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121 972 




Author of "A Search for the Apex of America" 



Publishers m America for Hadder <$ Stoughton 


I congratulate Miss Annie S. Peck, the publisher of this 
book, and those who consult or read it, upon the preparation 
of a work of this character. Interest in Latin America is now 
so rapidly growing throughout all the world, and especially 
in the United States, that a descriptive guide-book of this kind 
regarding the regions commonly visited by tourists has become 
an actual need; such a work by Miss Peck is a practical 
and timely contribution to the literature of the day. There 
are few persons better qualified to write a book of this charac- 
ter. The remarkable explorations which Miss Peck has un- 
dertaken in the most difficult sections of Latin America, and 
the traveling she has done in all parts of it, not only have 
provided her with a vast fund of useful information about the 
countries of South America but give especial authority to 
what she writes. Her book contains in compact form an 
amount of definite information concerning the countries con- 
sidered, which should place it in the forefront of works of 
this character. 

While, of course, it is impossible for the Pan American 
Union, as an official organization, and myself, as its official 
head, to endorse in any way a particular book or accept re- 
sponsibility for the statements and views it contains, it gives 
me real pleasure, from a personal standpoint, to express the 
hope that this work of Miss Peck will have a wide circulation 
and prove of decided help in promoting travel to and through 
the Latin American countries. 

The Pan American Union, which, as readers of this book 
probably know, is the office of all the American republics the 
United States and its twenty sister Latin American countries 
organized and maintained by them for the purpose of 
(developing commerce, friendship, better acquaintance, and 
peace among them all, is doing everything possible and legiti- 
mate to persuade the traveling public of the United States 
and Europe to visit the Latin American, countries and become 
familiar with their progress and development. There is no 


influence in the world that helps more to advance friendship, 
comity, and commerce among countries than travel back and 
forth of their representative men and women. Nearly every 
person who visits Latin America under the advice of the Pan 
American Union, upon his or her return, writes a letter ex- 
pressing appreciation that this opportunity has been afforded 
of seeing these wonderful countries of the south. 

In conclusion, I would observe that if those who may be- 
come interested in Latin America through reading Miss Peck's 
book desire further information about any or all of these re- 
publics, the Pan American Union will always be glad to pro- 
vide them with such data as it may have for distribution. 

Director General of the Pan American Union. 

Washington, D. C., U. S. A., 
October, 21, 1913. 


To ALL Americans both of the Northland and of the South 
this book with due modesty is inscribed, in the hope that by 
inciting to travel and acquaintance it may promote commer- 
cial intercourse, with the resulting ties of mutual benefit and 
respect: in the hope, too, that the slender cord now feebly 
entwining the various Eepublics may soon draw them all into 
more intimate relations of friendship ; at last into a harmoni- 
ous Sisterhood, in which neither age nor size shall confer 
superior rights, but mutual confidence based upon the foun- 
dations of justice shall insure perpetual peace. 

The opportunity is here improved to express my grateful 
acknowledgment of kindly assistance and attentions of di- 
verse character, received throughout my travels from many 
of my own countrymen, from Englishmen invariably inter- 
ested 'and ready to aid, and from the ever courteous and 
helpful Latin Americans: officials and private individuals, 
with members of my own sex. As a complete list of these 
would be too long I permit myself the mention of those only 
who are entitled to especial recognition, our Minister to Bo- 
livia, 1910-1913, the Honorable Horace G. Knowles, and the 
Governments of Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina, without whose 
prompt and substantial aid this work would have been impos- 
sible. That its usefulness may be such as to convey to them 
a valid return is my earnest aspiration. 

The indulgence of critics and of tourists is sought for er- 
rors (few, I trust) and deficiencies which may be discovered. 
These and other faults will have crept in on account of a prep- 
aration somewhat hurried that the book might earlier be of 
service, and from the impossibility of securing on some points 
exact and adequate information, in spite of diligent investi- 
gation and careful scrutiny of facts and figures. 

Many items of interest and importance have been omitted 
lest the book should be too long. The selection of material it 



is hoped will be suitable to the general reader, though doubt- 
less every one will find topics presented to which he is indif- 
ferent and others neglected which appear to him of greater 

Hours have been spent in searching for the best authority 
as to widely different figures and even as to varying accents 
and spelling. In the absence of other information a few 
statements have with some trepidation been copied from au- 
thors whose recognized blunders have made their unverified 
observations appear questionable. 

While a different statement made by some other, albeit 
notable writer cannot be taken as conclusive evidence of error, 
any just criticism or suggestion presented to the author will 
be gratefully received and considered with a view to incorpo- 
rating it in a subsequent edition. 












































NOBTH PEAK or MT. HUASCABAN, 21,812 FEET Frontispiece 









































TlERRA DEL FXJEGO * . . 196 












RECOLETA PARK "..... 248 





































BAHIA 354 


Miss Peck's photograph of Mt. Huascardn, 
page 56, is used by permission of Harper 
& Brothers (copyright 1906), and through 
the courtesy of the Pan American Union 
eight illustrations were selected from Pan 
American Bulletin. 

1 ' v ; ''' :> > "' 1|i '- ;i 'Vr'* : !?' /1 ' tll '> t vi'V' t * ''"''' "' '';' 
& ! . ',!-.' *; ,." ;1 ' iriil /:!'!^; i ^ I 'T, 1 !iJ ll ' i \ ' s -" ^' '''' ;' V"" 





The South American Tour! "Gomo no?" "Why not?" 
as many Spanish Americans say when they wish to give 
hearty assent. Have you been around the world? Do you 
travel for pleasure or business? "Whatever your object, 
whether your purse is full or you wish to fill it, the south- 
ern half of our hemisphere is a land which should not be 

What is there to see ? May the journey be taken in comfort ? 
These things shall be revealed in detail after a few general 
facts have been presented. 

Is the enjoyment of scenery the chief aim of your travel? 
"With ease you may behold some of the finest in the world, 
much more if you care to take a little trouble: snow clad 
mountains galore rising above 20,000 feet, dwarfing the 
Alps into insignificance, giants to be admired not only 
from afar as tourists in India gaze upon the Himalayas, but 
from nearer points, even from their very foot; smoking vol- 
canoes, cliffs more lofty than those of the Tosemite, wonder- 
ful lake scenery including the highest sheet of water (12,500 
feet) where steamboats ply; strange yet fascinating deserts; 
wondrous waterfalls, one of these surpassing Niagara in 
height, volume, and beauty; magnificent tropical vegetation 
and forests, the highest railroads, the most picturesque and 
beautiful harbor of the world. All of these, with the excep- 
tion of the great cataract, are easily accessible, and form a 
combination of scenic attractions unsurpassed in any portion 
of the globe. 

Do strange people and cities interest you more ? You may 
wander in towns old and quaint, containing buildings of cen- 
turies past, and in cities quite up to date growing with the 
rapidity of our own. In a few places Indians in peculiar garb 
may be seen by the side of Paris gowns and English mas- 
culine attire, in others an Indian with sandals, hood, and 
poncho would attract as much attention as on Broadway. 


Several cities have "boulevards, parks, and opera houses finei 
than any of which North America can boast. 

Do you care for ruins, antiquities? These also abound, 
Whole cities of the dead are there, and others where the new 
civilization rises above or by the side of the old. Temples, 
palaces, fortifications, ancient statues, mummies, and pottery 
may be cursorily admired or profoundly studied, and search 
may still be made for undiscovered monuments of a pre- 
historic past. 

These countries rapidly advancing, with astonishing mineral 
and agricultural resources awaiting development, with rail- 
roads to be laid, with fast growing markets for almost every 
kind of merchandise, invite the trader and the capitalist to 
investigate hitherto neglected opportunities before it is too 

Well informed as to what there is to see, the possible tour- 
ist is certain to inquire if the journey will be comfortable. 
Perhaps, indeed, the order of the questions should be reversed ; 
for few, I greatly fear, would be tempted to say "Let us go I" 
if the tour involved any hardship. Happily this is not the 
case. Though the Imperator, the Mauretania, and the Olymr 
pic do not yet sail in that direction, the names of several steam- 
ship lines which serve the traveler to Panama, or Buenos 
Aires are a guarantee of comfort and of sufficient luxury. 
The steamers elsewhere are commodious, having for the most 
part state rooms provided with electric fans, and satisfying 
all reasonable requirements. The railroads in the various 
countries have the usual equipment. The hotels, if one does 
not depart from the ordinary line of travel, will in general 
be found satisfactory, providing excellent food, good beds, etc., 
and in those cities where some little time should be spent 
meeting the wants of all except the ultra fastidious tourist. 

If we do not sympathize with the cry "See America first," 
bearing in mind that America is the whole and not a fraction 
of the Western Continent, at least, when we have seen the 
Old World, instead of ever retracing our steps in familiar 
ways, let us seek the strange New World beyond the equator 
where a brief tour will reveal a multitude of scenes amazing 
and delightful, even to the experienced traveler. 




The South American Tour, rapidly becoming fashionable 
and popular, and about to be described, includes the most in- 
teresting and accessible portions of that continent, its finest 
scenery, its greatest cities. A wonderful variety in the swiftly 
moving pictures prevents any dullness on the part of the intel- 
ligent traveler, who is ever kept alert for the continually 
fresh experiences of this remarkable journey. 

Where. My tourist party will be conducted first to Panama, 
where soon the sail from ocean to ocean through an immense 
artificial channel will awaken sensations of wonder and pride. 
The opportunity then to continue in the same vessel along 
the West Coast of South America, invaluable for commerce 
and for those on business bent, may prove a disadvantage to 
the pleasure traveler, by tempting him to pass with a mere 
glance the City of Panama and other spots worthy of observa- 

On the Pacific side Peru, Bolivia, and Chile will be visited 
by every one: a few may make the side trip to Ecuador, 
Guayaquil and Quito, In order to return along the East 
Coast one may complete the circuit of the continent by sail- 
ing down, through the Straits of Magellan, past Punta 
Arenas, and up on this side, or with the greater number may 
cross the Andes by rail, thus to reach the metropolis of South 
America, Buenos Aires. Thence, after, or if not including, 
an excursion to Paraguay and to the greatest of American 
waterfalls, the Iguassu, one may sail to Montevideo in Uruguay 



from there to Brazil, returning from Rio de Janeiro directly 
to New York, or by way of Europe as preferred. Similarly 
the trip may be made from Europe by several lines of steamers 
direct to Panama, or more quickly by way of New York, with 
a return from Rio. 

Altogether omitted from this itinerary are the countries 
on the northern shore of South America. Of these Colombia 
and Venezuela are better included in a West India trip. 
The Guianas by ordinary tourists are neglected. 

Obviously the journey may be made in either direction: 
as above, or in reverse order; but unless the season of the 
year invites a change the former sequence should by all 
means be followed. Thus taken the journey is one of ever 
increasing interest, until its culmination in the delightful 
harbor and city of Rio de Janeiro. Not that Peru is in- 
ferior to Bolivia and Chile, or Buenos Aires to Rio, let me 
hasten to add ; each has its own peculiar charm ; but one who 
begins with the West Coast will find the entire journey far 
more enjoyable and impressive. 

When one should go depends more upon when one wishes 
to leave home than upon the conditions prevailing in South 
America; also upon one's individual taste as to temperature. 
In brief, one may safely make the trip whenever it suits his 
convenience. Bearing in mind what so many seem to for- 
get, that the seasons are reversed in the northern and southern 
hemispheres, one may leave home to escape either heat or 
cold, or to avoid March winds, as he may elect. In none of 
the countries to be visited is the variation between winter and 
summer so great as in the latitude of New York, nor is the 
tropical heat anywhere on the journey so intense as that on 
many days of every summer here. 

Leaving the United States on a four months' tour at any 
time between the middle of November and the last of August, 
I strongly advise one to visit the West Coast first. During 
the remaining three months, one who dislikes hot weather 
might better begin with Brazil. In December, January, and 
February, the mercury at Rio is mostly in the eighties, 
In January I found it comfortable enough for summer 
weather, but I needed the ten degrees lower temperature of an 
earlier or a later season to make my visit absolutely ideal. 


With, a delightful climate during nine months of the year, the 
city at any time is perfectly healthy; since the yellow fever, 
formerly a dreaded scourge, was stamped out at Eio during 
the same period that this was accomplished in Panama. 

Buenos Aires also may be more advantageously visited dur- 
ing the cooler weather, both because the opera and social 
festivities are then in full swing, and because one is likely to 
be more energetic for sight-seeing, of which there is much to 
be done. In Peru and Bolivia, on the usual route of travel it 
is never hot enough to be troublesome. Chile, in the central 
and most visited portion, is a trifle less agreeable during the 
southern summer than in spring or fall, especially on account 
of the dust, but this matters little for a brief stay. 

Four months should be allowed for the trip. A couple 
who made it in three, though delighted with their journey, 
mourned over the unavoidable omissions and were planning 
to go again. Six months is not too much; a whole year could 
be profitably employed : but in four months or a trifle more, 
one may visit the most important places and gain a fair idea 
of the various countries. The personally conducted parties 
for three months only are well worth while. 

The expense of the trip will naturally vary according to 
the time and extent of the journey and the economy or ex- 
travagance of the tourist. A round trip ticket from New 
York to New York, good either by the Straits or across the 
Andes, may be purchased for $475, or including a return by 
way of Europe for $505. Additional expenses may be from 
$500 or less to $1000 or more according to the person, the 
time, and the number of side trips taken. By several tourist 
agencies personally conducted parties are semi-annually dis- 
patched to South America at a cost varying from $1375 for a 
tour of 98 or 99 t days to $2250 for 146 days. Also the Ham- 
burg-American Line has sent a ship around to Valparaiso by 
way of the Straits. Tickets $475 to $3000; optional extra 
shore trips $300 or more. On the completion of the Canal 
they will probably have a ship making the entire circuit. 

Persons who prefer to be relieved of care, or who do not 
speak Spanish, the language current at all points of the journey 
save Brazil, and there understood by educated people, will 
do well to join a party, especially if their time is limited. 


Those who can devote a longer period to the trip and who 
like to do their own planning may see more by themselves at 
either greater or less expense. One who speaks only English, 
by keeping to the main line of travel and patronizing the 
leading hotels, should have no serious difficulty; though it 
is, of course, an advantage, readily gained by one who is 
familiar with Latin or French, to have some acquaintance with 
Spanish, an easy and beautiful language. A bare smatter- 
ing picked up from a phrase book on the voyage is better than 
nothing, while a conversational knowledge greatly enhances 
the pleasure and profit of the journey. 

Baggage. In regard to baggage, the less taken the better, 
both on account of the expense and because of the care it 
entails , yet it is well to have a fair supply of good clothes, 
since evening dress is everywhere more strictly en regie than 
in most parts of the United States. t The steamships are not 
all rigid as to the precise amount of baggage, though the 
allowance on different lines varies from 150 to 400 Ibs. ; the 
railroads are strict and extra baggage is expensive ; only 100 
Ibs. are allowed. Going up to Bolivia by the Southern Kail- 
way of Peru, a heavy box or two may cost as much as the 
ticket. Many tourists take only hand baggage to Cuzco and 
La Paz, leaving on bo.ard the steamer their heavy pieces, to 
be reclaimed later at Valparaiso. On all roads, the hand 
baggage goes free ; hence suit cases, etc., are much in evidence. 

Clothing. One needs a supply of both light and heavy 
weight, the proportion of each depending upon the season of 
the year. Always by way of the Isthmus there are eight 
or ten days of summer weather en route, and several weeks 
during the East Coast journey. Along the seaboard of Peru 
and Chile woolen or heavy underwear may be desirable for 
many, as on the highlands of Peru and Bolivia; also in 
Chile and Argentina during their winter season, when a tem- 
perature in the forties and fifties will be experienced; some 
hotels have no fires, and the nights and mornings are chill. 
On the mountain railways, as during a portion of the sea 
voyage, wraps and rugs are needed in addition to moderately 
heavy clothing. Furs though unnecessary may be found 
agreeable during the months of winter, June to September. 

Money may be carried in letters of credit on W. R. Grace or 


other bankers, or by American Express or Travelers' Cheques, 
together with a moderate supply of gold, preferably in Eng- 
lish sovereigns. The English pound, being precisely the same 
as the Peruvian, is interchangeable with them ; in other coun- 
tries it is more acceptable and convenient than American 
gold, though in the large cities either will be readily ex- 
changed. A point to be noted and remembered is that most 
resident Americans and English, a few natives, and travelers 
in South America generally, speak of certain coins, soles or 
pesos, as^ dollars; a poor custom which should not be imitated. 
Since it is prevalent, one must be on guard to avoid mistakes. 
In Panama a clerk or a coachman saying twenty cents or one 
dollar means silver; L e., 10 and 50 cents, United States 
currency. A man in Lima who speaks of twenty dollars 
probably means soles, practically ten dollars. In Bolivia a 
bolivian is about 40 cents, a,<peso in Chile is 22 cents more or 
less, in Argentina 44, in Uruguay $1.04; in Brazil a milreis is 
33 cents. All of the countries divide their unit decimally, 
and if it were not for the foolish custom of English speaking 
folk, there would be no confusion. In this book the words 
dollars and cents and the sign $ will everywhere signify 
United States currency ; otherwise the names employed by the 
respective countries will be used, as soles, pesos, and centa- 
vo$. In connection with Brazilian money the sign $ is put 
after the number; thus 15 milreis is written 15$000. 


IN 1903, before the United States' occupation, there was no 
choice as to means of transport to the Isthmus. A single 
steamship company, that of the Panama Bailroad, dispatched 
a vessel from New York once a week. Now there are four 
different lines with as many weekly sailings, besides one from 
New Orleans, a more convenient point of departure for many 
south of Mason and Dixon's line. The four companies, all 
with headquarters in New York, will gladly furnish the latest 
information in regard to their own sailing and accommoda- 
tions as on other points in reference to the tour. 

Fares. The lowest fare from New York to Colon, $75.00, 
to Panama, $78.00, is the same on all lines, better accom- 
modations being provided for a supplementary fee of from 
$15.00 up. It is wisdom to purchase, if not a ticket for the 
round trip, one as far at least as Mollendo, $191, as a 
slight reduction is made on through tickets. Stop-overs are 
allowed at any of the ports of call, and on the East or "West 
Coasts of South America the journey may, if more convenient, 
be resumed on certain other lines of steamers without extra 
charge, save for embarking or disembarking in the small boats. 

The respective merits of the four steamship lines to Panama 
are a matter of opinion. On three of these I have enjoyed the 
voyage, especially my last in a luxurious suite on the Prin& 
August Wilhelm of the Atlas Hamburg- American Line. 

The old PANAMA COMPANY claims that its boats are provided 
with all of the comforts afforded by the others, including rooms 
with private baths. It has slightly irregular sailings, seven 
a month, with several steamers making the journey in six 
days, instead of the seven, eight, or nine occupied by ships 
of the other lines. Those who prefer American cooking or 
the shorter voyage will choose one of these ships. 



The EOYAL MAIL and the HAMBURG- AMERICAN lines are quite 
similar to each, other in service and accommodations; the boats 
of the former sail for Colon on alternate Saturdays, calling on 
the way at Antilla, Cuba, and at Kingston, Jamaica: those 
of the latter sail every Saturday, touching at Santiago de 
Cuba and Kingston. The Royal Mail Steamers are scheduled 
to arrive at Colon on Sunday, eight days from New York, 
connecting with the P. S. N. boats departing on Monday for 
the south. But through tickets are good by any of the three" 
lines on the other side; and one may delay on the Isthmus 
for a few days or weeks of sight-seeing. The Hamburg- Ameri- 
can steamers arrive at Colon Monday, one week connecting 
with a P. S. N. steamer, the next with one of the Peruvian 
and another of the Chilian Line sailing the same afternoon. 
No one, however, who is making a pleasure trip should cross 
the Isthmus without staying over a few days. 

The UNITED FRUIT COMPANY boasts of a great white fleet 
with four sailings to Colon a week; two, on Wednesday and 
Saturday, from New York; and two on the same days from 
New Orleans. These ships, they say, are the only ones going 
to Colon which were designed and built especially for tropical 
service, thus having all of the latest devices for comfort as 
well as for safety. Among these are bilge keels and automatic 
water-tight compartments. A wireless equipment as a matter 
of course the boats of all lines carry ; these have also a subma- 
rine signal apparatus, to give warning of the proximity of an- 
other vessel, and, as an especial feature, lifeboats which with a 
patent lever may be swung off and lowered by a single man. 
By the system of ventilation the temperature of the rooms 
at night may be kept down to 55 if desired, a boon to many 
on the muggy Caribbean; and the electric lights have the 
rare quality of burning low. All of the boats on the various 
lines have pianos and music, most of them cards, checkers, 
chess, and libraries, the United Fruit Company supplying 
the latest magazines. 

The Saturday steamers of this line from New York call 
Thursday at Kingston, Jamaica, where they remain until two 
p. m. Friday. They are due at Colon at noon on Sunday. 
The Wednesday steamers take a day less for the trip; at 
Kingston where they arrive on Monday they remain from 7 


a. m. till 4 p. m. The Isthmus is reached at 1 p. m. on 

Via New Orleans. The opportunity to go by way of New 
Orleans may appeal, especially in winter, to some who have 
not visited that city and to those who desire to avoid the pos- 
sibility of two or three cold stormy days on the sea before 
entering the regions of perpetual summer. The steamers sail 
in five days to Colon, the Saturday boats arriving Thursday 
a. m. and the Wednesday boats Monday morning. 

The voyage to Panama, indeed all of the six or seven weeks 
on the sea, which are a necessary part of this tour, will be 
likely to prove an agreeable experience even to those who 
as a rule do not enjoy the ocean. While the waters of the 
Atlantic may at any season be turbulent and tempestuous, the 
portions of both oceans which are to be traversed are for the 
most part so smooth that unless persons are determined to be 
seasick whether they have occasion or not, it is probable that 
they will suffer little or none from this unpleasant malady. 
Ordinarily the sail to Panama, under sunny skies, over un- 
ruffled seas, in weather, after a day or two, warm enough for 
summer clothing, is a pleasure unalloyed. On the Caribbean 
it may be a trifle muggy and sticky, but if favored with sun- 
shine the wonderful blue of the waters, deeper than that of the 
Bay of Naples, affords solace. On some of the ships a little 
dance on deck, if happily under a tropical moon, may be an 
experience affording delightful memories. 

Watling's Island. After leaving New York harbor and the 
adjoining coast the first land to come within range of vision 
is that of Watling's Island, noted for a lighthouse of great 
power and value. Otherwise unimportant, it acquires in- 
terest from the fact that on this shore Columbus is believed 
to have made his first landing in the Western World. The 
island is thus entitled to the more pretentious name, San 
Salvador, bestowed by the great explorer upon the land where 
first he trod in devout thanksgiving, after many weeks of 
painful suspense upon the limitless ocean. 

Fortunate is the traveler who towards sunset enters Wind- 
ward Channel, passing before dark the desolate wooded bluffs 
of the eastern extremity of Cuba, Cape Maysi, and later hav- 
ing a look at the southeast shores where rise sombre, forest 


covered peaks to an imposing height, the loftiest above 8000 
feet. From a Panama or United Fruit Company steamer no 
more will you see of Cuba ; but on a boat of the Eoyal Mail 
you will already have called at ANTILLA, in the eastern section 
of the island's northern shore, a new and growing seaport on 
Nipe Bay, and the north terminus of the Cuban Eailway. 
Extensive docking facilities have been provided, large ware- 
houses, immense tanks for molasses, a good hotel: and plans 
are made for building here a great commercial city. 

Santiago de Cuba. By the Hamburg-American Line the 
first call is made on the south side of the island at the more 
famous and considerable city, Santiago de Cuba, which, 
founded in 1514, is. said to be the oldest settlement of size in 
the Western Hemisphere. With a population of 50,000, 
among Cuban cities it comes next to Havana. It has also 
historic interest. That Hernando Cortez from this port, Nov. 
18, 1518, set out for the bold conquest of the Aztec Empire is 
a fact less widely known than the more recent circumstance 
that in this sheltered harbor the fleet of Admiral Cervera lay 
concealed, until July 3, 1898, it sailed forth to its doom. In 
the narrow portal, less than 600 feet wide, rests the old 
Merrimac, sunk by Lt. Hobson and seven others, June 3, 1898. 
On the right of the entrance, crowning a bluff 200 feet high, is 
the old Morro Castle, an ancient fortress of picturesque ap- 
pearance, begun soon after the founding of the city and pos- 
sessing towers and turrets in genuine mediaeval style. Six 
miles farther, at the head of the bay, on a sloping terrace with 
steep hills behind, is the bright, gay city; though at the noon- 
tide hour it may seem a trifle sleepy and dull. 

If time permits, a drive on the fine roads will be enjoyed. 
To the San Juan battlefield three miles distant and to El Caney 
a little farther the fare is $1.50 for a single person, $2.00 for 
several. The longer drive to Morro Castle, fare $3.50, affords 
charming views. In the city one proceeds first to the plaza, 
where on one side is the great cathedral called the largest 
in Cuba, containing rare marbles and mahogany choir stalls. 
On the other sides are the Casa Grande Hotel and the Venus 
Eestaurant. Near by is the Filarmonia Theatre where the 
famous diva, Adalina Patti, is said to have made her debut. 
A few may care to visit the spot where the Captain and sail- 


ors of the Virginius were executed as filibusters in 1873, a 
slaughter pen near the harbor front to the east of the Cuba 
Bailway Station. An inscribed tablet there commemorates 
the sad event. 

Kingston, Jamaica, is visited by all of the steamers except 
those of the Panama Line, the "Wednesday boat of the United 
Fruit Company having previously touched at Port Antonio 
on the northeast end of the same island ; the port, a busy place, 
owing its present prosperity chiefly to our fondness for 
bananas. Captain Baker of Boston in 1868 began the trade 
which the United Fruit Company has developed to immense 
proportions. The splendid Hotel Titchfield which the com- 
pany has erected affords every facility for a delightful sum- 
mer outing during our winter season. 

The older and larger city of Kingston is on the south side 
of the island, by the excellent and far famed harbor of Port 
Koyal. The town of that name, ancient rende^ous of Morgan 
and the buccaneers, once stood on the long sandy spit which 
separates the bay from the ocean. But on a day in 1692 oc- 
curred one of those memorable tragedies at which the whole 
world stands appalled. The earth was shaken. The city sank 
beneath the sea, where it is said that some of the buildings 
may yet be seen, when the waves are still, deep down below 
the smiling tranquil surface. Kingston, then founded on the 
main shore, recently suffered (January 14, 1907), as we well 
remember, a similar though less complete disaster, being 
merely shaken down instead of swallowed up. Like San Fran- 
cisco it was promptly rebuilt with better architecture. Quite 
up to date with electric cars and other modern conveniences, 
it is an attractive place of scenic and tropical beauty, excel- 
lent too for shopping. Interesting are the markets, the old 
Parish Church, badly shaken, but still standing; the main 
streets, King and Queen, at right angles to each other; the 
Jamaica Institute with museum and library where among 
other historical curios may be seen the famous Shark papers, 
in 1799 thrown overboard, swallowed by a shark, but soon after 
rescued from his maw, to the discomfiture of the Yankee cap- 
tain of the Nancy 9 an American privateer. In the suburbs 
of the city within easy reach is Kong's House, the fine res- 
idence of the Governor-General. Worth visiting (electric 


cars) is Hope Gardens, an estate of 220 acres, with a fine col- 
lection of indigenous plants and many exotics. The splendid 
roads over the island, the possibilities for delightful excur- 
sions, the most enchanting the ascent of Blue Mountain, 
7423 feet, would tempt to a longer stay. But we hasten on- 
ward to more distant and greater glories. 

Western Tourists. Tourists living west of the Rocky 
Mountains may prefer to sail from San Francisco or Los 
Angeles to Balboa, the port of Panama y at a considerable sav- 
ing of expense, though not of time. Express steamers twice 
a month make the voyage from San Francisco in 14 days with 
the single call at San Pedro (Los Angeles), fare $85; while 
three times a month there are other boats which do not stop 
at San Pedro, but make eleven calls in Mexico and Central 
America, thus affording opportunity to see some of those 
ports, consuming 26 days on the trip. On these steamers the 
fare is $120. All these boats are of the Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Company. By way of New York~the journey from San 
Francisco to Panama may, with close connection, be made 
in 10 or 12 days. 

European Tourists may sail from Southampton by Eoyal 
Mail steamer in 18 days to Colon, fare $125, or from Cher- 
bourg, 17 days, fare $100. 

Other companies which have steamers sailing from Europe 
to Colon are the Hamburg-American, four times monthly 
from Havre and Hamburg, the Leyland C. Harrison, three 
times a month from Liverpool, the Cia. Generale Transat- 
lantica, once a month from St. Nazaire and once from Bor- 
deaux, the Cia. Transatlantiea and the Cia. La Veloce, each 
monthly from Barcelona and Genoa. 


Two days from Jamaica, six, seven, eight, or nine from 
New York, one arrives at Colon, eager to witness the wonder- 
ful operations now well-nigh concluded, or to behold the fin- 
ished work, when great ships, no longer halting at the At- 
lantic shore, shall, through a broad channel among green hills 
and islands, sail onward to the serene Pacific. Every one 
knows of the marvellous transformation on the Isthmus dur- 
ing the last ten years, but the most imaginative person, now 
arriving for the first time, will hardly fancy what it was like 
in 1903. 

Colon, once called the most repulsive, disagreeable, filthy 
hole of a place in all Christendom, though always a pretty 
picture from -the sea, is at present fair enough on land. The 
climate only remains unchanged. It still rains and rains : 
130 inches a year : not all the time even in the rainy season, 
which it is very apt to be, as that continues eight months, 
from the first of May to January, leaving a dry season of 
only four. Even in this period it is liable to rain, so it be- 
hoves every one to be provided with raincoat and umbrella, 
if not with overshoes. Everywhere there are good walks and 
in the towns, paved streets, beyond which the tropical sun soon 
dries the mud. 

The agreeableness of the Isthmian climate as a whole and 
in various localities, if to some extent indicated by figures, is 
largely a matter of individual temperament. With little dif- 
ference in temperature Colon has double the rainfall of Pan- 
ama with a corresponding excess of humidity. Yet happily 
for the welfare of the great work and the workers, it has been 
the fashion on the Isthmus for every one to have local pride ; 
to like his own station the best, whether on either shore, or in 
one of the pleasant villages along the line. It is genuine 
summer weather all the year around; not excessive heat, like 



our days in the 90 's and 100 's; but mostly in the plain 80 's 
by day, with cooler and comfortable nights. 


This section of the New World was first visited in 1501 by Colum- 
bus, who touched at Nombre de Dios and Porto Bello east of Colon, 
perhaps sailing into Limon Bay; this he certainly did in 1502, nam- 
ing the place Puerto Naos, Navy Bay, as it was called until recent 
years. It is just 400 years ago, September 25, 1513, that Yasco 
Nunez de Balboa first saw the great Pacific, then named the South 
Sea, not, as often said, from the hill near Gorgona, called Bal- 
boa, more properly the Cerro Gigante, but from another 120 miles 
east, as he was crossing the San Bias country. Thence he con- 
tinued to the Bay San Miguel of Darien. This bold explorer, like 
many another, fared badly. He was beheaded a few years later 
at the age of forty-four. In 1519 the site of an Indian fishing 
village near the farther shore was selected by Governor Pedrarias 
as that of his future capital, and in 1521, it was made a city by 
royal decree. This was Old Panama which soon became a place of 
great wealth and luxury, as for a century or more the rich treas- 
ures of Peru passed by this route to Old Spain. Yet it suffered 
many vicissitudes from fires, buccaneers, and insurrections till at 
length, when its prosperity had already begun to wane on account 
of the ships going by the Strait of Magellan, it was captured, 
plundered, and destroyed, by the freebooter, Henry Morgan, Jan- 
uary 19, '1671, never to be rebuilt. January 21, 1673, the new 
city of Panama, about four miles distant, was dedicated. Until 
1821 the Isthmus was under the dominion of Spain, and after that, 
in spite of numerous insurrections, remained a part of the country 
of New Granada, later Colombia, until its sudden practical transfer 
to the United States. On November 3, 1903, its independence was 
proclaimed, on the sixth the infant Republic was recognized by 
the United States, and on February 26, 1904, a treaty with the 
United States was signed by which it became a Protectorate, with 
a position similar to that of Cuba. 

As early as 1527 an explorer from Panama city went from the 
Pacific up the Bio Grande Valley, crossed the divide by Culebra 
and sailed down the Chagres River to the Atlantic Ocean. Soon 
this was a popular route, to sail up the Chagres to a point fifteen 
miles from Panama and continue by land to that city. As early 
as 1534 the idea of a canal occurred to that great monarch, Charles 
V, who had a route surveyed. Pronounced too expensive even for 
his great wealth, the project was abandoned, but 381 years later ; 


a far greater canal than he dreamed of will be opened in the very 
same track which his surveyors followed. 


Various canal projects in the meanwhile have been cherished, 
though the building of the Panama Railroad, 1850-1855, had a de- 
terrent effect on the enterprise; but in May, 1876, the Government 
of Colombia made a concession for the work to a French Com- 
pany and operations soon followed. After surveys by Lieutenant 
Wyse a sea-level canal from Lirnon Bay to Panama by the pass at 
Culebra (meaning snake) was decided upon. January 10, 1881, 
Ferdinand de Lesseps, promoter of the Suez Canal, made the cere- 
monial beginning at the Pacific entrance, and January 20, 1882, 
the first excavation was begun near the continental divide where, 
in the section called the Culebra Cut, work has proceeded ever since 
except from 1888 to 1891. The French were badly handicapped by 
disease, Colombian interference, incomplete plans, and insufficient 
funds, and were injured at home by rumors of sickness, extrava- 
gance, etc. In 1887 the sea-level plan was transformed to a lock- 
level, and February 4, 1889, the company went into the hands of a 
receiver. Several persons were convicted of fraud including Ferdi- 
nand de Lesseps, who, eighty-six years of age, was probably in en- 
tire ignorance of the business details. He died soon after. 

In 1894 energetic work was recommenced by the new company 
which continued operations until the Americans took possession, 
May 4, 1904. $225,000,000 had been spent upon the work for which 
the United States paid $40,000,000. Eecently it was estimated to 
have been worth $42,799,826. The advantages of the Americans 
over the French in having political control of the region, modern 
sanitary methods, better means of excavating, and unlimited money 
should be considered; and due credit and admiration should be 
awarded by all to de Lesseps and the Frenchmen who did so much, 
according to the verdict of praise rendered by our own engineers. 

Panama Canal. In June, 1904, Chief Engineer Wallace, 
Col. W. C. Gorgas, and others sailed to the Isthmus to pur- 
sue the great work which had been transferred to the United 
States, May 4, by the French. Digging in the Culebra Cut 
was continued, but the chief labor for two years and a half 
was to remedy the unsanitary conditions, to provide accom- 
modations for the employees, to perfect the organization, to 
reconstruct and double-track the railroad, and to improve the 
terminal facilities : necessary preparations for the colossal task. 
The sanitation of Colon and Panama included repaving, 


sewerage systems, and fresh water supply, as a part of the 
war against yellow and malarial fever. A proportionate sum 
spent on sanitation in the United States would be $12,000,- 
000,000 a year, one-third of the entire amount devoted to 
all government expenses. Since January, 1907, the work has 
progressed rapidly, so that the canal is expected to he com- 
pleted and in operation some time before the date of its formal 
inauguration January 1, 1915. 

In spite of being hampered in many ways, much valuable 
work was accomplished by Chief Engineer John F. Wallace, 
who resigned after one year, and by his successor, John F. 
Stevens. He serving until 1907 is said by Col. Goethals to 
have laid out the transportation scheme in a manner which 
could not have been equaled by any army engineer. The 
engineering skill and the great administrative ability of Col. 
George "W. Goethals, Chairman of the Isthmian Canal Com- 
mission, Chief Engineer, President of the Eailroad, Governor 
of the Zone, etc., are so well known and already so highly 
honored as to need no encomiums here. A benevolent despot, 
able, wise, just, and honest, it is indeed a pleasure in this 
day and generation to find one as to whose virtues all are 
agreed, whose undying fame is as yet free from the malice of 
petty jealousy. 

The length of the Canal, from deep water on one side to the 
same on the other, that is, from the Toro Point breakwater 
on the Atlantic side to Naos Island on the Pacific side, is about 
50 miles, 10 miles from shore to shore. From the Atlantic 
entrance, by a channel 41 feet deep with a bottom width 
of 500 feet, it is seven miles to Gatun, two-thirds of which is 
in Limon Bay, the rest apparently along a fairly broad river. 
At Gatun, as everybody knows, are the locks, a double series 
of three, by means of which the ships will be raised 85 feet to 
the level of Gatun Lake. This, with an area of 164 square 
miles, is without doubt the largest artificial sheet of water in 
the world. The lake naturally has a widely varying depth 
and a highly irregular shape, with large and small arms, prom- 
ontories, and islands; but vessels may sail at full speed 
along a channel from 500 to 1000 feet in width for a distance 
of 24 miles until at Bas Obispo the Culebra Cut is entered. 
This, about nine miles long, has a bottom width, except . 


on the curves, of 300 feet only, making a slower rate oj 
speed necessary. At Pedro Miguel the ship will be lowered 
by one lock to a smaller lake covering 1200 acres, 30 feel 
below. A mile and a half beyond, at Miraflores, the ship, 
by means of two locks, will return to sea level, thence sailing 
on, 8^ miles more, out into the Pacific. 

The sail from ocean to ocean will to all be of intense 
interest, though more highly appreciated by those who visited 
the region before it was submerged, watched the great shovels 
cutting away the range of hills which forms the continental 
divide, and saw the locks in process of formation. 

The great Gatun dam seems a wonderful creation, though 
the only remarkable feature is its size. It should be borne 
in mind that the extensive surface of the lake among the hills 
does not cause any greater pressure upon the wall of the dam 
than if it covered but a single acre; the depth of the water 
being the determining factor, not the extent of surface. The 
dam is nearly a mile and a half long at the top ; half a mile 
wide at the bottom, 400 feet at the water surface, and 100 
at its crest, designed to be 105 feet above sea level and 20 
feet above the normal level of the lake: a very wide margin 
of safety. Of the entire length of the dam only 500 feet, 
a small fraction, one-fifteenth, of the whole, will be exposed 
to the maximum water head, 87 feet. The thickness of the 
dam is greater than was deemed necessary by engineers, with 
the result that there is no seepage : but it was thought best to 
satisfy over-apprehensive Congressmen by the employment of 
excessive caution. The interior of the dam is an impermeable 
mixture of sand and clay obtained by dredging above and 
below, placed between two parallel ridges of rock and ordi- 
nary material obtained from the steam-shovel excavations. 
The upstream slope of slight grade is thoroughly riprapped 
ten feet below and ten above the mean water level. The 21 
million cubic yards of material composing the dam, which 
covers 400 acres, is sufficient to build a wall three feet high 
and thick nearly halfway around the world. 

The Gatim Lake will receive all the waters of the Chagres 
basin of 1320 square miles and will contain at its ordinary 
level 206 billion cubic feet of water. An outlet, an obvious 
necessity, is provided in the spillway, a cut through a hill 


of rock nearly in the center of the dam, southwest of the locks. 
This opening, lined with concrete, is 1200 feet long and 285 
feet wide, with the bottom, at the upper end ten feet above sea 
level, sloping down. 

Until the construction of the dam was well advanced the 
water from the Chagres and its tributaries flowed out through 
this opening. Then it was closed at the upper or lake end 
by a dam of concrete 808 feet long in the form of an arc of 
a circle, its crest 69 feet above the sea. Upon this, 13 con- 
crete piers rise to a height of 115.5 feet, with steel gates by 
which the water level of the lake will be regulated. 

The immense double locks deserve more than a cursory 
glance. Similar in construction and dimensions, each has a 
usable length of 1000 feet and a width of 110 feet. The 
chambers have floors and walls of concrete with mitering 
gates at each end. The walls, perpendicular on the inside, 
are 45 to 50 feet thick near the bottom, but the outer 
walls narrow from a point 24 feet above the floor to a thickness 
of 8 feet at the top. The middle wall separating the double 
locks is 60 feet thick and 81 high, with both faces vertical; 
but in the upper part it is not solid. A tunnel in the wall 
has three divisions, the lowest for drainage, the middle for 
electric wires to operate the gate and valve machinery, the 
highest as a passage way for the operators. An enormous 
amount of concrete has been employed for the locks, four 
million or more cubic yards, with as many barrels of cement, 
enough to make a sidewalk 9 feet wide and 6 inches thick 
more than twice around the world. 

Matching the walls are immense steel gates, 7 feet thick, 
65 feet wide, and from 47 to 82 feet high, with a weight of 
from 390 to 730 tons each. At the entrance to the locks are 
double gates, also at the lower end of the upper lock in each 
flight, in case of ramming by a ship accidentally breaking 
through the fender chain ; for there are 24 chains in addition 
to the gates, to prevent the gates being rammed by a ship 
under its own steam or having escaped from the towing loco- 
motive. The chains will be lowered into a groove to allow 
the ships to pass. 

Ships will not be permitted to enter the locks under their 
own steam, but will be towed through by electric locomotives, 


usually four to each vessel, two ahead and two astern, the 
latter to keep the vessel in the middle, and in the right place. 
The gates and valves are also operated by electricity, with 
power obtained through water turbines from the head created 
by G-atun Lake. The locks will be filled and emptied by a 
system of culverts, one of which, about the size of the Hudson 
Biver tunnels of the Pennsylvania Eailroad, 18 feet in diame- 
ter, extends along the side and middle walls, with smaller 
branches under the floor of the locks. The water enters and 
leaves by holes in the floor. The culverts are so arranged as 
to economize water by passing it from one twin lock to the 
other. To save both time and water each lock chamber has a 
single gate near the middle dividing it into two parts, only 
one of which will be used for vessels less than 600 feet long. 
To fill and empty a lock will require about 15 minutes: to 
pass through the three at Gatun, about an hour and a half, 
and as much more to go down the locks on the Pacific side. 
The entire passage through the Canal will occupy 10 or 12 
hours according to the speed of the ship, in the narrower 
parts all being obliged to go slowly. While it is hoped that 
the first steamer will pass through the Canal in December, 
1913, if not earlier, there is no expectation of its being open 
for general traffic before the summer of 1914. 

Colon. Passengers arriving on a Panama Eailroad Steam- 
ship at Christolal, practically a part of Colon, may find wait- 
ing on the dock a special train to carry them across the 
Isthmus. The tourist, en route to a Pacific port, with his 
heavy baggage checked through, may let that go on to Balboa, 
the place of embarkation on the other side, and himself remain 
with hand luggage to look about Colon. Tourists on other 
steamers land at a Colon dock, from which it is a five minutes' 
walk to the railway station* Men and boys are about, to as- 
sist with hand baggage. All that is checked through should be 
transported to Balboa without personal care ; but the cautious 
traveler will have an eye upon it to see that it goes to the 
station here, and aboard the proper steamer on the Pacific side. 

HOTELS. Washington, E. P. Rooms $3.00 per day and up, 
December 1 to June 1. June to December $2.00. Meals $1,00 each 
or a la carte. Imperial Hotel, Park Hotel. 


Carnage Fare, 10 cents for one, 20 cents for two, 25 cents for 
three, 30 cents for four. By the hour 75 cents for one, $1.00 for 
two, and so on. 

Regular trains for Panama (June, 1913) at 5:10 and 10:30 a. m., 
and 4:25 p. m.; time two and one-half hours. Inquire as to spe- 
cial sight-seeing trains. 

Landing early in the morning one may have sufficient time 
to look about Colon and Christobal before taking the afternoon 
train for Panama. Those planning a longer stay, to enjoy 
some of the excursions available, will drive at once to the 
new "Washington Hotel on Colon Beach, near the site of the 
old house of that name, which, giving way to its stately suc- 
cessor, now stands in the rear of Christ Church and there 
fulfills its original purpose to supply lodging for the railway 
employees. The new hotel, built of hollow tiles and re- 
enforced concrete in a modification of the Spanish Mission 
style, is quite up to date with baths, electric lights, lounging 
rooms, etc., broad verandas on the side towards the sea, and a 
pretty garden between the house and sea wall. A swimming 
pool has been constructed near by, 100x125 feet, from 3 to 9 
feet deep, open on the sea side, where a baffle wall protects it 
from rough water. In 1903 I looked at the water with longing 
eyes, but the numerous sharks deter most persons from ventur- 
ing into the ocean. The hotel with some rooms with bath, and 
others without, accommodates 175 persons. Like the Tivoli it 
has no bar, and since April 24, 1913, there are no saloons in the 
Zone outside of the cities, Colon and Panama, which except for 
sanitary regulations are under Panamanian control. The 
hotel enjoys a breeze all the year around and is said to be as 
cool as Bar Harbor in 3"uly, and no warmer in winter ; but it 
did not seem that way to me when I spent a few days in Colon 
in 1903, the excessive humidity rendering the heat oppressive. 

In the center of the garden in front of the hotel is a rather 
ugly monument, a red granite shaft on a triangular base, 
bearing busts of John L. Stephens, Henry Chauncey, and of 
"William H. Aspinwall, after whom Americans called the town 
for some years. To these three men, in December, 1848, a 
concession was granted by Colombia to build a railroad across 
the isthmus. The discovery of gold in California made it 
possible to raise money for the enterprise. Work began in 


1850, and the first train crossed the continent January 28, 
1855. The passenger and the freight trade have been both 
heavy and expensive, so that from 1852 to the present time 
annual dividends of from 3 to 61 per cent have been paid. 
Most of the traffic to California and Oregon was diverted on 
the completion in 1869 of the transcontinental railway, but 
good dividends continued. In 1881 the French Canal Com- 
pany bought most of the shares, as the road was an obvious 
necessity to their work; it therefore came into possession of 
the United States Government, May 4, 1904, when the pur- 
chase of the French rights, work, and equipment was con- 

The city of Colon, which the Colombian Government very 
properly insisted upon calling after Columbus, is on the Island 
of Manzanillo (formerly separated by a narrow strait from 
the main land), a coral reef with a mangrove swamp at the 
back Here in 1850 some shanties and stores were built by 
the pioneers of the railroad. 'The village grew and prospered 
in spite of the swampy location, which was improved by the 
deposits of rock and earth made by the French on the part 
now known as Christobal for the homes of the employees. 
In 1904 there were 10,000 people in the town, 9000 living in 
shanties on stilts in the terrible section back of Front street. 
Now in Christobal-Colon there are 20,000 people, and the place 
is drained and healthful. 

Just east of the "Washington Hotel is the gray stone build- 
ing, modified Gothic, of Christ Episcopal Church, dedicated 
in 1865. Built by contributions from the Panama Railroad 
Company and various missionary societies, it was at first 
American, after 1883 Anglican, and in 1907 again American 
Episcopal. Whites and blacks here worship together, with a 
majority, of negroes. 

Half a mile farther on is the fine Colon hospital with 525 
beds, of course a Commission affair. Built right over the 
water on piles a few feet high, one is almost tempted to be 
sick to be housed in so attractive a place. Beyond is the quar- 
antine station where persons coming from plague or fever 
ports are detained six or seven days. 

The numerous negroes from Jamaica and Martinique will 
interest many, their dwellings on the back streets, the drainage 


ditch, and Front street lined with stores, where curios of a 
sort could formerly be purchased better than in Panama, 
bags or caps of cocoanut skins, heads carved from cocoanuts, 
and carved gourds, large and small, the latter used as drink- 
ing cups. 

In Christobal are dwellings of the Canal employees; a large 
building occupied by the Commissary Department contains 
a cold storage plant, a bakery, and a laundry, which serve all 
the employees of the canal, the railroad, and the IT. S. Gov- 
ernment on the Isthmus : these with their families number- 
ing at times 60,000. Also there is a Commission Hotel with 
meals at 30 cents for employees, 50 cents for transients, pro- 
viding better fare than can be procured in most parts of the 
United States for the price to employees; and a T. M. C. A. 
building which supplies a reading room, opportunity for games 
and for social diversions including dances, lectures, and other 
entertainments. There are five other similar structures along 
the line. 

At the end of the Point are two houses constructed for 
Ferdinand de Lesseps and his son, now moved closer together 
and devoted to offices of the Commissary and Health Depart- 
ments. Beyond is the statue of the great Discoverer: the 
monument, cast at Turin, a replica of one in Lima, presented 
by Empress Eugenie to the Republic of Colombia to be erected 
at Colon. Columbus, of noble countenance, is represented in 
attitude of explanation to an Indian maiden personifying 
America, whose face expresses wonder and alarm. 

Porto Bello. With time to spare an excursion may be made 
to the beautiful harbor of Porto Bello, 18 miles northeast of 
Colon, where the Commission has been operating, in a great 
rock quarry, one of the largest stone crushers in the world. 
Millions of cubic yards of rock have been taken from here, a 
smaller size for the concrete of the Gatun locks and spillway, 
a larger size for the Colon breakwater. Porto Bello and 
Nombre de Dios were the two safe harbors found by the 
Spaniards on this coast. The former has been a Spanish town 
since 1597. With a fine location the town is considered 
unhealthy, having an extraordinary amount of rain, 237 
inches in 1909. A tug leaves Christobal wharf every morning 
returning at night. One has two hours or more to view the 


American settlement of 1000 people at the stone quarries and 
to cross the bay to the old -village to see the finest ruins on the 
Isthmus: an old customs house, old bridges, the remains of 
Fort San Jerome, and the old plaza. There is a population of 
over 2000, with a church and stores. 

Some miles beyond Porto Bello begins the large section of 
country inhabited by the San Bias Indians, who have been 
smart and sensible enough to keep the white man out of their 
territory, thus preserving their independence to the pres- 
ent day. They come to Colon to trade, but seldom allow a 
stranger to remain over night in their territory. 

San Lorenzo Fort. Another excursion of interest is to San 
Lorenzo Fort, at the mouth of the Chagres River, either by 
sea in a motor boat, or better, in a canoe down the river from 
Gatun, a sail of ten miles, during which one has a glimpse of 
the real tropical jungle ; the sea route affords a better view of 
the old fort The remains are very complete, an outer wall, 
and a castle to be entered by a drawbridge. There are strong 
rooms, galleries for prison cells, manacles, etc., seeing which 
the tourist is apt to be more contented with his own lot. At 
the foot of the hill is the little village of Chagres. 

In front of Christobal a construction of five piers is being 
made enclosing ten docks capable of berthing ships 1000 feet 
long, these being the Atlantic terminal docks for the canal. 
Across the bay is Toro Point. From this headland a break- 
water has been constructed to protect the canal entrance and 
Limon Bay from the violent northers which occasionally visit 
this coast. It will also reduce the amount of silt to be washed 
into the dredged canal. From Toro Point the breakwater 
extends northeast for a distance of over two miles. The 
bottom width varies with the depth of the water; at the top 
it is 15 feet wide and 10 feet above mean sea level. A 
double-track trestle was first constructed, from which carloads 
of rock were dumped into the sea. The cost is about $5,500,- 
000. It has recently been decided to construct an additional 
though smaller breakwater on the Colon side, extending west, 
some distance north of Christobal Point. Fortifications for 
the defense of the canal are being raised, both at Toro Point 
and on the east side at Margarita Island, one mile north of 


Four daily trains in about 2 hours at 3.00, 6.00 and 10.40 a. m. and 
4.00 p. m. Special train for sight-seers, round trip fare $4.00, from 
Colon at 8 a. m., with barge service on lake, $1.50 extra. 

Guides for tourist parties to inspect Canal, $7.50 per day, on 
application to Railway Ticket Agents, Colon or Panama. 

WHILE the sail through the great canal will be an ex- 
traordinary delight, the railroad ride will also afford much 
pleasure. On leaving Colon the line passes various docks, the 
Government printing plant, the marine shop and dry dock at 
Mount Hope, and the main storehouse of supplies for canal 
and railroad. On the east side of the railroad, opposite the 
warehouse, is Mount Hope Cemetery, where many French and 
others are buried, on a knoll which for a time was called Mon- 
key Hill on account of the many monkeys there. These 
creatures are found in the woods all over the Isthmus. Stone 
piers which may be seen on the east beyond Mindi were 
erected by the French, for a viaduct with the design of relocat- 
ing the railroad. This, obviously necessary for the Americans, 
has been accomplished at a cost of nearly $9,000,000. In the 
swamp lands along here much papyrus is growing. 

New Gatun. From Colon to Gatun a distance of 7 miles 
the track rises 95 feet. New Gatun, on the hill, is a village 
but a few years old, the site of the ancient town now being 
covered by the dam. In 1904 Gatun was a busy place on the 
Chagres Eiver, where sometimes 100 dugouts loaded with 
bananas would tie at the bank, and seven or eight car loads a 
week would be shipped. In former days the railroad followed 
up the Chagres Valley, but now it is obliged to turn east to 
make a detour around the lake. It is desirable to alight here 
to examine the locks and if possible the spillway. Along the 



edge of the lock walls may be seen the cog rail for the towing 
locomotives, and farther back the return track without center 
cog. Tall concrete columns along the top of the walls are the 
standards for electric lights to illuminate the locks. Tall 
towers, apparently light houses, are range lights on the center 
lines of the straight stretches of the canal, so that a vessel 
lining up with the tower would know it was on the center line 
of the canal. From the building on Gatun hill containing the 
office of the Division Engineer may be had the best view of the 
canal obtainable from any one point. Northward are the 
waters of Limon Bay; and the masts of shipping at Colon 
harbor are visible. Close at hand are the locks and dam and a 
broad stretch of the lake. 

Leaving Gatun the new road turns east along Gatun ridge, 
then south with pretty glimpses of the jungle, crossing the 
Gatun Valley to Monte Lirio. From this point it skirts the 
east shore of the lake to Bas Obispo at the beginning of the 
Culebra Cut. Several immense embankments were necessary 
to cross the Gatun Valley section above the surface of the lake, 
and others were made for dumping the spoil from Culebra 
Cut near its north end. Half a mile beyond Monte Lirio the 
railroad crosses the Gatun Eiver by a steel girder bridge 318 
feet long, built in three spans, one of which may be lifted to 
permit access by boat to the upper arm of the lake. Another 
steel girder bridge, one-quarter of a mile long, crosses the Cha- 
gres Eiver at Gamboa, with the channel span a 200-foot truss, 
the other fourteen, plate girder spans, each 80 feet long. 
From this bridge, at the north end of which a new town-site 
has been laid out, a glimpse of the northern end of Culebra 
Cut may be had. It was originally expected to carry the road 
through the Cut, 10 feet above the water level, but the slides 
making this impracticable, the relocation has been made by 
cutting through a ridge of solid rock and working around east 
of Gold Hill, passing Culebra at a distance of 2 miles. 
Then the track runs down the Pedro Miguel Valley to Pedro 
Miguel Station, where it is within 300 feet of the locks. The 
highest elevation of the track is 270 feet above the sea about 
opposite Las Cascadas. The Continental Divide is crossed 
240 feet above the sea in about the same line as Culebra. 
Journeying by the new road from Gatun, the old traveler or 


resident will miss some familiar names, the bearers of which, 
if not concealed tinder water, are now remote and vanishing. 
Lion and Tiger Hills were small hamlets, but Bohio was quite 
a place, where the French had a machine shop. It was once 
considered as a possible site for the locks and dam. Frijoles 
(beans) and Tabernilla have been places of some importance 
and Gorgona of more, because here were the American machine 
shops, now removed to Balboa. The place with the peculiar 
name Matachin, which everybody remembered, will not be 
covered over with water, but like others farther on will relapse 
into a small hamlet. The prevalent notion that this name was 
derived from matar, to Mil, and Chino, and was applied on 
account of the wholesale deaths of Chinese is incorrect. It is 
the Spanish word meaning a dance by grotesque figures. 

