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Full text of "Sons of men, Evansville's war record"

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g>ons of ^en 



EVANSVILLE'S WAR RECORD 



COMPILED BY 



H EIMAN BLATT 



LLUSTRATED 



PUBLISHED BY ABE P, MADISON 



BOOK TITLE BY C. W. SEELEY 
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Copyright 1920 

by 

ABE P. MADISON 



SEP -I 1^20 



©Ci.A576347 



TO 

THE REVERENT MEMORY 

OF 

THE GOLD STARS 



Preface 



Now that the war has been over for more than a yea)- and a half, com- 
munities as well as individuals are asked, "What have you done to help?" 
The fi^htinj? has been over lonj? enouj^h for the recorder of its events to 
obtain historical perspective and authenticity, but the events of the war 
are still indelibly impressed on the minds of all so as to prive an accurate 
and vivid account of this soul stirring period of American history. 

The title of the book, "Sons of Men," has special reference to the first 
chapter of this book, "The Gold Stars." The time and painstaking work 
devoted to this chapter were out of all proportion to any similar quantity of 
material in the volume. With few exceptions every Gold Star family was 
interviewed. The material was obtained from the parents, often the 
mother, and included not only biographical data that the parents could give, 
but also Government reports, telegrams, personal letters from eyewitnesses 
such as officers, comrades. Red Cross nur.ses and chaplains. In some cases 
the material was very ^cant and limited, and this fact will explain the dif- 
ferent lengths and variety of detail of the biographies. 

So many of Evansville's Gold Stars who were in active service abroad 
belonged to the Thirtieth Division (Old Hickory) that the experiences of 
the Lucky Five are a history of the military career of more than five 
plucky Evansville soldiers. The events described in this narrative also 
furnish an idea of the military maneuvers of the American forces during 
the drive on the Hindenburg Line. 

The preparation of the second chapter was tedious and laborious. Some 
of the returned heroes went through gruesome experiences. Their baptism 
by fire would merit a description as a recognition of valor as well as for its 
fire would merit a description as a recognition of valor as Avell as for its 
fabulous exploits. Other returned soldiers went through many hardships, 
although they were not in the trenches; and all were in the service of their 
Country. The least that could be done was to have this Honor Roll, which 
recognizes their part in the war. The names in the first two chapters are 
arrange<J alphabetically for obvious reasons. 



SONS OF MEN 



The material for the other chapters was obtained by interviews with 
leaders in the various war organizations and activities, and from official 
documents both from the Government and local committees. 

In an early announcement which was made when this work was first 
begun, it was stated that this volume would contain five chapters. As this 
work was continued the plans were modified. Accordingly, the material was 
rearranged so as to bring out all of the war activities. 

No pains were spared in compiling and verifying material. The slight- 
est doubt about a fact was put to the severest test of investigation. 

It would be ungrateful if no acknowledgements were made to many 
Evansville people whose help made this work possible. First should be 
mentioned the parents and relatives of the Gold Stars, who generously fur- 
nished biographical data and photographs for this work. Much help was 
received from the files of the Evansville Courier, Evansville Journal, and 
Evansville Press. Special acknowledgement for suggestions and material 
must be made to Mr. and Mrs. A. W. Funkhouser, Mr. John J. Nolan, Mr. 
Louis A. Kramer, Mr. Charles W. Seeley, Mrs. E. M. Bush and Mr. Joseph 
Lythgoe. 



THE PUBLISHER. 



Evansville, Ind., 
July, 1920. 






CONTENTS 



Chapter Page 

Democracy 15 

I President Wilson's Address 17 

( Necessity of War Against Germany ) 

The Gold Stars 27 

Biographies of the Gold Stars 28 

II Honor Roll 194 

III The War Mothers 239 

IV Organizing for Victory 254 

The Local Boards 255 

The Legal Advisory Board 256 

Conservation of Food and Fuel 258 

The Speaker's Bureau 259 

V The Liberty Loan 26 1 

VI The Red Cross 266 

VII The American Legion 289 

VIII The Welcome HomeCelebration 307 



Democracy 



* 



"What is this democracy for which we have paid with the lives 
of our sons? 

"It is for one thing a society whose members are healthfully knit 
together like a living body. It is a society, therefore, in which every 
member participates in the labor and pain and also in the enjoyment 
and opportunities. It is a society in which Lucifer, son of the Morn- 
ing, autocrat in government or in business, is cast down to hell. * * 
Not anarchistic license for men, not socialistic suppression of men, but 
free co-operation of men — always more and finer co-operation of al- 
ways freer men — that is democracy." 



* Quoted from the "Gold Stars" by President William Lowe Bryan of Indiana 
University. 



CHAPTER I 

Necessili] of VJar Against Qermdng 



President Wilson's Address to Congress, April 2, 1917 

I have called the Congress into extraordinary session because 
there are serious, very serious, choices of policy to be made, and 
made immediately, which it was neither right nor constitutionally 
permissible that I should assume the responsibility of making. 

On the third of February last I officially laid before you the ex- 
traordinary announcement of the Imperial German Government that 
on and after the first day of February it was its purpose to put aside 
all restraint of law or of humanity and use its submarines to sink 
every vessel that sought to approach either the ports of Great Britain 
and Ireland or the western coasts of Europe or any of the ports con- 
trolled by the enemies of Germany within the Mediterranean. That 
had seemed to be the object of the German submarine warfare earlier 
in the war, but since April of last year the Imperial Government had 
somewhat restrained the commanders of its undersea craft in con- 
formity with its promise then given to us that passenger boats should 
not be sunk and that due warning would be given to all other vessels 
which its submarines might seek to destroy, when no resistance was 
offered or escape attempted, and care taken that their crews were 
given at least a fair chance to save their lives in their open boats. 
The precautions taken were meagre and haphazard enough, as was 
proved in distressing instance after instance in the progress of the 

17 



SONS OF MEN 



cruel and unmanly business, but a certain degree of restraint was ob- 
served. The new policy has swept every restriction aside. Vessels 
of every kind, whatever their flag, their character, their cargo, their 
destination, their errand, have been ruthlessly sent to the bottom 
without warning and without thought of help or mercy for those on 
board, the vessels of friendly neutrals along with those of belligerents. 
Even hospital ships and ships carrying relief to the sorely bereaved 
and stricken people of Belgium, though the latter were provided with 
safe conduct through the prescribed areas by the German Govern- 
ment itself and were distinguished by unmistakable marks of identity, 
have been sunk with the same reckless lack of compassion or of prin- 
ciple. 

I was for a little while unable to believe that such things would 
in fact be done by any government that had hitherto subscribed to 
the human practices of civilized nations. International law had its 
origin in the attempt to set up some law which would be respected 
and observed upon the seas, where no nation had right of dominion 
and where lay the free highways of the world. By stage after 
stage has that law been built up, with meagre enough results, 
indeed, after all was accomplished that could, be accomplished, but 
always with a clear view, at least, of what the heart and conscience 
of mankind demanded. This minimum of right the German Govern- 
ment has swept aside under the plea of retaliation and necessity and 
because it had no weapons which it could use at sea except these which 
it is impossible to employ as it is employing them without throwing 
to the winds all scruples of humanity or of respect for the world. I 
am not now thinking of the loss of property involved, immense and 
serious as that is, but only of the wanton and wholesale destruction 
of the lives of non-combatants, men, women and children, engaged in 
pursuits which have always, even in the darkest periods of modern 
history, been deemed innocent and legitimate. Property can be paid 
for; the lives of peaceful and innocent people cannot be. The present 
German submarine warfare against commerce is a warfare against 
mankind. 

18 



PRES. WILSON'S ADDRESS TOCONGRESS 

It is a war against all nations. American ships have been sunk, 
American lives taken, in ways which it has stirred us very deeply 
to learn of, but the ships and people of other neutral and friendly 
nations have been sunk and overwhelmed in the waters in the same 
way. There has been no discrimination. The challenge is to all man- 
kind. Each nation must decide for itself how it will meet it. The 
choice we make for ourselves must be made with a moderation of 
counsel and a temperateness of judgment befitting our character 
and our motives as a nation. We must put excited feeling away. 
Our motive will not be revenge or the victorious assertion of the 
physical might of the nation, but only the vindication of right, of 
human right, of which we are only a single champion. 

When I addressed the Congress on the twenty-sixth of February 
last I thought that it would suffice to assert our neutral rights with 
arms, our right to use the seas against unlawful interference, our 
right to keep our people safe against unlawful violence. But armed 
neutrality, it now appears, is impracticable. Because submarines are 
in effect outlaws when used as the German submarines have been 
used against merchant shipping, it is impossible to defend ships 
against their attacks as the laws of nations has assumed that mer- 
chantmen would defend themselves against privateers or cruisers, 
visible craft giving chase upon the open sea. It is common prudence 
in such circumstances, grim necessity indeed, to endeavor to destroy 
them before they have shown their own intention. They must be dealt 
with upon sight, if dealt with at all. The German Government denies 
the right of neutrals to use arms at all within the areas of the sea 
which it has prescribed, even in the defense of rights which no modern 
publicist has ever before questioned their right to defend. The inti- 
mation is conveyed that the armed guards which we have placed on 
our merchant ships will be treated as beyond the pale of law and sub- 
ject to be dealt with as pirates would be. Armed neutrality is in- 
effectual enough at best; in such circumstances and in the face of 
such pretensions it is worse than ineffectual: it is like only to produce 
what it was meant to prevent; it is practically certain to draw us into 

19 



SONS OF MEN 



the war without either the rights or the effectiveness of belligerents. 
There is one choice we cannot make, we are incapable of making; 
we will not choose the path of submission and suffer the most sacred 
rights of our nation and our people to be ignored or violated. The 
wrongs against which we now array ourselves are no common wrongs; 
they cut to the very roots of human life. 

With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragical character 
of the step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it in- 
volves, but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional 
duty, I advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Im- 
perial German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against 
the government and people of the United States; that it formally 
accept the status of belligerent which has thus been thrust upon it; 
and that it take immediate steps not only to put the country in a 
more thorough state of defense but also to exert all its power and 
employ all its resources to bring the Goernment of the German Em- 
pire to terms and end the war. 

What this will involve is clear. It will involve the utmost prac- 
ticable co-operation in counsel and action with the governments now 
at war with Germany, and, as incident to that, the extension to those 
governments of the most liberal financial credits, in order that our 
resources may so far as possible be added to theirs. It will involve 
the organization and mobilization of all the material resources of the 
country to supply the materials of war and serve the incidental needs 
of the nation in the most abundant and yet the most economical and 
efficient way possible. It will involve the immediate full equipment 
of the navy in all respects but particularly in supplying it with the 
best means of dealing with the enemy's submarines. It will involve 
the immediate addition to the armed forces of the United States 
already provided for by law in case of war at least five hundred thou- 
sand men, who should, in my opinion, be chosen upon the principle 
of universal liability to service, and also the authorization of subse- 
quent additional increments of equal force so soon as they may be 
needed and can be handled in training. It will involve also, of course, 

20 



PRES. WILSON'S ADDRESS TO CONGRESS 

the granting of adequate credits to the Government, sustained, I hope, 
so far as they can equitably be sustained by the present generation, 
by well conceived taxation. 

I say sustained so far as may be equitable by taxation because 
it seems to me that it would be most unwise to base the credits which 
will now be necessary entirely on money borrowed. It is our duty, 
I most respectfully urge, to protect our people so far as we may 
against the very serious hardships and evils which would be likely to 
arise out of the inflation which would be produced by vast loans. 

In carrying out the measures by which these things are to be ac- 
complished we should keep constantly in mind the wisdom of inter- 
fering as little as possible in our own preparation and in the equip- 
ment of our own military forces with the duty, — for it will be a very 
practical duty, — of supplying the nations already at war with Ger- 
many with the materials which they can obtain only from us or by 
our assistance. They are in the field and we should help them in 
every way to be effective there. 

I shall take the liberty of suggesting, through the several execu- 
tive departments of the Government, for the consideration of your 
committees, measures for the accomplishment of the several objects 
I have mentioned. I hope that it will be your pleasure to deal with 
them as having been framed after very careful thought by the branch 
of the Government upon which the responsibility of conducting the 
war and safeguarding the nation will most directly fall. 

While we do these things, these deeply momentous things, let us 
be very clear, and make very clear to all the world what our motives 
and our objects are. My own thought has not been driven from its 
habitual and normal course by the unhappy events of the last two 
months, and I do not believe that the thought of the nation has been 
altered or clouded by them. I have exactly the same things in mind 
now that I had in mind when I addressed the Senate on the twenty- 
second of January last; the same that I had in mind when I addressed 
the Congress on the third of February and on the twenty-sixth of 
February. Our object now, as then, is to vindicate the principles 

21 



SONS OF MEN 



of peace and justice in the life of the world as against selfish and 
autocratic power and to set up amongst the really free and self- 
governed peoples of the world such a concert of purpose and of action 
as will henceforth insure the observance of those principles. Neu- 
trality is no longer feasible or desirable where the peace of the world 
is involved and the freedom of its peoples, and the menace to that 
peace and freedom lies in the existence of autocratic governments 
backed by organized force which is controlled wholly by their will, 
not by the will of their people. We have seen the last of neutrality 
in such circumstances. We are at the beginning of an age in which 
it will be insisted that the same standards of conduct and of respon- 
sibility for wrong done shall be observed among nations and their 
governments that are observed among the individual citizens of 
civilized states. 

We have no quarrel with the German people. We have no feeling 
towards them but one of sympathy and friendship. It was not upon 
their impulse that their government acted in entering this war. It 
was not with their previous knowledge or approval. It was a war de- 
termined upon as wars used to be determined upon in the old, un- 
happy days when peoples were nowhere consulted by their rulers and 
wars were provoked and waged in the interest of dynasties or of little 
groups of ambitious men who were accustomed to use their fellow 
men as pawns and tools. Self-governed nations do not fill their 
neighbor states with spies or set the course of intrigue to bring about 
some critical posture of affairs which will give them an opportunity 
to strike and make conquest. Such designs can be successfully worked 
out only under cover and where no one has the right to ask ques- 
tions. Cunningly contribed plans of deception or aggression, car- 
ried, it may be, from generation to generation, can be worked out 
and kept from the light only within the privacy of courts or behind 
the carefully guarded confidences of a narrow and privileged class. 
They are happily impossible where public opinion commands and in- 
sists upon full information concerning all the nation's affairs. 

A steadfast concert for peace can never be maintained except by a 

22 



PRES. WILSON'S ADDRESS TO CONGRESS 



partnership of democratic nations. No autocratic government could 
be trusted to keep faith within it or observe its covenants. It must 
be a league of honor, a partnership of opinion. Intrigue would eat 
its vitals away; the plottings of inner circles who could plan what 
they would and render account to no one would be a corruption 
seated at its very heart. Only free peoples can hold their purpose 
and their honor steady to a common end and prefer the interests of 
mankind to any narrow interest of their own. 

Does not every American feel that assurance has been added to 
our hope for the future peace of the world by the wonderful and 
heartening things that have been happening within the last few 
weeks in Russia? Russia was known by those who knew it best to 
have been always in fact democratic at heart, in all the vital habits 
of her thought, in all the intimate relationships of her people that 
spoke their natural instinct, their habitual attitude towards life. The 
autocracy that crowned the summit of her political structure, long 
as it had stood and terrible as was the reality of its power, was not 
in fact Russian in origin, character ,or purpose; and now it has been 
shaken off and the great, generous Russian people have been added 
in all their naive majesty and might to the forces that are fighting for 
freedom in the world, for justice, and for peace. Here is a fit partner 
for a League of Honor. 

One of the things that has served to convince us that the Prussian 
autocracy was not and could never be our friend is that from the very 
outset of the present war it has filled our unsuspecting communities 
and even our offices of government with spies and set criminal in- 
trigues everywhere afoot against our national unity of counsel, our 
peace within and without, our industries and our commerce. Indeed 
it is now evident that its spies were here even before the war began; 
and it is unhappily not a matter of conjecture but a fact proved in 
our courts of justice that the intrigues which have more than once 
come perilously near to disturbing the peace and dislocating the in- 
dustries of the country have been carried on at the instigation, with 
the support, and even under the personal direction of official agents 

23 



SONS OF MEN 



of the Imperial Government accredited to the Government of the 
United States. Even in checking these things and trying to extir- 
pate them we have sought to put the most generous interpretation 
possible upon them because we knew that their source lay, not in any 
hostile feeling or purpose of the German people towards us (who 
were, no doubt, as ignorant of them as we ourselves were), but only 
in the selfish designs of a Government that did what it pleased and 
told its people nothing. But they have played their part in serving 
to convince us at last that that Government entertains no real friend- 
ship for us and means to act against our peace and security at its 
conveniece. That it means to stir up enemies against us at our very 
doors the intercepted note to the German Minister at Mexico City is 
eloquent evidence. 

We are accepting this challenge of hostile purpose because we 
know that in such a government, following such methods, we can 
never have a friend; and that in the presence of its organized power, 
always lying in wait to accomplish we know not what purpose, there 
can be no assured security for the democratic governments of the 
world. We are now about to accept gauge of battle with this natural 
foe to liberty and shall, if necessary, spend the whole force of the 
nation to check and nullify its pretensions and its power. We are 
glad, now that we see the facts with no veil of false pretense about 
them, to fight thus for the ultimate peace of the world and for the 
liberation of its peoples, the German peoples included: for the rights 
of nations great and small and the privilege of men everywhere to 
choose their way of life and of obedience. The world must be made 
safe for democracy. Its peace must be planted upon the tested foun- 
dations of political liberty. We must have no selfish ends to serve. 
We desire no conquest, no dominion. We seek no indemnities for 
ourselves, no material compensation for the sacrifices we shall freely 
make. We are but one of the champions of the rights of mankind. 
We shall be satisfied when those rights have been made as secure as 
the faith and the freedom of nations can make them. 

Just because we fight without rancor and without selfish object, 

24 



PRES. WILSON'S ADDRESS TO CONGRESS 

seeking nothing for ourselves but what we shall wish to share with 
all free peoples, we shall, I feel confident, conduct our operations as 
belligerents without passion and ourselves observe with proud punc- 
tilio the principles of right and of fair play we profess to be fighting 
for. 

I have said nothing of the governments allied with the Imperial 
Government of Germany because they have not made war upon us or 
challenged us to defend our right and our honor. The Austro-Hun- 
garian Government has, indeed, avowed its unqualified endorsement 
and acceptance of the reckless and lawless submarine warfare adopted 
now without disguise by the Imperial German Government, and it 
has therefore not been possible for this Government to receive Count 
Tarnowski, the Ambassador recently accredited to this Government 
by the Imperial and Royal Government of Austria-Hungary; but that 
Government has not actually engaged in warfare against citizens of 
the United States on the seas, and I take the liberty, for the present 
at least, of postponing a discussion of our relations with the authori- 
ties at Vienna. We enter this war only where we are clearly forced 
into it because there are no other means of defending our rights. 

It will be all the easier for us to conduct ourselves as belligerents 
in a high spirit of right and fairness because we act without animus, 
not in enmity towards a people or with the desire to bring any injury 
or disadvantage upon them, but only in armed opposition to an ir- 
responsible government which has thrown aside all considerations of 
humanity and of right and is running amuck. We are, let me say 
again, the sincere friends of the German people, and shall desire noth- 
ing so much as the early re-establishment of intimate relations of 
mutual advantage between us, — however hard it may be for them, 
for the time being, to believe that this is spoken from our hearts. 
We have borne with their present government through all these 
bitter months because of that friendship, — exercising a patience 
and forbearance which would otherwise have been impossible. We 
shall, happily, still have an opportunity to prove that friendship in 
our daily attitude end actions towards the millions of men and women 

25 



SONS OF MEN 



of German birth and native sympathy who live amongst us and share 
our life, and we shall be proud to prove it towards all who are in fact 
loyal to their neighbors and to the Government in the hour of test. 
They are, most of them, as true and loyal Americans as if they had 
never known any other fealty or allegiance. They will be prompt to 
stand with us in rebuking and restraining the few who may be of a 
different mind and purpose. If there should be disloyalty, it will be 
dealt with with a firm hand of stern repression; but, if it lifts its 
head at all, it will lift it only here and there and without countenance 
except from a lawless and malignant few. 

It is a distressing and oppressive duty. Gentlemen of the Con- 
gress, which I have performed in thus addressing you. There are, 
it may be, many months of fiery trial and sacrifice ahead of us. It 
is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, into 
the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming 
to be in the balance. But the right is more precious than peace, and 
we shall fight for the things which we have always carried nearest 
our hearts, — for democracy, for the right of those who submit to 
authority to have a voice in their own governments, for the rights 
and liberties of small nations, for a universal dominion of right by 
such a concert of free peoples as shall bring peace and safety to all 
nations and make the world itself at last free. To such a task we can 
dedicate our lives and our fortunes, everything that we are and every- 
thing that we have, with the pride of those who know that the day 
has come when America is privileged to spend her blood and her might 
for the principles that gave herbirth and happiness and the peace 
which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other. 



26 



The Gold Stars 



When a deed is done for 
Freedom, through the broad 
Earth's aching breast 
Runs a thrill of joy prophetic, 
Trembling on from east to west. 

— James Russell Lowell. 



SONS OF MEN 




Lloi^d C. 

Ackerman 



The throne of the tyrant 
shall rock and quake, 

And his menace be void 
and vain. 

— Alfred Austin. 



The former Poet-Laureate of England, Alfred Austin, in one of 
his poems sent out an appeal for a stronger friendship between the 
two Anglo-Saxon democracies on both sides of the Atlantic. "Let us 
speak with each other face to face, and answer as man to man," he 
urged. When the chief apostle of the religion of brutal force threat- 
ened the world, America, the traditional home of liberty, united her 
forces with the democratic nations of Europe, that "his menace be 
void and vain." 

One of the American crusaders, a son of Evansville, Lloyd C. 
Ackerman, was born in Rome, Ind., November 7, 1893. He received 
his education in Evansville, and graduated from the eighth grade of 
Columbia school, at the age of fifteen. For a short period he lived at 
Troy, Ind. Returning to this city he was employed by the Dundee 
Woolen Mills, where he worked for two years. 

The life of a soldier had a great fascination for him. At the 
age of eighteen he enlisted in the coast artillery. He renewed his 

28 



GOLD STARS 



period of enlistment, and served at various camps in California, Wash- 
ington and Oregon for seven years. When our country entered the 
world war his term for service had expired, but rather than be drafted 
he again enlisted in November. 1917, at Gettysburg, Pa., in Co. E, 
Fifty-eighth Infantry. Here he met Miss Helen Phyllis Schofield, a 
war worker from Lynn, Mass. The romance culminated in the first 
wedding which ever occurred at Camp Gettysburg. The whole camp 
turned out to witness the ceremony, and the wedding dinner, attended 
by many soldiers and civilians, was served in military style. 

When he was transferred to Charlotte, N. C, he took his bride 
with him. After two months of training he was sent to New York, 
and in February, 1918, he sailed for France. 

A detailed account of his experiences at the front has not been 
obtainable. In his last letter home he said: "War is hell, but at that 
it is not nearly as bad as most people think. I am well. We are really 
enjoying ourselves over here. We have not actually been sent up 
against the Hun, but I sure hope to meet him soon, and do my part." 
In that letter he added that he had not been hearing from his parents, 
and would "love to hear from good old U. S. A." 

About the time this letter came to Evansville, his mother received 
a letter from her other son, Crafton Ackerman, who was in the serv- 
ice at London. "Lloyd is well, I know, mother," he wrote. "Don't 
you worry about him. I'm going over there and surprise him, and say, 
won't his old eyes get big when he sees me?" 

Sgt. Ackerman made the supreme sacrifice July 18, 1918, five 
miles from Chateau-Thierry. The following letter to his wife from 
Captain W. F. Marshall, of Anderson, S. C, gives the circumstances 
of his death, and an appreciation of his heroic service: 

"Your husband. Sergeant Lloyd C. Ackerman, was in my com- 
pany, and was the best sergeant I ever had. I thought a lot of him, 
and was greatly grieved when he was killed. He was right at my side 
when he was killed. We were in a wheat field about five miles north- 
west of Chateau-Thierry, and your husband is buried there. Your 
husband died a hero. He was right in the front line advancing on the 
Germans, when some machine guns opened up on us and killed many 
of our men. Sgt. Ackerman was the best drill sergeant I ever had, 
and was cool under fire. The company and regiment lost a very valu- 
able man when he was killed, and I personally feel it very deeply. I 
cannot speak too highly of him. 

29 



SONS OF MEN 




Ernest Scott 

Atkinson 



First let us rid the world 

of Hun, 
Then half Democracy is 

won. 
— Evening Telegram, 

Toronto. 



"Only yesterday he had performed his duty in the usual jovial 
mood, jollying along with apparently not a care to dampen his sunny 
spirit. It was hard to believe and none could force themselves to 
realize that the prince of good fellows had been called at this stage of 
the game. But he had completed his duty faithfully; he had cast his 
bit into the maelstrom to carry on the fight for democracy, like the 
soldier he was. The flight to the Heavenly plains was his final ac- 
complishment." 

Such was the esteem in which the comrades of Ernest Scott At- 
kinson held him. The sudden death of this "prince of good fellows" 
cast a pervading gloom throughout the post, which overshadowed the 
hearts of his numerous friends. He was born June 2, 1893, in Spen- 
cer County, Indiana. He received his elementary education in this 
county, and for four years attended high school at Richland. His am- 
bition to make good led him to continue his studies and receive a 
higher training for his life career. For six months he took a com- 

30 



GOLD STARS 



mercial course at Valparaiso University. Then he was employed by 
the Republic Iron & Steel Mills of Youngstown, Ohio. 

During the winter of 1917, when America needed men, Ernest 
Atkinson responded. On December 12, 1917, he enlisted at Columbus, 
Ohio, and was sent to Omaha, Neb., for training in the aerial service. 
Five months later he was transferred to a Balloon School at Arcadia, 
Cal., twelve miles from Los Angeles. For seven months he continued 
his training, ingratiating himself with his comrades, making friends 
with everyone he met, proving his good fellowship and leaving with 
them the true impression that they had made a worthy acquaintance. 
Suddenly fate intervened. His career was unexpectedly terminated 
by the colliding of the motorcycle which he was riding with an auto- 
mobile, November 30, 1918. The accident resulted in a fractured 
skull and several broken bones. He lay in a half-conscious condition 
until his death on December 2, 1918. His body was brought to Evans- 
ville, but was buried in Spencer County. 

A close chum of Atkinson, Ralph W. Vroman, said of him: "I was 
not alone as his friend. All who knew him were his friends, and knew 
him as one who was always thoughtful of others, ever standing for 
that which was right, and above all, his' conduct was always that of a 
gentleman." 

A letter from his commanding officer. Max C. Fleischman, said: 
"Chauffeur Atkinson was held in very high regard by all of the mem- 
bers of the Motor Transport Corps with whom he was associated, and 
the floral offering was provided by them as an expression of their 
sentiments. His death was an untimely one and I desire to extend 
my deepest sympathy to his family," 

Another friend, speaking of him said: "His character was beau- 
tiful and one surely to be compared with the best; no discouraging 
elements in his life seemed to mar his sunny and cheerful spirit, Ern- 
est had a smile for everyone, and could often make bright a path that 
once had seemed so dark." 



31 



SONS OF MEN 




John S. 

bdrnes 



Why did I come ? I ask 
not, nor repeat 

Something blazed up in- 
side me, and I went. 
— James B. Fagan. 



John Shrewsbury Barnes was born September 25, 1900, at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. After the death of his mother when he was about five 
years of age John lived with his uncle, Andrew Roy of this city, for 
two years. He returned to Nashville and pursued an educational ca- 
reer with a high degree of success. Being of a studious mind, he 
completed the elementary school and the high school at a much earlier 
age than the average student. For a brief period of time he was also 
a student at the Tennessee University. 

Not only did John Barnes have a keen mind and an aptitude for 
mastering intellectual work, but a highly developed aesthetic nature. 
He loved music. During his school days he learned to play a cornet, 
and while at Nashville he played with different bands and orchestras. 
It was with the purpose of identifying himself with a musical organi- 
zation that he came to Evansville in 1917. 

When America entered the world war and called on her citizens 
for help, John Shrewsbury Barnes, though lacking several years of 
reaching his majority, responded. He tried to enter the navy, but 

32 



GOLD STARS 



was rejected because of small stature. He was only sixteen years of 
age, but realizing the need of the hour, told the recruiting officer that 
he was eighteen years and six months old, and became a member of 
Troop A, under Capt. Norcross of this city. His training in this coun- 
try was received at Hattiesburg, Miss., in 151st Infantry, Headquar- 
ters Company. On June 1, 1917 he landed in France. He was engaged 
in the battles of the Argonne Forest, and was missed October 1, 1918 

An estimate of the fighting in which John Shrewsbury Barnes 
participated may be obtained from General Pershing's official report 
for October 1, 1918, which said: "During the day we advanced our 
lines in the forest of Argonne. Further to the east our patrols have 
passed beyond Cierges and are operating north of that point on the 
road from Exermont to Gesner, maintaining contact with the enemy. 
In the north our troops are advancing with the French and British 
and participating in their success." 

A statement from the French war office for the same day, said. 
"Attacks conducted by the first army in conjunction with the British 
in the region of St. Quentin yesterday, obtained important results. We 
have penetrated St. Quentin as far as the Canal. The enemy resisted 
obstinately." 

On October 12, 1918, John Shrewsbury Barnes was found — dead 
on the field of honor. 



,1^' 



I ..I 



33 



SONS OF MEN 




Oruille 
Brack 



We know your heart for 
Belgium oleeds, 

But speak your soul, de- 
clare your mind, 

Speak till the sin- red ty- 
rant heeds 

The voice of God and all 
mankind. 

— Harold Begbie. 



So England spoke to "The Humanity of America," when we patted 
ourselves on the back for our "splendid isolation" and neutrality. 
When Germany declared that "necessity knows no law," and Europe 
became two military camps, the world said to us, "Speak, O sons of 
Lincoln, speak! Silence in such an hour is crime." America finally 
did speak, and her voice was heard by Orville Brack. He entered the 
struggle that our country might not be ashamed to face the verdict 
of posterity. 

Orville Brack was born in Henderson County, Ky., January 22, 
1895. He attended the public schools of Henderson, but because his 
eyes were weak he was forced to leave school before he graduated. His 
first work was on a farm, but later he was employed at the Epworth 
Mine, at Newburg, Ind. He entered service April 29, 1918. His or- 
ganization at Camp Taylor was Co. D, 337th Infantry. At this Camp 
he only remained two months, and then he was transferred to Camp 
Custer, Battle Creek, Mich. One month later he was sent to Long 
Island, N. Y. In August he crossed the Atlantic to England and soon 
after that he went to France. 

Nothing has been learned of his experiences in France, or the 
circumstances of his death. The laconic message, "Killed in action, 
October 2, 1918," is the official tribute to his heroism 



34 



GOLD STARS 




Thomds A. 

broTPn 



Nor shall your glory be 
forgot, 
While fame her record 
keeps, 
Or Honor points the hal- 
lowed spot 
Where Valor proudly 
sleeps. 
—Theodore O'Hara. 



Thomas A. Brown was a soldier of democracy who did not indulge 
in vivid, extravagant descriptions of his experiences and adventures. 
His letters home gave little information of his army career. However, 
when the occasion to test his courage presented itself, his actions 
proved that he shirked no responsibilities. 

He was born December 14, 1894 at Rochester, Ky. When he was 
twelve years of age he moved with his parents to this city, where he 
attended the Carpenter School. When his school days were over he 
worked in a coal mine at Johnson City, 111., where he was a member 
of Local Union 91. When he returned to Evansville he worked at the 
Spot Cash Grocery for three years. He was then employed by the 
Public Utilities Company as a street car conductor. 

On March 29 ,1918, he entered the service and was sent to Camp 
Taylor. He was assigned to Twenty-eighth Company, Seventh Train- 
ing Battalion, 159th Depot Brigade. On April 28, 1918, he was trans- 
ferred to Camp Gordon, Atlanta Ga. Although he remained but a 
few weeks at this camp, he was made Corporal. Two weeks later he 

35 



SONS OF MEN 



was again promoted and was made sergeant at Anniston, Alabama. 
At this camp he was transferred to the Twenty-ninth Division, 116th 
Infantry Headquarters, Pioneer Platoon. 

Before sailing for France, he was sent to Camp Merritt, N. J., 
June 13, 1918. At this time he wrote home saying that he expected 
to sail within a few days. "Hold a stiff upper lip, and don't be blue 
on account of me," he told his mother. Although he was but ten 
weeks in the service, the numerous experiences and the widening of 
his horizon made him feel as though he had been away from home 
for four years. 

A unit of the 29th Division went over the top October 8, 1918. 
The next morning Sergeant Brown was among those who went out 
on the field in relief of their comrades. He assisted in carrying food 
and ammunition, when a high explosive shell killed him instantly, 
October 9, 1918. 

A comrade of Sergeant Brown, J. Farely, wrote to his mother: 

"He always did his duty as a soldier, and was much beloved by 
his comrades in his platoon and company. But we feel assured that 
he has gone to a better land where we all have to meet again." 




36 



GOLD STARS 




Euerelt 

burdelle 



Death august and royal 
Sings sorrow up into 
immortal spheres. 
There is music in the 
midst of desolation 
And a glory that shines 
upon our tears. 
— Laurence Binyon. 



"In case of need one single man has the right and duty to com- 
pel the whole of mankind." Such was the doctrine of Fichte, the apos- 
tle of German unity. The veneration of the Kaiser before the war 
perpetuated this doctrine and aroused the resistance of most of the 
world. In this opposition Everett Burdette was ready to give his life. 

He was born October 17, 1895, at Fort Branch, Ind. He received 
his education in Evansville at Centennial School. At fifteen he began 
to learn the painter's trade. As this work did not appeal to him, he 
found employment in a grocery, where he remained until he went to 
the army. 

His first training station after he entered the service, September 
15, 1917, was at Camp Taylor. After a sojourn of six months he was 
transferred to Camp Sevier, S. C, where he was assigned to Co. I, 
120th Infantry. Three months later he was ordered to Hoboken, N. 
J. In May, 1918, he crossed the Atlantic to Liverpool and from there 
he went to Calais, France. 

On Sunday morning. September 1, 1918, as Everett Burdette went 



SONS OF MEN 



"over the top" in the battle of Mt. Kemmel, a bursting shell killed him 
instantly. 

The circumstances of Everett's death are described in a letter 
from his brother, Ernest, who was with him at the front at that time. 
The letter follows: 

"Dear Mother: — Long before this letter reaches you, I suppose 
you will have heard of the sad news that Everett lost his life last Sun- 
day morning, September 1. We left the front the second day after 
and this is the first chance I have had to write to you. 

"Of course, it is hard to bear, but you have to expect such things 
in the time of war. I am writing to Ralph today also. 

"We were all in the lines together, but I did not know anything 
about it until he was buried. He was killed by a shell dropping in a 
trench and it was instant death. He did not suffer. He was buried 
with military honors in the Nine Elms cemetery in Belgium. 1 visited 
the grave and made arrangements with the British for a nice cross. 

"The night we went into the trenches he came to me and told me 
good-bye. The last words I said to him were, 'Be a man and fight to 
the last,' and he answered, 'Don't worry; I will.' He died a good sol- 
dier and game to the last. 

"Fifteen minutes after it happened the Huns sure were paid for 
it. There is nothing else to write, only please don't worry about me, 
I am well and all right." 

A certificate signed by Gen. John J. Pershing was sent to his par- 
ents. The certificate is: "In Memory of Everett Burdette," and it 
says : 

"He bravely laid down his life for the cause of his country. His 
name will forever remain fresh in the hearts of his friends and com- 
rades." 






38 



GOLD STARS 




Paul 



Chdmier 



One crowded hour of glor- 
ious life 

Is worth an age without 
a name. 
—Sir Walter Scott. 



Characterizing the service of Paul Chamier, the captain of his 
company said: "Private Chamier was a type of ideal soldier and man. 
Among his comrades he was highly regarded as a young man of char- 
acter and principle, blessed with a gracious and charitable disposition. 
. . . But perhaps his most praiseworthy quality and the best of all to 
be sure, was his marked, unfaltering devotion to duty." 

Paul Chamier was born in Tell City, Ind., October 15, 1894. When 
he was a child of two years his family moved to Evansville. He re- 
ceived his education at Carpenter Street School. Later he learned the 
cigarmakers' trade, and became a member of the Local Union. 

He entered the service October 6, 1917 at Camp Taylor, and was 
assigned to Co. B., 335th Infantry. At this training station he re- 
mained until the end of March, 1918, when he was transferred to Co. 
M, 120th Infantry, Camp Sevier, S. C. Six weeks later he was sent 
to Camp Merritt, and after a sojourn of two weeks he sailed for Eng- 
land on a British cattleship. He landed at Dover, England, and two 

39 



SONS OF MEN 



days later he sailed to Calais, France. Through July and August he 
was in the midst of the fight at Ypres, Belgium. His unit was relieved 
for one week by British troops. During this period he was recuperat- 
ing ten miles in back of the line. When he returned, he was sent two 
miles behind Bellicourt. On September 29 he went "over the top" and 
was killed in action by shrapnel. His body was buried west of Belli- 
court, France, "on a slight eminence near the St. Quentin Canal." His 
grave has been marked with his name and organization. 

Capt. L. F. St. John of the 120th Infantry in a long letter to his 
family described the circumstances of Paul Chamier's death. In part 
the letter stated: 

"Private Chamier made the supreme sacrifice on September 29, 
1918 in what proved to be perhaps the most decisive battle of the year, 
and the most important in which this organization was engaged. His 
death resulted from artillery shell fire and was instantaneous. At this 
time his organization was assaulting the great Hindenburg defenses 
at the St. Quentin Canal, near Bellicourt, France, on the St. Quentin- 
Cambrai front. With other gallant comrades, Pvt. Chamier moved to 
the assault with great courage in the face of determined resistance, 
proving himself a true, loyal soldier. It was such a spirit as this 
young man displayed which permitted such glorious victory in the 
cause of humanity. And through our tears we now realize that such 
noble sacrifices as this have not been in vain. It is sometimes diffi- 
cult to recognize the justice and wisdom of Providence, but with time 
healing the wounds of sorrow, I am sure there will come the full real- 
ization that the Great Commander doth see things well." 




40 



GOLD STARS 




\ 
^ 



Ddn 

Cheanei] 




We first saw fire on the 
tragic slopes, 
Where the flood-tide of 
France's early gain — 
Big with wrecked promise 
and abandoned hope — 
Broke in a surf of blood 
along the Aisne. 
— Allen Seeger, 



The spirit of military service was not new to Dan Cheaney 
when America entered the war. Long before the true significance of 
Prussian militarism was realized by the world, he entered the navy. 
When the call for men came in 1917 he again entered the service and 
followed the American flag to France. 

He was born in this city June 1, 1891. He received his education 
in the Harlan Avenue School and graduated at the age of fifteen. 
In 1909, at the age of seventeen, he joined the navy, and was assigned 
to the battle ship Connecticut. In October 1911 he was transferred 
to U. S. S. Massachusetts. During his career as a bluejacket he had 
the opportunity of seeing different parts of the world, including the 
countries of the Caribbean Sea, France and Germany. 

He liked life in the navy so well, that when he was discharged 
in 1912, he thought of re-enlisting. However, after spending a short 
time with his mother in Evansville, he went to Oklahoma City, and 
obtained employment on the staff of the "Oklahoma News." 

When Cheaney was in the navy he said that if he had a chance to 

41 



SONS OF MEN 



see Europe once more, he would make the most of the opportunity. 
This opportunity was offered him when America called for men to 
serve across the sea. In October, 1917, he enlisted in Co. F, 111th 
Engineers, Thirty-sixth Division, at Fort Worth, Texas. There he re- 
mained until July 17, 1918, when he sailed for France. During the 
several months of his service in Frartce, he sent but few letters which 
gave practically no information of his activities and experiences. As 
he recalled beautiful France basking in rays of sunshine and peace, he 
could scarcely recognize the desolate, battle torn country, "where 
man's red folly has been purged in fire." 

The circumstances of his death have been recorded in a letter 
from Capt. O. L. Welch of Co. F, 111th Engineers, Thirty-sixth Divi- 
sion. The Captain said that Cheaney was killed on or about Novem- 
ber 9, 1918. In part the letter stated: "He and another man from 
my company went up towards the front lines on a souvenir hunting 
expedition and according to the story of Corporal Kuper, who was 
the man who went with him, they went "over the top" with some infan- 
trymen. Cheaney was killed and Kuper was wounded and taken 
prisoner." Investigation has revealed that Kuper's knee was broken 
by a machine-gun bullet. He was captured by the Germans and taken 
to a hospital in Kaiserslautern, Germany. However, on December 5, 
1918, he was released. A report said that Corporal Kuper who prob- 
ably has more information about Cheaney has been sent to a Chicago 
hospital, but an attempt to find him in the various hospitals of Chi- 
cago, has proved futile. 




42 



GOLD STARS 




Clyde Samuel 
Collins 



He faced and fought but 
could not win the 
combat of disease, 
But he is an equal hero 
with his comrades 
o'er the sea. 
— By request of his 
Mother. 



That ambition for military activity is a trait of character in the 
family of Clyde Samuel Collins, may be gleaned from the fact that 
his brother, John Pirtle Collins, enlisted in the navy when he was a 
lad of seventeen, and on board the U. S. S. Arkansas made several 
trips to Cuba, two trips to Panama and a voyage to Italy, where he 
visited Naples and Rome. John's death in 1916, caused by an accident 
after he was honorably discharged from the navy, prevented his ac- 
tive participation in the war with Germany. Clyde heard his brother 
predict that the sinking of the Lusitania would result in our entrance 
in the war. He, too, wanted to experience military life. Especially 
did he want to serve across the sea. His enthusiasm for the service 
and his eagerness to rejoin the fighting ranks when he was weak from 
illness, proved fatal for Clyde Samuel Collins, He was born Novem- 
ber 16, 1896, in Folsomville, Ind., Warrick County. He attended the 
Baker, Chestnut and Harlan Avenue schools. He did not enjoy the 
advantages of a higher education, but he was a voracious reader and 
he possessed a store of information far beyond the attainment of an 

43 



SONS OF MEN 



elementary education. When his school days were over he worked in 
a store, Hercules Buggy Works and at a veneer factory. When he 
entered the service he worked at Philadelphia as air inspector on 
Pullman coaches of the Philadelphia and Reading Railway. 

On February 22, 1918, he entered the service. His mother said, 
"I will always remember this day, Washington's Birthday, as the day 
my youngest son went forth to serve his country." He served in Co. 
C, Sixth Field Battalion, Signal Corps, at Ft. Leavenworth, Kans. His 
military career, however, was terminated by a fatal malady, the Span- 
ish Influenza. Fearing that his battalion which was preparing to go 
to France, would leave without him, he left the hospital before he 
completely regained his strength and consequently suffered a relapse. 
Pneumonia developed, and about noon of April 1 1, 1918, he died at the 
post hospital. He was given a military funeral at Leavenworth before 
his body was brought to Evansville two days later. He was buried 
in Oak Hill Cemetery. 

A letter from his captain, F. O. Ludlow, speaks of his brave fight 
with the disease which finally overpowered him: 

"Private Collins was an excellent soldier who was universally 
liked by his officers and fellow soldiers, and his death is a genuine 
sorrow to us all. During his illness at the post hospital the surgeons 
and his nurses reported that he was making a gallant fight for his 
life against the disease. We feel that his memory is to be honored 
just as truly as will be those who die fighting in the trenches in France 
in the service of their Country." 

(Signed) Captain F. O. LUDLOW. 

He was in the army but a short time, but there is another testi- 
monial of his worth. A letter from Major Donald B. Sanger to his 
mother characterized his service and the keen loss his organization felt 
when he died. The letter said: 

"I realize that words are futile; yet I want you to know of the 
high standing your boy, Clyde Collins, held among his fellows in the 
battalion. Although he was with us but a short time; yet, even short 
as it was, it was sufficient for us to know his worth, and that but for 
the call of a Higher Duty he would have been one of our best men. 

"In his passing, my dear Mrs. Collins, I want you to know that 
his service to his country and to the great cause for which we are 
fighting was just as glorious, just as big a thing as if he had died on 
the field of battle in France. His work will go on and his death is to 
us an inspiration. May God comfort you in your loss and ease your 
sorrow with the knowledge that your son comes to Him with clean 
hands, a worthy soldier." 

44 



GOLD STARS 




Elipood Diqbi] 
Collon 



The difficulty, my friends, 
is not in 

Avoiding death, but in 
avoiding unrighteous- 
ness. 

—Plato. 



During the heat of the conflict many opportunities presented 
themselves of escaping death, or at least undue exposure, by a slight 
flinching from danger. Ellwood Digby Colton, however, not only 
did his duty faithfully, but in a beautiful spirit of self-sacrifice and al- 
truism faced danger while helping those who were in distress. 

He was born March 10, 1897. When he completed his primary 
education at the Harlan Avenue School, he attended the local high 
school for two years. After leaving school he was employed by the 
Fischer Bros. Grocery. Later he accepted a position with the Rum- 
ford Baking Powder Co., of Chicago. In July, 1916, he returned home 
and two months later he enlisted in the army. In October he was sent 
to Jefferson Barracks, and on November 3, 1916, he was transferred 
to Ft. Barrancas, Florida, where he wrs assigned to the Medical De- 
partment of the Post Hospital. In July, 1917, he was transferred to 
the Regimental Infirmary, Fifty-sixth Infantry, Chattanooga, Tenn. In 
September, 1917, he was assigned to an Ambulance Company at Camp 
Greenleaf. In February, 1918, he was transferred to Fort Caswell, 

45 



SONS OF MEN 




Grave of Elwood Digby Colton in the 

American Military Cemetery 

France 



46 



GOLD STARS 



N. C. In May he was sent to Camp Mills, and was assigned to the 
anti-aircraft service. 

On June 10, 1918, Colton sailed for France, and arrived at Brest 
ten days later. A few days later he went to Langres where he re- 
mained but two days. After a visit to Paris, he received a special 
course of training near St, Denis. On August 25, 1918, he left for 
the front. His battery was divided into two sections. He went to 
Pont-a-Mousson. His spirit of self sacrifice prompted him to go back 
to the hospital at St. Julian to see the wounded boys, and give them 
all the help he could. For this altruistic spirit the boys were proud 
of him. The trip from Friancourt to Verdun lasted four days and 
nights. Many of his comrades suffered from the Spanish Influenza. 
Colton ministered to their wants, and further endeared himself in 
their hearts. 

His unselfishness ultimately proved fatal to him. As a victim of 
the Spanish Influenza he was brought to Base Hospital No. 18 at 
Bazoilles. The epidemic developed into broncho-pneumonia. For the 
last two days oxygen was used, but he did not recover. He died Oc- 
tober 24, 1918. Two days later he was buried in the American Mili- 
tary Cemetery No. 6, Bazoilles-sur-Meuse, Department of Vosges. The 
grave is situated on a slope between the woods and the Meuse River. 

Many tributes were paid to his heroism by men with whom he 
came in contact during his long experience in service. Comrade Alli- 
son of Hendersonville, N. C, said of him: "He died a brave and true 
soldier and comrade." A letter from Captain Ladd said: "Private 
Colton was attached to my battery as medical attendant, and was one 
of my most faithful and dependable men. He came to his death 
through exposure in attending his sick comrades." 






47 



SONS OF MEN 




John Arthur 

Crofts 



The rank is but the 
guinea's stamp — 

The man's the gowd for 
a' that. 

— Robert Burns. 



The life of John Arthur Crofts illustrates the truism that it is not 
the rank, uniform or military ceremonies, but genuine, sterling char- 
acter and innate heroism which makes the true soldier. He fought 
during the war with a heroism that attracted the official notice of 
three of the Allied nations. When the war was over he again proved 
himself a typical American. He put aside the uniform, and incon- 
spicuously resumed the activities of a civilian. 

John Arthur Crofts was born in Evansville, April 6, 1894. When 
his school days were over he worked for his father on a farm. Before 
entering the service he worked for the Laib Company and for the 
Wells-Fargo Express Company. On September 20, 1917, he entered 
service and was sent to Camp Taylor. There he was assigned to Com- 
pany I, 335th Infantry, and spent the winter in training and prepar- 
ing himself for the emergencies which he later met on the battlefield. 
On March 29, 1918, he was transferred to Camp Sevier, S. C, where 
he remained until May 8. Four days later he embarked at Boston on 
the Bohemian for overseas service. He landed at Liverpool, England, 
and on the following day, May 28, 1918, he went to Calais, France. 

During that summer the Allied forces not only checked the as- 



48 



GOLD STARS 



sault of the enemy, but launched a military offensive which crum- 
bled the strong Hindenburg Line. Crofts served in the St. Quentin 
sector. "Amid the hail of Germ.an fire at Bellicourt, France, Crofts 
and a companion worked on the battlefield carrying a wounded corn- 
rade. A machine gun bullet plowed through his arm. Crofts sought 
the attention of a first aid station and his wound was temporarily 
bandaged. He promptly returned and continued his work for thirty- 
six hours with no further medical attention." 

As a reward for his heroism, Private Crofts received the Distin- 
guished Service Cross, one of the highest medals awarded by the 
United States Government. Private Crofts' family received the fol- 
lowing letter of citation: 
"A. E. F., U. S. A., Distinguished Service Cross Citation: 

"Private John A. Crofts, Company C, 120th Infantry, distin- 
guished himself by extraordinary heroism in connection with mili- 
tary operations against an armed enemy of the United States at Belli- 
court, France, on September 29, 1918, and in recognition of his gal- 
lant conduct I have awarded him, in the name of the President, the 
Distinguished Service Cross, awarded on December 14, 1918." 

JOHN J. PERSHING, 
Commander-in-Chief. 

The American general was not the only one to cite Crofts for 
bravery. The following citation, accompanied by a Croix de Guerre, 
is from Marshal Petain, commander of the French Armies of the 
East: 

"With the approbation of the commander-in-chief of the A. E. F. 
in France, the marshal of France, commander-in-chief of the French 
Armies of the East, cites in order of the army corps. Private Crofts, 
Company C, 120th United States Infantry. When seriously wounded 
in the arm and no longer able to perform his duties as stretcher- 
bearer, although ordered to the rear, he nevertheless continued to 
care for the wounded who were able to walk, remaining at his post 
for a day and night under violent shell fire." 

A comrade of his, Mr. Frank Keller of Owensboro, Ky., states 
that Crofts was wounded in the foot about October 9, 1918, and a 
short time later he suffered from a gas attack which later caused his 
death. As an additional reward for his bravery, a British Military 
Medal was forwarded to his wife by Adjt. Gen. P. C. Harris. 

In January, 1919, he returned to America on the Louisville, and 
disembarked at New York. On January 28, 1919, after an active, 
honorable career in the service of his country, he received his dis- 
charge at Camp Taylor. He was employed by the American Express 
Company. As a result of his wounds, and especially the gas attack, 
he fell ill the next summer. On July 5, 1919, John A. Crofts, modest 
hero, brave Yank soldier, honored by the three great Allied nations, 
died at his home on Kratzville Road. 

49 



SONS OF MEN 




Oscar 

Dannenberq 



Yes, the task that is given 
to each man, 
No other can do, 
So the errand is waiting; 
it has waited 
Through ages for you. 
— Edwin Markham. 



The growing tolerance of the American spirit and the emphasis 
on material influences of life have resulted in a general increasing 
indifference to theological discussion and forms of religion. This 
tendency had no influence on Oscar Dannenberg. He combined the 
loftiest national ideals with a religious and spiritual vision. 

Oscar Dannenberg was born in Evansville, May 31, 1894. He re- 
ceived his primary education at the Centennial public school, and 
the First Avenue Lutheran School. As a boy of thirteen he heard a 
call for the pulpit. He attended a seminary at Woodville, Ohio, for 
his secondary education and to prepare himself for the ministry. 
However, a year later he altered his career. After he returned home 
he worked in a furniture factory for a short time, and then was em- 
ployed by the F. W. Cook Brewing Company. He held a position as 
a shipping clerk in this firm for five years. During this time he was 
a member of the First Avenue Lutheran Church, and Moose Lodge. 

Oscar entered service August 30, 1918. Two of his brothers had 
been rejected. He was, therefore, the only boy of the family with 
the colors. He was assigned to the 40th Field Artillery, Battery C, at 
Camp Custer. The omnipresent epidemic, the Spanish Influenza, 
claimed him as a victim, after six weeks of training. His parents vis- 
ited him, and did their utmost for his recovery, but after ten days of 
illness the disease proved fatal. He died October 14, 1918. A com- 
rade, Clyde Byrd, accompsnied the body to Evansville. He was buried 
in Locust Hill Cemetery. 50 



GOLD STARS 




tiermdn 

Ddum 



How sleep the brave who 

sink to rest 
By all their country's 

wishes blest. 

— W. Collins. 



Herman Daum's military career was terminated by a fatal epi- 
demic. His aim was to help crush the arrogance of the German Em- 
pire. He realized that: 

"We fight the fight of freedom 

For every suffering one, 
We fight the fight of justice 

Till pride shall be undone." 

He was born in Evansville, October 26, 1889. He attended a coun- 
try school in Posey County, and was later engaged in railroad work, 
as a fireman on the L. & N. Railroad, between Nashville and Paris 
Tenn. He left this employment because he wanted to join the union, 
and for a year he worked on a farm in Illinois. In 1916 he went West. 
He found work on a ranch in Jones County, Iowa. 

On February 21, 1918, he entered the service at Camp Dodge, 
Iowa, He was assigned to Company G, 351st Infantry. It was only 
four weeks later that he contracted the Spanish Influenza. He died 
at the Base Hospital, March 21, 1918. Capt. Arthur Ernley of the 
351st Infantry said that death came as a result of "extreme secondary 
anemia complicated by broncho-pneumonia." The body was laid to 
rest in St. John's Cemetery. 



51 



SONS OF MEN 




John 



Debold 



He lives, he wakes — 
'Tis Death is dead, not he. 
—P. B. Shelley. 



"An excellent soldier in every respect" is the description of John 
Debold by one of his officers, Lieutenant Parkhurst. John Debold 
was born in this city December 10, 1893. He attended Carpenter 
School, and later worked for the Evansville Sand & Gravel Company. 

On June 25, 1918, he entered the service and was sent to Camp 
Sherman, Ohio, where he was assigned to Pioneer Platoon, Headquar- 
ters Company, 334th Infantry, 84th Division. On August 22 he went 
to Camp Mills, N. Y., and on the second day of September he sailed 
for France. He arrived in France September 13, 1918. On October 
9 he developed a mild case of influenza and went to the infirmary. For 
a time he improved and was in best of spirits, even expecting to re- 
turn to his organization, but on October 25 he suffered a relapse and 
died in Base Hospital 78, at Chateau LaRoche, Razac-sur-l'Isle, Dor- 
dogne, France, about a mile from Ragar, the headquarters of the 334th 
Infantry. He was buried five and a half miles from La Roche, in an 
American cemetery No. 87, grave No. 528, at Perigeux. 

Chaplain W. E. McPheeters wrote the following to his mother: 

52 



GOLD STARS 



"He was a member of Headquarters Company, 334th Infantry, 
my regiment, and when he became ill and was removed to the camp 
hospital I visited him and talked with him. He was very ill and while 
I encouraged him to make a stiff fight for life, which he did, I saw 
that he appreciated the seriousness of his condition and asked him 
if he had anything he wished to say. He expressed himself as ready 
to die, if necessary, and that he had made his peace with his God. 

"Pneumonia had followed influenza, and it was this disease which 
caused his death, October 25. He had every possible care at the hos- 
pital, but nothing could stay the disease." 

John Debold was a first-class private, "He was very popular 
with the other men of the company; also, he was the best drilled, 
best disciplined and the most intelligent soldier of the platoon. He 
had been recommended for promotion," one of his "buddies" wrote. 

Lieut. J. L. Dowson wrote the following to his mother: I am in 
the Red Cross work, and have to deal with cases of this sort, and I 
can assure you that my experience is that in every case our workers 
do their utmost to satisfy the friends of the dear boys who lay down 
their lives in their country's service. In the little cemetery near this 
hospital lie no less than 700 such boys, and it is heart-breaking to 
think of the bereaved homes in America where loving mothers mourn 
the loss of their sons. These sacrifices cannot have been in vain, and 
sometime they and you bereaved mothers will receive your reward. 
God reigns yet, and some day we shall understand the why and the 
wherefore of these mysterious providences. In these hospitals doc- 
tors and nurses are indefatigable in their efforts to save the boys, and 
their kindness and sympathy are all that could be desired. There is 
no doubt therefore that your boy had the very best care, and you 
must not fret about that part of it . . . . 

"Be patient and hopeful in the meantime, and in your grief do 
not forget that God has your dear boy in His safe keeping until that 
time comes when you shall meet again where 'sorrow and sighing are 
no more.' God bless you and keep you." 




53 



SONS OF MEN 




Oruille 

Demick 



For to dream and to dare 

Is the only life, 

And to dream and to dare 

and to die 
Is the only resurrection. 
— Witter Bynner. 



Orville Demick was born in Gibson County, Ind., June 4, 1900. 
When he was a child the family moved to Summerville, Ind., where 
he attended school. In Evansville Orville Demick worked for the Cook 
Brewing Co., and I. A. Thiele Co. 

Although he was but a lad of seventeen he was among the first 
to volunteer when America went into war. He entered the service 
April 12, 1917, in Troop A, First Indiana Cavalry, which was recruited 
by Capt. Orion Norcross. He was one of the six men chosen for the 
field artillery and was sent to Ft. Benjamin Harrison, Indianapolis, 
for a special course of training. He was assigned to 150th Field Ar- 
tillery, Headquarters Company, Indiana's unit in the Rainbow Divi- 
sion. From Camp Mills, Long Island, N. Y., he sailed for France in 
November 1917. Practically no information has been received con- 
cerning his individual experiences at the front. He went through the 
various activities of the Rainbow Division throughout the war, fought, 
and saw the glorious day of the Armistice. 

When the fighting ceased he was in the army of occupation in 
Germany. On February 8, 1919, his mother received a letter sent 



GOLD STARS 



January 13 from Rheinland, Germany. "We are having fine weather," 
he said, "just like summer the year round. I expect to be home soon." 
In another letter sent January 5, he seemed to be full of optimism and 
good health and telling his mother not to worry. He said, "I had a 
fine Christmas dinner, but would rather have been at home with 
you." At this time he became ill and contracted pneumonia. On 
Feb. 3, 1919, he died at the Evacuation Hospital No. 2, Coblenz, Ger- 
many. His body now lies in the American military cemetery of that 
city. 

Chaplain U. B. Nash of the 150th Field Artillery wrote the fol- 
lowing to his mother: 

"It is especially tragic that after coming safely through the cam- 
paigns of last year, your son should have fallen a victim to disease, 
the same which caused so many deaths at home as well as in the army 
last fall. You will be relieved to know that your son's illness was of 
short duration. 

"I sincerely trust that in your sorrow you are strengthened by 
the comfort of God's presence, and by the realization that your son's 
life so tragically cut short was given in the great cause now crowned 
with victory." 

Col. Robert H. Tyndall of the 150th Field Artillery wrote to his 
mother: 

"Allow me at this time to express my deep and most sincere sym- 
pathy for the great loss that you have suffered at this time in the 
death of your son, Orville. 

"He was admired and respected by all of his officers and com- 
rades, and his company realizes the loss of such a man, not only to 
our organization, but to his country. 

"You, as his Mother, have made the greatest sacrifice that a 
Mother can make, but no doubt you feel great pride in knowing that 
your son died in fighting civilization's common enemy." 






55 



SONS OF MEN 




Isddore 

Drucker 



Yes, he is gone, there is 
the message, see! 

Slain by a Prussian bul- 
let as he led 

The men that loved him — 
dying, cheered them 
on. 
— Lord Burghclere. 



In the book, "The American Army in the European Conflict," 
two French officers, Col. De Chambrun and Capt. De Marenches, de- 
scribe the kind of fighting in which Isadore Drucker participated 
when he made the supreme sacrifice. A regiment was surrounded by 
an enemy superior in number. The officers and men refused to sur- 
render. The French officers relate, "After four days of resistance 
and privations during which their own airplanes succeeded in drop- 
ping a few loaves of bread, but during which a rain of bullets and 
shells came from enemy direction and caused heavy losses, this hand- 
ful of brave troops succeeded in maintaining their position until their 
comrades forced a passage to their relief." 

Isadore Drucker was born in Carmi, 111., August 6, 1891. When 
he was a child the family moved to Shawneetown, 111., where he at- 
tended the public schools and the high school until his senior year. 
He engaged in business with his father, and remained there when 
the family moved to Evansville. In May, 1918, he entered the service 
and was sent to Camp Gordon where he was assigned to Co. F, 28th 
Infantry. In July he sailed for France from New York. He was en- 
gaged in action on the Meuse River. As his organization was advanc- 
ing west of the Meuse, Sergeant Drucker received a wound from a 
machine gun bullet, and died October 10, 1918, in Base Hospital No. 
18. 

56 



GOLD STARS 




lUesleg 

EdiPdrds 



On our faithful, chival- 
rous endeavor 

Victory's full-orbed sun at 
last shall glow. 
— Alfred P. Graves 



One account of the battle of Chateau-Thierry says that when 
the German army had made great preparations for a drive on Paris 
and had beaten back the French for miles, the Marines came to the 
rescue. There were only 8,000 Marines against 30,000 picked German 
troops. Victory crowned their efforts. This was the fighting caliber 
that attracted Wesley Edwards. 

He was born at Talahoma, Tenn., November 12, 1897. When he 
was still an infant the family moved to Spencer County, Indiana. 
Wesley came to Evansville when he was three years old. In this city 
he attended the Fulton and Delaware Schools. He worked in a furni-, 
ture factory in Evansville, and then went to New Albany and Prince- 
ton, Indiana. When he returned home he was employed by the Her- 
cules Buggy Works. 

On August 6, 1917, he enlisted in the Marine Corps. He was 
sent to Paris Island, S. C. Three months later he was sent to Quan- 
tico, Va. In September, 1918, he contracted the Spanish Influenza 
which later developed into pneumonia. He was sick for nine days, 
and on September 25, 1918, he succumbed. His body was buried in 
the family lot at Midway, Indiana. 

57 



SONS OF MEN 




Russell 

Fenn 



Think of him still as the 

same, I say; 
He is not dead — he is just 

away. 

— James Whitcomb 
Riley. 



Russell Fenn was born in Hardinsburg, Ky., June 24, 1896. He 
was educated in the Hardinsburg Public School, and also attended 
school at St. Romnald's Academy in the same town. For a number of 
years he worked on a farm in Kentucky, and at Mt. Vernon, Ind. At 
the age of nineteen he moved to Evansville with his parents. He 
was engaged as a packer by the Evansville Packing Co. where he 
worked during 1917. During the summer of 1918 he went to Fireco, 
W. Va., where he was employed as an operator of an engine on con- 
struction work, by his brothers, J. E. and S. L. Fenn. 

In September, 1918, he entered service at Beckley, W. Va. He 
was sent to Camp Lee, Petersburg, Va., at the replacement and train- 
ing camp. After one month's training in the Fourth Battalion, In- 
fantry Co. A, he fell a victim to the Spanish Influenza. He was ill for 
three days when the epidemic proved fatal. He died October 1, 1918. 
His body was sent to his parents, and five days lafer he was buried 
in Oak Hill Cemetery with full military honors. 

His pleasing personality and kindly disposition gained him many 
friends wherever he was known. He was a member of the Method- 
ist Church and Methodist Sunday School at Hardinsburg, Ky. In 
Evansville he was a member of the Ben Hur Lodge. 

58 



GOLD STARS 




Lester 

Fisher 



The ideal life is in our 
blood, and never will 
be still 

We feel the thing we 
ought to be beating 
beneath the thing we 
are. 
— Phillips Brooks. 



In characterizing the American business man, Clayton S. Cooper 
who wrote "American Ideals", said: 

"Strange as it may seem, it is in the person of the American 
business man, practical, level-headed, all business, that this current 
of the ideal is clearly, often most clearly seen. His big-heartedness 
is often in proportion to his blunt directness. Get a bit below the 
surface and you will find frequently a nature steeped in sentiment." 

Lester Fisher was the type of business man whose idealism as- 
serted itself when his country was in distress. He was born in Hunt- 
ingburg, Ind., January 1, 1897. When he was five years old, the fam- 
ily moved to Evansville. Here he attended Centennial School, and 
upon the completion of his work, he began to learn the plumbing 
trade, but soon took up a business course at Draughon-Porter Busi- 
ness College. At the age of nineteen he opened a cigar factory on 
the North Side, gaining a reputation as the youngest manufacturer 
in the city. On June 8, 1918, he closed his business to enter the ser- 
vice of his country. He enlisted in the navy, and went to the Great 
Lakes Training Station. 

He was there only a few weeks when he fell a victim to the Span- 
ish Influenza. His father went to see him, but the rigid enforcement 
of the quarantine enabled him to see his boy but a short time. Fisher 
died September 27, 1918, and was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery. 

59 



SONS OF MEN 




Chdrles 

Fldck 



I was ever a fighter, so- 
One fight more, 
The last and the best. 
— Robert Browning. 



As Charles Flack lay on the battlefield through the night, and 
his life's blood was oozing from his limbs, his thought was: "Death 
may engulf me in eternal darkness — still I have no regret or pain." 
He felt the assurance that he was with those who yearned for liberty. 
He knew that should he fall before despotism was crushed, he would 
be recalled with tenderness and reverence. 

Charles Flack was born March 22, 1896, at Stanley, Warrick 
County, Indiana. He came to Evansville when he was five years old, 
and went to school in this city for three years. His education was 
completed at Stanley, where he lived with his grandfather. For about 
six months he worked in the L. & N. shops. He left this work to go 
on a farm with the purpose of improving his health. While he was 
in Evansville he became a member of the Woodmen of the World 
Lodge. 

When Charles Flack heard the call for service, he was by no 
means vigorous and not even in normal'health. He had suffered from 
an attack of the grip, and was under the care of a doctor until two 
weeks before his enlistment. On October 4, 1917, he entered the serv- 



60 



GOLD STARS 



ice and was sent to Camp Taylor. At this camp he was assigned to Co. 
A. 335th Infantry. On Good Friday, 1918, he was transferred to Co. 

1, 119th Infantry, Camp Sevier, S. C. Six weeks later, May 12, 1918, 
he sailed from Boston, Mass., and on May 29 he arrived in France. It 
was eight weeks before his family heard from him. 

The official telegram said that he "was killed in action," August 

2, 1918 at Ypres, Belgium, on the British front. However, a return- 
ing comrade has given his mother numerous details of his death. Ac- 
cording to that account, Charles Flack was stationed as a guard of 
guns at Ypres, while the company went out on a night sniping trip. 
A German shell burst, killing one of his comrades instantly, and 
blowing off Charles Flack's foot. A comrade tried to get first aid, 
but he came too late. He was not rescued. For six hours of the 
night he lay on the battlefield gradually bleeding to death. He was 
buried in Ypres, in cemetery No. 439. All of his personal effects have 
been returned to his mother. 

Lieut.-Colonel, Charles C. Pierce, Q. M. C. in a letter to his 
mother said: "You will be comforted to know that his body has been 
recovered and that it lies buried in a place which for military reasons 
cannot at this moment be disclosed. You need have no fear, how- 
ever, that there will be any danger of the loss of this location, or the 
record of interment." 




61 



SONS OF MEN 






f 



James T. 
Foley 



On Fame's eternal camp- 
ing ground 
Their silent tents are 
spread, 
And Glory guards, with 
solemn round. 
The bivauc of the dead 
—Theodore O'Hara. 



"The foremost among the nations will be that one which by its 
conduct, shall gradually engender in the minds of the others a fixed 
belief that it is just." This sentiment is by Gladstone, the outstanding 
English statesman of the nineteenth century who fought for liberal- 
ism. There is a scant record of the efforts of James T. Foley to show 
the world the American belief in justice. He did not desire an out- 
ward show of his bravery, but his fame will remain in the hearts of 
posterity, "greater than all the tombs of ancient kings." 

James T. Foley was born January 4, 1895. He attended Carpen- 
ter Street School, and later became a machinist for the L. & N. Rail- 
road at Howell. On June 24, 1918, he entered service. At Camp Sher- 
man he was assigned to Co. C, 336th Infantry, 84th Division. He 
sailed for England September 3, 1918. From England he went to 
France and later to Belgium. At this time he was transferred to Co. 
B, 347th Machine Gun Battalion, 91st Division. 

On the afternoon of November 2, 1918, James Foley was in an 
attack on the enemy at Avdendrode, Belgium. The American heroes 
were advancing under heavy shell fire from across the Scheldt River. 
During a pause in the advance a shell exploded close to Foley. He 
suffered a compound fracture of the right leg. He was sent to the 
first station at the rear ,and then to the Evacuation Hospital No. 
5. In spite of all surgical science could do he died of the effects 
of his wounds, November 10, 1918. He was buried four miles north- 
west of Roulers, Belgium. (i2 



GOLD STARS 




lUdlter Henri] 

Folz 



I.6t Liberty arise, 
lie)- glory fill the skies, 
The World be free! 
— Gammond Kennedy. 



Walter Henry Folz was only a lad with cheerful laughter and 
friendliness of youth, when he realized the crisis America was facing. 
In spite of his youth, he undertook the task of a man, and volunteered 
his services to his country before war with Germany was officially de- 
clared. 

He was born May 20, 1898. Until he was fourteen he attended 
Rural School No. 1. When he left school he worked in a grocery for 
several months. He also worked for a year in St. Mary's Hospital as 
a male nurse. 

Although he was not of age he realized the need of his country, 
and responded to her call. On March 14, 1917, he enlisted. He was 
sent to Great Lakes Training Station, April 30, 1917. It wrs not quite 
a month from the time he left home, when he fell ill with the Spanish 
Influenza. His illness lasted but one night. Death came on May 2.5, 
1917. His body was sent to Evansville and buried in St. Joseph 
Cemetery. 



63 



SONS OF MEN 




Albert Craig 
Funkhouser 



He had secured to himself 
a glory which must 
be as durable as the 
world itself. 
— Washington Irving. 



Albert Craig Funkhouser was born March 23, 1893, at Leaven- 
worth, Indiana. He received his elementary education in this city and 
in 1908 he entered the local high school. In 1912 he graduated and 
entered De Pauw University where he studied until 1914. While in 
college he was a member of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity, Indiana 
Zeta Chapter. In Indianapolis he was identified with the Columbia 
Club, and in Evansville he belonged to the Bayard Park M. E. Church, 
and the Country Club. In 1914 he was admitted to the Vanderburgh 
County Bar. His popularity in this city gained him a nomination for 
representative to the Indiana General Assembly in 1915. He led the 
Republican ticket in the election by several hundred votes. 

He applied for admission to the Signal Corps, Aviation School, 
Jacksonville, Florida, on April 17, 1917, and to the first Officers' 
Training Camp, Ft. Harrison, April 25, 1917. On June 2, 1917 he vol- 
unteered as Sergeant Chauffeur, Quartermaster's Corps, at Louisville, 
Ky. He was sent to Ft. Harrison September 26, 1917, and was as- 
signed to Motor Truck Company 134. Later he was transferred to 

64 



GOLD STARS 



Motor Truck Company 352. He went to Camp Bowie, Ft. Worth, 
Texas, October, 1917. 

He was admitted to the Third Officers' Training School at Camp 
Bowie, January 5, 1918, and graduated April 19, 1918. Upon the com- 
pletion of his training he was assigned to Co. K, 142nd Infantry, as 
sergeant. He was commissioned as second lieutenant in the National 
Army, May 18, 1918, and was assigned to Co. B, 114th Infantry, 36th 
Division (Texas and Oklahoma National Guards). He was assigned to 
Co. F, 144th Infantry, September 25, 1918. 

At Camp Mills, Long Island, New York, he embarked for France, 
July 17, 1918, on the U. S. S. George Washington. He arrived at 
Brest, France, July 29, 1918 and was admitted to the First Corps 
Training School at Gondrecourt, France, August 26, 1918. He grad- 
uated September 21, 1918 and rejoined his comrades of Company F, 
I44th Infantry. On October 27, 1918, he was promoted to the rank 
of first lieutenant. 

His division (36th) was brigaded with the Fourth French Army, 
(General Gouraud), and was engaged in the great Champagne ad- 
vance from October 6 to October 28, 1918. 

Moving from the front the Division reached Conde-en-Barrois 
Area on November 3, as a part of the Armies Reserves of the First 
American Army. From this area the Division moved, November 18, to 
the sixteenth training area, Tonnerre, Yonne. Company F was located 
at Rugny. 

On the eighteenth day of October, 1918, the Division was cited by 
General Gaulin (Corps Commander) as follows: 

"The 36th Division of recent formation, and as yet incompletely 
organized was ordered on the night of October 6 and 7 to relieve, un- 
der conditions particularly delicate, the Second American Division, 
to dislodge the enemy from the crests north of St. Etienne and the 
Arnes, and throw him back to the Aisne. Although being under fire 
for the first time, the young soldiers of General Smith, rivaling in 
their combative spirit and tenacity the old and valiant regiments of 
General Lejeune, have accomplished their mission in its entirety. All 
may be proud of the task they accomplished. To all the General com- 
manding the army corps is happy to address the most cordial expres- 
sion of his recognition and his best wishes for their future service. 
The past is proof of the future." 

Lieutenant Funkhouser was wounded in the right knee and in the 
right hand in this engagement, but continued in action. He was 

65 



SONS OF MEN 



awarded the Croix de Guerre by the French Republic, for gallantry. 
On the twenty-second of November, 1918, he was appointed Acting 
Town Major for Companies E and F, Daillancourt, France. 

On May 25, 1919, he embarked at Brest, France, in charge of 
Casual Company 875, and landed at Newport News, Virginia, June 9, 
1919. In addition to the wounds already mentioned he had been 
gassed. On his return to America, while his lungs were still weak, he 
contracted lobar pneumonia, which finally proved fatal to him June 
15, 1919. Throughout this time he bore his wounds and suffering with 
fortitude, never intimating his true condition to his family. To his 
college chum, Lynn McCurdy, who knew of his wounds, he wrote, "I 
have only one favor to ask of you, Lynn, don't tell my parents." 

Hundreds of people came to the military funeral June 19, 1919, 
and paid a tribute to Albert Funkhouser which was worthy of his 
noble sacrifice. He was buried from Bayard Park M. E. Church in 
Oak Hill Cemetery. 

The gallant service of his brother, Paul, had excited the admira- 
tion of Evansville. When the real cause of Albert's death became 
known, when it was realized that not only did he acquit himself hon- 
orably on the battlefied but suppressed his pains so as to cause no 
anxiety, the American Legion honored the memory of the two broth- 
ers and named the local organization, Funkhouser Post. 




'^^iJS* 



66 



GOLD STARS 




Paul Taylor 
Funkhouser 



The noise of the mallet 
and chisel is scarcely 
(juenched, the trumpets 
are hardly done blowing, 
when trailing with him 
clouds of glory, this happy 
starred, full blooded spir- 
it shoots into the spiritual 
land. — R. L. Stevenson. 



In one of his essays, Stevenson tells us, "We do not, properly 
speaking, love life at all, but living." The ancient Greeks must have 
had this in mind when they said that those whom the gods love die 
young. An active career, dedicated to a worthy cause, though term- 
inated by death, is of more value to mankind than a prolonged exis- 
tence of sluggishness, spent in the contemplation that "our life is 
of such stuff as dreams are made on." The career of Paul Taylor 
Funkhouser illustrates a life so filled with activity, that it does not 
have leisure to entertain fear of death. 

He was born on February 21, 1895 in Leavenworth, Indiana. Hav- 
ing completed the Chandler, now Stanley Hall School, he entered the 
Evansville High School in 1911. He was a star football player 
throughout his High School career. He attended Northwestern Uni- 
versity in 1915-1916. In 1916 he entered the law department of In- 
diana University. While at Bloomington he became a member of the 
Phi Delta Theta Fraternity, and was president of the Pan-Hellenic 
Club of the University. 

When the call to arms was sounded. Paul Funkhouser entered the 



SONS OF MEN 



First Officers' Training Camp, at Fort Benjamin Harrison. May 12, 
1917. He was a member of the 8th Co., 9th Provisional Regiment. 
On August 15, 1917, he received a commission as 2nd Lieutenant in 
Infantry Officers' Reserve Corps, and on August 27, 1917 he was as- 
signed to Company C, 59th U. S. Infantry, at Gettysburg, Pa. 

In his preparation for service in France, Lieut. Funkhouser was 
often chosen for special training at various camps. He was selected 
on September 28th, 1917, by Col. Atkinson, to undergo a special thirty 
days course, of training in musketry. 

He was selected as a member of Special Court Martial at Gettys- 
burg. His division was moved November 8, 1917 to Camp Greene, 
Charlotte, N. C. By Special Order No. 43, December 8, 1917, Lieut. 
Funkhouser was selected by Major-General Dickman as a member 
of the General Court Martial of the Third Division. By Special Order 
No. 17, January 5, 1918, he was assigned to Company "B", 7th Ma- 
chine Gun Battalion (the Divisional Machine Gun Battalion of the 
Third Division) under Major Fred L. Davidson. 

On March 25, 1918, he was ordered to proceed with the Battalion 
to Camp Merritt, N. J. He sailed from New York on April 2, 1918, 
on the "Aquitania," and arrived at Liverpool, England, April 11. 
The ship was without any escort or convoy until it reached the Irish 
coast. Lieut. Funkhouser was at Southhampton until April 13, when 
he embarked for La Havre, France. On April 22, he moved to Le 
Ferte sur Aube, where the Battalion remained in training until May 

30, when it was ordered to the battlefield of Chateau-Thierry. Mean- 
while on May 11, 1918, by a special order, Lieut. Funkhouser was 
selected Judge Advocate for the Battalion Special Court Martial. With 
this move Lieut. Funkhouser began to participate in some of the most 
fiercely contested battles of the war. He remained with the 7th Ma- 
chine Gun Battalion continuously during his entire military service. 

