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Full text of "Somerville, past and present : an illustrated historical souvenir commemorative of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the establishment of the city government of Somerville, Massachusetts"















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SOMERVILLE, 
PAST AND PRESENT 



COMMEMORATIVE OF THE TWENTY-FIFTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE 

ESTABLISHMENT OF THE CITY GOVERNMENT OF 

SOMERVILLE, MASSACHUSETTS. 



KDITKl) liY 



EDWARD A. SAMUELS, 

if 

AUTHOR OF "ORNITHOLOGY AND OOLOGY OF NEW ENGLAND," "MAMMALIA OK NEW KNGI AM>. 

"AMONG THE BIROS," "WITH FLY-ROD AND CAMERA," 
EDITOR OF " A THOUSAND MILES' WALK," "THE LIVING WORLD," ETC. 

AND 

HENRY H. KIMBALL, A. M. 



BOSTON: 
PUBLISHED BY SAMUELS AND KIMBALL, 

1897. 



COPYRIGHT, 1897, 
By SAMUELS & KIMBALL. 



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INTRODUCTION. 



I N placing this volume before the public, the editors desire to express their 
^ gratitude for the kindly encouragement, the more than liberal support 
they have received from the people of Somerville. A work of such magni- 
tude as this, one involving such a great amount of detail labor, could not 
well be prepared without the generous assistance, the hearty co-operation 
of a large portion of the community ; and that such aid has been given us, 
together with a generally expressed approval of our undertaking, we gladly 
put upon record. 

In addition to much other valuable assistance that has been received, 
many important papers have been prepared for us, and they present a fairly 
complete resume of the history of the city's various institutions. 

The scholarly contributions of Charles I). Elliot, George I. Vincent, 
Joshua H. Davis, Frank E. Merrill, John S. Hayes, Albert E. Winship,- 
William E. Brigham, J. O. Hayden, and many others will receive the ap- 
proval of all who are interested in Somerville's history, and they will serve 
as an invaluable basis for the work of the future historian. 

To the " Somerville Journal," the "Somerville Citizen "and John K. 
Whiting we are indebted for several of the illustrations we have used, also 
to Mr. Gordon A. Southworth for the portraits of " Citizens for whom Som- 
erville Schools were named," and for reports containing their biographies. 
The typographical and artistic features of the volume speak for themselves : 
it has been our constant aim to secure the best available work, and we hope 
that our efforts will receive the approbation of the public. 

Somerville is a municipality of diversified interests, and of many 
social centers. Hence, he who is prominent in one section may, perhaps, 
be almost unknown in others. It would seem desirable, therefore, that the 
various interests, business, official and social, should have ample represen- 
tation, and, acting somewhat on the principle outlined by City Librarian 
John S. Hayes in one of his admirable reports (1893), that we should " Re- 
ject nothing that relates to Somerville, or her children, and should gladly 
preserve everything that comes to us which will aid the future student in 



obtaining a correct idea of how the present generation employed its time," 
a generous number of portraits of citizens who have become prominent in 
some walk in life is presented. It is a collection of which any city may 
well be proud, and it will be treasured not only by the present but by gen- 
erations to come. 

Greatly to our regret, historical sketches of some of the organizations 
were not received in time to obtain a place in this volume, but a reasonably 
full showing is made of the almost numberless associations for which this 
city is distinguished. 

EDWARD A. SAMUELS. 
HENRY H. KIM BALL. 



CONTENTS. 



SOMERVILLE'S HISTORY. 

CHAPTER I ....... . 17 

ORIGIN AND SETTLEMENT. GRANTS, ETC. DEED FROM WEB-COWET AND SOUAW- 
SACHE.M. EARLY TOPOGRAPHY. EIRST SETTI.KRS. GOVERNOR WINTHROP'S TEN 
HILLS EAR.M. 

CHAPTER II .. . . . . . . .26 

EARLY EVENTS. PASTURING AND HERDING. CHARACTERISTICS OF EARLY IMMIGRANTS. 

- MACHINERY OF PRIMITIVE INDUSTRIES SET IN MOTION. ESTABLISHMENT OF TOWN 
GOVERNMENT OF CHARLESTOWN. MUNICIPAL REGULATIONS. PERSON. E NON GRAT/E. 

- EIRST HIGHWAYS. THE STINTED COMMON. CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS. PETI- 
TION OF EZEKIEL CHF.EVER. THE FIRST TOWN SCHOOL. MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS 
AND FORTIFICATIONS. KING PHILIP'S WAR. INDIAN ALLIES. 

CHAPTER III . . 34 

ADVENT OF ANDROS AND CONSEQUENCES TO THE COLONISTS. TITLES TO ESTATES 
IMPERILED. TEN HILLS FARM AND ITS OWNERS. A FAVORITE HOME FOR 
GOVERNORS. " THE BLESSING OF THE BAY" BUILT AND LAUNCHED. CAPTAIN 
ROBERT TEMPLE. SLAVE HOLDERS IN SOMERVILLE. THE FIRST PRIVATEER IN 
AMERICA. COLONEL SAMUEL JAQUES. THE OLD POWDER HOUSE. JEAN MALLET. 

- A TRAGIC LEGEND. 

CHAPTER IV . . . . . . . . . -45 

FRICTION BETWEEN THE COLONIES AND HOME GOVERNMENT. PREPARATIONS FOR THE 
GREAT STRUGGLE. SEIZURE OF POWDER. FIRST HOSTILE DEMONSTRATION OF 
THE REVOLUTION. THE WHOLE COUNTRY IN ARMS. RESIGNATION OF LIEUT.- 
GOVERNOR THOMAS OLIVER. ARBITRARY MEASURES OF THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT. 
SECRETION OF ARMS AND DISTRIBUTION OF MILITARY SUPPLIES BY THE COLO- 
NISTS. HOSTILE STEPS TAKEN BY THE BRITISH. THE PATRIOTS WARNED. PAUL 
REVERE'S RIDE. BATTLE OF LEXINGTON. ROADS IN SOMERVILLE TRAVERSED BY 
BRITISH TROOPS. BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL. VIVID SCENES. 

CHAPTER V . . . . . . . . . -57 

THE SIEGE OF BOSTON. ENTRENCHMENTS MADE. EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS. BATTLE 
OF HOG ISLAND. GAGE'S PROCLAMATION OF AMNESTY. FORTIFICATIONS ON 
PROSPECT AND WINTER HILLS. ARRIVAL OF GENERALS WASHINGTON, PUTNAM 
AND LEE. DECLARATION OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. DESCRIPTIONS OF THE 
PATRIOTS' CAMPS. SUFFERINGS OF THE PEOPLE AND TROOPS. FIRST L'NFI RI.ING 
OF THE XEW FLAG OF THE UNITED COLONIES. SEIZURE OF DORCHESTER HEIGHTS. 
-EVACUATION OF Bos ION BY THE BRITISH. 

CHAPTER VI . . ....... 70 

DESIGNED ISOLATION OF NEW ENGLAND. SURRENDER OF Bi RGOVM-. HI^SIAN 
PRISONERS QUARTERED IN SOMERVILLE. BALL AND SUPPER GIVEN BY GENERAL 
RIEDESEL'S WIFE. POOR BARRACKS FOR THE PRISONERS.-- Sc \KCITY OF FUEL. 
REMOVAL OF THE PRISONERS. 



CHAPTER VII . .... -77 

REVIVAL OF INDUSTRIES AFTER THE REVOLUTION. BRICK-MAKING IN SOMERVILLE. 
CELEBRATED FARMS. THE BLEACHERY. THE MIDDLESEX CANAL. COMPLETION 
OF BRIDGES TO BOSTON. THE FIRST RAILROAD THROUGH SOMERVILLE. ESTABLISH- 
MENT OF THE MCLEAN ASYLUM. ROBBERY OF MAJOR BRAY. THE URSULINE 

CONVENT AND ITS DESTRUCTION. TOWN IMPROVEMENTS. ESTABLISHMENT OF 
SCHOOLS. BEGINNING OF A FIRE DEPARTMENT. SEPARATION OF SOMERVILLE FROM 
CHARLKSTC >WN. 

CHAPTER VIII ......... 86 

TOWN BEGINNINGS. EXPENSES OF EARLY TOWN GOVERNMENT. HIGHWAYS DESCRIBED. 

GROWTH < IF THE TOWN. SURVEY OF THE TOWN. RAILROADS AND THEIR EXTEN- 
SION. HORSE RAILROADS OPENED. INDUSTRIES OF EARLY SOMERVILLE. FIRE 
DEPARTMENT AND ITSGROWTH. ORGANIZATION OF THE SOMERVILLE LIGHT INFANTRY 

SCHOOLS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT. CHURCHES. 

CHAPTER IX .. . . . . . . . .105 

SOMERVILLE'S RESPONSE TO PRESIDENT LINCOLN'S CALLS FOR MEN. APPROPRIATIONS 
BY THE TOWN FOR SOLDIERS AND THEIR FAMILIES.- BOUNTIES OFFERED. SOMER- 
VILLE LIGHT INFANTRY. SOMERVILLE GUARD. VOLUNTEERS FOR THE WAR. STATE 
BOUNTIES. OFFICERS OF SOMERVILLE COMPANIES IN THE WAR. SERVICE DURING 
THE WAR OF THE COMPANIES FROM SOMERVILLE. THE MARTYR ROLL. 

CHAPTER X . . . . . . . . 118 

IMPROVEMENT OF HIGHWAYS. GAS INTRODUCED. WATER SUPPLY. SEWERS. 
GREAT IMPROVEMENTS. CENTRAL HILL PARK. HORSE RAILROADS. THE TOWN- 
FARM. ATTEMPTS TO DIVIDE THE TOWN. CITY CHARTER AND HALL. FIRST 
CITY ELECTION. 

CHAPTER XI 126 

APPRECIATION IN VALUE OF REAL ESTATE. GREAT INCREASE OF HOUSES. STEAM 
RAILROADS.- EXTENSION OF STREET RAILWAYS. WEST END RAILWAY.-- WIDEN- 
ING OF SOMERVILLE AVENUE AND BROADWAY. THE BROADWAY PARK. THE 
MILLER'S RIVER NUISANCE. ANNEXATION TO BOSTON DISCUSSED. PARKS AND 
BOULEVARDS. TUFTS COLLEGE. OLD LANDMARKS. 



HISTORY OF THE CITY GOVERNMENT. 

CHAPTER XII 145 

FIRST BOARD OF OFFICERS. STATISTICS OF POPULATION, VALUATION, ETC. THE 
MILLER'S RIVER NUISANCE. GREAT IMPROVEMENTS MADE. MAYOR FURBER'S 
ADMINISTRATION. ERECTION OF NEW POLICE BUILDING. CONSTRUCTION OF THE 
BROADWAY PARK. GREAT SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. MAYOR BELKNAP'S ADMIN- 
ISTRATION. CONSTRUCTION OF LARGE SEWERS. COMPLETION OF THE PUBLIC PARK. 
-FIRST CONTRIBUTION TO THE SINKING FUND. ADMINISTRATION OF MAYOR BRUCE. 
- RECONSTRUCTION OF BRIDGES. ADMINISTRATION OF MAYOR CUMMINGS. GREAT 
IMPROVEMENTS ON CENTRAL HILL. ERECTION OF. NEW Bun. DING FOR THE PUBI ic 
LIBRARY. 

CHAPTER XIII . . . . . . . . .153 

ADMINISTRATION <>F MAYOR BURNS. Tin. W\IIK SUPPLY. APPLICATION OF THE 
SINKING FUND. REDUCTION OF THE CITY DEBT. INTRODUCTION OF THE POLICE 
SIGNAL SYSTEM AND ELECTRIC STREET LIGHTING. CONSTRUCTION OF NEW SCHOOL- 
HOUSES. ADMINISTRATION oi MANOR POPE.- -INTRODUCTION OF A HIGH WATER 
SERVICE. THE OLD POWDER HOUSE. THE SOMERVILLE HOSPITAL ORGANIZED AND 
ESTABLISHED. 



CHAPTER XIV . 158 

ADMINISTRATION OF MAYOR HODGKINS. ESTABLISHMKNT OK THE XAIIIAN TUFTS I'\RK. 

CELEBRATION OF THE SEMI-CKNTEN'MAI, ANNIVERSARY. 1'AVING IMPORTANT 

THOROUGHFARES. ERECTION OF THE NEW HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING. A NEW Cm 
HALL ADVOCATED. ERECTION OF A NEW CENTRAL FIRE STATION. GREAT IM- 

H PROVEMENTS MADE IN VARIOUS DIRECTIONS. ADMINISTRATION OF MAYOR I'KKRY. 

CHANGES AT THE CITY HALL. IMPORTANT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE SEWER SYSTEM. 
HIGH CREDIT OF THE CITY. FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERENT BOARDS OF THE CITY 
GOVERNMENT. SCOPE OF CITY CHARTER. 



HISTORY OF THE SCHOOLS. 
CHAPTER XV .. . . . . . . . .177 

FROM 1842 TO THE CLOSE OF THE SUPERINTENDENCE' OF JOSHUA H. DAVIS, l88S. 

CHAPTER XVI ......... 194 

SUPERINTENDENCY OF CLARENCE E. MELENEY. 

CHAPTER XVII ...... . 202 

SUPERINTENDENCY OF GORDON A. SOUTHWORTH. 

CHAPTER XVIII . . 226 

EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS. 

CHAPTER XIX ......... 237 

HISTORY OF THE WATER-WORKS. 

CHAPTER XX 253 

THE POLICE DEPARTMENT AND POLICE COURT. 

CHAPTER XXI ....... .258 

HISTORY OF THE PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

CHAPTER XXII ......... 269 

HISTORY OF THE FIRE DEPARTMENT. 

CHAPTER XXIII .... . 282 

HISTORY OF THE CHURCHES. 

EAST SOMERVILLE BAPTIST. FIRST BAPTIST. RANDALL MEMORIAL FREE- WILL BAPTIST. 
- PERKINS STREET BAPTIST. UNION SQUARE BAPTIST. WINTER HILL BAPTIST. 
BROADWAY CONGREGATIONAL. DAY STREET CONGREGATIONAL. FIRST CONGREGA- 
TIONAL (UNITARIAN). FIRST ORTHODOX CONGREGATIONAL. HIGHLAND < ONGREGA- 
TIONAL. PROSPECT HILL CONGREGATIONAL. WIN 1 1 K 1 1 ILL d >NGKEGATIONAL. s i , 
ANN'S (CATHOLIC). ST. CATHERINE'S (CATHOLIC). EMMANUEL EPISCOPAL. ST. 
THOMAS EPISCOPAL. ST. JAMES EPISCOPAL. FIRST METHODIST-EPISCOPAL. PARK 
AVENUE METHODIST-EPISCOPAL. UNION SOUARE I'RFSP.Y TERIAN. FIRST I \I\ER- 
SALIST. -- THIRD UNIVEKSAI.IST. WINTER HILL I'NIVEKSAI.IST. EvANGELlCA] 
ASSOCIATION CHURCH. 



CHAPTER XXIV . . 333 

CHARITABLE AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS. 

SoMERYILLK HOSPITAL. HOSPITAL LADIKS' AlD ASSOCIATION. SOMERVILLE ASSO- 
CIATED CHARITIES. SAMARITAN SOCIETY. SOMERVILI.E DAY NURSERY. WILLARD 
C. KINSLEY POST 139, G. A. R. WILLARD C. KINSLEY RELIEF CORPS. WOMAN'* 
'. 'iiuis'iiAN TEMPERANCE UNION. FIREMAN'S REI.IEF ASSOCIATION. SOMKRVILI.E 
Yot'Ni: MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION.- MASONIC: SOMERVILLE ROYAL ARCH 
CHAPTER; ORIENT COUNCIL; JOHN ABBOT LODGE; SOLEY LODGE. ODD FELLOWS: 
SoMEKvii.i.E ENCAMPMENT; WINTER HILL ENCAMPMENT; CALEB RAND LODGE; 
>\sis LODGE; PAUL REVERE LODGE. REBEKAH LODGES : IVALOO LODGE; RAMONA 
LODGE; ERMINIE LODGE. ODD LADIES: CONSTELLATION LODGE; LONGFELLOW 
Li >i ii ;E. ANCIENT ORDER OF UNITED WORKMEN : SOMERVILLE LODGE. KNIGHTS < >F 
HONOR: MT. BENEDICT LODGE; CAMERON LODGE. KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS: ARCADIA 
LODGE. ROYAL ARCANUM: SOMERVILLE COUNCIL; ELM COUNCIL. SOMERVILLE 
LIGHT INFANTRY. CENTRAL CLUB. -SONS OF MAINE CLUB. DAUGHTERS OF 
MAINE CLUB. HEPTOREAN CLUB. HILLSIDE CLUB. WEBCOWIT CLUB. WINTER 
HILL CLUB.- CONVERSATION CLUB. SOMERVILLE LITERARY ASSOCIATION. SUF- 
FRAGE LEAGUE. SOCIETY OF ST. VINCENT DE PAUL. LITTLE SISTERS OF THE 
POOR. FRIENDLY HELPERS OF THE POOR. REMINISCENCES OF SOMERVILLE. 
HOME CIRCLE: WASHINGTON COUNCIL; HARMONY COUNCIL; SOMERVILLE COUNCIL; 
LOYAL ORANGE INSTITUTION: MT. HOREB LODGE. 

CHAPTER XXV ......... 446 

BANKS OF SOMERVILLE. 

CHAPTER XXVI . . 452 

INDUSTRIES OF SOMERVILLE. 

NORTH PACKING AND PROVISION COMPANY; FRESH POND ICE COMPANY; THE SPRAGUE 
AND HATHAWAY COMPANY; UNION GLASS COMPANY; DERBY DESK COMPANY; BRICK- 
MAKING; MIDDLESEX BLEACH, DYE AND PRINT WORKS; CARPET CLEANING, ETC. 

CHAPTER XXVII ......... 465 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

BOSTON AND MAINE RAILROAD. STREET RAILWAYS IN SOMERVILLE. THE "SOM- 
ERVILLE JOURNAL.'' -THE "SOMERVILLE CITIZEN." WESTWOOD ROAD AND ITS 
RESIDENCES. 

CHAPTER XXVI II ......... 484 

BIOGRAPHIES. 



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CHARLES D. ELLIOT. 



SOMERVILLE'S HISTORY, 

BY CHARLES D. ELLIOT. 



CHAPTER I. 

OKICIN AND SETTLEMENT. GRANTS, ETC. DEED FROM \Vr.n-( YAYKT AND SQUAW- 
SACHEM. EARLY TOPOCKAPIIY. FIRST SETTLERS. GOVERNOR WINTHROP'S TEN 
HILLS FARM. 

SOMERVILLE was formerly a part of Charlestown, that honored ancestor 
of the towns of the Mystic valley, and whose bounds originally ran 
"eight miles into the country from their meeting house," and included 
\Voburn, Stoneham, Winchester, Burlington, a part of Arlington and Mecl- 
ford, Somerville, Maiden, Everett and the Bunker Hill peninsula, and whose 
early history is the heritage of each. 

New towns one after another were broken off from the old, the last 
being Somerville in 1842, and in this account the name Somerville is used 
in narrating the events which have occurred within its limits, since its first 
settlement. 

The title of the white man, whether Spanish, French, Dutch, or Eng- 
lish, to the home of the Indian, rested usually in a royal grant; "by turf 
and by twig," and in the name of their king and religion they took posses- 
sion, seldom consulting the aboriginal owner. 

The title to the territory of Somerville has this royal authority and 
more. First, in the grant of James I to the Plymouth Council of all lands 
between 40 and 4,s : N. latitude from sea to sea. 

Second, by grant of the Plymouth Council, March 19, 1628, to the 
Massachusetts Bay Company. 

Third, by royal charter, March 4, 1621), to the Massachusetts Bay Com- 
pany, which confirmed the grant of 1628; and fourth, a title not every 
colony can claim, a deed from an Indian sovereign, " Squa-Sachem." 

Other grants covered the territory and caused much trouble. 

The Plymouth people had already, in 1622, granted ten miles along the 
shore and thirty miles inland, to Robert Gorges ; he dying, his brother John, 
in 1624, leased to John Oldham and John Dorrill all hind between the 
Charles and Saugus Rivers, for five miles up the Charles, and three up the 
Saugus. And again John Gorges, in 1028, deeded to Sir William Brereton 
all the land between Charles River and Nahant, for twenty miles inland. 



I 8 SOMERl'ILLE. PAST AND PRESENT. 

But little came of these later grants, unless possibly Blackstone, the first 
settler of Boston, and Thomas Walford, the first settler of Charlestown (on 
the peninsula), claimed under them. 

These conflicting grants caused the Bay Company to strengthen their 
claim by actual occupation, and they accordingly sent settlers to several 
localities within the disputed territory, Charlestown being one. 

Among the instructions from the Company, written from England in 
1629, to Mr. Endicott, is the following :- 

"If any of the Salvages pretend right of inheritance to all or any part 
of the lands granted in our patent, we pray you to endeavour to purchase 
their title, that we may avoid the least scruple of intrusion." Under these 
instructions several deeds from the Indians were secured, the one covering 
Somerville land being from Squa-Sachem, who on the recent death of her 
husband became chief of her tribe. 

The deed begins as follows : - 

"The i 5th of the 2d Mo. 1639. 

"\Yee, Web-Cowet, and Squaw Sachem do sell vnto the Inhabitants of 
the Towne of Charlestown all the land within the lines granted them by 
the court," and closes with "wee acknowledge to have received in full sat- 
isfaction, twenty and one coates, ninten fathoms of wampum, and three 
bushels of corne." 

" In witness whereof we have here vnto sett our hands the day and 
yeare above named.'' 

EARLY DESCRIPTIONS AND TOPOGRAPHY. 

Descriptions of this part of the country sent to England by the early 
comers, often read like advertisements of modern Eldorados. They were 
generally directed to intending settlers, and usually with the desired effect : 
after reading they emigrated ; for health and plenty stood on the shore, and 
with open arms welcomed each new arrival. The sea, the rivers, the woods, 
and the fields were great natural store-houses, stocked abundantly with fish 
and fowl, furs and fuel, fruits and flowers ; the air and water were the 
purest; "New England's air was better than old England's ale," and as 
one writer said, "We are all freeholders, the rent day doth not trouble us." 

If all that was written were true, this must have been a paradise to the 
sportsman, farmer, and lover of nature. 

Yet there was much that was true in their high-colored, curious de- 
scriptions. 

Mr. Graves, the earliest civil engineer in Charlestown, writing in 1629 
or 1630, thus describes the topography of this section : " It is very beautiful 
in open lands, mixed with goodly woods, and again open plains, in some 
places five hundred acres, some places more, some less, not much trouble- 
some for to clear for the plough to go in ; no place barren but on the tops 
of the hills. The grass and weeds grow up to a man's face in the lowlands, 
and by fresh rivers abundance of grass and large meadows, without any 
tree or shrub to hinder the scythe." 




\ 



THOMAS CUNNINGHAM. 





ASA DURGIN. 



SOMERVTLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 21 

The peninsulas of Charlestown and Boston, when settled, were much 
alike in shape. From the mainlands on either side they reached out toward 
each other and shut in the great basin of Back Bay. They were attached 
to the mainland by low, narrow necks, which being overflowed, made each 
an island at highest tides. 

From Charlestown neck, the marshes extended to the shores of Miller's 
and Mystic Rivers, and from the foot of Prospect Hill round to the foot of 
Convent and Winter Hills; Asylum Hill was a peninsula at high tide. 

Several creeks and brooks now mostly extinct, meandered from the 
higher land, across these marshes to the adjacent rivers. Chief of these 
\vas Miller's, first known as Gibones' River from Captain Edward Gibones 
who lived on its shores, probably near Cobble Hill. A later name for this 
was Willis' Creek, or Wills' Creek ; and one French translation makes it 
" Crique de Vills." It was probably called Miller's River, and Cobble Hill, 
Miller's Hill after Thomas Miller, who owned land in that locality. 

This rivulet had its source in old Cambridge, South of Kirkland Street ; 
thence in earlier days it flowed, a pellucid stream through sandy upland, 
and sedgy meadow, to its mouth near the Charles. 

A branch of Miller's River began its course not far from the Old Folks' 
Home on Highland Avenue, crossing Central Street near Cambria, and 
School Street near Summer, joining the main stream not far from Union 
Square. 

East of Miller's River, and flowing into the same great Charles River or 
Back Bay basin, was Crasswell Brook, named after one of the early owners ; 
its outlet still exists, and forms part of the city boundary ; a ditch through 
the McLean Asylum grounds marks approximately a part of its old course. 
Washington Street bridged it, and its source was probably not far from the 
junction of Cross and Oliver Streets. Passing over "the Neck" we come 
to Mystic River, into which five streams poured their constant tribute. The 
first, opposite Convent Hill, was perhaps never named, and was possibly of 
no great length or importance. The next was probably the " Winthrop 
Creek " of the old records, named for the Governor and more recently known 
as Bachellor's Creek. It marked the easterly boundary of the grant of Ten 
Hills Farm to him. Its source was not far from Gilman Square; it wound 
its way easterly, crossing Broadway near Walnut Street, and thence across 
the Park and through the marshes to the river ; all west of Middlesex 
Avenue is now filled. Following up the shore to where the new Trotting 
Park now is, we come to Winter Brook ; like the hill, called so, no man now 
knows why ; its source was in Polly Swamp, not far from the junction of 
Lowell and Albion Streets ; thence it flowed northeasterly, crossing Broad- 
way near the railroad bridge, and Medford Street (in Medford) just north- 
west of its junction with Main Street, probably where the present water- 
course, its successor, is bridged. 

Further on was Two-Penny Brook ; I might have said is, if a sedgy 
ditch cut to straight lines, can be called a brook ; it rose near the old school 
on Broadway, opposite the Simpson estate, flowing through the College and 



22 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Robinson estates, under the Lowell Railroad, along the easterly border of 
the brickyards, to the river ; forks of each of these brooks started near the 
foot of Powder House Hill. The fifth stream was Alewife Brook, our 
western boundary, then called by its Indian name, " Menotomy " River. 
This name has many spellings in ye ancient record, one or two of which 
commenced with a "\\V It has also been known as "Little" River. 
This is the outlet of Fresh Pond, and there is much of interest connected 
with it. Into Alewife Brook ran another, from near Davis Square, westerly 
into Cambridge, entering Alewife Brook near the former tanneries on North 
Avenue, whence in later times it has been called Tannery Brook ; the 
Somerville part of it is now a covered drain. 

The hills of those old days are fast disappearing as well as the rivers, 
both in name and substance. \Yithin a year or two the '' high fielde " of 
the original settlers, the "ploughed hill " of the Revolution, better known in 
our day as " Nunnery" or " Convent Hill " or " Mount Benedict," will be a 
memory only. Asylum Hill, which was the Miller's Hill, or Cobble Hill of 
a hundred years or more ago, has the seal of destruction set upon it. The 
historic heights of Prospect Hill, the Mount Pisgah of the Revolution, have 
long since gone to bury the less historic shores of Miller's River. 

Winthrop Hill, on the Ten Hills Farm, and the other eminences near it, 
are but scarred relics of their former picturesque beauty. Winter Hill, 
strange to say, so far as is known, has suffered no change since " long ago," 
either in height, contour or name ; like Winter Brook, the origin of its name 
is in obscurity; whether named for a person, or a season, is an enigma. 

\Yalnut Tree Hill, now College Hill, has probably seen little change in 
shape since the Indian roamed over it. Wild Cat Hill, on the borders of 
Alewife Brook, from the remotest day until recently, has remained to thrill 
the mind with the possible cause for its name ; but now it is degraded to a 
city gravel-bank, and will soon be gone. 

Quarry Hill, smooth and polished, with little left of its antique charm, 
yet remains crowned by its old tower, which, though architecturally modern- 
ized with cut stone archway and window, is still a historic inspiration. 

Strawberry Hill, where is and where was it ? Possibly and probably, if 
old records are correct, in which there is but one mention of it, east of 
Beacon Street and north of Washington Street, a part of it still remaining 
on the Norton's Grove estate in Cambridge. Spring Hill in name is recent, 
probably, and in shape much as of yore, as is Central Hill, which on some 
old Revolutionary maps is styled " Middle Hill." 

In the foregoing, the endeavor has been made to retrace the natural 
features of the town, and the old naming with which the earlier residents 
were familiar, as well as that of more recent times. 

FIRST SETTLERS. 

Probably the first white men who wandered over Somerville soil were 
Standish and his exploring party from Plymouth in 1621. 

Seven years later came a party of settlers from Salem, prospecting for 




JOHN F. NlCKERSON. 




CROMWELL G. ROWELL. 



SOJ/A'A'I'//. /./:, J'AST AND PR1-:SENT. 25 

a place to locate in. These were "Ralph Sprague with his bretheren 
Richard and William, who with three or four more " . . . " did in the sum- 
mer of anno 1628, undertake a journey from Salem, and travelled the woods 
above twelve miles to the westward, and lighted of a place situated and 
lying en the north side of Charles river, full of Indians called Aberginians," 
..." and upon surveying, they found it was a neck of land, generally full 
of stately timber, as was the main, and the land lying on the east side of 
the river, called Mystick river." Here on the peninsula they settled and 
built, and others came soon after. In 1629, "it was jointly agreed and 
concluded, that this place on the north side of Charles river, by the natives 
called Mishawum, shall henceforth, from the name of the river, be called 
Charlestown " ; and in this connection it may be of interest to recall that 
the river was named by Captain John Smith, in 1614, after H. R. H. 
Charles, Prince of Wales, afterwards Charles I, who. Smith says, " did 
change the barbarous names of their principall Harbours and habitations, 
for such English, that posterity may say King Charles was their Godfather." 
Among the first of the Charlestown settlers to locate on Somerville territory 
were John Woolrich, Captain - - Norton, Edward Gibones, Mr. William Jen- 
nings and John Wignall ; followed a little later by Richard Palsgrave, 
Edward Jones and others, and by the Governor, John Winthrop, in 1631. 

It may be proper here to give a sketch of these pioneers of our town. 

John Woolrich or Wolrich was an Indian trader; he "built and fenced 
a mile and a half without ye necke of land in ye maine, on ye right hand of 
ye way to Newe Towne," which would be somewhere on the northerly side 
of Washington Street, beyond the Fitchburg Railroad bridge ; perhaps 
not far from Dane Street. He was prominent in affairs, and was a repre- 
sentative to the General Court in 1634. 

Of Captain Norton, accounts are somewhat conflicting : in one reference 
he is called John, in another Francis ; one record is that he was killed by the 
Indians in 1633, another makes him join the church in 1642, marry in 1649, 
and die in 1667. There may have been two Captain Nortons. 

Major-General Edward Gibones, the most distinguished of our early 
citizens, excepting Governor Winthrop, was a young man recently converted 
and admitted to the church ; he ultimately rose to the rank of Major-Gen- 
eral in the militia, being "a man of resolute spirit" and "bold as a lion." 
He represented Charlestown in the General Court, in 1635 and 1636, and 
died in 1654. 

Of William Jennings and John Wignall but little is recorded. 

Richard Palsgrave was the first physician of Charlestown, living in the 
town several years, and died about 1656. 

Edward Jones was an inhabitant in 1(130, and removed to Long Island 
in 1 644. 

Palsgrave and Jones each built three-quarters of a mile beyond the 
neck, on the northerly side of Washington Street, " right before the marsh," 
probably opposite the Asylum grounds. 

John Winthrop, the first Governor of the Massachusetts company that 



26 SOMERl'JLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

came over here (Craddock never came), was granted the Ten Hills Farm 
of six hundred acres in 1631 ; it extended from the Craddock Bridge, near 
Medford Centre, along the Mystic River to near Convent Hill, and em- 
braced all the land between Broadway, Medford Street and the River. 
This was the Governor's farm where he built, lived, planted, raised cattle, 
and launched the first ship in Massachusetts, the " Blessing of the Bay," 
July 4, 1631. Governor Winthrop was the ancestor of the late Hon. 
Robert C. Winthrop. He was a man of liberal education and sterling 
worth, a devout Christian and an honor to the Colony; he died in 1649. 



CHAPTER II. 

FROM SETTLEMENT TO THE REVOLUTION. 

EARLY EVENTS. PASTURING AND HERDING. CHARACTERISTICS OF EARLY IMMIGRANTS. 
MACHINERY OF PRIMITIVE INDUSTRIES SET IN MOTION. ESTABLISHMENT OF TOWN 
GOVERNMENT OF CHARI.E>IO\YN. MUNICIPAL REGULATIONS. PERSON.*: NON GRAT/E. 
-FIRST HIGHWAYS. THE STINTED COMMON. CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS. PETI- 
TION OF EZEKIEL CHEEVER. THE FIRST TOWN SCHOOL. MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS 
AND FORTIFICATIONS. KING PHILIP'S WAR. INDIAN ALLIES. 

CHARLESTOWN'S settlers in 1629 were in all ten families, not including 
Thomas Walford and wife, whom they found already there living in " his 
pallisadoed and thatched house,'' and not including servants of the Bay 
Company. 

Their first winter was full of discouragement ; provisions were gone 
and disease so prevalent that "almost in every family lamentation, mourn- 
ing and woe were heard " ; " many perished and died." Added to this, the 
water became bad and brackish, and Indians threatening; many left 
Charlestown and removed to Boston, where the water was better. The 
arrival of Capt. Pearce with a shipload of provisions, however, inspirited 
them anew, and was hailed with rejoicing and thanksgiving. 

The first inhabitants built around Town Hill, now Bow Street, near 
Charlestown City Square. They were allotted grounds for planting on 
other parts of the peninsula, which they were required to fence ; but the 
grazing ground for their cattle was here in Somerville, or " without the 
neck," and Somerville was in those early times known as the " Cow Com- 
mons," and later, as the " Stinted Pasture." The rights of pasturage were 
apportioned among the citizens in 1656, and perhaps before. 

A herdsman, as early as 1632, was appointed to " Keepe the Milch 
Cattle of this Towne, in a herd without the necke of land upon ye maine 
till the end of Harvest, and hee is to drive them forth every morning and 
bring them into Towne every evening." The herdsman sounded his horn 
from Town Hill each morning, to call the cattle together, in readiness for 



* ... 




ALVANO T. NICKERSON. 




SAMUEL W. HOLT. 



SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 29 

pasture. In 1633, the salary for this official was " fifty bushels of Indian 
corne." 

A fence with a gate was early ordered and built across the Neck, from 
Mystic River to Charles River basin, to keep these cattle, and perhaps wild 
beasts, from straying into the town ; for wolves were common then, and 
bounties given for their destruction. 

In the course of time, about the whole of Somerville was enclosed with 
fencing; fencing or "paling," as it was called, extending all along the Cam- 
bridge line, and between the common pasture and the Ten Hills Farm, with 
gates at the highways. 

In speaking of highways it is but natural again to recall the first engi- 
neer in these parts, Mr. Thomas Graves, who came in 1629, and who, it is 
supposed, laid out all earlier streets, and other works of improvement in 
Charlestown. It is claimed that he was the (afterwards) noted Admiral 
Thomas Graves of the English Navy. 

It is quite fair to presume that he traced the routes for our infant 
thoroughfares, Washington Street and Broadway. 

Those early emigrants were a sturdy, tireless race : their energy knew 
no obstacle. Roads were laid out, watering places located, landings built, 
bridges thrown over streams, and, where too wide for bridges, ferries estab- 
lished. 

Those to Boston and to Maiden (the latter called " Two penny ferry ") 
remained until after the Revolution, the only direct means of communication 
between those places. 

All kinds of business and trades were soon started, mills built, one 
at Charlestown Neck opposite Miller's River as early as 1645, l nne kilns set 
up, fish-weirs established, ledges opened, and all the primitive machinery 
of industry set in motion. 

Among the various trades and callings found here in Charlestown be- 
tween 1630 and 1650 were the following : cutting of posts, clapboards and 
shingles ; raising of horses for export ; farming ; fishing of various kinds, 
especially for alewives, oysters, and lobsters, which were abundant in these 
waters lobsters of twenty-five pounds weight being mentioned: rope and 
anchor making; coopering; tile making; brewing; salt manufacturing; car- 
pentering; ship building; wheelwright work; pottery; charcoal burning; 
and various kinds of mill work, there being in 1645 in Charlestown wind, 
stream, and tide mills. 

A town government was very early organized, and local laws enacted, 
controlling church, school, and military matters, as well as civil and crim- 
inal. The town officers were the " Seven men " or Selectmen, Constables, 
Highway Surveyors, Town Clerk, Herdsman, Overseers of the fields, and 
Chimney Sweepers, and later on, Town Treasurer, Town Messenger, In- 
spector of youth, Tythinginen, Surveyors of damnified goods, Clerks of the 
market, Packer of fish and flesh, Corder of wood, Culler of staves, Sealers 
of hides and leather, Measurers of lumber, Cullers of fish, and Measurers 
of salt and coal. 



30 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The freemen of the town could vote for Governor and Deputy, and for 
Major-General, Representatives, Grand Jury, and also for Assistants or 
Magistrates ; in electing the latter, corn and beans were used, corn for 
" yes,'' beans for "no." The penalty for fraud in voting was 10. 

Among the wholesome regulations were those guarding against fires : 
they required every house to be provided with ladders, and to be statedly 
inspected, and every chimney to be swept once a month in winter, and once 
every two months in summer. A blazing chimney brought a fine on the 
tenant. 

All children must be educated and "catechised," for neglect of which 
their parents answered in court. 

Sabbath-breakers, tipplers, and gamblers were sharply watched, and 
severely punished. One woman, for instance, was heavily fined for washing 
clothes on Sunday. 

Strangers in town were "personae non gratae," and had speedily to 
account for themselves. A committee was appointed to " marke such trees 
for shade by the Highwa[ies] and watering places as in theire discretion 
shall bee thought mete ; " fine for cutting these, five shillings, and a special 
order was also made that no tree " under any pretence whatsoever " should 
be cut outside the Neck without the knowledge of the Selectmen. 

As already stated, several of the settlers had, as early as 1629 or 1630, 
located, built, and planted, here in Somerville, and in the year 1633 the 
town gave liberty to any of its inhabitants to build outside the Neck, pro- 
vided, etc., that it " bee not a shortening of the privileges of the Towne," and 
in 1634 ten persons were granted "planting ground" on the "South side 
of New Towne highway," forty-one acres in all. From this time on, settle- 
ments on Somerville land increased, and the records show many transfers 
of property in this part of Charlestown. 

HIGHWAYS. 

The first road in Somerville was Washington Street, from the Neck to 
Cambridge, described in 1630 as the "Way to New Towne " (Cambridge), 
and in one place spoken of as narrow and crooked. The next was probably 
the easterly part of Broadway, called " the way to Mystick," connecting, 
perhaps, as early as 1637, by trail, or bye road around or over the Ten Hills 
Farm, with the ford and bridge then built at Medford Centre over the 
Mystic River. It was probably many years afterwards that Broadway was 
extended over Winter Hill to Menotomy (now Arlington). 

The Stinted Common was apportioned in 1656 among the citizens of the 
town, and remained a cow pasture until i6Si and 1685, when it was cut into 
strips one-fourth of a mile wide, with numbered rangeways between them, 
and granted in stated lots to the inhabitants entitled to them. 

The territory thus laid out extended from Washington Street, Bow 
Street and Somerville Avenue, to Broadway, and from the present Charles- 
town line to Elm Street. The first Rangeway is now Franklin Street ; the 
second, Cross Street ; third, Walnut ; fourth, School ; fifth. Central : sixth, 




MARSHALL H. LOCKE. 




FRANKLIN N. POOR. 



SOMERl'JLI.l-:, PAST AND l'RI:Sl-:XT. 33 

Lowell; seventh, Cedar; and eighth, Willow Avenue. There were three 
others, running from Broadway beyond Elm Street, into Medford. The first 
has been entirely obliterated ; the second is now Curtis Street, and the 
third, North Street. 

CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS. 

Until 1632 the good people of Charlestown sought religious consolation 
in the church at Boston, but in this year they separated and organized the 
" First Church of Charlestown " ; their early meetings were held " under the 
shade of a great oak," celebrated as the " Charlestown oak" ; it stood in or 
not far from the square ; they soon purchased the "great house," no longer 
used by the town, and fitted it up for a meeting house. People from the 
remote parts of the town, as well as from Somerville, attended this church, 
among the number, our earliest settlers, Woolrich and Jones, who are on 
its membership roll. The services lasted all day, beginning at nine o'clock 
or before ; and for the benefit of those living at a distance, the town built 
small houses with chimneys, called " Sabbaday houses," as the record says, 
" of a convenient largeness to give entertainment on the Lord's day to such 
as live remote," etc. In November, 1882, the two hundred and fiftieth an- 
niversary of this church was celebrated. 

It is probable that, in earlier days, all the young people of these parts 
received their first teaching in the schools of the peninsula, going and re- 
turning over the Neck, a long and tedious walk in winter ; all the branches 
were taught, from a, b, c's to Latin grammar. There seems to have been 
some rivalry then, among the educators of the town, which is generously 
hinted at in the petition of Ezekiel Cheever, schoolmaster of the town 
school, in 1666, to the Selectmen; he had evidently been promised that no 
other schoolmaster should set up in the town, but says that " now Mr. 
Mansfield is suffered to teach and take away his scholars." The town 
schoolhouse of that day can well be pictured from the records, which speak 
of it (1686) as twelve feet square, and eight feet high, with flatfish roof, 
turret for bell, and " mantle-tree " twelve feet long ; ceiled with brick and 
clay, and built at a cost of $90.00. Yet in it ancient and modern lore were 
for years successfully dispensed. 

MILITARY. 

The military prowess of the pioneers stands out boldly in their history; 
they were men of intelligence, education and piety, and the defense of 
home, religion and rights was first in their thoughts. They at once began 
their military organizations and their fortifications, protections against 
foreign foes as well as Indians. The " Castle " in the harbor, the Fort on 
" Town Hill " and the " Half moon " at the Neck, all gave a greater feeling 
of security to people on the peninsula. Companies were organized, offi- 
cered, and drilled, and in the various struggles with the savage and the 
Frenchman, Charlestown soldiers bore well their part. Among them and 
pre-eminently prominent was a resident of Somerville, Major-General 
Edward Gibones. 



34 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

King Philip's war in particular caused much suffering and alarm among 
the inhabitants ; it became necessary to impress men for the service. As a 
protection from Indian attack in 1676, it was proposed, but afterwards 
abandoned, to build a stockade across the country from Charles River to 
the Merrimac. A company of praying Indians was also organized here in 
Charlestown for this war, and did good service. 

It would be pleasant to trace the part Somerville settlers bore in these 
various conflicts if there were space and the records complete, which they 
are not. 

CHAPTER III. 

ADVENT OF AM>R<>S AND CONSEQUENCES TO THE COLONISIS. TITLES TO ESTATES 
IMPERILED. TEN HILLS FARM AND ITS OWNERS. A FAVORITE HOME FOR 
GOVERNORS. " THE BLESSING OF THE BAY" BUILT AND LAUNCHED. CAITAIN 
ROHERT TEMPLE. SLAVE HOLDERS IN SOMERVILLE. THE FIRST PRIVATEER IN 
AMERICA. COLONEL SAMUEL [AQUES. THE OLD POWDER HOUSE. JEAN MALLET. 
- A TRAGIC LEGEND. 

IN 1 686 the happiness of the people was rudely shattered by a royal 
edict, appointing Sir Edmund Andros " Capt. Generall and Govr. in 
Chief " over New England : it gave him royal powers to choose Coun- 
cillors, make laws, and assess taxes ; it constituted Andros and Councillors 
a court of justice for trial of all cases, civil, criminal, and of property rights, 
as well as petty cases ; also unlimited authority over matters military and 
naval, thus annulling the charter of the Bay Company. A struggle ensued 
which, lasting three years, ended in the revolution of 1689, the seizure 
and imprisonment of Andros and others, and capture of the Castle in Boston 
Harbor ; and in 1692, the restoration of their old rights to the colonists. 

One of the first acts of Andros was to declare all previous property 
titles valueless ; the charter had not been complied with, " and, therefore, 
all the lands of New England have returned to the King" ; and further, it 
was declared that " wherever an Englishman sets his foot, all that he hath 
is the King's." Andros angrily asserted that "there was no such a thing 
as a town in the country," and that the ancient town records of titles were 
"not worth a rush." In Somerville, by this action, many estates were 
imperiled ; one or two of these had been in the same family half a century. 

Some of the owners submitted to these cruel exactions, while others 
rebelled. The greatest of these outrages was the granting of the Stinted 
Pasture to Lieutenant Colonel Charles Lidgett, a follower of Andros, and 
already one of the owners of Ten Hills Farm : of which, however, he also 
received Andros' title of confirmation. Lidgett immediately began the 
prosecution of the rightful owners of the pasture, for cutting wood and for 
other alleged trespasses. They were caused much annoyance and distress ; 
and in some cases were fined and imprisoned. 

But Lidgett's chickens flew home to repose : in 1689, with Andros and 
others, he was seized and thrown into prison, with which just retribution 
ended the fraudulent title speculation. 




AMOS KEYES. 




SEWARD DODGE. 



SOJf/iAT/LLE, /VAST .LVD PRESENT. 37 

TEN HILLS FARM. 

It is especially notable that this old estate, called Ten Hills after the ten 
knolls on it, should have kept for two hundred and sixty-five years the name 
given it by its first owner ; though that name at present applies to only one 
hundred acres or so of the original grant. 

This property is one of the few in the city whose title can be clearly 
traced in the records, through each conveyance, from aboriginal and royal 
grants to the present time. 

Besides being included in the deed from Squa-Sachem, already quoted, 
it is, of course, within the limits of the royal grant to Plymouth Colony in 
1620, and in the Plymouth grant and Royal Confirmation to the Massa- 
chusetts Bay Company in 162* and 1629. 

By the Massachusetts Bay Company's Governor and Council it was 
granted direct to John Winthrop. 

The record reads : - 

"6 Sept., 1631 Granted to Mr. Governor, six hundred acres of land, 
to be set forth by metes and bounds, near his house at Mistick, to enjoy to 
him and his heirs forever.'' 

The claim of the Anclros government, that none of the settlers held any 
title whatever to their lands, did not hold good regarding this estate. It 
was the only one in this city, however, that was granted by the Bay Com- 
pany. 

< )n the death of the Governor, in 1049, the property fell to his son John, 
Jr., Governor of Connecticut, by whose executors it was deeded, in 1677, to 
Elizabeth Lidgett, widow of Peter Lidgett, a merchant of Boston. She 
deeded one-half of it to her son Charles, the same year. The Lidgetts and 
their heirs, among them the wife and children of Lieutenant-Governor 
Usher of New Hampshire, deeded a portion of it, in 1731, to Sir Isaac 
Royal, the most of which is in Meclford, five hundred and four acres. 

The remainder, or Somerville portion, two hundred and fifty-one acres, 
they sold to Captain Robert Temple, in 1740 ; on his death, it fell to his son 
Robert. Jr., the " Royalist," who retained it until after the Revolution, selling, 
in 17X0, to Nathaniel Tracy of Newburyport, and he, in 17X5, to Honora- 
ble Thomas Russell, who again sold it, in 1791, to Captain George Lane. 
Later it was owned by Theodore Lyman : and then by Elias Hasket Derby 
of Salem; afterwards it became the property of Colonel Samuel Jaques, 
then of Samuel Oakman, and finally of the present owners, the heirs of 
Fred Ames and F. ( ). Reed and others. 

It is noticeable that Ten Hills, if not continuously a gubernatorial 
demesne, has in all times been held in some favor by governors and their 
relatives and associates : first, Winthrop, Governor of Massachusetts : then 
his son, Governor of Connecticut; then the wife of Lieutenant-Governor 
Usher; then by Robert Temple, son of the Governor of Nova Scotia; then 
by Robert, Jr., whose wife was the daughter of Governor Shirley; then by 
Royal and Russell, each a governor's councillor; and now by the heirs of 
the brother of Governor Ames. 



38 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AiVD PRESENT. 

There is much of interest akin to romance in the annals of this old 
property ; and in the lives and doings of its various owners. 

Its first proprietor settled on it when it was in all its original wildness, 
built his house and barns, planted his gardens and orchards, raised his 
cattle, and hunted and fished through its woods and along Us shores. In 
the record he kept, he gives one picture of his life here, under date of 
October 11, 1631 : "The Governor being at his farmhouse in Mistick, 
walked out after supper and took a piece in his hand, supposing he might 
see a wolf (for the}' came daily about the house and killed swine and calves, 
etc.) and, being about half a mile off, it grew suddenly dark, so as in coming 
home he mistook his path, and went till he came to a little house of Saga- 
more John, which stood empty. There he stayed, and having a piece of 
match in his pocket (for he always carried about him match and compass 
and in the summertime snake weed), he made a good fire near the house, 
and lay down upon some old mats, which he found there, and so spent the 
night, sometimes walking by the fire, sometimes singing psalms and some- 
times getting wood, but could not sleep. It was (through God's mercy) a 
warm night; but a little before day it began to rain, and having no cloak, 
he made shift by a long pole to climb up into the house. " In the morning " 
..." he returned safe home, his servants having walked about, and shot off 
pieces, and halloed in the night, but he heard them not." 

It was here, at Ten Hills, that he built and launched the first ship built 
in this Colony, which records mention as follows: "July 4, [1631]. The 
Governor built a bark at Mistick, which was launched this day, and called 
' The Blessing of the Bay.' " 

In November, 1631, his wife with some of their children arrived from 
England in the ship Lyon ; the event caused great rejoicing. " The ship 
gave them six or seven pieces," "the captains with their companies in arms 
entertained them with a guard and divers volleys of shot, and three drakes '' 
(cannon) ; people from the near plantations welcomed them and brought in 
great store of provisions, " fat hogs, kids, venison, poultry, geese, part- 
ridges " and other contributions. "The like joy and manifestations of love 
had never been seen in New England." 

Meanwhile the Governor had established himself in Boston, probably 
his winter home at first, but afterwards his permanent abode ; this was on 
Washington Street between Spring Lane and Milk Street, his house, which 
was framed in Charlestown, being at the corner of Spring Lane. The Old 
South Church occupies his front yard, or "green." 

Colonel Charles Lidgett has already been noticed in the account of the 
Andros trouble. 

Captain Robert Temple was the son of Thomas Temple, once Governor 
of Nova Scotia. Robert Temple, Jr., the " Royalist," as he has been called, 
was brother of Sir John, first Consul-General from England to the L'nited 
States, and uncle of Sir Grenville Temple, both baronets in England ; Sir 
John married the daughter of Governor Bowcloin ; and Robert, Jr., the 
daughter of Governor Shirley. Thus connected with Royalists and perhaps. 



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ERl'II.U-:. PAST .\XD I 'RESENT. 41 

very naturally, not showing intense enthusiasm in the patriot cause, Temple 
was looked on as a tory, and when, in May, 1775, he started on a journey to 
England, he was seized by the Committee of Safety of Cohasset, and sent to 
Boston, where, after inspecting his letters and questioning him personally, 
it was recommended that he be treated as " a friend to the interests of this 
country, and the rights of all America." 

The Temples were slave-holders, though probably not the only ones in 
vSomerville. 

It was during the occupancy by Temple that the British landed at his 
wharf on their raid to the Powder House and Cambridge. 

Nathaniel Tracy, the next owner, was said to be " generous and patri- 
otic." He fitted out the first privateer in America during the Revolution, and 
his firm did a large business in that line, losing many, yet reaping, finally, 
a rich harvest. 

Thomas Russell, who bought of Tracy, was a '' merchant prince," a rep- 
resentative to the General Assembly, and an executive councillor. He sold 
to George Lane, a sea captain. 

Elias Hasket Derby, merchant, of Salem, who owned the place and 
lived here for some time, was a man of note ; he was wealthy and enter- 
tained sumptuously. His son died here in iSoi. 

Colonel Samuel Jaques, who made the "Ten Hills" famous in the ear- 
lier days of this century, had his title from a long service in the militia and 
in the war of 1812. His farm was stocked with horses, cattle, sheep and 
deer ; he had his pack of hounds, and that he was the famed Nimrod of these 
parts, many a wily fox could testify. 

The destruction of the mansion and slave-quarters in 1877, and digging 
down of Winthrop Hill, is too recent to require further mention. . It is now 
a dismal wreck, let it be hoped that the construction of the elaborate park- 
way proposed across it, and a more liberal policy in the improvement of its 
surroundings, will restore the locality at no distant day to something of its 
former importance and beauty. 

( >I.D POWDER HOUSE. 

Where a long-abandoned ledge 

Breaks the brow of a grass-grown hill. 

Near its crumbled and mossy edge 
Stands the old deserted mill. 

Like a sentinel keeping watch and ward over neighboring fields and 
highways, the old round tower on the ancient quarry's brink has stood for 
nearly two centuries. Around it cluster obscurity, legend and history, those 
charms of antiquity, and they have hung over it a mantle so attractive as to 
render it one of the most interesting of relics. It stands on Ouarry Hill, 
called also in the quaint nomenclature of old, ''Two penny brooke quarry," 
which winding meadow stream it overlooked. 

The knoll, with its adjacent lands, was at the extreme of the Stinted 



42 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Pasture, at the division of which in 1685 it was allotted to Sergeant Richard 
Lowden, some nine or ten acres in all, long before which it had been worked 
as a quarry. After Richard's death, his son and executor sold the estate to 
Jonathan Foskett, and Foskett, in February, 1703-4, to "Jean Mallet,'' a 
shipwright, afterwards a miller, and who very likely built the curious old 
mill, though no record tells us so. Jean Mallett was a Huguenot, and 
probably came from France with many others, to these more congenial 
shores, shortly after the revocation of the Fdict of Xantes, in 1685, settling 
unwisely, to say the least, in Worcester County, in what is now the town of 
Oxford, then a border wilderness, but which these Huguenots soon 
turned into blossoming fields and fruitful gardens ; here they lived in 
contentment and security for many years, but in 1696 the Indians descended 
on their settlement and a dreadful massacre ensued. The survivors aban- 
doned their plantations, and most of them came to Boston ; among these was 
Mallet, who, awhile after, we find here in Somerville. Little more is known 
of him except that he died about 1720, leaving the old stone windmill to his 
son Michael, who in 1747 sold it to the State for a powder-magazine ; prob- 
ably long before this its millstones had ceased to grind, though undoubt- 
edly for many long years the old miller took his lawful toll of " one to 
sixteen " from the farmers for miles around. 

A tragic legend shrouds the old mill, told of a captive Acadian maiden 
who, disguised as a youth, flees from her cruel master and seeks refuge 
in the family of the old miller; his rooms are few and accommodations 
scanty ; so the maid is given lodging in the old mill-loft, dusty and dismal. 
In the night comes her master ; he has traced her here, and with smooth 
speech and specious story induces the miller to unlock the mill ; the master 
clambers clumsily up the ladder, reaches the loft and tries to seize his 
victim ; in the unfamiliar darkness he loses his foothold, plunges to the 
mill floor, clutching the rope as he falls. The great fans move, the mill- 
stone rolls hoarsely around, and soon all is over. The exile maiden is once 
more free. 

It is a curious, grewsome story ; let us trust that it is only a legend. 




THE OLD POWDER HOUSE. 





JOHN C. MAGOUN. 



CHESTER GUILD. 





JOSEPH CLARK. 



CHARLES E. OILMAN. 



SOMERVILLE, /'AST AND J'A'KSEtfT. 45 



CHAPTER IV. 
THE REVOLUTION. 

FRICTION BETWEEN run COLONIES AND HOME GOVERNMENT. PREPARATIONS FOR THE 
C.REAT STRUGGLE. SEIZURE OF POWDER. FIRST HOSTILE DEMONSTRATION OF 
THE REVOLUTION. THE WHOLE COUNTRY IN ARMS. RESIGNATION OF LIEUT.- 
GOVERNOR THOMAS OLIVER. ARBITRARY MEASURES OF THE BRITISH GOVERNMENT. 

SECRETION OF ARMS AND DISTRIBUTION OF MILITARY SUPPLIES BY THE COLO- 

MSTS. HOSTILE STEPS TAKEN BY THE BRITISH. THE PATRIOTS WARNED. PAUL 
REVERE'S RIDE. BATILE OF LEXINGTON. ROADS IN SOMERVILLE TRAVERSED BY 
BRITISH TROOPS. BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL. VIVID SCENES. 

THE Boston Port Bill, enacted March 31, 1774, was the punishment 
inflicted on the Americans for the destruction of the East India Company's 
tea ; it prohibited all commerce, export or import, with Boston and Charles 
town, and brought disaster and distress upon both cities, the ferries even 
being included in the embargo. All business was suspended, and the 
sufferings of both rich and poor were great. Neighboring towns came to 
their relief with food and fuel ; committees were appointed to devise reme- 
dies, and arrangements made to quarter the most needy families upon other 
towns of the State. 

The friction between the colonies and the home government had grown 
steadily for ten years, and a frowning fleet and formidable army, sent to 
enforce various odious enactments, increased to the utmost the spirit of 
resistance. 

The Americans for a long time had been actively preparing for a 
struggle they believed imminent, and quietly collecting arms, accoutrements, 
ammunition and stores. 

In this way it occurred that the powder of several towns was stored in 
the powder house on Quarry Hill ; fearing for its safety, in the summer of 
1774, some of the towns began removing it. This powder and also that 
belonging to the Province, as well as other military stores, were in the 
custody of Maj. Gen. William Brattle, of Cambridge, and to him General 
Gage wrote, in August, asking a return or schedule of "the different sorts 
of each." Brattle in his reply of August 29, speaking of powder, says that 
that in the arsenal at Quarry Hill, was " the King's powder only." Medford 
had just taken the last belonging to any of the towns. 

( >n August 31, Sheriff Phipps called upon Brattle, with orders for the 
remaining powder and for two cannon at Cambridge; in compliance Brattle 



46 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AXD PRESEXT. 

delivered up the key of the powder house, and ordered Mr. Mason, who 
was in charge of the cannon, to deliver them also. 

On the next day, September i, 1774, occurred the first hostile demon- 
stration of the Revolution ; by a miracle, almost, it ended without bloodshed. 
It is described in the news of the day as follows : - 

" On Thursday Morning [ Sept. i ], half after four, about 260 Troops 
embarked on board 13 Boats at the Long Wharf, and proceeded up Mystic 
River to Temple's Farm, where they landed, and went to the Powder- 
House on Quarry Hill, in Charlestown Bounds, whence they took 212 Half 
Barrels of Powder, the whole store there, and conveyed it to Castle 
\Yilliam." ..." A detachment from this corps went to Cambridge and 
brought off two field pieces, which had lately been sent there for Col. 
Brattle's regiment." 

Another account says that "250" half-barrels of powder were taken. 

These troops were under the command of Lt. Col. Madison, and in 
Boston it was believed that they had gone out to capture the Committee of 
Conference at Salem, who were promptly notified ; but when their actual 
destination was discovered, the alarm spread like wild-fire throughout the 
country, to the north, west and south, even to Pennsylvania. 

Before night there was a general uprising of the militia of the State, 
and the next day, along the roads in all directions, were squads of men 
marching towards Cambridge, ready to repel the invaders. 

As was natural, the news of the raid was heightened by sensational 
accounts of fighting and bloodshed. Boston had been bombarded by the 
Meet, and Americans killed and wounded. 

It was estimated that fifty thousand " well armed " men had responded 
to this alarm : "the whole country was in arms " ; they came not only from 
Middlesex and the adjacent counties, but from the western parts of the 
State, and even from Connecticut. 

They poured into Cambridge, and assembled by thousands on the 
Common. It was an orderly throng, but determined. The Crown officers 
were alarmed ; Judge Danforth and Judge Lee addressed the assemblage, 
and both expressing regret at having accepted appointments under acts so 
obnoxious to their fellow citizens, then and there resigned their offices, and 
promised never again to accept any position in conflict with the charter 
rights of the people. 

Phipps, the high sheriff, appeared also ; he was aggrieved at the feel- 
ings of the people towards him for his action in delivering up their powder, 
but in view of the fact that he acted under orders from his commander in 
chief, his offense was condoned. 

Lieut.-Governor Thomas Oliver lived then in the mansion which since 
was the home of the poet Lowell. Several thousand people, militia and 
" lookers on," appeared before his house. Previously he had parleyed and 
hesitated, fearing His Majesty's displeasure if he should resign, as requested 
to do, but intimating that he might do so if the whole province desired it ; 
but now, seeing the determined spirit of the people, and the uselessness of 







FRANCIS TUFTS. 




NATHAN A. FITCH. 



SOMERVTLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 49 

further refusal, lie signed his resignation as Lieutenant-Governor and 
President of the Council. 

Meanwhile Brattle, who by his prominence in this affair had brought 
upon himself the indignation of the inhabitants, fled to Boston, and 
sought refuge in the fold of General Gage, whence he wrote a woeful story 
of his wrongs and banishment, claiming to be a friend of his country, 
acting for its true interest, yet expressing himself sorry for what had oc- 
curred. 

Meantime the wild rumors afloat had been contradicted, and the people 
returned again to their homes and employments, and all seemed as tranquil 
as before. 

This great uprising was the rumble of the approaching storm, and 
warning of the coming tempest. 

PAUL REVERE'S RIDE. 

The English Parliament and press during the winter of 1774-5 dis- 
cussed vigorously the dispute with the Colonists ; among each were friends 
to America ; but the Ministerial party were in the majority, and, urged on 
by the King and Lords, endeavored to enforce the most arbitrary measures, 
among which were further restrictions on trade and the act forbidding 
importation into the colonies of arms and munitions of war. 

This last act caused much alarm, and the Americans took immediate 
steps to secrete and protect the military supplies already accumulated. 

These were distributed among various towns, one of which was Con- 
cord. Gage learned this, and determined on their capture, divining which, 
the patriots took precautions to prevent. A company of thirty men 
arranged with each other to watch "two and two" the movements of the 
British ; among these were William Dawes and Paul Revere. Several days 
previous to April 19, the unusual activity of the troops and fleet announced 
to the Americans that some important movement by the enemy was 
contemplated. 

John Hancock and Samuel Adams, who were in Lexington, were 
cautioned that Gage intended their capture. About this time the wife of a 
British soldier carelessly divulged the order for the expedition to a lady 
who employed her, who promptly gave the patriots warning. William 
Dawes was immediately sent by way of Roxbury and Paul Revere by way 
of Charlestown, to alarm the inhabitants. Revere crossed Charles River 
past the frigate Somerset just before orders were received to stop all 
boats, and taking horse on the Charlestown shore, rode with all speed over 
the Neck and up Washington Street, to near the present Cresent Street; 
here he saw two horsemen standing in the road a short distance away : 
perceiving that they were British officers, he wheeled and galloped back to 
the Neck, and around into Broadway, pursued by one of the horsemen ; the 
other endeavored to head him off by crossing the fields, but fell into a 
clay pit, thus enabling Revere to escape. He rode over Winter Hill and 
Main Street, to and through Medford and Arlington, to Lexington and 



50 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

beyond, where he was captured ; not, however, until he had thoroughly 
alarmed the country. At the junction of Broadway and Main Street stands 
a granite tablet commemorating this historic ride. 

BATTLE OF LEXINGTON. 

At about ten o'clock on the night of April 18, 1775, Lieutenant Colonel 
Smith of the Tenth British, with eight hundred men, marched quietly to the 
foot of Boston Common, and crossed Back Bay in boats to Lechmere Point, 
now East Cambridge, landing not very far east of the present Court House ; 
the troops, avoiding the roads and highlands for fear of discovery, skirted 
the marshes ; and the tide being up, or rising, and East Cambridge then an 
island at high water, they were obliged to wade " thigh deep " in crossing 
to Somerville, where, striking a byway, they emerged upon Washington 
Street, probably at or near Prospect Street ; thence their march was through 
Washington Street, Union Square, Bow Street, Somerville Avenue and Elm 
Street, and thence to Concord. 

In those days, an old house, owned or occupied by a widow Smith, 
stood on the east side of the present Wesley Park ; here the troops halted 
and quenched^ their thirst at the well, and were seen by the frightened occu- 
pants of the house. 

Next they passed the residence of Samuel Tufts (now Mr. Blaisdell's), 
who was in the kitchen at the time, moulding bullets ; thence on past 
Thomas Rand's house ; Mrs. Rand, who had not yet retired, saw the 
threatening platoons, and after they had gone by sent her son to alarm the 
neighbors. Then they came to Timothy Tufts' house on Elm Street, near 
Beach, stopping there again for water. Mr. Tufts' dog woke the echoes of 
the night, and also the family with his vehement protests. Peering out, they 
saw the hostile columns and Hash of the bayonets in the moonlight, and 
then saw the soldiers turn into Beach Street and disappear, as they con- 
tinued their silent march. 

Their encounters at Lexington Common and at Concord Bridge, and 
their disastrous retreat, reinforced and perhaps saved from capture by Lord 
Percy, yet still flying, harassed and relentlessly pursued by the Americans, 
have become notable events in the world's history. Like a rabble rout they 
came down Arlington Avenue into Cambridge and Somerville. The Ameri- 
cans supposed they would retreat as Percy came, through old Cambridge, 
Brighton, and Roxbury : but a confused throng, they turned through Beach 
Street into Elm. At the westerly corner of these streets was a grove, where 
minute men were secreted, who gave the troops a galling fire. The British 
who fell here were buried in Mr. Tufts' land, just inside the wall. 

Percy, who at every available point had endeavored to check the pur- 
suit with his artillery, again opened fire with his cannon, from the northerly 
slope of Spring Hill, on the pursuing minute men, but with little avail ; his 
troops continued their retreat down Elm Street and Somerville Avenue, one 
man being killed near Central Street, at which point a volley was fired into 
Mr. Rand's house, and near Walnut Street another soldier fell. Down 




ALBERT L. DODGE. 




DAVID CUMMINGS. 



SOMEJtl'/LLE, PAST .LVD JWESENT. 53 

Washington Street they went, skirting the foot of Prospect Hill, where oc- 
curred some of the hottest fighting of the day. 

It was now evening, and the Hashes of musketry, which were plainly 
seen in Boston, told vividly the story of their retreat and disaster. 

Throughout the retreat, wherever possible, flanking parties of British 
had been sent out to drive off the minute men. 

The only Somerville citizen who fell on this day was shot by the flank 
guards. He was James Miller, an old man and patriot. 

He with others were on the slope of Prospect Hill, firing on the British 
in the street below, when the flankers surprised them ; the rest fled, but 
Miller, still firing, stood at his post, and when called upon to fly made the 
memorable answer, " I am too old to run." 

( >n the north side of Washington Street, nearly opposite Mystic Street, 
is the house then owned by Samuel Shed; a British soldier entered it, and 
while rummaging a bureau, was shot, falling dead over the drawer ; this 
bureau, or "high boy," as it was called, with its bullet holes, is now in pos- 
session of the descendants of Nathan Tufts. 

The British flight and pursuit continued until they had crossed the 
Neck into Charlestown, which they did just as Colonel Pickering, with seven 
hundred Essex minute men. came hurrying over Winter Hill, to intercept 
them. Had he arrived a little earlier the entire force would have been 
captured. 

During the battle, General William Heath assumed command ; after the 
Americans had ceased further pursuit, he " assembled the officers around 
him, at the foot of Prospect Hill, and ordered a guard to be formed and 
posted near that place." This was the first guard mountingof the Revolution. 
Sentinels and patrols were also posted near the Neck, to give warning of the 
enemy's movements. The minute men were ordered to Cambridge, where 
all night they lay on their arms. 

The battle of the nineteenth of April began at Lexington, and ended 
in Somerville, and in its glory Somerville is entitled to share. 

BATTLE OF BUNKER HILL. 

On April 20, General Artemas Ward, the senior in date of commission, 
took command of the American forces, with headquarters at Cambridge, 
whence, under the resolve of the Provincial Congress for the enlistment of 
thirty thousand men, the militia from all directions began to march. 

Within a short time there were fifteen thousand troops, or more, in the 
American camp, among them many from New Hampshire, Rhode Island, 
and Connecticut. 

Early in May, a report was made to the Committee of Safety, recom- 
mending the immediate fortifying of Prospect Hill and vicinity, and of 
Bunker Hill : and probably not long after, earthworks were thrown up near 
Union Square, commanding the Charlestown road (Washington Street). 
Troops meanwhile were posted both in Roxbury and Somerville, to repel 
any attempt that might be made by the enemy to march out of Boston. 



54 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Roxbury Neck had been fortified the previous winter by the British, and 
now bristled with thirty cannon or more, but Charlestown was still neutral 
ground, Gage probably fearing to divide his forces by its occupation. 

The measure suggested in May for fortifying Bunker Hill was not 
finally decided on until June 15, when rumors became prevalent that the 
British were again planning to march out into the country. 

On the 1 6th, General Ward ordered Col. William Prescott, with three 
Massachusetts regiments, and a batallion of Connecticut troops, about a 
thousand or twelve hundred in all, to proceed that night to Charlestown 
and seize and fortify Bunker Hill. The troops were paraded on Cambridge 
Common, and after a prayer by Dr. Langdon, President of Harvard College, 
at about nine o'clock in the evening, commenced their march towards 
Bunker Hill, passing through Somerville, by way of Washington Street and 
Union Square, clown to and across the Neck. Colonel Prescott, with two 
sergeants carrying dark lanterns, led the way. 

General Israel Putnam and Colonel Richard Gridley, the engineer of 
the army, accompanied the expedition, and following after were wagons 
with intrenching tools. Their destination was kept a profound secret from 
the troops until after crossing the Neck. 

Prescott had been ordered to fortify Bunker Hill, but it was soon 
discovered that Breed's Hill was a superior military position, and after 
consultation, and some loss of time, it was determined to fortify that in 
place of Bunker. 

Col. Gridley immediately laid out the works, which, rising as if by magic, 
confronted and challenged the British fleet and army at sunrise. 

The details of the battle on Bunker Hill are familiar to all, and only 
such events connected with it as occurred in .Somerville need be related. 

For some time previous to the lyth, Colonel John Patterson's regiment 
of Berkshire men had been stationed at the redoubt near the foot of Pros- 
pect Hill, where they probably remained throughout the day, having been, 
with Ward's regiment and part of Bridge's, held back as a reserve. All 
other Massachusetts troops, and those of New Hampshire and Connecticut, 
were ordered to the front. A great part of them never arrived there, the 
furious cannonading from the fleet across the Neck, and into East Somer- 
ville, rendering any attempt to reach the peninsula perilous. Yet it was 
over this Neck, and through this storm of shot and shell, that the terror- 
stricken people fled into Somerville from their burning homes in Charles- 
town. 

Early in the fight. Major Gridley, son of the engineer, was ordered with 
his company of artillery to reinforce Prescott ; he was a young man with 
but little military experience, and instead of obeying orders, he took a 
position, with a portion of his force, on Cobble, now Asylum Hill ; the rest 
of his company marched on to the scene of action. Col. Mansfield's regi- 
ment passing forward at this time with orders to the front, was directed by 
Gridley to support his battery, which disobeyed previous instructions. 
Mansfield did so, and also took a position on Cobble Hill. From this hill 




FREDERICK G. SMITH, M. D. 




DANIEL D. DUNKLEE. 



v' /'//.A/-;, PAST AND PRESENT. 57 

Gridley opened a feeble and ineffectual fire from his light guns upon the 
British ships which lay in the bay east of the hill. 

I Hsobedience, or misunderstanding of orders, seemed to be a common 
occurrence. Colonel Scammon's regiment had also been ordered to the 
field of battle, which he curiously interpreted to mean Lechmere Point, now 
East Cambridge, and thither went. From there, however, he soon crossed 
to Cobble Hill and reinforced Gridley, and later on marched as far as 
Hunker Hill, but too late to be of service. Colonel Gerrish's regiment, also 
under orders to reinforce Prescott, found lodgment on Ploughed, now 
Convent Hill; part of the regiment later were led into action by a brave 
officer, named Febiger, and did valiant service. 

Gridley, Mansfield, Scammons, and Gerrish, were each court-martialed. 
Gridley, Mansfield and Gerrish were cashiered, and Scammons acquitted ; 
Gridley on account of his youth not being deprived of the right to hold 
future commission in the Continental Army. 

Somerville beheld vivid scenes of war that day : incessant marching of 
troops towards the front, over Washington Street to Broadway; citizens 
fleeing here from their burning town ; officers galloping to and fro between 
the battlefield and Cambridge ; artillery bombarding the fleet from Asylum 
Hill; shot and shell from the frigates mercilessly raking the easterly part 
of the town ; fugitives and wounded soldiers, on litters or the shoulders of 
their comrades, hurrying to places of safety ; and finally the retreating army, 
who, victorous in defeat, planted themselves on Prospect and Winter Hills, 
expecting and read}' for a renewal of the battle. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE SIEGE of BOSTON. INTRF.NCHMENTS MADE. EXCHANGE OF PRISONERS. BATTLE 
OF HOG ISLAND. GAGE'S PROCLAMATION OF AMNESTY. --FORTIFICATIONS ON 
PROSPECT AND WINTER HILLS. ARRIVAL OF GENERALS WASHINGTON, PUTNAM 
AND LEE. DECLARATION OF THE CONTINENTAL CONGRESS. DESCRIPTION OF THE 
PATRIOTS' CAMPS. SUFFERINGS OF THE PEOPLE AND TROOPS. FIRST UNFURLING 
OF THE NEW FLAG OF THE UNITED COLONIES. SEIZURE OF DORCHESTER HEIGHTS. 
EVACUATION OF BOSTON BY THE BRITISH. 

THE investment of Boston began on the night of the battle of Lexing- 
ton, when General Heath posted the guard at the foot of Prospect Hill. 

Speaking of that battle a British officer says, " About seven o'clock in 
the evening we arrived at Charlestown." . . . "The rebels shut up the 
Neck and placed sentinels there." ..." So that in the course of two days 
we were reduced to the disagreeable necessity of living on salt provisions, 
and fairly blocked up in Boston." 

The posting of troops in Somerville and Roxbury shortly afterwards, 
to check any attempt of the enemy to again leave Boston, and the building 
of fortifications near Union Square and the Cambridge line, the first works 



58 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

thrown up by the Americans in this war, convinced the British that a siege 
was actually begun. 

In the latter part of May General Burgoyne arrived in Boston, and 
writing to a friend in England, says, speaking of the town, that it is 
" invested by a rabble in arms, who, flushed with success and insolence, 
had advanced their sentries to pistol shot of our outguards ; the ships in 
the harbor exposed to, and expecting a cannonade or bombardment.'' 

The incidents of this siege crowded one upon another in quick succes- 
sion, and we can more readily chronicle them by noting each in the order 
of its occurrence. The earlier operations of the siege were probably 
desultory, and dictated by circumstances. 

In the interim between the battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill, 
many events of interest took place. 

On April 20 the Americans held their first council of war, at which 
were Generals Ward, Heath and Whitcomb, with many other Massachu- 
setts officers, some of whom figured prominently in the battle of June 17, 
notably Colonel \Yilliam Prescott. Communication between the people of 
Boston and those outside was immediately cut off by Gage, who expressed 
fears to the Selectmen that the Americans would attack the town, and might 
be aided by its citizens, which would cause serious results ; accordingly, 
on April 22, a town meeting was held, resulting in an agreement allowing 
all women and children who desired, to leave " with all their effects " : and 
" their men also," by solemnly engaging not to "take up arms against the 
King's troops, " "should an attack be made "; a further condition being 
that all firearms and ammunition be delivered up. This was reciprocated 
by the Provincial Congress, who gave to all outsiders who might wish, per- 
mission to enter Boston on similar terms ; and officers were stationed at the 
" Sun Tavern " at Charlestown Neck, and also in Roxbury, to issue passes 
therefor. I'nder this arrangement nearly thirty-five hundred weapons 
were taken by the British, and never returned. For a while Gage kept 
the agreement in good faith, but later, at the instance of Tory advisers, he 
threw many obstacles in the way of those leaving, such as searching goods, 
separating families, etc., and finally forbade their leaving the town. 

The battle of Lexington was fought by men from Eastern Massachu- 
setts, but immediate!}' thereafter troops from other sections and States 
began to arrive, notably from New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Connec- 
ticut, and later on from Pennsylvania and Virginia. 

In May fatigue parties were sent out and intrenchments were com- 
menced in Cambridge and Somerville. ( >n the 2;th and 2Sth the battle of 
Hog Island occurred, brought on by a detachment sent from this camp to 
capture live stock on Hog and Noddle's islands (the latter now East Boston) ; 
while doing this they were attacked by the King's troops and ships, but 
escaped to the main land during the night ; re-inforced by infantry and 
artillery, they resumed the conflict the next day, and succeeded in blowing 
up one of the British schooners and disabling a sloop ; the trophies of this 
engagement were twelve cannon, more than three hundred head of horses, 




WILLIAM E. WELD. 




FRANCIS M. HOWES. 



SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AXD 



6l 



cows and sheep, and a large quantity of hay ; with the re-inforcements came 
Generals Putnam and Warren, the latter serving as volunteer ; our loss was 
light in this engagement, but the enemy's was said to be heavy. 

( )n June 6 the first exchange of prisoners took place ; through Somer- 
ville the procession passed, Generals Putnam and Warren riding in a 
phaeton, accompanied by three captive English officers in a chaise, and by 
wounded prisoners in carts, all under military escort. At the ferry they met 
Gage's officers, with whom came the American captives. The exchange 
was soon over, the whole affair being " conducted with the utmost decency 
and good humor." 




TUFTS' HOUSE, HEADQUARTERS OF GENERAL LEE. 



On June 12 Gage issued his notorious proclamation of amnesty to all 
except Hancock and Adams, which offer the Americans answered five days 
later at Breed's Hill. 

This engagement was the one great battle of the noted siege, and the 
only one where the two armies met in force. For nine months thereafter it 
was one continuous artillery duel, accompanied with sharpshooting and 
skirmishing. 

A curious rumor was circulated after this battle, that the British pur- 
suit had been continued to Winter Hill, where the Americans had again 
repulsed the British with great slaughter. It was only a rumor, however. 

After falling back to Winter and Prospect Hills, on June 17, the pro- 
vincial troops immediately commenced fortifying those eminences ; the 



62 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

works on Prospect Hill were built under the direction of that wolf-renowned 
hero, Putnam. ( )n this hill the men were subjected to a heavy artillery fire 
from the British, who thus attempted to dislodge them ; with no result, 
however, except to inure the provincials to the howling of shot and shell. 

Meanwhile the New Hampshire men under General Folsom were forti- 
fying Winter Hill. 

During the month of June smallpox broke out and became epidemic, 
causing great distress to the besiegers, and the people of the towns where 
they were quartered. 

( >n (uly 2, there arrived in camp General Washington, recently ap- 
pointed Commander-in-Chief, accompanied by General Charles Lee, second 
in command, and Horatio Gates, Adjutant General of the Army. Both 
Gates and Lee had been officers in the British service, but had now 
espoused the cause of the Americans. 

Lee was an eccentric military genius ; he was looked upon by many of 
the wisest patriots as scarcely inferior to Washington in loyalty or capacity ; 
he had a great reputation as a soldier, having been in service since boy- 
hood. He was an officer at the age of eleven, and had served in the British, 
Portuguese, and Polish armies, in the latter acting as aid-de-camp to the 
king; and now he had placed his sword at the service of America, and for 
a long time seemed its most devoted champion, but later his inordinate 
ambition brought disagreement with Washington ; and, after several un- 
pleasant episodes, he was court-martialed and suspended for one year. 
Within a few years, documents have come to light tending to show that 
Lee, toward the last of his service, played a double part ; but while here, he 
was a " tower of strength '' to the army, and, as commander of the most of 
that portion of it in Somerville, his career has more than usual interest to 
us. 

All the State organizations on July 4 were taken into the service and 
pay of the UJnited Colonies, and re-organized, and on July 22 were formed 
into three divisions, viz : - 

The left wing was composed of two brigades, one at Winter Hill under 
General Sullivan, the other at Prospect Hill under General Greene. The 
center, two brigades, one commanded by Heath, the other by its senior of- 
ficer ; and the right also two, one under Thomas, the other under Spencer. 

The left held the line from Mystic River to Prospect Hill ; the center, 
from Prospect Hill to Charles River ; the right, from Charles River to 
Roxbury Neck. The entire left wing, and perhaps half of the center, were 
within Somerville limits, and her hills were crowned with the strongest and 
most elaborate works of the whole line : the redoubt on Ten Hills Farm ; 
the "Winter Hill Fort"; the "French Redoubt," on Central Hill; the 
" Citadel," on Prospect Hill ; the strong intrenchments on Ploughed Hill, 
which commanded the Neck, and defied the British on Bunker Hill ; Fort 
Number Three," near Union Square; and "Putnam's Impregnable For- 
tress," on Cobble Hill ; each must have reminded Gage of the similar work 
he had captured at so great a sacrifice, on June 17, and brought to his mind 




HENRY M. MOORE. 




CALEB L. SANBORN. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND r 



the question asked in England, viz, " If it cost a thousand men to take 
Hunker Hill, how many will it cost to capture all the hills in America ? " 

On July 6, 1775, the Continental Congress issued a declaration setting 
forth the grievances of the Provinces, and reasons for taking arms ; on the 
1 5th this was read at Cambridge, and on the iSth, to the army on Prospect 
Hill, and was received with patriotic enthusiasm. A prayer was offered by 
the Reverend Mr. Langdon, cannon were fired, and the Connecticut flag, 
recently received by Putnam, unfurled. On one side it bore the motto. 
' An Appeal to Heaven," and on the other, " Qui transtulet sustinet." 




HEADQUARTERS OF GENERAL GREENE. 

The American riflemen seriously annoyed the English, and cost them 
many lives. Most of these were sharpshooters from Virginia and Pennsyl- 
vania, and, having been accustomed to the rifle from childhood, were all 
skillful marksmen. The American soldiers were aggressive, and made fre- 
quent and often successful attempts to surprise the enemy's pickets, burn 
their buildings, or capture their stores, and the British in their turn occa- 
sionally ventured outside their lines on similar errands, but usually with 
less success. 

Some of the diarists of that time have left us interesting pictures of 
camp and conflict ; one, the Reverend William Emerson, father of Ralph 
Waldo, who was chaplain in the army, says : " My quarters are at the foot of 
the famous Prospect Hill, where such great preparations are made for the 



66 SOMERVILLE, PAST .IA7J PRESENT. 

reception of the enemy. It is very diverting to walk among the camps " ; 
" some are made of boards, and some of sail-cloth, some partly of one and 
partly of the other. Again, others are made of stone and turf, brick or 
brush," "others curiously wrought with doors and windows, done with 
wreaths and withes, in the manner of a basket.'' 

Another, in September, speaks of the success, so far, of the British. 
" liritain, at the expense of three millions, has killed one hundred and fifty 
Yankees in this campaign, which is twenty thousand pounds a head ; and 
on Bunker Hill she gained a mile of ground, half of which she has since 
lost by not having post on Ploughed Hill": and adds that, "as meanwhile 
sixty thousand children have been born in America," one can " easily calcu- 
late the time and expense requisite to kill us all, and conquer our whole 
territory." 

In August, there were under Washington's command about forty regi- 
ments, or something less than twenty thousand men, poorly supplied, and 
with so little ammunition that the firing from our lines from necessity 
nearly ceased. This scarcity of powder caused great alarm among the Amer- 
ican officers, as the English appeared to be preparing for an attack. Re- 
garding it, Colonel Reed wrote, '' The word 'powder ' sets us all on tiptoe : 
we are in a terrible situation, occasioned by a mistake in a return. We 
reckoned upon three hundred quarter casks, and had but thirty-two barrels." 

Early in the month of .September about eight hundred men were de- 
tached from the army to join General Arnold's unfortunate Quebec expedi- 
tion, a large part being from Prospect Hill, mostly riflemen. 

In October, Gage having returned to England, General Howe assumed 
command, and soon issued a proclamation prohibiting anyone from leaving 
Boston unless by his permission, on pain of execution as a traitor. They were 
also forbidden to carry out more than five pounds in specie, the penalty be- 
ing forfeiture, fine and imprisonment. These measures compelled Wash- 
ington to issue orders of retaliation upon the Tories. 

At this time, and afterwards, the people and troops in Boston are said 
to have suffered severely from want, increased greatly by the loss of ships 
laden with provisions and stores, captured by our privateers. They were 
" almost in a state of starvation, for the want of food and fuel," and "being 
totally destitute of vegetables, flour and fresh provisions, had actually been 
obliged to feed on horse flesh." On the 9th of November, a force of four 
hundred British crossed in boats to Lechmere Point, intending to capture 
the stock there, but, the alarm being given, the Americans waded across to 
meet them, a skirmish ensued in which the English ships took part, but 
which resulted, as usual, in the retirement of his majesty's troops. 

( )n the night of the 220!, General Putnam took possession of Cobble 
Hill, and commenced fortifying. The work was skillfully planned and very 
strong, and contrary to expectation, completed without molestation from 
the enemy. 

In December, Lechmere Point was also fortified, but the work on this 
hill was thrown up under a continuous fire of shot and grape from the 




CHARLES WILLIAMS, JR. 




ARTHUR E. MERRILL, M.D. 



SOMERl'lLLE. 1'AST AND PRESENT. 69 

British, which lasted several days. In this action the fort on Cobble Hill 
took part with good effect, forcing an English ship to retire from the fight. 

On December 28, an endeavor was made by a detachment from Winter 
Hill to capture the enemy's pickets near the Xeck. They attempted to 
cross on the ice just south of Cobble Hill ; but one of the men, slipping, fell 
and discharged his musket, thereby alarming the British, and the expedition 
was abandoned. 

The new year brought much uneasiness to the patriot army ; veteran 
troops, whose time had expired, were returning home "by thousands," and 
new ones replacing them. This change w r as a difficult and dangerous one to 
make in presence of an enemy, but Washington accomplished it without mo- 
lestation ; and says of it that "it is not in the pages of history, perhaps, to 
furnish a case " like it. 

From Prospect Hill, on January i, 1776, the new flag of the United 
Colonies was unfurled to the breeze, and for the first time bid defiance to 
the foe; it had thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; but the field con- 
tained, instead of stars, as now, the crosses of Saint George and Saint 
Andrew. A year and a half later, stars took the place of crosses. A tablet 
has been erected on the hill in memory of this flag-raising. 

In February Colonel Knox arrived with the captured Ticonderoga can- 
non and stores, some fifty pieces of artillery in all. These increased im- 
mensely the offensive strength of the Americans, and a little later enabled 
them to carry into execution that daring feat, the seizing and fortifying of 
Dorchester Heights. This successful movement so seriously threatened the 
British army and shipping, that after various threatening manoeuvres, on 
Sunday, March 17, they embarked and left Boston forever. In their hasty 
departure they left the Americans over one hundred cannon, and an im- 
mense quantity of military stores. 

The roar of cannon and mortars and the bursting of shells had shaken 
Boston and the surrounding towns, resounding through the valleys, and re- 
verberating among the hills, for nine weary months ; and now the people 
hailed with rejoicing its cessation, and the departure of the British army of 
occupation. Thus ended the siege, which in its inception, execution and 
triumph was to the Americans one of the most successful achievements of 
the war. But the news in England that her famed legions, supported by 
her renowned navy, could be shut up for eleven months in a beleaguered 
city, and finally driven to sea by a "rabble" they despised, but feared to 
meet, was a cause of national mortification. 



70 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



CHAPTER VI. 

DESIGNED ISOLATION OF NEW ENGLAND. SURRENDER OF BURGOYNE. HESSIAN 
PRISONERS (QUARTERED IN SOMERYILLE. BALI, AND SUPPER GIYEN BY GENERAL 
RIEDESEL'S WIFE. POOR BARRACKS FOR THE PRISONERS. SCARCITY OF FUEL. 
REMOVAL OF THE PRISONERS. 

THE obstinate resistance of the people of Boston and of New England, 
and the disastrous results of every attempt at their subjugation, caused the 
English ministry to look upon that section as the center of insurrection, 
and early in 1777 they planned a campaign designed to sever New England 
from the rest of the colonies. 

The lines of the Hudson River and Lake Champlain were to be oc- 
cupied by armies from Canada, under Burgoyne, and from New York, 
under Howe. 

These lines were to be strongly fortified, and with the co-operation of 
the fleet, it was believed this would effectually hem in the refractory section 
and enable the King's forces to operate elsewhere with greater ease. 

The conception was brilliant, but its execution was a failure, and thus 
fresh laurels were added to the American arms. 

After a series of successes and failures, Burgoyne surrendered to Gen- 
eral Gates at Saratoga, on the i7th of October, 1777. Over nine hundred 
officers and forty-eight hundred soldiers fell into the hands of the Ameri- 
cans, together with thirty-five cannon and about five thousand stand of 
arms. 

Burgoyne's army consisted of British, Hessians, Canadians, Tories and 
Indians. 

By the terms of surrender the Canadians were allowed to return 
home, and the English and Hessians were to have free passage to England, 
on condition of not serving again in this contest, Boston to be their point 
of embarkation. With this understanding they started on their weary jour- 
ney over the Green Mountains, and arrived at Somerville on November 7. 
The English, about twenty-three hundred, under General Philips, were 
marched to Prospect Hill and vicinity, and the Hessians, about nineteen 
hundred, under General Riedesel, to \Yinter Hill. 

A letter, describing the arrival of the prisoners, says : - 

" Last Thursday, which was a very stormy day, a large number of 
British troops came softly through the town, via Watertown to Prospect 
Hill. ( )n Friday we heard the Hessians were to make a procession in the 
same route/' 



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SOMERI'fLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 73 

They are described as being poor, dirty and emaciated ; with them 
came "great numbers of women, who seemed to be the beasts of burden, 
having bushel baskets on their backs, by which they were bent double ; the 
contents seemed to be pots and kettles, various sorts of furniture, children 
peeping through gridirons and other utensils." 

General Riedesel's family accompanied the expedition, and in her de- 
scription of this journey, Madame Riedesel says : - 

" As it was already very late in the season, and the weather raw, I had 
my calash covered with coarse linen, which, in turn, was varnished over 
with oil ; and in this manner we set out on our journey to Boston, which 
was very tedious, besides being attended with considerable hardship. I 
know not whether it was my carriage that attracted the curiosity of the peo- 
ple to it for certainly it had the appearance of a wagon in which they 
carry around rare animals but often I was obliged to halt, because the 
people insisted upon seeing the wife of the German general with her 
children. For fear that they would tear off the linen covering from the 
wagon in their eagerness to see me, I very often alighted, and by this 
means got away more quietly. However, I must say that the people were 
very friendly, and were particularly delighted at my being able to speak 
English, which was the language of their country." 

" At last we arrived at Boston ; and our troops were quartered in bar- 
racks not far from Winter Hill. We were billeted at the house of a coun- 
tryman, where we had only one room under the roof. 

" My women servants slept on the rloor, and our men servants in the 
entry. Some straw, which I placed under our beds, served us for a long 
time, as I had with me nothing more than my own field bed." 

In a short time the quarters of General Riedesel were changed from 
near Winter Hill, where his family had been very unpleasantly situated, to 
more pretentious ones at Cambridge, where most of the captive officers were, 
and where they lived comfortably, if not sumptuously. 

Mrs. Riedesel thus describes one of the entertainments given here : 

"On the 3d of June, 1778, I gave a ball and supper in celebration of 
the birthday of my husband. I had invited to it all the generals and 
officers." " We danced considerably, and our cook prepared us a magnifi- 
cent supper of more than eight covers. Moreover, our courtyard and garden 
were illuminated. As the birthday of the King of England came upon the 
following clay, which was the fourth, it was resolved that we would not 
separate until his health had been drank ; which was done with the most 
hearty attachment to his person and his interests. Never, I believe, has 
' God save the King ' been sung with more enthusiasm or more genuine good 
will." " As soon as the company separated, we perceived that the whole 
house was surrounded by Americans, who, having seen so many people go 
into the house, and having noticed, also, the illumination, suspected that 
we were planning a mutiny, and if the slightest disturbance had arisen, it 
would have cost us dear." 

General Heath, whom we remember at Lexington, was placed in com- 
mand of the prisoners, and of the Americans guarding them. 



74 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Meanwhile Congress decided to ignore the articles of surrender grant- 
ing free passage to England, and, as a result, Burgoyne and his troops were 
held as ordinary prisoners of war. This caused intense indignation among 
the captives, English and Hessians, as well as in England ; and with a man 
of less judgment than Heath in command, might have resulted seriously. 

As it was, the troops during their entire captivity were in a state bor- 
dering on revolt. 

Disputes and trouble between them and the Americans were of daily 
occurrence, and in several instances resulted in bloodshed. On one oc- 
casion a Hessian prisoner received a serious bayonet wound from a conti- 
nental soldier, and on another a British soldier a sword thrust from an 
American officer. 

The most serious event was the shooting of an English officer who was 
riding in a chaise with two ladies along the foot of Prospect Hill, but who 
failed to answer the challenge of the sentry. 

The act was stigmatized as murder by Burgoyne, and the prisoners 
were wild with exasperation. The sentry was tried by court-martial and 
acquitted. 

The officer was buried from Christ Church, old Cambridge. 

The British and Hessian soldiers, while in Somerville, were quartered 
in the old barracks left by the Americans after the siege of Boston, the pre- 
vious year, at which the prisoners made bitter and frequent complaints. A 
writer, speaking of them says : " These barracks had been erected for . . . 
use during the siege of Boston, and were of the lightest description. The 
wind whistled through the thin walls, the rain came through the roofs, the 
snow lay in drifts on the floor." 

General Riedesel says of them : " Indeed the greater number of the 
soldiers are so miserably lodged that they are unable to shelter themselves 
from cold and rain in this severe season of the year ; and in spite of the 
handsome promises and the fact that they are here fourteen days, and not- 
withstanding, also, my offer that the men would make the repairs themselves 
if the necessary materials were furnished, nothing has been provided for 
them yet. The soldiers, of whom twenty to twenty-four occupy the same 
barrack, are without light at night. Three of them sleep in the same bed. 
They receive, also, so little fuel that they can scarcely cook our rations, to 
say nothing of warming the cold rooms. In fact, they have not even con- 
sidered it worth while to establish a rule by which the officers and privates, 
according to their rank, may receive fuel." 

The scarcity of fuel during this winter of 1777-8 was so great that the 
guards as well as the prisoners suffered severely, and in their straits spared 
neither tree nor fence, which, however, furnished meagre warmth for so 
great a number, miserably sheltered. 

The prisoners remained here from November, 1777, until November, 
1778, when it was thought prudent to move them inland, and they were 
marched first to Rutland, Massachusetts, and then to Virginia. 

Thus ended the Revolutionary drama here. 



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SOMERV1LLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 77 



CHAPTER VII. 

REVIVAL OF INDUSTRIES AFTER THE REVOLUTION. BRICK-MAKING IN SOMERVII n . 
CELEBRATED FARMS. THE BLEACHERV. THE MIDDLESEX CANAL. COMPLETH>\ 
OF BRIDGES TO BOSTON. THE FIRST RAILROAD THROUGH SOMERVILLE. ESTABLISH- 
MENT OF THE MCLEAN ASYLUM. ROBBERY OF MAJOR BRAY. THE URSULINK 
CONVENT AND ITS DESTRUCTION. TOWN IMPROVEMENTS. ESTABLISHMENT OF 
SCHOOLS. BEGINNING OF A FIRE DEPARTMENT. SEPARATION OF SOMERVILLE FROM 
CHARLESTOWN. 

THE Revolution over, industries and public improvements absorbed the 
energies which for eight years had known little else than war, and from this 
time until its separation from Charlestown, Somerville's material progress 
was continuous, though perhaps slow. Many were the industries of her 
people during this period. Among the most notable were brick-making, 
farming and milk-raising. 

The brick-making business " held high carnival " here for years before 
and since the town was set off. The time, conditions and location, near a 
great city just beginning to change from wooden to brick constructions, were 
more than favorable. The town abounded not only with a superior quality 
of clay, but the best of sand, which were generally near one another. 
Wood had to be brought by team or canal. 

These clays bordered and underlay the marshes and scattered generously 
around the town, from the present Wyatt Park to the northerly slope of Winter 
Hill. The burning kilns, for years, smoked the days and illumined the 
nights. In one way or another a majority, perhaps, of the townspeople 
were interested in this prosperous Business. The sand industry was also 
great, and its excavations covered a considerable territory, which before 
was at a much higher elevation than now. 

Farming, and milk and stock raising were carried on extensively. The 
old road from Charlestown Neck through Union Square, Bow Street and 
Somerville Avenue into Elm Street, from the dairy farms bordering it, was 
called, until recently " Milk Row." Ten Hills, while Derby and Jaques 
were its proprietors, was noted as a stock farm. The best breed of horses, 
cattle and sheep, some being choice importations, gave it a world-wide repu- 
tation. Colonel Jaques was not only a horseman and huntsman, and a 
lover and raiser of fine stock, but the raising of choice poultry was among 
his pursuits. Some of the finest varieties in the country were imported by 
him. Another estate in the town was also noted : the farm of Joseph l!ar- 
rell, afterward the site of the McLean Asylum. Barrell was a man of leisure 
and fine tastes. He made horticulture a study, and his gardens contained 
the choicest varieties of fruits and flowers. 



7 8 SOMERl'/LLP:, PAST AND PRESENT. 

While many of the important industries which were started here in the 
early days of the century are now almost forgotten, one still flourishes 
after a life of seventy-five years : the bleachery on Somerville Avenue, incor- 
porated in 1821 as the Charlestown Bleachery. It has changed proprietor- 
ship and name several times since then, being known as the Milk Row 
Bleachery, the Somerviile Dyeing and Bleaching Company, and the Mid- 
dlesex Bleachery and Dye \Yorks. Its latest owners were Messrs. K. M. 
Gilmore and John Haigh, the latter recently deceased. The bleachery 
people form almost a community of their own, and the narrative of their 
three quarters of a century, if written, would be very entertaining. 

One other calling has had a long existence: stone quarrying. It began 
nearly or quite two hundred and fifty years ago, and still flourishes. 

Among other establishments in Somerville before its incorporation, 
were a pottery, grist mill, distillery, rope walks and spike works. 

Several public enterprises were inaugurated while the city was a part 
of Charlestown. The Middlesex Canal, incorporated in 1 792, was com- 
pleted in 1803, under the superintendence of that famous engineer, Loammi 
Baldwin. It extended from Charlestown to Chelmsford. lp to 1819 there 
had been one hundred assessments on its stockholders, and the enterprise 
had yielded little if any return to its proprietors, and had cost 51,164,200. 
\Yith its locks, bridges and creeping boats, it must have added much to the 
picturesqueness of the landscape. Like the stage coaches and baggage 
wagons of primitive days, it sulkily retreated on the approach of the rail- 
road, and became with them an antique curiosity. Its ruins are still dis- 
cernible in a few places within the city. 

An old stone which stood in Harvard Square until recently, bore the 
words "To Boston 8 miles." It was set there before Charlestown or Cam- 
bridge had any bridge connection with the metropolis, and indicated the 
distance to it by carriage. From Prospect Hill it was nearly ten miles to 
Boston by highway. Great was the rejoicing therefore when, in 1786, the 
bridge from Charlestown, and in 1793, that from Cambridge to Boston were 
completed, and the eight or ten weary miles became little more than two. 
In 1787 the Maiden bridge was built, and in 1809 the Craigie bridge from 
East Cambridge to Boston. 

About 1803, Metlford Turnpike, now Mystic Avenue, was laid out from 
Medford Centre to Charlestown Neck. Another early road was Middlesex 
Turnpike, now Beacon, and Hampshire Street, from North, now Massachu- 
setts Avenue, at North Cambridge, to Broadway in lower Cambridgeport. 
Both of these great thoroughfares were the direct result of the new bridges, 
to which they were the feeders of country travel. But it was the coming of 
the railroad that awoke the new era. The ill effects of its advent on the canal 
and the coach have been mentioned, but it brought a great and general in- 
crease of business and prosperity. 

The first railroad through Somerville was the Lowell, opened in 1835. 
Its building incurred much opposition from property owners along its route. 
In 1836 the Charlestown Branch was incorporated, it being at first what its 











FRANKLIN HENDERSON. 




LINDLEY J. STURTEVANT. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. Si 

name implies, a branch of the Lowell, running from a point a little north of 
the present Fitchburg, to the wharves in Charlestown, the headquarters of 
the ice traffic. It was shortly after extended to Fresh Pond, and, in 1*42. 
its franchise descended to a new company, the Fitchburg. The first pas- 
senger station in Somerville established on the Lowell road, was at its 
crossing with Washington Street ; and the first on the Fitchburg, at its 
crossing with Kent Street, just in the rear of the present Franklin School 
lot ; both are now gone. 

The Lowell, and the Charlestown Branch, were the only railroads exist- 
ing in Somerville previous to its incorporation. 

In 1816 the beautiful estate on Cobble Hill, or, as Barrell named it, 
" Pleasant Hill," was sold to the Massachusetts General Hospital, to be 
dedicated two years later as a retreat for the mentally afflicted, and such it 
has remained until recent days ; but it has now yielded its loveliness to 
traffic's iron rail and wheel. The asylum received its name from John 
McLean, its generous benefactor. Its first superintendent was Dr. Rufus 
Wyman, followed consecutively by Dr. Luther Y. Hell, one of Somerville's 
martyrs in the Civil War, Dr. Chauncy Booth, Dr. John E. Tyler, Dr. George 
F. Jelly, and last, Dr. Edward Cowles, its present superintendent. 

During the town's pre-incorporate period, two incidents of more than 
ordinary moment occurred : the robbery of Major Bray and the burning of 
the Ursuline Convent. 

The robbery of Major Bray took place on the night of August 13, iS2i, 
on Medford Turnpike, now Mystic Avenue, that reproach to city and 
county, and not far from Temple Street. Medford in those days held high 
place among the towns, as the residence of the Governor, that gallant old 
hero of Bunker Hill and other Revolutionary fields, Major John Brooks. 
His receptions were frequent, and his guests were gathered from Boston 
and surrounding towns. It was on one of these occasions that Major Bray, 
while returning to Boston, was waylaid by that recently imported artist of 
the highway, Mike Martin, alias "Captain Lightfoot," neither of which was 
his correct name. Martin had watched the Governor's house, and as the 
Major drove away, singled him out for his victim. Mounting his horse, 
Martin soon overtook Bray, who at the muzzles of Lightfoot's pistols de- 
livered up his watch and money. Mrs. Bray was in the carriage, but from 
her Martin, who was a chivalrous rogue, took nothing, gallantly remarking 
that he "never robbed ladies." He was captured not long after, tried and 
convicted, and was the first and last example under the law which made high- 
way robbery a capital crime. In his defense he strenuously asserted that 
the pistols which threatened Major Bray were empty and that Bray was un- 
necessarily alarmed. 

The Ursuline Convent on Mount Benedict was opened on July 17, 
1826, under the auspices of the " Ursuline Community." Its purpose was 
" the education of female youth," "to adorn their minds with useful knowl- 
edge and to form their hearts to virtue." The school was divided into a 
junior and a senior department ; in the former were taught the " common 



S2 SOMEK17LLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

branches of education," in the latter ancient and modern languages, 
sciences, music and art, including ornamental work and other accomplish- 
ments. Probably no other institution in New England offered such an ex- 
tensive range of studies. 

Although professedly sectarian, it was liberally patronized by young 
ladies of all creeds, the majority being Protestants ; for it was claimed that 
" the religious opinions of the children are not interfered with." The 
building was beautifully situated on heights commanding the landscape in 
all directions, and the grounds were ornamentally laid out with fine gar- 
dens, foliage and flowers. No event occurred to disturb the " even tenor ' 
of the school until 1*33, when the flight of one of its pupils, Miss Rebecca 
Reed, who had been converted from Protestantism, and the publication by 
her of a book, purporting to give an account of life there, and of alleged 
abuses, called public attention to the institution, and was largely instru- 
mental in creating a feeling of antagonism against it, especially in the 
minds of those who were prone to strong religious prejudices. 

On the night of the 28th of July the next year (1834), a second incident 
occurred which increased intensely this feeling. It was the escape of a 
nun, Sister " Mary John," as she was called. She is said to have been suf- 
fering at the time with a fit of " mental derangement." She was sought for 
by the bishop, but at first refused to return. The next clay, however, hav- 
ing somewhat recovered, she evidently reconsidered her previous refusal, 
and was taken back to the convent. 

From this occurrence sprang various rumors in the press and on the 
streets, all of which were derogatory to the Ursuline Community, and 
tended to greatly increase the feeling against it. Threats of the destruction 
of the building were whispered around, and the excitement grew stronger 
and stronger as fresh rumors passed from mouth to mouth, until with the 
fatal August 11, 1834, came the storm which laid all in ruins. 

A full warning had been given the " Community " that the convent was 
to be destroyed on that day, and all indications pointed to the probable ex- 
ecution of the threat, yet only feeble efforts on the part of the town author- 
ities were taken to prevent it. In the early evening a mob of many 
hundred gathered outside the convent grounds, and after much noise and 
disturbance, the gates were forced, fences torn down, and the mob surged 
up to the building. When the lady superior saw the temper of the assail- 
ants, she is said to have endeavored to stay their work by threatening them 
with the retaliation from twenty thousand Irishmen. About this time two 
shots were fired by some one in the crowd, upon which the inmates 
abandoned the building and retired to the gardens. The doors were 
battered down, and the rioters, flushed with excitement, overran the build- 
ing, which was soon in flames. The fire engines were called out, but it is 
nowhere recorded that the firemen made any effectual attempt to quench 
the fire. It was even thought by some, though never proven, that they 
were in sympathy with the mob. The inmates, who were all females, 
sought refuge in the house of Mr. Adams, which is still standing, on Broad- 




WILLIAM A. BYAM. 




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SOMERl'/LLE, /'AST AA7> PRESENT. 85 

way, near Sargent Avenue, and the rioters, having finished their work of 
desolation, retired. It was feared that more rioting would follow, but the 
precautions now taken by the authorities averted further danger. 

Thirteen of those known to have participated in the attack were ar- 
rested and tried, but owing to conflicting evidence, or for some other rea- 
son, only one was found guilty, and it was strongly, and probably with 
truth, asserted, that he, a youth only, was the least guilty of all. Religious 
feeling ran very high in those days, it would seem, and there are also rea- 
sons for believing that pure religious sentiments might have been found as 
easily elsewhere as in the hearts of the men who, in the darkness of night, 
could attack a defenseless community of women and children, most of the 
latter being of their own religious faith. But in condemning a deed, which, 
looked at calmly to-day, sixty-two years after its occurrence, seems to us 
extremely brutal and unchristian, it may perhaps be well to remember that 
in all ages, great political and religious excitement have led men to the 
perpetration of acts which, in their calmer moments, they would have con- 
demned, which leads us to exclaim, nearly in the words of Madam Roland, 
"Oh, religion ! how many crimes in thy name are committed " ; and these 
words are applicable to no one creed alone. 

But few town improvements were made in Somerville while part of 
Charlestown. Its highways were neglected and its school facilities 
meagre. True, three important avenues were opened, viz. : Middlesex 
Turnpike, Medford Street and Medford Turnpike. But for these, being 
private enterprises, the town government deserved no credit. Five schools 
had been established, one grammar, and four primary, the buildings being 
one-story, cheap structures, and generally costing not over a thousand dol- 
lars, the land for which, in some cases, had been donated. 

In 1838 one fire engine had been generously given this section, the 
" Mystic, No. 6," it being the cast-off " Tub " of Company No. 6, of the penin- 
sula, which then became No. 7. A wooden structure was built for this on 
the site now occupied by the No. i Hose Company, at the corner of Wash- 
ington and Prospect Streets. The Mystic was a small machine, fed with 
buckets. Its company of thirty-five members included many, if not most 
of the prominent citizens of Somerville. 

Twenty years, and probably more, before our city was finally set off 
from Charlestown, the people of this section became dissatisfied with the 
way in which town affairs were conducted. Though contributing their full 
quota to the treasury, they felt that they received no equivalent return in 
public improvements. As the result, attempts were made at various times 
to divide Charlestown, by the inhabitants " outside the Neck," which pro- 
ject was strenuously opposed by the denizens of the peninsula, or, when 
favored by the latter, as on one occasion it was, objectionable conditions 
were imposed, which defeated the project. But at last the "outsiders" 
succeeded in obtaining the act of separation, approved by the Ciovernor, 
March 3, 1842. The act was hailed with delight, and duly celebrated with 
a supper at which were representative guests from surrounding towns, and 
with dancing and a salute of cannon. 



86 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

FROM SEPARATION TO THE REBELLION. 

TOWN BEGINNINGS. EXPENSES OF EARLY TOWN GOVERNMENT. HIGHWAYS DESCRIBED. 

GROWTH OF THE T< >\YN. SURVEY OF THE TOWN. RAILROADS AND THEIR EXTEN- 
SION. HORSE RAILROADS OPENED. INDUSTRIES OF EARLY SOMERVILI.E. FIRE 
DEPARTMENT AND ITS GROWTH. ORGANIZATION OF THE SOMERYILLE LIGHT INFANTRY. 

SCHOOLS AND THEIR DEVELOPMENT. CHURCHES. 

TOWN BEGINNINGS. 

ON March 5, two days after the approval by the Governor of the act of 
setting off, the inhabitants were notified to meet "at the Prospect Hill 
School House " on Medford Street, on the fourteenth day of March, for the 
choice of town officers, at which meeting the following were elected : Select- 
men, Nathan Tufts, John S. Edgerly, Caleb W. Leland, Luther Mitchell 
and Francis Bowman. Town Clerk, Charles E. Oilman. Treasurer and 
Collector, Edmund Tufts. The salaries paid during the first few years 
were many removes from munificent, and compared with the figures of the 
present day, seem extremely diminutive. 

SALARIES FOR 1842. 

Paid John C. Magoun for assessing taxes . . 5 15.00 

" Charles E. Oilman as Town Clerk .... 90.00 

" Edmund Tufts as Treasurer and Collector . . 130.00 

" Oliver Tufts for assessing taxes . 15.00 

Total salaries paid . . 5250.00 

The salaries of the same officials for 1843 were 2 7- The whole ex- 
pense of carrying on the Town Government from March 3. 1842, to March 
3, 1843, was as follows : 

Cash paid Benjamin Hadley's note 5 600.00 

" Interest on note . . . 16.00 

" Highways 2,076.57 

" Schools 1.287.96 

" Military Bounty . . . 45.00 

" Fire Department . . 2.50 

" Miscellaneous . . . I 54-'3 

" Salaries and Fees . . 300.00 

" Abatement of taxes . l 7 l -53 

" Taxes due 486.58 

" Cash on hand. . - . 511.81 

55,652.08 




> 











EDWIN A. SANBORN, M. D. 




FRANK A. WARE. 



PAST .1X1) PRESENT. 89 

The receipts of the town the first year were : - 

From Taxes $5,007.08 

Benj. Hadley's note .... . 600.00 

The State Military bounty . . 45.00 

Total . ... #5,652.08 

The town grew rapidly and the public expenses kept pace. By 1853. 
the cost of schools had increased to #9,150.51; highways to #3,953.17: 
fire department to $147.39, and salaries to $708.50; while #1,112.67 was 
spent for relief of the poor, the total expense for the year being #24,356.37, 
or four times the amount spent in 1X42. 

In 1860, the year previous to the war, the town's expenses had increased 
to #38,052.87, the schools costing #17,505.91, highways $6,989.39, fire de- 
partment #1,821.41, salaries #1.453.45, and the poor #1,660.81. The salaries 
this latter year were as follows: Town Clerk, #300.00; three Assessors, 
#400.00; Collector, #453.45 ; Treasurer, #300.00. 

HIGHWAYS. 

Somerville began her town career with a meagre equipment : a pound, a 
valueless fire engine, a few cheap schoolhouses, and some poor roads, 
completing the list of her possessions. 

Broadway and Washington Street were her oldest and principal high- 
ways. Milk Street (Somerville Avenue), from North Cambridge to Elm 
Street, was new ; from there to Bow Street it was part of the ancient 
"Charlestown Lane," thence to Union Square recent, and new from the 
Square to Medford Street, the different sections being laid out at various 
times. 

In earlier times, Bow and Elm Streets were also parts of " Charlestown 
Lane." Prospect, Beacon and Main Streets, and Mystic Avenue, were all in 
existence in 1842. Franklin and Cross Streets were open, but the remaining 
Rangeways were narrow, and probably steep or otherwise impassable, or 
entirely closed. Sycamore and Temple Streets were private lanes. The 
former ran from Barberry Lane to the old Lee Headquarters, the latter 
from Broadway to Colonel Jaques' mansion. Newton Street, from Prospect, 
southerly, was the narrow and antique Brick Yard Lane, running, as its 
name says, to brickyards. A part of it, however, was one of the pre-revolu- 
tionary ways from Charlestown to Cambridge. Medford Street was also 
open from Broadway to East Cambridge. Barberry Lane was the " Middle 
Way " of a century ago. It was one rod and a half wide, and began at Cross 
Street, opposite the Universalist Church ; thence it ran to Fosdick Square, 
which was where Medford Street and Highland Avenue now join, and 
thence to School Street, where the first section of it ended. 

The Lowell Railroad cut this lane in two. Avon Place from Cross Street 
to the railroad was a part of it, and Chester Avenue another part; the re- 
mainder of it was widened to forty feet, and became " Church Street," part 
of the Highland Avenue of to-day. The second section of Barberry Lane 



90 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

began at School Street about ten rods north of the first, and ran north- 
westerly to Central Street, where it ended ; it was long since abandoned. 

The growth of the town between 1842 and iS6i claimed the constantly 
increasing attention of the Selectmen to the improvement of the old, and 
the building of new streets. The Department of Highways during this pe- 
riod was carefully and economically managed ; streets were graded and 
macadamized, sidewalks built, gutters paved, street signs put up, etc. The 
fact that our soil was chiefly clay or clayey gravel, and our ledges mostly 
slate, both unsuitable material for heavy travel, rendered the task of good 
road making very difficult, so that notwithstanding their best efforts, our 
most traveled streets were at times beds of dust, or sloughs of mud. With 
a view to remedying this, a gravel bank was early purchased at Winchester, 
and gravel for our roads was brought over the railroad. 

In 1851, a careful survey of the town was made, and in 1852 a map 
published by Martin Draper, Jr., who at that time was principal of the 
Prospect Hill Grammar School. 

In 1859, the town voted to have a complete survey of its highways, 
which was begun shortly after, and finished in 1861. The survey embraced 
all the roadways then opened, public or private, and many prospective ones. 
It was carefully done, and granite posts were set to define and preserve the 
street lines. 

When the town was incorporated, it consisted chiefly of farms, brick- 
yards and marshes. Some lands in East Somerville had been lotted and 
put on the market, but little if any elsewhere. Soon, however, there was 
great activity in real estate, so that by 1855, land valued in 1842 at only 
fifty or one hundred dollars an acre, had advanced to two or three thousand 
dollars per acre, and some to ten thousand; and flourishing settlements 
began, not only in East Somerville, but near Union Square and on Pros- 
pect, Spring and Winter Hills, each a little village of itself. 

In 1842 the population was 1.013, in 1850, 3.524, and in 1860, 8,025 : the 
valuation also increased from $988,513 .in 1842, to $2,102,631 in 1850, and 
to $6,033,053 in 1860. 

In its first year the town taxes were 55,007.08, in 1850, 516,956.22,111 1855, 
527,701.46, and in 1860, 529,316.11 ; the tax rate per thousand being in 
1X42, $4.29; 1845, $3.60; 1850, $5.65; 1855,^6.40; 1860, $5.70. 

The prosperity of the town is perhaps indicated by the fact that while 
in 1842 only two persons. Henry Hill and Charles Tufts, paid over one 
hundred dollars in taxes, in 1850, fifteen residents and seven non-residents 
paid taxes ranging from one hundred and one dollars to three hundred 
and thirty-nine dollars; and in 1860, thirty-seven residents and thirteen 
non-residents paid taxes ranging from one hundred and three dollars to 
five hundred and seven dollars each. 

RAILROADS. 

The Fitchburg Railroad, the successor to the Charlestown Branch (of 
the Lowell), incorporated in 1842, was opened to Waltham in 1843, and to 







SHEPHARD S. WOODCOCK. 




FRANK A. TEELE. 



SOMERVJLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 93 

Fitchburg in 1.845 ; its crooked route through Somerville was meanwhile 
straightened, and a fe\v years after, it \vas extended to Boston, its terminus 
previously having been Charlestown. Until 1857 it crossed the Lowell at 
grade, but it was then lowered and the Lowell raised and bridged over it. 