Bas Obispv beyond Gamboa is one of the old places still 
visible, at the north end of the Culebra Cut. Near by, De- 
cember 12, 1908, occurred the greatest accident in the con- 
struction of the Canal when 44,000 pounds of 45 per cent 
dynamite which had been packed into fifty-three holes were 
set off by the explosion of one, as the last hole was being 
tamped. As the hour was 11.10 many men were passing home 
to lunch. The hillside, falling into the Cut, as had been 
planned for a later hour, buried several men, and others were 
struck by flying rock. In all twenty-six were killed and a 
dozen permanently maimed. Near Bas Obispo is Camp Elli- 
ott, where a battalion of marines has long been stationed. 

Empire. Las Cascadas, where once a stream tumbled down 
a precipice 40 feet towards the Chagres, formerly came next, 
then Empire, one of the largest of the Canal villages. Here 
the French began excavations in the Cut, as previously men- 
tioned, January 20, 1882, before a large assemblage of officials 
of the Canal Company and of Panama. The work was blessed 
by the Bishop and the too common champagne celebrated the 

Culebra was the real capital of the Zone after John F. 
Stevens in 1906 moved his quarters there from Ancon. Here 
has been the home and office of Col. Goethals, the head of 
everything, and of other prominent officials. In 1908 Culebra 
had a population of 5516, but is now much smaller. The side 
of the hill towards the Cut has been gradually slipping away, 


taking a part of the village, but so slowly that the houses were 
first removed to the rear slopes. 

The average depth of the Cut through its nine miles of 
length is 120 feet. The heaviest point is near Culebra vil- 
lage between Gold Hill on the east side and Contractors' Hill 
on the west, where the depth averages 375 feet. The summit 
of Gold Hill is 660 feet above the sea, of Contractors' Hill, 
410 feet. Beyond Gold Hill is the troublesome Cucuracha 
slide, though the largest is the one at the Culebra village on 
the west One slide here involved 1,550,000 cubic yards. At 
this point the Cut is about 2000 feet across. The dwellings 
of the employees here, as at Christobal and all along the line, 
look very pretty and comfortable with their screened ve- 
randas. Market facilities have been good with prices gen- 
erally lower than at home for meat and other things brought 
in cold storage from the States. The climate is not objection- 
able to the majority, and many will be grieved, when, the 
Canal being finished and only a select few remaining for its 
service, they shall be obliged to return home again. Some, 
no doubt, being now weaned from excessive affection for one 
particular spot, will go on to other parts of Spanish Amer- 
ica. There, intelligent men of the right spirit, who have 
saved a portion of their earnings, will find agreeable oppor- 
tunities for work and for investments of various kinds. 

Beyond Pedro Miguel is the Miraflores Lake and the two 
Miraflores locks by which the ships reach sea level again. 
After passing through a concrete lined tunnel 736 feet long, 
&neon Hill, overlooking the Pacific entrance to the Canal, is 
straight ahead. One more station, Corozal, headquarters of 
the Pacific Division, and the city of Panama is reached. 


HOTELS. The Tivoli, $5.50 arid up a day, American plan; the 
Central, $3.00 a day, American plan; the International, Metropole, 
md several others, smaller and less expensive, but some of them 
leat and respectable. 

^ Carnage Fare, 10 cents, U. S. currency, for one person, 20 cents 
:or two, etc., in Panama City, or 20 cents and 40 cents silver, 
3 anama money. Panama to Balboa docks, 50 cents U. S, currency. 

Automobile Tariff, first hour, for cars seating five, six, or seven 
>ersons, $5.00, $6.00, or $7.00; second hour $1.00 less. Local fares 


about the city, 50 cents for each person. To Balboa Docks and 
return, $3.50, five-seat car; $5.00, seven-seat car. To Old Panama 
and return, $5.00, or $7.00, if within one hour; if more, on hourly 

Electric Cars, fare five cents, run every ten minutes from Hotel 
Tivoli past the railway station down Avenue Central to the Na- 
tional Palace near the sea wall; also beyond the Tivoli to the 
Catholic Chapel on the Aneon Hospital road. Of two other lines, 
one runs from Santa Ana Park by C, 16th, and B streets, and 
so on to Balboa; another branching from Central avenue at 13th 
street and following North avenue goes out the Sabanas road. 

The Republic of Panama, proclaimed Nov. 3, 1903, by 
treaty of Feb. 26, 1904, came under the protection of the 
United States, receiving $10,000,000 cash for the sovereignty 
of the Canal Zone and after 1913 a yearly rental of $250,- 
000. The form of government of the Eepublic is similar to 
that of the United States. The country is 340 miles long 
from east to west, from the Atrato River on the Colombia 
side to Costa Bica on the west. From north to south its 
widest point is 120 miles in the province of Veraguas, and the 
narrowest less than 40 in Darien. There are mountains 7000 
feet high in Darien and 11,000 feet in Chiriqui; the lowest 
pass, 312 feet, is that used by the Canal and Railroad. The 
population, outside the Zone about 340,000, includes 36,000 
Indians, and a very large proportion of negroes and mixed 
races. The country has excellent possibilities for agriculture 
and cattle raising, with smaller ones for minerals. 

Panama. The new city of Panama, founded January 21, 
1673, was soon protected by a sea-wall, still standing, and on 
the single land side by a wall, and a deep moat crossed by a 
drawbridge. To make it proof against further raids two 
forts were erected on the land side and one by the sea. The 
residences built of wood suffered from various fires so that 
few old buildings remain, yet the masonry structures have 
the appearance of age. One hundred and twenty years ago 
the city had 7857 inhabitants, double that in 1870, and in 
1911, 37,505. 

Hotel Tivoli. Arriving at Panama, almost every one who 
can afford it will go to the Hotel Tivoli, near the station, de- 
lightfully situated at the foot of Ancon Hill, on the farther 
side of a small park called the Plaza de Lesseps. It is in- 


tended some day to erect in the center of the plaza a statu 
to the hero of the Suez Canal, initiator of the great work a 
Panama. On a knoll, overlooking the city and part of th 
bay, the hotel has many rooms opening on the broad veranda 
which afford charming prospects. The nights are comfort 
ably cool, and the table affords good American fare. Th< 
hotel was erected by the Government especially to accommo 
date Canal employees on their arrival, and persons whost 
business with the administration caused them to come to th< 
Isthmus. Also it was designed to afford recreation to em 
ployees on the line desirous of an occasional trip to the city 
"With this end in view a large dance hall was provided aboul 
80x40 feet, where the Tivoli Club, organized among the em- 
ployees, has given dances two Saturday evenings each month 
The hotel, opened Jan. 1, 1907, has 220 guest rooms, and a 
dining-room seating 700. The building, 314 feet long witi 
wings 156 feet deep, has a court in front 91 feet in depth 
with a carriage road and garden. Of late on account of in- 
creased travel the hotel has been enlarged and is much used 
by tourists. The prices, $5.50 a day and up, will seem reason- 
able enough to patrons of the large New York hotels. 

The Hotel Central may be preferred by some on account 
of the lower prices, $3.00 and up, or because it is in the 
center of things on the principal plaza of Panama (now 
called the Independencia), opposite the cathedral; its loca- 
tion and its clientele afford an opportunity to see more of 
Spanish American life. The building is four stories high, 
in Spanish style around a central court or patio. Built in 
1880 it has recently been renewed, and the rooms are large 
and airy. The table formerly left something to be desired, 
but has very likely improved with the competition. Once it 
was the only place where anybody could go. 

The International Hotel is most convenient to the railway 
station on the Railway Plaza; a large fireproof building in 
Spanish Mission style, completed in 1912, and affording all 
modern conveniences. The smaller hotels on the Avenida 
Central may be patronized by those to whom the saving of a 
few dollars is important. The Hotel Metropole is pleasantly 
situated on the Santa Ana Plaza. 
A new and modern hotel, accommodating 500 persons, built 


by British capital on Chiriqui Point overlooking the bay, 
is expected to be ready for guests in November, 1914. 

Sight-seeing may begin from the Tivoli or International 
with a walk or ride down the Avenida Central, which goes 
first in a rather southerly direction, but in town when cross- 
ing the plaza about east and west. The northern part of the 
town is rather new, belonging to the Canal period, French and 
American. On the right at some little distance a three- 
story white concrete building, very ornate, with broad portico, 
is the club house of the Spanish Benevolent Society. Next 
door is the American Consulate. Two blocks farther is the 
Plaza Santa Ana, with trees, plants, and walks, where on 
Thursday nights there is a band concert and hundreds of 
people promenading. Besides the Church, there are saloons, 
a Variety Theater with roof garden, promenade balcony, and 
fine interior decorations, erected 1911-12, and on the west 
side the Metropole Hotel. On the road, one block south of 
the plaza, leading west to Balboa is the Santo Tomas Hos- 
pital, with 350 beds, under the direction of an American doc- 
tor with good nurses and physicians, maintained by the 
Panama Government. The three cemeteries are beyond, one 
each for Chinese, Hebrews, and Christians. Tragic tales are 
told of the yellow fever days, and space for burial is still 

Three blocks from the Plaza on the Central avenue is the 
Church of La Merced. Diagonally across from it is a piece 
of the old wall formerly extending from tidewater on one 
side to the other. One should climb the steps to get an idea 
of the walls, the cost of which caused wonder to the King 
of Spain. This was one of the bastions commanding the 
drawbridge and the sabanas or plains to the north. Here 
the youth now play tennis, and a circus encamps once a year. 
The area is at least 1500 square feet, and there is a drop of 
from 30 to 35 feet to the level outside. A parapet 3 
feet high still shows the embrasures for the brass cannon. The 
old wall extending to the south had rock faces with earth be- 

Beyond this wall is the real city, mostly of natives, with 
its own peculiar spirit and fascination. They always come 
back, it is said, when people go away. Here in the narrow 


streets, plazas, churches, even stores, and on the old sea wall, 
a spell is woven over those who linger, which has alluring 
power. The Plaza Independence, three blocks from the wall, 
is the heart of the city, a charming place, with the Cathedral 
on the west, the Central Hotel east, the Bishop's Palace north, 
and the Municipal Building and the French Administration 
Building on the south. The last, four stories high, was built 
in 1875 as a hotel, but leased to the French and used for 
offices. The Americans took possession of it May 4, 1904, but 
finding it to be infested with the stegomia mosquitoes dur- 
ing the yellow fever epidemic in 1905, it was abandoned by 
them, in 1906 when the Chief Engineer moved to Culebra. 
It is now occupied by the health and municipal bureaus of 
Panama and by their printing office. 

The new Municipal Building, on the site of the old cabildo, 
council chamber, in which independence was declared in 1821, 
was completed in 1910 and is called the handsomest building 
in the city. Here are various offices, the Columbus Library 
with valuable historical works, a marble 'bacchante in the cor- 
ridor, and a front door of a dozen varieties of native hard 
t woods. 

The Bishop's Palace erected 1880, besides his residence, 
offices, and a boys' school, has in one corner the office of the 
Panama Lottery. Though gambling is prohibited by the 
Panama Constitution, the lease of the company is good till 
1918. Every Sunday morning drawings are made for prizes 
ranging from $1.00 to $3500, taken from 10,000 tickets. It 
is said that most of the money comes from the Canal workers. 
,The offices of several of the steamship companies are on the 
Plaza, but that of the Peruvian Line is on llth street near 
Central avenue. 

Continuing on the Central avenue, passing on the right the 
[French consulate and the American Legation, one reaches the 
National Palace or Government Building on the left, occupy- 
ing a whole square, with a central patio. The Assembly Halls 
and offices are on the south side, the National Theatre on the 
north and various Government offices on the sides. Begun in 
1905 it was finished in 1908. It is of the modified Italian 
renaissance style and is said to be fireproof. The handsome 
theater seats 1000 people. There is a week or two of opera 


and of theater every year. Other entertainments are occa- 
sionally held, and public meetings of a non-political nature. 
' The Plaza Bolivar, formerly San Francisco, is at the south- 
east corner of the building, with the San Francisco Church and 
Franciscan convent on the east side, the latter in ruins, de- 
stroyed by fire in 1756 ; the former, also burned, was restored 
1785-1790. The church is a basilica with a nave and two 
aisles, the arches supported by square masonry pillars, and 
with transept and apse. The high altar is wood painted to 
imitate marble. A picture in a shrine at the left of the 
entrance has a very definite representation of purgatory, with 
a view of heavenly regions above. 

The ruins of the old convent still show a fine row of arches. 
.Within are wooden buildings now used as schools. 

From the Central avenue going along the water front, one 
will pass a Methodist Episcopal Church, parsonage, and school, 
buildings of concrete erected in 1908. At the sea front is 
the south bastion called The Sea Wall. Under the arches are 
many dungeons once filthy, where thousands of criminals and 
political suspects suffered and died. These are used no longer, 
but the Chiriqui prison, suitably provided and clean, is here 
located, partly in the large barrack building formerly occupied 
by the garrison of soldiers. In the late afternoon or early even- 
ing one should visit this interesting spot. Close by is the 
new home of the University Club where some say the best 
meals in Panama are served and the best collection of Eng- 
lish boots and periodicals is found. The library and read- 
ing room with hardwood floor are sometimes cleared for danc- 
ing. The membership of two hundred includes one hundred 
twenty-five American employees and seventy-five residents 
of Panama. Organized in 1906 for college men, the re- 
striction was soon abandoned. 

Two blocks from the Plaza Bolivar, keeping to the sea front, 
is the home of the Union Club, a large white building from 
the roof of which is a fine view of Panama Bay. A swimming 
tank refilled at every tide is among its luxuries. 

On the water front near this Club, at the foot of 5th. street 
which passes in front of the Hotel Central, is the Marine 
Building where passengers go aboard small boats to be rowed 
out to ships engaged in the coasting trade. Diagonally across 


the street is the Presidencies, a two-story building of Spanish 
Mission style where the President of the Republic lives and 
has his executive offices. 

Two blocks along the front from the Presidencies there is a 
steep incline where the old wall passed to the sea. On the 
beach below, a market was established in 1877, now in a large 
open building, where not only vegetables, fruits, meat, and 
fish are sold, but lace and other commodities. Close by, 
boats at high tide run up on the beach, saving expense of 
lighterage. A visit to the market early in the morning is 
well worth while, as the assemblage of people and of com- 
modities, many of strange appearance, make this the most 
picturesque place in Panama. On the way to the plaza 
one may pass various shops, several Chinese, where bargain- 
ing is possible, though most of the other stores have one price. 
Woolens, silk, lace, and some other things are cheaper than 
in the United States, and odd bits may be picked up by a 
connoisseur. Panama hats are found cheaper than in the 
United States, but may be purchased to better advantage in 
Ecuador and Peru. A hammock, a kodak, films, anything for- 
gotten or newly thought of may here be supplied. But if films 
are purchased, be sure that they are dated nearly a year ahead 
and are in sealed tin boxes. 

The churches of Panama are not especially fine, but a few 
should be visited. It would be needless to say that due re- 
spect to the House of God should be shown by the removal 
of the hat, and by courteous behavior, but for the astonish- 
ing ill manners and rudeness displayed by some American 
boors which have tended to make us unpopular with most 
Latin Americans. If we are really so superior as some of us 
fancy, it would be well to exhibit this by our good breeding. 
To avoid shocking the prejudices of others, and in some cases 
to do tetter than we would be done by will increase the pleas- 
ure of a trip and pave the way for business advantage. 

The Cathedral, though first of the churches designed, was 
delayed in construction. A negro, Luna Victoria* becoming 
Bishop in 1751, urged its completion, himself making liberal 
contributions so that it was finished in 1760. The architec- 
ture is of Moorish type with Spanish and American modifica- 


tions; the style of two towers is used in many Spanish 
American churches. The cathedral has a nave and four aisles, 
an apse containing the high altar of wood richly ornamented, 
with two side altars and the episcopal throne. An old paint- 
ing representing the miracle of the Eosary is said to be a 

The Church of San Felipe Neri, with a tablet bearing the 
words Neri Ao 1688, on the corner of Avenue B and 4th street, 
is said to be the oldest and perhaps the prettiest of the Panama 
churches. It is less gaudy or tawdry than some of the others. 
An adjoining courtyard with a garden is surrounded by 
houses of Sisters of Charity. At the corner of Avenue A and 
3rd street are the ruins of the old Dominican Chwrch with a 
little statue still standing over the entrance. The woodwork 
was burned in the fire of 1756 and it was never rebuilt. One 
of the arches was shattered in the earthquake of 1882. A 
brick arch near the entrance, 50 feet wide with but 10 feet be- 
tween the heights of spring and arch, is unusually flat. There 
are others, in the San Francisco and Jesuit churches, of almost 
the same style. 

A church and convent school erected by the Jesuits 1749- 
1751 was of little service, as the Order was expelled in 1767. 
In 1781 the wood of the structure was burned, but the ruins 
are still of interest. The churches of La Merced and Santa 
Ana contain little to invite attention, unless it be the effigy 
of the gentleman who provided the funds for the reconstruc- 
tion in 1760 of the latter church and who was thereafter called 
the Count of Santa Ana. 

A visit to Ancon must certainly not be neglected. On its 
edge is the Panama National Institute opened in 1911, con- 
sisting of seven buildings around a patio, including a gym- 
nasium. This is to be the head of the educational system, but 
at present is occupied with primary and secondary instruction. 
Ancon Hill is especially noted for the hospital, the buildings 
of which were erected by the French soon after 1881. When 
Col. Gorgas and his assistants arrived in 1904 they were 
pleased to find them in so excellent a condition with French 
Sisters of St. Vincent still in charge. Many additions and im- 
provements were made, but most of the twenty-three buildings 


are still in use. With crowding, 2000 patients may be ac- 
commodated, but for the last five years the percentage of 
health has been remarkably good. Thanks to the skill and 
efficiency of Col. W. C. Gorgas, of the Regular Army, as Health 
Officer, and to his corps of able assistants, yellow fever was 
practically stamped out in 1906 and malaria diminished, by 
the destruction of the mosquitoes, screening, etc. Swamps 
were filled in, and the cities of Panama and Colon were to 
some extent made over. Every street in Panama is now paved 
with brick or macadam, all are well drained and provided with 
sewers, and the dirtiest slum of the city is cleaner than many 
middle class streets in most American cities, not to mention 
New York. A good water supply is provided, and all these 
improvements are being paid for by Panama from the water 
rates. The Administration Building on one of the knolls at 
the foot of the hill should be noted. There are located the 
offifces of the Sanitation Department, the Civil Administra- 
tion, and the Commission Secretary. The Avenue of Royal 
Palms leading up from the entrance to the hospital grounds 
will be admired by every one, and those of botanical tastes 
will enjoy spending a considerable time in the garden which 
was begun by the Mother Superior, Sister Marie Rouleau, 
and which has recently been catalogued by Col. Mason. It 
contains a fine collection of the plant life of the Isthmus, trees, 
fruits, nuts, shrubs, and flowers. Persons not botanists will 
find pleasure in examining many plants with familiar names, 
some never seen before, others only in a hot house. The en- 
ergetic individual will enjoy climbing to the top of the hill 
which, 664 feet above the sea, affords a view of bay, islands, 
city, and green hills, beautiful enough to reward even the 
slothful: but near sunrise or sunset are the only suitable hours 
for a climb in this temperature. 

Old Panama. An excursion to Old Panama should be taken 
if possible. In 1911 a road was constructed by the Panama 
Government from the highway traversing Las Sabanas, to the 
old city. Electric cars may be available for the excursion, as 
well as carriage and automobile. Also one may go by launch 
or horseback. Paths lead to the chief points of interest, the 
old bridges across the estuary that extended on two sides 


of the city, the tower seen from afar and the church of St. 
Anastasius, the wells, and the walls and foundations of public 
buildings. On the sea side is a hole in the wall where still 
may be seen the old paved road leading into the water. At 
high tide ships could come up to the city gate. 



Panama to Callao and Valparaiso The Pacific Steam Navigation 
Company; and Compania SucUAmerieana de Vapores each with 
sailings alternate Mondays; the Compania Peruana de Vapores 
sailings alternate Mondays to Valparaiso, alternate Sundays as 
far as Mollendo. 

^Panama to Guayaquil The Pacific Steam Navigation Company 
two steamers weekly; one express direct, one accommodation, calling 
at Colombia and Ecuador ports. The Compania Peruana de 
Vapores fortnightly, on Sundays, direct. 

Guayaquil to Callao The Pacific Steam Navigation Company; 
the Compania Sud-Americana de Vapores alternate sailings weekly 
on "Wednesdays; the Compania Peruana de Vapores fortnightly 
sailings on Wednesdays. 

THE traveler going southward from Panama to Callao or be- 
yond has at present a choice of ships on three different lines : 
Peruvian, English, and Chilian; the second, often called the 
P. S. N., now a branch of the Royal Mail; the third, that of 
the Compania Sud-Americana de Vapores. The through 
ticket purchased in New York to a South American port, or a 
roundtrip ticket, good on any of these lines, will not le ac- 
cepted on the steamers for transportation. Being certificates 
merely, they must be exchanged for tickets in Panama at the 
office of that steamship line by which one has decided to sail. 
The cabin may there be selected and assigned. 

As the boats vary in size and speed, individually, rather than 
according to the line, travelers are apt to go by the first 
steamer sailing after they are ready to depart; yet some have a 
preference and arrange their plans accordingly. Peruvians 
and Chilians are likely to patronize their respective lines; 
some English speaking people prefer the P. S. N. Others have 



a favorite ship or captain. Since the chief officers on most 
of the ships of all the lines are British, while the subordinates, 
stewards, cabin boys, etc., are Spanish Americans, the differ- 
ence is not striking, although the P. S. N. boats seem a trifle 
more English. On these the menu is in English and Spanish 
both, on the Chilian Line in Spanish only. The boats of the 
Peruvian Line, the newest and the largest, are preferred by 
some Americans who have tried all of the lines. The various 
steamers are lighted by electricity, the Peruvian have also elec- 
tric fans, for the use of which a charge of $1.00 is made for 
the trip. Deck chairs cost $1.25. Most of the ships on all lines 
have on the upper deck a handsome salon with piano, card 
tables, sofas, perhaps a fairly stocked book-case, a spacious 
well-furnished dining-room, and a large comfortable smok- 
ing room, besides considerable space for deck golf and other 
sports. The Peruvian steamers have on this deck four cabins 
at a price ten per cent higher than those below. The cabins 
in general are on the second deck, all opening on an outside 
passage with door and window, each furnished with blinds. 
On my first voyage I provided myself with mosquito netting, 
as advised, especially for the trip to Guayaquil ; but never had 
occasion to use it. In the rainy season, from December to 
June, one would be indispensable for the tourist visiting 
Ecuador, but is superfluous at any time to one going directly 
to Peru. Meal hours vary slightly on the different steamers, 
but all serve coffee with toast or rolls in cabin or dining-room 
from 6.30 to 8.30 a. m. At last accounts condensed milk, un- 
fortunately, was the accompaniment. Persons who object to 
this will be happier if they provide themselves in New York 
with a few five cent cans of the evaporated. On the East 
Coast the ships appear to have regular milk, but as late as 
1911 I saw none on the West. The hours of the meals are at 
the pleasure of the captains; on the English boats generally, 
breakfast is a,t nine or half past, on the others it may be at 
ten or eleven : luncheon is served at 1, 1.30, or 2 p. m., dinner 
at 6, 6.30, or 7. Some ships have afternoon tea at four, 
others have tea at 8.30 or 9 p. m. Breakfast, in Spanish, 
almuerzo, begins with cazuela, a kind of soup, which is fol- 
lowed by fish, entrees, eggs, beefsteak, etc. : at luncheon there 
are cold dishes only, meats and salad, except for hot potatoes, 


tea, and coffee. The dinner resembles "breakfast, but has a dif- 
ferent kind of soup, while roasts and sweets are served at this 
meal only. As many of the ships are unprovided with cold 
storage, the meat, eaten the day after it is killed, is often 
tough. For this reason the boiled meats and the South Amer- 
ican dishes generally are apt to be better than the roasts ; that 
is, if you like them. It is well to have a try, for many are 
really good. Of fruit, oranges and bananas are always in 
evidence, sometimes melons, and paltas (alligator pears or 
aguacate), which as salad are very fine. 

Balboa, the place of embarkation, formerly called La Boca, 
is ten or fifteen minutes by rail from the Panama station. Its 
present name, in honor of the discoverer of the Pacific, dates 
from April 30, 1909, when, adopting the suggestion of Hon. 
Alfonzo Pezet, then Peruvian Minister to Panama, Colonel 
Goethals issued a circular with the mandate that La Boca 
should in future be known as Balboa. 

Before embarking for the south, it is important to look up 
one's baggage and see that it is put on board the ship by 
which one is about to sail. Baggage which is checked through 
to Callao or elsewhere will probably be brought over to this 
port and remain in the baggage room until it is pointed out by 
the owner and the ship is designated on which he will sail. 
This is an absolute necessity. Otherwise it might be sent 
on an earlier or a different steamer, when, with no one to look 
after it and pay for its transport to land, it might sail up and 
down the coast a year or two, or until the ship people de- 
cided to dump it in the ocean. Hence, always, look after 
your baggage, throughout the entire trip. Failing in care, 
you are likely never to see it more. Ample time should be 
allowed for the purpose, and no harm will be done if, at the 
Panama station, you investigate to see if by chance your bag- 
gage has been left there instead of at the Balboa dock. 

A matter by no means to be overlooked before embarka- 
tion is the procuring of Peruvian money, silver and gold for 
use on the steamer and in landing. English sovereigns and 
half sovereigns, equal to 10 and 5 soles, will do as well as Pe- 
ruvian coins of the same value; but one should have silver 
coins as well, a sol equaling 48y% cents. Exchange will be 
made at the banks or by money changers in Panama. 


Tourists will generally embark at Balboa for Peru; but 
Colombia and Ecuador may be included in the tour if de- 
sired. Two steamers sail for Guayaquil, one express, Bak- 
ing no calls en route, the other, caletero, or as we should 
term it, if a train, accommodation, calling at various ports 
in Colombia and Ecuador. Buenaventura in Colombia is 
the port for its capital, Bogota, a city charmingly situated, 
with a delightful climate, containing many cultivated people 
and luxurious homes, yet by any route a tedious journey from 
the sea. From Cali which the railroad nearly reaches, a 
town five hours by rail from Buenaventura, it is eight or ten 
days on mule or horseback. Few at present will undertake 
the trip except for business or scientific research. 

Quito, the capital of Ecuador, far more accessible, and 
oftener visited, will yet be omitted by the majority; not be- 
cause there is nothing to see, but because one with limited 
time for the tour will content himself with scenes of more or 
less similar character on the direct line of the journey. More- 
over the reputation of the port of Guayaquil as a hot bed 
of yellow fever, to say nothing of bubonica, leprosy, and small- 
pox is such that most persons prefer to give it a wide berth. 
Formerly there was mutual recrimination between Guayaquil 
and Panama, each asserting that the yellow fever was im- 
ported from the other city ; but now the case is clear. Panama 
has long had a clean bill of health, while Guayaquil (1912) was 
as bad as ever, if not worse. Some years ago our American 
Dr. Lloyd attempted to clean up the place, but on account 
of insufficient funds and authority succeeded in accomplishing 
little beyond getting the yellow fever himself. As a good 
part of the city lies low by the river's edge, the problem seems 
difficult; yet with sufficient money its sanitation may be ac- 
complished. If the present plans of the Ecuadorian Govern- 
ment are carried out, by 1915 Guayaquil will probably again 
,be on the same plane of health as Panama. Should one 
meanwhile be disposed to venture probably no harm would be- 
fall. Dr. Baker, American Consul at Guayaquil states (Dec- 
ember, 1912) that the city may safely be visited from June 
1 to October 1, but not at other times. 

Furthermore, one desiring to visit Quito, the equatorial 
city, to see far famed Chimborazo, and Cotopaxi, the loftiest 


of active volcanoes, may do this without going to Guayaquil, 
or at least without staying there, and thus he may proceed. 

On the third morning after leaving Panama, on express 
steamer for Guayaquil, one is likely to find his ship anchored 
at the quarantine station, Puna, on an island at the mouth of 
tbe Guayas Eiver. It is a pleasant sail north, up this broad 
stream, the most important in South America flowing into 
the Pacific Ocean. The low green shores are heavily fringed 
with trees or bushes. Eidges and peaks of blue will pres- 
ently appear, possibly the snow-crowned Chimborazo, but 
this on rare occasions on account of incessant clouds. 

Guayaquil, a few hours from Puna, appears from the steam- 
er's deck a pretty place, stretching several miles along the 
river front, a city of 75,000 inhabitants. The buildings made 
of wood, plastered over to resemble marble, look quite im- 
posing. There is a cathedral and other churches, and good 
public buildings; a Club, the Union, is said by one globe- 
trotter to be the best he had seen in the tropics save one at 
Hongkong. "Worth visiting are the pretty plazas with rare 
and luxuriant vegetation, the market, and a great hospital 
on the hill above the town, fitted with modern appliances, and 
comparing favorably, one says, with the Ancon Hospital at 

The swift current of the river is noticeable, the strong tide 
running rapidly, six hours each, up and down. Small boats, 
taking advantage of this, may thus go with slight effort in 
either direction,- but with hard labor if the tide is adverse. 
Much used are the native balsas, made of tree trunks, five, 
seven, or nine lashed together, many with small houses upon 
them. With balsas they even venture upon the ocean as 
far as Paita. Panama hats are here purchasable, which with 
cocoa and ivory nuts are among the chief exports of the 

To make the journey to Quito one may, the day of arrival, 
cross from Guayaquil by boat to Duran on the other side of the 
river, whence a railroad leads 297 miles to the capital city. 
The fare from Guayaquil is $17.40 each way. Departing 
from Duran Monday, Wednesday, and Friday at 6.30 a. m., 
the train arrives at 6.30 p. m. at Eiobamba, where the night 
LS spent at the Grand Central Hotel, price one or two dollars. 


Leaving Riobamba at 6.40 a. m. one arrives at Quito at four. 
Each day a halt is made for the noon meal at a way station. 
The train, at first passing among great sugar estates, then 
ascending gradually through a luxuriant tropical region, pres- 
ently reaches the higher temperate zone where by contrast 
the night will seem decidedly chill. At 4000 or 5000 feet the 
way seems barred by lofty hills, but the American construct- 
ing engineer cut in the face of the granite a zigzag path with 
switchbacks of four levels making a rise to 9000 feet. After 
some distance through volcanic country, a similar cul-de-sac 
is surmounted by a similar switchback with a seven per cent 
grade to the Pass of Palmyra, 12,000 feet. Wastes of sand 
and shifting grass, resembling a sea-coast, are an unexpected 
variety in the scenery. 

Descending gradually to Cajabamba, 11,000 feet, one passes, 
the first afternoon, splendid Chimlorazo, still supposed by 
many to be the highest mountain in America, a great mistake, 
as its altitude is only 20,498 feet, more than that of Mt, Mc- 
Kinley, but over 2000 feet less than that of Aconcagua, on the 
border of Chile and Argentina, the highest measured mountain 
on the Western Hemisphere. Moreover, this tallest of the 
Ecuadorian Andes is surpassed by fifty or more peaks farther 
south ; among these, Huascaran and Coropuna in Peru, niam- 
pu, Illimani, and Sajama in Bolivia. The fir'st ascent of Chim- 
borazo, made in 1880 by Edward Whymper with two Swiss 
guides, was at the time considered a wonderful feat. The 
same year Whymper ascended the active volcano, Cotopaxi, 
19,613 feet, farther east and nearer to Quito. Near Caja- 
bamba are a few remains of ancient Inca edifices. 

Beyond Eiobamba, a little farther on, the road the second 
day goes lower to Ambato, 8000 feet, a town in a deep basin 
with a delightful climate, headquarters for trade with the 
Oriente. A broad sterile plain is crossed near the foot of Co- 
topaxi, a beautiful truncated cone, smoking continuously. 
Above the snow clad slopes, a gray and white cloud is formed 
in the shape of an enormous branching tree, which at length 
breaks off and floats away. Near the snow line of the volcano 
is a huge mass of rock called the Inca's head, said to have 
been the original summit of the mountain, torn off and hurled 
below on the day of the execution of the Inca, Atahuallpa. 


Beyond the Pass Chasqui is the charming green valley Mach* 
achi. In a bowl shaped depression entered by three gateways, 
through one of which the railroad passes, crossing a bridge 
over the Machangara Eiver, is found the white, but red-roofed 
city, the capital famed as lying under the equator; it is within 
a quarter of a degree. 

Quito. Beautifully situated among the mountains at an alti- 
tude of 9600 feet, Quito enjoys a climate as delightful as the 
prospect. In former days travelers have united their admira- 
tion for the scenery with groans over the accommodations pro- 
vided. It is said that good hotels now exist, the Eoyal Palace, 
the Hotel de Paris, Hotel Americano, and Casa AzuL The 
city has a population of 75,000, including many charming and 
cultivated Spanish Americans, and more Indians, who in gay 
ponchos of orange and scarlet are a striking contrast to the 
ladies in smart victorias, the gentlemen in frock coats and 
silk hats, the officers in dress uniforms, and the throng of 
mules, horses, donkeys, and llamas, frequently crowding the 

On the principal plaza are handsome government and munic- 
ipal buildings, the cathedral, and the bishop's palace. Among 
many beautiful churches and convents is the Jesuits' church, 
the interior superb in scarlet and genuine gold, and its choir 
singers imported from Europe. Quito, too, has one of the 
prettiest theatres in South America, which is saying more 
than you might imagine, if this is your first call on that con- 
tinent. The temperature of Quito averaging 60, ranging 
from 50 to 70 only, is comfortable enough to make 
exercise desirable, and variety is easily attained. A half 
day's journey will bring one to a deep sultry valley with 
tropical vegetation; hence every kind of fruit and vege- 
table is in the market. Or four hours will take one to 
i region of eternal frost. And thither every one should go, for 
from the top of Mt. Pichincha, 16,000 feet, at the foot of 
which is Quito, may be had a splendid view of twenty snow- 
3lad peaks, from 15,000 to 20,000 feet in height. 


ON board ship at the Balboa docks, recently enlarged by 
the United States Government, the surroundings at high tide 
are beautiful. On three sides are green wooded hills, some 
of which might almost be dignified as mountains. The wide 
stream coming down at the northwest is the Pacific entrance 
to the Canal. Below are pretty islands to one of which, Naos, 
the breakwater, three and a quarter miles long, will extend. 
At low tide, when the water has fallen 18 feet, as it does twice 
in the twenty-four hours, an ugly expanse of flats is visible on 
each side of the channel. Should one spend the night here, 
he may be so fortunate as to see the sun or moon rise, not set, 
from the Pacific Ocean; so far west is Panama City of the 
western shore of South America, at least of Colombia, for the 
Isthmus runs east and west instead of north and south. 

As the steamer leaves the dock, one should linger in the 
stern of the vessel to look back at the charming picture. 
Thus standing and gazing rearwards, the city of Panama will 
soon appear on the right, finely situated on a promontory with 
water on three sides, thus with excellent opportunities for 
drainage, and now as healthy a city as may be found in the 
Torrid Zone, surpassing in this particular many of those in 
temperate climes. 

The Peaceful Ocean will gently " Eock the Cradle of the 
Deep" and the voyage will be a pleasure. Formerly ten days 
to Callao, it is now six or seven. The weather is warm, with 
summer clothes in order, probably until Paita is reached; 
so warm that enthusiasts only will care for the vigorous 
exercise of deck golf, yet not uncomfortably hot. The cross- 
ing of the equator is made without ceremony: even with 
careful inquiry it is difficult to ascertain just when the equi- 
noctial line is passed. The Pole star has vanished, yet in 



our summer months a part of the constellation of the Dipper, 
still above the horizon, may be recognized far down the coast. 
With no sight of land for three days, there will be time 
on this tranquil sea to brush up our Spanish, or if we have 
none to brush, at least to pick up a few words and phrases. 
Or there is opportunity for a brief review of South Amer- 
ican history. Prescott perchance is in the library, or other 
books, historical or descriptive, of the various countries to 
be visited. That we see only what we are prepared to see 
is an old saying, as true of South America as of Europe. 
A slight knowledge of South American history and of present 
conditions will illumine the journey, increasing both pleasure 
and profit. A course of reading at home and a little study of 
Spanish will bring infinite reward. For those who have neg- 
lected this, brief allusions to facts of history, geography, etc., 
;will be scattered here and there. 


Every one has heard of the Incas and of the conquest of Peru 
by Pizarro, but a few particulars of the remarkable subjugation of 
a great people will here be recalled. As early as 1524 Francisco 
Pizarro, incited by rumors at Panama of a country at the south 
marvellously rich in gold, for the purpose of exploration only, 
made his first expedition to Peru. Landing at Tumbes on the 
south shore of the Gulf of Guayaquil, he found an opulent city, 
whence he proceeded along the coast as far as Trujillo. Satisfied by 
this reconnoissanee as to the great wealth of the country, he was 
obliged to return to Spain to procure royal warrant for the in- 
vasion. This gained he set out from Panama in January, 1531, 
upon his extraordinary career of conquest. Partners in his ad- 
venture were Diego de Almagro and a priest, Hernando de Luque. 

Again landing at Tumbes he advanced overland southward and 
in a fertile valley founded the present city of Pium Some months 
were here passed, a vain delay for reinforcements; Pizarro mean- 
while learning of the quarrel between the two Inca princes, the 
brothers Atahuallpa and Huasear, and that the former, victorious, 
was now with a large retinue, ten days' journey from Piura, at the 
town of Cajamarca whither he had gone to take the baths. 

To attempt the conquest of a great empire with an army of less 
than 200 men seems preposterous indeed, but the bold, one would 
say insane, Pizarro, had he not succeeded, at length set out with 
180 men, 67 of whom were cavalry. However, these last were 


equivalent to a mighty host; for horses, never before seen in this 
country, struck terror to the stoutest hearts. It was a hard march 
across the desert, then up over the great coast range of the Andes 
down to the longitudinal valley in which Cajamarea is situated. 
On the way they were met by messengers bearing royal gifts, with 
an invitation to visit the powerful ruler of this immense empire. 
Through narrow defiles where a large force might easily have been 
annihilated, the little army was permitted to march in safety. 
Upwards in bitter cold and rarefied air they toiled to a height of 
12,000 feet or more until they looked down upon a beautiful valley, 
a prosperous city, and the camp of a great army. 

With bold faces if quaking hearts they descended, November 15, 
1532, to the city which they found deserted: that better accommoda- 
tions, it was said, might be furnished to the distinguished guests. 
The next day, accepting the invitation of Pizarro that he should 
dine with him, Atahuallpa with a large retinue, unarmed, came in 
royal state to the Plaza. In place of the courteous greeting from 
Pizarro which was here due, a priest, Father Valverde, came for- 
ward. Having expounded the chief doctrines of the Christian re- 
ligion he thereupon demanded the Inea's allegiance to the Pope and 
to the Emperor Charles V. Upon Atahuallpa's indignant rejection 
of this piece of bold and insolent presumption, Yalverde called on 
Pizarro to make an assault. The signal was given, guns boomed, the 
cavalry charged upon the defenseless throng. Instead of the hos- 
pitality that had been proffered there was a scene of terrible 
slaughter. The Inca was seized and imprisoned, after which a ran- 
som was arranged. The collection for this purpose of more than 
$15,000,000 worth of gold dishes, plate, and other objects was fol- 
lowed by a second act of perfidy. Accused of various crimes, Ata- 
huallpa, instead of being released, was condemned to be burned at 
the stake; or if he would consent to embrace Christianity to have 
the easier death of strangulation. This he chose. Thus the courtly 
monarch of this highly civilized empire, one of the first on that con- 
tinent to be baptized (revolting mockery) into the Christian faith, 
was ignominiously put to death after the most shameless betrayal of 
the rites of hospitality, the most brutal treachery, to be found on 
the pages of history. 

Thus was accomplished the conquest of Peru. The Inca exe- 
cuted, his humble subjects made but little and sporadic resistance. 
Cuzco, the capital city, was visited and stripped of many of its 
treasures. For the conciliation of the populace, Maneo, a younger 
brother of Atahuallpa, was crowned ; but the real power was placed 
in the hands of one of Pizarro's brothers. 

Francisco then descended to the coast and, on January 6, 1535, 


founded on the banks of the Rimae, a capital which he named City 
of the Kings in honor of the Epiphany, although Lima, a corruption 
of Rimae, is the title by which it has been called. Such a beginning 
was naturally followed by a period of dissensions and murders, 
which lasted twenty years. For nearly three centuries a Spanish 
Viceroy ruled over the country, until in 1824, at Ayacucho on the 
highlands of Peru, the last battle of independence was fought, the 
whole of South America was liberated from the domination of Spain, 
and the realms of the Inea became free to develop a new civilization. 

Panama to Salaverry. For three days after leaving 
Panama the ship is out of sight of land, which is again ap- 
proached near the northern extremity of Pern. This coast 
is unlike that of any other country in the world, to the unini- 
tiated presenting a series of surprises. The first is the climate, 
which in the Torrid Zone one naturaity expects to be hot, at 
least at sea level. On the East Coast of South America this 
is the case, but not on the West after reaching Peru. Pan- 
ama, Colombia, and Ecuador have ordinary tropical weather, 
continuous heat with plenty of rain and luxuriant vegetation. 
Peru is in striking contrast. From Paita, 5 south of the 
equator, throughout the journey of 1200 miles along the coast, 
all within the tropics, the weather is so cool at least half of 
the year that exercise is a pleasure, while wraps and steamer 
rugs are frequently desirable. Of this moderate temperature 
the chief cause is the Antarctic or Humboldt current, which 
flows along the coast from the South Polar regions until, at 
Point Parina, the western extremity of South America, it 
meets a hot stream and both turn westward across the Pacific. 
The proximity to the sea of the lofty range of the Andes also 
contributes to the coolness. 

Another surprising phenomenon is the barren shore. The 
entire coast for 2000 miles, from Tunabes, to Coquimbo in 
Chile, is a genuine desert, save where, at considerable inter- 
vals, the fifty-eight streams in Peru, coming down from the 
mountains, afford opportunity for irrigation. The lack of 
verdure in Peru is not occasioned by the character of the soil ; 
it arises simply from the absence of rain. 

Paita. The fourth morning after leaving Panama the ship 
is likely to be at anchor in the harbor of Paita, having passed 
in the night the more northern Peruvian shore, Otherwise 


one might from a distance perceive near Point Parina the 
pipes and derricks of many oil wells. For the petroleum in- 
dustry is important in Peru. In this Department, Piura, the 
oil regions cover an area as large as Holland. It is said that 
the petroleum is superior to that of the United States, having 
little paraffine and no odor; that the kerosene gives a better 
light, and that the crude oil may be employed as fuel after 
merely standing a few days in the open air. For the last ten 
years the oil has been thus used in the locomotives of the 
Oroya Railway; it is now similarly employed on the Peruvian 
steamers. There is a great field for the development of the 
industry in this and other districts of the country. 

After several days on board ship most of the passengers 
improve the opportunity of going ashore. The regular fare 
as at other ports is forty centavos (twenty cents) each way 
for each person. Paita is a curious place, a small village, yet 
the third port in Peru in the amount of exports and imports, 
serving a considerable district including the city of Piura, 
with which it is connected by a railroad of standard gauge. 
The walls of the houses are of bamboo, set perpendicularly, 
some overspread with plaster often partly peeled off, others 
destitute of covering. Climbing the hills back of the town 
you will perceive a genuine desert, in the distance fringed 
by low mountains. " Paita," said the Captain on my first 
voyage in 1903, "is the dryest place on earth." From its 
appearance I was not inclined to dispute the fact, but having 
heard that it rains there once in seven years and in Iquique 
not at all I inquired how this might be. "That is easy," 
replied the Captain. " In Iquique there are heavy dews, here 
nothing, and now it has skipped one shower and it is almost 
fourteen years since it has rained." This was no idle jest. 
The drought continued until February, 1910, when there was 
a heavy shower, the first in nineteen years. There are no 
wells, hence all water is brought by rail and sparingly used ; 
therefore there is no green. The town of Piura, on the con- 
trary, 60 miles distant, is in an irrigated valley where the 
finest cotton is a staple production and where new irrigation 
canals are increasing the possibilities for agriculture. A few 
miles farther is Catacaos, where half of the 20 ; 000 inhabitants 
are engaged in making the 260,000 Panama hats here annually 


produced. While Ecuador is the chief seat of the industry, 
hats may be purchased at Paita to better advantage than at 
Guayaquil. The natives who come on board ship bring 
various articles for sale, paroquets, mocking-birds, fruit, pot- 
tery, ancient and modern, as well as the Panama hats. These 
of good quality may be purchased at from $2.00 to $12 or 
$15 gold, the latter of the Monte Christo quality, all at about 
one-fourth of the price commonly asked for a similar article 
in New York. The best are rarely found in the United States 
at any price. 

Some day Paita with its excellent harbor will become a 
port of great importance. A railroad 400 miles long is planned 
and has been surveyed to Melendez on the Maranon, the larger 
of the two rivers (the other, the Ucayali) uniting to form the 
Amazon. Crossing the Andes in one of its lowest sections, 
where a short tunnel at 5000 feet altitude will serve instead 
of the long ones, above 10,000 and 15,000 feet, through the 
mountains farther south, this road will bring the rubber coun- 
try in the neighborhood of Iquitos, the chief port on the upper 
Amazon, within two weeks of New York, instead of the four 
or five weeks by way of Para. On this route, too, are said to 
be millions of tons of iron, as well as coal and other minerals. 

On leaving Paita, if not before, the tourist will be likely 
to feel the need of heavier underwear. The air in winter is 
damp and chilly. The temperature in my cabin was 60. 
At this season clouds generally conceal the sun, making a 
gloomy sea, and the little patches of blue sky are small. 

Eten, the next port, 161 miles farther south, the ship is 
likely to reach the next morning. An iron pier 2000 feet 
long is noticeable, though a good distance away. Callao is the 
only seaport below Panama having docks which may be 
approached by large ships. The slope of the beaches is so 
gradual that even for the use of the lighters long piers are 
necessary. Eten has an especially poor anchorage, an open 
roadstead where there is often a moderate swell, so that the 
passing traveler seldom goes ashore. Frequently passengers 
must be taken on board by means of a sort of barrel or hogs- 
head destitute of one side. One person sits, another stands 
on the edge. Thus they are raised with windlass, chain, and 
pulley, and gently deposited on deck. 


Pacasmayo, 34 miles farther, is usually visited the same 
day. This is quite a town with a railroad running 85 miles 
up country, some day to be prolonged to Cajamarea, now 
rather difficult of access. 

The coast presents for the most part a study in browns, 
diversified by occasional patches of green, the size of which 
varies with that of the stream coming down from the moun- 
tains and the extent of irrigation in the valley. The great 
mountain range is surprisingly near the sea. There are 
indeed foothills, and in the northern and southern sections of 
Peru, back of the high bluffs which generally line the coast, 
a plain stretches away to lofty mountains. These, however, 
are near enough to be always in sight if it were not for another 
peculiarity of this rainless coast, the low clouds or mist which 
too often conceal or obscure them. Along the central portion 
of Peru beginning with Salaverry, the mountains come down 
to the shore in many bold headlands and are sometimes so 
disposed as to present an appearance of several ranges of 
varying altitudes, the rearmost, a frowning almost perpen- 
dicular black wall, which, back of Chimbote and Samanco, 
rises to the extraordinary height of 15,000 to 18,000 feet. 
Barely, a snow-crowned summit is there seen peeping over a 
depression in the Black Eange, the north peak of the great 
Huascardn, 21,812 feet above the sea, first ascended in 1908 
by Miss Annie S. Peck with two Swiss guides. At present 
Huascaran is called the second highest measured mountain in 
America, but it is far more difficult to climb than Aconcagua, 
now holding first place. Had one a clear view of these great 
ranges, the voyage to the mountain lover would be of real 
"fascination. As it is, the long halts at the various ports to 
discharge and receive freight become a trifle monotonous. 
Possibly, after the opening of the Canal, there will be through 
service with direct express to Callao from Panama, 



Salaverry, 66 miles from Pacasmayo, is usually reached 
during the night. At this port a few tourists may be tempted 
to disembark, perhaps with two objects in view; one to visit 
the ancient city of Chan Chan, the flourishing city of Trujillo, 
and the great sugar plantations of the valley; the other, for 
the purpose of transferring to the caletero boat, in order to 
land at Chimbote or Samanco, thence to visit the Huailas Val- 
ley to admire its magnificent scenery, including the peerless 
Huasearan. By taking at Panama the Sunday steamer (fort- 
nightly) of the Peruvian Line, one may land at Chimbote or 
Samanco without change. 

Salaverry, with one or two hundred houses on the desert 
shore, is a port merely, near a bold bluff which helps to make 
a fair harbor. A great quantity of sugar from the Chicama 
&nd Santa Catalina Valleys is the chief export. 

Trujillo, eight miles by rail from the harbor, is a pretty city 
of 10,000 people. Founded by Pizarro in 1535 near the ruined 
capital of the Grand Chimu, it is one of the most aristocratic 
of Peruvian cities. First among these to proclaim independ- 
ence, December 22, 1820, the Department received from 
Bolivar the name La Libertad. Trujillo possesses a pretty 
shaded plaza, fashionable for the evening promenade, several 
convents, and interesting churches, one of which, the San 
Augustin, is noteworthy on account of the excellent carving 
and rich gilding of the pulpit and high altar. It has a hos- 
pital, a university, a club, a hippodrome, a theater, and three 
daily papers; also, most important to the traveler, a respect- 
able but far from luxurious hotel providing rooms, while fair 
meals may be procured at a Chinese restaurant close by. 

Sugar Estates. Well worth a visit are the splendid sugar 
estates up the Chicama Valley, Casa Grande, Roma, Cartavio* 



and others. The first, an hour by rail from Trujillo, is said 
to be the largest sugar plantation in the world, containing a 
total population of 11,000, one-fourth of which is engaged in 
labor in the fields or mills. This valley, which in the time 
of the Grand Chimu supported a great population, was in the 
last century almost a barren desert up to 1873, when a German 
visiting the valley discovered the ancient irrigating canal, 
bought up land, and soon made the desert blossom as the rose. 
This valley produces more sugar than the entire island of 
Porto Eico, sugar of the finest quality. In the temperate, 
equable climate, the cane all along the coast matures early, is 
unusually rich in sugar, and may be cut all the year around. 
It may be raised at a profit if sold at 1% cents a pound. The 
estates have the best of machinery, and expert managers 
who employ the latest and the most approved methods. 
Churches, schools, and hospitals are provided. The dwellings 
of the proprietors and superintendents contain most of the 
conveniences and luxuries of modern life, including tele- 
phones. The annual export of sugar from Salaverry amounts 
to 50,000 tons, and from Huanchacho near by to half as much 
more. Within 30 miles of Salaverry are also rich copper and 
silver mines, far more accessible than those on the plateau 
region above, and with a more agreeable climate. Their de- 
velopment on a large scale will not long be delayed. 

Chan Chan. The tourist who is not a possible investor or 
looking after commercial interests may rather turn his atten- 
tion to the great ruins north of Trujillo on the road to the 
small seaport, Huanchacho. Every one interested in an- 
tiquities should visit the ruins of Chan Chan, the largest and 
most important of the dead cities on our western coast. For 
a good pedestrian it is a moderate walk from Trujillo, though 
a horse may well serve the majority. Here the Grand Chimu 
once ruled over the twenty northern valleys of the Peruvian 
coast, from Tumbes on the north to Supe, well towards the 
Eimac valley on the south. Here was a civilization entirely 
distinct from that of the Incas, unhappily overthrown, by them 
some four generations before the Conquest by Pizarro. A 
fertile plain 90 miles long was watered from three rivers by 
a remarkable system of irrigation. An aqueduct tapping the 
Muchi Eiver high up in the mountains carried water across the 


valley on an embankment 60 feet high. Remains of a great 
reservoir between Trujillo and Casa Grande indicate a capacity 
of two billion cubic feet of water. The city itself, open to 
the sea, was protected on the east from land invaders by a 
thick and lofty wall extending for miles along its borders. 
That it was at last compelled to succumb to the Incas is believed 
to be because these succeeded in diverting the water supply. 

The site of Chan Chan, once probably the largest city in 
the New World, with an area of fifty or sixty square miles, is 
now a melancholy spectacle. What ruthless destruction has 
been wrought! What loss to the human race, through the 
overthrow of ancient civilization, again and again followed by 
relapses into partial or complete barbarism and toilsome prog- 
ress upward ! Will people ever learn to moderate their greed 
for wealth and power, and suffer others to dwell in peace after 
their own fashion! 

For a cursory or careful inspection of the ruins a guide 
should be employed, as wandering at random one may miss 
or fail to understand the most important remains. In the 
labyrinth of walls with various enclosures containing numer- 
ous buildings, an immense mound is an occasional feature. 
One built of stone and rubble, 150 feet high, called Obispo, 
covers an area of 500 square feet. To the casual observer 
the design would not be obvious. Originally the mounds were 
in terraces, upon which buildings were erected with various 
passages leading to store rooms or burial chambers in the in- 
terior. With gardens around their base a splendid effect 
must have been created. The Spaniards early searched these 
mounds for .treasure, with great success. From one called 
the Toledo three million dollars are said to have been taken ; 
from the entire city $15,000,000. A broad lower mound 
proved to be a cemetery, where in niches were found mum- 
mies in elaborate garments of fine cotton adorned with gold 
and silver. In the center is a structure doubtless for the per- 
formance of the funeral rites. 

The great palace of the Chimu enclosed a large hall 100 by 
52% feet. Its walls, containing a series of niches, were covered 
between with stucco relief work in arabesque patterns. Two 
structures of unusual form are believed to be factories. Ar- 
ranged around a square which had a reservoir in the center 


were twenty-two recesses, probably for shops. Opening on 
smaller courts and passages were one hundred and eleven 
rooms, probably workshops for artificers in gold, silver, and 
bronze, and for designers, dyers, potters, and weavers. Won- 
derful ornaments of gold and silver have been found, fine 
textile fabrics, and most remarkable, the pottery, white, black, 
and pale red, which in immense quantities has been taken 
from the mounds called Jiuacas, a name applied also to the 
objects. On the various specimens of this ceramic ware is 
portrayed every kind of fish, bird, mammal, and fruit, with 
which they were acquainted, also human beings, some in por- 
traits, others as caricatures. There are groups engaged in 
war dances, in harvesting, and in other occupations. Some 
specimens of the pottery are said to be equal to any which has 
been fashioned, from the best days of ancient Greece up to 
the present time. Near the banks of the river Muehi at the 
south, stood a temple to the moon called Si An, where im- 
portant religious ceremonies and processions took place. 

