(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Some tests in the culture of peppers"

JBRARY OF 




UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 
AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN 




AGRICULTURE 



CIRCULATING 



CHECK FOR UNBOUND 
CIRCULATING COPY 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 

Agricultural Experiment Station 



BULLETIN NO. 274 



SOME TESTS IN THE CULTURE 
OF PEPPERS 



BY J. W. LLOYD 




URBANA, ILLINOIS, APRIL, 1926 



SUMMARY 

Green peppers of the large type have become very popular for 
salads and for stuffing. Their culture is profitable where good yields 
can be secured. Under Illinois conditions, the use of large, well-grown, 
potted plants is favorable to early bearing and large total production. 
The tests reported in this bulletin were made to determine other factors 
affecting yields. 

Altho the pepper plant will withstand considerable dry weather, 
the yields, as an average for five years, were increased about 15 per- 
cent by supplementing the natural rainfall with overhead irrigation. 

Neither the use of nitrogen in the form of nitrate of soda, nor of 
phosphorus in the form of bone meal, resulted in any consistent 
increases in the yields of peppers. 

A comparison of six varieties indicated that Neapolitan Salad was 
the earliest, but that Sweet Mountain was the heaviest yielder. 
Chinese Giant was the poorest yielder. 




FIG. 1. SWEET MOUNTAIN PEPPER 
This variety yielded an average of 3 pounds of peppers to a plant. 



SOME TESTS IN THE CULTURE 
OF PEPPERS 

By J. W. LLOYD, Chief in Olericulture 

Green peppers of the large, mild or sweet type, used in salads 
and for stuffing, have increased greatly in popularity within the last 
few years. Their use in salads especially has recently become quite 
important, and they are shipped from the South to northern markets 
at seasons of the year when the northern home-grown product is 
not available. Illinois gardeners have had trouble in taking advan- 
tage of this increased demand, because of failure to get satisfactory 
yields. It is a common occurrence in the North for peppers to produce 
very few fruits until late in the fall, and then to be caught by frost 
with the main crop still on the plants too immature to be of value. 

Some tests were therefore planned by this Station with a view 
to developing a method by which growers in Illinois would be enabled 
to produce larger yields before the close of the growing season. The 
tests were made on rich garden soil of the brown silt loam type, at 
Urbana, starting in 1919 and continuing thru the season of 1923. They 
included the growing of peppers with and without irrigation; with and 
without applications of nitrate of soda; with and without bone meal; 
as well as a comparison of different varieties. 

Previous experience had shown that large, well-grown, potted 
plants have a much better chance of producing satisfactory yields 
before the close of the season than have plants that are small, young, 
or poorly developed at the time they are set in the field. A pepper 
plant normally continues to bear until killed by frost, and an early 
start gives it a longer bearing season. All the pepper plants used in 
the present tests were grown, therefore, from early-planted seed, and 
handled in a manner to put them in ideal condition when the time for 
setting in the field arrived. 

METHOD OF CONDUCTING THE TESTS 

The pepper seed was sown in flats in a warm greenhouse in March. 
As soon as the plants were large enough to handle to advantage, they 
were shifted to 2% -inch pots, and were later transferred to 4-inch 
pots. At the time they were set in the field the plants were large and 
well developed, usually showing buds and sometimes blossoms. These 
potted plants suffered very little check in growth when placed in the 
open ground. 

Four rows of pepper plants were set in the field, two where they 
could be irrigated by the overhead Skinner system. The rows were 

331 



332 



BULLETIN No. 274 



[April, 



3y 2 feet apart and the plants were placed 2 feet apart in the row. The 
various lots were designated as follows: 

Lot 1. Not irrigated nor fertilized (check) 