The Battalion being motorized arrived at Chateau-Thierry on May 

31. A distance of one hundred and ten miles was traversed without a 
stop. The Battalion moved on twenty-four trucks; Lieut. Funkhouser 
acting as Liaison Officer, went the entire distance on his motorcycle, 
and kept the conveyance in line and finding the way. 

Immediately on arrival at Chateau-Thierry the Battalion went 
into its first engagement, and was continuously in action until the 
morning of June 5, when it was relieved. Lieut. Funkhouser com- 
manded his platoon just east of the upper or east bridge across the 
Marne and assisted in repulsing nine separate attacks of the enemy 

68 



GOLD STARS 



in their effort to cross the Marne. As Liaison Officer he assisted the 
French Army in an attack at La Maurette Woods, and was in action 
there June 10, 11, and 12. Lieut. Funkhouser, commanding his pla- 
toon, and again acting as Liaison Officer, assisted the French in at- 
tacking Hill 204, June 15 and 16. The Battalion was in support of 
the 38th, Infantry (Third Division) south of Mezy and Fossoy, near 
the Surmelin River on July 15, 1918. Lieut. Funkhouser's platoon 
was the only part which was actively engaged in this action. At 
Conde-en-Bris his platoon was in action and being surrounded by. 
the enemy, his guns were placed so as to fire in opposite directions. 
From July 23, until August 8, the Battalion held support positions 
north of the Marne at Mont St. Pere and other points, and served as 
anti-aircraft guard at the Marne between Mezy and Fossoy. 

In the St. Mihiel drive the 7th Machine Gun Battalion was at- 
tached to the 16th Infantry, First Division, and took an active part in 
the drive. It battered its way through from Xivray, skirting Mon- 
tesec to Nonsard, September 12, 1918. The Battalion reached Mont- 
zeville, in the Meuse-Argonne Sector, September 23, 1918, and re- 
mained in support or in reserve until the end of the war. It was sent 
in line September 29, to relieve the 79th Division. It continued its 
activities from Montfaucon to Claire-Chenes Woods, through Ferm 
de-Madelaine and Cunel. 

Lieut. Funkhouser was killed in action, in Claire-Chenes Woods, 
while leading an attack on Hill No. 299, October 20, 1918. He had 
captured three enemy machine guns, and at his own request, had been 
assigned to lead Lieut. Wood's platoon, after that officer had been 
wounded. In this action every commissioned officer of Company 
"B", except Lieut. Hose, was killed or wounded. 

This was the last action m which that dauntless Battalion was en- 
gaged. 

Lieut. Paul Taylor Funkhouser was buried first in the American 
section of the cemetery at Ferm de Madelaine. After the armistice 
his body was dis-interred and re-interred in a heavy metal lined cas- 
ket on higher ground, by his brother. First Lieut. Albert C. Funkhous- 
er. In May, 1919, his body was removed to the American cemetery at 
Romagne, France, where it will rest until placed in the soil of his 
native land, the home he loved so well and served so bravely. 



69 



SONS OF MEN 



Lieut. Funkhouser was cited in general orders, as follows: 
HEADQUARTERS 3RD DIVISION AMERICAN 
EXPEDITIONARY FORCES 

8 July, 1919. 
General Orders, 
No. 22. 

The Commandino: General desires to record in General Orders 
the valor and devotion to duty of these officers and men of the 
3rd Division. Their individual deeds, summed up, have created 
the glorious record enjoyed by the Marne Division, from those 
unforgetable days at Chateau-Thierry, in the defense of Pari:> 
to the Victory Drive which began on the banks of the Marne r.nd 
continued relentlessly until its brilliant conclusion in the Ar- 
gonne before Sedan: 



* -;= * 
7th Machine Gun Battalion 



FUNKHOUSER, PAUL T., 2nd Lieutenant. Kept up liaison 
with infantry under heavy shell fire. 



ROBERT L. HOWZE, 

Major General, U. S. Array, 
Commanding. 



Official: 

MADISON PEARSON, 

Lt. Col. Infantry, 

Adjutant. 



70 



GOLD STARS 




Russell 



Qodd 



Courage, the highest gift 
that scorns to bend 

To mean devices for a 
sordid end. 

— G. Farauhar. 



Much has been said of the valor of those who were decorated 
with the Croix de Guerre or Victoria Cross, but there were many 
"Heroes in this war that the world will never hear about." The pluck 
and daring of many of our boys have never been recorded. Their trials 
and suffering were witnessed by their companions, but the world at 
large will little realize their experiences. 

Russell Goad was one of the persevering American soldiers who 
grappled with plague and death while crossing the ocean, and won. 
Like many of the boys on board that ship, he tenaciously held on to 
life to stake it on the fields of France for the world's cause. He lived 
to see French soil, but relentless fate overpowered him. 

He was born March 9, 1894. He graduated from Delaware School 
and attended the Evansville High School for one term in 1909. Then 
he began to work as a carriage trimmer at the Hercules Buggy Co., 
where he was employed continuously for seven years. After that time 
he left for Detroit but remained there only a few days when he left 
for Flint, Mich., where he became engaged in the automobile industry. 

71 



SONS OF MEN 



He remained in Flint until he entered service, May 28, 1918. He joined 
the 605th Engineers at Camp Taylor, and two weeks later was trans- 
ferred to Camp Forrest in Georgia, where he remained until the first 
part of September, when he was transferred to Camp Merritt. On Sep- 
tember 28, he sailed on the George Washington with 7,200 other sol- 
diers. 

A more deadly enemy than the German submarine met these sol- 
diers while on the Atlantic. For thirteen days the Spanish Influenza 
raged on board ship, and took many victims in spite of all the one 
hundred and sixty-five Red Cross nurses accompanying the boys, could 
do. Russell Goad was among those afflicted with the epidemic. On 
October 14, the George Washington landed at Brest, France. Russell 
Goad was taken to Base Hospital No. 1. On October 20, 1918, he died 
of pneumonia. He was buried at Brest, with military honors. 

Capt. Robert B. Finley expressed the following words in a letter 
he wrote to Russell Goad's family: 

"He was faithful to duty and a willing worker and while our loss 
is great, yours of course is much greater." 



..-?i^- 

.'%i^.i. 






GOLD STARS 



Leo 

Qoelzhduser* 



'Tis Duty's stern behest, 
A peal of thunder from 

the skies, 
Which bids us to defend 

the Right 
Against the tyranny of 

Might. 

—I. G. Smith. 



"He was only a private. He just did his duty," his brother ex- 
plained. Yet, it was the combined contributions of the privates with- 
out rank, without spectacular exploits, frequently even without 
leaving a record of their experiences, that enabled America to tri- 
umph. Leo Goelzhauser, the youngest of seventeen children and 
the thirteenth boy in the family, was born September 28, 1889. He 
attended the St. Mary's School, and later worked as bookbinder at the 
Herbert Journal Printing Company. 

He entered the service at Camp Taylor about September 21, 1917, 
where he went into training for seven months. On one occasion while 
he was at target practice he was accidently shot in the leg and hand. 
After a sojourn of five weeks in the hospital he reported for duty. On 
January 3, 1918 he returned to Evansville to marry Miss Eleanor 
Lichtenfeld. 

In May, 1918, he was transferred to Camp Sevier, and was as- 
signed to Co. B, 120th Infantry, 30th Division. He sailed for France 
on the Bohemian, a British steamer. In Flanders he was in a ma- 
chine-gun battalion, and took part in the fighting near Ypres. He 
contracted the influenza, and after a few days of illness he died on No- 
vember 4, 1918. He was buried at Rouen, France in St. Sevier Cem.- 
etery, 

* Photog-raph unobtainable. 

73 



SONS OF MEN 




IDillidm L. 

Qoipers 



Then hail to all who gave 
us 
Their might of arm and 
soul, 
Hot and athirst to save us 
To heal, and keep us 
whole. 
— William Watson. 



William L. Gowers was born in Evansville, in October, 1893.* He 
attended the Centennial School, and later drove an automobile for a 
local concern up to the time he entered service. He enlisted April 6, 
1917 and was sent to Camp Shelby, Hattiesburg, Miss. After arriving 
overseas he was assigned to the 328th Field Remount Squadron. 

A letter from the American Red Cross to his aunt contains the 
following information concerning his death: "Your nephew was ad- 
mitted from the infirmary at the Classification Camp at St. Aignan, 
ill of broncho-pneumonia which caused his death March 25, 1919. Dur- 
ing the time he was there he had the best of medical care and I am 
sure that he realized that he was among friends. His nurse, Miss 
Fargo, tells me that he had said little, for he was very ill from the 
beginning. You have every right to feel that he had excellent atten- 
tion,— nothing was spared, yet he could not be saved. The end came 
at 1 1 :40 a. m. 

"As the Chaplain has written you, your nephew was buried with 
full military honors on the afternoon of March 26 in the A. E. F. 
Cemetery at Noyers, (No. 319). Over his grave, which is now marked 
with a cross bearing his name, age, organization, and the date of 
death, the final prayer was said." 

* Mrs. Lillian Hicks, William Gowers' aunt, was not certain of some bio- 
graphical details. No other source of information has been available. 

74 



GOLD STARS 




James bethel 

Qresham 



Peace, Peace! he is not 
dead, he doth not 
sleep — 

He hath awakened from 
the dream of life. 
—P. B. Shelley. 



He was an ordinary American, with no distinction of high birth, 
scholarship, or social prestige. He did not claim descent from May- 
flower stock; he held no college degree; and he was not enrolled 
among our mercantile aristocracy and captains of industry. Only an 
average American; yet, his name will be transmitted to posterity as 
the first American soldier who made the supreme sacrifice on the bat- 
tlefield. 

As a typical American he did not bully or bluster, but only went 
to defend and vindicate a cause which is national in its inherency and 
universal in its application. The humanitarian ideals of Freedom 
and Democracy are the goal of aspirations for individuals and na- 
tions throughout the world; but in a peculiar way, they are the warp 
and woof which make up the fabric of the American nation. As Theo- 
dore Roosevelt, in many respects the ideal American, said: "We, here 
in America, hold in our hands the hope of the world, the fate of the 
coming years; and shame and disgrace will be ours if in our eyes the 
light of high resolve is dimmed, if we trail in the dust the golden hopes 
of men." 



75 



SONS OF MEN 



James Bethel Gresham was born in McClean County, Ky., August 
23, 1893. In September, 1901, the family moved to Evansville, where he 
attended the Centennial School. Later he worked in the Cotton Mill 
and different furniture factories. 

On April 23, 1914 he enlisted in the army. He was sent to Jeffer- 
son Barracks, St. Louis, Mo. In June he went with General Pershing 
to El Paso, Tex., during the Mexican crisis. In June, 1917, he was 
sent from Ft. Bliss for service in France, with the first American sol- 
diers of the A. E. F. "I have heard," his proud mother said, "that he 
was the first American to step on foreign soil." He was a member of 
Co. F, 16th Infantry. Before daylight on November 3, 1917, Gresham 
was killed by the Germans in a raid near Artois, France. 

Prof. John B. McMaster in his work, "The United States In The 
World War," gives the following account of the battle: 

"The first trench fighting occurred just before dawn on the morn- 
ing of November 3, when a small detachment of Americans in a front 
line instruction salient were attacked by a superior force of Germans, 
and the salient cut off from the rest of the men by a heavy barrage. 
The fighting then became hand to hand. In the course of it three 
Americans were killed, five wounded and eleven taken prisoners. The 
dead v,-ere buried on the slope of a hill overlooking a little village 
Somewhere in France, and the site a few months later was marked by 
a stone monument bearing the name and regiment of each of the 
dead, and the inscription: 'Here lie the first soldiers of the great Re- 
public of the United States who died on the soil of France for justice 
and liberty, November 3, 1917.' " 

It is the pride of this community that the first of these three 
Americans was Corporal James Bethel Gresham. The other two Amer- 
icans were Private Thomas F. Enright, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and 
Private Merle D. Hay, Glidden, Iowa. His body was laid to rest at 
Bathlemon, France, in the American Cemetery, Plot three, Section 
one. 




76 



GOLD STARS 




Alfred K. 



Qymer 



He mourns the dead who 
lives as they desire. 
— Dr. E. Young. 



Among his college friends, Alfred K. Gymer was affectionately 
known as "reliable Alf." A fraternity brother who knew him inti- 
mately, said of him: "Clean to the bone is the way I found and remem- 
ber him." He did not perform valiant deeds on the fields of France, 
but his whole life was heroic. His goal in life was high; his ambi- 
tions were noble, and obstacles only stimulated him to further effort. 

Alfred Kelloud Gymer, the only Evansville doctor who died in the 
service of his country, was born January 15, 1890, at Earlington, Ky. 
He was not a year old when he was brought to Howell. His elemen- 
tary education was received in the public schools of Howell. He com- 
pleted his secondary education in the Evansville High School in 1907. 

His ambition in life was a medical career. However, after gradu- 
ating from high school, he took a teacher's training course at the 
Marion, (Ind.) Normal School, and later taught school for one term. 
Before he began his medical studies he was identified with several of 
the leading firms of this city. He was a yard clerk and locomotive 
fireman for the L. & N. Railroad, and was later employed as a stock- 
keeper by the Hercules Buggy Co. When the Bucyrus Company con- 



SONS OF MEN 



verted its machinery for the production of howitzers, Gymer was en- 
gaged as a shell inspector. 

At the Louisville Medical School, Alfred K. Gymer was popular 
among the students. He was a Mason, and a member of the Phi Beta 
Pi Fraternity. It was three months before his graduation when the 
government called for volunteers in the medical department of the 
navy. 

Gymer was among the first to volunteer his services. Because of 
strenuous work during his student days he was under weight, and con- 
sequently he was rejected. 

When he received his M. D. he served as interne in the St. Mary's 
hospital for one year. He was then appointed as a member of the 
staff of the state hospital at Kalamazoo, Mich. When his number, 128, 
was called in the draft he returned to Howell, and left on the first 
train of selectives for Camp Taylor. 

He did not remain a private very long. When his medical training 
became known he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, and was 
made a member of the examining board. On August 15, 1918, he fell 
ill with tonsilitis. He was removed to the base hospital for treatment, 
so that he could accompany his division which left that week. How- 
ever, pneumonia developed, and death claimed him on August 27, 1918, 
at Camp Sherman, Chillicothe, Ohio. His body* was sent to Evans- 
ville, and was buried in Oak Hill Cemetery. 



f I 






78 



GOLD STARS 




Elmer S. 

Harper 



By how much unexpected, 

by so much 
We must awake, endeavor 

for defense, 
For courage mounteth 

with occasion. 

— Shakespeare. 



In a report to the Secretary of War, General Pershing included 
the following description of the fighting in which Elmer S. Harper 
participated: "It was the fortune of the two corps, composed of the 
27th and 30th Divisions, which had remained with the British, to have 
a place of honor in co-operation with Australian Corps on September 
29 and October 1 in the assault on the Hindenburg Line where the St. 
Quentin Canal passes through a tunnel under a ridge. The 30th Di- 
vision speedily broke through the main line of defense for all its ob- 
jectives. — In the midst of the maze of trenches and shell craters and 
under cross-fire from machine guns the other elements fought des- 
perately against odds. — The spirit and aggressiveness of these di- 
visions have been highly praised by the British army commander, 
under whom they served." 

Elmer S. Harper was born on a farm in Knight Township, Van- 
derburg County, January 31, 1895. He first attended Harlan Ave- 
nue School and later attended school in Kentucky. At the time he 
went into the service of his country he was employed in a barber shop 
on Second Avenue. He was a member of White Oak Camp No. 26, 

79 



SONS OF MEN 



W. O. W. He left Evansville for Camp Zachary Taylor on September 
22, 1917, and served in Co. B, 335th Infantry, until April, 1918, when 
he was transferred to Co. L, 120th Infantry, (Old Hickory) Division 
at Camp Sevier, S. C. 

He was later transferred to Camp Merritt, N. J., and then to 
Boston, where he went aboard the transport Militiades on May 14. 
From there he went to New York harbor where, accompanied by a 
convoy, he set sail for overseas on May 16, 1918. The ship was at- 
tacked by submarines near the Irish coast, but no serious damage 
was sustained. Harper landed at Gravesend, England on June 5, 1918, 
and the same day went by way of Dover to Calais, France. The first 
night he spent in France, a German air raiding party came buzzing 
over the camp near midnight. He was awakened by the thunderous 
noise of the big anti-aircraft guns which drove the enemy away. On 
the evening of June II he left Calais with his company and started 
war maneuvers. He reached Herzelle, France, on the border of Bel- 
gium on July 4, where he remained until July 11. From that date 
until July 18, he remained in a road camp in Belgium. On the twenty- 
fifth of that month he entered the trenches near Ypres and was given 
training under the British until August 12. When he had rested in a 
road camp until August 17, he went back into the trenches until Sep- 
tember 6. He traveled through Croisette, Forceville, and Fincourt in 
France and went into the lines near Bellicourt, France, on September 
27. At this place two days later at 5:30 in the morning he went "over 
the top" in the famous drive on the great Hindenburg Line. He was 
seriously wounded by shrapnel and died on October 1, 1918. 

Other Evansville men were with him at the time he was shot, one 
of them, Riley R. Rawlings, and a soldier from Ft. Branch, whose 
name is given as Griffith. In telling of this battle those who fought 
beside him say that Harper fought in accordance with the tradition 
of the typical U. S. soldier, which is "do or die." 




80 



GOLD STARS 




Fred 



Hdssler 



Is there for them a rec- 
ompense too great 
that we can give? 
— H. V. S. Carey. 



Fred Hassler's answer to Germany's announcement of unre- 
stricted submarine policy which went into effect on February 1, 1917, 
was a series of trips across the Atlantic, picking up the gauntlet which 
Germany threw in the face of humanity, and defying Germany's sub- 
marines, torpedo boats, and other inhuman instruments of naval war- 
fare. He was born February 14, 1891. He attended St. Boniface 
School. He was a machinist by trade, and he worked for six years 
in the fitting department of the Blount Plow Works. He was also em- 
ployed at the Hercules Gas Engine Works. 

In September, 1913, he enlisted for a four year term in the navy 
and was assigned to U. S. S. Montana. In 1916, he took part in the 
Vera Cruz expedition. Before his period of enlistment was completed 
he made four trips across the ocean, helping transport American 
troops to France. When he completed his four years of service in 
the navy he was an engineer, first class. He was discharged in Sep- 
tember, 1917, and remained home for about ten months. 

He knew his country needed help, and with his training and ex- 
perience, was he to remain in the background? Was he to squander 

81 



SONS OF MEN 



talents which he developed when he was in the service before? Once 
more he decided to abandon civil life. In the middle of July he went 
to Indianapoils to enlist. Much to his disappointment he was rejected 
because of a defect in hearing. Not satisfied with the result of his 
effort he went to Philadelphia, and there he was accepted in the navy. 

In November, 1918, he sailed for France on the S. S. Duncan. On 
board ship he contracted the influenza which developed into pneu- 
monia. The ship went to Ireland, and in Belfast, Fred Hassler died 
on November 23, 1918. 

The navy chaplain wrote to his sister: "His body was sent here 
for transportation to America, and a number of Navy men gathered in 
the Chapel this afternoon as a mark of respect to one of their com- 
rades. All present joined in the prayer that the God of all Grace will 
comfort your mind and heart in this deep bereavement." 

His body was brought to Evansville and was buried in the family 
lot in the St. Joseph Cemetery. 




82 



GOLD STARS 




IDilliam J. 

Hdijden 



Learn to drive fear, then, 
from your heart 

If you must perish know, 
O man, 

'Tis an inevitable part of 
the predestined plan. 
— Allen Seeger. 



William J. Hayden could well say with Allen Seeger to those who 
did not see the significance of the world conflict, "and you in the depth 
of your easy chair — what did you do? What did you care?" 

Fortunately, there were few who led a life of ease when America 
was straining every fiber to check the onslaught of Prussian brutal- 
ity. William Hayden did not wait to be called. He closed his books, 
abandoned his career as a student and offered himself for the cause. 

William J. Hayden was born in Evansville, June 16, 1895. He at- 
tended Chestnut Street School, and went to the local high school until 
he was in 1 1-B grade, when he entered the service. Before that he had 
been three years out of school working in a grocery. 

On December 13, 1917 he enlisted as a chauffeur in the Aviation 
Corps. His first training station was at Jefferson Barracks, St. Louis. 
There he was assigned to 182nd Aero Service Squadron. Two months 
later he was sent to Battle Creek, Mich., where he remained for three 
months when he was transferred to Taliaferro Field, Ft. Worth, Texas. 
At this camp he w£s promoted from chauffeur to aerial gunner. In 

83 



SONS OF MEN 



April, 1918, he sailed for overseas duty. In France he was in training 
for a flyer's commission. 

On September 6, 1918, he was killed in an aeroplane accident at 
Le Mans, France. His body was laid to rest at this place. William 
Hayden was a member of the Assumption Church. He was the second 
member of the Y. M. C. A. to give his life for his country. He will 
long be remembered for his earnestness of purpose in life and am- 
bition for an education. 




84 



GOLD STARS 




Cleueldnd 

tiicks 



A day, an hour of virtu- 
pus liberty, 

Is worth a whole eternity 
in bondage. 
— Joseph Addison 



Although Cleveland Hicks entered the service from Evansville 
he traveled extensively throughout the South until he was a youth 
of sixteen. He was born in DeKalb County, Alabama, July 8, 1894. 
The family moved to Nashville, Tenn., Boonsville, Miss., Birmingham, 
Ala., and several other towns in Alabama. In the South, Cleveland 
Hicks worked in cotton mills. When he came to Evansville six years 
before he entered the service, he worked in a local cotton mill for a 
short time, and then he was employed in furniture factories. He be- 
longed to the local furniture labor union, and the Salvation Army. 

He entered service June 25, 1918, and was sent to Camp Sherman, 
Ohio. He was assigned to Co. B, 333rd Infantry. In September he 
went to New Jersey, and then sailed for France. There he was af- 
flicted with the influenza which developed broncho-pneumonia. His 
illness lasted but a few days. He died in Base Hospital No. 42, No- 
vember 4, 1918, and was buried in France. 

The following letter of comfort was sent to his mother: 

"You have no doubt received a cable telling you about the death 
of your son in our hospital here. I know that many questions will 

85 



SONS OF MEN 



arise during these dark days and I want to answer a few of them. Your 
boy came to us suffering from a bad attack of the influenza. It soon 
developed into pneumonia and in spite of all the tender care of nurses 
and doctors, he passed away at 6:40 a. m., Nov. 4. It is hard to have 
loved ones pass away when they are so far from home. One keeps 
thinking and wondering about his care and those who comforted him. 
It certainly is a comfort to me to be able to assure you that no boy 
ever had more skillful attention in his own home. And the nurses and 
doctors as well as all the rest of us love these boys and give them all 
that it is possible and well for them to have. 

"Your son had a military burial. The casket was covered with the 
flag he loved and died for. Six of his comrades carried him out. At 
the grave the Chaplain, who had comforted him when he wcs ill, con- 
ducted the service while all the soldiers stood at attention about the 
grave. Then we lowered the casket and the bugler sounded taps. A 
little cross with his name and number was raised and then we left 
him to sleep with his comrades all about. There is no more fitting 
place for a soldier to sleep than in this friendly French valley with 
those who fought with him for freedom. 

"The cemetery is on the sunny slope of a quiet hill. Above the 
slope is a forest of trees turning brown and gold in the autumn crisp- 
ness. Below are green meadows dotted with herds tended by little 
children. These little children love our brave boys too, and stand 
at attention with their little caps in their hands when we pass them 
with our soldiers who have paid the price of their lives. And then 
lower down is the river winding along among the trees. Even yet 
the wild flowers linger in the sheltered places — falming, red poppies 
and yellow mustard. 

"I am a representative of the Home Communication of the Red 
Cross and I want to do all I can for those who mourn at home as well 
as for the boys over here. It is a glorious, but a better thing to give 
a son to this great cause. But since I am here I know so much better 
how righteous is the fight and any mother should be proud to give 
her boy for the FREEDOM of us all. No man could have a more 
beautiful death. So we sympathize with you in your sorrow and we 
envy you your sacrifice. May you be spared to long enjoy the freedom 
for which he gave his life." 



86 



GOLD STARS 




Qeorge A. 

Runt 



"Our civilization rests 
at bottom on the whole- 
someness, the attractive- 
ness, and the complete- 
ness, as well as the pros- 
perity, of life in the coun- 
try." 

— Theodore Roosevelt. 



The annals of patriotism reveal the story of Cincinnatus who left 
the plow to serve his country's need. But it is not necessary to go to 
Roman history to observe the farmer-soldier. The Father of his coun- 
try, George Washington, was by vocation a tiller of the soil. George 
Almond Hunt, the modern farmer-soldier did not care for the din and 
uproar of city life. Although he lived close to Evansville, he pre- 
ferred to remain near nature, in a rural environment. 

He was born near Boonville, Ind., December 14, 1895. When his 
school days were over he worked with his uncle on a farm, where he 
remained until he entered the army, August 27, 1918. He was sent 
to Camp Sherman, Ohio, where he was assigned to 21st Company, 
Sixth Training Battalion, 158th Depot Brigade. He was there but a 
few weeks when he contracted the Spanish Influenza, which developed 
into pneumonia. While he was ill his mother visited him, but neither 
a mother's care nor medical attention could save him. He died Oc- 
tober 12, 1918. His body wss sent home, and was buried in a cemetery 
north of Boonville. 



87 



SONS OF MEN 




IPillidm Allen 



Jones 




v: 



It will be woi'thy of a 
free, enlightened, and, at 
no distant period, a great 
Nation, to give to man- 
kind the magnanimous 
and too novel example of 
a people always guided 
by an exalted justice and 
benevolence. 

— George Washington. 



William Allen Jones was on board ship expecting within a few 
days to see France, and to render service to his country. It was for 
this purpose that he had volunteered. However, he was not destined 
to take part in battles. He did not even step on French soil; he died 
before the ship landed. 

He was born at Smith Mills, Ky.. February 19, 1897. When he was 
about four years of age the family moved to Corydon, Ky., where he 
attended school. Here he lived until he was seventeen, when he went 
to Henderson. He worked on the county roads as a grader. A year 
before his enlistment he came to Evansville, where he was employed 
in the L. & N. shops. He was a member of the Modern Woodmen of 
America and attended the Missionary Baptist Church. 

On July 27, 1918, he volunteered and was assigned to Co. A, 21 1th 
Engineers. From there he was transferred to Second Casual Company 
at Camp Upton, N. Y. He sailed for France on the U. S. S. George 
Washington during the month of September. On the way he con- 
tracted Spanish Influenza. The development of pneumonia caused his 
death the morning of October 8, 1918. P. F. Bloomhardt, U. S. Chap- 
lain said, that the ship had passed through the danger zone. His 
body was returned to America, and was laid at rest near his place of 
birth, at Corydon, Ky. 



GOLD STARS 




Albert T. 
Kemmerling 





I am one of those who be- 
lieve that the real 

Will never find an irre- 
movable basis till i t 
rests on the ideal. 

— James Russell Lowell. 



"It is plain how we were forced into the war. The extraordinary 
insults and aggressions of the Imperial German Government left us 
no self-respecting choice but to take up arms in defense of our rights 
as a free people and of our honor as a sovereign government." 

Albert T. Kemmerling understood the issue as it was expressed 
by the above words of President Wilson. He was rejected, but his 
persistence ultimately won him the opportunity of entering the ser- 
vice. That his military career was brief, was not due to any circum- 
stances within his power to control. 

He was born January 21, 1893. He attended St. Mary's School 
until he completed the eighth grade. After his school days he was a 
slate contractor until 1909, when his father was killed while at work. 
He continued the same kind of work with his brother until three years 
before he entered the service. During that time he was employed at 
the Hercules Gas Engine Co. 

He heard the call for service. Twice he attempted to enter the 
service but was rejected because of nervousness. He went to the chair- 
man of the First District Board, Percy P. Carroll, and made a plea 

89 



SONS OF MEN 



to be permitted to serve his country. Finally when the Twenty-second 
Engineers were organized, Albert Kemmerling was admitted to their 
ranks, May 18, 1918. The unit went to Indianapolis and began to 
train at Ft. Benjamin Harrison. As a result of an innoculation he be- 
came sick. His illness developed a delirium. His brother, Joseph, 
went to see him, and having arranged for his return home, came back 
to Evansville. On May 28, 1918, his other brother, Edward, was wait- 
ing in Indianapolis to take Albert Kemmerling home. The night be- 
fore, however, in his delirious condition, he wandered from camp. 
About eight o'clock in the morning while he was still wandering in 
his fever, he was killed by a train. 

His body was brought to Evansville and was given a military fu- 
neral. The recruiting detail of this city were honorary pall-bearers. 
The services were held in St. Benedict's Church and he was buried 
in St. Joseph Cemetery. Albert Kemmerling was a member of the 
St. Benedict's Church, Holy Name Society rnd the St. Michael's So- 
ciety. 




90 



GOLD STARS 




Qeorge H. 

Kirker 



I take all knowledge to be 
my province. 

— Francis Bacon. 



In this age of specialization v/e are apt to look awry at a man of 
versitality and breadth of interest. The man who is an expert, efficient 
in one thing to the extent of regarding with a certain contempt other 
life interests, is not only common, but is generally conceded to be a 
success in life, and therefore one who is to be emulated and copied. 
The deeper the groove, and narrower the sphere of activity, the more 
is the modern man of affairs admired as a specialist. It is all the more 
worthy of note that the popular idol of America, Theodore Roosevelt, 
was cosmopolitan in his interests. He was a statesman, naturalist, 
cow-boy, historian, interested in the jungles of Africa as well as in the 
teeming, throbbing life of New York City. 

George Howard Kirker took an interest in a variety of men and 
things. He belonged to the Reed Lodge of Masons, he was a member 
of the Evansville Elks Lodge and the Evansville Press Club. He was 
a member of the Minneapolis Athletic Club, and always took a great 
interest in athletics wherever he was located, being a member of the 
(>incinnati Athletic Club, several Y. M. C. A. gymnasiums and the 

91 



SONS OF MEN 



Evansville Turners. His athletic interests included marksmanship, 
and he enjoyed every kind of outdoor sport, especially swimming and 
tennis. In Cincinnati he was a member of the Central Christian 
Church, and when he lived in Evansville he attended the Grace Me- 
morial Church. Intellectually, as well as socially and religiously, he 
created for himself a wide sphere of activity. "He was a great stu- 
dent, and the last few years before his death, while in Detroit, he took 
up the study of law, advanced accounting, and higher literature." 

This man, who developed his different capacities which make for 
all-round life, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, March 16, 1880. He at- 
tended the public school at Elmwood Place, Ohio, and the Wyoming, 
Ohio High School. For his higher education he attended the Ohio 
Mechanics Institute at Cincinnati, besides taking many courses in 
various Y. M. C. A.'s and correspondence schools. 

For a period of two years, 1902-1904, he w?.s a non-commissioned 
officer in the Ohio National Guard of Cincinnati. He was employed 
by the Putnam Hooker Co., and was transferred by them to the 
Lincoln Cotton Mill Co. of Evansville, in 1904. Here he was a book- 
keeper and assistant treasurer until December 9, 1916, when he re- 
signed to accept a position as accountant with the Ford Motor Co., 
in Detroit. 

His advance in Detroit was rapid, but when war was declared he 
felt the call to duty, and offered his services to the government. He 
was accepted and sent to Camp Upton, Long Island, N. Y., as Field 
Auditor in the Construction Division, March 4, 1918. In May he was 
sent to Washington, D. C. While stationed there he received his cap- 
tain's commission, July 19, 1918, in Quartermaster's Corps. On Sep- 
tember 18, he was ordered to St. Paul, Minn., where he organized and 
had complete charge of the construction and finance departments of 
the Aero Mechanics' Training School. He was quite happy in his new 
work, and in one letter he said, "Everything will be in fine running 
order in just a few days now. I have good, responsible men at the 
head of all my departments. One-half a million is to be placed to my 
credit in the Treasury Department at Washington, rnd all the work 
must be done within these months before the 40 degrees below sets 
in." 

On October 17 he was stricken with the influenza-pneumonia and 
passed away at the Aviation Hospital (which he had just completed) 
on October 21, 1918. Four days later he was buried with military 
honors at Spring Grove Cemetery, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

His sister, Mrs. Star E. Wyman of Los Angeles, Cal., character- 
ized him: "He was a good and noble son, and filled well his father's 
place left vacant by sudden death in 1907. He was very glad to be in 
the service of his country. Wherever he went he made many friends, 
all of whom regarded him as a prince among men and greatly mourn 
his loss. He was always very kind, conscientious, zealous, upright 
and untiring in his efforts to please, and in the line of duty." 

92 



GOLD STARS 




Qeorqe 

Koonce 



Cannon to right of them, 
Cannon to left of them, 
Cannon in front of them, 
Volleyed and thundered. 
— Alfred Tennyson. 



George Koonce, who died from the effects of a wound received in 
action, was born May 6, 1889, at Crossville, White County, 111. He 
attended school in that town and later worked on a farm. In Evans- 
ville he worked for several years at the Grote Manufacturing Com- 
pany, and at the Edge Tool Works. On May 11, 1911, at the age of 
twenty-two, he enlisted in the army for four years and served most 
of the time in China. When America was about to enter the world 
war he re-enlisted on February 27, 1917. He had first joined Bat- 
tery F, expecting to go into training immediately. He did not relish 
the long delay in calling the battery to service, so he joined Company 
F, 47th Infantry. For about six weeks he received training at Camp 
Greene, Charlotte, N. C. Then he was transferred to Camp Mills, 
N. Y. Two weeks later he sailed for France. 

Writing of his experiences in France he said: "I camped right in 
a beautiful park, but it was so odd. Everything is so old fashioned. 
I saw more wooden shoes today than I ever saw in my whole life. 
The buildings are all stone, and the streets look like alleys there at 
home." Nearly in every letter home he expressed great solicitude for 

93 



SONS OF MEN 



the allotment he made to his parents. In describing the French 
climate he said, "I don't ever want any one to talk Sunny South to me 
again. I had, rather be in Alaska right now as to be here." 

In a letter home, dated July 17, 1918, Sergeant Koonce said, "I 
went up to the front on the thirteenth and got my right leg broken 
just above the knee. It was done by enemy shrapnel." The fatal 
wound resulted in his death on July 21, 1918. 

In a report of his death given in the Evansville Courier his moth- 
er is quoted as saying: 

"Just to think, he has only been gone a few months and now he 
is dead, away over there and not one of his family with him when he 
died. I am very proud that he died as he did, and that he was man 
enough to go. He always wanted to go so bad. He could hardly wait 
for the train which took him off. On the night that he left he put 
on the phonograph, 'Send Me Away With a Smile.' 

"I think I've had my share of trouble, but I am not complaining. 
I'm very, very proud that he was my son, and I am willing to part 
with him for our country. But he was such a good boy! He allotted 
half his pay to me and took out insurance. In the last letter he was 
worried because we had not received the allotment." 

The St. Lucas Soldiers' League sent flowers and the following 
note of sympathy to the bereaved mother: 

"God will take care of him. Be not afraid; 

He is his safeguard, his sunshine and shade. 
Tenderly watching and keeping his own, 

He will not leave him to wander alone."* 



This verse appeared in the "Evansville Press" 



LJ 



94 



GOLD STARS 




IDdlter L. 
Krusenkldus 



Always ready to do his 
duty, no matter how 
hard or how danger- 
ous. 

— Capt. W. A. Buckles, 
Co. F, Fourth Inf. 



When the bullets whizzed around and the shells shrieked, when 
a rain of lead deluged the blood-soaked battle field, Walter Krusen- 
klaus, as his officer testified, was calm and faithful in the performance 
of his duty. 

Walter L. Krusenklaus was born August 6, 1892 in Pike County. 
He received most of his education in Dubois County, where his fam- 
ily moved when the boy was eight years of age. When he was a 
youth of seventeen he and his family made their home in Spencer 
County. From the time he left school in Dubois County until he came 
to Evansville in 1912, Krusenklaus worked on the farm, most of the 
time helping his father. In this city he was employed as a driver by 
the R. H. Pennington Produce Co. He was engaged in this work until 
he enlisted for service on September 8, 1915, long before a great 
many citizens of our country realized the impending national crisis. 

The first of a series of training camps which he attended was Jef- 
ferson Barracks, Mo., where he spent only two weeks. He was as- 
signed to Co. F, Fourth Infantry. Throughout his varied experience 

95 



SONS OF .MEN 



and training in this country, and on different battle fields of France, 
he remained with his comrades of the Fourth Infantry. Co. F. 

Upon one occasion when our neighbor on the other side of the 
Rio Grande became troublesome. Krusenklaus was among the troops 
sent to Brownsville. Texas. His service on the Mexican border con- 
tinued for eight months. Then he was sent to Gettysburg. Pa., where 
he remained until October. 1917. 

He continued his training at Camp Greene. Charlotte. N. C. un- 
til the first of December, when he was transferred to Camp Stewart. 
El Paso. Texas. .At this camp on January 2o. Walter Krusenklaus 
received his first promotion, to the rank of a corporal. When he went 
across to France in March. 19 IS. he was promoted to a sergeant. 

Characterizing Sergeant Krusenklaus as a soldier of democracy. 
his company commander said of him: ""He was a man among men — a 
man's man — faithful in the performance of his duties and the trust 
reposed in him by you and yours, and the country he so nobly served. ' 

A detailed account of his activities on the various fronts if ob- 
tainable would no doubt reveal many daring deeds and venture — 
some exploits. This conclusion is deduced from an official document 
which enumerated the engagements in which Sergeant Krusenklaus 
participated. The record includes: 

The Aisne defensive. 

The Champagne- .Marne offensive. 

Aisne-Marne offensive. 

St. .Mihiel offensive. 

Meuse-.Argonne offensive. 

It was during the seventh day of the last battle on October (5. 
191S that a machine gun bullet pierced his breast. He was killed in- 
stantly, and was buried three miles northeast of Montfaucon. 

A letter from G. A. Herbs. Colonel Fourth Infantry, sent from 
.American forces stationed at Plaidt. Germany, expresses an apprecia- 
tion of the brave sacrifices of such men as Sergeant Krusenklaus. 

"We are proud indeed. "" the letter states, 'of those who have gone 
on before. For the victories we have attained have been because of 
their sacrifice, and it is with keen regret we realize they will not have 
an opportunity to carry on the work of reconstruction throughout the 
world with the same spirit of determination which was characteristic 
of their activities over here." 

96 



GOLD STARS 




lUdrren E. 

Ldbri] 



Koiravdioss of the vviiii or 

cost; 
'V\\:\i still wo prize over 

wealtli and power 
Our fatherland, and Frce- 

iloni's power. 
For which sueli precious 

lives were lost. 
— Charles Winslow Hall. 



Theodore Roosevelt's teachings will long remain in the heart of 
America, but his most characteristic exhortation was "the doctrine 
not of ignoble ease, but the doctrine of the strenuous life, the life 
of toil and effort, of labor and strife." Warren E. Labry heard the 
admonition of that great American. He joined the ranks of the in- 
dustrial armv wliilc he was still a bov. and when he i-eached maturitv 
he entered niilitar\- ser\ice when America was still neutral in the 
world war. 

Warren E. Labry was born December 5. 1801. at Henderson, Kv. 
He completed public school by the time he was thirteen. Eor the 
next four years he worked at a carriage factory. When he came to 
Evansville at the age of seventeen he was employed at the Hercules 
Buggy Co.. as a top builder. Four years later he went to Detioit, 
Michigan, where he secured automobile work. A year later he returned 
to Evansville, and to his former place of employment. 

On September 22. 1015, he enlisted for a four vear term in the 
navy. After his final examination at Indianapolis, he was sent to 
Norfolk, \'a., where he remained in training for six months. He was 



SONS OF MEN 



assigned to U. S. S. Pennsylvania. During this period of his career 
he was promoted to a first class gunner's mate. 

He was transferred to a torpedo school at Newport, R. I., June 22, 
1918. On September 14, 1918, he had an attack of Spanish Influenza. 
The illness developed into broncho-pneumonia. His parents went to 
see him, and were present at his deathbed, September 17, 1918. His 
body was sent to Evansville and laid to rest in the Oak Hill Cemetery. 

His record in the navy was perfect. Death reached him four 
days before his graduation from the torpedo school, where he was to 
be an instructor, as a reward for honorable and faithful service. 




98 



GOLD STARS 




Thomas Edipin 
Land 



We who are free disdain 

oppression, lust 
And infamous raid. We 

have been pioneers 
For freedom and our code 

of honor must 
Dry and not startle tears. 

— Marie Van Vorst. 



Thomas Edwin Land's mother, father, sister and brother were 
present at his bedside six days before his death: 

"And watched the starlight perish in pale flame, 
Wondering what God would look like when He came." 

Thomas was born March 18, 1894, in Center Township, Vander- 
burg County. He attended Stringtown School, and later worked for 
his father on the farm. He was employed in draining land before he 
entered service on May 24, 1918. 

He was sent to Camp Sherman. Ohio, and six days later he was 
transferred to Del Rio, Texas. At this post he remained in training 
for four months, and then went to West Point, Ky., where he was 
assigned to the Tenth Field Artillery. When he was afflicted with 
the influenza he was sent to the base hospital at Camp Taylor. Double 
pneumonia developed, and he died on October 13, 1918. His body 
was brought to Evansville and buried in a cemetery on Stringtown 
Road. 



99 



SONS OF MEN 




IPillidm Joseph 
Ldppe 



In every heart are sown 
the sparks that kin- 
dle fiery war. 

Occasion needs but fan 
them, and they blaze. 
— William Co\\'per. 



Success in modern warfare is not due only to military operations 
on the battlefield. Modern warfare is the resultant of an interrelation 
of co-operative activities. One branch of the army can not succeed 
without the support of other units, and the success of the whole de- 
pends on whether every person in the service is doing his whole duty. 
Military strategists have realized that it is difficult to say which phase 
of the service is important, and which is unimportant. William Lappe 
was not able to do active military service, but disinclined to lead a 
life of ease and indolence, he made repeated efforts to do what he 
could in the national crisis, and so proving himself a "man who does 
not shrink from danger, from hardship, or from bitter toil, and who 
out of these wins the splendid ultimate triumph." 

He was born in this city January 29, 1893. Until the age of fif- 
teen he attended the Trinity Catholic School. His business training 
was received at the Draughon-Porter Business College, and upon com- 
pletion of his course he was employed by the Evansville Brewing As- 
sociation as a bookkeeper. He was engaged in this work continuously 
for ten years. 

100 



GOLD STARS 



William Lappe responded to the call of his country. He offered 
himself for service, but after five medical examinations he was re- 
jected because of a double fracture of the right arm. The rejection 
for active service, however, did not daunt him. Seeing many of his 
friends and acquaintances entering the various branches of service 
and helping in the common cause, he made still another effort to do 
his bit, and was finally accepted in limited service. 

On August 5, 1918, he left for Syracuse, N. Y., where he was en- 
gaged in clerical work for four weeks. He was then transferred to 
the Casualty Detachment, Second Battalion, at Edgewood, Md. At 
this camp he worked as a bookkeeper for a month when he was af- 
flicted with Spanish Influenza. On Thursday, October 1, 1918, his 
father received a telegram, telling of his son's illness. The anxious 
father immediately departed for Edgewood, Md., and saw his son. On 
October 3, 1918, William Lappe died after an illness of five days. His 
body was brought to Evansville and buried in the St. Joseph Ceme- 
tery. 

His loss was felt by many people in Evansville. His pleasing per- 
sonality gained him friendships in various activities. During the ten 
years of his work he established an intimacy with his fellow workers, 
which is highly prized in the business world. He was an active mem- 
ber of St. Joseph Catholic Church, various Catholic societies, and of 
the Eagles' lodge. 



n 



101 



SONS OF MEN 




Emanuel O. 
Leberer 



Thv name and the fame 
of thy gallant deed 

Are homed in our heart? 
for aye. 
—Ida Reed Smith. 



Emanuel O. Leberer responded to the spirit of France, which 
"clings to Freedom like lichen to rock, or like stars to celestial splen- 
dor." It was the same old, dauntless spirit of France which over- 
threw the oppression of the Old Regime of Feudalism, that withstood 
the attack of Kaiserism on the fields of the Marne. 

He was born in Clay City. Ind., July 1, 1890. There he received 
his elementary education, and when he completed the eighth grade he 
went to Canada, where he spent two years. He was also in Spokane, 
Washington, for about a year. When he returned to his native state 
he attended high school at Terre Haute for one year, and then en- 
tered a business college. Upon the completion of his course he 
worked as a bookkeeper. Later he went into business, where he ad- 
vanced until he became the owner of a garage. In 1915 he came to 
Evansville, where he was engrged in the automobile business. Togeth- 
er with his brother, Loye Leberer, he started the Auto Tire Vulcaniz- 
ing Company. He abandoned this business to become a clerk in the L. 
& N. Railroad freight office. On January 16, 1918, he married Miss 

102 



GOLD STARS 



Ada Tisserand. He did not live to see his little daughter, Betty Jane, 
who was born after he was killed in action. 

On March 29, 1918, he entered the Engineer Corps and was sent 
to Camp Taylor. Before he entered service he had been rejected 
twice on account of defective eyes. On both of these occasions he 
was put in Class five. At Camp Taylor he remained for six weeks, and 
was then sent to Camp Mills, N. Y. On May 10, 1918, he sailed for 
France as a member of Co. F, 47th Infantry, Fourth Division. He was 
engaged in the Marne battle, when he was shot in the head August 
10, 1918. His burial place was on that battlefield, but on December 5, 
1918, he was reburied in Cemetery No. 847, at Bayoches (Aisne). 

The Associated Press described the fighting on the day when 
Leberer was killed as follows: 

"In the American attack the German infantry held for a while, 
and then broke, and the Americans kept going at the same pace with- 
out the assistance of the tanks. ... At the same time the German 
artillery became active, and dropped shells in the direction of the 
American troops, which inflicted a few casualties. The Americans, how- 
ever, ran on and reached the smoke line just as it lifted. There they 
found themselves at grips with the enemy." 




103 



SONS OF MEN 




IPilbur VJ. 

Linder 



Sailor, what of the debt 
we owe you ? 
Day or night is the 
peril more ? 
Who so dull that he fails 
to know you, 
Sleepless guard of our 

island shore? 
— Andrew John Stuart. 



The nefarious and atrocious unrestricted submarine warfare of 
Germany was a large factor which influenced America to enter the 
World War. Whatever might be said of the international law regu- 
lating civilized warfare, the sailor. Wilbur Washington Linder, wit- 
nessed "man's inhumanity to man" when many of his comrades per- 
ished on the sea, and his own life was endangered. He was born in 
Cannelton, Ind.. March 19, 1899. When he was a child of three weeks 
the family moved to Coraopolis, Pa. Ten years later he came to Ev- 
ansville and attended the Wheeler School. Later he was employed in 
a grocery. He entered service February 13, 1917, and was sent to the 
Great Lakes Training Station. Within two months he was made a petty 
officer. He was assigned to the U. S. S. Utah, and afterwards he was 
promoted to first class store keeper. He went through the experiences 
and perils of an adventurous sailor career. The Utah escorted the 
ship, George Washington, which carried President Wilson to France. 
He was on the British transport. Leinster, when she was sunk in the 
Irish Sea. Linder wrote the following description of the event: 

"I made the trip to London and had a fine time — saw everything 

104 



GOLD STARS 



and learned a lot. The party on that leave arrived there safely, but 
coming back the boat was torpedoed twice, the explosion being in 
the postoffice and engine rooms. Six hundred people were drowned 
and but four hundred and eighty survived. One of the boys with us 
lost his mind and the rest of us aren't any too well balanced as a re- 
sult of our experiences. Several died later. It was cold and stormy 
and we were crossing the Irish Sea. We were taken to Cork, where 
I had time to dry my clothes. I wrote you a short letter. 

"The influenza was raging around here then and some died from 
it on shipboard. I can't figure out how it spread all over the world 
so quickly. It sure was terrible. 

"At present I am at Castletown in Ireland and our ship is an- 
chored in Bantry Bay. The twenty-eighth of this month we go to 
meet the Royal navy. We will go with them for awhile and then 
go back to America. The Royal navy, or fleet, is believed to be along 
the Italian coast at present. I certainly want to see Italy. I have al- 
ready been in England, Wales and Ireland and now for Italy and then 
America." 

His eventful career was terminated on July 5, 1919, when he died 
of cerebro-spinal meningitis. His body was brought to Evansville 
and buried in the Oak Hill Cemetery from the Simpson M. E. Church. 

Concerning binder's death Commander Edward H. H. Old, wrote 
to his mother from Portsmouth, N. H., Navy Yard: 

"It is with deep regret that I have to inform you of the death of 
your son, Wilbur Washington Linder, Stkpr-I, U. S. Navy, which oc- 
curred on board this vessel on July 5, 1919, at 7:35 p. m., as you were 
no doubt informed by telegram from the department. 

"The cause of his death was cerebro-spinal meningitis. I assure 
you that every attention was given him by both Medical Officers and 
their assistants. His courage and manliness were apparent to all. 

"Your son has died while in the service of his country during 
this great war for the preservation of all that we hold as ideal for 
the advancement of civilization and the uplift of humanity. His death 
is as glorious as if suffered on the battlefield, and such as every true 
patriot should envy him, though I can well understand what his loss 
must mean to you. 

"Please accept my deep sympathy and prayer that our Heavenly 
Father will comfort you as only He can. Faithfully yours, 

EDWARD H. H. OLD, 
Commanding, M. C, U. S. Navy, 

Commanding." 

105 



SONS OF MEN 




Austin Lee 

Loer 



We hail thee Immortal! 
We, robes of Life, molder- 
ing while worn. 
— Francis Thompson. 



Teacher, business man. journalist, man of affairs, splendid sol- 
dier, popular everywhere, respected and beloved by all, Austin Lee 
Loer met an unusual fate in the midst of ?,n energetic and patriotic 
career. 

He was born December 20. 1889. at Herbst. Ind. His elemen- 
tary education was obtained at Herbst and Swayzee, but he went to 
Marion, Ind., for his secondary education. When he graduated from 
high school he took a teachers" training course for a year at the Ma- 
rion Normal School. For a year he taught in a rural school in Grant 
County, and then entered the business world as a salesman for the 
Indiana Iron & Brass Bed Company of Marion. His territory was 
in Michigan and Kentucky. In 1912 he did secretarial work at Indi- 
anapolis for Senator Beveridge. He was on the editorial staff of the 
Indianapolis News for a year. In 1913 he came to this city to continue 
journalism as the sporting editor of the Evansville Journal-News. A 
year before he enlisted he became assistant secretary of the Evans- 
ville Chamber of Commerce, and was actively in charge of the Con- 
vention Bureau. His popularity gained him admission in different 

106 



GOLD STARS 



social circles. He identified himself with several organizations, such 
as the Press Club, Motor Club and Rotary Club. 

Loer did not wait for the draft when we entered the war. On 
April 2, 1917, he enlisted in Troop A, under Capt. Orion Norcross and 
was commissioned a second lieutenant. Cavalry, Indiana National 
Guard, by Adjt.-Gen. Harry B. Smith. The unit was called to federal 
service on August 5. and with Troop A, he left for Camp Shelby, Hat- 
tiesburg. Miss., on the twenty-first of that month. In October the 
Indiana Cavalry was disbanded and Loer was made second lieuten- 
ant, U. S. National Guard, 151st Infantry, Headquarters Company. 
At the end of November he was promoted to first lieutenant and wan 
named intelligence officer for the 151st Infantry. In June, 1918, he 
received another promotion; he then became Capt. Loer, with the title 
of regimental intelligence officer. 

The following September Capt. Loer left for Camp Mills, N. Y., 
with the 151st Infantry. Three weeks later he sailed to Montreal for 
embarkation on the North-Lord, a British vessel in a British convoy. 
The weather was disagreeable and cold. On October 5 he reached 
Quebec and remained there for twenty-four hours. The day was very 
cold, a high wind was blowing and the river was very rough. The 
weather caused considerable sickness on board ship. Capt. Loer suf- 
fered from a slight cold, but apparently it was not alarming. He went 
on with his work in censorship matters and wrote out a number of 
confidential orders. 

On the second day out of Quebec Capt. Loer admitted that he 
would have to give up and go to bed. Spanish Influenza, which he 
contracted, was developing pneumonia. Red Cross nurses and doc- 
tors did their utmost to save him. Col. George H. Healey, who was 
with him later, described the circumstances of his death. He said: 
"I realized twenty-four hours before his death that he had small 
chance of living and I spent much of that time very near his bed. At 
about seven o'clock I went to my stateroom, knowing that the end 
was not far away. That was Sunday evening, the thirteenth. At just 
8 o'clock Major Gardner, the senior medical officer, entered my room 
and announced that the end had come. We had had several deaths 
previously and had found out that British vessels do not carry caskets 
nor embalming chemicals and there was no manner of preserving the 
body. It was thus unavoidable to bury his remains at sea. 

"The service was a most impressive one, being conducted by Rev. 
John South, our beloved Chaplain, and attended by all the officers of 

107 



SONS OF MEN 



the regiment and the Red Cross and Y. M. C. A. men and women. The 
body was wrapped in an American flag and cast into the sea amid 
the most sorrowful surrounding I have ever witnessed." 

In a letter to Capt. Loer's mother, Col. G. H. Healey gave the fol- 
lowing eulogy of the earnestness, loyalty and devotion of Capt. Loer: 

"I wish I could convey to you the full appreciation I had for your 
son. He was the embodiment of honor and sincerity. He spent many 
hours with me in connection with his work as intelligence officer 
and was absorbed with his task. I am certain had the regiment ever 
gone to the front with him in charge of his section, we would have 
made a record for ourselves because of perfect handling of the in- 
telligence and liaison work. He came to me daily to report the pro- 
gress of the training of the officers and men of the intelligence, snip- 
ing, observation and scouting sections and was so absorbed in his 
work that I am sure he never gave a thought to anything else than the 
performing to the highest ideal his part in the war service. I feel sure 
that he took his work to bed with him and got up with it in the morn- 
ing, and I fear he took it to his sick bed with him and that he thought 
of it in his rational moments. He seemed destined to die as he did 
and I can pay him the highest tribute that I can feel for any man I 
have ever known. He was loyal, industrious, painstaking, thorough, 
and his qualities of mind and heart were of the highest type. The 
sacrifice of a son is a great one, but the satisfaction of knowing his 
life was pure and his purpose set in the right direction is a recom- 
pense that makes sorrow give away to pride. Austin was a hero just 
as much as though he met his death on the battlefield." 



108 



GOLD STARS 




Loeipenlhdl 



Nor ci'owTi nor sceptre 
would I ask 
But from my country's 
will, 
By day, by night, to ply 
the task 
Her cup of bliss to fill. 
— John Quincy Adams. 



Roy L. Loewenthal was a typical American in his versatility of 
mind and adaptability to different types of mental work. 

He was born November 17, 1885, at Vincennes, Ind. He received 
his elementary education in Evansville. For his secondary education 
he attended a preparatory school in Hopkinsville, Ky. His ambition 
was to study electrical engineering. For that purpose he went to the 
University of Pennsylvania preparatory school, where he pursued a 
scientific course for two years. 

In 1906 Roy Loewenthal returned to Evansville and engaged in 
business. He advanced to the position of vice-president in the Loewen- 
thal & Co. While he was active in a successful business career, he 
studied law evenings and during his spare moments, through a cor- 
respondence course of LaSalle University of Chicago. Two days be- 
fore he entered service his efforts in the study of law were rewarded 
by admission to the bar. 

He responded to the call for men over thirty years of age, and, 
abandoning the management of an important business he entered the 
Officers' Training School of the Field Artillery at Camp Taylor. 
About three weeks later he was stricken with the Spanish Influenza, 
which developed into double pneumonia. Death came November 15, 
1918. His burial in Evansville was a sad occasion, as his sacrifice 
came at the dawn of peace, a few days after military operations of the 
war were terminated by the signing of the Armistice. 

109 



SONS OF MEN 




"Benjcimm Jdcob 
Lueken 



For thou must suffer, 
thou must fight, until the 
war lords cease, and all 
the peoples lift their 
heads in liberty and peace. 
— Henry Van Dyke. 





Benjamin J. Lueken gave Evansville its second gold star as a 
member of the Marine Corps. It was because of the dashing and bold 
achievements of the "soldiers of the sea" that the enemy called these 
men "Teufel Hunde."* 

He was born July 12, 1897, in Evansville, Ind. He attended the 
St. Mary's Catholic School, and graduated from Campbell School. 
Then he took a course in bookkeeping at Lockyear's Business Col- 
lege. He started to work at the C. & E. I. local office at fifteen years. 
He was still working there at the time of his enlistment. He entered 
the U. S. Marine Corps as a private in May, 1917. His first training 
camp was at Paris Island, S. C, where he went on May 29. From 
there he was transferred to Quantico, Virginia. 

Private Lueken belonged to 74th Co., 6th Reg. U. S. Marines. 
This company was formed on July 18,1917, at Quantico, Virginia, as 
"A" Company of the First Battalion of the Sixth Regiment, Second 
Division, with Capt. A. B. Miller as commanding officer, and "Smoke" 
Gallager as first sergeant. On July 19 the company started training 
in modern warfare and finished on September 15, when they left for 
New York, and embarked for overseas on September 16, 1917. The 
company disembarked at St. Nazaire, France, October 6, 1917. 

From the 7th of October until January 2, 1918, the company was 
at St. Nazaire. doing construction work and guard duty. Entrain- 
ing at St. Nazaire and going by rail to Germainvillers, Lueken under- 



*Devil Dog^s. 



110 



GOLD STARS 



went a more intensive period of training, which was to prepare the 
boys for their first experience in the trenches. When it arrived 
in Somme-Dieu, France, on January 18, 1918, the company lay in the 
trenches in the Toul sector, near Verdun. Here the company received 
its first experience in trench warfare, and after ten days withdrew to 
Camp Fontaine, St. Robert. On April 13, while in reserve, a surprise 
gas bombardment from the enemy was thrown over, in which thirty- 
eight men died from gas wounds, and practically the entire company 
was removed to the hospital, where they lay between life and death 
for months. 

In this battle Benjamin J. Lueken was fatally gassed. On May 
5, 1918, at Somme-Dieu, the company was reorganized with replace- 
ments from the second replacement battalion, and on the eleventh 
left for Ontrepont. From the 1 1th until the 30th the new men trained 
at Ontrepont and Petite Serans. On Decoration Day orders were re- 
ceived to entrain, and the company moved to Montriel, where it stop- 
ped, and then moved forward on foot to Paris Ferme. 

In these latter activities, however, Benjamin Lueken took no part. 
The gas wounds proved fatal to him. On April 29, 1918, his parents 
received the following telegram: "Deeply regret to inform you that 
Private Benjamin J. Lueken, Marine Corps, died on April 22, from 
wounds received in action. The body will be interred abroad until 
end of the war. Please accept my heartfelt sympathy in your great 
sorrow. Your son laid down his life in defense of his country. 

"GEORGE BARNETT, 
"Major General Commandant, 
U. S. Marine Corps." 

St. Benedict's Church, the Knights of Columbus and the Holy 
Name Society, of which Private Lueken was a member, sang a solemn 
requiem, as a memorial service for Evansville's second hero. The ap- 
propriate decorations of the church, the black and white robes of the 
priests, and the solemn service, made the occasion impressive. The 
funeral sermon was given by Father D. D. Ryan of St. Mary's of the 
Woods. 

The body of Private Lueken was buried in grave No. 40, at 
Bombluzin Cemetery, Meuse, France. On a later date his body was 
disinterred and reburied in grave No. 164, Section 107, Plot No. 4, 
Cemetery 1232, Argonne, American Cemetery, Romagne-Sous-Mont- 
faucon, Meuse. 

His last letter to his parents was written April 1 1, 1918, just three 
days before he received the fatal gas wound. They had then moved 
a short distance behind the trenches to rest. The trenches they had 
left, he said, were what the French called a quiet sector, though they 
were showered with shells, shrapnel and machine gun fire from the 
enemy. His last gift to his mother was a little bouquet of flowers 
which he sent in an envelope from France. He gathered the flowers 
himself, he said. They grew around his billet in the woods. 

Ill 



SONS OF MEN 




Odus E. 
McFddden 



Thy R-enerous blood tliat 
flowed from tlioe 
Disdained to sink be- 
neatli; 
Within our veins its cur- 
rents be, 
Thy spirit on our 
bixjath ! 

— Lord l?\ron. 



A report from the Associated Press describes the fi^htintj on the 
day Odus McFadden was killed in action: 

"Fighting with all the ferocity of the early days of the war, the 
Germans did their utmost today to bring to a halt the American of- 
fensive. F.arly this morning and in the afternoon the Ameiicans 
pushed foi'ward thi'ough a blanket ot fog, a yard at a time, and later 
in the day, when the mists lifted, they drove forward a further dis- 
tance against the German lines. 

"Almost no change lias been made on the right near the Meuse, 
but on the left, the operations of the French west of the Argonne 
forest, and the Americans on the east defined more clearly the salient 
in wliich the enemy still has a considerable force opposing the Amer- 
icans, who have been steadily clearing the forest of machine gun 
nests." A gas wound did not daunt the courage of Odus McFadden. 
His desire to fight gave him strength to rejoin his comrades and make 
the supreme sacrifice. 

Odus F. McFadden was born in Grafton, Posey County, Indiana, 
September 1, 1894. Until he was sixteen he lived at different times in 



\V2 



GOLD STARS 



Warrick and Spencer Counties of this State. He then went to Arkan- 
sas and Missouri, where he spent four years. When he came to Ev- 
ansvillc he found employment at the Crown Pottery Co. After re- 
maining in this city for a year he left for Kcnnet, Mo., where he was 
engaged in the dairy business. 

He entered the service at Kennet about the middle of March, 
1918. At Camp Funston, Kansas, his first training station, he was 
assigned as a cook to Co. C, 335th Infantry. In the latter part of 
May, 1918, he sailed for overseas service. He went from New York 
by way of Canada. On June 1, 1918, he arrived in England, and sev- 
eral days later went to Brest, France. 

Practically nothing is known from his letters of his experiences 
in France. The few known details of his death have been given by 
an army chaplain who knew of Odus McFadden. The chaplain said 
that in a great drive of the Meuse-Argonne battle Odus McFadden 
was gassed October 5, 1918. He was transferred to an S. O. S. Hos- 
pital October 10. Nineteen days later he recovered sufficiently to re- 
join his company. On November 3, 1918, he was struck by a shell, 
while in action. His wound was so severe that he died before first aid 
could be given. His burial place is unknown. 




113 



SONS OF MEN 




Judson 

McQreu? 



It matters not how long 
we live, but how. 

—P. J. Bailev. 



Nothing is more descriptive of a soldier's heroism than the offi- 
cial report "Killed in action." A fitting reward for such a sacrifice is 
to he "huried with military honors." Such was the heroism and the 
reward of Judson McGrew. 

"Juddy," as he was affectionately called, was born November 9, 
1888. When he completed the elementary work in Campbell School, 
he entered Evansville High School, from which he graduated in 1906. 
He went to DePauw University, and received his A. B. degree in 1910. 

While at DePauw, Judson McGrew displayed a keen interest in 
various university activities. He was a member of the Sigma Nu Fra- 
ternity. He had an enviable reputation as an athlete. He was an ex- 
pert swimmer and skater. He was also a champion Basketball, Vol- 
ley Ball and Tennis player. On the walls of the Y. M. C. A. building 
in Evansville, his photograph appears in ten different groups of ath- 
letes. He was active in the Y. M. C. A., and also a devout church mem- 
ber since early boyhood, having joined the Trinity M. E. Church when 
Rev. M. A. Farr was its pastor. He was also a Sunday School teacher. 
He was one of the most popular young men in the city. 

114 



GOLD STARS 



When he graduated from the university he entered the employ- 
ment of the Evansville Coffin Co. Later he held a position with the 
Richardt Insurance Co., and Speed Printing and Publishing Co. of 
Evansville, and at the time of his enlistment he was employed at the 
Standard Oil Co. as an accountant. 

Judson McGrew enlisted May 8, 1917, and went to the Officers' 
Reserve School at Ft. Benjamin Harrison, May 12, 1917. On August 
15, 1917, he was commissioned 2nd Lieutenant in the Infantry. He 
sailed for overseas August 26, 1917, on the Mongolia. This was the 
first American ship to fire a shot at a German submarine, and sink- 
ing it. 

We can understand the ovation given to the returning heroes of 
the Rainbow (42nd) Division, when we know it was composed of such 
men as Lieut. McGrew. In March, 1918, Lieut. McGrew was in com- 
mand of a sector of the front line trenches held by members of Co. 
D, 167th Infantry. He won nation wide attention when, with a patrol 
of American soldiers under his command, Lieut. McGrew made a raid 
on German trenches, and captured two prisoners. These prisoners 
were "the first to be taken by Americans without the aid of the 
French." His men were decorated by General Pershing and Secretary 
Baker. For this gallant service, Lieut. McGrew received official hon- 
ors, and was presented with a gun of a German officer as a souvenir. 

In a letter dated April 3, 1918, Lieut. McGrew mentioned the 
strenuous trench service that the Americans experienced as a result 
of the drive launched by the Germans. "I have had shrapnel hum 
around my head like bees." However, throughout this hazardous 
trench life, Lieut. McGrew, like many of the American crusaders, often 
thought of home. "How I would like to see the good old U. S., and 
Evansville, God Bless Her," he once wrote. In another letter he said, 
"no matter how busy you are, you always think of home, the more 
uncomfortable you are the more you long for home." 

In his last letter, dated July 14, 1918, Lieut. McGrew said that the 
Germans would attack the next day. He made the supreme sacrifice 
while rallying his men near Epied, France, a short distance north of 
Chateau Thierry. A telegram received by the hero's parents stated: 
"Deeply regret to inform you that Lieut. C. J. McGrew, infantry, is 
officially reported as killed in action July 26. 

HARRIS, 
Acting Adjutant General." 

A brief sketch of the activities of the Rainbow Division, in which 

115 



SONS OF MEN 



Lieut. McGrew served, is given in a letter dated August 13, 1918, from 
Major-General Charles T. Menohez. "To the Officers and Men of the 
42nd Division." In part the letter states: 

"Your first elements entered the trenches in Lorraine on Febru- 
ary 21. You served on that front for one hundred and ten days. You 
were the first Americans to hold a divisional sector, and when you left 
the sector June 21, you had served continuously as a division in the 
trenches for a longer time than any other American Division. Al- 
though you entered the sector without experience in actual warfare, 
you so conducted yourself as to win the respect and affection of the 
French Veterans with whom you fought. Under gas and bombard- 
ment, in raids, in patrols, in the heat of hand to hand combat and in 
the long dull hours of trench routine so trying to a soldier's spirit, 
you bore yourself in a manner worthy of the traditions of our coun- 
try. 

You were withdrawn from Lorraine and moved immediately to 
the Champagne front, where during the critical days from July 14 to 
18, you had the honor of being the only American Division to fight in 
General Gourand's Army which so gloriously obeyed the order, 'We 
will stand or die'; and by its iron defense crushed the German assault 
and made possible the offensive of July 18, to the west of Rheims. 

From Champagne you were called to take part in exploiting the 
success north of the Marne. Fresh from the battle front before Cha- 
lons you were thrown against the picked troops of Germany. For 
eight consecutive days you attacked skillfully prepared positions. You 
captured great stores of arms and ammunitions. You forced the 
crossings of the Ourcq. You took Hill 212, Sergy, Meurey, Ferme and 
Scringes by assault. You drove the enemy, including an Imperial 
Guard Division, before you for a depth of fifteen kilometers. When 
your infantry was relieved it was in full pursuit of the retreating Ger- 
mans, and your artillery continued to progress and support another 
American Division in the advance to the Vesle. 

For your services in Lorraine, your division was formally com- 
mended in General Orders by the French Army Corps under which 
you served. For your services in Champagne, your assembled of- 
ficers received thanks and commendation of General Gourand himself. 
For your services on the Ourcq, your division was officially compli- 
mented in a letter from the Commanding General, First Army Corps, 
of July 28, 1918. 

To your success, all ranks and all services have contributed, and 
I desire to express to every man in the command my appreciation of 
his devoted and courageous effort." 

Mr. Borden Bur, a member of the National War Work Council 
of the Y. M. C. A., who was within a hundred yards of Lieut. McGrew 
when he was fatally wounded, said, "His death was a glorious contri- 
bution to his country and the cause of liberty." The tribute paid to 
his memory by Evansville, was proportionate to the splendid heroism 
he displayed. 

116 



GOLD STARS 




Ro^ 



McSiPdue 



Not on the field of bat- 
tle, yet on the field of 
Honor. 

— By request of his 
Mother, 



Roy McSwane did not seek fame but only asked for strength to 
fight for liberty until "despots die and sin takes flight and all the 
whole wide world is free." He was born July 15, 189G, in Warrick 
County, Indiana, near Lynnville, where he spent his childhood days. 
He attended the Mt. Olive School in that community for several terms. 
Later his parents moved on a farm in the vicinity of Elberfeld, In- 
diana, and he attended the Hazel Ridge School. Roy McSwane was 
always a bright and intelligent boy and took great interest in his 
books, and often in the early days of his life told his mother of his 
plans when he grew to manhood. His mother little dreamed, as she 
listened to his childish prattling and imaginative bravado of a heroic 
■career, that just as he budded into manhood he would be called to 
take up arms and march away to war in defense of his country, never 
again to see his home. 

On January 11, 1911, Roy McSwane, with his parents, moved to 
Evansville, where he secured employment at the Hercules Buggy 
Works, and was employed there at the time he entered the service of 
his country. When the great world conflict threatened the welfare 
of our nation, and our chief executive began calling for our boys, his 
mother, realizing the hardships of military life and fearing because 
of his poor health, hesitated in permitting him to enlist, but the 

in 



SONS OF MEN 



patriotic zeal of this young American may be perceived in his reply: 
"Mother, our country does need me and I must go, but I'll come back, 
and a better man, with full chest and strong arms. 1 have no better 
claim for not going than any other boy, nor have you a better claim 
than any other mother. We cannot see our country go down and 
our flag trampled on. So, cheer up, mother, we must win the victory 
at any cost." 

While thus he debated with his mother, the call actually came, 
and on September 3, 1918, he was inducted into the service and en- 
tered Camp Zachary Taylor on the sixth day of September. His mili- 
tary career was brief. It was just six weeks later that his body, stilled 
by death, was brought hoine. He had written promising letters home 
and seemed to be well pleased with the military life. When the pesti- 
lence, influenza, fell upon the camp and raged with fearful violence, 
slaying our brave boys as the reaper reaps the grain, he wrote, "I 
work hard and faithfully every night in trying to care for my sick 
comrades." 

It was not his fate to continue this self-sacrifice of ministering to 
the wants of others. He was seized in the grasp of the frightful plague. 
For two weeks he bravely fought to free himself from its clutch. 
News came of his illness and his father and brother, Ray, went to see 
him. Then glad tidings came to the home that he was improving, 
but, alas, in a few days a sad message came. It read, "Roy seriously 
ill." The father and mother hastened to his bedside. They arrived 
at 9 o'clock on the evening of October 16. After their arrival, the 
grief-stricken parents did not leave his bedside until they had wit- 
nessed his passing. Death claimed their son at 3:30 o'clock the fol- 
lowing evening, October 17, 1918. at the age of twenty years and 
three months. 

Before he died he appealed to his mother to remain with him and 
bring him home with her. He told them death was near and asked 
them not to grieve, "for I am going to Heaven, mother," he said. 
"I am dying for Old Glory. May our country win the victory." In 
his preparation for death, in a weak, yet firm voice, he sang two 
hymns, "What a Friend We Have in Jesus," and "Will There Be Any 
Stars in My Crown?" His parents and those close by witnessed a 
most beautiful and fitting conclusion of a soldier's life. He saluted 
the flag three times, and told his parents good-by. Then, as if a 
divine apparition suddenly revealed itself to him, he pointed to 
heaven and passed away peacefully, "like one who wraps the draperies 
of his couch about him, and lies down to pleasant dreams." 

Roy McSwane's body, clad in his uniform, was brought home, a 
tlag draping the casket. He was laid to rest on October 21, 1918, in 
the Mt. Olive Cemetery, on the sunny side of the hill near his old 
home and the school house where he spent his happy childhood days. 



118 



GOLD STARS 




lUilbert D. 

Mdcer 



Open my heart and will 

find in me 
Inscribed within, Italy, 

— Robert Brown inj?. 



"Peace cannot become a law of human society except by passing 
through the struggle which will ground life and association on foun- 
dations of justice and liberty, on the wreck of every power which 
exists not for a principle but for dynastic interest." 

These were the words of Mazzini, the Italian nationalist, who in 
the middle of the nineteenth century worked for the unification of 
Italy, as Bismarck was working for the unification of Germany. What 
a contrast in their interpretation of nationalism! The Kingdom of 
Piedmont-Sardinia, the nucleus of the Italian national spirit, was only 
the leader of Italian unification; Prussia, however, dominated the 
other German states and finally converted them to Prussian militar- 
ism. Mazzini wanted a nation established on "foundations of justice 
and liberty"; Bismarck's purpose was "Blood and Iron." 

Wilbert D. Macer was one of the American soldiers who gave 
their lives helping Italy after she freed herself from the German 
influence of the Triple Alliance. 

He was born October 28, 1893, in Lynnville, Warrick County, In- 
diana. He received his primary education in that town and also 

119 



SONS OF MEN 



completed the first year of a high school course. When he came to 
Evansville he worked for a year as a clerk in a drug store. He left 
this employment and worked with a florist. Finally he bought the es- 
tablishment formerly known as the Kramer Floral Co. After one year 
in business he went to Detroit, Mich., and three months later he left 
for Toledo, O. Throughout this time he continued to be interested 
in the floral business. At Toledo he received scientific training in the 
designing and growing department. 

Abandoning his work at Toledo he entered the service in April, 
1918. He was assigned at Camp Taylor to Co. C, 332d Infantry. Here 
he distinguished himself as an expert rifleman. In June, 1918, he 
crossed the ocean, and on the eighteenth of that month he landed 
"somewhere in England." 

He spent only a few hours on British soil, and then went to 
France. Here he was promoted to a private, first class. About July 
25th his organization was transferred to the Italian front. He was 
in Italy but a few days when he was afflicted with a severe attack of 
dysentary. On the fourth day of August he was taken to hospital No. 
331 temporarily and showed marked improvement. He was sick about a 
week, and died from the effects of the ailment August 11, 1918. 

Dr. Joseph H. Willis, of Evansville, Captain, M. R. C, was in 
Field Hospital No. 331, Zona Guerra. He was with Wilbert Macer dur- 
ing his last moments. In a letter to Dr. E. C. Macer, the hero's broth- 
er, Dr. Willis described the funeral and the military honors in memory 
of Wilbert Macer. The letter stated: 

"The funeral of your brother was held yesterday afternoon and 
was very impressive. He was buried with full military honors, the 
colonel himself marching on foot at the head of the regiment. His 
coffin was draped in the flag for which he died, and a wonderful band 
furnished music. His comrades furnished a guard of honor. He died 
a true soldier and I am glad to report that officers and men alike 
speak very highly of him and of the record he made while in the ser- 
vice. 

"Under the blue Italian skies, almost within the shadows of the 
mighty Alps, he sleeps. His resting place is well marked and I have 
its location firmly fixed in mind. It is near a railroad, so that should 
the government decide after the war to bring back our fallen soldiers 
it will be a very easy matter to locate his grave. 

"Were it my brother, I would indeed feel proud of the honor 
that has been shown him in this splendid funeral." 

120 



GOLD STARS 



Chaplain John K. O'Herron gave Dr. Macer details of the burial 
place. It is situated in Villafranca Cemetery, American section. The 
grave is in the northwest corner, and his head is one foot from the 
north wall. The Chaplain added, "He did not die in battle, but he did 
what he could, which is the greatest thing ever said of man.' ' 

Capt. Robert B. Burch, writing to Dr. Macer, said of Wilbert's 
service: 

"In character, purpose and ability your deceased brother was 
not excelled in a company ranking high in those attributes. He was 
the first soldier to die in the company since it came overseas, and the 
first of the A. E. F. to die in Italy. He was buried with full military 
honors in a beautiful cemetery, a part of which has been set aside for 
the use of the American army. ... As long as members of this com- 
pany meet together his memory will be respected for the love his 
daily conduct inspired." 

The influence Wilbert Macer had on his comrades can be seen 
from a letter signed by the members of his squad. In part the letter 
stated: 

"He was a fine fellow and a fine soldier and will be greatly 
missed by all. His death will only be a greater incentive for us all to 
hasten the end of Kaiserism, which is the cause of so much world 
sorrow and suffering." 




121 



SONS OF MEN 




John C. 



Mdrlin 



Death comes with a crawl 
or comes with a 
pounce, 
And whether he's slow 
or spry, 
It isn't the fact that 
you're dead that 
counts, 
But only how did you 
die. 

— Edmund Vance 
Cooke. 



John C. Martin was born at Stendall, Indiana, December 31, 
1886. He was the only son of Mr. Harry C. and Lena Martin. 
Evansviile had been his home since he was six years of age. He 
attended Baker Avenue School, but finished his education at Stendall, 
Indiana. He was a member of the English Lutheran Church and 
was also a member of the Moose and Eagles lodges. Previous to his 
enlistment he was yard switchman on the C. & E. I. Railroad. He 
was the second man called in the first draft, and was sent to Camp 
Zachary Taylor, Ky., on September 6, 1917. He was made Corporal 
and later chief mechanic of Co. B, 335th Infantry. His thoroughness 
attracted the attention of a Louisville newspaper, which said of him: 
"The proudest man in the company is John C. Martin, formerly con- 
nected with the C. & E. I. at Evansviile. It's because of his appoint- 
ment as chief mechanic. Johnny is very particular about his jobs, 
often calling on the officers of the company to act as his assistants, 
with the result that Co. B's barracks look more like a "home" every 
day with the newly added fixtures." 

In April he was transferred to Co. L, 120th Infantry, of the "Old 

122 



GOLD STARS 



Hickory," 30th Division, at Camp Sevier, S. C, and from there to 
Camp Merritt, N. J., where he remained for six days. From Camp 
Merritt he went to Boston on the Miltiades, an English vessel, and 
left Boston on May 14 for New York harbor. He began his voyage 
across the sea two days later, and arriving at Gravesend, England, 
June 5, 1918. On the same day he went to Dover, England, where he 
remained for three days, and then sailed for Calais, France. 