In 1851 the Vermont Central was finished, \vhich gave continuous rail- 
road connection between Boston and Canada. The rejoicing over this event 
lasted several days. One feature of the celebration was a steam calliope, 
whose musical scream some of our older citizens probably remember. 

The year 1845 saw the extension of the Boston and Maine through 
Somerville to Boston. This road was chartered in 1833 as the Andover and 
Wilmington, and was then a branch of the Lowell. 

The Grand junction Railroad was projected in 1.849, and was built from 
the Eastern and Boston and Maine to the Fitchburg. It was opened in 
1.851, and later was extended across Cambridge and the Charles River to 
the Albany Railroad. After considerable litigation it passed, in 1,869, nito 
the control of the Albany, by reason of whose connection with the western 
railroads, the Grand Junction became the great feeder for European traffic. 
At this time there were no regular lines of steamers between Boston and 
foreign ports. They were soon established, however, and proved so successful 
that the number which cleared during the year 1880 was over three hundred, 
and Boston's exports increased proportionally. 

The Eastern Railroad, which previously ran from Salem to deep water 
at East Boston, was extended through this town to Boston proper in 1854. 

The Harvard Branch was another railroad built here before the war. It 
started from the Fitchburg near the Bleachery and ran to Harvard Square, 
the depot being near the junction of Kirkland Street and North Avenue. It 
was incorporated in 1848, but had a short life, having ceased running in 1851. 
Its entire equipment was a single passenger car, in one end of which was 
the locomotive, whose smoke-pipe, covered with a screen, peeped out above 
the roof, from which circumstance it was christened the " pepper-box," which 
it somewhat resembled. 

These were all the railroads built in Somerville before the war ; others 
will be mentioned in a later chapter. 

Previous to 1858 steam cars and omnibuses or" hourlies "were the only 
conveyances to Boston, but neither fully accommodated the public. This 
year two lines of horse railroads were opened into the town, one over 
Broadway to Winter Hill, the other up Washington Street to Union Square, 
and thence through Somerville Avenue (then Milk Street) and Elm Street to 
West Somerville. They were built along the sides of the streets, near the 
gutters, and were laid with sleepers and T-rail, like those of a steam road. 

INDUSTRIES. 

In 1842 the inhabitants of the town were chiefly employed in brick- 
making, farming and milk raising; but " New times demand new manners 
and new men"; so after the "separation" advertisements were inserted in 
the Boston papers, calling the attention of mechanics and others to the in- 



94 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

fant town. In iS45 it had added tinware, pumps, paint manufacturing and 
cigar making, and perhaps other trades, and in 1*55, besides the foregoing, 
we find a long list of new industries, among the principal of which are 
rolling and spike mills, steam engines and boilers, brass tube works, glass 
works, vinegar works, steam planing mills, harness and trunk factory, curry- 
ing, a bakery and upholstery hair factory. This increase of trades and 
manufactures was probably due largely to the railroad facilities of the town. 

A comparison of the products of a few of the principal industries of 
1845 with those of 1855 show some of the changes wrought in a decade. 
Bricks made in 1845, 27,500,000; in 1855, 17,000,000; decrease, 10,500,000. 
Potatoes raised in 1845, 5,700 bushels; in 1855, 1,400 bushels; decrease, 
4,300 bushels. Hay in 1845, 980 tons; in 1855, 630 tons; decrease, 350 tons. 
Value of horses, cattle, etc., in 1845,520,000; in 1855,542,000. Cordage 
manufactured in 1845, 14 tons; in 1855, 54 tons. Cloth bleached or 
dyed in 1845,4,500,000 yards; in 1855, 21,600,000 yards. It will thus be 
seen that in this decade began the decline of brickmaking and farming, 
while manufacturing and kindred industries increased. 

The Middlesex Bleachery and Dye \Yorks employed in 1845 thirty-seven 
persons, and in 1855, eighty. Brickmaking in 1845 gave employment to 
about three hundred and fifty men in the various yards, but in 1855 there 
were only two hundred and twenty engaged in it. 

The Union Glass Works were established about 1854, with a capital of 
$60,000, the projectors being Amory and Francis Houghton. In 18551116 
value of glass ware made was $120,000, and it employed one hundred work- 
men. The establishment is still in operation, after a life of over forty years. 

The American Brass Tube Works were built in or about 1851, for the 
manufacture of seamless brass tubes, the process being a carefully guarded 
secret, not patented. Their capital was 5100,000, and the product in 1855 
was said to be 5200,000, and the number of men employed forty. 

FIRE DEPART.MEN i . 

The first attempt to obtain a fire engine for the Somerville district is 
related in Charlestown records thus : - 

" 7th March, 1831.'' "Voted that the subject of the 8th article, to wit, 
' To know whether the Town will purchase an engine to be located at or near 
the School house, Milk Row, petitioned for by Samuel Kent and others,' be 
referred to the engineers to consider and report at the adjournment of the 
present meeting," and the result is shown in the following record. " April 
4, 1831." " Under the 8th article, the engineers, among other things re- 
ported, as on file, that it is inexpedient to purchase an engine to be located 
at Milk Row ; which report being read, thereupon, voted that the same be 
accepted." 

The above location asked for must have been near the cemetery. In 
1838, the old Charlestown Co. No. 6 desiring an improved machine, the au- 
thorities generously donated the old " Mystic No. 6 " to Somerville, and at a 
town meeting on May 7, the following "Article 1 1 " was presented : " To see if 





DANIEL W. SANBORN. 




EUGENE D. LACOUNT. 



i-iRi'i i.i.i-:. PAST .ixi) I'RI-:SI-:XT. 

the Town will erect a house for Kngine Xo. 6 near Milk Row," whereupon it 
was " voted " " That the engineers be authorized to erect the house at the 
place named in the article," and also " voted" "That 5400 be raised for the 
purpose of defraying the expenses of building said house." 

The Somervillians of those days were hard to satisfy, for soon a further 
demand seems to have been made, and on March 27, 1*39, it was - 

"Voted" "That Messrs. Goodrich and Klliott [T.J.J be a committee to 
consider of the expediency of erecting a belfry on engine house No. r>. Milk 
Row ; also to ascertain the probable expense and report to the Board,'' and 
on "April 8, 1839, voted, that Nathan Tufts be added to the committee t<> 
consider the expediency of erecting a belfry on engine house, Cambridge 
Road [Milk Row] so called." "The committee subsequently reported that 
it was expedient to erect the belfry, whereupon, voted, that the committee 
proceed forthwith to erect the same, provided the cost does not exceed forty 
dollars." 

In 1X41 the " Milk Row " Company evidently became dissatisfied with 
their miniature bucket machine, and asked for a " suction engine,'' with the 
customary success, for we find it recorded that, on petition of Hiram Allen, 
voted, inexpedient to buy a new " suction engine " to replace No. 6 ; and so 
" Mystic 6 " remained eight years longer, the only protection from fire for 
this section. 

In 1849 the new "crack" " Hunneman tub," was purchased by the 
town and christened " Somerville No. i," and the poor friendless "Mystic 
6 " was trundled off to a stable on Broadway near Marshall Street, and 
four years later was sold for $33.00 as old junk. 

In 1850 an Act of the Legislature was passed " to establish a fire depart- 
ment in the town of Somerville." The department was organized with 
Nathan Tufts as its first chief engineer. He was followed by Abram \Yelch, 
Robert A. Vinal, and John Runy, who was the last chief previous to the war. 
None of these are now living. 

Herein has been outlined only the early history and chief events of 
Somerville's Fire Department, as elsewhere in this volume their narrative 
has been more fully written. 

MILITARY. 

The first indication of martial spirit in Somerville, after the ' separa- 
tion," is shown by an item in her annual expenses for " military bounty," 
545.00 paid to John S. Kdgerly and eight others. These bounties continued 
to be paid in varying amounts until 1853, when the Somerville Light Infan- 
try was organized under command of Captain George ( ). Brastow. suc- 
ceeded in 1854 by Captain Francis Tufts. In 1859 Captain Brastow again 
assumed command. The company's armory and drill room was at first in 
" Franklin Hall," which on Sundays was used as a church. The hall was 
in Union Square at the junction of Somerville Avenue and Washington 
Street. It was owned by Mr. Robert Yinal and has since been destroyed 
by fire. Upon the completion of the new brick engine house at the corner 



9 8 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

of Washington and Prospect Streets, its armory was transferred to that 
building. 

The Somerville Light Infantry, at this time, was attached to the 5th 
regiment as Company " B'' ; at the commencement of the war in 1861 be- 
coming Company " I." The honorable record of this organization in the 
Civil War will be mentioned in a succeeding chapter. 

The early military matters of Somerville can hardly be referred to with- 
out mentioning three persons identified prominently with the state militia. 
They were Colonel Samuel Jaques, spoken of in a former chapter, Captain 
Henry A. Snow of the Boston Fusileers, identified with that company since 
1841, and still its captain ; and Major Caleb Page, commander of the " Fly- 
ing Artillery," that company whose lightning manoeuvres were the admira- 
tion of all. 

SCHOOLS. 

Her schools, the pride of Somerville, had humble beginnings. Five 
little houses, grudgingly built by the Charlestown authorities before the sep- 
aration, were her entire educational establishment. They were as follows : 

" Pound Primary," on Broadway, corner of Franklin Street. 

" Winter Hill Primary," west side of Central Street, near Broadway. 

" Milk Row Primary," on Somerville Avenue adjoining the cemetery. 

" Prospect Hill Primary," on Medford Street, in what is now Central 
Square. 

" Prospect Hill Grammar," adjoining the primary, in Central Square. 

Another school was kept for a part of the year 1842, known as the 
" Primary School in the Russell District," though there was then no school- 
house in that part of the town. 

The teachers of these schools, and their salaries for the term commenc- 
ing May i, 1842, and ending February i, 1843, were as follows, viz. : - 

Pound Primary, Mary E. Brown ..... $157.50 

Winter Hill Primary, Lucy 1). Smith .... 157 .50 

Milk Row Primary, Sarah M. Burnham .... J57-50 

Prospect Hill Primary, Eliza P. Whitredge . . . 157-5 

Russell District Primary (6 mos.), Clara D. Whittemore 72.00 

Prospect Hill Grammar, Wm. E. Graves . . . 450.00 



Total amount paid teachers the first year of the town . $1,152.00 

All other school expenses were $135.96, making the total cost of schools, 
including salaries, for this first year, $1,287.96. 

The assessed value of the foregoing schoolhouses in 1843 was : - 
Pound School ......... $600.00 

Prospect Hill Grammar and Primary . . . i ,400.00 

Milk Row .......... 650.00 

Winter Hill ......... 500.00 



Total value of schoolhouses in Somerville when set off, $3,150.00 




HENRY F. LOMBARD. 




G. LESLIE NICHOLS. 



SOMl-'-Rl'lLLl-:. I' AST A\D /'A'A.S7-..\7'. 1OI 

In 1843 two new schoolhouses were built, one in the " Russell District" 
on Broadway on land purchased of Charles Tufts at a cost of Sioo, known 
afterwards as the Walnut Hill School, and the other as the u Lower Winter 
Hill School," which probably replaced the " Pound School." These were 
built by Mr. Jerome Thorp, who is still a resident of the city, and at a cost 
of $600 and $605 respectively. 

New schoolhouses and schools raised the educational expenses of 1X43- 
1844 to $3,393.88, but in 1X44-1X45 they fell to $2,761.35. The average of 
pupils attending school in 1 843 was two hundred and fifty-five, and the 
number of children returned as of school age was three hundred and two. 

The first published report of the School Committee was that of April, 
1844, covering the year of 1X43-1X44, and was made by Luther V. Bell, its 
chairman. This report, in speaking of the two new schoolhouses built the 
previous year, says, "The edifices are planned externally with much taste, 
and the internal arrangements made in the most approved mode." They 
are spoken of as " little temples of learning." The committee also suggest 
to the parents that " posterity would thank them should they, the present 
spring, set out as many trees as are needed, in the squares which have been 
reserved about the schoolhouses," adding that, "The spirit of the age and 
of the Commonwealth requires that this should be done," which spirit has 
since materialized in our annual Arbor Day. 

I Hiring the year 1846-1X47 two more school edifices were erected and 
named, one the " Prescott " grammar and primary, on the corner of Broadway 
and Franklin Streets, the other the "Franklin" grammar and primary, on 
Milk Row (now Somerville Avenue) at corner of Kent Street. Thus by the 
beginning .of the year 1X47 the five schools had increased to nine, three 
grammar and six primary. In 1X48 the commodious Prospect Hill grammar 
and primary school was built. It accommodated two hundred and sixty-four 
pupils, and was opened on December 25. The name of the old " Prospect 
Hill " was now changed to " Medforcl Street School." On September i, 
1848, a new school was commenced on Beacon Street, south of Washington 
Street near the Cambridge line, and called t the " Harvard Primary." Its 
house was the old school building removed from the Prescott district, and 
perhaps the one built there in 1843 as before mentioned. 

The School Committee, in their report of March, 1849, speak with pride 
of the increase in school facilities, and say that "the liberality of the town 
in providing for its schools has placed it first on the list in the county, and 
only third in the Commonwealth." 

The following is a list of the books used in the grammar schools in 
1 849 : - 

Well's Grammar, Russell's Sequel to Primary Reader. Russell's Intro- 
duction, American First Class Book, Instructive Reader, Worcester's Dic- 
tionary, Swan's Spelling I'.ook, Mitchell's Geographies, Fmerson's Arith- 
metic. Parker's Philosophy, Worcester's History, Wreath of School Songs. 
In 1850 the u Spring Hill Primary " was erected on Elm Place, and the 
" Cherry Street Primary " School on the west side of the street, near Kim, 



102 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

in 1851. But the event which marked an era in the school history of the 
town was the founding of the High School. 

In recommending the establishment of a High School, the committee, 
in their report of March, 1851, suggest three ways for its accomplishment. 
First, to use the Prospect Hill School building for it ; second, vestry of the 
Unitarian Church : and third, to build a one-story building on Central Hill. 
The High School building was finished in 1852. It is the present City Hall, 
and cost $7,881.38. The school began with sixty-six pupils, Mr. Robert 
Bickford and Miss E. C. Babcock being its first teachers. 

The Forster School on Sycamore Street, named for a prominent citizen, 
Charles Forster, was built in 1854. 

In 1857 the Prescott School was built. It was of brick, and the most 
costly structure built by the town previous to the war. 

The Brastow School was commenced in 1860 and completed in 1861, on 
the old "pound lot" on Medford Street'where the new steamer house now 
stands. It was the last school edifice built during the pre-rebellion period. 

The town had now (March, 1861) twenty-two schools, and thirty teachers 
with salaries amounting to $13,050. It began in 1842 with five schools, 
six teachers and a salary list of $1,152. 

CHURCHES. 

From its settlement in 1629, until the year 1844, the people of this sec- 
tion attended public worship probably either in Charlestown or Cambridge, 
and possibly a few in Medford, listening to the persuasive words of such 
pastors of early renown as Zachariah Symmes, John Harvard the founder 
of the University, Thomas Shepard, Simon Bradstreet and Thomas Pren- 
tice, and other inspired teachers. In the church membership, from earliest 
to recent times, we find Somerville names ; among others for instance, in 
the earlier years, such as Governor Winthrop and General Gibones, and in 
later, Nathan Tufts, Samuel Jaques and others. In the early records are 
also many references to church land and lots here in Somerville, one as 
early as 1638, and two in 1788, one lot on " Walnut," now College Hill, one 
lot on "Three Pole Lane" (Cross Street), and one lot "in Rangeway' 
(Middle Lane, now Highland Avenue). A later record says, " The new 
church in Somerville now stands upon this lot," which was the first Unita- 
rian, " thrice destroyed and thrice rebuilded," the last time on a new and 
the present location. 

The first church formed in Somerville was the Congregational Uni- 
tarian Society just mentioned, organized August 22, 1844, in the old "Milk 
Row" Engine House. Afterwards it built its church on Highland Avenue, 
then called Church Street. It has had two edifices destroyed by fire, and 
one unroofed by the wind, and is now occupying its fourth. 

The Perkins Street Baptist Church was the second, organized in 1845, 
in the residence of Reverend \Yilliam Stowe, on Pleasant Street, its first 
church being built the same year. 

Then came the First Baptist Church, founded in 1852, whose earlier 







N. EVERETT FITZ. 



\ 




FRED M. KIMBALL. 



A'A 1 /'//./.A', PAST AND PRESENT. 105 

services were held in a chapel, since a schoolhouse on Beach Street, and 
whose present edifice, on the crown of Spring Hill, was built in 1X73. 

The fourth was the Franklin Street Congregational, organized in 1853, 
and which society built their church edifice in 1854. 

The fifth was the First Tniversalist, whose early meetings were in the 
old Medford Street Schoolhouse. Its first edifice was a chapel on Tufts 
Street built in 1859, its next was on the corner of Tufts and Cross Streets, 
on land given by Mr. Charles Tufts, the founder of Tufts College ; this was 
burned in 1868, and replaced with the present structure, on the same site. 

The sixth and last church which was founded during the period treated 
of in this chapter was the Methodist Episcopal organi/.ed in 1855, and 
which met at first in Franklin Hall, Union Square. The society afterwards 
built a church building in 1858 or 1859, on Webster Avenue, which has since 
been remodeled into the Parochial School. Its church is now on Summer 
near Bow Street. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THK CIVIL WAR. 

SO.MKRYILLE'S RESPONSE TO PRESIDENT LINCOLN'S CALLS FUR MKN. APPROPRIATIONS BY 
THE TOWN FOR SOLDIERS AND THEIR FAMILIES. BOUNTIES OFFERED. -SOMERVILLE 
LIGHT INFANTRY. SOMERVILLE GUARD. VOLUNTEERS FOR THK WAR. STATE 
BOUNTIES. OFFICERS OF SOMERVILLE COMPANIES IN THE WAR. SERVICE DURING 
THE WAR OF THE COMPANIES FROM SoMERVILLE. THE MARTYR RoI.L. 

WHEN the "long roll" sounded throughout the land, after the fall of 
Fort Sumter, and President Lincoln called for seventy-five thousand men to 
quell the rising rebellion, the regiments of Massachusetts promptly re- 
sponded. Among the earliest was the Fifth, in whose ranks was the Somer- 
ville Light Infantry, then Company " I." And as promptly the people of the 
town also responded. 

Enthusiastic meetings were held in the public halls, the engine house 
and the open air. 

Subscriptions were raised and committees appointed. ( )ne of the first 
meetings was held in the Town Hall, on April 17, iSf>i. It was a largely 
attended and enthusiastic gathering, and a fund of over $4,300 was soon 
raised for assisting the families of the Somerville Company, which had been 
ordered immediately to Washington ; this meeting was followed by others. 
Private subscriptions were prompt and liberal, as were also the appropria- 
tions of the Town, not only at the beginning, but throughout the whole 
period of the war. During the four years' contest, Somerville expended for 
the soldiers and the cause, from its public treasury, one hundred thirty-five 
thousand five hundred sixty dollars, and from the contributions of its 
citizens, sixty-five thousand eight hundred twenty-two dollars ; in all, two 
hundred one thousand three hundred eighty-two dollars. 



106 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The Selectmen were then : Benjamin Randall, Captain Henry A. Snow, 
Captain Thomas Cunningham, Albert Kenneson and Charles H. Guild. 
They entered with alacrity upon the duties which war had so suddenly 
placed upon them, and under the instructions of the Town at its April 
meeting, they at once urge forward the necessary enlistments, and took 
measures to secure comfort for the soldier in the field and for his family at 
home. In the performance of these duties, the visits of Captain Cunning- 
ham, Captain Snow and Mr. Guild to \Yashington and the camps were 
frequent. 

CALLS FOR TROOPS. 

At the first alarm. Captain Brastow had called together the Somerville 
Light Infantry ; this was on April 17, and on the i9th the Company with its 
valiant Captain were in camp, and a few days later, on their way to the 
front, serving more than the term for which they enlisted. 

On May 25, iS62, the National Capital being again threatened, Gov- 
ernor Andrew called out the State Militia, who assembled on Boston Com- 
mon in readiness for an expected summons from the President. The Somer- 
ville Company, under Captain W. E. Robinson, answered, but their services 
were not then required, and they returned home. 

On the 28th of June, President Lincoln made his famous call for " three 
hundred thousand more,'' under which the quota of Somerville was ninety- 
two. The Selectmen began immediately to raise a full company which was 
to be known as the " Somerville Guard." 

From this time on recruiting became more difficult. A town meeting 
was held luly 19, and a "committee of sixty" citizens appointed to co- 
operate with the Selectmen in all matters of enlistment to fill the quota. 

Mass meetings, with patriotic addresses and martial music, were again 
held to promote volunteering, and in August a bounty of one hundred 
dollars to every recruit was offered, which was increased to one hundred 
and twenty-five dollars by private subscription. 

The Company's camp was on Prospect Hill, where it remained for 
several weeks. Ultimately it was attached to the 39th regiment, as Com- 
pany " E," and under command of Captain Fred R. Kinsley it proceeded 
to the front, where it "proved an honor to the Town and the State." 

Very soon came another requisition for troops, a second " three hun- 
dred thousand more," and the old 5th again responded. 

The Somerville Light Infantry, which at its first enlistment was Com- 
pany " I," now became Company " B," of the same regiment. 

Upon the departure of the ' Somerville Guard," its camp on Prospect 
Hill was occupied by this company, now commanded by Captain Benjamin 
F. Parker. Here it remained until September 6, when it joined the 
regiment at Washington. On October 22, it left for Newbern, North Caro- 
lina. 

Meanwhile the Town had raised its bounty for volunteers to two hun- 
dred dollars. 




GEORGE F. STURTEVANT. 




ALEXANDER A. SANBORN. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 1 09 

1'nder these two "three hundred thousand more" calls, Somerville 
furnished about five hundred and sixty-eight men, at a net cost for bounties 
and all other expenses of thirty-two thousand seven hundred and sixty-four 
dollars, beside which, up to June i. 1803, the town had expended in aid to 
two hundred and fifty families, the sum of thirteen thousand and sixty 
dollars. 

At the beginning of the year 1863, there were from Somerville, two full 
companies in the field, beside about three hundred other officers and men, 
in various regiments from Massachusetts, and other loyal states. 

In June, 1863, the Somerville Light Infantry, whose term of nine months 
had expired, returned to Somerville, and was heartily welcomed home by 
the citizens, the company having lost but one man, Samuel G. Tompkins. 

In July, 1863, a demand on Somerville was made for one hundred and 
eighty-six men, and a draft ordered. Of this number one hundred and eighty- 
three responded promptly, without waiting to be drafted. 

The third call for three hundred thousand came in October, with a 
requisition on Somerville for ninety-two, the same number as in the first 
call, which were required by January 5, 1864. 

Bounties were now offered by the State. Volunteering being exceed- 
ingly slow, war meetings were held, and the enrolled men (those liable to 
military duty) of the Town were called together, which resulted in a liberal 
financial response, and enabled the '' War Committee " to follow the lead of 
other towns and obtain recruits from wherever they could be procured ; by 
February i, the limit having been extended, the town's quota was filled. 

Another call for two hundred thousand came, and to it Somerville again 
promptly responded. 

In July, 1864, an assessment of #30,000 was levied upon the citizens, 
the share charged enrolled men being greater in proportion than to others. 
Under this measure the town ultimately received and disbursed Si 5, 609. 

Between October 17, 1864, and March i, 1865, five hundred and nine 
men were asked for from Somerville, and six hundred and twenty furnished, 
which left one hundred and eleven men to be credited the town upon any 
future call. 

SoMKRVILLE TROOPS. 

The following is a summary of the Somerville companies during the 
war, giving their terms of service and names of officers : - 

Company I, 5th Regiment. April 19 to July 31, 1801. Captain, George 
( ). Brastow. ist Lt., William K. Robinson. 2cl Lt., Frederick R. Kinsley. 

Company B, 5th Regiment. May, 1862. L'ncler command of Captain 
William K. Robinson. Ordered out by Governor Andrew, but not being 
needed, returned home. 

Company F, 39th Regiment. August 12, 1862, to June 2, 18^5. Captain, 
Frederick R. Kinsley, ist Lt., Joseph |. Giles. 2cl Lt., Willard C. Kinsley 
(promoted to Captain). And the following by promotion viz.: Captain 
Melville C. Parkhurst. ist Lt., John H. Dusseault. 2d Lt., Kchvin Mills. 
2d Lt., George A. Bodge. 



I 10 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Company B, 5th Regiment. September 19, 1862, to July 2, 1863. Cap- 
tain, Benjamin F. Parker, ist Lt., Walter C. Bailey. 2cl Lt., John Har- 
rington. 

Company B, 5th Regiment. July 25, 1864, to Nov. 16, 1864. Captain, 
John N. Coffin, ist Lt., Charles T. Robinson. 2cl Lt., Granville W. Daniels. 

The service of these various companies at the front calls for special 
mention. 

COMPANY I, FIFTH REGIMENT. --THREE MONTHS. 

The Somerville Light Infantry, Company I, under command of Cap- 
tain Brastow, left Boston for Washington on Sunday, April 21, 1861, and 
arriving there, was quartered with the Regiment in the Treasury Building ; 
after which it was ordered to Alexandria, to join the command of General 
Mansfield. On June 14, it was reviewed by President Lincoln and Cabinet, 
and on July 16, ordered forward to Centreville. On the 2 ist it had its first 
experience in battle at the memorable action of Bull Run, in which engage- 
ment the Somerville Light Infantry faithfully sustained its part and the 
honor of the Town. This battle was fought after the Regiment's time of 
service had expired. 

Somerville lost one man in the action, Edward F. Hannaford, and an- 
other, William F. Moore, died at Washington of disease. 

COMPANY B, FIFTH REGIMENT. NINE MONTHS. 

As before stated, the Fifth Regiment, in its nine months' campaign, left 
Boston on October 22, 1862, and, after a five days' voyage, arrived at New 
Berne, N. C., on the 2;th. Here it was attached to the brigade commanded 
by Colonel Horace C. Lee of the Twenty-seventh Massachusetts Regiment, 
the department being under command of Major-General Foster. 

Fven before its muskets had arrived, the Regiment received orders to 
be in readiness for an expedition, and on October 30 embarked for Wash- 
ington, N. C., whence, with other forces, it marched for Williamston. After 
some skirmishing, nothing else important transpiring, it returned to camp, 
November 13, having marched one hundred and sixty miles. In December it 
took part in the expedition to Goldsboro, forming the left of the column. 
The object of the movement was the destruction of the Weldon Railroad. 
On the 1 4th it was attacked by the enemy, whom it repulsed and drove 
in great disorder towards Kinston. On the i6th occurred the battle 
of Whitehall, near which place the army had bivouacked, in which the 
Union forces were again victorious. On the i;th the column was again in 
motion, and reached the railroad about noon. The railroad bridge over the 
Neuse River was soon destroyed, and wires cut, which work was accom- 
plished under fire of the enemy. 

The destruction completed, the troops returned, the Fifth Regiment 
acting as rear guard "supporting battery," and encountering and repulsing 
repeated attacks of the Confederates, and reaching camp on December 3 1 . 

After various marches and reconnoissances, on May 22, the Union for- 



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SOMERVILLE, PAST AND r RESENT. 113 

ces appeared before the strong works of the rebels at Moseley Creek previ- 
ously reconnoitred by the Regiment, and which by a simultaneous attack 
in front and rear were soon captured, with t\vo hundred prisoners and five 
hundred stand of arms, together with horses, wagons and ammunition. 

The remaining service was principally picket and similar duty. The 
Regiment was highly complimented by General Foster for its faithful ser- 
vice. It returned to Boston June 26, and was mustered out at Wenham on 
July 2. 

COMPANY B, FIFTH REGIMENT. ONE HUNDRED DAYS. 

( )n fuly 25, 1864, the Fifth was for the third time mustered into the ser- 
vice, and on the 28th, under Colonel George H. Peirson, again left for the 
field. Arriving at Baltimore, they went into camp at Mamkin's Wood. 
Their service lasted one hundred days, the term of their enlistment, during 
which time they did garrison duty at Forts Me Henry and Marshall in Bal- 
timore, and guard duty at the " Lazarette Magazine," and in charge of 
prisoners. They arrived home November 7, 1865, and were mustered out 
November 16. 

COMPANY E, THIRTY-NINTH REGIMENT. -- THREE YEARS. 

The " Somerville Guard," under command of Captain Frederick R. 
Kinsley, Company E, Thirty-ninth Regiment, which was mustered into ser. 
vice August 12, 1862, first went into camp at Lynnfieid, and then at Boxford, 
Massachusetts. From the latter place, on September 6, it left for Washing- 
ton, arriving on the 8th. ( >n the Qth, the Regiment was ordered to " Camp 
Chase,'' across Long Bridge. From this time until the next July, it formed 
part of the force guarding the line of the Potomac, and the City of Wash- 
ington and other important points in that department. ( )n the 9th of July, 
1863, it was ordered to Harper's Ferry, and, on arriving, marched at once 
to Maryland Heights. On the isth, it joined the Army of the Potomac, 
forming a part of the Second 1 Hvision, First Army Corps. From this time 
the Regiment was under constant marching orders, guarding positions, sup- 
porting cavalry and kindred service, until November 27, when it confronted 
the enemy at Mine Run. 

( )n the 28th, Companies E and C were deployed as skirmishers, cover- 
ing the front of the brigade during the engagement. There they remained 
in line of battle until December i,when the Union Army retreated. No 
movement of importance occurred after this until May, 1864. at which time 
the Regiment took part in the campaign of the Wilderness, where on the 
5th. 6th and 8th, it had engagements at Brock's Pike and Laurel Hill, driv- 
ing in the enemy's cavalry and battery, but, finally meeting with superior 
numbers posted behind breastworks, the Regiment was forced to fall 
back. On the loth, it was again in the front under heavy infantry and 
artillery fire, and here Lieutenant Edwin Mills of the Somerville Company 
was among the wounded. 

The Regiment soon after marched to Spottsylvania. and on the 26th, to 



114 SOMERVILLE, PAST .\XD PRESENT. 

Bethesda Church, where, as skirmishers, it remained almost continually en- 
gaged until June 5. On that night it quietly withdrew. After various marches 
it arrived at Petersburg on July 16, remaining exposed much of the time to 
the fire of artillery and sharpshooters in its vicinity, until August 18, when 
it joined the expedition against the Weldon Railroad, and immediately en- 
gaged the enemy, the action being continued on the igth. In this battle, 
Colonel Peirson was dangerously wounded. Captain P'red. R. Kinsley taken 
prisoner, and Lieutenant J. H. Dusseault wounded, both the latter of Com- 
pany " E " (Somerville). 

The loss of the Regiment in these two days was eleven killed, thirty-two 
wounded and two hundred and forty-five missing. After many vicissitudes, 
skirmishes and arduous marches, the Regiment, on December 7, found it- 
self again near the Weldon Railroad as skirmishers and in action with the 
enemy, after which, and destroying the railroad by burning its ties and 
bending its rails, the Regiment was ordered to cover the rear of the army 
(now falling back), which was greatly annoyed by the enemy's cavalry. 

The casualties of the Regiment during 1864 were thirty-five killed, one 
hundred and ninety-one wounded, and two hundred and eighty-nine missing 
and prisoners. 

On February 6, 1865, the Regiment held the right of the line in the ad- 
vance at Dabney's Mills, where the enemy's works, though finally taken, had 
to be abandoned by the captors for want of support. The assault was re- 
newed on the /th, but was again unsuccessful. 

On the loth the Regiment broke camp and went into winter quarters 
near Hatcher's Run. 

In March the spring campaign opened, and on the 3ist a move was 
made to Gravelly Run, where the enemy in strong force opened the attack, 
pushing back the 39th, which had been hurriedly deployed as skirmishers, 
and which left many dead and wounded on the field. Later, upon the arrival 
of reinforcements, the lost ground was regained. In this action Lieutenant- 
Colonel Tremlett was mortally wounded, and Somerville lost her heroic son. 
Captain Willard C. Kinsley, who was wounded, and died the next morning. 
Speaking of him, the official account of the battle says, u The Regiment lost 
one of its most popular and loved officers, as well as one of its best soldiers." 

On the next day, April i, the Corps united with Sheridan's Cavalry at 
Five Forks, the Regiment taking part in the charge and victory of that day. 
It occupied a position near the center of the line, and the report says. 
"This battle of Five Forks was the most successful one that the Regiment 
was ever engaged in. Almost the entire force opposed to us was captured, 
and their rout was complete." 

By the gth of April, the 39th was at Appomattox Court House, where 
soon after its arrival " all hostilities suddenly ceased, and later in the day, 
the entire army opposed to us surrendered.'' 

On May i, the Regiment began its march to \Yashington. It was now 
under the command of Major F. R. Kinsley, the former Captain of Com- 
pany E (Somerville Guard), who, from the previous August until recently. 







A. B. GOOKIN. 




FREDERICK M. STODDER. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND 



I I 



had been a prisoner in the hands of the Confederates. It arrived at Arling- 
ton Heights on May 12, and took part in the " Grand Review," at Washing- 
ton, on May 22. On June 2, it was mustered out of the L'nited States 
service, and arriving in Massachusetts went into camp at Readville, where 
soon after it was paid off, and returned home. 

Nt'Mi'.i.R OF MEN IN THK WAR. 

During the war, Somerville, according to Captain Cunningham, its 
recruiting agent, enlisted one thousand four hundred and eighty-five men, 
or one hundred and forty-seven more than were called for, of whom ninety- 
eight were killed or died in the service, and about two hundred and fifty 
were wounded, and many taken prisoners. 

Besides the regular organizations whose services, as Somerville com- 
panies, have been sketched, there were hundreds of others in the various 
regiments of this and other States, and in the regular army and the navy, 
under Butler, Banks, Grant, Farragut and other commanders. Their per- 
sonal services and sufferings in the war, though most worthy of record, 
cannot, in the space allowed, be here written. 

THE MARTYR ROLL. 

The following is the Roll of those who gave their lives for the Union. 
Killed in Battle or Died of W'ounds. 



August Benz, 
Edward E. Brackett, 
William Berry, 
Martin Bradburn, 
William Connellon, 
Frank E. Doherty, 
Michael Driscoll, 
John Ducey, 
Samuel O. Felker, 
Frederick A. Galletly, 
Eugene B. Hadley, 
Edward F. Hannaford, 
William M. Herbon, 
Nathaniel Hazeltine, 
Caleb Howard, 



Edmund H. Kendall, 
David Kendrick, 
Willard C. Kinsley, 
Edward P. Light, 
Edward McDonald, 
Patrick McCarty, 
William McDonald, 
H. McGlone, 
J. McGuire, 
Owen Mclntire, 
James McLaughlin, 
Corporal (?) Moran, 
fames Millen, 
James Moran, 
N. Fletcher Nelson, 



Died in Hospital, Camp, or 

George W. Ayres, Charles L. Carter, 

Henry Ashton, 



Jonathan Atkinson, 
Luther V. Bell, 
William H. Bartlett, 
William Blackwell, 



Edwin D. Gate, 
Michael Clifford, 
John W. Coffee, 
Norman Davis, 
Frederick A. Glines, 



Anton Otto, 
Jeremiah T. Paine, 
William I ). Palmer, 
William Plant, 
Robert Powers, 
Fred. G. Pruden, 
William Reeves, 
William P. Ruggles, 
John H. Rafferty, 
John Van De Sande, 
C. C'. Walden, 
John F. Waldon, 
William W. Wardell, 
Nathan W. Wilson. 

Prison. 

David Gorham, 
George H. Hatch, 
Patrick Hayes, 
Moses Hazeltine, 
George Hiscock, 
John Holland. 



Il8 SOMERl'fLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

John E. Horton, Francis McQuade, Sumner P. Rollins, 

Henry E. Howe, Charles M. Miller, Patrick Sheridan, 

Richard J. Hyde, William F. Moore, \Yilliam E. Spurr, 

Charles G. Jones, Henry McVey, Alonzo W. Temple, 

E. F. Kenniston, Thomas Neville, Frank \Y. Thompson, 

J. \V. Langley, John O'Brien, Samuel G. Tompkins, 

Alvin G. Lovejoy, Francis J. Oliver, \Yilliam H. Blackwell, 

Washington Lovett, Charles H. Perry, John S. Van duff, 

Elias Manning, Albert W. Phillips, Isaac C. Whittemore, 

Louis Mathi, Timothy H. Pitman, Joseph W. Whitmore, 

Edward McDonald, Leonard F. Purington, Charles Young. 

Missing. 
James Cafferty, John S. Roberts, Albert E. Mitchell. 

This list may not be complete, and is probably otherwise imperfect, 
as the records are meagre. 

In the years to come, when the sorrows of the widow and orphan are 
forgotten, Somerville will still recall with, perhaps, increasing pride, the 
services of her soldiers in the Union Army in the Civil War. Their memory 
deserves a more lasting tribute than tradition, and the city has well begun 
upon the work of their record, which, under the City Clerk, has already made 
some progress. It is a work in which every citizen should be interested, 
and to which all should give every possible aid as the object, when attained 
the preservation of the story of the personal services of each Somerville 
soldier must receive the hearty approval of all, whose friends took part 
in the great struggle. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE TOWN FROM 1861 TO 1872. 

IMPROVEMENT OK I IKHIWAYS. - <l\s INTRODUCED.-- WAI IK SUPPLY. SEWERS. - 
GREAT IMPROVEMENTS. CENTRAL HILL PARK. HORSE RAILROADS. THE TOWN 
FARM. ATTEMPTS TO DIVIDE THE TOWN. CITY CHARTER AND HALL. FIRST 
CITY ELECTION. 

HlCjHWAYS. 

NOTWITHSTANDING the continuous and unusual demands of the four 
years' war, the regular business of the town was not neglected. Public im- 
provements and private enterprises were inaugurated, and the industries of 
peace thrived as well as those of war. 

The population increased during this period from 8,025 in 1860, to 9.353 
in 1865, an d in 1870 it numbered 14,693. With this increase came calls for 
new roads and for improvement of the old ones, and considering the times, 
they were met with reasonable liberality. 

The work accomplished during this period was too extensive for more 
than general notice here. Streets were graded and macadamized, brick 



SOMERl'/LLE, PAST AND PRESENT. I I (j 

sidewalks built, edgestones set, gutters paved, road-bridges rebuilt, streets 
watered and lighted, and new ways laid out fresh strands in the network 
of thoroughfares. In fact, then began the transition from poor to fair or 
good roads. 

Among the principal improvements during these eleven years, were the 
building of College avenue, Holland street. Highland avenue to Davis 
square, Prescott and Putnam streets, the westerly part of Pearl street, the 
easterly portion of Summer street, and the widening and grading of Walnut 
and School streets, and of Willow avenue. 

In 1862 the long neglected work of lowering, widening and paving the 
Washington street roadway, under the Lowell railroad, was finished ; the 
bridge and tracks, at the same time, being raised. This low spot formerly 
connected by an underground drain with Miller's river; but in a storm 
which occurred on February 22, 1860, this old drain was either too small or 
became choked, and the place filled with water, into which an unfortunate 
hack was driven, nearly drowning its occupants, and resulting, later, in 
heavy damages against the town and railroad. 

Some of the highway enterprises proposed during the later years of the 
town did not meet with the hearty co-operation of its officers. Among 
these were the three new avenues ordered by the county commissioners, 
and running from Medford into Somerville. College avenue, laid out in 
1860, and built in 1861, and Boston and Middlesex avenues, ordered or de- 
cided on in 1871. These measures were strenuously, though unsuccessfully, 
opposed by the selectmen. Of College avenue, they say that they believe 
" that neither the town, nor the public, require the laying out of such a 
street, but that it was for private purposes and private speculation." Boston 
and Middlesex avenues each crossed Mystic river, and bridges were re- 
quired. Boston avenue commencing at West Medford, crossed the river at 
the site of the old Middlesex canal bridge, the old stone piers and abutment 
being used for the new bridge. The avenue ended at College avenue, but 
has more recently been extended to Broadway. 

Middlesex avenue was the extension of a highway from Stoneham and 
Maiden, across the Wellington farm in Medford, and over the Mystic river 
and Ten Hills farm to Mystic avenue in Somerville. This was first asked 
for in 1869. The selectmen voted to oppose this "road to Mystic avenue, 
or at any other point in Somerville, not feeling that benefits equal to the 
large expense to be incurred could ever be derived by the Town." 

An act empowering the county commissioners to lay out this highway 
was passed in 1869, and though decided on in 1871, was not built until two 
years later. 

These avenues, laid out a quarter of a century ago, have yet very few 
buildings or improvements, and so far have principally benefited neighbor- 
ing towns. 

The laying out of Mystic avenue (Medford turnpike) as a public way 
also encountered the opposition of the town, and every effort possible wa> 
made to prevent it, including employment of counsel and appeal to tin- 




ROBERT DUDDY. 



SOMERV1LLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 12] 

legislature, as the avenue up to this time had been property of the Medford 
Turnpike corporation, who wished to abandon it and throw the burden of 
its maintenance on the towns, which in iSd; they accomplished, since 
which time it has been a county highway. 

GAS. 

liider authority of acts of the legislature passed in 1X53, gas was intro- 
duced into the town by the C'harlestown Gas Company and by the Cam- 
bridge Gas Company, the dividing line between the territory within which 
each company could lay its pipes being the Lowell railroad. It was ten 
years later before street lighting became general. In 1X63 the town voted 
to pay the expense of lighting such street-lamps as the abuttors should 
furnish at their own expense. Under this vote ninety-two lamp-posts and 
lamps were put up. This was the commencement of our system of street 
lighting. By 1871 the number of lamps had increased to t\vo hundred and 
thirty-four. 

\Y\IKR SUPPLY. 

The laying of the Charlestown water-main from Walnut Hill reservoir 
through the town opened the way for a water-supply for Somerville which 
was authorized by legislative enactments in 1866 and in iS6S, and negotia- 
tions with Charlestown entered into, which resulted in a contract with that 
city. This contract, though not entirely satisfactory in its terms, secured 
to Somerville its present supply. An experienced engineer, Mr. Roberdeau 
Buchanan, was engaged and a pipe system for the town planned, and before 
the close of the year some two miles or more of pipe were laid. 

The Charlestown act of iS6i gave authority for supplying water to 
hydrants in Somerville, and meanwhile many were set. In 1866 the first 
steam fire-engine was purchased replacing the old " Somerville One," which, 
like its predecessor, "Mystic Six," w r as stored for a while and then sold. 

SEWERS. 

With the introduction of water came the demand for sewers. Before 
the war there were no public sewers in the town. There were one or two 
private drains in East Somerville, running across lots, and some others 
crudely built with brick invert and stone covering, in Oak and other private 
streets west of Prospect. 

The first public sewer was built in Marshall street in 1867, Messrs. 
Winning and Gordon being the contractors : the work cost about two thou- 
sand dollars. 

In 1868, sewers were laid in three different sections of the town : over 
a mile in all. The first was the Linwood street, with laterals in Fitchburg 
and Poplar streets ; its outlet was into Miller's river. The second ran from 
the southerly end of Bow street, across Union square to the creek in Web- 
ster avenue, and the third extended from Summer street, down Harvard, 
Beech and Spring streets, across Somerville avenue and through Kent street 



122 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

to the railroad ditch. The three sections costing nine thousand eight hun- 
dred and sixty-four dollars. 

Calls for sewers now became frequent, and in 1869 a general survey 
and plan was ordered, for a sewer system, in conformity to which future 
sewers were to be constructed. It was also recommended that " Some 
order should be taken, looking to the construction of trunk sewers." The 
survey and plan, thus outlined, were commenced but never completed. 
The want of proper outlets and the necessity for strict economy were serious 
obstacles. 

In 1869, 3,986 feet of new sewers were laid, and 2,078 feet of private 
sewers purchased by the town, at a cost in all, of about #12,000. 

In 1870 and 1871 a large number of sewers were built. In 1870, i<s,38o 
feet, costing $49, 304 ; and in 1871, 1 1,937 feet, costing #24,042. The principal 
were as follows: in Elm and Milk streets from Cherry to Prospect. In 
Medford street from the Fitchburg railroad to Grand Junction railroad. In 
Mystic avenue from the Maine railroad northerly. In Perkins and Mount 
Pleasant streets and Broadway. In Broadway from Marshall street and 
across the present park, to the creek beyond Mystic avenue. In Broadway 
from Broadway park, to Cross street, and in Cross street to a culvert near 
Pearl. In Lincoln, Arlington and Franklin streets ; in Putnam and Pres- 
cott streets ; and in Summer and Bow streets from School to Walnut street. 
In Glen and Brooks streets. In Otis street, in Vinal avenue and in School 
street. The difficult problem in all the foregoing work was that of an out- 
let. Every sewer, up to this time, emptied into some ditch or water-course, 
and many then built still continue to do so. 

OTHER TOWN MATTERS. 

The years 1870 and 1871 were busy ones for the town government. 
Besides extensive sewer and highway constructions, many other prominent 
matters claimed consideration ; among the more important were the organ- 
ization of a police force, the purchase of the Central Hill park, the build- 
ing of the new engine-house thereon, and stables on the town farm, all in 
1870. The consideration of the proposed Middlesex and Boston avenue 
bridges, ordered by the county over Mystic river, the erection of a new high 
school building in 1871, the enforcement of the liquor law, the defense of 
the town against claims, and damage suits. The preparation of the city 
charter, and the consequent legislation. The division of the proposed city 
into wards, and the arrangements necessary for the election of city officers. 

CENTRAL HILL PARK. 

One of the most important of the foregoing was the purchase of the 
present Central Hill park land in 1870. This land formerly belonged to 
[acob Sleeper of Boston. It cost the town about thirty-eight thousand 
dollars. It was what was known in 1 788 as one of the " Church lots," being 
then the property of the " First Church of Charlestown." This purchase 
did not meet the entire approval of the citizens, many thinking that Pros- 




JOHN ANDREWS. 




GEORGE W. IRELAND. 



SOMERl'ILU-l, I'AST AXn PRESENT. 125 

pect hill, with its extensive views and hallowed memories, was a more appro- 
priate location for public grounds and buildings, and thit it could have 
been bought at a smaller price: concerning it, the selectmen say: "This 
purchase definitely settled the question of a recognized center. This ques- 
tion being no longer in dispute, plans for the future development of the 
town may be made with especial reference to this fact." This was the 
first of Somerville parks, and the only one before it became a city. 

HORSE RAILROADS. 

In 1 86 1 a survey was made for a proposed street railway from Union 
square through Somerville avenue to East Cambridge, and thence to Sud- 
bury street in Boston. 

The originator of this project was General William L. Burt, afterward 
postmaster of Boston. 

The work was finished in 1864, and was the first railway in Somerville, 
built in the middle of the street. A location was granted for another road 
through Franklin and Pearl streets, but it was never built. 

The inconvenience of railroad tracks at the sides of the streets was 
soon recognized, and efforts made for their removal to the center, opposed 
and delayed of course by the companies ; but in 1871 this change was made 
in Somerville avenue and Elm street, from Union square to Cherry street, 
at a cost to the town of about ,->i 1,000 ; and by 1875 all others had been re- 
moved from side to center. 

TOWN FARM. 

The present ''town farm " was originally purchased for a cemetery, but 
being " swampy and wet'' it was abandoned for that use. In 1863 it was 
put up at auction, but " the bids not coming up to the views of the board, it 
was not sold." The farm " from long neglect had become almost a barren 
waste," in 1864, at an expense of about eight hundred dollars, the brush 
and stone were removed from it and the land thoroughly tile-drained. In 
1871 a "stable" and "hay barn " "separated by a brick wall and fire-proof 
door " were built on the estate, with stalls for twenty horses, and also a 
"neat and convenient double tenement for the use of the men." 

ATTEMPTS TO DIVIDE THE TOWN. 

In 1865 an attempt was made to annex a portion of West Somerville to 
Cambridge. The valuation of this tract was about one hundred thousand 
dollars. The matter came before the legislature, was successfully opposed 
by the selectmen, and the petitioners given leave to withdraw. The ground 
of complaint was the want of school accommodations, which the school 
committee also recognized, and which brought the suggestion from the 
selectmen, that "now it is for the town to decide whether they will give the 
required accommodations, and thereby prevent another petition of like 
nature from our townsmen." But the petitions were not prevented ; for in 
1868 two more were presented to the (ieneral Court, asking a division of 
the town, which were again defeated. 



126 SO.MERriLLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

CITY CHARTER AND HALL. 

It was probably about this time that the idea of a city charter was first 
entertained, a census, this year, being taken, showing the population of the 
town to be 12,535. or m ore than requisite for a city, and the number of 
houses, 1,933. 

In 1871 the new high schoolhouse was built, and soon after, the present 
city hall (the first high school) vacated. Anticipating this want, the select- 
men in their report say that '' when the present building is vacated, we re- 
commend its removal to a more suitable location on the town land, near 
where it now stands ; and that its external architecture be modernized, by 
adding a few modest ornaments, so that the general appearance of this 
building shall moderately correspond with the buildings erected on this 
land," and further suggest that a "suitable lock up" be built in it, and 
offices for the selectmen and other officials ; thereby " deferring for many 
years the necessity of building a town house or city hall.'' The moderniz- 
ing of its " external architecture," after a lapse of twenty-five years, is now 
being accomplished. 

FIRST CITY ELECTION. 

On April 14, 1871, the act establishing the city of Somerville was ap- 
proved and accepted by the voters at a town meeting held for that purpose 
on April 27. On December 4 the first city election occurred, resulting in 
the choice of George O. Brastow as mayor, and of a board of aldermen and 
councilmen whose names are given in the history of the city government in 
this volume. 

In this historical relation of the town, and further on of the city, mention 
of schools, churches and other institutions, and of the town and city de- 
partment are purposely curtailed or omitted, as they are treated of specially 
in succeeding chapters of this book. 



CHAPTER XI. 

SOMERVILLE AS A CITY. 

APPRECIATION IN VALUE OK REAL ESTATE. GREAT INCREASE OK HOUSES. STEAM 
RAILROADS. EXTENSION OK STREET RAILWAYS. WEST END RAILWAY. WIDEN- 
ING OF SOMERYILLE AVENUE AND Bl >AI >\VA V. - - Til E BROADWAY PARK. --THE 

MILLER'S RIVER NUISANCE.-- ANNEXATION r<> I.OSTOX DISCUSM i>. PARKS AND 
BOULEVARDS. TUFTS COLLECE. OLD LANDMARKS. 

Ix January, 1872, the new city government was duly installed and or- 
ganized. Their names are mentioned in the next chapter. The officials 
placed in charge of the several departments were the following :- 

City Clerk, Charles E. Oilman; City Treasurer and Collector, Aaron 
Sargent; City Solicitor, Selwin Z. Bowman; City Engineer, Charles D. 



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SOMERl'JLLE, J'AST AXD PRESENT, 12$ 

Elliot ; City Physician, William \Y. Dow ; Clerk of Council, Solomon Davis ; 
City Messenger, [aims Mann; Chief of Police, Melville C. Parkhurst ; 
Superintendent of Streets, Franklin Henderson; Chief of Fire Department, 
James R. Hopkins; Assessors, John C. Magoun, Sabin M. Smith, Thomas 
Cunningham; Superintendent of Schools, Joshua H. Davis. 

RIAL ESTATE. 

The building of horse-railroads and introduction of water, sewers and 
gas gave a wonderful impetus to real estate transactions, which even the 
financial depression occurring a few years later failed to check. The 
erection of Masonic Block in Union square by Thomas Cunningham, 
Robert A. Vinal, C. S. Lincoln and Philip Eberle was the precursor of im- 
provements. In 1870 Pythian Block was built, followed soon by Warren 
Block, Odd Fellows Block, Hill Building, and the block adjacent on Somer- 
ville avenue, all of which were erected by Ira Hill, who was associated in 
some of these enterprises with Col. Elijah W'alker, Maj. George R. Abbott 
and Charles E. Lyon. Mr. Hill alone, or with his associates, laid out and 
built over several tracts of land in the years from 1870 to 1874. Among 
these were the Warren and Columbus avenue districts, the territory east of 
Walnut street between Boston street and Highland avenue, including the 
Grandview, Pleasant and Summit avenue estates, and large tracts in West 
Somerville on Holland and Elm streets, through which they laid out Wal- 
lace, Chandler, Winter and other streets. The energy of Mr. Hill in devel- 
oping real estate has seldom been surpassed in the town or city. 

Some sections of the city developed slowly and continuously, as East 
Somerville, and Spring and Central Hills, which were among the first sec- 
tions lotted for the market, the latter two by the enterprise of George O. 
Brastow, who was the pioneer in the development of those sections, fifty 
years ago. Other parts of the city grew rapidly, as Union, Davis and Gil- 
man squares and their vicinities. 

Among other earlier real estate ventures while Somerville was a town 
may be mentioned the lotting and building up of the property between 
Webster avenue and Prospect street, and west of that street, the ( >ak and 
Houghton street district, the owners being Francis and Amory Houghton, 
the projectors of the Glass Works. Another section opened up by Mr. 
Amory Houghton was the land between Somerville avenue and the Fitch- 
burg railroad, west of Dane street to Park street. The Dane, Hudson and 
Vine streets territory, and the Joseph Clark estate on Newton, Clark and 
other streets were also put on the market before the war. 

1 Hiring the war real estate languished, but revived a few years after, so 
that the period from 1869 to 1875 saw many old estates laid out and built 
over. Among these were the Putnam, Prescott and School streets territory, 
formerly the Jotham Johnson estate ; the Vinal avenue, Quincy and Church 
streets territory, formerly the property of Robert Vinal ; property on Pros- 
pect Hill, -built over and marketed by Maj. Granville W. Daniels; the 
Newton street, Concord avenue and Springfield street district, owned by 



130 SOMERVILLE, PAST AXH 

John O'Brien, and the Clarendon Hill territory by John W. Vinal and 
others. 

Then came another period : of business and real estate depression, 
which lasted till about iSSo. The estates that have been laid out and put 
upon the market since that time are numerous, the larger ones being the 
Stickney estate on Broadway and School street, the Oliver Tufts property 
between School and Central streets, the George W. Ireland estate on School 
and Summer streets, the Hawkins (or Lake) properties on Somerville ave- 
nue and Washington street; part of Mrs. M. P. Lowe's estate on Summer 
street, the R. P. Benton land on Avon and Berkeley streets, the Wyatt 
(brick-yard) land on Washington street, the Osgood Dane property on 
Somerville avenue and Granite street, the A. W. Tufts et al. property on 
Pearl street, the John Runey estate on Cross street, the Wheeler estate 
("Ox pasture'') in East Somerville, the Harrington and Brine land on 
Spring Hill, the Russell estate on Elm street, the Charles Robinson prop- 
erty on Central and Medford streets, the Trull estate on Oxford street, the 
" Clark and Bennett land'' on Central and Gibbens streets, the J. C. Ayer 
estate on Highland avenue, the Nathan Tufts (Powder House) property, 
the J. M. Shute estates on Somerville avenue, Central and Cambria streets 
and Westwood road, the Stearns estate (Polly Swamp) north of Highland 
avenue, the lands on the northerly slope of Spring Hill, laid out originally 
by R. H. Conwell, and the adjacent estate of J. I). Prindle. Most of the 
foregoing have been built up within the last ten or fifteen years, and gener- 
ally with a class of houses creditable to the builders and the city. 

STEAM RAILROADS. 

The principal factor in the unprecedented growth of \Yest Somerville 
was the building of the Lexington and Arlington railroad. The Lexington 
railroad formerly branched from the Fitchburg not far from Fresh Pond, 
but in 1870 its route east of Alewife Brook was changed so as to connect 
with the Lowell railroad at Somerville Junction. Several years later the 
Massachusetts Central obtained its location over the Lowell and part of 
this new Lexington branch, which, meanwhile, had been extended to Con- 
cord. With the exception of the "Mystic river" freight track across the 
Asylum grounds, these two steam railroads were the only permanent ones 
built in Somerville since the war. 

A railroad branching from the Boston 6c Maine across the Ten Hills 
farm, thence to Winchester and beyond was projected and partially graded 
and.afterwards abandoned. It was known as the " Mystic Valley Railroad." 

STREET RAILROAD^. 

An extension of the Broadway tracks over Winter Hill to Medford via 
Main street was early made. It was, like the others, a side track T-rail 
road, and was run by the Charlestown & Medford Railroad Company. The 
selectmen ordered it to the center, but the company neglecting or refusing. 




EZRA D. SOUTHER. 




IRVING L. RUSSELL. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND r RESENT. 

its location in Main street was revoked. In 1*84 the Middlesex Company 
reopened this line, the change to the center of the street meanwhile having 
been made. 

In iSSi the Charles River Street Railway was organized, and soon it 
laid tracks in Summer and Bow streets and through I'nion square and 
Webster avenue to Cambridge street, and others in Newton, Springfield 
and Beacon streets. It was built as an opposition to the Cambridge, whose 
tracks its charter gave it the right to use from Cambridge to Boston. It 
was a popular line, but not being a financial success, in i8S6 it was consoli- 
dated with the Cambridge. The same year the Middlesex, which leased or 
ran several of the other Somerville roads, combined with the Highland (a 
South Boston line which ran in competition with the Metropolitan), taking 
the name Boston Consolidated. Meanwhile the Elm street tracks had been 
extended up Holland street to Broadway. 

In 1886 two rival companies for Somerville patronage, the Cambridge 
and the Consolidated, petitioned for locations in Cross and Medford streets 
and Highland avenue to Davis square, and in Pearl and Medford streets to 
Central street. The contest for these locations was vigorous but the Con- 
solidated won, and by the close of 1887 had laid tracks in most of these 

streets. 

WEST END RAILWAY. 

" The West End Street Railway Company" was the outgrowth of the 
West End Land Company, formed by Mr. Henry M. Whitney and others for 
the development of real estate along Beacon street in Boston and Brookline 
by making that thoroughfare a broad boulevard. To ensure success in this 
enterprise a charter was procured for a "West End Street Railway" over 
the proposed boulevard location. The opposition to this line by other 
street railways resulted in the West End Railway acquiring controlling in- 
terest in all the other roads excepting the Lynn & Boston, and obtaining 
legislation by which they were all consolidated under the management of the 
\Vest End, which was finally consummated on November 1 1, 1887. 

In or about 1889 the overhead electric system of propulsion was intro- 
duced, after a careful examination had been made by Mr. Whitney of its 
workings in Richmond, Va. It was first applied on the Beacon street and 
Brookline routes and soon became general. Within a few years the West 
End road has made many improvements in the Somerville service, among 
which may be mentioned the increased number of trips, especially on the 
West Somerville line, the extension of that line to Alewife Brook, and of 
the Medford street line to Magoun square, the recent opening of the new 
line from Highland avenue via Medford street and Somerville avenue to 
Boston, together with improved road-bed, more easy riding cars, and a IIL-W 
and liberal system of transfers. 

WIDENING OK SOMKKVII.LK AVENTK AND BROADWAY. 

The most important highway improvements since 1872 have probably 
been the widening of Somerville avenue, and paving it. and the adjacent 



134 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

thoroughfares, and the widening of Broadway. Somerville avenue was 
formerly fifty feet in width, but in 1*73 the County Commissioners laid it 
out anew seventy-five feet wide from East Cambridge to Union square and 
seventy feet from Union square to North Cambridge. The lines were so 
run that only one or two shade trees and very few buildings required re- 
moval. The avenue, over two miles in length, was rebuilt to its new width 
in 1874 at a cost for land damages of $86,000, and for construction of about 
#90,000. 

Broadway was widened and straightened on its northerly side in 1875, 
making it two hundred feet in width opposite the park. This measure met 
with serious opposition, speculative motives being ascribed to its originators. 
It was built in 1874 and 1875, and cost about $75,000 for land and construc- 
tion. 

BROADWAY PARK. 

With the Broadway widening was associated the laying out and con- 
struction of the Broadway park : they were mutual enterprises. The park 
scheme originated with the owners of Convent hill, Messrs. Klous and Lord. 
It met with fierce opposition, and its effect on local politics was volcanic, 
resulting, in 1876, in a complete overturn of the city government which in- 
augurated it, and in the election of an anti-park administration. The feeling 
against the park was so strong that, after its opponents came into power, it 
was even proposed to lay it out anew into lots and sell it for building pur- 
poses. 

Most of the ground which was filled over for the park was an old 
marsh, so soft and deep that, in building the fence around it, the posts were 
set on piles and a timber structure on piles built to sustain the curbing of 
the pond, the bottom of which has a double Mooring of boards covered with 
gravel to prevent the paving sinking into the mud. 

MILLKR'S RIVER. 

Previous to 1855, and perhaps for some years after, Miller's River was a 
comparatively pure stream ; it was the fishing and bathing place for that 
section of the town. In 1855 Mr. John P. Squire purchased a lot of land 
on the East Cambridge side of the river, and built his first establishment, 
its product being one animal daily. At first this caused little or no annoy- 
ance, but the phenomenal growth of Mr. Squire's business, and the building 
shortly after of another similar establishment by Mr. Charles H. North, 
followed later by other concerns, soon changed the Miller's River district 
into a malodorous and unenviable locality. It was several years, however, 
before complaints became general. The first reference to this nuisance by 
the selectmen was in their report of i8C><;; and in their report of 1870 they 
say, "Slaughter Houses, Pork and Lard factories, are questions to be con- 
sidered. . . . Shall they be erected and maintained on or near our main 
thoroughfares and in the midst of a crowded population ? . . . Does our 
town become more attractive, wholesome, or desirable as a place of resort 
or residence ? " etc. 



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WALTEK C. MENTZER. 




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SOAIEK.1'11. LI-:, PAST AND rKLSENT. 137 

Cambridge meanwhile had taken action in the matter, and in 1X72, by 
the combined efforts of the two cities, an act was obtained, supplemented by 
others, providing for the abatement of the nuisance by the construction of 
a trunk sewer through Somerville avenue, and the filling of the Miller's 
River basin. This work was begun in 1873 and completed in 1874; the 
sewer, eight feet in diameter inside, being one of the largest ever built in 
Boston or vicinity. 

OTHER EVENTS. 

Among the many events, municipal or otherwise, which have occurred 
since Somerville became a city, may be mentioned the semi-centennial 
celebration of 1892, described elsewhere, the agitation for annexation of 
this city to Boston, the movement for a soldiers' memorial building, and the 
consideration of the subject of more parks and of boulevards. 

ANNEXATION. 

The question of annexation to Boston has been informally considered 
and discussed, on several occasions, by the citizens of Somerville, so far, 
without definite result. In 1893 it received greater attention than ever be- 
fore. The merging into and becoming an important factor in a great 
metropolis has, to some, alluring features, and those who favored it worked 
zealously to accomplish the measure ; but the sentiment of the city has not 
as yet seemed favorable to its achievement. 

PARKS. 

The subject of parks and boulevards has often engrossed the attention 
of the citizens and city government. A movement to preserve that vener- 
able structure, the Powder House, resulted in its gift to the city with a 
small tract around it, by the owners, the purchase of more land, and the 
laying out of the grounds, which were named the " Nathan Tufts Park," in 
honor of the former owner, whose heirs presented it. 

The foundation for another park has been laid by the purchase of the 
" Wyatt pits " estate near Washington street, which probably will ere 
long gladden the denizens of that section with its lawns and walks. In 1891 
the trustees of the estate of J. C. Ayer offered a tract of land opposite the 
Highlands station, on the Lexington railroad, for park purposes, but in the 
unusual agitations and troubles of that year the matter was laid over by the 
city government and there rests. 

In the spring of this year, 1896, another park was proposed on the 
southerly slope of Prospect Hill to include the revolutionary remains and 
site of the old " citadel.'' The suggestion was received with much favor, a 
public meeting was held, and an association formed to further the project. 

No more appropriate spot could be found for a memorial building to 
commemorate the services and sufferings of the soldiers of two wars, the 
Revolution and the Rebellion, than this, their old camping-ground. 



138 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

TUFTS COLLEGE. 

The desirability of a denominational institution of learning had been 
under discussion for some time among leading Universalists of America ; 
but the first step taken for its realization was by the Rev. Thomas J. Saw- 
yer of New York City, now of Somerville. 

In the spring of 1^47 he wrote to the Rev. Hosea Ballou, 2d, of Mecl- 
ford, and the Rev. Thomas Whittemore of Cambridgeport, in relation to it, 
and soon after issued circulars, calling for a convention in New York on 
the 1 8th of May. At this meeting the need of such an institution was 
fully considered and decided upon, and a board of fifteen trustees elected. 

The Rev. Otis A. Skinner was appointed agent to solicit funds, the 
required amount being one hundred thousand dollars, all of which was 
subscribed before the close of 1851. 

It was at first proposed to locate the College in New York State, in 
either the Hudson or Mohawk Valleys. Meanwhile Mr. Oliver Dean, of 
Franklin, Mass., who afterward founded Dean Academy, by offer of liberal 
endowment, endeavored to secure its location in that town. 

It was destined to overlook none of the fair valleys of the Hudson, 
Mohawk or Charles, but that of the romantic Mystic ; for the liberal offer of 
Mr. Charles Tufts of Somerville, of twenty acres on \Yalnut Hill, was ac- 
cepted as the most desirable place, from its view, surroundings, and prox- 
imity to a great metropolis. Mr. Tufts' gift of twenty acres was soon 
increased to one hundred, supplemented by an additional tract of twenty 
acres from Mr. Timothy Cotting of Meclford. 

In appreciation of Mr. Tufts' generous gift, the College was given his 
name. Other liberal donations were also received ; among the most prom- 
inent givers were Sylvanus Packard, Thomas A. Goddard, and Doctor 
William J. Walker. Mr. Packard's gifts and bequests amounted to between 
three and four hundred thousand dollars, and Dr. Walker's to about two 
hundred thousand. 

In 1852 the charter for the college was obtained. It bears the signatures 
of three historic names : N. P. Banks, Speaker of the House ; Henry Wilson, 
President of the Senate ; and George S. Boutwell, Governor. The incorpo- 
rators were B. B. Muzzey, Timothy Cotting, and Richard Frothingham, Jr. 
At a meeting of the trustees on July 21, 1852, Rev. Thomas J. Sawyer was 
unanimously elected president, but he declined the office, and the choice 
then fell on Rev. Hosea Ballou, 2d, who retained the presidency until his 
death in 1861. 

On July 23, 1853, the corner-stone of the first building, " Ballou Hall," 
was laid. The day was beautiful ; large awnings surmounted with Ameri- 
can flags were provided for the ladies, a special train was furnished by the 
Lowell railroad, and between fifteen hundred and two thousand persons 
were present. Among the exercises was a hymn written by Mrs. N. T. 
Munroe, a prominent member of the first U niversalist Society of Somerville. 
Three students commenced study in 1854, though the building was not 
completed and formally opened until August 22, 1855. 



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CHARLES H. TAYLOR. 



$OMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 141 

The attendance upon the opening exercises was large, six hundred or 
more arriving by special train. A banquet was spread for nine hundred 
guests, among whom were Mr. and Mrs. Tufts, and hundreds were turned 
away. The first toast given was to their most honored guest. "Charles 
Tufts, the venerable founder of Tufts College; may the fruition of his proj- 
ect gladden his heart through all his earthly journey," to which the com- 
pany responded by rising and giving cheers. The exercises closed with 
the singing of " From all that dwell below the skies." 

In 1862 Rev. A. A. Miner was inaugurated as the second president 
and successor of Mr. Ballon, deceased. Dr. Miner held the office twelve 
years, resigning in December, 1874, and was followed in March, 1875, by 
Rev. Elmer H. Capen, its present president. 

Many other bequests have been made beside the ones mentioned ; those 
from the State, from P. T. Harnum, and from the estate of the Honorable 
Charles Robinson being the most important. The founder of this institu- 
tion was a citizen of Somerville, as is its president and are most of its pro- 
fessors. Most of its landed possessions are also here, with some of its 
buildings, its campus and its principal avenues of approach ; and thus with 
Medford, Somerville shares the renown of this " First Tniversalist College 
in the World." 

Charles Tufts was a descendant of Peter Tufts, who settled in Maiden 
previous to 1638. Mr. Tufts lived on the northerly side of Washington 
street, west of the Lowell railroad, which his property adjoined ; the house 
is still standing. 

OLD LANDMARKS. 

Many mementos of former days still remain. Our hills are yet here, 
though from most have disappeared all traces of their revolutionary occupa- 
tion. Until within a few years remains of old forts and breastworks were 
visible; those on the Central Hill park were dug away in 1878 regardless of 
protests : the " Fort " on this park is modern, and was built in 1885. It has 
no history and is not on the lines of the revolutionary works, although with- 
in their enclosure. The cannon in it were used in the defenses of Washing- 
ton during the Civil War. On an estate on the opposite side of Highland 
avenue old breastworks were still in existence in 1892, where now is an 
apartment house. There was also an old redoubt on the top of a ledgy 
knoll near Mystic avenue, commanding a long reach of Mystic River; a few 
years earlier, a little higher up Winter Hill stood another redoubt, since dug 
down in excavating the ledge. ( >n the southerly slope of Prospect Hill 
revolutionary traces still remain, tradition says they were the old tent-holes 
of 1775, or perhaps of the Burgoyne prisoners. These are all that are now 
left in the city. 

There are many houses of a century or more ago, some prerevolution- 
ary, among these Mr. Blaisdell's on Somerville avenue, where Samuel Tufts 
lived in 1775, and which was later General Greene's headquarters, and the 
( Miver Tufts house on Sycamore street, the headquarters of General Lee. 



142 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND I'RESEXT. 

In 1890 the city erected tablets on many historic spots, they were as 
follows : - 

On Abner Blaisdell's house, Somerville avenue : " Headquarters of 
Brigadier-General Nathaniel Greene, in command of the Rhode Island 
Troops during siege of Boston. 1775-6." 

On the Oliver Tufts house, Sycamore street, now owned by Mrs. Flet- 
cher : " Headquarters of Major-General Charles Lee, commanding left wing 
of the American Army during the siege of Boston. 1775-6." 

On the stonework of the battery, Central Hill park : " This battery was 
erected by the city in 1885, and is within the lines of the 'French Redoubt,' 
built by the Revolutionary Army in 1775, as a part of the besieging lines of 
Boston. The guns were donated by Congress, and were in service during 
the late Civil War." 

On Prospect Hill : " On this Hill the Union Flag, with its Thirteen 
Stripes the Emblem of the United Colonies First bade Defiance to an 
Enemy, January i, 1776. Here was the Citadel, the most formidable work 
in the American Lines during the siege of Boston : June 17, 1775, to March 
17, 1776." 

On Elm street, corner of \Yillow avenue : " A sharp right occurred here, 
between the Patriots and the British, April 19, 1775. --This marks British 
Soldiers' graves.' 

On Washington street, corner of Dane street : "John Woolrich, Indian 
trader, built near this place in 1630. --The first white settler on Somerville 
soil." 

At junction Broadway and Main street : " Paul Revere passed over this 
road, in his midnight ride to Lexington and Concord, April 18, 1775. Site 
of the 'Winter Hill Fort,' a stronghold built by the American Forces while 
besieging Boston, 1775-6." 

On Washington street opposite Rossmore street : " On this Hillside 
fames Miller, Minute-man, aged 65, was slain by the British, April 19, 1775. 
- ' I am too old to run.' ' 

Though required improvements may sometimes sweep away ancient 
monuments, yet those interested in local history view with regret the often- 
times needless destruction of landmarks which recall so vividly the story of 
the past. 



Nature and circumstance have given Somerville an admirable location. 
On the north and west are the classic halls of Tufts and of Harvard : to the 
south and east, the metropolis and the heights of Bunker Hill. In the near 
valley ebbs and flows the silent Mystic. In their midst is Somerville "on 
her seven hills," each crowned with a historic halo, and from each extends 
a beautiful and widening landscape, thick with villages and cities, fading 
among pleasant hills and valleys in the misty distance. 





His HONOR ALBION A. PERRY 





GEORGE I. VINCENT. 



HISTORY OF THE CITY GOVERNMENT. 

l;Y <; FORGE I. VINCENT. 



CHAPTER XII. 

FIRST BOARD OF OFFICERS. STATISTICS OF POPULATION, VALUATION, ETC. ABATEMENT 
OF THE MILLER'S RIVER NUISANCE. MAYOR FURBER'S ADMINISTKA'I i< >x. ERECTION 
OF NEW POLICE BUILDING. CONSTRUCTION OF THE BROADWAY PARK. GREAT 
SANITARY* IMPROVEMENT. MAYOR BELKNAP'S ADMINISTRATION. CONSTRUCTION 01 
LARGE SEWERS. COMPLETION OF THE PUBLIC PARK. FIRST CONTRIBUTION TO 
THE SINKING FUND. ADMINISTRATION OF MAYOR BRUCE. RECONSTRUCTION OF 
BRIDGES. ADMINISTRATION OF MAYOR CUMMINGS. -IMPROVEMENTS ON CENTRAL 
HILL. ERECTION OF NEW BUILDING FOR THE PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

SOMERVILLE became incorporated as a city under an act of the legisla- 
ture, chapter 182 of the Acts of 1871, which was approved by the governor, 
April 14, and accepted by the voters of the town, April 27, 1871. 

As directed by the act of incorporation, the selectmen, on the twenty- 
third of September, 1871, divided the town into four wards, which still 
remain unchanged, and, on the eighteenth day of November following, 
issued warrants for the holding of an election, in the several wards, on the 
fourth day of December, of a mayor, eight aldermen, two to be selected 
from each ward, four common councilmen and three members of the school 
committee from each ward, and the necessary officers to conduct elections 
in the several wards ; the mayor and aldermen to be voted for at large, and 
the remaining officers by the voters of their respective wards only. 

The election resulted in the choice of the following named officers to 
assume the management of the new city, for the year 1872 :- 

Mayor, George (). Urastow. Aldermen : William H. Furber and George 
W. Hadley of ward one; Clark Bennett and Daniel E. Chase of ward two: 
Jacob T. Glines and John R. Poor of ward three ; Person Davis and John 
G. Hall of ward four. Common Councilmen : Ezra I). Conant, Edwin A. 
( 'urtis, Michael Dechan and Charles G. Pope of ward one; John T. Bolton, 
Oren S. Knapp, Patrick Rafferty and George W. Wyatt of ward two; Wal- 
ter S. Barnes, Stewart French, Albert Kenneson and Henry F. Woods of 
ward three; Wesley C. Crane, Thomas H. Lord, Nathaniel Morrison and 
( 'hristopher E. Rymes of ward four. 

George W. Hadley resigned the office of alderman, March 2 ; and March 
13, Horace Haskins was elected to succeed him. 

The city charter, except in the preliminaries above mentioned, did not 

'45 



146 



SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND r RESENT. 



take effect until the first Monday, which was also the first day of January, 
1X72. On that clay, at ten o'clock in the forenoon, the mayor, aldermen 
and common councilmen assembled, in pursuance of notice from the board 
of selectmen, in the "'Old High School Building," on Highland avenue, 
which was, soon after, converted into a city hall. The meeting was called 
to order by Austin Belknap, chairman of the board of selectmen, and after 
prayer by the Reverend Henry H. Barber, pastor of the First Congrega- 
tional Society (Unitarian) of Somerville, the oaths of office were adminis- 
tered to the several officers by Columbus Tyler, Esq., justice of the peace. 
The common council then withdrew, and organized by the choice of Oren 
S. Knapp as president, and Solomon Davis as clerk, and, immediately after, 
the board of aldermen and the common council, in joint convention, 
elected, as the first city clerk, Charles E. Oilman, who had served as town 
clerk ever since the setting off of Somerville from Charlestown, in 1842. 

.Mayor Brastow, in his first inaugural address, made a statement show- 
ing the growth of the town, the items of which are presented -in the follow- 
ing table, as are also the corresponding items for the year 1896 :- 



1842. 
1,013 



1871. 



1872. 
16,000 



1896. 

55.000 



Population of Somerville . 
Assessed value of taxable 

property . . $988,513 515.775,000 54^,023,550 

Whole amount of money 

raised by taxation . . #475o 5260460 #786,412 

Number of schools . 4 5 2 '54 

Number of school teachers 4 65 220 

Whole amount appropriated 

for the support of schools Si, 800 551;. 400 >2o(>.ooo 

Amount of debt, including 

water debt . . . 5 593o49 51.506.500 

Valuation of public property 660,000 52.356,620 

Number of church edifices o 1 1 30 

The most important measure that demanded the attention of the first 
city government, and one of great magnitude, was the abatement of the 
nuisance in that part of Miller's River which extended from the Boston and 
Lowell railroad, at the Cambridge and Somerville line, to the rear of the 
L'nion Glasshouse on Webster avenue. This river received the drainage from 
two large slaughter-houses and several sausage and grease factories, situ- 
ated in Cambridge and Somerville, and some house drainage; and the ac- 
cumulation of filth upon its fiats, which were bare at low tide, caused an 
intolerable nuisance, which was a serious menace to the health and pros- 
perity of both Cambridge and Somerville. As a result of the joint efforts 
of the two cities before the legislatures of 1872 and 1873, laws were enacted, 
in the latter year, for the filling, by the land owners, of the river and the low 
lands adjoining, and for the construction of a trunk sewer from Craigie 
Bridge, on the Charles River, in Cambridge, through Bridge street, in Cam- 
bridge, and Milk street (now Somerville avenue), in Somerville, to Pros- 
pect street ; the cost of the construction and maintenance of said sewer to 
be borne by Somerville and Cambridge, in the proportions, which were 





GEORGE A. BRUCE. 



GEORGE O. BRASTOW. 




. 



. 




WILLIAM H. FURBER. 



AUSTIN BELKNAF. 





AARON SARGENT. 



DOUGLAS FRAZAR. 










x 




CLARENCE E. MELENEY. 



JAIRUS MANN. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 149 

afterwards determined, of five-ninths for Somerville, and four-ninths for 
Cambridge. 

The carrying out of these measures, which was begun in the year 1873, 
wrought such a change that a recent comer can hardly realize the previous 
condition of the district. 

The policy of constructing brick sidewalks was inaugurated by the first 
city government, under an act, obtained from the legislature, authorizing 
the assessment of one-half the cost upon the abutting estates, and several 
miles were laid during, the two years of Mayor Brastow's administration, 
viz. 1872 and 1873. 

The city council of 1872 also made provision for a public library, which 
was opened, in the city hall, May i, 11873, with 2,386 volumes. 

Other great improvements made by the government of 1873 were the 
widening of Highland avenue, between Medford and Central streets, to a 
uniform width of sixty feet, and the increasing of the width of Milk street 
(now Somerville avenue) its entire length, from the East Cambridge line to 
North Cambridge. The greater part of the work on the latter improvement 
was done in the year 1874. 

Mayor William H. Furber's administration, covering the years 1874 
and 1875, is specially memorable for the laying out and construction of the 
Broadway Park and the widening and straightening of Broadway, on the 
northerly side, between Temple street and Mount Benedict. During the 
same period the new police building on Bow street was erected, the exten- 
sion of the trunk sewer in Milk, Washington and Beacon streets, from 
Prospect street to Kent street, was begun, the widening and reconstruction 
of Milk street was completed, and brick sidewalks were laid on both sides 
in its entire length. The name of Milk street was then changed to Somer- 
ville avenue. Until the erection of the new police building, the police de- 
partment had occupied the one-story wooden building at the southerly corner 
of Milk and Prospect streets, now occupied by the water board, and the 
police court, since the incorporation of the city, had occupied a room in 
the city hall. Most of the room which the court vacated was added to the 
space occupied by the public library. 

Another most important measure was the introduction of the electric 
fire alarm system, which was completed and put in operation June 17, 1874. 

Xo other measure, in the history of the city, has caused such intense 
feeling and bitter controversy as did the laying out and construction of the 
Broadway Park. Under an act of the legislature passed in March, 1874, a 
section of land comprising some sixteen acres, lying in a hollow between 
Winter Hill and Mount Benedict, and extending from Broadway to Mystic 
avenue, was acquired for the purposes of a public park, and the city also 
secured, without cost, a strip fifty feet in width, for an avenue, on either 
side of the park lands, and the filling required for the park and the two 
avenues. This land was about three feet below the grade established by 
the city as a sanitary protection, and was, to a certain extent, the natural 
basin for the watershed of the elevations between which it lay. In the 



15 XOMERl'ILLE. PAST AND 1'RESEXT. 

language of Mayor Furber's inaugural address of 1875, it " was being rapidly 
and densely built upon, without change of grade, and the drainage of many 
of the buildings erected allowed to flow unmolested upon the surface, thus 
forming a nucleus for pestilence and disease, that was tending to depreciate 
the surrounding property and to jeopardize the health of the dwellers there- 
on.'' Before applying to the legislature, the owners of the adjacent lands 
endeavored to secure the territory by private purchase, but a few of the 
owners refused to sell at any price. 

Although the plans for the improvement of the lands adjacent have 
not as yet been fully carried out, yet the city is now enjoying a beautiful 
park, and a nuisance which threatened most serious results has, by its crea- 
tion, been abated. 

The large expenditures made during the first four years of the city, the 
chief of which have herein been alluded to, involved a rapid increase of the 
funded debt, and the business depression, and the general shrinkage of 
values which followed, precluded, for several years, the making of any public 
improvements that were not actually indispensable. In fact, the heavy debt 
and high taxes with which Somerville, as well as nearly every other city, 
was burdened made it the chief duty of city governments to reduce the 
debt and curtail expenses. The situation was bravely met, and for several 
years the most rigid economy was practiced. 

While Mayor Austin Belknap was in office, during the years 1876 and 
1877, the trunk sewer for the southerly side of the city, which had been laid 
in Beacon street, westerly to Kent street, was extended through Beacon 
street, Somerville avenue, Mossland street and Elm street, to Davis square. 

The public park on Broadway, which was laid out and nearly com- 
pleted under Mayor Furber, was finished in the year 1876, and on the seven- 
teenth of June it was formally opened to the public. At six o'clock in the 
afternoon, the city council met at the park, and, after marching around iti 
assembled, in convention, at a stand which had been erected under the large 
elm tree in Broadway, near the park. Mayor Belknap spoke briefly in regard 
to the conception and cost of the park, and introduced Alderman Jacob T. 
Glines s chairman of the committee on highways, under whose direction 
the park had been constructed. Alderman Glines delivered up the custody 
of the park into the hands of the city council, and Mayor Belknap. after 
receiving it from the construction committee, made an appropriate address 
and placed the park in charge of the committee on public property. The 
exercises were concluded with music and a salute of sixteen guns. 

The law of 1875, regulating municipal indebtedness, took effect in 1876, 
when the first contribution of 545,130 was made to the sinking fund. 

The Honorable George A. Bruce filled the office of mayor during the 
years 1878, 1879 and iSSo. Attention had been called by Mayor Belknap, 
and was again directed, by Mayor Bruce, to the unsightly, and in some cases, 
unsafe condition of the highway bridges maintained by the Fitchburg and 
the Boston and Lowell railroads over their tracks in our city. The bridge 
at \Yashington street, on the Fitchburg road, and the one at Medford street, 








MARK F. BURNS. 




WILLIAM H. HODGKINS. 



'II.U-:. PAST AND PRESENT. \^\ 

on the Lowell, were specially objectionable : the latter being at a marked 
angle to the street. During Mayor Bruce's term both of these were re- 
placed by the railroad companies, in co-operation with the city, with wider 
and substantial structures that added greatly to the public convenience 
and to the good appearance of the streets. New bridges have since been 
built over the Lowell road at Cross street, Walnut street, Central street. 
Cedar street and Broadway. 

The office of mayor of the city was filled by Hon. John A. Cummings 
during the years iSSi, 18X2, 1883 and 1884. The work of grading and im- 
proving the city's land on Central Hill, which had been recommended by 
several of his predecessors, was begun and continued during his administra- 
tion, and the battery standing on the brow of the hill, and mounting four 
cannons used during the war of the rebellion, the erection of which Mayor 
Cummings warmly recommended, was partially constructed in the year 
1884, and completed during the first year of the administration of Mayor 
Burns. 

In the year 1884, the public library having outgrown its quarters in 
the city hall, and the room it occupied being much needed for city offices, 
a new building for its accommodation was begun on Central Hill, east of 
and near the city hall. This building was finished and occupied in the 
year 1885. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

HISTORY OF THE CITY GOVERNMENT (Continued). 

ADMINISTRATION OF MAYOR liUUNS. THE WATER SUPPLY. APPLICATION OF THE SlNK- 

INI; FUND. REDUCTION i >F THE Cn v DEIST. INTKODUCTION OF THE POLICE SIGNAL 
SYSTEM AND ELECTRIC STREET LIGHTING. CONSTRUCTION OF NEW SCHOOLHOUSES. 

-ADMINISTRATION OF MAYOR I'opE. INTRODUCTION OF A HlGH WATER SERVICE. 

-THE OLD POWDER HOUSE. THE SO.MERVILLE HOSPITAL ORGANIZED AND ESTAB- 
LISHED. 

MAYOR CUMMIN* ;s was succeeded by Hon. Mark F. Burns, who was 
the city's chief magistrate for the four years beginning with the year 1885. 
In his first year of office the first Moor of the city hall was remodeled so as 
to utilize the room vacated by the public library. 

It had long been felt that the city's contract with the city of Boston for 
the taking of Mystic Lake water should be modified in the interest of Som- 
erville, and different city governments had endeavored to secure such mod- 
ification. 

Boston pumps the water from the lake into the reservoir on College 
Hill, from which Chelsea and Everett, as well as Somerville, are supplied, 
and thence delivers the water into Somerville's distribution pipes. The 
rates are collected from our water takers by Boston, and are the same as 
those charged to her own citizens. Under the old contract Boston paid into 
the treasury of Somerville fifteen per cent of the rates so collected up to the 



154 SOMKKl'ILLE, PAST AND 1'RESEXT. 

amount of ^20,000, twenty per cent on the excess of $20,000 and up to 
530,000, twenty-five per cent on the excess of 530,000 and up to 540,000, 
thirty per cent on the excess of 540,000 and up to 550,000, and forty per 
cent on all over 550,000. July i, 1887, a new contract with Boston was 
made under which Somerville receives from Boston fifty per cent of all col- 
lections. 

Somerville had faithfully observed the law passed in 1875, regulating 
municipal indebtedness, and contributed, year by year, to a sinking fund to 
be applied to the payment of the funded debt. This course imposed a large 
tax rate and restricted permanent improvements, as all expenditures must, 
until the net debt exclusive of the water debt was reduced to the limit of 
two and one-half per cent of the assessed valuation, be met by taxation. 
Mayor Burns, in his inaugural addresses of 1886 and 1887, recommended an 
application to the legislature for a special act permitting the immediate ap- 
plication of the sinking funds to the reduction of the debt, and an extension 
of the time within which the remainder of the debt might be paid. A law 
granting these privileges was enacted in the year 1887, and on the 23d of 
March, 1 888, by the application of the sinking funds, which amounted to 
5654,312.66, the debt was reduced from 51.525,000 to 5870.687.36. Under the 
new act this remaining debt must be paid within twenty years, and the op- 
tion was given the city of providing for its liquidation by means of a new 
sinking fund or by paying, directly, a certain portion every year. By an or- 
dinance passed in February, 1888, the city council established the latter 
policy, which was to apply to the debt then outstanding and to any that might 
thereafter be incurred. Under this ordinance, whenever a loan is negoti- 
ated the bonds are so written that a proportionate part will mature annually 
up to the limit of time within which the whole must be paid. 

Under Mayor Burns' administration the police signal system and elec- 
tric street lighting were introduced : also the support of poor department 
was reorganized, under special legislation, so that the overseers serve with- 
out compensation and have the services of an agent, who devotes his en- 
tire time to the business of the department, and a secretary. 

During this period the policy was established of constructing four-room 
schoolhouses, as well as larger ones, of brick, and one of the first of these 
buildings, which was erected on Cherry street, was appropriately named 
the Burns School. A hose house, erected on the old ledge lot on Somer- 
ville avenue at the corner of Lowell street, was also added to the buildings 
of the fire department. 

The Hon. Charles G. Pope served as mayor of the city during the 
years 1889, 1890 and iS(;i. An important feature of his administration was 
the introduction of a water service for the high lands of the city. A tank 
thirty feet in diameter and one hundred feet high, estimated to hold about 
five hundred and thirty thousand gallons, was erected on the top of Spring 
Hill, and supplied with water by a pumping plant on the City Farm on Cedar 
street at the corner of Broadway. By means of this system the very highest 
lands in our city were made desirable for building purposes, as an abundance 




MELVILLE D. JONES. 




L. HERBERT HUNTLEY. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND 1'RI-ISENT. 157 

of water was assured, with an ample pressure for fire protection as well as 
other purposes. 

In the year 1890 the heirs of Nathan Tufts donated to the city, on cer- 
tain conditions, which were accepted by the city council, about 65,000 feet 
of land, near Broadway and Elm street, with the ( )ld Powder House, so- 
called, standing thereon. Referring to the subject, Mayor Pope, in his in- 
augural address, delivered January 5, 1891, said :- 

''Through the generosity of one of the families that have been identified 
with the history of Somerville from the first, the city has recently come into 
possession of the ' only ancient ruin ' within the Commonwealth. The story 
of the Powder House, so far as known, has often been repeated. Erected 
at some time between 1700 and 1720, as the records show, it was first used 
as a grist-mill. The Province of Massachusetts bought it in 1747, and in the 
deed given it is spoken of as the stone edifice formerly a windmill. It was 
then remodeled for a powder magazine, and used as such by the Province 
and Commonwealth until 1822. It was the scene of one of the early events 
in the stirring days of the Revolution, as you all know." 

By an act of the legislature approved May 7, i.Syi, the city council 
was authorized to acquire additional land adjacent to the site of the Old 
Powder House, for the purposes of a public park. 

During Mayor Pope's term a considerable sum was expended in con- 
tinuing the construction of the Central Hill Park, and that portion between 
the High Schoolhouse and the engine house was substantially finished. In 
his second year of office memorial tablets were erected, marking points of 
historic interest in our city, as stated at length in another portion of this 
volume. 

The Somerville Hospital was founded during Mayor Pope's administra- 
tion. Miss Martha R. Hunt, a highly respected resident of Somerville, de- 
sirous of providing, within our borders, for the proper care of the sick and 
injured, communicated her wishes to the mayor and agreed to give a gener- 
ous sum of money, if the citizens would contribute a like sum, for the pur- 
pose of establishing a hospital. I'nder Mayor Pope's direction, and largely 
through his efforts, the requisite funds were secured and the corporation of 
the Somerville Hospital was organized under the laws of the Commonwealth, 
Mayor Pope being chosen president of the board of trustees. Land was 
purchased on Crocker, Tower and Crown streets, and suitable buildings 
erected, to which others may be added when required. The hospital was 
opened in the year 1893, and is thus spoken of in the inaugural address de- 
livered by Mayor Hodgkins at the beginning of the following year : - 

" Although this is a private and in no sense a public institution sup- 
ported by the city, it is one in which Somerville may well feel an honorable 
pride. Its completion engaged the last labors of the Hon. Charles G. Pope, 
my predecessor in the mayoralty, who departed this life on the 24th clay of 
April last. He lived long enough to witness its completion, after long and 
faithful labor in perfecting its organization. It was dedicated on May 17. 
1893, and was immediately occupied. Though the need of such an institu- 
tion has long been recognized, yet such was not fully understood until the 
hospital had demonstrated it by its humane and noble work. Having no 
endowment or stated income, it relies for support principally upon the con- 



158 SOMLRl'ILLl-:, PAST .IXD PRESEXT. 

tributions of our benevolent citizens, Owing to the fact that it receives and 
maintains many who might otherwise be a charge upon the city, I trust the 
citizens will not be heedless to its calls for financial aid." 



CHAPTER XIV. 
HISTORY OF THE CITY GOVKRXMKXI (Concluded}. 

ADMINISTRATION OF MAYOR HODCKTNS. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NATHAN TUFTS 

1'ARK. CELEBRATION OF THE SEMI-CENTENNIAL ANNIVERSARY. PAVINC IMTOKTAN I 

THOKOTT;IIFARES. ERECTION OF THE NEW HIGH SCHOOL BITLDING. A Xi:\\ 

CITY HALL ADVOCATED. ERECTION OF A NEW CENTRAL FIRE STATION. CREA'I 

IMPROVEMENTS MADE IN VARIOUS DIRECTION^. ADMINISTRATION OF MAYOR I'EKRY. 

CHANGES AT THE CITY HALL. IMPI >RTANT IMI'RI IVEMENTS IN THE SEWER SYSTEM. 

- HIGH CREDIT OF THE CITY. FUNCTIONS OF DIFFERENT BOARDS m THE CITY 

I .' "YERNMENT. SCOPE OF ClTY CHARTER. 

Hox. WILLIAM H. HODCKIXS filled the office of mayor of the city dur- 
ing the four years beginning in January, 1892. 

In May, 1892, the city council voted to accept the gift of 68,357 feet of 
land, including the site of the Powder House, tendered by the heirs of Nathan 
Tufts in the year 1890, and to purchase in addition, under authority of 
the act of 1891, hereinbefore referred to, 129,497 square feet at the junction 
of Broadway and Elm street. The entire tract forms a square of between 
four and five acres, with the Old Powder House standing on a rocky emi- 
nence in its midst. The grounds were artistically laid out by the then city 
engineer, the late Horace L. Eaton, and work thereon was prosecuted 
throughout Mayor Hodgkins' administration until the year 1895, when it 
was finished, and a beautiful park on ground of great historic interest was 
thrown open to the public. It is called the Nathan Tufts Park, as provided 
in the deed of gift. 

March 3, 1892, was the semi-centennial anniversary of the incorporation 
of the town of Somerville. Because of the general inclemency of the 
weather at that season the event was observed, and very successfully, on the 
following i/th of June, by a parade composed of various military organiza- 
tions, old and distinguished citizens, with the city government and invited 
guests, and an imposing representation of the trades and manufactures of 
the city. The program also included a banquet, an oration, and fire- 
works: and a large and most interesting collection of historic relics was ex- 
hibited in the High School. Mayor Hodgkins thus spoke of the occasion 
in his next following inaugural address : - 

"On the i 7th of June last, in accordance with a plan devised by the 
Citizens' Association, of which Hon. Charles S. Lincoln was chairman, the 
fiftieth anniversary of the incorporation of Somerville was celebrated. The 
occasion is of too recent occurrence to require much comment at this time. 
I doubt if the event will ever be forgotten by those who participated in it. 
It was a day in which intense and almost insufferable heat struggled for the 













JAMES M. ANDREWS. 




JOSIAH N. PRATT. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 161 

mastery, only to be overcome by tempest and storm. The gaily decorated 
city was thronged with spectators, and hundreds of former citizens returned 
to engage in the festivities of the day. The occasion was favored with the 
presence of His Excellency Governor Russell and members of his staff, 
members and ex-members of Congress, mayors of cities, and other men dis- 
tinguished in various walks of life. During the furious tempest in the after- 
noon, just at the close of the parade, many lives were in danger, but, provi- 
dentially, only a few persons were injured. The literary exercises intended 
for the afternoon were held in the afternoon of the following day in an im- 
mense tent erected on Central Hill Park, where the largest audience ever 
assembled in this city listened to an eloquent and admirable historical ad- 
dress delivered by Hon. George A. Bruce, ex-Mayor of Somerville." 

The paving of Somerville avenue had been advocated by many citizens 
for several years. Somerville had no paved streets, but the bad condition 
of this avenue, notwithstanding frequent repairs, seemed to demonstrate that 
it was not possible to maintain a good macadamized road under the heavy 
teaming which passed over it. A special act of the legislature was obtained 
authorizing a paving loan of one hundred thousand dollars, and that portion 
of the avenue extending from Medford street to Park street, including the 
whole of Union square, was paved with granite blocks, as was also Webster 
avenue, from Union square to the Fitchburg railroad. Similar paving has 
since been laid in Washington street, from Union square to Tufts street, 
and in Medford street, from Somerville avenue to the Cambridge line. 

The northerly line of Broadway had been straightened, in connection 
with the laying out of the Broadway Park, but the southerly line, which, in 
the vicinity of the park, described a long bow, remained unchanged. This 
portion of the street, being of a width varying from one hundred to two 
hundred feet, was unsightly, its great width was unnecessary, and the cost 
of maintenance was large. In conjunction with the West End Street Rail- 
way Company, a parkway was constructed in the year 1892, in the middle 
of the street, conforming, in width, substantially to the varying width of the 
roadway, and the street railway tracks were laid through its centre. The 
result is most pleasing, and the improvement is universally commended. 

For many years the High School, an imposing structure erected in iS;i, 
the last year of the town government, had been badly crowded, so that the 
lowest class was divided ; each division attending but three hours. The 
building originally contained two large schoolrooms, calculated for about 
ninety pupils each, with ample classrooms, laboratory, etc. The third story 
consisted of a large public hall with suitable anterooms. In the course of 
years the hall and ante-rooms had been converted into schoolrooms, addi- 
tional seats had been placed in the original schoolrooms, and all available 
space had been utilized. The enlargement of the building had been con- 
sidered, but it was deemed best to erect an English high school and use 
the old building for a classical or Latin school. The site selected was the 
crown of Central Hill, between the old High School and the public library 
building, and directly back of the Unitarian church. 

With the exception of the church property, comprising some twenty 
thousand square feet of land, the entire block bounded by Highland ave- 



1 62 SOMEKriLLE, PAST AXD J'KESEA'T. 

nue, School street, the Lowell railroad, and Medford and Walnut streets, 
was owned by the city, and Mayor Hodgkins, in his inaugural address of 
1893, recommended its purchase. The property was acquired the same year, 
and the erection of the English High School was begun. The church was 
allowed to stand until the spring of 1895, when a portion of the new church 
edifice, which the society was erecting on Highland avenue at the corner of 
Trull lane, became ready for occupancy. The inauguration of the city 
government of 1895 was held in the old church, and the last use made of it 
was the holding of a fair, in aid of the Somerville Hospital, in March, 1895. 
After the demolition of the building the grounds were graded and grassed, 
and walks were laid to the schoolhouses and the public library building. 
The English High School was opened in September, 1895. 

The increase of public business, incident to the rapid growth of the city, 
taxed to the utmost the capacity of the city hall. With the exception of the 
space at the rear end of the building, vacated by the police court and the 
public library, the room available for city business remained the same in 
1895 as it was in 1872. In 1895 the clerk of committees, who had occupied 
a room connected with the assessors' office, took possession of the mayor's 
room, on the second floor, and various officers needing desk room only, 
were accommodated in the rooms of the board of aldermen and the common 
council. 

Mayor Hodgkins, in his inaugural addresses of 1893, 1894 and 1895, 
called attention to the need of a new city hall, and recommended the pro- 
curing of plans and estimates of the cost. He also presented, as a plan 
for the ultimate development of the Central Hill Park, the removal of the 
Central Fire Station, at the corner of Walnut street, and the erection of a 
much larger one, for which there was urgent need, on the Brastow School 
lot on Medford street, leaving the end of the park near Walnut street avail- 
able as a site for a new city hall ; the erection of a soldiers' memorial build- 
ing as part of an enlargement of the public library building, extended west- 
erly, and the removal of the old City Hall and the reduction of the knoll on 
which it stands so as to give a proper slope toward School street and High- 
land avenue. 

A new central fire station was erected, in 1894, on the Brastow School 
lot, as recommended by the mayor, but the old fire station has not been 
removed. In the same year a fire station, for a ladder truck, was erected 
on Highland avenue near Cedar street, and in 1895 a steam fire engine house 
was erected on Broadway at the corner of Cross street. 

A new city stable was erected on the City Farm on Broadway, in iS<j4, 
and the old stable was given over to the board of health. With the facili- 
ties thus afforded, this board was enabled to abandon the contract system 
of collecting ashes and offal, and to do this work by the day ; the necessary 
outfit being purchased, and a superintendent employed to oversee the work. 
The expense of the new system is greater, but the service is far better. 

In 1895 the Wyatt Pit, so-called, situated in rear of Washington street, 
in ward two, was acquired, under a special act of the legislature, to be used, 




HOWARD D. MOORE. 




WILLIAM H. BERRY. 



' /7/././-;, PAST .IXD PRESENT. 165 

ultimately, as a public park ; the act also authorizing the acquisition of 
lands adjacent for the same purpose. This was an old clay pit, filled with 
water, and, as it was unguarded by fences, was a source of danger ; several 
drowning accidents having occurred there. For this reason, mainly, it was 
taken by the city. It has been enclosed with a high board fence, and is 
used, by the board of health, for an ash dump, for which purpose it was 
also used before it became the property of the city. 

Hon. Albion A. Perry became mayor of the city January 6, 1896. On 
his recommendation, presented in his inaugural address, a temporary solu- 
tion of the city hall problem has been reached by the addition, at the rear 
of the city hall, of a structure somewhat larger than the old building, and 
the remodeling of the present offices on the first floor. 

The city treasurer, assessors, city engineer and clerk of committees 
will occupy the addition, and the city clerk, water board, city messenger, 
inspector of buildings, etc., will have offices in the old part of the building. 
The second floor of the old building, in which are the chambers of the 
board of aldermen and the common council and the office of the mayor, 
will not be changed, except by the opening of a doorway from the alder- 
manic chamber into the rear hallway. The work is nearly completed, and it 
is expected that the accommodations afforded will be sufficient for several 
years to come. 

The territory at the foot of the slope southwest of Holland street and 
bordering on Cambridge has long been in need of drainage, but, being at 
too low a level to drain into the Somerville sewers, its wants in that respect 
have not been supplied. After considerable study by the engineers, and 
much consultation, an arrangement has been made between the cities of 
Cambridge and Somerville, under an act of the legislature of the year 1896, 
for the construction of a sewer and also a large surface-water drain from the 
metropolitan sewer in Cambridge, at Alewife Brook, through the valley of 
Tannery Brook in Cambridge and Somerville to the vicinity of Davis square. 
By this means not only will sewerage facilities be afforded the territory just 
referred to, but substantial relief will be given the sewers around Davis 
square, the capacity of which has for some time past been seriously overtaxed 
during heavy rains. Work is now progressing on this sewer and drain, the 
latter having its outlet into Alewife Brook, and the former into the Metro- 
politan sewer. 

It is not intended in this paper to name all of the improvements made 
by the city, but merely to mention the more important. Streets, sewers and 
sidewalks have been laid out and constructed, from year to year, school- 
houses have been erected, street railways extended, street lights provided, 
the fire and police departments enlarged, and all the various facilities af- 
forded for the comfort and convenience of the public that are expected of a 
modern city. 

While the administrations of Mayors Belknap, Bruce, Cummings and 
Burns were not marked by many notable public improvements, yet their 
work is none the less commendable, as by a rigid economy and good man- 
agement they reduced a large debt nearly one-half, until it was brought 



1 66 SOMERl'fLLE. PAST AND PRESENT. 

within the legal limit, and at the same time paid all expenses, including the 
cost of new buildings, from the annual tax levy. 

Thus the city enjoyed the best of credit during a period of financial 
depression, and secured a borrowing capacity which, by the increase of tax- 
able property, has been continued, and has enabled later city governments 
to make liberal provision for the increasing needs of the community. 

The charter granted to Somerville, by the legislature, was of the kind 
commonly granted to cities at the time. It adhered, as closely as possible, 
to town methods ; the city council (consisting of the board of aldermen 
and the common council) exercising the powers of the town, and the board 
of aldermen those of the selectmen ; the action of both being largely 
governed by the general laws of the State. Thus all appropriations are 
made, loans authorized, claims settled, public property purchased or sold, 
and public buildings erected by order of the city council, which also enacts 
all ordinances and has jurisdiction in the matters of the laying out, con- 
struction and repair of streets, the erection of street lights, and the care and 
maintenance of all public property ; while the board of aldermen is charged, 
among other things, with the construction and maintenance of sewers, the 
laying of brick sidewalks and setting of edgestones, and the granting of 
licenses of various kinds, and of locations for street railways and for lines 
of electric wires. 

The assessors and assistant assessors, city auditor, city clerk, city 
physician, city solicitor, city treasurer, overseers of the poor, superin- 
tendent of streets and trustees of the public library, are elected by the 
city council, as are also fence viewers, field drivers, measurers of wood 
and bark, and pound keepers. All other officers, with the members of the 
police and fire departments, are appointed by the mayor; the appoint- 
ments, except of keeper of the lock-up and burial agents for the interment 
of indigent soldiers and the wives and widows of the same, being subject to 
confirmation by the board of aldermen. The members of the police and 
fire departments hold their appointments until removed by the mayor and 
aldermen. 

All public works, except the construction and maintenance of the water 
works, are carried on by the city council or the board of aldermen, ac- 
cording as the one or the other may have jurisdiction, acting through com- 
mittees, which are assisted by superintendents and the city engineer. 

There are five boards which are either appointed by the mayor and 
aldermen or elected by the city council, that are entirely independent of 
both, except as to the amount of their appropriations. These are the board 
of assessors, the board of health, the board of overseers of the poor, the 
board of registrars of voters, and the water board. The water board de- 
rives its authority from the city charter, and the duties of the other four 
are defined by the general laws of the State. The assessors and assistant 
assessors and the board of registrars of voters receive salaries fixed by 
the city council, and are provided with all necessary clerical assistance. 
The members of the other three boards serve without compensation. The 
board of health has two agents, the board of overseers has an agent and 







LEONARD B. CHANDLER. 




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SOMERl'ILI.E. PAST .L\'D r RESENT. 169 

a secretary, and the water board has a superintendent and a clerk, all of 
whom receive salaries. 

The school committee is also an independent board, elected by the 
people, and governed by State law. Its members serve without com- 
pensation and, with the assistance of a superintendent, who is also secretary 
of the board, have the exclusive management of the schools ; the school 
buildings being provided and maintained by the city council. The mayor 
is, ex officio, chairman of the school committee, and the president of the 
common council is also a member. 

The powers and duties of the mayor, aside from making appointments 
to and removals from office, subject to confirmation by the board of alder- 
men, consist, chiefly, in presiding at the meetings of that board and of the 
school committee, serving as chairman of certain of the committees of the 
city council and of the board of aldermen, drawing all warrants on the 
treasurer for the payment of money, and signing bonds, notes and other 
legal instruments, in behalf of the city. He has also been given, by general 
legislation, the power of veto over all ordinances, joint orders and resolu- 
tions, and all orders of either branch of the city council authorizing an 
expenditure of money ; a two-thirds vote being required to pass any such 
paper over his veto. He is the chief executive officer of the city, and is re- 
quired by the charter to cause the laws and regulations of the city to be 
enforced, and to keep a general supervision over all subordinate officers. 
He may also call special meetings of the board of aldermen and the 
common council whenever, in his opinion, the interest of the city may 
require it. 

Those favoring the modern form of charter make the following points 
in criticism of our own : 

i. All executive power, including the construction of public works, should 
be vested in the mayor, to be exercised by him with the aid of competent 
heads of departments ; or such construction should be entrusted to a board 
of public works, a minority of whose members should be appointed annually, 
for a term of several years. Under our system of having public work carried 
on by the city council or board of aldermen, through committees, the 
responsibility is so divided that it cannot be definitely fixed, and many times 
authority is assumed by a committee that it does not possess, or by the 
chairman of a committee that belongs to the committee as a whole; a con- 
dition not favorable to the best economy. 

2. The mayor should be relieved of all legislative duties, and of the 
duty of presiding at board meetings, and given the power of veto over all 
orders. 

3. All work upon and under the streets, as the laying of sewers and water 
pipes, the maintenance of the highways, and the granting of permits to gas 
and other companies or to individuals to open the streets, should be under 
one head. One advantage of this arrangement would be the avoidance, in 
many cases, of the opening of a street to do underground work shortly after 
the paving or macadamizing of the surface. 

4. In the line of definitely fixing responsibility many hold that one 



1 70 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

board, reasonably large in numbers, is preferable to two ; a sufficient check 
upon unwise legislation being secured by the veto power lodged with the 
mayor. 

A commission has been appointed to consider what amendments, if 
any, should be made to the charter, and to report to the city council. 

Whatever may be the merits or demerits of the charter, the affairs of 
the city have, on the whole, been well managed, and the people are under 
lasting obligations to those, who have so ably and faithfully served her in- 
terests. The aldermen and councilmen receive no compensation, and the 
salary of the mayor is much less than any incumbent of the office would 
consider sufficient for equal service in his private business. 

On the evening of inauguration day, January 2, 1882, a notable event 
was commemorated. Charles E. Oilman had served the people as town and 
city clerk since the organization of the first town government in 1842, and 
was held in the highest esteem by the entire community. 

The completion of his fortieth term of continuous service was cele- 
brated by a banquet in the hall of the police building on Bow street, at 
which Mayor Cummings presided, and hundreds of citizens joined in the 
feast, and in congratulating Mr. Gilman on the happy occasion. As a slight 
token of personal regard he was made the recipient of a gold watch and 
chain and a portrait of himself; a similar portrait was also presented to, the 
city and now hangs in the city clerk's office. Mr. Gilman continued in the 
office of city clerk until his death, which occurred February 22, 1888, 
leaving a most honorable record of forty-six years in the public service. 

Somerville is a good example of the recognition and appreciation of 
faithfulness and merit in public servants. During the twenty-five years 
which have passed since she became a city she has had but two city clerks, 
two city treasurers, three city solicitors, three superintendents of schools, 
one chief of police, one chief engineer of the fire department and one city 
messenger. She has also retained her chief magistrates in office as long as 
they were willing to serve, there having been but nine incumbents of the 
office of mayor up to the present time. 

The government and public service of a city reflect the character and 
intelligence of her people. Somerville is a sober, industrious, law-abiding 
community, with comparatively little pauperism or crime. The sale of intox- 
icating liquor, as a beverage, has been prohibited ever since the question 
was first submitted for decision at the annual city elections, which fact has 
doubtless influenced many in selecting this as a home. Few of our citizens 
are wealthy, but nearly all are comfortably circumstanced, and take an 
active interest in public affairs, especially in maintaining the high standard 
of our schools, and in all matters that contribute to the culture and com- 
fort of their families. 

In contemplating our city's history of a quarter of a century, we have 
reason to be grateful to the Divine Ruler for the wisdom and integrity 
which adorn its pages, and to thank Him for the many blessings which He 
has bestowed upon us, not only as individuals, but as a community of 
neighbors and friends. 



-- 

.^ 





MARC'JS M. RAYMOND. 










XV" 



JOHN N. BALL. 



SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 1/3 

CITY GOVERNMENT AND OFFICERS FOR 1896. 

Mayor, Albion A. Perry. 

Hoard of Aldermen. Ward One : L. Herbert Huntley, Josiah X. Pratt. 
Ward Two: Melville I >. Jones, President; Robert S. Wright. Ward Three : 
Leonard B. Chandler, James M. Andrews. Ward Four: William H. Berry. 
Howard D. Moore. Clerk, George I. Vincent. 

Common Council. Ward One: Frank UeWitt Lapham, Frank B. 
Burrows, John Hunnewell, L. Edgar Timson. Ward Two : George E. 
Whitaker, President; William M. Irving, Richard A. Russell, French O. J. 
Tarbox. Ward Three : Andrew A. Lament., Arthur W. Berry, Howard 
Lowell, Marcus M. Raymond. Ward Four : John N. Ball, Fred M. Carr, 
Silas L. Cummings, Albert L. Reed. Clerk, Charles S. Robertson. 

Assessors. (Term, three years.) Benjamin F. Thompson, Chairman 
(term expires 1896), Samuel T. Richards (term expires 1X98), Nathan H. 
Reed (term expires 1897) ; Clerk of Assessors, Albert B. Fales. 

Board of Health. (Term, three years.) Allen F. Carpenter, Chair- 
man (term expires 1897), Alvah B. Dearborn, M. D. (term expires 1898), 
Alvano T. Nickerson, Chairman (term expires 1899); Clerk, William P. 
Mitchell ; Inspector, Caleb A. Page ; Superintendent Collection of Ashes 
and Offal, George W. S. Huse. 

Overseers of the Poor. (Office, Police Building, Bow street.) Albion 
A. Perry, Mayor, Chairman, ex officio (term, four years). Edward B. West, 
President (term expires 1899), Albert W. Eclmands (term expires 1897), 
Herbert E. Merrill (term expires 1898), Ezra D. Souther (term expires 
1896); Agent, Charles C. Folsom ; Secretary, Cora F. Lewis. 

Registrars of Voters. (Term : City Clerk, one year ; other members, 
three years.) Cromwell G. Rowell, Chairman (term expires 1897), Charles 
P. Lincoln (term expires 1898), Charles E. Parks (term expires 1899), George 
I. Vincent, City Clerk. 

City Clerk and Clerk of Board of Aldermen, George I. Vincent. 

City Treasurer and Collector of Taxes, John F. Cole. 

Messenger to City Council, Jairus Mann. 

City Solicitor, Selwyn Z. Bowman. 

City Auditor, Charles S. Robertson. 

City Engineer, Ernest W. Bailey. 

Consulting Engineer, George A. Kimball. 

Superintendent of Streets, John P. Prichard. 

Inspector and Superintendent of Public Buildings, Frederick C. Fuller. 

Chief of Police, Melville C. Parkhurst. 

Chief Engineer of the Fire Department, James R. Hopkins. 

Superintendent of Electric Lines and Lights, Leighton W. Manning. 

City Physician, Alvah B. Dearborn, M. D. 

Inspector of Milk and Vinegar, Charles S. Philbrick. 

Inspector of Animals and Provisions, Charles M. Merry. 

Sealer of Weights and Measures, Luther I!. Pillsbury. 

Clerk of Committees, William P. Mitchell. 




r^ 





F. O. J. TARBOX. 




ERNEST W. BAILEY. 




ALLEN F. CARPENTER. 



HISTORY OF THE SCHOOLS. 



CHAPTER XV. 

FkO.M 1842 TO THK CI.OSK OF THK SUPERINTENDENCV OF JoSHUA H. 

DAVIS, 1888.* 

THK citizens of Somerville have always manifested their high ap- 
preciation of education by their generous support of the public schools. 
The ever increasing demands for their maintenance and for the construc- 
tion of school buildings have been cheerfully met. School officers and 
teachers have received the hearty support of the entire community. Suc- 
cessive school boards have labored with vigilance and fidelity to maintain 
a high standard of excellence and to adapt the schools to the ever varying 
requirements of the community. They have equally avoided excessive 
conservatism and extreme radicalism. They have adopted new methods 
and measures only when their superiority was apparent. In their efforts to 
promote intellectual culture, they have not been unmindful of the more 
important duty of inculcating principles of morality and virtue, and of lay- 
ing the foundation of worthy character. 

I'nder such conditions, by such guidance and supervision, the public 
schools of Somerville have uniformly maintained a position in the front 
ranks of the best in the Commonwealth. 

At the time when Somerville became a separate municipality, a new 
and interesting era in educational affairs had been inaugurated. In the 
year 1837, Horace Mann was appointed secretary of the newly organized 
Board of Education. His indomitable energy and boundless enthusiasm 
aroused an interest in education throughout the State never before realized. 
During his term of twelve years in office, he completely revolutionized our 
public school system. 

\Yhen the State Board of Education was organized, there was but one 
institution designed especially to prepare teachers for their work, but one 
publication to disseminate information upon educational subjects; there 
were no teachers' conventions, and very few books that furnished practical 
information to teachers. School architecture was of a rude type. 

During his first year in office, Mr. Mann visited eight hundred school- 

* To the former Superintendent of Schools, Mr. foshua II. I >avis. the editors of this 
volume are under great obligations for a valuable paper containing the material from which 
this chapter, and portions of the succeeding chapters of the History of Somervillc's Schools 
have been prepared. Many other valuable facts and observations in the manuscript fur- 
nished by Mr. Davis have been necessarily omitted for want of space. 

'77 



178 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

houses in the State. As a result of his observations, he made the following 
statement : " Not one-third of the public schoolhouses in Massachusetts 
would be considered tenantable by any decent family out of the poorhouse 
or in it. I have seen many schoolhouses in central districts of rich and 
populous towns, where each seat connected with a desk consisted only of 
an upright post or pedestal, without side-arms or back-board ; and some of 
them so high that the feet of the children sought after the floor in vain." 
The commodious school buildings, comfortable furnishings and excellent 
schools to be found in every town, at the present day, are in striking con- 
trast with those which passed under the observation of the eminent sec- 
retary. 

After examining the schools of every county in the State, Mr. Mann 
commented upon their condition as follows : " There are about three thou- 
sand public schools in this Commonwealth, in all of which the rudiments 
of knowledge are taught. These schools at the present time are so many 
distinct, independent communities, each being governed by its own habits, 
traditions and local customs. There is no common superintending power 
over them. There is no bond of brotherhood or family between them. 
They are strangers and aliens to each other." 