Lot 2. Not irrigated, but fertilized with bone meal 

Lot3. Irrigated but not fertilized 

Lot 4. Irrigated and fertilized with nitrate of soda 

The object of making these combinations of treatments was to 
determine whether fruitfulness in the pepper could be stimulated by 

the use of phosphorus, which is 
supposed to increase the yields of 
fruit-bearing plants; or whether 
fruitfulness in the case of this 
plant might be associated with a 
strong vegetative growth. Irriga- 
tion was resorted to as one means 
of promoting vegetative growth. 
With a view to stimulating such 
growth still further, if possible, 
nitrate of soda was used in addi- 
tion to irrigation on one of the lots. 
Six varieties Neapolitan Salad, 
Sweet Mountain, Crimson Giant, 
Magnum Dulce, Chinese Giant, 
and Ruby King were included in 
the tests each year except in 1920, 
when Ruby King was omitted. 
Each variety was grown under 
each of the treatments mentioned. 

In 1919 only 9 plants of each variety were grown under each 
treatment; in 1920 and 1921, 15 plants of each variety were used, and 
in 1922 and 1923, 20 plants of each variety. 

The bone meal was applied at the rate of 2 ounces per plant, and 
was mixed thoroly with the soil at the time the plants were set. The 
nitrate of soda was used at the rate of 1 ounce per plant for the season, 
but was applied % ounce at a time. The first application was usually 
made about four weeks after the plants were set in the field, and the 
second applicaton about three weeks later. 

The peppers were picked when in the right condition for market, 
that is, when they appeared to have reached their maximum size but 
were still green. A number of pickings were required to harvest the 
crop. When the weather was warm and the peppers were developing 
rapidly, it was found necessary to pick over the plantation once a 
week to get the crop in optimum condition. When the weather was 
cooler, less frequent picking was necessary. The number of pickings 
each year was as follows: 1919, twelve; 1920, fifteen; 1921, twelve; 
1922, nine; 1923, six. 




FIG. 2. TYPE OF PLANT USED IN THE 
TESTS. GROWN IN 4-lNCH POT 



1926} 



SOME TESTS IN THE CULTURE OF PEPPERS 



333 



In 1923 the weather was very cool and the crop was cut off by 
frost on September 12. In the other years, picking was continued into 
October. Dates of planting, transplanting, and harvesting are given 
in Table 1. 



TABLE 1. DATES ON WHICH PEPPERS WERE PLANTED AND HARVESTED 





1919 


1920 


1921 


1922 


1923 


Seeded 


Mar. 19 


Mar. .5 


Mar. 19 


Mar. 7 


Mar. 9 


Shifted to2V-inch pots 


Apr. 11 


Mar. 29 


Apr. 12 


Mar. 23 


Apr. 2 


Shifted to 4-inch pots .... 


May 10 


Apr. 25 


May 5 


Apr. 17 


Apr. 23 


Set in field 


June 13 


May 28 


June 1 


May 24 


June 2 


First picking 


July? 


June 25 


June 24 


June 27 


July 2 


Last picking 


Oct. 8 


Oct. 9 


Oct. 8 


Oct. 9 


Sept. 12 



YIELDS INCREASED ABOUT 15 PERCENT 
BY IRRIGATION 

Whenever the rainfall was insufficient to keep the peppers well 
supplied with moisture, the two rows planted near the irrigation pipe 
were thoroly watered. The results of irrigation are indicated in 
Table 2. 

In 1919 all varieties produced larger yields without irrigation, and 
in 1920 the average yield was slightly greater from the non-irrigated 
plants, owing to the relatively light yield of one variety under irriga- 
tion. In the other three years, however, the yields of all varieties were 
greater from the irrigated plants ; and the five-year average for all va- 
rieties shows an increase in yield of 15 percent apparently due to 
irrigation. 



NITRATE OF SODA FAILS TO INCREASE YIELD 

For all varieties during all five years, in 20 trials out of 29, the 
nitrated plants yielded less than the plants without nitrate (Table 3). 
Four of the varieties, as an average of the five years, yielded less 
with the nitrate treatment than without it; the other two varieties 
yielded slightly more with nitrate. The five-year average yield for all 
varieties combined was slightly in favor of the plants that were 
grown without nitrate. 

