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Full text of "Sophocles, in single plays, for the use of schools. Ed. with intr. and Engl. notes by L ..."

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■ 



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Clannirnn ipuss S^txun 



OEDIPUS TYRANNUS 



CAMPBELL AND ABBOTT 



a 



lonbon 

HENRY FROWDE 




OXFORD tnrtVXBSIl^ FSX8S WABXHOUBE 
T PATEKNOSTBS EOW 



Clatienirnn iptjess S^txm 



SOPHOCLES 



fJV SINGLE PLAYS 



FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS 



EDITED 
WITH INTRODUCTION AND ENGLISH NOTES 

BY 

LEWIS CAMPBELL, M.A., LL.D. 

Prufessor qf Greek in the University <ff St. Andrews 

AND 

EVELYN ABBOTT, M.A. /0H!^ 

Balliol College, Oxford 



OEDIPUS TYRANNUS 



Kew and Bevised Edition 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1882 



PREFACE. 



The present edition of the plays of Sophocles has been 
compiled from the larger edition of the Plays and Fragments 
published by Prof. CampbelP, with such alterations and addi- 
tions as seemed necessary to adapt the work for use in 
schools. 

The text is almost identical in the two editions, and the 
same marks are used. A departure from MS. authority is 
distinguished by an asterisk, and a word or phrase which, 
though retained from the MSS., is almost certainly corrupt, 
is distinguished by an obelus. 

In the notes, the critical part of the larger edition bearing 
on the text has been omitted. Here and there, it is true, 
various readings have been given, but no attempt is made to 
present a connected account of the text. And little or 
nothing is said about the metres. Whatever light may have 
been thrown on Greek music and metre by recent researches 
in Germany, the results have not been such that they can 

^ Sophocles. By Prof. Campbell. Clarendon Press, 1879-81. 



vi PREFACE, 

with any advantage be embodied in an English School 
Edition \ 

In the illustration of grammatical constructions the smaller 
edition is sometimes more full than the larger. It is obvious 
that knowledge which may be presumed in an older reader 
can be profitably enough imparted to one who is reading 
Sophocles for the first time, and reading him principally 
with a view to improve his knowledge of Greek. But, in 
order to save space, references are sometimes given to 
grammatical works, especially to Professor Goodwin s 
* Moods and Tenses.' In the larger edition the most im- 
portant facts of the language of Sophocles have been 
collected, analysed, and arranged, in an introductory essay : 
in this edition the matter of that essay has been embodied 
in the notes on various passages. This« change seemed 
necessary in a work which is intended to facilitate the 
reading of the author without aiming at a general criticism 
of his language. But a use of the indices will enable any 
one who wishes to construct for himself a fair conspectus 
of the leading features in the style of Sophocles. 

It will be observed that in many passages more than one 
rendering is given, and it n>ay perhaps be thought that such 
alternatives are merely a confession of ignorance. But 
although it is true that the writer's meaning is one and one 
only, it is often scarcely possible to express this, even when 

* Brambach has published • Die Sophocleischen Gesange f iir den 
Schulgebrauch metrisch erklart.' Leipzig, 1870. 



i 



PREFACE, VU 

perceived, by a single English version, and there are some 
passages in which the grounds of interpretation are so nicely 
balanced, that the charge of ignorance would rather be 
applicable to a dogmatic rendering. Beyond doubt, many 
passages admit grammatically of two interpretations, each of 
which is possible in the context in which the words occur. 
There may be a preference in favour of one or the other, 
but to exclude either would mark this preference too strongly. 
Moreover in a work of joint authorship there will necessarily 
be some difference of opinion, and although there are but 
few passages over which the editors have felt themselves to 
differ seriously, this should be noticed as another cause of 
the alternative renderings. 

The lines of the plays are quoted according to the notation 
of Dindorf, which is now almost universally adopted. The 
numbering of the fragments is that of Nauck, in his * Tragi- 
corum Graecorum Fragmenta.' 

Though the present edition has been compiled mainly from 
the larger work, the notes of other scholars have of course 
been consulted. The most useful commentaries in German 
are those of Schneidewin-Nauck, Gustav Wolff, and Weck- 
lein. Of those with Latin notes the most important are 
the editions by Hermann, Dindorf, and Wunder, to which 
perhaps Linwood's should be added, though most readers 
will regret that so able a scholar did not give the world a 
more elaborate work. The chief English editions have also 
been consulted. It is needless to enumerate them, and it 
would be out of place to criticise them here. 



VIU PREFACE. 

Some pains have been taken to make the introductory 
analyses, prefixed to the notes, a real help to the young 
reader in mastering the structure and the leading motives 
of each play. But for further information on these points 
the student is referred to the Introductions in the larger 
edition. 



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14 20«0KA£0Y2 

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t<r ai/riXc^fai* roOdc yhp «eaya) KpaT&» 

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16 20«0KA£0YS 

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ra fita6fi(l>aXa yas a3rovo(T<l)i((iop 480 

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XprfTtu, rh KciKcos ff txpv 

fr6K€i TraXmcrfia fjJprore Xvcrcu Ofbv alrovfiau 880 

6€6v ov X^£o> TTOTc vpoaTaTov tarx^iv, 
(Txp.ff, il d€ Ti£ {mtpoirra x€p<T\v rj Xoy^ vop€V€T€u, 

AiKas d<f>6PrjT0Sf oifdf 885 

daifiSvaav eirj (rePeov, 

Kcucd viv eXoiTo fioipOj 

bvtnr&rpjov xdpiv "xkibd^j 

€1 p.ri rb K€pbos Ktpdav€i duccuag 

Kol tS>v dcreirrcup €p^(rai, 890 

fj rSiV dBiKToav cfcroi fiaTq^fop. 

ris €Ti froT iv rourtf dvfip f&vp^ P^V 

+ €p(€T<u ^Irvx^s dfivveip ; 

el yap al rouubf 7rpd^€i9 ripuu, 895 

rt del /Lt€ xopfv€iv ; 
dvT.Sf, ovKeri t6p S6iktov ct/ii yas in* 0fi<^aX6i/ aiPav, 

ovb* eV t6v 'AjSalci va6vf 900 

ovde TCLV *0Xv/i7rtay, 

€1 p.ri rd^e ;(e(p<^df (Kra 

irdaiv dpfjidati fiporoig. 

aXX*, & Kparvvcav, tXntp Bpff aKoveig^ 

ZfVy irdvr dvdcra-aav, p,^ \ddoi • 

<r€ rdv T€ crav dOdvarov alev dpxdv, 905 

<f>6wovTa yap Aaiou [ o ~ '^ O M 

6€a-<f)aT i^mpovatv fjbrij 

Kovdapov Tipais *A7r6Kk<av cpjcjyav^s* 

tpp€i. bi TOL Bfia, 910 

10. x^P^^ avaKT€Sj d6^a pjoi frapeardBrj 

vaoxfs UeaBcu baip^vav, rd^ iv p^cpoiv 

crr€<f>j) Xa^ovan i^diriBvpiapjora, 

yy^ov yhp aip€i Bvphv Oibiirovs ayop 

Ximaiai iravrolaiaiv ovS* ottoi* dinip 915 

twovs TO. Kaiva rots TrdXai reKpaiptrcu^ 

aXX* iarl tov Xcyovros, fl <l>6Povs Xcyjy. 



OIAinOYS TYPANNOS, 29 

St cZv TrapcuvovfT ovbiv is Trkeov 7rot&, 

rrp6g (T , St AvK€i "AiroWov, ay\i<TTOi yhp €i, 

Ik€tis d<l)iyfjuu Toicrdt avv KaT€vyfAaa'iv, 920 

^<os Xviriv riv fifuv cvoy^ 7r6pfjs' 

as vvv oKvovfiev ndvres iKireirXriyfievov 

Ktipov PKinovrfs m KvPipvffnjp vtms, 

ArrEAOS. 
2p* &v nap^ vp&Vy Zi (evoiy pdBoiiL onov 

rh Tov Tvpdwov drnfiar iarlv Olbijrov ; 925 

futKicrra d* avrbv eMror', el Karitrff onov, 
XO. uTvym pAv otdc, kovtos Mov, & fo/e* 

yuv^ be prirrjp fjBe t&v xeivov rtKVfop, 
AT, aXX* oXpia re Koi £vy okplois del 

yevoiTy eKeivov y oZcra TravreX^g ddpap, 930 

10, avTtas be xal <rv y, & ^ev* S^ios yap el 

TTjs eveneias ovveK . nAAa <ppa^ orov 

XpoC<ov dcJH^M xS ri aijfirjvai Oektov, 
AF. dyaOd hdpjois re km ndtrei rf o*^, ywai, 
10. ra froZa ravra ; va^h rivos S* dtjyiypevos ; 935 

AT, eK TTJs Kopiv0ov. to S* eiros ov^epa Tdxa, 

rjboto pJv, nSfg 6* ovk ay, dcrxdWoig d' io-cof . 
10. tI S* eari ; voiav bvvapjLv h^ e^ei biirkrjv ; 
AT. Tvpavvov avrhv oxmixoapuii xOovhs 

TTJs *la6plas orrnrovcriPy itg rivbar eKei, 940 

10. Ti 8* ; ovx 6 frpea-Pvg Il6kvPog eyKparfig ert ; 
AF, ov brJTy enel viv Odvarog ev Td<^oig exei, 
10, ir(ag elnag ; 5 TeBvriKe ILdkvPog, *& yepov ; 
AF, el p,^ Xeyto roXi^^cr^ d^i& Savelv, 
10, & irpdoTToX^, oifx^ beairdrji Tdb* a>£ Tdxog 945 

pjoXovo'a Xe^etg ; £ 6e&p pMrrevpaTa, 

tv* ecrre* tovtop Olbinovg irdtXcu Tpep&v 

T^p dvbp e^evye pfj lerdpoi, koL pvp obe 

Trp6g T^g Tvx^s SXtoXep ovbe rovd* vno, 
01, & ^(Xrarov yvPCMcbg 'loicaonj^ Kdpa, 950 



30 SO^OKAEOYS 

10. oKove rdvbphf roOdf, Ka\ fncSirfi leXvap 

ra aiftv Iv rJKei rov Btov fiavr€VfiaTa, 
01. oifTos de Tis TTOT earl Koi ri fiot Xcyet ; 
10. €K TTJs KopivOoVy varepa rhv (rhv ayyeXw 955 

(OS ovK€T Bvra ll6Kv^v, oKX oXc^ora, 
01. ri <f>]js, f eV ; avT6s fUH av OTffjJivas yevov, 
AF. c( TovTO npSyrop df i fi inrayyciXai <ra<f>oȣf 

ed Icrff iKfivov Bavaa-iyMP j3rj3i;icora. 
01. ninrtpa dSXoiaiv, fj vdaov (vvaWayfj f 960 

AF. afiiKpii naKaUi a^ftar €vyd{€i pon^, 
01. v6a'ois 6 rkTfuav, ms toiKtv^ etjyOiro, 
AF. jcat r^ ptucpc^ yt crvpiMerpovpfvos XP^^' 
01, <^eO <l>(Vf Tt bvJT Spy & yvvfUy (ncofrotrd tit 

Tr]v Ilv66pxiVT^p ccrriaVf $ roifs 3v» 965 

Kkd^oprat opviSf &v v<l>rfyrjTCi>p rycb 

KTav€iv €fi€Xkov TToripa rhv ifi6p ; 6 Hi Bapisp 

K€v$€i KciTfo d^ y^s, iyoi d* ^' ipBabt 

a'^avaros ^X^^i ^^ ^* Z'*^ rw/xf v6Bfif 

K.aT€<p6iff' ovTta d* dy Oapmv etrj *( ipov» 970 

ra If dZp irap6pTa avKKafiotp $€<nriafWTa 

K€It<u irap " KiJ^ji TLSKvfios &ii ovbepds, 
10, oi^Kovp (yoi (rot ravra irpoCfXcyoy TraXot ; 
01. rjiSdas' €ya> dc r^ 0($j3o» naprjydftfjp, 
10. /i^ yvi/ cr' avT&v fjufdip is 0vfi6v fidKjis. * 975 

01. Koi V&S t6 firfTpOS XeXTpOP (Ak 6kV€IP lit ^€11 

10, Ti y &/ (^ofioir HvBpomoSf y ri t^s rvx^js 

Kpaertty irpdvoia d* cWti^ ovbtvhs a'aif>ris ; 

€(ici} KpaTKTTOP ^v, osTtff dvi/crtTii rcf« 

(TV ^ €ls TO. firp-phs iirj ^o^ov pvfKfmffJUwar 9S0 

iroXXol yip ^6rj kop iv€ipa(nv fipcr&p 

fiTjTpl ^pfvvd(rBri(rap, aKka ravff ir(f 

nap* ovbip icrri, p^(rni rhv piop <f>€p(u 
01. Kak&s inapra ravr hp iffipfjrd crot^ 



OIMUOYS TYPANN02. 31 

el fiTf *Kvp€i {Sur fj TfKov<ra' vv¥ 5* fVcl 985 

Qf ircur dvayicrj, Kel KoX&t \eyeiSy oKvtlp. 
10. Koi firjv fjJyas *y o(f>BakfjL6s ol varphs ra<^oi. 
01. fJt^yaSf ^viTjii' dXXh ttjs Coxnjs <f)6^s» 
AF. fFolas di Kai yvvaiKbi €K<fioP(laff virtp ; 
01. M€p6jrriSf yepmcy IloXv/Soff fjs ^k€1 fieTH, 990 

AF. Tt 8* tfcrr eKtlvris ifxh ^s <l>6fiov (jiepov ; 
01. BeriKaTOv fidvrfvpa 8€iv6v, 2> ^p€, 
AF. ^ prfTov; tj *ov;(l Bepurhv aXXov (idevM; 
01. pakKyrd y* cittc yap fu Ao^ias nark 

"Xpi^vai fuyrjvai p-ffrpX r^fuivroO, t6 re 995 

irarp^ov olpja X^P^*- ^^^ tp-ais eXcIy. 

S>p ovv«x rj K6piir6os €*£ tp^v noKai 

paKpav aTT^xctr** €VTV\Sii piv, aXX' opws 

TO. r&v T(K6vr<ii>v Sppaff rjb^arov ^Xcttciv. 
AF. rj yhp rd^ 6kvS>p KtiOtv ^irff dndnroKts ; looo 

01. narpds re xpiC'^^ m4 <f>o¥€vs cwat, yipov, 
AF. ri brfr *€yo) ovxi rovht rov tf>6fiQV cr', ava^^ 

iirt'nr€p eiivovs ^XBov, i^eXva-dprfP ; 
01. Koi p.r)V x^P"^ y ^*^ diio» Xdfiois fftoO, 
AF. Koi p.fjv pakitrra tovt d<f>iK6priv, on<a9 1 005 

(Toif np6s bdpovs iXBdvros «^ Trpd^atpl n» 
01. aXX* oihroT cf/K tols (^vrtvaatrlv y opmu 
AF. & iraiy KoKSis u hrjKos ovk cidcar r/ dp^, 
01. n&£y & ycpaie ; vp6s d^&v bidacKt p€» 
AF. c2 r«vde <l>€vytis ovvtK els oikovs ftoXely. 10 10 

01. Tapfi& y€ pfi pjoi ^oifios i^ekOfi aa(l>rjs, 
AF. ^ p^ piaapa tS>v ^vrcvcran'cdi' \dfiug ; 
01. roOr' aMy Trpfafiv, rovrd /** eltrael (fioffH, 
AF. 2p* ofo'^a brjra frpos biiajs ovdiv rpcpav ; 
01. irS>s d* ou;(t, Trals y el r&vde yewrirutv t<fivp; 10 15 

AF. 66ovv€K ^v aot TJoKvPos ovdep iv yiveu 
OL rrSis Aras ; ov yap HSKvfios €(e<fiva-i p§ ; 
AF. ov pjoKkov ovbev roxiht rdtfdpdSf aXX' itrov. 



32 20«0KAE0Y2 

OL Koi 7rS>f 6 iftwras e( taw r^ fu/dcy/; 

AF. akk oG a rycirof* oZr cicetm o£rr* cyc0, 1020 

OL dXX' avrl rot) bri irolda fi* uvoftaiero ; 

AF, bS>p6v iror'y Xor^i, rc^y c/xtf y x€ifiav Xafiotv, 

01. jc^ &y ott' uXXi;^ ;(€(p^ff tarep^p luya ; 

AF. ^ y^ 9r/7ty our^v cfeircur* mraiUa, 

01. (TV d^ ifiTTok^o'as tj TfKau fx avr^ hib^os ; 1025 

AF. €vpc»y varraicus iv KiOaipavos irrvx<u£, 

01. i>boi7r6p€ts dc irp6ff ri rovahe rovt rdnovs ; 

AF. ivravff opeiois iroifivioit mecrraTow. 

OL Troifirfv yap ^aBa icdm OrjTela irXdvrjs ; 

AF. croi) y, & TiKVoVy aoorrip yt r^ r&r iv XP^^- 1^30 

OL ri d* aXyoip iflr;^on'* iv kokoIs fie Xofx^opeis ; 

AF. nobS>v hv apdpa fiapTvpricr€i(v ra era, 

OL oifioif Ti TovT apxpuov iwiivfis kcuc6v ; 

AF. Xvco <r t\ovTa biaT6povs nobolv aK/ids, 

OL d€iv6v y 6v€idos aTrapydvav dvei\6firjv, I035 

AF. &aT d)vofid(rdrj9 iK TV)(rjs ravnjs os «?. 

01. & TTphg di&Vf npbs fxriTpdSf fj narpos ; <f>pdaov. 

AF. ovK o^d** 6 dovg di ravT ip.ov \&ov <f)povu, 

01. ^ yhp Trap* ^Xou /x* eXafies ovU^ avrbg tv\odv ; 

AF. oCKf diKkh iroip.r}v oKKos cVdidoxri /xoi. 1040 

OL Tis olrog ; 7j KaTourOa drjXaxrcu \6y<^ ; 

AF. T&v Aaiov d^ov tis wond^ero, 

01, ? Tov Tvpdvvov rrjabc yrjs ttoKm nori; 

AF, fidXtOTa* TOVTOV rdvdpbs olros ^v Porrip, 

OL ^ K&a-T ?ri C&v o^oSf &aT id€2v ip,€ ; 1045 

AF. vfA€is y dpUTT fiSetT* hv oxmix^pioi,, 

OL tariv ris v/i«v twv napiordyroiv TriXas, 

Boris icaTOifie tov Porrjp*, 6v iwifrti, 

€?r o^v eV* dyp&v circ Kdv6d^ fl<ribd>v ; 

a"i)iir)vaffy u>s 6 Kaipbs cvprja-dcu rdbc, 105c 

XO. otfJLOi fi€V ovhiv aK\ov ^ rhv i( dypa>v, 

tv Kdfwrtves rrpdcrOev tlaibflv drdp 



OIAinOYS TYPANNOS. 33 

^S* itv rdd^ ovx rJKicrr &v ^loKaanj Xeyoi, 
01. yvvcUf vo€is €K€lpov, BvTiv dpTitas 

fic^etv €<fnffi€crda s t6v^ olros \€y€i ; 1055 

10. ri 5* ovTiP* fiTTc ; firjbh iprpan^s. ra bi 

pr)$€VTa PovXov firibe fiefiv^aBcu fianiP, 
01. ovK &v y€VOtTO Tovfff OTTCDS cyo) Xaj3a>y 

cn7/i€cd ToiavT ov (^avS> rovfibv ytvos, 
10. fi^ 7rp6s OeSiVf ttnep ri tov aavrov fiiov 1060 

Kfib€if fiaT€va]js Tovff* Skis vocFOvtr cy«, 
01. $ap<T€f ait fi€V yap ovd' &v *6i TpiTrjs eyci) 

liffpht <f>av& rpiBovkoSj €K<j)av€i KaKrj, 
10. BfKOS iriBov fioif X/cro-Ofuzi* firj bpa radc. 
01. OVK hu fridoifirjv fi^ ov rdb* fKfiaBiw fratfyas, 1065 

10. KcH fA^v (fypovovad y ii rd XSard <rot Xryo). 
01. rcli Xt^ora Toiwv ravrd fi dXyvvft TrdXoc. 
10, & 8v(nroTfJL, eWc prjftror€ yvoirfs ts el, 
01. 3i(ei Tiff e\$oi>v b€vpo tov fiorfipd fioif 

ravniv d* idrt ir\ov(ri^ xaiptiP yevet, 1070 

10. iov loVf bxxmivv tovto ydp a €)((a 

fiopov 7rpoa'€urtiv, dXko 6* oihroff vanpov, 
XO. ri froT€ PeprjKcv, Oibinovs, vn dyplas 

^^aa \v7rrj5 ^ yvvfj ; bcdoix ^ircas 

fiTf 'k rrjg (ruonrjs r^cS* dpapprj^ei kcuco, 1 07 5 

01. dTToTa XPTlC^^ prjyvvrti* rovfihv 6* ryw, 

Kct {TfiiKpdv icrri, (mtpp! I8(iv jSovX^crofuu. 

avTTj 5* ttrtas, iftpovtl yap li>s yvvfj fieya, • 

Trjv bv<Tyiv€Utv t^v €p,ffv alaxuvercu, 

cyo) d' iiiavrhv iralba Trjs Tv^^^ V€fjuav 1080 

TTJs tZ bibovarrjs ovk aTifiaadfjaofiai, 

Trjs ydp 7r€<j>vKa firjrpog' ol 8e avyyevfls 

p.^v€s fi€ pAKpdv Kai piyav dicapiaav, 

TOidabt d* iK<l>vs OVK &v i^ikdoifi f^ri 

iroT aKkoSf &crT€ fifj V/iodeii^ rovphv ycvos, 1085 

XO. OTp. uirep eyo) pwrris tlpX Koi Kara yvotfitw tdpis, 

D 



34 204OKAE0Y2 

2) KidaipoDPy ovK t<T€i rav avpiov 1090 

TravaeXrjvoPj firf ov tri y€ Koi narpiwrav Otdnrov 

Koi Tpo^ov KoX fiarcp axj^e^v, 

Kol xop€v€(TBai nphs fjfiSiVf o)ff eirirjpa (l>€p(wra toU cfiols 
Tvpdpvois, 

ir\i€ 9oip€f crot 0€ ravr a pear eci;. 
avT. Tis aCy T€Kvov, Ti9 (T €TiKT€ TOiv fjLaKpaiwvav apu 1098 

Ilavof opeatri^dra ttov iioo 

npo(nr€\a(T6(1(r , 17 (re y *€vvdT€ipd rts 

Ao^LOv ; Ta> yap irkdKCs dypopopoi nacai ^iXai* 

ctff 6 KvWdvas dvd(r(ra>Vj 1 104 

fiff 6 BaKx^'ios Bcbs vaicov iir aKpoav dp€<av evprffia bf^r €k tov 

Nuft^av 'E\iKOdpiB(aVj at? nXtloTa cufiTratfct. 
01. u XPV ^* '^°M^ M ovvaWd^avrd iron, 1 1 10 

np€(T^Vf uradpafrOatj tov fiorrjp 6pdv BoK&f 

8v7r€p ndXai (rfrovpLCv. tv r€ yap fiaxp^ 

yVP9 ^vva§« radc rdvbpl crvftfierpoff, 

aWcos T€ Tovs ayovras &a"iTtp OLKcrai 

eyvcuK ifiavTov' rfj d* eiriarr^iiri ov fiov III5 

TTpoUxoii rdx au ttov, rnv fiorrrjp* Ibcav irdpog. 
XO. €ypa>Ka yap, adcf)* ttr^i* Aaiov yap ^v 

€wrf/) Ttff aXXoff frioTOff ws vojifvs dvrjp, 
01. ere 7rpS>T ipcurSij t6v Kopivdiov ^evov, 

5 t6v8€ <f>pd(ifi,s i AF. rovToVj ovnep flcopas, 1 1 20 

01. ovroff, (TV, Trpea^v, deupo fioi (fxavei pXeirtw 

5cr* &v (T ipoara, Aaiov ttot rj(rda <rv ; 

eEPAnON. 
5 fiovXoff, OVK cDvrjrdiy aXX* oIkoi Tpa<l>€[g, 

01. tpyov fiepippoiv irotov § /Stow rlva ; 

0E. iroifivais rd TrXctora tov fiiov (TvvtnrdfjLTfp, 1 1 25 

01, ;(a>po(9 /iaX«rra irpos rlcri ^vavXos &v ; 

8E, ^v p.€v Kidaip&v, ^v be vpdcrx^i^pos rdiros. 

L Of, roy apdpa t6v^ odv olarSa rf/Sc frov yuaB^v ; 



NOTES. 5I» 

The queen casts off all fear : the oracle, proved false in one particular, 
is no more regarded by her. Oedipus is also elated when he hears 
the news. To be an outlaw at Thebes would be of small account, if 
he might return to his native city and be her king. But his appre- 
hensions have been too deeply ingrained in him to be shaken off at 
once, so far as Merope is concerned. The Corinthian messenger, 
however, undertakes to relieve his mind, and is eager to disclose the 
truth that Oedipus is not the son of Polybus and Merope. 

Thus in a single day not only is Oedipus to be restored to his 
country and established as her sovereign, but the mystery which has 
so long hung over him, and has coloured his whole existence, is to 
be solved. We need not wonder, considering what we know of his 
disposition, that the subject which completely absorbed him but a 
moment since, — the plague, the curse, the fear of outlawry, — should 
be forgotten in the all-absorbing interest of these new hopes. He 
may prove to be of mean origin ; what matters that, if he is king of 
Corinth ? And the desire to know his origin, whether mean or high, 
has been the dominant passion of his youth, and now carries all before 
it. He insists that the old herdsman, who has been already s^t for, 
and whom the Chorus now believe to have been the one who gave 
the foundling to the Corinthian, should come with speed. Oedipus 
is too much preoccupied to understand the passion of Jocasta, to 
whom the words of the Corinthian messenger have suddenly revealed 
the whole truth. She rushes forth in silence, — and is no more seen 
(11. 91 1 -1085). 

The Chorus are carried away by the infatuation of Oedipus. Again 
assuming the part rather of choreutae (perhaps also of courtiers) than 
of elders of Thebes, they sing an excited strain to Apollo, praying that 
the birth of Oedipus may prove to have been divine (11. 1086-1108). 

The old Theban herdsman, already four times mentioned, is seen 
at last approaching, and all eyes are fixed on him. He is confronted 
with the man from Corinth, but, like Teiresias, is unwilling to speak, 
for he knows that Oedipus is the slayer of the man whose throne and 
wife he holds, and that he is the object of Apollo's curse. But when 
he hears from the Corinthian, who is eager to speak, that the supposed 
son of Polybus is the child whom he, the herdsman of Laius, had 
given into the other's hands, — when he thus learns that the truth is 
infinitely worse than what he knew, — an involuntary cry of execration 
betrays his horror. Then on Oedipus also the light of discovery 
breaks at last. But he has stepped too far in to H«\^3cA^'a^ ^5^'^ V^<=n.^ 
and his desire is transmuted into l\ift i^^.oVa'cvaQ. X^ Vasw "^^ -^^x^- 

1£ 2 



34 204OKAE0Y2 

ov Thu^OXyfiircnf dneipoDV, 

& KtdaipayPy ovk taei rav avpiov 1090 

TrapaeXrjvop, fxrj oif (re y€ Koi irarpi^av Otdnrov 

KCLi rpo(f>ov Koi fiarep* av^e^v, 

Koi, xop€\)€(T6ai npos fjfjiSiv, o>s €irlr)pa ^epovra Tois ifiots 
Tvpdwois, 

LTjic voipCy crot 0€ ravT apear €trj. 
dvT. Tis CTf, T€KvoVj T19 (T CTIKTC TOiv fjLaKpaid>pa>v apQ 1098 

TJapof opetTfTifidra *irov 1 100 

7rpo<r7r6Xa(7^€to-*, ^ ae y *€vudT€ipd rts 

Ao^LOv ; rat yap irXdKcs dypopofioi nacrcu ^tXai* 

elff 6 KvWdpas avdccoDVy 1 104 

ftff 6 BaK^fios B€6s palcop iir aKpoap 6p(<av evpr)pja hifyvr €k tov 

Nvft^ay 'EXiKOdPiBcdPf als rrXfloTa cv/uTraifFi. 
01, ft j(pTj ri KOfie firi avpaWd^uprd ncOj 1 1 10 

np€(T^Vf orraOpaa-Oaij tov fiorrjp* 6pap doicS, 

OPTrep TrdKcu ^rjTOVfjL€v. tp t€ yap p.aKpa 

yrjpq ^vpd^ei roJSf rdpSpl crv/i/xerpoy, 

aW<os T€ Tovs ayovras Sxrir^p olKeras 

€yp(OK ip^vrov' rfj d* eniar^iir} <rv fiov IIIR 

TTpoxjxoi'S Tax ^^ ^^^f ^'^*' i^o^P* i^^v ndpos, 
XO. €yp<t>Ka ydpf (rdcj)* laBi' Aatov yap Ijp 

eiir€p Tis aXkos irtarbs wy pop^vs dvqp, 
01. cr€ irpSnT €pa»TS>, top KoptpBiop ^evop, 

rj Tdvbc (^pciffty; Ar. tovtop, Spncp €ia-opas, 1 1 20 

01. o^os, ov, 7rp€affvy btvpd poi ^coi/et /3Xcfn»y 

5cr* &p or* €pciyra>, Aaiov nor rjaOa av ; 

eEPAnON. 
5 fioOXoff, oifK a>w;T<5y, aXX* oiKoi Tpa(f>€ig, 
01. ?pyop fjL€pippS>p irotov ^ /3iow rlpa ; 

GE. TToippoLs rd TrXcTora tov fiiov crvpenrdprjp, 1 1 25 

01. xd>poiS pdXiora irpos ritn ^pavKos &p ; 
8E, Ijv pep KiBaipoup, fjp dt irpoax^pos Tdiros, 
01. TOP apdpa Tdpb* oZp olcrBa r.^dc irov iiaSav s 



0IAin0Y2 TYPANN02. 35 

0E. Tt XP^V^ tpSivra ; noiov awhpa Kat Xiytis ; 

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n€dd(ap de rStp pip dp<r€Pa)P pf) poij Kpeop, 

npocdj pcpipvap' av8p€s claiUf &<Tre pfj 1460 

tnraviv nore (tx^^v, tvff hv Sxrty rod ^iov 

ralp ^ affkloLP olicrpaip t€ irapOivoip tprnp, 

€up ovTToff fjp^ xo>p\s iardOr) popas 

rpantg avtv rovo avoposy aAA o(ra>p eyo> 

yf^avoipiy irdpTCdP rSiv^ dti peT€ix^Trjp* 1465 

(uv pot p€\€ar$M* Kol pdkiara pip x^potP 

yf^avaai p eaaop KaTTOKkavaaaSai KOKd, 

Iff 2>pa^y 

iff ^ yopg yeppaU, X^P*^^ '"^ Btyiop 

toKoip* ex'SiP ir<fidsy &aTr€p fjpiic e^Xenop, 1470 

Tt <l>T)pls 

ov d^ kKvo) ttov irphs Be&p toip pLot (jyikoip 

doKpvppoovPTOLPy Kai p €7roiKT€ipas Kpiap 

€7rfft^€ poi ra ^tXrar cKyopow ipuoip ; 

\eyia ti, ; 1475 

KP, Xeyeis' eya> yap ftp h iropavpas rode, 



OIAinOYS TYPANN02. 45 

yvovs rfiv irapova-ap repyjnVf ij <r ei^ev Trakat, 
01. aXX* €VTV)(oir)Sy Kai ae lijo-be t^s obov 
daifuov €lfi€ivop ^ */x€ (fipovpffa'as tvxoi, 

& TCKvay irov ttot core ; devp' it , TKSert 1480 

at ras dScX^af TAab€ ras tp-as X^P^^f 
ai Tov <f>vTOvpfyov irarphs vpiv 2>d* 6pay 
TO. 7rp6(r6« Xapirph 7rpov^€vrj(rav Spfmra* 
ts vpivy Zi rcKVy oijff 6pS>v oxjff iarop&v 

irar^p itpdpOrjv tvBfv avrhs ^poOrjv, 1 485 

Kai or^o) doKpva)' npoo'^Xeneiv yhp ov trBiva* 
voovpjfvos TCL XoiTra rov iriKpov piov, 
oiop Pi&pcu (r<f)a> irphi avBpimfop xpeap, 
TTotas yap aarrSiP rj^er tls op-tXlaf, 

TToias d* ioprdSf €p$€p ov K€Kkavp€Pcu 1490 

nphs oiKOP t^eaff dpri r^s Becapias ; 
aXX* fiPiK &p d^ vp6s ydfia>p tjktjt d/c/xaff, 
tU o^os tarrm, rU 'napappiy^ci, TtKpa, 
ToinvT opeiSrj Xap^dpcup, A rols ipois 

yopcvaip tarai ar(^^v ff Sfiov brjKripjaTa i 1495 

tI yap KcucSiP Arcori ; rhp iraripa nar^p 
vp&p ?fr€<l)P€* T^p T€Kov€rap ^poatPy 
oBep TTcp aitrbs iamdprj, kok tS>p Ifrav 
iiCTTja'aff vpMSf t>prr€p avrhs efc^v. 

roiavT 6v€ibi€luBe, Kara ris yap^i ; 1500 

ovK earip oudccr, 2) T€KP*f dk\d brjXad^ 
X^po'ovs <l>Bap^vaL Kaydpovs vpas XP^^^» 
St irdt M€voiK€a>Sf dXX' cVel popos irar^p 
TOVTCUP XcXeit^ai, pod ydpy & '(^vreva'apep, 
okd>\ap€P bv SpTty ptf €r<l>€ *ir€pubuf 1 505 

irnox^s dpdpdpovs cyycpcls dkapepas^ 
p.r)b* i^KTCio^s rdchf rois ipols KaKois, 
dXX' oucno'dp <r<j>aSf l)b€ njXdcdcrd* opStp 
irdpTODP iprjpovs, Trkfjp oaop to <r6p ptpos* 
^vppeva-QP, & ycio'aie, ag >Jra\)<jas X"e^V* 



^V^^ 



46 20*0KAE0Y2 OIAIHOYS TYPANNOS. 

(nl>^v ^, & rcKv , ct itev €l)(enjv fjbr) (f>p€vas, 
7r(JXX* &v irapjivovv vvv ^ tout ^-xedOe yuoiy 
ot Kcup6s aet Qvy *fii(iv dc \<oovos 
vfias KvpTjacu rov (fivrevo'avTOs irarpos, 
KP. Skis 1v e^rfKcis baxpxxav dXX* IBi OTcyi;s tfrna, 151$ 

OI. irtKTTioVf Ktl firjbev fj8v, KP. nayra yap KMpa «caXa. 
01. ourff €^' ois oZv eifii ; KP. Xe^fiy, icat tot* elaofjuu ickvtav, 
01. -y^ff /n* 07ra>r trip.-^is airoixov. KP. tov ^coO ft* alrtii b6(Tiv, 
01, aXXa Beols y exOiaros fJKa. KP. roiyapovv rcv^ct rdxa* 1 5 19 
01, <^j)ff TaS* o^ir ; KP. & fif) <f>pov& yap ov (jiiKw Xryf tv pArrjv, 
01. airaye vvv ft* ivrevBev rfbr). KP. arelx^ y^^f tckvcov S* d(f>ov, 
01. firj8ap&s ravras y eXrj fiov, KP. frain'a fi^ /SovXoi; Kpar€7v 

Kol yap &Kpdrr)(ra9 ov crot t« ^to) ^veoTrero. 
XO. & Tvdrpas Orj^rjs evoucoij X«;o"cr€T*, Olbiirovs 5d€, 

6ff TO icXetV alviyfWT ^brf Ka\ Kpdriaros ^v dvf)py 1525 

'^npSyros iv (f}\<ji iro\tT&v koI Tv\ai.s *€7ri<l>\€yav, 

€if otrov KXuS(i)i/a dfti/^s arvpxpopds iX^XvS^v, 

&crT(j BvrjTov ovt, eKCivrjv rriv reXevTaiav Idclv 

fjfitpav iiruTKOTtovvra^ prfbev 6\pi(€iv, jrpiv hv 

T€ppa TOV piov it^pMTQ pjjbkv dky€ivov wa6cop» 1530 



NOTES. 



INTRODUCTORY ANALYSIS. 

I. The Oedipus Tyrannus was celebrated in antiquity as the master- 
piece of Sophocles, and is frequently referred to by Aristotle as the 
type of what a tragedy should be. It is only after considerable study 
that these judgments can be fairly appreciated by a modem reader. 
The situation appealed directly to what was deepest in ancient feeling. 
But we stand, as it were, at a different angle, and the force and range 
of the emotion which pervades the work are less apparent to us than the 
subtlety of its construction. Do what we can, it is hard for us to receive 
from this great drama the simple and profound impression which it was 
originally intended to convey. 

1. The student should endeavour to realize, first, the old Greek sen- 
timent about family life. The Athenian lived in public, it is true : he 
was not a 'domestic character,* as we English understand the word. 
But his religion centred in the domestic hearth, and any stain or mis- 
fortune which affected that, any act which marred its purity or jarred 
upon its peace, was like a mortal wound to his best feelings. The 
relationship of father and son and that of mother and child, were 
sacred above all. To be of an unblemished race, and to be the father 
of fair offspring bom in honourable wedlock, were the prime conditions 
of happiness. And the ties by which a man was bound to his own kin 
were to the Athenian, in the age of tragedy, the symbol of that unwritten 
law of holiness and righteousness which was older than the laws of the 
8tate, and had a higher and wider sanction. It was the function of the 
tragic poet, as a religious teacher, to uphold the supreme dignity of 
this law. And Sophocles here does so, by showing the effect produced 
upon a noble and innocent man by his all at once discovering that he 
has unconsciously offended against this high ordinance, and that the 
very fountain of his life is consequently poisoned. It is not mere 
bloodguiltiness that is in question, nor unchastity as such. The horror 
which attached to parricide and incest was quite immeasurably beyond 
the guilt of these. 

2. The next point to be observed is tKe leV^Wioiv cjS. t-asScLVsS^s^^^!^*^^ 
his state. Jn ancient Hellas, eac\i cvt^ oi \.eii ox t^fsoXi ^c»^»«5v^VsRfc- 



48 OEDIPUS TYRANNUS. 

men was a whole nation, and patriotism was intense in proportion to 
the narrowness of its sphere. Next to the tie which bound him to his 
family, and indeed inseparable from this, was the man*s nearness to 
the whole community of which he was a member. In idea, if not in 
fact, there was blood-relationship existing amongst all the citizens. 
Each tribe acknowledged a common ancestor, and the eponymus of each 
one was akin to the eponymi of the rest. All were worshipped at the 
central patriarchal hearth. Thus the law of the state acquired a re- 
ligious sanction, and to be cut off both from family and nation was to 
be doubly dcppiffToap, dOifuaroSt dyiartos. 

The state was a larger family, and each citizen saw his private 
happiness mirrored in the opinion of his fellows. To be admired and 
envied by them, or, still more, to have earned their gratitude, was the 
acm^ of a reasonable ambition. 

3. It should further be considered that the name of Oedipus, like 
that of Adrastus, was traditionally associated with the most terrible 
of calamities, and that the whole story of the race of Labdacus had 
been previously represented by Aeschylus in an impressive trilogy. 
When the 30,000 spectators saw Oedipus come forth, they already 
knew in him the most unfortunate of men. The poet's task was to 
move them with a sense of the hero*s well-knawn misfortunes, and so 
to read afresh to them, or rather to awaken anew in their hearts, the 
lesson of the Eternal Law. 

4. Fourthly, the value of a pure intention in exonerating from the 
guilt of criminal actions was very imperfectly understood. The un- 
conscious parricide might be an object of compassion, but he was none 
the less for that an object of horror. 

II. Without any preparation, Sophocles brings Oedipus at once upon 
the stage. He is at the height of a long course of prosperity, which is 
due to his own penetration and public spirit. The only drawback to 
his good fortune is that he is originally a stranger to the people who 
have long since chosen him for their king. But the tie of benefits 
given and received appears to have more than compensated for the 
absence of an hereditary claim. And now a band of suppliant Thebans 
come to him as the only hope in their misfortune. For a plague has 
fallen upon the city. It is for the king to seek the help which he of 
all men is most sure to know of, whether that help is to proceed from 
God or man. 

