of military stores at Philadelphia Arsenal, and occupied that position until his decease, which occurred in that city July 29, 180-4. At the time of his death it was well said of him: "In him neither disguise nor chicanery superseded the honest integrity of the heart; sincere in his friendships and as sincere in his dislikes — he respected none but those he deemed worthy, and those he despised he shunned in silence.^' (98) JEAN McDowell irwin. Jean McDowell was born in the Conecoclieague settle- ment April 19, 1736. Her parents were emigrants from the north of Ireland, and came to Pennsylvania prior to 1730. Her father, William McDowell, remained in Ches- ter connt}^ a few j^ears, but we find him in 1733 seated upon a tract of land near Parnell's Knob, in the Cumberland Valley. Little is known of her early history, but it was probably during a temporary sojourn on or near the Sus- quehanna during the French and Indian war that she mar- ried, in 1757, Archibald Irwin. He was the son of James Irwin, near neighbor of the McDowells, who also came from the province of Ulster, Ireland, and located in what was subsequently Peters township, Cumberland county. Archi- bald was probably born in Ireland in 1734. He grew up to man's estate on the confines of civilization, with only the meagre knowledge of books acquired through the teachings of his parents and occasional instruction from some itiner- ant Presbyterian minister, who saw that the youthful pio- neers were not allowed to grow up without being able to read and understand the Westminster catechism. In the desolating war which followed Braddock's defeat, every able-bodied man on the frontiers grasped his musket and joined in making a determined stand against the French and Indians. In April, 1756, Archibald Irwin was com- missioned an ensign in Eev. John Steel's company of the Second Provincial Battalion of Pennsylvania, under com- mand of Lieutenant Colonel John Armstrong, and partici- pated in the expedition which resulted in the destruction of the Kittanning. It is more than probable that he re- (99) tired from the service after that campaign. However, we find that when the Revolutionary struggle came on Mr. Irwin entered into the contest with his entire soul. He w^as largely instrumental in organizing the associated bat- talions, and was on several tours under Colonel Samuel Culbertson as quartermaster of the battalion, and through- out the war was a firm patriot. Prior to the Revolution he operated a grist and saw mill, and was prominent and in- fluential in the settlement. He was, as early as 1772, a rul- ing elder in the church at Mercersburg. He died at his residence in the winter of 1798-99. Mrs. Irwin, it may here be stated, was one of the most noted women in the valley. In Provincial times none so brave or self-sacrificing as she, and so when the thunders of the Revolution reverberated along the Cumberland Val- ley, when all the able-bodied men were on the frontiers watching the marauding Indian or with Washington in the darkest hours of the country's peril, she and her children operated the mill, cultivated the farm in her husband's fre- quent absence, assisted her distressed neighbors, whose ne- cessities were so frequent, and that with her duties to her own household, show full well her thrift and benevolence, apart from her loyalty to the patriot cause. Mrs. Irwin did not long survive her distinguished hus- band. She died about the year 1805, and is buried in the Presbyterian graveyard near Mercersburg. They left a laro-e familv of children. Their dau^-hter Nancv became the wife of "William Findlay, afterwards Governor of Penn- sylvania, while their granddaughter, Jane Findlay, was the wife of Governor Francis R. Shunk. A daughter of their son Archibald Irwin, Elizabeth Irwin, married John Scott Harrison, who were the parents of Benjamin Harrison, President of the United States, 1889-93. Few families have been more distinguished in the annals of our State — worthy children of noble sires. (100) ALICE ERWIN JOHNSTON, Alice Erwin, daughter of James Erwin^ was born circa 1754^ in Wliiteland township^ Chester county. Brought up on her father^s farm^ she was educated at one of the Friends^ schools for which that county was then so emi- nently distinguished, in ante-Eevolutionary times. De- cember 15, 1775, she married Francis Johnston, and they resided during the greater part of their liyes on the plan- tation near New London Cross Eoads, Chester county. During the Eevolutionary period, unlike the majority of her neighbors, which settlement was pre-eminently a Quaker one, she manifested great interest in the welfare of many whom she knew had accompanied her husband to the field of battle. In her patriotic ardor during the occupancy of Philadelphia by the British, her actions were in strange contrast to the conduct of the women in the city who showered favors upon the British officers, little think- ing of the sufferings, the sacrifices and the daring of their sisters in the interior of the State, whose husbands and sons were battling with the enemy of their country. Mrs. John- ston never wearied in philanthropic work, whether to those who were in the service of their country or to her less for- tunate neighbors. During that terrible winter at Valley Forge, she greatly assisted in gathering and sending sup- plies to the half-fed soldiers. Her husband not returning until the close of the war, the entire management of the estate and the care of her little family devolved upon her. When Colonel Johnston was appointed Eeceiver General of the Land Office, the family removed to Philadelphia, where they resided until the close of life, Mrs. Johnston (101) died in. that cit}^, but we have no record of the date of her death or where interred. Francis Johnston, son of Alexander and Martha Johns- ton, was born near New London Cross Eoads, Chester county, October 17, 1748. He received a liberal education, was an excellent classical scholar and ^reatlv distino^uished in life for his drollery and humorous anecdotes, sung a merry song, and was the life of the dinner party. His wit was proverbial. He entered the study of the law, and was admitted to the Philadelphia bar in August, 1771. It is not known if he continued in the profession. He was among the earliest and most earnest of the Whigs of Ches- ter county, w^ho led the opposition to the measures of Great Britain, vrhich resulted in the War for Independence. When the master spirits of that day assembled to organize resistance to tyranny, we almost invaria1)ly find the name of Francis Johnston in some official capacity. On January 2, 1776, the Committee of Safety recommended Francis Johnston for lieutenant colonel of the Fourth Pennsylvania Battalion, then to be raised, and he was accordingly ap- pointed by the Continental Congress January 4, 1776. Sep- tember 27, 1776, he w^as commissioned colonel of the Fifth Eegiment of the Pennsylvania Line. He had previously served in the Canada Campaign of that year. He partici- pated in the battles of Brand3^wine, Germantown, Mon- mouth and Stony Point, and continued in active service until January 1, 1781, when he retired, the Fifth and N'inth Pennsylvania Eegiments being consolidated. Colonel Johnston was one of the original members of the State Society of the Cincinnati, in 1783 was its assist- ant treasurer, and in 1785 treasurer. In 1784 he was ap- pointed by the general government one of the commission- ers to treat with the Indians when the treaty of Fort Stan- wix was executed. L'nder the Constitution of 1790 he (102) was appointed Eeceiver General of the Land Office and held that office during the administration of Governor Mifflin. During the Whiskey insurrection of 1794 he offered his services to the Government. In 1810 he was chosen to the office of sheriff for the city and county of Philadelphia — elected by those who differed with him in political opinion, thereby showing, however true the charge of ingratitude may be against republics generally, that the people of Eepublican America had not then forgotten the services of those to v/hose exertions they were indebted for the liberty they enjoyed. He died at Philadelphia February 22, 1815. Colonel Johnston was a member of the First City Troop, of the ''State in Schuylkill," and of the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick. His services in the war of the Eevolution were ably and zealously rendered, and highly appreciated. He ventured his life and spent his fortune for liberty. (103) MxVRTHA BEATTY JOHNSTON. Martha Beatty, daughter of James Beatty, was Lorn in Antrim township, Cumberland county, Pa., May 21, 1748. Her parents were emigrants from the Province of Ulster, Ireland, and were the first settlers in that locality, some three miles south of the present town of Greencastle. The daughter was the youngest of a large family of children, grew up to be a woman of education and refinement, and about the year 1T?0 married Thomas Johnston, the son of James Johnston, an intelligent farmer, also an early settler in the neighborhood. Thomas Johnston was brought up on his father's farm in Antrim. At the close of the French-Indian war, which harrassed that localit}^ for so many years, Thomas was sent by his father to Philadelphia, where he was educated at the Academy in that city. Returning to his home he was given a portion of a tract of land upon which his father had originally settled; and here we find him as a sturdy farmer on the frontiers when the news of the battle of Lexington spread through the Cumberland Valley. Brought up from infancy to the clash of arms, Mr. Johnston enlisted in the patriot army as an associator. In 1776 he was commissioned an ensign in the Flying Camp, and January 21, 1777, first lieutenant in the State regiment commanded by Colonel John Bull, afterwards Colonel Walter Stewart's, and subsequently in the re-arrangement of the Line, transferred to the Thirteenth Pennsylvania. At the close of the war he was commissioned a colonel in the militia. He was a gentleman of dignified manners, very hospitable and a representative man of the Cumber- land Valley. (104) Of Mrs. Johnston, during those troublous times, we have little information. It relates chiefly to her domestic life, and yet much of that life is but the story of the vast ma- jority of frontier dames — so different, alas, from those who "sow not nor do they reap'' — but philanthropic and pa- triotic women, who, although dwelling on the rugged edge of civilization were living examples for the ages to come. Such a one was Mrs. Johnston, generous, honorable, self- sacrificing, and withal a woman of amiability and in whose veins coursed the best blood of the defenders of London- derry^ in 1689. She was of dignified bearing, and yet of sweet and amiable disposition, loved and beloved by all who knew her. She died August 13, 1811, her husband. Colonel Johnston, surviving her until the 3d of December, 1819, at the age of seventy-four. Both lie interred in the Johnston burying ground, near Shady Grove, in a secluded spot some distance from the road. In the same enclosure is buried Dr. Eobert Johnston, a surgeon of the Army of the Declaration, brother of Colonel Thomas, and an es- teemed friend of General Washington. (105) ANN WEST (ALRICKS) LOWREY. Ann West, daughter of Francis West, Sr., was born about the year 1730, at Clover Hill, Sligo, Ireland. Her father came to Pennsylvania when she was a few months old, and settled in Philadelphia, where the daughter received a fair education. Upon the organization of Cumberland county Mr. AYest was appointed one of the first justices, an official position he held until his death about 1770. In the year 1765 Ann West became the wife of Hermanns Alricks, and they had four sons and a daughter. Mr. Alricks died De- cember 14, 1772, in Carlisle. The year after his wddow married Alexander Lowrey, of Donegal, who probably had become acquainted with her on his frequent visits to Car- lisle. Alexander Lowrey, son of Lazarus Lowre}', was born in the north of Ireland in December, 1725. Two years after- ward his parents came to America and took up land in Donegal township, Lancaster county. Pa. Alexander fol- lowed the occupation of his father, who was an Indian trader, at that period the fur trade being quite lucrative. When the contest with Great Britain assumed alarming proportions, Mr. Lowrey was outspoken and ardent in his support of the common cause. In 1774 he was placed on the Committee of Correspondence for Lancaster, and was a member of the Provincial Conference held in Philadelphia on the 15th of July, of that convened in Carpenter's Hall on the 18th of June, 1776, and of the Constitutional Convention on the 15th of Julv following-. He was chosen to the Assembly in 1775, and, with the exception of one or two years, served as a member of that body almost unin- (106) terniptedly until 1789. In May, 1777, lie was appointed one of tlie commissioners to procure blankets for the army. In 1776 he commanded the Sixth Battalion of the Lancas- ter County Associators, and was in active service in the Jerseys during that year. As senior colonel he commanded the Lancaster county militia at the battle of the Brandy- wine. At the close of the Kevolution, Colonel Lowrey re- tired to his fine farm adjoining Marietta. Under the Con- stitution of 1789-90 he was commissioned by Governor Mifflin a justice of the peace, an office he held until his death, which occurred on the 31st of January, 1805. Colonel Lowrey was a remarkable man in many respects, and his life was an eventful one, whether considered in his long career in the Indian trade, a patriot of the Eevolution, or the many years in which he gave his time and means to the service of his country. By a former marriage he left five children, some of whose descendants have been promi- nent in public affairs. Upon his marriage with Mrs. Al- ricks, Colonel Lowrey brought to his home in Donegal all her children, and there they remained until they married and settled. Mrs. Lowrey was a person of wonderful energy and in- domitable will, and a great many incidents are extant illus- trative of these characteristics. As may be imagined. Colonel Lowrey, from the commencement of the Eevolu- tionary war, was a ver};^ busy man. When Congress was in session at York there was a constant stream of distin- guished officers and men from the North who came to cross the Susquehanna at Anderson's Ferry. If there was any delay, on account of floating ice in the river or other causes, the more noted travelers were sure to go to Colonel Low- rey's, who resided about half a mile back from the ferry. Mrs. Lowrey, therefore, had to entertain a great deal of company, which she did with grace and dignity. No more (107) hospitable home was known in the Colonies. During the contest, she was active in collecting contributions for cloth- ing for the army, and assisted in making up the material, exerting herself to interest others in the same good work. In the latter part of the war, Colonel Lowrey removed to Lancaster to be near the committee. During the temporary residence there, Mrs. Lowrey was prostrated, and becoming quite helpless, the family returned to Donegal, where she died November 21, 1791, and with her husband the re- mains lie within the graveyard walls of old Donegal church. With her passed away one of the best known patriotic dames of the Revolutionary era, a woman highly esteemed and re- spected by the many who crossed the threshold of the most charming home in that eventful era. (108) SARAH NELSON McALISTER. Sarah Nelson, daughter of Eobert Nelson, was born in Fernianagh township, then Cumberland, now Juniata county. Pa., about the year 1740. Her parents came from the north of Ireland and were early settlers on Lost creek, in the Juniata settlement. In the year 1760 she married Hugh McAlister, of the same locality. He was a soldier in the French and Indian wars, and served as an of&cer in the Eevolutionary army with distinction. He participated in the Jersey Campaign of 1776 and in that of the sum- mer of 1777 in and around Philadelphia. He was a man of prominence in the church and in public affairs, and no one in the settlement commanded a higher respect for in- tegrity and virtue. He died at his residence in Lost creek Valley, September 32, 1810, aged seventy-four years. Mrs. McAlister, during the period of the struggle for in- dependence, when, in the fall of 1776, the able-bodied men of the neighborhood had departed on the service of the common cause, vied with her patriotic countrymen in pre- venting the evil which would have followed the neglect of putting in the fall crop in season, joined the ploughs and prepared the fallows for seed, so that should their fathers, brothers and lovers be detained abroad in defense of their liberties, they determined to put in the crops themselves. In numerous instances this was necessary, as many of the associated companies did not reach their homes until the winter had set in. No woman in all the settlement was regarded with greater esteem than Mrs. McAlister. She possessed in a large measure all the rare qualities which characterized the de- (109) voted wife and mother and truly Christian woman. In the home and the frontier neighborhood she was easily a leader and a help-mate in the gloomiest hours of the war. Her dispensations of hospitality were always distinguished — ex- tended, alas, so frequently to the helpless stranger fleeing before the ruthless savage of the forest. She died at her home, in Fermanagh, July 6, 1802. Of Captain and Mrs. McAlister's descendants Hugh kel- son McAlister was probably the most illustrious. He died while a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1873. As a man he was just, upright and inflexibly honest — as a Christian, he was sincere, faithful and most exemplary. His eldest dauo-hter became the wife of General James Addams Beaver, Governor of Pennsylvania, 1887-1891. (110) SARAH HOLMES McCLEAN. Sarah Holmes, daughter of Joseph Holmes, was born on the loth of October, 1750, in the Cumberland Valley. Her father in 1774 removed to ^'The Glades," near Stoystown, in "Western Pennsylvania. Here she married in 1775, Alexander Mc Clean. In the spring of 1776 they removed to the vicinity of what is now Uniontown, oh a tract of land which her husband had warranted and surveyed. Three years later they moved into the town, and continued there to reside. Sarah Holmes was brought up in the frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, but received an excellent edu- cation. Her mother, being a bright intelligent woman, early instilled into the mind of her eldest daughter those principles which made her so prominent in the social fron- tier life of Western Pennsylvania. During the Eevolu- tionary struggle we find that she was left for a long period, almost a year, alone, with the care of her little family, and was at the same time not unmindful of the wants or of the welfare of her neighbors who were less fortunate than she. Constantly menaced by Indian marauds, it was frequently her lot to flee with her little ones to the nearest block- house for protection, where she would remain for some time until the danger had passed over. The life of most of the women on the frontiers was one of toil almost constantly, with the fear of danger from the wily Indian every moment. Many there were, however, who like Mrs. McClean, braved the dangers that they might minister to the comfort of their loved ones who stood be- tween their households and the scalping knife and toma- hawlv of the red savage. In every line of family duty and (Ill) service they bore more of the Ijurdens of the war than fell to the lot of those who Avere residing in the interior counties. The patriot who shared the fatigues of the most difficult campaigns of the Eevolution was not a greater wit- ness of the sufferings and fortitude of his countr3^men than were the devoted women on the frontiers of Pennsylvania who thought only of the labor of love required at their hands to minister to the wants and necessities around them. Mrs. McClean was one of the most noble women of the frontiers, and, as in the case of many others, the story of her life was one of great self-denial and struggle. Such w^omen we cannot call soldiers, but they were nevertheless patriots, true womanly patriots, and when at the age of sixty-five years, Sarah Holmes McClean passed to the world beyond, she left behind her a memory which will remain forever green in the ages coming on. Alexander McClean was born November 20, 1746, on Marsh Creek, York (now Adams) county. Pa. Prior to the formation of Westmoreland county he was a resident be- yond the Alleghenies. He had served with his brothers, assisting Mason & Dixon in running the celebrated line between Pennsylvania and Maryland and Virginia in 1766-67. His brother Archibald had a great deal to do in running the line between Marjdand and Delaware, and between ]\faryland and Pennsylvania before j\Iason & Dixon were employed, and Alexander accompanied him. Such were the schools and instructors he enjoyed in ac- quiring the art of surveying. As early as 1769 he was with others employed in executing orders of survey in Western Pennsylvania. In 1776 he was one of the Westmoreland members of Assembly, and as well one of the