It is quite evident that the yielding propensities of the plants 
were not improved by the applications of nitrate of soda. 

BONE MEAL GIVES NO CONSISTENT GAINS 

Under the conditions of this experiment, no consistent advantage 
was derived from the use of bone meal (Table 4). In 1921 the yields 



334 



BULLETIN No. 274 



[April, 



g "a 

K (- 
03 4> 
h- < 





9) 

i( 




CO GO fC O i-l * 


C4 




8 

< 


CD * OS (N O^C 
CO-* (M CCIMCO 


CO 
CO 




S9 


GOOD O CD OS 00 


o 




OS 


000 tH(M O 


H 












(N 


CO CO t> * Tt< CO 


N 


TJ 

5 

03 
if 



i 1 


^H IM (N GO 00 CO 
CC-* (NIN'-KN 


05 

(N 


B 


,_, 


<M CO GO <* CO GO 


ie 


o 




i-H 


N (M GO O OS 00 

-* IO r-l CO rH CO 


2 




O 


rH tO GO fO 00 


^ 




0? 
I-H 


t^ O(NiC--H 
(N-* fOCOO< 


CO 




05 


l^COl>CO<M O 


<D 




OS 

1 1 


CDO(N i-HOCO 
COt^CDO TjH CO 


O 

IO 




a 

If 


OCOiOCOt^CO 


CO 




fc 
<5 


iO <N CO Tft^ * 

COiCCOfOIN * 


oo 

CO 




co 


C * OSI> TH CO 


^ 




0? 

I-H 


00 "* i-i CO i-H 00 
(M (N 1-1 i-H .-1 


U9 

I-H 




(N 


(M OS 1C * 1C CO 


CO 


T3 

1 

03 


OS 
i I 


O CO CO GO <M OS 
"* t^ CO CO CO iO 


<D 

* 


be 


i I 


iO CO OS 1> CO <-l 


co 




OS 

i 


OS OO (N T-I 1> * 

Tt< t^ 10 * io co 


K. 

IQ 




8 


* GOOS GOlO 


t* 




OS 


I-H CD 1C lOCO 
COIM COCO<M 


8 




OS 


<N"*I><N OlO 


o 




OS 

I-H 


^H 00 00 (N * IO 
CO 1C-* ^(NCO 


o 
-* 













> 


5> 
| 

I 




'S.S ' : 

3|i-i| 
g3a|s 

|5 1 l 

in|i| 

!^cuSc;pH 


Average 



H 
P 

o 

i 



o 




o 





1 


OCOiOCOI>CO 


CO 





< 


lO (N CO * 1^ * 
COOCOCO<N^ 


% 




CO 


o-* ost^i-ieo 


* 




OS 
1 1 


CO <*' i-H CO i-H GO 
(N <N rHi-l i-l 


10 

I-H 




(N 


(N OS 1C TJH IO CO 


CO 


-o 

3 

si 


OS 

.1 


OCOCOOOlNOS 
^t^COCOCOiO 


9 



i 


1-^ 


1C CO OS 1-- CO i-H 


CO 


L> 


OS 
1 1 


OSOO(N ^Ht^-* 
* l> iO * O CO 


t^ 

1C 






Tfl OOOS 00 O 


l^ 




C1 
OS 

I-H 


T-H COlO 1C CO 
COIMCOCOlM 


S 




05 


<N-*t^<N OiC 


o 




OS 

I-H 


^H GOOD (N * 1C 
COkO-* -*<NCO 


o 
^ 





? 


