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Full text of "Some special studies in genealogy : I. American emigrants. How to trace their English ancestry / by Gerald Fothergill. II. The Quaker records / by Josiah Newman III. The genealogy of the submerged / by Chas. A. Bernau"

BRIGKAM YOU><G U>.1VERS1T\ 
PROVO,UTAH 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2009 with funding from 
Brigham Young University 



http://www.archive.org/details/somespecialstudiOObern 



SOME SPECIAL STUDIES 
IN GENEALOGY 



1 

GRANTS. 



I. AMERICAN 

EMIGRAN 

HOW TO TRACE }By GERALD FOTHERGILL 
THEIR ENGLISH 



ANCESTRY, 



II. THE QUAKER \By JosiAH Newman, 

RECORDS, I F.R. Hist. Soc. 



in. THE genealogy! 

OF THE SUB. 
MERGED, 

m 



By Chas. a. Bernau 



1908. 
CHAS. A. BERNAU, Walton-on-Thames, England. 



Wholesale Agents : 
SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT & Co., Ltd., 

London. 



DUNN, COLLIN & CO., 

PRINTERS, 

ST. MARV AXE, LONDON, E.C. 



[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 1 






.( 



I. 

Emigrants to America. 

How to Trace their English 
Ancestry, 



[It was only the fact that the existing text-books do 
not contain references to some of the sources of informa- 
tion by which a settler in America may be connected with 
his ancestors in England, that decided the author of these 
poor hints to put his pen to paper. Wills as evidence in 
genealogical research are of the greatest authority, but it 
is pointed out in the following pages that many other 
documents contain mention of relatives in America ; a 
second reason was to draw attention to some lists of those 
who were likely to emigrate. 

This chapter does not presume to do away with the 
need of consulting the older books, such as those of 
Messrs. Scargill-Bird, Sims, Rye and PhilHmore, for all 
of these may be used advantageously in conjunction 
with it. 



American 



If the following few words of advice help any to find 
his English ancestry the author will feel well repaid. He 
will at all times be glad to have any errors or omissions 
pointed out to him.] 



The study of one's pedigree and a know- 
ledge of such biographical facts as can be 
gathered about our ancestors has a great 
fascination for many. 

This is especially so 

Americans .1 .. 1 r i_ 

_ with those whose forebears 

^ , . have left an old country, 

Genealogy. ^ . , . ^' 

possessed of a glorious 

history, and settled in one that has become 

of great power and a leader in all that makes 

for civilization. Love of ancestry, that has 

become so general in America, is surely 

handed down from the time when the settler 

in his declining days would tell his children, 

or maybe grandchildren, about the parents 

and home in England. We can imagine 

that he would not speak only of his relations, 



Emigrants 



but of the customs, forms of local govern- 
ment, and the religious controversy of the 
times. 

The object of this chapter is to explain 
in non-technical language how the connec- 
tion between the settler and his English 
ancestors may be traced, and how indeed 
the actual house in which they lived may 
sometimes be found. Could anything be of 
more speaking interest than a photograph 
of the house that the emigrant left but loved 
so well ? 

^, „. , Success in finding an 

The First ^ y . , ,i 

« English ancestry greatly 

depends on the amount of 

knowledge possessed about the emigrant, 

so that the first step to take is to discover 

all we can in America about him. 

Every scrap of information as to the 
emigrant and his immediate family should 
be collected and critically analyzed as to its 
value. lyucky is the gleaner who knows 



6 American 

the place in England whence his ancestor 
came, for his chances of compiling an 
interesting pedigree are excellent. A 
searcher after a man bearing a rare surname 
has a good chance, as has one with a know- 
ledge of the Christian names of the brothers 
and sisters or children of the emigrant. 
A knowledge of the fact that some of 
the children were born in England before 
the departure is a very great help. The 
worst position to be in is to know none 
of these data, for so much depends on iden- 
tity. It should be remembered that it is 
very often possible to find scores of people 
in England with the same names as the 
emigrant, in which case our only chance is 
to find the settler mentioned in some record 
as being in America with his English 
relations or home stated. 

When the searcher has made up his 
mind that he has gathered every fact that 
can be got from wills, deeds, court files and 



Emigrants 



family papers, it is time to consider research 
in England. On the answer to the above 
points as to knowledge of the settler will 
depend whether the research in England is 
to be a matter of a few days, months or even 
years. 

It has to be decided then whether one 
will visit England and do the record 
searching oneself or employ a recognized 
record agent. If the reader decides to make 
the investigation it is hoped that these hints 
will be of some use, and, if an agent is 
employed, it will help one to understand 
what he is doing. 

^ , In theory, it should be 

Custom ^ - 

an easy matter to find out 
House 
„ ■, who every emigrant was, 

for by law it was incum- 
bent on one of the officers of every custom 
house to record details as to age, residence 
and trade of every emigrant. Early in the 
nineteenth century these books of registra- 



8 American 

tion of emigrants were ordered to be brought 
to London and deposited in the Custom 
House, but this building was burnt down 
in 1814, and the records destroyed. 

These custom house 
Licences to , . .. , 

- , ship-passenger nsts are not 

pass beyond , ^ ^ ^ 

,, o to be confused with the 

the Seas. 

Licences - to - pass - beyond - 

the -Seas amongst the Exchequer records, 
King's Remembrancer side. They are of 
great value as they give age, home, trade, 
and destination of the emigrant. In the 
early years of the emigration the licences 
issued direct from the King, but in the fifth 
year of Charles I. (1629/30) the power was 
delegated. Before the licence was granted, 
oaths had to be taken that the applicants 
were neither subsidy men nor noncon- 
formists. For some reason not known to 
us at the present time, very few of the books 
in which the grants of the licences were 
recorded have been preserved. Those that 



Emigrants 



exist were printed by Hotten in his '' Original 
Lists of Emigrants," but only as regards 
those who said they were going to America. 
It is a pity he did not include the others, as 
many who, for political reasons, could not 
obtain a licence to emigrate to America, 
were able to get a pass to visit such places 
as Leyden, Amsterdam or Rotterdam, and, 
when once out of England, they could pass 
on to the New World. These licences are 
now being printed in the pages of that 
standard magazine of English genealogy 
called "The Genealogist." 

^ The author of this chap- 

Passenger , . , . 

-. . , ter has m his possession 

Lists. ^ . 5 

passenger lists for 1773, 

1774 and 1775, containing details of emigra- 
tion of nearly 6,000 persons, lists of Jacobite 
rebels transported after 17 15 and 1745, lists 
of felons transported, and a very large 
general collection of connecting links for 
emigrants. 



10 



American 



It is still hoped that some other lists ot 
emigrants may be found, and lately clues 
have come to light that other early lists do 
exist. 

Having made sure that the link has not 
been printed in the " Register of the New 
England Historic and Genealogical Society," 
or in any of the many other journals and 
books published in the States, we refer to 
Hotten, and discover whether the licence of 
our ancestor has been preserved. " A List 
of Emigrant Ministers to America" can be 
searched sometimes with advantage. If 
these books do not help, try the list in the 
** Genealogist," and then those unprinted 
lists in the Public Record Office, Chancery 
Lane, London, can be examined. 

Collections of Emigrants failing us, we 
can turn our attention to lists of those likely 
to emigrate. Of these, perhaps, the most 
probable to contain the names of emigrants 



Emigrants n 

are the assessments for pay- 

__ _ ment of the hated tax of 

Money Tax. 

Ship Money. Unfortunately 

very few of these have come down to us. 
Those for Essex and Suffolk are well known, 
the latter having been published by the 
Suffolk Institute of Archaeology in 1904. 
Portions of assessments or, what is better, 
refusals of payment have been found for 
Northampton, Huntingdon, Dorset, Wilt- 
shire, Kent, and the Ward of Walbrook, 
London, 

Many who refused to pay the forced loan 
of Charles the First in 1627 ^^ constitu- 
tional grounds, because it was not levied 
with the consent of Parliament, undoubtedly 
migrated. These loan assessments are pre- 
served among the Domestic State Papers in 
the Public Record Of&ce. Some have been 
copied by the author into his collections of 
emigrants, and it is intended shortly to 
complete this work. 



12 American 

The records of the Court 

aj_ /,, , of Star Chamber should 

Star Chamber. . r. , r ,. . 

throw a flood of light on 

those in trouble with the government for 
religious or political reasons, but the plead- 
ings only exist down to 1624. They are at 
present unindexed for this period, but have 
been sorted out under the initial letter of the 
plaintiff's surname. The decrees and orders 
of this court are lost. Some odd lists of the 
fines imposed by it are to be found among 
the accounts of the Exchequer K.R. A 
further and more complete set of these fines 
also exists in the Record Office ; they give 
residence of person fined, names of wife, 
children^ etc. Harleian M.S. 4130 is a 
report of some cases in the Star Chamber. 

^. , Those who would not 

High - , ,. . 

_, 7 . conform to the reli2:ious 

Commission . . . . , 

^ , opinions of the day were 

prosecuted in the High 

Commission Court. Its incomplete records 



Emigrants 13 

are among the Domestic State Papers, and 
some lists of its amercements are with the 
above mentioned Exchequer accounts, and 
also in other records of the Exchequer. 
Volume 34 of the Surtees Society contains 
some acts of this court for the Diocese of 
Durham. 

^ , While on the subject of 

Recusants -. . . . 

religious persecution, it may 

« . . be said that the Recusant 

conformists. 

Rolls should also be 
searched, for here we get the names and 
residences of all those who came into con- 
flict with the authorities, and were found 
guilty of nonconformity, either as Roman 
Catholics or as Protestant Dissenters. These 
rolls are in the Public Record Office. The 
British Museum in Add. MS. 20,739 has a 
catalogue of all recusants of whom any con- 
victions are returned into the Exchequer, 
qualities and places of abode, August, 1671, 
arranged alphabetically under counties. 



14 American 



The Consistorial and Archidiaconal 
Courts contain much of value as to noncon- 
formity, but only the records for Ely are in 
anything like order, and of these the late 
Mr. A. Gibbons printed a calendar. 

A report to Bishop Laud from Dr. Samuel 
Collins, Vicar of Braintree, Essex, shows 
how the religious persecutions caused the 
people to emigrate and also the value of the 
records of the spiritual courts, for he 
writes : — '* That if he had suddenly fallen 
upon the strict practice of conformity he 
had undone himself and broken the town to 
pieces. Upon the first notice of alteration 
many were resolving to go to New England. 
By his moderate and slow proceeding he has 
made stay of some and hopes to settle their 
judgements" (Calendar of Dom. State Papers, 
1632, page 255). 