justices of the peace for that county. From 1776 to 1784, owing to the Land Office being closed, surveying as an occupation in Western Pennsylvania was gone. In the meantime he (112) became a soldier on tlie frontiers and served as an officer in the Westmoreland Connty rangers^ especially partici- pating in General Mcintosh's campaigns of 1780. In 1782 he was appointed a snb-lientenant for the connty of Westmoreland^ hence his rank of lient. colonel. Prior to that he was appointed by the Supreme Execntive Council to rnn a temporary boundary between Pennsylvania and Virginia, which had been agreed npon in 1779. This was delayed until the winter of 1783-3, when, with Joseph E'e- ville, of Virginia, the task was executed. [Jpon the erection of Fayette connty in 1783, Colonel McClean was appointed presiding justice of the Fayette Court of Common Pleas, and presided in these courts from December of that year u.ntil April, 1789. In December, 1783, he was appointed to the office of Eegister and Ee- corder of the county — offices which he held uninterrupt- edly until his death, amid all the political vicissitudes of that long period. He was an expert and elegant penman, and could crowd more words distinctly in a line than most modern writers would put into three. He was a quiet, un- obtrusive man, devoted to the duties of his office, and caring for little else than to discharge them with diligence and ac- curacy and fidelity. As Eegister and Eecorder and sur- veyor for more than half a century, he had been conversant with all the titles and lands of the county, with all their vacancies, defects and modes of settlement, yet, with all these opportunities of acquiring wealth, he died in comparative poverty — a sad monument to his integrity. Colonel Mc- Clean died at IJniontown on the 7th of January, 1834, aged a little over eighty-eight years, and was buried beside his wife in the old graveyard at IJniontown. They left a num- erous family, most of whom are now dispersed in the West- ern States; a few yet remain in Fayette county. Pa. (113) MARTHA SANDERSON McCORMICK. Martha Sanderson, youngest daughter of George Sander- son and his wife, Catharine Ross, was born in 1747 in the north of Ireland. Her parents were natives of Scotland, who shortly before her birth had removed to the Province of Ulster, Ireland, where they tarried a few years, then emi- grating to America, settling in the Cumberland Valley. Her father was an elder of the old Monaghan Meeting House, and prominent in early Provincial affairs. She re- ceived the limited advantages of education to be acquired in frontier settlements, but with her natural gifts of speech and manners, she became an accomplished woman. In 1770 she married Robert McCormick, son of Thomas McCor- mick and his wife, Elizabeth Carruth, both natives of north of Ireland. He was born in Lancaster county. Pa., in 1738, but about the vear 1755 settled on a tract of land in the Juniata Valley, adjoining those of his brothers, William and Hugh. To this place, on the far frontiers of Cumber- land, he took his bride, and there for a period of eight years the charming wife and devoted mother shone resplendent in her cabin home. During the early 3'ears of the struggle for independence Mr. McCormick served several tours with the Associators and was in the Jersey campaign of 1776. In 1779, how- ever, he sold his land, and in company with several neigh- bors removed to the Valley of A^'irginia, where he purchased four hundred and fifty acres near the town of Midway, situ- ated on both sides of the line between the counties of Au- gusta and Rockbridge. Making comfortable his little fam- ily, he entered the Virginia Line, and served in the South- (114) ern campaign of 1781, participating in the battle of the Cowpens. During this enforced absence of her husband, Mrs. McCormick took active charge of the plantation, and so directed the cultivation and management that apart from the wants of her family there was a large amount of pro- duce furnished the commissary of purchases of the patriot army. Altogether she was a model wife and mother — a woman in striking contrast with the city dames of the period, who neither sowed, reaped or spun. At the close of the Southern campaign, Mr. McCormick returned to his home. He was an elder in the Presbyterian church and a man well versed in the Scriptures, and in con- versation on religious subjects able and entertaining. His wife was no less so. She died in Augusta county, Va., prior to 1808, and he the 13th of October, 1818 — both buried in the old Providence Presbyterian burying ground, about two miles from the homestead. Of their children the youngest, Kobert McCormick, became celebrated in the annals of invention by the construction of a reaping ma- chine, which gave fame to him and fortune to his family. (115; MARGARET LEWIS McFARLAND. William Lewis, one of the famous Virginia famil}^ of the name, was the father of three daughters; the eldest, Mar- garet Lynn Lewis, born in 1756, married Andrew McFar- land, of Pittsburgh, and immediately after moved to the Kittanning, where her husband was engaged in the Indian trade. We are unable to give the exact date, but previous to December 26,1775, (see Pa. Arch, v., 135); when William Lochrv and John l\Ioore wrote a letter to Thomas AYharton, President of the Council of Safety, in which they men- tioned Andrew McFarland^s fears of being plundered by the Mingoes is alluded to. On the 4th of March 1777, several of the Delawares ar- rived at Fort Pitt and informed Colonel George Morgan, the Indian agent, that the "Mingoes proceeded directly to Kittanning and there took Mr. McFarland and carried him to Niagara, and that thc}^ told our young people and women, for none others were at home, that the commanding officer at Niagara sent them for the above purpose, in order to hear the news in these parts. They were directed not to hurt him. Had our head men been at home we should have brought him back, for we will not allow this bad work to pass through our towns." Colonel John Montgomery, one of the Indian commis- sioners, wrote to Judge Jasper Yeates, the other commis- sioner, under date of March 7th, 1777: "A few weeks ago four Indians came opposite Kittanning and called for a canoe. Andrew McFarland went over and as soon as he landed the Indians seized him and turned the canoe adrift and carried McFarland prisoner, it is thought to Niagara or Detroit." (116) On learning of the capture of lier husband Mrs. Mc- Farland with her infant and maid servant fled from the Kittanning. After starting, the servant reminded Mrs. Mc- Farland of her hnsband^s money and valuable papers, but she desired the girl not to mention anything of that kind to her at sneh a moment; yet regardless of the command of her mistress the servant returned to the dwelling and brought all the money and as many papers as she could carry in her apron overtaking in a short time her mistress, as the snow was very deep. After incredible fatigue they reached the house of Colonel William Crawford, at Stew- art's Crossing, on the Youghiogheny, where ISTew Haven now stands. Here the attention of friends soon restored her from the exhaustion caused by carrying her infant such a distance through the isnow. She remained at Colonel Crawford's until her father, hearing of her situation, sent her brother. Colonel William Lewis, to bring her home. Intelligence was received that her husband had been carried captive to Quebec, and the Indians had agreed that if a heavy ransom was paid they would restore McFarland to his friends. Of course this was done, his brother went to Quebec, paid the ransom, and returned with Mr. McFar- land to Staunton, Va., to the great joy of the brave Mar- garet McFarland. Mrs. McFarland remained with her kin in Virginia, while Mr. McFarland served two years as sergeant in the Eighth Pennsylvania Eegiment of the Line, commanded by Colonel Daniel Brodhead. It was not until the end of the war of the Eevolution that Mr. McFarland and his heroic wife returned to their cabin on the Allegheny. Here they resided until the close of a long life surrounded by a happy family, honored and respected for their bravery and good deeds, Mrs. McFarland dying September 13, 1804; her husband surviving two years. (117) ]\IARTHA HOGE McKEE. Martha Hoge, daughter of Robert and Letitia Hoge, was born December 17, 1759, in the Juniata Valley. Her parents were natives of South Scotland, coming to America, however, from the province of Ulster, Ireland, where they had some time resided, in the summer of 1752. They re- mained in Philadelphia until the year 1754, when they lo- cated on a tract of land in the Tuscarora Valley, then in Cumberland county, Pa. In June, 1756, owing to the In- dian incursion into the Juniata Valley, Mr. Hoge fled with his little family to Carlisle, returning only in the fall of that year. Cn two other occasions did this early pioneer seek safety in the then principal place of refuge west of the Susquehanna. Martha Hoge married, in the winter of 1777-78, Thomas McKee, who was born in 1749 in County Down, Ireland. He emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1774, and located near the Hoges in the Juniata Valley. At the beginning of the struggle for independence he entered the ser- vice and for a time was under Morgan, in one of the Pennsylvania companies attached to the corps of that brave partisan leader. In the summer of 1777 he served a tour in Captain James Powers^ company of the Second Battalion, Cumberland County Associators. Sub- sequentl}^, when in July, 1778, a call was made for the frontier riflemen to go to the Standing Stone (now Hunt- ingdon), he marched with his neighbors, and in the fall of the same year served as first lieutenant in the Seventh Bat- talion. These really were not the only periods when he was in arms, for the frontiersmen being threatened fre- (118) quently by tlie wily savages, numerous calls were made on them for protection in gathering the crops. About the year 1795 Mr. McKee remoYed to Western Pennsylvania and the year following settled upon a farm near the present town of Butler, where he died in the year 1814. During the most trying period of our history his wife vied with the women of her neighborhood in their pa- triotic endeavors to cheer the hearts of the heroes who were gradually achieving the independence of their country. Wliile the dames of the Quaker City were lavishing their smiles upon the officers of the British army, these back- woods women were spinning the flax they had raised to make the material to clothe their fathers and brothers, hus- bands and sons, wintering at Valley Forge. Trying times these were on the frontiers, and yet the brave women forgot cares, trials and deprivation, in the thought that the loved ones periling their lives in the common cause, were being ministered to. I^one were more active in these deeds than the women of the Tusearora Valley, and their descendants have a heritage grand and ennobling. Mrs. McKee died on the home farm near Butler, Pa., July 26, 1836, and her remains rest beside those of her patriotic husband. (119) MARGARET STOUT MACPHERSON. Margaret Stout, daughter of Joseph Stout and his wife, Mar}^ Keen, was born in Philadelphia in 1764. Her father was a sea captain in the merchant service of Philadelphia, and afterwards lieutenant in His Majesty's Navy. Her mother was a daughter of Peter and Margaret Keen. She died in 1767; the former in 1773. After the death of her parents, Margaret Stout resided with her uncle, Rey- nold Keen. She received a good education. It has been well said of her, she was possessed of those rare graces of character — sweetness of disposition, simplicity and be- nignit}^ — becoming woman under all circumstances. There were also blended in her individuality, energy of purpose, with remarkable courage and firmness. At the age of eighteen she married William Macpherson. From the out- set of the struggle for independence she was decidedly a lover of her country. When the British occupied Phila- delphia, her uncle sent her with members of other patriotic families to Reading, where she remained until the evacua- tion of Philadelphia. Mrs. Stout was a young woman who had not a particle of sympathy with those who, during the "occupancy" showed so much favor to the British officers, and which tended to make Philadelphia, during the winter of 1777-8, the gay- est city in America. Although at the time of her marriage the struggle for independence was almost over, yet she was not slow in rendering that assistance to those who needed help in the darkest hours of the Revolution. Having been left a competency by her parents, she became noted for her great charity, and at the time of her death her loss was one (120) greatly to be lamented. She died in Philadelphia Decem- ber 25, 1797, and was buried in Gloria Dei churchyard, Wicacoa, Philadelphia. William Macpherson was born in the city of Philadel- phia in 1756. He was the son of John Macpherson and Margaret Eodgers. The father was a noted privateer sman during the French and Spanish wars, while his mother was a sister of the Eev. John Eodgers, D. D., both natives of Londonderry, Ireland. The son was educated partly in Philadelphia and at the College of I^ew Jerse}^ On the 4th of March, 1769, he was appointed an ensign in the Brit- ish Army, a,nd in his eighteenth year, July 26, 1773, he was commissioned a lieutenant in the Sixteenth British Eegi- ment, of which he became adjutant. When the Eevolu- tionary v^ar began, his sympathies were with his country- men, although his allegiance to his sovereign retained him in the British service. The death of his brother. Major John Macpherson, in front of Quebec, who had espoused the cause of his country, completely changed his feelings. Tendering his resigna- tion, he found his way into the patriot lines in 1778; and was, on the recommendation of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, commissioned by Congress a ma- jor by brevet in the Continental Line. He served as aide on the staff of General Lafayette, and also on that of Gen- eral St. Clair, with distinction. He was one of the original members of the Society of the Cincinnati; served as a dele- gate to the Pennsylvania Convention to ratify the Federal Constitution in 1787; and was a member of the General As- sembly in 1788-89. He was appointed, September 19, 1789, by President Washington, Surveyor of Customs at Phila- delphia; inspector of the revenue, March 8, 1792, and on the 28th of November, 1793, naval officer, which latter po- sition he held until his death. During the Wliiskey in- (121) surrection, in 1794, he commanded the Philadelphia Bat- talion, which went by the name of "Macpherson Blues." President Adams commissioned him, March 11, 1799, one of the brigadier generals of the Provisional Army, and in the so-called "Fries Insurrection," or "Hot-water War," he was in command of the few volunteers called into that service. He died at his residence, near Philadelphia, No- vember 5, 1813, in his fifty-eighth year. (122) MAERITIE VAN BRUNT MAGAW. Marritie Van Brunt, daughter of Entgert Van Brimt and his wife, Altje Cortelyon, was born near New Utrecht, N. Y., Jannar}^ 9, 1762. Her father^s ancestors came from the Netherlands and were among the most influential in the early settlement of Long Island. Entgert Van Brunt owned a farm in G-rayesend, known as the Pennoyer patent. He held the office of sheriff of the county from 1768 to 1777; was colonel in the militia and generally known as Colonel Yan Brunt. In addition he served as a member of the New York Assembly, and filled other positions of honor in the county. His daughter, Marritie (or Marietta, as she was sometimes called), was a young lady of prepossessing appearance, well educated, and a brilliant conversational- ist; and in 1779, when she married Colonel Eobert Magaw, she was considered one of the handsomest women of Long Island. Eobert Magaw, a son of William and Elizabeth Magaw, was born in Philadelphia in 1738, where his father had first settled on coming from the north of Ireland to America. He located at Carlisle about the time of the formation of Cumberland county. The son, Eobert, was educated at the academy in Philadelphia, studied law, and was in the active practice of his profession when the War of the Eevolution summoned him to take up arms in the cause of his country. In 1775 he was commissioned major in Colonel William Thompson's battalion, with which he continued in active service until he was appointed, January 3, 1776, colonel of the Fifth Pennsylvania Battalion. He participated in the battle of Long Island, and his fame for cool, personal bravery in that disastrous encounter and good conduct (123) comes forth unsullied. "VYlien it was determined on the 16th of October following to abandon N'ew York Island to the enemy, Colonel Magaw was left in command of the gar- rison at Fort Washington, while the army marched to King's Bridge and afterwards to Wn.iite Plains. Howe not being able to force Washington into an engagement, turned his attention to Fort Washington, and upon its investment sent a messenger to Colonel ^lagaw, demanding its surren- der in peril of massacre, if his demands were not complied with within two hours. Magaw's reply is historical, "actu- ated" he said "by the most glorious cause that mankind ever fought in, I am determined to defend this post to the very last extremity." The sequel is well known. Magaw disposed of his men to the best advantage and did his duty faithfully. Overwhelming numbers swept all before them into the fort, and the gallant Magaw after much parley, sur- rendered, having been betrayed by Bement. Colonel Magaw remained a prisoner on Long Island until his exchange, October 25, 1780. In the meantime, he made the acquaintance of the patriotic Marritie Van Brunt, and after a short courtship, married her. Of this event, Graydon says in his delightful "Memoirs," Magaw com- forted his captivity on Long Island, by taking of its fair daughters a wife. Upon Ijeing exchanged. Colonel and Mrs. Magaw went to their home at Carlisle, Pa., where she shone with as much brilliancy as in her native place. So charming were her manners, that tradition gives it she was the life of that fascinating coterie of women which made that town's society so delightful for a hundred years or more. Colonel Magaw died suddenly at Carlisle, Jan- uary 5, 1790, and was buried by the honors of war. Mrs. Magaw survived her distinguished husband thirteen years, dying at Carlisle, August 15, 1803. They left two chil- dren. Van Brunt and Elizabeth, the former of whom in- herited the Van Brunt estate at Gravesend. (124) SUSANNA MILLER MICKLEY. Siisanna Catherine Miller was born November 6, 1743. She was the daughter of Christian and Barbara Miller, who came from Switzerland to Pennsylvania in October, 1737, and settled in Lynn township, Northampton connty. On the 20th of April, 1741, her father took up a tract of land, on which he erected his cabin, and where he resided all his life. Susanna being probably the eldest daughter, had fewer advantages of education than the other children, as- sisting the mother in their charge, and these with various household duties required of the daughter of a pioneer con- stant care. Nevertheless, quick perception, an aptness to take hold and securely acquire gave her certain endow- ments of speech and manner, which made her a leader in the settlement, and in which, during her married life, she shone resplendent. In November, 1760, Susanna Miller married John Jacob Mickley. He was born December 17, 1737, in Whitehall, Northampton county. Pa. His father, of the same name, came to Pennsylvania in August, 1733, being then twenty- two years of age. The son upon his marriage settled upon a tract of land now between the villages of Hokendauqua and Mickle3^s, where their large family of children were born. In 1763 occurred the massacre of so many of the White- hall families and the escape of John Peter Mickley, who fled from the savages and came with the news to his brother's house. About this period Mr. Mickley, who was a carpenter by occupation, assisted in the construction of Zion Eeformed church in Allentown, and it was through the knowledge gained therein that he suggested the con- (125) cealing of the old Liberty and Christ church bells beneath its floors in the summer of 1777. He was an early adherent to the cause of Independence, and in November, 1776, was chosen on the committee of observation for the county of Northampton. During the struggle for independence the services of his horses and wagons were frequently given to the use of the patriot army, while he was appointed commissary of issues in January, 1778. He was an influential citizen of the county, and a gentleman highly esteemed for his benevo- lence, high honor and probity. He was accidentally killed by a tree falling upon him the 13th of December, 1808. In the early days of Mrs. Mickley's married life the homestead was frequently stockaded as a protection against the ruthless savage from the Minisink. It was the custom during the Indian marauds for the man of the house before retiring to take his gun and walk around the premises to ascertain if there were lurking Indians or prowling wolves near by, and also to overlook the country whether there were fires or danger abroad. The nightly agony endured by the family may be imagined. It is true, the Indians of the Lehigh were not considered dangerous "if well treated,'^ and the people made it a point to give to their utmost. This, in fact was alas, too frequently a blind, and the red savage was always treacherously in- clined. As an illustration of the darins^ of our Eevolution- ary ancestry an incident in the life of the subject of this sketch may not be uninteresting. It is stated that upon one occasion, her husband being away from home, Mrs. Mickley, observing the sheep and lambs hurrying towards the barn, upon investigating the cause found a wolf concealed in the brush. Taking her husband^s gun she shot the animal, and calmly returned the weapon to its accustomed place, feeling she had merely (126) performed lier duty. It is a pity the stories of the pioneer period of our history have not been preserved to ns. What an insight they wonld have given ns of the daring of onr an- cestors. Dnring the Revolutionary struggle and the fre- quent absence of her husband^ Mrs. Miekle}?", beside the care of her family, had the management of a large farm, and also the oversight of a grist mill. The end of the struggle came at last, and for many years the Micldeys lived in the enjoyment of peace and plenty. She died December 16, 1807, and her remains rest in the family bur^dng ground beside those of her husband. (127) SARAH MORRIS MIFFLIN Sarah Morris, daughter of Morris Morris, and his wife, Elizabeth Mifflin, was born 4th mo. 5, 1747, (0. S.), in PhiladeliDhia. She died in that city, August 1st, 1790, and lies buried in Friends' graveyard. All descriptions of Sarah Morris, state that she was a very lovely woman, al- though in delicate health, and belonged to a prominent Quaker family. In many respects she was a remarkable woman. She married, at Fair Hill Meeting, on March 4, 1767, Thomas Mifflin. After her marriage her life up to the period of the Eevolution was very quiet. She had no children of her own, but there were those around her, near and dear, to whose comfort she was constantly minister- ing. At the commencement of the War of the Revolution Mrs. Mifflin in writing to a friend in Boston said: "I have retrenched every superfluous expense in my table and fam- ily. Tea I have not drank since last Christmas, nor bought a new cap or gown since the affair at Lexington, and what I never did before, have learned to knit, and am now making stockings of wool for my servants; and this way do I throw in my mite to the public good. I know this, that as free I can die but once; but as a slave I shall not be worthy of life. I have the pleasure to assure you that these are the sentiments of my sister Americans. They have sacrificed assemblies, parties of pleasure, tea-drinkings and finery, to that great spirit of patriotism which actuates all degrees of people throughout this extensive country." Prior to the occupancy of Philadelphia by the British, Mrs. Mifflin re- moved to Reading, where she mostly resided during the struggle for Independence. Her home Avas a notable one (128) in that Provincial German town; and, it has been stated by historians, that it was at her residence that the noted "Con- way cabaF^ was organized. But this falsehood was ex- ploded a century ago. Like the lives of all the patriots^ wives, hers was a very quiet one at Eeading, but she ac- complished much good with the aid of her neighbors there, in the preparation of delicacies for the sick and wounded who were quartered in the neighborhood. At the close of the war she returned to Philadelphia, where she remained until her death. Thomas Mifflin, son of John Mifflin and his wife, Eliza- beth Bagnell, was born in Philadelphia, January 10, 1744, of Quaker parentage. Upon the completion of his edu- cation at the College of Philadelphia, now the University of Pennsylvania, he entered a counting house. In 1764 he visited Europe, and returning went into mercantile pur- suits. These were thoroughly successful. He was « man of decided mental power and strong convictions, and liv- ing in an atmosphere which frequently suggested the com- ing storm of the Eevolution, he was not of the tempera- ment which would produce a quiet spectator. In 1771 he was chosen to the Provincial Assembly, and in 1774 was elected a delegate to the First Continental Congress. His S3nnpathies were promptly and strongly enlisted for decisive action against the tyranny and misrule of Great Britain, and the stand he took was far-sighted and courageous. With the first mustering of troops for the Eevolution he was appointed an aide-de-camp, June 20, 1775, on the staff of the commander-in-chief, accompanying Washington to Cambridge. In August he was made quartermaster gen- eral; shortly afterwards adjutant general; May 16, 1776, brigadier general, and commanded the covering party dur- ing the retreat from Long Island. He was promoted major (129) general February 19^ 1777. After the battle of German- town he resigned his position in the army. In 1783 General Mifflin was elected a delegate to Con- gress, of which body he became President, and in that ca- pacity received Washington's resignation, as commander- in-chief of the army. He was a member and speaker of the Pennsylyania Assembly in 1785; was a delegate to the con- vention to frame the Federal Constitution in 1787, and was elected President of the Supreme Executive Council in October, 1788, remaining in that official position until December, 1790. He was president of the convention which framed the Constitution of 1790, and the first Gov- ernor of the Sate, elected under the same. He was twice re-elected, serving a period of nine years. He rendered a ready and efficient support to the administration of Presi- dent Washington during the so-called "Whiskey Insurrec- tion,'' and promptly took command of the troops from Pennsylvania. After the expiration of his term of office as Governor he was elected to the Legislature, but within a few days after taking his seat was prostrated by a sud- den illness and died at Lancaster, Pa., on the morning of January 21, 1800. His remains are interred close to the walls of Trinity Lutheran church, that city. In person General Mifflin was remarkably handsome; although his stature did not exceed five feet, eight inches, his form was athletic and was capable of bearing much fatigue. His manners were cheerful and affable, his elocution open and distinct — a man of ready apprehension and brilliancy. (130) RACHEL RUSH (BOYCE) MONTGOMERY. Eachel Eush, the eldest daughter of Thomas and Eachel Rush;, was born at Byberry^ in Pliiladelphia county, Pa., May 7, 1741. Her grandfather, John Eush, commanded a troop of horse in the army of Oliver Cromwell, and on the restoration of the monarch}^, emigrated to Philadelphia in 1683. He had been personally known to the Protector. She was a sister of the celebrated Dr. Benjamin Ensh, the signer of the Declaration of Independence. Eachel received an excellent education, and was a woman of re- fined taste and manners. She married yonng in life, about 1761, Angus Boyce, a prominent merchant of Philadelphia. He died a few years later, leaving one child, Malcolm. Mrs. Boyce married, secondly, July 11, 1770, Eev. Joseph Montgomery, then pastor of the Presbyterian congrega- tions of New Castle and Christiana Bridge, Del. At the outset of the war, going into service as chaplain in the pa- triotic army, Mr. Montgomery removed his little family to Paxtang, Lancaster count}^, where he owned a farm, and it was here they remained during the struggle for inde- pendence. Apart from the care of the farm, with but fee- ble assistance, owing to the fact that all males over sixteen had gone into the militar}^ service, her help depended upon women almost entirely, yet she greatly assisted in caring for the men at the front, who were combatting the enemies of her country. Food and clothing, the latter her own handiwork, were forwarded. It was necessary for her to practice a great deal of self-denial, and this she did, the cause of her country being pre-eminent. L^pon the restoration of peace and the return of her hus- (131) band, Mrs. Montgomer}^ remained on the farm, he being in public service. In 1785 the family removed into the new town of Harrisburg, Mr. Montgomery having been ap- pointed one of the county officers. Here she remained until her death, which occurred Saturday, July 28, 1798. The Oracle of Dauphin, gives this estimate of her char- acter: *^'In her were united those virtues which beautify and adorn the Christian and human nature. She was invaria- bly mild and affable, amiable and courteous to all. Her communicative and sweet disposition, her benevolent and beneficent heart, led her at last to attempt the character of her blessed Lord, going about doing good. In her friendships she was sincere, cordial, and constant — in her domestic connections she was yet more affable and amiable, and unoffending; as a wife, she was endowed with all the tender sensibilities which complete matrimonial hap- piness. As a mother, she was remarked b}^ others, and loved by her children for the constant and engaging dis- charge of all those maternal offices which are generally seen to attract and command respect; and as a mistress humane and indulgent. * * * g]-^g supported with serenity the approach of death, leaning upon the blessed Eedeemer as the hope of her soul, and slept in the arms of Jesus with the blessed hope of immortalit}-, aged about fift3'-seven years.'^ Joseph Montgomery, son of John and Martha Montgom- ery, emigrants from Ireland, was born September 23, 1733, (0. S.) in Paxtang township, then Lancaster, now Dauphin count)^. Pa. He was educated under private tutors and at the College of Kew Jersey, from which he graduated in 1755. Afterwards he was appointed master of the grammar school connected with that college. In 1760 the College at Philadelphia and Yale College conferred upon him the (132) Master's degree. About this time lie was licensed to preach by tlie Presbytery of Philadelphia^ and by request entered the bounds of the Presbytery of Lewes, from which he was transferred to that of New Castle, accepting a call from the congregation at G-eorgetown, oyer which he was settled from 1767 tol769. He was installed pastor of the congre- tions of Christiana Bridge and New Castle, Delaware, on the 14th of August, 1769. At the outset of the Eevolution he took an actiye part in the organization of the Sons of Liberty^ — the Associators — and delivered a very patriotic address before the First Battalion of Delaware Associators. In the autumn of 1777 Mr. Montgomery resigned his pastoral charge, and accepted the commission of chaplain of Colonel Small wood's (Maryland) regiment of the Conti- nental Line, and served with distinction for a period of three years. On the 23d of ISTovember, 1780, he was chosen by the General Assembly of Pennsylvania one of its dele- gates to the Continental Congress, and re-elected the fol- lowing year. His services in that body were quite distin- guished, but owing to the fact that the journals confound his name with that of John Montgomery, of Carlisle, his name, until recent years, was omitted from the lists. He was elected a member of the Assembly of Pennsylvania in 1782 and served during that session. That body on Feb- ruary 25, 1783, selected him as one of the commissioners to reconcile the difficulties between the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the Connecticut settlers of Wyoming. When the county of Dauphin was erected, the Supreme Executive Council appointed him Eecorder of Deeds and Eegister of Wills for the county, which office he held from March 11, 1785, to October 14, 1794, the date of his death. Mr. Montgomery filled conspicuous and honorable posi- tions in church and state in the most trying period of the early history of the country. In the church he was the (133) friend and associate of men like Witherspoon, Rodgers and Spencer, and his bold utterances in the cause of independ- ence proved him a man of no ordinary courage and decision. He enjoyed to an unusual degree the respect and confidence of the men of his generation. The Rev. Mr. Montgomery was twice married; first, in 1765 to Elizabeth Reed, who died March, 1TG9. She was the daughter of Andrew and Sarah Reed, of Trenton, N". J., and a sister of President Reed, of Pennsylvania. She left two daughters. Mr. Montgomery married secondly, Rachael (Rush) Boyce. They had one child. (134) ELIZABETH THOMPSON MOORHEAD. Elizabeth Thompson, daughter of Joseph Thompson, was born in the Cumberland Valley May 18, 1748. Her father was a native of the north of Ireland, and an early settler in what is now Franklin county. The daughter received the benefit of a good home education, was a woman of consid- erable natural ability and of great force of character. In 1768 she married Fergus Moorhead, of the same locality. In May, 1772, Mr. Moorhead, with his wife and three chil- dren, his two brothers, Samuel and Joseph, and his wife's brother, James Thompson, set out from their homes in the Cumberland Valley for the ^^new country," west of the Alle- gheny Mountains. Though the thought of acquiring pos- sessions and wealth for themselves and posterity might buoy up the adventurous spirits of the Moorhead brothers, it may well be imagined that Mrs. Moorhead left home and all its endearments with a heavy heart. Being a woman, however, of great energy of character, as is shown in the sequel, and filled with that romantic spirit peculiar to that period in which she lived, she pressed forward with a firm step and resolute heart, determined to share with her hus- band the dangers and trials of the wilderness. The Moor- heads took with them three horses and a wagon which con- tained their provisions, the family effects and the household utensils. Their other live-stock consisted of a yoke of oxen, milk cows, sheep, hogs, and a lot of fowls. Mr. Moorhead had been to the country by himself before, made a cabin in a clearing and then went back to the Cumberland Valley for his little family. Beaching their Western Penn- sylvania home, they planted a small patch, which they had (135) cleared, with potatoes and corn, and prepared another for a garden. Joseph and Samnel Moorhead left their brother and his family to return home. For that harvest Fergus Moorhead cut the grass growing on the land, which in that day in some sections of the country resembled prairies, be- ing open and treeless, rank with grass and in some instances swampy. In the patches north of the Conemaugh, the wild grass grew luxuriantly. In the beginning of the Eevolu- tionary war, Mr. Moorhead was in command of the frontier fort at the Kittanning, while his brother Samuel, the com- mandant, was seriously ill from an attack of small-pox. Upon his brother's recovery, Captain Fergus Moorhead started for home, accompanied by a soldier by the name of Simpson. Arriving at "Blanket Hill" on the Kittanning, they were wajdaid by the Indians, who shot both their horses and killed the private soldier. Moorhead was taken prisoner, and after arriving at his captors' camp, was compelled to run the gauntlet. He was then taken to Quebec and sold to the British, who kept him in close confinement on mis- erable food for eleven months. At the end of this time he was exchanged and sent to Xew York, from which place he set out on foot for his former home in the Cumberland Valle3^ His wife had accompanied her brother back to the Cumberland Valley, and while she was at his father's house she had the unmistakable delight of again meeting her husband, who after many adventures had returned from his caj)tivity. In 1781 Mr. ]\Ioorhead, with his wife and children, re- turned to their Westmoreland county home. It may be here stated that during the time of her husband's capti\T.ty there devolved upon Mrs. Moorhead the sad duty, ^nthout any assistance whatever, closing the eyes of her own child, making its coffin and depositing it in the grave she had dug (136) for it. It was subsequent to this that she had returned to the Cumberland Valley, for, having no word from her hus- band as to his whereabouts, no information was obtained as to what had really become of him. The sore trials which this typical pioneer woman underwent during the Eevolu- tionary struggle, the pen is too weak to describe, and, yet, Mrs. Moorhead was only one of the many noble women, wives of the patriots of the Declaration, who suffered dur- ing the war for independence. Mr. Moorhead lived to the ripe old age of eighty-nine, dying in 1831, his wife preced- ing him ten years. They left a numerous and respectable progeny, and some of their descendants occupy prominent positions in the Western States of the Union. (137) MARY WHITE MORRIS. Mary White, daughter of Colonel Thomas White and his wife Esther Hillings, widow of John Newman, was born April 13, 1749, in the city of Phihidclphia. She died in that city January 16, 1827. Mary White was a sister of William White, first bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Pennsylvania. Under the teachin«:s of an ex- emplary mother, a woman whom her dutiful son says "pos- sessed an excellent understanding, with sincere but unos- tentatious piety," Mary White became one of the most ac- complished women of that day. She was a woman of great beauty of face and form, and when, on March 2, 1769, she became the wife of Robert Morris, the financier of the Revo- lution, she was well calculated to preside over her husband's luxurious home durng his days of prosperity. Mrs. Morris was a woman of peculiar amiability and sweetness of temper, and during her thirty-seven years of wedded life, she proved a true wife of that steadfast patriot. In his hours of home gladness she shared his joys. In his years of patriotic devotion to his country's inter- ests, she cheered his labors. In his weary days of trouble, when misfortune and poverty came upon them both, being past the prime, she never fal- tered in her love, and when at last, he, broken in his health, had escaped his cruel imprisonment, his wife re- ceived him and cherished him in his declining years. There was, indeed, in this a chivalry of devotion unequalled in the long list of patriotic women. During her husband's im- prisonment, Mrs. Morris received an urgent letter from General and ^frs Washington, urging her to pay them a (138) visit at Mount Yernon, and to make as long a stay under tlieir roof as slie would find it convenient. Having through certain interests in the Holland Land Compan}'^;, bequeathed to her by Gouverneur Morris, she obtained from that corporation a life annuity, and it was through this decision and forethought that she secured for her husband a home in the last years of his life. Eobert Morris, son of Eobert Morris, was born at Liver- pool, England, January 20, 1733-4 (0. S.). His father came to America when the boy was about six years of age and settled on the Eastern Shore, Maryland. The son at an early age entered the counting house of Mr. Charles Will- ing, in Philadelphia, and at the age of twenty entered into a partnership which was maintained until 1793, a period of thirty-nine years. Although warmly attached to the mother country, Eobert Morris opposed the stamp act, and signed the non-importation resolutions of 1765. Upon the organization of the Committee of Safety, in June, 1775, Mr. Morris was made president. On the 3d of November, that year, the Assembly of Pennsylvania elected him as one of the delegates to the Second Congress, then in session in Philadelphia. He voted against the resolution of July 2, 1776, and on the 4th when the Declaration was submitted for approval he absented himself from his seat in Congress. His reason therefor was, that at that time he considered the act premature and unnecessary, that the colonies were not yet ready for independence. Subsequently, however, on the 2d of August, when the engrossed Declaration was laid upon the table to be signed, he subscribed with a firm hand and unfaltering heart, his signature to our Magna Charta. He was re-elected to Congress in 1777, and again in 1778. On the 9th of July he led the Pennsylvania delegation in signing the "Articles of Confederation and perpetual Union between the States." (139) In February, 1781, Congress appointed liim to the im- portant office of Superintendent of Finance, and he filled that arduous and responsible post until November 1, 1784. He was truly termed "The Financier of the Revolution," for to his exertions and his services was the country in- debted for the helpfulness in the successful campaigns of 1780-81, which secured the independence of America. He was a member of the Convention which formed the Con- stitution of the United States, and was elected a member of the first United States Senate, which position he retained until 1795. In 179 5 the North American Land company, in which Mr. Morris, with John Nicholson and others, was largely interested, wrought his financial ruin, through the dishonesty and rascality of some of the members of that company, and his closing years were spent in utter poverty. For a period of three years and over he was an inmate of a debtor's prison, and the Government which he had carried on his own shoulders through adversity to prosperity, al- lowed him to remain therein. Mr. Morris survived his im- prisonment not quite five years. He died in Philadelphia May 7, 1806, and with his wife, buried in Christ Church graveyard, in Philadelphia. (140) MARGARET MAYES MURRAY. Margaret Mayes, b. Feb. 2, 1738, in the north of Ireland, was the daughter of Andrew and Rebecca Mayes, who came to America the same year. Her parents settled in Lancaster county within ten miles of the present city of Harrisburg, and it was here on the frontiers that the daugh- ter reached womanhood. She married Dec. 29, 1762, John Murray, who resided near by. In common with the women of the backwoods districts she endured the hardships and the sufferings from which there was no alleviation for a period of almost twenty years. During the struggle for independence and the absence of her husband from the hearthstone, she did her part nobly and well. The men at the front fighting the battles of their country, knew that the cause was just and that God was with them. Yet they acted not alone in all that fearful drama, for the mothers, wives, daughters and sisters, left behind, helped them in their devotion. It is true, that their exertions were devoid of the pomp for which most men strive and few obtain, but the conduct of the women, although silent, was none the less potent in acts of heroism. It was then, as it is in this era, that noble woman worked to alleviate the sufferings of mortals, and performed deeds of hero- ism and benevolence, looking beyond the grave for the blessed reward. It is said that "the good deeds which men do live after them," but, it may be fairly stated that the services rendered by philanthropic women in all the ages of the world will only be known when time shall be no more. Notwithstanding the sufferings and trials during the early period of her life, Mrs. Murray lived to a green old age and died on the 22d of June, 1807, in Upper Pax- (141) tang township, Dauphin county, Pcnn'a, and is buried b}^ the side of her husband in the okl cemetery near Dau- phin borough. John Murray was born circa, 1731, in Scotland. His parents, William Murray and Isabella Lindle}^ emigrated to America in 1732. They settled in the Province of Penn- sylvania on the Swatara, and here their son John was reared. In 1766 John ]\rurray took up a tract of land called ^'The Indian Burying Ground,'' lying on the Sus- quehanna immediately above his brother James' farm, which adjoined the present town of Dauphin. In the spring of 1776 he raised a company, of which he was com- missioned captain, March 7, 1776. This was attached to Col. Samuel Miles' Penn'a Eifle Eegiment, which partici- pated in the battles of Long Island, White Plains, Tren- ton and Princeton. On the 18th of March, 1777, Capt. Murray was promoted ]\Iajor of the Pennsylvania State Eegiment of Foot, commanded by Col. Walter Stewart. Upon the organization of the 13th Penns^dvania, which was formed on the basis of the State Eegiment, he vras transferred to First Major, and with this command he fought at Brandy wine and Germantown. Upon the 13th being incorporated with the Second Pennsylvania, July 1, 1778, he was transferred to that comm.and, and subse- quently promoted, Dec. 10, 1779, to lieutenant colonel; and in the re-arrangement of the Pennsylvania Line, was re- tired Jan. 1, 1781. He then returned to his familv and farm. Governor Mifflin, a very warm friend, appointed him Justice of the Peace August 29, 1791, the only politi- cal office he ever held, and it may be here st'^ted that all other positions tendered him were refused. He was an ardent Whig of the Eevolution, and a brave and gallant officer in that struggle for independence. Col. Murray died February 3, 1798, near Dauphin, Penn'a, and was buried in the old cemetery there. (142) WINIFEED OLDHAM NEVILLE. Winifred Oldliam^ danghter of John Oldham and his wife Anne Convfay, was born November 19, 1736, in West- moreland county, Virginia. She was descended from John Oldham, who emigrated to the colony of Virginia in March, 1635. His son, Thomas Oldham, was the father of Colonel Daniel Oldham, who married Elizabeth Newton, and their son John Oldham was the father of the subject of this sketch. Winifred received a good education at the hands of private instructors and grew up, not only a handsome woman, but one of culture and bright of thought and man- ners. On the 24th of August, 1754, she married John Neville. Prior to the Revolution they resided at Winchester in Virginia, but when the war threatened and her husband, with his military command, took charge of Fort Pitt, she removed thither, and the remainder of her days was passed in Pennsylvania. Little need be said of the experience of a woman at a frontier post or town at this critical era of our country's history. It was a life full of care, deep anxiet}^, as well as self-sacrifice. Of determined spirit, she was equal to the emergency, and ever}^ demand upon her industry and philanthropy was cheerfully acquiesced in. She was a loyal woman at all times, more especially when to be loyal required a full measure of duty and devotion and patriot- ism. At the dawn of peace her cares were none the less, her hospitality was too frequently put to the severest tests. Her husband's prominence required this, even had she not that indwelling spirit which prompted it. During the days of misrule, leading up to the so-called (143) "Whiskey Insurrection/'' her trials and hardships were great, sympathizing so strongly with the dangers threaten- ing her husband. Absent from home at the destruction of her dwelling, her spirits kept up, for she was always hope- ful, even cheerful. To her life's close she was the center of attraction at every social gathering, and her narration of events of almost half a century, in which she or her hus- band were active participants, was listened to with the greatest interest. She died on Montour's Island in 1797, and was buried in the First Presbyterian graveyard at Pitts- bur di. John [N'eville, son of George Neville and Ann Burroughs, who was a cousin of Lord Fairfax, was born July 26, 1731, on the head waters of Occoquan river, Virginia. His father's residence is laid down on Governor Pownall's, and Fry and Jefferson's maps, also on map in Spark's "Life and Writings of Washington." On the map in Jefferson's "Notes on Virginia," edition of 1787, it is laid down near the head of Bull Eun, a branch of the Occoquan. He was an early acquaintance of Washington, and served with him in Braddock's expedition. He subsequently settled near AVin- chester, Frederick county, where he held the office of sher- iff. He was in Dunmore's expedition of 1774. Prior to this he had made large entries and purchases of land on Chartiers' creek, and built a house, now owned and occupied by Mrs. Mary Wrenshall, and was about to remove there when the Eevolutionary troubles began. He was elected a deleo'ate from xlus-nsta countv to the Provincial Conven- tion of Virginia, which appointed George Washington, Pey- ton Eandolph and others to the first Continental Congress, but was prevented by sickness from attending. On the 7th of August, 1775, the Provincial Convention of Virginia ordered him to march with his company and take posses- sion of Fort Pitt. December 23, 1776, he was appointed a (144) justice of Yoliogania county court, but considering the dis- tracted state of the country, occasioned by the boundary dispute, and his position as commandant at Fort Pitt, he prudently declined the appointment. He was colonel of the Fourth Virginia Eegiment in the Eevolutionary War.^ Subsequent to the Eevolution he was a member of the Board of Property, and of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania, and of the Pennsylvania Convention which ratified the Federal Constitution; he was also a member of the Convention which formed the Constitution of Pennsyl- vania in 1789-90. In 1791, at the urgent solicitation of the President and the Secretary of the Treasury, he accepted the appointment of Inspector of the Eevenue in the Fourth Survey of the District of Pennsylvania, which he held until after the suppression of the "Whiskey Insurrection" and establishment of the supremacy of the laws of the United States. He was appointed agent, at Pittsburgh, for the sale of lands, imder the act of Congress, passed May 18, 1796, entitled "An act for the sale of the lands of the United States in the Territory northwest of the Ohio, &c.''' He died on Montour's Island, now Neville township, Allegheny county. Pa., July 29, 1803, and was buried in the First Pres- byterian church yard, Pittsburgh. (145) MARY CARSON O'HARA. Mary Carson was born in Philadelphia, December 11, 1760. She was the daughter of William Carson, who kept the "Harp and Crown,^^ on Third street and Ell)ow lane, that city. Mr. Carson was a native of County Antrim, Ire- land, became a well-known and much respected citizen, and filled several important positions by appointment of the Committee of Safety during the War of the Revolution. The daughter was the pride of her father, who had bestowed upon her all the culture and educational advantages which he could jDrocure at*the period antedating the Revolution- ary war. She grew to be a stately, dignified and beautiful woman, and during the struggle for independence it is said that she greatly assisted her mother and sisters in their handiwork — the making of clothing and other necessaries for the soldiers of the Revolution. She was an expert in that almost forgotten art the knitting of stockings, and many the pairs which came from her dexterous hands. Prior to the occupancy of Philadelphia by the British troops in 1777, her father sent her with her sister, Elizabeth, who had recently married Colonel Christian Febiger, of the Virginia Line, to Lancaster, where they resided during the winter of 1777-78. ITpon her return to the city, the good work which she had begun was continued; and from that time until her marriage, towards the close of the war, to James O'Hara, she did her duty faithfully and well. Re- moving to her western home at Fort Pitt, it is recorded of her that she was a woman celebrated for loveliness, ele- gance and refinement; was a good matron and enjoyed the respect of her neighbors. She was a loved and honored (146) wife, as well as a tender and most judicious mother. She survived her husband over tvv^elve years, and died in the city of Pittsburgh, on the 8th day of April, 1834. James O'Hara, of a distinguished Milesian family, was a native of County Mayo, Ireland, where he was born in the early part of the year 1743. He received a classical educa- tion, and was intended for the priesthood. It was sup- posed that he had been a subordinate ofhcer in the British service, but the records do not bear this out. In 1770 he was in a counting house in Liverpool, and a year or two after came to America along with some mercantile friends, and resided .for a |)eriod in Philadelphia. In that city he became acquainted with persons engaged in the then lucra- tive occupation of Indian traders, and entered their service. For several years subsequently he was at Kaskaskund, an Indian town situated on a branch of the Big Beaver, in now Lawrence count}^, Pennsylvania. When the war of the Eevolution began, his sympathies were with the colonies in that struggle, and his every exertion was used in behalf of preserving peace with the Indians on the western frontiers, vdio were chiefly inimical, being under the influence of the British military authorities on the Lakes. Familiar with gathering supplies for the frontiers, it is not surprising that his assistance was desirable in the crisis of affairs. In the journal of Congress, under date of J^ovember 6, 1777, it is ordered, "that two thousand dollars be advanced to Captain James O'Hara, at the request of the Board of War, for the purchase of supplies for the use of the independent com- panies at Fort Pitt under the command of Brigadier G-en- eral Hand.^' From that period until the close of the war, he was an important personage upon the frontiers, and un- til the treaty at Fort Mcintosh, in 1784, when money was placed in his hands by the Government for the purchase of Indian goods, he is designated as "Captain." From this (147) we would infer that lie had received the appointment of commissary of purchases, this being the special rank of that officer. The valuable services of Captain O'Hara were properly appreciated by the authorities; and later on, when it was found necessary to defend the frontiers from the savages from the northwest of the Ohio, he was appointed Quartermaster General of the Army. After the successful termination of General Wayne's campaign against the In- dians, General O'Hara resigned, but continued as a con- tractor for supplying the Western Army until 1802. In 1796, in connection with Major Isaac Craig, he erected the first glass works at Pittsburgh. He was also engaged in commercial pursuits on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. He was chosen a presidential elector in 1789. In 1802, and again in 1804, he was a candidate for Congress, but failed in an election, his party being in a hopeless minority. In 1804 he was appointed a director of the Branch Bank of Pennsylvania, established that year in Pittsburgh, and sub- sequently entered into various enterprises. He purchased, from time to time, large tracts of land from the State, and in all his business ventures was remarkably prosperous. He died at Pittsburgh, December 21, 1819, in the 67th year of his age. Few men in the West stood higher in the re- spect and confidence of the community than General O'Hara. He was the forerunner of that class of successful, energetic men who took early and firm hold of affairs and made Pittsburgh the great manufacturing emporium of Western Pennsylvania. (148) ROSINA KUCHER ORTH. Eosina Kucher^ second daugliter of Peter and Barbara Kucher^ was born in Lebanon township, then Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, March 19, 1741. Her parents emi- grated from the Palatinate, Germany, about the year 1737, and settled in Pennsylvania, where most of their large family of children were born. Educated under the care of the Moravian minister of the neighborhood, together with the instruction and example of a truly pious mother, Eosina became a woman of more than ordinary culture. On the 26th of April, 1763, in Hebron church, near Leb- anon, she was married by Rev. Zahm, to Balzer Orth, also a native of the locality, where he was born July 14, 1736. His father, of the same name, came from the Palatinate, Germany, to Pennsylvania in 1730, where in 1735 he had warranted to him three hundred acres of land, on which he had been some time settled. The son was a man of promi- nence during the Eevolutionary period, had served in the Bouquet expedition against the Ohio Indians in 1764, and early espoused the cause of the colonies in their struggle for independence. He was an officer in one of the asso- ciated battalions of Lancaster county, and after the victory at Trenton was in command of the company which was di- rected to guard the Hessian prisoners of war, confined at Lebanon. He was commissioned major of the Second Bat- talion, Colonel Greenawalt, August 26, 1780, and was in ac- tive service that year guarding the frontier settlers while gathering their crops, owing to the numerous marauds of the Indians from the northern lakes. During this period Mrs. Orth was not a disinterested wit- (149) ness of transpiring events. True to her matronly duties, as well as the patriotic inspiration of the times, no one was more diligent in laboring for the relief of the American soldiery. Skilled in spinning and weaving, an accomplish- ment in which she justly prided herself, large quantities of clothing material were sent by her to the badly clothed men of the army of the Declaration. To her, and others of her neighbors (she was but one of the many), too great honor cannot be rendered, and it is only proper that their descendants cherish the patriotic self-devotion of these mothers of the Eopublic. Major Orth died October G, 1794, his wife surviving until April 3, 1814. Both lie in- terred in Hebron church vard, near Lebanon. Of their eight children who reached maturity, the eldest son, Got- leib, was the father of Hon. Godlove S. Orth, the famous Indiana statesman; while their eldest daughter, Maria-Bar- bara, v/as the maternal ancestor of the distinguished sur- geon, Prof. S. J. Jones, M. D., LL. D., of Chicago. (150) SARAH McDOWEl^L PIPEE. Sarali McDowell^ daughter of Wiiliam McDowell, and sister of the wife of Archibald Irwin, was born, November 30, 1738, upon her father's farm near ParnelFs Knob, in the Cumberland Valley. With slender chances of educa- tion, except that afforded by careful home-training and in- struction, the early childhood of Sarah was spent on the frontiers, until after the defeat of General Braddock, when her family fled towards the Susquehanna, and for sometime resided in the vicinity of Carlisle. It was here, possibl}^ she became acquainted with William Piper, who was an officer in the Provincial service. They were married De- cember 29, 1759. They continued to reside in the Cum- berland Valley, near Shippensburg, until after 1768, when they removed to a tract of land in Northumberland county. The first information that we have of Mrs. Piper is from the notes of the Eev. Mr. Fithian, then on a missionary tour to the West Branch Valley. Under date of July 12, 1775, he says: "I jogged along a narrow bridle road, logs fallen across it, through bushes, until I came at last to Cap- tain Piper's, at Warrior Eun. The Captain was out reap- ing. Mrs. Piper received me kindly." He further states under date of July 13: "There is no one in the society but my little Wain that can tell you what is ^effectual calling.' Indeed, his little Wain is a lovely girl. She is an only child just ten years old. She seems to me to be remarkably intelligent; reads very clear, attends well to the quantity of words, has a sweet, nervous accent. Indeed, I have not been so lately pleased as with this rosy-cheeked Miss Peggy Piper." (151) One has only to read Mr. Linn's "Buffalo Valley," or Me- ginness' ^'History of tlie West Branch Valley/' to learn of the hardships and the trials, with the self endurance of the backwoods inhabitants during the early years of the strug- gle for independence, in all of whicli ^Irs. l^ii)er was an active participant. During the "Big Runaway" of June, 1778, she fled, with other settlers, to escape the fury of the Indians, and until the close of the Revolution, Mrs. Piper and her little family resided among their friends in the Cumberland Valley. Mrs. Piper died September 25, 1805, and was buried in the Upper West Conecocheague grave- yard. William Piper, son of James and Margaret Piper, was born October 31, 1735, in W^est Pennsboro', Cumberland county. His parents came into the valley two years prior. When the French and Indian war broke out, he enlisted in the Provincial service, and in 1764 rose to be a captain in the force raised to accompany Colonel Bouquet on his ex- pedition westward, his commission bearing date July 20, 1763. For his services he received two tracts of land. One of these tracts lay in Bald Eagle Valley, just above the mouth of Beech creek. The other was situated on the West Branch of the Susquehanna including the mouth of Delaware run. Here Captain Piper removed from his old home near Shippensburg, and took up his residence in a log house which he erected on the present site of the village of Dewart. In 1778-9 Captain Piper was in active military service, assisting in the protection of the frontiers con- stantly threatened by the Indians, as an olBcer of one of the associated battalions. He vras appointed a collector of excise in Xovember, 1779, and a year or two after re- moved to the Cumberland Valley, to a farm near Shippens- burg. Subsequently he purchased a tract of land in Peters township, Cumberland county, not far from Mercersburg. (152) I He died on liis farm January 7, 1798, and was bnried in the graveyard there. It may be noted in this connection that the "little Wain," Captain Piper's daughter Margaret, of whom the Eev. Mr. Fithian wrote so charmingly, subse- quently became the wife of James Irwin, brother of Archi- bald Irwin, the grandfather of ex-President Harrison. (153) MARGARET LOWREY PLUMER. Margaret Lowrey, daughter of Alexander Lowrey and his wife Mary Waters, was born September 5, 17G5, in Donegal township, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. Of Colonel Lowrey it may be here stated that he was one of the most prominent citizens of Pennsylvania, having been an influ- ential Indian trader prior to the Revolution, and during that era one of its foremost advocates. About the close of the Revolution Miss Lowrey crossed the mountains on a visit to her sisters, Mrs. Daniel Elliott and Mrs. John Hay, who resided on Puckety creek, Westmoreland county. It was during that visit that Miss Lowrey first met George Plumer. They shortly became engaged, but Mrs. Hay, with whom Margaret was making her visit, opposed the match, and threatened to send her sister home. Accordingly, the young lovers made a runaway match and were married. George Plumer was the son of Jonathan Plumer and his wife Annie Farrell. He was born