O-* CO I-H COI> 


o 




1 

^ 


* i-l (N CO OS kO 
CO O CO CO <M * 


l^ 
CO 






oiooor^csio 


l> 




PI 

OS 


COOO3O iM 


1-H 












03 


(M 


CO r-\ I> i-H OS CO 


00 


S 

^3 
-i- 


S 

T 1 


CO-* O OOCO CO 
CO COIN CO C^l id 


o 
-* 


E 

'B 


i-H 


I>COCOOSC(N 


CO 


ts 

Ol 
be 

L_ 


OS 




IO(N C^Jt^^CO 
*00"2"5OCO 


OS 

o 




8 


iO<NiOt>-CO 


00 




OS 
i-H 


rf f- OS OO OS 
COCOCOINiM 


CO 

co 




OS 


rt< i-H CO O OS O 


CO 




OS 
rH 


f^COOSCXN rH 
CO IO CO CO CO 1C 




*f 










4 

i 
! 


^ 

5 



Neapolitan Salad 
Sweet Mountain. . 
Crimson Giant. . . 
Magnum Dulce. . . 
Chinese Giant 
Ruby King 


Average 



1926] 



SOME TESTS IN THE CULTURE OF PEPPERS 



335 







V 

If 


CD CO !O CO I-H Tf 


(N 






I 

4 


CO * OS <N O 1C 
CO * (N CO C^ CO 


S 






CO 


OOOOOCOO5 OO 


CO 






0? 


O CC ^ C<1 O 


-H 



H 










O 




IN 


CO CO t^- ^ ^* CO 


IN 


a.- 


TJ 


*j 
03 


0? 

i-H 


^H C^ <N 00 00 O 

CO * (M <N ^H IN 


00 
IN 


fe 



43 

C 


I 1 


<N tO 00 Tt< CO 00 


"3 


1 


P 


8 
i i 


(N (N 00 1C O3 00 

Tf 1C ^ CO ^H CO 


Tf 

CO 


fl 







--I CO OOCOOO 


Tt< 


i 



2 




8 

rH 


t^ O(N O ^H . 

<N-*COCO(N 


!-H 

CO 


H 
[5 . 




Oi 


t^-COt^tCtNO 


CO 


O 
PQ 
H 




Oi 

i 1 


COOIN <-H OO 

o t-- <r> "3 Tt< co 


os 

1C 


C3 



- - 




1 


t-t-t-t-0^ 


l> 


EH Jt 

ft 

- Ct> 




~ 
^ 


COIN O5O t^CO 
CO-*(NCOrHCO 


1-H 

CO 


u 
5 s 




CO 


CO 00 00 <N O5CO 


IN 


B C 
E-> 3 

o 


"3 
Oi 


OS 

T 1 


COt^OOOt-N 
i I i-( i I C*J 


1-H 
i 1 


z 


s 

o> 


<N 


CO O '-*'-' Oi 00 


O 




O 


1 

X 


0? 
1 ( 


CC CO CO 1C CO CO 
(N CO<N<N *H (N 


s 




K 
H 


1 


I 1 


* O t~ Tf Tj< CO 


CO 


s 

E 


PH 


1 

"3 

e 


OS 
1-H 


OC' O5 <N CO O * 
T}* 1C CO "* (N * 


* 


Ex 
O 


H 


R 


O(N i-i O5 1C 


O5 


EC 

S 

1 




OS 
1-H 


-* osoir^--* 

<NCO<N<N i-l 


CO 
(N 


t 




05 


1C CO 03 CO 1C CO 


OS 


** 

I 




OS 
i 1 


1-4 I-H (N t~ 1-1 >C 

C CO C ^ CO "5 


OS 

* 


3 










H 


I 


fe 

u 

s 

> 


Neapolitan Salad 
Sweet Mountain. 
Crimson Giant. . . 
Magnum Dulce.. 
Chinese Giant. . . 
Ruby King 