In a letter dated July 15, 1918, while in a road camp in Belgium, 
where they remained from the 11th until the 18th of that month, he 
wrote: "Air raids are common occurrences. I have been in many 
of them, as scarcely a night passes but that we see battles in the 
air. Just now as I write there is real excitement outside. Some of 
the experiences I've been through have made the outcome for the 
time seem doubtful. There are several boys here with me now, and 
they are making a remarkable showing for themselves." 

Many horrible accounts of German war methods have been re- 
lated. In one of his letters he told of the great Hindenburg drive of 
September 29. He described the extremes to which desperation and 
approaching defeat drove the Boches. He said: "After the big event 
I went in a mopping-up party, and went through miles of under- 
ground tunnel. I buried several little German boys, seemingly not 
more than fifteen years of age, and we found several of them chained 
to machine guns. We found a crematory where the Germans cut up 
their own dead, and used the grease for their high explosives." It 
was a gruesome spectacle of which only the eye can get a fair con- 
ception. 

After going through all the battles without a scratch in which 
the 30th Division took part, he was gassed on October 19, 1918. He 
was relieved from the front and sent to Beaucort, France, but be- 
cause of his weakened condition from the gas wounds and exposure, 
influenza and broncho-pneumonia developed. He was then sent to a 
base hospital on October 31. The next news of him was the fol- 
lowing telegram : 
"Mrs. Lena Martin, 602 John Street, Evansville, Ind. 

"Deeply regret to inform you that it is officially reported that 
Mechanic John C. Martin, Infantry, died of influenza and broncho- 
pneumonia, November 3, 1918. 
(Signed) "HARRIS, the Adjt.-Gen." 

He was buried with military honors, and now rests in Amiens, 
Somme, France. 

123 



SONS OF MEN 




Edu?drd E. 
niosbij 



The day is come! The die 
is cast, 
We sally forth in Titan 
mold, 
With Titan strength from 
first to last 
The Rights of Man- 
kind to uphold. 
—Clifford B. Crescent. 



Edward E. Mosby recognized the call of duty to overwhelm the 
monster of Europe, Prussian militarism, which for many years has 
sown distrust and hate, and reaped a harvest of its downfall and de- 
struction. 

Corporal Mosby was born in Evansville January 9, 1893. He 
went to Centennial School and graduated in 1907. His desire to learn 
the printing trade led him to seek employment at several local print- 
ing firms, among which were the Speed Press and Keller-Crescent. 
When he mastered his trade he was admitted to the local printers' 
union. After several years of this work in Evansville he went to 
Hammond, Ind., where he secured employment in a printing office 
as press feeder. He returned to Evansville four months later, and 
worked for the Adams Express Company for a year. 

On June 1, 1917, he entered the service as a member of Battery 
A, Eighty-second Field Artillery. His first place of training was Jef- 
ferson Barracks, St. Louis, Mo. Two weeks later he was sent to 
Cheyenne, Wyoming. There he remained for six months. It was at 
this camp he was promoted to a corporal. After spending one month 

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GOLD STARS 



at Fort Logan, Huston, Texas, he was transferred to El Paso, Texas. 
Here he fell a victim of the epidemic which was raging throughout 
the country, the Spanish Influenza. After a week of illness he seemed 
to recover, and was even ready to be discharged from the hospital; 
but he contracted pneumonia, which caused his death, October 13, 
1918. His body was brought home and was buried in Oak Hill Ceme- 
tery. 

Corporal Mosby was one of the many heroes who did not serve 
in France, but who, nevertheless, contributed to victory. It was not 
long after America was forced into the world struggle, and made 
common cause with the Allied forces against the menace of the world, 
Germany, that he joined the colors. He knew America needed help, 
and he was ready to do his part. That he did his part well, we know 
from one of his officers, Capt. S. A. Connor, of Battery A, Eighty- 
second Field Artillery, who said of him: "To serve in an organiza- 
tion with men of his type is an honor to any commander." Lieut. J. 
L. Hinshaw said: "He was always on the job, and did not once slight 
his duty. He led a clean, conscientious life." 



V V 



125 



SONS OF MEN 




Frederick Q. 
Myler 



The lieart warms to dare 

a foe who saps the 

ocean's veins. 
What! Fear death's slimy 

eye, his f i- o s t e d 

breath ? 
To purfjre these waves we 

p'aily sail t h r o u g !i 

death. 

— Rcbert Wiener. 



Frederick Grant Myler was a devoted and affectionate husband 
and father, but so intense was his desire to serve his country that he 
willingly assumed a different name in the army, that there might be 
no opportunity for his dependents to seek his exemption. 

Frederick Myler was born in East Liverpool, Ohio, April 6, 1888. 
When he was ten years old he moved to Tiffin, Ohio, where he attend- 
ed school until he reached the ninth grade. When he was seventeen 
he entered the U. S. Navy and enjoyed a trip around the world. Three 
years later he fell out of the ship's riggings and suffered injuries to 
his ribs and one leg. After he was discharged from the navy on 
April 19, 1909. he worked in a pottery at Tiffin. He later followed the 
same trade in Evansville. On April 8, 1911, he married Miss Mamie 
Daum. They had two children, one of whom died while Myler was 
in the army. 

When the Lusitania was sunk he chafed at the apparent inactivity 
of the government. "If America does not act," he thought, "I. for 
one, will avenge the victims on the Lusitania." Acting on this thought 

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GOLD STARS 



he left home without informing his family of his intentions and en- 
listed in the British army, in Canada. 

Finally, America did enter the war. Myler wanted to fight 
under his own country's flag. He left the British army and enlisted 
at Detroit under the pseudonym of Keller and was sent to National 
Park, Gettysburg, Pa., June 25, 1917. He was made Corporal in Co. 
K, Fourth Infantry. Two months later he was transferred to the 310th 
Infantry, Co. M, Camp Dix, N. J., where he was made a sergeant. On 
May 9, 1918, he sailed for France. After months of training he en- 
tered the lines on September 17, 1918, in the St. Mihiel drive, a few 
miles from Thiaucourt. In a battalion raid, in which his platoon was 
the assaulting unit, Sergeant Myler was killed in action, September 
22, 1918, "while leading his men bravely and calmly." 

Lieutenant Irvin E. Goldsmith, Co. M, 310th Infantry, wrote of 
Sergeant Myler: "He was always faithful in the execution of his 
duties and always had the men under him well in hand, which is the 
best proof of efficiency as a non-commissioned officer. The very 
short time it was necessary for him to be in the lines, he conducted 
himself entirely in a manner which should make his country and his 
dear ones proud of him. In the midst of the greatest danger hs 
never hesitated to neglect his own personal safety for the execution 
of his duties." 




127 



SONS OF MEN 




Ernest James 
Osborne 



No factious voice called 
them unto the field of gen- 
erous fame. But the pure 
consecrated love of home; 
No deeper feeling sways 
us, when it wakes in all 
its greatness. 

— J. G. Percival. 



THE LUCKY FIVE* 

The name "Lucky Five," is a result of the induction of men into 
the United States Service in the City of Evansville, Indiana, and des- 
ignates a fighting quintet of soldiers which was represented in two 
branches of service, the Marine and Infantry. They were members of 
the Glass Bottle Blowers' Association of the United States and Can- 
ada, and were employed at the Graham Glass factory when they en- 
tered the bloodiest of all wars. Since their early childhood they have 
been closely associated, and for many years they have worked side 
by side in the Graham factory. 

Then war came, and by a fortunate coincident, they found them- 
selves destined to enter the great world conflict together. These five 
men who were even working at the same furnace, were the first five 
men at the Graham factory to be accepted for service either by en- 
listment or draft. This, coupled with the fact that they held the dis- 



It is through the courtesy of Joseph T^ythsroe that these photojrraphs and data of the "Lucky 
Five" appear here. 

128 



GOLD STARS 



tinction of being recruited in the home town of the first American 
soldier to lay down his life on the shrine of freedom, and the privilege 
that they too were to take part in the dissolution of the German dream 
of despotism, inspired them to form their little organization which 
they called the "Lucky Five." 

When the war ended the only one of the "Lucky Five" who did 
not come back was Ernest James Osborne, the Marine. He was Ev- 
ansville's second Marine to give his life in battle, and earned for her 
the third gold star. 

Osborne was the son of John F. and Josephine Osborne. He was 
born in Loogootee, Indiana, July 3, 1895. He was a graduate of St. 
John's parochial school there, and was attending high school when he 
took up the glass blowing trade. He was finally transferred to the 
headquarters of the Graham Glass Company in Evansville, where he 
remained until he enlisted May 22, 1917. He was given military train- 
ing at Port Royal and Paris Island, S. C., and at Quantico, Va. He 
was assigned to the 80th Co., 2nd Battalion, 6th Regiment, U. S. M. C, 
A. E. F. He sailed for oversea service in January, 1918. By April 
he had taken part in two sharp engagements with the enemy. He 
qualified as a sharpshooter, and was one of a machine-gun squad. He 
made a good record as a soldier and was proud of being a Marine. He 
carried out the traditions of the family, as his father was a Civil War 
Veteran and had served in Co. G, lOth Kentucky Infantry. The young 
Marine was killed in France June 3, 1918, (just one month to the day 
before he would have attained his twenty-third birthday), while in the 
thick of the fight in which the Marines drove the enemy from their 
footholds just northwest of Chateau-Thierry near the Marne. Their 
bold dash at the German forces proved fatal to him, but he fell a hero 
while gallantly fighting and pressing forward in the last of a series 
of victories of the daring Marines. 

In his last letter from the trenches dated May 16, 1918, he strange- 
ly forecasted the drive of the Marines on the German lines, when he 
said, "Wait until we Americans make our drive, then there will be a 
change. The enemy will then be through with their drives forever." 
The next news of him was a dispatch from overseas which contained: 
Ernest James Osborne killed in action. He had finished his fighting 
on a battlefield near Marne, and this daring Marine's body now lies 
in the American Cemetery Commune Essommes-Sur Marne, Aisne, 
France. 

129 



SONS OF MEN 



Now let us follow the fortunes of war of the other members of 
the quintet. 

The four stalwart infantrymen of the "Lucky Five," Corporal 
Leo M. Cissell and Private Riley R. Rawlings, Company L; Corporal 
Clyde F. Smith and Private John H. Smith. Company M. I20th Infan- 
try were among the number of selective draft troops from Evansville 
who eventually augmented the Thirtieth Division, "Old Hickory." as it 
was called after the warrior and statesman. Andrew Jackson. On Sep- 
tember 22, 1917. they formally gave themselves over to the govern- 
ment and with a large number of other men. departed for Camp Zach- 
ary Taylor, Ky., where they donned khaki. 

The day of their departure remains a memorable one. A great 
throng gathered at the L. & N. station to see the recruits entrain. 
There were many who looked on with tear-dimmed eyes as the men 
marched by. Mothers and sweethearts sobbed pitifully, but it was 
obvious that they were proud of their departing loved ones. Tears 
glistened in the eyes of even the most hardened men, but the rookies, 
already imbued with the soldierly spirit, smiled and cheered as they 
marched along with patriotic fervor. Just before the train pulled 
out of the station. Miss Gertrude Mclnnerny stepped forward and 
presented a silk flag to Corporal Cissell; and as the soldiers were 
drawn away he waved the flag from the rear platform. The crowd be- 
hind cheered wildly until the troop train whirled around the bend. 

It was during the roughest winter of many years that these men 
began their training. For months they drilled in the deep snow of 
1917 and 1918. Then they were transferred to the 120th Infantry, 
30th Division, at Camp Sevier, Greenville, S. C, which was a dis- 
tinctly American division. More than 95 per cent of its personnel 
was of American-born parents. This division was constituted of Na- 
tional Guard troops of North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee 
and augmented by thousands of selective draft troops from the states 
of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, North Carolina, 
South Carolina and Tennessee. 

The 119th and 120th Infantry Regiments, composed the 60th 
(Tar-Heel) Brigade. The 60th Brigade, in which the four infantry- 
men of the "Lucky Five" fought, was commanded by Brigadier-Gen- 
eral Sampson L. Faison, a regular army officer, a North Carolinian, 
and the maker of the 30th Division. Camp Sevier, Greenville, S. C, 
was named after Colonel John Sevier, a North Carolina militiaman 

130 



GOLD STARS 




Leo M. Cissell 

One of "The Lucky Five' 



131 



SONS OF MEN 



and Brigadier-General, U. S. A., who afterwards became Governor of 
Tennessee. 

The official history of the 120th Infantry records that while 
Camp Sevier was in an ideal location, training had been seriously 
interrupted because South Carolina sadly failed to live up to the repu- 
tation of that part of the country called "Sunny South." The winter of 
1917 and 1918 was unusually severe, a blanket of sleet and snow cov- 
ered the ground and troops had to spend their entire time cutting and 
carrying wood for heating the tented camp. The "Lucky Five," who 
had battled with the elements during their training at Camp Taylor, 
did not reach Camp Sevier until April. They found it at that time 
truly the "Sunny South." 

Leaving Camp Sevier these troops were held for nearly a week 
at Camp Merritt, N. J. They were then sent to Boston, Mass., from 
where the entire regiment embarked for overseas, the first units left 
on H. M. T. Bohemia, under command of Lieutenant-Colonel 
McGhee, and the remainder of the regiment one week later on H. M. 
T. Miltiades, under command of Brigadier-General S. L. Faison. The 
"Lucky Five" infantrymen were transported on the Miltiades. Both 
boats were crowded, but the pleasant weather gave them a perfect 
voyage. The troops on the Bohemia were disembarked at Liverpool, 
then went to Folkestone, then to Calais, France. The Miltiades was a 
British vessel. Leaving Boston she went to New York harbor, where 
she met her convoy. The Miltiades, being a slow boat, soon found 
herself left behind, so she went to the Halifax harbor, where a slow 
convoy was given her. After a long and perilous voyage, on which 
they were attacked by submarines near the Irish coast, these infan- 
trymen of the "Lucky Five" group landed at Gravesend, England, 
on June 5, 1918. From there they went to Calais, France. Company 
M guarded the division luggage three days at Dover, and crossed the 
Strait of Dover to Calais, France, on Juno 8. Company L went to Ca- 
lais on June 5, where both companies camped until June 11. During 
this period they were raided by airplanes while they were sleeping in 
their tents on a bed of sand. They moved to Neiles, France, on the lat- 
ter date, and remained there until July 2. At this time they experi- 
enced a regime of training that molded them into efficient fighting 
troops. 

Of the ten divisions assigned to the British army after it fought 
with its back to the wall against the March and April offensives of 
1918, Marshal Foch had withdrawn all but two for the defense of 

132 



GOLD STARS 



Paris, and the counter offensive of the Chateau-Thierry operations. 
These two, O'Ryan's 27th New York National Guard, and Major-Gen- 
eral E. M. Lewis's 30th (or Old Hickory Division) of the National 
Guard from our southern mountain states, fought on with the British 
and Australians. Before the completion of its training period the 
30th Division was transferred to the Eleventh British Corps, Second 
Army, in the Ypres Sector in Belgium, to be in close support in case 
of the expected German offensive. This division, the first American 
division to enter that kingdom, marched into Belgium on July 4, with 
Division headquarters at Watou, to be close support of the 33rd and 
49th British Divisions, and was employed in completing the construc- 
tion of the East and West Poperinghe Defense Systems in rear of 
these two divisions. An immense amount of trench and wire con- 
struction was done. Complete plans and orders were issued for the 
occupation of the East and West Poperinghe Systems by the 30th 
Division in the event of a German attack and a forced withdrawal of 
the British Division in the front. The division received training in 
the front line with the 33rd and 49th Divisions, first as individuals, 
then by platoons, and lastly by entire battalions until they knew all 
about life in the trenches. 

The "Lucky Five" infantrymen were now at the seat of battle, 
the shrine of a patriot's devotion when his native land is in danger. 
They were with the British army that had "Come Back," they whom 
the enemy had driven back through the Somme Valley in March and 
April. They had fully recovered after being so terribly battered, 
that they were able to deliver a smashing blow (with the two Amer- 
ican divisions and the Australian Artillery) to the Hindenburg Line. 

On August 1, about twd o'clock in the afternoon, at a point be- 
tween Ypres and Kemmel Hill (or better known as Dickiebush) Cor- 
poral Cissell, with a squad of Company L men went 'over the top' for 
the first time. In this squad was one other Evansville boy, whose 
name is given as Shank. Cissell has established the reputation of 
being fearless, and possessed of ordinary courage. Here is a story 
that had been repeated by the boys who fought beside him. 

"The Corporal was always a lively and cheerful fellow, and had 
all the qualities of the typical American soldier. He had a joyous and 
breezy way of saying and doing things. He had considerable training 
under the British, and he always fought in accordance with the British 
Navy's tradition, which was 'to pound hell out of the enemy' whenever 
the opportunity is given. He kept on pounding as long as he could. 

133 



SONS OF MEN 




Riley R. Rawlings 

One of "The Luck Five' 



134 



GOLD STARS 



He even made merry the night while big guns boomed in the distance 
in places where 'No Man's Land' was a mere narrow strip. One time 
just after the solemn silence which precedes the 'going over he top,' 
and the appointed time had come, Cissell turned to a soldier at his 
side who was to remain in the trench for the time being, and merrily 
exclaimed, 'Well, Jay Bird, I'm going after; them.' Many other squads 
were in the drive when Cissell first led his squad 'over the top,' and 
of that entire number about a dozen men were killed and more than 
that number wounded. The 'Lucky Five' infantrymen had now seen 
their first real fighting in the bloody fields of Flanders. In this battle 
Cissell and his squad waded a canal waist deep and were pressing on- 
ward unconsciously toward enemy machine-gun nests when a British 
aeroplane signaled to turn back." 

The following day (August 2) the enemy bombarded the trench 
which they occupied, and when a shell fell and exploded in the trench, 
the first one of the "Lucky Five" infantrymen was wounded. It was 
Riley R. Rawlings, who was buried beneath the dirt, and knocked un- 
conscious, slightly wounded in both shoulders and received a bursted 
ear drum. He rapidly recovered in the field hospital, but was still 
there when he learned that the division was to go to attack the Hin- 
denburg Line. With a determination not to be left behind by the 
other members of the "Lucky Five," he hastened to rejoin his outfit, 
which had moved to the "Dirty Bucket" rest camp in Belgium. On 
August 17, 1918, the "Old Hickory Division" took over the entire sec- 
tor occupied by the 33rd British Division, the 60th Brigade being in 
the front line. The men of the "Lucky Five" were in the 60th Brigade 
and the 59th Brigade was in support. This was known as the Canal 
Sector and extended from the southern outskirts of Ypres to the 
vicinity of Voormezeele, a distance of 2,400 metres. On August 31 
and September 1, the division engaged in an offensive in conjunction 
with the 14th British Division on the left and the 27th American Divi- 
sion on the right. The 30th Division captured all its objectives, in- 
cluding Lock No. 8, Lankhof Farm, a strongly fortified position sur- 
rounded by a moat, and the city of Voormezeele, advancing fifteen 
hundred yards, capturing fifteen prisoners, two machine guns and 
thirty-five rifles. As a result of this advance the 236th Division, which 
was considered an average German division, was identified. During 
the six weeks previous to this advance, many attempts were made by 
the British and our troops to identify this German division. On Sep- 
tember 4 and 5 the division was withdrawn from the Canal Sector and 

135 



SONS OF MEN 



placed in British G. H. Q. reserve, with Division Headquarters at 
Roellecourt, France. While in this area the entire division was trained 
in attacking in conjunction with British Tanks. On September 17th, 
the division was again moved farther south, with Division Headquar- 
ters at Herisssrt, and on September 22, was moved to the British 
Fourth Army, with Division Headquarters at Bois de Buire, near Tin- 
court .taking over a front line sector from the First Australian Divi- 
sion, on the nights of September 23 and 24. 

On September 29 this division, with 27th American Division on 
the left and the 46th British Division on the right, assaulted the Hin- 
denburg Line. The Hindenburg Line at this point curved in front 
of the tunnel of St. Quentin. This was considered impregnable by 
the Germans, for the following reasons: The Hindenburg Line curv- 
ing west of the tunnel consisted of three main trench systems pro- 
tected by vast fields of heavy barbed wire entanglements skilfully 
placed; this wire was very heavy and had been damaged very little 
by artillery fire. The elevated ground enabled them to bring de- 
vastating machine-gun fire on all approaches. The lines had been 
strengthened with concrete machine-gun emplacements. It contained 
at this point a large number of dugouts, lined with mining timbers, 
with wooden steps leading down to a depth of about thirty feet, with 
small rooms capable of holding from four to six men each. In many 
cases these dugouts were wired for electric lights. The large tunnel, 
through which the canal ran, was of sufficient capacity to shelter a 
division. This tunnel was electrically lighted and filled with barges. 
Connecting it with the Hindenburg trench system were numerous 
tunnels. In one case a direct tunnel ran from the main one to the 
basement of a large stone building, which the enemy used for head- 
quarters. Other tunnels ran from the main tunnel eastward to the 
city of Bellicourt and other places. This complete subterranean sys- 
tem, with its hidden exits and entrances, unknown to the 30th Divi- 
sion, formed a most complete and safe subterranean method of com- 
munication and reinforcement for the German sector. 

The possibility of the capture of this elaborately fortified sector 
of the Hindenburg Line by any troops was probably considered very 
remote by the enemy, but the accomplishment of this seeming im- 
possibility is one of the best things the American troops have done 
during the recent conflict. On September 29, 1918, at 5:50 a. m., the 
30th Division, 60th Brigade, augmented by units of the 117th Infan- 
try, assaulted this line on a front of three thousand yards, captured 

136 



GOLD STARS 




Clyde F. Smith 

One of "The Lucky Five" 



137 



SONS OF MEN 



the entire Hindenburg System of that sector and advanced farther, 
capturing the tunnel system with the German troops therein, and 
took the cities of Bellicourt, Nauroy, Riqueval, Carriere, Etricourt, 
Guillaine Ferme and Ferme de Riqueval, advancing four thousand, 
two hundred yards, defeating two enemy divisions of average quality 
(the 75th Reserve Division and the 185th Division), taking as prison- 
ers 47 officers and 1,434 men. 

The attack was to be launched at 5:50 a. m. At 4:30 all troops 
were reported on time — the 3rd Battalion on the right, "Lucky Five" 
infantrymen in this battalion; the 2nd Battalion on the left and the 
First Battalion was in support. All troops were moved away from 
the trenches, as the enemy counter barrage was expected to fall 
promptly on the trench system. 

The tanks had lumbered into position and all was ready. Ex- 
actly at 5:50 a. m. the barrage from fourteen brigades of artillery, in 
addition to the heavy guns came down. Besides this, machine-gun bar- 
rage was added with all the guns of the three Machine-gun Battalions. 
The machine-gun barrage started just a moment ahead of the artil- 
lery, the troops that had closed up to the barrage as far as safety 
would permit, spread themselves out as they moved away. All was 
going well when a dense fog settled over the entire area, which com- 
bined with the awful barrage smoke, made it impossible, according 
to the official record of the regiment, to see more than six yards away. 
The condition then became such that the success of the charge now 
depended on the individual. Each and every trooper must have 
realized that the Hindenburg Line must be taken, and that the eyes 
of the world were centered upon him, as he was one of the selected 
men to do the job. Without hesitation the men moved on and on, 
and at 7:25 a. m. the big job had been accomplished. The Hinden- 
burg Line had been crossed, and the mopping-up battalion was main- 
taining a constant flow of prisoners to the rear. At 1 1 :30 a. m. 
Nauroy was occupied, the regiment reached its objective, and the Aus- 
tralians had passed through. A part of the 117th Infantry crossed 
the canal. The Brigade in which the "Lucky Five" infantrymen 
fought was the first unit on the entire British front to break through 
the great Hindenburg Line, and their regiment was the only unit tak- 
ing all its objectives in the great attack on time. 

The men of the "Lucky Five" had not reached the half-way point 
to their objective when they were wounded. Corporal Cissell had 
only advanced 200 yards when an enemy shrapnel shell seriously 

138 



GOLD STARS 



wounded him in the right hip-joint. Before losing consciousness he 
crawled to a shell hole until the heavy artillery fire lightened a little. 
Then he made his way back to the trench, clinging to the flag which 
had been presented to him by Miss Mclnnerney at the L. & N. sta- 
tion just before he left Evansville. From the field hospital he was 
sent to the Bath War Hospital, Sommerset, England, where he lay for 
six long weary months suffering from the ugly wound. During his 
long confinement there he refused to lose the courage and cheerful- 
ness which had characterized him while at the front, where, with all 
the sang-froid of a cowboy, he went "over the top." At the Bath Hos- 
pital his courage, fortitude and endurance won for him the admira- 
tion of all the attendants. His British comrades who were also under 
treatment, are holding in affectionate memory the boy from the 
U. S. A. who had spread cheer among them. The nature of Cissell's 
wound was such that he was disqualified for future service in the 
front line, and he could not participate in the series of victories that 
followed the breaking the famous Hindenburg Line. To help in the 
task in the initial effort, as well as to play an important role in the 
breaking through the Hindenburg System, the strongest defense on 
the Western Front, was a great honor, and the fact that the penetra- 
tion was actually made on the divisional front is ample evidence that 
the honor was not misplaced. It is a credit to the fighting efficiency of 
the troops of the "Old Hickory Division," of which Major-General E. 
M. Lewis was justly proud. 

Corporal Cissell did not take part in the fighting after Septem- 
ber 29, but he remained overseas until about two weeks before the 
division sailed for home. He arrived at New York on the U. S. S. 
Louisville on March 22, 1919. Following a few weeks' treatment in a 
hospital, he was transferred to U. S. Army General Hospital No. 28, 
Fort Sheridan, III., for such further treatment as his case required. 
It will be many months before he will have thoroughly recovered. He 
still clings to the flag which was presented to him the day he left 
for military service, the flag which he carried over the battlefields of 
France and Belgium, the flag which he could not leave behind when 
he crawled to a shell hole after being so terribly wounded on the 
Cambrai and St. Quentin front. The Evansville boys who were with 
Cissell at the time he was wounded were Riley R. Rawlings, (one of 
the "Lucky Five"), Eugene Pate, Elmer Harper and Carl Fehr. 

Corporal Clyde F. Smith received three wounds during this bat- 
tle. A fragment of shell penetrated the ankle of his left foot, another 

139 



SONS OF MEN 



wounded him in the side and another in the left leg just below the 
knee. Of that battle the corporal afterwards said. "I had a terrible 
experience and I thank God the war is over." After he was wounded 
he was sent to a base hospital at Trouville. Calvados, France. He re- 
turned to his company at Vernie in December, 1918. After he had 
been wounded a hole was noticed in his haversack and examination 
revealed that some time previously he had narrowly escaped death 
from a machine-gun bullet which had passed through his rain coat 
folded inside and lodged in a loaf of bread. 

About the middle of August Corporal Smith was under heavy 
shell fire while holding one of the strong points (Bedford House) in 
Belgium. This was one of the several centers which were to be held 
until counter attacks could be launched from the support line. 

On October 1 and 2, the 30th Division was relieved by the Fifth 
Australian Division, and moved to the rear, with Division Headquar- 
ters at Herbecourt. The division had scarcely reached this area when 
it was marched back and took over the front line in the same sector 
from the Second Australian Division near Montbrehain. 

On October 8, 9, 10 and 11, the 30th Division attacked each day, 
advancing 17,500 yards, and captured many towns and took as prison- 
ers 45 officers and 1,889 men. During this operation from October 8 
to 11, the 30th Division encountered units from fourteen German di- 
visions. On October 11 and 12, the 30th Division was relieved by 
the 27th Division, but returned October 16 and took over a part of 
the same line at the same place, being the right half of the sector tem- 
porarily held by the 27th. Their next attack was launched October 
17, 18 and 19, against the 221st, 243rd and 29th German Divisions, ad- 
vancing 9,000 yards and capturing six officers, 412 men and several 
towns. 

On the 17th day of October, Private Riley R. Rawlings, one of 
the "Lucky Five" infantrymen, who was one of a machine-gun squad 
in a drive of that day, had a marvelous escape from death in "No 
Man's Land." The enemy's fire was centered around him so thick that 
the stock of his gun was shot through once, the radiator twice, his hel- 
met once, and once a shot went through his coat. At this place 
Rawlings displayed a conspicuous bit of heroism and his only com- 
ment about it after the battle was, "It was a unique way to celebrate 
my twenty-fifth birthday." During much of the fighting of this drive 
difficulties of the terrain were very great. With the country greatly 
broken by small patches of woods and villages with uneven terrain 

140 



GOLD STARS 




John H. Smith 

One of "The Lucky Five" 



141 



SONS OF MEN 



and occasionally large towns admirably added to the machine-gun 
defense of which the Germans took every advantage. The La Salle 
River with high banks beyond was obstinately defended. In spite of 
those difficulties the advance continued, often without artillery sup- 
port, but the determination of the men, their skillful use of all arms 
and the utilization of the broken terrain kept the advance steadily 
going ahead. The Third German Naval Division of the crack Ger- 
man divisions was hastily thrown in an attempt to stop the victorious 
advance of the 30th. 

On October 30, Private Rawlings was severely gassed, but went 
on without a murmur of complaint until December 22. While on a 
rifle range near Vernie, on account of increasing trouble from his 
deadened ear drum and the effects of the gassing, he was ordered to 
Le Mans and entered the base hospital there on Christmas Eve. Later 
he was transferred to Base Hospital No. 27 in Angers, and still later 
was sent to Base Hospital No. 119 at Savanay and finally sailed from 
St. Nazaire January 27, on the S. S. Rijndon, a British vessel manned 
by an American crew, and arrived at Newport News February 9, 
1919. He was honorably discharged at Camp Taylor March 12, 1919. 

Private John H. Smith had been assigned to the kitchen of Com- 
pany M, and though he was not on the fighting line shells fell about 
his outfit. On more than one occasion he barely escaped with his life. 
One of the trophies of the hunt for big game which Private Smith 
brought from the blood-soaked fields of France was a group picture 
of German soldiers, taken in their billet on the ex-Kaiser's birthday, 
and which the German prisoner, from whom Smith took this card, had 
addressed to his sweetheart, a girl in Poland. Following is a trans- 
lation of the message: 

January 1, 1916. 
Dear Anne: — 

It is afternoon and a holiday at that — the Kaiser's birthday. We 
had beer and cigarettes. Those on the picture are all from my outfit 
(Billet). I wonder if you will recognize me on it. Tomorrow we go 
back to the lines. With love, 

YOUR ANTON. 

To Anne Kosiedowski, Pelpin, near Kanden (Kreits) Manewer- 
den. 



U2 



GOLD STARS 



After the offensive described above, the 30th Division was with- 
drawn to the Heilly Training Area, near Amiens, for replacements and 
a well-earned rest. Two weeks later, when orders for an immediate 
return to the front were expected daily, the Armistice with Germany 
was signed November 11, 1918. The fighting being over the Eleventh 
American Corps was released from the British E. F., with which it had 
been associated since its arrival in France, and transferred to the 
American E. F. in the Le Mans area, where the first units of the "Old 
Hickory Division" arrived. During the above operations the ad- 
vance was so rapid and the troops withdrawn so soon that there was 
no opportunity to gather up and salvage a great number of guns 
and supplies captured, which were left for the salvage troops of the 
Fourth British Army. Upon a partial check by the units of the divi- 
sion, it is known that at least 72 field artillery pieces, 26 trench mor- 
tars, 426 machine guns and 1,792 rifles were captured, in addition to 
a great mass of supplies. This represents but a portion of the cap- 
tures. In many instances field guns taken from the Germans were 
turned over to the supporting artillery and used upon the fleeing 
Germans, 

The total number of prisoners captured by the 30th Division from 
September 29th to October 20th, was 98 officers, 3,750 men, while 
the losses of the 30th were only three officers and 24 men as prison- 
ers, 44 officers and 4,823 men wounded (including slightly wounded 
and gassed). 

Corporal Clyde F. Smith and Private John H. Smith, of Co. M, the 
last two of the "Lucky Five" to do active service overseas, sailed from 
St. Nazaire Inferieure, France, April 1, on the S. S. Martha Washing- 
ton, and arrived at Charleston, S. C, April 13, going to Camp Jack- 
son, near Columbia, S. C, for a week, then were sent to Camp Tay- 
lor, where they were given their honorable discharge on April 24, 
1919. 

Such were the experiences of the "Lucky Five," who went forth 
to a strange land for their country's cause and crowned themselves 
with honor and glory by deeds in the face of the enemy's fire in 
France and Flanders. 

The youngest of this quintet, Ernest James Osborne, "the Ma- 
rine," with the bloom of youth on his features, went to his death 
while gallantly fighting. Of the battles in which the "Lucky Five" 
fought and in which their youngest died, historians will compile vol- 
umes and as the days, months and years appear and vanish, inspired 
poets will tell of them in verse and song. 

The boys of "Old Hickory Division" and the gallant "Marines," 
with whom Private Osborne fought and died, did their part and did it 
well, and the battle of Chateau-Thierry and the breaking of the Hin- 
denburg Line, the most famous defense system of history, will be re- 
told and passed along to posterity. 

143 



SONS OF MEN 




Uerner Brelz 

Parker 



And out of the trench's 

thrall, 
Set for the Zero date, 
The crouched line hears 

the call 
That leads to the grip 
with Fate. 

— Grantland Rice. 



Verner Bretz Parker, like numerous other American soldiers, 
made the supreme sacrifice without leaving any record of his mili- 
tary activities, or the circumstances of the battle which called for 
the final test of his heroism. 

He was born December 9, 1894, in Monroe Township, Pike Coun- 
ty. He completed the grammar school, and while he did other work 
from time to time, he considered farming as his vocation. On October 
18, 1913. he married Miss Mabel Ashby at Indianapolis. 

In August, 1917, he was rejected for service because of heart 
trouble. However, in February, 1918, he volunteered for service and 
was sent to Camp Greene, Charlotte, N. C. His organization was 
Co. G, 47th Infantry, Fourth Division. Two months later he was sent 
to France. He died as a result of wounds received in action, Septem- 
ber 29, 1918. 



144 



GOLD STARS 




Euqene 



Pdle 



Again they come — again 

that sudden blast, 
But fewer shots — the 

magazine is done. 
He grips his bayonet and 

awaits the Hun 
And death — but fighting 

to the last. 
— Sgt. Matthew Wayman. 



To many of the boys who grew up in one state or one part of a 
state, and who scarcely came in contact with people from different 
parts of their own country, the variety of associations and the novelty 
of their experiences indeed formed a great adventure. Although Eu- 
gene Pate said that he couldn't write much, and that he would tell his 
experiences when he returned home, many interesting facts, which de- 
scribe life at the front, are gleaned from his correspondence. 

He was born in Henderson, Ky., February 14, 1895. In Evansville 
he attended Delaware School, and later worked at the Crown Pottery 
Company. He left Evansville for Camp Taylor September 22, 1917, 
and was first assigned to Co. B, 335th Infantry, but was later trans- 
ferred to Co. L, 120th Infantry, 30th Division (Old Hickory). At 
this post he remained in training until March 29, 1918, when he was 
sent to Camp Sevier, Greenville, S. C. About May 12 he left for 
Camp Merritt, N. J., and five days later he sailed from Boston har- 
bor. He landed in England June 5, and then went to Belgium. 

For three or four days he and his comrades were lost, but the 
Y. M. C. A. helped them out of their dilemma. On June 26, 1918, he 
entered the trenches and began a continuously active military career. 
He remained in the trenches for sixteen days before he was relieved. 
In one of the battles they were in the second wave. He, with other 

145 



SONS OF MEN 



comrades, went out under the shell fire of their own guns and brought 
in the wounded and dead. On July 29 they were gassed, "but it did 
not amount to much." His company always fought at night and 
slept during the day. It was at this time that he was transferred to 
a machine-gun squad, for which he received training at Camp Tay- 
lor. On August 12 he wrote that they had just come out of the 
trenches, and "our boys had been giving the Germans all they want- 
ed." Speaking of his experiences he said, "If you missed a meal you 
had to do without till the next one, as you couldn't buy anything in 
that sector." On one occasion he bought a dozen eggs for $1.25 in 
U. S. money. His numerous experiences taught him to love France, 
but he said there is "nothing like the good old U. S. A." He often 
revived memories from home through the local newspapers which he 
received. As Paul Chamier and other Evansville boys were near him, 
news from home made them feel as though they "lived in E-town." 

On September 8 he came out of the lines for the last time. He 
had been in the trenches about two weeks. Most of that time he was 
exposed to a cold, drenching rain. His last letter home was written 
on September 29. When he left his last words of comfort to his 
mother were: "Mother, don't worry about me. Those Germans can- 
not get me." On September 29, 1918, he was killed in action during 
the Hindenburg drive, near Bellicourt, France. 

A letter from Capt. W. B. Stone, Co. L, 120th Infantry, to C. E. 
Carter, gives a description of that battle, which is exactly the same 
as that given in the Paul Chamier article, although it was written by 
a different man, of another company. In part the letter said: 

"The body of Private Pate now rests with those of several of his 
comrades just west of Bellicourt, on a slight eminence near the St. 
Quentin Canal. It is near the scene of his death and the grave is 
marked with his name and organization and will be preserved until 
the time comes for the removal of the remains to the favored land 
for which he gave his very all. Proper and fitting arrangements for 
the burial were completed and carried out and the services were con- 
ducted by the Battalion Chaplain. The personal effects were cared for 
by the Chaplain and will in due time be forwarded, through chan- 
nels, to his mother. 

"To the bereaved mother and family you will kindly convey my 
personal sincere condolences and sympathy and say to them for me 
that Private Pate was a type of the ideal soldier and man. Among 
his comrades he was highly regarded as a young man of character and 
principle, blessed with a gracious and charitable disposition. By his 
officers he was regarded as an especially courteous and obedient sol- 
dier. But perhaps his most praiseworthy quality, and best of all, to 
be sure, was his marked, unfaltering devotion to duty." 



146 



GOLD STARS 




Rdlph C. 

Patterson 



A Patriot to save the 

State, 
A Bard to take the sting 

from Fate. 
— Robert Underwood 

Johnson. 



Ralph Patterson was born at Petersburg, Ind., February 20, 1896. 
He went to the public schools of Petersburg until the age of thirteen. 
In Evansville he attended Fulton Avenue School for two years. When 
his school days were over he began to work in a furniture factory, and 
continued this work until he entered the service. 

An army career appealed to his romantic temperament. On Sep- 
tember 28, 1914, he enlisted in the army as a cavalryman. His first 
training was at Jefferson Barracks, where he remained two months. 
He was then transferred to Ft. Meade, Md. After a year and six 
months of service at this post as a wagonner, he went to Culberrson 
Ranch, at Hachita, New Mexico. At this time he was a member of 
Troop K, 12th Cavalry. During his long period of service he had 
only one furlough for nine days, in May, 1918, during his father's 
illness. On the 17th of November, 1918, he contracted Spanish In- 
fluenza. The illness developed into pneumonia, which caused his 
death, November 21, 1918. He was buried in Evansville in Locust 
Hill Cemetery. 

True, typical red-blooded American that he was, he liked the ad- 

147 



SONS OF MEN 



venturous life of the army, and often expressed his intention of re- 
enlisting when his term expired. His desire to serve in France was 
expressed in the following poem which appeared in the Evansville 
Courier: 

ON THE BORDER 

We are sitting down here on the border, 
Waiting for orders to sail. 
We are trying to establish order, 
When nobody cares for a jail. 

We had a fight the other night. 

And one of our men was killed; 

The bandits took him and he died game; 

Sergeant Herbert Ulrich was his name. 

But who cares about the border 
When everyone's going across, 
Who cares if we suffer Loss? 

It's a pretty hard pill to swallow 
When the boys are going to France, 
To sit down here on the border, 
And not even get a chance. 

But we must obey our orders, 

And will gladly do so, too, 

If you'll give a thought to the boys 

Who are guarding the border for you. 

—RALPH C. PATTERSON, 
Troop K, 12th Cav., Hachita, New Mexico. 









148 



GOLD STARS 




Albert J. 



Paul 



Who has always looked 
for the best in others 
and given the best he 
had; whose life was 
an inspiration, and 
whose memory is a 
benediction. 
— Bessie A. Stanley. 



Albert J. Paul was born in Henderson, Ky., June 12, 1891. When 
his family moved to Evansville, he attended Columbia, Chandler, now 
known as Stanley Hall and graduated from Canal, now Wheeler 
School. He continued his education at Draughon-Porter's Business 
College, and completed a commercial course. For ten years he worked 
for the Loose-Wiles Biscuit Co. During the last four years of his 
employment he was a salesman for that firm. While in this city he 
belonged to the United Commercial Travelers and to the Masonic 
Lodge. 

On April 27, 1918, he engaged in government work at an arsenal, 
at Rock Island, 111. He was an inspector in the gun department, but 
later was promoted as inspector of the tool room. On May 21, he left 
the arsenal, and on July 1, 1918, he entered the service of his coun- 
try in the Ordnance Department, Co. A, P. O. 74, Camp Hancock, Ga. 
He was in the service but twenty-eight days, when he was promoted 
to the rank of sergeant. 

' He left Camp Hancock July 28, and sailed for France, August 1, 
1918, from New Port News. Because he went by the way of Italy it 

149 



SONS OF MEN 



was three weeks before he stepped on French soil. In a letter home, 
written from France, he said he was not sick while on the ocean. He 
was greatly impressed by the sights he had witnessed, and the ex- 
periences he went through. "One thing is sure," he said in that let- 
ter, "if we don't come here, the Huns will come to the States and do 
our mothers, wives and children as they did in Belgium, and that will 
never be and never shall." His service in France consisted of driving 
a lO-ton British truck, delivering supplies from one sector to another. 

While out on detached service, away from his organization he 
contracted pneumonia, and died in the American Red Cross Military 
Hospital No. 8, September 20th, 1918. He was buried the next day in 
the A. E. F. Cemetery No. 34, Grave No. 697. 

Albert J. Paul was imbued with the spirit of the American soldier. 
In one of his letters from France he said, "I am glad and proud that 
I am a soldier of Uncle Sam and trust that I can prove and make 
myself worthy of being one." 

A letter to Paul's brother, Jack D. Paul, from Morris Holzman, 
a returned Evansville soldier who was at that time in Bourges, France, 
gave information about his death. In part the letter said: "My whole 
heart and sympathy is extended to your mother and family, and hope 
you will all find consolation in the fact that this supreme sacrifice 
was not in vain. Brave Americans like Albert have contributed to 
this great cause which won the war for the Allies, and I know he 
gave his life willingly for his country." 

A testimonial of Paul's faithful service was given in a letter from 
his captain, Edward Fry, to his mother. Among other things the 
letter said, "During the short time that your son was in this Com- 
pany, he was an excellent soldier. His record is one of credit to his 
country, his family and his memory." 




150 



GOLD STARS 




Albert Jdckson 
Perkins 



And when the light of 

Truth you see, 
March on, for there lies 
Liberty. 
— Evening Telegram, 
Toronto. 



When America entered the world war it was not long before pub- 
lic opinion was crystallized in the sentiment which is expressed in the 
War Information pamphlet, "Why America fights Germany." "We 
have all realized," it said, "that our nation cannot live on this earth 
if it can be insulted and wronged with impunity; that its liberty and 
rights for the future must be insured; that mercy and truth, justice, 
and peace, must be secured throughout the earth if civilization is to 
survive on it." To serve this ideal many young men postponed their 
life work, and leaving family and friends went to defend "what we 
most value and love on earth." 

Albert Jackson Perkins was one of the many clean-cut, public- 
spirited American citizens who responded in the American crisis. He 
was born in Floyd County, Indiana, October 11, 1897. He received 
his education in this city at the Centennial School. Later he worked 
for the C. & E. I. Railroad and in a furniture factory. On August 17, 
1918, he married Miss Lillian Goble. He was a member of the Sacred 
Heart Church, and belonged to the Red Men Lodge. 

He entered the service September 6, 1918, in the Field Artillery. 
At Camp Taylor he was assigned to 59th Co. 15th Battalion, 159th De- 
pot Brigade. Toward the end of that month he left for Ft. Benjamin 
Harrison, Indianapolis. At this camp he was transferred to Co. M, 
First Training Battalion. During the first part of the next month 
he contracted the Spanish Influenza which developed into pneumonia. 
He died on October 9, 1918, and was buried in St. Joseph Cemetery. 

151 



SONS OF MEN 




OrdL 



Perri] 



His ])reast with wounds 
unnumbered riven, 

His back to earth, his face 
to heaven. 

— Lord Bvron. 



Ora L. Perry's part in the war can be judged by the official 
citation, "For Gallantry In Action and Especially Meritorious Ser- 
vices" in the Meuse-Argonne offensive. He was a member of the 
First Division, of which G. O. 201, November 10, 1918 said: "The 
Commander-in-Chief has noted in this Division a special pride of ser- 
vice and a high state of morale never broken by hardship nor battle." 

He was born May 5, 1890, at Dawson Springs, Ky. When he was 
two years of age his family moved to Mayfield, Ky., and three years 
later to Henderson, Ky. In this town he attended public school until 
he was in the sixth grade, when he left school to help his mother 
support the family. As an apprentice he learned the tinner's trade. 
In 1909 he came to Evansville and joined the union and secured 
employment as a sheet metal worker. His last position before en- 
tering service was with the Ohio Valley Roofing Company. 

He entered the service of his country on April 29, 1918. At Camp 
Taylor he was assigned to the Twenty-fourth Company, Sixth Train- 
ing Battalion, 159th Depot Brigade. On the fourth of June he was 
transferred to Co. D, 337th Infantry, Camp Custer, Battle Creek, 

152 



GOLD STARS 



Mich. During the first week in July he was transferred to Camp 
Mills, and July 20, 1918, he began his voyage across the Atlantic. One 
week later Perry landed "somewhere in England." He characterized 
his trip and experiences as an "adventurous time." While he was in 
England he received the following copy of a greeting from King 
George to the American troops: 

"Soldiers of the United States, the people of the British Isles 
welcome you on your way to take your stand beside the Armies of 
many nations now fighting in the Old World, the great battle for 
human freedom. 

"The Allies will gain new heart and spirit in your company. I 
wish that I could shake the hand of each one of you and bid you 
God speed on your mission. 

"GEORGE R. I." 
April, 1918. 

On August 25, he was transferred to Co. E, 18th Infantry. His 
desire to spare his mother anxiety made him very reticent. He wrote 
that his organization was continually moving from one French camp 
to another. 

The official notice to his mother stated that Ora L. Perry died 
on October 9, 1918, from "wounds received in action." No word from 
the Chaplain, officers, or comrades has been received, but it is sup- 
posed that he received the wounds in the Argonne Forest. 




153 



SONS OF MEN 




Mdson 



Potts 



Here was a man to hold 
against the world, a man 
to match the mountains 
and the sea. 

— E. Markham. 



Many heroic deaths in facing the enemy have been described. 
The death of Mason Potts is not only excruciating in detail, but is 
among the most heroic because alone he dared face an overwhelming 
number of the foe, knowing well that it would mean his death. Ser- 
geant George D. Carter, who witnessed Corporal Potts' self-sacrifice, 
wrote to his sister the following description of Potts' heroism and 
death: 

"Now in the beginning my company, a Pontoon Bridge outfit, 
was ordered on this front that your brother lost his life on the 23rd 
of June, and we were possibly seven days reaching La Fere, France. 
On the morning of July 1st, we started to hike to Chateau-Thierry, a 
distance of forty-two miles. — The Platoon of which I was in command, 
got in readiness to put a platoon's energy into constructing a bridge 
across the Marne River. We went through the middle of the town, 
and just before we reached the street that led across the main bridge, 
we turned to the right. To tell you the truth I never had Germans 
in my mind, but just as soon as we reached the river I looked up and 
coming down the hill on the other side of the river coming towards 

154 



GOLD STARS 



the Chateau-Thierry, there were thousands of them. The bridge across 
this river, which had been there perhaps hundreds of years, was not 
used by either side because of a terrible artillery duel from both sides 
centered on this bridge and it was useless to attempt a crossing. 

"I did not know, but I had a strong idea that there was a big 
bunch of infantry near this bridge and I was not worrying. When 
the Germans were possibly half way across, one poor little American 
doughboy went out to battle this multitude of Germans, and they 
were coming just as though they were on dress parade. My buddy 
and myself watched him reload an automatic pistol three different 
times, and counting the ten shells he had in the gun. Before he be- 
gan to reload he must have fired forty shots. He was shooting with 
his left hand and throwing grenades with his right. He was going, 
and the Germans coming until they met. He dropped his pistol to his 
side, I suppose because he was out of ammunition, and started reach- 
ing in his pocket with his left hand and throwing grenades with his 
right. When they met he was stabbed thirteen times with bayonets, 
a grenade was still in his hand, and the band that holds the lever had 
already been knocked off. I suppose the pain while he was being 
stabbed caused him to flinch and the grenade went off in his hand. 

"He and about six Germans went overboard and the following 
day he was pulled out of the Marne River almost in the exact spot 
where he fell, and was towed behind one of our boats about one-fourth 
of a mile down the river. When we pulled him ashore I ran my hand 
down his collar and looked at his identification tags and read his 
name. Mason Potts, Corporal Co. K, 4th U. S. Infantry, 3d Division, 
and the name remained in my mind until I wrote the War Depart- 
ment to find out his next of kin. Doubtless if it had not been for the 
fact that I too lost a brother in this war, in all probabilities I would 
not have written you to tell you that he was buried. The only thing 
that I could tell you that he had on his person when he was buried, 
was the revolver and two grenades in his right hip pocket. They will 
never in this world locate his body, and there was no stick or any- 
thing to msrk his grave. If it hadi not been for the fact that we saw 
him put up a good fight he probably would have been in the river yet, 
because they were floating there by the thousands." 

This hero was born in Bordley, Ky., March 9, 1896. His educa- 
tion was continued in Evansville High School until the third year. 
He enlisted in the army, October 31, 1912 and served for three years 
in the Philippine Islands. On September 19, 1914, he re-enlisted and 
was assigned as Corporal in Co. K., 4th U. S. Infantry at Camp 
Stewart. In April, 1918, he sailed for France from Newport News, Va. 
He was sent immediately to the front. His death in the battle of 
Chateau-Thierry, occurred on July 2, 1918. 

155 



SONS OF MEN 




Frank 



Poiuell 



The thunderinp; line of 
battle stands, 
And in the air Death 
moans and sings; 
But Day shall clasp him 
with strong- hands, 
And Night shall fold 
him in soft wings. 
— Julian Grenfell. 



Frank Powell fought on the blood saturated fields of Flanders 
where "roaring seas of Huns swept on and sank again." He was 
born in Spottsville, Ky., November 13, 1895. He received his educa- 
tion in the public schools of Spottsville. He moved with his family to 
Evansville about twelve years ago. In this city he worked for the 
Crescent Milk Company. 

He entered the service October 6, 1917 and went to Camp Tay- 
lor, where he was assigned to Co. B, 335th Infantry. At this camp 
he remained until May, 1918, when he was sent to Camp Sevier, S. C. 
Three weeks later he began his trip across the Atlantic, and on June 
5, 1918, he arrived at Gravesend, England. He immediately crossed 
the Channel to Calais. 

On his arrival in France he was transferred to Supply Company, 
119th Infantry, Thirtieth Division, popularly known as "Old Hick- 
ory."* During July he saw active service at Ypres and Kemmel Hill. 
On the anniversary day of his entrance into service, October 6, 1918, 



For activities of this division see the chapter on "Tlie Lucky Five" 

156 



GOLD STARS 



he received a shrapnel wound in his left leg. The wound was re- 
ceived while he was taking part in the breaking of the famous Hin- 
denburg defense system, which had begun in the last part of Septem- 
ber. He was sent to an English hospital, and on December 15, 1918, 
he arrived in New York as a casualty, on the Leviathan, formerly the 
German ship, "Vaterland." He took a grim satisfaction in the fact 
that a German ship was forced to carry him back to his native land. 
On his way to America he contracted a serious disease. His mother 
went to see him after his arrival at Debarkation Hospital No. 3, New 
York. He had not recovered from his wounds received on the battle- 
field; his new affliction overpowered him. Death came December 29, 
1918. His body arrived in Evansville on New Year's Day, 1919, and 
was buried two days later in Oak Hill Cemetery with military honors 
in a flag draped casket. Fifty soldiers accompanied the body to its 
final resting place. 

Frank Powell was a devoted son to his widowed mother. The 
large blood stains on a field medical card found in his comfort kit, 
gave a silent testimony of his heroism. A soldier who fought by his 
side wrote his mother: "You have every reason to be proud of your 
son. He was a real soldier and fought bravely." Before he died in 
New York he said to his mother, "I took my share of the enemy sol- 
diers." 






^■■^f. 



u 



157 



SONS OF MEN 




Qrouer C. 

Reid 



Ciiant us this prayer: 
That tlio toll we pay 
May not have been 
levied in vain; 
That when it is sheathed, 
t he s w t) r < 1 o I" t he 
world 
Mav never see sunlight 
ajjain. 

—John V. Hall. 



"On July 28th, still another three miles' advanee was recorded 
in the course of which the Ourcq was crossed on a two-mile Front and 
the farm of Meurcv and the villaj^e of Scrgy taken. After dehouch- 
inj; from this river a strong enemy resistance was encountered; the 
Americans ran up against a veritable mass of automatic rifles. A 
strenuous fight ensued, during which the village of Sergy many times 
changed hands. 

"In the yellow wheat fields which covered the slopes adjacent to 
the Meurcy farm, along the heights above Fere-en-Tardenois, border- 
ing the little mud road between Sergy and 'the Poplars' and on the 
hills extending from these trees down to Cierges, General Liggett, on 
visiting the scene of action, found the bodies of his own men not 
twenty yards from the German lines; the khaki uniforms were 
stretched beside the greenish tunic of the emperor's troops up to the 
very entrenchments of the enemy machine guns where these men had 
met in a death grapple." 

This account in the work, "The American Army In The European 
Conflict," by Col. De Chambrun and Capt. De Marenches, gives the 

ir>8 



GOLD STARS 



historical circumstances of the death of Grover C. Reid. He did not 
fear death in distant lands, but "he must feel a stab of pain who says 
good-bye to all he loves." During the tumult of departure he prayed 
for strength to fight worthily for the cause, and meet the fatal hour, 
if it should come on the battlefield, with a spirit worthy of an Ameri- 
can soldier. 

He was born in Hebardsville, Ky., December 16, 1892. When he 
was a boy of thirteen his family moved to Stanley, Ky., and four 
years later they moved to Henderson, Ky. At Henderson he worked 
at the painting trade. On June 25, 1912, he married Miss Nellie Wil- 
liams at Henderson. For a year he worked at Louisville, Ky., finishing 
pianos. In 1915 he moved with his family to Evansville, where he 
again worked as a painter. 

His response to the call for service was a sacrifice justified only 
by the national crisis, and the nobleness of the cause. Leaving his 
parents, his wife, a little girl of five and a little boy of six years, he 
entered the service April 1, 1918. He went to Camp Taylor, and was 
assigned to the Forty-seventh Infantry, Co. B, Fourth Division. He 
was already well acquainted with military life. At Henderson he had 
been a member of the State Guard for six years. At Camp Taylor 
he remained only three weeks and towards the end of the month he 
was sent to Camp Mills, New York. 

He landed in France, May 23, 1918. Throughout the summer of 
1918, only three brief letters were received from him. The last letter 
was received May 10, 1918. While engaged in battle, he was shot 
under his shoulder and died twenty minutes later. A comrade of 
Grover Reid, Hubert B. Roaland, who is now living in Stanley, Ky., 
said that he was killed in the battle of Chateau-Thierry near Scrgy, 
July 31, 1918. He was buried two hundred yards from the place 
where he was killed. 




159 



SONS OF MEN 




Thomas 

Robson 




"Make way for Liberty!'' 

he cried ; 
"Made way for Liberty, 

and died!" 
— James Montgomery. 



Thomas Robson found his final resting place on foreign soil. It 
is holy ground; it was consecrated by the blood of numerous young, 
valorous Americans of his type. The soil is therefore sacred to Arner- 
ica. 

He was born in this city, August 9, 1893. He attended Carpen- 
ter School until he was in the seventh grade. Later he worked at 
the Hercules Buggy Works and at the L. & N. freight house as a 
check clerk. 

In April, 1918. he entered the service. He was sent to Camp Tay- 
lor and was assigned to Co. L. 47th Infantry. On May 7, 1918, he 
sailed for France. Throughout the summer of 1918, he took an active 
part in various engagements. During the big drive in the Argonne 
Forest in the last part of September he received a wound in the left 
arm. He was sent to a hospital, but soon recovered and rejoined his 
comrades in the conflict. His heroic conduct resulted in a second 
wound. His leg was broken in two places. He was again taken to a 
hospital, and on November 23, 1918, he died of Septicaemia. He was 
buried two days later in American Military Cemetery No. 10, Plot J, 
Grave No. 497. An official of the Red Cross Base Hospital No. 15, 
wrote to his family: "This cemetery is just out of the town of Chau- 
mont in a beautiful little valley surrounded with green hills, and is a 
very lovely resting place." 

160 



GOLD STARS 




Qeorqe John 

Sander 



A man's life can be no 
larger than the objects to 
which it is given. 
— Henry Churchill King. 



George John Sander had several physical disabilities which might 
have daunted other men. He, however, never complained. He al- 
ways had a smile on his face, and went about his altruistic work of 
cheerfully ministering to the needs of others. His was the optimism 
of which the war poet, Winifred M. Letts, said: 

"Yes, you wore courage as you wore your youth 

With carelessness and joy. 
But in what Spartan school of discipline 

Did you get patience, boy? 
How did you learn to bear this long-drawn pain 

And not complain?" 

He was born near Evansville, September 20, 1891. When he com- 
pleted the rural school in Armstrong Township, he was a clerk in a 
store and later was assistant postmaster in Armstrong, Ind. In Ev- 
ansville he worked at the Hercules Gas Engine works. He belonged 
to the Bethel Church in this city. 

When war broke out he offered himself as a volunteer, but was 



161 



SONS OF MEN 



rejected because of the loss of a part of one finger. He was, however, 
later accepted and left for Camp Taylor, September 20, 1917. Because 
of flat feet he could not receive the usual military training. He at- 
tended a baker's school and received his diploma. When he had been 
in Camp Taylor about a year he was transferred to Camp Custer, 
Battle Creek, Mich. At this camp he served as a recording clerk in the 
Hospital Detachment. He was home for Christmas, 1918, and al- 
though he was not well, he said nothing. During the latter part of 
the next month he contracted influenza. He was so busy helping 
others, working as much as sixteen and sometimes even eighteen 
hours a day, that he neglected himself. His illness lasted for two 
weeks. His condition became more critical when at that time he be- 
gan to suffer from mastoiditis as a result of a previous injury of the 
nose, which he incurred in an accident before he joined the army. 
Death came on February 6, 1919. His body was brought to Evans- 
ville and was laid to rest in Zoar Cemetery, six miles from this city. 




162 



GOLD STARS 




Frank 

Schaeffer 



The anguish and the pain 
have passed, 
And peace hath come to 
them at last; 
But in the stern looks 
lingei" still 
The iron purpose and 
the will. 

— F. G. Scott. 



Frank Schaeffer was born November 9, 1895, at Henderson, Ky. 
He attended Center Street School and later worked in different busi- 
ness establishments for about five years. In 1915 he accepted a po- 
sition with the Geissler Shoe Co., where he worked for about three 
years. When war broke out, he volunteered in the medical corps 
and left on March 15, 1918,. for Fort Oglethorpe, Ga. The following 
September he was sent to France. He was in France only three weeks 
and died September 28, 1918. of broncho-pneumonia. 

Capt. Robert E. Seibels of Medical Corps Field Hospital No. 36, 
wrote the following letter to his mother: 

"Dear Mrs. Schaeffer: It was with the greatest regret that I 
received yesterday, the notice of your son's death. Private Schaeffer 
had made an excellent record in this organization. He reported for 
duty originally in my training company and when I took charge of 
this organization he was transferred to it by his request. 

"I took an especial interest in him as I had selected him from a 
group of 200 men as a boy of promise. The recommendation for his 
promotion to the grade of corporal was sent forward and his illness 

IH.3 



SONS OF MEN 



and transfer to the hospital alone prevented his receiving this title. 
He was taken sick at a time when we were under great pressure of 
work in the company office and several of the officers and office men 
were confined to their beds. On account of this he refused to give 
up and continued to do his work although he was not well. 

"He died for his country as surely as though he had been killed 
on the field. 

"His character was excellent, his services honest and faithful. 
This is the highest recommendation that can be given a soldier. 

"You may be proud indeed of your boy and be comforted by the 
knowledge that he gave his life for others. His name is honored in 
his old company and his memory will ever be in our hearts." 

His mother said of him: "Frank was liked by everybody and al- 
ways had a lot of friends. His death certainly was a shock to every- 
body. But I am proud to say he died doing his part for his country." 




164 



GOLD STARS 




Crdipford 
Schofield 



I die content, if I but 
knew my sacrifice is not 
in vain. 

—Frank R. McCall. 



Perhaps at different times of his life, Crawford Schofield had a 
desire to see the Alps, the Riviera, old Gothic cathedrals, and other 
fascinating features of European travel. It is difficult to say whether 
he would ever have had the opportunity to gratify such a desire. He 
was, however, determined to see America first. The grandeur of our 
mountains, the broad expanse of our prairies, our sunny vales, and 
our fertile fields had an irresistible fascination for him. He satisfied 
his love for sight seeing and adventure by traveling north and west 
through Michigan, Iowa, and to California, and south to the cotton 
fields of Georgia. 

He was born in this city, June 17, 1890. He attended Fulton 
and Carpenter Schools and later worked for the Keller Crescent Print- 
ing Co., and at the St. George Hotel. In Detroit, Michigan, he was 
engaged in automobile work for a year. On January II, 1917, he en- 
listed in the army. From Detroit he was sent to Jefferson Barracks, 
St. Louis, where he was assigned to Battery B, Thirteenth Field Ar- 
tillery. When America entered the war he was very impatient to be 
sent to France. During that summer he was sent to El Paso, Texas, 
and then to Ft. Bliss, Texas. For three weeks he served as guard on 
the Rio Grande. On July 18, 1917, the American soldiers had one of 
the many skirmishes with our neighbors south of the Rio Grande. 
During this episode he was shot in the shoulder, and was found dead 
on the following morning. It is supposed that his death is rn exampel 
of Mexican treachery. His body was sent to Evansville, where he was 
buried on the family lot in Oak Hill Cemetery. 

165 



SONS OF MEN 




EdiPdrd 

Schipcdr 



Do you know what I 
marvel at most in the 
world ? It is the power- 
lessness of material force. 
Sooner or later the world 
is concjuered by the idea. 

— King Albert's Book. 



Edward Schwear was a victim of influenza, which imperiled the 
lives of many soldiers more than the military forces of the Hohen- 
zollerns and Hapsburgs. He was born in Stendal, Pike County, In- 
diana, July 11, 1895. When he was twelve years old he moved to 
Lynnville, and two years later to Evansville. In this city he attended 
Delaware School. For several years he worked in a printing shop as 
a press feeder. In 1916 he went to Huntington, Indiana, where he 
was employed as a gear builder in a buggy factory. 

He took his physical examination at Jasper, and on May 28, 1918, 
he left for Camp Taylor. A week later he was transferred to Camp 
Vail, N. J. Later during that summer he went to Camp Meade, Md. 
During the latter part of September, he fell a victim to influenza. He 
died October 9, 1918. On the eighteenth of that month his body ar- 
rived in Evansville. He was buried from St. Lucas Church, in Oak- 
Hill Cemetery. Rev. Schick officiated at the funeral services. 



166 



GOLD STARS 




Chester E. 

Schulz 



That light we see is burn- 
ing in my hall. 

How far that little candle 
throws his beams! 

So shines a good deed in 

a naughty world. 

— Shakespeare. 



The value of a man's life may be more truly estim?.ted by the 
unconscious influence on his fellow men than by the record of his 
visible actions. A virtuous life radiates an atmosphere of goodness, 
and all who come in contact with such a life are made better thereby. 
That Chester E. Schulz led such a worthy life is illustrated by an 
incident which occurred on May 23, 1919. A soldier who was on 
sick leave to see his mother in Terre Haute happened to speak to a 
friend of Schulz. When the name of the Evansville hero was men- 
tioned the unknown soldier exclaimed: "My God, he was my Ser- 
geant!" In the conversation which ensued the soldier said: "I have 
never been the same man since I have known him." Then he went 
on to tell that since he had known Schulz his life had been reformed. 

Chester E. Schulz was born October 6, 1892. He completed the 
Campbell School and graduated from Evansville High School in 1905. 
For a year he worked for the Keller-Crescent Company at the Prince- 
ton, Ind., branch. Later he entered the office of the Hercules Buggy 
Works, as an accountant, where he was employed for four years. He 
was secretary of the Jefferson Avenue Cumberland Presbyterian Sun- 

167 



SONS OF MEN 



day School, a member of the choir, the Young Men's Bible Class, and 
the Basketball League. 

He entered the service September 20, 1917. He went to Camp 
Taylor, where he was assigned to Co. K, 335th Infantry, 84th Division. 
He was appointed Corporal October 9, 1917. On April 17, 1918, he 
was promoted to the rank of Sergeant. Sergeant Schulz went to Camp 
Sherman June 7, 1918. On July 1, 1918, he underwent an operation 
for appendicitis. He was confined to the base hospital nearly two 
months, and on August 23 ,1918, he went to Camp Mills. He sailed 
for overseas September 3, 1918. 

On September 16, 1918, Sergeant Schulz landed at Liverpool, 
England. Two days later he was sent to Southhampton. He crossed 
the English Channel September 20, 1918, and set foot on French soil 
at Le Havre, just one year from the day he entered the service of his 
country. Four days later he was billeted at Mussidan. On October 
8, 1918, Sergeant Schulz was assigned to Co. K, 28th Infantry, First 
Division. Here he found three Evansville comrades — Sergeant C. A. 
Shofner, Sergeant Jack Greene, and Sergeant Miles Saunders. 

Sergeant Schulz was under shell fire November 2, 1918. This 
was during the American drive from Sedan to Metz. His company 
met the first opposition when it was six kilometers from Sedan. 
While fighting on a circle of hills surrounding Sedan, Sergeant 
Schulz fell, November 7, 1918. He was buried in the American cem- 
etery C (566), grave No. 3, Commune Chevages, Ardennes. He was 
later reburied in Grave No. 121, Section No. 3, Plot No. 3. 

It was four months of anguish and suspense before the official 
confirmation of his death reached his parents. During this time his 
mother, Mrs. A. J. Schulz, President of the local chapter of National 
War Mothers of America, wrote her son weekly letters, hoping that he 
was alive somewhere in a hospital. Now the mother is resigned to the 
will of God and is glad to know her boy fought heroically and that in 
dying he did not die in vain. 



168 



GOLD STARS 







Lee D. 



Sli^ 



In the dark night of 

strife, 
Men perish for their 

dream of Liberty. 

—Florence T. Holt. 



Lee D. Sly feared that his wife, who was sickly, would prevent 
him from enlisting. At the same time he yearned to do his part in the 
war. Not disclosing his intentions, he asked his wife to go to Boon- 
ville to his parents, presumably to help them in canning work. While 
she was there, he left for Chicago to enlist in the service. A few days 
later, when she returned to Evansville, she found a bundle which con- 
tained his civilian clothes. 

He was born in Spencer County, October 10, 1893. When his 
school days were over he came to Evansville at the age of sixteen, and 
began work at the Crescent Stove works. He was ambitious to learn 
the trade of the stove mounter. Later, when he had completed his 
period of preparation for his trade, he worked for the Advance Stove 
Company until he entered the service. On February 15, 1913, he mar- 
ried Miss Goldie May. 

He entered the service September 15, 1917. His first training 
station was at Gettysburg, Pa. Later he was transferred to Camp 
Greene, Charlotte, N. C. The date of his sailing for France and the 
details of his military career and experiences across the sea, are un- 
known. He was killed in action, September 10, 1918, at the time 
when the A. E. F. were preparing for the first phase of the Meuse-Ar- 
gonne offensive. 

169 



SONS OF MEN 




lUillidm Oruille 
Sleinbrook 



1 havo an iiupolliiiL;' ilosiro 
to umlorstaml hov; 

ro know hor anil siot noai- 
er to her — 

This tired - faoeil woman 
wlio is niy niotlior. 
— Alter Brodv. 



William Orville Stcinbrook was a man who from early in life 
was thrown on his own resources, away from home, and deprived of 
the encouragement and strength which comes from a mother's love. 
He was born in Knight Township, Vanderburgh County, October 5, 
1889. When he was a small child his mother placed him in a children's 
home in Elkhart, Ind.. where he remained until he was a youth of 
about eighteen. For several years he followed a varied career as a 
farmer, gardener and dairyman. Part of that time he spent near Ev- 
ansville. He then made his home with Mrs. Ida Simpson, and so much 
did he appreciate her maternal interests in him that he affectionately 
called her "mother." In the next seven years he again attempted farm- 
ing, but during the greater part of this period he worked for the C. & 
E. I. Railrosd Company, and at the Hercules Buggy Company. 

On June 24. 1918, he entered the service. He was sent to Camp 
Sherman, where he was assigned to the 336th Infantry, Co. G. On Oc- 
tober 9, 1918. he died of pneumonia. He was buried in Chillicothe, O. 



no 



GOLD STARS 




Charles F. 
Stoermer 



Strike — til! the la;-:t armed 

foe expires. 
Strike — for your altars 

and your firen. 
Strike — for the j? r e e n 

^aves of ycur sires, 
God — ami your native 

land! 
^Fitz-Greene Halleck. 



Who will ever forget the historical day, November 11, 1918? For 
several days before that, the victorious American soldiers were driving 
the Germans mercilessly. When the enemy was routed and driven to 
their knees supplicating for peace, an armistice was declared. The 
news flashed throughout America. The anxiety was at last over. Pan- 
demonium reigned. The country went wild with celebration of vic- 
tory. Soldiers marched in par?des, greeted by happy tears and deaf- 
ening cheers and applause. America, traditionally a peaceful nation, 
was once more preparing to practice the arts of peace. 

It was on this historical day that Charles Frederick Stoermer gave 
his life for the world's cause. He was one of the last of the American 
heroes to sacrifice their lives for democracy. He was born in this city, 
June 15, 1892. He attended the Fulton Ave. public school until he 
was sixteen, and then learned the molder's trade. In June, 1914, he 
was admitted as a member of Union No. 51. About a year later he 
went to Cleveland, O., and r gain identified himself in organized labor 
by joining Union No. 27. In Cleveland he entered service, March 27. 
1918. In Camp Sherman, his first place of training, he remained four 

171 



SONS OF MEN 



weeks. He was then transferred to Camp Merritt, where he trained 
for three weeks before crossing the Atlantic. On June 27, 1918, he 
reached England, and a few days later he crossed the Channel to 
France. While in this country he was in Co. L, 329th Infantry, but 
in France he was transferred to Co. M. 102d Infantry, Twenty-sixth 
Division. 

In a letter home he wrote that on August 2G, 1918, he was getting 
ready to go to the front. He little realized the intensive fighting he 
was to experience in battle. In a letter written during the early part 
of November he said, "I have just returned after nine weeks spent at 
the front. We are now quartered in an old fort, and it is the first 
time we have had shelter over us for over nine weeks." However, he 
did not enjoy a, long rest. He was soon called to the front, nnd on 
November 11, 1918, the day when the Armistice was signed, he was 
killed in action. He was buried November 13, 1918, at Suresnes 
(Seine) Paris, Cemetery No. 34. Grave No. 947. His grave is carefully 
marked with his name, rank and company, and was recorded by the 
Graves Registration Bureau of the A. E. F. 

An article in the International Molders' Journal spoke of Stoer- 
mer as a good shopmate. While in Evansville he was a member of 
the Zion"s Church, an active Sunday School worker, and had a host of 
friends. Among his associates he was known for his intense loyalty 
and patriotism. He expressed his confidence in America's power 
when he said, "The United States of America never was licked, and 
never will be licked." 




172 



SONS OF MEN 




Charles E. 

Slraker 



Ormuzfl still fights with 
Ahriman — the Prince 
of Light v/ith the 
Power of Darkness. 

He who will hear, to him 
the clarions of the 
battle call. 

— Henry George. 



Charles E. Straker was reared at the home of his grandfather, 
Rev. James E. Straker, who was formerly pastor of the Immanuel 
Presbyterian Church of the West Side. Later in life he was not only 
a faithful member of that church, but his early religious training and 
devout character suggested the clergy to him as a life career. 

He was born August 1, 1890, at Marissa, III. He received his 
education at the Centennial School, where he went until he was thir- 
teen. When he left school he obtained employment at the Globe- 
Bosse-World Furniture Factory. Here he worked continuously for 
nine years. During this time he was a member of the Immanuel 
Presbyterian Church and the Woodmen of the World. In 1913 he 
went to Anterio, Cal., where he worked for the Hot Point Electrical 
Co. His religious nature induced him to attend a Bible institution 
at Los Angeles. It was his goal to enter the ministry. 

To help win the war he tried to enlist at San Diego, April 18, 
1918; but he was rejected because of flat feet. After his rejection he 
worked for a construction company at Camp Lewis. From Camp L,ewis 
he went to Camp Funston in Kansas, and succeeded in entering the 

173 



SONS OF MEN 



service with the 314th Ensinoer Train, 89th Division.* At Camp 
Funston he remained but one day, and on May 26, 1918, he was sent 
east to Camp Mills where he stayed lor two days and left for France. 
The letters he sent home were always cheerful, and contained no 
intimation of danger. However, after four months of service, Charles 
E. Straker made the supreme sacrifice while on duty September 24, 
1918. While at Boulliouville, France an enemy shell struck the motor 
truck he was on. The missile killed him instantly, and caused the 
death of his partner who was driving the truck. As this death was 
the first that the train had suffered up to that time, his comrades paid 
him a special tribute. The St. Amiens Graves Registration Service 
surveyed a plot of land before the train left. In this cemetery his 
body was laid to rest at Boulliouville, Meurthc-et-Moselle, France. 

* This Division was in France undor Major-Goneral Joseph T. Dicknian 
in command of the Third Corps. 




174 



GOLD STARS 




John 'Bosuu'ell 

Toridn 



0, to a/) out and die for 
an idea a^ain — 
— Concord Lincoln. 



John Boswell Torian was the second Evansville sailor to die of the 
influenza. He was born March 3, 1892, in Evansville. His education 
in this city was completed when he graduated from the local high 
school. He attended Wabash College, and was a member of the class 
0^ 1914. His popularity gained him admission in the Beta Theta Pi 
fraternity in college. In this city he belonged to the Crescent Club, 
Country Club, and the St. Paul's Episcopal Church. In May, 1918, he 
volunteered in the navy and was sent to the Great Lakes Training 
Station. He was later transferred to Hampton Roads, Va. Here he con- 
tracted the influenza which developed double pneumonia. His mother 
and brother, Garnett, went to his bedside, but could not save him. 
Death came October 2, 191S. 

The Evansville Courier said of this optimistic, versatile volun- 
teer: " 'Jack' Torian was one of the city's most popular young men. In- 
telligent and quick witted, he was the life of social gatherings and 
his keenness and astuteness won for him an enviable place in busi- 
ness centers. He was secretary and traveling salesman for the Torian 
& Barbour Hat Company. His cheerful, sunny disposition won for 
him a wide acquaintance. It is safe to say that 'Jack' was never seen 
without a smile. In his death the city loses one of its most promising 
young men." 

175 



SONS OF MEN 




August Cdrl 

Turpen 



Leaps a g- a i n the flame 
that smoldered deep 
within the people's 
soul. 

And for Freedom that's 
endangered, heroes 
pav a hero's toll. 
— Clelland J. Ball. 



August Carl Turpen did not live to fight across the sea, but dur- 
ing his period of training and to the last moment of his life he was 
convinced that "On our faithful, chivalrous endeavor victory's full- 
orbed sun at last shall glow." He was born December 13, 1891, in 
Gibson County, Indiana. He attended school in that county, and when 
he reached the age of sixteen he came to Evansville. Here he was a 
plasterer and belonged to the Plasterers' Union, Local No. 27. On 
December 10, 1908, he married Miss Mary Laswell of this city. 

He entered the U. S. service April 29, 1918, and was sent to Camp 
Taylor, Ky. For a short time he served in the 23d Co., 159th Depot Bri- 
gade. Then he was transferred to Battalion A, 68th Field Artillery, 
West Point, Ky. When he contracted the influenza he was sent to the 
Base Hospital at Camp Taylor. Pneumonia developed. For a week 
before his death, his mother and sister, Minnie, and brother, Downey, 
were at his bedside to comfort him in his last hours. The end came at 
six o'clock, October 12, 1918. Two days later his body arrived in Ev- 
ansville, and was laid to rest in Oak Hill Cemetery with military hon- 
ors. 



176 



GOLD STARS 




Douqlds 



Uiele 



'Tis not what man does, 
which exalts him, but 
what he would do. 

— Browning. 



Douglas Viele, the only son of Mr. and Mrs. Edward N. Viele, 
did not have the opportunity to serve on the battlefields of France, 
but, with his noble character, intrepid courage, and devoted loyalty, 
is there any doubt that he would have reflected glory, both on him- 
self and his community? He was born April 21, 1891, of one of the 
oldest families in Evansville. Reared in a home of culture, Douglas 
Viele had a splendid education. After attending the local high school, 
he entered Holderness School, Plymouth, New Hampshire, in 1908; the 
year following, he was graduated from the Princeton Preparatory 
School in Princeton, New Jersey. He then entered Purdue University 
and in 1914 he graduated with honors. After an European tour, he 
returned to Evansville, Indiana, and was associated with his father 
in the wholesale brokerage business. 

His pleasing personality and lovable disposition gained him 
many friends. As a student, he became a member of the Phi Delta 
Theta Fraternity. He was a member of the St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church, and also a member of the Country and Crescent Clubs. 