In a few cases, returns of the decrees of 
the Consistory Courts are to be found among 
the Domestic State Papers. 



Emigrants 15 

_ ^, , , Some emigrants resided 

£nglana to , . , ,,^ 

- . .. for a time m the West 
America, Yia 

West Indies. ^''^'^^ .^""^ afterwards 
settled in America. In 

these cases the following books can be 
searched : — A List of the names of the 
Inhabitants of Barbadoes in the year 1638, 
who then possessed more than ten acres of 
land, see pages 71 — 84 of '' Memoirs of the 
first settlement of the Island of Barbadoes 
and other the Carribbe Islands, with the 
succession of the Governors and Com- 
manders in Chief of Barbadoes to the year 
1742, small 8°, London, 1743. 

*^ Sufferers of Nevis and St. Christophers 
by the French Invasion, 1705/6, who were 
really resettled before the 25th December, 
171 1, should be paid one-third part of their 
several losses in debentures to be issued by 
the Comm^^ for Trade in the name of 
each resettler to their respective agents or 
attornys." This book contains wills, 



i6 American 

administrations, powers of attorney, all of 
which give important genealogical informa- 
tion (see Vol. 206 Miscel. Books of Receipt 
of Exchequer.) 

^ , This chapter is not in- 

Cont mental , , , , , . .. r 

„ . ^ tended to deal with foreign 

Emigrants u ,-,- -a a 

, , . ancestry, but it is considered 

to America. , \ ., , , . 

worth while to take this 

opportunity of printing the titles of two 

records likely to be of great service to any 

of alien descent. 

'' A list of persons that have intituled 
themselves to the Benefits of the Act 
(13 Geo. II.) for naturalizing such Foreign 
Protestants and others therein mentioned as 
are settled or shall settle in any of H.M. 
Colonies." This record covers the period 
1740—61, and from it the homes of aliens 
can be traced (Plantation General, Board of 
Trade, vols. 59 & 60). 

** Account of monies received and ex- 
pended for the relief of the French Pro- 



Emigrants i^ 

testant refugees. List of all ye passengers 
from London to James River in Virginia 
being French Refugees embarqued in the 
ship ye Peter Anthony, Gaily, of London, 
One hundred and sixty-nine passengers in 
all, 29, 9^^^ 1700. Other Lists of Swiss, etc." 
(Rawl. M.D.A. 271). 

^, , __ , The lists of settlers and 

Old Hand- 

... ^ likely emis:rants havmo: 

writings. , \ ^ , "^ 

been done, we now have to 

start our record search in earnest, the first 
stage of which is learning to read the many 
old handwritings and the system of con- 
tractions used. The best way to learn is by 
practice, starting with modern documents 
and working backwards. The following 
will be found useful books in reading old 
records : — 

*' Wright's Court Hand Restored," 
Martin's '' Record Interpreter," and Du 
Gauge's '* Dictionary." 



i8 American 

Until the Act of Parliament 4 Geo. II., 
c. 26, 1 73 1, was passed, all records of the 
English Courts of Law were in Latin. Wills 
have been in English since about 1550, but 
the orders (acts) of the probate courts are in 
Latin. The pleadings in equity are in 
English. 

Your great attack on the 
Wills. records should start with 

the wills, they being the 
very backbone of all pedigree research. It 
is well to obtain a permit to consult the 
wills without payment of fees, this will be 
granted provided the search stops short of 
one hundred years from the present time, 
and that it is for strictly literary purposes. 
Letters should be addressed to the Superin- 
tendent, Literary Department, Somerset 
House, London. This pass only applies to 
the registered copies of wills, but in cases 
where no registering exists the filed will 
can be seen on payment of a shilling. 



Emigrants 19 

By far and away the most important set 
of wills are those proved in the Prerogative 
Court of Canterbury (P.C.C.), these com- 
mence in 1383, and continue to the abolition 
of the old ecclesiastical probate system 
in 1858. 

The first six manuscript calendars have 
been superseded by the printed lexicogra- 
phical index which covers the period T383 
to 1604. '^^^ administrations have to be 
separately searched, as they are not included 
in the printed index. For the period 1630 
to 1646 consult "Year Books of Probate," 
by John Matthews. '-. 

The P.C.C. contains the wills from all 
parts of England during the Commonwealth, 
1650 to 1660, the local courts having been 
abolished. 

From the printed indices and official 
calendars make a list of all wills and ad- 
ministrations, starting with the date of the 
birth of the emigrant, if it is known, down 



20 



American 



to some fifty years after his death. Such 
an extended search may seem unnecessary, 
but experience shows that sometimes the 
wills of the second generation name cousins 
in America. 

Owing to the gleanings of Mr. Waters 
and others, we stand little chance of being 
the first to discover the magic words *'my 
son John now in New England," at any rate 
during the period 1620 to 1660, as few such 
references have escaped detection by Mr. 
Waters and his many friends. No doubt 
some of the P.C.C. wills contain mention 
of those whose names are sought, but, as no 
residence is given, they cannot be identified, 
unless we have a strong combination of 
names in England and America. 

On completion of the list, start making 
abstracts of the wills. Short notes of all 
names, relationships, estates and fields will 
do ; for, if the wills turn out to relate to the 
correct family, we can come back to them 



Emigrants 21 

and obtain fuller extracts as to the interest- 
ing items of old silver, pewter, furniture, etc. 
It is as well to obtain all wills of the name, 
as no one can tell which will work in after- 
wards. In the case of a testator dying out- 
side the county of his residence, the calendars 
give the place of his death. The wills of 
members of the Society of Friends do not 
start with the usual words : — " In the Name 
of God, Amen," and in the probate acts the 
executors affirm and are not sworn.* 

If the results of the P.C.C. search have 
not revealed the emigrant, some hints should 
have been obtained as to the locality of the 
name. In some few cases the district of a 
family cannot be got from the P.C.C. ; in 
that event it is best to search all the printed 
indices to wills. If we still fail, the death, 
marriage and birth registers of the Registrar 
General, Somerset House can be tried. 
Although these start only in 1837, they 

* For further information about Quakers, see Chapter II, 



22 



American 



sometimes help, for in the early days of 

railways, people had moved about very 
little. 

District ^^"^^^^ ^^'^ ^^^ P'^^- 

„ -. , . able district of the emisrrant, 

Registries. ... & > 

it IS time to turn to the 

local wills. These are preserved with some 

exceptions in the District Registries of the 

Probate Court. A literary pass for any 

District Registry can be obtained in the 

same way as for the P.C.C. It is advisable 

to write to the Registrar, asking whether he 

can find room on the date on which it is 

proposed to start the search. 

The local probate jurisdiction of any 
place can be found in Bacon's ^' Iviber 
Regis," but it is, perhaps, more satisfactory 
to ask in Room 32, at Somerset House, 
which wills ought to be searched for any 
given parish. The " Hand Book of Courts 
of Probate," by Dr. Marshall, shows the 
place of deposit of old wills. lyists and 



Emigrants 23 

abstracts of the wills should be made in 
the same way as in London. When the 
abstracts are done, work out the results in 
pedigree form, and it will generally be found 
that a good sketch chart can be made from 
them. 

^ . , To fill the sraps, or 

Parish , . , . ^ ' 

-» .. , obtain the marriaefes or the 

Registers. ^ , ^ °, 

names of the children not 

mentioned in the wills, either because they 
had died or had received their portion in 
the testator's lifetime, perhaps on the occa- 
sion of their leaving home, consult the 
parish registers of baptisms, marriages and 
burials, in the custody of the Parson. 

Some few of these records start in 1538, 
but 1558 is a more general date. The legal 
fee for searching is one shilling the first 
year, and sixpence for every year afterwards. 
As a rule, the clergy are willing to compound 
this, if the object is a literary one, and some 
fee should be offered based on the time 



24 American 

taken. For certificates, the charge is two 
shillings and sevenpence each, but it is 
optional whether they are taken or not. In 
order to prevent inconvenience to the Incum- 
bent and yourself, write three or four days 
beforehand for an appointment, though one 
has the legal right of inspection at any 
reasonable hour. 

Many registers have been lost. In order 
to save time and, perhaps, a long journey, 
the date of the extant books had best be 
obtained from the Population Abstract of 
1 83 1, or the current Directory. Neither are 
totally to be depended upon as, in furnishing 
the return, the custodians looked at only one 
end of the book ; the fact that some registers 
start at both ends, or even in the middle 
was evidently unknown. 

In writing to the clergy it is only fair 
that a stamped envelope should be sent. 

It is advisable to consult Dr. Marshall's 
*' lyist of Printed Parish Registers," for, if 



Emigrants 25 

tlie register of your parish has been printed, 
it will be a great help and saving to you. 
In cases of special importance do not trust 
altogether the printed copy, but see the 
original, using the former as a help and 
index. 

When the registers are lost, still we stand 
a chance, for the Vicar and Churchwardens 
had to send in a transcript at every Visita- 
tion. These have been kept very badly, and 
in most cases are not arranged for consulta- 
tion. The principal place of deposit is the 
Bishop's Registry, but they are to be found 
sometimes in the Archdeacon's Registry. 

__ . The marriage licences 

Marriage j • ti. t3- t. » 

r 1 are preserved m the Bishop s 

Licences. ^ f 

and Archdeacon's Regis- 
tries, and should most certainly be searched. 
Some of these documents have been printed 
by the Harleian and British Record 
Societies. 



26 American 

„ . , Whilst in the country, 

Other Parish 111., . . 

„ , ^ search should be made in 
Records. 

all parish and local records, 

some of which are still in the hands of the 
Incumbent or the descendants of former 
churchwardens and other officials, but should 
be in the custody of the parish council. 
Where extant, try the churchwardens' 
accounts, overseers' accounts and books, 
pauper pass books, parish apprentice books, 
remembrance books, charity accounts, loose 
deeds, etc., in fact it is as well to look at 
everything of a likely date in the parish 
chest, as the values of these books are most 
varied. 

Records kept with the Clerk of the 
Peace and Town Clerk are of high value, 
particularly the apprenticeship indentures 
kept with the latter. 

By this time we have no doubt con- 
structed a nice pedigree of some English 

• See also Chapter HI. 



Emigrants 27 

family, but may not have had the good 
fortune of placing the sought for ancestor ; 
this being so, further ground must be 
covered, and our steps should be towards 
the records of the transfer of land. 