Average 



as 

E 

2 
O 



r e* 

H K 

Q N 

2 3 
^H 



w 



!l 

M 

a, *< 

S S5 
6g 



fi 

h 
O 

a 


g 

H 

2 
> 





a 


CO 00 CO CO I-H TJ< 


IN 


0> 
I 


H 


CO-* IN CO (N CO 


CO 
CO 


i 


>, 


t^ 1C IN I-H CO CO 


1-H 




1 


CO-* COi-H IN 


CO 




Is 


OOOOOCOO500 


CO 


CO 


1 


1C 00 -H (N O 

1-H i-H i-H T 1 1-H 




OS 

i-H 


>, 


(N^OSOt- 


c 




03 
W 


T* COCOCOOfN 


CO 




a 


CO CO t^ Tf ^i CO 


<N 





8 


i-H (N IN 00 00 CO 
CO "* IN <N i-H IN 


00 
(N 


r 1 


>, 


OS t^ ' "^ C^J * < 


OS 




& 


*CO <N 


11 




"ca 


(N CO 00 * CO 00 


Ui 


i-H 


o 


IN C<I 00 C O3 00 

Tf< 1C i-H CO 1-H CO 


CO 


O> 
1-H 


* 


1C OSOOO OCO 


OS 






CO COO O CO 


-H 




*a 


-HCOOOCOOO 











t-- O IN C i-l 

IN * CO COIN 


1-H 

co 


T ( 


b 


IN <* i-H O "* 


(N 




^ 


OCOCO I-H 
i 1 


"* 




*a 


t^ COI> COIN O 


CO 


Oi 


o 
H 


CO O C<I ^H O CO 
CO l> CO C "* CD 


s 


OS 

i-H 





O r-l i-H OS 00 00 


00 




03 
W 


i-H 1C CO ^ 

i-H 


<* 












' 
1 


a 
U 




Neapolitan Salad. 
Sweet Mountain . 
Crimson Giant . . 
Magnum Dulce.. 
Chinese Giant. . . 
Ruby King 


Average 



336 BULLETIN No. 274 

were distinctly better from the plants treated with bone; but in all 
other years the average yields, including all varieties, were lower from 
the bone-treated plants than from the untreated plants. Furthermore, 
the five-year average yield for all varieties combined was slightly 
greater from the untreated plants. 

COMPARISON OF VARIETIES FOR EARLY 
AND LATE USE 

Marked differences were discovered in the yields of the six varie- 
ties of peppers included in these tests. 

For the sake of making a fair comparison of the varieties, early 
yields and total yields of all six varieties as grown without irrigation 
or special fertilizer treatment, are tabulated in Table 5. All peppers 
harvested before August 15 were considered "early." Ordinarily only 
a relatively small proportion of the crop was picked before that date. 
Some varieties, however, produced a much larger yield of early pep- 
pers than did other varieties. Neapolitan Salad was the outstanding 
variety so far as earliness was concerned, while Chinese Giant and 
Magnum Dulce were notably deficient. 

So far as total yields were concerned, Sweet Mountain outyielded 
all the other varieties, its average yield for the five-year period as 
grown under all four treatments being more than double that of Chi- 
nese Giant, the lowest yielding variety. Furthermore, Sweet Moun- 
tain was second only to Neapolitan Salad in average yield of early 
peppers. Since Neapolitan Salad is of rather small size and suitable 
only for salad, rather than being adapted also to stuffing, Sweet 
Mountain is the better variety for general use, both early and late, 
when grown on brown silt loam under the conditions obtaining in 
the corn belt. It is of course possible that Chinese Giant might 
do relatively better on some other soils or under other conditions. 
The important point brought out by these tests is that there are great 
differences in yields of different varieties, and each gardener should 
grow a variety that will give large yields under his soil and climatic 
conditions. 

CONCLUSIONS 

1. It is feasible to grow peppers on brown silt loam as ordinarily 
fertilized for market gardening purposes, without special treatment 
with commercial forms of nitrogen or phosphorus. 

2. Peppers will withstand considerable dry weather, tho the yields 
may be somewhat increased by an abundant supply of moisture. 

3. Treatment with nitrate of soda in addition to irrigation seems 
to be detrimental to the yield. 

4. Varieties of peppers differ widely in productiveness. Under the 
conditions of these tests, Sweet Mountain proved to be a much heavier 
yielder than any of the other five varieties tested. 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA