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THE LIBRARY 

OF 
THE UNIVERSITY 

OF CALIFORNIA 
LOS ANGELES 



Some South African 
Recollections 



Some South African 
Recollections 



BY 

MRS. LIONEL PHILLIPS 



With 36 Illustrations 



SECOND IMPRESSION 



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 

NEW YORK AND BOMBAY 

1899 

All ripkts reserved 



College 
Library 




I DEDICATE 

THIS LITTLE VOLUME TO MY 
CHILDREN 

HAROLD, FRANK, AND 
EDITH 



PREFACE 

THESE recollections of a page in South African history 
have been written as a record for my children of the 
part played by their father in the Reform move- 
ment in the Transvaal, as they were at the time 
too young to understand or appreciate all he did 
and suffered for the good cause. I have endeavoured 
to explain the origin of that movement, and why, 
for the moment, it failed. I venture to publish what 
I have written, as I am led to believe there are many 
people interested in the subject, but not sufficiently 
informed as to the true course of events, who would 
be glad to read the testimony of a South African. 

FLORENCE PHILLIPS. 

LONDON, October 1899. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

(Reproduced from Photographs by permission of Messrs. G. W. WILSON, 
Aberdeen ; GOCH, BARNETT, Johannesburg, and others.} 

A TRANSVAAL "SPRUIT" Frontispiece 

A SOUTH AFRICAN COACH to face page 7 

ORANGE RIVER AT NORVAL'S PONT ... ,,8 

JOHANNESBURG IN 1889 ,,11 

WlTPOORTJE, NEAR KRUGERSDORP . ... ,,12 

THE "Low VELD" IN TRANSVAAL . ,,15 

A BOER "OUTSPAN" ,,18 

ROSE DEEP ,,23 

FERREIRA DEEP ....... ,,24 

THE CROCODILE RIVER, NEAR JOHANNESBURG . 30 

KAFFIRS ON THEIR WAY TO THE MINES . . ,,32 

AMAJUBA ,,36 

CYANIDE WORKS ON A MINE ,,43 

A STAMP MILL, JOHANNESBURG .... ,,46 

THE MORNING MARKET, JOHANNESBURG . ,,48 

"HOHENHEIM" ,,50 

OX-WAGGON CROSSING A " DRIFT "... ,,60 

A "PoNT," VAAL RIVER 61 

JOHANNESBURG IN 1895 ,,63 

CAPE TOWN, SHOWING TABLE BAY AND TABLE 

MOUNTAIN . 83 



x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

HALL, "HOHENHEIM" to face page 85 

MEN ASKING FOR ARMS AT THE REFORM OFFICE . 98 
A TROOP OF THE AUSTRALIAN CONTINGENT RAISED 

FOR PROTECTION OF JOHANNESBURG . ,,99 

BOER "COMMANDO" ,,106 

PRESIDENT KRUGER LEAVING THE RAADZAAL . ,,113 
COTTAGE AT SUNNYSIDE, PRETORIA, WHERE LIONEL 

PHILLIPS, COLONEL RHODES, PERCY FITZ- 

PATRICK, AND GEORGE FARRAR WERE KEPT . 114 

MARKET BUILDINGS, PRETORIA .... 132 

THE REFORM TRIAL IN MARKET HALL, PRETORIA 135 

THE MARKET SQUARE, JOHANNESBURG ... 144 

COMMISSIONER STREET, JOHANNESBURG ... 145 
THE PRISON YARD, SHOWING CONDEMNED CELL 

AND LEAN-TO 148 

CHARLESTOWN, WITH MAJUBA IN THE DISTANCE . ,,153 

REFORM PRISONERS AWAITING NEWS ... 156 

REFORM PRISONERS TAKING EXERCISE ... ,,156 

OUTSIDE THE PRISON GATE ,,158 

ECKSTEIN'S OFFICES, JOHANNESBURG . . . ,,180 



SOUTH AFRICAN 
RECOLLECTIONS 

CHAPTER I 

IN December 1895 I was with iny children at Brighton, 
and had been very ill for five months. It was then 
arranged that I should go to Florence for a thorough 
change instead of returning to Johannesburg as I had 
intended, this alteration of plan being due to the fact 
that my husband Lionel, and the members of his firm 
in England, had informed me that my return was useless, 
as he himself intended coming to England at the end 
of January. When my arrangements were made and 
I was simply waiting until the holidays were over, I 
saw a telegram in the Times of 27th December which 
completely altered my ideas as to visiting Italy. I 
telegraphed to Lionel, asking him to let me know the 
exact state of affairs at Johannesburg, and received from 
him the reply that it was impossible for him to define 
them until after the 6th January, but that I was not to 
be anxious, as there was no danger of any kind. Never- 
theless as I felt that grave events were impending, and 



2 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

that iny place was with him, I wrote to Mr. Wernher 
and asked him to take my passage by the steamer leav- 
ing for Cape Town on llth January. He replied that 
he thought I was unnecessarily anxious, but that my 
husband would at any rate regard me in the light of a 
heroine, and advised me to take a costume de vivanditre, 
as if it did not come in for the battle-field, it might 
for the ball-room. In spite of that, my passage was 
taken for the llth, and we prepared for departure. 

I was only acting on my own fears, for it was quite 
possible that nothing at all serious would take place, 
and was actuated by my own knowledge and by what 
I saw hi the papers, viz., that trouble had been brew- 
ing for a long time, that after years of misgovernment 
gradually becoming more intolerable, certain men in 
Johannesburg had at last determined to give voice to 
their grievances, and intended publicly to demand re- 
dress from the Transvaal Government. The National 
Union there had convened a public meeting for 6th 
January, and had warned the Government that if on 
this occasion they were refused what for the last time 
they demanded in a constitutional manner, they would 
have to resort to force. Knowing the temper of the 
Boers, and knowing also that for the first time in its 
history many members of the Uitlander community 
were determined to stand together and risk everything 
to get justice, I felt very nervous as to the result. 

I have mentioned my long illness at Brighton, and 
must now explain that I found myself without the 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 3 

necessary clothes. I debated with iny maid as to where 
I could get the desired articles most quickly, and decided 
that in Paris I should find what I wanted. 

We started via Dieppe (at night to save tune) on 
New Year's Eve, she bewailing my recklessness in dar- 
ing to travel during the first hours of the New Year, 
prophesying in dismal tones that we should travel much 
that year. And she proved right. I arrived hi Paris 
more dead than alive, feeling very ill and disinclined 
for the affairs of life (not to mention dressmakers), and 
was still in bed when my sister-in-law came into my 
room waving a French newspaper and exclaiming 

" Have you seen the news ? Jameson has crossed 
the Transvaal border, fought the Boers, and sur- 
rendered." 

" Jameson ? I don't know what you are talking of. 
What has Jameson to do with the Transvaal ? Non- 
sense." 

" Well, I only tell you what I see in the papers." 

Then my horrified senses took in the awful fiasco 
that had occurred, and I fell back in bed with a pain in 
my back which for many a weary month since then my 
doctor has known by the name of the " Jameson pain." 
I realised the horror of the situation, which was for the 
moment much increased in my case in that the cable 
service was out of order, and neither I nor any one I 
knew was able to get any news from Johannesburg. I 
sent many cables to Lionel and to Mr. Beit in Cape 
Town, begging for news, but most of these, as I after- 



4 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

wards heard, were never received. For ten mortal days 
we heard nothing. The most awful rumours filled the 
air, and I pictured every horror Lionel killed, our 
house in flames ; in fact, everything that imagination 
could conjure up. To make matters worse, and com- 
plete my perplexity and misery, I received a telegram 
from Mr. Wernher, telling me that Mr. Dormer asserted 
positively in London that Lionel had gone to Cape 
Town. As soon as possible I returned to Brighton to 
finish my preparations for departure. The wildest 
assertions were printed in the newspapers at this time 
that Jameson not only had crossed the frontier to 
aid Johannesburg, but that he had been basely left 
in the lurch by the men of that town, which was 
called " Judasberg," among other names ; Jameson and 
his friends, Sir John Willoughby, the Whites, and 
others, being extolled as heroes, and every imaginable 
virtue was attributed to them. In fact, the English 
public lost all reasoning power at this juncture, as all 
publics are apt to do at critical moments, and knew no 
moderation in its judgments of either side. The simple 
expedient of waiting until they were sure of the facts 
never occurred to the great mass, and blindly believ- 
ing a few partial telegrams from Pretoria and Cape 
Town, they fell down and worshipped Dr. Jameson 
and his partners in military glory ; they did not 
even wish to know that there might be another side 
to the question. Enormous excitement was caused 
by the telegram sent to President Kruger by His 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 5 

Imperial Majesty the German Emperor, which ran as 
follows : 

" I express to you my sincere congratulations that 
without appealing to the help of friendly Powers you 
and your people have succeeded in repelling with your 
own forces the armed bands which had broken into your 
country, and in maintaining the independence of your 
country against foreign oppression." 

But the climax was reached when the English 
Government ordered out the Flying Squadron. Then 
London literally went mad. People only talked and 
thought of one thing, and I have been told that such 
excitement had not prevailed since the days of the 
Crimean war people rushing out bareheaded into the 
street at all hours of the night, eager to read any scrap 
of news that had come to hand. " 'Tis an ill wind that 
blows nobody good," and surely the newspaper people 
must have been thankful for such a windfall. 

Now, to make matters clear to the reader, I must go 
back a few years to explain how this state of affairs 
came about how a sub-continent was plunged in 
misery; how an almost unknown country like the 
Transvaal could so suddenly spring into such promi- 
nence; how it was possible that by the rash and 
treacherous action of a few individuals a carefully- 
considered plan was wrecked, and how so many lives 
were lost or ruined. 



CHAPTER II 

WHEN the amalgamation of the diamond mines took 
place in 1889, we were living in Kimberley, and Lionel 
in consequence found himself without an occupation. 
He was very much in doubt as to what he should 
do, and hesitated between going up to Mashonaland, 
regarding which a Royal Charter had been recently 
granted, in connection with Mr. Rhodes, or to the 
newly -discovered gold-mines of the Witwatersrand, 
where Messrs. H. Eckstein & Co. had offered him a 
post. As the former course would have necessitated 
my return to the Colony or England with the 
children, few white women having yet ventured 
into that unsettled country, Lionel chose the other 
alternative; and accordingly in September 1889, as 
there was no railway, we started for Johannesburg by 
special coach from Kimberley. We took all servants 
with us, as the place being quite in its infancy, house- 
keeping was more difficult and the amenities of life 
scarcer than in most parts of South Africa. Coaching 
in South Africa is not the easy and pleasant pastime 
that it is in England. The very mention of a coach 
journey recalls the memory of much fatigue brought on 
by cramped positions, jolting roads, and the perpetual 

6 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 7 

knowledge of over- tired, jaded horses or mules being 
thrashed and yelled at to keep them to their work. 
Ordinarily a passenger coach accommodated twelve 
people inside, and besides the driver and his assistant 
with a long whip, six or seven outside, in addition to 
luggage and the mail-bags. The more luxurious way 
of travel that of hiring an entire coach was too 
expensive to be indulged in by most people. Ten 
horses or mules is the number generally used. The 
vehicle itself is by no means uncomfortable, but the 
leather springs give a peculiar rocking motion that 
makes some people feel very ill, especially when one 
adds to its charms an early morning start at three 
o'clock, with all the curtains down to keep out the 
clouds of dust, and every man smoking ! 

Whole histories could be written by those who have 
travelled much by coach. Capsizes were numerous, 
sometimes in the middle of a swollen river, and lives 
were occasionally lost. A not uncommon and exciting 
experience was when the coach arrived at a river too 
swollen to be crossed, and the unhappy passengers had 
to be hoisted across in a box. I have often sailed 
above the Modder River in that inhuman fashion. A 
rope would be stretched across, and a small packing- 
case hung thereto, which was worked by pulleys. It 
is a very curious feeling to dangle a hundred and fifty 
feet up in the air, with a roaring torrent beneath, and 
the knowledge that if the rope broke one would not 
be left to tell the tale. On one occasion, when soaring 



8 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

thus, the pulley would not work, and for a long time 
I remained suspended in mid-air. But, as it chanced, 
it was a broiling day, and the cool breeze up the river 
proved so delightful that I did not mind the delay. 
Once I saw an English lady who was so terrified at this 
mode of transit that she fainted, and in this state had 
to be tied into the box. 

Talking of coach journeys also brings to my mind 
that curious phenomenon, the mirage, which one sees so 
often hi the boundless plains of the Free State and the 
Karoo on hot days. Going along wearily and painfully, 
with nothing to relieve the eye only the horizon on a 
vast unbroken plain, one would suddenly see a beautiful 
lake surrounded by trees, and so vivid would the scene 
be that, in spite of past experiences, only when the spot 
was reached could one realise that it was but a mirage. 
Even cattle are deceived by it, and I have seen them 
run towards it after a long and thirsty march as if 
possessed, only to meet with bitter disappointment. 

But though one remembers the unpleasant side of 
these journeys, there is also a phase that leaves in- 
effaceable memories, and that is the sunrises. To see 
the whole limitless plain bathed in a golden glory, 
changing to every shade of scarlet, and to feel the 
peculiar exhilaration of the early morning air, often 
made up for too little sleep, and I think that only on 
the veld is one fully conscious of the peculiar sensa- 
tion of being absolutely alone with Nature. Nowhere 
have I ever realised to the same degree the vastness, 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 9 

the stillness that is almost frightening, as in South 
Africa. And this peculiar feeling is most vivid in the 
autumn, when nature is more still than at other times. 
" Veld fever " is a malady, a longing indescribable, 
which comes over many South Africans who have lived 
much on the veld, and about the month of April many 
people feel it hi full force. I suppose it is the same 
kind of home-sickness that the Swiss feel for their 
mountains " Heimweh." 

When I was a child the principal means of locomo- 
tion were the Cape cart and the ox-waggon. Naturally 
a whole family could not go by the former, so the more 
tedious way was adopted. The coaches of course only 
followed fixed routes. These long journeys have their 
charm. Sometimes for days together we would not 
"outspan" near a house, and had to sleep either in 
the waggon or under it. On a bright starlit night 
in that climate, it is no punishment to wrap oneself in 
a kaross and sleep in the open. Even the melancholy 
cry of the jackal is not unpleasant, if not too near. 
The thunderstorms, however, are often very dangerous 
and terrifying, and many people never get over their 
nervous terror of the lightning and thunder, though a 
grander sight it is impossible to see the whole heavens 
a mass of living flame, the darkness only relieved by 
the blue forked flashes ! Still, I think most people 
prefer to be under more secure shelter than a waggon 
when an African thunderstorm bursts. Torrents of 
rain, accompanied by heavy gusts of wind, sweep the 



10 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

parched earth, and in the twinkling of an eye every 
little furrow becomes a miniature river. I have known 
a flash of lightning to kill a whole team of oxen, the 
current being doubtless conveyed by the " trek " chain ; 
and the thunder succeeds it instantaneously, crackling 
at first like pieces of stone in a fire, or the report of 
numberless muskets, and finishing with a terrific crash 
that seems to shake the very earth. It is not at all 
unusual during such storms for hail suddenly to fall, 
many of the stones equalling pigeons' eggs in size, 
which causes the greatest havoc amongst fruit-trees and 
cultivated lands, and kills many sheep. 

With constant relays of horses and mules, we made 
the journey very pleasantly in four days to Johannes- 
burg, and settled down in the " mansion," as the news- 
papers called the house that Mr. Hermann Eckstein had 
built for himself. He being in Europe, we succeeded 
to the mansion a bungalow built of corrugated iron, 
containing four rooms, a verandah round three sides, 
and a kitchen. We were delighted with the place. 
Coming from arid Kimberley, where everything was 
literally dried up and there was no rest for the eye, 
the fact that there was a little green grass on the side 
of the ridge facing our house, and that in the small 
garden surrounded by a reed fence, roses and carnations 
flourished, gave us infinite pleasure. Kimberley lies 
in a desert where in summer the glare is intense, and 
the hot wind soon shrivels up everything. 

In spite of the discomforts, those were the happy 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 11 

days of Johannesburg, for most of the people who first 
established themselves there knew each other, and, the 
place being very primitive, they were mutually depend- 
ent; hence the opportunity for little acts of kindness 
which formed bonds of friendship. But everything was 
indeed very uncomfortable. There were not enough 
hotels, and as newcomers were daily rushing in, many 
and funny were their experiences. To sleep under a 
billiard-table while the game was still going on was 
a very common occurrence, and some friends of ours 
who came up there told me they were obliged to pass 
the night of their arrival in an unfinished house, with 
damp walls and no roof. 

Water was very scarce, and, when the rains were 
at all delayed, regular famines often occurred. A lady 
friend of ours staying at one of the hotels saw a tin 
bath half-full of water standing outside her door, and 
thinking that it was intended for her use, took posses- 
sion of it. When the angry host discovered what she 
had done, greatly to her dismay she learned that it 
was the only water in the hotel, and was meant for 
cooking; he added, "It would not have mattered so 
much, only you have used soap!" Many tunes since 
have people been reduced to washing in soda-water, 
but in those early days that commodity was often un- 
obtainable. 

Just across the road hi front of our house was a 
deep cutting, which we found had been made for a 
railway, and completely spoilt the look of the town. 



12 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

But the railway was not mentioned except with bated 
breath, as this line was called a tram-line, and the trains 
which ran on it trams. The reason for this was that 
President Kruger was determined to have no train 
into the country until the line from Delagoa Bay to 
Pretoria (opened in 1895) was finished. By that means 
neither the Cape Colony nor Natal would reap the 
benefit of the Customs duties. The President wished 
to force importers to bring in goods by the longer sea 
route via Delagoa Bay, which is in Portuguese territory. 
The line opposite our house ran between Johannesburg 
and Brakpan, about fourteen miles distant, and was 
used for bringing coal from the latter place. Later 
on it was extended to Krugersdorp and the Springs, a 
distance of about forty miles, and was on a line with 
what every one was praying for, a continuation of the 
railway from the Cape Colony. The need of a railway 
was terribly felt, as the sudden rush of hundreds of 
newcomers to a hitherto almost uninhabited country 
made life very uncomfortable for every one, and the 
necessaries of life were dreadfully scarce. 

Although a most fertile country, market produce 
was obtainable only in very small quantities, for the 
few Boers living in the neighbourhood were too deeply 
sunk in laziness and ignorance to realise that a fortune 
lay under then- hands if only they chose to cultivate 
some of the land they possessed in great tracts. 
Those in immediate proximity to the gold reefs 
found a much quicker way of making a fortune, 




WlTPOORTJE, NEAR KRUGERSDORP. 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 13 

namely, by selling parts of their farms for large sums 
large to them, as they had hitherto lived in abject 
poverty and as a Boer has quite as keen a sense of the 
value of money as a Scotchman is said to have, it is 
quite certain that they obtained full value for their 
lands. They very rarely saw any money at all, as most 
of their transactions were done by barter. 

The Boers hi out of the way places usually do their 
shopping at " Nachtmaal " (the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper), which takes place every three months. It is 
quite an event in their lonely lives. They come in from 
the surrounding country in their ox- waggons, bringing 
their entire families. The richer men have perhaps a 
small town house which they keep for these visits, but 
the majority draw up their waggons together on the 
market-square or on the outside of the town. They 
utilise this occasion for their marriages and baptisms 
also, and these are almost the only social events of the 
year. A propos of shopping, they generally go to one 
of the large Boer stores in the town or village where 
they can satisfy all their requirements, and run up long 
accounts lasting over some years. They are not nice 
in their perceptions of honesty. I remember a store- 
keeper telling me that at Nachtmaal he always had 
a large extra staff simply to watch what the customers 
pocketed, the items being added to the account, without 
remarks being made on either side. He also told me 
that a store-keeper of his acquaintance had lost his 
whole Boer connection for ever because he was not 



14 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

so wise in his generation, but prosecuted one of these 
pilferers. 

I remember going occasionally in those early days 
to a farm a few miles out of Johannesburg, on the Riet 
River, the house and garden most beautifully situated 
in a niche among the hills. Lionel's firm had bought 
some of the farmer's ground lying on the river. This 
homestead was very typical of the dwellings of the more 
ignorant class of Boer, who form the majority of the 
inhabitants of the Transvaal. The house consisted of 
the voorkamer or hall, from which the kitchen and bed- 
rooms, few in number, led. The walls were white- 
washed, and the floors smeared with liquid cow-dung. 
The furniture consisted of a large table hi the middle of 
the room, and rude benches and chairs, with the seats 
made of riem (hide) instead of cane, ranged round the 
walls. The family comprised the farmer and his wife, 
several married sons and daughters and their numerous 
progeny, all in the most hopeless state of dirt and sto- 
lidity. On entering the visitor would shake hands with 
every one in turn down to the smallest child, and amidst 
a chilling silence and solemnity, ask them their news, 
which would be given in the fewest possible words. 
These interviews are usually of a terrifying character, 
and either entirely subdue one or produce a wild de- 
sire to laugh, which if indulged would be fatal, as one 
would never be forgiven. The Boers, living as they do 
such solitary lives, have a morbid fear of ridicule, and as 
those of this particular class speak no English, they are 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 15 

rery suspicious of any one talking that language, and 
are prone to think they are being criticised. 

The people whom I have in mind told me that they 
had come to the Transvaal in the great "trek" forty 
years before, that they had settled there, and dug the 
garden with spades until only the handles were left. 
The whole family had to dress in the skins of wild 
animals shot by the men, as in those days no shops 
existed within hundreds of miles, and even the wander- 
ing "Smouse" had not penetrated so far. Needless 
to say, having once planted the garden, made the wall 
of rough stones without mortar round it, built the 
house of unburnt brick, and made the kraal (also of 
stones), there was nothing more to be done for the 
rest of their lives except to sit smoking the pipe of 
peace and drinking bad coffee. Their fathers had done 
the same: why should they try to improve on their 
methods ? And this in a land blessed by nature 
with a magnificent climate, fertile soil, and almost 
every natural advantage, which even without its extra- 
ordinary mineral wealth is one of the finest countries 
on earth. 

To turn from this prospect to the many countries 
over-populated with men and women eager to work, 
but with no scope whatever, naturally gives rise to 
the question : Is it right or proper that a very small 
section of people should take possession of such a Ian d 
and in their selfish conservatism rigorously exclude, 
the toiling crowd? The Boer's ideal of never seeing 



16 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

his neighbour's smoke is an Arcadian one, but in 
the natural order of things impossible of realisation. 
The contemplation of this handful of people, with 
their stolidity and laziness, trying to stem the inrushing 
tide of civilisation is pathetic as it is hopeless. 

When one hears of people in England and elsewhere 
talking of the way in which the newcomers dispossessed 
the farmers of their land, and knows the reality of their 
sordid selfish existence, which, making no advance hi 
thought of any kind, of necessity becomes retrograde, 
one wishes they could be transported for a few days 
to one of these many filthy hovels to see for them- 
selves. 

I wish it to be particularly understood that the 
Boers received substantial sums from the newcomers 
for everything they sold to them, and the assertion, 
often made abroad, that it was all very fine, but the 
strangers had gone there, deceived the innocent Boers, 
and taken their land from them for almost nothing, is 
emphatically untrue. 

The older generation of Boers, those who came to 
the Transvaal in the great " trek " of 1835, are of much 
sterner stuff than those of to-day, and very interesting 
as a class that is fast dying out. The hard life they 
led, the struggles for existence, the constant warring 
with nature and wild animals and Kaffirs, brought out 
their many sterling good qualities courage, faith in 
God, and marvellous endurance. But having once 
gained their object, which was to found a home away 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 17 

from all outside influences, these old voortrekkers re- 
lapsed into their lazy habits, and their descendants, 
not having the same incentives, lack many of their fine 
qualities. Doubtless these are latent, and circumstances 
might develop them, but the ordinary Transvaal Boer 
of to-day is not an attractive personality. 



CHAPTER III 

VERY soon after our arrival in Johannesburg occurred 
" the Famine," to which unpleasant event we owe the 
railway. The winter months in that part of the world 
are absolutely dry ; no rain falls from the beginning of 
June until some time in October, and the veld conse- 
quently does not support many cattle. As everything, 
from the necessities of daily life, like flour to make 
bread, down to machinery, had to be brought to Johan- 
nesburg by ox-waggon, the rains were a very important 
consideration. That year they were unusually late, and 
as the daily-increasing population put an unusual strain 
on the transport drivers, the most ordinary necessaries 
were at a premium. Candles were quite unobtainable, 
and we burnt one lamp for fear it should soon be im- 
possible to buy paraffin. I remember going to every 
shop in the place for white cotton in vain. Sugar rose 
to 4s. 6d. per pound. Every one thought they would 
prepare for the worst, and bought something in case of 
emergencies. I paid o for a bag of meal, the ordinary 
price being 25s. One lady in Cape Town sent her son by 
post a packet of sandwiches, saying she would do so 
every day while the famine lasted, not remembering 
that after nearly a week's journey they might not be 

18 




A BOER " OUTSPAN." 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 19 

palatable even to a starving man. Fortunately, this 
state of things did not last long, as a bountiful Provi- 
dence sent us rain, and very soon the much-needed 
provisions were to be had in plenty. But it was a lesson 
to be remembered, and people became more determined 
than ever to dissuade the President from his decision 
against the continuation of the railway, both from the 
Colony and the Natal border. Consequently, he 
listened to the petitions from all portions of the com- 
munity, and condescended to come to Johannesburg 
to hear the demands of the people, he being on tour 
at the time. 

Paul Kruger is so well known from the many por- 
traits and caricatures that have appeared in recent years, 
as well as descriptions of him, that one from me seems 
superfluous. His clumsy features and small cunning 
eyes, set high in his face, with great puffy rings beneath 
them, his lank straight locks, worn longer than is usual, 
the fringe of beard framing his face, even his greasy 
frock coat and antiquated tall hat have been portrayed 
times without number. He is a man of quite 75 years 
of age now, and his big massive frame is much bent, 
but in his youth he possessed enormous strength, and 
many extraordinary feats are told of him. Once seen 
he is not easily forgotten. He has a certain natural 
dignity of bearing, and I think his character is clearly 
to be read on his face strength of will and cunning, 
with the dulness of expression one sees in peasants' 
faces. "Manners none, and customs beastly" might 



20 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

have been a life-like description of Kruger. The habit 
of constantly expectorating, which so many Boers have, 
he has never lost. He is quite ignorant of conversation, 
in the ordinary acceptation of the word ; he is an auto- 
crat in all his ways, and has a habit of almost throwing 
short jerky sentences at you, generally allegorical in 
form, or partaking largely of Scriptural quotations or 
misquotations quite as often. Like most of the Boers, 
the Bible is his only literature that book he certainly 
studies a good deal, and his religion is a very large part 
of his being, but somehow he misses the true spirit of 
Christianity hi that he leaves out the rudimentary 
qualities of Charity and Truth. As most of these 
people learn very imperfectly, they naturally do not 
always master the sense of what they read, but they 
nevertheless love to read aloud in sonorous and long 
drawn-out tones the parts of the Old Testament the 
Kings and Chronicles for example and dwell on the 
names of the old prophets and kings, pronouncing them 
in a way that is enough to make those hapless ones 
turn in their graves ! The Transvaal Boers are fully 
persuaded that they are the chosen people of God, that 
their country is the Promised Land, and are constantly 
finding points of resemblance between themselves and 
the Israelites of old. 

The Dopper persuasion, of which Kruger is a 
member, is not that to which the great mass of the 
Dutch population subscribes, but more resembles the 
Quakers, and to that sect as a rule only the very poor 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 21 

and ignorant class of Boer belongs. The Doppers are 
much more primitive in their way of life, and it is no 
uncommon thing for all the members of a family, 
representing three generations, to sleep in one room, 
and their uncleanness of body is only equalled by their 
dull immorality. 

Thousands of people assembled at the Wanderers' 
Hall, and the President was to address them from the 
platform. I, among many others, was there, and the 
ludicrous affair is well graven on my memory. As it 
has since become historical, and much capital has been 
made of it, and as it is typical of all President Kruger's 
actions and his attitude to the people of Johannesburg, 
I relate it. I happened to have a seat just behind him. 
He advanced to the platform, surrounded by some 
officials and all the prominent men of the town. Just 
as he was beginning to speak in his ponderous manner, 
some youths in the crowd below began to sing " Rule 
Britannia." He glared stolidly into space for a moment, 
then roared out, as if speaking to a naughty child, " Blij 
stil." (Be quiet !) A burst of laughter was the natural 
response, as the ordinary untutored mind is not 
accustomed to the paternal methods he employs with 
his own people. Without a single word he turned his 
back, walked off, and all the protestations of the serious 
part of his audience were unavailing. He drove off to 
the Landdrost's house in Government Square, not having 
been five minutes in face of the thousands who were 
anxiously awaiting his decision on a vital question, thus 



22 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

ending one of the most childish exhibitions ever vouch- 
safed to a suffering community. That night the Trans- 
vaal flag flying over the Landdrost's house was pulled 
down, and two wretched men were caught, put into 
prison, and finally released six months after without 
ever having been tried. People said that they were not 
the offenders, which is quite possible, the town not being 
lighted. Certainly the police, usually conspicuous by 
their absence, were quite capable of anything, and even 
in those early days were notorious for their want of 
common honesty. However, this incident, always 
spoken of as " The Flag Incident," has been used by 
President Kruger as one of the main reasons for refus- 
ing the franchise to the Uitlanders, and he has given it 
over and over again. To those who were there at the 
time, and who saw the insignificance of the whole affair, 
it shed a strong light on his real character and his feel- 
ings towards the place, and everything he has done 
since has been equally unreasoning and blindly antago- 
nistic towards a people to whom his country owes its 
prosperity, and from whom he has exacted an enormous 
and ever-increasing revenue, without allowing them any 
voice in its expenditure. The oft-quoted rhyme of 
Canning, 

" In matters of commerce the fault of the Dutch 
Is giving too little and asking too much," 

applies to-day. 