It seems probable that, 

Records of . j . r -, ^. •. i 

,, „ „ m order to find the capital 

the Transfer ^ ^ - ^^ ij 

„ ^ , for the start m the New 

of Land. 

World, the emigrant would 

sell any land he possessed ; or, if he was 

without land, it is to be expected that his 

father would, on giving him a portion, 

re-settle his estate, and the departing son 

would join in any conveyance in order to 

cut any rights he might have in possession 

or expectancy under any entail that existed. 

Here it should be noted that men of very 

small estate, even cottagers, would strictly 

entail and settle property on themselves and 

wife with reversion to the eldest son and 

heirs, and failing these, to the second, third, 

fourth sons, etc., respectively. 



28 American 

At different periods the English law has 
known various ways of conveyancing. The 
statute 27 Henry VIII., cap. 16, provided 
an instrument known as a ^' deed of bargain 
and sale," and it was enacted that an estate 
should not pass by this means only, unless 
it was by indenture, enrolled in one of the 
Courts of Westminster or in the county 
where the lands lie. If this provision had 
not been evaded, we should have had an 
almost universal register of conveyances of 
the freehold, but it was soon defeated by 
the invention of the conveyance by lease 
and release, which arose from the omission 
to extend the statute to bargains and sales 
for terms of years. 

Many thousands of the former deeds are 
enrolled in Chancery on the Close Rolls, 
the grantors being indexed in the books 
called ''Indentures" kept in the Long 
Room, and the grantees in the Close Roll 
index in the Round Room at the Record 



Emigrants 29 

Office. Others are on tlie rolls of the King's 
Bench, Common Pleas, Exchequer, etc. 
The conveyances by lease and release are 
seldom enrolled, and otherwise are only to 
be found with private title-deeds of the 
present owner of the land. 

Charters are an old form of conveyance, 
and are preserved in great numbers in both 
private and public collections ; they will 
be found of service in constructing early 
pedigrees. Charters and other conveyances 
that concern property in Corporate towns 
are frequently enrolled at the Town Clerks' 
Offices. 

The conveyance of land by Pedes 
Finium, or Feet of Fines, was very often 
resorted to ; they are of first class import- 
ance, as the vendor joins with his wife and 
children or other heirs in order to dock 
dower or entail. 

Calendars, arranged under counties, to 
these documents are in the Round Room. 



30 American 

The warrants in the fines should be care- 
fully read, as they sometimes give name of 
father, grandfather, etc. Fines exist from 
Richard I. to 1834. 

The record of the trans- 
fer of copyhold property is 

„ „ to be found on the Court 

Rolls. T^ ,i r . 

Rolls of the Manor m 

which the land lay. These rolls are private 

property, and permission to search them has 

to be obtained from the L/ord of the Manor, 

whose name and address can be found in 

Kelly's Directories. The general practice 

of the Manor Court was for the I^ord to 

grant licence to alienate, surrender being 

then made by the vendor, admission of the 

purchaser followed and he did his suit and 

service for the same. 

For the period of American research 
the above classes complete the places of 
land registration. 



Emigrants 31 

While searching the Court Rolls for 
transfer of land by sale, be sure to take a 
note of any other entry that relates to the 
name ; this may take any form, as all copy- 
holders' deeds had to go on the roll, from a 
marriage settlement to the mortgage of an 
estate. The jury at the death of every 
tenant made presentment of what estate he 
died seized, who and what relationship the 
heir was, and what fine and heriot was due 
to the lyord. These presentments often 
contain extracts from wills and other deeds, 
and the genealogical importance of them 
cannot be over-rated, as from these rolls it 
has been possible to trace back the ancestry 
of very humble people for two hundred 
years or more before the date of the start of 
the parish registers. Court Rolls contain 
much of biographical and personal interest 
for presentments as to assaults, eaves- 
dropping, common scold, etc., or that a 
ditch wants scoring or hedge trimming, 



32 American 

harboring of strangers, cattle allowed to 
stray, overloading the common, etc., are of 
frequent occurrence. 

The pleadings in the 

T> J. '^ Court of Chancery are of 

Proceedings. , , . , . 

the hignest importance as 

sources of genealogical information, some 

of them giving as many as nine generations 

of pedigree, and others even give abstracts 

of all the deeds in the family muniment 

room for three hundred years. Besides this 

general value, they are of great help to 

Americans, as, in setting out a claim by 

descent, they frequently account for some 

missing relative, by stating that he is now 

in America in parts beyond the Seas. 

These documents are practically a virgin 

field, never having been worked suit by 

suit as Mr. Waters did the wills in the 

P.C.C. 

Do not run away with the idea that your 
people were too poor to have suits in 



Emigrants 33 

Chancery, as the author's experience of 
many thousands of suits is that the poorest 
of the poor brought suits, asking for the 
discovery of some old deed (existing only 
in their imagination), in the hope that the 
person in possession would compromise in 
order to save litigation. 

As Chancery suits deal with matters of a 
date long before that of the pleading, any 
search should be brought down at least one 
hundred years after the death of the person 
sought for, and, if time allows, it would be 
as well to come down two hundred years. 

The Affidavits and Master's Reports and 
Certificates have much information not to 
be found elsewhere. The Master's papers 
can be seen only on payment of small fees, 
knowledge of the title of the suit and the 
Master's name, which can be obtained from 
the Reports. As these papers have chart pedi- 
grees, deeds and other evidences used in the 
trial, they should be sought for in all late cases. 



34 



American 



The subject of Chancery Proceedings is 
a very large and interesting one, and the 
present writer is, therefore, glad to learn 
that an early volume of this Series is to be 
devoted to it. It should be of especial 
interest to Americans, as the names of a 
large number of people stated to be in 
America have been found among the depo- 
sitions in Chancery suits. 

^ , . The Court of Exchequer 

Court of , J . J 4. V 

_ , had an equity side to it. 

Exchequer. , . , ,. ' 

and its pleadings are oi 

nearly as much importance as those of the 

Chancery. They are calendared in counties, 

which greatly reduces the labour of a 

search when the district is known. The 

depositions of this court are of great value, 

and a calendar to these will be found in the 

thirty-eighth and following reports of the 

Deputy Keeper. The Long Room contains 

this index, divided up into counties, and 

an Index Nominum from I. Elizabeth to 22 

James I. 



Emigrants 35 

-.,, The Lay Subsidy Rolls 

Records ^^^ Hearth Tax returns 

are useful as they serve 

as a directory, giving a clue to the parish. 

Catalogues of these exist, but the contents 

of the rolls are not indexed. 

The Inquisitions Post Mortem give 
information about the larger landowners, 
and are well known as one of the best 
sources of genealogy. As regards the early 
Inquisitions, indexes are in print, and the 
later ones are now being printed. These 
records cease with the end of the reign of 
Charles I. 

The plea rolls of the various Common 
Law Courts are a great field of research, 
but only to those with time to spare, the 
bulk of them being so great. Sometimes 
keys to them can be obtained from col 
lections such as those now being printed in 
** The Genealogist," or the Boyd and 
Harrison MSS. in the Long Room. 



36 

All ordinary sources of help failing, it 
is a good plan to return to wills and read 
all of the district, for sometimes a side-light 
can be obtained from the will of a testator 
with a different surname which cannot be 
got in any other way. 

If the time of the searcher allows him to 
work all the classes of records mentioned 
in this chapter, the author has but little 
doubt that a most interesting pedigree will 
be the result. 

Gerald Fothergill. 

II, Brussels Road, 

New Wandsworth, 

London, S.W. 



II. 
The Quaker Records. 



George Fox was a great organiser as 
well as a great preacher. After the first 

„ , ^ , London Yearly* Meeting 
Early Records . ^^o i • ^ 

^ „. ^, m 1668, he issued a mani- 

01 Births, ^ ,, . i „ . 1 • 

„ . ^ , festo, or '^ epistle, to his 

Marriages and . . 

Deaths. followers, explaining the 

importance of keeping in 
Minute Books a careful record of their 
church affairs, and, in particular, the 
necessity of recording in a systematic 
manner all births, marriages and deaths. 
The plan adopted was borrowed from the 
Episcopal Church, and, not only were 

•Here it should be explained that a single Meeting House 
is known in the Society of Friends as a "Preparative" Meeting; 
a number of local Preparative Meetings being grouped into one 
organization known as a "Monthly Meetine. ' These again are 
grouped into still larger districts known as "'Quarterly' Meet- 
ings ( holding special business meetings at a given centre once a 
quarter), these in their turn are again grouped into "Yearly" 
Meetings, which meet once a year, as their name implies. An 
individual might, therefore, be a member of the Leommster 
Preparative Meeting, in Hereford and Worcester Monthly Meeting, 
in Western Quarterly Meeting, which is within London Yearly 
Meeting. The Preparative Meetings appoint delegates to the 
Monthly Meetings, the Monthly to the Quarterly, the Quarterly to 
the Yearly, and the Yearly Meeting lays down the law ! 



38 Quaker 

entries to be made in the local Preparative 
Meeting register, kept by an appointed 
Registrar in each Meeting, but also it was 
arranged that transcripts of such entries 
should be forwarded periodically to an 
official, known as the Monthly Meeting 
Registrar, whose office corresponded to the 
Diocesan Registry in the Church of 
England. 

„^ . ^ ,, This system remained 

Effect of the . , \., , . . 

_ ^. , , . m lorce until shortly after 

Registration , r -, ^^ - 

Act of 1837 passing of the Registra- 

tion Act of 1837, when it 
was discontinued, and all the old registers 
that could then be found were called in and 
deposited at Somerset House. The Com- 
missioners appointed in the year 1838 (to 
examine into the state, custody and au- 
thenticity of all registers of birth, etc., other 
than the parochial registers), after visiting 
the temporary place of deposit of the 
Quaker Registers, stated that ''they saw 



Records 39 



enough of their state and condition to testify 
that they exhibit an admirable specimen of 
the state to which order and precision may 
be carried in the classification and arrange- 
ment of records of this description." 

As may be imagined, the books were by 
no means complete, for, as is the case in 
almost every church throughout the land, 
some registers, or at least pages from them, 
had been lost in nearly 200 years. Meeting 
Houses had been closed by the score, and, 
Friends having become extinct in a district, 
their records sometimes fell into private 
hands and were destroyed. However, one 
thousand six hundred and twenty-two 
separate registers were collected, and now 
any one of these may be seen and searched 
at Somerset House for a fee of one shilling. 