Persons in middle life will recall the poorly constructed schoolhouses 
of those days : the pine benches, unpainted, often notched by boys' jack- 
knives, rising in tiers from the front to the rear of the room, the seats of the 
same material and of sufficient length to accommodate several pupils ; the 
frame of blackened boards, splintery and with here and there a knot-hole ; 
the angular pieces of chalk that would sometimes leave a mark, but oftener 
a scratch : the odds and ends of text-books, which not infrequently were in 
use for a whole generation. A large stove, or in many cases, an enormous 
fire-place furnished warmth in excess to those who sat near, while those in 
the farther portions of the room sat shivering from the winds that found in- 
gress through the weather-beaten walls. Globes, outline maps, charts, and 
crayons were almost unknown to the schools of sixty years ago. 

Great as has been the advance in buildings and equipments still more 
marked have been the changes in methods of teaching. 

The introduction of the kindergarten has diffused an influence, that has 
been felt in every grade below the high school ; the "laboratory method," 
so called, or learning by doing, has been no less potential, reaching down- 
ward from the college and the high school, improving the work of the 
lower grades. The present secretary of the State Board of Education is 
authority for the statement that, "the best Massachusetts high schools to- 
day are far ahead of the colleges of fifty years ago, or even thirty years ago, 
in the character of the science work clone, or of that at least which they 
seek to have done." 

In the opinion of many, still greater changes are impending. G. Stan- 
ley Hall in a recent lecture said : " Every day we have signs of awakened 
interest, and cultivated people everywhere are coming to realize that there 
is only one great cause, the cause of education." 




JOSHUA H. DAVIS. 







GORDON A. SOUTHWORTH. 



SOMKRl'IU.E, PAST AND PRESENT. iSl 

At the present time there are nine State normal schools, and various 
other institutions of learning, with courses of study for the special prepara- 
tion of teachers. From these preparatory institutions are graduated yearly 
hundreds of persons with qualifications of a high order. Teachers' insti- 
tutes, lectures, conventions, educational publications, discussions, practical 
works on the science of education and the art of teaching, all contribute to 
the development of the highest ability and professional enthusiasm among 
teachers. Men of great natural abilities are attracted to the work of teach- 
ing, and the problems of education are carefully studied by the greatest 
men of the age. 

Great as has been the improvement in the character of the buildings, 
equipments and methods of teaching over those of half a century ago, still 
greater has been the advance in popular sentiment with regard to their im- 
portance. 

The common school of early days was only the germ from which our 
present enlarged and perfected system of public education has been devel- 
oped. " Fortunately the system possesses the flexibility necessary to adapt 
it to the wants of different periods of time, and different communities, with 
their ever varying necessities." 

SCHOOL BUILDINC.S.* 

The Upper Winter Hill School/louse, located on Central street, near 
Broadway, was moved to the present site of the Prescott school, East 
Somerville. in the year 1855. In 1856 it was removed to Prospect street, 
where it was known as the Union schoolhouse. 

The Prospect Hill School house contained two rooms, and was situated on 
Medford street, near the end of Cross street. It was used for school pur- 
poses until the completion of the Brastow in iS6i. The building is now 
located at the corner of Somerville avenue and Prospect street, and is 
used by the Somerville water board. 

The Milk Street Schoolhouse, located on Somerville avenue, near the 
Cemetery, was burned in 1849. 

The Lower Winter Hill Schoolhonse, at the corner of Broadway and 
Franklin street, was occupied by primary schools until 1846, and, on the 
completion of the first Prescott schoolhouse in that year, was sold and re- 
moved. 

In one of their early reports, the school committee facetiously styled 
these buildings "the dowry of the good old dame to her first and only off- 
spring." 

In addition to the schools above mentioned, one was kept in a private 
dwelling in the Russell district until the completion of the Walnut Hill 
Schoolhouse in 1843, when the name was changed to the "Walnut Hill dis- 
trict." 

The average attendance in all these schools for the year 1842 was two 
hundred and twenty-six pupils. In 1843-44, the master of the Prospect Hill 

* For an account of the earliest school buildings, sec Chapter VI II. 



1 82 SOMl-.Rl'ILLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

grammar school, Mr. William E. Graves, was paid a salary of S6oo. 
Master Charles Warren, of the Lower Winter Hill school, received $30 
per month ; the female teachers 210 per annum. 

The Walnut Hill school was taught by a male in winter and by a 
female in summer. This arrangement was discontinued in 1853. In 1*54. 
Miss Susanna C. Russell was appointed teacher and continued in that 
position till the spring of 1867. Under her instruction, pupils passed 
through all primary and grammar grades, and were fitted for the high school. 
In 1867, when the Lincoln school was established, this school was discon- 
tinued. 

SCHOOLHOUSES CONSTRUCTED SlNCE 1842. 

The IVaJnut Hill Schoolhouse (already mentioned) was built in 184:5, 
on Broadway, near the foot of Walnut Hill. In 1868 it was moved to Cedar 
street, named the " Cedar Street Schoolhouse," and was duplicated in 

1873- 

The Lower Winter Hill Schoolhoiisc, built in 1843 at the corner of 
Broadway and Franklin street, was removed to Beacon street in 1848, and 
named the Harvard Primary. It was enlarged in 1861, and was burned in 
1871. 

The Prescott School house, No. i, located at the corner of Broadway and 
Franklin street, was built in 1846, and was burned in 1856. It contained 
two schoolrooms. 

77/6' Franklin Schoolhouse, on Somerville avenue, near the end of Spring 
street, was built in 1846. It contained two rooms, and was duplicated in 
1862. 

The Prospect Hill Schoolhouse, on Washington, opposite Prospect street, 
was erected in 184*, with four rooms. The two front rooms were added in 
1865. 

The Spring Hill Primary Schoolhouse, built in 1850. is located in the 
rear of the Beech street schoolhouse. 

The Bell Primary was built on Cherry street, near Elm street, in 1857. 
In 1867 it w-as moved to the rear of the Franklin schoolhouse. In 1X71 it 
was placed on the site of the Harvard schoolhouse, and took the name of 
that building. In consequence of these changes and " to perpetuate the 
memory of Dr. Luther Y. Bell, a citizen so eminent in his profession, and 
so strong in attachment to the interests of the schools," the school board 
adopted the following resolution : - 

" Resolreil, That this board recommend that the name ' Bell ' be given 
to the next large school building erected in Somerville." 

High School /louse. Xo. i. The building now used as the city hall, was 
dedicated April 29, 1852. For fifteen years the high school occupied the 
upper story, the lower being used for town purposes. From 1867 to Feb- 
ruary 27, 1872, when the building was vacated, the entire edifice was occu- 
pied by the school. 

The Forster Schoolhouse, Xo. i, built in 1*54-5, on Sycamore street, 
near the site of the present building, contained four schoolrooms. It was 
burned February 18, 1866. 




THOMAS S. WENTWORTH. 





MARTIN W. CARR. 



SOMERV1LLE, PAST .LVD / J y?/-;.s7-..VV. 185 

The Prescott Schoolhouse, No. 2, containing seven rooms, was built of 
brick on the spot where the school is now located, and was burned Decem- 
ber 31, 1866. It was rebuilt with twelve rooms in 1867. 

The Bra stow School ho use, on Medford street, opposite the end of High- 
land avenue, was built in i8f>i, containing two schoolrooms. The site is 
now occupied by the Central Fire Station. 

The Jackson School/louse, at the corner of Poplar and Maple streets, was 
built in 1 86 1, and has four schoolrooms. 

The Lincoln Schoolhouse, No. i, was built on Elm street, in iSf>(>. It 
contained four rooms, was moved to Clarendon Hill, in iSSi, and was 
burned October 22, 18X4. It was rebuilt in 1885. 

The Forster ScJiool/ioitsc, No. 2, Sycamore street, was built in 1867, with 
eight schoolrooms and an exhibition hall ; two additional rooms were con- 
structed in the hall in 1881, and, in 1883, the remaining portion of the hall 
was divided into two schoolrooms. 

The Prescott Schoolhouse, No. 3, Pearl street, was built in 1867, with ten 
schoolrooms and a hall. In 1873, the hall was divided into two school- 
rooms. 

The Bennett Schoolhouse, corner of Joy and Poplar streets, was built in 
1 8C>8. and has four schoolrooms. 

77/6' Webster Schoolhouse, on Webster avenue, was built in 1868, and 
contained four schoolrooms. 

The Morse Schoolhouse, at the corner of Craigie and Summer streets, 
was built in 1869, containing four rooms and a hall. In 1880, the hall was 
divided into two schoolrooms. In 1889, an addition of six rooms was 
made. 

High Schoolhouse, No. 2, located on Central Hill, was constructed in 
1871, and formally dedicated, February 27, 1872. A chemical laboratory 
and a philosophical room were arranged in the basement. A schoolroom 
fifty-two feet square, and two recitation rooms, twenty-six feet by twenty-two 
feet, occupied the first story, and the second was divided in the same man- 
ner. The third story contained a large hall and three anterooms. 

In December, 1883, two schoolrooms were constructed in the third 
story, leaving a hall sixty-three by sixty-four feet, which, in 1 888, was divided 
into two schoolrooms. 

The Edgerly Schoolhouse, on Cross street, was built in 1871, containing 
four schoolrooms, to which four were added in 1882, and four others in 
[892. 

The Beech Street Schoolhouse, originally a chapel, was purchased of the 
Spring Hill Baptist Society in 1872, and contains two schoolrooms. 

The Luther r. Bell Schoolhouse, on Yinal avenue, was completed in 
1874, and contains twelve schoolrooms. 

The Highland Schoolhouse, corner of Highland avenue and drove street, 
was built in 1880, with eight rooms, and, in 1890, was raised one story, thus 
making an addition of four rooms. 

The Cmnmings Schoolhouse, on School street, built in 18X4, has four 
schoolrooms. 



1 86 SOUERl'ILLE, PAST .LVD I'RESh\\T. 

The Dan's Sc/io<>//ioiese, on Tufts street, was built in 18X4, and contains 
four rooms. 

The Lincoln Sclioolhousc, No. 2, on Broadway, Clarendon Hill, built in 
1X85, contains four schoolrooms. 

The Burns Sehoolhouse, Cherry street, near Summer street, was built 
in issr>, with four schoolrooms. 

The Bingham Schoollioitse, Lowell street, built in iSS6, contains four 
rooms. 

The Knapp Sehoolhouse, Concord square, was built in 1889. with eight 
schoolrooms, to which four were added in 1894. 

The diaries G. Pope Sehoolhouse, corner of \Yashington and Boston 
streets, was built in 1891, with twelve schoolrooms. 

The Jacob T. G lines Sehoolhouse, Jaques street, was built in 1891, with 
eight schoolrooms, to which five were added in 1896. 

The George W. Durell Sehoolhouse, located on Beacon street, was built 
in 1894, and contains four schoolrooms. 

The English High Sehoolhouse, on Central Hill, was built in 18^5. It 
contains fourteen classrooms, a chemical, a physical, a biological laboratory, 
three recitation rooms, a lecture hall, drawing room, two teachers' rooms, 
library, and principal's office, besides four manual-training rooms in the 
basement. 

The William H. Hodgkins Sehoolhouse, on Holland street, containing 
twelve rooms, was completed in 1896. 

" From the foregoing it appears that on her natal day, Somerville had 
four school buildings containing in all five rooms ; " that, prior to the close 
of 1889, "thirty school buildings containing one hundred and sixty-nine 
schoolrooms had been constructed, and one building of two rooms had 
been purchased. Six of these, containing nineteen rooms, had been burned." 
Two buildings, containing three rooms, had been applied to other uses, and 
one had been sold. 

By the table on page 79 of Superintendent Southworth's Report for 
1895, it appears that at that time the twelve-room buildings were the Pres- 
cott, Edgerly, L. V. Bell, C. G. Pope, Forster, Morse and Highland. The 
(). S. Knapp has thirteen; the J. T. Glines nine (to which five have since 
been added). The Bingham has eight, and the Prospect Hill six rooms. 

The four-room buildings were the Davis, Bennett, Jackson, Cummings, 
Franklin, G. W. Durell, Burns, and Lincoln. The Beech street and Cedar 
street schoolhouses contain two rooms each, and the Harvard has one 
room. The buildings that can fairly claim the greatest antiquity are the 
Cedar street, which has been in use for a period of fifty-three years : the 
Franklin, fifty, the Prospect Hill, forty-eight, and the Harvard, forty-five 

years. 

PRIMARY SCHOOLS. 

" For a series of years, about forty-four per cent of the pupils registered 
in all the schools have been in this department. 

" Previous to 1857, pupils were admitted to these schools at the age of 
four years, and were retained in them four years. 




QUINCY E. DlCKERMAN. 




S. NEWTON CUTLER. 



'//,/. A', PAST AND PRESENT. 189 

"Since that time the age of admission has been five years, and the 
work has been completed in three years." " Early in our history children 
were subjected to great discomfort from lack of desks and other needed 
appliances. The irksome alphabet method of teaching reading was univer- 
sally practiced. There was no slate work, and no instruction in writing and 
drawing. Little was done to relieve the tedium and enliven the school life 
of the children by furnishing them congenial employment ; and the teacher's 
energies were directed chiefly to the maintenance of order and the repres- 
sion of the activities of their pupils." 

I Hiring the last sixty years all this has been changed. Convenient and 
comfortable furniture, more rational methods of instruction and study have 
made school life more attractive as well as vastly more profitable. At the 
present time much more is accomplished in a given period, and with less 

expenditure of vital force. 

GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. 

"At their first meeting, March 21, 1X42, the school committee took 
measures for the immediate establishment of a permanent grammar school." 

The Prospect Hill Grammar School was established in April, 1X42. Mr. 
William E. Graves, principal. In June, 1X74, the name was changed to the 
" Luther V. Bell School.'' 

The Lower ]}'inter Hill Grammar School was organized in April, 1X44, 
with George Swan as principal; salary #360. In January, 1847, the name 
was changed to the " Prescott School.'' 

The Franklin Grammar School was organized in November, 1846, Wil- 
liam E. Graves, principal. In March, 1X70, the name was changed to the 
" Morse School." The vacancy caused by the transfer of Mr. Graves was 
filled by the choice of Martin Draper, Jr. 

The Forster Grammar School was established in February, 1X55, John 
Jameson, principal ; salary $700. 

The Lincoln Grammar School WAS established in January, 1867, Horace 
I*. Makechnie, principal; salary #1,000. The name was changed to the 
" Highland School " in September, 1881 . 

The Charles G. Pope Grammar School was organized in October, 1891, 
George M. Wadsworth, principal ; salary $1,600. 

The Edgerly Grammar School was organized in September, i88S. 
Edgar L. Raub, principal. 

The O. S. Knapp Grammar School was organized in April, 1890, Harry 
X. Andrews, principal. 

u During the first ten years of our history all pupils in the grammar 
schools were under the instruction of the grammar masters. In 1853, an 
intermediate, or sub-grammar grade, embracing the three lower classes of 
the grammar schools, was established and placed in charge of female 
teachers. This arrangement was continued until 1872, when the present 
mode of classification was adopted as follows : primary, containing three 
classes ; grammar, six classes ; high, four classes." 

The following are the names of the principals of grammar schools in 
Somerville, not elsewhere mentioned, and the year of their appointment : - 



190 SOMERl'/LLE. 1'AST AXD PRESENT. 

Robert Bickforcl. 1X51 : McLauren F. Cook, 1852: H. ( >. \Yhittemore. 
1853 ; Daniel B. Wheeler, 1854; John Wilson, 1859; George R. Bradford, 
[864; Samuel C. Hunt, 1866; John D. Marston, 1868; William B. Allen, 
1869: Augustus Linfield, 1872; L. B. Pillsbury, 1872; Samuel C. Higgins, 
1876; Charles C. Hunkins, 1877. 

Two eminent teachers, not elsewhere mentioned, were George Swan 
and George T. Littlefield, both of whom left Somerville to accept prominent 
positions in Boston. Edward W. Howe, one of our grammar masters, was 
afterwards principal of the Jamaica Plain High School, and John Jameson, 
of the Boylston School, Boston. 

The names of masters and principals serving at the present time will 
be found in another chapter on the schools. 

EVEMNC, SCHOOLS. 

By a statute of 1883, every town and city in this Commonwealth, hav- 
ing ten thousand or more inhabitants, is required to maintain " evening 
schools for the instruction of persons over twelve years of age, in orthogra- 
phy, reading, writing, geography, arithmetic, drawing, the history of the 
United States, and good behavior." 

In 1875 (December 6), an evening school was opened in the hall, corner 
of Washington and Prospect streets. It contained one hundred and fifty 
pupils of both sexes, from fourteen to thirty years of age. Other evening 
schools were held for several winters in the Luther V. Bell, Webster and 
Cedar street schoolhouses. 

Evening grammar schools were established in different sections of the 
city in 1885. 

They have been in charge of the grammar masters, and have been sup- 
plied with all the conveniences and appliances of the day schools. 

DRAWING. 

This branch of education was introduced into the high school in 1853. 
and made one of the regular exercises of the school. Erom 1853 to 1857 
(inclusive), Mr. Wm. N. Bartholomew was an instructor in this department. 

The Legislature of 1870 enacted that drawing should be added to the 
required branches of learning to be taught in the public schools, and that 
towns and cities of more than ten thousand inhabitants furnish free instruc- 
tion in industrial or mechanical drawing to persons over fifteen years of 
age, in day or evening schools, under the direction of the school com- 
mittees. 

Both these requirements were promptly met. In January, 1.872, a school 
was organized under the direction of Prof. Lucas Baker, who also had charge 
of the school in the winter of 1873-4. Prof. Baker was employed, also, to 
give instruction to teachers of grammar and primary schools on Saturdays, 
during part of 1873-4. In 1885, Mr. Charles M. Carter, agent of the State 
Board of Education, performed a similar work. While the regular teachers 
were becoming qualified in this branch, the schools were taught by special 




Citizens for whom Somerville Schools are named. 




Citizens for whom Somerville Schools are named. 



SUMKRl'lUJ-:, PAST .1X1) PRESENT. 193 

instructors. In their report of 1877, the committee say that " all teachers 
employed by the city are expected to teach drawing with the same degree 
of skill and success that they do penmanship, or any other branch of in 
struction." 

In iSSj, evening drawing schools were resumed, and have been contin- 
ued without interruption. 

In rSSS and 1889 a special teacher of drawing was employed to give in- 
struction in all the schools. 

Music. 

In September, 1859, Mr. S. 1). Hadley was employed to teach vocal 
music in the grammar schools. The committee, in 1 860, commend his work, 
and in 1861 they say, "His services have done much to improve as well 
as to elevate the tone of the schools." 

In September, 1868, Mr. S. H. ( ). Hadley was appointed teacher of 
music in the high school, and in September, 1870, he succeeded Mr. S. D. 
Hadley in the grammar schools. A new impulse was given to the study of 
music the same year by the introduction of Mason's charts. In their report 
of 1887, the committee say : " In all the grades one hour a week is devoted 
to the study and practice of music, which has been a regular branch of in- 
struction in our schools for nearly thirty years. For the last twenty years 
it has been under the direction of Mr. S. H. O. Hadley." ..." Mr. Hadley, 
by his enthusiasm and rare ability and skill as a teacher, has ever sustained 
a commendable interest in this important branch of instruction." In the 
high school, the practice of singing by note is discontinued, and pupils sing 
at sight the music contained in the Fifth or High School Music Reader, 
which contains compositions of a high order from the best masters. 

SEWING. 

" In the early part of this century instruction in this branch was given 
to girls in the public schools quite generally. This practice has been re- 
vived." In September, 1888, two sewing teachers were appointed to instruct 
the girls of the grammar schools. The results are highly satisfactory. 

FREE TEXT-BOOKS AND SUPPLIES. 

Since the opening of the schools in September, 1884, agreeably to a law 
enacted that year, all pupils have been supplied with the text-books and 
materials needed in their school work free of expense to them. 

The total cost to the city during the first four years that the law was in 
force for these supplies was #27,519.63, of which 516,456.00 was for text- 
books. 

VACATIONS AND HOLIDAYS. 

Forty- eight weeks constituted the school year until 1847, when it was 
reduced by one week, and Christmas was added to the six holidays whirh 
had been previously granted. 

In 1850, the vacations and holidays were : one week, commencing with 
the first Monday in March ; one week, commencing with the first Monday 



194 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

in June ; three weeks, commencing with the second Monday in August ; 
Thanksgiving Day, with the remainder of the week ; the afternoons of Wed- 
nesday and Saturday ; New Year's ; Fast Day : the ist of May : the i7th of 
June: Fourth of July ; Christmas. 

In 1857, the twenty-second of February was added to the holidays. In 
1863, the Saturday sessions in the high school were discontinued. In i86,x, 
the week preceding the first Monday in March was made a vacation, and 
the summer vacation was made " seven weeks preceding the first Monday in 
September." Christmas week also became a vacation. 

In 1872, the school year was reduced to forty weeks, and the afternoon 
sessions to two and one-half hours. In 1.875, the afternoon sessions were 
reduced to two hours, and the recess was discontinued. In 1884, a session 
of two hours Wednesday afternoon was substituted for the session of three 
hours Saturday forenoon. 

In 1886, vacations and holidays were granted as follows : " Every Sat- 
urday ; from noon of the day preceding Thanksgiving until the Monday fol- 
lowing ; from December 24 at noon to the day after that celebrated as New 
Year's Day; the 22d of February ; the week immediately preceding the first 
Monday in March ; Fast Day ; one week, commencing on the Monday pre- 
ceding the first Wednesday in May; Memorial Day ; the i7th of June ; the 
weeks between the close of the school year and the first Monday in Sep- 
tember." 



CHAPTER XVI. 

HISTORY OF THE SCHOOLS (Continued).*' 

SlTERINTENDKNCY OF CLARF.XCE E. MKI.KNEY. 

THE committee on annual report for the year 1888, Mr. James F. 
Beard, chairman, use the following language concerning Superintendent 
Davis. 

"By the resignation of Mr. Joshua H. Davis, the city has lost the 
valued services of a superintendent whose long employment in the interest 
of her schools had made him intimate with the wants and conditions of 
every department of the work and section of the city. . . . The general satis- 
factory condition of the schools, as he left them, show him to have been 
well abreast of the times in all educational lines of thought and practice. 
We take pleasure in paying tribute to his efficient and progressive adminis- 
tration. His genial and courteous manner will ever be remembered by his 
associates in the school work of the city. In him the scholars had a warm 
friend, and the example of a consistent Christian gentleman. With his 
farewell report we appropriately close the first volume of our school history 
as a city." 

* The editors are indebted to Superintendent South\\ orth for school reports and valu- 
able information from which this and the succeeding chapters have been mainly derived. 




SANFORD HANSCOM, M. D. 




WILLIAM P. HILL. 



mi/A'A' / '/LLK, /'.-IS'/' AND I'RESENT. ig/ 

The same committee says : " All the departments of our growing city 
are in the midst of important changes. The spirit of the age that demands 
such improvements as the electric light, the police signal system ... is 
equally exacting in the line of school work." . . . " The old is constantly 
called upon to give way for the new.' 1 . . . " Although it is the policy of the 
board to try no experiments . . . yet some changes are being gradually made 
that the experience of other municipalities, similarly situated, have proved 
to be useful and desirable." 

' At the February meeting, the board unanimously elected, as the suc- 
cessor of Superintendent Davis, Mr. Clarence E. Meleney, of Paterson, 
N. J." ..." He comes to us as a man in the forefront of educational prog- 
ress." The administration of Mr. Meleney opened under favorable 
auspices. No one realized the importance of the work before him more 
than he, but he entered upon it with courage and enthusiasm, and by his 
judicious management secured the co-operation of teachers, committees, and 
the community. The same committee, above referred to, says : " Additional 
schoolroom accommodations is a subject that requires more or less space in 
every school report." 

With wise forecast they declare : " Nothing proves so attractive to the 
class of citizens we would invite to become residents of our city as good 
schools in commodious buildings." 

In the first report submitted the school board, "Superintendent Meleney 
emphasized the advantages of larger buildings with a view to economy and 
effectiveness, and urged for the high school " increased facilities for labora- 
tory methods." He advised the "consideration of some plan by which 
greater inducement could be offered to our own teachers and to those whom 
it may be advisable to secure to fill vacancies." 

He recommended that only candidates "eminently fitted for the ser- 
vice " be considered in filling vacancies in the corps of teachers. He says : 
" Some portion of the kindergarten material, much of the kindergarten 
method, and a complete infusion of the kindergarten spirit should charac- 
terize the elementary school." He advised that less time be devoted to 
arithmetic ; that a " slight change " in the course in geography be made, to 
render it " a science study, and not so much memory work." Additions 
were made to the list of supplementary reading books, which were divided 
into three classes, elementary science, history and biography, literature. 

In general language he says : " Our school system should begin with 
the kindergarten and end with the manual training school and the high 
school, and the intervening grades should represent the steps upon which 
the pupils ascend from the one to the other. In adopting such a system, 
we would be following the lead of the most progressive cities in our own 
State and in others." 

Among the new teachers added this year (iSSS) were Miss L. A. Her- 
rick, teacher of drawing ; Mrs. C. M. Coffin, and Miss Mary L. Boyd, of 
sewing. 

On February 25, the board voted that sewing be continued in the 



198 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST .LVD PRESENT. 

grammar schools as during the past year ; that a room be fitted up for 
wood-work for boys of the high school and some grammar grades, and that 
the sum of $2,000, to be expended for manual training, be included in 
the estimates for the fiscal year. 

Under the head of " School Accommodations," Mr. Meleney says : " We 
are beginning to realize, as never before, that Somerville is a city in every 
sense of the word. The situation, unsurpassed for its availability, its pros- 
pect, and its sanitary and healthy conditions, the administration of its 
affairs, its reputation for temperance and morality, and its advantages for 
the education of our children, have attracted, in large numbers, people 
seeking new homes." 

" It becomes a wise people to so administer affairs as to meet the con 
ditions incident to rapid and permanent growth." ..." In planning for 
the erection of new school buildings, the needs of the whole city should be 
taken into account. . . . Such a scheme might be laid out as would settle 
the whole question of schoolhouses for many years to come, and each year's 
work would simply be a part of the general plan. ... In establishing the 
proposed general plan, it will be necessary to decide upon new centres and 
to consolidate the isolated schools." He declared that fifteen or sixteen 
different buildings would be preferable to the twenty-eight then in use. 
"The establishment of an English high school," he said, "seems to be 
only a matter of time." 

In regard to the grammar and primary schools, he states that " the 
rooms are too large " ; that instead of seats for fifty-six pupils, " there should 
not be over forty-two." 

Timely suggestions are made in reference to " Manual Work for Boys," 
" Sloyd," "Kindergarten," "Training of Teachers," and "Physical Cul- 



ture." 



To introduce a system in the last named subject, he recommends that 
" an expert " be employed as early as possible to prepare the teachers in 
all grades to give the needed instruction to their classes and supervise the 
work. 

This somewhat full account of the administration of the schools for 
1888 and 1889, and the rather copious quotations from Mr. Meleney's report 
for that year, exhibit the spirit and tendency of leaders in educational 
thought in Somerville at that time, and equally the general trend of public 
sentiment along certain lines of advancement, toward the introduction of 
new subjects and new methods of instruction into the public schools in 
New England and elsewhere. 

In 1890, a course in mechanical drawing and construction for boys in 
grammar schools was adopted by the board, and introduced in September 
in all the various schools. 

An exhibition of work in sewing and drawing was shown in Bow street 
hall, which the superintendent declares "attracted much attention and re- 
Hected great credit upon the teachers." 

The committee on drawing and penmanship reported that there had 




FRED. C. BALDWIN. 




FREDERICK W. SHATTUCK. 



SOMERVILLE, /'AST A\n PRESENT. 2OI 

been " marked improvement " in the drawing " since the appointment of a 
special instructor." On March 31, the superintendent was authorized to 
engage Miss C. I. Livingstone as director of physical training. 

Mr. Horatio 1). Newton resigned his office as principal of the Morse 
school, to accept a position in Boston, and Miss Mina J. Wendell was pro- 
moted to the head of the school. Mr. Herbert L. Morse, having been elect- 
ed to a Boston school, was succeeded by Mr. Fred W. Shattuck. Mr. Harry 
N. Andrews was elected to take charge of the (). S. Knapp school. Pre- 
liminary outlines for teaching elementary science were prepared by the 
superintendent, to aid in making a beginning " upon which a permanent 
course may be laid in the future." 

Under the authority of the board, a training class was organized by the 
superintendent, and he declares the experiment a success in many ways, 
and asks for the establishment of a training class, with a definitely pre- 
scribed course of study and practice covering at least a year. 

IN THE REPORT FOR 1891 is recorded the following, concerning school 
accommodations : - 

" The city has been doing grand work in the erection of new buildings, 
and the enlargement of old ones ; but we must not forget that the city is 
growing very fast, and that something must be done each year." ..." The 
city must not expect to pause in the building of schoolhouses." . . . "New 
buildings in all the school districts will be imperatively demanded within a 
few years." 

" Immediate steps towards the erection of a new high school " are de- 
clared necessary, and cogent reasons are urged therefor. The loss of the 
city by the resignation of Miss C. I. Livingstone is recorded, as is also that 
incurred by the resignation of Miss E. A. Herrick, whose work is highly 
commended by the committee on drawing and penmanship. 

THE YEAR 1892. " The new board organized with a new mayor in the 
chair, William H. Hodgkins, who had been a member twelve years ago by 
virtue of being the president of the common council. He greeted here sev- 
eral who had been his former associates on the school board, either having 
been in continuous membership or former members. His words of hearty 
sympathy with the work of education and his earnest determination to exert 
all possible effort for the schools were an inspiration." 

In February the following report concerning the Fnglish high school 
was adopted : - 

"That we renew and reinforce the report of the committee of 1891, as 
follows : ' That the city government be requested to erect immediately a 
schoolhouse, suitably arranged and furnished, for an English high school, 
provided also with accommodations for the department of industrial educa- 
tion, together w r ith a hall sufficiently large for graduating exercises, etc.' ' 

A School E.\/iil>it was held on June 1 7 and i S in the high school 
building, which formed an interesting feature of the Semi-Centennial Cele- 
bration. As director of music for the first four grades, Mrs. Gish Garwood 
was elected in May. In January, Miss Augusta L. Balch was chosen direc- 



202 SOMERVJLLE, PAST .L\'D PRESENT. 

tor of drawing, Miss Herrick having resigned (in June, 1891), to accept a 
position in the New York College for Training Teachers. The superinten- 
dent mentions the enlargement of the Edgerly school, and states that " six 
years ago there were one hundred and twelve classrooms in twenty-one 
buildings; now we have one hundred and forty-seven (occupied) rooms in 
twenty-two buildings," and some districts are still ''cramped for room." 

" As compared with the erection of school buildings, the city has devel- 
oped much faster in the construction of dwellings and in population." 

In 1886, in the primary and grammar schools there were 44.7 pupils to 
a teacher on the average, and now there are 47. Several pages of the re- 
port are devoted to an exhaustive presentation of the necessity for a new 
English high school, and the advantages that would result from such a 
school. Regarding sanitation and building, the work done during the 
year is reviewed, and the importance of continuing the '" good work so suc- 
cessfully begun," is emphasized. 

The superintendent expresses his pleasure in reporting that the teachers 
and friends of the Lincoln school " had formed an association to raise 
funds for the purpose of ornamenting the schoolrooms with works of art." 
He also mentions the fact that a " large sum of money had been donated 
by Hon. Kdward Glines, for the purchase of pictures for the Glines school." 



CHAPTER XVII. 

HISTORY OF THE SCHOOLS (Concluded). 

SUPKRINTENDKMT F GORDON A. SuUTHWc )R'I H. 

THE SCHOOL BOARD OF 1893, organized with three new members, F. W. 
Gilbert, president of the common council, George S. Poole of ward one, and 
Herbert A. Chapin of ward two. The committee renewed the recommenda- 
tion of previous boards for a new high school, and increased accommoda- 
tions for various sections of the city. 

On April 24, the mayor announced the death of ex-mayor Charles G. 
Pope, and, on motion of Col. Bingham, suitable resolutions were adopted. 
( >n May 29, Superintendent Meleney announced his election to the Teachers' 
College of New York, and the principalship of the Horace Mann School of 
( >bservation and Practice, and placed his resignation in the hands of the 
board, to take effect October i . Later a vote was passed allowing the 
resignation to go into effect September i. 

( )n June 26, Gordon A. Southworth was unanimously elected super- 
intendent. 

On October 30, the board adopted unanimously a vote of recognition 
and commendation of the valuable service rendered the city of Somer- 
ville by Mr. Meleney. 

On June 26, a vote commending the work of John S. Hayes as prin- 
cipal of the Forster school for a period of fifteen years was unanimously 
passed. 







MINA J. WENDELL. 




. 





S. HENRY HADLEY. 



,Y6>.l//:7v' /'//./.A', PAST AND PRESENT. 



20: 



On August 28, resolutions appreciative of Mr. Southworth's twenty 
years' service as principal of the Prescott school were unanimously adopted 
by the board. 

A review of the work clone for the schools, while Superintendent Mel- 
eney was at the helm, is presented in Mr. Southworth's report for 1893, a 
portion of which is herewith presented. It is entitled 

"A FIVE YEARS' RETROSPECT." 

" In their report for i8SS, the committee say, ' With the report of super- 
intendent Joshua H. Davis for 18,87, we appropriately close the first volume 
of our school history as a city.' Possibly the recent change in the superin- 
tendency of our schools may not inappropriately be said to mark the close 
of the second volume. At any rate it is the end of a chapter. 

" The rapid growth of our population, the increase of our schools, and 
the efforts of our city to supply educational facilities equal to the demand, 
will best be seen by comparing the numbers in the two columns below : - 






1888. 


1893. 


Per cent of 
Increase. 


No. of children between 5 and i 5 years of age 
Average number belonging to the schools . 
No. of schoolrooms, grammar and primary 
No. of teachers employed 


5,959 

5,488 

I 12 
T ^Q 


7,i9i 
7,217 
152 
184 


21 
3^ 

36 
12 


High-school pupils in December .... 
High-school teachers 
High-school rooms 
Grammar-school graduates 


411 
10 

10 

2_n 


618 

'5 

10 

i9Q 


5 

5 
o 

64 


High-school graduates 
Amount spent for support of schools . . . 
Cost per pupil 


59 

#103,552 
18.87 


82 
>i 50, 101 
20.80 


39 

45 
10 


Kstimated value of school property . . 
Valuation of the city 


$428,554 
28,765,400 


$636,725 
41,820,700 


49 

45 



" A comparison of the numbers in the preceding table shows that during 
the last five years the increase of school accommodations, with the note- 
worthy exception of the high school, has just about kept pace with the 
increase of children. Forty modern schoolrooms, well ventilated, well 
lighted, and well adapted to use, have been added by the construction of 
the Knapp, Glines, and Pope schoolhouses, and by the enlargement of the 
Morse, Highland, and Fdgerly buildings. Four rented rooms occupied in 
1 888 have been abandoned, the Brastow schoolhouse has been converted 
into an engine-house, and the L'nion school building has been sold, making 
a net gain in the five years of thirty-seven schoolrooms, containing sittings 
for 1,946 pupils. The increase in the number of pupils has been 1,721). 

" This comparison also shows that the rate of increase in the value of 
school property slightly exceeds the increase in the assessors' valuation of 
property in the city, while the expense of supporting the schools has in- 



206 SOMERriLLE. PAST AND 1'RESENT. 

creased in exactl} 1 the same ratio as the city's ability to pay as indicated by 
the value of real and personal property in the city. \Ye observe further- 
more, that the gain in the number of graduates of the high school is greater 
than the gain in school population, and this too notwithstanding all the 
disadvantages of its crowded condition." 

" The school board of Somerville, . . . with the wise and prudent con- 
servatism that refuses to accept the new simply because it is new, . . . under 
the leadership of a courageous and enthusiastic educator, gradually intro- 
duced into our schools during five years that we are reviewing, new forms 
and methods of development and training fully in accord with the general 
trend of education in these latter days. 

" The first movement in advance was the adoption of a system of in- 
dustrial drawing that experience has proved to be based on sound educa- 
tional principles. To train teachers and to direct the work, a skilled super- 
visor of drawing was employed. Under this expert direction, seconded by 
the enthusiastic co-operation of teachers and the growing interest of pupils, 
the system in all its details has become firmly established in our schools. . . . 
Following this came the introduction of manual training for girls, in the 
form of sewing. . . . Two teachers of sewing were employed and a systematic 
method of instruction adopted, which has since become widely known as 
the 'Somerville system,' and which competent judges declared to be the 
best exhibited at the World's Fair.'' 

In 1889, the miscellaneous calisthenic exercises given in some schools 
were replaced by the form of Swedish gymnastics known as the " Ling 
system," which was regularly introduced into all grades. A competent 
supervisor was employed to direct the work and instruct the teachers. 

"The introduction of the normal system of music into the primary 
schools, and the employment of a special director to supervise the work in 
them, marked an important advance in musical instruction in our city. . . . 
It has since been extended to the fourth and fifth grades.'' "Another 
modification of our school work that helps to put Somerville in step with 
other municipalities is the introduction, to a limited extent, of nature study!' 
Though no special teacher for this work has been employed, he declares 
that '' an excellent beginning has been made." 

' One other improvement has characterized the period we are consider- 
ing. It is the extension and systematizing of supplementary reading. . . . 
Our school reading now runs definitely along four lines, extending and sup- 
plementing the work in history, geography, science and literature." 

" A statement of what has been accomplished during these five years 
would be incomplete without some allusion to the efforts that have been 
made to secure additional accommodations for pupils that wish to pursue a 
high school course. . . . Suffice it to say, that at last all these labors have 
been crowned with success." 

" Not to prolong this retrospect, mention only is made of the formation 
of historical class-libraries, which raise the study of history above the plane 
of merely memoriter exercises, and of the extension of history study down- 




PROSPECT HILL SCHOOL. HARVARD SCHOOL. KNAPP SCHOOL. 

POPE SCHOOL. BEECH STREET SCHOOL. 

CUMMINGS SCHOOL. LUTHER V. BELL SCHOOL. 




HODGKINS SCHOOL. 
LINCOLN SCHOOL. DURELL SCHOOL. 

BINGHAM SCHOOL. 
HIGHLAND SCHOOL. BURNS SCHOOL. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 2OQ 

wards into lower grades ; of changes in methods of teaching geography, 
which require less time and compel observation and thought and secure 
expression in its various forms words, maps and drawings ; of attempts 
to co-ordinate language-study with work in geography, history, science, and 
literature : and of the complete revision of the course of study, adapting it 
to the new lines of work." 

Concerning the teachers of the city, the Superintendent says : " Of the 
170 regular teachers, 104, or 60 per cent, have been appointed within 
five years. . . . The average term of service for our entire corps of regular 
teachers is six years." ..." Thirty-six per cent of all our teachers have 
had the professional training given by normal schools ; nine per cent are 
college graduates ; six per cent have had a year in some training school ; 
forty-eight per cent, about one-half of them, entered upon the work of teach- 
ing with the education which an ordinary high school gives some of the 
latter came to us after considerable experience elsewhere." 

" The changed condition and constantly increasing requirements in our 
schools demand in teachers wider culture, broader knowledge, and profes- 
sional education." ..." Teaching is now everywhere recognized as a pro- 
fession." . . . " The conversion of one of our largest schools into a training 
school seems to be a necessity forced upon us by the situation." . . . 
"These teachers in training would be excellent substitutes." . . . "Other 
cities have such schools, and their success is multiplying their numbers." 

" This portion of the report cannot be closed without bearing witness 
to the character of the teachers now employed by the city. In the main 
they are well equipped either by training or experience or both. They are 
conscientious, hard-working, enthusiastic, faithful. Their lot is not an easy 
one, notwithstanding the popular impression. They are expected to make 
the school. They have heard ten thousand times, ' The teacher is the 
school.' They know that the plastic material will forever bear the impress 
of their own characters. They must be what their pupils should become. 
. . . Teachers are assured that their fidelity and labor are appreciated, not 
only by school officials, but by the public, who realize their indebtedness to 
them, the most useful members in any community." 

" Prominent among the questions now agitating the pedagogical world 
is the one that has reference to changes in the grammar school curriculum. 
Kxtended college courses have led to increased demands upon fitting 
schools, and they, in turn, are inquiring whether some of the work done by 
them may not be done in grammar grades. Discussions upon the true 
educational value of different studies have given expression to widely dif- 
ferent opinions. . . . Experiments are making with a view to the evolution 
of what is best. Educational empiricists are advocating the introduction 
into the grammar schools of Latin, French, German, algebra, geometry, 
physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, geology, etc. The incoming of the 
new involves the exclusion of the old, for no one advocates lengthening the 
time by either daily or annual increase. Indeed, there are some that, with 
all the so-called enrichment, clamor for a reduction of the time spent in 



210 SOMERVILLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

education. The various exercises of the schools are being tested to ascer- 
tain their relative educational and practical value, their value in strength, 
ening and training the intellectual faculties as distinguished from their 
value in informing and equipping the student for some specific employment 
in the future." . . . 

" The great majority of children do not go through our schools, but 
drop out all along the way." ..." More than one-half our children are in 
the four lower grades, while but one-twelfth of them are in the high school, 
and one sixty-sixth in the highest, or graduating class." . . . " Our pupils 
leave school to engage in commercial or [industrial pursuits, and what 
we do for the great majority of them must be done below high-school 
grade." 

Concerning School Exhibits, the superintendent says : " Since our last 
report two exhibitions have been called for, one at the high school, fune 17, 
1892, where each pupil was represented by a garment of her own making, 
and one for the World's Fair at Chicago." In concluding his report, which 
is replete with important recommendations and suggestions, the superin- 
tendent says : " The most pressing need is so to increase our school ac- 
commodations that every child of school age in Somerville may have a com- 
fortable seat five hours in every da}' in an uncrowded schoolroom whose air 
and light and heat shall be the best that modern science affords. This 
need supplied, the number of pupils assigned to a single instructor should 
be reduced to a teachable limit." ..." Upon the schools, more than upon 
all other agencies combined, depend our future welfare and prosperity." 

As the successor of Mr. Hayes in the Forster school, Mr. Fred C. 
Baldwin, of Manchester, N. H., was chosen. 

THE YEAR iS94 was marked by the addition of four rooms to the 
Knapp school, four to the Bingham, and the erection of a new four-room 
building at the corner of Beacon and Kent streets, which was named the 
"George \Y. Durell School," "in honor of an esteemed citizen, for eleven 
years a member of the committee, . . . one whose life and character furnish 
an inspiration and an example for the youth who shall in coming years 
share the advantages of the school bearing his name." 

The superintendent reported that there had been a gain of 450 children 
of school age, and made specific recommendations concerning additional 
accommodations. 

"THE YEAR 1*95," says Superintendent Southworth, "has been a pros- 
perous one in the school history of Somerville." 

In regard to the expense of the school department, he says : 

" While the amount spent for the maintenance of our schools seems 
large, it will be noticed . . . that among the thirty cities of the State we stood 
seventeenth in the percentage of taxable property paid for the support of 
public schools in 1^94.'' 

Attention is called to the fact that "there are 542 more children in 
Somerville to-day than there were a year ago." 

"Of the 209 teachers in the employ of the city, three are in training 




FRANCIS H. RAYMOND. 




GEORGE W. PERKINS. 



SOMERV1LLE, PAST AND PRESEXT, 



213 



without pay ; forty-one have been newly elected during the year, 17 of these 
to positions in the English high school." 

Supt. Southworth says : "The long-talked of training school for Som- 
erville must soon become a reality." 

UNDER THE HEAD OF PATRIOTIC INSTRUCTION the superintendent 
mentions, as prominent among the acts of the Legislature of 1X95 affecting 
schools, the law requiring the uninterrupted display of the U. S. flag upon 
or within schoolhouses while schools are in session, and says an attempt 
has been made to conform to this requirement. The most of our school 
buildings have been provided with flags by the generosity of public-spirited 
and patriotic citizens or the contributions of equally patriotic children. 

Miss Mary L. Patrick was chosen supervisor of drawing, and Miss 
Sarah I. Stanton teacher of sewing. 

CARE OF SCHOOLHOUSES. 

" When the last revision of the city ordinances was made, the janitors of 
schoolhouses were placed under the election and control of the Committee 
on Public Property. Previously they had been responsible to the School 
Board, as is the case in most towns and cities. The change has not been 
advantageous to the schools. The efficiency of the service has not been 
increased. The local School Committee are in constant communication 
with teachers and with schools, and to them the janitors should be respon- 
sible. Any needed criticism now reaches the ultimate authority in a very 
roundabout way, and reforms and changes are often slow in coming and 
unsatisfactory in character." 

The following tables are taken from the superintendent's report for 



ANNUAL COST OF MAINTAINING THE SCHOOLS 

FOR A SEKIKS < >F YEARS. 

Amounts are given to the nearest dollar and include what has been 
paid for maintaining day and evening schools of all grades. 



YEAR. 


Average 
Member- 
ship. 


Instruction 
and 
Supervision. 


Water 

and 
Light. 


Heating. 


Janitors. 


School 
Supplies. 


Total. 


1885 


4,904 


$ 79,506 


$ 728 


$ 4,965 


5 4,000 


v S. 44 ,; 


$ 97,64S 


I S86 


4,985 


83,542 


624 


4,9 2 9 


4-194 


6,676 


99,865 


[887 


5,198 


86,713 


765 


6,475 


5,084 


7,526 


106.563 


I SS8 


5.488 


88,967 


953 


7,121 


5,892 


7-421 


"0,354 


I 889 


5,956 


96,466 


805 


6, 08 1 


6,448 


9,903 


i 1^,703 


I 890 


6,486 


104,184 


1,004 


5.586 


7,539 


10,371 


128,684 


1891 


6,502 


I i4,o(V> 


1,047 


8,032 


8,544 


[3,899 


145,588 


i 892 


7,035 


124,232 


1,064 


7,H8 


9,795 


' -VH4 


'55-' s 3 


1893 


7,21? 


i 28,720 


1,014 


8.312 


I 0, I 60 


10,137 


'5 s -333 


,894 


7,212 


132,')!') 


958 


9,673 


r 0,686 


10,919 


105,155 


.895 


7,617 


i44,i '3 


i .398 


8,796 


1 1.581 


15,063 


180,95 ' 



214 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

ANNUAL COST PER CAPITA OF MAINTAINING SCHOOLS 

FOR A SERIES OF YEARS. 

[Based on the average membership.] 





I 






YEAR. 


Instruction 
and 
Supervision. 


Janitors, 
Water, 
Heat, and 

Light. 


Sell ool 
Supply 
Expenses. 


Total. 


Ratio of cost of 
Assessors' Valua- school main- 
tion of City. tenance to 
valuation. 


1885 


$16.2.1 


Sl.98 51.72 


$19.91 


524.878.400 .00392 


1886 


[6.76 


1.94 1.34 


20.03 


26,OO3,2OO .00384 


1887 


16.68 


2-37 i-45 


20.50 


27.469.300 .OO38S 


1888 


16.2.1 


2-54 


1.36 


2O. T I 


2S, 756.400 -00384 


1889 


16.20 


2.24 


1.66 


20.10 


30.004,600 .00399 


1890 


16.06 


2.18 


i. 60 


19.84 


32.557,500 .00395 


1891 


17-54 


2.71 


2.14 


22.39 


36,843,400 .00395 


1892 


17.66 


2.56 


[.84 


22.O6 


38.093,100 .00407 


1893 


17.84 


2.70 


1.40 


21.94 


41,773,600 .00379 


I8 94 


18.43 


2.96 


1.51 


22.9O 


44,142.900 .00374 


I8 95 


18.92 


2.86 


1.98 


23.76 


4'). 506. 300 .00390 



The average per cent of attendance for eleven years from 1885 to 1895 
was 94.1. 

AMOUNT SPENT ANNUALLY FOR NEW SCHOOLHOUSKS, A\I> FOR REPAIRS, 

ETC., 

FOR A SERIES OF YEARS. 



YEAR. 


For New School- 
houses. 


For Repairs. 


For Maintaining 
Schools. 


Amount spent for all 
school purposes. 


1885 


*- 1 'MS5 


5 7,052 


5 97/H8 


5113,885 


1886 


I5.SIS 


8,706 


99,865 114,086 


1887 


14,839 


13,636 


106,563 i35-3 8 


1888 


4,996 


13,994 


110,354 129,344 


1889 


20,167 


14,225 H9,703 


I 54,095 


1890 


75-775 


19,168 


128,684 


223,627 


1891 


84,902 


14,847 


145-588 


245,337 


1892 


12,679 


17,734 


155,183 


176,001 


1893 


22,809 


12,440 


[58,333 


I93o S 2 


1894 


82,206 


*44-/64 


165,155 


292,125 


I8 95 


87,680 


15,651 


180,951 


284,282 



POPULATION OF SOMERVILLE. 



1842 . 


1,013 


1880 . 


24,985 


1850 . 


3-540 


1885 . 


2 9 .(,<,2 


1860 . 


8,025 


1890 . 


40,117 


lSf, 5 . 


9,366 


1895 . 


52,200 


1870 . 


1 4.693 


1 896 . 


55,000 


1875 . 


21-594 







* Including heating apparatus in both Ili.ujh Sclicol buildings. 




DAVIS SCHOOL. PRESCOTT SCHOOL. 

BENNETT SCHOOL. 
EDGERLY SCHOOL. JACKSON SCHOOL. 




GLINES SCHOOL. 
MORSE SCHOOL. 



CEDAR STREET SCHOOL. 



FORSTER SCHOOL. 
FRANKLIN SCHOOL. 





HARRY F. HATHAWAY. 




GEORGE M. WADSWORTH. 




JOHN S. EMERSON. 




CHARLES E. BRAINARD. 



SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND P RES EXT. 2IJ 

An interesting feature of the report is furnished in the portraits and 
biographies of the distinguished citizens for whom schools have been 
named, which is hereto appended. 

Prescott, William H. I'rescott. L. V. Bell, Luther V. Bell. 

Franklin, Benjamin Franklin. Cummings, John A. (Jammings. 

Forster, Charles Forster. Davis, Joshua H. Davis. 

Brastow, George O. Brastow. Burns, Mark F. Burns. 

Jackson, Andrew Jackson. Bingham, Norman W. Bingham. 

Lincoln, Charles S. Lincoln. O. S. Knapp, Oren S. Knapp. 

Bennett, Clark Bennett. Charles G. Pope, Charles G. Pope. 

Webster, Daniel Webster. J. T. Glines, Jacob T. Glines. 

Morse, Enoch R. Morse. G. W. Durell, George W. Durell. 

Edgerly, John S. Edgerly. Hodgkins, William H. Hodgkins. 

HEAD MASTERS, MASTERS A\D PRIXCII'.M.S OF SCHOOL^. 

Latin high School : - Banning of service. 

George L. Baxter, head master . . . . . . 1867 

Frank M. Hawes, master. . . 1879 
English high school : - 

Charles T. C. Whitcomb, head master . . 1895 

Winfred C. Akers, master . . . 1896 

Prescott, Samuel A. Johnson, master . . 1893 

Edgerly, Charles E. Brainard, master . . . 1889 

Davis, Frances Meldrum, principal . . . i8<><> 

Bell, Frederick W. Shattuck, master . 1890 

Cummings, Lydia J. Page, principal .' . 1869 

Prospect Hill, Helen Tincker, principal . 1872 

Oren S. Knapp, John S. Emerson, master . 1894 

Charles G. Pope, George M. Wadsworth, master . . i8<H 

Jackson, Annie E. McCarthy, principal . . 1880 

Bennett, Mary B. Smith, principal . i 885 

Forster, Fred C. Baldwin, master . . 1893 

Glines, Mary E. Northup, principal . 1878 

Bingham, Harry F. Hathaway, principal . 1890 

Morse, Mina J. Wendell, principal. . i8Xj 

Franklin, Harriet A. Hills, principal 1874 

Durell, Nora F. Byard, principal . . 1884 

Beech street, Elizabeth S. Foster, principal . . 1896 
Harvard, Grace B. Tibbetts 

Burns, Laura J. Brooks, principal . 1 

Cedar street, Lizzie A. Davies, principal 1893 

Highland, George E. Nichols, master . 1877 

Hodgkins, Arthur L. Doe, master . i8.><> 

Lincoln, J. Louise Smith, principal . . . 1896 






218 SOMERITEEE. I' AST AND PRESENT. 

SPECIAL TEACHERS. 

Instructor in music in high schools, and grades 7, S and 9 of grammar 
schools, S. Henry Hadley. 

Supervisor of penmanship, William A. Whitehouse. 
Supervisor of drawing. Mary L. Patrick. 

Supervisor of music, grades i to 6 inclusive, Mrs. Gish Garwoocl. 
Teachers of sewing, Sarah I. Stanton, Mary L. Boyd. 

SUPERINTENDENTS PRIOR TO 1866. 

In 1857 Rev. George H. Emerson, who was a member of the school 
board, was elected to the office of superintendent at a salary of 300. Re- 
signing in 1865, he was succeeded by O. S. Knapp, who had for ten years 
been principal of the Prospect Hill grammar school. In 1866, Mr. Knapp 
was succeeded by Joshua H. Davis. 

Superintendent Southworth has kindly furnished the following concern- 
ing the schools for 1896 : - 

At the present time there are twenty-five school buildings in Somer- 
ville ; two hundred and twenty teachers in day schools, and twenty-seven in 
evening schools. In the day schools there are eight thousand eight hundred 
pupils, being an increase of nearly six hundred over the number in 1895. 
There are about four hundred pupils in the evening schools. In June, 
1896, three hundred and seventy pupils were graduated from the grammar 
schools, seventy-six per cent of whom entered the high schools. 

HIGH SCHOOLS. 

As early as 1647, an ordinance was passed by the General Court of 
Massachusetts, making education universal and free, and requiring every 
town containing one hundred families to maintain a grammar school, simi- 
lar to the high schools of the present time, to be kept by a master who 
'* should be able to instruct youth so far as they may be fitted for the 
university." 

By an act of 1826, " every town may, and every town containing five 
hundred families or householders, shall maintain a high school." In 1851, 
measures were inaugurated by the citizens of Somerville, for the erection of 
a building and the establishment of a high school. The building was ded- 
icated April 28, 1852, and the school was organized on the 3d of May 
following. After an examination sixty-six pupils were admitted. In August 
following, twenty-two additional pupils entered the school. 

In August, 1859, when Mr. Babcock assumed charge, it contained forty- 
three pupils. The course of study required three years. Pupils of the first 
class studied the Latin reader. None had been prepared for college, and 
none had been graduated. 

In 1860, two courses of study of four years were adopted, one a regular 
course including the Latin language, the other a course preparatory to 
college. 



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O 



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a: 
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SOMERVILLE, PAST A.YD rRl:S]-:XT. 



221 



In 1862, diplomas were awarded to six graduates. In 1870, an English 
or mercantile course was adopted. The advent of Mr. Babcock to the 
school was the introduction of a new and prosperous era. In his efforts to 
improve the school he was greatly assisted by Charles S. Lincoln, Esq., 
then a member of the school board. I'nder the judicious management of 
Mr. Babcock and his successor, Mr. Geo. L. Baxter, the school has con- 
stantly increased in numbers, efficiency and popular favor. In September, 
1X67, Mr. Babcock resigned, and Mr. Baxter became principal. The school 
then contained one hundred and nineteen pupils. In 1X72 (March 4), when 
the school held its first session in the new building, it contained one hun- 
dred and fifty pupils. The reports of committees and superintendents fur- 
nish abundant evidence that, under Mr. Baxter's management, the school 
has performed admirable work in preparing pupils for higher institutions of 
learning, and has pursued a liberal policy towards those who desired to sup- 
plement the grammar-school course by studies of practical value to them in 
their various contemplated pursuits in life. 

During the twenty years that it occupied the old building, eight hundred 
and fifty-three pupils were admitted to the school, and one hundred and 
forty-one received diplomas of graduation. Previous to Mr. Baxter's acces- 
sion to the school, fifty pupils had been graduated, only six of whom entered 
upon a college course. 

The constant growth in the number of pupils and of graduates, since 
1867, has been so remarkable that we present the following brief table of 
statistics illustrating it. 



YEAR. 


Largest number in High 
School. 


No. Graduated. 


No. who entered College or 
Scientific Schools. 


1867 


119 


7 


4 


1872 


1 86 


21 


2 


I8 77 


227 


37 


7 


1882 


280 


33 


>4 


1887 


38? 


53 


'5 


1892 


577 


80 


2 5 


1893 


626 


S2 


29 


1 894 


691 


1 I I 


33 


1895 


775 


92 


29 


1896 


*55 


118 


-5 



By reference to the superintendent's report for 1895, page 95, we find 
that the per cent of the average membership of all the schools maintained 
by the high school has increased from 0.32 in 1867, and 0.75 in 1868, to 1.52 
in 1894, and 1.21 in 1895 ; or averaging the first two years above mentioned 
and the last two, the per cent for the years 1894 and 1895 is 1.365 as against 
0.535 for the years 1867 and iS(,s. 

The names of principals of the high school, and their terms of service, 
are as follows : 



222 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Robert Bickford, from 1854 to 1856. 
Samuel J. Pike, from 1856 to 1858. 
Isaac N. Beals, from 1858 to 1859. 
Henry H. Babcock, from 1859 to 1867. 
George L. Baxter, from 1867 to 1897. 

In submitting the report of the committee on the high school for the 
year 1890, Dr. A. H. Carvill said: "When this school first occupied the 
present high school building, March 4, 1872, it contained one hundred and 
fifty pupils and six teachers, a teacher to every twenty-five pupils. In 
September of this year, it contained four hundred and eighty-seven pupils 
and ten teachers, a teacher to every forty-nine pupils. . . . But even these 
figures do not represent the full amount of crowding in the lower classes, 
where the average is nearly sixty to a teacher." The report recommended 
the establishment of an English high school, and speaks of Principal Bax- 
ter's work closing with these words: " He had seen the school double in 
the number of pupils to each teacher, and his duties have more than 
doubled, and yet his students go into college and maintain their rank there 
with the best schools in the State." 

The opening of the schools in September, 1895, was marked by the be- 
ginning of the new English high school, which furnished the much-needed 
relief to the Latin high school. Concerning the latter, the superintendent 
speaks as follows : - 

LATIN HIGH SCHOOL. 

" While our attention is naturally turned to the English high school as 
an illustration of the advantages resulting from a division of the high 
school, we must not lose sight of the gain accruing to our educational 
system in the superior opportunities that the pupils of the Latin school 
enjoy as a result of the change. ... Its two hundred and seventy-five 
members are all fitting for college. They are animated by a common pur- 
pose, and stimulated to constant efforts by the desire to attain the standard 
of excellence required to reach their goal. . . . Already it is apparent that 
better work is being done, and more rapid progress made than ever before. 
The Somerville high school has always been conspicuous for the excellence 
of its college preparatory work, and it is saying much to remark that in the 
future it will surpass all previous records." 

From Superintendent Southworth's report is taken the following con- 
cerning 

THE ENGLISH HIGH SCHOOL. 

" The Unitarian church property was purchased for the sum of #45,000. 
and an appropriation of $80,000 made for the construction of an English 
high schoolhouse. Several plans were submitted by architects, and those 
of Hartwell, Richardson & Driver were accepted. Ground was broken 
December 5, 1893, and the work progressed without serious interruption 
until the building was ready for occupancy, September 3, 1895. 

The building is admirably planned and thorough!}' constructed 




GEORGE L. BAXTER. 




CHARLES T. C. WHITCOMB. 



SOMKRl'/LLE, PAST AND J'RliSl'.XT. 225 

throughout, thanks to the efficiency of the several committees and the 
unflagging zeal, energy, and watchfulness of Chairmen Andrews and Spar- 
row, to whom the city is greatly indebted for iheir labors in this con- 
nection." 

The entire cost of the building and furnishings was $147.725.59. 

As principal of the school, the committee selected Mr. Charles T. C. 
\\~hitcomb, principal of the Wakefield high school, on the 2i;th of April 
Mr. Whitcomb is a native of Thomaston, Maine. He was graduated from 
Amherst college in 1883, and taught in Sandwich for five years, becoming 
principal of the Wakefield high school in 1888. The superintendent says : 
" His conduct of the affairs of the English high school up to the present 
time shows that the choice of principal was wisely made." 

SCHOOL COMMITTEE, 1896. 

Hon. Albion A. Perry, mayor, chairman ex officio. 

George E. Whitaker, president of common council, member ex officio. 

Term expires 
January, 

WARD I. Sanford Hanscom, i Webster street . 1897 

S. Newton Cutler, 28 Flint street . . i' Sl > s 

George S. Poole, 46 Mt. Vernon street . . 1899 

WARD II. Thomas M. Durell, 23 Bow street . . 1897 

Alvah B. Dearborn, 34 Bow street . . 1898 

Herbert A. Chapin, 41 Walnut street . 1899 

WARD III. --Thomas S. Wentworth, 350 Broadway . 1897 

Frank H. Hardison, 192 Central street . > S( ) S 

Quincy E. Dickerman, 85 Central street 1899 

WARD IV. Martin W. Carr, 74 Craigie street . 1897 

George A. Miles, 417 Highland avenue . 1898 

Giles W. Bryant, 296 Elm street . . ' s v> 

Gordon A. Southworth, secretary and superintendent of schools. ( )f- 
fice, English high school building. Residence, 40 Greenville street. 



EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS. 

BY ALBERT E. \YIXSIIIP. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE schools of Somerville have maintained a good standard of excel- 
lence through all the years. They have never been poor nor have they taken 
highest rank in the opinion of experts. They have neither been the first 
nor the last to introduce any new thing. The name of the city has never 
been attached to any special educational notion in administration, method 
or device, neither has it been connected with conservative opposition to 
progress. 

Somerville has always had her schools in good working order, has al- 
ways done good work for her pupils, and the record of her youth and maidens 
in entrance examinations for college and in final honors in the university 
courses has placed her high school among the first three fitting schools of 
the country. So far as it is possible to estimate what the schools do for 
those who go out into the world rather than into college, no schools have 
done more by way of preparation for citi/enship, for industrial or commer- 
cial life. To be a graduate of the Somerville public schools is considered 
an honor, based upon what her graduates have done in business, professional 
and political life. 

( )riginally the only school in this territory was very rural, an out-of-the- 
way country school for the much scattered farm-people who lived '' beyond 
the Neck." Charlestown was a thrifty town, the Neck was the boundary of 
the village, and the outlying farms were merely " beyond the Neck." Fifty 
years ago and a little more this rural folk became a town by themselves, a 
humble people in their own estimation, and slowly they came to independence 
of thought and action. 

Their schools first gave them confidence, courage and reputation. A 
single church sufficed for a time ; but the four villages at once outlined them- 
selves about as many schoolhouses, which became at once village rallying- 
points for the organization of churches as well as the education of children. 
The first reputations were made in connection with the schools. The first 
statesman, man of State reputation, was Dr. Luther V. Bell, whose writings 
and political championship of education made him a close second to the 
illustrious Horace Mann,; and two of the earliest lawyers of the town - 
Oren S. Knapp and Charles S. Lincoln attained the influence and repu- 
tation that gave them public confidence and practice through their efficient 
service as schoolmasters. 
226 




REV. ALBERT E. WINSHIP. 




GEORGE o. PROCTOR. 



SOMER I-' I I.I.I-:, /'AST AND PRESENT. 22(j 

AYhat was so well begun has been well continued. One of the most 
successful mayors was one of Somerville's school principals, then a lawyer, 
Charles G. Pope. One of her successful physicians, a man of good profes- 
sional practice with influence in the affairs of public interest-- Dr. H. P. 
Makechnie stepped from the Lincoln school into the practitioner's office 
after due course of study and the requisite diploma. And Somerville's 
librarian, John S. Hayes, went directly from the school to the library. 



SCHOOLHOUSES. 

The public pride in the character and intelligence of the graduates of 
the schools and the influence of the teachers and graduates have simplified 
the question of appropriations for schools and school buildings- At first 
these were a necessity and appropriations were voted by the citizens with 
the same sense of duty and justice as that with which they repaired their 
country roads: but of late years the authorities have had regard to the 
luxuries as well as necessities, and there are no more beautiful buildings 
in the city than some of the schoolhouses whose adornments are artistic 
and appointments all that can be desired. 

In each of the original villages there are several large buildings, and all 
boundary lines between the villages have been obliterated by making new 
districts in the most unexpected places, erecting large schoolhouses which 
have grouped the children of different wards and sections with reckless dis- 
regard of inherited prejudices, and the end is not yet. So thick and fast 
comes the demand for new buildings that it is already a question where 
land can be found for all that must be built. No other New England city 
has ever had just such an experience in the housing of her scholars. So 
compact is the population and so rapid and universal has been the growth 
that her experience has been unique ; and the crowning glory of the city 
seen far and near, are the companion high schools, the most distinguished 
looking buildings to be seen in the vicinity of Boston from any of the lines 
of public travel. 

THE TEACHERS. 

It is a truism so old as to be almost absurd, that the teacher is the 
school. This is especially advantageous for Somerville, whose teachers 
have been exceptionally strong men and women. Mention has already been 
made of Messrs. Knapp and Lincoln, Pope, Makechnie and Hayes, men 
who have left teaching for more remunerative professions. Then there have 
been men like W. B. Stevens, called to Staten Island ; Alfred Bunker, Henry 
C. Parker, Herbert L. Morse, Edgar L. Raub, H. H. Newton, Harry An- 
drews and other men called to Boston ; Frank F. Murdock, Adelaide Reed, 
and Miss Turner, who have been called to the State normal school at Bridge- 
water. Mr. F. E. Forest, of the high school, is the leading criminal lawyer 
of Chicago and of the West. These are types merely of the men and women 
who have considered themselves promoted by their going. 



230 SOMERl'llJJ-:. PAST AND I'KESEXT. 

Those who remain are not less worthy of note. In the churches of the 
city, in all religious organizations, in Masonry, Odd Fellowship, the Royal 
Arcanum and other fraternities, the teachers have been an important factor. 
A cleaner set of men, a nobler class of women are not to be found in any 
community. They are representative of the best reading- and thinking, of 
the highest purpose and noblest aspiration of the city. 

THE SCHOOL BOARDS. 

Somerville has been specially favored in the men who have been 
willing to serve upon the school board. It is a thankless task and one that 
offers no political preferment. It is a service with a mission rather than an 
office with a reward. In the case of Dr. Luther V. Bell, it was a great ser- 
vice with a grand mission. In the entire history of Somerville, no other 
name occupies so high a place in the niche of fame. It would be a luxury 
to write appropriately the story of his life. He was the most eminent 
physician, the most influential man of affairs the city has ever produced, and 
occupies a prominent place among the educational celebrities of the State. 
His school reports written fifty years ago are next to those of Horace 
Mann. 

Men like Oren S. Knapp and Charles S. Lincoln, ex-teachers and 
leading citizens, gave much time to this service of their fellow men, each has 
a school named for him, an honor infinitely beyond that which attaches to 
the naming of a school for an official merely. In their case it recorded public 
appreciation of personal devotion to the cause of education. 

There have always been prominent persons from each ward, men or 
women, in whom the public has had such confidence that support of every 
measure has been prompt and hearty. Among the many leaders of long 
and efficient service it may not be invidious to mention Hon. John Haskell 
Butler, Henry M. Moore, Dr. Sanford Hanscom, Norman AY. Bingham, 
Huincy E. Dickerman, Prof. B. F. Brown, M. YV. Carr, and Dr. A. H. Car- 
vill. These are a few only of the many who have served term after term 
wisely and well, giving to the schools their best thought and unwearied en- 
deavor. 

THK SUI'ERIXTKXDKX I S. 

After all has been said by way of general praise, that which stands out 
clear as the day is the fact that the schools owe their pre-eminence to four 
men, Dr. Luther V. Bell, Joshua H. Davis, George L. Baxter and Gordon 
A. Southworth. Dr. Bell was the greatest educational character, but to Mr. 
Davis, long a member of the town school committee, and for more than a 
quarter of a century the superintendent, the city owes more than it can ever 
repay. 

The greatest service any one ever renders a community educationally 
is in the selection of efficient teachers. The great clanger to the public 
school system has ever been the choice of incompetent teachers because of 
personal or political favoritism. To-day it is a recognized impropriety for 







EDMUND S. SPARROW. 




LUTHER B. PILLSBURY. 



SOMKRl'ILLE. PAST AND I'RKSKXT. 233 

a member of the school board to insist upon his preference over the profes- 
sional judgment of the joint opinion of the superintendent and a principal : 
but in Mr. Davis' day there were no such recognized limits to propriety. 
Then the teachers were largely untrained, and local residence or committee 
favoritism counted for much ; and yet in these adverse conditions Mr. Davis 
had the wisdom and the skill to get the best available talent, to place the 
good to the best advantage and the indifferent to the least disadvantage. 
Ideals of teaching were quite different twenty years ago from what they are 
to-day, and yet Mr. Davis had standards so high and his tests were so rigid 
that results were attained that seem now impossible under such conditions. 
The knowledge of the children was exact, facts and processes learned were 
retained and the pupils had themselves well in hand in their thinking and 
in the expression of their thought. 

No three men ever worked together more perfectly than Mr. Davis, 
Mr. Baxter, principal of the high school for more than a quarter of a cen- 
tury, and Mr. Southworth, principal of the Prescott grammar school for 
nearly twenty years. Mr. Baxter has trained an entire generation, has 
fitted for college practically every Somerville boy and girl that has ever 
enjoyed the advantages of a higher education. Men now in the pulpit and 
at the bar, in medicine and dentistry, in professors' chairs and in the enjoy- 
ment of literary honors, men of business and women of the best society, 
people scattered over the world on missions and in missions did all their pre- 
paratory work under his guidance. With high ideals, close and accurate 
scholarship, a born trainer, Mr. Baxter placed the Somerville high school at 
the front when he became its principal, and it has never lagged an hour 
through all the years of his administration. 

But to Mr. Gordon A. Southworth has come the greatest opportunity. 
He was long the leading grammar school principal in the city, if not in the 
suburbs. A great teacher, a genius in administration, an inspiration, a per- 
sonal and professional force, he left the impress of his mind and purpose 
upon a multitude of girls and boys ; while in grammar school work he 
prepared a series of language books and arithmetics. This working out of 
ideal into definite shape, materializing notions in a system of teaching, broad- 
ened his professional vision and intensified his force so that he was admirably 
fitted for local leadership and a representative position when he was chosen 
superintendent of the Somerville schools. 

Mr. Clarence E. Meleney succeeded Mr. Davis, and in five years 
he transferred the system from the old to the new in method and spirit. 
This work has to be clone sooner or later for every city. It matters not 
how efficient the work or how good the results under the old regime, the new 
must be substituted, and Mr. Meleney made the transfer with much skill, 
so that Mr. Southworth presides over entirely different schools from those 
that Mr. Davis passed to Mr. Meleney. 

Since Mr. Davis' retirement an entirely new series of school buildings 
have arisen all over the city, and a new English high school, with every 
modern appointment in laboratory and kitchen, with popularized courses of 



234 SOMERl'ILLE. PAST AND PRESEXT. 

study, and a new professional equipment of the highest order, has seated 
itself in Mr. Baxter's school yard. Mr. Whitcomb. the latest professional 
accession, is an educational force of which any city might well be proud, 
and Somerville has taken every occasion to show her appreciation of the 
character of the work in the English high school. 

Somerville's educational advantages are due not alone to her teachers, 
school boards and superintendents, but in large measure to her citizens who 
are neither rich nor poor, but of that best of all social conditions, the mid- 
dle classes. No private school or academy has ever prospered in the city, 
and no community of the size has contributed less to the patronage of such 
schools in neighboring cities. There is a large parochial school in the city, 
but its establishment was in no sense due to criticism of the public schools, 
and every effort has been made to have the educational character of the 
school conform so far as possible to the public school standards. 

The people have confidence in the school authorities, respect the 
methods and spirit of the teaching and supervising forces, and are proud of 
the schools of Somerville. The record is one of which all are proud and 
the promise is all that the most ambitious can desire, and the educational 
spirit of the city is certain to eventuate in civic power. 




NATHANIEL DENNETT. 




FRANK E. MERRILL. 



HISTORY OF THE WATER-WORKS. 

BY FRANK E. MERRILL. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

As Somerville has always been dependent upon neighboring munici- 
palities for its water-supply, it becomes necessary to treat the subject-mat- 
ter of this chapter somewhat comprehensively and touch upon features 
which might, otherwise, be considered out of place in a history of our local 
water-works system. 

Although the need of a proper supply was for many years acknowl- 
edged, the small population of the town precluded the possibility of its 
taking advantage of any opportunity of obtaining an independent supply 
from the several sheets of water which lie within a comparatively short 
distance of its borders. 

The first organized company to do a water business within the limits of 
the town was the Cambridge Aqueduct Company, which was chartered in 
1837, to furnish water to the residents of the lower section of Cambridge- 
port, and a tract of land on the southerly slope of Central Hill was pur- 
chased for the control of the abundant springs then existing in that locality. 
This water was conveyed to Cambridge through wooden logs bored out to a 
diameter of four inches, and many persons are now living who recall the ex- 
cellent service done by that somewhat primitive system, as well as the ex- 
ceptionally pure quality of the water furnished by these springs. At that 
period Somerville, or, as it then was, Charlestown, was a sparsely settled 
farming district, but the residents in that section through which the pipes 
were laid appreciated the luxury of having the water brought into their 
houses, and a number of them are recorded as becoming consumers and so 
remaining until the discontinuance of the system. 

In 1842, the town of Somerville was set off from Charlestown with a 
population of about 1000, the most of whom were dependent on wells and 
springs for water for their household uses. As early as 1849, the mother 
city began to experience the advantages of a piped system of water sup- 
ply, as at that time the passage of a legislative act was obtained authorizing 
the city of Boston to supply East Boston with Cochituate water. This pipe 
line, when constructed, passed through C'harlestown, and the act required 
hydrants to be erected along its course : these were intended to be used for 
fire purposes only, but, to some extent, they were made available for domes- 
tic service. The partial benefits obtained from this source finally led the 
authorities to efforts to procure an abundant supply for fire, domestic and 

2 37 



SOMI-:R\'ILLK. PAST AXD PR 

manufacturing purposes. In 1860, application was made to the legislature 
for the grant of powers to enable the city of Charlestown to obtain a supply 
of water. This met with much opposition from land-owners, towns and 
cities, as well as from ship-owners and builders from Medford and East 
Boston, and even from the merchants of Boston in behalf of Boston Harbor, 
which it was feared would be injuriously affected if the proposed dam should 
be erected at the outlet of Mystic Lake, thus stopping the now of fresh 
water from the ponds. In i86i,the act was passed under which the present 
works were constructed, and the city was authorized to sell its surplus water 
to the towns through which the pipes should pass. 

As a large portion of these works are located in Somerville and are the 
present source of Somerville's water-supply, it seems proper in this place to 
give a brief description of the Mystic water-system, although, at that time, 
it possessed no direct interest for Somerville. 

The legislative act referred to authorized the city of Charlestown to 
take water from the northerly division of Mystic pond, and permitted the 
waters to be raised seven feet above the original level of the pond. 

Mystic Lake is a familiar name to all residents of Somerville, but not 
all are acquainted with the picturesque beauties of that sheet of water which 
has served our homes for a generation, and fewer still are informed regard- 
ing those features which are interesting from a water-works point of view. 
The northerly portion of the lake from which the water is taken is situated 
in the towns of Winchester and Arlington and the city of Medford, and is 
about four miles distant from Somerville city hall. It has an area of about 
two hundred acres when flowed to the level authorized by the act, and a 
storage capacity at that level of 380,000,000 gallons of water. The area of 
the country forming the drainage basin is thirty-one square miles, and the 
lake receives water from springs abounding in its vicinity and from streams 
rising as far away as Reading and Wilmington. The daily yield of the lake 
has been estimated at 30,000,000 gallons. The potable qualities of Mystic 
Lake, in the early days of its use as a water-supply, were considered excel- 
lent, but the great increase of population along its watershed in recent 
years has had its natural effect and produced a marked deterioration. Much 
good has been accomplished by the Boston Water Board in conjunction 
with the Metropolitan Park Commission and other authorities, in remov- 
ing sources of pollution which had sprung up along its borders, but it is 
doubtful if the water ever regains its former purity. 

The dam, at the outlet of the lake, is fifteen feet wide on top, and is, in 
height, eleven feet above high-water mark of Boston harbor, or four feet 
above the authorized limit of flowage. The conduit which conveys the 
water from the lake to the pipe-chamber on the north bank of Mystic River 
is 7,453 feet in length, and is constructed of hydraulic brick masonry eight 
inches in thickness, five feet eight inches in height and five feet wide. The 
total fall to the pipe-chamber is nine inches, and the conduit is calculated to 
convey 35,000,000 gallons each twenty-four hours. From the pipe-house the 
water is conveyed in two thirty-six-inch iron pipes under the Mystic River 






GEORGE D. WEMYSS. 




GEORGE A. KIMBALL. 



SO.Ml-lKl'/f.Ll-:. PAST AND rRKSEXT. 241 

to the pump-well in the engine-house, whence it is raised by the powerful 
engines to an elevation of 147 feet, through a thirty-inch pipe, to the reser- 
voir on College Hill, a distance of 3,277 feet. 

The reservoir, which has become a familiar feature among Somerville's 
attractions, is situated on College hill. It is both receiving and distributing 
in its scope. In shape it is a parallelogram 350 feet by 560 feet, and its 
water-surf ace .covers an area of about four and one-half acres. It is twenty- 
five feet in depth and is divided into two portions nearly equal in contents, 
by a partition wall five feet below high-water line. At high-water mark the 
capacity is 26.244,415 gallons. The top of the embankment is 150 feet, the 
top water-line 147 feet, and the bottom water-line 124 feet above high-water 
level of the harbor. The embankments are nineteen and one-half feet in 
width at the top, are laid out with concrete walks and furnished with seats, 
making an attractive promenade to which many resort to enjoy the beautiful 
scenery spread out in all directions. 

From the reservoir the water is concluded through two pipes, the first 
one laid being of cast iron, twenty-four inches in diameter, and the other, 
laid in 1X70, being thirty inches in diameter and constructed of wrought 
iron sheets, securely riveted, lined inside with cement and imbedded in a 
thick layer of the same material. These pipes deliver the water to the 
Charlestown city system and to the distributing pipes of Somerville. 

After the necessary preliminaries, work was commenced on the con- 
struction of the reservoir on College hill, then called Walnut hill, September 
27, 1862, with appropriate ceremonies. Considerable progress was also 
made in that year on the contract for the dam and conduit. The construc- 
tion of the engine-house was commenced in 1X63 and completed in 1864, 
and in the latter year the water was brought into Charlestown amid great 
rejoicing and a general celebration of the event. 

Shortly after the completion of its supply main the city of Cliarlestown 
made a connection in Broadway opposite Franklin street, and laid its pipes 
through Franklin, Pearl, Myrtle and Washington streets to the McLean 
Asylum, this being the first introduction of Mystic water to the houses of 
Somerville. During the three following years quite a large territory in East 
Somerville and Winter Hill was brought into the Charlestown system, the 
expense of the work being borne first by the city : subsequently the cost of 
the pipe and laying was borne by the city, and the expense of trenching was 
paid by the parties for whose convenience the pipe was laid ; and finally tin- 
entire cost was required from the parties supplied with water. Later these 
pipes were purchased by the town from the parties who had been assessed 
for their construction. 

By the year 1867 the town of Somerville had arisen to the importance 
of a prosperous community of about 12,000 inhabitants, imbued with the 
spirit of enterprise and mindful of the necessity of soon procuring from 
some source an abundant supply of water for the protection of their honn-s 
from fire as well as the enjoyment of its use for domestic purposes. 

The subject was introduced to the inhabitants of the town by a petition 
presented at a town meeting held November 5. 1867; at this meeting tin- 



242 SOMERl'fLLE. I' AST AXD PRESENT. 

town took its first action in regard to the introduction of Mystic Lake water 
when it was "Voted: That Nathan Tufts, Jr., Aaron Sargent, George O. 
Brastow, S. A. Carlton, Christopher E. Rymes, Thomas Cunningham and 
Levi Russell be a committee to take the whole matter of contracting with 
the city of Charlestown for a supply of Mystic water into consideration, 
confer with the Charlestown authorities, propose some plan and report at 
the next town meeting." 

At a town meeting held April 13, i86s, the committee submitted a full 
report on all the matters delegated to them, and recommended the election 
of a committee to be called the " Somerville Mystic Water Committee," with 
authority to make any and all arrangements in regard to the introduction, 
distribution and supply of the water. 

This report was accepted and adopted, an appropriation of $30,000.00 
was made, and Aaron Sargent, C. E. Rymes, R. A. Vinal, R. E. Demmon 
and Cutler Downer were elected to constitute the first " Somerville Mystic 
Water Committee." 

The first work of the committee was to procure the necessary legislation 
to authorize the making of a contract with the city of Charlestown for the 
use of Mystic water, and permit the laying of the distribution pipes. 

The desired act (Chap. 202, Statutes of 1868) was passed by the legis- 
lature and approved May 14, 1868, the first section being as follows :- 

" The town of Somerville is hereby authorized to lay, construct and 
maintain within the limits of said town such pipes, aqueducts and structures 
in connection with the water-works or aqueducts of the City of Charlestown 
as may be requisite for the purpose of supplying water to the inhabitants 
of said town for the extinguishment of fires and for other uses." 

Immediately upon the passage of this act the committee made appli- 
cation to the city council of Charlestown for the terms upon which that city 
would supply this town with water, and reported their progress at a town 
meeting held September 18, 1868. At this meeting a proposition was 
strongly advocated for the establishment of an independent system of water- 
works in connection with the waters of Spot Pond in Stoneham, five and 
one-half miles distant from the town line, or of Lake Quanapowitt in Wake- 
field, seven and one-half miles distant. After much discussion these schemes 
were decided unfeasible and it was " Voted : That the town will introduce 
water in pursuance of the authority granted to the town " by the act above 
referred to. 

The contract with the city of Charlestown for the use of Mystic water 
was made on September 21, 1868. By the terms of the contract the city of 
Charlestown agreed to furnish the water, collect the water-rentals, and to 
pay to the town of Somerville a percentage of the rents collected in Somer- 
ville, on the following sliding scale, viz. : - 

On annual receipts up to $20,000 15 per cent. 

From 20,000 to $30,000 . . .20 
From 30,000 to 40,000 . . 25 

From 40,000 to 50.000 . . -3 
On the amount in excess of $50,000 . 40 



.^ggS^^^F- 





WILLIAM FRANKLIN HALL. 




EDWARD FOOTE. 



SOMERVILLE, /'AST AND PRESENT. 245 

The town of Somerville on its part agreed to lay and maintain the dis- 
tribution pipes and fixtures and to pay the same rates for the use of the 
water as was charged to the inhabitants of Charlestown. By the terms of 
the agreement the payment for the use of fire-hydrants was fixed at the sum 
of $28 for each 350 inhabitants based on the semidecennial census. 

( )n August 14 a contract was made with the Patent Gas and Water Pipe 
Company of Jersey City for furnishing the pipe and gates for the season's 
use ; on September 1 1, a contract was made for the trenching, and on Octo- 
ber 8, 1868, the work of laying the pipe was commenced by the town of 
Somerville. Connection \vas made with the Charlestown pipe in Broadway 
at the Medforcl town line and the pipe was continued through Meclford and 
Central streets, Somerville avenue and Washington street to the grounds of 
the McLean Asylum, there connecting with the pipe which had been laid 
by the city of Charlestown. This pipe in Medford and Central streets was 
twelve inches in diameter, was made of wrought iron lined with cement, 
and it is an interesting fact that this section of pipe, the first that was laid 
by the town, is to-day performing satisfactory service after a period of 
twenty-eight years. 

This kind of pipe was laid up to the year 1884, when, on account of in- 
creasing trouble from bursts, and on account of the decline in cost of iron 
pipe, it was abandoned, and cast-iron pipe has been used exclusively since 
that time. 

In 1869 the pipes laid in Somerville by the city of Charlestown were 
purchased from that city, and in the following year a line of pipe which had 
been laid through Sacramento street to the American Tube Works was 
purchased from the city of Cambridge, thus bringing the entire system 
under the control of the town authorities. 

The rapid growth of the town rendered a change of organization desir- 
able, and in 1872 the city of Somerville was incorporated. ( >n the i3th day 
of January, 1872, by provisions of Chap. 182, Acts of 1.871, the " Somerville 
Mystic Water Board " springs into existence, composed of five members, 
each elected annually by joint ballot of the city council in convention. 

( )n July i, iSSd, after many years of agitation and effort on the part of 
the several boards, a modification of the water contract was secured, by the 
terms of which the city of Boston, who had meanwhile assumed the Mystic 
water-works through the annexation of Charlestown, agreed to rebate to the 
city of Somerville fifty per cent of the water-rates collected from Somerville 
consumers. This increased the city's revenue from this source from 
#21,444.91 in 1885 to $42,650.57 in 1886. 

While the larger portion of the city's territory was, by this time, enjoy- 
ing the advantages of an abundant water-supply, the high lands, embracing 
some of the otherwise most favored localities, were deprived of a satisfac- 
tory service, the height of the water in the reservoir being insufficient to 
give the pressure necessary to supply residences in these elevated sections 
of the city. In 1889, in consequence of these conditions, plans were per- 
fected for the erection of a high-service plant, and in the following year the 



246 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

system was put into operation, and in its results has proved the wisdom 
and foresight of those who urged its construction and carried it through to 
a successful termination. 

The plant comprises a brick engine- and boiler-house, one high-duty 
pumping engine, two steel boilers, a wrought iron standpipe, and a system 
of force and distributing mains ranging in size from fourteen-inch to six- 
inch. 

The portion of the city now covered by the high-service system com- 
prises 309 acres, or about one-eighth of the entire land area of the city. The 
water is draughted from the thirty-inch main in Broadway near Cedar street 
to the pumping station one-eighth mile distant. It enters the pump under 
an average pressure of thirty-eight pounds, and is thence raised to the stand- 
pipe on the summit of Spring Hill. The elevation of the base of this stand- 
pipe is 144 feet above tide-marsh level. The erection of the standpipe was 
commenced September 9, 1889, and was completed November 23 of the same 
year, and was filled with water the first time on March i, 1890. The stand- 
pipe is 30 feet in diameter, too feet in height and has a capacity of 528,768 
gallons. 

The pump was made by Henry R. Worthington, New York, and is a 
compound condensing engine with two fourteen-inch high pressure and two 
twenty-four and a half-inch low pressure cylinders, with two fourteen-inch 
double-acting water plungers of eighteen-inch ^troke. The contract called 
for an engine of 2,000,000 gallons daily capacity and a duty of 50.000,000 
foot-pounds. At the trial the engine developed a duty of over 64,000,000 
and a capacity of over 2,200,000. The steam was generated in one sixty-inch 
boiler, and this was in operation until 1894, when a duplicate boiler was 
erected for alternation. The total cost of construction of the high-service 
plant was about $75,000. 

March IT, 1891, passage was obtained of a legislative act reducing the 
membership of the Somerville Mystic Water Board from five to three, to 
be appointed by the mayor, subject to confirmation by the board of alder- 
men, the term of office to be three years, one member being appointed an- 
nually ; thus ensuring a practically permanent and efficient organization. 
The present Board consists of George D. Wemyss, president; George A. 
Kimball, and Wm. Franklin Hall. 

The several boards who have had charge of the affairs of the water de- 
partment since its organization have, with the co-operation of the town and 
city governments, been enabled to keep pace with the rapid growth of the 
city and have met all reasonable demands for the extension of the system. 
This has resulted in the occupancy of a very large portion of the city's ter- 
ritory, and the network of pipes of the Somerville water-system covers 
practically the entire district. 

Starting with two and a half miles of pipe, nineteen hydrants and twenty 
stop-gates in 1868, the city now possesses a system comprising about 75 
miles of mains, 58 miles of service connections, 700 hydrants, 900 stop-gates, 
50 water-posts, 8 drinking fountains and 9,000 service taps. 




WALTER S. BARNES. 




FRANK G. LOMBARD. 



PAST AND PRESENT. - 1 |< > 

The amount of bonds issued on funded debt account for the construc- 
tion and maintenance of this system has been $1,005,000, and payments have 
been made, to January i, 1X96, of 683, 500, leaving the water indebtedness 
at that date $321,500. Since 1892 no water bonds have been issued, the 
entire expenses of the department, including its interest account and reduc- 
tion of its funded debt, being paid from its earnings, and no call is made on 
the tax-payers for its support. 

The expenditures for construction account to January i. iSi/i. have been 
$667,976.93, and the total revenue from sale of the water up to that time was 
$795,466.94 ; the water income for the first year being $91 1.39, and for [895 
$S9,43i .46. These figures well serve as an indication of the growth and 
prosperity of our city. 

The great influx of population to the commercial centers produces new 
conditions ; new conditions demand new resources, and what served well 
the requirements of our fathers does not satisfy the necessities of their 
children. This is an era of progression and evolution, and the Mystic water- 
system is destined to succumb to the ever onward march of progress and 
will soon become a thing of the past. It has well played its part in the 
prosperity of our city, but its safe capacity for supplying our homes with 
water has already been exceeded, and its absorption into the greater and 
more comprehensive scheme which the early future has in store for it will 
not be regretted. 

Already we hear the sounds of preparation and soon we shall receive 
the full benefits of that gigantic enterprise undertaken by the Common- 
wealth to bring down the head waters of the Nashua to supply the necessi- 
ties of her chief city and its outlying municipalities. 

Somerville looks forward to the realization of this grand scheme of 
water-supply with almost as much anticipation as, in the earlier days, she 
regarded the introduction of the Mystic water; and this fact justifies a brief 
outline of its important features. 

The agitation for an increased water-supply for the district included 
within a ten-mile limit of Boston led to the formation of the Metropolitan 
Water Board, who have, by legislative enactment, acting in behalf of the 
Commonwealth, formulated a plan to take the water of the south branch 
of the Nashua river from a point in the town of Clinton, Mass., and convey 
the same to the inhabitants of the so-called Metropolitan District, of which 
Somerville is an important factor. The streams which unite in West Boyls- 
ton to form the south branch of the Nashua river take their rise on the 
easterly and southerly slopes of Mt. Wachusett, in the central part of the 
State. 

The plan contemplates a storage reservoir in Clinton which will wipe 
out the present location of a thriving town, four cotton-mills, four churches, 
six schoolhouses and nearly seven miles of railroad, and will require 1,711 
inhabitants to seek other homes. 

The reservoir is to be nearly eight miles long by two miles maximum 
width, with a shore line of over thirty-five miles, its surface of 6.5^ square 



250 SOMERVfLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

miles forming the largest body of fresh water in Massachusetts. Its maxi- 
mum depth is 129 feet with an average of 46 feet, and it will contain 63,068,- 
000,000 gallons, its capacity being greater than that of any existing reser- 
voir, and four times that of all the Boston water-works reservoirs combined. 
The elevation of the level of full reservoir is 385 feet above the level of high 
tide in Boston harbor. The entire cost of constructing this reservoir is 
estimated to be about 9,000,000. 

The dam to hold back this enormous body of water is to be constructed 
of solid masonry across a narrow gorge ; it will be 1,250 feet in length, 129 
feet in height above the level of the ground, 119^ feet in thickness at its 
foundation and 19 feet thick at the water-level. 

The water is to be conveyed from the reservoir through an aqueduct 
eleven feet six inches wide by ten feet six inches high, with a daily deliver- 
ing capacity of 300,000,000 gallons, for a distance of S.S; miles, nearly two 
miles of which is in tunnel; thence by open channel 3.03 miles to Reservoir 
Xo. 5 in Southboro, from which place it will flow through existing aqueducts 
and reservoirs to the reservoir at Chestnut Hill. At this point the water 
which is destined to supply the North Metropolitan District will be lifted by 
three high-duty low-service pumps, each of 40,000,000 gallons daily capacity, 
to a height of thirty to forty feet, whence it will flow through two forty-eight- 
inch iron pipes to Spot Pond in Stoneham, which will serve as an equalizing 
and distributing reservoir. On the line of one of these mains, near Spot 
Pond, is to be erected a pumping station for the entire northern high-service 
district, which will be equipped with high-duty engines of great capacity. 
The reservoir to be used in connection with this branch of the system is to 
be located in the Middlesex Fells, is to have its water-surface 270 feet above 
high-tide level, and is to contain about 35,000.000 gallons. From this reser- 
voir the highlands of our city will derive their water-supply, and the lower 
sections will be served direct by the forty-eight-inch pipes, one of which will 
pass through Willow avenue in West Somerville and the other through 
Tnion square and Walnut street, on their way to Spot Pond. 

Although the main desideratum is pure water in abundant quantity, 
Somerville expects to enjoy from this system the subsidiary advantages of 
increased pressure in its local system ; cutting off the expense of maintain- 
ing a local pumping station ; increase in water revenue due to our ability to 
secure more favorable terms than are at present enjoyed ; and the removal 
of a certain feeling of prejudice against our city which has prevailed to 
some extent on account of the unfavorable quality of our present water- 
supply. 

Somerville's interest in the Mystic system will cease by legislative enact- 
ment on the first day of January, 1898, and she will then become a consumer 
in this great Metropolitan Water-System. 




ISAAC STORY. 





f 












JOHN HASKELL BUTLER. 



POLICE DEPARTMENT AND POLICE COURT. 

BY WILLIAM E. BRIGIIAM. 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE long-continued depredations of incendiaries led to the organization 
of a regular police force in Somerville at a time when no householder could 
lie down to sleep at night without an anxious fear that his own might be 
the property which, without warning, would go up in flames, kindled by the 
torches of a noted gang that had kept the town in terror for years. The 
regular constabulary had performed police duty exclusively for more than 
twenty years after the incorporation of the town, or until firemen and citi- 
zens were compelled to do their own watching to prevent incendiarism. 

For the better regulation of the temporary watchmen thus informally 
employed, a police board was organized, June 19, 1865, with Town Consta- 
ble Horace B. Runey as chairman and Jairus Mann, now city messenger, and 
who has been a constable of Somerville since 1858, as secretary. The citi- 
zens of the town thought they had handled the liquor question quite sucess- 
f ully when, in 1863, the authorities had induced the forty-three liquor dealers 
of Somerville to agree in writing to sell no more in violation of the law ; but 
the burning of property necessitated more stringent measures, and the police 
board urged the establishment of a permanent night-watch, stating that 
" The officers of this town have been upon duty night after night, for weeks 
together, and some of them night and day also, for many days in succession.'' 

September 6, 1867, Robert R. Perry and, soon afterward, James Hanley 
were appointed a permanent night-watch, to aid Captain Runey, and the 
town appropriated, in place of its former annual " Selectmen's Incendiary 
Fund " of $5,000, the sum of $2,700 for police maintenance. In 1868 Melville 
C. Parkhurst was added to the night-force; two men were added in 1869 
and in 1870 two more. About this time a day-patrol was established, and 
in 1870 the town was redivided into seven police districts, a night-patrol- 
man was assigned to each, and the men were put upon fair salaries. 

The force was reorganized in 1871 and enlarged to thirteen men. and a 
set of rules for its control was adopted, emergency only having been its 
governing factor before that year. Chairman Austin Belknap of the Board 
of Selectmen meanwhile had kept his eye upon the work of Melville ('. 
Parkhurst, fresh as he was from the hardy experience of war, and having 
tried that officer and found him efficient, the Board made him captain of 
the watch. Upon the organization of the first city government, in 1872, 
Captain Parkhurst was appointed to his present position of chief of police. 
February i, 1873, Patrolman Robert R. Perry was made captain of police, 
which rank he has held uninterruptedly to the present time, with the dis- 
tinction of being the oldest officer, in point of service, in the department. 
The office of lieutenant was created in 1875 and filled by Joseph 1'.. . \lden 

253 



254 SOMERl'ILLl-:, PAST AND r RES EXT. 

until his death in March, 1876, when Sergeant Samuel R. Dow was ap- 
pointed to the place and held it until the orifice was discontinued in 1877. 
Charles C. Folsom was promoted to sergeant in 1876, and resigned, August 
i, 1885, to become superintendent for the overseers of the poor, a position 
he still fills. The four sergeants of the present force, with their dates of 
appointment to the force and promotion are : Edward McGarr, April, 1871 - 
September i, 1884; Christopher C. Cavanagh, May i, 1869 August i, 1885 : 
Dennis Kelly, April, 1881 --May 10, 1892 ; Eugene A. Carter, March, iSS4 
- February 8, 1893. 

In 1877, with a city's population of about 22,000, the police force was 
reduced from twenty-eight to twenty-four men and salaries were cut down. 
The municipal police signal system was established for the use of the 
department September i, 1888. The emergency ambulance was introduced 
in 1894, upon the completion of the Somerville Hospital, toward the build- 
ing fund of which the police force collectively had voluntarily contributed 
the sum of $200. In 1895, acting under authority of Chapter 197 of the 
Acts of 1895, entitled, "An Act to Provide for the Appointment of a Reserve 
Police in the City of Somerville," Mayor \Yilliani H. Hoclgkins appointed 
a reserve police force of eight men the number of the reserve force is 
limited to ten by the same law. and the vote of the city council has fixed 
the number at eight of whom three already, in accordance with the second 
section of the Act, requiring the regular force to be recruited from the 
reserve force, have been promoted to be regular patrolmen. September i, 
1896, with a city's population of about 55,000, the force consisted of the 
chief, one captain, four sergeants, thirty-six regular patrolmen and six re- 
serve officers. 

The Somerville Police Relief Association, of which all the men upon 
the regular force are members, was organized in 1872, and was incorporated 
December 19, i8Si. It is dependent for funds almost exclusively upon the 
annual police ball, and has more than $20,000 in its treasury. Its officers 
are: President, Robert R. Perry; clerk, Eugene A. Carter; treasurer, 
Melville C. Parkhurst. 

Somerville, as town and city, has ever been comparatively free of crime, 
chiefly because it is a residential place, where the sale of liquor is prohibited 
by overwhelming public sentiment and the liquor laws are unceasingly 
enforced. Until 1854 criminal cases were taken to Charlestown or to East 
Cambridge for trial. From 1*54 until the incorporation of the city in 1872, 
cases were tried almost exclusively by Francis Tufts, acting as justice of 
the peace, and, later, as trial justice, under the statute whereby certain 
trial justices were designated and commissioned triennially, who exercised 
authority and jurisdiction in criminal cases in any town in the county 
where no Police Court was established. The first trials in Somerville, and 
those for many years, were conducted in the office of Justice Tufts, on the 
southwesterly corner of Medford and Washington streets. In 1861 the court 
was removed to what had been the schoolhouse, on the southeasterly corner 
of Prospect street and Somerville avenue. A Police Court was established 
in the city April 23, 1872. 




MELVILLE C. PARKHURST. 




MICHAEL F. FARRELL. 



XOMKRl'ILLE, PAST AND 



257 



The Hon. Isaac Story, who is still in office, was appointed standing 
justice, and Lebbeus Stetson was elected clerk. Clerk Stetson was suc- 
ceeded in iSS2 by the present incumbent, Herbert C. Chapin. A room in 
the city hall was used for the sessions of the court until the completion of 
the fine brick and granite police building on Bow street in 1X75. This 
structure, erected at a cost of about 550,000, furnished, was designed 
especially for the accommodation of the Police Department, the Police 
Court, the Somerville Light Infantry and the Overseers of the Poor. It 
contains also a large hall for ward and city purposes. 




POLICE STATION, BOW STREET. 



The venerable brick engine-house, on the corner of Prospect and \Yash- 
ington streets, was used as a lockup until 1873, before which time Cambridge 
accommodated Somerville's overflow of criminals ; and from that time until 
the police building was finished the present water-works office, corner of 
Prospect street and Somerville avenue, was used. 

The Somerville police department is, in many respects, a model organ- 
ization. While the city has never pursued the policy, common in many 
other cities and towns, of maintaining one patrolman to every one thousand 
inhabitants, the force as constituted is, reasonably effective, and enjoys the 
confidence and good will of the citixens. 



THE PUBLIC LIBRARY. 

P,Y JOHN S. HAYKS. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

THE Somerville Public Library deserves a prominent place in any 
recognition of the Somerville of to-day. Its inception, its steady growth, 
the fidelity of those to whom its interests have been committed, and its wide 
and increased usefulness, should have more than ordinary attention. 

It cannot be disputed that to a very large degree a public library is the 
focus-point of the intelligence of a community. Of course its value must 
depend upon the character of its contents and the methods employed to 
bring it into touch with all classes of people. A public library is not meant 
for those of exceptional culture only, nor must it merely meet the uncultured 
taste of those whose lack of experience would make them satisfied with 
works of a weak if not vicious character. It is for the steady, if necessary, 
the slow uplifting of those who need, in every station in life, that enlighten- 
ment of mind which will make them appreciate the ennobling resources of 
mental culture, refinement, and ambition. From the very first the Public 
Library of Somerville has come under good guardianship and direction. 

The one who took the earliest and most active interest in its establish- 
ment was Edward E. Edgerly. He held a position as president of the 
Somerville High School Association which of itself was indicative of the 
esteem in which he was held by those interested with him in the improve- 
ment of children and youth. It was unfortunate that his sickness and death 
prevented the maturing of his plans, but he achieved the success of in- 
spiring others with the salutary importance of the project he had so per- 
sistently and strenuously advocated. Those who were associated with him 
did not receive his ideas in fallow minds or in unsympathetic hearts. ( >n 
the contrary, at the suggestion of the Association of which he had been 
President, the selectmen and school committee of the town were invited to 
co-operate in taking measures for the formation of a library. This propo- 
sition received the immediate attention of the selectmen. A joint committee 
was formed, consisting of Austin Kelknap, Horace Haskins, and Francis 
Houghton, of the board of selectmen, and Edward C. Booth, Henry M. 
Brown and George S. Littlefield of the High School Association. This was 
in the year 1869. The same committee was reappointed in March, 1870, 
and prepared and submitted a plan for the proposed library, and presented 
the names of the following well-known citizens as a Board of Trustees : 





JOHN S. HAYES. 




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SOMERVILI.I.. 1'AST AND PRESENT. 261 

Austin Belknap, Henry M. Brown, Samuel A. Carlton, Horace P. Hemen- 
way, Oren S. Knapp, John P. Marshall, Kdwin Mills. Frank H. Raymond 
and Columbus Tyler. 

The town, however, at its April meeting in 1X71, while voting "That a 
free public library be established," did not ratify the action of the committee, 
but instead appointed a committee "to report a plan for operating the 
same." This committee consisted of the above mentioned citizens, and 
Russell H. Conwell, Joshua H. Davis, Samuel C. Hunt, George S. Littlefield, 
Rev. Charles Lowe, Isaac Pitman, and Quincy A. Yinal. Subsequently 
there was a change made in the composition of the committee. Rev. Charles 
Lowe and Prof. John P. Marshall being absent in Europe, and so unable to 
serve, Rev. Geo. W. Durell and John R. Poor were chosen to fill the va- 
cancies. 

It is unnecessary to follow in minute detail the work done by the com- 
mittee. They reported in print, and submitted a code of by-laws, sub- 
stantially the same as those now in force, and the citizens in town meeting 
assembled adopted their recommendations, November 7, 1871. 

The change of town government to that of a city necessitated some 
delay. But at a meeting of the city council held October 21, 1872, a board 
of trustees consisting of nine members was elected. This board organ- 
ized November 14, and elected Isaac Pitman librarian. 

The library opened for the delivery of books to the public May i, 
1873, in a small room on the lower rloor of the city hall. It had a list of 
2384 volumes. Of that number 715 volumes were donated by thirty-six 
public-spirited citizens. From that time until the present, the library has 
been wholly sustained by the yearly appropriations made by the city coun- 
cil, and the dog-licenses, which are yearly turned over to the library, it hav- 
ing received only $102.80 in gifts. The aggregate amount of the annual 
appropriations and dog-licenses, during the existence of the library, is 

$11 1, 355-34. 

Mr. Pitman continued as librarian, giving valuable help, without money 
and without price, until June i, 1875, when he resigned, and his valuable 
assistant, Miss H. A. Adams, was elected to his place, which she acceptably 
filled for eighteen years. During her term of service the number of books 
increased to about 25,000, and the yearly circulation to 93,000. In J uly, 1 8^3. 
the present incumbent, John S. Hayes, took charge of the library. 

It was evident to the board of trustees that the increasing needs of 
the library consequent upon the enlarged population of the city, and the 
more general use of the library books, demanded better accommodations, 
and more modern methods. The present library building was erected in 
1884-5, at a cost of $28,335.45 exclusive of land, and presumably was deemed 
sufficiently capacious for all prospective needs; yet within ten years it had 
been outgrown in every department, but particularly in shelf-room for 
books, and rooms for consultation and study. 

By the generous action of the city government, the trustees were en- 
abled in 1895 to remove the book-cases and erect a steel book-stack, thus 



262 SOMERriLLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

enabling them to more than double the book-holding capacity of the stack- 
room. Other changes were made, adding very much to the usefulness of 
the library for those who desired to consult its resources. A reference 
room was provided, thus making the books of this department more aces- 
sible. One room has been set apart for works on our state and town his- 
tories, and the volumes which now line its walls make a notable beginning for 
a department of Americana; and numerous valuable art-books have been 
added, and so far as was deemed justifiable in view of the limited funds at 
the disposal of the trustees, foreign books, mostly in general literature, have 
also found a place within the library. 

And still the work goes on. There is an increasing use of the books now 
held in the library catalogue, and a very urgent need for more. This is 
indicated by the fact that, having a library of less than 34,000 volumes, and 
a city population of over 54,000, and rapidly increasing, the yearly circulation 
has risen to 130,000, which is equivalent to each volume in the library 
being circulated four times each year ; while the size of the library is in- 
dicated by the statement that there is less than two-thirds of a book to each 
inhabitant. It will thus be seen that our library is very small in proportion 
to the size of the city, while its circulation is comparatively large, thus 
making it a question of serious consideration how soon there can be had, at 
least, a list of 100,000 books in the library. 

It is the policy of the trustees to bring the resources of the library as 
close to the homes of the city as possible. \Yith this end in view, sub-agencies 
have been located in East Somerville and West Somerville, and books are 
regularly delivered at the several large school buildings, for the use of 
teachers and pupils, and thus the library is kept in touch with the younger 
portion of the community. 

In order to make the library more accessible, a new finding-list was 
printed about one year ago, after a re-classification of all books in the library, 
at an expense of 54,344. In order to give information as to new books, or 
books bearing on special topics, a monthly bulletin for free distribution has 
been issued, and frequent communications printed in the local press, which 
has very cordially seconded the efforts which have been industriously made 
by those in charge of the library. 

The trustees have always given patient thought and valuable time, 
voluntarily and gratuitously, sometimes in much perplexity, to promoting 
the interests of the institution committed to their guardianship. The high 
character of the books selected and placed upon the shelves testifies to their 
faithfulness, and indicates that they fully appreciate the responsibilities 
placed upon them ; and it is evident that the library has been exceedingly 
fortunate in having the services of able and devoted men and women in its 
organization, management, and administration. It has been built up and 
carried forward with no false step or retrograde movement, from its small 
beginning in a little room, until it has quite outgrown the beautiful building 
it now occupies, and it seeks to-day new opportunities of usefulness, even 
in advance of public requirements. 




CHARLES S. LINCOLN. 







CHRISTOPHER E. RYMES. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST .LVD PRESENT. 265 

Judging from its past growth, and from its present influence, it is by no 
means unreasonable to expect that the public library will be an increasing 
power for good in the flourishing, intelligent, and beautiful city of Somer- 
ville. 

The interest taken in the library since its beginning, and the use made 
of it, may be imperfectly indicated by the following brief citation of figures : 
In 1873, as nas been already stated, the number of books in the library 
was 2,384; the circulation that year was 18,047 volumes. Two years later, 
that is, in 1875, there had been placed in the library 5,235 books, -and the 
circulation was 39,025. In 1880,8,614 books, 67,894 circulation; in iSS;, 
i 2,788 books, 65,450 circulation ; in 1890,20,112 books, 95,127 circulation; 
in 1894, 27,729 books, 106,341 circulation; and in 1896, up to November i, 
36,642 books, and a circulation of 116,786. The circulation for the entire 
year will probably exceed 130,000 volumes. The number of books worn out, 
lost and discarded, up to the present time, has been 2,754, making the num- 
ber of volumes in the library about 34,000. The total circulation has been 
1,727,038 volumes. 

The library and reading-room are open every day (Sundays and legal 
holidays excepted) from 9 A. M. to 6 P. M ; Wednesdays and Saturdays until 
9 P. M. The reference room is open from 1.30 P. M.to 5.30 P. M. Books are 
delivered and collected at the several large grammar schools as frequently 
as the demand may require. 

Any resident of Somerville, over fourteen years of age, is entitled to 
the use of the library by signing the proper application, and presenting a 
written recommendation that he is a suitable person to use the library, 
signed by two citizens of Somerville. 

Any person visiting the library for the purpose of literary or scientific 
investigation may temporarily receive the benefits of the reading-room and 
the use of the books within the library building. 

Special privileges are granted professional persons, teachers, authors, 
and special students requiring the use of more than one book at a time. 

It is hoped that those who make use of the library will have no hesi- 
tation in consulting the librarians and assistants in all matters upon which 
information is needed. Inquiries regarding special subjects of study are 
always invited, and will receive careful attention. Information slips can be 
obtained at the desk. 

< )RC;ANIZATION. 

Trustees. Charles S. Lincoln, president, J. Henry Flitner, Christo- 
pher E. Rymes, Charles H. Brown, Klijah C. Clark, John 1!. Yiall, Charles 
A. West, J. Frank Wellington, Charles W. Sawyer; John S. Hayes, secre- 
tary. 

Library Staff. - - John S. Hayes, librarian ; Clara L. Uidwell, assistant 
librarian; Anna L. Stone and Mary J. Warren, assistants; K. Mabel Nor- 
cross, cataloguer; Esther M. Mayhew, Charles A. Wiggin and Henry N. 
Sanborn, attendants; Charles A. Southwick, janitor. 









J. FRANK WELLINGTON. 




CHARLES W. SAWYER. 









-/^ 




JAMES R. HOPKINS. 



THE FIRE DEPARTMENT 

BY WILLIAM 1-:. BRIGHAM. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

FROM 1842, when all Somerville was a quiet farming country, dates the 
history of the Somerville Fire Department. For nearly fifty years a curious 
little machine had been in service in Charlestown proper, a '' tub " hand 
engine, Mystic No. 6 by name. Its principal mechanism consisted of an 
oblong wooden tank sheathed with metal, pistons which worked perpendi- 
cularly, and handsome lancewood brakes. It could not ''draught "water, 
and all it threw was first poured into it from buckets hence its denomina- 
tion "tub." 

In 1838, four years before Somerville was set off as a town, the Charles- 
town authorities assigned this engine to duty in Charlestown's big back 
yard, as Somerville then was, and a plain two-story wooden engine-house 
with cupola was built for it on the corner of Washington and Prospect 
streets, at a cost of #400. In this the engine was placed, and a small bell was 
hung in the cupola. For years, even after the Somerville company was or- 
ganized, in 1842, an alarm of fire could be rung only by means of this bell. 
For years, also, according to a law then in force, every man in town was re- 
quired to hang two buckets, usually of leather and painted, in his front hall, 
and when an alarm was sounded it was his duty to seize those buckets, 
hurry to the fire and range in line with others to assist in passing water from 
well or cistern to the men who worked the engine. 

August 6, 1838, the selectmen appointed Benjamin V. Ricker, Hiram 
Allen, Clark Bennett, Solomon Story, James Underwood, Nathan Tufts, 
Nathan Tufts, Jr., David A. Sanborn, William Bonner, John Runey, Jr., 
True Morrill, Henry A. Ireland, Charles Miller, Jerome Thorp, Joshua 
Rand, Levi Orcutt, Daniel Stone, Joseph Clark, Robert Vina], William 
Munroe, William Parker, Nathan Blodgett, Benjamin Hadley, Benjamin 
Hadley, Jr., Abram Welch, Oliver Tufts, Samuel T. Frost, Asa Richards, 
Dustin N. Smith, ( )scar Bennett, Robert Sanborn, Nathaniel Williams, 
John Giles, Caleb Harrington and C'harles \Yentworth, ''to be engineers 
and firemen constituting a new company designated as Kngine Company 
No. 6, attached to Engine 6, located near Milk Kow in said Charlestown." 
The C'harles Miller mentioned in the foregoing was the man who named 
Somerville. The records fail to give the list of officers of the original 
"Mystic 6" company. The first officers mentioned were in 1840, when 
269 



2 JO SOMERVILLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

John Runey, Jr., was foreman : Solomon Story, assistant foreman ; Jerome 
Thorp, second assistant ; and Robert A. Vinal, clerk and treasurer. In 1839 
Hiram Allen had been appointed an assistant engineer, and was, it is stated, 
the only representative the Somerville district ever had upon the Charles- 
town board of fire engineers. In 1842, when the town was set off, old Mys- 
tic 6 was left as a legacy to Somerville, and the engine's valuation, 550, was 
entered upon the town records. This engine was Somerville's only fire 
apparatus until 1850: in 1856, by vote of the town, Abram Welch was 
authorized to sell the venerable relic, which he did for $30, and it was taken 
to East Boston and broken up for old junk. The small hand bell which 
came with it from Charlestown is now in possession of Chief Hopkins at 
the central fire station. It bears the inscription : 

" Presented to Company No. 7 by Mr. John B. Parker." 

The salary of the firemen, all volunteers, was $1.50 each per annum, 
paid by the abatement of the poll tax. Fires were infrequent, however, and in 
a short time the company disbanded ; and from that time until 1 850 the engine 
was manned sometimes by a regularly organized company and sometimes 
by volunteers. In 1846 the " Boys' Company," so called, because composed 
of young men from 16 to 20 years old, was organized. According to the 
recollection of some of its members, Levi Orcutt was foreman, David A. 
Sanborn, Jr., assistant foreman, and J. Manley Clark, clerk. Among other 
members were Quincy A. Vinal, Robert A. Vinal, Horace B. Runey, 
George W. Fillebrown, Carlton Hawkins, '* Jimmy " Williams (a popular 
colored man), George Ambrose Clark, Albert L. Sanborn, Daniel Sanborn, 
Henry Munroe, Henry Thorpe, and Quincy Harrington. 

In 1850 began what may be termed the romantic clays of the department 
which continued for fifteen years, during which time the firemen as such 
were closely identified with the social life of the town. November 12, 1849. 
after repeated attempts at like action, the town appropriated 51,43*. 75 for 
the purchase of a "good and sufficient fire engine." It arrived about Jan- 
uary i, 1850, and was styled " Somerville No. i." It was a first-class mod- 
ern suction machine, one of the best ever made by the celebrated Hunne- 
man & Co. of Roxbury, and had six and a half inch cylinders, folding 
brakes and all the latest improvements. January 7, 1850, the selectmen 
appointed the following board of fire engineers : Nathan Tufts, Jr., Gard- 
ner T. Ring, George O. Brastow, John B. Osgoocl, and Abram Welch. Mr. 
Welch declining to serve, Hiram Allen was appointed in his place. Jan- 
uary 15, the board organized by the choice of Nathan Tufts, Jr., as chief 
engineer, and George O. Brastow, clerk. More than fifty men at once en- 
rolled in the company, and soon it was one of the leading and most popular 
organizations in town. Following is the original roster of Somerville En- 
gine Company No. i, as taken from a poster in the possession of Chief 
Hopkins, and which is believed to be the only one in existence : - 

D. A. Marrett, Lorenzo Burbank, Rufus Littlefield, Seward Dodge, 
Caleb Kingman, Jairus Mann, L. Arnold, George W. Bridgman, George 
A. Clark, Samuel Hamblin, George W. Hadley, David Kenrick, John 




DAVID A. SANBORN. 




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SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 273 

Ackers, David Bonner, Granville Leland, Jonas Trefren, Francis Tufts. 
Levi Orcutt, Jr., \\". S. Leland, Lewis ( '. Kdgerly, David A. Sanborn, 
Nathaniel K. Hammond, Joseph Q. Twombly, Calvin Horton, Horace I!. 
Runey, J. Runey, George H. Foster, John B. Osgood, Benjamin Randall, 
Benjamin Hamilton, B. F. Darling, George Holton, J. Rice, Edward J. 
Shattuck, Lewis Horton, J. Bachelder, Benjamin Haclley, Isaac F. Shepard, 
Francis J. Williams, John Ireland, Daniel A. Hartwell, James \\'iggins, 
James M. Stevens, M. E. Benjamin, E. G. Kenrick, S. C. Bradshaw, Jr.. 
l-'rederick \V. Hannaford, William G. Emery, Samuel H. Gooding, Shepard 
Robinson, Joseph Pierce, Jr., George S. Fogg, W. B. Sisson. Franklin I >. 
Snow, James Williams, George W. Trefren. 