There is one aspect of the question which does not 
often strike people comfortably at home in England, 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 23 

and that is the risks these newcomers took upon them- 
selves, and the courage so often shown by pioneers. At 
this day (1899), when the Witwatersrand mines have 
been proved to be the richest ever known, one is apt to 
forget that in the year 1889 all that was still unproved. 
The few courageous men who then invested compara- 
tively small amounts, though in many cases they risked 
their all, in what are now fully-developed mines, deserve 
much for their pluck. I well remember the dismal 
tales in those early days of the mines giving out, and 
now that the deep levels are a fully-established success 
it is difficult to remember the heart-burnings and 
doubts and fears expressed by many as to their future. 
One may say now, " Oh yes, the greatest mining engi- 
neers gave their opinion as to the mines being quite 
positively rich," but equally great mining engineers 
held an adverse view, and obviously engineers of repute 
hesitated to predict as to the future in regard to a gold- 
bearing formation which was quite unique. Even such 
men as these have been at fault, and it is a recognised 
fact that however bold one may be in investing one's 
own money, it is quite another matter when one has 
to deal with exigent and never-satisfied shareholders. 
Thus I say all honour to the plucky men of the early 
days, and may no one begrudge them their hard-earned 
success ! 

When we first went to Johannesburg the mining 
industry was still in its infancy, many of the managers 
being men who had simply taken to it through being 



24 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

on the spot, and there were few who had any technical 
education. Consequently much of the work was done 
in a slipshod, unpractical, and extravagant manner, as 
the training of a mine manager is a slow process, requir- 
ing much energy, technical knowledge, and knowledge 
of one's fellow-men. Owing to the want of a rail- 
way, the necessary mining machinery was not forth- 
coming, and there was much to contend with. Many 
evenings do I remember Lionel corning home utterly 
worn out and discouraged by the innumerable instances 
of bad management and the hopeless material with 
which he had to deal. The organisation of the work 
was a very lengthy and often a very disheartening task ; 
and in addition to the many natural difficulties, there 
was the continual opposition of the Government to 
everything conducive to the good of the place or its 
advancement, and its varied devices to hamper the 
work already in progress. Many and many were the 
journeys by Cape cart that Lionel and his partners took 
to Pretoria hi order to try and soften the obdurate heart 
of the President and induce him to listen to reason. 
But of no avail. He never did listen to reason ; that is 
to say, he listened, and apparently acquiesced, and made 
many promises, but as a matter of fact his whole policy 
was directed to trammelling the gold industry, and by 
this means restricting the foreign population. Here is 
a striking example of his ignorant policy : When asked 
to throw open town lands of Pretoria to prospectors, he 
urged the Raad not to do so, as another Witwatersrand 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 25 

might be discovered, and then where would they find 
the police to manage the people ? He never listened to 
the men who were honest, and of whom he might have 
made good friends. No. The men to whom he listened 
were of quite another type, and, unfortunately, they 
were the people who have always had his ear, and who 
worked upon his suspicious peasant nature with their 
vicious advice. 

To be able to speak his language is a great lever 
with a Boer, still more to speak it in just the particular 
manner he affects a kind of familiar tone, with a 
suspicion of deference in it. The wily Hollander and 
German have long ago found this out, but unfortunately 
the Englishman will not take the trouble to study 
sufficiently the peculiarities of the people among whom 
he goes; he always expects the other person to do as 
he does. The Boer is always on the lookout for ridi- 
cule ; that is a crime he never forgives, for he is utterly 
lacking in the sense of humour, and his ignorance of 
English makes him very suspicious. Amongst them- 
selves the Boers indulge in a coarse kind of horseplay, 
but a more refined sense of the ridiculous is quite 
denied them. 

When I forget in what year some 5000 sovereigns 
and half-sovereigns were struck (every one had always 
used English money in the Transvaal), they were imme- 
diately withdrawn from circulation, for two reasons. On 
the one side the ox-waggon had been wrongly repre- 
sented with shafts instead of a " disselboom " or pole, 



26 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

and on the other side were the mystic initials " O. S." 
the name of the designer. The word " os " is the 
Dutch for "ox," and nothing would persuade Kruger 
that it was not meant as a personal reflection on 
himself. 

This is the secret of much of the extreme dislike 
with which the English are regarded by the Boers in 
South Africa. They come out there, and instead of 
studying the idiosyncrasies of the Africander, they 
assirme a condescending and arrogant attitude towards 
the people of the land, and expect them to act and 
behave as if they were English. But as they are not 
English, they naturally do not come up to the stranger's 
expectations, and are consequently relegated into outer 
darkness. This characteristic varies in intensity, of 
course, according to the education and breeding of the 
newcomer. Unfortunately, however, the hatred and 
detestation felt towards the English by the Boers of 
the Transvaal and out-of-the-way districts of the Cape 
Colony is very real, and is hi a great measure due to 
the thoughtless way in which the former behave, especi- 
ally in the face of the poor opinion in which they are 
generally held by the Boers. Living very solitary lives, 
without literature of any kind, every person with 
whom they come in contact makes a deep impression 
upon them, and those who lead a busier and more 
varied existence are often unable to fathom the sus- 
picious pride of these people. Extremely independent 
and really hospitable in the truest sense of the word, I 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 27 

have known many instances where these qualities have 
been ruthlessly trampled on through mere heedlessness. 

Hospitality is ingrained in the nature of the people 
they will share with you what they have, and it is 
only during late years that they will accept payment. 
On the lonely roads of South Africa travellers are often 
dependent for food and shelter on the dwellers in the 
few and scattered farms, and as a rule they are not 
disappointed in at least a hearty welcome; and any 
inconvenience you may put them to is looked on as 
a matter of course. If they have not a spare bed or 
kaross to offer, they will even go so far as to share 
theirs with you ; not always to your gratification. The 
experience of the English bishop, travelling in an out- 
of-the-way up-country district, who was awakened in 
the night by the peaceful snores of his fat host and 
hostess, with whom he was sharing their bed, has often 
been repeated, with variations. 

The Boer is a highly intelligent person. I do not 
think there is any class of person to be found hi the 
world who more readily shows the advantages of educa- 
tion. He differs widely from the ordinary peasant of 
Europe in that he has always been independent, and has 
no feudal traditions whatever. Having had to contend 
with the forces of nature and to fight savages and wild 
beasts for many generations, he has always had to 
exercise his wits, and, moreover, his powers of observa- 
tion have been developed and strengthened by the life 
he has led. When he inhabits a town he is no longer 



28 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

called a Boer (which is the Dutch for " farmer "), but an 
Africander of Dutch, German, or English extraction. 

The early days of Johannesburg were the happy 
ones. As a rule the first immigrants were of a much 
more respectable class than many who have followed, 
and the majority were people from various parts of 
South Africa, more especially from other mining centres, 
anxious to try their luck in a new form of mining ; men 
who brought their experience with them, who already 
knew that rich nuggets were not to be picked up at 
every turn, and who realised that to make a living hard 
work would be necessary. Consequently, they expected 
to make the place their home for some years to come, 
and Johannesburg did not remain so long as Kimberley 
in the tent or the iron-shanty stage. Very soon people 
built more settled habitations of brick with the inevit- 
able iron roof, and made gardens and planted trees. 

The mention of trees brings to my mind an interest- 
ing fact. The Witwatersrand is situated on what is 
known as the High Veld, and was formerly only in- 
habited during the summer by nomadic Boers, who 
trekked with their sheep and cattle to the Bush Veld 
before the inclement winter season. So there existed no 
settled homesteads, and the country was absolutely tree- 
less. The newcomers very soon began tree-planting, and 
found that, unlike Kimberley, the soil and climate of 
this hitherto treeless tract of country was admirably 
adapted to their growth, which is more rapid than in 
any other part of the world. So every one who had a 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 29 

piece of ground immediately planted it, generally with 
some variety of Eucalyptus or Pine. Lionel's firm was 
interested in a farm situated about two miles out of 
town, called Braamfontein, a considerable portion of 
which they planted. Long before we left Johannes- 
burg what had been veld, covered with tall grass, small 
bushes, and ant-heaps, and over which I had enjoyed 
many a pleasant canter in the early days, had become 
quite a pleasant, shady plantation, with numberless 
alleys in which to ride and drive. 

That part of the country had been singularly devoid 
of animal life, and it was very curious to note how as 
the trees grew, hares and various other small animals, 
and even a few buck, were attracted to the district. I 
noticed many kinds of birds too, which were especially 
numerous in the Braamfontein forest, their gay notes 
making a very pleasant break in the curious silence 
that was so apparent at one time on the veld. 

It is very strange to think that forty years ago 
this locality, which now struck every one as being so 
particularly lifeless, was swarming with every variety 
of game elephant, rhinoceros, lion, all sorts of ante- 
lope, &c. 

An old Boer woman, who lived on the Klip River 
not many miles from Johannesburg, told me that when 
they first went there the " Wild " (wild animals) were 
so numerous that they used to prowl round the house 
and come up to the very door, and that the river in 
front of the house was full of hippopotami. 



30 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

An old Boer also related how once as they were 
trekking in an ox-waggon along the Crocodile River 
about twenty miles from where Johannesburg now 
stands, a rhinoceros charged the waggon, and his horn 
penetrating the sail, pierced the thigh of a woman of 
the party. He added that she recovered, much to 
every one's surprise. 



CHAPTER IV 

JOHANNESBURG was a most wonderful place. When 
it had been in existence only a very few years it pre- 
sented quite a considerable appearance, and had a settled 
aspect different from that of any other mining camp 
either in South Africa or America. It was different 
also in that many people began to look on it as their 
established home, until the fatal day arrived when it 
was borne in upon their minds that this could never be 
under the existing laws or while they were described as 
Uitlanders, whether of South African or European birth, 
and treated as outcasts by the Transvaal Government. 

Naturally there were a certain number of people who 
openly said their only aim was to make money, and that 
when they had enough they intended to go and spend 
it in countries where the comforts of life were greater 
and where a fuller intellectual life was possible ; but this 
class of person, be it well understood, did not save and 
hoard while living there. There were many who felt 
a sense of duty towards the place, and who while living 
in it earnestly did all in their power to better it. 
Very large sums of money were spent by individuals to 
further the cause of education, and in charity of all 
kinds. In the establishment of philanthropic institu- 

31 



32 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

tions small fortunes were disbursed. As the place grew 
and the population increased, both from within and 
without, naturally the wants of the inhabitants in- 
creased, as well as the necessity for laws suited to a 
larger community. The laws as they stood were not 
bad, but they were inefficiently applied. 

The influx brought with it the scum of some of the 
large European towns, an element hitherto unknown in 
South Africa, and with whose undesirable habits and 
customs existing statutes were unable to cope. Unfor- 
tunately, a Transvaal Boer cannot distinguish between 
different classes of men ; so long as they are white to 
him they are all the same, except perhaps that he would 
give the preference to those who did not speak English. 

One of the most disastrous consequences of this 
inroad of the lowest class is the utter demoralisation 
of the Kaffirs, thousands of whom work in the mines, 
coming immense distances for that purpose. These are 
the despicable creatures who sell poison to the unfor- 
tunate native ; they call it by various names, but in 
reality it is raw potato spirit rendered still more terrible 
by the addition of tobacco juice and other noxious in- 
gredients. Even when we first went to Johannesburg, 
I noticed how very different was the attitude of the 
Kaffir towards the white person, especially the white 
woman, from that to which I had been accustomed in 
other mining centres. 

To the Africander mind there is such a gulf between 
black and white that the Kaffir, whatever his private 




KAFFIRS ON THKIR WAY TO THE MIXES. 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 33 

opinion may be, naturally keeps his distance, and the 
white person is treated with respect, or the semblance 
of it. Nowhere else, so far as I know, would a lady 
passing a group of Kaffirs be subjected to insolent 
looks and personal remarks. The Kaffir in his natural 
state is a happy-go-lucky, rather childish, person, and 
such a feeling as fear would never enter the ordinary 
Colonial woman's mind when among them ; but in 
Johannesburg it has always been very different. To 
go on to one of the mines is a most unpleasant experi- 
ence for a white woman, as she is openly stared at, 
criticised, and most objectionable remarks passed on 
her person, by Kaffirs who look in many instances 
more like demons than men, or the smiling, cheery 
creatures one had always been accustomed to see. 
This was one of my earliest impressions, and asking 
one day why there was that marked difference between 
the Kaffirs of the Rand and elsewhere, I was told that 
it was because the liquor laws were so badly adminis- 
tered ; their provisions are good, but the police are most 
inadequate and corrupt, and allow the illicit traffic in 
liquor to be carried on under their eyes, it is even said 
to their profit. 

This state of affairs constitutes one of the most 
crying evils of the Rand, because in its train so many 
others follow. 

In South Africa, of course, people realise a little 
what the Kaffir problem is, and what it is likely 
to become, but it is almost impossible for those who 



34 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

have never been in the country to understand it. With 
this difficult question looming in the future, there is, 
however, all the more reason that the less difficult one 
of the Dutch in South Africa should be once and for 
ever settled that is to say, if England wishes to retain 
her supremacy there ; and that supremacy is necessary 
for the retention of her interests in the far East. 

The value of the Cape as a calling station to India 
has been a little lost sight of in England since the 
construction of the Suez Canal ; but in the event of a 
war with Russia or any other European Power, were 
the Suez Canal blocked, the Cape would at once 
reassume its former importance. 

And only to hold the Cape peninsula itself, which 
is all that is considered necessary by a very prominent 
politician in England, might fall short of the ideas 
of Englishmen, who consider that one of her claims 
to greatness consists in her colonial possessions. The 
"tight little island," with her overflowing population, 
would not fill quite so large a role in this world had 
she not her colonial outlets. 

As a matter of fact, in South Africa England has 
always played rather a poor part, and the patience 
of the white population under misgovermnent is in 
a great measure due to division amongst themselves. 
An Englishman will abuse his own Government as 
much as he likes, but let a foreigner dare ! I am 
convinced this is the reason why the English in 
South Africa are amongst the most loyal of all 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 35 

her Majesty's subjects; and by English I do not only 
mean English-born men and women, for in the Cape 
a great many who are not purely English call them- 
selves so, from the fact that they speak the common 
tongue. Indeed, it is the language of all educated people 
there, Dutch being mainly spoken by the dwellers on 
farms and in out-of-the-way places and by servants. 
One hardly finds a colonial family of which the parents 
are of the same extraction. 

The Boer, like most people, admires pluck and 
manliness, and those qualities he denies to the average 
Englishman. He has never read history, and only 
judges by what comes under his eyes. His experience 
of the English in battle is a sad one for the latter. 
The surrender in 1881 after defeat in their own terri- 
tory, and the exhibition by Dr. Jameson at Doornkop, 
have confirmed his opinion. Since the year 1848, when 
Sir Harry Smith defeated the Boers at the battle of 
Boomplaats, from one cause or another, the English have 
invariably been worsted in every engagement. Even in 
their encounters with the Kaffirs, victory has generally 
been unnecessarily dearly bought. Naturally the Boers 
do not analyse the cause : they only remember the result. 
Being, as I said before, of a proud and independent 
spirit, it galls them to be under a people to whom they 
deny the quality of courage. Therefore the only solu- 
tion of the South African problem is to establish the 
reality of what at present in their eyes is only nominal, 
and that is the supremacy of England. 



36 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

The Boer is a fatalist, in every sense of the word 
quite as much so as any Mohammedan and if he 
is beaten, says, " It is God's will." He does not con- 
sider it any use to combat further. When the English 
were defeated at Majuba, the Boers on the whole 
took their victory in a religious and modest spirit. 
A schoolfellow of mine, whose father is a Dutch Re- 
formed minister, and who went on a preaching mission 
through the Transvaal just after the war, told me 
at the time that they were not at all puffed up 
about their victory. They all said, " It was God's will 
that we should win. He is our General" I must 
say that since that time (1881) some of this modesty 
has disappeared, and they have come to think that 
perhaps they had a little more to do with their victory 
than they did at the moment. It is well known that 
the Boer method of warfare is a guerilla one. While 
he can sit behind a stone and "pot" men he is in- 
defatigable, but the slightest reverse completely cowes 
him. It is generally allowed throughout South Africa 
that if once the English met the Boers on equal terms in 
pitched battle on a plain, as at Boomplaats, and proved 
themselves no such unworthy foes, it would do more 
to restore English prestige than all the despatches of 
years. The courage of the Boer is much impugned by 
some. Personally, I think the average Boer is much 
like the average free man of any other nation ; but in 
a losing contest he gives in much sooner than another, 
not to my mind for want of courage, but on account 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 37 

of the inherent fatalism to which I have alluded. It 
must also be remembered that in a fight the loss of a 
man means much more to them than to any ordinary 
force of paid soldiers. They are all known personally 
to each other, and are frequently related, counting back 
as they do for many generations, and hence each man 
killed often means a double loss to his fellows. 

The one great necessity for England in South Africa 
is to show that she is the paramount power in more 
than name. Many thoughtful South Africans con- 
sider that once the English prove their supremacy, 
the question will be solved. No one would feel 
more respect for his conqueror, or be a better and 
stauncher friend after defeat in fair fight than the 
Boer. Those who have really studied the question 
and know the country are well aware that the race war 
about which so much nonsense is talked, is merely a 
pretext a fine bogey with which to frighten the 
conscientious. 

It is the Little Englander in England and the 
ambitious Bondsman at the Cape, anxious to gain glory 
for himself, regardless of the fact that the country is 
not fit to stand alone, who have invented the idea. 
England's great safeguard in South Africa is that when 
it comes to a question of black versus white, in the face 
of a common danger there would be no subdivisions of 
Dutch and English. But from his point of view the 
Boer is right. How can he submit to be under a nation 
he despises ? And during the last three years that feel- 



38 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

ing has been shared by many besides the Boer. The 
peculiar English characteristic of looking at the other 
side of the question to the neglect of his own is amply 
shown in the way they regard the treatment of English 
subjects in the South African Republic. When discussing 
the question the average Briton will begin with extol- 
ling the numerous virtues of President Kruger and the 
Boers, oblivious of the fact that in denying to his own 
countrymen some of the same good qualities he is 
damning himself. Why do English people think that 
the moment their fellow-countrymen go abroad they 
should become monsters of iniquity ? I believe the 
quality arises from an exaggerated sense of justice in 
the nature of an Englishman, but in times of stress it 
is apt to become so exaggerated that all justice is left 
out of the question. 

Mr. Gladstone, of course, is always blamed (and 
justly) for the absolute loss of English prestige in 
South Africa, but how many of his fellow-countrymen 
resemble him in the possession of the Nonconformist 
conscience? When, to salve that delicate organ, he 
gave up the Transvaal after Majuba, and ruined 
hundreds of innocent British families, not to mention 
the other innumerable ills that resulted, it was a 
pity he did not remember that " charity begins at 
home." But when that event occurred, excepting those 
immediately concerned, how many people realised all 
the disgrace ? I remember when I first came to 
England many years ago talking to people who, I verily 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 39 

believe, laboured under the delusion that the English 
had won a glorious victory at Majuba. And at what a 
cost to South Africa are the English at last beginning 
to comprehend that there is another side to the ques- 
tion than that raised by Kruger, and that their suffer- 
ing fellow-countrymen also have a right to be heard ? 

So much has been said of the Uitlanders' grievances 
that at last the very phrase destroys belief in their 
reality, but that they are very substantial has been 
borne out by independent witnesses over and over 
again. One of the characteristics of the people of 
Johannesburg that always struck me as remarkable was 
their extraordinary patience. The cause of this, no 
doubt, was the fact that most of the men were married, 
with families, which naturally made them chary of 
running risks. It should also be borne in mind that the 
great majority of the leading men were the so-called 
capitalists, which, as Lionel once aptly remarked, " was 
not a criminal offence," and that meant the interests 
of thousands of shareholders to safeguard no trifling 
responsibility, which he has since learned to his cost. 



CHAPTER V 

THE great curse of the Transvaal has been the 
pernicious influence of the Hollanders in the begin- 
ning, and certain Germans later. The two names that 
head the list of the internal influences are Leyds and 
Lippert. Kruger, had he had the good fortune to be 
advised by ordinarily honest men, who had the real 
interest of the country at heart, would never have 
found himself in his present entanglements. But un- 
luckily both for the Transvaal and the neighbouring 
colonies, he was a splendid receptacle for the insidious 
and poisonous advice of these unscrupulous men. His 
ear was ready to listen to anything that could foster his 
suspiciousness of any English-speaking person. Kruger 
is a man who is quite illiterate, and though like many 
Boers he may understand English, he will not acknow- 
ledge it, and he certainly cannot speak it. It is easy, 
therefore, to understand that any one speaking Dutch 
at once has advantage over those who have to depend 
upon an interpreter. Kruger once made desperate 
attempts to learn English ; it was on the occasion of his 
first voyage to England in 1878, I believe. A friend 
who was on the steamer told me he used to sit for 
hours poring over a Bible, one of the editions printed 

40 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 41 

in Dutch and English, the one language divided from 
the other by a line drawn down the middle of the page. 
As, of course, the business of the Government re- 
quired men who could at least read and write, and as 
Dutch is the official language of the country, Kruger, 
following the example of the Orange Free State, im- 
ported Hollanders to do the work. I must, however, 
mention that in the Free State they have had for many 
years such an enlightened system of education that 
they are now able to employ their own countrymen to 
do the work of the Government. In the Free State 
the President has always been an educated man able 
to judge of events for himself, and many of the highest 
officials come from the Cape Colony as well as from 
their own Free State. But unhappily, in Pretoria, 
with very few exceptions, the Hollander is all-powerful. 
Now, the average Hollander who comes to South Africa 
dislikes the English, but for the Boer he has a most 
wholesome contempt in addition; he is careful to tell 
you that he does not understand their Dutch, and often 
leaves you to infer of what little account he considers 
them. However, the two languages are enough akin 
for him very soon to acquire sufficient to keep alive all 
the requisite dislike to the English. The Hollanders 
are well aware that the further the two are kept apart 
the better it is for their own purposes, which are to 
make as much money as they can while in the country, 
to keep in then* hands the most lucrative posts, irre- 
spective of the mischief they do, and then retire com- 



42 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

fortably to Europe. These men are ideal mercenaries, 
and the pretended patriotism and friendship for the 
Boer is a well-known sham. And many of them have 
begun to realise this, but do not know the remedy. 
A Boer of the better class put the matter in a nutshell 
to me one day. Talking on the subject I said to him, 
" You abuse the Hollanders and blame them for much 
of your troubles, and still you employ them in the 
Government. Why does not President Kruger employ 
his own fellow-countrymen men with education from 
the Cape Colony, who understand the country and the 
people, instead of these imported Hollanders ? " And 
he replied, "The fact is, if it came to a tussle with 
England, Kruger would not trust the Africander, and 
he knows he can always rely on the hate of the 
Hollander." 

One of the earliest abuses from which the people 
of Johannesburg had to suffer was the granting of 
concessions. These same wily persons of whom I have 
just been writing, instilled into the old President's mind 
the idea that the gold-mines would very soon give out, 
and then all the revenue of the country would be gone, 
but if he established manufactories a more stable and 
lasting revenue would be the result. And there is 
great sense hi the idea, but industries can only be 
established with success where the conditions and pro- 
ducts of the land favour such enterprises. To render 
the population independent of the mines and to keep 
them distributed over the country is sound policy, but 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 43 

that was by no means the idea of these pernicious 
advisers. By their method of working the matter, they 
have amply shown that their only object was to bene- 
fit concessionaires at the expense of the wretched 
Uitlander. Once they had thoroughly imbued the 
President's mind with the idea they were safe, as 
nothing has ever been able to shake this conviction. 
How little he really understood the matter the following 
true tale will prove. Certain persons applied for a con- 
cession for the manufacture of cyanide of potassium. 
I must explain that this substance is a solvent of gold, 
and is therefore largely used, but to manufacture it in 
the Transvaal would have necessitated a greater expense 
than importing it. A well-known gentleman tried to 
represent this to Kruger, who replied, " Oh yes ; but 
the gold will be finished some day, and then I shall still 
have my factory," not being at all aware that when the 
gold was finished there would be no use for cyanide of 
potassium. 

His Hollander and German friends accordingly per- 
suaded the President that by granting concessions to 
various people he was really serving his country. One 
of the first, and the greatest scandal of all the con- 
cessions, was the one made to Lippert to manufacture 
dynamite, which is so largely used in mines. I shall not 
go into that pitiful story ; it is too well known. Suffice 
it to say, that the concessionaire amassed a huge fortune 
entirely out of the pockets of the Uitlanders, and when 
the political horizon began to look a little black, he who 



44 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

has done more probably than any other man to injure 
the country, betook himself to his native land, Germany. 
The other great influence working on the President for 
evil was Dr. Leyds, who had political ambitions, which 
by now he also has no doubt attained in his native land, 
Holland. Both these patriots, be it understood, have 
always been far over the seas when danger threatened 
their beloved adopted country. Dr. Leyds was one of the 
imported Hollanders, who rose to the position of State 
Secretary in the Transvaal. Extremely clever and subtle, 
these two men acting in concert moulded the poor, 
ignorant, obstinate old Boer to their own way of think- 
ing, so that to-day, when he is too old to learn wisdom, 
it is a pitiable sight to see him struggling in his blind 
and misguided way against the inevitable. 

Since the reaction of opinion set in, people in Eng- 
land have often said to me, " But I suppose the Boers are 
monsters, and Kruger the worst monster of all." These 
very same people, not three years ago, said, "But of 
course Kruger is a Christian saint, and his people are 
very good and religious." Neither of these portraits 
is true. Kruger is not a monster, but he is also not a 
saint nor a Christian in my acceptation of the term. 
Nor is he the great man he is taken to be. He is a 
strong man with a strong personality, but has strict 
limitations. His point of view is quite different to an 
Englishman's, and his actions in consequence are differ- 
ent. For instance, he possesses one very characteristic 
Boer trait, which in Europe is (or I should say was, as 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 45 

everything lias changed so) generally regarded as the 
height of genius, I mean the faculty of sitting still and 
letting things take their course. There are times when 
inaction has been described as "masterly." With the 
Boer it is habitual through constitutional indolence of 
mind and body. He does not live in the midst of 
railways and telegraphs. The ox-waggon is his ordi- 
nary method of locomotion, and just as slowly does his 
mind work hi comparison with the European's. Nor 
can he read the newspapers except through an inter- 
preter ; hence he has not the usual outside influence of 
civilisation to keep his mind active. When in 1895 and 
at the beginning of 1896 he simply sat tight and let the 
world in general make mistakes all round him, Kruger 
was regarded as a great statesman. He was nothing of 
the kind. His mind could not keep pace with events, 
but luckily for him Fate played into his hands through 
the folly and mistakes of some people, and his greatest 
friend was the English public, who, as usual, only saw 
the other side of the question until too late. 

When Mr. Hermann Eckstein left Johannesburg, 
Lionel was made President of the Chamber of Mines 
in his place. This institution was formed by the large 
firms in Johannesburg to supervise the general working 
of the mines and to guard their interests, and has done 
more to further the industry than any government 
rules and regulations ; in fact, its history has been one 
long contention with the powers at Pretoria to obtain 
the merest justice. The history of all the shameful 



46 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

over-taxation and corruption has been written else- 
where, and this is obvious to any one who pays heed 
to statistics. It is easy to understand that, to a con- 
scientious man, such a position presented many diffi- 
culties. I can only say that it is one which became 
more and more onerous as time went on, and the mines 
increased and the population with them. There arose 
the absurd anomaly that men representing millions of 
pounds and contributing nine-tenths of the taxes, who 
had given many proofs of friendship to their adopted 
country, had no voice in its government, not so much 
even as an uneducated peasant who could neither read 
nor write, and who exercised no influence on the 
country except a retrograde one. Kruger's great fear 
was that every one wanted to take his country from 
him, especially England, and this has been the key- 
note of all his actions. 

In the early days of Johannesburg there was not, of 
course, the strong political feeling that came with time 
and growing misgovernment. The daily business of life 
took up quite enough of men's thoughts. They were 
there mainly for the purpose of making a living 
possibly a fortune and did not trouble themselves 
about political rights. I know that many of the first 
settlers, and they represent some of the best men of 
the place, did honestly strive in every way in their 
power to make friends with the Boers, and for a good 
many years themselves did for the place what they 
could not get the Government to do. Enormous 






04 
^ 

H 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 47 

sums were spent in private taxation, simply because 
some one had to do something, aud the Government 
would not. 

I believe that, if in the early days they could have 
foreseen even in a slight degree to what enormous 
proportions the mining industry would grow, the 
leading mining men would have acted more firmly 
and formulated their demands sooner, but not the most 
optimistic could fathom the riches of the Rand. And 
naturally they were a little timorous as to the future, 
and had to feel their way. Dismal prophecies as to the 
mines giving out were constantly being recited, and so 
for the first few years men's minds were more occupied 
with the daily task of money-making. 

But as time went on and the population increased, 
and the town grew, the necessity arose for a little legis- 
lation, but none was forthcoming. The streets were left 
in a state of nature ; for years one saw quite fine shops 
lining a dusty track, and no attempt made to improve 
it. With heavy ox-waggon as well as the usual traffic 
of a town, the state of dust in the dry season, and of 
mud and deep ruts in the wet, is more easily imagined 
than described. As Johannesburg is situated nearly 
6000 feet above the sea, there is a constant breeze 
blowing, and when this breeze becomes stronger, and 
a good wind blew, the effects were awful. I have seen 
dust-storms so thick that one could not see one's hand 
before one's face. This red dust also was very un- 
healthy, for the sanitary arrangements being of a 



48 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

frightfully primitive kind, the place was very dirty, 
and fearful odours abounded. The dust flying about 
continually caused a great deal of illness of every kind. 
That no epidemic ever visited the town is due probably 
to the splendid dry temperate climate, and, I presume, 
to the constant breeze. In South Africa the dust- 
storms are known as " the doctor." 

Johannesburg rejoices in a glorious climate. Al- 
though so near the Equator, it is very temperate owing 
to its altitude. During the winter, that is from June 
to October, there is rarely any rain. There is a cold, 
disagreeable wind, with rather a hot sun and plenty 
of frost, and the nights and mornings are bitter. Of 
course at that time of the year the dust is unsupport- 
able, more especially in August and September. This 
is caused principally by local traffic, and does not sweep 
down, as in Kimberley, from a desert. Once the rains 
begin a more heavenly climate cannot be imagined. 
It has always gone to my heart to see a place so 
favoured by nature gradually becoming, through man's 
blind perversity, one of the most loathsome spots on 
earth. No place was ever started with fairer prospects 
or better chances. 

The police were worse than useless; undisciplined, too 
few in numbers, notoriously dishonest and hostile, they 
were an element of disturbance rather than of order. 
Consequently in Johannesburg, unlike other colonial 
towns, it was customary for men to carry revolvers 
at night, and to have one very near at hand in their 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 49 

bedrooms. Sir Drummond Dunbar, one of the pion- 
eers, very soon formed a Ladies' Revolver Club, as 
it was felt to be necessary for women to know how 
to protect themselves a little. An amusing and almost 
tragic incident occurred at one of the first practices. 
Sir Drummond, holding up his hand as a signal, 
"Don't fire," a too eager learner, mistaking it, fired 
and shot off his little finger ! 