, „. ,, Before these old volumes 

Index to Births, ^ ^ - r^ 

. ^ were maced m Government 
Marriages 

and Deaths. '^^''^^y- ^ complete alpha- 

betical index was compiled 



40 Quaker 

by the Society of Friends of every birth, 
marriage and death record in them, the 
number of tlie original volume, and that of 
the folio on which the entry occurs being 
carefully added. One copy of this index 
was deposited with the Recording Clerk of 
London Yearly Meeting at Devonshire 
House, 12, Bishopsgate Without, London, 
E.G., and another sectional copy, containing 
an index to all the births, marriages and 
deaths of that particular Quarterly Meeting, 
was deposited with a local official for the use 
of the Friends in that immediate vicinage. 

The Index at Devonshire House is avail- 
able to the public on payment of half-a- 
crown an hour, though all Members of the 
Society of Friends in England are at liberty 
to search it freely. As the local copy is in 
charge of an honorary official, application 
should never be made to him except by 
actual Members of the vSociety, residing 
within his own Quarterly Meeting, and 



Records 41 

there is therefore no need to give here the 
names and addresses of these officials. 

^ , „ . It may be added that a 

Index Kept i r i • .1 

-_ ^ ^ f record of births, marriages 
Up-to-Date. . z. 

and deaths is still kept for 

the purposes of ]\Iembership, by persons, 
appointed in each Monthly i\Ieeting, who, if 
in Great Britain, each year forward a trans- 
cript to the Recording Clerk at Devonshire 
House. Consequently, there is now at head- 
quarters a complete alphabetical list of 
every birth, marriage and death (or burial), 
of which any record is preserved by the 
Society of Friends from the very earliest 
time {circa 1650) down to the present day. 
It is safe to say that it is the most complete 
and beautifully kept record of its kind 
belonging to any religious denomination 
throughout the world. It forms a striking 
monument to the genius of George Fox, 
and is, in a way, remarkably typical of the 
careful, conscientious Quaker of to-day ; in 



42 Quaker 

a word, the work which is attempted is 
thoroughly well done. 

Imagine the convenience of being able 
to find at the Lambeth Palace Library, in 
copperplate handwriting, an alphabetical 
list (with date) of every baptism, marriage 
or burial in every Episcopal Diocese in 
England.* 

Yet this is precisely what the Society of 
Friends has accomplished so far as its own 
organisation is concerned. If you know the 
county in which the event might be ex- 
pected to have occurred you have only to 
turn to the volumes devoted to that county, 
or group of counties, and your search is 
over in less time than it takes to write this 
line. 

It may be convenient if 

List of the ^ . . • .1 • 1 ^^ . 

I insert in this place a list 

of the Registers at Devon- 
shire House, giving in each case the 

* I fear the esteemed and obliging librarian, llr. S. W.Kershaw, 
FS.A., would need to add to his staff; 



Records 



43 



Earliest Dates at which records of Births, 
Marriages and Deaths commence : — 



Name of Register. 



Bedfordshire and Herts ... 

Berks and Oxon 

Bristol and Somerset 

Buckinghamshire 

Cambridge and Hunts 
Cheshire and Staffordshire 

Cornwall 

Cumberland & Northumberland 
IJerby and Nottingham ... 

Devon 

Dorset and Hants 

Durham 

Essex 

Gloucester and Wiltshire 
Hereford, Worcester and Wales 

Kent 

Lincolnshire 

Lancashire 

London and Middlesex .. 
Norfolk and Norwich 

Northamptonshire 

Suffolk 

Sussex and Surrey 

Warwick, Leicester and Rutland 

Westmorland 

Yorkshire 

Scotland 



Births. 


Mar- 




riages. 


1643 


1658 


1612 


1648 i 


1644 


1657 i 


1645 


1658 1 


1631 


1658 1 


1647 


1655 


1609 


1657 


1648 


1650 


1632 


1639 


1627 


1646 


1638 


1658 1 


1613 


1644 


1613 


1659 


1642 


1656 


1635 


1657 


1646 


1658 1 


16^2 


1657 


1644 


1652 


1644 


1657 


1613 


1658 


1647 


1659 


1653 


1662 


1640 


1659 1 


1623 


1648 


1635 


1649 i 


1578 


1642 1 


1647 


1656 ; 



Deaths. 



1656 
1655 
1651 
1656 
1657 

^655 
1656 
1656 
1651 
165S 
1657 

1655 
1630 

1655 
1650 
1658 
1656 

1654 
1661 

1657 

1657 

1655 
1645 

1659 

1655 

1570* 

1674 



* It must not be supposed that the entries are continuous 
from these very early dates, as all items previous to 1650 



44 Quaker 

For the convenience of those who are 
unable to make a personal search, a staff of 
clerks is regularly employed, but, with 
every request for the use of their services, a 
fee of some kind should certainly be re- 
mitted. 

It is no unusual thing for a Member of 
the Society of Friends to be able to trace 
all his direct ancestors from the present time 
back to the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury out of this one set of books ; and they 
are so well arranged that he might be able 
to finish his task in the space of an hour or 
two, according to his capacity of taking 
down the particulars. 

were probably inserted at a later period. From the date at 
which the earliest Marriages and Deaths occur the records 
are usually continuous up to the present year Entries 
recording earlier Births seem to have been made sometimes 
in order to make the register more complete. There are 
Supplements to some of these books, but only in the case of 
Lancashire (1635), Lincolnshire (1618), Suffolk (1641), and 
Westmorland (161 7), do they go back any further than in the 
above tabulated list. 



Records 45 

Though the Index at 
Importance Devon>hire House is most 

, ^ . . , valuable, and may possibly 
the Original ' ,, ^ ^ \ 

^ ° , answer all the purposes of 

Record. 11 

some searchers, the real 

genealogist will, of course, seek out the 
original entry at Somerset House, in the 
Strand, lyondon, W.C. 

The entry of a marriage, for example, at 
Devonshire House may read thus : — 

114'] — J32 : Smithy Elizabeth; sfmster ; 
daughter of John and Bridget Sfm'th^ of 
Godalmmg^ Surrey^ to Roger Prichard^ oj 
Almeley Wooton^ at Godalviing^ 3olioli'ji2^ in 
Guildford Mo7ithly Meeting. 

But at Somerset House we shall find, on 
turning to Book 1147, folio 132, that the 
complete entry* reads as follows : — 

ROGER PRICHARD of Almeley 
Wooton in the County >f Hereford^ Glover^ 

*Au actual instance. 



46 Quaker 

S071 of Edward Prichard and Elizabeth 
[Jackson] his zvifey of the samey and Elizabeth 
Smithy spiiistety daughter of John Smith 0/ 
Godalming in the County of Surrey ^ Come 
Merchant, and of Bridgett [Coleman]* his 
wifey Haveing declared their Intentions of 
taking each other in Marriage before several 
Publick Meetings of the People of God called 
QuakerSy in Guildford in the said Countyy 
According to the good order used among them 
Whose proceedings after a deliberate considera- 
tion thereof (with regards unto the Righteous 
Law of God and Example of his People Re- 
corded in the Script\^ of truth in that case) 
were Approved by the said meetings They 



* Bridget Colemau was bapt. at the Church of St. Mary Elms, 
Ipswch, 24 Sept., 1656. Her father Wilham Coleman married 
Susan IMorgan daughter of William and Catherine Morgan of 
Ipswich at St. Mary Elms 25 Oct., 1655. William Morgan bapt. 
at Ipswich i8 Oct. 1590, sou of John Morgan, 



Records 47 

appearing cleare of all others and haveing 
Consent of parents and relations Concerned, 

NOW these are to Certijie all whofne it 
may concerne that for the full accomplishing of 
theire said Intentions This Thirtieth day of 
the Tenth Month Called December in the year 
According to the Eiiglish Account One 
Thousand Seven Hundred and Twelve^ they 
the said Roger Pritchard (the spelling of the 
surnames varies of course at this date) aiid 
Elizabeth Smith Appeared in a Publick 
Assembly of the aforesaid People and others 
Mett together for that purpose in theire Publick 
Meeting Place at Godalming in the aforesaid 
County of Surrey^ A nd in a Solemn Manner 
he the said Roger Pritchard taking the said 
Elizabeth Smith by the hand Did openly declare 
as follozveth — Friends and People i7i the feare 
of God afid in the presefice of this Assembly 



48 Quaker 

whome I desire to he 7ny Witnesses That I take 
this my deare frie?td Elizabeth Smith to be my 
wife Fromissing to be unto her A Loving and 
Faithfull Husband untill death doth seperate 
us : —And then and there in the said Assembly 
The said Elizabeth Smith Did in Like 
Alanner declare as Followeth^ Friends and 
People in the fear e of God and in the prescjice 
of this Assembly whom / desire to be my Wit- 
nesses That I take this my friend Roger 
Pritchard to he my Husband Fromissing to be 
unto him a Loveing a7td Fatthfull wife untill 
death shall Seperate us. A nd the said Roger 
Pritchard and Elizabeth Smith as a further 
Confirmation thereof Did then a?id there to 
these presents sett their e hands. And Wee 
whose Names are hereu7ito Subscribed being 
present among others at the Solemnizing of 
their said Marriage and Subscription in 
Mangier aforesaid as Witnesses hereunto have 



Records 49 

allsoe to these presents subscribed our Names 
the day and year above written. 



Relations. 


Relations 


Roger Prichard 


Robert Baker 


Sarah Woods 


Elizabeth Smith 


Cal'-b Woods Jr. 


Sainuell Woods 
Thomas Smith 




John Baker 




Thomas 1 ixley 


Hannah Sinith 


lohn Smith 


/jhn Wesfbrook 


Nathll Rous /r. 


Bi-jdge^ Smith 


Jarne^ Westorook 


A'i( hard Baker 


Susana Smith 


Eliza Stedman 


Eliz. Baker 


Mary Smith 




Richard Baker Jr. 
Willm. Bingley 


Thomas Prichard 




Edward Prichai djr. 


John Barnard 


Mary Bnker 


Joseph Sm^th 


El'iz. Barnard 


Henry Streamer 


Caleb M oods 


Ezra Gill 


Eliz. Streater 


John Woods 


Marv Gill 






Ben Miles 






Lydia Mdes 


John Withingbrooke 


Jacob Away 


Rebeca Taylor 


Charles Frowe 


Joseph Tailor 


Mary Stent 


7 ho. Smith 


John Cooper Jr. 


Susan Plater 


Lydia Cooper 


Richd. Constable 


EHz Beck 


7 ho. Constable 


Joseph Tailor Jr. 