The first fire to which the department was called was the burning of 
Jotham Johnson's barn on the " Ireland rangeway," off School street toward 
I'nion square. 

In 1853 the company demanded a raise of pay from 5 1.50 a year to #1.00 
a month, that an entertainment fund might be. established. The selectmen 
hesitated. The men reeled up the hose and, figuratively speaking, walked 
out. In course of time the selectmen yielded and, December 5, 1854, this 
pioneer strike was ended. The company, as a matter of fact, suffered one 
or two other disbandments, during all of which, however, the men stood as 
ready for service, in case of emergency, as if their names had still been car- 
ried upon the pay-roll of the town. 

An event which attracted the excited attention of firemen all over the 
State, and in which the Somerville company played one of the two important 
parts, took place Fast Day, 1 852. Somerville ( )ne, a Hunneman, and Niagara 
3 of East Cambridge, a Thayer engine, had long been rivals, and at last 
Somerville sent a formal challenge to Cambridge. The fact of the approach- 
ing contest became noised abroad, and on the day of the trial several thou- 
sand persons, residents of neighboring places and firemen from all over the 
State, gathered on Broadway, Cambridge. The Cambridge Brass Band 
was hired, all the church bells were rung, and the excitement was intense. 
The cylinder of Niagara was of about the same size as that of Somerville, but 
of shorter stroke. Niagara lowered Somerville's water nine and one-quarter 
inches in the first trial and " washed " her once in the second. At the ex- 
piration of time in the second trial the water in Somerville was four inches 
from the top of the tub. In the third trial, "tub and tub,'' Niagara 
" sucked '' Somerville twice, and at the expiration of time the water in Niag- 
ara was twelve and a half inches from the top of the tub, and in Somer- 
ville's, five and a half inches. Captain B. F. Darling was in command of 
Somerville i, and Captain Alexander Fraser of Niagara 3. 

As a matter of history, also, Somerville One engaged in many other ex- 
citing contests of a like nature, in which she was as often victorious as de- 
feated. 

The first and only board of fire wards for the town, appointed May 4. 
1X42, consisted of Robert G. Tenney, Hiram Hackett and William A. 
Russell, who served until the appointment of the board of engineers in 
1850. 



2/4 S(i.MER]-JLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

December 24, i 855, the old engine-house was destroyed by fire, although 
the engine with other contents was saved, and J. Q. Twombly's paint-shop 
was used until 1856, when the town, at a cost of $5,000, erected the substan- 
tial brick building on the corner of Washington and Prospect streets ; in 
1.871 the handsome house with the tower, on the corner of Highland avenue 
and Walnut street, was erected. 

Before leaving the days of the hand-engine it is pleasant to record one 
or two of the many incidents illustrative of the patriotism and paternal 
liberality of the firemen of that time, and of their correlation to the interests 
of the town. For years the upper room in the little engine-house and 
Franklin hall, next it, on the site of the present Holmes' store, were much 
used for public gatherings of all kinds, of which none, perhaps, were more 
popular with the firemen than the series of religious services in charge of 
Rev. Charles Baker. When "Father' Baker wished to build a church 
edifice, in 1857-8, he said : "Well, boys, what are you going to do to help 
us? " The answer was immediate and satisfactory; and it was said of the 
members of Somerville Engine Company No. i, that their assistance did 
much toward the erection of the first edifice built by the First M. E. Church 
in Somerville now the property of the St. Joseph's Society, on Webster 
avenue. The first flagstaff in town, long a landmark, and later replaced, 
was put up by the firemen in Union square in 1853. 

The war record of Somerville i Engine Company was noteworthy. 
Immediately following the bombardment of Fort Sumter several of its 
members, including James R. Hopkins, now chief, Albert Caswell, F. R. 
Kinsley, Joseph J. Giles, John H. Hodgdon, Frank Moore and Henry 
Carr, enlisted in the Somerville Light Infantry and went to the front ; and 
during the war the company contributed more than $800 to assist in placing 
Somerville's soldiers in the field and caring for their families at home. 

It was fifteen years from the purchase of the hand-engine to the organ- 
ization of the first hose-company. In 1865 David A. Sanborn and Jairus 
Mann were sent by the town to New York to select a hand hose-carriage. 
In Troy they chose one bearing upon the front the words, " John E. Wool," 
and on the back, " We Battle with the Elements." It was taken to East 
Somerville and placed in a shed, and later removed to the two-story wooden 
house on Webster street, between Glen and Rush streets, torn down in the 
fall of 1896 to allow the erection upon that site of the Sanford Hanscom 
schoolhouse. " Liberty Hose Company No. i " was at once organized, in 
June, 1865, as follows : Alfred Horton, foreman ; George W. Bean, assistant 
foreman ; James R. Hopkins, clerk; James Merritt, treasurer; James Bean, 
L. Horton, 1). P. Horton, W. E. Dickson, Jabez P. Dill, A. F. Locke, Seth 
Hatch, James Galletly, R. G. Wentworth, William Bean, J. I). Levering, 
Elkanah Crosby, R. 1). Hall, James Porter, E. A. Dickson and Albert 
Abbott. July 9, 1866, the company disbanded, owing to internal dissen- 
sions, but a new company was formed within a few days, taking the name 
of " John E. Wool." In the fall of 1867 the carriage was remodeled and re- 
painted : on one reelhead was a representation of the burning of the Frank- 







BERNARD W. LAWRENCE. 



SOMERl'/LU-:, PAST .I.Y/> J'A'/-^/-:.\"f. 277 

lin Street Congregational Church, in 1X67, and on the other was placed a 
fine carving of a wreath, horn of plenty, etc., inclosing a picture of the burn- 
ing of the armory of the Prescott Light Guards of Charlestown, with the 
machine coming out of its house. A horse-carriage superseded the "Gen. 
John E. Wool " in 1*73, and the hand-carriage, which had cost $(>oo, was 
sold to the town of Everett for $400 and thence went out of service and was 
returned to its original company in Troy. Thomas H. Daley, now captain 
of Hose i, was the first driver of a horse hose-carriage in the department, 
and has continued as driver to the present time. Differences with the en- 
gineers led to a disbandment of the company in 1*74, but another company 
was organized immediately. 

The fire department was fast becoming one of the great wheels of the 
municipal machinery. March 30, 1866, the volunteer system was abolished, 
and May 26, 1866, a steam fire-engine, the first and one of the best that 
Hunneman & Co. built, arrived, and the department was reorganized. A 
working force of engineers, drivers and firemen was employed permanently. 
The new steamer company, recruited chiefly from the old hand-engine com- 
pany, was composed as follows: Frank O. Hudson, foreman; Albert Cas- 
well, assistant foreman ; Samuel S. Hudson, clerk: W. A. Burbank, Rufus 
Lamkin, Melvin B. Ricker, F. D. Snow, hosemen ; H. A. Whiting, engineer ; 
Henry A. Byrnes, stoker; Charles Trull, driver. The only muster this 
company ever attended was at Fitchburg, October r i, 1871, when, twenty-five 
engines contesting, Somerville stood fifth, with a horizontal record of 212 
feet, 8 inches, through 200 feet of hose. The first Silsby engine was bought 
in 1873. Henry A. Byrnes and William A. Burbank, promoted to engineer 
and fireman in 1867, have held their positions nearly thirty years, being still 
in service. 

Winter Hill Hose Company No. 2, originally named " Carlton," was 
organized December i, 1860. With a two-wheeled carriage and a jumper it 
occupied humble wooden quarters until 1872-3, when its present well ap- 
pointed brick house on Marshall street was erected, a new carriage was 
bought, and horses were secured to drag it. 

Since 1867 an independent company, having for its officers Caleb A. 
Page, Jarvis A. Bucknam and Fred A. White, had run with the hook and 
ladder truck, bought in 1863 but never formally manned. May 2, 1*70, the 
company having disbanded some time before, George W. Bean was re- 
quested to recruit a regular company, which, in August, was officially rec- 
ognized and organized with George W. Bean, foreman ; Albert Caswell, 
assistant foreman; and John W. Byrnes, clerk. It was styled ''Prescott," 
after Col. Prescott of Bunker Hill fame. In 1874, when a new truck was 
bought, the name was changed to Robert A. Vinal Hook and Ladder Com- 
pany No. i, Chief James R. Hopkins having declined to allow it to be 
named for himself. 

In June, 1871, the graceful engine-house upon Central Hill, now aban- 
doned, was completed, and the steamer was transferred thither from I'nion 
square. Hose 3 company was organized at once to fill the place left vacant, 



2 /S SOMERl'ILLE, PAST .LVD PRESENT. 

and the truck was transferred from its shed to the same building. This 
company was named after George H. Foster, foreman of " Somerville One " 
from 1*54 to 1861, and who, "as a hand-engine commander, had no superior 
and but few equals." He served also as an engineer until his death, No- 
vember 23, 1864, and his funeral was one of the largest attended ever held 
in Somerville. 

George O. Brastow Hose Company No. 4 was organized November 12, 
1873, and went at once into its present building, corner of Highland avenue 
and Grove street, at the completion of which all the apparatus in the city 
was equipped with horses. In 1884 a combined hose-reel and a protective 
wagon replaced Hose 4'$ carriage. It was intended to use rubber covers to 
protect goods at fires, but as the insurance companies would not furnish 
the covers the idea was abandoned, and in 1887 two 4o-gallon Babcock 
chemical tanks replaced the box intended for the covers. This was designed 
by Chief Hopkins and, according to H. H. Easterbrook, to whose pains- 
taking sketch of the Somerville fire department this writer is indebted for 
several matters of detail, was probably the first combined apparatus of that 
kind in the country. A Silsby steam-engine was placed in the station in 
1890, and the company changed from a hose to an engine company. Hose 
5, whose model brick station is on Somerville avenue at Lowell street, was 
organized August 15, 1889. 

The commodious and substantial Central Fire Station, near the junc- 
tion of Medford street and Highland avenue, was erected in 1894, where- 
upon the old engine-house on Highland avenue and Walnut street was 
abandoned. The new station is thoroughly practical in plan and appoint- 
ments, and has no superior in the State. It shelters now Engine i and hose 
wagon and the new chemical engine A, and includes accommodations also 
for a combined aerial-ladder truck and water-tower when it may be found 
necessary. The second floor is given up to sleeping rooms, a recreation 
room, hayloft, workroom, and the chief's quarters. The third floor is used 
exclusively as the headquarters of the fire-alarm telegraph system. In 1894, 
also, a building sufficiently commodious for two pieces of apparatus was 
erected on Highland avenue near Cedar street. A truck was bought and 
placed therein, and Hook and Ladder Company No. 2 was organized to op- 
erate it. 

In 1896 a new fire station, designed to accommodate three pieces of 
apparatus, was erected at the corner of Broadway and Cross street. To 
this building Hose Company No. i was transferred from the old wooden 
building on Webster street and reorganized into an engine company. Re- 
lief engine No. 2 was placed in its charge, and this company is now known 
as Engine Company No. 2. 

In June, 1874, the Gamewell fire-alarm telegraph system was intro- 
duced, and in 1877, under special act of the legislature, the force was reor- 
ganized, the board of engineers was abolished, and the power to appoint 
and remove vested in the mayor and board of aldermen. The office of as- 
sistant chief was also created, and since that time has been efficiently filled 
by Captain Nathaniel C. Barker. The men were uniformed in 1885. 



* 






gmmjii,^ 
1 



J^E ' ' 

i : ~~ - ' 
1*1 



' : '-..ui,.". i ,!.i'..,T-,<-... - :. ,' i 







a-r-g :sl a 



280 



SOMERV1LLE, PAST .LVD PRESENT. 



It is possible to speak only in the highest terms of the efficiency of the 
Somerville Fire Department and of the ability and popularity of its veteran 
chief, James R. Hopkins, as fireman and man. The city has dealt very 
liberally with the department, and there is not its superior in the State. 

A valuable table showing the organization of the Board of Fire Engi- 
neers from 1850 to the present time is as follows : - 



Year. 


Chief. 


Clerk. 


ist Assistant. 


2d Assistant. 


3d Assistant. 


1850 


Nathan Tufts, Jr. 


George O. Brastow. 


Gardner T. Ring. 


John B. Osgood. 


Hiram Allen. 


1851 


" 


" 


*' 


Abram Welch. 


" 


1852 


Abram Welch. 


Sam'l H. Gooding. 


Levi Orcutt. 


Carl'n Hawkins. 


John Runey. 


1853 


" 


tl 


Chas. E. Gilman. 


Benj. Randall. 


" 




1 t 


(1 


* i 


" 


li 


1855 


Robert A. Vinal. 


John Runey. 


Charles Waldron. 






1856 


" 


" 


* ( 






1857 


" 


Sam'l H. Gooding. 


John Runey. 








John Runey. 


' 


Geo. A. Sanborn. 






1859 


it 


1 ' 


" 






1860 


" 


1 1 


(< 






1861 


Sam'l H Gooding. 


Charles Waldron. 


Geo. H. Foster. 






1862 




Samuel A. Tuttle. 


" 






1863 




D. A. Sanborn, Jr. 


" 






1864 




1 * 


* * 






1865 


D. A. Sa iborn, Jr. 


Jairus Mann. 


Sam'l H. Gooding. 






1866 




" 


*' 


G. W. Trefren. 




1867 
1868 




Sam'l H. Gooding. 


Henry A. Angier. 


Geo. Cutter. 


Albert Horton. 


1869 




" 


" 





J. R. Hopkins. 


1870 




" 


it 


' 




1871 
1872 


James R Hopkins. 


i t 
Henry A. Angier. 


George W. Bean. 


F. D. Snow. 


Theo. C. Joslyn. 


1873 
1874 
1875 




n 
Gardner W. Ring. 


Theo. C. Joslyn. 


Theo. C. Joslyn. 
A. Caswell. 


A. Caswell. 
S. H. Stevens. 


1876 




el 


' 






1877 












to 


" 




Nath'l C. Barker. 






1896 














EAST SOMERVILLE BAPTIST CHURCH, 

Perkins Street, opposite Pinckney. 



HISTORY OF THE CHURCHES. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

EAST SOMERVILLE BAPTIST CHURCH. 
BY REV. OKVILLE COATS. 

THE East Somerville Baptist Church was organized March 19, 1890. 
Its constituent members were nearly all originally members of the Perkins 
Street Baptist Church. Its first pastor was Rev. C. L. Rhoacles, who served 
the church from its organization until September 25, 1892. During this 
period the membership increased from 143 to 274, and a Sunday-school of 
over five hundred was gathered. The first services of the church were held 
in Hadley Hall on Broadway, afterward in the Flint-street Methodist 
church, and since July 25, 1890, in the present edifice on Perkins street op- 
posite Pinckney. The original officers were: deacons, Samuel Cutler, Hiram 
N. Stearns and Elbridge A. Towle ; clerk, Arthur C. Hill; treasurer, 
Charles F. Powers; collector, \Ym. A. Corson. One of the remarkable 
features of the early history of the church was the work among children 
inaugurated and carried on by Pastor Rhoades. Hundreds of boys and 
girls were gathered every Saturday evening, and instructed by means of 
lectures and stereopticon pictures, many of whom became permanently 
connected with the Sunday-school and the church. The officers of the 
Sunday-school at its organization were : superintendent, William H. Good- 
speed ; assistant superintendent, L. Herbert Huntley; secretary, William 
B. Wilson; treasurer, W. T. Kincaid. May i, 1891, William H. Goodspeed 
and Herman D. Osgood were elected deacons. The Baptist Young Peo- 
ple's Union was formed September 29, 1891, and Charles H. Johnquest was 
elected its first president. 

The church was without a pastor from September 25, 1892, until March 
5, 1893, when the present pastor, Rev. Orville Coats, began his work. 

The church, though small in numbers, has made a good record by its 
interest in missions, general evangelization and benevolence. During the 
six and a half years of its existence it has given Si 1.529.30 for benevolent 
objects, and raised for all purposes $43,898.27. Present membership is 298. 
Church officers : pastor, Rev. Orville Coats ; deacons, Samuel Cutler, 
Hiram N. Stearns, Win. H. Goodspeed and Herman 1). ( tsgood ; clerk, 
Charles N. Stockbridge ; treasurer, Frank E. Cutler; collector, C. A. 
Littlefield ; assistant collector, I. F. Pierce ; Sunday-school superinten- 
dent, L. Herbert Huntley; assistant superintendent, William B. Wilson ; 
secretary, Win. S. McLean ; treasurer, Walter F. Horton. Preaching 
services are held on Sunday at 10.30 A. M. and 7.30 P.M. Sunday-school 
meets at noon. 
282 




JUSTIN D. FULTON, D. D. 

Pastor First Baptist Church. 




FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, Spring Hill. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 285 

FIRST BAPTIST CHl'RCH. 
I'.v REV. JUSTIN I>. FULTON, D.D. 

The First Baptist Church in Somerville was organi/ecl December 30, 
1852, with eleven men and twenty women. A council was called to recog- 
nize the company as a regular Baptist church, twenty-two churches being 
represented. On motion of Rev. Rollin H. Neal, D.D., the council unani- 
mously voted to recognize this as "The First Baptist Church in Somerville," 
which recognition was completed in a public service the same evening. 
Rev. Daniel W. Faunce served them as pastor from July 14, 1853, to Sep- 
tember i, 1854. He was followed by George G. Fairbanks, March 21, 1855, 
to June 30, 1866 ; Lewis B. Hibbard, February 21, 1867, to February 2.x. i.Sf>s ; 
John D. Sweet, May 4, 1868, to August 9, 1869 ; Charles M. Smith, February 
20, 1870, to March 31, 1885 ; Fenner B. Dickinson, October i, 1885, to No- 
vember 2, 1886 ; Frank O. Cunningham, April 26, 1887, to September i, 1892 : 
Luther B. Plumer, February 4, 1893, to September 4, 1894; and Justin D. 
Fulton, D.D., November 20, 1894, to the present time. The church wor- 
shipped in the Beech-street Chapel from the date of its organization till 
March 2, 1873. when they entered their present place of worship on Belmont 
street. This building was formally dedicated June 12, 1873, and has been 
without a mortgage or incumbrance since April, 1883. It is a comfortable, 
commodious and attractive house of worship. 

The church has from the first maintained a character of uncompromis- 
ing devotion to the proclamation of the gospel of Christ, and believing 
that the Baptist church founded by Christ and the apostles in Jerusalem 
furnishes the model for the highest and freest religious life, consistency has 
made the church the stalwart champion of Baptist principles, which enter 
so largely into the religious life of the nation. The position maintained by 
this church on the temperance question has helped keep Somerville a no- 
license city, and has furnished from its membership some of the ablest 
advocates and the most indefatigable workers for clean citizenship in the 
city. 

The calling of its present pastor as the lover of Roman Catholics, and 
their co-operation with him in the great work to which he has given his 
heart, giving him four days of each week to prosecute the work in the 
regions beyond, evidences their faith in the needs of the country and the 
remedial power furnished by the gospel which is the present and the future 
hope of the country. 

THE SABBATH SCHOOL was organized in 1853, and was made a branch 
of church work by formal action, April 10. 1X89. Its superintendents have 
been men of God, and its teachers, chosen from the church, are thoroughly 
in sympathy with the spirit and purposes of the gospel which is being 
sounded out from the pulpit. 

The Baptist Young People's I'nion furnishes the young people an or- 
ganization where Baptist sentiments find a home, and brings the young 
people as well as the church into association with masses of young Baptists 
that are making their influence felt in all parts of the land. 



286 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AXD PRESEXT. 

The \\'oman's Foreign Mission Circle was organized April 10, 1873. 
Mrs. Elizabeth B. Story was its first president, and she filled the orifice with 
exceptional acceptance till her death, October 23, 1888. In 1885 a Woman's 
Home Mission Circle was formed, with Mrs. S. P. Wilcox for president, 
but in 1889 it was thought best to consolidate the two, having one organi- 
zation with two treasurers. The organization was then known as the 
Woman's Mission Circle. There is a children's meeting, held on Friday 
afternoons at 4 P. M. under the direction of the B. Y. P. I/., which is accom- 
plishing great good. The church is in the enjoyment of great prosperity, as 
is indicated by the nourishing Sabbath-school and large congregations which 
wait upon the ministry of the word, for all of which there is devout thank- 
fulness. 

RANDALL MEMORIAL FREE BAPTIST CHURCH. 
Bv KKV. EDWIN P. 



The Randall Memorial Free Baptist Church was organized July 21, 
1873, as the Freewill Baptist Mission Church of Charlestown, with twenty- 
three members. For about one year meetings were held in a hall on Main 
street, Charlestown. October, 1874, they moved to Broadway Hall, East 
Somerville, and in June, 1879, to a larger hall near by. There they remained 
until April, 1882, when they moved into the chapel they now occupy. A lot 
has been purchased on Xew Cross street, and an edifice, a cut of which ac- 
companies this account, is to be erected upon it. This church has always 
been small in numbers, but has been self-supporting. About three hundred 
and fifty persons have united with it since its organization, and the present 
resident membership is one hundred and eight. This church has had six 
pastors : Rev. James Rand, August, 1873, to January, 1879; R- ev - A. T. Hill- 
man, December, 1882, to September, 1883 ; Rev. James Boyd, February, 1884, 
to September, 1884 ; Rev. C. S. Frost, January, 1886, to April. 1887 ; Rev. J. 
H. Yeoman, May, 1887, to October, 1888 ; and Rev. Edwin P. Moulton, the 
present pastor, who commenced his labors in November, 1888. Though 
comparatively small, this church has had many excellent men and women 
among its members, and has done a good work in the community. During 
the past year it has given to the world one minister. Rev. Geo. W. Russell 
of Starksboro, Yt., and one missionary, Miss Etta Castellow of Calcutta, 
India. This church is congregational in polity, and in faith stands for free 
grace, open communion and the baptism of believers by immersion only. 
It is a member of a body of churches of like faith in the State, called the 
Massachusetts Association of Free Baptist Churches. It has also con- 
nected with it all the usual auxiliaries : a Sunday-school, Young People's 
Society, Ladies' Social Circle, etc., and with the other churches in the city 
is laboring for the salvation of men and for that righteousness among the 
people that exalteth a nation. 




REV. EDWIN P. MOULTON, 

Pastor Randall Memorial Free Baptist Church. 




RANDALL MEMORIAL FREE BAPTIST CHURCH, 

(Now being erected on New Cross Street.) 



PAST A\n PRESENT. 289 

THE PERKINS STREET BAPTIST CHURCH. 

BY REV. JOHN R. < low. 

This church was organized May 4. 1X45, with fourteen members. It was 
first known as the Neck Village Baptist Church, later as the Charlestown 
and Somerville Baptist Church, and in August, 1X53, as the Perkins Street 
Baptist Church. The first meeting-house occupied by the church was erected 
at the corner of Main and Haverhill streets, Charlestown. In the summer 
of 1853 it was removed and located on Perkins street, Somerville, at the same 
time being somewhat enlarged. In 1864 the house was remodelled, and on 
Monday, January 8, 1866, it was destroyed by fire. In June, 1867, a new 
house was dedicated, of a size to accommodate six hundred persons and 
costing $25,000. In 1873 the meeting house was further enlarged to a seat- 
ing capacity of a thousand persons. This house still stands, being occupied 
by the East Somerville Baptist Church. 

The church has had seven ministers. William Stow was ordained June 
25, 1845, on the day in which the first meeting-house was dedicated and the 
church was publicly recognized by its sister churches. Mr. Stow's ministry 
continued five years and two months. C. H. Topliff was ordained September 
30, 1850, and continued in service one year and seven months. N. M. Wil- 
liams' entered on his ministry with the church in August, 1852. The change 
in the location of the house of worship and in the name of the church was 
made under his leadership, which lasted seven years and nine months. J. 
ludson Miller was ordained September 17, 1861, and remained the successful 
and beloved minister of the church and the community till his resignation 
of the office, October 3, 1880, a period of nineteen years. William A. Smith 
came to the church from Cleveland, Ohio, in July, iSSi, and materially in- 
creased the congregations and enlarged the church activities. His ministry 
covered a period of about eight years, closing in March, 1 889. C. L. Rhoades 
assumed the charge of the church in December, 1889, and resigned his office 
in March, 1890. During the later years of Mr. Smith's service unfortunate 
dissensions arose, which culminated in the withdrawal, in March, 1890, of 
about two hundred members, including Mr. Rhoades, who formed the East 
Somerville Baptist Church. In July, 1890, the five hundred members of the 
church still remaining were deprived of the use of the church edifice by a 
bare majority in the society which controlled the property. Though thrown 
into confusion by this action, the leaders of the church arranged for the 
carrying on of preaching services, at first in Arcanum Hall and later in the 
Eranklin street Congregational meeting-house by the courtesy of the body 
worshiping there. Steps were also taken for the erection of a new house 
on the present lot, near the corner of Cross and Pearl streets. Warned by 
the experience through which it had just passed, the church became incor- 
porated August 29, 1890, under the present State lawfor the incorporation of 
religious bodies. Rev. Andrew R. Moore became the minister January i, 
1891. In May, 1892, the new meeting-house which had been erected at a 
cost of $46,000 was dedicated. Mr. Moore closed his labors with the church 



2QO SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESEXT. 

September i, 1894, and the present minister, John R. Gow, succeeded to the 
office in July, 1895. After many revisions of the roll, the church reports 
three hundred and seventy-three resident members. 

UNION SQUARE BAPTIST CHURCH. 

This, the latest addition to the numerous houses of worship of Somer- 
ville is one of the handsomest structures in the city. For a long period the 
society had sorely felt the need of a permanent home, its large and increas- 
ing number of members being but poorly accommodated in the hall in which 
its meetings were held, and a number of efforts were made to obtain suffi- 
cient funds to permit the erection of a proper edifice. 

After many struggles and disappointments the necessary amount was at 
length obtained to warrant the undertaking. Ground was broken on the lot 
owned by the society on Walnut street, August 12, 1895. The corner-stone 
was laid with appropriate ceremonies and addresses, October 3, following. 
The building was completed for occupancy in June, 1896, and on the four- 
teenth of that month the first services in the church were held. The edifice 
is a most sightly one, the towers and handsome windows of stained glass of 
various designs giving it a very attractive appearance. It is of wood above 
the first story, which is of brick, with slated roof and copper gutters. The 
main entrance is at the base of the large tower, with other entrances on Wal- 
nut street and Giles park. The plans were prepared by Architect Warren 
K. Hayes of Minneapolis, Minn., and the building contract was awarded to 
John A. Dodge. 

The growth of the society has been steady, and it has now a member- 
ship of nearly two hundred. Soon after the laying of the corner-stone the 
pastor, Rev. E. J. McKenna, on the 6th of October, resigned. He had been 
in failing health several months, and upon his retirement Rev. R. B. Mood} 
was engaged as stated supply for the pulpit and later as acting pastor. At 
the annual business meeting last January, the following official board was 
elected for the year 1896: Deacon, (three years) A. B. Gookin, (two years) 
I. H. Brown, (one year) T. M. Maddison ; moderator of business meetings, 
G. M. Wadsworth ; clerk, G. H. Streeter; treasurer, A. O. Taylor; Sunday- 
school superintendent, W. P. McGeouch. 

WINTER HILL BAPTIST CHURCH. 

The Winter Hill Baptist Church was organized June 27, iSSi, and the 
first church meeting was held on that day. A council was called for June 
28, 1 88 1, to recognize the church as a regular Baptist Church. 

The church was recognized by a unanimous vote and the recognition ser- 
vices were held in the evening as follows : sermon by Rev. J. J. Miller, prayer 
by Rev. J. Cooke, and giving the right hand of fellowship by Rev. Mr. Lisle. 

At a meeting on July 5, i8Si, the first Sunday-school superintendent 
was elected and the first pastor was called. August 30, iSSi, it was voted 
to call a council of churches to ordain the newly elected pastor. 




REV. WILLIAM J. DAY, 

Pastor Winter Hill Baptist Church. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST .L\'J> PRESENT. 293 

[anuary i, iSS2. the first pastor resigned. Temple Hall, the first place 
of worship, was furnished and an organ purchased. 

April 17, 1884, it was decided to hold services in Weldon hall. 
April 30, it was voted to call a council for the ordination of the pastor 
elect, and several were received by letter from the Perkins-street Church. 

June 2, iSS4, it was voted to appoint a committee of three whose duties 
shall be to look after a lot of land, solicit funds, and any and all things per- 
taining to building a house for God's worship. 

November 26, the pastor's resignation was accepted. 
April 30, i8S5, a call was given to the pastorate, and on June 6 it was 
accepted. 

March 18, 1886, it was voted to authorize the circulation of a paper soli- 
citing subscriptions for funds to purchase a lot of land upon which to erect 
a church edifice. 

[une 24, 1886, it was voted to change the name of the church to Winter 
Hill Baptist Church. 

November 4, 1886, a numerous land committee was appointed to devise 
means for raising money. 

April i, 1887, a committee was appointed to look after the legal organi- 
zation of the church, and on April 21, the church adopted by-laws for the 
corporation, and elected officers. ( )ne clerk served the church from its or- 
ganization to this date. 

May 5, 1887, it was voted to authorize the trustees to purchase a lot on 
School street for a house of worship, and that it was expedient to proceed 
to build. A building committee of fifteen was appointed. 

October 8, 1888, ground was broken and the building to which the 
church had looked forward so long began. The new house was dedicated 
with appropriate services on the evening of April 10, 1889. 

The building is a modern structure, combining the Queen Anne with 
some Gothic and classical features. The rural English church architecture 
best describes the style of the building. The edifice is ninety feet in length. 
The auditorium is forty feet wide and fifty feet in length. The front of the 
building is seventy feet in width. The tower to the left of the main entrance 
on School street is twenty feet square and seventy feet in height. The main 
entrance under a wide archway opens into an ample and attractive vestibule, 
to the left of which are the ladies' parlor and toilet rooms. Wide double 
doors open to the right of the vestibule into the vestry room, which is very 
pleasant, being provided with a fire-place mantel and mirrors, and will seat 
sixty or more. Beyond this is the library room. The rooms on the second 
floor consist of one in the tower, an ample hallway and a gallery which will 
seat eighty-five. 

During its history of fifteen years, the church has been served by the 
following pastors: Rev. L. H. Abrams, who served the church from July. 
i8Si, to January i, 1883 ; Rev. Samuel Hill, January, 1883, to January 2. iSS4 : 
Rev. Win. 1). Ward, February, 18X4, to November C>, 18X4; Rev. Joseph !'. 
Bartlett, June, 1885, to March i i. i 888 ; Rev. Kdward 1). Mason, April, [888, 
to June 5, i8(ji ; Rev. Wm. J. Day, May i, i8<)2, to the present time. 



294 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

THE BROADWAY CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

The movement which resulted in the establishment of this church began 
with the formation of a Sabbath-school, by a few Christian people of Winter 
Hill, in August, 1863. The school opened with about fifty members, in 
Broadway Hall, situated on Broadway, at the foot of Winter Hill. Soon 
stated preaching was inaugurated, Rev. E. Porter Dyer being engaged for 
the purpose. An ecclesiastical society was formed, and services were con- 
tinued in the hall until the 2ist of June, 1864, when the church, organized 
the i4thof June preceding (the result of plans instituted the 24th of Decem- 
ber, 1863), with the society, dedicated a new church building at the corner 
of Broadway and Central streets. This building was occupied until the 
night of December 9, 1866, when it was destroyed by fire. Owing to finan- 
cial difficulties which had long embarrassed the enterprise and which led to 
litigation, the church was left to its fate, without home or shelter. The 
Sabbath following the fire the church assembled in a new dwelling-house 
on Sycamore street, owned by Mr. Samuel Oakman, a member of the church. 
On that day the acting pastor, Rev. E. P. Dyer, preached his last sermon. 
Rev. E. P. Marvin was secured as temporary supply, and under his ministry 
the church gained twenty-three members. Increase of attendance led to 
removal to the town hall in the Forster schoolhouse, where services were 
continued from July 7, 1867, until January 18, 1868, when the church re- 
moved to a new chapel on Sycamore street, erected by Mr. Oakman and 
tendered to the church free of rent. In February, 1868, Rev. Samuel H. 
Virgin of Andover was ordained as minister, and was duly installed as first 
pastor of the church October 27 of the same year. During all this period 
since the fire the expenses had been met by voluntary contributions, but in 
June, 1869, another ecclesiastical society was formed. On account of poor 
health, Mr. Virgin resigned in February, 1871. Early in the summer of that 
year the society voted to build a chapel at the corner of Central street and 
Broadway, the site of its former meeting-house, the land having been do- 
nated for the purpose by Mr. Samuel Oakman and Mrs. C. Eldridge, the 
original owners. The new and beautiful house of worship was completed 
and dedicated December 10, 1871, just five years after the burning of the 
former church. Rev. William H. Pierson of Ipswich was installed pastor, 
August 29, 1872, and officiated as such to both church and society until 1879, 
when, in consequence of a change in his theological views, other means of 
relief failing the church, it, in compliance with advice of an ecclesiastical 
council, voted to vacate the building, which it did in January, 1880, and com- 
menced services in the chapel it had formerly occupied on Sycamore street. 
The ecclesiastical society did not continue its connection with the church 
in this movement, but remained in the old building and under the ministry 
of Mr. Pierson. In 1883-1X84 the church erected a building on Sycamore 
street on the present site of the church home. The church after the separa- 
tion had for ministers : Rev. A. H. Quint, 1 >.!>., from January, 1881, to May i, 
18X4, acting pastor ; Rev. Lewis V. Price, from September i, 1884, to June 




I 




I 



REV. HORACE H. LEAVITT, 

Pastor Broadway Congregational Church. 




BROADWAY CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, 

Sycamore Street, Winter Hill. 



'/LLE, I'AST ./A"/; PRESENT. 297 

12, iSSX, installed; Rev. Charles E. Andrews, from September i, 1889, to 
March i, 1891, installed ; Rev. Joseph F. Lovering, from August i, 1891, 
to August i, iSi;3, acting pastor; and Rev. Horace H. Leavitt from January 
i, 1894, installed, the present incumbent. In the fall of 1X94, because of 
large additions to the church membership during the year, and marked in- 
crease in the congregations, the question of enlarging the church edifice 
was agitated, though there still existed a debt for the building then in use 
of about 56,000. The church, which many years before had become incor- 
porated as a legal organization, voted, in the spring of 1895, to remodel and 
enlarge its edifice, and some $10,000 was contributed for the purpose. The 
work was undertaken at once and the new structure was dedicated in April, 
1 896 ; the church having, however, a few weeks previous, through the 
pledges (payable monthly, for three years) of its members and members of 
the congregation, taken up the entire outstanding debt of the church and 
the interest thereon for three years, amounting to about 524,000, so that 
the building and its complete fittings could be dedicated practically free 
from debt. 

The church is now finely equipped with the best and most ample facili- 
ties, and is in a prosperous condition and growing rapidly. 

Its present membership is about 340, its congregation between 300 
and 400, and its Sabbath-school about 400 members. 

DAY STREET CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 
BY REV. PETER MACQUEEN. 

Preliminary action was taken looking to the formation of a Congrega- 
tional Church in West Somerville in the autumn of 1873. 

Beginning with Sunday, December 14, religious services were regu- 
larly conducted by Rev. C. L. Mills, representing the Massachusetts Home 
Missionary Society. 

April 14, 1X74, the West Somerville Congregational Church, with a 
membership of fifty-two, was regularly organized by council, Mr. Mills act- 
ing as pastor until the following June, when ill health compelled his retire- 
ment. 

P'or two and one-half years the church worshipped in a hall in Claren- 
don Block, and the six months following in the M. E. Chapel on Holland 
Street. 

During the summer of 1876 a house of worship was donated to the 
society by the East Cambridge Evangelical Society, through the Massachu- 
setts Home Missionary Society. 

This building was taken down, removed to the present site and rebuilt, 
being dedicated December 4, 1876. This necessitated an indebtedness of 
$5,500, which was carried until the autumn of i8Sr, when, largely through 
the efforts of its pastor, Rev. C. B. Summer, a sufficient amount was pledged 
to pay the same. In the spring of iSS2, through the kindness of friends of 
the church, a bell was purchased and hung in the belfry. In the summer of 




REV. PETER MACQUEEN, 

Pastor of Day Street Congregational Church. 



SO.UA'A' I'll. LI-:, /'. 1ST AND PRESENT. 299 

1888, $1,200 was raised and applied to interior improvements and decorations 
of the church building, consisting of new windows, new cushions, new car- 
pet, etc. 

Again, in 1896, the church was completely renovated and beautified, 
and a new Gothic front and Renaissance tower were added. The design of 
the building was so entirely recast as to present an absolutely modern 
structure. 

The membership of the Day Street Church is composed of kindly, 
genial folk, who are religious in a quiet, cheerful way, and evermore benev- 
olent, and in all ways charitable. No one need ever feel the world is cold 
or life is dreary who enters this comfortable Christian atmosphere. The 
church sets itself to dignify life and labor, and set a star of hope above every 
cradle and every coffin. 

The pastors and acting pastors have been as follows : Rev. C. L. Mills, 
April, 1874, to June, 1874, acting; Rev. James M. Hubbard, June, 1874, to 
January, 1875, act. ; Rev. Albert Bryant, February, 1875, to January, 1880; 
Rev. YV. F. Bacon, January, 1880, to April, 1880, act. ; Rev. C. B. Summer, 
June, 1880, to November, 1882; Rev. H. C. Hitchcock, November, 1882, to 
January, 1893; Rev. Peter MacQueen, April, 1893. 

FIRST CONGREGATIONAL (UNITARIAN) CHURCH. 

The First Congregational (Unitarian) Church is the mother church of 
the city. One autumn day a little more than half a century ago, the Rev. 
Richard Manning Hodges was walking through the green fields and orchards 
along the main road that led from Charlestown to Cambridge, over the 
farms of what is now known as the city of Somerville, when, as he tells us 
in his diary, "the thought occurred to him that he might make himself 
useful as a religious teacher to many aged persons, young children and 
others, who from the long distances were prevented from attending church 
in these first-named towns." But when Mr. Hodges came here on a certain 
Sunday in March, 1844, to hold religious service, he found that Miss Eliza- 
beth Page Whittredge, the teacher of the district school, had already on a 
Sunday in June, 1842, in the first year of the town's incorporation, gathered 
her pupils and other children on Sabbath mornings, to instruct them in the 
simple truths of the Gospel, and to hold up before their hearts the sweet 
and attractive example of Jesus. So the good woman and the good minister 
united their forces, the little church and the little Sunday-school, with the 
result that in August of this same year, 1844, a religious society was orga- 
nized, and the corner-stone of the first church was laid upon what is now 
Central Hill park. 

Within half a century, four new churches were builded by the founders 
of this society and their successors, three of them upon the same site. The 
first church was dedicated in September, 1845. The second church, after 
the destruction of the first by fire, was completed in April, 1854. The third 
church, after the destruction of the second by fire, was dedicated in January, 




FIRST CONGREGATIONAL (UNITARIAN) CHURCH. 

The old edifice on Central Hill. 





REV. WILLIAM H. PIERSON, 

Pastor First Congregational (Unitarian) Society, 



J u - 



SOAlERriLLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 



1869. The corner-stone of the fourth church was laid upon its present site 
on Highland avenue, June, 1894. This edifice, designed by Hartwell and 
Richardson of Boston, with Sunday-school rooms, parlors, memorial win- 
dows and all the accessories for the social and religious work of a modern 
church, cost with the land and appointments, not far from $80,000, which 
was largely secured by the sale of the old church to the city. Through the 
efforts of the pastor and the contributions of the citizens, stimulated by a 
special and generous gift, the church is the possessor of a fine chime of 
eleven bells, from the old Paul Revere founderies of Boston. 







FIRST CONGREGATIONAL (UNITARIAN) CHURCH. 



Rev. John Turner Sargent, the friend and defender of Theodore Parker, 
was the first pastor of the church. He was installed in 1846, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Augustus R. Pope, a most excellent man and minister : 
Rev. Charles Lowe, afterwards secretary of the American Unitarian Asso- 
ciation : Rev. Henry H. Barber, now professor in Meadville University, Pa. : 
and Rev. John S. Thompson, a graduate of Oxford, Eng., and now settled 
in Los Angeles, Cal. 

The present pastor, Rev. W. H. Pierson, a graduate of Bowdoin College, 
came to the Winter Hill Congregational Church, Somerville, in 1872. His 
pastorate lasted nearly nine years, during which time his theological opin- 
ions underwent a change, and after a ministry of ten years at Fitchburg, he 
returned to Somerville, and was installed pastor of the First Unitarian 
Church, April, 1891. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT, 303 

The First Unitarian ( 'hurch, if we may accept an impartial and unso- 
licited testimony, " is one of the strongest and richest church-organizations 
in the city; it has a good working force, a wide and intelligent constituency, 
and, in a quiet way, is doing a good deal for the denomination at large, as 
well as for charities at home." 

( >ur limits will not allow further mention of the founders, benefactors, 
past and present supporters of this society, but we may speak of the special 
devotion of one of its members, the late Columbus Tyler, who bequeathed 
to the church nearly the whole of his large estate. 

The purpose of the present management of the Church is to develop a 
broad, catholic, humane organization. In its preaching and in its services, 
the life, influence and teaching of Jesus of Nazareth is held in utmost love 
and reverence ; and if the same insistence is not put upon theories and 
doctrines as in other communions, much stress is laid upon ethical in- 
fluences, upon the deep, underlying sentiments of the soul, and upon the 
constraining need of character, worship and religion. 

FIRST ORTHODOX CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

This church was, as its name indicates, the first of the Congregational 
denomination established in Somerville, and from it, as the parent church, 
the various colonies which have grown into prominent church organizations 
have received much aid and strength. 

The first formal meeting, with a view to the founding of a church of the 
Orthodox believers, was held at the house of Temple Paul, No. 1 7 Mt. Yer- 
non Street, April 21, 1853. On September 15, 1853, at the house of Ebenezer 
Davis, the " First Orthodox Congregational Society " was legally organized. 
The corner-stone of the first church edifice was laid October 10, 1854, 
and the building was dedicated July 12, 1855. By an ecclesiastical council, 
presided over by Rev. \ehemiah Adams, on May 3, 1855, the church was 
duly organized according to Congregational polity, thirty-nine persons con- 
stituting its membership. The sermon on this occasion was delivered by 
Rev. E. N. Kirk, of Boston. 

On the following evening, officers were chosen as follows : deacons, 
Ebenezer Davis, Oliver Dickson, Joseph Lovett ; examining committee, 
N. J. Knight, Joshua H. Davis, James L.Tyler, O. H. Granville ; treasurer. 
Joseph Lovett; clerk, Moses H. Sargent. 

On January 3, 1856, Rev. Benjamin Judkins, Jr., was installed as pas- 
tor, the sermon being by Rev. A. L. Stone, of Boston. 

On March 16, 1867, the "holy and beautiful house " was burned. The 
corner-stone of a new church was laid August 27, 1867, and the present edi- 
fice on the original site on Franklin street was dedicated September 30, iSi.s. 

The names of pastors are as follows: Rev. Benjamin Judkins, Novem- 
ber, 1855, to June 2, 1858 ; Rev. David T. Packard, July, 1858, to November 
28, iS66; Rev. Lucius R. Eastman, Jr., March, 18(17, to May 22, 1871 ; Rev. 
William S. Hubbell, February, 1872, to November 22, i8Si ; Rev. William 



. " - .. 




- 



r > 

/ '*" s * v t A 

f/A*'' 'V. i 




FIRST ORTHODOX CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH, 

Franklin, opposite Perkins Street. 



SOMKKl'lLLl-:. PAST .i.V/> PRESENT, 305 

K. Merriman, 1). 1).. December, 1881, to June i, (887; Rev. James H. Ross, 
September i. i sss, to April 5, 1893. 

At one period in its history the membership of the church exceeded 
five hundred. On April i, 1896, there were three hundred and sixty-four 
members. Rev. James M. Gray, of Boston, has recently served as pastor 
in charge. The Sunday-school and various societies connected with the 
church have been actively engaged in the interests of morality and religion, 
and fruitful in good works. At the present time, the deacons are Henry !'. 
Scars, John P. Heath, Barna S. Cole, Charles H. Colgate, Henry M. Moore. 
The treasurer is George E. Dustin, and G. A. Southworth is clerk. 

C. H. Colgate is superintendent of the Sunday-school. 

HIGHLAND CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 

1>Y Kl.V. (iKORi.E S. K. A.XDI.KSON. 

The Highland Congregational Church, organized November M, is.,4. 
with a membership of forty, was incorporated November 2,S, 1894, and recog- 
nized by the council, January 21, 1895. 

The first movement which finally led to the organization of the High- 
land Church was a series of open-air meetings, conducted by E. P. Dunham 
and others, during the summer of 1893 ; but it was not until the following 
year that the work assumed definite shape. In July, August, and Septem- 
ber, 1894, gospel tent-meetings were held under the auspices of the free 
Congregational Church of Somerville, and of the Home Missionary Society 
of Mass. The meetings were conducted by Rev. Geo. S. K. Anderson, 
whose services were secured through the Evangelistic Association of New 
England. The large blessing which crowned the work encouraged the 
people to go forward, and before the closing of the tent-meetings they 
voted to organize a church, and to call Mr. Anderson to be its pastor. The 
lot of land, containing sixteen thousand feet, on the corner of Highland 
avenue and Lowell street, on which the tent was pitched, was purchased 
in November, 1.894, for 53,835, and a contract for a 56,000 chapel was placed 
with Messrs ( )sgood & Stevens. 

During the fall and winter of 1894-95 the meetings of the newly organ- 
ized church were held in Guild Hall, Central street, in a vacant store on 
Cedar street, and in the homes of the people. 

( )n Easter-Sunday morning, April 14, 1895, nine and a half months after 
the first tent-meeting was held, the new building was formally opened, and 
on May 8, 1895, was appropriately dedicated to the service of Almighty 
God. 

One unique and highly commendable feature of this work is that the 
church has been built, and all present obligations met without the aid of a 
single bazaar, fair or entertainment. The church is a free church. No seat 
can be rented or sold. It is a church for the masses, and both pastor and 
people desire to make it a great life-saving station. 



306 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AA'D J'KKSIi.YT. 

PROSPECT HILL CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 
Bv REV. EDWARD S. TEAD. 

The Prospect Hill Congregational Church was organized December 
30, 1874, in Bacon Hall, Union square, with sixty-one charter members, 
thirty-seven of whom are now living. The recognition sermon was preached 
by Rev. S. E. Herrick, D.I)., of Boston. Inasmuch as the first meeting- 
place of the few people who afterward organized the church was in Dea. M. 
P. Elliot's house on Prospect Hill a hill associated with the early history 
of the Revolution it was voted to call the new church Prospect Hill 
Church. 

Rev. A. E. \Yinship was installed as the first pastor, Eebruary 9, 1876, 
and for nine years held the office with the increasing affection and regard of 
his people. In ( )ctober, 1883, Rev. Mr. Winship resigned, and on May 8, 
1884, the present pastor, Rev. Edward Sampson Tead, was installed. 

The first house of worship, situated on Warren avenue, was dedicated 
in 1876, and became the property of the Union Square Presbyterian Church, 
October i, 1887. 

In October, 1889, the present house of worship was dedicated, Rev. 
Alexander McKenzie, D.D., of Cambridge, preaching the sermon. Mrs. 
Louise Ordway Tead wrote the dedication hymn. 

The edifice is one of the finest in the city, and has a seating capacity of 
seven hundred. The church is progressive in its methods of work, and its 
influence for good is recognized by all as powerful and permanent. 

WINTER HILL CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 
BY REV. CHARLES L. NOYES. 

In August, 1863, under the leadership of Samuel A. Carlton, now of 
Boston, a few Christian people of Winter Hill organized a Sabbath-school, 
there being then no public religious services of any kind held nearer than 
the Unitarian Church, Highland avenue, the Cross-street Universaltst, or 
the Franklin-street Church, East Somerville. 

As an outgrowth of this Sabbath-school an ecclesiastical society was 
soon organized, and Rev. E. Porter Dyer of Hingham, Mass., was engaged 
as acting pastor. On June 14, 1865, a church was formally organized, num- 
bering twenty-eight members. 

The ministry of Mr. Dyer having terminated in December, 1866, was 
followed by that of Rev. E. P. Marvin, but the first regularly settled pastor 
of the church was the Rev. Samuel H. Virgin, who was ordained and in- 
stalled October 27, 1868, and filled the pastorate until Eebruary, 1871. He 
was succeeded, August 29, 1872, by Rev. W. H. Pierson, who served until 
January 30. iSSi. 

About this time the membership of this church was divided. A part 
withdrew, and were recognized ecclesiastically as the Broadway Congrega- 
tional Church. The portion remaining with the society continued its ser- 



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SOMERVILLE, I'. 1ST AND PRESENT. 309 

vices and Sabbath-school until they united with other ( 'hristians worship- 
ing with them to constitute the Winter Hill Congregational Church, which 
was organized January 24, and formally recognized by council January 2<. 
1*83. The society then changed its name to the Winter Hill Congrega- 
tional Society to conform with the Winter Hill Congregational Church, 
which it accepted as the church of the society. 

The present pastor. Rev. Charles L. Xoyes, who had been serving in 
this capacity since June, iSS2, was duly installed as pastor, June is, 18*3. 

Since its organization the Winter Hill Congregational Church and So- 
ciety have enjoyed nearly fourteen years of uninterrupted growth and pros- 
perity. A debt of fifteen hundred dollars (51500) has been paid off", and 
resources gathered for the erection of a new building at a cost of 530,000, 
to accommodate the growing congregation and Sabbath-school. The mem- 
bership, which began with 43, has increased to a total of 210. 

The Sabbath-school, which in 1883 numbered 170 and was divided into 
\C> classes, has now 250 on its lists 222 scholars, 20 teachers and 8 officers. 

Throughout its entire history the church has been efficiently aided, 
and much of its best missionary work has been done, by a Ladies' Society. 
They took the initiative both in raising the old debt and in starting the 
fund for the new edifice. 



ST. ANN'S (CATHOLIC) CHURCH. 

In October, 1877, land was purchased by Father McGrath, on the corner 
of Medford and Thurston streets, as a site for the church, and four years 
later St. Ann's was erected. Three weeks after the dedication of the edi- 
fice, which took place September 25, 1881, Rev. John B. Galvin was installed 
as pastor, who said his first mass in the church on the 23d day of October 
in the same year. 

Father Galvin's work in St. Ann's parish has been principally devoted 
to the spiritual building up of his people. For this purpose among other 
things he has had missions given by the Passionist, Redemptionist, Jesuit and 
Paulist Fathers. Among the material improvements he has made in the 
church edifice may be noted the beautifying of the interior by frescoing, the 
enlargement of the vestries, the reconstruction of the main altar and the 
placing of new side altars, the addition of vestibules and a very tasteful 
facade and tower. 

November 27, 1894, the church was partially destroyed by a fire, the 
tower, roof and the upper portion of the walls being partly consumed. In 
two months after the fire, however, notwithstanding the advent of very cold 
weather and several severe snowstorms, the edifice was rededicated and 
made to appear, interiorly, more beautiful than ever. 

Among the societies attached to this church in addition to the Sunday- 
school maybe mentioned the Society of St. Vincent de Paul, for the care of 
the poor; the Holy Name Society, whose special object is to cultivate a 
greater reverence for the sacred names of God and Jesus Christ : and the 



310 SOMERl'fLLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

League of the Sacred Heart, whose object is to inculcate a greater love for 
the heart of the God-Man. They are all in a flourishing condition and bring 
many blessings upon the people of St. Ann's parish. 

ST. CATHERINE'S (CATHOLIC) CHURCH. 

liv REV. JAMF.S J. O'BRIEN. 

The last of the trio of churches erected by the Catholics of Somerville 
is the one dedicated to St. Catherine of Genoa. In 1891, the parish of St. 
Catherine was organized, and the Rev. James J. O'Brien placed in charge. 
Ground for the new church was broken in December, 1891, and the edifice 
was finished in April, 1892. The first mass was said on Easter Sunday of 
that year. 

The present church on Spring Hill is a temporary frame structure, 
one hundred and fifteen feet by sixty-five feet, with a seating capacity of 
about one thousand. It stands somewhat back from Summer street. The 
grounds around the church are well kept the grassy lawn is ornamented 
with flower-beds and trees. The parochial residence is a large and substan- 
tial building. 

The pastor, Rev. James J. O'Brien, son of the late Mayor Hugh O'Brien 
of Boston, was born in Boston in 1854, and received his early education in 
the public schools of that city. He studied for a short time at Boston Col- 
lege and then entered St. Charles College, Ellicott City, Maryland, from 
which institution he graduated in 1874. He studied theology in St. Mary's 
Seminary, Baltimore, and was ordained a priest by Cardinal Gibbons, De- 
cember 21, 1878. For over seven years he labored in Arlington, and in P'eb- 
ruary, 1885, was transferred to St. James Church, Boston. In 1891, he was 
appointed by the Most Rev. John J. Williams to Somerville. Rev. I). \Y. 
Lenehan is the assistant. 

The congregation of St. Catherine's numbers about two thousand. The 
Sunday-school of the parish numbers about four hundred members. The 
various church societies and social organizations are active in charitable 
and parish work. 

It is the ambition of the people of St. Catherine's Church to erect, in 
the near future, on the top of Spring Hill, an edifice adapted to the growing 
needs of the parish. 

EMMANUEL (EPISCOPAL) CHURCH. 

It is well that the early history of Emmanuel Church, a prolonged 
struggle against intolerance, partisan fanaticism, and the bitter hostility 
which mistook the zeal of opinion for religion, should remain unwritten. 
The struggle was successful, and the knowledge of that issue is sufficient for 
the present. 

The early formation of the present parish known as Emmanuel chapel 
dates from Easter Sunday, 1862. The place of worship was in a small hall, 




REV. NATHAN K. BISHOP, 

Rector Emmanuel (Episcopal) Church. 



. ,- .. >sayejrf . T 




EMMANUEL EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 

Summer and Central Streets. 



.vai/A'A' /'//././;. PAST AND PRESENT. 313 

then at the corner of Milk Row and Park street. A moderate congregation 
continued to worship there until December i s, [862, when a permanent 
organization was effected, as follows :- 

" We, the subscribers, members of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the 
diocese of Massachusetts, hereby agree to form, and have formed, a religion^ 
society for the purpose of organizing a free church in the town of Somer- 
ville, subject to the doctrine, discipline and worship of the said Protestant 
Episcopal Church and in continuation of the existing parish, known as Em- 
manuel chapel. 

" R. P. Benton, Ramsey Clarke, Mortimer Lyon, Jno. ( ). Pierce, Heber ( '. 
Lyon, Joseph H. C'lark, Peter J. Barry, Benjamin Woodward, Joseph Proc- 
tor, L. I ). Jackson." 

Four days afterward, on December 22, 1862, a legal corporation was or- 
ganized under the provisions of the thirtieth chapter of the General Statutes 
of Massachusetts, and on December 29, 1862, the first board of parish 
officers was elected, as follows : - 

Clerk, Heber C'. Lyon: wardens, Dr. Francis Dana. Mortimer Lyon : 
vestry, R. P. Benton, Philemon Morey, John O. Pierce, Peter J. Barry, 
Joseph Proctor, Orel Towle, Benj. Woodward ; treasurer, H. C. Lyon. 

At the parish meeting, on Easter Monday, 1863, Mr. Reuben P. Benton 
was elected warden, in lieu of Dr. Francis Dana, who resigned the office. 
Mr. George Cullis was elected on the vestry to the vacancy created by Mr. 
Benton's election to the wardenship, and two more vestrymen were elected, 
viz. : Ramsey Clarke, E. A. Fitcham. 

At the parish meeting in 1864, Mr. Joseph H. C'lark was elected clerk 
of Emmanuel parish, and has been annually re-elected ever since. Mr. 
Benton was re-elected warden at the same meeting, and has been annually 
re-elected ever since. Mr. Benton was chosen treasurer at that meeting, 
and continued as such till 1870, when Mr. Clark was elected and has con- 
tinued as such, ever since. 

At the parish meeting, in 1865, Mr. Samuel Reynolds, Jr., was elected 
junior warden, rice Mr. Mortimer Lyon, resigned, and Mr. Reynolds was 
annually re-elected till his decease in 1886, when Mr. Robert H. Gibby was 
chosen. Mr. Gibby declined re-election, and Mr. Geo. A. Gordon was 
elected junior warden, and has held that position until the present time. 

At the diocesan convention in 1864, Emmanuel church, Somerville, 
was admitted to union with the convention, and has been represented at 
every convention since. The first delegates were : Messrs. Benjamin Wood- 
ward, Peter H. Barry and Mortimer Lyon. 

The present officers of Emmanuel church. Somerville, are : rector, 
Nathan K. Bishop ; senior warden, Reuben P. Benton ; junior warden, Geo. 
A.Gordon; clerk, Joseph H. ('lark: treasurer, Joseph II. ('lark: vestry, 
George I. Vincent, Philip Highly, Frank G. Reynolds, Joseph H. Clark: 
delegates to the diocesan convention, Robert II. Gibby. Geo. A. Gordon, 
George I. Vincent. 



314 SOMERI'/LLE. PAST AND PRESENT. 

ST. THOMAS' EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 
I5v RKV. ANKRLW GRAY. 

In the spring of 1863, the late Rev. X. G. Allen conferred with Rev. Dr. 
Lambert, late rector of St. John's Church, Charlestown, as to the advisability 
of establishing the services of the Episcopal Church in East Somerville. 
Dr. Lambert heartily endorsed the suggestion and at once circulated a sub- 
scription paper to obtain funds for the rent of a suitable room for services. 

At the suggestion of Dr. Childs, a chapel situated on the corner of 
Washington and Tufts streets was rented at $125 per annum. Certain 
changes, rendered necessary to make the building suitable for the services 
of the Episcopal Church, were effected, and articles of church furniture 
added. Rev. Mr. Allen took charge of the work, and on Sunday evening, 
May 17, 1863, the first service was held and a sermon preached by the Rev. 
Dr. Randall, afterwards Bishop of Colorado. 

The Sunday following. May 24, 1863, a Sunday-school was opened, with 
three teachers and nine scholars, under the temporary superintendence of a 
Mr. Whitman of Cambridgeport. The teachers were Mrs. Hatch, Miss 
Wood and Mr. Webb. The school took a recess on Sunday, August 9, for 
three Sundays, and reopened on Sunday, September 6, with an increased at- 
tendance. Evening service on that day was attended by a much larger con- 
gregation than usual. 

Rev. Mr. Allen, having accepted a call to Wrentham, resigned the work 
at East Somerville, officiating for the last time February 5, 1865. 

After the lapse of a few months the Rev. F. W. Shelton "entered upon 
the duties as rector, November 18, 1866." He did not remain very long in 
charge of the work. 

The parish had again been vacant for some time when, on the i8th of 
July, 1869, the late Rev. George W. Durell "entered upon the duties as 
rector in Hawkins' -Hall," Union square. The church was built in little 
more than a year after, and used for its holy purpo ;es when finished, though 
with a debt upon it. The debt having been discharged, the building was 
consecrated by Bishop Paddock, July <;, 1875, on which occasion the sermon 
was preached by the Rev. Dr. Burgess, now Bishop of Quincy, Illinois. 
Mr. Durell continued rector of the parish till the day of his death, August 
26, 1895. He was greatly beloved and universally regretted. The parish 
register shows that during the twenty-six years of his incumbency he had 
baptized 942 persons, presented 439 for confirmation, officiated at 527 mar- 
riages and at 755 burials. 

The present rector. Rev. Andrew Gray, D.D., was unanimously elected 
to succeed him. He accepted the election and entered on his work as rec- 
tor, December 15, 1895. The people are taking hold of the work with him, 
and a bright and promising future appears to be in store for St. Thomas' 
Church. 




REV. GEORGE W. DURELL, 

Late Rector St. Thomas' Episcopal Church. 




REV. ANDREW GRAY, D. D., 

Rector St. Thomas' Episcopal Church. 



SOMKRl'lLLE. PAST AND PRESENT. 317 

ST. JAMKS' (EPISCOPAL) ( HI KCH. 

The parish of St. James' is an offshoot of St. James', North ( 'ambridge, 
and was organized as a mission of that church in 1X75. A small chaprl was 
built in 1876 on Newbury street, near Holland, in which the first service was 
held November 26, of that year. April X, i sso, the edifice was consecrated 
by Bishop Paddock, the whole cost of construction having been paid. J )e- 
cember 12, 18X5, this edifice was moved to its present site. On the i8th 
clay of November the mission was incorporated into a separate parish, by 
the election of a rector, wardens and vestry, in accordance with the laws of 
the Commonwealth. The rector chosen was the Rev. John \Y. Suter, who 
was also at that time rector of the Church of the Epiphany, Winchester. 
The wardens elected were Albert S. Pillsbury and William L. Dodge, and 
the vestry consisted of Edwin S. Burroughs, Isaac R. Webber, Silas H. 
Holland, J. Q. Bennett, D. L. Countway, Samuel Hollis, G. G. Little and 
E. R. Clowsen. Edwin S. Burroughs was elected clerk, and Isaac R. Web- 
ber, treasurer. The parish as thus organized was admitted into union with 
the Convention of the Diocese of Massachusetts at its annual convention in 
May, 18.89. Ln lS 9 2 the edifice was improved by the addition of a chancel 
and parish room, and a dedicatory service was held by the Right Rev. 
Phillips Brooks, Bishop of the Diocese, December 7, of that year. 

There have been three rectors of the parish since its organization : 
the Rev. John W. Suter and the Rev. Thos. Bell, who held the rectorship 
in connection with another parish, and the Rev. Edward P. Lee, the first 
resident-rector. Many of the services have been conducted by Mr. A. S. 
Pillsbury, who has held the Bishop's license as Lay Reader since January, 
iSSo. He has also been warden of the mission, from a period long before 
it was organized into a parish until the present time. The Sunday-school 
work has always had his efficient aid, the superintendence 7 of which he has 
held from the beginning. 

The church is located on the corner of Broadway and Clarendon ave- 
nue. The Rev. Edward P. Lee, rector; Albert S. Pillsbury and John A. 
Dodge, wardens; Isaac R. Webber, Edwin S. Burroughs, William T. Cleve- 
land, Otis E. Phalen, George Melluber, William H. Tweeclie, Edward P>. 
Lee, vestrymen. 

FIRST METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 
BY REV. GEORCK S. lit ITKKS. 

In September, 1855, Rev. Abraham Merril, then preaching at Hast 
( 'ambridge, sent a local preacher named Rufus Gerrish to Somerville to 
start a Methodist society. A few people were gathered in Franklin Hall, a 
building then standing at the junction of Washington street and Somerville 
avenue. Two weeks after a Sunday-school was started consisting of five 
scholars. The first Sunday-school teacher was Mrs. S. J. Cantield, who 
taught three of these scholars, and Mr. Gerrish taught the other two. This 



3 [8 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

school increased until it numbered nearly a hundred. The first superinten- 
dent was Joshua Wiley, and the second Asa Mayo, now living in Minnesota. 
After the services had been commenced a class-meeting was established at 
at the residence of Mr. J. B. Canfield. Mr. Gerrish continued to supply 
the pulpit until the next April, when he was succeeded by Rev. I). C. Bab- 
cock, who remained one year. The first minister appointed by the New 
England conference was Rev. Charles Baker, who was largely instrumental 
in the building of the then new church. 

The First Methodist Episcopal Church has had the following pastors 
since the close of Mr. Baker's ministry: Oliver S. Howe, Burtis }udd. 
Franklin Furber, J/ H. Owens, Samuel Jackson, Albert Gould, J. W. Ham- 
ilton, Wm. C. High, John A. Cass, Geo. S. Chadbourne, Geo. Whitaker, J. 
W 7 . Hamilton, George Skene, I. H. Packard. The present pastor is Rev. 
Geo. S. Butters. The present church building was erected in 1874. It is 
the largest audience room in the city, and the church itself is one of the 
most aggressive religious organizations in Somerville. Its membership is 
577, and its Sunday-school numbers about 700. 

PARK AVENUE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

Early in 1872 a few Methodist families in West Somerville, finding 
themselves in a new community, and at a distance from their respective 
churches, met at various private houses and held prayer-meeting services. 

These soon led to meetings in larger places, and in May, 1872, a class 
of eleven members was formed under the leadership of Rev. W. F. Lacount, 
an aged Methodist minister, who with his family had moved into the place. 
About this time Dr. G. M. Kingman offered the use of an empty room in 
his new block at the corner of Elm street and Highland avenue, now occu- 
pied by Heald's hardware store. Here Sunday services were held consist- 
ing of Sunday-school and prayer meetings, and sometimes preaching by 
Rev. W. F. Lacount. May 28, 1872, the first Quarterly Conference was 
held, Rev. J. W. Hamilton being delegated by Rev. I). Sherman, the pre- 
siding elder of the district, to preside. Rev. F. J. Wagner of Medford and 
Rev. W. F. Lacount assisted in the formal organization of the church. 

The following official board was elected : Trustees : Chas. E. Joyce, 
Eugene I). Lacount, Walter K. Foster, Frederick H. Tibbetts, Edward A. 
Kingman, Jesse Simpson, Silas H. Holland. Stewards: Chas. E. Joyce, 
Eugene I). Lacount, Jacob F. Emerson, William F. Lacount, Alby J. Warren. 
The organization took the name of the Holland Street M. E. Church, which, 
at the opening of the present edifice, was changed to the Park Avenue 
M. E. Church. 

July i, 1872, the board of trustees took on corporate powers in accor- 
dance with the laws of the Commonwealth, and appointed a committee to 
secure subscriptions for the erection of a place of worship. Few in num- 
bers and poor in purse, but full of faith, they succeeded in securing a cheap 
and poorly constructed chapel at an expense of about #1,600, in which they 




REV. GEORGE S. BUTTERS, 

Pastor First Methodist Episcopal Church. 






- .-", 



.-- 






FIRST METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 

Bow Street and Wesley Park. 







PARK AVENUE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, 

Park Avenue, near Elm Street. 




REV. GARRETT BEEKMAN, 

Pastor Park Avenue M. E. Church. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 323 

received their first pastor. Rev. A. E. Winship, who was appointed to that 
charge April S, 1873. Mr. \\'inship remained one year, and helped much 
by his enthusiasm in establishing this early foundation of what was to be a 
strong society. The chapel was dedicated May i, 1*73, Rev. Jefferson 
Hascall delivering the dedicatory sermon. At this time there was a mem- 
bership of twenty-one, which has increased to about three hundred and 
thirty members. In iSSo or iSSi it became evident that a change of site 
must be made, and the property at the corner of Elm street and Park ave- 
nue, now occupied by Dr. Bryant, was purchased and was used as a 
parsonage for about two years. . Early in 1882 a part of this property, in- 
cluding the buildings, was sold, the church retaining 40 feet frontage on 
Park avenue, to which was added by purchase 55 feet more, making a lot 
95 feet by 88 feet, on which the present edifice was erected. Rev. L. A. 
Bosworth, Geo. R. Emerson and L. \Y. Jones were the building committee, 
to whom, by their indefatigable exertions and wise management, the church 
owes its comfortable home for the past thirteen years. The present build- 
ing was dedicated February 7. 1883, the dedicatory exercises being under 
the direction of Rev. I). Dorchester, the presiding elder of the district. 
The entire cost of the edifice, including furnishings, was about 512,000. 

This church has always been a progressive one and a power for good 
in the community. 1 1 is thoroughly organized for every department of work, 
having a large Sunday-school, a live chapter of Epworth League, as well as 
a Junior League, and various missionary and benevolent societies. It be- 
lieves it has a work to accomplish in this place and means to do it. 

The following pastors have served the church since its organization : - 

Rev. A. E. \Yinship, April, 1873, to April, 1874. 

Rev. John R. C'ushing, April, 1874, to April, 1875. 

Rev. Albert D. Knapp, April, 1875, to August, 1876. 

Rev. Win. Full, August, 1876, to April, 1879. 

Rev. Wm. Merrill, April, 1879, to April 1881. 

Rev. L. A. Bosworth, April, 1881, to April, 1884. 

Rev. Gilbert C. Osgood, April, 1884, to April, 1886. 

Rev. A. R. Nichols, April, [886, to April, 1889. 

Rev. Henry Mathews, April, 1889, to April, 1891. 

Rev. John H. Mansfield, April, 1891, to April, 18^4. 

Rev. Garrett Beekman, the present pastor, received his appointment 
April, 1894. 

The constantly increasing congregations have convinced the official 
board that immediate steps must be taken to provide a larger audience 
room, as well as other facilities for effective church work, and it is expected 
that the needed changes will be carried out early next year. 



324 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

I' XI ON SQUARE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 

l!v KKY. THOMAS ATKINSON. 

\Yas organized by the presbytery of Boston, in Pythian Hall, Tuesday 
evening, December 14, 1886. At the same meeting elders were ordained, 
and over sixty members were received by letter and on profession of faith. 
Rev. C. S. Dewing, D.D., to whose labors the organization was due, was in 
stalled as the first pastor January 25, 1887. 

In October of the same year the congregation purchased their present 
place of worship from the Congregational'society. From the first the con- 
gregation grew rapidly, and in a remarkably short time the church was 
clear of debt. 

In October, 1893, Re v - C. S. Dewing, I). I)., closed his pastorate in 
order to accept the position of pastor at large of the New England chur- 
ches. Soon afterwards Rev. Thomas Atkinson was invited to fill the pulpit, 
and having accepted the invitation began his work in January, 1894. After 
laboring for three months, Mr. Atkinson was duly installed as pastor in 
response to the earnest and unanimous request of the people. 

The membership now exceeds 250. The people are united and en- 
thusiastic, so that the outlook for the future is bright. 

FIRST UNIVERSALIST CHURCH. 
BY REV. L. M. POWERS. 

Memorial services were first held in the Town Hall in 1853, with Rev. 
George H. Emerson, D.I)., as minister. The church was not organized, 
however, until February 16, 1854. The original incorporators were Ira 
Thorp, Charles Williams, Erastus E. Cole, Reuben Horton, Edwin Munroe, 
David Russell, James S. Runey, J. Q. Twombly, Robert Burrows, David P. 
Horton, Alfred Horton. 

The first chapel was built upon land given by Charles Tufts, for whom 
Tufts College was afterward named. From the beginning the church has 
had a place of influence among the religious forces of the city and the Uni- 
versalist denomination. The present building was erected in 1869, and the 
Social Hall, a substantial structure, was added in 1894. 

In forty-three years the church has had seven pastors : Rev. George 
H. Emerson, editor of the " Christian Leader," Rev. D. K. Clark, Rev. B. 
K. Russ, Rev. George H. Vibbert, Rev. U. S. Ralph, Rev. Charles A. 
Skinner, and the present pastor, Rev. L. M. Powers. The church is now 
in a prosperous condition, and the Sunday-school is one of the largest in 
the Universalist denomination. 

It is decidedly a working church. During the winter the church or 
Social Hall is open nearly every night. The following are among the offi- 
cers of the church : deacons, J. F. Nickerson, Arthur \Y. Glines, J. \Y. San- 
born, Irving Smith ; C. A. Kirkpatrick, clerk. Parish committee : J. I-'. 
Nickerson, chairman : L. Y. Niles, C. E. Giles, Dr. A. H. Carvill, George 




UNION SQUARE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH, 

Warren Avenue. 




FIRST UNIVERSALIST CHURCH, 

Cross and Tufts Streets. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 327 

Stephens; Seth Mason, clerk; A. Hodgtnrm. treasurer: superintendent of 
Sunday-school, A. A. \Yyman ; George I-'. 1 lorton. secretary. Sewing circle : 
Mrs. F. K. Burrows, president. Young People's Christian I'nion : Dr. 
George Greenleaf, president. 

THIRD I MYKRSAIJST CHURCH. 
MY RKV. THOMAS HOWARD P<>TTK.I<TON. 

Early in iSSi a few devoted I'niversalists, under the leadership of Mr. 
Carmi D. Chamberlin, gathered to discuss the feasibility of organixing a 
I'niversalist parish in \\'est Somerville. The agitation bore fruit in the 
call, issued July i, iSSi, to meet on the i3th of the same month for the pur- 
pose of organixing a Tniversalist society. Clarendon Hall was engaged as 
a place of worship, and the pulpit was supplied by eminent clergymen, who 
gave their services in aid of the new movement. At a meeting of the parish. 
May 24, iXS2, it was voted to engage Mr. R. A. White, a student in Tufts 
1 >ivinity School, for six months. This arrangement continued for nearly a 
year, when the pulpit was again supplied by different ministers until January. 
1X84, when Rev. C. A. Skinner, pastor of the First I'niversalist Church. \\as 
called as pastor, to preach on Sunday afternoons for the new society. 

At the annual parish meeting in April, 1883, the standing committee 
reported an offer from an interested member to give " a lot of land, sixty 
feet square, on Highland avenue, a short distance beyond the new school- 
house, on the corner of the avenue and a new street called West street." 
The desire became strong in the parish to possess an eligible church site, 
and many lots were considered. So intense was the interest in the young 
parish, that it held four meetings in May, 1X83, and at the last one voted to 
buy the land on the corner of Klin and Morrison streets. Time has proved 
this to be the best church location in West Somerville. A year later, further 
agitation and consideration resulted in a vote to build a chapel. Mr. Hosea 
B. Dennison, a faithful member of the parish, was selected as architect and 
superintendent. In September, 1884, the work of building commenced, and 
on the last day of the year the Third Universalist Church was dedicated. 
Rev. A. A. Miner, I ). I )., preaching the sermon. September i, iSXu. Rev. 
Mr. Skinner finished his labors with the society, after nearly six years of 
faithful and successful work. Shortly after internal dissensions lessened 
the strength of the parish and caused the departure of some of its most 
generous supporters. In April, 1X90. Rev. Charles Macomber Smith, D. I >., 
who had been for nearly twenty years a Baptist clergyman in Somerville. 
was chosen pastor, and under his experienced care and Christian guidance 
the church gained in strength and influence in the community. After tlmv 
and a half years of faithful labor, Dr. Smith resigned, and was MH ceeded 
by Rev. Thomas Kdwarcl 1'otterton, who was called to the justorate No- 
vember i, 180.3. The parish has steadily gained in strength, numerically 
and financially, and in spiritual estate, the true test of Christian success. 
The present needs demand an increased seating capacity, and in all proba- 
bility the church will be enlarged at no distant day. 



328 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND r RESENT. 

WINTER HILL UNIVERSALIST CHURCH. 

r>v KKV. ISAAC P. CODDINGTON. 

The Winter Hill Universalist Parish was first organized at a meeting 
held in the Methodist chapel on the corner of Marshall street and Broad- 
way on the evening of June 23, 1879. The officers elected at that meeting 
were : Eli Smith, clerk; J. L. Norcross, treasurer, who with G. T. Burnham, 
Edward Glines and Samuel E. Currier constituted the parish committee. 
Services were first held in the Methodist chapel, and later in Temple Hall, 
Broadway, and the pulpit was at first supplied by such ministers as were 
available. 

In October, 1879, Rev. William A. Start, secretary of the State Con- 
vention, took charge of the parish until June, i 880, when the Rev. R. Perry 
Bush of Everett was secured as acting pastor, continuing as such until Jan- 
uary, 1888, when, a church having been built on the corner of Thurston 
street and Evergreen avenue, the time of service was changed from after- 
noon to forenoon, which necessitated the severance of Mr. Bush's connec- 
tion with the parish. 

The first regular resident pastor was settled in 1888. At a meeting of 
the parish, held June 21, 1888, a unanimous call was extended to the Rev. 
Isaac Philip Coddington, then of the Grove Hall Church, Boston. The 
call was accepted, and the pastorate began the first Sunday of September of 
that year, and it continues at the present time. In May, 1889, the name was 
changed, on petition to the legislature, to that of Winter Hill Universalist 
Church. The very best of good feeling and a large degree of prosperity 
attend this church in all its many departments of Christian work. 

The present officers are : Isaac Philip Coddington, pastor ; Parker 
Ricller, president ; George Russ, clerk ; Herman Barker, treasurer, who to- 
gether with Erastus Woodward and Charles S. Robertson constitute the 
board of trustees; I. B. Mayhew, superintendent of Sunday-school; Mrs. 
( '. K. Moore, president Ladies' Circle ; Albert Roscoe, president V. P. C. U. 
Ethel Moore, president Golden Rule Society ; Gladys Coddington, presi- 
dent of the Busy Bees; Isabella Porter, president of the Elower and Benevo- 
lent Mission. 

SOMERVILLE EVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION CHURCH. 

BY KKV. WII.UAM E. FREDERICKS. 

This church was organized December 19, 1892. Rev. Edward Freeman 
was its pastor the first two years, until March, 1895, when W. E. Frede- 
ricks, of Pennsylvania, was appointed pastor. This church is purely Wes- 
leyan in doctrine. While it gives due attention to all the doctrines taught 
in the Word of God, it emphasizes the doctrines of thorough evangelical re- 
pentance, justification by faith, regeneration or the new birth, and entire 
sanctification as necessary to obtain salvation. It emphasizes the privi- 
lege and necessity of living a holy life in this world. It is democratic in its 
church polity. The pastor is appointed annually at the annual conference 



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SOMERl'ILLE, 1'AST AND PRESKXT. 



of the conference district by the presiding bishop with the concurrence of 
the presiding elders of the conference district. All the expenses of the 
church are met by free-will offerings. The present membership is 34. Its 
meetings are held in Brazillian Hall, 271 Broadway. 







I'MON SQUARE BAPTIST CHURCH. PROSPECT HILL CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. FLINT STREET M. E. CHURCH. 
I 'i I-'KINS STREET BAPTIST CHURCH. W. SOMERVILLE BAPTIST CHURCH. ST. THOMAS' EPISCOPAL CHURCH. 

SOAAERVILLE CHURCHES. 



In addition to the foregoing there are a number of other churches in 
Somerville, several of which have large congregations that are doing valu- 
able Christian work in the community. 

They are named and located as follows: WEST SO.M ERVII.I.E BAPTIST, 
on Kim street, corner of \Yinslow avenue, organized in June, 1*74; Si. 
JOSEPH'S (Catholic), on Washington street, corner of Webster avenue, ded- 
icated in June, i SS i ; BROADWAY METHODIST EPISCOPAL, on Broadway, 
corner of Crant street; FLINT STREET METHODIST, on Flint, opposite Rush 
street, organi/ed in April, i Xf>s, by Rev. Carrett Beekman, who was its first 
pastor; the SECOND ADVENT, on Putnam, near Summer street, organized 
October 6, 1X87; the SECOND CNIIAKIAN, on Elm street, near Davis square : 
and the Ciirkrii OF CHRIST, on Broadway, North Somerville. 



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HORACE C. WHITE, M. D. 



CHARITABLE AND SOCIAL 
ORGANIZATIONS. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

SOMERVILLE HOSPITAL. 

BY HORACE C. WHITE, M. D. 

IN its issue of November 24, 1X90, the " Somerville Journal " published 
an article setting forth the need and the advantages of such an institution 
for our city. This article attracted the attention of a benevolent lady. Miss 
Martha R. Hunt, who immediately sent to the mayor, Hon. Charles G. 
Pope, an offer to contribute the generous sum of .> 10,000 on condition that 
a like sum be raised from other sources. The Somerville Medical Society 
appointed a committee to raise funds, and several ladies assisted in the 
work of soliciting and collecting subscriptions. In April, 1891, the hospital 
was duly incorporated. The names of the charter members are as follows : 
Charles G. Pope, John F. Cole, Thomas M. Durell, Horace C. White, A. 
H. Carvill, J. F. Wellington, Q. E. Dickerman, M. \Y. Carr, William Tay- 
lor, A. T. Nickerson, S. H. Holland, G. W. Perkins, G. M. Starbird, L. W. 
Farmer, R. E. Nickerson, Samuel Cutler, Joseph C). Hayden, J. F. Hatha- 
way, L. F. Merry, J. J. Lyons, F. M. Kilmer, J. H. Flitner, H. F. Spencer, 
John F. Couch, Lewis Lombard, L. V. Niles, L. P. Hollander, and F. W. 
1 )ow r ner. 

On March S, 1891, at a meeting of contributors, a report was presented 
by Mayor Pope announcing that between 512,000 and 13,000 had been sub- 
scribed, and thus the gift of #10,000 had been made available. On May 1 1, 
1891, was held the first meeting of the corporation, and committees were 
appointed as follows :-- Executive committee: Hon. C. G. Pope, ex ofticio, 
H. C. White, A. H. Carvill, H. F. Spencer, M. YY. Carr, J. F. Wellington, 
T. M. Durell, ex officio. Finance committee: R. E. Nickerson, J. F. Couch, 
F. M. Kilmer, F. W. Downer, J. H. Flitner. Auditing committee: J. O. 
Hayden, G. W. Perkins. 

The building was erected under the. direction of the building committee, 
consisting of the executive committee and A. T. Nickerson. On October 
27, 1891, the contract for the construction of the building was awarded to 
the lowest bidder, G. M. Starbird, for the sum of #22,990. The building 
was practically completed February 17, 1893. Prior to this a gift of 55,000 
was bequeathed to the hospital by the will of Rufus 15. Stickney, who by 
this act of noble charity erected to his memory a monument more enduring 
than granite or marble. 

31 i 
.> i 



334 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The location is an ideal one, situated as it is on Spring Hill, and sur- 
rounded by streets on three sides, the abrupt descent of the hill on the 
fourth side precluding the possibility of obstruction by other buildings. 
The grounds are ample enough to permit the erection of additional build- 
ings sufficient to double its present capacity. The plan of construction is 
such as to furnish a good supply of light and air. The building is so ar- 
ranged that bath-rooms, water-closets, etc., are separated from the patients' 
rooms by cut-off corridors, but are not at an inconvenient distance. The 
building for the sick is separated from the executive department by a corri- 
dor which allows free circulation of air between them ; the dining-room, 
kitchen and laundry are separated in like manner from the rest of the 
building. The whole arrangement of the rooms is such as to give sufficient 
isolation of patients, and at the same time there is everywhere a cheerful 
and homelike appearance. 

The corporation consists of contributors and others who render valuable 
aid in the maintenance of the hospital. The trustees are chosen from the 
members of the corporation, one-third of them being chosen yearly for a 
term of three years. The first president of the board of trustees was Hon. 
C'harles G. Pope, who died just before it was dedicated; the second, Hon. 
William H. Hodgkins, who resigned the office in June, 1896. 

In accordance with the by-laws the board of trustees consists of 
twenty-four members besides the president, vice-president, clerk and treas- 
urer, two members being selected from each ward by the corporation annu- 
ally, said members being chosen for a term of three years. The medical 
board consists of four physicians, of whom two shall be Fellows of the Mass- 
achusetts Medical Society, and two members of the Massachusetts Homoeo- 
pathic Medical Society, appointed by the executive committee for terms of 
two years. 

It is the duty of this board to provide for the medical and surgical ser- 
vice of the hospital, and to recommend to the executive committee candidates 
for appointment on the medical staff. Physicians and surgeons who assist 
in the charitable work of the hospital receive no pecuniary compensation 
therefor. The management is such as to leave freedom of choice of physi- 
cians, a member of the above societies being on duty all the time. The 
same spirit of liberality is shown in regard to choice of spiritual advisers. 

The matron reported four hundred and fifty patients treated in 1895, of 
whom one hundred and nine underwent surgical operations : this was an 
increase in the whole number of one hundred and twenty-five over the pre- 
ceding year. By the matron's report in May, 1896, it appears there were six 
hundred and forty-five patients treated during the year, of whom three hun- 
dred and forty-six were out-patients. 

The total expenditures from May, 1895,10 May, 1896, were $12,115.21, 
and $1,473.11 was expended for repairs of an extraordinary nature. The 
largest number of patients was thirty-seven, on December 12, and the small- 
est, fifteen, on July 14. Those paying numbered one hundred and eighty- 
two, and non-paying, one hundred and nineteen. 




THOMAS M. DURELL, M. D. 




REUBEN WILLIS, M.D. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 337 

The training school for nurses contained fifteen pupils aside from those 
who were graduated. Their earnings outside of regular hospital work were 
$1,520.18, which is 59 1 2.94 in excess of the amount received from this source 
the previous year. The average cost per patient was ^9.32 per week, while 
for the year 1895 it \vas 59.59. 

The expenses compared with those of other hospitals are less than 
many and do not exceed any of them. The interest manifested from the 
first by the Ladies' Aid and other societies continues unabated, and many of 
our large-hearted and liberal-minded citizens have made generous donations 
for the continued support of the grand work which the hospital is performing 
for the people of Somerville. Man}- who share the benefits of the institu- 
tion have in reality no home where they can be cared for by loving hands, 
and often those who have all the comforts that a competency affords prefer 
in case of sickness to enter the hospital, where all the advantages of the best 
medical attendance and the most skilful and experienced nursing and care 
may be had at all times. While those who are able are expected to pay for 
services rendered, none who arc without means are excluded from its doors. 

In order to provide suitable furnishings for the various rooms and 
wards, many of our citizens and generous ladies made liberal donations. 

The physician's offices were furnished by Mrs. A. A. Sanborn ; the trus- 
tees' room by the Sons and Daughters of Maine; the matron's office by L. 
\Y. Farmer; the woman's ward by the Somerville l/nion of King's Sons and 
Daughters. Private rooms for patients were furnished complete by Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry F. Spencer, Ivaloo Lodge Daughters of Rebekah, Erminie 
Lodge Daughters of Rebekah, Francis C. Perkins, Humphrey P. Webster 
(who gave 5500, the interest to keep the room supplied), S. Adams Clark. 
( )ur Class Association and primary department First Unitarian Sunday- 
school, R. H. Sturtevant, Prospect Hill school and others furnished the 
children's ward, and Mrs. G. M. Scott, the children's playroom ; and valu- 
able contributions of furnishings were donated by S. Newton Cutler, Harri- 
son Beard & Co., Mr. H. M. Beals, Ladies' Hospital Aid Association, Sun- 
day-school of Franklin Street (First) Congregational Church, St. Mary's 
Circle King's Daughters, Misses Ethel Cobb, Maud Shaw, Ruby White, 
Grace Plummer, Milton Harvey, Albert F. Hughes, C. F. Goldthwaite tS: 
Co., I. H. Brown, Miss Farl's Sunday-school class, George Gammon, Mrs. 
Col. King, employees of Derby, Kilmer & Pond Desk Co.. Mrs. James F. 
Davlin, Mr. and Mrs. G. P. Strong, Rebecca Dart, Little Helpers, King's 
Daughters, Gertrude Jones, Davis school, Prospect Hill school, St. Mary's 
( 'ircle K. D., Ever Ready Ten K. D.. \Yilla Johnson, Bertha Hopkins, Fclna 
Robbins, Lottie Draper, Charles G. Pope and Mrs. Pope. Dr. Anna B. Tay- 
lor, Miss L. A. Waters, A. S. \Yillard, Mrs. F. A. Curtis, Mrs. Ingalls, 
Whatsoever Circle K. I >., Broadway Congregational Church, F. H. Marsh, 
Henry W. Tarbell, Grace, Bessie and Alice Fuller. 

Among those who contributed through the Ladies' Aid Association 
may be mentioned Sarah S. Tufts, S\oo, the Presbyterian Church, West 
Somerville Congregational Church, Shepard \- Noiwell, l\. F. Pickthall, 



338 SOMERV1LLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

West Somerville Baptist Church, West Somerville Universalist Church, St. 
Agnes Circle King's Daughters, Mrs. J. B. Bolton, Grace L. Hodgkins, R. 
H. Riddell, J. F. Hathaway, Mrs. S. D. Salmon's Circle K. D., E. A. South- 
worth, John K. Whiting, Mrs. Ivory Pope and others. The contributors of 
sums of $100 or more are the American Tube Works, Charles E. Clark, A. 
H. Carvill, S. Cutler and wife, D. E. Chase & Co., Derby & Kilmer Desk 
Co., F. W. Downer, Abbie S. David, employees S. Water Works, George P. 
Edney, M. P. Elliott, J. H. Flitner, Friend, Charles H. Guild, Do. trustee, 
A. B. Gookin, Miss Martha R. Hunt, Silas H. Holland, J. (). Hayden, L. 
P. Hollander, f. F. Hathaway, Mrs. Sarah Hall, George W. Ireland and 
wife, O. S. Knapp, C. W. Lyman & Co., Louis L. Lombard, Ladies' Aid 
Association, A. E. Mann, Rev. C. T. McGrath, L. E. Merry, Middlesex 
Bleachery, John Abbot Lodge, North Packing Company, R. E. Nickerson, 
L. V. Niles, John F. Nickerson and wife, Our Class Association, Elm Coun- 
cil R. A., F. H. Raymond, Ezra B. Robinson, Wilbur P. Rice, John P. 
Squire, Somerville Fire Department, Jonathan Stone, R. H. Sturtevant, 
Somerville Police Force, Union Hall Co., Lucy M. Stone, G. W. Simpson, 
H. F. Spencer, R. E. Stickney, Mrs. George M. Starbird, estate of, Francis 
Tufts, Martha Tufts, Chas. Williams, Jr., A. H. Weld, A. A. Perry, ex- 
ecutor of will of Christiana I). Webber, and Willard C'. Kinsley Post G. A. R. 
All the churches have made contributions from time to time. No other in- 
stitution of Somerville appeals to every resident of whatever party or sect as 
does this, and the donations have come from nearly every social organiza- 
tion and from hundreds of residents, although the majority of the gifts have 
been in moderate sums. 

The treasurer's report, May 30, 1896, shows the following facts and 
figures : - 

ASSETS. 

Land and buildings ....... 542,146.22 

Furnishings ....... . 2,6X4.37 

Surgical instruments ....... 390. Si 

Starbird fund ... . ... 500.00 

Webster fund . . . ... 500.00 

Edney fund ......... 400.00 

Cash on hand ... .... 1.166.77 



LIABILITIES. 

Cambridgeport Savings Bank ..... $10,000.00 

Somerville National Hank ...... i.ooo.oo 

Excess over liabilities ....... 36,7X8.17 



$47,788.17 

This does not include a large number of contributions of furnishings 
and supplies which were given directly to the hospital and did not go 
through the treasurer's hands, which amount to probably several thousand 
dollars. 




ALPHONSO H. CARVILL, M. D. 




I 



HENRY F. CURTIS, M. D. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND rRI-'.Sl-:XT. 341 

The dedication of the building was an occasion of great interest. A 
writer in describing it said : '" Early in the afternoon the institution was 
thrown open to visitors, and the corridors were thronged with women and 
children and a fair sprinkling of men. It is not too much to say that they 
were rather astonished at the completeness of the arrangements, the beauty 
of the furnishings, and, best of all, at the immaculate neatness and cleanli- 
ness of the whole establishment. ... It was easy to see that the public felt 
it was their hospital. It represented even to the children some act of self- 
denial, some gift of money to make the enterprise a success." In the even- 
ing the dedicatory exercises were in charge of Mayor Hodgkins as presiding 
officer, who paid a touching tribute to the late Charles G. Pope, and closed 
an eloquent address by saying that his heart had been stirred by the sight 
of the crowds in attendance, and that the immense gathering of the friends 
of the institution meant that the people intended to support it. 

The Hon. S. Z. Bowman, city solicitor of Somerville, said : " This hos- 
pital is one of the crowning features of our city. Our educational institu- 
tions have grown upon our hills, and now we have reached a fitting climax 
in the erection of this hospital. The parable of the Good Samaritan has 
come down through the ages as the highest type of Christianity. This im- 
mense gathering shows that this establishment has a warm place in the 
hearts of the people." 

Dr. H. O. Marcy, of Boston, in the course of his remarks, expressed the 
opinion that there should be more small hospitals, not only in Cambridge 
and Somerville, but in P5oston. He declared it better than to have hun- 
dreds of patients gathered under one roof and treated in gross, and said 
that in such institutions a few patients could enjoy the comforts of home 
and the care of trained nurses. Rev. J. F. Lovering stated that there had 
been nothing in the city which had so " drawn the people together in the 
spirit of the golden rule as this hospital." Another speaker said one pecu- 
liarity of the institution was the uniting of both schools of medicine on its 
board of trustees, declaring that there should be no sect in medicine, and 
that in the presence of man's greatest need there should be but one thought, 
how to cure disease. The policy of its management from the first has been 
so liberal that it has been possible for every creed, nationality, sect and 
race, to join equally in wishing it Godspeed, and to unite in carrying on its 
great work of charity and mercy. 

The benefits derived by the community from such an institution are not 
confined to its high mission in ministering to the sick ; it serves as a com- 
mon bond of union between the different sections of the city, and the vari- 
ous elements of which it is composed. 

A feeling of responsibility for its care and maintenance is shared by all 
our people, and by responding to its calls for aid they have learned by happy 
experience the truth of the passage of Scripture which says, "It is more 
blessed to give than to receive." 

To put in successful operation an institution of this kind is no easy 
task, and the care of raising the needed funds should in the main devolve 



342 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AKD PRESENT. 

upon others rather than those who are responsible for details of manage- 
ment, which must of necessity be a matter of daily effort and constant labor. 
The success of the management in securing revenue from paying patients, 
and the advantages derived from the training school for nurses in furnish- 
ing increased income, may well be a source of gratification to our citizens. 
The hospital is one of the many institutions of the city in which every citi- 
zen is justified in feeling an honest pride. 

The officers for 1896 are as follows: president, Martin W. Carr ; 
vice-president, Selwyn Z. Bowman ; treasurer, John F. Cole ; clerk, Fred- 
erick W. Stone. 

Trustees. Ward I : Horace C. White, William Taylor, George M. 
Starbird, Charles Williams, Jr., John F. Nickerson, George W. Perkins. 
Ward II : Alphonso H. Carvill, J. Frank Wellington, Quincy A. Vinal, 
Louville V. Niles, John F. Couch, Thomas M. Durell. Ward III : Henry 
F. Spencer, Alvano T. Nickerson, Luke N. Farmer, B. Frank Wild, Frederick 
M. Kilmer, Quincy E. Dickerman. Ward IV : J. Henry Flitner, George O. 
Proctor, James F. Hathaway, Louis E. Merry, Joseph O. Hayden, Edmund 
S. Sparrow. 

Medical Board. Horace C. White, M. D. ; Thomas M. Durell, M. U. ; 
A. H. Carvill, M. D. ; Frank L. Newton, M. D. 

Members of Mass. Medical Society. Hospital staff: Thomas Durell, 
M. D. ; Horace C. White, M. D. ; William A. Bell, M. D. ; Horace P. 
Makechine, M. D. ; John F. Couch, M. D. ; Reuben Willis, M. D. As- 
sistants : Giles W. Bryant, M. D. ; Henry F. Curtis, M. D. ; Edwin H. 
Codding, M. I). ; George A. Miles, M. D. ; John B. Curtis, M. D. ; G. W. 
W. Whiting, M. D. 

Members of Mass. Homoeopathic Medical Society. Hospital staff : A. 
H. Carvill, M. D. ; Robert L. Lane, M. I).; Gilbert E. Hetherington, 
M. D. ; H. Ashton Downs, M. D. ; Forrest Leavitt, M. I). ; Frank L. New- 
ton, M. D. Assistants : Emma J. Peasley, M. D. ; Anna B. Taylor-Cole, 
M. D. ; Eugenie M. Phillips, M. D. ; Mary B. Currier, M. I). Matron: 
Emma J. Gordon. 




GEORGE W. W. WHITING, M. D. 




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FRANK L. NEWTON, M.D. 




EMMA J. GORDON. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 347 



HOSPITAL LADIES' AID ASSOCIATION". 
Bv KM MA J. PEASLEY, M.I). 

After the completion and opening of the Somerville Hospital, it \v;is 
deemed wise by those familiar with its needs that there should be some 
organized systematic method of securing the necessary funds for carrying 
on the work. Accordingly several ladies and gentlemen met at the home of 
Mr. Rufus R. Wade, talked the matter over, and decided that an association 
which would enlist the sympathies and interest of the ladies of the city 
would be a sure means of obtaining the desired assistance. 

A meeting was appointed at the Broadway Congregational Church on 
Sycamore street, on May 18, 1892. Invitations were sent to the pastors of 
all churches, which were read from the pulpit, inviting the ladies of the 
church and congregation to be present. About one hundred responded, and 
the organization of the Somerville Hospital Ladies' Aid Association was 
effected with the election of the following officers : president. Dr. Emma J. 
Peasley ; vice-presidents representing the four wards of the city, Mrs. 
Harrison Aldrich, Mrs. William Hartshorn, Mrs. J. F. Levering, Mrs. Henry 
Berins ; directors representing the different religious denominations in the 
city, Mrs. William H. Brine, Mrs. Arthur T. Kidder, Mrs. S. I). Salmon, 
Mrs. A. C. Winning, Mrs. Horace C. White, Mrs. Albert Hughes, Mrs. E. 
M. Howes, Mrs. C. S. Dewing, Mrs. H. M. Burgess these with the vice- 
presidents constituting a board of directors for the ensuing year ; record- 
ing secretary, Mrs. Jason P. Routh ; corresponding secretary, Miss Emma 
S. Keyes ; treasurer, Mrs. Albert S. Pillsbury. 

The society became incorporated in February of the following year, 
and the charter adorns the walls of the trustees' room at the hospital. 

Most of the ladies present at the organization signed as members of 
the association, and the membership increased with unparalleled rapidity 
compared to other organizations in the city, until between nine hundred and 
a thousand ladies and gentlemen had agreed to give one dollar annually to- 
ward the support of the hospital, and six persons joined as life members by 
the payment of twenty dollars. 

One of the first and most important steps taken by the society was the 
establishing of a day known as Hospital Sunday, when each church in the 
city takes a collection, which in the first year amounted to over twelve hun- 
dred dollars, the money passing directly into the hands of Mr. John F. 
Cole, treasurer of the hospital. 

Dr. Anna Taylor Cole and Dr. Emma J. Peasley have each given a 
course of lectures, and two receptions, a concert and an opera have been 
given under the direction of the association, the proceeds of which, with the 
funds collected by the members, and donations, have netted many dollars 
for the work. This with the annual dues is used as the association ap- 
proves, either to buy furnishings for the building, or it is presented to the 
treasurer of the hospital to be used by the trustees at their discretion. 






- - - 





EMMA J. PEASLEY, M.D. 




ANNA B. TAYLOR-COLE, M.D. 




* 




EUGENIE M. PHILLIPS, M. D. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND l'RI-:si-:\r. 351 

The members assisted at the dedication of the building, and at all the 
social gatherings at the hospital. Two members of the board of directors 
in turn visit the inmates and supply the needs of the hospital as far as pos- 
sible, twice a week for a month. 

The president for 1896 is Mrs. Harrison Aldrich; secretary. Miss Sarah 
A. Stone, 9 Central street; treasurer, Miss Bertha Knapp, 28 School street. 

ASSOCIATED CHARITIES OF SOMEKYILLE. 

BY KM MA S. KKYES. 

The Associated Charities of Somerville was formed on December 14, 
181)3. The organizing of Associated Charities had occasionally been talked 
of and desired by a few in different parts of the city, but it was not until the 
hard times of '93 actually forced the need of organized effort upon the at- 
tention of a large number that this society was at last formed. 

Springing up suddenly though it did, the chief organizers gave many 
hours at a time to the consideration of the principles and methods that like 
societies of long experience had found to be the wisest and most practical. 
The foundation of a permanent charitable organization was thus laid upon 
thoroughly tested principles. 

The objects of the society are : " To secure the concurrent and har- 
monious action of the different charities in Somerville in order to raise the 
needy above the need of relief, prevent begging and imposition, and dimin- 
ish pauperism ; to encourage thrift, self-dependence and industry through 
friendly intercourse, and to aid the poor to help themselves ; to prevent 
children from growing up as paupers ; and to aid in the diffusion of knowledge 
on subjects connected with the relief of the poor.'' 

In the heart of winter, and in the midst of a season of financial distress 
and acute poverty, the new organization found itself, with inexperienced 
helpers, untried methods and an empty treasury, suddenly overwhelmed by 
calls for aid and action. The urgency of the situation helped to solve itself. 
The citizens cordially adopted the new organization as their agent, and 
gave it their complete confidence. 

The work was organized by distributing it among ward committees. 
Each of these considered calls for aid in its own district, and found help for 
deserving and needy cases. It held meetings monthly or, as occasion re- 
quired, even more frequently, provided for a force of friendly visitors, 
opened an office in its limits, and secured, free of charge, the services of a 
secretary to give certain hours at the office, have immediate charge of af- 
fairs and keep the records of the ward. 

These ward committees combined form the central board of manage- 
ment, to which all doubtful and difficult cases are referred, and which h;is 
general supervision of the work. The office in ward three, in the Citizen 
Building, Oilman square, was made the central office, and its secretary, 
general agent of the Charities. 

Up to September i, i8x>, the number of cases of need reported to and 



352 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

investigated by this society is 387. Of these 292 have been assisted, 38 
proved to have given false addresses, and the rest were mostly in need of 
employment alone, as were also many others. About one-half of these peo- 
ple are Americans, the other half represents eleven nationalities. Special 
work has been clone in 54 cases, such as furnishing legal and medical 
assistance, finding homes for children, new homes for families, board in the 
country for the overworked, etc. By far the greater proportion were found 
to be worthy, respectable people, anxious to help themselves, suffering 
through no apparent fault of their own, but through misfortune, sickness, or 
want of employment. Fully two-thirds had never before received help. 

Efforts to stop begging have in many instances been effectual, and public 
exposure of impostors has materially lessened the number in the city, though 
in one instance even arrest and six months' confinement have not been 
sufficient to deter other members of the same family from begging and 
using the name of this society the better to impose upon the credulous. 

A complete system of registration enables the agent at the central office 
to exchange information with charitable bodies at home and in other cities, 
and is of great value especially in the handling of those chronic and re- 
curring cases which drift from place to place, and besiege successively 
different charitable societies and individuals. 

All records are private, and their information is given only to those who 
will use them for charitable purposes. 

A free employment-bureau connected with the work of the Associated 
Charities depends necessarily for success upon the patronage of the citizens. 
The one great demand is for work, and it is this above all things that the 
unemployed need to be assisted in obtaining, to save them from pauperism 
and the demoralizing influence of almsgiving. Employment even at low 
wages would solve two-thirds of the difficulties of the poor of all classes. 
In some instances the society has furnished plain sewing, paying a fair 
price according to the quality of the work done. This is intended to be 
educational in some cases, as many do not understand the cutting and 
making of the most simple garments, while others are apt and skillful with 
the needle. Last spring the stamp-saving system was introduced with the 
object of encouraging provident habits even among the children. Without 
expense or any risk of loss one can hereby save from a cent to fifty cents and 
receive for it a receipt in the form of a stamp placed upon a folding card, 
which can be redeemed at any time, three dollars entitling one to a bank-book 
and interest. 

The gratitude expressed by nearly all who have been befriended has 
been hearty and sincere. Statistics cannot register the best that has been 
accomplished, for the aim of the society is personal rather than material, to 
help the man as well as to relieve the body, to bring comfort and cheer into 
home and heart, to maintain self-respect, to stimulate self-support, to restore 
to work and health persons and families without loss of courage or dignity, 
and clear of any sense of stain or stigma from their temporary period of 
dependence. 



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EMORY L. WHITE, M. D. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND rKKSENT. ;> 5 5 

In this effort, notwithstanding many failures, success, as a rule, has 
been so satisfactory that, could the simple facts be known to the citizens of 
Somerville, they would feel themselves amply rewarded for all they have 
expended through the Associated Charities, and would continue to support 
the organization liberally. The officers for 1896 are : Rev. Charles L. Noyes, 
president, 29 Albion street; Rev. L. M. Powers, secretary, is Flint street; 
Mr. Nathan H. Reed, treasurer, 35 Pearl street; Miss Emma S. Keyes, 
agent, 154 Central street. 

SOMERVILLE SAMARITAN SOCIE'H . 

I'.v EI.I/AUETH ARKOWSMITH 



The Somerville Samaritan Society was organized November 13, 1871, 

at the home of Elizabeth A. Waters, 132 Perkins street, for the purpose of 

assisting and relieving the needs of the worthy poor in the town of Somer- 

ville, and it rounded out its twenty-five years of charitable work November 

9, 1896. 

The first meeting was held on Wednesday afternoon, November 8, 1871. 

at which a committee of four ladies (Mary Davis, Carrie Prescott, Mrs. H. 

P. Hemenway and Julia Warden) were chosen to draw up a constitution to 

be presented at a meeting to be held on the following Monday evening, 

November 13. 

The first regular meeting was held with Miss Waters, and a constitu- 

tion for the society was presented and adopted. 

The following list of officers was presented and elected : Miss Lizzie 

A. Waters, president; Mrs. Geo. H. Crosby, vice-president; Mrs. Chas. H. 

Buswell, secretary; Miss Helen U. Edgerly, assistant secretary; Mrs. 

Albert E. Hughes, treasurer. Directresses: Mrs. Chas. Williams, Jr., Mrs. 
H. P. Hemenway, Mrs. Chas. Crane, Mrs. John F. Cole, Mrs. Wethern. 

Mrs. P. Ford, Jr., Mrs. David Crane, Misses Kate Fletcher, Anna M. 
Knight, S. Fannie Gerry, Emily Knowles, Nellie Parker, Carrie Prescott, 
Belle Dalton, Ella Runey, Emma Brown, Susie Davis. The society was 
named in courtesy to Mrs. Waters and daughter, who were officers in the 
Samaritan Society of Boston at the time of their removal to Somerville, and 
members until the society became the North End Dispensary. 

When the Samaritan Society was organized, it was the only social and 
charitable society in the town, if we may except those connected witli the 
churches. The charity work extended to every part of the city, and the 
Christmas donations are something pleasant to be remembered, for baskets 
of stores, and warm clothing, contributed by members and friends, found 
their way each year to scores of families whose appreciation of them made 
us feel that it was ''more blessed to give than to receive." The form of 
meetings was sewing until nine o'clock P.M., when the work was gathered 
up, and the incoming of the gentlemen added much to the pleasure of the 
evening. Music, singing and games followed with now and then a " Vir- 
ginia Reel." The meetings were attended by over one hundred members, 



356 mJ//-:/v /'//./. A; PAST .LVD PRESENT. 

the largest enrolled membership for any one year being i 24. If we look 
about now, we find that organized societies have become legion, but none 
among them all have yet tilled the place of this association, for notwith- 
standing its depleted membership, and more limited resources, it has gone 
steadily on with the humane work. 

The members of this society both past and present have reason to feel 
gratified with the report of these many years. The society has received 
during this period, from entertainments in the form of fairs, suppers, con- 
certs and lectures, the sum of 54,512.61. The yearly assessments have 
amounted to $768.24, and the interest on deposits of money $192, making a 
total of #5,472.85. 

The society received a " Bequest " from Mrs. Geo. H. Crosby, Novem- 
ber 28, 1885, increasing the sum to #5,672.85. Mrs. Crosby was an earnest 
and interested officer from the formation of the society until called to her 
" higher " work. Many other gifts received were at once sent to families 
for whom they were intended. 

There has been expended during these years, for groceries, boots and 
shoes, wood and coal, rents, funeral expenses, and material for clothing, the 
sum of $5,660.85, leaving a balance in the treasury of $12. For the amount 
expended there have been given 2,117 orders for poor and needy families 
to the number of over three hundred, and this does not include the hun- 
dreds of garments which have found their way into these many homes, con- 
tributed from all parts of the city, while the influence of this work has gone 
out far and wide to arouse assistance from other sources. 

It has been through the work and experiences of this society that the 
needs of a children's home and day nurseries were seen to be a necessity, 
and it is hoped that the future will see these charities well established, and 
handsomely supported. 

Miss Waters remained president three years, Mrs. P. Ford, Jr., suc- 
ceeding in 1874, one year: Mrs. James N. Clark, two years, 1875, ^76; Mrs. 
George H. Crosby, two years, 1877, 1878; Mrs. E. B. Wilson, two years, 
1879, 1880; Mrs. S. C. Lund, one year, 1881 ; Mrs. J. C. Thomas, two years, 
1882, 1883; Mrs. H. M. Morse, 1884; Mrs. L. Timson, two years, 1885, 
1886, when Miss Waters was again chosen to fill the office, and has re- 
tained it until the present year, with the following officers : vice-president, 
Mrs. H. M. Burgess; secretary, Miss S. L. Chandler; treasurer, Mrs. J. C. 
Thomas; wardrobe keeper, Mrs. E. A. Goodale. Directresses: Mrs. H. 
W. Burgess, Mrs. B. P. Palmer, Mrs. J. H. Weston, Mrs. L. JJowker, Mrs. 
E. A. Goodale, Mrs. I. H. Wiley, Mrs. B. G. Chaffee, Mrs. E. L. Davis, 
Mrs. I). W. Sanborn, Mrs. J. H. Litchfield, Miss A. U. Knight, Mrs. F. 
Gertrude Porter. 




ELIZABETH A. WATERS. 




ALBERT E. HUGHES. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST .L\7> PRESENT. 359 



SOMKRYILLE DAY Nl'RSKRY. 

The existence of this nursery is due to the desire of the Helen Hunt 
Circle of King's Daughters to establish in Somerville a charity which should 
protect children left uncared for while their mothers are at work. 

For this object they contributed nearly one hundred dollars, and in 
March, 1X93, a number of ladies from different parts of the city met at the 
house of Mrs. Niles, and organized and, in the following June, opened the 
nursery with a matron, housekeeper, and five children. 

At present the children average from seventeen to twenty-five daily, the 
number at times rising to thirty. This increase has necessitated the em- 
ployment of an assistant. The ages of the children vary from seven months 
to ten years. 

This institution is non-sectarian, and is supported by voluntary sub- 
scriptions of one dollar or more annually, and by donations of wood, coal 
and provisions. The cost of caring for a child per day is twenty-five cents, 
of which the mother is required to pay five cents. 

The homes of the children are often visited by the matron, and every 
case carefully investigated. Besides the legitimate work of the nursery, aid 
is rendered in other cases when necessary, employment by the day found 
for mothers, and positions secured for young girls. 

The house is open from 7 A. M. to 5 P. M. every clay, excepting Sundays 
and holidays. All applications for admission are made to the matron, Ellen 
K. Mason. 

Officers of the Day Nursery: president, Mrs. L. Y. Niles; vice-presi- 
dents, Mrs. G. W. Simpson, Mrs. A. H. Carvill ; treasurer, Mrs. J. A. Clark ; 
corresponding secretary, Mrs. C. S. Dewing; recording secretary, Miss 
Helen Tincker ; auditor, Miss F. \Y '. Kaan. Board of directors: Mrs. C. P. 
Battelle, Mrs. James Brown, Mrs. J. H. Butler, Mrs. A. H. Carvill, Mrs. 

E. J. Chilson, Mrs. J. A. Hark, Mrs. E. A. Conant, Mrs. H. P. Conant, 
Mrs. C. S. Dewing, Mrs. H. S. Farnham, Mrs. Edward Foote, Mrs. J. O. 
Hayclen, Mrs. C. M. Howes, Mrs. A. E. Hughes, Mrs. S. E. Gilcrease, Miss 

F. \V. Kaan, Mrs. L. V. Niles, Dr. E. M. Phillips, Mrs. J. L. Potter, Mrs. 
N. H. Reed, Mrs. G. \Y. Simpson, Mrs. Arthur Smith, Mrs. F. M. Stodder. 
Mrs. I. E. Sylvester, Mrs. E. L. Tead, Miss Minnie Tead, Miss Helen 
Tincker, Mrs. \V. F. Weld, Mrs. J. F. Wellington, Mrs. C. A. West, Mrs. 
F. 15. West. 

The Day Nursery is located at 144 Washington street. 




\\Vatd C. Kinsler p ftvf 




No. 131), Department of Mass., 



G. A. R. 



PAST AND PRESENT. 361 



\YILLARI) C. KINSLEY I'OST G. A. K. 

I'REl'ARI-.D UY A COMMITTEE OF II I K POST. 

Post 139 G. A. R. was chartered August 16, 1870, and was mustered 
as a post October 20 of that year, with twenty-eight charter members, eight 
of whom, viz. : J. H. Dusseault, John Kennedy, Elkanah Crosby, Sanford 
Hanscom, C. H. Crane, W. H. Thomas, M. C. Parkhurst and J. \Y. Oliver, 
are still active members. 

In selecting the name of Willard C. Kinsley for the post, the veterans 
of Somerville felt it a pleasant duty to perpetuate the memory of a soldier 
who is remembered by his old comrades as one of the bravest and most 
popular men who ever led a company. 

Mr. Kinsley first enlisted in April, 1861, as a private in Capt. Brastow's 
company of the Fifth Regiment, and served with honor through the three 
months' campaign ; he then re-enlisted for three years and was commissioned 
as second lieutenant of Company E (Somerville Company) of the Thirty- 
ninth Regiment; he soon received a merited promotion to the first lieu- 
tenancy and then to the captaincy, in which position he won and held 
the love and respect of his men to a degree such as few officers attain ; a 
perfect leader in the field, he was as one of their own number when off duty, 
and his kindness and care for the sick and wounded were like those of a 
brother. He led his men through many battles, and was slightly wounded 
in the head June 17, 1864. He kept with his company, however, until at 
almost the close of the war, on March 31, 1865, at Gravelly Run, Va., just 
prior to Lee's surrender, he fell mortally wounded and died on the following 
day. 

For the first few years of its organization the post grew rapidly and 
attained a membership of about two hundred ; it then gradually declined, 
as did nearly all posts of the G. A. R., until the year 1882, when, the work 
being taken up on partially new lines, the increase was again rapid until 
over three hundred names were enrolled, and the roster continues at about 
that number at the present time. 

The muster-rolls of the post during its twenty-six years of existence 
have contained the names of men engaged in almost all professions and 
business pursuits, many of whom have been honored by the political pref- 
erence of their fellow-citizens in State and city offices. In the list are 
included four ex-mayors, viz.: Brastow, Bruce, Cummings and Hoclgkins, 
and many of the other members are filling positions of trust with credit to 
themselves in other lines of employment. The tenets of the order are 
Fraternity, Charity and Loyalty ; but although the fraternal ties and meet- 
ings of the veterans are of inestimable value and pleasure to themselves, and 
they have ever been ready by practice and by the teaching of the principle^ 
of loyalty to country and Hag to assist in promoting a healthy sentiment 
among the younger generation which shall tend to perpetuate our free and 
enlightened government, the chief aim and object of the order is charity. 



362 SOMERl'ILLE, 1'AST AND I'RESEXT. 

which is bestowed not only among its own members, but among all who 
fought in the Civil War now living in our midst, who, through disease or old 
age, have become incapacitated from gaining a livelihood : these together 
with the widows and orphan children of those who have passed away have 
been assisted, together with others who were needy and destitute. In the 
conscientious performance of this duty the post is recognized as a prime 
factor in charitable work in this city, having disbursed over $13,000 in 
cash, nearly two-thirds of which went to persons outside the membership of 
the post. 

The organization has always assisted other charitable enterprises, not- 
ably in late years : during the hard times of the winter of 1893-4 it made a 
donation of 5200 to the Associated Charities of Somerville, and later its 
members assisted in the Hospital Fair, and were enabled to contribute about 
$225 to the fund for that institution. 

In its work the post has been aided very materially by its auxiliary, 
the Woman's Relief Corps, the membership of which is composed of loyal 
ladies who are ever ready, as were those in the days of 1861-5, to do all in 
their power to aid the soldiers ; it has also been greatly assisted by the 
generous patronage which has been given by the citizens of Somerville to 
all the enterprises it has gotten up for charitable purposes. 

The commanders of the post have been: C. F. King, 1870-1 ; H. E. 
Hill, 1872; J. H. Dusseault, 1873; T. J. Buffum, 1874; G. H. Burroughs, 
1875; W. W. Woodbury, 1876; W. E. Halladay, 1877; G. B. Clark, 1878; 
J. H. Soule, 1879 (died in office); Dennis Kelley, 1879 (unexpired term): 
John Kennedy, 1880 ; J. M. Woods, 1881 ; Martin Binney, 1882 ; C. F. King, 
1883-4; J. F. Davlin, 1885; M. D. Jones, 1886; Walter Winward, 1887; 
John Kelley, 1888; C. H. Colgate, 1889; H. B. Sellon, 1890; Henry Rich- 
ardson, 1891 ; A. C. Stacy, 1892; E. H. Gooding, 1893; C. O. Pratt, 1894: 
G. H. Clapp, 1895 ; and G. M. Stevens, 1896. The present place of meeting 
is in Grand Army Hall, Citizen Building, Gilman square. 




MARTIN BINNEY. 




JAMES F. DAVLIN. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND I'Rl'lSENT. 365 

W1LLAR1) C. KIXSI.FY RFLIFF ('OKI'S. 
l!v MAKY E. KI.UOT. 

That the loyal women of America realized their responsibilities during 
the Civil War, is a fact interwoven in almost all its history. 

On fields of battle, in the hospitals of the North and the South, in halls 
and churches and in the home they toiled for the Union cause and its brave 
volunteers. 

The highest principles of womanhood and of patriotism were exempli- 
fied by their efforts, and the statement that "there were heroines as well as 
heroes in that war," is verified on many pages of its records. 

When, soon after peace was declared, the Grand Army of the Republic 
organized to conduct a work of Fraternity, Charity and Loyalty, its princi- 
ples appealed again to the hearts of loyal women. They realized that, 
though the battlefields were silent, the suffering caused by the war remained. 

Societies of women were formed in many cities and towns to co-operate 
with posts of the Grand Army of the Republic in their beneficent work. 

One of the first of these societies to bear the name of a post was or- 
ganized in Somerville, March 17, 1878, as Willard C. Kinsley Relief Corps. 

Much interest was manifested at the regular meetings which were held 
in Bow Street Hall, and successful entertainments enabled the corps to 
establish a relief fund of several hundred dollars. 

The members were also active in raising funds for the Soldiers' Home 
Bazaar held in Mechanics Building, Boston, in December, iSSi. 

A few days previous to the opening of the bazaar, the corps president 
received a check for 5125 from Mr. Henry F. Spencer, on behalf of the 
trustees of the Columbus Tyler estate, it being the surplus (with interest 
remaining in the Somerville war fund of which Mr. Tyler had charge. 
This amount and the receipts of the corps table gave Somerville the credit 
of being represented in the efforts to establish a soldiers' home in Massa- 
chusetts. 

In May, 1882, Willard C. Kinsley Corps reorganized on a broader basis 
and became a branch of the Department of Massachusetts Woman's Relief 
Corps, a State organization which was formed in Fitchburg in iS;(>. Mrs. 
E. Florence Barker, department president, and Mrs. Sarah K. Fuller, de- 
partment secretary at that time, conducted the institution which was held 
in Bow Street Hall. They installed the officers in the evening, when promi- 
nent guests were present representing the clergy and city officials of 
Somerville, and friends from other sections of the State. 

Willard C. Kinsley Post attended the exercises in a body. 

The corps was entered upon the roster at department headquarters as 
No. 21, there having been twenty corps previously organized under the 
direction of the Department of Massachusetts \Y. R. C. 

There were thirty-six charter members, and they (and all who have sub- 




MARY E. ELLIOT. 



SOM1-.R\'1LLE, PAST AND 1'RESENT. 367 

sequently taken the obligation) have pledged support to the following ob- 
jects, which form a part of the rules and regulations of the order : - 

''To specially aid and assist the Grand Army of the Republic, and to 
perpetuate the memory of the heroic dead. 

"To assist such Union veterans as need our help and protection, and to 
extend needful aid to their widows and orphans. 

" To find them homes and employment, and assure them of sympathy 
and friends. 

" To cherish and emulate the deeds of our army nurses and of all loyal 
women who rendered loving service to our country in her hour of peril. 

" To maintain true allegiance to the United States of America ; to in- 
culcate lessons of patriotism and love of country among our children and in 
the communities in which we live : and to encourage the spread of universal 
liberty and equal rights to all." 

That Corps 21 has been loyal to these objects is fully shown by its rec- 
ords. Over a thousand dollars have been expended in relief since 1882, but 
this does not represent the full value of its work in this direction. The in- 
vestigation of numerous cases, the visits to the sick, and poor but worthy 
claimants upon our gratitude, the distribution of food and clothing, and 
other duties have been promptly performed by the relief committee that 
has served from year to year with great efficiency. 

Corps 21 has aided Post 139 in two large fairs, and has co-operated in 
its plans for the proper observance of Memorial Day. 

The two bodies have each a conference committee, "to confer concern- 
ing matters of mutual interest, in order to strengthen the relations and per- 
fect the work for which these organizations are mutually pledged." 

Union gatherings are occasionally held, and the corps has often wel- 
comed the comrades at anniversaries, receptions, suppers and other 
gatherings, and the post has extended the same courtesy to its auxiliary. 
The two organizations have worked together in harmony, each having a re- 
gard for the other's interests. 

At the tenth anniversary of the corps, in May, 1X92, a beautiful silk 
banner was presented as a testimonial by the post. A Bible, a Mag and 
guidon are among the gifts received by the post from its auxiliary corps. 
At the silver anniversary of the post, in October, 1895, a large portrait of 
one of its honored members Mayor William H. Hodgkins was pre- 
sented by the corps, the members of which were present as guests. 

I Hiring the past few years the subject of patriotic teaching in the public 
schools has been a special feature of relief corps work throughout the 
country. Fully realizing the importance of this movement, Corps 21 voted 
to petition the school board of Somerville to introduce a "salute to the 
flag " into the public schools. With a view of awakening a deeper interest 
in the subject, a "Hag meeting "was held in the (Old) I'nitarian Church on 
Highland avenue, on the evening of December 16, 1894. 

A large and enthusiastic audience enjoyed the program presented. 
Pupils from the Pope and Forster schools exemplified the Hag salutes, and 



368 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

addresses were made by Mayor William H. Hodgkins, several clergymen 
of the city, members of the school committee, department officers \Y. R. C., 
and others. Patriotic singing added interest to the exercises. When the 
petition was formally presented to the school board, it was favorably con- 
sidered. 

In response to the appeal of the trustees of the Somerville Hospital, for 
the fair held in the (Old) Unitarian Church, the corps furnished a table. 
and visits to the hospital are often made by our members. 

Aside from the local work undertaken, C'orps 21 has manifested an in- 
terest in the Soldiers' Home on Powderhorn Hill in Chelsea. Assistance 
\\as rendered the soldiers' home carnival held in Mechanics Building, 
Boston, in 1885, and the military fair held in Music Hall, Boston, in 1892. 

An entertainment is annually given at the home and appreciated by the 
veterans, as are also the delicacies distributed on these visits. Several 
contributions have been given the home at various times. A pleasing inci- 
dent of the visit this year (1896) was the gift of plants to the inmates, that 
they might have a flower garden of their own. 

The department relief fund for special cases reported at headquarters 
and the memorial fund for the care of soldiers' widows and army nurses 
have received liberal contributions from Corps 21. All other appeals from 
department headquarters for special objects have met with a prompt re- 
sponse, and on each Memorial Day the corps sends a tribute for the un- 
known graves in the national cemeteries of the South. 

A copy of the History of the Department of Massachusetts W. R. C. 
-a bound volume of nearly four hundred pages has recently been given 
to the public library of Somerville. Regular meetings are held twice a 
month in Grand Army Hall, Oilman square, and are largely attended. The 
present membership is one hundred and sixty-one. A list of those who have 
served as presidents is given, viz. : Miss Mary E. Elliot, Mrs. Harriet A. 
Ralph, Mrs. Abbie J. Bean, Mrs. Ann C. Souther, Mrs. Rose A. Knapp, 
Mrs. Eveline P. Robinson, Mrs. Helen F. Johnson, Mrs. Harriet A. Chani- 
berlin, Mrs. Helen M. McCully, Mrs. Fannie M. Jones, Mrs. Lyclia P. 
Hall, Mrs. Kate A. Stacy. 

There are at the present time one hundred and seventy-two corps in 
Massachusetts with a membership of fourteen thousand, and about two hun- 
dred thousand dollars have been expended for relief in this State alone. 

Willard C. Kinsley Corps has an honored place on this roll, and is justly 
entitled to recognition as one of the pioneer corps of the order. 

Since its organization this auxiliary to the Grand Army of the Republic 
has been formed in forty-four States and Territories, and numbers one hun- 
dred and thirty thousand patriotic women. 

Over a million dollars have been expended for relief, a national home 
for soldiers' widows and army nurses established, and also State homes 
maintained, memorials erected in honor of martyred heroes, tiags placed in 
the public schools, and an educational work conducted in behalf of 
patriotism that will have a permanent influence upon this generation. 




JAMES S. SANBORN. 




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SOMERVILLE, PAST AXD /'A'/^7-.V'/'. 371 



WOMAN'S CHRISTIAN' TEMPERANCE UNION. 

The West Somerville Woman's Christian Temperance I'nion was or- 
ganized in March, 1X79, by Mrs. L. B. Barrett, then State secretary of the 
Massachusetts W.C.T.U. The first president was Mrs. Person Davis, and 
the first secretary Mrs. Harriet A. Chamberlin. There were nine charter 
members. The union, which now consists of sixty-one members, has done, 
in connection with the temperance work, much of a philanthropic nature. 
It has also done more than any other organization toward making Somer- 
ville a no-license city. The present officers are : Mrs. A. S. C. Hill, presi- 
dent : and Mrs. S. Adclie Johnson, secretary. The fountain at Union square 
was erected as a memorial to Mrs. Barrett, by the several unions of Somer- 
ville. 

SOMERVILLE FIREMAN'S RELIEF ASSOCIATION. 

BY JAMES R. HOI-KINS. 

Was organized May 9, iS;o, and incorporated, March 11, iSyo. Its 
first officers were: chief engineer, David A. Sanborn, president; Theodore 
D. Dennett, vice-president; ex-chief engineer Robert A. Yinal, secretary 
and treasurer. It distributes relief to its members (as follows): any mem- 
ber who is injured going to, working at, or returning from a fire, may receive 
#1.50 a day for a term not exceeding fifty days. In case of the death of 
a member, $100 is paid to the legal representative for funeral expenses. 

Its resources are the annual dues of members (1.00 each), and the in- 
come of entertainments, four having been given during its existence. The 
association also published a book containing a history of the department, 
from which (through the courtesy of advertisers) it received an addition to 
its funds. 

The association's business has always been honestly and efficiently 
managed. It was fortunate in having for one of its founders Captain 
Robert A. Vinal : he was for seventeen years its treasurer ; by his acts of 
charity towards the poor and the unfortunate, by his words of counsel, and 
in his upright life, he was an example to the association which it will follow 
as long as it exists. 

The officers of the association are : James R. Hopkins, president; Ber- 
nard YV. Lawrence, vice-president; David A. Sanborn, treasurer; John E. 
Hill, clerk. Directors: Samuel H. Stevens, Thomas H. Daley, Frank \V. 
Ring, Irving C. Jackson, Edward F. Trefren, Edward \V. King, lienj. \Y. 
Daley, Frank L. Draper, Nathaniel C. Barker. 

Dr. Thomas M. Durell is the physician and examining surgeon of the 
association, having held that position since its incorporation ; his services 
have always been given gratuitously to its members. 



3/2 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

SOMERVILLE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION. 

BY GEORGE F. CLARRIDGE. 

In the autumn of 1867, as a result of one of the great association con- 
ventions, several citizens of Somerville who had attended became alive to 
the need of a work for young men in the then rapidly growing town, and a 
meeting in the interest of such a work was held in the then Perkins-street 
Baptist Church, December 7, at which Hon. W. H. Hodgkins was elected 
president, and Hiram L. Mackechnie secretary of the newly formed or- 
ganization. 

For twenty years a general evangelistic work among all classes and for 
both sexes was carried on, but in the summer of 1887 a reorganization of 
the association took place, and " definite work for and by young men" 
began. 

E. P. Higgins was elected president ; Win. M. Armstrong, vice-presi- 
dent ; F. E. Hodgkins, treasurer; and H. E. Valentine, secretary. A suite 
of rooms was fitted up in Masonic Block, Union square, and A. M. Wight 
of Springfield was called as first general secretary. Mr. \Yight filled the 
position of general secretary four years, during which time work for boys 
was begun, a woman's auxiliary was formed, a building fund was begun, 
and the general lines of work were vigorously prosecuted. The woman's 
auxiliary held a very successful fair during Mr. Wight's term of office, from 
the proceeds of which a lot of land was purchased at the corner of Bow 
street and Somerville avenue, which has since been sold, and the fund is 
now held in trust for a lot. 

Mr. Higgins, as president, was succeeded, in 1888, by Mr. Wm. M. Arm- 
strong, and he in 1890, by Mr. \Ym. B. Savage. 

In May, 1891, the association was incorporated under the general laws 
of Massachusetts. Mr. Wight resigned his office in June, 1891, after four 
years of eminently successful work, and was succeeded by Mr. Geo. M. 
Cowles of Springfield, who after one year of labor resigned to enter the 
foreign mission field. 

Mr. W. C. Rollins of Lynn was acting general secretary from Octo- 
ber, 1892, to January, 1893, when W. H. Symonds, the present secretary, 
began his labors. 

New rooms were fitted up in Litchfield Block at a cost of $2,000, and in 
October, 1893, when H. M. Moore was elected president, a physical de- 
partment was added at an expense of 52,200. The membership now num- 
bers 806, and all lines of modern association work are carried on. 

. A fund of $10,000 in cash or pledges has been secured toward a new 
building, which is our great need at the present time. The present officers 
are : Geo. F. Clarridge, president ; F. M. Kilmer, vice-president ; F. E. 
Hodgkins, treasurer; W. B. Clark, clerk; W. H. Symonds, general secre- 
tary ; W. J. Bursaw, physical director. 




GEORGE F. CLARRIDGE. 




JOHN HERBERT. 




WILLIAM M. ARMSTRONG. 




FRANK E. HODGKINS. 



MASONIC. 



SOMERYILLE ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER. 

IN June and October of the year 1870 the project of forming a chapter 
was discussed in two informal meetings held by a few Royal Arch Masons 
in the anteroom of John Abbot lodge, and it was decided to take the 
necessary steps thereto. The officers were selected and the name of 
" Somerville Royal Arch Chapter " was adopted. 

A dispensation having been received from the M. E. Grand High Priest, 
a chapter of Royal Arch Masons in Somerville was opened on the 27th clay 
of December, 1870, with M. E. Companion Daniel E. Chase, high priest; 
and Companions Thomas H. Lord, king; Charles S. Lincoln, scribe: 
Horace Haskins, treasurer; Aaron Sargent, secretary; Rev. George W. 
Durell, chaplain ; Charles H. Delano, captain of the host ; William \V. Dow, 
P. S. ; George A. Pratt, Royal Arch captain ; Emery H. Monroe, M. of the 
Third V. ; Robert Hollingsworth, M. of the Second V. ; Isaac B. Kendall, 
M. of the First V. ; John W. Yinal and Albro R. Jenness, stewards ; Thomas 
Cunningham, tiler; and twelve Companions, in addition, as members, 
making a total membership of twenty-seven. 

The chapter was formally constituted under its charter, October 10, 
1871, by Grand High Priest Chickering and suite ; and the officers installed 
were M. E. Companion Thomas H. Lord, high priest ; and Companions 
Charles S. Lincoln, king; Charles E. King, scribe; Horace Haskins, 
treasurer; Aaron Sargent, secretary; Rev. George W. Durell, chaplain; 
William W. Dow, captain of the host; Isaac B. Kendall, P. S. ; George A. 
Pratt, R. A. captain; Albro R. Jenness, M. of the Third V. ; John \Y. Yinal, 
M. of the Second V. ; George L. Baxter, M. of the First V. ; Charles G. 
Pope and Horace E. Boynton, stewards; and Thomas Cunningham, tiler. 
The ceremonies were public, the presence of ladies giving additional in- 
terest to the occasion. 

Succeeding M. E. Companion Lord, the high priests have been M. E. 
Companions Charles F. King, Rudolph Kramer, George H. Allen, Thomas 
H. Lord again, Samuel F. Holt, Quincy E. Dickerman, Frank H. Mead, 
Albion Libby, James Kelly, ( )rrin C. Hubbard, Clarence H. Willey and 
Clarence W. Tarbell, the present high priest being Samuel Dudley Kelley. 
The chapter had thirty-four charter members, and has now a membership 
of 302 Companions. The convocations were held in the old John Abbot 
lodge room, Union square, before coming to the new Masonic apartments. 
Winter Hill. 

377 



378 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

ORIENT COUNCIL R. AND S. M. 

BY AARON SARGENT. 

Toward the close of the year 1888 the project of instituting a council 
of Royal and Select Masters was advanced. The name Orient Council - 
was suggested by Companion A. Eugene Sargent. The fathers of the Coun- 
cil were Companions Aaron Sargent and John S. Hayes; and with a mem- 
bership of twenty, and by authority of a dispensation from the M. I. G. 
Master, a council was opened on the jth day of February, 1889, with Com- 
panions John S. Hayes, T. I. Master; Joseph \V. Hill, deputy master; 
Isaac G. Curtis, principal conductor of the work ; Isaac B. Kendall, 
treasurer ; Aaron Sargent, recorder ; Charles A. Skinner, chaplain ; George 
S. Flanders, master of ceremonies ; Galen M. Bowditch, captain of the 
guard; Charles E. Moore, conductor of the council; Robert R. Perry, 
steward ; Daniel C. Stillson, sentinel ; and David Cutter, musical director 
and organist. 

The council received its charter, and was formally constituted by M. I. 
G. Master Daniel W. Jones, and officers of the Grand Council on the i6th 
of January, 1890. The first officers under the charter were : Companions 
Joseph W. Hill, T. I. Master; Galen M. Piowditch, Deputy Master; William 
H. Cushman, Principal Conductor of the Work ; Isaac B. Kendall, Treas- 
urer ; A. Eugene Sargent, recorder ; Charles A. Skinner, chaplain ; 
Clarence H. Willey, master of ceremonies; George S. Flanders, captain 
of the guard ; Edward T. C. Eddy, conductor of the council ; John E. 
Marden, sentinel; and David Cutter, musical director and organist. The 
succeeding masters have been: T. I. Companions Galen M. Bowditch, 
William H. Cushman and Edward T. C. Eddy. The charter membership 
was ninety-five companions. The council has conferred the degrees on 
201 companions, and has now a membership of 206. 

JOHN ABBOT LODGE. 

The first lodge of Free and Accepted Masons in Somerville was opened 
under a dispensation, October 23, 1857, with the following organization: 
master, Francis L. Raymond; senior warden, Joel V. Thayer ; junior warden, 
James R. Bugbee ; treasurer, Thomas J. Leland ; secretary, Charles E. Gil- 
man; chaplain, James M. Shute ; marshal, George O. Brastow ; senior 
deacon, Thomas H. Lord; junior deacon, Alexander B. Cleary; senior 
steward, Gardner T. Ring; junior steward, Reuben E. Demmon : tiler, 
Enoch Robinson. 

The lodge received its charter and was formally constituted September 
14, 1858, the officers installed being as follows: master, John K. Hall ' 
senior warden, Joel F. Thayer ; junior warden, James R. Bugbee ; treasurer, 
Thomas J. Leland ; secretary, Charles E. Gilman ; chaplain, James M. 
Shute; marshal, Rollin W. Keyes ; senior deacon, Thomas H. Lord; 




DANIEL E. CHASE. 







ORRIN C. HUBBARD. 




FRANK W. KAAN. 




WILLIAM H. WOODBERRY. 



SOMERr/LLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 383 

junior deacon, Alexander B. Cleary ; senior steward, Philip R. Ridgway ; 
junior steward, William E. Robinson ; tiler, Caleb Bucknam. 

The charter members numbered nineteen brothers. For about two 
years they met in a small attic lodge-room over Union Hall, in a wooden 
building at the corner of Oak and Milk streets, now known as Beach street 
and Somerville avenue. Then for eight or nine years they met on the 
second Moor of the same building. 

March iS, 1869, the lodge moved to Union Hall building, in Union 
square, and October 4, iSSS, to the Stickney building, in Oilman square. 

The masters since John K. Hall have been in their order : James R. 
Bugbee, Thomas H. Lord, Philip R. Ridgway, William E. Robinson, Henry 
E. Woods, Charles H. Delano, Thomas H. Lord (again), Selwyn Z. Bow- 
man, Frank S. Hartshorn, Charles H. Taylor, George H. Allen, Charles J. 
Richardson, Robert Laycock, John B. Viall, T. Oilman Smith, Edward T. 
Flanagan, Charles A. Cushman, Thomas M. Durell, Frank W. Kaan, Hor- 
ace L. Eaton and Frank W. Mead. 

The number of members, September i, 1896, was 379, the list of officers 
for 1896-7 being as follows: W. M., Frank W. Mead; S. W., Elmer E. 
Cousens ; J. W., Orrin C. Hubbard; treasurer, Miah O. Kenny; secretary, 
Thomas Miller; chaplain, Rev. Edward P. Lee; marshal, Horace M. Par- 
sons ; S. D., Nathaniel W. Lillie ; J. D., John H. MacAhnan ; S. S., Frederic 
E. Wood; J. S., J. A. F. Trueman ; I. S., Alfred M. Sibley ; tiler, John E. 
Marclen ; organist, George Swift. 



SOLEY LODGE. 
Bv WM. H. WOODBERRV. 

Soley Lodge A. F. & A. M. was instituted April 2, 1879, the first 
meeting being held in Broadway Hall, East Somerville, under dispensation. 

The formal constitution by M. W. Grand Master Chas. A. Welsh and 
the Grand Lodge, occurred April 9, 1880, in Franklin Hall, corner of Broad- 
way and Franklin street. 

The first officers, being the same as those acting under dispensation, 
were : Wor. Bro. Horace P. Hemenway, W. M. ; Wor. Bro. Henry F. Woods, 
T. W. ; Wor. Bro. John Yiall, J. W. : and Bros. John F. Cole, treasurer; 
Aaron Sargent, secretary; Rev. Edwin J. Gerry, chaplain ; Geo. W. Perkins, 
marshal; J. Foster Clark, S. 1).; Chas. G. Pope, J. 1 >. ; L. M. Haskins. S. 
S. ; Chas. H. Crane, J. S. ; W r m. F. Sanborn, I. S. ; Geo. H. Meacler. organ- 
ist ; and Chas. C. Folsom, tiler. 

Its name is a tribute to the worth and memory of John Soley. a native 
and resident of Charlestown, Mass., well loved by her citizens and many 
times honored in her government. He was prominent in Masonry early in 
the present century, having filled many offices in the Grand Lodge. He was 
Or. Recording Secretary from iSi i to 1818 inclusive, and M. W. Or. Master 
in 1826-27-28. He loved the order, and in its service spent a large part of 




AMASA E. SOUTHWORTH. 



SOMERl'lLLl-:, PAST AND PRESENT. 385 

his long and useful life which closed in honor April 6, 1851. The \V. Mas- 
ters of Soley Lodge since \Y. M. Hemenway have been Wor. Bros. John 
Yiall, J. Foster Clark, Chas. H. Crane, John F. Cole, Amasa E. Southworth, 
las. F. Beard, Geo. W. Perkins, J. Walter Sanborn and \\'m. H. Woodberry. 
On the 4th of October, 1888, the new Masonic apartments in the 
Stickney Building in Oilman square were dedicated by M. \Y. (Jr. Master 
Henry Endicott and the Grand Lodge, and since then they have been the 
Masonic home of all the Masonic societies of Somerville. Recognizing not 
only the fraternal, but also the social obligations of its institution, its growth 
from the beginning has been strong and healthy, and it enjoys the allegiance 
and faithful support of many of Somerville's best and most highly esteemed 
citizens. The charter membership of the lodge was 46, the present list 
numbers 379, with the following line of officers : W. M., Wm. H. Woodberry : 
S. W., Albion H. Libbey ; J. W., Herbert L. Clark; treasurer, Edwin S. 
Conant; secretary, R. T. chamberlin ; chaplain, Chas. A. Skinner; mar- 
shal, B. Frank Wild; S. I)., Chas. S. Soule ; J. IX, E. W. Southworth; S. S., 
Eugene C. Leonard; J. S., Jos. H. Murphy; I. S., Jos. Robbins; organist, 
H. F. Plaisted; tiler, John Marden. 



INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS. 



SOMERVILLE ENCAMPMENT. 

SOMKRVILLE ENCAMPMENT No. 48 was instituted in Odd Fellows' Hall. 
Union square, April 7, 1873, with 21 charter members. Its first officers 
were: C. P., Geo. Stephens; H. P., Daniel E. Chase; S. W., Irwin M. Ben- 
nett; scribe, Geo. H. Allen; treasurer, Hiram I). Smith; J. W., Crawford 
F. Brown. This encampment has always been fortunate in having an 
efficient corps of officers, and its high standard of Patriarchal Odd Fellow- 
ship has always been maintained. 

It has a membership of 173. composed of brothers from 30 different 
lodges. 

Meetings are held on the second and fourth Monday evenings of each 
month at 8 P. M. 

WINTER HILL ENCAMPMENT. 

WINTER HILL ENCAMPMENT No. 76 was instituted March 17. is.,2, by 
Chas. A. Mayo, G. P., assisted by a full staff of the Grand Encampment of 
the State of Massachusetts. 

The charter members are: I). W. Desmond, P. C. 1'., Frank P. Tucker, 
P. C. P.. W. II . Cooper, P. C. P., Austin S. Esty, P. C. P.. Fred E. Cheney, 




, -. 



ODD FELLOWS' BUILDING, Broadway and Marshall Street. 







^r ^x 




WILLIAM H. RALPH. 




GEORGE H. Russ. 



'ILU-:, PAST A XI) I'RESl-.XT. 389 

J. Leland Norcross, \\"illiam Sanby, P. C. P., C. H. Miles, Elisha G. Wood- 
ward, Alvah Cloutman, P. C. P., Geo. H. Russ, William Welsh, Lawrence 
P. Land, Philemon I). Warren, Geo. W. Leavitt, Jr., William J. Emerson, 
Abbott L. Knowles, Nathan A. Fitch, Geo. H. Harlow, Chas. E. Gerrish, 
P. C. P., Frederick D. Chase, Joseph Scobcria, Robert Shannon, 1'. C. P., 
William F. Roberts. 

The first officers that filled the chair of Winter Hill Encampment were : 
Daniel W. Desmond, C. P.; Frank P. Tucker, H. P.; William H. Cooper, 
S. W. ; Austin S. Estey, scribe; Fred E. Cheney, financial scribe; J. 
Leland Norcross, treasurer; William Sanby, J. \Y. : Geo. H. Russ, guide ; 
Elisha G. Woodward, ist W. ; Nathan A. Fitch, 2cl \Y. ;] Geo. H. Harlow, 
3d W. ; Geo. W. Leavitt, Jr., 4th W. ; Robert Shannon, I. S. ; Lawrence P. 
Land, O. S. ; Win. F. Roberts, ist G. of T. ; Win. Welsh, 2 d G. of T. 

The patriarchs who have passed through the chair of the Encampment 
as C. P. are: I). W. Desmond, P. C. P., Win. H. Cooper, P. C. P., William 
Sanby, P. C. P., Geo. H. Russ, Thos. H. Bryant, Enoch M. Smith, Geo. I- . 
Sargent. Salvatore La Bua, Jr., is the present C. P. 

The amount of money paid as sick benefits since the institution of the 
Encampment is : our own members, $254.50 ; non-members, $99. 

The deceased members are Alvah Cloutman, William H. Cooper, P. C. 
P., and J. W. Bailey. 

Total membership, January i, 1896, 109 members. 

The regular meetings of the Encampment are the first and third 
Thursdays of the month. 

CALEB RAND LODGE. 

CALEB RAND LODGE No. 197, 1. < >. O. F., was instituted in West Som- 
erville, May 29, 1888, with the following charter members : Alonzo E. Bailey, 
George B. Barstow, Frank R. Starkey, Oliver H. Perry, Hiram O. Chapin, 
Samuel H. Wilkins, George L. Marshall, Alfonso Clements, Fred L. Coates, 
Albion P. Huntress, Franklin P. Upham, George W. Maynard, Charles 
Warner and James Gillen. The name chosen was that of Past Grand 
Master Caleb Rand, a member of Olive Branch Lodge of Charlestown, one 
of the noblest of ( )dd Fellows, and one whose memory we cherish and 
revere. After being duly instituted, Alonzo E. Bailey was elected first 
Noble Grand, and Geo. B. Barstow as Vice-Grand, and the officers being 
installed, no applicants were duly initiated. 

Mt. Sinai Lodge of North Cambridge. Paul Revere Lodge of Somer- 
ville, and Bethel Lodge of Arlington assisted in advancing the candidates 
through the several degrees to full membership. Starting under such 
favorable circumstances, the lodge has continued to increase in member- 
ship until at the present time it numbers 210 scarlet degree members. 

In the summer of 1892 the lodge-room and paraphernalia were de- 
stroyed by fire, and being without a home, the lodge accepted the kind 
offer of Oasis Lodge of Union square, of the use of their apartments, where 



390 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

it continued to meet until its present quarters were fitted up. ( >n occupying 
its new lodge-room a fresh interest was awakened, which has been steadily 
increasing, until at the present time there is no lodge in Massachusetts that is 
better or more favorably known, both for the magnificence of its degree work 
and also for the care and attention which it gives to the sick. Since the 
institution of C'aleb Rand Lodge it has lost by death twelve of its number, 
two of whom were charter members and both Past Grands. The following 
is a list of the Past Grands of the lodge : J. H. Gillen, Alonzo E. Bailey, 
Geo. B. Barstow, Samuel H. Wilkins, Frank E. Studley, Fred L. Coates, 
Chas. A. G. Winther, Geo. L. Marshall, Joseph I). Young, Geo. T. Rand, 
Henry C. Fay, Fred R. Stockwell, Harry A. True, Oramel P. Walker, 
Elmer J. Rhoades, Frank \Y. Richardson and N. \\". Elwell by card. 

The present elective officers of the lodge are : Geo. R. Libby, Xoble 
Grand; Fred A. White, Vice-Grand ; Walter H. Mitchell, secretary ; Frank 
A. Hobart, permanent secretary ; Fred R. Stockwell, P. G., treasurer. 

Lodge meetings are held every Tuesday evening in Fraternity Hall, 
West Somerville : first Tuesday in the month, initiatory degree ; second 
Tuesday in the month, ist degree ; third Tuesday in the month, 2cl degree; 
fourth Tuesday in the month, 30! degree. 

OASIS LODGE. 

OASIS LorxiE No. 146 was instituted September 17, 1868, in the old 
Masonic apartments at the corner of Milk street (now Somerville avenue) 
and Beach street, with thirty charter members. The first officers were : 
Noble Grand, Thomas B. Wilson ; Vice-Grand, David A. Sanborn, Jr. ; sec- 
retary, George H. Ireland ; treasurer, Chas. H. Elkins. The name " Oasis " 
was selected by the secretary. 

The lodge soon outgrew its small quarters, and in 1872 removed to 
Odd Fellows Hall, over Hotel Warren, L T nion square, where it remained 
until the completion, in 1891, of its present home in the Stone Building, 
which was specially arranged, under the supervision of the trustees of the 
lodge. From the time of its organization, Oasis Lodge has believed that 
the care of the sick was the fundamental principle of Odd Fellowship, and 
ever acting upon that principle it has gained a reputation second to none 
in this jurisdiction. 

Although the lodge has always been financially successful, yet its funds 
have been carefully reserved for their intended purpose relief. It has 
expended over $30,000 for benefits, and has invested funds of about $10,000. 
The present membership is 321, and the sick benefits are $6 per week. 
Meetings are held on Thursday evenings at 8 r. M. 

PAUL RFYFRK LODGE. 

Pu'L REVERE LODGE No. 184 was instituted at Winter Hill, on the 
1 5th of March, 1878, with twenty-five charter members, the most of whom 
withdrew from Oasis Lodge Xo. 14^, of L'nion square. 





ANDREW A. LAMONT. 







FRANK A. NOYES. 



SOMERVILLE, J'AST AND 1'RESENT. 393 

The lodge was installed in the hall on Broadway, known at that time- 
as Brazillian Hall, where it remained until the year iSS5; the increasing 
membership and the general dissatisfaction with the location made the de- 
mand for a new hall imperative, and under the leadership of Brother Luke 
\Y. Farmer the ( )cld Fellows Building Association was formed, and the 
present home of the lodge erected at the corner of Broadway and Marshall 
street. 

The first elective officers of the lodge were : Rufus Winn, Noble Grand : 
Nathaniel B. Gilkey, Vice-Grand ; Austin S. Ksty, recording secretary : 
Edwin R. Perham, permanent Secretary; and J. Leland Norcross, treasurer. 

The treasurer has the honor of having served every term since the 
lodge was instituted. 

The growth of the lodge has been healthy and uniform, numbering at 
the present time 293 brothers, and its influence is not only felt in the com- 
munity in which it is located, but throughout the State, as the present Grand 
Master, Austin S. Esty, is one of its charter members. 

Since its institution the lodge has lost by death four Past Grands, one 
Noble Grand and twenty-seven Scarlet members ; and has paid in sick 
benefits and donations over eleven thousand dollars. 

The following named brothers have presided over the deliberations of 
the lodge since its institution. Past Grands : Rufus Winn, N. B. Gilkey, 
A. S. Esty, E. G. Woodward, P. I). Warren, J. L. Hutchinson, J. B. Mayhew, 
J. B. Westcott, E. T. Mayhew, W. J. Emerson, C. H. Sanborn, F. \\". King, 
W. H. Beals, J. H. Woodbury, W. A. Sanborn, J. F, A. Mulliken, 1). W. 
Desmond, A. Cloutman, L. W. Parker, L. C. Powers, J. T. Butler, X. B. 
Dana, O. F. Hincks, C. S. Noyes, G. H. Harlow, L. W. Farmer, G. F. 
Sargent, \Y. L. Clough, F. E. Cheney, H. K. Potter, L. 1!. Chandler, W. R. 
Maxwell, A. A. Lament, J. A. Clark, I. L. Rich, 1). C. Theall, S. La Bua, 
Jr. 



REBEKAH LODGES, I. O. O. F. 



1VALOO AND RAMONA LODGES. 

I'.v MKS. HARRIET A. RALPH. 

WHILE closely allied to the Independent Order of ( )dd Fellows, the 
Rebekah Lodge has its own legitimate work to perform. Its mission 
is to alleviate suffering, and the members go forth quiet and unassum- 
ing on their labor of love, not letting the left hand know what the right 
hand doeth, ever ready to respond to the call of a sister or brother in dis- 
tress. 

Founded on the immutable corner-stone of Friendship, Love and Truth, 
their work broadens out into ministrations of love's helpfulness, positive as- 
surance of heart-felt sympathy and a willingness to render any act of kind- 



394 SOMERriLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

ness to lighten the many cares of life. Financial assistance is not given as 
charity in the sense in which we are wont to view the word, but in that 
grander, nobler spirit of loving our neighbors as ourselves, and the only 
recompense hoped for is the knowledge of suffering relieved and duty 
well done. 

While attending faithfully to the duties of visiting the sick and caring 
for the needy, the social feature is not lost sight of, and in visiting and en- 
tertaining sister lodges many pleasant hours are passed and strength gained 
for the work that lies before us. Somerville has three Rebekah Lodges. 



IVALOO LODGE. 

First to enter the work in this city and among the earliest instituted in 
the State was Ivaloo Lodge No. 7. The name was selected by Brother 
Daniel E. Chase, in compliment to his daughter. 

Organized at Samaritan Hall, Union square, January 28, 1870, with a 
charter membership of forty-six, the lodge increased in members until the 
roll numbered two hundred and thirty-seven ; various causes, principally 
the formation of other lodges, have reduced the membership, which at the 
present time is one hundred and seventy. 

For seventeen years the office of Noble Grand was filled as follows : 
Thomas B. Wilson, 1870 and 1871; Irvin M. Bennett, 1872 and 1875; 
Thomas Vickery, 1873 and 1879; Daniel E. Chase, 1874, 1876 and 1877; 
Maria L. Doten, 1878; Charles A. Cushman, 1880; Frank A. Noyes, 1881 
and 1885 ; Fzekiel S. Bell, 1882 and 1883 ; Walter A. Sprague, 1884; Wil- 
liam H. Ralph, 1886. As will be seen, up to the year 1887, but one lady 
had held the highest office. At this time the lodge was not gaining in mem- 
bership as rapidly as was desired, and the brothers thought that, as this was 
the ladies' branch of the order, it would be for its welfare if a sister would 
assume the office of Noble Grand, and Sister Nellie A. Curville was pre- 
vailed upon to undertake the work. She entered upon her duties in Janu- 
ary, 1887, was re-elected and served in 1888, and the two years of her ad- 
ministration were crowned with success, thirteen members being added. 

In 1889 Sister Anna R. Noyes held this position, and to her efforts is 
largely due the prosperity of the lodge since that time. L'pon entering the 
duties of the office, she immediately formed a degree staff to assist in initi- 
ation ; the membership increased. The year was a grand social success. 
The renewed interest proved an inspiration to her successors, and a prece- 
dent was thus established that has been a power ever since, and under the 
administration of the following named ladies the lodge has ranked among 
the first in the State. Laura A. Byrnes, 1890; Rachel A. Trull, 1891 ; Clara 
L. Clark, 1892; Josephine A. Bridges, 1893 ; Etta Chappell, 1894; Nellie C. 
Leighton, 1895 ; Mary A. Thorpe, 1896. 

When the Somerville hospital was built, the lodge furnished a room in 
the building. At Christmas time donations of money, fruit, clothing and 




MRS. HARRIET A. RALPH. 




MRS. HARRIET A. CHAMBERLIN. 



SOMIW/LLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 397 

other needful articles are sent to the Odd Fellows Home at Worcester, and 
many not members of the order can testify to dark hours made bright, and 
sorrow lightened through the efforts of the members of the lodge. 

A social feature, which is greatly enjoyed, is a sewing circle that meets 
at the homes of the members. At these meetings useful and fancy articles 
are made and various plans adopted, by which the treasury is kept \vell 
filled, and the members take great pleasure in distributing this money 
among those who by sickness or misfortune may find it useful. It is no un- 
common occurrence to have sixty persons present at these gatherings. 



RAMOXA LODGE. 

Ramona Lodge No. 93 was instituted December 9, 1X90, in Society Hall, 
( 'larendon Block, West Somerville, the charter membership was twenty-six, 
all but one of the number having withdrawn from Erminie Xo. 76 for the 
purpose of forming this lodge. The name was suggested by Mrs. Estelle 
C. Bryant. 

In 1891 the membership had increased to one hundred and thirteen, 
and is now about one hundred. 

At the time of institution, Mt. Sinai Lodge presented a set of gavels and 
a seal, and Caleb Rand Lodge gave a set of jewels. 

On the evening of December 29 of the same year seventy-three candi- 
dates were admitted, and Erminie Lodge presented ode-cards and banners. 

In July, 1892, the building in which the meetings were held was par- 
tially destroyed by fire, the lodge losing all its property except the books. 
Erminie again showed its fraternal spirit by replacing the banners. 

This lodge also assists the Odd Fellows' Home and conducts a local re- 
lief work. The following named members have held the position of Noble 
Grand : William H. Spiller, Harriet A. Chamberlin, Estelle C. Bryant, 
Ella F. Wilkins, M. Jennie McGrath, Celene W. Darling. 

A feeling of friendship exists between the three organizations, the with- 
drawals in each case being for the extension of the work in this city. 

During the years since this branch of Odd Fellowship has conducted 
its efficient work in Somerville, the efforts of its members have met with 
success, largely due to the fact that they have been guided by the principles 
of the order, '' Friendship, Love and Truth." 





N. B. DANA. 




JOHN F. KENNARD. 




FREDERICK E. CHENEY 



.SYWAVi 1 /7/././-;. /'. /.V7' ./AY; PRESENT. 40 1 

KR.MINIE LODGE, No. 76. 

BY MRS. FLORKNCK HTKN. 

Erminie Rebekah Lodge was instituted at Winter Hill, March 25, 1X89. 
with a charter membership of thirty-eight. The credit of naming the lodge 
is due to Mrs. Sarah E. Melvin, one of the charter members. 

The first officers were : Noble Grand, John E. A. Mulliken ; Yice- 
Grand, Annah H. Perham ; secretary, Olive F. Wellcome; treasurer, S. E. 
Hollis ; financial secretary, S. E. Melvin. 

Paul Revere Lodge No. 184, I. O. O. E., presented the lodge with its 
officers' jewels and a fine set of regalia. 

The Noble Grands have been : 1889, J. E. A. Mulliken; 1890, Annah 
H. Perham; 1891, Susan M. Tucker; 1892, Olive E. Wellcome; 1893, Ida 
E. Mayhew ; 1894, Nellie B. Preston; 1895, Hattie K. Chandler; 1896, 
Florence Hum. 

Mr. Frank P. Tucker, a popular resident of Winter Hill, has been the 
efficient drill-master nearly all the time since the institution, giving his ser- 
vices freely. 

The lodge has furnished a room in the Somerville Hospital, and re- 
plenishes the furnishings as often as is required. It has also furnished a 
room in the Odd Fellows' Home at Worcester, and at Christmas time sends 
a box of useful articles for distribution among the inmates. 

This lodge is in a flourishing condition, both numerically and finan- 
cially, the membership being nearly three hundred. 

Perfect harmony and sociability are marked characteristics of all the 
meetings, and loyalty to the order, devotion to its principles, and pride in 
its welfare are the distinctive qualities of a membership that has ever striven 
to advance the interests of the lodge. The visitation and care of the sick 
are carefully attended to. The members are wide-awake and progressive, 
and the past year has been one of great prosperity. The good work for 
which this lodge has a high reputation has always been kept up, and the 
standard set heretofore has been fully maintained. 

Appropriate services are held at a regular meeting in June of each year, 
in memory of those members who have passed away. The following is a 
list of deceased members: Jennie Abbott, Abbie J. IJean, Elizabeth 1. 
Chisholm, Emma A. Durell, Emma J. Fuller, Joseph H. Hollis, Arozine M. 
Lane, Charles W. Lyman, Levi W. Parker, E. Zettie Rines, Thomas R. 
Roulstone, Mercy K. Sanborn, Etta Whipple, Edgar L. Weeks. 

The regular meetings of this lodge are held on the second and fourth 
Monday evenings of each month at Odd Fellows' Hall. 




MRS. FLORENCE HURN. 



ODD LADIES. 



CONSTELLATION LODGE. 

CONSTELLATION LUDOK No. 34, INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ()DI> LADIES, 
was instituted May i, 1*95, with 34 members: Noble Lady, M. \Y. Yeaton ; 
Vice-Lady, S. Addie Johnson ; chaplain, L. E. Stevens ; recording secretary, 
M. S. Tracy ; lady reporter, E. M. Jewett ; financial secretary, A. L. Glazier ; 
treasurer, M. H. Snow; senior warden, H. C. Pearson; junior warden, E. 
C. Sargent ; conductor, E. S. Paine ; guardian, A. G. Young. 

The lodge now has 57 members, pays sick and death benefits, and is 
very prosperous. 

The present officers are : Noble Lady, M. S. Tracy ; Yice-Lady, E. Sy- 
monds ; chaplain, N. S. Appley ; recording secretary, A. Campbell ; lady 
reporter, M. E. Childs ; financial secretary, A. L. Glazier; treasurer, M. H. 
Snow; conductor, H. K. Hammett; guardian, I). S. Gilson ; senior warden, 
M. E. Dickerson ; junior warden, F. E. Doyle; right-hand supporter, K. 
Stacy; left-hand supporter, H. Chamberlin ; senior representative, M. \Y. 
Yeaton ; junior representative, S. Addie Johnson. 

LONGFELLOW LODGE, No. 41. 
B v MRS. FLORENCE HI*RN. 

Longfellow Lodge No. 41, U. O. of I. O. L., was instituted at Odd 
Fellows' Hall, Winter Hill, March 13, 1896. Its charter list contained sixty- 
eight names. The first Noble Lady was Mrs. Susie C. Perkins, who was 
also instrumental in forming the lodge. The present \oble Lady is Mrs. 
M. E. Ryan. The lodge has a membership of one hundred and twenty, and 
is the second largest lodge in the State. 

It has a benefit fund for the relief of members in sickness and distress. 
There is also a relief committee who faithfully cares for the sick, providing 
watchers when needed, and performing other duties of a kindred nature. 

This lodge has already attained a high reputation for sociability, and 
has the good will of all sister lodges. The membership includes a number 
of well-known ladies of Winter Hill, Charlestown, Dorchester and other 
places who are prominent in both church and social affairs. 

403 



ANCIENT ORDER OF UNITED WORKMEN. 



SOMERVILLE LODGE, No. 48. 

ON June 13,1 883, the following petitioners met in Bow-street Hall, Police 
Building, for the purpose of organizing a lodge of workmen : Thos. M. 
Durell, Frank E. Fitts, Frank Baxter, Geo. C. Ward, Herbert A. Chapin, 
Herbert \V. Raymond, Win. D. Hayden, Wm. R. Sanderson, Geo. L. Smith, 
Geo. W. Bean, Chas. D. Elliot, Seymour W. Harding and Melville C. Park- 
hurst. 

On June 29, 1). D. G. M. \Y. Guilford S. Reed and suite, of Cambridge, 
instituted the same with the following officers : P. M. W., Thos. M. Durell ; 
M. W., Frank E. Fitts ; foreman, Frank Baxter ; overseer, Geo. C. Ward ; 
guide, Win. R. Sanderson ; recorder, Herbert A. Chapin ; financier, Her- 
bert W. Raymond ; receiver, Wm. 1). Hayden ; in. W., Geo. L. Smith. 

From these thirteen petitioners has grown one of the most flourishing 
organizations in Union square, and its yearly anniversary exercises and 
other social features make it one of the most successful lodges of its kind. 

During its thirteen years of existence it has initiated 220 members, and 
out of that number, 5 have died, 7 have withdrawn, and 15 have been sus- 
pended, leaving a membership at the present time of 193. So few deaths 
and suspensions out of so many members in such a length of time is some- 
thing unusual in orders of this kind, and speaks well for the standard of its 
membership. The total amount paid out in death benefits is $16,500. 

The present officers are : P. M. W., Thos. Sharkey : M. W., G. Leonard 
McNieb ; foreman, John F. Dardis; overseer, J. E. Rupert; recorder, Geo. 
B. Pitcher; financier, S. Gardner Higgins; receiver, Wm. E. Whitney; 
guide, R. y. Good; in. W., Thos. Roberts; out. W., Geo. Adams. 



KNIGHTS OF HONOR. 



MT. BENEDICT LODGE. 

MT. BENEDICT LODGE, No. 872, KNIGHTS OF HONOR, was organized Jan- 
uary 30, 1878, John F. Cole being elected past dictator, and Dr. Horace P. 
Hemenway the first dictator; Abbott L. Iviiowles was elected financial re- 
porter, and Edwin S. Conant treasurer, positions which they have both held 
up to the present time. 
404 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AA T D PRESENT. 405 

The lodge had the good fortune to secure as members many of the 
prominent citizens of East Somerville, and at one time numbered 125 
members. 

The lodge has paid for the relief of sick and needy members nearly 
Si, ooo, and to the families of its deceased members $36,000. 

CAMKRON LODGE, No. 1146. 

This lodge was instituted July 25, 1878, with a membership of 37, which 
has been increased to 125. Owing to deaths and withdrawals, the present 
membership is 47. 

The deaths, which have been sixteen, have drawn from the order 
32,000. The lodge at present has property and funds invested amounting 
to $15,000. Its meetings are held on the second and fourth Mondays of 
each month in Unity Hall. 



KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS. 



ARCADIA LODGE, No. 113. 
BY ELMER L. GLAZIER. 

ON the evening of December 10, 1894, a company of gentlemen met in 
Columbian Hall, West Somerville, by invitation of Harvey S. Garcelon and 
Elmer L. Glazier, for the purpose of discussing the order of Knights of 
Pythias, with a view to forming a lodge in that part of the city, and a 
preliminary organization was formed, with Harvey S. Garcelon as chairman. 
From that meeting the work went rapidly on, until on the 3oth day of 
January, 1895, Arcadia Lodge No. 113 was instituted with f>i charter mem- 
bers, and the following officers were elected and installed : Harvey S. 
Garcelon, chancellor commander; Frederick C. Gohring, vice-chancellor; 
James C. Howard, prelate ; Barnett T. Skelton, master of work ; Elmer L. 
Glazier, keeper of records and seal ; Delavan C. Delano, master of finance : 
Frederick A. P. Fiske, master of exchequer ; Frederick B. King, master of 
arms ; Homer C. Wheeler, inner guard ; Theodore C. Ripley, outer guard ; 
Harvey S. Garcelon and Alvin Phillips, representatives to the Grand Lodge ; 
and Dr. H. P. Makechnie, I. C. Earle and M. S. Andrews, trustees. 

Early in the year Frederick C. Gohring resigned as vice-chancellor, and 
Eugene B. Stoddard was elected in his place. 

The lodge meets regularly on the first and third Wednesday evenings of 
each month at 8 o'clock, and it has gained an enviable reputation for the 
good quality of its work. 

Of the charter members only eight were members of the order. Of 
these four were past chancellors. 

P. C. Elmer L. Glazier, the senior P. C. and senior knight as well. 



406 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

was initiated in November, 1870, and became P. C., July i, 1873. Harvey 
S. Garcelon had been a member about fifteen years, and the others a 
less time. 

The present officers are : Geo. T. Failey, chancellor commander ; Fred- 
erick B. King, vice-chancellor; Homer C. Wheeler, prelate; Samuel N. 
Crosby, master of work; Elmer L. Glazier, keeper of records and seal; J. 
Haines Maxwell, master of finance; George A. Merrill, master of ex- 
chequer ; Ernest S. Firth, master at arms ; David G. Boyd, inner guard ; 
John A. Magee, outer guard; Mathew S. Andrews, Harvey S. Garcelon, 
Barnett T. Skelton, trustees; Harvey S. Garcelon and Barnett T. Skelton, 
representatives of Grand Lodge. 



ROYAL ARCANUM. 



SOMERVILLE COUNCIL. 

SOMERVILLE COUNCIL No. 6 was instituted November 28, 1877. It is 
located in Union square, and its meetings are held in Society Hall, on the 
first and third Tuesdays of the month. 

The total number of members admitted since the date of institution is 
212, of which 141 are in good standing on the rolls at the present time. 
There have been 16 deaths in this council since it was organized. 

The following are the present officers : Regent, Charles W. Boyer ; Vice- 
Regent, Peter P. Lawson; Past Regent, John Millar; orator, W. E. Goss ; 
secretary, E. W. Doyle; collector, Charles W. Silsbee ; treasurer, J. Q. 
Twombley; chaplain, George B. Clarke; guide, John Hunter; warden, E. 
E. Jordan; sentry, A. A. Lewis. The trustees are: H. A. Chapin, H. \Y. 
Raymond and George A. Snow. 

ELM COUNCIL. 

Elm Council No. 36 was instituted December 5, 1877, with 34 mem- 
bers, and increased its membership to 281. The present membership is 
206, owing to deaths and withdrawals. The deaths of 30 members have 
drawn from the order $88,500. It has at present property and money in- 
vested, $1,662.37. 

It has had one supreme regent and one representative to the supreme 
council from its ranks. 

It meets on the first and third Thursdays, and holds its meetings in 
Fraternity Hall, this city. 




CAPT. HARRISON ALDRICH. 




CAPT. HENRY W. PITMAN. 



SO.Ml'.Rl'JLIJ-:, PAST AND PRESENT. 409 

SOMFRYILLF LIGHT INFANTRY. 
Dv HF.NKV W. PITMAN. 

On the third day of August, 1853, about seventy-five well-known resi- 
dents of Somerville met and formed the Somerville Light Infantry, and it 
was designated by the official title of Co. A, Fourth Regiment of Light 
Infantry. 

George O. Brastow was elected commander, Isaac F. Shepard first 
lieutenant. Francis Tufts second, R. B. Fitts third, and Henry \V. Allen 
fourth lieutenants. J. Manley ('lark was made first sergeant and clerk of 
the company. 

A constitution and by-laws were adopted, and judging by the tenor, no 
stronger pledges to loyalty, patriotism and duty could have been made. 

Franklin Hall, near 1'nion square, was the first armory, and the corps 
soon assumed indications of being a truly live military organization. The 
membership list increased rapidly, the uniforms and arms were promptly 
secured, and the proficiency came with such celerity that a target shoot was 
entered upon November 9, three months after formation. Emery H. Mun- 
roe and the commander were adjudged the victors, but the private declined 
to accept the medal, and it was given to Francis H. Raymond, a volunteer 
of the occasion. 

On the 3oth of March, 1854. the company, for the first time in uniform, 
attended the funeral of the last survivor of the Lexington Minutemen, 
Jonathan Harrington, and after the services had been rendered, marched 
to Somerville by exactly the same route as that passed over by the British 
troops on their retreat from Lexington in 1775. 

In June, 1854, Commander Brastow having been elected a major of the 
regiment, Second Lieutenant Francis Tufts was elected captain, J. Manley 
Clark first, Alvin G. Lovejoy second, Gorham A. Leland third, and N. 
Everett Fitz fourth lieutenants respectively. 

It is needless to follow the company in its detailed history. It had its 
accessions to membership, its social occasions, its stated tours of duties, its 
parades for festive as \vell as funeral events, and a life not unlike many of 
similar organizations. From its inception the Somerville Light Infantry 
formed the nucleus of the social life of the town, and furnished great en- 
joyment to the people. Five members from among the prominent families 
contributed the usual fee towards the support of the command, and engaged 
in the festive occasions with avidity and pleasure. On the 2<;th of July, 
1859, George O. Brastow was again elected to command the company, Capt. 
Tufts having resigned and taken position among the rank and file. He 
remained with the corps a long time, rendering good service to the com- 
mander and his associates. 

It is worthy of mention that on July 6, 1860, \Yillurd ('. Kinsley, who 
afterwards rendered signal service during the war of the rebellion, and for 
whom the Grand Army Post in Somerville is named, became a member of 
the company. 



410 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

There is no record of the association from February, 1861, for a long 
period, but it is well known that at the call of Gov. Andrew for the first 
three months' troops, the Somerville Light Infantry, as Co. I, Fifth Regi- 
ment, Mass. Y. M., Samuel C. Lawrence, commanding, responded with a 
hundred of Somerville's best sons. 

The details of the war service of the company have devolved upon one 
who is more competent than any other person to compile and present them. 
Suffice to say that the Somerville Light Infantry furnished four companies 
for the war, namely, for three months, a hundred days, nine months and 
three years. The companies were several times recruited, and each organ- 
ization returned home with its escutcheon unspotted and unstained. 

The commanders of the war companies were : Capt. W. E. Robinson, 
B. F. Parker, John N. Coffin and Frederic R. Kinsley, the latter being 
promoted to be major and lieutenant-colonel. 

After the war the company maintained its organization, recruiting from 
the young men of the town. The same local interest in the company which 
was manifest in the early days of peace was again awakened under the able 
commandership of Capt. Granville W. Daniels and Charles F. King. The 
former subsequently became a major, and the latter major and lieutenant- 
colonel of the Fifth Regiment. 

July 6, 1876, the company was disbanded by an order reducing the 
companies of the militia; but June 3, 1886, permission was granted to form 
a new command as Co. M, Eighth Infantry, with Harrison Aldrich, who had 
been a captain in a war company, as commander, Henry \Y. Pitman as first 
lieutenant, and S. Thomas Kirk as second lieutenant. 

The laws and regulations of the militia had changed materially in the 
eleven years intervening between the old and new companies. An examin- 
ing board determined the efficiency of the commissioned officers. Skilled 
markmanship had become a matter of consideration, a stricter attention 
paid to discipline, more temperate demeanor in camp and other tours of 
duty, and penalties were more severely inflicted. A soldier of 1886 meant 
more, and has been meaning more for the past ten years, but it is a matter 
of pride to chronicle the fact that the Somerville Light Infantry has kept 
pace with the best companies in the militia. To this day the command is 
most creditable, the people continue to take an interest in it, and everything 
bids fair for a history which will long continue enshrouded with honor and 
ability. 

Since the reorganization the corps has won medals, trophies, etc.. and 
the several prize drills, target shoots and reunions have evinced degrees 
never before attained by the early organizations. This is no reflection on 
the latter, but the requirements of the military department of the State are 
greater and more exacting. 

On the 4th of March, 1889, the company visited Washington under the 
command of Capt. Pitman, and was part of the grand pageant at the in- 
auguration of President Harrison. Many associate members accompanied 
it, and were emphatic in their praise of the corps during this tour of duty. 




CAPT. HORACE M. PARSONS. 



412 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The commanders since the reorganization have been : Harrison Aldrich, 
Henry W. Pitman, S. Thomas Kirk and Horace M. Parsons, the latter being 
now in command, and he is entitled to great credit for his attention to the 
company's interests. 

Capt. Parsons was recently elected a major of the Eighth Infantry, but 
declined the honor. 

The lieutenants at present are : Herbert W. Whitten and George L. 
Marshall. 

In connection with the history of the Somerville Light Infantry the 
following interesting extracts from a letter from Capt. Brastow to John K. 
Hall, which speak in the warmest terms of the liberality and patriotism of 
the people of Somerville in the civil war, can find an appropriate place. 

WASHINGTON, D. C., May 13, 1861. 
MY DEAR BROTHER JOHN K. 

\Yhile a West Point lieutenant is drilling my company, as he does not 
want us officers around, I will devote a few minutes in hastily writing you 
a few lines. 

I assure you we all duly appreciate the gallant civility of our good 
townsmen in turning out in so large numbers under your command on the 
day of our march from good old Somerville. No town has more liberally 
and more heartily come right up to the aid and encouragement of her 
soldiers than our town ! 

We all feel it sensibly and tenderly, and we must be recreant to every 
feeling of gratitude and of patiotism if we do not feel the///// weight of our 
obligation to perform our duties manfully, and prove ourselves worthy of all 
this confidence and kind generosity. . . . All our lodge members remember 
with interest your meeting last Tuesday evening, and we have heard with 
much pleasure of the waving of the glorious stars and stripes from the 
building. God grant that this struggle may add new brilliancy to the flag 
of our fathers, the flag of our country, the flag of our fare and hope, and the 
flag for which we will cheerfully die if need be. 

Your friend, 

BRASTOW. 




ROBERT LUCE. 




FRANK E. DICKERMAN. 



CLUBS. 

CENTRAL CLUB ASSOCIATION. 
Bv CHARLES E. PARKS. 

IN December, 1886, the following named residents of Somerville : Chris- 
topher E. Rymes, George A. Bruce, Charles S. Lincoln, George F. Loring, 
John E. Sylvester, Charles F. Rice, Wallace H. Ham, Harry Highley, 
Douglas Frazar, Herbert C. Hall and Joseph (). Hayden, believing it de- 
sirable to have a club-house in the city, signed articles of agreement to 
secure, under the Public Statutes of Massachusetts, the incorporation of the 
club under the title of the Central Club Association. The charter was pro- 
cured in the same month, the site on the corner of Highland avenue and 
Central street selected, and building was commenced as soon as practicable. 
The gentlemen above named constituted the first board of directors, and 
they organized by electing the following as officers of the association : 
Christopher E. Rymes, president; Charles S. Lincoln, first vice-president; 
George A. Bruce, second vice-president ; Joseph O. Hayden, treasurer ; 
Charles F. Rice, secretary. 

The building was completed and formally opened Monday, October 10, 
1887, and the occasion was one of the most brilliant social events in the 
history of Somerville. 

The club roster (200) was immediately filled by the representative men 
of the city, and, under the presidencies of Christopher E. Rymes, Charles A. 
West, Hon. Edward Glines and Frank E. Dickerman, the association has 
held the prestige which was established on the opening night. 

The Central was the first suburban club-house built especially for club 
purposes in the neighborhood of Boston. 

The members meet frequently in a social way, and take an active in- 
terest in whist, billiards, pool and bowling, and the club always has teams 
to represent it in the different league tournaments. 

The whist team has taken all the whist prizes offered in the Inter-Club 
tournaments, and held the championship trophy of the New England Whist 
Association in the winter of 1 895 and 1 896. 

During the winter months the members of the club entertain their lady 
friends at least once a month. 

SONS OF MAINE CLVM. 

MY ROHKKT LUCE. 

Many of the residents of Somerville were born in the State of Maine. 
The spirit of fellowship has always been strong in natives of that State, and 

4'5 



41 6 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST .LVD PRESENT. 

some of those living in Somerville thought it would be pleasant to take ad- 
vantage of that fact by organizing a club where acquaintance could be in- 
creased, old times recalled, and the good name of their native State be 
honored. So in 1890, chiefiy through the instrumentality of Col. Charles F. 
King and Mr. C. C. Farrington, a meeting of representative citizens organ- 
ized the Sons of Maine. Naturally and very wisely Col. King was made 
the first president, and Mr. Farrington secretary. It has been the policy 
of the club to choose a new president each year, and the office has been 
held in turn by Dr. H. C. White, Dr. H. P. Makechnie, Robert Luce, Dr. 
A. H. Carvill and Hon. A. A. Perry. Mr. Farrington has remained the 
secretary from the start, and to his interest in the affairs of the club it is 
greatly indebted for its prosperity. Among other well-known citizens who 
have contributed to its welfare have been : Col. Elijah Walker, Prof. George 
M. Harmon of Tufts, Melville C. Parkhurst, Porter S. Roberts, F. W. 
Hopkins, Louis E. Merry, Franklin F. Phillips, George H. Russ, M. L. 
King, John F. Mills, Rev. L. M. Powers, Albion H. Brown, Capt. John F. 
Merry, Charles H. Crane, Rev. S. S. Cummings, George M. Starbird, S. S. 
Woodcock, C. C. Folsom and James E. Kelley. The club has had two or 
three banquets each year, to most of which the ladies have been invited. 
Among the Sons of Maine who have been its guests on these occasions 
have been General Chamberlain, Ex-Governor Long, Col. A. P. Martin, 
Judge Enos T. Luce, A. A. Strout, Esq., and Dana Estes. 

DAUGHTERS OF MAINE CLUB. 

BY MRS. MAE D. FRA/.AR. 

One of the organizations of which Somerville has reason to be proud 
is the Daughters of Maine Club, that in four years has reached a member- 
ship of two hundred and seventy-five. 

When Col. King was president of the Sons of Maine Club he suggested 
the forming of an organization for Maine women, and acting upon this a 
meeting was called, this Club was organized, and Mrs. King was chosen 
president, with Mrs. Harriet A. Chamberlin, Mrs. S. A. P. Dickerman and 
Mrs. Helen M. McCully as vice-presidents ; Miss Bessie R. White and Mrs. 
Clara P. Haven, each for six months as secretaries ; and the executive com- 
mittee was Mrs. Lizzie Adams, Mrs. Aclrianna V. Cloyse, Mrs. Carleton, 
Mrs. George A. Clark and Mrs. Annie M. Farrington. 

Mrs. King had presided only twice, when she, with all Somerville, was 
called to mourn the loss of Col. King, who had been a man of mark in the 
city, by reason of his wide sympathies, broad charities and liberal, progres- 
sive spirit. 

At the urgent request of the ladies, Mrs. King allowed her name to 
stand as president for the remainder of the year, and then Mrs. Harriet 
A. Chamberlin was elected to fill the office, the other members on the com- 
mittee being Mrs. Alice S. Waterhouse, Mrs. Adrianna V. Cloyse, Mrs. 
Lydia A. Greely,vice-presidents; Mrs. Clara P. Haven, secretary: Mrs. Hattie 





MRS. MAE D. FRAZAR. 




MRS. CLARA P. HAVEN. 



.vai/A'A' /'//./.A', /'. /.S7' .L\'/> /Vv'A'.SV-.'AV. 419 

[. Teele, treasurer ; Mrs. Ella K. Burroughs, Mrs. Martha I. Sturtevant. 
Mrs. Amanda C. Blanchard, Mrs. Martha H. Boyden and Mrs. Carrie H. 
Waining, on the executive board. 

The Club was intended to be a social one, but it undertook some chari- 
table work during its first years, and since its organization has expended over 
5(>oo in individual cases for charity and in furnishing the trustees' room at 
the Somerville Hospital, in which has lately been placed, by the Club, a fine 
portrait of Col. King. In 1X94 Mrs. Clara P. Haven was chosen president; 
Mrs. Mary E. King, Mrs. lona L. Robinson and Mrs. Hattie J. Teele, vice- 
presidents ; Mrs. Martha A. Mann, secretary ; Mrs. Lydia A. Greely, 
treasurer; executive committee, Mrs. Harriet Wilder, Mrs. Ella Burroughs, 
Mrs. Mary E. Taylor, Mrs. Abbie E. Southworth and Mrs. Achsa M. Mills. 

The Club meetings had been held in the Y. M. C. A. Hall, at Union 
square, at Social Hall, Eberle Building, and in the Y. M. C. A. Hall, in 
Oilman square; but during the year 1894 the Club took up its quarters at 
Social Hall, Tufts street, where the gatherings were held, not only for social 
enjoyment, but also for discussions of literary subjects, for, as the member- 
ship increased, the ladies felt it imperative that they undertake some work 
of this sort ; and as it had been found to be inexpedient to undertake large 
or extensive charities, it was decided to restrict the work in this direction 
to special objects. Six lectures were given during the winter. 

In 1895 the officers elected were : president, Mrs. Clara P. Haven ; vice- 
presidents, Mrs. Martha A. Mann, Mrs. Lydia A. Shaw and Mrs. Hannah 
S. Longfellow: Mrs. Maria F. Hall was secretary, but resigning in March, 
Mrs. Fannie B. Kelly [was elected; Mrs. Lydia A. Greely was treasurer, 
and on the executive committee were Mrs. Amanda C. Blanchard, Mrs. 
Alice M. Bill, Mrs. Achsa M. Mills, Mrs. Adclie R. Davlin and Mrs. Theresa 
S. King. 

This was a memorable year for the Club, as it undertook careful and 
important literary work, established a fund for a home for women in Som- 
erville, was incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts and joined the 
State Federation of Women's Clubs. 

The charter members were : Mrs. Mary E. King, Mrs. Harriet A. ( 'ham- 
berlin, Mrs. Clara P. Haven, Mrs. Lydia A. Shaw, Mrs. Achsa M. Mills, 
Mrs. Fannie 15. Kelly, Mrs. Harriet T. Wilder, Mrs. Hattie J. Teele, Mrs. 
Theresa S. King, Mrs. Addie R. Davlin, Mrs. Hannah S. Longfellow, Mrs. 
Emma F. Bacon, Mrs. Isadore P. Merrill, Mrs. Lydia A. Greely, Mrs. 
Adrianna V. Cloyse, Mrs. Amanda C. Blanchard, Mrs. Alice J. l!ill, Mrs. 
Maria F. Hill, Mrs. Helen McCully. 

The present year found the Daughters of Maine in a most prosperous 
condition, and while the social element is not lost sight of, the Club is be- 
coming known as a literary one. The officers for the year are : president, 
Mrs. Clara P. Haven; vice-presidents, Mrs. Lydia A. Shaw, Mrs. Hannah 
S. Longfellow, Mrs. Emma F. Bacon: recording secretaries, Mrs. Dora R. 
Houghton, resigned in March, Mrs. Rebecca S. Waldron ; corresponding 
secretary, Mrs. Isadore P. Merrill: executive committee, Mrs. Hattie |. 



420 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Teele, Mrs. Alice S. Waterhouse, Mrs. Achsa M. Mills, Mrs. Mary E. King, 
Mrs. Adrianna V. Cloyse, Mrs. Carrie V. Clark, Mrs. Fidelia A. Pratt, Mrs. 
Elizabeth G. dishing. 

Each season a dinner is given to the Sons of Maine, and there is also 
an annual'dinner and reception for Club members, at which the ladies prove 
themselves very clever as after-dinner speakers. There is also an outing in 
the early summer, which has become quite a feature in the history of the 
Club. 

Through able management, wise judgment, and combined unity of ac- 
tion and interest, the Daughters of Maine are doing an important work in 
our city. 

THE HEPTOREAN CLUB. 

BY MRS. BARBARA GAI.PIN. 

" Why does not Somerville have a woman's club ? " was the question pro- 
pounded in the ' Somerville Journal " in its issue of November 17, 1894, and 
in less than one week that which was to become one of the strongest and 
best clubs in Massachusetts was organized. The matter of a woman's club 
had been discussed many times, and this article in the "Journal " brought 
the matter to definite action. By invitation of Mrs. Edward Glines, the 
women who were interested in the project met at her residence, Friday, 
November 24, 1894, to discuss the feasibility of such an organization. 
Among those present were : Mrs. C. A. West, Mrs. E. H. Foote, Mrs. I. A. 
Whitcomb, Mrs. C. F. Simes, Mrs. E. T. Bartlett, Mrs. E. G. Woodward, 
Mrs. L. R. Wentworth, Mrs. A. C. Aldrich, Mrs. J. E. Whitaker, Mrs. H. 
W. Gleason, Mrs. M. D. Frazar, Mrs. W. H. Gleason, Mrs. F. C. Ayer, Mrs. 
A. F. Follett, Mrs. W. H. Brine, Mrs. Barbara Galpin, Mrs. S. Z. Bowman, 
Mrs. W. T. Hinckley, Mrs. W. J. Willarcl and Mrs. Robert Luce. 

A discussion of the subject showed it to be the unanimous opinion 
that a club which should unite the interests of the women of the city for 
mutual improvement would be of great benefit to them, as well as to the 
city, and it was at once formed. The officers chosen for the first year's 
work were : president, Mrs. C. A. West; vice-presidents, Mrs. E. T. Bart- 
lett and Mrs. E. H. Foote ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. F. H. Raymond ; 
recording secretary, Mrs. E. G. Woodward ; treasurer, Mrs. Barbara Galpin ; 
auditor, Mrs. H. G. Minot ; directors, Mrs. W. H. Brine, Mrs. S. Z. Bowman, 
Mrs. E. J. Peasley, Mrs. J. H. Butler, Mrs. C. S. Lincoln, Mrs. B. F. Wild, 
Mrs. E. S. Tead ; chairmen of committees : Miss H. J. Sanborn, literature ; 
Mrs. G. L. Baxter, science ; Mrs. J. E. Sylvester, art ; Mrs. E. H. Capen, 
political economy; Mrs. Sanford Hanscom, music ; Mrs. M. D. Frazar, cur- 
rent events; Mrs. I. A. Whitcomb, hospitality. 

At the next meeting it was decided to limit the Club membership to two 
hundred, but later on it was extended to three hundred, and in November, 
1896, it was again extended, and the Club now has three hundred and fifty 
active members, nine non-resident members, and one honorary member - 
Mrs. Martha Perry Lowe and a waiting list of one hundred and sixty. 







MRS. BARBARA GALPIN. 




MRS. ANNA D. WEST. 



, PAST .L\'J) PRESENT. 4-.i 

The object of the Club is to bring together women from all parts of the 
city for mutual improvement and sociability, and to become an organized 
centre for united thought and action. 

The Heptorean Club was incorporated under the laws of Massachusetts, 
January 15, 1895, and joined the State Federation of Women's Clubs the 
same year. 

During the first year of the existence of the Club lectures were given by 
Prof. E. Charlton Black, Prof. G. Stanley Hall, Henry Sandham, William 
Lloyd Garrison, Prof. Louis C. Klson, the late Kate Field and others of 
equal note, and classes in literature, botany and current events were held, 
Miss Lucia True Ames and Prof. Katherine Lee Bates conducting the lit- 
erature classes, Miss Frances Prince that in botany, and Mrs. Barbara Gal- 
pin that in current events. 

At the end of the first year the officers were unanimously re-elected, it 
being a recognized fact that when a new club is launched upon the waters 
of public approval, master hands are required to keep it from running on 
the shoals of adverse criticism, of quiet scorn, or of open ridicule. 

During the year 1895-1896 a great advance was made in the work of 
the Club, due in a great measure to the efforts of the president, Mrs. A. 
1 ). West, a woman of wise judgment, superior executive ability and delicate 
tact. Under her leadership, assisted by efficient officers, an enviable repu- 
tation \vas made. 

Prof. T. H. Bartlett, Mrs. Florence Howe-Hall, Prof. John Fiske, Attor- 
ney-General Hosea M. Knowlton, Prof. L. C. Flson, Miss Heloise Hersey, 
Prof. Henry Southwick and other celebrated speakers addressed the Club 
at the regular literary meetings, while the red-letter occasion of the year was 
the first gentlemen's night, held February 20, 1896. At the reception which 
followed the entertainment the guests were received by the officers of the 
Club, assisted by Mayor A. A. Perry. This was the finest social event ever 
held in Somerville, and was attended by the representative people of the 
city. 

At the close of the Club year in May, 1896, the officers elected were as 
follows: president, Mrs. A. D. West; vice-presidents, Mrs. J. H. Butler and 
Mrs. E. H. Capen ; corresponding secretary, Mrs. H. H. Trowbridge ; re- 
cording secretary, Mrs. E. G. Woodward; treasurer, Mrs. Barbara Galpin : 
auditor, Mrs. M. 1). Frazar ; directors, Mrs. G. E. Dustin. Mrs. Kdward 
Glines, Mrs. F. M. Howes, Mrs. S. C. Alford, Mrs. J. S. Hayes, Mrs. K. S. 
Brooks, Mrs. C. P. Lincoln; chairmen of committees : Miss Sarah W. K<>.\. 
literature; Mrs. J. E. Sylvester, art; Mrs. Sanford Hanscom, music; Mrs. 
G. L. Baxter, science; Mrs. G. T. Knight, current events; Mrs. F. II. Ray- 
mond, political economy ; and Mrs. I. A. Whitcomb, hospitality. 

The Heptorean Club has proved an important factor in helping to 
unify Somerville, bringing its different scattered sections together into 
closer and more friendly relations, and, with the exception of the hospital, 
there is nothing which so unites the best elements of Somerville life as this 
institution. 




HELEN J. SANBORN. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 425 



THE HILLSIDE CLl'B. 
BY HEI.KN J. SAN HORN. 

The literary society that enters upon the fifteenth year of its existence 
with as great a measure of prosperity and promise as has ever characterized 
it, since the days of its first enthusiasm, has not only proved its right to be, 
but has also demonstrated that it contains some germs of perpetuity and 
some standing in the community of which it forms a part. The Hillside 
has seen many a club organize, flourish for a time, and then pass away, 
while it pursues its work with its form and purpose unchanged, and with 
many of its original members still active. 

In this day of multiplied organizations it is pertinent to ask, " \Yhat is 
the well-spring of the life of such a club ? " Simply individual effort, the most 
natural and rational source from which the greatest benefit is to be derived 
in any walk in life. The members of the Hillside Club do their own work. 
They write the papers themselves ; and, while much profit and pleasure is 
doubtless to be derived from listening to lectures by able professionals, far 
more knowledge and enjoyment comes from the investigation of a subject 
for one's self, and the presentation of it, in written or spoken form, to others. 
Just this opportunity is given in the Hillside Club, and the member who 
thinks it the greatest task, and who enters upon it the most reluctantly, 
never fails, after it is done, to say, " I am glad I did it. It was good for 
me." 

An evidence that this is the vital principle of the Club is shown by the 
fact that those who fall voluntarily out of the ranks are generally from the 
list of associate members, who, by the payment of a little larger fee, are 
exempt from service. In some cases these are among the most valued 
members, for appreciative listeners and faithful attendants at the meetings 
are most desirable in any organization, yet they do not sustain the literary 
work, and, as a rule, it is the active and not the associate member that 
remains longest in the society. It is noticeable, too, that the periods of 
temporary eclipse from which the Club has occasionally suffered have oc- 
curred when it has departed from its first principles, or has introduced 
elements foreign to their nature. 

The Hillside has never been the exponent of a single church, although 
its members and officers have been mainly from the Winter Hill Congrega- 
tional Church. The first meeting for organization was held in the chapel, 
corner of Broadway and Sycamore street, October 10, 1X82, when a number 
of residents of Winter Hill came together to form a society for literary and 
social purposes. Of that meeting, John S. Hayes, who is the real founder 
of the Club, acted as chairman, and Henry C. Baldwin as secretary. Two 
weeks later the permanent organization was effected, and the following list 
of officers chosen for the first year : president, Joseph M. Thompson ; vice- 
president, Miss Emma S. Keyes; secretary. I-'rank E. Dickrrman : assistant 
secretary. Miss Emily d. Colman; treasurer, Frank E. Davis: executive 






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<u 



SOMKRVILLE, PAST ,L\7> /'RESENT. 427 

committee, Joseph M. Thompson, Rev. ('has. L. Noyes, John S. Hayes, 
Mrs. Willard, S. Farrar, Miss Emma S. Reyes. 

Since the first year the following persons have filled the office of 
president : John S. Hayes (three years at different periods), John Herbert. 
Kdwin A. Stone, William K. Pulsifer (two years), Samuel ('. Darling, Kd. 
ward S. Townsend, Helen J. Sanborn (now serving the third year). Rev. 
('has. L. Noyes, pastor of the Winter Hill Congregational Church, has served 
upon the executive committee from the beginning, and to his wise judgment 
and fertile suggestions the Club is very largely indebted for any measure of 
success that it has attained. 

The constituency of the Club is the same as that of a large family in 
which there is not only a difference in age and sex, but also a wide differ- 
ence in tastes, in natural gifts and attainments. There are mature and 
immature minds ; the scholarly man and the " sweet girl graduate " : there 
are those who can produce papers that would grace any society of " literati," 
and those who, with fear and trembling, can but read that which another 
has written. Some of the best literary work from the pen of the present 
mayor of Somerville has been prepared especially for the Hillside, of 
which he has long been a member. Some find in it their only opportunity 
for the investigation of a new subject, and the writing of an original paper. 
Others make use of their musical talent, for music often serves as an illus- 
tration, and always gives an added pleasure to the program. An oppor- 
tunity for social converse is a part of each evening's plan. A private house 
as the meeting-place adds an air of refinement and the charm of hospitality. 
and an " outing " in May tends to promote friendly feeling and good-fel- 
lowship. 

To prepare a program that shall be profitable to all, and achieve the 
greatest good to the greatest number, is the difficult problem that meets the 
executive committee each year. Variety there must be, and unity is so de- 
sirable that a course, when it can be determined upon, is thought by the 
present directors, at least, to be most beneficial. One of the most popular 
seasons of the Club was enjoyed under the presidency of Dr. H. H. Piper, 
when historical novels were the subject. The countries of the Mediter- 
ranean proved a very profitable theme three years ago, and this year the 
study of ''our country " will embrace literature, art, science, history, current 
events and political economy. 

Whenever outside talent is called in, it is always of the highest order, 
and it is likely that an ''open meeting," once during the season, with a 
lecture or a reading, like that of last year, when Prof. J. J. Hayes, of Har- 
vard Cniversity, gave a delightful rendering of a Midsummer Night's 
Dream, will be made a feature of the Club. 

The Somerville "Journal," in announcing the program for is. 14 5, 
called the Hillside "one of the important educational factors in our city." 
The Club itself makes no claims to distinction, but pursues its work without 
ostentation. The only material evidence of its public spirit to which it ran 
point is the tablets that mark the historic spots of Somerville. placed there 



428 SOMER17LLE, PAST AXD PRESEXT. 

as the result of a petition from its members. The Club's importance and 
its value lie not in the results it achieves, but in the fact that, while it 
falls far short of its ideals, it aims for that which is refining, elevating, edu- 
cational and progressive, and exists " For Mutual Good and Mutual Need." 

\YEBCO\YIT CLUB. 
]>Y J. FOSTER CLARK. 

The Webcowit Club was organized December 5, 1885, at the call of 
Lester L. Cole, who, with thirty others, were charter members of the organi- 
zation. Their meetings were held in a hall on the corner of Broadway and 
Franklin street, and in December, 1886, they moved into their present club- 
house at 56 Mount Vernon street. 

The object of the Club is the promotion of social intercourse, and the 
encouragement of kindly feeling and good-fellowship among its members. 
The officers are : a president, a vice-president, a treasurer, a secretary and 
five directors, who together constitute the executive committee. These 
officers are elected by ballot at the annual meeting of the Club, and hold 
office until others are chosen, and who accept office in their stead. 

The annual meeting of the Club is held on the first Thursday in Decem- 
ber, and the regular monthly meetings occur in the evening of the first 
Thursday of each month. 

The club-house is open from eight o'clock A. M. until twelve o'clock 
p. .M., and the executive committee may, by vote, extend the privileges of 
the club-house to any stranger within such limitations as they shall think 
proper. Members who invite gentlemen to the club-house are required to 
enter their names in a visitor's book kept for that purpose, with his own 
name and date of introduction. The club-house may be opened to ladies 
accompanied by members of the Club at the pleasure of the executive com- 
mittee. 

The Webcowit Club has enrolled as members many of the prominent 
citizens of East Somerville, among whom may be named Dr. H. P. Hemen- 
way, Ex-Mayor Charles G. Pope, Horace Haskins, John Haskell Butler, 
Charles H. Buswell, John W. Chatman, William Taylor, Charles Williams, 
Jr., John F. Cole, Elijah C. Clark, Amasa E. Southworth, George W. Per- 
kins, Ex-Mayor Mark F. Burns, Lucius Tuttle, and others. J. Foster Clark 
was its first president, and he was re-elected in 1886 and in 1888 to 1892 
inclusive. Mark F. Burns was president in 1887, Robert H. Riddell in 1893 
and 1894, and Elijah C. Clark was elected president in 1895 and 1896. 

Charles M. Hemenway was the first secretary, and Charles H. Buswell 
treasurer. The title Webcowit was adopted at the suggestion of L. L. Cole. 

The members have entertained their ladies and friends many times, and 
though the Club is prevented from exceeding its limit of membership (one 
hundred) by its restricted locality, it has always commanded the respect of 
the entire community. 







ELIJAH C. CLARK. 




J. FOSTER CLARK. 




FRED PRESTON. 




EDWIN N. SIMONDS. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 433 

WINTER HILL CLUB. 

BY JOHN F. KKNNAKH. 

This is one of the purely social organizations which abound in Somer- 
ville, and is at the present time in a flourishing condition. It was organ- 
i/ed in the winter of 1.^4-5 by thirty or more of the prominent citi/ens of 
Winter Hill, who were " desirous of forming a club for the purpose of bring- 
ing its members into more friendly and social intercourse with each other, 
not only in business, but in all matters relating to each other's welfare." 

The meeting was held in Brazillian Hall on Broadway, was called to 
order by Mr. Charles H. Sanborn, and Mr. J. E. Whitaker was elected 
temporal'}- chairman, and Mr. C. H. Sanborn secretary. Mr. Whitaker 
then announced the object of the meeting, and subsequently the following 
officers were elected for the year iss^: Sehvin X. Bowman, president: 
Charles H. Sanborn, vice-president ; J. F. Kennard, secretary and treasurer : 
C. H. Sanborn, J. E. Whitaker, H. F. Woods, 1). C. Stillson and J. II. 
Woodbury, directors. 

It was voted that the organization shall be known as the Winter Hill 
Club, and that it shall be located in the building then being erected by the 
Odd Fellows' Building Association, at the corner of Broadway and Marshall 
street. 

Since its organization the Club has kept on in the even tenor of its way, 
making its headquarters in Odd Fellows' Building, and holding its regular 
meetings on the first Saturday of each month. The following is a list of its 
officers for the year 1896: Fred. Preston, president ; E. N. Simonds, vice- 
president; J. F. Kennard, secretary and treasurer; D. C. Theall, M. C. 
Wildes, C. Everett C'lark, F. A. Woodbury and Byron Fames, directors. 



CHARITABLE AND OTHER SOCIETIES. 

1JY MARY A. HALEY. 



THE CHARITY CLUB. 

IN the year 1X70 the Somerville Relief Bureau was formed, and it met 
every week in the hall of the Police Building on Bow street. The members 
furnished materials for sewing, cut out garments, and taught the applicants 
how to make them, paying for their labor in money or in clothing. This 
Bureau was afterwards associated with the ( 'harity ( 'lub. 

The Charity Club was organized in 1^77, and legally incorporated the 
following year. The first meeting was held at the house of Mrs. M. T. 1 lol- 
lander, Boston street : Mr. Henry I 1 '. Woods was chosen president. Various 
means were used to raise money, the most notable of which were a I Hckens 
Carnival and a great fair. The fair was held in December, iS;*, and wa^ 




MARY A. HALEY. 



SOMERVfLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 435 

one of the most brilliant occasions of the period. The fair was opened by 
Mayor Bruce, who was followed by Selwyn /.. Bowman and other speakers. 
There was an orchestral concert each evening. Each clay a brilliant com- 
pany gathered there from all parts of the city. A paper was published in 
connection with it which contains literary gems well worthy of preservation. 
This fair secured for the Charity Club, in addition to money from its pre- 
paratory entertainments, a sum of not less than two thousand eight hundred 
dollars. 

The purpose of the Club as set forth in its charter was " The relief of 
worthy objects of charity, and social improvement, by the distribution of 
money, food, fuel and clothing among indigent people." 

The charter was signed by Louis P. Hollander, J. Frank Wellington, 
Charles S. Lincoln, Rufus B. Stickney, Henry H. Barber, John Haskell 
Butler, George A. Bruce, and many others. Charles S. Lincoln was the first 
president under the charter. Nineteen directors were also chosen. The 
city was divided into districts, each director was appointed over a district 
and had a resident committee under him, who were responsible to him for 
the expenditure of money. 

The meetings were held every month at the different residences in the 
city, and after the business was transacted, an agreeable entertainment was 
provided, and sometimes a lecturer was invited from Boston to speak on 
" Charities." Besides the regular meetings, a series of entertainments was 
given for several winters : social parties, a mock trial, and dramatic enter- 
tainments, at which substantial sums of money were secured. The dis- 
bursements up to 1883, amounted to nearly four thousand dollars. 

The history of the Charity Club is a very important one in the annals 
of the city. It differed from other organizations, from the fact that it drew 
its members from all parts of the city, and thus an agreeable social harmony 
was brought about, so desirable in such a scattered community. 

In 1883, the funds of the Club had become somewhat exhausted; the 
condition of the country had improved ; and there was less demand on the 
part of the poor for assistance. The officers of the Relief Bureau resigned 
with the intention of changing the basis of their work, and interest in the 
Club declined. The Club existed for some years longer, but shared the 
fate of other organizations in the gradual decrease of attendance at its 
meetings, and finally it ceased to meet. At present it holds some funds 
which it uses at its discretion. 



TIIK CONVERSATION GLIB. 

In 1868 a very pleasant club was started on Spring Mill. It met 
weekly at the houses of the members on Spring Hill and on Winter Hill. 
The time was mainly devoted to the discussion of current topics, literature 
and symbolism. Its members included the representative people on both 
hills, such as the Rev. and Mrs. Charles Lowe, Mr. and Mis. Charles S. 
Lincoln, Mr. and Mrs. Francis II. Raymond, Mr. and Mrs. S. Foster Damon, 



& 



436 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AXD r RES EX I'. 

Mr. and Mrs. George W. Durell, Mr. and Mrs. J. Frank Brown, Mr. and 
Mrs. John G. Hall, and many others. 

The death of one of the members in 1874 was so sudden and so great an 
affliction, that no meeting of the Club was ever held afterwards. 

THE SOMERV1LLE LITERARY ASSOCIATION. 

In 1867 an association for mutual pleasure and profit was formed in 
East Somerville. In anticipation of its far-reaching effects, and the good 
that might revert to the members, it was called the '' Boomerang." As the 
Club increased in size, and had representatives in all parts of the city, a 
more conservative name seemed necessary, and it was called " The Somer- 
ville Literary Association." 

The meetings were held twice a month, and at each meeting a committee 
was appointed to prepare a program for subsequent meetings. The pro- 
gram was always interesting, consisting of music, witticisms, the dis- 
cussion of new books, and a paper on some important topic of the day. 
There was never a dull moment. The year's work was concluded with a 
dinner in Boston, and a theatrical performance in which the members were 
the actors. 

The president for many years was Thomas I. Delano, Jr. Among the 
members were Mr. Arthur A. Smith, Miss Alice Cole, J. T. Meader, George 
S. Littlefield, James L. Tyler, Jr., Dr. Gerry, the Misses Mary E. Davis, 
Martha Ireland, S. Eannie Gerry, Julia Warden and Helen M. Edgerly. 
Death and removals from the city gradually diminished its membership, 
and those who remained did not care to continue the Club by the addition 
of new members, and in 1875 it ceased to exist. 

THE SUFFRAGE LEAGUE. 

When the Legislature granted the right of voting for the School Com- 
mittee to women, Mrs. Maria Theresa Hollander and Mrs. Martha Perry 
Lowe organized the "Woman's Educational Union ; " Mrs. Lowe was its first 
and only president, Mrs. Martha B. Pitman was the vice-president, and Miss 
Mary A. Haley the secretary. Its membership numbered more than sixty 
ladies. The chief object of the Club was to advance the cause of woman, 
and assist her in securing the position, as physician, preacher, lawyer, and 
school officer, for which, by training, natural ability and moral character, 
she was best fitted. 

The members were expected to visit the schools in their districts, in 
order to become familiar with their management, and thus be able to vote 
intelligently for the members of the School Committee. 

it had a prosperous existence for many years, the meetings were held 
monthly, and such speakers as Arthur Gilman of Cambridge, Mrs. Julia R. 
Anagnos, and Dr. Mary Safford, were invited to lecture. 

A few years ago it joined the State Suffrage League, and the words 
Suffrage League formed a part of its name. 

At present Mrs. M. P. Lowe is the honorary president, Mrs. Sarah D. 
Field, acting president, and Mrs. S. A. Davenport, secretary. 



SOMI-'.R I'll. I.I-:. PAST AND PRESENT. 437 

The Municipal Club is an outgrowth of this, and is especially engaged 
.n securing the registration of women, in order that they may vote for School 
( 'ommittees. Subjects of current interest relating to art, literature, and the 
household are discussed. Mrs. Maria F. Hill is the president. 

THE SOCIETY OF ST. V IXC EXT DE I'.U'L. 

The Society of St. Vincent de Paul was founded in Paris, in May, 1*33. 
Branches of it soon spread over Europe, and at length reached this coun- 
try. It is composed of a council of directors, consisting of a spiritual 
director, president, vice-presidents and treasurer. It is divided into general 
conferences in and around Boston, of which there are thirty-four, that are 
organized in the same way, and hold their meetings in the basement of the 
Roman Catholic churches or in the parsonages. 

The great power of this society consists in the fact that it calls into 
service the laymen of the Roman Catholic Church, although the bishops 
and priests are their constant advisers, and give them sympathy and encour- 
agement in the work. Besides their general works of charity, they have a 
special department in Boston for the protection of children, of which Mr. 
Richard Keefe of this city was the agent. His principal business is to find 
homes for abandoned infants and neglected children, to rescue young 
girls from evil lives, and to give friendly assistance to boys brought for the 
first time before the courts. The office is at Room 36, Charity Building, 
( harclon street, Boston. 

In one year he and his assistant report that they have made 4,000 visits, 
placed in homes 659 children, and had 159 boys, who were before the courts 
in Boston, placed on probation. 

Mr. Keefe was the originator of this branch in Somerville about twenty 
years ago, and it is called " St. Joseph's Conference of St. Vincent de Paul." 
This conference has a membership or working force, composed of twenty- 
three men who meet once a week through the year. 

The twenty-three members of the older organization are obliged to visit 
poor families once each week. They report to an investigating committee 
of three persons, always composed of the same members, any case of desti- 
tution which they discover, and this committee then reports back to the con- 
ference if the applicants are worthy. The conference then attends to the 
family. It does not pay any rents, nor give much money directly, but fur- 
nishes groceries and fuel by giving the poor orders upon the different 
dealers in the city. 

Besides ministering to the physical wants of the destitute, the confer- 
ence endeavors to induce the people to attend to their religious duties, and 
often clothes the children in order that they may go to Sunday-school. It 
is composed of men of moderate means, who are conscientious and ready to 
give their time to the work. But at each meeting they are expected to make 
a secret contribution of money, small or large, for the poor; and it is a note- 
worthy fact that the amount raised by these members secretly last year 
was greater than that contributed by any other conference in the diocese. 



438 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND rRESENT. 

The value of these conferences, however, is not estimated by the amount of 
money raised, but by the faithfulness of the members in attending the 
meetings and making their weekly visits. Outside of these working mem- 
bers is a list of subscribing members, among those men who are more 
wealthy, and who make a liberal annual donation, although they have not 
time to attend to the work. Some money is raised by collections in the 
church, but the system of obtaining funds by entertainments has been 
abandoned, as it developed some features which made it seem objectionable 
to their spiritual advisers. 

The conference of late years pays more attention to the special work 
which we have already recorded as being clone in Boston, that is, the care 
of abandoned and neglected children, and boys arrested for a first offense. 
The society makes no distinctions in race, creed or color. 

THE LITTLE SISTERS OF THE POOR. 

This institution has existed in Somerville about two years. It is a 
branch of the great society of the same name founded in Europe, and gradu- 
ally extending to this country. The building faces on Highland avenue, 
and receives aged people of both sexes without respect to their religious 
opinions or any requirement of money. The home is governed by a mother 
superior and sisters, who collect their funds from door to door in the city, 
and are also assisted by donations and legacies from time to time. About 
fifty persons can be accommodated in the building. Religious services are 
held every day, but Protestants are not obliged to go to mass. 

The dining room is large and comfortable, and the pleasant ample 
grounds will be further improved when the necessary funds are obtained 
for it. The inmates are allowed to see their friends on Sunday, and the 
sisters are happy on that day to receive any visitors who are inclined to call 
upon them and see the working of the institution. 

THE FRIENDLY HELPERS OF THE POOR. 

Many members of the charity club became convinced that the practice 
of giving money was attended with dangers to the self-respect of the poor, 
and after the dissolution of the labor bureau, which required a good deal of 
capital for the purchase of cloth for its work, the above organization was 
formed. 

It consisted of about a dozen young ladies who met once a week, on 
Thursdays, at the overseer's room in the Police Building, to receive poor 
women who wished opportunities to do washing and house-cleaning, and 
to confer with gentlemen and ladies who desire such help, thus bring- 
ing about a wholesome unity of action between employer and employed. 
Besides giving work to these women, the Friendly Helpers collected clothing 
for the children, and in cases of sickness they visited the families, with 
alleviation for the sufferers. 



REMINISCENCES OF SOMERVILLE, 



MARTHA I'KKRV I.OYVK. 



I HAVE been asked to give some reminiscences of the early clays of 
Somerville. My memory only goes back to the year 1^59, in which year 
my husband received a call to the Parish of the First Congregational < I'ni- 
tarian) Society of Somerville. It was difficult to find a satisfactory house, 
and as everyone said that real estate was a safe investment here, we pur- 
chased a lot of land at what we called the "jumping off" point of Summer 
street, and built a house adjoining a large open pasture. While the house 
was building, we spent two nights in the neighborhood. The first night, 
strange to say, at the McLean Asylum, with our beloved friends, Mr. and 
Mrs. Columbus Tyler. We had a delightful time, and enjoyed walking in 
the ample grounds, and hearing the birds sing in the noble elm-trees, all 
planted under the supervision of Mr. Tyler. I cannot think without pain 
of the destruction of those beautiful grounds and trees, in order to give 
room for unsightly railroad freight-houses, and am quite sure that those 
who come after us will blame us 
for sacrificing such a spot to the 
demands of business, when so much 
is being clone now to provide breath- 
ing spaces for the multitudes in our 
cities. If Cambridge would unite 
with us in securing the property, we 
might bequeath a valuable gift to 
posterity. 

We were very much pleased 
with the rural aspect of the town. 
< >ur second visit was at the hospi- 
table home of Mr. John S. Edgerly 
on Winter Hill, who lived in the 
dignified house once occupied by 
Kchvard Everett. It was then a 
square, substantial colonial hou.sr, 
but has undergone considerable 
alteration. The land was all more 
or less open between Summer street 
and Highland avenue: and the 

earthworks of our Revolutionary WARTHA PERR\ LOWE. 

Fathers were still seen, and the crows even were cawing in the tall elms 
scattered about on the hillsides. As the population began to crowd upon 

439 




. 






440 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND r RES EXT. 



us, we bought land from time to time to protect ourselves and the street, 
and pastured our cows and our neighbors' cows in the field which was the 
resort of all the children around us, and often a playground for the boys in 
their ball games. We had only a line of omnibuses in our neighborhood 
as a conveyance to Boston, and I well remember that one day, in coming 
out, a teamster grazed the wheel of our omnibus, and our driver stopped 
his horses, jumped off the box, pulled him off his seat to the ground 
and pummelecl him until the blood ran, while the passengers sat waiting 
inside. Some of us left our seats and said we would have the omnibus 
driver arrested, but it was in the days of incendiaries, and we were 
afraid he might set fire to our houses, and so we let the matter rest so 

much for law and order at that period. 
( )ur favorite walks were at Nor- 
ton's Woods where the anemones 
grew in abundance, and the grounds 
were not entirely fenced in, until 
rough boys abused the privilege - 
and at Polly Swamp. Here fathers 
and mothers with their children 
were often walking Sundays, and 
wild violets and jacks-in-the-pulpit 
and many other flowers grew there. 
The place is now almost entirely 
built over, but some of the pro- 
prietors have had the good taste 
to save the tall trees in their neigh- 
borhood from the hand of the con- 
tractor and builder. I ought also 
to have mentioned the old Jaques 
place, leading from liroadway to- 
wards the brick-yards. The house 
was large, in the colonial style, and 
full of old memories, redolent of co- 
lonial hospitality. A short walk from 

there were seen the old convent grounds and buildings rudely destroyed by 
ruffians in one of those freaks of religious fanaticism worthy of the days of 
St. Bartholomew. This happened some years before I came to Somerville. 
but it was a sad pleasure to walk among those deserted grounds with relics 
of cultivation and beauty around, which reminded us of the deserted mon- 
astery grounds of Port Royal in PYance. < )ne of the most attractive old 
houses was that of Oliver Tufts, on Sycamore street, which had been in 
that family for generations. It was a pleasure to see him there with his 
gentle invalid wife, who kept up the nice old-fashioned housekeeping. We 
bought our hay of him, and always invited him to come into the house. 
Although he often wore his long blue farmer's frock, he had the manners of 
a gentleman : using the most elegant language, and conversing well on a 




REV. CHARI.hS l.c >\\ li. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 441 

variety of topics. Another member of the Tufts family, probably a distant 
relative, was Nathan Tufts, who lived at the corner of Medford and Washing- 
ton streets, and was identified with the early history of the town. He was a 
man of decided opinions, Christian convictions, and of sterling character. 
He once remarked in his old age that he was almost impatient to "go into 
the next world and see what there was on the other side," showing a per- 
fect faith in immortality, not so common nowadays. It is a satisfaction to 
see his place well kept up, and occupied by two of his children. 

Robert Yinal was another early resident here, a constant supporter of 
the institutions of religion, and of every good cause, which spirit he has be- 
queathed to his descendants. The old Spring Place was long a noted fea- 
ture in what was called Milk Row, now Somerville avenue. We have always 
regretted that the name was changed. The Spring Place stood high from 
the street, with extensive grounds, and large trees. We took tea there once 
or twice, and were much impressed with the size and attractiveness of the 
old-fashioned low-studded rooms, especially the large square parlor. Mr. A. 
C. Spring did an extensive business in Boston ; and yet when he came home 
from New York, early Sunday mornings, his wife said she could not prevail 
upon him to rest. He would always insist upon going to church. Jonathan 
Brown, of Winter Hill, is one of our oldest and most esteemed citizens. 
His great age and the preservation of his faculties show that he is a man 
who keeps his intellect sharpened by the study of literature and the progress 
of science, and his moral nature, stimulated by a sympathy with all good 
causes, can never grow old. Cutler I )owner, who had a handsome residence 
on Central street, was much beloved by his neighbors and friends. He did 
an immense business in Boston, and was pronounced by one who knew him 
well one of the most " absolutely honest brokers he had ever known." 
Rufus B. Stickney's elegant home on the next street was always given to 
hospitality, and the pretty cottage of the venerable John Boles, at the top of 
Broadway, was a pleasant feature of the landscape. Although he was a man 
of wealth, he preferred it to the most stately mansion. It had a very fine 
view from its piazza, and was always kept in exquisite order. He amused 
himself in his old age by making beautiful inlaid boxes of the finest wood, 
which he presented to his friends. His only fear was, that the city would 
dig down the green embankment which fronted his house, in order to widen 
the street. The change was never made, although the house has been en- 
larged by his son-in-law. His widow for many years resided there, with only 
a companion, but her religious faith and courage cheered her loneliness, and 
she was often visited by her children and her neighbors. Deacon Charles 
Foster occupied the fine old house on Broadway, built somewhat in the 
(irecian style, with large columns to support the piazza. He had been for- 
merly a member of the parish of the distinguished Dr. (ieorge K. Kllis, of 
Charlestown, and brought all his spirit of faithfulness and consecration to 
his adopted church. This house has since been moved to a ditlerent situa- 
tion. 

On Spring Ilill there \\vie Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Pitman, who occupied 



442 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND I'RESI-iNT. 

the estate left to her by her brother, Mr. Minot, who presented a fine bell 
to the Unitarian Church. Mrs. Pitman was a Swedenborgian, and an in- 
timate friend of the poet Whittier. and one of the early anti-slavery leaders. 
Mr. Pitman was a genial, cultivated man, and their home was a gathering- 
place for some of the most notable people in New England. Just across the 
way was the Brackett family in Chestnut court. The father, mother and 
children were all devotee! to intellectual and philanthropic pursuits. The 
parents are not living, but the son and daughters, although no longer in 
Somerville, are among the first educators in the country. Major Brastow 
was a striking personality, always hospitable, ready to oblige a friend, one 
who loved to joke about his experiences in the war, and tell how he "gradu- 
ated at Bull Run." Mr. Samuel T. Frost was a genial neighbor, often seen 
working in his garden, which was a little compensation to him for the loss 
of the old gable-roofed colonial house and estate not far off, owned by his 
father, and often the headquarters of Washington in this vicinity. Father 
Durell's pleasant face was often seen on the street. Dr. Luther V. Bell, 
of the asylum, lost his life from exposure as an army surgeon. He was 
much esteemed, as was also his assistant, Dr. Booth, who married Miss 
Tufts, now Mrs. B. F. Allen. He was a man of genius and of cheerful re- 
ligious philosophy, so said Dr. Bowditch ; and the story is told of him, that 
when he was at the point of death, his mother said to him : " My son, have 
you made your peace with God ? " " Mother," he answered, " I never had 
any quarrel with God." 

Many pleasant reminiscences I might also record of Lebbeus Stet- 
son, clerk of the court for many years ; John G. Hall, well known for his 
business integrity and wide intelligence ; Major Allen, an early and promi- 
nent figure on the streets of Spring Hill : and Charles E. Gilman, town and 
city clerk for many years. 

Among women of note were Mrs. Sarah Munro, prominent in all good 
works, Mrs. Columbus Tyler, the Mary who " had a little lamb," a mother 
in Israel. Mrs. Maria Theresa Hollander, a lady of extraordinary executive 
ability and progressive thought, and Mrs. C. A. Skinner, remarkable for the 
vigor of her mind, her devout faith, and her efforts for the cause of woman 
at Tufts College. Mrs. E. M. Everett, too early called away, was a valuable 
officer of the W. C. T. I'., and also a superior worker in the religious train- 
ing of the young. Many fine school-teachers have retired here from their 
labors, whose names we would be glad to mention if our space permitted. 
Several persons of eminence have lived here for short intervals: I ). A. 
Wasson, philosopher and poet, G. Stanley Hall, educator, and others : but 
we have already exceeded our limits, and must leave the past of Somerville, 
with good hopes for its future. There are doubtless man}- esteemed families 
of the old days which I have not mentioned, for the reason that in conse- 
quence of the people of the town being scattered they did not come under 
my observation, but these deficiencies will, I trust, be made up by other con- 
tributors to this volume. 



HOME CIRCLE. 

i;y <;K< >I;K i. VINCENT. 



WASHINGTON COL'XCIL, Xo. 9. 

the four councils of the Home Circle in Somerville, Washington 
No. 9 is the oldest. It was instituted in Pythian Hall, I'nion square, on 
the evening of February 21, iSSo, by the supreme leader, Henry Damon, 
and had thirty-two charter members. Stillman H. Libby was the first leader, 
and under his administration the council was auspiciously established, and 
it has continued prosperous to the present time. 

The Home Circle, as is well known, is a fraternal beneficiary order, and 
while its beneficial feature is the more prominent, yet the spirit of fraternity 
and good-fellowship is active among its members, and a fruitful source of 
pleasure and profit. The manifestation of this fraternal spirit is not limited, 
by Washington Council, within its own membership or the membership of 
the order, but is extended in works of charity as opportunity offers. 

The ladies of the council have organized a sewing circle, which meets 
at the homes of its members, the gentlemen being entertained at supper and 
by games of cards in the evening. Many of the products of this society 
are supplied to families in need, while others are disposed of by sale, and 
the proceeds applied as the society may deem advisable ; the Somerville 
Hospital and the Day Nursery being among those that have been remem- 
bered. 

The council participated in both of the hospital fairs, the receipts from 
the tables being augmented by donation from the council funds. 

Sociability has been promoted by excursions, and by card-parties and 
entertainments in connection with the meetings of the council. A very suc- 
cessful series of dancing parties, extending through several winters, has 
also been conducted. While the object of these parties has been simply to 
provide a pleasant evening for the members of the council, their children 
and friends, yet the financial result has been the accumulation of a sub- 
stantial sum, which has been invested by the trustees. It may also be said, 
in passing, that the council is in easy financial circumstances. 

Washington Council has lost, by death, five of its members, the benefi- 
ciaries of whom were promptly paid the full amounts of their benefit certi- 
ficates, which ranged from one thousand to five thousand dollars. 

The council has continued as tenants of the Knights of Pythias since 
its institution; but in the fall of 1895 the hall which that order had oc- 
cupied in I'nion square was taken for business purposes, and the old Odd 
Fellows Hall, at Xo. 45 I'nion square, over Hotel Warren, was leased by 
the Knights, and became Pythian Hall ; Washington Council meeting there- 
in for the first time December 12, 1*1,15. The apartments are among the 
most spacious and convenient society rooms to be found in the State. 

The meetings of the council are held on the second and fourth Thurs- 

443 



444 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

clay evenings of every month at eight o'clock, and all members of the order 
are welcome. 

It is hardly necessary to present the merits of fraternal beneficiary 
orders. It is well known that they place within the reach of all a moderate 
amount of life insurance at cost ; enabling people of limited income to make 
provision for dependent relatives. The Home Circle is among the younger 
of these orders, but it ranks with the best, is progressive, and pays all obliga- 
tions promptly. 

HARMONY COUNCIL, No. 43. 

Wednesday evening, March 8, 1882, thirty-four ladies and gentlemen of 
Winter Hill, having petitioned the supreme council of the Home Circle for a 
charter, met at Fraternity Hall, and organized a council of the Home Circle, 
the supreme leader, Julius M. Swain, now supreme secretary of the order, 
occupying the chair. Messrs. B. P. Lovejoy, Edwin Taylor and J. F. Kennard 
presented the name of Harmony Council, No. 43, which was accepted. 

The following officers were elected and installed : leader, B. P. Love 
joy; vice-leader, Mrs. M. A. Kennard; instructor, Mrs. A. S. Farrar ; past 
leader, Fred 1'. Orcutt; secretary, C. H. Colgate; financier, C. \Y. Gulliver; 
treasurer, J. F. Kennard; guide, S. M. Craig; warden, Mrs. F. S. Lovejoy: 
sentinel, C. F. Simpson : trustees, F. L. Walker, Edwin Taylor, A. P. 
Griffin. 

Harmony Council has met now for several years, on the second and 
fourth Wednesdays of the month, in the beautiful lodge-rooms of ( )dd Fel- 
lows Hall. The council is in a prosperous condition, with 113 members and 
reserve funds in the bank. It has paid out in death benefits over thirty 
thousand dollars. 

The officers in charge for 1896 are as follows: leader, Mrs. Annie L. 
Elliott ; vice-leader, Mrs. Amelia A. Davis ; instructor, Mrs. M. Ella Durell : 
past leader, Mrs. John L. Potter ; secretary, Miss Abbie F. Gage ; financier. 
Mrs. Mary K. Hamlet: treasurer, D. Edward Mansfield; guide, Ernest S. 
Firth; warden, Mrs. Emma G. Smith; sentinel, John L. Potter; trustees, 
J. A. Durell, F,. G. Davis, J. F. Kennard. 

SOMERVILLE COUNCIL, No. 103. 

This council was instituted July 7, 1886, at the residence of Hon. J. 
Haskell Butler, on Pearl street. Thirty-three members were present, and 
they organized by electing Herbert E. Merrill, leader; and Dr. Sanford 
Hanscom, past leader. 

Quarters were secured in Arcanum Hall, on the corner of Broadway 
and Franklin street, and its meetings are still held there. It has been very 
successful, both as regards increase in membership, which has reached 226 
and is the largest of any council in the order in this State, and in fraternal 
feeling, no differences of any nature having arisen among its members. 

The leaders have been as follows : H. E. Merrill, Mrs. Mary E. Dustin, 
Mrs. Martha B. Clark, J. Foster Clark, A. H. Libby, C. P. Battelle, E. W. 
Southworth, C. L. Underbill, and Mrs. B. P. Liscomb, the present leader. 



LOYAL ORANGE INSTITUTION 

BY F. < . T- TARIJOX. W. M. 



M'l'. IIOREB LODGE, No. [9. 

THIS lodge was founded in ( 'ambridgeport, April 10, iS;i. \\ith a mem- 
bership composed chiefly of residents of Arlington and Somerville. It was 
located in Cambridge, with the expectation that a large membership would 
soon be obtained in that city, but the anticipations were not realized, and 
the lodge struggled on until November 21, 1-^74, when it was removed to 
Arlington. It remained in that town nearly thirteen years, when it was 
moved to Somerville, and located in Templar Hall, on Summer street. < Mi 
November 30, 1X91, it changed its quarters to Pythian Hall, l/nion square, 
and when that hall was transferred to Hotel Warren, the lodge was again 
moved to Pythian Hall, where it is now located. 

Thomas Pratt of Arlington was the first \Y. M., and following him 
have been eighteen others in the same office, among whom were a number 
of our prominent citizens. 

Mt. Horeb is the parent of three other lodges, and it still holds a large 
and increasing membership ; in fact, the increase during the past year has 
been phenomenal, and the indications are that there will be but slight cessa- 
tion for admission for some time to come. Every person to be eligible to 
membership in the Orange Institution of the l/nited States must be a firm 
believer in the Holy Bible and an American citizen, and those who have 
been members are expected to always recognize that bond of universal 
brotherhood and the tenets of the order : Justice, truth and righteousness 
to all God's creatures, to help the weak and infirm, to care for the sick and 
dying, and to maintain the liberties of the people and the freedom of our 
institutions even unto death. 

Mt. Horeb Lodge meets on the first and third Wednesday evenings of 
each month. Its officers for the current year are : F. (). J. Tarbox, W. M. : 
C. 1). Lowery, 1). M. ; Rev. Win. H. Lannin, chaplain; Samuel 1). Bond, 
1 ). of C. ; Wm. Taylor, recording secretary ; Thomas Henderson, financial 
secretary; Samuel L. Morrison, treasurer; Herbert Bennett, in-tiler: Urn. 
Hamilton, out-tiler. 

There are many other associations and clubs in Somerville in addition 
to those already treated of, the most important of which are the Wonoha- 
quaham Tribe No. 69, 1. ( ). of Red Men, Knights of Columbus, several 
lodges of Knights of Honor, lodges of X. E. Order of Protection, Order of 
the Eastern Star, several temperance organizations, United ( )rder of Pilgrim 
Fathers, etc., and it is much to be regretted that their histories have not 
been received for publication in this \vork. 

445 



BANKS OF SOMERVILLE. 

BY J. O. HAVDEN. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

THE banks of Somerville are a source of pride to her citizens. They 
are all young institutions it is true, but they rank with the best in the State 
and enjoy a first-class reputation for shrewd management and careful in- 
vestments. 

For several years the savings bank and two co-operative banks supplied 
the wants of the community to a certain extent, but from time to time the 
advisability of organizing a national bank was discussed. 

\Yith few manufacturing establishments located within her borders, and 
surrounded by cities having old and prosperous national banks, it was 
thought that a similar institution in this city would have a precarious exist- 
ence at the best, but,a spirit f of enterprise finally prevailed, and in August- 
1892, the Somerville National Bank opened its doors. 

Its usefulness was demonstrated in a very few weeks, and by conserva- 
tive management it has made for itself a good record. 

It started with a capital of 5 100,000, and after the first year paid to its 
stockholders 6 per cent per annum on their investment, and has accumu- 
lated a surplus fund, which at the present time amounts to $16,000. 

Mr. Quincy A. Vinal was the first president, and it was largely owing 
to his able efforts in conducting the bank affairs, and to his marked business 
qualifications, that the institution gained a firm footing early in its career. 
Mr. Yinal retired in January, 1X94. 

The management of the bank is now in the hands of the following gen- 
tlemen : J. ( ). Hayden, president; John A. Gale, vice-president; James F. 
Beard, cashier : Allen F. Carpenter, Simon Connor, A. Marcellus Kidcler, 
James F. Hathaway, David 1). Lord, Walter C. Mentzer, Frederick \Y. 
Parker, Albion A. Pern', George O. Proctor, Nathan H. Read, Frederic 
AY. Stone, J. Frank YVellington, L. Roger \Yentworth, directors. 

The banking rooms are centrally located at No. 58 Union square, Stone 
building. 

The Somerville Savings Bank was incorporated February 24, 1885, and 
opened for business on the i^th of April the same year. Its first president 
was Oren S. Knapp, Esq., who held the office until his death in November, 
i.s^o, and gave much of his time to a watchful care of its interests. He was 
succeeded by Albion A. Perry, who has since held the position, ably admin- 
istering the trust confided in him. , 
446 







PHILIP EBERLE. 




SILAS HARVEY HOLLAND. 




J. WARREN BAILEY. 




OLIVER H. PERRY. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 451 

The bank has enjoyed continuous prosperity and a constant growth of 
business. Two weeks after the organization of the bank the total assets 
amounted to s6.259.25. A year later they amounted to 53.S.(j74.4,s. At the 
present time they amount to 5611,000. The present number of depositors 
is 3200. 

The management of the bank is vested in a board of trustees composed 
as follows : president, Albion A. Perry; vice-presidents, Silas H. Holland, 
J. Walter Sanborn ; clerk and treasurer, Frederic W. Stone: George L. 
Baxter, Charles A. Cushman, Philip Eberle, Horace P. Makechnie, I. Wal- 
ter Sanborn, Josiah O. Bennett, S. Xewton Cutler, J. O. Hayden, Marshall 
H. Locke, William Yeazie. 

The banking rooms are at No. 57 L'nion square, Stone building. 



The Somerville C'o-operative Bank was chartered May 4, iSSo, and is 
to-day one of the foremost institutions of its kind in the State. The last re- 
port of its affairs to the Savings fJank Commissioners showed the assets to 
be 5565,263.55. Thirty-three series of shares have been issued, and the 
earnings have averaged 6 per cent. The number of shareholders, October 
19, 1896, was 1,318. 

The officers of the bank are as follows : president, J. Frank Wellington ; 
vice-president, George W. Snow; secretary and treasurer, Franklin J. 
Hamblin ; directors, Marshall H. Locke, Benjamin F. Thompson, James F. 
Beard, Charles S. Butters, Charles Mills, Cutler C. Crowell, Fred C. Ayer, 
Nathan H. Reed, Fzra 1). Souther, Samuel T. Richards, George A. Kim- 
ball, Herbert W. Raymond, Miah G. Kenny, William S. Miller, Belvin T. 
Williston ; auditors, Horace M. Parsons, Howard B. Chase, Otis H. Cur- 
rier ; attorney, Herbert A. Chapin. 

The banking rooms are at 59 Union square, Stone building. 



The West Somerville C'o-operative Bank was chartered November 29, 
1890, and during the six years it has been in operation it has accumulated 
assets of $157,450, and has never paid less than 6 per cent dividend to its 
shareholders. Thirteen series of shares have been issued. The officers of 
the bank are as follows: president, J. Warren Bailey; vice-president, W. ('. 
Mentzer ; secretary and treasurer, ( >. H. Perry; directors, A. |. Stevens, 
F. F. Stockwell, L. F. Merry, F. F. Phillips, C. I.. Stevens, C. A. G. Win- 
ther, S. F. Woodbridge, W. A. Muzzey, D. E. Robbins, J. F. Terry, F. D. 
Lacount, W. A. Snow, F. S. Sparrow, R. S. Wright, G. W. Bryant; attor- 
ney, I). C. Delano. 

The banking rooms are at 3 Studio building, 1 )avis square, West Som- 
erville. 



INDUSTRIES OF SOMERVILLE. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

SOMERVILLE is pre-eminently a residential city. Its near proximity to 
Boston, its unrivalled means of access by steam railroads and electric lines 
of street railway, its charming diversity of beautiful hills and rolling 
plateaus, and its generally good sanitary conditions have rendered it a 
favorite abiding-place, and as a " city of homes " it ranks among the high- 
est in the Commonwealth. 

It is, however, not alone as a sleeping-place for Boston's thousands of 
busy workers that Somerville is distinguished, for it has within its borders 
industries of such considerable importance that it stands fifth in the list of 
the manufacturing cities of the State. These industries are diversified, and 
they cover almost every line of work, and some of them are of very great 
magnitude and financial standing. Among these, and leading the others in 
importance, is the immense establishment of the 

NORTH PACKING AND PROVISION CO. 

The business was established in 1^55, but the company was not incor- 
porated until January 2, 1890. 

The business at this packing-house consists of " the slaughtering of 
hogs, rendering, curing, packing, jobbing and exporting the product of the 
same, together with the packing of beef and the general distribution of fresh 
and cured meats to all markets of the world." 

The packing-house occupies thirteen acres of land, and the substantial 
brick buildings are equipped with the latest and most approved machinery 
for conducting the business in an economic and systematic manner. 

The main and connecting buildings are six hundred and fifty feet long 
by one hundred and fifty feet wide, and five to nine stories high. In the 
main building on the Medford-street side are situated the packing-house 
offices of the company : these offices are spacious, airy and convenient, and 
accommodate a large working force, which consists of superintendent, pay- 
masters, bookkeepers, entry and receiving clerks, auditors, and shipping 
and time clerks. The other buildings consist of engine, boiler, electrical 
and ice-machinery plant, one hundred and ten feet long by one hundred 
feet wide, three stories high, with chimney one hundred and seventy-six 
feet high ; blacksmith, wheelwright, and general repair shop, seventy feet 
long, fifty feet wide, three stories high ; stable, one hundred and thirty-five 
feet long, eighty feet wide, three stories high ; the wholesale and retail 
452 




CHARLES A. CUSHMAN. 



454 SOMERV1LLE. PAST AND PRESENT. 

market, one hundred feet long, eighty feet wide, three stories high ; steam 
cooperage plant, three hundred feet long, one hundred feet wide, four 
stories high ; cold storage warehouse, one hundred and seventy-five feet 
long, one hundred and twenty-five feet wide, six stories high, having a stor- 
age capacity of seventy-five thousand barrels. 

Besides the cold storage warehouse there are over six acres of floor 
surface under refrigeration in the other buildings, the entire plant having a 
capacity of handling five thousand hogs per day. 

These buildings are located within two miles of the business centre of 
Boston, and in close proximity to all the rail and water transportation lines 
entering and leaving the city, with tracks of the Grand Junction Railroad on 
the south side of the buildings and the Fitchburg on the north, entering the 
yards and connecting with all railways west and east, by which all live 
animals and other supplies are received, and a large amount of manufac- 
tured product is delivered to the wharves of Atlantic steamship lines for 
export and coastwise trade ; also carloads are delivered to interior points in 
this country direct from the packing-house. Track facilities of the company 
will accommodate one hundred cars at a time in its yards. 

The live hogs which furnish the basis of the manufacturing operations 
are largely purchased at markets in the West receiving live stock, and 
transported in latest approved stock cars direct to the packing-house, where 
they are unloaded at the live-stock storage building, which is nine stories 
high, each floor being constructed of brick and cement, with troughs 
through which running water is supplied, with a capacity of storing and 
yarding twelve to fourteen thousand hogs. 

The entire plant has recently been remodelled and enlarged, and is the 
most complete packing-house in the world. All departments of this busi- 
ness are conducted in the most orderly and cleanly manner imaginable, 
and great care is exercised in the selection of animals by experienced 
buyers. 

The business of the company amounts to over #15,000,000 annually, 
eight hundred thousand hogs being slaughtered and their products distrib- 
uted to the various markets of the world. 

There are employed by the company at the packing-house upwards of 
twelve hundred men, in its various departments. 

The officers of the company are : G. F. Swift, Pres. ; E. C. Swift, Treas. 
and Gen. Manager; S. Henry Skilton, Asst. Manager; Charles A. dish- 
man, Superintendent. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST .l.Y/> /'AV::s7-;.\V. 455 

THK FRF.SH I '()\ I) ECE COMPANY. 

Another important industry in this city is that of the Fresh Pond Ice 
Company. The business done by this concern is immense, the freight bills 
paid by the company being among the heaviest of all that are paid to the 
Fitchburg Railroad. The ice is obtained at Lake Muscatanapus in Brook- 
line, X. H., where the company has a plant of great magnitude, the immense 
ice-houses, which are eleven in number, having a storage capacity of upwards 
of 70,000 tons. The ice is remarkably free from impurities, being considered 
by experts the best that is offered in this vicinity, and so careful is the com- 
pany to maintain this purity that it has bought and now controls the entire 
shore of the lake, thus preventing every possible danger of pollution. I'p- 
wards of two hundred and fifty men are employed in harvesting the crop, 
and only the latest and most approved tools and machinery are used. 

The ice is brought from the storage houses in Brookline in special re- 
frigerator cars by the Fitchburg Railroad to the extensive sheds belonging 
to the company, located between Washington street and the railroad, where 
it is loaded on the ice-wagons and distributed to consumers. 

Thirty-six of these great wagons and eighty horses, the best that can be 
procured, are owned by the company, and from fifty to seventy-five men are 
employed in the daily distribution of the ice. 

The officers of the company are : Josiah Q. Bennett, president : T. S. 
Hittinger, superintendent; and E. A. Davenport, treasurer. 

THE SPRAGUK AND HATHAWAY COMPANY. 

The Sprague and Hathaway Portrait Copying House in West Somer- 
ville is an important industrial establishment, one whose products probably 
reach every corner of the civilized world. 

The business of this company was established in 1X74, by J. F. Hatha- 
way and W. D. Sprague, under the firm name of Sprague and Hathaway. 
The business was originally established in a small way at the corner of 
Beach street and Harrison avenue, Boston. Cheap rents and better light 
were the inducements offered them to remove to West Somerville, which at 
that time could hardly be called even a thriving settlement. 

After two years Mr. W. D. Sprague, on account of failing health, was 
obliged to retire from the business, and for many years it was under the 
sole control of Mr. J. F. Hathaway, the president of the present corpora- 
tion. Originally located in the wooden building at the corner of Holland 
and Wallace streets, they outgrew the capacity of their quarters, and in iss; 
erected, at a cost of forty thousand dollars, the handsome studio building at 
the corner of Day street and Davis square. 

In 1890 the business had further increased to such an extent that it 
was decided to form a stock company, and in September ot that year th<- 
Sprague and Hathaway Company was incorporated with a capital of one 
hundred thousand dollars. Another and larger brick and granite building 
was erected at the corner of Day and Herbert streets, and was thoroughly 
equipped with every modern improvement. 




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SOMERl'/l.I.K, PAST AND PRESENT. 457 



THE I'MOX GLASS COMPANY. 

Another of the important industries of Somerville is that of the t'nion 
Glass Company, whose works are situated on \Yebster avenue near Union 
square. This business was founded originally in 1854 by Mr. Kmery 
Houghton. It was only fairly successful, and in 1X^4 Mr. I kaighton sold the 
property to the present company, which was incorporated in that year under 
the title of the Union Glass Company. The first year's business was not 
very good, and new capital had to be put into the enterprise. 

It was not until 1870 that the company entered upon an era of prosper- 
ity, one which lasted for about fifteen years. The gentlemen then con- 
nected with the institution were men of great commercial sagacity, and at 
that time the competition of the West was only in its infancy, New England 
still retaining prestige in glass-making. The principal articles of manufac- 
ture were pressed work, chimneys, gas globes, lamps and chemical ware. 

By degrees the utility of the company was enhanced by the addition of 
a cutting department, and by its putting upon the market the largest line 
of artistic vases ever produced in America. By dint of perseverance it 
solved the long concealed secret of the Venetian art of decorating glass with 
gold worked into the metal, not applied as paint upon the exterior, and vases 
of the most delicate workmanship, fully equal to European articles, are now 
manufactured in these works. 

From its glass-cutting department issues choice cut glass that is dis- 
played in the windows of Boston's largest glass stores. Many of the best 
establishments in the principal states of the Union are supplied in part from 
this factory. 

In 1862 Mr. John Haines brought to the factory the art of silvering 
glass, and the Union Glass Company manufactures and exports the greatest 
number of silvered glass reflectors of any concern in the United States. 

This is the only remaining glass factory in the vicinity of Boston, and 
despite the changes which through force of cheaper producing material have 
driven the once flourishing industries away from the East in the past few 
years, the Union Company has persistently held its own against a great 
competition, by the principle of manufacturing only the very best quality of 
glass. 

In its various departments the company gives employment to about two 
hundred people, and as many of these reside in Somerville, the factory re- 
mains a large contributor to the prosperity of its native town. 

The officers of the corporation at the present time are : Mr. Julian de 
Cordova, president ; Mr. Lewis Hall, president Lechmere Bank, treasurer ; 
directors : Mr. |.C. Hullard, president East Cambridge National Bank; Mr. 
Herbert Nash, of Boston ; and Mr. \Y. S. Blake, Melrose. 





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SOMERVILLE, PAST .l.\7> PRESENT. 459 

DKKMY DESK COMPANY. 

( >n January i, iSSi, George H. Derby and Frederick M. Kilmer formed 
a partnership for the purpose of manufacturing office furniture, chieily roll- 
top desks. Beginning in the upper stories of a small building on lleverly 
street, they were soon obliged to enlarge their store premises and manufac- 
turing facilities. Moving their store to 55 Charlestown street, they hired 
a factory in Cambridge. These quarters were soon outgrown, and they 
very shortly enlarged their store by the addition of two buildings, taking the 
rent of the entire block of three buildings at 55 Charlestown street. Tin- 
next move was to look about Boston and vicinity for a site for a new factory. 
After careful examination of the different locations they settled upon the lot 
at the corner of Yernon and Central streets in this city, and purchasing a 
strip at the back end of the lot of Warren Pollard, they erected a five-story 
wooden building. 

In a few years the growth of their business required additional space, 
and they then erected the large two-story brick building, which comprises a 
large part of their present plant. After about eight years' use this, too. soon 
became somewhat crowded, and believing, in January, 1.^95, that business 
was about to revive generally over the country, they began the erection of 
the present large seven-story brick building on Yernon street, which, with 
its equipments, has but recently been completed. 

This desk and office-furniture manufacturing plant is now believed to 
be the largest and best equipped factory where office furniture solely is 
made in the country, and perhaps in the world. 

About three years ago the Pond Desk Company went out of business, 
sold their effects to the Derby & Kilmer Desk Company, and shortly the 
company's name was changed to Derby, Kilmer & Pond Desk Company. 
Last year another desk company known as the Somerville Desk Company, 
but located with their factory in Cambridge, and salesroom in Boston, went 
out of business, they also selling their stock to the Derby, Kilmer & Pond 
Desk Company. 

In July, 1895, the company's name was changed to Derby Desk Com- 
pany. This company enjoys a reputation the world over for fine standard 
desks and office furniture. Its present officers are : George H. 1 )erby, presi- 
dent ; Frederick M. Kilmer, treasurer and secretary ; and Kdward !'. Pond, 
general manager. 



460 SOMER17LLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

BRICK-MAKING. 

At one time a considerable portion of the town of Somerville was oc- 
cupied by brick-yards, and among those who operated them we find the 
names of some of the most respected men of the town, as for instance : Benj. 
Parker, \Ym. Jaques, Gardner Ring, Albert Kenneson, Mark and Benj. 
Fisk, Kinsley Bros., Benj. Hadley, David Washburn, Chauncey Holt, 
Samuel Littlefield, John and Joseph P. Sanborn, Edmund Cutter and many 
others, nearly twenty in all. But times have changed with the increase in 
population, and to-day the only brick-making plant in Somerville is the one 
operated by Wm. A. Sanborn, whose father and uncle were brick-makers 
before him. 

From the days when the farmers' sons of New Hampshire and Maine 
came to Massachusetts to earn the money that their farms did not supply, 
and made the labor of brick-making respected by their sturdy honesty of 
character, through the transition period of labor by a foreign population, 
the business of brick-making has been so improved that it has become al- 
most a science. 

Twenty years ago but little machinery was used, and a much longer 
time was required for the same output than is to-day needed, with the help 
of machinery at almost every stage of the process. 

This brick business, the only existing one in Somerville, was estab- 
lished by Joseph P. Sanborn about 1849. At his death, in 1874, his son 
Wm. A. Sanborn continued the business near Mt. Benedict, on Mystic 
avenue, and then, in company with J. W. Hatch, in 1876, he removed to Ten 
Hills, where he has since continued, Mr. Hatch retiring from the business 
in 1891. 

Since that year the output from this yard has been nearly two million 
bricks per annum, but clay having become scarce and land more valuable, 
Mr. Sanborn has been compelled to establish a branch yard in New Hamp- 
shire, the output from which has been equal to that of the Somerville yard 
for the past year. 

Somerville bricks are known as among the best in the eastern market, 
and, about three years ago, Mr. Sanborn wishing to mark a certain grade of 
his product, stamped the bricks with the letter S ; this stamp has become 
well known in surrounding cities as well as Somerville, and is recognized as 
a guarantee for a superior grade of bricks. 

Mr. Sanborn is now filling a contract calling for five hundred thousand 
bricks for the outside of the spacious hotel being built at the corner of 
lioylston and Tremont streets, Boston. He also furnished the outside brick 
for the new Tremont Building in Boston and for the Glines schoolhouse in 
Somerville. 




WILLIAM A. SANBORN. 



462 SO.MERl'ILLE. PAST AXD PRESEXT. 

THE MIDDLESEX BLEACH, DYE AND PRINT WORKS. 

This establishment, located on Somerville avenue, was incorporated in 
1821. A short historical sketch is given of it on page 78 of this volume. 

THE AMERICAN BRASS TUBE WORKS 

Is another of the long established manufacturing concerns of the city, it 
having begun operations in 1854. Its product of seamless brass tubes is 
well known to mechanics, and its output is very large. 

CARPET CLEANING, ETC. 

Probably the largest carpet-cleaning establishment in New England is 
that of G. F. Hum & Co., on Broadway, East Somerville. Not only is this 
firm possessed of the largest plant, in point of floor-space, size of wheel and 
all the accessories that go to make up such an establishment, but it is gen- 
erally conceded, Hurn & Co. do by far the largest business in this line of 
any establishment in New England. 

Last spring brought to the firm a decided increase in facilities, a new 
1 5-horsepower engine having been put in to supplement the huge new 
boiler which was put in place last fall. 

Carpet cleaning, however, is not all that this firm does. The repairing 
of furniture, making over of mattresses and renovating of feather beds are 
specialties, and the workmanship is of the very best quality. 



There are many other important manufacturing establishments in Som- 
erville, some of which are of considerable magnitude. The principal of 
these are the cooperage works of the S. Armstrong Company, the Williams 
Table and Lumber Company, works of the I. H. Brown Moulding Company, 
carriage manufacturing establishments of Frank W. Leavitt and William T. 
Henderson, distillery of Daniel E. Chase & Co., extensive works of the 
Somerville Electric Lighting Co., Somerville Iron Foundry, New England 
( >il Co., New England Dressed Meat and Wool Co., West Somerville Mould- 
ing Mill, a portion of the great plant of J. P. Squire & Co., Cushman Bros. 
& Co., shade roller manufactory, and the jewelry and novelty works of 
M. W. Carr & Co. 

These, with an infinite number of such minor industries as are always 
found in a municipality of the magnitude of Somerville, make a list of very 
considerable importance, and place the city in a prominent position among 
those of the Commonwealth. 



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MISCELLANEOUS. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

i;sn>N AND MAIM: K\II.K<>AI>. STREET RAILWAYS OK SOMKKVII.I.E. THE " SOMEKVM.I.E 

JOl'RNAL." THE "SOMERVIU.E ClTI/.EN." \YESTWOOn KoA I > AND IIS Kl.SIDKM ES. 

BOSTON & MAINE RAILROAD. 

THE city of Somerville, without the Boston & Maine Railroad, bisecting 
it and linking it with the great world without, is simply an unimaginable 
community. The mile posts between this city and Boston, where the great 
transportation system has its principal terminus, are not many, but even 
were that avenue of steam communication, alone, cut off, the effect upon 
the growth and welfare of the smaller city would be simply revolutionary. 

Few of the nearly eight hundred stations on the line of the Boston & 
Maine bear such an intimate relation to the system, physically and finan- 
cially, as do those that lie within the limits of Somerville. They are no 
fewer than eight in number, and this fact of itself speaks eloquently of the 
extent of the territory covered by the city and the density of its population. 

As might naturally be expected of a wide-awake administration, the 
present management of the railroad has always been willing to meet the 
people of Somerville more than half way in respect to train and station ac- 
commodations, and it can safely be stated that the service now rendered 
the traveling public by the Boston <S: Maine is fully commensurate with the 
relationship their patronage bears to the passenger-traffic receipts of the 
company. 

Three of the road's important divisions the Eastern, Western and 
Southern traverse the city in whole or in part, the Southern Division per- 
forming the heaviest service, trains on the other two divisions stopping at 
East Somerville only. At the latter station as many as ninety-one trains 
stop each week day, going to and coming from Boston, and these, with the 
numerous freight trains that pass and repass in a never-ending procession, 
make this part of Somerville one of the most important railroad centers in 
the country. 

In addition to this enormous through and local passenger and freight 
business, the railroad company is now engaged in creating a new and ex- 
tensive auxiliary freight terminus on the grounds formerly occupied by the 
McLean Asylum, its business having expanded to such immense propor- 
tions that the Boston terminals have become sorely taxed. It may thus be 
said that the Boston \ Maine Railroad has practical!) annexed Somerville to 

465 



466 



SOMERl'fLLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 



the city of Boston, despite the declaration of its citizens against that proj- 
ect, as expressed in recent popular votes. 

The immense strides which Somerville has taken in population during 
the past decade is told in the comparative showing of train statistics, as 
well as in the census figures themselves. Taking the years 1896 and 1886 
as a basis for comparison, it is found that the average number of trains 
stopping at the different Somerville stations is much larger to-day than ten 
years ago. 

The Prospect Hill (formerly Milk Row) and \Yinter Hill stations show 
the highest percentage of increase, and illustrate how popular these places 
have lately become as residential sections. In 1886 a total of thirty-two 
week-day and nineteen Sunday trains stopped at Prospect Hill. To-day the 
number is eighty-two on week days and thirty-six on Sundays, a total in- 
crease over 1886 of fifty week-day and seventeen Sunday trains. In 1886 
fifty-nine week-day trains and 23 Sunday trains stopped at Winter Hill. To- 
day the number is ninety-three week-day and forty Sunday trains. 




\V1NTER HILL STATION, BOSTON AND MAINE RAILROAD. 

As a possibly interesting contribution to this part of Somerville's his- 
tory, covering, as it does, a most significant ten-year period in its municipal 
existence, the following table, showing the train statistics for the time in 
question, and compiled by the passenger department of the Boston \ 
Maine, is given : - 



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SOMERVILLE, PAST AXJ) PRESENT. 







1896. 






1886. 






From 
Boston. 


To 
Boston 


Total 
from and to. 


From 
Boston. 


To 
Boston. 


Total 
from and to. 




Week Sun- 
days, days. 


Week Sun- 
days, days. 


Week Sun- 
days, days 


Week Sun- 
days, days. 


Week Sun- 
days, days. 


Week Sun- 
days, days. 


East Somerville (W. Div.) 
(E. Div.) 
Prospect Hill . 


40 20 

37 M 
41 i* 


51 24 
32 15 
41 18 


91 44 
69 2>> 

82 ;(> 


36 15 
32 8 


55 16 
47 10 


9i 31 
79 iS 


Winter Hill ... 




4.6 IQ 










Somerville Junction . . . 
Somerville Highlands . . 
West Somerville .... 
North Somerville .... 


40 17 
26 7 
29 7 

21 JO 


39 '7 
20 7 

25 7 

22 I I 


79 34 
46 14 

54 M 
43 21 


37 I' 

27 4 
18 


36 13 

24 4 
17 8 


73 24 

5i 
35 IS 



In the period mentioned several of the old stations of the road have 
been replaced by new and modern ones, the most expensive and attractive 
of which are those at Winter Hill and Prospect Hill. 

To the tremendous growth of the Boston & Maine system itself in 
the ten years in question it is scarcely necessary to refer at length here. 
The increase in mileage, traffic and income, partly from natural growth and 
partly because of consolidations with or purchase of connecting roads, is 
almost startling. The Boston & Maine to-day has a total operated mileage 
of upwards of 1,900 miles, carries 35,000,000 passengers and 257,000,000 tons 
of freight annually, earns a gross income of $21,000,000, from which 6,290 
shareholders draw dividends, owns 665 locomotives, and 1,201 passenger 
and 12,3X4 freight cars, and has a total capital stock and funded debt of 
543,500,000. 



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SO.1//iA' I '//././:. PAST AND PRESENT. 471 

STREKT RAILWAYS IN SOMKKYILLK. 

The first instance in New England of the transportation of passengers 
in a railway car by horse power was the operation of a track formerly be- 
longing to the Fitchburg Railroad, between Harvard square, Cambridge, and 
I'nion square, Somerville. A small horse-railroad had been built previously 
in New York City in 1842, which was the first street railway in the world. 
The second street railway was the Cambridge Road, between Harvard 
square, Cambridge, and Bowdoin square, Boston, and the first car on that 
road was run in March, 1856. The running of cars on the Fitchburg track 
before mentioned had been discontinued prior to that time. 

In 1854 the Middlesex Railroad Company was chartered, with authority 
to build tracks in Somerville, but did not do so. Consequently, in 1857, the 
Somerville Horse Railroad was formed for that purpose, and its incorpora- 
tors were George O. Brastow, Samuel A. Snow and Isaac F. Sheparcl. The 
first track built under this charter ran from I'nion square to the Charles- 
town line, and was leased to the Middlesex Road. 

In 1863 the Legislature authorized the Somerville Road to extend its 
tracks to West Somerville and through Bridge street to Cambridge street. 
East Cambridge, and these last-named tracks were leased to the Cambridge 
Road. The Middlesex Road meanwhile had extended its lines through the 
Winter Hill district to Medford ; and about 1880 the Charles River Railway 
built a track beginning at Summer street, Somerville, and extending 
through Cambridgeport into Boston, and also a track on Beacon street 
extending to North avenue, Cambridge. This was the total of the street 
railway tracks operated in Somerville in 1887 (aggregating about six and 
one-half miles) at the time of the West End Street Railway consolidation, 
and all were operated by horse-power. 

All this in the year 1896 is greatly changed. The amount of track 
operated in Somerville is more than doubled, and the following statistics 
will give some indication of the development of the street railway business 
in that city. In 1888 twenty-eight different lines started in Somerville. and 
four lines passed through portions of the city. The average length of the 
round trip was 9.01 5 miles. The total number of car miles run was i ,<)-7.')f>8. 
and the number of passengers carried was 12, 944, 494. 

In the year 1896 the number of lines starting from Somerville \\as 
thirty-seven, and the lines passing through Somerville, six. The average 
length of the round trip was increased to nearly eleven miles, an increase 
of \-j]i per cent. The car miles run were 2,798,239 -- an increase of 41 
per cent, and the number of passengers carried was 20,890,798. The in- 
creased accommodation for passengers in car space was much greater than 
is shown above, since all the lines in Somerville are no\\ electric lines, and 
the electric car is 50 per cent larger than the horse car. 

The mileage and number of passengers above given include the whole 
trip, large parts of which are in Boston or other places, and there is no 
way of determining how much is strictly Somerville business; but the fig- 



472 Sd.MERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

ures given will show approximately the ratio of increase. The figures of 
ten years ago. before the consolidation, cannot be obtained ; but it is safe 
to say that the business has doubled within the last ten years, and accom- 
modations have much more than doubled. The fares on the different lines, 
notwithstanding the great distances traveled (which are about three miles 
per round trip greater than the average on the road), are five cents, and in 
addition there are free-transfer privileges as follows : - 

In Charlestown, Somerville passengers can be transferred without 
charge to Everett, Maiden and Medford. At Dudley street, in Roxbury, 
free transfers can be had to Milton, Franklin Park, Dorchester, Forest 
Hills or South Boston ; and Somerville passengers crossing Craigie or \Yest 
Boston bridges can there obtain free transfers to all connecting cars run- 
ning into Boston : and by means of an eight-cent check Somerville people 
can be carried by two rides to any of the suburbs to which the cars of the 
West End Street Railway run. 

Thus Somerville has perhaps the best street railway facilities of any 
suburb of Boston, and to this fact is largely to be attributed the phenomenal 
increase of that city in population and importance. The company's real 
estate in Somerville is taxed for $249,800. The three principal car stations 
will accommodate two hundred and forty-two large electric cars ; and pic- 
tures accompanying this sketch show one of the car-houses and the style of 
car now in use. 





SOMERVILLE JOURNAL BUILDING. 




J. O. HAYDEN. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND rKKSKXT. 475 

"SOMKRVILLK JOURNAL." 

( )f all the strictly local papers of the country, the " Somerville Journal " 
stands among the First, in the quantity and quality of the news which it 
prints, in its editorial tone, in the neatness of its appearance, and in its 
financial standing. Through constant efforts to please its readers, and to 
keep abreast or ahead of the times, the ''Journal " has won its way to wide 
popularity. Its familiar heading, with the old Powder House in the center. 
is known to all the inhabitants. 

The first issue of the paper appeared December S, 1870, and it was then 
published by \\". A. Greenough & Co., the directory makers. During the 
next few years the paper changed hands several times, till October 20, iS-r>, 
when it came into the control of the present proprietors. Among its early 
owners were Col. Russell H. Conwell, then a resident of Somerville, but 
now the great Philadelphia clergyman, and John A. Cummings, who after- 
ward became mayor of the city. With the change of ownership in October, 
1876, came many improvements. A new press was bought, and the paper, 
which had previously been printed in Boston, had all its work done in 
Somerville, in an office on the third floor of the Hill Building in Union 
square. Here it remained, steadily growing and requiring more room, till 
in July, 1894, it moved into the handsome new building of its own on Wal- 
nut street. The establishment is controlled by the Somerville Journal 
Company, of which J. (). Hayden is the manager. 

Started, as the " Journal " was, at a time when Somerville was changing 
rapidly from a country town into a populous and thriving city, the paper 
has, naturally, had an influence in Somerville's development, pointing out 
and advocating through its editorial or news columns public needs, and 
otherwise using its influence for the good of the city. Many of the most 
useful public improvements that have been made during the past twenty- 
five years had their beginning through a suggestion in the ''Journal." I!e- 
sides its regular staff of writers, the " Journal " has been especially fortunate 
in the number of occasional correspondents, who by their contributions of 
poems or of special articles have added greatly to the interest and life of 
its columns. The " Pencilling " column has been one of its most popular 
features, quotations from which are made every week by the leading papers 
throughout the United States and in foreign countries. Another depart- 
ment which has appealed to many readers is its excellent woman's page. 

The "Journal's'' equipment is one of the most extensive in New Kng- 
land, outside of Boston. Occupying three floors of a large brick building, 
it has all the appliances necessary for carrying on a great newspaper and 
job printing establishment, including three large fast-running presses, four 
job presses, together with folding, cutting and mailing machines, two Mer- 
genthaler linotype machines (the "Journal " being one of the first suburban 
papers to use them), and tons of type of all kinds. Altogether the "Journal " 
employs a force of nearly fifty hands. Such papers or magazines as tin 
Journal of Education, the American Primary Teacher, the Writer, and 
others, are regularly printed at the "Journal" office. 








WILLIAM PREBLE JONES. 



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WILLIAM E. BRIGHAM. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND l'RI-:si-:XT. 479 



THE "SOMKKYILLE CITIZEN." 

The '' Somerville ( 'itizun," one of the standard institutions of the city, is 
a representative of the highest type of the weekly local newspaper. It was 
established in August, i sss, in response to a natural demand for a newspaper 
on the northern slope of the city, and has for several years been comfort- 
ably domiciled in the pretentious Citizen Building in Oilman square, which 
is almost exactly in the center of the city. A. M. ISridgman was its original 
manager, and has since been succeeded by Frank H.I lardison, Edgar Perry 
and William E. Brigham, at present its able head, who took charge in 
December, 1894. The Citizen Publishing Company, composed of men of 
the highest character and standing, owned the paper until June, 1896, when 
greatly increased business made a reorganization advisable, and the Somer- 
ville Citizen Company, in which several of the old stockholders remained 
and many new ones entered, bought the property and materially augmented 
the plant. The " Citizen '' now has one of the finest printing offices in the 
State, from which are issued the " Somerville Citizen," a weekly paper 
which easily stands in the front rank in the matter of make-up, several 
smaller periodicals and a general line of job work of the best class. The 
office is equipped with four efficient presses and all other machinery and 
material necessary to the carrying on of a modern printing business. 

As a newspaper, whether considered editorially or as a purveyor of 
news, the " Citizen " stands high, as is proven by its general circulation 
among the leading families of the city. It is conducted with a single eye to 
the best interests of the city of Somerville, and it is outspoken upon matters 
of public concern. Under its comparatively new management its business 
and its popularity have grown steadily, and its influence, always consider- 
able, has increased to the point of actual power. Improvements in plant, 
staff and service are continually being made, and it is the confident opinion 
of its numerous friends that the " Citizen " is destined within a very short 
time to become one of the exceptional newspaper successes of the State. 

The "Citizen Building" so called was built in the summer of 1890, by 
the present owners, Messrs. J. E. A. Mulliken and Geo. H. Moore. The 
triangular piece of land on which it stands was owned by a wealthy resident 
of Medford, and no one supposed it could be bought at any price. 

The original plan of the owners was for only a story and half building 
to cover about one half of the land, but as soon as it was made known that 
a building was to be erected, the applications for tenancy came so fast that 
instead of the smaller building the present structure was erected. At the 
request of the Citizen Publishing Company, which had engaged quarters in 
the building, it was named the "Citizen Building." 



480 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRKSP:XT. 



WESTWOOD ROAD AND ITS RESIDENCES. 

It is with no little pleasure that we are able to illustrate one of the 
most beautiful portions of the city: we refer to Westwood road and its 
modern, up-to-date residences. This fine, well kept road with its charming 
homes well illustrates what can be done, by the exercise of taste and fore- 
thought on the part of those in our city managing or developing some of our 
large estates, and shows in a marked degree, by its prompt public recog- 
nition, what might have been done a few years ago, to make our city the 
most sightly and attractive suburb of Boston. 

Somerville had great natural resources that were overlooked. There 
are yet many lessons that could be drawn from the two-year history of West- 
wood road. In the fall of 1894, only two years prior to this publication, the 
old estate belonging to the late Hon. James M. Shute, adjoining the Ken- 
ton Farm on Spring Hill, was bought by a member of the Benton family. 
Mr. Bradshaw immediately moved the mansion house to an ample lot at 
one side, and proceeded at once to build. a road from Central street to the 
Benton Farm, after the latest and most approved method of road-building, 
with sewer, water and gas all put in before the macadamizing was laid 
on a substratum of ash and cinder, thoroughly rolled. Last of all the curb- 
ing and paving of the gutters. There is no other section of road in our city 
that can compare with it for fine road-bed, and it reflects great credit on our 
street department as well as on Mr. Bradshaw. After the estate had been 
plotted out and graded, the series of houses represented in the accompany- 
ing pages were built; and from their thoroughness of construction, and from 
the care displayed in having them of the latest designs, and each entirely 
different from the others while all were built with the closest regard to their 
juxtaposition, Mr. Bradshaw has found an immediate sale for them, almost 
as soon as they were started and months before their completion. In the 
winter of 1895, one year after the road was built, Mr. Bradshaw did a thing 
never before tried in Massachusetts, although successfully done in Washing- 
ton, D. C., and Newport, R. I., the moving of a number of the largest trees 
on the estate trees fifty and sixty years of age, large elms and maples, - 
out to the street line of the lots, some a distance of three hundred feet to 
their new locations. When one realizes that some of these trees were nearly 
fifty feet tall and eight or nine feet in circumference, it will be seen w r hat an 
undertaking it was. But when the present summer came and the new road 
was beautifully shaded with large shade-trees a two-year-old road with 
fifty-year-old trees then the wisdom and good judgment of Mr. Bradshaw 
in the development of the property was more than apparent. 

In addition to this enterprise Mr. Bradshaw has just begun to lay out 
the Benton Farm, and make Ftenton road, which connects with Westwood 
road, a continued lovely spot for suburban estates. 




Residence of CHARLES H. BRADSHAW, Summer Street. 
Residence of REV. NATHAN K. BISHOP, Westwood Road. 




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BIOGRAPHIES. 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Aldrich, Capt. Harrison, was born in Williamsville, Vt., September 18, 1840, son 
of Daniel T. and Laura Whipple Aldrich, of old revolutionary stock. His education was 
obtained in his native town in the district and high schools, and at Powers Institute, Ber- 
nardston, Mass. When the war broke out he was teaching school in Petersham, Mass. He 
gave up teaching and enlisted in Co. K, 2ist Regt., Mass. Vols., serving as private, ser- 
geant, lieutenant and captain; participating in the battles of Roanoke Island, Newbern, 
Camden, .Second Bull Run, Chantilly, Antietam and Fredericksburg. Was wounded in the 
battle of Newbern. The arduous service of the regiment causing its reduction in numbers 
and its consolidation with the 36th Regiment, Capt. Aldrich resigned his commission, received 
an honorable discharge and returned to his native town, where he married Helen Louisa Morse, 
daughter of Benjamin E. and Mary(Howe)Morse. In 1866 he came to Boston and entered the 
produce business, in which he has been successfully engaged for the past thirty years. He 
came to Somerville in 1880, and soon after bought land on the undeveloped part of Ciilman 
street, laid out a new street leading from it, which now bears his name, and started develop- 
ment in that section by building several modern houses, which example was rapidly followed 
by others until the entire section was built upon. Eight years later he bought land and 
built a fine residence, 23 Franklin street, where he has since resided. 

He served in the Common Council in 1884 and 1885, and on the Board of Aldermen, 
1886 and 1887. He was the first captain of the Somerville Light Infantry after its reorgan- 
ization in 1886. He is a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M.; Somerville Chapter, R. A. M.; 
Post 139, G. A. R.; Loyal Legion, U. S.; Boston Chamber of Commerce; and Boston Fruit 
and Produce Exchange. 

Andrews, James Mills, son of Thomas and Clara (Mills) Andrews, was born in Free- 
dom, N. H., May 22, 1837. He was educated in his native town, and in 1857 removed to 
Charlestown, and in 1885 came to Somerville to reside. In 1862 he was married to Mira 
A. Wood, daughter of Horace P. and Belinda A. Wood of Freedom, N. II., and they have 
one son, Horace. Mr. Andrews is engaged with his son, under the firm name of J. M. 
Andrews and Son, as carpenters and builders, and they have erected some of the most im- 
portant edifices in this and the adjoining cities. Mr. Andrews is a member of Carroll Lodge, 
F. A. A. M., of Freedom, N. H., the Royal Arch Chapter and Orient Council of Somerville, 
the Cceur de Lion Commandery and Scottish Rite Masons, and the Ivanhoe Lodge, 
Knights of Pythias. In 1895 ne served the city as a member of the Common Council from 
Ward 3, and in 1896 as a member of the Board of Aldermen, being in that year chairman 
of the committees on printing and the police. 

Andrews, John, was born in Southington, Conn., in 1845, the son of William and 
Theodosia (Evans) Andrews. His education was begun in the public schools of his native 
town, and completed at the Hudson River Institute at Claverick, N. Y. At the beginning of 
the war he enlisted as a private in the First Connecticut Cavalry, was promoted twice and 
served until the close of the war. He then engaged in the building business with his father. 
While a resident of Killingly, Conn., he served on the School Board of that town. Mr. 

484 




L. FRANK ARNOLD. 




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SOMEKl'/LLE, PAST AND /'RESENT. 4*7 

Andrews has for a number of years been engaged in the asbestos business, and is at present 
connected with the Asbestos Paper Co., Boston. lie came to Somerville in 1884, and has 
served the city one year in the Common Council, and two years, 1893 and 1894, in the Board 
of Aldermen, being president of the board in 1894. He is a member of the John Abbot 
Lodge, F. A. A. M., Willard C. Kinsley Post, G. A. K., and the Loyal Legion. Mr. Andrew* 
was married to Miss Mary E. Graham, October 28, 1874. They have four children and 
reside at 34 Albion street. 

Armstrong, William M., was born at Mechanic Falls, Me., August 17, 1850, the 
son of Francis and Rebecca (Merriam) Armstrong. When four years of age he \\ent to 
Cape Cod, where he remained until he was sixteen. For a year he was employed by the 
Baltimore Steamship Company, and then was for a time engaged in ship and fur- 
niture carving. He subsequently went with his brother Samuel into the cooperage business 
in Boston, remaining with him fifteen years, until 1886, when his brother died. The firm 
came to Somerville about fifteen years ago, where it continues, doing a large business at its 
shops on Somerville avenue. In addition to its works in this city, the firm has a mill at 
Athol, Mass., and another at Brookline, X. II. Mr. Armstrong was for a number of years 
president of the Somerville Y. M. C. A., and is a member of John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M., 
Somerville Chapter, Royal Arcanum, and United Workmen. He served the city in the 
Common Council of 1890. He married Mary A., daughter of Isaiah and PhebeX. (Fish 
I latch of Sandwich, Mass. They reside on Summer street. 

Arnold, L. Frank, was born at Somerville, September 4, 1845, tne son f Leonard 
and Irene G. (Clark) Arnold. His education was obtained in the Somerville schools, and 
he has always resided in this city. He is interested in street railways and in real estate in 
Boston, and is well known among business men as one full of industry and enthusiasm in 
the work in which he is engaged. He is a member of John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M., 
and other Masonic bodies; is a member of the Sons of the American Revolution, and is 
one of the order of the Cincinnati and the only member in Somerville; in this organization 
he succeeded his father, Leonard Arnold, who, at the time of his death, was the oldest 
living member, having belonged to the society fifty-live years. Mr. Arnold married Mi>* 
Lilla E. Poole, October 25, 1877. Their residence is at 28 Yinal avenue. 

Backus, Edward, was born in Cambridgeport, Mass., August o, 1848, the son oi 
George 15. and Jane G. Backus. He attended school in his native city, and went to Maine in 
1869, where he followed various pursuits, remaining four years. In 1874 he engaged with 
Stearns & George, Boston, electricians, and after five years went to work for the American 
Bell Telephone Company, with which he remained twelve years, leaving there to go with the 
Gamewell Fire Alarm Telegraph Company, where he acquired greater knowledge, which 
served him and the city of Somerville to great advantage when Mr. Backus was appointed 
superintendent of the city fire alarm telegraph in i88q. He held the position three year*, 
and then went to Cambridge, where he became connected with the Cambridge Fire Alarm 
system, and this year was called back to Somerville to be superintendent of the lamps of 
the entire city, having charge of about ninety miles of wire, 470 arc and 360 incandescent 
lamps, full control of the lire alarm and police signal systems, the city telephones, etc. 

Mr. Backus can be called a thorough master of his business, and discharges hi> duties 
with efficiency, promptness, courtesy and fidelity. He came to Somerville in iSS;. and now 
resides at 91 Munroe street. He married Mary Ellen 1 >oe of Lexington in 1873,3111! h.i- 
two children. Mr. Backus is a member of St. Omer Lodge of Knight* "I I'ythias. ol ( am- 
bridge. 

Bailey, Ernest W., was born I>ecember 20, 1866, at the old homestead, corner of 
Highland avenue and Central street, and has continued to live there until the present time, 
llis father, A. II. Bailey, one of the lii>t residents of Somerville. died when his son was 



488 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

about thirteen years of age. Mr. Bailey received his education in the public schools of this 
city, graduating from the Forster Grammar School, attending the High School and com- 
pleting his school days at Tufts College, where he fitted for the profession of a civil engineer. 
On leaving college he entered one of the oldest and best engineering firms in Boston, where 
he acquired the practical and business knowledge of the profession he had chosen to follow. 
Mr. Bailey remained with this firm about two and one-half years, being engaged in all lines 
of engineering; in August, 1887, he was selected, by the former city engineer, H. L. Eaton, 
as his first assistant in the City Engineering Department of Somerville, which position he 
held until the death of Mr. Eaton in November, 1895. Mr. Bailey was then made the 
acting city engineer for the remainder of that year, and, in January, 1896, was appointed 
city engineer, being the youngest of the city's officials. During his first year as city engi- 
neer some of the most important engineering in the city has been carried out, such as the 
connecting of the entire system of city sewers with the metropolitan or state sewer, and the 
large storm-water drain and sewer through the Tannery Brook Valley in West Somerville, 
besides many other local improvements in the engineering line. 

Mr. Bailey is a member of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers, the New England 
Water Works Association, Somerville Central Club, Somerville Young Men's Christian 
Association, and other social organizations. 

Bailey, J. Warren. New Hampshire has furnished many prominent sons now resi- 
dents of our growing city, and among those highly esteemed is the subject of this sketch. 
Mr. Bailey was born in Derry, June 3, 1846, the son of Jeremiah and Harriet N. Bailey- 
His school advantages were favorable to his receiving a fine education, and at the age of 
nineteen he was appointed to a position in the Rhode Island State Prison, remaining there- 
in four years, and retiring as deputy warden. He then went to the Massachusetts State Pris- 
on, where he served in a similar capacity, under Warden Haynes. In 1872 he had tired of 
the line he had pursued so long, and established himself in business in Bromfield street, Bos- 
ton, but the store was soon too small for his increasing trade, and nearly thirteen years ago 
he moved to the spacious store at 108 Tremont street, where he now conducts the finest em- 
broidery establishment to be found in Boston, as many of our citizens can testify. Mr. Bailey 
came to Somerville in 1872, was elected to the Common Council eight years after, and re- 
elected the subsequent year, being chosen president of the body. In 1884 and 1885 he was 
elected to the House of Representatives, where he served with marked distinction. He has 
always taken great interest in any matter relating to West Somerville, and his name is identi- 
fied with all the prominent fraternal and social organizations, besides that of the Day-street 
Congregational Church. He is now president of the flourishing West Somerville Co-opera- 
tive Bank; a member of Elm Council, Royal Arcanum; Cameron Lodge, Knights of Honor; 
and Provident Lodge, A. O. U. W., in all of which he has been the presiding officer. 

July I, 1894, Governor Greenhalge, in looking over the State for a prison commissioner, 
selected Mr. Bailey as being one who by experience and education would cause him to fill 
the position with credit, and he was appointed for the term of five years and immediately 
confirmed. 

Mr. Bailey married for his first wife Miss Emeline R. Clark, daughter of Eben T. and 
Rebecca (Kimball) Clark, and had one daughter, Edith Newell, now a young lady promi- 
nent in Somerville's society. His second wife was Miss Jennie N. Loud, daughter of George 
B. and Susan J. Loud, of Plymouth, Me. Mrs. Bailey has always taken a lively interest in 
local affairs, especially in church and philanthropic work. They reside at the corner of Or- 
chard and Dover streets. 

Baldwin, Fred C., for the past three years master of the Forster School, is a native 
of the Granite State, having been born at Nashua in 1859. His early education was obtained 
in the schools of Manchester, N. H., and he was graduated from Dartmouth College in the 



SOMKRl'lLLE, PAST AND I'Rl-'.Sl-'.XT. 

class of iSSi. Previous to his graduation he taught winter terms at Harwich and South 
I ifiinis, Mass., and subsequently was engaged at the latter town until the winter of 1883, 
when he was called to the mastership of the Franklin-street School of Manchester, X. II. 
After a service of seven years lie was promoted to the mastership of the Ash-street School, 
the largest school in the city. Here lie completed the tenth year of his connection with 
the schools of Manchester before accepting his present position in Somerville. 

Ball, John N., was born at Antrim, \. II., in 183:;. When he was three months old 
his parents removed to Marlow, where lie attended the district and high schools, remaining 
there until he was seventeen years of age. lie then went to Nashua, where he kept a hotel 
eight years. Subsequently he removed to Wisconsin where he resided two years, and then 
went to New Orleans where he remained eight years, from 1863 to 1871, two years of which 
he was engaged in the United States custom service and four years as deputy collector of 
revenue. Mr. Ball has been in the pasted-shoe stock business for many years, having a 
factory at North Somerville. lie is a member of the Common Council and of the Knights 
of Honor, and resides at 690 Broadway. 

Barker, Nathaniel C., assistant chief of the Somerville Fire Department, was born at 
Piermont, N. H., Sept. 28, 1836, and was educated in the public schools of that town. When 
sixteen years of age he went to Manchester, N. H., and found employment in one of the 
cotton mills there. He had been a resident of that city but a few months when he was 
elected a member of the Torrent No. 5 Hand-engine Company, and subsequently elected sec< >nd 
assistant foreman, which position he held when that engine made its famous record of 180 
feet perpendicular playing at the Worcester, Mass., firemen's muster, September 5, 1857, 
which gave it first prize, defeating fifty-three competitors, including the best engines in New 
England. Captain Barker held the pipe on that historical occasion. 

When the war broke out he was one of the first to enlist, and went to the front witli 
the nth N. H. Volunteers, one of the best regiments that went from that State. He \\as 
elected corporal soon after enlistment, and subsequently promoted to sergeant. He was 
wounded at Cold Harbor, which confined him to the hospital eleven months, and rendered 
him unfit for further service. He then returned to New Hampshire, and after a long con- 
tinued sickness was appointed a turnkey at the Hillsboro' County Jail, where he remained 
eighteen months, resigning to learn the trade of carpenter. 

He came to Somerville in 1870, and entered the employ of a prominent builder, and 
has been engaged in the building business ever since. October I, 1871, he was enrolled as 
a member of Hook and Ladder Co. No. i, and was promoted to assistant foreman in January. 
1872, and foreman,'i875, which position he occupied until promoted to his present position 
in January, 1877. He is a prominent member of the G. A. R. and other organizations. 

Barnes, Walter S., son of Clark and Sarah (Corse) Barnes, was born in Enosburg, 
Vt., November 2, 1838. He was educated in the district schools. He came to Boston in 
1855, and was employed in a hat and cap store. In 1861 he became bookkeeper for a 
paper-box manufacturer, and in 1868 went into the business on his own account. His es- 
tablishment was burned out in the great fire of 1872. and again in March, 1893, by the 
Essex-street fire. He moved to Somerville in 1863, and was elected to the Common Council 
in 1872, 1873 and again in 1876. In 1879 he was a member of the School Hoard, and from 
1883 to 1888 was a member of the Somerville Water Board, and as such did most efficient 
and valuable service, lie was a member of the standing committee of the Hot Congrega- 
tional (Unitarian) Church for several years from 1859, and served as treasurer of that society. 
He is a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M., Paul Revere Lodge, I. (). (.). F., and Winter 
Hill Lodge, K. II. \lr. Barnes married Miss Melissa, daughter of Mosel and Abigail 
(Goddard ) Aldrich of Middlesex, Vt. His business, that of a paper-box manufacturer, is 
located at 301-3 Congress street. 




GEORGE E. BAXTER. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND J'RKSI-^VT. 491 

Baxter, George E., was born in Pawtucket, k. I., April 19, 1856. His parents re- 
moved to Boston in 1858, and lie received his education in the public schools of that city. 
He went to work in his thirteenth year, and when sixteen years old secured employment 
with a veneer and lumber concern, and has since been identified with that business. Mr. 
Baxter was for four years treasurer of the Lumber Dealers' Association of Boston. In 1885 
he entered into partnership with Mr. John M. Woods under the firm name of [ohn M. 
Woods iV Co., and remained as a partner in that concern until September I, 1894, when he 
withdrew his interest and started in business in his own name in the same line with extensive 
yards, dry kilns, etc., in Kast Cambridge, with an office in Boston. 

In 1876 Mr. Baxter was married to Miss Charlotte R. Myers of Boston, and a year later 
came to Somerville to reside. In 1888 he bought the estate No. 75 Boston street, and has 
since largely improved it. In politics Mr. Baxter has been a Democrat, and has been honored 
with the nomination to the School Board in 1892, the Legislature in 1893, ar)( l ' n '^94 was 
nominated for Mayor of the city. Mr. Baxter is a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M., an 
officer in Somerville Royal Arch Chapter and ( )rient Council of R. & S. M., and a member 
of De Molay Commandery. Is past dictator of Warren Lodge, K. of II., and a member of 
Winter Hill Lodge, U. (.). of W. 

Baxter, George L., the son of William W. and Ann E. (Weld) Baxter, was born at 
Ouincy, Mass., October 21, 1842, and is descended from Gregory Baxter, who came from 
England with Winthrop, and married Margaret Paddy, sister of William Paddy of the 
Plymouth Colony. He obtained his early education in the Quincy schools, entering at 
eleven years upon a course preparatory to college with special reference to the profession of 
teaching, was admitted to Harvard College in 1859 and graduated with high honors in 1863. 
1 )uring his college course he had become well acquainted with the management of the 
public schools and the methods of instruction, and immediately on graduating began his 
work of teaching. He taught Latin and English in a private French school in Boston till 
April, 1864, when he was appointed, at the age of twenty-one, principal of the Reading High 
School. After remaining at Reading nine months, he was chosen principal of the Plymouth 
High School as successor to A. P. Stone. He taught nearly three years at Plymouth, and in 
July, 1867, came to Somerville to the position of principal of the High School. He has had 
thirty-two graduating classes and 1,500 graduates, of whom over 400 have completed a course 
preparatory to college. In 1872 he married Ida F., daughter of William and Sarah E. L. 
(Berry) Paul, and has one son, Gregory Paul Baxter, a recent graduate of Harvard. 

Besides tilling various offices in other societies, he was secretary of John Abbot Lodge 
and Somerville Chapter of R. A. Masons for nearly twenty years, and he has been associate 
corporator and trustee of the Somerville Savings Bank since its incorporation. 

Bean, James W., was born in Somerville in 1866. He is the son of Police -officer 
George W. Bean, who has been a resident of Somerville for nearly fifty years. After grad- 
uating from the Luther V. Bell ( Irammar School in 1880, and the Somerville High School 
in 1884, he learned the rudiments of the printer's trade and reporter's art in the office of 
the "Somerville Journal." In iSS6 he became the Somerville and Cambridge correspondent 
of the " Boston Post,'' and later had market reporting added to his work. He remained in 
those capacities for about two years. In iSSS he associated himself with the Boston " 1 'aily 
Advertiser," where for four years he was assistant commercial editor. While on the " Adver- 
tiser " he also held the positions of city editor of the Cambridge " Chronicle " for three years 
and city editor of the Cambridge "Press '' for one year. In 1891 he formed a copartnership 
with Mr. C. Burnside Seagrave, of Cambridge, under the title of the Cambridge Chronicle 
Company, and purchased the "Chronicle," which has been conducted by the company ever 
since. The " Chronicle " is a leading weekly newspaper in Middlesex County, that height 
having been reached under the present management. Besides publishing the paper, the 




JAMES W. BEAN. 



.U/-7S I '//././:. J'.IST AND I'Rl'.SI-.XT. 493 

concern does a first-class job printing business. Tn 1891 and iS()2 Mr. Mean served in the 
Common Council, and is undoubtedly tin- youngest man ever elected to that body. Mr. 
Bean is married, has one child, and resides at No. 40 Columbus avenue. 

Beekman, Rev. Garret, is a native of Ne\v Jersey, in which state he lived until early 
manhood. His educational advantages up to the age of sixteen were few. At this point he 
began a systematic course of reading and study, and under the direction of private teachers 
prepared himself for what soon became his life-work. In 1867 he entered the Theological 
School of Boston University, from which he graduated in 1870. In April, 1 868, he 
organized what is now known as the Flint-street M. V.. Church of Somerville. He was its tn-i 
pastor, and served it for two years. In April, 1870, he joined the New Kngland Conference 
on trial, and was admitted to full membership in 1872. I lis first charge after joining the 
conference was at Byfield, Mass., which he served for the full term of three years. His sub- 
sequent appointments were Lawrence, Mass., Lynn, Danvers, Worcester, Southbridge, Ros- 
lindale, Boston, Chicopee Falls, Westboro, and now West Somerville. During this period 
he organized the church at Middleton, Mass., and that at West Roxbury. The Parker- 
street Church of Lawrence, Mass., was built largely through his personal endeavors. < >n 
other charges churches have been enlarged and beautified, and oppressive debts paid princi- 
pally through his instrumentality, and in some of the churches he has served there have 
been sweeping revivals under his leadership; this is the third year of his pastorate in West 
Somerville, where he ministers to a strong and growing church. 

Belknap, Austin, was born in Westboro, July 18, 1819, the son of John and Ruth 
(Fay) Belknap, of that town. His education was obtained in the district school of his 
native town, and at the Worcester Manual Labor High School, from which he was graduated 
as a civil engineer. After some experience in railroad construction, he came to Boston in 
1843, and entered the general produce and commission business, in which he has remained 
until the present time. Mr. Belknap came to Somerville in 1853. He served the town as 
selectman in 1869, 1870 and 1871, and the city as member of the School Committee in 1862, 
1863 and 1864. He was a trustee of the Public Library in 1873 and 1874, ami was mayor in 
1876 and 1877. Mr. Belknap is a member of the John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M.; Somer- 
ville Chapter, R. A. M.; and De Molay Commandery, K. T. Mr. Belknap married Mi-s 
fane P., daughter of Hollow ay and Frances (Read) Brigham, of Westboro. 

Bell, Luther V., M. D., LL. D., was born in Chester, N. H., December 20, 1806. 
He was graduated from Bowdoin < 'ollege before he had finished his seventeenth year. I It- 
received his medical degree from the Hanover Medical School. He early distinguished 
himself in the practice of his profession, particularly in surgery and in the treatment of tin- 
insane . In January, 1837, he entered upon his duties as superintendent of the McLean 
Asylum for the Insane, and for twenty years conducted the institution with rare ability and 
success. He was everywhere acknowledged as an authority on all questions connected \\ ith 
his profession. He was always interested in whatever affected the welfare of Somerville. 
and was chairman of the School Board from 1843 to lS 47- In IlS 5 lu ' was a member of 
the Executive Council, in 1852 a candidate for Congress, and in 1856 for the office of Gov- 
ernor. In 1856, in consequence of failing health, he retired from the McLean Asylum, and 
thenceforth resided in Charlestown. In 1861, animated by an intense love of country, 
notwithstanding his feeble health, he offered his services to the State, and was commissioned 
as surgeon of the i ith Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers. He engaged immediately in 
active service, being soon promoted to the post of Brigade Surgeon and finally to that nt 
Division Surgeon. As a result of exposure and the rigors of the service, after a brief illiu 5S, 
he died February II, 1862. 

My vote of the Schoul Moard on March I, 1862, the primary school on Cherry street 
was named the L. V. Bell School in his memory. In iSo; this school was closed, and in 
the school on Vinal avenue was named the Luther V. Bell School in his honor. 




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SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT, 495 

Bennett, Clark, \\as born In Londonderry. \ t., November ;, iSio. His ancestors 
were among the early settlers of ( iroton, Mass. His grandfather, David, early joined the 
Continental Army, and served in the siege of Huston. Mr. Bennett was the eldest son of 
nine children. When he was twenty-one years old he settled in Somerville, then ( hurlestou n. 
where for twenty-five years he successfully carried on the brick business, then a leading 
industry of the town. Later he followed the insurance business. 

Mr. Dennett's actions on all public matters requiring his attention were controlled by a 
conscientious desire to do right, as well as a full knowledge of the requirements, present and 
future, of our growing city. The abatement of the Miller's River nuisance, the inauguration 
of an excellent sewerage system, more especially for West Somerville, the widening and 
grading of Somerville avenue, and the construction of the public park, all bear witness to 
his unremitting efforts to place Somerville on a parwith her sister cities. The record of Mr. 
Dennett's official service includes eleven years on the School Committee, a part of the time 
its chairman, the town treasurership, and three years' service in the Hoard of Aldermen. 
Mr. Bennett died January 6, 1882. The Bennett School was named in his honor by vote of 
the School Board, April 8, 1868. 

Bennett, Dana W., son of Clark Bennett, was born in Somerville, February 28, 1859. 
He received his education in the Somerville schools, from which he graduated with great 
credit. He is now engaged in the insurance business at 82 Water street, Boston, and rep- 
resents for that city and Massachusetts large fire and accident insurance corporations. 
He was a member of the city government for five years, serving three years in the Common 
Council, and retiring from the Board of Aldermen in 1887 after two years' service. Mr. 
Bennett is a member of John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M. Fie resides at 41 Putnam street. 

Bentley, George William, son of John and Caroline Bentley, was born September 14, 
1859, at Sutton-Coldfield, England. Coming to America in i88i,he settled in Massachusetts 
in the year 1882. In 1883 he entered upon the line of business in which he is now engaged. 
In 1892 the "George William Bentley Company" was incorporated under the laws of 
Massachusetts, for the purpose of transacting business as manufacturers' agents, and Mr. 
Bentley is in charge of the business. He is a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M., of 
Somerville Royal Arch Chapter, and of I >e Molay Commandery of Knights Templar; also of 
Unity Council, Royal Arcanum. For the greater part of the time since coming to Massa- 
chusetts he has resided in Boston and Somerville, being at present located at the handsome 
residence, No. 19 Adams street, Winter Hill. He was married to Miss Emma I. Myers of 
New York City, and they have three children. 

Berry, William H., son of Robert Berry and Maria (MacMahon) Berry, was born 
March 25, 1855, in New jersey. His father died while William was a child in New 
York, after which event his mother moved with the family to Lexington, Mass., where In- 
remained until he was twelve years of age. The family removed to Somerville about iSi>-. 
He was educated in the public schools of Lexington and Somerville, and in a commercial 
college in Boston. He was employed for three years in the wholesale department of K. II. 
White's store, and at the age of eighteen commenced learning the mason's trade with John 
\V. Leighton of Boston, lie was engaged in that trade in California for three and one-hall 
years from 1874. He was engaged in the hacking and carriage business at 14 to 20 Custom 
House street, Boston, for four years, and in May, 1889, purchased the property which i* 
known as the Custom House Stables, uhere he puts up from one hundred to t\\o hundred 
horses daily. 

Mr. Berry has also considerable real estate in Somerville and Winthrop, lie served 
in the Common Council of Somerville in i 8^4-95, and on the Board of Aldermen of 1896. 
He is a member of Mt. Sinai Lodge, I. O. < >. 1.. North Cambridge, and the ^omerville 
Encampment; also of St. John's Lodge, 1- '. A. A. M.. of Boston, Somerville Royal Arch 




I. 






EDWARD BACKUS. 





HIRAM R. BISHOP. 




J. ALBION BRIGGS. 



SOMl-'Ml'ILLl-:, PAST .1X1) PRESENT. 499 

Chapter, Orient Council, and De Molay Commandery, lie- \\as mairied in iSSi.and lias 
three children. lie resides at j<) Cherry street. 

Bingham, Norman Williams, was horn in Derby, Vt., May n>, 1X20, and educated in 
the publfc schools and in the academies at Derby and St. Johnsbury, \ t. lie studied law at 
Irasburgh, and in iX^S was appointed Clerk of < irleans County Court, and thus becam< 
ex offlcio Clerk of the Supreme ( 'ourt and the Court of < 'hancery a-, well. I Hiring the war 
for the Union he held several important places of trust, both State and national, and his 
services were of great value to the country. In 1866 he was made special agent for tin- 
United States Treasury Department, and three years later was placed in charge of the cus- 
toms revenue district of New Kngland. comprising thirty-two collection di-trr.'ts. He held 
this important position until 1885, and discharged its arduous and exacting duties with great 
ability and fearless independence. His experience and influence led to the modification and 
improvement of the i u>tom> laws, and to a marked increase in the efficiency of that depart- 
ment of public service. Mr. I'.ingham removed to Somerville in I 869, and has always been 
influential in furthering the interests of the city. He was elected to the School Hoard in 
1880, and served without interruption for fifteen years. His labors in connection with 
schools have been marked by a discriminating regard for their interests and by constant 
effort to secure their advancement. Th-j school on Lowell street, erected in 1886 and en- 
larged in 1894, was named the Bingham School in perpetuation of his name and memory. 

Binney, Martin, second son of Barnabas and Jane (Binney) Binney, was born at 
East Cambridge, Mass., February 24, 1831. He comes of Old Colony stock, which dates 
back to 1635, m ^"hich year Capt. John Binney, the ancestor of the family in America came 
from Kngland and settled in Hull, Mass. Mr. Binney passed his earlier days at Fast Cam- 
bridge, and received his education in the Cambridge schools. At the age of seventeen he 
was engaged in the clothing business, and subsequently was bookkeeper with How >.V Feeds 
in Boston, and after that entered the real estate and insurance business. Since the age of 
nineteen he has been connected with the militia of this State, he having joined the old Bos- 
ton Fight Infantry and the Fusileers at that period. 

In 1860 he joined the Somerville Light Infantry, Capt. Francis Tufts, and in April, 
1 86 1, was one of the first to enlist in this company (Co. I, 5th Mass. Vols. ) for three months' 
service, during which he participated in the battle of Bull Run. July 21, 1861. He was 
honorably discharged, August I, 1861, and in October following was commissioned second 
lieutenant in the loth Maine Volunteers. He was detached early in 1862, and appointed assis- 
tant adjutant-general upon the staff of Col. Dixon S. Miles, in which position he took part in 
several skirmishes and in the siege of Harper's Ferry in June, i8(>2, after which he was com- 
plimented in general orders for "gallant and meritorious services in action." lie \\a> in 
this siege promoted first lieutenant, had his horse shot under him and was himself badly 
injured. At the surrender of Harper's Ferry to the Confederate general, A. 1'. Hill, Lieut. 
Binney was with the other troops a paroled prisoner of \\ar, and remained such until Jan- 
uary i, 1863, at which date he was exchanged, lie immediately reported to Mai. -Gen. 
John E. Wool, commanding the Department of the East, headquarters in New York ( ity, 
where he remained until June, 1803. Again enlisting he was at once (March iS. 1X04 
commissioned lirst lieutenant, and assigned to ( !o. B. 28th Mass. Vols. ( Faugh-a-Ballaghs , and 
soon after was appointed upon the staff of Cen. Thomas smythe of the Irish Brigade, ist 
div., 2d (Hancock) corps. In May, 1864, he was promoted to captain in that regiment, and 
in July was appointed personal aide-de-camp to Maj.-Cen. Frank C. Barlow, commanding 
the ist Div., 2d corps, and was retained in the same position 1>\ Maj.-i ien. Nelson A. MiU>, 
who succeeded Cen. Barlow, until August 25, 1804, <>n which date, at the battle of Keam>' 
Station, his horse was killed beneath him, and he was wounded in the 1 -g and received 
other injuries which incapacitated him from further service in the war. and he was honor- 



500 SOMEKl'JLLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

ably discharged December 19, 1864. In his army service Capt. Binney participated in 
upwards of twenty-five battles and engagements, and had the reputation of being a most 
competent, daring and intrepid officer and soldier. After the close of the war he was rec- 
ommended by Maj.-Gens. Hancock, F. C. Barlow and Nelson A. Miles for a commission in 
the regular army. 

Since the war ( apt. Binney has done a large amount of ornamental pen-work, for which 
he is celebrated, and was for some time employed by Aaron Sargent, late city treasurer, to 
write the bonds issued by the city, they having been at that time made with the pen. He 
has also been employed as an accountant in clearing up complicated accounts. He was in 
the Common Council in iSSi and 1882, was an active member for nearly twelve years of 
the National Lancers, Boston, and is now an honorary member of that body; is a member 
(and Past Commander) of the W. C. Kinsley Post, G. A. R.; of the Damon Lodge, K. P., 
Washington, D. C. ; Antietam Command, L T nion Veterans' Union; and the Keystone Lodge, 
A. F. and A. M., of St. Louis, Mo. He is also a life member of the Lancers' Veteran Chari- 
table Association. He resides at 9 Linden Place. 

Bishop, Hiram R., was born in Stanstead, P. Q., Canada, in 1830, and his early life 
was passed in that town. After completing his education, he taught school three years 
in Stanstead, and then came to East Cambridge, where he entered the employ of Elijah 
Space, ladder manufacturer, in which position he remained seven years. He then removed 
to Somerville, purchased a tract of land on Broadway, where he built a ladder factory, and 
began the business of manufacturing and continued in it until his death, which occurred Feb- 
ruary 12, 1888. Mr. Bishop was a member of the first City Council of Somerville and a 
member of the Flint-street Methodist Church. He was a man of unblemished reputation, 
and was much esteemed in both public and private life. 

Bowman, Selwyn Z., was born in Charlestown, May II, 1840, the son of Zadock 
and Rosetta (Cram) Bowman, of that place. His early education was obtained in the public 
schools and high school of Charlestown, whence he passed to Harvard College, where he 
was graduated A. P.. in 1860 and LL. B. in 1863. He was admitted to the Suffolk bar in 
1863, and opened a law office in Boston, where he has ever since remained. Mr. Bowman 
came to Somerville in 1856. He has served the city as city solicitor in 1872, 1873, and for 
the last eight years. He represented the city in the Legislatures of 1870, 1871 and 1875; was 
in the Senate of 1876 and 1877 ; and represented the fifth congressional district in the 46th and 
47th Congresses in 1878-81. Mr. Bowman is a P. M. of John Abbot Lodge, and a member 
of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M.; a member of Somerville Chapter, R. A. M; the Central and 
Middlesex Clubs. Mr. Bowman married Miss Martha K., daughter of Bowen E. and Sarah 
A. (Mead) Tufts, of Lexington. They reside on Broadway. 

Brainard, Charles E., was born at Killingly, Conn., September 14, 1862, the son of 
James S. and Lucy A. (Chase) Brainard. He graduated from the Danielsonville High 
School, in the class of 1882, and for the first year thereafter taught at North Killingly, the 
home of William T. Harris, U. S. Commissioner of Education. For two years he was prin- 
cipal of the grammar school at Dayville. Connecticut, and for three years principal of the 
hfth district school at Putnam, in the same State. He then came to Massachusetts and was 
principal at Wellesley for one year. 

That Mr. Brainard was destined to be a leader in school work was evident to the school 
authorities of Somerville, when, in 1889, they elected hinf principal of the Edgerly School. 
The building was an eight-room one at the time, and he was the first male principal the 
school had ever had. Mr. Brainard brought to his new place an impetus such as few schools 
have ever enjoyed. His inspiration to make success instant and certain was soon caught up 
by his able corps of teachers and pupils, and the seven years in which he has held his position 
have been those of prosperity, earnestness, fidelity, and void of adverse criticism so far as he 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 501 

is concerned. He is always ready to add the newest ideas to his \mrk, and is as indefatigable 
as he is able. 

Mr. Brainard \vas president of the Somerville Teachers' Association for 1894-5, and is 
now local secretary of the Teachers' Annuity Guild. He is a member of the Massachusetts 
Schoolmasters' Club, besides various other teachers' organi/ations. He is also a member of 
Excelsior Council, Royal Arcanum. 

Mr. Brainard's mind lias line business bent, and it has led him to employ his summer 
vacation time in conducting the Wesley House at Cottage City, Martha's Vineyard. Com- 
mencing at the lowest round thirteen years ago, first as waiter, he made every department a 
thorough study, and six years ago became sole proprietor. The many patrons who have vis- 
ited L him can attest to his ability and geniality, it being his one endeavor to please all and 
give offense to none. In that way he has, in addition to the fine location of the house, 
made it second to none at Cottage City. Mr. Brainard married Enola C., daughter of Capt. 
Richard and Carrie Cunningham, at Gloucester, Mass., December 29, 1890. 

Brastow, George 0., was born in Wrentham, September 8, 1811. He came t<> 
Charlestown (Somerville) in 1838, and located on Spring Hill; was a large owner of real 
estate, and built many houses in the town. He was very prominent in the division of the 
town in 1842, and was chosen selectman in 1845 an< ^ a gain in 1867. He served on the 
school committee from 1847 to 1^62; represented Somerville in the House in 1849, 1850, 
1 85 1, and 1862; was a member of the Senate in 1854, and was again elected in 1866, serving 
four years, the last two as president. He went to the war as captain of the Somerville 
Company in 1862, and was afterward paymaster in the army. Mr. Brastow was chosen first 
mayor of Somerville in 1871; was re-elected in 1872; was a member of the Governor's 
Council in 1874, 1875, and 1876, and was one of the founders of the Middlesex and Somer- 
ville horse railroads, also of Post 139. He died at Canandaigua, N. V., November 2O X 1878. 

Briggs, J. Albion, was born in Westbrook, Me., December 2, 1852, the son of 
Albion K. P. and Caroline C. (Chase) Briggs. When quite young his parents moved to 
Woburn, Mass., and after a two years' residence there his father died, and the family moved 
to Portland, Me., where he attended the public schools. When twelve years of age he 
came to Boston, and was a graduate of the Mayhew School. He returned to Portland and 
entered the law office of Hon. W. H. Clifford. Mr. Briggs was afterward engaged in the 
shipping business in Portland, going from there to Cuba, continuing in the same business 
and residing in Matanzas. Returning to Massachusetts, he accepted a position as assistant 
superintendent of the Westboro Reform School, leaving there to accept a similar position 
in Philadelphia, where he remained five years. He came to Somerville in 1885, and asso- 
ciated himself with C. C. Davis, under the firm name of Davis and Briggs, in the real estate 
and insurance business in Union square. Since June, 1890, the business has been con- 
ducted by Mr. Briggs under the same firm name. He has the care of many large estate>. 
He is the Supreme Governor of the United Order of Pilgrim Fathers; member of \\onoha- 
quaham Tribe, I. O. R. M.; Somerville Lodge, A. (). U. W.; Central Club, Sons of Maine, 
Middlesex Club; was chairman of Ward 2 Republican City Committee, three years, He 
resides on Vinal avenue. 

Brigham, William E., editor and manager of the Somerville " Citizen " since Christmas, 
1894, and to whose personal energy the marked increase in the growth of the " Citi/en " and 
the organization of the new company, in consequence, are due, was born in I'.ostoii. Feb- 
ruary 1 6, 1865, but since the age of three and one-half years has lived at 4 1 lillside avenue, 
East Somerville. He graduated from the Prescott Grammar School in 1880 and from the 
Somerville High School in 1884, making a special success of the study of literature and 
kindred branches. He was one of the founders and the original editor of the s, , ]m i ville 
High School "Radiator," established in December, 1882, and which he conducted until his 



502 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

graduation. After a summer term as clerk at the popular Shirley House, Ocean Spray, 
Winthrop, Mr. Brigham went upon the Boston "Globe 1 ' as a reporter. In due time he was 
promoted to an editorial position, and was successively assistant night editor, assistant day 
editor, editor of Sunday correspondence a very responsible place and requiring the nicest 
judgment, and which he held four years and assistant to the assistant managing editor. 
Mr. Brigham resigned in July, 1891, to become managing editor of the Lynn "Daily Press,'' 
and resigned from that paper in October, 1893, to become assistant manager of the Keeley 
Institutes of Massachusetts, Rhode Island and. Connecticut, which office he held when called 
to take charge of the "Citizen," December 22, 1894. During 1893 and 1894 he lived in 
Lynn, a city to which he is warmly attached. 

Mr. Brigham is a charter member of the Boston Press Club, and lor several years was 
a director of it and one of its vice presidents, and is specially remembered for his brilliant 
work in arranging its popular series of receptions to noted personages, which he originated, 
beginning with the lamented Frank Mayo, and including such men as P. T. Barnum, George 
Kennan, Wilson Barrett, C has. Wyndham, and other famous actors and writers. Mr. Brig- 
ham is a member of the Central Club, has been a member of the Webcowit Club of Somer- 
ville, the select Park Club of Lynn, and has been for seven years a member of Soley Lodge, 
A. F. and A. M., and of Somerville Council, 103, Home Circle. He uas manager of the 
great Brigham family reunion, which took place in Odd Fellows' Hall, Boston, in October, 

1895, was the first president of the Brigham Club of Boston, and is president of thi: 
national Brigham Family Association, he having been elected to that position in October, 

1896, for a term of three years. Mr. Brigham is a widower, having buried a wife and 
two children. 

Bruce, George A., was born at Mount Vernon, N. H., November 19, 1839, the son of 
Nathaniel and Lucy (Butterfield) Bruce, of that town. He was fitted for college at the 
Appleton Academy in his native town, and was graduated at Dartmouth College in 1861. 
He enlisted in the Thirteenth New Hampshire Volunteers, and served as first lieutenant, 
aide, judge advocate, and assistant adjutant-general. He was mustered out July 3, 1865, 
and brevetted lieutenant-colonel. He studied law in Lowell, and was admitted to the bar in 
1866, and opened his office in Boston, where he has ever since remained. Mr. Bruce was 
a member of the New Hampshire Legislature in 1866, and of the Senate of Massachusetts 
in 1882, 1883 and 1884, being president of the Senate the last year. He came to Somerville 
in 1874, and served the city as mayor in 1877, 1880 and 1881. Mr. Bruce married Miss 
Clara M., daughter of Joseph F. and Sarah (Longley) Hall, of ( Iroton. They reside on 
Highland avenue. 

Burlen, Lorenzo Wickliffe, was born in Boston, < tctnber 4, 1850. His parents, Moses 
and Sarah Ann Burlen (nee Dickinson), and brothers M. Prescott, William Henry and 
Melancthon are all living, an only sister, Sarah Syrene, having died. Mr. Burlen was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Boston, having had for teacher, in the Mayhew School, Quincy 
E. Dickerman of our city, to whom he feels greatly indebted for physical as well as mental 
instruction. After two years of study in the English high school in 1866, he went to Eayr's 
private school on Somerset street, and became one of the most acuve members of the base- 
ball nine of that school, and participated in other athletic sports of those days, rowing, etc. 
In 1867 he was employed in the office of "The Narragansett S.S. Co." in the Old State 
House, now " Fall River Line.'" In April, 1868, he was appointed as messenger of the Na- 
tional Bank of the Republic, under the late David Snow, president, and Charles A. Vialle 
(now president), cashier. In February, 1872, he was appointed discount clerk of the Co- 
lumbian National Bank, the duties of which he faithfully performed for fifteen years until 
October i, 1887, when he was elected cashier of the bank, which position he now holds. 
Mr. Burlen is one of the best known men on State street and in the banking circles, having 




LORENZO W. BURLEN. 




CHARLES S. BUTTERS. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST .I.\7> PRESENT. 505 

attended in the business of the hanks with which he has been associated, at the Huston 
Clearing House, daily almost continuously for nearly thirty years. He was elected pres- 
ident of the Bank Officers' Association of Boston with a present membership of 619, at 
the annual meeting of the association in May, 1896. In October, iSlf), Mr. Burlen was 
married to Mary Helen, daughter of William and |un<- l\err (latter now deceased), and has 
two sons living, Loren/o Wicklillc, Jr., and William Kerr. lie has recently purchased a 
residence in Brookline. 

Burns, Mark F., son of Charles A. and Kli/abeth ( I futchinson i Hums, was born in 
Milford, X. II., May 24, 1X41. He came of good old New Fngland stock, and his parents 
were among the earliest and most active of the anti-slavery agitators and always leaders in 
every good cause, lie spent his early life on his father's farm, and obtained his education 
in the public schools of his native town and at the Appletmi Academy, in Mount Yernon, 
N. H. He taught school in New Jersey for three years, and one year in Milford and adjoin- 
ing towns. In i860 he located in Charlestown, Mass., and engaged in the milk busi- 
ness. In a few years he became one of the largest dealers in the State, carrying on 
both a wholesale and retail business, which he has continued until the present time, with tin- 
assistance of his sons, who now attend to the details of the business. Since 1873 Mr. 
Burns has resided in Somerville, with his business headquarters still in Charlestown. He has 
had large experience in municipal affairs, having been a member of the Somerville Common 
Council in 1880-81, the latter year its president; of the Board of Aldermen in 1882-83; 
trustee of the Public Library in 1884, and mayor of the city in 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888. I le was 
the first to suggest the formation of the Mayors' Club of Massachusetts, and was elected its 
first secretary, a position which he held for five years, and was then elected its president, 
serviVig the full term. For several years he was president of the Milk Contractors' Associa- 
tion. He has been a trustee of the Charlestown Five Cents Savings Bank, an institution 
having assets to the amount of over $6,000,000, since 1891. In March, 1895, he was elected 
its treasurer, and at the annual meeting held in the following June he was promoted to the 
office of president. He is also a director in the Monument National Bank, the Charles- 
town Gas and Klectric ( '<>., and the Mutual Protection Fire Insurance Co. On November 
17, 1862, Mr. Burns married Flvira Bovvers of Dunstable, Mass. By this union they had 
four children, who are now living, Samuel A., Robert, Maud and Paul S. Mrs. Burns died 
January 13, 1885, and on April 27, 1892, Mr. Burns married Sarah A. Miles of Somerville. 
The Burns School on Cherry street was built in 1886, during his mayoralty, and named in 
recognition of his services. 

Butler, John Haskell, was born in Middletown, Mass., August 31, 1841 ; he attended 
school in the public schools of Shirley and < Iroton, and Lawrence Academy in (Iroton, 
Mass., and was graduated from Yale in the class of 1863. He served in the LJ. S. Navy 
during the war. Mr. Butler was admitted to the bar in Middlesex County in October, iSo.s. 
from which time he was associated with Mr. William S. Stearns under the linn name of 
Stearns & Butler, in the practice of the law, until January I, 1892, when Mr. Stearns retired 
from practice. He has resided in Somerville since 1870, and served twelve years on the 
Somerville School Board. In the years i8So and iSSi he was a member of the House of 
Representatives, and in iNS(, 1X85 and 1 886, a member of the Lxccutive Council for the 
Third Councillor District. He is \\annly interested in charitable and fraternal organi/ation-. 
and has held positions of honor and responsibility in many of them. 

Butters, Charles S., son of Charles and Olive S. i Brown ! Butters, was born in Bur- 
lington, Mass. He attended the district school of his native town, receiving only the 
limited education offered in those days, until he was twelve years old, when he worked on 
the farm, attending school the winter term of three months. At the age of nineteen he 
left home and accepted a position in a provision store on Main street, in Charleston n. 



506 SOMl-'.Rl'ILLE. PAST AND PRESENT. 

Mass. Here he remained two years, and then went to East Cambridge, following the same 
occupation. By thrift and perseverence he soon acquired an interest in the business, 
staying there about four years; he then sold his interest and bought a provision route in 
Boston, which he carried on sixteen years. In January, 1883, he opened a provision store 
in Union square, this uty, and in 1887 still further increased his business by opening 
another at the corner of Him and Porter streets; both these establishments he is operating 
at the present time. In 1872 he bought a home in Somerville, where he has since lived. 

Mr. Butters is a member of the I. O. O. F., the Knights of Honor, the Xevv England 
Order of Protection, United ( >rder of Workmen, P". A. A. M.,and Knights Templar, lie 
has served the city as a member of the Council two years, and has been treasurer of the 
Board of Stewards of the First M. E. Church of Somerville for the past sixteen years. He 
married, October 3, 1871, Miss Eunice A. Stahl of Waldoboro, Me. They have had six 
children, five of whom are living. His residence is at 19 Church street. 

Butters, Rev. George Shaw, was born at Lowell, Mass., where for many years his 
father was a prominent business man. Mr. Butters prepared for Harvard College at the 
Lowell High School, and was the valedictorian of his class. He entered Boston University in 
1874, and received his A. B. in 1878. After graduation he began to prepare himself to teach 
Greek, and went to the Andover Theological Seminary to thoroughly tit himself for college 
work. In the midst of the second year of this preparation the ministry became so attractive, 
he decided that his work was to be in the ministry. He then went to the Methodist Theolo- 
gical School in Boston, and completed his course in 1881. 

He joined the New England Conference, and had Barre, Mass., for his first pastorate. 
After three successful years he became a popular preacher at Jamaica Plain. He then went 
to Newtonville, where he was greatly beloved, and thence to Fitchburg, where he com- 
pleted the most successful term of his ministry. His fifteen years in the New England Con- 
ference have been marked by unusual success on all lines of church work. He is a frequent 
contributor for the press, and in the religious papers of his own and other denominations 
his name is often seen. As a story-writer he has also won some reputation. 

Rev. Mr. Butters is one of the most active Methodist ministers in young people's work, 
and succeeded Rev. W. I. Haven in the presidency of the New England Epworth League. 
He is much in demand as a speaker and lecturer for the various gatherings of the Epworth 
League and Christian Endeavor, and is remarkably well adapted to work of this kind. His 
congregations are characterized by the large attendance of young men, and very few ministers 
can surpass him in popularity with this interesting class. 

Mr. Butters is thirty-nine years of age, and has a wife and two children. Mrs. Butters 
is remarkably well titled for ihe exacting duties of a pastor's wife, and has been one of the 
most prominent factors in her husband's success. She was educated in the Boston schools, 
and is a woman of refinement and marked social gifts. 

Byam, William A., son of Ezekiel and Charlotte (Bateman) Byam of Chelmsford, 
Mass., was burn in that town July 20, 1820. He passed his bnyhoo 1 and early manhood at 
the homestead, having about three months' schooling, winters, and doing farm work or labor- 
ing in the faclory of the elder Byam (the originator of the match known by that name) 
during the rest of the year. lie localed in Charleslown in 1855, and on January I, 1856, the 
firm of Rand and Byam, soap manufacturers, was organized, and it continued the business 
uninterruptedly and successfully from that date to November I, 1895, when Mr. Rand's interest 
was purchased by Mr. Byam's two sons; but the style of the linn remains unchanged. In 
business and social circles Mr. Byam enjoys the implicit confidence of all who know him. 
Soon after locating in Charleslown he became a member of ihe Bunker Hill Baplisl Church, 
and in 1871 was eleclecl deacon, serving in that office until he removed to Somerville in 
1891. His interest and membership in that body are still continued. March 14, 1841, he 



SOMEKl'/LI.I.. PAST AND l'RI:Sl-:NT. 507 

was married to Mercy M. Parker of Chehnsford, Mass., by whom he had four sons and one 
daughter. Three of the sons are now living. The present Mrs. Byam was Mrs. Emma < . 
Pierce of Charlestown, to whom he was united June 6, 1870. After a residence of thirty- 
three years in .Charlestown, Mr. Byain purchased the handsome residence at 1 1 7 Pearl 
street, where he now lives. 

Carpenter, Allen F., was horn in Waterford, Yt, February 28, 1842. He was educated 
in the common schools of that town and in St. Johnsbury Academy. In 1869 he embarked 
in the grocery business in this city, and has continued in it very successfully until the present 
time. He enlisted in Company II, I2th Vermont Volunteers, and was mustered into the service 
in October, 1862; he served in theArmyof the Potomac, and was mustered out in July, iSo-. 
Mr. Carpenter was a member of the Common Council in 1889, and of the Board of Aldcrmt-n 
in 1890 and 1891. He was a representative to the General Court in 1893-4. I le is a member 
of Charity Lodge, F. A. A. M.; Cceur de Lion Commandery, K.T. ; Oasis Lodge, !.<>.< >. \ .- 
Willard C. Kinsley Post, G. A. R.; the I. O. R. M., and the Good Fellows. He is also a 
member of the Boston Chamber of Commerce, is president of the Boston Retail Grocers' 
Association, treasurer of the New England Grocers' Publishing Co., director of the Somerville 
National Bank and of the Sprague and Hathaway Co. He is also chairman of the Somerville 
Board of Health. 

Carr, Martin W., was born at Easton. Mass., March 9, 1829, the son of Caleb and 
Chloe (Parker) Carr, of that place. He is a direct descendant of Robert Carr, Governor of 
Rhode Island in 1692. His education was obtained in the district school and the Adelphian 
Academy at North Bridgewater. He began his business life by learning the manufacture of 
shovels with the Ames Company at North Easton. Thence he went to Attleboro, where he 
acquired a thorough knowledge of the art of manufacturing jewelry. In 1856 he went into 
business for himself at Attleboro. Five years afterward he was offered a forcmanship at the 
U. -S. Armory at Springfield, which he accepted, and remained there till 1864, when he came 
to Boston and re-entered the jewelry business, in which he still continues. Mr. Carr came 
to Somerville in 1864, and served the city two years as a member of the Council and two 
years as alderman, the last year of that service being president of the board. He also was 
a member of the Water Board one year, and has been a member of the School Committee 
since 1884. He is a member of John Abbot Lodge, F. A. M. ; Somerville Chapter, R. A.; 
Coeur de Lion Commandery, K. T.; the Central and Mystic Valley Clubs; the Massachusetts 
Charitable Mechanic Association; and Excelsior Council, Royal Arcanum. Mr. Carr married 
Miss Emily Brackett, daughter of Joseph G. and Lucy (Butterfield) Brackett, of nuincy. 
They reside on Craigie street. 

Carvill, Alphonso Holland, M. D., son of Sewall and Tamar (Iliggins) Carvill. 
born in Lewiston, Me., Feb. 4, 1843. H e is of English and Scotch descent; his paternal grand- 
father served in the Revolutionary \Yar, and his father in the War of 1812. He was reared on 
a farm, attending school, sometimes private school, in the autumn and spring till eighteen years 
of age. From 1858 to 1861 he was for several terms at the Maine State Seminary. In IM>I 
he entered the Edward Little Institute at Auburn, Me., where he was titled for college. I le 
graduated from Tufts in 1866, taking the degree of A. M. in 1869, in which year he was 
graduated from the Harvard Medical School. Studied for a time in New York, Philadelphia 
and Chicago, and began practice, 1869, in Minnesota, removing to Somerville in May. iS- . 
He was for two years city physician of Somerville, and was one of the leaders in the establish- 
ment of the hospital, being a member of the building committee and on the board of 
trustees from the beginning, as well as member of the medical board and hospital st.ilf. He is 
a member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, Mass. HoiiKuopathic Medical Societv. 
Boston Homieopathic Medical Society, of Mass. Surgical and Gynecological Society. He 
was for twelve years a member of Somerville School Board, and is greatly interested in the 



508 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

temperance cause and in educational matters, and does his part in every worthy enterprise. 
August 1 8, 1869, he married Miss Mi ma S. Gray, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Swanson) 
( ',ray of Cambridge. His children are Sewall Albert and Li/.zie Maud Carvill. 

Chamberlin, Mrs. Harriet A., was born in the Tine Tree State in 1837. She has re- 
sided in Massachusetts nearly forty years and in Somerville since 1862. Her husband, 
Russell T. Chamberlin, enlisted in 1862 from Somerville in Co. B, 5th Regiment, and is a 
member of Willard C. Kinsley Post, G. A. R. Mrs. Chamberlin has always been active in relig- 
ious work, and is a member of the Park-avenue M. E. Church. She assisted in organizing the 
Woman's Auxiliary to the V. M. C. A., and is one of its leading members. She has been 
engaged in temperance work in Somerville for thirty-five years, and is a Past Worthy Patriarch 
of Clarendon Division, Sons of Temperance. She has been a constant worker in the W. C. 
T. U. since its organization, and was several times elected a delegate to its State Conventions. 
Mrs. Chamberlin assisted in organizing and was the second president of the Daughters of 
Maine. She is a member of the Ladies' Aid Association of the Soldiers' Home in Massa- 
chusetts, and has been interested in the work for ten years. In 1887 she joined "VYillard C. 
Kinsley Relief Corps, and was its president in 1891 and 1892. A gain in membership 
and interest was the result of her leadership. She has served as a representative in several 
department conventions, and visited various parts of the State on official work. She has 
made several trips to the South and West as a delegate from the Department of Massachu- 
setts to the National Convention of the W. R. C. She is also interested in the Independent 
Order of Odd Fellows, of which her husband is a member. Her name is on the charter of 
Ramona Lodge, Daughters of Rebekah, and she was its first (lady) Noble Grand. She is a 
member of the Helping Hand Society for the Aid of the Working Girls' Home in Boston. 
When the Ladies' Aid Association was formed to assist the Somerville Hospital, she became 
an active member, and was its president two years. She is earnest in all her work, and has a 
zealous interest in the welfare of others. Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlin have one daughter, who, 
since her marriage, has resided in Washington, D. C. 

Chandler, Leonard B., was born in Princeton, Mass., August 29, 1851 ; he attended 
the schools of that town until 1870, working on the farm in the meanwhile. At the age of 
nineteen he located in Charlestown, and soon bought a milk route in Boston, which he still 
owns. In 1873 he moved to Jaques street in this city, where he continues to reside. Mr. 
Chandler is a member of Cceur de Lion Commandery, K. T.; Somerville Royal Arch Chapter, 
R. A. M.: John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M.; Highland Chapter of the Eastern Star, Winter 
Hill Encampment, Erminie Lodge, Daughters of Rebekah; and is a Past Grand of Paul 
Revere Lodge, I. O. O. F. He is a member of the A. O. U. W. and the N. E. O. P. Mr. 
Chandler was two years in the Common Council, two years in the Board of Aldermen, and 
was elected a member of the General Court in November, 1896. 

Chase, Daniel E., senoir partner and founder of the firm of Daniel E. Chase and 
Company, was born at Warner, N. II., on the 3ist of October, 1829, and is one of the 
well-known family descended from Aquila Chase, a family which has included among its 
more prominent members such men as Salmon P. Chase, Chief Justice of the United States, 
and Senator from and Governor of Ohio, Bishop Chase of New Hampshire, Judge Horace 
Chase of Merrimack County, and other eminent men who have figured in our national history 
for several generations. Mr. Chase came to Boston from New Hampshire in 1850, and 
entered the firm of Ezra Trull and Company in 1857. Shortly after the death of Mr. Trull 
in 1864 a new firm was formed under the style of Chase and Trail, the senior partner being 
the late Colonel Ezra J. Trull, who was widely known in military and business circles 
throughout the State. The linn of Chase and Trull were at one time the largest distillers of 
New England rum in the world. Mr. Chase was Alderman from Ward 2 in the first City Govern- 
ment of Somerville, and has served on the School Board. In 1863 he connected himself 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND I'Rl-.Sl-.XT. 509 

with the Masonic fraternity, and rising quickly to prominence in that organi/ation, before 
1873 had been elected to lill the highest offices in lodge, chapter and commandery, and is 
to-day one of the best informed Masons in Massachusetts. Mr. ( 'hasr \\a> the lir-t High 
Priest of the Somerville Chapter, Royal Arch Masons. 

Cheney, Frederick E., son of Kdward W. and I.i//ie M. ; Adams. < 'hency, ua> Lorn 
in Nashua, N. H., October I, 1X55. He was educated in the schools of Wilton, X. II., 
graduating from the high school of that town. After leaving school he entered the employ 
of David Whiting \ Sons, remaining about eleven years. He then came to >"inerville, and 
in 1880 established himself in the grocery business at the corner of Marshall and Pearl street-, 
lie subsequently moved to his present spacious store in Odd Fellows' ISuilding, \\ here he- 
carries on a large and lucrative business, his establishment being well known as one of the 
most reliable in the city. Mr. < heney was married to Miss Fannie B. Clark, February J i. 
1885. They have one child and have lost two. He is a member of 1'aul Revere Lodge, 
I. O. O. F., of which he is a Past Noble Grand; Unity Council, Royal Arcanum; Soley Lodge, 
F'. A. A. M.; and has f.;r six years been a collector in the Arcanum. 

Clark, Elijah C., son of Leonard and Harriet (Clement) Clark, was born at Fast 
Corinth, Me., August 23, 1845. He was educated in the district schools, at the Fast 
Corinth Academy, and at I'.ryant and Stratum's College. Bangor, Me. He enlisted in the 
1st Maine Heavy Artillery in 1863, and served until the close of the war. He was seriously 
wounded at Petersburg, June 18, 1864, was at the capture of Richmond and Petersburg, and 
at the surrender of Lee's army, April 9, 1865. He came to Somerville in 1872, and served 
the city in the Common Council in 1878 and 1879, and in the Board of Aldermen in 1880, 
1 88 1 and 1882. He was representative to the Massachusetts Legislature in 1883 and 1884, 
and has been a trustee of the Public Library since 1889. He is engaged in the wholesale 
fruit and produce business in Boston, and is a member of the Boston Fruit and Produce 
Exchange ; of the Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M. ; Somerville R. A. Chapter ; 1 >e Molay Com- 
mandery, K.T. ; Excelsior Council, R. A. ; the Central Club, and Taylor Club of Boston, 
and is president of the Webcowit Club. Mr. Clark married Viola J. Peaslee, daughter of 
Daniel and Elizabeth (Holland) Peaslee of Xewton, X. H. They reside on Rush street. 

Clark, Joseph, was born in \Vindham, X. H., March i. 1798, the son of James and 
Mary Clark. He was a veteran of the war of 1812, and was a selectman of Somerville for 
tive years. Mr. Clark married Miss Lucy Locke of Charlestown in 1825, and in 1831) built 
the house on Washington street where he lived for forty years. He carried on an extensive 
business as a brick manufacturer. He died March 26, 1879. 

Clark, J. Foster, was born at Walpole, X. IT., October 28, 1832. In 1840 his parents 
removed to Alabama, (ienesee County, X. Y. He was educated at the Cary Collegiate 
Institute of ( )akfield, X. V. In 1852 he came to Boston and entered the employ of 
faazaniah Cross, and came to Somcn illc to reside in 18:54. In 1860 he\\as married to 
Martha B. Cutter, youngest daughter of Fitch and Lucy Hathorn Cutter, one of the <>lde>t 
families of Somerville. In 1865 he went to Titusville, Pa., and remained there nineyear>. 
engaged in the oil business; he was [incident of the Titusville Oil F.vhange three yeai>. 
He was made a Master Mason in Revere Lodge, Boston, in 1857, was one of the charter 
members of Soley Lodge, I-'. A. A. M., of Somerville, in 1879, and in 1881 \\a^ elei ted Wor- 
shipful Master; in 1864 he beeame a member of St. Andrews Royal Arch ( 'hapter of lloston, 
and in 1881 joined De Molay Commandery of Knights Templar < .1 !'..(, m. Ili-Ua member 
of the Royal Arcanum, Home Circle, Boston Chamber of Commerce, the lloston Fruit and 
Produce Exchange, Hull Yacht Club and \\Ybeou it Club, of which he was the firs! president. 
He is engaged in the wholesale llmir and produce business at 80 Commercial streit. 
Boston. 

Clarridge, George F., was born in Charlestown, Mass.. December |. i^J, and re- 



510 SOMERrJLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

ceived his education in the public schools of that city. In 1868 he entered the employ of 
Dr. H. L. Bowker & Co., of Boston, where he remained sixteen years learning the busi- 
ness of manufacturing chemist. On January I, 1885, he formed a copartnership with 
II. Cleveland Beach of Hebron, Ct., now of Maiden, Mass., for the purpose of manufacturing 
soda-water flavors, fruit juices, etc. They opened a factory at 42 India street, Boston, and 
three years later occupied the premises 41, 42 and 43 India street. Owing to the rapid 
growth of the business, they were soon obliged to secure larger quarters, and are now es- 
tablished in the five-story building, 52 to 58 Eastern avenue. In June, 1893, a corporation 
was formed under the laws uf the commonwealth, and Mr. C'larridge was elected treasurer, 
which office he now holds. Their business extends throughout the United States and 
Canada, and into foreign countries. 

Mr. Clarridge has had ten years' military experience, joining the Charlestown Cadets, 
( 'oinpany A, Fifth Regiment, M. V. M., in 1870. and in 1878 was elected first lieutenant. 
In 1879 he married a daughter of Andrew Tower uf < 'liarlestown, and has since resided in 
Somerville, where he has been actively identified with the Broadway M. E. Church, is also a 
member of the Board of Directors of the Y. M. C. A., and for the past two years it> 
president. 

Cole, Dr. Anna B. Taylor, was born at Lisbon, X. H. Her parents removed to 
\Vhitefield, N. II., when she was three years of age, and she was educated in the public 
schools of that town and at the Salem Normal School. After having taught school about 
three years, her attention was called to the great opportunities for doing good which the 
medical profession affords, and a natural aptitude for the care of the sick led her finally to 
the study of medicine at the Boston University Medical School, where she graduated in 1884. 
While a student, in spite of delicate health, she frequently served as night nurse, thereby ac- 
quiring valuable experience for her future work. Dr. Taylor practiced medicine six years in 
Charlestown. She moved to Somerville in 1890. In 1894 she was married to Herbert A. 
Cole of Somerville. She is a member of the Massachusetts State Homoeopathic Medical 
Society, Boston Medical Society, Hahnemannian Club, Surgical and Gynaecological Club, and 
of the Heptorean Club of Somerville. 

Cox, Edward, was born in Northampton, England, October 12, 1836, the son of James 
and Sarah (Pearson) Cox. His father was a native of Norwich, England, served in the 
English army, and fought in the battle of Waterloo. Mr. Cox came to this country when 
about eighteen years of age, and resided in Quincy; later he engaged in the boot and shoe 
business in Roxbury. In 1857 he moved to Cambridge, entered the real estate business, 
and built quite extensively. He came to Somerville in 1870 and operated in the real estate 
business. He married in Cambridge, in 1862, Miss Emma A. Crafts, daughter of Samuel 
and Eli/.abeth Crafts of Nottingham, England. He resides on Central street. 

Crosby, Cyrus F., son of Captain Michael and Margaret T. (Richardson) Crosby, was 
born in Billerica, Mass., Sept. 2, 1822. He attended the public schools of that town, and was 
graduated from the Billerica Academy. \Vhen very young, being on his way to Boston Mar- 
ket with his father, he witnessed the burning of the Ursuline Convent. He remembers dis- 
tinctly seeing the boats running on the Middlesex Canal through his native town on their 
way to Boston, where they landed their freight on Canal street; also the first train of cars 
running from Lowell to Boston. He moved to Somerville in 1851. His business was that 
of milk-contractor, bringing milk in cars from various towns in New Hampshire and Massa- 
chusetts. He was a charter member, and assisted in laying the corner-stone of the Franklin- 
street Congregational Church. He was many years chairman of the Parish Committee and 
superintendent of the Sunday-school. He was a member of the last Board of Selectmen of 
Somerville, and from 1860 to 1864 was a member of the School Board. He was married in 
1843 to Miss Lois E. Lane of Bedford, Mass. Mr. Crosby resides at 96 Glen street. 







EDWARD Cox. 




Residence of EDWARD Cox, 36 Central Street. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 513 

Cummings, David, sun of Samuel and Joanna (Andrews) < 'ummings. was ln.ni in Mid- 
dleton, Mass. His boyhood days were passed in that town and in Wenhain, in lioth \\'hich 
])laceshe attended school and acquired the rudiments of his education. At the age of ten years 
he took up his residence \vithhis uncle, Mr. Syl\ ester < 'ummings in l!o\ford. and attendr.l 
>chool there in winters and worked on the farm in summers, a- most country hoys did at that 
time. He remained in ll\lord about live years, and then went to I (anvers, where he worked 
at farming in the summers and at shoemaking in the winters. In 1X47 Jonas Warren, a 
merchant of long standing in Danversport, and one well known in Essex County, ottered him 
a. position in his store which was accepted ; and he continued in it two years, when, in con- 
sequence of a severe illness, he was obliged to resign. lie subsequently began manufactur- 
ing shoes in a small way for himself, and has continued in the business in company with his 
brother and others until the present time, their output having greatly increased and been 
for many years ranked among the largest and most popular of goods in their line on the 
market. Mr. Cummings is the head of the firm, and it is due largely to his industry and strict 
attention to business that the firm occupies its present high position. 

Mr. Cummings is president of the Somerville Electric Light Company, a director in the 
Cotton and Woolen Manufacturers' Mutual Insurance Co., and one of the trustees of Tufts < 'ol- 
lege and of Dean Academy at Franklin, Mass. He married Olive Caroline Ross, daughter of 
1 >eacon James and Lovey (Huntress) Ross of Shapleigh, Me. They reside at 8 Union street. 

Cummings, John Addison, was born in Nelson, N. H., January 16, 1838. His early 
education was obtained in the common schools of his native town and the Scientific and 
Literary Institute in New London, N. H., where he remained two years, teaching school 
during the winter. He then began the study of law, and continued it until the war broke 
out, when he was among the first to enlist. He was commissioned a lieutenant in the 6th 
New Hampshire Volunteers at the age of twenty-three, and served three years in that regi- 
ment in the Army of the Potomac and in the West. He was then made major of the 1st 
New Hampshire Cavalry, and served with Sheridan until the close of the war. After spend- 
ing two years at the West, he returned to Boston and entered the printing business in 1867. 
He took up his residence in Somerville, and became the publisher of the Somerville " Jour- 
nal " in 1871-72. In 1874 he was elected to the Legislature, and served two years. Ik- 
was a member of the Hoard of Aldermen in 1877 and 1878. In 1881 he was elected mayor, 
which office he held for four consecutive years. His record in this capacity reflects great 
credit upon him. He was faithful, courteous and painstaking, at the same time fearless and 
-justly conservative in municipal affairs. lie died January 6, 1887. The Cummings School 
was built during his mayoralty, and named for him in 1884. 

Cunningham, Thomas, was born in (iroton, Mass., January 3, 1815. lie came to 
Moston in 1823, and attended the Fort Hill and I lawkins->trcet schools until iSjS. when his 
father died, leaving to his care a mother and five sisters. From that time to the present 
year he was always an active worker in whatever occupation he was engaged. 

After working in various lines of business, he began to follow the sen in April. iS;j. 
continuing until February, 1857, when lie took up his permanent abode in Somerville. !b 
rose to be captain, and was master of some of the 1 1 nest ships sailing the ocean. 

The last ship in which Captain Cunningham sailed \\as the " < K van Fxptvs^," a clipper 
ship of 2,OOO tons, and one of the finest that ever sailed out of l!o>ton. The ship was built 
at Medford under his personal supervision, in 1854, and cost $98,000. Her first height bill 
was 883,500 for a trip from Chinchilla Island to Liverpool with guano. 

I pon quitting the sea he went into business in P.ostoii, and in 1857 built the hou-e he 
occupied at the time of his death, on < >ak street, in this city. lie was elected to the Hoard 
of Selectmen in 1860, and served during and after the war. I Ie was verv active in the work 
of raising money lor war purposes, and did a gre:i! deal lor the relict of the soldiers. When 



514 SOMERl'ILI.E, PAST AND PRESEXT. 

the war broke out he became recruiting officer of the town. He enrolled the town for the 
draft in 186}, and from 1862 to 1872 he paid out all the State aid, beside the finances of the 
' soldiers' relief fund.'' He went to the front three times with soldiers' goods, and visited 
Washington several times in regard to Somerville's quota. 

1-Yom 1863 to 1872 he tilled the office of town treasurer, and for the succeeding four 
years he was a member of the Water Board. For thirteen years he was assessor, and for ten 
years he was overseer of the poor. 

He was representative in the General Court in 1876 and 1878 under Speaker and after- 
ward Governor John I). Long. It was in 1877 that a bill was being considered to aid vete- 
ran soldiers and their families. Some member of the House complained that it was opening 
the way for too liberal expenditure in that direction. Captain Cunningham, fired by patriot- 
ism, and remembering the days of the rebellion, took the floor, and advocated opening the 
rlood-gates to assist the veteran, the widow and the fatherless, caused by the war. The cap- 
tain succeeded in carrying his point, and was warmly congratulated by Speaker Long. It 
was during his second year in the House that he secured the registry of deeds building in 
Last Cambridge. 

In 1888 he was appointed inspector of milk, and inspector of vinegar in 1889, holding 
both positions until March, 1896, when he retired to private life. Until last January he also 
held for several years the important office of inspector of animals and provisions. 

Captain Cunningham was very prominent in Masonic and other fraternal organizations. 
He wasa member of Boston Commanrlery, Knights Templar, John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M .. 
and Somerville Royal Arch Chapter, also of Oasis Lodge of Odd Fellows. He was an honor- 
ary, and formerly an active, member of the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company ot 
Boston, a member of the National Lancers, and the Somerville Veteran Firemen's Associa- 
tion, and an honorary member of the Somerville Light Infantry. 

His church relations were with the Prospect Hill Congregational Church, where he pro- 
fessed conversion, and joined the church Easter Sunday, 1890. Till the time of his death 
he continued an active member of that church. Many other positions of honor and trust 
were held by the captain. For many years previous to his death he was a director in the 
Cambridge National Bank. He was also superintendent, treasurer and part owner in the 
Somerville Union Hall Company, which organization owns the large wooden block in I'nion 
square, between Somerville avenue and Washington street. 

Captain Cunningham was twice married. His first wife was Maria C. Ingalls of An- 
dover; his second wife was Annie I., daughter of Rev. Wilson and Jane A. C. Ingalls, of 
Kinderhook, N. V. 

In December, 1895, Captain Cunningham received an apoplectic shock, and from that 
time until his death, which occurred August 10, 1896, he was an invalid. His funeral was 
most impressive, and the large attendance of prominent citizens showed the high estimation 
in which he was held. 

Curtis, Henry Fuller, M. D., son of Capt. Henry Fuller Curtis and Harriet Flizabeth 
(Worth) Curtis, was born at Kennebunk, Me., Aug. 22, 1864. ( >f pure New England an- 
cestry, his father, of the fifth generation from the original American ancestor of that name, 
followed the sea in his early life, and during the War of the Rebellion entered the United 
States Navy and had command of the despatch boat Gamma until peace was declared. His 
maternal grandfather, the Rev. Edmund Worth of Kennebunk, Me., who died in his ninety- 
first year, was a Baptist clergyman, well known in the States of Maine and New Hampshire as 
being prominent in religious and educational work, and also serving as representative to the 
General Court of the State of New Hampshire. He continued his public services up to within 
a few weeks of his death. An address written and delivered by him after passing his ninetieth 
birthday was published and reprinted, and used in the course of instruction in one of our well- 
known professional schools, an honor which he did not fail to appreciate. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT, 515 

Dr. Curtis spent his boyhood in Kennebunk, attending the public schools of that place. 
In the fall of 18X2 he entered the Water vi lie < 'lassical Institute, now Col mm ( 'lassical Insti- 
tute, of Waterville, Me., and graduated from it in the class of i,XS}. He then entered 
Colby I'niversity, and was graduated from it in the class of 18X7. In the fall of 1887 he 
entered the Harvard Medical School, and graduated from it in the class of i8ot. Dur- 
ing the year previous to July I, 1891, lie also served as house physician and surgeon at the 
Carney Hospital, South lloston, Mass. Dr. Curtis settled in Mast Somerville in August, iS<M. 
where he has since successfully practiced his profession. On July S, 1891, Dr. Curtis married 
Jenny Martin Wales of Boston, daughter of the late Martin Wales of Moughton, Mass.. and 
Olive E.Wales. They have two children: Susan Wales Curtis, born May 15, 1892; and 
Alice Elizabeth Curtis, born March 12, 1896. 

Dr. Curtis is a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M., Excelsior Council, Royal Arcanum, 
Charlestown Cotnmandery, U. O. G. C., Evening Star Lodge, Knights and Ladies of Honor, 
Somerville Medical Society, Fellow of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and for two years 
served on the Board of Censors of the last-named organization. He acts as medical examiner 
for several life insurance companies and benefit orders. Since the organization of the 
Somerville Hospital Dr. Curtis has been connected with it as assistant physical! and sur- 
geon. He resides at 145 Perkins street, East Somerville. 

Cushman, Charles A., was born in Newburyport, March 5, 1847, the son of Charles 
W. and Jane (Hall) Cushman, of that city. His parents moved to Phillips, Me., when he 
was quite young, and he received his education in the public schools of that place. After 
leaving school he was employed for a year by the Androscoggin Railroad, now the Maine 
Central, and in 1870 he came to Somerville. He entered the employ of North, Merriam & 
Co., afterward C. H. North & Co., and now the North Packing & Provision Co., with whom 
he still remains. Mr. Cushman has been superintendent of the packing-house for the past 
eighteen years. He is P. M. of John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M., member of Somerville K. 
A. Chapter, Orient Council, R. and S. M., Creur de Lion Commandery and Scottish Rite 
Masonry; is also a P. G. of Oasis Lodge, P. C. P. Somerville Encampment, !.().(). F., and 
is a director in the Somerville Savings Bank. Mr. Cushman married, in 1868, Miss Calista 
M., daughter of Daniel and Attic (Wass) Curtis of Addison, Me. They reside on Prospect 
Hill avenue. 

Cutler, Samuel Newton, son of Samuel and Sarah Jane (Bennett) Culler, was born 
in Boston, January 25, 1855. ^' s parents removed to East Somerville early in 1856, and 
have since resided there. He was graduated from the Prescott School in 1869, from the 
high school in 1873, and from Harvard College in 1877, receiving the degree of A. 1>. cum 
laude. He obtained several prizes during his college course, and was admitted to the famous 
Phi Beta Kappa Society. After brief experience in teaching and in western life, in 1880, he 
was employed by Messrs. Hill and Cutler, dealers in cotton and cotton waste, and became 
a partner of this firm in 1892. November o, 1882, he married Miss Ella Frances Stearns, 
daughter of Hiram N. and Charlotte A. Steams of Somerville. lie is a consistent member 
of the East Somerville Baptist Church, and teacher of a Bible class in the Sunday school. 

He has always taken great interest in the cause of education, and is no\\ serving his 
eleventh consecutive year on the School Board, having been first elected Irom Ward 1 in 
1885. lie is a member of the Vermont Association of P>. iston, of Excelsior Council, Royal 
Arcanum, a trustee of Somerville Savings Bank and a member of its auditing committee. 1 le 
resitles at 28 Flint street. 

Dana, N. B., was born at Canton. Mass., March 10, 1846, the son ot George 11. and 
Sarah A. (\\hipp) Dana. lie \\ as educated in the public schools of his native to\\n. and 
after completing his education he entered the post-oliice at Canton as assistant post- 
master, which position he held four years. He then, in 1877, entered the service of the ! - 



516 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

ton and Lowell Railroad as freight and passenger train-man, was appointed traveling pas- 
senger agent and spare conductor in 1879, in 1881 was appointed assistant ticket agent at 
the Boston passenger station, and in 1884 was appointed ticket agent, which position he 
held until the completion of the new Union Station, June I, 1894, when that office was con- 
solidated with those of the Eastern and Western Divisions. He was then appointed city 
ticket agent, which position he now holds, the office being located at 322 Washington street, 
Boston. Mr. Dana was married to Miss Phena B. Robinson of Cutler, Me., October 15, 1877 : 
they have one son, Ralph B., and reside at 37 Dartmouth street. 

Mr. Dana is a member of Blue Hill Lodge, F. A. A. M., of Canton, Mass.; the Somer- 
ville Royal Arch Chapter, Orient Council of Royal and Select Masters, and a life member of 
Boston Commandery, K. T., Paul Revere Lodge, I. O. O. F., Winter Hill Encampment, Fr- 
minie Lodge, Daughters of Rebekah, and has recently been appointed to the important posi- 
tion of Grand Marshal of the Grand Lodge, I. O. O. F. 

Davis, Joshua H., was born at Truro, November 4, 1814. He was educated in the 
schools of his native town and at the Teachers' Seminary, Andover, graduating in 1838. 
From 1840 to 1854 he was principal of the Truro Academy, resigning on account of failing 
health. He was afterward secretary of the United States Insurance Company for nine years. 
In 1854 he took up his residence in Somerville, and was for twenty-five years identified with 
the educational interests of our city. He was a member of the School Board for three years, 
and was elected superintendent of schools in 1 866, a position which he filled with great 
ability for twenty-two years. He resigned in 1888, honored and beloved by the entire city. 
He was a member of the Legislature in 1889 and 1890. 

No man has had greater influence in shaping and elevating our public school system, 
or has rendered more efficient service in promoting the educational, the moral, and the re- 
ligious interests of our people. The purity and nobleness of his character as a Christian 
gentleman endear him to the thousands who have known him in private and in public, and 
make his life an inspiration and a model. 

The Davis School, on Tufts street, was named for him in 1884. 

Davis, Levi F. S., was born at Truro, Mass., October 3, 1847, the son of Benjamin 
and Betsey (Stevens) Davis, of that town. His education was obtained at the Prescott 
Grammar School and the High School of Somerville. On leaving school he entered up<>n 
commercial life, and is still engaged in the business of ship brokerage, chandlery and whole- 
sale paper stock. Mr. Davis came to Somerville in 1856, and served the city in the Common 
Council of 1 88 1 and 1882, and the Board of Aldermen of 1883 and 1884, the last year as 
president of the board, and represented the city in the Legislatures of 1885 and 1886. Mr. 
Davis is a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. M.; Oasis Lodge, I. O. O. F. ; and several frater- 
nal organizations. Mr. Davis married Miss Mary A., daughter of Captain Edgar and Mary 
(Stevens) Paine, of Truro. They reside on Pearl street. 

Davlin, James F., was born in Lowell, April 25, 1842, the son of Michael F. and 
Nancy (McCollough) Davlin. His education was obtained in the Lowell Grammar Schools. 
At sixteen he learned the plumber's trade in New York. In 1862 he enlisted in the United 
States Navy, serving in the South Atlantic squadron; was promoted to signal quartermaster, 
and attached to the staff of Admiral Dahlgren. He settled, after the war, in Cambridge 
as a master plumber, and there in 1874 and 1876 was a member of the City Council. In 
1878 he came to Somerville, where his business has since been sanitary plumbing. Mr. 
Davlin has represented Ward 2 in the Legislature. He has served a term as commander 
of Post 139, G. A. K. ; as president of St. Joseph Total Abstinence Society ; and president of 
the Master Plumbers' Association of Boston and vicinity, and of the Somerville Celts. He 
has frequently been a delegate to the national conventions of the Master Plumbers of the 
United States, and is now chairman of the national legislative committee of Master Plum- 



SOMERVILLE, I'. 1ST AND l'Rl:Sl-:.\ 1. 517 

bers. He is a member of the Kearsarge Naval Veterans; a member <>l" Niagara Tribe, I. < >. 
R. M.; the Royal Order of Good Fellows, Order of Unite<l Workmen, Order of Franklin, 
and the Somerville Catholic Lyceum. Mr. Davlin married, in iSofi, Miss Rebecca A. 
Dow, daughter of William and Rebecca (Edgecomb) Dow, of Lisbon, Me. Tln-y reside on 
Kingnian court. 

Day, William J., was born in Ipswich, England, January 6, 1859. His mother died 
when lie was nine months old. In 1867 he came uith his father, Joshua Day, to America, 
finding a residence at Johnstown, N. V. His father and grandfather were both Hapti-t 
preachers. Mr. Day was converted at the age of lifteen, and bapti/ed by his father in the 
North Baptist ( 'hurch, Newark, N. |. About a year afterward the family removed to the 
city of Albany, N. V., the father having accepted a call to become the pastor of the ( 'alvary 
liaptist Church. After a year of ministry the pastoral relations were severed by the hand of 
death. Necessity now compelled the son to shift for himself. Employment was found with 
the East New York Boot and Shoe Co. of that city, with whom Mr. Day remained two 
years. 

It was while in the employ of this company, that Mr. Day received his first impres- 
sions relative to entering the ministry, and making that his life-work. Private studies were 
pursued under his pastor, the Rev. John Humpstone. These studies were continued at Col- 
gate Academy and Madison, now Colgate University, at Hamilton, N. V. Mr. Day left this 
institution in 1885, and accepted a call to become the pastor of the Croton Baptist Church, 
Croton, Delaware Co., N. V. He was ordained the following year, Eebruary 19, 1886. 
This first pastorate lasted rive years. From Croton Mr. Day went to Cobleskill, Sehoharie 
Co., N. V. After a two years' ministry he was called to become the pastor of the Winter 
Hill Baptist Church, entering upon his labors May i, 1892. 

Dennett, Nathaniel, who comes of good old New England stock, was born in Ports- 
mouth, X. H., where his earlier years were passed and the development of his natural 
mechanical and engineering tastes began. Removing to Massachusetts, his technical know- 
ledge very readily secured him suitable employment, and in 1858 he made an engagement with 
the Union Glass Company, with which corporation he remained about four years. Meanwhile 
the War of the Rebellion had broken out, and in 1862 he enlisted in the Fifth Massachu- 
setts Regiment, serving therewith nine months in the Carolinas, much of that time on de- 
tached service in the line of his special abilities, and he was also on duty, for about three 
months, at the Watertown arsenal, immediately after his return from the South. He then 
re-entered the employ of the Union Glass Company, remaining therein until 1872, when he 
engaged in the plumbing, gas and steam fitting business on his own account. 

In 1877 he was chosen superintendent of the Somerville Mystic Water Works, and 
has been unanimously re-elected to that responsible position every year since, receiving from 
successive water boards the most unequivocal expressions of satisfaction with the skilltul 
and thorough manner in which his duties have been performed. Under his direction the 
water system of Somerville has been almost entirely reconstructed, and to his perception, 
study and ingenuity the city is indebted for numerous innovations and improvements where- 
by the effectiveness of the service, in all its branches, has been materially increased. The 
work of introducing the high service was fully intrusted to his supervision, and so thoroughly 
performed that, for the last six years, the supply of water for protection against lire, street 
sprinkling, industrial uses and building operations has been ample and unfailing, while that 
for domestic purposes has met all the demands of a large and steadily increasing population, 
quite as uninterruptedly. 

Mr. Dennett holds an enviable position among hydraulic engineers, and the high 
estimation in which his opinions on all matters connected uith his profession are held is 
attested by the frequency with which he is called into consultation with his contempor- 



518 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

aries in other places. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, Knights of Honor, Royal 
Arcanum, New England Water Works Association, and Willard C. Kinsley Post 139, G. A. R. 
Ever since the war he has taken an active interest in everything affecting the welfare 
of the veteran soldiers, among whom he enjoys a reputation as a generous and disinterested 
fri end which rests on a most substantial foundation. 

Dickerman, Frank E., son of Quincy E. and Rebecca M. (Perkins) Dickerman, was 
born January, 1865, in Charlestown, Mass. He attended school in Somerville and Boston, 
graduating from the Brimmer School of the latter city, and from the Somerville High School, 
maintaining a high rank throughout in his school work. In 1886 he was graduated from 
Harvard College, and from the Harvard Law School in 1889. 

He entered the law office of Hale and Richardson, and on the appointment of Mr. 
Richardson to the bench he became a partner of Mr. Hale, and the firm name became Hale 
and Dickerman, as at present. He has served as president of the Somerville Common Coun- 
cil, and in January, 1896, was chosen president of the Central Club. He is a member of Soley 
Lodge, A. F. and A. M., of Somerville R. A. Chapter, and of the University Club of Boston. 
He resides at 47 Craigie street. 

Dickerman, Quincy E., was born in Stoughton. He was educated at the Phillips 
Academy and the State Normal School at Bridgewater. Mr. Dickerman came to Somerville 
in 1870. He has served on the School Committee since 1873. He is a member of Soley 
Lodge, F. A. M.; and Somerville Chapter, R. A. M., of which he is a past II. P.; and 
Winter Hill Lodge, K. II. Mr. Dickerman has been for many years the highly successful 
and popular principal of the Brimmer Grammar School, Boston. He resides on Central 
street. 

Dodge, Albert L., the son of Reuben and Betsey (Smith) Dodge, was born at Chelsea, 
Yt., December 6, 1831. His education was obtained at Royalton, Yt., to which town his 
father removed in 1832. He came to Boston in 1853, and entered the employ of Tarbell 
i\: Dana, wholesale grocers, where he remained eleven years, leaving them to embark in the 
same business under the firm name of Tate, Stone and Dodge. This firm dissolved in 1868, 
when he entered the employ of Haskell & Adams, wholesale grocers, as buyer and salesman, 
which position he still holds. In 1857 he married Sarah A., daughter of Charles D. ami 
Eleanor ( Stinson) Austin of Halifax, N. S. They have had five children, three of whom are 
living. He removed to Somerville in 1863, and in 1872 built his present residence at 38 
Yinal avenue. Mr. Dodge has always taken a deep interest in religious work, and has 
been an official member of the First M. E. Church, of which he is now class leader and 
treasurer of the board of trustees. 

Dodge, Seward, was born at Hamilton, Mass., September 12, 1823. At the age of 
fifteen he was apprenticed to Ezra Batchelder of Beverly, Mass., who was a ship and car- 
riage smith and general blacksmith. After serving his full time as apprentice, he engaged 
with John Dodge of South Danvers, with whom he worked eleven months; he then came 
to Charlestown and entered the employ of Hittinger & Cook, working at horse-shoeing and 
blacksmithing for nearly two years. < >n May 13, 1847, ^ e removed to Somerville and con- 
tinued at his trade of horse-shoeing, wagon building, etc., and he is still engaged at the 
same calling, his large and prosperous establishment at Union square being familiar to mob I 
of our residents. Mr. Dodge has served the city in both branches, having been a member 
of the Common Council two years, and a member of the Board of Aldermen the same length 
of time. He is a member of John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M.; of New England Lodge No. 4, 
Odd Fellows and Encampment; of the Royal Arcanum and Knights of Honor. He was tor 
a long period an active member of the National Lancers of Boston under Captains Dear- 
born, Slade ami Kenny, and is justly proud of his connection with that famous corps. 

Donovan, Michael T.. was horn at Concord, N. II., November 17, 1857, son of 




MICHAEL T. DONOVAN. 







CYRUS F. CROSBY. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND /'A'A'.SV-AVT'. 521 

Michael and Nancy (Collins Doiio\an. 1I<- was educated in the public schools of his 
native city, completing the course in the high school at the age of sixteen years. Imme- 
diately after leaving school, he entered the ollice of the New Hampshire Patriot," one of 
the oldest newspapers in the country, then owned and edited by the late Colonel L. < . 
Bailey, who at onetime owned the" Boston Herald.'' He remained at newspaper work until 
opportunity was given him to enter the railroad field. lie came to Boston, eighteen y< 
ago, to enter the service of the Boston \ Lowell Railroad, and steadily advanced to On- 
position of Chief Clerk of the ( iencral Freight Department. In September, 18X7, he was 
appointed Assistant General Freight Agent of the Concord Railroad at- Concord, \. II. , which 
position he held for one year and resigned to accept a responsible position in Boston with 
the Canadian Pacific Despatch, a fast freight line operated by the lioston X; Maine Railroad. 
and the Canadian Pacific Railway. In February, 1891, he was promoted to the position oi 
Assistant to the General Freight Agent, and August i, 1892, was appointed General Freight 
Agent of the Boston <X: Maine Railroad, which position he now occupies. He resides at 
\Yest Somerville. 

Buddy, Robert, son of William and Catherine ( Alger) Duddy, was born at the " North 
End ''in Boston, February 17, 1843. After receiving his education at the Elliot School, 
he learned the cooper's trade, and subsequently the produce business. He served through- 
out the Civil War in the Eleventh Massachusetts Battery in the Army of the Potomac, and 
was in all the engagements of Grant's army in 1864 and 1865. At the close of the war he 
was engaged in the trucking business in Boston, in which he continued for twenty year>. 
He came to Somerville in 1881, and ten years later established the horse-boarding and sale- 
stable on Pearl street. He was a member of the Common Council of Somerville in 1886 and 
1887, and of the Board of Aldermen of 1888 and 1889, serving as chairman of some of the 
most important committees under Mayors Burns and Pope. 

Mr. Duddy represented the Seventh Middlesex District in the Legislature of 1894, being 
honored by the " largest vote ever given a Somerville representative." He was on the 
committee to represent the State at the dedication of the Robert G. Shaw monument, and in 
1895 was ' "ith the late Governor F. T. Greenhalge, a delegate at the dedication of the 
National Cemetery at Chattanooga and Chickamauga. Under Ex-Maynr Wm. L. Hodgkins. 
he was appointed superintendent of the Health Department, which position he resigned last 
September to accept the office of deputy sheriff and court officer for Middlesex County. Mr. 
Duddy married Miss Mary E. Corey, daughter of James and Julia (Long) Corey of Boston, 
and has a family of three daughters and one son. They reside on Bond street. Mr. I luddy 
is a member of Temple Lodge, F. A. A. M.; Signet Chapter, R. A. M.; Orient Council, R. \ 
S. M.; Capt.-Gen. of Geur de Lion Commandery, K. T. ; Paul Revere Lodge, !.<>.<>. I .; 
Monument Council, R. A. He is an ex-president of the Winter Hill Club, and of the 
Eleventh Massachusetts Battery Association. At the semi-centennial celebration in this city 
in 1892 he was appointed colonel of the second division by Gen. Thomas Wentworth. 

Dunklee, Daniel Denney, son of William A. and Mercy i Joy i 1 lunklee, was born in 
Boston, June 23, 1843. He was educated in the public schools of U.-ston and < harlcstown, 
and in the West Brattleboro, Yt., Academy. March 29, 1864, he enlisted from Boston in the 
U. S. Signal Corps, in which he served for two years. After his return he was employed by 
Poor, Towne \ Co., druggists. Later he was for seventeen years with Matthew P. Elliot in 
the hat business. He established himself in that business in 1873, continuing in it until 
1883. In 1885 he entered the employ of G. C. Dunklee iV Co., his father being the head of 
the firm. In i,X'2 he purchased the business and has continued it to the present time at 
113 Blackstone street, Boston, under the name of Dunklee \ Co. In 1870 he married Miss 
Jeanne-He R. White-house, of Topsham, Me. They have had three children, of whom Flor- 
ence and Lorimer are now living. II is son I red W. died August 20, iSiu. Mr. Dunklee 




JULIUS A. DURELL. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 523 

is active in the Tremont Temple Church and Society. I le is a member of l'o>t i }o- < .. A. R. ; 
Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M.; Royal Arch Chapter; and ( >rient Council, all * n S> unerville; and 
of De Molay Commandery, of Huston. lie is a }2d degree Mason in Massachusetts Con- 
sistory. He has lived in Sonic-mile ten years, and his residence is at 9 Oakland avenue. 

Durell, Rev. George W. A history of Somerville would be incomplete without a 
tribute to " Father Durell," as Rev. George Wells Durell was lovingly called by old and 
young. Mr. Durell was born in Kennebunkport, Me. lie graduated Inmi B"\\d"iii Col- 
lege, and was at once elected principal of Limerick Academy. After teaching four years, 
he entered the Theological Seminary of Virginia, to prepare for the work to which he devote' 1 
his life. He was ordained in Brunswick, Me., by Bishop Burgess. I lis marriage to Mi-- 
jane B. Moulton, of Topsham, soon followed in the^same church, and, full of hope and cour- 
age, he went to his new labors on the frontier of the State. At Calais he founded the m-t 
easterly parish of the United States, and built a church of unusual beauty, where he remained 
for eleven years, serving all the time upon the School Board of the city, lie was then 
chosen rector of Grace Church, Bath. 

In the fall of 1 866 he came to Somerville, having been called to Emmanuel Parish, and 
on the 1st of [uly, 1869, he became rector of St. Thomas' Parish, and continued in that 
position until his death, August 24, 1895. Under his direction the St. Thomas' Church was 
built, and that it was entirely free from debt when he passed away was owing to his earnest 
work and loving self-sacrifice. Probably no person was better known to the people of 
Somerville generally than Rev. Mr. Durell. He was to be seen daily upon the streets, and 
his familiar figure, always recogni/.ed in any company, will never be forgotten; he had a 
kindly greeting and a cheery smile for everyone. 

Mr. Durell always took great pleasure outside of his parish duties in his close associa- 
tion with the Freemasons of Somerville and vicinity, and was honored by them in many 
ways. He was chaplain of John Abbot Lodge, the Royal Arch Chapter, and the Council of 
Royal and Select Masters. With the first of these he served twenty-nine years, with the 
second from its organi/.ation, and he was for a long time prelate of the commanderies of 
Knights Templar of Chelsea and Charlestown. With his other duties he found time to ser\e 
the city upon the School Board thirteen years, and when the schoolhouse was built at the 
corner of Beacon and Kent streets, it was named for him, and it now stands as a perpetual 
monument to his memory. He was a man strong in his faith, tender-hearted, kind and 
sympathetic, considerate and unselfish, and in all his relations with the world he was gentle, 
gracious, and of an affectionate spirit. As a churchman he was broad-minded and consid- 
erate in his dealings with the clergy and laymen of all other denominations. To all \\ ho 
worshipped the living God and believed in a Christ crucified for man's redemption he ex- 
tended the right hand of fellowship, and was ready to work with them for the universal 
brotherhood of man. His work on earth is finished, but as long as the spire of St. Thomas' 
Church points heavenward just so long will it speak of the love and gratitude of his !ell<>u- 
men. 

Durell, Julius A., son of Henry and Nancy (Mixer) Durell, was born in Boston. |.m- 
uary 9, 1844. He was educated in the schools of Paris, Me., to which town his famiK 
removed when he was quite young, and in the Hebron, Me., Academy. After leaving 
school he worked at farming live years, and in 1869 came to Somerville. where he has since- 
resided. In 1877 he embarked in the hardware and plumbing business on his o\\ n account, 
establishing himself at 277 Broadway, lie remained there three years, when lie erected Un- 
building at No. 309 Broadway, and has continued there until the present time. His busi- 
ness is quite large and extends to places far remote from this city, Mr. I >in ell's uork being 
well and favorably known. lie has been twice married, his hrst wile \\a> 1 mma \. l"idun. 
and his second, Mrs. M. F.I la Hartshorn. Mr. Durell is a member "I 1'aul Revere I odge, 





BYRON EAMES. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST ./.\7> PRESENT. 525 

and Winter Hill Encampment, I. O. ( >. !'. ; Erminie Lodge of I laughters of Rehekah; Har- 
mony Council of the Home Circle; O. O. U. \\ ., etc. lie IKK been treasurer of the Winter 
Hill Baptist Church for the past ten years. 

Durell, Dr. Thomas Moulton, son nf Rev. George Wells and Jane Merry ; Mnultmi; 
1 )urell, was born at ( 'alais. Me.. ( Ictober J. iS-S. He is of the l)urell family that came from 
the Island of Jersey in KiyS and settled in Arundel, now Kennebunkport, Me., where IIK 
father was burn. His parents moved to Somerville while he was a child, and his early edu- 
cation was received in the schools of that city, graduating from the high school. Enter- 
ing the Harvard Medical School at the age of eighteen, he was graduated in iSy*). He studied 
for six months in Europe and one year in the Connecticut General Hospital in NYw Haven. 
In iSSl lie commenced practice in Somerville. and in icSS2 was appointed city physician, 
which office he held till iSSij. In the year 1X87 he was appointed, by Gov. Robinson. Medi- 
cal Examiner for the Second District of Middlesex County, and was reappointed in i<So,_$ by 
Gov. Russell. He is now professor of legal medicine in the Medical School of Tufts College, 
a member of the Medical Board of the Hospital, and has been on the Board of Health of 
Somerville. From 1884 to 1888 he was surgeon of the first battalion of Cavalry of Massachu- 
setts militia. He is a. member of Massachusetts Medical Society, and the Massachusetts 
Medico-Legal Sociey. He is a past master of John Abbot Lodge of Masons, a member of 
Somerville R. A. Chapter, Cceur de Lion Commandery, K. T., of Charlestown, and a past 
district deputy grand master of the sixth Masonic district. He is a member of Oasis Lodge, 
I. O. O. F., member of the Central Club, Somerville, and the University Club of Huston. Ik- 
has been a member of the School Board of Somerville for many years, which office he now 
holds. On June 3, 1886, he married Miss Alma L. Brintnall of Charlestown. Their children 
are Thomas and Ralph Brintnall Durell. Dr. Durell resides at No. 23 Bow street. 

Durgin, Asa, was born in Limerick, Me., on the loth of April, 1831. In 1849 he 
came to Massachusetts, and for several years was in the employ of Gage, Hittinger <.V < >.. 
the well-known ice dealers. In 1858 he went into the ice business on his own account in 
Cambridge, and he has built up a large and successful enterprise, being favorably known 
over a wide territory for strict and honorable dealings. 

Although not a politician in the usual sense of the word, his abilities have been recog- 
nized by his fellow-citizens, and from 1876 to 1883 he represented them in the City ( lovern- 
ment to their entire satisfaction, serving two years in the Council, and five years on the Board 
of Aldermen. He has been a resident of Somerville for thirty years, and is much respected 
by all who know him. 

Eames, Byron, son of John and Caroline F. (Day) Eames, was born at C.roveton, X. 
II., Nov. 2, 1859. After three years' study in Charlestown schools, he attended the St. Johns- 
bury, Vt, Academy, from which he graduated in 1877, taking a full scientific course and fitting 
for college. He was engaged with his father in the lumber trade about ten years, and at the 
age of twenty-six came to Boston and embarked in the milk business, in which he has con- 
tinued until the present time. < (ctober }<>. i SS6, he married Miss Mary Richey of < ,ro\eton. 
N.H., and they have one son. Mr. Fames is engrossed with his business, and has li.H n.. time- 
to devote to society and club affairs, the only Somerville organization that he has joined being 
the Winter Hill Club, of which he is one of the directors, lie resides on Sycamore street. 

Eberle, Philip, was born in JBaden, Germany, June 22, [833. At tin- age ol httecn 
he left school to learn the shoemaker's trade, and three years later, after obtaining pmnU- 
sion from his guardian, his parents having died when he was a child, he came to tins coun- 
try, landing in New York in July, 1851. He subsequently removed to Boston, and in CODSi 
(juence of his inability to speak our language \\as obliged to work for very small wages, hi> 
lirst year's salary amounting to only thirty dollars. Alter spending live years in ( 'ambridge 
he came to Somerville in 1X^7, opened a shoe-store on Somerville avenue, opposite the 



526 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AA'H PRESENT. 

Bleachery office. In 1867 he was a member of the association that was formed to erect the 
Union Hall Co. Building, and when the structure was completed, he, in June, 1868, established 
in it the shoe store in which he has continued business until the present time. In 1884 he- 
erected the so-called Eberle Building in Union square, in which Eberle Hall is located. Mr- 
Eberle has been connected with the Somerville Savings Bank since its origin, and has been 
on the investment committee of the bank for the past seven years. He married Miss Cather- 
ine Murtugh, and their family consists of two sons and one daughter. They reside at 47 
Columbus avenue. 

Edgerly, John S., was born November 30, 1804, at Meredith, X. II., and, like many 
others, early left his home in the country to get a better living in the city of Boston. About 
1836 he moved to Winter Hill, then a part of Charlestown. He was always interested in 
public affairs, and was one of five who were instrumental, by their earnest zeal, in having 
what is now Somerville set off from Charlestown as a separate town. He was for fourteen 
years one of the Board of Selectmen and most of that time its chairman. He served on the 
School Board, and as an Overseer of the Poor in those early days, and "no night was too 
dark or road too bad for him to start with his lantern and shovel to break out any 
place that his horse could not get through, whenever there was need." He died January 20. 
1872. The Edgerly School, named in his honor, was established in 1871. 

Elliot, Charles D., was born in Foxboro, Mass., in 1837, son of Joseph and Zenora 
(Tucker) Elliot. His ancestors were early settlers of Taunton. His great-grandfather, 
Joseph Eliot, a revolutionary soldier, served in the siege of Boston, and in campaigns in 
New Jersey and in New York against Burgoyne. Another ancestor, John Hicks, was a 
member of the "Boston Tea Party," and was one of the " men of Cambridge " killed in the 
battle of Lexington. His great-grandfather Tucker's family were among those who fled 
from their burning homes in Charlestown during its destruction by the British. Mr. Elliot 
came to Somerville in 1846, and was educated in its grammar ami high schools, and in the 
" Hopkins Classical " at Cambridge, studied civil engineering in office of W. B. Stearns 
(late Pres. Fitchburg R. R.) and Daniel A. Sanborn, and was engaged in railroad and other 
engineering, on surveys of Somerville, and upon Charlestown Water-Works, until he was 
appointed by the War Department in 1862 as Topographical Engineer and assigned to igth 
Army Corps, serving under Generals Banks, Franklin, ( irover and Asboth, in the Teche, 
Port Hudson, Sabine Pass and Red River campaigns and in Florida, on reconnoissance and 
in charge of construction of field fortifications, etc. In 1863 he married Emily J., daughter 
of Judge Hyer of Louisiana. From 1866 to 1 868 he was engaged in a manufacturing 
business. He was in partnership with W. A. Mason, C. E., from 1869 to 1872; in 1871-1872, 
engineer of Arlington Water- Works; was city engineer of Somerville in 1872-1874 and 1875; 
on surveys and estimates for Cape Cod Canal, 1881-1882 and 1884; and in 1894-1895 he 
laid out the proposed '' Mystic Valley Parkway" He is engaged in professional practice, and 
is agent for estates of J. C. Aver in Somerville and Brookline. He is a member of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, of the N. E. Historic Genealogical Society, Sons of American 
Revolution, and other orders. Resides at 59 Oxford street. 

Elliot, Miss Mary E., was born in Somerville, February 2, 1851, and is a daughter of 
the late Joseph and Zenora (Tucker) Elliot, and a sister of Charles I). Elliot. Her ancestors 
on both sides were among the earliest settlers of Massachusetts. She is a lineal descendant 
of two revolutionary soldiers, Joseph Eliot and John Hicks, both of whom died in the 
service. Her grandfather, Stephen Tucker, was a schoolboy in Charlestown at the time of 
the battle of Bunker Hill, and was among those who fled to Medford for safety during the 
Mi'ge. In later years he settled in the Green Mountain State, and was the first town clerk 
of Mount Holly, Vt. Miss Elliot's father was one of the founders of the First Univer- 
salist Church of Somerville. She attended the Prospect Hill School, and later a private school 




RUSSELL C. ELLIOTT. 




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SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 529 



in Foxboro. where she lived from iSd2 to iXot>. During a resilience in Cambridge she 
active in tempi -\ Mm < w >rk, and eontinued her int<-n-~r "n returning to Somerville, where 
she has resicled the past twenty-live years. She has gi\en addresses i" behalf of the cai - 
in many parts of the State, and has ser\ ed as secretary of local, county and state organizations. 
->hc was president of the Somerville \V. C. T. U. in 1877. In iSjS she a*si*ted in forming 
Willard C. Kinsley Relief Corps, and served as is first president, continuing in the ol'tiee si\ 
years. She was a delegate to the national convention at Minneapolis in 18X4, and lias at- 
tended every subsequent national ronvention, serving several years on the ]>ress conimii' 
and as assistant national secretary at San Francisco. In July, I XX:;, Miss Klliot was appointed 
secretary of the Department of Massachusetts \V. K. <'.. which position she still holds. 
This department has supervision of one hundred and seventy eorps, whose work is conducted 
on a systematic basis, similar to that of the ( irand Army of the Republic. She is a writer 
for the press, and was chairman of the history committee of the Department of Massachu- 
setts W. R. ('., under whose charge a volume of four hundred pages has recently been pre- 
pared. Miss Elliot has delivered six memorial-day addresses, and has spoken in nearly every 
part of the State at patriotic gatherings. She is one of the original members of the Ladies' 
Aid Association of the Soldiers' Home in Massachusetts, and has served on the Hoard of 
I Hrectors and as a vice-president. She is secretary of Hunker Hill Chapter, Daughters of 
the American Revolution, and is a member of several local societies. 

Elliott, Russell C., \\as born in (uncord, N. H., June 5, 1842, son of Captain Finn ii 
15. and Jane (Bowers) Elliott of that city. He attended the < >liver Crammar and High 
School of Lawrence, Mass., where he spent his boyhood. His war record is a remarkable 
one. Enlisting a private, he attained the rank of < 'aptain in the Third Massachusetts Cav- 
alry by an unequalled service in his regiment. Participating in all the battles the regiment 
was engaged in, he was ten times wounded,' and carried a Minie ball twelve years. In the 
engagements of Sabine Cross Roads, Jackson, Bayou Rapides, Snaggy Point, ( >ld ( >aks, Xatchi- 
toches, Piney Woods, La., and at \Yinchester and Cedar Creek, Va., he performed such ex- 
ceptional acts of gallantry the officers of his regimental association, his old commander and 
other comrades petitioned the War Department for a proper recognition therefor, and Con- 
gress awarded him a Medal of Honor for "distinguished gallantry/' At Jackson, La., he 
" led twelve men in a charge through the enemy's cavalry and infantry lines, and brought away 
four prisoners with only one man killed. At Bayou Rapides, again surrounded, he led his 
whole company through two lines of the enemy, both armies cheering the dashing act. 1 le 
is in business at 43 Milk street, Boston, and has made great improvements in electric heating, 
lighting, power and telephoning apparatus. His opinions on patent rights "seem phenome- 
nal" to quote others, having been invariably sustained when submitted to court decision. 
Captain Elliott married Miss Julia Greer, daughter of Andrew and Jan. Green Greer of 
Boston. Mrs. Elliott was a most lovable and accomplished lady and a remarkable vocalist. 
She died April 18, 1801. Through Captain Elliott's effort* manv houses have been built and 
much real estate improved in Somerville. lie came to live here in i s ;\ .md ha* resided at 
the corner of Perkins and Florence streets since 18X5. Though taking an active interest in 
politics, Mr. Elliott never aspired to ollicial position, and many times has relused appointive 
offices. 

Elston, Abraham A., the son of Benjamin and Hannah 1'i.utli tl I Utoii. was born in 
St. John, N. B., April 15, 1858. He has resided in ^oinerville since iXo-. He *tarted busi- 
ness as a contractor, and has taken do\\n more than 2,000 buildings, including many of the 
largest and most famous of the oiler Boston building*, such a* tin- Tremont llou*e. Tremont 
Temple, Boylston Market, etc. He was married |iine i o. i8So. to Mis* Man I . M < aim. 
They have three children, lie has served in the < it v ( 'ouncil ol Somerville, and is a mem- 
ber of the Young Men'* Democratic Club, the Knights of Columbus and Good Fellow*, lie 



530 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

has a large yard and storehouses at the corner of Sixth street and Broadway, Cambridge. 
His Boston office is at 166 Devonshire street. He has resided at 25 Preston street since 
1890. 

Farrell, Michael F., was born in the city of Kilkenny, Ireland, September 13, 1848. 
He came to New York City, where he was educated in the puplic schools. He came to Somer- 
ville in 1804, and finished his education at Boston College. Mr. Farrell studied law in the of- 
fice of Edwin S. Hovey in Boston, and was admitted to the Middlesex IJar in 1871. From 
1874 to 1879 he was a member of the Somerville School Board. In 1877 he was admitted 
to the bar of the Circuit Court of the United States. When Judge Brown resigned his office 
of Special Justice of the Police Court of Somerville in 1888, Mr. Farrell was requested to ac- 
cept the position, but declined in favor of Charles G. Pope, who was appointed. After the 
death of Judge Pope in 1893 he was appointed, and was unanimously confirmed by the 
Council. He married Elizabeth M. Treanor of Boston in 1874. 

Fitch, Nathan A., son of Nathan and Louisa (Burnham) Fitch, was born in Bedford, 
Mass., 1836. He was educated in the public schools in that town, and at New Hampton, 
N. If. He came to Boston in 1852, and entered the employ of Hervey & Moore, provision 
dealers, on Eeverett street, where he remained for seven years; he subsequently entered the 
Faneuil Hall Market, where he is at present located, engaged in the poultry business. Soon 
after coming to the city he united with the Baldwin-Place Church, but shortly after removed 
to the Baptist Bethel, then under the pastorate of the Rev. Phineas Stowe, where he has 
been for thirty-eight years actively engaged in the work of the church and Sunday-school, 
having served the school thirty-six years as its superintendent, and eighteen years as treasurer 
of the church and society. He is trustee of the Phineas Stowe Sailors' Home, the Howard 
Lodge, I. O. O. F., and the N. E. O. P. He is also a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M., 
the Boston Fruit and Produce Exchange, the Chamber of Commerce, the Excelsior Council, 
K. A., the Knights of Honor, and A. O. U. W., Beacon Lodge, Boston. He served the city 
in the Common Council in 1882, and Board of Aldermen in 1883 and 1884. Mr. Fitch 
married Calista F., daughter of Reuben and Beatrice (Beard) Tarbell of Rindge, N. II. 
They have resided for twenty-two years on Franklin street. 

Fitz, N. Everett, was born in Charlestown, February 24, 1830, the eldest son of Abel 
Fit/., who carried on the grain mills at Charlestown Neck until 1840, and who removed to 
Mt. Vernon street, Somerville, in 1846, and served on the Board of Assessors with John ('. 
Magoun. N. Everett Fitz entered the employ of W. B. Reynolds & Co. on Commercial Wharf, 
ISoston, in 1846, and in 18^0 went to Charlestown as bookkeeper for his brother-in-law, 
Nathan Tufts, Jr., at the mills previously operated by his father. In 18^7 he married 
Harriet A., daughter of John C. and Sarah A. Magoun, and moved to the house now occupied 
by him on Broadway, Winter Hill. In 1864 he embarked in the coal and wood business in 
Chariest' >wn and still continues in the same at 541 Main street. 

Flewelling, Dr. Douglas S., was born in Clifton, K. C., N. I!., in 1861, and is a grand- 
son of the late Hon. W. P. Flewelling, Surveyor-General of New Brunswick and a colonel 
cf the militia. In the American Revolution his maternal ancestors fought on the side of the 
loyalists, while his paternal grandmother was a New York lady of revolutionary stock. I le 
was educated in public schools and the Normal College, from which he was graduated at the 
age of eighteen. He was principal of Graded School in Kingston, second master of Sussex 
High School, organist in Trinity Church, and was identified with the Eighth Regiment of 
Cavalry. He \\as three years principal of Brigus Academy, Newfoundland, and during his 
vacations improved the opportunities for sport with rod and gun. He lectured in Schmidt's 
Educational Institute in New York one year. After a three years' course in the University of 
New York he was graduated as physican and surgeon. He spent one term in the Lying-in- 
Hospital, and took private course with I)r. Gibbs of New York, a specialist in the treatment 




DOUGLAS S. FLEWELLING, M. D. 




A. WARD FOLLETT, M.D. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

of diseases of women. The doctor is fund uf field sports, especially tennis and cricket. lie 
is a niemlier of the !.<>.<). 1-., the A. and !.<>. K.ofM., and Fellow of the Massachusetts 
Medical Society. lie is located at No. 9 Carlton street, and has an e\ten>ive practice. 

Follett, Dr. A. Ward, was born in Rovalloii, Yt.. January i- , iX^.X, the son o| Amu 
and Arvilla i 1 lodge Follett. now of Sharon, Yt., and direct descendant of Robert Follett ol 
Salem, Mass.. 1 >orn in 162^ and died in 1708. His early education was obtained in the 
schools of his native town, afterv/ards graduating from the Randolph State Normal School. 
He taught several years in the Yermont schools, and graduated trom Dartmouth Mcilical 
College in iScSi. I )r. F'ollctl served as assistant physician in the liutler Hospital, 1'rovi- 
dence, R. I., from iSSi to i8S6, when he moved to < ambiidgc. Mass.. and in i.xss com- 
menced the practice of his profession in Somerville. He is a meml>< r ot Somerville Royal 
Arch Chapter, R. A. M., also member of the Yermont State Medical, Somerville Medical and 
Massachusetts Medical Societies. In 1886 he married Carrie 1!.. eldest daughter of ('haile-. 
S. Gove of Cambridge. They reside at 488 Broadway. 

Foote, Edward, was born in I.ee, Mass., in ( (ctober, 1824. He was educated in and 
graduated from the Lee Academy in 1842, and was a teacher in the public schools six 
seasons winters. In 1844 he came to Boston and entered the employ of A. A. Fra/ar, 
father of the late I Kmglas Frazar, then engaged in the Fast India trade, but returned to 1 ,ee 
in the spring of 1845, where he remained several years in the farming and lumbering busi- 
ness. In 1851 Mr. F'oote bought a farm in Smithtown, Long Island, X. Y ., and during 
twelve years of his residence there was engaged in handling stock, which he bought in the 
north and west, and sold in the markets of Long Island. In 1864 he came to Somerville 
and entered into partnership with the late George Skilton and his son George C. Skilton, 
under the firm name of Skilton, F'oote & Co., for the manufacture of what is well known as 
the Bunker Hill brand of pickles. Since the death of Mr. Skilton, Sr., there have been 
associated with him, under the same firm name, George C. Skilton and F.dward II. Foote. 
For a term of six years, from 1877 to 1882 inclusive, he was a member of the Somerville 
Water Board, four years of which he was fits president. Mr. Foote is the oldest living 
charter member of the \Yinter Hill Lodge, K. II., and has been a member of the Broadway 
Congregational Church of Somerville for more than a quarter of a century, and during tin- 
last twenty years one of its deacons. lie married Mrs. Kmily Chapman, daughter oi 
David and Eliza (Jones) Curtis of Curtisville, and for twenty-live years has resided at 419 
Broadway terrace. 

Forster, Charles, was born in Charlestown, June 13, 1708, and died there September 
I, 1866. He was engaged in mercantile pursuits until 1856, when he retired from active 
business. He held many public offices in Charlestown. and was the representative at tin- 
time the Convent was burned. In 1845 he removed to Somerville, and lived until 1863 at 
the corner of Sycamore street and Broadway. As a citi/.en of Somerville, he was always 
interested in the public welfare. The city is largely indebted to him for the trees which n>\\ 
adorn the streets of Winter Hill. In 1854 the Forster School \\ as named in his honor. 
One who knew him well said of him " lie occupied a place second t" none in the heart-, 
and affections of the people of Somerville, and left behind him a reputation which any man 
might envy the reputation of a man who, by the purity of his life and character, his 
sweetness and kindliness of disposition, his unostentatious benevolence, the \ irs oi a long 
life devoted to charity towards the poor and suffering, had ei deared himself to all who knew 
him, and grown deep into their hearts." 

Frazar, Douglas, uas born in I >u\bury in 1830. lie attended the schools of the town 
and Di\\\ ell's private school in I'.ostoii, from \\ Inch he graduated. \\\^ father was a prosper- 
ous State-Street merchant, owning ships that sailed all over the globe, and while evcr\ 
opportunity was open to the boy to enter a mercantile life, he chose the sea as .1 prolession. 



534 SOMERVILLE, PAST A XL) PRESENT. 

He made his first voyage as a hoy before the mast, going around the world, receiving a 
salary of $2.00 a month. This trip occupied fourteen months. He advanced rapidly through 
the grades of seamanship, and when but twenty-one years of age he sailed from India 
Wharf, bound for China, as master of the bark Maryland, fitted out for him by his father. 
Arriving in China in 1859, a good prospect for business was opened to the young man, which 
he decided to accept, and he became the junior partner in the house of Frazar & Co., now 
one of the largest of the American East India houses. At the breaking out of the Civil 
War, Captain P'razar came home, offering his services to Governor Andrew of this State. 
As no cavalry regiment was at that time recruiting here, Captain Frazar received autograph 
letters of introduction to Governor Seymour of New York, from Governor Andrew, Charles 
Sumner, Henry Wilson and Josiah Quincy, and went to New York, where he took part in 
quelling the draft riots, and was, for his services, made major of the Thirteenth New York 
Cavalry by Governor Seymour, having gained the position on his own merits and without 
the use of his letters. During the war Major Fra/.ar was promoted to the colonelcy of one 
of the South Carolina colored regiments, with Yice-President Wilson's only son as his 
lieutenant-colonel. At the close of the war he was brevetted by the President as brigadier- 
general of volunteers, "for faithful service during the war." 

Soon after, by personal request of Vice-President Wilson, General Frazar went to 
Virginia on a special mission to the freedmen. He remained two years, establishing schools, 
and otherwise assisting the colored people in their new positions as citizens. In 1870 he- 
re-entered business with his father, Captain Frazar, but in the crisis of 1873 their property 
was swept away. Mr. Frazar was married in 1872 to Mae Durell, daughter of Rev. and Mrs. 
George W. Durell, and after a period of residence in Boston they came to Somerville to 
make their home. Mr. P'razar was widely known in Somerville, both on account of his 
public service and his literary attainments. He held the position of city auditor for sixteen 
years, and was for fifteen years clerk of the Common Council. Besides these offices, he held 
other positions of trust. During the long period of sixteen years of his connection with the 
city departments, he was for eleven years joint auditor for the Boston & Maine and the 
Flastern Railroads, and also for five years confidential clerk to General Manager James T. 
Furber. As a writer, General Frazar gained considerable prominence. He had been a con- 
tributor to " Harper's Magazine," the " Youth's Companion," and other high-class periodicals. 
He was the author of three books: "The Log of the Maryland," "Perseverance Island," 
and " Practical Boat Sailing." He also wrote several plays, and as a lecturer made an 
enviable reputation. He had studied in Paris, and during his extensive travels had crossed 
the Atlantic forty times. While in China in 1860, General P'razar was present at the capture 
of Pekin by the allied French and English forces. He was the first American, unattached 
to an embassy, to enter Pekin. After the war he continued to take great interest in military 
affairs, and was for two years major of the Tigers, a well-known Boston company of infantry. 
He was at one time a member of Williard C. Kinsley Post. Gen. Frazar died P'ebruary 20, 
1896, leaving a wife, Mrs. Mae I). Frazar, and two sons. 

Frazar, Mrs. Mae Durell, was born in Calais, Me., but came to Somerville when very 
young with her father, Rev. George W. Durell. She was educated in our schools, and is an 
example of the value of our public school system for a good foundation in intellectual life. 
In 1872 she married Gen. Douglas P'razar, Mrs. P'razar carefully cultivated her taste for 
study, and acquired able command of her pen. Her interest in social and home life induced 
her to start an enterprise, which under her admirable executive ability won pronounced 
success. It was a periodical entitled "The Home Life," and she secured for it a circulation 
of 20,000 subscribers. In 1887 Gen. Frazar desired to visit Mexico with some intention of 
making a prolonged residence in that country. Mrs. P'razar accompanied him, surrendering 
*' The Home Life " to other hands. She still, however, retained her hold on the pen, and con- 




FREDERICK C. FULLER. 



536 SOMERl'fELE. PAST AXD PRESEXT. 

tributed interesting and instructive articles to the Boston papers; this she did for something 
over a year. On her return to Somerville her own experience in travel and her quick 
appreciation of a traveler's annoyances and necessities prompted her to undertake what 
no other woman has done so continuously and successfully a number of European tours; 
these tours were rendered delightful by her carefully arranged routes, and by her own per- 
sonal oversight of those who patronized her enterprise. Mrs. Frazar has crossed the Atlan- 
tic eighteen times in furthering her tours. It might well be thought that such business 
cares would entirely engross one's energy, but, on the contrary, she made extensive notes 
on her travels, and has given lectures upon the cities and countries she has visited, 
replete with interesting information, careful descriptions and characteristic humor. Besides 
lecturing in many of the cities of the United States, she has written and published poems and 
sketches of travels, and has prepared, and has ready for the press, a unique guidebook of 
foreign lands, containing legends, historical facts and much general information, all of which 
have been gleaned and selected with care, and will prove of great value not only to the 
tourist, but to the home reader. 

Her social life is as broad and intense as her literary and business life. She was one 
of the founders of the Heptorean Club, is an honorary member of the Daughters of Maine, 
and a member of the New England Women's Press Association. All these absorbing cares 
do not decrease her interest in others. She is attentive to the needs of those who deserve 
charity, and her gifts are wellnigh without stint. Altogether she is a remarkable woman. 
No woman has ever had the conduct of such large excursion parties. No woman can be 
more diligent in deed, in speech or with pen. Her knowledge of books is extensive. She 
has facile use of several languages besides her own, and it goes without saying that she has 
friends in all parts of the world. 

Somerville is to be congratulated in having such a citizen, a woman who is at once an 
incentive to, and an example of, all that is most praiseworthy in true womanhood. 

Fuller, Frederick C., son of John and Martha T. Fuller, was born in Rockland, Me., 
June 2, 1884. When six years of age he moved to Norridgewock, Me., where he remained 
until twenty years of age, being a farmer's boy. He then removed to Lewiston, Me., and was 
working in the Androscoggin Mills, when he enlisted in the Seventh Maine Battery Light 
Artillery. At the close of the war he went to Lowell and worked for the Boott corporation, 
where he stayed three years, and then went to Wilton, N. H., and learned the carpenter's 
trade, remaining four years, going thence to Nashua and afterwards to Boston. Mr. Fuller 
came to Somerville in 1870, and after serving as journeyman and foreman for several car- 
penters went into business in 1881 for himself, and he has erected a number of important 
buildings, and has remodeled the City Hall several times. In November, 1895. after being 
five years in the hardware business, he was appointed inspector of buildings and has proved 
himself most admirably fitted for the position, issuing over 600 permits last year, and revolu- 
tionizing the plumbing and building ordinances. 

Mr. Fuller married Emma J. Law of Lowell, and two sons were burn to them. Mrs- 
Fuller died recently. He is a member of Pentucket Lodge, A. F. and F. A., Somerville 
Royal Arch Chapter, Geur de Lion Commandery, Orient Council, Paul Revere Lodge, Unity 
Council, and the Central Club. He lives at 41 Dartmouth street. 

Fuller, Stephen W., the son of Stephen and Dorcas Fuller, was born in Charlestown. 
Mass., at " Craft's Corner,'' January I, 1836. Commencing at the Primary School on Bow 
street, he afterwards attended the Training Field School under the late Stacy Baxter, and the 
I larvardand High Schools, leaving the latter in 1854, to earn a living in the lumber business 
at the Prison Point lumber yard. He remained at this place until 1858, when he went to 
Charlestown Neck on the Greenleaf Wharf. In 1860 he and Mr. John F. Ayer commenced 
business together as lumber dealers, and the firm continued until 187 5, when Mr. Fuller took the 




STEPHEN W. FULLER. 




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' /'//./.A', PAST AND PRESENT. 539 

whole business, occupying the same office fur thirty-six years, binding that the old i|uar' 
were not large einugh fur his increasing trade, he removed to 482 Rutherford ;iv<-nue,Charli-~ 
town, where he is now located ami carrying on a very large lumber business, the railroad 
cars running into his yard direct from the mills of all parts of the eountry. In iSixj Mr. 
Fuller married Miss I.avina 1'. Turner of Lyme, N. II.: they have one daughter, who is mar- 
ried to .Mr. Charles V.. Frit-hard of this city. In iSdo Mr. Fuller removed to Somervillc. 
In 1873 he served the city a> :i member of the ( 'ominoii ( 'ouncil, and in the following year 
was a member of the Hoard of Aldermen, and chairman of the Hoard of Health and tin- 
Highway Committee. At the expiration of his two years' city ser\ ice lie retired, and devoted 
himself entirely to his business. His residence is at 151 Walnut street, in the house which 
he erected for his own occupancy in 1861. 

Fulton, Justin D., D. D., pastor of First Haptist Church, was born in Farlville, 
X. Y., March I, iSjS. His father, Rev. John J. Fulton, was descended from North of Ire- 
land stock, and his mother, Clarissa Dewy Fulton, found a birthplace in C.reat Harrington, 
Mass., and was heir to many of the shining qualities of the Puritan element. In 1836 he- 
removed with his parents to Brooklyn, Mich., and at the age of eleven united with tin- 
Baptist Church. 

Ministers in Michigan, as a rule, were poor, and Mr. Fulton was not an exception. 
When eighteen years of age, the son, who up to this time had studied as best h<- <>uld 
when not employed on the farm, hung up the harness one night, and on not taking it down 
next morning was asked the reason why. "Am going to college !' "How? "Don'l 
know, but I start this morning." At once he began preparations, and in the fall of 1847 
entered the University of Michigan, and remained there three years, paying his way by 
wgrking for his board during term-time and by selling books in vacation. At once he took 
a foremost position. In his Junior year he was elected president of the college literary 
society, an honor generally reserved for students of the Senior Class. In his fourth year 
he entered the University of Rochester, that he might take Hebrew and be ready to enter 
the Theological Seminary in advance. He was graduated from the University of Rochester 
in 1851, and entering the Theological Seminary, he remained through a part of the second 
year, when, urged by the Rev. Spencer H. < 'one, 1). D., and William 1 1. Wyckoff, I.L. I >., to 
take charge of a Bible Union paper in St. Louis, Mo., he went there in December, 1853. 
The paper sprang into a large circulation. In it he printed the " Roman Catholic Element 
in American History," which at once arrested attention and excited opposition. Its 
ringing words called attention to the man, and twenty-four men ami women, meeting in 
Riddle Market Hall, having had their attention directed to him. invited him to preach for 
them. 

It was to him a providential call. He was ordained in May, 1854, over the Tabernacle 
Baptist Church. I le loved to preach, but the characteristics which made him a success as an 
editor interfered with his success as a minister. lie was bold, radical and outspoken. 1 he 
young editor had given himself to the ministry years before, providing < iod opened the w.iy. 
Now that the door was opened, he entered it with avidity. The committee in charge of the 
paper objected to the arrangement. The editor replied, "I believe that I am called to 
preach the gospel. If editing your paper interferes with this duty, I can give up the paper, 
but I will not give up the ministry.' 1 He began to preach with great acceptance to tin- 
people, and with unalloyed pleasure for himself. In 1855 the church became so large and 
the paper so important that Rev. James Inglis, of Detroit, came and took the pastoral' 
the church, becoming assistant editor of the paper, while the editor of the paper remained 
associate pastor of the church. This was in April. In May at 1'almvra, Mo., the stock- 
holders of the paper met, and it was resolved " that it is not enough that the editor "l the 
Gospel Bnniii-r be a gentleman and a Christian: lie must believe that slavery is right 



540 SOMl-'.Rl'ILLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

and defend it." One man, born in New Hampshire, voted for the resolution; no one voted 
against it, and the resignation of the editor was offered and accepted. The committee in 
charge of the paper lived in St. Louis. The editor-elect, in his first issue, made an attack 
upon the man who built up the paper; the committee saw it, stopped the press, confiscated 
all published, and never permitted an issue of the Gospel Banner under the new regime. 
Almost penniless, he turned his back on this city of his love, accepted the invitation of his 
brother, Dr. S. T- Fulton, then residing in Toledo, O., to make his house his home until 
he had prepared for the press "The Roman Catholic Element in American History," and 
while engaged in this work received an invitation to supply the pulpit in Sandusky, Ohio. 
The result was a call to the church and the securing of a helpmeet in the person of Miss 
Sarah E. Norcross, who for twenty-seven years was the companion of his life and the mother 
of his four children. In 1859. after a successful pastorate, he removed to Albany, N. Y., and 
became pastor of the Tabernacle Baptist Church, and spent the ensuing four years in a very 
successful ministry. In December, 1863, he was for the third time invited to the charge of 
the Tremont Temple Church. His success in Boston was immediate. He began with fifty 
members, and when he left it, ten years later, the membership had reached over a thousand 
and the income over ^23,000. In 1873, he became pastor of the Hanson-place Baptist 
Church of Brooklyn. X. V. In 1887, he resigned his pastorate in Brooklyn, and became 
the pioneer of the great A. P. A. movement. 

Dr. Fulton is a prolific writer, a forcible lecturer, and a stirring preacher of the gospel. 
He has been greatly blessed in his ministry, and has won to himself a great company of 
friends, who are loyal as any man could wish. Among the more notable of his works are 
the following : "The Roman Catholic Element in American History," already mentioned; 
" Life of Timothy Gilbert, the Founder of the Tremont Temple " ( Boston) ; " The True Wo- 
man," " The Way Out," " Show Your Colors," " Sam Hobart, the Railroad Engineer.'' 
" How to win Romanists," " Washington in the Lap of Rome," "Why Priests should Wed," 
"Spurgeon our Ally," etc., etc. A tract from his pen on the Sabbath has had a circulation 
of over one hundred thousand copies. In all the great reforms of the day he takes an active 
interest. The above sketches of Dr. Fulton's life are from the pens of the Rev. Robert S. 
MeArthur, D. D., of New York, Bishop Gilbert Haven, and others. 

Furber, William H., was born in Boston, October i, 1828, the son of Thomas and 
Sophia (Monroe) Furber, of that city. His education was obtained in the public schools. 
Mr. Furber came to Somerville during its existence as a town, and here exercised a large in- 
fluence. He was a member of the Board of Aldermen for 1872 and 1873, one of the trustees 
of the Public Library for 1873, 1874, 1875, ant ^ mayor in 1874 and 1875. lie delivered the 
centennial address on the history of Somerville in 1876. Mr. Furber married Miss Joanna, 
daughter of Benjamin and Elizabeth (Boynton) Parker. They now reside in Newton. 

Galpin, Mrs. Barbara. Among New England newspaper women Mrs. Barbara Gal- 
pin, of Somerville, enjoys the distinction of being one of the brightest and best equipped in 
the profession. She is best known to the majority of Somerville people, perhaps, as the edi- 
tor of the woman's page of the " Somerville Journal," with which paper she has been connected 
for nearly a score of years, and as the originator of the Ileptorean Club, and treasurer of that 
organization since its inception. But these are not the only, nor even the principal causes 
of her distinction. Through her long connection with the " Journal," beginning as compositor, 
and being promoted to proof-reader, bookkeeper, and now having the direct charge of all 
the details of the large and growing business of the " Somerville Journal " newspaper and job 
printing establishment, she has had a remarkably varied experience, and has gained an in- 
sight into active newspaper management such as is enjoyed by few women. Her woman's 
page in the "Journal " is easily one of the best and most readable published. In its columns she 
has done much for the social and home sides of life, and also in assisting local charities. 



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JOSEPH J. GILES. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 543 

She has contributed frequently to other papers, and her 1 rilliai t letters "I ir.iv> -1 and grace- 
ful poems ha\i- been \viilely read; in short, -lie is a tli-n n.gh. all-round newspaper woman. 
With all her excellent business ability Mrs. Oalpin is eminent!; molest and womanly, an d her 
social life is peculiarly brilliant and charming. < >ne published volume has come from her 
pen, In Foreign Lands,' an entertaining description of travel in l-'.urope. Besides her con- 
nection with other organi/ations. Mrs. ( ialpin has for several yea ; ne ctiieient treasurer 
of the New England \\'onian's Pre-, \--ociation; -lie was also one of the founders of the 
" Daughters of Vermont," is an associate member of the 1 laughter-, of New I la 
and is an active mvmber ol the American Authors' Guild, ut \e\v \ ork ( 'ity. 

Giles, Joseph J., was burn in Somerville near the site of the present I'nion -quarc, in 
March, 1X42. his birth being the first in the town after its incorporation. I Ms early education 
uas obtained in the Somer\ ille schools, and it was completed in the old High School building 
which is now UK- ( 'ity I lall. In April. [86 1, after the opening ol the rebellion, he went to 
the front with the Somerville Light Infantry, Co. I, c;th Regiment, and participated in the 
first battle of Bull Run. In August, iS62, lie enlisted for three years in the Somcnille ( iuard, 
Co. E, 39th Regiment, and was ounmi-sioned as its first lieutenant. He subsequently served 
eleven months as an aid-de-camp to < len. Mattindale, the military governor of Washing 1 
1). C. In 1891 and iS<)-! lie represented his district in the Legislature, serving on the com- 
mittee on insurance, and administrative boards and commissions. lie has been engaged 
in the real estate and insurance business in I'nion square since 1876, and is well and favor- 
ably known by the residents of Somerville, his business and social acquaintance being un- 
usually wide and varied. I lis residence is at 34 Putnam street. 

Oilman, Charles E., \\as born in Shrewsbury, Mass., January i, iSo<), son ol Joseph 
and Lucy (Sawyer) dilman. His father died when Charles was an infant, and his \\idowed 
mother was alone left to provide for him. Coming to Medford he received his education in 
the public schools, and was then apprenticed to learn the baker's trade; this \\a- found un- 
congenial to his inclinations, and he received a position on the I'.oston and 1 ,o\\ ell Rail- 
road, in which he sold the first ticket from Boston to Lowell. He remained with the road 
several years, and then secured a position in the New England Bank of Boston, where he 
remained until Somerville became a city. Mr. (lilinan was town clerk of Somerville dur- 
ing its entire existence as a town, and when it became a city he was elected city clerk, 
\\liichpositionheretained until his death, which occurred at the home of his daughter. Mr-. 
Oeo. C. Skilton, at Bedford, Mass., Keb. 22, iSSS. ( >n the fortieth anniversary of his seivicc 
as town and city clerk he was tendered a banquet, Monday evening, Januan 2. iSSj. < >n 
this occasion he was presented with a watch, chain and seal, the presentation speei h being 
made by ex-Mayor ( ieo. A. Bruce. Mr. Oilman came to Somerville about I S yS, purchasing 
a property of several acres and house on Walnut street. Here lie resided lor 4^ years, his 
wife and son during that period passing away. In iSS^. and until his death, he made hi- 
home in Somerville and Bedford with his son-in-lau . Ocorge C. Skilton. 

GirOUX, Aime E., son of Joseph and Cecilia Oinm\. wa- born in the Province ol Oucbo . 
October 6, 1851. I Ic \\as educated in the celebrated Jacques Cartier Normal School ol Mont- 
real, and in the Lancaster, Mass., I ligh school. In iNSi he embarked in the wholesale milk 
business in Boston, handling at that time about foil - the business has steadily in- 

creased since that time, and lie is now regarded as one of the largest and most reliable dealers 
in this vicinity, his daily sales amounting to aboul one thousand cans. Mr. Giroux came to 
Somerville in 1883, and resided on Columbus avenue two years: lie thru removed to l\o\- 
bury, and returned to Somerville in i.S'is,. He married Mi Marguerite VlacNall) oi Bos 
ton in 1885, and they have tuo children. Thc\ residi it <>- I 'earl -tre> t. 

Glines, Edward, - >n oi facob T. and Sarah \. Washburn Glines, was born in Somer- 
ville, August I?, 1X4'). Graduating from the High School in iSoo.he entered the lain \ gro- 



544 SOMEKl'/LLE. PAST AXD PRESENT. 

eery store of II. '!'. Parker i\; < !o., of Charlestown, where he remained two or tliree months. 
lie then undertook an express business on his own account between Winter Hill and Boston, 
carrying it on for two years. In 1872 he went into his father's establishment as a clerk, be- 
ginning practically at the bottom, and going through every department of the business. 
which was in tea, coffee and spices, until, finally, after buying an interest in the business, he 
succeeded to it when his father retired in 1880. Mr. ( ilines was married to Frances ('., 
daughter of Ziba P. and Xancy L. (Henderson) Hanks, of Augusta, Me. They have no 
children. Mr. ( ilines has always felt an intense interest in politics, and has been prominent in 
many of the battles that have been fought in this city, and in state and national contests be- 
sides. I Ie was a member of the Common Council in 1878, was re-elected in 1879 and made 
president of that body. In 1881 and 1882 he \vas elected to the House of Representatives, 
and did valuable service on important committees and in debate. In 1884 he was elected a 
member of the State Central Committee, and served for two years both on the executive and 
finance committees. 

In the fall of 1886 Mr. Glines was nominated for the Senate, and was elected by a large 
majority; he served on some of the most important committees, and did important work; 
he was re-elected to the Senate in 1887, and was chairman of the railroad committee and of 
the committee on Federal relations, etc. Since his retirement from the Senate in 1888, Mr- 
Glines has not taken a public part in politics, but he has not lost his interest in public af- 
fairs. He has always been connected with all enterprises to benefit the community, and fore- 
most in charitable works, I le was interested in the formation of the Central Club, of which 
he was president in 1894-95; was a member of the Webcowit Club, is a life member of the 
Somerville Improvement Society, and is now a member of the Winter Hill Club of this city, 
and the Central, Middlesex, X T ew England and Taylor Clubs of Boston. He has held offices 
in the Somerville Volunteer Fire Department, in the Odd Fellows and Knights of Honor, and 
is a Knight Templar. In addition to his other services to the city he was one term an over- 
seer of the poor, and as president of the Common Council was ex oflicio a member of the 
School Committee in 1879. He was elected a delegate to the Minneapolis Republican Con- 
vention, was a presidential elector in 1892, and was a candidate for Congress in that year. 

Glines, Jacob T., son of Jacob and Jane Glines, was born in Moultonborough, N. If., 
July 20, 1817; he removed to Charlestown when a young man, and married, in 1840, Miss 
Sarah Washburn, of Kennebunk, Me. Mr. Glines was always identified with the prosperity 
of Somerville as a town and city; he was a member of the last Board of Selectmen; was 
chairman of the first Board of Aldermen, and member of the City Government for a number 
of years subsequently; he represented Somerville two years in the lower house of the Gen- 
eral Court; early in life he carried on an extensive brick business, and for many years was a 
prominent coffee merchant in Boston; he was a charter member of Bunker Hill Lodge, I. 
< >. O. F., of Charlestown; he died August 3, 1882. In recognition of his services to the city 
the Jacob T. Glines School was named in 1891. 

Gookin, Abijah B., son of Thomas Thwing and Mary (Brown) Gookin, was born at 
\Vatertown, Mass., September 7, 1825. He attended the schools of Watertown until he was 
lifteen years of age, and when nineteen he entered the High School of Fitchburg. He em- 
barked in the provision business < Ictober i, 1847, anf -l nas since continued in the same line and 
in the original location at 370 Commercial street, Boston. He moved to Somerville in 187}, 
and still resides in the house that he purchased at that time. Mr. ( look in has been twice 
married, his first wife being Miss Sarah F. Monroe of Cambridgeport, and his second Miss 
Louisa M. Loring of Boston. He has served the city one year in the Common < 'ouncil and 
two years in the Board of Aldermen. He is a member of the Chamber of Commerce and of 
the Fruit and Produce Exchange of Boston. He is also a member of the St. John's Lodge. 
F. A. A. M. Mr. ( lookin is a deacon in the Union-square Baptist Church, and has been very 
earnest in his efforts to promote its welfare. His residence is at 15 Grand View avenue. 







EDWARD GLINES. 




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Gordon, Emma J., was born in llo^ton. hut her early childhood \\.i- passe 1 in I.\nn, 
uhcre her people still n>ide. Sin- was educated in the public schools of that city, and at- 
tended the Salem .XoniKil Sclmol \\ith the intention of becoming a teacher in the public 
>< hi >, ,1s. Her inclinations, however, led her to cl ..... sr another profession for her life's work, 
and in 1884 she entered the Training school for Nurses at the City Hospital, Jlo-ton. MM- 
applied herself with great /eal, graduated in two years, and for six months after was the head 
nurse of one of the uards. She then took up the work of a district nurse, and among tin- 
poor of the ''North End " oi i;.i-,ton gained much valuable knowledge. Later she was 
a private nurse, filling the important position in very many critical cases where unremitting 
attentions were absolutely necessary to ensure the patient's recovery. Lor t\\o and a half 
years, just previous to being railed lo lake charge of the Somerville I lospital. she was matron 
of the Sunny l!ank Home for Convalescents in WaterUm n. When the Somerville Hospital 
was established in 180 }, .Miss < iordon was selected as one eminently qualified to fill the im- 
portant position of matron, and the confidence that was felt in her ability to fill that post has 
been fully continued by her three years' service; in fact, much of the su :cess that has attended 
the institution has been due to her able management. Increased responsibilities that have 
come upon her with the gradual increase of the number of inmates, and the corresponding 
increase in the expenditures and in the enlarged corps of nurses, have been met with firmness 
and rare good judgment, and the fidelity to the interests of the hospital that she has at all 
times displayed, have been acknowledged by every one. Miss Gordon is often invited to de- 
liver lectures on hospital \\ork, but is compelled to decline them on account of the pressure 
of her duties in our city institutions; at home, however, she has given on several occasions 
informal talks before societies whose sympathies are enlisted in the hospital's behalf, and her 
words of advice and instruction have been of great value to the cause in which she is so in- 
tensely interested. 

Gould, Aaron H., son of John Gould, was born in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia, 
January 15, 1865. He attended the public school of the town and learned the carpenter's 
trade. About 1884 he was persuaded by his uncle, of Ellsworth, Me., to locate there, and in 
charge of a force of fifty men he rebuilt for him the Hancock House. Later he planned and 
built a costly residence for H. I!. Mason, mayor of the city, and other important building-- 
for many well-known cituens; the Su iss Shallia, Manor Inn, and many beautiful residences 
at Sullivan, Me., the growing summer resort managed by a company of which the late ex- 
Governor A. 11. Rice of Massachusetts was president. Passing about four years in the then 
booming sections of the South, Mr. ( iould had many contracts for the erection of manufactur- 
ing-buildings. residences, etc., in Atlanta, Chattanooga, Fort Payne, Tell City, and other places 
one an important business-block for Hon. John Maxwell of \YiiiLhe>ter, Ma., another a 
savings-bank building for Col. J. \Y. Spaulding of I'.oston. 

Since his return from the South he lias planned the I >n>uct Apartment Hotel, the II. 
\Y. I'. Colson Apartment Hotel. City Stables and Central Fire Station, all in Somerville: the 
Ward 5 Engine-house and \\ard I Schoolhouse. Cambridge, the latter routing >4O,OOO. 
Plans for the addition made this year to the Glines schoolhouse, Somerville, were prepared 
by him, also for a new engine-house in I >edham. Mass. His work has been ol >uch a i har- 
acter as necessarily to come under the observation of such men a- e\-Mayor Hodgkins, 
\Ym.II.Gray, superintendent of buildings, Cambridge, Hon. E. I'. Cook, Portland, Me., 
1 Ion. Hannibal Hamlin, Ellsworth, Me., and others equally well known. Mr. Gould is a 
man. who by careful attention to what he has undertaken has been able to .u complish re- 
sults that speak more forcibly than word;- o| hU abilities in his chosen vocation. His I'.os- 
ton office is at 42 Court street, and his studio is at his residence, corner ol ' . Imnbus and 
Stone avenues, Somerville. 

Gray, Rev. Andrew, A.M., D.D., was born .it Sussex, N. \'>. After the usual course 



S^*T^ /'^"A 




Residence of AARON H. GOULD, Columbus and Stone Avenues. 



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JAAZANIAH GROSS. 



i/AVi' /'//./.A', PAST AND PRESENT. 551 

of study in the schools at home, he became a scholar in tin- M. I -1m Model School, and later 
pursued his studies at Sackville, N. B., at Windsor, N. S., and at the Bo-ton school of Lan- 
guages, lie was ordained both deacon and priest by the Right Reverend Dr. Binney, late 
1 .ord Bishop ol \o\ i Scotia, and spent the first three v ea is of his ministry at Li\ < -rpool. N. 
S., as curate to the late Rev. Dr. Nichols. He then m , -|.i'-d a unanimous election to tli< 
rectorship of the adjoining parish of I'ort Medway. \\hcre he remained for live years. 

His first charge in this dim ese was the Episcopal City Mission of Boston, of which he 
was head from 1X711 to 1879, and in which he was the successor ot th.- kite R<-\. Dr. E. M. 
P. Wells of blessed memory. The Mission had suffered much by the ' ( ,reat Eire" ot 1X7.1. 
both by the destruction of St. Stephen's ( 'hurch and Mission 1 louse, and by the breaking up 
and disorganization of its work. During Mr. Gray's incumbency tin- work was rcorgani/cd, 
a house for a headquarters was purchased, and Grace ('hurch. South Boston, was built. 

In 1880 he accepted the rectorship of St. Luke's Church, Chelsea, which he held for 
seven years. Here, too, he did an excellent work. The church building was repaired and 
improved at a considerable expense, and many articles of furniture, etc., including a church 
bell, were provided. 

After resigning St. Luke's, Dr. Gray traveled extensively abroad, and gathered mate- 
rials for a forthcoming work on "The ( Jrigin and Early History of Christianity in Britain." 
After his return from Europe he gave much attention to literary work, lectures, etc., and 
doing ministerial duty on Sundays. During this time he took charge of ' Christ (Episcopal) 
Mission," Wellesley, then in the feebleness of its infancy. I -"or eighteen months it continued 
under his care, during which time it developed into the present St. Andrew's Parish. 

He is the author of a number of pamphlets and of one or two bound volumes, all of them 
on subjects connected with his profession. Some of these have reached a second or third 
edition. He has also been a frequent contribute).- to both religious and secular papers. St. 
Stephen's College, Annandale, N. V., conferred the degree of ' D. D." upon him //<<;/<'r/y 
Causa in 1894,111 recognition of his literary labors and of the service he had thereby rendered 
to the church. In December, iS<)^,he was elected to the rectorship of St. Thomas' Chun h. 
in succession to the late Father Durell. lie accepted the election, and at once entered on 
his work with earnestness and zeal. 

Grimmons, Charles A., son of Charles and Cordelia i Covell > < Irimmons, uas born in 
Middleton, Conn., [anuary 19, 1859. He was educated in the public schools of Boston, graduat- 
ing from the English High School in the class of 1876. He began his business life as book- 
keeper for Pitkin Bros., and after fifteen years' service he succeeded them \\ith Lduard E. 
(Irimmons and William T. 1 light, under the firm name of The Boston Furniture Supply Co., 
of which Charles A. is the senior partner. They do an extensive business as importer*, manu- 
facturers and jobbers in hardware and supplies for the cabinet, drapery and upholstery trades 
at IO2 Union street, Boston, their trade extending throughout this country and Canada. Mr. 
Grimmons was married June i, 1887, to Katie M. Aldricli, and thev have one son; thc\ n - 
side at 72 Thurston street. Mr. Grimmons is a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M., of tin- 
Central Club of Somerville, and of the 9991)1 Artilleiy Association of Charleston n. 

Gross, Jaazaniah, sou of Isaac S. and Betsy Cross, uas born at Truio. M.iss., Aprils. 
1824. He removed in 1840 to Boston, and ucnt to work in the provision store of George 
Carlisle, 241 North street, with whom he remained a year, and then \\ent to work for a Mr. 
Humphrey in Ouincy Market. When nineteen he went into the boot and shoe Imsim -- for 
himself, and started with the meagre sum of Si 50, which he borrowed of his father. Some 
idea of his persistency and perseverance can be formed by the statement that the youth did 
a business the hrst year amounting to $14,000, and in the thirteen years lieu. is alone he 
saved $45,000. lie then took in tuo Blanchard brothers, but the concern was dissolved ill 
two years to protect Mr. Cross' interests. lie then went to uork in his fatlu i - provision 




EMMA PRICHARD HADLEY. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND /'/v'A.s'A.V/'. ; ; ; 

stall in Quincy Market, and \\lu-n his father died, in 1X7 ;. h ^-umed charge <>f the business. 
which he continued until iSo;. when In- >"M out and retired. 

In 1850 Mr. Gross married Harriet Augusta. daughter of Foster < 'lark of Walpole, N. 
II.. and about three years later he built the house at the corner of IVrkins and Mt. Vernon 
streets. They had three daughters : M ny. who married Charles B. Stock well oi l'rt I li; 
Mich.; Laura C., now Mrs. C. M. Shove of Fall River; and Harriet Augusta, who resides at 
the old homestead. Mrs. Gross died in 1874. 

Mr. Gross is a member of the Masons, Royal Arcanum, Knights of Honor, aii'l I 
Chamber of Commerce. 

Guild, Charles H., uas born at Roxbury, June i i. 1825, the son of Chester and Har- 
riet (Fiske) Guild. He received his education in the public schools of Koxlnirv. supple- 
mented by a course at Chauncey Hall School in Boston. He followed the on up, uion of his 
father, having obtained a thorough practical knowledge of the leather business. In this he 
continued many years. He became a resident of Somerville soon after its incorporation a> 
a separate municipality, and served the town in various public capacities, having been a mem- 
ber of the Board of Selectmen and School Committee, president of the Board of Trustees t if the 
Public Library, and he was three times elected to the Legislature. He held other positions of 
trust and responsibility. In all public, religious, educational and patriotic movements he 
was a zealous worker and supporter. Mr. Guild married, November 21, 1848, Margaret Jane, 
daughter of William and Abigail (Eaton) Fox of Woburn. For the past nine years he re- 
sided at Newton Highlands. His death occurred November 17, 1896. 

Guild, Chester, son of Nathaniel and Rebecca (Hart) Guild, was born in Walpole. 
April 9, 1791. When fourteen years of age he went to Roxbury and entered his brother's 
leather manufactory, and in 1812 went into business on his own account. He married Har- 
riet Fiske of Boston, June 13, 1822. In 1845 he purchased a large tannery in Charlestown. 
and shortly afterward removed to Somerville. Mr. Guild was a member of the Hoard of 
Selectmen of Somerville, and had represented the town in the General Court. He was a char- 
ter member of Washington Lodge, F. A. A. M., of Roxbury, and of John Abbot Lodge, of 
Somerville. He died March 7, 1869. 

Hadley, Emma Prichard. Somerville is proud of the part that woman has had in 
making history for the growing city. Much of its success, even from the setting oil from 
Charlestown, when the wives and daughters and sisters urged independence, has tome ir. an 
woman's influence. Other pens have exalted her in the various avenues in which she has 
labored and won, but outside of the ordinary praise which should he accorded there is still 
another scope to be alluded to, and which is finely represented by the lady whose name 
heads this sketch. 

Mrs. Hadley is the daughter of John P. and Kli/.abeth A. Prichard, wlne ancestor 
helped make a teapot of Boston Harbor. She was born in Charlestown, but moved to 
Somerville when a year old, and received her education in its schools, graduating at tin- 1 ligh 
School in 1875. Immediately thereafter she taught as a substitute here, and in 1870 wa> 
married to Walter M. Hadley, son of George W. Hadley, one of the original settlers of the 
town. As early as four years of age she showed marked signs of ability in elocution, and it 
can be said of her that she is the first public lady reader in Somerville. Fn>m that time 
until the present she has taken high rank among the readers of the State, and is one ol the 
most versatile artists on the public platform. Thousands have heard her only t.i piaise lier. 
and she has the fullest commendation of the ablest judges and literary personages in our 
city and elsewhere. 

In 1895 she was the lady judge with four eminent gentlemen at the Goddard pri.v 
reading at Tufts College. In charitable and philanthropic work Mrs. Hadley has Keen i 
generous, as many churches, the hospital, and organisation, ( an well attest. Her annual 
recitals are occasions looked forward to with great interest, and an Anally Miccessful. 








JOHN HAIGH. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 555 

Mrs. Hadley's pen is not an idle one, and many papers on various -ubieits have c e 

from her pen and brain. Of this line of work she is also very fond, she tni'l- time fi.imthat 
devoted to her many pupils to give society the benefit and pleasure nf her a-s. .ci:iti< .n, and 
her name is enrolled as a member <>f the Somerville Shakes]",!!' Society, the llepturean 
and Hillside Clubs. She is a highly esteemed member of the First I niversali-t < 'hurch. 

Eleven years ago Mr. and Mrs. Iladley moved into their new and co/y-like home at 
the corner of Ilathon and Arlington streets, where they now reside. 

Hadley, George W., son of Benjamin and Martha i Ireland) Iladley, wa> born in 
Charlestown (now Somerville) in 1826, and was engaged in the \\uod and coal bu-ine-- on 
Charlestown Neck for twenty years. lie was .m the Hoard of Selectmen of the town o) 
Somerville for four years during the war, and after the town was incorporated as a city 
was elected to the Board of Aldermen. Mr. Iladley served fifteen years as principal 
assessor. 

He married Elizabeth Moore, daughter of Hugh Tannant Moore, in 1.^52. They have 
one son, Walter M. Hadley, who succeeded his father in the coal business. 

Hadley, S. Henry, was born in Boston, November 22, 1844, the son of Samuel I), and 
Mary (Oliver) Hadley, of that city. His education was obtained at the Lyman and Chap- 
man Schools, Boston, and the Prescott and High Schools of Somerville, where he moved in 
1853. He graduated from the High School in 1862 with the first class that received diplo- 
mas. There were six in the class. Mr. Hadley was instructed in music by his father, who 
enjoyed an eminent reputation; and in his fifteenth year was organist at a Medford church. 
Eor eleven years he was organist at the Winthrop Church, Charlestown, and has served in 
the same capacity in several of the larger churches of Somerville. I le has held many po-i- 
tions as conductor of musical societies, notably at the Peace jubilee in 1870, and has 
otherwise been connected with musical organizations. In 1868 he became teacher of mu- 
sic in the Somerville High School, and soon after in the grammar schools, which position he 
still retains. He has taught music in the public schools of Everett, Reading, YVeston, for 
eight years in Medford, and for eleven years in Watertown. His success as a teacher is show n 
by the remarkable progress made in singing in the Somerville schools during the last quarter 
of a century. He has a practical knowledge of ali the musical instruments, having played 
more or less upon nearly all of them. He has had charge of the Memorial-day music in 
Somerville for the past twenty years, and thus in another way his success and ability as a 
teacher and conductor has been demonstrated. Mr. Hadley married, i Htober jS, iSim, Mi-- 
Martha T. Conant, daughter of E/.ra I), and Betsey (Skeele) Conant. of Somerville. They 
reside at 46 Pearl street, and have two sons, Henry K. Hadley and Arthur I). Iladley. Both 
of the sons are talented musicians, the former, though only twenty-one years of age, haying 
the peculiar gift of his father, of composing and arranging music for the orchestra. 

Haigh, John, son of ( leorge and Hannah (Parkinson \ Ilaigh. \vas born in IHikinlield. 
Cheshire, England, December 31, 1832. His education was obtained in that town, and when he 
was seventeen years of age he was apprenticed to the trade of calico printer, which trade 
was the foundation of his success. He came to America in 1*55. and early in iN;<> i .inn- 
engaged with the Pacific Mills at Lawrence. After eighteen years of service \\ith that linn 
he severed his connection with it, and took charge of the printing department of the Mid- 
dlesex Bleachery and l)y<- \\oiks, of which lie subsequently became half owner. April \i 
1859, Mr. Ilaigh was married in Perkins, Me., to Lucy Jane, daughter of Captain Kedford I), 
and Jane Bowker Tallman. He was always associated with the Methodist Kpiscopal < 'hir 

and was ever liberal in chureh coniribm -. lie was an enthusiastic member and worthy 

exemplar of the Masoni. fraternity, which he joined in Lawrence in iSy>. tie has held 
nearly every position in the order. In the <.rand Chapter he passed through the offici 
district deputy, grand high priest, and deputy grand high priest. I or several years lie \\.i- 









* 



GEORGE W. HADLEV. 



SOMI'Kl'II.1.1-:, PAST AND PRESENT. 557 

illustrious grand master of the Grand < 'ouncil of Royal and Seh-i t Masters. In iS.\, he 
elected grand conductor of the General Grand ( 'oiim il, Royal and Si-lot Masters of the 
United States, for three years. He was also past most puissant sovereign grand . oinniandi-r 
of the Ancient Accepted Scottish Rltr. lie had a private library \\hich was, perhaps, the 
richest in choice Masonic literature of any in New F.ngland, ami he ai-<|uired no small I. 
as a collector, his cabinets containing many rare coins, medals and articles of vertu of all 
sorts that are characteristic of the intelligent study of the collector. lie was intensely inter- 
ested in historical research, and was a mcmlicr of the Massachusetts x < . i< t\. the ^"cicty of 
< kkl Volumes, and other organi/.ations devoted to such matters. Mr. Haigh was respected 
and beloved by all the residents of Si unerville, and his death, whii h 01 i in red August 20. I v 
was regarded as a public bereavement. 

Hall, William Franklin, though a native of < harlestown, has resided in Somerville 
for a score of years, lie was chosen a member of the Mystic Water Hoard of Somerville 
for a term of three years, from lanuary i. iNi)4- His business is that of professional account- 
ant, in which he has become \\ idely kmmn. 

Hanscom, Dr. Sanford, son of fames and Mary Frost) I lanscom. \\as born in Albi . 
Me., January 28, 1841. lie was prepared for college at the Waterville (Me.) Classical In- 
stitute, and entered Colby University in 1863. but left college in his sophomore year to enter 
the Union Army. Mis Alma Mater, however, in 1X85 conferred upon him the degree of A. M. 
He was first lieutenant of the Eighth Unassigned Company of Maine Volunteers, which, 
when ready for service, was assigned to the Eleventh Maine Infantry, then in the Twenty- 
fourth Army Corps, Army of the James. Soon after this assignment he was commissioned 
adjutant of the regiment. It was in active service around Richmond and Petersburg in the 
spring of 1865, until the surrender of those cities. Its last engagement was at Appomatt 
Court-house the morning of the day of deneral Lee's surrender. In iSt>S I >r. I lansi oni \\as 
graduated from the Harvard Medical School, and in the spring of iSO<) commenced practice 
in Somerville, where he hassince resided. He is now serving his fifteenth year on the Somer- 
ville School Board, and has served six years as trustee of the Public Library. For a period of 
twelve years he has been State Medical Lxaminer for the Royal Arcanum in Massachusetts, 
which positionhe resigned in July, 1896, to accept the office of Medical Examiner-in-Chief of 
the same order. He is a memlur of the Massachusetts Medical Society, and belongs to the 
Grand Army of the Republic and the Massachusetts Commandery of the Military < >nler of the 
Loyal Legion, and is a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M. He was married, < >ctnber 26, 
1874, to Miss Beulah A. Hill, daughter of Cyrus and Cynthia i Moure 1 Hill; they have one 
daughter, Aline Louisa Hanscom. The new schoolhouse on the corner of Webster and Rush 
streets was in 1896 named the I lanscom School, in recognition of his valuable services on 
the School Board. 

Hartshorn, Edward, M. D., son of Rev. Levi and Hannah 1 llioii llaii~li.ru. ua- 
born in Gloucester, Mass.. |ime 2.S, 1X17. He "read medicine" after the custom of tin- 
times, with Dr. Kendall havis of Reading and Dr. M.Spaulding of South Reading, attended 
lectures at the Dartmouth Medical Department, but graduated after a full course at the I lar- 
vard Medical School in I,V)<>, locating in practice in Berlin. Ma--., thi s.une year. In 1841. 
May 13, he married Lucy F.li/abeth Howe, daughter of Solomon and Sarah 1 lo\\e of Merlin. 
Their only children have been F.dward Howe and William Henry, the former dying ten 
years ago. After several years of successful practice his health demanded a change, and he 
commenced the manufacture ot medicines and cooking extracts, u Inch are now in general usr. 
in about sixty different varieties. lie took his sons into copartnership as they reached their 
majority. He remo\edhis business to Boston about thirt) years ago, taking up his homi 
87 Munroe street, in Somerville, where, he has since resided \\ith his surviving son and 
family. 




EDWARD HARTSHORN, M.D. 



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FRANK S. HARTSHORN. 



A-/V' ///././:, PAST AND rKi-:si-:.\T. 561 

In 1878 he became interested in the Cnited Order "I tin- < mldm < rn^s. anil relin- 
quished his business to his sons (now carried on by \\ . II. I lartshurn i, and devoted much 
energy and time to its interest. In this order he has been honored with tin- highest official 
rank, having been Grand Commander of this State, a representative to and a permanent 
member of the supreme body, and is accredited with great success. In 1880 he established 
the "Golden Cross Journal," and he still edits and manages this influential paper of exten- 
sive circulation. In church matters he has been very active, ha\ing been superintendent "f 
the Sabbath School in Berlin several years, and also of the Prospect 1 1 ill Sunda\ -,. 1. 
in connection with the church of the same name, which he was largely instrumental in 
forming. He was one of the first deacons of the Day-street Congregational < lmrch,and ha- 
held that office in the Prospect Hill Church from its origin. Ilis faithful \\ite, to u horn hi 
attributes largely his success in life, celebrated with him recently the lifty-lifth anniversary '.t 
their marriage. 

Hartshorn, Frank S., son of Francis G. and Amline A. iSaunders) Hartshorn, ua- 
born in Charlestown, Mass., Feb. 13, 1846. His father moving to Somerville with hi> family 
in 1852, Mr. Hartshorn received his education in the schools of that city, and was graduated 
from the Somerville High School in the first class to receive diplomas in 1862. He was l-'i 
several years in mercantile life, and later in the dramatic prutesMon. Fur fifteen years he 
has been connected with prominent hotels, having been for nine years in the ( )ld Treniont 
House, Boston. He was for three consecutive years W. M. of John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M.. 
of Somerville, and is a member of a council o| the Home Circle. Mr. Hartshorn man 
Ellen L., daughter of Cyrus F. ( rosby of Somerville, and their children are I lorace < .. of 
New Orleans and Florence S. Hartshorn. He has resided in Somerville for forty-four years, 
excepting a short time in Watertown, and in Memphis. His present residence is at 96 Glen 
street. 

Haven, Mrs. Clara P., who for three years has been president of the Daughters i.f 
Maine Club, was born at West Gardiner, Me., anil taught for some six years in different 
sections of the State, filling with distinguished success positions in all grades in the school,. 
Her marriage with Mr. George D. Haven brought her to this city, where she has ex- 
erted a wide and powerful influence in her church and social life. An active member of the 
First Universalist Church, Mrs. Haven has devoted herself to the Sunday-school and to all 
matters pertaining to the parish, in all this, neglecting no portion of her home or social dutv 
Under her direction the Daughters of Maine have made a splendid showing, and are gain- 
ing in influence everyday. Mrs. Haven possesses unbounded faith in women to accom- 
plish grand results from earnest effort, and this faith has been justified by good works. 
Mrs. Haven has a most winning personality, is eminently practical, thoroughly in tomh 
with the progressive spirit that animates this period, and is an ideal home-maker. Looking 
forward always to higher perfection in the club work, maintaining the highot standard 
possible, bringing enthusiasm and refined tastes into all she has undertaken, the club mem. 
bers have only been satisfied with the best results. Mrs. Haven is a member of the 
Ileptorean Club, doing her full share in the work of that notable organization, and her 
full and busy and useful life is an example of what wide influence may be felt from one 
active and refined personality. 

Hayden, Joseph Orlin, treasurer of Middlesex < uunty. \\as born in Blandford, Ma-- . 
July 8, 1847, the youngest son of Fli/.ur 1!. and Luanda .Simmon- lla\dcn. His father 
was a well-known schoolmaster for many years, and later in life became a prosperous farmer. 
In early life Mr. Hayden attended the district school in Hlandford, and tim there \\ent to 
the Granville Academy and the High School in Chicopee. At the age of >eventeen he went 
West, and became a clerk in a law, real estate, and insurance e>tabli>hment in Minneapolis. 
At the end of two years he bought an interest in a neu-paper in that cit\. and soon after be- 



562 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AXD PRESENT. 

came the manager. Mr. Hayclen came to Somerville in 1868, and entered the establishment 
of Emerson Leland & Co., of Arch street, as bookkeeper; after one year's service with the 
firm he resigned to become the treasurer and office manager of the Boston Daily and Sunday 
" Times." In 1876 Mr. Hayden severed his connection with this paper to assume control of the 
Somerville " Journal." and for the past twenty years it has been under his personal guidance. 
( )f late years but little of his time has been devoted to his newspaper, for in 1886 he was 
unanimously elected treasurer of Middlesex County, which office he has held ever since. In 
1882 he was elected a member of the Somerville Mystic Water Board, and served as its presi- 
dent until he resigned, in 1890. During his term of office the much-needed high-water ser- 
vice was put in operation. Mr. Hayden is the president of the Somerville National Bank, 
a trustee of the Somerville Savings Bank, and also a trustee of the Somerville Hospital Asso- 
ciation. In newspaper circles his wise judgment and conservative methods are always in 
demand. He is now the president of the Suburban Press Association, which has a member- 
ship of nearly two hundred publishers and editors of the leading New England papers, and 
is also treasurer of the Massachusetts Republican Editorial Association. Mr. Hayden is a 
member of John Abbot Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, Somerville Royal Arch Chap- 
ter, and of Orient Council. As a county treasurer he is considered one of the best in the 
State, his system of bookkeeping and sets of books having been copied by other county offi- 
cials and approved by experts ; as a newspaper manager he has few equals, and as a conserva- 
tive, careful business-man he stands in the front rank. In all the progressive, beneficial 
movements of the city Mr. Hayden has always taken a leading part, both personally and 
with the great power of his paptr. 

In 1870 Mr. Hayden was married to Mary Elizabeth Pond of Somerville. They re- 
side at 42 Spring street. 

Hayes, John S. Mr. Hayes has been a living force in Somerville. He came to this 
city to assume the duties of principal of the Forster Grammar School, and held that position 
from 1878-93, a period of fifteen years. In that half a generation of years how many chil- 
dren and youths have had the imprint of his personality! As a teacher he was devoted to 
his profession, and held in honorable esteem by his associates. He has been president of 
the Middlesex County Teachers' Association ; has read two admirable papers before its con- 
ventions, and also before other teachers' conventions. He was founder of the very popular 
Hillside Club, now sixteen years old, and its second president, and has served two terms as 
president since then. Nearly every year he has read a paper before the club; and furnished 
to the local press, and read before historical societies, e. g. in Dedham, Harvard, etc., essays 
and lectures of local and general value. Some of these have been : " Myths of the Revolu- 
tion"; "Address on Laying the Corner-stone of the Winter Hill Congregational Church"; 
" Address at the Twentieth Anniversary of Cieur de Lion Commandery, Knights Templar"; 
A History of That Commandery; "A History of the Public Library"; "Annual Reports 
of the Library," which have been of such merit that they have been called for in all parts of 
the country. 

At the time of the semi-centennial celebration he took an active part from the first : 
served on important committees; was chairman of the Historical Committee; and on the day 
of the parade acted as commander of the Sixth Division. It was fitting he should have the 
last position, since he came of military parentage. His grandfather was a soldier of the Rev- 
olution, and his father a soldier of the War of 1812. His active interest in all public affairs 
has been noticeable. He has been president of the Somerville Improvement Society. He 
was a member of the committee that marked the historic spots of Somerville. He is at 
present a member of the City Charter Commission. It may be said, in this connection, that 
he has written and published many able articles on the ancient and contemporary history of 
the city. In attending to matters of outside interest he has never neglected those which 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT, 

ii tu pertain mi re immediately to \\\- own literary associations, lie I. as a large private 
library of carefully selected books which have a marked value in wellnigh evi-ry depart- 
n icnt uf literature. ( Iccupying as he mm does, anil has for three years, th' responsible posi- 
tion of librarian of the Public Library, he has been able to supplement its resources quite 
frequently by drawing upon those of his o\\n library. 

Besides the Hillside Club, he is a member of the Twentieth Century < lub, the Ma-- 
chusetts Library (. lub, and of the American I .ibrary Ass< iciation. His interest in Masonry 
has been prominent. He is a charter member of Soley Lodge, Past High Priest in S"iner- 
ville R. A. Chapter, was active in founding, and is a charter member of Orient Council R. and 
S. Masters, and was its first Thrice Illustiioiis Master; is Prelate "I" Coeur de l.ion< om- 
mandery, Knights Templar, and a member of the Massachusetts ( '< iisistory. lie has also 
been for years affiliated with the Royal Arcanum. lie has been Recent of l-Acelsior Coun- 
cil, has served on important committees of the Grand Council, was for seven years on its 
Finance Committee, and has been six years (Irand Treasurer, and holds that office to-day. 
These are skeleton facts, but a clean, vigorous, and helpful life has been built in and 
around them. Life is more than what it feeds on; more than what it does, llcttcr than 
seeing, is vision; better than what a man accomplishes is the man himself. 

Hazeltine, Charming, was born in Stratford, Yt., October o, 1X44, of old New Lngland 
pre-revolutionary stock. After acquiring such education as the schools of his native village 
afforded, he entered his lather's tannery to learn the tanner's and currier's trades. At the 
age of 22 he went to 1'lainlield, Yt.. where, having married, he embarked in the tanning 
business. At theageof 24 years he represented his adopted town in the Yermont Legislature, 
soon after adding two more tanneries to his business; he also became largely engaged in 
lumbering, farming, brickmaking and building. In 1X81 he came to Somenille, and soon 
after entered the real estate business on Devonshire street. He still retains his residence 
in Somerville. 

Henderson, Franklin, was born in Newhury, Yt., August 27, iSiS. In iSjjq. at 
the age of twenty-one, he came to Somerville then a part of Charlestown and engaged 
as a farmer with Mr. Samuel T. Frost, who lived on Milk Row. mu\ >omervillc avenue. In 
1844-1848, he served the town as Superintendent of Streets, alter which for sixteen years he 
was in the employ of the Lowell Railroad as track -layer. During the war he returned to tin- 
city service on the streets, and remained twcKc \ears in that employment, and subsequently 
engaged in the milk business in \\hich he still continues to be interested. In 1X40 Mr. 
Henderson married Caroline F. Tufts, of Somerville. and in the same year built his present 
residence on Central street. He has one daughter, Mrs. F. P.. Yreeland. 

Herbert, John, is the son of an old and prominent New Hampshire lawyer. lie was 
born at Wentworth, X. II., November 2, iS4(), but most of his boyhood was spent at Kum- 
ney, N. H. At the early age of t \\elve years his parents moved l P.oston. He graduated 
at the head of his class from both the Mayhew < irammar School and the Fnglish High 
School, and shortly afterwards entered Dartmouth College, where he graduated uilh honor 
in 1871. After his graduation he was elected principal of Apph ton \cadcim. \< w Ips- 
wich, N. II., which position he held for several years. lie then resigned, and studied l.iu 
with his father in Rumne\, and uas admitted to the liar in New Hampshire in 1X75. In 
1878 he started upon a foreign trip, and spent a \car in travel through Furope and the I ast. 
Soon after his return In came to >omerville, and began the practice of law in Huston. Mr. 
Herbert is a member of the Boston Par Association, ami has been admitted to practice in 
the Supreme < 'ourt oi the I nited Slates. He is President of the Appleton Acadeim \ 
ciation, which has in its membership persons from neaih ever) city in the Union, including 
many of note, -President of the Somerville < ongregational 1'nion, < -President of the Mystic 
Y alley Club. e\-l'rcsident of the < ongregational Sunda\-s. ho il I nion. e\-\ 'ice-President o| 




SOLOMON S. HIGGINS. 




COL. HERBERT E. HILL. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 567 

the Appalachian Mountain ( 'lull, and a prominent member..! thr < 'oiigregatioiial Club. II,- 
took an active part in the organization of the Municipal League oi > .im -rvillc. an,l was 
elected its lirst President, lie is a member of |,,hn Abbot L"dge, and \ De M..la\ 
Commandery. He was OIK- ..I the original founders oi tin- - SOHI,T\ illi- < iti/m." and is now 
President of the Somerville Citizen ('oinpany. lie is aU.. a member of the \la--.,. husctts 
Press Association. Mr. Herbert has a large and lucrative pra< tice; and he giv- \t- nsivcly 
of his time, strength and means (<> main go, id causes. 

Higgins, Solomon S., was l>orn June 4, 1X45, the son of N.I. .men and < >live Sparn.\\ 
Higgins. 1 le went on sea-voyages early in life, and suhse(|iiently went into the pr 
business in Boston, where he has been engaged over twenty-live year-.. II,- .-am.- to Somer- 
ville, and finally purchased the George ('). Brastow mansion on Spring I lill. lie is "in- ,,f tin- 
largest real estate dealers in Somerville, a great part of which property he has extensively 
developed. He was a member of the Common Council in I<SS<) and 1890, and is an earnest 
worker in the Republican Ward and ( 'ity ( 'mnmittee. Mr. I liggins lakes a great deal of in- 
terest in the G. A. R., and is amember of \V. C. Kinsley I'ost 1,0. and has served ,,nthe staffs 
of Gen. Weisart and ('apt. J. G. B. Adams, commanders of the National liepartment. lie 
married, for his first wife, Julia I.. Nickerson of Hanvick Mas-., uho died in 1X75. and h\ 
whom he had four children, a son surviving and being in business \\ith his father. In 1X7^ 
Mr. Higgins married Abbie E. Lakin. He is a member of the Red Men. Sons of the Revo- 
lution, Central and Whitney Clubs. lie had a great-grandfather who had four commissions 
in the revolutionary period. At the celebration of the semi-centennial in 1892 Mr. Iliggin- 
was inspector-general on the staff of General Wentworth. His voice is "Iten heard in 
Memorial Day orations. 

Hill, Col. Herbert E. 1'rominent among the veterans of the war who took a gn-ai 
deal of interest in Somerville affairs was Col. Herbert I-'.. Hill. He was the son . .f 
Enos and Sarah (Randall) Hill, and was born in Boston, December iS, 1845. His father 
removed to Vermont, and the son received his education in the grammar and high schools of 
that State. Fired by patriotism inherited from his _aneestry, he enlisted, at the age of 
eighteen, in the Eighth Vermont Volunteers, serving in every battle and skirmish in \\hi- h 
the regiment was engaged until and through the renowned campaign of Sheridan in the 
Shenandoah Valley. He was then assigned to duty in Washington, and had a part in the 
search for the assassin of Abraham Lincoln. 

A most honorable record for meritorious conduct caused him to be promoted, and at 
the close of the war he went to Boston, and four years after removed t" Somer\ille. 
ernor Rice commissioned him captain and senior aid-de-camp on the staff of Gen. llohart 
Moore, and subsequently Gov. Talbot made him an assistant adjutant-genera] on his stait. 
with the rank of colonel. Col. Hill \\as successor to Col. King as commander "f Willard 
C. Kinsley Post 139, and for four years thereafter was a department officer < .. \. l\., serving 
in the council of administration as vice-commander of the department, and subsequently 
vice-commander in chief of the National Department. Col. Hill was for mam \ears con- 
nected with the firm of Hill and Cutler, doing a large business in the North and South. 
One of the important traits in the character of Col. Hill was his love for historic spots. 
and through his efforts the memorial battery on Central Hill marks i-e\olutionar\ ground. 
The marble shaft on the Winchester, Va., battlefield, and monument on the battle-ground 
of Cedar Creek stand as tributes of his generosity, de\oti..n and good feeling. The Vermont 
Legislature, on November 2, jSd<>. adopted resolutions thanking him for his noble \\ork in 
marking sacred spots. As a historian Col. Hill was als, . able and accurate, many articles 
being left behind him to attest to his knowledge of the scenes he SO tinelv portrayed. 

In iSSo, in the middle of \\hat maybe called liis political career, he u as chosen a- 
messenger to bear the electoral vote of Massachusetts to Washington for Garlield and 



568 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Arthur, lie represented Somerville at the centennial celebration at Lexington and Concord, 
April 19, 1875. He also held other places of prominence, and for three years was secretary 
of the famous Middlesex Club. Col. Hill served the city as a member of the Water Board, 
and was also one of the overseers of the poor, and one of the board of managers of the 
Perkins Institution for the Blind, in Boston. He was for a long time a deacon in the East 
Somerville Baptist Church, in which he took great interest. He was a member of Soley 
Lodge and other fraternal organizations. 

Col. Hill was married to Emma O., daughter of Richard and Sarah J. (Wheelwright) 
Rich. One son, Herbert Pierce Hill, was born to them, and is now engaged in mercan- 
tile business in Boston. Col. Hill died at his home in Somerville, April 8, 1892, after a 
long and suffering illness. Soon after his decease his widow erected the beautiful home 
at the corner of Pearl and Mt. Vernon streets. On the 2jth day of June, 1896, she died 
very suddenly of heart failure, leaving very many dear friends to mourn her loss. The 
son continues to occupy the home, and is fast following his parents in the esteem of the 
community. 

Hill, William Pomfrey, was born in Boston, February 5, 1845, tne son f Converse 
and Dorothea Washington (Garner) Hill. He graduated from the Brimmer School, Boston, 
and at once entered into business. His first venture for himself was in December, 1877, when 
he established the firm of Hill and Langtry saddlery and harness. The firm dissolved in 
May, 1892, Mr. Hill continuing the business under the firm style of Hill and Hill. The 
house is now the leading one in its line in New England. He served the city as a member of 
the Council three years, and as a member of the School Board six years, is secretary of the 
Xew England Saddlery Dealers' Association, a member of Somerville Chapter, Royal Arch 
Masons, and De Molay Commandery, Knights Templar. 

Hodgkins, Frank E., the son of William and Abigail (Gibbs) Hodgkins, was born 
in Charlestown, March 3, 1849. He was educated in the public schools of his native city, 
and then entered upon a commercial life. In 1878 he became cashier of the Boston 
Lead Manufacturing Company, and there remains. Mr. Hodgkins came to Somerville 
in 1864. He is a member of John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A.M., Somerville Chapter, R. A. M., 
Orient Council, R. and S. M., De Molay Commandery, K. T., Unity Council, R. A., of which 
he is a P. R., and is treasurer of the Somerville Y. M. C. A. Mr. Hodgkins married Miss 
Eveline F. Gulliver, daughter of Lemuel and Emeline G. (Whiting) Gulliver, of Somerville. 
They reside on Broadway. 

Hodgkins, William H., was born in Charlestown, June 9, 1840, the son of William 
and Abigail (Gibbs) Hodgkins. His education was obtained in the Harvard Grammar and 
the Charlestown High School. On leaving school he learned the business of a merchant, 
in the southern shipping and commission trade, on State street. In July, 1862, he enlisted 
in Company B, Thirty-sixth Regiment, Massachussetts Volunteers, was promoted second 
lieutenant, first lieutenant, adjutant and captain. In 1865 he was brevetted major. After 
the war Major Hodgkins came to Somerville, and entered the service of the city of Boston, 
in the Department of Public Institutions, where he served as clerk of the board for twenty- 
one years. He is now trustee of the estate of the late J. Putnam Bradlee. Major Hodgkins 
served the city in the Common Council of 1873 and 1874, the last year as president. In 
December, 1891, he was elected mayor of the city, which position he occupied four years. 
Major Hodgkins is a member of W. C. Kinsley Post, G. A. R., of the Loyal Legion, 
and was five years president of the Somerville Y. M. C. A. He is the author of the 
" History of the Thirty-sixth Regiment '' and " The Battle of Fort Stedman." Major 
Hodgkins married Miss S. Augusta Hayward, daughter of Ebenezer and Sarah (Lane) 
Havward. of Boston. Thev reside on Central street. 



SOJ//.A'! '//././., PAST AND PRESENT. 



Holland, Silas Harvey, \vas burn in li.^ton in iSi.j. the son of Samuel and Martha 
(Rogers) Holland. His father was an Fiiglish sea captain, and was lost at sea. '1 In- 
greater part of the young man's early litr \\ as spent in the touns of Marlboro and N'orth- 
boro, where, in the latter town, he learned the carriage-maker's trade. He went to Cam- 
bridge in 1835, and after working at his trade a fe\\ years he engaged in the railroad-car 
business, which he followed for fifteen years, until his health failed him, when he sold out 
his interest in the business. He married Miss Sarah S. Locke, daughter of Major Jonathan 
and Mary (Tufts) Locke, of Lancaster. Mr. Holland came to Sum-mil' in 1X56, and 
bought the farm owned by Thomas Teele, on Broadway, where lie engaged in market-gar- 
dening and fruit-raising for thirty-live years. He has also been a dealer in real estate in this 
city and Cambridge. lie served on the Hoard of Selectmen for the tou n t -^imerville four 
years, and at the present time is one of the trustees of the Somerville Savings Hank. 

Holt, Samuel W., son of Reuben, Jr., and Sibel ( Piper) 1 foil, was born in Landgro\ < . 
Yt., October 23, 1827. His education was obtained in the district schools of that town, and 
in 1845 nc came to Boston and obtained employment in the grocery business; in this he 
remained a few months, and then learned the trade of paper-hanging, which calling he fol- 
lowed two or three years, he then entered the teaming business, and soon purchased the in- 
terest of a retiring member of the firm of Page, Noyes & Co., now Filield, Richardson \ Co., 
continuing in the firm until he retired in September, 1895. 

Mr. Holt was a member of the Boston Volunteer Fire Department nine years, and was 
a charter member of the Boston Light Artillery, the first mounted battery M. Y. M. He 
came to Somerville in 1860, and served in the Common Council in 1884 and 1885, in the 
Board of Aldermen in 1886 and 1887, and on the Water Board in 1889 and 1890. He is a 
member of the John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M., the Somerville Chapter, R. A. M., the Bos- 
ton Yeteran Firemen's Association, the Vermont Association and the Mystic Valley Club. 
Mr. Holt married Mary A. Richardson, daughter of Artemas and Rachel (Davis) 
Richardson, of Weston, Yt. They reside at 197 Washington street. 

Hopkins, James R., chief of the Somerville Fire Department, was born at Kast Cam- 
bridge, January 10, 1836, and was educated in the Cambridge public schools. After gradua- 
tion, at the age of sixteen, he was apprenticed to learn the furniture-carving trade with hoe. 
Hunnewell & Co., furniture manufacturers. While serving his apprenticeship he also received 
a full course of instruction in drawing at the Lowell Institute, Boston. 

He remained with this concern until the spring of 1858. He then found employment 
at the Haley, Morse & Boyden furniture factory, at South Dedham now Norwood, where 
he remained one year, and then returned to his former employers, with whom he remained 
until April 19, 1861, when he responded to the first call of President Lincoln for troops, and 
with the Somerville Light Infantry, a part of the Fifth Massachusetts Regiment, went to 
Washington, D.C., via New York and Annapolis, in (Jen. T>. F. Butler's command. Sub- 
sequently, with his regiment he was stationed in Virginia, and participated in the first battle 
of Bull Run. With this battle ended his three months' term of enlistment. Returning 
home, he at once found a position with his old employers at East Cambridge. 

In the fall of 1862 he again enlisted, and went with General Butler to \ew < irlcan*. 
where he remained seventeen months, and was attached to the Chief (Quartermaster's 
Department. 

His long and successful career as a fireman commenced uhen he u .is a inert- lad, and 
he has been an active member of several eii-ine companies in I a-t ' ambridge. s.menille 
and Norwood. In 1859 he was placed on the rolls of the >.imer\ille V . i < oinpany, and 
served as an active member, and during his time ot M rvicc in the \\ar as an absent member. 
until November 7, iSo;, when he \\as transferred to the new Hose < onipany No. i, with 
which he remained until it dUbanded in |uly, iN>o. 



570 SOMER}'ILLE, PAST AND 1'RESEXT. 

He held the office of second assistant foreman of Somerville Engine Company Xo. i in 
1859, and was clerk of the company the year following. He was also clerk of Hose Com- 
pany No. i during the entire time he was a member of that company. In April, 1869, he 
was appointed an engineer by the old Board of Selectmen, and January 15, 1872, some 
two weeks after Somerville became a city, he was elected chief, and has held that position 
ever since. He was one of the original members that organized the National Association 
of Fire Engineers at Baltimore, Md., October 20, 1873. He has attended most of its an- 
nual conventions, has held the office of vice-president, and served upon many of its impor- 
tant committees, as well as contributing many valuable essays on the fire service at its 
conventions. He is also an active member of the Massachusetts State Firemen's Associa- 
tion, the Somerville Volunteer Veteran Firemen's Association, and the prime mover in the 
recently organized Massachusetts Eire Chiefs' Club. He is also a member of the J. Abbot 
Lodge, F. A. A. M., Oasis Lodge, I. O. of O. F., the Royal Arcanum, Knights of Honor, 
Good Fellows and the G. A. R. For many years he has been a member of prominent church 
choirs in Boston, Roxbury and Somerville. He was married September 30, 1865, to Susan 
i '. Moore, daughter of j. Abram Moore, and has two children, a son and a daughter. 

Howes, Francis M., was born at Chatham, Mass., in 1840. He was of a sea-faring 
family, and very naturally he took to the sea, shipping before the mast on fishing schooners 
when but eleven years of age, during the summer months. Throughout the winters he 
attended school. After four years of this life he shipped in one of the vessels of the Mer- 
chants and Miners Transportation Company, the Joseph Whitney, and with the exception 
of about two and a half years in the latter part of the Fifties, which he spent in cruising 
around Cape Horn, his entire nautical life has been in the employ of this line. His rise was 
steady and rapid, and when he was but twenty-six years of age he took his first per- 
manent command of the McClellan, formerly the Joseph Whitney, although he had had 
temporary command of the George Appold the year before. He was the youngest captain 
that ever had command of a steamer of this line, and to-day he is the oldest captain in point 
of service. He has held the position of senior captain of the line for ten years, a position 
that his brother, the late Solomon Howes, held before him. The late Capt. Howes, who took 
the first boat out of Boston Harbor on Christmas Eve, 1854, was as able a sailor as ever 
commanded a ship, and it was under his training and that of Capt. Hallett, the pioneer 
commanders of the line, that Capt. Howes received his lessons in seamanship. This training, 
together with his natural push and indomitable will, have put him in his present high position 
on the line. In the twenty-seven years in which he has been a captain for this line, Capt. 
Howes has commanded the following vessels: The McClellan, George Appold, Blackstone, 
William Lawrence, William Crane, Berkshire, Decatur H. Miller, Chatham (named in honor 
of his native town), the Dorchester, and the new boat the Gloucester, one of the finest vessels 
afloat. At the age of twenty-one, Capt. Howes married Miss Catherine R. Doane, of Chatham, 
where they had been schoolmates together. About seven years later he moved to Somer- 
ville, where he has resided for the past twenty-nine years. Their union has been blessed with 
six children, of whom one son and three daughters are still alive. They reside on Summer 
street. Capt. Howes, during his service with this line, has towed in fifteen disabled vessels' 
and rescued from a watery grave eleven crews. < >ftentimes his life-saving work has been done 
at great personal risk, and his acts of heroism have been recognized in many ways. He is 
a member of John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M., Knights of Honor, Royal Arcanum, and 
Pilgrim Fathers. 

Hubbard, Orrin C., was born in Rowley, Mass., May 13, 1851, the son of Calvin and 
Mary E. (Chaplin) Hubbard, of that town. He was educated in the public schools of his 
town, and the Dummer Academy. In 1870 he came to Boston, and learned the silk hatter's 
trade, remaining with the firm of Brown & Wilcox fourteen years. His entering business on 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 571 

his own account resulted in the establishment of tlie linn <>( I.amson \ lluhhard, where he 
still continues. Mr. Iluhhard came to Sonu-rville in iSSi. Ill- is a nn-mlii-r nl John Abbot 
Lodge, F. A. A. M., Somerville Chapter, R. A. M., of which he lias bei-n high priest; Orient 
Council, R. and S. M., l)e Molay Coinmandery, K. T., and Boston I.-dgr ..: 1 
S. K. He resides on Highland avenue. 

Hughes, Albert E., was born in Truro, Mass., in December, 1X31. son of Janu > and 
Jane (Avery) Hughes. He was educated in the schools of his native town, and run. to 
Boston in 1850, when he engaged with his brother, John Avery Hughes, in the manufacture 
of show-cases, which business he still carries on, at the original location on Waslm 
street, opposite the Old South Church. Mr. Hughes was married to Miss Anna M. Magoun. 
daughter of Joshua Magoun, of Charlcstown, who was the pioneer ship-builder on the 
Mystic River, and whose yard occupied the site where the Charleston n gas- works are now- 
located. Mr. Hughes came to Somerville in 1856. He resides at 59 Pearl street. 

Huntley, L. Herbert, was born in Charlestown, May I, 1858. He came t > Somerville 
in 1870, and attended the Prescott Grammar and the High School; on the completion of his 
education he entered the employ of his father in the produce commission business in 
Boston, and subsequently became a member of the firm of R. Huntley and Son. lie is now 
*ole proprietor of the business, and is located on Blackstone street, and in Blackstone Mar- 
ket. Mr. Huntley is a member of the Boston Chamber of Commerce, F.\cel-ior t 'ouncil, 
R. A. M., Harmony Council, H. C., and the East Somerville Baptist Church. He was 
elected to the Common Council in 1894, re-elected in 1895, an( ' '>' a unanimous vote was 
chosen president of the Council in that year. He is now a member of the Board ot Alder- 
men. His residence is at No. i 1'earl street. 

Ireland, George W., son of Jonathan and Mercy (Pollard) Ireland, was born January 
13, 1816, in Boston, on Warrenton street, at the corner of Tremont street, in the house 
that stood on the triangular piece recently taken for subway purposes. His ancestors were 
born in that part of Charlestown now Somerville, at the corner of Ireland's rangeway 
(School street) and Milk Row (Somerville avenue). He received his education at Madam 
Rider's private school, the Franklin School, and the English High School of Boston. He 
was true to the friendships of his youth, and made great efforts in his old age to attend the 
meetings of the Boston Old Schoolboy's Association. He entered the employ ol \\hiUcmoiv 
& Chamberlin in 1833, rising to the position of chief clerk, and having charge of their busi- 
ness. In 1837116 went to Stoddard, N. II., where, with his brother, Win. II. Ireland, he 
engaged in a general-store business, and the manufacture of potato-starch and p> 

The brothers bought out the soda manufacturing business of Darling \ Pollard. 
Boston, in 184^. Mr. Ireland sold out in 1853, and moved to Somerville. building a 
residence, and engaging in the real estate business and fruit-raising, lie was one o| the 
founders of the First Universalist Church, and at the time of his death, its senior deacon. 1 h 
was assessor four years, and the last collector under the town government. Mr. Ireland 
was married, November 28, 1841, to Jane Preston of Windsor, N. II., who is >till living. 
He has had three children : Emma Jane, who died in infancy; George 1 1. Ireland, assistant 
treasurer of the Milton Bradley Co., Springfield, Mass.; and Martha Jane, wile of I h. I P. 
Gerry, Jamaica Plain. He became ill while on a visit to his daughter, and died after a long 
and painful illness, July 2, 1895. 

Jones, Melville D., was born in Boston, September 25, 1842. He re,ci\ed an edu- 
cation in the public schools of his native city, and when but eighteen \ear- .'I age, at tin- 
breaking out of the Civil War, he enlisted in Captain \Vm. R. ~-n\ an- 1 ompanj < ,5th Reg- 
iment, Massachusetts Volunteers, and with the regiment Marled for the scene of war on the 
I9th of April, 1861. The regiment served the stale and nation avditablv. and even after 
its term of service had expired, participating in the lirst battle of Hull Run, in which it took 



5/2 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

a prominent part. Mr. fones, wearied by the excitement and fatigue of the day's battle, by 
sheer exhaustion, fell out of the ranks of the regiment with a comrade on the retreat, and 
slept in the woods, within a few miles of Centreville, the place for which the troops had 
started in the morning, and was accounted one of the missing; but in consequence of the 
rebels not following up their victory, he found his way back to Alexandria on the evening 
of the 22d. When the call for six months' troops was made in 1862, he again offered his 
services, and enlisted in Company F, Captain J. F. Sawyer, Cambridge, of the 6th Regiment, 
and served for nine months. This regiment was stationed during its term of service in Suf- 
folk, Ya., and, operating with the troops in that vicinity, was in many engagements. After his 
discharge from the service he entered the employ of the John A. Winn & Co., ornamental 
iron works, and in 1870 he embarked in business on his own account in the same trade, 
and continues in it at his present location, 368 Washington street, Boston. Mr. Jones came 
to Somerville in 1868, and has had his residence here since that time. He was married to 
Catherine F. Lovett of Boston, "August 31, 1864, and they have a family of three sons and 
one daughter, the oldest son, Melville F., being associated with his father in business, and 
the third son, Frederick G., employed in his factory. Mr. Jones joined the Willard C. Kins- 
ley Post No. 139, G. A. R. in 1870, and has been a prominent member, and has taken an 
active part in the work of the post. He was chairman of its relief committee in 1884 to 
1886, and was elected S. V. Commander to fill a vacancy in 1885, and was unanimously 
chosen Commander for 1886. He served on the Department Commander's staff in 1887, 
and was national delegate for two succeeding years. Mr. Jones is a member of A. O. U. W., 
Somerville Lodge; Winter Hill Lodge, Knights of Honor; John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M.; 
Somerville Royal Arch Chapter; De Molay Commandery, K. T. Though evincing a great 
interest in city affairs, he took no prominent part in Somerville politics until 1894, when he- 
was elected a member of the Board of Aldermen from Ward 2, to which office he was re- 
elected in 1895, an d was unanimously chosen president of the board. He served on some 
of the important committees, and was chairman of the Sewer Committee in 1896. In No- 
vember last, he was elected a member of the General Court as an independent Republican. 
He resides at 53 Walnut street. 

Jones, William P., second son of William Edward and Ellen F. (Preble) Jones, was 
born in Somerville, April 22, 1869, and has always lived in this city; he graduated from the 
Forster Grammar School in 1883, from the High School in 1887, and from Harvard College 
in 1891. In college he made a specialty of history and political economy and kindred sub- 
jects, with the intention of studying law, and in the fall of 1891 entered the Harvard Law 
School. After one year there he embarked in journalism, and since May, 1892, has been 
connected with the " Somerville Journal," of which he is one of the editors. His especial 
pride is the fact that by hard work he earned and paid for his education. He is a member 
of the Central Club, Unity Council, Royal Arcanum, and other organizations. Resides at 
50 Vernon street. 

Kaan, Frank W., was born in Medford, Mass., September n, 1861. He came to 
Somerville in 1864, and attended the public schools, being a member of the class of 1878 in 
the High School. After spending a year as clerk in the Boston office of the Warren Steam- 
ship Line, he entered Harvard College, from which he graduated in 1883. He taught one 
year in the Heathcote School, Buffalo, N. Y., and one year in the High School, Waltham, 
Mass., he then studied law in the Harvard Law School, receiving the degrees of A.M. 
and LL.B., and for the last ten years has been engaged in the practice of law in Boston. 

He is a member of the Central Club and of the Boston Bar Association; secretary of 
the Home for Aged Women, Revere street, Boston; past master of John Abbot Lodge, A. F. 
and A. M., and for three years has been one of the Masonic state lecturers. From 1888 to 
1892 inclusive he was clerk of the Overseers of the Poor; a member of the Common Council 







JOHN KELLEY. 




FREDERICK L. KELLOGG, M.D. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 575 



in 1893; its president in 1894: and representative fr<>m \\'ard 2 in the ( ieiieral < 'urt in 
and 1896, serving as a member ot the committee on mercantile affairs both years, ai- 
house chairman of the committee on election huvs the second year. 

Kelley, John, was born in Portland, Me., May 6, ^45, \\ hep- he passed hi* l<o\ho.,d 
and attended the public school-,. At the age appn>a -liing SCM nteen he enlisted in the Fifth 
Maine Infantry, and served his country for four years and four months. < >n his return home 
he was apprenticed as a mason, and alter serving his time, which was three year.-, lie n 
to Boston, and for nine years was foreman for Pagi Brothers, contractors. \t the end o| 
his term of service he went into the mason business for him-elf, and ha- MIK e continued in 
it. lie has erected many substantial and elegant buildings, among which are the I'olumhia 
Theatre of Boston, the Haymarket, Lynn, and Worcester telephone buildings, besides many 
other structures used for mercantile and public purp"-. - 

Mr. Kelley came to Somerville in 1869, having married Miss Sarah |. IJlakeof < harles- 
town, Mass. For nine years they have made their home on I lighland avenue, near the < 'ity 
Hall. He early took an interest in \Villard C. Kinsley Post 139, (I. A. K., and worked up 
from the subordinate positions to be commander in 1888. < >n his retirement from office he 
was presented with an elegant and costly gold medal. A lurther expression of esteem in 
which he is held by his comrades is shown by his selection as delegate to various annual 
conventions of the National Department. Mr. Kelley has always refused a municipal olm e, 
but takes a lively interest in politics. 

Kellogg, Dr. Frederick L., son of Frederick D. Kellogg and Cynthia K. > I'-ragg Kel- 
logg, was bom in New Salem, Mass., May 26, 1867. He was educated in the schools of 
Orange, Mass. Received his medical diploma from Bellevue Hospital Medical < olli ge, New 
York, in 1889. In 1890 he was house surgeon in the United Slates Marine IIospit.il oi 
New York. 

He located in Somerville in 1891, and resides at ig'i Marshall street. He enj<>\-. a 
large and increasing practice. 

Kennard, John F., was born in Newmarket, now Xewticlds, N. II., August 14, 1830. 
and was educated in the common schools of that town. After leaving school he learned the 
machinist trade, and was in the employ of the Swampscott Machine Co., until August, i ^ >2, 
when he enlisted in the quota of his native town, and on the 28th of that month uas mustered 
into the United States service in Co. A, F'.leventh Regiment, N. H. Volunteers. He followed 
the fortunes of the regiment, participating in its various marches, battles and skirnn- 
he was in thebattleat Frederickshurg, December 13, 1862, where a brother in the same com- 
pany was mortally wounded. He uas also in the siege of Vicksburg under (Irani, and after 
the surrender of that stronghold his regiment was ordered to Jackson, Miss., in pursuit of 
Cen. J. F2. Johnson and his troops. After the engagement at that place the regiment came 
back to Milldale and Oak Ridge, \li-s., where it remained about two weeks awaiting trans- 
portation north. When the regiment reached Cairo, 111., his only remaining brother uas 
carried to a hospital at Mound City, 111., where he died from disease contracted in Mississippi. 
The regiment was ordered to Cincinnati, August 14, 1803. and then \\ent into camp at ( !ov- 
ington, Ky., after which it was ordered to Fast Tennessee; Mr. Kennard, uho uas sick uith 
malarial fever, was left at the hospital in < 'ovington, and was finally discharged for disability. 
April 22, 1864. He came to Boston in the autumn of iSb6, and uas employed a- a salesman 
for the firm of Geo. K. Paul \ Co., and uas with them tuenty-eight years, until the) \\entout 
of business. lie came to Somerville to reside in 1877; represented Ward 3 in the ( ity Coun- 
cil in 1884, 1885, 1886, and was a member of the i;...ud of Aldermen in 18X7 and 1888. 
He is a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. M., Paul Revere Lodge, I. <>.'>. 1., Somemlle 
Encampment, I. < >. < >. 1-., Willard C. Kinsley Post 130. G, A. K., I nit\ i oum il. k. A.. 
Winter Hill Lodge, K. ol H., and IIarmn\ Council, II. C. He has been married three 
times, but has no children living; he resides on Dartmouth street. 