Throughout his life he cherished the ambition of aiding his coun- 

177 



SONS OF MEN 



try. He wanted to be a soldier. While in Purdue University, he was 
First Lieutenant, and later, made Captain of the Purdue Cadets. He 
held this rank for two years. His military training gained him ad- 
mission to the Scabbard and Blade, an organization composed of men 
holding commissions in the cadet corps of various colleges and uni- 
versities in the country. In 1915 he attended the training camp at 
Fort Sheridan; in 1916 he also attended the famous military training 
camp in Plattsburg, N. Y. He was the only local man taking that 
course. 

When America entered the war, Douglas Viele was one of the 
first to offer his services to his country. Before going to the training 
camp, he helped drill the Evansville Service Corps. He entered the 
officers' reserve camp at Fort Benjamin Harrison, and would have re- 
ceived a commission as Captain. He was taken ill early in the morn- 
ing while in line waiting for military inspection, and then asked per- 
mission to go to his barracks. Two hours later he was found uncon- 
scious by his college room-mate, Carter Logan. After a week's ill- 
ness of Cerebro Spinal Meningitis, he died in the Camp Hospital at 
Fort Benjamin Harrison. 

Douglas Viele was buried with full military honors. A firing 
squad of nine men was sent from Fort Harrison to accompany the 
body to Evansville. The funeral was held in St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church; the burial followed in Oak Hill Cemetery, where the squad 
fired the last volley and taps were sounded over the flag-draped cas- 
ket. 

The following worthy tribute to this splendid soldier was given 
at the funeral services by Rev. A. L. Murray: 

"To lay down one's life for others is enough in itself to immor- 
talize a man; but when this young man laid down his life for his 
country, he gave a magnificent physique, a clean and trained mind, 
and a manly religious spirit, a spirit that was the esteem and affection 
of his comrades, who discovered him to be the whitest kind of a man. 
With a true soldier's spirit of uncomplaining devotion, he made rapid 
advancement. He was born to lead. We expected him to receive 
further orders of advancement, and he has, but not in the way his 
friends expected. God accepted his self-offering and called him to a 
higher service and commissioned him for a ministry whereby the good 
work begun in him will continue. He has been privileged to make 
the great adventure. 

To be worthy of fellowship with those who by consecration to 

178 



GOLD STARS 



the world's great cause give themselves thus willingly, we must our- 
selves be heroes, and at this hour strike the glory of the passing of a 
man who has not failed to interpret life with a splendid sense of God 
and a faithful service to human need." 

Douglas Viele was the first Evansville soldier who died while in 
service. On Decoration Day of 1919, his memory was honored by an 
impressive ceremony, and a fitting memorial arranged by the Board 
of the Rathbone Memorial Home. Prominent citizens of Evansville, 
and several of his comrades in arms, participated in the dedication 
of a bronze memorial tablet. The inscription on the tablet reads: "To 
the Memory of Douglas Viele, the First Evansville Soldier who Died 
in the Service of His Country in the Great War, July 7rh, 1917 — born 
April 21st, 1891." 




This tablet marks the Victory Oak Tree on the lawn of the Rath- 
bone Memorial Home. 



IT.i 



SONS OF MEN 




Carl Frederick 
Uogel 



Who fought for Fieedoni 
not glory; made war, 
that war might cease. 
— Richard Watson 
Gilder. 



Carl F. Vogel was born in Evansville, September 5, 1893. He at- 
tended the Wolf School No. 5 on Upper Mt. Vernon Road. When he 
was eighteen he went to Florida, where he engaged in the real estate 
business and managed a fruit farm. In Florida he was a member of 
the Woodmen of America. In this city he belonged to the Evangelical 
Church on New Harmony Road. 

In the summer of 1917 he returned to Evansville, and left for ser- 
vice October 22, of that year. At Camp Taylor he was assigned to 
Co. I, 335th Infantry. He visited his home for Christmas. When he 
returned to duty he was transferred to Camp Sevier, S. C, Co. B, 
113th Machine Gun Battalion. During the following spring he went 
to Camp Mills, Long Island, N. Y., and then crossed the Atlantic for 
France. Vogel met his death on that memorable day, September 29, 
1918, when the Hindenburg Line was at last destroyed. He was killed 
in action near the St. Quentin Canal, and was buried at Hesbecourt 
Cemetery near Reisel, France, southwest of Cambrai, Row 1, Grave 
18. Later he was disinterred and reburied in Grave No. 83, Row 4, Plot 
H, American Cemetery No. 636, Bony, Aisne. 

180 



GOLD STARS 



His valor was recognized, his sacrifice appreciated, and his mem- 
ory was honored at Lake Worth, Fla., where the Post of American Le- 
gion was named after Carl F. Vogel. 

The following tribute to his memory was paid by his sister-in-law 
Mrs. P. O. Vogel: 

IN MEMORY OF CARL F. VOGEL 

(Killed in Action in France) 

September 29, 1918 

Our loved one now has left us, 

Gone to join the realms above 
In the land where there is music. 

In the land where there is love. 

There will be no fighting yonder. 

In that land so far away, 
But hand in hand they wander. 

Till the day of Judgment Day. 

He was a brave, young soldier. 

Brave as any you've seen; 
Yes, and an honest soldier. 

Both soul and body were clean. 

He was every inch the soldier 

That Uncle Sam took him to be; 
He fought for truth and freedom. 

He fought for liberty. 

One by one our loved ones leave us 

For that land of setting sun; 
Their battles of life are over 

And ours have just begun. 

Now that he has gone and left us, 

And his face we cannot see. 
We must battle along together 

Into Eternity. 

Sunset and evening star 

And one clear call for me. 
And may there be no moaning of the bar 

When I put out to sea. 

—Mrs. P. 0. Vogel. 
181 



SONS OF MEN 




Charles 

lUdddle 



It breaks his heart that 
kings must murder still, 

That all his hours of tra- 
vail here for men seem 
yet in vain. 

— Vachel Lindsay. 



The life of Charles Waddle indicates that in a symposium of 
American ideals, his first choice would have been: "To be of service 
to one's fellows." 

He wf,s born September 29, 1895 in Dubois County, Indiana. His 
education did not include training in higher institutions, but he was 
well informed. When his school days were over, he spent much of his 
time doing hospital work. For ten months he was employed in this 
capacity at Woodmere. He married Miss Crabtree, February 5, 1918. 

On September 10, 1918, he entered the service, and was sent to 
Camp Grcnt, Rockford, 111. Not long after he arrived at this camp, 
he contracted the Spanish Influenza. After an illness of about three 
weeks he died October 1, 1918. His body was brought to Evansville, 
and laid to rest in Locust Hill Cemetery. 



182 



GOLD STARS 




John 



lUebsler 



Unbounded courage and 

compassion joined 
Tempering each other in 

the victorious mind, 
Alternately proclaim him 

good and great, 
And make the hero and 

the man complete. 
— Joseph Addison. 



The Spanish Influenza proved more dangerous to John Webster 
than the great variety of Hun missies, which he escaped on the battle 
field. 

He was born December 9, 1889, in Evansville. His education was 
received at the Centennial School, and in the local high school which, 
however, he did not complete. While he was still in school he worked 
in a tin shop in the evening and on Saturday. When he left school he 
was a sheet metal worker, but he attended night school to learn pat- 
tern making. 

The day of his enlistment was February 28, 1918. He remained 
but two days at Ft. Oglethorpe, Ga., where he was in the Medical 
Corps. Then he was transferred to Columbus, S. C. On May 20, 1918, 
he left for France and on Decoration Day he landed at Brest. The 
exposure to inclement weather lowered his power of resistance so that 
he was afflicted with the Spanish Influenza. He died November 3, 
1918. 

A letter which appeared in the Evansville Courier, January 22, 
1919, tells of the experiences of John Webster and several other Ev- 
ansville soldiers. The letter follows: 

183 



SONS OF MEN 



"E-Town Gang" In Germany. 

"A 'gang' of seven Evansville boys in Pfaffendorf, Germany, 
Avrite to the Courier under the date of Jan. 28, as follows: 

"Here on the banks of the Rhine in a little town just across the 
river from the city of Coblenz, are seven boys from old E-town. We 
enlisted at the same time and were sent to Fort Oglethorpe and later 
transferred to Camp Jackson, S. C. Here we are made a party of 
the First Corps Artillery Park, the first organization of its kind in the 
U. S. Army. It is composed of six truck companies of one hundred 
and fifty men each, a depot company of three hundred and five men 
(the biggest company in the army) an ordnance company of fifty- 
seven skilled mechanics, a headquarters company of forty-eight men 
and a medical detachment of nineteen men. After a little over two 
months' strenuous training we moved to Camp Merritt, N. J. Here 
we received our first overseas equipment and on May 22, sailed on 
the Great Northern. After a dandy trip, not even getting a peep at a 
sub, we landed in Brest, France, on Decoration Day. We hiked through 
the city out to the old prison camp of Napoleon Bonaparte. In this 
delightful (?) camp we spent almost a week and then were loaded 
in the "quarante hommes or huit chevaux" cars and the following day 
were pulled into St. Nazaire. 

"Our home here was a French rest camp but while we were rest- 
ing we were taught the art of unloading ships. But we only had five 
days of this and were again ordered to move, this time on fourth class 
coaches. This was a four-day ride through the most beautiful part of 
France. 

"We went into the Toul sector where everything was quiet. Then 
came our gas masks and gas mask drills day after day. In this sec- 
tor we received our first pay overseas and celebrated our Fourth of 

July- 

"On July 13 we left for the Chateau-Thierry front and prepared 
for action. Having about 300 trucks we were ready to start hand- 
ling ammunition as we found out that would be our part in the great 
war. On July 14 we passed through Paris and saw the city decorated 
up for Bastile Day. The next day we got into La Ferte and started 
right into action. Then the great drive started on the Marne and 
then the big show was on. Our trucks hauled ammunition day and 
night and our Depot company opened several dumps between the 
heavy and light artillery. We, the medical detachment, were sta- 

184 



GOLD STARS 



tioned at different places and opened infirmaries and first aid stations. 
Our ammunition dumps were under shell fire at all times and Fritz 
tried his best to get us time after time with his aeroplanes. We 
passed through the city of Chateau-Thierry while the dead were lying 
in the streets everywhere. It was a sight we shall never forget. "We 
had dumps at Bezu, St. Germain, Epied, Epaun-Bizu, Belleau Wood, 
Fere-en-Tardenois and up as far as Fismes on the Vesle river. 

"We came through this drive with very few casualties and con- 
sidered ourselves very lucky. On September 10 we were called out and 
all expected a good rest. We were loaded onto our trucks and for 
two days and nights rode through a pouring rain. The end of our 
trip found us in a woods near the city of Verdun with mud up to our 
knees. After a few days' rest and an attempt to rid ourselves of our 
numerous cooties, we started once more hauling ammunition. 

"We had a chance to see the city of Verdun and see some of the 
work of the Huns. On September 25, the real American drive started 
in the Argonne-Meuse sector. We had our ammunition dumps at the 
town of Germanville. With several hundred French 75's and 6-inch 
guns we put on one of the best barrages ever heard of. 

"Fritz came back at us with an awful gas attack but did very lit- 
tle damage. Then in two days our trucks were crawling over the 
roads our engineers were building over what had been 'no-man's 
land' for four years. We mover our dumps up through Esnes, Mallan- 
court, Cuisy, Sept, Serges and up along the Meuse river to Dun-Sun- 
Meuse. In this drive we had quite a few casualties and while we had 
our dump in the valley near Cuisy our dump was shelled day and 
night and they came near putting it off the map several times. Then 
just as the drive was at its height, one of the fellows from E-town, 
John Webster, after dodging shells and bombs for months, took the 
'flu' and several days later died and is resting in a little American 
cemetery in a quiet little town behind the lines. 

"As a reward for our good work we were made a part of the Army 
of Occupation. On December 14, we crossed the Rhine at Coblenz, 
being the first whole unit to cross that river. We now have passed 
to Coblenz, and have seen about all there is to be seen. The Y. M. C. 
A. has taken over the Festhalle in Coblenz and have good shows 
and dances almost every night. Last night we had the pleasure of 
seeing Miss Gould and she sure made us think of the good old U. S. 
A. The big question here is, 'When do we get home?' 

185 



SONS OF MEN 



"But all the real fighting divisions are here, including 1, 2, 3, 4, 
5, 26, 32, 42, 89 and 90, so you may know we will make some excite- 
ment when we do get home. Here's hoping it won't be long. 

"We get our Couriers regularly, but a little late. We sure enjoy 
every line of them. 
"JOHN E. SITZMAN, LOUIS R. BOHRER, EDWARD J. MENTZEL. 

O. VERNON WELDEN. FRED A. HEEGER, E. W. JANDE- 

BEAUR, AND A. S. MOUTICHKA." 

James W. Mellon, first sergeant of the Medical Detachment, 
writing to John Webster's mother from Pfaffendorf, Germany, May 
11, 1919, describes his courageous service, and good influence on all 
who came in contact with him. "John was a good comrade and sol- 
dier," the letter said, "and although I know you can but feel a deep 
sense of loss; yet, you can be proud your son never failed in his 
ideals, and met the supreme test in the true spirit of a soldier, faithful 
to the last. 

"The influence of his life upon the lives of his comrades will 
always live, and there will always be a tender spot in the heart of all 
of us who were privileged to serve beside him. We can be consoled 
in the thought that his life has not been lived in vain, and look for- 
ward to that day when comes that happy reunion in that fairer world 
where there are no wars, but eternal peace and happiness." 




186 



SONS OF MEN 




IPillidm A. 

lUells 



For thouf^h from out oui' 

bourne of 
Time and place 
The flood may bear me 

far, 
I hope to see my Pilot 

face to face 
When 1 have crossed the 

bar. 

— Alfred Tennyson. 



"It is a war against all nations. American ships have been sunk, 
American lives taken, in ways which it has stirred us very deeply to 
learn of, but the ships and people of other neutral and friendly na- 
tions have been sunk and overwhelmed in the same way. There has 
been no discrimination." This was the appeal President Wilson made 
to Congress to declare war against brutality of Prussian militarism. 

William A. Wells heard this appeal to American humanitarianism. 
He heard the agonizing cries of the helpless victims of the Arrbic, 
Laconia and Lusitania, calling for justice. On that historic day he 
entered the navy to vindicate the rights of the world against the Ger- 
man submarine policy. 

William A. Wells was born August 13, 1892. He completed the 
eighth grade at the Carpenter School in 1907, and attended the Ev- 
ansville High School for a year and a half. When he left school he 
worked for three years in the E. & T. H. Auditing department. When 
the office was moved to Chicago he was employed as a reporter for 
the Evansville Courier. He later worked for several years at the 
Hercules Buggy Company. 

187 



GOLD STARS 



He went to Detroit, Michigan, and there joined the navy, April 
2, 1917. A week later he went to Philadelphia, where he was as- 
signed to U. S. S. Iowa, April 12, 1917. His first promotion came on 
June 2, 1917, when he was made assistant coxwain. On June 22, he 
was made coxwain. 

While performing his duty death came suddenly to William A. 
Wells. On January 30, 1918, he was a member of an eight-inch tur- 
ret crew on the vessel. After the usual morning drill period he walked 
over to the outboard side of the turret. He accidentally lost his bal- 
ance or slipped, and fell overboard. The weather was cold and stormy, 
and he was bundled up in winter clothing. Two of his shipmates 
risked their lives to rescue him but failed. Life buoys were immedi- 
ately lowered. They came within a close distance of him, but for 
some reason he did not succeed in availing himself of the aid given 
him. Two boats went to his rescue, but could not reach him. His 
body has never been recovered. 

As a tribute to his memory, a savings society at the Carpenter 
School was named after him. He was a member of the White Oak 
Camp, Woodmen of the World, and St. John's Evangelical Church. 




188 



SONS OF MEN 




Emmit 



IDhite 



Out of the west into the 
storm-cloud glowing a bi- 
plane wings her flight. 
— Gregg Goddard. 



Now thai tin Mill ■ II II MM Mi the Allies and America have won 
a victory over a military machine which was constantly augmented 
and perfected for over a generation, it is futile to decide which branch 
of the army made the greatest contribution to that victory. However, 
many remember that when the great hordes of the Huns threatened 
the world, we placed our hopes on the aeroplanes, "the eyes of the 
army," and Emmit White contributed his share in procuring the ma- 
terial for the aeroplanes. 

He was born October 26, 1886, in Caseyville, Ky. When he was 
in the second grade the family moved to Leavenworth, Ind. He grad- 
uated from the public school, and later worked and managed a farm 
near Cypress until 1910. At that time he went to Carthage, Mis- 
souri, where he worked in a coal mine until he entered the service. 

In 1908 he wanted to enter the army, but was rejected because 
of his small stature. For this reason, when war was declared he had 
to go into limited service. He entered the service from Carthage, 
February 18, 1918, and was assigned to the Seventh Aeroplane Pro- 
duction Squad, at Vancouver Barracks, Washington. His work was 
to cut spruce trees for the manufacturing of aeroplanes. On Christ- 
mas of 1918 he had charge of the quarters, soon after that he con- 
tracted pneumonia, and died on January 6, 1919. His body was 
brought to Evansville on January 11, 1919, and now rests in the cem- 
etery on Upper Mt. Vernon Road, near Redbank Station. 

189 



GOLD STARS 




Donald 

IPillidmson 



He has saved the life he 

spent, 
Death has struck too late. 
— Amelia J. Burr. 



Before the war there were many who regarded military service 
as an unpromising career. America did not realize that before many 
years the best blood of the country would commingle regardless of 
intellectual achievement or social prestige. Donald Williamson en- 
tered military service before the war opened in Europe. He did not 
believe in the life of ease. He responded to the spirit of the great 
American patriot, Roosevelt who said to the nation: "Above all, let 
us shrink from no strife, moral or physical, within or without the 
nation, provided we are certain the strife is justified." 

Donald Williamson was born in Buffaloville, in Spencer County, 
Indiana, September 29, 1891. He went to Columbia School and at- 
tended the Junior High School. From the time he was sixteen yesrs 
of age, he worked for the Southern Stove Works, as a stove mounter 
until he was twenty-one. During this period he joined the ranks of 
organized labor by becoming a member of the union. While in Ev- 
ansville he was also a member of the Central M. E. Church, and 
Woodmen of the World lodge. 

On December 21, 1913, he left civilian life to join the 14th Cav- 
alry, Troop M. He was sent to Texas to serve on the Mexican bor- 
der. For five years he served at Ft. Sam Houston, El Paso, and San 
Antonio. Towards the end of November 1918 he was afflicted with 
the Spanish Influenza, which developed into pneumonia. He died 
December 2, 1918, after being sick for six days. His body was brought 
to Evansville, and was laid to rest in Oak Hill Cemetery. 

190 



S 0.N S OF MEN 




Elijah IP, 

lUorshdm 



Who died as firm as Spar- 
ta's king, 

Because his soul was 
great. 
— Sir Francis Hastings. 



Manifesting the same optimism and valor, which he learned on 
the athletic field while still a school boy, Captain Elijah Worsham met 
the supreme crisis of his life in a spirit most becoming to a soldier 
of democracy. 

He was born December 14, 1886. He went through Campbell 
School. After graduating from the high school in 1904, he continued 
his education in Purdue University. In 1910 he went to Alaska on a 
business trip, and later went to Seattle, Wash., where he was a mem- 
ber of the brokerage firm of Worsham & Vivian. His congenial per- 
sonality made him a leader. He was captain of the football team 
when he was in Purdue. He was president of the northwest province 
of Phi Delta Theta Fraternity at Seattle. He was also active in the 
Boat Club and Swimming Club of that city. 

Captain Worsham received valuable training for the great war 
on the Mexican border in 1912, where he was First Lieutenant of a 
machine gun company. He enlisted for the world war in April, 1917, 
and received his training at the American Lake, Washington, Camp 

191 



GOLD STARS 



Lewis. In June, 1917, he was made First Lieutenant of a machine 
gun company. 

In a letter from Captain Ray W. Hays, M. G. Co. 326th Infantry, 
sent from Oostletern, Belgium, to W. R. Heilman, of this city, a 
graphic description is given of the battle in which Captain Worsham 
received his fatal wound. The letter also shows the admiration and 
love of officers and men for their brave Captain. The letter follows: 

"Oostletern, Belgium. 

"Mr. W. R. Heilman, 

"Evansville, Ind. 

"Dear Sir: Your letter to the commanding officer, 326th Infan- 
try, concerning Captain Worsham, has been referred to me. 

"While Captain Worsham was in command of the machine gun 
company, I was one of his officers. Since his death I have had the 
honor of commanding his company, and it is his company, known uni- 
versally as Captain Worsham's company, and not the machine gun 
company. Inspired by his ideals and teaching, I am trying to run the 
company as he did, but no one can take his place. 

"We first went over the top at Rendevous de Chasse and the first 
day advanced about ten kilometers. We met with stiff resistance at 
Ejenonville the next morning, and it was largely due to the Captain's 
courage, tactics and machine gun company that our division held out, 
while divisions on our flank were forced back. 

"During the two days of fierce fighting we advanced some eight 
kilometers, until, on the 29th, we were held up. A small town, by the 
name Gesnes, seemed to be the point of resistance, and about 3 o'clock 
in the afternoon of September 29 the battalion to which we were 
attached was ordered to take the town. The magnificent manner in 
which it was charged and taken will never be forgotten by the sur- 
viving participants.. Led by our Captain, we followed the assault 
wave, and, under his direction, mounted our guns on a ridge com- 
manding the town, where we could use direct fire over the heads of 
our own troops. 

"We had some wonderful targets, but were subject to direct 
observed artillery fire, front and flank, the flank organizations having 
failed to gain their objective. 

"After getting my guns in action, I found the Captain firing a 
machine gun, the crew of which had become casualties. Under the 
cover of the gun he was firing and three others from my platoon, I 

192 



SONS OF MEN 



removed the remainder of the guns forward to escape the heavy 
enemy barrage. 

"Then I rejoined the Captain. Shortly he gave the order to cease 
firing, our troops having advanced so far that it was dangerous to 
continue to fire over their heads. 

"We continued to observe, waiting for dusk to advance. I left 
the Captain to give orders to one of my gun crews. When I found 
him a few moments later he was dead, shot with a rifle bullet. He 
had started forward, field glass in one hand, rifle with fixed bayonet 
in the other. 

"We advanced with leaden hearts and heavy feet to help reor- 
ganize and consolidate the line for the night, because that is what he 
would have had us do. It was two or three days'before the body was 
recovered and laid to rest in a grassy meadow in the Forest of Ar- 
gonne, beside that of one of his Lieutenants, who gave his life the 
same day. 

"He was your dear friend, you say. To us he was more — peer- 
less leader, boon companion, comrade, instructor and friend. We 
mourn his loss in a way that words cannot express. His men and 
officers loved him as he in his whole-hearted way loved them. The 
fateful German bullet cost the army a valiant leader and officer, a 
t;rue soldier in every sense; robbed the government of a valuable 
citizen, and deprived all who were privileged to know him in the 
future society of a beloved friend and always cheerful companion. 

"Pardon me, sir, for so much detail about an action that I was 
in, but I loved and admired the 'Old Skipper,' as he will always be 
to us, that it is a relief to tailk to one who, likewise, knew and loved 
him. I dream of him by night and think of him by day, and always, 
in my plans for his company, I wonder if he would approve of my 
actions were he here. Most of my military education, all my machine 
gun experience, was received from him, and perhaps his invisible hand 
is still guiding me in my effort to take his company home as he would 
have taken it. 

Even your high regard for Lige Worsham, the citizen, would 
have been increased had you known the Captain E. W. Worsham that 
I knew and served under. He understood men and by his own high 
ideals brought out the best in them. I truly sympathize with you in 
the loss of a friend, 

"Sincerely yours, 

"CAPT. RAY W. HAYS, 
"M. G. Co., 326 Inf., A. E. F." 

193 



CHAPTER II 



Honor Roll 



Every one of you won the war — 
You and you and you — 
Each one knowing- what it was for 
And wliat his job to do. 

— Edith Wharton 

On April 6, 1917, when the United States declared war, our army 
consisted of 190,000 men dispersed in small detachments throughout 
the country and among our colonial dependencies. The nation real- 
ized that mobilization in a country which by tradition is not mili- 
taristic, would be no small task. The transformation from a peace- 
loving people, to a belligerent was begun after Congress passed "an 
act authorizing the President temporarily to increase the military es- 
tablishment of the United States," May 18, 1917. On that day the 
President said: "The whole nation must be a team in which each man 
shall play the part for which he is best fitted. To this end Congress 
has provided that the nation shall be organized for war by selection. 
Each man shall be classified for service in the place to which it shall 
best serve the general good to call him. . . . It is in no sense a 
conscription of the unwilling, it is rather a selection from a nation 
which has volunteered in mass." 

From June 5, 1917, to August 24, 1918, 10,481,000 men between 
the age of twenty-one and thirty years responded at the registration 
boards throughout the country. When the age limit was extended to 
include men from eighteen to forty-five, America's registered man 
power for the war rose to 23,709,000. On May 22, General Crowder, 
who had been Judge-Advocate, was given the title of Provost Marshal 
General, and began the task of organizing the recruiting operations. 

In his annual report of 1918 Secretary of War Baker said: 

194 



HONOR ROLL 



"It is a notable tribute to the country's enthusiastic support of 
the war program that, in spite of previous opposition to the principle 
of conscription, within a few months after the selective service law 
was passed the status of the drafted soldier was fully as honorable in 
the eyes of his associates and the country at large; as that of the en- 
listed man. It is pertinent to note in this connection that a record 
of desertions* from the Army shows that the total number was much 
lower than in any of our previous wars, and of these a considerably 
smaller percentage occurred among drafted men than among those 
who were recruited through other sources." 

The American military forces included professional soldiers, 
those who enlisted voluntarily for the war, and the men from the 
compulsory draft. The barriers separating these three armies from 
one another were gradually broken down. The man who volunteered 
had the principal object in mind to reach the battlefields of France 
by the shortest way. As the war spirit developed this purpose was in 
the minds of all classes in the military service. Accori ingly, "On 
August 7, 1918, the distinguishing appellations 'Regular Army,' 'Re- 
serve Corps,' 'National Guard' and 'Natic.ial Army' were ordered 
discontinued, and the military force of the Nation were consolidated 
into the 'United States Army'." 

In May 1917 the War Department faced the serious problem of 
officering the vast army which was called to service. The War De- 
partment decided to offer an intensive training course for three 
months in camps modeled after the Plattsburg plan developed by 
General Leonard Wood. 

Secretary of War Baker said in his official report: "In August, 
1917, a total of 27,341 candidates were graduated from the first series 
of these officers' training camps, a number sufficient to meet the im- 
mediate needs of the Army. A second series was held during Sep- 
tember, October, and November, and a third series from January to 
April, 1918. The first two series were essentially civilian in character, 
and, because of the need for officers of all grades, commissions were 
granted up to the grade of colonel. The third series, however, drew 
90 per cent, of its candidates from the enlisted men of the Army, and 
the other 10 per cent, from civilians of draft age who had received 
military training at recognized educational institutions. The can- 
didates in the third series were, upon, satisfactory completion of the 
course, listed as elegible for appointment as second lieutenants and 

* 2.04 per cent, desertions during the war. 

195 



SONS OV MEN 



in a t'cw weeks alter graduation were commissioned and assigned to 
duty. . . . It is a source of deep satisfaction to me that the olliceis' 
traininji; schools have been so successful. Thousands of oui- yoiini; 
business men, leaving positions of responsibility and piolit, dropped 
tiieir personal affairs and devoted themselves wholeheaitediy to the 
new business of war. Thanks to a peculiarly close and cordial co- 
operation between the Kej;ular Army officers and this mass of civil- 
ian mateiial, the results have exceeded our waiinest hopes." 

The commissions granted throiii;!! ilie first three series of Offi- 
cers' Training (^amps were distributed as follows: 



Iviitik 



C'olom>l 

Lieut onant ("oi 

Major , 

( •apliiin 

I'Mrst LiouttMiant 
Second liioiU.. . . 

Total 















tfl 






>; 


P-. 




U 






o 








u 










4-1 






a 

V-i 


> 


< 


<i 


bo 
□ 


P, 


n 




bi 


»— < 


U 


U^ 


u 


W 


<y 


w 


o 


CO 


2 

T 

IHf) 


18 


37 


I 


50 






2 


1 


3,375) 


251 


819 


32i) 


4H) 






147 


55 


7.(Uir) 


258 


2,128 


575 


747 




75 


407 


51!) 


2.{,;$4ti 


1,37! 


8.540 


1,158 


750 


3,067 


77 


211 


6«7 


34,578 


l,8»8i 


11,554 


2,068 


1,966 


3,007 


152 


767 


1 ,2(i2 



o 



2 

1 

294 

5, 429 

12,374 

.39.207 

57,307 



It now remained for the War Department to train the civilians 
into an effective fii^htini^ force. A statistical summary of the war, 
compiled by Leonard P. Ayres, Chief of the Statistics Branch of the 
CaMicial Staff stated: "To carry forward the training progrr.m, shelter 
was constructed in a few months for 1,800,(H)() men. For the Na- 
tional Guard and National Army divisions, 10 camps riul 1(5 canton- 
ments weie built. National Guaid units beinj; organized rapidly dur- 
inj; the summer of 1017 were put under canvas in camps throut^hout 
the South. The cantonments were largely in the North for the Na- 
tional Army called in the fall of 1017." 

Military life was novel to the American citizen. The camps pre- 
sented many problems of social life which the civilian had not faced 
before. Secrctai'y Baker dcsciibcd the activities carried on in the 
training camps: 

"The CA)inmissit)n o\\ Training Camp Activities was created in 
April, 1017, by the Secretary of War to advise him on all matters re- 
lating to the morale of the troops. Cut off from home, family, friends, 
clubs, churches, the hundred thousands of men who poured into the 
country's camps required something besides the routine of military 

196 



HONOR ROLL 



traininf; if they were to be kept healthy mentally and spiritually. It 
became the task of the Commission to foster in the camps a new so- 
cial world. This was done through its own agents and through the 
agents of the affiliated organizations over which it had supervision. 
It provided club life, it organized athletics, it furnished recreation 
through theatres and mass singing, it provided educational facilities, 
it furnished opportunity for religious services to be held, it went in- 
to the communities outside the camps and reorganized their facili- 
ties for offering hospitality to the soldiers. While it provided these 
advantages to the soldier, it also sought to protect him from vicious 
influences by a systematic campaign of education against venereal 
disease and by strict enforcement of laws against liquor selling and 
prostitution. The effort was to furnish for the men an environment 
not only clean and wholesome, but actually inspiring to make them 
fit and eager to fight for democracy. 

"While much of this work has been carried on by the (Jommis- 
sion itself through Government appropriations, a great deal of it has 
been made possible by private organizations which have worked un- 
der the supervision of the commission. These organizations, the 
Young Men's Christian Association, the Young Women's Christian 
Association, the National Catholic War Council (Knights of Colum- 
bus), the War Camp CJommunity Service, the American Library As- 
sociation, the Jewish Welfare I>oard, and the Salvation Army, have 
been enormously effective in maintaining the morale of our troops 
at home and overseas and the value of their services is gratefully 
acknowledged." 

The story of raising, officering, and training so vast an army is 
the story of Evansville, as well as of the entire nation. Because of 
their geographical proximity Camp Sherm?n and Camp Taylor were 
the training stations for many of the Evansville soldiers, although 
local boys were to be found in training in all parts of the United 
States. The heroism of these men may not be pictured in detail, but 
it should in nowise be underestimated. Away from home, many of 
them fought successfully the influenza epidemic in America and 
abroad. Some of the Evansville heroes fought to a victorious con- 
clusion many battles'* against the enemy on the various Ivuropcan 
fronts. 

* The statistical summary of tJic war with fierrnany, jn*}parf;d by Colonel 
Leonard P. Ayres, Chief of the Statistics liranch of the Ci«;nera] Staff, gives 
the fo]!owin(( major operations of the American forcfs in Kurope : 

197 



SONS OF MEN 



Modern warfare has been so mechanized that it presents few op- 
portunities for individual glamorous ostentation. No longer does 
the brave knight, clad in shining helmet and bright armor, gallop to 
the fray on a prancing steed. Nor do we often hear of spectacular 
exploits on the field of battle like "Pickett's Charge" or "The Charge 
of the Light Brigade". Modern warfare presents the prosaic aspects 
of a bloody shambles. Nevertheless, the recent war has recorded 
deeds of heroism as great as any of the past achievements which have 
been exalted either because of a certain degree of historical rever- 
ence or the facile pen of the imaginative litterateur. Many a gas 
wound or amputated limb of an Evansville soldier bears witness to 
the part the men played, whose names are blazoned in the hearts of 
the community, and on the Honor Roll of its war history. 




Approximate Number 
* OPERATION of Americans 

engaged 

Noyon-Mondidier, June 9 to 15 27,000 

Champagne-Marne, July 15 to 18 85,000 

Allied Offensives, July 18 to November 11: 

Aisne-Marne, July 18 to August 6 270,000 

Somme, August 8 to November 11 54,000 

Oise-Aisne, August 18 to November 11 85,000 

Ypres-Lys, August 19 to November 11 108,000 

St. Mihiel, September 12 to 16 550,000 

Meuse-Argonne, September 20 to November 11 1,200,000 

Italian Front — Campaign of 1918: 

Vittorio-Veneto, October 24 to November 4 1,200 

West Front — Campaign of 1917: 

Cambrai, November 20 to December 4 

West Front — Campaign of 1918: 

German offensives, March 21 to July 18 — 

Somme, March 21 to April 6 2,200 

Lys, April 9 to 27 500 

Aisne, May 27 to June 5 27,500 

198 



HONOR ROLL 



Abernathy, Moody 
Able, Arthur, 1021 W. Indiana 
Abrahamsen, Henry, 1823 S. Gov- 
ernor 
Abshier, Harold D. 
Ackerman, Grafton, 710 Harriet 
Adams, David, 1921 E. Missouri 
Adams, Kurt, 310 W. Maryland 
Adams, Nat T., 2805 E. Virginia 
Adams, Otto, 810 E. Missouri 
Adamson, Arthur A., 1023 W. Co- 
lumbia 
Adamson, Jessie, 1411 E. Frank- 
lin 
Adamson, Leroy, 419 Sixth Ave. 
Adcock, Otho 
Adcock, Robert L., Cypress, Ind,. 

R. R. No. 1 
Adcox, George H. 
Adler, Edw. A., R. R. No. 5 
Adler, John, R. R. No. o 
Adler, Louis, 205 Grant 
Adler, Lyman, 502 Parrett 
Ahl. Heniy 

Aichle, Fred, R. R. No. 6, Box 72 
Aichle, Wm., R. R. No. 6, Box 72 
Aiken, HajTiie, 552 Taylor Ave. 
Akin, Louis, 200 Washington Ave. 
Albecker, Sylvester, 517 S. Third 
Aldredge Oscar E., 708 Lemcke 

Avenue. 
Aleon, Edw., 1610 E. Iowa 
Alexander, Bert, 406 Parrett 
Alexander, Carl, 1807 E. Virginia 
Alexander, Earl, 1807 E. Virginia 
Alexander, Horace, 309 Grant 
Alexander, Thomas, 211 Mulberrv 
Allen, Chas., 1002 Chestnut 
Allen, Clyde, 100 Fountain Ave. 
Allen. Gratz, 2232 S. Goveraor 
Allen, Walter, 606 1.2 Eighth 
Allen, Walter, 16 S. Eighth 
AUgood, RajTnond, 2522 Walnut 
Allis, Louis 
Allison, Henrv, R. R. No. 7, 

Box 87 
Alspaugh, Chas., 813 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Althaus, Wm. A., R. R. No. 7, 
Wimberg Ave., Box 98 
Alvey, Elbert, 427 Mulberry 
Alvey, Or^'ille, 427 Mulberr>' 
Alvey, Robert 
Alvev. Wm. J. 

Alvey. Willie, 101 Harlan Ave. 
Anian, Clem, 910 W. Michigan 
Ambrose, Herman, 11 S. Gar\'in. 



Ambrose, Morris, 119 E. Indiana 

Ambrose, Wm., 11 S. Gai-vin 

Amiet, Claude 

Anchelevich, Irvin, 319 Mulberry 

Ancker, Clinton J., 513 S. Sev- 
enth 

Anderson, A. E. 

Anderson, Alfred N., R. R. A, Box 
40 

Anderson, Chas., care Evansville 
Press 

Anderson, Edw. R., 511 Edgar 

Anderson, Harry, 710 Ingle 

Anderson, Homer, 206 Third Ave. 

Anderson, John, 1001 W. Ohio 

Anderson, Roy, 804 Blackford Ave. 

Anderson, Ted Berger, 402 Madi- 
son Ave. 

Angel, Francis, 1621 Walnut 

Angel, John L., 102 Evans Ave. 

Angel, Wm. Mathias, R. R. A 

Angel, Willard, R. R. 3, New- 
burgh 

Angermeier, Ed^\'in A., 106 Jeffer- 
son Ave. 

Annis, Everett, 718 Locust 

Anslinger, Albert Frank, 1003 E. 
Oregon 

Anslinger, Henry F., 304 Harriet 

Anson, Claud, 921 E. Illinois. 

Anson, Harry, 921 E. Illinois 

Anstett, Frank, 425 W. Maryland 

Antey, Carl, 511 Wabash Ave. 

App, Jacob 

Appell, Henry, 1500 Olive 

Arhelger, Geo. Henry, R. R. 8, 
Box 317 

Armstrong, Dorris W., 515 Mon- 
roe Ave. 

Arend, Philip, 624 John 

Arney, Henry, 1423 W. Indiana 

Arrick, Warren, 301 Glendale Ave. 

Arnold, Ed, 1319 Third Ave. 

Arnold, John, Boehne Bldg. 

Arnv, Gus, 2914 Fifth Ave. 

Artes, Chester H., 620 Madison 
Avenue. 

Aschoff, Lawrence D., 511 Camp- 
bell 

Ash, Edward T., 1802 Governor 

*Ash, Lillian, 516 Locust 

Ashbrook, Walter, 912 Grand Ave. 

Ashby, Herschel, 123 Blackford 
Avenue 

Ashbv, Luther E., 306^2 Bray Ave. 

Ashford, Allan, 222 Vine 



*=Army nurse. 



199 



SONS OF MEN 



Ashford, Donald, 222 Vine 
Ashley, Noel Reed, 2005 E. Vir- 

8'inia 
Ashly, Ora D., 120 W. Illinois 
Ashworth, Everett, 633 John 
Ashworth, Wm., 1239 Mary 
Asmann, Karl, 111 E. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Atherton, Chas., 326 Bray Ave. 
Atkin, Louis, 1809 S. Governor 
Atkins, Louis, 734 Adams Ave. 
Atsinger, Fred B., 1709 E. Vir- 
ginia 



Altmeyer, Emil 

Attwood, Gorden B., 1414 S. First 
Ault, Chas. F., 509 Jefferson Ave. 
Aurs, Chas., 300 Florence 
Auslett, Frank, 425 W. Maryland 
Aust, Lewis, 831 John 
Aust, Otto G.. 831 John 
Austin, F. Marvin 
Ayers, Frederick A., 11 Walker 
Ayers, Jas. Wm., 926 E. Penn- 
sylvania 



Babbs, Claud M., 1615 Second Ave. 

Baches, Henry, 229 Arlington Ave. 

Baches, Ray, 229 Arlington Ave. 

Baches, Walter, 229 Arlington Ave. 

Bachman, Azalia Everett, 427 Bell 
Avenue 

Bachman, Wm. H., 1210^2 W. 
P^ranklin 

Bacon, James 

Bader, Oscar G., 1903 E. Virginia 

Bailey, Wm., 221 E. Virginia 

Bailey, Wm., 316 Cherrv 

Bailey, Robert, 316 Cherry 

Baird, Clarence 

Baird, Jesse L., 617 Monroe 

*Baird, Kitty 

Baird, Malcom, 732 Lincoln Ave. 

Baker, Arthur 

Baker, Cohen H., 1035 S. Second 

Baker, Edward, 310 E. Pennsyl- 
vania 

Baker, Geo. G., 18 Vine 

Baker, Geo., 1400 First Ave. 

Baker, Geo. 

Baker, Geo., R. R. 1, Box 76 

Baker, Geo. D.. 1829 E. Marvland 

Baker, Glenn, 420 Garfield Ave. 

Baker, Herman, 13 Randall Ave. 

Baker, Ollie, R. R. A 

Baker, Paul, 324 JeflFerson Ave. 

Baker, Rex, 205 Clark 

Baker, Robert, R. R. 1 

Baker, Thomas 

Baker, Wm., 310 E. Pennsylvania 

Ballinger, Joseph, 414 Third Ave. 

Balz, Frederick, 913 Bedford Ave. 

Bammer, David, 919 St. Joseph 
Avenue 

Bandolet, Robt., Y. M. C. A. 

Bank, Henry, 806 Taylor Ave. 

Banks, David Paul, 846 Barker 
Avenue 



*Army nurse. 



Banthey, A.. 226 Line 

Barber, Elmer F., 914 Mulberry 

Barfanger, Jacob 

Barnes, Garner, 12 E. Oregon 

Barnes, James R., R. R. A, Box 

28 
Barnes, Vego 
Barnes, Wm. E., 805 Washington 

Avenue 
Barnett, Andrew A., 1306 Hess 

Avenue 
Barnett, Archie. 1519 W. Franklin 
Barnett, Archie E.. 401 St. Joseph 

Avenue 
Barnett, Artie, 114 Codv St. 
Barnett, Chas., 114 Cody 
Barnett, Clvde, 1519 W. Franklin 
Barnett, Dee. Howell. Ind., R. R. 1 
Barnett, Doris S., 230 Bray Ave. 
Barnett, Edmond 

Barnett, Henrv, 1519 W. Frank- 
lin 
Barnett, Henrv 
Barnett, Olin' Edmond, 218 W. 

Broadway 
Barnett, Rentice V,. HE. Illinois 
Barnett, Richard, 115 W. Illinois 
Barnett, Therlow, 1214 E. Iowa 
Barnette, Lycurgus, 1211 S. Eighth 
Barnnick, Earl 
Baron, Julius, 712 Walnut 
Baronowskv, F. J., 925 S. Sixth 
Baronowsky, Henrv S., 925 S. Sixth 
Barr, Wm., 712 Division 
Barrett, Alva, 1423 E. Missouri 
Barrett, Hai-ry J., 125 Cumberland 

Avenue 
Barrick, Earl, 1805 E. Marvland 
Barron, Thos. H., 2312 Fulton Ave. 
Barrows, Everett 
Bartlett, John, 315 Magnolia Ave. 
Barton, Henry H., 416 E. Franklin 
Barton, Lawrence, 1504 W. Ver- 
mont 



200 



HONOR ROLL 



Barton, Walter, Washington, D. C. 
Bast, Oscar, 1427 Gum 
Bastian, Chas., 2311 Fulton Ave. 
Bastinger, F. 

Bastnagel, Henry, 1312 Law Ave. 
Bates, Chas., 312 Edgar 
Batteiger, John F., 1-506 W. Ohio 
Batteiger, Michael, 1506 W. Ohio 
Battin, Leland, 716 Kentucky Ave. 
Bauer, Elmer A., 515 E. Michigan 
Bauer, Henry J. 
Bauer, Roy 

Bauermeister, Millard, 818 Rowley 
Baugh, Clyde T., 1035 Washing- 
ton Ave. 
Baughman, Cavins, 615 S. First 
Baughman, Roy, 1916 Fulton Ave. 
Baughn, Herman 

Baumeyer, Wm., 2502 Fulton Ave. 
Baumgart, Edw., 408 Grant 
Baumgart, Hany, 1912 Fulton 

Avenue 
Baumgartner, Elmer, 318 Bray 

Avenue 
Baurle, Howard, 1512 E. Iowa 
Bawell, Lawrence, 526 Campbell 
Baynes, Ernest, 1806 E. Franklin 
Baynes, Guy, 1806 E. Franklin 
Beach, Norman 

Beadle, Ralph, 1704 E. Michigan 
Beadle, Zenas, 26 E. Florida 
Beams, Quincy, 427 Oak 
Beard, Flovd, 815 Adams Ave. 
Beard, John L, 803 N. Rowlev 
Beatty, Ray, 1008 E. Maryland 
Beck, Fred 

Beck, Lovell C, 10 E. Louisiana 
Beckemeier, John, 1120 S. Eighth 
Becker, Adolph, 1213 Mary 
Becker, Anthony, R. R. No. 6 
Becker, Clarence, 1123 Chestnut 
Becker, Fred, 107 John 
Becker, Heniy, 1506 W. Franklin 
Becker, John, 1213 Mary 
Becker, Leroy, 1108 Rowley 
Becker, Wm., 1224 W. Michigan 
Becker, Wm. L., 700 Baker Ave. 
Becker, Wm., 1308 W. Illinois 
Beckerle, Walter, 25 W. Maryland 
*Becket. Mabel 

Becking, Edward Geo., 1230 Mary 
Beckman, Arthur, 1318 Lincoln 

Avenue 
Becknell, Lei'oy, 1303 Linwood Ave. 
Becknell, Stanley W., 1303 Lin- 
wood Ave. 
*Beeler, Bruce, 14 Powell Ave. 
Beeler, Donald 



*Armv nurse. 



Beeler, Glen, Deakin Apts. 
Begley, Joseph, care Press Club 
Behagg, Geo. E., 510 S. Eleventh 
Behnke, Karl L., 625 Bellemeade 
Belling, Adolph W., 1621 Main 
Belling, Rennig W., 1514 E. Dela- 
ware 
Belling, Walter A., 1704 Third 

Avenue 
Bell, Fred, 1010 Chandler Ave. 
Bell, John S., 1010 Chandler Ave. 
Bell, Laurine, 504 S. Third 
Bell, Leslie, 114 E. Illinois 
Bell, Oliver, 704 W. Pennsjivania 
Bell, Ravmond, 419 Magnolia Ave. 
Bell, Wm. F. 
Belting, John 

Belz, El'^vin, 312 E. Illinois 
Bemette, Ralph, 1233 Riverside 
Bender, Barthel, R. R. 8 
Bender, Geo. E., 1709 Main 
Bender, Michael, R. R. 8, Box 191 
Bendzen, Geo. E., 1709 Main 
Bengei-t, Geo., 134 Fountain Ave. 
Benham, John, 1213 S. Governor 
Bennett, Arthur, R. R. 8, Box 218 
Bennett, Bvron, 427 Chandler Ave. 
Bennett, Carl V., 1902 E. Virginia 
Bennett, Earl, 1902 E. Virginia 
Bennett, Howard J., 1902 E. Vir- 
ginia 
Bennette, P^lph, 223 Oak 
Bennighof, Henry, 1246 S. First 
Benninghofen, Fred, 913 Edgar 
Benscoter, Roy S., 628 John 
Benson, Joseph, 305 Bellemeade 
Bent, Ralph 

Berendes, Edw. C, R. R. A, Box 59 
Berenstein, Jesse, 1511 S. Second 
Berfanger, Jacob, R. R. A 
Berger, Emil A., 22114 Locust 
Berger, Henry, 1507 Reis Ave. 
Berger, Joseph 

Berger, Walter, 1507 Reis A\^. 
Berges, Harold, 11 E. Illinois 
Bergwitz. Ed, 826 W. Virginia 
Berndt, Edw., Y. M. C. A. 
Berning, Edw., 2016 S. Governor 
Bei-ning, Ernest, 2016 S. Governor 
Bertram, W. B., 1230 W. Franklin 
Best, Fred W., 456 Ross Ave. 
Bestram, Wm., 1905 Main 
Bettagg, Carl, 115 W. Illinois 
Bettagg, Carl, 18 Read 
Bettagg, Chas., 18 Read 
Bettagg, Clarence, 827 E. Mary- 
land 
Betts, John Edw., 1117 N. Gov- 
ernor 
Betulius. Theo., 1206 Gum 



201 



SONS OF M I- N 



Bctz. Josopli A., ;)23 E. Franklin 
Beuter, Win. G., R. R. 7, Box 25 
Beyer, Frank A., 200(5 E. Virginia 
Bever. Joe F., R. R. 5, care Wni. 

Seil'ert 
never, Walter. 1002 E. Franklin 
Beyer, Wni. A., 1505 Maxwell 

Avenue 
Beyer, Win.. 1602 E. Franklin 
Bevers, Arthur, 514 S. Seventh 
l?iekel. Henry C. 
Hickin,ti\ ClilTord. 404 Grant 
Biokm(3»ier. Ben. R. R. 4 
Hiober, Otto 

Biederinan. Geo.. 201S Main 
Bienhaus. Geo. E.. 2520 Walnut 
Bieniiller. Jacob H.. KUO Law Ave. 
BiHger.^, Robert, 1103 S. Sixth 
Bippus. Dallas, 420 New York 

Avenue 
l^iroh. John. Jr.. 1221 W. Iowa 
Birilsall, Wm. Horatio, 1417 Wal- 
nut 
Birk. Gus, 1408 E. lllinoi.*; 
Birk. Urban. 1408 E. Blinois 
BischoiV, Harry Louis. 121 W. Il- 
linois 
Bishop, Carl. 022 S. First 
Bittnor, Henry P.. 11 IS E. Louis- 
iana 
Black, John A.. 301 Green River 

Roatl 
Blackmail. Walter, 1008 S. Fourth 
Blacknian. Win., 1315 S. Second 
Blackmail. Win., Ill S. Florence 
Blan. Wni. General Delivery 
Blanlord. Joseph. i>30 E. Illinois • 
Blanford. Loslie M.. 201 ^i^ Oakley 
Blankenship, Thomas. 308 JetTer- 

son Ave. 
Blatt, Heiman K.. 107 Line 
Blaxton. Joe. 1018 E. Michigan 
Blemker. Clarence. 1309 Lincoln 

Avenue 
l^lockman. Martin. 1310 E. Iowa 
l^lend. Gordon 

Blish. Louis, 509 St. Joseph Ave. 
Bloes. Geo. John, 1011 N. Governor 
Blue. Martin. 219 Cherry 
Blum. Clai-ence. 1104 E. Indiana 
Blum. John. 1104 E. Indiana 
Blum. Lawrence. 502 Line 
Hlum. Oswald. 1104 E. Indiana 
Blum. Wm. 27 Jefferson Ave. 
Blume. Harvey L., 100 U. Second 
iMUuM-g. William 
Bock. 'Paul, 1207 E. Virginia 
Uockstege. John West. Maryland 
Boeck. Carl. 122 E. Pennsylvania 



Boeline. John Win., Jr.. 1119 Lin- 
coln Ave. 
l?oeke. Albert F.. li. R. 8 
Hoepple, Oscar 
Bohleber, Geo. W., R. R. No. 1, 

Armstrong 
Bohleber. Henry. 022 Edgar 
Bohn. Ravmond E.. 514 Seventh 
Bohnsack". Adolph. 1119 E. Colum- 
bia 
Bohnsack. Fred. 1119 E. Columbia 
Bohi-er. Louis R., 105 State 
Bohrer, Wm. F.. 1108 E. Delaware 
Boink. OUie, 301 Campbell 
Boink. Victor, 430 Chandler Ave. 
Bolin, Henry, 2911 E. Indiana 
Bolton. Cleveland. 514 Barker Ave. 
Bolton. Jas., 514 N. Barker Ave. 
lUiluge, Clarence 
Bom. Leroy. 904 E. Maryland 
Bone, Guv. 105 Elsas Ave. 
Bonifield. Earl P.. 319 Parrett 
l^mn. Arthur, R. R. 3 
Boone. Archie. 182(> E. Maryland 
Boone. Arthur, 1820 E. Mar>land 
Boone, John, 1820 E. Maryland 
Boos. Andrew Webster, 1809 E. 

Maryland 
Boos, Bruce, 1809 E. Maryland 
Born. Nestor, 1228 Edgar 
Boston. Geo. A. 229^2 Locust 
Botes, James P. 

Bourland, Harry B., 1448 S. Second 
Bowen. Chas., 725 W. Ohio 
Bowon. Luther 
Bower. Fred. 1118 John 
Bowers. Archie. 1008 Sycamore 
Bowers. Lerov. 510 Adams Ave. 
Bowl in. Clyde'. R. R. 8 
Bowling. Richard. 304 E. Virginia 
Bowman. Geo.. 122 Clark 
Boyd. Amly Louis. 900 Sixth Ave. 
Boyd. Wm". Owen. 920 E. Illinois 
Boyden. Henry 

Bover. Earl. 905 Washington Ave. 
Boyei". Fred. 2939 E. Franklin 
Boyer. Guy. 905 Washington Ave. 
Boyer. Henry. W., 30 Hazel Ave. 
Boyer. William 
Brabender. Carl Wm.. 907 Linwood 

Avenue 
Brace, Leonard, 200 Huston Ave. 
Brackett. Ardon 
Brackett, A. E., 1949 Cleveland 

Avenue 
Brackett. A. F. 
Brackett. W.. 1949 Cleveland Ave. 



202 



HONOR ROLL 



Hiacknian. Avlhur K.. 190! Heid- 

oll)ach Ave. 
Brady, Pete, 10 Clark 
Brady. Ralph, l.'JOO S. Fir.st 
Bradshaw, I'ilnier J, 
Brakomoicr. Henry, ,31,'^ William 
Brainlett, Corbett", 710 ("h(<rry 
Brain iiKM', August. 400 Hairict 
Braiidan, B<mi, IKi Hess Ave. 
BrandetihorRor, Walter, R. R. 3, 

Box 270 
Brandt. William O. B., 1404 E. 

Virginia 
Biannon. William 

Branson, Wesley, 1020 W. Michi- 
gan 
Braun. Raymond, 1915 Main 
Brav. Jesse, 702 Gmn 
Brav. Wilbur, 702 Gum 
Bro.Uhitt, Kdw., 1014 E. Franklin 
Brodcmeier, Oliver, 735 St. Joseph 

Avenue 
Brcdenkamp, Fred Wm.. 110 Madi- 
son Ave. 
Breger, Wm., 19 E. Delaware 
Breidenbach, Geo., 1229 Mary 
BreittMibach, Elmer, 410 Oaklev 
Bremmor. Jos. F.. 130 S. Sixth 
]?rennan. Donald W., 300 Chand- 
ler Ave. 
Brennan. Jo.scph, R. R. 1, Arin- 

strong 
Brescher, Geo. H., 1230 W. In- 
diana 
Bretz, Ross 

Brian. Geo.. 512 Fares Ave. 
Briol, John A., 1113 E. Columbia 
Briuu's. Hector, 213 American 

Trust Bldff. 
Bright. Thomas, Slfi Grove 
Brightmire, Willi.s 
Brinker, Walter Chas., 317 E. 

Michigan 
Brinklev, Harry, 304 W. F'lorence 
Brinklow. Reginald A., Y. M. C. A. 
Briston, Grover C, R. R. A, Box 

124 
Britz, Walter, S20 E. Columbia 
Brizius, Arthur, 1314 S. Third 
Brizius, Walter F., 1011 Division 
Brockmole, Alvin J. 
Brody, Chas. R., 019 Cullop. Vin- 

cennes, Indiana 
Broerman, Ernest P., 415 Fourth 

Avenue 
Bi'oerman, Joe 

Broerman, Oswald, 1312 E. Mis- 
souri 
Brokaw, Chas., 117 S. Lafayette 



Bromni, Alvin, 810 S. Fourth 
Bromm, Louis, 810 S. Fourth 
Brooks, Berry, Y. M. C. A 
Brooks, Walter, 118 W. Colun.bia 
Brooks, Waitman 
Broshears Clovie, 441 Olive 
Broshears, Sylvester, 118 E In- 
diana 
Brothers, Geo. L., 420 Grant 
Bi-othcrs, Leslie J., Y. M, C A 
Brothers, Levi. Y. M. C \ 
Brothers, W. H., Y. M C A 
Brown, Boney, 1220 E*. Illinois 
Brown, Carl, 2904 Division 
Brown, Chas. W., Fordsville. Ky 
Brown, Clarence E.. 1113 N. Row- 
ley 

Brown, Eddie Homer, 1703 S. Sec- 
ond 
Brown, Howard, 244 New York 

Avenue 
Brown, Roy, 110 W. Broadway 
Brown, Silver, 211 Morris Avenue 
Brown, Victor Harold, 321 Mul- 
berry 
Brown, Walter, 1209 Chandler Ave- 
nue 
Brown. Wm., 211 Fulton Ave 
Browning, Chas., 11 Clark 
Browning, Roy H., 117 Washing- 
ton Avenue 
Browning. Roy H., 2914 Division 
|rui)aker, Gla., 1007 Fulton Ave. 
Bruck, (\irl L., 116 E. Pennsylvania 
B.-uck, Walter, 924 E. Colunibia 
Brucken, Anton, 20 Edgar 
Bruckner. Edw. P., 113 W. Michi- 
gan 
Blue. Earl 
Brumett. Aithur R., R. R. i Box 

24, Howell 
Brune, Clem, 930 E. Illinois 
Brune, Jos. F., 1633 Mt, Vernon 

Road 
Bruner, Chas. R., in Kentucky 

Avenue 
Bruner, Ernest, 922 Read 
Bruner, Norman, 417 Mary 
Bruning, A. 

Bruning, Henry, 207 Second Ave. 
Bruning, Wm. 
Bruntz, Archie 
Brust, Chas. O., 2421 Main 
Brust, Wm. C, 2421 Main 
Bryan, Jas., 1215 Eichel Ave. 
Bryan, Stanton. 1123 Powell Ave 
Bryant, Clarence W., 718 S. Third 
Bryant, Martin A., 1007 W. Iowa 
Bryant, R. L. 



203 



SONS OF MEN 



Bryson, Alton D., 427 Y. M. C. A. 
BuchenberR-er, EIniev J., 105 E. 

Pennsylvania 
Buchanan, Elmer 
Buchanan, John, 209 S. Governor 
Buck, Kobert R., 206 Delnuir Ave. 
Bucklery, Edw. 

Budke, Arthur, R. R. 7, Box 122 
Budke, Elmer, 1505 E. Virj>inia 
Buecher, Earl, 710 Third Ave. 
Buechler, Theo. C. R. R. 1 
Buehner, Raymond, 530 Bond 
Buente, Carl R., Kratzville Road 
Buerger, Frank Martin, 1521 W. 

Pennsylvania 
BugR-, Homer 

Buiif^ler, Otto, 18 Madison .A.ve. 
Buiitman. Jos., R. R. 1, lnj>lefield 
Bull, John S. 

Bull, Wm., 240 Kentucky Ave. 
Bull. Wyatt, 240 Kentucky Ave. 
Bullin^ton, Thomas A., IIS^- S. 

Third 
Bullock, Boyd W., S40 Adams Ave. 
Bullock, Clarence, 23 U! Walnut 
Bumb, Geo., R. R. 7 
Bumb, Henry, R. R. 7, Box 263 
Humb, John, R. R. 7 
Hurlinyame, Walter 
Burch, Posey 

Hurch. Roland, 1119 E. Maryland 
Hurchfiold, Earl, 713 Blackford 

Avenue 
Burchlield, Oliver, 713 Blackford 

Avenue 
Burchfield, Ralph, 713 Blackford 

Avenue 
BurdKc, Wm., R. R. 5 
Burdette. Ernest, 204 Read 
Burdette, Ralph. 204 Read 
Burj;:e, Frank, 1221 Kentucky .\ve. 
lUirk, Earl, 526 Chandler Ave. 
Burkert, Robert, 1216 Blackford 

Avenue 



Burkhard, S. J. 
Hurkhardt, Chas., R. R. A. 
Huikhart. Wm., 1220 Chandler 

Avenue 
Burleigh, Joseph, 420 E. Virginia 
'Hurleson, Viola, 507 S. First 
Burnett, Rexia, 302 Del mar Ave. 
Burns, Osborn 

Burr, I'aul Leroy, 1308 Read 
Burton, John Jr., 1022 Cherry 
Burton, John F., 1115 S. Eighth 
Busch, Nicholas, R. R. 7, Howell 
Hush, Roy, 1308 Cherry 
Busnuvnn, Frank H., 8i2 E. Mary- 
land 
Bussing, Bernard, 221 Read 
Bussing, Irvin, 823 Blackford Ave. 
Butke, Samuel, 1924 E. Iowa 

* Butler, Allie E., 1305 Cherry 
Butler, Chas., 1239 S. First 
Butler, Jas. R.. 1937 Division 
Hutlor, Otto, 107 S. Barker Ave. 
Hutsch, Wm., R. R. 6 
Butterfiold, Dyer, 800 S. First 
Butterticld, Sidney, 800 S. First 
Butterworth, Raymond, 801 Evans 

Avenue 
Buttrum, Leo, E., 513 E. Illinois 
Buzzingham, Henry 
Byer, Jos., R. R. 5 
Byers, Allison, 514 Seventh 
Byers, Ralph, 5l() Jefferson Ave. 
Byford, Lee, 1220 E. Louisiana 
Byington, Paul. 1118 Grand Ave. 
Byrd, Joseph A., 410 Elsas Ave. 
Bvrley, Robert A., 1510 E. Colum- 

' biii 
Byrne, Chas. 

* Byrne, Emme A., 212 Harriett 
Byrne, Thos., 116 S. Stinson Ave. 
Byrnes, Jas. E., 303 Good.sell 
Byron, John 

*Armv nurse. 



Cabaniss, Asa 

Cabaniss, James 

Caden, Walter R., 815 Second Ave. 

Cain, Howard, 2014 Main 

Cain, Albert, 202 E. Delaware 

Cain, Burtis, 2014 Main 

Caldemeyer, Walter R., 704 Third 

Avenue 
Call is, George, 1808 E. Franklin 
Calvert, Geo. Francis, 4 U. Tenth 
Calvert, W. H. 



Campbell, Harold, 119 Washington 

Avenue 
Campbell, Harry K., 806 Main 
Campbell, Noel, Oak Hill Cemetery 
Campbell, Roy D., 627 Chestnut 
Campbell, Theo. A., 119 Washing- 
ton Ave. 
Campbell, Wm., 18 Dennison 
Canida, Frank J., 110 Blackford 

Avenue 
Capella, Arthur, 1123 E. Michigan 



204 



HONOR ROLL 



Carlisle, Cleveland, 1221 1/2 Main 
Carleton, Normand 
Carlton, Ehrman, 1847 E. Oregon 
Carnahan, Alvah, 437 Jefferson 
Carnal, Bates W., 18 Dennison 
Carnes, Rufus R., 710 Mary 
Carney, Edward W., 2107 Division 
Carpenter, Leland Aubrey, 227 Em- 
erson 
Carpenter, Raymond C, 227 Em- 
erson 
Carr, Irvin H., 203 Cumberland 

Avenue 
Carrell, E., 119 E. Michigan 
Carrico, Jas. R., 214 New York 

Avenue 
Carroll, Harvey L., 309 Edgar 
Carter, Emberson 
Carter, Raymond, 10 W. Illinois 
Carter, Walter, R. R. 13 
Cartwright, Bethel, 106 Fountain 
Cartwright, James F., 514 Line 
Casey, Casper L., 225 Edgar 
Casey, Clarence, 524 So. Fifth 
Casey, Ray 

Cashen, Clarence, 921 E. Iowa 
Casper, Agie Jackson, 603 Third 

Avenue 
Casper, Chas., 106 S. Ninth 
Casper, Urban, 106 S. Ninth 
Castle, Ed. C. M., 100 Fountain 

Avenue 
Catlett, Edgar, 3124 Division 
Catts, William N., 1120 Harriett 
Caudell, Harris E., 106 Randall 

Avenue 
Cavanah, Clyde, 116 N. Barker 

Avenue 
Cavins, Leonard, 813 W. Franklin 
Cecil, Chas., 1215 Harriett 
Chandler, Robt. T., 1032 Vine 
Chapman, Chester, care Press Club 
Chapman, Leland 
Chappelle, Carl W., 524 S. Fifth 
Chase, John 
Chase, Louis 

Cheaney, W. H., 1710 Washington 
Cheatham, Vincent 
Child, Theo. S., 1100 S. Second 
Childers, Robert, R. R. 5, Box 31 
Cates, James, R. R. 2 
Christ, Theo. F., 445 Ross Ave. 
Christian, Curtis, 212 E. Maryland 
Christian, Jas. W., 212 E. Mary- 
land 
Christian, Jas. W., 34 E. Indiana 
Christian, John, 1505 E. Delaware 
Christmas, Basil Ed, 1905 Nevada 
Christmas, George 



Cissna, Carl, 1300 Oakley 
Claridge, Edw. G., R. R. 4 
Clark, Arnold, 1216 Walnut 
Clark, Cicero, care Evansville Press 
Clark, Harrison B. 
Clark, John, 1009 Twelfth Ave. 
Clark, Louis, 922 E. Delaware 
Clark, Norman, 314 E. Illinois 
Clark, Wilber, 701 S. Eighth 
Clark, Wilbur, 701 Walnut 
Clarke, Claude, 1307 Second Ave. 
Clauser, William 

Clemens, John, R. R. 4, 275 Max- 
well Ave. 
Clements, Raymond P., 1918 E. 

Franklin 
Clements, Walter Milton, 721 Mul- 
berry 
demons, Leroy 
Clifford, Geo. O., 716 S. Fiist 
Cluthe, Wilbain Aug., 2211 Main 
Clutter, Herbert J., R. R. 1, Ingle- 
field 
*Cockerell, Martha 
Cody, Burtis L., 816 W. Indiana 
Coker, Harry, 17 Stinson Ave. 
Cole, John, 317 Second Ave. 
Colema, John E., 619 John 
Collier, Wm. H., 512 Olive 
(Jollins, Arthur A. 
Collins, Edw. J., 331 Adams Ave. 
Collins, Watson, 331 Adams Ave. 
Colton, Arthur, Lodge Ave., R. R. A 
Colton, Edw. C, Lodge Ave., R. 

R. A 
Combs, Lee, 1405 Harriet 
Condit, Ethan 
Condit, Forrest, 100 Bayard Park 

Drive 
Cone, Horace LeRoy, R. R. 4 
Conley, Joseph E., 801 W. Michi- 
gan 
Connor, Welker, 1527 Gum 
Connor, Prentis W., 1527 Gum 
Conrad, Carl, 209 Arlington Ave. 
Conrad, Richard, 209 Arlington 

Avenue 
Cook, August, 1318 E. Delaware 
Cook, Chas., R. R. 7, Box 11 
Cook, Fred, 1030 Powell Ave. 
Cook, Fred, 1 Sunset Ave. 
Cook, Geo. T., 1100 W. Delaware 
Cook, James, 6 Vickery 
Cook, Lee, 924 E. Delaware 
Cook, Otto S. 

Cook, Raymond C, R. R. 7. 
Cook, Stephen, 1203 Powell Ave. 



•"Army nurse. 



205 



SONS OF MEN 



Cook, Wm. H., 6 Vickery 
Cook, Wm. L., 1231 Chandler Ave. 
Cooksey, Henry, R. R. G, Box 23 
Coombes, Claude Cecil, 606 S. 

Eighth 
Coombs, Burch M., 723 S. Third 
Coombs, John W., 723 S. Third 
Coomes, Joseph, E. Iowa St. 
Cooper, Arthur 
Cooper, Earl 

Cooper, Elmer, 710 Grand Ave. 
Cooper, Fred, 1005 Harriet 
Copeland, Geo., 1049 S. Third 
Cooper, Ogie 

Cooper, Orville, Y. M. C. A. 
Corne, Ralph, 624 John 
Cornell, Marion S., 306 S. First 
Corrington, Knox, 1250 S. First 
Cosgi'ove, Albert T., 12 Vickery 
Cosgrove, Ward, 221 Edgar 
Cotton, Theo., 503 Campbell 
Coudret, Raymond J., 1122 E. 

Michigan 
Coughlin, Thos., 817 W. Indiana 
Covert, Norwood, 300 Dearborn 
Cox, Arthur, R. R. 5 
Cox, Arthur A., 5 U. Eighth 
Cox, Bruce, 711 Adams Ave. 
Cox, Earl, R. R. 4, Box 266 
Cox, Earl, 306 Glendale Ave. 
Cox, Harry, 1029 W. Delaware 
Cox, Harry, Sta. B, Box 12 
Cox, Henry B., 1222 E. Iowa 
Cox, Joseph Howell 
Cox, Owen, 2910 Division 
Cox, Virgil, 2910 Division 
Cox, Wm. S., 1512 Cleveland Ave. 
Cozart, Everett, 116 E. Illinois 
Crackel, Kenneth Robt., 719 Chest- 
nut 
Craft, Everett H. J., 912 Fifth 
Avenue 



Craft, James L., Y. M. C. A. 
Craig, R. W. 

Craig, Wm. S., Press Club 
Crawford, Geo., 608 Walnut 
Crawford, Harry Wm., 2500 Fourth 

Avenue 
Crawford, Jas. L. 
Creacy, Arnold, 4l2 E. Columbia 
Creacy, Robert, 412 E. Columbia 
Crews, Ivan, 223 Dearborn 
Crews, Leonard, 223 Dearborn 
Cremeens, Nova 

Cripps, Wm. David, 1304 W. Mary- 
land 
Crofts, Geo., R. R. 6 
Crofts, Harry S., R. R. No. 6 
Crow, Claude W., 1311 E. Dela- 
ware 
Crow, Fred, 1311 E. Delaware 
Crowe, Marine, 711 E. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Crowder, Ernest, 1906 First Ave. 
Crowder, Oma F., 212 E. Delaware 
Crowder, Robert, 125 Chestnut 
Cudgel, Vaughn W. 
Culbertson, Leslie, R. R. A 
Culbertson, Ray, 324 Madison Ave. 
Culbertson, Ray, R. R. A, Box 340 
Cullnane, Frank, 824 W. Delaware 
Cullnane, Mike N., 824 W. Dela- 
ware 
Culp, Cayrl, 306 Edgar 
Culp, Harley, 306 Edgar 
Culp, Kenneth, 306 Edgar 
Culp, Leon, 306 Edgar 
Culp, Sherman, 306 Edgar 
Cummings. Carl, 709 Locust 
Cummins, Paul, 509 Line 
Cunningham, Geo., 1011 S. First 
Curneal, Dorris B., 418 William 
Curran, John V., Y. M. C. A. 
Currey, Hiram, 1101 W. Franklin 



D 



Dabler, Walter, 118 Evans Ave. 
Dahmer, Edw., 910 Mary 
Dailey, Jas. W., 220 U. Second 
Dale, Curtis, IS Ewing Ave. 
Dale, Ira, 18 Ewing Ave. 
Damm, Fred, 209 E. Columbia 
Damm, Harry, 1500 Evans Ave. 
Damm, Harry, 420 Mary 
Damm, John, R. R. 6 
Damron, Chas., 124 S. Ninth 
Damron, Harry F., 124 S. Ninth 
Danes, Frank, 1018 W. Illinois 
Danes, Wm. H., 1018 W. Illinois 
Daniels, Chas., Jr., 426 Spruce 



Daniels, Chas., 426 Spruce 
Daniels, Henry, 426 Spruce 
Danis, John B., 19 Denby Ave. 
Dare, Wm. H., 331 Harlan Ave. 
Dauagh, Chas. 

Dauck, Henry J., 1114 Bell Ave. 
Daugherty, Arthur Sherman, 1706 

E. Virginia 
Daugherty, Frank M., 1114 E. In- 
diana 
Daum, Adam R., No. 1, Howell, 
Daum, Geo., 423 Geil Ave. 
Daum, Geo., R. R. 1 Box 9 
Daus, John, 1603 S. Second 



206 



HONOR ROLL 



Daussman, Oscar, 111 Huston Ave. 
Daussman, Crover, 1221 Chandler 

Avenue. 
Davenport, CroiTard, 12 Walker 
David, Barnett A., 1218 S. Eighth 
Davidson, Arthur, R. R. 5 
Davidson, Don, 1109 St. Joseph Ave. 
Davidson, Herman, 219 Mulberry 
Davidson, Jas., 219 Mulberry 
Davidson, Joe, 110 S. Sixth 
Davidson, John E., 1508 W. Ver- 
mont 
Davidson, Nathaniel G., Y. M. C. A. 
Davidson, Thomas 
Davidson, Wm., 1106 Powell Ave. 
Davies, Geo. H., 503 Oakley 
Davies, John B., Jr. 
Davis, Alfred, 310 Washington 

Avenue 
Davis, Arthm- H., 112 Gilbert Ave. 
Davis, Arthur, 110 E. Illinois 
Davis, Claud, Cypi'ess, Ind. 
Davis, Edmond, 9 Line 
Davis, J. E., 613 S. Eighth 
Davis, Kenneth, 403 Hopkins Ave. 
Davis, Wilbur, 424 Elliot 
Davis, Wm. E., 2211 Cherry 
Dawson, Clarence, 3Q7 Lincoln 
Dawson, Harry 
Dawson, Hugh, 511 Elliott 
Dawson, Wm. V., 607 Fourth Ave. 
Day, Herbert, 919 S. Sixth 
Day, Homer, 129 N. Evans Ave. 
Day, Robert, 1911 E. Franklin 
Daywalt, Albert, R. R. 3, Box 291 
Day volt. Homer, 71 5 1/2 Main 
Dean, Joseph, 2223 Division 
Dean, Parish, R. R. A 
Dear, Elmer E., 1004 S. Third 
DeBruler, Geo., Bernardin Apts. 
DeBruler, Owen, 602 Campbell 
DeBi-uler, Riley 
Decker, Frank 

Decker, Frank T., 1211 W. Penn- 
sylvania 
Decker, Wm., 700 Baker Ave. 
Decker, Wm. A., 1211 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Dedrick, Alger, 604 Bedford 
Dedrick, Elbert M., 604 Bedford 

Avenue 
Dedrick, Wm. E., 1421 Division 
Deer. Martin, R. R. 8, Box 157, 

Cook Ave. 
Deer, Wm. E., R. R. 8, Box 157, 

Cook Ave. 
Deffendall, Jas., 511 Cleveland Ave. 
DeGai-is, Ed, 713 S. Second 
Deig, Lawrence 



Deissler, Louis, 11 S. Ninth 

Deit, LawTence, 1606 Third Ave. 

Deitz, Harry 

Deller, Geo., 105 Tekoppel Ave. 

Deller, John, 105 Tekoppel Ave. 

DeMar, Joseph B., 115 U. Seventh 

Demick, Era, 918 Gum 

Demond, John R., 504 Cleveland 

Dendinger, Frank, 231 ¥2 N. Fifth 

Denison, Henry L., 316 E. Illinois 

Denker, Fred G. 

Denny, Preston, 619 V2 S. Second 

Dent,' John, 1713 E. Iowa 

Denton, Wm. M., 604 Linwood Ave. 

Denton, Winfield, 1108 Powell Ave. 

DeTreville, Julian, 2312 Walnut 

Detroy, Oscar P., 1517 W. Indiana 

DeVault, H. E., Hotel Lincoln 

Devers, Herbert C, 2101 Division 

Deweese, Howard 

Deweese, Albert, 404 Fourth Ave. 

Dewes, Joseph W., 235 E. Mary- 
land 

Dewig, Allie, 1403 W. Franklin 

Dick, John, 1548 Law Ave. 

Dick, Sidney D., 517 Jefferson Ave. 

Dick, Wm. W., 517 Jefferson Ave. 

Dickman, Edward, 513 S. Third 

Dickman, Raymond, 1420 E. Mary- 
land 

Dickman, Claude Matthew, 928 E. 
Pennsylvania 

Dickman, Claude W., 605 Campbell 

Diefenbaugh, Ralph, 1304 E. Dela- 
ware 

Dieffenbach, R. E., 29 E. Tennes- 
see 

Diehl, Jos. C, Oregon 

Diehl, Wm. H., 128 Tenth Ave. 

Dietsch, Jacob E., 1403 W. Frank- 
lin 

Dietsch, Nick, 1403 W. Franklin 

Dietz, John, 102 Hess Ave. 

Dietz, Oscar A., 102 Hess Ave. 

Dilger, C. F. 

*Dillingham, Verna, 320 S. Second 

Dillion, Tony 

Dillman, Herman Joseph, 901 Har- 
riet 

Dillman, J. Richard, 901 Harriet 

Dimett, Welborn, 1120 E. Dela- 
ware 

Dippel, Anton, 127 Fountain Ave. 

Dippel, Frank, 30 E. Nevada 

Dippel, Frank John, 14 Fountain 
Avenue 

Dippel, John, 135 Blackford Ave. 



*Army nur.se. 



207 



SONS OF MEN 



Dippel, John, 30 E. Nevada 
Dippel, Victor, 135 Blackford Ave. 
Dippel, Louis, 1814 E. Delaware 
Dippel. Louis J., 1814 E. Dela- 
ware 
Dirden. Orville L., 1248 S. First 
Ditchlev, Ed Julius, 518 U. Eighth 
Dodd, 'Searl, 505 John 
Dodds, Dallas, 1005 S. Third 
Dodge, Albert 

Doench. Ed Conrad. 1307 E. Dela- 
ware 
Doenges, Geo., 225 Oak 
Doerr, Ed F., 1003 Main 
Doerr. Ed Morris, 201 Edgar 
Doerschler, Walter H., No. 1 Black- 
ford Ave. 
Doerter, Julius, Jr., 902 Linwood 

Avenue 
Doerter, Wm. F., 902 Linwood Ave. 
Doll, Geo. J., 1407 Grand Ave. 
Donner, Rufus, 1322 Law Ave. 
Dooley, Wm., 728 Monroe Ave. 
Doolittle, John, 1017 W. Columbia 
Dorsev, Robert H., G03 William 
Doss, Thos., 1608 E. Delaware 
Doughty, Wm., 2918 E. Illinois 
Douglas, Shirley 
Downs, Jas. A., 428 Campbell 
Downs. Wm. T., 1201 Blackford 

Avenue 
Doyle, Gordon, 1224 E. Marvland 
Dovle, Herndon, 1224 E. Marvland 
Drain. Paul D., 1105 E. Missouri 
Drake. Garland H. 
Drausfelt. Fred 
Dremstead, Chris, R. R. 3 
Dremstedt, Chris, R. R. 4 



Drilling, Joseph, 1123 W, Delaware 
Drochelman, Henry T., 930 E. 