Katheren Bridges 


James Smith 


Anthotiy Meale 


Eliz. Withingbrooke 


Mary Halt 


Alice Cooke 


Sarah Smith 


Mary Kirton 


Grisell Bucanon 


Eliz. Smith 






Eliz. Richards 







The above may be taken as a fair 
example of most marriage entries, though 
naturally there are instances, particularly 
fifty years earlier, where the entry is less 
complete. 



so Quaker 

We have here, there- 
Marriage fore, in the first place an 

Certificates • . .• • .-c 

interestinsf marnasre certin- 

.,, ^ ^, . cate ; and, secondly (above 
with " Clues. . . 

the line of demarcation), a 

list of twenty-eight relatives of the bride 
and bridegroom, together with the names 
of thirty -one friends, or a total of sixty-one 
persons living at that time. We shall prob- 
ably find that the nearest and most important 
kinsfolk signed first in the column to the 
right, immediately under the names of the 
'' happy couple," but no stone must be left 
unturned to discover wM^ connection each 
of the '^relations" was to the contracting 
parties. These lists of '' witnesses " to the 
marriage will be found to contain most 
valuable '' clues " for the genealogist, and 
an experienced searcher knows that a clue 
is half the battle. 

In some cases the actual relationship 
has been inserted in brackets after the 



Records 51 

signature, such as *' (father of the damsel) ^'^ 
'' (brother of the 7naid)^'' etc., but this is not 
the rule. 

The Irish Quaker Records are preserved 
at 6, Eustace Street, Dublin (Miss Edith 
Webb, Registering Officer), and here again 
they date back to about 1650, and are very 
numerous. 

In every part of Eng- 
Parentage j^nd the oldest Quaker 

01 tne Registers overlap the Visi- 

Early Friends, ^^^j^^^ ^^ ^1^^ jj^^^j^^ ^^ 

a period of from 25 to 50 years, so that 
where the one class of records is left the 
other may be at once taken up. 

It is quite a mistake to suppose that 
the early Friends came only from common 
stock. Many were, doubtless, enrolled from 
among the labouring classes, but thousands 
also came of the very best County Families, 
and hundreds can prove Royal descent. 



52 Quaker 

In this connection it may be mentioned 
that, even durino^ the lifetime of George 
Fox, the new sect numbered about 60,000 
people, and that therefore, in tracing the 
ancestry of present-day Friends, we are 
not dealing with the descendants of ^. few 
families, as is imagined by many who are 
not fully acquainted with the history of 
Quakerism. As an instance, it may be 
stated that, in all probability, at least half 
the members of the present House of 
Commons have Quaker descent, and indeed 
it is difficult to find one who has no Quaker 
ancestor. 

In addition to the 

_ , Res^ister at Devonshire 

Books. ^^ ^ 

House, there are many 

other sources of information open to 
Members of the Society of Friends, but 
these are often difficult of access for the 
public unless letters of introduction are 
obtained, or the custodians are very diplo- 



Records S3 

matically approached. The archives most 
valuable to the genealogist are the Minute 
Books, kept from the earliest times in every 
Meeting by an appointed clerk. These 
record, in addition to the ordinary business 
of the Society, etc. : — 

1. Minutes of Removal from one place 

to another ; introducing a Member 
to the ^^ kind and christian care " of 
Friends in whatever district the 
Member was about to settle. 

2. Admissions to Membership. 

3. Disownments or Resignations for one 

cause or another. 

4. The recording of Ministers. 

5. Lists of subscribers to various funds. 

6. Permission of the Meeting '^ liberat- 

ing " two Friends to marry. 

This last item is especially valuable 
when the registers have all been lost, as, if 



54 Quaker 

two Friends were '* liberated" to marry, it 
may be taken as almost certain that they 
accomplished their purpose, for permission 
was seldom, if ever, given except after 
exhaustive enquiries by a committee. 

. Quite a different class of 

„ , books is formed by those in 

Books. 

which careful record was 

kept of the Sufferings of Friends for Con- 
science Sake. These often give minute 
details regarding not only imprisonments 
but seizures of goods on the ''passive re- 
sister " principle, and, though they are of 
little value in tracing descent, they provide 
much useful information about our Quaker 
ancestors and give to a genealogy just that 
breath of life that is so difficult to obtain. 

The Minute Books and Sufferings Books 
are for the most part stored locally in strong 
rooms and iron safes in charge of honorary 
officials. Some of these Friends are 
enthusiastic genealogists and have time to 



Records 55 

help enquirers in their investigations. But 
it must be remembered that they all are 
holding a strictly honorary office, and are 
under no obligation whatever to reply to an 
enquiry. The actual location of the safe 
and the name of the official in charge might, 
if good cause be shown, be divulged by the 
Librarian of the Friends' Reference Library 
at Devonshire House, but his knowledge is 
gathered from his own private researches 
and 110 complete list of the cojitents of these 
safes^ or even of their actual locatio7i^ exists. 
This is a most extraordinary state of things 
and will, doubtless, soon be rectified. Owing 
to the honorary office of the curators and the 
doubt as to whether my own investigations 
have produced a complete list, I must 
refrain from attempting to include one here. 

It may be stated, however, that the 
contents of quite a number of these safes 
have been deposited in the care of the 
Registering Clerk at Devonshire House, 



56 Quaker 

and doubtless they could be consulted on 
payment of a small fee. They amount to 
many hundreds of volumes, and form a 
most valuable collection. 

The Friends' '^^'^ ^^°^^ mentioned 

Reference Librarian of the Friends' 

Library Reference Library has in his 

charge thousands of most 
valuable documents, including original 
letters, manuscripts, diaries or '' journals," 
written by Friends from the year 1650 down 
to the present time. Here is also the most 
complete library of old Quaker volumes in 
existence, and additions are constantly being 
made to it. Admission may be obtained 
with suitable letters of introduction for 
purposes of historical research, and a 
valuable, but not as yet very complete, 
card-index to all early Quakers of note is 
kept, a handy reference as to where further 
particulars of them may be found in various 
writings. 



Records 57 

^ , Quaker Literature is, of 

Quaker "^ vr • 

- * , course, very prolific in 

Literature. / . / . . 

genealogical information. 

x\bout half-a-dozen books stand out as 

exceptionally valuable in this direction : — 

JOSEPH SMITH'S CATALOGUE 
OF FRIENDS' BOOKS— a two-volume 
book (published in 1867, with a Supple- 
ment, which appeared in 1893), i^ con- 
vsidered to be a standard work, showing 
great research and maintaining a very fair 
level of accuracy. 

QUAKER RECORDS, by Joseph J. 
Green, is an invaluable Index of the Deaths 
of Friends (from 1813 to 1892 inclusive), as 
recorded in a series of volumes known 
as the — 

ANNUAL MONITOR. These annuals, 
though not officially published, were com- 
menced in 1813 and are continuous to date. 
They form the Obituary of the Society of 
Friends, recording not only the deaths and 



58 Quaker 

ages at death, but date and locality, and 
very frequently biographical notes, but, 
unfortunately, these notes, while mentioning 
the favourite texts of Scripture of the 
deceased, often omit all reference to family 
matters. However, they should always be 
consulted. 

THE FIRST PUBLISHERS OF 
TRUTH is a valuable record, just com- 
pleted, taken from original manuscripts, 
giving an account of the introduction of 
Quakerism into England and Wales. It is 
full of good things, and must certainly be 
looked into. 

''A Collection of the SUFFERINGS of 
the People called Quakers for the Testimony 
of a good Conscience " is the title of two 
great volumes by Joseph Besse, devoted to 
the Sufferings of the early Quakers (1650- 
1689). At the end of tht second volume is 
a list of some of those who actually died for 
their faith, but it is very incomplete ; how- 



Records 59 

ever, 368 deaths are recorded here (or more 
than one saint for each day of the year, 
though their names are now quite forgotten !), 
and further particulars are furnished in the 
letter-press. Besse left a very valuable 
manuscript (preserved in the Reference 
Library at Devonshire House) giving such 
genealogical information as he had at hand 
regarding each of these martyrs. It has 
never been published. 

'' A JOURNAL or Historical Account 
of the Life, Travels, Sufferings, Christian 
Experiences, and Labour of Love in the 
Work of the Ministry of that Ancient, 
Eminent and Faithful Servant of Jesus 
Christ, GEORGE FOX," A large volume, 
of which there are several editions, being in 
the nature of a diary of his travels, and 
mentioning interesting particulars regarding 
many of his contemporaries. A remarkable 
book. 



6o Quaker 

THE JOURNAL OF THE FRIENDS* 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY, of which four 
volumes of the present series have been 
completed, is the official organ of the 
Friends' Historical Society ; Norman 
Penney, Devonshire House, Bishopsgate 
Without, London, E.C., is the Hon. Sec. 
and Editor. The Journal is published 
quarterly (2/- per copy) by Headley Brothers, 
14, Bishopsgate Without, London, E.C., to 
whom all enquiries for books relating to the 
Society of Friends should be made. This 
Historical Society is doing excellent work, 
and all its publications are of exceptional 
value to the genealogist ; for instance, it has 
just published, as Journal Supplement 
No. 6, *^John ap John and Early Records 
of Friends in Wales," a work which the 
descendant of any Welsh Quaker should not 
omit to consult. 

Many works have been written dealing 
with the history of Quakers in special 



Records 6i 

countries and counties. The following list 
of such publications is incomplete, but will 
serve to indicate the type of book which 
should be consulted when it is known in 
which district a Quaker ancestor lived. 



America. 

James Bowden's '' History of Friends in 
America," 1850. 

Dr. R. H. Thomas's '' History of Friends 
in America," 1905. 

Ireland. 

*' Sufferings of Friends in Ireland," by 
Abraham Fuller and Thomas Holme, 

'' Friends in Ireland " (by William Rath- 
bone), 1804. 

Several articles in the Journal of the 
Friends' Historical Society. 



62 Quaker 



Wales. 

** An Account of the Convincement, etc. 
. . . . of .... Richard 
Davies : with some Relation of 
. . . . the Spreading of Truth in 
North Wales," many editions. 

(See also above under ''The Journal of 
the Friends' Historical Society.") 



Cumberland. 

*' Early Cumberland and Westmorland 
Friends," by Richard S. Ferguson, 
1871. 

Durham. 

'* Early Friends in the North," by J. W. 
Steel, 1905. 

*' Unhistoric Acts, Some Records of Early 
Friends in North-East Yorkshire and 
South Durham," by George Baker, 
1906. 



Records 63 

I/ONDON. 

Wm/ Crouch's ^' Posthuma Christiana," 
1712. 