Evidently the Grand CMmu was a powerful monarch with 
a magnificent court, ruling over subjects who lived in comfort. 
Their language, Mochica, is little known, as the race is prac- 
tically extinct. When conquered by the Incas they were 
neither destroyed nor robbed of all their wealth. It was 
Pizarro and his followers who, though amazed at the greatness 
and beauty of the edifices, wantonly robbed and persecuted 
the inhabitants until the country was laid waste. The people 
and their civilization vanished and were forgotten. The 
language, wholly different from the Quichua, gives no hint as 
to the origin of the people. Neither does tradition lighten 
the mystery, nor their art, which relates wholly to their en- 
vironment, though betraying some similarity to Mayo works. 
An exhaustive study of the language and of the archaeo- 
logical remains is required to reconstruct the history of this 
remarkable people whose ancestors are believed to have dwelt 
here long before the Christian Era. 

Moche. Between the city of Trujillo and the port Salaverry 
is an Indian town called Moche, the inhabitants of which may 
be remnants of this old race. They wear a distinctive dress, 
are proud of their unmixed lineage, and do not intermarry 
with others. The costume of the women, merely a chemise 


with a piece of dark blue cloth wrapped around the body and 
fastened at the waist, to be seen anywhere in Moche, is not 
allowed in Trujillo. 

Continuing from Salaverry by express steamer, one arrives 
the day following at Callao, a twenty-two hours' run. 

Chimbote and the Huailas Valley. The tourist who desires 
to behold the wonderful scenery of the Huailas Valley and 
magnificent Huascaran, surely repaying a little trouble, at 
present transfers at Salaverry to the weekly caletero boat for 
Chimbote or Samanco, unless he has sailed in the Sunday 
Peruvian steamer. With the completion of the railway to 
Caraz and beyond, promised within a year or two (as, alas! 
since 1906), Chimbote will doubtless become a primary port, 
receiving calls from the express steamers. When this happens, 
no one should omit the delightful railway journey of 135 miles 
to Tungay, at the foot of the great Huascaran. At the mo- 
ment, the trip may be enjoyed by the robust traveler, as the 
three or four days' horseback ride into the valley involves 
no hardship, save fatigue to those unwonted to such jour- 

The harbor of GJiimbote, by some called the finest on the 
entire West Coast below Panama, is practically landlocked 
by a peninsula and several islands. It has an area of about 
36 square miles, without a single rock below its placid surface. 
The usual pier extends from a sandy beach which affords 
splendid bathing facilities; but docks, approachable by the 
largest ships, could be arranged on one of the islands, which 
a bridge across a 200-yard channel would easily connect with 
the main land. The American capitalist, Henry Meiggs, the 
prime mover in the construction of the South and Central 
Peruvian Eailways, had the foresight in the early seventies 
to perceive the great business possibilities of the Chimbote 
harbor, and planned the railway from Chimbote up the 
valley of the Santa River and along the Huailas Valley to 
Huaraz, 167 miles. A beginning was made, the road bed 
was constructed for 80 miles, the rails were laid for 60, when 
the Chilian war broke out. The invaders, having captured 
Chimbote, carried off the rolling stock and supplies, and de- 
stroyed whatever could not be removed. After the close of 
the war, Peru being bankrupt, the project remained for some 


years in abeyance, during which time the road was operated 
only to Tablones, a distance of 35 miles. Under recent con- 
cessions some work has been accomplished and the road is 
now open 30 miles farther. It is expected that the Peruvian 
Corporation, at present in control, will soon complete the line 
to Recuay, a little beyond Huaraz, when better accommoda- 
tions for tourists will surely be provided. At present some 
of the towns have no hotels whatever, while in others those 
existing are very poor. Happily the residents are most hos- 
pitable, and strangers with letters of introduction, or in some 
cases Without, are agreeably entertained by some of the best 
families. Naturally, with better facilities for travel this pleas- 
ant custom will cease. At Chimbote the small and poor hotel 
where I stayed in 1906, if not already enlarged and improved, 
will doubtless soon be superseded by a more adequate establish- 
ment. Back of the town, together with a mound and walls 
remaining from an ancient city, are vestiges of an aqueduct, 
presumably constructed in Chimu days. "When these are re- 
paired the desert plain near by, which bears an excellent soil, 
will be fruitful enough to support the great city laid out 
by Meiggs and expected to follow the completion of the rail- 
road. This project was originally undertaken, not for the 
purpose of conducting tourists to the splendid scenery of the 
Huailas Valley, nor primarily for the convenience of its present 
large population and the export of its agricultural products. 
The chief value of the railroad lies in its opening up the im- 
mense coal fields of the region. Along the Santa Eiver are 
millions of tons of excellent coal, which some persons believed 
worthless, because it is chiefly anthracite and semi-anthracite, 
therefore non-coking; ignorant of the fact that except for 
smelting purposes it is more valuable than soft coal. 

This railroad has an advantage over the others leading- into 
the interior, in being able to follow the Santa River through 
a cut in the Coast Range, instead of climbing 15,000 feet over 
it. Thus by a moderate grade it will reach the Huailas Valley. 
A serious impediment to the construction is the narrow gorge 
through the mountains, impracticable even for a pedestrian; 
yet the difficulty will soon be overcome. After ten miles on 
the desert the road passes near sugar plantations and hacien- 
das. The region of coal deposits follows, extending through 


the mountain range and up the two lateral valleys beyond, the 
north in the direction of Cajamarca, the south, the Huailas 
Valley, to Keeuay. The passage of the sombre gorge will 
be along the side of splendid cliffs with a foaming stream 
below, a continuous spectacle of superb grandeur. Turning 
south into the Huailas Valley, from one to four miles wide, 
the traveler has the White Eange on the east, the Black on 
the west. The floor of the valley is beautiful with green fields 
of alfalfa and vegetables, with vineyards, fig and orange trees, 
chirimoias, and other tropical and subtropical fruits, and with 
hedges of fragrant flowers : above are rounded hillsides bear- 
ing the grains, green or golden, of temperate climes, higher 
are cliffs either gray or black, and on the east white peaks of 
dazzling splendor rising 14,000, 16,000 feet above the valley, 
which itself slowly ascends from 4000 to 10,000 feet above 
the sea. The lower western wall attains an altitude of front 
15,000 to 18,000 feet. Travelers may always disagree as to the 
finest scenery in the world, but few visitors to this valley 
will deny that it is unsurpassed in the Western Hemisphere. 
In scenic splendor excelling Chamonix, in mineral riches it 
rivals the Klondike; for on both sides, the mountains are 
veined with gold, silver, and copper, as well as the more use- 
ful if plebeian coal. 

Huascaran. Caraz, a pretty town with a delightful climate 
at an altitude of 6000 feet, is situated at the base of Huandoy, 
21,000 feet, while Yungay, at 8300 feet, has a still finer loca- 
tion on the lower slope of the great Huascardn, one of the most 
beautiful of the world's mountains, first climbed by Miss Peck 
on her sixth attempt, September 2, 1908, in company with two 
Swiss guides, her earlier efforts being rendered abortive 
through inability to provide other assistants than the inexpen- 
sive and incompetent natives. In recognition of this remark- 
able ascent to a summit 1500 feet higher than Mt. McKinley, 
Miss Peck was presented by the Government of Peru with a 
very beautiful gold medal. Of the twin peaks, the north was 
the summit attained : this, according to later measurement by; 
French engineers, has an altitude of 21,812 feet; the south 
peak, 22,187 feet, pronounced by the guides impossible at the 
time, remains for some other mountaineer to conquer. Other 
snow mountains a little lower, of varying degrees o difficulty, 




afford opportunity for a number of first ascents of 20,000 feet 
and upwards. 

The tourist who is not a mountain climber will find ample 
reward for his journey in admiring these peaks from the 
valley. He should, however, take a few horseback rides, 
especially one from Tungay through the Llanganuco Gorge, 
by which there is a frequented pass between Huascaran and 
Huandoy to the mountainous and mineral region east of the 
White Kange. This splendid excursion may be made in a 
single day from Yungay, but the feeble, or the novice in horse- 
back riding may prefer to spend the night at a ranch hou^e 
at the east end of the gorge, perhaps extending the excursion 
some distance beyond. In any case provisions should be taken 
from Yungay. 

After a pleasant two hours' ride over the green foothills, 
one enters the narrow gorge four miles long, and a quarter to 
a half mile wide, where a sublime spectacle is presented. 
Practically perpendicular cliffs, more lofty than those of the 
Yosemite, rise on either hand, until at the center of the gorge 
one gazes at the sheer north wall of Huascaran towering 10,000 
feet above the floor of the canon which itself has a height of 
12,000 feet. % On the left, high up between massive triangular 
cliffs, gleam glaciers of the sharper Huandoy, almost as high 
as the snowy coverlet peering over the edge of Huascaran. 
A beautiful lake -half a mile long, near the center occupies 
the entire floor of the valley. One rides along the pathway, 
in places cut out of the solid rock, in others supported by 
tree trunks, where a horse's stumble might easily precipitate 
his rider into the so-called fathomless lake 100 feet below; 
but the excellent horses climb veritable stairs with ease, and 
there is no occasion for disquietude. In the distant fore- 
ground a beautiful snowclad mountain is in brilliant contrast 
to the somber and awesome surroundings. A second lake 
follows; a silvery waterfall on the left leaps down a few 
thousand feet in a shimmering shower of spray. Beyond the 
lakes are meadows, then the ranch house. To continue thence 
to the south to behold the eastern face of Huascaran and other 
splendid peaks is well worth the sturdy traveler's while. 
At least the Llanganuco Gorge should be traversed by every 
yisitor to the valley, though many of the natives of Yungay 


have never admired its grandeur, as many residents of Buffalo 
have never seen Niagara Falls. Several delightful walks or 
rides should be taken to the hills back of Yungay, and to 
a buttress of the Black Range opposite. From one of the 
former, a little to the south, may be had the finest possible 
view of the mountain. A pleasant ride, of three hours 
each way (a whole day should be allowed for the trip), is to 
the gold mine Matarao (10,000 feet), above the village of 
Maneos. From this point Huasearan may be climbed ; or one 
may walk up to the snow line and return the same day, if 
not affected by the altitude. 

Before the completion of the railroad the tourist may ad- 
venture thither by riding up over the Black Range. "Without 
letters of introduction to hospitable hosts, one should write 
a week or two in advance to the steamship agent at Samanco 
requesting him to have horses ready at the port, since none may 
be obtained there. One may ride on the day of arrival 30 
miles to Moro where there is a poor hotel. The second day 
one may proceed to Famparomas, where food and lodging of a 
sort are provided. A long third day's ride will bring one 
at nightfall to Yungay, From the altitude of 14,700 feet at 
the top of the pass in the Black Range, there is a glorious 
picture of the Cordillera Blanca, a row of snowclad giants ex- 
tending north and south as far as the eye can reach; while 
a gloomy canon close in front leads down to the beautiful 
valley. A truly hardy traveler may enjoy pursuing his way 
up the Huailas Valley to Huaraz and on to Cerro de Pasco, 
from Yungay a ten days' journey; either by way of Hu&nuco 
in the montana section east of the mountains, or by Chiquian 
on the plateau near the foot of another splendid peak. 


Callao. The harbor of Callao, six or seven days direct 
from Panama, in contrast to the ports where the ship has 
previously called, presents an attractive picture. If the ar- 
rival is in the early evening the brilliant and extensive display 
of lights indicates a considerable city and a wide array of ship- 
ping. By day one will admire the varied landscape, the busy 
docks and the city in front, the verdure of the Bimae Valley at 
the left with its scattered enclosing heights often partly hid- 
den by clouds, and the contrasting bluffs of the islands San 
Loreruao and Fronton on the right, which, with the long sandy 
bar called La Punta extending a mile out from the city, 
form a well protected harbor. Of the few such on the West 
Coast this alone has been actively utilized. Unfortunately the 
other chief commercial ports are open roadsteads. In 1537, 
two years after the founding of Lima, a city was established at 
the port, where soon there was a busy harbor, with vessels 
bringing all kinds of merchandise from Europe, and departing 
laden with rich cargoes of gold and silver and a few other prod- 
ucts. In the early colonial days Callao was several times 
pillaged by pirates, but later suffered a far greater calamity, 
exceeding the recent disasters at Valparaiso and San Francisco, 
and paralleled only by the fate of Port Royal. October 28, 
1746, a terrible earthquake occurred, accompanied by a tidal 
wave which engulfed the city, destroying all, save one or two, 
of the 6000 inhabitants. The site sank beneath the ocean. 
The present city was rebuilt to the north of the earlier settle- 
ment. Many ships lie at anchor in its harbor, some at the 
Hocks, others outside: sailing vessels, large steamers, both 
passenger and freight, a half-dozen men of war, Peruvian, 
British, perhaps American, the last probably flying the only 
United States flag visible. Seldom does a ship approach 



the docks on arrival, and not at all if its stay is to be 
short. The freight is discharged into lighters, the passen- 
gers with their baggage into rowboats. As the water is al- 
ways smooth, this, though inconvenient and an additional 
expense, is no great hardship. The fare to the shore is 
40 centavos. A bargain should be made with the fletero, 
as the men are called who have numbers on their hats in- 
dicating that they are duly licensed. These men will take 
charge of your luggage, large pieces and small, delivering it 
safely at your hotel in Lima. They are likely to ask double 
what it is worth, not in comparison with New York prices, 
but with what it is needful to pay. The Lima Express Com- 
pany has a fixed tariff of 1.50 soles for a large trunk, 80 
centavos for each piece of hand baggage, although for several 
a reduction may be made. The figure agreed upon should 
include the fee for taking both passengers and baggage, except 
that the passenger will often make his own way from the 
dock to his hotel in Lima. Stipulation should be made for 
the delivery of the baggage within two or three hours, though 
it may then arrive much later. What one carries one's self 
should not be counted. If undecided what hotel to patronize 
one may arrange with the fletero for half price to conduct him 
and to transport his baggage to the railway station, where it 
may be checked to Lima. Trains every half hour, fare 20 
civs. Leaving it at the station Desamparados in Lima, a 
block from the principal plaza, the tourist may look about 
and arrange where to go. Persons who have decided in ad- 
vance may go with the fletero to the railway station or, after 
passing the customs examination at the dock, may turn to the 
right, then left, and walk a block or so to the electric cars 
which run every ten minutes to Lima, a ride of about twenty 
minutes through the center of Callao, and along a broad bou- 
levard to the larger city eight miles distant. From the end 
of the line in Lima it is a walk of four blocks to the left and 
one to the right to the Hotel Maury ; or a cab may be taken 
,(fare for one or two persons, 40 centavos), to the destination 

The tourist on landing will give Callao but a passing glance, 
and is likely to return only to embark on his departure ,- but 
a few points of interest may be mentioned. A floating dry 
dock belonging to the Peruvian Steamship Company will re- 


ceive ships of 7000 tons within the space of two hours. The 
city is of foreign aspect, with buildings of one or two stories. 
Noticeable are the women with stands of strange and familiar 
fruits and other edibles. The newsboys seem natural; the 
electric cars are of the best quality, some with compartments 
of the first and second class, with prices to Lima, 20 and 10 
centavos respectively. Among many narrow streets are some 
wide ones; two or three small but respectable hotels afford 
accommodation at modest prices, one sol a day for a room, or 
at double the rate and more. There are several large plazas, 
(open squares) and a few Clubs, the English with good quar- 
ters fronting the bay, and with a fine view from the balconies, 
the Italian, Centro Naval, Union, Boat Club, etc. Among the 
churches, hospitals, and public edifices, the most noticeable 
is the Aduana or Custom-house, which is seen at the right 
from the car as it is passing through the first plaza. Of the 
churches, that of La Matriz is most important. The plaza in 
front is adorned with a statue of General San Martin; the 
Plaza Grau has a handsome monument to the celebrated 
Admiral of that name ; while in the square called Dos de Mayo 
is a marble pillar surmounted by a bust of Jose Galvez, 
Minister of War, killed in the naval battle at Callao, May, 
1866. Should one desire further information as to shops or 
other matters, inquiry may be made at the importing house 
of W. R. Grace of New York (ask for Casa Grace) ; or at one 
of the steamship offices, all of which are near the landing. 


For the fuller enjoyment and appreciation of Lima, a little more 
history may be an advantage. The heroes of Peru are many. The 
names of a few will often be heard, and a knowledge of their valiant 
deeds, a slight acquaintance with Spanish American History, is de- 

After the news of the Conquest had been carried to Charles V to- 
gether with the royal fifth of the gold treasure obtained by Pizarro, 
the Conqueror received an additional grant of seventy leagues of 
land to the south of the two hundred previously bestowed, which 
began in Ecuador about one degree north of the equator. To Al- 
magro, Pizarro's partner, was given two hundred leagues south of 
this dominion. Just where the dividing line ran was a matter of dis- 
pute, each claiming that Cuzeo his territory. However, a truce 


was declared until Hernando Pizarro should arrive with the docu- 
ments, Almagro meanwhile setting out in 1535 on what proved to be 
an arduous and futile expedition for the conquest of Chile. On his 
return he again set up his claim to Cuzco. A contest with 
Hernando Pizarro ensued ; Almagro gained possession of the ancient 
city, but was later put to death there by order of his old friend and 
ally, Francisco Pizarro. The claim of Almagro's son to his father's 
territory then being denied, this so enraged the followers of that 
brave and generous chieftain that they resolved to avenge his wrongs. 
Rushing into the house of Pizarro they slew him before he could arm 
himself to resist. Thus in 1541 perished the Conqueror after a few 
brief years in the enjoyment of his astonishing success. 

For nearly three centuries afterward, Peru was governed by a 
Viceroy, who until 1740 had authority over the whole of Spanish 
South America, The Viceroy was assisted by a Ileal Audiencia, con- 
sisting of four oidores or judges who possessed extensive civil and 
criminal powers. Another Audiencia was also established at Chu- 
quisaca, Sucre, in Alto Peru, now Bolivia. During the colonial days 
the Indians were greatly oppressed by the Spanish residents, who 
drew vast wealth from the mines and lived in luxury and splendor. 
At the same time the colonists suffered various vicissitudes, attacks 
by pirates, an epidemic of smallpox, two severe earthquakes in 1687 
and 1746, and insurrections of the Indians; but in the main the 
country was prosperous. 

For centuries the spirit of loyalty remained, but the North 
American and the French revolutions encouraged the spread of 
liberal ideas, which events in Spain made easier to be carried into 
execution. Although the Viceroy, Fernando Abascal, whose ad- 
ministration lasted from 1806 to 1816, made many concessions and 
improvements, it was impossible to stem the tide. After the abdi- 
cation of Charles IV of Spain in 1808 in favor of his son Ferdi- 
nand VH, and the subsequent crowning of Joseph Bonaparte as 
king, orders were sent out for the colonists to transfer their alle- 
giance to the new ruler. It happened, however, that a decree of 
Charles V in^!530, confirmed by Philip II in 1563, had authorized 
the colonies in case of emergency to convoke Juntas or political 
assemblies. These convening in the various colonial capitals de- 
clared loyalty to the banished King Ferdinand and refused to 
recognize the authority of Spain while in the hands of a usurper. 
The leaders were already planning ultimate independence, but the 
masses were not yet weaned from their loyalty. In Buenos Aires 
the Viceroy was expelled without trouble, but in the other colonies 
the struggle was severe and prolonged. In Lima the Viceroy em- 
ployed harsh measures against the patriots. In 1809 royalist troops 


were sent from here to Quito, and an army under General Goyeneehe 
to Alto Peru, to oppose the revolutionists. February 13, 1812, in- 
dependence was proclaimed at Huanuco, in 1814 at Cuzco; but at 
length the royalists everywhere gained the day, so that when 
Abaseal retired to Spain in 1816, Buenos Aires alone remained in 
the hands of the patriots. Nevertheless, the successor of Abaseal, 
General Pezuela, was the last of the Viceroys. Although Ferdinand 
was now restored to the throne of Spain, the spirit in favor of in- 
dependence had become general. With an empty treasury, and 
general disorder in the departments of government, the Viceroy found 
himself confronted by a resurrection of the enemy who, after vic- 
tories in the south and north, at length advanced upon Peru. 

First came the Liberating Army from the south, organized in 
Mendoza by General San Martin, who, in 1817, had overthrown the 
royalists in Chile. Landing near Pisco, 122 miles south of Lima, 
September 7, 1820, General San Martin issued, September 8, a 
proclamation stating that he had come to liberate the people, not 
to make conquests. Robbery was prohibited; and bloodshed, ex- 
cept on the field of battle. The Viceroy proposed a conference 
which was held at Miraflores without result. 

An army of 1000 soldiers under General Arenales, dispatched by 
San Martin from Pisco to the interior, after gaining many recruits 
defeated a royalist force near Cerro de Pasco. Meantime San Mar- 
tin had proceeded to Ancon just north of Lima, and then to Huaura 
near Huaeho, while Admiral Cochrane, with his new Chilian fleet, 
captured by surprise at night the Spanish frigate Esmeralda in 
the port of Callao. In January, 1821, the Viceroy abdicated and 
returned to Spain leaving in command General La Serna, who with- 
drew to the interior on the advance of the patriot army. July 12, 
1821, San Martin entered the capital; July 28, which is regarded as 
Peru's Independence Day, proclamation was made in the Plaza in 
front of the palace "From this moment Peru is free and inde- 
pendent by the will of the people and by the justice of their 
cause which God defends/' 

San Martin, now called the Protector, after organizing a pro- 
visional government and arranging for a national congress went to 
Guayaquil to meet General Simon Bolivar, who, having freed Vene- 
zuela and Colombia, was coming from the north. The particulars 
of the conference were not revealed. A disagreement was evident. 
San Martin, returning, resigned the government into the hands of 
the Constituent Congress which met in 1822, and withdrew to Argen- 
tina and Europe. The assembly conferred on him the title of 
Founder of Liberty of Peru, decreed a life pension and other honors; 
but the pension probably lapsed, as San Martin died in comparative 


poverty in 1850 at the age of seventy-two. The hero's patriotism, 
courage, skill, unselfish devotion, high principles, and sterling char- 
acter make him worthy to stand with the noblest patriots of history. 
His name in South America is honored as is that of Washington 
in North America, and with equal justice. It should be known among 
us, as is Washington's among them. 

General Bolivar arrived in Lima September 1, 1823, and was in- 
vested with supreme power. There were now two armies of royalist 
troops in the interior; in July, 1824, the Liberating Army of the 
North began its march from the sea over the mountains to Cerro de 
Paseo. The two armies met, August 5, on the plain of Junin, 
where the patriots gained a complete victory. General Canterae, 
commander of the royalist forces, retired to Cuzeo, where he was 
joined by the southern army under Yaldez. The patriots under 
General Sucre proceeded to the Apurimac Valley. December 9, 
1824, the two armies met in the hard-fought battle of Ayacueho, 
which resulted in a brilliant victory for the patriots and ended 
Spanish dominion in America. 

Bolivar was made President of Peru for life, the Colombian troops 
were voted a magnificent reward; but in 1827 Bolivar retired to 
Colombia, Of the troublous times following, up to the war with 
Chile, little need be said. The name of Manuel Pardo may be men- 
tioned, founder of the Civil Party and President from 1872 to 1876, 
an able statesman, scholar, and patriot, who was assassinated in 1878 
while President of the Senate. 

The War of the Pacific broke out in 1879, when Peru, in accord- 
ance with a treaty secretly made with that country, went to the 
assistance of Bolivia, after the Chilians had seized Antof agasta, then 
a port of Bolivia, on account of a quarrel over an export tax on ni- 
trate. A noted naval engagement occurred off the coast of Iquique, 
when the Peruvian ship Huascar under Admiral Grau sank the 
Chilian Esmeralda under the heroic Captain Arturo Prat, who lost his 
life in the engagement. To his widow, Admiral Grau, with kindly 
spirit, sent a letter of sympathy with some relics which Prat had 
carried. The other Peruvian vessel, the Independenda, pursuing the 
Chilian Covadonga, ran upon hidden rocks and became a total wreck, 
a misfortune which proved a death blow to Peru. For four months 
Admiral Grau kept the Chilians at bay, but at last, October 8, lie 
was obliged to fight the two Chilian ironclads at once. A shell strik- 
ing the tower killed Admiral Grau. His four successors in com- 
mand, one after another, met the same fate. When forced to sur- 
render one-third of the entire force of 193 men had been killed or 
wounded. The coast, 1400 miles long, was now exposed to the 
enemy, and in November, 1870, the Chilians began a series of at- 
tacks, all of which were successful, excepting the battle of Tarapaca". 


Many Peruvians met a heroic death, notably Bolognesi and others 
at Ariea. In 1881 occurred the battles of Chorillos and Miraflores 
and the capture of Lima by the Chilians, who remained in possession 
of the city until the treaty of Ancon was signed, October, 1883* 

According to the terms of this treaty, the province of Tarapaca 
was ceded to Chile, while Tacna and Arica were yielded for ten years, 
at the expiration of which time the residents were to vote whether 
they would continue as a part "of Chile or return to their former 
allegiance. The fact that the provinces have remained under con- 
trol of Chile without any such vote being taken, has for years been 
a cause of ill-feeling between the two countries, which at times have 
seemed on the verge of war. 


HOTELS. Grand Hotel Maury, A. P., 6 to 20 soles per day. E. P., 
2 soles up; Grand Hotel, A. P., 6 to 10 soles; Hotel Cardinal, E. P., 
2 $0fes up. Excellent restaurant, reasonable. 

Restaurants. Jardin Estrasburgo, and Marron's, excellent, fash- 
ionable restaurants; Berlin, German home-cooking restaurant. 

Carriage Rates. 40 ctvs. a course, for one or two ; by the hour, S. 

Post Office boxes in. hotel. Postage rates, Peru, letters, 5 ctvs.; 
cards, 2 ctvs.; United States and Europe, letters, 12 ctvs.; cards, 
4 ctvs. Population of Lima, about 150,000. 


Plaza de Armas, Cathedral, Government Palace, Portales, Plaza de 
la Inquisicion, Senate Chamber, Hall of Congress, Market, Ex- 
position Palace, Museum, and Park, Paseo Colon, Botanical Gar- 
den, Christobal Hill. Excursions on Oroya Railway, and to Choril- 

The monthly magazine, Peru Today, contains a Visitors' Guide 
and other valuable information. The weekly paper, The West Coast 
Leader^ is of interest and service. 

To be comfortably settled for a few days or weeks is of the 
first importance. Few will criticise the statement that the 
hotel par excellence of Lima is the MAURY, often called the best 
on the entire "West Coast. A New York club-man whom I 
met there with his East Indian valet, declared that nowhere 
else in the world had he found so excellent a table at so 
moderate a cost. One here meets travelers, distinguished and 
undistinguished, foreign diplomats, and other resident and 
transient guests from all quarters of the globe. With its 
main entrances near the corner of Ucayali and Carabaya 
streets, the Maury extends through the block to Huallaga. 
The section at this corner, called the Francia y Ingleterra, the 





French and English, was formerly a separate establishment. 
Though now a part of the Maury it preserves its old name, 
with its own room-clerks, and entrance on Huallaga. At the 
corner of the Plaza de Armas, the heart of the city, it has 
many rooms with balconies looking across the Plaza to the 
Government Palace and Municipal Building, while opposite 
the front is the side of the great Cathedral. In spite of the 
proximity of the Cathedral bells, which ring oft and loud, 
many persons prefer this end of the hotel on account of the 
pleasant outlook and the better circulation of air. It is, how- 
ever, quite a walk through the corridors to the dining-rooms 
at the other end, and some distance to the bathrooms. So 
the majority prefer the Maury side, where the rooms are more 
elegantly furnished, the suites have larger parlors, a few 
have private baths, all have higher prices. The rates including 
meals are from six soles a day up to twenty, according to ac- 
commodations. Coffee and rolls are usually served in the 
n>oms at the hour desired ; almuerzo breakfast, is from eleven 
to two; dinner from 5.30 to eight. At each of these meals 
there are half a dozen Mnds of soup, several varieties of fish, 
15 to 20 hot entrees, 10 or 12 cold dishes, and several veg- 
etables ; at breakfast, steak, chops, and eggs in any form, at 
dinner several roasts, and, most unusual in South American 
cities, five or six Mnds of desserts. Also there is always fruit, 
at least oranges, bananas, and grwnadillas somewhat like a 
pomegranate. At almuerzo, strawberries may usually be had 
for the asking, though never on the bill of fare, while chiri- 
moias, sometimes called custard apples, may be obtained with 
a considerable extra charge, this fruit being everywhere the 
most expensive variety. On the street or at the market they 
may be purchased for one-third the price at the hotel, from 
10 to 40 centavos apiece according to the size. An English- 
man once complained that the roast beef and mutton were 
not such as he had at home, and he didn't care for the other 
things, fussed-up dishes; but most persons, like the New 
Yorker, rejoice in what is provided, at least for a reasonable 
time, especially if they have come from plateau or desert or 
from almost anywhere. The senoritas, which are not young 
ladies but resemble scallops, and the crabs and lobsters, are 
particularly fine. The Maury has also two or three annexes 


where rooms may be secured, and meals taken as desired. In 
the hotel, too, rooms alone may be procured, with meals a la 
carte in a different dining-room, or elsewhere at one's option. 
An excellent orchestra provides music of the best quality; at 
the Maury from 12 to 2 daily, and at the Exposition Restau- 
rant under the same management, in the Zoological Gardens, 
from 5.30 to 11.30. A steam laundry is connected with the es- 
tablishment; of course there are electric lights, as at all hotels, 
and in all cities of any size throughout the tour. Generally a 
button will be found near the head of the bed by which the 
light may be extinguished after retiring. 

The Grand Hotel is on Huallaga street in the next block be- 
yond the French and English ; similar to the Maury, with good 
rooms and table at slightly lower prices, and preferred by 
many. Of cheaper hotels, the Cardinal has a reputation for 
excellent meals a la carte at moderate prices ; this being sit- 
uated on what is often called the main street, calle de la Union, 
half a block from the Plaza. The Jardin Estrasburgo, on the 
Plaza, opposite the Cathedral, is a restaurant of the first 
order, where meals are regularly served, and ices and re- 
freshments at all hours. A European orchestra provides vocal 
and instrumental music. Opposite the Palace, under the 
portales is the Confiserie Marron. Afternoon tea and din- 
ner are accompanied by pictures from a cinematograph, and 
by orchestral music. All tastes and purses are provided 

Comfortably settled in a hotel, one will first enjoy a stroll 
on the Plaza de Armas, the real center of the city, important 
for its historic associations and for its present activities. For 
nearly three centuries the capital of Spanish South America 
and the seat of the Viceroys, Lima is a city the true history 
of which surpasses romantic legends: a place of wonderful 
charm to those who tarry long, the home of a courtly, culti- 
vated society of agreeable, hospitable people, though somewhat 
exclusive withal, as are the social leaders generally in the large 
South American cities. To be from New York, Chicago, even 
Boston, is not an open sesame to the homes of Spanish Amer- 
ican wealth and culture. However, the passing tourist will 
have brief time to make acquaintances; the few Peruvians 
whom he may casually meet are likely to make a favorable 


impression, except upon those who regard courtesy as a 
waste of time. 

The Plaza de Armas or Plaza Major was selected by Pizarro 
himself as the center of the city. The site was well chosen 
in proximity to the fine harbor of Callao, yet somewhat back 
from the water for safety from the buccaneers who in those 
days infested the seas. Although at the foot of the great 
Andes, off-shoots from which come down to the water's edge, 
the city is on practically level ground ; for the hills about, as in 
general all along the coast, rise abruptly, like islands, from 
a flat surface, instead of the whole country being hilly and 
rolling as on our Atlantic shore. These small detached moun- 
tains, which make a pretty and effective background when 
they are not concealed by fog, are largely responsible for the 
disagreeable mist which in the winter season makes the climate 
rather unpleasantly damp and chill. 

The chief part of the city is on the left or south bank of 
the Eimac River, by the side of which runs the Central Kail- 
way from Callao up to Oroya; the main station of Lima, 
Desemparados, being one block from the Plaza. As is custom- 
ary, a pretty garden with flowers, trees, and shrubbery occu- 
pies a large part of the square, which has besides the usual 
band stand a bronze fountain in the center, no doubt the oldest 
in America, as it was presented to the city in 1578. 

The great Cathedral, on the southeast side of the Square, 
built of gray stone with two towers, is the earliest and largest 
in South America. Although the Spanish invaders manifested 
little of the spirit of the Christ they professed to worship, they 
were ardent supporters of what they regarded as the true 
faith and were eager to establish everywhere the rites of 
their religion. Thus Francisco Pizarro, the cruel and per- 
fidious conqueror, had no sooner selected the site of the city 
designed to be his capital, and drawn a plan of the streets 
and plazas than he himself laid the corner stone of the church, 
January 18, 1535. The first structure, though five years in 
building, was naturally of no grand proportions. But Lima 
soon becoming a -metropolitan see with an archbishop, it was 
deemed fitting to build a great Cathedral. With interrup- 
tions and changes of design it was 1625 before the splendid 
edifice was finished and consecrated. This done the bones of 


Pizarro were transferred thither, where they still remain. 
After a little more than a century this building was laid in 
ruins by the earthquake which in 1746 destroyed Callao; it 
was then reconstructed on the same site, though with less 
magnificence than before. The Cathedral has five naves, and 
ten chapels along the sides. In the Chapel of the Virgin on the 
left is a celebrated image, a gift from the Emperor Charles V, 
and under a glass case the remains of the Conqueror Pizarro, 
though their genuineness is a matter of dispute. The view in 
the central nave is imposing. The choir, said to be unequaled 
in America and seen to best advantage only on feast days 
when the high altar is illuminated, is distinguished by reason 
of the beautiful carving of the mahogany and cedar; the 
pulpit also shows handsome chiseling. In front is a Crucifix 
of ivory presented by Philip II, a valuable work of art. The 
solid silver altar and candlesticks are noteworthy. The un- 
usually fine organ was made in Belgium. In the Chapel 
Arcediano, the Archdeacon's, which was founded in 1600 by 
Don Juan Velasquez de Obando and dedicated to Santo Goribio 
and other sainted Limanians, is an original painting by Murillo 
representing Jesus and Veronica, presented to the church by 
Senor Luna Pizarro. In the chapel of St. Bartholomew are 
paintings of a celebrated artist, Mateo Alexio, who visited Lima 
near the close of the sixteenth century and who is here buried. 
On a sidewall is the most famous work of a noted artist, 
Matias Maestro, called the Consecration of the Cathedral, the 
gift of Senor Ocampo in 1625. In the chapel, La Purissima, 
of especially rich construction, is the sepulcher of Senor Mor- 
cillo with his statue by a distinguished Peruvian sculptor, 
Senor Baltazar Gavilan. Here too are fine ivory carvings 
representing the apostles, presented by the Lima theologian, 
Dr. Feliciano de la Vega, who at his death in 1640 was Arch- 
bishop of Mexico. In the passage-way connecting the church 
with the sacristy may be seen on the right a painting of the 
various saints native to Lima, by Matias Maestro. On the 
wall of the right gallery of the church, a painting by Lepiani 
represents Christ in Prayer. In the sacristy are portraits of 
all the^ Archbishops, a copy of a Rembrandt, some relics of the 
Inquisition, and a font of unusual style. By the side of the 
Cathedral is the residence of the archbishop, never suitably 




restored, and in its dilapidated condition marring the beauty 
of the Plaza. 

On the northeast side of the Plaza is the historic residence 
of the Viceroys, now the Government Palace. Of the old 
colonial building, the scene of many gay and brilliant festivi- 
ties in the days of great general wealth and viceregal splendor, 
nothing remains but the chapel with a handsome ceiling and 
with walls, adorned with sixteenth century tiles reminding of 
Moorish art. No longer used for worship it is a store-house for 
archives. Around the several patios are suites used as offices 
of the various departments of government. Here may be 
found the Minister of Foreign Relations, the Minister of 
Justice and Education, etc.: also the apartment occupied by 
the President as his residence and for his offices. In the State 
dining-room banquets are occasionally given to distinguished 
guests, as to Secretary Boot. During the Sessions of Congress, 
the President usually entertains at dinner the Members, 
seriatim, holding an informal reception after the dinner. 
The present occupant of the Presidential quarters, His Ex- 
cellency Don Guillermo Billinghurst, a gentleman of English 
ancestry speaking fluently that language, was installed for a 
four-year term, not subject to re-election, September 24, 1912. 

Although the main entrance to the patio of the palace is 
guarded by soldiers, an ordinary person is permitted to pass 
from the Plaza unquestioned. Commonly quiet and peaceful, 
on a day in May, 1909, there was here a scene of confusion 
and bloodshed. By a simultaneous attack made at each of the 
three entrances, the guards were overpowered and many of 
them slain, the rooms of the President were invaded, his sec- 
retary was murdered, and he himself was seized and carried 
to the street. Surrounded by horsemen he was dragged first 
one way then another, at length to the Plaza de la Inquisicion, 
where with a revolver at his head demand was made that he 
should sign an abdication. This, President Leguia with much 
courage resolutely refused to do. After being two hours in 
the hands of his enemies he was rescued, safe and sound, by 
soldiers who, firing upon his captors, succeeded in taking pris- 
oner most of the ringleaders. Two years later they were tried 
and convicted : but to avert a probable insurrection they were 
immediately pardoned, when they were welcomed by the pop- 


ulace as heroes instead of the criminals they were. When 
such men seek to gratify their personal ambition at the cost 
of their country's welfare, for which the first requisite is peace 
and steady constitutional government, if they received severe 
punishment and reprobation rather than honor, the attempts 
would cease and stable prosperity would be assured. An in- 
terview with the President, if especially desired may perhaps 
be secured through the United States Minister. His office 
and residence are in a garden called Quinta Eeeren in the block 
Carmen Alto of the street Junin, which passes the front of the 
palace. The streets, it should be said, have many names, a 
different one for each block; but in addition to these local 
appellations, which are very confusing to strangers, they have 
names belonging to their entire length, so that the block names 
may sometimes be dispensed with. 

On the northwest corner of the Plaza is the Mwvicipal Build- 
mg or City Hall, containing the office of the Mayor, in Lima 
termed the Alcalde. Here in 1906 Secretary Root was received 
by Mayor Elguera and the Town Council before going to the 
Palace to pay his respects to the President. The hall and 
municipal offices are above stairs, the street floor being oc- 
cupied by shops of various kinds. Half a block from this 
corner, down the calle de Lima, a continuation of Junin, is 
the Post Office, where notices are posted of the opening and 
closing of mails in connection with the arrival and de- 
parture of steamers, and of trains to the interior. Postage 
stamps may be procured on the right and letters registered. 
On the left, letters are mailed in different slots according to 
where they are going, hence care should be exercised. After 
regular closing time double postage will secure the dispatch of 
letters for an hour or two longer. With fast mails to Panama 
but once a week, it is important to be in season. There are 
letter boxes also in the hotels and on the streets, from which 
collections are made by carriers. The northwest and south- 
west sides of the Plaza, on which are the portales, are equally 
interesting in their way. Here are shops of great variety, dis- 
playing large assortments of goods, besides venders under the 
arches with wares spread on the floor. The walks are gen- 
erally thronged with people, for along here are also clubs 
and restaurants, the latter already referred to. The Clubs 


occupy apartments above the porfales. The Union, at the 
corner opposite the French and English Hotel, has a series of 
handsome rooms where balls and banquets are occasionally 
given in honor of distinguished strangers and residents. 

The streets of Lima are narrow, with the electric cars run- 
ning so close to the curb that one needs to be rather, careful, 
especially as the sidewalks are narrow also. Fortunately most 
of the buildings have but one or two stories, though a few of 
the later erections have three. Apart from the Plaza, the 
principal street for shopping is the calle de la Union, which 
passes across the Plaza in front of the Municipal Building. 
In the first two or three blocks from the Plaza there are 
drug stores, photographers, jewelry and book stores, shops of 
millinery and dry goods, etc., as on all the cross streets near. 
The fruit-sellers with little baskets of strawberries on long 
poles, the milkmaids perched high on mules or horses with 
great cans on each side, the ladies in manta, the close fitting 
black shawl, or the mantilla of lace, or in the latest Parisian 
modes, the cholos in plainer garb, the soldiers, the policemen 
ever blowing their whistles, the newsboys and news women, 
the sellers of lottery tickets, the fine private equipages, car- 
riages and automobiles, and many many other things present 
variety sufficient to make an aimless stroll of continual interest. 
A glance into the open doorways away from the busiest streets 
usually reveals a paved court, sometimes with flowering plants 
or small trees, mayhap a fountain, and around the court the 
main rooms of the dwelling. A gem of typical colonial ar- 
chitecture, the old historic dwelling on the calle del TIcayali, 
a block from the Maury, should by all means be visited. It 
was the property of the Marquis de Torre Tagle and still be- 
longs to his descendant, Senor Ortis de Ceballos, to whom 
is due its excellent condition. The massive stone doors, 
staircase, galleries, barred doors and windows, and the bal- 
conies both on the street and around the patio, present fine ex- 
amples of the carving of that period. These may be ex- 
amined by alL A wonderful collection of paintings in the 
possession of the family is not always on view. Inquiry as 
to the possibility of seeing it may be made by those who are 
especially interested. This extraordinary assemblage of more 
than eight hundred paintings of the classic schools contains 


works of Michael Angelo, Raphael, Titian, Correggio, Leon- 
ardo da Vinci, Rubens, Poussin, Velasquez, Murillo, and 

ATI important private collection of ancient furniture, carved 
and inlaid with artistic merit, is the property of Dr. Javier 
Prado 7 Ugarteche, Minister of Foreign Relations in the ad- 
ministration of President Leguia, and Dean of the School of 
Law,* another is that of Don Carlos Watson. 

For evening entertainment there are several theaters, the 
Politeama, seating 2000, El Olimpo, smaller, the Chinese, and 
the New Municipal Theater seating 2000. 

If disposed to take a morning stroll, one may walk along 
Huallaga street past the side of the Cathedral until he comes, 
after four blocks, to the largest of the four market buildings. 
This, called the Mercado de la Conception, occupies a whole 
square. In the second block from the Plaza on the right hand 
side is an unpretentious drug store of Estremadoyro where for 
5 centavos may be purchased a small envelope of Persian 
powder, very useful for the fleas. Elsewhere two or three 
times as much must be paid for the same quantity in less con- 
venient form. At the end of this block is the fine building 
of the Bank of Peru and London. Other banks of various 
nationalities of Europe will be observed, but none of the United 
States, However, the House of W. B. Grace, which will be 
found by turning to the right at the end of the first block, a 
little way down on the left, will serve the purpose if one takes 
a draft on their house, when letters may be sent in their care. 
Continuing on HualTaga past the Bank of Peru and London, 
the interior of which is worth looking at, though you have no 
especial business within, you come to the fine Market with 
little shops and cafes along the front and sides. "Within the 
large hall is a great display of fruits, flowers, vegetables, meat, 
butter, eggs, etc. ; everything at very reasonable prices except 
the last two. Flowers may be had for a song, a bunch of rosea 
for 20 centavos, 10 cents; not American Beauties to be sure, 
but old-fashioned tea roses and others of various colors, fresh 
and sweet. Tuberoses, mignonette, heliotrope, and other gar- 
den flowers are there in profusion. How one would rejoice 
at such opportunities in any of our cities ! Twenty, a hundred 
such markets are needed in Manhattan alone. Luscious fruit 


of various kinds is always plentiful, most of it cheap. Two 
squares beyond the market one would come to what is now 
called Plaza Rctimondi. Facing this is a great building for the 
Police Quarters, and just before that, one for the Society of 
Mining Engineers. In this Plaza the numerous Italian resi- 
dents of Lima have recently erected a monument to the 
famous Italian engineer, Antonio Raimondi, who for many 
weary years wandered over the great territory of Peru, inves- 
tigating its mineral resources, and making topographic obser- 
vations which he embodied in a series of maps on a very large 
scale. Though not perfect in every detail, they are remarkably 
accurate in view of the difficulties under which he labored. 
One intending to make exploration in the interior should pro- 
vide himself with Raimondi maps of the sections to be visited, 
these being on sale at two soles each at the large book stores 
in Lima. Crossing the Plaza to calle de Junin, the Church 
and Hospital of Santa Ana are on the right. Turning at 
Junin to the left, back towards the Plaza de Armas, at the 
next corner will be found the Casa de Moneda or Mint. This 
is not always open to the public but may be visited on one or 
two afternoons of the week, as may be ascertained by inquiry. 
The gold and silver coins here made are of the finest work- 
manship and of high grade metal. The Numismatical Museum 
of the Mint contains a splendid collection of medals from all 
parts of the world, as well as copies of all those coined from 
the time of Independence to the present. 

At the next corner on the left is the Church of St. Thomas 
and beyond that on the cross street is the Prison and the Cor- 
rectional School for Women. On the following corner of 
Junin, at the right is the Church of Caridad, Charity, facing 
the Plaza of the Inquisieion. Turning here to the right we 
find in construction the new building for both Houses of 
Congress, while keeping straight ahead with the pretty garden 
on the right we should observe the handsome Doric portico 
of the building long used as the Senate Chamber, formerly 
occupied by the Tribunals of the Inquisition, which even on 
our "Western Continent sought to stifle free thought. The 
Indians, luckily, were excused from its Mndly ministrations, 
the only charity at that time extended to them. The ceiling 
of fine carved mahogany inspires admiration for its excellent 


workmanship of native skill. A mahogany table now used 
for writing the laws of the nation was formerly in service for 
drawing up the decrees of death. A noticeable feature of this 
Plaza is an equestrian Statue in bronze of the liberator, 
Bolivar. Sculptured on the pedestal of white marble are bas 
reliefs representing the battles of Junin and of Ayacucho. 
In spite of the thin atmosphere at a height equal to that of the 
top of Pike's Peak, there was severe and gallant fighting on 
both sides. 

One may return from here to the Plaza by calle Junin, or 
going one block to the right and then to the left may pass the 
Church and Plaza San Francisco. This imposing building 
contains in the sacristy a valuable collection of paintings; 
paneled ceilings with finely carved beams, and floor of blue 
tiles, in the cloisters; and carved stalls in the gallery. Fol- 
lowing the ear track to the left one soon returns to the 
Cathedral and Plaza. 

Of the sixty-seven churches in Lima a few merit a visit. 
The most important are fortunately near the centre of the city. 
On the corner beyond the Post Office, as one goes from the 
Plaza, is the Church of Santo Domingo. The roof over the 
main entrance is spoken of as the richest and most elaborate 
work of art in Lima. In the floor of the first cloister the blue 
tilings laid in 1606 are noteworthy. The collection of paint- 
ings in the vestry includes a Murillo representing San Antonio, 
and a portrait of Santa Eosa by Matias Maestro. A celebrated 
chapel by Fray Martin de Porras contains a valuable col- 
lection of paintings by Eoman Nicolette of the eighteenth cen- 
tury; fourteen works representing the twelve Apostles, St. 
Paul, and John the Baptist. Especially notable is a beautiful 
marble statue of Santa Eosa, standing on. a silver pedestal 
which is studded with jewels. Santa Eosa, Isabel de Oliva, 
born in Peru in 1556, led a life so remarkable for its saintly 
purity that she was canonized by Pope Clement X, the only 
American ever distinguished by such an honor. She became 
patron saint of the whole of America, the West Indies, and the 
Philippines, her festival being celebrated August 30. Her 
remains repose in the church in the altar of Santa Eosa, on 
the base of which is portrayed in marble the scene of her 
deathbed. The church contains also a silver, altar to Our 


Lady of the Bosary, a madonna with a rosary of large pearls, 
and relics of Fray Martin de Porras and others. 

At the corner where the Church of St. Domingo is situated 
one may turn to the left, and after two blocks on the ealle 
de Camana he will 9 reach the Church of St. Augustm where 
the stone faade in the baroco style, the choir, and the table 
of the vestry deserve attention. The organ is called the finest 
in Lima. The platform of the ancient chapter room, now the 
chapel of the college, and a painting of St. Augustin are of 
interest, but the distinguishing ornament of the church is a 
remarkable statue in wood representing Death, the work of 
a monk, Baltazar Gavilan, who it is said died from the shock 
of seeing it during an attack of delirium tremens. Twelve 
oil portraits on copper of the Disciples, by an unknown artist, 
are called excellent in drawing, conception, and coloring. 

After one block more on Camana, and then one to the left, 
the Church of La Merced is reached on the corner of La Union 
and Ayacucho. This large and fashionable church has a high, 
altar the front of which is silver elaborately worked. There 
are good carvings on some of the side altars, and paintings of 
merit in the sacristy. Continuing two blocks along Ayacucho 
and one to the left, one reaches San Pedro, the church of the 
Jesuits, also fashionable. The wood carvings of the entrance 
doorway and of the massive altar are worth seeing, also its 
burnished gold scroll work, the tiled wainscoting, and the 
paintings and carvings in the sacristy. 

These churches are best seen during the forenoon, as in the 
afternoon they are often closed. There is an Anglo-Amer- 
ican Episcopal Church on the calle de Carabaya in the sixth 
block from the Maury, Pacae 226, where service is held Sun- 
day mornings at ten, others at varying hours. The chaplain, 
Kev. Archibald Nicol, lives next door, Pacae 228. At Callao 
there is another Anglo-American Church, not Episcopal, with 
services in English at 10.30 a. m. and 8.00 p. m., calle 
Teatro 25. 

At least half a day should be devoted to a visit to the 
Palace of the Exposition which may be reached by electric 
car, down the calle de la Union, or by the calle de Abancay 
three blocks from the Maury in the opposite direction, as well 
as by carriage. By the former route one passes the Municipal 


Theater on Union street, and beyond, the square in which the 
Penitentiary is located. This building is called a model and 
may be visited by interested persons who procure a permit 
from the proper official. The next square is a handsome 
shaded park called the Parque Colon. This contains a monu- 
ment to President Manuel Candamo, which was unveiled 
Sept. 8, 1912. On the farther side of the park is a pretty 
building, the Institute of Hygiene, fitted up with laboratories 
of the latest pattern for the analysis of water, foods, etc. 

In the center of the Plaza where the cars turn is the Monu- 
ment erected to the famous General San Martin, whose name 
is honored all over South America as that of Washington in 
North America, an equally sincere and disinterested patriot, 
a great general; less happy in his later life, though highly 
honored after his death. He is here represented proclaiming 
the independence of Peru. On the column is a winged 
female symbolizing Glory. This handsome monument was 
presented to the city by Col. Lorenzo Perez Roca. 

The Exposition Palace is a large white building where the 
Chamber of Deputies temporarily meets and the Department 
of Fom-ento is housed ,- with halls where lectures and concerts 
are occasionally held and grand balls are given. It was the 
scene of two functions in honor of Secretary Eoot, the first 
when he was incorporated into the University of St. Mark as 
honorary member of the Faculty of Administrative and Po- 
litical Sciences in the presence of the President of the Republic 
and other officials of the University and the State. Here, too, 
was given by the Town Council of Lima a magnificent ball 
in Mr. Root's honor, to which 1500 invitations were issued. 
The elegance of the whole affair, in the decorations, gowns, 
refreshments, and other particulars was equal to that of simi- 
lar functions in any part of the world. On the upper floor of 
the building is the National Historical and Anthropological 
Museum, open from 2 to 5 p. m. except on Monday. Over the 
latter section Dr. Max Uhle, a distinguished German scientist 
and a noted authority on prehistoric Peru, has long presided. 
The present Director is Emilio Gutierrez de Quintanilla. Dr. 
Uhle by excavations at Pachacamac and elsewhere greatly 
enlarged this collection, probably the most valuable in exist- 
ence in its own specialty. Some of the specimens of pottery 




are believed to have been produced previous to the Christian 
Era. The origin of the various articles and their period are 
indicated on the cases. Exceedingly curious and weird are 
many of the objects, and even one who has no taste for 
archseological relics can hardly fail to be interested in the 
extraordinary, sometimes beautiful, examples of pottery, in 
the figures of Indians, in the mummies, and other objects. 
The examples of the strange articles used at the present day 
by the Indians in the remote montana region equally impress 
the observer. 

The relics of early colonial days, souvenirs of various battles, 
of the generals of the "War of Independence, will be examined 
with sympathetic regard by the tourist who has some famil- 
iarity with Spanish American history. An Art Gallery with 
a number of historical paintings, and others of general char- 
acter occupies one corner of the same floor. 

In a smaller building to the northeast is a permanent indus- 
trial exhibition which the specialist only will care to study. 
Between these buildings is the entrance to the Park, for which 
a fee of 10 centavos is charged. This park of thirty acres is 
a delightful promenade with shaded walks, palm and other 
trees, artificial lakes, a kiosk, conservatories with orchids and 
various other plants ; it is also a Zoological Garden. Here and 
there are cages of animals of various kinds, one a spacious 
and lofty dwelling for many birds, including a pair of the 
famous condors, which the tourist is not likely to see on the 
journey except in captivity. Bears and other animals are in 
other cages. In 1911 the finest pair of lions that I ever 
chanced to see, and four lively cubs excited admiration. 
.Within the park at the left of the entrance is an excellent 
Restaurant kept by the proprietors of the Hotel Maury, a 
fashionable place to dine. Down beyond the Zoological Gar- 
den, on the side where the electrics go to Chorillos, is the 
'Shooting Club of Lima and fields for cricket, tennis, and other 

The Avenue on which the Exposition Palace faces is named 
the 9th of December, but oftener called the Paseo Colon. It 
is the popular driveway, half a mile long and 150 feet wide, 
leading to the Plaza Bolognesi. Lined on the side towards 
the city with handsome modern residences, it has along the. 


center a garden, with trees, shrubs, and flowers, on each side 
of a broad walk. On the occasion of Secretary Boot's visit 
there were additional arrangements for electric lights, and on 
the evening after his arrival the Paseo was brilliantly illu- 
minated with these, as well as by a splendid display of fire- 
worts. The Paseo was thronged with people who enthu- 
siastically welcomed their distinguished guest. 

The Statue of Columbus on the Paseo must not be over- 
looked. He is represented as the Discoverer of America, 
which is personified by the Indian woman kneeling at his side. 
This was the model for the statue at Colon and was designed 
by Salvatore Revelli. 

The Plaza Bolognesi is a spacious circle, a fine setting for the 
statue in the center to Col. Bolognesi, who fell at Arica in the; 
war with Chile, June 8, 1880. When asked to surrender he 
replied, "Not till I have used my last cartridge," and so fell- 
The statue represents the hero sinking with a mortal wound r 
yet still holding the flag of his country. Around the base of 
the column on which the hero stands are sculptured in marble 
allegorical scenes. 

Six avenues are designed to radiate from this plaza, one, 
towards the center of the city, called the Central, to be a con- 
tinuation of the calle de la Union. In the opposite direction 
extends the Avenue Pierola. On this a car track leads out 
to the suburb Magdalena, one of the pleasant shore resorts 
with which Lima is favored. Between this and the Avenue 
9th of December is one leading to the Hippodrome. The 
races, generally held on Sunday afternoon, are attended by 
large crowds of fashionable and other people. The grand- 
stand belongs to the Jockey Club, which has charge of the 
races and conducts them according to general custom. 