In Natal, where they have 581,000 idle blacks to 
49,000 whites, there has long existed what the news- 
papers term "the social curse"; that is to say, the 
crime of rape by Kaffirs on white women and children. 
To the Kaffir a white woman is always an object of 
desire, but the crime is rampant in Natal because of 
the preponderance of the black and the often lonely 
position of the farms. The horror of it is of course 
apparent to all, and the punishment is death. Hence in 
most parts of South Africa it is kept in check to a cer- 
tain extent. But in Johannesburg the thing assumed 
fearful proportions, becoming at one time quite an epi- 
demic, and all women went in terror for their own and 
their children's lives. The punishment in the Transvaal 
is also death, but the sentence generally passed was six 
months' imprisonment. That was no check at all, and 
although I had faithful white servants, I remember 
many a time when dining out I have hardly been able 
to contain myself for fear of what might have happened 
in my absence. A poor little white girl of two, living not 
far from us, was violated one day by a coloured servant ; 

D 



50 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

and dozens of instances occurred which never appeared 
in the papers through the horror and shame of it. I 
knew one poor woman with four little girls, who could 
not afford to keep white servants; she told me that 
when she was obliged to go away from home for shop- 
ping, &c., she used to lock them all in the house, 
and was in an agony of terror until she got home 
again. 

We had moved away from our early home in the 
town on account of its unhealthiness, and had built 
ourselves a house about two miles out. I kept in the 
house a revolver for the women servants to take with 
them when they walked into the town, warning them 
if they went without it, and anything befell them, it 
would be their own fault; they were also forbidden 
to go alone. We kept some large dogs, which always 
accompanied us on our walks. One plucky woman in 
the town, happening to be in bed one night, and alone 
in the house when a Kaffir entered her room, shot him 
dead. But many instances occurred where women 
found themselves in positions where they could not 
defend themselves, and horrible tragedies occurred. In 
most of these cases the offender was never discovered. 
At times there were numbers of ghastly murders, and 
little apparent effort was made to discover the murderers. 
Verily, under such circumstances life was rendered need- 
lessly hard, and the annoying part was that it was all 
so unnecessary. People did what they could to help 
themselves ; to appeal to the English Government was a 




w 

DC 
2 

W 
E 

C 
DC 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 51 

remedy that occurred to no one, as their utter indiffer- 
ence and ignorance of matters hi South Africa had 
been so often displayed, that the fact of England being 
the suzerain power hi the Transvaal had almost been 
lost sight of. 

After making every available effort with the " powers 
that be" at Pretoria, and having signed numerous 
petitions for redress with absolutely no result with 
everything, in fact, going from bad to worse, and life 
becoming intolerable the conviction that it was high 
tune to adopt more drastic methods began to take root 
in men's minds. Not only did they contribute practi- 
cally all the revenue, but when the Government found 
themselves with more money than they were accus- 
tomed to, they began squandering it hi the most ex- 
travagant way, and always to the detriment of the 
Uitlander. The Secret Service Fund was a perfect gulf 
for swallowing up money, for which no account was 
rendered. 

The President, who receives a yearly pay of 7000, 
is well known to have amassed a huge fortune for 
himself and his numerous family. Also almost the 
entire staff of officials, down to the meanest policeman, 
and a great many of the members of the Volksraad, were 
notorious for their corrupt practices. There are a few 
exceptions to this rule, but very few. These are not 
wild statements, but can be proved over and over again. 
But as yet the people had not formulated any system 
of remedy, and their patience was wonderful. No 



52 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

organised body was in existence except the National 
Union, and as that was a political body, many of 
the leading men of the place, for obvious reasons, had 
not joined it. But people's eyes were opened suddenly, 
and men became alive to the fact that action was 
necessary. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE Boers had begun a war with Malaboch, a Kaffir chief 
on their northern border, and "commandeered" men 
to go and fight, as was their custom. Accordingly they 
not only commandeered their own men but a good many 
Uitlanders as well. Remember, these were men who 
under no conditions whatever could obtain political rights 
of any kind. So they very justly said to themselves, " If 
we are always to remain aliens, with no rights, why 
should we fight for the people who refuse them to us ? " 
So all their protests being in vain, aided and abetted by 
some courageous Wesleyan ministers in Pretoria and 
Johannesburg, they refused outright to proceed to the 
front, and were accordingly cast into prison: a few 
men being sent up country by force to join the Boer 
Commando. 

The result of this was that the British Government 
interfered, and sent Sir Henry (now Lord) Loch up to 
see into the matter. There was tremendous excitement 
in Pretoria. Kruger went to the station to meet the 
High Commissioner, and an incident occurred to em- 
bitter him still more against the British Uitlander, for he 
was too blind to see that it was entirely his own fault. 
There was a scene of the wildest enthusiasm, thousands 

63 



54 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

being there to welcome the Queen's representative, and 
when he and Kruger got into the carriage (which also 
contained Dr. Leyds) to proceed to the hotel, some 
Englishmen took out the horses and dragged it, one irre- 
pressible person jumping on the box seat and waving a 
Union Jack over Kruger's head ! When the carriage 
arrived at its destination, Sir Henry, accompanied by 
Dr. Leyds, entered the hotel, and the President was left 
sitting in the horseless carriage. The yelling crowd 
refused to drag the vehicle, and after some difficulty a 
few of his faithful burghers were got together to draw 
the irate President to his home. This was the more 
significant, as it took place in Pretoria, which is well 
known to be very matter of fact. 

I shall never forget how frightened I was when 
Lionel came home that night from Pretoria. I saw by 
his face that something serious had occurred. His first 
words were, " If I tell you to leave the place with the 
children, if it is at an hour's notice, will you do it ? " 
He then told me of this ominous incident ; also that 
armed Boers had been parading the streets of Pretoria 
that day, " looking as if they would willingly shoot down 
any man, woman, or child." He also added that al- 
though the Turf Club hi Johannesburg had invited Sir 
Henry and his staff to come over to the races then 
taking place, he sincerely hoped he would not do so, 
as he was sure there would be a " row." Five hundred 
armed Boers had also immediately been sent to remain 
on the outskirts of Johannesburg, and they were vowing 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 55 

vengeance on the rooineks. Then for the first time 
I realised that, except for the two or three revolvers in 
the house, we had no means of self-protection; that, 
indeed, the whole population of the Rand was in an 
utterly defenceless state in what was daily becoming a 
hostile country. I insisted on Lionel buying a rifle the 
next day, and a few others did the same, but it struck 
me then and many a day after, that we were living on 
a volcano. But the strangest part was that hardly 
any one in the place attached any importance to the 
matter, and, except by a few, the incident and its lessons 
were soon forgotten. 

Lionel again went to Pretoria the next day and 
had a conversation with Sir Henry about what steps 
the English Government would take in the contingency 
of the Boers following out their threats and firing on 
Johannesburg. It appeared that it would require several 
days to bring troops from the border, and at the time 
the garrisons were quite inadequate to meet any emer- 
gency. Sir Henry did not come to the races, but went 
back to Cape Town. From that day things marched 
quickly. Kruger gave in about the commandeered 
men, and apparently things were smoothed over. But 
in the history of the Rand these events marked a 
distinct epoch. Much seed for reflection had been 
scattered, and with the more serious-minded remained 
the thought that the town with its huge population 
of women and children would be utterly defenceless in 
the event of hostilities. The Boers now showed more 



56 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

openly than ever their contempt and dislike for the 
Uitlanders, who would be utterly at their mercy, 
and remembering that chivalry is foreign to the Boer 
nature, that was no pleasant prospect. The unhappy 
arrangement with Jameson later is to be attributed to 
the " Loch incident." 

This sudden outburst of dislike had more in it than 
appeared on the surface. The commandeering had also 
been tentative, with a deep-rooted purpose. For some 
time past the Germans had been showing great friend- 
ship for the Transvaal, to which the President responded. 
There are a great many Germans in South Africa, and 
notably in the Transvaal. As Kruger was so friendly to 
that nation, it occurred to the more astute among them 
that here was a splendid opportunity for an outlet for 
that overflowing country. The German Emperor is well 
known to encourage colonisation, and so by degrees a 
continually-increasing number of Germans had been 
coining into the Transvaal, and were always most favour- 
ably treated by the Government. I do not, of course, 
include the Germans with English associations, but those 
who came direct from Germany. 

There was a great fuss when the Delagoa Bay Rail- 
way was opened just before the Loch incident, when 
the German Emperor sent Kruger a personal telegram 
of congratulation, and at the banquet given in Pretoria 
many assurances of friendship and amity were ex- 
changed. Kruger took this occasion to emphasise his 
contempt for Johannesburg. He had invited a great 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 57 

many prominent people from all parts of South Africa 
the Orange Free State, Natal, Cape Colony, and the 
Portuguese possessions. From Johannesburg he selected 
one man, and that was Lionel. He, as well as most of 
the prominent men in Johannesburg, resented this open 
slight, considering that that town had practically paid 
for the railway. Naturally he did not accept the invi- 
tation. 

All this time Lionel with the rest of his firm had been 
doing the best they could for the mining interest ; they 
would not acknowledge themselves beaten, but continued 
their futile and heartrending struggle with the Govern- 
ment. But of no avail. There was a weekly journal at 
Johannesburg called The Critic, whose criticisms on men 
in general were often more scurrilous than true, and 
among others who were the constant target for their 
envenomed shafts were the partners hi Messrs. H. Eck- 
stein & Co. Being capitalists, they could do nothing 
right. The Critic was also a violent opponent of the 
Government. About this time the editor wrote "An 
Open Letter " to Lionel, which, to my mind, contained 
many truths, and urged him to make a stand against the 
ruling powers. We were staying at East London at the 
time, and I remember on reading this "open letter" 
I was furious at the abusive terms employed, but on 
second thoughts felt that there was much truth in some 
of the suggestions. I then said to Lionel, and repeated 
the question several times afterwards, "Why do you 
not take up a stand on political grounds, and show 



58 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

the Transvaal Government that it is no longer possible 
to endure this intolerable state of things?" And his 
answer was the same invariably. "Do not talk non- 
sense. I have to consider my firm, and we represent 
the interests of far too many people to dare to risk 
them." My argument was that the Boer, through 
generations of dealing with Kaffirs, had imbibed many 
of their characteristics, a marked one being that any- 
thing in the shape of generosity or fairness is always 
looked upon as a sign of weakness. A Boer, like a Kaffir, 
must feel that you are prepared to enforce what you de- 
mand, or he will bully you. " Magnanimity " has been 
the bane of South Africa, and to the Boer the word is 
synonymous with fear. Complaints also were made at 
this tune by the workmen on the Rand, that the capi- 
talists only thought of themselves, and ought to take a 
more prominent part in politics and uphold their in- 
terests. Poor men ! they were afterwards blamed by 
this very class for trying to help them. About this tune, 
too, the National Union lost its President, and many 
people looked to Lionel to fill his place. But he per- 
sisted in his refusal to take a prominent part in politics, 
always for the same reason. I relate this particularly, 
as he and many others have often been accused of work- 
ing up an agitation for the sake of money. 

The men who suffered most and dared all for the 
sake of right in Johannesburg were the men who had 
much to lose and very little to gain, at any rate in a 
material way ; and remembering the futile endeavour of 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 59 

years, and in the cause of justice, it makes my blood 
boil to think how falsely and groundlessly they were 
accused of one of the most sordid and mean of crimes. 
When later on one was forced to hear and read all 
the vile imputations made against those who risked 
so much for their duty, when a paper called The 
World, published an article headed " Murder for 
Money," it seemed inconceivable that there could be 
persons who judged their fellows by so low a standard. 
I do not talk of all the daily annoyances we had to put 
up with, nor all the various " grievances " which have 
been so often described. But to people comfortably 
settled at home in England, who do not know how 
wretched life can be made by the deprivation of things 
they look on as their right to people who like to know 
that when they write a letter and send it by post it will 
be delivered, the following tale will appeal. An old 
housemaid of mine, who married, told me in quite a 
casual way that her husband, who had been out of 
work, had got a job at Christmas to help in sorting the 
letters, which were too many for the usual clerks at the 
post-office. And, she added, " when they were tired of 
sorting them, they had a trap-door in the floor to an 
underground place, through which they dropped those 
that were left ! " 

Having got their railway line finished from Delagoa 
Bay, the Transvaal tried to force the merchants to use 
it in preference to the more convenient and quicker 
route from the Cape Colony, and to this end they made 



60 SOtJTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

the rates prohibitive from Vereeniging, on the frontier, 
to Johannesburg, which is only about forty miles. The 
merchants found it much cheaper to bring their goods 
by ox-waggon or mule-waggon from the border, so then 
the Government, determined to have their way, closed 
the drifts, and put armed men there to enforce the order. 
I must explain this. In a new country, of course, the 
rivers are not bridged, this being the case particularly 
in the Transvaal. With all their immense revenues 
they have never attempted a single public work except 
under extreme coercion, and then always with a view 
to the enrichment of some Dutch or German con- 
cessionaire. 

On most of the South African rivers there are certain 
places called " drifts " (fords), which can be crossed by 
waggons. In cases where that is impossible there are 
ponts or bridges. The Vaal and Orange rivers being 
deep, are generally crossed by the latter methods. 
A propos of this, I remember being very much 
exasperated one day. After I had laboriously tried to 
explain to a London journalist the enormity of the 
action of the Transvaal Government hi closing the 
drifts, he turned to me in the most innocent manner 
and said, "But you have all these rich men on the 
Rand, and if they are so anxious to do well for their 
mines why don't they build bridges ? " not appearing to 
understand that this was hardly the point, and that if 
the authorities could close a drift they could even more 
easily close a bridge. The English Government decided 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 61 

that the closing of the drifts was contrary to the Con- 
vention, and sent the Transvaal an ultimatum, upon 
which they gave way. The few instances I have given, 
however, will prove how very inimical they were to the 
newcomers, or rather the old residents of Johannesburg, 
for such many had now become. 

I need not say that all this time no stone had been 
left unturned by Lionel and many other leading men to 
convince the Government of their folly how those men 
were anxious to be their friends, and to help them to do 
what was in the interest of the mines, and that meant 
the country. Up to this time there were very few 
Boers in Johannesburg, but many Africanders from all 
parts of the colony, who felt even more deeply than 
the Europeans the disgraceful state of subjugation in 
which we were all living. It is unnecessary to go into 
the details of the numerous petitions addressed to the 
President and the Volksraad praying for redress. The 
simplest action was misconstrued, and the petitions 
were openly laughed to scorn in the Raad, one member 
even going so far as to express the real, if unconfessed, 
opinion of the Government, and inviting the Uitlanders, 
if they wanted any rights, to come and fight for them ! 
The President, who is as cunning and untrustworthy 
as he is stubborn, now made promises, now entirely 
ignored what was represented to him. Certainly it 
is a noteworthy fact that he has never kept a single 
promise nor done anything for the good of the place 
except under pressure, and he never will do anything 



62 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

unless forced to. He knows too well how little reason 
South Africans have to expect anything from England, 
and this is the reason why so many loyal colonists, tired 
of her half-hearted support of her subjects in South 
Africa, have gone over to the party of the Africander 
Bond, which almost openly supports Kruger in his 
opposition to British subjects and British rule, and still 
pretends to be loyal. It is this pernicious influence, 
subtle and treacherous in that it fears the light of 
day an influence always at work, which drew fresh 
energy from the Raid that is most inimical to British 
interests in South Africa. Many of the Bondsmen 
are notorious turncoats, joining whichever party is 
uppermost, and knowing neither truth nor courage. It 
is this party at the Cape which, in England's vacillation 
and want of a fixed policy, see a chance of fulfilling 
their aspirations, and which find in Kruger a still 
further aid to their ambitions. Hence their cry of 
" Africa for the Africanders " is not entirely an illusory 
one. And hence the danger. 

Men in Johannesburg, and Mr. Rhodes in Cape 
Town, began at last to see that unless the burning 
questions of the hour were settled once and for all, the 
whole country ran a risk of being embroiled, that the 
uncertainty was paralysing trade and commerce, and 
that the country could never prosper with this " fester- 
ing sore," as some one has justly described the Transvaal, 
in their midst. So men's minds in Johannesburg were 
more and more drawn to the conviction that they would 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 63 

have to work out their own salvation. Accordingly 
they determined upon a plan for securing their just 
rights, and this is how they went about it. 

Remember that those who started the Reform move- 
ment in Johannesburg were, most of them, serious men 
with families men who, when they pledged themselves 
to do their best for their adopted country, did not shut 
their eyes to the gravity of the undertaking. Up to 
this time Lionel, while doing all he could, had never 
taken an active part in politics, except in so far as that 
all business in the Transvaal is inseparable from politics. 
But towards the end of 1895 he identified himself 
with the Reform movement in conjunction with a 
good many of the principal business and professional 
men. 

I must interrupt this to relate that about June in 
that year I left Johannesburg on a three months' visit 
to England with the children, was taken ill on the way, 
and for five months was practically on my back, being 
at death's door once or twice. I also nearly lost my 
little girl from inflammation of the lungs, the result of an 
attack of measles, which was really the cause of my own 
illness, besides having the two boys down with measles. 
Lionel saw us on board the steamer at Cape Town, and 
we came on to England alone, no one realising how ill 
I was. I mention this particularly, as afterwards when 
the fiasco came in January people on all sides accused 
him of having sent us away expressly to be out of 
danger ; but that was not the case. It was an old plan, 



64 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

and I fully intended to return in three months, but 
Fate willed otherwise. Had I done so, the bitter sus- 
pense and agony of mind which I had to go through 
would have been spared me. Although I was not in- 
formed that any active movement was contemplated, 
I knew as indeed the whole of South Africa knew 
that the situation was very acute. When I reproached 
Lionel afterwards for not telling me of the preparations 
that were being made by the leading Uitlanders, he 
told me that all the Reform party had sworn themselves 
to secrecy. At one tune, when I was very seriously ill, 
Lionel, with his portmanteau ready packed, only waited 
for a telegram from me to start for England. As I took 
a turn for the better, he did not come. He announced 
to his fellow Reformers that, as I was dangerously ill, 
he might possibly be obliged to leave at a moment's 
notice. One of them (I will not mention his name) said 
to him, "Phillips, you cannot do it; men would call 
you a coward. In fact, if you heard your wife was 
dead, you dare not leave now." 

Lionel did not join the National Union, but he 
publicly announced his views in a speech he made in 
November at the opening of the new building of the 
Chamber of Mines. Being President, he invited a num- 
ber of ladies and gentlemen to the ceremony, but the 
social gathering resolved itself into a much more serious 
function than was expected. In his speech announcing 
the building open, he took the opportunity of warning 
the Government. It is too long to reproduce, but he 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 65 

enumerated the burning grievances of the Uitlanders, 
and ended with these words : 

" All we want in this country is purity of adminis- 
tration and an equitable share and voice in its affairs. 
(Cheers.) I hope that wiser counsels may prevail, and 
that the Government of this country may be induced 
to see that the present policy will not do. Nothing is 
further from my heart than a desire to see an upheaval 
which would be disastrous from every point of view, 
and which would probably end in the most horrible 
of all endings in bloodshed. But I should say this, 
that it is a mistake to imagine that this much-maligned 
community, which consists, anyhow, of a majority of 
men born of freemen, will consent indefinitely to remain 
subordinate to the minority in this country (applause) 
and that they will for ever allow their lives, property, 
and liberty to be subject to its arbitrary will. I hope 
that the Legislature of this country will recognise this 
fact in time, and not attempt to do that which is im- 
possible. If the population of this country were only 
accepted in the spirit in which it has offered itself, it 
would be a strength to the others instead of a weak- 
ness. (Cheers.) " 

I happened to go up to London from Brighton that 
day, and I saw Mr. Beit, who was very unwell. He 
showed me the Renter's cable summary of the whole 
proceeding, and was very much agitated. He asked me 
what I thought of it, and I told him I was delighted. 

I thought it quite the right thing to do, and I cabled 

E 



66 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

out to Lionel to congratulate him on the course he had 
taken. The speech created quite a sensation. In South 
Africa it was universally applauded ; it was commented 
on in most flattering terms, in many cases under the 
headings, " The Writing on the Wall," " Mene Mene 
Tekel," &c., and warnings were addressed to Kruger on 
all sides. The English papers also noticed it favourably, 
but there was much agitation on the Stock Exchange, 
where I believe South African shares went down. I 
met a man the same day, who said to me, " Every one is 
going for your husband, and I believe if you appeared 
on the Stock Exchange, even you would be mobbed." 
That was one way of looking at the matter ! 



CHAPTER VII 

I SHALL now continue rny tale. The excitement in 
London and everywhere else was intense, and every 
scrap of news was eagerly read, but it took a long time 
for the facts to reach us, and to this day many people 
have but a hazy idea of what actually happened. It 
appeared that the Johannesburg men had called on Dr. 
Jameson to help them, and had then basely deserted 
him, that in consequence he had surrendered to the 
Boers, and with his men had been taken prisoner to 
Pretoria. At the first blush it was indeed a fearful 
tale of shame and treachery, and it was only natural 
that one side should be extolled and the other side 
abused. In fact, words were inadequate to describe 
the behaviour of either side. Kruger was lauded to 
the skies as possessing every Christian virtue. The 
Poet Laureate distinguished himself by a pitiful effu- 
sion in praise of Jameson's exploit, which did untold 
harm to innocent people. I suppose the poor man 
felt that his new official position necessitated a poem, 
so before he or any one else in England was aware of 
the truth, he rushed into print. This wretched jingle 
was nightly recited at the Alhambra by a person dressed 
as one of the Chartered Company's police, on a stage 

67 



68 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

decorated with tropical palms and intended to repre- 
sent Krugersdorp, which place, by the way, -is arid to a 
degree. But the audience liked it, and nightly went 
mad, and nightly cursed Johannesburg. They criticised 
neither the style nor the material of the Laureate's 
poem : they had found a real live hero to applaud, and 
so they were not critical but happy. 

Meantime for days no news came, only the most 
awful rumours poured in on all sides. No one received 
any cable messages, and one moment it was said that 
the cable was cut, the next that the Government had 
monopolised it. Messrs. Wernher, Beit, & Co. were with- 
out information for many days. When at last news 
did come, it was but a succession of horrors. We heard 
that Jameson, in response to a letter from some of the 
leading Johannesburg men, had crossed the border 
with 400 men to rescue the women and children. He 
had been encamped on the borders of Bechuanaland 
and the Transvaal for some time past, and on receiving 
this letter had come helter-skelter. On hearing this 
the Boers sent a grandson of the President to warn 
Jameson not to proceed. The Government of the Cape 
also tried to stop him, but without success. They took 
no heed, and on January 1, 1896, were met by an armed 
force of Boers, who, pursuing their usual tactics of 
guerilla warfare, entrenched themselves behind rocks, 
and after enormous bravery on all sides, Jameson, who 
had expected the men of Johannesburg to reinforce 
him, not seeing any sign of them, surrendered. I can- 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 69 

not recount all the wild tales that were circulated : 
that hundreds of Boers had been shot ; how eye- 
witnesses had seen waggon-loads of dead bodies being 
carted off, and the theme was only varied by the ac- 
counts of heroism on the one side and the cowardice 
and treachery on the other. I was in despair. No 
words can picture the agonies of mind I went through, 
and the suspense grew daily more and more terrible. 
No explanation reached any one, and the wildest con- 
jectures were heard on every side. Lionel and his 
friends were accused of having worked the whole thing 
up to make money out of it. It was alleged that they 
wanted to make shares fall so as to buy in again, and 
so make huge sums. The Government vouchsafed no 
information, and gave no details, even if they knew any. 
Then we heard of terrified women and children leaving 
the place, of their sufferings, of the exodus of numbers 
of miners, of the disaster to the Natal train, hi which 
many women and children also flying from the place 
were killed. Still there was no definite news of any 
kind, and I thought I should have gone mad. Mr. 
Rhodes, of course, was also accused of every crime 
under the sun. Sir Hercules Robinson, then Governor 
of Cape Colony, went to Pretoria to try and settle the 
differences on behalf of the English Government, and 
to do all in his power for the redress of the Uitlanders' 
grievances, on condition that they not only gave up 
their arms themselves, but persuaded the whole of 
Johannesburg to do the same, as Jameson and his men 



70 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

were in danger of their lives. This was done, but with 
some little difficulty. We then read that Sir Hercules 
had left for Cape Town. The storm of abuse against the 
place increased, and sympathy for Jameson with it. 

I did not know what to think. Remembering what 
fears men had entertained the year before when Sir 
Henry Loch was at Pretoria, and their many conjec- 
tures as to what would happen in case of any sudden 
need for outside help, I came to the conclusion that 
the men of Johannesburg must have made some ar- 
rangement with Dr. Jameson, and that he had come 
to their assistance in response to some treacherous call, 
and I for one gave him and his men all my sympathy. 
Naturally, I knew that a mistake had arisen, as it was 
not possible for the men hi Johannesburg to have 
left them in the lurch, as it seemed they had done; 
but altogether it was an awful time. Mr. Wernher 
and his partners were staunch to their faith in Lionel 
and his friends, but too much paralysed by events to 
do anything. So for days the suspense dragged on, no 
one knowing what was happening. Mr. Wernher gave 
me stern orders to be careful as to what I said, as much 
now depended on every one concerned silently await- 
ing events. However, I am afraid I disobeyed him, and 
wrote the following letter to the Times : 

" To the Editor of the ' Times.' 

" SIR, It may be of interest to your readers to hear 
that I have to-day received the following message by 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 71 

cable from my husband, Mr. Lionel Phillips, at Johan- 
nesburg, dated this morning : 

" ' Peace restored ; expect amnesty all concerned on 
payment indemnity.' 

"I may add that during the last ten most anxious 
days I have received no communications from my hus- 
band except a telegram giving me news of his personal 
safety. It is obvious to me, as it must be to every one else, 
that cable messages have been largely tampered with by 
the Transvaal authorities, as I am without reply to most 
urgent questions addressed to my husband by cable. 

" In certain quarters it appears to be considered that 
the action of Johannesburg in not going to the assist- 
ance of Dr. Jameson is greatly to be blamed. But any 
one acquainted with the true feeling of the people of 
Johannesburg, and the very real grievances from which 
they suffer (not to mention the affection which all of 
us who know him bear Dr. Jameson), must feel certain 
that there lurks in the background some vile treachery 
which has not yet come to light. 

" Let us first hear by whom the ' urgent appeal ' was 
sent to Dr. Jameson. It is certain that an enormous 
sum has been spent in 'secret service' money during 
the last few months by the Transvaal Government, and 
is it not possible that a deliberate trap was planned and 
carried into effect by the Boer authorities ? The de- 
clarations of a three days' armistice by General Joubert, 
just before the fight with Dr. Jameson's brave band, is, 
to say the least of it, a curious coincidence. 



72 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

" To show that the grievances of the Uitlanders are 
indeed real, let me call your attention to a few facts. 
What would women residing hi peaceful England say 
to the fact that one cannot take a walk out of sight 
of one's own house in the suburbs of Johannesburg 
with safety ? The Kaffirs, who in other parts of South 
Africa treat a white woman with almost servile respect, 
there make it a most unpleasant ordeal to pass them, 
and in a lonely part absolutely dangerous. 

"Even little girls of the tenderest age are not safe 
from these monsters. This is, of course, owing to the 
utterly inadequate police protection afforded by the 
Government, the ridiculously lenient sentences passed 
on horrible crimes, and to the adulterated drink sold 
by licensed publicans to the Kaffirs on all sides. What 
would be said if, when insulted by a cab-driver, it was 
found that the nearest policeman was the owner of the 
cab in question, and refused to render any assistance or 
listen to any complaint ? 

" The educational grievance has been so widely 
circulated that it is needless to mention it now; but 
what is to be expected of a Government composed of 
men barely able to write their own names ? 

" Of course I, as a woman, do not wish to enter into 
the larger questions of franchise, monopolies, taxation, 
&c., but being myself an Africander, and well able to 
recognise the many good qualities of the Boers, you 
will quite understand that I do not take a prejudiced 
view of the situation, and I am in a position better than 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 73 

that of most people to understand the grave reality of 
the Uitlanders' grievances. Yours faithfully, 

" FLORENCE PHILLIPS. 

" BUBLINGTON HOTEL, W., 
9th January." 

It was printed, and I got into dreadful hot water 
with Mr. Wernher and Mr. Michaelis, and that day, I 
think, was one of the most miserable I ever spent. I 
did not know what indiscretion I had committed. The 
idea that I might have betrayed State secrets over- 
whelmed me, and anguish is the only word to express 
my feelings as I reflected that, although I had acted 
with the best possible motives, I might perhaps have 
done some terrible harm to those I had meant to help. 

In my despair I did not know where to turn. I had for 
the moment hopelessly offended all Lionel's colleagues, 
and Mr. Beit having gone to the Cape in November, I 
did not know any one who could advise me as to what 
I ought to do. In this dilemma my thoughts turned 
to Miss Shaw, of the Times, whom I had first met in 
Johannesburg. She, I knew, was a true woman, kind 
and understanding, and could give me sound advice. 
So weeping bitterly, I was just getting into a hansom 
to go and see her, when I met a friend in need on the 
pavement, the Duke of Abercorn, who said he had come 
to congratulate me on my letter ! I told him my 
trouble, and he reassured me considerably ; and I pro- 
ceeded to see Miss Shaw, who also did not fail me in 



74 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

iny need. All that kind womanly sympathy and a 
grasp of the situation could give she gave me, and in 
that she afforded more comfort and help than perhaps 
she was aware of. She also reassured me, and told me 
she thought I could not have done my husband any 
harm ; in fact, she considered it a great pity that at that 
particular moment more exertions were not made to set 
the public right, as people were in the deepest ignorance 
of the whole question, and naturally went blindly by 
what they read in the papers. I blessed her, and she 
still has my warmest gratitude for her help when I was 
in such trouble. Miss Shaw then said to me, "You 
have of course seen the letter that was sent by the 
Johannesburg men to Jameson among the telegrams to 
the Times?" " No," I said, " I had not. I had missed 
it through travelling between Paris and London." 
" And," she said, in rather a grave voice, " the signa- 
tures of the men who sent it ? " My heart sank when 
I read the names Lionel Phillips, Charles Leonard, 
John Hays Hammond, Frank Rhodes, and George 
Farrar. I do not know how I had missed reading the 
letter some days before, and the ominous words sank 
like lead on my heart. 