'' Life of Gilbert Latey, comprising some 
account of the first settlement of 
Friends' Meetings in London," by R. 
Hawkins ; several editions. 

*' London Friends' Meetings," by Wm. 
Beck and T. F. Ball, 1869. 

Nottinghamshire. 

** Sufferings of Quakers in Nottingham- 
shire, 1649-1689," by Percy J. Cropper, 
1892. 

Somersetshire. 

John Whiting's '' Persecution Expos'd," 

1715- 

'' Lectures on Friends in Somerset," by 
William Tanner, 1858. 



64 Quaker 



Surrey and Sussb:x. 

^'The Early Friends in Surrey and 
Sussex," by T. W. Marsh, 1886. 

Warwickshire. 

''Friends in Warwickshire in the 17th 
and 1 8th Centuries," by William 
White, 1894. 

Westmorland. 
(See above under '' Cumberland.") 

Worcestershire. 

''Evesham Friends in Olden Time" (in- 
cluding other districts in Worcester- 
shire), by Alfred W. Brown, 1885. 

Yorkshire. 

" Yorkshire Quarterly Meetings of 
Friends, 1650-1900," by John S. 
Rowntree, 1900. 

(See also above under " Durham.") 



Records 65 

This list of books, and indeed these 
notes, might be further extended to 
hundreds, if not thousands of references, 
but perhaps sufficient has been said to start 
the searcher in the right direction, and, 
when the sources named have been investi- 
gated, other channels will have been opened 
to view. 

JosiAH Newman, F.R. Hist. Soc. 
" Oristano," Hatch Knd, Middlesex. 



66 Genealogy of 



III. 



The Genealogy of the 
Submerged. 



Many genealogists are not content with 
tracing only their father's, parents' or grand- 
parents' paternal ancestry, but clamber into 
the very twigs of their family-tree, recording 
the name of every direct ancestor whom they 
can trace. In fact, the keenest genealogists, 
when they can make no further progress 
backwards (if such an expression may be 
used), devote their energies to tracing the 
descendants of all their known ancestors. 



the Submerged 67 

^ As most families, if fully 

1 XI- traced, will be found to 

cow hath an . , ' , , , 

.„ ,«,,^> include those who have 
111 call. * 

sunk as well as those who 
have risen, genealogists must expect to find 
in the course of their researches many fresh 
skeletons for their family cupboards. Pro- 
vided that these can be kept safely under 
lock and key, why should we not welcome 
them ? It surely must be comforting to be 
able to convince oneself that ^' the sin that 
doth so easily beset us " may be placed to the 
debit account of one of our ancestors {sus. 
per col.) from whom we have inherited it ! 

However, it is not to refer the genealogist 
to the Newgate Calendar for particulars oi 
his ancestors that these few notes have been 
written. Their chief object is to draw 
attention to the splendid records which are 
in existence in some parishes concerning 
the condition and actions of those who 

* Camden's " Remains conceniing Britain," 1674. 



68 Genealogy of 

in the past were guilty of ** the crime of 
poverty." 

In the first place let us 
in great consider whether the pedi- 

^ grees of paupers, long since 

there are j j j i, • i 4.4. 

, dead and buried, are matters 

GoYernors and 111 1 . • . 
r.^ -.1 „ » which should interest us. 
Chandlers." * 

Allowing thirty years to 
a generation, a man born in 1870 had sixty- 
four direct ancestors who were all living 
about 1720, provided that no two of his 
immediate ancestors were close cousins. 
Whatever his present social status, it will 
be surprising if he does not find that prac- 
tically every grade of society was represented 
by one or more of these, his 64 great-great- 
great-great grandparents. 

The great grandmother of Queen Anne 
was a poor girl who stood behind the bar of 
a public-house. She married the brewer, 
became his widow, married secondly Sir 

* George Herbert's " Jacula Prudentum," 1640. 



the Submerged 69 

Francis Aylesbury, and by him was the 

mother of Frances Aylesbury who married 

^ . , Edward Hyde, the His- 

Prmces and , . , _ - ^, ,, 

_ torian and Lord Chancellor, 

Paupers. 

whose daughter, Anne, 

married James II. of England, and became 

the mother of two Queens of England, 

Mary II. and Anne. 

There can be no doubt that it is possible 
to find many instances of monarchs being 
descended from humble ancestors — was not 
William the Conqueror the grandson of a 
tanner ? — and, if this is the case with royalty, 
how much more must those of the middle 
classes expect to find that some of their 
direct ancestors were poverty-stricken and 
lived amid squalid surroundings. 

Several years ago the 

Rummaging yicarof Walton-on Thames, 

the Rev. W. Kemp Bussell, 

asked me to look through 

about fifty large bundles of old manuscript 



70 Genealogy of 

which were stacked in a cupboard in his 
Vicarage. He was then engaged in arrang- 
ing the records preserved in the church 
chest, and had come to the conclusion that 
many were missing. Some of these I found 
in the bundles to which reference has been 
made, and many title-deeds and other records 
of great importance to this parish were 
added to those already in the chest. After 
thus placing the gold in safe custody, I 
turned my attention to what I had at first 
regarded as the dross, and it is of this that 
I wish now to record a few notes, as I am 
convinced that if many parishes have pre- 
served documents similar to those which 
I found in these bundles, the task of tracing 
a family in the lowest stratum of society will 
be easier than compiling the pedigree of 
one in the upper middle class. 

^ , There is not space here 

Paupers and ^ ^ ^. f ^ 

^, -. to quote the various Acts 

the Law. . 

of Parliament of which 

these records are a result. Those who are 



the Submerged 71 

interested in the curious state of bondage to 
which the indigent were brought by the 
Act of 14 Charles II., c. 2, modified by the 
Acts of 3 Wm. and Mary, c. 11, 8 and 9 
Wm. and Mary, c. 30, and 35 George III., 
c. loi, are referred to the '' History of the 
English Poor Law," by Sir G. Nicholls, 
the '' English Poor Law System," by Dr. 
Ashcroft, and Dr. Burn's '' History of the 
Poor Law." 

The following actual abstracts and 
copies of the documents at the Vicarage of 
Walton-on-Thames (printed here by the 
courtesy of the Vicar) will convince any 
that few records are richer in interesting 
detail than these which chronicle the lot of 
many persons who now lie in nameless 
graves. 

Bonds to ^^iy-'^en 1654 and 1727 

secure parish ^^^^^^ ^'\ ^^ documents 

against which fall into two classes : 

charges. Fourteen being bonds to 

secure Walton against 



72 Genealogy of 



charges for maintenance ('' maintenance and 
education" in the case of children, but 
usually only " charges " without any qualifi- 
cation) which had arisen, or might arise, 
through poor persons who had lately come 
to settle in Walton. The remaining seven 
bonds were to secure Walton against charges 
through the birth of seven bastard children 
('' unborn child or children" in one case 
quoted below) and are signed by the sworn 
fathers, both the parents or by others. 

The amounts in these bonds vary from 
;^io to ;£ioo. The following are extracts 
from each of the two kinds mentioned 
above : — 

Bond for /^6o of Edivard Peacocke^ gent.^ 
and Henry Hatchett^ Churchwardens of Shep- 
perton^ to Thomas Best a?id Roger Me teal fe^ 
Churchwardens of Walton. To secure Walton 
against charges through Robert Rayner^ 
Katherine^ his wife^ and Lettice^ his daughter^ 
inhabitants of Shepperton^ who had lately come 



the Submerged 73 

to settle in Walton. Witnesses : — Dan. Proctor 
and Edmond Singer. Dated ist June^ 1666. 

Here in one document we liave the names 
of a man and liis wife and child, the name 
of the parish from which they came (a most 
important fact for genealogists as, without 
this record, a descendant of Robert Rayner, 
having traced his ancestry back to him, 
would not know where to look for records 
of Robert's marriage, birth and parentage), 
and the names of six other inhabitants of 
the two parishes mentioned, as well as the 
actual signatures of four of these. It is also 
implied that Robert Rayner had rented, or 
was endeavouring to rent, a tenement in 
Walton parish of the annual rental of ^10 
or under. 

Bond for £^^0 of Ralph Purdue^ fisherman^ 
of Shepperton^ and John Winge^ tanner^ of 
Walton^ to Williain Russell and John 
Grantham^ Chnrchiijardens of Walton. Mary 
Purdue and John Winge aek7iozvledge that said 



74 Genealogy of 

John Wiiige is the father of her tinhorn child 
or children^ and Ralph Purdue (Marfs father) , 
and said John Winge hold Walton harmless 
for any charges until child or childreii reach 
the age of 16. Witnesses : — Edward Bucknell^ 
Ed. Guldhawk and Joseph Bignold. Dated 
20th Aprily 1724. 

Imagine for a moment that you are a 
descendant of the child mentioned. You 
have, we will say, traced back your ancestry 
in one of its many lines to a rich but self- 
made man who lived at Walton (not that I 
know what actually became of Mary Purdue's 
child), and to your horror you find, on re- 
ferring to the baptismal register here, that 
he is entered as the bastard child of a Mary 
Purdue. You will probably not pursue your 
investigation further in this direction as you 
will prefer not to know more about her, but 
(strange are our ways of regarding such 
things) if, by the discovery of this Bond, you 
learn the father's name, you will probably 



the Submerged 75 

continue your search tracing both the Winge 
and Purdue families, and glossing over as 
best you can the awkward absence of a 
marriage certificate ! 

Another variety of '' Bond to secure 
parish against charges" will be found de- 
scribed later after '' Apprenticeship Inden- 
tures." 

Between 1697 and 1729 

Certificates ^. o .-r ^ 

there are 84 certincates 

« ,7, , given by the Churchwardens 

Settlement. ., ^ r , ^ 

and Overseers of the Poor 

of other parishes to poor persons who were 
desirous of seeking employment in Walton. 
Without such a certificate the Church- 
wardens and Overseers of the Poor at 
Walton would naturally not allow anybody 
who might become chargeable to the parish 
to settle here. '' Able-bodied paupers, with 
no intention of working, were in the habit 
of migrating to those parishes where they 
would meet with better treatment than at 



76 Genealogy of 

home; so that parishes were often 

saddled with the maintenance of paupers 
who ought rightfully to be chargeable to 
another parish," hence the law empowering 
parishes to remove paupers to their place of 
''settlement." 

The following is a good specimen abstract 
of such a certificate : — 

Certificate froif I John Eyre^ Churchwarden 
and Overseer of Putney^ Surrey ^ that the fol- 
lowing are inhabitants of Put72ey : — 

Richard English^ Mary^ his wife^ and his 
six children: — JanCy aged about i6; Sarah ^ 
14; Hester y 13; Hannah ^ 12; Elizabeth ^ 11, 
and Richard^ about 6 years old. 