Some distance beyond the Hippodrome is the School of 
Agriculture and the Sugar Experiment Station, both of these 
institutions well conducted and doing a valuable work for the 
promotion of agricultural industry. A great variety of plants 
is cultivated, and experiments are made with soils of many 
kinds. Instruction is given to a considerable number of 

Proceeding from the Exposition Palace in the direction 
opposite to the Plaza Bolognesi, following the Avenue Grau, 


one would after a few blocks pass the Italian Hospital on tbe 
left, and a little farther reach the School of Arts and Crafts 
on the right, Escuela de Artes y Oficios, of which Senor 
Valente is director. Here are taught clay modeling and sculp- 
ture, decorative art and composition, the history of art and 
aesthetics ; and models of various works are usually to be seen. 
A foundry for art bronzes, it is hoped, will soon be added. 
Of still greater importance are the courses designed to pro- 
duce honest and capable mechanics, which are well accom- 
plishing their purpose. 

In the next block on the left is the large building of the 
Medical School; the Eaimondi Museum on the upper floor, 
open from eleven to twelve, has sections devoted to Botany, 
Ethnology, Zoology, etc. In the rear of the building is the 
Botanical Garden, containing specimens of every tree and 
plant to be found in Peru. Owing to the varied climates of 
the country arising from the difference in altitude, a wonder- 
ful diversity of productions results. The entrance is adorned 
with stately palms ; gorgeous and beautiful flowers and shrubs 
will be found within. A pe tree bears a strange fruit, which, 
bursting open when ripe, shows within a pretty flower with 
scarlet seeds called the chusia. Cards of admission are ob- 
tained at the Medical School. 

Continuing along the avenue one passes the large Dos de 
Mayo Hospital and still farther, on the Avenue of Circum- 
vallation, the Cavalry Barracks and the Arsenal of War* 

Other objects of interest are near the center of the city. 
The National Library is on the calle del Ueayali on the right 
hand side, at the end of the second block to the left or south- 
east of the one on which the Maury is situated. One of the 
first acts after the inauguration of the Republic, previous, in- 
deed, to the final battles of the war, was the creation of the 
National Library. On the 17th of September, 1822, it was 
opened to the public with a collection of about 12,000 volumes, 
many of which were of great value. Unfortunately, while the 
Chilian army was in occupation of Lima in 1881, this library, 
then containing 50,000 works, was ruthlessly destroyed, a por- 
tion being carried to Chile, and the remainder scattered about 
the streets or sold at auction by weight. The later restoration 
of the library was chiefly due to Dr. Eicardo Palma, who re- 


mained its Director until 1912. Dr. Palma by diligent effort 
collected many of the old books and priceless manuscripts; 
many patriotic Peruvians made contributions; sympathetic 
nations, Spain, Argentina, Ecuador, the United States, sent 
gifts. A collection of 5000 volumes was presented by the 
' Smithsonian Institute. In 1884 the library was reopened with 
28,000 volumes; it now contains 60,000. Still in its old loca- 
tion, a building earlier occupied by the College of the Caciques, 
an institution for the education of the descendants of the 
Inca rulers, a new building is greatly needed and no doubt 
will soon be provided. Senor Manuel Gonzales is the present 
director. Among the treasures of the library is an edition of 
Cervantes' works called the Argamosilla, printed from silver 

In the same building on the floor above, are the rooms of 
the Lima Geographical Society, designed especially to foster 
geographical study and research in Peru. It has a consider- 
able membership, including the most noted scholars and states- 
men of the country ; the library contains many valuable works 
and the leading geographical magazines of the world. The 
Society of Mining Engineers long had rooms in this building 
but have recently removed to their new quarters a few blocks 

Turning the corner to the right by the side of the library 
building one will find at the next corner the Palace of Justice. 
One block more after a second turn to the right brings one to 
the calle de Azangaro, the Normal School for Girls occupying 
a considerable portion of the block on the right. The entrance 
is near the Church of San Pedro. Four blocks to the left down 
Azangaro, but fronting on the calle del Inambari, is the Uni- 
versity of San Marcos, the oldest in the Western Hemisphere, 
founded in 1551, almost a century earlier than Harvard. 
Established under a charter from Emperor Charles V and his 
mother, Queen Joana, it was at first in the monastery of Santo 
Domingo and under the charge of that Order. Twenty years 
later by order of Philip II the University was secularized, and 
in 1574 it received the designation of San Marcos. In 1576 a 
building was c6nstructed for its use in the Plaza de la Inquisi- 
cion. After two centuries in this location it was trans- 
ferred to its present site, formerly that of the Jesuit college 




of San Carlos, then united with the University. Dr. Don 
Luis F. Villaran has been rector of the University since 1905. 
The University embraces Schools or Departments of Law, 
Medicine, Theology, Science, Philosophy and Letters, and Ad- 
ministrative and Political Science, in which a high standard 
of scholarship is maintained ; the Medical School, as we have 
seen, occupies a separate building. The rooms are grouped 
around several patios. There is an assembly hall with a hand- 
some carved ceiling, and in the museum are curious mummies. 
A University Eeview is published monthly. A few years ago 
a Centro was established, somewhat after the fashion of the 
Harvard Union. Women are admitted to the University. 

The Engineering School is in quite another direction on 
the calle del Callao, four blocks from the southwest corner 
of the Plaza de Armas. This, established in 1876, continued 
under the direction of the Polish engineer, Senor Eduardo 
Habich, until his death in 1911. The school has complete 
laboratories, and courses in mining, civil, electric, and me- 
chanical engineering; all of which in a country like Peru are 
of infinite importance. 

The fine large school for boys in a splendid building on 
Avenue Alfonso Ugarte, the Collegio de Guadalupe, well de- 
serves a visit. 

The portion of Lima on the right bank of the river Eimae 
should not be ignored. Passing from the Plaza by Carabaya 
street, one comes to the fine new railway station of Desem- 
parados, completed in the fall of 1912. After one block to 
the left a turn to the right leads one to the bridge across the 
, Eimae, the river recently improved by being enclosed within 
a suitable channel. So much water is drawn off for irrigation 
all along its course that little is left in the ancient river bed. 
To one who wishes to see the life of the common people the 
walk affords good opportunity, but a drive to the Jardin de 
los Descalzos, the Garden of the Barefooted Friars, will be 
generally preferred. The garden extends half a mile or more 
along a broad avenue. It contains, besides plants and trees, 
handsome urns, marble benches, and twelve statues represent- 
ing the 'Signs of the Zodiac. At the end is a fountain, and 
beyond, the ancient Church and Convent of the Friars under 
the shadow of the hill, San Christobal. A path leads up from 


this point, but the more usual route is farther east. Return- 
ing from the Garden, one may take the first turn to the left, 
then one to the right past the Butt 'Ring, seating 8000 spec- 
tators and called the largest in the New "World. It lies 
practically in front of the Batta Bridge, a modern structure 
named for one of the Presidents. The Bull Eing, said to be 
the second largest in the world, is on Sunday afternoons often 
thronged with spectators to witness this cruel sport, which 
will doubtless before many years be discontinued, as already 
at Buenos Aires and in most other cities of South America. 
Before returning by the Balta Bridge, the Alameda de Acho 
on the right hand should be visited. This was once a fash- 
ionable promenade and still boasts of large handsome trees, 
tall poplars forming three roadways. 

It would be a pity to ignore the Cerro or Hill of San Chris- 
iobal, which rises 900 feet above the city. There is an easy 
path by which the ascent may be made, but for the benefit of 
the lame and the lazy an Aerial Tramway has recently been 
established; the transit requiring 8 or 10 minutes begins at 
Los Banos del Pueblo near the Alameda de los Descalzos. 
The summit on a clear day affords a delightful view of the 
city, the irrigated valley, the hills, the mountains, and the 
sea, which should well repay the effort of the climb, itself 
agreeable except to the incorrigibly indolent. More enticing 
than the view to some, will be the opportunity of visiting the 
Great Tower for Wireless Telegraphy, which rises 350 feet 
above the crest of the hill. It is, indeed, a triumph for wire- 
less. Messages across the sea seem not so wonderful : but to 
send them over mountains and broad plateau, over or through 
a wall three and a half miles high and 100 miles thick appears 
marvellous. This wireless station, one of the highest powered 
in the world, has sent messages not only to Iquitos on the 
Amazon, 1030 kilometers away, for which purpose it was espe- 
cially designed, in order to ensure communication between the 
central government and this important Peruvian commercial 
outpost, but also to Manaos in Brazil, 2300 kilometers (1435 
miles) distant. The great mountain range between the two 
cities averages 18,000 feet in height, while beyond are dense 
tropical forests. The construction company did not venture 
to guarantee the success of an untried service, promising only 


to build an intermediate station if necessary. The great suc- 
cess of the undertaking renders this superfluous. The station 
at the other end is Itaya, two miles from Iquitos. The towers 
are identical, triangular steel structures, each weighing 120 
tons. They rest on a concrete base by a steel ball point, in- 
sulated by thick glass plates. Each is kept vertical by means 
of three heavy steel cables at three angles. A power of 10 
kilowatts is supplied but 7 only are used. The service was 
inaugurated June 16, 1912, with suitable ceremonies both at 
Lima and Iquitos. President Leguia, other officials and cit- 
izens to the number of 3000, made the ascent of the Cerro, 
though the hilltop was not large enough to contain all, the 
crowd as it were slipping over the edges. After various 
speeches the President started the machinery. At 5.05 a mes- 
sage of congratulation was sent and at 5.17 the reply was re- 
ceived. Then was unveiled a bronze tablet bearing the in- 
scription in Spanish : ' * This station was inaugurated in 1912. 
His Excellency, Augusto B. Leguia, President of the Republic, 
Dr. Jose Manuel Garcia, Minister of Pomento, Dr. Edmundo 
N. de Habich, Director of Fomento. A. E. Tamayo and K. J. 
Holmvang, engineers in charge of construction. The Tele- 
funken Company, June, 1912. " 

A monument which should not be overlooked by the tourist 
is the Dos de Mayo standing in a circle, and passed by the 
electric cars to Callao. This monument commemorates the 
victory of May 2, 1866, when an attack of the Spanish fleet 
upon Callao was repelled and the Spaniards were finally driven 
from the Pacific coast. A column of Carrara marble 75 feet 
high is surmounted by a statue of victory. Around the base 
are figures representing the countries of Peru, Bolivia, 
Ecuador, and Chile. 



Chorillos. "Witli sufficient time at one's disposal a few days 
may be pleasantly spent in visiting the shore resorts near the 
capital. The electric cars which pass on the calle de Abancay, 
the third street southeast from the Maury, are the means of 
transit to Miraflores, Barranco and Chorillos, all pleasant 
places of residence, though Chorillos is especially fashionable. 
The last named, before the Chilian war, was the most fre- 
quented summer resort in South America, but after the battle 
of Chorillos in 1881 it was completely destroyed by the in- 
vaders. Rebuilt during the last quarter of a century, it is 
again beautiful with many charming homes. The town is 
located 100 feet above the beach of a sheltered cove, which is 
partly enclosed by a cliff. A promenade along the edge is a 
fashionable resort for tourists and townspeople, to enjoy the 
cool breezes, and the sunset in the broad Pacific. Close at 
hand an eminence of 2000 feet called Morro Solar enhances 
the beauty of the scene. A shady pathway leads down to the 
beach, which affords excellent bathing with a moderate surf. 
The regular population of 3000, greatly increased in the sum- 
mer, is daily further augmented by those who come for the 
bathing and the other diversions of a watering place : boating, 
music, dancing, etc. At the Casino are held many fashionable 
social affairs ; and the Regatta Club gives frequent entertain- 
ments when the bay, covered with boats of various descriptions, 
presents a pretty spectacle. "Worthy of a visit is the Military 
School here located, a fine institution for the education of 
army officers, and an excellent training school for the Indian 

Beyond Chorillos the electric cars continue by a tunnel 
through Morro Solar to La Herradura, another bathing resort. 



Barranca and Hiraflores, nearer to Lima, are almost continu- 
ous with Chorillos and are connected by pleasant, shaded 
driveways. Magdalena, a shore resort still nearer Lima, is 
reached by a different electric car line. 

A very popular resort with a fine new hotel, the Eden, is 
La Punta, down beyond Callao, whence electric cars, connect- 
ing with those from Lima, for five centavos carry passengers to 
the extremity of the sandy point ever refreshed by cool breezes. 
Here the Naval School's excellent new building is located. 

Ancon. Twenty-five miles north of Lima, on the opposite 
side from Chorillos, is Ancon, more especially a health resort, 
its sandy soil and dry atmosphere making it especially desir- 
able for persons with pulmonary and bronchial affections. 
There is good bathing, a tennis court, one or two hotels, the 
Grand said to be comfortable, and many cottages ; but it is less 
attractive than the resorts at the south. It has, however, an 
allurement peculiarly its own in being renowned as a necropo- 
lis of pre-historic treasures. Ancon is reached by a steam 
railway from the Desamparados station in an hour and a half 
or so, and the ride gives one a view of the genuine unirrigated 
desert. The journey may now be pursued to the town of 
Huacho, about 90 miles farther. 

Pachacamac. Persons who are interested in antiquities 
should make the excursion to Pachacamae, whose ruins are 
believed to antedate any others in Peru and to go back two 
or three thousand years. The place is not accessible by rail,, 
carriage, or boat, yet it may be visited in a single day by a 
vigorous, enterprising person who is able to make suitable 
arrangements in advance. The site of this ancient sanc- 
tuary and city is nearly 25 miles from Lima, in the direc- 
tion of Chorillos. Thither one should go by the earliest morn- 
ing car, to be met there by a guide and horses with which to 
pursue the journey. Dr. Max Uhle made extensive excavations 
in this region. The ruins are in the Lurin Valley, the loveliest 
south of Lima, watered by a stream smaller than the Eimac 
but of constant supply. In the period of the invasion it was 
the more thickly populated of the two. Wars, and the efforts 
for the conversion of the natives by religious orders ^ caused 
the ancient city in the course of the century following the 
Spanish invasion to become a scene of desolation. 


Provisions for a substantial luncheon should be taken in 
saddle bags, though fodder for the animals may doubtless be 
procured at the hacienda near by of Don Vicente Silva. A 
desert called the Tablada de Lurin is crossed between the 
Bimac and Lurin valleys. Barren islands are in view on the 
right with myriads of pelicans and other sea-fowl. The desert 
sands drift over the ruins, on the north side of the valley, 600 
yards from the ocean. A few tillandsia plants show a little 
green in winter. The hooting owl, the lizard, and a small viper 
are the only forms of life. The neighboring hills rise 150 to 
250 feet above the desert. In the distance two villages with 
their church spires may be seen, Pachaeamac three miles back 
from the sea on the other side of the river, and Lurin near the 
coast, a mile and a half from the ruins. To the south beyond 
is desert ; to the east, 45 miles away, the outlying bulwarks of 
the Andes rise 9000 feet. In an early period the coast for 120 
miles from Supe to Huaman was under the sway of Pacha- 
camac. There are extensive remains in many places about, 
and traces of an ancient road with a wall along the center, 
one side for the ruler and his retinue, the other for common 
people, each section 16 feet wide. The place was conquered 
by the Incas 170 years before the invasion of the Spaniards, 
when all its wealth of gold had already disappeared. The 
ancient city, 2% miles long and 1% broad, included four 
hills, on one of which in the center of the town the Incas later 
erected a temple to the Sun. The original sanctuary to the 
Creator god, not to be confounded with the Sun god of the 
Incas, stood at the foot of a hill on the north side of the town 
nearly on a level with the city. The temple which faced the 
coast to the northwest was 400 feet long and 180 wide with 
terraced sides leading to a plateau above, 330 by 130 feet. 
There are rooms supposed to be for the reception of envoys, 
others for sacrificial purpose. They were gorgeously decorated 
with frescoes of bird and animal designs, with doors incrusted 
with coral, turquoise, and crystal. Pilgrims who came a thou- 
sand miles with offerings were obliged to fast for twenty days 
before entering the first court, and a year before ascending to 
the holier shrine of extraordinary sanctity above. The ceme- 
teries naturally furnished many valuable relics, mummies, 
bones, and skulls, fragments of cloth, and a great variety of 


articles. The cemetery connected with this temple was the 
most crowded, though burial here was reserved for princes 
and pilgrims who brought rich offerings. Many objects have a 
strong resemblance to those of Tiahuanaco. A slab of Chavin 
de Huantar and a richly ornamented poncho at Ancon are of 
similar style. It is estimated that there were from 60,000 to 
80,000 graves here, some in open cemeteries, some in dwellings, 
besides those in the temple. Most of these were rifled ages ago. 
This is thought to be a seat of the earliest civilization of the 
coast, perhaps extending to Ecuador, while the Chimu culture 
either descended from it or was influenced by it. The city wall 
was from 11 to 13 feet high and 8 feet thick. There was an 
inner as well as an outer wall. The streets were 13 to 16 feet 
wide. There were large detached edifices, resembling ruins 
at Huatica near Lima, and one group of crowded buildings. 
The term Pachacamac is of Quichua origin, the earlier name 
being different, perhaps Irma the same as Wiraqocha. The 
Sun temple half a mile from the sea is on a terraced rooky 
height a mile and a quarter in circumference; but it does 
not compare with the Mexican pyramid Cholula. The rooms 
may be traced, and the stairway with steps four inches high 
and one foot four inches wide. A convent for the Sun maid- 
ens, accommodating two hundred, fronts the green fields. 
The cemetery on the southeast terrace of the Sun temple shows 
that all were women who had been strangled in obvious sac- 
rifice ; thus suffered also many children of all ages for the pro- 
pitiation of their cruel deity. 

The Oroya Kailway. Whatever else may be omitted from 
one's programme of sightseeing in Peru, a journey over the 
Oroya road should on no account be missed. Long enjoying 
the reputation of the highest railway in the world, it affords 
an opportunity to climb with ease in a few hours to a height 
as great as that of the summit of Mont Blanc, to behold 
scenery of wonderful grandeur, and a historic region of 
remarkable mineral wealth, the second of the three great 
longitudinal divisions of Peru. Farther on, with a lit- 
tle more trouble, one may most conveniently obtain a 
glimpse of the third and by far the largest of Peru's 
three natural divisions; as yet thinly peopled and lit- 
tle known, but ultimately, perhaps, to prove the richest. 


The practically rainless coast region from 50 to 100 miles 
wide, all desert except where irrigated, we have already 
seen. Nest comes the sierra district of mountains and table- 
land, from one to three hundred miles wide, where, beyond 
the Coast Range, there is plenty of rain and snow. Varying 
in height, width, and in the number of parallel mountain 
chains, the greatest altitude is in the southern and central 
portions, decreasing north of 7 S. Lat. The lofty snowelad 
mountains, the multitude of lesser peaks, the lakes, small and 
large, the countless streams, the delightful valleys, the deso- 
late plateau sometimes called the puna, cut by narrow gorges, 
present a marvellous variety of scenery, climate, and produc- 
tions. Here are two-thirds of the inhabitants of the country. 
The forest region on the eastern slope of the mountains with 
the lowlands beyond, all called the montana, is at first won- 
derfully beautiful with soft, genial climate, though, below an 
altitude of 2000 feet it becomes rather warm, in a few spots 

By the Oroya Railroad a great elevation is attained in 
fewer hours than can be duplicated elsewhere in the world 
except in balloon or aeroplane. Indeed, the time of the ascent 
is so brief that some persons suffer from the sudden change 
in the pressure of the atmosphere. This fact has given rise to 
alarming representations, on the part of many native and 
foreign residents, of the danger involved in the journey, so 
that many tourists are frightened out of the excursion to 
whom it would be a genuine delight. The truth is that of 
the thousands who each month go over the road, the majority 
suffer from soroche, mountain sickness, not at all, or with little 
and temporary discomfort. A slight headache is common; it 
may be severe, or accompanied by nausea and vomiting. A 
few have become dangerously ill and deaths have occurred, 
as on Pike's Peak. Two classes of people should not take the 
risk, those with weak hearts and those who are both stout and 
full blooded. Persons merely delicate in a general way are 
less likely to suffer inconvenience than some vigorous Athletic 
persons. One doubtful about his heart should have it ex- 
amined. Apprehensive persons who would be sure to avoid 
trouble may get off at Matucana, and a day or two later com- 
fortably pursue the journey. It will be easier for every one 


to go the day previous to Chosica to spend the night, thus 
avoiding an unreasonably early start in the morning. Ordi- 
nary prudence may suggest that one should be careful not to 
over-eat the day before, and be very abstemious on the trip, 
especially as to alcoholic liquors. At the highest points one 
should move slowly or not at all. A brisk walk may produce 
dizziness or worse. 

The Central Railway of Peru, a standard gauge line, was 
begun in 1870 by the American financier, Henry Meiggs, and 
completed to Chicla, 88 miles from Callao, in 1876. On 
account of the troubles resulting from the Chilian War it did 
not reach Oroya until 1893. For some years this was the 
terminus of the road and in one sense is so still, as the natural 
continuation would be east, over to the montana, country. 
There are, however, branches in two different directions, north 
and south ; the former, an American line of the same gauge 
to Cerro de Pasco, the latter, a part of the Central system 
owned by the Peruvian Corporation, now open to Huancayo 
and being gradually extended to the southwest, ultimately to 
reach Cuzco, where it will connect with the Southern Railway 
managed by the same corporation. Both of the branches are 
on the line of the Pan American Railway, by which it will 
some day be possible, perhaps within a decade, certainly in 
two, to go by rail from New York to Buenos Aires, a wonder- 
ful journey through ever changing and delightful scenes. By 
the time these 250 miles from Huancayo to Cuzco are finished, 
which should be by 1918, all the southern part from Lima to 
Buenos Aires will be ready, as Argentina's portion is now 
complete and Bolivia's will be finished soon. The section from 
Quito to Panama will linger longest. When finished, the road 
in my opinion will be a far greater bond of union between 
North and South America than the Panama Canal. 

The Oroya Railroad follows the Rimae Valley up to its cul- 
minating point, with an occasional detour into a side canon 
to gain additional height. It was a man of courage and large 
ideas who forty years ago planned to climb with the iron horse, 
instead of the ancient burro and llama, the steep and lofty 
wall which, rising in its lower points to a height of from 14,000 
to 17,000 feet, stretches for 1000 miles along the coast of Peru 
within 100 miles of the sea. With an average grade of four 


per cent it was the second road from the Pacific to cross the 
continental divide, though it still remains to be continued, as 
Meiggs planned, down to a point open to steam navigation on 
one of the branches of the Amazon. 

Setting out on this trip from Lima, one must rise early, as 
the train leaves the Desamparados Station at 6.50 a. m., Mon- 
day, Wednesday, and Friday, By strenuous insistence the 
night before, you may be able to have coffee and rolls brought 
to your room before your departure; but if you fail, a ten 
minutes' halt at Chosica at half past eight affords opportunity 
to repair the omission. 

The lower part of the Rimac Yalley has an apparently 
level floor of considerable breadth, with vegetation of a sub- 
tropical character, irrigation affording an ample water supply. 
At first banana groves and fields of sugar-cane are numerous ; 
patches of Indian corn and alfalfa continue far up the canon. 
The view, for a short distance somewhat open among isolated 
hills, narrows as we enter a genuine valley with steep and 
ever higher walls, their slopes thickly terraced and bearing 
remains of ancient highways and villages, evidence of a 
formerly far greater population than now. After much wan- 
dering among the ruins near Chosica, Professor Solon I. 
Bailey estimated an earlier number of 6000 inhabitants, where 
now there is one-tenth of that number. 

Chosica. This town, at train time a busy place, is growing 
rapidly since, with several daily trains, it has become a suburb 
of the capital 25 miles distant. It is especially a winter resort, 
as, located just beyond the edge of the fog bank or cloud which 
in that season hangs over the coast, it has plenty of sunshine. 
It is much patronized by those natives and foreigners who 
find the chilly dampness from May to October rather trying 
to their health. The Gran Hotel de la Estacion, close to the 
station, affording comfortable rooms, is the best place to stay 
over night. On the opposite side of track and river are many 
pleasant dwellings in pretty gardens and another hotel, 
rather a Sanatorium, fitted up with all modern appliances 
such as sun rooms, electric apparatus for baths, and many 
other devices to aid the semi-invalid or debilitated to recover 
his strength. In the season, Chosica is served with three daily 


trains each way, including an express with, parlor car in one 

Above Chosica the scenery becomes wilder, the valley nar- 
rower. The fall of the Eimae is so rapid as not only to compel 
many curves and Vs but to make an incursion into a side 
valley desirable. Thus the road goes half a mile up the Ver* 
rugas Gorge which it crosses by the highest bridge on the road, 
225 feet, with a length of 575, returning on the other side to 
the Eimae at a considerably greater elevation. Frequently 
the floor of the Eimae Canon has room only for the rushing 
stream. The road passes high up on the slope, or through one 
of the sixty-five tunnels. Many times the river is crossed; 
sixty-seven bridges may be counted. At one point the side 
walls are so precipitous that it was necessary to lower work- 
men, from the top of the cliff above. Sitting in a swing they 
cut footholds in the rock preparatory to the beginning of the 
work. Some of the cliffs are more than a third of a mile in 
perpendicular height. 

Matucana. Whenever the valley broadens out there is a 
town, as at the breakfast station, Matucana, which at an alti- 
tude of 7788 feet affords a meal of several courses at the price 
of one sol. The hotel furnishes comfortable accommodations 
for those who think it wiser to take the climb in instalments, 
or for any with archaeological tastes who may like to investigate 
some ruins a few miles down the valley oh an eminence rising 
from the north side of the river. The excursion may be 
made from Matucana in a long day on horseback with a good 
horse and guide, even on foot by one so inclined. The remains 
are of especial interest on account of a theory that they are 
relics of a Pygmy City ; that the little people once its inhabit- 
ants were expelled by ruthless invaders and fled over the 
mountains into the Amazon basin. Fortifications, house walls, 
and subterranean chambers still exist, the small size of the 
rooms, the doorways three feet high, being adduced as evidence 
in favor of the little people. Others believe the ruins are those 
of an ordinary ancient fortress. 

Beyond Matucana the scenery becomes still grander. The 
walls above sometimes look dangerous with overhanging rocks, 
or with boulders half out of a steep earth slope, appearing just 


ready to roll down. Slides occasionally occur, especially in 
the rainy season, but accidents are rare ; for going up it is easy 
to make a sudden pause, and coming down a hand-car goes 
ahead of passenger trains to make sure that the track is clear. 
Bridges and tunnels are the order of the day, gorges and cliffs, 
at last, sMning mountains. The Gorge of Infernillo (Little 
Hell), Hack and deep, you are whisked across in a moment, 
and from one tunnel into another. Tamboraque, the first small 
mining town, is really in the Sierra. Rio Blanco and Casa- 
palca farther on are important smelting centers, the last above 
13,000 feet. Long before this it has grown cold and wraps are 
in order, furs perchance not amiss, good woolen underwear 
desirable. Chicla, a considerable place, reached before Casa- 
palca, is notable for having five parallel tracks one above 
another, curves, tunnels, and two Vs being required to climb, 
by three miles of track, 500 feet in a short distance up the 
valley. At Ticlio there may be a chance for tea. One 
venturing from the car should here step slowly and care- 
fully if .he would avoid a slight ringing in the ears. 
One not feeling perfectly well is wiser to let some one 
else bring the tea. A bottle of salts of ammonia should 
be at hand in ease of headache or vertigo, and fresh air 
may be desirable. A short stop is made just before entering 
the G-alera Tunnel, 4000 feet long. On the right at the en- 
trance of the tunnel is a rounded brown hill top, Monte 
Meiggs, often without snow though 17,575 feet above the sea. 
This altitude is confused by many with that of the railroad, 
about 2000 feet lower ; for which the manner of printing the 
time-table may be responsible. East of the continental divide 
the fine snow peaks and glaciers are in striking contrast to 
the bareness in the dry season on the coast side. Beyond the 
enow mountains, the scenery diminishes in grandeur to Oroya, 
12,050 feet, where the train is now due about 3.30. An ob- 
servation car is greatly to be desired on this ride. If the 
conductor can be persuaded to let you stand on the rear plat- 
form of the last car, this on a regular^ train is the best position 
available. An open freight car now- affords the finest pos- 
sible outlook, but most persons will prefer a more comfortable 
seat with diminished view. From the station Ticlio, altitude 
15,665 feet, the highest point on the main road, there is a 



short branch, line to the mining town Moroeocha, beautifully 
situated among lakes and glaciers, this branch crossing the 
divide at 15,865 feet, a trifle higher than Mont Blanc, and 
absolutely the highest point in the world now reached by 
rail. The grandeur of the varied scenes on the wonderful 
Oroya Railway baffles all description and must be seen to be 
realized in the smallest degree. For those who are unable to 
devote the two days necessary to enjoy the entire trip, it 
is sometimes possible to make a Sunday excursion part way; 
up the valley to Rio Blanco, 20 miles above Matucana, re- 
turning the same afternoon; much better than nothing, but 
with a loss of the more splendid scenes above. At Oroya 
there are two hotels, the Junin and the Ghrand, with, little to 
choose between them. No luxuries are provided ; a fair dinner, 
a bed, and morning coffee are supplied; but more fortunate 
are those who have friends at court and are entertained by 
some of the railway officials. At Oroya one may have his 
first sight of llamas, the ancient burden bearers of Peru, 
dignified, graceful animals, when moving* with their ordinary 
slow walk, but not when startled into a run. Be cautious 
about making free with them, as if they resent your advances 
they are liable to spit in your face, though they do not look 
as if they could be so rude. 

Those who are making the South American Tour in a 
leisurely manner, or who have an eye to business, may not 
pause at Oroya, but changing cars may continue north the 
same day to Cerro de Pasco, or after a night in Oroya may 
pursue the railroad journey southward to Huancayo, or may 
on horseback go over another mountain range, then down, 
down, to Tarma, La Merced, and the montana country. 

Cerro de Pasco is reached by a journey of about 90 miles 
over a generally hilly or rolling country, with few higli moun- 
tains visible and those afar off. Lake Junin is passed be- 
fore dark, a resort of ducks and other wild fowl, hence a 
field of sport for those fond of game. Here, be it remembered, 
was the next to the last battle of the War of Independence; 
and the soldiers in those days did not come up in cars either. 
Indians abound at the stations along the road, Quichuas, dif- 
fering little from their ancestors of 400 years ago. The town 
of Cerro is reached about 9.30 p. m., but as a dining car 


is attached to the train one is well fed at a seasonable hour. 
The best if not the only hotel in the place is the Universo 
on the main plaza of the town, to which the stranger will need 
a guide, as the station is on the outskirts of the old city. 
The hotel is not much to boast of, but the night I spent there 
was perfectly comfortable. Again, if one has friends at court 
among the officials of the Mining Company he is lucky, but 
naturally they cannot entertain all tourists. The place is 
of exceptional interest as one of the highest mining camps 
of any size, and the highest town of any importance in the 
world. There are at least 8000 people here at an altitude 
of about 14,300 feet. The Cerro de Pasco Mining Company, 
composed of half a dozen or more well known American 
millionaires, has spent it is said towards $30,000,000 in the 
purchase and development of property here and at Morococha, 
in building the railway from Oroya, in erecting a large smelt- 
ing plant nine miles from Cerro with buildings for employees, 
on coal mines, and on other things essential to a great property. 
In earlier days these mines were worked for silver, but now 
copper is the chief production. Recently an average of 400,- 
000 Ibs. 98 per cent pure has been turned out from the smelter 
each month. The privilege of visiting the mines is accorded 
to few, but all may observe the great open pits resembling 
quarries, several hundred feet deep, where the surface, under- 
mined years ago by great tunnels and chambers, at last 
caved in. The titanic forces of nature by some mighty effort 
here cast upward a wonderful mass of minerals, gold, silver, 
copper, etc., not in veins, but in chunks. This has been 
called the richest copper deposit in the world, but others dis- 
pute the claim. Vanadium is one of the various minerals 
found not far away. The town with its many Indians, Peru- 
vians, and Americans is a curious place on this great 
plateau from 50 to 100 miles wide, a plateau diversified by 
hills, fringed by distant mountains, and cut by occasional 
canons, from which fruit and vegetables are brought for the 
sustenance of the dwellers above. It is possible to go on by 
train from Cerro to Goyllarisquisga, 26 miles farther, on the 
edge of a canon commanding a fine view of the great moun- 
tain, La Viuda, believed by some to exceed Aconcagua in 
height. A concession has recently been granted by the Peru- 




vian Government to Mr. Alfred McCune, now transferred to 
the Amazon Pacific Co., to build a railroad from Goyllaris- 
quisga, down to Puca Alpa on the Ucayali Elver, a point four 
days from Iquitos. Operations have commenced. An im- 
mense amount of rich territory will be opened up by this 
road, fine grazing and agricultural lands, and rubber country 
below. Ultimately the town Goyllarisquisga will be connected 
by rail with Eecuay, the entire line from Oroya forming a 
link in the Pan American railroad. Prom Cerro or the 
Smelter, a three days' horseback ride would bring one to Lake 
Santa Ana, the source of the Maranon or Amazon. A mile or 
two below the Smelter is a valuable silver mine and smelter 
in operation, property of Senor Fernandini. 

Huancayo. The trip from Oroya south to Huaneayo is 
through a valley of somewhat lower elevation, hence of more 
cheerful character. The town of Jauja on this line is con- 
sidered an excellent place for consumptives, for whom the 
coast is much too damp. Huancayo, 78 miles from Oroya, 
is now the terminus, but work has been pushed for 20 miles 
farther and ere long Ayacucho will be reached, the scene 
of the final battle, compelling the withdrawal of the Spaniards. 

Tarma. The expedition to Tarma and the montana may 
attract a few who can spare a week or ten days for this 
delightful trip. Animals to Tarma may be obtained at Oroya 
for 5 or 6 soles each. With saddle-bags, no baggage animals 
are needed. It is well to set out from Oroya by 9 a. m., 
in order to pass over the cumbre before the afternoon breeze 
begins to blow and to arrive in good season at Tarma, a 
pretty town at an altitude of about 10,000 feet. There are 
two hotels where lodging may be had at modest prices, and 
at the Umberto horses may be engaged for the ride to La 
Merced. Luncheon must be taken from Oroya, but beyond 
Tarma there are places on the road where it may be procured. 
On the cumbre 2000 feet above Oroya, all is brown and bare, 
but at the farther edge of the broad pass there is a fine view 
of distant mountains and valleys. Not far down, green will 
appear, presently a house or two, a pretty stream, a few 
calla lilies. From Tarma onward there are plenty of trees, 
growing as it were of their own accord, a pleasing change 
from the plateau and the western side. The next day; 


luncheon is at Palca, and before night one should reach 
Huacapistana, 40 km, a delightful spot. The third day one 
has luncheon at San Eamon and spends the night at La 
Merced, 35 fans., which with an altitude of less than 3000 feet 
is really in the tropical country. The delights of this journey, 
the beautiful canon lined with verdure, is a contrast indeed to 
the bare sublimity of the other side. The road is excellent 
except in one place between Oroya and Tarma. There are 
romantic tunnels, fine suspension bridges, swinging, but that 
does no harm and may afford a novel experience. This road 
is now the highway from Lima to the Atlantic by way of 
Iquitos, and at the moment it is probably the most com- 
fortable route to cross the center of the continent. With good 
luck the journey from Lima to Iquitos may be made in 16 
days, nine of these on horseback from Oroya to Puerto 
Jessup, one day by canoe to Puerto Bermudez, thence in five 
or six daya by steam launch to Iquitos. At this city of 15,- 
000 people a larger boat may be taken for Para or New York, 
But that is another story. By way of Cerro de Pasco and 
Huanuco, the journey from Lima to Iquitos is ten days. A 
few hours beyond La Merced is the Perene coffee plantation 
belonging to the Peruvian Corporation. In this section land 
is cheap, and with the mercury always in the eighties, one so 
inclined may be happy, leading the simple life. The Indians 
about here are fine looking, whiter than many of the Spanish, 
and are quiet, peaceful people; though others beyond are so 
fierce that it is unsafe to pass through their territory. Hav- 
ing been ill-treated by white rubber gatherers and some other 
so-called civilized men, they allow no whites among them. 


the charm of the Rimae Valley and the City of the 
Kings it is difficult to escape, but on a four months' tour 
not more than ten days can be spared for this region, fourteen 
at the outside. To Mollendo, the next place of debarkation, 
the voyage may be pursued by any one of the three lines of 
steamers previously mentioned. If a through ticket to this 
port or to Valparaiso has not been purchased, one may elect 
to go on one of the Kosmos boats, a very comfortable German 
Line which in 1911 afforded an especial advantage to tourists 
with heavy baggage, going up to Bolivia. These boats lie over 
two weeks at Antof agasta, taking on freight at near-by ports ; 
so that leaving one's heavy baggage on board, one may make 
the trip from Mollendo to Arequipa, Cuzco, and La Paz, re- 
joining the same ship at Antofagasta two weeks and three 
days from the time of going ashore at Mollendo. Persons 
patronizing any of the three lines from Panama, may by 
especial arrangement with the purser have their baggage 
checked through to Valparaiso, to reclaim it at the Custom 
House there when they arrive. 

The express steamers south from Callao arrive at Mol- 
lendo on the second morning after sailing. As the daily 
train for Arequipa leaves at 1.30 p. m. there is ample time 
to disembark, have the baggage examined, take breakfast, 
almuerzo, price one sol, at the Hotel Ferrocarril just above the 
railway station, and perhaps look about a little before going 
aboard the train. A through ticket, price 40 soles, to La Paz 
should be purchased, as this saves considerable bother, permits 
stopping on: at Arequipa, and for the trip to Cuzco at Juliaca, 
and saves a trifle over the local tickets. All hand baggage 
may be taken into the car without charge, but there is a heavy 
tariff on trunks or anything that is checked, so much so that 
two heavy trunks will approximate the cost of one ticket. 



Most persons will be able to manage with hand luggage only, 
not forgetting, however, that wraps and warm clothing will 
be needed on the plateau above. 

Mollendo is a busy port, in Peru second to Callao in com- 
merce, though far behind in other ways. It has really no 
harbor at all, in spite of a small breakwater recently built ; 
the rollers and surf often look a bit awesome and the barrel 
is frequently called into requisition. Rarely the sea is so 
rough that passengers are carried on to the next port, whence 
they may return at their own expense. Seven or eight miles 
north is an excellent quiet haven, among the best on the 
Pacific, Matarani, to which there is much talk of transferring 
the port, especially since most of the business portion of Mol- 
lendo was destroyed by fire, April 2, 1912. From the 
Matarani Bay the railroad journey would be nearly twenty 
miles shorter and the ascent to the top of the bluffs would 
have a one per cent lower grade. It is hoped that the trans- 
fer will not long be delayed. 

The tariff for disembarking at Mollendo is higher than at 
other ports, four-oared boats being generally used. For one 
passenger it is S.I ; if there are more than three in one boat, 
60 ctvs. each: children under twelve, 30 ctvs. Parcels of 
ordinary size or small trunks are 50 ctvs, each to the mole, 
and as much more to the station: large trunks 70 ctvs. and 60 
more to station. With much baggage for several passengers 
a bargain for the whole may be made. The boatmen are liable 
to ask double what it is worth or what they are willing to ac- 
cept. Peruvians generally pay one-half or one-third as much 
as strangers. 

Mollendo is not an attractive place, between May and 
November subject to a fine mist or drizzle, and having little 
sunshine. It is, nevertheless, a health resort, but the most 
melancholy one it was ever my lot to visit. Yet many persons 
are benefited by coming from the greater altitudes of Arequipa 
and La Paz, even though the place be damp and cheerless. 
With an hour to spare one may stroll around the town or 
along the beach where the waves are rolling in from Australia 
or other remote region, or may climb the rocky promontory 
to watch the high breaking surf. 


After leaving the station the train for several miles hugs 
the sandy shore, then turning away soon begins to climb the 
bluff, here about 3000 feet high. The face is irregular with 
steep slopes cut by many canons. The road winds along 
up one of these, then on the face of a projecting slope, the 
car having first one side toward the sea, then the other, and 
heading in turn towards all points of the compass. At Tambo 
Station about 1000 feet up, there is a pretty view down into 
the Tambo Valley, its level floor green with sugar-cane and 
other agricultural products. "Women from below stand by 
the car windows with fruit and other edibles to sell. The 
ever changing prospect is a continual source of pleasure, 
especially near the close of the wet season, when the upper 
half of the slopes is quite green, mostly with bushes of 
heliotrope all in blossom. At other times there is only sand, 
not a particle of verdure, but many black sticks, some day to 
be rejuvenated into glowing life. It is a long and devious 
way to the edge of the plateau, where a sudden change is 
experienced. The green if any is left behind, a sandy desert 
is before, though the dampness, in the winter, continues. The 
gradual change from the gray mist to the bright desert sun- 
shine if observed is most interesting, and then to look back- 
ward upon the gray cloud from which you have emerged. 
Here, perhaps, you have your first view of an absolute desert ; 
no wells are useful, and for the stations along the track, 
even for Mollendo itself, water is piped down from near 
Arequipa, 100 miles distant. The plateau is covered with 
deep yellow sand and scattering stones, some as black as coal. 
Here is the desert you have dreamed of: no sage-brush, no 
blade of grass relieves the burning sand. Not that the sand 
burns here, but in some sections it is hot indeed. The monot- 
ony is relieved by graceful gray sand dunes from three to 
twenty feet high, crescent-shaped, moving slowly along at the 
rate of sixty feet a year. In the distance are variegated 
hills, gray, red, yellow, brown, and white, and the great moun- 
tains, El Misti and Chachani, with snow caps varying in 
dimensions according to the time of the year and the charac- 
ter of the season, Pichu-Piehu, a long range slightly lower. 
Some of the stations have a glint of green, a small oasis in 


the desert, others not a sign of verdure. Vitor is quite a 
little place with a hotel kept by an ancient Belgian, a neat, com- 
fortable little establishment, used as a health, resort for persons 
with weak hearts, for whom Arequipa is too high or Mol- 
lendo too damp. It is a starting point for those who would 
ride across the desert to the Vitor Canon close by, the Sihuas 
Canon beyond, and the Majes Valley still more remote, at the 
head of which Mt. Coropuna, 21,000 feet, is situated ; ascended 
for the first time, July 16, 1911, by Miss Annie S. Peck and 
party. A railway is soon to be constructed between Vitor 
and the Majes Valley, which will open for increased traffic 
a fine agricultural and mineral section, the products of which 
are now brought by trains of burros across the desert. A 
little above Vitor the train enters the hills and presently 
passes along the edge of the fine Vitor Canon, the floor of 
which is 500 or 1000 feet below. Trains of llamas may be 
seen, ancient ruins, a suburban town, Tingo, then if darkness 
has not fallen comes an enchanting view of Arequipa on the 
verdant slope of the great volcano El Misti, with Chachani 
and Pichu-Pichu also in the background. 


HOTELS. Morosini Parodi, Grand Hotel Central, Royal Hotel, 
Hotel Europe. 

At the bustling railway station, at the car windows, 
if not within, boys and men will appear who wish to 
seize your baggage and carry it to the trams. Hotel runners 
perhaps have previously entered the car. Behind the sta- 
tion a long row of tram cars drawn by little mules was 
formerly found, already probably superseded by the promised 
electrics. Before taking a car decision should be made as 
to what hotel will be patronized. The Morosini Parodi is 
by many called the best, but I was never so fortunate as to 
find there a vacant room. Their table is particularly com- 
mended ; the main building containing the restaurant Venezia 
is on the west side of the Plaza de Armas, and there are sev- 
eral annexes. The Grand Hotel Central and the Koyal Hotel, 
the first on the left, the second on the right of the calle 
Mereaderes a block or two from the Cathedral and Plaza are 




both fairly comfortable with perhaps a slight preference for 
the former, where electric lights and bells are in service and 
hot and cold baths announced, which does not mean private 
baths en suite. None of those will be found, so far as I 
am aware, after leaving the Maury until you arrive at Buenos 
Aires. From some of the upper rooms of the Central a 
fine view of Misti may be enjoyed. The prices at all three 
hotels range from four to six soles per day, according to 
room and bargaining ability. This includes everything but 
bath, which is with difficulty had at all. Hotel Europe, 67 
Mereaderes, serves coffee and supper only. A block or two 
from the station is a clean and respectable hotel of lower price, 
convenient for one leaving by the early morning train; but 
for the few days desirable here, one of the hotels in the center 
of the city about a mile from the station is to be preferred. 

Arequipa, at an altitude of 7549 feet (we are still within 
the tropics), has by day a climate of perennial June, by night 
one of October or November. The evening air in winter is 
chilly enough to make many men, even natives, wear a light 
overcoat and some ladies, furs; at the same time others appear 
on the street in thin summer clothing. The city, the second 
in Peru in size and in commercial importance, has a popula- 
tion of about 40,000. It was founded in 1540 by the Span- 
iards, though there was a pre-existing Indian settlement, a 
natural location on account of an ample water supply from 
the river Chili. A garden has been made here in the midst 
of the desert, in a spot sheltered from winds by the moun- 
tains, enjoying a delightful climate, and a very beautiful pros- 

Sight-seeing begins with the principal plaza which has the 
Cathedral on one side, and on the other three the finest stone 
portales in South America. Behind these are many of the 
principal shops, dry goods, confectioners 7 , etc. The Cathedral 
is a fine structure, with an interior more imposing than the 
outside view. Begun in 1612, it was constructed with great 
elaboration and contained many costly treasures. These with 
the interior were largely destroyed by fire in 1844. The re- 
building which consumed twenty years was hardly over when 
the great earthquake of 1868 occurred. Fortunately the work 
was too substantial to be overthrown. Splendid columns sup- 


port the great arches of the three naves, producing an effect 
unusually noble and impressive. From the lower side of 
the Plaza, in the wonderfully clear atmosphere, the beautiful 
cone-shaped Misti presents an admirable picture with Cha- 
chani a trifle higher on the left and Kchu-Pichu a little lower 
on the right, in the moonlight a scene of rare loveliness. 

Other noteworthy churches are those of Santo Domingo, and 
the Jesuits', the latter, La Compmia, near a lower corner of 
the Plaza, having a noticeable carved stone fagade and, an 
uncommon feature, an altar in the open air. The people 
are noted for their culture and for their devotion to the 
church, the city having the reputation of being the most 
bigoted in South America, a reputation shared by several 
others. There is no objection to one's practicing Ms own re- 
ligion in an inconspicuous manner, but there has been serious 
opposition to proselyting. Nevertheless, the Evangelical 
Mission of England is now carrying on a work, especially 
among the Indians, in which personal hygiene and sanitary 
modes of life are taught in connection with moral and re- 
ligious instruction, with less friction on the part of the higher 
classes than formerly. 

The fine new Public Market occupying a whole square, 
about two and a half acres, deserves a visit. The building 
which cost $280,000 is of a pink and white volcanic stone 
locally called sillar, with a roof of corrugated iron arranged 
to give good ventilation. At the four corners are four build- 
ings, one a hotel and restaurant, the other three for storage 
of surplus stocks of fish, meat, and vegetables. 

Some tourists may like to visit the splendid new hospital 
of Arequipa, called the finest of its kind in South America, 
named after the Goyeneche family, Arequipanians now resi- 
dent in Paris, who have devoted the sum of $625,000 to the 
buildings and their equipment. The grounds embrace about 
eight acres of gently sloping land, with the main entrance at 
the head of a broad avenue. In front of the gate is a beautiful 
Gothic chapel, with Gothic administration buildings at each 
side of the entrance. Beyond the chapel are the wards, the 
men's on the left including a military section; the women's 
on the right, together with the residence for the nurses, who 
are Sisters of Charity. There are especial apartments for 


paying patients, with and without baths. Also there is a 
hydro-therapic building equipped for every sort of bath, 
available for use by outsiders: operating rooms, kitchen, 
laundry, morgue, disinfecting stoves, electric lights, and ample 
water supply. All the buildings are of stone, well ventilated, 
and a fine clock adorns a tower. The hospital was inaugurated 
January 20, 1912. 

The Garden of Senor Leopoldo Lucioni is a picturesque 
spot to be visited by every stranger. Vine-covered walls, ar- 
bors of grapes, heavily laden fruit trees, an avenue of fine 
cedars, flower-bordered walks, roses, and carnations adorn the 
place; almost every variety of fruit and vegetable seems to 
grow in this delightful climate, and plants, seeds, and cut- 
tings are yearly sent by the owner to European, and to other 
South American cities. Planted by the owner 26 years ago, 
it is now one of the attractions and benefactions of Arequipa. 

Near the city, about two miles from the center, is a spot 
which is a strong reminder of home, the name Harvard being 
familiar to every American. This is the Observatory, one 
of the most important and best equipped in South America, 
established here in 1891 after considerable study of various 
locations along the West Coast in search of a site both fairly 
accessible and favored with clear skies. In addition to vari- 
ous other instruments there is a 24-inch Bruce photographic 
doublet, the largest and most powerful of the kind in the 
world, and a 13-inch Boyden telescope, which may be used for 
either visual or photographic work. More than 100,000 photo- 
graphs of the Southern Heavens here made are now in the 
Harvard Observatory at Cambridge, many new stars have 
been discovered and magnitudes determined. Meteorological 
observations are taken twice daily, and were made for some 
years in other places, the most notable, on the summit of 
El Misti, 19,200 feet, the greatest altitude where a long 
series of observations has ever been recorded. The dwelling 
of the Director is a very homelike structure, from the 
veranda of which there is a beautiful view of Misti close 
at hand, of Chachani a little more distant, and over the city of 
Arequipa and the great desert beyond. Visitors are welcome 
in the afternoon, but the evenings are devoted to work. 

Six miles beyond the Observatory, following the Chili river, 


is the Power Station of the Electric Society of Lima, a pleasant 
ride; but in the plant, only the specialist would have great 

Ascent of Misti, 19,200 feet. A unique possibility which 
may appeal to a few, to those who say that they like to climb 
mountains as far as they can ride, is presented by the beauti- 
ful Misti. For, years ago, when observations were to be made 
on the summit, a road was constructed, i. e., a narrow bridle 
path, to the very top of the mountain, and a stone hut was 
erected at about the altitude of the summit of Mont Blanc, 
where the observers might pass the night on the way. While 
it may not look very distant, the top of the mountain is 11 
miles in a straight line from the Harvard Observatory, and 
39 miles around by the road, which from there makes the 
complete circuit of the mountain before reaching the top. 
One desirous of making the trip should consult the Director 
of the Observatory, which may be done by telephone, to know 
if Francisco is available as guide and if he can provide mules. 
Having made the ascent more than 100 times Francisco may 
be relied upon. He may charge S.8 for each animal and as 
much more for himself, or he may have doubled his prices 
within the last ten years. He may indeed be dead, in which 
case probably there is another who may serve. Setting out 
by eight o'clock, with plenty of wraps and provisions, one 
will not be likely to arrive at the M. B. hut much before dark. 
The way goes to the right of the mountain up to the Plateau 
of the Bones, 13,300 feet, between Misti and Pichu-Piehu, 
where passed the ancient highway to Cuzco and Bolivia; then 
it turns directly towards the summit, to the M. B. hut at an 
altitude of 15,700 feet. One sleeps on the floor if at all. 
Some persons are here so affected with headache, fever, and 
nausea, the usual symtoms of soroche, mountain sickness, that 
they are unable to proceed. But if not too badly off, one with 
good grit is likely to feel better by day, and in the fresh morn- 
ing air may pursue the journey. Some persons suffer no in- 
convenience whatever. One should set out for the summit 
by daylight, as the ascent requires four hours or more and it 
is a long way down to the city. From the summit there is a 
splendid prospect of mountains near and remote, of the beauti- 
ful city and green valley just below, and of the desert stretch- 


ing away to the ocean, which, alas! however clear the sur- 
rounding atmosphere, is likely to be hidden from view by the 
almost perpetual cloud of mist which overhangs the shore. 
Still more striking is the view of the great crater at one's feet, 
a gulf half a mile in diameter and 800 feet deep, enclosed by 
almost vertical walls. In 1903 a lower cross wall separated 
the old from the new crater and it was possible at one point 
to the right to descend to the bottom of the former, climb up 
the cross wall and look down into the new crater, which was 
smoking slightly ; then to continue along this wall to the edge 
of the crater above the M. B. hut, and to slip and slide down 
thither. Some changes have occurred in the crater since 
then and doubtless most persons will be satisfied with reach- 
ing the summit. Nowhere else in the world can so great 
an altitude be so easily attained: Misti is 5000 feet higher 
than Pike's Peak and surpasses every mountain in North 
America save Mt. McKinley, possibly Mt. Logan. If the season 
has been unusually stormy and the mountain has a consider- 
able covering of snow, the ascent on mulebaek might be im- 
practicable. In 1903 there was but a small patch of snow 
on one side and not the slightest difficulty. The reason for 
the lack of snow at this altitude, when it is found on other 
mountains in Peru much lower down, is the slight precipita- 
tion which here occurs, varying with the year but always less 
than on most other mountains. No real eruption from this 
volcano has occurred since the Spaniards in 1549 founded the 
city, but El Misti is somehow held in a measure responsible 
for the earthquakes which from time to time have devastated 
the city, and the affectionate admiration with which the 
mountain is regarded is not unmixed with awe. Hence the 
two crosses which have been erected on the summit, standing 
near the little shelters for the Observatory instruments. Those 
of a self -registering character here placed were for a year or 
two read by an observer, not always the same person, who 
came up every two weeks. The effects of the severe earth- 
quake of 1868 are still visible in the city. Slight shocks are 
common. For this reason dwellings of a single story are gen- 
erally preferred, and few buildings have more than two. 

Not far from Arequipa, as is natural in a volcanic region, 
are springs of great reputation. One situated about a league 


from the city produces an excellent table water, called the 
Agua de Jesus or de Misti, highly recommended for general 
use, good also for several ailments. It is a pleasant ride 
with a fine prospect all along the way, and with opportunity 
at the end for a bath in a clear, effervescent pool, where the 
water, charged with carbonic acid gas, rising from the gravel 
floor, seems to have a highly exhilarating effect. 

In the opposite direction, 15 miles from Arequipa near the 
railway leading to Puno, are the Baths of Yura, a watering 
place of growing fame, with baths of sulphur and of iron. 
These may be enjoyed free of charge, as the Government has 
erected suitable buildings over the various springs; though 
in order to profit by them, unless camping out, one must pay 
a moderate board at one of the neighboring hotels. The Gran 
Hotel de las Termas, in a pretty garden, supplies comfortable 
quarters axtd food (bathing suits, etc.), at S. 2.50 a day. The 
waters are said to cure stomach troubles, skin diseases, rheu- 
matism, etc. 


A TBI-WEEKL.Y train is now scheduled from Arequipa up over 
the mountains, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday ; the Wednes- 
day only connects with an express to Cuzco. These trains, 
are provided with buffet chair ears, which make the long 
journey less wearisome. Persons who have suffered slight 
inconvenience on the trip to Oroya need not fear a repetition 
of unpleasant symptoms on this journey, the stay of a few 
days at Arequipa making the change in atmospheric pressure 
more gradual ; also a second experience is generally less trying, 
and the top of the southern pass, 14,666 feet, is 1000 feet 
lower than that on the Central Railroad. 

The scenery between Arequipa and Juliaca presents far less 
of grandeur than is witnessed on the Oroya road, though for 
a time it should keep the attention. The white city with the 
deep green of the Chili Yalley, and graceful Misti with its 
more rugged sisters on either hand, for a half hour form a 
delightful picture, as the track winds along down, and later 
begins to climb around the other end of Chaehani. The dry 
and channeled slopes of this mountain, the desert of volcanic 
sand and lava rock for a while may interest, but there is a 
good deal of sameness to the view, somewhat enlivened by two 
distant splendid snowclad massifs, Amfato and Coropuna. 

The Baths of Yura, an hour from Arequipa, are invisible 
from its station : a glimpse of the green canon may be had later. 
Presently Chaehani and Misti are seen from the rear, appear- 
ing considerably lower from the increased elevation. On the 
Pampa de Arrieros, a bleak, grass-covered plateau, the high- 
est point of the divide is passed at Crucero Alto. Beyond 
is the breakfast station, Lagunillas, near which among the 
graceful rounded hills are two romantic lakes, Saracocha, and 
Cachipascana, one on each side of the track. In spite of 


these and the lines of beauty in the contour of the hills, the 
plateau is rather dreary: to live happily at any of these 
stations, one must needs be a true lover of solitude. "With 
good fortune one may descry in the distance a few vicunas, 
cousin to the llama, but with much finer wool, often called fur, 
of a tawny shade, as light in weight as chinchilla ; perhaps a 
drove of the almost equally rare alpacas; the former in a wild 
state, the latter under care and cultivation. 

Juliaca, the junction, is a busy place, always thronged with 
Indians and a scattering of white people. From here to Puno 
the train is generally crowded; but if on the way to Cuzco, you 
will not mind, as this is the junction where the roads divide. 
Probably you must descend here to spend the night. Passing 
through the station on the right of the track, you will find a 
plaza, on the left side of which is a hotel providing clean beds 
and enough to eat, with no display of elegance. The next 
morning at 9.15 you may set out for Cuzeo, if Thursday ar- 
riving there at 7.40 p. m. If Tuesday or Saturday it will be 
necessary to spend a night at Sieuani, the journey by slow 
train consuming two days. 

At Juliaca are many men and women, venders of a great 
variety of foods and of merchandise. Many others will be seen 
at the stations on the road to Cuzco, women wearing odd stiff 
hats, flat as the proverbial pancake, short skirts, and shawls, 
men with short trousers and ponchos. Pottery in curious 
shapes, jars, water bottles, and ornaments may be purchased, 
match safes, tooth-pick holders, etc. The Indians are indus- 
trious, generally occupied with spinning, even while walking 
and carrying on the back heavy burdens. 

Tirapata, where there may be a pause of twenty minutes for 
breakfast, is a place of considerable importance, headquarters 
for the Inca Mining and Kubber Companies, where their wagon 
road begins towards the Santo Domingo gold mines, their min- 
ing property at an altitude of 7000 feet, and their rubber lands 
beyond. Eight thousand acres of land were presented by the 
Government to this company for every mile of road opened to 
traffic; and one was made across the plateau northeasterly, as 
far as the mountains. Over the Aricoma Pass, 16,500 feet, and 
down the steep slopes through ravines and gorges on the other 
side, a trail for mules is still the only pathway. Eecently a 

CUZCO 111 

concession has been granted to the Peruvian Corporation to 
build a railroad from Tirapata or from Urcos to navigation on 
the Madre de Dios, not to really deep water, but to a point ac- 
cessible to boats of two feet draught, perhaps at Tahuantin- 
suyo. This is likely to be the third or fourth important route 
across Peru from the Pacific to navigation on a tributary of 
the Amazon. 

La Eaya, the highest point between Juliaca and Cuzco, with 
an altitude of 14,150 feet, is on the dividing line of the water- 
shed between the Amazon system and that of Lake Titicaca. 
Here is the knot of Vflcanota where the Coast and the Eastern 
Cordilleras unite, and where the sacred river, Vilcamayu, 
takes its origin in a little sacred lake lying at the foot of a 
snowy peak visible from Cuzco. Now, leaving the bleak pla- 
teau region, the train descends the Vileamayn Valley to a 
milder region. 

Sicuani, 2500 feet below, the most important place along the 
road, was for some years the terminus of the railway line. 
It boasts therefore of a good hotel, the Lafayette. Here the 
night was formerly spent, the remainder of the journey to 
Cuzco being by diligence, certainly an advantage as far as 
enjoying the scenery is concerned. The Sicuani market place 
is noted for its extraordinarily picturesque appearance, the 
Indians coming for miles around to make their purchases, 
largely by barter. Journeying by accommodation train, which 
has some advantages, one spends the night here and arrives the 
next afternoon in Cuzco. 

The train passes many historic sites and ancient ruins, just 
out of view the famed Lake Urcos into which, the story goes, 
was thrown the wonderful gold chain of the Prince Huascar. 
This was said to be long enough to encircle the great plaza of 
Cuzeo, with each link weighing 100 Ibs. Projects have been 
formed to drain this lake in the hope of finding here much 
ancient treasure, but though small the lake is very deep and 
no real effort has been made. 


At last the railroad leaves the main valley to follow up 
a tributary on the left, the Huatanay. At the head of this 
side valley, it reaches the ancient city of Cuzco, once the 


metropolis of a vast realm surpassed in extent or in wealth 
by few in the world's history, probably equaled by none in 
the number of people living, contented and peaceful, under 
a single sway. 

Prom the station half a mile from the center of the city, 
an attractive boulevard is being laid out, on which a tram car 
runs to the central plaza, or by this time electrics. Carriages 
too may serve and boys are eager to carry hand baggage. The 
hotels, alas ! leave much to be desired. Slow, indeed, are the 
people to realize the necessities which must be supplied if the 
town is to advance, to attract tourists and business men. The 
residents have not seemed to care whether there was progress 
or not, but the Central Government is interested, the Prefect 
who comes from Lima is endeavoring to work a revolution, 
and the cultivated inhabitants have begun to realize their con- 
dition, and to remedy the evils which have long been a reproach. 

The Hotel Comercio may be endured for a night or two, 
since it is in a very worthy cause. The other hotel, the Royal, 
is no better. Another, the Central, is spoken of, opposite the 
church, La Merced. One does not go to Cuzco for the lux- 
uries of New York or Paris, but if unhappy without these 
he must postpone this part of the journey a while longer. 
One writer says that the Comercio affords reasonably good 
meals and decent bedrooms. Other opinions are less favorable, 
but conditions may have improved by now. On the spur of a 
Trill which closes the head of the valley, at an altitude of 11,500 
feet, is situated the ancient imperial city. Some knowledge 
of the history of its rulers, the greatness of its domain, the 
development of its civilization, the magnificence of its temples, 
the power and riches of its princes, and tlie terrible tragedy 
of their downfall gives a keener interest to the massive ruins, 
the delightful prospect, and to everything in this remote val- 
ley which is connected with the unique and wonderful empire 
of world-wide and immortal fame. At the time of its capture, 
four centuries ago, few if any cities in the world could 
rival Cuzeo in the magnificence of its temples, and their treas- 
ures of gold and silver, and none in the massive fortifications 
and other constructions of which the remains are still a 

In the history of tliis ancient city there are at least four periods : 

CUZCO 113 

the prae-Inea age; the glorious epoch of the Inca dynasty; the 
merciless, mournful days of bloodshed and destruction, followed by 
the brilliant reconstruction and the relentless rule of the Spanish in- 
vaders; and the slow progress of the modern republic. From the 
earliest period date the megalithic ruins of Saesahuaman and else- 
where, regarded as belonging to the same age as those of Tiahuanaeo 
and a few other places, their origin alike involved in mystery. Sir 
Clements Markham, the most careful student of this early civiliza- 
tion, believes it to be an indigenous growth of great antiquity, 
though there is a tradition of an early outside influence from the 

The great empire of the Incas was of comparatively short dura- 
tion; according to commonly accepted tradition, it existed for about 
four centuries. The most current and approved legend of the 
Ineas' origin is that they were the children of the Sun, who pitying 
the sad condition of his creatures sent to their aid two of his off- 
spring, Manco Ccapac and Mama Oella, brother and sister, also hus- 
band and wife. These first appearing on the Island of the Sun in 
Lake Titieaea thence came to Cuzco and established their dominion. 
Maneo seems to have been a great and wise ruler, probably of 
Quiehua origin, and to have lived in the twelfth century. Hig suc- 
cessor Sinchi Rocca was a peaceful ruler, but the third Inea, Lloque 
Yupanqui, subjugated some of the neighboring peoples. The fourth, 
Maita Ceapae, was a greater warrior, extending his kingdom over 
most of Bolivia, and to Arequipa and Moquegua. The fifth Inca, 
Ceapae Yupanqui, who was called avaricious, employed his reign in 
subduing insurrections in regions already conquered. His successor, 
Inca Roeca, was an eminent warrior and statesman, who built great 
palaces, founded schools for the education of the nobility, and made 
strict laws for the welfare and protection of the people, with 
severe punishment, even death, to murderers, incendiaries, and thieves, 

The seventh Inca, Titu Cusi Hualpa, was less successful. An in- 
vasion by the tribes of Chinehasuyo caused him to flee in alarm, but 
his son, collecting an army, defeated the invaders and was then 
crowned, with the name of Yiracocha. During his reign eleven 
provinces were added to the empire, and a magnificent temple was 
erected twenty miles south of Cuzco with an altar to Yiracocha, a 
deity who had appeared to the prince to warn him of the coming in- 
vasion, informing him that lie was the creator of man, the world, 
the sun, and all else. A remarkable engineering feat of this reign 
was the construction of an irrigating canal nearly four hundred miles 
long and twelve x feet deep to convert some plains below into green 
pasture lands. The eldest son of Yiraeoeha, who was of small ac- 
count, was presently succeeded by his brother Pachaeutee who brought 


still greater glory to the empire. With the excellent armies organized 
by Pachaeutec, his son Tupac- Yupanqui made conquests along the 
coast from Pisco north including Pachacamac, the realm of the 
Grand Chimu near Trujillo, and the valley of Cajamarca. These 
cities were not destroyed, but were left under the dominion of their 
former rulers as vassals to the Inca, the worship of the Sun being 
associated with their former religion; but the learning and use of 
the Quiehua language was made compulsory. Every government of- 
ficial and soldier was obliged to speak this language. 

After the death of Pachacutee at the age of eighty, his son Tupac 
Yupanqui, the tenth Inea, conquered Chile as far as the Maule River 
and spent three years in a tour to the various parts of his empire. 
Some uncertainty exists about an Inca Yupanqui, but a younger 
son of Tupac called Huayna-Ceapae, near the close of his father's 
reign, carried still farther the conquests even to Quito, which he 
won from its king. His reign was one of wisdom until its close. 
The rightful heir Huascar, son of the Coya or Queen, -had a rival in 
his father's affections, a younger son, Atahuallpa, of another, Pacha. 
Having himself retired to Quito before his death, Huayna Ccapac left 
that province to his son Atahuallpa, and the throne of Cuzeo to 
Huascar. Thus happened the division, so disastrous to the Inea 
dynasty, possibly altering in some measure the whole of Peruvian 

The location of Cuzeo is said to be more beautiful than that 
of Quito or Bogota, both of world-wide fame. Rome, Athens, 
and Sparta, in the opinion of many, present less charming 
scenes than that which is outspread before the observer on 
Saesahuaman. Yet how altered from the days of its glory! 
Then the hills around, fertilized with guano and small fish 
and irrigated throughout their entire extent, were terraced 
and cultivated to their summits. Then the city and its sub- 
urbs are said to have contained 400,000 souls. The gates of 
the walled enclosure were of colored marble. Within were 
great palaces, their walls painted in bright colors. 

The Temple of fhe Sun was covered with a roof of gold. 
In the gardens around were artificial flowers of gold and silver, 
figures of animals large and small, wild and domestic, of herbs, 
plants, and trees ; a field of make, fruit trees, images of men, 
women, and children. The doors were covered with gold plate. 
A gold cornice more than a yard deep, around the building, 
did not remain long in place after the occupation by; the Span- 

CUZCO 115 

iards. The golden roof had been removed previous to their 
arrival. This sumptuous temple called Corieaneha, Place of 
Gold, begun by the first Inea, Maneo Capac, was not con- 
cluded for many generations until the time of Inea Yupanqui, 
each Inca in the meantime contributing a share towards the 
completion of the great work. The form of the temple was 
elliptical, and opposite the entrance where the rays of the 
rising sun would fall upon it was a gold effigy representing 
the Sun. Golden rays projected from his head so that the 
entire creation occupied one side of the temple. When the 
sun's rays fell upon the figure the effect was indeed dazzling, 
lighting up the place with such radiance that the Indian 
Nobles, who alone were permitted to enter, prostrated them- 
selves, striking their foreheads on the pavement. The only 
women allowed within the temple were the wife and daughters 
of the ruling Inca. On each side of the deity were arranged 
the dead mummified bodies of the Ineas, clad in royal robes, 
seated upon golden thrones, with eyes downcast and hands 
folded across their breasts. One only, Huayna Ccapac, 
faced the god, one story says because he was the best loved, 
another, because he dared to gaze at the sun and show that this 
luminary was not the creative lord. 

Beyond this, the chief holy place of the temple, was a rect- 
angular cloister with five square chapels around. One dedi- 
cated to the Moon contained a silver image of a woman's face. 
In this chapel were arranged the bodies of the Queens called 
Coyas, as were the Incas in the chamber of the Sun. The 
next hall, its ceiling covered with silver stars, was dedicated 
to the Stars; the third, adorned with gold, was to Thunder 
and Lightning. Next came the hall of the Rainbow with 
colored delineations on gold plate, and finally a hall covered 
with gold where the priests gave audience. Many jewels, 
emeralds and turquoise, were set in the mouldings of gold. 
The bodies of the Incas were removed before the coming of 
the invaders, but in 1559 five were discovered and subse- 
quently carried to Lima, where they were buried in the patio 
of the San Andres hospital. Four streets which led to the 
temple of the Sun are now called Careel, Loreto, Santa Cata- 
lina, and San Augustin. 

Near by, where now is the convent of Santa Catalina, was 


the House of the Virgins, who, like the Vestals at Borne, fed 
the sacred fire. Of these there were 1500 or more, some from 
Cuzco of royal lineage, others from the provinces, selected 
for their beauty from those of high birth. They spun and 
wove the clothing of the Inca and his Queen and had various 
other duties. Their dishes and utensils were of gold. They 
entered the convent before they were eight years of age and 
here, vowed to chastity, they spent their lives. This build- 
ing was 200 by 800 feet. 

Each Inca built for himself a great palace, and above were 
the wonderful fortifications of Sacsahuaman. "West of the 
town is a place called Huaca-puneu, Holy Gate, which is ap- 
proached by a steep street. At a certain spot every Indian 
paused to look back or forward, this being the first or last 
point from which could be seen tie Temple of the Sun. And 
still to-day, as four centuries ago, the Indians continue this 
ancient custom. 

The visitor may first stroll about the modern city, which, 
should occupy him for a day or more, and then turn to the 
ruins above. A short distance east of the Hotel Comercio 
is a larger plaza called the Matriz, which with the other two, 
the Regorijo and the San Francisco, in ancient days formed 
a huge -single plaza, the scene of many great festivals, its 
periphery the measure of Huascar's gold chain. First to at- 
tract observation is the imposing Cathedral, regarded as third 
in splendor in the New World, following those of Mexico and 
Lima. Begun in 1560, later than that in Lima, it was earlier 
finished, in 1654. One writer calls it the most perfect ex- 
ample of colonial architecture existing. It has the usual 
three doors and naves, with two rows of Corinthian columns 
carved, in front only, to their base. Built of stone in the 
Benaissance style, the cost of the cathedral was so great that 
one of the Viceroys remarked that it would have been less 
expensive in silver. The choir in the central nave is of superb 
carving, the high altar in front is covered with silver. Two 
fine organs provide music. There are many paintings, one 
attributed to Van Dyck, El Senor de la Agonia. Portraits 
of the Popes and of all the bishops of Cuzco are contained 
in the sacristy. A monstrance ornamented with diamonds, 
pearls, rubies, etc., is one of the most valuable possessions. 


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CUZCO 117 

On the right of the Cathedral Is the Chapel of the Sacred 
Heart, on the left, the Chapel of Triumph. In front of the 
Cathedral which, with the Chapel of Triumph, occupies the 
site of the palace of Viraeoeha stood a round tower. 

Especial heed should be given to the tone of the Cathedral 
bell, called one of the richest in the world. It is styled the 
Maria Angola from the name of a pious lady who presented 
300 Ibs. weight of gold to be used in its casting. The great 
bell, which is large enough to cover eight men, was made in 
Cuzeo in 1659, so heavy that an inclined plane was built to 
hoist it to the tower and many men were required for the 
task. It is said that the bell may be heard for a distance of 
25 miles, and that its rich tones, due to the large amount of 
gold in its composition, are especially inclined to awaken a 
spirit of reverence. 

On the south side of the Plaza will be noticed the Church 
of the Compania, the Jesuits', standing on the site of one 
of the later Inca palaces, that of Huayna Ccapae, father of 
Atahuallpa and Huascar. This church, one of the finest in 
Cuzco, is cruciform in shape with a single broad nave and a 
large dome at the intersection of the transverse aisles. 
Pillars both round and square support the fine arches of 
the church. 

On the corner of Loreto calle, nearer to the Cathedral, was 
once the palace of the Inca Tupanqui, some distance back of 
which was that of Inca Tupac Tupanqui. At the farther 
corner, also of the south side, was the palace of Huascar 
beyond the calle de la Carcel which led down to the Temple 
of the Sun, now built over by the church and convent of 
Santo Domingo. The church is not so fine as some of the 
others, but deserves a visit on account of the historical associa- 
tions, the altar now occupying the position formerly sacred 
to the Sun god. The exceptional oval wall behind the altar 
should be noted, indicating the elliptical form of the ancient 
structure. The cloister has a finely carved stone archway, 
and columns around a patio of the convent, which was one 
of the earliest Spanish edifices in Peru. 

The convent of Santa Catalina close by is on the site of 
the ancient House of the Virgins. 

On the north side of the Plaza were the palace of the Inca 


Rocca, next the Cassama or House of Freezing, the mag- 
nificence of which was supposed to stiffen the beholder with 
admiration, and then the palace of Inea Pachacutee. The 
walls of the ancient structures were used for the lower floors 
of Spanish dwellings and a second story with balconies was 
added above. Here are now houses and shops with arched 
arcades in front, much as in the time of Garcilasso de la Vega, 
a boy at the time of the Conquest. The palace of Pachaeutec, 
the Inca legislator, is the residence, according to Fuentes, of 
C. Gonzales Martinez, calle del Triunfo No. 78. On this 
street is the famous great stone with twelve angles. At No. 
116 on this street, the house of Senora Juana Arinibar, was, 
says Fuentes, the palace of Tupanqui. Francisco Pizarro 
once occupied the mansion now the residence of the Prefect; 
his brother Gronzalo, a house in the portal Harinas. 

"While the great Plaza of Cuzco in the days of the Incas 
must have been the scene of many joyous, marvellously bril- 
liant and sumptuous festivities, in violent contrast after the 
Conquest it witnessed the most terrible tragedies. Here in 
1571 the youthful Inea, Tupac Amaru, was beheaded in the 
presence of a vast crowd of Indians. For a moment the hand 
of the executioner was stayed by the wail of horror that 
arose, but the ruthless Viceroy Toledo would grant no mercy. 
The head of Tupac was set up on a pike. In the middle of 
the night, a Spaniard looking from his window was amazed 
to see the entire Plaza filled with kneeling Indians, in silent 
veneration before the last of their rulers. Next day the head 
was removed and buried. Two hundred years later, in 1781, 
a greater atrocity was committed. Another of the same name 
who had led in revolt his kinsmen, suffering from the inhuman, 
exactions of their rulers, was here compelled to witness the 
torture and execution of his wife and other relatives. Then 
after having his tongue cut out, he was torn limb from limb 
by four horses. It is small wonder that the Quichuas appear 
of a stolid, melancholy disposition. 

The church of La Merced should be visited, especially to 
observe the fine cloister with its admirable arches, columns, 
and staircase, as also because here are the remains of the old 
warrior ALmagro and the brothers, Juan and Gonzalo 

CUZCO 119 

Above the city, slopes toward the north a steep hill between 
two gorges, the Huatanay on the east and the Tulumayu on 
the west, crowned with the world renowned fortress of 
Sacsahuaman. A long half day at the least is needed to 
investigate this and other ruins above. Many, with a whole 
day to spare, will find it delightful, setting out early with a 
luncheon, to linger above until the shadows begin to fall. 

One may go on foot or horseback (it may be a mule) accord- 
ing to his taste and ability. An extremely athletic gentleman 
says the climb is best done on a mule. Certainly it is better 
for one not fond of walking, but to a good pedestrian the 
walk is no hardship. Turning to the right on the ealle 
Triunfo one will pass a great wall containing the famous 
stone with twelve angles into which other stones are beau- 
tifully fitted. This method of construction is characteristic. 
They did not trouble to make rectangular blocks of a fixed 
size, but utilized stones both large and small of various 
shapes, and fitted them perfectly to each other. In some cases 
the joining is so fine that the thinnest knife cannot be inserted. 
Nor was mortar used in the construction. How their won- 
derful work was accomplished without tools of steel or other 
metal remains a mystery. There is a legend that they knew 
of a plant th$ juices of which in some magical manner softened 
the stone so that it could easily be rubbed into the required 
shape. This great wall perhaps enclosed the palace of Manco 
Ccapae, the first Inea, of which some remains are above. 
Still higher, on a terrace back of this palace, was the Garden 
of the Sun which was yearly the first to be cultivated. Mark- 
ham calls this the most lovely and the saddest spot in Peru. 
Beyond the calle Triunfo, to one climbing the hill along the 
edge of the gorge, scenes of beauty are continually revealed 
as one pauses to rest and look about him. The great fortress 
on the hilltop was so difficult of access that in the greater part 
of its circumference a single wall sufficed; but to the northeast 
or rear, as regarded from the city, the approach was gradual. 
On that side for a distance of 330 yards, were constructed 
three great parallel walls which had 21 advancing and re- 
entrant angles, so that every point could be enfiladed. These 
walls, which may be called Cyclopean, are said to contain 
stones surpassing in size any found in ancient Mykenae or 


other Greek strongholds. One of the largest stones weighs 
about 36 tons. They are of limestone brought from quarries 
three quarters of a mile away, though other writers state that 
they came from a distance of 5 and 15 leagues. One 30 feet 
long is said by one writer to weigh 160 tons. The most per- 
fectly planned fortress ever built is the extraordinary tribute 
which this work has received. Against what people such a 
stronghold was required is a mystery. The lowest of the 
three walls was 27 feet high, the second was 18, and the 
uppermost 14; on the inside, the parapet was breast high. 
Between each two walls there was a space of 25 to 30 feet. 
In each wall near the center was a gate which could be raised- 
There is a story of a tired stone which was left on the road 
and wept blood at being unable to reach the fortress. It is 
related that this stone, being dragged by 20,000 Indians, half 
in front with stout cables and half behind, slipped back down 
the hill Trilling several thousand, and thus it wept blood. 

At the top of the hill in a triangular space within the en- 
closure were three strong towers. The central tower, circular 
in shape, contained a fountain with water brought from some 
distance. The walls of the tower were decorated with birds 
and animals of gold and silver. Here kings were lodged who 
came to pay a visit. From the parapet the Inca prince, 
Cahuide, overcome in a final struggle, plunged to his death. 
The other two towers which were square provided lodgings 
for soldiers. They had equal space underground with sub- 
terranean passages forming a labyrinth for which a skein of 
wool was needed as a guide. There were no arches, but cor- 
bels with long stones laid across. One of these towers was 
the last to be defended by the Inca subjects against the 
Spanish. The invaders soon dismantled the colossal Sae- 
sahuaman fortress for material to construct their dwellings, 
perhaps also to impair its strength as a refuge in case of 
insurrection. Impressive are these great walls, and the ruins 
beyond in a vast solitude where no habitation is in sight, per- 
haps no human being. A little plain lies between Saesahua- 
man and a hill called Eodadero, once partly walled. Here 
are curious masses of rock which look as if children or older 
persons had slidden over them for ages. Some believe that 
the white rock solidified in this form, others that the ridges 

CUZCO 121 

were artificially cut, and still others that they have teen worn 
as above indicated. Certain it is that youths on feast days or 
as they have opportunity still take pleasure in the pastime of 
sliding. A little farther on, carved in the solid rock, is a seat 
called the Inca's throne, where he may have sat to watch his 
people at their sports and dances, or to review his troops, or 
alone in state to contemplate his dominions and the setting 
sun. Very near is a stone in which there is a channel ten 
inches wide and over which is a little bridge, thought to be 
a place of libation. It is said that chicha is thus offered here 
to-day. Two caves may be seen close by, a small one of 
labyrinthine character, with entrance three feet high. 

Somewhat east of the Eodadero is another rock formation 
with large double perfectly level stairs with a small landing 
at the top. By some this is regarded as the true Inca seat 
All about, carved in the living rock are niches, benches, and 
seats of every kind and shape. 

From Cuzco a delightful excursion may be made to visit 
other ruins in the TJrubamba Valley, delightful that is to those 
who do not object to riding on a mule over difficult if not 
dangerous trails, or sleeping on floor or table, with a rather 
poor food supply. Temporary discomfort will, however, be 
most highly rewarded to the lover of romantic scenery as well 
as to the tourist of archaeological tastes. One may go up over 
the hills back of Cuzco direct to Tucay or to TJrubamba, and 
the next day arrive at Ollantaytambo. 

These ruins of Ollantaytambo in the valley of the TJru- 
bamba River, at the entrance of a side ravine, have long been 
known as those of a great fortress or fortified palace arranged 
on several terraces,- the first plateau 300 feet from the floor 
of the valley. Here are immense stone slabs, polygonal walls 
with recesses for household gods, a circle or pillar called a 
Intihuatana for observing the equinox, and other remains in a 
valley of wonderful beauty. The story of the Tired Stone 
is also connected with this place. Farther down, about 60 
miles northwest of Cuzco, are the still more wonderful remains 
of Macchu-Pichu, recently brought to the knowledge of the 
world by Professor Hiram Bingham and described in the 
April, 1913, number of the National Geographic Magazine. 
This is thought to have been a city of refuge of earlier date 


than Cuzco, a large walled settlement 2000 feet above the bot- 
tom of the valley and 7000 feet above the sea. The Spaniards 
appear never to have reached this point, hence the ruins are 
in a remarkable state of preservation. Here are terraces, many 
houses, fountains, towers, 100 staircases, and beautiful walls 
of rectangular stones. The valley itself with its steep rugged 
walls, its luxuriant vegetation, and its views of snowclad 
mountains is one of incomparable loveliness. 

Nearer to Cuzco are ruins previously known and easily 
accessible, at Tucay palaces and baths, and still higher up 
the valley the fortress, palace, and rock tombs of Pisac; all 
of these in the same valley, that of the River VILeamayu or 
Yilcanota, as it is called in the upper part, below becoming the 
Urubamba, then, on uniting with the Apurimac, the Ueayali, 
which with the Maranon forms the Amazon. ^ 

Other ruins, Choquequirau on the Apurimac River, Nusta 
Espana and Vitcos on the Vileabamba River, are more difficult 
of access, though by no means impossible ; but to investigate 
all would require weeks. Before undertaking such journeys, 
one should read the accounts of other travelers and come suit- 
ably prepared ; they are not for the ordinary tourist. When 
the railroad has been extended from Huancayo to Cuzco, a 
very expensive work, the completion of which may be delayed 
for some years, this wonderfully romantic region will attract 
many visitors. 


FROM Cuzco the tourist win return to Juliaca, the junction 
on the main line, where he should arrive in time to take the 
train at 6.15 p. m. for Puno on Lake Titieaca, a ride of an 
hour and a quarter. The time table should be carefully 
studied in Arequipa and the journey planned to avoid a 
stop-over at Puno. Should this occur, notwithstanding, one 
may look about the town, which, founded in the seventeenth 
century, is an important center of trade in alpaca and vicuna 
skins and wool. One may therefore inquire for rugs, as these 
either of white alpaca or vicuna are valuable souvenirs, also 
purchasable in La Paz. The shorter vicuna fur from the 
necks and legs is considered more desirable ; though the longer 
is preferred by some. The rugs vary in price according to 
buyer and seller, as well as the quality of the fur, from 25 
or 30 soles to 100 or more for a special order. In La Paz 
they are sold at from 40 to 80 Bolivians each. Alpaca rugs 
are more rare and cost about the same as the better vicunas. 
They are quite double the weight. Llamas, sometimes called 
the camels of the ALndes, are prized chiefly as burden bearers, 
though their long coarse wool is serviceable. The vicuna and 
alpaca are never used as pack animals, being smaller and of 
lighter build. The fine quality of the vicuna wool and its 
scarcity makes it expensive and desirable. A poncho or any 
other article of this wool is something to be valued. The 
Indians alone manage all of these animals successfully; 
though the vicuna is hardly domesticated. A profitable indus- 
try in which to engage would be the culture if possible of these 
animals for the wool. The llamas are of various colors, black, 
brown, white, and mixed; the alpacas are oftener black or 
white, the vicunas a tawny or fawn shade, fading almost to 
wliite on the belly. None of these animals have horns, and 



spitting is their only weapon of defense. They range mostly 
from 12,000 to 15,000 feet in Peru and Bolivia. 

Puno is quite a town with a large plaza, several churches, 
many nice homes, a college, a hospital, and, in the vicinity, 
many ancient monuments; one famous round tower, called a 
chulpa, at Sallustani, of unknown origin, is by some 'believed 
to be a burial structure. Puno on the frontier of Peru is a 
meeting place between the two tribes, the Quichnas and 
Aymaras, the latter, residents of northern Bolivia, while the 
Quichuas occupy the plateau region of the greater part of 
Peru and of the central and southern portions of Bolivia. 

Lake Titicaca, halfway between Panama and Cape Horn, 
is on a great plateau more than two miles vertically above the 
level of the sea. About 135 miles long and 66 wide it has, 
with a very irregular outline, an area of more than 5000 
square miles. Although at so great an altitude the waters 
never freeze, being slightly warmer than the atmosphere, the 
temperature of which in winter is often as low as 30 Fah. 
Snowstorms are no rarity. The glacier-covered mountains 
on the southeast have some effect upon the climate. A number 
of small streams flow into the lake which has a single outlet 
at the southwest corner, the Desaguadero Kiver, 180 miles 
long, emptying into Lake Poopo. For a distance of 30 miles 
from Lake Titicaea the river is navigable for boats of 500 
tons. So high that one Mt. Washington piled upon another 
would not rise above the surface of the -water, and the loftiest 
mountain in the United States proper would appear but as 
one of the grassy hills around, this sheet of water, 12,500 feet 
above the sea, nearly as large as Lake Erie, is the most elevated 
in the world where steamboats regularly ply. 

In the winter months, June, July, and August, it is quite 
dark before Puno is reached, but in the gloomy dusk one will 
have on the left glimpses of the Lake. At the Puno Station 
an animated throng will be waiting for the many who descend 
from the train; but the majority of first-class passengers, if it 
is the right day, will remain in the car for the half-mile ride 
to the docks, where they embark on a 1000-ton steamer for 
the sail to Guaqui in Bolivia. Formerly the steamer lay at the 
wharf until morning, the passengers sleeping on board. Then 
a delightful all day's sail was enjoyed with continually 


charming views of deep bays, irregular hilly shores, rugged 
picturesque promontories and islands, and after a few hours, 
the splendid Cordillera Real at the east. Towards sunset, 
the line of snowclad giants, stretching from imposing Ulampu 
to lUimani, presented a spectacle of extraordinary mag- 

To those who delight in ancient myths and archaeological 
research, perchance to all who know the legend of Manco- 
Ccapae and Mama Oclla, children of the Sun, it would be a 
privilege to call at the sacred islet Inti-Karka or Titicaca, now 
commonly referred to as the Island of the Sun, whence these 
two set forth on their wonderful mission and career. It was 
reserved for the fourth Inca, Maita-Ceapac, to return with an 
army to this region, then entitled Collasuyo, and to reduce the 
people to submission; and for his successor, Ccapac Tupanqui, 
to complete the conquest. The Incas were greatly impressed 
with the more ancient monuments at Tiahuanaco, evidences of 
a superior civilization; and on the island from which his 
ancestors were supposed to have issued on their beneficent, 
civilizing mission, Tupac Tupanqui erected a splendid palace 
and a temple to the Sun, the richest in his entire empire. A 
temple also was built to Thunder and Lightning, a monastery 
for the sons of nobles, a sanctuary for vestal virgins, and 
dwellings for his courtiers. The island is said to have been 
paved with gold and silver. A smaller island near by is 
called Coati from Coya, the Moon, wife of the Sun, where 
temples to the Moon were erected. On both islands many 
remains still exist, but to visit them is difficult, as the regular 
steamers sail direct from Puno to Gnaqui, at the south end of 
the lake. These boats which were built in Scotland, brought 
up in pieces and here put together, have comfortable state- 
rooms with electric lights and afford good enough meals. The 
curious native boats, the balsas^ one must try to get a glimpse 
of near the dock at Puno, or in the early morning. These 
are made of reeds, which grow in the water near the lake 
shore and are bound together in rolls. The broad sails also 
are of reeds. After a while they become water-soaked, lasting 
only about six months. The boats are propelled from shore 
with a long pole. Before the coming of the steamships these 
boats transported much freight among the vaxious lake ports, 


but are now little used except by the Indians who are adept 
in their management and seldom wrecked, though, often severe 
storms suddenly arise. August is the month of best weather, 
though the coldest. "Warm clothing and wraps are indispens- 
able. Thunderstorms may occur at any time, especially in 
summer when waterspouts are not infrequent; but in my 
seven crossings the weather has always been good and every- 
thing comfortable; berth and meals are provided without 
extra cost. 

Copacabana. In 1903 the steamer called at the town of 
Copaeabana, on the west shore of the lake, where there is a 
far-famed shrine to the Virgin, once the richest and most 
renowned in all South America- The story goes that the image 
of the Virgin is the work of a converted Indian, who, ignorant 
and unskilled, from pious zeal devoted many years to the 
task. Aside from the face and hands, the entire image is 
covered with gilt upon which are colored designs so applied 
as to give the effect of an elaborate robe. The gold crown and 
the many priceless jewels with which the image is decorated 
possess a value indeed amazing to find in a town largely Indian 
in this remote corner of the globe. Candles are ever burning 
before the sacred shrine. Besides the church, a cupola on 
columns of Moorish style is notable. At the time of the great 
festival to the Virgin in July, this usually quiet town is 
thronged with Indians who come from all directions, a distance 
of 100 leagues. Mingled with Catholic ritual and ceremonies 
are primitive Indian rites and beliefs, and the religious exer- 
cises are followed by grotesque dances and songs, drunkenness 
and bestial excesses, as happens generally on the great feast 
days elsewhere among Quichuas and Aymaras. In an earlier 
period there was here a city with accommodations for the pil- 
grims who annually came to visit the Temple of the Sun on 
Inti-Karka and to pay homage to the Inea. Pilgrims still 
come from Mexico and Europe to be healed. The tourist has 
now no opportunity to visit the place except by chance, or 
with an outlay of considerable time, trouble, and expense, by 
chartering a special balsa or by making use of the small coast- 
ing steamer. 

One should rise early the morning after leaving Puno, in 
order to enjoy the imposing sight of the great mountain range 


from Ittampu to Illimani, a distance of 100 miles. No more 
splendid vision, some maintain, may be witnessed on the whole 
round earth. As one beholds the glistening glaciers which, 
pierced by bristling ramparts of rock, in immense masses 
clothe the vast and towering peats, with the brown plain and 
the blue waters of the lake as a contrasting foreground, it is 
difficult to realize that one is two miles above the sea and still 
within the Torrid Zone. After passing through a very narrow 
strait, the ship sails west into a considerable bay, at last along 
a narrow, artificial channel to the port of Guaqui near the 
southwest corner of the lake. It is a bustling place with 
plenty of Indian men and boys to assist in transporting hand 
baggage to the train 30 or 40 rods distant. A trifle bleak, 
maybe, in winter, exercise and sunshine promptly dispel dis- 
comfort. There is not much of Guaqui save the dwellings 
connected with the port and railway terminal. It has been 
growing with the increase in traffic ever since the opening of 
the railway in 1903 ; but its progress may now be retarded by 
the new railway from the Pacific recently opened between 
Arica and La Paz. Life on this desolate plain which might 
seem a dreary lot to many is yet enjoyed by civilized English- 
men and their families, who find the climate agreeable and are 
content in the possession of all essential comforts. 

The cars for the journey to La Paz, 60 miles distant, are of 
ordinary American style. A seat on the left will afford the 
finer prospects, though at the start the Trills on the right are 
higher. These are often covered with a thin coating of snow 
which at times spreads over the plain. Near the lake the 
land is well covered with brown bunch grass, good food for 
cattle, many of which with long rough hair may be seen from 
the car window. Trains of donkeys, mules, and llamas are 
often in evidence, and many Indian men and women, not very 
prepossessing in appearance, the Aymaras, who are of more 
churlish manner than the Quichuas of Peru. Along the line 
are Indian villages and solitary dwellings of sun-dried bricks, 
the latter surrounded by thick walls of the same material, 
though walls of stone are used to separate the cultivated fields. 
Fifteen miles from Guaqui is Tiahuanaco, the seat of a won- 
derful prehistoric civilization. Beyond the railway station 
may be seen at the left great stones of a saered enclosure, a 


mound showing evidences of excavations, perhaps a colossal 
statue. No time is given to examine these marvellous ruins, 
for which purpose one must make an especial excursion from 
La Paz. 

After an hour or so the Cordillera comes again into view, 
when the great Illampu will excite profound admiration, until 
the Alto Station is approached Two hours from Guaqui the 
train reaches the station Viacha, a junction from which a 
road leads south to Oruro, and the newer road west over the 
mountains, to the sea at Arica. Often there is here a long 
wait, which begins with much bustle and animation, women 
offering for sale fruits, rolls, and a variety of curious concoc- 
tions. The village is at some distance on the right; a church 
is conspicuous on a hilltop. A half hour beyond at the Alto 
Station another pause is made. The train is divided into sec- 
tions and with a special engine attached the car proceeds in 
reverse direction. For a moment it continues on the prac- 
tically level plain, but keep a sharp look out I Presto ! You 
begin to descend and suddenly perceive that you have passed 
the brink of an enormous canon, its vicinity hitherto unsus- 
pected, and you gaze in astonishment at the steep enclosing 
walls and far below in the distance on the red roofs of the 
city of La Paz more than 1000 feet beneath. A remarkable, 
astonishing, and delightful ride is before you. One wishes 
to look all ways at once, to admire the long curves of the 
winding track, the strangely carved walls of the canon, the 
troops of llamas or burros with their Indian drivers, the steep 
pathways up which they toil, the patches of bright green in 
the midst of the brown slopes, and the gradually approaching 
city. The descent is on the sloping head wall of the curiously 
carved oval basin, the sides of which appear in places per- 
pendicular and converge at the farther end in such a way as 
to leave no opening visible, though an outlet is really there. 
The upper edge of this great basin is called the alto or height 
by the people dwelling below. Thus concealed in the very 
heart of the Andes is the unique city of La Paz, with its 
80,000 inhabitants, over 12,000 feet above the sea, the highest 
capital on the globe, a curious, fascinating place, surrounded 
by these strange walls ; while brilliant, snow-crowned Illimani, 
towering in majesty 9000 feet above, adds a charm comparable 




to that which the Jungfrau gives to Interlaken. But La Paz 
itself is as high as the shoulders of that glacier-robed Alpine 
summit ; an altitude which in other regions signifies perpetual 
snow here bringing only a temperate clime, where flowers 
blossom in the open throughout the year, and the rare inch or 
two of winter's snow quickly vanishes in the morning's 

The railway down to the city, by many pronounced impos- 
sible of accomplishment, was opened in October, 1905, through 
the initiative and agency of Mr. T. Olive Sheppard, then Sup- 
erintendent of Public "Works. The road, 5y 2 miles long, has 
an average grade of six per cent with curves on a radius of 
100 meters. The power is electricity obtained from mond 
gas, an explosive mixture compounded of coal gas, steam, and 
air, cheaper than either gas or steam; a consideration of im- 
portance where coal from Australia in 1908 was selling at 
retail for $50 a ton. 

At the station are porters who for modest fees will transport 
to your hotel your baggage, both large and small. Big trunks 
they carry on their backs with apparent ease. Carriages may 
be at hand, costing one ~bolwian, 40 cents ; or on the other side 
of the station an electric car, fare 20 centavos, first class, will 
soon be passing. This will bring you to the Hotel Ghiibert, 
half a mile distant, the oldest and best of the hostelries of 
the city, unless a new one, long promised, should be already 
completed. 20 centavos is an ample fee for the boy who takes 
a bag to the ear or even to the hotel, and 50 centavos to the 
man who brings the trunk. 

Of the early history of Bolivia; little is known. At the time of 
the Spanish invasion the country was under the sway of the Incas. 
These being overthrown, no resistance was here .offered to the ad- 
vance of Diego de Almagro, who chose this route for his southward 
march for the conquest of Chile. After this unhappy adventure 
Gonzalo Pizarro invaded the country; the city of Chuquisaca was 
founded (at times called Chareas, and La Plata), now known as 
Sucre. Quarrels among the invaders culminated in a victory near 
Cuzeo by the Viceroy Pedro de la Gasea over Gonzalo Pizarro, who 
was put to death. As a memorial of the peace thus secured, La 
Gasea ordered Captain Alonso de Mendoza to found a city in the 
valley of Chuquiapu, where an Indian village already existed, and 


October 25, 1545, the first anniversary of the battle, the foundations 
were laid of a city named Nuestra Senora de La Paz. The city of 
Potosi had been founded a few months earlier, after the discovery 
of the wonderful silver mines which soon made the city and cerro 
famous throughout the world. ^ 

The country now known as Bolivia, formerly Alto Peru, was a 
part of the province of New Toledo granted to Almagro, who was 
beheaded after his party was defeated in a conflict with Pizarro's 
forces near Cuzeo, subsequent to his return from his unfortunate 
expedition to Chile. In 1542 the Viceroyalty of Peru was created 
with authority over all the Spanish American possessions. Under 
the Viceroy were later two Audiendas Reales, Royal Audiences, of 
Lima and of Charcas, the latter covering the former New Toledo 
and having Jurisdiction over the provinces of Tucuman, Paraguay, 
and Buenos Aires. The Audiendas were supreme courts possessing 
also executive functions, and were responsible to the Crown. The 
Audienc&a of Chareas, created in 1559, had its chief seat at Chu- 
quisaca, the site also of the bishopric of Chareas, and of the Uni- 
versity of San Francisco Xavier, renowned in Spanish America for 
its learning, and ranking with Salamanca in Spain. La Paz became 
a Cathedral city in 1605, and Chuquisaca in 1609 was made the seat 
of the archbishopric of La Plata. Other cities were founded; ex- 
plorations were made east and north of the Andes Mountains; the 
work of christianizing the Indians was prosecuted by the Jesuit, 
Franciscan, and other padres. At the same time great abuses were 
practiced upon the natives, who both in Peru and Bolivia were com- 
pelled to work in the mines, and suffered such hardships and cruel- 
ties as rapidly to diminish their numbers. In the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries there were many struggles and conflicts, chiefly 
between the native born Americans of Spanish ancestry and the 
rulers who were for the most part Spanish born; several insurrections 
occurring with intent to throw off the Spanish yoke. In 1776 the 
Viceroyalty of Buenos Aires was established, to which the Audiencia 
of Bolivia was transferred. In 1780 occurred an Indian rising in- 
stigated and directed by three brothers named Catari, for whose heads 
2000 pesos each were offered by the Audiencia. Thus they were be- 
trayed. The Indian revolt in Cuzeo led by Tupac Amaru occurring 
about this time incited the Bolivian Indians to further efforts. The 
Indian Ayoayo with 80,000 men for three months besieged the city 
of La Paz until dispersed by an army from Chuquisaca, The town 
of Sorata was destroyed, but in the end, after 50,000 lives had been 
lost among the Spanish Americans and many more of the Indians, 
they were finally crushed. 

Injustice and oppression Bad been the lot, not of the Indians only, 


but of the native born Spanish Americans, in spite of the fact that 
especially from Peru and Bolivia fabulous wealth had flowed into 
the treasury of Spain. The Revolution in North America was a 
warning, but the concessions granted were too late. July 16, 1809, 
conspirators at La Paz deposed and imprisoned the Governor and 
proclaimed the independence of the country, organizing a Junta of 
which one of the leaders in the movement, Pedro Domingo Murillo, 
was elected President. This insurrection deserves especial notice as 
the first effort in South America towards democratic government. 
A trained army sent by the Viceroy of Peru overcame the feeble 
opposition of a few patriots, and Murillo, January 29, 1810, per- 
ished on the scaffold; yet full of confidence he exclaimed in the 
words of another, "The torch which I have lighted shall never be 
extinguished." Within a few months the Viceroy at Buenos Aires 
was deposed and an army from Argentina under General Belgrano 
met and defeated the royalists on the field of Suipacha. From 
this time on, there were various conflicts in which the royalists 
were usually successful; but the patriots, in spite of serious de- 
feats, for years continued a persistent guerilla warfare in which 
a large number of their leaders perished. The arrival of General 
San Martin with his victorious army at Pisco in Peru, and soxm 
after the proclamation of independence at Lima, July 28, 1821, 
gave new hope to the Bolivians. The battle of Ayaeueho December 
9, 1824, having ended Spanish dominion in South America, January 
29, 1825, just fifteen years after the first patriots suffered martyr- 
dom in the plaza, the last Spanish authorities evacuated La Paz, 
which was occupied by the Independent Army of Alto Peru under 
General Lanza the same day. The victorious army under General 
Sucre, marching from Cuzco, made a triumphal entry, February 7, 

1825, in the midst of wild rejoicing. With General Sucre acting as 
the prime organizer of the Eepublic, the first National Assembly 
met in June at Chuquisaea. The Act of Independence bears the 
date of August 6, 1825; the Eepublie was named for Bolivar, who 
was elected its first President, while Chuquisaea was made the capi- 
tal under the name of Sucre. Nuestra SefLora de La Paz became 
La Paz de Ayaeueho. General Bolivar, on his arrival in La Paz 
August 18, was greeted with unbounded enthusiasm. In November 
at Sucre he was inaugurated President, but resigned in January, 

1826, to return to lama. The troublous times which followed, con- 
tinuing many years, must be passed over, up to the Chilian war. 
A quarrel arising over the collection of an export tax on nitrate, 
Chile sent troops to occupy Antofagasta, then Bolivian territory. 
Peru having previously made a secret treaty with Bolivia joined 
her in the declaration of war, April 5, 1879. As the allies were al- 


together unprepared, Chile was completely victorious and Bolivia 
lost what little coast she had previously possessed. During the 
last thirty years, however, internal dissensions have for the most 
part ceased, and with more stable government there has been suc- 
cessful development of the rich resources of the country. In 1898 
trouble arose over the question of the seat of government, sessions 
of Congress having been held in several cities. Congress passed a 
law that Sucre should be the permanent residence of the President 
and Cabinet. The people of La Paz protestbg, a Federation was 
formed and, after several engagements, General Pando, com- 
mander of the revolutionary f orees, gained a complete victory, with 
the result that La Paz was made the real seat of government al- 
though Sucre retains the name of capital. General Pando was 
elected President. During his administration occurred the Acre 
boundary difficulty settled by the cession of considerable rubber ter- 
ritory to Brazil, in return for which Brazil paid Bolivia 2,000,000 
to be used in building railways, while Brazil further agreed to con- 
struct the so-called Madera-Mamore" railway around the rapids in 
those rivers, thus giving to Bolivia an outlet by the Amazon and 
Para for her own rubber districts and for a large section of her 
territory. Under President Montes (1904^-1908) a treaty was made 
with Chile according to which, in addition to bestowing a subsidy 
and other considerations, Chile agreed to build a railway from 
Arica to the Altos of La Paz, recently opened to traffic, and af- 
fording a shorter route to the Pacific than those by Mollendo or 
Antofagasta, During the administration of President Eliodoro Vi- 
llazon progress has continued in other directions and especially in 
the development of railways. The road from Rio Mulato to Potosi 
has been opened and that from Oruro to Cochabamba will probably 
be in operation before the close of 1913 ; thus these two important 
cities are brought into better communication with the outside world. 
The Madera-Mamore Railway is already in service. President Vi- 
llazon is now succeeded by former President Montes. 


THE Grand Hotel Guilert is well situated at a corner of the 
principal Plaza. Though, not on the square, several windows 
overlook it and from many the music of the band concerts 
may be heard on Sunday and Thursday evenings. The hotel 
entrance is on the ealle Comercio, one of the principal streets 
of the city, running longitudinally in the valley. The side 
windows, on a street running down the steep hill, look across 
upon the side walls of the Cathedral which fronts upon the 
Plaza. The hotel, with two stories in front and three in the 
rear, is an ancient structure several centuries old, with hand- 
some carvings on the inner walls. These once surrounded a 
large patio, originally open to the sky and with a sloping 
pavement, which might be entered from the side street. In 
1903, the patio was occasionally occupied by a drove of llamas, 
or by men discharging freight, or with other matters; but 
now, roofed and floored, it has been converted into a large 
dining-room. The cookery is a combination of French, Span- 
ish, and Indian styles. The hotel has a rather narrow entrance 
and stairway, and no salon or parlor in which guests may be 
received. The chambers, provided with electric bells and 
lights, are quite palatial with expensive French furniture, 
thick carpets, canopied bedsteads with embroidered sheets and 
splendid blankets. The luxurious bed, placed by the door, 
leaves a large space near the window as a drawing-room 
where callers may be entertained. "When a foreign minister 
arrived, tall and stately screens were brought in to partition 
off the bed from the rest of the apartment. After Cuzco and 
Arequipa, the hotel will seem quite cosmopolitan and satis- 
factory, though the arrangement of bath-rooms and toilet on 
an inner patio leaves something to be desired. So crowded is 
the hotel that sufficient accommodations are hardly afforded 



by the main building and two dependencies, one on the Plaza 
facing the palace, the other, three stories high, on the same 
calle Comercio three blocks nearer the station. To secure a 
good room or even to be sure of any, it is wise to telegraph 
from Arequipa or Cuzco. Prices vary from 7 to 15 bol. a day 
for room and board, 8 or 10 being the average fee except for 
the largest rooms. Morning coffee is served in one's room, 
cdmuerzo is from 11 to 2, the crowd coming between 12.30 
and 1. 

Another hotel nearer the station, kept by a German, is said 
to be very neat, and good for the money, the price being 
lower. It was rumored in 1911 that the millionaire mine 
owner, Senor Patino, had purchased a corner on this street 
on which to erect a large up-to-date establishment. This would 
be a boon in view of the rapidly increasing travel. On the 
street floor of the Guibert is a large cafe, a good part of the 
day and evening filled to overflowing with gentlemen, both 
natives and foreigners, at small tables, regaling themselves 
with a cocktail or some other beverage, discussing business or 
polities, or shaking dice, to the serious neglect, I was told, of 
the important affairs of life, as is frequently the case else- 

The city of La Paz (population 80,000) on both sides of the 
Chuquiapu River, which flows at the bottom of the canon in 
a southeasterly direction, has the greater part on the left bank. 
From above it appears as if on the broad floor of a valley, but 
later it is seen that both banks rise steeply from the stream. 
Thus while the main streets running parallel to the river have 
but slight incline, those at right angles are so steep as to make 
carriage driving almost impossible. Both streets and side- 
walks are narrow, and paved Trith small cobblestones, though 
the walks have also blocks of stone, alternating checkerboard 
fashion with the squares of cobbles. So narrow are the walks 
that only two may go abreast, the gentlemen often stepping 
into the gutter to allow a lady to pass. In fact on the steep 
ways many prefer the middle of the street as being less slip- 
pery, a safe enough place, as on these one meets chiefly other 
pedestrians or llamas. The latter are one of the main attrac- 
tions and charms of La Paz ? troops of graceful animals occa- 
sionally blocking the streets, bringing ice perhaps from thei 




glaciers of lUimani or some nearer and invisible mountain ; or 
taquia, the dung of the llama, here the chief fuel ; or carrying 
away imported merchandise to Indians or others, dwelling off 
the few lines of railway* 

The multitude of Indians (Aymards, less prepossessing than 
the Quichuas} and of cholos, who together form nine-tenths 
of the population of Bolivia and two-thirds that of La Paz, 
also gives a picturesque novelty to the place, attracting eager 
attention if not admiration by the strangeness of their per- 
sonality and garb. The Indian men bearing loads or driving 
herds of llamas, both apparently belonging to some remote 
patriarchal age, the women sitting in the streets or squares, 
knitting as they preside over the sale of edibles, knit goods, or 
other wares, or handing out a bowl of chupe (soup) to a 
patron, the cholas (women of the half-breeds) in gay attire, 
are a constant source of interest 

One's sight-seeing naturally begins with the open square 
close to the hotel, called the Plaza Murillo from the patriot, 
Pedro Domingo Murillo, executed here in 1810. This, too, is 
the spot where independence was first declared in 1809. The 
square has seen many turbulent episodes. In 1894 the existing 
park was laid out. The fountain in the center was the work 
of a talented Indian, Feliciano Cantula, in 1855. 

On the same side of the Plaza as the Cathedral is the Gov- 
ernment Palace, erected in 1885 ; an earlier structure having 
been destroyed by fire. This contains the offices of many state 
officials and in the upper story the office and residence of the 
President and his family. In October, 1908, a grand ball was 
here given by President Montes in honor of the Princess Ar- 
gendona of Sucre, on which occasion the large patio was 
entirely floored over at the second story to form a ball room, 
which with the corridors was handsomely decorated with 
hangings of heavy broadcloth in various colors. The affair 
was altogether elegant, the costumes of the ladies in the latest 
Parisian modes, the refreshments most elaborate; ices, cakes, 
and wine were served at small tables throughout the evening, 
and at two, a fine supper with soup, hot meats, roast beef, 
turkey, etc., delicious salads, and other viands. The dancing, 
which began about eleven, continued until seven a. m. 

Across the corner is the Hall of Congress, a fine new edifice 


completed in 1905, though sufficiently advanced for the inaug- 
uration of President Montes in 1904. In addition to the 
Chambers of the Senate and the House of Deputies, the build- 
ing contains among other offices those of the Minister of 
Foreign Relations. The Cathedral, close to the Hotel G-uibert, 
in process of construction, is likely to continue thus for many 
years. In 1835 a design was adopted of a Bolivian architect, 
Padre Manuel Sanauja. The foundations were laid in 1843, 
when stone cutters were imported from Europe to instruct 
the Indians in cutting and polishing the stone. They proved 
apt pupils and were soon qualified to continue the work, which 
has, however, been much delayed through troublous times and 
the fact that railroads and other projects for material ad- 
vancement seemed of greater importance. Now, however, with 
an appropriation of 100,000 bol. annually, the construction 
is slowly but steadily proceeding according to plans of Senor 
Camponoro adopted in 1900. The structure when finished will 
be the largest and most expensive cathedral erected in South 
America since the Independence, and may be the finest of any. 
Covering 4000 square meters it will be capable of seating 
12,000 persons. Of the Grseco-Roman style, it will have five 
naves with columns of polished stone, towers nearly 200 feet 
high, and a dome, the top of which will be 150 feet above the 
floor. Berenguela, a native marble, will be used for the great 

Two blocks north of the Plaza is the' pro-Cathedral, the 
church of Santo Domingo, where such services are held as are 
regarded as functions of State. Thus on the day of the fun- 
eral of Pope Leo XIII in 1903, a procession including the 
President, the Ministers of State, and other Bolivian officials, 
with members of the Diplomatic Corps, all in evening dress, 
the customary garb on formal occasions in South America and 
Europe, marched from the Palace to the Church with a large 
escort of soldiery, a regiment also lining the streets en route. 

The city contains twelve other churches, five public chapels, 
five convents, and three monasteries. The handsomest church 
is that of San Francisco on a plaza of the same name, down 
on a fairly level space in the hollow. A church and convent 
were erected here in 1547, but the present edifice dates from 
1778. Ita facade of carved stone attracts attention, from its 


excellent design and workmanship. The interior lias three 
naves and eight altars, besides a high altar of carved cedar. 
The convent with accommodations for two hundred at last ac- 
counts had but fourteen inmates, though recently recon- 
structed from a legacy left by a rich lady of La Paz. The 
convent contains one of the largest libraries of Bolivia. 

Besides several other plazas, either entirely paved or having 
a little green, there is the usual Alameda, nearly half a mile 
long, which, like the Plaza Murillo, has been the scene of con- 
flicts. On the right bank of the stream towards the lower end 
of the city, this quiet promenade, ornamented with several 
rows of trees, has broad driveways, a wide central walk with 
pools which swans adorn, and fountains with basins containing 
gold fish. At each end of the Alameda are portals, of which 
the lower, leading to the Plaza de la Concordia and the Ave- 
nida Arce, was taken from a convent cloister and set up here 
in 1828. -Along the Alameda are many new and pretty resi- 
dences in rather modern style, without a central patio, as also 
above and beyond, this being a very fashionable and growing 
section of the city. The tints of pale blue, green, yellow, 
crushed strawberry, etc., in which the houses are painted, in 
the clear sunlight and contrasting shadows present a gay and 
pleasing appearance. 

More interesting to many than plaza or alameda is the 
Market Place found on the calle Mercado, parallel to the 
Comereio, and two blocks down the hill. Going down the 
street at the corner by the G-uibert and turning to the left, 
the entrance to the market, an arched portal, will be found in 
the middle of the third block on the right hand. Though not 
very noticeable the market place occupies the greater part of 
the square, the site of the former convent of San Augustin, 
The best time for a visit is as early as possible on Sunday 
morning, when hundreds or thousands of Indians come in 
from outlying districts. The adjacent streets, as well as the 
market, are thronged with these strange looking people. Both 
men and women have bare legs and feet, though some wear 
sandals. Their heads are more carefully protected with woolen 
hood and hat. The men's trousers are' noticeable, wide at 
the pockets according to Spanish style at the time of the 
Conquest, and with a slit up the back, showing white drawers 


underneath. Made of dark cloth they are often worn lining 
side out to preserve them from damage while wearers are at 
work, when they appear gray. The women wear several short 
heavy skirts, and over woolen waists a shawl or two, in one of 
which a baby is apt to be carried on the back. The chola 
women are much gayer in attire, with many bright colored 
woolen skirts, red, green, blue, yellow, one showing below an- 
other, or with a richly embroidered, white under-petticoat, 
these standing out like a balloon. They generally wear a 
jaunty white or gray hat resembling a derby, several shawls, 
often open-worked stockings, and shoes with high French heels. 
A great contrast to these are the Spanish American ladies, in 
the morning on the way to church or market robed in black, 
the black manta over their heads, but when calling or visiting 
attired in the latest Paris fashions. The gentlemen, too, are 
extremely punctilious as to correct dress, appropriate to the 
hour and the function. 

"Within the market place and on the streets around are 
women sitting by their stalls, in the doorways and on the side- 
walks, selling their wares, dried and fresh fruits, vegetables, 
hot soup, chunos (dried potatoes), cholona (dried sheep), and 
articles of almost every kind; shoes, stockings, salt, sugar, 
meat, coca leaves, rather coarse native lace, or cheap, imported, 
machine-made, funny little rag dolls in Indian garb, five or 
ten centavos each, red beans which would make a pretty neck- 
lace (they are not real beans), soft woolen mitts, mittens, and 
caps, and coarse caps or hoods, with face masks. The women 
are always knitting (except at meal time) when not employed 
with a customer. People will be found here at any hour of the 
day and one may go again and again with interest ; the numer- 
ous babies and toddlers, though dirty, add to the picturesque- 
ness of the scene. The women seem pleasant and more prepos- 
sessing than the men. The knitted articles are astonishingly 
cheap and the dolls are of a quaint ugliness. Everything may 
be found here but flowers, which are sold in a square above by 
the La Merced church on a prolongation of the calle Co- 
mercio. Sweet peas, pansies, roses, and other flowers brought 
from the valley below are sold at a ridiculously low figure. 
A Bolivian will purchase as many as you can carry. 

There are many good shops in La Paz, the dry goods, mostly 




on the calle Comercio or the Mercado; the largest called El 
Condor, with several branches, -doing an immense business. 
There are book stores, banks, and all ordinary institutions. 
The house of W. E. Grace is on the calle Mercado towards the 
market. The Post Office is on the calle Comercio just beyond 
the Palace, the office of the Prefect is on the floor above. A 
short distance down the steep street between is the Police 

On the side of Plaza Murillo opposite the Capitol, at the 
upper corner is the building, entrance on Ingavi, which con- 
tains the Library of the Geographical Society and the office of 
Don Manuel V. Ballivian, geographer and statistician, formerly 
Minister of Agriculture, who speaks English fluently and is 
most courteous in giving information to students, explorers, or 
investigators of the resources of the country. The Geographi- 
cal Society, of which Mr. Ballivian is President, has by its 
publications and research contributed much to the knowledge 
of the country, which Mr. Ballivian has himself extensively 
explored. He is author and editor of many valuable works. 

On the first floor of the same building, with entrance on the 
Plaza, is the Museum of Natural History and Industrial Prop- 
aganda, containing specimens of the flora, fauna, and great 
mineral wealth of the country, ancient sculpture, aboriginal 
mummies found on the plateau, pottery of the Inca period and 
earlier, and other paraphernalia, as well as curious examples 
of modern textiles, and other work and implements of the 
civilized and savage Indians. 

Passing one block along Ingavi and turning to the right 
one will find on the left the Theater, of modern construction, 
recently remodeled and equal to the average theater anywhere. 
Entertainments here given are frequently subsidized by the 
Government; as, however well patronized, the receipts would 
hardly be sufficient to pay a company for the long expensive 
journey from the sea coast. At the corner, before turning 
up the street, is the Municipal Library and free reading room, 
open day and evening, where, as in all quarters, the inquiring 
stranger will receive the greatest courtesy. On the block 
beyond the theater 'is the University. 

As in other cities of the "West Coast there is a Butt Ring in 
the outskirts where occasional fights are held with skillful 


Spanish toreadors. Several pleasant walks may be taken by 
one who is fond of Mil climbing. A little Chapel at the top 
of the left wall of the canon to some may seem inviting. It 
is an hour's walk, with suitable pauses affording attractive 
views of the city and canon ; but the arrival is disappointing, 
for a further though moderate slope cuts off the expected view 
of plateau and distant mountains. How much farther one 
would have to go to obtain this, I am unable to state. Some 
writers warn the stranger not to walk at this altitude except 
for short distances. It is well to be cautious the first day, espe- 
cially if there is the slightest symptom of discomfort, and at 
any time persons should avoid too rapid walking, especially 
uphill, and be careful not to overdo. This is a great country 
for climbing, its opportunities yet unimproved, Illimani 
(21,000 feet) being the only one of its high mountains whose 
summit (by Sir Martin Conway) has yet been reached. There 
is no better exercise, providing the recreation is wisely pur- 
sued ; but of course not every one can endure the altitude even 
of La Paz, to say nothing of 8000 or 10,000 feet more. 

A walk down the valley may afford pleasure, though the 
majority may prefer to employ a carriage, or a horse. On 
foot he will hardly get far unless taking a whole day. The 
road winds around, and the wall blocking the lower end of 
the canon is more distant than it looks. It is a delightful little 
drive to Obrajes, three miles distant. Every one should go 
at least so far, and will then wish to continue. The curious 
shapes of the canon walls, the bright variegated colors of the 
cliffs, the road winding in great curves down the rapidly 
descending canon, the beautiful green of alfalfa meadows, 
the pretty villas and gardens, and glorious Illimani above, 
excite ever increasing admiration. One with plenty of time at 
his disposal may ride down the valley to a hacienda, Cebollullo, 
at the foot of Illimani, enjoying the most magnificent scenery ; 
but two days would be needed to go and return. Down this 
canon one may proceed to the Yungas Valley, whence come 
the vegetables and fruits for the La Paz market. A railway 
will some day open up this country, extending to Puerto 
Pando on the navigable waters of the Beni, whence one may 
cross the continent to Para by boat and by the newly con- 


structed Madera Mamore Railway, but our tour does not lie 
in that direction. 

An excursion on foot or horseback may be made to the noted 
gold mine Chuquiaguillo, a league from the city, which in 
the eighteenth century produced one hundred and twenty-five 
million dollars gold. Here Indians were washing for gold 
when the Spaniards arrived and here they work still tinder a 
German superintendent, the gravel yielding about thirty-five 
cents gold a cubic foot, with an occasional nugget. One found 
in 1905 contained 45 oz. of gold. It was recently reported 
that this property has been purchased by Americans, the Bo- 
livian Goldfields Company, 


Tiahuanaco. All who have an interest in legendary lore 
and in ancient monuments of a mysterious past should surely 
make the excursion to Tiahuanaco. Even those who have no 
especial leanings in that direction cannot fail to be impressed 
and may possibly be fascinated by these strange relics of a by- 
gone age. Taking the morning train to Gruaqui, one descends 
at Tiahuanaco and after a stay of three or four hours may 
return to La Paz in the evening. The real student could 
profitably devote as many days as the ordinary tourist would 
hours to the examination of the ruins. These are believed by 
Sir Clements Markham to indicate the existence of a large 
city, while others think that this was rather an immense sanc- 
tuary and never a place of general residence. The existing 
remains on the broad plateau, 135 feet above Lake Titieaca, 
from which it is 12 miles distant, are supposed when erected 
to have been on the shore of the lake. A great terraced 
mound of earth, supported by stone walls, having an area of 
620 by 450 feet and a height of 50 feet, is called a fortress, 
and also a palace. Long used as a stone quarry for the erec- 
tion of buildings in neighboring towns, even in La Paz, 60 
miles distant, it is now in an extremely dilapidated condition. 
The excavations of treasure seekers as well as of scientists 
havp also contributed to its ruin. 

About a quarter of a mile from the station is a construc- 
tion, generally regarded as a sacred enclosure, which has the 
form of a rectangle, 388 by 445 feet, marked by granite blocks 
15 feet apart and 8 or 10 feet high, conspicuous objects on 
the brown plain, reminding of Stonehenge. These monoliths 
are supposed to have been part of a wall, the spaces between 
filled in with rough stones. A temple may have stood within, 
but of this there are no remains. A massive monolithic gate- 
way, broken and apparently not in its original position, may 





once have afforded entrance to the enclosure. This great 
piece of stone, 13 feet wide, 7 feet above ground and 3 feet 
thick was probably fractured by an earthquake. The curious 
and elaborate carvings on the upper part of one side have been 
variously explained, but the interpretation endorsed by Sir 
Clements Markham, long a profound student of Peruvian 
antiquities, is most highly regarded. In the center is a 
human head supposed to represent the creator of the universe 
Pachaeamae or Viraeocha, to which the other figures, partly 
human and some with heads of condors, seem to offer adora- 
tion. Three other constructions, one called the hall of justice, 
are remarkable for their extent and for the Cyclopean masses 
of stone. There is abundant evidence of extraordinarily skill- 
ful masonry and of excellence in sculpture. Many of the 
enormous stones are unequaled in size in any other part of 
the world save by the monoliths of Egypt and some near 
Cuzco. One stone 36 feet long and 7 wide weighs 170 tons. 
These have often ornamental carving. A number of statues 
elaborately decorated have been found here, one of which 
still stands upright within the enclosure. The great age of 
these remains is unquestioned. One theory is that they date 
from a period before the plateau was elevated to its present 
position when it enjoyed a milder climate. 

It is worth while to go over to the modern Indian village, 
Tiahuanaco. On the plaza is a church, largely constructed 
of stones taken from the ancient ruins. In front of the church, 
are two ancient and dilapidated statues, long since transported 
from their original site. The interior of this small church 
is of extraordinary magnificence, with elaborate gilt carvings, 
an altar of pure silver, and some religious paintings of mod- 
erate excellence. 

On the 16th of September elaborate festivities occur, when 
many Indians appear in velvet or plush garments, blue, pink, 
or green, embroidered with gold or silver, wearing masks, 
black, white, or yellow, and elaborate feather head dresses. 
Pipes and drums, other wind instruments, and wooden rattles 
make plenty of noise if not music. Some men are dressed 
to represent devils, with horns and tail ; others, animals, as a 
sheep or a green turtle. The finest suits cost each as much 
as $200 gold. At Sorata town a still more elaborate festival 


occurs at the same period, lasting for four or five days. 
Gorgeous feather head dresses may be seen, and fans which 
could not be purchased for $75. The execution of the Inca 
Atahuallpa is here represented with mourning by the Indians. 
These festivals are all accompanied or concluded by drunken 
orgies. In La Paz, August 15, 1903, occurred somewhat sim- 
ilar but milder festivities, Indians in costume and dances. 

Sorata. One who is fond of horseback riding and not 
afraid of a little discomfort might, with from five to seven 
days to spare, enjoy an expedition to the town of Sorata. 
This city of 8000 or 10,000 inhabitants is situated about a 
hundred miles north of La Paz in a beautiful valley at the 
foot of the mountain of the same name, better called by 
the euphonius Indian appellation, Illampu. In 1911 a dili- 
gence or covered wagon with four horses twice a week -made 
the trip by a fair road over the plain to Achacachi, perhaps 
70 miles distant. The diligence sets out at a very early hour, 
six or half past, making a rather long day. From Achacachi 
to Sorata town it is a ride of from six to nine hours according 
to the animals provided. These must be engaged in advance 
in La Paz and probably sent ahead to meet one there, in 
which case it is obviously cheaper, though more tiresome, 
to go on horseback all the way. If this method of travel 
is decided upon, or indeed the other, an arriero must be en- 
gaged to provide saddle animals and to take care of them, 
being paid somewhat in advance. Unless he receives a sum 
to bind the bargain and to pay his preliminary expenses, 
whatever he may promise, he is likely never to be seen again. 
But having accepted money, he generally carries out the bar- 
gain, though a written contract is desirable. An arriero once 
agreed with me to furnish four animals, two saddle, one of 
these for himself, and two baggage animals for eight ~bol. a 
day for all, he paying the expenses for his own food and the 
animals ; but it might cost double that now. - Much depends 
on chance and ability at bargaining. If making the journey 
on horseback one should at least take the early train to the 
alto arranging in advance for the animals to meet him above. 
Setting out from there promptly, a good horseman with first- 
rate animals might reach Guarina or even Achacachi the 
same evening and from either place go on to Sorata the next 


day. Soon after leaving the Alto Station all traces of l!?e 
disappear save what is met upon the road, Indians with llamas, 
burros, etc. The brown plain shows no signs of cultivation, 
being thickly covered with stones. No village or hut is 
passed for hours. But the great peaks seen from slowly 
varying angles are a continual source of enjoyment. A 
splendid imposing mountain, Huaina Potosi or Cacaaca, about 
21,000 feet, with tin mines on its lower slopes, affords an 
opportunity for a difficult first ascent. The tambo, Cocuta, 
should be reached in time for almuerzo; at the very least, 
Machacamarea for the night : better Guarina, if possible. If 
one lodges at Machacamarea one must spend the next night 
at Achacachi and go the third day to Sorata. It is desirable, 
even necessary, to take blankets for the night, and to provide 
in the alforjas (saddle bags), a supply of chocolate, raisins, 
etc., perhaps canned meat and crackers. At Cocuta, and the 
other places, meals are provided, soup, eggs, beefsteak, coarse 
bread, and tea, but between Achacaehi and Sorata there is no 
place for luncheon ; and some chocolate, etc., will come in very 
well the first day. Except at Achaeachi no bed will be found 
better than a couch of adobe, but with blankets a hard bed is 
no harm. I have heard dire tales of the insect life which in- 
fests some such places, but in my own considerable experience, 
I never found anything worse than fleas and not many of them. 
The immense snow fields of Illampu come into view soon after 
leaving Coeuta. Before reaching Guarina there are glimpses 
of Lake Titieaca. Between Achacachi and Sorata the Hua- 
llata pass is crossed at a height of 14,000 feet. This is a big 
buttress of Illampu, from the top of which one has a splendid 
view of the enormous mountain massif close at hand, with 
its several summits all from this side seeming absolutely un- 
climbable. Descending towards Sorata attention is divided 
between the tremendous clifis of Illampu on the right and the 
romantic Mapiri Valley below. The town, Sorata, at an alti- 
tude of 8000 feet, has a charmingly picturesque location on a 
terrace near the head of the valley, among trees, shrubs, and 
fragrant flowers, in striking contrast to the bare, bleak, brown 
plain above. On one side the grim walls and glittering sum- 
mits of Illampu rise nearly 14,000 feet (the height of the 
mountain being over 21,000), contrasting sharply with the 


bluish purple tints down the steeply enclosed gorge opposite. 
At no distant day electric cars will cross the mountain ridge, 
and this charming town will be regularly included in the 
fashionable tours of South America. Sorata now has a fair 
hotel, as it is the headquarters for several rubber companies 
which conduct the industry on the lower eastern slope of the 
Andes, and for many miners who seek placer deposits, or 
the veins above them, also on the eastern side. Any one 
with the spirit of the explorer would find it a most interesting 
trip to make the circuit of the mountain : not a difficult task, 
but probably never yet accomplished by a white person. To 
the mountaineer, Illampu still affords opportunity for a 
splendid first ascent, Miss Peck in 1904 being obliged to turn 
back in good weather and a fine condition of the mountain at 
about 20,500 feet simply because her companions refused to 
advance ; while Conway in 1898 retreated from a higher point 
on account of dangerous conditions of the snow. With Swiss 
guides the ascent should be easily made, or without them by 
experts like the conquerors of Mt. McKinley, Parker and 

Train from La Paz Wednesday at 4.15 p.m. arrives at Ariea 
Thursday, 1.40 p. m. Sleeping 1 cars. 

La Paz to Ariea. At La Paz, if not earlier, decision must 
be made as to the route in leaving this remarkable city. At 
present two are offered besides that by which we have come ; 
one by Ariea, the other by Antofagasta. If one is averse to 
a long railroad journey and is not eager to see other Bolivian 
cities, Oruro, Potosi, Cochabamba, he will prefer the Ariea 
road, 250 miles, by which trains were expected to descend from * 
La Paz in twelve hours to the sea, and the upward journey 
was to occupy sixteen. On account of the steep grade, the 
rack-rail system is employed on one stretch for a distance of 
25 miles. To render harmless the rapid change in atmospheric 
pressure, in ascending 14,000 feet in eight or ten hours, a spe- 
cial ear-chamber was planned to contain compressed air of the 
density at sea level. The difference in temperatures is greater 
than by the other routes. In winter it may be below -0 Far. at 
the summit, and a few hours later at Ariea it may be 86, 
though probably less if arriving at evening. Parlor and sleep- 

. ILLAMPU, 21,750 FT. FROM THE PLATEAU, 13,000 FT. 



ing cars are provided and as these are to be heated there 
should be no trouble on that score. Having come up com- 
fortably one is not likely to be troubled going down. If in- 
clined to see a mining town one may branch off to Corocoro, 
six miles from the main line, a place of about 15*000 people, 
long famous for its mines of copper and tin. The copper 
mines have been called the richest in South America. The 
lodes are in a sandstone formation in fine grains through the 
matrix. After grinding and concentration a product results, 
85 per cent pure. The Arica road has its own prolongation 
from Viaeha to the Altos and city of La Paz, by the route 
followed a distance of 22 miles. 

The Jamiraya Canon. To the traveler in search of novelty 
outside the beaten track, and to the scientist, the route by way 
of Arica affords a chance to visit one of nature's wonders, 
the existence of which is unknown to most Bolivians, as well 
as to the rest of the world. This is a remarkable gorge called 
the Jamiraya Canon, of which I received definite information 
from two English scientists who had just visited it. In 
the Lluta Valley some distance back of Arica, it is a few miles 
south of the railway between km. 92 and 132 of the line. It 
is best visited from Arica on account of the necessity for 
arranging in advance to be met by animals at the station 
Moleno, the terminus of a branch line 54 tans, from Arica. 
The first bivouac may be made in Cata 27 kms. distant, from 
which point a day's ride with a steep climb will lead to 
Socoroma, where night's lodging may be obtained at the vil- 
lage store. From here one may ride down into the canon at 
Jamiraya or to Ancolacalla, returning after a night or two 
at the bottom. Both places are desirable to visit, but it is 
a day's journey from one to the other, as it is necessary to 
go to the top and come down again. The finer scenery is 
at Ancolacalla near which is a beautiful waterfall. It is 
said that the walls of the canon rival if they do not surpass 
those of the Yosemite, being six or seven thousand feet in 
height, often very steep, the angle varying from 45 to 90. 
At the bottom the canon in places is but two or three meters 
wide, and at the top from a few hundred feet to possibly a 
mile. At Jamiraya the ruins of huts add a peculiar interest. 
The walls, which are of varied and beautiful colors, are 


chiefly volcanic rock, with some granite on the floor. Water 
should be carried, as that at the bottom of the gorge is bad. 
Few covers are needed as in the depths the weather is warm. 

Other Bolivian Cities. If more time can be allotted to 
Bolivia, a week or two may be agreeably spent in visiting the 
cities of Coehabamba, Potosi, and even Sucre, though that is 
more remote. The newly constructed railway 125 miles in 
length, if now open from Oruro to Coehabamba, will make the 
latter easily accessible. This, called the Garden City of Bo- 
livia, was founded in 1574 in a beautiful valley on the east 
side of the mountains, here called the Royal Range. Much 
wealth, culture, and refinement is here manifest, as well as in 
Sucre, though both cities have been so remote from the rest 
of the world. 

Coehabamba with its suburbs has a population of 40,000 or 
more; it boasts of six pretty plazas, adorned with trees and 
flowers, and an Alameda with five divisions, a fashionable 
driveway. There are handsome public buildings and 
churches; but the scenery and climate are the chief attrac- 
tions, land a complete recompense for the railway journey 
from Oruro. 

Potosi, a name much more familiar on account of the almost 
fabulous wealth of which it has been the source, deserves a 
visit on very different grounds. Not for its delightful cli- 
mate, smiling skies, and surroundings of placid beauty, but 
for its historic associations, the remains of colonial grandeur, 
and for its impressive if more gloomy scenery. From Rio 
Mulato, 130 miles beyond Oruro, a railway has been recently 
built to this ancient city 105 miles distant. In 1545 it was 
founded, after the discovery of the wonderful silver mines, 
which according to a moderate estimate have yielded about 
four billion dollars, another writer says one billion, up to the 
present time. It is related that one man paid no less than fif- 
teen million dollars as tax on the production of his mine, one- 
fifth being supposed to go to the crown. It is said that 7000 
mines have been opened in the Cerro, the hill back of the 
town, 700 of which are being worked for silver and tin to-day. 
Great extravagance naturally accompanied the production of 
great wealth, and many stories are told of the expenditure and 
display of riches in the early period. At one time the city had 


a population of 150,000, now dwindled to about 25,000. It 
contains many interesting ruins of colonial palaces and 
churches, including a finely carved tower of the old Jesuit 
church, notable carved doorways of San Lorenzo, the palace 
of Don Jose de Quiroz, and others. The Plaza Pichincha 
contains a handsome monument to the Independence, and is 
bordered by several public buildings, the City Hall, and the 
Piehincha College. A Public Library and Museum are of 
interest, still more the great Casa de Moneda or Mint cover- 
ing two blocks. 

A visit to the top of the famous Cerro may be made on 
horseback. A splendid view is enjoyed from the summit. Of 
extreme interest are the great artificial lakes on the slopes, 
built by the Spaniards to furnish a constant water supply 
for the working of the mines. The construction of the thirty- 
two lakes consumed nearly fifty years, the largest being 3 
miles in circumference and about 30 feet deep. Two of them 
are at an altitude of 16,000 feet. Each is surrounded by five 
sets of walls, all together about 30 or 40 feet thick. The mines 
are by no means exhausted and with the opening of the rail- 
way, mining operations will doubtless be largely increased. 

Sucre. A coach road 100 miles long leads from Potosi to 
Sucre, the nominal capital of the Republic, which will soon 
be connected by rail with the region of the west. The city, 
pleasantly located among the hills at an altitude of 10,000 
feet, is noted for its fine climate which must certainly seem 
agreeable to a resident of the plateau above. In fact many 
of the wealthy mine owners of Potosi in former days, if not 
at the present time, made their homes here, where life is 
much more enjoyable. Made the capital of Bolivia in 1826 
it still has the name, though now it is the seat only of the 
Supreme Court and of the Archiepiseopal See ; the Legislative 
and Executive Departments of Government being at La Paz. 
The Legislative Palace of Sucre with handsomely decorated 
halls still remains, there is a stately new Government Palace, a 
Palace of Justice, the University of San Francisco Xavier, 
and other important buildings. Among the churches, the 
Metropolitan Cathedral is the richest in Bolivia. The Virgin 
of Guadalupe, an image of solid gold, with its rich adornment 
of jewels, is said to be worth a million. Among the nine 


plazas, that of the 25 de Mayo has a special mark of distinction 
in the fact that it has two streams, one on each side, one of 
which flowing northward joins the Mamore so reaching the 
Amazon, while the other turning southeast goes on to the 
Pilcomayo and at last to the estuary of La Plata. 

One who sees only the plateau region of Bolivia knows 
but a small part of the country ; the section east of the Andes, 
now becoming accessible, is far more attractive and within a 
half century may have the larger part of the population. 

Prom La Paz to Antof agasta. The remaining route from 
La Paz to the sea will be followed by those who have visited 
any of the three cities last mentioned, the old road by way of 
Oruro to the southern port, Antofagasta, though not until 
1908 was the railway opened between Oruro and Viaeha. 
Many in the past have groaned over the journey which for- 
merly involved two days by diligence to Oruro and three by 
rail to Antofagasta, but since the introduction of sleeping 
cars on the old section and the completion of the new the trip 
may be made in comfort and even with pleasure in 48 hours. 
Within the year the road has been prolonged from Viaeha 
down to La Paz, another great improvement. 

Except for the fine view of Illimani on the left in the: 
early part of the journey, the ride to Oruro is of no great 
interest. Some tall mud built piers may excite curiosity: 
a few remaining from those erected three centuries ago which 
t formerly, it is said, marked the entire route from Lima to 
Potosi. Before reaching Oruro, a ride of about seven hours, 
a snow-crowned volcanic peak may be seen at the southeast, 
Sajama, with an alleged altitude of 22,700 feet. A possibility 
is therefore presented of its overtopping Aconcagua, or like 
Coropuna turning out 1000 feet lower. 

At a station called Patacamaya a halt is made for almuerzo. 
Strange to say, the restaurant, where a fair meal is served, 
is kept by an American and his wife who have been living 
there about twenty years. The gentleman remarked that he 
was contented, doing well, and had no desire to return to 
the States. Fortunate it is that all have not the same tastes, 
some enjoying the warm tropics, some the desert, some the 
cool plateau, some happy only in large cities, and others whom 
the solitary places please. Many who go down to, gngage in 




railroad construction, to work in mines or smelter, or even 
to fill office positions in cities, soon become tired and return ; 
others are fascinated with the life, being successful, and per- 
sons of more importance than they would be at home, and they 
are glad to settle permanently in those countries. 

Oruro is an important mining town of about 20,000 people, 
with a very good hotel, the Union, facing the pretty Plaza. 
Arriving on Wednesday or Saturday at Oruro, one may the 
same evening at 7.30 take the express train for Antofagasta, a 
ride of 36 hours. The plateau seems rather dreary and only 
those who have an interest in mining matters will care to stay 
over. The various mines on the outskirts of the city produce 
both silver and tin. There are many foreign residents 
with several clubs and life is not so dismal as may at first 
glance appear, although the climate at this altitude of 12,500 
feet in the exposed position on the plain is a trifle raw. The 
Government Palace and the University building face the 
Plaza, and the city boasts of a theater, a public library 
and a mineralogieal museum, as well as the usual churches, 
hospitals, and schools. Oruro was noted during the colonial 
period as next to Potosi in the richness and production of its 
mines and in 1678 is said to have had 76,000 inhabitants. 
In the immediate vicinity are half a dozen mines, formerly 
great silver producers, but now worked chiefly though not 
entirely for tin. The San Jose mine, two miles from the 
town, several years ago was yielding $55,000 a month in 
tin and silver. It is an interesting place to visit, employ- 
ing 1000 or more people and equipped with the best of modern 
machinery. There are workings 1000 feet deep. The Soeavon 
de la Yirgen, nearer the city, is one of the oldest of Bolivia. 
In all four provinces of this Department are rich tin mines. 
The ore is treated by grinding and concentration, the product 
exported averaging about 64 per cent tin. Copper also is 
found, and farther south borax, and metals of almost every 

For the through journey to Antofagasta, staterooms should 
be engaged in advance at La Paz and in the best- possible car; 
as I was informed that there was considerable difference. 
Some persons complain about everything and I had heard 
much of the discomfort of the journey. But the aceommoda- 


tions which I enjoyed were decidedly superior to those of an 
ordinary Pullman and I never experienced a more comfort- 
able railway ride. The road is of very narrow gauge, 2% 
feet, so that an aisle passes along one side of the car with 
staterooms in a row on the other. In these the berths are not 
crosswise of the car as in Argentina but lengthwise. My 
room had two very comfortable leather covered armchairs, 
facing each other, on which the berth was later arranged with 
none above it. A wash-basin with running water was at the 
side, a small mirror, and several nails on which to hang cloth- 
ing. In a dining-car good meals, dinner and almuerzo were 
served at a fair price, morning coffee in one's own stateroom. 
Traveling from Oruro at night one misses the sight of Lake 
Poopo. Poopo is a curious shallow, salt, and turbid lake with 
no visible outlet, fed by the Desaguadero River from Lake 
Titicaca. Although 24 by 53 miles in extent it is at most 
but 9 feet deep, often less than 5, and seems to be shrink- 
ing. In this dry air and strong sunshine the water may in 
time disappear, leaving only a bed of salt. Uyuni, from which 
the railway is now being continued to Tupiza, 125 miles be- 
yond on the Pan American route to Argentina, is also passed 
in the night. From Tupiza it is hardly 60 miles to La Quiaca 
which was reached by the Argentine Railway several years 
ago. A few miles from Uyuni are the Pulacayo and Huan- 
chaca mines which have produced within the last quarter cen- 
tury about 5000 tons of silver, thus taking rank as the second 
silver district in the world (the first is Broken Bow, Aus- 
tralia). Electricity is here the motor power; Corliss engines 
render service; several thousand men and women are em- 
ployed, the latter sorting ore with wonderful accuracy. The 
day following is spent among the desert mountains. The 
hills are red, yellow, white, and gray, dotted with black cin- 
ders. Volcanoes are numerous, mostly extinct but showing 
perfect cones against the blue of the sky. Large level sheets 
of saline material are frequent. Some jagged hills have 
streaks, blood-red or chrome-yellow. The volcano San Pedro, 
17,170 feet may be smoking. From a smaller cone, Poruna, at 
its side, stretches a great stream of lava, like a glacier, half a 
mile wide and several long, through which in a cutting the 
railroad passes.. Just before dark, close to the jConchi station. 


the train crosses a viaduct 336 feet above the Loa River, more 
than twice as high as the celebrated Forth Bridge. It is a 
graceful steel structure with six lattice girder spans of 80 
feet each, on steel towers. Early the second morning one 
arrives at Antofagasta. 


Arica. Arriving at Ariea by sea, or departing as well, one 
may observe in great white letters on the rocky Morro, Vive 
Battalion No. 4, commemorating the Chilian victory with its 
massacre of Peruvians, June 7, 1880. The 1700 Peruvians 
here stationed, whose cannon were directed towards the sea, 
suffered an assault in the rear from 4000 Chilians who had 
landed at night several miles below. Short of small arms and 
ammunition, after an heroic defense for one hour, the com- 
mander, Col. Bolognesi, perished having used his last cart- 
ridge, and many soldiers leaped to the rocks by the sea, who 
preferred this death to having their throats cut by the Chil- 
ians. Others were crowded off by Chilian bayonets, and 
for months the bodies were seen below. No prisoners were 
taken, the entire garrison of 1700 being slaughtered. 

The harbor, one of the best south of Callao, is called by 
one writer the emerald gem of the "West Coast, on account of 
its green trees and other verdure. The line of railway may 
be seen among the cliffs, and a great cross on the highest hill- 
top. The town is called by one writer very squalid, by an- 
other a neat, attractive place in comparison with most of the 
port cities, the houses of various colors, blue, green, orange, 
etc., many with arched entrances affording pleasing views of 
an inner patio. On account of earthquakes the buildings 
are chiefly of one story, many of corrugated iron. The most 
noted of the 'quakes was that of 1868 when two United States 
frigates were in the harbor. One of these, the Freedoma, 
was lost with all on board ; the other, the Wateree, by a wave 
60 feet high, was carried over houses a mile inland, suffering 
a loss of half the crew. The ship there became the home of 
-several Indian families, until the nest earthquake and wave 
carried it back to the beach without doing injury to the oc- 



cupants. Barely from the harbor may be had a beautiful 
sunset view of snow-crowned Mt Taeora, 19,000 feet, though 
other mountains are frequently seen. In this port Hernandp 
Pizarro built ships for the invasion of Chile. On the broad 
beach is a prehistoric cemetery with embalmed mummies, said 
to be equal to those of Egypt. Some of the eyes are translu- 
cent with a rich, amber tint, which scientists say are of squid 
or cuttle-fish here numerous ? substituted for the eyes of the 
dead. It is said that when some of these were sent to Tif- 
fany's in New York to be polished, the workmen suffered a 
violent irritation of the eyes, lips, nostrils, and throat. 
Though all recovered, the work was not resumed. An analy- 
sis showed animal matter with saltpeter and unknown miner- 

It is believed that along here is a subterranean outlet of 
Lake Poopo, as the fresh water fish of Lake Titicaca, peecajay, 
are caught in the ocean, and driftwood of the mountain vege- 
tation appears. Formerly Arica was a great market for 
vicuna skins, which were brought down from the interior, 
but their number has now greatly diminished. A highway 
constructed by the Incas 1000 years ago, called the camno 
redly has been in use ever since, the Bolivians, even after the 
construction of the railroad to Mollendo, still using it to 
bring down ore by means of llamas and burros and to carry up 
supplies. The new railroad may not cause a complete disuse 
of the old route, as the carriage of freight by a road of so 
heavy grade is likely to be expensive. 

Tacna, 38 miles distant, capital of the province, connected 
by rail with Ariea, is a pretty and a larger city, worthy a 
visit. The prosperity of this section has been delayed by 
the friction and hostile feeling between the Peruvian and 
Chilian Governments and peoples, resulting from the unfor- 
tunate war 1879-1883, and the unsettled conditions following. 
'The Tacna- Arica question has been one of greater bitterness 
than that of Alsace-Lorraine; the present arrangement, to 
postpone the plebiscite twenty-one years, will be greatly to 
the advantage of both countries. On the desert between the 
two cities is often an unusual effect of mirage, and from 
Taena there is a mountain view of much grandeur. 

Iquique. The next important port south of Arica is Iqui- 


que, but between the two is Pisagua where many boats call, 
affording opportunity for any who desire, to disembark and 
go 124 miles by rail to Iquique, thus to see without loss of 
time something of the rich nitrate lands of Tarapaca. This 
part of the coast may not look very different, from some of 
the Peruvian, yet it is still more of a desert ; for the Peruvian 
will blossom like a rose, with a sufficient water supply, while 
this is less easily transformed. In Iquique, gardens and 
plazas have been made by bringing from a distance artificial 
soil for the trees, shrubs, and plants, which must be care- 
fully nurtured. The nitrate ports are said to look like west- 
ern mining towns, with wide streets, and one-story houses 
made from Oregon lumber, with iron roofs. There are many 
shops selling much liquor and canned stuffs. The streets were 
formerly dusty, the air full of sand. Unnatural tastes 
were developed by the conditions. Two miners in earlier 
days, wishing to enjoy a feast, sat down with two cans of pate 
de foie gras, a loaf of bread, a bottle of brandy, and two cans 
of condensed milk, the last being eaten with spoons as des- 

Hotels, Phoenix 8 to 15 pesos, Europa 7 to 15, Grand, 6 to 
10, all A. P. Iquique, the principal Chilian port except Val- 
paraiso, is the most important center of the nitrate in- 
dustry. With a population of 50,000, called a fine city, it 
has an enormous commerce for its size, not merely from the 
export of nitrates but because it is unique in having all its 
supplies brought in by sea, food, fuel, and formerly water. 
The port receives more than 1000 vessels a year. The popula- 
tion is rather rough and hard to govern, though with a circle 
of aristocratic society, with the usual accessories. The Arturo 
Prat Plaza with a statue of the hero in the center is an at- 
tractive place. One may here first observe women conductors 
on the street cars, many of whom will be seen in other Chilian 

Water, formerly, when brought by sea, 10 cents a gallon 
and at times $2.00 when the supply boat was overdue, now 
comes from the mountains, a distance of 148 miles, by a 10 
or 12-inch pipe, partly on the surface of the desert, or buried 
two or three feet. To Antofagasta water is brought 173 miles 
from a point 10,700 feet above the sea; to Taltal, 102 miles. 


Though expensive, costing millions, it has proved profitable. 
The streets of Iquique are now piped, hydrants protect 
against fire, the dust is laid by sprinklers, some people have 
bathrooms, a few, fountains in patios, a costly luxury. It 
was once said that people drank champagne because water 
was too expensive. It is an enterprising community with a 
good portion of Anglo-Saxons ; there are broad streets, fine 
churches, schools, hospitals, a large theater, pleasant homes, 
and good Clubs. Some of the people entertain sumptuously, 
with dinner parties as in London. A broad driveway along 
the beach leads to Cavancha, an attractive resort with a 
dancing pavilion, and a choice flower garden tended with ut- 
most care. Halfway is the Jockey Club-house, with race 
track, tennis, and bowling. 

A railway climbs the variously colored mountain back of 
Iquique to the Pampa of Tamarugal, where it branches to 
various offitinas, interesting to visit if time allows. People 
who are born and have lived in this section can hardly be- 
lieve stories about grass that has to be cut, and of trees and 
flowers. A girl of sixteen who had visited Santiago on her 
return said, " Trees, trees, everywhere, grass growing in a 
thick mat, and hundreds of flowers! A perfect paradise!" 

The valuable nitrate lands which, previous to the war, be- 
longed to Peru and Bolivia are now the chief source of Chile's 
wealth. Yet it is a curious fact that though Chile receives 
from her export tax on nitrates the large sum of $13,700,000 
annually, the finances of the country, if they may be judged 
by the currency, are in a poorer condition than those of Peru, 
where with a firm gold basis gold and silver coins are used, 
while in Chile there is paper money of low and fluctuating 

The nitrate deposits are found in the three provinces of 
Tarapaca, Antofagasta, and Ataeama, along from Pisagua to 
Coquimbo, about 300 miles. The deposits with an average 
width of 2y 2 miles are between the coast hills and the Andes, 
10 to 80 miles from the sea, and from 2000 to 5000 or more 
feet above its level, covering a tract of about 250,000 acres. 
The deposits, sometimes on the surface, are oftener overlaid 
with strata of earth varying in thickness and character, oc- 
casionally with guano. They are not continuous, but sep- 


arated by other deposits, in some places salt. The raw mate- 
rial called caliche carries usually from 20 to 65 per cent of ni- 
trate of soda. It is pickled in tanks from eight to twelve 
hours, the sand and refuse dropping to the bottom. The liquid 
called calso runs off into vats. The salt by-product is used 
or discarded. "When treated and ready for export the article 
carries 15 to 16 per cent of nitrogen and 36 per cent of so- 
dium. The amount of production is regulated by a syndicate, 
according to the needs of the world. About 35,000 men are 
employed, the laborers earning from $1.00 to $2.00 a day. 
These establishments, called officinas, are interesting to visit, 
but it is a gloomy, depressing region for most persons. The 
superintendents, doctors, and other officials receive good sal- 
aries and are supplied with comfortable quarters. $100,000,- 
000 or more of British capital and some German, is invested 
here and large fortunes have been made. New nitrate fields 
recently discovered are held at $2000 an acre. 

The nitrate of commerce is a white cheese-like substance 
from which the highest grade gunpowder is made; it is also 
used in chemical works to produce nitric and sulphuric acid, 
etc., but the bulk of it is employed as a fertilizer, doubling or 
tripling the harvest. A mineral substance, it is distinguished 
from guano, the excrement of birds. As to its origin there 
are various theories, but none is generally accepted. A by- 
product, a yellow liquor, which in its preparation is drawn off 
from the nitrate into a crucible, is then chemically treated, 
poured into smaller pans, and on cooling leaves on the dish 
a blue crystal, the iodine of commerce, which costs as much 
per ounce as saltpetre per 100 Ibs. The casks in which it is 
placed are covered with green hides whicli shrink and keep 
out the moisture. "Worth $700 to $800 a cask, the iodine is 
shipped in the treasure vaults with bullion. About 40 per 
cent of the nitrate goes to Germany, 30 to the United States, 
20 to France, the rest to Great Britian and Belgium. 

Antofagasta. The next port, 200 miles below Iquique, at 
which express boats call, is Antofagasta, the terminus of the 
other railway from. Bolivia, via Oruro. Here are sea-lions, 
diving birds, and a considerable town, but no sheltered harbor, 
in spite of which much commerce is carried on. This, with 
Iquique, as a poor port, almost rivals Mollendo. One writer 


says it is an ugly dun-colored place, another that it is the 
prettiest town since leaving Panama. It has an air of pros- 
perity with good shops and business houses, a comfortable 
hotel, the Grand, A. P., 7 to 20 pesos, well furnished rooms, 
and real milk; another says the hotel is very bad. Much de- 
pends upon one 's disposition, point of view, what he expects, 
and where he has come from ; and you may read exactly op- 
posite opinions of many places and people, as happens even 
of cities in the United States. 

Some steamers call at Caldera, 207 miles south of Antofa- 
gasta, with a sheltered harbor, and the oldest railway in 
South America connecting it with the town of Copiapoj the 
express boats call only at Coquimbo nearly 200 miles farther 
and 200 north of Valparaiso. 

Ooquimbo, at the end of the desert country, a busy port, 
shipping more copper than any other in South America, is 
situated at the foot and up the side of cliffs. The country 
around is very rich in fossils. At Herradura on Horseshoe 
Bay was found a petrified icthyosaurus 20 feet long, which, 
visitors are taken to see ; they are informed that it is 12,000 
years old. Above in the mountains, at an altitude of 4000 
feet, is a very sacred shrine, a Virgin of the Eosary, at a 
small village called Andaeollo. During Christmas week pil- 
grims come by thousands from all parts of the country, even 
from Peru and Argentina, some walking hundreds of miles. 
Precious gifts and jewels valued at hundreds of thousands of 
dollars have been presented at various times. 

One day's sail from Coquimbo is Valparaiso. 

Chile. The country of Chile is very peculiar; let me 
hasten to add, in nothing more serious than its shape. It is 
indeed excessively long and narrow, its great extent from 
north to south, 18 to 56 S. Lat, a distance of nearly 3000 
miles, giving it a remarkable variety of productions and 
making it larger than any European country except Russia, 
although it is only from 100 to 300 miles wide. It is peculiar 
also that in spite of its scanty width, it is divided into three 
narrower strips, a low Coast Range, a longitudinal valley or 
plateau, and the high range of the Andes. With practically 
no rain in the north, it has a gradually increasing rainfall to- 
wards the south, till near the extremity there is rather too 


much. The northern part is the nitrate and mining section: 
the central and larger part is an agricultural zone of great 
possibilities, with good pasturage area ; while farther south is 
an excellent forest region. There must obviously be a great 
variety of scenery as well as of climate, so that in one section 
or another all tastes may be gratified. 

Chile was first invaded by Europeans soon after the founding of 
Lima in 1535. To Pizarro, Charles V, on hearing of the conquest, 
had given the country seventy leagues south of that previously be- 
stowed; to Diego de Almagro the two hundred leagues beyond. In 
which section lay Cuzeo was a matter of dispute. Pending its set- 
tlement Almagro decided to conquer the remainder of his province. 
That this region was richer in gold and silver than Peru was doubt- 
less a tale of the Incas to distract the conquerors for their own ad- 
vantage. However, with an army of Spaniards and some Indian 
captives, Almagro set out over the Bolivian plateau to investigate 
and take possession of the unknown country. On the barren heights 
they suffered hunger, cold, and mountain sickness, the difficulties of 
this terrible journey in many ways surpassing those of Hannibal 
and Napoleon in crossing the Alps. Failure and disappointment 
were the only results of the expedition, which was followed by 
the execution of the gallant leader after his return to Cuzeo. 

In spite of Almagro's disastrous experience, a second expedition 
was inaugurated by Pedro de Valdivia, who proceeded along the 
desert shore^ instead of over the plateau, and after arriving at 
Arica, there constructed vessels to pursue the journey. With no 
great loss, in December, 1540, he reached the valley of the Mapocho, 
and selecting- a favorable site, on February 12, 1541, he proclaimed a 
new city: Santiago, for Spain's patron saint, de la Nueva Estre- 
madurctj from his native province. On the Plaza de Armas was 
built a small chapel and a Cdbildo or Municipal Council Chamber, 
as well. 

Still unsatisfied Valdivia pursued his explorations southward, be- 
yond the Bio-Bio River. In his absence the small garrison lie had 
left behind barely escaped destruction, being saved only by the 
valor and boldness of the solitary woman in the party, Dona Ines 
de Suarez. The Araucanians, the most powerful tribe in this sec- 
tion, were of different caliber from the Quichuas, and long and 
fiercely they continued the struggle against the*%ivaders, who treated 
them with barbarous severity. After the founding of Concepeion, 
Imperial, Villa Bica, and Valdivia, and the settling of the con- 
queror himself at the town of Concepeion, the Indians under the 
command of Lautaro, who as a servant of Valdivia had learned 


something of Spanish, methods, attacked and defeated the Span- 
iards, capturing Yaldivia and putting him to death with tortures. 
After long-continued warfare a truce was established, with the 
Bio-Bio River as the boundary line, but for two hundred and fifty 
years the contest went on for the subjugation of the natives. At last, 
when the Chilians rose against Spain, the Araucanians lent assist- 
ance, and friendliness was established. As in other lands, however, 
civilization of a sort proved too much for the Indians and few of 
pure blood remain. 

On the 16th of June, 1810, the movement for independence be- 
gan with the abdication of the Governor, Carrasco, on account of 
difficulty between himself and the Eeal Audiencia. September 18, 
1810, the Cabildo or City Council in open session elected a Junta to 
govern until a National Congress should be convoked, ostensibly 
for the purpose of holding the dominion for King Ferdinand, de- 
posed by Napoleon. The people regarding this as the birth of 
their independence were filled with joy. An army subsequently 
sent from Spain landed at Coneepcion, marched northward re- 
cruiting royalists, and after several engagements finally put to 
rout the patriots, who were commanded by Bernardo O'Higgins 
assisted by Colonel Juan Maekenna. October 16, 1814, General 
Osorio with the Spanish army entered. Santiago and there main- 
tained Spanish rule for three years longer. General O'Higgins 
meanwhile fled to Mendoza in Argentina to join the army which was 
being organized in that city by Gfeneral San Martin for the ex- 
pulsion of the Spanish power from the entire continent. Three 
years were required for this work. In January, 1817, the in- 
vasion of Chile from Argentina was begun by a well-drilled army 
of 5000 men, 1600 horses, and many pack mules. One division 
came by the Uspallata Pass, along the coach route across the 
Cordilleras, and the one followed by Almagro almost three cen- 
turies earlier. A second division under San Martin came by 
the lower Los Patos Pass. The two divisions, having united on 
February 12, gained a complete victory over the royalists in the 
famous battle of Chacabuco, and February 14 entered Santi- 
ago. The enthusiastic and grateful Chilians now offered to San 
Martin the governorship of the country. This unselfish patriot 
declining the honor, an assembly, February 17, appointed General 
O'Higgins Dictator, thus concluding the so-called Reconquista or 
Eeconquest of Chile. However, troubles were not over. The 
Viceroy of Peru sent General Osorio again to Chile. Landing at 
Talcahuano in the south he was able to advance with his army, 
after defeating O'Higgins, until he approached Santiago; but on 
the plain of Maipo, April 5, 1818, San Martin again gained a 


decisive victory. Meanwhile on the anniversary of the battle of 
Chacabueo the Act of Independence was read in the Plaza of San- 
tiago, and the oath was taken by the leaders. The United States 
was the first nation to recognize the Republic. A navy was soon 
formed and with the aid of Admiral Lord Coehrane, a squadron of 
eight warships and sixteen transports in 1820 carried north the 
army of San Martin for the conquest of Peru. 

In 1823 General O'Higgins was obliged to resign his Dictator- 
ship and a period of confusion followed. In 1833 a constitution 
was adopted. In the administration of Manuel Montt in the fifties 
railway construction was inaugurated. In that of President Pinto 
occurred the War of the Pacific with Peru and Bolivia, 1879-81, 
though the treaty of peace was not signed till 1883, when the 
province of Tarapaea was ceded to Chile, and occupation for ten 
years was arranged for Tacna and Arica. About the same time a 
boundary treaty was concluded with Argentina, with which nation 
Chile had been on the verge of war. Balmaceda, elected President 
in 1886, instituted many reforms but by his arbitrary methods 
brought on civil war. A victory by the constitutional party was fol- 
lowed by Balmaceda's suicide. 

The unfortunate death of the able President Montt in 1910 was 
succeeded by the election of the present incumbent, Kamon Barros 
Luco, Among the prominent Chilian families (it has been said 
that one hundred of these govern the country), are many British 
names, the forbears of these having married into the best Spanish 
American families and become patriotic citizens of their adopted 


HOTELS. Royal, A. P., 12 to 25 pesos; Grand, A. P., 10-15 pesos; 
Palace, about the same or a trifle less; Colon, 6 to 12 pesos. All 
higher in summer. 

Money. The Chilian peso, paper, varies in value from 20 to 30 
cents or more; recently it was 22 cents. 

CMef Points of Interest. The Monument and the Government 
Palace near the landing; the business streets; Plaza Victoria and the 
church facing it; the Av. Brazil with the British Monument; the 
Naval School; the English and the Spanish American Cemeteries on 
the heights, these with the Naval School reached by aseensors; and 
the suburb Vina del Mar. 

Valparaiso, Vale of Paradise, the largest and busiest port 
on the Pacific south of San Francisco, like many others along 
this coast, has no .real harbor. The spacious semi-circular 
roadstead lies open to the wintry northers which occasionally 
bring terrific storms. On such occasions, ships at anchor in 
the bay to escape the fury of the waves often steam for the 
open sea, lest they be driven ashore or be overwhelmed in the 
deep, as has several times happened to ocean steamers. In 
the summer there is no danger, and after the completion of 
the breakwater designed to protect the bay from the savage 
force of the tempestuous sea, it will be safe at any time. The 
great depth of the water a short distance from shore renders 
the construction difficult, but satisfactory plans at length 
were devised and in October, 1912, work was begun on the port 
improvements which besides the breakwater 945 feet long 
will include additional docks. Those in existence are sadly 
inadequate for the vast commercial movement at this port. 

"While from a business point of view the harbor at present ia 
poor, from the deck of a steamer or from the hills above the 



town, there is a busy and beautiful scene. Scattered over the 
waters are hundreds of vessels of various shapes and of every 
size, some from the farthest corners of the globe, showing 
flags of many nations (probably none of the United States), 
others mere lighters or rowboats to transport freight or 
passengers from ship to shore. Around the bay, a few rods 
back from the water, rise in a semi-circle steep hills or cliffs 
to a height of 1000 feet or more. Farther back, more lofty 
ridges are seen, and it is said that on a clear day in the 
far distance may be descried, in the sharp toothed ridge which 
forms the backbone of the continent, the snow-flecked peak 
of Aconcagua. 

On the narrow strip of shore between the sea and the hills, 
varying in width from two blocks to half a mile,, is the sub- 
stantial business section of the city; while climbing up the 
slopes and crowning the hilltops is most of the residence 
portion, both the fine dwellings of the prosperous and the 
humble homes of the poor. 

The arriving steamers are as usual beset by a throng of 
boatmen, and wary must be the tourist who is not exorbitantly 
fleeced, unless he has a friend on board to guide, or one 
from the city to greet him. As the Chilian peso, of somewhat 
variable value, is generally worth less than a quarter of a 
dollar, the tariff price is not so high as it sounds; one peso 
for each person or considerable piece of baggage is a suitable 
fee, though much more is likely to be demanded. 

At the landing, arrangements may be made for the trans- 
port of the heavy baggage by cart, while you go with hand 
baggage to the hotel in a carriage; or a tram car may serve 
you. The hotels, the Eoyal, Palace, and Grand, are all with- 
in half a mile of the landing. The Royal Hotel, 65 Esmer- 
alda street, which is sometimes full to overflowing, will be 
found amply satisfactory. The American proprietors, Mr. 
and Miss Kehle, have made it more like a hotel in the United 
States than are any others that I have seen on the West Coast. 
Located on one of the principal business streets, it affords ex- 
cellent meals in several large dining-rooms; and handsomely 
furnished chambers, with modern equipment including red 
satin puffs for the beds in addition to fine blankets. The price 
is from 12 to 15 pesos and up according to the room. The 

; * tort^fcf^^^s^ ' i *w T'' 1 * 




Grand Hotel is said to afford similar accommodations at 
about the same prices. The Palace, a little cheaper, is well 
situated on the Plaza de los Bomberos, and others less pre- 
tentious, as the Colon, 87 Bsmeralda, are called clean and 

In Valparaiso, a city of nearly 200,000, it seems to be the 
fashion for the residents to reply, when asked what there is to 
see, "0, nothing at all." This is by no means true, though 
at least twice as much time should be devoted to Santiago. 
First there is the large square near the landing on which is 
the handsome Casa del Gobierno. In the center of the plaza 
is a fine monument, The Country to the Heroes of the 21st of 
May, and at one corner near the docks is the railway station 
to Santiago. The air seems crisp and the city more European 
than any previously seen. 

The business streets have many handsome buildings two 
or three stories high, a few even more, looking fresh and clean, 
since the greater part of this district was laid low by the 
terrible earthquake of 1906. A twelve-month of unusual 
shrinkage, of adjustment of the earth's surface, and of con- 
sequent calamity was practically coincident with this year. 
In April 1906 occurred the catastrophe at San Francisco, Aug- 
ust 16, the practical destruction of Valparaiso, and in Jan- 
uary, 1907, the disaster at Kingston. Some buildings in Val- 
paraiso withstood the shocks, but with the 'quakes and the re- 
sulting fires little of the lower part of the city remained un- 
damaged. The upper town was to a great extent uninjur.ed 
and the shipping in the bay received no harm. Few traces of 
the calamity are now left, as like San Francisco the town 
was soon rebuilt in a superior manner. While slight earth- 
quakes are frequent they are not fearsome, as heavy shocks 
are usually half a century apart. Besides earthquakes, Val- 
paraiso has experienced other calamities. Founded in 1536, 
in its earlier days it was three times captured and sacked by 
pirates ; in 1858, it was destroyed by fire ; in 1866, bombarded 
by a Spanish fleet ; and in 1890 it suffered considerable injury 
from the Balmaceda revolution. It is to be hoped that after 
all these vicissitudes it may enjoy a peaceful existence. A 
stroll along the principal streets to the office of the Amer- 
ican consul, Mr. Alfred "Winslow, to the banking house of 


W. K. Grace, and to gaze at the handsome shop windows is 
the pastime of an hour or two. Between the hills and the 
water it is impossible to lose one's way. The double-decked 
tram ears are an imposing sight, and rather curious objects 
are the women conductors. Having heard of these before 
arriving, I was expecting to see some trim young women, with 
possibly a coquettish eye turning at times upon some of the 
gentlemen patrons, as occasionally happens in some of our 
cheap restaurants ; but no ! Staid indeed are the women con- 
ductors in Valparaiso and Santiago, and far from handsome. 
Plainly dressed in a sort of blue uniform with white aprons, 
they are obviously of the so-called laboring class, of rather 
stolid appearance, perhaps the mothers of families, and 
closely intent upon their duties. It appears that during the 
war of '79- 7 81, so many young men joined the army that 
women were drafted into this service. Performing it in a 
satisfactory manner they continued to be so employed 
though not to the total exclusion of men. They mount to 
the upper story to collect fares and in Santiago swing along 
the sides of the open ears quite in man fashion/ though 
necessarily hampered by their voluminous sMrts. Manifestly 
competent for the labor, less difficult than other duties like 
scrubbing floors, supposed to lie more within their sphere, 
it would seem that bifurcated garments, even knickerbockers, 
would enable them to perform either service more easily. 
If men and women were to exchange garments for a hundred 
years it is conceivable that the idea as to which is the weaker 
sex might be changed also. 

A few ear rides may be taken to advantage, the greater 
if sitting above; but among the natives of the upper class 
this is taboo, as the price is only half of that below; the 
fares being five and ten centavos respectively. A gentleman 
in Santiago remarked to me that although he preferred riding 
outside it would never do except in the evening, when he 
could not be recognized from the street or from the upper 
windows of houses in passing. 

Not far from the Royal Hotel is the Plaza Victoria on one 
side of which is the Espiritu Santo Church, the most fashion- 
able in the city, though with an ordinary exterior. A flower 
market is passed on the way, where beautiful roses and other 


flowers may be purchased in quantities for a single peso. The 
general market as a matter of course is worth seeing, espe- 
cially in the season of fruits, as Chile rivals California in the 
excellence and variety of these, and surpasses it in cheapness. 
The fruits of the Temperate Zone, cherries, peaches, apples, 
pears, and grapes, luscious in quality and, they say, unrivaled 
in any part of the world, in their summer and fall, tempt the 
tourist on every hand. 

It is important to ascend the hills in two or three different 
places, both for the view going up and for what is to be seen 
at the top. The ascensors are similar to those of Cincinnati, 
one being carried up by cable as another is coming down; 
but the inclines seemed steeper and one appeared rather 
rickety. There have been fatal accidents. However, I went 
as do others. Near the top of one of the inclines which is but 
a short distance from the Hotel Royal is a cemetery where 
chapel-like tombs and pretty head stones and monuments 
are closely packed together among shaded walks on the very 
edge of the precipitous bluff. One has here a magnificent 
view of the city below fringing the semi-circular shore, of 
the blue waters, alive with ships, and of the surrounding 
hills. Through canons here and there separating the various 
hills and bluffs, a few carriage roads wind steeply upward 
and more footpaths, by which some pedestrians climb; but 
most persons will prefer to save time and strength by taking 
their chances in an ascensor. Perched on these steep inclines 
are houses of the poor, while at the top are many fine villas 
occupied by native and foreign residents. Close to the 
Chilian cemetery on the bluff is the English burM ground 
surrounded by a high wall. In a far corner of this enclosure 
is a small marble tomb on a concrete foundation with a marble 
cross above, the whole about five feet high, in which Ameri- 
cans will have a special interest. The inscription reads : 

"In memory of the officers and seamen slain on board 
the United States frigate Essex in this harbor in an engage- 
ment with H. R. Majesty's frigate Phoebe and brig Cherub, 
February 28, 1814." A list of 52 names follows and the 
statement that it was erected by officers of four ships of the 
United States Navy. 

This ship, the Essex, commanded by Capt David Porter, 


after inflicting much damage on British, property, capturing 
360 seamen and 100 cannon, was surprised in this harbor by 
two British ships. Though disabled by a squall she made 
a splendid fight until more than three-fifths of the crew were 
killed or wounded, and the ship was on fire in several places, 
when she struck her colors. A more conspicuous monument 
for the gallant dead might seem appropriate. 

By another ascensor, a trip should be made to the Naval 
School, which crowns a splendid height nearer the outer edge 
of the harbor. A fine large building, well equipped in the 
best modern English fashion, stands back of a pretty garden. 
There are good class rooms, laboratories, machine shops with 
guns mounted as on board ship, and all essentials for a 
thorough and practical course of study. In the rear patios 
are athletic fields with bathing facilities. The cadets are 
generally from the best families, and the program of study 
is based on that of English schools; the fleet is organized on 
the British model, and the ships are constructed in British 
shipyards. There is, further, a training ship for sailors, 
where if unable to read and write they receive instruction, 
as do soldiers in a corresponding institution in Santiago. 

On the fine broad Avenue Brazil is a handsome arch with 
the British Lion above, presented to the city by the British 
colony here, at the Centennial in 1910. 

Vina del Mar. An excursion should by all means be made 
to this suburb; to Miramar if time allows. The former may 
be reached by tram or train in half an hour or so. It is 
pleasant to go by one and return by the other. The tracks, 
nearly parallel, pass several pretty suburbs and give several 
glimpses of the sea beyond the harbor before reaching the 
destination. Vina del Mar is not only a suburb of Valparaiso 
whither many Englishmen and others go in the afternoon for 
sports, and where many business men of Valparaiso have 
homes, but it is also a fashionable summer resort for the 
wealthy residents of Santiago and other parts of Chile. It is 
a charming place with a pretty railway station near a large 
and attractive plaza. Many carriages stand near, in one of 
which for a few pesos a pleasant drive may be taken around 
the town and out to the hippodrome or race track, a mile or 
more outside the city. Within the track enclosure, a pretty 




spot surrounded by green hills, the foreigners have laid 
out a golf course, grounds for cricket, and for football. The 
place is thus visited, .especially on Sundays, by many, not only 
for the races, to which the Chilians are as devoted as the 
Argentines, but for athletics of various kinds. The Chilian 
horses seem very large after those of Peru, and trotting 
is their specialty. Some of them do this so well that their 
gentle trot is as easy as the lope or canter of most other 

A pretty and commodious clubhouse faces the Plaza, and 
near by are many charming villas of attractive architecture 
surrounded by luxuriant vegetation of tropical and temperate 
climes, beautiful flower beds, trees, and shrubbery. Half a 
mile from the center of the town is a fine beach bordered by 
jutting rock promontories. Large bathing establishments, 
cafes for ices and tea, and splendid villas with well laid out 
grounds recall our own shore resorts. A good pedestrian may 
be tempted to climb over the steep enclosing hill and descend 
on the other side to the electric car track for his return to 
the city. The Grand Hotel with beautiful grounds is the 
leading hostelry of the place. 

Miramar is a small but popular bathing resort in the op- 
posite direction from Valparaiso, reached by electric cars; but 
the bathing is here more dangerous, as not far from shore 
the bottom drops suddenly to a great depth. 

From Valparaiso to Santiago by rail is a ride of 3^ or 
4 hours by express trains and about two more by accommo- 
dation. The price of tickets for the express is 12.80 pesos, 
4 extra for seat in Pullman ; 8.50 pesos by slower train. It 
is a pleasant ride, for a few miles near the shore,, passing Vina 
del Mar, then east through the Coast Bange to the Central 
Plain, at Llai Llai leaving the Andine Railway to turn south- 
ward to Santiago. 


HOTELS. Oddo, A. P., 12 to 40 pesos; Grand, A. P., 12 to 18 
pesos; Francia, and Royal, about the same; others at lower prices. 

Chief Points of Interest* Plaza de Annas; Cathedral and other 
buildings around; the Capitol; the Moneda; the Alameda; Parque 
Cousino; most important, Santa Lucia Park and the Cemetery; the 
Art Gallery. 

Santiago, the capital and largest city of Chile, the third 
or fourth in size in South America, considered by some trav- 
elers to have the most beautiful location of any capital in 
the world except Eio de Janeiro, is situated on the river 
Mapocho in the long central valley of Chile, at an elevation 
of 2000 feet. Founded by the doughty warrior and Spanish 
invader, friend and almost counterpart of Francisco Pizarro, 
Pedro de Yaldivia, it was by him planned and laid out in 
1541 after he had first built a fort on Santa Lucia hill, an 
excellent site for the purpose, recalling the ancient Greek 
Acropolis or some of the mediaeval strongholds. On account 
of the too great dispersion of the invaders, the settlement for 
some years had a hard struggle for existence, but during its 
century of independence it has grown rapidly. Its popula- 
tion, now approaching 400,000, is ten times as great as when 
independence was declared in 1810. 

The site is indisputably one of remarkable beauty and pic- 
turesque charm, without any interference with the conven- 
ience of a large city. The hills in and on the edge of the 
city, rising like small islands abruptly from the plain, do not 
preclude long level streets, yet form a peculiar and admirable 
embellishment, while east and west, the mountains of the 
Great Cordillera and of the Coast Range, which a few miles 



away rise as lofty ramparts to the ethereal blue, are an ever 
sublime and noble contrast to the verdant smiling plain. 

The climate of Santiago, which at 33 S. has about the 
same latitude as Charleston and San Diego N., is considered 
excellent ; though the three winter months, in dwellings desti- 
tute of heating apparatus, seem rather cool indoors to resi- 
dents of the United States. In the summer, though not 
extremely hot, it is very dusty, so that wealthy residents at 
this season escape to Vina del Mar or other seashore resorts, 
to the beautiful lake region, to the springs and baths among 
the mountains, or even to the fjords in the distant south. 
An. amusing mot of a German is related by one who did not 
seem to appreciate it. "The climate of Santiago is good but 
it is very unhealthy." And both statements have been quite 
true, the latter inexcusably so, resulting from the fact that 
ordinary sanitary measures have been neglected. The med- 
ical congress in 1911 was held in the midst of an epidemic 
of smallpox. There has been a woeful lack of sewerage. 
But happily the officials have at last come to realize the 
importance of sanitation, an adequate system of sewerage is 
now installed, and doubtless other deficiencies will soon be 

From the fine large railway station on the outskirts of the 
city, a carriage or tram car may be taken to one of the hotels 
near the center, a mile or more distant. To secure rooms 
at the Oddo, for many years regarded as the leading hotel 
of Santiago, it is often necessary to engage rooms in advance, 
as both main building and annexes are generally crowded. 
The Oddo, near the Plaza de Armas, is on one of the principal 
streets, the Ahumada, 327, the annexes on another at right 
angles with this, the Huerfanos, 976 and 1012, all three in 
the heart of the city. The Grand Hotel, preferred by some, 
is close by, Huerfanos 1164. Other hotels approximating 
these are the Hotel Francia, finely located on the south side 
of the Plaza, and the Royal. Prices at the first two are likely 
to be 15 or 18 pesos a day, with morning coffee, one peso, as 
an extra. Other hotels of more- modest price and accommo- 
dations are the Fornos, Brinek, Frances, and Imperial on the 
Alameda, the Milan, Estado 130, the Biarritz, and near the 
station the Meloossi. 


At tlie Oddo Hotel, a surprising and pleasant custom in 
1911 was that morning and evening the newspapers, El Mer- 
curio and Las Ultimas Noticias, were thrust under the door 
of my room, the first in time to enjoy with my morning coffee. 
Whether this was by the courtesy of the hotel proprietor or 
the newspaper management (both papers having the same 
publishers) I am unable to state. Bather expecting to find 
them charged on my bill, I was agreeably disappointed that 
they were not. To the tourist coming down the West Coast 
the newspapers of Chile are a surprise. Those of Peru and 
Bolivia though often with able editorials are small, and con- 
tain but a modicum of foreign news, especially of the United 
States; and the little there is from our own country is largely 
gossip. But in Chile, as on the East Coast, it is different. 
The Mercuric is a newspaper of world-wide reputation and 
of advanced age, exceeded by few in the United States. 
Originally founded in Valparaiso in 1827, a Santiago edition 
was started in 1900, the two papers now being published with 
the same editorials, cables, and general news, though differing 
in local matters. The proprietor is Mr. Augustin Edwards, 
a member of a wealthy banking house and a large owner and 
president of the Compania Sud-Americana de Vapores. The 
buildings in which they are housed, and the contents of these 
papers are superior to most of those in larger cities of the 
United States. Besides good quarters for editors, reporters, 
and other employees, there are dining, reception, and assembly 
rooms, bed and bath rooms, and other features not found in 
our establishments. The editors are cultivated, well informed 
gentlemen, whose well written editorials on the chief topics 
of the day are read and become subjects of daily conversation 
among men of the upper class. More news in regard to 
foreign countries is printed than is usual in our metropolitan 
dailies. Distinguished strangers are interviewed, social life 
receives attention, commercial matters, sport, science, and 
literature all have their place. Las Ultimas Noticias, an 
evening paper with the same publishers, is of lighter char- 
acter. Besides other good though less known dailies, San- 
tiago has illustrated weeklies, the Zigzag, and Succesos, con- 
taining a record in pictures of the week's happenings, cartoons 
and photographs of local and of world-wide interest. These 


are in compact magazine form of slightly less size and thick- 
ness than our monthlies. 

Sight-seeing in Santiago naturally begins with the Plaza, 
the center of which is beautified by palm, orange, and fir 
trees, grass, fountains, and flower beds, among which are 
broad walks and benches. From the usual band stand Sun- 
day, Thursday, and Saturday evenings concerts of good clas- 
sical and operatic music are given, in summer from eight to 
ten p. m., in winter from sis to seven. In the center of the 
Plaza is a statue by a famous Italian sculptor, Fagazarro, 
which represents Liberty breaking the chains of (Spanish) 
Slavery. The four crocodiles beneath with their mouths open 
indicate that this was originally intended for a fountain. 

Around the Plaza are buildings of importance ; on the west 
side, the Cathedral, originally constructed of stone on the site 
which Valdivia appointed for the first church to be erected 
in Chile. If the outside is not remarkable the interior is 
vast and imposing. On each side of the nave are large square 
pillars with images of Saints and Apostles. In the usual side 
chapels are various, paintings by old masters and other ob- 
jects of interest; a reclining life-size figure of San Francisco 
de Xavier, carved from the trunk of a pear tree, is considered 
of high artistic merit. This work was found in the monastery 
of the Jesuits when that Order was expelled from Chile in 
1776. Another chapel on the same side, that of Santo Sac- 
ramento, contains a monstrance and altar of beautifully 
wrought silver more than two hundred years old, and also an 
antique, large swinging silver lamp. The choir stalls in the 
chancel are as usual of carved wood, also the throne of the 
Archbishop. In the sacristy is a large oil painting of The 
Last Supper, of the old Spanish school, and a crystal chande- 
lier which hung in a room where the first Congress assembled, 
now the National Library. In the Cathedral are buried the 
three archbishops, the first, Senor Vicuna Larrain, conse- 
crated in 1841. The tomb of the second is noteworthy, elab- 
orately carved of Carrara marble, with fluted columns and 
trailing vines, and the reclining figure of the archbishop in 
his stately robes. In front crouches a bronze lion. The 
stained glass windows deserve attention. The particularly 
fine organ is said to be equal in tone to that in St. Paul's, 


It has a fine system of electric cars with a device which in 
our cities might be adopted to very great advantage. The 
cars of the various routes, in addition to the names of streets 
or destinations which they bear, are all numbered, with figures 
at the top large enough to be visible for a block or two. On 
the calle Ahumada you will see cars numbered 15, 17, 20, 
24, etc. Should you wish to go to the Park, you may take 
No. 19 on Huerfanos. The hotel people or any resident will 
tell you what cars you may take and where, for any given 
point, or you will find a complete list in Scott's Guide Book. 

After seeing the Plaza, one may take No. 19 there for 
Parque Cousino, or a cab or automobile for a drive about 
the city. In 1911 the paving on many streets was so rough 
that the cars were preferred by many; yet one conversant 
with the city could for the most part keep to smooth road- 
ways and visit nearly all sections. 

The business quarter of the city is chiefly between the 
Plaza and the Alameda, extending also to the west. All of 
these streets are rather narrow with a single ear track on 
one side, the cars as in Lima going by one route and returning 
by another to the starting point. In this section are many 
excellent shops of all kinds, the hotels, banks, and the gov- 
ernment buildings. Of the last the Capitol is naturally the 
finest, occupying a whole square a little west of the Cathedral. 
On two sides of this large handsome structure are beautifully 
kept gardens, with magnolias, heliotrope, and other flowers. 
In the garden on the east front is a beautiful marble madonna 
in an attitude of mourning or prayer, with four kneeling an- 
gels at her feet. An inscription records that this is a memo- 
rial to the victims of the fire, December 8, 1863, witness of the 
undying love and grief of the people ten years later. Tlie 
church of the Jesuits, then consumed with 2000 victims, for- 
merly stood on this spot. 

Of the four entrances, this on the east is to the Cdmara 
de Diputados above, that on the west to the Cdmara de Sen- 
adores. Both Chambers are like small theaters with four rows 
of seats raised one above another, each with a small table 
and writing material in front. There is a high carved dais 
for the President. A dome of colored glass forms the roof. 
In the Senatorial Chamber is a painting by Valenzuela Llanos 


representing the first Congress, July 4, 1811, held in the Na- 
tional Library near by. The building has wide marble 
staircases, rooms for the President, for secretaries, some de- 
signed for discussion and conversation; also a large hand- 
some Congress Hall where the President reads his message at 
the same time to both Houses, and to the Diplomats. To 
the two galleries of the hall, friends are admitted by ticket 
for the opening of Congress, an impressive and ceremonious 
occasion. This building is heated by steam pipes, a wonder- 
ful innovation, making it comfortable even to Americans. 

The official residence of the President is in the Palacio de 
la Moneda which contains also his offices and those of the 
Ministers of the Interior, Finance, and Foreign Relations, 
as well as the quarters of the Mint. This building, between 
the streets Morande and Teatinos, faces the Plaza de la 
Moneda, which is ornamented with fountains and flower beds, 
and a statue of an able Minister, Don Diego Portales, noted 
for his uprightness. The Palacio with its two large patios 
occupies an entire square. By a curious mistake plans de- 
signed for a Government House in Mexico City were sent 
here, and so pleased the Chilians that they decided to use 
them. Opposite the Palace on the north side of the Plaza 
is the Ministry of War and Marine; on the west side is the 
British Legation. The United States Legation is well located 
on the Alameda. On the east side of the Palace on Morande 
street, facing the entrance to the Mint is the Ministry of 
Public Works. On the Plaza Moneda band concerts occur 
Tuesdays and Fridays at the same hours as those on the 
other Plaza 

The most notable street in the city is the Avenida de las 
DelicAas, commonly called the Alameda, a beautiful park-like 
promenade 600 feet wide, extending four miles from beyond 
the hill park, Santa Lucia, to the Quinta Normal and Cen- 
tral Railway Station. Here formerly was the river bed of 
the Mapocho, now farther to the north. The transformation 
was due to General OHiggins. The central parkway has 
four rows of trees, oaks, elms, acacias,- little canals of running 
water and many monuments of soldiers, statesmen, and scien- 
tists of Chile. Next to the parkway on each side are electric 
tracks, and beyond, broad boulevards for carriages, bor- 


dered by wide sidewalks and many handsome residences. 
Near the calle Ahumada stands a monument to the brothers, 
Miguel Luis and Gregorio Victor Amunategui, the elder, a 
patriot of marked distinction in civil life who served as Min- 
ister under several administrations, A remarkable speaker 
among people distinguished for their oratory, he died in 1888, 
greatly mourned. 

Proceeding down the Avenue one passes a bust of Abate 
Molina, a noted naturalist and author of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. A Natural History of the Country of Chile was his 
chief work. There follows a bust of Jose Miguel Infante, 
a great philanthropist who was one of the foremost in the 
struggle for independence. 

Next is the most striking of the memorials in the Alameda, 
a bronze statue of General Bernardo O'Higgins on horse- 
back, represented as on his famous retreat from Raneagua, 
Bernardo, born in Chilian, Chile, and educated in England, 
was the son of an Irishman Ambrose O'Higgins who after 
living some time in Spain settled in Chile, where he was made 
Governor in 1778. Bernardo entering the army in 1813 be- 
came commander, and as previously related took part in most 
of the revolutionary struggles, later becoming Supreme Dic- 
tator. In spite of an excellent administration, after a few 
years he was requested to resign, which he promptly and 
patriotically did, then withdrawing to Peru. Some years 
later, influenced by President Bulnes, the Chilians tardily 
recalled the disinterested patriot and were preparing to re- 
ceive him with due honor when, as about to set out on his 
return, in 1845 he died. In 1868 his remains were brought 
back by a Commission of the Government and interred in 
the General Cemetery. 

A little farther, on the left, stands a life size figure of 
Carrera, Jose Miguel: the most noted of three brothers, 
ardent patriots in the struggle for independence, but of mis- 
directed zeal; all three executed in Mendoza by the Argen- 
tines, Jose, the last, without a trial, Sept. 4, 1821. The bodies 
of the three were by order of Congress brought in 1828 to 
Santiago and buried in the Compania Church. 

Some distance beyond is the monument of another general 
and dictator, Don Ramon Freire, also distinguished in the 


War of Independence and called by 'Higgles, the bravest of 
the brave. Later engaging in civil war and being defeated 
in the battle of Lircai in 1830, he too went to Peru, but re- 
tained before his death in 1853. 

The next monument, between calles San Martin and Manuel 
Rodriguez, is to the great hero who is honored in every city, 
General San Martin, sometimes called the Hannibal of the 
Andes. Though receiving scant honor in his later life, after 
his death in 1850 his memory was cherished. This bronze 
equestrian statue, erected by public subscription in 1863, 
represents the hero holding a flag which is surmounted by 
a small figure of Liberty. 

Beyond this point, the Alameda is still wider, with flower 
beds and shrubs beautifying the central promenade. On the 
right is a statue to the grandson of an Irishman, Don Ben- 
jamin Vicuna Mackenna, a distinguished historian who initi- 
ated many important works for the improvement of the city; 
the enclosing with stone embankment the Mapocho River, the 
adornment of Santa Lucia, and the idea of encircling the 
city by a belt of trees to prevent straggling and undue ex- 
tension. His death occurred in 1889. 

Between the streets Ejereito and Almirante is a statue 
unusual if not unique in character, being erected by the cit- 
izens of Santiago in honor of the city of Buenos Aires. The 
last monument is an obelisk to the memory of four writers 
of the Revolutionary period. 


IN all Spanish American countries the parks are an im- 
portant feature. In some respects the most beautiful, and one 
absolutely unique in character, is that of Santa Luoia, which, 
however highly praised, is almost certain to surpass expecta- 
tion. The last of a row of detached hills, it made in the 
early days a splendid stronghold against the Indians. When 
no longer needed as a fort it became a quarry, then a burial 
ground for Jews, infidels, and Protestants, whose bones 
would have defiled the consecrated ground of the Catholic 
Cemetery. But in 1872 these were removed to the new Prot- 
estant Cemetery by the side of that occupied by the faithful, 
and the hill was converted into a wonderfully beautiful park. 
About three-quarters of a mile southeast of the Plaza de 
Armas, it is a pleasant walk, or it may be reached by several 
lines of cars. Covering a surface of six or seven acres it 
rises in irregular, jagged, sometimes perpendicular walls, 
gradually narrowing to a pavilion-covered summit 400 feet 
above, whence on a clear day, and especially at sunset, there 
is an enchanting view. The city is spread out below, distinct 
in every feature, surrounded by the broad expanse of fertile 
plain 40 miles long and 18 wide, fringed by ranges of steep 
hills and mountains, the latter on the east snow-crowned and 
forming a splendid rampart 15,000 feet tall. Aconcagua, 
visible from the sea and from Valparaiso, is unseen here on 
account of the nearer approach to the lower peaks in front, 
behind which it disappears from view. As often as time 
permits will those who delight in nature's beauty climb this 
hill (splendid exercise, too) to see the sunset glow on the snow- 
capped mountains, especially when a slightly clouded sky 
gives assurance of lovely hues and the certainty of a truly 
enchanting scene. 

Almost as beautiful to look at as to look from is this Cerro 



which natural and artificial charms render unique among all 
cities. Embellished by public and private munificence, 
especially by Benjamin Mackenna, the hill is a mass of green 
and blossoms, luxuriant graceful vines, shrubs, and trees, 
among which are glimpses of stairs and roadways, rock cliffs 
and walls, towers and battlements, chapels and monuments, 
the whole a combination of exceeding loveliness. 

The most imposing entrance to this hill park i& from the 
Plaza Vicuna Mackenna near the Alameda, where stands a 
recently erected statue of the gentleman, a fine bronze figure, 
at its foot a seated Fame holding in her hand a wreath of 
laurel. Entering the carriage drive (fee 5 centavos for a 
pedestrian, 40 centavos for a carriage) a large brass plate may 
be noticed, a memorial to Mackenna, here placed by the city. 
On a great boulder back of this is a bronze Flora or Mel- 
pomene with inscription giving the date of the inauguration 
of the Park, Sept. 17, 1874. On the other side of the boulder 
is inscribed Huelen, the ancient Indian name for the hill, 
signifying misfortune or sorrow, a curious name for so superb 
a feature of the landscape. A little farther are two bronze 
lions, copies of the famous ones at Florence. Beyond the next 
corner of the winding road is the foundation stone of an old 
Spanish bridge formerly stretching to the inscribed boulder. 
Built in 1787 it was destroyed in 1888. Halfway up the hill 
is a small door in a perpendicular rock wall, the entrance to 
the Seismological Observatory, where record is made of the 
numerous 'quakes, and of the observations conducted by M. le 
Conde de Montessus Ballores. A little higher the carriage 
road ends on a wide terrace in front of a spacious restaurant, 
well patronized for dining, especially during the summer, when 
an orchestra discourses sweet music. At the left of the road 
is a slab commemorating the removal of the bones of the 
heretics once buried here. The inscription reads: "In mem- 
ory of those exiled from Heaven and Earth who in this place 
lay buried for half a century, 1820-1872." 

Beyond one must proceed on foot. On attaining the sum- 
mit, having viewed with admiration the lovely prospect, one 
may notice close at hand, a little below, a castellated gateway, 
above which is an ancient Spanish escutcheon here found bur- 
ied. From the gateway a narrow flight of steps leads to 




a small chapel where Benj. Mackenna is interred and where 
services are held on the anniversary of his death. Looking 
over the parapet one may see below the remnants of an old 
gateway surmounted by two small Spanish guns. A little 
farther down is a monument to the first archbishop of San- 
tiago. The statue of Pedro de Yaldivia, on the spot where 
he built his fort, deserves especial heed. The inscription 
reads: "The valiant Captain of Estremadura, first Governor 
of Chile, who in this very spot encamped his band of 150 
conquerors, Dec. 13, 1540. Giving to these rocks the name 
of Santa Lucia and forming of them a bastion he planned 
and founded the city of Santiago, Feb. 12, 1541. " To see 
all the points of beauty and interest one must ramble on 
foot by the pretty paths leading in every direction to charm- 
ing nooks or delightful outlooks. At noon a cannon at the 
summit of the hill is daily discharged by electricity from the 
Observatory in the Quinta Normal on the other side of the 
city. A second and less picturesque entrance to the Park, 
affording a more gradual ascent is well enough to leave by, 
but is not a suitable introduction to this genuine fairy land. 
Very different, and more like any other, is the Parque 
Cousino several miles distant. To see this at its best, one 
should go in carriage or auto together with the fashionables, 
between the hours of 5 and 7.30 p. m., when, particularly in 
the months September to December inclusive, it is thronged 
with fine horses and carriages, bearing the beauty and fashion 
of Santiago. Woods, pleasant walks, well kept gardens, 
beautiful shrubs, weeping willows drooping over a pretty 
lake, adorn the park; a good restaurant provides almuerzo, 
afternoon tea, and dinner, the latter at four pesos, well pat- 
ronized and usually accompanied by music. There are cheap 
cafes, merry-go-rounds, and stands for dancing, where on Sun- 
day may be seen the peculiar national dance of the Indians, 
La Cwca, where the couples face each other, handkerchief in 
hand, and dance with swaying gestures. In summer a bio- 
graph is usually in operation and twice a week a military band 
plays from 9 to 11 p. m., when the park is often crowded. 
Near the entrance is a large open grass plot with a pavilion 
in the center, where a Military Review takes place Sept. 19. 
Bicycle races and football games are sports of the youthful 


Chilians, who take more kindly to athletics than the young 
men of some other countries. A lawn tennis club also is 
found here. The electric ears numbered 19 come to the 
restaurant in the park, number 18 to the gate only. 

This Park was presented to the city by the famous Senora 
Isadora Cousiiio, who was the richest woman in Chile before 
her marriage to the richest man in the country. He, dying, 
left all his property to her, as it was said that she had ad- 
ministered her estate better than e had his. The Senora, 
now deceased, being worth many millions in mines, railroads, 
steamships, cattle, and real estate, was a woman of so lavish 
expenditures as to cause much gossip even in Europe. Her 
residence in Santiago, of the Ionic order of architecture, is 
one of the finest in South America. It was decorated by the 
French artists who adorned the Paris Opera House. Her 
magnificent palace at Loti, unfortunately incomplete, would 
undoubtedly surpass anything at Newport. Outside San- 
tiago she had an immense hacienda extending to the moun- 

Another large park of different character, at the west of the 
town, reached by Car No. 2 from the Plaza de Armas, is called 
the Quinta Normal: a particularly desirable place for a drive, 
as the buildings here are at a considerable distance apart. 
The fine trees in this section, the green fields of the Agricul- 
tural College, and the Botanical Garden are a pleasure to 
see. Some persons may be interested, after driving about, to 
visit the Agricultural College, the Astronomical Observatory, 
the Meteorological Station, and the Riding School. The Col- 
lege established in 1845 by President Bulnes has been of much 
benefit. A cattle show is held here annually. The Botwical 
Garden, though not large, deserves a visit. It has some fine 
specimens of the Victoria Eegia and other aquatic plants, 
with a nice old German in charge. Apart from this garden 
is a nursery where flowers, shrubs, and plants of great variety 
are grown for the stocking of public gardens and parks. 
The Zoological Garden in this quarter does not amount to 
much beyond presenting many natives of Chile; condors, 
eagles, vultures, with others, in an aviary of Chilian birds; 
and domestic animals including some fine fowls. There are 
a few bears and monkeys. 


The Natural History Museum, also in this Qninta (north 
side), contains a very complete collection of Chilian birds, 
fishes, insects, and plants, made chiefly by a celebrated Ger- 
man naturalist, Dr. Otto Philippi. Another section of greater 
interest to many, contains Indian mummies, specimens of pot- 
tery, weapons, and relics of colonial days. In 1911" the 
Museum was open Sundays and Thursdays from 10 a. m. to 
5 p. m., but was expected later to be open daily. A good 
restaurant pleasantly situated and well patronized is opposite 
the ealle Catedral not far from the Museum. An entire day 
is not too much to devote to seeing the Quinta by persons with 
taste for these matters, in which ease the restaurant would be 
serviceable. The School of Arts and Trades for the training 
of mechanics and tradesmen is located on the south side of 
the Quinta not far from the Central Station. 

Beyond the Parque Cousino is the Club Hipico or race 
course on the outskirts of the city, with fine views of the Coast 
Cordilleras and the Andes. Sunday afternoons and feast 
days races are held beginning at 1.30, but most persons do not 
arrive until four. From August to the end of December the 
whole city, meaning of course Society, is said weekly to as- 
semble there. In the Diez y ocho week, from the 17th to the 
20th of September, it is difficult to get near the Pavilion. 
There is a special enclosure for members, and behind the 
Pavilion are little gardens where people go to take tea and 
meet their friends. Tickets, three pesos to the pavilion, five 
more to enter the paddock, may be bought after 7 p. m. Sat- 
urdays at the Cigarria La France, Portal Fernandez Concha, 
18; in the Centro Hipico, Pasaje Balmaceda, an arcade run- 
ning from Huerf anos to the Plaza ; or at the entrance of the 
enclosure. Races on Saturday, frequented more by sporting 
men than by Society, are at the Hipodromo on the north side 
of the river. 

Along the bank of the Mapocho is another park, long and 
narrow, called the Forestal, which with the embankment and 
bridges forms a very pretty section of the city. At one end, 
in the Plaza Italia or Colon, is a monument presented to the 
city by the Italian colonists as a centenary gift, and on the 
opposite side of the beautiful Palace of Arts, in the Plaza 
France, is one similarly presented by the French colony. The 


Pdlacio de Bellas Artes has a great Statuary Hall with some 
fine copies and the best original work of native Chilians. 
Nine spacious rooms contain a collection of paintings, includ- 
ing some originals of old masters and many "by modern Chilian 
artists. The arrangement of the building is excellent and the 
whole is a great credit to the city. A smaller park is the 
Plaza de Montt-Varas in the calle Compania between Bandera 
and Morande, on one side of which is the fine new Palace of 
Justice occupying a whole block In the park is a statue of 
a scholar, a native of Venezuela, Don Andres Bello, a seated 
figure by Don Nieenor Plaza. Bello, 1789-1865, was so highly 
regarded by the Chilians that they declared him by works and 
public services to be a true Chilian, and by a special law of 
Congress declared him a citizen. Another statue is of two 
friends from college days, Don Manuel Montt, ten years Presi- 
dent of Chile, and Don Antonio Varas, who worked together 
to promote the welfare of the country. 

Housed in the old Congress Hall on Catedral street is the 
National Library which, with many books, contains a valuable 
collection of historical documents, some of these, spoils brought 
from Lima, and others, their own colonial archives: a place 
of much interest to the scholar and antiquarian. 

The Market, seldom a show place in cities of the United 
States, everywhere in South America is an object of interest. 
Here it was one of the benefactions of Benj. Mackenna. Best 
seen early Sunday morning, it may be reached by following 
the 21st of May street from the northeast corner of the Plaza. 
Besides the usual and i/raisual profusion of fruits, vegetables, 
flowers, etc., may here be found tiny baskets made by nuns, 
and little jugs of earthenware and mates, some extremely 
minute. Another market on the north side of the river is 
especially for vegetables. 

A visit to the Municipal Theater or Opera House should 
not be omitted. Erected as long ago as 1873, it probably 
surpasses anything of the kind in the United States, certainly 
presenting a finer exterior. An imposing entrance hall has 
wide staircases leading to the upper row of boxes. The 
Presidential box is large and elegantly furnished with recep- 
tion rooms, etc., at the back, and a box for Ms lady guests 
below. There is a large foyer and refreshment rooms, and 


there are seats for an audience of 4000. The opera season, 
though short, is brilliant, with a company every year brought 
from Italy for a month or more. Society is present in full 
force in immaculate evening dress, gorgeous gowns, and 
sparkling jewels, a spectacle of beauty, it is said, equaling 
that in any opera house of the world. 

Santiago has many beautiful homes and pleasing residences, 
though less in the pure Spanish style than in Peru: fewer 
wide doorways admitting horsemen, and apparently smaller 
patios, of which one has but a rare glimpse. Among notice- 
ably fine residences are the Cousino on Diez y ocho, the Ed- 
wards on Catedral, corner Morande, the Uinzneta, Monjitas 
street; on the Alameda, the Concha y Toro between Brazil and 
San Miguel, the Ramon Valdez between 18 and Castro, and 
the Quinta Meiggs between Republica and Espana, this hav- 
ing fifty or more rooms with elaborate furnishings. 

An excursion which may be made by carriage, or by a good 
walker on foot, is to the top of Cerro San Christobal, 900 feet 
above the city. A more superb view than from Santa Lucia 
is here afforded. At this point of vantage is an Observatory, 
a branch of the noted Lick Observatory of California. It is 
in charge of an American, Dr. Moore, and was established by 
the late D. O. Mills. Lower down on a prominent bluff is a 
colossal Image of the Virgin with arms outstretched towards 
the city as if in blessing. The pedestal contains a small 
chapel in which services are held December 8, the anniver- 
sary of her festival. On this night the statue, which with its 
pedestal is 70 feet high, is illuminated so as to be visible to 
the whole city. It is said to have been erected by women as a 
token of gratitude for their preservation from the earthquake, 
and also to celebrate the jubilee of the declaration of the 
Immaculate Conception. 

The most important feature of the city to be visited, aside 
from Santa Lucia, is, the Cemetery. Let no one be surprised 
and say that he does not care to visit such places. There are 
other cathedrals, plazas, public buildings, etc., but this again 
is unique and in many respects the most beautiful resting 
place for the dead that I have seen in any land; especially in 
November, the month of roses. A French lady resident, who 
not find much else to please her, was most enthusiastic 


over this. It may be reached by Car No. 8 from the Plaza 
de Armas. In front of the cemetery is a semi-circular plaza 
with a colonnade. The gateway is surmounted by a lofty 
dome, which bears a fine colossal group of statuary, Adam and 
Eve mourning the death of Abel. The whole effect is im- 
posing. In the corridors of the entrance may be noticed the 
painted ceilings, and passing within one will observe a stately 
chapel where masses are said for the repose of the dear de- 
parted. Here in truth is a city of the dead, with streets laid 
out at right angles, many of these lined with beautiful houses, 
rows and rows of chapel-like tombs. In other places are 
statues, columns, and memorials in various forms. Some of 
the avenues are shaded by orange trees, magnolias, and the 
Jaearanda or Brazilian rosewood; others have the tall, stately, 
and more gloomy cypress; but when the roses blossom there is 
such a wealth of these that there is no gloom anywhere. They 
are of various kinds and colors, but most numerous, genuine 
large white roses which grow in great vines sometimes on 
trees to a height of thirty feet, or over the tombs, forming the 
most lovely framework imaginable. At the festival of All 
Saints, November 1, the sight is unequaled in any part of the 
world, as here this is at the height of the rose season, when 
there is also a profusion of other flowers. The immense masses 
of bouquets and floral devices of all Mnds then placed upon 
the tombs and graves, even the poorest on account of the small 
cost of flowers being able to contribute, make of the already 
delightful spot a veritable floral bower. Among noticeable 
monuments are a bronze bust, near the entrance, on a black 
marble column, to the litterateur, Andres Bello ; in the calle 
Central in the rear of the chapel is the white marble tomb 
of General Bernardo O'Higgins. Fifty yards to the right and 
then turning to the left, one finds the memorial erected over 
the remains of more than 2000 victims of the holocaust in the 
Jesuit Church, the Compania, Dee. 8, 1863, when a gorgeous 
fete to the Virgin was in progress. The decorations of paper 
flowers and festoons of gauze which were interspersed with 
lighted candles, taking fire, fell among the crowd, chiefly 
women of the higher classes who thronged the church. The 
doors opening inward, the crowds, packed against them, made 
egress impossible, and nearly 3000 are said to have perished. 




Few of the leading families escaped bereavement and since that 
time this festival has been solemnized with mourning. 

The tombs of many of the Presidents are found on a street 
of that name, and on the Magnolia are many of real beauty 
belonging to some of the leading families. In the high wall 
of the enclosure which covers many acres are niches for the 
reception of the coffins of the poorer people. At the left of 
the General Cemetery as one faces the entrance from without 
is that where the Protestants are buried, naturally much 
smaller and far less attractive. 

On the way to the Cemetery one may pass on the Avendia 
Eecoleta the Church of the Eecoleta Dominica which deserves 
a call. The f agade presents a fine row of marble columns, the 
only edifice in the city furnished with such decoration. The 
doors are of carved wood. The interior is severely beautiful, 
avoiding the tawdriness exhibited in many Catholic churches. 
There are double rows of handsome marble columns with 
Corinthian capitals, a white marble chancel screen of trellis 
work, and above the high altar a marble Madonna del Eosario. 
The marble, imported from Italy, was brought in ox-carts 
from the coast. Pretty cloisters are adjoining. 

In the same avenue a little nearer the city, at the foot of 
Cerro Blanco, is a small church rather dilapidated, La Vinita; 
of historical interest as erected by Ines Juarez, who came 
with Pedro de Valdivia, a woman of extraordinary courage 
both for enduring the hard life, and even going into battle ; if 
necessary engaging in combat, when not attending to the 
wounded of both parties. 

Santiago is an extremely religious place, so far at least 
as the women are concerned, the gentlemen often being in- 
clined to agnosticism. Among the many churches the most 
important may be mentioned. La Merced at the corner of 
Merced and Claras is painted a pale pink and has two towers. 
At the main entrance on Claras, on each side of the carved 
wooden doors are two life-size paintings, on the right, of 
Eamon Monato, on the left, of San Pedro Nolasco who founded 
the Order Mercedarios. Within, the objects of interest are 
a wooden crucifix with notably expressive eyes, a gift from 
Philip II of Spain to the Order in Chile, an antique frame of 
solid silver near the High Altar enclosing a statue of the 


Virgin, and an old pulpit of native workmanship carved 
from a single tree trunk. The four Evangelists are repre- 
sented and at the base the four Symbols. The church has 
an excellent organ and is famed for its fine music. 

The Santo Domingo, one of the oldest churches in Santiago, 
at the corner of Santo Domingo and the 21 de Mayo, has a 
beautiful silver altar exhibited on especial occasions only. 
The little plaza in front is gay with a small flower market, 
and nearly opposite on Santo Domingo is an old Spanish 

The San Pedro is a pretty little church in Claras near by. 

The large church of San Augustin, fronting on the Estado 
has a ceiling covered with pictures of Saints, Prophets, 
Martyrs, and also the Ten Commandments. A valued relic 
is a crucifix, concerning which it is related that in the total 
destruction of the church by an earthquake in 1730 this suf- 
fered no injury except that the crown of thorns fell from 
the head to the neck, and that whenever an attempt was made 
to replace the crown shocks occurred in the vicinity; it there- 
fore remains where it fell. On the anniversary, May 13, oc- 
curs a great procession of monks and acolytes of various Or- 
ders, chanting, swinging incense; and with lighted candles, 
bearing beautifully embroidered banners, a robed figure of the 
Virgin, and the Crucifix. 

El Salvador, church of the Jesuits, erected after the destruc- 
tion of the Compafda in 1863, is on the Huerfanos and Alrnir- 
ante Barroso, passed by Car 21. This church was damaged 
by the earthquake of 1906, though Santiago was far less af- 
fected than Valparaiso. The interior is gay with colors, 
each pillar being composed of small columns of various hues, 
which are covered with designs in red, blue, and gold. An 
angel at the foot of each column holds a plaque with em- 
blems of the Passion. Handsome stained glass windows 
portray scenes from the life of Christ. 

The San Francisco in the Alameda, almost opposite calle 
San Antonio, said to have been built by Valdivia, is plain 
with a flat ceiling and one simple arch. All around are memo- 
rial tablets : on the left of the chancel is a fine marble Crucifix 
in relief. Of great interest as a historical relic, over the High 
Altar is the wooden image of the Virgin in velvet robes em- 


broidered with gold, which Valdivia used to carry in his 
saddle-bags. Presented to the church by the brave Captain, 
it is highly valued. On the right of the altar is a small 
chapel to St. Anthony, on the extreme left, one to Our Lady, 
with altar of colored marbles and two angels above. 

The University of CJiUe may be visited by those interested 
in educational matters. It has several departments, the main 
building on the Alameda, occupying the block between San 
Diego and Arturo Prat. Here are the general offices, the 
University Library and the Department of Physical and 
Natural Sciences termed the Engineering School. A hall 
in the form of a theater is in the part of the building which 
separates the two patios. A new Engineering building in 
the suburbs was to receive this Department, then to be re- 
placed by the Law School, the largest of the various branches. 
In the Quinta Normal is the building of the Medical School 
with handsome classical fagade, containing large halls, and 
patios ornamented with shrubs and flowers. There is a mod- 
ern building for the Dental School and an annex for Phar- 
macy. It is interesting to note that in most of the South 
American countries coeducation is rigorously avoided in the 
lower schools while permitted in most of the universities, 
conditions exactly opposite to those in some parts of the 
United States. A good number of women in Chile study 
medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, etc., with the men. 

The Military School on the Avenue Blanco Encalada facing 
the Diez y oeho now occupies a fine large building after a 
checkered career. Founded March 16, 1817, by the Supreme 
Director Bernardo O'Higgins, it is the oldest in South Amer- 
ica, though it has experienced several interraptions. The 
present edifice was decreed in 1887 by the progressive but 
unfortunate President Balmaeeda, though not until 1903 did 
it become established as now existing. The school has as 
its head a German officer, Col. Alfred Schoenmeyer, and pro- 
vides courses of instruction similar to those in the German 
institutions. The building contains all suitable conditions 
of convenience and hygiene, a covered riding school, shooting 
galleries, patio facilities for gymnastics, laboratories of science 
and of military models. 

The Military Museum? in 1911 housed in the Arsenales de 


Cfuerra next to the Military School, by 1913 will probably be 
removed to a new building erected for it in the Quinta Normal. 
It contains many historical relics: the armor worn by Val- 
divia during the conquest, a chair which he occasionally used 
in the brief intervals from fighting, cannon brought over the 
Andes by Gen. San Martin to aid in freeing the country of 
Spanish dominion ; a marble urn enclosing the hearts of four 
heroes who fell in the battle of Concepcion in the effort to 
save the Chilian colors from the hands of their Peruvian 
opponents ; the flag of the Esmeralda, commanded by Arturo 
Prat, and sunk in the battle of Iquique May 21, 1879; a 
marble bust of Manuel Rodriguez who, in the "War of Inde- 
pendence, among other brave deeds as scout and spy, three 
times crossed the Andes on foot; other objects of interest, be- 
sides cannon, flags, arms, and trophies won in many a fierce 


Southern Chile and the Straits of Magellan. The great 
majority of tourists will proceed from Santiago by rail over 
mountains and plains to Buenos Aires, being influenced 
thereto by several considerations. Of these the strongest may 
be the fact that the journey thus made occupies only 48 hours 
(the return 38), while by sea it requires twelve days, an 
important consideration in a brief tour. Also in view of the 
several weeks already spent on the ocean and the several 
more to come, all but the real lover of steamboat travel will 
prefer the land for a change, especially with the prospect of 
the fine mountain scenery always visible on the Trans- Andine 
journey and the possibility of a glimpse of mighty Aconcagua, 
which still claims pre-eminence as the culminating point of the 
Western Hemisphere. 

On the other hand the route across the Andes, formerly 
blocked to general traffic for half the year by reason of the 
winter snows, may yet be impassable for a week or two, even 
longer, by reason of the great avalanches which on the Chilian 
side of the tunnel are liable in winter or spring to obstruct 
the track. "When such a condition prevails, the longer way 
around may (rarely) become the shorter in time. A few will 
at any period prefer the Magellan route from inability to 
endure the 10,000 feet altitude of the mountain journey, from 
affection for the sea, or from an especial desire to traverse the 
famous Straits, discovered by Magellan in 1520 on the first 
around-the-world voyage, and to pass the southern continental 
limit of the main land if not the dreaded Cape Horn. 

The leisurely tourist who desires to see everything of im- 
portance may enjoy the chief pleasures of both routes : going 
by rail to Puente del Inca on the east side of the mountain, 
or better, on to Mendoza on the edge of the great Argentine 



plain, returning to Chile by the old route, the splendid horse- 
back and former diligence trail from Las Cuevas over the 
once frequented pass. Thus he may delight in near and dis- 
tant views of splendid cliffs and mountains, and pause to 
contemplate among the everlasting hills the impressive image 
of a colossal Christ standing on the frontier of two great 
countries, an emblem of the eternal peace and friendship to 
which these nations have sworn. 

The tourist who always prefers to travel by sea may at 
Valparaiso take a P. S. N. steamer (they sail once in two 
weeks) for Montevideo, where he must change for the short 
run to Buenos Aires. All of these boats call on the way at 
Coponel (or Lota) and Punta Arenas, every other one also 
at Port Stanley, Falkland Islands, the voyage occupying 11 
or 12 days to Montevideo. A boat of the Kosmos Line may be 
taken, although they no longer as formerly go through Smyth 
Channel, all now missing the fine scenery of the fjords. 
Persons desiring to see more of Chile may go by rail down the 
lamed Central VaUey, the wonderful fruit and agricultural 
seetion, and through the beautiful lake region, taking the 
steamer at CoroneL A peculiarity of this longitudinal valley 
extending several hundred miles between two ranges of moun- 
tains parallel to the sea is that instead of being watered by a 
single stream running lengthwise, it is crossed by a number 
of rivers flowing west into the ocean. The railroad is now 
opened to the south for a distance of 400 miles to Puerto 
Montt on the Gulf of Aneud. Although sleeping cars are 
provided, the journey should be made by day for the enjoy- 
ment of the scenery. 

For a considerable distance south of Santiago towns and 
villages are numerous, some of them especially frequented in 
the summer. Almost all kinds of fruits, vegetables, and ce- 
reals are raised to perfection in various parts of the valley. 
In the earlier part of the journey there are views of lofty 
Andean peaks; farther south the range is lower, but with 
a multitude of lakes and dense virgin forests, the scenery is 
no less beautiful. From Talca, a prosperous town of 45,000 
on the Maule River, 50 miles south of Santiago, a branch line 
runs to the small but pleasant town of Constitution. It was 
in Talca, which was founded in 1692 and partly destroyed by 


a terrible earthquake in 1S35, that Director O'Higgins signed 
the Declaration of Independence. The city has a pretty plaza 
with a fine Government House, theater, church, and other 
handsome edifices. 

Chilian, 100 miles farther, is a modern city famous for 
its fine horses and cattle. It affords an unusual opportunity 
to see the country people, "who come in to the market-place 
on the outskirts of the city, two or three times a week, 
especially Saturdays. Wares are well displayed in booths, 
gay with mantas y gorgeous ribbons and lace, equestrian out- 
fits, pottery, baskets, and horn ornaments. Street cars run 
to the historic ruins of old Chilian, the birthplace of Don 
Bernardo O'Higgins. The famous baths and hot springs of 
Chilian are beautifully situated among the mountains about 
60 miles distant at an altitude of nearly 8000 feet 

The railroad crosses many rivers on some fine bridges, one 
nearly ^ of a mile long and 300 feet above the Malleeo 
E-iver at CollipullL A bridge % of a mile long crosses 
the Bio-Bio, along the boundary line between the Spanish 
American settlements and the country of the fierce Aran- 
canians. From Rosendo a branch line leads to the cities near 
the sea, Conception, and its seaport Talcahuano 240 miles 
from Valparaiso, a port both of commercial and military 
importance on a large bay in which a dry dock has been 
arranged for the repair and the cleaning of naval vessels. 
Concepcion, which was founded by Valdivia, but has been 
several times destroyed both by Araueanians and by earth- 
quakes, is now a substantial modern city of 50,000 inhab- 
itants, the third in size in the Republic. 

Ooronel and Lota, five miles apart on the Bay of Araueo, 
40 miles south of Taleaiuano, are, one or the other, regular 
ports of call for all the steamships, and the only one below 
Valparaiso for the P. S. N. boats before Punta Arenas. Hence 
one going by rail to Puerto Montt would be obliged to return 
to this point for his steamer; unless possibly the Kosmos 
boats call farther down. The boats call at Coronel or 
Lota to procure a supply of coal. This is pre-eminently 
ike coal region of Chile, of which Lota is the center. In 1852 
a property was purchased here by Don Matias Cousino who 
explored for coal with success. His son Luis, in 1862 in- 


Meriting the property, in 1869 formed a company, keeping 
most of the shares. His widow later becoming sole owner of 
the company was called the richest woman in the world, with 
a property of at least $70,000,000. She died in 1898 leaving 
six children. Hers was the greatest financial enterprise then 
carried on by a Chilian. The capital of the Company is now 
$20,000,000. Half a million tons of coal are annually pro- 
duced, y\Q of which is used by the Company for smelters and 
their own steamships, the rest being sold. 

To visit the mines there is a drop in an electric car of 
nearly % % a m ^ e - There are streets, shops, offices, res- 
taurants, stalls for horses, black-smiths' shop, etc., down be- 
low ; and the workings go far under the deep sea where ships 
are sailing above. There is good rock and no drip. The 
Company owns copper mines, smelting works, pottery and 
brick works, glass and bottle factories, etc., with a fleet of 
steamers and sailing vessels. Five thousand workmen are em- 
ployed here, for whom houses are supplied, free schools, church, 
medical attendance, free coal, asylum for aged, etc. 

The Seoora spent money lavishly at home and in Paris, 
where she was well known. Lota Park was laid out by the 
most skillful landscape gardeners with artistic design and 
picturesque effects. Stately trees, flower beds, all plants of 
temperate climes here flourished in a state of the highest cul- 
tivation. On a bluff above the town, it has wonderful sylvan 
beauty; with grottoes, bridges, fountains, cascades, etc., mar- 
ble and bronze monuments, deer and other animals in the 
woods, an aviaiy with birds ; near the center of the park, a fine 
marble statue by the noted artist Caupoliean. A palace 
fit for royalty, not quite completed, it is falling to decay. 
Superb wainscoting, gold and white frescoing, exquisite par- 
quetry, carved mantels and sideboards, priceless curios and 
paintings, treasures of all kinds were brought from 1 Europe, 
many never unpacked The Park at times is open by 
courtesy to strangers, a spectacle of great beauty, though per- 
haps of melancholy. The Company owning 200,000 acres of 
farming land has many sheep and cattle and Las planted 
more than 10,000,000 trees. 

Valdivia. Still farther south in a picturesque site on the 
Calle-Calle Eiver is the town of Valdivia (pop. 12,000), the 


fifth city founded by Pedro de Valdivia, in 1552, It was too 
far from Ms base for that period, and much slaughter fol- 
lowed in fierce battles with the natives. Near its port, Corral, 
at the mouth of the river 15 miles away, in 1820 occurred 
the victory of Lord Cochrane's fleet over the Spanish. For 
several years the railroad halted at Osorno a little farther on. 
Its recent extension to Puerto Monti on the north shore of 
the Gulf of Eeloncavi, about 100 miles beyond, will greatly 
enhance the prosperity of a rich and beautiful section already 
sprinkled with thriving German colonists. One of the lakes 
near by, Llanquihue, with an area of nearly 300 square miles 
is served with steam navigation. 

The boats of the P. S. N, Company running from Callao 
to Liverpool reach Lota or Coronel the day after leaving Val- 
paraiso. Five days later they arrive at Punta Arenas; in 
five or six more at Montevideo. 