576 SOMERl'lLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Keyes, Amos, was born in Acworth, X. II., July 16, 1820, the eldest son of Ralph and 
Hannah (Wilson) Keyes. He attended the district school of the town, and when a young man 
served for a time as teacher. Much of his early life was spent in hard work upon his uncle's 
farm and in a country store. At the age of twenty he went to Bellows Falls, Vt., where 
he worked in a hotel four years. He then came to Boston, where he obtained employment 
at Faneuil Hall Market. In 1848 he went into business with Sartvvell & Walker, and a year 
later started in the produce trade for himself at 24 Faneuil Hall square, where, with his 
brother Dean W. Keyes as partner, he remained eleven years, removing thence to 26 Black- 
stone street. Here for thirty-seven years he carried on a large and successful wholesale pm 
duce business, and became widely known. In 1853 he married Miss Martha W. Ginn. 
daughter of Daniel and Sarah (Odom) Ginn of Belmont, Me., then residing in Charlestown, 
Mass. In 1855 he removed to Somerville, purchasing a house and lot at the corner of Cen- 
tral and Medford streets. In 1872 he erected the substantial dwelling that now occupies 
the site of the old one, and there he resided until his death, which occurred August 17, 1896. 
He left a widow, two daughters, and two sons, who for fifteen years past have been in the 
firm, and now carry on the business. Mr. Keyes was one of the organizers of the Congre- 
gational Church at the corner of Broadway and Central street, and was for many years its 
treasurer, and always a constant attendant. He was a member of the Boston Chamber of 
Commerce and of the Boston Fruit and Produce Exchange. Mr. Keyes lived quietly and 
unostentatiously. His business integrity and his all-round qualities as a Christian gentleman 
were the chief traits in his character. At the time of his death the Boston Chamber of Com- 
merce paid a tribute to his memory that none too many in business life win. The following 
are part of the resolutions adopted by that body and spread upon their records : - 

" Amos Keyes was one of the best known and most highly respected men in the pro- 
duce trade in Boston. It is over half a century since he first came to this city, and for forty 
years past he conducted the business of the firm which bears his name, and which from small 
beginnings has become one of the leading houses in its line in New England. 

"All who have known him during these years bear willing testimony to his sound judg- 
ment, his strict integrity, and to the conscientious manner in which he discharged every obli- 
gation of life. He was scrupulously honest, and had the confidence of every person with 
whom he had dealings. It had become a current expression around the market that ' Amos 
Keyes's word was as good as gold.' 

" He was not known much in public life, but in religious and charitable circles he was 
charged with several important trusts, and was a liberal contributor to all movements for the 
honor of his country, for the alleviation of suffering and for the spiritual welfare of mankind. 
He was a Christian gentleman in the broadest sense, and his kindness and generosity were 
proverbial. Nobody ever appealed to Amos Keyes for advice or assistance in vain. 

" \Vhile we, his fellow-members, business associates and personal friends, deeply deplore 
his loss, we feel consoled by the belief that his truly Christian life has won for him an eter- 
nal reward, and that his example will be a guiding star to the younger generation of mer- 
chants, showing them that industry, truth and fair dealing are the surest paths to success.'' 

Kimball, Fred Mason, was born at Barton, Vt., July 7, 1861, the son of K. M. 
and L. 1). Kimball. In May, 1870, his parents removed to Somerville, and took up 
their residence at the corner of Main and Fremont streets, Winter Hill, where the family 
have ever since lived. Mr. Kimball is a graduate of the Forster Grammar School and the 
Somerville High School. After graduating from the latter institution he entered Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, being one of the first to take a course in electrical engineering 
in that school. Upon leaving the institute he immediately became connected with one of the 
pioneer parent electric lighting companies, and rapidly advanced to the position of chief 
constructing engineer. In this capacity he designed and superintended the erection of many 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 577 

of the early electric light stations in New England, among them one uf tin- largest which at 
that time had been erected in this country. When his employers, the American Klectric and 
Illuminating Company, removed their principal offices in \< u \<>ik < ity, Mr. Kimball re- 
signed his position to accept an engagement as assistant general manager and director ( 
laboratories with the Electrical Development and Manufacturing Co., a newly organized con- 
cern employing over one hundred men, and engaged in building electrical apparatus and 
developing electrical inventions. 

Foreseeing the rapid growth of electrical enter] irises, in iNS^ Mr. Kimball funned a 
partnership with Mr. I-'iank E. Davis, also of Somerville, under the linn name of Kiniball iV 
Davis, for the manufacture of all varieties of small electric light and power machinery and 
supplies. .Mr. Davis retired from the linn in 18X7, and the business was continued under the 
style of Ered. M. Kimball >.V Co. Especial attention was given to the export trade, in which 
a large business was secured, with South American and Mexican States principally, but which 
also extended to the Sandwich Islands, India and Europe. In September, iSoi, a year 
marked by consolidations, patent litigations and general changes in the electrical held, Mr. 
Kimball disposed of his business to enter the employ < if the Edison General Electric Company 
as one of the department managers of that company in New England. With the absorption 
of the Edison Company by the General Electric Company in 1892, he became New England 
manager of one of its largest departments, which position he now holds. ( )n August 5, I SN ; . 
Mr. Kimball was married to Miss Nellie S. Ross of Medford, and three daughters. Nellie I,., 
Winifred R. and Irene M., have been born to them. 

Mr. Kimball is a member of John Abbot Lodge, E. A. M.; Somerville Chapter: < " ur 
de Lion Commandery of Charlestown; the Royal Arcanum; A. ( >. I'. W.; i)9')tli Artillery 
Association; the Society of Arts; " Electric Potential," an association of pioneer electrical 
workers of New England; and is connected officially with several corporations. 

Kimball, George A., was born in Littleton, Mass., May 14, 1850, and received his edu- 
cation in the public schools of his native town and at the Appleton Academy, New Ipswich, 
N. H. He came to Somerville in 1869, and entered the office of Erost P>n is., civil engineers, 
as a student. In 1876 he was appointed city engineer by Mayor Belknap, which position he 
held until 1886, when he resigned. He has since been engaged as consulting engineer for 
Brockton on its sewerage system, and for New Bedford, Brockton and Haverhill in regard to 
the abolition of grade crossings. lie designed and built the Arlington sewerage system; de- 
signed sewerage works at Montpelier, N't., Milton, Salem and Peabody ; built the Millis water- 
works; and was a member of the original grade-crossing commission appointed by ( iov. 
Ames in i88S. He was for seven years a member of the Somerville P.oard of Health, and 
an alderman from Ward 2 in 1889 and 1890, and is at present a member of the Somerville 
Mystic Water Board. He \vas appointed consulting engineer for the city of Somerville in 
January, 1896, by Mayor Perry, and in November, 1896, was appointed by the governor and 
council a member of the Metropolitan Sewerage Commission. 

Mr. Kimball is a member of the American Society of C i\ il Engineers, the P.oMon Society 
of Civil Engineers, and the New England Water Works' Association. lie is a member of 
the Prospect Hill Church, John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M., and other societies in S >IIKT\ ille. 
He resides at 33 Warren avenue. 

Knapp, Oren S., was born in Boston, July 16, 1829. At the age of si\ he removed to 
Maiden, and was educated in ii- schools, beginning to teach at the age of seventeen. He 
entered Amherst College, but at the end of two years was obliged to relinquish his course, on 
account of a trouble with his eyes, lie taught two years in Medford, and was elected prin- 
cipal of the Prospect Hill School in Somerville, then the most impoitant school in this vicin- 
ity, in 1853. He was a faithful and etlicient teacher for eleven years, relinquishing his posi- 
tion for the practice of lau in iSti:;. He was chosen a memb.-i ..t ih, school Hoard in the 



5/8 SOMEKl'/LLE, J'AST AND PRESENT. 

same year, and served at intervals for fifteen years, one year of the time as superintendent of 
schools. He died suddenly, November 4, 1890.; 

Mr. Knapp was one of Somerville's foremost citizens, always interested and prominent 
in every movement to advance its interests, fearless and independent in the expression of 
opinion and in action, \\ise in counsel, kind and sympathetic and helpful as a friend, loyal 
and devoted as a citizen, respected and loved by all who knew him. The O. S. Knapp School, 
on Concord avenue, was opened in 1890, and named in his honor. 

Lacount, Eugene D., was burn in Spencer, Mass., November i, 1844. His early years 
were passed among the vicissitudes incident to a Methodist minister's family of that period. At 
the age of seventeen he enlisted in the 25th Massachusetts Volunteers, and was in the service 
over three years, four months of which were passed in a Southern prison, he having been 
wounded and taken prisoner at Drury's Bluff, Ya., May 16, 1864. Soon after coming t<> 
Somerville he. with his father, identified himself in the formation of a Methodist society in 
AYest Somerville, from which resulted the present Park-avenue M. E. Church, in which he has 
always taken an active part. He is also a director of the Somerville Y. M. C. A. Mr. La- 
count is the senior member of the firm of John Holman & Co., Boston, one of the oldest and 
most prominent manufacturing firms of bedding in New England, and has, on many occasions, 
been called upon to represent his associates of the wholesale furniture and kindred trades. 
His residence since 1870, the year of his removal to this city, has been on Day street. 

Lament, Andrew A., was born at Douglastown, N. B., March 16, 1849. He was 
educated in the schools of that town. Speaking of himself, Mr. Lamont said: "Thus far 
my life has been one of hard work and activity along several lines." Between the ages of 
twelve and seventeen years he became a competent ship-carpenter. This business being at 
a low ebb on the Miramichi, he learned carriage-making at New Castle, N. B., and Salem, 
Mass., landing at the latter place January i, 1868. He carried on business successfully in 
Chicago for a time, and in the fall of 1873 made a tour of Southern cities, visiting New 
Orleans, Galveston, Austin and other places. 

Returning North, he entered the service of his former employer at Salem. In Septem- 
ber, 1874, he married Henrietta H. Powell. Two of his children, Mary A. and Sarah I., 
were born in Salem; two others, Charles A. and Harold B., were born in Somerville, where 
he has resided since the fall of 1878. In the winter of iSSi he started in business at the 
corner of Lancaster and Merrimack streets, Boston, where he has now a successful estab- 
lishment. The sudden death of his wife, in 1887, was a severe affliction. March 16, 1891, 
he married Mary /.. Russell, a resident of his native town. Mr. Lamont has for the past four 
years given much attention to real estate, and is a trustee of three prosperous land com- 
panies. He was elected to the Council in 1X1)4 and 1895, to tne Hoard of Aldermen in 1896, 
is a member of Broadway Congregational Church and a teacher in the Sabbath-school, a Past 
Noble (Irand of Paul Revere Lodge, I. O. O. F., High Priest of the Winter Hill Encamp- 
ment, I. O. O. F., member of the Knights of Honor, of the Royal Arcanum, and a trustee of 
the Somerville Finance Club. Mr. Lamont resides at 43 Heath street. 

Lapham, F. De Witt, was born in Littleton, Mass., July 6, 1845, am 'l ' s a son of 
Luther and Desiah (Needham) Lapham. YVhen eighteen he went to Eastman's Commer- 
cial College at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and after finishing his course he went to Boston, en- 
gaging with the tobacco houses of Brown & Co. and Susmann iv Co., passing twenty-one 
years with these concerns. In 1 886 he started in the real estate and insurance business in 
Somerville, and he is now one of the most active and prosperous men in those lines. 

He married Jennie H. Dickson, daughter of Thomas Dickson, of Salem, in 1869, 
coming to this city at the time. They had two daughters: Mrs. Jennie I. Knowles, lately 
deceased; and Carolyn F., now twenty-one years of age. 

Mr. Lapham is quite an association member, being a member of Soley Lodge, Somer- 




F. DE WITT LAPHAM. 




Residence of CHARLES H. LOCKHART, }52 Elm Street. 



SOMERl'/I.l.l:. PAST AND PRESENT. 5X1 

ville Royal Arch Chapter, Excelsior Council, K<>,.il \rraiiuin in \\hleh fur eighteen y'-ars 
he has been secretary), Somerville Home ( irele, the Ancient Ord--r .1! I nite<i \\orkmen. 
Order of the Kastern Star, Howard Lodge and Somerville Fncampment oi < >dd 1-ellous, in 
both of which bodies he has been at the head, and is Lieutenant-i oloncl. >eomd Regiment, 
Patriarchs Militant. 

In 1895 all( ' '^96 he was elected a ( '"imii<>n < 'ouncilman, and the last year has seen 
him a most valuable member, having ser\ ed <>n the , , .n unit tees on high \\a\s. public grounds, 
and claims. The indefatigability with \\lnVh \lr. Lapham supported his order lor the ex- 
tension of the City Hall, and the ne\v boulevard in the east. m se thm of the city, show the 
official's interest in the city's welfare. Whatever lie enter* ii|><>n, he pursues to tin- sui > 
fill close. Mr. Lapham is a member of the First Univei>alist I'arish, and resides mi Ilathon 
street. 

Lawrence, Bernard W., was horn in Last Lexington, Mass., June 15, 1846. His 
education was obtained in the grammar and high schools of that town. I le came to lioston 
in 1863, and was engaged in the fruit and produce business in Faneuil Hall Market until 
1890. He then removed to 103 and 105 Commercial street, and embarked in the foreign and 
domestic fruit trade and in the sale of cigars. He resided in l!o,ton from August, 1863, 
until April, 1872, when he moved to Somerville, where he still lives. Mr. Lawrence joined 
the Fire Department in 1873, and was elected foreman in 1874, which position he held for 
eleven years. He was a member of the Common < 'ouncil in iSS;, served for two years, and 
was then elected as a member of the Hoard of Aldermen, and held that office in 1887 and 
1888, being chosen as president of the board in the last year of his term of ultice. He re- 
sides at 289 Highland avenue. 

Lincoln, Charles Sprague, was born in Walpole, X. H., April 20, 182(1. He was 
graduated from Harvard University in 1850. He taught school for a while after gradua- 
tion, coming to Somerville for the purpose in 1852. He was admitted to the liar in 1860. 
lie was Selectman and Solicitor for the town for many years. He -er\ed on the School 
Committee of Somerville from 1858 to 1867, and again from 1877 t<> iSS;. He has t\\ 
represented the city in the Legislature, and rendered valuable service on the Hoards of 
Health and of Overseers of the 1'oor. The Public Library owes much of its success and 
development to his efforts as trustee, which ollice he has held since i*7'i. 

In his long career as a public official, during a residence of forty years, he has con- 
tributed greatly to the prosperity of the city, and has won the respect and gratitude of his 
fellow-citizens by the honesty, the ability, and the fidelity displayed in the management > >t 
the trusts committed to his care. In 1866 the Lincoln School, then located on Llm street, 
and now on Clarendon Hill, was named in his honor. 

Locke, Marshall Hammon, was born at Lexington. Ma-s., April 12, iSjj, the >on of 
Hammon and Rebekah (Xevers) Locke. His early life was passed on the paternal farm, 
and his education was obtained in the schools of his native town. His employment in after- 
life has been varied, he having been a farmer, milk-dealer, miner, house-carpenter, ship- 
carpenter, storekeeper and painter. December 26, 1848, he married Lucy A. \Yyman of 
Lexington, daughter of fames and Hetsey (Locke) Wyman, and resided in that town until 
October 31, 1849, when he went to ( 'alitornia. where he remained about eighteen months. 
and then returned to Lexington. He came to Somerville, January i, iSis, and has been a 
resident of this city since that time. Mr. Locke is not a clul> man, and l>el nigs to none of 
the so-called secret societies, being quiet and domestic in his tastes, ami happiest at his o\\ n 
tireside. He has been a director of the Somei ville < 'o-oper.uive Hank, and a trustee for the 
Somerville Savings Hank since they were established, lie resides on Summer street. 

Lombard, Frank G., was born in Charleston n. Mass., April 4, 1855. He attended tin- 
public schools of his native city, and graduated from the Hunker Hill School in the summer 



582 SOMERriLLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

of 1871. In the autumn of that year he entered the Bryant and Stratton Commercial 
College of Boston, leaving that institution in the autumn of 1872, to take a position with the 
well-known crockery-house of Abram French & Co., Boston, the largest establishment of its 
kind in the country. In the spring of 1879 he moved to Mt. Yernon street, East Somer- 
ville, where he now resides. He has served the city as a member of the Council and of the 
Water Board, and has been identified with many things pertaining to the welfare of Somer- 
ville. He is a member of various organizations, among which may be named the Soley 
Lodge, F. A. A. M.; the Somerville Royal Arch Chapter; the Creur de Lion Commandery 
of Charlestown; the Excelsior Council, Royal Arcanum; and the Webcowit Club. He is a 
director and clerk of the board of directors of the Abram French Company, with whom for 
twenty-four years he has had a business connection, and is highly esteemed both in social 
and mercantile circles. 

Lombard, Henry F., was born in Truro, Mass., July 20, 1853, son of Henry S. and 
Betsey M. Lombard. He came to Somerville when quite young, and was educated in out- 
public schools. After his education was completed, he entered business, and was for many 
years connected with his father in the clothing trade on Clinton street, Boston. On the 
death of his father, which occurred about 1893, he formed a partnership with his brother, 
and they succeeded to the business, which is still carried on under the old firm name at 
22 to 26 Merchants' Row, Boston. Mr. Lombard is a member of Joseph Warren Lodge 
F. A. A. M. He resides with his mother on Pearl street. 

Loring, George Fullington, son of Captain George and Harriet A. (Stoodley) Loring, 
was born in Boston, March 26, 1851. His father was of Barnstable, Mass., and was the sun 
of David Loring, and his mother was a daughter of James Stoodley of Berwick, Me. Mr. 
Loring was educated in the public schools of Boston. In 1868 he entered the office of the 
City Engineer at the City Hall, Boston, and was the principal draughtsman of the surveying 
department for many years. He began the study of architecture early in life, and in 1882 
left the employ of the city of Boston, and entered an architect's office; a few years later he 
opened an office on his own account, and in 1889 formed a partnership with Sanford Phipps 
of Watertown, Mass., under the firm name of Loring and Phipps, which association has 
since continued. Aiming the more important buildings which this firm has erected are the 
school buildings at Greenwich, Conn., the gift of H. O. Havemeyer of New York City; 
the High School of Montclair, N. J.; the High Schools at Everett, Athol, Ware, Winsted, 
Conn., and many other high and graded schools, churches, etc. Many of the elegant 
residences in Brookline, West Newton and Wellesley are from plans by this firm, who were 
also architects of George H. Derby's residence on Highland avenue, Mr. Haigh's residence 
on Summer street, and many other of the better class of dwellings in Somerville. The 
Public Library, Odd Fellows' Building, Masonic Building, Divinity (Miner) Hall. Tufts 
College, the Glines and Pope Schools were also from plans by these architects. 

Mr. Loring is a member of John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M., and De Molay Comman- 
dery of Knights Templar; he is also an Odd Fellow, a member of American Order United 
Workmen, a member of the L. A. W., and belongs to the Central Club. He was married 
to Sarah Frances Johnson, daughter of the late John B. Johnson, a descendant of Captain 
Edward Johnson, Kent, England, who died at Woburn, 1699; her grandfather, Jotham 
Johnson, was chairman of the Board of Selectmen of Charlestown at the time of the 
Nunnery Riot; her grandmother was Susannah Tufts of Charlestown, daughter of Samuel 
Tufts; and her mother Sarah Ann (Poor), daughter of Samuel Poor of Woburn, and Lydia 
Sprague of Maiden. They have four children : Ernest Johnson, architect, who is in business 
with his father, and is a graduate of class '95, M. I. T. ; Ralph Stoodley, Gladys and Marjorie 
Loring; and they reside at the corner of Higland avenue and Putnam street. It is worth 
mentioning that this family are living on land that is a portion of the farm of their earliest 
ancestors. Mr. Loring has been closely identified with the interests of our city since 1868. 



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584 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Lovejoy, Benjamin P., the son of Jeremiah and Betsy Lovejoy, was born in Gloucester, 
Mass., May 29, 1833, tne residence of the family being then on the present site of the new 
post-office and government buildings. When he was five years of age his family moved to 
Lynn, where they remained six months, and thence removed to Reading, where his father 
purchased a farm. Here Mr. Lovejoy remained for fifteen years, assisting in the farm work, 
and obtaining such education as he could at the common school, which he was able to 
attend a few months only in each year. In 1853 he left the farm, and came to Boston, 
where he found employment with A. Aldrich & Co., butter merchants in the Quincy Market, 
with whom he remained six or eight months. He then entered the employ of N. D. V. 
Taylor & Co., who were engaged in the foreign fruit trade in Merchants' Row, and at the 
expiration of twenty months left them, to take a position with the firm of Cyrus Carpenter 
tv Co., dealers in furnaces, etc. In 1867 he was admitted a partner in the house, and in 
1893, after the death of Mr. Carpenter, his interest was purchased by Mr. Lovejoy, and he 
is now the sole owner of the business. He married Miss Emma S. Carpenter, February 27, 
1856, and has two children, a son and daughter, both of whom are married. 

In September, 1861, they removed from Boston to Somerville, and in July, 1883, took 
up their residence in the handsome house that Mr. Lovejoy erected at No. 141 Highland 
avenue. Mr. Lovejoy was a member of the Common Council in 1874 and 1875, serv ing on 
the committees on public property, and fuel and street lights. He was one of the foremost 
promoters of the park, and has been very earnest in forwarding its interests. He is a 
member of the Royal Arcanum and Home Circle, but is not a club man in the usual 
acceptance of the term, his tastes being quiet and domestic. 

Lowe, Rev. Charles. Charles Lowe was born in Portsmouth, N. H., November 19, 
1828. His parents removed to Exeter, X. H., while he was very young. He graduated at 
Exeter Academy, and entered Harvard University in 1844, as sophomore, and, on his gradua- 
tion, entered the Cambridge Divinity School, having decided to become a minister. When 
his course was finished he received a call to the Unitarian parish of New Bedford, as colleague 
with Rev. John Weiss. After a year or more of good work there, his health failed, and he 
went to Europe, and traveled in England and on the Continent, and also went to Egypt and 
the Holy Land. He then attended lectures in the theological schools of Germany, becoming a 
proficient in the German language. On his return home he accepted a call to the North Church 
of Salem. He remained there two years, when, his health giving way, he resigned his position. 
He married, in 1857, Miss Martha Perry of Keene, N. H., and rented an old-fashioned 
homestead in the vicinity of Salem, where he could work out of doors and restore his 
health. At the end of two years he received a call to Spring Hill, Somerville, as minister of 
the First Congregational Unitarian Church. He accepted it, and removed here with his 
wife, and built a house on Summer street, in 1859, and devoted himself earnestly to the 
religious and practical interests of his parish. He worked vigorously for the cause of tem- 
perance in the community, and, at one time, with the help of one or two gentlemen, succeeded 
in persuading all the liquor dealers in the town to give up selling intoxicating drinks, in 
case the rest would keep the contract. During the War of the Rebellion he addressed our 
soldiers in his church, and also at Union square. He went down to the South twice to 
preach and distribute tracts and other literature, and afterwards on a mission to the freedmen. 
He stimulated his people by his letters home, and obtained from them liberal help for our 
soldiers, and also induced them to pay the salary of a lady teacher for the freedmen. 

Mr. Lowe had made himself, in the meantime, so efficient in the Army Committee of 
the American Unitarian Association, and elsewhere, that they wished to secure his permanent 
services, and invited him to be their secretary in 1865. His voice had become weakened, 
and it was doubtful how long he would be able to preach, and so he resigned his pastorate 
with many regrets, and accepted the new position for which he was so admirably fitted. He 




BENJAMIN P. LOVEJOY. 







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SOMI-'.Kl'll.U-:. PAST AND PRESENT. 589 

kept this situation until 1X71, managing the affairs of the association \\ith j ', earnest- 

ness, and religious catholicity of spirit, that he won friends in all denominations, ami when 
he gave up the office, not only his co-religionists, hut promiiu-nt men in other walks of life, 
expressed their profound regret. 

He had now two daughters, and a very attractive rural home in Somcrville, and In- 
decided to remain here; hut his friends were anxious that he should go aliroad for a time 
and he embarked in a French steamer for Havre, with his family, and n -in. lined nearly two 
years abroad, visiting Kngland, Fraiu e, Germany, Italy and Spain, when: his brother-in-1. 
Mr. Perry, resided at Madrid. ( hi his return, with somewhat improved health, his active mind 
led him, by the advice of friends, to start a religious maga/inc and review in the intej. 
of his denomination, lie worked on it with great eagerness until the spring of 1X74, and 
with encouraging prospects, when he was prostrated with a hemorrhage <>l the lungs, in the 
month of May, from which he could not rally. After an illness of about three weeks, he 
passed away June 20, 1874, in the forty-fifth year of his age, leaving a place vacant in In- 
home, his church, and the community, which could not be soon tilled. 

Lowell, Howard, was born in Kennebunk, Me., August 4, 1852, the son of Marshall 
and Celestine M. Lowell. He passed his boyhood there, and, at sixteen, came to Somerville, 
and worked for A. M. Angler, a well-known expressman. He returned to Maine, and at 
twenty-one years of age came back to Somerville and drove a team for 11. F. Chase, a baker 
in East Somerville. In 1875 ne vvas appointed a patrolman, and remained on the police 
force seven years, when he started the Standard ('ah < 'oinpany in I'.oston, and was very 
successful. He built a stable on ( lilman street, and, in June, 11X96, built another in front of 
the older one, and has now the finest constructed stable in the city. In January, 1896, he sold 
out the cab business, and commenced paying his sole attention to his business in Somerville. 
The hay and grain and storage warehouse departments wuc added, and now the firm of 
Howard Lowell & Son has one of the best equipped buildings to be found anywhere. In 
1874 he married Laura K. Moulton of Cambridgeport. They have a daughter, who is a 
general favorite among the young people, and a son, C.eorge K., who became a partner with 
his father in June, 1895, and is a very ambitious and upright young man. Mr. Lowell resides 
at 46 (lilman street in a cozy house, which he bought some time ago. Mr. Lowell \\a> 
elected a Common Councilman from Ward 3 for 1896 and 1X1)7, and has done good service 
for the city. He is a member of John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M., < >dd Fellows, Somerville 
Council Royal Arcanum, and the Sons of Maine. 

Lowell, Joseph Q., son of fohn and Mehitable ( P.ailcy i Lowell, was born at Methuen, 
Mass., April 8, 1842. He received his education in the schools of 1 laverhill, Mas,., and 
was brought up as a farmer's boy, assisting in the home farm-work until he reached the age 
of twenty-three; he then came to lloston, and entered the fruit and produce busine in 
which he has been engaged on his own account for upwards of thirty years, his imii. l.ouell 
Bros. & Bailey, being known as one of the largest and most prosperous in the trade. Mr. 
Lowell was married in 1867 to Mertilla |. I Hilton of Stanstead, I'. M., by whom he has had 
two daughters and a son. They removed to Somenille from ( harlestown in iXXX. Mr. 
Lowell is a member of the lioston Chamber of Commerce, and the !'.. .^t.ni fruit and Produce 
Exchange; he also belongs to a number of fraternal associations, such as the [. O. O. 1 .. 
Royal Arcanum, etc. He resides at 371 Broadway. 

Luce, Robert, was born in Auburn. Me., in [862, son ot Fnos I . and Ph.i-U- I.. 1 aice : 
he attended the public sclio, .1, ,.i Auburn and Leu iston. Me., and the II igh >> ho..l of Somer- 
ville, graduating from the latter in 1X77. He subse^uentlx entered Harvard College, gradu- 
ating in 1882, and taking the degree ol A.M. in iSS 3. I !< then became connected with the 
"Boston Globe," filling an editorial position on that paper until iXXX, since which period he 
has been a partner with his brother. Linn Luce, in conducting the Press Clipping I'.ureau in 




JOSEPH Q. LOWELL. 



SOMKRl'/LLK. I'.IST .\.\D PRESENT. 591 

Boston and New York, an institution that employs forty people ami read- about two thou- 
sand papers daily. Mr. Luce has done a large amount of literary work in addition to th> 
above: he was one of the founders of "The Writer," the author of - I 1< . trie Rail- 
and "Writing for the Press," and has issued various essa\-. II - side the 

Bureau work is that of lecturing, and he is well and favorably known in this department f 
his work. Mr. Luce is a member of John Abbot Lodge, !'. A. A. M., and the < Vntral " lub, 
and is an ex-president of the Somerville Democratic Club, lie married Mi-- \Ial.ill'- ' . 
Farnham, daughter of Hiram I., and Elizabeth (Davis) Far n ham of this city. They iv-id<- 
at 44 Highland avenue. 

Macomber, George H., son of William and Mary S. T. i I Macnmber, was b 

in Boston, April 16, 1857. He was educated in the public schools of that city, attending 
the Dwight and English High Schools, lie started in the clothing busine>- in 1*74 with 
Chamberlin and Currier, and is now one of the officers of the well-known Standard < 'lothing 
Company. lie married Miss Hattie Osgood, of Charlestown, January 23, iSS v Their children 
are Lawrence and Robert Leeds Macomber. He moved to his present residence, 102 
Thurston street, in 1890. 

MacQueen, Rev. Peter, was born at Inchbreed, \Vigtonshire, Scotland, January u, 
1863. lie is a descendant, on one side of his family, of the Macliregor clan, and mi the 
other side, of the stern followers of Knox and Cameron. He has been in America since hi^ 
boyhood, having come here alone, and pushed his way by dint of energy, industry and per- 
severance to his present position. He was an honor man in the class of 1887 of 1'rinceton 
University, a graduate of Union Theological Seminary, New York City, and was for two 
years pastor of the Reformed Church, in Bronxville, N. Y. 1 1 is work in that parish 
was very successful, and his popularity there was universal. 

In 1893, when the Day-street Church in this city was without a pastor. Mr. Mac". 1 
preached there as supply, and shortly afterwards received a unanimous call to that church, 
which he accepted. He has done good, conscientious work in it; the membership and at- 
tendance have rapidly increased, and in 1896 the church was able to expend SS.ooo upon 
the repairing and beautifying of the edifice and upon an elegant new organ. The Somer- 
ville Journal," in commenting on the church, says: "In the remodeled edifice of the 1 (ay- 
street Congregational Church, Somerville \\ill have one of its most attractive church build- 
ings." Mr. MacQueen is a frequent contributor to the "Cosmopolitan " ami " Munscy's," and 
is well known in newspaper circles, both in New York and Boston. lie is a brilliant, suggestive 
preacher, a genial, social man, and has friends in every corner of West Somerville. 11 i- 
an enthusiastic traveler, and has visited every country in Europe, except Russia and Scan- 
dinavia. His most noted European trip was that made in the summer of iS.n>, \\hen he 
conveyed to King (Jeorge of Greece a poem, "Our Laureled Sons," written by lleim 
O'Meara, in commemoration of the Olympic games, and dedicated to the King. The mis- 
sion was a splendid success, Mr. MacQueen bringing back from the King and the cit\ 
Athens presents and compliments to the mayor of the city of r.o-tmi. 

Since his return Mr. MaeOueen has been more successful than ever in his stereopticon 
lectures, which he had already made one of the features of the 1 >a\ -street < Inirch. I I 
interested in all that concerns Somerville, and always endeavors to pr mote its \\eltare. 1 l< 
is unmarried. 

Magoun, John C., was born in New Hampton, N. II., December 11, '7''7. ><>M oi a 
soldier in the Revolutionary War. lie was educated in the >chol. of hi> native t<>\\n and 
in Atkinson Academy, and came to Charlestown at the age of twenty, when he engaged in 
farming and in the milk business. He was captain of a militia company, and ua- proent 
with his command at the reception to Lafayette on |',,t,m Common, and al> > at the laying 
of the corner-stone of Bunker 1 1 ill Monument. Mr. Mi iun held office as an assessor thirty- 




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PAST AND PRESENT. 

four years, and also served on the School Committee and as a member <>f the ll<>ar<l of < )\er- 
seers of the Poor. He was one of the founders of the First Unitarian society, llr died 
January 8, 1882. 

Mann, Alfred E., was horn at Merrimack, Mass., November 17, 1851,1)111 ha> lived in 
Somerville since 1852. After obtaining his education he embarked in business, and in 
opened his undertaking establishment at Xo. 4 Warren avenue, where he has been - 
tul in building up a large and lucrative business. He stands high in his pn>t - .is a 
funeral director and embalmer, having received instructions from the leading professors in 
the art of embalming. He is now connected with various trade associations, and is a member 
nf Oasis Lodge, I. O. O. I-'., Somerville Encampment, Ivaloo Lodge, D. of R., . \rca<li.i Lo 
K. of I'., Wonohaquaham Tribe, R. M., Delft Haven Colony I'ilgrim Fathers, Putnam < om- 
mandery, U. O. G. C., Central Club, Mystic Valley Club, Somerville Veteran Firemen'- \ - 
ciation, National Lancers, Signet Commandery Knights of Malta, and King Solomon Priory. 
Mr. Mann was married, in 1873,10 Miss Emilie A. Galletly of this city. They reside at 7; 
Washington street. 

Mann, Jairus, was born in Charlestown, October 29, 1825, the son of Joseph and 
Eunice (Jacobs) Mann. His father died when he was nine years old, and after attend MIL; 
a private school for a year he entered the law office of William Sawyer, of Charlestown, at 
that time the leading lawyer and the only trial justice in the town. In iS; ; he was ap- 
pointed a police officer in Somerville, and was afterward an assistant engineer and secretary 
of the Fire Department. lie was made lieutenant of the police in 1865, and held the posi- 
tion until he was appointed city messenger in 1872; since then he has held this office con- 
tinuously, every mayor having made him his first appointee. He is now the longest in the 
MTvice of the city of any of its officers. He has been a member of John Abbot Lodge. 
F. A. A. M., since 1859. He is a member of Somerville K. A. Chapter, Excelsior Council. 
R. A., Washington Council, Home Circle, and Iron Hall. He is a member of the National 
Lancers, where he has held the positions of corporal and sergeant, and was the originator of 
the Massachusetts City Messengers' Club, of which he is now secretary. Mr. Mann has been 
twice married: his first wife was Miss Emeline, daughter of John Runey, of Somerville; 
his second wife was Miss Martha A., daughter of Josiah and Nancy (Smith) Spotfoid, of 
Buxlon, Me. lie resides on Richdale avenue. 

Meleney, Clarence E., was born in Salem December 8, 1853, the son of Henry E. and 
Eliza A. (Innis) Meleney, of that city. His early education was obtained at the Hacker 
Grammar School of Salem. lie was titled for college at the Classical Institute, \Yaterville. 
Me., and was graduated at Colby University with the class of 1876. After graduation he\\a- 
principal of academies at Warren and Presque Isle, Me.; the Methuen High; the Washing- 
ton Grammar at Marlboro, the Adams Grammar at Quincy; Grammar No. 2 at Yonker-. \ 
V., and the Newton-street Grammar at Newark, N. [. For live years he was superinten- 
dent of schools at Paterson, N. J. 

Mr. Meleney came to Somerville in 1888, having been elected superintendent of schools 
in this city, and he remained in that position live years. He married Miss Carrie E., daugh- 
ter of Rev. J. C. and Ellen Coit, of Newark, N. J. 

Mentzer, Walter C., was born at Brady's Bend, Armstrong Co., Pa., > <n . i < h.u les L. 
and Lucy J. (Brewer) Ment/,er, October 26, 1852. His early boyhood was spent in l!o>i"ii. 
he first attending school at Old Fort Hill, and later at the llawesand Iligelow Grammar 
Schools, South Boston. He graduated from the Northboro High School in iSou. and com- 
leiecl his education at Warren Academy, Woburn, Mass. lie came to Somerville in 1X72. 
Served in the Somerville Fire Department as call-man attached to Ste.uni r N... i. 
present at the great fires in Boston, November <>, 1X72, and May 30, 1873. lie began 
ness with his brother, Albert F. Ment/er, in 1X72, and has continued in the \\liolesale pro\ i- 




ALFRED E. MANN. 






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sion trade, under the firm name of \V. ( . A A. 1 '. Ment/cr, fur twenty-four \ ng busi- 

nassat25^ and 2-j North Market street, Boston, and Plymouth, Mass .nmission deal, i- 

for Armour \ Co. of ( hicago, 111. 

Tn Somerville, 1 >ecc -mber 31. 1^7", Mr. Ment/.er was married to ' Lira 11. , daughi 
Almpn R. and Diana W. Jackson I liur-ton, of Darn.-. N't. They hav. i.CharlesA. 

Ment/er, bom November 5, 1877. Mr. Mcnt/er is identified uith tin- Knights of lion >r. 
Royal Arcanum, !.<.(). I-'.. Charity Lodge, I-'. \ A. Ma- >ns, Soinrr\ ille K. A. < . I )< 

Molay Commandery of Bo-ton, and \K-])|io Temple M\-tie shrine. 

lie served the city in the ('oinnion ( 'ouneil in 1X85 and iXX(>, -was pre.-ideiit of the 
Council the latter year, was elected Alderman in 1887, elected mi the Mv-tic Water Board 
1889 and 1890; served as president of the Republican City Committee in iX<, ;. i Bg |. 1X95, 
1896. He is vice-president of the West Somerville Co-operative Hank, and director of the 
Somerville National Bank. I le resides at 30 ( 'herry street. 

Mercer, William L., was l.orn in Cecil County, near I'laltiiiiore. Md. I le lirst engaged 
in business about 18(14. '" ( '<->luinl>us, < )., where he had a lioot ami -hoe store. At the time of 
the great lire in Chicago he was located there, and his store shared the fate of many others. 
He is a member of Magnolia Lodge, A. !'. and A. M., < >hio ( 'hapter, the Columbus Coun- 
cil, R. and S. M., and Ml. Yernoii Commandery, K. 'L, all of Columbus, ( ). Mr. Mercer is 
engaged in the real estate business at Xo. 50 School street, Boston, and resides at 342 
Broadway, in one of the most attractive houses in Somerville. 

Merrill, Dr. Arthur Ellsworth, son of Robert and Kli/.abeth Allen Merrill, was born in 
I'arsonsfield, York County, Me., November 30, 1861. His boyhood was passed on the home 
farm, where he imbibed good principles with the pure air of his native hills. His preparatory 
education was obtained at Parsonslield Seminary and at New Hampton, \. II. After pursu- 
ing the study of medicine for a time with Moses K. Sweat, M. I). (Parsonsfield), a noted 
physician of the old school, he attended two courses of lectures at Brunswick, Me., then 
entered Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y., taking two courses, the preliminary 
and regular, also a special course in surgery, receiving diplomas for each. Immediately 
after graduation he married Klla Frances Cmptill of Cornish, Me., and came to Somerville, 
opening an office at 367 Medford street, where he still resides. 

Dr. Merrill is very fond of hunting, and has brought from the Maine woods some rare 
trophies of his prowess. lie is a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, Soley Lodge 
F. A. A. M., Sons of Maine, and Highland Chapter No. 3^, < "rder of the Eastern Star. He 
has a growing practice, and has an honored name in the medical profession. 

Merrill, Frank E., was born in Nashua, N. II., November 22, 1858. He lilted for 
Dartmouth in the public schools of his native city, but deciding to at once engage in active 
life he entered the railroad sen ice. and soon rose to the responsible position of chief clerk of 
the passenger and ticket department of the old Boston \ Lowell K.R., where he remained 
for many years. Mr. Merrill took up his residence in Somerville in iSSo. and for fifteen years 
has resided in \\zrd 4, taking an active interest in the development of that section ol 
the city. He was elected to the City Council in iSX<) and 1890, where he served 
on important committee-, and in the latter year was appointed to take charge of the detailed 
work of the Somerville Water Board, a municipal department which has been rapidly grow- 
ing in importance with the development of the city. Mr. Merrill is a member of the N. E. 
Water Works Association., of John Abbot Lodge, 1 . A A. M.. < '.deb Rand Lodge, 1. O. O. 
I-'., Kim Council, Royal Arcanum, and other societies, in which he has held - t honor 
and trust. 

Mink, Louis, was born Ilecember 2<, 1X30. in the provim e ol UsaCC, in France, the 
son of Lawrence and Madeleine . Walder Mink. He u.i^ educated in the schools oi his 
native country, and emigrate-. 1 to America in 1860, arriving here in November ol that year. 



598 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Soon after coming to this country he became connected with the tannery of William Muller 
of North Cambridge, where he remained five years. In 1865 he embarked in the currying 
business on his own account, on Haverhill street, Boston. In 1868 he removed to Pearl 
street, and remained in that location until 1870, in which year he built the factory on the 
corner of Beacon and Sacramento streets in this city, now occupied by C. H. Cushman eS: 
Co., where he conducted an extensive business in currying leather, employing nearly one 
hundred men. In 1888 he retired from business, and since that time has not re-embarked 
in it. Mr. Mink was married to Regina Fogel in 1865, and has seven children, four sons 
and three daughters. He resides at 85 Elm street. 

Moore, Henry Martyn, was burn in North Brookfield, Worcester County, in 1829, and 
spent his early life on a farm. In 1852 he came to Boston and entered the hat store of 
James W. Lee, where he remained until 1857, when the firm failed. The next year, with 
Mr. Smith, his present partner, he bought out the business, and they have continued to- 
gether to the present time. They are now the oldest concern in Boston in their line of 
business. For about seventeen years Mr. Moore traveled part of the time, selling goods in 
the West. Mr. Moore is well known as one of the leading men of the Y. M. C. A. world, 
and as such spreads the name and fame of Somerville wherever he goes. 

It is as a member of the international committee that Mr. Moore and his work are 
best known. This committee, composed of thirty-two prominent business-men, with head- 
quarters in New York, has charge of all the Y. M. C. A. work on the North American con- 
tinent, not only supervising the work of the existing associations, but also establishing and 
encouraging new associations. The work on the committee requires a good share of Mr. 
Moore's time, but he manages, in addition to this, to give considerable attention to other 
Y. M. C. A. and church work. In 1872 he assisted in forming the Massachusetts state 
committee of five, and he has been a member, with the exception of two years, ever since. 
With Mayor Hodgkins and others, he was instrumental in forming the Somerville associa- 
tion a quarter of a century ago, and in its reorganization at a later period. He was president 
of the association in 1894. Mr. Moore is president of the board of trustees of Mr. 
Moody's Northfield Seminary, and is also trustee of Mt. Hermon School, having been inter- 
ested in them since their organization in 1880 and iSSi. His connection with the Franklin- 
street Church, of which he has always been a prominent member, dates back to 1865. For 
fourteen years he has been deacon; he has also been chairman of the parish committee 
superintendent of the Sunday-school, and has held other positions in the church and 
Sunday-school. The only public office in this city which Mr. Moore has held is that of 
member of the School Committee. He began with the first board in 1872, and served 
thirteen years, resigning when he found that his other work was getting too burdensome 
for him. He has lived in Somerville since 1855. In 1865 he bought his present home at 
82 Myrtle street, lie married, in 1849, Mary Earle, a native of Belchertown, and has had 
six children, three of whom are now living. 

Moore, Howard Dudley, the son of George and Charlotte C. Moore, was born at 
Moore's Mills, New Brunswick, November 21, 1854. He is a direct descendant in the fifth 
generation of William Moore, who came from Londonderry, Ireland, in 1709, and settled at 
Londonderry, N. H. His son William was a Tory, and in 1785 removed to New Bruns- 
wick, where he received from the Crown a grant of land near the St. Croix River, the present 
location of the picturesque village of Moore's Mills. Young Moore attended the village 
school during the winter months until he was fifteen, and when seventeen years of age he 
went to Lawrence, Mass., where for two years he worked at a mechanical business, and for 
three years was clerk in a law office. During the five years he was in Lawrence he took an 
active part in temperance and other organizations. At the age of twenty-two he decided 
to become a lawyer, and feeling the need of an education he fitted for college at Nichols' 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT, 

Latin School, I.ewiston. Me., graduating therefrom in 1880, and entered I'.ate- ' i ge with 
the class of 1884, hut was unable to pursue the collcg< < i\u 56. As a ( min<Ti ial traveler he 
spent one year in the Southern Stairs, aii'l in 1X82 came to Boston, and was fur three year- 
manager of the New England agency of the "People's* yrlop.i ilia.'' tn the meantime In-- 
kept up his studies, and in 1X85 entered the Boston University School ol I .aw. where he 
graduated in 1887. lie was admitted to the Suffolk liar the same year, and commenced 
practice in Boston. Mr. Moore married Maud L. Roberts of \Yollastun Heights in i-Siji. 
and at that time came to Somerville to reside. They have one child, a daughter. Mr. 
Moore has been president of the West Somerville Republican < lul>. a member i >f the Repub- 
lican City Committee, was a member of the Common Council of 1895, and a member of the 
Board of Aldermen in 1896. 

Moore, Hugh Tallant, son of |ohn and Tabitha i Da\i> Moore, uas bom in ( antcr- 
bury, N. H., in 1801, and died in 18:55. He resided in Boston ten years, and moved to 
Somerville in 1840. lie was a useful and esteemed citizen. At the time of his death he- 
held the following offices: treasurer and tax collector of the town, constable and overseer ol 
the poor, a funeral undertaker, and he was also one of the coroners of Middlesex County; 
all these offices he held for several successive years. Mr. Moore left two children: Mrs. 
George W. Haclley and Mrs. Horace 1'. Makechnie. 

Morse, Enoch R., was born in Attleboro, Mass., July 25, 1X22. lie established him- 
self in business in Boston in 1839, removing to Somerville in 1852. lie took an active part 
in town affairs, and was elected a member of the School Board in 1864. 1 le held the position 
nine years, until after the incorporation of the city, and by his literary attainments and 
business experience was influential in promoting the educational interests of the town. 1 le 
represented the city in the Legislature in 1876. So highly were his services appreciated by 
the town government that his name and memory were perpetuated in the Morse < Irannnar 
School, erected in 1869 on Summer street, while on the records of four other schools he 
appears as having been chosen to deliver the poem at the dedicatory exercises. 

Newton, Dr. Frank L. S., was born in Truro, Mass., April q, 1857, the son of Dr. 
Adin Hubbard Newton, a practicing physician, and S. Anjenette Hatch, a lineal descendant 
of Dr. Jacques Jerauld (Gerould ), a I luguenot who emigrated to this country in the eight- 
eenth century. His boyhood was passed with his parents in his native town and t hatham. 
He early became interested in the profession of his father, and in the pharmacy, subse- 
quently receiving the certificate of a registered pharmacist. In 1870 he accepted a position 
as grammar-school master at Essex, and afterwards was principal of the \\estport High 
School. He took the medical degree of Boston University in 1X84, and was house : 
cian in the Massachusetts Homcropathic Hospital, lie began the practice of medicine at 
Provincetown, where he was appointed a medical examiner of Barnstable County by Gov- 
ernor Robinson, was a surgeon of the L'nited States Marine I lospital service, and physician 
to the Board of Health. Later he pursued a course of study in 1 urop in the General 
Hospital clinics at Vienna, and the Rotunda Hospitals, Dublin, taking the degree >! 1.. M. 
After this year of study he came to Somerville, where he has since resided. I le i> a member 
of Boston University Alumni Association, the Hahnemann Sot iety. the Massachusetts and 
the Boston Homoeopathic Medical Societies, and the American Institute f Homoeopathy. 
In 1895 he was appointed a member of the medical board and medi.al and Mirgical St. it! "I 
the Somerville Hospital. May (>, i8Sh. I )r. N'cuton married Miss Josephine Louise Leu is 
of Dartmouth, and they have two sons, Allison Lewis and 1'Yank llatih. Socially he U 
member of the Central Club Association, Mystic Valley Club, the several Masonic lodg 
Somerville, De Molay < 'ommandery ol Knights Templar ol I ''o-t> >n, and is athirt>-s> 
degree Mason. 



600 SOAfERl'JLLE, PAST AND J'RESEW. 

Nichols, George Leslie, son of George N. and Mary Abby (Traverse) Nichols, was 
born June 2, 1860, at Holliston, Mass., and was educated in the grammar and high schools 
of that town, he studied drawing under a private tutor with a view to adopting architecture 
as a profession, and while engaged in that study worked at the carpenter's trade. At the 
age of nineteen lie had charge of building a Sio,ooo house and stable for George D. Ed- 
munds of Hopedale. He followed the occupation of master builder until he was twenty- 
five years of age, when he began to practice the profession of architecture in South Fram- 
ingham, remaining in that town nine years, and moving to Somerville in 1890. 

In 1888 he became connected with W. T. Sears, architect of Boston, as Superintendent 
of Construction, and was engaged in remodeling the Sears Building and in the construction 
of Hotel Sanford, an apartment-house costing 200,000, f or ^Vm. T. Hart, president of the 
Continental Bank. Mr. Nichols opened his present office at 70 Killiy street, Boston, in 1892, 
since which time lie has constructed Odd Fellows' Building in North Cambridge, another 
large apartment-house for Mr. Hart, the Van Choate Electric Company's Factory plant 
at Foxborough, Mass., and other important buildings. He was married, June 18, 1885, to 
Miss Mary Elizabeth Titcomb of Kennebunk, Me.; they have no children. Mr. Nichols is 
a member of the Framingham Lodge 145, I. O. O. F., John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M.. 
Monotomy Chapter, R. A. M., New England Order of Protection, the Boston Architectural 
( lub, and the Boston Society of Architects. He resides at 20 Chapel street. 

Nickerson, Alvano T., was born at Chatham, June 24, 1839, the son of Caleb and 
Julia A. (Hamilton) Xickerson of that place. He was educated in the district school, and 
came to Boston in 1854. Prior to 1867 he was in business for himself in Chicago, as a 
member of the firm of Ryder & Nickerson, since which time he has been in business alone 
at Charlestown Bridge. Mr. Nickerson came to Somerville in 1882. He is a member of Paul 
Revere Lodge, I. O. O. F., and a director of the Odd Fellows' Building Association, also a 
trustee for the Twenty Associates, and a trustee of the Somerville Hospital. He served the 
city in the Common Council of 1888 and 1889, and in the Board of Aldermen in 1890 and 
1891. He has also been a member of the Board of Health since 1893. Mr. Nickerson. 
married, in 1863, Laurietta Nickerson of Chatham. They reside at 334 Broadway. 

Nickerson, John F., was born October 13, 1846, at Provincetown, Mass., son of 
Jonathan J. and Rebecca D. Nickerson. He received his education in the Provincetown 
schools and in the Green Mountain Institute at South Woodstock, Vt. He commenced 
business in 1863 as clerk with Whiton Brothers & Co. of Boston, and remained with them 
about two years. He then took a position as bookkeeper with Hinckley Brothers & Co., 
but was, on account of an accident, obliged to leave their employ after two years of service. 
He subsequently engaged in the grocery business with T. D. Demond & Co., on Broad 
street, was soon admitted to the firm, and some years later he purchased the entire business 
which was then carried on under the firm name of John F. Nickerson tV Co.; at the present 
time it is a corporation known as the John F. Nickerson Company, of which Mr. Nickerson 
is the president. He is a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M., the Boston Wholesale 
Grocers' and Massachusetts Fish and Game Protective Associations, and the United Order of 
Workmen. Mr. Nickerson was married to Georgiana P. Langmaid of Charlestown, Mass.. 
June I, 1869; they have three daughters, and have resided at 25 Flint street since June i. 
1869. He was two years a member of the Somerville Water Board, but the pressure of his 
business has always prevented his holding other offices in the service of the city. 

Norcross, Joseph Leland, was born in Woodbury, Vt., December 6, 1834. At the age 
of twenty-one years he came to Boston, where he engaged in the teaming business, having 
his headquarters at City Wharf until 1873, when he removed to his present place of business 
at 212 State street. In January, 1871, he was married and became a resident of Somerville, 
purchasing the estate No. 60 Marshall street, where he resides at the present time. Mr. 










J. [.ELAND NORCROSS. 




MRS. J. C. NOURSE. 



i 



SOMI-:R ///././:, PAST .ixn PRESENT. 603 

Xorcross has been identified with a number of Somerville institutions from their first incep- 
tion, lie withdrew from I'Yanklin Lodge, !.<>.< >. !".. of Boston, t<> assist in the organi/a- 
tion of Paul Revere Lodge of this city, and lias been treasurer of that lodge sm< < its i.iunda- 
tion in 1878. 1 le is also a charter member of Winter 1 1 ill 1 'IK ampment. In I.SS.J, \vh<-n 
the Odd Fellows organized a building committee to erect the substantial brick building on 
the corner of Broad\\a\ and Marshall street, Mr. Noreross was elected treasurer of the 
building association, a p.isition which he has retained until the present time. lie has always 
been actively interested in the Winter Ilill Universalist Church, which he assisted to organi/e 
in June, 1878. In 1879 ami 1880 he served the city as a Common < 'OUIH ilman, and in the 
two following years as an Alderman. Mr. Noreross has been one of the directors of the 
Master Teamsters' Association of Boston since its formation, and is now president of the 
association. 

Nourse, Mrs. J. C., daughter of Tappan and Katie ( < 'ummings ) l.ibby, was born in 
Scarborough, Me., August 28, 1854. She was educated in the public schools of her native 
town, and in the Casco-street Seminary of Portland. In 1875 she was married to Mr. 
Charles Nourse. In 1881, her natural tastes being for a business life, she commenced in a 
rather small way in North Cambridge, where she continued until the autumn of i88t>, wlu-n 
she removed to Davis square, and occupied the store Nos. 10 and II in Medina Building. 
Her increasing business in the years that followed demanding more room, she arranged to 
have one-half of the new Chapin Building Finished and furnished to suit her ideas of what a 
modern dry goods store should be, and when it was ready for occupancy, she removed from 
her old quarters in June, i8<j(j, and now has in the new store what is termed by a dry goods 
journal of New York "the largest establishment of the kind in New Kngland, managed by 
a lady." Her emporium is arranged in an exceedingly attractive manner, and her continued 
increasing patronage demonstrates that her efforts to give the residents of West Somerville 
and vicinity a first-class dry goods store are appreciated. 

Noyes, Frank A., was born at Auburn, Me., May 9, 1850. After receiving his edu- 
cation at the public schools of that city, and the Auburn Commercial < 'ollegr, he secured a 
position in Portland, where he remained for three years, as bookkeeper for I. II. < 'ressey & 
Co. In 1872 the firm removed to Boston, locating at 208 State street, with whom he con- 
tinued for ten years, and then entered the (inn as Cressey \ Noyes, remaining there until the 
completion of the Chamber of ( 'ommeree Building in 1892. There he is now located as a 
member of the firm of \oves \ Colby, in the wholesale grain business. Mr. Noyes has been 
connected with the grain trade of Boston for the past twenty-four years, and is favorably 
known throughout New Kngland and the West. He is a member of the Boston Chamber 
of Commerce, and is now one of the directors of that institution. 

In 1874 he married Miss Anna \\. Mason of Portland, Me., and tlie\ - I < ted Somer- 
ville for their future home, and have since that time been residents ot this ( ity. Mr. Noyes 
has always taken an interest in fraternal organizations, and is a member of Soley Lodge, I . 
A. A. M., Kxcelsior Council, R. A., Sons of Maine, and is a past officei <>f ' >.i-is Lodge, 
Somerville Encampment, Ivaloo Rebekah Lodge, I. O. O. I-'., Highland Chapter. < >rder 
Eastern Star, and at the present time is associate grand patron, (). K. S. of Massachusetts. 
He resides at 95 Highland avenue. 

Park, Elbridge G., was born in Ashby, Mass., in iS;<j. lie received his education in 
the district and high schools of his native town, and tame to Boston in i Son. and engaged in 
the produce trade, in which he remained two year*, lie then entered the restaurant busi- 
ness, and has continued in it for over thirty years, conducting large and successful establish- 
ments at No. 30 North Market and 123 Causeway streets, Boston, under the linn names of 
Durgin, Park & Co., and E. G. Park & Co. He removed from Charlestown to L.i>t Somer- 
ville in 1874, and has resided here since that time. 




ELBRIDGE G. PARK. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 605 

In 1884 lie represented Ward I in the Common Council, and wa> r<--< lecti ! in 1885 
He served on the Board of Aldermen in 1880 and 1887, and was president of the l);ird the 
last-named year, serving on some of the must important committee--. Mr. Park is a member 
of the Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M.,and the ( 'o-ur de Linn < 'ommandcry. K. '!'., of Charleston n ; 
he is also a member of the Howard Lodge, !.().<>. I-'., of < harlestown. 

Parker, Frederick Wesley, was born in Boston, May o. 1863, son of Jerome \V. and 
Ann Eliza (Wright) Parker. lie is of old New England Stock, being a direct descendant, 
in the eighth generation, of Francis Cook, who came over in the Mayllower in iiijo. Mr. 
Parker received a good common-school education, and at the age | n took a minor 

clerkship in the banking office of Perkins, Dupee & Co., 40 State -trr.-t. II. 'ly, and 

in 1888 engaged in business on his own account, forming with Arthur W. Sawyer and I la/en 
Clement the firm of Sawyer, Clement t \ < )o. In 1892 Mr. Sawyer retired, and the firm ho ame 
Clement, Parker & Co., and continues as such at the present time, being located at 53 I >ev.mshire 
street, Boston. They have been successful, and are quoted among the leading firms in the bank- 
ing business. Mr. Parker served in the Common Council of Somerville in 1894 and 1895, and 
was on the Finance and Public Property Committees. He is a director in the Somerville 
National Bank; a member of |ohn Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M.; Somerville Chapter, K. A. M.: 
Orient Council, and De Molay Commandery; is also a member of the Central Club, the 
Charlestown Club, the Exchange Club of Boston, and the ''Society of Mayllower Descend- 
ants." He married Miss Nellie L. IHodgett of Cambridge, June 15, 1887; they have one 
child, Mildred, and reside at 65 Boston street. 

Parsons, Horace M., the son of Daniel W. and Mary P. Parsons, was born in Rock- 
port, Mass., in 1864. When three months of age his parents moved to llostoii, residing at 
the historical " North End," and the son attended the famous Eliot School, going subse- 
quently to the English High. Young Parson's first situation was at the drug store of Tli 
dore Metcalf & Co., but fifteen years ago he entered the employ of Bigelow. Dowse \- Ma- 
comber, as a boy, and has remained with this concern ever since, working his way up through 
various grades, until he is now head bookkeeper and cashier of the leading hardware corpora- 
tion in New England. Nine years ago he was married to Annie L. Millett,but she died soon 
after their marriage. In March, 1895, ne married Sadie (). Saurman, and they now reside 
in an attractive home on Prospect Hill. When the Somerville Light Infantry was being reor- 
ganized, young Parsons, then twenty-two years of age, offered himself as a member. I le was 
then six feet and four inches tall, and was a striking figure in the company. I le was made 
a sergeant Sept. 9, 1887, and less than two years afterwards second and then first lieutenant. 
Upon the discharge of Captain Kirk he was elected captain, and has held the position tor 
nearly five years, with great credit and marked ability, lie was recently elected a major "I" 
the Eighth Infantry, but declined the position. 

Parkhurst, Melville C., chief of police of the city of Somerville, was born in Stan.l- 
ish, Me., April 26, 1842, son of John L. and Marcia I Tamilian 1 Parkhurst. tie was edu- 
cated there and came to Somerville in 1857. August 12, iNoj. he enlisted in Company E 
of Somerville, Thirty-Ninth Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers. He was in defense .if 
Washington until 1863, and then was sent with the Army of the Potomac, and was in all its 
great battles from the Wilderness to \ppomattox. June ;, 1*05. he was mustered out as 
lieutenant, the governor having issued to him a commission as captain, on which, however. 
the war being over, he was not mustered in, although he had for several months commanded 
his company as captain in the field. May 20, iSoS. he received his appointment to the Somer- 
ville police force. He was appointed captain, April i. [871, and chief, in January, iS;j. It 
is a noteworthy fact that Chief Parkhurst has made himsell so lamiliar with criminal law 
tli at in all important cases in Somerville he conducts personal!} oi the go\ eminent. 

He also drew the petition and drafted the bill passed by the I .egislature in 1 S8j, giving police 




FREDERICK W. PARKER. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 607 

officers authority to s^nd samples of li<|nor seized on search warrants to the -ute r other 
authorized assayer thus making it possible to learn accurately and officially if >uch liquor 
contains more than the three per cent of alcohol allowed by law. Chief I'arkliurst is a mem- 
ber of John Abbot Lodge, A. K. and A. M., Somerville Royal An li < liapter, and C, eur de 
Lion Commandery, K. T., and of several other local fraternal organizations. In 1865 he was 
married to Mary L., daughter >! James and Ruth P.utler Coolidgc of Waltham, by whom 
he has two children. 

Perkins, George W., son of True and Mary Ann Chapman) iVrkins, was born in 
Tamworth, X. II., July i, 1842. He was educated in the common schools of his native town, 
and in the Xe\v Hampton Institution. \eu Hampton, X.H. He taught in New Hampshire 
two years, and then came to Boston, \\here he entered the dry - Is business, in which In- 
remained three years. For the six following years he occupied the position of traveling 
salesman for A. Showe < Co., wholesale tea and coffee dealers, was then admitted a member 
of the firm, and is now manager of the business. Mr. IVrkins has resided in Somervilk- for 
twenty-five years. He represented this city in the House of Representative:-, in iSoi.and 
served as chairman of the committee on drainage. He was re-elected in 1892, and serve. 1 on 
the committee on cities. In 1895 he was elected to the Senate, and was chairman of the 
committee on printing, and a member of the committees on education and on metropolitan 
affairs. In 1896 he was again elected to the Senate, and served as chairman of the com- 
mittee on public service, and as a member of the committees on education and metropolitan 
affairs. He married Miss Minerva R. Berry of Westminster, N't., and they reside at 3 Pearl 
street. Mr. Perkins is a member of the Royal Arcanum, the A. <>. I . \V., a trustee of the Som- 
erville Hospital, of Somerville Masonic Apartments, a member of the \Vebco\\it Social < lub, 
and a member of the Knights of Honor. He is past master of Soley Lodge, !'. A. A. M., 
member of the Somerville R. A. Chapter, the Orient Council of Select Masters, and is senior 
warden of the De Molay Commandery, K. T., of Boston. He is also a member of the 
Massachusetts Republican Club, the Mystic Valley Club, and the Metropolitan Young Men's 
Republican Club. 

Perry, Albion A., was born in Standish, Me., January 26, 1851, the son ot Rev. John 
C. and Mary E. (Boston) Perry. He was educated in the public schools and at Monmouth 
Academy. He came to Somerville in 1869, and for several years carried on the drug busi- 
ness with marked success. He fitted himself for the profession of pharmacist at the Mas- 
sachusetts College of Pharmacy. After retiring from the drug business he took up the study 
of law at the Boston University School of Law, and later opened an office in Somerville. In 
1886 he associated himself with Hon. S. /.. Bowman, and the partnership has continued to 
the present time. Mr. I'erry has served the city in many different capacities. I le uas elected 
to the School Board, but served only one year, 1876, resigning on account of his business, 
which demanded his time. He was a member of the Common Council in is^i and iW\ 
being president the second term. In 1883-1884 he was in the Hoard of Aldermen, lie \\a> 
appointed on the Water Board by Mayor Pope in 1891 for two years, and was president ot the 
board both years. At the end of his term he was urged strongly by Mayor Hodgkins to ac- 
cept reappointment. In 1895 he was elected to the office of mayor after one of the warme.-t 
political contests ever held in this State, was re-elected in 1896, and he has filled the ojiice 
with an ability that has commanded the respect of everyone. 

Mr. Perry was elected president of the Somerville Savings Bank after the death of ( tren 
S. Knapp in 1891, a position he still holds, and he has shown his qualifications as a Imain 
by building up a strong institution, the business of the bank during the ii\>- years th.it he has 
held the office having had a tremendous growth; he is also a director in the s,,niervillc \ 
tional Bank. Mr. Perry has ever shown the liveliest interest in all matters relating to tin- 
welfare of Somerville, and ha> di-ehar^ed the duties of e\ er\ office to \\huh he has been 



608 SOAfEKl'JLLE, PAST ./A7-> /'RESENT. 

called with the utmost fidelity and conscientiousness. Mr. Perry married Mary E., daughter 
of John W. and Hannah W. Brooks of this city. 

Perry, Oliver H., son of David and Phebe Perry, and a descendant of Commodore Oli- 
ver Hazard Perry, was bom at Chatauqua, X. V. When about ten years of age his parents 
removed to Plattsburg, N. Y., where he was educated in the common schools and at Clinton 
Academy. He has been engaged in the real estate and insurance business for the past twelve 
years in West Somerville, with an office at Davis square and another at 31 Milk street, Bos- 
ton. He married Miss Harriet Gilmore of Hillsboro, N. H., and has a family of six sons and 
two daughters. Since 1890 he has been secretary and treasurer of the \Yest Somerville Co- 
operative Bank, of which he was the originator. The bank, which began with an issue of 
eight hundred and ten shares for its first series, has shown a constant growth from its in- 
ception, and now has assets of over $150,000. It has proved a great incentive to very many 
West Somerville residents, especially the young, to lay by a portion of their earnings, and a 
great help to a large number who have bought homes through its agency. 

Mr. Perry is well known in the city as an active and industrious man, and has a large 
clientele in his various lines of business. He built his first residence eight years ago at 373 
Elm street, on what was known as the old Powder House farm. Three years later the first 
house was moved away, and another and finer one was erected, in which he now resides. He 
has also built for others, and sold a large number of houses in that locality. The Nathan 
Tufts Park, lately constructed by the city, enclosing the old Powder House, makes this lo- 
cality one of the most desirable for residential purposes in Somerville. Mr. Perry is a mem- 
ber of the John Abbot Lodge, F. A. A. M., a charter member of Caleb Rand Lodge, I. ( >. 
O. F., a member of Golden Cross Commandery of West Somerville, and a member of the 
Park-avenue M. E. Church. 

Phillips, Franklin Folsom, son of James and Mary (Prescott) Phillips, was born in 
Searsmont, Me., December 21, 1852. He was educated at the town schools of Searsmont 
and Montville, at the Nichols Latin School, and at Bates College, Lewiston, Me., receiving 
the degree of A. M. on the completion of his studies. After graduating he taught in Bolton, 
Mass., and in Lisbon and Rockland, Me., being principal of the High School at the latter 
place five years. He was commissioned State Assayer of Maine in 1880 for a term of four 
years. Since 1883 he has been connected with the old and extensive chemical manufactur- 
ing house of Harrison Bros. <!<: Co., of Philadelphia and New York, his work being both tech- 
nical and commercial. He has served in the city government four years, 1890-1894, two 
years in the Common Council and two in the Board of Aldermen, and was a member of the 
committees on ordinances, sewers, fire department, public property and finance, serving on 
the latter committee the entire four years. Mr. Phillips is much engrossed with his business, 
but takes a deep interest in public matters. In politics he is a Republican, and as such was 
elected a member of the General Court in 1896. He resides at 211 Holland street. 

Pillsbury, Luther B., was born in Bridgewater, N. II. He worked on the farm in 
early life, and by his own efforts was fitted for college at the New Hampshire Institution, and 
graduated in the class of 1859 at Dartmouth College. He taught while yet a student, be- 
ginning his first school before his sixteenth birthday. After graduating he taught in Can- 
ton, in the Reading High School, the Hopkinton and Bridgewater High Schools, the Pres- 
cott Grammar and Charlestown High School. He had great influence with his pupils. A 
teacher, having an intimate acquaintance with Mr. Pillsbury 's methods, asserting that he 
'never saw a man who could keep such good order with so little apparent effort as he." 
Mr. Pillsbury was unanimously elected to the Common Council of Somerville, and in 1878 
was president of that body, receiving all the votes but his own and one other. He has for 
several years been engaged in the real estate and insurance business, and is located at 316 
Broadway. He resides at 45 Sargent avenue. Mr. Pillsbury has been twice married. His 



& 





FRANKLIN F. PHILLIPS. 



6lo SOMERVILLE, I'.LST AND PRESENT. 

first wife was Miss Mary A. Leathe of Reading, the author of " ( >ld Mill and other Poems"; 
and his second, Mrs. Mary A. Libby of Somerville. He has four children: Edwin ]-]., who 
is engaged in newspaper work; Ernest D., a practicing physician; May F., a teacher; and 
Harry N., the famous chess-player. 

Pitman, Henry W., was born in Boston, May 17, 1845, tne s " n f David F. and 
Caroline C. Pitman. He was educated in the Eliot and Latin High Schools of Boston. lie 
moved to Medford when thirteen years of age. After leaving school he engaged in various 
occupations, and entered journalism twenty-eight years ago. He has been connected with 
Boston dailies and weeklies in various capacities, from the lowest to the highest positions. 
For seventeen years he was connected with the "Somerville Journal,'' but is now engaged in 
general newspaper work. He is a member of several fraternal organizations, and is a thirty- 
second degree Mason. When the Somerville Eight Infantry was reorganized, largely through 
his efforts, he was elected first lieutenant, and was subsequently chosen captain. He was 
adjutant-general of the semi-centennial parade in Somerville in 1892, and has been identi- 
fied with many events in the city's history. Captain Pitman has always taken a lively 
interest in politics, and for sixteen years has been secretary of the Middlesex County Re- 
publican Committee. He married Miss Lottie A., daughter of Simeon and Mary Jenkins, 
at Medford, June 5, 1867. They have four children. 

Poole, George S., was born in Worcester, the youngest of a family of six children. 
His parents were Eliza (Wilder) and W 7 ard Poole, the latter a descendant of the seventh 
generation of John Poole, who came from Reading, England, and settled first in Cambridge 
(1632) and later at Reading (1639), where he was one of the leading proprietors. George 
S. Poole attended school at Worcester and at Peabody (formerly South Danvers), and while 
at the Peabody High School was assistant librarian of the Peabody Library. Before gradu- 
ating at the High School, he spent nearly two years with a brother, a mining engineer at 
Pottsville, Pa. Coming home, he went to the Phillips Academy at Andover. In 1861 he 
became the first librarian of the Charlestown Public Library, which position he held for 
two years, when he accepted a position of assistant librarian of the Library of Congress at 
Washington. In 1865 he resigned, having been appointed the secretary of the Warren 
Institution for Savings, which position he still holds. He has been the treasurer of the Win- 
throp Church, Charlestown, for over twenty years. He was on the School Board of Charles- 
town, and is at present one of the School Committee of Somerville, is also on the board 
of managers of the Winchester Home for Aged Women at Charlestown, the Congregational 
Church Union, and the City Missionary Society of Boston. He is auditor of the Boston 
Congregational Club, a member of the Boston Bank Officers' Association, Henry Price 
Lodge, F. A. A. M., Royal Arcanum, Corinthian Yacht Club of Marblehead, is the sec- 
retary of the Marblehead-Neck Hall Association, a member of the Alumni Association of 
Phillips Academy and the Bunker Hill Monument Association. He married, in 1871, Sarah 
Poor Osborne, the daughter of Franklin and Nancy Poor (Jacobs) of Peabody; and his 
children are Franklin Osborne (H. C., 1895), Edith Wilder, and Irving. 

Poor, Franklin N., was born in Goffstown, N. H., January 23, 1821. He remained at 
home, engaged with his father, the Hon. Noyes Poor, in the lumber business, until he reached 
the age of twenty-seven, when he accepted the position of treasurer of the Manchester and 
North W r eare Railroad Company. Since that time his interest has centered mainly in rail- 
roads. He came to Boston in 1852, ami was a prominent director in the Vermont and 
Massachusetts and Fitchburg Railroad Companies for many years. In 1864 he became 
treasurer of the Vermont and Massachusetts Railroad Company, the position he still holds, 
serving meantime as trustee of estates, etc. He removed to Somerville in 1871, and resides 
at 30 Chester street. He was a member of the Board of Aldermen in 1874, is a justice of the 
peace, and is one of our well-known and most respected citizens. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST \ND PRESENT. 6ll 



Pope, Charles G., was born in Ilardwick, Ma^.. V.xemher IS, iS.}o, the M>II of K<-\. 
Rufus S. and Sarah (lin>v, ! Pope, of iliat town. He was educated in the district -..Imolof 
Ilyannis, whither his parents had removed in his boyh ..... I, u a^ lilted for college at the I'ii.-rce 
Academy, Middleboro, and was graduated at 'I'ufts ('..liege in iM,i. He taught - dio.il at 
Hyannis till 1864, when he became ma-ter of th<- I rstei < Irammar >cho,,l in SoniL-rville. 
In 1870 he became master <if the Hunker Ilill Grammar School. ' >\\n. Mr. Pope 

studied law with Sweetzer & Gardner and |hn \\ . Hammond, and was admitted to the bar 
in 1874, when he formed a partnership \\ith Mr. Hammond for t' .flaw in llo.^toii. 

In 1878 he was appointed a special justice of the Soincrville police court. Mr. I'ope came 
to Somerville in 1864, and served in the ( '..ninnm < oum ils of iS;j and I S; ;. being President 
of the Council the latter year. In 187(1 and 1877 he represented the city in the Legislature, 
and was Mayor in 1889, 1890 and 1891. lie was a trustee of the Public Library seven years. 
lie was also a trustee of Tufts College. Mr. Pope married Miss I .- [.hine II., daughter of 
Krastus E. and Harriet N. Cole, of this city. During Mr. Pope's last year of office as May..i. 
the Charles G. Pope School on Washington street was completed and named in his honor. 

Pratt, Josiah N., was born in Freeport, Me., March 14. iN.v'v He attended the 
public schools of that towji, and at the age of eighteen apprenticed himself to learn the 
mason's trade. He worked at that occupation in Portland, Me., three years, being employed 
on Fort Gorges, Portland Harbor, as a skilled mechanic. He enlisted in the Unite. I States 
Navy, and was sent to the Gulf Squadron which was stationed at Mobile I'.ay; his term <>t 
service expired September I, 1865. After the great lire in Portland in 1886, Mr. Pratt was 
in charge of the construction of some of the most prominent buildings in the city. In 1868 
he moved to Lawrence, Mass., where he carried on the business of builder. About 1882 
he entered the employ of the Jarvis Engineering Co. as mechanical superintendent; after a 
short service in that position he was given the agency of the company for Maine, V-\\ 
Hampshire and the lower maritime provinces. lie was subsequently transferred to the 
agency for the Middle States, with his office in New York ( 'ity ; and was finally, in 1887, ap- 
pointed treasurer and general manager of the parent company, with office at 61 Oliver street, 
Boston, which position he still holds. Mr. Pratt has served our city in the Common Coun- 
cil, and was elected a member of the Hoard of Aldermen from Ward I in 189^ and 1896. 
He is a member of Uethany Coinmandery, K. T., Royal Arch Chapter, Soley Lodge, 
!'. A. A. M., Knights of Honor, and the Grand Army of the Republic. He resides at ;; 
Franklin street. 

Prichard, John P., is the son of A. P. and Mary J. I'richard. and was born in Charles- 
town, educated at old Training Field and other schools, and had a boyhood which fitted him 
to meet life in any phase that might come to him. He was a conductor and then road 
master of the old Middlesex Horse Railroad for many years. During Mayor Helknap's term 
of service he was elected Superintendent of Streets, and his ability showed itself in every 
possible way. After going to Everett for one year to fill the same position, he then left to 
go to Quincy as its Street Superintendent. After two years the town changed to a city, and 
Mr. Prichard was elected the first Commissioner of Public Works. He planned ami caused 
to be built under his immediate supervision the Ncponsct l!ridge, and proved his ability t" 
build bridges with the same skill in which he had built the road-, in this city and eWwheie. 
When the new city of Medford needed a Superintendent o! Streets, Mayor Lawrence wisely 
appointed Mr. Prichard to the position, and lie put into his work the same earnestness, 
efficiency and honesty that had always characterized his efforts. He won the respect and 
admiration of the City Council and the citi/ens, and was gaining friends when, in Januai\, 
1896, he was called back to Somerville, to again serve In i as he had so ably done in t In- 
many years he was here. The streets, at once, put on a new look, and much new work and 
many improvements are now on the \\ay. 




JOHN P. PRICHARD. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 613 

That Mr. Prichard is an adept in his line has been many tim- - < -.'-mpliiied. He has 
made addresses, written much, and on one occasion, among twenty-one competitors for the 
Engineering Record'' pri/e. he was the leader. It is needless to re, ite further of his quali- 
fications. Ilis tact to manage men, his knowledge and dexterity are all known by the 
results he has achieved. Mr. Prichard married early in life, and has two sons, ( leorge W. 
and Charles E., and a daughter, Mrs. Emma Prichard Iladley. the reader wife of Walter \I. 
Hadley. His great-grandfather on his mother's side was a participant in throwing the tea 
into Boston Harbor, living at ('harlestown at the time. When Chaih-siown was burned, this 
ancestor went to Maiden, but returned, roofed the cellar over, and for a long time he and 
his family lived therein. Mr. Prichard is a veteran fireman, a Knight Templar, Knight of 
Honor, Companion in the Royal Arcanum, a member of the Training Field Si hool Associa- 
tion, and a Universal!*!. 

Proctor, George 0., was born in Kockingham, Yt.. February 25, 1847, and is a 
descendant of the well-known Proctor family of that State. Ilis early life was passed on the 
farm, and his education was obtained in the schools of his native town and in the Chester. 
Yt., Academy. He followed the occupation of farming and lumbering until 1874, when he 
came to Boston and formed a copartnership with his brother in the grain imsin.ss, under 
the firm name of Proctor Brothers. They located at the corner of Charles and Leverett 
streets, at the end of Craigie Bridge, where they conducted a successful business, until the 
construction of the Charles River Park compelled them to seek a new location; this they 
found at the Cambridge end of the bridge, where they now remain, theirs being one of the 
largest establishments in the hay and grain trade in the vicinity of Boston. Mr. Proctor 
was married in 1869 to Lillie A., daughter of Captain Thomas R. < lark of Chester, Yt., 
who served through the War of the Rebellion in Company E, Sixth Regiment. In i8So he 
purchased the estate on which he still resides, at 44 Spring street, Spring Hill, lie was 
elected to the Common Council in 1887 and 1888, and served as president of that body in 
the latter year, and as a member of the School Committee. lie was elected a member of 
the Legislature in 1892, and served on the committee on street railways, and was re-elected 
in 1893, and was placed on the committee on cities. Mr. Proctor is a director of the 
Somerville National Bank, and is a member of the Boston Chamber of Commerce, Somer- 
ville Central Club, Soley Lodge, E. A. A. M., Winter Hill Commandery, Golden Cross, 
Washington Council, Home Circle, l>elft Haven Colony of Pilgrim Fathers, and the First 
Unitarian Church. 

Ralph, Mrs. Harriet A., was born in Camden N. |., March 20, 1851. and is a 
daughter of the late loseph P. and Hannah I-",. Myers. She was educated in the public and 
private schools of Boston, where her parents resided for many years. In 1874 she married 
William N. Ralph, and has lived in Somerville twenty-two years. She has been prominent 
in church work, and also in the woman's branch of < Kid Fellowship, her husband being one 
of the leading < Kid fellows in Massai husetts. She has been treasurer of Ivaloo Lodge, 
Daughters of Rebekah, and higher ohiees in its gift have been tendered her. It is, how- 
ever, in societies founded on patriotic work that Mrs. Ralph is best known. The late 
Brigadier-General William W. Bullock was her uncle, and her father was a lieutenant in 
Company (', Eleventh Massachusetts Regiment. She was a member of the Ladies' Aid 
Society, formed in 1871 as an auxiliary to |os, ph Hooker Post of Last Boston, she is a 
charter member of Willard C. Kinsley Relief < orps of Somerville. and has served as presi- 
dent and secretary. She has been prominent in state conventions, and in iSSo she was 
elected department treasurer. After serving with great efficiency lor three years, sin- 
declined a re-election, on account of illness, but serv. 1 is a member ol the Department 
Executive Board two successive years, she was prominent in the arrangements for national 
encampment week in Boston in |S<M>. and a member ot the Executive and othei \\ . R. C. 



6 14 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

Committees. She was a delegate-at-large to this convention, and as chairman of the 
Finance Committee had charge of several thousand dollars contributed to the encampment 
fund by the corps. Mrs. Ralph has been department junior vice-president, department 
press correspondent, and in 1893 and 1894 was department chaplain. Owing to illness in 
her home she declined to be a candidate for the office of department president. Mrs. Ralph 
has also been active in the Ladies' Aid Association of the Soldiers' Home in Massachusetts, 
serving on the committee that drafted its constitution, and as corresponding secretary of 
the association for three years. Upon declining a re-election in 1886, a valuable silver 
service was presented her, accompanied by an engrossed testimonial expressing the regard 
of the members and their appreciation of her efficient services. In public and private life 
Mrs. Ralph has the esteem of all her associates. 

Ralph, William H., was born in Kingston, Ont., June 12, 1849; soon after his birth 
his parents moved to Cambridge, Mass., and he was educated in the schools of that city. In 
1868 he entered the employ of Messrs. Andrews and Stevens, provision dealers, 47 Brom- 
field street, Boston, remaining with that firm until 1880, when he formed a copartnership 
with F. M. Reed, and located at 53 Charles street, Boston. In February, 1896, the firm 
dissolved, and Mr. Ralph entered the firm of J. \V. Smith & Co., at 17 Faneuil Hall square, 
Boston. In May, 1874, he married Miss Harriet A. Myers, only daughter of Lieutenant 
Joseph P. Myers, a veteran of the Civil War, and in September of the same year he became 
a resident of Somerville, and immediately identified himself with its social and public 
interests. In 1881 he united with Oasis Lodge, I. O. O. F., and has served in many of the 
offices, and for several years was active in committee work ; as past grand of Oasis Lodge 
he entered the Grand Lodge of Massachusetts, and has served that body on prominent 
committees. He is also past chief patriarch of Somerville Encampment, I. O. O. F. ; and in 
February, 1895, was elected grand junior warden of the Grand Encampment of Massa- 
chusetts, serving one year, but owing to change of business was obliged to decline further 
advancement; he has served as district deputy grand patriarch, the district comprising 
Waltham and Stoneham. 

When the military branch of Odd Fellowship was organized, he entered heartily into 
its plans; in 1886 was elected commandant of Canton Washington, serving three years; 
while holding this office he organized a drill corps; in 1888 they entered the international 
competitive drill, which took place in Cincinnati, O., this corps winning three prizes; for 
several years the corps was well known throughout the State for its efficiency in display 
drill, giving many exhibitions. On retiring from the office of commandant, he was elected 
colonel of the Second Regiment, Patriarchs Militant, holding the commission two years. In 
the semi-centennial procession in 1892 Mr. Ralph commanded the fourth division, which 
comprised the Masonic and Odd Fellow organizations of this city. He is also past grand 
of Ivaloo Lodge No. 7, D. of R.; past regent, Excelsior Council No. 3, Royal Arcanum; 
and a member of John Abbot Lodge, A. F. and A. M., and of Winter Hill Lodge No. 18, 
A. O. U. W. 

Raymond, Francis H., was born in Charlestown, February 19, 1836, the son of 
Francis L. and Abigail (Fosdick) Raymond. He attended the public schools of the town, 
and after leaving the high school entered the employ of J. B. Hanson, in the wholesale 
grocery business in Boston. lie was afterwards with Robinson & Holbrook, and in 1865 the 
firm of Robinson, Nourse & Raymond was formed. F. H. Raymond & Co. were its successors. 
In 1876 Mr. Raymond left the grocery business and became treasurer of the American Arms 
Company, in which he was interested. Two years later he was chosen treasurer of the Cam- 
bridge Electric Light Company, which position he now holds. He has been a director of the 
Market National Bank for the past twenty-two years. Mr. Raymond was a trustee of the 
Public Library in 1876, 1877 and 1878. In 1887 he was elected to represent Ward 2 in the 




Residence of LYMAN B. RICH, jxi Medford Street. 




WILFRED B. RICH. 



SOMl-:Kl'lLI.l:, PAST AND PRESENT. 617 



House of Representatives, where he served three years, i sss, iSS<i ami iS<)u. lie 
Senator in 1891 and 1892, and a member of the Governor's Council \\\ iSo^ ami iS<)i>. Mr. 
Raymond married Martha L., daughter of Samuel T. and Sarah (Hobbs Fro>t, of Nmier- 
ville. They reside on Laurel street. 

Raymond, Marcus M., was born in Boxboro, Mass., February I, 1841, son of Nathan 
and Hannah ( Hapgood) Raymond. He received his education in the s> h<-"U ot r,<,\l,i,r<>, 
Princeton and Lowell, and after leaving school worked five years on the farm; lie then 
learned the machinist's trade at Lowell, and worked at it six years. 1 It- subsequently came 
to Boston, and embarked in the milk business, in which he was engaged about thirty years. 
After a residence of six years in Charlestuwn he came to Somerville in 1.^7.;. ited on 

Jaques street, in the house which he now occupies. Mr. Raymond is a member of Winter 
Hill Lodge, Knights of Honor, and represents Ward 3 in the City ( 'ouncil. 

Reed, Nathan H., son of Nathan O. and Nancy (Bacon) Reed, was born in lie Ifonl. 
Mass., May 25, 1848. He finished his education at Lawrence Academy, Groton, and came 
to Somerville twenty-seven years ago. He has served the city as Councilman, Alderman, 
Overseer of the Poor, and is now one of the principal assessors. Mr. Reed has been for 
seven years chairman of the standing committee of the First Unitarian Church, and has 
been treasurer of the Associated Charities of Somerville since its organization. 1 le was en- 
gaged in the provision business for many years, later in real estate, and at the present time 
at the foundry on Washington street, and has now many interests in real estate in Somerville 
and elsewhere. Mr. Reed is a member of Soley Lodge, A. . and A. M., Oasis Lodge. 

I. O. O. F., and Washington Council, Home Circle. He married Clara B. Parker of Billerica, 
and they have two children, Nathan Parker and Mary Baldwin. He resides in a handsome 
residence, erected by him during the past year at 35 Pearl street. 

Rich, Lyman B., was born at Truro, Mass., in 1834, the son of Zephaniah and Betsey 
(Bangs) Rich. I le was educated in the public schools and in the academy, of which Joshua 

II. Davis, former superintendent of Somerville schools, was principal. He married Mary 
I. lien Mayo, daughter of Captain Nehemiah and Eunice B. (Stone) Mayo, and has one child. 
He, like many others of the sons of Cape Cod, began to "follow the sea " when quite young. 
and at the early age of eighteen he became a captain. His voyages, which have been many 
and to various ports, terminated with a trip to the Mediterranean and to South America, on 
which voyage he was accompanied by his family. Since retiring from life on the ocean, in 
1878, he has been engaged in the ship brokerage business and steamboat agency, and is a 
member of the firm of Atwood & Rich, 83 Commercial Wharf, Boston. Captain Rich re- 
moved from Provincetown to Somerville in 1878. He is a member of King Hiram Lodge. 
F. A. A. M.. and Joseph Warren Chapter of Provincetown; is also a member of the l'..ton 
Marine Society. He resides at 381 Medford street. 

Rich, Wilfred Babson, the son of Ransom and 1'. Laurette (Chase) Rich, was !>orn 
in Jackson, Me., April 21, 1855. His ancestors were, on both sides, among the earliest 
pioneers of the State. In his infancy his parents moved to Bangor, Me., and in his seven- 
teenth year to Brooks, in the same State. At this time he had completed the studies then 
taught in the public schools, but was not satisfied with this, and during the next live years, 
depending almost wholly on his own efforts, by teaching school during the winter iu.>nth>. 
he obtained a liberal education, attending the state college at Orono and the Maine ( 'entral 
Institute at 1'ittslield, Me. In 1877 he entered the law office of Hon. A. W. Paine at Bangor, 
where he chiefly acquired his legal education, and was admitted to the IVnobsi-ot l>.irin is s i>. 
1 le at once entered into the active practice of his profession, and the same nducied 

the defense in the well-known Meservey-Dunton trial, receiving e-peeial notke (rum the pi -- 
While a student he had taken nuieh interest in politic, making mipaign S] 

lie became chairman of the Republican toun committee, anil in iSSj, with Mr. Simnntmi. 



6l8 SOMERl'/LLE, PAST AND I'RESEbT. 

obtained control of the ' Camden Herald,'' of which he was assistant editor for three years. 
The same year he was appointed Postmaster by President Arthur, which office he held until 
near the expiration of his term of four years, when he resigned, after the inauguration of 
President Cleveland. The same year, 1885, he moved to Boston, since which time he has 
been engaged in the practice of law, in which he has been very successful. He has had the 
settlement of several large estates. He came to Somerville in 1886, but took no part in 
politics for several years, when he became a member of the ward and city committee, and was 
elected a member of the Common Council from Ward I for the years 1893 and 1894, and 
was a member of the Board of Aldermen the following year. He has been treasurer of the 
Webcowit Club, a member and ex-president of the Owl Club, and past leader of Harvard 
Council No. 51, Home Circle. His residence is at 13 Franklin street. 

Robinson, Enoch, was born in Boston in 1801. At seven years of age he \\as 
at work with his father, and his early habits of industry, thus acquired, never deserted 
him. When he was a young man he engaged in business with his brothers in Boston, in the 
manufacture of ship trimmings and the ship-steering apparatus used fifty years ago. He 
subsequently went into the hardware business, making door-knobs and locks, and was located 
on Brattle street for many years. In 1847 ne moved from Boston to Somerville, locating on 
Spring Hill, which was then nothing but a pasture, and in 1856 he erected the celebrated 
'round house,'" which is illustrated in this volume. The house is perfectly circular in form, 
and is probably the only building of its kind used as a residence in this portion of the country. 
It is three stories high, the upper story being smaller in diameter than the two below it, 
leaving a balcony above the second story. The interior arrangements of the house are in 
keeping with its novel form. On one side of the front hall is the library, a circular room with 
one window. In its center is a small circular table, and in the walls are alcoves for books. 
On the other side of the hall is the parlor, oval in shape, lighted by two windows, and having 
an oval table in the center. The front hall leads to a circular entry-way in the center of the 
house, from which opens the dining-room and the kitchen. From the central entry-way of 
the first story a stairway leads to a similar entry in the second story, the stairs following the 
circular walls of the house. From the upper entry open five chambers, with radiating parti- 
tion walls. On the third floor is a circular balcony, which commands a view of the entries 
below, while above is a glass dome, which lights them all. Mr. Robinson was a charter 
member of the East Cambridge Lodge of Odd Fellows, and John Abbot Lodge of Masons, of 
this city. He died in February, 1888. 

Rowell, Cromwell Gibbs, son of Aaron and Ruth (Brown) Rowell, was born at Cor- 
inth, Vt., August 29, 1827. His education was obtained at the district school and at the 
academy at Framingham, Mass., to which town his parents had removed in his childhood. 
His first employment on leaving home was obtained on the sea, and he followed the calling 
nearly seven years; he then united with his father in the stove business at Framingham. !n 
1854 he entered the police force of the city of Boston, and remained a member thereof until 
the opening of the Civil War. He was instrumental in raising the Ninth Regiment, Massa- 
chusetts Volunteers, in which he was captain of Company D, and afterwards appointed 
lieutenant-colonel. Subsequently he raised a company which was attached to the Thirtieth 
Regiment. At the close of the war he re-embarked in the stove business, in which he has 
remained, and he now occupies a position with the Smith & Anthony Stove Company. In 
1867 Col. Rowell was a member of the Legislature from Boston. I le came to Somerville in 
1869, was a member of the Common Council in 1873, of the Board of Aldermen in 1874 and 
1875, of the Water Board, of which he was president, in 1877 and iSSS, and has been presi- 
dent of the Board of Registrars of Voters since 1886. He is a member of John Abbot Lodge, 
F. A. A. M., Somerville Chapter, R. A. M., Orient Council, R. and S. M., Ca-ur de Lion 
Commandery, K. T., Excelsior Council, Royal Arcanum, and Mount Benedict Lodge, K. II. 



SOMERl'II.1.1-:, PAST AND PRESENT. 6ig 

('nl. Kowell has been twice married : his first wife was Miss Harriet Maynard, daught 
Lawson and Nancy (Angell) Maynanl of Framingham; and hU second \\ife was Miss Lottie 
A. l.arkin, daughter of Henry and Annie Larkin, of Concord. X. II. They reside "ii Pearl 
street. 

Russell, Irving L., was born in Somerville, on the estate on which he n\\ resides. 
May 24, 1852, son of Lev! and Martha (Smith) Russell. He was educated in the publii- 
schools of this city, and in the Warren Academy of Woburn, and Eaton's Commercial ' 
lege of Boston. lie is a market gardener by occupation, cultivating about forty acres, his 
farm being the largest plant of the kind in Somerville. Mr. Russell served two years, in 
1882 and 1883, in the Common Council; three years, 1884, 1885 and 1886, in the Hoard of 
Aldermen, being president of that body in the last year of his service; was chairman of tin- 
committees on highways, and fuel and street lights. lie was a member of the 1 louse of 
Representatives in 1888 and 1889, and was on the committees on labor, woman suffrage 
and water supply. Mr. Russell married Miss Addie Johns, daughter of Cyrus and Margaret 
(Ivelton) Johns of New York City. They reside at 1323 Broadway. 

Russ, George Herman, was born in Belfast, Me., March 17, 1863, the son of Captain 
fames A. and Laura A. (\Veymouth) Russ, and a direct descendant in the tenth generation 
of Henry Russ, who came from Hingham, England, and settled at Hingham, Mass., about 
10 ; ;. He attended the public schools at Belfast, and came to Boston in 1878. He attended 
the Grammar and Latin Schools of Boston, and then went into the law office of Edwin < . 
(lilman. About a year afterward he began the law course at Boston University, and was ad- 
mitted to the Suffolk bar in June, 1886. Shortly afterward he accepted a position as assist- 
ant attorney for the Lamson Store Service Co., which he retained for nearly three years. 1 Ie 
then opened an office at 1 13 Devonshire street, Boston, and devoted himself to general prac- 
tice, and with gratifying results. Mr. Russ came to Somerville in 1888. He married, in 
December, 1882, Miss I, ilia E. I loughton of Boston; they have three sons, and reside at 28 
Montrose street. Mr. Russ served the city as a member of the Common Council in iSuj 
and 1893. He is a member of the Central Club, Sons of Maine, Paul Revere Lodge, I. < >. 
< ). E., and other social organizations, and has been chief patriarch of Winter Hill Encamp- 
ment, and is a past master workman of Winter Hill Lodge, A. O. U. W. 

Rymes, Christopher E., \\as born in Portsmouth, X. II. , September 23. 1X27. Ik- 
came to Boston in March, 1844,10 learn the machinist's trade, entering the employ of Tuttle 
& Dow. In 1850 he was employed as foreman in the machine shops of Hittenger, Cook \ 
Co., and was admitted to the firm in 1855. In 1866 the firm name was changed to t 
Rymes & Co. This partnership continued until April, 1887, when it was dissolved, and all 
the partners retired from the business. In October, 1864, Mr. Rymes bought the estat 
Summer street, Spring Hill, where he has since lived. He was a member of the original 
committee authorized by the town to contract with the city of Charlestown for the supply of 
water. He was a member of the first Water Board, and for several years its president. In 
1889 he superintended the introduction of the high-water service in Somerville. He >ervcd 
in the first Common Council, and the following year in the Board of Aldermen. He has been 
a member of the board of trustees of the Public Library for years, and was also one of the 
trustees of the sinking fund. In 1875 he was elected to the Massachusetts Senate. Mr. 
Rymes is a life member of the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association, a member 
of John Abbot Lodge, Somerville Chapter, and Boston Commandery of Knights Templar. 
He was the first president of the Central Club, serving for live years. Mr. K\mi> married 
Almira I.., daughter of the late Dr. Joseph Cheever. 

Sanborn, Alexander A., was born in Tuftonborough, X. II.. I el>mar\ i ;. i\;.v He 
was educated in the schools of that town. Coming to Boston in 1849, he entered tli 
vice of the New England Steam and < ia- Pipe < 'oni|>anv, 01 t 'harlr-tov.ii street. About 



620 SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

1876 he established business for himself in Sudbury street, and in iSSi located at 16 and 18 
Post-Office square, where he is still engaged in the heating and ventilating business. On Oc- 
tober 10, 1856, he was married to Miss Abby H. Beedy of Phillips, Me. They have one son, 
Charles H. Sanborn, who is associated with his father in business. Mr. Sanborn is a mem- 
ber of Somerville Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, Orient Council, Somerville, and Cceur de 
Lion Commandery of Charlestown. 

Sanborn, Caleb Leavitt, son of Jefferson and Martha A. Sanborn, was born in Tuf- 
tonborough,N. H., January 12, 1843. He received his education in the schools of his native 
town, and in Meredith, N. H. At the age of eighteen he came to Boston and learned the 
steam-fitter's trade, and subsequently was with Fuller and Ford in Chicago as foreman two 
years. After returning to Boston, he accepted a position with Braman, Dow & Co., 3 and 4 
Haymarket square, which he still holds. He married Elizabeth A. Favor of Manchester, N. 
H., November 21, 1874; they moved to Somerville, February 21, 1875, and at present reside 
at 21 Willow avenue. They have one child, a daughter, and lost an infant son. Mr. San- 
born is a member of National Lodge, F. A. A. M., of Chicago, 111.-, the Howard Lodge, 
I. O. O. F., of Charlestown, Mass., Brookline Lodge, K. of II., and several benefit organiza- 
tions. He comes of good old Puritan stock, being a direct descendant of John Sanborn, who 
was born in the hamlet of Sanborn, Warwickshire, Eng., and who was among the earlier 
colonists who landed in this country about 1620, and settled in Hampton, N. H. 

Sanborn, Charles B., was born in New Hampshire, where his youth was passed and 
education obtained. He came to Boston in 1866, and engaged in the produce business, in 
which he still continues, having been located at 29 North Market street for nearly twenty 
years; he carries on a general commission business, making a specialty of the poultry trade. 
He was a member of the City Council in 1888 and 1889, and served on the Board of Alder- 
men in 1890, 1891 and 1893. ^ r - Sanborn came to Somerville early in the seventies, and 
lived in Ward I over twenty years, moving to his residence at 26 Adams street about two 
years ago. He is a member of the Fruit and Produce Exchange, and the Chamber of Com- 
merce, both of Boston, and a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M., Somerville Chapter, R. 
A. M., and De Molay Commandery, K. T. 

Sanborn, Daniel W., General Superintendent of the Boston & Maine Railroad System, 
is a native of Wakefield, Carroll County, N. H. He was educated in the public schools of 
his native town, and at Wakefield Academy. Upon leaving school he served an apprentice- 
ship at ship-building, and worked at the trade for several years. In May, 1859, he entered 
the service of the Portland, Saco & Portsmouth Railroad Company, at Portsmouth, N. H., 
where he remained until August, 1863. He was next employed as a brakeman on a passen- 
ger train, and, in 1864, was promoted to the position of conductor, in which capacity he 
acted until 1879. In the latter year he was appointed Master of Transportation of the Eastern 
Railroad, with headquarters in Boston, which position he filled until the Eastern was leased 
to the Boston & Maine, when he was made Superintendent of the Eastern Division (the old 
Eastern Railroad), holding this office until July, 1890. Having acquitted himself with great 
credit in this position, he was, in 1890, appointed Superintendent of the Southern Division 
(the old Boston & Lowell), which had been leased by the Boston & Maine. Soon after the 
death of James T. Furber, General Manager, the position of general superintendent of the 
system was created, and Mr. Sanborn, in February, 1892, was invited by the directors to 
accept it. Mr. Sanborn is a member of New Hampshire Lodge, I. O. O. F., and of Straw- 
berry Bank Encampment of Portsmouth, N. H., Soley Lodge, F. A. A.M., Somerville Royal 
Arch Chapter, and Orient Council of Somerville ; also is a member of De Molay Commandery 
of Knights Templar, Boston. In 1856 he was married to Miss Lucy Maria Lydston, of Eliot, 
Me., who, with a son, Fred E., and daughter, Mrs. J. M. French, constitute his family. Mr. 
Sanborn enjoys a wide acquaintance among railroad and business men throughout New 
England. 



SOMERl'll.l.l-:, PAST AND PRESENT. 621 

Sanborn, David A., was born in Sandwich, X. II., February 14. 1795, the s., n of 
Robert and Mary Glines Sanborn. lie came to Kuxbury win -\\ eighteen years of age, walk- 
ing the entire distance from Sandwich. He worked at farming a feu years, then came to 
Somerville and carried on the milk business, and later was engaged in the manufacture "I 
bricks on Prospect street, near the railroad bridge. He married Hannah Ad. mi- st.>r.e, tin- 
daughter of John and Mary (Tufts) Stone, September 30, 1821. by \\liom he had live children. 
lie built a house on Washington street, near I'liion square, about se\enty years ago, wh< 
he lived and died. He held several town offices, and was in the \Var of iNu. Il- died 
February 19, 1875. 

Sanborn, David A., was born April 21, 1828, the son of David A. and Hannah Adams 
(Stone) Sanborn, at the family residence on Washington street, Soinerville (then Charles- 
town). His father came from Sandwich, N. 1L, at an early age, and, establishing himself in 
Somerville, was associated with the early growth of the town. David A., Jr., was educated 
in the public schools of Somerville, and has always lived very near the spot where he was 
born. At the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to learn the carpenter's trade, which voi 
tion he followed for many years, assisting in the building of many of the residences and 
public buildings of the city. In early life he was connected with the old volunteer fire 
department, in the times of hand engines, and, later, was on the Board <>t Engineers, from 
1865 to 1872 being chief engineer. Mr. Sanborn is now president of the Veteran Fire- 
men's Association, and treasurer of the Firemen's Relief Fund. He served two years each 
in charge of the sewer department, as overseer of the poor, and as assessor. He was also 
elected to the Common Council in 1876. Mr. Sanborn is a charter member of Oasis Lodge 
I. O. O. F., and Somerville Encampment, and has for many years been on the board <>f trustees 
of both organizations. He is also a member of Soley Lodge, F. A. A. M. 1 1 is business now 
is in real estate, and in the care of property. 

Sanborn, Dr. Edwin A., the son of Aaron and Amanda M. (Currier) Sanborn, and 
grandson of Abraham Sanborn, was born August 28, 1849, at Graft on, X. II. His father 
died at the early age of twenty-six years, leaving him, then about two years of age, and his 
widowed mother, with rather limited resources. He was therefore early in life obliged t" 
learn the lesson of self reliance. In accordance with his strong inclinations, he, when about 
fourteen years of age, determined to become a physician and surgeon, and spared no 
efforts to accomplish that result, and in this he succeeded by his own efforts without any 
financial assistance or favors from any one. After passing through the common schools. 
he attended a private school for several terms, after which he continued his studies under 
tutors, latterly with the special object of preparing himself thoroughly for the study of medi- 
cine. In 1872 he began the study of medicine at the McLean Asylum in Somerville, 
under the direction of Dr. I-'. A. Slillings. He subsequently pursued hi- studies at the 
Medical Department .if llowdoin College, Brunswick, Me., and also at the Dartiii.nith Medi- 
cal College, Hanover, X. II., and \\ as graduated from Dartmouth, November ;. 1*75, being 
awarded the first pri/e of twenty-live dollars for passing the best examination of the graduat- 
ing class in every department of study. In 1876 he offered a like pri/.e to be awarded 
the student who should pass a similar examination at that institution. I >r. Sanborn practiced 
medicine during the winter of 1875-1876 with his uncle Dr. D. M. Currier .if Newport, V II.. 
and located in Somerville in the spring of 1876, where he has remained in the successful 
practice of his profession ever since. He is a member of the Middlesex South District 
Medical Society, the Massachusetts Medical Society, the Aincri.an Moli.al Association, and 
the Alumni Association <>i Dartmouth Medical College. He is a medical examiner for the 
Berkshire Life Insurance < omp.iny and various other insurance organi/.uions. lie \\a- 
married, June I, 1876, to Miss Harriet I., llosmer of Somerville. but a native ot Weld. Me. 
He is not a club man, but is devoted to his profession and his home, delighting to spend his 




FRANK S. SANBORN. 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 623 

spare time or evenings in reading, or in social intercourse with liis fi lends. His i e is 

at 24 Franklin street. 

Sanborn, Frank S., was horn at Bristol, X. II., Augu-' jS, is; ;. son "f >herburn S. 
and Xancy (Fellows) Sanborn. 1 le was r<lii< at.-d in the puldi - of Bristol, and n 

leaving school he found employment in tin- Bristol Hosier) Mill, when- In- remained a short 
time and then entered the service of the Xorthcrn Railroad < 'oinpany. 1 n 1^75 he came to 
Boston, where he was employed live years by Joseph Cioodnou. a lumber dealer, and in i x 
he returned to the railroad service, working for the XV\v \ \l. >\ New I inland Railroad 
Company at Norwich, Conn. In iSSi he found a position in th.- m ..I the 

Fitchburg Railroad ('ompany, was appoint. -.1 fon man of freight \\.Jik in iSSj. and ion-man 
of freight and passenger work in iSS^. In iSo.i lie was |>r<>ni"t<'d to the positii>n ol gen- 
eral foreman and master wreeker "t tin- l''itchi)urg I tivision of the road, which position he 
still holds. Me married Miss Kila |. Su allow of IVlerboru, X. II.. in 1876, ami their r - 
dence is at 22 Bonner avenue. Mr. Sanborn is a member <>t Bunker Ilill Lodge. 1. < >. ' >. 1 .. 
of Charlestown, took Masonic degrees in Henry Price Lodge, Charleslown, was maile a Red 
Man in Hiawatha Tribe, Medlord. and is a member of I )e Soto Lodge, l\. f P.. Boston, the 
Railroad Relief Society and the Xew England Railroad Club. 

Sanborn, James S., was born in Wales, Me., March 2<i, 18;:;, the son of Henry and 
Ann (Daly) Sanborn. His youth uas spent in Wales, Monmouth and Xashua, X. H., and 
he received the education of the district schools of that time. In 1856 he married Harriet 
X. Small, daughter of Captain John and Sarah (Moody) Small of Auburn, Me. They have 
four children; the two sons are connected with their father in business. I !e began busin> 5S 
by traveling and selling garden-seeds for A. II. Dunlap, Nashua, X. II.. and for several 
years he was a commercial traveler. His first venture for himself was in l.ewiston. Me., 
where he went into the coffee and spice business. In 1868 he became connected with 
Dwinell, Hayward & Co., of Boston, and in 1872 moved with his family to Nnner\ille. 
where he has since resided, except for live years, 1880-1885, when he lived in P.oston. Tin- 
present firm of Chase & Sanborn was formed in 1878, and the greatest success has at- 
tended them. Besides the coffee business, to which Mr. Sanborn has given his best effort, 
he has within a few years given much attention to the French Coach Horse, at his summer 
home, Poland, Me., where he has a large establishment. Mr. Sanborn has traveled exten- 
sively in the United States, Canada, West Indies, Central America, Mexico and the countries 
of the Mediterranean. He is pre-eminently a self-made man, and his energy and persever- 
ance have been largely the cause of the success that attends all his undertakings. 

Sanborn, William A., uas born on Prospect street, the son of Joseph P. and Mercy 
1\. Sanborn, May tj, 1852. lie attended the Prescott, and afterwards the High School, trmn 
which he graduated in 1871, and then went to work at brickmaking for his father, for 
whom he worked two years, at the end of which time he went into business for himself. 
d'wo years later he took John W. Hatch into the concern, and for liiteen years the lirm 
was composed of these gentlemen. Mr. Sanborn now carries on alone the manulacture ol 
brick, his yards, which an- extensive, being locate.! on Mystic avenue and in Lxctcr. V II. 
He has recently bought a large tract of land at Kpping. N. II.. \\hich will also be opened 
for brickmaking. Mr. Sanborn married (lertrude W. Braley of Chailotown, and they have 
two girls and a boy. lie is a member of Soley Lodge of Mason-, Paul Revere l.odge. and 
Somerville Encampment of Odd l-Vll<>\\s, Monument Council. Royal Arcanum, the Massachu- 
setts Builders' Association and other trade organizations. He is also one ot the foun lers ol 
the Winter Hill I niversalist t hurch. 

Sargent, Aaron, \\ as born in Charlestown, October 29, iSjj. the son ot \ai.m and 
Sarah (Nichols) Sargent ol that city. His education was obtained in the public schools 
Charlestown. He came to s,. m erville in i.s.jo. i ending in 1 .1-1 s, , mr i \ ille until iSoo, when 



624 SOMERl'ILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 

he removed to Winter Hill, lit- served on the school committee of the town from 1858 to 
1862, on the auditing committee from 1860 to 1862 and from 1868 to 1871, on the finance 
committee from 1868 to 1871, and on the water board from 1858 to 1871. On the incorpo- 
ration of the city government, Mr. Sargent was elected city treasurer, and continued in the 
office by successive elections till iS8i, when he resigned. He served as a commissioner of 
the sinking fund from 1876 to 1888. Mr. Sargent married Miss S. Maria Adams, daughter 
of Joseph and Phebe P. (Morse) Adams of Somerville. She is a lineal descendant of John 
Adams, the early miller of Cambridge. They reside on Broadway. 

Sawyer, Charles W., was born in Charlestown, Mass., February 28, 1833. His 
early education was obtained in the Training Field School and the Grammar School in 
Charlestown; he then attended a private school, and finally took a course in a commercial 
college. In 1853 he was appointed a clerk in the Charlestown Post-Office, where he remained 
sixteen years, most of the time being assistant postmaster. In 1869 he resigned the position, 
and engaged in the auction and real estate business in City square, Charlestown, with an 
office also in Boston, doing a large business in Charlestown, Somerville and vicinity. In 
this business he has since continued. Mr. Sawyer took up his residence in Somerville in 
1873. In 1875 he was a member of the Common Council, and served in the Board of 
Aldermen in 1876. He was subsequently chairman of the Board of Health for two years. 
He is a charter member of the following named Masonic bodies: Signet R. A. Chapter and 
Coeur de Lion Commandery of Charlestown; Soley Lodge of Somerville and Somerville 
Council. He was for two years Em. commander -of Cceur de Lion Commandery, in which 
he is now an honorary member. He is a member of Somerville R. A. Chapter. He was 
president of the Training Field School Association in Charlestown for two years, and was 
for many years the president of the 999th Artillery Association of Charlestown, a social 
club of 350 members, many of whom are residents of Somerville and is a member of the 
Boston Real Estate Exchange. Mr. Sawyer has always taken great interest in the muni- 
cipal affairs of Somerville, and is now one of the trustees of the Public Library. He married, 
in 1856, Miss Julia A. Heal, who died in September, 1894. He resides on Main street, 
Winter Hill. 

Shattuck, Frederick W., was born upon a hillside farm in the little town of Reading, 
Vt. His early life was a type of that of thousands of Xew England boys, who by their 
industry and perseverance have worked their way through school and college. During 
early boyhood he had the privilege of attending school one short term each winter and each 
summer. Later the spelling-book gave place to the scythe and hoe in summer. When 
seventeen he attended a fall term of school at Green Mountain Academy, South Woodstock, 
Vt., and he taught his first school during the following winter. About this time he con- 
ceived the idea of fitting for college, and by teaching winters, working summers, and 
attending school during each fall and spring, he prepared for and entered Dartmouth 
College, graduating in the class of 1879. Since that time he has been engaged in teaching at 
Windsor, Vt., Fitchburg, Lawrence, Manchester, N. H., and Winchester, and for the past 
five years he has been the popular and efficient principal of the Luther V. Bell School. 

Simonds, Edwin N., son of Nathan and Elizabeth (Patch) Simonds, was born in 
Burlington, Mass., May I, 1850. His education was received in the Phillips School, Boston, 
and the Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, N. H. He has carried on a successful business 
as a milk contractor since 1871, and has been a resident of Somerville since 1874. Mr. 
Simonds is a member of Soley Lodge, A. F. and A. M., Somerville Chapter, R. A. M., of 
Orient Council, and of Gtur de Lion Commandery, K. T., Charlestown. He is identified 
with Paul Revere Lodge No. 184, I. O. O. F., and is vice-president of the Winter Hill Club. 
On November 26, 1873, he married Miss Annie M. Simonds of Lexington, Mass., who died 
November 23, 1874. On September 27, 1877, he married Miss Edith J. Hanchett of Natick, 



SOMERVILLE, PAST AND PRESENT. 



- 



Mass. Mr. Siinoiids is a model business man and a publ'u -spiiited cili/en. Xu city 
have too many mm of his < li.nu> ten-tics. 

Smith, Dr. Frederick G., \\a- hum in Wilton. \. II., December u, 1X117. II 
educated in the public schools of his native town, and at Cushing Academy, Ashburnham, 
Mass. He practiced pharmacy in Boslon three war-., tun { \\hii-h were spent in the 
sachusetts College of I'harmacy. lie entered the department "I medicine ami surgery in 
the University of Michigan in October, 1890, graduating therefrom in June, 1X0;. Durin.: 
the six months immediately following he was house >urge.in at the Methodist Lpi-c..p.d II - 
pital at ( )maha, Xeb., and commenced the practice i >l his pr<>i ssi n in Somcrville in January, 
1894. October 21, 1896, he was married to Miss Mabel Johnson, eldest daughter of tin- late 
Judge Edward F. Johnson "f Marlboruugh, Mass. He resides at 40, Cross street. 

Souther, Ezra D., son of limery and Hannah Lincoln) Souther, was born in Bosl 
October II, 1847. He attended the Mayhew School in that city, and on the completion 
his education entered a commission house, where he remained six years; he then took a po- 
sition with the National Revere Bank of Huston, and has remained in it to the present tini' . 
a period of twenty-live years. Mr. Souther's first ancestor in this country came over in about 
1632, and was the first secretary of Plymouth Colony. The I.incolns of llingham \\ere his 
ancestors on his mother's side, among whom \\a-.( ieneral Lbcne/er Lincoln; it i> also claimed 
that Abraham Lincoln was one of the Ilingham family. Mr. Souther has lived in Somer- 
ville for the last twenty-three years, and served the city in the Common Council in 18X7 
and 1888, and in the Board of Aldermen in iSSy and 1890. lie was elected < >verseer of 
thePDor to fill an unexpired term, in January, 1895; and in April, i.Xoo, was re-elected for a 
full term of four years. lie is a member of Soley Lodge. !'. A. A. M., Winter Hill Lodge. 
K. H., Unity Council, Royal Arcanum, Bo>ton I'.ank Officers' Assoeiation, and the Broadway 
Congregational Society. He married Lydia True 1'reble of Boston, \o\ember 2.S. 1X72, and 
they have two children, a son and a daughter. They reside at 14 Pembroke street. 

Southworth, Amasa E., was born in Stoughton, Xorfolk County, May 10, 1X44. He 
was the son of Amasa and Abigail i Sherman) Southworth, the latter now living at the 
of ninety and in full possession of all her faculties, while her mother lived to the advan. 
age of one hundred and two years. lie nveived his cdiuatimi in the ungraded common 
schools of Stoughton, and at the age of M\teen moved to Boston, and entered the employ- 
ment of Dana, Karrar iS; Hyde, wholesale grocers, lie remained with this house through its 
various changes, and is at present united with the junior partner of the house for whom he 
first worked, under the style of Hyde \ Southworth, in the same store and same busii.'-- 
In 1866 he married Abbie M., daughter of Charles and Lydia I >orinan. of Kockport. Ma->.. 
and moved to Somerville in September, iS(>S. They ha\. had >i\ children, three at pre>ent 
living. He has always taken an active interest in sccjial and p'llitical mailers, being a char- 
ter member and past master of Soley l.odgeof Masons. Alwa\sa Republican, in I So4 he 
was elected to serve as represenlaiive to the ( '.eneral < 'ourt for iSi5. and was placed on the 
committees on banks and banking, and metropolitan aflaiis. In 1X05 he wa- re-eleite-l. 
w^as on the committees on libraries and metropolitan alt.dr> toi iS'io. A^ a member ol the 
latter committee, he took great inleresl in all matters :ill--i ling ihe interests of Somerville, 
particularly the water bill and the bil