Witnesses : — William Luck and John 
Rogers. 

A llo7ved by F. Gregg and William Billers^ 
Justices of the Peace. Dated 25/// June^ 1 723. 

Here we have invaluable data about the 
family of English. There are also five actual 



the Submerged 77 

signatures to this document, whilst some (in 
the cases where two Churchwardens and 
two Overseers sign) carry eight signatures. 

Owing to a change in the law in 1696/7, 
the possessor of one of these certificates 
could not be removed from the parish to 
which he had come, probably for work, 
unless he became actually chargeable to it, 
but he could only obtain a " settlement" in 
it if he were allowed to hold a parish office 
for one year, or if he hired a house of the 
yearly rental of ^ro or over. 

Occasionally we find copies of certificates 
granted by the Churchwardens and Over- 
seers of Walton to inhabitants of Walton 
who were removing to, or seeking employ- 
ment in, another parish. 

The " Home Counties Magazine" — one 
of the most interesting magazines for a 
genealogist — in its number for Januar}^, 1905, 
reproduced one of these ''certificates of 
origin " as an illustration to a short article, 



78 Genealogy of 

entitled ^' A forgotten relic of tlie Poor 

Law System/' by Mr. A. Denton Cheney, 

F.R.HistS. 

Between 1691 and 1729 

^ J there are eleven Removal 

Orders. 

Orders. The object of 

these will be clear from what has been 

written above. 

The following is a fair specimen abstract 

of one of these documents : — 

Removal Order to Thames Ditton 0/ 
Mary Glover and her hvo children. She is 
described as the wife of Charles Glover^ water- 
7nany of Thames Ditton^ a7id it is stated that 
she had lately come to settle in Walton zvith her 
two small children '* to sojorne & dwell wth. 
her father Roger Sponge of Hirsham (Her- 
sham) in Walton^ bricklayer.^'' It is signed 
by Matthew Andrewes and C. Whitelocke. 
Dated i^th yu7ie^ 1693. 

There is a fairly good armorial seal of 
Andjrewes on this, 



the Submerged 79 

- . ,. The documents endorsed 

Examinations. ,, ^ 

*' Examination " appear to 

consist of two kinds. There are examina- 
tions as to ^' settlement" and examinations 
previous to granting affiliation orders. 
Taking the period from 1725 to 1729, I 
found 24 of the former and 2 of the latter 
preserved at Walton. 

These documents are undoubtedly the 
most interesting among those which we are 
now considering, and, therefore, several 
abstracts of them are given below : — 

(Copy) — The Examination of Sarah Or ley ^ 
widow ^ taken upon oath before us tivo of His 
Majesty^ s Justices of the Peace quoram (sic) 
U71US Sr. fames Edwards Barrt. & Francis 
Henry Le^ Esq.^ for the County of Surry the 
sixth day of Deer. ^ 1725. 

Sarah Or ley deposeth tipon Oath that she 
was travelling from Chipnam (Chippenham) 
in the County of Wiltshire with an 
inte7it to goe to Norwich in Norfolk being 
Her 



8o Genealogy of 



Husband^ Will : Or ley a Carpenter by Trade 
who served His time as apprentice to the 
best of Her knowledge to Henry Spicer at 
Norwich in Norfolk but dying at Chipiiam 
above mentio7ied did e^ideavour to goe to Norwich 
to find out His Relations to give Her releif 
but being not able to gett there ^ by reason of Her 

heiiig very , 

was obliged to stay at Walton upon Thames 
above mejitioned (sic) where she was 
delivered of a Female Child & that her 
last Service where she lived a Year as 
a hired Serva7it was with Mr. Arthur Lang- 
ford a Farmer at Exberry (Exbury) iit 
Hampshire & that she 7vas married to 
William Orlcy when she was a servant to 
— Pollett^Esq.^atLindall (?) in Hampshire about 
two years si7ice & farther sayeth not wittness 
my hand this Sixth day of December 1725. 

Witt7iess : — J, Edwards Her 

fames Griffin^ F. H. Lee Sarah-^Orley 
Constabill Mark. 



the Submerged 8i 

It is all very dry and official and the 
original is crude, but, though it happened 
182 years ago, the perusal of the above must 
awaken our sympathies with this poor 
widow, who, through no fault of her own, 
had such a hard experience. As amongst 
these bundles there appears to be no record 
of her removal to any of the parishes named, 
let us hope that the Overseer here forgot for 
once that he was an official, and that the 
hospitality of this parish was ungrudgingly 
extended to her. 

Examination of JoJin Kcel^ born at 
Twickaiham^ bound apprentice by the Overseer 
of that pari sJi to Simon Cole (then inhabiting 
in parish of East Molesey) for eight years^ 
lived 7vith Cole at Molesey for two years and 
about three years more zvith him at Hertsham 
(Hersham in Walton) ^^ at ivch. time he pur- 
chased ye rest of his time from his said Master 
& that abotU six years agoe during his appren- 
ticeship he married & since ye time of serving 



82 Genealogy of 

his said Master he hath not gained any legal 
settlement.^'' 

Signed by ^^ J. Edwards''^ and '' Jo. Gas- 
coign^'' Justices of the Peace. Dated 2nd 
January^ 1726. 

Notice that the Overseer of Twickenham 
was wise in his generation and apprenticed 
this pauper to an inhabitant of another 
parish. 

Examination of John Slatford^ labourer^ 
born at Bistow (Bicester) Oxford^ where he 
had a house and married Judith Dormer ^ 
spijister^ of that parish at the parish church of 
St. Bartholomeiv near Oxford^ by whom he has 
two children now living both females one about 
five years and the other about twelve months. 

Witnesses : — Tho. Simmonds and John 
(? Riplies). 

Justices of the Peace: — J. Wyvill and 
J. Edzvards. Dated i^th April 1727. 

To make the account of these documents 
complete, it would be necessary to give a 



the Submerged 83 

copy of the examination of the mother oi 
an illegitimate child, but the wording of 
these examinations, perhaps, would be 
rather too outspoken for the ultra-refined 
ears of the twentieth century. With regret, 
I feel compelled to omit it. 

This brings us to the next class of docu- 
ments which occur among these records. 
In the first half of the nine- 

^ , teenth century, Affiliation 

Orders. ^ , ^ 

Orders are very numerous, 

but throughout these notes the names in no 
document of later date than 1730 are given 
for fear that the feelings of any present 
inhabitant of Walton might be hurt. 

Before that date only one affiliation order 
is to be found, of this the following is an 
abstract : — 

Charity Dihhs^ spinster^ of Walton^ who 
was lately delivered of a bastard chtldy having 
been exaviiiied (also other witnesses who 
tvere present at the birth) , the two under sighted 
Justices of the Peace of Surrey adjudge John 



84 Genealogy of 

Chapman^ hnshandman^ of Walton^ the reputed 
father^ and order him to pay eight shillings per 
month to the Overseer of Waltoit tmtil the 
child is seveii years old^ and then to pay them 
£^ for apprenticiiig it, also^ on notice of this 
order ^ to give security to the Churchwardejis 
and Overseer for due performance. Signed by 
^^ Tho. Brende^^ and ^^ Matthew Andrezves.^^ 
Dated 20th March ^ ^^IZ- 

Eight shillings per month for seven 
years plus £^ equals £'^Z 12s. I am in- 
formed that the usual order now made is 
for five shillings per week for fourteen years, 
which, totalling £1^2 if the child lives, 
compares well with the £2)^ 12s. in 1673, 
even after allowing for the difference in the 
value of money in those days. 

Between i6s6 and 171^ 
Apprentice- , . ' 

, . there are 57 apprenticeship 

Indentures." indentures. Though they 
do not contain much genea- 

* Those interested in the genealog\' of Chester m'i.y be Cflad to 
have the following reference to a manuscript at the British 
Museum : — " Indentures of Chester Apprentices, Kliz. to James I., 
Harl. MS., 2046." 



the Submerged 85 

logical information, yet they are so quaintly 
worded that it is worth while to quote one 
in full :— 

THIS INDENTURE made the tenth 
day of June In the yeare of our Lord one 
Thousand Sixe hundred Fifty and Sixe 
BETWEENE William Inwood and Ancell 
Beaumont Churchtvardens of the pSiXishe * of 
Walton tcpon Thames in the County of Surry 
Johne Osborne Thomas Best and Thomas Clarke 
Overseers for the poor e of the said p^xish of the 
one pdiXte and James Gretrakes of the paxishe 
of Hamptoii in the County of Middl^sQX Cord- 
way 7ier on the other part. WUTNESSETH 
that the Churchwardens and Overseers of the 
poore by and with the Consent of Sir Thomas 
Evelyn i^nigh^ and Francis Drake Esqvivr^ 
Justices of the peace for the said County whereof 
one is of the Quomm and at the only cost and 
charges of Beniamyn Weston of Walton afore- 
SQi\d Esquirt. have by these prtsoits put forth 

* Extended abbreviations are indicated by change of type. 



86 Genealogy of 

placed and homid John Blunt sonn of Roger 
Blunt late of Walton aforesaid Barbor de- 
cesised ass an Apprentice to and with the said 
James Gretrakes and as an Apprentice aiid 
Servant with hi?Ji the said James Gretrakes 
or his Assignes to dwell and remayne from 
the day of the date above written onto the 
full end and terme of eight yeares from 
the7ice next ensueinge and fully to be com- 
pleate and ended By and durei^ige all which 
said terme the said John Blunt his said Mz.^\,er 
well and faithfully shall serve his secretts shall 
keep his Law full Comma^idments every where 
shall gladly doe He shall not wast the goods of 
his said Afsister nor lend them unlawfully to 
any person He shall not Comitt fornica^on nor 
Contract Matrimony within the said terme He 
shall not play at any unLawfull games ; 
Taverns nor Alehouses he shall not haunt 
neither shall he absent himselfe by day nor by 
night but as a trtie and faith full Servaiit shall 
behave himselfe towards his said MsiSter aswell 
in wordes as in deeds dureinge the said Ter^ne 



the Submerged S7 

And the said Msister For and in Consider aeon 
of the some of Five pounds of Law full mony 
of England to him in hand paid By the afore- 
said Beniamyn Weston Esqwir^ nozv pro- 
miseth and Coventeth that he the said il/aste;' 
shall and ivill teach instruct informe and 
hringe up or cause to he taught instructed in- 
formed and brotcght up him the said Apprtn- 
tice in the trade mysterie or scycnce of a Cord- 
wayner or zvhditsoever Trade he now tiseth in 
the best manner that he can Jindinge a7id allow - 
inge unto his said Apprentice sufficient meate 
drinke lodgeinge tvashing &" Apparell both 
in Lynnen and Woollen with hose shoes and 
all other things Convenient for such an 
Apprentice attd Servant and at thend of the 
said Terme shall give and allozve unto his said 
Apprentice double Appdxell That is to say 
Appd,rell for the Holy daies and Appz.rell for 
the workinge daies meet decent and Convenient 
for such an Apprentice and Servant IN 
WITNES 7vhercof the pSirties first above 
named to theise present Indentures their e hands 



88 Genealogy of 

and scales Interchaiigably have sett dated the 
day and year e first above written. 
Signed Seated and Delivtred 

In the pitsencc of : — 

Tho. Dickinson. 