Oedipus has already sent a message of inquiry to Delphi, by Creoiv 

the brother of his queen, who now arrives and repeats the answer of the 

oracle. The murderer of Laius must be expelled. But who is the 



NOTES. 49 

murderer? The one man who escaped to tell the tale is not at hand. 
Here is a riddle for Oedipus to solve. He undertakes it with a light 
and eager heart, and the suppliants retire (11. 1-150). 

At the king's summons the elders of Thebes (the Chorus) now enter, 
chanting to Apollo, Athena, and Artemis, as well as to Zeus, to help 
them in their time of need (11. 151-203). Oedipus repeats the oracle to 
them, and in their presence invokes a dreadful curse upon the murderer 
and all who shelter him. They suggest that the prophet Teiresias 
should be consulted. Oedipus had already sent for him at the sugges- 
tion of Creon, and presently the blind man comes in, led by a boy 
(11. 204-315). 

Oedipus is becoming excited ; and when the prophet is reluctant to 
speak, assails him with rash accusation. The seer is roused in turn, 
and accuses Oedipus of being the guilty pollutor of the land. The 
king threatens him, and he then hints at worse than murder. Oedipus 
loses all patience, and taunts the old man with his blindness and with 
falsehood to boot. On this Teiresias retorts that blindness will soon 
be found in Oedipus himself. The king is at first simply amazed, 
but presently his suspicion fastens upon Creon, by whose advice Teiresias 
was brought. * Not content with being next the throne, this brother- 
in-law would supplant me in the chief power. He has set the prophet 
on to undermine me!* Teiresias repeats his prophecy in the most 
solemn terms, — in the course of it reminding Oedipus that he is ignorant 
of his birth, — and so departs. Oedipus withdraws into the palace in 
high wrath, and also disturbed more deeply by the prophet's allusion 
to the mystery of his origin (11. 316-463). 

The elders are shaken in their minds, but are determined, until they 
know more, to stand by Oedipus, who saved them when the existence 
of their city was endangered by the Sphinx (11. 463-511). Creon now 
re-enters, having heard of the unjust suspicions of Oedipus, and an 
angry altercation between the brothers-in-law is threatening to add 
to the afflictions of the city, when Jocasta comes upon the scene 
(11. 512-633). 

The wife of Oedipus, the sister of Creon, she is the natural peace- 
maker between the two. And her queenly ascendency has the imme- 
diate effect of suspending the tyrant's anger * in mid volley.* Creon 
withdraws unharmed, and the king and queen are left alone together, 
with the council of Theban elders standing by (11. 677-696). 

Jocasta's imperious curiosity pays but light regard to them, and 
when she hears of the prophecy of Teiresias she bursts ^svlc» ^ss^^vsk-'^kvc- 
She herself had once been afraid oi a i^xo^\ifcc«3\ ^^"^ OcS^^^s^^'^-^^^^ 



68 OEDIPUS TYRANNUS. 

and infr. 473. The word 6pay is sometimes applied to hearing, like 
our expression, ' I will see what he says;* e.g. Aj. 785 Zpa /jioXovaa t6v9* 
dwot* ivrj 0po€i. t\Lav\ot properly signifies * dwelling with* (from aik'^), 
but here there may be a reference to av\6s, * accompanying.* 

1. 188. &v viT€p, *to avert which.* Cp. dras vvtp above. yfiyHria is 
merely an epUheton ornans, as in 1. 157. The word is often applied 
to things divine, or connected with divinity (in the earliest times gold 
was little used except in the decoration of temples, or as the ornament 
of kings and courts), as the harp of Apollo, the sandals of Athena. 
The golden daughter of Zeus is Athena, whom the Athenian puts first 
in the list of tutelary deities. 

1. 189. cuwira . . dXK*^. The compound in -inp assists the personifi- 
cation. Cp. Aj. 954 K€\cuv6nrav OvfjiSv. In the same way Shakespeare, 
Hamlet, 3. 4. 43 * From the fair forehead of an innocent love.* The 
same effect is produced by compounds in -irovs. dtivSvovs, So\i6irovs, etc., 
and even trotojicis 6fifia=*a, swiftly moving eye * (Aesch.). Cp. inf. 846. 

Strophe 7'. ' Send Ares far from our land, and quench his fiames in the 
Atlantic ocean, or the stormy Euxine, Day attacks what has escaped 
the night. Lord of the thunder. Father Zeus, slay him with thy bolt.* 

1. 190. ''Apea. Cp. 1. 215. Any hostile or deadly influence is per- 
sonified as Ares. Cp. Aj. 706, where the madness of Ajax is so named. 
|ju&Xcp6v is the Homeric epithet of fire, and so harmonises with <t>Xfyci. 
It also, like the relative clause which follows, distinguishes this Ares of 
pestilence from the Ares of the battle-field {<poivios "Aprjs El. 96). For 
axoXxos dcrirCScov cp. £1. 36 daxevov darridwVf and note. 

1. 191. ircpipoaros dyrui^aiv, 'meeting me amid loud cries.* The 
groans of the suffering are regarded as the shouts accompanying the 
onset of the god. 

1. 192. vwrCaoa follows on ircfji^ov, or rather on some word of 
general meaning contained in ir4fiif/ov, as d6s, or the like — * grant that.' 
voirCaoa 8p(i)j,T)^a, * race backward.' The expression is to be analysed 
into iipafjiuv bpdfxrjfia dinar pantiivov, just as TVfifi€v€iv x^^ (El* 406) is 
= X^^ X^^ lirtTUfi/StStous. Eur. And. 1141 irpds <pvyijv kvirriaav, irdr- 
pas is the abl. genitive. 

1. 193. cirovpov, 'wafted on,* *down the wind :* others read dnovpw, 
* far from the borders of,* but the word occurs nowhere else, and has 
less MS. authority than Itrovpov. 

L 195. The 'great chamber of Amphitrite* is the Atlantic ocean. 
The fiery god is to be plunged into the remote waters of the west or 
east. 

1. 196. dir6j€vov is stronger than of cvoy, = * repelling strangers.* Cp. 
^frSrijios as compared with drifws^ infr. 215. 
/ T^S, t4X«i is best taken with d</>p, and traiisVaLled, * at its close.' 



NOTES. LINES 1 8 8-2 II. 69 

Others render it ' completely,' taking the word with Mpxtrax. In the 
next line the order is fjfiap Mpx^rai tovto. For the construction cl . . 
d4>fi cp. infr. 874, and note. 

1. 200. t6v refers to "Apta. It is the relative. So Aesch. Ag. 536 
Albs ficuciXXxi tJ Kartipyaarai v4Sov, and often in Soph. But it is thus 
used only in the forfns which begin with t, and generally after a 
vowel. 

Antistrophe 7'. 'Lycean prince, let me tell of thy shafts as aiding us, 
and of thy torches, Artemis, which gleam along the Lycian hills. Him 
also I invoke who bears the name of this land, — Bacchus, the Evian god. 
May he come with his bright torches to aid us against the god whom 
the gods put far from honour.* 

1. 204. Apollo, who has already been entreated, in company with 
Athena and Artemis, to send aid, is now entreated separately as Athena 
in 1. 188, and Artemis in 1. 206. Apollo Lyceus is the protector against 
enemies, Aesch. S. c. T. 145 AvKti* dva^, Avieetos ytvov arparf datcf. He 
is the same deity as ^oTfios -npoararfipios El. 637, 655, and statues of 
him as of Hermes were placed near the doors of houses. 

1. 205. 6ilXoi)j,* &v . . €v8aTct(r6ai. (i) 'I would that thy invincible 
shafts, ranged on our side to aid us, were showered (on our foes).' 
This passive use of kv^Tua$ai does not appear to occur elsewhere in 
tragedy. (2) ' I would celebrate thy invincible shafts as ranged on our 
side for help.' hvharuaOai is middle in the sense of * dwelling upon,* 
' celebrating.* For this use cp. Aesch. Frag. 340 (N.) kv^riiaOai, rdy 
l/iclf cuTratS/as, K.r.X. 

1. 206. irpo<rra64vTa is taken by some commentators as 1st aor. pass, 
of irpoiarrffu, by others as ist aor. pass, from irpoardvoj, 'pointed at,* 
* aimed at (our enemies).' The first agrees better with Apollo vpoara-- 
T^pios. irup<t>6po\;s . . al-yXas. Cp. Tr. 213 "Aprtmv . . dfjuphvpov^ where 
there is again an allusion to the torches carried by Artemis, and in her 
train. For the torches cp. Curt. Hist. Gr. i. 81, • The grandeur of this 
mountain scenery is increased by the volcanic nature of parts of it, es- 
pecially in the mountains of the Solymi, where strange phenomena of 
fire could not but excite the fancy of the inhabitants.* 

1. 208. AvKt* . . 5pca, * the Lycian hills,' the home of Apollo and 
Artemis, in so far as they are identified with the Lycian deities of light. 
There is a play on the resemblance in the words ACkuos and AhKios. 
The former word is elsewhere connected with \vkos El. 6, 7. 

1. 2io.,Taa8* lirc&vvp.ov'Y^s, * who bears the name of this land.* In 
Ant. 154 he is called 6 &fi0as k\e\ixOcou Boucxtoi. As the son of Semele, 
the daughter of Cadmus, Bacchus was essentially the Theban god. 

1. 211. ciivov, derived from €vo?, who makes me,\i\jo <ivj t>>ov,\.^»'5^QSs^'5i^ 
of joy. 

* 
V 



70 OEDIPUS TFRANNUS. 

1. 214. -W-, Some epithet of ir€v/e(f, such as •ttvp<p6p^, or oiB&KXoVf 
is probably lost. The torches of Dionysus, which light up the revels 
on Parnassus, are frequently mentioned in the Greek poets ; cp. Ant. 
1 1 26, and note. 

I. 215. dir6Ti)j.ov, *put far from honour.* In II. 5. 890 Zeus says to 
Ares, €xOi(TTos bi fioi laci 0€wv ot "OXvfirrov ^x"^^^^^- So also the Eu- 
menides are without honour among the gods. Aesch. Eum. 366 Zths 
ycLp aifxaroffTayh d^i6fxi<Tov40vos rSde kiaxo-^ \ 5s dirq^idiaaTO. 

II. 2 16 foil. Oedipus had gone into the palace, but has returned during 
the latter part of the song of the Chorus. To the general meaning 
of their entreaties he now makes a calm and dignified reply, as one 
who is a total stranger to the crime which has caused the plague. It 
is by no means uncommon for the chief actor to remain on the stage 
during the whole or part of the chorus. Cp. Tr. 94 foil., El. 1085 foil., 
Ant. 944 foil., O. C. 720. 

11. 216-315. Oedipus, with curses and denunciations against the 
murderer of Laius, requests the Chorus, of whom the choregus now 
comes forward to take the part of an interlocutor in the scene, to 
give whatever information they can. They reply that they are ignorant 
of the deed, and the doer, and suggest that Teiresias should be sent for. 
The suggestion has already occurred to Oedipus, and he has acted 
upon it. 

I. 21 6. & 8* aiT€is. The sentence is broken off, unless we suppose 
the construction to be compressed, and a to be=«&v (jcaKSiv) dX^i' KaX 
dyaKob<l>i<Tiv. Cp. the vague a in 1. 6, and ravra in I. 269. 

II. 219 foil. &.yia. d = 6L ivrj \6yov. The report of the death of Laius 
is meant. *I shall tell you these words, since I am a stranger to 
what was said and to what was done ; and therefore, if I were not 
to tell you who are not strangers, I could not, as I have no clue, 
go far in the search. If I had a clue it would not be necessary to 
consult you, but since I became a citizen after the event, and there- 
fore have none, I now make my declaration to you.* This seems to 
be the connection of this passage, vvv 8* refers to ovk Ix«v rt ciix^oXov^ 
and therefore is followed by the explanation vartpos yAp, k.t.\. The 
Chorus appeal to Oedipus for assistance, and he replies by appealing 
to them for some guiding clue in the matter, to which, from the force 
of circumstances, he is wholly a stranger. The acuteness with which 
he solved the riddle of the Sphinx fails him, because he is not in the 
position of the rest of the citizens. 

1. 220. (itj ov combines supposition and fact. Hdt. 6. 106 fi^ ov 
irXrjpios kSvros rod kvkKov, 'if the disc was not full and it was not.* 
M-i) would give the hypothesis merely. avT6. Another reading is 
at/ Tiff, 'of myself/ 



NOTES. LINES 214-241. 7 1 

I. 22 a. vKrrcpos, i. e. rod irpax^^vros. els dorrot^ reX^, ' count among 
citizens.* Cp. Hdt. 2.51 *A6i]vaioi<Tt , . fjdrj TTjvtKavra ks "EWrjvas r^Xiovai. 
The phrase would originally apply to those who paid their contribu- 
tions to a certain society, which would of course be a sufficient mark 
of their belonging to that society. 

II. 227-229. The difficulty of these lines arises (i) from the meaning 
of \m€^€\inf, (2) from the transposition of the clauses in 11. 228, 229. 
The real apodosis to Ktl ix\v <po$€TTai is 7^? dviroj dfffpaXrjSt after which 
should come in logical order vtlatTai ydp^ k.t.\. as giving the expla- 
nation. But in the anxiety to give the murderer impunity from every- 
thing but banishment, the imperative has become a future, and the 
clauses are transposed. ^ircfcXcov may mean, (i) * drawing from con- 
cealment,' or (2) ' secretly withdrawing,* or (3) ' removing out of our 
way,' {yvS as in vnoxcapHv). The first rendering makes it necessary 
to take the word with (pofietrai, which is not altogether satisfactory. 
Translate, *If he is afraid of these curses, or to give information, 
withdrawing the charge (from every one else) let him go, for this is 
all that he shall suffer, and he shall go away from the land unharmed.* 
Though his absence as a citizen could not but be observed, no inquiry 
would be made. 

1. 230. diXXov €$ dtXXTis x^<>v6s must be taken together. aXkov is 
little more than nra, but implies that the person giving information 
(tij) is not the murderer. There is no reason to alter the word. For 
the repetition cp. Ajax 267 icoivos iv Koivotai, 467 ^vfjLirtacbu /xuvos 
fi6voiSt 1283 fx6vos fx6vov. 

1. 232. xr\ x6{>i'S irpoaKcCacToi, *and he shall have our thanks in 
addition.* KeCo-crai = * shall be laid up for him.* 

1. 234. dir6<r€t TOi$itos . . t68€, (i) ' shall neglect,* * disregard this 
command.* The word dird^o-ct conveys the idea that the neglect is 
wilful, Aj. 446 dySpos touS' dvdjaavTfs Kp&rrj. <t>CXov depends on 
8c(<ras = * on account of a friend,* the genitive being used as with verbs 
expressing anger, excitement, etc. (xtt'<5/i€i'os yvvaiK6s, etc.). (2) * Shall, 
in fear, repel this charge from a friend or from himself.* In this ren- 
dering <pi\ov is to be taken with dit^an. 

1. 236. T^v e[v8pa . . TovTov, i.e. the murderer, the ace. is governed 
by ^iMx^ffOai. y^s rijo-Bc is a partitive gen. governed by riva, * any 
one in this land.* diravSu conveys a negative idea, *to forbid,' *bid 
. , . not to do.* Cp, drrofiyvvai = • to swear not.* 

1. 237. Kpdrr| TC Kal Opovovs. Supr. 54. The same collocation of words 
is found Ant. 173. Cp. also Ant. 166. • Power and sovereignty.' 

1. 240. x^pvi'Pos is a partitive genitive. But others read x^P»'*/3as. 
The singular alone (ace. sing.)^s found in Homer. 

1. 241. &s p,ida|jkaT08, K.T.X., gVve?. ^iYit it^&'Cfa. ^^x ^^«.v. ^^^^^ 



12 OEDIPUS TYRANNVS. 

* • 

&iO€tv supply K€\t{}oj from diravSo). Cp. infr. 819. tovSc is masculine. 

* Since he is a pollution to us.* 

1. 242. 0€o€ is a descriptive genitive almost = ' divine,' * heaven-sent.' 
1. 244. T$ 8atp,ovt=' Apollo.' Toi6<r8«, *in such wise I show my- 
self, etc' 

I. 246. For the indifference with which the number of the murderers 
is treated cp. supr. 107, 124. 

II. 246-251. Some edd. place these lines after 272, thus obtaining 
a correlation between tvxofJtai 1. 269, and liretJxoAtat, and, it is thought, 
a better antecedent for toiopB' in the rots [ifj, k.t.K. 1. 269. But roiadf is 
justified by tlrt v\€i6vtuv fxira, which makes it possible to use the plural. 
In Sophocles also 5S€ is often used without any exact antecedent, and 
the transposition of the lines assumed by the conjecture is insufficiently 
explained by the similarity ofvfuv di in 1. 292 and in 1. 273. The pre- 
sent order puts first what relates to the malefactor, and second what 
relates to the other citizens. 

1. 248. As in d$ov\ov and similar words the privative word obtains 
a negative force. d[)j,opov, * without share in any good,' agrees with vtv. 
circvxcpcLts'I further' imprecate curses on myself.' For l«rpr^at, re- 
ferring to the future, cp. vaOeiv 251. xaKov Kax&s, 'in the misery 
which he deserves.' 

1. 250. -ycvovTO. The optative marks out the improbability of the 
contingency. 

1. 251. iraOciv, sc. cfic, which is omitted because the verb has the 
same subject. 

1. 254. w8* dKdpircos kcLOccos. * Thus ruined with sterility and the 
frown of heaven.' 

1. 256. With aKdOapTov supply r6 vpdyfjux. The duty of expiating 
the pollution, which is OtrjXaTov^ is confused with the pollution itself, 
which is dnddapTov. Both are implied in the vague word itpdyfm. 

1. 257. dpioTov is here used of rank, as in Aj. 1304 apt tXTos l£ dpi- 
ariotv SvoTv. 

1. 258. Kvpa *y* €yu>. It is difficult to retain the t' of the MS , 
unless we assume that the kcu which should have followed is changed 
into \kiv . . 8^. Or the t€ may possibly correspond to the rt in infr. 
261. Cp. Ant. 673 avTTj ir6\(is r 6\Kvaiv, ffS* dvaardTovs, k.t.X. 

1. 260. 6)j.6airopos is passive, * having the same husband.' Cp. infr. 460. 

1. 261. Kotvwv T€ iraCSuv koCv* dv. The periphrasis of the genitive 
with the neuter adjective gives increased emphasis to both words. Cp. 
O. C. 923 ipwrojv d$\iojv iKTqpia. It is not necessary to supply yhri. 
48va"rt»x'n<rcv is of course true in a very different sense from that intended 
by Oedipus, and a connection of common children does exist between 
Ji/m and Laias. 



NOTES. LINES 242-2,8y. 73 

1. 263. cvi^Xaro. For the metaphor cp. infr. 1300, where the word 
is used of Oedipus, Ant. 1346. Laius has died without children ! 

1. 264. dvO* Suv resumes the thread of 1. 258, which has been broken 
by the parenthesis koivSjv . . r^xi- '^^^* is a cognate ace. after virepftaxov- 
fjuu, * I will fight this battle for him.* 'iraTp6s must be taken with the 
inrip in virtpfmxovfJicu, Observe the so-called * irony' of this line 
also. 

1. 267. T$ Aap8oK€C<p irovSC. The dative depends on the notion of 
help or vindication in vvtpfMxovfjuu, the main word in the sentence. 
The adjective (AapSaxcCcp) is used for one link in the chain of gene- 
rations, so as to break the monotony of the enumeration. The use is 
common, infr. 12 16 Aaltiov riicvov, Aesch. Pers. 8 v6aT(p rq> ^a<Ti\fi<p. 
For the use of a genealogy in solemn asseverations, etc. cp. Hdt. 7. 1 1 
fi^ yaip elriVf k.tA, 

1. 269. TaOra is governed by ipufftv. Otovs is the ace. before dvUvcu. 
04oTs would be more usual (after ivxoiJiai)^ but would be open to mis- 
interpretation when coming immediately after another dative. 

1. 271. (j,i?|T* o^. oZv gives prominence to this clause. Cp. 1. 90. 

1. 272. 4>0cpct<r9cu, sc. ahro{>i, 

1. 273. Tois dXXoiox in opposition to roU /xf^ bp&ffi. 

1. 274. 'May justice, your ally, and all the gods dwell with you ever- 
more to bless you,' Justice is ipso facto the ally of those who take 
the right side when there is a quarreKor difference. For the expression 
f? (xifvufu cp. 108 1 TTJs eZ SiSovarjs. 

1. 276. tto^cp [h dpatov IXo^cs, *even as you have taken me on my 
oath, so will I speak,* i.e. 'I will speak on my oath as you enjoin.* For 
\a0uv in this sense cp. Hdt. 3. 74 iriari re \afi6vT(s kqI bpnloKn, 

1. 278. rh 8i jT|Tq|ia is perhaps best taken as the nom. to i}r. It 
must be supplied again after trinxpavros. Infr. 807. 

1. 279. t68€ does not agree with {'qTijfjux, but must be taken sepa- 
rately with ciirciv referring to oans (IpyaaTol irorf, * to say respecting 
this, who has done it.' 

1. 281. ov8' &v €ls, 'no man whatever.' 

1. 282. €K TwvSc, of the order of importance, 'next after this.* 

I. 283. ^TJ irap-QS t6 (jitj ov <t>pdaai. The words t6 . . <ppd(rat are 
added to explain what is already implied in trapes, and the negative is 
repeated. ' Do not pass it by, so as not to speak of it.' 

II. 285, 6. This suggestion prepares us for the entrance of Teiresias. 
Trap' otj is to be taken with hK^adoi, <rKoir£>v, * investigating them.* 

1. 287. o^K cv dpYots .. cirpa^dfJiTiv, 'I have not had this done among 
things idle,' = * I have not left it undone.' The middle is causative yet 
implies that Oedipus is the prime mover in the matter. S>ci k^tV>iQtx\j.'t^ 
Aj. 531. TovTO is = this suggestion >^2X \ ^'ossXiSs. ^orc&x^ '^^^^t^^'^- 



74 OEDIPUS TVRANNUS. 

For Iv dpyois cp. Aj. 971 kv kcvois. The expression kvpa^dfjLrjv h &prfois 
amounts to an oxymoron. 

1. 289. )J.TJ irap^v^ct 11^ ir6p«TTif the construction, so far as the nega- 
tive is concerned, being adapted to 0avfjtd(€iv. The passive implies 
that the wonder is general. 

1. 290. tA 7' dXXa, ' those other sayings.' Ka^&, 'dumb,' i. e. giving 
no intelligence. The reference is to the report mentioned in IL 122, 3, 
which afterwards becomes of importance. 

1. 291. tA iroia. The interrog, is made more definite by the addition 
of the article, *what are these to which you allude?' Cp. supr. 120, 
El. 671, etc. 

1. 293. Tov 8' i86vt', K.T.X., 'the eye-witness is out of sight.* P'or 
ISuv and opq. cp. 1. 1334, 5. 

1. 295. ov (Jtcvci, sc. 6 <pov€vs, who is the chief person in everybody's 
sight. (The murderer hears the curses and yet remains.) 

1. 297. ov^f\iyx<iiVf *the convictor.' If the present is retained, it is 
expressive of certainty, but the change to the future is, of course, easy. 
The present is probably right, because it lends greater vividness to the 
expression. Now, at any rate, the murderer cannot escape, the unerring 
prophet will bring him to light ; and this vividness of expression is im- 
portant when we remember who the criminal is. In Phil. 76, Aesch. 
Prom. 848 {tvTavOa 5^ at Zcvs riOrjaiv tfuppova), the present is used for a 
certain future; cp. Thuc. i. 121 dXiaKovrai. 

1. 300. & irAvra v(o|jittv. Cp. Aesch. S. c. T. 25, 6 h dicrl vojftojv xal 
<f>p€(riv irvpds bixa \ XPV^'^VP'^^^^ opviOas dtf/tvbet riyirQ. * Master of all 
wisdom and all mystery, in the heaven above and on the earth beneath.* 
vca^dv is used of the knowledge that has power to sway and influence 
all things. 

1. 302. ir6Xvv is ace. after 4>f>ovcis, and hence comes the nom. to 
cvv^ariv. 

1. 305* *^ i**^ M-''^* K.T.X., * in case you do not hear it from the mes- 
sengers (as well as from me),* = €t ^^ Kai hKvus, The sense of tl kcu. is 
diflferent from that in 1. 302. 

1. 307. |*,ovi?|v, ' in this way and no other.* For the position cp. 
Phil. 61 fx6vrjv tx"^^"^^^ r'fivb* SXoiaiv *lKiov. 

1. 308. )j.a66vT6s €{>, 'having carefully ascertained who they are.' 
Cp. 1. 68 (Z OKoirSn/f and for the order Ant. 166 (rk^ovras tldujs €5. 

1. 310. ovv, 'therefore,' i. e. as Phoebus has aided us, so do you. 

1. 311. )j,avTiKt]s 686v, 'mode (line) of prophecy.' Cp. supr. 67 iroX- 
AAj 8* 6S0VS i\66vra (ppovriSos ir\dvois, 

1. 313. \Kia<r\La. The evil from which deliverance is sought is made 

the object of the verb as well as the persons to be delivered, i. e. pHinu 

is used ID a slightly different sense with fuaaiia — 'remove,' instead of 



NOTES. LINES ^^89-325. 75 

' protect.* Others prefer to make irav fjiiaafxa = vay to fjitfiiafffiivovt but 
the collective neuter would in this case be very inexpressive. 

1. 3 14. £v8pa is the ace. before (o^^^Xciv, * that a man should render help.* 

!• 314- ^Xo*-- For the mood and omission of av cp. infr. 979 Sttojs 
t^SvaiTo Tts. The optative puts the case more indefinitely than the 
subjunctive with dv. 

1. 316. Teiresias enters, and his entrance forms a striking, contrast 
to the previous entry of Creon. Creon had put the best construction 
on the message from Delphi, making most of the glad and bright side 
of it; but there is no mistaking Teiresias. His tone is decided, the 
dignified position of Oedipus is destroyed, and he falls into altercation 
with the seer. Teiresias at first wishes to retire, but is roused by 
Oedipus into declaring him the murderer of Laius. Oedipus attributes 
the declaration to treason in complicity with Creon. Teiresias then 
departs, signifying before he goes the greater horror that is in store 
for Oedipus. From this point in the play the guilt of the murder 
slowly recedes before the guilt of the incest. 

1. 316. *How dire a thing is wisdom when it brings no profit to th^e 
wise; this truth I knew well but forgot, or I had not come hither.' 
4>povctv = * to know,' * to have a sense of the true situation of affairs.' 
As in Aj. 942 (Tol fjiiv SoKitu rdd' iar\ ifiol fi* dyav (ppovtiy. For Iv0a 
with the subj. and without dv cp. Aj. 1074 ev6a fx^ KaOiOTfiKTi hios. 
t4Xt| Xvq is an expression not found elsewhere, though we have Xvai- 
nXiiv frequently in prose ; and \iuv in Euripides often means, ' to set 
free from difficulty,' as also in Soph. El. 1005 \vh ydp i)/xas ouScV, 
ou5' cirftH/>€A.er. \v€iv can mean, ' to pay a debt,' and hence \t€iv reXrjt 
* to pay taxes,' * bring in profit, or income.* (Infr. 406.) 

1. 318. 8ui»Xcaa, *! forgot,* just as aw^nv means, 'to bear in mind.' 
Teiresias is speaking to himself. He knew the fatal consequences of 
his gift but for the moment forgot it. 

1. 319. us, 'how I' Cp. Ant. 997 ri h* iariv] &s kyai t6 dbv <pf^<xao) 

(TTOfia, 

1. 320. ov, sc. Siolffus, adv..Tov)i6v are designedly vague. Sioio-evv 
is 'to bear to the end* with the idea of a lifelong trouble. Cp. 
hia<piptiv rbv alwva Hdt. 3. 40, 5tot(7€t Rhes. 982. 

1. 322. cwofjia, 'lawful.' The state had a claim to the services of 
her seer, whose office is a public one. 

1. 323. dirooTCpuv, 'perversely withholding.' The word implies 
fraudulently keeping back what belongs to another. 

1. 325. d>s o^ p.i?|8' €7(0, K.T.X. 'my motive is, that I may not be in 
the same case with you.' The construction is merely a refinement on 
the ordinary construction of verbs of ' striving,' with Cjl'\ <»i«i ^ax ^'r^r., 
(2) conjunctive for future, (,3) first i^t?.o\i iox xJjvw^. 



y6 OEDIPUS TYRANNUS. 

1. 328. (Jt-^ is never repeated in the same clause after oh fjLrjt hence 
ojs 6.V fji^ must be taken together. If the text is kept we must arrange 
thus — l7cl> 8* oif fiii troTt r&fx Ixcp'fivoj Kand^ us tiv cfirw fji^ tcL <rd. * I will 
never declare my evils that I may not call them (not to call them) 
thine/ or * that I may not declare thine.' But Hermann has been often 
followed in reading tlndjv for cfTro;, and supposing an aposiopesis after 
oh fi-ff iroT€. (2) ' But I will never — that in speaking (of) my evils I 
may not declare thine.* Linwood supplies ov <ppoirfjaej {?) after ov ixfi 
iroTf. But it is more natural to supply some word meaning to declare. 
A third suggestion is that we should read kyib 5* ov fi'fi irort | cfiro; rdS*, 
d)s d,v fti) Tc^ <r' kKipiivoj KafcA, 

1. 332. TavT* I o[XXa)s. This synaloepha is said to have been peculiar 
to Sophocles among the tragedians ; he only uses it where the sense is 
continued and where the syllable is long. Cp. supr. 29. 

1. 336. *Will you show yourself thus obdurate and inexorable?* 

1.337. «M'*M'+"» *yo^ blame.* For the aorist cp. Aj. 536 lirj/vco'* 
Hpyov ical vp6voiav fjv tOov, El. 668 iSt^dfirfv rb ^Oh and notes, tt^v 
<rt|v 8' 6(j,o€ I vaCovaav. The passion is personified, and some have 
gone so far as to see in these words a reference to Jocasta. But though 
Jocasta might be spoken of as an drrj or Erinys, it is difficult to see 
how she could be an hpyrj, which would more naturally refer to the 
rash temper which led Oedipus into his troubles. For similar ex- 
pressions cp. 1. 612 rhv Trap avr^ fiiorov and note, Dem. p. 13 rijv 
<j>i\onpayfxo<rvyijv ^vtp XPV'"'^ 'f^ <^^^ ^i\trrvos, 

1. 340. &, * in which.' The ace. may be regarded as adverbial. Lin- 
wood compares Aj. 1107 tSl aiyiv iirr} K6\a^ iKilvovs^ Phil. 66 toijtojv ydp 
oifStv II &Kyvviis, But the use is closely allied to the cognate accusative, 
and is in fact no more than a development of this. 

1. 341. avTii, ' of themselves.' 

1. 342. & 7*. Linwood keeps the common sense of 5s 7€ (' quippe qui *), 
by translating, ' well then, since they must come to pass, it is therefore 
necessary for you to tell me.* But it seems more simple to regard 7c 
merely as giving corroborative emphasis to S. in reference to ff^et ydip 
avrd, 'what will come,' and to take koC with \4yeiy. Cp. Eur. Ion 907 
wil rhv harovs avhSiy '6s 7* 6fx<f>SLv Kkrjpots, ic.t.X. 

1. 344. Ov^ov 8t' opT^js is modelled on such usages as Uvai SicL SiKrjs^ 
dv€x6€ias, etc. 

1. 345. d>s 6p7T]S €X**» *i" such a rage am I.' The genitive is partitive, 
but expresses a degree rather than a part, *at such a pitch of rage.' 
Cp. vws €X«*s with the genitive. With oiid^v supply roirojv. 

1. 346. t<r6t 7Ap, K.T.X. = *let me tell you that in my opinion you 
did/ etc. 
-^- S¥/' ^ ^ difference is to be marked in the ust of the aorist and 



NOTES. LINES 328-364. 77 

the perfect infinitive it lies in this, that the aorist carries us back to 
the past, when the deed was done, without reference to any conse- 
quences, while the perfect denotes a state still continuing at the present 
time. 'That you plotted the deed with others, and are the doer.* 

1. 350. d\T)6€s; 'indeed!* As in Ant. 758, the word marks the ex- 
treme irritation of the speaker. 

1. 351. <^cp, by attraction agreeing with KTjfuvyfiaTi. 

1- 353- ^VTV is used as though aol and not <ri had preceded. This 
change is perhaps made in order to prevent an ace. participle from 
following immediately after l^x^, when not in agreement with it. The 
reverse construction by which an accusative follows a genitive or dative 
is more common. Lys. 10. 31 C7C1; 5' v/jiSfv Siofmi Karaaprj<piaaa9ai 
B€Ofiv^(jT0v, kvOvfiovfjiivovs 5ti ovk hv yivoiTo rovrov fid^cav dyd/v fjioi, 
Thuc. 2, 39 Trepiyiyverai "^fuv rots t€ fiiXXovtriv d\y€ivois fx^ vpoKdfivfiv, 
Kcd ks avTcl kkOovai fx^ droXfiortpovs rwv &t\ fxox^oiUvTQjv <paiv€(r$ai. The 
dative is justified by the general construction of such verbs as kma/criirTOj, 
etc. 

1. 354. * Hast thou with such audacity given utterance to this speech?' 
Cp. Ant. .1060 Spans fxe rajcivrira 5td <pp€va>v <pp6.(rai, and the proverb 
fx^ KLVuv Kojchv cu Hfifxtvov, The speech of Teiresias is roused from 
the silence in which it should lie. 

!• 355* To€TO=*this action,* i.e. its consequences rather than *this 
speech * (in agreement with firj/w). 

1. 356. ir^^^ctrya, * I am beyond the reach of harm.' For the tense 
cp. Thuc. I. 21 dXiffKovTaif and inf. 1166. rdXijO^s . . rp^^co, 'I keep 
the truth, which is strong.* i<rxvov = laxvpbv ov, just as Svvafjiat some- 
times = 8 waT<5s cifu. The metaphor in rp4<poj is taken from the rearing 
of animals. Cp. infr. 374 f^ds Tpi<pti irpds vvkt6s. 

1. 357. ov ^Ap CK y€ ri^s tcxvtis, sc. SiSaxOfU ToKrjOh rpi<pus. 

1. 360. fl 'Kircip^ X^7SP) '^^c yo^ tempting me in talk?' or *by means 
of talk?' Others read kiynv^ 'tempting me to speak,' i. e. 'so that I may 
speak.* The answer given is, ' I did not understand it so as to speak of 
it as known.* The words oux &(rr€ k.t.X. most probably follow on 
^w^Ka from ^vvrJKas, cp. 1. 1131 ; but if they are taken with kx. X. the 
meaning will be, 'I am not likely to provoke you to say anything 
intelligible.*- 

1. 363. With ov supply rdv <povia. Such ellipses are common in 
Greek. Cp. Ant. 74 and note. For Kvptiv cp. supr. 258 vvv t* kfr€i 
KvpS) t' kyiiy K.rX. 

1. 363. The grave and dishonourable charge, involving banishment 
from the land and loss of regal power and position, is a host of 
in))j,ovaC. 

1. 364. €tir«i), K.T.X. 'shall I Uieiv «cy ?»ome?5JcC\Tv^^\i^«!<isv^^'^ 



78 OEDIPUS TFRANNUS. 

1. 365. Fut. middle for the passive. Cp. (x'^ap€T Ant. 93, rifj-^aerai 
ib. 210, <pv\a^(Tai Phil. 48, ^tvdfaiTcu ib. 303. infr. 673. 

1. 367. tv* el KaKov, cp. Tr. 1145 ^viupopas Xv* iaraiitv. 

1. 368. ^ Kal 7C7T)9(los, K.T.X. • Do you think that you will always 
triumph in saying this?* ytyrfBoK is a stronger word than the more 

usual x^po^y !• 363 • 

1. 370. Oedipus does not deny the assertion of Teiresias. On the 
contrary the assertion is true, but it does not apply to the prophet. 

1. 371. With the alliteration cp. Aj. 687 ravToL t^S4 fioi rdSt \ Ttftarc, 
TtiHfxp T, K.T.\., El. 544, 5 ^ Ty vav^Kfi varpl rwv fikv 1^ kfwv \ ircuZojv 
v66os iraptiTo; The repetition of ir is found in El. 210, and in a less 
marked form, alliteration, whether intentional or not, is common enough 
in Sophocles. 

I. 372. <rv 8* dOXios takes up the aol 8i tovt*, k.t.X. 'You are indeed 
unhappy in making this reproach.* In the sequel Oedipus is not only 
actually blind, preferring blindness to sight (in O. C. he speaks of 
himself as rdv rv<p\6v as he now speaks of Teiresias), but he confesses 
that even when he had sight he acted blindly, ovO* dpwv ov6' larop&y 
(1484). 

1. 374. Cp. supr. 356. The children of night are as powerless as the 
mother who rears them, dpdv <p6.os ^€\loio is a phrase for being alive 
and vigorous ; to be the child or nursling of night is to be the opposite 
of this, to be one of the dfjitvijvoL Koprjva who dwell in the gloom of 
Erebus. 

1. 377. T(i8* cKirpdfai, 'to bring this matter to an end;* rdSc is 
vaguely, the matter in hand. 

1. 379. Kpccov 8^. Note the use of 8e, which connects the reply with 
the words which immediately precede ; cp. El. 399, 400 HA. 'tr€<Toijfx€0\ 
el xp4» ''^Tp^ Ttfjujpoijfievoi. XP. varfjp 5^ tovtqjv, o?8a, avyyvdjfitjv 

1. 380. TcxvYj T^x^s iirep^epoOo-a, * skill surpassing skill.* Cp. Phil. 
138 r^xvcL ycLp rix^^^ kripas rrpovx^t- Preeminence in wealth, or power, 
or skill awakes envy, even in those nearest us. There is an allusion 
to the skill which solved the Sphinx's riddle. 

1. 381. T$ iToXv2[T|X(p pup, 'belonging to the much en\^ed life (of 
kings),* Linwood, or, more generally, of *men in power.* For the 
dative signifying the possessor cp. Ant. 861 K\€ivoh Aa^Bafcidatatv k.t.X. 
A life marked by such eminence of wealth etc. is desired by all, 
-noKv^rjXoi. 

1. 382. Saos.. ^vXAo-cerav, *how great is the envy hoarded where 

ye abide.* ffA-oy and <p06vos are of course distinguished as the envy 

which seeks to rival another, and the envy which seeks to deprive 

another of his possessions or position. For 4)vXaoo€Tai m ^t sense. 



NOTES. LINES 365-408. 79 

•kept in store,' cp. O. C. 121 a aKaioaijvap <pv\aaaoijv. The use is as 
early as Homer, II. 16. 30 x6\os hv av <pv\6,a(T€is. The general meaning 
is that the qualities which make life an object of (fjKos make it also an 
object of <p06vos, 

1- 385. Ta\ny\s may be regarded (i) as resuming dfux^s as a genitive 
depending on tvexa, or (2) as in direct dependence on (K^aXeWf thus 
repeating dpxv^ in a different construction. 

1. 387. v(|>€is, *by suborning,* *by using for his tool.' Ant. 531, 2 
av 5' ij Kar oIkovs uts Hx^tv inpeifiivrj \ \^0ov(r6. /** k^imves. 

1. 390. iroO, 'on what occasion?' Cp. Aj. 11 00 irotJ ah arparfjytis 
TOvSt ; and note. 

1. 391. ^i ^a\|r(^ds Kv<ov, i.e. the Sphinx, so called partly from her 
shape, and partly from the fact that like a rhapsode she recited her 
song publicly, for all to hear. For the Sphinx cp. Hesiod, Theog. 326, 
Tzetzes in Lycophr. 11. 7. 1456 (supra, 131). 

1. 393. TovmivTOs .. av8p6s. Predicative genitive with fv, ' Was not 
for any one who came.' Cp. O. C. 752 tovttiSvtos dpnaaai, 

1. 394. 8i€i.ir€tv, * to elucidate.* Cp. inf. 854 Aortas SieTire. 

1. 395. <rv . . iTpov<|>dvifis txfay, 'were publicly seen to be without.' 
Cp. inf. 790 vpovipavrj \iyuv. 

1. 396. yv<aT6v. Here of two genders only, imless the sense reverts 
to atviyfM, Cp. supr. 384 SoaprjTdv, ov/c aiTTjT6v (if these are feminine 
and not neuter). 

1. 397. b yLifikv clSus. The use of fiijSiy (rather than oMv) seems to 
imply, 'the Oedipus, whom, as men think, knew nothing;* the ac- 
cusations of Teiresias have already reflected ignorance on Oedipus. Cp. 
supr. 360, 366. v£y=:*her.' 

1.401. KXaCcov, 'to your cost,' as Ant. 754 fcXaloov <l>p€vd;a€is. x^ 
(TuvOcls Td8€. Cp. Thuc. 8. 68 6 /xivToi anav rb irpdyfm avvOth . . . 
*AvTi<J>SiP ^v, 

1. 402. oY>jXaTf|<r€i.y, * to drive out pollution.' For the repetition of 
the word hoKOf cp. inf. (pepco 5 1 7 ff« 

1. 403. (i) * You would have found in chastisement the true nature 
of your thoughts ;* i. e. the chastisement, which you have deserved, 
would teach you how evil your designs are. Others take the words 
slightly differently — connecting old irtp with iraddju, (2) ' suffering things 
like your thoughts, you would have found out what these were like.' 

1. 406. Repeat 8ci after dX\<& : aXKcL bet aKovuv Zrrojs X^aoyav. For 
Kveiv cp. supr. 316. The word means, * to remove a difficulty,' and so 
* to discharge a duty,' • to do that which is incumbent on us.' 

1. 408. The repetition of taa after k^iaoniov is not strictly necessary, 
but neither is the word otiose. ' Equality is to be maiivfcaixss.^ Ssv ^-cixs^ 
of equal speech.' ur' dvTv\4|a\ \s V.O xasC^'t ^xi to^-a^^ 'vi^^-^^^tsa^^ 



8o OEDIPUS TYRANNUS, 

reply to charges brought, and this privilege is to be accorded equally 
to king and subject. 

1. 409. ToOSf = Tov iaa \iy€iv. 

1. 411. Teiresias is no alien who needs the intervention of a irpocrrdTrjs 
to enable him to speak before the king, or in public. The vpoaT&Tqs 
is the representative or patron of the resident alien in Athens ; through 
whom alone he could appear in the law courts, or indeed have any 
legal existence. The Trpoararrjs must be carefully distinguished from 
the irp6^€vos, who was the patron not of individuals but of all strangers 
from a particular foreign city. 

1. 414. «v9a vaCcis, i. e. in your own country, and in your father's house. 

1. 415. ip* ol<r0* d<^* Sw tl; The contemptuous question thus thrown 
out in a parenthesis touches a chord in Oedipus, who is thus reminded 
of the slur cast on his birth at Corinth (infr. 780). Hence he returns to 
the subject (infr. 435), with passionate eagerness. 

1.417. d|ji<^iirX'f)S, * smiting from both sides,* i.e. from father and 
mother equally. 

1. 420. (i ) * What shore shall not ring with thy cries ? What Cithaeron 
shall not echo them?* This rendering compels us to take Cithaeron 
as equivalent to a mountain glade in general ; it also implies some con- 
nection between Oedipus and the sea-shore, which appears nowhere in 
any legend, (2) 'What place shall not be a harbour for thy cries to 
enter ? How shall not Cithaeron echo them ? * i. e. irotos ovk ^oTat 
/c.T.\. = Tis tSvos oi)K Harai \ifx-^v ; vSfs ovx^ KiOaip^ k.t.\. In the 
second voios the adjectival form of expression is substituted for the 
adverbial, as in infr. 938. But the construction is here influenced by 
the preceding clause. XifX'^v, * a harbour for the cry to enter,' by a 
common metaphor, e.g. Ant. 1000 iravrds oiouvov \ifxijv. 

1. 422. With TOV v)j.lvaiov supply ijfxvov, which then falls into the 
metaphor suggested by Ai/x^v. 86|jiois is a locative dative. Tr. * When 
thou shalt hear of the nuptial strain, into which, as into a harbour 
inhospitable, thou didst sail in thy halls, with a fair voyage.' 

1. 425. * Which Mnll bring you to a level with yourself and your 
children,* i. e. which will show you who you are, and that you have a 
common mother with your children. 

1. 426. o-T6|Aa= 'language.' Cp. O. C. 794 t6 abv S* ^ffiKTai, htvp* {nr6- 
^XrjTov urdfia. 

1. 428. cKTpt^T|(rcTai, * shall be extirpated.' Cf. Hdt. 6. 86 ad fin. 
i/eriTpivTai re vp6ppt{ot Ik ^wdprrjs. 

1. 431. oiKuv ToivSc, to be taken with d\f/oppoi . . . dvti. 

1. 432. Observe the self-possession of the reply made by Teiresias to 

the passionate reiteration of the king. * Myself, I should not have come.* 

^- ¥JJ' ff^' This the oldei and more correct Attic form is confirmed 



NOTES. LINES 409-458. 8 1 

by the best MSS. [Cobet, Misc. Crit. 298 £f. Schanz, Platon. Legg. 
Praef. § 12.] 

1. 434. o^xoX-Q, * at leisure,' i. e. not at all. l<rrciXd|jiT)v, middle, ' had 
you fetched.* 

1. 437. €K<^vct. Cp. infr. 827 hs e^4<pv<r€ ied^40pe\f/i fi€. Sophocles 
is partial to compounds of l/f, and often uses them with little increase 
of meaning. The tense of €K<pv(i expresses a relation still in continuance. 
Virg. E. 8. 45 * Nee generis nostri puerum nee sanguinis edunt.' By a 
similar use ij riKTovffa can be used = i^ l^'h'^VP ^ tragedy. For hi cp. 
supr. 379. 

1. 438. * This day will bring thee to birth and destruction,' i. e. the 
day will reveal to Oedipus the secret of his I5irth, and by so doing will 
involve him in ruin. 

1. 441. €v ols, * for in them.' Oedipus has no fear for his reputation 
as a reader of riddles. Teiresias may mock as much as he pleases. 

1.442. 8uS>Xco-cv, *was thy undoing.' The lucky guess (tux'7 not 
rixvif) which brought Oedipus to prosperity was really his ruin — even 
at the moment of success (aorist). 

1. 443. The patriotism of Oedipus — or rather his love for his adopted 
country — is an important element in his favour. But the words have 
also a hidden meaning. The success of Oedipus did indeed save 
Thebes from the Sphinx, but it has involved the city in even worse 
destruction. In his words and acts — Oedipus, the great reader of 
riddles, is constantly at fault, his successes end in ruin. 

1. 444. irai, the servant of Teiresias. Cp. Ant. 988, 989, 1012, 1087. 
ToCwv is to be referred to oh lUXn, * if you do not care, I will go away 
at once.* 

1. 446. dv is repeated, as in 1. 339. 

1. 447. -fiXOoy = * was sent for.' 

1. 448. Sirov. Cp. supr. 390 vov av fxdvris cT cra<p^s, and note. A}. 
1 103 oxfb' taO* 6irov aoi k.t'.K tov dvSpa tovtov is attracted into the 
case of ov. Cp.Virg.Aen. 1.573 *Urbem quam statuo vestra est,' where 
Virgil adopts the Greek construction. So with the nominative O. C. 
1 150 \6yos S* 6s kfiiriirroJKtv dprloK kfwl. 

1. 452. €Y7€v^s=not merely a Theban by birth, but one bom in tlie 
country. 

1. 454. TJ iv\L^opq^ * at the incident.* Cp. supr. 33 Ik t€ (rvfjLcpopaTs 
0IOV, 

1. 455. JcvT|V Ctrl Yatav, * over a foreign land.* Cp. O. C. 746, and for 
the preposition, Od. 2. 364 iroWijv km ycuav. 

1. 456. (rK-fjirTpcp TTpoSccKvvs, 'groping his way with a staff.' 

1. 458. avTos, * himself,* is better than avrds, idem^ vrhicK \sas» V^rs:^ 
substituted for it. The rhythm ol \^e \\iv^^ ^^^-^^ ^s> ^%^^^v;^^ 



8a OEDIPUS TYRANNUS. 

noticeable ; in each the last two feet are detached, and the fifth foot 
made up of two monosyllables. 

1. 460. Cp. supr. 260. Here however the word is active = * having 
the same wife.' For similar changes in the meaning of compounds 
cp. Trepivrvxh^ Aj. 899, 915 ; bia<popoi ib. 51, 643 ; dfioyivrjs O. T. 1362 ; 
'^Xioaripjjs O. C. 313; dfXfJLaTocrTtpijs ib. 1260; duKovos (Aesch. Ag. 461 
tStu voKvKTovoav ydp ohic ciffKonoi Ofol)^ d Xct;i3a £1. 864. uan'qpios also 
(O. C. 407), and irdfJLmfios (Tr. 872) are used by Sophocles in an unusual, 
passive sense. 

I. 462. 4>povciv, *to have intelligence,* as in 1. 316. ^6xrK€w is the 
infin. for the imperative : cp. El. 9. This may occur in the singular or 
plural, Od. 4. 419 vfjitii li*'d<TT(fji<p4QK Ix *!**''• 

II. 463-511. First stasimon. The first strophe and antistrophe refer 
to the proclamation of Oedipus giving the response of the oracle ; the 
second to the words of Teiresias, which contain the only answer yet 
given to the question left obscure by the oracle. The change in the 
metre between the two strophes contrasts the eagerness of the chorus to 
find the murderer with the doubt raised in their minds by the words of 
Teiresias respecting Oedipus. 

Strophe a'. Who is the guilty man spoken of in the prophetic utter- 
ance from Delphi ? It is time for him to flee with all speed, for the son 
of Zeus is pursuing him, and the unerring fates. 

1. 464. tCs, sc Icrri. The inspiring vapour which was thought to 
prompt the utterances of the Pythian prophetess came from a fissure in 
the rock ; hence 0€(rni4iT€ia virpa. 

1. 465. dppTjT* dpp-fpwv is merely a way of expressing what is more 
usually expressed by the superlative. Compare such expressions as 
Hand KaKwv, ' king of kings,* * holy of holies* (supr. 230). The expression 
differs slightly, though it does differ, from the combination of the 
superlative and positive, as in kokSjv K&Kiara. rcXIcravTa. The par- 
ticiple after a verb of speaking is rare; but cp. O. C. 1579, 1580 
^vvTOfiorrdroos fxlv dv \ rvxoifu \€^as OlSivow d\Q)\6Ta, {tuKwiu takes the 
participle, e.g. Dem. 22. § 29 — p. 602 Zti^ov oi ir€woir)K6ra ravra cravrSv, 
and so dyy€?i\€iv,in El. 1341 ^yy€i\as, qjs ioiKiv^ ws T€0vr]K6ra.) Another 
reading with some authority is €t8€, from which o75€ has been conjec- 
tured, thus giving a more usual construction. 

L 466. dcXXdSov, lit. * daughters of the storm,' i. e. * swift as a storm.' 
For the context cp. Ant. 985 Boptds dfumrost and O. C. 1081 dcA.A.a(a 
raxvppuffTos ircActds h.t.K, 

1. 467. (r6cvap<l»Tcpov is probably masculine, agreeing with vdSa. The 

form of comparison is condensed, i. e. * stronger (swifter) than horses ' is 

put for * stronger than the feet of horses.' This is common in Greek. 

Cp. Od. 121, 2 rdaw ov ris dfjtoid vo^fuiTa IlTjv€\ont(T| ^ ijSr^, and the note 



NOTES. LINES 460-480, 83 

on El. 545. For <T0€vap6s in this context cp. II. 9. 505 1) 8* "An; aOfvap^ 
TC Kal dprivos. 

1. 468. ir68a vo|tdv b a Homeric expression. Cp. II. 10. 358 Xatif/rjpd. 
S^ yo^var* iv^fui, 

1. 470. irvpl Kol crrcpoirais. The words, which are little more than a 
* hendiadys/ expand ei^oirAos, though grammatically they are to be 
regarded as instrumental datives with kti^vdp^aKu, h Ai6s Ycvlras, sc. 
Phoebus, who is supposed to wield the weapens of his father. So in 
Aesch. Eum. 827 Athena is represented as having charge of the thunder 
of Zeus, KoX /v\§8qs oTSa Zijijuxros ii6inj OiSav \ iv f nepavvSs kariv ia<ppa- 
yiafiivos. 

1. 471. &|ji* lirovrai is a Homeric phrase, and represents the prose 
ivofuu fJitrdt which is used of slaves attending their masters, or soldiers 
following a general. [Cobet, V. L. p. 22.] In Homer it is used of dogs 
attending their master, e.g. Od. 2. 11 ovx olos, &fui r$ yt Kwes vSdas 
dpyol inovTo. 

I. 472. KtJpcs. The K^pes have not the independent authority of 
the Moerae, but are rather the executors of the divine will. In the 
singular the word is used of calamities other than death. Aesch. 
Ag. 206 Capita ii\v K^p r6 fi^ mOiaOaiy Trach. 454 K^p vpdatanv ol 

II. 473 £f. Antistrophe a'. The utterance has gone forth from Par- 
nassus that all should pursue the unknown murderer. He is lingering 
among the woods or caves, alone in misery, shunning the oracles which 
still pursue him. ^Xa|ii|;c ydp. See note on 186 supr. Here it may 
also be said that the voice is a revelation. 

1. 475. IXapvaorot) is the gen. of place dependent on <pav€ia<i, Cp. 
supr. 152 IlvOwvos , . (L^as. irAvra is neuter plural, used adverbially 
with ixviitiVf * that we should track in every way,* rather than masc. 
sing. * that every one should track.* 

1. 478. irlrpas &s ravpos is a MS. reading. The line is corrupt, and 
the restoration is uncertain. That generally adopted is irirpas are 
ravpos. The general sense is clear. The murderer is like a vanquished 
bull, who wanders away from fellowship through desert rocks and caves. 
Cp. Virgil, Georg. 3. 203. There is a similar comparison in Tr. 530 
&<rr€ v6pTis ip^fjui. 

1. 479. it^Xcos p.cXI(p iro8C. Mere repetitions are common in Greek, 
and reach their height in Euripides (see the Helena passim). In Sopho- 
cles the repeated words are generally in different cases. They do not 
admit of literal translation. xt\ptv<av, 'wandering alone,* the curse 
forbade him fellowship with other men. * Forlorn I forlorn I a wanderer 
and alone !' [For repetitions in Greek, Bekker, Horn. Blia.tl^x,^.x^N?\ 

1. 480. )jic<r6}ji<|)o\a -yas, * from tVie cexAi^ oi Nisi^t t-wS^c^' "^^^ '^^x,">a^ 

G 2 



84 OEDIPUS TTRANNUS. 

partitive after the adjective of place. Cp. Ellendt, iub voe. For /uffSfi- 
tpaXa cp. Eur. Ion 461 ^oi$^iot ivBa 70$ fu<r6/ufMXos iaria wapdL 
Xop€vofi4v^ rpinoZi fttun-evfuiTa tcpairfi. In ib. 223, the women before 
the temple ask Ion, 3ip' Svrcas fUcror lfjupax6v yds ^oifiov Korixet iSfios ; 
dirovoa'4>C{wv = * separating from himself/ and so * avoiding.' 

1. 481 , dcC with l^wvra, * ever in fiill vigour.' Ant. 45 7 dcf rorc Q raSra. 
{wvra expresses exactly the opposite of KpOlvoma : infr. 906 <pOiparra 
y^ Aatov Oiatpar' k^cupowrip ij^. The wanderer has been compared to 
a bull, the oracles are perhaps compared to the gadflies which torment 
him. Eur. liipp. 563 Ikivd ydp rd w6pt^ InwcT, /liXiaaa 3c oca ris 
w€v&rarat (of Cypris). 

11. 483 ff. Strophe fi\ Gloomy are the thoughts roused in my mind 
by the words of the prophet ; and I know not whether to reject or 
cherish them, but remain in suspense ; I know not of any strife between 
the sons of Labdacus and the son of Polybus which should induce me 
to attack the fame of Oedipus and become his accuser. 

1. 484. Two constructions are possible : (i) SoKowra . . ^m^iuncovra 
may be masculine, agreeing with /*€ * understood/ or (2) they may be 
neuter, agreeing with 8civd. In the first rendering, which seems pre- 
ferable, ^oK€iv must be translated * entertaining an opinion/ as in Aj. 
942 aol filv ?ioHfTv ravr* €<rT*, ifwl 8' aTOK <l>pov*iv, El. 61, i.e. what 
is usually expressed impersonally by Zok(T is expressed personally by 
do«w. In the second rendering diro^<ioicovTa, which properly applies to 
persons, is applied to things, * thoughts neither assenting nor denying* 
and the same sense is retained for ^Kovvra as in (i). 

1. 487. * Neither the present nor the future.* Cp. the Homeric 
irp6aaa) /ecu Inriaacj, e. g. II. 18. 250. With the Greeks the future, as the 
unseen, lay behind. 

1. 488. Ikcito, * was laid up,* but the word is almost = the substantive 
verb, unless there is the additional idea of a secret unknown cause 
of strife. 

I. 492. The antecedent being lost, it is not possible to say definitely 
to what 8tov refers. It is probably masculine, and irpd« 8Tov=*at 
whose word/ Some edd. take it to be neuter, and join it closely with 
|3ao'dv(p {vpbt oTov vcIkovs). Poo-dvcp cirl ct|jii make one notion ; the 
dative describes the accompanying thing, * I will proceed against, with 
a test.* 

1. 495. rdv lir(8a|iov (^drtv = ' the popular reputation.' Oi8iir68a is a 
Doric genitive from OlSiirobrjs. Cp. infr. 1195. Ao^SaKCSats depends 
on iirltcovpoi. For the plural Oavdrcov cp. El. 206, infr. 1200, i. 

II. 499 ff. Antistrophe /3'. The chorus compose their minds with 
the thought that Zeus and Apollo are unfailing sources of wisdom. 

Tc/resms may he at fault; but the oracle will bring the truth to light. 



NOTES. LINES 481-51O. 85 

Till all is clear, they will not accuse Oedipus ; he delivered the City 
from the Sphinx in time past, and this service must be borne in 
mind. 

1. 499. Zeus and Apollo were both mentioned, because, though Zeus 
is the supreme source of knowledge (Aesch. Ag. 174 Zfjva Si ns 
vpo<pp6va)s tmvima leK&^oJV rci/^erac <ppcv&v rd irdv)^ Apollo is the 
medium through which his will is made known to men. Aids irpo<priTrj5 
5' icrrt Ao^ias frarp6s. 

1. 500. irXlov -^ *yCi <^€p€Tai, * Attains to more than I.* Hdt. 8. 29 
irp6<T0€ T€ ydp kv rotffi "EWijffi . . v\iov aUi kot€ ifxiajv €<p€p6fi€6a. The 
verb is probably middle, and the literal meaning is, therefore, * to carry 
off for oneself.* 

1. 501. Kpi<n8 = * possibility of judging:* as Odxtjais O. C. 9 = 'possi- 
bility of sitting.' 

1. 502. irapa|jicCi|;ci€v, * might surpass,' * pass by.* The active is here 
used for the more common middle, a-o^iq. is * skill :' skill in the art of 
divination. Cp. Ant. T059 <^o0^s <^^ fidvriSt dAAd rdZucetv ^iXSjv. The 
meaning is, that there is nothing to show that OQe man is more inspired 
than another, but men do differ in mental capacity ; in this respect one 
man may surpass another. Teiresias showed wisdom in time past, but 
that does not prove that he is infallible now. 

1. 505. (8oi|ii. The mood is assimilated to the preceding /caraifxufjv, 
Cp. Aj. 1 217 yevoifjuiv . , ottojs vpoaeiiroifitv and note. opOov ^iros, 
* a certain word,* a word that is irrefragable. Cp. Ant. 1178 cD fidvri; 
Tovnos ojs dp* QpObv ^vvaas. |t€|ji(f>op,lv(av is gen. absol., * when men 
blame.' 

1. 506. <^avcpcl . . ^<^9t). The clearness of experience — attested by 
the sight of all — is opposed to the doubtful utterances of one man. cir* 
avT$, ' against him ;* irrcpAco-o-a K6pa « the Sphinx. 

I. 510. Pourdvcp, *in actual proof.* t$ is Homeric, 'wherefore.' ctir* 
€)j.ds <^p€v6s. Cp. Aj. 183 <l>p€v60€Vf * of thy own mind.* 

II. 512-862 comprise the second Epeisodion, which is of more than 
usual length, but broken by the entrance of Oedipus, in 1. 530, and of 
Jocasta, in 1. 634. The short lyrical movements of the Chorus also 
relieve the scene from monotony. Creon enters, as from the city, i. e. 
on the right of the spectators. He has heard the suspicions of Oedipus, 
and is excited by them. His dialogue with the Chorus is broken by the 
appearance of Oedipus, who turns angrily upon Creon, and a battle of 
words ensues, in which the Chorus vainly attempt to mediate. Jocasta, 
whose attention apparently has been aroused by the violent altercation, 
comes forth from the palace. She parts Oedipus and Creon, and in- 
quires into the cause of the quarrel. In a chance ex^r«s&\Qra.^^ ^^-iKx^ssRs* 
the scene of the death of Laius. B^ XYvis 0«!5)a.^^3fi» S& ^g^^'l's^a^^-i ^sx^-^^^. 



86 OEDIPUS TYRANNUS. 

and proceeds to recount to Jocasta the facts of his life immediately before 
his arrival in Thebes ; he relates the oracle which Phoebus had given 
to him ; and expresses his alarm lest he may be the murderer of Laius. 
Jocasta bids him take no heed of oracles, and gives evidence of their 
worthlessness. 

1. 513. h^W Imi are to be taken after Karrjyoptrv, Cp. Aj. 1107 rcL 
a4f£y' ivrj \ ie6\a(^ cK€ivovs. 

1. 514. TVpawov. The word is used, as often in tragedy, in the 
antique sense of a prince or royal person ; so Creon uses it of himself, 
O. C. 851 Kot Tvpcanfos &v ofuat. Cp. Aj. 1 350. 

1. 515. ArXTp-wv, * unable to bear it.' This would seem to imply an 
active sense of &t\tjtos. Compare, however, tv<r<popuv, *to be impatient,' 
from Sv<r<l>opot, * hard to bear ; ' and 6\<iaT€iv. 

1. 516. After irnrovOlvai supply ti, with which <pipov agrees. 

1. 518. rov |&aKpaCc0vof. Cp. Aj. 473 rod fuucpov xpji^tv fiiov. The 
adjective is treated as one of number and quantity, and as such is 
allowed to take the article. Cp. infr. 963, and O. C. 1211 oarts rod 
rrXiovos fjiipovs XPvi^^ • • C^^t^' 

1. 519. fit &irXo{iv .. <^4pci, 'leads to a single issue.' Observe tpipov, 
tpfpovrit 4>ip(i, with variation of meaning, and cp. supr. 402. The 
metaphor in tU . . <pip€t appears to be taken from a road leading in 
a certain direction. Cp. inf. 991. 

1. 524. 6py4 fiuur^ivt 'under the influence of passion,' is opposed to 
yvi&IJi'Q ^pcvuyy (*with deliberate judgment'). With the latter phrase cp. 
Ant. 1090, r6v vow row tppevwu. 

I. 525. rov irpdf 8* i^v9r\ ; *From whom came any proof?' Com- 
pare the note on vpbs Brov above. There seems no reason to alter 
the inverted order of the interrogation, which is certainly more forcible 
than the common order. Cp. supr. 58 & vdid€s ol/crpol, where inver- 
sion is used for effect. Another reading is rovvos 5' ktpavBrj ; yvdoiuus 
= * suggestions.' 

II. 527, 529. The use of the passive in t]v8aTo KaniYopctTO has the 
advantage of avoiding direct mention of the king. In the same spirit 
the Chorus say what follows. 

1. 527. yvdoixxi tCvi; 'with what meaning?' 

1. 528. i^ ^iiftdrcov 6p9Qiv, *with untroubled eye,' i.e. with no marks 
of agitation in his countenance. Cp. Aesch. Suppl. 199 Sfijjuiros Trap* 
ijavxov, of maiden modesty: ib. 146 ?xov<^<* aipv* hv&iri &aipdki<irara 
(of Athena, the precise opposite of Horace's * vultus nimium lubricus 
adspici'). On the other hand, when lo is in her madness, P. V. 882 
rpoxo^iV€trat 8* SfXfjuaO* l\iy^v, cp. Tr. 794, 5 Zt&arpwpov 6<f>$aX/JLdp 
£pas. For Sjijm as the part expressing emotion cp. Aj. 140. 
■^' S3^' Toar6yS€ rSAfirit irp6<rct>irov, * a front of sutViboldtiftss,* «= TocaCmjs 



NOTES. LINES 5 1 3-555. 87 

r6\firjs irpSffonrov. For the descriptive genitive cp. Aj. icx)4 c& SvaOiarov 
6fxfjia Kol T6\iiijs viKpas. 

!• 534» The indicative ticov marks the fact of Creon's coming: the 
infinitive would merely imply, * Have you impudence enough to allow 
you to come?* 

!• 537* Tiv* ^v •l**^*. Observe that the tribrach is divided into three 
words, in violation of the supposed rule that the second and third syl- 
lables of a trisyllabic foot must be in the same word. 

1. 538. *0r did you think that?* Some participle with this meaning 
must be supplied from 18^, unless we assume that 4) &t 01& yviopLa-on».i 
is s 4 ^^ ^v yvojptovvToSf which indeed comes to much the same thing. 
ov yvojplcroifu implies fimf^a^ and oIk iXc^olfirjv implies SctAia. The MS. 
reading yvoipitroi/u is against the Atticists. 

1- 539» The MS. has koIik, but 4) owk seems more probable. For the 
synizesis cp. inf. 555 1j oitc l^iretOes; 

1. 541. For irX'^Oovs some would read vXovtov, in order to obtain 
a word corresponding to xp'^H^ik<'^v, but xpht"^"^^ ''^^7 ^ the * resources 
of friends,* and the expression vXiiOovs koL ^IXouv is not quite a hendiadys, 
inasmuch as <pi\o3v brings in the idea of men willing to contribute money. 
1. 543. ot(rd*6siroCT)o-ov; 'Do you know what I would have you do?* 
trolfiaov is — TTOLTJaai tn Oi\a), Cp. O. C. 75 o!<r0* .. ws vvv fx^ (r<f>a\^s;^ 
dn hv /cf\€voifjil ere fxif (TtpaXfjvai. Eur. Cycl. 131 has oTaO' t Zpdffen; 
Suppl. 932 6t(T0' b tpav ae fiohkofjuii. The dependent sentence is expressed 
more vigorously by the use of the imperative. The idiom is common in 
Euripides, and instances occur in Aristophanes, Eq. 11 58, Pax 1061, Av. 
54, 80, but it is rare in Sophocles, and does not occur at all in 
Aeschylus. [See Elmsley on this passage, and Kriiger, Gr. Gr. 54, 4, 
4. A similar idiom occurs in Old German, and is discussed by Grimm 
in Zeitschrift der vergUich Sprach.^ vol. 2.] 

1. 546. o-oO after ftavB&vuv, *to learn from you.' Cp. 1. 574, 5, I7C1; 5^ 
cov I fmOuv littcatSa rav0\ &vfp H&fiov crb vvv. The word refers to fxaOoUv 
in 1. 544. Papvv, * dangerous.' Cp. Aesch. Ag. 456 ^apua 8* dcrcuv 
<p&Tis ahv K6r<^, O. C. 402. 

1. 547. TO<hp* avr6 refers to ^vaii^vrj koI fiapbv. * Let me explain to 
you this very point first.' For the antiphonal repetition of toCt' avr6 
and el roi vofii{€is cp. Aj. 1142-58. 

1. 551. Compare the regulations laid down by Creon in the Antigone 
486 flf., 641 ff. 

1. 555. circiOcs; *did you advise?' As a general rule the distinction 
may be maintained that veiOeiv is * to advise,* and irtTaoi * to persuade ; * 
that the rule is not without exceptions, at any rate in negative sentences, 
e.g. Aesch. Ag. 12 12 i-niiOov ohUv oiUv, O. C. 797. 0€.<i\5^Nb& ^Nns2«. 
referring to sup-. 288, which piepaxes \3[i^ ^^.'^ iot ^\s» 'sk.^csr.. 



88 OEDIPUS TYRANNUS. 

1- 556. riv o-<|jiv6fui.vTvv dvSpa, *the seeming reverend seer.' The 
ffil4v6s is of course ironical, as in I. 953 rd aifjiv* iv fjMd rod B€ov 
IMtyrf^luiTaj Aj. 1 107, 8 tccuL rd crcfcy* Iwij K6XaQ hcuvovs. For the force 
of the compound cp. Phil. 1337 Mip . .'Ektvos dpiffrSfuarrts. irlfulro- 
of^ai is the causative middle = ' to cause some one to be sent.' Cp. 
iirpa^dftrpr supr, 287. 

1. 557. 'And now I am stUl true to my advice.* Lit. * I am the same 
with it/ i. e. unchanged from it. potiXcv|iaTi is the dative after 6 avrSs 
(as with ^fioios and the like). Cp. Phil. 521 tot' oiiciff avros rois x6yois 
rovTois ipavys. [Elmsley compares Thuc. 3. 38 kyol) ixkv d^v 6 ahrSs €l/u 
tJ yv^fxri. Valckenar ad Phoen. 927 has a long note on the con- 
struction.] Others take the dative differently, * same in my advice ;' and 
this is probably the meaning in Thucydides, but not here. 

1. 558. The accusative is to be taken with (pp€i in 1. 560. 

1. 559. The sudden mention of Laius, the circumstances of whose 
death are perhaps well known to Creon, produces a startling effect 
on him. Hence the interruption — in which, however, as in some other 
cases, it is difficult to believe that the form of the expression is not 
determined to some degree by the necessity of answering line for 
line. 

!• 561. xp^voiare * spaces of time.* *It would be a long reckoning 
of by-gone days.* 

1. 562. -fiv €v T^ T€xvu ; * was he practising his art ? ' Cp. Plat. Protag. 
317 C voWd 76 Utij ^817 (Ifxt iv T^ '''^XyV' 

1. 565. oiiKOw ovSajioO must be taken together. ' Certainly on no 
occasion.' The adverb of place is used to denote time, as in 1. 390 
nov aif fjidvris (T ffcuft^s ; 

1. 567. irapl(rxo|xcv has perhaps more of an active sense, and implies 
more continued efforts than the simple ccxctc. Cp. El. 1144 t^v 
(Tpo^v) 1711; . . vapiaxov. But the simple and compound verb or 
adjective are often used in Sophocles without much difference of mean- 
ing. Cp. supr. 133 and note. 

1. 569 = aiydy <pikSf Inl tovtois & fi^ (ppovw. 

1. 570. ^ ^pov&v is (i) = lir€t €v ippovfis tovtS 7€, 'so much at least 
you know and can tell with certainty,* referring to <ppovS> in the pre- 
ceding line, or (2) = * si sana mente fueris ;* cp. inf. 600. 

1. 572. 69ovvck', *that,* after olffOa as in O. C. 853 ^Si; 5* 60ovv(k\ 
The subject of fvvfjXOf is 6 irnvris^ which is prominent in the speaker's 
mind, rdf Ifidf, k.t.X., *he could not have spoken as he did of my 
murder of Laius/ rds kfids is not of course predicative in the sense of 
ffids, but refers to the assertion in supr. 362, so that rds kfids is = hs 
tJnev ijjids (Ivai. 
^' STT- y^/*«f ^X^^t * ^sve in marriage,* The combination of the 



NOTES. LINES 556-596. 89 

auxiliary verb and the participle is common enough in Sophocles. Cp. 
Phil. 459, 1219, Aj. 588, Tr. 412, Ant. 77, etc. With lx<w the aorist 
participle is used (?xw with the present part, has quite a different 
meaning), and the result is a sort of compromise between the aorist 
and perfect — *Did you marry, and are you the husband of?* With 
€Tvai Kvpuv rvyx&yfiVf etc. other tenses of the participle can be 
used. [Valckenar, Phoen. 712, has a long and learned note on the . 
construction.] 

1. 578. dpvijoxs ovK Ivco-Tiv. There is perhaps something scornful or 
ironical in the use of this word apvrjffis = * possibility, mode, of denying.* 
Cp. El. 527 r&v5* dpvrjffts ovk tv^ari fxoi. 

1. 579. TavrA is adverbial after Apx^i^t *you bear equal rule with her.' 
Creon implies that Jocasta had her share in the kingdom by a prior 
right. yr\s t<rov V€{jkci)v, ( i) * allowing her an equal share in the kingdom ; * 
cp. Aesch. P. V. 291, 2 OVK Ictiv Brqf fidiova fxoTpav \ vdfMifx' fj uoi; 
or (2) * holding an equal share in the land;* or (3) the comma may be 
after yrjs, laov ytfxojv be = ' giving an equal share,* i. e. * you take and 
give equally.* The reply of Oedipus is in favour of the first interpreta- 
tion, but he and Creon may be intended to take different views of 
Jocasta*s position. 

1. 580. c|jiov KO|jiC{cTai. For this genitive cp. O. C. 141 1 tv KOfju(€rov 
ToOS* dydp6s. 

1. 582. Creon's supposed baseness lies in the fact that he is not con- 
tent to be a third, but wishes to have everything. 

1. 583. &s iyw, i.e. diScDfu kfiavr^ \6yoVf 'as I reason with myself.* 
The expression is common in Herodotus, e.g. i. 209 kird Sfv Sij lf€- 
yipOr) 6 Kvpos, iSlSov \6yov kojvr^ ircpl r^s 6\f/ios. 

1. 585. The plural <p6^oi<n intensifies the meaning of the word. Cp. 
Aj. 531 Kal fifjv <p6fioiffi 7* avrbv k^€\va6,firjv, 

1. 587. IjwCpwv €4>w. Cp. 11. 577, 580. 

1. 588. For Tvpavvov as an adjective cp. Ant. 1169 rvpawov oxrjiia. 

1. 590. 4>€p(o, *I obtain.* Cp. O. C. 5, 6 rov apmcpov t* in \ fitiov 
<l>4povra. The middle voice is more common in this sense. 

1. 591. &Kiov in Sophocles has two meanings: (1) * unwilling,' as 
here, cp. 1. 358; (2) * unconscious,* * involuntary,' as infr. 1230. In 
O. C. 987 aieoiv tyqiia, (pOiyyofiai r dxajy r&Se, both meanings occur in 
one line. 

1. 593. 8w(urrc(a, from ^vaartvo), which again is derived from bv- 
vacTT^s, the noun-agent of Svvafiai, is the possession of actual power 
and influence in a city as distinguished from regularly-constituted au- 
thority. Creon in his present position is fxiya Svva/xevos vapcL t^ 

1. 596. vvv ir&tn xaCpco, (i) *1 am \iaY^^ m >0e\& ivgcsN. ^"^^ ^^> ^acsow-^ 



90 OEDIPUS TFRANNUS. 

plete happiness being that which all recognise and acknowledge. For 
this sense of x°^P^ <^P* Aesch. Ag. 539 x^P^ r€0vdvai S' aiuc cr' dyr€pSt 
$(ois. (2) * All bid me hail* (xo*/>€)> i.e. all seek my friendship. Cp. 
Xa<ip€ /JUH, 

1. 597. cKKoXotKn, *call me forth for conference.' Cp. 1. 951 ri fi* 

i^€v4fjalnu Sivpo ran^Sc Scafidrcav ; Phil. 1 264 rl ix hiucaXtTaBt ; rev tee- 

• xnf^^oi, ^ivoi ; aiic&XXovffi, * wheedle/ which has been proposed, is 

hardly a tragic word : it occurs but once in extant plays, Eur. Androm. 

630 vpoB&riv cdx^iXXMy iciva^ where it has a contemptuous tone. 

1. 598. isav crravO* ?vt, * depends entirely on that,* i. e, on obtaining 
my help. Cp. Aj. 519 iv aol vda* lyoryc ff(&(ofjuu, 

L 599. KCiv', i.e. rd apx^iw chv tpS^oiat, Td8c=what is described in 
the lines immediately following. 

1. 600. The order is, vovs xaKw <ppovSjv ovtc hv ytvotro Kaic6s, There 
should be a little pause before and after koXSk <ppovSaVj i.e. koXSk <ppo- 
varv^€l xaXws (ppovoirj. A notable instance of a similar, but more 
marked inversion of order is Eur. Or. 600 dXA* djs fxtv ovk cJ ^^ ^^7' 
€t/>yaffTcu T&d€. The line amounts to saying that, in Creon*s case, 
honesty is the best policy. 

1. 602. TXaiT)v, sc. r^vd€ r^v yv^/xrjy. The particle Siv is to be re- 
peated, yvcj firj is here nearly = irpocdpfuis. 

1. 603. Kol r&vh* cXcyxov is adverbial, * in proof of this.* toCto |iiv, 

* in the first place.' 

I. 605. TovT* flXX*, * and then again.' SX\o marks the alternative 
more strongly than 8^. 

II. 606, 7. * Then take and slay me, not by a single vote (your own"^, 
but by two votes (your own and mine) ;' L e. in that case Creon will 
give his consent to his own death. 

1.608. yvdoiifQ- The dative is causal, = * owing to.' yy&fjLtj here« 

* suggestion,' 'suspicion,* as in 1. 527. X'^P^s* 'apart from the evi- 
dence.' 

I. 609. \L6.Tt\y is (i) * without reason,' as here, and e. g. in Phil. 345 
€ir aKrj04st €«t* dp* o^ fi&Ttjv: (2) * without result,' El. 773 ovtoi ii&tjjv 
7€* flws yd,p Av fMrrjv K^yois ; Cp. Aj. 635. 

1.612. t6v irap' avr^ pCorov, *the life which he has in himself.* 
. Cp. Plat. Rep. 3. 413 ToG irap* avrois b^yfiarosj supr. 337 r^v a^v 8* 
bpLOv vaiovffav. Ant. 95 t^v I^ I/xou Zvff^ovXiav, and note. The pre- 
position marks more strongly the separation between a man and his 
life than the genitive of connection, and this helps the figurative ex- 
pression. Tiva must be understood before hK^aX^iVf for which cp. Aj. 
965 JTfnv ris kK^&Krf. 

II. 614, 25. This is a common-place in Greek. Cp. Chaeremon, Fr. 1 1 
XP^f^of dixcuoy dydpa fjtrjvvu -nork. 



NOTES. LINES 597-635. 9 1 

1. 616. ' He has spoken well in the judgment of,* or, *for the behoof 
of one who is cautious about falling.* A man cautious about avoiding 
a mistake would listen to what Creon says ; but this is precisely what 
Oedipus does not. 

1. 618, raxvs TH. Cp. Aj. 1266, 7 <ptv rov OotySvros us Taxfi6, ti? 
fiporoii I x^P*^ hiapptt KoX vpo^ovt/ &\l(ne€rai. But t«, in spite of the 
position, may go with ohwtfiovKevajy (though the rhythm is against this). 
It is true that Oedipus has a definite enemy in his mind^ but he may 
state his case generally in order to give it greater weight : * when the 
plotter, whoever he may be,' whether Creon or another, raxvv is to 
be taken with Pov\€i5(iv, '1 must be prompt in meeting plot with 
plot.* 

L 621. * His work succeeds, and mine is a failure.* 

U. 624, 5. If the text is sound we must construe: — Cr. *l am ready 
to die, when you have shown what is your grudge against me.* Oed. 
* You speak as if you would not yield or obey me.' But 1. 624 would 
naturally mean, *when you have shown to all what sort of a thing 
envy is.* Cp. Ant. 308, 9 vpiv hv \ (Sjvtcs Hpcfiaarol ttiv^€ SrjkdttrrjO* 
v0piy. And 1. 625 should mean, ' You speak as though you would not 
give way or believe me I' The first line is more suitable to Oedipus 
than Creon, the second to Creon than Oedipus, and hence some have 
suggested to transpose the two lines. But a line has probably been 
lost, e. g. ffb 5* &<rr€ rapid, wdvr* dripAaojv /cpdrrj. 

1. 626. r6 Yovv I|x6v, i. e. <ppovovvra. Cp. Aj. 491 cS <ppovSf rd. ffd. 
For the broken lines cp. El. 1220 and note. 

1. 628. ' But if you understand nothing about it.* The line is un- 
consciously true. dpKT^ov 7' S^xds, ' still authority must be maintained.' 
The verbal is from the impersonal passive. 

1. 629. KaK^ y* ^x<>^^<>s« gen. absol. The subject is rov Sipxcvros 
understood, cp. v€<pa<ipLhov infr. 838. If obedience is at an end, the ir<$\ts 
is endangered. Hence the exclamation, 5 ir(5Ais, v6\is. But the thought 
is more suitable to Athens than to Thebes under a monarchy. 

1. 630. Cp. Ant. 737 ir6\is ycLp ovk taS* Ijris Avdp6s lad* kv6s. But 
Creon also remembers that his power in the state, as brother of the 
queen, is prior to that of Oedipus. Cp. 1. 579, and note. 

1. 632. |xc6* -Jis. As the sister of one disputant, and the v^dfe of 
another, Jocasta may be expected to act as a mediator. The words 
pifO* ^y . . xp^^ are fulfilled in a sense not intended in the utterance. 

I. 634. ttJv dipovXov oTooxv, ' your senseless quarrel.' For the article, 
cp. Phil. 327, 8 rivos yd.p &^€ rhv piiyav | x<5A.ov Kar avrwv cyKaKaiv 
k\rf\if$as ; 

1- 635. YXft><rcn|S is a descriptive genitive to <ix6xssm . ^^ V'^^vq->^- 
v€<r0€, * and are ye not asbamed*l' Ox >i)Cifc tet^'t '^fl tV \s^!»i ^-^ ^^'^- 



92 OEDIPUS TYRANNUS. 

tinued from the preceding clause. For kiv^iv cp. the proverbial phr^e, 

1. 637. For the preposition in the second clause cp. U. 734, 7^^* 

1. 638. TO [Ltfikv 0X70$, * your nothing of grief.' The full expression 
would be rd fiqbtv hy oKyos. With ^<J, oi must be supplied from the 
preceding line, ov fi^ oi(r€T€, Cp. Aj. 75, and note. 

1. 640. Notice, (i) dvoir scanned as a monosyllable, cp. 'A^i^trptWos, 
and similar quantities in Epic poetry ; also 'Epivvaiy, in Eur. Iph. T. 970, 
1456. (2) o made long before Kp in dvoteplvast cp. Aesch. P. V. 24 vif( 
&voKpi\ff€i <l>dos: El. 1193 vporpiini. The lengthened quantity in mute 
+ liquid is more frequent in uncompounded words, as ritcvov, varpSs, 
than in others. A syllable is rarely lengthened in a compound word, 
as Tro\vxpv(Tovs, El. 9, Eur. Bacch. 13 [Porson, Orest. 64]. There is a 
slight inconsistency between this line and 1. 623 Ov^aKeiv ov (pxr/tiy ac 
0ov\ojMiy which Creon seems to ignore as said in anger. 

1. 643. Tovjiov o-(o(fca = * me.* Cp. O. C. 355 A toOS' ixP^^^V ('^f^'ros. 
«ruv T€xvu KaK-Q. Cp. avv oLpyvpa> 1. 1 24. The instrument is regarded 
as an accompanying circumstance. 

1. 644. For the quantity of vvv cp. infr. 658. 

1. 647. SpKov Oc&v. SpKov is implied in dpcuos. 5pKov 0€ojv, * an oath 
having a divine sanction.* Cp. Od. 2. 377 yprjbs 8^ OfS/v fxiyav Sptcov 
dn&fjivVf Ant. 607 dxafMrot 6€wv fx^vfs, O. C. 1767 x^ v&vt* dtouv Aids 
BpieoSj Thuc. 5. 30 dcStv ydp mareis dfji6aavT€S IxetVois, ovk &v €vopiceiy 
vpoSi^6vT€s avTovs. 

1. 649. 6cX'f|o-as 4>povf|o-of TC, ' with will and mind.' For <ppov7j(Tas - 

* recovering a right mind,' cp. Aj. 371 vir€iK€ koI (ppSvrjaov ej. For the 
aorist OfX-fiffaSf which intensifies the meaning so as to signify a definite 
act of will, cp. Dem. 10. 24 <prjfxl Sciv tOiKijacu koI irapo^vvOrivou, ib. 137* 
16 &v 8' OVTO) voi'^ffrjTf Koi TavT* €0€\7iarjT€ cws d\rj0S>s, 

1. 650. OlXcts ciKaOA ; cp. El. 80, i $ik€is \ fitivoufiev ; and note. 

1. 654. yifiiriov, * feeble,* * inconsiderable ;* but there is also a designed 
contrast between vfimost * an infant,* and fxiyas, * full-grown,* as in Od. 
2,313, 314 ky(ii) 5' In vfjmos ^a . . pvv 5* m 8^ fiiyas elfxL €v SpKcp ^iyav, 

* great in the power of his oath.* For the use of the preposition cp. 
Phil. 185, 6 ey odivais r' dfwv \ifi^ r oUrpSs. 

1. 655. The language is not tautological. Oedipus is testing the 
Chorus to see what interpretation they put upon their entreaty; he 
then tells them his own view. * Do you know what it is you desire?' 

* Yes, I do.* * Tell me, then, what do you mean ?* Oedipus corrects 
the Chorus in €v vvv tniurojy k.t.K. On the question whether ri can 
=the relative 5 cp. El. 316, and note. The same difficulty attends 

I>ej2JOSth. 12^0, 17 kK\€y6fX€vot rivojv at rifjuil kitiTiravro, 
/ 6^6. €vayfl=iu opxqf fiiyav. The curse 'w\v\c\i Ci^oiv has invoked 



NOTES. LINES 6^J-6jJ. 93 

defends him. Join dniiov ^oXctv cv alrlq., 'to accuse and cast into 
dishonour.' With avv i/(pavtl \6'f^ cp. yvdjfijf . . dS^\q> supr. 608, 
and observe the preposition <n5v, as in 1. 124. Antiphon, p. 136, has 
iv dipavet koyqi. 

1. 659. Not that Creon would kill or banish Oedipus, but he would 
bring upon him the charge of the murder of Laius, involving such 
penalties. Cp. supr, 386. 

1. 660. oi t6v, k.tA. For the accusative in adjurations cp. infr. 
1088, Ant. 758, El. 1063, 1238. It is not easy to see in what sense 
Helius is spoken of as rdv vdvruv SeSfv Otbv vpdfxov. The context 
would naturally suggest some reference to his power of seeing and 
knowing the thoughts of men, just as in Tr. 10 1, where the Chorus 
are wondering where Heracles is, they appeal to Helius as KpaTiarevoiv 
Kar* 6fjLfM. Or the Chorus may merely appeal to the sun above them 
as the bright embodiment of divine power. Cp. Aj. 845 ah 6', cD rdv 
alniiv ovpavbv ^i<ppjj\.aTwv''lI\i€f k.tX, 

1. 661. o 'n ir^iuiToy, *by the deepest destruction.' The relative 
clause represents an accusative with d\oifxr}Vt <p$ap€lriv dirdt^eiay i)Tis 
kax^rrj (Schol.). Cp. supr. 344 fjrts dypiayraTrj, 

1. 664. <^p6vT|otv, * intention.* 

1. 667. The nom. to -npoadipu is 70. * If our land shall add to her 
old evils, the new evils proceeding from you.' Others prefer to take 
vpotrdxf/u intransitively. 'If these evils shall be added to the others.* 
There does not seem to be an exactly parallel instance of this in- 
transitive use of wpocrdrrreiv, though awdirrciv is so used; eg. Eur. 
Suppl. 1014 Tvxd ^4 fxoi (vvdvrei voSbs SXfiari, 

1. 672. cXctv6v is last in the sentence by way of emphasis, and it 
also gives the reason of the foregoing words, * full of pity, as it is.* 
Cp. El. 1 143, 4 TTJi ifjifjs Tpo<f>7Js dvoj<l>t\ifiTov, o-Tvyi^o-cTai, * will be 
hateful.' 

1. 673. a"Tvyv69, * sullen,' * capable of hate,* and so taking up (Ttv- 
y^fftrat. ctKov, 'when yielding.* Srav Ovfxot) ircpdcrnt, *when you 
go far in anger.' vcpav is *to go beyond bounds,' cp. O. C. 154 irtp^s 
ydpf wepjs. Others prefer the explanation of the Scholiast, orav S^ iirl 
rb v4pai l[\0r}s rrjs bpyTJi^ t<5t€ ^apioK oiaeis rb irpdypui {olov fieTavoi^ffiis)^ 
i.e. 'when you come to the end of your anger (and reflect upon the 
matter), you will feel remorse.' But Bvfiov ircpav^ in the sense of 
* passing out of anger,' is harsh. Ov|i<») is the genitive of place, as 
with rroppQJt and the like. Cp. Aj. 731 Spafwvcra tov irpoaandroij and 
note. For Papvs cp. Ant. 767 vow 5* karl rrjKiKovros dXyqaas fiapvs. 
In the excess of his anger Oedipus is dangerous and menacing; in 
yielding he is sullen. 

1. 677. dyvQtros, 'incapable oi iu^s^xv^' ox ^^ xt^Q^\'»n\'?, "^^ ^'^'^ 



94 OEDIPUS TYRANNVS. 

nature of a thing. Cp. infr. 1132, 3 dXV 17a; cro^w; | irp^Sar iya/ivrjaoj 
viv, uros is either (i) * as I was before,' with which we may compare 
supr. 53 icaX ravvy laos ytvoVf or (2) *just,' as in Phil. 685 taos iv 7* 
f crocs av^p. 

I. 680. The scene is intentionally delayed ; a similar delay occurs 
below, 769. In Ant. 891, Antigone remains on the stage and utters 
her fi^ffis after the stringent commands of Creon. fioOovo-d y*, * when 
I have learned, I will conduct him in.' The question and reply are 
probably introduced with reference to supr. 637, 8, where Jocasta bids 
Creon and Oedipus retire from the scene. For the form of expression 
cp. Plato, Phaedr. 224 D Sc^as 7* irpcurov, & <pi\uT7p, ic.r.\. 

1. 681. 86in|o\t oLtvc^ X67o>v, *an uncertain suspicion arising in con- 
versation :' &yv6j% is probably to be taken in the same sense as in 677 ; 
with SSicijais Kuyoiv cp. supr. 635 ardais y\d/a(Trjs. 

1. 682. KaC = 'even/ i.e. as well as the true. r6 |iij cvSucov is quite 
general in its application, ' a false accusation has its sting.' 

1. 683. d|i4>oiv oir* avToiv, sc. ^\6€v. But the meaning is merely, 

* Did both take part in it?' There was no suspicion on Creon's 
side. 

1. 686. |i^civ, i. e. that the dispute should remain where it has 
come to an end. Cp. the proverbial expression, /lij Ktvtiv tccucdy cS 
xeifxtvov. 

1. 687. Oedipus taunts the Chorus with the dilemma in which they 
find themselves, through having prevented him from carrying out his 
threats. If it was right for the matter to end where it has ended, 
why not speak of it ? if it was not right, why check Oedipus ? Here, 
as elsewhere, Oedipus 'is bent on forcing secrets into the light of 
day. tv* ^'JKCis, * whither you have brought yourself,* i.e. 'into what 
a difficulty you have fallen.* 

1. 688. If Tovp^v Klap are taken together, as seems natural, we must 
translate, * causing my purpose to swerve (from its object), and blunting 
it/ For Kcop in this sense cp. Ant. 1 105 xaphias S' k^larafuu rb dpSy. 
irapicCf is only slightly intensified beyond the ordinary use ; not unlike 
is Eur. Cycl. 310 irapes ri fidpyov urjs yvdOov, and the passive in El. 545 
vailituv iruOos Trapttro. The present participle probably marks the at- 
tempt. Others separate roiiiiCv from «^op, and translate the line, 

• letting my interests slip, and blunting your own perception.' But 
apart from the awkward separation, Khp has a more natural meaning 
in the former interpretation. 

1. 690. diropov €7rl ^p6vt|ta, * void of wisdom ;* lit. ' unable to furnish 
anything for sensible objects.' dvopos is here the negative of iroptfxos 
(Aesch. P. V. (>04 dvopa vSpifios), 
/ (fpi, €ta'€ voa-^iioyuoXf * if I cast thee off.* Od. 4. 16^ iro?5d r \p.^v 



NOTES. LINES 680-705. 95 

voffipiaffafxivrjy OdKafiSv t6 ir6(Xiv re. The active has much the same 
meaning in Eur. And. 1305 ytpovr* dncuda voaiplaas. The pres. ind. 
implies * as your words assume.' irc^dvOat |ji* dv, * that I should be 
recognised as.* 

1. 694. Ss t' is not here the Homeric form which has lingered on in 
Attic tragedy (cp. supr. 35); but in correlation with vvv b* below. 
* As in time past ... so now.* 

1. 695. oXvovorav, * raving,* ' distraught.* The word is used some- 
what boldly, but cp. K&pa in 1. 23. The weapons of Homeric heroes 
are sometimes spoken of as * eager' for slaughter by a similar per- 
sonification. 

1. 696. With cviroitiros supply Mt or yevov, and for the omission 
cp. O. C. 1480 tktcos *Scufiov tkeojs. It is also possible to remove the 
comma after (vnofivos and translate ' O that thou mightest be a good 
guide,* supplying fJvai with Svvaio. 

1. 698. Stov iTpdYixarot, a simple genitive where we might have 
had €V€Ka. See note on supr. 48, and cp. Phil. 327 rivos ycip c&Sc rov 
fiiyavt K.r.\, The construction is, no doubt, aided by the fact that verbs 
signifying * to be angry about * can take a genitive of the cause, e. g. 
II. I. 429 xoi6iJitvov . . 'fuvaiK6^t -^j* 4^ ^^^ note. 

1. 700. * I regard you more than these.* Oedipus did not deign to 
enter into explanations with the Chorus, but he will do so with Jocasta. 
He turns from them to her with characteristic impetuosity, as he had 
already turned from Creon to them (1. 671). Afterwards (^1. 1078), when 
she ceases to humour his mood, he breaks away from her also. 
1. 701. Kp^ovTos answers to orov wpdyfiaros. 

1. ;o2. vcucos is ace. after iytcaXuVf * bringing against him the charge 
of the quarrel.* Cp. Phil. 328 x<5^o»' • . iyicakSiy, Jocasta is impatient, 
and wishes to reduce the matter to a certainty. 

1. 703. Creon had of course said nothing of the kind. But Teiresias 
had, and Oedipus is carried away by his desire to be explicit, and puts 
in plain terms his own suspicion. 

1. 704. {wci8<os : supply iprjffi, Jocasta is prepared to settle the mat- 
ter at once, whether it comes directly from Creon or is a report which 
he has heard ; and when she hears that the report comes through 
a fidvTiSf she regards it as but another instance of the utter futility 
of prophecy, of which in her own life she has had such signal expe- 
rience. Her speech, which is to be decisive against Creon, wakes for 
the first time a sense of uneasiness in Oedipus. 

1. 705. |AdvTtv \i.kv ow, * not so, but by introducing a villainous pro- 
phet he established the charge.' yAv o^, like the Latin imo, corrects a 
previous assertion. The correction may be either negative ot ^^5crassj^- 
tive, i. e. it either denies what goes beloi^, wA ?»\\i'sM\\.\iX^ %cra^^^isscsssg;^s^ 



g6 OEDIPUS TYR ANNUS. 

the place of it, or it confirms it and adds additional evidence, (i) 
Arist. Acharn. 284, 5, A. r^v x^fpav (Twrplif/ert, XO. ffl fx^v oZp xara- 
XtvffofieVf St fxiapcL K€<l>a\-q. (2) Aesch. £um. 38 Stiffaaa ycLp ypavs ovBiv, 
djfTiirats filv oZy. 

1. 706. t6 y' fls ia\n6v is an adverbial accusative, irfiv cXcvOcpot 
(rT6|Aa, * he keeps his utterance wholly free/ i. e. from blame. Cp. Ant. 
445 H^ fiapcias airias kXtvOepov. For vav thus used with the verb, cp. 
Aj. 275 irSs iK-fiXarai. 

1. 708. <rot. Ethic dative. 

1. 709. txov, * connected with.' This use of the active of €X<w is rare. 
We should expect either fierfxov or €x<^A(€vov. * Nothing in the life of 
mortals has anything to do with the prophetic art.* 

1. 711. Y<ip is added because the story substantiates what has gone 
before. 

1. 712. She avoids the direct impiety of charging the god with false- 
hood. Afterwards (1. 946) she becomes less scrupulous. 

1. 713* ^$0*" Cp. O. C. 1473, 3 iJKu rfb* eir* dvbpi Oiatparos \ 0lov 
Tt\€VT'fi. The optative future is not a common tense, and is confined to 
oratio ohliqua, in which it represents the future indicative of oratio recta. 
The accusative is to be tdcen as the subject before Oavw, Another 
reading, due to conjecture, is t^oi. 

1. 715. {€Voi and TpiirXats ap.a£iTois are both intended by Jocasta to 
denote that the death of Laius was far removed from his own house- 
hold, and the latter words, which have such an effect on Oedipus, are 
dropped accidentally without any thought of exactness. That Oedipus 
should have lived so long with Jocasta and yet be ignorant of these 
facts, is one of the * improbabilities ' of the play. Cp. supr. 113. It 
is part of the character of Oedipus that he should be careless or indif- 
ferent till roused. 

1. 717. ov 8U<rxov, (i) 'did not hold asunder,* i.e. the child was not 
three days old, and then . . ,' etc. (Three days did not hold asunder the 
birth of the child and what followed) ; or perhaps, (2) ' three days did 
not continue the growing of the child, when . .* A third rendering is, * as 
for the growth of the child, three days had not passed over it when . .' 
The first translation is the best. For Koi in this sense cp. et in Virg. 
G. 2. 80 * nee longum tempus et ingens,* etc. See also Phil. 354. 

1. 720. KdvravOa, 'and thus.* rh 8ctv6v is in apposition to Oavctv. 
troBtiv^ which occurs in some MSS., is a weaker reading. 

1. 723. Sutfpio-av, 'determined.' Cp. infr. 1083. Jocasta appears to 
use the word in scornful irony. 

1. 724. Sxv Ydp &v . . cpcw^, * of what things God searcheth out the 
use,' i.e.* what things God searches out because he' needs them,* = Stv 
X/^C^^y Spevy^ avrd. 



NOTES. LINES 706-749. 97 

1. 726. dKowavT* lx«t, * possesses in consequence of what I heard.' 

1. 728. iroCas p,cp(|i.vT)s, * owing to what anxiety.* The genitive is 
causal ; cp. supr. 698 and note. ^oo-rpa^cCs, * suddenly changed in 
mood,* see 11. 700-706. Others explain the word of gesture merely. 

1. 731. X*^{avT* lx€i, * it has not yet come to an end,' i.e. * men have 
not yet ceased to speak.* Cp. O. C. 517 t<J rot vo\i> xal firj^afuL \^yov. 

!• 733* oxwrrij 8* i86s, k.t.X. 'The two ways running from Delphi 

and Daulia lead to the same place there/ i.e. meet the Toad from 

, Thebes. We should rather say, ' the roads to Delphi and Daulia part 

there.* For the preposition in the second clause cp. supr. 637, infr. 

744, 761. 

!• 735" TOio-8*, 'over these things/ * since these things happened.' 
A possessive dative. Time is regarded as in the possession of the events ; 
cp. Hdt. 2. 145 *HpaH\4i Sffa . . tpaal fXvai trta I; "Afiaaiv fia<riX4a, 
Thuc. 3. 29 ^fi€pcu Si fidkiara ^aaj^ r$ MvriX^i/]; iakoj/cviif. ivrcL ore, 
ie.r,\, 

1. 736. The first that Jocasta knew of Oedipus (as she supposed) was 
in the days when he was declared king. Observe that the line has no 
caesura, thus indicating slow painful utterance. Cp. Aj. 994, and note. 

1. 739. €v^|Aiov is a predicate. * Why does this touch your heart ? ' 

1. 740. For the ace. t6v A6Xov cp. supr. 224, and note, (f^ioxnv* 
* appearance.* 

1. 741. dKjt^y fj^tis, 'vigour of youth.* ff/Sjys is used rather of the 
degree of youthful vigour than of youth merely in respect of years. 
tXio^ is remarkable after e7x< '> it is used as though ^v had preceded. 
There is no reason to suspect corruption. Eur. Bacch. 647 arrjaov 
v6b\ 6py^ 5* vtrSSes Ijcvxov v6ba. Oedipus has no reasen to suppose 
that Jocasta*s former husband was an old man, and he courteously 
assumes the contrary. 

1. 742. Xct)Kav04s with xvod{oiv, 'sprinkling with white.' x^^i^^t 
which is properly used of the first appearance of hair, is here used of the 
first appearance of white hair. This application is of course assisted by 
the proleptic use of KtvieavOh. Hdt. 8. 27 ytAf/djtras dyBpas . . rhy Slv 
fi^ \(vicav0l(ovra tdojvrat. 

1. 744. Oedipus recognises the description given by Jocasta, but 
neither he nor the queen has the least suspicion of the terrible reality 
underlying their words. 

1. 745. irpopdXXflAV ovK fiscal = oi^tf eliolK vpo$6X\tiv, 

1. 746. This is one of the passages which show that by-play was not 
altogether unknown to the Greek theatre. Cp. El. 610. 

1. 747. pX^iruv, 'gifted with sight.' He had previously (1. 371) ac- 
cused him of utter blindness. 

1. 749. p,aOoOo-a, 'when I know wliatt \1 Vs? 



98 OEDIPUS TFRANNUS. 

1. 750. Ixwpci Pat6s must be taken together. Pat6t, 'few in number/ 
i. e. poorly attended. * Was he poorly attended on his journey?* 

1. 751. ipXTiY^nis, in the sense of 'king* or 'leader,* is used several 
times in Aeschylus, e.g. Suppl. 184. The word is an epithet of Apollo 
in Pind. Pyth. 5. 80 ; Thuc. 6. 3. 

^' 763- 'There was one chariot, in which La'ius rode.* 

1. 754. Sia^avTJ, 'transparent,* 'clear as day.* Oedipus is repre- 
sented as quick in his conclusions, just as he is quick in his temper. 

1- 755- '^H'^v plural, because the rumour came to Thebes in general, 
and was known to the Chorus as well as to Jocasta ; cp. supr. 292. 

I. 756. oIkcvs = oitcfTrjs, * a household slave ' — more Homerico, 

1- 757* The fact that the oitcirrjs is not at hand delays the fatal 
discovery, and thus allows it to become more complete, the guilt of 
incestuous marriage being added to the guilt of murder. The speech of 
Oedipus, which Euripides would have put in a prologue, brings in the 
first mention of the oracle concerning Oedipus. This must have had a 
great effect on Jocasta. But it is introduced quite accidentally, just as 
in Jocasta's speech the mention of the triple way was accidental. 

II. 758 ff. Jocasta is quite unconscious of the reason which prompted 
the olKhrjs to make his request, viz. that he was witness of the murder, 
and was afraid of Oedipus. 

1. 760. c^tKCTcvcrc. The compound probably expresses the urgency 
of the request, though compounds with k^ are common in Sophocles. 

1. 761. ciYpovs may be the accusative of 'place whither,* though 
it is easy enough to supply km from the second clause; cp. supr. 

733. 

1. 762. * That he might be as far as possible out of sight of this city.* 
diroirros, which is usually passive, is here apparently used in an active 
sense =diro rov opav. 

1. 763. 6^s Y* dvi\p SovXos, * for a slave,' i. e. * considering that he was 
a slave,' Jocasta may remember the peculiar service which she had im- 
posed upon him. Others read oF, cp. supr. 751. 

1. 765. irws &Vf K.T.X. For this manner of making a request cp. El. 
660 TTws Siv elbcirjv ; The ovk &v 817- ; of Od. 6. 57 is similar. 

1. 766. irdp€<rTtv, • it is quite possible,' not * he is here.* For wcDs ity 
fji6\oi is = i(rTiv fio\€iv ; and irdpfariv takes this up as in 1. 567 imp4ax^ 
fi€v takes up eo'x«T«. 

1. 767. S^SotK* €\uivr6v. Cp. supr. 40. The following words admit 
of two translations according as bi* a is taken, ' and on account of these,' 
or 'on account of which.' (i) *I fear myself — that I have already 
spoken too freely, and, therefore, I wish to see him;* (2) *I fear I have 
already spoken too freely why I wish to,' etc. The first rendering gives 
more force to 545otx' ifmvrSv, and to woWd, which dien refers to 234 foil. 



NOTES. LINES 750-790. 99 

1. 770. t4 y* €v <roC, *the things in you/ i.e. *in your condition or 
circumstances.* 

1. 771. cs too-oOtov, k.t.\., * when I have reached such a height or 
depth of anxiety.* Cp. O. C. 748 Is rooovrov aUias irtauv. cXirCSuv 
is quite general — 'expectation,* cp. supr. 487 irironai 5* kXirlmv. The 
plural is probably intensive, as in <p6^oi.y cp. supr. 585. 

1. 772. p,cC{ovi, 'more honourable,* or * worthy.* The expression is 
= to riva fid^ova lx« ^'''V ^ ^^iaifu ; For /x(i(<uv cp. Ant. 638 /Jitl^ojv 

1. 773. Sid Tuxtjs Toi&aS* Utfv, *at such a crisis of my life.* 

1. 774. Observe the remarkable ease and simplicity of rhythm in 
these verses. 

!• 775* ^yVi^* * ^ "^^.s considered.' Cp. Ant. 34, ^ koI rb irpdyfi 
&y€W I otJx ^s nap' ovbiv. 

1. 778. (nrovStis . . ri{s ^|at|S* ' of the earnest heed I give to it.' For 
the repetition of the unimportant word d£to cp. O. C. 70, 71, Ant. 5 
apd note, infr. 817, 18. 

1. 779. cv SeCirvois, * at a banquet.* For the plur. Tr. 268. 

1. 780. KaXct =d'jroKa\tt, * reproaches me.' irap'otv^, * over the wine. 
irarpC, a dative of the person interested = * I was in relation to my father 
a supposititious son.' irXoo-ros — vvofioXtfxaios. 

1. 781. Ti\v oWav ■?|p,4pav, 'the day then in existence.* The simple 
verb is not quite ^^vapovffav, Cp. Tr. 1 169 XP^^V "^V &vrt . . vvv, 

1. 782. KaT^(rxov, 'restrained my anger' — an object is easily obtained 
from ^apwOcis. 

1. 783. |i,T)Tp6s is genitive after viXas. Cp. 1. 801. ol hk 8va-4>^pci>s, 
K.T.X. • * They took the reproach with feelings of anger against him.' 
For -fJYov in the sense 'took,' 'considered,* cp. supr. 775. dyuv hv(i<p6- 
pojs is here used with the ace, as ayuv oi>x ^s vap* ovSiv in Antig. 

34. 5- 

1. 785. TcL jiiv KcCvoiv, adverbial, 'so far as they were concerned,* 'in 

respect to them.* Cp. supr. 706 t6 7' tls kavrov, 

1. 786. 'u<t>cip'irc 7dp iroXv, • it spread far and wide.* This is better 
than • it rankled deeply in me,' which adds little to €Kvi(i /jl* del rovO*. 
Moreover the motive of Oedipus in going to Delphi was to clear himself 
of the reproach, not to resolve his own doubt. 

1. 788. &v, genitive by attraction, drifxav tovtqjv c&v, for drifiov tou- 
Twv &. Cp. O. C. 49, 50 /i^ fJL drifxdays | roi6vb' dKrjTTjv, Siv ae irpoc- 
rpiiTO) (ppdffcu. 

1. 789. dTi|Aov, * dishonoured,' in the sense of * unanswered.' Cp.O.C. 
5 1 ovK drtfAOs l/c 7' kfxov <pavu, • 

1. 790. irpov<|>dvT) kiyav, * was found to utter,' ' dawned on txis. ntV^Vv 
the utterance.' The words indicate \.Vve ^>M-^t\^^ oS. O^^ix^"^^ "^ "^^ 

H 2 



lOO OEDIPUS TFRANNUS. 

unexpected revelation. £1. 1285, 6 vpon^aanp tk \ ^tkrArrfir 1x9"^ 
wpoacHpiv. 

1. 791. Y^vos ^s^prolem. 

1. 793. &P&V is an epexegetic infinitive with itfk&aoi/u. 

1. 795. ^Urrpois . . cic)ieTp«u|icvos k.tA., * measuring from a distance by 
the stars the position of Corinth/ i. e. fixing the position of Corinth by 
the stars and remaining at a distance from it. By the stars, i. e. and not 
by sight. 

1. 796. c^cvyov, * I fled on my way,' or * I remained in banishment,* 
infr. 948. cv^ fi^iiroTC. For /ri) with €v€a=^*ia such a place that/ cp. 
Aj. 659 ^vOa fof ra &fftraty El. 436, 7. 

1. 798. ToucrSc is used because the place is clearly before Oedipus* 
mind since the mention by Jocasta of the triple way. The pfaual is 
applicable to a place which b the meeting point of several districts, and 
the exact spot is not mentioned till 1. 800. 

1. 799. toOtov=* of whom we speak/ 

1. 800. Cp. supr. 700, 772. This line is not in the text of the 
oldest and best MS. of Sophocles — La, but is added on the margin of 
the page by a much later hand. [The page will be found in facsimile 
in Wattenbach's * Schrifttafeln etc* xxxiv.] It is found in all other 
known MSS. Dindorf, in order to support the theory that all our MSS. 
are copies of the archetype of La., regards this line as spurious. It is, 
however, quite worthy of Sophocles, and if we omit it, we have a very 
awkward asyndeton. In his narrative Oedipus wishes to be as exact as 
possible, and therefore repeats TpmXijs. 

I. 802. Kt|pv{. The herald would go first to announce the peaceful 
intentions of the travellers. 

L 803. otov, sc. T^ A&iov tXvai. Cp. supr. 742. 

1. 804. '9JYC|i»v is the driver who was leading the horses along the 
mountain road. In 1. 806 he is called rpoxn^rrjs. It is doubtful 
whether he is the same person as the ictjfv^, but probably not. 

1. 805. irp^ pCav, * violently,' like itp^s ipy^v, wp^s tiKrifiuay, etc 
The imperfect of the verb {^Xawhrjy) is conative ; * they tried to drive,' 
etc 

1. 807. |M is to be taken primarily with ip^ but it must also be sup< 
plied with irapaarcCxovra. A word which is put early in a sentence is 
often in connection more or less explicit with more than one of the 
words which follow. Cp. supr. 278. 

1. 809. 6xov is to be taken with KaOCKcro, * watching for me, he 

came right down upon my head from the chariot, as I passed, with his 

two-pronged goad.* Oedipus first struck the driver, and then passed 

along the side of the chariot, at which moment Laius struck him with 

^/je goad used for urging on the horses. Plut. Ale. 7 kwZi&\^ koSi" 



NOTES. LINES 79I-828. TOI 

K6fxtvos aifTov 'traprj\0€v, Paus. 5. 18. 2 ywaiKas h BXfiovs Ka$ifevovfi4vas 
inipois (' pounding with pestles in mortars *). 

1. 810. To t<rT|v supply rlatv. His punishment was not merely equal, 
as justice demanded, but far more. Oedipus speaks with regret for his 
own hasty act in giving * death for a blow.* 

1. 811. {k rf{vh* x^^P^s* I'he preposition ix is a favourite with 
Sophocles. Cp. Aj. 26 Kanp^apiaixivas \ iic x^^P^^* ^^* ^79 ^'^ ddkov, 
Tr. 1 1 33 If k/i^s 0ayfip x^P^^- The emphatic T^trh^^ recalling the 
triumph of the moment when he slew his opponent (who was his father), 
lielps to mark the unconsciousness of Oedipus in the presence of his 
mother. 

1. 813. TO^ {vp,iravTas, i. e. all who were left when the olKirrjs had 
run away. The rest attempted to make a stand, and the fugitive was 
unnoticed by Oedipus, who did not pause to count whether he had killed 
four or five. 

1. 814. TovTcp, 'of whom we speak,* as in 1. 799. Aaf<p is governed 
by <rvYY«v4s, t$ {^v<jp by irpoo-fjKci. 

1. 817. (p is to be taken after IJcort, which is then followed by rtvol 
hixtfT^ax, • to whom it is not permitted that any stranger should receive 
him.' The construction is made easier by reading bv . . rtvl, but the 
emendation is doubtful. 

1. 819. To wOetv supply dti. The positive notion is repeated (by 
opposition) from the negative, as in supr. 240, i firfTt x^P^^^os vifittv 
diOttv 8* dir* oXkojv vAvras, tA8* is explained in TacS* dpds. Cp. El. 
1364 ff. robs ydp ip fji4(Tq> \6yovs,.al ravrd aoi Scifovct, where, con- 
versely, ravra takes up rohs . . \6yov5, 

1. 821. €v x^po^v i|Aatv xpaCvo, * I pollute by my embrace.' 

1. 822. &p* t^w KaK6s ; The 5/)o, ip* o^x', expresses a high degree of 
certainty. * Is there then — can it be otherwise — some natural stain of 
iniquity in me if I must go into banishment, and yet never return to 
my own country, under penalty of slaying my father and marrying my 
mother ?* 

1. 823. irds dvaYvos, * utterly impure.* Cp. Phil. 927 vdv dctfta, and 
compounds like vafd,fjiiap6s. <j>vYCtv is to go into exile (i. e. from 
Thebes). 

1. 825. cfLparcvciv irarpCSos. The genitive, which does not seem to 
occur elsewhere with this word, must be regarded as partitive, irarpi- 
80s = Corinth. y6.\i.ois is defined by |tt)Tp6s. Cp. O. C. 945 ydfxoi . . 

dvSfflOl TfKVQJV. 

1. 828. d'ir6 is here = to 'proceeding from.* Cp. supr. 43 (tr an 
dvbp6s dtcOd TToVf ' or if you know of any proceeding from a man.* For 
6p8oit| = ' direct aright,* cp. infr. 855, and ^x^V. wn'^ ^ yiwtv^ t^^^^^ 
cl;; dp* 6p$dv ^yvaas. 



I02 OEDIPUS TFRANNUS. 

1. 829. eir* dv8pl t$8', • at me/ Cp. Aesch. Ag. 363 in^ 'Akc^dv^ 
Ttiyovra viXxu ro^ov. 

1. 830. Oedipus for a moment contemplates the evil day which, 
though far less dreadful in his thought than in the reality, is still re- 
garded by him as improbable. He prays that he may never see it. 
Afterwards, when the day comes upon him, he takes away his sight. 
Thus the first note of the horror is touched, but while he prays here 
that death may save him from the dreadfiil sights later on he dare not 
seek refuge in death. Cp. infr. 1183, 1371 foil. 

1. 832. irp6<r0cv ^—irpiv^ hence the infinitive. TotdvSc . . ici)\i8a ovft- 
^op£ts, * a calamity staining so deeply.* 

1. 833. d^iYiiivijy, ' overtaking me.' 

1. 834. The spectators know that that which seems to Oedipus the 
most horrible supposition possible is less than half of the truth. 

1. 835. irp^ To€ irap6vTOS, * from the person who was present at the 
deed,' the participle is in the imperfect tense. 

1. 836. TTJf cXiHSos. The article is used as with an abstract word, or 
it may refer to kXms in the preceding line. * So much hope,* i. e. * so 
much and no more.' The meaning is different in supr. 771. 

1. 837. T^ dvSpa T^v PoTijpa is the ol«€i5s of 1. 756, who is here called 
fi(yHip, owing to his present occupation; cp. 761. Even at a previous 
time he would appear to have had the care of sheep ; 1. 1 133 cS yd,p oTJT 
OTI, Kr.\. 

1. 838. ir«^<rp,€vov is probably gen. absolute. For another instance 
of this construction in a single word cp. £1. 1344 Te\ovfi4vow ttvotfiAv. 

1. 841. ir€puro"6v, * remarkable,' * more than was expected.* Cp. Tr. 
617 v€ptff<rci bpdVf Dem. 775 \4^a) 5^ ovt€ Kcuvbv ovt« ircptrrby ovSty ovr* 
tdiov iiX\* b ndvTts vfxtis iffre dfjtoicas ifwl. 

1. 842. Cp. supr. 716 XriffTal <povtvova\ k.t.X. Oedipus has already 
unconsciously hit on the truth, 1. 124 koI ims 6 Aptrri^s ; 

1. 845. Totf iroXXots, * the many,' of whom he speaks. For this use 
of the article with voKKoi cp. Thuc. l. 86 rohs fily koyovs robs iroWovs 
rSiv * AOijvcuajy ol yiyp^ffKco. Cp. Plat. Rep. 5. 453 E tcIs S^.dtXXas 
<p6a€is rd airrd <l>a^tv vvv htiv kiriTrjbevfftu. 

1. 846. ol6{o>vov, * in his single strength.' The emphasis is on the 
first part of the compound, but the word, being formed on the analogy 
of €6i<uvoSt is chosen as being applicable to a traveller. Sophocles 
often uses compounds in this manner for simple words to gain a sort 
of picturesqueness. Thus we find SiKparfTs, SiVtoXoi, Siffrofiot for hiaaoL 
So also 8oXi<5iroi;s, huv6'nomt x<>Xi«5iroi;;, 6p06voWf inf/inovs, and oXvdkf/^ 
KtXaivdmrjSf etc Cp. 1. 189. 

/ S^/, The metaphor is from a balance ; cp. Electr. 119, 30. 
I' 84P. to€t6 y€. This particular point, i.e. Vkt iwxxoiViei o^ the 



NOTES. LINES 829-866. ' 103 

robbers, which the ol/ccvs had probably stated falsely in order to excuse 
his own flight. 

11. 851, 2. * Yet even if he should swerve at all from his former state- 
ment, he will never, O prince, prove that the murder of Laius was 
duly done as foretold.* 8iKa(<os is to be taken with 6p06v, and means, 
•in the right manner.* For 6p06v cp. supr. 829; Svra must be 
supplied. Cp. Tr. 826 icai rdS* bpOSjs ifjLirtHa Karovplfei. For t6v 
some editors read adv^ which, however, complicates the predicate, 
without improving the sense; for it must mean (i) *was thy deed,' 
duly in accordance (with the oracle), which assumes that Laius is 
the father of Oedipus ; or (2) that thy murder of Laius was the duly 
appointed one, or that the duly appointed murder was thy deed. 
And Jocasta is thinking rather of the failure of the oracle, of which 
she is convinced, than of Oedipus' part in the transaction. 

1. 854. 8tciir€, • expressly said.' Cp. supr. 723 biwpiaav. 

1. 857. |i.avTc(as depends on owcKa. Jocasta is secure in her contempt 
of prophecy : 'I would not look this way or that,' i.e. I would not allow 
myself to be moved in the least. Cp. supr. 728 viroaTpa<pch. 

I. 859. KoX&s vo|jiC{cts. Oedipus gives a cold commendation to the 
words of Jocasta, and requests her nevertheless to send for the oltchr}^. 
He yields to her influence, yet he cannot shake off his belief in oracles 
to the same extent as she has done. And Jocasta makes no resistance, 
because she is anxious to conciliate and calm her husband, tov cp^d- 
Ti)v is governed by <Tr(\ovvTa. 

II. 863 ff. The Chorus moralise on the blessing of piety, the train 
of thought being aroused by the language of Jocasta in regard to the 
oracles. Their words, however, impress on the spectator the great 
lesson of the story, the terrible consequences of any breach of the 
Eternal laws. In the second antistrophe they return from reflections of 
a general nature to the incident immediately before them. Strophe a. 
* May it be my lot in life to preserve a holy purity in all words and 
acts for which there are laws set up on high, born in the firmament of 
heaven, whose sire is Olympus, and no other. Unbegotten of man's 
mortal nature, they shall never sink into the sleep of oblivion ; God is 
mighty in them, and ages not. 

1. 866. '&i|;Ciro8cs, 'established on high.' For the compound cp. 1. 846. 
The word is to be taken closely with vpSKuvrai. ovpavCav 81' alOfpa 
TCKvcDOfvrcs, * brought into birth throughout the serene heaven,' i.e. 'per- 
vading the whole heaven, which is their natural element.' aW^p is femi- 
nine more Homerico, perhaps as the mother element. The highest idea 
of law came to the Greeks from the motion of the heavenly bodies. 
Thus the heaven is at once the sphere of their oi^ta.tv<i\N.^\A*Cc^'5i'iR?^^'a^ 
of their birth. 



104 OEDIPUS TYRANNUS. 

I. 870. ov8i |Adv. Cp. Find. Pyth. 4. 155 ovn wov ovtos 'Av^XXoir, 
ovi^ fidv x^'^^^Pf^'''^^ ^^'^^ v6ais 'Aippo^ras, where, as here, a new 
thought is introduced after a negative. 

L 871. Cp. Ant. 456, 7, where Antigone is speaking of the highest 
laws, d€i iroT« Q ravra tcovbtU ciSev i^ Stov '(pdmj. Beside and above 
the laws established by enactment either of the state or of some law- 
giver were the aypa<poi vo/ioi, or laws governing religion and morality, 
which were of superior sanctity. Lysias 6 § 10 rots dypcupoK {y6ftois]t 
KaO* ots '^fwXwiSai i^-qyovvrcu^ ots ovdtis v<u icupios kyivtro icaBfkfiv oi9k 
krdXfjiTjae ayrdirftv oih* ainbv top Bfvra taaaiv. 

II. 873 flf. Antistrophe o'. The Chorus dwell on the evil attending a 
proud and rebellious spirit, which disregards religion, v^pts ^vrcvci 
Tupavvov, * pride is the tyrant's root* v^pts is the rebellion of the pas- 
sions against the reason, or of human nature against the divine ; and in 
Aeschylus no less than in Sophocles is regarded as the fountain-head 
of evil. It is in the tyrant that this lawless spirit reaches its highest 
consummation, as, for instance, in Pheidon of Argos {b^pitravros fU- 
yiara 8^ ran/ 'EWifjycav im&vrojv Hdt. 6. 127), and Cleisthenes of Sicyon. 
The dangerous nature of this spirit, as opposed to Okyus and votios, was 
recognised at an early time in Greek literature. Heradeitus of Ephesus 
(b. c. 500) said, v^fKv -xpij <r0€vvv€iv fjiaWov ^ wfucaX^v (a conflagration), 
and Pindar speaks of Cfipis as leSpov ^aripa. (Ol. 13. 12), i.e. it makes a 
man dissatisfied with what he has, however much, rvpavvoy is here 
used in the later emphatic sense, 'a tyrant,' not as in 1. 588 supr. r^ipav- 
pos ftvai pJaKXov ^ T6paarpa tpav, 

1.874. «t • • '6w€pirXt|<r0g, 'if vainly filled to overflowing with an 
abundance neither seasonable nor expedient.* The passages in Soph- 
ocles in which ci is read with the subj. are, this, supr. 198; infr. 
917, 1062; O. C. 1443; Ant. 710; Aj. 496. The older editors at- 
tempted to correct all these passages ; see EUendt's lexicon, sub voce 
fl, but Herm. on O. C. 1443 (45) acknowledges the construction, and 
remarks, * Interest non parum, c2 an ^v dicas. Nam {v incertum est, 
referturque ad id quod simus experiundo cognituri. fiatne an non fiat ; 
fl autem fortius est, solamque conditionem designat, imde eo hie utitur 
Antigona, non dubitans quin sit fratre caritura.' Kriiger 54. 3 allows 
the construction even in Attic prose (* when the idea of the reality, or 
realisation of the conditional clause is predominant*), quoting Thuc. 
6. 21. I 6XK0K T€ Kai (I ^varwaiv al troXH^^ k.t.K. 

1. 876. * Having mounted the topmost height rushes on sheer ruin.* 

The aorist in (Spovo-cv is gnomic The notion in dvSrofjiov dydytcav 

seems to be that of a precipice, where there was no place for the foot 

/a plant itself; or of rugged ground at the foot where one * stumbles 

apon the dark mountains/ Eur. Ale. 118 |i6 pos -^dp dtrdroiMS irXd^ci. 



NOTES. LINES 870-896. 105 

981 ovii T(s dvorSfjuw k^fxarSs itrnv alSajs (said of dydyHTj/), Compare 
the language in Ant. 853-5 vpoficur' lir* iaxorov Spdaovs vifnj\bv ks 
Ai«as fidOpoy vpoaiw€ff(Sj Si ritcvoVf vo\b. 

1. 879. * The struggle that is for the city's weal I pray God never to 
stop.' Contention for the public good is contrasted with the spirit of 
self-aggrandisement, and this zeal the Chorus hope may never die out of 
the city. The statement is true in general, though there may be a 
covert reference to the desire of Jocasta to check further inquiry into 
the oracle. Compare the contrast of the good and evil Eris in 
Hesiod, Op. et D. 11 ff. 

1. 881. For irpcMrrdTav cp. 411. 

1. 883. Strophe $'. As the Chorus are resolved to observe piety and 
religion in themselves, so they pray that the want of it may be punished. 
* But whoso in act or word follows the way of the proud — reckless of justice 
and regardless of the shrines of the gods — may an evil doom take him in 
return for his ill-starred vanity.' vircpoirra is a neut. plur. used adverbially. 
Cp. El. 961 dKfKTpa yrjpdaKovaav dw/xivcud tc. x<P^^v> *by violence.' 

1. 885. ovBi is used and not {jltiSc, because oifbi (rifiwv make up one 
notion, and ci is left in the background. 

1. 887. IXotTO, * take him for her own.* 

1. 891. Sacrilege is the last step in the career of impiety. The words 
of Sophocles might seem to have been fulfilled by the doom which 
overtook the Phocians (and indeed all Greece) after the impious pil- 
laging of the temple of Delphi, a hundred years after this play was 
written. After ij supply tl only, not ci fi^. 

1. 893. If we read Ovfiov we may translate, * who in such courses will 
any longer arrest the shafts of anger so as to keep them away from his 
soul?' This translation is capable of two applications, (i) to the tyrant 
who cannot avoid being an object of hatred to his people, cp. Aesch. 
Ag. 457 SrjfiOHpdvTov 5* dpds rivti xp^^h or (2) to the spectator of such 
actions who cannot avoid being angry. But the lines are very doubtful, 
/.^^/ for there is nothing in 1. 905 to correspond to $vnov fiiXrj. 

1. 895. al TotaiSc irpd£cis, * deeds such as those of the tyrant * who 
set all moral law at defiance. If tyrants could hope for the favour of 
heaven, all Greek morality was at an end. Cp. Herod. 5. 92 ^5^ 5 re 
ovpavds 4'aTOi iv(p9i t^s 7^y, kqX ^ 7^ fjLfriwpos inrlp rov oipavov^ teal 
dvBponroi vofxdv iv $a\d(roy i^ovai^ teal lx&v€s rbv vpurtpov dpOponroi, 
5t€ 7« vfiuSy St AaKfSat/Jiovtoi, Iffo/cparias KaraXvoPTtSt rvpavvibas h rds 
v6\is Kardyciy vapa<rK€vd^t(r$€, rov out€ dSitciiTtpoy ovhiv kan /car* 
dlfOpdfWOVS, OVT€ fJiiai<l>ov<ifTfpov. 

1. 896. tC 8ct |Af xopcvctv ; The song of the Chorus is also an act of 
religious worship, which is rendered useless if the pious aadtive.vcs!c^«5»Nis» 
are as one— Iv 6/xoiq) xal aifitw kqjL \k^ T\v\xg. -i. t^v 'Wkfc n*^^^^ ^^J^^^^^ 



Io6 OEDIPUS TVRANNUS. 

follow 11. 906 ff. <pOivovTa '^&p H.T.\. show that there is a reference to the 
action of Oedipus and Jocasta. 

1. 898. Antistrophe /3'. * I will not visit the shrines of the gods, if 
this oracle fails. Look to it, O mighty Zeus, for men are despising thee, 
and religion is trodden under foot.' Cp. 1. 480. 

1. 899. Abae was a town in Phocis, tvBa ^v Ipbv 'AiroXAcuvo; mKoiaioVj 
Orjffavpoiai re ical dpoO-fifMCi iroKkoTai KaT€<rK€va(rfi€vov Hdt. 8. 33. 
After Delphi, it was the oldest and most famous oracle of Apollo in 
Greece, and was among those consulted by Croesus, ib. i. 46. 

TcLv 'OXtjp,ir(av, sc. tariaa^. The oracle of Zeus at Olympia is meant, 
iva fiAvTifs dvdpfs kfiirvpois TeKfjiatp6fi€voi irapawupSjvrai Acd? dpytici- 
pai^ov Pind. Ol. 8. 2. 

1. 902. ' Unless these things (i. e. the prediction and the event) shall 
harmonise clearly for all to see.* x^^P^^^'^'rO' = ^^''(^^^^- The dative 
denotes the persons remotely interested in the coincidence of the oracle 
and the fulfilment. 

1. 903. &Kovcis, * art named.* Cp. Aristoph. Vespae 621 oans 
dKovci) ravd* Siwcp 6 Zct/;. So audio in Latin. Horace, Sat. 2. 6. 20 
* Seu Jane libentius audis.' 

1. 904. The nominative to XdOoi is explained at length in the sentence 
beginning with ydp. Let not the sacrilege be unnoted of which we see 
an instance in the disregard of oracles. 

1. 907. c^aipovoxv, • men are setting aside.* Cp Eur. Phoen. 991 
Trarpos k^tikov (p60ov. Observe that <pBivovra is put in the prominent 
position, 'as things which are dead, and have lost their force,' etp. 
<^6£vovTa is just the opposite of (Sivra in supr. 482 fcDvTO trfpiiroraTax, 
The metaphor may possibly be taken from the withered and lifeless 
branches of trees, which merely * cumber the ground.* 

I. 909. Tt|ju&is c|ji<|>avT|s = ipupavSjs rifjujjfxevos, * distinguished by acts of 
honour' or worship. It may be that Sophocles is here referring to a 
decay of reverence for oracles in his own day. In this respect there is 
a wide difference between the histories of Herodotus and Thucydides, 
and after the Peloponnesian war the Delphian oracle, however much 
used by private persons, ceased to be of the same importance in the 
affairs of states as previously. 

II. 911 flf. Jocasta, who left the stage with such strongly pronounced 
opinions on prophecy, now returns to bring propitiatory offerings to the 
gods. The more that Oedipus has reflected on the matter, the more it 
has come home to him, and Jocasta's arguments have been insufficient 
to quiet his doubts. This sacrifice has the effect of bringing Jocasta* 
out of the palace, and thus she is the first to hear the news from 
Corinth. There is something apologetic about 86{a p,oi iropcordOti, as 

though Jocasta, were aware of her inconsistency. 



NOTES. LINES 898-932. IO7 

1. 912. The vaovs . . 8(up,6vci>v probably mean no more than the small 
shrine near the palace door. Cp. El. 634, where Clytemnestra is offer- 
ing a similar sacrifice. 

■ I..914. h^^o^ Yclp aipn, k.t.X., 'allows his spirit to be agitated ex- 
ceedingly.* The use of the active construction seems to imply that 
Oedipus wilfully increases his own excitement. Cp. Aj. 75 ov aiy 
d,v4(€t fir}b€ bu\iav dpits; and note. 

1. 916. tA Kaivd, the new oracle, given to Oedipus, and recently re- 
peated by him to Jocasta ; rots irAXai, the old oracle, given to Laius, 
which in Jocasta's mind has been proved false. 

1. 917. Icrri To€ X^yovtos, ' is in the power of the speaker.* For the 
predicative genitive cp. O. C. 752 TovwiSyros dpirdffai. cl ^6^01;$ Xcyq 
has equal MS. authority with fjy <p60ovs A^Tj?, and must be preferred 
as the more difficult reading. Cp. 1. 874. 

1. 919. AvKcios is an epithet given to Apollo as the averter of evil. 
Cp. El. 6, 7 and note, and supr. 204. dyxitrros ydp cl. Statues, or 
at least an altar, of Apollo were before the doors. Cp. 1. 912. 

1.920. KaTCVYiAoo-iv, i.e. ffTi(f)€<Tt Kd.in0vfJiidfM<Tiv, for these are the 
symbols or accompaniments of prayer. If this be the meaning, Jocasta 
is referring to the votive offerings she is bringing, but the word may 
also be taken in the more simple sense of * vows,* the notion of accom- 
paniment being brought prominently forward in ffvv, quasi * bringing these 
vows with me.* Dindorf reads KardpyfMffiv. 

1. 921. Xtjcrtv cuaYT] is a condensed expression for *a release, which 
will leave us pure.' The word cvay^ is always found in the same place 
in the line, but tvayfis, *pure,' must be carefully distinguished from 
tvdyfis, ' clear,' * bright,* a word found in Aeschylus and Euripides. 
In the next line the simile is compressed after ptdis : add kKneirXrjyiJiivov 
$\4vovr€s hv dfcvoUy, and cp. supr. 362, Ant. 75. 

1. 934. Cp. El. 660 vS)s &v fidfirjv; where the context is much the 
same, and supr. 765. 

1. 925. For the construction avrbv tX-nar* c{ KdriaO' Birov cp. supr. 
74O. The form of the aorist with a is most common in the second 
sing, indicative cTiras and in the imperative. For Sirov cp. Aj. 33. 

1. 929. Notice the (hv 6\fiiois ylvoir as an instance of the irony (so 
called) in Sophocles, and also the combination of yvv^ and fJirjTrjp in the 
preceding line (Ant. 53 f^'firrjp xal yvvff, Sinkovv liros). 

1. 930. iravTcXt\s 8dp.ap, * wife with full rights,* probably as being the 
mother of children and mistress of the palace. Similarly Ant. 1163 
iravTfXrj fxovapxiav, 

1. 932. ovvcK*. Wecklein reads etven', in the belief that ovveKo, 
* wherefore,* ought not to be read for evfKa, * on acco\ixvt ol,* ^"^^ 's^ssgv, 
383. [His reasons for the change ate gvfeii ■m'C\«^^^'^^^'*=^^'=^^^ 



Io8 OEDIPUS TVRANNUS. 

(Lipsiae, 1869), xii. p. 36 ff. * Praepositionem ovvtKa librariis deberi puto, 
poetas tragicos autem ut ^cfvos, Ktivos metri causa adhibuerunt, ita metri 
causa r6 voirjriKdv (iv€Ka admisisse. Aristophanes autem, cui vulgaris 
sermo neque €iv€tca usque odvtKa subministrabat, metri necessitate u§um 
tragicorum imitatus est pariter ac ffroids pro (rrods metri causa usurpavit.* J 
But on the whole it seems better to follow the authority of the MSS., 
which in Sophocles are in favour of otviKo^ though in Aristophanes 
there is some variation. 

1. 934. oLYoOd must be taken after (nip,t|vat. 

1. 935. For iropd and ck (in the next line) cp. Thuc. 1. 137 kic rwv 
*A0T)vSfy vapd. tSjv <pl\ojv. 

1. 936. r6 8* 2iro8 would naturally be in the dative after ffSoto. The 
ace. may be due to attraction, cp. supr. 449 rdv SvBpa rovrov . . Ak 
vdXai . . ovTos K.T.k. But the accusative of the pronoun occurs in similar 
cases, e.g. Od. 5. 215 ^117 fioi r<55c x^fto — and the same construction 
may here be extended to the noun, with the assistance of the attraction. 
Cp. Phil. 1 314 ijffOrjv . . cvkoyovvrd ce. rdxA is best taken with t^fp&t 
cp. O. C. 980 oiovs kpSt rdx'* The A' in vws 8* ovk av ; can be supplied 
to ijSoio and dax^^ois, with the latter word icojs makes the omission 
more easy. 

1. 938. iroCav K.T.X., * Why,* or *how, has it thus a double power?' 
iroCav, though agreeing with Svvafuv^ is merely the interrogative to the 
sentence, and asks the cause of the double power, the nature of which 
has been described. 

1. 941. ^YKpaT^ = li' Kpdru &v, Cp. ivrinos. 

1. 942. rd^ois. The use of the plural in this word may perhaps 
point to the various ceremonials of burial, or to the number of tombs 
in the place where Polybus was gathered to his forefathers. Cp. 987, 
O. C. 411, 1410. [In Euripides the plural is not used for the singular 
according to Kummerer (* Ueber den Gebrauch des Pluralis,' Klagenfurt, 
1869).] 

1. 945. S> irp6<nro\c. Jocasta has one or more attendants to aid her 
in offering her gifts. Cp. El. 634 t-ncupt 8^ ah Bvyuaff ^ wapovard fioi. 

1. 947. TovTov Tov £v8pa. The accusative is to be taken with l^etryc, 
which is the first verb, and repeated in thought with icTdvot, unless 
i<pivy€ is taken in the sense 'remain in exile' (cp. supr. 796 €<ptvyov 
tvOa iiii K.T.\.\ in which case the ace. will be governed by terdvot, 
IV* l<rT€; * where are ye?* Observe the use of the plural verb with 
the neuter, which in this case is rendered necessary by the personi- 
fication. 

1.951. ^{cir^iAilitt, *had me called forth.* The middle voice, as in 
/iera7ri/tjr€aBat, is used of that which is done by means of others. Cp. 
supr. L 4S4. 



NOTES, LINES 934-975* 109 

1. 953. tv* ^Jicfi, * what is the end of/ 

1. 954. tC |iot Xl^fi; *what has he to tell, I pray?* or *what has 
he to tell of interest to me ?' Aristoph. Nub. in ital rl aoi fm$ifi<rofiat ; 

* what would you have me learn ? * 

1. 956. With &s ovtcir 6vra cp. El. 1341 &s T€0ifrjK6Ta, and with the 
positive and negative form of statement, Aj. 289 okXtjtos ov9* itv dyyi- 
K(i» ie\Ti$€ii K.r.\. 

1. 957. (nii&i^s YcvoO. For this construction cp. supr. 577, Ant. 180 
and note. 

1. 959. With Oavdoi|jiov PcPt)K6Ta, which expresses a completed fact, 

* dead and gone,* cp. O. C. 894, 5 oIx^toi . . diro<nr<ii<roy. The notion of 
movement is not altogether lost in fifffrjKdra. Tr. 874 fiifirjKt A^fdvupa 
tilv wQjfvararriv | 6liov cLitaaSjv. 

1. 960. {wciXXayfit * by visitation of.* Cp. supr. 34. 

1. 962. v6o-ois, if the plural is to be pressed, we may translate, * some 
kind of disease.* 

1. 963. * Yes, and by the years whose length he has measured.* For 
& XP^vos cp. O. C. 7, £1. 961. (rv|&p,CTpotJ(icvos occurs above 1. 73, but 
in a different sense. Sophocles only, among the poets, uses the word. 

1. 964. For the exclamation dp. Phil. 334 and note. (ncoTOiro, * con- 
sider,' * have any regard for.' The middle form, which seems to differ 
in no way in meaning from the active, occurs again Trach. 296. 

1. 966. The icXd{ovTa« 6pvcis are the source of the wisdom of Teire- 
sias. Cp. supr. 395, Ant. 998 foil. &v {k^yt|tc&v. The omens which 
prophesy the crime are regarded as leading to the commission of it. 
The same combination explains the use of dvvrctv in 11. 156^ 720. For 
the omission oiovroov cp. O. C. 1588 v<pT)yr}T^pos ovdevds <^\wv. 

1. 967. The three consecutive trisyllabic feet, of which the two 
tribrachs are each divided amongst three words (cp. supr. 537), are pro- 
bably intended to mark the crescendo of triumphant scorn following 
previous agitation. The movement is recalled by the dactyl in 1. 972. 

1. 968. Here and in Ajax 635 the present of KiitBw has the meaning of 
the perfect KixwOa. 

1.969. T&|i^ ir66(p, 'through desire of me.' Cp. O. C. 419 roifiov 
96$ov vpov0€VTo T^y TvpapviBa^ ib. 1413 r^s kftf)s vvovpyias. 

1. 971. Tcl 8* o^ irap6vTa. o{»v resumes the train of thought ; * how- 
ever Polybus came by his death, dead he is, and the oracles which 
troubled us are in the grave with him.' irap6vTa, = ' which were causing 
us trouble at this time.' Cp. O. C. 1540 tovk $(ov irap6v. 

I. 974. irapt)Y6|tt)v, i.e. * my fear carried me away from the right 
course in which you directed me.* 

1. 975. cs Ovp.dv P^xi^, ' take to heart.' Hdt. 7.51 h Ovfidv c&v iSoXcG 
icat rb iraKaibv tvo* «.r.A. Supr. 739. 



no OEDIPUS TFRANNUS. 

1. 977. <^, 'in the sphere of whose life/ Cp. supr. 381 rip voXv^^X^ 
/Sty and note. With the periphrasis rd. t^j rvxTp cp. supr. 620, i. 

1. 979. cUtj, i. e. without regard to v6tws. For the use of the optative 
cp. 1. 315 &(p* ^ *X<w "''* *^^ dwaiTo. 

L 981. For the context see Hdt. 6. 107, Plato, Rep. 571 C. 

I. 983. vap* o^cv, * of no account.* Cp. Ant. 35. 

1. 987. (tfyos y* 6^6aXfi6s, ' is a great eye to see with,' i. e. 'throws 
great light upon your path/ Aesch. Pers. 167 foil, ecri ycLp w\ovt6s 7* 
dfjiffjupifs, dfjupl ^ 6<p$aL\fi(Hs <p6fior \ ofifm yoLp Zonaiv vofju(af 9«rw6rov 
wapovffiav. Others take 6<p0aXfi6s as a 'comfort,' or better still, as a 
'precious thing,' a 'prize/ in which sense Amphiaraus is the 'eye' of 
the Argive army, Pind. Ol. 6. 27, and Orestes is the * eye' of his house, 
Aesch. Choeph. 934. The Greeks regarded the eye as the source as 
well as the means of light. For r6.^ot cp. supr. 942. 

1. 989, For xmip in the place of the more usual w€pi cp. U. 6. 524 
bvkp <rk$tv atffx*' dKo^oj, and infr. 1444. 

I. 991. tC 8* iar* ^KctvT)s ; ' what is there about her,' or, 'coming from 
her?' For the latter cp. L 10 12. With cs ^o^ov ^ipov cp. supr. 

I. 994. yAXurrd y*, supply ^t6v. 

1. 997. ' Corinth became (was made) a distant land.* The imperfect 
*» * was then, and has been so far/ dircpKCiTO => was regarded as an 
dwoiKMt but no exact parallel has been found. In Theocr. 15. 7 ipi^ 
dnoiKiiy is maintained by Ameis in the sense, 'live away from me.' 
li l|io€, ' by my act,' El. 526 <^ €fiov t4$vijk€v, t^ €fiov. 

1. 999. The words tcI t^v t€k6vt(i)v ic.t.X., give point to the real 
situation of which Oedipus is soon to become conscious. See infr. 
1 371 lyCj yd.p ovK 6th* 6p,pjaaiv iroiois 0\iir<uv k.t.X. 

I. 1000. -fi ydp is frequent* in eager agitated questions. Cp. 1. 1017, 
El. 1 2a I, 1223. tA8* 6kv£^v refers to that part of the oracle which was 
alone capable of fulfilment now. 

I. 1003. c^cXvcdiATiv. The middle voice is usual in the sense of 're- 
deeming from,* e. g. Aesch. P. V. 235 h^tXva&pr^v fiporovs rod /at) . . . «Js 
AtJow po\ttv. (For the active cp. supr. 35.) The question with ri ovk 
and the aorist tense is = ' had I not better at once ? ' For this common 
idiom cp. Aesch. P. V. 747, 8 n . . ovk I»' T<ix** hp^^* ipavrijv ic.t.X. 

1. 1005. toOt*, 'for this purpose.* O. C. 1291 & 8* ijx^of, ^817 aoi 
Oikoj ki^ai, trdnp. 

1. 1006. o-oO . . cX06vTos, gen. absolute, c^ 'n-pd{ai|jiC rt^ 'I might 
gain some advantage.* 

1. 1007. The masc. plural is used generally, though the mother only 
is meant. Oedipus does not wish to speak more specifically, 
y. J008. The order is possibly 8^Xos (t ovk KaXus tMs, * It is obvious 



NOTES. LINES gyj-10^4. Ill 

that you have no clear knowledge,' etc. Cp. 1. 317, and O. C. 269 

1. 101 1. <£cX6t), 'prove in the end.* Cp. supr. 88, and O. C. U<p4p€i. 

1. 1012. |jiCa<r|&a t&v t^vTcvo-dvTcov, * pollution arising from parents.' 

1. 1014. ip* ol<rd<i, — ' let me tell you.' irpds SCktis, 'on the side of 
justice,* and so 'justly.* Cp. El. 1221 npbi ZIkt^s ySip 06 (xrhm. 

1. 1016. hi Y^vci, 'related.* Eur. Ale. 904 kiu>i ris Tjv kv yiu€i. 

1. 10 1 9. T$ |jiT)8«vt, 'to one who is in no sense my father.' fiqhivi^^ 
T^ firjSafjLus (pvffavTi, For the wide use' of the pronoun cp. El. 276 
*Epivhv ovTiva ^0ovfi4vrf, Aesch. Ag. 185 fiavriv ovrtva ipiyoju. The 
same preference for the pronoun over the adverb is often seen in ques- 
tions, supr. 938. 

1. 102 1. wvofji^tcTO, 'caused me to be called his son.' 

1. 1022. x<^p^ must be taken with Xa^ddv, 'receiving from my hands.' 

1. 1023. With dir' dXXT)s X<>'P^s supply Xafidjv or 6vra. c&8* goes 
with tartp^tv iiiya (' had this great love,' that he made me his son). 

1. 1025. TCKcldv is the reading of the MS., and ought to be retained. 
It does indeed involve a contradiction with 1. 1020, but this is of little 
moment in the excited state of the mind of Oedipus, who is prepared 
for any revelation respecting his birth. Some have suggested rvx<uv 
or Kix^jv, 

1. 1027. J>8oiiropcts does not appear to be found elsewhere with an 
ace. only. 

1. 1029. €irl dT)TcC<^ irXAvTis, 'going from place to place for hire.' 
Iirf, 'in pursuance of.' The mention of the humble condition of the 
''A77«Xos prepares the way for the contrast in the next line. The con- 
dition of the Biii was above that of the slave, in so far as he was per- 
sonally free; but in Od. 11. 489 Achilles selects the condition of a 
O-fi^t whose master is poor, as the extreme of human misery. 

1. 1031. oLXyos = ' cause of pain.* Xaix^dvcis is a historic present, as 
though Oedipus were present at the scene of his own infant troubles. 
Cp. Tempest, i, 2, 'I, not remembering how I cried out then, | Will 
cry it o'er again ; it is a hint | That wrings mine eyes to *t.' The 
question of Oedipus is suggested by the word (tojt^p, and there is also 
a contrast between the present and the past action of the ''A77€Xos. He 
has saved Oedipus once, and he will save him again— as he thinks — 
but he does precisely the opposite. The pathos of the scene is height- 
ened by the presence of Jocasta, who is at once reminded of the cruelty 
exercised upon her child, and made conscious of her real relation to 
Oedipus. 

1. 1032. iro8&v dpOpa-B*the ancles.' Cp. Tr. 779 fidp^s vodos viv, 
dpBpov ^ \vyi(€Tai, 

1. 1034. iroSotv dK|ids, not ' the lo^%,' ^\^Oel N^oviJA \i^ *\snk.'c«s&>j^«s!X 



no OEDIPUS TFR ANNUS. 

1. 977. <p. *in the sphere of whose life.* Cp. supr. 381 r^ iroXt/^i^X^ 
fiiqt and note. With the periphrasis tSl ttjs rhx^}^ cp. supr. 620, i. 

1. 979. €iKtj, i. e. without regard to vSfios. For the use of the optative 
cp. 1. 315 ^' Sjv Ix^t TC Koi hvvaiTO. 

1. 981. For the context see Hdt. 6. 107, Plato, Rep. 571 C. 

1. 983. trap' ov8cv, * of no account.* Cp. Ant. 35. 

1. 987. lAcyas y 6<^0aX|ji6s, 'is a great eye to see with,' i. e. 'throws 
great light upon your path.' Aesch. Pers. 167 foil, iart ycip irXovrSs 7* 
dfi€fjup^s^ dfjupl b' 6(p$a\fxois (polos' \ 6fifjia ydtp ZSjjuuv vofii^oj b€av6rov 
vapovaiav. Others take 6(p0a\fi6s as a 'comfort,' or better still, as a 
'precious thing,' a 'prize,* in which sense Amphiaraus is the 'eye' of 
the Argive army, Pind. Ol. 6. 27, and Orestes is the *eye' of his house, 
Aesch. Choeph. 934. The Greeks regarded the eye as the source as 
well as the means of light. For rd^ot cp. supr. 942. 

1. 989. For xmip in the place of the more usual ir€pi cp. II. 6. 524 
hv^p (T€$€v atax^* olkoijo), and infr. 1444. 

1. 991. tC 8' Jfar' ckcCvt)8 ; 'what is there about her,* or, 'coming from 
her?* For the latter cp. 1. 1012. With cs <^6pov <^cpov cp. supr. 

519- 

1. 994. |jt,(£XiOT(£ y'> supply fn)r6v. 

1. 997. ' Corinth became (was made) a distant land.* The imperfect 
ss'was then, and has been so far.' dircpKCiTO => was regarded as an 
dvoiKia^ but no exact parallel has been found. In Theocr. 15. 7 ipi^ 
airoiKciv is maintained by Ameis in the sense, 'live away from me.' 
€j cfjiot), 'by my act,' El. 526 1^ (/jlov riOvrjKtv^ €^ (fwv. 

1. 999. The words tcI twv t€k6vt(i)v ic.t.X., give pomt to the real 
situation of which Oedipus is soon to become conscious. See infr. 
1 37 1 €70; ySip ovH old* ofifxaaiv woiois 0\4irav k.t.\. 

1. 1000. -fi 7<tp is frequent* in eager agitated questions. Cp. 1. 1017, 
El. 1 221, 1223. tA8* okvo^v refers to that part of the oracle which was 
alone capable of fulfilment now. 

1. 1003. iifkva6.\Lr]v. The middle voice is usual in the sense of 're- 
deeming from,* e.g. Aesch. P. V. 235 k^^Kvadfirjv fiporovs rov /at) . . . «ls 
Albov po\€iv. (For the active cp. supr. 35.) The question with ri ovk 
and the aorist tense is = ' had I not better at once ? * For this common 
idiom cp. Aesch. P. V. 747, 8 n . . oIk I>' T<ix** '^PP^^' ifiavrijv k.t.\, 

1. 1005. toOt*, 'for this purpose.' O. C. 1291 & 5* ijA^of, ^817 aoi 
Oikoj ki^aif Trdrtp. 

1. 1006. <roO . . €X06vTos, gen. absolute. €^ 'n-pd£ai|jt,C n, 'I might 
gain some advantage.' 

1. 1007. The masc. plural is used generally, though the mother only 
js meant. Oedipus does not wish to speak more specifically. 
/ JooS. The order is possibly S^Xos «? ovk Ka\ws (Ms, ' It is obvious 



NOTES. LINES gyy-10^4. Ill 

that you have no clear knowledge,* etc. Cp. 1. 31 7, and O. C. 269 

1. loii. <{cX6t), 'prove in the end.' Cp. supr. 88, and O. C. €K<p4p€i. 

1. 10 1 2. \iia(ryLa Tciv ^vtcvo-Avtcov, * pollution arising from parents.' 

1. 1014. ip* ota0<i, — 'let me tell you.* irpds SCktis, 'on the side of 
justice,' and so 'justly.* Cp. El. 1221 irpbs di/crjs yd.p 0^ arivti's. 

1. 1016. €v Y^<h 'related.' Eur. Ale. 904 kyioi ris Tjv kv yiu€i. 

1. 10 1 9. T$ |jt,T)8«vC, 'to one who is in no sense my father.' fxrjS€vi=s 
T^ fiTj^fjLus (pvaavTi. For the wide use' of the pronoun cp. El. 276 
*Epivvv ovTiva fpo^ovnivriy Aesch. Ag. 185 fMvriv ovriva ipiyau. The 
same preference for the pronoun over the adverb is often seen in ques- 
tions, supr. 938. 

1. 102 1. wvofjiatcTO, 'caused me to be called his son.' 

1. 1022. x<^p^ must be taken with Xajp^v, 'receiving from my hands.' 

1. 1023. With air* dX\T)s X^>'P^s supply Xafi^v or 6vra. S)h* goes 
with icTfp^iv iiiya (' had this great love,' that he made me his son). 

1. 1025. TCKCtfv is the reading of the MS., and ought to be retained. 
It does indeed involve a contradiction with 1. 1020, but this is of little 
moment in the excited state of the mind of Oedipus, who is prepared 
for any revelation respecting his birth. Some have suggested rvx<uv 
or Kixiiv. 

1. 1027. «^8oiiropcis does not appear to be found elsewhere with an 
ace. only. 

1. 1029. €irl dTiT€fc<ji irXdvT|8, 'going from place to place for hire.' 
itrl, 'in pursuance of.' The mention of the humble condition of the 
''A77€Xos prepares the way for the contrast in the next line. The con- 
dition of the Bifs was above that of the slave, in so far as he was per- 
sonally free; but in Od. 11. 489 Achilles selects the condition of a 
^s, whose master is poor, as the extreme of human misery. 

1. 1031. oLXyos = ' cause of pain.' Xaix^dvcis is a historic present, as 
though Oedipus were present at the scene of his own infant troubles. 
Cp. Tempest, i, 2, *I, not remembering how I cried out then, | Will 
cry it o'er again ; it is a hint | That wrings mine eyes to *t.' The 
question of Oedipus is suggested by the word aonrfip, and there is also 
a contrast between the present and the past action of the ''Ayy€\os. He 
has saved Oedipus once, and he will save him again — as he thinks — 
but he does precisely the opposite. The pathos of the scene is height- 
ened by the presence of Jocasta, who is at once reminded of the cruelty 
exercised upon her child, and made conscious of her real relation to 
Oedipus. 

1. 1032. iroSfi^v £pOpa>B<the ancles.' Cp. Tr. 779 frnptf/as irobds viv^ 
dpBpov ^ \vyi(€Tcu, 

1. 1034. iroSoiv dKfjids, not 'the to^s,* v^VtiOti n*c>\\^ \i^ ^s^.^'5»\v^>^'^^ 



\w\th '.. i(y\2, bnt th« tVpt. which are nt the- -awi of the hochr. Cp. Phil. 
748 trkrnta^ fff 'fttpm' iH)9M. anrt 1. r 2or . infr. i ;v+^, 

1. i<ysh' ' Strange wns the reproach \vhicfa I took fmm nnr swnddlmg 
hfiYKt^.' ti if uy yA wi w »nther depends, in the .^ense of * tram,' oh avnAtt^ajFr, 
rv i< perhaps .i ;»enitive of qtiah'ty (^T respect \vith oMiAnL 

1, rOjlJ. d« «C. • hy the naine that yon bear.' 

1. rd:i7. OHipas 'ioeq not inoaire whether he vra« naancd hr fttfaer 
or mother, inammnch as they were ignorant of his name and esdstenoe. 
btit whether the rnjory wns infficted by father or mother. The strange 
tre«tT?>ent he received adds to the mystery of his birth, cmd he at lost 
appear*; to have r»^aehed the moment cS the fMiiotina. 

1. 1040. <v6, sc Tvywr. 

1. f04a. i^liv A«l<v I**, * one of Twins' people.' 

1. i<>45. i<f^ t8«fe^ ^. ' for me to see him.' 

1. r04<>. ^"f* 0^, 'either as is most likeiy.' Cp. EI. 56b f^^' oSr 

1. 1050. ^ fCWf^^ ir.T.X , 'the full time for this discovery is come.* 
Oedipfis is thinking only of the secret of his birdi. The death of Laivs 
has for the moment passed out of his mind, which ia now in Corinth. 
rtot in Thebes. 

1. r05r. With d^Jft^ ^QUUv supply hviir^fw. 

1. fO^if. ^ n*t . . 'Wpi«4t¥, 'whom . . even before' ttie amval of the 
''Ay/#XA9, Thus reference is made to the double secret, which the 
(Anhtfi has to imfold- -the birth of Oedipus, and the deadi of Lains. 
The appeal to Jocasta is made, of course, without any cooadousncsB 
6f the effect of the revelation, which is now clear to her. She has 
already identified the child sent away by Laivs with the child fiiCK 
fo I^Mybus. 

I. 1^54. rd^; 'have you in your mfnd?' This is to pwfi aj e the 
way Un the more particnlar inquiry in the next line. 

1. f055. fMt* &ir&% XiyK; ' is he the man now spoken of?' Another 
reading is, r^ ^, ' and whom/ 

). I0f^6. ft h* trrw^ *twt; 'why ask of whom he spoke?* Jocasta 
wmild, if possible, avoid the question. Cp. Aesch. P. V. 766 ri I* 
th^ftif' ; (Af yUp f^br a{f1^0€u r/4^#. 

I. ic>57. i, e, forget their foolish talk. 

II. lof,^, t). yhovro . . ^avSb. The vague optative with ^ is followed 
)fy (he definite future with oi*, not ;<^, giving distinctness to the settled 
pitfpo<»e of f>edipus. 

1. fofrl. AAif vo<foO<f' iy^, 'my distress is enough.* For nNfcTr, in 
(he ften<»e of mental trouble cp. supr. 60 Koi vottowm^ if lydf icr.x, 
I tobi. t>W Av •{ Tp(Ttit, K.T.X. The MSS. have ohV h» U rpirfjf 
A*//^^/^/', f^f iff^^ Iff fjQi ghort. For tl vr\lh the subjunctive cp. supr. 



NOTES. LINES 10^5-1086. II3 

1. 874. The dy is not of course to be taken with the future {€K(l>auu), 
which is indefensible, but suggests a further clause, ovS* &y iK<pavoiris. 
^av& is the subjunctive of the second aor. pass. The son followed the 
caste of the mother, and so the reference is to the mother here. Cp. 
infr. 1084, Aj. 1013. The situation is now 'ironical* to the last degree. 
If Oedipus could be proved to be €k Tpirrji rpiSovkos, Jocasta would not 
be Houe^. Another correction is kdv, for &y €l. 

1. 1066. <^povo€<rd y' t^, * with clear knowledge.* Cp. supr. 316. 

1. 1067. TcL XQtrra raOra, * this which you call the best.* 

1. 1069. d{ci; here is intended to be more peremptory than ovtc d^ei ; 
would be. Cp. apa for ap' o5; supr. 822. 

1. 1072. *And no wo'rd more again for ever.* Jocasta here leaves 
the stage, in some way exhibiting the passionate state of her feelings. 
Cp. Ant. 1 09 1 di^i^p, &ya{, fiiPrjxe d€ivd $€am(Tas, ib. 766. 

1. 1075. dvappT|{ci is best taken actively, with 7^17 as the nomina- 
tive, which is also the nom. to pr]yvvna. For xHli^'- requires a per- 
sonal subject, which is not forthcoming if dofoppri^u is made intransitive, 
and KoKa taken as the nominative. 

1. 1077. PovXi?|<ro|tai. For the future cp. Find. 01. 7. 36 l^eXi^aiv 
Toiaiv k( d,pxps dird TKrjvokifiov ^w^ d77iAAa«' SiopB&aai \6yoy, Hdt. 
I. 109 cl d^ eOiX'ffau /r.r.X., O. C. 1289 fiovK-fiaofiai Kvpuv, Aj. 681 
<»i<piK€iv fiovki^aopuu. 

I. 1078. ^povci Yc^p ^ ywi{ fJicYa, ' she has all a woman's pride.* 

II. 1080 ff. These lines are difficult. The general sense seems to 
be, * whatever my birth may be, I shall not be dishonoured by it. My 
true mother is fortune ; she dowered me well at birth, and the months, 
my kinsmen, have determined my rise to greatness. This is my real 
parentage, and I am not likely to be so untrue to it (i. e. so unfortunate) 
that I need shrink from investigating my human birth and race.' ol 
otiYycvcis (i.Tiv€s. Cp. O. C. 7 x^ XP^^^^ ^vvwv. What kinsmen are to 
others, the months have been to Oedipus ; and he has been * small* as 
an outcast child, and friendless wanderer, and 'great* as king of 
Thebes. The Scholiast gives the meaning thus, Koi toiovtos tr€<^u«ds 
ovK dicv^ffo) r6 yivos i(€p(vvrjffai rd ijpMrtpov, 

I. 1085. The position of iroT4 at the beginning of a line, after a short 
syllable which precludes synapheia, is suspicious. Perhaps k^€\6oip' 
ky& should be read. 

II. 1086 ff. As elsewhere in Sophocles, the moment of apparent 
triumph immediately precedes the catastrophe. Cp. Aj. 693 foil., 
Trach. 205 foil., Ant. H15 foil. The Chorus, like Oedipus himself, 
have now forgotten the murder of Laius, and the plague-stricken state 
of the city. Both are occupied with the new and overpowering in- 
terest. The secret of his birth is not onV^ ^ fvi^^^ ^\^Oq.^^^x^^^^^^ 

1 



114 OEDIPUS TFRANNUS, 

as yet £iiled to sol^e, but the discovery will also for ever set him £ree 
from his fears in regard to his father and mother. 

L 1086, Kara yw^av, ' in the matter of discernment.' For the form 
of expression cp. Trach. 102 icfaruFr€6am mar' o/ifta. Divination and 
discernment are gmilarly contrasted in EL 472 ff. d /i^ 'ym w ap &p f iasr] 
f*arra i^rvw Mtd ywAftas \ Xftwo/Uwa ao^as. 

\. 1087, With o^ rdv 'OXviivov cp. snpr. 660, and the passages there 
Teferrcd to. im^ptg¥=^SMupos. 

L 1089, vdv aif^urv 'wavaikifvcr, * in the coming moonlit hour.' Acc- 
of duration of time. Both atfpio^ and vcp^crcAipor seem to be used in a 
peculiar and specially poetical sense, i. e. there is no reas<» to suppose 
that the ensuing evening is the fall-moon. * By Olympus, O Cithaeron, 
thou shalt not be without experience, in the coming moonlit hour, of 
our celebrating thee as of the same clime with Oedipus, as beii^ his 
nurse and mother/ The supposition that Oedipus is a foundling of 
Cithaeron is no mere poetical fiction, for waste places were r^;arded as 
the haunts of deities, from one of whom he may have derived his birth. 
Cp. infr. 1098. 

1, 1090. |jii^ o^ takes up the preceding n^^ative : as a subject to ouJav 
supply ijfuis. The infinitive is used as though Sfffrt had preceded. 

1. 1092. lAorlpa. So a mountain is spoken of as fn^rifp fiiiXMf, ^pSnt, etc. 

1- 1 095- X'^9*^'*^'^^^ wp^ '9|(u«v, * (without experience) of being the 
theme of our choral song.* The subject of the inf. and the voice are 
changed. 

I. 1096. ^povTo. The poet goes back to the gender of KkBaip&Wf 
omitting all thought of tuiTip\ which has been added by way of climax 
after rpo<p6y. itriifpa t^cpovra is a Homeric expression. 

II. 1096 ff. The pi. Tupdwoit refers to Oedipus only under a general 
aspect ; cp. £1. 1068 rois ivtp/B* ^Arpfilkus (of Agamemnon only). Ant. 
1057 2,p' cJffOa rayovs ovras (of Creon only). 

1. 1097. The discovery of his birth will enable Oedipus to elude the 
oracle. The Chorus, therefore, pray that the discovery may receive the 
sanction of Apollo. 

1. 1098. tIicvov. Cp. supr. 1030. The Chorus go back to the time 
when Oedipus was a child exposed on Cithaeron. tuv yMKpan&wv, 
i. e. the nymphs, who though not immortal live longer than men. Cp. 
Hymn. Yen. 256, where Aphrodite is speaking of the son that is to be 
bom from her : 

t3v fji4v, lir^ 8^ vpSrrov iJj; ipdos ^tXioto, 
Vbfiipai fuv 0p4i//ovatv dptaie^oi 0a0iicokwoi, 
at T6d€ yaitrAovaiv Spos fUya re ^d0(6v rf 
at f o{fT€ $yijrois oCt* d&avdroiaiv iwovrtu' 
9rfpdy filv (dfovffi icai d/AjSporov cZiSap ttovat. 



NOTES. LINES I086-II28. II5 

1. 1 1 00. nav6s and Ao{Cov are both governed by 9pocrvt\a(T$€ia\ and 
in the reading ^ ffi yi ris Ouydrrjp, Ovydrrjp is added merely to mark the 
mother*s youth. The meaning is not * daughter of Loxias.' But Bvydrtfp 
is defective in point of metre, as also is yt, and the scansion required 
is-w — |-w-to correspond to ovk iaji rd.v atpiov. A good conjecture 
is 4) ai Y* c^drctpd tis, in which (vvdrHpa is to be taken with Ao(iov, 
* bride of Loxias,' TlavSs going as before with irpoatrtXaaBitaa, 

1. 1 1 03. dYp6voftoi 'n-XaKcs, *the plains of pasture.' dyp6yofMoi = h 

•' dypoTs V€fi6fjicyat. Cp. Phil. 1148 x^po^ oirp€ffifidnas. In Ant. 786 the 

meanuig of the epithet is different, and Sophocles not unfrequently uses 

compound adjectives with a certain variety : e. g. fiowSfwis dyikais supr. 

26, and fiowSfwv dicrdv £1. 181. 

1. 1 104. h KvXXdvas dydo-ccov, i. e. Hermes. 

I. 1 109. als irXct(rra <ni|jiirat{ci. Cp. Ant. 1150 vpo<f>dvriOi Va^lais 
acuis cifxa v(pnr6kois \ Qvlataiv, O. C. 678 tv* 6 ficuexiwras | d€l Aiovvaos 
ifji0ar€vu | Bdcus dfJuf>ivokS/v rtO^vcus. 

II. 1110-1185. The servant appears, and the secret of the birth of 
Oedipus is now revealed. Observe the brevity of this decisive scene. Cp. 
Aj. 646-693. (itJ {wckXXd|avTa, * who have had no dealings with him.' 
The (JiT| is due to the hypothetical form of the expression ; in Latin we 
should have the subjunctive ; * qui nulla negotia cum eo habuerim.' The 
statement is shown to be false in the course of the scene. 

1. 1 1 13. {w^iSeb may either be taken (i) absolutely, * he sings in tune/ 
i. e. he agrees with our notion of the herdman, in which case t^c rdySpl 
ovfifjicTpos is«s*in being coeval with this stranger;* or (2) it may go 
with rq/dc rdvBpi, * he agrees with this man,' a^fjifitrpos {&v oiry). 

1. 11 17. * Yes, I know him, you may be sure of that. He belonged 
to La'ius, and if La'ius had any faithful herdman, it was he.' With this 
use of ydp in assent cp. Phil. 755, 6 dtivdv y€ Totmhaypa rov voarjfiaTos. 
^lA. S€tv6v ydp oifdi p7p'6v. 

1. 1 121. 'Look this way and tell me.' The old man is unwilling to 
look Oedipus in the face. For ovros cp. supr. 532. 

1. 1 1 23. oIkol Tpa<^cCssi/^r/ta. The confidential position of the herd- 
man is an essential feature of the story. Some think that ot<if€vs, as dis- 
tinguished from oUirriSy has this special meaning {6 olKoyivrjs olKhrji). 

1. 1 1 24. |jiepifjivc&v contains by zeugma & word which goes with filov, 
such e. g. as Ix^^* 

1. 1 1 26. {^avXos &Vt i.e. rots iroifivlois, 

1. 1127. For the repetition of the verb cp. Tr. 516, tot' ^v x*^^» ^*^ 
il rd^ojy vdr ay OS. 

1. 1 128. 'Do you know of this man from having become thereabouts 
acquainted with him ? ' tJBc, * in the place which you mention.' C^. 
infr. 1 157. 

\2 



1l6 OEDIPUS TTRASyUS.- 

V ftt^ For mml in csestioos cp. EL 3S5 aiui note. 

1, r J30. That is a rarioos nsu'.ing, ^ (vf^tAAa^m, w!udi woold luiTe 
t/> he taken in corjaection with L 112?. But ihcne is a certain fisd>]e- 
n<M in this, ar«d the indicative ^ ^vr^^Ulafar is more fixcxble, as intro- 
4iyaTt^ a n<rw daase. 

L ifjf- 6«T«. Cp, L ^i. 

1' r '3$' AyiMftir^ is active, hueium. Cp. L 677. For the tautology in 
•I8«ir , , k4tm8<v cp. snpr. 740, l rot^ Sc Aoibr ^ip^cr rar* ^x< fp^<* 
r^a a^ 44r;«^ ^0fft lx«r ; 293 ror ^ iS^rr' oMat ^ : Tlmc.4. 18, a ^v&« 

1. 1134. T^ K i#a*p&yo< Toww is the armsative of the sphere of 
motion, Cp. Aj. 877, 8 aXA' o^< fOr^ri^ap' ^Xion $oXSm \ xiXai^m 
Mfp cilia fiov 917A4W ipaytit. * In the r^on of CithaenMi.' 

1. 1136. IwXtffriatav is attracted into the number and person of the 
nearest nominatiTe 171^, or, more accurately, some general word like jfr 
if to })e extracted from iwXij<yia(ov for 6 /Ur, For the anacolnthon cp. 
mpr. 60. 

1. 1 137. The rising of Arcturus was the banning of stormy weather 
in Greece* The exact date varies with the precession of the equinoxes, 
and while Hes, Op. et D. 566 puts it sixty days after the smnmer 
solstice, it fell in Ptolemy's time on the 2nd of September. In b.c. 430 
it fell, according to calculation, on the 13th of September. Cp. Dem. 
926. 4 (Penrose's note), 12 13. 27. Itcfj^fiyotft, though resting on less 
authority than ififi^vovt, is almost certainly right. 

1' 113^' X^Hi^^^t 'during the winter,' or 'for the winter months,' 
* with the winter in prospect.' Cp. Hdt. 2. 2 r^y &fnp^ iwayivUiv a<^i 
atyat. Another reading is x^iiuitvL, * at the beginning of the winter time.' 

1. 1140. 'Am I right in this, or do I say what has not happened?' 
The participle is added to complete the sense which is left vague by ri. 
For the phrase \iycj ri cp. infr. 1475. 

1. 1 141. Kotirtp Ik iroXAoi) xp^vov, ' though after a long lapse of time.' 
The olHirrjf attempts to conceal his unwillingness to speak on the sub- 
ject under the plea of his forgetfulness. The preposition is not exactly 
temporal ( « fitrd with ace), but means that the story now told was 
taken from a period long past. 

1. 1143. &t . . <Y<i, 'that I might have it to bring up for myself.* 
The addition of the cognate accusative gives additional force to the 
idea of the verb, as is not uncommonly the case when no adjective 
is added to the accusative, e.g. Eur. Andr. 133 ri fiSxOov ovS^r oZaa 
fAOxBttsi Ant. 551 and note. 

1. IF 44. 'What is the reason why you ask this?' This punctuation 

jind translation implies that rl can be used for 6 n in other than in- 

e//rc'ct i'nterrogatives. Cp. EI. 316 and note. It is, of course, quite easy 



NOTES. LINES 1 1 29-1 1 66. II7 

to put a note of interrogation after Han, and translate 'What is it? 
Why?' etc. 

1. 1 145. & T&v. This mode of address marks the familiarity of the 
old companions. The word occurs again in Phil. 1387 (in both cases 
the word is used by a younger person in addressing an elder) and in 
Eur. Bacch. 802, Heracl. 321, 688. 

1. 1 1 50. ovK cwcirwv, i. e. AfxapTdv€ii. 

1. 1 151. dXXcos irovci, 'spends his labour in vain/ i.e. he thinks to 
gratify you but will not really do so. 

1. 1152. * If you will not speak out of goodwill towards us, you shall 
be made to speak.* 

1. 1 1 53. r6v Y^povra, *the old man/ i.e. *at my age, which you see.' 
For the article giving this sense cp. O. C. 3 rdv vKav^rrjv, etc. 

1. 1 154. diro<rTp44'«t x^pas ; * will . . tie his hands behind him ?* For 
this use of dvoarpiif/d cp. Od. 22. 173 dvoo'Tpc^ovrc v6d<K tcai x^^P^^r 
Ar. Pax 279 diroaTpa<f>rjvai tci> n6d€, 

1. 1 155. ' Unhappy I. Wherefore? what is it that you would learn?' 
dvrl ToO ; sc. k€K€v€is tovto. 

1. 1 1 56. 5v must be taken with trarSa. t$8€ and ovtos refer to the 
same person, t^5c is * deictic,' pointing to the man as he stands there, 
oCroy merely refers to a person previously mentioned. 

1. 1157. tq8* 'f||Ji^pqi, on the day referred to, *that day.* Cp. supr. 
1128. 

1. 1 1 58. TovvSiKov, that which justice demands, viz. the truth. Cp. 
Tr. 347, 8. 411, 12. 

1. 1160. The ordinary use of &s loiie^ is to introduce some general 
statement, * in afferendis exemplis, proverbiis, sententiisque in testimo- 
nium adhibitis quibuscunque, ut commode nonnullis in locis reddi pos- 
sit, ut fertur^ C. F. Hermann (quoted by Sintenis, Plut. Peric. i. 2). 
Here and supr. 962 it expresses that the judgment is formed by the 
speaker on the facts before him, without any further or more intimate 
knowledge. In prose we might translate, * Obviously this fellow is 
trying to put us off.* For Is rpi^cLs IX9, * will be driving into delay,' cp. 
Eur. Heracl. 904 lyTvs pLoviwv i\a^v€i. 

1. 1 161. irdXai must be taken with ftiroVf it refers to 1. 1158. For this 
use of wdkai cp. El. 676 Oavovr 'Opiarrfv vvv t€ Kcd itdXai kiyoj^ and note. 

1. 1 163. «(j».dv [kky OVK ty(oy€, sc. eSaiKa, For rov^iie rov (as in 1106), 
cp. supr. 580 Ifcov KOfjUi€Tat. 

1. 1164. iroXvT&v T&v8c. The pronoun is used with reference to the 
Chorus, who represent the whole body of citizens. 

1. 1 1 66. ^XcoXos, *you are a dead man.* The perfect expresses the 
certainty of the future. Cp. supr. 356, Thuc. i. 121 dXiVicovTox, 4^-^ 
o-ofjiai, ' I shall have to ask/ 



Il8 OEDIPUS TFRANNUS. 

1. 1 167. For the heavy ihjrthm of this line, in which every word 
seems to halt as though wrong from unwilling lips, cp. supr. 738 Sf Zcv, 
T< fiov Spcurcu fiffiovkivaai wipi ; 

L 1 168. cyycrqi y€y&%, 'bom in the family.' Cp. I. 452 iyy^^ ' • 
S^0cuos. For the repetition of the same root in kyyivris , . ytf^ cp. 
Ant. 502 €iiKk€4ffT€pov ickiost and the note on supr. 1133. 

1. 1 1 69. Xfy€iv = &<rT€ \iy(tr avT6. 

1. 1 1 71. ckX^^cto, * was known by report as.' The oUirrjs still leaves 
an opening for correction. 

1. 1173. )L6LkurT^ ^va{, * too true, my prince.' 

I. 1 174. &9 irpds tC xpc^< ; the dts merely marks the intention of the 
queen in giving the child. Cp. Tr. 532 a;s iw' i^69^. 

1. 1 175. • His mother I had she the heart ?' Eur. Ion 960 tX^iiov <rir 
rdkfxrjs, of Creusa abandoning her child. The y* in the answer of the 
oi/clTTjs is intended to soften the cruelty of the queen. 

1. 1177. ir«i Wir*, * why then ?* i.e. having this knowledge, why .. ? 
Oedipus speaks as one who had been betrayed into life. For wots ^tjt ; 
cp. Ant. 514 vSfs 9^T* kKUv<^ Svaacfitj rifi^s x^P^^i 

1. 1 1 78. kotoiktCoxis, * in pity,' sc. ttmKa, ^ goes with ZoicSav^ the 
accusative ^fXXiyv x^<^a is a second ace. with dvoiadv, Cp. Ant. 810 
(waav &y€i rd» 'Ax^povTos dterdy. Before diroicrciv airSv, r^ yipovra 
must be supplied. 

1. 1 181. I<r6i, * Let me tell you,* i.e. *you are in my judgment.* 

1. 1 182. W lov, * there I there!' a cry of mingled recognition and 
distress. Cp. Aj. 737. This exclamation has many different meanings, 
which are sometimes distinguished by the accent. In Aesch. Ag. 25 it 
signifies recognition and delight ; elsewhere it is used like our * shame I* 
Dem. 406. 8 fio&vra ws €laayy€\(i fu /col ypiaf/^rcu xat lob loi), ib. 784. 
19 poSfv Koi K€Kpayoljs lob tot;, Aristoph. Nub. 543 obi* ioy^e S^kts txova*^ 
obi* lolb lob fioq. In Arist. ib. i, the word denotes mere weariness. toI 
itAvt' &v c^TJicoi, *is come, as it would seem.' Cp. Phil. 116 Brjpari' 
&v ylyvoir of, cfrcp c&8* €X<«, El. 1372. 

1. 1 183. This wish prepares us for what is coming, infr. 1268 ff. 
Cp. also supr. 830 ff. 

I. 1 184. ^bs T* d^' &v ov xp**!^' This refers to the oracle given to 
Lalus, supr. 711 ff. 

II. 1186-1196. Chorus. Strophe a. Men a^e bom to misery; no one 
wins more than the appearance of happiness, and even this he loses in 
the winning. Oedipus is a proof that no man is happy. 

1. 1 187. Ura Kal r6 ftT)8€v : cp. Thuc. 3. 14 taa leai lieirai kafi4v. {f&ovts, 
'while alive ;' when dead, the races of men are obviously * nothing.* 
/ 7/po. ^ipti, * carries away,' i.e. obtains. The middle is more usual 
^ this sense, but cp. O. C. 6, and supr. 590, 



NOTES. LINES I167-1207. II9 

1. 119X. 80KCIV, sc. tvlkUftova (Tvcu; boK€ty is 'to gain the reputation 
of/ *to be known as.* Cp. supr. 346, 402. With the construction 
6<rw 9oK€tv cp. Thuc. i. 2 Strov dwo^v, 

1. 1 192. SdfavT*. For this accusative, where the nominative would 
have been more regular, cp. infr. 1296 olov /eal aTvyowr* dwontriaai, 
atroKklvaXf * to fall from his meridian ;* cp. Hdt. 3. 104 dnotckiyofxivrjs 
rfjs fi€ffafi0pl'!js, 

I. 1 193. r6 tr&v has MS. authority, and is probably to be accepted. 
It must be taken with vapadfiyfm, which is then explained by rov adv 
icUfMoya in the next line. '"With thy example before me, thy fate,' etc. 

1. 1 194. SaCftova. The efficiens is put for the effectum, as when in 
O. C. 481 we have ficKlffffrjs for fUkiros, 

I. 1195. 0181^680. Cp. Pind. Pyth. 4. 467 tvw^i vvv ray Ol9iv6Sa 
<To<play, And so in II. 23. 679, Od. 11. 271. The word Olbivodrjs is 
perhaps only another form of Oldivovs, not a patronymic, but cp. Nitzsch 
ad Od. /. c. 

II. 1 197-1203. Antistrophe a'. Oedipus succeeded beyond all men in 
solving the riddle of the Sphinx, and delivering his city from death ; 
and by his success he came to be king in Thebes. 

1. 1 197. KaO' {rircpPoXdv ro^cvo-as, 'having shot with surpassing 
skill.^ 

1. 1 198. irdvra is ace. plur. neuter after titSaifiovos, Cp. I. 88. 

1. 1200. XP'H^'I'^^^' '^^^ songs of the Sphinx were oracles to 
Thebes, in so far as they involved the fate of the city in their inter- 
pretation« For the dative l\kq, X"PS^ cp* Aj. 36, 37 </>iJXa^ iPrjy \ tJ 
ci . . Kvvayiq, davdruv : for the pi. cp. supr. 496, El. 206, <p60oi(Ti 

Aj. 531. 

1. 1 201. &yiara. The participial construction is allowed to pass into 
the finite verb, and this change gives greater force to the ending of the 
clause. Presently there is a further change from the 3rd person to 
the 2nd. 

I. 1203. dvAo-o-wv is probably intended to express (proleptically) 
the continued result of <TV|id9t)s ; * wert raised to the highest honour, 
so as to be lord in Thebes.* Cp. l/3as . . nirvwv in Aj. 184, and the 
note there. 

II. 1204-1212. Strophe /3'. * And now who is more miserable, more 
overwhelmed in calamity ? O Oedipus, with whom one marriage bed har- 
boured sire and son, how could the field bear thee so long in silence ?* 

L 1205. A comparative adverb, irXiov^ ftSWov^ must be understood 
from the adjective in the preceding line. 

1. 1207. Observe that the lines addressing Oedipus hold the same 
place in strophe and antistrophe (infr. 12 16), and both begin with liu. 
In Ant. 844 and 862 the lines comme.tiW\^ m^ V»» VO^^ *^^ 'aassA. 



I20 OEDIPUS T7R ANNUS. 

place in strophe and antistrophe. No doubt the voice was raised with 
the interjection. 

1. 1 208. * For whom one and the same harbour was wide enough for 
son and father to enter as bridegroom.' For the metaphor, which is 
designedly somewhat vague, cp. 11. 423, 3. The simple construction 
f . .Kol warpi is modified for the sake of marking the antithesis by 
the addition of iratSt, and thus the dative f is left in a vague con- 
struction with the whole sentence, «=* in whose case,* or *to whose 
shame.' 

I. 1 211. dXoKcs. Cp. 11. 1497, 8 ri^v T€Kov(Tav fjpoatv, \ oBev w€p 
airrbs karr&fnf^ Ant. 569. 

II. 1 21 3-1 2 22. Antistrophe^. * Time has detected and passed sen- 
tence on the unconscious crime. Would I had never known thee, son 
of Laius ! Yet from thee I obtained rest.* 

1. 1 2 13. dicovO', 'unconscious,' as in O. C. 987 axajv tyrjfM. 

1. 1 2 14. -yAiJiov is either (i) an accusative after Sorti^cc, 'condemns 
the unholy marriage,' in which the sire is a child, y&iAov being thus the 
subject with which the participles agree; or (2) it is the object of 
TCKvovvTa, 'condemns him who is both sire and son in an unholy 
marriage.' 

1. 1218. €i86|jiav. For the middle form cp. Aj. 351, El. 977, 1059 
and note, Tr. 1004, Phil. 351, 11 13. 

1. 1 219. *I lament, as one grieving exceedingly, with all my powers 
of utterance.' €K has an intensive force, as in l« Ovfiov. 

I. 1 221. r6B* 6p06v €tir€iv, *to say the truth.' «k <r49cv carries on the 
apostrophe to Oedipus, who, when all is said, was the saviour of 
Thebes. 

I. 1222. Kal KaT€KoC|jiT)<ra, K.T.X., 'lulled mine eye to sleep,' with the 
not uncommon specification of the eye as that part of the body which 
manifests the emotions of the mind. Aj. 706 ikvaev alvby dx^ ^^* 
6fJLfji6,T<uv''Aptjs, O. C. 729, 30, Tr. 527 t^ 8* d/Mpivtiiajrov 6fxfia vvfjupas 
iXuvbv dfifiivu. 

II. 1 233-1 296. An exangelus enters and gives an account of the death 
of Jocasta and the self-mutilation of Oedipus. 

1. 1225. lyywSts, 'like kinsmen.* The Chorus are supposed to be 
allied to the royal house, as in Ant. 11 55 K(i8fiov mipoiKoi. But others 
translate the word * sincerely,' or ' after your innate habit ;' more in- 
genitOt Ellendt. Cp. El. 1328. 

1. 1227. It is not easy to say why the Phasis should be mentioned 

with the Danube. Perhaps as a distant and little-known river it was 

supposed to be much larger than it really was. For the importance 

0/ the Phasis see especially Hdt. 4. 45, where it is coupled with the 

JViJe, 



NOTES. LINES 1208-1247. 121 

1. 1228. vCi|rai Kadapp^, 'wash with purgation/ i.e. 'wash so as to 
make pure.* Cp. supr. 51 dcr^oAc/^. Similar expressions are: Shakes. 
Macbeth, 2. 2, * Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood | Clean 
from my hand ? No, this my hand will rather | The multitudinous 
seas incarnadine, | Making the green one red.' Aesch. Cho. 72 irSpot 
rt irdvTCs kie fuas 6dov \ fiiovrts . . tcaOcUpovaiv fx&njv. 

1. 1229. TcL 8^, as if rd fiiv had gone before. Cp. El. 1291 tcL S* ^kx^T. 
The hidden evils are the suicide of Jocasta, those about to be brought 
forth are the blindness of Oedipus. 

1. 1230. ^Kovra, 'unconscious,* as in 1. 121 3. The self-blinding of 
Oedipus and the suicide of Jocasta were deliberate acts. 

1. 1 231. For the omission of <fv cp. O. C. 395 hs vios viffri. El. 771. 

1. 1235. Ofiov, 'descended from the gods.' Od. 4. 691 Odoiv fiouTi- 

1. 1236. Si SvordXaiva. The Chorus apostrophise Jocasta. With 
irpds tCvos alrCas cp. supr. 949 irphs r^s tvxi]S. 

1. 1238. f| Yelp 6^%^ K.T.X., 'the sight is not present/ and so the 
Chorus have missed what was most painful. The exangelus did not 
indeed see Jocasta put herself to death, but he saw her agony before 
death, and the hanging body, with what followed. From 11. 1 244-1 251 
he could only hear what was taking place. 

1. 1242. 'She rushed straight towards.* Cp. Tr. 912, 13 i^adipvrjs aip* 
6pca I r^v 'Hpauckctov OdXa/iov €l(Topfioufi4vrjv, Eur. Ale. 175 ff. /eairtira 
$d\aftov hatrtaovaa koI K^xos, | ivravOa 8^ *t&Kpv(Tt Kcd \4yu tc^€, \^Sj 
XixTpov, ivOa vapOivei* likuar' kyot \ Hopfvpar Ik towS* dvdpds o5 Bv^okm 
•wipi I x°-V* f^'f-^' 

1. 1 243. &|i4i'8<{^0(>« &K|uii8, ' with the fingers of both hands at once.* 
Cp. O. C. II 1 2 TtXfvpbv &fji<piS4(ioy. The force of the latter part of the 
compound is not to be pressed. For diefiai cp. voSoiy Ak/juiI 1. 1034 and 
note. 

1. 1244. The order is kmppr^^affa mjXas 5rous (l<nj\$€v ^aat, 'having 
violently closed the door when she had entered within.' Others prefer 
to take iaot), ' inwards,' as = l<rcu^«, * from within,' and join the word with 
kwtpp^^affa. 

1. 1246. a"n€p[K&'niiv^(wovaiuu. Compare the use of the word in 
supr. 1077, where it means ' origin.' * Calling to mind the origin of 
that birth of long ago.* Another rendering is 'her child long ago 
begotten.* 

1. 1247. Odvoi, 'died.* The optative is used without regard to the 
historical present. ti\v Bk riKrovaav, k.t.\., 'And left the mother 
to the son, a source of unhappy children to him.' For the construction 
cp, Aj. 1279 k<fnjic€y <^K\ois Ix^^fftv dia<f>6op6y. The abstract word U. 
used for the concrete. Here, as sxxpt. iiq&,^^ ^^3^cl^VY>a5iCv'3^^&'a'^^^^S^ 



IM OEDIPUS TFRANNUS. 

distnrbed in order to bring in the opposition of mother and son. The 
word Turrcmrar coold be dispensed with, like wtuU in 1. 1209. 

1. 1349. To&To S' c6p&s. For the omission of the augment cp. O. C. 
1624. Mr. Blaydes has a long note on the subject ; he follows Elmsley 
m denying the omission. Bat this makes a great number of emenda> 
tions necessary, and it has never been explained how the supposed 
corruptions arose. No one would contend that the augment must be 
omitted, but our evidence goes to show that it can be. Cp. Eur. Bacch. 
767 ybfforro V aJ/io, 1084 aiyricf 8* alOiip^ O. C i623T<ydy | 0dtf9£cr cwr^. 
8iwXoi}s must be taken with rcKot, * where in double motherhood she 
brought forth,' etc For the plural, Kara aw^aof cp. Lys. la. § 13 
iinTvyx&y€t WbjXofiiSs t€ koL MmiaiOddvfs, he rov (pyatmfpiov dn6irrt5. 

L 1351. CK TuvS', 'after this:* dwoXXvnu, otmen otSo Sims, Le. he 
means to say, Having told what I do know, I now come to the point 
which I know not. This is implied in the Uri. 

1- 1253. clcOfd<^urOa^ * to see to the end.' 

I. 1256. Svov tcixo^ is to be taken with k^airii^. It is the oratio 
obliqua of wov icixu ; 

1. 1260. &t {r^tiyvp'ov Tiv6s, 'as with some supernatural guidance.' 
Cp. supr. 966 Sjv v<frfpfrSf¥ C7C&, and note. 

11. 1 261, 2. CK S^ ini9|&cv«tfv, ic.tA., * and beat the yielding doors out of 
their sockets.' icoiXa, ' hollowed in,* expresses the readiness with which 
the doors gave way. K\'Q6pa = *the doors with their fastenings;* wvO- 
/Uvfs = the sockets into which the bolts were driven. It is difficult to 
suppose that itoika can be an epithet of wv$fUyojy but placed vrith 
KX^pa by hypallage, and indeed the epithet so placed would be otiose. 
Another suggestion is that irvOfUvcay are the foundations of the door- 
posts. 

1. 1 264. cftireirXcyiilvTpf, ' entangled in.* This suits the condition of 
Jocasta as seen by the narrator. The Laurentine MS. has i/Aw(wX.rjy- 
fUvrjv, 'dashed into,' with which cp. Od. 22. 468 oray lUxXai . . tpK€i 
ivLv\ij^oj<Ti, But the authority of the MS. is somewhat weakened; 
it gives the whole passage thus : wXtKrcus ioupcus (fji,w€wkrfyfthnfjv 6 9^ \ 
ovoii S* 6p§, viVf in which the form koapais is very doubtful, and ovots 8* 
manifestly wrong. 

1. 1267. Scivd 8' -fiv. Observe Si in the apodosis. Cp. supr. 302. 
[Full notes on this construction are given by Elmsley, Bacch. addend. 
180, Buttmann. Mid. Exc. xii.] 

1. 1 2 70. ^pOpa. The Scholiast explains dpOpa as the place where the 

eyelids meet. But dpOpa rSty /cv/ekcjv are the eyeballs that are ^ip$pa, 

moving in their sockets as other members in their joints. Cp. supr. 1032 

iroXuy dpfipa. Such periphrases are used to elevate the language. Cp. 

£ur. Rbes. ^ Avffoy 0\«p6Lpwv yopyoavhv ISpav. ^^av i.e. toLs vcpdvas. 



NOTES. LINES 1 249-1 295. 123 

and so ivcdpow in 1. 1276. But Linwood thinks that rit kvicXoj should 
be supplied. 

1. 1 271. 69ovv«Ka, ' that,' as in £1. 47. o^k 5i|iotvTO, * they should not 
see.' Oedipus is thinking of the future, not of the past, but as the evils 
he has done and suffered are things of the past, we have iiraax^ • • '^^P°-j 
* they should not see the evils of which he had been all this time the 
victim, or those of which he had been the cause, but in darkness hence- 
forth should see those whom he ought never to have seen, and fail to 
know those whom he had desired to know. Hermann proposed to read 
Htpouwro, 'because they did not see,' but the form is doubtful. vvv = 
Oedipus, ots fjiiv = L,&ivLS ; ots S^sjocasta. For cv cK^rcp, k.t.X., cp. 
supr. 419. 

1. 1275. * Uttering such a strain withal/ ^vi = in accompaniment to 
the act, cp. Hdt. i. 132 kmclbti Ocoyoyirjv. For the redundancy in 
voKK&His T€ Kovx aira^ cp. supr. 58. 

1. 1276. 6|i.oO means 'all at once,' not in successive drops. Or it may 
mean * at the time of striking/ in which case it is to be distinguished 
from byLov in 1. 1278. 

1. 1277. * And they did not send forth mere oozing drops of blood, but 
all at once the dark gory shower of hail was poured.* alfmrovs is not 
quite certain ; the principal MS. has aS/MTos, and Linwood prefers cdfia- 
r6s T*. The word x^f^C^, introduces the idea * thick as hail.* 

1. 1280. Before |i.6vov supply ^k. The repetition of Kaxd is somewhat 
suspicious, but cp. supr. 778 and note, and also O. C. 782, 3, 1487, 8. 
In 1. 1 281 the source of the evils is not considered but the persons whom 
they affect, and thus the dative is used. 

1. 1282. 6 irplv 5X^08 .. iroXavds ^v, * the former happiness .. in days 
gone by.* 

1. 1283. 8ucaXo>s, *in the true sense.* Cp. Aj. 547 cfircp diieaiojs ear 
i/xds Tci 'ttarp60tv. 

1. 1 286. * In any respite from woe.* nvC is better than rivi, which 
assumes the respite, though the latter has the authority of the MSS., 
which in this case is not much. 

1. 1 289. Tov |iT)Tp6t. The substantive is omitted, and what follows 
explains the omission. * His mother's . . and then he utters what I may 
not repeat.* 

1. 1 29 1. &pai08, &8 i^p4(rcbT0, * under the curses which he had in- 
voked.* 

1. 1294. 8«C{«t h\ KoC o-oi, (i) *as you will see,' sc. rh yStxijfjui dd^ti 
fx4ya 6u, Select being used as in the common phrase airrb Scj^ci, or (2) 
making Oedipus the nominative, * He will show it to you.* The latter 
does not agree so well with 11. 1292, 3. 

1. 1295. *Such as in spite of loa.l\im^,«i m-wv xKosX^>S:^'i '^[>qs5. ^^^^ 



124 OEDIPUS TTRANNVS. 

prt&Mcm U general, hence the acctwative rather than the nomixiatiTe ; 
cp, ADpr. 1 192. 

IL 1 297-13 ri. Anapaests, accompanying the nncertain movements of 
Cytfiiyrx^, who Is seen by the Chores : * O sight of all sights most ter- 
rible. What ddty orged thee to this act? But I cannot endure to look 
on thee.' Otd, \MieTe am I ? ' 

I. 1298. S<r». Z4j«c¥ would be more regular, but cp. L 1566, O. C. 
1747, Ant. 961 \pavcgw rhv d««$r. 

1. 1 200. With the metaphor cp. infr. 1311, and snpr. 469 iwcmXtn 
yip iw* ainhip twtvB^iooicu. Aesch. Pers. 515, 6 it ^mnivrcr^ SoT/ior in 
dyor Baffin \ wo^dpf irffXXov wcarrl Utpijuc^ yiva, 

1. 1302. irp^, • at/ or * on,' in a hostile sense. Cp. Aj. 97 1^ col vp^ 
^hrp€itauriv fxf"'^^* X^P^ * 

I. 1302. O^jsenre the short syllable in tvaravoff which in nuyre regular 
anapaeaU would })e inadmissible. 

II. 1304, 5. * Knqaire,' * ascertain,' • search out' 

I. 1 310. 'Whither is my voice gone astray from me?' The words 
exfjTCss the bewilderment of one suddenly finding himself blind, hearing 
his own voice, l>ut seeing no one. In itawertrcu we have a * proceleus- 
roatic* (wvww) for an anapaest or dactyl. 

II. 1313-20. *Oed. "All dark and comfortless." O the pain of my 
wfrtmds I O the memory of woe I Cho. WTiat wonder if the pain is 
double ? ' 

J- ^3' 3- ' O cloud of darkness that is mine, abominable, lowering on 
mc l>ey/^md utterance, and sped by an evil gale.' For ^vaovpiara^ cp. 
supr. 423 Avopfwy ^aiwXtvffaf ti/vKoias rvx<^. 

1. 1 318. tUvrpiav refers to the points of the brooches. The pain 
causes! by these and the memory of his woe strike Oedipus simul- 
taneously. Physical suflering is never made alone prominent in Sopho- 
cles. 

1. 1 319. TTic aj>parcnt coldness of the Chorus is a foil to the passion 
nf Oedipus, into whose sufferings they are incapable of entering. 

11. 1 33 1 -28. * Oed. Faithful friend, you still remain. I know the voice. 
Chor. How could you thus destroy your sight ? ' 

I. 1333. {ftro^vcit . . ict|5c^a>y, * endure to attend on me.' 

II. 1329-48. * Oed. Apollo prompted the act: I executed it. What 
pleasure was there in sight, or hearing, or speech? Lead me away. 
Chor. Unhappy I would I had never known thee ! ' 

J' ^330* f^^^f 'bringing to their accomplishment.' Oedipus speaks 

of A]>()]lo as bringing to accomplishment the evils which he foretold. 

('p. 1. 966, where the prophetic birds are spoken of as leading to the 

mur()vr of Lnius. Perhaps the supposed connection of 'Av6\Xmv with 

<f^^AAt^/// ia also thought of. 



NOTES. LINES 1297-T358. 125 

I. 1 331. vtv, plur, neut.«Tct 6/jifjuiTa. 

!• 1334. 6pdv, * to have sight,' supr. 293. 
1* 1335* tSciva'to see an individual tiling.' 

II. 1337 fF. ' What then was to be seen or loved ? What could I hear 
addressing me with pleasure?' The last clause is worked out more 
fully than the preceding clauses, i. e. instead of an dKovarrSv ranging with 
fikevrSv, ffTtp/crSvt we have vpoaiiyopov icriv dtcovtiv, irpoirfY^opov is 
active, not passive as in Phil. 1353 ry irpoarjyopos ; 

I. 1339. &8ov^ qualifies 0\€irr6v, (Xr(pKr6vt and dteoveiu. Oedipus 
could take no pleasure in sight, love, or hearing. 

!• 1347' (i) 'Unhappy for thy penetration as well as for thy cala- 
mity; how I wish that I had never recognised thee,' i. e. 'that I had 
never known thee to be the son of Laius.' Or (2) * How I wish that 
thou hadst never made this discovery.' Others (3) read fw;8^ <r* Ar 
yvSfvai wore = * that I had never known thee.' This change supplies the 
av required for ^0i\i]aa, which otherwise is used like kxpijy €5€i and the 
like. If voOs refers to the skill of Oedipus in guessing the riddle, or to 
the sagacity with which he has followed up the clue of the mystery of 
to-day (El. 102 7 (rikoj <t^ rod vov rrji 8i btiXSai (Tti/yo)), it may be trans- 
lated * penetration.* But it may mean * state of mind,' in reference to his 
mental condition at the moment. Cp. Ant. 1228 riva vow Itrx*^ '* 

II. 1349-66. * Od. Perish the man who saved me in infancy. Had I 
died then, I had escaped sorrow and shame, but now mine is a lot 
supreme in misery.* 

ll* 1349 ^* (^) Taking irlSat as accusative plural, and vo|id8o8 as a 
genitive depending on it, we may construe, * Perish the man who loosed 
the cruel fetters on my foot when I went astray.' (2) If widas is re- 
garded as genitive singular, it must be joined with ekvae (or ekafie) in 
the sense 'rescued me from;' cp. adtffaf kxBpSiv. But in this case 
vopu&Sos is difficult ; it can hardly mean ' feeding on,' as the scholiast 
suggests, or * on the pasture.* A conjecture is voixAZos kitl iroas, * on 
the grass of the pasture.* In the first rendering Oedipus speaks of 
himself as of an animal at pasture, in reference to his exposure on 
Cithaeron. 

1. 1355. V may be either ist pers., * dying thus I should not have 
been such a woe to my friends,' cp. Aj. 615 ^/Xois niya irkvOof ttfprjrai, 
or 3rd pers., in which case there is a change of construction, and BcLyaw 
is a nam. pendens. 

1. 1356. See note on 1. 131 9. 

1. 1358. ^IXOov, * have come to Thebes,' or more probably * have come 
to be,' * have proved.' Cp. infra 15 19 Otois ^xOiaros ij/eoj. Venio is used 
in the same way, e.g. Juv. 7. 29 * ut dignus venias hederis e.t vK5a!e5^s. 
macra.* 



126 OEDIPUS TYRANNUS. 

1. 1359. WV = llC€tV<UV cDf. 

1. 1 36 1. 6|i,0YcWjs, in an active sense, s=7€mv«i' ^/xoO. Cp. d/w<rvopos 
in 1. 460. 

I. 1365. irpe<rpvr«pov. Cp. Aesch. Cho. 631 KaKwv 8^ vptcfievtrcu 
TO A'^fiviov \6yqf. 

II. 1367-141 5. *Ckor. Better dead than blind! Oed. Not so. How 
could I bear to see parents or children or city ? Why was I saved to 
such misery ? Take me away.' 

1. 1368. Cp. Aj. 635 Kpdaaejy ycLp^Aidq, Kt^udoiv b voaSjv fji&rrjv. 

1. 1373. Observe that the defect of the body is supposed to remain in 
the next world. Oedipus, now self-blinded, will be blind in Hades, 
just as Heracles, in Od. 11. 605 flf., wears in the imderworld the belt and 
bow by which he was known on earth. Cp. Plato, Gorg. p. 524. 
With the text contrast supr. 999 rcL rwv rtKdvrojv 6tifM&' ^^tarov 

!• 1373* olv, * on whom,' Svotv, *both of them.' 

1. 1374. KpcCo-o-ov* cLyx^vtis, * worse than hanging could expiate.* Cp. 
Eur. Ale. 229, 30 &^ia koX <r<payas rddt, ital itXiov fj fip6xv ^^prjy ovpaviq/ 
v€\dffaai. 

1. 1376. pXao-ToOou agrees of course with T€icva», The person and 
the appearance of the person are confused. For this hypallage cp. 
infra 1400 roiphv atfia vaTp6s, Tr. 817 oyxov bv6puiros /JLTjrp^oVt Aesch. 
Eum. 326 fiTjTp^ov dyyifffta K^piov <p6vov. 

1. 1377. With diffOakfioTf supply l0/;t€pos vpoff\€v<x<T€iu, 

1. 1378. d<ripv, sc. i<f>lfJi€pov ^v vpo<T\(v<Ta€iv. 

1. 1 380. &Yr\p €ls. Cp. Tr. 460 irXfiaras dvijp (h *UpaK\TJi eyijfu 8^, 
Aj. 134O, Hdt. 6. 127 ivl irXuffToy d^i x^'^^ ^^^ <^^P dmntro. The 
addition of (h strengthens the force of the superlative. The idiom is 
capable of two interpretations, for cfs may mean (i) * in his single 
self;* or (2) 'for one man* as compared with any other single man. 
The latter is best. 

1. 1383. To be yivovs rod Aatov is the climax of horror, inasmuch as 
the child of Laius was to slay his father and marry his mother. 

1. 1384. cjiV with fArpfvaas, * having brought it to light as mine.' 
Supra 572 rds kfiat . . Aatov Sta(f>0opds. 

1. 1385. With 6p9ois» cp. 1. 528 1^ dfifidroay 8' dpOSfv. TOVTOtn = the 
citizens represented by the Chorus. 

1. 1387. o^K &v 4<rx6|i.T)v, *I would not have refrained.* Cp. Ant. 
467. 

1. 1389. tv' -fi, * in which case I should have been.* Cp. infra, 1. 1392. 

These sentences, in which Tva, &s and &trajs are joined to a past tense of 

/Ae indicative^ are not uncommon. They are not altogether sentences 

of purpose, for the past indicative cannot "be xiaed oi «i -^ut^osc still in 



NOTES. LINES 1359-141I. 137 

view, nor again altogether relative (hypothetical) sentences, for the 
negative is ft^ and not ov, as would be required, e. g. in t cl /a^ (^Ttpa^a^ 
ovK Av ^fiapToy, And dv is very rarely found, though it is found in 
Plato, Laws 959 Snats r€\€VTriaas drifi^prjrof dv . . iyiyv€TO. As a rule 
there is a distinct backward reference to the clause upon which the 
relative particle depends, which distinguishes these sentences from mere 
sentences of purpose ; and the notion of an imagined intention, whence 
H'fj, is borrowed from the expression of a wish, which generally precedes. 
Lysias is partial to this construction, 3* § 2 1 k0ov\6fiTiv &y , . tv* Hyyont, 
ib. § 44 i^ov\6tiriv ay . . ly' imaraaO^, 4* § 3 ifiovKSfirjy dv , . tv* iyiytro, 
I. § 40,42; 7. §17, etc. 

11. 1389, 90. * Tis sweet for thought to dwell in her own world, 
apart from evils.* Cp. Tr. 144. 

1. 1391. tC |i.'c8^ov; *Why were you willing to receive me?* For 
the appeal to nature cp. Phil. 936, Ant. 844, etc. 

1. 1394. Tol irdTpuL, with \6y<^. iraXatd is adverbial, * Home in old 
days called my father's.' 

1. 1396. KdXXos KaK^v virovXov, * fair covering of a festering wound.* 
The idea is that of a wound festering inwardly, though to all appearance 
healed. Shakespeare, Hamlet, 3. 4. 147 'It will but skin and film the 
ulcerous place | Whilst rank corruption, mining all within, | Infects 
unseen.* 

1. 1400. TO^i&dv irarpdt al|jA, * the blood of my father.* Cp. 1. 1376 
and note. 

1. 1 40 1. |i,4|ivT|<rOI Ti. This is Elmsley's correction for fAifjLyrjaB* 6ti : 
cp. 1. 1 130 ^ ffvyi^Wa^ds ri irou ; O.C. 1281 ^ ripif/tLyrd ri ^ hvax<tp6yayra, 
Eur. Hec. 992 d rrjs reKo^arjs rrjeSe fiifJLvijTai ri /ju>v. The difficulty in 
accepting the reading Bn is that it brings oTa and dvota into a de- 
pendent clause, unless Hri is merely expletive. 

I. 1403. 6irot* {irpoo-o-ov, * how I fared,' on arriving at Thebes. 

II. 1405,6. irAXvv dvctT€ ra\n6v tnrfpyua,, i.e. 'gave birth to children 
by the mother's child.' The reference is, of coursie, to Jocasta, though 
purposely made vague by the use of the abstract word ydfxoi. For 
dyiiym ep. supra 11. 270, i /x^r* dporoy avrois yijs dvUvai rwa. Aesch. 
S. c. T. 413 /Jif<w/i* dveirai. 

1. 1406. aljA* c|i<^vXiov, * murder of kindred.* Cp. O. C. 407 Tovjjuftv- 
\ov atfia. 

1. 1409. Two constructions are possible here: (i) * we may not speak 
of things which it is not honourable to do,' or (a) repeating Kak6y, * it is 
not honourable to speak of things which it is not honourable to do.* 

1. 141 1. OoAdo-oxov iKpCifiarc, * cast me out on the sea.* Cp. 1. 166 
and note. For |i'f|iroTC after Iv0a cp. Aj. 659 yaias 6ptJ£as ty0a {i\ tv^ 
o^crm, El. 380, 436 ; Tr. 903, etc. 



IZ8 OEDIPUS TVRANNUS. 

I. 1 41 4. * My sorrows are too great for any one but m3rself to bear.* 
Cp. Wordsworth, * Beyond participation lie my sorrows and beyond 
relief.' 

II. 1416 to end. Creon appears on the scene, and Oedipus gives him 
solemn injunctions concerning his daughters, who are brought on the 
stage to bid farewell. Finally, Oedipus is led away by Creon, his 
future being left to the decision of the god at Delphi. 

1. 1416. £v is due to attraction = rovr<it;K &. 

1. 141 7. rd irpdo-ccvv. The infinitive with r6 is treated as an accu- 
sative of the thing referred to. El. 1030 fuucpds rb Kpivcu ravra x^ 
koiwbf xP^^^h Ai- i'4» Tr. 545, Ant. 78, 664. 

1, 1420. ris . . ir£o"rts; 'what pledge of confidence?' 

1. 1424. Creon, after re-assuring Oedipus, turns to the attendants, 
whom he reproaches for not leading Oedipus indoors. Cp. Macbeth, 
2, 3 * And when we have our naked frailties hid | That suffer in ex- 
posure, let us meet | And question this most bloody piece of work.' 

1. 1427. t6, article for relative, = * such as/ and so followed by /x^c. 

L 1428. 5\jiPpos lp6s. Cp. Updu rjiiopf dfifipoairj vv^, Upbv icvi<pas in 
Homer. The rain will not fall on Oedipus, and hence his presence will 
be a cause of blight and sterility. 

1. 1430. iidXurra must be joined with c^cpc^ tx*^t and |i6vois goes 
with both clauses. * It is most proper for none but kinsmen to see and 
hear the woes of their kindred.' 

1. 1432. Oedipus is for the moment distracted from his gloomy anti- 
cipations by the unexpected kindness of Creon. 

1. 1434. irpds o-ot), 'in your interests,' not in mine. Demosth. p. 1006 
ult. xAm oiira) fiiKcUa)9 vpos l/xov rify ^//^(pov €$€aO€, Supr. 134. 

1. 1435. |ic is to be taken after Xi/iropcts, i. e. tov xptlas rvx^iv Xiva- 
pfU /xc; 

1. 1437. ^vov|i,ou. is almost «:7ei^(ro/Mii, 'I shall be found to be ad- 
dressed by none.' irpo<rf|Y®P<** is better passive here. 

1. 1440. irdo-* goes with c5i)\uOt|, *is made clear wholly in the sense 
that,' etc. Cp. El. 596, 7 ^ iraaav irj^ ^XStaaay d;s t^v firjripa \ Kojcoaro- 

fMVfltV. 

1. 1441. diroXXvvat must not be taken in the strict sense of the word. 
It means no more than *to outlaw,* and so, 'to exterminate,' as a 
citizen. 

1. 1442. tv* t<rra\L€v xptiaSt * in our present exigency.' 

1. 1446. The combination of the present and future is remarkable. 

Cp. Phil. 48 d\X' Hpx^ral re koX <pv\a^€rai ffrifios, ib. 76 oKoaKa «ai at 

3r/)Offdta^0€puf ^wiw, and more especially Thuc. 2. 44 roxts tSivht vw 

roAr/of, Strot irdpeffTt, ovie 6\o<pvpOficu /xoXXov ^ vapaywOiiaoiAai. iTpOTpci|i- 

o^Aoh * will urge it upon you,' is a stiongei vjotd. \iiasi trpaarp^^o/iaiy 



NOTES. LINES 1414-1475. 139 

and therefore better here. KaC . . y«, * yes, and,' i. e. I acknowledge my 

own religious obligations, and will urge yours upon you. 

1. 1448. rfjs . . KttT* otKovt. He will not name Jocasta. Kal ydp, * for 

surely you will do right in performing this for your own kinswoman.' 
1. 1 45 1. * Where is the Cithaeron, which men call mine.* 
1. 1453. ^fivTi is the reading of the MSS. Oedipus will fulfil the 

intention which his parents had when alive, after their death. Kvptov, 

* fit and proper,* because fixed by those who had the care of his life. 

1. 1454. dir(i)XXvTT|v, * wished* or* attempted my destruction.* (Co- 
native impf.) 

1. 1456. irlpcav dv, * could end me,* vipaai dv being = &v iripaut. So 
Blaydes, Hermann, Schw. 

1. 1460. irpocrO^, * put on thyself.* Cp. Aj. 13 and note. 

1. 1462. Cobet would allow only the masc. form of the dual in the 
article, in which he is probably right. When, however, he extends the 
restriction to pronouns, adjectives, and participles, there is too much 
authority against the statement to enable us to accept it entirely, though 
it is true that the masculine form can be used for the feminine. El. 977 
td€<r0€ r6)Z€ raj Haaiyv^roj . . d<f>(iS^aavr€t but also 950 fi6va \t\tifJLfit6ov, 
O. C. 1676 IdSurt Kal 'jra$o^aa. 

1. 1463. popds and rpdirc^a go together, and dvcv tov8' dv8p6s 
further explains x^P^^t ^t^l being lost sight of as the sentence proceeds. 

* For whom my table of food was never set apart to sever them from 
me.' For the pleonasm cp. Hes. Op. et D. 91 v6a<t>LV drtp re /ea/ewv 
Kal drtp xaA.€iroto irSvoio. Others take dvtv rovd* di'5poj=* without the 
consent of this man,* which is quite possible, so far as the Greek is 
concerned, but not in point. The meaning is clearer if expressed posi- 
tively, alv ally ^fJL^ avintaptard&rj popds rpditf^' dfiov rq>d' dySpi. 

1. 1466. alv resumes the construction of irap6lvoiv, which has been 
broken off. 

1. 1467. The indulgence cff sorrow was a relief, of which the Greeks 
were glad to avail themselves. When Odysseus meets his mother in 
the underworld he begs her to stay, 6<ppa koX elv 'Atbao <pi\as nepl x*'1p* 
fia\6yT€ I dfJupoTtpo) KpvipoTo TtrapTtij/ituda ydoio^ Od. 1 1 . 211. 

1. 1 469. Cp. Gloster, in Shak. Lear 4. i ' O dear son Edgar . . Might 
I but live to see thee in my touch | I'd say I had eyes agaui.' 

1. 1472. ov 8t| goes with lTrc|i,\|ic no less than with icXva>. It implies 
that what is said can hardly be true. 

1. 1473. Cp. the note on 1. 1462. 

1. 1474. rd ^{Xrar* cKY6votv cjaoiv; The genitive is rather descrip- 
tive than partitive, * my dearest children.' Cp. O. C, 923 ^rocy dSKiojy 
btr-ffpia. 

1. 1475. Xt-yw Tt; *am I right?' 



J30 OEDIPUS TVRANNUS, 

1. 1477. Tvovs Tqv trapovaav T€pi|iiv, k.t.X., * conjecturing your pre- 
sent delight from that which always possessed you.' Creon anricipated 
the pleasure which Oedipus would feel from the pl^sure which he had 
been Iqiown to take in past days in the presence of his children. Cp. 
1463. Ij <r*s*€^ kKflvTjs ^ a\ There is a somewhat similar ellipse in 
Q. C. 48 "npiv y &y ivtu^oj rl Spw. 

1. T478. Tt^q-Sc rijs &80V, * in return for this journey/ i.e. for trjingiog 
my children. For the genitive cp. El. 626 Bpdaovi rovd* ovk iXy^fis^ 
and for dbov^ O. C. 1506 rrjaSt rrjs ddov. 

1. 1481. us .. X^pas. As a rule, ws is used only with persons, but in 
this case the personifying addition of dd(\<i>6s makes it possible to apply 
the word to x^P°^- 

1. 1483. Join irpou|4vT|orav vjaCv, * which have given )gJu;L.^he spectacle 
of your father's once bright eyes, that ye should behold them thus.' 
irpoJmiv = *to present,' 'administer to.' Tr. 726 cXn-^f, i^rif zeal Bpdaos 
Tiirpo^fvet, O. C. 465 (is vvv irav nKoyvri irpo^fvei. , /.i }^ 

1. ^484. OV0' ipciv o<j0' toTOpwv, * without sight and wJ^out inquiry,* 
i.e, wholly unconscious of what I was doing. €<^dv9T)v, ♦am proved to 
have become.' Cp. 1. 1437. ^ • 

1. 1488. trpds dvdpiiriov, * at the hands of men.' 

1. 1490. KCK\av|i,4vai, * bfij^ed in tears,' instead of enjo3ang the spec- 
tacle. Aesch. Cho. 731 rpoipdy 5* 'Opiarov rip^^ dpu KfKKav/xfvrji'. ^ ., 

1. T493. TVS ovTos coral ; k.t.X., * Who will be the ms^n? who yfHV 
run the risk?' The double question is more forcible. thsm ^ relativj^ 
clause. 

1. 1495. 5TjXif|jta.Ta, i.e. as regards their reputation, ^ovevo-t refers 
especially to Jocasta. Though speaking to his children and. of their 
prospects, Oedipus cannot lose ^ight of the fact that he hj^d brought 
no less shame on his parents than on his children. 

I. 1502. x<pcov«, 'without children.' Cp. El. 963 ff. 

1. 1506. €yy«v€ls, 'being your kinswomen,' sc. ovtxas. There is no 
reason to read tteycvtTs. 

1. 1507. 'But put them not on a level with my woeg.' i.e. dp not 
treat them as my woes deserve. 

1. 1509. irXtJv ocrov, k.t.X., 'save for what rests with thee.* 

1. 1 5 10. \|;ati(ras, sc. avTatv. To lay his hand on them was a sym- 
bolical action, signifying that Creqn accepted the obligation. Cp. O. C. 
1632, 3. ^ 

1. 151 1. ftx^Ttiv. Sophocles appears to use both fortes (in -rriv and in 
-Tov) for the dual. Cp. O. C. 1695 ov roi Kara^ffivT' IfirjTov {kfi^rrjv. is 
a correction). 

/. f,^T2. vOv Bf, * now let this be your prayer.' Oedipus will not give 
nclvice to his cbiMren. hut will put a simp\e ][^T^"yer \a their mouths. 



NOTEm. LINES 1477-1526. 131 

1. 1513. The MSS. have rov ^iov, which caiuiot be kept if act is 
read. Dindorf proposed ov xaipus €9, in which the crasis of eq, is ob- 
jectionable ; Meineke, ov Kcupos f . Oedipus wishes that his children may 
live amid more foitunate circumstances than it has been his lot to do. 
He has lived where he ought not 10 have lived. 

1. 1515. With dXvs supply iariv. *Thou hast gone far enough in 
weeping.* 

1. 151 7. •+* oU, *thc conditions on which/ 

1. 15 19. -SiKai, *have come to be.* Cp. I. 1358. 

1. 1520. y6.p implies dissent; *no, for." 

1. 1521. ^vTcvOcv, *from before the palace.' 

1. 1523. ov <roL T^ pi(p {vvcaircTo, * has not attended you to the end 
of life/ 

1. 1526. Various corrections of this line have been made, (i) ir/xuros 
iu (fj\<p vokir&y koI ruxa** ivKpkiyonff * blazing brightest in happiness 
and prosperity, f^Aos iroKirwv being the state envied by ail the citizens. 
This, though not supported by MS. authority, gives a good sense. (2) 
tv ris oif (rfXMV voKLr&v koI tuxcus (m0\inouy ; * Whom which of the 
citizens did not envy, and gaze on his fortunes?* (3) ^i' ris ov f4^<?> irw 
kirwv rfis Tvxrji kvifikfirtv ; Another possibility is that a line has been 
lost. Euripides seems to have had this passage in his mind when he 
composed the closing lines of the Phoenissae (1757 ff.), whicli ii» said 
to have appeared in 410 b.c, several years after the probable date of the 
Oedipus Tyrannus : — 

a; irdrpas kKuu^s vuXiTai, Ktvaatr, Oibiirovs Sbt, 
OS rd Kkfiy* alviyfUiT* t'^voiif koX fiiyiffros ^v dvi^f), 
ts fiuyos S^i77os icariaxov r^; fuai(f>6vov KpaTtj, 
vvv drifios avr6Sf oucrpos, ((tKavvo/juxi x0ov6s. 

Thus Sophocles has broyght down his hero from his high position 
as king of Thebes, pre-eminent in wisdom, into the lowest depths of 
misery, * all dark and comfortless,* for ever severed from society, and 
there leaves him, with an appeal to the judgment of the gods, who 
alone can decide when human wisdom is at fault. The misery of 
Oedipus is supreme ; death is no refuge for the man who dare not join 
his kindred in the other world, and all earthly ties are broken. After 
an interval of many years, if tradition may be trusted, Sophocles wrote 
the Oedipus at Colonus, in which the outcast is restored to a position 
even higher than that from Whidh he fell. 



K 2 



124 OEDIPUS TYRANNUS. 

pression is general, hence the accusative rather than the nominative ; 
cp. supr. 1 192. 

11. 1 297-1 31 1. Anapaests, accompanying the uncertain movements of 
Oedipus, who is seen by the Chorus : * O sight of all sights most ter- 
rible. What deity uiged thee to this act ? But I cannot endure to look 
on thee.* Oed. Where am I ? * 

1. 1298. 5<ro. Zaojv would be more regular, but cp. 1. 1366, O. C. 
1 747, Ant. 961 xf/awav rbv OeSu. 

1. 1300. With the metaphor cp. infr. 131 1, and supr. 469 IvcnrXos 
ydp kv cJtrhv kirevSp^jOKti. Aesch. Pers. 515, 6 c& dvawSvrjTc batfwv d/s 
dyau fiapifi | voboTv kv^Wov vavrl IlepariKf yivci, 

1. 1302. irp6s, * at,* or * on,' in a hostile sense. Cp. Aj. 97 ^ Kal vpbs 
'Arpeldcuffty fxi'^^^^ X^P^ * 

I. 1302. Observe the short syllable in bvarauos, which in more regular 
anapaests would be inadmissible. 

II. 1304, 5. * Enquire,* * ascertain,' * search out' 

I. 1 3 10. 'Whither is my voice gone astray from me?' The words 
express the bewilderment of one suddenly finding himself blind, hearing 
his own voice, but seeing no one. In SiOirir^TOi we have a ' proceleus- 
matic* (v/v/v/w) for an anapaest or dactyl. 

II. 1313-20. * Oed. "All dark and comfortless." O the pain of my 
wounds I O the memory of woe I Cho» What wonder if the pain is 
double?' 

1. 1 313. ' O doud of darkness that is mine, abominable, lowering on 
me beyond utterance, and sped by an evil gale.' For hvaovpiarov cp. 
supr. 423 dvopfAoy €la4v\€vaai fim\oias rvx^. 

1. 1318. K^vTpcDv refers to the points of the brooches. The pain 
caused by these and the memory of his woe strike Oedipus simul- 
taneously. Physical suffering is never made alone prominent in Sopho- 
cles. 

1. 1 319. The apparent coldness of the Choms is a foil to the passion 
of Oedipus, into whose sufferings they are incapable of entering. 

11. 1321-28. * Oed. Faithful friend, you still remain. I know the voice. 
CAor. How could you thus destroy your sight ? ' 

I. 1323. viro^vcvs . . ict|5c^b>v, * endure to attend on me.* 

II. 1329-48. 'Oed. Apollo prompted the act: I executed it. What 
pleasure was there in sight, or hearing, or speech? Lead me away. 
Chor. Unhappy I would I had never known thee 1 ' 

1. 1330. TcXuVv, * bringing to their accomplishment.' Oedipus speaks 

of Apollo as bringing to accomplishment the evils which he foretold. 

Cp. 1. 966, where the prophetic birds are spoken of as leading to the 

murder of La'lus. Perhaps the supposed connection of 'Air(5AA<wv with 

dv-i^AAi/ju is also thought of. 



NOTES. LINES I297-T358. 125 

I. 1 331. vtv, plur. neut.««Tct SfifMra. 

1- 1334. 6pdv, * to have sight,' supr. 293. 
!• 1335' l8«vv = *to see an individual thing.' 

II. 1337 ff. ' What then was to be seen or loved ? What could I hear 
addressing me with pleasure?* The last clause is worked out more 
fully than the preceding clauses, i. e, instead of an dKovarrdv ranging with 
fi\fnr6v, artp/crSv, we have vpoa'^yopov iariv dteovfiy. irpo<rfJYopov is 
active, not passive as in Phil. 1353 ry irpoariyopos ; 

I. 1339. &8ov^ qualifies 0\eirr6v, artpKTdy, and &ko^€iv. Oedipus 
could take no pleasure in sight, love, or hearing. 

!• 1347' (i) 'Unhappy for thy penetration as well as for thy cala- 
mity; how I wish that I had never recognised thee,' i.e. 'that I had 
never known thee to be the son of La'ius.' Or (2) * How I wish that 
thou hadst never made this discovery.* Others (3) read /irfU <r* &r 
yvwval voT€ = * that I had never known thee.' This change supplies the 
dy required for ^$f\rj<ra, which otherwise is used like kxPV^ «5** and the 
like. If vows refers to the skill of Oedipus in guessing the riddle, or to 
the sagacity with which he has followed up the clue of the mystery of 
to-day (El. 1027 ^77X0) <t^ rod yov t^s 8^ d€i\ia9 arvyS))^ it may be trans- 
lated 'penetration.* But it may mean 'state of mind,' in reference to his 
mental condition at the moment. Cp. Ant. 1228 riya yow l(rx« ; 

II. 1349-66. ' Od. Perish the man who saved me in infancy. Had I 
died then, I had escaped sorrow and shame, but now mine is a lot 
supreme in misery.' 

11. 1349 if. (i) Taking irlSas as accusative plural, and vo|id8os as a 
genitive depending on it, we may construe, * Perish the man who loosed 
the cruel fetters on my foot when I went astray.' (2) If vidas is re- 
garded as genitive singular, it must be joined with cXvcc (or eKafie) in 
the sense 'rescued me from;' cp. cdKras hxBpSiv, But in this case 
voiiAZo^ is difficult ; it can hardly mean * feeding on,' as the scholiast 
suggests, or * on the pasture.* A conjecture is vo^MiSoy itrl iroas, * on 
the grass of the pasture.' In the first rendering Oedipus speaks of 
himself as of an animal at pasture, in reference to his exposure on 
Cithaeron. 

1. 1355. "fiv may be either ist pers., 'dying thus I should not have 
been such a woe to my friends,' cp. Aj. 615 tpikois fiiya irivOos evprjTai, 
or 3rd pers., in which case there is a change of construction, and $aycjy 
is a nom. pendens, 

1. 1356. See note on 1. 131 9. 

1. 1358. ^IXOov, * have come to Thebes,' or more probably * have come 
to be,' * have proved.' Cp. infra 15 19 Oeots exOioros iJKoj. Venio is used 
in the same way, e.g. Juv. 7. 29 ' ut dignus venias lasAsxSs* ^Sssy^'^i!a& 
macra.' 



126 OEDIPUS TVRANNUS. 

1. 1359* Siv - iKfivojv Sfv, 

1. 1 36 1. 6|ju>Y*^* ^^ ^" active sense, ^^yevvSfy Sfiov. Cp. dfiStxvopos 
in 1. 460. 

I. 1365. irpco-pvTCpov. Cp. Aesch. Cho. 631 /caKwv dl irpeafitvercu 
TO A-fjfiyiov \6y<f). 

II. 1367-1415. *Ckor. Better dead than blind! Oed. Not so. How 
could I bear to see parents or children or city ? Why was I saved to 
such misery? Take me away.' 

1. 1368. Cp. Aj. 635 KpeiaffMT y^p^Aidq, KtvOoJv b vocSjv fJL&rrjv. 

1. 1372. Observe that the defect of the body is supposed to remain in 
the next world. Oedipus, now self-blinded, will be blind in Hades, 
just as Heracles, in Od. 11. 605 fF., wears in the imderworld the belt and 
bow by which he was known on earth. Cp. Plato, Gorg. p. 524. 
With the text contrast supr, 999 tcL rwv T€K6vrwv 6fifM$' fj^taroy 

!• 1373- o^v» * o^i whom,' Svotv, * both of them.' 

1. 1374. Kp^tcro-ov* &Yx^vT|t, * worse than hanging could expiate.* Cp. 
Eur. Ale. 229, 30 &^ia Kal <x<f>ayds rdSc, ical v\ioy ^ fip^xv fi^prjv ovpaviqf 
V€\dffaai. 

1. 1376. pXa<rTo€<ra agrees of course with riicvojy. The person and 
the appearance of the person are confused. For this hypallage cp. 
infra 1400 rol/jiby atfia irarp6s, Tr. 817 &yKov 6v6ftaTos lAffrp^oVt Aesch. 
£um. 326 fATjTpfov dyyicfm Kvpiov <p6vov. 

1. 1377. With 6^a\/jLoTs supply l<pip.(pos vpoaXtvoctiV. 

1. 1378. d<rTV, sc. i<f>lt^tpov ^v vpoffKfvfffffiy. 

1. 1 380. dvT]p €ls. Cp. Tr. 460 irXtiffras dv^p tXs 'H/nx^X^; <T7M< ^. 
Aj. 134O, Hdt. 6. 127 iirl vXuaroy d^i x^tS^y (h &y^p dwiKfTo. The 
addition of cfs strengthens the force of the superlative. The idiom is 
capable of two interpretations, for els may mean (i) * in his single 
self;* or (2) 'for one man* as compared with any other single man. 
The latter is best. 

1. 1383. To be yivovs rod Aatov is the climax of horror, inasmuch as 
the child of Laius was to slay his father and marry his mother. 

1. 1384. €\k'i\v with ftrp^vaas, * having brought it to light as mine.' 
Supra 572 rets k/jidt . . Aatov bia(f>$opds, 

1. 1385. With 6p9ois, cp. 1. 528 l£ djAfi&Tonf 8' dpBurv. Tovrotif = the 
citizens represented by the Chorus. 

1. 1387. ovK &v {<rx6|i,T)v, *I would not have refrained.' Cp. Ant. 
467. ' 

1. 1389. tv* -fj, * in which case I should have been.' Cp. infra, 1. 1392. 

These sentences, in which tva, <&s and 3wa;s are joined to a past tense of 

tAe indicative, are not uncommon. They are not altogether sentences 

of purpose, for the past indicative cannot be xiaed ot «i -^uT^osfc still in 



NOTES. LINES 1359-14II. 127 

view, nor again altogether relative (hypothetical) sentences, for the 
negative is iifj and not 0^, as would be required, e. g. in t tl /a^ tvpa^a, 
ovK Av ^fiapTov. And dv is very rarely found, though it is found in 
Plato, Laws 959 ivats T€\€vrfi<ras drifi^prjTos dv . . iylyvero. As a rule 
there is a distinct backward reference to the clause upon which the 
relative particle depends, which distinguishes these sentences from mere 
sentences of purpose ; and the notion of an imagined intention, whence 
H'flt is borrowed from the expression of a wish, which generally precedes. 
Lysias is partial to this construction, 3. § 21 k^ov\6tirjv ^ . ,iv* tyvwrt, 
ib. § 44 ifiovXSfirfv &v . . ly' kiriaracBtt 4. § 3 k^ovkSfifjv &v . . iv* kyivfrOf 
1. § 40,42; 7. §17, etc. 

11. 1389, 90. * Tis sweet for thought to dwell in her own world, 
apart from evils.* Cp. Tr. 144. 

1. 1 39 1, ri |i.*€8^ov; *Why were you willing to receive me?* For 
the appeal to nature cp, Phil. 936, Ant. 844, etc. 

1. 1 394. Tol irdTpia, with \6y<^. iraXaid is adverbial, * Home in old 
days called my father's.* 

1. 1396. KdXXos KaKwv virotiXov, * fair covering of a festering wound.' 
The idea is that of a wound festering inwardly, though to all appearance 
healed. Shakespeare, Hamlet, 3. 4. 147 ' It will but skin and film the 
ulcerous place | Whilst rank corruption, mining all within, | Infects 
unseen.' 

1. 1400. To^i&dv irarpds al|Aa, * the blood of my father.' Cp. 1. 1376 
and note. 

1. 1 40 1. |i,l|ivt|<r04 Ti. This is Elmsley's correction for iiiixmrjaO* Srt : 
cp. 1. 1 1 30 ^ ffW^AAaftis ri irou j O. C. 1 281 fj ripil/avrd ri 1j Svffx^pdyavra, 
Eur. Hec. 992 tl rrjs rtKoi^aijs rfjcdt fjUfAvrjrcd ri fwv. The difficulty in 
accepting the reading Sn is that it brings oTa and oiroTa into a de- 
pendent clause, unless 8ti is merely expletive. 

I. 1403. fiiroi* lirpao-cov, * how I fared,' on arriving at Thebes. 

II. 1405,6. irdXvv dvctrc raxnbv <nr^p|ia, i.e. 'gave birth to children 
by the mother's child.' The reference is, of coursfe, to Jocasta, though 
purposely made vague by the use of the abstract word ydfiot. For 
dyiivau cp. supra 11. 270, i /ji'^t dporov avrois yrjs dyiivai riva. Aesch. 
S. c. T. 413 fii{(Ufi' dvtiTai, 

1. 1406. al|i* cp,<^vXu>v, * murder of kindred.* Cp. O. C. 407 rovyupv- 
\ov at/ia, 

1. 1409. Two constructions are possible here : (i) * we may not speak 
of things which it is not honourable to do,' or (2) repeating xaX($v, *it is 
not honourable to speak of things which it is not honourable to do.* 

1. 141 1. OoAdo-oxov cKpCifiOTc, 'cast me out on the sea.' Cp. 1. 166 
and note. For |i.'f|iroTC after «v0a cp. Aj. 659 yaias 6g^^a& lv^<v v^-w^. 
&ff(Tcu, El. 380, 436 ; Tr. 903, etc. 



IZ8 OEDIPUS TFRANNUS. 

L 1414. * My sorrows are too great for any one but m3rself to bear.' 
Cp. Wordsworth, * Beyond participation lie my sorrows and beyond 
reUef; 

11. 1416 to end. Creon appears on the scene, and Oedipus gives him 
solemn injunctions concerning his daughters, who are brought on the 
stage to bid farewell. Finally, Oedipus is led away by Creon, his 
future being left to the decision of the god at Delphi 

1. 1 416. £v is due to attraction = roirrav &. 

1. 141 7. rd irpd<r(rci.v. The infinitive with r6 is treated as an accu- 
sative of the thing referred to. £1. 1030 ftcucpds rb Kpivcu ravra x^ 
\otwbs xp^voSf Aj. 114, Tr. 545, Ant. 78, 664. 

1. 1420. TVS . . ir£o"ns; 'what pledge of confidence ?* 

1. 1424. Creon, after re -assuring Oedipus, turns to the attendants, 
whom he reproaches for not leading Oedipus indoors. Cp. Macbeth, 
3, 3 * And when we have our naked frailties hid | That suffer in ex- 
posure, let us meet | And question this most bloody piece of work.' 

1. 1427. t6, article for relative, = * such as/ and so followed by ft^^c. 

L 1428. 5)iPpos lp6s. Cp. Uf^v rjiiop, dfifipoairj ia;£, Itpbv icvi<pai in 
Homer. The rain will not fall on Oedipus, and hence his presence will 
be a cause of blight and sterility. 

1. 1430. |idXurra must be joined with c^c^ws Ix^t, and |i6vois goes 
with both clauses. * It is most proper for none but kinsmen to see and 
hear the woes of their kindred.' 

1. 1432. Oedipus is for the moment distracted from his gloomy anti- 
cipations by the unexpected kindness of Creon. 

1. 1434. irpds <roO, *in your interests,' not in mine. Demosth. p. 1006 
ult. Kity o(h<u diKcdcas vpos €fiov r^ \pri<pov t0€a$€. Supr. 134. 

1. 1435. |ic is to be taken after Xi/iropcls, i.e. rod xp^las rvx^iv \iira- 
p€ii lAt ; 

L 1437. ^vov|i.ou. is almost «:7€i^(ro/Mii, *I shall be found to be ad- 
dressed by none.* irpo<rf|Y®P<** is better passive here. 

1. 1440. ir&a*' goes with c5i)\uOt|, *is made clear wholly in the sense 
that,' etc. Cp. El. 596, 7 ^ voLcrav irjs yXoKjaay ci»s rfiv fiijripa \ Kcueoaro- 

tMVfltV. 

1. 1 441. diroXXvvat must not be taken in the strict sense of the word. 

It means no more than 'to outlaw,* and so, 'to exterminate,' as a 

citizen. 

1. 1442. Iv' l<rTa|icv xp^^s* * ^ our present exigency.' 

1. 1446. The combination of the present and future is remarkable. 

Cp. Phil. 48 d\K* tpx^ral rt koI <J>v\d(€rcu ari$os, ib. 76 okwXa Kai <r€ 

wfioabioi^OtpM ^wijv, and more especially Thuc. 2. 44 to^s tSwU vw 

roWof, otroi wdpeffrt, ovK bXxHpvpopxu ijmKXov fj vapa/JitfB^ffo/jiai. iTpoTp4i|i- 

^/*ai, * will urge it upon you,* is a stronger "woid than. vpoarpij(fo/iiu^ 



NOTES. LINES 1414-1475. 139 

and therefore better here. KaC . . y«, * yes, and,' i. e. I acknowledge my 

own religious obligations, and will urge yours upon you. 

I. 1448. Tf\s . . Kar otKOvt. He will not name Jocasta. Kal ydp, * for 

surely you will do right in performing this for your own kinswoman.' 
1. 145 1. * Where is the Cithaeron, which men call mine.* 
1. 1453. 5«VT€ is the reading of the MSS. Oedipus will fulfil the 

intention which his parents had when alive, after their death. Kvpu>v, 

* fit and proper,' because fixed by those who had the care of his life. 

1. 1454. dirwXXvrqv, • wished * or • attempted my destruction.* (Co- 
native impf.) 

1. 1456. irlpo-ai dv, • could end me,' iripaai ay being = hv wepaae. So 
Blaydes, Hermann, Schw. 

1. 1460. irpocO^, * put on thyself.* Cp. Aj. 13 and note. 

1. 1463. Cobet would allow only the masc. form of the dual in the 
article, in which he is probably right. When, however, he extends the 
restriction to pronouns, adjectives, and participles, there is too much 
authority against the statement to enable us to accept it entirely, though 
it is true that the masculine form can be used for the feminine. El. 977 
tS«i0€ ri)d€ TO) Haaiyv^TOJ . . d<l>(iS^aavT€, but also 950 fiova \(\(ififi€6ov, 
O. C. 1676 IdSyre Kal -naOo'Oaa. 

1. 1463. popds and rpdirc^a go together, and dvcv rovS* dv8p68 
further explains x^P**» "hl*^ being lost sight of as the sentence proceeds. 

* For whom my table of food was never set apart to sever them from 
me.' For the pleonasm cp. Hes. Op. et D. 91 v6a<t>iv drtp rt Ka/ewv 
Kot artp xa\kvoio itSvoio. Others take dviv toC8* dv8pos=' without the 
consent of this man,' which is quite possible, so far as the Greek is 
concerned, but not in point. The meaning is clearer if expressed posi- 
tively, alv aWv ^11^ aviATtapiara&7j fiopds rpaitf^* ofiov rq>5' dydpi. 

1. 1466. alv resumes the construction of irap64vovv, which has been 
broken off. 

1. 1467. The indulgence cff sorrow was a relief, of which the Greeks 
were glad to avail themselves. When Odysseus meets his mother in 
the underworld he begs her to stay, 6<ppa Kal €iv 'Atbao <pi\as vfpl X**iP* 
fia\6vT€ I dfjuporipo) Kpv€poio TtrapwdjfitaOa y6otOf Od. 1 1. 211. 

1. 1 469. Cp. Gloster, in Shak. Lear 4. i *0 dear son Edgar. . Might 
I but live to see thee in my touch | I'd say I had eyes again.' 

1. 1472. ov 8ifj goes with lTrc|i\|ic no less than with icXva>. It implies 
that what is said can hardly be true. 

1. 1473. Cp. the note on 1. 1462. 

1. 1474. tA ^ikrar* €KY6votv c)i.oiv; The genitive is rather descrip- 
tive than partitive, * my dearest children.' Cp. O. C. 923 fpiuroav dQKioiv 
btr-ffpia. 

1. 1475. X^-yui Tt; *ani I right?' 



J30 OEDIPUS TYR ANNUS, 

1. 1477. Yvov« Tx\y TTopovo-av T€pi|rtv, k.tAm ' conjecturing your pre- 
sent delight from that which always possessed you.' Creon anticipated 
the pleasure which Oedipus would feel from the pleasure which he had 
been known to take in past days in the presence of his children. Cp. 
14^3- ''i o"***^ kKfivrji ij ff'. There is a somewhat similar ellipse in 
Q. C. 48 irpiv y &y iv^fi^o) rl 8/w. 

I. 1478. Ti|cr8€ Tijs 6S0V, * in return for this journey/ i.e. for bringing 
my children. For the genitive cp. El. 626 Opaaovs rovh* ovic iXy^tiSf 
and for iSaC, O. C. 1506 r^trSc r^y l^Zov. 

1. 1 481. Ci% .. x^^oJi, As a rule, uk is used only with persons, but in 
this case the personifying addition of a6ik(p&s makes it possible to apply 
the word to x^pas. 

1. 1483. Join irpou|€VTi(rav {»fiCv, * which have given ystfx xhe spectacle 
of your father's once bright eyes, that ye should behold tliem thus.' 
irpo Jmtv = * to present,' * administer to.' Tr. 726 cAir(f,,^TiP «ai Opdaos 
riirpo^fvft, O. C 465 d>s vvv irdu r€\oyvri vpo^ivd. ■ » » }. 

1. 1484. ov6* bp&y oijO* urropwv, * without sight and wltiiout inquiry,* 
i.e. wholly unconscious of what I was doing. c<j>dv9i)v, *am proved to 
have become.' Cp. 1. 1437. *" 

1. 1488. irpds dvOpiiidircov, • at the hands of men.' 

1. 1490. KCK\av|i.€vav, • bfil^ed in tears,* instead of enjoying the spec- 
tacle. Aesch. Cho. 731 rpc^oy B' 'Opiarov ripfV 6pSi K(K\avfi4vT}v, 

1. 1493. tCs ovro% corrat; K.T.X., * Who will be the mjvn? >yhp yffi\ 
run the risk?' The double question is more forcible thasn ^ relative 
clause;. 

1. 1495. $t)Xif|(iaTa, i.e. as regards their reputation, yovtiwn refers 
especially to Jocasta. Though 'speaking to his children and of their 
prospects, Oedipus cannot lose sfight of the fact that he hj^d brought 
no less shame on his parents than on his children. 

I. 1502. xcp<''ov«, * without children.' Cp. El. 963 (T. 

1. 1506. €yycvct«, 'being your kinswomen,* sc. ot/o-ay. There is no 
reason to read (Ky€V(?s. 

1. 1507. *But put them not on a level with my woes.' i.e. do not 
treat them as my woes deserve. 

1. 1509. ttXt^v ooroy, k.t.X., *save for what rests with thee.* 

1. 1 5 10. \|fat>(ras, sc. avratv. To lay his hand on them was a sym- 
bolical action, signifying that Creqn accepted the obligation. Cp. O. C. 
1632, 3. 

1. 15 1 1. «lx€rr|v. Sophocles appears to use both forins (jn -ti/v apd in 
-rov) for the dual. Cp. O. C. 1695 ov rot Karatiifiwr ifitfrov {^fi^rriv is 
a correction). 

}. ijii2. v€v 8f, *now let this be your prayer.' Oedipus will not give 
advice to hif; children, but will put a simple prayer in their mouths. 



NOTES, LINEH I477-1526. 131 

1. 151 3. The MSS. have rov &iov^ which caimol be kept if det is 
read. Dindorf proposed ov xaipos ca, in which the crasis of iq, in ob- 
jectionable ; Meincke, ov xaipus f . Oedipus wishes that his children may 
live amid more fortunate circumstances than it has been his lot to do. 
He has lived where he ought not 10 have lived. 

1. 151 5. With &X18 supply (GTiv. *Thou hast gone far enough in 
weeping.* 

1. 1517. €<!>* oU, 'the conditions on which.* 

1. 1519. f\Kia, *have come to be.* Cp. 1. 1358. 

1. 1520. ^dp implies dissent; *no, for.* 

1. 1521. ivT€vdcv, *from before the palace.* 

1. 1523. ov o-ot T^Picp {w^aircTo, *has not attended you to the end 
of life.* 

1. 1526. Various corrections of this line have been made. (1) npwTos 
tu C^Afi vokirSnf /ccd rvx^^s kvKpki^ojv, * blazing brightest in happiness 
and prosperity, ffXos iroKirSiv being the state envied by all the citizens. 
This, though not supported by MS. authority, gives a good sense. (2) 
hv ris ov (rjKcjv voMrwv koX tvxcus km^Kivojv ; * Whom which of the 
cUi^ens did not envy, and gaze on his fortunes?* (3) ii' rls ov f^A.^ tro- 
kirSiv TJjs Tuxi?y kvi^kt-ntv ; Another possibility is that a. line has been 
lost. Euripides seems to have had this passage in his mind when he 
composed the closing lines of the Phoenissae (1757 ff.)* whicli is said 
to have appeared in 410 b.c, several years after the probable date of the 
Oedipus Tyrannus : — 

S) vdrpas xkut^s vokirait Ktvaatr, Oidiirovs ob€, 
OS rd k\uv* alviytiar* iyvoai^ kqI fx^yiffros ^v Ay^p^ 
ts fxovos ti<piyyos Kariaxov r^s fuai<l>6vov Kpanj, 
vw drifios eufT6s, oiKTp&t, i^cKavvofJUn x'^^^^^- 

Thus Sophocles has brought down his hero from his high position 
as king of Thebes, pre-eminent in wisdom, into the lowest depths of 
misery, * all dark and comfortless,* for ever severed from society, and 
there leaves him, with an appeal to the judgment of the gods, who 
alone can decide when human wisdom is at fault. The misery of 
Oedipus is supreme ; death is no refuge for the man who dare not join 
his kindred in the other world, and all earthly ties are broken. After 
an interval of many years, if tradition may be trusted, Sophocles wrote 
the Oedipus at Colonus, in which the outcast is restored to a position 
even higher than that from Whidh he fell. 



& z 



INDEX. 



Abas in Phocis. 899. 
Abstract for concrete, i, 1247. 
Accusative, adverbial, 340. 

— cognate* 1 143, 

— for nominative, 1192, 1296, 

— for dative, 936, 

— in adjurations, 660. 
Active Kw middle, 502, 

Actior on the stage, during the 

chorus, 216 flf. 
Adjective for genitive, 29, 267. 
Adverbial use of prepositions, 181. 
Aliens at Athens, 411. 
Alliteration, 371. 
Amphitrite, 195. 
Anacoluthon. 60, 216, ii3<). 
Antecedent, indefinite, 6. 
Aorist. 337, 

— and perfect infinitive, 347. 

— participle ^aorist indicative, 66. 
Apollo and Zeus, 499. 

Apollo Lyceus, 204. 

Arcturus, 1137. 

Arcs, 190. 

Article and adjective, 518. 

— pronominal, 10. 
Augment omitted, 1 249. 

By-play in the Greek theatre, 746. 

Caesura wanting, 738, 1167, 
Chorus, their entrance, 144. 
Comparison, condensed, 467* 
Compounds, active and passive, 
4^0. 



ComponiKl adjectives, use of^ 26^ 
1 103- 

— widh tiluee terminatioas, 166. 

— words not to be pressed, 1 243^ 

— ofcic, 437. 

— picturesque, 846. 
Condensed form of expressiooy 1024 
Constructicm «y»^ rh criim$M6yuBta¥^ 

II. 

Dative after accusative, 353. 

— after b airrot, 557. 

— ethic. 2, 70S. 

— of addition, 175. 

— of place, 16, 20. 

— of possession. 735. 

— of time, 156. 172. 
Defects of the body, 1372. 
Delay of the scene, 680, 757. 
Dramatis personae, mentioned by 

name, i. 
Dual, forms of the, 1462, 151 1. 

Elision at the end of a line, 29. 
Epithets in metaphors, Aristotle 
on, 24. 

— use of two, 161. 

Future tense (/Sot/X^tro/ioi), 1077. 

— time in Greek, 487. 

Genealogy, use of, 267. 
Genitive (ablative), 152, 475. 

— absolute, with &s, 11, 145. 

— and ncMlei aA\eclvve, 161, 1474. 



INDEX. 



^3i 



Genitive, descriptive, 342, 635. 

— expressing a degree, 345. 

— of cause, 48, 185, 698, 738. 

— of material, 83. 

— predicative, 393, 917. 

— with KOfil(€Tai, 580. 
» Golden,' 188. 

Hades, * black,' 39. 
Helius, 660. 
Hypallage, 1361, 1376. 

Ignorance of Oedipus, 11 3. 
Infinitive, original nature of, 83. 
Irony of Sophocles, 105, 361, 939, 
Irrational element in Greek tra- 
gedies, 113. 

Jocasta, character of, 634, 704, 
713,859,911. 

Law, idea of, 865. 
Lycia, 308. 

MSS. of Sophocles, 800. 
Market-places at Thebes, 30. 
Metaphor, from a ship, 4, 33. 

— (nriaOai), 17. 

— lk/eT€Tafiai), 153. 

— (dxTci fi^jfuos), 183. 

— (li^Xaro), 363. 

— {rpi<f>o)), 356. 

— (Xt/*ijv), 430, 1 308. 

— (from a balance). 847. 
Metre, 967. 

Middle, 148. 

— causative, 287, 556. 

— future for passive, 365. 

Nymphs, ' long-livefl,' 1098. 

Oedipus, character of, i, 8, 443, 

687, 700, 715, 1463, 1477. 
Optative future, 713. 

— « interrogative subjunctive, 73. 

— without &, 315, 979. 

Order of words, 58, 108, 535, 600. 
Oxymoron, 2, 36, 387. 



Participle, proleptic, 1303. 

— with ^x<w, 577. 

— with a>y, 97. 

Passive use of words, 1 79. 
Perfect for future, 1 166. 
Periphrases, 1370. 
Personification of abstract words, 

337. 

— by epithets, 189. 

Phasis, 1337. 

Physical suffering in Sophocles, 

1318. 
Play on words, 70. 
Pleonasm (dWojv), 7. 
Plural {0<ufioi<ri), 16, cp. 20. 

— (rd^ois), 943. 

— generalising, 1096. 

— intensive, 585. 

— masculine, 1007. 

Positive notion repeated from the 

negative, 819. 
Preposition and case for genitive, 

612. 

— in the second clause, 637. 

— used adverbially, 181. 
Present and future combined, 1446. 

— for future, 397. 

■ — historical, 1031. 
Pronoun for adverb, 1019. 
Prosody, 640. 

— XpHaUs, 157. 

— €VK\4df 161. 
Pythian prophetess, 464. 

Redundancy of expression, 57. 
Repetition, 330, 479. 

— of the verb, 1137. 

Sight and sound, 186. 

Simple and compound words, 133. 

Sons of slaves, 1063. 

Sorrow indulged, 1467. 

Sphinx, 130, 391. 

Suppliants, 3. 

Time in Greek drama, 73. 
Torches of Artemis, 306. 

— of Dionysus, zi\. 



^34 



INDEX. 



Triple invocations, 158. 
Tyrants, 8; 3, 893, 895. 



\Vasle places the haunts of deities,' 
1089. 



6.'>(vuKf in active sense = 'inscins,' 

1133. 
QTfpovofioi = iv dypois Ptfiofitptu, 

1 103. 
dfWds (patronymic) * swift as ^ 

storm, 466. 
ale^fi, fem., 866. 

<Uoi;c(v = *to be named, '^udire, 903. 
dicwv, (i) unwilling, (ii) unconscious^ 

akveiv, * to be raving,' 695. ^ 
dfjLopos, 248. 
dfupi, with dative, 155. 
dfKpdif^ioi dfCfMi, 1 243. 
d/i^tirA^f = * snliling from both 

sides,' 417. 
Mx^iVf Sonh. uses of, 1 74. 
dv^p €fy, 1380. 
diravdoi/^ * tO forbid,' 236. 
dvoiKfl<r$aif 997. 

dwoXXvPoi, special sense of, 144I. 
dvd^fvos, 190. 
dwovToSt in active ^ense, dv^ rov 

dpdVf 762. 
awopot ivl <l>p6vifMy * void of v/i^- 

dom/ 693. 
diro<rr€p€iv, 323. 
dir6TOfjios, By6. 
dpa, use of in Soph., 822. 
dpa^s, 276. 
"ApTjs, personification of any hbstile 

influence, 190. 
dpSpov, 1270. 
dopTjT dppirojp, 465. 
apx^iy, V. /cparttv, 54. 
dpxffytrrjs, 751. 
dr\i7T«ri/«std be dr\i;TOs, act; 5I5. 

3a((>9, few in number, 750. 
fi^fuos dnrdj 182. 

'ya/4jB/)6s, brother-in-law, 70. 



yvaifAoi = * suggestion,* 525. 
yvupajy icard, 'in the matter of 
discernment,' 1086. 

h^iaai, followed by gen., 234. 
bidf with gen. following Uvai, 773. 
hi opyTJs, 344. 

di€iv€iv, 'elucidate/ 394; to say 
expressly, 8yf. 

oiouT€Uf, ' to bear to the end,' 320U 

SioWuyat, 31$. 

Soicfiv, ' to entertain an opinion,' 

484 ; ' to gain the reputation of,' 

119I. 
huvaar^ia, 'influence,' 593. 

iyytvSii, meaning of, \2if,. 

tyKparifs = iy tcpdrti wv, 94I . 

«! with subj. (for ijv), 198, 874, 

917, 1062. 
tiSofjtrfv; I2l8. 
cfira, 925, 

fiaipx^ffffcUf 62. ' 

fir oSvsa* either as is ino^t likely,* 

1049. 
(K, compounds of, used by Soph.; 

437- 
€K\v(iv (middle, 1003), 36. 

ifCTfTdaBaif 153* 

ixtdmos, 166. 

iKTpi0€<r0ai, ' to be extirpated,* 

4i8. 

i\avv€iv, ' lo perse<Jute,' 28, 

ifxfiartvdv, cum gen., 825. 

hdWfoOtUi 263. 

ivbaT€ia0cu, 205. 

€vifOfios, Ikwfxd (lit. with law in it), 

32^. 
fi€i8ws, .^7. 

circi;)^((ri9iu, 248. 

(mqrpofrj, sudden attehtion to a 

thing, 134. 

cnwvvpos (Vi\ V^^ ^issA^y^ ivo^ 



INDEX. 



135 



HpXfffBai (q). Ifitdv), * to come to 

be/ 1358. 
tvHyfiSf V. €vayq$f 921. 
€vtoy, from tvot as f 1710s from lij, 211, 
€v6Aff with a\irt}, 189. 
l^X^iv = ix^^^^^y *to he. connected 

with,' 709. 

(rjXos, V. <p6uvos. 

5/3»; = vigour of youth, 74I. 
#87; for ]f8«*>', 433- 

^X^^ras; sense of, 649. 

BpaavSf 'confident,* (audax), Bapr 

pa\4os (fprtis), 89. \ 

Bvfuafia, 4. 

i8<ri' (v. 6pav), 3.^5. 

irfios, addressed by /17, if;4. 

iva, with past tense of indie, 1389 ; 

— with gen., 367. 

loiJ, 1 182. 

iaraaBait followed by geft,, 142. 

KaBijKOJVy metaph. meaning here de- 
rived, 75. 

KaBhraaBaif 10. 

Kai, in Questions, 1 1 29. 

iea\.€ii^ >» &noKak€iVf 780, 

KaTdrYfrnra, * accessories of prayef,' 
920. 

K4ap, ' purpose,' 688. 

#f€vdo;=perf. /rciccv^a, 968. 

K^pey, 472. 

Ko^i^dv, KOfii(€aBaty with gen., 580. 

KpiffiSf possibility of judging, 501, 

578. 

\6fjivtiVf 'to express sound,' 186. 

ktyfiv Tt = to be right, 1475. 

A070S axpavi^s, 656. 

\vciVf 316, 406. 

Av«6toy, epithet of Apollo, 919. 

piavBavuv with gen., 546. 
fxaTrjVf (i) * without reason,*(object); 
(ii) 'without result,' 609. 



fi€i(<uVf 'more honourable,' 772. 
fikv ohv corrects a previous asser- 
tion, 705, 
p.^ ov, 220. 

— with participle, 13. 

vefi€iv^(i) to bestow, (ii) to hold, 

.S79- 
viof, opp. to «aXfltoy, I. 

vrj\€'f}s [^vrjX'fis), 'unpitied,' 179. 

yofffiv^ ' to be distressed,' 60. 

vo<r<pi(f<TB<Uf to abandon, 691. 

v^fmv, 300, 488. 

o5^y ffxiff-rfi, 733. 

Ot5(ir<55a, 495. 

o|«€vy ( = oltcerrjs), a household 

"slave, 756. 
oiaB* cyy froirjffov, 543. 
oXa;\a, T166. 
ofxfia^ 'appearance,' 81. . 
dfJioy€vijf, active, 1361. 
dfxvavopos, 260, 466. 
ipioyt, i?76^ 

irnVw = ' the future,' 487. 
dpdv, ' to have sight,' 1334. 

— y. i8c(>, 203, 1335. 
opvey, 'omen, 52. 

0? T€, 35, 694. 

S, Ti niiparoVf 66 r. 

(w 1*4, with 2hd pers. of fut. indie, 

638. 
6<pBa\p.6f, 987. 

• 

irapaptifidv, * to surpass,' 502. 
ira^* ovtiVf ' of no account,' 983. 
way qualifying predication, 706. 
vfiBdv, vuffaif 555. 
vfpdv, 'to go beyond bounds,' with 

Bvfxov, 673. 
vodoiv aKfxcdf 'the fept,* 1034. 
irov, ovov, 390, 448. 
vpdrrfffBai, causative use, 287, 556. 
•npiituVf p. 
vpo^tiKvvvai, 'to feel the way,' 

4.S6. 
•npo^fvo^, V. irpo<TTriTT\«. 
•n pittas, \';o. ^ 



136 



INDEX. 



mfMfkmTHPf r, mtrarw., 664. 
v^ ^^ s adr. ' TiofeDtlj/ 805. 
wf609€P ii - vfiw, with infiin^ 832. 

WfOtJT&TftS, 411. 

Hif^cjc^, ctym. of, 70. 
M»»Hoix3ericvftiy, 105, 594- 

fiasp^iU idtti^, Le, Sphinx, 591. 

tfrifTfuw, 10. 

artrfw^f ' capable of hate,' 673. 

cvii§urpa6it€P<n, use of, by Soph., 

963. 
cvwf^, 44. 
<FW', iwc of in Soph- 1 7. 
^vroAAaT^* 33. 

cOrtaiv), 31. 
^i^4/> with rirx»y» 80. 

7<i^of in pL, 942. 

nXttv tU dffroi^f 222. 

WXi;, V. X6€iv, 316. 

7i for rel. o (cp. dicere quid sentiam), 

655-^ 
rifiwpeiVf 140, 

7tr, in combination with article, 107. 

t6, * such a«,* 1 42 7. 

roi/ro ftiv, rovr* dXX\ * in the first 

place,* ' then again,* 605. 

7pl<p*iv, 356, 374. 



r, 'a pnzice or rojal person,* 
^as 9dy, ^), 514. 

vfipis, mraning oC 873. 

Inrc^cXfiT, 227. 

v*ip, *to avert,' 165, 188; ='r€pi, 

989. 
Irro in vwocTpo^, 132. 

h^ffrttr, * to spicad abroad,' 786. 

^otfcr, 1227. 

4p4p€u$ai, 'attain to/ 'obtain* (act^ 

590). 499- 
^$cvos, 382. 

^porcrr.ss to know, 316. 

<^porffait, ' intention,' 664. 

ippww €{f, special meaning of, 570. 

ilntXatra^aScu, 382. 

^iMrir, 'appearance,* 740. 

Xi^oaduvj sprinkling with white, 

742. 
XP^os, 156. 
XpvKM, sense o^ in pi., 561. 

Si raVf Il45> 

dfs, with ace. of partic, 97. 
(&s with gen., dts dpyip, 345. 
ust with gen. abs., 145. 
dts €oucf^ 1 1 60. 



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136 



INDEX. 



vpoffAvTiiv, V. intrans., 664. 

vpbs fiiav = &dv. * violently/ 805. 

7rp6ff0€v ij = vfdv, with innn., 832. 

vpoffB-qicrj, 38. 

npoaT&rrjs, 41 1. 

nv$iK6i, et)rm. of, 70. 

»« = Homericircys, 105, 594. 

fiarf/tpSdi KvojVf i.e. Sphinx, 391. 

ffrifrffiv, 10. 

arvyv6sf 'capable of hate/ 673. 

avfj.iJi€Tpovfjt€voSf use of, by Soph., 

963. , 
av/jKpopm, 44. 

avVf use of in Soph. 1 7. 

awaWayfi, 33. 

<ruv€aiv)f 31. 
aoniip with tvxq* 80. 

rdu^os in pi., 942. 

TcXcfv f/s dcTovs, 222. 

rkKrjf V. Xvciv, 316. 

ri forrel. o (cp.dicerequid sentiam), 

655-^ 
rifiajpfiv, 140. 

Tts, in combination with article, 107. 

T<J, ' such as,* 1427. 

Tovro n€v, TOUT* dkk\ ' in the first 

place,* * then again,* 605. 

Tpi(p€iv, 356, 374. 



rpoip-fj, * nursing care/ i. 
rvpayyoi, * a prince or royal person,* 
(as adj., 588), 514. 

vfipis, meaning of, 873. 

{nr€(€\(Tv, 227. 

vnip, *to avert,' 165, 188; ^vfpi, 

^89, 
inro in vvoarpo<p4}^ 132. 
if<l>(pw€iv, * to spread abroad/ 786. 

♦acty, 1227. 

(piptaBcu, * attain to/ 'obtain' (act., 

590), 499. 
ip$6vos, 382. 

ippoyiry,^ to know, 316. 
<pp6vf)ais, ' intention,' 664. 
<ppov€iv «i, special meaning of, 570. 
<pv\axraia0aif 382. 
^i/(r<s, ' appearance,* 740. 

XVoai<uv, sprinkling with white, 

742. 
XP^os. 156. 
XP^voi, sense of, in pi., 561. 

Sf Tov, 1 145. 

a>s, with ace of partic, 97. 
&s with gen., a>s ti/ry^, 345. 
wff, with gen. abg., 145. 
wi ioiK€, 1 1 60. 



yttnuary, tSSa. 



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and R. F. Dale, M, A.« B. Mas. Second EdUitm. Crown 8to. cMJk, tt. 6d. 

The CultlTation of the Spealdn^ Voioe. By John HnUah. 

Steond BdUioiu Extra leap. Sro. cM*, w. id, 

ZU. MISCIBUiANEOtTS. 
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logfcaL B V Dr. Jnlfais Sachs, Profiessor of Botany in the Unhreisity of Waizbarir . 
Translated by S. H. Vines, M. A. Royal Sra kal/ morocco, yis. 6d A New 
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Ml System of Physical ZSdncation : Theoretical and Prac- 

tfcaL By Archibald Maclaren, The Gymnasinin, Ozibtd. Extra tca^. 8to. 
cloth, fs. 6d. 

An Icelandic Prose Header, with Notes, Grammar, and 

Glossary. By Dr. Gudbrand Vigfusson and F. York Powell, M. A. Extra fcap. 
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Dante. Selections from the Inferno. With Introdnction 

and Notes. By H. B. Cotterill, B.A. Extra fc^. Sro. cloth, 4s. 6d, 

Taaso. La Gemsalemme Iiiberata, Cantos I, IL By 

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8. R. Driver, M. A., Fellow of New Collie. A^ew and Enlarged Edition. 
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Ontlines of Textual Criticism applied to the New Testa- 
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THE 



OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS, 

IN NINE SIZES, 

Corresponding page for page with each other. 



THREE EXTREMELY THIN 8^ LIGHT EDITIONS, 

l^vintzd on India l^aper. 



Descriptions of 
Bindings. 



No. 2A. 

Supeiintendent'f 

Edition. 
Minion 8to. Thin. 
72 X si inches. 



Cloth BoArds, red edges . 

French Morocco, gilt edges 

Paste Grain Morocco, limp 

Persian, red under gilt I 
edges ....••../ 

Turkey Morocco, limp , , 

Turkey Morocco, circuit . 

Levant Morocco, limp, ) 
with flaps, calf lined . . j 

Ditto, Ditto, Best, with\ 
edges red under gold in f 
the round. The strongest > 
and most flexible bind- 1 
ing extant / 

With Apocrypha, extra . . 

With Prayer-Book, extra . 



No. 5A. 

Pocket 
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Raby 16mo. Thin. 

6i X 4i inches. 



I in. in thickness. I in. in thicknesik 
220Z. in weight , 150Z. in weight. 



No. eA. 

Smallest 

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Pearl 16mo. Thin. 

54 X 4 inches. 

I inch tbicic 

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£ s. d. 

• • • • 

• • • • 

13 6 

15 6 

18 



1 
1 



1 
4 








Specimens of Types 



1 11 6 



3 
3 



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the 

Scriptures. 



£ s. d. 

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• • • • 

9 

11 

12 

15 

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TTie paper upon which these Editions are printed is very thin, 
hut wcinderfulty opa,que and tough. Specimen leaves will be sent 
on application. 

For list of Six Editions on ordinary Bag-made 
Printing Paper, Turn over. 



TUE 



OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS. 

SIX EDITIONS, 
X^xi best Rag-made IR^rinting Jfaper. 



1 


No. 1. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


No. 5. 


No. 6. 


Descriptions of 




> ** 


d-y 
o5xg 






a* 


Bindings. 


IScdi. 






CUri %^ X 










a xa 

•1— "^ 

59 t^ 


ox-9 




•§xfl 






«. d. 


«. d. 


•«. d. 


f. d. 


«. d. 


f. d. 


Cloth Boards, red edges . 


12 


8 


5 6 


. • • 


4 6 


3 


French Morocco .... 


• • • 


10 


7 


• • t 


5 6 


4 


Paste-grain Morocco . . 


• • • 


10 6 


7 6 


... 


6 6 


4 


Persian Morocco, limp . 


18 


12 6 


9 


12 


8 


6 


Turkey Morocco, limp , 


2i 


15 1 11 


15 


9 


7 


Ditto, with flap edges. . 


30 


19 6 , 13 6 


19 


12 





Levant Morocco, lined ) 
calf, with flap edges . / 


36 


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16 


12 


Ditto,ditto, very flexible, ) 
bilk sewed, the most > 
durable binding extant; 












45 


28 6 ' 22 « 


26 


21 


15 












With Apocrypha, extra . 


3 


2 3 2 3 


3 


1 6 


1 6 


With Prayer-Book, extra 


... 


2 3 1 2 3 


3 


1 6 


1 6 



Specimens of Types wiU be sent on application. 



THE 



HELPS TO THE STUDY OF THE BIBLE, 

Comprising all the ADDITIONAIi MATTEB contained 
in the OXFOBD BIBLE FOB TEACHEBS. 



Pearl 16mo. size. 

Cloth limp .... 
French Morocco, gilt edges 



s. 
1 
1 



d, 


9 



Huby 16nio. size. 
Cloth limp .... 1 



Nonpareil Svo. size. . 

Cloth boards ... 2 
Paste-grain, limp ..80 

Minion Svo. size. 
Cloth limp . • • • 2 6 



THE 



OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS 

CONTAINS THE FOLLOWING 

HELPS TO THE STUDY OF THE BIBLE. 



I. NOTES ANALYTICAL, CHRONOLOGICAL, HISTORICAL, GEOGRAPHI- 
CAL, ZOOLOGICAL, BOTANICAL, AND GEOLOGICAL. 



1. Notes ok thi Old Testament :— 
i. Title of the Bible. 

it. Hebrew Divisions of the Bible :— 

(a) The Law. 

(6) The Frophets. 

(e) The Scriptures. 
Hi. DiTtoions of the English Bible:— 

<a) The Pentateuch. 

(6) The Historical Books. 

(0) The Poetical Books. 

id) The Prophetical Books. 
AnalTxis and Summary of each. 

2. STTUMAnT or THE INTEBVAL BETWEEN THE 

Old and New Testahentb. 

3. Family or the Hesods. 

4. Jewish Sects, Pabties. ke. 

5. Ohbonoloot or the Old Testament. 

6. Ohbonoloot or the Acts and Epistles. 

7. Historical Summabt. 

8. mlbaolbs and parables or the old tes- 

TAMENT. 

^. Miracles and Parables or Ovr Lord. 

10. Names, Titles, and OrncES or Ghbist. 

11. Pbopbbcies belatinb to Ghbist. 

12. special Pratebs rOUND IK Scbiptdbe. 

13. Notes on the New Testament:— 
I. Early Copies. 

IL Divisions of the New Testament:— 

(a) Constitutional and Historical. 

(b) Didactic 

(c) Prophetic. 

Analysis and Summary of each. - 

14. Habmont or TBB Gospels. 



ISL Paol's Hissionabt Joubnrts. 

16. „ VoTAOB TO Bomb. 

17. GEoaRAPHT and Topoorapht or Palestine. 

18. Mountains or Sobiptueb, with theib As- 

sociations. 

19. BivERs AND Lakes or Scbiptube, and 

Events connected with each. 
90. ETBNOLoer or Bible Lands. 

21. Quadrupeds named in the Bible, with 

Dbscbiption or each. 

22. Summabt or Mammalia or the Bible. 

3B. Fisheries or Palestine, with their Pro> 

DUCTS. 

24. A QUATic Animals mentioned in the Bible. 
2n, Birds pottnd in Palestine. 

26. beptiles or Scbiptube. 

27. Insects or Palestine. 

28. Tbbbs, Plants, Flowkbs, Ac., or Pales- 

tine. 

29. Gboloot or Bible Lands.— 

1. Mineral Bnbetanoes, 4o. 
11. Metals. 
lU. Precioofl Stones. 

50. Music and Musical In^sumbntb:— 

i. Stringed Instroments. 

U, Wind Instruments. 

ill. Instruments of Percussion. 

51. Tablbs or Weiohts, Measobbs, Time, and 

Monet. 

32. THE JEWISH YbAB. 

33. Words Obsolete ob Ambiououb. 

34. Words used Stmbolioallt. 

36. Blank Leaves roR MS. Notes. 



IL AN INDEX TO THE HOLY BIBLR 

in. THE NEW OXFORD CONCORDANCE. 

IV. DICTIONARY OF SCRIPTURE PROPER NAMES, WITH THEIR 
PRONUNCIATION AND MEANINGS. 

V. SCRIPTURE ATLAS aNDEXED). 



1.— The Nations or the Ancient World. 

2.— Armenia, Assyria, Babylonia, Syria, Ac 
IN THE Patriarchal Aoes. 

3.— Canaan in the Patriarchal A ess. 

4.— Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula, illus- 
trating the Jonmeys of the Israelites to 
the Promised Land. 

5.— Canaan as divided among the Tbibb& 

6.— DoMonoNB or David and Solomon. 



7.— ^'HE KiNODOMS or JUDAB AND ISRABU 
8.— ASSYBIA AND THE ADJACENT LANDS, lUnS- 

tratlng the Captivities. 

9.— JBBUS.VLEM AND ITS ENVDMKS. 

10.— Palestine in thb Time or Our Saviour. 
11.— The Bomak Bmpibe ih the Apostolic 

AOB. 

12.— Map iLLusTBATiva to Tbatkls op St. 
Paul. 



THE OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS. 



^Extracts from (i^pinionB. 

"The large collection of raried information which yon hare appended 
to the Qxro&D Bibli for TxACfflUUB, in a form so readily available for 
reference, has evidently been compiled with the greatest care; and the 
testimony which you have received to its accuracy is a guarantee of itb 
high value. I cannot doubt that the volume, in its various forms. wlU be of 
great service."— -Tiui Archbishop op Caktrrburt. 

"The notion of including in one volume all the helps that a clergyman 
or teacher would be lilcely to want for the study of the Bible has never 
been realised before with the same success that you have attained in the 
! Oxford Bibui for Tbacuirs. In the small edition (Ruby 16mo. thin), by 
the use of paper very skilfUUy adapted to the purpose, there is a Bible 
with an Atlas, a Concordance, an Index, and several Tractates on various 
points of Biblical antiquity, the whole, in a very solid btndinj^ weighing 
a pound and an ounce: no great weighl for what is really a miniature 
library. The clergy will probably give the preference to the larger book, 
marked No. 4. This includes the Apocrypha, with all the helps to the use 
of the Bible that distinguish the series. Its type is excellent Many dergy- 
men are obliged to write sermons when travelling f^om place to place. TUs 
volume would serve as a small library for that purpose, and not too large 
for the most moderate portmanteau. I think that this work in some of 
its forms should be in the hands of eveiy teacher. The atlas Is veiy 
clear and well printed. The explanatory work and the indices, so far as 
I have been able to examine them, are very carefully done. I am glad 
that my own University has, by the preparation of this series of books, 
taken a new step for the promotion of the careful study of the Word of 
Qod. That such will be the effect of the publication I cannot doubt"— Thb 
Archbishop of York. 

"It would be difficult, I think, to provide for Sunday-School Teachers, 
or Indeed for other students of the Bible, so much valuable information 
in so convenient a form as is now comprised in the Oxford Biblr for 
Trachbrs."— Tua Bishop of Loinx)N. 

"Having by ft-equent use made myself acquainted with this edition of 
the Holy Scriptures, I have no hesitation in saying that it is a most 
valuable book, and that the explanatory matter collected in the various 
appendices cannot but prove most helpftd, both to teachers and learners, in 
acquiring a more accurate and extensive knowledge of the Word of God." 
— Tua Bishop of Lichfisld. 




THE OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS. 



^Extracts from Opinions {eontinued), 

"The idea of a aeries of Bibles in different types, corresponding page 
for page with one another, is one which the Dean has long wished to see 
realised for the sake of those who find the type of their familiar copies 
no longer arailable .... The amount of information compressed into the 
oomparatirely few pages of the Appendix is wonderful. And the Dean 
is glad to hear that the help of such eminent contributors has been 
arailable for its compilation. The Concordance seems to be sufficiently 
full for reference to any text that may be required."— Thi Diah op 

ROOHISTKR. 

"I hare examined the OxFOan Biblb for Tkaohirb with rery great care, 
and congratulate you upon the publication of so valuable a work. It con- 
tains within a reasonable compass a large mass of most useful informa- 
tion, arranged so conreniently as to be easily accessible, and its effect will 
be not merely t» aid, but also, I think, to stimulate the studies of the 
reader. The book is also printed so beautifully, and Is so handsome in 
every way, that I expect It will be greatly sought after, as a most accept* 
able present to any ^ho are engaged in teaching in our Sunday Schools 
and elsewhere."— Thi Dian of Cantbrburt. 

"I hare examined with some care a considerable portion of the 'Helps 
to the Study of the Bible,' which are placed at the end of the Oxford 
BiBLi for l^ACHiRS, and have been much struck with the vast amount 
of really useful information which has there been brought together in a 
small compass, as well as the accuracy with which it has been compiled. 
The botanical and geological notices, the account of the animals of Scrip- 
ture, Jmx, seem to be excellent, and the maps are admirable. Altogether, 
the book cannot fail to be of service, not only to teachers, but to all who 
cannot afford a large library, or who have not time for much independent 
study."— Thb Dram of PRnRBOROuen. 

"I have been for some time well aware of the value of the Oxford Bibli 
FOR Trachxrs, and have been in the habit of reconmiending it, not only 
to Sunday-School Teachers, but to more advanced students, on the ground 
of its containing a large mass of accurate and well-digested information, 
useful and in many cases indispensable to the thoughtful reader of Holy 
Scripture ; in fact, along with the Bible, a copious Index, and a Concord- 
ance complete enough for all ordinary purposes, this one volume includes 
a series of short but comprehensive chapters equivalent to a small library 
of Biblical works."— Thx Bishop of Limrrick. 



THE OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS. 



lExtiacts from opinions {continued), 

"H^-^g examined the Ottord Biblb rom Tkacuirs careftilly, I am 
greatly pleased with it. The 'Helps to the Study of the Bible' at the 
end contain a great amount of most raluable information, well calculated 
not only to lead to a good understanding of the text, but to stimulate 
the student to further efforts. It differs from many publications in this, 
that the information is so admirably arranged, that it Is well suited for 
reference, and is easily arailable for the student The edition would be 
most useful to Sunday-School Teachers, a great help to those who desire 
that the young shall hate a real Imowledge of the Word of God."— Thi 
Bishop of Cork. 

"The Oxford Biblb tor TKAcniRS may, I think, without exaggeration, be 
described as a wonderful edition of the Holy Scriptures. The clearness and 
beauty of the type, and the convenient shape of the volume, leave nothing 
to be desired. I know nothing of the same compass which can be compared 
to the 'Helps to the Study of the Bible' for ftUness of information and 
general accuracy of treatment It is only real learning which can accom- 
plish such a feat of compression."— Tin Bishop of Dbrrt and Rafhoi. 

"I consider the Oxford Bibli for TxAcniRa to be simply the most 
valuable edition of the English Bible ever presented to the publia"— Ths 
Yes. Archdraoon Rbichbl. 

" The Oxford Biblb for Tbachbrs is in every respect, as r^ards typt, 
paper, binding, and general information, the most perfect volume I have 
ever examined."— Thb Rbv. Prbbbkdart Wilson, qfthe National Sodetifa 
Depotitorj/. 

"The latest researches are laid under contribution, and the Bible Student 
is furnished toith the pith of them aU."— Dr. Stouohton. 

"The whole combine to form a Help of the greatest value."— Dr. Anoub. 

"I cannot Imagine anything more complete or more helpfiiL"— Db. W. 

MORLBT PUNSHON. 

" I congratulate the teacher who possesses it, and knows how to turn its 
' Helps' to good account"— Dr. Kbnnbdt. 

" The essence of fifty expensive volumes, by men of sacred learning, it 
condensed into the pages of the Oxford Biblb for TBAOHBRa"— Tub Bby. 
Andrbw Thomson, D.D., of Edinburgh. 



THE OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS. 



lExtracts from ({Opinions (continued). 

"The Oxford Biblb for Trachbrb is the most raluable help to the 
study of the Holy Scriptures^ within a moderate compass, which I have 
ever met with. I shall make constant use of it; and imagine that few 
who are occupied with, or interested in the close study of the Scriptures, 
will allow such a companion to be fcur fh)m their side."— Thi Rbv. Baldwin 
Brown. 

"I do not think I shall ever leave home without the Oxford Biblb for 
Tracubrs, for one can scarcely miss his ordinary books of reference when 
this Bible is at hand. I know no other edition which contains so much 
valuable help to the reader."— Thi Rxv. A. H. Chartsris, DJ)., Dean of the 
Chapel jRoyaL 

"The Oxford Biblrs for Tkachbrs are as good as ever we can expect 
to see."— Thb Rbv. G. H. SpuROXoir. 

"The modest title of the work scarcely does Justice to the range of sub- 
jects which it comprehends, and the quality of their treatment As a manual 
of Biblical information and an auxiliary of Biblical study, it is unrivalled. 
It is as exhaustive as it is concise,— no irrelevant matter has been intro- 
duced, and nothing essential to Biblical study seems to have been omitted, — 
and in no instance, so far as I can Judge, has thoroughness or accuracy 
been sacrificed to the necessities of condensation."— Thb Rxv. Bobirt N. 
YoiTNe, qf Headinffley College, Leeds. 

"The Oxford Biblb for Txacdbrs is really one of the greatest boons 
which in our day has been offered to the reading publia The information 
given is so various, and so complete, as scarcely to leave a single desidera> 
tum. To Christians, in their quiet researches at home, or in the course 
of extensive Journeys, or in preparation for the duties of tuition, it is simply 
invaluable, and constitutes in itself a Biblical Library. The range of topics 
which it seeks to illustrate is very great, wliile the care and accuracy mani- 
fest in the articles deserves the highest praise. It is no exaggeration to say, 
that to the mass of Christian people it saves the expense of purchasing 
and the toil of consulting a library of volumes. At the same time, I know 
no book more likely to stimulate enquiry, and to give the power of appre- 
ciating further research into the history, structures^ and meaning of the 
Sacred Oracles."— Dr. Goold, qf EdinburgK 

"These admirable Bibles must tend to extend the fieime even of the Oxford 
Press."— Thb Rioht Hon. W. £. Gladstonb, M.P. 




THE OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS 

IS RECOHMESriED BT 









OPAL tf LICHrULD THBLOOICU D*. ALjEujIVn TBOHOnH, Ftfitr^ tf Bi^im 
tut, im tlu Wumii^ ImdMfi^jMW^ CwOf. 



i 




THE OXFORD BIBLE FOR TEACHERS 

IS RECOMMENDED BT 




V 



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