Pennsylvania 
Droit, C. H., 2110 E. Columbia 
Droll, Percy, 12 Bellemeade Ave. 
Drouineau, Paul, Colonial Apts. 
Droste, Frederick W., 705 Evans 

Avenue 
Durrv. Arthur, 400^2 Mulberry 
Dubber, Oscar W., 104 E. Iowa 
Dubber, Wm., 104 E. Iowa 
Duerringer. Jacob, 434 Chandler 
Duff, Ennis, 400 Read 
*Dugan. Delia, 1301 Second Ave. 
Dugan, Walter Clarence, 714 Ful- 
ton Ave. 
Duke. Robert H., 130 Sixth 
Dulin, Wm. C. 

Duming. David B., 202 Fares Ave. 
Duncan. David N., 1516 Second 

Avenue 
^Duncan, Delia 

Duncan. John H.. 1102 W. Virginia 
Duncan, Louis J., 1516 Second Ave. 
Duncan, Frederick L., 802 Second 

Avenue 
Duncan, W. S. 

Dunlevv. Ravmond H., 1504 Gum 
Dunphy, Clifford, 400 Grant 
•^Dupee. Helen 

Durham, Ed, 122 Madison Ave. 
Durham, Homer E., 424 Madison 

Avenue 
Durre, Roy, 512 Jefferson Ave. 
Dusendschon, Horace A., 1305 Mc- 

Cormick Ave. 
Dyer, Wallace, 1311 Lincoln Ave. 



*Armv nurse. 



Eakins, Aubrey 
Eakins, Stuart, 705 Main 
Easier, Albert, 2727 E. Indiana 
Eberlin, Emil W., 711 Sixth Ave. 
FJberlin. Rov, 711 Sixth Ave. 
Eberlin, Wm., 1401 Third Ave. 
Ebingh, Edward, 129 W. Delaware 
Eble, Frank. 401 Central Ave. 
Eble, Fred H., 19 Georgia 
Ebmeier, Carl, 1304 E. Delaware 
Ebmeier, Oscar 
Eckart, Frank, 1211 Oakley 
Eckart, Gus B., 1216 Edgar 
Eckel, Herman, 719 S. Ninth 
Eckert. Geo., 1623 Walnut 
Eckstein, Edw. L., 301 Campbell 
Edmond, Loren Alexander, Cy- 
press, Ind. 
Edmonson, J. C, 722 Washington 



Edmonson, Tony C, 818 E. Colum- 
bia 

Edmunds. Jas., 905 Riverside Ave. 

Edson, Wm. ,1205 Chandler Ave. 

Edward, Chas. L., 707 Grand Ave. 

Edwards, Geo., 1130 S. Governor 

Edwards, J. C. 

Edwards, J. F. 

Edwards, Lambert, 707 Grand Ave. 

Edwards, Wm. E., 105 Fulton Ave. 

Effinger, Frank L., R. R. 6 

Egbert, Gilbert, 1112 S. Eighth 

Egler, Oscar, 16^,2 High 

Egli, Albert J., 1118 St. Joseph 
Avenue 

Egli, Peter G., 1118 St. Joseph Ave. 

Ehrich. Wm., 1600 Kentucky Ave. 

Ehrmann, Ed., 614 Cherrv 

Eichele, Fred, R. R. 5 



208 



HONOR ROLL 



Eichenberger, John S., R. R. 2, 

Box 41 
Eichin, Ed 

Eiselein, Geo., 1222 W. Columbia 
Eisenhauer, Earl J,. 307 Geil Ave. 
Eislein, Christ, 1222 W. Columbia 
Eis.sler, Elmer, R. R. 5 
Eis.sler, Geo., 182.5 E. Delaware 
Eissler, Oliver, 909 E. Louisiana 
Eissler, Owen L., R. R. 5 
Ellerbusch, Walter, 1400 E. Frank- 
lin 
Ellis, Franklin E., .504 Fourth 

Avenue 
Ellis, Robert, 1.303 E. Oregon 
EUsperman, John F., 2006 E. Mich- 
igan 
Ellsworth, Geo., 308 Washington 

Avenue 
Elmanes, Carl 

Elpers, Conrad, 918 E. Columbia 
Elpus, Pete, R. R. 1, Armstrong 
Elsasser, Lambert, 102 Read 
Ellwanger, Wm., 401 Main 
Elwood, Frank, 519 U. Seventh 
Ely, Charles 
Ely, Elbert, 624 John 
Ely, Everett 
Emge, Emil E., R. R. 7, Box 99, 

Wimberg Ave. 
Emge, Joe, R. R. 7, Box 99 
Emmick, Loren, 1218 Gum 
Emrich, Ed, 27 E. Florida 
Enderlin, Wm. C, 720 Locust 
Enders, Wilbur P., Y. M. C. A. 
Endicott, Oscar J., 122 Powell Ave. 
Endman, Benjamin, 123 S. Sixth 
Endress, Clement J., 301 Grant 
Endress, Geo., 301 Grant 



Endrum, John, 19 Waggoner Ave. 
Engel, Wm. H., 1103 W. Iowa 
Engels, CondifF, 1405 Walnut 
Englert, Edwin J., 100 E. Mis.souri 
Ennis, Herbert V., 309 William 
Epmeier, Geo. E., 3 S. Tenth 
Epperson, Arthur W., 802 Fifth 

Avenue 
Erdman, Ben, R. K. 5 
Erheardt, Henry 
Erk, Carl B., 217 Edgar 
Ernspiger, Chester E., 405 Gar- 
field Ave. 
Ernspiger, Geo. R., 405 Garfield 

Avenue 
Ernst, Edw., R. R. 3, Inglefield 
Ernst, Wm., 1339 Law Ave. 
Ershig, Elmer W., 1512 E. Vir- 
ginia 
Er.skine, James, 326 Barrett 
Erskine, Jas. P., 1926 E. Nevada 
Er.skine, John, 326 Parrett 
Er.skine, Lloyd W., 1801 Lincoln 

Avenue 
Ervin, Han-y, 407 Huston Ave. 
Esche, Theo., R. R. A, Box 327 
Eskero, Montie, Y. M. C. A. 
Esmeier, Henry, 508 Grant 
Espenlaub, Emil, 1305 E. Colum- 
bia 
Euler, Henry, 321 Washington Ave. 
Euler, Philip, 321 Washington Ave. 
Evahard, Geo. E., 1220 W. Indiana 
Evans, Clarence, 213 Cody 
Evans, Harold, 3231/2 S. Second 
Everidge, Cecil, 1535 Third Ave. 
*Evers, Cecelia, 311 Jefferson Ave. 



'Army nurse. 



Fabian, Ai'thur 

Fahrer, Chas. Louis, R. R. 7, Box 

77 
Fallen, Raymond, 206 E. Delaware 
Falk, R. W. 

Farley, Geo., 22 E. Tennessee 
Farmer, Claud, 1523 Law Ave. 
Farmer, Robert 
Farrell, Lawi*ence, 611 Locust 
Farrow, Raymon, 1001 Chestnut 
Fasciano, Frank, 411 Oak 
Fasciano. Mike, 411 Oak 
Faust, Henry N., 1601 Law Ave. 
Fauquher, Warren, R. R. 5 
Feagley, Dan H., .327 Campbell 
Feagly, Ken, 2123 V2 Division 
Fease, Thos. E. 



Featherston, Robt., 37 Washington 

Avenue 
Fehn, Alfred 

Fehn, Nicholas V., 414 Oakley 
Fehr, Carl, 513 Fifth Ave. 
Fein, Emest L., 911 W. Virginia 
Fein, Frank, 911 W. Virginia 
Felker, Marcellus P., 403 Line 
Felker, William 

Fellwock, Oscar, 114 Fountain Ave. 
Fellwock, Paul C, 1800 Maxwell 

Avenue 
Fenchler, Arthur, 628 John 
Fenchler, Roy, 628 John 
Fendel, Tony 

Fenstra, Harry, 1011 W. Indiana 
Ferguson, Elmer, 609 Campbell 



209 



SONS OF MEN 



Ferg-uson,.John, 609 Campbell 
Ferguson, Orval, 1309 E. Columbia 
Ferguson, Kussell, 309 Washington 

Avenue 
Ferguson, Wm., 805 N. Kowley 
FerreJl, Randolph, 504 Parrett 
P'etterers, Ethv. E. ,1401 Walnut 
Fichas, A. 
Ficken, M. Norman 
Fierst, Edward, 203 State 
Fieth, Joseph A., 60S Cherry 
Fieth, Paul, 333 Ewing Ave. 
Fife, William 

File, John, St. Joseph Ave. 
File, Leroy, 419 Magnolia Ave. 
File, Wm. M., R. R. 7, Outer St. 

Joseph Ave. 
Fine, Isador, 318 Cherry 
Fink, Adam, 20 S. Eighth 
Fink, Arthur, 20 S. Eighth 
Finke, Ralph E., 1318 Madison 

Avenue. 
Finney, Chas., 109 W. Maryland 
Finnv, Geo. P., 331 Harlan Ave. 
Fischer, Fred C, 1100 W. Illinois 
P^'ischer, Jacob, 1312 E. Missoux'i 
Fischer, Jacob, it. R. 3, Inglefield 
Fischer, Paul J., 1102 W. Illinois 
Fisher, Clarence, 1307 E. Illinois 
Fisher, Fred F., 1123 W. Ohio 
Fisher, Fred J., 1511 E. Michigan 
Fisher, Randall, 209 Chestnut 
P^'isher, Wilbur 
Flack, Gabriel, R. R. A 
Fleener, John C, R. R. 5, Box 124 
Flick, Karl H., 1309 E. Columbia 
Flick, Marshall C, 2713 Main 
Flood, D. 

Flovd. Robert, 114 E. Virginia 
Ployd, Robert M., 1127 E. Dela- 
ware 
Floyd, S. 

Floyd, Wm. David, 1127 E. Dela- 
ware 
Flucks, E. H. 
Flucks, Jasper 

Fluty, Ben, 317^^ Magnolia Ave. 
Fluty, Jas., 317^2 Magnolia Ave. 
Fluty, Jas., 2614 Fulton Ave. 
Foley, Geo., 327 Goodsell 
Foley, Wm., 327 Goodsell 
Folsom, Ephraim M. 
Folz, Chas., 314 Igelheart Ave. 
Folz, Daniel, Nevada St. 
Folz, Edw., 710 Edgar 
Folz, Frank W.. 1118 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Folz, Henrv, R. R. 3, E. Columbia 
Folz, Jacob, 1131 W. Illinois 



Forister, Wm., 34 ^^ E. Indiana 

P'orth, Russell, 213 Mulberry 

F'ortune, John, 703 Mulberi'y 

Fortune, Union, 14 E. Pennsyl- 
vania 

Foster, Arnold, 700 Harriet 

Foster, Arnold, 1311 E. Columbia 

Foster, Leroy, 14 Cherry 

Foster, Tiniolean, 108 Clark 

Fox, Ed John, 327 Hess Ave. 

Fox, Francis T., 313 Mulberry 

P'ox, Henry, 327 Hess Ave. 

Fox, Henry Wm., 117 N. Sixth 

Fox, Wm., 117 N. Sixth 

Fraher, Harry 

Frakes, Lawrence, 801 Linwood 
Avenue 

Frakes, Willie E., 2203 E. Colum- 
bia 

Frame, Isaac W. 

France, Ivan, R. R. 4 

Francis, Forest M., 215 Harriet 

F'rancis, Ira H., 215 Harriet 

Frank, Clement A. ,1024 W. Dela- 
ware 

Franklin, Chas. Edward, 412 E. Co- 
lumbia 

Frasier, Chas. J., 1002 Lemcke 
Avenue 

Frazier, Nich., Troy, Ind. 

Frazier, Oliver 

Freels, Jas. T., R. R. 1, Box 429, 
Tekoppel Ave. 

French, Stephen F., 1320 E. Frank- 
lin 

*French, Mrs. Stephen, 1320 E. 
P^ranklin 

Frei, Frank 

Fretz, Walter, 1001 E. Michigan 

Freund, Karl 

Freund, Paul, 1213 Chandler Ave. 

Freund, R. H., 1213 Chandler Ave. 

Frev, Chas., Ill W. Iowa 

Frev, Henry C, 2217 E. Virginia 

Frick, Henrv C, 2217 E. Virginia 

Frick, Frank J., 210 Goodsell 

Frick, Herman, 219 Washington 
Avenue 

Fridy, F'rancis J., R. R. 4 

Freihaut, Joseph 

Frielinghausen, John, 1125 W. 
Iowa 

Frisse, Edw., 21 Edgar 

Frisse, Frank, 21 Edgar 

Fritsch, Louis E., 1111 E. Franklin 

Froelich, Chas. B., 117 Monroe 
Avenue 



* Army Nurse 



210 



HONOR ROLL 



Frohbieter, Benj., 703 Division 

Frohbieter, Hugo, 703 Division 

Fromme, John, Forrest Hills 

Fromme, Wm. J., 1005 E. Franklin 

Fruehwald, Elmer 

Fruehwald, Ivan, 900 E. Maryland 

Frye, Samuel 

Fuchs, Clarence, 1114 E. Delaware 

Fuchs, Herman, 711 S. Ninth 



Fuchs, Louis, 711 S. Ninth 
Fulkerson, Bumie 
Fulmer, Jos. C. 

Funke, Paul A., 515 E. Franklin 
Funkhouser, Ralph, S. Second 
Fuquay, Elmer, 1814 E. Nevada 
Fuquay, Frank, 1814 E. Nevada 
Fuquay, Harry, 1814 E. Nevada 



Gabbard, Cleatus 

Gabe, Frank, 2915 Fifth Ave. 

Gabe, G. Marion, Y. M. C. A. 

Gabel, Florian, 416 Grant 

Gabel, Geo., 717 V2 Sixth Ave. 

Gahr, Fred 

Gaisser, Clyde C, 32 Carpenter 

Galloway, Byron, 315 Chestnut 

Gander, Chas., R. R. 4 

Gander, John S., R. R. 4, Maxwell 

Avenue 
Gann, Geo., 105 Fountain Ave. 
Gantner, Clarence, 617 Bellemeade 

Avenue 
Gantner, Ralph, 617 Bellemeade 

Avenue 
Gardner, Chas. 

Garman, Jas. O., 307 S. Second 
Garnett, Harry D., 934 Blackford 

Avenue 
Garrett, Lawrence, care Marine 

Hospital 
Garrett, Mike E., 1022 W. Colum- 
bia 
Garrett, Roscoe, 1510 Main 
Garvin, Melvin, 514 S. First 
Garvin, Thos. Edgar, 514 S. First 
Gasser, Wm. L., 1228 E. Oregon 
Gastenveld, Raymond J., 811 Ful- 
ton Ave. 
Gates, Edward, R. R. 5, Box 80 
Gates, Percy, 618 S. Second 
Gatsch, Harold M., 816 S. Fourth 
Gaultney, Fleety S., 438 Henning 

Avenue 
Gee, Frank, Marine Hospital 
Gee, Paul, 1036 Cherry 
Gehlhausen, Gilbert, 227 Clark 
Geisehman, Walter, 1000 N. Garvnn 
Geiss, Oscar A., 926 Powell Ave. 
Geiss, Walter 

Geissler, John, 513 S. Fifth 
Genss, Frank, 211 Walker 
Gentrv, Claude, 704 Oak 
Gentry, Theo., 3y2 N. Third 
George, Dorsey R., First St. 
George, John M., 706 William 



George, Roland, 808 Linwood Ave. 
George, Victor, 808 Linwood Ave. 
Gepner, Chas., 523 Line 
* Gerard, Amy, 505 Washington 

Avenue 
Gerdie, Thomas 
Gerhardt, Albert S., R. R. 3, Box 

223 
Gerhardt, Henry L. 
Geringer, Joseph, 1253 S. First 
Gerkensmeier, Charlie, 1708 Fulton 

Avenue 
Gerling, Frederick W., R. R. A, 

Box 386 
Gerst, Adolph 0., 914 Harriet 
Gerst, Victor, 914 Harriet 
Gessler, Raymond, 1713 Fulton 

Avenue 
Geupel, Chas., 506 Washington 

Avenue 
Geupel, Ray, 506 Washington Ave. 
Gibbs, Sylvester, 28 Cass Ave. 
Gibson, Arthur, 1026 W. Illinois 
Gibson, Cosby, 1408 Linwood Ave. 
Gibson, Eugene, 219 S. Fifth 
Gibson, Roy R., 22 Hazel Ave. 
Gibson, Wm. N., 209 Cumberland 

Avenue 
Gilbert, Cornelius, Crescent Club 
Gilbei-t, Frank, 906 Riverside Ave. 
Gilbert, Wm. H. 

Gillis, Harold, 1326 S. Governor 
Gimlich, Henry, 24 Decker Rd. 
Girten, Chas. S., 610 S. Eighth 
Girten, Madison L., 1400 W. Mary- 
land 
Girten, Paul E., 1400 W. Maiyland 
Gish, James, 115 W. Michigan 
Glaser, Jos., R. R. 8 
Glaser, Wm. F. 
Glazer, Julius, 404 S. Fourth 
Gleason, Emerv, 317 Second Ave. 
Gleason, Harry H., 300 S. Water 
Gleichman, Walter C, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 



* Army Nurse 



211 



SONS OF MEN 



Glenn, Victor, 14 E. Pennsylvania 
Glueck, Chas., 424 Olive 
Goad, Carl Parks, 22 Fountain 

Avenue 
Goad, Chester, 522 Green Eiver Rd. 
Goebel, Jos. J., R. R. 2, Armstrong 
Goebel, Philip, R. R. 7 
Goeke, Adolph, 1311 E. Maryland 
Goeke, Victor, 1311 E. Maryland 
Golden, Lee, 100 Fountain Ave. 
Goldsmith, Riley, R. R. 7, Box 237 
Goldsmith, Ross, 1109 E. Maryland 
Goodly, Roscce, R. R. 7, Box 113, 

Howell 
Gorman, Otho A., 1102 S. Third 
Gorman, Wm., 710 Gum 
Gostlev, Edwin D., 611 Read 
Gotta, Wm., 1421 E. Iowa 
Gough, George 0., 708 John 
Gough, Oscar 

* Gould, Meta, 505 Washington Ave. 
Grabhorn, Alfred, 1011 St. Joseph 

Avenue 
Grace, Carl, 104 W. Broadway 
Graff, Edward F., 1203 Oakley 
Graham, Donald, 1513 Gum 
Graham, Clarence 
Graham, Robert F., 607 S. Fifth 
Grainger, Louis F., 1014 Elliott 
Grannaway, Jack, 310 E. Virginia 
Grant, John, 2515 E. Virginia 
Grant, Mark, 518 Green River Rd. 
Grant, Wm. 

Gray, Jesse, 219 Kentucky Ave. 
Grayson, Gerdie 
Green, Frederick F., 223 New York 

Avenue 
Green, Harvey J., 507 S. Seventh 
Green, Jacob, 627 Main 
Gi'een, Ledo, 514 E. Michigan 
Green, Ray, 1945 Cleveland Ave. 
Greene, Alfred, 1043 Riverside 

Ave. 
Greenfield, Jas. A., 1417 E. Indiana 
Greenfield, Leslie, 43 Carpenter 
Greenwell, Ladd, 15 Cumberland 

Avenue 
Greenfield, Samuel, 43 Carpenter 



*Army nurse. 



Haaga, Carl H., 1112 W. Michigan 
*Habenicht, Emma 
Haas, Wm., 1312 W. Pennsylvania 
Hacker, Fred D., 624 State 
Hadley, Shirley, 313 Madison Ave. 
Hager, J oe, 1404 W. Indiana 

*Army nurse. 



H 



Greer, Arthur, 1302 ^^ E. Louisiana 
Greer, Earl, 2303 E. Columbia 
Greer, Edwin W., 2303 E. Columbia 
Greer, Frank, 2303 E. Columbia 
Greer, John, 324 Line 
Greer, Uary L., 324 Line 
Gregory, Chester, 14 E. Tennessee 
Gregory, Frank, 331 Line 
Gregory, Irvin, 331 Line 
Gregson, Roy 

Grenlich, Frank J., 1015 E. Frank- 
lin 
Gresham, Earl 

Gresser, Fred A., 811 Sixth Ave. 
Gresser, Wm. J., 811 Sixth Ave. 
Greubel, Wm. J., 814 E. Missouri 
Grewe, Otto, 514 Oakley 
GrJesbacker, Carl, 1008 E. Indiana 
Grigsby, Frank, 116 Locust 
Grim, Gresham L., 410y2 Main 
Grimier, Gerard, 300 Adams Ave. 
Grimm, Louis E., 1119 Oakley 
Grisson, Jesse, 308 Dearborn 
Groben, Edmund, 411 Heinlein Ave. 
Gronotte, Albert C, 1418 E. Dela- 
ware 
Gronotte, Edward A., 1418 E. Dela- 
ware 
Gross, Oscar, 1604 Reis Ave. 
Grossman, Elmer R., R. R. 1, How- 
ell, Ind. 
Grossman, Fred C, 1614 John 
Grossman, Wesley, R. R. 1, Howell 
Groves, Herman, 16 W. Iowa 
Grub, Jasper, 27 Park 
Grubbs, Ray F., 703 Mulberry 
Grundler, Ben O., 305 Campbell 
Gue thing, Mathew, 1217 W. Ohio 
Gumbel, Henry, R. R. 7 
Gunterman, Granville, 2003 E. 

Louisiana 
Gunterman, Jas., 2003 E. Louis- 
iana 
Gunterman, Wm., 2003 E. Louis- 
iana 
Gunn, Ulus, 1003 E. Indiana 
Gustafson, Fred, 505 Fifth Ave. 
Guthrie, Louis 
Gymer, Geo., 106 Cumberland Ave. 



Hahn, Elmer, Cypress R. R. 2 
Hahn, Fred, 1106 Division 
Hahn, Fred, 303 Harriet 
Hahn, Geo. L., R. R. 6 
Hahn, Harry X., Cypress R. R. 2 
Hahn, John E., R. R. 2, Cypress 
Hahn, Wilburn, 1126 W. Michigan 



212 



HONOR ROLL 



Hailey, Thos., 1113 N. Governor 

Hale, Logan, 903 Chestnut 

Hall, Arthur, 214 Heinlein Ave. 

Hall, Fred T., 723 John 

Hall, Jas. H., 2104 Division 

Hall, Jess, 1313 E. Illinois 

Hall, J. Robert, 906 Bedford Ave. 

Hall, Robert, 1812 E. Maryland 

Haller, Clarence, 1210 Cherry 

Hallinan, Francis P. 

Halpin, Thos. 

Halter, Hobert, 2301 Canal • 

Hamburg, Alex., 505 Chestnut 

Hamburg, Samuel, 1701 Main 

Hamilton, Otis 

Hammer, Owen V., 905 E. Missouri 

Hammer, Arthur J., 208 N. Fifth 

Hammerstein, Clarence P., 1116 

Chandler Ave. 
Hammerstein, Florian, 917 Powell 

Avenue 
Hammerstein, Fred J., 400 Bray 

Avenue 
Hammerstein, Raymond, 917 Pow- 
ell Ave. 
Hammond, Jas. 

Hampton, Arthur, 25 E. Maryland 
Hampton, Eugene 
Hampton, Roy, 25 E. Maryland 
Hampton, Wm., 25 E. Maryland 
Hanalson, Chas. R., 413 Garfield 

Avenue 
Hardy, Herman M., 1017 E. Frank- 
lin 
Hankins, Wm. R., 1224 Harriet 
Hanley, Thos., Woodmere Hospital 
Hanselman, Floyd E., 101 Howard 
Hanson, Ed., 724 William 
Happe, Norbert Jr., R. R. 7 
Happle, Geo. L., 1828 Third Ave. 
Hardigg, Carl, 812 S. Second 
Hardin, Carl, 609 William 
Hardy, Herman, 1017 E. Franklin 
Hare, John, 118 Campbell 
Hargrave, Jasper, 412 Harriet 
Hargrave, Wm. J., 104 Read 
Harl, John E., 1124 W. Illinois 
Harl, Joseph M., 1016 W. Illinois 
Harl, Julius, 1124 W. Illinois 
Harl, Robert, 1034 W. Virginia 
Harlan, Duke, 515 S. First 
Harmes, Clarence, 1816 E. Oregon 
Harmeyer, Hugo D., 1411 W. Penn- 
sylvania 
Harmon, Frank, 1816 E. Maryland 
Harmon, Jeff, 319 Vine 
Harned, Wm., 221 Oak 
Harper, Taylor D., 224 Tennessee 
Harper, Victor, 504 Baker Ave. 



Harper, Wm. Raymond, Box 244, 

R. R. A 
Harrell, U. P. 
Harris, Albert, 1200 Blackford 

Avenue 
Harris, Chas., 220 E. Illinois 
Harris, Earl R., 2104 Division 
Harris, Edward B., 306 W. Keller 
Harrison, Joel K. 
Harrison, Roy 

Hart, E. C, 1215 E. Columbia 
Hart, Frank, 15 Denby Ave. 
Harter, Aldridge, 1219 E. Virginia 
Hartig, Albert A., 1911 E. Vir- 
ginia 
Hartig, Ernest, R. R. 1, Inglefield 
Hartlein, Edwin 

Hartlein, Herbert R., R. R. 1, Arm- 
strong 
Hartley, Paul, 3200 Division 
Hartman, Gilbert, 1000 Read 
Hartmann, Clemens, 408 Second 

Avenue 
Hartmann, Wm. G., R. R. 7 
Harty, Chas. R., 1518 Second Ave. 
Hartz, Oscar, 1333 S. Governor 
Hassel, Ben. V., 327 Harlan Ave. 
Hassfurther, Robert J. 
Hassler, Stephen E., 1712 E. 

Franklin 
Hauke, Jacob, R. R. 6 
Hawkins, Chas. E., 2835 E. Illinois 
Hawkins, M. L. 

Hawkins, Robert, 1616 E. Louis- 
iana 
Hawkins, Walter C, 2835 E. Illi- 
nois 
Hayden, Ernest, 522 E. Illinois 
Hayden, Thomas, 310 Edgar 
Hayes, Ollie, 10 Carpenter 
Hayes, Ralph B., 118 Clark 
Hayes, Robert, 2123 V^. Division 
Hayhurst, Mayson, 503 Adams 

Avenue 
Healy, George 

Haymaker, Robert, 2306 Main 
Havs, Louis 

Hays, Thanuel, 302 Decker Rd. 
Head, Thomas E., 1102 S. Gov. 
Heard, Claborn, 721 W. Ohio 
Heard, Huston, 721 W. Ohio 
Heard, Louis, 721 W. Ohio 
Heard, Wm., 721 W. Ohio 
Heartwell, Carl 

Heberer, Arthur, 1001 S. Third 
Hebbeler, Arthur W., 1807 E. 

Franklin 
Hecht, Milton, 407 Line 
Heck, Chas., 119 Florence 



213 



SONS OF MEN 



Hedderick, Edwin H. 
Hedges, Robt. Burtis, 502 Cleve- 
land Ave. 
Heeger, Fred A., 305 Fountain 

Avenue 
Heegev, Louis, 603 First Ave. 
Heerdink, Anton, R. R. A 
Heidt, Edwin, 1216 E. Missouri 
Heilman, Daniel, 1003 First Ave. 
Heilman, Walter Wm., R. R. 3 
Heim, Ben, 1003 S. Governor 
Heim, Bruce, 1003 S. Governor 
Heim, John, 312 Gilbert Ave. 
Heines, John, 1301 Gum 
Heiser, Arthur, 18 Georgia 
Helbling, Victor, 210 E. Nevada 
Heklt, Clarence, 1511 E. Michigan 
Heldt, Gilbert, 1320 N. Garvin 
Helfert, John, Armstrong, Ind. 
Helfert, William, Armstrong, Ind. 
Helfrich, Jos., 1109 W. Michigan 
Helfrich, Willard, 820 N. Governor 
Helling, John, 1221 Harriet 
Helmich, Frank, 2108 E. Virginia 
Helming, Alvin H., 1822 E. Dela- 
ware 
Helming, Wm. C, 1110 E. Louis- 
iana 
Helmuth, Henry, R. R. A 
Helmuth, Willie, R. R. A 
Helverson, Chas., 315 Third Ave. 
Hemberger, Richard, 1408 E. Mich- 
igan 
Hemmer, Owen B., 905 E. Missouri 
Henderliter, Fred Howell, Ind. 
Henell, Victor Henry, Armstrong, 

Ind, R. I 
Henn, Carl, 822 W. Virginia 
Henn, Carl, 704 Wabash Ave. 
Henneman, Louis M., R. R. A, Box 

593 
Henning, Clinton E., 222 Kerth 

Avenue 
Henning, Fred, 103 Madison Ave. 
Henning, Joseph 
Henrich, Fred, 605 Ingle 
Henry, Chas., 1908 E. Michigan 
Heniy, Thos. 
Hensel, Arthur 

Henshew, Chas., 133 Blackford Ave. 
Henze, Frank, R. R. 7 
Herke, Carl, 17 Cutler Ave. 
Herman, Clarence, 611 S. Ninth 
Herman, Edw., 114 W. Columbia 
Herman, Ray F., R. R. 7, West 

Heights 
Herman, Walter, 19 Walnut 
Hermann, Henry E., R. R. 8, 19 
Rheinlander Ave. 



Hermsen, Albert, 1016 Chandler 

Avenue 
Hermsen, Herbert, 1016 Chandler 

Avenue 
Hern, Geo., 212 E. Maryland 
Herode, Henry, 213 Walker 
Herrmann, Arthur, 1520 Gum 
Herrmann, Irvin, 1520 Gum 
Herron, Barney S., 125 Vs Edgar 
Herron, Charles 

Herron, Kingsley A., 717 S. Ninth 
Herron, Wm. A., 1414 Cleveland 

Avenue 
Herschelman, John C, R. R. 2, 

Howell 
Hertweck, Leo, 400 S. Third 
Hertweck, Leo, 1228 E. Louisiana 
Heseman, Earl J., 1705 E. Frank- 
lin 
Heseman, Harold C, 600 Washing- 
ton Ave. 
Hess, Chas. A., 1113 N. Rowley 
Hess, Robert, 1120 E. Virginia 
Hess, Robert 
Hessenauer, John, R. R. 3 
Hester, Kenneth, 1635 Van Buren 

Avenue 
Hestilow, Jas., 1120 E. Maryland 
Heston, Darwin, 218 Sunset Ave. 
Hetherington, Albert F., 1212 N. 

Garvin 
Hettenback, Arthur, R. R. 6 
Heuby, Fred, 1129 E. Iowa 
Heuring, Clinton, 116 New York 

Avenue 
Heuring, Fred, 1305 E. Virginia 
Hevron, Chas., 511 E. Columbia 
Hevron, Chester, 511 E. Columbia 
Hevi'on, Russell, 511 E. Columbia 
Hewig, Clarence, 205 E. Columbia 
Hewins, Warren, 535 S. Garvin 
Heylmun, Elmer, 217 S. Fifth 
Heyns, John, 124 E. Iowa 
Hickman, Claude, 1214 Chandler 

Avenue 
Hickman, Fred, 227 Division 
Hickrod, John L., R. 8, Howell, Ind. 
Hicks, Carmi 

Hicks, Edgar M., 220 Sycamore 
Hicks, Homer T., Vendome Hotel 
Hicks, Lee, 22 W. Franklin 
Hicks, Louis C, 403 Garfield Ave. 
Higgason, Henry C, 435 Y. M. C. 4. 
Higgins, Ira O., 1727 W. Franklin 
Higgins, Robt. Louis, 1410 Eichel 

Avenue 
Higgs, Bennett, 1307 E. Nevada 
Highholder, Chas. W., 1842 E. 
Maryland 



214 



HONOR ROLL 



Hile, Herbert, 420 William 

Hill, Cecil 

Hill, Chas. A., 913 E. Oregon 

*Hill, Emma 

*Hill, Martha 

Hill, Patton 

Hill, Strother, 1440 First Ave. 

Hill, Walter E., 513 Jefferson Ave. 

Hill, William G., 1716 E. Iowa 

Hindi, Ed Aaron, 18 Delmar Ave. 

Hinkle, Felix, 1107 S. Sixth 

Hinkle Thomas, 206 Arlington Ave. 

Hinman, Clyde J., 431 Monroe 

Hinton, Neill H., 1016 Riverside 

Hironimus, Jas., 904 Third Ave. 

Hironimus, Owen, 904 Third Ave. 

Hirsch, Jacob, 912 N. Garvin 

Hirsch, Mathias J., 917 N. Rowley 

Hirsch, Raymond B., R. R. 3 

Hirschelman, Albert, R. R. 3, New- 
burgh 

Hirschmann, Arthur, 921 E. Vir- 
ginia 

Hitch, Bruce, 716 Walnut 

Hitch, Earl, 626 S. First 

*Hitch, Minnie Mae, R. R. 4, Box 
232 

Hitch, Raymond, 716 Walnut 

Hitch, William L., 1216 E. Oregon 

Hiltner, Curtis, 1416 E. Nevada 

Hobgood, Arnold, 22 Madison Ave. 

Hobgood, Edw., 22 Madison Ave. 

Hobgood, Gordon, 22 Madison Ave. 

Hobgood, Lyman, 22 Madison Ave. 

Hocker, Denwood, 307 Adams Ave. 

Hodge, John R, 1905 E. Delaware 

Hodges, Harold 

Hodgkin, Melvin A., 1211 E. Iowa 

Hoefling, Leo, 1415 Lincoln Ave. 

Hoefling, Leo J., 1309 E. Delaware 

Hoelscher, Joseph H., 508 Edgar 

Hoelscher, Roy A., 508 Edgar 

Hoffman, A. 

Hoffman, Charles 

Hoffman, Christ, 1106 Harriet 

Hoffman, Edw. G., 713 Second 

Hoffman, Henry, 701 Harriet 

Hoffman, J., Y. M. C. A. 

Hoffman, Roy 

Hoflich, Geo., 1207 W. Illinois 

Hofman, Philip 

Hoge, Daniel C 1216 E. Franklin 

Hohl, Raymond H., 211 Good.sell 

Hoing, Edw. F., Armstrong, Ind,. 
R. R. 1 

Holder, Geo. F., Howell, Ind. 

Holder, John, 1123 E. Franklin 



''Army nur.se. 



Holland, Frank 

Hollander, Albert G., 1608 E. Illi- 
nois 
Hollander, Leo W., 1608 E. Illnois 
Hollar, Claude, 24 Harlan Ave. 
Hollar, Frank, 24 Harlan Ave. 
Hollar, Seymour, 24 Harlan Ave. 
Hollinger, Isaac C., Newburgh, Ind. 
Hollingsworth, Logan, 1815 E. Vir- 
ginia 
Hollman, Thos., 310 Madison Ave. 
Holloway, Leigh, 1324 S. Governor 
Holsclaw, Harry E., 115 Powell 

Avenue 
Holt, Arthur 

Holtkamp, Clarence H., 220 E. Co- 
lumbia 
Holtmann, C. Otto, 100 Harriet 
Holtmann, Herman, 402 Harriet 
Holtz, Wm. J., 709 Edgar 
Holzgrafe, Rudolph A., 922 E. Vir- 
ginia 
Holzman, David, 522 ¥2 Main 
Holzman, Morris, 522 ^/^ Main 
Honnigford, Norbert, Washington 

Terrace 
Hoole, Chas. R., 1519 William 
Hoole, Harry M., 1519 William 
Hooge, Edwin L., 411 Third Ave. 
Hooper, Frank Earle, 1100 E. Illi- 
nois 
Hopf, Edw., R. R. 2, Inglefield 
Hopf, John, R. R. 2, Inglefield 
Hopkins, Geo. L. 
Hormuth, Oswald, 311 Jefferson 

Avenue 
Horn, Bert, 1307 Chandler Ave. 
Horn, Ernest 

Horn, Henry, R. R. 1, Inglefield 
Horn, Herman, R. R. 1, Inglefield 
Hornbostel, Geo. C, 717 S. Fourth 
Hornbrook, Byron, Y. M. C. A. 
Hornbrook, Harry, Y. M. C. A. 
Hornstein, Isadore, 1501 Walnut 
Horr, Frank, 19 Fountain Ave. 
Horr, Percy, 19 Fountain Ave. 
Hosback, John N., 21 John 
Hoskins, Jes.se U., 1125 Jefferson 

Avenue 
Howell, Wm., 1112 Fulton Ave. 
Hubbard, Herschel, 1504 Walnut 
Hubbard, Marvin Wm., 1111 St. 

Joseph Ave. 
Hubbard, Victor, 120 S. Third 
Hubbard, Winston D., 2127 Divi- 
sion 
Huber, Andy, Oakley St. 
Huber, Bertrum 



215 



SONS OF MEN 



Huber, Chris J., 220 Sycamore 

Huber, Edw. G. 

Huber, Geo. E., R. R. A, Box 18 

Huber, Irvin F., 119 N. Sixth 

Huber, John G., 1607 Fulton Ave. 

Huck, August, 1111 E. Maryland 

Huck, August 

Huck, Frederick, R. R. 1 

*Huck, Irma, 514 Harriet 

Hudson, Curran O., 1522 E. Dela- 
ware 

Hudson, John S., 716 S. Eighth 

Hudson, Robert G., 251 Kentucky 
Avenue 

Huebner, Arthur, R. R. 4 

Huebner, Harry, R. R. 2, Inglefield 

Hulf, William 

Hufnagel, Albert W., 1041/2 Olive 

Hughes, Arthur L., Terrace Park 

Hughes, Clarence, 2303 Main 

Hughes, Reuben P., Jr., 720 River- 
side Ave. 

Hughlett, Melvin, 517 Second 

Hull, Theo., Washington Terrace 

Hullett, George 

Hulman, Geo. P., 1100 S. Second 

Humble, Ames 



Humm, Chas. F., 1111 Fulton Ave. 
Humphrey, Henry P., 903 N. Row- 
ley 
Humphrey, Jas. D., 2031 Cleveland 

Avenue 
Humphreys, Fred E., 709 S. Tenth 
Humphreys, Norman, 609 Ingle 
'Hunt, Alice 

Hunter, Ben, 2808 E. Virginia 
Hunter, Benj. H., 2604 E. Virginia 
Hunter, Harry, 320 Third Ave. 
Hunter, Joseph W., 222 Ewing Ave. 
Hurst, Wilbur R,. 1428 S. Second 
Husky, Clarence, 421 W. Maryland 
Husky, Geo. D., 16 E. Illinois 
Hussel, Herman, R. R. 1, Cypress 
Huston, Fred 
Huston, William 
Hut, Edw., 600 Oak 
Hutchinson, Horace C, 419 Fourth 

Avenue 
Hutchinson, John, 1024 U. Second 
Hutchinson, Robt. E., 610 U. Sixth 
Hutchinson, Truman, 419 Fourth 

Avenue 
Hyman, Clai'ence C, 619 S. Sec- 
ond 



Ichenhauser, Louis, 440 Chandler 

Avenue 
Igelheart, Ben J., 629 William 
Iglehart, Austin, 108% Sunset 

Avenue 
Iglehart, Edgar, 1010 S. Second 
Ingle, Wm., 2 Posey Ave. 
Ingler, Estol, 1419 Cleveland Ave. 
Ingram, Chas. W., 521 Read 



Jackie, Walter, 609 Ingle 
Jackman, S. Roy. 120 Main 
Jackson, Andrew, 823 W. Illinois 
Jackson, Barney, 204 S. Sixth 
Jackson, Lyman, 227 Arlington 

Avenue 
Jackson, Roy L., 823 W. Illinois 
Jacobs, Oben F., R. R. 7 
James, Herschel, 32 Carpenter 
James, Hugh 
James, John 

Jameson, Allen, 210 N. Evans Ave. 
Jameson, E. E. 

Jameson, Otto, R. R. 8, Howell 
Jandebeur, Edgar Wm., 18 Glen- 
dale Ave. 



J 



Inkenbrandt, Chas. P., R. R. A, 

Box 46 
Inkenbrandt, Wm. P., R. R. A, 

Box 84 
Irvin, Harry Weslie, 1110 Fulton 

Avenue 
Ising, Wm. R., 621 Jackson Ave. 
Isaac, Syd, 507 Ingle 
Ivy, Earl 
Ivy, Noble 



Jann, Edw. 

January, Wilbur, 1218 Gum 
Jarvis, Arthur D., 1304 W. Mary- 
land 
Jarvis, Earl Wm., 1304 W. Maryland 
Jarvis Ed 

Jarvis, Ed L., R. R. 7, Box 4 
Jeffers, Earl, 1612 E. Illinois 
Jeffers, Rav, 1612 E. Illinois 
Jeff rev, Robert, 316 Olive 
JelTries, Jas., 1215 E. Illinois 
Jenkins, Frank, 512 Jefferson Ave. 
Jenkins, James 
*Jenkins, Pansy 

Jenner, Lawrence, Stratford Apts. 
Jennings, Ila, 1104 Eichel Ave. 



*Army nurse. 



*Army nurse. 



216 



HONOR ROLL 



Jennings, Jack, 124 Main 

Jent, Ed 

Jernow, Wm. C, 9 Edgar 

Jeude, Fred A., R. R. 7, Box 24 

Jobe, Fred 

Jochim, Harry, 2800 Division 

Johann, Harvey, CJiandler, Ind., R. 

R. 1 
Johann, Wm., 517 Ravenswood 

Drive 
Johnson, Albert E., 905 Fifth Ave. 
Johnson, August J., 1020 W. Dela- 
ware 
Johnson, Clarence 
Johnson, Chas. R., 641 S. Main, 

Akron, O. 
Johnson, Earl L., 127 S. Sixth 
Johnson, Edw., 520 N. Barker Ave. 
Johnson, Fred, 1701 E. Iowa 
Johnson, Gardner C, 1208 Wash- 
ington Ave. 
Johnson, Harry, 1644 S. Second 
Johnson, Horace, 108 E. Indiana 
Johnson, Isaac, 3308 E. Michigan 
Johnson, Jave, R. R. 2, Cypress 
Johnson, John, 119 N. Water 
Johnson, John P., R. R. A, Box 

33 
Johnson, Lester, 127 S. Sixth 
Johnson, Noble J., 714 Grand Ave. 



Johnson, Raymond G., 507 Jeffer- 
son Ave. 

Johnson, Roy, 120 Clark 

Jolly, Herbert, R. R. A. 

Jones, Earl S., 812 W. Illinois 

Jones, G. L., 215 E. Virginia 

Jones, J. M. 

Jones, Kelly, 404 John 

Jones, Philip M., 1118 Baker Ave. 

Jones, Ray, 303 Goodsell 

Jones, Raymond, 1320 Cleveland 
Avenue 

Jones, Richard P., Y. M. C. A. 

Jones, Thos. Henry, 321 Goodsell 

Jones, Wm. H., R. R. 8, Box 168 

Jordan, Harrison, 1412 Read 

Jourdan, Arthur 

Jourdan, Oscar, R. R. 1, Howell, 
Indiana 

Jourdan, Ralph 

Jourdan, Wm. John, R. R. 7, Box 
222 

Joyce, James K., 109 S. Barker 
Avenue 

Judd, Roy C. 

Jung, Edwin W., 221 High 

Jung, Geo., R. R. 7 

Jung, Theo., 1501 E. Louisiana 

Jung, Wm. H., R. R. 8, Box 265 

Jungling, Chas,, 1217 Cherry 



K 



Kahn, Julius, 1214 S. Eighth 

Kahn, Lester, 210 Mulberi'v 

Kahre, Walter C, 918 E. Iowa 

Kaiser, Armin, 20 Clark 

Kaiser, Carl 

Kaiser, Gilbert, 1312 Cherry 

Kaiser, Henry F. 

Kaiser, Henry^ R. R. A, Box 17 

Kaiser, Jacob, 606 S. Fifth 

Kale, Joe 

Kalkbeener, Clemens, 928 E. Illinois 

Kane, Joseph 

Kappler, Chas., 108 S. Second 

Kappler, John, Jr., 608 Fourth 

Avenue 
Karcher, Wm. E., 817 S. Second 
Karges, Benoni E., 1525 Gum 
Karges, Edwin, 1517 S. Second 
Kasz, Chas., 725 S. Fourth 
Katterjohn, Amos H., 125 S. 7th 
*Kauffman, Bessie, 119 Blackford 
Keach, Hawkins H., 612 Division 
Keating, John E., 211 Grant 

*Army nurse. 



Keck, Henry, R. R. 5 
Keeler, Harry, 317 Denbv Ave. 
*Keeney, Mary, 1226 S. 'First 
Keeney, Walter, 1226 S. First 
Keeney, Wm. P., 1226 S. First 
Keerl, Carl A., 1320 W. Franklin 
Keerl, Walter, 1320 W. Franklin 
Keil, Ed, R. R. 5 
Keil, Frank, R. R. 5 
Keil, Julius, R. R. 5 
Keil, Wm. Jr., R. R. 1, Armstrong 
Keller, Chester, 422 Line 
Keller, Warthal, Yale Hotel 
Kelley, Clarence, 114 Stinson Ave. 
Kelley, Corbert 

Kelley, Dillard, 1020 N. Garvin 
Kelley, Herman, 114 Stinson Ave. 
Kelley, Jones, 404 John 
Kelley, Lem, Marine Hospital 
Kelley, Marvin, 114 Stinson Ave. 
Kelley, Wm., 114 Stinson Ave. 
Kemmerling, Carl L., 718 Kentucky 
Avenue 

*Army nurse. 



217 



SONS OF MEN 



Kemmerling, John, 718 Kentucky 
Avenue 

Kembert, Otto 

Kendall, Adelbert G., 615 Fourth 
Avenue 

Kennedy, Francis, 1508 E. Iowa 

Kennedy, Frank, 708 S. First 

Kepple, Harvey, 222^2 Sycamore 

Kercher, Fred H., Mt. Vernon, R. 
R. 7 

Kessler, Louis, 1409 First Ave. 

Kessler, Louis, 920 E. Franklin 

Kettmeier, Geo., 1221 W. Illinois 

Kettler, Harry 

Kibler, V. C, 1108 S. Third 

Kiechle, Arthur 

Kiefer, Carl, 1116 E. Maryland 

Kiefer, Chas. Ed, 1116 E. Mary- 
land 

Kiefer, Ervin S., 1311 First Ave. 

Kiefer, Fred, 1116 E. Maryland 

Kiefer, J. Jr. 

Kifer, Wilburn, 2123^2 Division 

Kile, Wm., 1204 Edgar 

Kiley, Goldsmith, R.-R. 7 

Killian, Frank H., 1013 Fulton Ave. 

Killinger, Daniel, R. R. 8, Howell 

Kimbel, Gus 

Kimbel, Stanley, 1209 S. Governor 

Kimpton, Archie, 1235 W. Penn- 
sylvania 

Kinder, John, 215 E. Iowa 

King, Archie 

King, Leonard, 1404 Cleveland Ave. 

King, Leonard, 1113 Rowley 

King, Raymond, 1101 Chestnut 

Kingsbury, Edw., 1604 First Ave. 

Kirchhoff, Geo. A., 206 Hess Ave. 

Kirkpatric, Earl, 216 John 

Kirsch, Fred T., Marine Hospital 

Kirsch, Joseph M., 520 E. Mary- 
land 

Kirves, Henry E., 1302 E. Iowa 

Kishline, Floyd, 108 Adams Ave. 

Xisker, Irvin A., 214 Chestnut 

Kissel, Arthur H , ltiO;{ Second Ave. 

Kissel, Frank J., 1603 Second Ave. 

Kissel, Fred, 2227 Division 

Kissel, Joseph E., 1603 Second Ave. 

Kissel, Peter John, 1603 Second 
Avenue 

Kissinger, Alfred J., R. R. 1, Box 
108 

Kissinger, Henry B., R. R. 2, 
Howell 

Kissler, Louis, 1409 First Ave. 

Kitzinger, Carl 

Kitzinger, Oscar 

Klamer, Ralph, 1784 W. Franklin 



Klaser, Irvin S., 505 S. Seventh 

Klein, Adam, 1816 E. Columbia 

Klein, Geo., 1816 E. Columbia 

Klein, Geo. J., 1623 Law Ave. 

Klein, Louis, 1107 Chandler Ave. 

Klein, Otto L. 

Klein, Solomon, 627 Main 

Klein, Walter, 1816 E. Columbia 

Kleinknecht, Gottlieb, R. R. 2, 
Howell, Ind. 

Kleymeyer Henry, 908 Powell Ave. 

Kleymeyer, Ralph, 908 Powell 
Avenue 

Klingelhoefer, Chris, 1000 N. Gov- 
ernor 

Klingenmeier, B. M. 

Klocke, William 

Kloke, Wm. J., 610 Edgar 

Knaebel, Joseph C, 513 S. Ninth 

Knapp, Karl 

Knapp, Sylvester, 916 E. Columbia 

Knasel, Joe C. 

Knauss, Otto, 611 Adams Ave. 

Kneer, Otto, 100 Fountain Ave. 

Kniese, Harold, 605 Read 

Knight, Geo. W., 716 Bellemeade 
Avenue 

Knight, John, 1108 Harlan Ave. 

Knoll, Herbert, 909 E. Missouri 

Knowles, Fred S., 1112 St. Joseph 
Avenue 

Koch, Aug. M., 1318 E. Delaware 

Koch, Edw., 611 Mary 

Koch, John A., 1614 Third Ave. 

Koch, Otto L., 1220 N. Rowley 

Koch, Theo., 117 E. Michigan 

Koenig, Arthur, 614 Mom-oe Ave. 

Koenig, Arthur, Box 258, String- 
town Rd. 

Kcenig, Edw., 215 E. Florida 

Koenig, Han-y, 513 Garfield Ave. 

Koerner, Gilbert. 613 S. Eighth 

Kohl, Clinton, 900 State 

Kohl, Geo., 2506 Fulton Ave. 

Kohler. John J., R. R. 5 

Kolb, Elmer, R. R. 3 

Kollker, Louis, 1034 S. Eighth 

Koltinsky, Leon, 1004 Vine 

Koob, Henry, 620 Oak 

Koonce, Paul, 419 Magnolia Ave. 

Korb, Daniel, 1002 Lincoln Ave. 

Koressel, Adam, R. R. 8 

Koressel, Fred, Cvpress, Ind. 

Koressel, Geo. A. ,il27 W. Vir- 
ginia 

Koressel, Henry W., 301 Stinson 
Avenue 

Koressel, Herman J., 1027 W. Vir- 
ginia 



218 



HONOR ROLL 



Korff, Arthur, 1208 E. Nevada 
Korff, Edward V., 1102 Harriet 
Korff, Louis, 1208 E. Nevada 
Korff, Oscar Richardt, 1615 E. Vir- 
ginia 
Korff, Wm. C, Armstrong, Ind. 
Koring, Chas., 1212 W. Indiana 
Korn, Arthur 

Kornblum, Earl, 213 Chestnut 
Korressel, Geo., Jr., R. R. 8, How- 
ell, Ind. 
Korsmeier, Chas., 211 Edgar 
Korsmeier, Chas. W., 910 Linwood 

Avenue 
Kost, Floyd E., 1315 Law Ave. 
Kost, Fred Wm., 1315 Law Ave. 
Kotis, Samuel 
Kownig, Edw. 

Kracht, Benj., R. R. 1, Inglefield 
Krack, Jos., R. R. 2, Inglefield 
Krack, Walter L., R. R. 7, Box 284 
Kraft, Ed F., 2202 Division 
Kraft, Harold W., 1210 Blackford 

Avenue 
Kraft, John A., Armstrong, R. R. 1 
Kramei, Arthur N., 918 Fifth Ave. 
Kramer, Chas. H., 214 Bond 
Kramer, John F., R. R. 7 
Kratz, Conrad, 1201 Kentucky Ave. 
Kratz, Fred H., 509 Oakley 
Krause, Frederick, 2317 E. Colum- 
bia 
Krecker, Harry, 120 S. Fourth 
Kreger, Walter, R. R. 4 
Kreipke, Walter, 1122 Chandler 
Avenue 



Labry, Ed E., 38 John 
Laburk, Chas., 624 John 
*Lacey, Amy 

LaFollette, Chas. M., 721 S. First 
LaGrande, Lemuel, 110 U. Tenth 
Lahanis, James, 725 Main 
Lahr, Karl, 1130 S. Eighth 
Laib, Wm., 100 John 
Laking, Frank, R. R. 8 
LaMar, Hobart, 8 William 
LaMar, Ralph, 1008 Oakley 
Lamb, Harry J., R. R. 3 
*Lamb, Velma, 207 Line 
Lamb, Robert, 2213 E. Virginia 
Lamb, Virgil Tobin, 316 Genung 

Avenue 
Lamberg, Roy, 2308 Fulton Ave. 
Lambers, Geo. J. 
Lambei's, George 



l_ 



Kremer, Clarence J., 1117 W. 
Pennsylvania 

Krietemeyer, Oscar, 1515 E. Michi- 
gan 

Krietemeyer, Wm., R. R. 2, Arm- 
strong 

Krietzer, Wm. F., R. R. 3, Box 128 

^Ki'iuger, Mary 

Kroener, Harold, 1217 E. Colum- 
bia 

Kroener, John, 518 Fourth Ave. 

Kromelink, Henry, 116 W. Virginia 

Kroos, Joseph W., 114 Bell Ave. 

Kruckemever, Ben, 1223 S. Eighth 

Kruse, Albert G., 703 Garfield Ave. 

Kuebler, Arthur, R. R. 6 

Kuhn, Ed, 921 E. Louisiana 

Kuhn, John 224 E. Maryland 

Kuhn, Paul, 16 Mary 

Kuhlenhoelter, S. J., R. R. 7, Box 
255 

Kuhlenschmidt, Henrv, R. R. 3, Box 
42, Elberfield, Ind. 

KuUman, Ed J., 1118 E. Missouri 

Kullman, Victor, 1029 Powell Ave. 

Kunath, Henry H., 1821 E. Mary- 
land 

Kuntzman, Leroy, 630 Madison 
Avenue 

Kuntzman, Oscar, 630 Madison 
Avenue 

Kunz, Chas.. R. R. 4, Box 262 

Kunz, Geo. W., Harriet St. 

Kuster, Chas., 620 Adams Ave. 

Kuster, Frederick, 620 Adams Ave. 



Lancaster, Emmett, 19^.2 Park 
Lance, Claude, 218 Bond 
Lang, C. B. 

Langford, Donovan A., 512 Grant 
Langford, Rosco, R. R. A 
Lankford, Glen, 302 Parrett 
Lannei't, August, 216 Jefferson 
Lannert, Raymond, 451 Ross Ave. 
Lanoux, Frank A., 905 Riverside 
Lant, Norman E., Y. M. C. A. 
Lant, Perry J., R. R. 3 
Lantz, Ed T., 1403 E. Nevada 
Lapp, Frank, 1004 Edgar 
Lasher, Herbert, 310 Olive 
Lashley, Lowry, 503 Parrett 
Lashley, Walter, 605 Campbell 
Lashley, Wm., 503 Parrett 
Later, August, 612 Gum 
Latham, Richard, 4 S. Tenth 



^Army nurse. 



•Army nurse. 



219 



SONS OF MEN 



Laubscher, Harvey, 627 Monroe 

Avenue 
Laubscher, Oliver, R. R. 6 
Laubscher, Samuel, R. R. 6 
Laubscher, Wm., R. R. 6 
Lauenstein, Carl, 1033 Washington 

Avenue 
Lautner, Joseph, 1226 First Ave. 
Laval, Carl, 600 S. First 
Lawbargh, Chas. A., 624 John 
Lawrence, Claude, 611 Gum 
Lawrence, Lester, 611 Gum 
Lawrence, Otis F., 202 Third Ave. 
Lawson, Ed, 303 Goodsell 
Leach, Roscoe R., 33 Washington 

Avenue 
Leap, Clyde, 1203 S. Governor 
Lechner, Roy P., 211 Oakley 
Ledbetter, Carl B. 
Ledbetter, Wm., 132 Third Ave. 
Ledbetter, Wm., 903 Third Ave. 
Lee, Chas., 1412 Eichel Ave. 
Lee, Elzie, 20 Madison 
Leeds, Harry, R. R. 2, Box 43, 

Richmond, Ky. 
Leggett, Chas. C, 913 W. Frank- 
lin 
Legeman, Chas., 421 Grant 
Legler, Louis 

Lehman, Edw., 507 E. Columbia 
Lehman, Edwin, 200 Harriet 
Lehnen, Otto, 1718 E. Illinois 
Lehnhard, Elmer, 118 Walnut 
Leigh, Harry W., 2213 Division 
LeMasters, Edw., 522 Ingle 
Lemmer, Chas. T., 1210 E. Mary- 
land 
LeMon, Walter, 2421 Main 
Lenfers, Harry, 1426 John 
Lenfers, Wm. A., 131 E. Frank- 
lin 
Lenn, Chas. L., 421 S. Sixth 
Lence, John W., 1516 Maxwell 

Avenue 
Lentz, Chester O., 811 Cherry 
Leonard, Bert, 521 Harriet 
Lesher, Gilbert B., 214 Walnut 
Letterman, Wm. H., R. R. 3 
Levi, Louis Bernard, Audubon Apts. 
Levi, Morris Roser, Audubon Apts. 
Levine, David, 317 Locust 
Levinger, Lee, 706 Grand Ave. 
Lex, Michael. 1309 Division 
Lichtenfeld, Henry, 601 Mulberry 
Licky, Elmer B., 14 Hess Ave. 
Light, Harry, 49 Jefferson 
Lillicrap, Art 0., 516 Edgar 
Lilly, James 
Limberger, Otto, 318 Lincoln Ave. 



Limberger, Wm. P., 21 Clark 
Lindle, Milton, 1782 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Lindle, Wm. B., 1782 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 

Lindeman, John, 14 E. Florida 

Lindeman, Louis, 14 E. Florida 

Lindenberg, George 

Lindenschmidt, Albert H., 420 Oak- 
ley 

Lindenschmidt, Val, 230 Clark 

Lindsay, Samuel 

Linegar, Adam, 1220 E. Illinois 

Linger, Sylvester, 1823 E. Delaware 

Linzenich, Edw., 222 W. Franklin 

Linxwiller, Ed, 1615 Third Ave. 

Lipking, Norman, 311 Bray Ave. 

Little, Oscar E., R. R. A, Box 90 

Litty, Gilbert, R. R. 5 

Litty, Harry, R. R. 5 

Lively, E. A., 1123 W. Indiana 

Lively, Thos. J., 1123 W. Indiana 

Livesay, Nathan H., 219 Delmar 
Avenue 

Lockart, Milton, 923 Cherry 

Lockhart, Clarence, 404 Olive 

Lockridge, Herman P., 34 E. Mary- 
land 

Lockyear, Hubert, 317 Second Ave. 

Lockyear, Paul, R. R. A 

Loeffler, Joseph J., R. R. 7 

Loeffler, Joseph W., 1317 W. In- 
diana 

Loeffler, Wm. M., 1304 Third Ave. 

Loer, Ivan H., 734 Bellemeade Ave. 

Loesch, Clarence W., 814 Harriet 

Loewenthal, Jack, 529 Washington 
Avenue 

Logel, Louis, 121 W. Iowa 

Long, Robert, 17 Clark 

Lotteridge, William 

Lottes, Darwin, 1328 Law Ave. 

Lovell, Hallet, R. R. 1, Cypress 

Low, Ralph, 907 Oregon 

Lowe, Walters, 437 Chandler Ave. 

Lowe, J. Max, 437 Chandler Ave. 

Lowe, Clifford, 437 Chandler Ave. 

Lowe, Jess, 515 Chandler Ave. 

Lowe, Wm. W., 437 Chandler Ave. 

Lowrey, George C, 321 Read 

Lowry, Elmer, 705 Harriet 

Lucchesi, Primo, 201 Fulton Ave. 

*Lucia, Sister 

Luethge, Carl E., 911 E. Oregon 

Lutterman, John, R. R. 8, Box 255 

Lutz, Carl Walter, 1204 Chand- 
ler Ave. 



*=Army nurse. 



220 



HONOR ROLL 



Lutz, O. L., 1600 E. Illinois 
Lutz, Theo., 11 E. Virginia 
Lutz, Wm. T., 11 E. Virginia 
Lvnch, Paul, 1123 W. Illinois 



Lynch, Walter, 1123 W. Illinois 
Lyon, Russel, 1016 W. Michigan 
Lynxwiler, Robei't, 607 St. Joseph 
Avenue 



MC 



McAvoy, Gilbert, 501 S. Third 

McBride, Chas., 412 E. Columbia 

McBride, Geo. S., 1114 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 

McBride, Houston, 210 Hess Ave. 

McBride, Raymond, 1026 W. Penn- 
sylvania 

McCane, Wm., 417 Third Ave. 

McCarthy, Daniel, Bei'nardin Apts. 

McCarty, Ed A., 1406 Evans Ave. 

McCai'thy, Frank, 20 Irvington 
Avenue 

McCarthy, John, 20 Irvington Ave. 

*McCarty, Kathleen, 505 Washing- 
ton Ave. 

McClain, Howard, 133 Fountain 
Avenue 

McClary, D. V., 1101 Chandler 
Avenue 

McCleary, Chester B., Maxwell 
and Five Oakes Ave. 

McCool, Lester R., 115 Heinlein 
Avenue 

McCool, Wm., 1001 Linwood Ave. 

McCloud, Wm., 319 Vine 

McCoy, C. C. 

McCoy, Chas. F., 518 S. Seventh 

McCoy, Clarence R., 608 S. Ninth 

McCreary, Ralph, 201 Jefferson 
Avenue 

McCullough, Wm. B., 1000 U. Sec- 
ond 

McCurdy, Cummins 

McCurdy, Lynn, 302 Sunset Ave. 

McCutchan, Henry, R. R. 4 

McDaniel, Richard, 304 Edgar 

McDonald, Arthur, 1309 Fulton 
Avenue 

McDonald, Chas., 1317 Kentucky 
Avenue 

McDonald, Harold, R. R. 1, Arm- 
strong, Ind. 

McFall, Dave, 1813 E. Missouri 

McGahen, Chas., 1400 Linwood Ave. 

*Army nurse. 



McGill, Louis D., 316 Second Ave. 

McGill, Robert G., 716 U. Eighth 

McGinnes, Allan, Outer Lincoln 
Avenue 

McGinnes, Fred 

McGinnis, Richard, 1035 S. First 

McGlothlin, Harlin, 1719 E. Dela- 
wai'e 

*McGovern, Mary, 521 Oakley 

McGraw, Walter G., 2301 Fulton 
Avenue 

McGrew, Elmer, 214 Campbell 

McGrew, Geo. B., 126 Bayard Park 
Drive 

McGrew, Lee E., 1935 E. Louisiana 

McGrew, Walter G. 

McGuyer, Earl C, 1229 W. Frank- 
lin 

Mclntire, Earl E., 585 Vance Ave., 
Memphis, Tenn. 

McKenna, Jas., care Evansville 
Press 

McKinley, Jas. R., 207 Bray Ave. 

McKinney, Archie Robert, 108 U. 
Water 

McLain, Howard, 133 Fountain 
Avenue 

McLeish, Grammer, 1202 S. First 

McMahon, Jennings, 1311 E. Ore- 
gon 

McMahone, Joseph 

McMaster, Homer, 1107 Riverside 
Avenue 

McMickle, Otis O., 115 S. Stinson 
Avenue 

McMurtry, Leonard, 1128 Second 
Avenue 

McNeeley. Dale 

McNeelev. John H., 11 College 

McNeely, John H., 1601 First Ave. 

McPherson, Carlie, 100 E. Indiana 

McPherson, Wm., 518 Barker Ave. 

McPhillips, Raymond W.,1025 Oak- 
ley 

McRian, Wm. J., R. R. 5 

*Army nurse. 



221 



SONS OF MEN 



M 



Maasberg, Clarence, 1002 Baker 
Mack, Arthur, 1814 Van Buren 
Macke, John, R. R. 5 
Madden, Adolph, 1126 W. Delaware 
Madison, Abe P., 718 Mulberry 
Madison, Dave, 718 Mulberry 
*Magenheimer, Bonnie 
Magenheimer, Edgar F., 606 Oak- 
ley 
Magerkurth, Carl, 1212 S. Gover- 
nor 
Magin, Edward, 1307 Cherry 
Magin, Geo., 518 Ninth Ave. 
Maglaris, Nick, 306 S. Third 
Mahan, Carl, 14 Walker 
Mahan, Roscoe 

Mahler, Anthony E., Ill W. Mary- 
land 
Mahler, Wm. J., 1112 Oakley 
Mahoney, V. L. 
Maidlow, Frank, 616 Read 
Maienschein, Fred, 14 E. Iowa 
Maier, Clifford 

Maier, Edw. J., 1307 Division 
Maikrantz, Oscar, 1242 Mary 
Males, John, 14 S. Fourth 
Malone, Arthur M., 1405 Eichel 

Avenue 
Malone, Wilbur 

Manch, Leo J., 807 Third Ave. 
Mancini, Tony, 603 Main 
Mangum, Robert, R. R. A 
Manion, Jas., 909 Blackford Ave. 
Manley, Earl, 314 E. Iowa 
Mann, Arthur, 1413 W. Franklin 
Mann, Bruno, Jr., 401 Parrett 
Mann, Crayton, 1126 E. Delaware 
Mann, Edgar J., 802 Main 
Mann, Edgar, R. R. 4, Newburgh 
Mann, Frederick, 401 Parrett 
Mann, Gus, 401 Parrett 
Mann, Herbert, 812 Main 
Mann, Oscar, 1413 W. Franklin 
Mann, Robert E., 716 U. Tenth 
Mann, Robt. P., 302 Parrett 
Mann, Walter T., 1315 Second Ave. 
Markham, H. E., 911 Grand Ave. 
Markie, Roy J., 106 S. Second 
Markley, Joseph, R. R. 5 
Markley, Thos., R. R. 5 
Marlin, Chas., 201 Arlington Ave. 
Marsh, William 
Marshall, Cecil 

Marshall, Ernest, 721 Bellemeade 
Marshall, Ira L., 100 Fountain Ave. 

*Army nurse. 



Marshall, Robert, 414 Harriet 
Marshall, Robert, 9 S. Third 
Martin, Adolph, 406 Monroe Ave. 
Martin, Benjamin J., Armstrong, 

Ind., R. R. 2 
Martin, Calvin C, 401 Harriet 
Martin, Cecil, 1414 Walnut 
Martin, Ebben, bl2V2 E. Illinois 
Martin, Daniel 

Martin, Edw., 512I2 E. Illinois 
Martin, Edw. L., 1318 E. Missouri 
Martin, Frank J., R. R. 8, Box 246 
Martin, Geo., R. R. 1 
Martin, Joie L., 2513 Walnut 
Martin, Richard 

Martin, Robt. Lee, 510 S. First 
Martin, Varney, 512 E. Illinois 
Martin, Vernie C, 512 E. Illinois 
Masen, Jas. M., 218 Boehne Bldg. 
Massie, Harry, 722 Division 
*Masterson, Stella 
Mathesie, Arthur, 2519 Walnut 
Mathews, Alpha M., 2215 E. Vir- 
ginia 
Matiska, Ed, 804 N. Garvin 
Mats, Wm. Ed, 1120 E. Franklin 
Matthews, Clarence M., 1413 Reis 

Avenue 
Matthews, Thos., 206 Jefferson Ave. 
Matz, Wm. E. 

Maurer, Wm. G., 1113 Third Ave. 
Maxfield, Willie T., 203 Fulton 
Mayer, Edward H., 17 Mary 
Mayer, Frank, 1509 Enlow Ave. 
Mayer, Geo., 1118 S. Eighth 
Mayer, Jos., R. R. 6 
Mayer, Leo, R. R. 6 
Mayers, Frank X., 220 E. Delaware 
*Mayes, Jennie 

Mayl, Edward, Evansville Journal 
Mead, Horace C, 320 Madison 
Mechler, Jacob, 111 W. Delaware 
Medcalf, Desmond, 315 V> Locust 
Medlicott, Ernest, 1800 E. Colum- 
bia 
Medler, Floyd 

Meeink, Herman, 700 Bedford Ave. 
Meeker, Arthur, 306 W. Maryland 
Meeker, Chas., 306 W. Indiana 
Meeker, Clarence, 306 W. Mary- 
land 
Meeks, Orion, 1041 Riverside Ave. 
Meeks, Otto, 613 Read 
Meeman, Edw., 538 Jefferson Ave. 
Meginnies, Ed V., R. R. 5, Box 66 

*Army nurse. 



222 



HONOR ROLL 



Meginnies, Geo. A., R. R. 5, Box 66 
Meguiar, Jess M. 
Meier, Carl G., 300 Harriet 
Meier, Walter W., 518 Ravenswood- 

Drive 
Meinhold, Fred, 1809 E. Franklin 
Melton, Harry, 113 E. Iowa 
Melton, Joseph L., 209 Poplar 
Melton, Roy, 903 Chestnut 
Menke, Arnold, 15 Edgar 
Mentzel, Clarence, R. R. A, Box 73 
Mentzel, Ed J., 919 W. Ohio 
Mentzer, Ernest L. 
Merle, Gustave, 516 E. Maryland 
Merots, James 

Merrell, James, 25 Delmar Ave. 
Merrill, Jesse 
Meser, John, R. R. 7 
Metcalf, Harry, 910 N. Governor 
Metzler, Matt W. 
Metzler, Wm., R. R. 3 
Meyer, Albert L., 1445 First Ave. 
Meyer, Edw., 414 Sixth 
Meyer, Ed Henry, 518 Mary 
Meyer, Emil F., 1815 E. Virginia 
Meyer, Geo., 918 S. Sixth 
Meyer, Wm. J., R. R. 4 
Meyers, Herman J., R. R. 6 
*Meyers, Mabel 

Michel, Henry G., 401 Harriet 
Mickelson, Louis, 725 S. Sixth 
Miedreich, Wm., 301 Ross Ave. 
Miles, Ezra 
Miley, Arthur B. C. 
Miller, Adam, R. R. 7, Box 109, 
Miller, Allen, 209 E. Nevada 
Miller, Alonzo D., 521 John 
Miller, Arthur, 1507 E. Missouri 
Miller, Carl 
Miller, Casper 

Miller, Chas., R. R. 5, Box 188 
Miller, Chas. R., 1215 W. Penn- 
sylvania 
Miller, Clyde, R. R. 2, Lodge Ave. 
Miller, Earl, 1314 Gum 
Miller, Edw., R. R. 3 
Miller, Edw. F., 9 S. Eighth 
Miller, Ernest, 1826 E. Delaware 
Miller, F. Preston, 432 E. Virginia 
Miller, Fred, 425 Jefferson Ave. 
Miller, Geo., 1314 Gum 
Miller, Herman 

Miller, Lawrence, 1507 E. Missouri 
Miller, Loye, 9 Glendale Ave. 
Miller, Mitchel, 1507 E. Missouri 
Miller, Orval 
Miller, Paul, 1025 Blackford Ave. 



*Army nurse. 



Miller, Roy, 425 Jefferson Ave. 
Miller, Samuel, 930 E. Delaware 
Miller, Thornton, 125 W. Indiana 
Miller, Warren, 1025 Blackford 

Avenue 
Miller, Webster, 211 Edgar 
Miller, Wilbur 
Miller, William 
Miller, Wm., 206 Olive 
Miller, Wm., 432 E. Virginia 
Miller, Wm. B., 425 Jefferson Ave. 
Miller, Wm. B., 437 Jefferson Ave. 
Millerlei, Cyril, 724 St. Joseph 

Avenue 
Mills, Ben, 1109 St. Joseph Ave. 
Mills, Benj. H., 1104 St. Joseph 
Mills, Carrol, 922 N. Garvin 
Mills, Ezra 

Minch, Carl, 517 S. Third 
Minetti, Robt., 418 Grant 
Minton, Wallace, Lincoln Hotel 
Minus, Mack, 624 John 
Mitchell, John, Newburgh Road 
Mitchell, Robert, Newburgh Road 
Mitchem, Roscoe, R. R. A 
Mitz, Henry C. Jr., R. R. 7, Box 

139 
Mobley, Clem, 512 E. Illinois 
Moehlenkamp. Edw., 813 E. Mary- 
land 
Moenning, Lorenz Carl, 303 Ken- 
tucky Ave. 
Moers, Otto Frank, 1002 Edgar 
Moffet, Royal, R. R. 2, Inglefield 
Molinet, John P., 916 Oakley 
Money, Alva, R. R. 5, Box 192 
Money, Charlie H., R. R. 5 
Montgomery, Alex., 1712 E. Iowa 
Montgomery, Jess, 1218 Eichel 

Avenue 
Mooney, Chas., 321 Cumberland 

Avenue 
Mooney, Wm., 321 Cumberland 

Avenue 
Moore, Albert, 900 Mary 
Moore, Chas., Forrest Hills, R. R. 8 
Moore, Fred, 1303 Division 
Moore, Joseph, 900 Mary 
Moore, Lee V., R. R. A 
Moore, Mall B., 1600 Reis Ave. 
Moore, Maurice O., 123 Blackford 

Avenue 
Moore, Myles, R. R. 8, Forrest 

Hills 
Moore, Richard L., 223 New York 

Avenue 
Moore, Thomas, R. R. 8, Forrest 

Hills 
Morris, Jas., Blackford Ave. 



223 



SONS OF MEN 



Morris, Robert 

Morris, Theo. Jas., 933 Blackford 

Avenue 
Morris, Walter, 2018 E. Virginia 
Morrow, Geo., 307 Oak 
Morse, Marian, Y. M. C. A. 
Morton, Stanley, 309 William 
Morton, Thos. J. Jr., 1020 Black- 
lord Ave. 
Mosby, Arthur P., 2203 Main 
Mosel'y, Worthington, 624 Vi; Main 
"'Mount, liUcy 

Mouser, Ernest, 1225 Division 
Moutshka, Albert, 211 E. Florence 
Moutshka, Raymond, 211 E. Flor- 



Naab, Phillip, 1210 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Naegele, Frank, 1811 Main 
Nales, S. B. 

Nath, Joseph, 430 Grove 
Nathan, Harry, 711 E. ^Maryland 
Nau, Chester, "state St. 
Neal, Albert G., 123 Washington 

Avenue 
Neal, Dewey, 123 Washington Ave. 
Neal, Ira D"., 123 Washington Ave. 
Neal, Myron, 123 Washington Ave. 
Neel, Edwin, 211(5 Main 
Neel, Walter P.. 23 U. Tenth 
■Netr, Elsie 
"Nelf, Ina 
Neidringhaus, Henry, 1215 E. 

Maryland 
Neihaus, Fred, R. R. 8, Box 217 
Neison, Ciias. M., 304 Edgar 
Neisen, Francis, 304 Edgar 
Neisen, Henry, 304 Etlgar 
Nelson, Jas. R., 1228 E. Louisiana 
Nelson, John A., 228 Bond 
Neth, Frank, 1(500 Third Ave. 
Neu, Adam, 1012 St. Joseph Ave. 
Neu, Edw., 716 Ninth 
Neucks, Rudolph, 511 Garfield Ave. 
Neufelder, Carl V., 1913 Second 

Avenue 
Neuffer, J. H., R. R. 5, Box 5 
Neugent, Chas. W., 604 Oak 
Neustadt. Isaac, 604 S. Sixth 
Neville. Walter T., 114 Walker 
Newkirk. Harry S., 531 Oakley 
Newman, Chas. H.. R. R. 6 
Newman, Edgar, 7 Cook Ave. 
Newman, Edgar W., 1511 Enlow 
Avenue 

*Armv nurse. 



N 



Muehlbauer, Norbert, 1111 Harriet 
Mueller, Clarence, 1312 W. Penn- 
sylvania 
Mueller, Otto Wm., 421 Jackson 

Avenue 
Muhiline, Sam A. 
Mundy, Joe, 202 Ninth 
Musgrave, Daniel F., 427 Spruce 
Musgrave, Earl, 108 E. Indiana 
Musgrave, Joy, 1 Evelyn 
Muth, Raymond, 204 E. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Myers, Jas., 1025 Chestnut 
Myers, Roscoe, 1025 Chestnut 
Myers, Tolbert, 1305 E. Oregon 
Myers, Walter, 508 Fifth Ave. 



Newman, Emanuel, 119 Powell 
Newman, Ernest, 1501 Division 
Newman, Joe, 119 Powell Ave. 
Newman, Roy, 1311 E. Virginia 
Newman, Samuel, Jr., 807 Second 

Avenue 
*Newton, Hortense A., 903 Har- 
riet 
"Newton, hone G., 903 Harriet 
*Newton, Sarah C, 903 Harriet 
Newton, Thos., 419 W. Maryland 
Nichols, Clarence, 1514 Olive 
Nichols, Horace Chas., 14 Del mar 

Avenue. 
Nichols, John, 1129 W. Illinois 
Nichols, Robert, 1514 Olive 
Nichols, Wm., 1514 Olive 
Nichols, Wm. H., 211 Kentucky 

Avenue 
Nid, Ora Geo., 2123 14 Division 
Niednagel, Emil, 927 Lincoln Ave. 
Niednagel, Waldamar 
Niehaus, Fred, 2837 E. Indiana 
Niehaus, Joseph W., 2837 E. In- 
diana 
Niemeyer. Arthur F., 1413 Gum 
Nienaber, Herman Wm., 38 Jeffer- 
son Ave. 
Nienaber, OIlie, 611 Oak 
Nitzer, Arthur, 31 Madison Ave. 
Nodhaus, Wm. M., 1003 Edgar 
Noelting, Clarence, 913 Blackford 

Avenue 
Noelting, Walter, 601 Ravenswood 

Drive 
Nolan, Eugene, Audubon Apts. L 
Nolan, Lawrence, 2201 E. Virginia 
Nolan, Michael, Jr., 2201 E. Vir- 
ginia 



*Army nurse. 



224 



HONOR ROLL 



Nolan, Val, 1240 S. First 
Nolen, Bennie, 1814 E. Maryland 
Nonweiler, Arthur P., 407 Kead 
Norcross, Heriaert L., 231 E. Ore- 
gon 
Norcross, Orion, 325 Bray Ave. 
Norton, Fred H., Y. M. C. A. 
Norton, Orville, 1020 Vine 
North, Wm. A. 

Notgras, Wm., 1515 E. Oregon 
Nuebling, Herman, Armstrong, 

Indiana 
Nuhring, Alfred H., 825 E. Mary- 
land 



Nummensen, Fred J., 520 Lincoln 

Avenue 
Nunheimer, Edwin J., 105 Marshall 
Nunn, Arthur, 2839 E. Indiana 
Nurrenbern, Bernard, 1030 W. 

Michigan 
Nurrentern, Leo, 1030 W. Michigan 
Nurrenbern, Robert, R. II. 1, How- 
ell, Ind. 
Nussmeier, Albert H., 418 Bray 

Avenue 
Nussmeier, Oscar H., IfJOo E. Vir- 
ginia 



o 



Oakley, Joel, 13 Stinson Ave. 
Obeshausen, Jesse N., 16 John 
O'Brian, Geo. F., 512 Fares Ave. 
O'Bryan, J. W. 

O'Bryan, Randall, 514 S. Sixth 
Odell, DeForest, Y. M. C. A. 
Odell, Henry, 626 S. First 
Offerman, Albert, 821 E. Missouri 
Offerman, Henry, 821 E. Missouri 
Oflferman, John, 821 E. Missouri 
Offerman, Wm., 821 E. Missouri 
Ogden, Fred L., 2115 Division 
Ogle, C. L. 

Ogle, Glen, 719 Hopkins Ave. 
O'Hare, Cornelius A., 415 Chest- 
nut 
Ohl, Joseph, 316 Central Ave. 
Oldham, Geo., 900 E. Columbia 
Oldham, Homer T., 501 S. Sixth 
Olmstead, John, R. R. A 
Olmsted, Ralph Evans, 1025 U. 

Third 
Oncley, Carl, R. R. 8, Box 61 
O'Neal, Wilbert, 1009 E. Illinois 
Oran, John C, R. R. 2 
Orth, Geo. C, 2031 Fir.st Ave. 
Orth, Joe, 1314 W. Maryland 
Orth, Mathias F., 412 E. Columbia 
Orth, Roy B., 1119 W. Virginia 
Orth, Wm., 1314 W. Maryland 



Osborn, Daniel H., 1105 Cherry 
Osborne, Jas. W., Marine Hospital 
Osborne, Jas. W., 930 E. Illinois 
Oskins, Kenneth L., 336 Grant 
Oslage, Fred, 1111 E. Iowa 
Ossenberg, Wm. A., 308 Washing- 
ton Ave. 
O'Sullivan, John, 24 Decker Road 
Oswald, Chas., 219 Kentucky Ave. 
Otte, Ed R., 1110 E. Virginia 
Ottman, Geo., 1105 W. Indiana 
Ottman, Henry M., 9 Ross Ave. 
Ottman, Walter F., 1815 E. Ore- 
gon 
Otto, Julius Wm., 1115 W. Indiana 
Ours, Gussy C, 1721 First Ave. 
Overton, Isaac, R. R. 3 
Outlaw, Herman, R. R. 1 
Qverlin, Ellis li., 1213 L. Columbia 
Overton, Guy 

Overton, Wm. S., 2927 E. Franklin 
Owen, Ed, 317 Magnolia Ave. 
*Owen, Etta 

Owen, John, 517 S. First 
Owen, Leo A., 809 John 
Owen, Levi 

Owen, Wm., 814 Fifth Ave. 
Owens, Dan, 2104 E. Michigan 

*Army nurse. 



Pace, Bryan W., 313 Campbell 
Pagett, Elmer Lee, 1401 Read 
Palster, Martin B., 2123 V2 Division 
Parker, Leslie, 301 Cumberland 

Avenue 
Parker, Russell 
Parkson, Lamore, 2107 E. Iowa 



Parrett, Rodney 

Parrish, Harry Lee, R. R. 8, Box 

147 
Parsons, Percie, 1114 Fulton Ave. 
Pate, Jas. E., 2413 Division 
Pate, Oscar, 613 Fulton Ave. 
Pate, Wm., 2013 E. Nevada 



22£ 



SONS OF MEN 



Patter, Tom, 2912 Division 
Patterson, Allen A., R. R. 5 
Patterson, Homer, 719 Fourth 
Patterson. Roy, 1311 W. Franklin 
Patterson, Theo., 2605 Fulton Ave. 
Patterson, Une, 719 S. Fourth 
Patton, Gilbert, 1716 E. Iowa 
Patton, Wm. F., 1716 E. Iowa 
Paul, Herbert, 1204 Main 
Paul, Meyer, 406 Line 
Paule, John, 810 E. Pennsylvania 
Payton, Luther, 201 Goodsell 
Peak, Wm. E.. 207 Chestnut 
Pearce, Dallas G., Boehne Bklg. 
Pearcy, Claude, 2706 Main 
Pease, Warren, Y. M. C. A. 
Peck, Clarence, R. R. 3, Inj?lefield 
Peckinpaugh, Everett C, 1106 

Lemcke Ave. 
Peeples, Wm., 1059 Riverside Ave.' 
Pelham, Roscoe, Main St. 
Pelz, Gus, 920 Chestnut 
Pemberton, Ezra E., 100 Clark 
Pemberton, Jas., 212 Oakley 
Penn, Alonzo, 518 Edgar 
Pennington, Jas., 624 Monroe Ave. 
Pepper, Franklin, 1220 S. Eighth 
Perkins, Margaret E., 1406 Lin- 
wood Ave. 
Perkins, Wayne, 25 E. Illinois 
Perlmut, Philip, 312 Morris Ave. 
Perrin, Leslie, 518 Va Main 
Perry, Sterling, 738 Bellemeade 

Ave. 
Peters, Adam F., 505 S. Garvin 
Peters, Elmer, 505 S. Garvin 
Peters, Frank, 1803 E. Maryland 
Peters, John, R. R. 2 
Peters, Julius, R. R. 7, Box 5 
Peters, Raymond, 709 S. Fourth 
Pfafflin, Adolph, 1851 E. Maryland 
Pfafflin, Carl, 1851 E. Maryland 
Pfafflin, Eugene, 1851 E. Maryland 
*Pfeiffer, Christina 
Pfender, Gilson E., Y. M. C. A. 
Pfettscher, Geo., R. R. 7 
Pfettscher, Chas., R. R. 2 
Pfisterer, Elmer P., 508 Madison 
Pfisterer, Fred, 317 Jefferson Ave. 
Pfitzner, Walter, 1505 Mulberry 
Phemister, Jack, 100 Clark 
Phillips, Bert, R. R. 8, Box 206 
Phillips, Carl W., 416 Read 
Phillips, Clifford J.. 17 Denby Ave. 
Phillips, Herman, 703 Evans Ave. 
Phillips, Homer, 427 Monroe Ave. 
Phillips, H. L. 

*Army nurse. 



Phillips, John L., 308 Tennessee 
Phillips, Roland A., 206 Grant 
Phillips, Walter K., 510 U. First 
Phillips, Wm. L., 103 McDonald 

Ave. 
Phillips, Wm. O., Cadick Apts. 
Pickels, Wayne M., 212 E. Oregon 
Picker, Wesley 
Pierce, Eddie 

Pierce, Homer, 1109 E. Michigan 
Pierce, Vernie, 1804 E. Maryland 
Pike, Geo., 210 Oak 
Pike, Rudolph J., 704 John 
Pilliman, Leo, 1804 S. Governor 
Pinkston, Jessie, 1112 Eichel Ave. 
Pittmeier, Fred H., R. F. D. 5, 

Box 207 
Planque, Jas. W., 120 Jefferson 

Avenue 
Pleak, Carl Ezra, 2311 Main 
Pletscher, Carl V., 1607 Law Ave. 
Ploeger, Harold, 1014 Powell Ave. 
Ploeger, Harold, 1610 Gum 
Plummer, Ralph, 1216 Gum 
Poggemeier, Theo. H., 1537 Third 

Avenue 
Poggemeier, Wm., 1537 Third Ave. 
Pogue, Harry, 1610 First Ave. 
Pohl, Arthur, 1011 Oakley 
Polley, Chester F., Cypress, Ind., 

R. R. 1 
Polsdorfer, Edw., 1025 First Ave. 
Polster, Martin, 2123^^ Division 
Ponell, Edward, 127 E. Delaware 
Poole, Carl 

Porter, Albert, 1237 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Porter, Bryant 
Porter, Felix 

Porter, Grant, 18 W. Iowa 
Porter, John, 1237 W. Pennsylvania 
Portlock, Chas. 

Posey, Melvin, 419 Jefferson Ave. 
Posey, Woodward J., Nogales, 

Arizona 
Potter, Daniel, 1400 Maxwell Ave. 
Potter, Ottie, 319 Parrett 
Powell, Edward 

Powell, Grover C, 1715 Third Ave. 
Powell, Melvin, Forrest Hills 
Powell, Otis, 1422 E. Illinois 
Powell, Robert, 504 Olive 
Powell, Philip, 504 Olive 
Powers, Abe, 1500 Read 
Powers, Orly, 1805 Third Ave. 
Powers, Robert M., 1500 Read 
Pride, Grover, 216 Sycamore 
Priest, Roy F., R. R. 3 



226 



HONOR ROLL 



Primm, Howard T., 409 Jackson 

Ave, 
Proctor, Dan M., 1411 W. Indiana 
Punshon, Harry M., 906 E. Mis- 
souri 



Purdue, Henry, 1720 E. Illinois 
Purdue, Homer, 1919 Division 
Purtle, Daniel I., 712 Eighth 



*Quackenbush, Ailena 

Quigley, Pat. V., O. Washington Av. 



o 



Quick, Frank, 114 Harlan Ave. 



Racener, Grover, 211 Fulton Ave. 
Radermacher, Herbert, 1609 Law 

Avenue 
Ragan, Harry, 1203 W. Michigan 
Ragsdale, Chas., 1509 E. Delaware 
Rahm, Elmer, 305 E. Iowa 
*Raibourne, Delia, 107 Madison 
*Raibourne, Louise, 107 Madison 
Ralston, Robert, 1305 E. Virginia 
Ralston, Wm. J., 720 Blackford 

Avenue 
Ramsey, Lawrence W., 815 Third 

Avenue 
Ramsey, Paul B., 117 Switz Ave. 
Ranes, Harry, 319 Edgar 
Rank, Fred W., 1224 S. Eighth 
Ranney, Joseph, 233 Orr Ave. 
Raphael, Harry, 1011 Lincoln Ave. 
Rash, Chas. R., 905 Third Ave. 
Rastatter, John G., 2406 Fulton 

Ave. 
Rasure, Wm. H., 317 William 
Rauch, Fred, 402 Geil Ave. 
Rausch, Arthur, R. R. 7, Box 132 
Rausch, Chas. R., 316 Fourth Ave. 
Rausch, Clarence, 1130 W. Dela- 
ware 
Rausch, John H., 709 Sixth Ave. 
Ray, Merville, 223 Dearborn 
Ray, Roy R., 113 Harriet 
Raymond, Alfred, 12 y2 Cherry 
Raymond, Edw., 534 Jefferson Ave. 
Rea, John C. Jr., 801 Adams Ave. 
Reader, Otto, 517 Mary 

Reavis, Wm. L., 122 E. Franklin 
Rech, Edw., 1310 Walnut 
Richardt, Edw., 124 Fountain Ave. 
Reed, Richard, care Courier 
Reed, Tyler, 111 Second Ave. 
Reese, Carl J., 425 Chandler Ave. 
Reese, Roy, 517 Fifth Ave. 
Rehrman, Frank, 1900 Fulton Ave. 
Rehrman, Henry, 1900 Fulton Ave. 

*Army nurse. 



Rehrman, Wm., 1900 Fulton Ave. 
*Rehsteiner, Katherine, Deakin 

Apts. 
Reichert, Fred, 1124 E. Franklin 
Reid, Harry, 704 E. Columbia 
Reinhard, John 
Reis, Alvin, 225 Mulberry 
Reising, Anton J. 
Reising, Edwin J., 1023 Cherry 
Reising, Geo. L., 414 Ross Ave. 
Reising, Leo, 414 Ross Ave. 
Reisinger, Adam, 711 Locust 
Reisinger, Adam, 412 Grant 
Reisinger, Edwin, 1023 Cherry 
Reisinger, Harry, Gum St. 
Reisinger, Otto, 503 E. Maryland 
Reisinger, Philip, Gum St. 
Reisinger, Urban, 703 Bedford Ave. 
Reissinger, Harry H., 905 E. Ore- 
gon 
Reitz, Frank, 808 First Ave. 
Reitz, Carl, 808 First Ave. • 
Reitz, Philip, 704 Wabash Ave. 
Reitz, Philip, R. R. 8, Box 232 
Reitz, Ralph A., 618 Oakley 
Reitz, Thomas, 808 First Ave. 
Relleke, John, 901 W. Pennsylvania 
Rerick, Geo., 1221 E. Delaware 
Rerick, Louis, 1221 E. Delaware 
Resbitter, Christ, 110 W. Columbia 
Rettinger, John, 2300 Fulton Ave. 
Rettmeier, Geo. W., 1221 W. Illi- 
nois 
Reudlinger, Wm., R. R. 5 
Reutter, Chas., R. R. 7 
Reutter, Fred Wm., R. R. 7, Box 

25 
Reyher, Harry, 905 Edgar 
Reynolds, Ralph, 301 Shanklin 

Avenue 
Reynolds, Ralph F., 1230 S. Sixth 
Rheinhardt, Arthur, R. R. A, Box 
93 



*Army Nur.«ie 



227 



SONS OF MEN 



Rheinhardt, Clarence, R. R. A 
Rheinhardt, Clinton F., R. R. A, 

Box 93 
Rheinhardt, Walter, 311 Monroe 

Ave. 
Rhoads, Burl, 116 S. Water 
Rhodes, Estal 
Rhodes, Samuel 

Rice, Aloysius J., 514 Baker Ave. 
Rice, Chas. E. 
Rice, Dell, 1109 S. Sixth 
Rice, Wm., 2335 Walnut 
*Richardson, Inez, 507 S. First 
Richardson, Olden, R. R. 1, Cy- 
press, Ind. 
Richstein, Ed., 19 E. Indiana 
Richstein, Frank, 19 E. Indiana 
Richstein. John J., 19 E. Indiana 
Ricker, Johnnie R., 1311 E. Col. 
Ricker, Sherman, 1311 E. Col 
Ricketts, Alva 

*Ricketts, Esta, 507 S. First 
Rider, John, 812 John 
Rieber, Wm., 1616 E. Illinois 
Riepe, Edw. 

Riess, Walter, 1914 E. Louisiana 
Rietman, Henry, 614 Oakley 
Riggins, Harlin T., 18 Delmar Ave. 
Riggs, J. M., 615 Locust 
Riggs, Wm. A. R. R. 4 
Riley, John, 801 W. Franklin 
Riney, Richard, 211 Edgar 
Ringer, Harry, 2901 E. Franklin 
Ritchey, Clarence, R. R. 2, Ingle- 
field 
Ritchey, Ralph, Inglefield, R. R. 2 
Rittenour, Donald Fay, 1402 E. 

Louisiana 
Ritter, Julius F., 415 E. Virginia 
Rittmeier, Fred 
Roach, Homer A., 1005 Main 
Robbins, Claude, 712 Walnut 
Roberson, R. W., Marine Hospital 
Roberts, Alfonzo, 606 Taylor 
Roberts, Chas. E., 709 Wabash 

Avenue 
Roberts, Edward, 1018 E. Franklin 
Roberts, Fowler, 606 Taylor Ave. 
Roberts, George Frank, 508 S. Sec- 
ond 
Roberts, Geo. W., 814 Division 
Roberts, Brato, 606 Taylor 
Roberts, Louis, 709 Wabash Ave. 
Robertson, Wm. J., 1519 Main 
Robinson, Chas., 916 Edgar 
Robinson, Jas. M., 23 Mary 
Robinson, Joseph, 916 Edgar 

*Army nurse. 



Robinson, Jesse L., 731 John 
Robinson, Mack, 1115 N. Governor 
Robinson, Ted, 1619 Olive 
Rocca, Gus R., 1304 Cherry 
Rockett, Elmer, 500 S. Eleventh 
Rode, Ollie M., 713 S. Sixth 
Rodenberg, Ben 
Rodenberg, Daniel, R. R. 8 
Rodenberg, Leo 

Roebling, Clyde, 528 E. Illinois 
Roeder, Bennett, 420 Jackson Ave. 
Roeder, Otto, 815 N. Lafayette 
Roethemeyer, Henry, 109 W. Dela- 
ware 
Roethemeyer, Victor, 109 W. Dela- 
ware 
Rogers, Milton, 326 Fulton Ave. 
Rogge, Edw., 215 Oakley 
Rogge, Lawrence L., 422 E. Mich. 
Rogles, Edwin, 402 Line 
Rohlfer, Joseph, 1918 E. Delaware 
Rohrbacher, Clarence, 806 Harriet 
Rohrbacher, Ed., 806 Harriet 
Rohrbacher, Joseph, 806 Harriet 
Rohrman, Walter, 806 Mary 
Rohsenberger, Carl, 116 Washing- 
ton Ave. 
Rohsenberger, Otto, 116 Washing- 
ton Ave. 
Roler, Clint, 1719 First Ave. 
Roler, Clyde, 1719 First Ave. 
Romershausen, Arthur, 612 S. 

Sixth 
Rompf, Geo. A., R. R. A, Box 345 
Rose, Ben, 405 Barrett 
Rose, Benoni S., 24 E. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Rose, Donald, 617 Third 
Rose, Jas. T., 1913 S. Governor 
Rose, Joseph B., 206 Stinson Ave. 
Ross, Ben, 405 Parrett 
Rosser, Clifford, 331 1/2 S. Third 
Rosser, Kenneth, 331 S. Third 
Roth, Harry, 818 Madison Ave. 
*Roth, Ida Matilda, 1122 E. Frank- 
lin 
Roth, Norman, 1215 E. Delaware 
Roth, Otto Adam, R. R. 8, Box 

235 
Roth, Raymond J., R. R. 8, Box 

235 
Rothert, Edwin, R. R. 7 
Rothert, Edwin C, 1320 S. Gover- 
nor 
Rough, Carl T., 928 E. Columbia 
Roullie, Clarence G., 903 Tenth 

Avenue 
Royster, Murl, 320 Adams Ave. 



*Army nurse. 



228 



HONOR ROLL 



Eubin, Carl, 600 E, Columbia 
Ruddell, Noel, 116 Bayard Park 

Drive 
Ruddick, Hobart C, 1108 S. First 
Rudisill, John, 118 E. Indiana 
Rueger, Harry, 325 State 
Ruff, Fred B., 1110 E. Virginia 
Rumpf, Arthur, 1509 Second Ave. 
Runcie, Roy 
*Runyn, Sybil 

Rupper, Edgar T., 603 St. Joseph 
Rusche, Edw., 115 Mary 



Rusche, Wm., 115 Mary 
Russell, Clem Ashley, 1422 W. 

Franklin 
Russell, John, 1004 E. Maryland 
Russell, Wm., 929 W. Franklin 
Rust, Jerry 
Ruston, Clarence, 709 Linwood 

Avenue 
Ruston, Hobart C, 417 Olive 
Ruston, John, R. R. 1, Inglefield 
Rut, Ed 



Sabel, Nathan, 313 Oak 
Sachs, Herbert W., 1510 Evans 

Avenue 
Sachs, John E., 1510 Evans Ave. 
Sachs, Walter, 1122 Mary 
Saler, John, 220 E. Tennessee 
Salle, Harden, 1106 Mary 
Salmon, Sylvester, 1318 Cherry 
Samples, Earl 

Sams, Earl, 1103 W, Indiana 
Sandage, Frank, 314 William 
Sandefur, Harry 

Sandefur, Martin L., 812 Second 
Sander, John, 803 Linwood Ave. 
Sanders, Alva, R. R. 5 
Sanders, Arthur, 1209 Fulton Ave. 

Avenue 
Sandleben, Gilbert H., 601 Locust 
Sappenfield, Venner, 410 Parrett 
Sappenfield, Victor, 410 Parrett 
Sargent, Leonard, 1404 Cleveland 

Avenue 
Sarlls, Tom W., 811 Washington 

Avenue 
Sartin, Richard, 1235 E. Illinois 
Sarver, Claude S., 1017 W. Dela- 
ware 
Sasse, Fred, 915 E. Indiana 

Sasse, Henry H., 107 Fountain 
Sasse, Lawrence, 1507 E. Dela- 
ware 
Sauer, Ed J., 1817 Third Ave. 
Saulmon, Scott C, 1815 E. Oregon 
Saunders, Harry W., 1211 E. Ore- 
gon 
Saunders, Jas. D., 708 Adams Ave. 
Saunders, Knapp, 1315 S. Gover- 
nor 
Saunders, Miles, 1315 S. Governor 
Saunders, W. M., 708 Adams Ave. 
*Saupert, Almira, 400 Harriet 
Scales, John L., 412 Lincoln Ave. 



*Army nurse 



Scarborough, Jas., Cypress, Ind. 
Schaad, John, 323 Fulton Ave. 
Schaar, Louis, R. R. 3 
Schaefer, Frank, 1108 Edgar 
Schaefer, Geo. M., 822 E. Oregon 
Schaefer, Wm. V., 1108 Edgar 
Schaeffer, Clarence, 120 Blackford 

Avenue 
Schaeflfer, Edwin F., 1311 Gum 
Schaeffer, Geo., 6 Randall Ave. 
Schafer, Chas., 323 Harriet 
Schafer, Dan E. 

Schaick, Ivan M., 218 E. Illinois 
Schallek, Walter B., R. R. 4, Box 

246 
Schamburger, Ed, 115 W. Frank- 
lin 
Schapker, Jos., 1507 S. Second 
Schatz, Karl Leo, 1015 Mary 
Schauer, Henry J., 1317 Cleveland 

Avenue 
Schaum, Albert, 810 W. Indiana 
Schaum, Walter 
Schauss, Fred Wm., R. R. 7, Box 

86 
Schauss, Herman 
Schauss, Herman, R. R. 1, Arm- 
strong 
Scheips, Carl, 509 S. Third 
Schelhorn, Alvin C, 1305 S. Gov- 
ernor 
Scheller, Joe Wm., 1022 W. Vir- 
ginia 
Scheller, Peter 
Schenk, Clinton D. 
Schenk, Edw., R. R. 9 
Schenk, Ed W., Howell, Ind., R. 

R. 2, Box 71 
Schenk, Henry, 313 Ulhorn 
Schenk, Henry, R. R. 2, Box 71 
Schentrup, M. F., 604 Gum 
Schentrup, Walter, 604 Gum 
Schentrup, E. 



229 



SONS OF MEN 



Schernan, Frank B., 2016 E. Mis- 
souri 
Scherrer, Wayland J., 2100 E. 

Louisiana 
Schierholz, Herman H., 1206 Wash- 
ington Ave. 
Sckiffer, Henry, R. R. A 
Schile, Tony, 707 Eleventh Ave. 
Schiller, Peter E., 1022 W. Virginia 
Schimmel, Alfred F., 907 Sycamore 
Schimmel, Kenneth, 907 Sycamore 
*Schimmerman, Emma, 507 S. 

First 
Schlaeger, Norman J., 1206 Chand- 

Schlaeger, Ralph, 1206 Chandler 
Schlaffer, Michael, 1318 E. Mis- 
souri 
Schlag, Jacob O., R. R. 5, Box 49 
Schlageter, Albert, 112 ^ij W. Vir- 
ginia 
Schlageter, Ed, 112i/2 W. Virginia 
Schlageter, Wm., 105 W. Michigan 
Schlamp, Frederick W., 909 Powell 

Avenue 
Schlegel, Wm., 1754 W. Franklir 
Schlensker, Alvin, 1918 First Ave. 
Schlensker, John, 1918 First Ave. 
*Schlensker, Laura, 1918 First 

Avenue 
Schlensker, Theo., 1918 First Ave. 
Schlensker, Walter, 1918 First Ave. 
Schlottman, Harry, 602 John 
Schluer, Carl, 619 Read 
Schlueter, Ed, 109 Sonntag Ave. 
Schlueter, Louis, 310 Harriet 
Schmadel, Elmer, 2409 Fifth Ave. 
Schmale, Harry, 207 Goodsell 
Schmalmuck, Henry, 814 First Ave. 
Schmidt, Geo., 304 E. Franklin 
Schmidt, Henry, R. R. A, Box 12 
Schmidt, Jesse George, 1414 Shady- 
wood Ave. 
Schmidt, OUie R., 1415 E. Virginia 
Schmidt, Paul, 501 Grant 
Schmitt, Alvin, 426 Kentucky Ave. 
Schmitt, Clarence Henry, 1011 E. 

Maryland 
Schmitt, Edgar C, 1009 Harriet 
Schmitt, Edgar J., 808 Lincoln 

Avenue 
Schmitt, Pete 
Schmitt, Peter Paul, 1516 E. 

Franklin 
Schmitt, Robert, R. R. A 
Schmitt, Sylvester, 426 Kentucky 
Schmitt, Wilford F., 3023 E. In- 
diana 



*Army nurse. 



Schmitz, Alvin, R. R. 8 
Schmitz, Frank, 510 Bond 
Schnaar, Carl, 721 Edgar 
Schnakenburg, Rudolph, 811 Sec- 
ond Ave. 
Schnapf, Martin G., R. R. A 
Schnarr, Frank, 1023 W. Indiana 
Schnarr, John, 1410 E. Columbia 
Schnautz, Nicholas F., 1603 E. Vir- 
ginia 
Schneider, Ed, 1036 Adams Ave. 
Schneider, Henry 

Schneider, Jacob J., R. R. 3, Howell 
Schneider, Joseph VV., R. R. 7 
Schneider Paul, 1311 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Schneider, Phil F. 
Schneider, Roy, 200 E. Indiana 
Schneider, W. F. 

Schneider, Walter, Inglefield, Ind. 
Schnelle, Carl, R. R. 5 
Schnelle, Earl, R. R. 5 
Schnute, Gerhard, 1621 E. Dela- 
ware 
Schnute, Oscar W., 216 Madison 

Avenue 
Schnute, Paul, 1621 Delaware 
Schoemaker, Leroy, 915 S. Fourth 
Schoenenberger, John, R. R. 3, 

Wadesville 
Schoenenberger, John 
Schofield, Harry 
Schofield, Henry, R. R. 7 
Schofield, Joseph, R. R. A 
Scholem, Isaac, 515 S. Seventh 
Scholem, Ludwig, 10 Adams Ave. 
Scholz, Norman, 513 Vvashington 

Avenue 
Scholz, Rehman, 1016 William 
Schomburg, Benj. C. H., 1213 E. 

Columbia 
Schrader, L. B., Green River Rd. 
Schreck, William, 1920 E. Virginia 
Schreiber, Theo., 517 Line 
Schreik, William 
Schreiner, Noval P., Y. M. C. A. 
Schriber, Robert A., R. R. A, Box 

148 
Schriek, Wm., 1 Forest Ave. 
Schroeder, Albert, R. R. 7 
Schroeder, Arthur, 506 Read 
Schroer, Albert E., 2801 E. Dela- 
ware 
Schuble, Wm. G., 2416 Fulton Ave. 
Schuetler, Wendelin C, 110 W. 

Iowa 
Schuetz, Clyde S., 1712 E. Illinois 
Schuetz, Joseph H., R. R. 5, Box 

217 
Schultz, William, 326 Line 



230 



HONOR ROLL 



Schulz, Clarence, 200 Jefferson , 
Schulz, Gus, R. R. 8, Box 325 
Schulz, Sellman, 1048 Vine 
Schum, Al, 1622 Law Ave. 
Schumacher, Henry G., 1305 E. 

Michiean 
Schumacher, John, 1305 E. Mich. 
Schwab, Chas., Washington Ter- 
race 
Schwartz, Harry J., 109 High 
Schwartz, N. 

Schwartz, Wm., 2227 Division 
Schweikhart, Ed F., 313 Hess Ave. 
Schweitzer, Chas. J., 121 Ulhorn 
Schweitzer, Ervin George, 607 Ful- 
ton Ave. 
Schweitzer, Otto, 314 Florence 
Schweizer, Edw., 513 Second Ave. 
Schwentker, Jas., 720 Mary 
Schymik, Chas., 301 Goodsell 
Scott, Earl R., 821 Rowley 
Scott, Frank 

Scott, Frank E., 104 E. Indiana 
Scott, Ian Cameron, 1104 S. Third 
Scott, Joseph C, 520 Elliott 
Scott, Russell, 1030 Vine 
Seidenthal, Joe L., 202 Evans Ave. 
Seidenthal, Walter, 421 Olive 
Seller, Arthur 
Seller, Cecil L., 322 N. Barker 

Avenue 
Seller, Orwic, 322 N. Barker Ave. 
Seller, Paul, 1 N. Seventh 
Seller, Paul, 712 Baker Ave. 
Seip, Christ, 13 Read 
Seitz, Frank J., S09 Hess Ave. 
Seitz, Louis, 1422 E. Missouri 
Seitz, Willard, R. R. A 
Sell, John Henry, Inglefield 
Selle, Carl W. 

Selzer, Adam, 13 E. Delaware 
Selzer, Arnold, 13 E. Delaware 
Selzer, Louis, 15 S. Third 
Selzer, Raymond, 333 Lincoln Ave. 
Senta, Arthur 

Severin, Emanuel, 227 E. Columbia 
Severin, Harry A., 1317 Third Ave. 
Severin, Shirley, 227 E. Columbia 
Seviking, Nicholas, R. R. 3 
Seymour, Arthur E. 
Seymour, Wilfred, 1100 Read 
Shacklett, Jas. D., Y. M. C. A. 
Shafer, Jay, 1246 Lincoln Ave. 
Shafer, Thomas, 1246 Lincoln Ave. 
Shake, Clarence, R. R. 4 
Sharer, Arthur, 1804 E. Franklin 
Shaw, Alvin B., 415 Central Ave. 
Shears, Ellis 
Shelton, Norman, 1213 Cherry 



Shepard, Clarence B., 313 Chest nut 
^Sherwood, Fannibell, 14 Washing- 
ton Ave. 
Shipherd, John, 11 Park Lane 
Shipper, Elmer, 210 Cumberland 

Avenue 
Shirk, Ray C, 1114 Washington 

Avenue 
Shocklie, Wm. T., 1113 S. Gov. 
Shoenfelt, Oscar L., 610 First Ave. 
Shofner, Chas., 622 Gum 
Shofner, Luther, 622 Gum 
Shriek, Wm., 318 E. Pennsylvania 
Shriver, Earl 
Shrode, Carl, 415 Elliott 
Shrode, Earl O., 2011 E. Nevada 
Shrode, Walter, 1402 Cleveland 

Avenue 
Shrode, Walter N., 1818 E. Nevada 
Shumate, Frank, 324 1/2 S. First 
Sickman, Fred, 319 Jefferson Ave. 
Sickman, Wm. F., R. R. 6, Box 59 
Sieffert, Ray, 1403 Lincoln Ave. 
Siemers, Roy, 1304 McCormick 

Avenue 
Siemers, Roy, 1116 Fulton Ave. 
Sierro, Oscar J., 12 W. Florida 
Sieveking, Nich., R. R. 3 
Sigler, Herschel R., 303 Oakley 
Sihler, Louis, Lottie Hotel 
Silkey, Ray, R. R. 1, Inglefield 
Silverman, Abron, Lottie Hotel 
Simmons, Gilbert W., 309 E. Mich 
Simon, Marcus F., 621 Garfield 

Avenue 
Simon, Sylvester 
Simon, Wm. B., 1108 Harriet 
Simons, Harry, 817 Adams Ave. 
Simpson, Archie A., 605 John 
Simpson, John P., 2808 E. Indiana 
Simpson, Karl, 701 Gum 
Simpson, Warrick, 716 S. Eighth 
Singelton, Eugene, Rockport 
Singer, Geo. F., 1402 E. Illinois 
Singer, Wm., 1002 Chestnut 
Sink, Sidney, R. R. 2, Inglefield 
Sinks, Everett, 408 E. Columbia 
Sinz, Elmer, 1122 N. Barker Ave. 
Sipple, Glenn, Columbia St. 
Sitzmann, John Edw., 1201 1/2 Ed- 
gar 
Sitzman, John W., 728 St. Joseph 

Avenue 
Skeels, Jos., 612 Edgar 
Skeels, Thos., 1919 E. Louisiana 
Skeels, Wm. A., 1919 E. Louisiana 
Skelton Elmer, 1429 W. Illinois 
Skelton, Hyman, 921 N. Governor 

*Army nurse. 



231 



SONS OF MEN 



Skimerhorn, Jas., 811 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Slade, Alvah H., 1328 Adams Ave. 
Slatle, Donald, 716 Blackford Ave. 
Slayton, Ernest, 1111 Grand Ave. 
Slintz, Atlee, 118 Walnut 
Sloan, Richard, 220 S. Seventh 
Sloat, Earl, 510 Edgar 
Sly, Cecil H., Tell Citv, Ind. 
Sly, Thos. R. 
Small, Fred W. 
Smith, Arthur, 1304 Main 
Smith, Chas. A., 413 Fountain Ave. 
Smith, Clarence, 613 Chandler Ave. 
Smith, Clarence, Cypress, Ind. 
Smith, Clyde, 324 Kentucky Ave. 
Smith, Dean, 615 S. Second 
*Smith, Delia, Ingle, 507 S. First 
Smith, Earl, 510 John 
Smith, Estell, R. R. 8, Box 215 
Smith, Forrest, 1500 Fulton Ave. 
Smith, Guy, R. R. 3, Dale 
Smith, Harry, 203 Ross Ave. 
Smith, Harry, 1500 Fulton Ave. 
Smith, John H., 300 Line 
Smith, Lilburn C, R. R. 8, Box 215 
*Smith, Marion 

Smith, Norman, R. R. 8, Box 215 
Smith, Ralph, 624 Ajdams Ave. 
Smith, Rudolph 

Smith, Wm. C, 1699 S. Second 
Smith, Wm. L., Y. M. C. A. 
Smith, Wm. L. 

Smothers, Herbert C, 1205 Main 
Snelling, Geo., 1000 William 
Snively, Merrill, 204 E. Tennessee 
Snodgrass, Fred, 2410 Fulton Ave. 
Snurpus, John S., 14 E. Georgia 
Snvder, Harold, 521 Grant 
Snvder, Jos., R. R. 3 
Snyder, Mont, 220 Bray Ave. 
Snyder, Phillip 
Snyder, Samuel David, 19 Denni- 

son 
Sokoloff, Philip, 1303 Main 
Sonntag, Edw. M., 510 Riverside 

Avenue 
Southwood, Clyde F., 1036 Oakley 
Spain, Richard, 30 Emmett 
Spann, Herbert, 1811 E. Illinois 
Spari-enberger, August J., 1305 

Chandler Ave. 
Speer, Edwin, 916 Read 
Specht, Oscar M., 20 E. Iowa 
Speck, Cyrus Q., 1513 Gum 
Speck, Roy, 1513 Gum 
Spencer, Clarence D., 1506 John 
Spencer, John W., 1004 S. First 



Spencer, Vernon, 16 Clark 
Spiegel, Clarence, 1046 Cherry 
Spiegel, Frank, 1046 Cherry 
Spiegel, Leo, 723 Lincoln Ave. 
Spiegel, Raymond, 708 Bellemeade 

Avenue 
Spindler, Matthew, 1609 E. Frank- 
lin 
Spiry, Geo. H., 514 Green River 

Road 
Spitzmiller, Ed W., 1110 E. Iowa 
Springston, Roy 

Staack, Herman J., 1221 W. Iowa 
Stadler, Adelbert 
Stadler, Walter, 404 Mary 
Staiger, Andrew, 715 Eleventh 

Avenue 
Stannard, Chas., 1019 Walnut 
St. Clair, Chas., 2822 E. Indiana 
St. Clair, Raymond, 1313 Third 

Avenue 
Steel, Lawrence, 1216 Oakley 
Steele, Alexander, 1401 Linwood 
Steele, George H. 
Steele, Robt. H., 1644 S. Second 
Steinhauer, Conrad 
Steinhauer, Fred W., 521 Shank- 

lin Ave. 
Steinmetz, Albert, 1317 E. Oregon 
Steinmetz, August G., 1537 Third 

Avenue 
Steinmetz, Matthew, 309 Jefferson 
Stephan, John C, 1903 Main 
Stephens, Geo., 918 Second Ave. 
Stephens, Herbert, 324 Line 
Stephens, Louis O., R. R. 5. 
Stephens, O. C, 7 Washington Ave. 
Stephens, Raymond 
Sterret, Boyd, 110 Washington 

Avenue 
Stevans, Clovie 

Stevens, Fred, R. R. 1, Box 122 
Stevens, Harold, Lincoln Hotel 
Stevens, Henry 

Stevens, Herbert, 1617 E. Virginia 
Stevens, Mont. G., 117 E. Indiana 
Stevens, Wm., R. R. 6, Box 18 
Stevenson, Frank, 1237 S. First 
Stevenson, Robert 
Stewart, B. N., 418 E. Virginia 
Stewart, Robt., 401 Garfield Ave. 
Stewart, Robt., 522 William 
* Stewart, Ruth 
Stewart, Thurman, Howell 
Stewart, Wm. J., 401 Garfield Ave. 
Stickelman, Carl, 621 Adams Ave. 
Stienhauser, Albert M., 2822 Canal 
Stilwell, Robt., 1032 Riverside Ave. 



*Army nurse. 



''Army nurse. 



232 



HONOR ROLL 



Stinchfield, Harrison, 12 Cutler 

Avenue 
Stinchfield, Louis, 12 Cutler Ave. 
Stinchfield, L., R. R. S, Box 139 
Stinson, Chas. D., Washington 

Courts 
Stinson, Curtis, 9 Washington Ave. 
Stinson, Eugene, 220 Mulberry 
Stinson, Lawrence, 1501 S. Second 
Stitt, Chas. M., 716 John 
Stocker, Claude A., 1221 E. Nevada 
Stockfleth, Philip, 1313 E. Frank- 
lin 
Stockmeyer, Fred Wm., 315 Sixth 

Avenue 
Stocks, Eugene, 913 Powell Ave. 
Stocks, Hai-vev, 913 Powell Ave. 
Stoermer, Casper E., 901 Third 

Avenue 
Stoever, Alfred, 406 Adams Ave. 
Stoever, Edw., 406 Adams Ave. 
Stofleth, Geo. S., 431 E. Illinois 
Stofleth, Sylvester O., 1430 W. Il- 
linois. 
Stolzy, Geo. Washington, 214 U. 

Fifth 
Stolzy, Hal C, Byron Center, 

Michigan 
Stone, Arthur C, 609 Madison 

Avenue 
Stone, J. C. 

Storck, Rav, 1919 Main 
Stratton, Clifford, 415 Oak 
Stratton, John H.. Terrace Park 
Straus, Byron John, 329 U. Third 
Strauser, Elmer C, 1404 E. Illi- 
nois 
Stredelman. Wm. H., 123 Chest- 
nut 
Strieker, Francis. 1310 E. Oregon 
Strickland, Walter 
Striegel, Gus, R. R. 2 
Strong, Maurice, 304 S. Second 
Strott, Oscar G., 1935 Cleveland 

Avenue 
Strulh, Ed, 1512 W. Illinois 



Strupp, Edw., 223 E. Oregon 
Strupp, Fares, 200 N. Second 
Strupp, Fred W., R. R. 7 
Strupp, Herbert A., 1616 First 

Avenue 
Strupp, Louis, 1217 Edgar 
Strupp, Louis, R. R. 2, Inglefield 
Stubbs, Harry E., 1019 Edgar 
Stubbs, Harvev, 1019 Edgar 
Stubbs, Thos. V., 1019 Edgar 
Sturkey, WeLsey, 1821 E. Louisi- 
ana 
Stueger, Henry, R. R.'7, Box 12 
Stumpf, Anthony H., 815 W. Iowa 
Stumpf, Arthur J., 804 Lincoln 

Avenue 
Sturgeon, Chas., 13 E. Marvland 
Sturgeon, Jacob A., 1816 E. Mis- 
souri 
Stute, Frank J., Box 177, R. R. 3 
Stute, Gustave F., 1621 Walnut 
Stuter, Wm. H., 1106 E. Missouri 
Stuteville, McKinley, 1000 E. 

Franklin 
Styring, Ralph 

Sullivan, Andrew E., 612 Walnut 
Sullivan, Chas., 705 Lemcke Ave. 
Sullivan, John L., 803 W. Penn- 
sylvania 
Sullivan, John W., 11 Clark 
Sullivan, Wm., 613 S. Eighth 
Summers, Frank, 1101 Grand Ave. 
Sundermann, John V., 1108 Mary 
Sursa, Chas., 122 Cumberland Ave. 
Sutheimer, Ahan, 420 Florence 
Sutton, Carl, 405 Old State Bank 

Building 
Sutton. Roy R., Y. M. C. A. 
Swedenburg, Pete, R. R. 6, Box 31 
Swedenberg, Wm. I., R. R. 6, Box 

31 
Sweenev, John R., Marine Hospi- 
tal 
Swickard. Lorenzo W. 
Sykes, Van, 214 S. Second 



Tafel, Albert L., 201 Harriet 
Talbott, Norbert, 333 Line 
Tanner. Ashford, 501 Garfield Ave. 
Tate, Harold, 719 S. Second 
Taturn, Ed, 230 Main 
Tavlor, Charlev V., 905 Svcamore 
Tavlor, Cullen, 1003 W. Ohio 
Tavlor, Geo., 1004 Rowlev 
Taylor. Homer, 609 S. Sixth 



Taylor, Owen, 2807 Division 
Taylor, Samuel 0., 2807 Division 
Taylor, Wm., Marine Hospital 
Temme, Walter. 1600 E. Illinois 
Temme, Walter, R. R. 1. Inglefield 
Thacker, Leslie 
Theines, Albert 
Theuerkauf, Carl 
Thiele, Edwin, 411 Huston Ave. 



233 



SONS OF MEN 



Thole, Edw., 1006 Vine 
Thomas, Clinton, 220 1/2 John 
Thomas, Jas. F., 808 W. Delaware 
Thomas, Oscar, 325 Grant 
Thompson, Cal 
Thompson, Carl 

Thompson, Chas. Jr., 202 S. Water 
Thompson, Chas., 2108 Division 
Thompson, Dave, 202 S. Water 
Thompson, Earl J., 1783 W. Penn- 
sylvania 
Thompson Elbert Wm., 420 Fourth 
Thompson, Francis 
Thompson, Gilbert, 2108 Division 
Thompson, Guy, 202 S. Water 
Thompson, Jas., R. R. 8, Box 98 
Thompson, John 
Thompson, Lawrence E., 512 U. 

Eighth 
Thompson Wm. E. 
Thorbecke, Ed C, 711 Harriet 
Thornberry, Shelby, 309 Chestnut 
Thornburg, Ralph, 1910 E. Iowa 
Thornsberry, Homer, 211 William 
Thornton, Mack P., 822 Chestnut 
Throop, Geo. S., 1052 S. First 
Thurgood, Samuel, 414 Madison 
Thurman, Byron B., 1407 Fulton 
*Thurman, Elizabeth 
Thurston, David, 1029 W. Delaware 
Tichenor, Perry, 526 Parrett 
Tieken, Joseph, R. R. 2, Armstrong 
Tieman, Fred H., R. R. 2, Box 25 
Tiemann, John, R. R. 2, Box 23 
Tillman, Jas., 1237 S. First 
Timmel, Max O., 1316 Harriet 

* Armv Nurse 



Timmons, Chas. 
Titzel, Jas. C. 

Tomlinson, Chas. M., 615 Chest- 
nut 
Tonnemacher, Harry J., 1004 E. 

Franklin 
Tonnemacher, Irvin A., 1004 E. 

Franklin 
Tonnies, Henry, 1228 Edgar 
Tooley, Clifford, 200 Fares Ave. 
Tornatta, Louis A., 216 E. Nevada 
Torrence, Othas 

Trapp, Joseph, R. R. 2, Armstrong 
Trautvetter, Robt. C, 120 S. La- 
fayette Ave. 
Travis, W. T., 1114 Blackford Ave. 
Traylor, Elmer, 905 N. Governor 
Travlor, Harry, 1033 Vine 
Traylor, Harry F., 216 1^ Second 

Avenue 
Tremor, Frank, 1611 E. Delaware 
Trible, Geo. W., 1321 E. Virginia 
Trimble, Clyde, 213 S. Second 
Trisler, Hugh R., 708 Ingle 
Trockman, Louis, 1013 Lincoln 

Avenue 
Tucker, Wm., 220y2 E. Franklin 
Tuley, Leroy, 218 Harriet 
Tulev, Oatley J., 218 Harriet 
Tuley, Wm. L., 1105 E. Franklin 
Turner, Wm., 1400 Walnut 
Turpen, Dello, 1315 E. Iowa 
Turpen, Ira, 520 S. Seventh 
Turpen. Odas, R. R. 2, Inglefield 
Turpen, Ora J., 520 S. Seventh 
Turpin, Morris W., 616 Locust 
Tyler, Clarence H., 223 W. Illinois 



u 



Uebinger, Edwin N., 1208 Read 

Uhl, Adolph, Y. M. C. A. 

Unibach Henry A.. 1434 John 

Unfried, Raymond, R. R. A, Box 
280 

Upton, Lester W., 1203 W. Frank- 
lin 



Upton, Lester, R. R. 3 

Urban, Herbert G., 1644 U. Sec- 
ond 

Usealman, Chas. E., 1417 W. In- 
diana 



V 



Vaal, August J., 415 Heinlein Ave. 
Valentine, Harry, 309 Woods Bldg. 
Vail, August J., R. R. 7 
Vail, Steve 

Van Bibber, Geo. M., Box 20, R. 
R. A 



Vanderschmidt, Syl, 1818 E. Mary- 
land 

Van Horn, Geo. F., 901 Grand Ave. 

Van Horn, Jos., 901 Grand Ave. 

Vann, Arthur Tyrrell, 211 Jack- 
son Ave. 



234 



HONOR ROLL 



Varner, Olin, 907 W. Franklin 
Varner, Thos., 1515 W. Vermont 
Vaughan, Geo., 337 Line 
Vaught, Gilbert C, 428 Huston 

Avenue 
Vaupel, Chas., 101 Harriet 
Vedder, Chas. W., 222 Chandler 

Avenue 
Vedder, Wm. C, 222 Chandler 

Avenue 
Veley, Raymond E., 422 Campbell 
Veriek, Jas., 1201 W. Ohio 
Vessels, Albert, R. R. 8 
Vessels, Jas. 0., 119 N. Water 
Vessels, Robt. L., 119 N. Water 
Vice, Wm. E., 109 Fulton Ave. 
Viederman, John G., 1905 Main 



Viets, Vivian, 1508 E. Illinois 
Vincent, Leslie, 107 Leslie 
Vize, Clyde, 815 Cherry 
Vize, Jerome B., 327 Grant 
Vize, Robert, 327 Grant 
Voelkel, Oscar, 1314 E. Iowa 
Voelker, Louis P., 1004 E. Indiana 
Vogel, Adrian Y., 511 Sixth Ave. 
Vogelbach, Joseph, Y. M. C. A. 
Voight, August, 2817 E. Illinois 
Voight, Charlie, 2817 E. Illinois 
Voight, Wm., R. R. 3 
Voight, Wm., 2805 Canal 
Volk, Joseph C, 1239 W. Ohio 
Voss, Alfred, 609 William 
Vowels, Lambert, 502 S. Second 



w 



Wade, Walter, 710 S. Second 

Wade, Wm., 2104 Main 

Wade, Wm., 2022 S. Governor 

Wagner, Albert F., 1510 E. Frank- 
lin 

Wagner, Julius, R. R. 1, Armstrong 

Wagner, Nicklaus C, 1202 E. Vir- 
ginia 

Wagner, Ralph 

Wahl, John J., 1819 W. Virginia 

Wahnsiedler, Clarence, 316 E. In- 
diana 
Wahnsiedler, John, 316 E. Indiana 

Waibel, Ed H., R. R. 7 

Walden, Harry, 2 Pine 

Walden, Harry, 1804 Van Buren 
Avenue 

Walden, Reavil, 620 Fulton Ave. 

Walker, Harry, 1720 E. Franklin 

Walker, Henry, 522 S. Second 

Walker, Ivan, 1720 E. Franklin 

Walker, J. L., 720 John 

Walker, Thos., 1009 Third Ave. 

Wallace, Donald, Dale, Ind. 

Wallace, Everett, 712 S. Eighth 

Wallace, Gilbert, 905 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 

Wallace, Harold C, 114 Jackson 
Avenue 

Wallace, Harry, 315 Kentucky Ave. 

Wallace, Harry J., 1223 Chandler 
Avenue 

Wallace, Roland, Dale, Ind. 

Wallenmeyer, Henry, 712 S. Eighth 

Waller, Richard C, 718. Old State 
Bank 

Wallert, Wm. J., 413 Grove 



Wallin, John F., R. R. 1, Box 66, 

Howell 
Wallis, Richard, 824 W. Delaware 
Wallis, Wm. I., 1224 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Walls, Ervin, 1114 Washington 

Avenue 
Walls, John, 1114 Washington Ave. 
Walter, Herman, 302 Hess Ave. 
Walters, Edw., R. R. 21, Howell 
Walters, John, R. R. 1 
Walz, Fred, 402 Heinlein Ave. 
Walz, Paul, 1216 Third Ave. 
Wambach, Arnold, 222 W. Mary- 
land 
Wambach, Conrad, 925 E. Iowa 
Wand, John W., 1044 S. Second 
Wanders, Albert, 821 Cherry 
Wanders, Joseph, 821 Cherry 
Waniger, John G., 210 Sherman 
Wannemuehler, Clem, R. R. 2, 

Howell 
Wannemuehler, Henry, R. R. 2, 

Howell 
Ward, Albert G. 
Wardelman, Arthur M., 1313 E. 

Virginia 
Warner, Eugene, 318 Fulton Ave. 
Warner, John L., 100 William 
Warner, Lee, 1007 S. Third 
Warner, Robt., 309 Central Ave. 
Wary, Geo. Varner, R. R. 8, Box 

115 
Waterman, Albert A., R. R. 7, Box 

101 
Waterman, John Simon, R. R. 7, 
West Heights 



235 



SONS OF MEN 



Waters, Lawrence O., 1010 E, 

Franklin 
Waters, Robt. W., 805 Evans Ave, 
Watlington, Edgar L., 1027 S. 

Third 
Wattam, Geo. L., 909 Sycamore 
Wattam, John L., 312 Edgar 
Wattam, Louis E., 1915 E. Louisi- 
ana 
Watterson, Harry D., 707 S. Fourth 
Watts, Maynard S., 722 Baker 

Avenue 
Waweg, Earl 

Way, Arthur S., R. R. 8. Box 115 
Weaver, Oliver, Campbell St. 
Weaver, Oliver, R. R. 6, Box 58 
Weaver, Oscar L., R. R. 5 
Weber, Albert G., 634 John 
Weber, Edgar, 205 Washington 

Avenue 
Weber, John, 1009 Cherrv 
Weber, Karl, R. R. 4 
Weber, Walter, 205 Washington 

Avenue 
Weber, Waster L., 2005 E. Nevada 
Webster, John, 909 W. Virginia 
Webster, Rufus L., 45 Carpenter 
Wehmer, Fred C, R. R. 8 
Weibert, Fred H., 109 U. Tenth 
Weicht, Tony J., 210 W. Frank- 
lin 
Weidner, Wm. E., 1416 Read 
Weigel, Al 

Weigel, Harold, R. R. A 
Weigel, Jay, R. R. A 
Weigel, Victor, R. R. A 
Weihe, Melvin B., 313 Huston Ave. 
Weil, Ervin, 1100 Powell Ave. 
Weintz, Jacob F., 802 First Ave. 
Weirich, Edward J. 
Weis, Adam H., 109 S. Tenth 
Weis, John, 1016 E. Indiana 
Weiskopf, Leo, 17 S. Third 
Weiss, Henry, 809 Adams Ave. 
Weissman, Wm. J., 1128 W. Iowa 
Weizner, Oscar, 1017 St. Joseph 

Avenue 
Welborn, Jas. R., 1100 Eichel Ave. 
Welden, Vernon, 307 Ewing 
Welling, Frank H., U. S. Marine 

Hospital 
Wellmeier, Sam, 125 S. Seventh 
Wellmeier, Walter, 125 S. Seventh 
Wellmeyer, John, 310 Sherman 
Wells, George 

Wells, Walter E., 121 Main 
Wemhener, Ben, 417 E. Franklin 
Wendels, Roy R. 
Wentzel, Arthur, 921 Mary 



Weiner, C. Jr. 
Werner, Louis, 318 Vine 
Wernert, Ferd A., 606 Oak 
Werre, Fred, 808 Third Ave. 
Wesner, Jas.. 19 E. Illinois 
Wesselman, Albert, 1514 Vermont 
Wesselman, Albert, R. R. 7 
Westfall, Oscar, 925 E. Columbia 
Westerhoff, Fred 
Wetzel, Wilfred, 415 Chestnut 
Weyer, Oscar J., 410 Bell Ave. 
Whalen, Joseph Oscar, 608 Cherry 
Wheaton, Wm., 1015 S. Fourth 
Wheeler, Caleb, 4 Heinlein Ave. 
Wheeler, Otto C, 1120 W. Indiana 
Wheeler, Walter, 204 Heinlein Ave. 
Whetstone, Clarence, 100 Huston 

Avenue 
Whetstone, Huston H., 225 W. Illi- 
nois 
Whitaker, Jesse P., 1508 E. Dela- 
ware 
*White, Barbra 
White, Geo., 1000 Mary 
White, Kenneth, Y. M. C. A. 
White, Melvin, 1000 Marv 
White, Van, R. R. 8, Box 133 
White, Wm., 920 N. Governor 
Whitehead, Harry, R. R. 2. Ingle- 
field 
Whitesides, John E., 1101 Fulton 
Whitiker, Henrv L., 419 S. Sixth 
Whiting, Edw., 401 Central Ave. 
Whitney, Geo. L., 217 High 
Whitten, Earl, Dale, Ind. 
Whitten, Clifford, Dale, Ind. 
Wibbeler, Oscar, 603 Adams Ave. 
Wicher, Edwin C, 129 W. Delaware. 
Wichser, Herman G., 1608 E. 

Franklin 
Wichser, John J., 1608 E. Franklin. 
Wichser, Walter P., 1608 E. Frank- 
lin 
Wicht, Wilbur J., 610 William 
Wier, Joseph E., Marine Hospital 
Wiesmann, Gilbert J., 1019 N. Gov- 
ernor 
Wiggers, Emil Jacob, 908 E. Mary- 
land 
Wiggers, Harry, 419 Elliott 
Wiggers, Henry 

Wiggers, Oscar A., 908 E. Mary- 
land 
Wiggers, Walter F., 908 Maryland 
Wilbur, Eugene, 314 Washington 

Avenue 
Wilburn, Russell 



'Army nurse. 



236 



HONOR ROLL 



Wilcox, Geo., R. R. 4, Maxwell 

Avenue 
Wilder, Carl F., Oakland City 
Wilder, Claude, 717 S. Fourth 
Wilder, Clyde, 717 S. Fourth 
Wildimann, Andrew, R. R. 8 
Wildt, Clarence. 104 E. Tennes- 
see 
Wiley, Lawrence, 416 E. Colum- 
bia 
Wiley, Walter, 223 Cherry 
Wilhelm, Earl V., 615 Garfield 

Avenue 
Wilhelmus, Russell, 1517 Division 
Wilhite, Henry, R. R. 5, Outer 

First Ave. 
Wilhite, Ollie, R. R. 5, Outer 

First Ave. 
Wilhite, Ralph, 1815 E. Oregon 
Wilke, Henrv, 1428 First Ave. 
Wilke, Henry H., 1812 Third Ave. 
Wilkenson, Sidney, 1513 S. Second 
Wilkerson, Carlos E., 108 Ocean 

Avenue 
Wilkerson, Wm., 108 Ocean 
Wilkinson, Jas., 1431 William 
Wilkinson, John, 1501 John 
Will, Barthel, R. R. 1, Armstrong 
Will, Joseph 

Williams, Clarence, 304 Kentucky 
Williams, Clarence O., 1010 Cherry 
Williams, C. Roy 
Williams, Cy, 414 S. Second 
Williams, Donald Morton, 204 

Broadway 
Williams, Finice, 908 S. Eighth 
Williams, Flovd, 526 E. Illinois 
Williams, Geo., 121 E. Virginia 
Williams, Geo. N., Y. M. C. A. 
Williams, Geo. S., 1817 E. Illinois 
Williams, Henry, 119 E. Virginia 
Williams, Henry, R. R. A 
Williams, Hugh, 513 Parrett 
Williams, Ira, 1007 E. Oregon 
Williams, Ivan, 1802 Main 
Williams, Jos., 1107 Mary 
Williams, Jos., 1817 Van Buren 

Avenue 
*Williams, Maud, 505 Washington 

Avenue 
Williams, Noah, R. R. A 
Williams, Noah E., 15 Walker 
Williams, Perry, 800 Second Ave, 
Williams, Pervis, 908 S. Eightn 
Williams, Robt. T., 425 Jackson 

Avenue 
Williams, Willard, Henderson, Ky. 

*Armv nurse. 



Williamson, Harry R., R. R. A, Box 

599 
Williamson, Vasco Dave, 23 Olive 
Williamson, William 
Willingham, Guy, 413 Garfield Ave. 
Willingham, Jas., 413 Gartield Ave. 
Willis, Joseph, 1327 Gum 
Willman, Philip John, 113 E. In- 
diana 
Wilmes, John, R. R. 8 
Wilson, Benjamin H., 313 Ewing 

Avenue 
Wilson, Claud, 1226 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Wilson, Edgar, Rec. Office 
Wilson, Gerald, 45 Carpenter 
Wilson, Harry, 222 Dearborn 
Wilson, Hiram, Rosencranz Apts. 
Wilson, Jas. L., 15 Ewing Ave. 
Wilson, Kinnie, 220 Ewing Ave. 
Wilson, Noble, 517 Parrett 
Wilson, Roy Gustus, 711 W. Ohio 
Wilson, Shirl, 2845 E. Maryland 
Wilson, Sylvester, 1811 Washing- 
ton Ave. 
Wilson, Thomas, 708 S. First 
Wilson, Wm., 420 Kentucky Ave. 
Wimberg, Edw. J., 401 Oakley 
Wimberg, Louis, 310 Fulton Ave. 
Wimberg ,G€o., 310 Fulton Ave. 
Wimberg, Joe, 310 Fulton Ave. 
Wimberg, Wm., 413 Fulton Ave. 
Wimpelberg, Emil Wm., 931 E. Co- 
lumbia 
Wimpelberg, Chas., R. R. 9, Howell 
Wimpelberg, Chas. G., 205 Arling- 
ton Ave. 
Wimpelberg, John, 410 Sixth Ave, 
Winder, Jacob J., 210 Goodsell 
Windsor, Leonard, 2313 Main 
Winkler, Louis F., 436 Olive 
Winnecke, Christian, 1617 Law Ave. 
Winstead, Guy, 12 Ewing Ave. 
Winternheimer, Simon, 1309 E. 

Oregon 
Winternheimer, Wm. L., R. R. A 
Winters, Frank, 248 New York 

Avenue 
Wintner, Adolph, 521 S. Fourth 
Wintner, Isadore, 521 S. Fourth 
Wintner, Rudolph, 521 S. Fourth 
Withers, Orvial, 1505 Enlow Ave. 
Witt, Joseph A., 14 E. Iowa 
Witting, Clarence F., 314 E. Vir- 
ginia 
Wittenbraker, Clarence, 2006 E. 

Virginia 
Wittgen, Leo, 608 Gum 



237 



SONS OF MEN 



Woelfell, Wm. A., 212 E. Franklin 
Woelker, Albert, 510 Baker Ave. 
Woerter, Joseph, 425 Ross Ave. 
Wolf, Chas., R. R. 2, Armstrong 
Wolf, Edgar, 1019 Bell Ave. 
Wolf, Edw., R. R. 2, Armstrong 
Wold, Frank, Armstron-^ 
Wolf, Fred, R. R. 3 
Wolf, Nick F., R. R. 2, Armstrong 
Wolf, Morris, 912 S. Fourth 
Wolf, Henry, R. R. 9, Howell 
Wolf, Isadore, 912 S. Fourth 
Wolfgang, Arthur, 513 E. Michi- 
gan 
Wolfgang, Geo., 513 E. Michigan 
Wolflin, Carl, 739 Adams Ave. 
Wood, Marian E., 2508 Walnut 
Woodall, Audrie, 902 S. Fourth 
Woodall, Robt., 1421 Division 
Woodard, Chas., 15 Morris Ave. 
Woodward, William 
Woods, Harry 

Woods, Herbert, Y. M. C. A. 
Woods, John H., 1 Blackford Ave. 
Woods, Marion, 2509 Walnut 



Woods, Otto, 604 Oak 
Woods, Warren, 1518 Linwood Ave. 
Wookey, Harabel, 203 Edgar 
Woolsey, Harold, 411 Fourth Ave. 
*Worland, Genevieve 
Worsham, Ludson, 608 Adams Ave. 
Worsham, Raymond, 608 Adams 
Wright, Alvin T., 613 Read 
Wright, Barney, 1221 W. Illinois 
Wright, Everett, 1231 W. Pennsyl- 
vania 
Wright, Jesse W., 613 Read 
Wright, Kenneth S., 1032 S. Eighth 
Wright, Leroy, 1708 E. Columbia 
Wright, Oscar, 1221 W. Lllinois 
Wright, Robert, 1410 E. Michigan 
Wright, Roderick M., Cadick Apts. 
Wriver, Chester, 1403 E. Maryland 
Wriver, Henrv, 1403 E. Maryland 
Wuetherich, Christ, 1700 Third 

Avenue 
Wunderlich, Herbert C, 2516 Wal- 
nut 
Wyttenbach, Noi-\vood, 828 W. In- 
diana 
Wyttenbach, Russell, 1824 S. Gov 



Y 



Yackle, Samuel C, 413 Third Ave. 
Yarbrough, Robert L., R. R. 7, Box 

236 
Yates, Clarence, 116 E. Michigan 
Yates, Wm. H., R. R. 1, Cypress 
Yeager, Alex B., Ft. Branch, Ind. 
Yeck, Chas. W., Rivera Apts., Sun- 
set Ave. 



Yeker, Anton, 1117 W. Virginia 
Yeker, Otto L., 1117 W. Virginia 
Young, Earl E., 322 Grant 
Young, Geo., 1104 Eichel Ave. 
Young, John, 516 Parrett 
Young, Ulysess, 101 Huston Ave. 
Youngblood, Ray 
Younger, Floyd 



Zahn, Roy, 225 New York Ave. 

Zahner, Henry, R. R. 1, Cypress 

Zapp, Ward 

Zehmle, Jos. E. 

Zehule, Joseph, 1514 Fulton Ave. 

Zeidler, Fred, 2611 Fulton Ave. 

Zenthoefer, Rudolph J., 1117 W. 

Iowa 
Zieg, Benj. F., 300 Chandler Ave. 
Ziegler, Jacob, R. R. A, Box 298 
Ziegler, Jacob Jr. 
Ziemer, Frank, 1313 E. Maryland 
*Ziliak, Kattryn, 720 Adams Ave. 

*Army nurse. 



Ziliak, Conrad A., 720 Adams Ave. 
Ziliak, Theo., 720 Adams 
Ziliak, Walter, 1405 E. Columbia 
Zimmer, Frank E. 
Zimmerman. John C. 419 S. Second 
Zimmerman, Jos., 9 Edgar 
Zopf, Oscar, 315 E. Michigan 
Zuber, Ed C, 116 Cook Ave. 
Zunhammer, Louis, 309 Fourth 

Avenue 
Zurstadt, Carl. 708 Cherry 
Zurstadt, Walter, 708 Cherry 
Zuspann, Albert, 227 Bray Ave. 
Coffin, Len N., 431 Third Ave. 

*Army nurse. 



238 



CHAPTER III 



The lUdr Mothers 



"Some one has aptly said, 'The Sweetest word in the English lan- 
guage is Heaven. It is all inclusive. It embraces the Saviour of men, 
relatives, friends and best of all, home and Mother' — What inestim- 
able sacrifices Mother has made, that this old world, with all its sor- 
rows and troubles might be worth while. She has given her sons, her 
own flesh and blood, her very self. Who can fathom the heights and 
depths of Mother love? When a soul is born into the world. Mother 
goes down into the Valley of the Shadow and shakes hands with death 
that it might be. She forgets her travail when she looks in the face 
of God's gift to her — her child — her very own. Her whole pathway 
through life is marked by her sacrifices for her Children. Sacrifices 
of time, pleasures, luxuries and necessities 

"Mother — living in the habitations of men, or in the realm of the 
Eternal, to you I owe my all. To you mothers of the dear old home 
land, we owe an eternal debt of gratitude for your sacrifices, your 
prayers, your loyalty and your devotion. Some of you are lonely and 
heavy hearted today, but we are thinking of you and, when we stand 
in the presence of all that is mortal of yours in these far off lands, we 
will uncover, and ask God to speak, strengthen and comfort. 

"What changes time works in all of us and Mother — can not es- 
cape. How spry and comely she was, but now, old and bent with the 
weight of years, her face furrowed by the finger of time, her hair thin 
and silvered, partly due to our carelessness and thoughtlessness, her 
eyes faded and dim, her hands drawn and white, her step slow and 
halting but, to every big, red-blooded American the best and most 

239 



SONS OF MEN 



beautiful woman in the world — Mother. For some of us Mother has 
laid aside the cares of life and is sleeping in the 'Silent City of the 
Dead.' No — a thousand times — No — not Mother, only the time worn, 
weather beaten house of her habitation. Mother is more alive today 
than ever. Every holy impulse, every high resolve is the dominant 
force of the life and character of Mother. Soon we will turn our faces 
toward the west and home. Many to home and Mother. Some of us 
will have to wait for our reunion, but, soon the mist wall will dissolve, 
and we will pass from the temporal to the eternal, to 'Home and 
Mother.' " 

This tribute to American motherhood,* paid by a soldier when 
victory crowned the effort of arms, in a slight measure expresses a 
reverent appreciation for the Mothers who silently suffered during 
the war, but who nevertheless with a brave smile sent away their 
boys to do their duty. The soldiers could do little less in recognition 
of the help and inspiration of the American War Mothers. "There al- 
ways have been war mothers, and we have no record that the mental 
anguish of primitive motherhood was less poignant than that of civil- 
ized motherhood when their sons left the hearthfire for the fields of 
honor." The frequency and ferocity of war did not diminish the anx- 
iety of the Spartan war mother, although that militaristic city-state 
forced the mother to spurn her son if he did not distinguish himself 
on the battlefield. The mother during the chaotic Middle Ages felt 
an equal perturbation whether her son was so fortunate as to fight in 
the ranks of the chivalric knights, or whether he participated in the 
less glorious but equally dangerous capacity of an ignoble peasant. 
In modern times the war mothers still pay the same penalty. The 
American war mother today with just pride shares the honors of vic- 
tory. She was not accustomed to send away her boy to war but she 
responded to the emergency, and by her attitude contributed to the 
maintenance of a high morale in the army, which helped to win a 
victory. No doubt the German mothers too, suffered. There is, how- 
ever, in America a different attitude towards war mothers. This dif- 
ference may be only a state of mind, but "the world stands on ideas, 
and not on iron or cotton." The difference in the attitude towards 
war mothers here and in Germany may be seen by two letters sent 
to two war mothers. Lincoln consoled the grief stricken war mother, 



* The author is Capt. L. R. S. Ferguson, Chaplain U. S. Army of Occu- 
pation at Coblenz, Germany. The address was delivered Mother's Day, Sun- 
day, May 11, 1919. 

240 



THE WAR MOTHERS 

Mrs. Bixby, who lost five sons in the Civil War, with a humility and 
deep respect of a leader in a struggle to emancipate a race. Kaiser 
Wilhelm wrote Frau Schmitt that she should be proud to have sac- 
rificed her sons for the Kaiser's cfuse — which was to enslave a world. 
The credit for the inception of the idea to organize the war moth- 
ers throughout the country is due to the war mothers of Evansville. 
The history of the organization, "War Mothers of America" is found 
in the official "Proceedings" of its first convention. The "Foreword" 
to the convention report gives the following account of the early 
evolution of the organization: 

"Very soon after our declaration of war, the women of America 
began offering their services in every way that they could possibly 
be useful in carrying on the war and assisting our soldiers. 

"In the beginning, these organizations were limited to local com- 
munities, and in many instances each company of soldiers attracted 
an organization of women who ministered to the particular wants of 
that company. Such organizations were formed in Evansville, Ind.. 
with the raising of the first company of soldiers. These organiza- 
tions were composed of the near relatives of those in service. Early 
in October, 1917, Mrs. A. J. Schulz visited her son in Camp Taylor, 
Louisville, Ky., where she conceived an idea of forming an organiza- 
tion of War Mothers, in which she included mothers, wives, sisters and 
daughters of the boys from Vanderburgh County, Indiana, who were 
in training at Camp Taylor. On her return from the camp, she called 
in consultation Mrs. J. W. Spain and Mrs. L. E. Karcher, placing her 
idea before them for such an organization. 

"Following this a meeting was called for Nov. 2, 1917, at which 
all mothers, wives, sisters and daughters of soldiers of Vanderburgh 
County were invited to be present. A very enthusiastic meeting re- 
sulted which was presided over by Mrs. Schulz and addressed by Mrs. 
F. M. Hostetter of the Council of Defense, Mrs. E. M. Bush of the 
Red Cross Society, Mr. H. H. Horn, General Secretary of the Y. M. C. 
A., Hon. Benjamin Bosse, Mayor of Evansville, and others. 

"A permanent organization was created with the following offi- 
cers: 

Mrs. A. J. Schulz President 

Mrs. George L. Vann First Vice-President 

Mrs. Wm. Weintz Second Vice-President 

Mrs. J. W. Spain Secretary 

Mrs. Boaz Crawford Cor. Secretary 

Mrs. L. E. Karcher Treasurer 

Mrs. James M. Hitch Historian 

241 



SONS OF MEN 





Mrs. A. J. Schulz 

First President of Vanderburgh County 

Chapter War Mothers of 

America 



242 



THE WAR MOTHERS 



"The following day the whole country was thrilled by the news 
from General Pershing, that three American soldiers had shed their 
blood in this great struggle for world liberty. A chief place will 
always be retained in the bright galaxy of the nation's history for 
the names of James Bethel Gresham, Thomas P. Enright and Merle 
D. Hay, who were the first Americans to fall on the sacred soil of 
France; and falling thus, they reunited two great nations with an eter- 
nal bond of love and self-sacrifice, pledged to stand together for 
righteousness and justice. 

"Shortly after this, Mrs. Alice Gresham Dodd, mother of our first 
hero, was made Honorary President. The organization by this time 
had grown into the service and had met the needs of the boys so well 
that it was suggested by Mrs. Boaz Crawford, Corresponding Secre- 
tary, through the reading of a very interesting and instructive paper 
that it be extended by the creation of a national organization. The 
suggestion met with the approval of the local organization and im- 
mediately, steps were taken to carry out the idea. Temporary national 
officers were elected to serve until a national convention could be 
called and a permanent national organization created. The officers 
elected were the following: 

Mrs. Alice Gresham Dodd Honorary National President 

Mrs. A. J. Schulz Acting National President 

Mrs. Geo. L. Vann Acting First Vice-President 

Mrs. Wm. Weintz Acting Second Vice-President 

Mrs. Jas. W. Spain Acting Secretary 

Mrs. Boaz Crawford Acting Corresponding Secretary 

Mrs. L. E. Karcher Acting Treasurer 

Mrs. Jas. E. Hitch Acting Historian 

"At this time the Newspaper Enterprise Association with its great 
number of daily and weekly papers put its full force of publicity at 
the disposal of the War Mothers of America. As a result of the na- 
tional publicity given by this organization through the courtesy of 
Mr. E. C. Rodgers, the efforts to create the national organization were 
greatly facilitated. With the daily news service of more than 300 
publications, and the circulation of 4,500,000, the message was car- 
ried to the millions of women all over the land so that the minds 
of the prospective members were prepared to receive the literature 
from the general secretary and memberships poured in by the thou- 
sands. A bill was introduced in the House of Representatives by the 
Hon. George K. Denton and in the Senate by the Hon. James E. Wat- 

243 



SONS OF MEN 



son for the purpose of incorporating and securing a national char- 
ter for the organization. From this time the organization grew rapid- 
ly until at the time of the holding of the First National Convention, 
there were more than 2,000,000 women deeply interested in this move- 
ment. 

"The ladies in charge of the work were very materially benefited 
by the Advisory Committee of men appointed by the Evansville Cham- 
ber of Commerce. The committee was made up of the following gen- 
tlemen : 

Mr. James Haughton, Chairman 

Mr. Chas. F. Artes 
Mr. R. H. Underwood 
Mr. John F. Sake 
Mr. Guy Purcell 
Mr. Wm. A. Koch 

"To these gentlemen and especially the Chairman, Mr. Haughton 
and to Mr. A. V. Burch, much of the success of the convention was 
due. Through their tireless energy, enthusiasm and material aid they 
won the hearts of all the War Mothers and are to be highly com- 
mended on the results of the convention which were so gratifying. 
To Mrs. Curtis Mushlitz is due the credit for the souvenir program 
of the convention. She, with her corps of able and enthusiastic work- 
ers succeeded in making our program a thing of beauty." 

The first national convention of the War Mothers of America 
was held in Evansville, September 18-20, 1918. Over two hundred 
delegates and guests registered, representing twenty-two states and 
the District of Columbia. In calling to order the first session, Wed- 
nesday, September 18, Mrs. A. J. Schulz, Acting National President, 
said: 

"Ladies, with great pleasure I greet you and welcome you here. 
You, the Mothers, Wives, Sisters, and may I add the Sweethearts and 
Friends of the grandest army that has ever fought in war, have gath- 
ered from far and near to organize another army that shall stand 
shoulder to shoulder with that army 'Over There.' 

"Our motive is not a selfish one. We are not here for selfish 
gains, or social prestige or power. Not these indeed! But with hum- 
ble hearts we come, yet fired with great determination, and with a 
steadfast purpose to do everything in our power to help win this war. 
By our united effort we can do great things, and our boys shall realize 
that we can fight as well as they, using our own weapons. For our 

244 



THE WAR MOTHERS 



God, our Country, Humanity and Our Boys, we may do anything that 
may become a woman!" 

At this session, the following message from Gov. James P. Good- 
rich, was read: 

"Permit me, on behalf of Mrs. Goodrich and myself, to express 
to the War Mothers of America, our deepest appreciation of your kind 
invitation, and our sincere regret that we were unable, because of un- 
foreseen events, to attend the National Convention of War Mothers 
of America in Evansville. 

"It does not take a prophet to predict that this splendid organi- 
zation is going to grow and prosper, and that it is destined to do a 
great deal of good in this country of ours. 

"Next to our fine American boys, who are devoting their lives to 
the defense of our national liberty and integrity, who can be more 
important at this time than the War Mothers of our country? 

"For if our boys are brave and noble and patriotic — and the whole 
world now knows that they are — certainly they have drawn inspiration 
for these splendid qualities from their mothers, splendid women who 
now bear the proud title of War Mothers of America. 

"We know that we are going to win this war; first, because Amer- 
icans make the finest soldiers in the world; second, because all of the 
people in America regardless of race, religion or politics, are devoting 
every energy possible to the successful termination of this great 
struggle. 

"I know that the War Mothers of America are doing their part. 
They have already made the noblest sacrifice in giving their sons to 
the cause of America, and they will not be found unmindful of the 
patriotic duty which will come to them from time to time, until Amer- 
ica wins the final great victory." 

As is well remembered the hitherto strong defenses of the enemy 
were beginning to crumble before the onslaught of the Allied and 
American forces. Defeat was staring Germany in the face. The enemy 
instituted a Peace propaganda in America which might have term- 
inated disastrously for the Allied cause. To express the sentiment of 
the convention towards this propaganda the following message was 
sent to President Wilson and General Pershing: 

"Millions of War Mothers of America, represented in National 
Convention in Evansville, stand loyally behind you in your desire to 
make no peace until Germany and her allies surrender uncondition- 
ally. 

WAR MOTHERS OF AMERICA." 
245 



SONS OF MEN 



During the evening the principal address was made by Hon. 
George K. Denton. In showing the national importance of the War 
Mothers organization he said: "I wish to express my thanks to the 
War Mothers of America for having been asked to pilot through con- 
gress a bill for their incorporation. I esteem it an honor to have been 
chosen for this task in the House of Representatives, and I wish to 
assure you that you shall have my best service in this work. I do not 
know whether you are aware of the fact or not, but congress has not 
been willing to grant a special charter to any organization for many 
years past. It has insisted that the sanction of the United States 
Congress to the incorporation of any body should not be given in the 
form of a special charter, except in very rare cases. But I am sure 
that congress considers this organization worthy of this special dis- 
tinction, and I am practically assured that the special charter desired, 
carrying with it, as it does, the approval of the greatest legislative 
body in the world, will be granted, and that this will be done just as 
soon as necessary war legislation, which we all wish to give pre- 
cedence, has been disposed of." 

As was already mentioned, the name War Mothers was applied 
only to the local organization. An interesting discussion over the 
name for the national organization arose during the convention. In 
proposing a change of name Mrs. Bertha McGhee Scales of Mississippi 
said: "There are today five organizations in the United States. We 
have American War Mothers, War Mothers of America, The Mothers' 
Comfort Club, The Next of Kin Club and one other organization, 
The Mothers of Democracy. ... If we recognize any one of those 
organizations in naming the national organization, we have shown 
a partisanship to that organization, and that partisanship would be 
unfair because we have taken the name of some one individual organ- 
ization." She proposed "Mothers of World Liberty" as the name for 
the national organization. Miss Janouch of Lincoln, Nebraska, pro- 
posed "Next of Kin" because "it is appropriate; because it includes 
mothers, sisters, wives and daughters." Delegates from Kentucky, 
Oklahoma, Montana, Utah, Michigan and Pennsylvania, declared 
themselves in favor of "War Mothers of America." The name of the 
Evansville organization was finally adopted by the national organiza- 
tion. 

The object of the national organization is stated in Article II 
of the Constitution: 

246 



THE WAR MOTHERS 

"The object of this corporation is: 

(1) To extend helpful comfort and sympathy to the families of 
those in the martial service of our Country on land, sea, or in the air. 

(2) To promote, encourage and co-ordinate, by effective action, 
the war work, including food conservation, war financing, and war 
charity of mothers, wives, sisters and daughters of American soldiers 
of the land, sea, or in the air service. 

(3) To foster the ideals of American freedom, and to aid in se- 
curing for all mankind the blessings of liberty and Justice. 

(4) To encourage historical research as to the participation of 
the United States of America in the World War, the publication of its 
results and achievements; the preservation of documents and relics; 
the record and service of individual American soldiers; the promo- 
tion of patriotic celebrations and anniversaries commemorating the 
valor and sacrifices of such soldiers, together with the acquisition and 
protection of historical spots, and the erection of such monuments 
as shall be deemed proper and meet the approval of the officials of 
the United States and Allied Governments." 

Before the convention adjourned the following national officers 
were elected to supersede the temporary national officers: 

President — Mrs. Robert Carlton Morris Toledo, Ohio 

Executive Vice-President — Mrs. Jas. J. Storrow Boston, Mass. 

Executive Secretary — Mrs. J. R. Mitchell Evansville, Ind. 

Treasurer— Mrs. Seldon Clawson Salt Lake City, Utah 

Historian — Mrs. Hester Dorsey Richardson Baltimore, Md. 

Executive Committee 

Mrs. F. L. Dana ._ Houston, Texas 

Mrs. J. E. Powers Missoula, Montana 

Mrs. T. Parkin Scott Relay,- Maryland 

Mrs. Wm. Irving West Roxbury, Mass. 

Mrs. G. W. Collins Meyersdale, Pa. 

Mrs. C. T. Hummer St. Joseph, Mo. 

In an address to the convention the new President said: "As 
women we must go home and face the future with whatever it may 
hold in store for us. We must grow with the times in order that we 
may meet our boys when they return. They will grow mentally, spir- 
itually and physically. This world hereafter will not count the body 
so much. For men who will never walk again are going to lead us to 
new spiritual heights. Men who will never see again are going to re- 
veal to us new hidden beauties." 

247 



SONS OF MEN 




Mrs. Albert W. Funkhouser 

First President of Gresham Chapter, Service 

Star Legion and Chairman of Gold 

Star Division of Indiana 



248 



THE WAR MOTHERS 



The local organization of the War Mothers continued to carry 
out the purpose for which it wr.s founded, helping soldiers and their 
families, and co-operating with other organizations in a program of 
Americanization and social welfare. The second national convention 
of the War Mothers of America was held in Baltimore, Md., October 
8-10, 1919. Mrs. Boaz Crawford, Mrs. L. E. Karcher, Mrs. A. W. Funk- 
houser, Mrs. Jas. E. Hitch, Mrs. Frank Grange and Mrs. Gymer were 
the delegates from Evansville. 

One of the most beautiful and impressive ceremonies ever wit- 
nessed in Baltimore was the planting of trees making a "Grove of 
Remembrance," in Druid Hill Park in memory of the fallen heroes of 
the world war. At the head of the parade to the park 1,000 school 
children marched, each carrying an American flag. The Ohio delega- 
tion came next, carrying the flags of the Allies. Indiana war mothers 
headed the state delegations, with their State flags or banners. The 
parade included G. A. R. veterans. Red Cross workers and' automo- 
biles with soldiers who were wounded in battle. In the presence of 
Cardinal Gibbons, French Ambassador Jusserand and the Governor 
of Maryland, Emerson C. Harrington, a tree was planted for every 
state. The Baltimore Sun gives the following account of the plant- 
ing of the Indiana tree: 

"For the tree planted in memory of Indiana's dead Mrs. A. W. 
Funkhouser, of Evansville, cast the first spadefuls of earth. She wears 
gold stars for two sons — First Lieutenant Albert Craig Funkhouser, 
of Company F, One Hundred and Forty-fourth Infantry, Thirty-sixth 
Division, and Second Lieutenant Paul Taylor Funkhouser, Company 
B, Seventh Machine Gun Battalion, Third Division. Mrs. W. E. Gymer 
also participated in the ceremony in memory of her son, Lieut. Alfred 
K. Gymer, Three Hundred and Thirty-fifth Infantry, Eighty-fourth 
Division." 

In dedicating the trees, Mrs. Robert Carleton Morris said: "The 
men of the American Expeditionary Forces went to war from farm 
and factory, from college, shop and office. They served as sailors, 
marines, aviators, engineers, infantrymen, artillerymen. Their cheer- 
ful endurance of discipline rnd drudgery, their invincible courage, 
their matchless spirit, have made the name America honored around 
the world. To most of the men in whose memory we have gathered 
it might be said, 'He only lived until he was a man, but like a man he 
died.' 

"A hundred years from now the names of St. Mihiel, Chateau- 

249 



SONS OF MEN 



Thierry, Belleau Wood and the Argonne will quicken the blood and 
stir the blood of the men who read the story of humanity's long climb 
to freedom, and little children watching the moonlight climb over the 
hills will say to mothers who tell them of our boys, cut off in the morn- 
ing of life, men who made the greatest test of all, 'How sweet the 
moonlight shines on Druid Hill, and the Grove of Remembrance!' " 

The name of the national organization again came up for discus- 
sion. Mrs. A. W. Funkhouser, who was chairman of the Indiana Di- 
vision Service Star Legion, Gold Star Division, and also chairman of 
the Gresham Chapter of Evsnsville, was appointed chairman of the 
committee on the Constitution and By-Laws. Upon her suggestion 
the name "Service Star Legion" was adopted by the convention. 

The purposes, and activities of the Service Star Legion are ex- 
pressed in a statement issued by Mrs. Robert Carleton Morris, Na- 
tional President. Parts of the statement follow: 

"When our men heard the call to war in April, 1917, and left 
their homes for training camps, the women they left behind began 
to organize local auxiliaries to military units. The movement spread 
from town to town, from city to city, until it became nation-wide. Dur- 
ing the war we backed our men and the cause they were defending 
in every possible way for Organized women to lend a hand. While 
our men were fighting a tangible enemy overseas we were giving our 
energy to war work and resisting enemy propaganda at home. We 
helped to win the war: 

(1) By giving women regular opportunities to meet for renewal 
of courage. In this way we guarded the morale of the women whose 
letters so strongly affected the morale of our fighting forces. 

(2) We brought to light and killed dangerous propaganda which 
during the war was maliciously spread among the relatives of sol- 
diers. 

(3) We assisted in every patriotic campaign by adding to ap- 
peals for money and for workers the irresistible voice of the women 
who had given their sons to the cause. 

(4) In national crisis we helped to mould public opinion by ex- 
pressing the loyal attitude of the women whose men were risking their 
lives in battle. 

"We held a national convention in Evansville, Indiana, in Sep- 
tember 1918, and planned for greater unity in the war work of all 
organizations of women relatives. When the Armistice was signed, 
and the tumult and shouting had died, we realized that the demand 

250 



THE WAR MOTHERS 



for a national organization of women relatives, dedicated to patriotic, 
service, was as great in peace as it had been in war. 

"In October, 1919, we held a convention in Baltimore and effected^ 
a union of eleven organizations which had been operating in different 
sections of the United States under different names: War Mothers of 
America, Mothers of Democracy, Daughters of Liberty, Daughters of 
the Nation, Women of American Patriots, Women's Patriotic League; 
of America, Sammie's Mothers' Club, Sunset Division of Service 
League, White Star Hospitality Service, Mothers' Club of Virginia, 
American Mothers of National Defenders. The members of z\\ these 
societies were mothers, wives, sisters and daughters of service men, 
and women. At that date we had behind us a record of two and one- 
half years of loyal effort. We discarded the old names under which 
we had worked and adopted a new name — Service Star Legion. 

"The word SERVICE strikes the keynote of all the future pur- 
poses of this organization. The word STAR reminds us of the flag 
in the window, the blue STAR which united in one great sisterhood, 
millions of women of all creeds, all classes, all ages, native and for- 
eign-born. The word LEGION represents the enormous potential 
number of women who are eligible, probably outnumbering the serv- 
ice men three to one. ... 

"According to our Constitution and By-Laws, grandmothers, 
mothers, wives, sisters and daughters of any man or woman actively 
and honorably engaged in the military or naval service of the United 
States of America in the prosecution of the World War are eligible 
to active membership. Any army or navy nurse is so eligible. Women 
whose relationship to participants in the World War is more remote 
than is required for active membership, may become associate mem- 
bers. 

"That we may have a great body of young women in training to 
carry on our work, each chapter will organize a Junior Branch, en- 
rolling girls under sixteen years of age, lineal descendants and sis- 
ters as active members and nieces as associates. The 11th day of 
April is to be our National Children's Day, when Junior Branches will 
be organized in many cities. 

"We have established a Division of Honor, known as the National 
Gold Star Division, in which we enroll women whose relatives gave 
their lives for the liberty of the world. We have set aside the 11th 
day of May as a day of National Remembrance when meetings will be 
held in honor of the Gold Star families in every community. One ses- ; 

251 



SONS OF MEN 



sion of our next annual convention, which is to be held in Des Moines, 
is to be conducted by Gold Star women in honor of all American wo- 
men who paid the highest price for the peace we enjoy. . . . 
"As outlined in our National Constitution our Objects are: 

(1) To protect and preserve American ideals and traditions; 

(2) To foster and maintain the principles of justice, freedom 
and democracy; 

(3) To co-operate in all civic and patriotic work conducted in 
every community of the United States; 

(4) To foster a spirit of sisterhood, comradeship and democracy 
among women ; 

(5) To promote and guard the welfare of the soldiers, sailors, 
and marines who were engaged in the World War, and to lend aid 
and comfort to their families; 

(6) To preserve and cherish the memory of the men and women 
who sacrificed their lives for the liberty of the world. 

(7) To promote, erect and maintain local, state and national 
memorials of the men and women of the World War. . 

"We live up to our purposes through the work of standing com- 
mittees, local, state and national. Some of our present chapter ac- 
tivities in harmony with these objects are: Systematic study of the 
Constitution of the United States, studies in civics to prepare women 
for the duties of citizenship, pro-American propaganda, especially in 
public schools, co-operation with the Government Thrift Drive, the 
fostering and promoting of democracy among the families of service 
men and women, raising of money to build and endow memorials, the 
prevention by education of the mobilizing in this generation of the 
two armies of shame revealed by the draft, the physically unfit and 
the mentally unfit. 

"As our great offering to the work of Americanization, we will 
promote the plan to have a family of native born adopt, in friendly 
fashion, a family of foreign born. The head of one family should 
be a real friend to the head of the other family, the children become 
friends of the other children, both families enjoying picnics and out- 
ings together. The American born family will thus interpret the 
meaning of America through their attitude to the strangers. The 
head of the foreign born family will not desire to overthrow a gov- 
ernment which produces such elements, and when preachers of sedi- 
tion attempt to influence him he will be likely to bring the problem 
to the attention of his American friends. 

252 



THE WAR MOTHERS 



"Service Star Legion desires to co-operate with posts of the 
American Legion, but not to become subordinate auxiliaries. We be- 
lieve that our past of loyal, organized service while our men were 
overseas, our unique understanding of the problems of women's pa- 
triotic organizations, the fact that the women relatives include mil- 
lions of mothers much older than the members of veteran societies, 
all these and more demand that we be a strong sister organization, 
working shoulder to shoulder with the men's organizations. We 
would like to establish County Councils, to meet regularly with the 
County Councils of the various veteran posts, and to discuss com- 
munity problems which affect women as seriously as they touch men. 
The American Legion has adopted a platform of '100 per cent Amer- 
icanism.' A community is made up of men and women, and women 
are responsible for 50 per cent of the Americanism of any village or 
city. 

"The great ideal of Service Star Legion in brief is this, to help 
every community in the United States to build the only fitting mem- 
orial we can ever hope to erect to our heroes, living and dead, and 
that is a greater America, nearer the ideals of its Founders." 




253 



CHAPTER IV 



Orgdnizing for Uiclory 

"An army of 100,000,000. Perhaps the most important military 
lesson we can learn from the allies' three years of warfare is that the 
battles of this war will be won, in a large part, behind the lines. How- 
ever well trained may be the army in khaki, its effectiveness will be 
intimately dependent upon the effectiveness of the civilian army at 
home. The ununiformed divisions of education, industry, agriculture, 
and social service, although their duties are less spectacular and no 
less pivotally important than the divisions on the fields of France. 
Even a million men in the field will mean little with a sluggish 99,000,- 
000 at home. With an organized country behind the army, we are 
literally mobilizing a force of a hundred million for victory." 

One of the most outstanding difference between psst and modern 
warfare is the organization of the national resources to support the 
fighting units at the front. Modern warfare is a mobilization of all 
the national forces. The demands made of the civilian population are 
as essential as those sacrifices made by the men on the battlefield. 
Without co-operation of the vast army in field, factory, office and 
schoolroom, success in war is inconceivable. An army of 10,000, or of 
any number, can no longer, detached from all communication with 
home, invade a foreign land, and threaten an established govern- 
ment with any degree of effectiveness. An army can no longer de- 
pend for food and supplies on the chsnce ravaging of the country it 
invades. Economic as well as moral forces must be mobilized to 
achieve success in the complexity of modern warfare. Evansville's 
"army behind the army," organized the city's strength to meet emer- 
gencies of the war. Among the local citizens who helped put Evans- 
ville on a war footing were those who determined the city's quota 
of soldiers. 

254 



ORGANIZING FOR VICTORY 



THE LOCAL BOARDS 

The selective service law of May 18, 1917, with later modifica- 
tions mobilized the man power of America between the ages of 18 tc 
45. About 23,709,000 men were registered and "slightly over 2,800, 

000 were inducted into the military service in a manner that was fair 
to the individual, efficacious in providing the army with men as 
quckly as they could be equipped and utilized, and provocative of a 
minimum of disturbance to industrial and economic life of the Na- 
tion." The economic needs of the Nation required that men essential 
to industrial and agricultural life should be exempted from military 
service. Registrants were arranged in five classes. The men in Class 

1 were first rendered liable for military service, while the deferred 
classes were granted temporary exemption. 

"The first registration, June 5, 1917, covered the ages from 21 
to 31. The second registration, one year later (June 5, 1918 and Au- 
gust 24, 1918), included those who had become 21 years old since the 
first registration. The third registration (September 12, 1918), ex- 
tended the age limits downward to 18 and upward to 45." 

The Evansville Local Boards appointed by Provost Marshal 
Crowder, and Governor Goodrich were composed of men with wide 
experience and good judgment. The men were sworn in, but served 
without pay. The clerks were the only employees who received re- 
muneration for their service. The work of these Boards was to ex- 
amine and classify registrants, and to enforce the Provost Marshal's 
orders that mein must enter productive occupations, or enter the mil- 
itary service. The men of the Local Boards had wide powers, and 
held the destiny of thousands of Evansville's men in their hands; but 
they were fair and impartial in conducting the great government en- 
terprise. They used every check and precaution possible that no in- 
justice might be done. 

The Evansville Local Boards were constituted as follows: 

First Division: Percy P. Carroll, chairman; T. C. Hutchinson, 
secretary; Dr. J. Kerth, Dr. Philip Warter and Edward Schueler, clerk. 

Second Division: A. W. Hartig, chairman; W, P. Price, secretary; 
Dr. Thomas Macer, and Miss Mildred Hartig, clerk. 

Third Division: Albert J. Veneman, chairman; Edward Heberer, 
secretary; Dr. W. F. Cleveland, Fred Parrett and Miss A. Alexander, 
clerks. 

255 



SONS OF MEN 



Fourth Division or County Board: J. R. Knowles, chairman; 
James Ensle, secretary; Dr. W. F. Clippinger, and Miss Opha Davis, 
clerk. 

The following comment on the efficacy of the draft and the Local 
Boards in prosecuting the war was made by Secretary of War Baker: 

"The selective draft has proved its worth. It has been accepted 
as a governmental principle throughout the length and breadth of 
the United States. That this is true is in no small measure due to the 
work of these local and district boards, and to the untiring activity 
of the registration and examination officials in the various States. 
Had the Army been placed under the necessity of creating a new set 
of salaried Federal officials to handle the draft, we should not have 
a force of over two million men on European soil today. The draft 
secured a large army, in record time, without unjust discrimination, 
or destruction of industry; and it gained the respect and support 
of the American people. For all of this the State and local workers 
who with whole-hearted enthusiasm carried the heavy burden must 
receive a large share of credit." 

THE LEGAL ADVISORY BOARD 

On recommendation of the American Bar Association and of 
Governor James P. Goodrich, the following members of the Vander- 
burgh County Bar were appointed by the War Department as a per- 
manent Legal Advisory Board of the County: 

Duncan C. Givens Frank H. Hatfield 

Albert W. Funkhouser Hiram M. Logsdon 

Philip W. Frey Louis O. Rasch 

JohnD. Welman John R. Brill 

Woodfin D. Robinson Ernest J. Crenshaw 

Edgar Durre Clifford T. Curry 

On recommendation of the War Department that a judge of some 
court of the county be elected as chairman of the Board, Judge Fred 
M. Hostetter was elected chairman. The committee was organized 
by the selection of an Executive Committee: 
Albert W. Funkhouser, Chairman 
Adolph Decker, Secretary 
Philip W. Frey, and Louis O. Rasch. 
The Executive Committee proceeded to organize the members 
of the Vanderburgh County Bar into morning and afternoon shifts. 
It was so arranged that some of the members of each firm were on 

256 



ORGANIZING FOR VICTORY 




Albert W. Funkhouser 

Chairman Executive Committee of Permanent Legal 

Advisory Board, Government Appeal 

Agent, Local Field Examiner 

War Risk Insurance 

Bureau. 



257 



SONS OF MEN 



duty in the morning and the others in the afternoon, so as to avoid 
the necessity, as far as possible, of requiring any office to be closed. 
Every member of the Bar of this county was engaged in assisting the 
selected men of the draft in preparing their questionnaires. For this 
purpose use was made of the Circuit and Superior Court rooms. In 
addition to the members of the Bar, the judges of the different courts 
also assisted, as did a number of ladies and gentlemen who were not 
members of the legal profession. This work continued on the second 
draft for about two weeks. For their services in performing this 
patriotic duty no member of the Bar charged or received any compen- 
sation whatever. 

On the first draft different members of the Bar, with a very few 
exceptions, performed similar services in their respective offices. In 
so doing they laid aside their own professional business to assist the 
War Department in its great work of raising an srmy. 

In addition to these officials, Mr. A. W. Funkhouser was the Gov- 
ernment Appeal Agent. If a drafted man was not satisfied with the 
decision of his Local Board he could apperl to higher governmental 
authorities. In an appeal of that nature, Mr. Funkhouser had official 
charge of the communications involved. In two instances Mr. Funk- 
houser followed appeals as far as Provost Marshal Crowder. The 
Evansville Government Appeal Agent was referred to, and the de- 
cision of the Local Board was sustained. 

FOOD AND FUEL CONTROL 

A slogan that was frequently urged on the attention of Americans 
during the war was, "Food Will Win The War." Blessed by nature 
with fertility of soil and rich stores of natural resources, the American 
nation has proverbially used its wealth with great prodigality. 

When the war called for manifold resources America faced the 
necessity of calling a halt to the habit of wastefulness. Extravagance 
became synonymous with disloyalty. It was a problem not only of 
supplying food for our army and navy, but for many of the popula- 
tions in Europe with whom we made common cause. The Government 
made an appeal to the farmer to leave nothing undone to increase the 
production of the land. Individual families were urged to cultivate 
gardens, but the solution of this problem was in the power of the 
housewife who manages the family's food supply. When the Evans- 
ville women heard the Government's appeal to conserve food they 
gave a loyal response, and soon habituated themselves to a systematic 

2.58 



ORGANIZING FOR VICTORY 



program of saving wheat, meat, sugar, fats and other food stuffs. 

Mr. B. F. Persons was appointed Food Administrator of Van- 
derburgh County. He not only gave his time but his heartiest efforts 
in the conservation of food. Some of the work was done through 
food clubs. These clubs were formed by housewives as members 
of churches, neighborhoods, or other social groups. 

Not only do we recall "meatless" and "wheatless" days but also 
"lightless" nights, and '-'coalless Mondays." Mr. George S. Clifford, 
who was chairman of the County Council of Defense also had charge 
of the conservation of fuel. On "lightless" nights no show window 
lights, electric signs, or other uses of lights except for essential pur- 
poses and for public safety were permitted. On "coalless Mondays" 
the city assumed a holiday aspect, for factories, stores and busi- 
ness offices were closed in order to conserve fued. "Save a shovelful," 
the policy urged by the Fuel Administrator, not only taught the peo- 
ple to economize fuel but also enabled the government to increase pro- 
duction of war supplies and munitions. 

THE SPEAKERS' BUREAU 

To help give the various activities due publicity a speakers' bu- 
reau was organized as a branch of the county council of defense. 
Rabbi Max Merritt was the head of the organization, generally known 
as "four minute speakers." His two principal assistants were Rev. 
Francis Ryves and Dr. John Kennedy. These speakers were always 
ready to use their ability in whatever campaign was undertaken. They 
helped in Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. drives, persuaded many house- 
wives to help conserve food, made an appeal for graduate nurses and 
student nurse reserves, and spoke on propaganda topics sent out by 
the government such as "The Ideals of Democracy," and "The Pan- 
German Scheme." It was, however, in putting "over the top" the 
several Liberty Loan campaigns, that they truly measured their for- 
ensic talents. The appeal was not made in flowery oratory. It was 
a compact talk, well organized, brief, but to the point. At times, 
when patriotic gatherings were held the four minute speakers were 
asked to take part. For this purpose, as well as to include more rha- 
terial, some of the speeches were made fourteen minutes in length. 

When a campaign was carried on, these speakers visited public 
places where large audiences were congregated. They went to thea- 
tres and movies, shops and factories, schools, churches, farmers' in- 
stitutes, women's clubs, and business men's meetings. The dominant 

259 



SONS OF MEN 



tone of their speeches was "Help win the War." Indefatigable in 
their efforts, with ceaseless energy they presented this thought be- 
fore the public in many ways and on numerous occasions. 

In this organization, as in the other war activities, the Evansville 
women took a leading part. 

Characterizing this work, Rabbi Max Merritt said, "A woman can 
say in four minutes exactly as much as a man, and they can say it 
effectively. They soon learned to condense an hour's speech into a 
snappy concise talk. They seldom exceeded the four minute limit, 
while some of the men often broke this ruling of the government, a 
few of them finding it extremely hard to keep within the range of 
fifteen minutes. They were conscientious in keeping their dates, too, 
never missing a meeting, however hard the place might be to reach." 

In February, 1918, Mrs. Frederick Erlbacher was appointed chair- 
man of the women speakers. She appointed fourteen-minute women. 
As a recognition for their service the women who were four minute as 
well as fourteen minute speakers, were entitled to wear government 
pins. The women thus rewarded were: Mrs. Frederick Erlbacher, 
Mrs. A. M. Dawson, Mrs. E. A. Torrance, Mrs. W. J. Torrance, Mrs. 
Frederick Lauenstein, Mrs. Albion Fellows Bacon, Mrs. Fred M. Hos- 
tetter, Mrs. Frank Hollison, Miss Ethel McCollough, Miss Laura Saun- 
ders, Miss Florence Brentano, Miss Mildred Goble and Miss Grace 
Kiechle. 




260 



CHAPTER V 



The Liberty Loan 

The one great task before the 
Nation today is to win the 
war. 

— George Creel. 

"Which do you choose — the harvest of victory or the desolation 
of defeat? 

"Will you submit America to the frightful horrors of desolation, 
or will you loan your money to guarantee peace and freedom for the 
whole world? 

" Will you suffer the stigma of giving your Country no help in 
this world wide crisis, when you can loan your money (not have it 
taken from you by the soldier's brute force, mind you) and be paid 
in gold for all you give? 

"Will you let your neighbors point at you with scorn, when you 
can so easily help your government, and make safe your property, and 
protect your family? 

"Remember, Germany watches I For you to help with the Liberty 
Loan is to tell Germany that Prussianism must go! That f rightfulness 
must end; that you and all America are for a free world and free 
people. 

"The sooner you buy your bond, the sooner you end the war. Buy 
today — it is the prudent, patriotic thing to do."* 

Confronted with these alternatives there was nothing for loyal 
Americans to do but to give their utmost support to the Government's 
plan of financing the war. To say that the recent war was the most 
expensive in the history of the world is a commonplace which easier 



* This quotation is given in "The United States in the World War" by 
John Bach McMaster. 

261 



SONS OF MEN 



gains credence than is really appreciated. So costly is modern warfare 
that when a forecast of the world war was made, many financiers 
thought the idea absurd, because the economic consequences involved 
might result in world ruin. Considering the cost of the American 
Civil War, the various European conflicts during the second half of 
the nineteenth century, and the Russo-Japanese war in the first decade 
of the twentieth century, there seemed to be a basis for the sanguine 
hopes of those who sought to avert a world calamity. 

When America entered the maelstrom its economic power was 
tremendous. The great European nations, America's Commercial 
rivals, were engaged in destroying the economic resources of one an- 
other. Her position as the greatest neutral power gave America eco- 
nomic prestige. Despite this prosperity the problem of finances was 
fundamental in preparing the country for war. The unprecedented 
war expense of many billions which the European belligerents were 
experiencing, and the realization that America would have to extend 
financial aid to her allies, gave an increased importance to the ques- 
tion of financing the war. 

When on April 24, 1917, upon the recommendation of Secretary 
McAdoo, the United States Congress passed a bill authorizing an is- 
sue of $5,000,000,000 in bonds, Evansville prepared for a mobilization 
of its finances to help win the war. The war spirit of Evansville re- 
flected itself nobly in the five campaigns for the sale of Liberty Bonds. 
The Governor of the Eighth Federal Reserve Bank at St. Louis ap- 
pointed Marcus S. Sonntag Chairman of the Liberty Loan Organiza- 
tion for the twenty-four counties in Indiana which are included in this 
Federal Reserve District. In every campaign, Indiana, under Mr. 
Sonntag's leadership, was first in the Federal Bank District to sell its 
quota. Mrs. Frederick W. Lauenstein held a similar position in charge 
of the women's organization in this same territory. Mr. Sonntag ap- 
pointed Eugene Stevens chairman of the sub-District including Van- 
derburgh, Posey, Gibson, Warrick, Spencer, Pike, Perry and Dubois, 
and Mrs. Edward J. Torrance was appointed chairman of the women's 
organization in this District. John J. Nolan was appointed chairman 
for Vanderburgh County while Mrs. A. M. Dawson was chairman of 
the women's organization for the city of Evansville and Mrs. Msry 
Hinkle Steel was in charge of the women in Vanderburgh County 
outside of the city. Henry Dreier was chairman of the men's division 
in the County outside of Evansville. 

The executive committee for the Vanderburgh organization was 
made up as follows: 

Chairman — John J. Nolan. 

Sales Manager — Henry C. Murphy. 

262 



THE LIBERTY LOAN 

Assistants — Harry W. Biber, John McCallan, Ray Underwood. 
Director of speakers — Rabbi M. J. Merritt. 
Director of Newspaper Publicity — Frank R. Wilson. 
Assistants — A. A. Brentano, Curtis Mushlitz and Wilford Bussing. 
Supply and Advertising Director — Louis H. Kramer. 

In charge of Bank statistics — B. S. Alnutt, Albert Bader, Harry 
Reimer. 

Seventy-five teams of men, each with a captain, and four mem- 
bers, canvassed the business houses, shops, and factories while a sim- 
ilar organization of women canvassed the homes. The dynamic energy 
of Mr. Noaln, the local chairman, Mr. Kramer and Mr. Wilson, who 
had charge of the advertising, and their co-workers, evoked a wide 
response. Subscriptions came from all ranks. Business associations 
and social clubs, employer and employers, charitable, educational and 
religious organizations, and individuals of all walks of life were 
aroused to buy bonds by appeals of the four minute men and women, 
and numerous other agencies. The number of persons who purchased 
bonds ranged from 6,000 in the first campaign to upward of 20,000 in 
the fifth or Victory Loan sale. 

While the numerous workers, who constituted the largest sales 
organization in the history of the city, by efficient planning and as- 
siduous labor, were doing their utmost to sell their quotas and more, 
the public was prepared to respond. The advertising committee under 
the leadership of Mr. Kramer aroused the city to a high pitch of en- 
thusiasm. ■ 

No such stirring scenes were ever before presented as those which 
characterized these bond selling campaigns which were accompanied 
by parades of soldiers in training from Camp Taylor, bands from the 
Great Lakes Naval Training Camp, special trains carrying cannon, 
tanks and war souvenirs and flying machines. Notable speakers, in- 
cluding French, Canadian and American soldiers also came to arouse 
the patriotism of the people and on every occasion the Coliseum was 
crowded to its capacity. 

The complexity of the enterprise can be perceived from a typical 
schedule of a day's work during the Victory Loan campaign: 

Friday, April 18th 

7:46 A. M.— Arrival of Coast Artillery at C. & E. L 
8:00 A. M. — Officers to McCurdy Hotel for breakfast. 

263 



SONS OF MEN 



8:30 A, M. — Enlisted men to Y. M. C. A. for breakfast served by 
War Mothers. 

Equipment taken to Sunset Park for demonstration. 
10:30 A. M. — Officers taken over city by Motor Corps. 
10:30 A. M. — Band concert by Artillery Band at Sunset Park. 
2:30 P. M. — Parade — Line of march: Riverside to Main to Eighth, 

to Locust, to Riverside, to Sunset Park. 
3:00 P. M. — Speaker of note— Sunset Park. 
3:30 P. M. — Tank Demonstration at foot of Locust St. 
4:00 P. M.— Women of Victory Liberty Loan Organization meet at 

Chamber of Commerce. 
7:30 P. M.— Band Concert— Lawn Hotel McCurdy. 
7:30 P. M. — Tank Demonstration foot of Locust St. 
7:30 P. M. — "The Price of Peace" (Motion picture) at Majestic 

Theatre. 
8:00 P. M. — Victory Loan Meeting of Team Captains and workers 
at Chamber of Commerce to get prospect cards and 
supplies. 
In each sale campaign four weeks time was allotted by the U. S. 
Treasury Department to complete the work, but in every instance 
Vanderburgh County completed its quota of sales before the end of 
the week. In organizing the campaign, the ability of all firms and 
many individuals to buy bonds, was estimated. Cards bearing such'rat- 
ings, were distributed among the workers, so that each team had a 
basis for asking for subscriptions. Careful records of each loan were 
kept by the Sales Manager, Henry C. Murphy. These records were 
used in making ratings for the succeeding campaign. So fair were 
these estimates that but few appeals were made. 

The Liberty Loan Organization met at lunch daily during these 
selling campaigns to receive the reports of the teams and these meet- 
ings presided over by Chairman Nolan were the scenes of great en- 
thusiasm, especially toward the end of the week when the quota was 
completed by arousing those present to buy the remainder of the 
quota. On each of two such closing days more than a million dollars 
of bonds were purchased by those present at the lunches amid the 
wildest conceivable bursts of patriotism. 

Evansville was always among the first cities in the country to 
respond to these calls of the government and in the Fifth or Victory 
Loan Campaign, was the leader in the Eight Reserve Bank District in 
the percent of population purchasing bonds. 

264 



THE LIBERTY LOAN 



As an award this city was privileged to christen a transport vessel 
and the name "Paul and Albert" was selected in honor of the two 
sons of Mr. and Mrs. Albert W. Funkhouser who had given their lives 
in the war to the cause of Liberty and Justice. However, the Ship- 
ping Board had confined the names of ships to Geographical or In- 
dian names and therefore declined to approve our selection. A vessel 
had already been christened "Evansville," and no further suggestion 
was made. 

The amount of bonds sold in the various campaigns follows: 

Quota Subscribed 

First loan $ 1,802.860 $ 2,064,400 

Second loan 2,555,000 3,801,950 

Third loan 2.944,800 3,792,550 

Fourth loan 6,338,000 6,458,800 

Fifth loan 4,612,250 4.612,250 



$18,152,910 $20,729,950 
In addition to these sales of bonds more than $1,300,000.00 of 
War Savings Stamps were sold in Evansville, making a total of $22,- 
000,000.00 loaned for war purposes. 




265 



CHAPTER VI 



The Red Cross 



"From St. Louis we crossed over to Evansville, rechartered the 
'John V. Troop,' and put on accumulated supplies. The waters of the 
Ohio had subsided and the people were returning to the old spots of 
earth that had once been their home, but there was neither house to 
live in nor tool to work the land with. We reloaded with pine lumber, 
ready-made doors, windows ,household utensils, stores and groceries, 
farming utensils and with a good force of carpenters proceeded up 
the Ohio once more. The sight of the disconsolate, half-clad farmer 
waiting on the bank told us where his home had been — and was not. 

"Three hours' work of our carpenters would put up a one-room 
house, meanwhile our efficient men and women helpers, among them 
the best ladies of Evansville, would furnish it with beds, bedding 
clothing, provisions for the family, and farming tools ready to go on 
with the season's work. 

"Picture, if possible, thise scene. A strange ship with a strange 
flag steaming up the river. It halts, turns from its course, and draws 
up to the nearest landing. Some persons disembark and speak a few 
minutes with the family. Then, a half dozen mechanics man a small 
boat laden with all material for constructing a one-room house — floor, 
roof , doors, windows. The boat returns for furniture. Within three 
hours the strange ship sails away, leaving a bewildered family in a 
new and clean house with bed, bedding , clothing, table, chairs, dishes, 
candles, a little cooking-stove with a blazing fire, all the common 
quota of cooking utensils, and meat, meal, and groceries; a plow, 
rake, axe, hoe, shovel, spade, hammer and nails. We ask a few ques- 
tions. They ask none. The whistle of the Troop' is as welcome to 
their ears as the flag to their eyes." 

Although the American National Red Cross was not incorporated 
and nationalized until 1905, when the President of the United States 

266 



THE RED CROSS 



became its president, and the War Department its auditor, the above 
account of allienation of suffering given by Clara Barton, a veteran 
in the army of mercy, shows Evansville's response to the call of the 
Red Cross as early as 1884. On that occasion when a sudden rise of 
the Ohio River and somewhat later a cyclone devastated many homes, 
destroyed lives and property, especially between Cincinnati and Cairo, 
Evansville met the situation squarely, and acted as a center of sup- 
plies and distribution. 

The spirit of the Red Cross workers, which was developed a gen- 
eration ago, was enhanced and intensified by the national emergency 
during the war. Of the numerous activities of this city during the war, 
the Red Cross work stands second to none in its contribution to Evans- 
ville's part in the war. It not only made an enviable record of success- 
ful accomplishments, but it embodied all that was beautiful in the 
idealism of America during the war. It stood for a type of national 
service which no amount of money could have purchased. Monetary re- 
muneration or other compensation would no doubt have procured the 
necessary work to a high degree, but not the whole hearted devotion, 
the self abnegation, the surrender of personal desires for the common 
welfare which America witnessed in the Red Cross work during the 
war. Money cannot purchase the heart and the soul that go with a 
service when it is given in such form that the donor does not reap 
direct benefit. In this undertaking, selfish desires and personal whims 
became oblivious in face of the crisis. Regardless of natural endow- 
ments, intellectual attainments or social prestige the Red Cross work- 
ers found a common goal in their desire to be of help, actuated as 
they were by unselfish motives ,and were placed on the same plane 
of willing sacrifice. 

The war activities of the local chapter of the Red Cross began 
at the opening of 1917. While the government was continuing pro- 
longed negotiations relative to its position as a neutral nation, the 
American Red Cross prepared for the inevitable storm, and by per- 
sistency in face of public inertia increased its membership from 20,000 
to 280,000. President Wilson issued the following appeal to the Amer- 
ican people in behalf of the Red Cross: "It is for you to decide 
whether the most prosperous nation in the world will allow its na- 
tional relief organization to keep up with its work or withdraw from 
a field where there exists the greatest need ever recorded in history." 
Evansville heard this appeal, and an application was at once dis- 
patched to Washington for directions concerning methods of begin- 

267 



SONS OF MEN 



ning work in this city. As far as is known, Evansville only had two 
Red Cross members at this time. Those first interested had plans 
for something like a Ladies' Aid or Neighborhood Circle, which might 
meet to work on needed surgical supplies. As yet no vision came to 
them of what the Red Cross was to mean to Evansville. 

Washington was slow in replying and only after much corres- 
pondence did word come on March 15, 1917 that a Chapter must be 
duly organized before any work could be done. A petition was signed 
by Mr. and Mrs. Edward M. Bush, Mr. and Mrs. S. L. Orr, Mrs. R. K. 
Dunkerson, Dr. and Mrs. Edwin Walker, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Murphy, 
Mrs. Stuart Hopkins, and Mr. J. R. A. Hobson. This was forwarded 
at once and on March 20, came an acknowledgement of the receipt 
of the required dues ($11.00), and authority was given to organize a 
Chapter for Evansville and Vanderburgh County. 

Mr. Henry Murphy was appointed Temporary Chairman, Mrs. S. 
L. Orr Temporary Vice Chairman, Mrs. Edward M. Bush Temporary 
Secretary, and a call was issued at once for a meeting of the women 
of Evansville on the evening of April 2. Every club, church and so- 
ciety was urged to send representatives. They came, these eager wo- 
men, in numbers that filled to the doors the Main street store room 
which was used for the purpose. Such was their ardor to enter upon 
a work which for many a day would fill their hearts and hands to the 
exclusion of all other interests. A fiame that swept throughout Amer- 
ica lighted in these women's hearts a love of service which was to 
carry them through long, hard days of wearisome labor — days when 
they were to go from task to task never faltering, carried on by an 
exaltation of spirit which defied fatigue or physical weakness. 

A meeting for enrollment of women workers was held soon after 
at the Chamber of Commerce when many signed up for any service 
Red Cross might ask. At another meeting in the Chamber of Com- 
merce, Mr. Arthur Bentley, Red Cross Chairman of Indiana, urged the 
great need for men in the organization. Accordingly plans were en- 
larged, the organization was completed, officers were elected, com- 
mittees were appointed and a drive for membership was planned for 
the week of April 10 to 17, with Mr. J. R. A. Hobson as its Chairman. 

The following committees on membership were chosen: Mrs. 
Bernard Strouse, Mrs. Frederick Erlbacher, Mrs. C. W. Wittenbraker, 
Mrs. Curtis Mushlitz, Mrs. Thomas Boluss, Mr. Chas. B. Rudd, Mr. 
W. P. Walsh, Mr. A. L. Swanson, Mr. Carl Dreisch, and Mr. Robert 
Bonham. 

268 



THE RED CROSS 



Red Cross Instruction — Dr. Carl Viehe, Dr. Wm. Ehrich, Dr. Chas. 
Ingle, Dr. Wallace Dyer, Dr. Wm. Davidson, Mrs. John McCallan, Miss 
Sarah Wartman. 

Committee on Hospital Supplies — Mr. Carl Leich, Dr. Edwin 
Walker, Mrs. A. R. Messick, Mrs. Edward Bush, Mrs. Carl Viehe, Mrs. 
Mary C. Trimble. 

These days were busy ones. 303 Main Street, then vacant, was 
secured for the first workshop and used as Headquarters for the mem- 
bership campaign. Full directions were received for the work. Mrs. 
Anna Greenfield Sims was engaged as instructor, and sent to Chicago 
for a full course in surgical dressings. The campaign opened April 
10th with J. R. A. Hobson in charge, Robert Bonham assisting, and 
Miss Lila Powell serving in the office. Booths were opened in many 
Main Street stores for enrollment. Meetings were held in practically 
every factory in the city. The pulpits, the press, moving picture 
screens generously gave their assistance to the great cause. Over a 
thousand members enrolled by the evening of April 10th. For Thurs- 
day a monster demonstration was planned. A long line of organiza- 
tions, boy scouts, private citizens, men, women and children marched 
to the Coliseum and filled it with over five thousand enthusiastic peo- 
ple. Five hundred little children filled the stage erected for them and 
sang patriotic songs under the guidance of Miss Ada Bicking. Mrs. 
Hoskinson sang for the occasion. Mr. Geo. A. Simmons of St. Louis, 
made the address of the evening, urging upon every one present the 
duty of every American Citizen to help the Red Cross. 

The week's drive gave the Evansville Chapter 6,671 members. 
Thus the work began. 

Meanwhile, the shop was furnished by generous contributions, 
work was planned, some supplies were purchased, and an enrollment 
was made of all who wished instruction in Red Cross classes. Mrs. 
S. L. Orr ,Chairman of Classes in First Aid, soon had four under way. 
Dr. Ehrich and Dr. Jerome served as instructors. 

On April 15 the first lesson in Surgical Dressings was given. A 
second class beginning Wednesday and a third on Friday. From 
twenty to twenty-five women in each. From the first a high standard 
of work was maintained. Mrs. Sims was an efficient instructor, ex- 
acting from her pupils a nicety of work that always brought to the 
Evansville Chapter commendation from those in authority. Mrs. 
Bush organized the Surgical Dressing Department, serving as its first 
Chairman. Under a carefully planned system the materials purchased 

269 



SONS OF MEN 



by Mrs. R. K. Dunkerson and Mrs. Henry Lewis passed from the Cut- 
ting Department to the tables of workers, to the Inspection Depart- 
ment, then to wrappers, and finally to packers. By May 1 the work- 
shop was moved from 303 Main St. to 307-309 Main, generously 
donated for Red Cross use by Mr. Francis J. Reitz and the Misses 
Reitz. 

The first little table of workers seemed lost in that great upper 
room, hut day after day the number swelled until during that long hot 
summer hundreds of women enlisted in the service. The eager throng 
of white veiled women with busy fingers hurried to complete the hun- 
dreds of wipes, compresses, rolls, and pads which soon became the 
quota for a day; while the blue veiled captain and her assistant whose 
veil of red completed the color scheme of the uniform were on their 
feet hour after hour, going from table to table, that all should be 
done correctly. At one side were the patient inspectors who exam- 
ined carefully every piece of finished work that none but good work 
should go from this Chapter. 

Further to the front were cutters, day after day and hour after 
hour, drawing threads and cutting to measure, hundreds and thou- 
sands of pieces. The demand far exceeded the supply by this careful 
hand work, and an electric cutting machine was installed. Surgical sup- 
plies made included compresses, 3 and 5 yd. rolls, wipes, army sponges, 
sterilized dressings, irrigation pads, pneumonia jackets, influenza 
masks, etc. On some days a little group of women carefully wrapped 
the work for the packers who in turn stored it away in broad, deep 
boxes for shipment. 

Such was the picture of that upper floor. Few could watch it 
without a quickening of the pulse. Hour after hour women worked 
— women whose home life was of such ease and comfort, that the 
physical strain and the prolonged labor brought unknown weariness 
and pain, women whose hands were so full at home that only early 
and late hours of work gave them an opportunity to serve in the work- 
shop, women of all ages and all creeds but all were radiant with the 
joy of service. There was chatter and laughter but there, too, were 
prayers and earnest wishes for even a more direct way of helping and 
comforting those for whom they labored. The amount of work accom- 
plished was enormous. An average of 12,000 wipes, bandages and 
pads were sent each month across the sea for the saving of the lives 
of our soldiers and sailors. Hundreds and thousands of separate 
dressings were made in the Evansville shop by deft fingers under the 

270 



THE RED CROSS 



compelling influence of sympathy and patriotism. Women who had 
no hours of the day in which to work begged for night classes, and 
soon on three and four nights a week the room was full. Later on 
certain nights were assigned to certain classes. The room could not 
hold all who came. The muslin bandage department filled up a por- 
tion of the floor and machines were driven day and night by busy 
women under Mrs. Chas. Cook. 

The lower floor, too, began to hum. To the office, each day 
brought new problems, new Red Cross members, new workers, dona- 
tions, offers of entertainments for Red Cross benefits. Soon, too, 
came applications for help in vexing problems relating to sons who 
had gone to war, or perhaps soldiers dropped in on many varying er- 
rands. 

During the summer Mrs. Belmont Tiffany, who had been organ- 
izer for surgical supplies work in New York in August of 1914, came 
to this city. She was the first of several persons of note which Red 
Cross brought to Evansville. Her cheering commendation of the work 
and earnest plea for future efforts spurred on the local workers. In 
late July, Miss Grace Wright became the office worker and served 
throughout the work with faithful efficiency. 

Early in May work began in the Department of Hospital Supplies 
under Mrs. Geo. Clifford, its organizer, who enlisted in the work 
Church Aid Societies, Parent-Teachers, and Social, or Literary Clubs. 
Sheets, pillow-cases, and towels were made first. The purchasing of 
material was done at local shops. Two merchants especially gave 
much time and thought to supplying the needs at low prices, H. E. 
Bacon Co. and Fowler, Dick & Walker. Hospital garments were soon 
added to the list. Half of the lower floor of the building was devoted 
to this department, and was almost entirely furnished with ward- 
robes, chairs and tables donated by friends. The Directors' policy 
throughout was never to spend Red Cross money for equipment when 
it could be begged or borrowed by persistent effort. That initial or- 
ganization with its laborious hand cutting (50,000 separate pieces be- 
ing cut and assembled in a month) soon grew into a well run factory, 
with electric cutting machine ,a capable corps of bookkeepers and 
hundreds of capable, efficient women operating sewing machines. 

It had no glamour of the battle field, but it concerned itself with 
the well being of patients in the hospitals, with warm clothes and 
fresh bedding. The instructions at first were vague and contradic- 
tory, and the workers were unused to dictation. But out of this chaos 

271 



SONS OF MEN 



soon came a well regulated system, which sent over seas thousands of 
garments and many boxes to the Cantonments in this country. 

Well made garments were finished by expert needlewomen to be 
used as samples by the workers, so exacting were National require- 
ments. This department became a bee hive of activity. Various units 
met there for work and shoppers came in for an hour or more of work. 
The cutting department turned out thousands of pieces which had 
to be assembled into separate garments, counted and tied up ready 
for distribution. Finished garments had to be inspected, sometimes 
made over, and all counted and tied up in bundles ready for the pack- 
ers. Even boxes for shipment had to conform to exact measurements 
sent from Red Cross Headquarters. No request of Cleveland, under 
whose jurisdiction Evansville operated, was refused. Every energy 
was bent to fill large quotas on time. The articles made in Hospital 
Supplies Department included sheets, pillow-cases, towels, hot water, 
and ice bags, bed socks and bandage socks, surgeons' gowns, hel- 
mets, caps and leggins, bed shirts, dust clothes, bed jackets, floor 
mops, tray cloths, pajamas, comforts, undershirts and drawers, day 
shirts, trench slippers, convalescent robes, layettes, refugee garments 
for women and children, dresses, capes, skirts, underwear, jackets, 
petticoats and comfort kits. 

Early in June came the happy day when the first box of surgical 
dressings was sent via Bush Terminal, Brooklyn for our boys in 
France. On July 6 one box of sheets, pillow-cases, towels, and wash 
clothes, with two of surgical dressings were sent away. Twenty boxes 
of Hospital supplies and many surgical dressings were packed and 
dispatched before the end of that month. 

The Knitting Department was opened in June under Mrs. A. S. 
Butterfield. At the call of the Red Cross, old women revived a for- 
gotten skill, but rebelled at the new fangled rules. Boys and girls 
begged for sweaters to knit. Young women used their rest hours, 
invalids their meager strength, and firemen their leisure time. Yarn 
quotas were exahusted as soon as unpacked, and people clamored for 
more . Constantly changing directions even did not dismay them. 
No deposit or credentials were required. Material was given freely 
to any one who would take it ,and of the thousands of garments given 
out only a very few failed to be returned. A card system was in- 
stalled in the yarn booth and under Mrs. Phil Warter and Miss Bess 
Meeks accurate accounts were kept of all yarn given out and returned. 
Yarn specially contributed by Evansville citizens was knitted into 348 



THE RED CROSS 



sweaters and given to the home boys who left for camp in early spring 
of 1918. By special permission from Headquarters Evansville Chap- 
ter sent 175 of its Red Cross sweaters to Evansville soldiers in Camp 
Shelby. Articles knitted included sweaters, helmets, wristlets, socks, 
trench caps and mufflers. 

Late in the afternoon of the first Saturday in August came a call 
for Home Service. Troop A, Volunteers were mustered into service 
at the Coliseum on that day, and no beds were provided for them. 
Could the Red Cross help? The work for the week was over, every 
one gone home. Capt. Norcross said the boys could be sent home 
at night over Sunday, but no later. The buying committee was in- 
structed to be ready with material. The Dry Goods Merchants went 
down on Sabbath to make arrangements. An urgent call for help 
was put in every paper and by eight o'clock work began on ticks for 
these beds. At ten o'clock came Lieut. Odell with a request for 153 
more beds for his company. It seemed impossible. Buyers bought 
again until practically every yard of ticking in the city was in serv- 
ice. The Wm. E. French Company turned over their carpet making 
department for service. Telephones soon brought women from near 
and far who sewed at the workshop or took home heavy bundles. 
Meanwhile, Capt. Norcross and Lieut. Odell begged the Red Cross to 
supply them with straw for filling the ticks. A load was found and 
taken to the Coliseum. As fast as the ticks were brought in from 
the Red Cross, the soldier boys filled them with straw and at five 
o'clock Monday evening two tired but happy women carried in the 
last of the 263 ticks, good work for a hot August day. 

While the preponderance of attention was given to the soldiers, 
the civilian population was by no means neglected. In June, 1917, 
the department of Civilian Relief was organized with J. C. Johnson 
as Chairman, John J. Nolan, Vice-Chairman, and Mrs. Mamie Outley, 
Secretary. Miss Aurelia Ellert assisted with the office work. Mr. 
Nolan later became Chairman. 

The city and county were divided into districts and precinct lead- 
ers were appointed. They visited the homes of departed soldiers who 
had dependents, and reported to the main body that conditions re- 
quired legal or financial aid. A staff of lawyers under the late Philip 
W. Frey volunteered to look after the legal affairs of soldiers' wives 
and mothers, and a considerable sum was appropriated to provide 
for the wants of families deprived of adequate income because of the 
absence of the men. 

273 



SONS OF MEN 



The report of the local Civilian Relief from its inception, Sep- 
tember 1, 1917 to December 30, 1917, follows: 

Financial assistance given to ex-service men and their 

families $1,819.74 

For year 1918: 

Ex-service men and families dealt with 1,498 

Information given 541 

Service given 1 ,323 

Financial assistance given $6,604.07 

For year 1919: 

Ex-service men and families dealt with 4,314 

Information given 582 

Service given 3,732 

Financial assistance given $4,561.13 

From January, 1920 to May, 1920 (inclusive): 

Ex-service men and families dealt with 1,228 

Information given 76 

Service given 1 , 1 52 

Financial assistance given $976.04 

Giving service to ex-service men and their families included the 
following: Writing letters and addressing envelopes, visiting their 
families, Notary Public service, financial assistance, sending tele- 
grams, executing forms for allotments, arrears of pay. Liberty Bonds, 
Bonus, Compensation, Reinstatement and Conversion of Government 
Insurance, overseas pay, travel allowance, Vocational Training, Uni- 
forms, Victory Buttons, etc. 

The Home Service Section of the Civilian Relief Department ren- 
dered splendid service during the war. This section was made up of 
volunteer women workers whose function was to visit the homes of 
the soldiers and administer to the needs and comfort of the families. 
No finer social service can be conceived than that which was rendered 
by these women of the Red Cross. 

A multitude of demands was made upon them and they always 
responded, giving practically all of their time during the war and until 
the army was demobilized. A staff of physicians under the leadership 
of Dr. William Laval and a group of lawyers rendered generous and 
gratuitous service to the families of soldiers. 

The following are the names of those who engaged in the work: 

274 



THE RED CROSS 



Home Visiting Committee 

Bertelsen, Mrs. Lowry Merrit, Mrs. Max 

Brentano, Mrs. S. A. Mudd, Mrs. James T. 

Brill, Mrs. John R. Sampson, Mrs. Eli 

Carson, Mrs. John O'Hara, Mrs. Charles 

Clark, Miss Fannie Seigel, Mrs. Leon 

Froelich, Mrs. Adolph Sierra, Mrs. Anton 

Kelsay, Mrs. Clarence Wiggington, Mrs. Charles 

Mannheimer, Mrs. Morton Belleville, Mrs. Charles E. 

Physicians 

Eichel, Dr. Sidney Macer, Dr. Clarence G. 

Hurst, Dr. W. R. Pollard, Dr. Walter S. 

Laval, Dr. Wm. Ravdin, Dr. Bernard 

McClurkin, Dr. J. C. Ravdin, Dr. Marcus 

Macer, Dr. E. C. Walker Hospital Staff. 

Lawyers 

Brill, Mr. John R. Kahn, Mr. Isidore 

Cutler, Mr. J. T. Nolan, Mr. Val 

Funkhouser, Mr. Albert W. Veneman, Mr. Albert J. 

Hardy, Mr, W. D. Wittenbraker, Mr. Charles 

One of the big works of the Evansville Red Cross was a collec- 
tion and shipment of used garments for Belgian Relief. Two drives 
were made in this cause. Mrs. Barney Royston and Mrs. John Daus- 
man were in charge of the first, and Mrs. Ole Olsen and Mrs. Fred 
Hostetter of the second. These garments came from every part of 
the city. The work was carried on in buildings apart from the work 
shop for fear of contagion being carried to our soldiers. A less pleas- 
ant phase of Red Cross work could not be found. Every piece and 
every condition of garment came. They all had to be inspected care- 
fully, often thrown aside as too soiled for use, but out of it all came 
9,745 garments which were well packed for shipment. From this 
arose a reclamation department where worn garments were mended 
or made over for use in dependent families of Evansville soldiers, un- 
der the Civilian Relief Committee and the health nurses. 

The Canteen Department was organized to take care of the sol- 
diers passing through Evansville or waiting for connections. Cour- 
tesy booths were erected in each railroad station and women were on 
duty at all hours to answer questions and give cigarettes, magazines, 
and post cards. A Tea Wagon was equipped with a dozen cups and 
simple refreshments for men passing through unable to obtain a 

275 



SONS OF MEN 



lunch. This immediately proved inadequate and a room was donated 
in the Hotel Sterling, opposite the L. & N. Railroad Station by Mr. Ira 
Wiltshire, and fully equipped as a Canteen Kitchen. Many thousands 
of men were fed every week, both day and night. The daily contact 
with real soldiers was a constant inspiration to these hard worked 
women. The Canteen Kitchen was made a cheery place of welcome 
for all the boys, and only the efficient direction of Mrs. D. A. Cox, 
Mrs. J. C. Greer, and later Mrs. J. J. Geringer, Mrs. Turney, and Mrs. 
Earl Jones made it possible to serve with appetizing meals the thou- 
sands who passed through that very small kitchen every month. Some 
of the women were ready with ukelele and song to cheer the weary 
or homesick. Many a lad was heartened for his further journey from 
home, many a hard luck story was heard by sympathizing workers, 
many a sick boy was made to feel that he was still with those who 
cared for him. A beautiful Christmas Tree adorned the Christmas 
Dinner table where turkey and all its train of good things were lav- 
ishly served. Long after the Armistice that good work was continued 
and only ended when a Service Club was established at Second and 
Locust Streets for help and entertainment which took its place. A book 
filled with the signatures of Canteen Kitchen Visitors is among the 
treasures of the Evansville Red Cross. Among its notable signatures 
is that of Hon. William Howard Taft. When the canteen work ended 
the Red Cross Service Club was opened at Second and Locust. It 
was well furnished by generous gifts, and was made a comfortable 
recreation room for all service men. Through its doors have passed 
thousands of boys who enjoyed the quiet, neat rooms, its games, music 
and the companionship it supplied. Many who came there were helped 
to better ways of living and encouraged to adjust their lives to new 
war conditions. For many employment was found. It has been 
"home" to many who needed it, and when the Red Cross felt its work 
in that way was no longer so much needed, a number of the boys 
who had been frequenters of the rooms banded together, forming a 
Service Men's Club which they were anxious to "carry on" as did the 
Red Cross for them. Clarence Tyler was its first President. He was 
succeeded by Fred Kost. 

In October, 1917, the following officers were elected and served 
to the end of the Red Cross work: 

Chairman — J. J. Nolan. 

Vice-Chairman — Harry Loewenthal. 

Secretary — Mrs. E. M. Bush. 

276 



THE RED CROSS 




Hon. John J. Nolan 

Chairman of the Red Cross, and Chairman of 

the Vanderburgh County Liberty 

Loan Organization 



277 



SONS OF MEN 



Treasurer — Henry Reis. 

Assistant Treasurer and Business Manager — Mrs. Sol Hammer. 

Executive Committee 

Mrs.-E. M. Bush Mrs. John McCallan 

Mrs. George S. Clifford Mrs. Chas. Cook 

Mrs. Sol Hammer Mrs. J. J. Chandler 

Mrs. M. W. Foster Mrs. J.J.Nolan 

Mrs. M. S. Sonntag Mrs. Henry B. Walker 

Mrs. A. S. Butterfield Mrs. S. L. Orr 

Mrs. Harry Loewenthal Mrs. R. K. Dunkerson 

Mrs. Henry Lewis Mrs. L. C. Shipherd 

Mrs. Edwin Walker 

Surgical Dressings Committees 

Chairman: Mrs. E. M. Bush (1917), Mrs. Harry Loewenthal 
(1918). 

Supervisor Surgical floor: Mrs. M. S. Sonntag. 

Chairman Purchasing: Mrs. Henry Lewis. Assistants: Mrs. R. K. 
Dunkerson, Mrs. M. W. Foster. 

Chairman Cutting: Mrs. J. L. Igleheart. Assistant: Mrs. James 
Bridwell. 

Chairmsn Inspection: Mrs. M. S. Sonntag (1917). Mrs. W. G. 
Downs (1918). 

Chairman Wrapping: Miss Florence Dannettell (1917-1918). 

Chairman Packing: Mrs. Samuel G. Clifford (1917), Mrs. Clar- 
ence Leich (1918). 

Captains Surgical Supplies Department. 

Mrs. Joseph Hill Mrs. Margaret Ragon 

Mrs. L. C. Shipherd Mrs. Frank Laughlin 

Mrs. Phelps Darby Mrs. J. J. Geringer 

Mrs. David Ingle Mrs. Harry Loewenthal 

Instructor of Classes: Mrs. Anna Sims. 
Chairman First Aid Classes: Mrs. Samuel L. Orr. 
Chairman Waste Gauze: Mrs. Walter Leich. 

Hospital Department Committees. 

Chairman: Mrs. Geo. S. Clifford (1917), Mrs. J. J. Chandler 
(1918), Mrs. J. J. Nolan (1919). 

Assistant Chairman: Mrs. W. Cutler (1917), Mrs. M. W. Fos- 
ter (1918), Mrs. Chas. Cook (1917), Mrs. L. Griffin (1919). 

Chairman Purchasing: Mrs. M. W. Foster. Assistant: Mrs. Henry 
Lewis. 

278 



THE RED CROSS 



Chairman Headquarters Equipment: Mrs. Henry B. Walker 
(1918), Mrs. J. Stuart Hopkins, Mrs. Boswell Torian (1919). 

Chairman Samples: Mrs. W. Cutler (1917), Mrs. Frank De Jar- 
nett (1918), Mrs. J. Frcnk (1919). 

Chairman Cutting and Assembling: Mrs. J. J. Chandler (1917), 
Mrs. B. V. Bosard (1918), Mrs. L. E. Karcher (1919). 

Assistant Chairman: Mrs. B. V. Bosard, Mrs. John Kirkpatrick, 
Mrs. De Witt Chappell, Mrs. L. E. Karcher, Miss Viola Jung, Miss 
Henrietta Davidson. 

Chairman Distributing: Mrs. Sol Hammer (1917), Mrs. M. W. 
Foster (1917), Mrs. Nellie Wheeler (1918), Mrs. L. Griffin (1919). 

Chairman Inspection: Mrs. W. L. Sullivan (1917-1919), Miss Bet- 
tie Torian (1918). 

Chairman Packing: Miss Grace Wright (1917), Mrs. Sol Hammer 
<1917-1919), Miss Kate Browning (1919). 

Bookkeeper: Mrs. E. A. Torrance (1917-1919). 

Assistant Bookkeeper: Mrs. Wm. McGill (1917-1919). 

Chairman Shop Sewing Units: Mrs. Garnett (1917), Mrs. R. C. 
Smith (1917-1919). 

Chairman Outside Units: Mrs. W. R. Mitchell (1917-1919). 

Chairman Extension: Mrs. James T. Cutler (1918). 

Chairman Housewives: Mrs. Alexander Gilchrist (1917), Miss 
Lillian Ridgway (1918-1919). 

Chairman Reclamation: Mrs. B. D. Royston. 

Chairman Used Clothes Drive: Mrs. B. D. Royston (1918), Mrs. 
John Dausman (1918), Mrs. Ole Olsen (1919), Mrs. F. Hostetter 
(1919). 

Chairman Linen Shower: Mrs. M. W. Foster. 

Knitting Department Committees 

Chairman: Mrs. A. S. Butterfield (1917-1919). Assistant Chairman: 
Mrs. W. Wheeler (1918-1919), Mrs. Philip Warter (1917-1919). 

Junior Red Cross, Chairman: Mrs. Henry Veatch (1917-1918), 
Mrs. John Hall Woods (1918-1919). 

Field Supervisors: Mrs. J. S. Hopkins (1917), Mrs. Lula Steven- 
son (1918), Mrs. J. N. McCallan (1918-1919). 

Marine Hospital Committee 

Chairman: Mrs. M. W. Foster (1918-1919). 
Chairman Ambulance: Mrs. Sol Hammer. 

279 



SONS OF MEN 



Canteen Kitchen 

Chairman: Mrs. D. A. Cox (1918-1919), Mrs. J. J. Geringer (1918- 
1919), Mrs. W. E. Gymer (Howell) (1918-1919), Mrs. H. Drucker 
(Howell) (1918-1919). 

Assistant Chairman: Mrs. J. C. Greer (1918-1919), Mrs. L. L. Tur- 
ney (1918-1919), Mrs. T. E. Garvin (1919), Mrs. E. Gilbert (1918), 
Mrs. Earl Jones (1919). 

Entertainment Committee 
Chairman: Mrs. D. A. Cox. 

Flowers and Christmas Cards Committee 
Chairman: Mrs. T. E. Garvin. 

Fruits, Pits and Shells Committee 
Chairman: Mrs. Maurice Sargeant. 

Publicity 

Miss Marion F. Ferrell (1917-1918), Miss Florence Adams (1918- 
1919). 

Personnel 

Chairman: Mrs. E. A. Torrance. 

Hygiene and Home Nursing 

Chairman: Mrs. Richard Rosencranz (1918), Mrs. M. W. Foster 
(1919-1920), Mrs. Geo. Hall (1919-1920). 

Nursing Survey 

Chairman: Mrs. Henry Murphy (1918), Mrs. Anna Shafer (1919). 

Christmas Box Committee 

Chairman: Mrs. L. A. Daus. 

Mothers' Committee 

Chairman: Mrs. Frank Hatfield. 

Gold Star Committee 

Chairman: Mrs. Phelps Darby. 

Board of Directors of the Service Club 

Mrs. E. M. Bush Miss Grace Wright 

Mrs. Geo. Clifford Mrs. Geo. Hall 

Mrs. M. W. Foster Mrs. J. J. Nolan 

Officers: Fred Kost, President; Clarence Tyler, Vice-President; 
Louis Henneman, Secretary and Treasurer. 

280 



THE RED CROSS 



The work of organizing a Woman's Motor Corps was begun in 
July, 1918, by the State Council of Defense, for the purpose of trans- 
porting soldiers and sailors from one station to another. Mrs. Paul 
H. Schmidt was appointed Captain by a committee from The Council 
of Defense, who in turn appointed Miss Marie L. Messick to serve 
as First Lieutenant and Mrs. Morton Mannheimer as Second Lieuten- 
ant. Headquarters were opened at 2081/^ Main St., where applica- 
tions for membership were made and in a few weeks there were thirty 
members. However, only eight of these were uniform members, each 
one purchasing her own uniform. The following were in uniform: 
Capt. Schmidt, Lieut. Messick, Lieut. Mannheimer, Mrs. Philip Gould, 
Miss Genevieve Laughlin, Miss Margaret Ichenhauser, Mrs. Abe Kly- 
man and Mrs. Chas. Viele. The other members were on duty speci- 
fied days, but the uniformed members were subject to call at any time. 
After the work was well under way the officers of the Old State Bank 
very kindly donated the use of a large room on the mezzanine floor, 
and this being more centrally located made a much better place for 
Headquarters. 

All trains were met from early morning until evening, and when 
the men in service had some time they were given a ride over the city. 
One day cars were provided for almost two hundred men with only 
forty-five minutes' notice, and they were taken for a ride and then 
back to the Canteen for lunch. Many errands for the Canteen and 
War Mothers were taken care of by the Motor Corps. 

During the time the Government forbade the use of gasoline pro- 
pelled vehicles, Capt. Messick and Lieut. Mannheimer had special 
permission to operate their cars, and when a parade of Civil War Vet- 
erans was scheduled for one of those days, enough electrically pro- 
pelled vehicles were provided for all. 

The following October all Motor Corps in Indiana, which had 
been organized under the Council of Defense, were transferred to the 
Red Cross and were thereafter called The Red Cross Motor Corps, 
and were under jurisdiction of the Red Cross. At this time Capt. 
Schmidt resigned and Lieut. Messick was appointed Captain and 
Lieut. Mannheimer was promoted to First Lieutenant. 

During January, 1919, many of the members left the ranks and 
only the uniformed members and a few of the others gave any time 
to the work, and by April, 1919, the work had decreased to such an 
extent that the Motor Corps automatically went out of existence, all 

281 



SONS OF MEN 




Miss Marie L. Messick 

Captain of Woman's Motor Corps 



282 



THE RED CROSS 



the members feeling fully repaid for their work by the deep grati- 
tude expressed by all the men who had been so cordially treated. 

Day by day the Red Cross work varied as new demands for serv- 
ice came. In the fall a fund was started by Mrs. Sol Hammer to send 
an ambulance to France. Only women and children were allowed to 
contribute, but on February 26, a check was sent to Cleveland, and 
another dream was realized. It is interesting to note that Harold 
Ploeger, an Evansville soldier saw in France an ambulance bearing 
the inscription, "Voluntary gift of the women and children of Evans- 
ville, Ind." 

As our home boys went into service the Red Cross women pre- 
pared lunch boxes for them, gave sweaters to some, trench caps to 
others and God speed to all. Every service man from Vanderburgh 
County received a well filled "housewife" fully supplied with a sewing 
outfit. Thousands of these were made by a committee under Miss 
Lillian Ridgway, Chairman. Jellies and fruits were put up under 
careful inspection, and were sent to the boys. 

Nor were the local heroes across the sea forgotten. A fund was 
raised for Christmas boxes to be sent overseas. Hundreds of boxes 
filled by Mrs. M. W. Foster, Mrs. John McCallan and their assistants. 
Mrs. L. A. Daus headed the committee which addressed and mailed 
them. A thrifty sale of original Red Cross Christmas cards was car- 
ried on at the work shops and earned $595.92 for the local chapter. 

During the fatal influenza epidemic the local Red Cross heard 
the community's call for help. An intelligence office under the super- 
vision of Mrs. George G. Hall was opened. Nurses were obtained and 
were sent from case to case. Volunteers worked under the supervision 
of trained nurses and ministered to the suffering. Influenza masks 
and pneumonia jackets were supplied to all who needed them. Soup 
and supplies were distributed daily by a committee under Mrs. Mayme 
Steele and Mrs. Ole Olsen. 

The Elks generously donated the use of their beautiful home to 
the Red Cross. It was dismantled and converted to an emergency 
hospital. The Motor Corps managed the ambulance which brought 
patients to the hospital. Under the management of Mrs. Bush and 
Mrs. Henry Murphy in the office and Miss Elizabeth Kurzdorfer as 
head nurse, 168 patients were cared for during the five weeks of the 
epidemic. Beds, bedding, and screens were willingly donated by Ev- 
ansville people. Food supplies of all kinds were received for the suf- 

283 



SONS OF MEN 




Mrs. Morton Mannheimer 

First Lieutenant Woman's Motor Corps 



284 



THE RED CROSS 



ferers. When the crisis was over the supplies which were on hand 
were sent to Boehne Camp. 

The needs of the Marine Hospital and Boehne Camp were not for- 
gotten. A request came from the government to assist in caring 
for the sick soldiers sent to Evansville. Under the direction of the 
government, Evansville Red Cross added much to the comfort of the 
soldiers in these institutions, a committee of which Mrs. M. W. Foster 
was Chairman, was always ready to respond to any call. .Frequent 
visits were made, sheets, pillow-cases, wash clothes, towels, quilts, 
pajamas, table cloths, convalescent robes, a Victrola, piano, chairs, 
curtains, rugs, swings, garden chairs, croquet sets, books, magazines, 
etc., were supplied the boys by Evansville Red Cross. Frequent en- 
tertainments were given by various organizations and groups, and a 
lovely Christmas tree party cheered their hearts. 

Another Red Cross activity of importance to the community at 
large was a class in Hygiene which was held in the Federal Building 
by courtesy of John J. Nolan. The room was furnished for this pur- 
pose by Mrs. Richard Rosencranz and two classes completed the course 
under the direction of Mrs. Anna Sims. More pressing matter over- 
shadowed this work for a time, but it was resumed in September, 1919, 
under Mrs. M. W. Foster and Geo. Hall. Miss Katherine Rehsteiner 
took charge of the Hygiene Headquarters at Second and Locust, 
where rooms were equipped for permanent work. This work has 
been of incalculable value to local women. They had the opportunity 
to learn the essentials of home nursing, care of infants, and preven- 
tion of illness. High School girls and part time workers took advan- 
tage of this opportunity by enrolling in the course. 

The Junior Red Cross was organized by the chairman, Mrs. 
Veatch, who was not content until all schools, city and country, Prot- 
estant and Catholic were 100 per cent. Towels and dish cloths were 
sent to local camps. Three thousand scrap books were made, patri- 
otic exercises conducted, and knitting and sewing planned. 

The following Chapters were organized: 

Central High School — John J. Pershing Chapter. 

Baker — Carry On Chapter. 

Blankenburg — Howard Roosa Chapter. 

Campbell — Elizabeth Hedderich Chapter. 

Carpenter — Mary Stembridge Chapter. 

Centennial — James B. Gresham Chapter. 

Chestnut-Walnut— Old Glory Chapter. 

285 



SONS OF MEN 



Claremont — Abraham Lincoln Chapter. 

Columbia — Columbia Chapter. 

Delaware — Lafayette Chapter. 

Fulton — Daisy Flower Veatch Chapter. 

Harlan— Woodrow Wilson Chapter. 

Henry Reis — Elizabeth Maghee Bush Chapter. 

Howell — Rainbow Chapter. 

Ingleside — Clara Barton Chapter. 

Stanley Hall — Clara Barton Chapter. 

Wheeler — Emily Orr Clifford Chapter. 

Clark High School — Emmett J. Scott Chapter. 

Governor— Lucy Wilson McFarland Chapter. 

Oakdale— Lucy Wilson McFarland Chapter. 

Third Avenue — Phyllis Wheatley Chapter. 

Twelfth Avenue- — Colonel Young Auxiliary Chapter. 

Each child had to pay twenty-five cents before becoming a mem- 
ber. Many children earned this sum in various ways, and took great 
pride in contributing their mite. It was not so much their activities 
which made this organization significant, but the fact that the chil- 
dren were imbued with the spirit of the Red Cross movement in the 
impressionable period of childhood. They participated in the big Red 
Cross parade which occurred May 24, 1918, when Miss Kathleen 
Burke, a Scottish nurse who had seen hard service in Serbia and was 
brought to America to tell of its dire awful needs, came to Evansville. 
On this occasion 7,000 women and children in costume presented a 
soul stirring spectacle as they marched on Main Street with white 
veils fluttering and banners waving — our Red Cross Standard was 
surrounded by the Women's Board of Directors, and the great throng 
marched to the Coliseum, where Miss Burke made an inspiring ad- 
dress. Women came from far and near to give and to receive inspira- 
tion to greater effort. 

Numerous other activities were carried on by the local Red Cross. 
To the careless observer some of these may appear as petty enter- 
prises, "but there shall never be one good lost." Each activity had 
its purpose, and all contributed to the same cause. In the spirit of 
thrift which the American people learned during the war as never be- 
fore, quantities of tin foil and old gold and silver, were collected by 
many children, and were sold for the Red Cross. In the same spirit 
of thrift many bags of fruit pits, used in making gas masks, collected 
under the direction of Mrs. Maurice Sargeant. Another activity was 

286 



THE RED CROSS 



in charge of Mrs. Phelps Darby. Gold Star mourning bands which 
were purchased by the Red Cross were distributed by her to the be- 
reaved wives and mothers. In August, 1917, on another occasion, a 
flower sale managed by Mrs. Susan Garvin brought in an appreciable 
sum for the Red Cross. 

To enable this complex organization to function the citizens of 
Evansville responded to its call for financial aid. In 1917, a Red Cross 
campaign gained $20,000 for the local chapter. A membership drive 
in December, 1917, added $17,000 to the treasury, and the Roll Call 
in December, 1918, increased the funds by $2,000. The Civilian Re- 
lief Committee received one-third of all memberships and war drives 
amounting to $8,123.74. During the epidemic $603.45 was given as 
an extra offering toward the expense of maintaining the Influenza 
Hospital, and $518.70 for sendng Christmas boxes overseas. A sum 
of $786.00 was especially contributed for the purchase of yarn for 
sweaters for the first draft company. The Christmas card sale netted 
$595.92. Voluntary contributions received at the shop amounted in 
the two years to $9,943.84. In 1918, Evansville adopted the War Chest 
plan, and all quotas from the National Society were paid from The 
Patriot Fund, which gave the local society $15,000 and to the Junior 
Red Cross to meet its needs $3,444.75. By entertainments of various 
kinds the local society received $7,623.60 while assuming no respon- 
sibility; The largest entertainment the minstrel of the Shriners who 
turned over $1,000 to the Red Cross. From all sources the local Red 
Cross received from May, 1917, to July, 1919, $124,660.27. 

Too much cannot be said of the generosity of the people of Ev- 
ansville and vicinity in this work. Every call met a hearty response. 
The Women's Board had always the most hearty support of the Board 
of Directors. At one time when funds were low a simple statement 
from the secretary of conditions, and a plea for at least $3,000 a month 
lest the work be crippled, brought instant promise of funds, and 
Mayor Bosse easily secured that amount through monthly pledges for 
a period of six months from leading business and professional men 
and women. 

The expense account of the shop May, 1917-July, 1919, was re- 
markably low: salaries, $2,537.74, for heat and light $139.75, for gen- 
eral expenses $827.19. The canteen which operated from October, 
1918 to June, 1919, at both railroad stations cost $7,366.31. The man- 
agement was conscientious and careful in the expenditure of public 
funds. Tt seemed as if no need was apparent that there was not some 

287 



SONS OF MEN 



generous person eager to supply it. Very little equipment was pur- 
chased. Old wardrobes, desks and chiffoniers, packing boxes were 
utilized and returned to the owners at the closing of the shop. There 
was only one paid employee besides the janitor, a stenographer whose 
salary was $40 a month until the Armistice. The immense volume of 
work was possible only because of the large number of enthusiastic 
volunteers who neglected everything else at the call of duty. Monthly 
reports were required of each department, bills carefully checked and 
books audited. 

The success of the Evansville Red Cross Chapter is the product 
of a united community effort manifested on numerous occasions dur- 
ing the war. The magnitude of the task, the prevailing harmony in 
its execution, and the efficiency of its results reflect great credit on 
the numerous participants in this merciful work. No words can ade- 
quately picture the devotion of the women to their work, and the loyal 
support given them by the officers and Board of Directors. The ap 
propriation of the Patriot Fund, the gift of the building by the Reitz 
estate, heat and light by Public Utilities Co., telephones by Southern 
Telephone Co., the untiring labors of men and women in benefit en- 
tertainments, the enthusiastic salvage collections of boys and girls — 
these and many other offerings of help showed an intensity of en- 
thusiasm and an earnestness of purpose proportionabel to the worthi- 
ness of the cause. Leaders were needed to take the initiative, but 
good results could not have been obtained without the large contri- 
butions of money and service, the large or small gifts of many indi- 
viduals, and above all, the co-operative spirit of the Evansville citi- 
zenry. 

The following statistics are given here to show the work per- 
formed by the Evansville Chapter since its organization: 

Surgical Dressings made and shipped, totaling 304,979 

Hospital Supplies and Garments made and shipped, totaling.... 51,333 

Housewives made and given away 7,000 

Garments, Reclamation Department distributed among the sol- 
diers, wives, mothers and children 755 

Used Clothes Drive, Garments collected and shipped 15,530 

Knitting Department, Garments Knitted 15,872 

Junior Red Cross Members 13,779 

Articles made 1 -050 

Scrap Books 3,000 

Fruit Pits and Shells collected, pounds 45,000 

Linen Shower for Hospitals, citizens collected and gave 4,035 

Marine Hospital, Garments given 301 

Canteen Kitchen — 

Men served 103,85 1 

Gallons of coffee served 2,651 

Sandwiches served 57,934 

288 



CHAPTER VII 



The .^^mericdn Legion 



To Foster and Perpetuate 
a One Hundred Per Cent 
Americanism. 

— From Leffion Constitution. 



With the signing of the Armistice the Great War came to an 
end. But the men in blue and khaki, made wise by experiences hu- 
mans had never before endured, realized that to foster and perpetuate 
that for which they had suffered, there would have to come another 
conflict — not as sanguinary and costly in blood as their late contest 
at arms, but equally important to them and to those for whom they 
had crossed the seas to give battle and for whom they had endured 
the even deadlier monotony of camp life on this side of the ocean. 

The purpose of the nation-wide organization which was formed 
to realize the aspirations of the American soldier, is expressed in the 
preamble of the Constitution of the American Legion: 

"For God and Country we associate ourselves together for the 
following purposes: 

"To uphold and defend the Constitution of the United States of 
America; to maintain law and order; to foster and perpetuate a one 
hundred per cent Americanism; to preserve the memories rnd inci- 
dents of our association in the Great War; to inculcate a sense of in- 
dividual obligation to the community, state, and nation; to combat 
the autocracy of both the classes and the masses; to make right the 
master of might; to promote peace and good will on earth; to safe- 
guard and transmit to posterity the principles of justice, freedom, and 
democracy; to consecrate and srnctify our comradeship by our de- 
votion to mutual helpfulness." 