Decemxber 5, 1762, in a cabin, now within the limits of the city of Pittsburgh, and the second white child born there under the English domi- nation. The son became a noted hunter and scout, and occasionally accompanied parties of surveyors. He built a log cabin on Puckety creek, where he had taken up eight hundred acres of land, of which he cleared thirty. Here the young couple struggled against cares and trials new to the wife, with no hope of the father's forgiveness. The husband worked hard, clearing and cultivating his land. Game was abundant and afforded them all the fresh meat they required. However, they were often annoyed by the Indians, and frequently were compelled to take refuge at (154) night in tlie adjoining woods, and occasionally find shelter in Fort Crawford. George Plnmer being called on to perform a month of military services as scout, during his absence an attorney of Pittsburgh took advantage thereof, sent a surveyor to survey his lands and had taken it before he knew anything about it. Up to this time Mr. Plumer had never met Colo- nel Lowrey, his father-in-law, and their meeting was a curi- ous one. The old Indian trader had a body of land north of Hannastown about which there was some litigation. Preparatory to the trial of the case he was out with the surveyors when George Plumer, who was hunting in that direction, accidentally met the party. The surveyors, with whom he was well acquainted, after shaking hands, intro- duced him to his astonished father-in-law, but the Colonel, having been prejudiced against him, was cold and distant, yet eyed him sharply. Mr. Plumer, however, maintained his serenit}^, and making gradual approaches to the Colonel, finally invited him to go home with him to see his daughter and grandchildren, but the Colonel declined, and after shaking hands they separated. However, the old gentle- man^s heart was touched, and he followed his son-in-law in a day or two, entering the cabin unannounced, overwhelmed his daughter and her little ones with embraces, and all was well again. After spending some days with them, he told Mr. Plumer that there were three fine tracts of land near the mouth of Big Sewickley creek, belonging to a gentleman with whom he was in extensive business relations, and directed him to go and make a selection and he would give it to him and his wife. This was speedily done, and in 1791 George Plumer built a house on that tract at the mouth of the Sewickley, and moved into it. After the Plumers had been two years on their new place Colonel Lowrey made (155) them another visit, and was so much pleased by the im- provements made by Mr. Plumer's energy and industry that he gave him money to erect mills. The next year the saw mill was running and masons were at work upon the iuun- dation of the grist mill. The year following, Mrs. Plumer and her sister Mary went east to see their father, and just before they started for home he gave each of them a large sum of money. Soon after his wife^s return Mr. Plumer was taken down with fever, from which he recovered slowly. During his pro- tracted illness a freshet swept away the mill-dam which in his weak condition, discouraged him, and, finally obeying his physician^s warning against hard work, he was induced to sell his mills. In the yeav following he built a large square log house on the upper portion of his farm in which he moved and in it he spent the remaining portion of his days. In 1812 Mr. Plumer was elected to the Legislature, and re-elected the five following years. In 1820 he was elected a Eepresentative in the Seventeenth Congress, and subse- quently to the Eighteenth and Nineteenth. In 1832 Mr. Plumer was again urged to permit his name to be used as a candidate for Congress, but, declining further service, he spent the remaining portion of his years in the quietude of private life. He died near West ISTewton on the 8th of June, 1843, in the eighty-first year of his age. Mrs. Plumer, who preferred to share the dangers and privations of a life on the frontiers with the man she loved than give him up for the luxuries of an eastern home, fully exemplified iv her noble course the highest character of the pathetic seldom read of, save in romance and song. She was a woman of cultivated, refined taste, and well suited for the higher duties which in the latter years of her life she was called upon to perform. She died at the residence on the Sewick- (156) ley on the 24th of June^ 1818. She left a large family of children, some of whom became distinguished in the his- tory of western Pennsylvania, and whose descendants to- day are numbered among the most prominent people of the State. A grandson was the late Mr. George Plnmer Smith, of Philadelphia. (157) ELIZABETH POTTER POE. Elizabeth Potter, only child of James Potter by his first wife, Elizabeth Cathcart, was born October 17, 1755, in An- trim township, Cumberland county. Her father was an officer in the French and Indian war, was under Colonel Armstrong at the destruction of the Kittanning, and dur- ing the War of the Eevolution early enlisted in its cause. The services of General Potter in the Pennsylvania cam- paign of 1777 were very distinguished, and in the spring of 1778 Washington wrote from Valley Forge that "if the state of General Potter^s affairs will admit of his return to the army, I shall be exceedingly glad to see him, as his ac- tivit}'' and vigilance have been very much wanted during the winter." The opportunity for female education being very limited in those early days, Elizabeth Potter of course enjo3^ed very few advantages. She was not fond of study, but dreaded being thought ignorant. She read all the books that came in her way, and thus acquired much miscellaneous knowl- edge. She had a ver}^ quick perception and intuitive com- prehension of all that w^as said around her by wiser heads, and had great tact and ready adaptation to persons and circumstances. She was peculiarly an intelligent listener, and often created astonishment by the readiness with which she seized upon an idea. All this, joined to a retentive memory and great fluency and even elegance of speech, made her one of the most brilliant conversationalists of her day. On the eve of the Revolution Elizabeth Potter married James Poe. He was among the first to volunteer in the (158) cause of freedom, and, far from holding him back or la- menting over his determination, his yonng and spirited wife did her best to encourage and to help him. The ser- vices of her husband were chiefly on the frontiers and on several occasions when it was necessary for the Eangers to go into camp for the winter, Mrs. Poe always rejoined her husband, enduring very cheerfully the narrow quarters and camp fare. Her courage and her spirits, however, never failed her, and in the cold and comfortless camp, as in her happy home at Antrim, she made sunshine for all around. Of her services and of her self-denials during the "War of the Eevolution, they were in common with the settlers on the frontiers, ministering to the comfort of those who were struggling for their country's independence. Her after life was one chiefl}^ of struggle and sorrow, for it was dur- ing the second war for independence that her well-beloved son. Adjutant Thomas Poe, fell at the battle of Chippewa, on the 6th of July, 1814. Mrs. Poe died on the 11th of September, 1819, and was buried at Brown's Mill grave- yard. James Poe, son of Thomas Poe, was born in what is now Antrim township, Franklin county, Pennsylvania, April 15, 1748. He was brought up on his father's farm as was most of the sons of the pioneers, and found it necessary to earn his bread "by the sweat of his brow." As early as the 26th of July, 1764, although but a lad of sixteen years, he formed one of a party of settlers who, under the command of Lieutenant James Potter, pursued the savages who had massacred the schoolmaster and scholars at Gruitner's school house. When the war for independence became an estab- lished fact, James Poe was among the first to offer his ser- vices to his country. He assisted in the organization of a company of associators in 1776, of which he was a lieuten- ant. He was commissioned July 31, 1777, captain of the (159) Third Company, Eighth Battalion, Cumberland County militia, commanded by Colonel Abraham Smith. He held the same position in May, 1778, and from that on until the close of the Revolutionary struggle he was in active service, especially on the frontiers. At the close of the war Captain Poe returned to his farm in Antrim. His military services were, however, supplemented in after life by important business of a civil character. On the 22d of October, 1783, Mr. Poe was appointed by the State authorities Commissioner of Taxes for Cumber- land county. Upon the formation of the new county of Franklin, he was chosen its first county commissioner, and served in that capacity from 1785 to 1787. In 1797 he was once more chosen for a term of three years. In 1796 he was elected a member of the Assembly, and served in that body again from 1800 to 1803. Under the act of March 21, 1808, Franklin county was made an independent Senatorial district, and Captain Poe was chosen the first Senator under that apportionment, serving in the Senate from December, 1811, to December, 1819. With the close of his last Sena- torial term he retired from public service. He died at his farm on the 22d of June, 1822, surviving his admirable wife but three years, and was buried by her side in Brown's Mill graveyard, and a broad stone slab bears the following in- scription: Sacred to the Memory of JAMES POE, Esquire, Patriot of the Revolution of 1776, a sincere friend and honest man and a professor of the Christian Religion, who departed this life June 22d, 1822, aged 74 years. (160) MARGARET O'BRIEN POLLOCK. Margaret O'Brien was a native of Ireland, born in the year 1746, in County Clare. She descended from a noble family by both her parents — O'Brien of the House of Clare and Kennedy of Ormond. Her father was an officer in the "Eegiment de Clare/' belonging to the Irish Brigade in the service of France. The daughter was educated at one of the convent schools at Paris, and upon her father being or- dered to America, accompanied him thither. It was at Kew Orleans that she met Oliver Pollock, then one of the most prominent merchants in the ISTew World, and about the year 1765 they were married. She was a woman en- dowed with a well cultivated mind, of an excellent under- standing, and just such a helpmate for an active and ener- getic soul as Pollock. Her conversation was ever engag- ingly instructive and desirable, and her domestic life was a resplendent one. She greatly aided her husband in his patriotic work to serve his adopted country in its struggle toward liberty, and at times was undoubtedly the star of hope which lightened his way in the darkest hours of his life, for it must needs be that in every praiseworthy, even God-like effort, the sunshine is at times overshadowed by clouds. The War of the Revolution was especially so, and even the most hopeful of the patriots had their hours of despondency and gloom, and Mr. Pollock's ventures fre- quently were disastrous failures — it was at these times that the true wife and loyal woman that she was, helped to buoy up, as it were, the fainting heart. She appreciated his self- denial in the cause of America, and sympathized with him when the hours of ungratefulness came. She realized what (IGl) sacrifices her husband had made; when, had he been less a lover of his country, wealth would have remained and like that other great financier of the Eevolution, not ended his days in almost poverty. Mrs. Pollock was truly one of the women of the period of the Revolution of whom her descendants may be justly proud. Distant from the din of battle, the trials, suffer- ings and hardships encountered by Washington's little army of ragged Continentals, it was through her husband's energy and patriotic valor that some help was given the struggling colonies. Safe from danger she was, yet her womanly sym- pathies went out to her sisters, suffering in the northland, and her advice had weight — it was loyal confidence and love. When his labors were ended, and peace dawned, Mr. Pol- lock came back to Pennsylvania with his wife and family. Here Mrs. Pollock again exhibited those many excellent traits of goodness which illumined her whole life. She died at the family residence, January 10, 1799, and her re- mains were interred in the graveyard at Silvers Spring church. The "Carlisle Gazette" of the 23d, among other precious words in her memor}^, says: "In her we saw the faithful, the tender, the affectionate wife — a parent, most fond, indulgent and kind — a friend, cautious, just, sincere and warm — a Christian, engagingly pious, benevolent and liberal. She sought the tear of misery and relieved it — her soul melted at the misfortunes of others, and made them her own — her mind was great and happy; and she was blessed with a memory both fertile and pleasingly useful to rear the tender thoughts of youth, and with a talent pe- culiarly her own." Oliver Pollock, son of James Pollock, was bom in Ire- land about 1737. His father and family came to America and settled near Carlisle shortly after the formation of the (162) county of Cumberland. The son had previously received good training, and was brought up in mercantile pursuits. In 1763-3 he went to Havana, Cuba, where he was connected with a prominent firm in that city. After the cession of the Louisiana territory by France to the king of Spain, Mr. Pollock removed to the town of 'New Orleans, where he en- gaged in mercantile transactions and established a high rejDutation in business circles. On a venture, in 1769, he purchased the brig "Eoyal Charlotte," at Baltimore, loaded her with flour and set sail for E"ew Orleans. Owing to the recent occupation of that place by the Spanish troops, food was scarce, and it was at this juncture that the load of bread stuffs arrived at JSTew Orleans. Not desiring to take advantage of the distress of the people, his flour was offered at a nominal price. In 1775, when the American Eevolution began, Mr. Pol- lock was one of the most prominent and energetic mer- chants at New Orleans. His sympathy was at once enlisted in favor of independence, and many were the services ren- dered secretly and effectively. During that critical period, perchance there is no story of a life more interesting than that of Oliver Pollock, especially as connected with his transactions in Spanish circles, as well as his great assist- ance to the struggling colonies. It may be here stated that Mr. Pollock greatly assisted Col. George R. Clark with the sinews of war for capturing the Illinois. His un- swerving devotion to the United States so often manifested forbids the suspicion that his motives were not thoroughly loyal to his allegiance. His services to his adopted coun- try have never been appreciated. No better estimate of his character can be furnished than that of Miro, the Span- ish governor of New Orleans, in a letter to Governor Ean- dolph, of Virginia: "The just integrity evinced by this gentleman in the (163) faithful discharge of his engagements entered into for the service of his country, strongly interests me in his favor and induces me to pray you have the goodness to receive him under your Excellency's protection, and I trust you will be pleased to give him as speedy a reimbursement of the monies due him from the United States, and the State of Virginia, which I shall esteem as a personal favor con- ferred upon myself/' As the financial agent of the United States at iSTew Or- leans during the Eevolution, it is greatly to be regretted that the Colonies never properly reimbursed him, and he died comparatively a poor man; whereas, through his suc- cessful transactions in mercantile pursuits in the Spanish possessions, he could have been one of the wealthiest men in the United States. In 1792 he returned to Cumberland county, Penns3dvania, purchasing the property known as Silvers Spring. In 1795 he was a candidate for Congress, but was defeated, as also in 1804; the latter j^ear owing to a di- vision of votes in the county. He was quite popular in the locality. In 1806 he was again nominated, but withdrew in favor of Eobert Whitehill. After the death of his wife, he removed to Baltimore, where he again married. About the close of the war of 1812-14, he removed to the residence of his son-in-law. Dr. Samuel Eobinson, Pinckneyville, Mississippi, where he died December 17, 1823. Next to Eobert Morris, the great financier of the Eevolution, come the services of Oliver Pollock, and to him the country owes very much of its success in the struggle for independence against Great Britain. (164) ELIZABETH PARKEE PORTER. Elizabeth Parker, daughter of Alexander Parker, was born NoYember 15, 1750, in now Montgomery connty, Pennsylvania. She was the sister of Lieutenant, after- wards Captain and then Major Robert Parker, of the Con- tinental Army. She was a woman of more than ordinary endowments. As her face is portrayed on the canvas it wears a tinge of sadness, but her clear blue eyes and high forehead and the finely chiseled features indicate strong in- tellectual qualities. She was evidently a woman of un- usual prudence in the conduct of her household affairs. On the 20th of May, 1777, Elizabeth Parker married Captain Andrew Porter. She was his second wife. Dur- ing her husband's long absences, she managed his business, superintended the farm and instructed her children with beautiful devotion and fidelity. Her husband was heard to say, that, during the war, he never wore a garment which did not display the evidences of her skill in needlework. On attending a dinner party given by some of the of&cers, one of them. General Knox, it is traditional in the family, said to him: "Porter, how does it happen that you look so genteel when the rest of us are in rags, and you are receiv- ing no better pay than we.'' "You must ask my wife," he replied. "I thought this coat had seen its best days, but recently she took it home, took it apart, turned the inside of the cloth outward, and now you see it is almost as good as new." Mrs. Porter seems also to have been a person of more than ordinary intellectual culture. She, of course, had her Bible, and she read it devoutly. She had also those old- (165) fashioned books of devotion by Baxter and Bunyan, which were more read during the last century than now, and never read too often. There is another book which seems to have been her constant companion, "Paradise Lost." She read this as a means of recreation down to the day of her death, and was familiar with its finest passages. It thus happened that these passages were occasionally quoted with accuracy by some of her descendants, who never concerned them- selves with the original work. This lady had a real adventure to relate. While the army lay at Valley Forge, she was accustomed to visit her husband, carrying with her some small delicacies for his use, or garments made with her own hands, and these visits were generally made on horseback. One evening, on ap- proaching the camp, she met a gentleman in undress uni- form, of whose rank she was ignorant. He adjusted for her some part of the trappings of the horse, and paid a com- pliment to the animal, vvdiich she informed him was of their own rearing. On learning her name he Avalked slowly beside the horse to the camp, asking her, on the way, a variety of questions respecting the inhabitants, and especi- ally their feeling towards the army and the war. On reach- ing the encampment he said: "I think I see your hus- band," and bowing pleasantly, turned away. The face of the latter wore an unusually pleasant smile. "Well, my good lady," said he, "you come into camp highly escorted." "Bv whom?" said she. "Bv the Commander-in-Chief," was the reply. "Not by Washington!" said his wife. It was even so. She turned to taken another look, but her escort had disappeared. This was an incident of which neither her children nor her grandchildren spared her the repetition, and, as a faithful chronicler, we are bound to state that she did not avoid any proper occasion for repeat- (166) ing it. Mrs. Porter died at Norristown, May IS^, 1821, and is there buried. Andrew Porter, son of Kobert Porter, was born on his father's farm in Montgomery county, Pennsyh^ania, 34th of September, 1743. Early developing a taste for mathe- matics, npon the advice of David Eittenhonse he was sent to Philadelphia, where he opened an English and mathe- matical school. This he conducted with much reputation until the spring of 1776, when at his country's call, he bade farewell to his peaceful avocation to enter into her service. He was commissioned by Congress, 19th of June, 1776, cap- tain of marines, and ordered to the frigate "Efnngham." He was shortly after, at his own request transferred to the artillery, where he continued to serve as captain until the loth of March, 1782, when he was promoted to a majorate, to rank as such from the 19th of April, 1781. He was sub- sequently promoted successively to the ranks of lieutenant- colonel, lieutenant-colonel commandant and colonel of the Pennsylvania regiment of artillery. He participated in the cannonade at Trenton, and in the battles of Princeton, Brandywine and Germantown, and was attached to the Sullivan expedition against the Indians in 1779. Towards the close of the war he was ordered to Philadelphia to super- intend the laboratory at that point. When the army was disbanded in 1783, Colonel Porter retired to private life, and to the cultivation of his farm. In 1784 he was appointed by the Supreme Executive Coun- cil of the State one of the commissioners for laying, by astronomical observations, the line between Pennsylvania and Virginia, and Pennsylvania and what is now Ohio. This work was completed in 1787. The western boundary of Pennsylvania having been fixed, all controversy with Virginia respecting it ended. In the year 1800 he was ap- pointed on the commission to settle the controversy of the (167) Pennsylvania claimants in the "Seventeen Townships/' bnt shortly after resigned. In the same year he was appointed brigadier general of Pennsylvania militia, and subsequently made major general. In April, 1809, Governor Snyder ap- pointed him to the office of Surveyor General, which situa- tion he held until his death. In the year 1812 he was ten- dered the office of brigadier general, U. S. A., which he de- clined, as also that of Secretary of War under President Madison. He died at Harrisburg, November 16, 1813, and his remains rest in the Harrisburg cemetery. Of the chil- dren of Andrew Porter and his wife, Elizabeth Parker, David Eittenhouse became Governor of Pennsylvania; George Bryan Governor of the Territory of Michigan, and James Madison an eminent lawyer and judge, who was Sec- retary of War under President Tyler. (168) ELIZABETH MYER REILY. Elizabeth Myei^ daughter of Isaac Myer, the founder of Myerstown, Pa., was born April 2, 1755, in Heidelberg township, Lancaster, now Lebanon county, Pennsylyania. She was educated in Philadelphia, and on the 20th of May, 1773, married, at Lancaster, by Eev. Thomas Barton, John Eeily, a native of Leeds, England, where he was born on the 12th of April, 1752. He was the son of Benjamin Eeily, who emigrated soon after, and became a gentleman of some note in the Province of Pennsylvania. John Eeily received a classical education, studied the law, and was admitted to the bar on the eve of the Eevolution. He was commis- sioned, October 16, 1776, first lieutenant in the Twelfth Eegiment of the Pennsylvania Line, Colonel William Cooke, and served in the Jersey campaign of the winter of 1776-77. He distinguished himself at the skirmish with the British at Bound Brook, April 2, 1777, and was severely wounded at Bonhampton, New Jersey, on the succeeding 15th. The following contemporaneous account of that af- fair from an officer in the camp at Bonhampton, under date of the 15th of April, 1777, is important in this connection: "A detachment under the command of Captain Alexan- der Patterson, of the Pennsylvania Twelfth Eegiment, com- manded by Colonel Cooke, attacked the Piquet G-uard of the enem}^ at 2 o^clock this morning about four hundred yards from Bonhampton and after a short but obstinate engage- ment the whole guard, twenty-five in number, were either killed or taken prisoners. Lieutenant Frazier, of the Sev- enty-first Eegiment, was killed on the spot. The enemy, though advantageously posted, did not attempt to support their guard, but retired with precipitation to their works. (169) Our officers and soldiers behaved with the greatest coolness and courage on this occasion. Their conduct would do honor to the best disciplined troops. Av e had Lieutenants Eeily and McElhatton, of Colonel Cooke's regiment, wounded, not mortally." Eeturning home, he slowly recovered, was promoted cap- tain, and on the 1st of July, 1778, transferred to the Third Pennsylvania Regiment of the Line — subsequently, August 12, 1780, to the Invalid Corps under Colonel Nicola, remain- ing in that command until the 3d of December, 1784. He then resumed the practice of his profession, was present and took part in the organization of the first court in Dauphin county in May, 1785. In 1795 he published at Harrisburg ^'A Compendium for Pennsylvania Justices of the Peace," the first work of that character printed in America. He had an extensive practice at the Lancaster, Berks and Dauphin courts, was a polished writer and a MSS. book and literary excerpts in the possession of his descendants show a refined and cultivated taste. Captain Eeily died at Myerstown, May 2, 1810. During the Eevolutionary period, Mrs. Eeily was not only a devoted wife and mother, but an ardent patriot. ^Tiile the army lay at Valley Forge, during that severe winter, she vied with her neighbors in preparing clothing and forwarding food to the little army under Washington. The teams belonging to her family were constantl}^ em- ployed in this service. She was a w^oman who had so en- deared herself to all who knew her that it required only her appeal to her countrywomen to assist in whatever would relieve the distress of the patriot army and add to their comfort. She was a noble type of those heroic women of the days of the Eevolution, whose self-sacrifice and devotion to the cause cheered the spirits of their sons, husbands and brothers, and made the struggle for inde- (176) pendence a success. She was a sincere Christian woman. She died at Myerstown, April 2, 1800, and was interred in the Eeformed church cemetery, three miles east of that town. Of her large famil}^, her sons, William and Luther, were the most distinguished. William Eeily was a member of the Legislature, and for many years an officer of the militia, holding the position of brigadier general at the time of his death; while Dr. Luther Eeily was a member of Congress and a physician of prominence. (171) JANE RALSTON ROSBRUGH. Jane Ralston, daughter of James Ealston and his wife Mary Cummock, was born in the "Irish Settlement/' Northampton county, Pennsylvania, in the year 1731. Her parents were early settlers in Allen township, the vanguard of that emigration of Scotch-Irish which for almost three- fourths of a century, up to the eve of the Revolution, kept flowing into Pennsylvania and the valleys of the South, and made that struggle for independence, so far as a successful contest, possible. Mr. Ralston was one of the prominent leaders in the church and public afl'airs of the "Settlement*' — intelligent, energetic and patriotic. He died in July, 1775, aged seventy-six years. His daughter, Jane, was a vounc^ woman of more than the ordinarv intellectual en- dowments, her personal beauty was remarkable, and with these there was quiet demeanor and Christian amiability about her manners which made her a fit life companion for a minister of the Gospel of Christ. In the year 1766 she married the Rev. John Rosbrugh. Mr. Rosbrugh was born in the north of Ireland in 172-1, and came to America when quite young, settling in the Jerseys. He entered the Col- lege of New Jersey, and graduated in 1761. He studied theology under the direction of the Eev. John Blair, of Fagg's Manor; was taken on trial by the Presbytery of New Brunswick, and licensed to preach on the 18th of August, 1763. In October, 1764, he was called to the con- oreo^ations of Mansfield, Greenwich and Oxford, New Jersey. On the 18th of April, 1769, he accepted a call to the Forks of the Delaware, subsequently installed as their pastor, where he remained during the rest of his life. In (172) 1776, after the defeat on Long Island, the surrender of Fort "Washington and the retreat of the little army of "Washington across the Jerse3^s, urgent calls were made for reinforcements. At this juncture Mr. Rosbrugh assembled his congregation and spoke patriotically of the demands and the duty of the hour. Immediately a military com- pany was organized, and when they marched, he accom- panied them, carrying a musket. Upon reaching Philadel- phia he was commissioned chaplain of the battalion. His command joined Colonel Cadwalader, at Bristol, where they crossed the Delaware into the Jerseys to operate against Count Donop, leader of the Hessians. On the 2d of Januar}^, 1777, coming near the stone bridge of the Assunpink, Mr. Eosbrugh being wear}^, got off his horse and fastened him under the shed and went to get a cup of tea, of which he was fond. While at the table the cry was heard "that the Hessians were coming." He ran out for his horse, but found that it had been taken. He then went to the bridge, but cannon were placed to sweep it, with orders to let no one pass, and the men were already breaking it up. He then went half a mile down the stream to a ford, but finding it in the possession of the enem}^ turned back into a piece of woods, when he was confronted by a platoon of Hessians under command of a British officer. He surrendered, offering his gold watch and his money to spare his life on his family's account. But seeing they vt^ere preparing to kill him, notwithstanding, he knelt down at the root of a tree, and, it is said, was praying for his enemies, v/hen the order was given and he was bayon- etted. The officer then went to the same house which Mr. Eosbrugh had left so short a time before, and showing the watch, boasted that he had killed a rebel parson. The woman who kept the place knew Mr. Eosbrugh, and recog- nizing the watch, said: "You have killed that good man, (173) and what a wretched thing you have done for his helplet^s family this day." This enraged the officer, and he threat- ened to kill her if she said more, and then he ran away, as if fearing pursuit. Captain John Hays found the body where it lay, and buried it there, wrapped in his chaplain's cloak. Some time afterwards Rev. Dulfield, also a chaplain, took up the body and removed it to Trenton. They found seventeen bayonet holes through his waistcoat, and one bayonet broken in his bodv: also three sabre slashes throu<2:h his horse-hair wig, which he wore, as was customary at that time. Fresh blood flowed from the wounds, which was looked upon as strange. Mr. Duffield had been tutor at Princeton, was personally acquainted with Mr. Rosl)rugh, and was prompted by friendship to give his body decent burial. His death was a most inhuman transaction. Dark as was the sorrow that fell upon his bereaved wife, she braved the storm for the sake of the little ones left to her solitary care. Eminently faithful to all the demands of life, she was none the less so in the discharge of parental duty. She survived her martyred husband upwards of twenty years, and although of a feeble constitution, she went in and out before her neighbors, ministering to the wants of the sick and distressed — a charming example of a patriotic Christian woman. On the 27th of March, 1800, she gently passed away, and none in the "Irish Settlement" were ever more loving-lv remembered than Jane Ralston Eosbrugh. (174) PHOEBE BAYAED ST. CLAIR. Phoebe Bayard was born in the Massachusetts colony September 14, 1743. She was the daughter of Balthasar Bayard and his wife Mary Bowdoin, was well educated, and a woman of superior accomplishments. Arthur St. Clair, son of William St. Clair, born at Thurso, Caithness, Scot- land, March 23, 1736, was educated at the University of Edinburgh, graduated in medicine, but preferring the mili* tary he relinquished his scientific calling and accepted an ensigncy in the Eoyal American Eegiment of Foot. Dur- ing his service with the British army and frequent visits to Boston, where he was sent on military business, the young ensign made the acquaintance of the Bowdoins and Bayards, and improved the opportunity of falling in love with Miss Phoebe. They were married in May, 1760, by Eev. William Hooper, rector of Trinity church, Boston By his marriage St. Clair received the sum of fourteen thousand pounds, being a legacy to his wife from her grand- father, James Bowdoin. This, added to his own savings, no doubt were the inducements for him to resign his com- mission, which he did in 1764. Having been stationed some time at Fort Ligonier, in western Pennsylvania, he was familiar with the country, and a year or two later, with his young wife, St. Clair removed to that locality, where he had acquired a large body of land chiefly by purchase and partly by grant. It has been wondered by writers in general what could have induced a man of St. Clair's acquirements and wealth to settle on the confines of civilization and thus deprive (175) himself and little family of the advantages of society and the comforts thereof; but charmed with that valley and the constant influx of Scotch-Irish emigrants, enjoyment of life seemingly held out brighter inducements than among Puritan surroundings. Here the War for Indepen- dence found one of its most brilliant officers. He yielded to the summons of his countr}', and took leave not only of his wife and children, but in effect of his fortune from that very hour, to embark in the cause of liberty. He held that no man had a right to withhold his services when his coun- try needed them. In Julj^, 1775, St. Clair was made Colonel of the Militia, and in the autumn he accompanied the commissioners that were appointed to treat with the Western Tribes at Fort Pitt. On Jan. 3, 1776, Congress appointed him Colonel of the Second Penn'a regiment; and being ordered to Canada, he joined General John Sullivan after the disas- trous affair at Three Kivers, and aided that officer by his counsel, saving the army from capture. He was appointed Brigadier General Aug. 9, 1776, having resigned his civil office in the previous January. Joining General Wash- ington in Xovember, he was directed to organize the New Jersey militia, and participated in the battles of Trenton and Princeton. On the latter occasion he rendered valu- able assistance by protecting the fords of the Assunpink. On February 19, 1777, he was appointed Major General, and after serving as Adjutant General of the Army suc- ceeded General Gates in command at Ticonderoga. Owing to the approach of an overwhelming force, he was obliged to evacuate the fort. He remained, however, with the army, and was with Washington acting as a volunteer aide. He assisted General Sullivan in preparing his expedition against the Six Xations, and was a member of the court martial that condemned Major Andre. He succeeded to 176) tlie command at West Point in October, 1780, and subse- quently was active in raising troops and in forwarding them to the Sonth in 1781; and in October joined Wash- ington at Yorktown a few days before the surrender of Lord Cornwallis. The story of St. Claires life from this time forward was in some respects a brilliant one, but pitiful in the disasters which shadowed his after-revolutionary career, and the sad ending of a life, not wasted, for he gave so much of that life to his country, but there was none who was so poorly and so m^eanly recompensed. It is true he died poor, but in such poverty there was no shame. As a member and president of the Pennsylvania Society of the Cincinnati, none could so appropriate the motto which encircled the medallion on the breast of the eagle of their decoration: "Omnia relinquit servare rempublicam." At length that life, of which want, neglect, contumely, ingratitude and injustice so largely made a part, came abruptly to its close, on the 31st of August, 1818. It is especially of the estimable lady who so sweetly adorned the early home of St. Clair in the Ligonier Valley, and through the long years of the Eevolution cheered that brave officer in his devotion to the cause of his country, that we prefer to write. Notvfithstanding the adverse circum- stances which surrounded her home at the close of the war, and her delicate health, she bore all with calm resignation. At last, however, when the hungry creditors hounded their victim to the last extremity, and her little family were turned out of house and home, the mental energies gave way, and the former highly educated and refined woman became an intellectual wreck. She ended her days in the log house which her son Daniel bought as an asylum for his aged father and mother. Here to nurse life a little longer, to keep his family together, the hero of many wars (177) cared for his wife. On the 18th of September, 1818, only eighteen days after her husband, death claimed the beauty of 1760, Phoebe Bayard St. Clair, her remains being in- terred by the side of the GeneraL So deeply interwoven are the lives of husband and wife, that in this our day as a century ago the impress of one is but the reflex of the other. A fitting close to this sketch is General St. Clair's own words in acknowledging the receipt of four hundred dollars sent him bv the o^ood ladies of IN'ew York — "Tr* soothe affliction is certainly a happy privilege. * * * and though I feel all I can feel for the relief brought to myself, the attention to mv dau^^hters touches me the most. Had I not met w^ith distress I should not have perhaps known their worth. Though all their prospects in life (and they were once very flattering) have been blasted, not a sigh, not a murmur has been allowed to escape them in my pres- ence, and all their pains have been directed to rendering my reverses less affecting to me, and yet I can truly testify that it is entirely on their account that my situation ever gave me one moment's pain." Grand old patriot! (178) MARGARET MURRAY SIMPSON. Margaret Murray, eldest daughter of James Murray and Ms wife, Rebecca McLean, both natives of Scotland, was born in Paxtang township, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, February 3, 1756. She was a full cousin of Lindley Murray, the grammarian, who was born on the Swatara, a few miles distant. Margaret was a woman of strong force of char- acter and possessed qualities of head and heart which en- deared her greatly to all in the frontier settlement. She was a member of Rev. John Elder's church at Paxtang, and was noted for her sincere devotion and piety. On the 7th of May, 1776, she was married by her revered pastor to John Simpson. John Simpson was born November 23, 1743, in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, but had settled on the Susquehanna in 1763. He was the son of John and Mary Simpson. His parents went South, and were residing in North Carolina in 1783, and in Georgia in 1791. The son learned black- smithing, and had established himself in business prior to his marriage. On the 15th of August, 1775, he was com- missioned second lieutenant of Captain James Murray's company in the Fourth Battalion of Lancaster county Asso- ciators, and was in active service in New Jersey during the autumn of the following year. In January, 1777, he was ordered to remain in the Continental smith-shop at Bristol. Here he was probably on duty until the threatened attack upon Philadelphia, which culminated in the battles of Brandywine and Germantown, and the occupation of that city by the British troops. During this period the wife joined with her neighbors in not only securing the crops (179) for their own sustenance, but also in administering to the comforts of their brave husbands and sons who were strug- gling for the liberties of their countr3^ When peace came, none more greatly rejoiced than those self-sacrificing women of the frontiers. To them it was a re-union of family ties, rudely interfered with and broken by the stern necessity of war. In the spring of 1793, Mr. Simpson removed to Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, where he died February 3, 1807. His wife vsurvived him nearly twenty years, passing hence April 27, 1826, full of years and crowned with all the glory of true womanhood. She raised a large family of children, some of whom rose to distinc- tion in public life. Through the youngest daughter is de- scended John Simpson Africa, formerly Secretary of In- ternal Affairs, and a prominent man in public life in Penn- sylvania. (180) MAEIA THOMPSON SPROAT. Maria Thompson, only daughter of Colonel John B. Thompson, of the Maryland militia of the Eevolntion, was born in Kent connty, Maryland, in the year 1767. Her ancestors were quite prominent in the early history of that Province. Deprived of her mother at an early period in life, her father being engaged in the service of his country, Maria was carefully trained and educated by her maternal grandmother, Mrs. Penelope Haley. The family removed to Philadelphia about 1776, where we find an uncle, John Hale}^, admitted to the bar the following year. Here she had the advantage of good schools; and, although for a brief period, they were obliged to flee the city, the me- tropolis remained her home during life. She was a mere child during the struggle for independence, and only "sweet sixteen'^ when peace came. In the years which fol- lowed, however, the wounded soldier of the Declaration, as well as his little family, were frequently the objects of her philanthropic care. On October 11, 1792, Maria Thompson married Major William Sproat, of the Eevolutionary Army. They were residing in Philadelphia during the fall of 1793, when that terrible scourge, the yellow fever, desolated the city. Both Mr. and Mrs. Sproat succumbed to that dread disease, the latter dying October 16, 1793. In the "Ladies' Magazine" we have this description of Mrs. Sproat: "She had dark eyes, a rosy complexion, a round, full form, and was of medium height." She was peculiarly a woman of marked amiability of temper, and beloved by many for her deeds of charity and pure beneficence. Both she and her husband (181) were "lovely in tlieir lives, and in death they were not di- vided." William Sproat, son of Eev. James Sproat, D. D., was born at Guilford, Connecticut, in the year 1757. His father, who was a Presbyterian minister, preached in Philadelphia twenty-five years, dying there of yellow fever in 1793, sur- viving his son William only a few days. The latter received a classical education, but before being allowed to enter a business or professional life, the mutterings of the coming storm of the Revolution arrayed him on the side of his country. While temporarily residing with some of his rela- tives in Maryland, he enlisted, July 2G, 1775, in the Asso- ciated company, of which he was afterwards an ensign. Returning to Philadelphia, after the expiration of his tour of dut}^, he was commissioned first lieutenant in the Fourth Regiment of the Pennsylvania Line, January 3, 1777; promoted captain lieutenant and subsequently cap- tain, April 17, 1779. Captain Sprout was transferred to Third Regiment of the Line, January 17, 1781, and partici- pated in all the campaigns of the army until his retirement, January 1, 1783. Under the act of Congress granting retir- ing officers a brevet rank one grade above last rank held, he was breveted a major. He was one of the original members of the Society of the Cincinnati. At the close of the war, and the establishment of peace. Major Sproat made his home in Philadelphia, and here, surrounded by all the endearments of life and a host of faithful friends, he resided his latter years in domestic en- joyment. In the fall of 1793, the yellow fever became epi- demic in that city, and many of its best and truest citizens fell victims, among them ^lajor William Sproat, on the 11th of October that year, a man who had greatly endeared himself to all who knew him, and especially by his com- panions of the Society of the Cincinnati. (182) MAETHA ESPY STEWART. Martha Espy daughter of James Espy and his wife Elizabeth Grain, was born January 12, 1741, in Derry town- ship, Lancaster county. Her grandfather came to the Province of Pennsylvania as early as 1739, from the North of Ireland. Amidst the struggles and self-denials of pioneer life Martha Espy was reared to womanhood, and at the age of twenty married Lazarus Stewart, of the same neighbor- hood. Of the eventful life led by that bold partisan, no doubt her sympathies were with those of her husband and neighbors — and during the marauding expeditions of the red savages following Braddock's defeat, she shared the dangers and the privations of the pioneers. Few have any conception of the horrors constantly menacing the Scotch- Irish settlements, and at last when the Indian war ceased, the persecution of her heroic husband endued her heart with that womanly loyalty which buoyed the patriot and nerved his arm for the right. Again after the slaughter of her husband and his brave men by the relentless Tories and red savages on that fatal field of Wyoming, she faced and braved trials and dangers which none save a noble-hearted woman could endure. Yet at the last, the dawn of peace came down upon the homes of those who struggled for in- dependence, and Mrs. Stewart, venerable and stately, saw her children's children, contented and happy. She died in Hanover on the of 1804. As stated, Martha Espy married in 1751 Lazarus Stew- art, born July 4, 1734, in Hanover township, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. His maternal grandfather was one of the earliest settlers on the Swatara, where he took up sev- (183) eral tracts of land. Lazarus was well grounded in the essen- tials of a good English education and was raised a farmer. In 17To, after the defeat of Braddock, he raised a company for the defense of the frontiers, and performed valiant ser- vice as a ranger. The part Captain Stewart took in the transactions at Conestoga and Lancaster in the destruction of the vagabond and murderous Indians there kept and pro- tected, in December, 1763, made him a prominent person- age in the history of Pennsylvania during that period. He subsequently, in company with a number of Hanover fam- ilies, removed to Wyoming, where he took sides with the Connecticut settlers. So highly esteemed and appreciated was Lazarus Stewart, that he was commissioned lieutenant- colonel of the Second regiment of Connecticut militia. In the Eevolution he was an active partisan, but fell at the head of his troops in that terrible onslaught, the mas- sacre of Wyoming, July 3, 1778. Captain Stewart was un- doubtedly one of the bravest heroes of "seventy-six," al- though impetuous and rash at times. Despite all the calumny Quaker historians can heap on his prominent po- sition in the history of the Province, there are thousands who honor and revere his memory for the part he took in the defense of their ancestors from the Indian's tomahawk and scalping-knife. (184) I HANNAH TIFFANY SWETLAND. Hannah Tiffany, daughter of Thomas Tiffany, was born July 15, 1740, in Lebanon, Windham county, Connecticut. She married April 1, 1762, Luke Swetland, and they settled in Wyoming, in the year 1776. Here harrassed not only by the marauding Indians, but by the Pennamites, who sought to dispossess the Connecticut settlers, there was consider- able hardship and suffering. Not only were the necessaries of life, but powder and lead, so necessary for their protec- tion, scant; and it is not surprising that to the women es- pecially were the settlers indebted for assistance in securing ^these. "Justice," says Mr. Miner, "demands a tribute to the praiseworthy spirit of the wives and daughters of Wyom- ing. While their husbands and fathers were on public duty they cheerfully assumed a large portion of the labor, which females could do. They assisted to plant, make hay, husked and garnered corn. As the settlement was mainly dependent on its own resources for powder, Mr. Hollen- back caused to be brought up the river a pounder, and the women took up their floors, dug out the earth, put in casks, and ran water through it — as ashes are leached — took ashes in another cask and made lye, mixed the water from the earth with weak lye, boiled it, set it to cool, and the salt- peter rose to the top. Charcoal and sulphur were then used, and powder produced for the public defense!'' Mrs. Swetland vied with her neighbors in the performance of these duties. When in the spring of 1778 danger threatened the Wyoming settlement, Mr. Swetland hastened his wife and little ones to their friends in Connecticut, keeping his old- (185) est son of fifteen years with him. They were both in Forty Fort at the time of the massacre, but both escaped. Some weeks after, liowever, Mr. Swetland was taken prisoner by the Indians and remained in captivity until the year fol- lowing. In the meantime the anxious wife and mother re- mained in Connecticut, only returning to Wyoming upon the declaration of peace. She was a notable woman, pa- triotic as well as philanthropic, and the evening of her days was spent in the satisfaction of a life of domestic en- joyment. She died on the Swetland farm, January 8, 1809. Luke Swetland, son of William Swetland, was born in Kent, Litchfield county, Connecticut, June 16, 1729. Of his early life we laiow little save that he was brought up as a farmer, and resided on the old homestead in Litchfield county until he joined the early settlers in Wyoming. He signed the agreement of June 29, 1776," and by the advice of the proprietor's committee, "pitched" on land some thirty miles above Wyoming near Mehoopany. In the winter of 1777 Luke Swetland was a private in Captain Durkee's in- dependent company of patriots, encamped at Morristown, New Jersey, having enlisted September 17, 1776. Owing to threatened dangers at home, he was discharged January 8, 1778, and returned at once to Wyoming. As stated before, his family was sent to Connecticut, and owing to some disa- bility, he was in Forty Fort at the time of the massacre and did not participate in the engagement. Subsequently, on the 25th of August, 1778, he was captured with a neighbor, Joseph Blanchard, by the Indians at the mouth of Fishing creek, and remained for a considerable period a prisoner at different Seneca villages in the State of New York. Says Miner, "a man of ardent piety, the confidence and hope imparted by religion sustained him. To trace his weary days of captivity would be but a repetition of ever-recurring (186) sorrows. After having failed in several attempts to escape, he was at length rescued by our army nnder General Sul- livan/^ Eetnrning to his native Connecticut he had a nar- rative of his captivity and sufferings published, copies of which are extremely rare. He afterwards returned to his farm at Mehoopany, and was the first person in that section who established a nursery for fruit trees. He lived to a great age, well beloved by the community, and died Jan- uary 30, 1823, and his remains lie beside those of his wife. A grandson, William Swetland, rose to prominence and wealth, and was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1837. (187) URSULA MULLER THOMAS. Ursula Muller (Miller), the eldest daughter of John George and Barbara Muller, was born in Switzerland on the 15th of December, 1740. Her father emigrated with his family to America in 1752, coming with a colony of German Palatinates. He had served as an officer in the Swiss army and was evidently a gentleman of education and refine- ment. During the French and Indian wars he was com- missioned a lieutenant in the Provincial forces May 8, 1760, and was in service as a captain in October, 1764. He died in the spring of 1765 from exposure during the Forbes and Bouquet expeditions. Although brought up in the frontier settlements of Pennsylvania, inured to all manner of hard- ship, his children received at his hands more than the rudi- ments of an ordinary education, being well instructed in every branch of German literature. In 1767 Ursula Muller married Martin Thomas, whose parents had emigrated from the Palatinate in 1736. He was born March 15, 1738, in Heidelberg township, then Lancaster county, son of Martin Thomas, an officer in the frontier service (1756-7). He had served in the French and Indian war in his father's ranging company, and was at the period of his marriage a well-to-do farmer. In the fall of 1772 he removed with his wife to the new county of Northumberland, where he established the first iron indus- try in that locality. The war of the Revolution coming on, the works were shut down and Mr. Thomas entered the s-ervice of his country, serving with distinction. In the meantime, Mrs. Thomas with her little family were dwell- ing on the badly-protected frontiers, patient and self-sacri- (188) ficing, as the Spartan mother of old, cultivating the soil as best she could. When, however, in that eventful July, 1778, the perfidious savage laid waste the fields of Wyom- ing, with her children she sought safety in flight by raft and boat down the Susquehanna to Harris' Ferry, where she was within the reach of her more fortunate relatives. Here she remained until the following autumn, when her husband came back from the army. Not venturing to re- turn to their former home on account of the threatened attitude of the Northern Indians, Mr. Thomas purchased a mill site three miles west of Harris' Ferr}^, where he con- structed a stone mill which remains to this day. Here he and his wife spent the remainer of their days in the sun- shine of peace and plenty — and at last rested from their labors. Mrs. Thomas died on the 25th of June, 1807, and was buried within the shadows of Friedens Kirche, in East Pennsboro' township, Cumberland county, of which her husband was one of the organizers, and both devout members. He died prior, July 15, 1802, due chiefly to ex- posure during the war. (189) CATHARINE ROSS THOMPSON. Catharine Eoss was born January 3, 1?39, in New Castle, Delaware. She was the daughter of the Rev. George Eoss, rector of that parish, by his second wife, Catharine Yan Gezel, the granddaughter of Gerrit Van Gezel, secretary to the Dutch Governor of New Nether- lands. Through her father, who was the second son of David Eoss, second laird of Balblair, head of one branch of the Highland Clan Eoss, she was a lineal descendant of the chiefs of that ancient Scottish clan, the Eosses of Balnagowen, Earls of Eoss. She was a sister of George Eoss, of Pennsylvania, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, while her sister Ger- trude became the wife of George Eead of Delaware, also a signer of the Declaration. Miss Eoss was highly edu- cated, and when on March 29, 1762, at Lancaster, Pa., she married Captain William Thompson, was considered the handsomest and most brilliant woman in Pennsylvania. Full of information, and of excellent conversational power, she was always the center of attraction. Shortly after her marriage she removed to Captain Thompson's country seat near Carlisle. It was here that during the closing years of the French and Indian war, the decade of peace which followed, and the numerous trials amid the struggle for freedom, surrounded by a large family, that as wife, mother and neighbor, she shone resplendent in her domes- tic life. She was dearly beloved for her many deeds of philanthropy, and during the whole period of the Eevolu- tion almost the entire products of a large and well culti- vated plantation were sent forward to the army of Wash- (190) ington^ always badly in need of food and clothing. Upon the return of her husband from captivity on parole, broken in health and spirits, the loving wife's care was greatly in- creased. With his death all their fortune seems to have been swept away, and like many another heroine of the war for independence when peace was at last guaranteed by the enemy, she was obliged to appeal to the proper authorities for assistance. Mrs. Thompson died March 24, 1808, at the residence of her daughter Catharine, wife of James Orbison, at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. William Thompson, son of Eobert Thompson, was born in the north of Ireland, June 5, 1736. His parents emi- grated to Pennsylvania when he was a young man. He had learned surveying, and upon coming to America pushed toward the frontiers. He settled on a farm which he sub- sequently called "Soldiers^ Eetreat," near Carlisle, Cum- berland county. After the ill-fated Braddock expedition, he entered into the Provincial service and was commis- sioned captain May 4, 1758. He participated in the land grants made under a proclamation of the King of Great Britain, and by direction of the Council of Virginia was to have received certain lands lying in the District of Ken- tucky, that Colony. These, however, were lost to him and his heirs. At the outset of the Eevolution, following the af- fair at Lexington, he was commissioned colonel of the First Pennsylvania Battalion. These were the first troops raised under the direction of the Continental Congress, and which arrived at the camp in Cambridge, Massachusetts, prior to the 14th of August, 1775. On the 10th of November fol- lowing, this regiment drove back a British landing party at Lechmere Point. Colonel Thompson was promoted a brigadier general March 1, 1776, and on the 19th of March he relieved Gen- eral Charles Lee of the command of the forces at New (191) York. In April following lie was ordered to Canada, to re- enforce General John Thomas. He met the remnant of the Northern army on its retreat from Quebec, and assumed the chief command, yielding the same on the 4th of June to General John Sullivan, by whose orders he made a dis- astrous attack on the enemy at Three Eivers, and was there made a prisoner. His captivity was long and embittered. He returned to Pennsylvania on parole, but was not exchanged for two years. During that period his sensibility, generous and keen, was chiefly wounded by the reflection that he was precluded from signalizing himself in the defense of his country. In his brief military experience he was greatly distinguished for his intrepidity, generosity, hospitality and manly candor, which rendered his character the object of uniform admiration and esteem. It was not until Octo- ber, 1780, that he was liberated by exchange. During the last year of his life he was severely afflicted with rheumatism. He died on his farm near Carlisle, September 3, 1781, and was buried in the cemetery of St. John's Episcopal church, in that town. The Pennsylvania Packet in a notice of his decease, says: ^^His death is a subject of universal concern and lamentation. His funeral was the most respectable that has ever been known in Carlisle. In the great number that assembled on the melancholy occasion scarcely was there one person to be found who did not drop a tear to the memory of the soldier, the patriot, and the friend." General and Mrs. Thompson left a large family of children. (192) HANNAH HARRISON THOMSON. Hannah Harrison^ dangiiter of Richard Harrison, of Harriton, and his wife, Hannah Norris, was born December 23, 1728, in the county of Philadelphia. Her parents were Friends, and the only daughter was educated in the best schools of the Quaker City. She was quite a leader in social circles, and when at the outset of the Revolution, as mistress of Harriton, at the age of forty-seven, she married Charles Thomson, there was indeed a commotion among those who had known her so many years as a confirmed maiden lady. Charming in conversation, of remarkable intellectuality, she found in Mr. Thomson one worthy of the highest ap- preciation. Their love for each other was the offspring of true friendship, founded upon mutual respect and esteem inspired by virtues which both possessed and admired; and that love endured as long as their lives. During the entire period of the Revolution Mrs. Thom- son assisted her husband in the philanthropic work he had undertaken — that of secretary of the Congress. In every way she aided the patriotic women of the Province in the multifarious labors devolving upon them. During the oc- cupancy, when her home near Fair Hill, previously occupied by them, was burned by order of General Howe, and the enemy despoiled whatever was in their reach, she thought only of the sufferings of those who were holding the Brit- ish at bay, prayerfully believing in the Lord of Hosts, and that the victory of battle was not always to the strong and mighty. Energetic and none the less brave, she was one of the model women of the days of '76. Every crisis in the affairs of nations brings to the front (193) • Just siTch noble women as Hannah Thomson, but not since those memorable days has it ever become necessary for them to suffer and yet be strong, to be so abjectly self-deny- ing and yet brave and suffering, and hopeful in the most trying hours. Our Revolutionary ancestors, whether on the battlefield or amid the despondency of Valley Forge, well knew tliat beyond were the tender loves, the sympa- thizing hearts, the self -devoted labors of the mothers, wives and daughters of liberty, and that eventually the sun of independence would dawn upon their long night of strug- gle. When peace came and the government of the colonies became firmly established under the Constitution, Congress in appreciation of Mr. Thomson's labors, complimented his wife, of whom they had deprived so much of his company, and asked her to receive from them a silver vessel of any form she might choose. She accepted the gift and chose an urn. Mrs. Thomson died at Harriton, September 6, 1807. Charles Thomson, son of William Thomson, was born in Maghera, County Derry, Ireland, November 29, 1729. He emigrated with an elder brother and sisters, at the age of eleven years, his widowed father dying within sight of the shores of America. The son was a bright boy, very af- fectionate in disposition, and became a favorite in the fam- ily of a blacksmith in whose care the captain of the vessel had placed him. Overhearing a conversation in regard to apprenticing him to the former, the boy resolved not to be chained to a forge, and left Xew Castle in the direc- tion of Philadelphia. The next day he was accosted by a lady proceeding along the same road, and being asked what he would like to be when he became a man, he promptly replied, ^^to be a scholar." This pleased the good woman, who took him home with her and sent him to school. His elder brother afterwards assisted him to acquire a classical (194) education under the celebrated Eev. Francis Alison. He taught some years in the Friends Academy at New Castle, and afterward went to Philadelphia, whehe he became an intimate friend of Dr. Franklin. Mr. Thomson became a profound Greek scholar, and his subsequent translation of the Septuagint is a monument to his classical learning. On September 1, 1774, he married Hannah Harrison, two years his senior in age, and John Adams alludes to it in his diary, and calls Mr. Thomson the Sam ildams of Philadelphia. About this time the first Continental Con- gress was held in Carpenter^s Hall, of which Peyton Ean- dolph, of Virginia, was chosen president, and Charles Thomson, on motion of Mr. Mifflin, secretary. The latter was sent for. When the messenger arrived he was just alighting from a chaise Ynth his bride, whom he had just brought from Harriton. He hastened to the hall, where he found the Congress awaiting him. "Mr. Thomson," said Mr. Eandolph, "we have sent for you to keep the minutes of the proceedings of this Congress." He con- sented, and for fifteen years was the trusted secretary of that body. He was undoubtedly the soul of that remarka- ble assemblage, and very frequently acted as a peacemaker between the hotspurs that from time to time appeared in that body. It may truly be written of him that he was "the enlightened benefactor of his country in its day of peril and need." He died at Harriton, August 16, 1824, full of honors and of years. (195) ELIZABETH GROTZ TRAILL. Elizabeth Grotz, daughter of Jacob and Elizabeth Grotz, was born in Easton, July 7, 1751 (0. S.). Her parents were emigrants from Germany. The daughter was a woman of intelligence and energy, and on the 3d of March, 1774, mar- ried Eobert Traill. Robert Traill was born xVpril 29, 1744, (0. S.), in Sanda, one of the Orkney Islands. He was a son of Rev. Thomas Traill, and his mother, Sabilla Grant, daughter of the Rev. Alexander Grant, of South Ronaldsay. He was educated at Kirkwall, Orkne}^ where there was a good grammar school and suitable library for the use of the pupils. At the age of fourteen he entered the mercantile business, but being dissatisfied with the narrow boundaries of the small island, he sailed for Philadelphia in October, 1763, where he arrived after a voyage of ten weeks. After a few years spent in mercantile pursuits at Easton, he en- tered the law office of Lewis Gordon, and was admitted to the bar of Northampton county in 1777. He was a member of the Committee of Observation for the countv, which was chosen December 21, 1774, and served as clerk of that body. He was largely instrumental in the organization of Colonel Kachlein's battalion of the Flying Camp. On the 21st of May, 1777, Mr. Traill was commissioned major of the Fifth Battalion of the Northampton county militia, and was also appointed one of the justices of the peace for the county, June 3, 1777. He w^as subsequently appointed military store-keeper at Easton, but declined. On the loth of October, 1781, he was elected sheriff of the county, which position he held until November 5, 1784. He was chosen a member of the General Assemblv in (196) 1785-6 and at the close of his Legislative career was chosen a member of the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsyl- vania^ which office he held two years, and was afterwards prothonotary of the county. Under the Constitution of 1790 he was commissioned by Governor Mifflin one of the associate judges of Northampton. Judge Traill died at Easton on the 31st of July, 1816. 'No citizen was ever more honored than he. He began his official career before he was admitted to the bar, and seems to have received every mark of confidence almost down to the close of his long life. A contemporary newspaper in the notice of his death said: "He was an honest and virtu- ous citizen, much esteemed by his fellov/ citizens, venerated for his uniform morality and punctuality in business.^' Mrs. Traill was a helpmeet to her Scotch husband, and filled an honored place as his wife. As popular as was Robert Traill, she certainly could not be unknown to the community in which she lived, and it was naturally ex- pected that she should with him occupy a social position which would be respected by their fellow citizens. During the Revolutionary days the wife invariably represented the husband in carrying forward the good work when attention to public matters demanded his time. The cares of the household were met by her as a loving and devoted wife and mother. Ten children were born to them, seven girls and three boys; the latter dying in infancy. Eive of the daughters were married. Many of the descendants of Judge Traill reside in Easton, and none more prominent and eminent in his profession than the late Dr. Traill Green, a grandson. Mrs. Traill was a woman of positive character and transmitted her energy to her children. Among them, when one exhibited some decision in their conduct, it was very common to hear: "Well, there is mother," or "grandmother," according to the relation in (197) which they stood to her. An individuality so positive ex- erted such influence upon her children that it proved a ]DOwer in forming their characters. Mrs. Traill died the 31st of May, 1816, preceding Judge TrailFs death by two months, and her remains rest beside those of her hoilored husband. (198) LYDIA HOLLINGSWORTH WALLIS. This distinguished lady of the Kevolutionary period was born in Philadelphia in 1743. Her father^ John Hollings- worth, was of Quaker extraction and a friend of the Penns. On the 1st of March, 1770, Miss Hollings worth married Saninel Wallis, and soon afterwards they took np their residence on the West Branch of the Susquehanna, where Mr. Wallis had acquired about 7,000 acres of land, which came to be known as the "Muncy Farms." As early as 1769 he built a stone house on his farm, which is still standing, and is now regarded as the oldest house in Ly- coming county. Here Lydia Hollingsworth came as a bride, and soon afterwards she planted four elm trees near the house, which are still standing, stately and rugged in their mature grandeur. Samuel Wallis was of Quaker descent, born in Harford count}^, Md., about 1730. He received a good education, and entered into active business in early life, and was largely engaged as a shipping merchant. He studied sur- veying, became interested in land speculations, and the first we hear of him in Pennsylvania was with the surveyors on the Juniata, up at Frankstown, as early as 1768. In 1769 he commenced to take up tracts of land in Muncy Valley. When the Eevolution broke out, Samuel Wallis at once became identified with the patriotic movement, and on the 24th of January, 1776, he was appointed captain of the Sixth Company of the Second Battalion of the Northum- berland associated militia, and became one of the most active officers in the defense of the frontiers. He was in (199) constant communication with the authorities at Philadel- phia and kept them advised as to the condition of affairs in that part of the Province. His house became a rallying point for the settlers when the Indians made their forays. Within a few hundred 3'ards of his stone residence Fort Muncy was erected, destroyed and afterwards rebuilt. The Wallis home was regarded as a haven of rest, and there Mr. Wallis dispensed a liberal hospitality for the times. When it became necessary to abandon his home on account of the approach of the savage enemy, Mr. Wallis took his family and fled to Elkton, Maryland, his place of nativity. As soon as it was safe he returned and took an active part in the direction of public affairs. Mrs. Wallis did not return until peace was declared. The home of Lydia Wallis is now looked upon as one of the most historic points on the river on account of its as- sociations with the dark and bloody days of the Eevolution. She was the mother of six children, two sons and four daughters. Cassandra, her third child and second daugh- ter, was born at Muncy farm, October 6, 1776. She be- came the wife of David Smith, a prominent attorney in his time. Sarah, the third daughter, was born at Elkton, Maryland, August 19, 1778, whither the family had fled for safety just before the Great Eunaway. She became the wife of General Hugh Brady, a noted and distinguished officer of the United States Army, and died at Detroit, August 25, 1833, at the age of fifty-five. Samuel Wallis died in Philadelphia in 1798, of yellow fever. He was one of the most noted land speculators of his da}^ and owned many thousands of acres at the time of his death. He was closely associated in land operations with James Wilson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and the sudden death of the latter, also in 1798, caused the financial ruin of the Wallis estate. Soon after the death of Mr. Wallis, (200) his magnificent landed estate was hopelessly involved. It was then that L3^dia Wallis realized her true condition. After all that she had endured and suffered during the Eevolutionary period^ she found herself almost penniless. All the property left by her husband was soon swept away by the stern decree of the law. From affluence she was suddenly reduced to poverty, and in her straitened circum- stances she went to live with her daughter, Cassandra, at Milton. She survived her husband fourteen years, and died September 4, 1812, aged sixty-eight years and five months. Her remains were laid at rest in the old Chillis- quaque graveyard, where so many of those who took an active part in the Eevolution lie buried; and thus closed the mortal career of Lydia Hollingsworth Willis, one of the noblest, most devoted and self-sacrificing women of the times in which she lived. (201) JEAN MURRAY WATTS. Jean Murray was born in the north of Ireland about 1725. She was a niece of the celebrated David Murra}^ Marquis of Tullibardine, a partisan of the Pretender, Charles Ed- ward, who, after the fateful battle of Culloden, fled into France. Of her early histor}^, her parentage, we know but little. She was well educated, was a woman of rare accom- plishments and beauty. She married Frederick Watts in 1749, and with him came to America about the year 1760, where they located upon a tract of land about three miles above the mouth of the Juniata in Cumberland, now Perry county. Brought up in luxury, and the refinement of an aristocratic family, like the wives of many other of the earlier settlers in America, she became equal to the emer- gency; was dutiful, loving and serving. During the war of the Revolution while her husband was in patriotic service, she managed carefully a large farm and was enabled not only to assist many of the families of her neighbors, who had accompanied her husband to the army, but united with the women of the Juniata in making clothing and other necessaries for the soldiers at the front. In a dozen and more ways she assisted in ministering to the wants of her neighbors as well as to those who were engaged in fighting the battles of her country. She lived a long and useful life, and survived her husband only a few years. Frederick Watts, a native of Wales, was born June 1, 1721. He received a good English education. In his early manhood we find him in the north of Ireland, where he married Jean Murray. Participating in the political and religious controversies of the time, he was obliged to flee (202) with liis little family to America. It was not surprising therefore, that when the mutterings of the Eevolution were heard, that Mr. Watts was a strenuous advocate for the right, and, true to his manhood ranged on the side for inde- pendence. He was a member of the committee for Cum- berland county, assisted in organizing the associated bat- talions, and as the lieutenant colonel of the First Battalion, represented the same at the military convention of July 4, 1776, which met at Lancaster for the purpose of choosing two brigadier generals. On the formation of the "Flying Camp,'^ he was then transferred and was in command of the battalion assigned to Cumberland county. He was cap- tured at the surrender of Fort Washington, November 16, 1776, but shortly afterwards was exchanged. Colonel Watts was commissioned' one of the justices of the peace for Cumberland county April 1, 1778; chosen a representative to the Assembly in 1779; appointed sub-lieu- tenant of Cumberland county April 18, 1780; brigadier general of the Pennsylvania militia May 27, 1782, in which capacity he did excellent service in protecting the frontier counties of the State from the marauding savages and Tories. He was a member of the Supreme Executive Coun- cil from October, 1787, until its abolition by the State Con- vention of 1790. During this time he was a member of the Board of Property, December 31, 1787, and August 31, 1790. At the close of his official life General Watts re- tired to his farm in the Juniata Valley, where he died on the 27th of September, 1795. The Carlisle Gazette of a sub- sequent date, says: "In the various walks of life assigned to him by Providence, the duties of all were discharged with faithfulness and reputation. An honest and impartial magistrate, a brave and active officer, an upright legislator, in him, candor, sincerity, affability and simplicity were (203) united with the most determined bravery and a manly spirit of independence/' The remains of General Watts and those of his wife were interred upon the farm graveyard. No stone marks either one, nor have we accurate record of the dav of the death of Mrs. Watts. They were ancestors of some of the prominent citizens of the State, distinguished not only in its councils, but also in those of the nation, and many are now repre- sentative people of several localities. (204) MARY PENROSE WAYNE. Mary Penrose, daughter of Bartholomew Penrose, a prominent merchant of Philadelphia, was born in that city February 18, 1746. When she married Anthony Wayne, in May, 1766, she was esteemed as a young lady of modest demeanor and amiability, as well as loving and sympathetic. Accompanying him to his well-cultivated farm at "Waynes- borough,^^ she soon became quite prominent at all social gatherings, and so, when the first mutterings of the storm of the Revolution broke, Mrs. Wayne was the leader in ren- dering patriotic assistance to those around, and many a soldier, as also the family left behind him, were recipients of her thoughtfulness and characteristic benevolence. She vied with her neighbors in every good word and work. As far as her domestic duties allowed, she was devotion itself to the patriotic cause, and until the closing days of the struggle never swerved in her help to those requiring it. During the campaign in and around Philadelphia, un- daunted she remained with her little family at Waynes- borough. A neighbor writes the G-eneral that "a number of the British troops surrounded your house in search of you, but being disappointed in not finding you * * * behaved with the utmost politeness to the women, and said they only wanted the General." "Dear Polly" and "My Dear Girl," show Wayne^s devotion to his wife. When peace came no one could have been more delighted than Mrs. Wayne. And yet once again his country called; he promptly responded, but his "Dear Polly" never saw him again. Mrs. Wayne died at the family residence, April 18, 1793, aged forty-four years, and her remains lie interred in (205) the cemetery of St. David's Episcopal church, Radnor township, Delaware county. Anthony Wayne, son of Isaac Wayne and his wife Elizabeth Iddings, was born January 1, 1745, in Easttown township, Chester county, Pennsylvania. His grandfather, William Wayne, came from County Wicklow, Ireland, to Pennsyl- vania, in 1722, and shortly after purchased an estate in Cliester county, portions of it yet remaining in possession of his descendants. Isaac Wa3'ne was a member of the As- sembly and a captain in the Provincial service. The son, Anthony, inherited his father's fighting qualities, and early displaA^ed his fondness for a military life. Adopting the profession of a surveyor, he remained in this field of use- fulness until his marriage, when he settled down to the cultivation of his farm at Waynesborough. He was brought into public life by being elected to the Provincial Assem- bly in 1774:. He was chairman of the county committee 13th July, 1774, which proposed the resolutions con- demning the course of the British ministry; member of the Committee of Safety in July, 1775; and recruited the Fourth Battalion, of which he was commissioned colonel, January 3, 1776. His regiment participated in the Canada campaign of that year, and particularly distinguished him- self at Trois Eivieres, where he was wounded. In the fall he was placed in command of Fort Ticonderoga, was pro- moted brigadier general February 21, 1777, and took a prominent part in the battles of Brandywine and German- town. At the Paoli, on the night of September 20, 1777, his force was attacked by a greater number of the enemy, but his bravery and skill compelled the British to retreat. He was with the patriot army at Valley Forge in the winter of 1777-78; and his brigade opened the battle of Monmouth. On the night of July 15, 1779, he captured Stony Point, (206) one of the most brilliant engagements during the war, and Congress ordered a gold medal strnek in his honor. When, in January, 1781, through utter disregard for their men, the officers of the Pennsylvania Line attempted to retain in service those who had enlisted for "three years or during the war,^^ their enlistment having expired, the so- called revolt was quieted by the efforts of General Wayne. There was a magnetism about him which captivated his men — he had their confidence, and he was loved as was no other officer in the Pennsylvania Line. In the Southern campaign of 1781 and 1782 General Wayne took a conspicuous part, and at the close of the Eevolution, next to Washington, no officer stood higher in the affections of the soldiery and people. October 10, 1783, he was made a major general by brevet, and retired to his farm in Chester county. He was chosen a member of the Assembly in 1784, and was a delegate to the Pennsylvania Convention which ratified the Federal Constitution. The State of Georgia having presented him with a large rice plantation in 1786, he undertook its management, but the financial difficulties attending it, resulted at last, in saving his Pennsylvania estate by sacrificing that in Georgia. On April 3, 1792, by the appointment of President Washing- ton, he succeeded General Harmar as commander-in-chief of the United States Army. His victory over the hostile Indians in the Northwest secured permanent peace. On returning to the East he died at Presqu' Isle, December 15, 1796. In 1809 his remains were removed to the church at Eadnor, by the State Society of the Cincinnati, who erected a monument to that most skillful, discreet and successful general officer of the War of the Eevolution. (207) MARIA AGNETA BECHTEL WEYGANDT. Maria Agncta Beclitcl was born in Frankenthal in the Palatinate, Germany, September 19, 1719. She was the daughter of Eev. John Bechtel and Mary Apollonia ^lar- rett, his wife, who in 1726, with three children, emigrated to America and located in Germantown, Philadelphia, where her father became one of the pioneer Eeformed min- isters in America. On July 5, 1739, she was wedded by her father to Cornelius Weygandt, a turner, of Germantown, who had emigrated from the Palatinate in 173G. The Eev. Bechtel having made the acquaintance of the ]\Ioravian disciples Spangenberg and Zinzendorf, he inclined towards their belief, and in 17-14 v/ithdrew from the Eeformed church, and united with the Moravians. In September, 1746, he removed to Bethlehem, whither Cornelius We}^- gandt and his family followed, locating on the Lehigh Hill- (now Fountain Hill), South Bethlehem, on the site of the present Bishopthorpe Seminary. Whilst here Mrs. Wey- gandt united with the Brethren's church at Bethlehem, on the opposite side of the Lehigh river. In 1762 the Wey- gandts removed to Forks township, Xorthampton county, Pennsylvania, on the banks of the Bushkill creek, adjacent to the lands of the Delaware Indian Chieftain Tatamy. The ancient stone dwelling which they occupied is at this writ- ing being demolished. Here the family resided during the trying periods of the Indian troubles and the Eevolution- ary War. On May 30, 1776, Cornelius Weygandt was elected a member of the County Committee of Safety, serving on the Standing Committee to the end of his term in November of (208) that year. It was a critical period^ and two sons are known to have entered the militia service, Cornelins, Jr., joined Captain John Arndt's company of the "Flying Camp/^ and Jacob became a captain of militia, entering into active ser- vice a number of tours. When the Moravian congregation was commenced at Shoeneck (near Nazareth, Pa.) in 1762, Mrs. Weygandt was received as a member there, and on August 6, 1763, partook of the Lord^s Supper at the first communion. She was a truly sincere Christian, strongly devoted to her church and to her family. She died at her home, on the Bushkill, having nearly completed fifty years of married life. Her husband survived her ten years, dy- ing at nearly eighty-seven, and both are buried in the little shaded churchyard of the Moravians at Shoeneck. In this union they were blessed with eight children, seven of whom and thirty grandchildren survived her. Her eldest son, John, became closely connected with the Moravians and lived at Bethlehem in single retirement until his death in 1806. He frequently accompanied the Moravian mis- sionaries, Heckewelder and Bull, in their journeys to the West and Northwest. Jacob founded the first newspaper published in Northampton county (1793); was a member of the State Legislature (1808-9-10-11); and Presidential elector (1809). He died in 1828, aged eighty-six. Cor- nelius, Jr., Peter Maria Agneta (m. Henry Freas) and Susan (m. Peter Ihrig), removed to Washington county, Pennsylvania, and settled in Carroll township, about 1790. Descendants of Cornelius, Jr., still occupy the old home- stead near Monongahela City, and nuumerous others live in western Pennsylvania and Ohio.