Lodowicke Jackson. James Gretrakes. 

(Signed in the margin by : — ) 

Tho: Evelyn and Fran. Drake. 

After 1 713 these Apprenticeship Inden- 
tures are made out on printed forms, 
supplied by : — 

'* W. Warter and J. Iventhall, Stationers, at 
the Talbot next the Miter-Tavern 
against St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet 
Street : where are sold all Justices 
Warrants." 

"John Coles, Stationer, at the Sun and 
Mitre against Chancery-lane, Fleet- 
street." 

''P. Barret, Stationer, in Fleet-street, 
Lrondon," and by : — 



the Submerged 89 

**John Evett, at the Great Turk's Head 
over-against Fetter-lane-end in Fleet- 
street, Stationer." 

These printed forms are not especially 
interesting. Between 1714 and 1730 there 
are 17, each supplied by one or other of the 
above-named stationers. 

_ , « Between 16 s6 and 17^0 

Bonds from "^ 

« . there are five Bonds to the 

JilEtSwQrS* 

Churchwardens and Over- 
seers from Masters who had signed Inden- 
tures apprenticing a poor child. These 
Bonds, which are for £S or ;£io, were given 
as a security that the master would feed and 
clothe his apprentice and keep him or her 
from becoming a charge to the parish 
during the term of the apprenticeship. 

,, . ^ There are also other 

Various Poop • ,. , 

_ -, , miscellaneous documents 
Law Records. . . 

relating to the administra- 
tion of the Poor I^aws in this parish. For 
instance, the POOR-RATE I^ISTS are 



90 Genealogy of 

invaluable to anyone studying the genealogy 
and topography of a parish. They show the 
assessment made on the inhabitants "to- 
wards the necessary releife of the poor " of 
the parish. The earliest to be found among 
the records of Walton is dated 1732, and is 
practically a directory of the parish, giving 
in most cases the Christian name as well as 
the surnames of those who were assessed, 
with the amount which they paid. The 
names, of which there are 240 in the list of 
1732, are arranged under " Squadrons," i.e. 
districts. However, these lists are outside 
the scope of the present chapter as there is 
nothing in them that will help a genealogist 
to trace an obscure family. 

For the early part of the nineteenth 
century there are monthly LISTS OF 
THE INMATES OF THE WORK- 
HOUSE, compiled by the Master of the 
Workhouse in order that his remuneration 
might be correctly calculated. They show 
Christian name as well as surname, age. 



the Submerged 91 

health, date of admittance and discharge, 
etc., of every man, woman, and child who 
passed through the workhouse. All cases 
of insanity among the inmates are also 
noted. 

There are manuscript books giving the 
names of the recipients of CHARITY 
money, but no genealogical data are to be 
gleaned from these. 

Occasionally we find CASES FOR 
COUNSEL, setting forth the facts elicited 
from the pauper under examination in 
instances where his removal, or attempted 
removal, had given rise to a dispute between 
the two parishes. 

A few LETTERS from Overseers, 
Churchwardens, Employers, etc., are pre- 
served. These relate to most of the above 
matters. 

Enough has now been written to prove 
the value of these records, and to indicate 
the class of information which they contain. 
As with most parish records, the nearer we 



92 

approach to the present time the more data 
are to be found in the documents. As an 
instance of this, I would mention a removal 
order dated 1843, from which we see that 
J. M., who died six years previously at 
Cobham, was the father of J. M., then 
living at Cobham, whose brother, R. M., 
born at Cobham, where he died and was 
buried about twelve months previously, 
married about 40 years previously S. P., 
who was still living. R. M. and S. P. were 
the parents of another J. M., a labourer, 
then living, who was born in lawful 
wedlock at Claygate, Thames Ditton, where 
he married S. R. The said J. M. and S. R. 
were then the parents of Mary, aged 8 ; 
Henry, aged 5 ; Thomas, aged 4, and 
Martha, aged 18 months. 

A four-generation pedigree — could any 
genealogist expect to obtain more data from 
one document? 

Chas. a. Bernau. 
" Pendeen," Walton-on-Thames. 



Index 



93 



INDEX LOCORUM. 





PAGE 


PAGE 


America ••• 3 to 


36, 


61 


Essex, Braintree ... 14 


, , Barbadoes 




15 


Gloucestershire... ... 43 


,, Carribbe Islands 


15 


,, Bristol... 43 


,, Nevis ... 


... 


15 


Hampshire 43 


,, New England 


14 


,, Exbury ... 80 


,, St. Chri^toph 


er 


15 


" Lindall "... 80 


,, Virginia (James 




Herefordshire ... ... 43 


River) 




17 


,, Almeley 


,, West Indies 


... 


15 


Wooton 45 


Bedfordshire 


... 


43 


Hertfordshire ... ... 43 


Berkshire 




43 


Huntingdonshire H, 43 


Buckinghamshire 




43 


Ireland 51, 61 


Cambridgeshire 


... 


43 


,, Dublin 51 


Ely 


... 


14 


Kent 11,43 


Cheshire 




43 


Lancashire ... 43, 44 


,, Chester 


... 


84 


I,eicestershire 43 


Cornwall 


... 


43 


Lincolnshire ... 43, 44 


Cumberland 


43. 


62 


London ... ... 43. 63 


Derbyshire 


... 


43 


,, Chancery Lane 88 


Devon ... 


... 


43 


,, Fetter-lane-end 89 


Dorset ... 


II 


43 


„ Fleet Street 88, 89 


Durham (Diocese and 




,, Putney (see Surrey) 


County) ... 13 


43 


.62 


,, St. Dunslan's 


Essex 


II 


»43 


Church ... 88 



94 



Index 



PAGE 

London " The Great Turk's 

Head'' ... 89 
„ ''The Mitre 

Tavern'' ... 88 
,, ** The Sun and 

Mitre " ... 88 
„ '' The Talbot '\,. 88 
„ WardofWalbrook 11 

Middlesex 43 

,, Hampton ... 85 
,, Shepperton 72, 73 
,, Twickenham 81,82 

Norfolk 43 

,, Norwich 43, 79, 80 
Northamptonshire ii> 43 

Northumberland ... 43 

Nottinghamshire 43, 63 

Oxfordshire ... ... 43 

,, Bicester ... 82 
,, Oxford ... 82 

Rutland ... 43 

Scotland 43 

Somerset ... 43, 63 



PAGtt 

Staffordshire 43 

Suffolk II, 43, 44 

,, Ipswich ... 46 

Surrey 43» 64 

,, Claygate 92 

,, Cobham ... ... 92 

„ East Molesey ... 81 

,, Godalming 45 to 47 

,, Guildford 45, 46 

,, Hersham 78, 81 

,, Putney ... ... 76 

,, Thames Dilton jS), 92 

,, Walton-on- Thames 

69 10 92 

Sussex ... ... 43, 64 

Wales ... 43 1 58, 60, 62 
Warwickshire ... 43> 64 

Westmorland ... 43, 44, 64 
Wiltshire ... H, 43 

,, Chippenham 79, 80 
Worcestershire ... 43, 64 

,, Evesham 64 

Yorkshire ... 43, 64 



Index 



95 



INDEX NOMINUM. 





PAGE 




PAGE 


Andrewes 


78, 84 


Constable 


49 


Anne, Queen 


of England 68 


Cooke ... 


49 


Away 


49 


Cooper . . 


49 


Aylesbury 


69 


Dibbs ... 


83 


Baker ... 


49 


Dickinson 


88 


Barnard , . 


49 


Dormer ... 


82 


Barret ... 


88 


Drake ... 


85, 88 


Beaumont 


85 


Edwards 


... 79, 80, 82 


Beck ... 


49 


English ... 


76 


Best 


72, 85 


Evelyn . . . 


85, 88 


Bignold ... 


74 


Evett 


89 


Billers ... 


... ... 76 


Eyre 


76 


Bingley ... 


49 


Fro we ... 


49 


Blunt ... 


86, 87 


Gascoign 


82 


Brende ... 


84 


Gill 


49 


Bridges ... 


49 


Glover ... 


78 


Bucanori 


49 


Grantham 


73 


Bucknell 


74 


Gregg ... 


76 


Chapman 


84 


Gretrakes 


... 85 to 88 


Clarke ... 


85 


Griffin ... 


80 


Cole 


81 


Gu Id hawk 


74 


Coleman... 


46 


Hait 


49 


Coles ... 


88 


Hatchett... 


72 


Collins ... 


14 


Hyde ... 


69 



96 



Index 



PAGE 

Inwood ... 85 

Jackson ... ... 46, 88 

James 11. , King of Enc^l, 69 

Keel 81 

Kirton 49 

Langford ... ... 80 

Le(e) 79, 80 

Lenthall 88 

Luck 76 

Mary II., Queen of Engl. 69 

Meale 49 

Metcalfe 72 

Miles 49 

Morgan ..: ..." ' ... 46 

Orley 79, 80 

Osborne ... ... 85 

Peacocke 72 

rixley 49 

Plater 49 

Pollelt 80 

Pri(t)chard ... 45 to 49 

Proctor 73 

Purdue 73. 74 

Rayner 72, 73 

Richards 49 



Ri plies (?) 




Rogers 




Rous 




Rusxell 




Simmonds 




Singer 




Slatford .. 




Smith 


. 45 t 


Spicer 




Sponge ... 




Stedman 




Stent 




Streater 




Tailor 




Taylor 




Warter 




Westbrook 




Weston 


8. 


Whitelocke 


. 


William the Conqueror 


Winge ... 


7. 


Withingbrooke .. 


. 


Woods ... 


. 


Wyvill 


... 



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