289 



SONS OF MEN 



The American Legion is the service man's answer to those who 
would undermine the American Government with sedition and undo 
that for which hundreds of thousands died in the world war. 

It is non-political. It is a civilian organization — not military or 
militaristic. Nearly all of its members are men who were civilians 
before the war and are now again civilians. It makes no distinction 
of rank and no distinction between overseas men and men who did 
not get overseas. 

As for eligibility to membership the Constitution states: 

"All persons shall be eligible to membership in this organization 
who were in the military or naval service of the United States during 
the period between April 6, 1917, and November 11, 1918, both dates 
inclusive, and all persons who served in the military or naval service 
of any of the governments associated with the United States during 
the World War, provided they were citizens of the United States at 
the time of their enlistment, and are again citizens at the time of 
application, except those persons who separated from the service 
under terms amounting to dishonorable discharge, and except also 
those persons who refused to perform their military duties on the 
ground of conscientious or political obligation." 

The American Legion bears the same relation to the service men 
of the Great War as the Grand Army of the Republic bears to the 
men who battled to preserve the Union. When the Yanks were still 
in France, when our triumphant troops were assured of victory, when 
it was generally realized that peace had come, the idea of a veterans' 
organization had already existed in the subconscious minds of many 
of them. Before long, different plans were projected. One sug- 
ge'sted an officers' association; another proposed to organize the en- 
listed men by regiments, divisions, and finally into one great united 
body. However, the leaders of the movement soon realized that to 
meet the problems of peace a veterans' organization, which is not or- 
ganized on the broadest possible lines, and which does not include 
all elements of the service men, would not be efficacious. 

How to form such an organization was a perplexing problem. On 
February 15, 1919, an. order from G. H. Q. called for twenty National 
Guard and Reserve officers to report in Paris to confer with other 
officers in regard to the improving of conditions in the army in 
France. This conference revealed the fact that thousands of soldiers 
shared the hope of forming a national organization similar to the 
Grand Army of the Republic. These twenty officers represented 

290 



THE AMERICAN LEGION 



various branches of the A. E. F. Here was their opportunity. At a 
cinner served at the Allied Officers' Club, Rue Faubourg St. Honore, 
February 16, the American Legion was born. 

These officers constituted themselves a temporary committee. A 
series of conferences was held. Two caucuses were arranged, one 
for the A. E. F. to be held in Paris; while the other, which was to 
represent those who were in America, was to be held in St. Louis. 
The Paris Caucus was held March 15-17, 1919, at the American Club, 
Lt. Col. Eric Fisher Wood presiding. About one thousand delegates, 
ranking from private to brigadier general, answered the roll call. Lt. 
Col. Bennett C. Clark was el.ected Chairman. One officer, a colonel, 
moved that during the session the stations of rank should cease to 
exist. Here was a foreshadowing of the after-war status of the 
American soldier. The motion was adopted unanimously, and the 
caucus proceeded with its work of organization. Committees were 
appointed, a tentative constitution was adopted, and the A. E. F. did 
their share in launching the organization of the American Legion. 

Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt was one of the twenty officers pres- 
ent at the Paris conference. He did not attend the Paris Caucus, but 
came to America to help organize the American Legion at the St. 
Louis Caucus. Many veteran organizations had already sprung into 
existence. Some of them did not like the American Legion, and many 
of them desired to maintain their own identity. About three weeks 
before the St. Louis Caucus, State Committeemen were chosen. Camp 
publications, newspapers, and periodicals gave the movement due 
publicity. 

On May 5, 1919, the advance committee, two from each state, be- 
gan to arrive in St. Louis. In addressing the advance committee Lt. 
Col. Roosevelt said: 

"The idea underlying the formation of the American Legion is 
the feeling among the great mass of men who served in forces of 
this country during the war, that the impulse of patriotism which 
prompted their efforts and sacrifices should be so preserved that it 
might become a strong force in the future for true Americanism and 
better citizenship. We will be facing troublous times in the coming 
years, and to my mind no greater safeguard could be devised than 
those soldiers, sailors, and marines formed in their own association, 
in such manner that they could make themselves felt for law and 
order, decent living and thinking, and truer 'nationalism' ". With 
this speech he predicted the sentiment of the caucus. 

291 



SONS OF MEN 



The caucus at St. Louis was held May 8-10, 1919, in the Shubert- 
Jefferson Theater. Delegates came from all sections of the United 
States, but sectionalism in such an enterprise was not thought of. Lt. 
Col. Roosevelt called the meeting to order. In an uproar of en- 
thusiasm he was elected unanimously as permanent chairman of the 
caucus, but despite the pleading of numerous admirers he firmly re- 
fused to accept, saying that the country might interpret his action as 
a step for personal advancement. Col. Henry D. Lindsley was elected 
to this office. Throughout the conference numerous resolutions 
helped crystallize sentiment on various problems to be considered by 
the American Legion. The caucus went on record in regard to the 
Victory Liberty Loan, Conscientious Objectors, Protection of the Uni- 
form, Re-employment of Ex-Service Men, War Risk Insurance, Disa- 
bility Pay, and the Espionage Act. 

The First National Convention of the American Legion was held 
at Minneapolis, November 10-12, 1919. Col. Henry D. Lindsley, who 
presided at the St. Louis Caucus, called the meeting to order, and act- 
ed as chairman of the convention. There were two delegates from each 
congressional district in the country. Franklin D'Olier was elected 
commander of the national organization. An impressive feature of 
this convention was an enthusiastic parade on November 11 as the 
first annual commemoration of Armistice Day. 

To the question, "What are some of the things that the Legion 
has done?" A pamphlet entitled, "Facts About The American Legion," 
makes the following statements: 

"At the National Convention in Minneapolis a national Ameri- 
canization commission of the Legion was created to realize the Le- 
gion's slogan of one hundred per cent Americanism through the 
conduct of a continuous and constructive patriotic, educational cam- 
paign throughout the land. 

"That Congress was requested to deport Victor L. Berger, the 
German-born convicted traitor recently expelled from the House of 
Representatives. 

"That Congress pass laws providing for the deportation of all 
first paper aliens who have renounced their intentions of becoming 
citizens. 

"That Congress prevent the release, before the expiration of 
their sentences, of draft dodgers and others convicted of offenses 
against the successful prosecution of the war, and where it is pos- 
sible deport such persons upon their release from prison. 

292 



THE AMERICAN LEGION 



"That Congress immediately investigate the release of conscien- 
tious objectors and direct the War Department to recall honorable 
discharges granted them. 

"While recognizing the obligation of the Government to those 
who served in the war, the convention declined to endorse any special 
cash bonus. 

"Congress was requested to enact a law to be known as 'The 
American Legion Home Founding Act', embodying therein these 
features: (a) Reclamation of unproductive lands by the Government 
for settlement by ex-service men; (b) development of rural com- 
munities by government loans; (c) direct loans for the purpose and 
development of farm or city homes. 

"That Congress award fifty dollars a month to all disabled men 
immediately upon discharge from hospitals and continue to pay this 
sum until they shall draw compensation under the War Risk insur- 
ance or the vocational rehabilitation acts. Seventy-five dollars a 
month is urged for men with tuberculosis. 

"Increase in the minimum compensation under the vocational re- 
habilitation act from eighty dollars to one hundred dollars per month. 

"Liberalization of the provisions of section three of the voca- 
tional rehabilitation act so as to include all disabled persons. 

"Immediate passage of the Sweet bill, amending, however, the 
compensation features so as to include the same family allowance as 
authorized in Section 204 of the War Risk Act. 

"That the National Legislative Committee of the Legion inves- 
tigate all complaints of irregularities and injustices suffered by ex- 
service men at the hands of the War Risk Insurance Bureau and the 
Federal Board for Vocational Education. 

"That Congress place all ex-service men on the same basis as to 
retirement for disability as is enjoyed by members of the regular 
army. 

"A legislative committee of the Legion has been appointed by 
the National Commander with offices in Washington and they are 
presenting all these matters to Congress and asking for immediate 
action." 

The American Legion is composed of a separate department in 
each state. These departments are in turn divided into local units. 
Concerning the organization of such units the Legion constitution 
says: 

"The local unit shall be termed the Post, which shall have a mini- 

293 



SONS OF MEN 



mum membership of fifteen. No Post shall be received into this or- 
ganization until it shall have received a charter. A Post desiring a 
charter shall apply to the State Organization and the charter shall be 
issued by the National Executive Committee whenever recommended 
by the State Organization. The National Executive Committee shall 
not issue a charter in the name of any living person. 

The officers of the local organization shall be as follows: 
One Post Commander 
One Post Vice-Commander 
One Post Adjutant 
One Post Finance Officer 
One Post Historian 
One Post Chaplain 
and such appointive officers as may be provided by the State Organi- 
zation." 

After the numerous activities in which Evansville participated 
during the war, it was only to be expected that this city should take 
steps in the formation of a local veterans' organization. 

Funkhouser Post, Department of Indiana, The American Legion, 
had its inception January 5, 1919, when a mass meeting was called in 
the auditorium of the Vanderburgh County Memorial Coliseum and 
Marshal Foch Post, No. 1, World "War Veterans of America, was 
formed. Lieut. Morris R. Levi (Infantry) was elected first command- 
er with the following executive committee: Lieut. Charles J. Schwab. 
(Artillery); Paul H. Schmidt (Navy); Pvt. Noble J. Johnson, (Ma 
rines) ; Lieut. Charles Sursa, (Artillery) ; Capt. Robert J. Mitchell, 
(Artillery); Lieut. Roy Foster, (Artillery); Mech. First Class Alva 
Carnahan, (Navy) ; Pvt. William Dooley, (Marines) ; Pvt. Crafton 
Ackerman, (Aviation); Capt. Richard C. Waller, (Infantry). 

The commander of Marshal Foch Post, Morris R. Levi, who took 
the initiative to organize the war veterans of Evansville, assumed a 
natural leadership that was conceded to him by virtue of those quali- 
ties that he displayed during his service in France. He was among 
the first to volunteer. Entering the service on May 9, 1917, he was 
sent to the First Officers' Training Camp, Ft. Benjamin Harrison, 
where he remained until August 15. He sailed from New York, Sep- 
tember 11, 1917, on the Steamer Mongolia for Halifax. There the 
vessel joined a convoy of fourteen ships carrying Canadian and Aus- 
tralian, as well as American troops. 

294 



THE AMERICAN LEGION 




Morris R. Levi 

One of the organizers of the American Legion in Indiana 
First State Vice-President 



295 



SONS OF MEN 



From October 1, to December 1, he received training in the First 
American Infantry Officers' School, La Valbonne, France. On Decem- 
ber 1, 1917, he joined the 165th Infantry, Rainbow Division, and en- 
tered the trenches February 21, 1918. He was gassed while in action, in 
the Forest of Parroy, Lorraine, March 21, 1918. On April 15 he re- 
turned to the Lorraine front on the Baccarat sector, and two weeks 
later was transferred to the Thirty-Second Division. He served as an 
instructor in the Divisional School of Intelligence until that division 
moved to the Alsatian front. 

For a time he assisted in the formation of regimental intelligence 
service, and was with the first American contingent to cross the line 
in what had been German territory before 1914. From May 18 to July 
18 he served as platoon leader in the 127th Infantry, and as chief of 
battalion scouts in Alsace. Then he moved with his division to the 
Marne salient. On July 24 he was in support of a Scotch Division at 
Soissons. On July 25 he moved with his division in trucks to Cha- 
teau-Thierry and two days later took the line in the Second Battle 
of the Marne as regimental liaison officer, 127th Infantry. In this 
capacity he served during the drive from the Marne to the Vesle 
River, and was with the regiment when it captured the city of Fismes, 
on the Vesle, straightening out the Rheims-Soissons line and elim- 
inating the Marne salient. 

Lieut. Levi was then chosen rs an instructor to return to Amer- 
ica. On his return he was promoted to rank of First Lieutenant, In- 
fantry, and received a letter of commendation from his regimental 
commander and a recommendation for a captaincy. He was assigned 
in America to the 98th Division, which was never formed because of 
the signing of the Armistice. His last camp in America was Camp 
McClellan, Alabama, where he remained until his discharge, in com- 
mand of a company of colored troops. On December 13, 1918, he re- 
ceived his discharge, and was commissioned in the infantry reserve 
corps, February 10, 1919. 

It was decided by Marshal Foch Post that it would endeavor to 
obtain a national charter from Congress and expand into a national 
organization. To this end, a bill providing for such a charter was 
drawn up and presented in the national House of Representatives by 
Representative G. K. Denton and in the Senate by Senator James E. 
Watson. It was the first veterans' organization bill presented to 
Congress after the World War. The bills were sent into committee, 
but had not been reported out when Congress adjourned. 

296 



THE AMERICAN LEGION 



In the meantime the World War Veterans devoted themselves 
to the cause of the returning soldiers. Efforts were made to find 
employment for those who could not get work; stranded soldiers were 
helped out of the city toward their destinations; military funerals 
were held when desired by the families of deceased service men; and, 
since the sudden end of the war had let down the bars that held dis- 
loyalists in check, the World War Veterans looked sharply into any 
case that savored of latent pro-Germanism. 

About this time The American Legion was brought into being in 
France, and had taken a place in the public eye in America. In In- 
dianapolis early in May, a state World War Veterans' organization 
had been organized. Evansville had not affiliated, but in recogni- 
tion of the fact that Vanderburgh County had been the pioneer in 
service men's organization work in Indiana, Morris R. Levi, com- 
mander of Marshal Foch Post, was elected a state vice-president. 
Word was then sent broadcast that The American Legion would be 
organized at a national caucus to be held May 8-10 at St. Louis, Mo. 

Satisfied that The American Legion was destined to be the great 
World War organization of America, Marshal Foch Post voted to 
join the state World War Veteran organization, affiliated with it and 
sent a delegate to the national caucus. Commander Levi attended 
the caucus from Evansville and was accompanied by T. Morton Mc- 
Donald, Princeton, Ind., who also represented the First District. 

On Friday, June 13, a gathering of Marshal Foch Post members, 
decided to abandon efforts to obtain a national charter and to af- 
filiate with The American Legion, the constitution of which they ac- 
cepted and adopted. The following were the first officers of the local 
post of The American Legion: Noble J. Johnson, commander; Charles 
Kuster, vice-commander; Paul H. Schmidt, secretary and treasurer, 
and Richard C. Waller, district representative. The Executive Com- 
mittee was composed of Arthur C. Stone, chairman, Morris R. Levi, 
Dr. Benoni Rose, Dr. William Ehrich, and Henry B. Walker. 

The following signed the application for a charter in the Indiana 
Branch of The American Legion: Noble J. Johnson, Charles Kuster, 
F, L. Summers, W. G. Downs, Earl Smith, Richard Waller, Oscar J. 
Gross, H. J. Valentine, Charles R. Johnson, Ralph W. Plummer, Emil 
J. Wiggers, Clarence H. Schmitt, Morris R. Levi, William B. Simon, 
Paul H. Schmidt, Walter F. Wiggers, C. F. Laval, O. A. Dietz, Gavins 
Baughman, Oscar Daussman, Otto Roeder, Harry M. Roth, Herman H. 

297 



SONS OF MEN 



Holtmann, Warren Morris Woods, C. Otto Holtmann. Albert C. Gro- 
notte, Geo. F. Van Horn and Henry B. Walker. 

The First Commander of the Evansville Post of the American 
Legion, Noble J. Johnson, appreciated thoroughly the point of view 
of the returned soldier. He enlisted at Evansville July 28, 1917, and 
was sent to Louisville. On August 6, 1917, he was sent to Paris 
Island, S. C, where he received training until January 8, 1918, when he 
was transferred to Quantico, Va. On February 2 he was sent to 
Philadelphia and went aboard the S. S. Von Steuben three days later. 
After a sojourn of several days in New York Harbor he left for 
France. 

On February 26, 1918. he landed at Brest. He left for Verdun 
March 1, and after riding in a box car for two days and two nights he 
stopped at St. Aignon. For two weeks he received training at Chatti- 
lon-Sur Chere, and then left for the front in the Verdun Sector. He 
was assigned to the 96th Company, 6th Regiment, U. S. Marines, 2nd 
Division, on March 12, 1918. The sector was under constant shell fire 
until about June, while the enemy were battling their way to Paris. 
The gallant Marines of the Second Division were largely instrumental 
in checking the enemy in the District of Chateau-Thierry. The bat- 
talion which Private Johnson served was ordered to reach a railroad 
track near Bouresches, but when they reached their objective they 
had no time to dig in. Twenty-eight men of the battalion including 
Private Johnson took the town and held it until June 10, when the 
men were relieved and ordered to another part of the Belleau Wood. 
During the night of June 13 Private Johnson received a serious gas 
wound. He was sent to Base Hospital No. 27 at Angiers, France, 
where he received treatment. Here he remained until the latter part 
of September, when he was transferred to a convalescent camp near 
Neviers, France. On December 8, 1918, he sailed from Brest on the 
Martha Washington and landed at Newport News, Va., December 
22, and was discharged February 20, 1919. 

His heroism was acknowledged by a citation which he received 
on Decoration Day, 1920. The citation states that the Sixth regi- 
ment of Marines under command of Colonel Albertus W. Catlin, 
"was thrown on a front violently attacked by the enemy. It imme- 
diately asserted itself as a unit of first order on its very entry on the 
fighting line, broke down, together with the French troops, a violent 
attack by the enemy on an important part of the position, and be- 
gan, on its own account a series of offensive operations. During 

298 



THE AMERICAN LEGION 




Noble J. Johnson 

First Commander American Legion 



2»9 



SONS OF MEN 



the course of these operations, thanks to the brilliant courage, vigor, 
spirit, and tenacity of its men who overcame all hardships and losses, 
thanks to the activity and energy of its officers, and thanks also to 
the personal action of its chief, General J. Harbord, the 4th Brigade 
found its efforts crowned with success. In well co-ordinated action 
its two regiments and machine gun battalion realized, after twelve 
days of incessant fighting (from the 2nd to the 13th of June, 1918) 
on a very difficult terrain, an advance varying from 1200 to 2000 
metres, on a front of 4 kilometres, capturing a large amount of ma- 
teril, taking more than 500 prisoners, inflicting on the enemy con- 
siderable losses, and capturing two objectives of first importance, the 
village Bouresches and Belleau Wood. 

The Commanding General-in-Chief, 

(Signed) PETAIN." 

On June 27 it was decided to change the name of the local Post 
from Marshal Foch to Funkhouser Post No. 8 in conformity with the 
Legion's law that a post cannot be named for a living person. The 
name was adopted following the death at Newport News, Va., of 
Lieut. Albert Funkhouser, the second son of Mr. and Mrs. Albert W. 
Funkhouser to give his life in the World War. 

Membership in Funkhouser Post increased rapidly until, when 
the first national convention of The American Legion was held in 
Minneapolis November 11, 1919, there were approximately 700 paid-up 
members. Morris R. Levi and Richard C. Waller were named by the 
state convention as delegates to the Minneapolis convention and when 
Mr. Waller was unable to attend, his place was taken by W. Lee 
Smith. 

As the matter of funds was engaging the attention of the mem- 
bers during the latter part of October, "Who Can Tell?", an enter- 
tainment written by members of the A. E. F. was produced at the 
Strand Theater, the last three days of that month by members of 
Funkhouser Post. This play was staged under the direction of Harold 
J. Gilles and Carl B. Minch who were members of the overseas cast. 
Several hundred dollars were added to the Post's funds as a result of 
this enterprise. 

When the second election of officers occurred, Dec. 16, 1919, the 
following were elected: Harold W. Kraft, commander; C. Otto Holt- 
mann, vice-commander; Cavins Baughman, adjutant; Richard C. Wal- 
ler, treasurer; Rabbi Lee J. Levinger, chaplain; Dr. Benoni S. Rose, 
W. Lee Smith, and Walter Wiggers were elected members of the exe- 

300 



THE AMERICAN LEGION 




Harold W. Kraft 

Second Commander American Legion 
Present Executive Secretary 



301 



SONS OF MEN 



cutive committee, with Arthur C. Stone and Morris R. Levi hold-over 
members. 

The new commander of Funkhouser Post No. 8, Harold W. Kraft, 
had been one of the most active supporters of the Legion. He en- 
listed April 6, 1917, in Troop A, First Indiana Cavalry, and was pro- 
moted to sergeant, May 15, 1917. On August 21, he left for Camp 
Shelby, Miss. In October he was transferred to Headquarters Com- 
pany, 151st Infantry, and was sent to the Third Officers' Training 
Camp, Leon Springs, San Antonio, Tex., on January 5, 1918. In April 
he completed his training, and was commissioned Second Lieutenant. 
May 10, 1918. He was assigned to the 152nd Infantry, and remained 
with this organization until it was disbanded in Le Mans, France, 
November 9, 1918. 

On October 5. 1918, he sailed from Hoboken, N. J., on the British 
ship, H. M. S. City of Exeter. Two weeks later he arrived at Man- 
chester. England. He reached La Havre October 30, 1918. and en- 
trained for Clisson near Nantes. There he remained until Novem- 
ber 7, when he was sent to Le Mans. 

He was assigned to the 49th Infantry on November 15, 1918, and 
remained on duty with this organization until December 24. He was 
then sent to the American Embarkation Headquarters and was as- 
signed to the Forwarding Camp, Le Mans, France. At this camp he 
remained on duty until June 30, 1919, when he was ordered to Brest 
for transportation to America. He sailed from Brest on the U. S. S. 
Leviathan and arrived in New York July 5, 1919. After a short so- 
journ at Camp Dix he was discharged on July 10, 1919, and returned 
lo his home in Evansville. 

For months Funkhouser Post had made a lively fight to induce 
the executive board of The Patriot Fund to turn over to the treasurer 
of the Legion, what remained of the funds subscribed during the war 
for the support of soldier auxiliary organizations such as the Y. M. 
C. A.. Knights of Columbus, Jewish Welfare, and Red Cross. This 
fight reached its climax in March 1920 \rhen the board voted unani- 
mously to give to Funkhouser Post approximately $8,000 together 
with all the outstanding claims against those who had not met the 
obligations they had contracted. 

In order to take better care of the wounded and disabled men 
in this section, the post at once took over the rooms at 803-804 Citi- 
zens Bank Building that had been formerly occupied by the War 
Camp Community Service. Harold Kraft resigned as commander 

. 302 



THE AMERICAN LEGION 




C. Otto Holtmann 

Present Commander of The American Legion 



i03 



SONS OF MEN 



and was elected Executive Secretary with sufficient salary to induce 
him to devote all his time to the work of the Legion. C. Otto Holt- 
mann became commander and Chris Wuetherich, a disabled Marine, 
was made vice-commander. 

His enthusiastic interest in the work of the American Legion 
won Commander C. Otto Holtmann the leadership of the Funkhouser 
Post No. 8. He entered the service June 26, 1918, and was sent to 
Camp Sherman, Ohio, where he was assigned to 309th Engineers on 
July 17, 1918. On August 24, 1918, he went to Camp Mills, N. Y., 
and sailed for France September 9 on the English ship Scandanavian. 
He arrived in France September 25, and was stationed at St. 
Germain until October 17 when he was transferred to Camp Mon- 
tair, St. Nazaire, France. Here he was engaged in railroad construc- 
tion. On the memorable Armistice Day he was sent to Savenay to 
take charge of the brick construction work of base hospitals. Here 
on February 3, 1919, he was run down by an ambulance and his head 
was severely injured. He was taken to Base Hospital No. 88 where 
he remained for seven weeks. 

He sailed for America on March 20, 1919, on the U. S. S. Great 
Northern and arrived in New York seven days later. He entered the 
hospital at Camp Mills, and on April 3, 1919, was transferred to the 
Base Hospital at Camp Sherman. He was discharged on April 17, 
1919. 

Early in March W. Lee Smith, being a candidate for public of- 
fice, resigned as a member of the executive committee in accordance 
with the rule that "the organization shall be absolutely non-partisan, 
and shall not be used for the dissemination of partisan principles or 
the promotion of the candidacy of any person seeking public office or 
preferment." Fred Kost was elected to fill this vacancy. 

About this time Dr. Stephen French wss named Athletic Direc- 
tor of the Legion with Walter Wiggers as assistant. They organized 
a baseball team to bear the name of Funkhouser Post and to help 
promote the Legion policy of clean sports. Among other activities 
the Funkhouser Post No. 8 has perpetuated the memory of Evr.ns- 
ville's Gold Stars by planting a tree for each one of them in Sunset 
Park, marked by a bronze shield. 

Evansville's service man's organization in the second year of 
its existence has the confidence of the public that it looks, not to his 
own advancement, but to the welfare of the community at large. 
With its membership crowding the thousand mark, with hope that 

304 



THE AMERICAN LEGION 




SONS OF MEN 



before the next twelve months have elapsed seventy-five per cent of 
Vanderburgh County service men will have their names on the Post's 
records, Funkhouser Post sees in the near future the distinction of 
having on its roll more names of former service men than any simi- 
lar organization in the Department of Indiana. The idea of the 
Legion has been well disseminated; for it is known that: "It means 
the betterment of the most stable forces in our community life, not 
only of today but for the next forty or fifty years. It means the 
proper extension of the influence of the most powerful factor for 
patriotism in our country — the one-time service man. It does not 
mean patriotism bounded on one side by a brass band and on the 
other by a dressy uniform and a reunion banner. It means real pa- 
triotism in its broadest sense — a clean body politic; a clean national 
soul and a clean international conscience." 




30(3 



CHAPTER VIII 



The IPelcome Home Celebrdtion 

There's a happy time coming, 

When the boys come home. 
There's a glorious day coming, 

When the boys come home. 

» * * V 

Our love shall go to meet them. 

When the boys come home. 
To bless them and to greet them. 

When the boys come home. 

And the fame of their endeavor \ 

Time and change shall not dissever 

From the nation's heart forever, 
When the boys come home. 

-JOHM HAY 

When the Armistice was signed and the war ended the thought 
uppermost in every soldier's mind was not concerning political or 
economic reconstruction after the world upheaval, nor did he even 
think of America's part in the impending settlement. The thought 
that preoccupied his mind was "When do we go home?" He felt that 
he honorably completed the work he was called to do; and whether 
he was in an American camp in comparative comfort, or had been 
experiencing the hardships of trench life, he yearned to return home 
and resume the life of a civilian. As for the folk at home, the army 
behind the army, little need be said about their longing to see the 
boys come home. Their anxiety during the war turned to an impa- 
tient expectation when the Armistice was signed. How joyful and 
proud was every family to see their returned hero, broadened by ex- 
perience, and improved in health. The gratitude for his safety was 
enhanced by the thought of those who left, but who will never return. 

307 



SONS OF MEN 




Louis H. Kramer 

General Chairman of the Welcome Home Celebration 

Committees and Director of Supplies 

and Advertising in all Campaigns 

and Drives 



308 



THE WELCOME HOME CELEBRATION 

The community, as well as individuals, felt grateful, and desired 
to celebrate the homecoming of the soldiers, and to express an ap- 
preciation for their efforts and accomplishments. It was a spon- 
taneous feeling, expressed simultaneously in all sections of the city. 
When Evansville planned to celebrate its centennial anniversary al- 
ready postponed because of the war, by planning an exposition to be 
held in Bosse Field, October 14 to 24, it was decided that Tuesday, 
October 21, should be designated as Welcome Home Day. As the 
Chamber of Commerce had charge of the Centennial Exposition, it 
took the initiative in planning the Welcome Home celebration. 

To get an idea how the citizens of Evansville would want to wel- 
come the returned soldiers the following circular letter was sent to 
leading citizens of Evansville: "Kindly use this sheet and make any 
suggestion on it as to what you think would be a suitable celebration 
for the Welcome Home, and turn it in Friday night at the meeting. 
Be free to make these suggestions as they will give us a basis to work 
on." Among the suggestions which were made the following are 
typical: "A big parade in the forenoon, including industrial exhibits, 
as well as military and civil participants in soldier welfare work, aft- 
ernoon a large picnic or reunion in Garvin's Park, with athletic at- 
tractions in the baseball field, at night large fire works display." "Have 
a banquet upon their return with lots to eat. During the meal enter- 
tain them with musical numbers of a nature to please them, and end 
it with a dance." One answer suggested a monster parade, and in 
the evening "a ball at the Coliseum for the soldiers." Some of the 
letters advised that a speaker of national repute should be brought 
to the city although one urged to "eliminate a lot of day speeches." 
With these and many other suggestions as a basis for planning. Chair- 
man Louis H. Kramer, veteran of many activities during the war, sent 
the following letter to the secretaries of the various organizations in 
the city: 

"The Evansville Chamber of Commerce desires to arrange for 
a suitable welcome on the occasion of our boys returning to Evans- 
ville. 

"Your Service Flag was placed in your headquarters for the ex- 
press purpose of keeping in loving memory, by the stars placed there- 
on, those of your members who one day marched away to fight, and 
if need be, die, to save the world from the tyranny of autocracy. Per- 
haps some will never return and their stars of blue have already 
turned to stars of gold. As time goes on, in memory, they will grow 

309 



SONS OF MEN 



more and more dear to your organization. But while some have 
fallen, we are indeed thankful that most will return, and when they 
do, we want them to know that Evansville thoroughly appreciates the 
work they have accomplished. 

"To arrange for suitable welcome, it will be necessary for us 
first to perfect an organization. Therefore, will you be so kind as 
to appoint three members of your organization who will be ready to 
meet with similar committees from other organizations at call. Please 
submit their names at the earliest possible moment." 

At a meeting attended by 200 persons representing about eighty 
organizations, it was decided unanimously that every organization 
in the city select one representative to serve on a General Commit- 
tee. Of this body twenty-five members constituted an Executive 
Committee, while the others were organized in several sub-commit- 
tees. The committee to deal with the finances was composed of Al- 
bert J. Veneman, chairman; Clarence P. Hammerstein, Paul Freund, 
Mrs. A. J. Schulz, Isidor Kahn, C. L. Howard. 

That the Welcome Home Celebrg'tion was not an enterprise of a 
few individuals, but a co-operation of the entire community, can be 
seen from the variety and number of the following organizations 
which participated: 

ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTED ON 
WELCOME HOME CELEBRATION COMMITTEE. 

CHURCHES 



First Baptist Church 

St. Lucas Evangelical 

Walnut St. Presbyterian 

St. John's Evangelical 

Trinity Lutheran 

St. Paul's Lutheran 

Grace Memorial Presbyterian 

Bayard Park M. E. 

Simpson M. E. 

Trinity M. E. 

Wesley M. E. 

Bethlehem M. E. 

St. Benedict's Church 



St. Mary's Church 
Church of the Sacred Heart 
Church of the Assumption 
St. Joseph's Church 
Linwood Evangelical 
St. Mark's Evangelical Church 
St. Paul's Evangelical Church 
Zion Evangelical Church 
Bethel Evangelical Church 
Jefferson Ave. Presbyterian 
Washington Ave. Temple 
Cong. Adath Israel 



310 



THE WELCOME HOME CELEBRATION 



LODGES AND SOCIETIES 



Fraternal Order of Pilgrims 

Ahwanah Council No. 292 

Improved Order of Red Men 

Fitzhugh Lee Chapter, U. D. C. 

Orion Lodge No. 35, Knights ol 
Pythias 

Women's Franchise League 

Local Council of Women's Clubs 

W. C. T. U. 

Knights of Columbus 

Y. M. C. A. 

Diana Rebeckah Lodge No. 256 

National Union Assurance So- 
ciety 

Independent Order of B'nai 
Brith 

Uniform Rank Knights of Py- 
thias 

St. Michael Benevolence Society 

Tribe of Ben Hur, Vanderburgh 
Court No. 127 

Fraternal Order of Owls, Nest 
30 

La Valette Commandery No. 15 
Knight Templars 

Independent Order of Foresters 



Benevolent and Protective Or- 
der of Elks 

St. George Lodge No. 143, 

Knights of Pythias 
War Mothers 
American Legion 
Camp No. 37, United Spanish 

War Veterans 
United Spanish War Veterans' 

Auxiliary 
Red Cross 
Ohio Valley Lodge No. 741 I. O. 

O. F. 
Pioneer District No. 205, Court 

of Honor 
Violet Circle 
Diana Lodge No. 256 
Reed Lodge, Masonic Order 
Shriners 
Daughters of Rebeckah Colfax 

Lodge No. 34 
Eagle Lodge No. 579, I. O. O. F. 
Independent Order of Foresters, 

Lamasco Court, 3194 
Evansville Aerie, No. 427, F. 

O. E. 
Modern Woodmen, Linden 

Camp No. 8615 



UNIONS 



Bricklayers' Union 

Printers' Local Union 

National Brotherhood of Opera- 
tive Potters, No. 5 

Paperhangers' Local No. 464 

International Molders' Union 

Central Labor Union 

United Mine Workers of Amer- 
ica 



Carpenters' Local Union No. 90 

Musicians' Union 

Painters' Union 

Stationary Engineers' Union 

Amalgamated Sheet Metal 

Workers 
Glass Bottle Blowers' Union, 

Branch No. 117 



311 



SONS OF MEN 

COLORED ORGANIZATIONS 

Colored War Mothers Afro-American Mission 

Bland Ave. Church Cumberland Presbyterian 
A. M. E. Zion Church Church 

Hardison Cumberland Presby- C. M. E. Church 

terian Church Little Hope Baptist Church 
Liberty Baptist Church 

MISCELLANEOUS 

Ministerial Association Rotary Club 

Manufacturers' Association Kiwanis Club 

Evansville Association of Credit Real Estate Board 

Men Retail Merchants Bureau 

School Board Travelers' Protective Associa- 
Draft Board tion 

Boy Scouts 

Throughout the winter and the following summer the work of 
perfecting and executing plans for the coming event was going on 
apace. 

Many a letter opening with the typical "You are hereby notified 
of your appointment to work" on such and such a committee, was 
dispatched, many a meeting was held, and reports of progress given. 
The community was accustomed to plan big events, for it had not 
been long since numerous drives and campaigns incident to the war 
had been carried on with great success. Evansville gained experience 
in organization; the time had come to utilize that experience in plan- 
ning a welcome to the returned heroes. 

When the interest of the various elements in the community had 
been engaged in the enterprise, the question of the program for the 
festivity came up for decision. 

To give the occasion its due significance it was decided to bring 
a speaker who is known throughout the nation. An effort was made 
to have Gen. Pershing speak on October 21. While on a business trip 
to Washington, D. C, during the early part of September, 1919, Gen- 
eral Chairman Louis H. Kramer through Rep. O. R. Luhring and 
Sen. James Watson made an effort to bring the hero. of the A. E. F. 
to Evansville. A letter to Gen. Pershing said: "No doubt, you are 

:iV2 



THE WELCOME HOME CELEBRATION 

aware that Gresham, one of the first men killed in the War, was from 
Evansville and we feel that it would be fitting for you to make us a 
visit on this day. We hope that you can make your arrangements 
to accept our invitation. The plans for your part in this day would 
be left entirely to your judgment and wishes." For the same purpose 
an appeal was made to Sec. Newton Baker to help "make this one 
of the greatest days in the history of this city." 

The following reply was received from Gen. Pershing: "I sin- 
cerely regret that the uncertainty of my plans at the present time 
will prevent me from accepting your invitation for October twenty- 
first on service men's day at Centennial Exposition." 

After many difficulties General Leonard Wood promised to come 
and do what he could "in the way of recognition and appreciation of 
the men who have done so splendidly for us at home and abroad." 

Tuesday, October 21, was a damp, cloudy, disagreeable day, but 
an ineffable joy prevaded the city. It was a memorable day, not to 
be effaced from the history of Evansville. It was the goal for all 
yearnings, the realization of all hopes for a speedy and successful 
termination of the struggle. Victory on that day was a sweet word 
on the lips of those who had sacrificed for its achievement. The dawn 
of peace was at hand and Evansville on that day inaugurated the new 
era in an auspicious manner. Mayor Benjamin Bosse declared the 
day a holiday "In order that fitting honor be done to our beloved sol- 
diers and sailors." Many business establishments were closed, schools 
were dismissed. Main Street was gaily decorated in red, white, and 
blue — Evansville was in festive mood that day. 

The reception committee headed by Albert W. Funkhouser met 
Major General Leonard Wood 7:55 a. m. at the C. & E. I. station, and 
took him for breakfast to the McCurdy Hotel. The Reception Com- 
mittee was composed as follows: 

A. W. Funkhouser, Chairman Walter E. Barton 

Samuel L. May Albert J. Venneman 

Hon. Benjamin Bosse James F. Ensle 

Hon. O. R. Luhring Eugene Stevens 

Morris Levi Marcus S. Sonntag 

Richard Waller Herman M. Baker 

Edwin F. Karges A. V. Burch 

Lynn H. McCurdy John J. Nolan 

Walter Weber Ray Graham 

313 



SONS OF MEN 



Orion Norcross F. Von Behren 

Leroy Foster E. H. Heyman 

Noble J. Johnson Dan F. McCarthy 

Theodore Campbell Lt. Col. L. W. Mosely 

Louis Roberts Maj. Geo. Pond 

Clyde Baugh Stephen Cook • 

P. P. Carroll Henry B. Walker 

Albert W. Hartig Arthur C. Stone 

The parade was forty-five minutes late. The weather was not 
favorable for promenading. Main Street, however, was thronged. 
Large crowds turned out to see with pride the 1500 service men in 
uniform march. The Parade Committee was composed of Morris 
Levi, Chairman; Paul Schmidt, Walter F. Wiggers, Roy Foster, Ar- 
thur C. Stone, J. F. Blum, J. W. Spain, Ferdinand Hoffman, and Orion 
Norcross. This committee marshaled the various units so that they 
fell in line on Riverside Ave. and marched down Main Street. Gen- 
eral Wood with his staff led the parade in automobiles. The staff 
included Lieut. W. E. Stanley, aide to the general, Lieut. Col. W. L. 
Moseley, Maj. G. B. Pond, Lieut. Leroy Foster, Lieut. Stephen Cook, 
Lieut. Daniel McCarthy, and Lieut. A. C. Stone. After the General 
came the Marine band followed by two platoons of Marines formed 
on Adams Ave. and commanded by Sgt. W. G. Ellwanger. Then came 
the Artillery, formed on Linden St. and commanded by Maj. Jay 
Shafer. The Infantry formed on Chandler Ave. and was commanded 
by Capt. Orion Norcross. Lieut. C. P. Hammerstein led the Cavalry, 
Aviation Corps, and Engineers, which fell in line on Mulberry St. 
The Chemical Warfare unit, Motor Transport, Quartermaster, and 
Ordnance were commanded by Lieut. Rietman, and formed on Oak 
St. The navy men with their band formed on Cherry Street and 
were led by Ensign Ed. Karges. The Medical Corps was commanded 
by Lieut. Col. H. M. Baker and formed on Chestnut St. Then came 
members of the Army Nurses' Corps and the colored soldiers. 

Whether it was the long march or the spirit of the day so rem- 
iniscent of army life, the soldiers had a voracious appetite when they 
reached Garvin Park. The Dinner Committee was composed of Mrs. 
A. J. Schulz, Chairman; Mrs. Boaz Crawford, Mrs. Orion Norcross, 
Mrs. Chas. Schultz, Mrs. E. A. Cox, Chas. Seeley, S. L. Carter, F. W. 
Greise, Julian Hoffar, R. N. Atkinson. It had foreseen this contin- 
gency, and provided an elaborate feast. The menu included fried 

314 



THE WELCOME HOME CELEBRATION 

chicken, barbecue sandwiches, potato salad, olives, celery, cake, pie, 
ice cream, and soft drinks. 

When the program began in the afternoon the soldiers, sailors, 
and marines occupied the central sections of the grandstand. The 
committee on Seating Arrangements was composed of R. H. Under- 
wood, Chairman; William Kinnel, C. Althoff, W. M. Wheeler. L. C. 
Shipherd. Mrs. E. E. Hoskinson sang the Star Spangled Banner ac- 
companied by the Marine Band. General Wood and the sold"iers stood 
at salute. Rev. Mr. Plummer received the service flag from Mrs. Alice 
Dodd and presented it to the American Legion in behalf of the Service 
Star Legion. W. Lee Smith replied for the American Legion. When 
General Leonard Wood was presented by Albert W. Funkhouser the 
multitude of 15,000 people rose to its feet and cheered him. In his 
brief address General Wood said: 

"I'm here today to welcome the soldiers, sailors and marines who 
represented us in the war. You men lived up to the best traditions 
of our service. We sent you over to get the boche and you got him. 
You made a record for American soldiers that will live forever. You 
must stand always for law and order. There must be the same demo- 
cracy, the same service that was shown in the war. If you belong to 
the forces of labor, back them up in ordered effort to get the right 
thing. Don't be led into any agitation. Smash the red flag and 
everybody who follows it. The red flag is the enemy of everything 
you fought for and has no place among us. We are for one language, 
that of the declaration of independence, and, one loyalty, to the 
American people. 

"The American Legion is a fine institution and I hope you will 
get into it. * * * * 

"There are four and a half million of you. We trust you as we 
trust no other element. We want you to have the same democracy 
in civil life as in the firing line, where all were shoulder to shoulder, 
fighting for a common purpose. 

"Good luck to you." 

In addressing the Service Star Legion the General said: "We all 
respect you, honor you and pity you. God bless you." 

After the speech General Wood aided by numerous assistants 
presented medals to the soldiers. The bronze medal attached to a 
red, white and blue ribbon had the soldier's name inscribed and stated 
that it was presented "by the citizens of Evansville, Indiana, in grate- 
ful recognition of patriotic services 1917-1918." The War Camp 

315 



SONS OF MEN 



Community Service had general charge of the registration of names 
and distribution of the medals. The Medal Committee was composed 
of C. W. Clarke, Chairman; Carl Lauenstein, J. C. Schmitt, J. Boink, 
M. Goldman, Geo. W. Hornby, and Capt. Staiger. 

Throughout the day the returned soldiers were welcomed by the 
various exhibits at the Centennial Exposition. The numerous feat- 
ures and attractions of that gala day invited the boys in uniform. 
All recognized that it was their day. Nothing was left undone which 
might contribute to his enjoyment. The sumptuous dinner and the 
formal program were followed by an entertainment which began at 
3:20 p. m. The Entertainment Committee included J. J. Nolan, Chair- 
man; H. H. Home, Howard Roosa, A. W. Funkhouser, Rev. Mr. Plum- 
mer, Harry Loewenthal, Rev. Ernest Werner, Hon. 0. R. Luhring, and 
Marie Messick. Rain made the several platforms and apparatus slip- 
pery and even dangerous, but the hippodrome circus performance, 
which at times threatened to end disastrously for some of the acro- 
bats, continued until five o'clock. 

The climax of the celebration was marked by a military ball that 
evening held in the Coliseum. The Coliseum Committee which dec- 
orated the building and arranged the numerous details of the final 
festivity, was composed of Chas. Seeley, Chairman; E. K. Ashby, Dr. 
J. R. Mitchell, ^. B. Cintura, J. H. Igleheart, Viola Kissel, Halma 
Dodds, Norma Kissel, and Mrs. Boaz Crawford. The ball at the Col- 
iseum will long be remembered for its picturesque decorations, for 
the refreshments which were brought from the lavish afternoon din- 
ner, and especially for the spirit of gaiety and pervading good fel- 
lowship. During the evening General Wood spoke a few words to 
the merrymakers before his departure for Chicago. A similar cele- 
bration for the colored soldiers was held in Evans Hall, and was in 
charge of Logan Stewart ,Chairman ; Mrs. E. A. Cox, Mrs. Roach, 
and Jonath Jewitt, 

The evening's program concluded the Welcome Home Celebration 
which formally marked the completion of Evansvi^e's war activities. 
In these activities this city made a record to which it may look not 
apologetically, but with pardonable pride it may look retrospectively 
upon the great enterprise as an opportunity in a crisis when Evans- 
ville was called upon to help, and it was not found wanting. 



316 



SUPPLEMENT 



WHY THEY FELL 



An Historical Interpretation of the 
Causes of the War 



IPhy They Fell 



BY HEIMAN BLATT 



Theodore Roosevelt, who stood for the finest type of American- 
ism said, "Unjust war is to be abhorred; but woe to the nation that 
does not make ready to hold its own in time of need against all who 
would harm it!" President Wilson, the great contemporary leader 
of America, said, "The right is more precious than peace." 

These were the motives which actuated the Gold Stars when they 
made the supreme sacrifice in the service of their country. At all 
times the world has been a battleground between the forces of Right 
and Wrong. Every principle, every ideal is a war note, and the most 
quiet, uneventful life may at any time be exposed to tests which gauge 
the firmness of character, and stir the very foundation of the soul. 
No man will sell his life for a sum of money, or a momentary pleasure, 
but many will gladly give their all when their country is in the throes 
of a struggle for the right. "The American who would serve his coun- 
try," Emerson said, "must learn the beauty and honor of perseverance, 
he must reinforce himself by the power of character and revisit the 
margin of that well from which his fathers drew waters of life 
and enthusiasm, the fountain ... of the moral sentiments, the 
parent foundation from which this goodly Universe flows as a wave." 

The American heroes suffered and sacrificed because right was 
outraged. They did not go through liquid fire, smokeless powder, 
poisonous acids, and suffocating gases for military glory, for aggran- 
dizement of territory, for enrichment through indemnities. They 
fought "that the world be made fit and safe to live in." They fought 
that the world be assured of "justice and fair dealing ... as 
against force and selfish aggression." 

Before we analyze the fundamental issues involved in the world 
war, and show America's mission in the conflict and in the new world 
order established with the return of peace, it is essential to review 
the international situation of Europe before 1914. To understand 
why America considered it an ideal to give life and treasure in a war 
begun among European nations, we should survey the contending 
forces in Europe during the nineteenth century. 

The more the war clouds thickened and the nearer the greatest 
conflict in the history of the world approached, the greater did the 

3 



SONS OF MEN 



nations of the world deceive themselves about peace. Europe lived 
in a "Fool's Paradise." Much twaddle was heard about peace. Bom- 
bastic orators and brilliant journalists were proclaiming peace. Peace 
organizations multiplied amazingly, peace conferences were held fre- 
quently. Eminent citizens of each nation visited other countries, and 
at elaborate banquets and receptions laudatory tributes were given. 
University professors were exchanged among the leading educational 
institutions of the world. The bonds of international friendship 
seemed to be very strong, peace seemed to reign over all nations. 

When a shot was fired at Serajevo in 1914, killing the Archduke 
of Austria, an ultimatum was sent to Serbia. The profuse professions 
of peace were immediately forgotten. The two Hague Conferences 
with their numerous declarations seemed to have been held in vain. 
The world smiled, in the face of grim reality, at the erudite essays 
which proved that war was either impossible or futile. Armies were 
mobilized, and peace was no more. 

Unfortunately, during the years which preceded the outbreak 
of the world war, there were many people who, ostrich-like, shut their 
eyes and persisted in not seeing the true international situation. The 
international distrust during the first decade of the twentieth century 
certainly did not warrant the pacifist optimism rampant in Europe and 
in America. The war might have begun during any one of several 
years before 1914. 

The diplomatic history of Europe from the opening of the century 
to the beginning of the war in 1914, is a series of incidents showing 
the conflict between the Triple Alliance and the Entente Powers. One 
of these incidents occurred in 1905 in connection with the Moroccan 
question. During the previous years France had obtained the assent 
of England and Spain in her Moroccan policy; at that time Germany 
said nothing. In 1905, however, when Germany saw that the French 
military organization was weak; that she had little to fear from the 
English liberals; and that Russia was weak because of the Japanese 
war, she demanded a reconsideration of the Moroccan question. At 
a conference France yielded, forcing her minister of foreign affairs, 
Delcasse, to resign. The Algeciras Convention left Morocco in charge 
of France. The storm on the diplomatic horizon of Europe passed for 
the time being. 

Three years later another crisis arose which nearly resulted in 
a general war. In 1908 Austria took advantage of the Young Turk 
Revolution and annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina, which she had been 

4 



WHY THEY FELL 



governing since the Congress of Berlin, 1878. Serbia was indignant, 
England, France, and especially Russia, protested. Germany, how- 
ever, "rattled her sword" and supported Austria. The result was that 
Europe confirmed the annexation. 

In 191 1 Europe was again confronted with the Moroccan question 
as a possible casus belli. In 1901 and 1902 France had publicly as- 
sured Morocco that she had no intention of threatening the independ- 
ence of that state; but in 1911 she found an occasion to annex Moroc- 
co. German merchants complained that they were not given their 
rights agreed upon between France and Germany in 1909. The Kaiser 
sent a gunboat to Agadir, on the west coast of Africa. England 
strongly supported France. The gunboat was recalled, and Germany 
received a setback, which humiliated the Pan-Germans. It was to 
recover her position that Germany took advantage of the murder of 
the Austrian Archduke in 1914. 

These are only a few incidents illustrating the diplomatic status 
of Europe before the war. They show that the stupendous conflict 
which began in 1914 was not a sudden phenomenon. 

Europe was so organized that, when the moment was ripe, a slight 
provocation was sufficient to start a general war. For generations 
Europe lived under the theory that nations are natural rivals, and as 
such are obliged to continue an incessant struggle for military domi- 
nation. The desire for commercial power, for military and political 
superiority, strengthened the theory of a "natural law of struggle" 
among nations. The two Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907 only 
revealed the mutual fears and suspicions of the European nations. 

The reciprocal distrust, and the attempt of preventing any one 
state from becoming so powerful as to threaten its neighbors, resulted 
in the doctrine of the "Balance of Power." The idea of the "Balance 
of Power," or the "Concert of Europe," as it was later called, devel- 
oped at the end of the seventeenth century when Louis XlVthreatened 
Europe. After a series of wars in which Europe united against Louis 
XIV, a peace was signed at Utrecht in 1713. This treaty attempted to 
distribute political power in Europe equally among the several States. 
For the next decade international congresses were held, and settled 
disputes between the different States. This system, however, did not 
satisfy the ambitious rulers, and the Concert of Europe broke up. It 
is unnecessary to dwell on the violation of the Balance of Power in 
the partition of Poland. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars the Con- 
cert of Europe was revived, but it was again doomed to failure. The 

5 



SONS OF MEN 



development of imperialism in the nineteenth century gave the Bal- 
ance of Power idea a world-wide interpretation. The desire to annex 
territory, to add to the national wealth and prosperity, created 
"spheres of influence" in Africa, Asia, and other parts of the world. 

It has been generally conceded that the Balance of Power in 
Europe as a force to prevent international disorder, has failed. A 
Concert of Power proved ineffectual because the nations of Europe 
have been actuated by motives of hostility and aggression. Co-oper- 
ation was impossible because each nation co-operated just as long as 
it was profitable to her. 

A few examples gleaned from nineteenth century European 
diplomacy will reveal the facts that nations will change their allegiance 
whenever they deem such a change advantageous to their national 
purposes. The opening of the nineteenth century witnessed England 
and France at war. Germany and Russia were then Allies, fighting 
France. After 1818, however, France was admitted as a member of 
the Grand Alliance. In the Crimean War, England and France united 
to fight Russia. England had become the ally of "The Sick Man" be- 
cause she thought it was against her interests to allow Russia to get 
Constantinople and the Bosporus. 

The opening of the twentieth century saw England, who fought 
side by side with Germany at Waterloo, and schemed side by side of 
Germany at the Congress of Berlin, a bitter enemy of the German 
Empire. To complete the diplomatic revolution, England entered into 
an alliance with her traditional enemies, France and Russia. The open- 
ing of the twentieth century also saw Russia and Japan in a death 
struggle, and only ten years later they were both fighting Germany. 
During the world war Italy, a member of the Triple Alliance, which 
included her historical enemy, Austria-Hungary, was induced to join 
the Entente Powers, while England, who defended the Ottoman Em- 
pire, was fighting Turkey. 

And what historical prophet is wise enough to penetrate the fu- 
ture and tell the world of the numerous unborn diplomatic align- 
ments and of the international juggling? As a result of the per- 
petual distrust, Europe, before the opening of the war in 1914, was 
literally an armed camp. Europe did not enjoy real peace, but only an 
armed truce. The increase of suspicion was in proportion to the in- 
crease of armaments. There were certain hopes that the international 
structure slowly established by conventions and treaties, would gradu- 
ally develop along reasonable lines, and check the mad race of arma- 

ti 



WHY THEY FELL 



ments. However, some of the best brains of Europe were occupied 
with problems of "organzation of victory." The best that the scientific 
world had to offer, the highest achievements of mechanical and en- 
gineering genius were diverted to the preparation of strategical plans. 
The torpedo, siege-gun, super-dreadnaught, aeroplane, submarine, and 
all the various chemicals employed in modern warfare are examples 
of what occupied the intellect of Europe. In the nature of things, the 
world war which began in 1914 was but the logical and inevitable re- 
sult of the kind of peace Europe enjoyed at the opening of the twen- 
tieth century. 

While distrust and suspicion were prevalent throughout Europe, 
and while every nation was an armed camp, the doctrines which pre- 
cipitated the European War and extended it to a world war, were held 
most firmly by the militaristic empires of Central Europe and espe- 
cially, by Germany. The reason that the world has been revolted by 
the conduct of Germany, is that she carried out the code of interna- 
tional morals, already discussed, to its relentless but logical conclu- 
sion. Therefore, an historical analysis of Prussia, the leading State of 
the former German Empire, will help clarify the fundamental causes 
of the world war, and will explain why America entered the sruggle. 

It has been the pride of the Hohenzollern dynasty that nearly 
every ruler added something to his ancestral heritage. In the thir- 
teenth century the region on the Baltic Sea known as Prussia was con- 
quered by an order of the Crusading Knights. In the sixteenth cen- 
tury, during the Reformation, the Knights accepted Protestantism. A 
century later the duchy of Prussia came under the rule of the Elector 
of Brandenburg. In 1640 the Great Elector, Frederick William, be- 
gan to unite his scattered territories into a powerful state. In his in- 
ternational dealings he was cruel and treacherous. By means of his 
strong army he was enabled to destroy the local assemblies and place 
his officials in charge of their government. During his reign Prussia 
not only freed herself from the control of Poland, but as a result of 
the Peace of Westphalia, added the bishoprics of Minden and Halber- 
stadt and the duchy of Farther Pomerania. He increased his "army 
out of all proportion to the size of his dominion. With slight means 
he did great things" for the Hohenzollern dynasty. At the opening 
of the eighteenth century his son, Frederick III, transformed the 
electorate of Brandenburg into the Kingdom of Prussia. Frederick 
William I, who took a delight in his tall soldiers, whom he called "my 
blue children," devoted his energies to increasing his army, drilling 

7 



SONS OF MEN 



his men. His army was more than three times the size of the army 
in the days of the Great Elector. 

It was Frederick II who won for Prussia a position among the 
leading powers of Europe. He, like his illustrious descendant, Wil- 
liam II, regarded an international agreement as "a scrap of paper." 
Prussia was a signatory of the Pragmatic Sanction, which insured the 
integrity of Maria Theresia's inheritance. Without even taking the 
trouble to declare war, he attacked Silesia, and precipitated a world 
war which with brief cessations broadened out until it involved the 
British Colonies in America. Europe confirmed his power over Silesia 
in the Treaty of Paris, 1763, but that did not satisfy Frederick. The 
addition only whetted his appetite. He now coveted West Prussia 
to fill up a gap between Pomerania and East Prussia. In a series of 
intrigues with Russia and Austria Frederick the Great and his succes- 
sor, Frederick William II, committed one of the greatest crimes in po- 
litical history by partitioning Poland. 

The Napoleonic Wars at the opening of the nineteenth century 
resulted in the Prussian annexation of new territories such as Co- 
logne, the province of Westphalia, and the Rhineland. Another result 
of that series of disastrous wars was the birth of an impulse towards 
German unity. The interference of France in German affairs, under 
Louis XIV, and later under Napoleon, and the military and political 
weakness of Germany, as a result of the division into numerous petty 
states, served as an impetus for a unification which would free Ger- 
many from foreign dictation. An early step to unification was the 
German Confederation established in 1815, but it included non-Ger- 
man states, and was in no sense a national state. The Zollverein, or 
Customs Union, organized in 1830, also paved the way to political 
union. 

However, the unification of the several states of Germany into 
one nation was to be materialized under the leadership of Prussia 
by the same methods which enhanced that state from a small Baltic 
province to a large European nation. Her great statesman, Bismarck, 
had announced that political problems would be solved "not by 
speeches and majority resolutions, but by BLOOD AND IRON." It 
was not long before he opened a series of wars for supremacy of Prus- 
sia among the German states and the unification of Germany. In 1864 
Austria and Prussia jointly declared war on Denmark, and detached 
the two duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. Schleswig was adminis- 
tered by Austria, and Bismarck succeeded in creating a casus belli. In 



WHY THEY FELL 



1866, after a brief war of six weeks, Prussia ousted Austria from the 
Confederation, and added Hanover and other territory. Now that 
Prussia was the leading state of Germany, Bismarck planned one more 
war to facilitate German unity. In 1870 in a series of diplomatic par- 
leys between Prussia and France over the succession to the Spanish 
throne, Bismarck found the opportunity he was seeking. He did not 
change the famous Ems telegram; he only "edited" it, abbreviated it, 
so that the conference between the French ambassador, Benedetti and 
King William I, seemed to be mutually insulting. Both countries were 
inflamed. War resulted. After the capture of Paris in January, 1871, 
Bismarck's dream of Prussian greatness through German unity, was at 
last realized when the King of Prussia was proclaimed German Em- 
peror. 

The analysis, however brief it may be, shows that the history of 
Prussia is the history of her rulers, not of the population. It was her 
kings and statesmen who developed Prussia from a small, insignificant 
Baltic region to a world power. No detail of government was too 
small to escape the ever vigilant Frederick II. Whether it was drain- 
ing the marshes, improving the woolen trade, carrying on diplomatic 
negotiations, or drilling the army, he was ever alert in his supervision, 
and ready to punish severely an official who neglected his duty. , 

To understand the development of Prussia is to realize the extent 
to which the personality of her rulers influenced her administration. 
There was no development of political freedom and self-government, 
as we find in England. Germany has produced great intellects in the 
.world of science, art, and phi4osophy, but did not produce a liberty- 
loving people chafing at the paternalism of their rulers, and the sup- 
pression of attempts at constitutional government. Germany was 
great in many ways, but her political development was defective. 

During the Middle Ages Germany was divided into numerous 
small states. The Holy Roman Empire was a vague and an indefinable 
bond of union, but as Bryce has said, "It was neither holy, nor Ro- 
man, nor an Empire." The Emperor had no control over the feudal 
principalities. The central government was weak. There was per- 
petual private warfare. 

On the other hand, it is interesting as a contrast to notice the de- 
velopment of constitutional government of the British people. In the 
Middle Ages the King was unable to control the feudal land owners, 
and maintain a government sound on military and financial principles. 
Gradually his subjects received more liberties and privileges. The 

• 9 



SONS OF MEN 



Magna Carta and other documents granting political freedom were 
given to the people. In time Parliament developed. When the Stuarts 
tried to dispense with Parliament they were defeated in their pur- 
pose because the British love of freedom was greater than the power 
of a crown. 

Finally, out of the chaos of the Middle Ages, Prussia developed 
into a strong power. Her rulers never relinquished the "by the Grace 
of God" conception of government. When during the first part of the 
nineteenth century German nationalism gained in strength, the ideal- 
ists of 1848 finally succeeded in wresting a constitution from Fred- 
erick William IV. This same constitution prescribed the form of gov- 
ernment for the German Empire. The upper house, the Bundesrath, 
was an assembly representing the different governments of the Ger- 
man states. The votes were so arranged that Prussia, for all practical 
purposes, controlled the assembly. The ministers were responsible not 
to the people, but to the Emperor. The lower house, the bulwark of 
constitutional government of England, and other European countries, 
was merely a first class debating society. True, the Reichstag was 
elected by universal suffrage, but the three class system defeated the 
aim of democratic government. 

It is no wonder that the Germans idealized the state which led 
them out of the anarchical, feudal society into a solidified, national 
state. It was the Prussian government, through her military strength, 
which won victories in 1864, 1866, and 1870-71. It was the same Prus- 
sian paternalistic government which later eliminated waste, provided 
for popular education, diminished poverty, provided insurance against 
accidents, sickness, and the infirmities of old age. 

One of the chief interpreters of the German conception of the 
State was Heinrich von Treitschke, a professor in the University of 
Berlin. His lectures were heard and discussed by many thinkers and 
leaders of Germany. His conception of the State can be summarized 
by the one sentence: "The State is Power." He taught that "the 
state is the basis of all national life." The rights of the individual 
must be subordinated to the service of the State. Democracy, he 
said, was the ideal of the vulgar English, and the degenerate French, 
but it was because Germany had a king who chose his ministers that 
she was enabled to stand before the world, and was dreaded by other 
nations. 

The conception of the infallibility of the State, and the complete 
mastery over the lives of individuals, led to the corollary that since 

10 



WHY THEY FELL 



the State is Power and Power rests on war, that war was not only es- 
sential, but elevating and ennobling. War led to the unification of 
Germany. War gained Silesia, Schleswig-Holstein and Hanover. 
Treitschke said: "War is justified because the great national person- 
alities can suffer no compelling force superior to themselves, and be- 
cause history must always be in constant flux"; war, therefore, must 
be taken as part of the divinely appointed order." 

Alongside of this conception of war went the German idea of Kul- 
tur. This was not the same as our idea of culture. It was not a re- 
finement of manners, a development of the sense of aesthetic. As 
Blasco Ibanez said: "Civilization is refinement of spirit, respect of 
one's neighbor, tolerance of foreign opinion, courtesy of manner. 
KULTUR is the action of a State that organizes and assimilates in- 
dividuals and communities in order to utilize them for its own ends; 
and these ends consist mainly in placing the States above other states, 
overwhelming them with their grandeur — or what is the same thing — 
with their haughty and violent pride." 

Kultur was a national product of Germany. It was an adoration 
of force, and a conviction that the German people are a superior race. 
'We are the salt of the earth," said the Kaiser. "God has summoned 
us to civilize the world." 

Inasmuch as Germany was convinced of her superiority, she con- 
sidered it a duty to force this Kultur on the rest of the world — by 
the sword, if necessary. Every nation of the world was considered as 
a potential enemy. Every agency of craft and cunning, every un- 
scrupulous method of a militaristic regime, every mean, false, cow- 
ardly action such as eavesdropping, spying, lying, ambushing, hitting 
from behind, or when a man is down, showing no mercy when the 
enemy surrenders, shooting the enemy when the are struggling for 
life in deep swamps, treating them cruelly when they are more dead 
than alive— in short, all the devices of SCHRECKLICHKEIT were 
studied so as to impose the benefits of Kultur on the world. 

These are the reasons for America's entrance into the world war. 
This is the explanation of our war slogan, "To make the world safe 
for Democracy." Germany was the cause of the recent world war 
because she, more than any other nation of Europe based her con- 
ception of national greatness on the threat or use of military force. 
Weakness whether in an individual or a nation was considered a sin. 
Autocratic control maintained by an efficient highly organized bu- 
ll 



SONS OF MEN 



reaucracy took the place of the democratic, self-governing principles 
of the Anglo-Saxon race. 

Not only did America enter the world conflict to crush autocratic 
Germany but also to help establish "a new international order based 
upon broad and universal principles of right and justice." It has 
often happened that during or after an international cataclysm think- 
ers who believed in human progress taugth means of avoiding future 
conflict. After the atrocities of the religious wars during the sixteenth 
century, Grotius was the first to set forth the principles of Interna- 
tional Law. Towards the end of the seventeenth century, during the 
wars of Louis XIV, William Penn, the Quaker, drew up proposals for 
maintaining peace. Throughout the eighteenth century the great in- 
tellects of Europe, Rousseau of France, Adam Smith of England, and 
Kant of Germany expressed their ardent desire for international 
comity. So it is at present. Now the greatest of all wars has been 
completed, the world is seeking a policy of reconstruction which will 
preserve peace. The world is planning a program of reorganization 
which will substitute international co-operation for the omnipresent 
mutual distrust. 

The reconstruction program must not be interested in problems 
of internationalism only. "This war," President Wilson said, "had its 
roots in the disregard of the rights of small nations and of nationali- 
ties which lacked the union and the force to make good their claim 
to determine their own allegiances and their own forms of political 
life." The principle of nationality has for many centuries been a 
great force in history. When the Old Regime was overthrown by the 
French Revolution the ideas Liberty and Nationality went together. 
The cry "Vive la Nation" arose from the hitherto separated provin- 
cials. When Napoleon transformed the Revolution into an autocratic 
imperialism, Europe united against him. The Congress of Vienna, 
although it used such fine sentiments as "the regeneration of the 
political system of Europe," and "the reconstruction of the 
moral order," ignored the principle of nationality. It united and 
divided people regardless of the best interests of the population 
concerned. It created artificial frontiers without considering national 
aspirations. The Teutonic Dutch who were Protestant in religion, and 
commercial in their economic life, were united with the Romance peo- 
ple, Belgium, Catholic in religion, and agricultural in their economic 
interests. Poles and Italians were distributed into several states. The 
history of Europe after 1815 was an effort to tear up the treaty of 
Vienna because it was not based on the principle of nationality. 

12 



WHY THEY PELL 



The suppression of nationality, together with Metternich's op- 
position to any attempts at constitutional government, resulted in a 
series of revolutions in 1820, 1830, and 1848. By 1870, however. West- 
ern Europe was made up of national states. The Congress of Berlin 
in 1878 attempted to adjust eastern Europe, but did not profit by the 
error of the Congress of Vienna. Bosnia and Herzegovina, inhabited 
by Serbs, were given to Austria to "govern." Besserabia was taken 
from Roumania and given to Russia, Macedonia went from Bulgaria 
to Serbia, and Greeks were turned over to the mercy of the Turk. 

Since 1878 the people of eastern and southeastern Europe hav& 
tried to realize the principle of nationality. If the Balkan and similar 
international problems are to be settled, "national aspirations must 
be respected." 

The world must realize that people of one nation placed within 
the borders of another nation against their will, will never be con-^ 
tent as long as there is a possibility of obtaining unity. 

It is an error to suppose that political tendencies are to the for- 
mation only of large states. Germany and Italy, it is true, are ex:- 
amples of the formation of large states, but also many small states- 
were created in the nineteenth century. Greece won her indepen- 
dence in 1829, Roumania in 1856, and Bulgaria in 1878. Middle 
Europe was so composed of small nations that it constituted the dan- 
ger zone of that continent. The Poles in Germany were not allowed 
to speak their own language in public, and their newspapers were sup- 
pressed. The Czechs in Austria, and the Slovaks in Hungary received 
similar treatment. At present Europe has given birth to new nation- 
alities, such as Poland, Czecho-Slovakia, and Finland. 

The reconstruction of the new world order for which America 
fought, must provide for the rights of nationalties, large or small. It 
must provide that "people are not to be handed about from one sov- 
ereignty to another," as a result of military conquest, and confer- 
ences representing dynasties. 

In order to protect the principle of nationality, and give every 
nation an opportunity to contribute to progress its peculiar charac- 
teristics and institutions, the world must establish international co- 
operation. This co-operation must not be an attempt to preserve the 
balance of power, it must not be a co-operation involving a series of 
alliances actuated by distrust and fear; it must be a sincere endeavor 
to substitute "the force of right as against the right of force." It 
must be a genuine effort to end forever the "international anarchy.'" 

13 



SONS OF MEN 



The principle of international co-operation is hundreds, indeed, 
thousands of years old. In the fifth century B. C. Athens led in the 
Delian Confederacy to combat the Oriental imperialism of Persia. 
Not many years later, however, Athens herself became imperial- 
istic. Similar attempts at international co-operation were • made 
throughout all ages of history. Now in the twentieth century A. D., 
the world is on the same quest. Is it, then an ideal never to be at- 
tained? Are international agreements merely the pastime of diplo- 
mats? 

The international co-operation of the past was not truly interna- 
tional. It was national co-operation. It was a makeshift to meet in- 
dividual emergencies. One nation convinced another that it would 
be to their mutual interest to fight against a third nation, and the 
world called that internationalism. The world has been accustomed 
to the type of co-operation which existed among Prussia, Russia, and 
Austria when they partitioned Poland. Did the Diplomats at West- 
phalia, Utrecht and Vienna, to mention only a few of the numerous 
international conferences, make a sincere effort to establish order out 
of international chaos? 

But even in the pseudo-internationalism of the alliances, it is 
pleasant to recall that at the Hague Conferences there were men who 
earnestly tried to strengthen the laws governing the conduct of na- 
tions. It is encouraging to know that the civilized world was out- 
raged at the disregard of an international agreement which Germany 
called "a scrap of paper." Yet, the international law which should 
govern the world in its program of reconstruction should be a 
crystallization of an international conscience. In the last analysis, in- 
ternational law is based on public opinion, and international public 
opinion has been weak, and poorly organized. The world has not 
been accustomed to thinking in terms of international relations. It 
has not had the international mind, "that habit," as Nicholas Murray 
Butler has said, "of thinking of foreign relations and business, and 
that habit of dealing with them, which regards the several nations of 
the civilized world as friendly and co-operating equals in aiding the 
progress of civilization, in developing commerce and industry, and 
in spreading enlightment and culture throughout the world." 

When we realize America's motives in the world war, our part 
in crushing a great military autocracy, our ideal of a new world or- 
der, it cannot be doubted that this country is the logical leader of the 
world in international co-operation. Associate Justice of the Supreme 

14 



WHY THEY FELL 



Court of the United States, David J. Brewer said, "To lead in the cause 
of peace no one of the great nations is so well circumstanced as the 
United States of America." This is true not only because we are 
isolated on the western hemisphere, not only because of our great 
wealth and resources, but because of our historical traditions of peace, 
of our past record of substituting reason for force, and arbitration 
for the sword. 

The United States has led the world in arbitration. Not only has 
this country arbitrated international controversies in which she had 
an interest; but also in such disputes of other nations in which this 
country had no interest, except the one interest of advancing the cause 
of international comity. In the history of this nation, we have been 
a party to more than a hundred arbitrations. 

Soon after the treaty of peace in 1783, serious trouble arose in 
regard to promises made by this country. John Jay was sent to Lon- 
don as a special plenipotentiary and amicable relations were restored 
between the two nations. Again in 1817, when General Jackson in- 
vaded Florida and hanged two British subjects, the state of public 
feeling in England was intense; but our government had the manli- 
ness to disavow the act and friendly relations between the two govern- 
ments were restored. Who is not familiar with the famous contro- 
versy "fifty-four forty or fight"? We did not get "fifty-four forty" and 
we did not fight. We arbitrated the question in a calm manner. Our 
national ideal of arbitration was again upheld in the famous "Trent 
Affair" during the Civil War, in the Alabama Claims after the Civil 
War, in the Newfoundland fisheries contention which threatened to 
become a casus belli in 1887, in the Alaskan fur seal disagreement, in 
the Alaskan and Venezuelan boundary disputes, and in the north- 
west boundary controversy. 

It is not so long ago that the United States celebrated a century 
of peace with England, a century of peace with a nation with which 
we fought for political and commercial independence. And has this 
been an armed truce as we have seen in Europe? One of the greatest 
achievements of America was the disarmament on the Great Lakes 
and the Canadian frontier. "Four thousand miles where nation meets 
nation and sovereignty meets sovereignty, but never a fortress, never 
a battleship, never a gun, never a sentinel on guard." Nor can it be 
said that there were no occasions for war. Time and again questions 
have arisen which, for other nations, would have served as sufficient 
excuses for war; but our ideal of arbitrating international controver- 

15 



SONS OF MEN 



sies asserted itself and a breach in our friendly relations was averted. 
Our attitude towards Cuba at the close of the Spanish-American War, 
our firm resistance to the partition of China, our influence in the 
Moroccan dispute, our active participation in the Hague Conferences, 
our offer to mediate between Russia and Japan — all of these instances 
prove our continual effort to maintain international co-operation and 
peace. It is because of her historical precedents that the United 
States claims the right of leadership. America claims leadership in 
international co-operation not only because of our record in arbitra- 
tion, but also because we, as no European nation, have gone through 
an experiment in internationalism on this hemisphere. 

The United States is situated on a continent separated by two 
oceans from the rest of the world. Was it not natural that we should 
exercise influence to promote international comity by forming a closer 
union among the States of the Western Hemisphere? The movement 
to establish friendly relations among the American Republics has been 
going on for many years. 

At first, it was for the common good that the United States should 
consider herself "as in some sort the guardian of the republics to the 
south of her as against any encroachments or efforts at political con- 
trol from the other side of the water*. It was inevitable that the 
Monroe Doctrine should be misinterpreted and misunderstood by the 
Latin American Powers. But that day is over and a new era of good 
feeling, of equal political rights, of amicable relations, and of Pan- 
Americanism in the full meaning of the word, is now approaching. 
President Wilson has said, "All the governments of America stand, so 
far as we are concerned, upon a footing of genuine equality and un- 
questioned independence." "La Nacion", a newspaper of Buenos Aires, 
said that President Wilson "expressed the true ideas of Pan-Ameri- 
canism," and the press and public opinion of South America corrobo- 
rated this statement. The numerous conventions which have been 
held at various times prove that there is a decided tendency of all the 
republics of this hemisphere to become more friendly with each other. 

The effect of Pan-Americanism was demonstrated in 1910 when 
trouble arose between Argentine and Bolivia. The fourth Pan- Amer- 
ican Conference was held and peaceful relations between the two 
governments were established. The same result was reached in 1911 
when Colombia, Ecuador and Peru were on the verge of going to war 
and only a conference between the United States and several Latin- 



* President Wilson's message to 64th Congress. 

16 



WHY THEY FELL 



American governments prevented an actual conflict. In May, 1915, 
a Pan-American Financial Congress was held in Washington. Eigh- 
teen out of the twenty-one American governments were represented. 
The leading men of South America were sent as delegates. Former 
ministers of foreign affairs, governors of provinces, secretaries and 
ministers of finance, were included and every one showed eagerness 
for financial co-operation. 

Another instance of the Pan-American spirit was the Second 
Pan-American Scientific Congress held between December 27th, 1915 
and January 8th, 1916. Numerous topics were discussed but the 
subject of predominating interest was'the discussion of international 
problems tending toward unity and harmony. To help the cause of 
Pan-Americanism the Woman's Auxiliary Conference was held at the 
same time. A Pan-American Union of Women was formed to spread 
the Pan-American spirit among wives, mothers and daughters of all 
the Americans. Besides these gatherings numerous other official and 
semi-official conferences have been held. We hear of Pan-American 
Sanitary Conferences, Pan-American Commercial Conferences, Pan- 
American Medical Conferences, and numerous other Pan-American 
gatherings. 

The value of these and other Pan-American interests can hardly 
be overestimated. They portend a new spirit of fraternity between 
the United States and her sister republics. This spirit has been fos- 
tered and strengthened through diplomatic and economic relations 
during the recent war, and now new efforts are made to continue 
this co-operation on the western hemisphere. 

What is the relation between Pan- Americanism and the world 
settlement? How can international unity on this continent influence 
international relations of Europe? It is a well established fact that 
the Latin-American countries are European in their culture. Indeed, 
the opponents of Pan-Americanism tell us that South America is more 
European than American. Like Latin-Europe, Latin-America is pre- 
dominantly Catholic, while the United States is Protestant. The cul- 
tures of Latin-America is European. They "inherited the sonorous, 
majestic Spanish, and flexible, musical Portuguese, and the French, 
language of art and a responsive chord to all that thrills." 

These are the racial ties which unite Latin-America and Latin- 
Europe. On the other hand, keeping in mind our close relations with 
England and Latin-Europe during the war, it can readily be perceived 

17 



SONS OF MEN 



how the promotion of a Pan-American policy would exert an influence 
on European and world politics. The existing friendship between An- 
glo-Saxon and Latin world have been recently strengthened, and now 
a successful union of all the nations on this hemisphere, and a recon- 
ciliation of the different cultures of North and South America will 
give the European world, sundered by economic and political feuds, 
an object lesson in international relations. 

When we review the history of the western hemisphere, and the 
fear of the Latin-American nations of "the big brother with the 
stick" to the North, we can realize that there was a time when the 
nations of this hemisphere distrusted each other, and suspected each 
other's motives. We can realize the force of Secretary Lansing's 
words at the Second Pan-American Scientific Congress: 

"When we attempt to analyze Pan-Americanism, we find that 
the essential qualities are those of a family — sympathy, helpfulness, 
and a sincere desire to see another grow in prosperity; absence of 
covetousness of another's possessions, absence of jealousy of anoth- 
er's prominence and, above all, absence of that spirit of intrigue 
which menaces the domestic peace of a neighbor." 

The United States, therefore, is the leader in the new world or- 
der because of our traditions of arbitration, and our practical in- 
ternationalism on the western hemisphere. Leadership entails re- 
sponsibility. We have taken part in a colossal struggle. We have 
fought side by side of the great democracies of the world. It is man- 
ifestly our duty to prevent the recurrence of such a tragedy. It is in 
our power to influence international relations, and if we do not exer- 
cise our influence for peace, the war will have been fought in vain. 

The world has always been organized for war. Now for the first 
time a serious effort is made to organize for peace. It is of little con- 
sequence whether we call the machinery of the world organization "A 
League to Enforce Peace," "A Society of Nations," or "A League of 
Nations." The objects of world organization should be to promote 
international peace, to reduce armaments, to abolish secret intriguing 
through diplomatic channels, and to preserve the territorial integrity 
and'protect the rights of nationalities, large or small. As long as 
our conceptions of international relations remain unchanged, the 
world will continue to cry, "Peace, Peace, where there is no Peace." 

Infinite was the suffering of the Gold Star men. Many of the 
heroes who have returned from France participated in the awful 
panorama which the world has viewed. Perhaps they do not say 
much, but can words adequately describe what they have experienced? 
And who can measure the anguish of the world waiting on the out- 
come of the struggle? Is the world again to return to the old stan- 
dards of international morals? Has this agonizing struggle been in 
vain? 

"Lord God of hosts be with us yet, 

Lest we forget — lest we forget." 

18