I returned to my hotel feeling crushed in body and 
mind and utterly perplexed. I found on the table of 
my sitting-room several telegrams, and among them 
the following one from Lionel : " The Transvaal Govern- 
ment arresting many men here, so have given myself 
up. Going to Pretoria prison to-day. Do not come 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 75 

out on any account." My cup was full. My soul re- 
belled at the idea of staying, but I did not feel justified 
in disobeying. I felt that my only course was to do as 
I was asked. 

Most of our luggage had been sent on, as we were 
leaving for South Africa the next day, and it had to 
be brought back from Southampton. There were many 
people who blamed me for not going out in spite of 
Lionel's wishes, but to all I made the same answer, 
" When any one is in deep trouble and wishes you ex- 
pressly to do something for them, is it not a greater 
proof of your desire to serve them to do as they wish 
rather than the opposite ? " At any rate, that was my 
idea of the matter. I did not know what Lionel's 
motives were in not wishing us to go out, for I knew 
there could be no personal danger for us ; but I thought 
he probably had some private reason which he could 
not divulge by cable, as the censorship was extremely 
strict, and I did not know what means he would have 
in prison for communication with any one. 

I cannot describe the agony of mind I underwent 
during those first weeks ; my nights were made hideous 
by the thought of his sufferings in prison, for I was 
well acquainted with Pretoria and its primitive in- 
stitutions, the filthy habits of its inhabitants, and its 
almost tropical climate in January. I did not know 
what to do for the best; and my utter helplessness 
overcame me. Also, I was quite alive to the treacherous 
character of the Transvaal Boer, and knew that of 



76 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

Lionel in particular Kruger was very jealous, and that 
he would not be sorry to know that he was out of the 
way. I knew that Kruger was aware that there were 
people who, in writing or talking of Johannesburg, had 
dubbed Lionel " King of Johannesburg," and that it was 
gall to him. So knowing that he and his friends were 
in prison, I felt extremely uneasy as to their safety. 

As a good Colonial, my thoughts naturally flew to 
the fountain-head, and I felt that if I could only see the 
Queen and put the true state of the case to her set 
out the wrongs of Johannesburg in fact all would be 
well. So I telegraphed to a kind friend, Lord Montagu 
of Beaulieu, to that effect, and he came up from South- 
ampton on purpose to see me. He told me that under 
the circumstances he considered such a step would be 
useless, as her Majesty always acted in a constitutional 
manner, and it was a question for the Colonial Office. 
He added, "If it were a matter of life and death, I 
should think she might listen, but not otherwise." So 
I abandoned the idea, but was haunted by the know- 
ledge that it might be a question of life or death. 

The fact, however, remained that these men had 
given up their arms with the result that they were 
now imprisoned in obedience to Sir H. Robinson, who 
had acted under orders from the Colonial Office, and 
that consequently some one was responsible for their 
unjust treatment. So I went to Downing Street, deter- 
mined to interview Mr. Chamberlain and find out a 
little of the truth. 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 77 

I sent in my card and a note asking him to see me, 
and was left waiting in a little room for some time. It 
appears that there had been two very important meetings 
that very afternoon one of the Cabinet and the other 
with the Chartered Company but of this I was not 
aware. The Duke of Abercorn again came to my assist- 
ance, and took me off to see Mr. Fairfield, whom I found 
unnecessarily flippant on an occasion which to me was 
sufficiently grave, and who twitted me with the " nice 
mess that Messrs. Lionel Phillips & Co. had made of 
matters in Johannesburg." My reply, that they had 
shown more courage by remaining in Johannesburg 
than going out to meet Jameson, did not meet with his 
approval So when I was told that Mr. Chamberlain 
could not see me, but that Mr. Fairfield would tell me 
anything I wanted to know, I did not feel inclined to 
pour my woes into that gentleman's ears, and insisted 
on seeing the Colonial Secretary himself. I thought 
that as he, through the High Commissioner, had been 
to a great extent responsible for the "nice mess" in 
which my husband found himself, the least he could 
do was to see me. 

I was ushered into the huge room he occupied, and 
I must admit that if he was not conversational he 
was at least civil. He informed me that my husband's 
life was safe, which was somewhat reassuring. He de- 
clined to discuss the situation, which did not surprise 
me, but when I told him that we had been " groaning 
under Majuba Hill for fifteen years," I certainly was 



78 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

not aware that he had been in the Liberal Cabinet 
which was responsible for that " nice mess " the retro- 
cession of the Transvaal. 

Mr. Beit and Mr. Rhodes came over to England 
about this time, and I was at last able to get at a 
little of the truth, although even they, not having 
been farther north than Cape Town, could not tell me 
all or even half. Mr. Beit was a wreck, and utterly 
cast down about the hideous failure of everything. 
He told me that Jameson, in coming down to 
Johannesburg, had disobeyed Rhodes's orders, but 
probably felt that in doing so it would prevent the 
Boers from hearing of the preparations in Johannes- 
burg, and thought it was best to rush matters, " as," he 
added, " if the Transvaal Government had got wind of 
them (i.e. the preparations), and quietly imprisoned 
your husband and the others, the world would never 
have heeded the matter, the Colonial Office would not 
have bothered, and they might have lingered there for 
years." That, of course, is an extremely far-fetched 
argument, but, in his loyalty to his friends, Mr. Beit felt 
constrained to find a good reason for these unfortunate 
actions. He, I know, was suffering tortures at the 
thought of what some of his old friends were enduring 
in the loathsome Pretoria gaol, and I am sure would 
have been happy to change places with them. One 
night I remember reading in an evening paper the 
account of the sufferings of the " Reform " prisoners (for 
by that name they were known) how the prison was 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 79 

filthy, infested by vermin, that no sanitary appliances 
were provided, that the men were herded together 
and the whole hideousness of their case came over me 
anew. Hearing that Mr. Beit was with Mr. Rhodes in 
the same hotel as myself, I sent for him, and, I am 
afraid, imbued him with my own misery, as I never 
saw any one look so utterly, hopelessly wretched. I can 
honestly say that I believe the sufferers and victims in 
prison did not suffer as much for themselves as he did 
for them. I must also add that Mr. Beit absolutely 
relieved my mind of any lurking doubt I still felt as to 
the mischief my letter to the Times might have done 
my husband. His words, " Your motive was good, and 
you are not to reproach yourself," were balm to my 
soul. 

By the way, this letter brought trouble on my de- 
voted head in more ways than one, and I think I learnt 
a lesson on the danger of writing to the papers which 
will last me my lifetime. The fresh trouble took the 
form of reporters and professional interviewers. Having 
already got into trouble about my opinions, I was 
careful not to plunge deeper, and was warned, hap- 
pily in time, under no circumstances to receive any 
one, for "so pertinacious are some of them that even 
the minute it would take to tell them you cannot be 
interviewed, would suffice to enable them to describe, 
with some degree of accuracy, your person, the colour of 
your eyes, or any trick of manner which would be quite 
sufficient foundation for them to work on opinions and 



80 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

conversations they supply themselves." Never under 
any circumstances, therefore, did I see any of the numer- 
ous people who came on behalf of their papers, and only 
once did a lady interviewer in a most perfidious manner 
get the better of me. 

Naturally at a time of such excitement and general 
interest in South African affairs, the papers were 
anxious for anything to make " copy," and it amused 
me immensely to be asked for my photograph. I 
never could see how my photograph could throw any 
light on the situation, and so, of course, invariably 
refused. Apart from the horror of gaining a pitiful per- 
sonal notoriety, I felt the real gravity and seriousness 
of the matter and of Lionel's position far too deeply 
to risk doing him any harm. 

Another amusing experience at this time was the 
number of anonymous letters I received on the Uit- 
lander question, signed by " Briton," " A Mother," 
"A Sympathiser," &c., from all parts of the British 
Isles. 

But I had not much inclination to laugh at this 
juncture. The positive execration in which Johan- 
nesburg was held at that moment, and my ignorance 
of facts with which to refute the charges, made me 
very sensitive. I can remember carrying home parcels 
rather than give my name in a shop, and expose 
myself to the stares of the assistants. I also refrained 
from taking cabs or incurring unnecessary expenses, as 
I had been informed we were utterly ruined. That, 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 81 

however, did not worry me very much, although, of 
course, it did not tend to increase iny happiness. 

One of the things that took me out of my misery at 
this time was the Pantomime. A kind friend used to 
take me, and I saw " Cinderella " over and over again, 
generally in a box behind a curtain, for fear of meeting 
censorious acquaintances. 

I tried several times to induce Lionel to allow us 
to go to South Africa, but after receiving a cable 
via Newcastle, in Natal, felt much easier in mind. 
It was to the effect that he had positive private in- 
formation that they were all coming out very soon, but 
it was a dead secret, which I was not to breathe to any 
one, and as he would leave for England immediately he 
got out, I was to stay where I was. How many weary 
times before they actually did come out was I to hear 
this same tale, of the " positive private information from 
some one in authority," and how many weary times was 
I to realise that it was all part of the Boer game to keep 
their prey on tenterhooks to their own profit ! 

But as time dragged on, and my passage had been 
taken over and over again, and I was invariably stopped, 
I began to realise that it was hopeless to wait, and so 
finally one day in February I cabled to Lionel that I 
was positively leaving with the children by the next 
boat, and as this time he made no objections, we went. 
Had I known then, what we all learned later to our 
cost, that there would be eternal rumours of release, 
eternal rumours of intervention by the British Govern- 



82 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

ment to be invariably followed by disappointment, how 
much unnecessary suspense and heart-burning we might 
have spared ourselves ! 

Before I left England the British Government were 
negotiating with Kruger, who had decided to keep the 
Johannesburg men, numbering sixty-four in all, in order 
to try them himself, and to send Dr. Jameson and his 
fellow-raiders to England to be tried by their own 
countrymen. The principals were Dr. Jameson, Sir 
John Willoughby, the Hon. Henry White, his brother 
Robert, Colonel Grey, and others. These were almost all 
men in the employment of the Chartered Company. It 
is not necessary for me to tell of all the thousand and 
one attacks made on that Company. Suffice it to say 
that most of its power was taken from it, and among 
others Mr. Rhodes and Mr. Beit had to resign their 
directorships. 

Mr. Rhodes's exclamation when he heard of the 
Jameson Raid, "Jameson has been my friend for twenty 
years, and now he has ruined me ! " ought to have con- 
vinced many people, if no other arguments did, that 
whatever else they may lay at his door, the instigation 
of the raid does not rest with him. Many people are 
also convinced that Jameson did it, thinking to serve 
Rhodes, and that the latter really wished him to dis- 
obey orders. This argument is quite as far-fetched as 
the various conjectures as to what would have happened 
to the Uitlanders if he had not crossed the border. 
If one is to be judged entirely on other people's inter- 




H 

a 



O 

H 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 83 

pretation of what we say, where is the use of truth- 
fulness ? 

In Pretoria the preliminary trial of the Reform 
prisoners was proceeding. Mr. Chamberlain in his 
negotiations with Mr. Kruger had not advanced very 
far. He sent a very fierce despatch to the latter, and 
published it in the English papers before it reached its 
destination. The Boer Government, advised by the 
astute Dr. Leyds, were not slow to take advantage 
of and make the most of this diplomatic mistake, 
principally by petty bullying of the Reform prisoners. 
This kind of thing continued the whole time they were 
in prison. Without reading the newspapers, they were 
made aware of any little differences of opinion between 
the two Governments by the way in which they were 
treated. Their treatment was a kind of barometer. 

After our three weeks' voyage, which was a very 
anxious one, naturally I pined for news, but found 
on my arrival at Cape Town that there was no change 
whatever in the situation. The men were still under- 
going the long drawn-out preliminary examination. 
The majority had been let out on bail, but the four 
ringleaders and Mr. Fitzpatrick were in a cottage hi 
Pretoria with a guard, on 20,000 recognisances. I 
found that the Cape Town people were much excited 
against Johannesburg many men of the Ministry pub- 
licly decrying every one concerned in the whole move- 
ment, including Mr. Rhodes, who had long ere this 
resigned the Premiership of the Cape Colony. This 



84 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

is typical of the species, but it was a pitiful spectacle 
nevertheless, considering the way in which they had 
openly sympathised before the fiasco. Verily it was 
a time for the sifting of the tares from the wheat, a 
process of too painful a nature to make one wish for 
repetition. 

There was great fun in Cape Town also over 
the escape of one of the Reformers, who, poor man, 
really did not deserve all the abuse he got. Being 
a Consul for a European country with Eastern ideas, 
it appears he was persuaded that, if he were found 
guilty, it might cause an international crisis, and that 
therefore he had better leave Johannesburg. So to 
avoid being seen, he hid himself, with a lady friend's 
connivance, under the seat of a railway carriage, and 
safely reached Cape Town; but alas for his well-laid 
plans he was ruthlessly brought back, and played his 
part like a man during the rest of the time. 

Lionel had asked our friend, Mr. Frank Robinow, to 
come down to the Cape to escort us up to Johannes- 
burg, as people had been going through unpleasant 
experiences with the Customs officials at Vereeniging, 
which is on the border, and he dreaded lest, being 
the wife of a prisoner, I might be subjected to rather 
bad treatment. The officials, it appeared, were most 
zealous in their search for arms, and women were the 
victims of dreadful indignities in consequence. But 
our fears were groundless. They had evidently been 
warned of our presence in the train. On our arrival 




w 
X 
fc 
W 

r 
O 
DC 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 85 

at eleven at night, some one came up at once and 
asked if I was there, and on my declaring myself, in 
a most polite manner asked me to follow him. They 
were all perfectly civil, and, contrary to their habit, 
even went so far as to allow the poor tired children 
to sleep on, for which I felt sincerely grateful. 

I had received one or two mysterious telegrams from 
Lionel en route, and then before arriving at our destina- 
tion, I got one telling me that he and the three others 
had obtained a special permit for twenty-four hours, 
and that he would be at our home, "Hohenheim," 
to welcome us instead of in Pretoria. A mysterious 
action of the Government, which was as unexpected 
as it was pleasant ! It appears that some of the 
prisoners' friends had asked for the privilege, and it 
was granted on condition that they did not enter 
the town of Johannesburg, and were back by Sunday 
night. By the way, in Pretoria they were escorted 
to and from the station by a troop of cavalry, while 
in Johannesburg they were left quite alone and un- 
guarded. A childish performance, typical of all the 
doings of the Government ! When we arrived at 
Johannesburg at two in the morning, after our three 
days' journey, it was very nice to find Lionel at 
Hohenheim. He looked very thin, but quite well 
and cheery. Colonel Rhodes was also there; the 
other three men had gone to their homes. They 
returned to their cottage in Pretoria next day. 



CHAPTER VIII 

AND now I must recapitulate and relate much that 
hitherto had been absolutely unknown to me or un- 
explained. I, in my turn, was able to explain many 
things to Lionel and his friends beyond what appeared 
in the papers, as they had heard very little news of the 
outer world. They had received very few letters, if 
any, from those who were cognisant of much that 
had occurred, for a very general fear of committing 
indiscretion prevailed everywhere. No one knew what 
facts the Transvaal Government were in possession of, 
so every one thought the less said and written the 
better. But that sort of thing can be carried a little 
too far, and I found these poor men, in spite of all 
their pluck, were growing a little uneasy at their pro- 
longed detention, and to suspect more and more that 
they had got into a terrible mess through obeying the 
injunctions of Sir Hercules. The fact that their loyalty 
and obedience had cost them their liberty had not yet 
dawned on them in all its significance ; it seemed im- 
possible to be true. And many individuals also at this 
period were unaware apparently that to be in prison is 
a terrible thing the utter helplessness and dependence 
of the prisoner make his plight one not to be laughed 

86 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 87 

at. Many people whom these men looked to and 
thought their friends, had neither the moral nor the 
physical courage to stand by them. Truly it was a 
trying time for all. But, thank God, Lionel and the 
majority of his fellow-sufferers showed themselves to be 
men; whatever their mistakes, their credulity even, they 
were honest, and all their actions bear the light of day. 
Their loyalty to every one concerned, their patience 
and pluck under the most trying circumstances, always 
struck me very much. Hence, their failure in a good 
cause, notwithstanding, these Reformers of Johannes- 
burg may pride themselves on one thing, namely, that 
they gained the respect of every one who had an oppor- 
tunity of judging their conduct. 

The Reform movement in Johannesburg failed be- 
cause, as some one put it to me at the time, " they all 
wanted to be a little too clever." They took too many 
things into consideration; they wanted to provide for too 
many contingencies ; there were too many in the secret, 
and too many divergent interests. And also the mass 
of the people had not been sufficiently educated on the 
subject; it was too much restricted to one class. It 
was a conspiracy to get right done for the Uitlanders 
and for the mines and the mines are the life-blood 
of Johannesburg and Johannesburg directly and in- 
directly affects the whole of South Africa. 

But the fact remains that there were three sets of 
people concerned in this movement, each hi their way 
meritorious, no doubt, and having one end, but actu- 



88 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

ated by different motives, and this constituted a great 
weakness to start with. This triangular movement 
consisted of, first, the men on the spot, afterwards 
called the Reform Committee of Johannesburg, who 
were working for the Uitlanders and their interests; 
Mr. Rhodes at Cape Town, who sympathised intensely 
with Johannesburg, but who was more interested in 
the whole of South Africa, and saw the necessity of 
settling this burning local question ; and Dr. Jameson, 
Mr. Rhodes's right-hand man in Mashonaland, who had 
with him a number of irresponsible young men in- 
different to either of the above-mentioned ideas, and 
possibly anxious for personal glory. The probabilities 
in a combination such as I have mentioned are, that 
at some one moment or another the main idea might 
be lost sight of, and the minor and personal one 
substituted; and that is what happened. But to use 
plain language. 

When the men of Johannesburg eventually deter- 
mined to make a stand against their oppressors and to 
demand their just rights, they knew perfectly well that 
in a town of 80,000 inhabitants, with a very large pro- 
portion of women and children, they, having no armed 
force of their own and not knowing how many arms 
they could smuggle in, would be utterly at the mercy 
of the Boer rifles. Consequently, outside aid of some 
sort was necessary, and aid that could be counted on 
in an emergency. 

Although the Boers have no standing force to speak 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 89 

of, every male Boer, from the age of sixteen and up- 
wards, is in a sense a soldier. Every one can shoot, 
and generally well. He says it takes fifteen English- 
men to beat one Boer, and certainly the ordinary 
English Tommy Atkins usually sent out is not a 
match for one Boer, of whom large numbers can be 
mustered at short notice. As a rule, within an hour 
after he has received a call to arms he is ready to 
depart. He has no elaborate preparations to make. 
He does not change his costume ; standing in a corner 
of the voorhuis (front room) his gun is ready for use. 
During the short time it takes him to catch his horse 
in the kraal, or to get him out of the stable and " up- 
saddled," his vrouw (wife) can fill his saddle-bags with 
biltong (dried meat), and off he goes. No long farewells 
even keep him, as the life the Boers have led for 
generations ready for any emergency does not admit 
of much sentimentality. In fact, it is well known that 
at Majuba, and in their numerous Kaffir wars, the 
womenfolk loaded the rifles while the men fought. 

Knowing that in the neighbouring country the 
Chartered Company had a large force at their com- 
mand, the leaders of the Reform movement made a 
compact with Mr. Rhodes, who was the master-mind 
there the ruling spirit in every way that he was to 
help them. Accordingly Dr. Jameson, who had been 
Administrator for the Chartered Company, came to 
Johannesburg, and the Reform leaders informed him 
that on a given date (probably the 28th December) 



90 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

they intended to present an ultimatum to the Trans- 
vaal Government, stating that unless certain rights were 
accorded to them they would take them by force. In 
case of the latter alternative, Dr. Jameson, who would 
be on the border with 1200 to 1500 men and 1000 
spare rifles and some ammunition, would, at the signal 
from Johannesburg, come to their aid. Remember 
he left Pitsani with less than 500 men ! But as some 
justification in the eyes of his Directors, and in 
order not to implicate them, as well as to show to his 
men, the Reform leaders drew up and signed in Dr. 
Jameson's presence the so-called letter, which is here 
reproduced. 

"To DR. JAMESON. 

" DEAR SIR, The position of matters in this State 
has become so critical that we are assured that, at 
no distant period, there will be a conflict between the 
Government and the Uitlander population. It is 
scarcely necessary for us to recapitulate what is now 
a matter of history ; suffice it to say that the position of 
thousands of Englishmen and others is rapidly becoming 
intolerable. Not satisfied with making the Uitlander 
population pay virtually the whole of the revenue of 
the country, while denying them representation, the 
policy of the Government has been steadily to encroach 
upon the liberty of the subject, and to undermine the 
security for property to such an extent as to cause a 
very deep-seated sense of discontent and danger. A 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 91 

foreign corporation of Hollanders is to a considerable 
extent controlling our destinies, and, in conjunction 
with the Boer leaders, endeavouring to cast them in 
a mould which is wholly foreign to the genius of the 
people. Every public act betrays the most positive 
hostility, not only to everything English, but to the 
neighbouring States. 

"Well, in short, the internal policy of the Govern- 
ment is such as to have roused into antagonism to 
it, not only practically the whole body of Uitlanders, 
but a large number of the Boers; while its external 
policy has exasperated the neighbouring States, causing 
the possibility of great danger to the peace and inde- 
pendence of this Republic. Public feeling is in a con- 
dition of smouldering discontent. All the petitions of 
the people have been refused with a greater or less 
degree of contempt ; and in the debate on the franchise 
petition, signed by nearly 40,000 people, one member 
challenged the Uitlanders to fight for the rights they 
asked for, and not a single member spoke against him. 
Not to go into details, we may say that the Government 
has called into existence all the elements necessary for 
armed conflict. The one desire for the people here is 
fair-play, the maintenance of their independence, and 
the preservation of those public liberties without which 
life is not worth living. The Government denies these 
things, and violates the national sense of Englishmen 
at every turn. 

"What we have to consider is, What will be the 



92 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

condition of things here in the event of a conflict ? 
Thousands of unarmed men, women, and children of 
our race will be at the mercy of well-armed Boers, while 
property of enormous value will be in the greatest peril. 
We cannot contemplate the future without the gravest 
apprehensions. All feel that we are justified in taking 
any steps to prevent the shedding of blood and to insure 
the protection of our rights. 

"It is under these circumstances that we feel con- 
strained to call upon you to come to our aid, should a 
disturbance arise here. The circumstances are so ex- 
treme that we cannot but believe that you and the men 
under you will not fail to come to the rescue of people 
so situated. We guarantee any expense that may reason- 
ably be incurred by you in helping us, and ask you to 
believe that nothing but the sternest necessity has 
prompted this appeal. 

" CHARLES LEONARD. 

LIONEL PHILLIPS. 

FRANCIS RHODES. 

JOHN HAYES HAMMOND. 

GEORGE FARRAR." 

This letter was undated, the understanding being 
that Dr. Jameson was to affix the date when authorised 
to do so. But what happened in reality ? Dr. Ruther- 
ford Harris, another Chartered employe, sent it from 
Cape Town to the Times, adding the date himself 
28th December the day Dr. Jameson started from 
Pitsani, no doubt with the idea of giving people in 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 93 

England a reason for Dr. Jameson's action and to 
justify him. Let us hope that if the possibility of his 
surrendering had occurred to any one, Dr. Harris might 
have stayed his hand, as it was the publication of 
this letter which aroused the fury of all men against 
Johannesburg, and gained for it a reputation it was far 
from deserving, which has never been effaced. The 
Johannesburgers were the injured ones, the betrayed, 
but they were put in a very wrong light through the 
publication of this letter ; and by fostering the im- 
pression that it had in reality been sent up post haste, 
Dr. Jameson and his friends made most treacherous 
use of it. The publication at the time is excusable, as 
no one hi their wildest dreams could have thought of 
surrender, the inexcusable thing being that it had been 
in Dr. Jameson's possession for weeks, and that fact 
was never elicited until the British Parliamentary 
Inquiry months afterwards. 

Most of the Reformers had known Dr. Jameson 
many years. One of them was his own brother. But 
they put him to too severe a test. Surrounded as he 
was by a number of young men who had come to 
South Africa fairly recently, to either try to make 
their fortunes or have some fun (most of them were 
soldiers), they became impatient at being kept on the 
border so many weeks, and talked themselves into 
believing that they could "walk through the Trans- 
vaal with 500 men." They were told part of the truth, 
and in London drawing-rooms weeks beforehand was 



94 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

discussed a subject that in Johannesburg itself was 
spoken of with bated breath by the few in the secret, 
and on which hung the destiny of a sub-continent. 
But one cannot blame these youths. One can quite 
sympathise with their military ardour : the pity is that 
they were not led by better men. 

Colonel Rhodes was sent by his brother to Johannes- 
burg, ostensibly to take a business position ; arms were 
being smuggled in; and military men from Rhodesia 
were sent down to help in preparations which the 
Reform men, being civilians, were naturally not com- 
petent to arrange themselves. Then Lionel made his 
speech in November at the Chamber of Mines. So 
far so well. 

The Reform Committee had expressly stipulated 
that the whole movement was to take place under the 
Transvaal flag, but it came to their ears, through a 
medium which they could not disregard, and of which 
they obtained confirmation, that when he reached 
Pretoria it was the intention of Jameson to raise the 
English flag. Now, there were many Africanders, 
Americans, Germans, and English interested hi the 
movement who did not wish to see the Republic 
abolished, but merely its bad system of government. 
So this question of the flag was in reality a serious one. 
Mr. C. Leonard and Mr. Hamilton were despatched 
post haste by the Committee to Cape Town to confer 
with Mr. Rhodes, and the latter assured them he had 
no intention of changing the flag, but the day after 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 95 

they arrived there Dr. Jameson made his fatal start. 
Remember that in that large town of Johannesburg 
there were scarcely any rifles, that the population was 
comparatively unarmed, and every rifle to be used had 
to be smuggled in a very tedious process. The arms 
were mostly concealed in oil-tanks, and all the precau- 
tions taken at the different mines to which they were 
sent caused great delay. The Reformers counted on 
getting about 2500 guns not a very large number 
but they were playing a desperate game, and relied on 
.those they would get out of the arsenal. 

The original project was that about 2500 rifles 
should be smuggled into Johannesburg, and that 
Jameson should have on the border a force of from 
1200 to 1500 men, thoroughly trained and equipped, 
with about an equal number of extra rifles and a good 
supply of ammunition, ready to advance when called 
upon. An essential feature of the plan was the seizure 
of the arsenal at Pretoria, which at that time was de- 
fended by only ninety artillerymen (the standing army 
of the Transvaal), so that the task seemed easy of 
accomplishment. The arsenal consisted of a number 
of tin shanties enclosed in a square surrounded by 
sun-dried brick walls. In it were stored about 15,000 
Martini-Henry rifles, a large supply of ammunition, 
and some Maxims. With a view to carrying out this 
project, 300 rifles were sent to a spot within ten miles 
of Pretoria, and mule -waggons were kept there in 
readiness. On the night of the outbreak the arsenal 



96 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

was to be seized, all rifles and ammunition were to be 
sent to Johannesburg, and any war material which 
could not be removed was to be destroyed. 

Thus, according to the original plan, what with the 
smuggled rifles, those in private hands, the spare 
weapons to be brought by Jameson's men, and those 
men themselves, Johannesburg would have mustered 
a little army of not less than 5000 men, to say nothing 
of the guns which might possibly be captured in the 
arsenal. It was believed that with this force the town 
could be held against any attack that might be made 
by the Transvaal forces, and that, upon a failure in 
the first assault, the Boers would have adopted their 
well-known tactics of cutting off supplies, with a view 
to starving the town into submission. To meet this 
contingency the town was provisioned for two months, 
and it was supposed that the British Government 
would never sit still and allow the Uitlanders to be 
forced into capitulation hi the face of the wrongs which 
they had suffered. In November, when Jameson came 
to Johannesburg, the supporting force had dwindled 
to 800. The telegrams apprising the Reformers of his 
advance spoke of 700, and in reality he started with 
less than 500 men. 

In the midst of their preparations, the Reformers 
heard that Jameson was getting impatient on the 
border, but as he had agreed not to move without 
the signal arranged upon, they felt pretty safe. Con- 
scious of the disastrous effect upon South African 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 97 

sentiment, so far entirely in their favour, of Dr. 
Jameson taking the initiative, fully aware of their un- 
preparedness, but owing to the reports they received 
of his restlessness, they despatched Major Heany and 
Captain Holden (two of Jameson's officers who were 
sent to aid them in organising, and who were fully 
aware of the position) by different routes to warn him 
not to start until called upon. Both these gentlemen 
duly reached him and delivered their message before 
he " took the bit between his teeth and bolted," to use 
Mr. Rhodes' description of his mad action. Lionel had 
also telegraphed to Cape Town predicting disaster if 
Jameson moved. These facts were not known until 
long afterwards not, indeed, until the inquiry of the 
Parliamentary Committee. 

All the negotiations were made in cipher, and it is 
an astonishing fact that the authorities in Pretoria 
suspected nothing of the arrangements made with 
Rhodes and Jameson, and the whole evidence against 
the Reform Committee was contained in the tin despatch- 
box brought in by Jameson's secretary, Major Robert 
White. 

But two unexpected delays took place towards the 
end of the month. The most important was that the 
majority of the expected rifles had not arrived, without 
which nothing could be done ; and, secondly, the usual 
December race-meeting was being held, and it was 
estimated that the population of Johannesburg was 
increased by about 10,000 strangers. So for two very 



98 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

good reasons it was decided to postpone the fateful 
meeting demanding their rights from the 28th Decem- 
ber to the 6th January. The Government meanwhile 
had received notice from the National Union of its 
intentions, and for the first time in its existence found 
that it was to be treated with firmness. The Govern- 
ment got into a regular fright, and began making the 
most enticing promises; in fact, as a member of the 
Volksraad put it to me afterwards, "the Government 
was giving them what they asked with both hands," 
when the awful news reached Johannesburg that 
Jameson had crossed the northern border of the 
Transvaal and was marching to Johannesburg. Natu- 
rally, when they heard the disquieting rumours that 
reached them, the utmost confusion reigned, and these 
men realised the horror of having an unarmed popu- 
lation on their hands, with no protection for the women 
and children, and the knowledge that they were far 
outnumbered by the thousands of Kaffirs in the neigh- 
bourhood was an added anxiety. 

But the internal question was all-absorbing. They 
felt sure that, whatever his motives for disregarding 
their wishes, Jameson, at any rate, was acting for 
the best, and loyal they were to him and loyal they 
remained many a month afterwards. The dreadful 
truth ultimately dawned on them that they had placed 
their trust in a very undeserving person. 

They felt no particular uneasiness about Jameson. 
He had promised not to venture over the border with 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 99 

less than 800 men, and so they thought he was well 
qualified to take care of himself, especially as the most 
minute and careful preparations had been made before- 
hand for providing food for man and beast all along 
the road. So, working like slaves day and night, 
the Johannesburg men did their best to arrange for 
the safety of the town, and to provide shelter and 
food for the hundreds who crowded in from the 
neighbouring mines. The Government removed their 
wretched police immediately the best thing they 
could do the Reform Committee replacing them by 
volunteers, and I believe neither before nor since was 
such order maintained. Only one single instance of 
crime is recorded. They also immediately sent out and 
bought up all the liquor hi the hundreds of canteens 
along the mines and destroyed it all. Companies of 
volunteers were posted in trenches round the town. 

Whatever the Reform Committee did themselves was 
satisfactory, but it seemed as if the Fates were against 
everything connected with Jameson. He had under- 
taken to see upon starting that the telegraph wires were 
cut, but one of the men sent out by him failed to do 
this, with the result that the Boers received news of the 
invasion eight hours before the Reformers. In those 
precious hours Boers for many miles round flocked into 
Pretoria, and rendered the project) of taking the arsenal 
an impossible task. One of Dr. Jameson's trusted persons, 
sent especially for the occasion, was ordered to go and 
wrench up the railway line between Johannesburg and 



100 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

Krugersdorp in order to interrupt communication from 
Pretoria in the direction of the Chartered forces. This 
man was discovered hours afterwards in the Rand 
Club, dead drunk, and the train that would have been 
prevented from coming was the one which brought the 
ammunition that was used against the invading force ! 

When the fearful news came that Jameson had 
encountered the Boers near Krugersdorp, that after the 
loss of some men he had surrendered, and that they 
had all been conveyed to Pretoria prison, a complete 
panic set in in the town. Many of the remaining 
women and children started off by the few trains for 
the Cape in the utmost terror. Some of them had 
good cause to know what it was to remain in a besieged 
town from their former Transvaal experiences. Many 
were too terror-stricken to care for appearances, and 
went off in the airiest attire night-gowns and dressing- 
gowns. The scenes at the station were most heart- 
rending ; women waited for hours in dense masses ; and 
the climax was reached when those disgraceful cowards, 
that portion of the Cornish miners who left, " rushed " 
the trains and kept out the women. At all the stations 
down the line the same conduct was repeated. On 
hearing of the suffering of these poor refugees of their 
own sex, the colonial women assembled with food and 
other necessaries for them, but in every instance these 
brutes, unworthy of the name of men, used to rush 
them and snatch everything for themselves. And these 
were the creatures who, when they eventually arrived 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 101 

in England, were interviewed and their opinions upon 
the capitalists deemed worthy of record. 

On these dreadful journeys in the heat of January, 
carriages and cattle-trucks were so overcrowded that 
children were suffocated and children were born. A 
friend of mine who, with her two delicate little chil- 
dren, was among the terrified runaways, told me that 
if a similar crisis ever occurred again she would sooner 
brave the horrors of a siege than endure the suffering 
she went through. She was four days in an open 
cattle-truck, hi which they were packed like herrings. 
Many of those who first escaped got off at different 
stations, hoping that the next trains would be less 
crowded ; but just the reverse was the case, and hence 
the frightful crush. 

Then came the terrible accident on the newly-opened 
Natal line. The train, which was full of refugees, ran 
off the rails, and thirty-eight women and children were 
killed. I heard of one poor man who sent his wife and 
daughters away, and they were all killed. A friend 
who was in that train, but who escaped, tells me that 
the horror of it will never be effaced from her memory. 
She with her two children and nurse were in a carriage 
which capsized, but were unhurt, and she handed the 
children out of the window. The anxiety lest the 
boiler should burst was terrible, until happily the 
engine got detached and ran down the line. The sight 
of the many decapitated and injured people was one 
never to be forgotten. Verily the New Year of 1896 



102 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

is one that many people in South Africa have cause 
to remember ! 

Lionel told me that those few days were a terrible 
experience. For five days and nights most of the 
Reform Committee had very little sleep, and he said 
that he was so wearied in mind and body that if he 
had heard he was going to be shot he would scarcely 
have minded. A friend of ours told me that he 
happened to go into the goldfields offices, which were 
used by the Reform Committee at this time, and found 
him asleep on the floor with nothing but the cold oil- 
cloth under him, and that he took off his coat and 
put it under his head without awaking him. 

Meanwhile they were all in a great suspense about 
Jameson and his friends, not being aware that before 
surrendering they had stipulated for then- safety. That 
was a little secret upon which much depended. Nor 
were they informed that Major Robert White had 
brought with him a despatch-box containing the key 
to the cipher that had been used through most of the 
negotiations, the copy of the so-called letter of invi- 
tation, the names of various people, &c. Therefore in 
Johannesburg the only anxiety was for the personal 
safety of Jameson and his friends. They thought that 
for themselves there was no danger, the Government 
having no evidence whatever against them, as every 
scrap of writing had been destroyed. They felt that 
they had been working for the good of the place, that 
they had taken all possible precautions for the safety of 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 103 

the women and children, and the Government believed 
they had 20,000 rifles. 

Even after Jameson's frightful blunder they had 
the game practically in their own hands, but lost it, 
for two reasons. The first and principal one was the 
interference of the High Commissioner, who, infected 
apparently by the air of Pretoria, made promises 
through the British Agent which were never kept; 
and the second and minor one, that the Reform Com- 
mittee did not realise at the time their own strength. 
They knew that they had very few rules and a hope- 
lessly small supply of ammunition, and did not then 
realise that the Government was shaking in its shoes, 
convinced that they had 20,000. 

Sir Hercules Robinson (late Lord Rosmead) offered 
his services to the Transvaal Government with a view 
to a peaceful settlement, and to show that the latter 
Government was most anxious for his intervention, it 
is well to emphasise the facts that Jameson surren- 
dered on Thursday morning, that the telegraph line 
was in full working order, and that the Governor did 
not leave Cape Town until Thursday night. Having 
vanquished Jameson, clearly the Transvaal authorities, 
had they felt able to deal with the Reformers, would 
during that day have withdrawn their acceptance of 
his services. Sir Hercules came up to restore order 
and to do what he could for every one. 

South Africa has been called " the Grave of Reputa- 
tions," and when one thinks of the many good public 



104 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

servants of the Crown who have come to grief over 
its difficult problems, one sees much truth in the 
sweeping title. Here we see the sad spectacle of a 
careful Governor, a man beloved by all who knew him, 
but physically unfit for his work, undertaking a most 
difficult diplomatic mission, and making a dreadful 
mess of it. Sir Hercules was old and in indifferent 
health, and to make matters worse, the train he 
travelled by met with an accident before reaching its 
destination. The party arrived many hours late, much 
shaken, and what little nerve he may have had for his 
difficult task was quite gone. He stayed hi Pretoria 
five days, and was seen by Kruger once. One little 
interview to settle the difficulties of years ! 

Anyhow, he sent the British Resident, Sir Jacobus de 
Wet, and Sir Sidney Shippard to Johannesburg, and they 
in turn addressed the thousands assembled. The gist 
of their speeches was that Sir Hercules had come as re- 
presenting her Majesty's Government, and promised to 
see that the Uitlanders got their just rights, but first and 
foremost he must ask them to give up their arms, for 
the lives of Jameson and his men depended upon it, 
and without that preliminary no negotiations with the 
Transvaal Government could be conducted. There was 
strong opposition on all sides, but the leaders were 
persuaded to use their utmost influence, as Jameson's 
safety was absolutely at stake, and the matter urgent 
They were promised, however, that their grievances 
should be looked into and righted. So, naturally 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 105 

believing what they were told, though in the teeth 
of the most violent opposition from the mass of 
the men, the disarmament was effected every man 
gave up his gun, no matter what the kind, at the 
bidding of her Majesty's representative. The lives of 
the Reformers were in greater danger at that moment 
from their fellows than they had yet been from the 
enemy. 

When the guns were given up to the number of 
2500 the Boers would not believe that was all. Even 
the solemn word of the leaders would not convince 
them, and for many months afterwards the vain search 
for arms continued all over the town and in many of 
the mines, naturally without result, as there were no 
more. I remember some months afterwards when a 
new recreation-room for the Robinson Mine had just 
been finished, a search was ordered, and a square hole 
was cut in the middle of the floor specially laid for 
dancing, as somebody had made an affidavit that guns 
were concealed underneath; also on another occasion 
the water was pumped out of a mine at great expense 
to try to find guns supposed to be concealed at the 
bottom. 

Having done his gruesome work, Sir Hercules re- 
turned to Cape Town, leaving Johannesburg absolutely 
at the mercy of the Boers. He actually effected the dis- 
armament of this large town without making one single 
condition for its safety, and from that day the most 
signal acts of tyranny and injustice were committed 



106 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

over and over again by the Boer oligarchy, and there 
was no one to say them nay. This was a critical event 
for English supremacy in South Africa, this final act 
of supreme weakness and folly! Many of her most 
loyal subjects from that moment have wavered on the 
brink, and some have gone over to the side of the 
Africander Bond. It is such actions as these which 
estrange the colonists, and which give a little reality to 
the Bondsman's dream \of a united South Africa under 
a Republican flag. 

The Colonial Secretary has been considerably criti- 
cised for this action and its consequences, but his 
defenders say that through the action of the Governor, 
who never found out the conditions of Jameson's sur- 
render and hence effected the disarmament under false 
promises, his hands were terribly tied, and that Sir 
Hercules, losing a magnificent^ opportunity when the 
game was still in his hands, completely handicapped 
the} Home Government. As some one graphically put 
it, " Sir Hercules was the stick that broke in Chamber- 
lain's hand." 



CHAPTEE IX 

BEING now masters of the situation, one of the first 
acts of the Pretoria Government was to issue war- 
rants against the principal Reformers, and consequently 
sixty-four of the leading men of the town were arrested 
and taken over to Pretoria prison. Remember that 
these men had been assured by the British Agent that 
" not a hair of their heads should be touched " ! From 
the moment Sir Hercules left the place they were com- 
pletely deserted by the English Government, and for 
some time to come we were to have, La all its naked 
hideousness, the painful spectacle of men who started 
with a firm belief hi their country's justice and power, 
arriving by slow and heartrending degrees, and after 
months of agonised suspense, at the conclusion that 
unless they worked out their own salvation, they might 
spend the rest of their days in the prison where they 
had been cast through the false promises of their own 
countrymen. But that conviction had not yet forced 
itself on their minds that was to come very slowly. 

As to the redress of grievances promised by her 
Majesty's representative, except for feeble suggestions 
treated with contempt by Kruger, nothing was done, 
and at the moment of writing, more than three years 



108 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

after these events, Johannesburg is in a worse state than 
it was before. Kruger, finding he could do exactly as 
he liked, has made of the Transvaal a country abso- 
lutely impossible for free men to live in. If the men 
of Johannesburg could have foreseen that they were to 
be deserted, how much heartburning and bitterness of 
spirit they might have saved themselves ! 

The arrests were made very quietly and suddenly. 
One gentleman, as he was walking down the street, was 
informed by the Lieutenant of Police that he was ar- 
rested. He calmly went with the Lieutenant, but being 
a lawyer it dawned upon him that he had seen no 
warrant, and asked where it was. He was told there 
was no warrant out against him. " Very well," he said, 
" I refuse to be arrested without one." So he was left 
in peace, but lived for weeks under the disquieting 
impression that at any moment he might be dragged 
off to Pretoria, and I believe used to ask periodically 
when they were going to take him. But they would 
not have him at all, and he was never imprisoned. 

Lionel, who was staying in Johannesburg at that 
time, gave himself up when he heard that arrests of the 
Reformers were being made. Mr. Rouliot, one of his 
partners, and others have told me since, that at the 
moment they were almost pleased at his detention in 
prison, for the mob in Johannesburg were so enraged 
with the Reform Leaders on account of the misery that 
had fallen upon the town, that they really feared for 
their safety. There were also people who whispered of 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 109 

the danger of assassination it would be so easy some 
dark night on that lonely road to Hohenheim to get rid 
of a man who was troublesome to more than one party. 
Therefore, in spite of everything, the imprisonment of 
these men was a great relief to their friends. 

The names of the sixty -four members of the 
Reform Committee are too well known for me to re- 
capitulate them. Among these were mining men, 
doctors, lawyers, and financiers some very rich and 
some very poor but they were in the majority of cases 
serious, earnest men, having the cause they had taken 
up much at heart. In so large a number there were a 
few whom one would scarcely expect to find amongst a 
reforming body, but such elements are apt to creep into 
any movement of the kind. Still they were a very re- 
presentative body of men, and, as time proved, bore 
then* lot with patience and dignity. The prisoners 
had a very uncomfortable journey to Pretoria, being 
yelled at and threatened at all the stopping -places 
en route, and on their way from the station to the 
prison the escort rode on to them using every sort 
of abusive epithet. An excited mob was there to yell 
at and insult them, and Captain Mem, a man of nearly 
sixty, was kicked and knocked down by a manly 
bystander. 

I must now describe the gaol, where so many weeks 
and months were to be spent, and which was to become 
so well known to us. The head gaoler, Du Plessis, a 
coarse brute, filthy in mind and body, was an absolute 



110 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

autocrat on his own premises ; and as a connection and 
intimate personal friend of Kruger's one can imagine 
what were the prospects of the prisoners. Their one 
safeguard through the whole of their imprisonment was 
that the under-gaoler, Burgers, was a colonial Boer, a 
good-natured, simple sort of man, a great deal more 
humane than his superior officer, and that between the 
two existed bitter jealousy and dislike. To him the 
prisoners were indebted for many an act of kindness. 
When they reached the gaol, one of them remarked to 
Du Plessis, " Awful place, this gaol of yours." The 
latter responded with enthusiasm, " Yes, you are right ! 
It is the only place the English built when they were in 
occupation here, and it is a disgrace to any town." So far 
the Boers had never had any white political prisoners, 
nor any but of the worst character, and the accommo- 
dation was of the most primitive order. The whole 
place was surrounded by a high quadrangular wall of 
sunburnt brick. Near the large gates stood, on the 
one side, a small guard-room, on the other the head- 
gaoler's house. Round the inside of the wall were the 
cells, few in number, and falling far short of the 
ordinary sanitary regulations. A little to the right, 
on entering, was what became known as "Jameson's 
cottage." Its two wretched little rooms were divided 
by a passage, and had windows, whereas the other cells 
only had oblong holes near the roof. As the building 
was not suited to receive such a large number of white 
men, who could not be left outside to brave all weathers, 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 111 

the way they were treated beggars description. On 
their reaching the gaol, they were thrust into what- 
ever place they could be put, and were nearly stifled. 
The next day they were sorted. 

Lionel, George Farrar, Colonel Rhodes, and J. H. 
Hammond were put into one cell, twelve feet square, 
without windows, and were locked up there the first 
three nights for thirteen hours. Then the prison 
doctor insisted on more space being allotted to them, 
and the door, which communicated with a court- 
yard twenty feet square, was left open at night. This 
was the space in which they were permitted to take 
exercise. They were not allowed to associate with their 
fellows at first. In January, in Pretoria, the heat is 
intense, quite semi-tropical indeed, the temperature 
varying from 90 to 105 degrees in the shade. As the 
weather happened to be at its hottest, the sufferings of 
these men were awful. The cells, hitherto devoted to 
the use of Kaffirs, swarmed with vermin and smelt 
horribly; while to increase their miseries, if that were 
possible, one of their number was suffering from dysen- 
tery, and no conveniences of any kind were supplied. 
With these facts hi mind, any attempt to describe 
what the prisoners underwent would be superfluous. 
Add to all these hardships their mental sufferings, and 
then judge of their state. 

The English Government, I think, is better aware 
than most people how very little these men's lives were 
worth at that moment. It would have given Kruger 



112 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

and his satellites the liveliest satisfaction to have shot 
most of them, but especially the four I have mentioned. 
The fifth of the signatories to the letter was Mr. Charles 
Leonard, but as he had not returned to Johannesburg 
after being sent to the Cape on a mission to Mr. Rhodes 
in the latter part of December, and as Mr. Fitzpatrick 
had taken a very prominent part in the movement, 
having been the secretary of the Reform Com- 
mittee, the Boer Government thought later that he was 
a useful person to complete the quintette. 

After the first few days the prisoners were treated 
a little more leniently, and were allowed to have their 
food sent in. Their friends also were allowed to come 
and see them. Then the preliminary examination 
began, and nothing very incriminating was forth- 
coming. Jameson and his men were also imprisoned 
in the same yard, although not in contact with the 
others, but either did not, or could not, give the 
Reform men sundry details which might have en- 
lightened them as to their motives of action, nor 
did they inform them of the capture of the famous 
despatch - box. When the Reform prisoners heard 
and read of the "Transvaal Government being in 
possession of incriminating documents showing a 
widespread conspiracy," they only laughed, knowing 
that they had carefully destroyed all written evidence. 
Hence their light-hearted attitude, which on my return 
struck me, who had been undergoing agonies of mind 
on their account, with dismay. Their physical dis- 




cu 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 113 

comforts and daily humiliations they would not see; 
so, believing the Boers had not much evidence against 
them, and knowing that their own Government had 
promised to protect them, beyond bitter disappoint- 
ment they felt very little uneasiness. Hence Lionel's 
unwillingness to allow me and the children to come 
out to him. He was convinced they would be set free 
for want of evidence against them, not suspecting for 
one moment the double betrayal they had suffered. 

When I arrived at Johannesburg the lengthy pre- 
liminary trial was drawing to an unsatisfactory close. I 
went over to Pretoria next day and visited the Raadzaal, 
where it was being held, and was accommodated with a 
seat. It was so strange, knowing they were prisoners, to 
see these men come in in an indifferent manner, and take 
their seats, and then listen to the dragging examination, 
which was very slow and Boer-like in its methods, every 
sentence being interpreted from Dutch into English. 
It seemed also very strange to me, quite fresh to it all, 
to see that some of the prisoners even did their best 
to go to sleep; but, on second thoughts, it was not to 
be wondered at. They had been enduring an ineffable 
boredom for five weeks, and knowing what a hollow 
farce it all was, and hearing the perjury committed in 
the most barefaced way by many of the Boer officials, 
they had grown heart-sick, and strove to drown it all 
in slumber. Also, the heat was unbearable. 

The majority of the men were then out on bail, 
but the principal offenders were in a little cottage on 



114 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

the outskirts of Pretoria. Mr. Hammond, who was not 
very well, was in Cape Town on bail. He remained 
away most of the time, and, except towards the end, 
shared very little of the imprisonment of the others. 
He had to thank his ill-health, his clever wife, and the 
fact of being an American citizen for his immunity. 

I went up to the cottage and found the four very 
cheery and trying to hide their anxiety, but it was never- 
theless apparent. Their continued detention, the absence 
of news, either private or official, was beginning to take 
effect. I must say it struck me then, as it did many 
times afterwards, how loyal they were to all who had 
been concerned in the movement, and that they were 
positively optimistic in their reliance on Government 
protection. The doubts that kept creeping in were 
always overruled by one member or another of the 
party. They encouraged in each other an optimism 
they did not always feel, but had they not done so I 
am quite sure they could not have borne up so cheerily 
nor have come out of their troubles as unscathed as 
they apparently did. 

The cottage they occupied was a little bungalow, 
consisting of four rooms three bedrooms and a dining- 
room with a verandah all round, and had a pleasant 
garden, full of roses and violets, as well as oleanders, 
moonflowers, and some trees. A faithful servant of 
ours cooked for them, and two of the men had their 
valets, so they were in Paradise compared with the 
gaol. They were watched by guards, who surrounded 




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CO PL, 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 115 

the Compound, twelve by day and six by night. They 
were nominally out on bail, but were kept under strict 
surveillance, and, in addition, had to pay for the guards 
at the rate of 1000 a month! The lieutenant, an 
ignorant, blustering young Boer, was a thorn in their 
side. Vulgar and omnipresent as he was, they had 
no privacy of any kind. He was very fond of their 
cigars and whisky, very often the worse for the latter, 
and used to bully them in petty ways that only his 
own mean little soul was capable of imagining. For 
instance, I remember one day Lionel and I, with a 
visitor from England, were sitting in the little dining- 
room, when the lieutenant, booted and spurred, with 
his hat on his head and his pipe in his mouth, came 
into the room. We were all talking, but he rudely 
interrupted us, standing in the middle of the room, 
with his legs astride, and saying to Lionel in a bully- 
ing tone, "What do you mean by looking at me like 
that ? " It appears that Lionel had lent him his 
bicycle that morning, which he had broken, being 
probably hi his usual half-tipsy state, but the former 
had taken no notice whatever of the matter. On 
being questioned in this manner, Lionel replied, "I 
was not looking at you, I was talking to this gentle- 
man." " Oh," replied the lieutenant, " I know what it 
is. You are in a rage with me because I broke your 
bicycle, but I will make it hot for you if you dare 
to look at me in that manner again," and with these 
words he marched out of the room. 



116 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

On another occasion the guards had been changed, 
and the one stationed at the gate did not notice that 
the prisoners had gone off on their bicycles before the 
escort was ready. Mrs. Fitzpatrick and I happened to 
be spending the day at the cottage. The lieutenant, 
when he saw the disappearing forms of the prisoners, 
got into a frightful rage, began using dreadful language 
to the terrified guard, and I really was afraid he would 
use personal violence. So adopting a bantering tone, 
I said to the lieutenant, "Don't get into such a state 
of mind. You know very well these men don't want 
to run away," and a few arguments of that kind. Then 
he burst out laughing, and said, "Oh, well, it doesn't 
matter if they do run away. We have two of the 
wives here, and we will take very good care to stick 
to them." 

The four Lionel, George Farrar, Colonel Rhodes, 
and Fitzpatrick were a most united and happy quar- 
tette, and their constant companion and untiring 
errand runner was Percy Farrar, the brother of George, 
who had come out from England expressly to be with 
him. They were kept close prisoners, except for 
their one hour's bicycle ride every afternoon, which 
was always taken hi one direction, away from the town. 
A very funny cortege they were too, when they went 
out. None of them indulged in a very correct toilet. 
The heat made them very thankful to patronise silk 
shirts, no coats, and the most varied of headgear. They 
used to start out in line on their " bikes " with the 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 117 

redoubtable lieutenant and two of his men on horse- 
back following them, and often this procession would be 
increased by some chance visitors from Johannesburg, 
following in little open flies, or also on bicycles. Their 
bicycles were a real godsend to the prisoners, and a 
good deal of their mornings used to be spent cleaning 
them, or practising wonderful feats in the garden. 
They were in too restless a frame of mind to read 
much, and passed many hours playing whist. Their 
lawyers, who appeared to be legion, also spent a good 
deal of time with them preparing their defence. They 
constantly had visitors from Johannesburg, who often 
stayed to lunch, and among the most frequent of these 
were their fellow-prisoners out on real bail. 

So far, I had never told the children that their 
father was a prisoner. I thought the very word, at 
their age, might give them a shock never to be effaced. 
So I was most careful that they should not come in 
contact with any one who might tell them, thinking 
that, until the necessity arose, there was no need. 
Harold, especially, was then at an age nine to feel 
the horror of it without analysing it. But, of course, 
once we were back in Johannesburg the truth could 
no longer be entirely suppressed. But it was not in 
all its nakedness that they saw it being in the cottage 
was not like being in a prison, and I was thankful. 
Soon after our arrival, they went over to Pretoria to 
see their father, and of course Harold's first question 
was, " What are those guards all doing here ? " I then 



118 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

took the opportunity to explain to them that their 
father had been working for the good of Johannesburg, 
and of the people there, that the Boers, who were 
their wicked oppressors, had taken him prisoner in 
consequence, but that they had only cause to be proud 
of what he had done. This explanation sufficed, and a 
great load was lifted from my mind. 

During the time these men were in prison Pre- 
toria reaped a golden harvest. The constant stream 
of visitors from Johannesburg caused more activity on 
the wretched little railway than had ever been known 
before. (The journey of about forty miles, by the way, 
took two and a half hours.) The hotelkeepers and 
shopkeepers did not know themselves, and wished the 
miserable affair might drag on for ever, as at times 
it almost seemed that it would. 

I must mention a very marked change which 
had taken place in Johannesburg during my eight 
months' absence. Formerly one saw very few Boers 
in the place they had hitherto shunned the town 
but now they seemed to abound, and also in the train 
and on the platforms they were to be seen on every 
side. There was a remarkable increase, too, in the 
number of Germans and Russian Jews. The place had 
indeed changed for the worse, and I could hardly realise 
I was in South Africa. I was warned on my arrival 
to be very careful in what I said, as spies were every- 
where, and that also was such an un-colonial idea that 
I felt more than ever how the place had fallen on evil 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 119 

days. The waiters at all the hotels were credited with 
being in the pay of the Government, and from their 
conduct on occasions I was not surprised to hear it. 
We found out afterwards that even our own chef, a 
German, who had been with us for over two years, had 
played the spy on Lionel, and had given information 
of his movements to the Government before he was 
arrested. When one saw what a den of iniquity the 
town had become, and knowing that these methods, 
being entirely foreign to the simple ones of the Boers, 
were due to some of their German and Hollander in- 
structors, it is no wonder that many of us were plunged in 
despondency to see this happening under our very eyes. 
Once or twice, while the prisoners were living in the 
cottage, the relations between the English and Trans- 
vaal Governments became very strained, and they as 
usual were made aware of it by the methods already 
described. But at one time, as their trial approached, 
matters became quite serious, and we who were more 
intimately connected with them had fears for their 
personal safety. Negotiations between the two Govern- 
ments were not progressing very favourably. It was 
at the moment when Mr. Chamberlain had invited 
Kruger over to England: the latter had refused, and 
a feeling of great irritation reigned. So much bad 
blood had been caused that the smallest thing gave 
rise to ill-feeling. We, on our side, were becoming 
more and more hopeless as to obtaining any assist- 
ance from England. 



120 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

Sinister rumours were spread about, and we often 
heard the word " assassination." We also learned 
that the beam on which in 1816 the five rebels of 
Slachter's Nek in the Cape Colony had been hanged by 
the English Government of that date, had been un- 
earthed from its resting-place in the house of one of 
their descendants in the Bedford district, and brought 
to Pretoria. The information reached Sir Hercules 
Robinson, and he wired from Cape Town to the British 
agent to make inquiries. Sir Jacobus de Wet happen- 
ing to belong to the district referred to, speedily dis- 
covered that some Transvaal Boers had purchased this 
beam from the owner of the house into which it was 
built at Cookhouse Drift, paying the cost of its being 
replaced by a new one. He called on the President, 
who denied all knowledge of the matter. That night, 
however, two of his faithful burghers informed him that 
they had secured the historic beam to hang the leading 
Reformers upon. Meanwhile the Colonial Office had 
been made acquainted with the intention of some of 
the Boers to seize the chief prisoners one night and hang 
them before the trial. This drew forth a cable message 
to Kruger, holding him and his Executive personally 
liable for the lives of the prisoners. The English 
Government had awakened at last. Kruger, when 
again approached on the subject, admitted that the 
beam was in Pretoria, but declared that it had been 
purchased for the museum by his patriotic burghers ! 

I inquired of Lionel if precautions of any kind had 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 121 

been taken in the event of their finding it necessary to 
make a dash for the frontier. He informed me that 
his partners in Johannesburg had made arrangements 
for getting them over the Natal border ; but as I did 
not consider the details nearer home in case of a 
sudden flight very satisfactory, I took upon myself to 
make certain preparations in case of need, though with 
the exception of Lionel, who protested that in any case 
they would never use them, and Percy Farrar, I kept 
them to myself. I well knew the danger these men 
would be in were the word " flight " even hinted at. 
It was just what the Pretoria authorities were longing 
for a good pretext to get rid of these troublesome 
prisoners. It would so exactly have suited their tactics, 
though not their protestations. 

I made my preparations for the possible flight of the 
prisoners, and began by getting a woman whom I knew 
to be trustworthy to buy me four revolvers, as, since Sir 
Hercules' visit, no one possessed such a thing. I then 
sent for our doctor in Johannesburg, and had to tell 
him what I wanted. My plan was to have ready some 
drug to put into the whisky for the guards that would 
render them useless in case of an emergency; as they 
were much addicted to that liquid, and helped them- 
selves freely to the prisoners', I hoped we might count 
on disposing of some of them. I also thought that if 
any of them should be seized with a fit of abstemious- 
ness, some chloroform might be useful. So, promising 
me his aid, the doctor departed. Next day he brought 



122 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

me a good supply of chloroform and a large bottle of 
solution of morphine, giving me directions how to use 
the latter. It was a sign of the times that, in a most 
matter-of-fact voice and manner, this extremely kind, 
quiet man should ask me, " Would you prefer some- 
thing that would kill them outright, as this will only 
render them unconscious?" Not feeling inclined to 
commit murder, I refused a more powerful drug, and 
returned to Pretoria with my prizes. We kept them 
under the boards (which we lifted) of one of the rooms, 
but happily no occasion arose for the use of these des- 
perate remedies. 

It is well known that one of Jameson's troopers on 
the way down, falling ill, was taken prisoner by some 
Boers, and kept at their farmhouse some days. He 
was tied up, and forced to submit to all sorts of ill- 
treatment, being given dirty water to drink, for instance, 
when half dying of thirst. But his captor's wife had 
compassion on him, and at the end of several days, to 
his surprise, he was told that he was to be allowed to 
go free. The Boers gave him his horse, mounted him, 
and informed him the one condition they made was 
that he was to ride away as fast as he could. He 
naturally obeyed, and as he galloped off had several 
bullets put into him, poor fellow. That is a very 
favourite and well-known method of Transvaal Boer 
assassination. It gives them the pretext that a prisoner 
had been trying to escape. 

A man who was concerned in the Reform move- 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

ment and was put into Krugersdorp gaol and kept 
there some time, told me of a similar attempt they 
made on his life, only he, knowing their character well, 
saved himself. One morning in the prison yard one of 
the guards said to him, " You see that post," pointing 
to one a little way off, " try and see how fast you can 
run to it." Harrington turned to him and said, " Yes, 
so that you can shoot me in the back and say I was 
running away." The dumbfounded Boer saw that this 
joke was not to be practised on him. 

I must here remark on a fact that is not always 
known in England and elsewhere, and that is that 
there is a considerable difference between the Boer 
of the Transvaal and the Colonial Boer. Though 
au fond their natures and character may be much 
alike, there is at this day a considerable difference in 
many of their ideas, owing to the different life they 
have led for several generations; and it must also be 
remembered that the Transvaal Boer is of a rebel 
stock, "his hand against every man, and every man's 
hand against him." In 1835, when the great "trek" 
from the colony took place, these men's ancestors were 
the men who defied the Government with great good 
cause in many instances and whose hearts were filled 
with bitterness and loathing, whose one idea was to 
get away from their oppressors. The difficulties and 
dangers they went through, fighting wild beasts as well 
as Kaffirs, although it gave them a rugged independ- 
ence, at the same time developed some of the very 



324 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

qualities possessed by their new foes viz., treachery 
and a callous cruelty. 

Their treatment of the Kaffirs is barbarous in the 
extreme. Perhaps remembering what they suffered at 
their hands in their early struggles in Natal and the 
Transvaal, hi course of time they have adopted some of 
their methods, and hence one has to distinguish between 
them and the Colonial Boer, who during the same period 
has gradually been enjoying the advantages of settled 
government and contact with a superior class of per- 
son. The Boer, living on his solitary farm, has been 
so exempt from laws, and has gone his own way for so 
many years, that now force is the only argument that 
appeals to him. The Kaffirs hate the Boers, and with 
reason. The latter have never credited them with a 
capacity for feeling in any form, describing them in 
their laws as "creatures," and, when they dare, rule 
them entirely by fear and cruelty. As a child, I 
remember being fascinated and horrified by a tale 
told at the Cape of a certain slave-owner there, 
who, being displeased one day at some action of a 
slave, put him into one of those huge outside ovens 
that one sees there, which was heated, and shut the 
door on him. Some time afterwards he looked in, 
saw the slave grinning the grin of an agonised death, 
and saying to the corpse, " Wat ? lach gij noch ? " 
(What ? do you still laugh ?) slammed the door to again. 
As cruelty is inherent in all human beings, and its 
eradication is purely a question of education, one can 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 125 

conceive that these men, who for several generations 
have worked their will without let or hindrance on the 
native of the Transvaal, partially exterminating tribes, 
would become more and more callous. 

The Transvaal Boer has also imbibed another Kaffir 
characteristic, and that is his utter disregard of the 
truth. He only feels ashamed of a lie if he is found 
out, and so does a Kaffir. 

I do not mean to say, however, that I consider the 
English treatment of the Kaffir the right one either. 
They go too far in the other direction, and treat a Kaffir 
as if he were a white man. A Kaffir is, of course, quite 
another creation, and must be treated as such. The 
mistake the English make is in forgetting the centuries 
which it has taken to make the white man what he 
is centuries of religious and moral principle instilled 
into him. They fancy the Kaffir, with his limited brain 
development, must start from the point they themselves 
have reached. Naturally it does not succeed : the point 
of view is quite different. Ordinary kindness, unless ac- 
companied by absolute unbending seriousness, is imme- 
diately construed by the native into weakness. But there 
is a great difference between the cruel callousness of the 
Boer and the indulgent kindness of the English, which 
almost acknowledges an equality of race. Rigid justice 
and firmness are essential in dealing with the Kaffir, and 
the full service for which he engages must be exacted. 
He utterly lacks any sense of gratitude. I remember a 
case where a "boy," who had been a long tune in the 



126 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

service of an Englishman, became seriously ill with in- 
flammation of the lungs. Eighty pounds were spent in 
doctoring and nursing him. When convalescent, he de- 
sired to visit his home, to which his employer consented. 
One day prior to his departure, he went to his master 
and said: "Baas, you owe me ten shillings for wages 
before I got ill." The master asked him how he could 
demand that ten shillings, knowing how much had been 
spent during his illness ; and the native retorted : " Why 
did you spend so much ; why did you not let me die ? 
I did not ask you to ! " 

I forgot to mention that when the Reform men were 
taken prisoners, one of the first actions of the Govern- 
ment was to search everywhere for concealed arms 
or documents, and among other places our house in 
Johannesburg was not exempt. By some unaccountable 
oversight, a locked drawer in Lionel's study was allowed 
to be broken open, and his private letter-book was taken. 
It has always been a matter of bitter regret to me that 
I was not there, as I am sure my first impulse would 
have been to destroy any possibly incriminating docu- 
ments. This famous book was a glorious find for the 
Transvaal authorities, out of which they made much 
capital, although it contained no reference to the pro- 
jected revolt nor to any collusion with Jameson. There 
were copies of private business letters containing many 
allusions to the corruption and misgovermnent at Pre- 
toria, and it is to be regretted that a few of the home 
truths contained in them did not have more effect. 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 127 

Lionel's private letters to his partners in England neces- 
sarily included many unflattering comments on Boer 
tactics and manners, but the Government made an un- 
fair use of them by publishing extracts without the con- 
text, thus wilfully distorting the meaning to suit their 
own purpose. For example, that phrase which has been 
so useful to them as well as to certain Liberals in Eng- 
land, " There are many here who do not care a fig for 
the franchise," assumes quite a different meaning when 
the context is given. Then also the affairs of other 
people mentioned in some of these letters were ruth- 
lessly disclosed in the most dishonourable manner, one 
of their own judges being ruined hi consequence. 



CHAPTER X 

Bur the trial of the prisoners was approaching. I 
shall never forget the awful shock I received when, 
having gone over to see Lionel, he came out of the 
dining-room where they were all sitting hi conclave 
with their lawyers, and taking me aside on the verandah, 
said hi a solemn voice 

" You reproached me before because I had not told 
you everything, so now I wish to tell you something 
you ought to know. We have decided that the four 
principal prisoners are to plead Guilty Guilty to High 
Treason ! We have all along thought the Government 
had no evidence against us, but Dr. Coster (the State 
Attorney) has informed Wessels (their advocate) that 
the Jameson party brought in a despatch-box full of 
papers, which the Government has got, and the evi- 
dence against us is too great to make it worth while 
disputing the case." 

It appeared that the despatch-box contained not only 
the key to the cipher used hi all the negotiations, but 
a copy of the alleged letter of invitation which Major 
Robert White had sworn on affidavit was a true copy, 
and the signatures true ones thereby putting another 
nail into the coffins of the Reformers, which to say the 

128 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 129 

least was a peculiar proceeding. Very ugly reasons are 
given in Pretoria for this affidavit ; but whatever Major 
Robert White's motives may have been, his action was 
most unjustifiable. 

I thought I should never get over this fresh blow, 
and did everything hi my power to persuade Lionel not 
to plead guilty upon such a charge. They had not com- 
mitted high treason, and it seemed to me but one of the 
traps in which they had been caught so often. Lionel 
argued with me for some time and then got angry, say- 
ing to me, " You are most selfish." 

I remember how I went away through the scented 
tropical garden that lovely evening, weeping bitterly, for 
my heart felt broken, and I was crushed with the hope- 
lessness of it all. As I was going out of the gate, 
Percy Fitzpatrick ran after me and tried to comfort 
me, urging me not to lose my pluck. 

Anyhow, my entreaties were of no avail, and there 
was nothing to be done. The whole thing was kept 
secret for a day or two, and then when it was finally 
determined on by the four principals, the rest were in- 
formed of the decision. The most plausible arguments 
were used, and all the lawyers were against me, but 
personally I shall always remain convinced that it was 
a mistake. 

The four prisoners were told that if they pleaded 
guilty to high treason, a plea of guilty to quite a minor 
charge would be accepted from the rest, and everything 
would be much easier ; and if, instead of irritating the 



130 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

judges by a long defence, they consented to take this 
course, Mr. Wessels assured them that the State At- 
torney would come to a compromise, and they could 
rest assured that their own sentence would be a fine 
and banishment, in terms of the Statute Laws, while 
the remaining fifty-nine, some of whom were guilty of 
very little, would have a nominal fine say about 100. 
So Mr. Wessels and the State Attorney arranged the 
matter, and the proposed compromise was considered 
a settled thing. Everybody then went about with 
light hearts, and the prisoners looked forward to a 
speedy end of their imprisonment. Of course we 
were told that the arrangement was not to be men- 
tioned, for the sake of appearances, &c. ; in fact, it was 
even suggested that the sending of the prisoners over 
the border might be delayed a week or -two also 
for the sake of appearances and a nominal punish- 
ment, such as detention in a private house, insisted 
on at first, as of course the Government must not 
be made to look mercenary, and the feelings of the 
burghers must be considered. 

In this large body of men certain among them were 
technically more guilty than others, although they were 
all included in one charge, and the four signatories of 
the letter thought that by taking the onus on their own 
shoulders they would spare the others; moreover, as 
Jameson and his fellows were still untried, they did not 
wish any evidence to be elicited which might have dam- 
aged them ! All this happened one week before the trial. 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 131 

There had been much discussion as to which judge 
should try the case, as the three judges in Pretoria 
were disqualified two because they had given the 
Government advice at the time of the raid, and the 
third because he was a Scotchman, and known to be 
friendly to the prisoners. This matter was felt to be 
one of considerable importance. Just before the trial 
we were informed that Judge Gregorowski, from the 
Orange Free State, was coming, and the choice was 
looked upon as a bad one for the prisoners. 

All this time I had been living at Hohenheim with 
my children, and Lionel's sister and her husband were 
also staying with me. I had made several trips a week 
to Pretoria to see him, but now we moved to that town, 
leaving the children at home, and I took up my resi- 
dence at the Transvaal Hotel, where, from first to last, 
the proprietor, although a German and a friend of the 
other side, showed me the greatest kindness and con- 
sideration. I had a tiny bedroom leading on to a 
verandah, and all the rooms were equally small, but 
fortunately perfectly clean. The strain on the resources 
of Pretoria was great at this tune owing to the unusual 
influx of strangers, and the two hotels of the place were 
crowded. I could not even get a sitting-room, and the 
whole time I was there Mr. Jahn lent me his own 
private room. It was real acts of kindness such as 
this which softened much of the suffering we had to 
endure. 

Just before the trial, Mr. Hammond came up from 



132 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

Cape Town to be present. The British Government 
sent Mr. Rose-Innes, a barrister from Cape Town, to 
watch the case for them. As there was no building 
in Pretoria large enough for the purpose, the market- 
house was turned into a court for the occasion. The 
acoustic properties were so bad that the prisoners never 
heard one word of the proceedings, and could not even 
catch the voices of the counsel or judges. I must here 
mention that all this time more than three months 
all business had been at a complete standstill in 
Johannesburg. To begin with, so many mine managers 
and directors of companies were among the prisoners 
that their continual trips to Pretoria sadly interfered 
with work, and the absence of so many important pro- 
fessional men was felt in various ways. Then the spirit 
of unrest which was continually spreading was a great 
deterrent to work, and caused incalculable harm to 
trade. A feeling of absolute distrust of the Government 
prevailed, and it is not to be wondered at that every- 
body was on tenterhooks, and that from day to day one 
never knew what might happen. The word " confisca- 
tion " was constantly whispered, but every one felt that 
this was too serious a matter for even the Transvaal 
Government to contemplate lightly, since by the ruin of 
these persons so many foreign shareholders would have 
indirectly suffered. It was always considered a great 
safeguard to the prisoners that among them were 
Americans and other foreigners. 

Then one Friday the trial began, and the huge 




pq 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 133 

market-house was packed. The judge, with his evil 
hawk-like face, seemed the very personification of 
cruelty and malice. He^was seated in a sort of box ; in 
front of him were the counsel for both sides ; on the 
right, opposite the jury, but low down and far away, sat 
the prisoners. A small space in front of the barristers 
was reserved for ladies. My sister-in-law and I went 
early to get good seats, and found most of the other 
prisoners' wives and friends there, besides a number of 
the Pretoria ladies, the wives of some of the Hollander 
officials. Some of these latter looked on it as a most 
exciting exhibition of toilette, and I heard one remark, 
" Oh, I wish I had put on something else." 

The first day was devoted to hearing the case for 
the prosecution. A propos of the Pretoria ladies, I 
must say that we poor " Reform ladies " were cordially 
detested by many of them, and a little incident which 
occurred the first day, miserable and trifling enough 
hi itself, still helped to add its sting to my misery. 
When we returned to the Court, I found all the seats 
taken, quite half being occupied by Pretoria dames 
who were there out of pure curiosity; but I wanted 
most particularly to hear the speech for the prosecu- 
tion, and not being very practised in Dutch, would not 
have been able to follow had I been far off. So seeing 
a vacant place in the front row, I requested the old 
usher to put two chairs there for us, which he did. 
Two women just behind (they were the daughter of the 
French Consul Aubert and the wife of the correspon- 



134 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

dent of the Temps) protested most vigorously, and 
the usher said to me in Cape Dutch, " Hulle is bije 
parmantige vrouwen" (They are very impertinent 
women). I assured him that did not signify hi the 
least, but as I and my sister-in-law took our seats, 
the one lady remarked quite audibly, "Les femmes 
des accuses." She evidently thought the wife of the 
correspondent of a notoriously partisan paper had 
more right than the unfortunate wife of a prisoner to 
hear the argument on his life or death. 

However, I scored my petty revenge through my 
knowledge of Cape Dutch, as I requested the usher 
to enforce their silence, which he did by standing 
guard over them for the rest of the afternoon. 

Dr. Coster, as counsel for the State, presented the 
case against the prisoners in straightforward and 
moderate speech, without any evidence of animus, and 
appeared to conform to the understanding arrived at. 

The next day was devoted to hearing the case for 
the prisoners. Mr. Wessels read a statement prepared 
by the four leaders, and then made a speech on 
behalf of the whole body. Here, according to legal 
etiquette, the matter should have rested until the 
sentence was given, but in spite of protests from Mr. 
Wessels and the barristers for the defence, the State 
Attorney got up and, as it were, repenting his previous 
attitude, made the most violent attack it is possible 
to imagine on the prisoners. He advised the judge, 
at least half-a-dozen tunes over, "to hang them by 




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SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 135 

the neck until they were dead" and to confiscate 
their property. He did not stand in his place while 
making these cheerful suggestions, but ran up and 
down like one possessed, waving his arms in the ah*, 
and evincing a hatred towards the prisoners so pas- 
sionate that it made me feel cold and hopeless. The 
prisoners themselves, however, not being able to hear 
his voice, sat on in the calmest manner, feeling quite 
safe in the promises that had been made them, and 
thinking that his frantic gestures were but a part 
of the old game of appearances. As, moreover, many 
of the listeners did not understand a word he said, 
his harangue did not produce much apparent effect. 
But the awful words, "hangen bij den nek," repeated 
many times with ferocious insistence, sank like lead 
on my heart, and I could not speak, being now quite 
certain what the sentence would be. He urged the 
judge to sentence the prisoners under the Roman 
Dutch Laws, ignoring the Transvaal local laws, and 
thus violating the understanding arrived at with Mr. 
Wessels. The sentence was to be delivered on the 
Monday. When we got back to the hotel, I told my 
sister-in-law the gist of the State Attorney's speech, and 
confided to her my opinion. I also added, " In one 
way, I rather hope that it will be the worst, awful as it 
seems, as it will make friends for the prisoners of many 
of the Johannesburg people who are now against them, 
and who have never appreciated all they tried to do 
on their behalf." 



136 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

I do not like to remember the agony of mind I 
suffered during the next thirty-six hours. Being ex- 
tremely unwell I spent the time in bed, and may I 
never again undergo such suffering and apprehension ! 
The very cheerfulness of the prisoners seemed an added 
torture, and I lacked courage to tell Lionel what I 
feared. He had insisted that I should not be present 
hi the Court on the Monday to hear the sentence, and 
I, feeling he was right, reluctantly consented. He said 
over and over again, " You might get a shock. They 
may give us a stiff sentence for form's sake, and it will 
be easier for me if I know you are not there to hear it." 
So on the Monday morning I drove up to the prisoners' 
cottage to see Lionel a moment before they left for the 
Court. He gave me all instructions about leaving the 
country in case they were conveyed over the border 
immediately. He told me he would then wait for me 
in Cape Town, where I was to join him with the chil- 
dren, after shutting up the house in Johannesburg and 
arranging about servants, horses, &c. He also said to 
me, " I am glad you are not coming into the Court, as 
they might give us a stiff sentence they may give 
us five years' imprisonment ; but let me beg of you not 
to mind. Remember it is arranged with Coster that 
we are to be put over the border, and that will in 
any case be done in about a fortnight's time at the 
latest." He also added how delighted he was to think 
the fifty-nine prisoners were going to be let off so easily, 
as it was a great relief to him. I could have laughed 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 137 

aloud, knowing my own thoughts. I remember seeing 
them all go off cheerily in their little hired flies to hear 
their sentence, and if any of them had any suspicion 
as to what it was to be they did not show it. Lionel 
was humming " Una Voce " as he drove off. An Irish 
friend of ours who was there said to me, as I went back 
to my little room at the Transvaal Hotel, " I will go to 
the Court, and as your husband will be the first to 
receive his sentence, I will run back as fast as possible 
and tell you what it is." 

Mrs. Fitzpatrick was with me when, a very short 
time afterwards, he appeared. I hardly realised he 
had been to the Court at all, and said to him, "Oh, 
I thought you were going to listen to the sentence 
to tell me." Without speaking for a second he put 
his hand on my shoulder, and, with a great gulp 
in his voice, said, "You must be brave! you must 
be brave!" Of course I knew what he meant, but 
nevertheless the reality made me feel as though I 
were turned to stone. He stared at me when I said 
calmly, " You need not tell me ; it is death." And his 
sobs were his answer. He then suggested I should 
write Lionel a few lines, which I did, and he ran back 
to the Court with the note. In a few minutes the 
verandah outside my room was full of agitated people, 
and I think the men on this occasion wept more than 
the women. We heard that the four principal offenders 
had received the same sentence; that the verdict on 
the fifty-nine was extremely severe two years' im- 



138 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

prisonment, ^2000 fine, or in default an extra year's 
imprisonment and banishment for three years after- 
wards. We were proud to know that all, without ex- 
ception, had received their sentences like men. We 
heard also they had all been sent from the Court back 
to the loathsome, evil-smelling prison, which had been 
carefully saturated with carbolic powder in an attempt 
to disguise the other awful odours. 

When I look back on that fearful time, I sometimes 
wonder if it was not a hideous nightmare. I know 
that for the moment a feeling seized me that I no 
longer had any individual existence, that I had no 
right to feel or think anything, that something awful 
had happened which required all my immediate atten- 
tion regardless of mysel I remember having but 
one distinct idea, that I would not allow anything to 
happen to Lionel, though I formulated no plan, and 
then the gruesome vision of a gallows would obtrude 
itself before my mind's eye. My sister-in-law came 
into my room weeping. I think I shook her and said, 
" This is not the time to cry. We want all our wits 
about us." I felt that if I once gave way I should 
have no powers of thinking left. How many tunes 
afterwards was I asked the question, " But you did 
not really think there was any danger for your hus- 
band ; you did not really think they would hang him ? " 
and my reply to it was, " No, I did not really think 
they would hang him, but the danger was a nearer, 
more real, more imminent one, and that was that 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 139 

some ill-advised sympathisers would try to rescue 
them or make some demonstration, and they would 
have instantly been shot in the prison." That was 
the real danger to these men, and the thought made 
my heart stand still. 

However, others realised this also, and Percy Farrar, 
with a set and determined face, came to show me a 
telegram he was sending in the name of the prisoners, 
which was to be posted up all over the town and on 
the Stock Exchange of Johannesburg. It begged the 
inhabitants of that town, if they had any considera- 
tion whatever for their safety, not to move hand or 
foot in their interest that the moment was critical, 
and that their lives depended upon the discretion of 
their friends. I also immediately sent a telegram to 
my butler in Johannesburg telling him to proceed with 
the three children and nurse by that night's train to 
Cape Town, which he did. I was afraid that in case 
of a riot or any disturbance in Johannesburg our house 
might be attacked, and if the children remained there 
I knew they would be a constant source of anxiety to 
me. Percy Farrar also left that night for Cape Town 
to see the Governor in the interest of the prisoners. 
Her Majesty's representative refused to see him, put- 
ting him off by sending his secretary to him, and he 
returned a week later from his fruitless mission, sick 
at heart. 

How that awful day passed I scarcely remember. 
We were not granted permission to visit the prisoners. 



140 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

As "my prophetic soul" had foretold, on all sides 
there was a complete revulsion of feeling in favour 
of the prisoners when the brutality of their sentence 
was made known. Some of the Boers themselves 
were horrified, and immediately initiated petitions 
on their behalf. The people of Johannesburg, who 
had hitherto stood aloof for fear of being com- 
promised, made a stand against the sentence. The 
ordinary onlooker who waits to see how the wind blows 
before he decides, the many who fancied they had 
been ruined through the action of the Reformers, and 
the many who always must blame somebody for the 
sake of grumbling, all forgot their petty hesitations in 
the face of this wicked sentence, and with one accord 
went over to the side of the Reformers. 

If the Transvaal Government had thought for years 
they could not have discovered a more signal way of 
making hundreds of enemies for themselves and friends 
for these prisoners than by their cowardly, treacherous 
sentence, and it is one of the few things we can thank 
them for. The sentence on the leaders " to hang by the 
neck until you are dead" dreadful as it was at the time, 
and dangerous trifling as it was with men's lives, did more 
to show the world in general, and Johannesburg and 
Pretoria in particular, the unscrupulous nature of the 
rulers of the Transvaal, and how little they are fitted 
for the responsibilities they assume. If the abortive 
revolution of 1896 was a fiasco, at least the workers 
of it did signal service to South Africa, and that was 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 141 

to expose one of the worst, most tyrannical, and 
criminal governments that has existed in modern 
times. And the good work begun by these devoted 
men will still bear fruit, although they personally may 
not benefit. 

The manner in which the prisoners received their 
sentence also gained them many friends; every one 
who was present in the Court, without exception, said 
that this was so. Lionel being the first on the list was 
put to the severest test. He told me afterwards that 
it never once entered his head that the sentence would 
be death; the worst he feared was prolonged im- 
prisonment. His suspicions were first aroused when 
he saw some men bringing forward a little dock and 
putting it near the judge ; in this the four leaders were 
made to stand. The whole thing was very trying, and 
the torture was prolonged. When Lionel was told to 
stand forward, the judge first gave a long homily in 
Dutch, which was interpreted into English. Then he 
asked, " Do you know any reason why you should not 
suffer death ? " and the reply was " No." He then put 
on his black cap and gave the sentence. Lionel told 
me that the only time when he felt as if he would break 
down was when they were coining out. At that point 
our friend Mrs. Spencer (whose husband was also a 
prisoner) came up to him with the tears pouring down 
her face, and shaking him by the hand, said, " Old 
friend, you are a brave fellow." I was truly thankful 
I was not there. The interpreter burst into tears, 



142 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

women fainted in the Court, one man at the back had 
a fit. Gregorowski was seen to smile ; evidently the 
gruesome spectacle gave pleasure to one of the par- 
ticipators. A propos of this, I remember frequently 
hearing at that time the remark, " He laughs best who 
laughs last." 

I was told by a Frenchman of our acquaintance 
that after the sentence was pronounced, the two French 
women I have already mentioned went up to him, 
laughing heartily, and said, "They are going to be 
hanged," whereupon he, utterly disgusted by their 
frightful inhumanity, replied, " I am ashamed of you ; 
you are not worthy to be called women." I mention 
these incidents, as the respective father and husband 
of these women are the two men who have guided 
French opinion as to events in the Transvaal, and 
perhaps their womenkind, in expressing such inhuman 
ideas, were only echoing the opinions of some members 
of their family. 

The whole trial was a monstrous farce, every scene 
of which had been rehearsed beforehand. On arriving 
in Pretoria, the first action of Gregorowski, the judge 
imported from the Free State, had been to ask one of 
the other judges if he had a black cap; this was before 
he had heard or read one word of the evidence. Also 
before receiving the coveted appointment he had re- 
marked that he wished he could try the Reformers; 
he would see that they got "what for." Doubtless 
these sentiments publicly expressed gained him the 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 143 

post. We had the poor satisfaction of knowing that 
when a little later he returned to Bloemfontein on a 
visit, he was hooted and howled at, and was forced 
to escape by a back street, and that for many a day 
afterwards he went in danger of being lynched by some 
of the more lawless spirits. 



CHAPTER XI 

WHEN the news of the sentences reached Johannesburg 
tremendous excitement prevailed. Even that " Sleepy 
Hollow," Pretoria, had been stirred out of its apathy for 
once, and Johannesburg observed the day as a day of 
mourning. Every shop and theatre was closed, as also 
the Stock Exchange, and such masses of people thronged 
the main parts of the town that all traffic was stopped. I 
believe Commissioner Street and the Market Square and 
all the streets in the neighbourhood were a surging mass 
of human beings. Nor was it due to the Pretoria autho- 
rities that desperate remedies were not applied at that 
moment. Many threats were made, and would have 
been carried out had it not been for the influence of 
Percy Farrar's telegram, and a few calm spirits who 
saw what frightful risks the prisoners ran. The de- 
parture that night of twenty thousand men armed with 
pickaxes and spades to effect the rescue of the prisoners 
was quite seriously contemplated, and that day and 
many a day afterwards quite respectable people might 
have been heard discussing the power of dynamite as 
an explosive, and suggesting that as they were dis- 
armed the Uitlanders would have to resort to that 
material if they wished to obtain any redress. I am 

144 




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SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 145 

quite certain that the Volksraad buildings, the Pre- 
sident's house, the State Secretary's house, and various 
other places, together with their occupants, would not 
have escaped at this period had it not been that the 
prisoners' lives would as certainly have paid for it. 

Johannesburg, as I have before remarked, is a town 
not easily roused, and on this occasion the self-restraint 
shown was not due to want of feeling, but to a genuine 
consideration for the victims in prison, and once more 
Kruger and his satellites had to thank these men 
indirectly for much. It certainly was not due to fears 
of personal safety, nor yet to consideration for him, that 
Johannesburg stayed its hand. But the knowledge of 
the real helplessness of the place was a bitter fact to 
many. The guards in the Pretoria gaol were very 
numerous, and bristled with arms, and whenever they 
could make a display of their power, they were not slow 
to do so. Kruger took the precaution to surround him- 
self with trusty burghers, and the side street hi Pretoria 
in which he lived was closed up. No one dared to pass 
it in fact, one day a man was arrested for walking on 
the public pavement in front of his house. Nor did 
Dr. Leyds lead a cheerful life at this time. He received 
so many threatening letters from various sources that 
he never moved without a guard, and his house and 
garden were always protected by men in. plain clothes, 
who were concealed among the trees and bushes. But 
these were poor consolations to us, and from the 

moment the Reformers were put back into prison, they 

K 



146 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

and their wives were made to endure a life of positive 
and systematic torture, which I am sure none of them 
will ever forget. 

The morning after the sentences had been passed, 
the news was brought to us that the death penalty had 
been commuted, but to what no one knew, and it was 
not announced for a long time. Anyhow that was a 
heavy load off our minds, and we could breathe again. 
We also heard that if we went up to the Landdrost's 
office and got a pass we would be allowed to see the 
prisoners. 

Just as I was going out for that purpose I was 
told that some one wished to see me, and going into 
the little sitting-room I saw an unknown, bearded 
individual wearing new brown kid gloves. He in- 
troduced himself to me, saying, "I am an Uitlander, 
a Belgian, and I have numerous friends of different 
nationalities, and we are going to rescue the prisoners. 
But I thought I would come to tell you first." To 
hear this crazy plan, to the danger of which we were 
all so much alive, announced in this calm, matter-of- 
fact manner, was too much for my brain, and I found 
myself giggling inanely, not knowing how to deal with 
the man. But a brilliant idea suddenly came to 
me, and telling him to wait a moment, I fetched Mr. 
Rose-Innes, to whom I made my visitor recount his 
project. Mr. Innes did not deal very gently with him, 
but used most forcible language as to his mad idea, 
looking so fierce that the Belgian was glad to beat a 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 147 

hasty retreat. That was the last of this hero, but it 
gave me a fright. 

I went up to the Landdrost's office, and got a pass 
to go into the prison, and was told I could stay 
ten minutes. Never shall I forget the scene. The 
sight of that horrid, grey-looking prison-yard, filled 
with little groups of men one had known in happier 
circumstances, many of them personal friends, and the 
dreadful humiliation of their position, was almost too 
much for me. As I was led towards the condemned 
cell, where Lionel and his three partners in misery 
were, all the prisoners came up to me and shook 
hands silently. They also had not long known the 
news of the commutation of the original sentence, 
and I took this for a mark of their sympathy. Lionel, 
Colonel Rhodes, George Farrar, and Mr. Hammond 
were in an inner cell used for prisoners condemned to 
death, and guards were standing at the doors, rifle in 
hand. The indescribable sickening odour that pervades 
any place occupied by Kaffirs was here in all its vigour, 
and it went to my heart to see these men, honourable 
and upright, doomed to this humiliating captivity hi 
these awful surroundings. 

This was my first visit to the Pretoria gaol, and 
as I shut my eyes every detail comes home to me, 
the whole sordid scene even the very odour I have 
mentioned which was so closely connected with all 
their sufferings. The cell was windowless; holes high 
up in the wall being the only means of ventilation ; 



148 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

and on the mud floor four wretched stretchers, covered 
with coloured Kaffir blankets, constituted the furni- 
ture. Our meeting naturally was one full of emotion. 
They were all very cheery, however, and full of pluck. 
Lionel tried to comfort me by saying, " Well, any- 
how, it is not every man who has had the experience 
of being sentenced to death," but I am afraid the 
effort failed in its object. When I asked him how 
he had slept, he owned that he had had rather bad 
dreams, but I heard no complaints. They remarked 
that they could not eat the food, which was not 
to be wondered at. Even Du Plessis had said that 
it was not fit to give a dog, and that did not even 
mean an English dog, but a Boer's dog, whose life is not 
a pampered one. We were allowed but little oppor- 
tunity for conversation, being ordered away before we 
could say much, as other ladies were awaiting their 
turn to come in, and only a few were admitted at a 
time. The food, I learned, was the same as that given 
to the Kaffir prisoners, and to judge by the living 
skeletons one saw on every side, it could not be 
tempting. It consisted of a tin pannikin of mealie 
meal pap (porridge), at six in the morning when their 
cell was unlocked, some dreadful-looking junks of beef, 
which had previously been used to make soup, and a 
tin pannikin of tea at twelve, and again in the evening 
before being locked up a pannikin of pap similar to 
that of the morning. These delectable meals used to 
be served in a manner worthy of the prison. Convicts 




W 

o 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 149 

used to bring in the things on a huge tray, place them 
on the ground in the middle of the yard, and whoever 
wanted to regale himself had to fetch it. We felt that 
this meant starvation ; but hearing that, as these were 
political prisoners, special regulations would be made, 
we tried to console ourselves with the idea. 

The other prisoners, I learned, were distributed about 
the prison in batches. It appeared that so cut and 
dried was the whole thing that the authorities had 
built extra lean-to's of corrugated iron beforehand for 
the reception of these men, and the official idea of 
making the filthy places sanitary had been to strew 
about broadcast carbolic powder, which was not only 
very unpleasant to smell hi such quantities, but very 
irritating to the olfactory nerves. I heard that the 
men were herded together in far too great numbers 
for it to be possible to be healthy, and that they were 
all locked up for thirteen hours every night with no 
ventilation, and scarcely any means of sanitation what- 
ever. 

We all came away from the prison most frightfully 
depressed with the feeling that the more immediate 
wants of poor humanity, like food and air, had for the 
moment assumed an importance that made all the 
greater evils fade into the background. I may remark 
here that during all the time these men were im- 
prisoned no rules were made for their diet at all, 
notwithstanding the constant appeals made on all sides 
by then* lawyers and friends ; and when at last we were 



150 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

told that that came within the jurisdiction of the Land- 
drost, that functionary remarked, "Oh, I shall see to 
that question when I have time. So far I am so busy 
giving out passes for the prisoners' wives that I have 
no time for anything else." He never did find time 
all those weary weeks, and so no order was given ; and 
a most hateful system of smuggling had to be resorted 
to by the womenkind, and all kinds of devices had to 
be invented, and bribery of the most barefaced order 
indulged in towards the rapacious jailers and guards. 
It was all part of the blackmail and torture to which 
we were subjected by these people, with the idea, on 
the one hand, I presume, of making us feel our helpless 
position, and in the hope, no doubt, of getting as much 
as they could from the prisoners in the end. 

As to the famous passes for the prisoners' wives and 
friends, Mr.Schutte, the Landdrost, always had the excuse 
of hard work in making these out till the end. We peti- 
tioned to have one general pass made out for the wives, 
at least, but were refused; and so every day except 
Saturday and Sunday the ridiculous spectacle was seen 
of numerous women besieging the Landdrost's office 
for the pass into the prison, and generally two or three 
hours would be taken up each morning waiting for this 
little slip of paper, which at the most gave us five or 
ten minutes' admission to the prison. We were at any 
rate thankful to be able to get in to see them at all, 
and therefore tried not to heed the unnecessary trouble 
we were put to. The wives were allowed between two 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 151 

and four every day except Saturdays and Sundays, and 
the ordinary friends once a week. Saturday was the 
day taken for cleaning the prison (after a fashion), and 
Sunday, I presume, to give the officials a rest. 

Pretoria always used to look very strange at the week 
end. It is a most sleepy, dull little place ; but during 
the time the Reformers were hi prison it became quite 
lively with the influx of the many strangers who took 
up their abode in the town in order to be near the 
prisoners. Most of the near relatives of the prisoners, 
if they did actually live in Pretoria, came over fre- 
quently to see them, but the two days debarred they 
mostly spent in Johannesburg. I had quite settled 
myself at the Transvaal Hotel, but used to run over 
to see how things were at home, though, as the children 
were absent, only necessity took me thither. 

The second and third days after sentence was passed 
were very terrible ones, as we discovered to our dismay 
that no regulations were forthcoming for the feeding of 
the prisoners. The awful helplessness of their position 
struck us anew. There was no one to appeal to, no one 
to help. They were obviously deserted, to starve, unless 
we ourselves took some means of helping them. To 
appeal to the authorities at Pretoria was worse than 
useless. They had us in their power and meant to use 
it; and I here assert that no mediaeval barbarities can 
ever again astonish me, when I remember how fiend- 
ishly, even in the nineteenth century, so-called civilised 
beings can behave to their fellows when their passions 



152 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

are allowed unchecked play. There was a general look 
of hopelessness on the faces of these men that day that 
I shall never forget ; and to hear strong robust men 
saying, "For God's sake, try and get us in somehow 
something to eat, some Liebig's essence, anything, we 
are starving," was bad enough, and to contemplate the 
older and more delicate members of the party was still 
more heartrending. 

This state of things went on for some days, although 
the gaoler Du Plessis, being all-powerful here, could 
easily have ameliorated their condition, but from the 
first he showed his intention to wring as much money 
as he could from these unfortunates. It was an aggra- 
vation also, and one which he could not understand, 
of course, that they must suffer in silence, for how 
could they show an inferior such as he was what they 
felt ? to be at his mercy was bad enough. I know I 
went away from the prison that day feeling well-nigh 
desperate. In addition to the starvation they were 
suffering, the sanitary arrangements were so utterly in- 
adequate that we really feared an outbreak of typhoid ; 
indeed, how it was avoided I cannot imagine. The 
vermin and the general filth were indescribable. As 
an example of petty tyranny, I may mention that 
whenever the whim seized him, he ordered the Re- 
formers to be stood up in line and searched. 

So far, the men had been allowed to retain their own 
clothes, but there were constant threats of their being 
put into convict garb. I think that if this had been 




r 
U 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 153 

attempted there would have been a few corpses strewn 
about the prison yard. The authorities went so far as 
to have the clothes prepared I saw them coarse dark- 
blue linen coats and trousers : but, for some inscrutable 
reason, in this matter the Government never went 
beyond threats. 

On leaving the prison, I sent Mr. Beit a cable 
imploring him to inform the Colonial Office of the 
desperate condition of the prisoners, but although, 
as he told me afterwards, he did what he could, no 
results were apparent. 1 So we women, all filled with one 
idea, began devising every kind of plan for getting in 
food to the prisoners, and I should imagine that we 
must have emptied the few stores in Pretoria of their 
supply of meat juices, sardines, and other tinned pro- 
visions that did not take up space. I arranged with my 
friend, Burgers, the under-gaoler, who came to see me 
after dark, to take in as much as he could carry of what 
I had obtained, and from that time he used to pay me 
nocturnal visits, and go away laden with the most varied 
kind of provisions imaginable. Naturally our great 
desire was to avoid arousing the suspicion of the 
authorities, more especially of Du Plessis, who was very 
jealous of his subordinate, and did not wish him to 
participate in any of the gains. But this Burgers was 

1 To insure a telegram reaching its destination, one had to send 
a special messenger to Charlestown in Natal, twelve hours by train, 
as the Censor ruthlessly kept back everything he liked. As each 
word cost five shillings and sixpence by cable, the expense was 
immense. 



154 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

a perfect godsend to us ; without him I do not know 
how the prisoners could have existed at first. He told 
me that his method of getting the food to the four men 
was to go after dark, when Du Plessis had retired and 
the lights were out, to the side where the air-holes 
in the cell were, and tying a piece of string round 
whatever he wished to deliver, to let it down to them. 
It sounds too childish to believe, but this was one 
of the means by which these men existed for some 
time. 

Then after a few days the gaol people got a fright. 
One of the prisoners became dangerously ill. He had 
been unable to obtain supplies from outside, and the 
prison food made him sick. The prisoners at first were 
rigorously watched, and could not give each other any- 
thing. To show how unprepared all these men had 
been to go to prison, none of them had made any pre- 
parations of any kind beforehand, and this particular 
gentleman had a very curious experience. It appears 
that he wore false teeth, which on the day of the trial 
were at his dentist's hi Johannesburg, so he went to 
prison minus his teeth. They were sent to him there 
by parcel post, but Du Plessis naturally would not de- 
liver them to him it was a good opportunity for the 
infliction of a little extra torture. So not until the poor 
man was in danger of dying did they let him have his 
teeth, or grow less rigorous as to the smuggling of food. 
Had they allowed the prisoners openly to receive enough 
to support existence, it might have been possible to 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 155 

conform to the regulations, but this farce of smuggling 
in food was an unnecessary and humiliating hardship. 

Every woman visiting the gaol used to secrete 
something eatable for one or more men, and it is 
one of the few occasions on record when we have been 
thankful to wear petticoats. One lady especially lost 
all vanity, and she used to look a very comical figure, 
but she was most barefaced over it, and generally suc- 
ceeded in getting in what she wanted. She invented 
a kind of pocket that went quite round her skirt, and 
one can imagine her shape when she conveyed a bottle 
or two or any other bulky object. Occasionally, however, 
we were searched on entering, and everything sternly 
confiscated. Quite at the end of their imprisonment 
the idea struck some of us of openly sending in food in 
"three deckers" (tin or enamelled cans one above the 
other, used by workmen, in which the food kept hot), 
and to our surprise no objection was made by Du 
Plessis. The hot food was a great boon, as cold tinned 
food is very unhealthy even if one can take exercise 
and has fresh air. 

The men used to take exercise by walking round 
and round the yard, but the close, fetid air of the 
place and the continual use of tinned and cold food 
was terribly trying, and only their determination to 
make the best of it kept them up; the one blessing 
they had was each other's companionship, and that 
they were allowed to see their friends. This latter privi- 
lege, however, was often turned to their torture, and in 



156 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

this wise. All kinds of persons in Pretoria some well- 
meaning, no doubt, made a regular practice of coming 
to the anxious women to tell them " on the best autho- 
rity" some piece of news about the prisoners' future 
disposition, for it was generally understood that things 
could not go on as they were, interminably. All busi- 
ness was stopped at Johannesburg owing to so many 
important business men being imprisoned; trade was 
at a complete standstill, and the tension every day 
became more dangerous, while in the Cape Colony 
and the whole of South Africa every one was awaiting 
the development of events with bated breath. Appar- 
ently the only people who took matters calmly were 
Kruger and the members of the Government. It must 
be remembered that we were waiting every day to hear 
to what the death sentences had been commuted. No 
one knew, and the fact was that the authorities did not 
dare to announce the monstrous decision at which they 
had arrived. 

It was held over our heads continually also that 
the men were going to be distributed over the 
country, as they would be less dangerous when separ- 
ated. One benighted village on the borders of Zulu- 
land even went so far as to petition the Government 
that some of the Reform prisoners might be sent to 
them they had just done up the jail, and they thought 
the prisoners' wives would be so good for the trade 
of the place. We all shivered inwardly as the awful 
idea occurred to each of us that we might be the 




REFORM PRISONERS AWAITING NEWS. 




REFORM PRISONERS TAKING EXERCISE. 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 157 

favoured benefactress of Vrijheid. As many of the 
poor men said often afterwards, they would far rather 
have supported a year's or even two years' imprison- 
ment than go through the hourly and daily torture of 
suspense in which they lived. What this was I cannot 
describe it was terrible to us all. For many weeks 
no one knew what might happen from one hour to 
another. 

Once the men were thoroughly in the power of the 
authorities, they invented every kind of petty tyranny 
possible. The worst of all was the petition business. 
To this day the very word " petition " recalls the most 
hateful memories. They were informed that if they 
wished anything done for them they must petition the 
Government, but the mere idea was gall and wormwood. 
Enormous pressure was brought to bear on these un- 
fortunate men. Among their number were some who 
indignantly refused, while others did not see any 
indignity at all hi the proceeding. Outside pressure 
of every kind was put upon them also, and notably 
indirectly through their wives and friends. It seemed 
as if they were to be forced to drink to the dregs the 
cup of humiliation. At last formal applications for the 
revision of their sentences were sent to the Government 
by the prisoners, as they were informed that this was 
required by law. In the meantime thousands of signa- 
tures were obtained from every part of South Africa, 
including the Transvaal, to a petition asking for the 
release of the prisoners, Kruger giving out that it was 



158 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

necessary for him to have many petitions " in order to 
strengthen his hand with his burghers " the same old 
tale we had already heard so often, and which we knew 
was only said to cover the fact that he and he alone 
swayed the burghers. But they were and have always 
been a most useful tool to fall back upon. A man who 
went into one of the country districts near Pretoria told 
me that a great many of the farmers had never heard 
of the Jameson Raid, and were in complete ignorance of 
the political troubles of the moment. 

And thus the days dragged on while matters seemed 
to become more hopeless, and we all felt we could put 
up with anything better than the continued uncertainty. 
One of the bitterest things we women had to bear on 
our own account was the daily wait at the prison gate 
when we paid our visit. The gate was controlled by a 
young Boer, generally half intoxicated, who was much 
after the pattern of the head gaoler, and a thorough 
bully. We always used to say that the hottest spot on 
earth was just outside the prison gates the sun seemed 
to have a power there I cannot remember to have felt 
elsewhere. This place afforded a very strange sight 
each afternoon during visiting hours with its motley 
collection of cabs and carts, and waiting men and 
women who would come and go by a small gate hi the 
large one; while sometimes the large gates would be 
opened wide, and gangs of convicts with their clanking 
irons would pass hi or out. 

On the whole the lady visitors were fairly well 




O 

fc 
o 

en 

2 
OH 



SB 
H 

a 
9 

en 
H 

O 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 159 

treated. A limited number were allowed in for their 
brief visit, but we always felt it was a favour, and 
that its continuance depended upon our good be- 
haviour. No matter whether the guards were in- 
solent or complimentary after their clumsy fashion, 
one had to smile through it all, as any little exhi- 
bition of annoyance on our part would have been 
immediately visited on the prisoners we had come to 
see. But to the male visitors unbounded insolence was 
shown. They were kept waiting for hours outside the 
gates, although provided with the coveted pass, and 
although in many cases they had purposely made the 
journey from Johannesburg. One day when Sir Jacobus 
de Wet, the British resident, went to pay an official 
visit to the prisoners (armed with a pass, too) he was 
refused admission by this functionary, and had to 
submit. It was very important that the business men 
should see those connected with them, and the few 
minutes allowed to each visitor were very precious. 

One day on going up to pay my daily visit I 
remember finding hi the crowd Mr. Rouliot, one of 
Lionel's partners, who wanted to see him on some 
important business matter. In place of his usual 
amiable expression he looked hot and angry, and he 
told me he had been there for two hours in the baking 
sun, and that the gatekeeper had let in many others 
who had come after him. I was told to wait until some 
of the ladies came out, and some one kindly giving 
me a packing-case he had, I sat as near the gate as I 



160 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

could, saying to Mr. Rouliot, " Stand close to me. When 
the gate opens I will speak to the gatekeeper, and when 
he lets me in, you make a dash after me." He did so, 
but the irate gatekeeper, being determined that Mr. 
Rouliot should not come in, gave him a great push, 
and the latter rebounded like a ball ; then fortunately 
descrying my friend Burgers in the distance, I ran 
to him and told him that Mr. Rouliot had come in 
on important business ; otherwise, he would never have 
been admitted that day. Doubtless, it was a most 
comical encounter, at which we all laughed ; but never- 
theless the repetition of these scenes was not always 
comical to the actors in them. Every day in the 
prison there were new rules one day the visitors 
were not allowed to go beyond the guard-room, and 
although this was filled to suffocation, even the privacy 
of the big open yard was denied to them. Another 
time chalk lines would be drawn across the yard, and 
one could not pass these imaginary barriers without 
a rifle being lifted by one of the guards to enforce 
obedience. The yard used to look very strange with num- 
bers of straw mattresses strewn about. The prisoners 
were in the habit of bringing them out to air them, 
and also utilised them as seats in the daytime. We 
were allowed later on to take them books and papers, 
but as a rule they all felt too restless to read. 

The lot of the men who were herded together in the 
iron lean-to's was terrible. The yard sloped down in 
that quarter, and consequently, as there were no founda- 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 161 

tions, the floor was at a lower level than the ground 
outside, and it was very damp. After some of the 
tropical rains, especially as there was no flooring, these 
mattresses were quite wet, and many of the prisoners 
became very unwell. It was very strange to see the 
interior of these cells, with their long row of mat- 
tresses placed on the ground as closely together as 
was possible. There was no ventilation at all except 
a few holes cut in the iron, and at night I believe 
it was suffocating. Another great discomfort to the 
prisoners was the difficulty of washing themselves: 
except for a very shallow furrow of most doubtful 
water which ran through one end of the yard, there 
were absolutely no means of ablution. That was not 
intentional cruelty, however ; a Boer seldom washes, and 
does not expect any one else to do so. On the con- 
dition of strict secrecy and 5 Burgers consented 
to take a small bath to Lionel. 



CHAPTER XII 

I HAVE mentioned that, except at night, these political 
prisoners were put with all kinds of criminals, black 
and white, and if the contact was a very unpleasant 
one, they at least gained an insight into Boer methods 
of treating their ordinary prisoners, which of itself 
alone is quite enough to prove how very far they are 
from following the precepts of Christianity. The cruelty 
witnessed on every side was revolting. On my visits 
to the prison I often noticed the forms of Kaffirs 
wrapped in a thin blanket, walking about, melancholy 
objects that made my heart bleed, for they were so 
attenuated that they were more like living skeletons 
than men. On inquiry I found that they were ihe 
chief Malaboch and a remnant of his followers, who 
had been taken prisoners in the very war which had 
occasioned the " commandeering " incident. The cruel 
treatment they received beggars description. They 
were forced to live out of doors in the yard, night 
and day, summer and winter, and in all weathers, their 
only protection being a thin Kaffir blanket. As the 
extremes of climate are great, and these wretched 
creatures, coming as they did from a much warmer 
one than that of Pretoria, were doubly susceptible, it 
is no wonder that an enormous proportion had died 

162 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 163 

in a very short time. Through the burning heat of 
summer, the heavy tropical rains, and the cold winds 
and frosts of winter, on the most miserable diet imagin- 
able, these unhappy Kaffirs dragged out an existence 
which fortunately for themselves was not a long one. 

I also heard an instance of a " boy " who had been 
imprisoned for some minor offence, and who whilst in 
the gaol had been allowed to earn a little money by wash- 
ing clothes for some of the Reformers. When his time 
expired, his convict garb was replaced by his own, and 
it appears that as he was going out of the prison, dis- 
charged, some of the guards told him he must be 
searched. He objected; they tried to do it by force. 
He resisted with all his might, and fought five guards 
like a wild animal. In the end he was worsted, his 
money was taken from him, he was hauled back with 
his clothes torn to some inner cell, and was never seen 
again. But the most awful sounds were heard pro- 
ceeding from the place one of my informants told 
me it sounded exactly as if he had been put between 
boards and was being flattened. The shameful scene 
at the gate was witnessed by many who felt anew their 
cruel helplessness. 

All this time no intimation whatever had been 
given as to what steps were going to be taken as to 
the disposition of the prisoners, and the suspense in- 
creased. I remember some of them saying, one day, 
that all they asked was that they might hear no more 
news of their fate ; they could bear anything except 



164 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

the everlasting rumours, and announced that they had 
resolved to throw brickbats at the next informant. The 
uncertainty had preyed frightfully on some of the men's 
minds, and in many cases their health began to give 
way ; a certain proportion were not too robust to begin 
with, and in addition to their own trouble they were 
oppressed by the knowledge that others had been 
dragged into the mess. Some of them were not too 

OO 

well off, so that sordid money troubles were added to 
their misery. Very nearly all the Reform prisoners 
were married, and the thought of the suffering brought 
on their wives was galling. Among them, Mr. Gray 
was one who took the whole thing very much to heart. 
I had heard that he had lost all spirit, and was most 
frightfully depressed; his fellow-prisoners were hoping 
that the authorities would at any rate allow him to 
go to a private house until he got better. But nothing 
was done. 

One Saturday morning we heard that he had com- 
mitted suicide, and the awful news was a terrible shock 
to us all. We were allowed to go into the prison that 
morning although it was Saturday, and my heart bled 
for all the men, as the ghastly deed had touched them 
all very nearly, and the last sad offices were done with 
their help. Mr. Gray was a young, strong-looking man, 
over six feet in height. He had a wife and six children, 
and was very well off. He looked one of the last per- 
sons to take his own life, but the constant uncertainty 
was too much for his brain, and his poor wife had had 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 165 

many anxious moments about him. Some of his fellow- 
prisoners had constituted themselves into a watch, and 
not only removed all dangerous implements, but took 
turns to be with him constantly. The prison surgeon 
was fully warned of his state, and reported upon it to 
the authorities, but no notice was taken, and hence 
the unhappy result. 

It appears that early that morning on rising, Mr. 
Gray had asked one of his fellow-prisoners to lend 
him a razor to shave with. This was done, as he 
appeared quite rational. He retired to a place near, 
and as he did not reappear after a few minutes, some 
one went to look for him, and found him lying on 
the ground with his throat cut. The poor man who 
discovered him fainted away with horror, and one can 
quite well imagine what his comrades felt at his 
tragic end, as he had been liked by all. 

It was a sad day in the prison. The bringing in of 
the coffin and the removal of the body deepened the 
gloom ; but worst of all was the thought of the terrible 
shock to his poor wife, and her grief for his loss. That 
he was one of those who had been arrested without a 
warrant, was a circumstance that added to her sorrow. 
He was buried in Johannesburg. I believe the funeral 
was a most impressive one. Ten thousand men followed 
the body to its last resting-place, and Mr. Darragh, the 
Rector of St. Mary's there, made an oration over the 
grave, in which he dwelt upon what was recognised as 
a judicial murder. 



166 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

The effect of this tragedy was very apparent in the 
prison. The Government realised that if they were not 
careful more such cases would follow. So several men 
who were ailing were released, and among them Captain 
Mein, who resisted to his utmost, saying he did not wish 
to desert the others. But he had no option, and a most 
affecting scene took place when he bade farewell to his 
fellows. They, however, were sincerely glad to see him 
quit the prison; he was not young, and had suffered 
very bad health there. 

Poor Mr. Gray's death really gave the Transvaal 
authorities a fright, as it aroused afresh the indignation 
of Johannesburg and the whole of South Africa, and so 
at last they thought it time to give some little clue as 
to their intentions. 

I remember that morning so well. Mrs. Morice, the 
judge's wife, who had been so kind and sympathetic to us 
all, sent in word that she had some news for me. I went 
out, and saw by her drawn and haggard face that it was 
not good. She said, " I wish to tell you so that when 
you hear it later it will not be such a shock. It is that 
the death sentence on the four principal prisoners, who 
include your husband, has been commuted to fifteen 
years' imprisonment." 

Oh, merciful Heaven ! it was almost worse than 
death, and the awful sentence had more reality in it 
than the first one. I thought of all those long years 
to be wasted in a prison, of men in their prime doomed 
to such a fate, and felt crushed indeed. Imprisonment 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 167 

is a terrible thing, and ever since that time in Pretoria, 
I have had great sympathy for even the most guilty 
criminals. The long-drawn out days, the hopeless 
monotony, the silence, the ugliness and sordidness of 
prison life ! No words of mine can describe the horror. 
And to think of Lionel and his friends separated from 
every one, and after a time being gradually forgotten 
and probably relegated to some outlandish place in the 
Transvaal, where they would be at the mercy of their 
cruel and ignorant captors. I look back on that day as 
one of the worst we went through. 

I went up to the prison feeling utterly cast down, 
and told Lionel what I had heard. While I was there 
an official came in and announced that the Government 
had determined to commute the sentences of all the 
men some to three months', some to five, and some to 
a year's imprisonment but at the time it was not 
announced that at the end of this term they would fur- 
ther reconsider their claim to clemency. So it was only 
a sham after all ! The four leaders were not mentioned. 

An incident took place which struck me very much. 
As I stood listening to all this, some one came up to me, 
the wife of one of the prisoners, her face blurred with 
weeping. She shook my arm, and said passionately, 
" Think of it, my husband has got three months' im- 
prisonment ! " Poor woman. She did not seem to 
realise that my husband's fate was too terrible even to 
mention. She was one of those who always declared 
her husband was innocent, as he had joined at the last 



168 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

moment, and thought he was ill-used by the others. 
She did not understand how much better for him it 
would have been had she tried to help him to remain 
true to his friends in distress. 

To have arrived at some idea as to what the Transvaal 
authorities really intended to do, was at least an advance. 
Then a new theory was started, which was that any one 
having influence with the officials should do all hi their 
power to persuade them how wrong it was to keep these 
men in prison, and how much harm was being done to 
the country by the continued agitation. 

So all kinds of people came to Pretoria to do what 
they could. One case was rather funny. A certain 
lady and her daughter had gained much sympathy 
from the beginning of our troubles, when the latter's 
husband had been imprisoned as one of the Reformers, 
as they asserted that he had been induced to come out 
from England for the purpose, that he had relinquished 
a splendid military career, and had in consequence been 
ruined. But as I happened to know, the facts of the 
case were, that he had gone to Johannesburg to try and 
make a living, as his income did not permit of his re- 
maining in the army, and that being connected with 
some of the Reform party, he joined the movement. 
He is a charming fellow, but up to the present time his 
military genius has remained unproved. 

I heard this tale of woe on my arrival, and thinking 
that the Reformers were being blamed for a little more 
than they really deserved, I contradicted it, and Lionel 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 169 

and the husband of the lady told her she was labouring 
under a delusion. However, she had gained much 
sympathy on all sides, and there were plenty of people 
who were delighted to have something to add to the 
Reform leaders' crimes. The mother of this lady was 
one of those who had influence with the Dutch party, 
being herself of that nationality, and she accordingly 
went with her daughter to see what could be done with 
General Joubert. He was obdurate, and when she re- 
proached him with the fact that her innocent son-in-law 
had received a year's imprisonment while some had only 
got three months, he turned to her and said, " But you 
know why he got a year?" "No," she said. "Why, 
because he came out from England expressly for the 
Revolution." Poor ladies; they swore by everything 
that was sacred that that was not the case and what 
is more, told the story all over Pretoria themselves. 
So much for their sense of humour ! 

Even the old President received more lady visitors 
at this time than he is in the habit of doing, as many 
of the poor wives went up to " the Presidency " to see 
if they could soften his heart. He listened to their 
appeals, but I am afraid was not much influenced by 
them. Some of them also tried "Tante Sanne" (as 
Mrs. Kruger is called in Pretoria), and begged her to 
do what she could for their husbands. One lady told 
me the following story. After the Raid, when their 
respective husbands were imprisoned, some ladies went 
and begged Mrs. Kruger to use her influence with the 



170 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

President in their behalf. She said, " Yes, I will do all I 
can for you. I am very sorry for you all, although I know 
that none of you thought of me that night when we heard 
that Jameson had crossed the border, and we were afraid 
the President would have to go out and fight, and when 
they went and caught his old white horse that he had 
not ridden for eight years. But all the same I am sorry 
for you all." 

But now for once South Africa was at one on a ques- 
tion. Mr. Rose-Innes and Mr. Garrett of the Cape Times 
got up a public meeting in Cape Town, which was 
attended by thousands, and a general agitation was set 
on foot all over South Africa hi favour of the release of 
the Reform prisoners. 

Meetings were held everywhere. South African 
sentiment had undergone a complete change, and all the 
sympathy that Kruger had obtained at the beginning of 
the troubles was fast disappearing, as his fair promises 
of reform were unfulfilled, and everything that could 
conduce to the detriment of the Uitlander was done. 
Johannesburg was daily becoming more and more un- 
settled, no business was transacted, and every one was 
afraid of entering on new undertakings for fear of further 
trouble, while the helplessness of the prisoners alone 
protected the Government at this time. We heard and 
read that the Mayors or principal men of every town and 
village of any importance in South Africa were coming 
to Pretoria, and were bringing petitions to the President 
for the release of the Reformers. 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 171 

One Saturday morning, when some of these delegates 
were actually on their way up, we were told that the great 
bulk of the men were coming out that day. All were 
to be released except the four principals and two others, 
Mr. Wools-Sampson, an Africander, and Mr. "Karri" 
Davies, an Australian. These two had persistently 
refused to sign any petition whatever. They said they 
had been cast into prison through obeying the Governor, 
the representative of their Queen, and this being the 
case, they considered it was but their due that he should 
obtain their release. So when the others were let out, 
it was announced to them that, as they had not peti- 
tioned, their case could not be considered. Their fellow- 
prisoners did their best to make them change their 
decision, but they stood firm. They said they were 
bachelors and had no one dependent upon them, and 
that therefore they were free to act on principle. They 
were quite right, but the others, from their own point of 
view, were equally so. Most of the prisoners were married 
and had children, and some were very poor, and it had 
been proved that unless they tried to help themselves 
they would remain in prison indefinitely, as the English 
Government either could not or would not do so. 
Having others to think of as well as themselves, they 
had felt it to be their duty under the circumstances to 
swallow their pride. 1 

1 I may add that these two noble young Colonials, Sampson and 
Davies, remained in Pretoria prison until June 1897, when Kruger, 
not knowing what to do with them, and realising that their detention 
was a continual cause of unrest, released them on the Queen's Jubilee. 



172 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

When the good news came it seemed almost impos- 
sible to believe, but it was true. They were released on 
condition of paying the 2000 fine, and signing a pledge 
not to interfere in politics for three years on pain of 
banishment. That there was great rejoicing goes with- 
out saying, and there was a general exodus from Pretoria 
by the two o'clock train that day. After so many false 
alarms, the release came at last quite unexpectedly, 
and the day being a Saturday, there were not very 
many visitors in Pretoria. The released prisoners had 
but one idea to return to their homes as fast as 
they could, and to shake off their feet the dust of 
a town that had for them so many unpleasant asso- 
ciations. 

That day was one of very mixed sensations for me 
and for the relatives of the men who were still im- 
prisoned. Being June, the weather had become very 
wintry, with the peculiarly desolate effect produced by a 
cold wind stirring up the dust. That it was a day of 
this kind added perhaps to the depression which came 
over me when everybody had gone off, and Pretoria 
assumed an even more dull and deserted air than usual. 
Returning from the prison, where I missed so many 
familiar faces, my heart sank as I remembered its air of 
desolation, the forlorn appearance of the whole place and 
its remaining occupants. At this date my sister-in-law 
had been gone some time, my children were still at the 
Coast, even the hotel was almost empty, and I cannot 
describe the dreariness of my sensations. Mrs. Ham- 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 173 

mond was in Johannesburg ill, and Mrs. Farrar lived too 
far away for much intercourse. 

One little gleam of brightness I found that day, but 
even this seemed to make everything else more dreary 
by contrast. One of our friends, instead of going back 
to Johannesburg with his fellow-prisoners, remained 
in Pretoria, and went straight from the prison to the 
house of a certain beloved young lady, proposed to her, 
was accepted, and came down late in the afternoon 
to tell me his good news, as I had already been let into 
the secret of his aspirations. 

My friend, Mrs. Hennen Jennings was a good angel 
to me then, coming over to stay with me, and minding 
no trouble. She and her husband were among the 
most loyal of our friends, and we much appreciated 
their sympathy. As I said before, these troublous days 
estranged many. Friendships of years were broken, 
and much bitterness of spirit roused, and in many 
cases these sores have never been healed. 

Once the fifty-six men were let out, the authorities at 
Pretoria seemed to think there was nothing more to be 
done. We heard also that there had been a tremendous 
quarrel amongst the members of the Executive, and 
that Kruger had entirely refused to mention the 
subject. For some little time before this I had been 
thinking of hiring a house in Pretoria and settling 
there, and had even taken certain steps towards that 
end. I had already sold our carriages and horses, and 
was seriously thinking of shutting up the house in 



174 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

Johannesburg and selling all the furniture. I had 
given orders to my servants to begin dismantling the 
house, and was looking out for a place in Pretoria, but 
it was difficult to get one. Eventually I did succeed 
through an agent who had not divulged my name, 
for some of the townspeople had a pleasing habit of 
charging us double. This chanced to be another case 
in point, for as soon as the owners discovered who their 
would-be tenant was, they tried to tie me down to 
all kinds of ridiculous restrictions, and found various 
devices for adding to the rent originally asked. I was 
in too sore a frame of mind to put up with this black- 
mail, and refused outright to have the house at any 
price. 

I had all this time been pining for the children, but 
feared to have them back, as in case of Lionel's release, 
they would be on the spot for departure to England, 
and I did not care for them again to make that long 
journey of 1000 miles each way. My superstitious 
maid had long been urging me to send for them, saying, 
" You will never have any luck until the children come 
back," but what her reasons were for this statement 
I cannot say. The prospect of release at this tune 
looked more hopeless than ever, so I accordingly sent 
the order for them to return to me. 

Lionel was obliged to go to the Pretoria Hospital 
just at this moment. The cold wind sweeping through 
the prison was very trying, and, weakened as he was by 
many weeks of bad food, he was seized with an attack of 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 175 

congestion of the lungs. There were no comforts of 
any kind to be obtained, and although to the last he 
resisted leaving his five companions, I insisted on the 
doctor giving an order for his removal to the hospital, 
which was done. After the release of the fifty-six men 
the remaining prisoners grew very depressed; their 
more fortunate companions, however, by no means 
deserted them on the contrary, they were all doing 
everything in their power to obtain then* release, and 
Mr. King and Mr. Hull took up their abode in Pretoria, 
declaring their intention of remaining there until their 
former fellow-prisoners came out. 

I cannot remember all the tiresome negotiations 
that had been going on with the Government during 
this time. The way in which everything was managed 
was very funny. The authorities did not want it to 
appear that they were anxious to have the matter 
settled and to release the men, nor that it was a 
question of their buying freedom at the highest possible 
price. So all sorts and conditions of people were com- 
missioned to convey to them suggestions as to what 
they should do to obtain their release. Of course 
Du Plessis, being entirely in Kruger's confidence, was a 
fine go-between, and another who must not be forgotten 
was a person who played, and may still do so, quite an 
important rdle in Pretoria namely, Mr. Leo Weinthal, 
the editor of The Press, the Government organ, Renter's 
agent, and Kruger's bosom friend. I should not like 
to guess what country lays claim to this gentleman 



176 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

whichever it may be it is not to be congratulated. 
I know that of all the many humiliations I had to 
suffer none was more difficult to bear than that of 
asking this individual into my sitting-room on one 
occasion when he was negotiating the question of 
release. 

When it was suggested that the Reform leaders 
should buy their liberty, there was a great outcry. 
" No, it would never do : it would be Blood-money." 
But, with familiarity, the idea of blood-money appar- 
ently lost its terrors, and then the main endeavour was 
to get as much as possible. 

This same Mr. Leo Weinthal was the President's 
great resource. He used to go and read the papers to 
him every evening and translate them. The President, 
not being able to read English, was quite dependent on 
those who would impart to him a little news from 
the outside world, and it can easily be imagined how 
tempting it must have been to any one not troubled 
with scruples to impart the news in the way he desired 
it to be received. I have often been amused, too, at 
the telegrams this individual used to send hi his 
capacity as Renter's agent. Being much in the Presi- 
dent's confidence, he was able to represent matters 
exactly as the latter wanted and to give just the right 
colouring ; indeed, to those behind the scenes it was very 
instructive to note how the telegrams from Pretoria 
would be worded, conciliatory or otherwise, according 
to the state of public feeling in England. 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 177 

In the meantime all the various Mayors and repre- 
sentative men from all parts of the Cape Colony, Orange 
Free State, and Natal had arrived in Pretoria with 
petitions from their respective towns. There were some 
two hundred in all, and as their coming had been 
awaited for some time and the journey was in all cases 
an expensive and lengthy one, they had a right to 
expect a speedy audience of the President. But that 
was " counting without their host." They arrived on 
the Wednesday ; the President announced that he could 
not possibly see them until the Saturday. However, 
there was nothing to be done, although the unexpected 
delay was very tiresome to every one. 

Lionel was now better, and had rejoined his com- 
panions in the prison, but was still far from well. Both 
he and I were looking forward very much to seeing the 
children, whom I expected by the midday train from 
Cape Town on the Thursday. As the tram was in- 
variably late, and the prison was inaccesible to us 
after four, I thought I would ask Du Pies sis a favour 
for the first time. The gaol-yard looked particularly 
dreary that morning. A lady who had lately come 
out from England and was paying her first visit to 
the prisoners with her husband, was with me when I 
made my request to Du Plessis. In the politest manner 
I could command I said, " I am expecting my children 
to-day, but the train is certain to be very late. In that 
case will you allow me to bring them in for a few minutes 

after hours, as Mr. Phillips is ill, and has not seen them 

M 



178 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

for so many weeks ? I should esteem it a great favour." 
His answer quite silenced me. He swore at me in the 
loudest of voices (I suppose it was to impress the 
stranger), and asked me how I dared to make such a 
request, that it was out of the question, &c. It was as 
much as I could do to restrain my tears at this unneces- 
sary rudeness, and the strange lady, whose name I have 
forgotten, told me afterwards she could not have believed 
such a scene possible had she not witnessed it herself. 
But on various occasions many people made similar 
remarks ; indeed, I generally found that many who were 
most incredulous as to all we underwent for the sake of 
our cause, ultimately became our staunchest partisans. 

When the children eventually arrived, much too late 
to go into the prison to see their father, I personally felt 
a little happier, as I had missed them much all those 
dreadful weeks. As soon as possible the next morning 
I took them to the prison. (Visiting hours had been a 
little enlarged since there were so many less passes to 
occupy poor Mr. Schutte.) Lionel was overjoyed to see 
them, and was in the act of embracing them when we 
heard a voice calling to us from the gate. 

It was Mrs. Leonard's voice, and she said, " I have 
come to tell you that you are coming out to-day. I 
have it on the highest authority." 

This time there was no mistake, and they actually 
did come out that day. My maid's prophecy came 
to my mind, and it certainly was a curious coincidence. 
Mr. Schutte came to announce the news officially. It 



was to the effect that the President in his magnanimity 
was going to release them that day on the payment of 
25,000 each, and banishment for fifteen years, this 
latter part of the commuted sentence being held in 
abeyance in consideration of a promise not to meddle 
in politics for that period on pain of its enforcement. 

When he had fulfilled his official business, Mr. 
Schutte unbent very much, shook hands with Lionel 
cordially, informing him that he had come to the con- 
clusion that he was an honest man, and had really had 
no intention of trying to take their country away from 
the Boers. He ended by remarking that he was on the 
point of going to the Warm Baths near Pretoria, but 
that on his return he hoped we would invite him to 
come and stay with us in Johannesburg, as he had 
heard we had a very nice house ! 

A great many legal formalities had to be gone 
through, but at five o'clock that afternoon, the llth 
June 1896, Lionel and his three friends, Colonel Frank 
Rhodes, George Farrar, and John Hays Hammond 
were released, having been imprisoned five months. 
As Colonel Rhodes was an Imperial officer, he could not 
sign an undertaking not to meddle in the " internal or 
external " politics of the Transvaal, so he was taken to 
the train that night and escorted to the border of the 
Transvaal, proceeding thence to Mashonaland. The 
other three not deeming it advisable to sever their 
connection with the country entirely, signed the 
agreement. 



180 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

Mr. Hammond, whose wife was ill, left for Johannes- 
burg at once ; the two others followed early the next 
morning. They met with a reception which they are 
not likely to forget, and if I had regretted that the 
children should have come all that long way unneces- 
sarily, only to see their father a few minutes in prison, 
I changed my mind when they and I witnessed this 
never-to-be-forgotten scene. When the train drew up 
in the Park Station at Johannesburg, a dense mass of 
people was to be seen as far as the eye could reach. 
Lionel and George Farrar had no time to put foot to 
the ground, but were lifted on men's shoulders, and 
carried to waiting carriages, which were dragged up 
to the Stock Exchange, where they received a regular 
ovation and many congratulations on being once more 
free men. 

And so ended one of the many painful episodes in a 
movement of which we have not yet seen the end. 

The Mayors meanwhile had been awaiting the audi- 
ence with Kruger. It was accorded them but not till 
the day after the prisoners were released. So instead 
of petitioning him for their release, they had to thank 
the President for what he had done, and received one 
of his characteristic allegorical homilies in return, which 
I believe did not conduce to allay their feelings of 
annoyance at his rudeness and want of common 
courtesy. 

Two days later Lionel and Mr. Fitzpatrick left the 
Transvaal for England. They were in a hurry to get 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 181 

there. Dr. Jameson and his fellows were going to be 
tried, and they wished to be at hand to correct many 
misstatements which had got into the papers; also 
they felt sure that some misunderstanding still existed, 
and they relied on Dr. Jameson's sense of honour to do 
all he could to explain it away. Vain hope ! 

All they asked him to do was to get his counsel to 
state that he and his force had never expected the 
Johannesburg men to go out to meet them that on the 
contrary he had disobeyed their explicit injunctions not 
to come down, and thus to clear them of the charge 
of cowardice still resting on them. They did not ask 
him to make humiliating concessions only to say that 
instead of expecting their help he had come against 
their orders. He refused everything, and it was only 
later on, before the Parliamentary Select Committee, 
that the admission was dragged from him that he 
regretted having, prior to the disastrous raid, imputed 
motives of cowardice to them. So these men who from 
beginning to end had scrupulously kept then* word to 
Dr. Jameson, who had almost sacrificed Johannesburg 
to save huii and his fellows from a danger that seemed 
imminent, who even in their moments of confidence 
in the prison refrained from blaming him for the 
terrible ruin he had worked, always giving him credit 
for some noble motive, were disappointed. 

Dr. Jameson was the popular idol, and had not the 
sense to see that at the moment of his trial there was 

still an opportunity of admitting the truth without 

N 



182 SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 

detriment to his own reputation. He did not compre- 
hend that so convinced of his heroism and chivalry 
was every one whose opinion he valued, that he could 
well afford to allow that the Reformers were not what 
he had led the world to believe, and that the undated 
letter which he had carried about for weeks was no 
urgent call of the moment. He thus lost an oppor- 
tunity which will never come again, and time will but 
prove the wisdom of the old adage, " Truth will out." 

If the whole miserable affair had to be lived over 
again fifty times, I would only wish Lionel and his friends 
to take the course they did when things went wrong ; 
for whatever they or others had to suffer, they can feel 
happy in one most vital matter they endeavoured to be 
true to themselves and their duty when they were sorely 
tried ; and, from my point of view, they succeeded. 

About a year after the events related, Sir John 
Willoughby attacked the Reform leaders of Johannes- 
burg in an article in the Nineteenth Century. Lionel 
replied to it in the same review, August 1897, defend- 
ing himself and his comrades from the charges made. 

In consequence of this action the Government of 
the Transvaal enforced the sentence of banishment 
from the country on him, notwithstanding the fact that 
in the opinion of three of the first lawyers in England, 
the article did not constitute any breach of the pledge. 
By this act Kruger proved once more how short-sighted 
is his policy, and how little he understands where the 



SOUTH AFRICAN RECOLLECTIONS 183 

true interests of his unfortunate country lie. It is not 
by alienating the men who have given the thought and 
hard work of years to the place, and who have honestly 
striven to do their duty to Johannesburg, that Kruger 
shows himself a serious statesman or a benefactor of his 
country. 



THE END 



Printed by BALLANTYNE, HANSON &* Co. 
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INDEX OF AUTHORS AND EDITORS. 





Page 


Page 


Paee 


Page 


Abbott (Evelyn) 


3,18 


Balfour (Lady Betty) 5 


Buckle (H.T.)- 


3 


Corder (Annie) - 19 


(T. K.) - - 


14 


Ball (John) - - 8 


Buckton (C. M.) 


a8 


Coutts (W.) - - i 


(E. A.) 


14 


Baring-Gould (Rev. 


Bull(T.) - 


28 


Coventry (A.) - - ii 


Acland (A. H. D.) - 




S.) ... 27, 29 


Burke (U. R.) - 


3 


Cox (Harding) - 10 


Acton (Eliza) - 


28 


Barraud (C. W.) - 19 


Burrows (Montagu) 


4 


Crake (Rev. A. D.) - a6 


Adeane (J. H.) - 


7 


Baynes (T. S.) - - 29 


Butler (E. A.) - 


*4 


Creiehton (Bishop)- 3,4 


vEschylus 


18 


Beaconsfield (Earl of) 21 


(Samuel) - 18, 2( 


), 29 


Crozier(J. B.) - - 7, 14 


Ainger (A. C.) - 


it 


Beaufort (Duke of) - 10, n 






Curzon of Kedleston 


Albemarle (Earl of) - 


10 


Becker (W. A.) - 18 


Calder(J.) 


30 


(Lord) ... + 


Allen (Grant) - 


24 


Beddard (F. E.) - 24 


Cameron of Lochiel 


12 


distance (Col. H. - 12 


Amos (S.) 


3 


Beeslv (A. H.) - - 7 


Campbell (Rev. Lewis) 


3* 


Cutts (Rev. E. L.) - 4 


Andr6 (R.) 


12 


Bell ('Mrs. Hutfh) - IQ 


Camperdown (Earl of) 


7 




Anstev (F.) 


21 


Bent (J. Theodore) - 8 


Cannan (E.) 


17 


Dallinger (F. W.) - 4 


Aristophanes - 


18 


Besant (Sir Walter)- 3 


Channing (F. A.) 


16 


Davidsoh (W. L.) 14, 16, 32 


Aristotle - 


14, 18 


Bickerdyke (J.) - n Chesney (Sir G.) 


3 


Davies (J. F.) - - 18 


Armstrong (G. F. 




Bicknell (A. C.) - 8 ' Chola ' - 


21 


Dent (C. T.) - - n 


Savage) 


'9 


Birt (A.) 21 Cholmondeley-Pennell 




Deploige (S.) - - 17 


(E.J. Savage) 7, 


19, 29 


Blackburne (J. H.) - 12 (H.) 


II 


De Salis (Mrs.) - 48, 29 


Arnold (Sir Edwin) - 


8,19 


Bland (Mrs. Hubert) 20 Churchill (W. Spencer) 


3.9 


De Tocqueville (A.) - 4 


(Dr. T.) - 


3 


Boase (Rev. C. W.) - 4 Cicero 


18 


Devas (C. S.) - - 16 


Ashbourne (Lord) - 


3 


Boedder (Rev. B.) - 16 Clarke (Rev. R. F.) - 


16 


Dickinson (G. L.) - 4 


Ashby (H.) 


28 


Boevey (A. W. Crawley-) 7 Climenson (Emily J.) 


8 


Diderot - - - 21 


A-hlev (W. J.)- 


16 


Bosanquet (B.) 14 Clodd (Edward) 


17 


Doueall (L.) - - 21 


Ayre (Rev. J.) - 


25 


Bovd (Rev. A. K. H.) 20, 12 Clmterbuck (W. J.)- 


9 Dowden (E.) 31 




Brassey (Lady) - " 9 1 Coleridge (S. T.) - 


19 Dovle (A. Conan) - ai 


Bacon - 


7,14 -(Lord) 3, 8, ii, 16 Comparetti (D.) 


30 Du'BoisfW. E. B.)- 4 


Baden-Powell (B. H.) 


3 Rrav (C.) - - 14 Conintfton (John) - 


18 Dufferin (Marquis of) ii 


Bagehot (W.) - 7, 


16, 29 ; Bright (Rev. J. F.) - 3 ; Comvay (Sir W. M.) 


ii Dunbar (Mary F.) - 20 


Bagwell (R.) - 


3 j Broadfoot (Major W.) 10 Conybeare (Rev. W. J.) 




Bain (Alexander) 


14 Browning (H. Ellen) 9 


& Howson (Dean) 


27 Eardley-Wiimot (Capt. 


Baker (Sir S. W.) - 


8,10 Buck (H. A.) - - ii 


Coolidtfe (W. A. B.) 


8 S.) - - - 8 


Balfour (A. J.) 


11,32 Buckland (Jas.) - 26 


Corbett (Julian S.) - 


3 Ebrington (Viscount) 12 



INDEX OF AUTHORS AND EDITORS continued. 


Page 


Page 


Page 


Page 


Ellis (J. H.) - - 12 


Jefferies (Richard) - 30 


Nansen (F.) - - 9 


Steel G- H.) - - 10 


(R. L.) - - 14 


lekyll (Gertrude) - 30 


Nesbit (E.) - - 20 


Stephen (Leslie) - 9 


Evans (Sir John) - 30 


Jerome (Jerome K.)- 22 


Nettleship (R. L.) - 14 


Stephens (H. Morse) 6 




Johnson (J. & J. H.) 30 


Newman (Cardinal) - 22 


(W. W.) - - 8, 17 


Farrar (Dean) - - 16, 21 


Jones (H. Bence) - 25 




Stevens (R. W.) - 31 


Fitzwygram (Sir F.) 10 


' ordan (W. L.) - 16 


Ogle(W.)- - - 18 


Stevenson (R. L.) - 23, 26 


Folkard (H. C.) 12 


^ owett (Dr. B.) - 17 


Onslow (Earl of) - n 


Stock (St. George) - 15 


Ford (H.) 12 


' oyce (P. W.) - 5, 22, 30 


Osbourne (L) - - 23 


'Stonehenge 1 - - 10 


Fowler (Edith H.) - 21 


Justinian : - - 14 




Storr (F.) - - - 14 


Foxcroft (H. C.) - 7 




Palgrave (Gwenllian F.) 8 


Stuart-Wortley(A.J.) 11,12 


Francis (Francis) - 12 


Kant (I.) - - - 14 


Park(W.) - 13 


StubbsU. W.)- - 6 


Francis (M. E.) - 21 


Kaye (SirJ. W.) - 5 


Payne-Gallwey (Sir 


Suffolk & Berkshire 


Freeman (Edward A.) 4 


Kent (C. B. R.) - 5 


R.) - ii, 13 


(Earl of) - - ii 


Freshfield (D. W.) - n 


Kerr (Rev. J.) - - ii 


Peek (Hedley) - - ii 


Sullivan (Sir E.) - n 


Frothingham (A. L.) 30 


Killick (Rev. A. H.) - 14 


Pembroke (Earl of) - u 


Sully (James) - - 15 


Froude (James A.) 4, 7, 9, 21 


Kingsley (Rose G.) - 30 


Phillipps-WolIey(C.) 10,22 


Sutherland (A. and G.) 6 


Furneaux (W.) - 24 


Kitchin (Dr. G. W.) 4 


Phillips (Mrs. Lionel) 6 


(Alex.) - - 15, 31 




Knight (E. F.) - - 9, n 


Pitman (C. M.) - ii 


Suttner (B. von) - 23 


Gallon (W. F.) - 17 


Kostlin (J-) 7 


Pleydell-Bouverie(E.O.)n 


Swinburne (A. J.) - 15 


Gardiner (Samuel R.) 4 




Pole(W.)- - - 13 


Symes (J. E.) - - 17 


Gathorne-Hardy (Hon. 


Ladd (G. T.) - - 15 


Pollock (W. H.) - 11,31 




A. E.) - - 12 


Lang (Andrew) 5, 10, n, 13, 


Poole(W.H.andMrs.) 29 


Tavlor (Meadows) - 6 


Gibbons (J. S.) - 12 


17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 26, 30, 32 


Poore (G. V.) - - 31 


- (Una) - - 23 


Gibson (Hon. H.) - 13 


Lascelles (Hon. G.) 


Potter (J.) - - 16 


Tebbutt (C. G.) - n 


(C. H.) - - 14 


IO, II, 12 


Powell (E.) - - 6 


Terry (C. S.) - 7 


(Hon. W.) - 32 


Laughton (J. K.) - 8 


Powys (Mrs. P. L.) - 8 


Thornhill (W. J.) 18 


Gleig (Rev. G. R.) - 8 


Lawley (Hon. F.) - n Praeger (S. Rosamond) 26 


Todd (A.) - - 6 


Goethe - - - 19 


Lawrence (F. W.) - 17 Prevost (C.) - - n 


Toynbee (A.' - - 17 


Gore-Booth (Eva) - 19 


Layard (Nina F.) - 19 


Pritchett (R. T.) - ii 


Trevelyan (Sir G. O.) 6, 7 


(SirH. W.) - ii 


Lear (H. L. Sidney) - 29 


Proctor (R. A.) 13, 24, 28 


(C. P.) - 17 


Graham (P. A.) - 12, 13 


Lecky (W. E. H.) 5, 15, 19 




(G. M.) - 6 


(G. F.) - - 16 


Lees (J. A.) - - 9 


Raine (Rev. James) - 4 


Trollope (Anthony)- 23 


Granby (Marquis of) 12 


Leslie (T. E. Cliffe) - 16 


Rankin (R.) - - 20 


Turner (ri. G.) - 31 


Grant (Sir A.) 14 


Levett-Yeats (S.) - 22 


Ransome (Cvril) - 3, 6 


TyndalKJ.) - -7,9 


Graves (R. P.) - 7 


Lillie (A.)- - - 13 


Raymond (W.) - 22 


Tyrrell (K. Y.) - - 18 


Green (T. Hill) - 14 


LindleyU.) - - 25 


Reader (Emily E.) - 22 




Greene (E. B.)- - 4 


Lodge (H. C.) - - 4 


Rhoades (I.) - - 18 


Upton(F.K.and Bertha) 26 


Greville (C. C. F.) - 4 


Loftie (Rev. W. J.) - 4 


Ribblesdale (Lord) - 13 




Grose (T. H.) - - 14 


Longman (C. J.) 10, 12, 30 


Rich (A.) 18 


Van Dyke (J. C.) - 31 


Gross (C.) 4 


(F. W.) - - 13 


Richardson (C.) - 10 


Verney (Frances P. 


Grove (F. C.) - - 11 


(G. H.) - - ii, 12 


Richmond (Ennis) - 31 


and Margaret M.) 8 


(Mrs. Lilly) - 10 


Lowell (A. L.) - - 5 


Richter (J. Paul) - 31 


Virgil 18 


Gurdon (Lady Camilla) 21 


Lubbock (Sir John) - 17 


Rickaby (Rev. John) 16 


Vivekananda (Swami) 32 


Gwilt (].) - - - 25 


Lucan - - - 18 


(Rev. Joseph) - 16 


Vivian (Herbert) - 9 




Lutoslawski (W.) - 15 


Ridley (Sir E.) - - 18 




Haggard (H. Rider) - 21, 30 


Lyall (Edna) - - 22 


Riley (J. W.) - - 20 


Wagner (R.) - - 20 


Hake (O.) 11 


Lyttelton (Hon. R. H.) 10 


Roget (Peter M.) - 16, 25 


Wakeman (H. O.) - 6 


Halliwell-PhilIipps(J.) 8 (Hon. A.) - - n 


Romanes (G. J.) 


Walford (L. B.) - 23 


Hamlin (A. D. F.) - 30 


Lytton (Earl of) - 5, 19 


8, 15, 17, 20, 32 


Walker (jane H.) - 29 


Hammond (Mrs. J. H.) 4 




(Mrs. G. J.) 8 


Wallas (Graham) - 


Harding (S. B.) - 4 


Macaulay (Lord) 5, 6, 19 


Ronalds (A.) 13 


Walpole (Sir Spencer) 6 


Harte (Bret) - - 22 Macdonald (G.) - 9 


Roosevelt (T.) - - 4 


Walrond (Col. H.) - 10 


Harting(J. E.)- - 12 (Dr. G.) - -20,32 


Rossetti (Maria Fran- 


Walsingham(Lord)- n 


Hartwig (G.) - - 24 Macfarren (Sir G. A.) 30 


cesca) 31 


Walter (J.) - - 8 


HassalKA.) - - 6 


MackaiKJ. W.) - 8, 18 


Rowe (R. P. P.) - ii 


Ward ( Mrs. W.) - 23 


Haweis (H. R.) - 7, 30 


Macleod (H. D.) 16 Russell (Bertrand) - 17 


Warwick (Countess of) 31 


Heath (D. D.) - - 14 


Macpherson (Rev. H. A.)i2 


(Alys) - - 17 


Watson (A. E. T.) 


Heathcote(J. M.and Madden (D. H.) - 13 


(Rev. M.) - - 20 


10, 11,12,13,23 


C. G.) - - ii Maher (Rev. M.) - 16 




Webb (Mr. and Mrs. 


Helmholtz (Hermann Malleson (Col. G. B.) 5 


Saintsbury (G.) - 12 


Sidney) - - 17 


von) - - - 24 Mann (E. E.) - - 29 


Samuels (E.) - - 20 


(T. K.) - - 15, 19 


Henderson (Lieut- 


Marbot (Baron de) - 7 


Sandars (T. C.) 14 


Weber (A.) - - 15 


Col. G. F.) - 7 


Marquand (A.) - - 30 


Sargent (A. J.)- - 17 


Weir (Capt. K.) - H 


Henry (W.) - ii Marshman (I. C.) - 7 


Schreiner (S. C. Cron- 


Weyman (Stanley) - 23 


Henty (G. A.) - - 26 Martineau (Dr. lames) 32 


wright) - - 10 


Whately(Archbishop) 14, 15 


Herbert (Col. Kenney) 12 Maskelyne (J. N.) - 13 


Seebohm (F.) - - 6, 8 


(E. jane) - - 16 


Hiley (R. W.) - - 7 Maunder (S.) - - 25 


Selous (F. C.) - - 10 


White (W. Hale) 20, 31 


Hill (Sylvia M.) - 21 Max Mullen (F.) 


Sewell (Kluibeth M.) 23 


Whitelaw (R.) - 18 


Hillier (G. Lacy) - 10 7,8,15,16,22,31,32 


Shadwell (A.) - - 31 


Wilcocksd. C.) - 13 


Hodgson (Shadworth)i4, 30 May (Sir T. Erskinel 6 


Shakespeare - - 20 


Wilkins(G.) - - 18 


Hoenig (F.) - - 30 Meade (L. T.) - - 26 


Shnnd(A I.) - - 12 


Willard (A. R.) - 31 


Hogan(J. F.) - - 7 Melville (G. J. Whyte) 22 


Sharpe (K. R.) - - 6 


Williamson (W.) - 32 


Homer - - - 18 Merivalc (Dean) - 6 


Shaw (W. A.) - - 6 VVillich (C. M.) - 15 


Hope (Anthony) - 22 Merrimi:i 'H. S.) - 22 


Shearman (M.) -io,it Witham (T. M.) - ii 


Horace - - - 18 Mill (lames) 15 


Sinclair (A.) - - n Wood (Rev. J. G.) - 2J 


Houston (D. F.) - 4 (John Stuart) - 15, 16 


Smith (K. llosworth) 6 Wood-Martin (W. G.) 6 


Howell (G.) - - 16 MilnerfG.) - - 31 


(T. C.) - - 4 Wordsworth (William) 2-1 


Howitt (W.) - - 9 MoffatlD.) - - 13 


(W. P. Maskett) 9 Wright (C. D.) - 17 


Hudson (W. H.) - 24 Monck (W. H. S.) - 15 


Somerville (E.) - 23 Wyhe (J. H.) - 


Hullahlj.) - - 30 Montague (F. C.) 6 Sophocles - - ib 


Hume (David) - - 14 Montagu (Hon. John i Soulsby (Lucy H.) - 31 Youatt (W.) i>i 


Hunt (Rev. W.) - 4 ; Scott) - - 12 j Southey (K.) - - 31 


Hunter (Sir W.) - 5 ' Moon (G. W.) - - 20 Speddiiig (J.) - - 7. M Zeller (E.) - '5 


Hutchinson (Horace G.) Moore (T.) - 25 Sprigge (S. Squire) - 8 


11,13 (Rev. Edward) 14 Stanley (Mishoo) - 24 


Morgan (C. Lloyd) - 17 


Stanley (Lady) - 7 




Ingelow (Jean) - 19 Morris (W.) 18,20,22,31 


Statha'm (S. P. H.) - 6 


(Mowbray) - n 


Stebbing (W.) - - 23 


James (W.) - - 14 Mulhall (M. G.) - 17 


Steel (A. G.) - - 10 



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RAAfAKK\SHKA : HlS LlFE AND $AY- 
/.VGS. Crown 8vo., 55. 

Romanes. THOUGHTS ON RELIGION. 
By GEORGE J. ROMANES, LL.D., F.R.S. 
Crown 8vo., 41. 6d. 

Vivekananda. YOGA PHILOSOPHY: 

Lectures delivered in New York, Winter of 
i8gs-g6,bythe SWAMI VIVEKANANDA, 
on Raja Yoga ; or, Conquering the Internal 
Nature ; also Patanjali's Yoga Aphorisms, 
with Commentaries. Crown 8vo, 3*. 6d. 

Williamson. THE GREAT LAH~: 

A Study of Religious Origins and of the 
Unity underlying them. By WILLIAM 
WILLIAMSON. 8vo., 145. 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY, LOS ANGELES 

COLLEGE LIBRARY 

This book is due on the last date stamped below. 



L ua 

Mar 4 70 

MAR4 1970 



Book Slip-35m-9,'62(D221884)4280 



UCLA-College Library 

DT926P545 



L 005 740 561 5 



College 
Library 

DT 
926