Sailing towards the South Pole, the coldest region on 
earth, the winds naturally become more chill, especially if 
it is their winter season. By a natural perversity of fate, it 
is said that the finest scenery is usually passed at night, also 
it is often foggy or it snows, so little may be seen. After 
several days with no land in view, the sight of Cape PtKar, 
rising 1395 feet above the sea, the western extremity of Deso- 
lation Island, and on the south side, the western outpost of 
the Straits, gives a thrill of pleasure. On the northwest side 
of this entrance from the Pacific are the three Evangelists 
and the Sugar Loaf, columnar rock, more impressive than 
many mountains. From Cape Pillar to Cape Virgenes at the 
eastern entrance of the Straits it is 240 miles as the crow 
flies but between 300 and 400 by the channel which must be 
followed. As the prevailing winds are west, sailing ships 
between October and March sometimes go through from tie 
Pacific, a fair passage occupying 80 days, but they more gen- 
erally prefer the passing around Cape Horn, 100 miles south, 
where jagged boulders rise to a height of 1391 feet in the 
midst of a turbulent sea; for despite the 500 additional miles 
of open water it is open with less danger from fogs, cross 
currents, etc., and time is usually saved. Storms are frequent 
in this region, but if the weather favors, the fine scenery in- 
cluding glacier-covered mountains, deep bays, grim cliffs, 


gray moss, and sparse vegetation, picturesque icebergs, the 
multitude of penguins, sea-gulls, an occasional albatross, 
seals and whales, the tints of sea and glaciers, of clouds and 
crags, forms a picture which some persons think is unequaled 
in Norway or Alaska. 

Tourists sailing on a special cruise may have the pleasure 
of a detour to the south to obtain a finer view of the splendid 
mountain Sarmwnto; not so high as many others, but with 
its 7330 feet of altitude in this latitude presenting an im- 
posing spectacle, at the base dusky woods for one-eighth of 
the height, then 6000 feet of snow and glaciers, two of the 
latter indeed reaching down to the sea. 

Punta Arenas, After sailing through Magdalena Channel 
southeast to Cape Froward, the most southern point of the 
continental mainland, the ship turns almost north, a trifle 
to the east, and in a few hours comes to anchor in Lat 53 
off Punta Arenas, the most southern city in the world, 900 
miles nearer the South Pole than Christ Church, New Zealand, 
and 1600 nearer than Cape Town. From Cape Froward west, 
the British Pilot Book says the weather averages 11 hours 
daily of rain, hail, or snow. There is none worse in any in- 
habited part of the globe: but the region is not unhealthy. 
The city of about 12,000 people is a flourishing place with 
wide streets, good water works and electric lights, a hand- 
some cathedral, appropriate public buildings, and many fine 
residences. A museum in charge of some Catholic priests 
has a collection of the fauna of the country, birds, snakes, 
fish, animals including a woolly horse, a unique specimen 
with wool a foot long. Also pottery, weapons, and utensils 
of the Fuegian tribes are exhibited. In the town, furs, fine 
guanaco sking, ostrich feathers, Indian baskets, etc., are for 
sale, and most persons buy souvenirs. A penal colony was 
first established by the Chilians in 1843 at Port Famine not 
far away, but after a revolt of the convicts the town was 
established here; when the place became a regular port 
as a coaling station for steamships the criminals were re- 
moved. It was soon discovered that sheep would thrive in 
this locality: many large ranches have been established in 
the back country, so that 16,000,000 pounds have been shipped 
in a year. The Indians, formerly numerous, are now almost 




exterminated, though some Yahgans and Onas still wander 
in the wilds of Tierra del Fuego. As usual most of the 
white invaders of whatever nationality have united in their 
destruction, to which the diseases of the white m^n have also 

A settlement still farther south on Beagle Channel in the 
Argentine dominion is a village inhabited only by criminals 
and their guards, few of the latter being needed, as escape 
is impossible except by sea. On this side of Cape Proward 
the ground is flatter, the air dryer, the country treeless and 
of small interest. Nine hours from Punta Arenas the light- 
house on Cape Virgenes, 135 feet high, is passed and a three 
days' sail on the Atlantic in a direct voyage brings one to 

Port Stanley on the Falkland Islands, a genuine English 
town of 2000 people, has a fine harbor with supplies for ships 
and facilities for repairs ; no trees, but a sedgy grass, called 
tussac, 7 feet high, excellent for horses and cattle, and with 
roots something like celery, edible for man. The weather is 
never very cold but the average temperature is low. 


THE journey from Santiago to Buenos Aires by the passage 
of the Cordillera, in former days seldom undertaken between 
May and October save by the hardy mail-carriers, may, since 
the opening of the railroad in 1910, generally be accomplished 
in any month of the year. Sometimes, however, traffic is 
temporarily suspended on account of snow-slides blocking 
the track on the Chilian side of the tunneL Such incon- 
venience, oftener arising in the southern winter or early 
spring, will doubtless in time be obviated by the building of 
snow-sheds along the dangerous sections, as has been done 
in the United States. At present, from July to December, 
it may be well to inquire about conditions before purchasing 
a ticket, though prolonged suspension of traffic is exceptional. 

The excursion across the Andes, less fatiguing than for- 
merly, is also far less exciting. The comfortable safety of a 
car ride through the tunnel is tame indeed in comparison 
with the passage by coach or muleback over the curnbre 2000 
feet above. Yet as prosaic comfort is ever more popular 
than unusual and adventurous experience, tourists to-day by 
thousands and tens of thousands make the journey where 
formerly passed tens and hundreds. Still, even to the gazer 
from a ear window the excursion is memorable; to the lover 
of sublime grandeur the day affords a rare joy. Very dif- 
ferent is this ride from those across the mountains farther 
north. Until the completion of the line from Chimbote up 
the Huailas Valley, the Oroya railroad alone will bear com- 
parison with this. Nor need comparison be made. Each 
is truly an elevating experience and wholly unlike the other. 
An afternoon departure from Santiago is customary, often 
as late as 6.15 p. m. The night must be spent at Los Andes 
whence the start is made in the early morning. With ample 



time at one's disposal, it is well to take a forenoon train from 
Santiago to have a few hours at the pleasant Chilian sum- 
mer resort which affords opportunities for many delightful 
strolls, while the scenery along the way makes a daylight 
journey desirable. The monument to the Clark Brothers 
unveiled at Los Andes, October 22, 1911, is a worthy honor 
to the initiators of this great railway. As early as 1870 
they applied for a concession, though it was 1886 before the 
first was received; while they were unable to complete the 
work, they have the credit of its beginning. After the Casa 
Grace took charge on the Chilian side good progress was 
made. In 1906 it was arranged to pierce the tunnel under 
one control, and the task was accomplished in time for the 
Argentine Centennial in 1910. As far as Llai-Llai, where 
connection is made with the train from Valparaiso, the route 
lies north along the valley over the road which has pre- 
viously been traversed. At the junction, venders of delicious 
fruit are ever on hand selling, according to the season, pears, 
peaches, oranges, grapes, cherries, or figs, at prices calculated 
to tempt the hungry tourist. Llai-Llai is a pleasant little 
town of about 6000 people, at a height of 2625 feet above 
the sea. San Felipe, somewhat larger, is passed before reach- 
ing (to use the full name) , Santa Rosa de los Andes. 

A few rods from the station is the hotel where the 'night 
is passed. The town boasts of another, but through travelers 
prefer the pleasant little establishment, often over-crowded, 
from the rear of which the train early in the morning departs. 
In the summer the climate of Los Andes is delightful, the 
evenings always cool; at other seasons the nights are eold 
and frosty. Leave word in the office when you wish to be 
called, or you may be overlooked and miss your train or 
your coffee, which is not agreeable. The cars are apt to be 
full, so it is well to hasten, if friends wish seats together, or 
at times to obtain any at all. 

The track follows the Aconcagua River, on which Los 
Andes is situated, up a beautiful valley, after 8 or 10 miles 
growing narrower between steeper walls. From luxuriant 
vegetation to bare rocks and snow, from beauty to grandeur, 
the change is quickly made. The river becomes rapidly 
smaller as we pass above the merry little streams which con- 


tribute to Its madly rushing torrent. One bridge is called 
the Pucnte de las Viscachas, these being rabbit-like animals 
resembling the chinchilla but with coarser fur. The rocks of 
varying hue in sunlight and shadow, cliffs and gorges, and 
the foaming stream, continually attract the eye. A hundred 
yards beyond the station, Los Loros, is the place called Salto 
del Sold&do, the Soldier's Leap, to see which one must keep 
a sharp lookout on the left, the train passing on a shelf with 
the stream 60 feet below. Various tales are told of the 
origin of the name, one that in the "War of Independence a 
patriot escaped from the enemy by leaping the narrow gorge 
which is crossed by the train on a bridge. At the station, 
Rio Blanco, White River, a stream of that name joins the 
Aconcagua. Not far beyond is Guardia Vieja, where for more 
tlutn. two centuries a sentry or watchman has been stationed 
for the protection of the traveler, a necessary though in- 
adequate safe-guard, as in. the old days bandits sometimes lay 
in wait even for parties of considerable size. Robberies were 
not infrequent and murders were by no means rare. 

In ascending the Visp Valley to Zennatt by the aid of the 
armck and pinion system, also employed on the Andine, a 
height of 3000 feet is gained in a distance of 28 miles. On 
this road 7000 feet are climbed in 35 miles, 2000 of these in 
the last 8 to Juncal, a rapid ascent for a traffic as dis- 
tinguished from a purely mountain railway. Juncal is 
noteworthy, as the place where formerly the night was spent 
by those tourists and business men designing in the early dawn 
to set out on saddle animal or in mountain wagon for the 
summit and the other side. Farther on is a tranquil little 
lake, above 9000 feet, an opalescent gem, at times turquoise 
or sapphire, called the Lago del Inca. Now the track makes 
a great curve into an immense couloir, passing at the foot or 
along the side of cliffs or steep slopes, where, as in places 
lower down, rocks small and large seem ready to fall, as 
others have already descended. From the farther side of the 
great curve we soon look across at the track 1000 feet be- 
neath. We gaze in admiration upon the splendid gloomy 
cHSs with tints of slate color from blue-gray to black, and 
on rocks with delicate hues of pink and cream, splashed 
with red and bronze or green j intermingled with these are 


patches of pure white snow. Observation cars would greatly 
increase the pleasure. Too soon at Caracoles, at a height 
of 10,486 feet, the tunnel's portal is reached and the splendor 
of the majestic scene has vanished. Now for almost two 
miles, to be exact, 10,385 feet, the train goes on through the 
backbone of the continent at an elevation about the same 
as the tunnel's length. Near the center, the international 
boundary is passed ; hence, after ten minutes of darkness, com- 
ing once more to daylight, one is in the great country of 
Argentina on the east side of the Andes, still in a vast wilder- 
ness of gorges, rocks, and peaks of multifarious shapes and 
colors, diversified by immense fields of snow, with many brief 
visions of grandeur which one would fain tarry to enjoy. 
Fortunate the traveler, who, 7 or 8 miles below Las Cuevas, 
has at the head of a side valley at the north a glimpse of 
colossal Aconcagua 15 miles away, a long ridge of snow arch- 
ing into two domes, with a sheer drop of 10,000 feet on its 
black southern wall; and farther on a sight of Tupimgato, 
30 miles away at the south : both mountains first climbed in 
1897 by the Fitzgerald Expedition, though he unfortunately 
was compelled by mountain sickness to forego the satisfaction 
of attaining either summit himself. The first to reach the 
supposed apex of the Western Hemisphere, the top of Aconca- 
gua, according to the latest measurement, 22,817 feet, was 
Matias Zurbriggen, the celebrated Swiss guide, who in almost 
every land has led English and Americans to the summits of 
noted mountains. Alone, January 14, 1897, he gained this 
height, and there erected a stone man as is the custom where 
possible. In April of the same year, the first ascent of 
Tupungato, 21,451 feet, was made, also by Zurbriggen, and 
the Englishman, Vines. 

Puenta del luca. The first station in Argentina is Las 
Cuevas: then we drop quickly to Puenta del Itica where a few 
moments are allowed for tea. The contrast between the green 
and luxuriant vegetation of the Chilian side and the barrenness 
of the Argentine is singularly opposite to that in Peru, where 
the western slopes of the Andes are mostly desert while the 
eastern are clothed with the richest verdure. At Puenta del 
Inca is a curious formation from which the place is named, 
a natural bridge of stratified rock, one of nature's marvels. 


The stream has perforated a bank about 20 feet thick so as 
to form, 80 feet above the river, a fine arched bridge, at the 
top 150 feet long and 20 wide, and nearly 30 feet thick. 
The piers have been strengthened by calcareous deposits 
from springs which gush from the earth just at the bridge. 
On the left bank of the stream a path of steps partly cut in 
the roefcs leads down to hot waters. First comes the Bath 
of Venus, an effective grotto of white stalactites. Next is 
the Champagne Spring, its foaming waters revealing a con- 
siderable pressure from below. Among other warm springs 
beyond is one called Mercury. On all sides gush forth these 
waters cold, hot, and tepid, saturated with carbonic acid 
gas; Hie Venus is 86, the Champagne 93, the same when the 
path is covered with six feet of snow. The waters are supe- 
rior to the more noted Vichy in containing twice the quantity 
of carbonic acid, hence greater effervescence ; and five times 
as uaueh iron. This renders them a real treasure, a few 
months' treatment causing maladies to disappear (they say) 
upon which the Vichy waters make no impression. The iron, 
salts, and gas of the waters make them efficacious in gout, 
rhefimatism, and severe stomach affections, as well as an ex- 
eellent tonic for those who believe such to be required. Sul- 
phur, good for skin diseases, is also present. The Hotel del 
Inca affords comfortable accommodations (including a billiard 
room) ; all that could be expected at an altitude t :' 8924 feet, 
for a daily fee of sis pesos ($2.64) with some ex* /as. 

One who is ambitious to ascend one of the lofty peaks 
near by, or who would merely stroll to a lesser height to gaze 
upon those above, or who would wander in strange valleys 
and on ragged slopes will here find the most favorable head- 
quarters for his rambles, as well as cure for many ailments. 
WWle the great mountains, Aconcagua and Tupungato, no 
longer afford opportunity for a first ascent, there are many 
other peaks of various altitudes, the summits of which are 
yet untrodden; one, lofty Mercedario, about 22,000 feet, to 
the north of Aconcagua, believed by some to be second in 
height to that alone. Expert climbers only should attempt 
exploits of such magnitude, and these not without Alpine 
equipment and more; for to the ordinary paraphernalia of 
proper shoes, ropes, and ice axes must be added tents, sleep- 


ing bags, etc. The season for climbing here is not the same 
as in Peru and Bolivia, bnt during the summer of this re- 
gion, December and January. Strange to say, although in 
the Temperate Zone, so vastly farther from the equator, 
these mountains have infinitely less snow upon their slopes 
than have Huascaran and Illampu. They are therefore much 
easier to climb, making Swiss guides not an imperative neces- 
sity, so far as the technical difficulties are concerned : though 
whether reliable companions as porters could be secured upon 
the ground is an extremely doubtful matter. 

But on this journey by rail how much has one missed! 
Discomfort indeed has been avoided; but at the cost of a 
glorious and exciting experience. In former days, what a 
rush, and bustle at Juneal! in the chilly hour between three 
and four a. m., when an army of pleasure and of business 
travelers hurried to secure places in the mountain wagons, or 
to select a gentle and sturdy animal for the seven hours' 
ride. The coach drivers were reckless Jehus who madly raced 
for the summit and then for the lower goal, amid a caravan 
of freight wagons, baggage animals, and riders, the latter to 
their joy soon left behind. Though the roads were called 
good they were deep with sand, and have no such great curves 
as the roads over Alpine passes. Short zigzags with acute 
angles, a roadbed rough with ruts and stones, few walls at 
the corners where a slip over the edge would mean a roll of 
a few thousand feet, made a ride in a swaying coach behind 
horses going at a gallop assuredly exciting to people with any 
nerves. Some, once embarked and unable to escape, would 
turn their thoughts from danger to admiration of the scenery, 
reflecting perhaps that accidents were rare. The view of 
mighty walls, of glaciers near at hand, of distant glorious 
mountains; the fine pure air ever colder, though alas! ever 
thinner, was a blissful experience for those who could enjoy it; 
but not for the faint-hearted either literally or figuratively. 
Here and there one would grow faint, become unconscious, per- 
haps even pitch out of the wagon: oftener a stalwart man 
than a frail woman. On they would go, their friends un- 
certain whether a temporary weakness or a serious, possibly 
fatal affection was attacking the victim. 

At last the cumbre or highest point was reached, 12,796 


feet above the sea ; not a sliarp ridge, but a nearly level stretch 
a quarter of a mile across among the massive hills and moun- 
tains: a tremendous range of gloomy, desolate, forbidding 
peaks, or a splendid rampart of majestic, glorious moun- 
tains, according to the soul and mood of the spectator. Here 
in the midst of this great solitude is the most impressive 
monument, men say, in all the world, the Christ of the Andes, 
a bronze figure of Christ of heroic size, 26 feet, one hand out- 
stretched in blessing, the other supporting a still higher 
cross. The circumstance of its erection, the sentiment in- 
volved, as well as the unique position of the monument, 
make it the most remarkable in the world's history. 

Chile and Argentina in 1900 were on the verge of war 
over a boundary dispute involving 80,000 square miles of ter- 
ritory in the Patagonian country. Immense sums expended 
for warships and other preparations were the cause of ab- 
normally high taxes, the products of which were needed rather 
for the development of physical resources and of education. 
The British Ministers employed their good offices and two 
bishops, one of each country, traveled among their towns and 
villages preaching the cause of Peace and Arbitration. Bishop 
Benavente in Buenos Aires, on Easter Sunday 1900, first 
suggested the erecting of a statue of Christ upon the boundary, 
to prevent if possible any recurrence of strife. A treaty was 
made, the controversy was submitted to the arbitration of 
the British Monarch; King Edward entrusted the ease to 
jurists and geographers whose decision, dividing the disputed 
territory, was cheerfully accepted. In June 1903, Chile and 
Argentina, pleased with the outcome of this matter, made a 
general arbitration treaty, the first ever concluded among 
nations; a considerable disarmament followed releasing 
much money for needed internal improvements, and good feel- 
ing and confidence have replaced bitterness and jealousy. 

In 1901 the women of Buenos Aires, on the initiative of 
Senora de Costa, President of the Christian Mothers' Asso- 
ciation of that city, acting upon the suggestion of Bishop 
Benavente, undertook to secure funds for a statue. A young 
Argentine sculptor, Mateo Alonso, created the design; the 
statue was cast from old Argentine cannon. In May 1903, 
the Chilian representatives came by sea to Buenos Aires for 


the ratification of the treaties, when the statue of Christ was 
inspected and Senora de Costa pleaded that it should be 
placed on the highest practicable point on the boundary of the 
two countries. In February, 1904, the final steps were taken. 
The statue was carried by rail to Mendoza, and on gun car- 
riages up the mountain side, soldiers and sailors in dangerous 
spots taking the ropes from the mules. On the 13th of 
March, 1904, the dedication ceremonies took place in the 
presence of hundreds who from both sides had come up the 
night before and here encamped to witness this extraordinary 
spectacle. The Argentines stood on the soil of Chile, the 
Chilians on that of Argentina. The booming of guns, the 
sound of music re-echoed through the mountains. "When all 
was ready, the monument unveiled, there was a moment of 
solemn silence, followed by the dedication of the statue to the 
whole world, as a lesson of peace and good will. 

The monument consists of an octagonal granite column 22 
feet high upon which is a hemisphere of granite with a 
partial sketch of the world's outlines. On this stands the 
bronze Christ 26 feet high, the cross extending five feet above. 
Two bronze tablets on the granite base, the gift of the Work- 
ingmenV and "Workingwomen's Unions of Buenos Aires, 
bear inscriptions in Spanish, on one side statistics and dates, 
on the other 

"Sooner shall these mountains crumble into dust than 
Argentines and Chilians 'break the peace to which they have 
pledged themselves at the feet of Christ the Redeemer." 

Until the opening of the railroad in May 1910, this great 
statue was annually passed by thousands who paused here 
for a moment in the midst of their dizzy ride to rest and to 
gaze upon the scene. Now it stands ever lonely between 
heaven and earth, the silence no more broken by the raucous 
shouts of swearing coachmen and muleteers, or by the crude 
jests of a boisterous throng; to the few who now venture 
along that solitary way, a solemn spectacle. 

On this journey over the cumbre one is likely to descry 
specimens of the great condor, oftener to be seen in Chile than 
in the countries nearer the equator. In the many days I 
have spent above 15,000 feet in Peru and Bolivia, not one 
appeared within the range of my vision. In the mountainous 


regions of Chile, the birds are so numerous as to be a pest, 
attacking pigs, sheep, children, and rarely a grown man; 
hence a reward for condors dead or alive has been offered 
by the Government- From the top of the pass down to Las 
Cuevas near the tunnel entrance it was said to be a swift 
slide at breakneck speed. The thankfulness with which the 
tonrist descended from the coach to enter the prosaic train 
may well he imagined. The sturdy pedestrian was the one 
who in safety and tranquillity might truly enjoy the mag- 
nificent visions, while others in terror had fleeting glimpses 
of the splendid panorama. One should not, however, even 
with a good revolver, in these days venture alone upon the 
traverse, unless thoroughly seasoned to greater heights j for 
though the brigands who once haunted this region have prob- 
ably departed to more frequented scenes, the danger of an 
attack of mountain sickness or of a sudden storm, especially to- 
wards the beginning of winter, should deter most persons from 
the excursion except with suitable companions and equipment. 
It should be noted that high winds frequently prevail in these 
lofty regions after nine or ten in the morning, strong enough 
at times to hurl horse and rider from the track to the depths 
below; this fact accounts for the unearthly hour at which 
the start was formerly made for the ride over the cumbre. 
Stone huts called casachas, anciently built as refuges from 
storm, are scattered along the road, though now apt to be 
snow-filled and useless. 

Below Puenta del Inea, the region seems like the interior 
of an extinct volcano, with variously tinted volcanic rocks. 
Dotting the slope of a jagged mountain, some odd small 
black pinnacles, called penitentes, are supposed to resemble 
toiling pilgrims, and the perpendicular cliffs above suggest 
a cathedral. On other slopes are nieves penitentes, ice 
pinnacles, curiously formed by the action of sun and wind, 
these the original penitewies 9 as the pilgrims were garbed in 

Beyond Punta de las Vacas is a point on the left where the 
rock strata are of tints especially magnificent. At the sta- 
tion Usp<Mata y the narrow gorge opens into a little plain at 
right-angles, where river and railroad both turn south. The 
name Uspallata is applied to the whole pass: its passage by 


a division of San Martin's army with cannon was a remark- 
able military exploit: the general himself with the larger 
force crossed to the north of Aconcagua a slightly lower but 
colder pass called Los Patos. 

Cacheuta. Near this station, 40 kilometers from Mendoza, 
are more hot baths, on the left of the railroad descending, 
but on the right bank of the river. Here is a surface of 
about 3000 square meters where by digging to a depth of 
2 or 3 feet hot water will gush forth, the temperature 
varying according to the location, the hottest water near the 
river, 112, the lowest ? 79. The waters are valuable to suf- 
ferers from rheumatism, articular, muscular, and visceral; 
less so for neuralgic pains, which may return. "Women are 
benefited in their special ails. The waters strongly stimulate 
the nervous system, the power of nutrition, and the whole 
organic system including the heart action and circulation, 
and are therefore forbidden to persons suffering from dis- 
eases of the heart and circulation, some of whom pay for 
their rashness with their lives. The bath establishment, af- 
fording fair accommodations, a dining-room seating 250, and 
a billiard room, receives about 20,000 guests a year. Sum- 
mer visitors are the most numerous. The Baths include a 
swimming pool, and smaller tanks with water hot or cold, and 
a grotto for Russian baths. The price for two meals daily 
and bath is six pesos y or second class 4.50. The two meals 
are almuerzo and dinner, morning coffee being extra, a curi- 
ous custom first observed in Chile but obtaining largely in 
Argentina. The Indian name, Cacheuta, is derived from the 
fact that here an Indian chief bearing, with attendants, two 
skins full of gold was met by Spaniards as he was going to 
ransom the Inea. The Indians succeeded in deceiving the 
Spaniards and concealing the gold. The secret was well kept 
until a poor Indian, befriended by a missionary, revealed the 
hiding place; but there was a mistake somewhere as all 
search was vain. 

At length the mountains are left behind, probably after 
dusk has fallen, so that the arrival at Mendoza is in the early 
evening. The tourist who is making a hasty trip will hurry 
across the station to the probably waiting train, by which 
he will arrive in Buenos Aires the following evening. The 


more leisurely, and the tired traveler will take a carriage to 
the Grand Hotel where an excellent dinner will be enjoyed 
and comfortable night quarters may be obtained. In looking 
about the town and visiting one of the great bodegas, a day 
or two will be agreeably spent 

Mendoza Hotels, the Grand, the Club, the Franda and 
others. At the Grand, on Plaza San Martin, the table was 
unexpectedly good ; the dinner, served on the broad veranda, 
from seven to nine on a balmy summer evening, was a gen- 
uine pleasure. 

Hendoza, with 45,000 inhabitants, the largest city in West 
Argentina, has a remarkable record. Strange, indeed, that 
this town at the base of the loftiest of the Andes, by these 
separated from one ocean, and by 650 miles of pampa from 
the other, was founded nearly fifty years before the first 
settlement in the United States and twenty years before the 
city of Buenos Aires came permanently into being. If we 
knew or reflected more on the bold deeds of other days in 
other countries, we might, perchance, have more respect 
for others and less assurance of our own great superiority. 
May 2, 1561 (some say March 2, 1560), a city was founded 
by Pedro del Castillo in a fruitful spot watered by the Men- 
d0za River. At an altitude of 2500 feet, in the longitude 
of Portland, Maine, and a latitude corresponding to that of 
Charleston, it is an agreeable place, with plazas, wide, pleas- 
ant streets, and attractive buildings; but all seems new. 
Two cities there are, the living and the dead 5 not as in Cuzeo, 
the one of an earlier race, built over and around by invaders, 
but an old city of the sixteenth century, a new one of the nine- 
teenth. Unless aware of this fact, the old will be ignored, the 
visitor passing on, unaware of its existence. Some, indeed, 
may prefer so to do, but others will desire to have a glimpse of 
the ruins: for the city of 1561, 300 years later, was utterly 
destroyed by a tremendous earthquake. The catastrophe was 
of a singular character. At 8.30 p. m., March 20, 1861, a 
subterranean groan was heard. On the instant, before there 
was time to flee, the house walls crumbling fell, the roofs in 
the middle, so that the people, generally in their houses, 
perished to the number of 10,000-15,000. Some 2 who were 
promenading in the streets or plaza, were killed or thrown 


to the ground; but many of these who were saved engaged 
in the work of rescue : too few, however, to do effective labor, 
so that a large number who had not been killed outright, 
confined among the ruins, perished from asphyxiation and 
starvation. Prom lamps and fires in the dwellings and the 
breaking of gas pipes, a conflagration followed, rendering the 
night more horrible. Some districts next day were flooded 
from the obstruction of the canals; the odor of dead bodies 
became insupportable, as the survivors were too few to 
remove them. The shocks had continued until nothing was 
left standing; there were 19 within the next 24 hours, 17 of 
which were violent; 14 more the next day; gradually they 
diminished, coming to an end in May. It is extraordinary 
that the strength of this violent convulsion was confined to 
a district 60 miles long and 6 wide, extending southeast from 
the TJspallata Valley. A slight jar was felt at Buenos Aires, 
but in Chile across the Andes no tremor at all. Assistance, 
though promptly sent, was long delayed in arrival, as at that 
time practically no railroads existed in Argentina. Succor 
first came from the neighboring towns of San Juan and San 
Luis, then from Chile, all of Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, 
Peru, and Europe; by which the survivors were enabled to 
rehabilitate themselves. 

There was the usual talk of changing the location of the 
city to a site not far away near granite hills, indicating a 
more solid substratum; but the people as elsewhere refused 
to move, rebuilding close by in the lighter Chilian fashion, 
with a larger use of wood, and employing much material 
taken from the ruins. Thus these have to some extent dis- 
appeared, but it is worth while to have the coachman drive 
you over, if you care to see the destruction wrought. 

The new city of Mendoza has recently experienced a 
rapid growth and great prosperity. Of the seven plazas, 
most important are the San Martin on which is the Grand 
and another hotel, also the handsome building of the Bank 
of the Province; and the Plaza Independencia, larger and 
finer, around which are already erected or about to be 
built, a new Government Palace, a Legislative Building, and 
a Hall of Justice. Other objects of more or less interest 
according to one's taste, are churches, convents, libraries, 


a national college, a kindergarten of the very latest model, 
a normal and an agricultural school, factories of various 
industries, several Clubs of foreigners here resident, hos- 
pitals, orphan asylums, and a fine penitentiary. There are 
many broad streets, the chief avenue for shopping and prom- 
enade, the San Martin, being 100 feet wide with four rows 
of fine poplars. The streets, clean and well paved, are lined 
with a profusion of trees, *more than 10,000; so many as to 
render the atmosphere at times (it is said) stifling and un- 
healthy. The houses are mainly of one story and none are 
above two, out of consideration for the earthquakes. 

A comical and original method of street watering may 
here be observed. Considerable streams run along the sides 
of the main avenue, if not elsewhere, and boys with buckets 
on the end of long poles dip these into the water and throw 
it upon the driveway, a primitive but effective method. 

On the west of the city an immense park is being developed 
into a charming resort at the edge of the Andean foothills. 
The handsome bronze gates at the entrance, costing $25,000, 
were imported from England. Within are splendid drive- 
ways lighted by electricity; beautiful flower beds; thousands 
of trees and shrubs ; an interesting zoological garden ; a pretty 
botanical garden; and a charming lake nearly a mile long 
and 330 feet wide, arranged with boating facilities, beautified 
by islands, and furnished with a splendid grand stand on a 
sloping shore with seating accommodations for 3000 people. 
Not far away is a rond pointy with a kiosk as a band stand. 
Already a delightful resort which no one should fail to visit, 
it promises to be a truly magnificent pleasure ground. If 
there is one to compare with it in the United States in a city 
of twice the size, it has not come to my attention. 

To many the greatest interest of Mendoza will be in the 
neighboring vineyards and bodegas. Many fortunes, large 
and small, have been made in viticulture in Argentina, and 
this region east of the Andean foothills is wonderfully well 
calculated for its development Investments in this business 
return as high as 25 to 30 per cent profits. One hectare 
(2Y 2 acres) of land will bear 300 to 400 ewt. of grapes, which 
sell at 3 or 4 pesos a cwt., an Argentine peso being 44 cents. 
An economical Italian family can live on the returns from a 


single hectare. Among the various industries of the province 
wine production is the most important, increasing between 
1895 and 1908 from the value of 9 to 44 million pesos. The 
largest of the bodegas or wineries is that of Domingo Tomba, 
whose wines have received at European Expositions many 
gold and silver medals. This great establishment at Godoy 
Cruz, a pretty town half an hour by rail from Mendoza or a 
pleasant drive, may be visited in a half day. Interesting at 
any time it is especially so during the grape season which 
lasts from February to May, the fruit coming in first from 
the north and along down to the southern limit of produc- 
tion. Senor Tomba owns several large vineyards, 3000 
acres, and purchases the entire product of others. The 
bodega, established by his brother Antonio (now deceased) 
in 1886, then producing 1000 hectolitres, increased to a pro- 
duction of 254,000 in 1909. All essentials of a first class 
establishment are here found The employees, like the pro- 
prietor, are mainly of Italian birth. It is an immense prop- 
erty with many buildings of various kinds. Bows of enor- 
mous casks for fermentation and deposit contain 220 hecto- 
litres each, others are smaller, also there are great tanks of 
brick. The large two-wheeled carts for transportation are 
drawn by four horses, one ahead and three abreast, the driver 
riding one of the three. A large patio contains a pretty 
garden and a monument to the founder of the House. The 
buildings are as neat as possible and of fine workmanship. 
The wine is excellent, of good body, but not designed for 
export, not improving with age. For ordinary table use 
there is none better, and the demand for it in Argentina, 
in spite of continually enlarged production, is always greater 
than, the supply. 

Mendoza is a popular winter resort for many Argentinians 
on account of its picturesque surroundings and generally 
cloudless sky, with a superb view of snowclad heights; but 
most Americans would consider a frequent temperature in 
the forties a trifle chill without a fire, and would hie away 
to warmer climes. 

The extensive System of irrigation carried on in the Prov- 
ince renders it highly productive of alfalfa, wheat, and corn, 
as well as grapes; also of vegetables rivaling the California 


giants, onions as large as plates, colossal carrots and radisnes, 
at some seasons, mushrooms, marvellous in size and flavor, 
all these largely transported to Buenos Aires. As an at- 
tractive center of immigration this is the third province of 
the Republic. 



THE great country of Argentina, the largest we have yet 
visited, in South America second only to Brazil, has more 
than five times the area of Prance and above one-third that 
of the United States. Considerably longer than the latter 
country, though not so wide, its latitude compares with that 
from Key West to Hudson Bay, a distance of 2200 miles ; its 
width varies from 200 to 1000 miles. Its great length from 
north to south assures wide variety in climate, aside from 
changes in elevation, of which there is not much after get- 
ting away from the Andes. The climate range is from Sicily 
'or hotter to Iceland, less than in corresponding latitudes in 
North America. 

The central part of the country now to be traversed is 
the great pampa section, largely a region of cattle raising, 
where the soil is from 3 to 6 feet thick; farther north and 
east in the Parana basin, where wheat, sugar, and many other 
products are raised, the soil is from 30 to 100 feet thick. In 
Patagonia at the south the plains are of sand and gravel, 
requiring irrigation except for a few small fertile valleys. 
A rich country is Argentina, now forging ahead with won- 
derful strides. 

The journey to Buenos Aires is made from Mendoza in 
twenty-four hours by the express trains, chiefly composed 
of sleeping ears. These have by the windows at one side 
an aisle, from which staterooms open with berths one above 
another running cross-wise of the car. Each room contains 
a lavatory, electric lights and fan. By day there is a long 
leather covered seat, less comfortable than those in our 
sleepers, and far less than on the despised narrow gauge rail- 
way from Oruro to Antofagasta. A dinrng ear is attached 
to the train, furnishing fair meals at reasonable prices, 



Leaving Mendoza by daylight, a region of vineyards with 
a few towns may be seen for some miles, and at harvest time 
men and women by thousands engaged in picking the great 
clusters of grapes; but soon an arid country is reached, not 
like the West Coast deserts farther north, but resembling our 
western plains. There is a scanty growth of scrub and an 
excessive amount of dust, which in great profusion creeps 
through the single windows to the discomfort of all pas- 
sengers. Here there is almost no rainfall, and one need not 
regret passing in the night. Santa Bosa, a town fifty miles 
from Mendoza, has some historic importance as the site of 
two battles in the civil wars of 1874, where the national 
forces, defeated in October, were in December victorious under 
Col Julio A. Soea. 

Near the small station Balde y 75 miles farther, is a noted 
artesian well 2000 feet deep, sunk in this arid region by the 
National Government at a cost of 1&0,000 pesos. Boring was 
begun March 31, 1884, with a tube of 20 inches diameter, 
decreasing 1 gradually to 3 l /2 inches. Not until October 12, 
1887, did water begin to gush, at last in great quantity, esti- 
mated by some at 8000 liters, by others at 200,000 liters an 
hour, a rather wide margin. The water having a temper- 
ature of 1(6 is drinkable and of great value. 

A little beyond is the town of San, Luis (population 
15 3 000) founded in 1597 by the Governor of Chile. From 
raising alfalfa, land has increased in value ten fold, being 
now worth $5 or $6 an acre. Cattle raising is a special indus- 
try of the province, also the sale of green onyx, beds of which 
lie to the north. 

Villa Mercedes, a town of about the same size, is an im- 
portant railway junction. One might here take a train by 
way of Villa Maria to Cordoba, if desirous of visiting that 
historic city. Prom here to Buenos Aires is a region of 
rainfall and of wonderful fertility, the great cattle ranches, 
formerly covering the whole country, being to some extent 
superseded by the cultivation of the soil; wheat, linseed, and 
com are produced in immense quantities. It may be noted 
in passing that Argentina is the greatest exporter (not pro- 
ducer) of cattle and of cereals of any country in the world. 
At many stations there is but a house or two, an adobe hut 


occupied by an Italian or by a gaucho, a cowboy of mixed 
race, Spanish and Indian. Yet in the season 6000 tons of 
wheat may be seen at one of these stations, representing 
great wealth. The freight cars, weighing 12* > tons, will 
carry a load of 40 tons, this being a broad gauge road with 
straight and almost level track, inclining slightly to the sea. 
The longest straight in the world is here found, 175 miles in 
direct line, and, but for one S curve, 206 miles. Bronzed 
cattlemen may be seen at the stations, and along the way 
thousands of splendid cattle ; then a sea of cultivated limit- 
less plain, interesting for a while, but presently monotonous 
to many. 

Between Villa Mercedes and Hackenna, 40 miles, is a very 
rich zone containing many elegant dwellings of modern style 
with city comforts, amid gardens and orchards, fields of vege- 
tables and cereals. 

RufinOy another railroad center, is a station of hurry and 
bustle. A wonderful change has taken place in this region 
in the last 25 years, from a lonely expanse with a rare dwell- 
ing and a few native cattle to villages, splendid herds, and 
grain fields whose products always outrun the provision of 
sheds and storehouses. Near the station VecKa, the end of 
the straight from Mackenna, is the noted estanda or ranch of 
Senor Benito Villanueva of 35,000 acres, which contained 
some years ago 14,000 Shorthorn cattle, besides Lincoln and 
Shropshire sheep, and 1200 horses of Clydesdale, Suffolk, and 
Hackney. A station on a branch line is called Gen. Arenales 
after the owner of an important establishment, with creamery 
and cheese factory making 200 pounds of cheese a day. 

A busy town is Jmun on the site of a fort from which 
forces sallied Dec. 10, 1876, against an invasion of cattle- 
stealing Indians. The latter were routed and the cattle saved. 
Here are railroad workshops employing 1000 men, and an 
electric establishment supplying light for the city and power 
for the making of butter, cream, and ice. Land here is worth 
more than $1,00 a square foot. Perhaps a peso was meant. 

Fifteen kilometers from the town of Chacabuco is the 
estanda San Gregorio especially devoted to raising Hereford 
and Durham bulls, Lincoln sheep, Hackney, Morgan, and 
Clydesdale horses, collie dogs, terriers, and fowls of the 


"Wyandotte, Plymouth Rock, Brahma, and other breeds. 
Seven thousand dollars was paid by the owner for a single 

Near Mercedes, a city of 15,000, is an estantia of 40,000 
acres. This in addition to other blooded stock has many 
race horses, now used for breeding, which formerly won fame 
in Europe. For one of these the owner paid $150,000. 

The station Open Door is so called from a remarkable gov- 
ernmental establishment for healing the mentally diseased 
by the outdoor grystem, work in the fields. 

At Muniz, 20 miles from Buenos Aires, there is a Campo 
de Mayo, a field for military exercises, where reviews fre- 
quently occur attracting many spectators. Close by is a 
famous etfancia, that of Noberto Quirno, 4200 acres, fenced 
with wire, divided into 18 enclosures. Besides the pure 
Wooded eatfle, acres of the finest fruit, and an elegant resi- 
dence, there is a dove-cote, supplying 40 to 50 pairs of pigeons 

The town, SnrKngftam f 15 miles from the city, almost in 
the suburbs, is much frequented by those athletically in- 
clined. A hippodrome containing apparatus for physical 
exercises is the scene of frequent hippie and athletic reunions 
with large and distinguished crowds. There is a race track 
of 2000 meters for horses, grounds for tennis, polo, cricket, 
etc., with pavilions for spectators, restaurant, garage, stables, 
and dog kennels. The whole, covering 22 squares, belongs 
to a society with 6000 members. At the opening of the season 
occurs an annual fete called Gymkchana. Among other 
sports is a Whistling Bace. In this, after 500 yards, men 
must pause before a lady and whistle a tune, the name of 
widch she hands to him on paper. 

In the real suburbs of Buenos Aires, at Villa Devoto, 10 
miles from the city station, is a rifle range established by 
the Italians. The field, 1000 meters long and 100 wide, has a 
shooting gallery 550 meters long. Of the 30 targets 24 are 
for guns at from 300 to 500 meters, and six for revolvers 
at 10 meters. English societies have here tennis and golf 
grounds. Among many chalets with fine gardens is one be- 
longing to John A. Hall containing about 1500 varieties of 
orchids. Of two asylums in the place, one called Umberto 


Frimo, was the gift of the philanthropist Antonio I>evoto, 
of which the cornerstone was laid February, 1904, by Prince 
Luigi de Savoia, Duke of the Abruzzi. From this suburb a 
tramway conducts to the city, passing on the way a Dispen- 
sary for the Tuberculous, and the National School of Agri- 
culture and Veterinary, which was inaugurated September, 
1904. Continuing by rail, one has on the left a glimpse of 
the river, and on both sides, of the Palermo Park, before 
reaching the station Retiro, a short distance from the center 
of Buenos Aires. 

This wonderful city, the Metropolis of South America, which in 
the last half century has grown at a rate exceeded by few in the 
United States, was i'ounded as early as 1535 by Pedro de Mendoza; 
but being twice destroyed or abandoned on account of troubles with, 
the Indians, its permanent settlement dates from 1580, For this 
the honor belongs to Juan de Garay, Acting Governor of the Prov- 
inee of which Asuncion was the capital. The latter city had 
been founded in 1536 by Juan de Ayolas, sent thither to discover a 
way through to the rich country of Peru. This colony, more fortu- 
nate than Buenos Aires, endured, and for many years Asnnci6n 
was the chief city of this part of South America* Several other 
settlements were made in the present Argentine country before the 
permanent establishment of Buenos Aires: Santiago de Estero in 
1553; and within ten years thereafter, Mendoza, San Juan, and 

The name, Buenos Aires, dates from 1535 when Pedro de Men- 
doza, January 6, inaugurated the city of Santa Maria de Buenos 
Aires, in recognition of the sailors 7 devotion to Nuestra Senora del 
Buen Aire, their especial patroness at Cadiz; tradition also has it 
that on disembarking here one said to another, "Que buenos aires 
son los de este sueloP ir What good airs are there on this landP 
The town founded February 2, 1535, was practically destroyed by 
Indians and abandoned in 1541. In 1580 Garay with sixty-three 
colonists, provisions, tools, etc., coming from Asuncion, on dis- 
embarking Sunday, June 11, 1580, proceeded to an elevated spot, 
where now is Parque Lezama, There he pronounced in Spanish the 
words, "City of the Trinity and Port of Santa Maria of Buenos 
Aires, I baptize thee in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy 
Ghost." All, saying Amen, then knelt to ask a blessing on the city 
to be founded. Proceeding north to an open space on the wooded 
shore they fixed upon the present Plaza de Mayo as the center of 
the eit and placed the first stone at the corner of Rivadavia and 


Saa Martin. The new city was arranged in sixteen squares from 
north to south along the river front, and in nine squares east to 
west, with farms and gardens beyond. While the general trend of 
the river and the shore on this side is northwest to southeast, the front 
just here is almost due north and south, the Avenida de Mayo, at 
right angles, therefore running east and west. 

The growth of the city was slow, being much hampered by strange 
regulations of the Mother Country. *No commerce was permitted, 
either imports or exports, hence smuggling became popular. While 
the Viceroy at Lima was ruler of the entire country, his practical 
authority was here small, the Audiencia in Chareas (now Sucre), 
Bolivia, being in charge of the country east of the Andes. Subordi- 
nate to this were the Koyal Governors of the Provinces, always Span- 
ish, while the cities were ruled by CabiMos of from six to twelve 
members who were natives or Creoles. These serving for life bad 
charge both of judicial and administrative matters. The troubles 
witli the Indians, and with the Portuguese who had settlements on 
the opposite bank may be passed over, but those with the British 
should be mentioned. At last, after about two hundred years, 
Buenos Aires in 1776 Iiad a Viceroy of her own and more liberal 
gwemment ; unfortunately too late to undo the evil which had 
been wrought, although trade now flourished and the population 
soon doubled. In June, 1806, a squadron under Admiral Popham, 
and General Beresford with fifteen hundred men landed below Buenos 
Aires then a city of about 40,000. The Viceroy fled and June 27 
tiie British occupied the city. A French officer, Liniers, in Spanish 
employ, procuring one thousand regular troops and some cannon 
in Montevideo, approached the city and was joined at his camp by 
many. The British on the advance of the army of Liniers, August 
12, after hard street fighting, finally surrendered; the British flags 
then captured are still preserved in Buenos Aires as trophies. 
Four months later the British again came and with four thousand 
troops captured Montevideo. General Whitelock approaching 
Buenos Aires put to flight the army of Liniers which had eome out 
to meet him; but on entering the city, July 5, stubborn street fighting 
ensued, and after forcing their way to the barricaded Plaza and 
losing in two days one-quarter of their men, the British agreed to 
withdraw and to evacuate Montevideo within- two months. 

This experience inspired in the Argentines a feeling of self-re- 
Hanca Accordingly when Napoleon, after he had overrun the Span- 
Mi peninsula, demanded, May 22, 1810, the resignation of the new 
Viceroy Cisneros, who had taken office in 1809, an armed assembly 
eame together in the Plaza and proclaimed the Cdbildo supreme in 
WIi3e Acts were made in the name of Ferdinand VTT, 


the Spanish ruler of Castile and Leon, then in prison, this date is 
regarded as that of the dawn of Independence. The CabUdo sent 
armies in various directions and bloody combats ensued, several at 
first successful, then with varying results. There were long 
troublous times, though Buenos Aires never again fell under for- 
eign sway, and the sentiment of independence became firmly estab- 
lished by 1812. In this year returned from Europe the great 
patriot, San Martin, who, through the labors of the historian, 
Bartolome Mitre, is now generally recognized as the savior of South 
American Independence. 

San Martin, born, February 25, 1778, of a Creole mother and a 
Spanish officer father in a small mission town of the Jesuits on the 
Uruguay River, was taken to Spain at the age of eight years, edu- 
cated in the best military schools, and served in many wars. Hav- 
ing imbibed liberal ideas he returned to Buenos Aires in March, 
1812, and later, with a chosen company of the best youths, pro- 
ceeded to Mendoza, where for three years he was forming and drill- 
ing an army for the purpose of invading Chile. This he did in 
January, 1817, the battle of Chacabuco, February 12, giving that 
country its independence. Going to Peru with his army in 1820, fee 
proceeded himself to meet Bolivar in Guayaquil When the latter 
rejected the cooperation proffered, San Martin gave up the army 
which he had organized and withdrew to Buenos Aires, suffering 
the imputation of cowardice without a word, and returning to Eu- 
rope to live in reduced circumstances until his death at Boulogne 
in 1850. 

Independence was formally declared by a Congress in Tnemnan, 
July 9, 1816. From 1812 to 1862 civil and other wars were fre- 
quent. July 9, 1825, a National Constitution was adopted, and in 
1826, Rivadavia, a very able man, became the first President. The 
greatest constructive statesman of the period, he undertook to re- 
form the laws and administration, created the University of Buenos 
Aires, founded hospitals, etc., and engaged in war with Brazil, by 
which Uruguay became independent. But after a single year of 
office, on account of dissensions, he resigned. In 18^J, following 
two years of strife, de Rosas became President and in 1835 Dic- 
tator. His name and his tyranny are regarded with detestation. 
Defeated June 8, 1852, by General Urquiza, he fled to the British 
Legation and later to England. 

In 1853 Buenos Aires was recognized as an independent state, 
but in 1857 the Portenos or harbor people, as the residents of the 
city are called, under General B. Mitre were defeated by General 
Urquiza and again joined the Confederation. In 1861 another bat- 
tle occurred under the same generals with a victory for Mitre, who 


then became President of the entire nation and by granting the 
Provinces autonomy succeeded in creating better feeling. In 1868 
Dr. Sarmiento, a broad-minded scholar, was peacefully elected and 
did much to promote education and develop the nation's resources. 
His successor, Dr. Avellanda, had a more troublous term of office. 
General Boca who followed, 1880, gained his position by hard fight- 
ing, He first declared the eity the Federal District of the nation, 
promoted railway extension, and put down dissensions. After Dr. 
Celman had misgoverned for four years, Carlos Pellegrini finished 
the six years' term in good fashion. Dr. Saenz Pena followed in 
1502, but becoming unpopular, resigned; and the Vice President 
filled out his administration. Another term for General Roca was 
succeeded hi 1904 by that of Dr. Quintana and after his death Dr. 
Aleorts; the present incumbent, Dr. Eoque Saenz Pena? taking of- 
fice October 12, 1910. 

Buenos Aires, the Metropolis of South America, resembles 
Chicago in being located on the level frontier of a great 
prairie, and on the border of a large body of fresh water; at 
the same time it is like New York in being the chief seaport 
of a great nation. The so-called Rio de la Plata or La Plata 
Biver is in reality more of an estuary; so wide as to have 
rather the effect of a bay or gulf. Formed by the union 
of two rivers, the Parana and the Uruguay, the La Plata 
basin is the second largest in the world, the flow of the river 
being 8$ per cent greater than that of the Mississippi. And 
here let me make a feeble protest against the usage, general 
among the English, and now copied in the United States, of 
speaking of this water as the Eiver Plate. Was there ever 
an uglier name in sound or sense ? Were there any difficulty 
in saying La Plata there might be some excuse. True, one 
is liable to commit a tautology by saying the La Plata Eiver, 
a repetition of the the in another language, but some sins are 
worse, and one to my mind is changing Plata to Plate. Plata 
means silver. Why not then call it the Silver Eiver, if one 
would translate, or else say the Plata Eiver ? I, at least, give 
notice here that in this book it shall be properly called. The 
first a of course has the sound of ah. 

The river is here 28 miles wide, so that one does not see 
the opposite shore except from a height such as the Capitol 
dome. It is 125 miles long more or less, according to where 
you consider the ocean line, Buenos Aires being called about 


100 miles from the sea and 90 from Montevideo. The city, 
65 feet above sea level, has like Chicago plenty of room to 
grow and has improved the opportunity to extend itself until 
in area it is one of the largest cities in the world, three times 
as large as Berlin, but smaller than London or New York. 
Its population, according to the last accounts, 1913, is about 
a million and a half. Thus it is the fourth city in the 
Western Hemisphere and the second Latin city in the world. 
At its present rate of growth it will soon be crowding Paris; 
some day, perhaps, it may become the first in population of the 
cities founded and ruled by a Latin race. 


HOEELS. Pkza, K P., 10 pesos and up ; Palace, a little more mod- 
erate; others A. P., Grand, 9-20; Royal, 0-20; Majestic, 12 up; 
Hetrapole; Splendid; CaviezeFs New Hotel; Phoenix; Albion. 

Cabs. First class, 15 blocks, 1 peso, next 15 blocks, 50 ctvs; 
second class, first course 60 civs., second 40 ctm. By the hour, 
first class, 2 pesos, then 80 ctvs. each half hour; second class, 1.50 
iksfc hour, .60 each half hour. Automobiles, higher. 

Money. Argentine peso y 44 cents; donble the Chilian peso. 

Guide-book to the Argentine Repnblic by Albert B. Martinez, 
valuable; in Spanish and French, perhaps now in English. 


TJie Plaza and the Avenida de Mayo, the Government Palace, 
Capitol, Palace of Justice, Plaza San Martin, the Mnsenm of 
Art, Zoological and Botanical Gardens, Palermo Park, Hippodrome, 
Colon Theater, Parque Lezama and National Historical Museum, 
Eecoleta Cemetery, the Docks, Frigarificos, Mercado de Frutos. 

TOUBISTS coming from Mendoza will arrive at the Retiro 
Station. Outside are numerous carriages to convey the trav- 
eler and small luggage to his hotel. The price of these car- 
riages is astonishingly cheap to a New Yorker, 1 peso, 44 
cents, for a ride of 15 squares, and nearly all of the hotels 
are within this distance. From the docks the ride may be 
longer, according to where landing is made. Further, there 
are carriages of the second class, which seem equally good. 
For these the fee is 60 centavos. The only difference that I 
could learn was that the first class coachman wears a uni- 
form. The number of horses, one or two, makes no dif- 
ference. The automobiles are somewhat more expensive* 
The drivers have a habit^ as elsewhere, especially at the sta- 




tion, of demanding more than their fee, particularly on Sun- 
day; so it may be as well to say nothing, take the first car- 
riage offered and pay what is due with a small tip and no 
remarks, and something additional for baggage. Trunks 
should be arranged for with an agent of the express com- 
pany, Expreso Villalonga, either at the station, or after reach- 
ing your hotel, if that is not already decided upon. The 
hotel porter will attend to it if you hand him your checks. 

Unlike the cities previously visited, as might be expected 
from its size, a wide choice of accommodations is here of- 
fered. Hotels galore and lodging houses as well are to be 
found, though perhaps not a room at the desired hostelry 
unless engaged in advance: not always even then, if reports 
are true of certain establishments. There are all kinds of 
prices except very cheap, for this is quite another world from 
the West Coast, and except as to carriages, prices compare 
with those of New York 

The first choice of the ultra fashionable and wealthy is 
likely to be the Hotel Plaza, unless a new one promised to 
be still finer should already be completed. At the Plaza, 
barely two blocks from the station, a room may be had on 
either the American or the European plan. The lowest price 
for the latter is ten pesos ($4.40) a day and from that far 
up, doubtless 30 or 40 pesos or more for suites with bath. 
Meals are in proportion. The location is good, on the hand- 
some Plaza San Martin, and very near the river, the Amer- 
ican Legation is close by but it is quite a distance, 11 blocks, 
from the Avenida de Mayo, the principal avenue, and many 
will prefer a hotel in the heart of the city on this handsome 
and busy thoroughfare, or one within a few blocks of it. The 
other hotels are somewhat lower priced and by many regarded 
as more comfortable and agreeable. The Plaza, under the 
management of the world famed Ritz Carlton people, is 
naturally the grand affair that one would expect, the pompous, 
uniformed British attendants easily leading one within to 
fancy himself in London. 

The Palace Hotel, before the erection of the Plaza, regarded 
as the first in the city, is a large edifice, property of Nicolas 
Mihanovich, the noted steamboat man. This fine structure, 
two blocks from the Plaza de Mayo, fronts on three streets, 


the 25th of May, Cangallo, and the Paseo de Julio, many rooms 
thus looking upon the Paseo, a fine boulevard and parkway, 
and out over the docks to the river. On this side there are 
five stories, with an observation tower at the corner 150 feet 
high for the use of the Mihanovich Company, and containing 
a powerful electric light. The offices of the company are on 
the ground floor of the building. The hotel has an imposing 
entrance with a monumental stairway (also elevators) lead- 
ing to the main floor. Here is a hall of the Louis XIY style, 
and a luxurious dining-room of the Empire fashion with 
white and gold ceiling. All floors are heated and there is a 
telephone in every room or suite, conveniences and elegance 
of all kinds. Above there is a roof garden (a favorite resort 
on summer evenings) adorned with exotic plants, and a sum- 
mer dining-room which affords charming views. 

Other hotels, older and equally popular, are the Grand 
and the Ro$/al f comfortable, even luxurious., much patronized 
by English-speaking folk. The Grand, built in 1900, on 
Florida and Rivadavia, is in the very heart of the city and by 
some called noisy ; the Royal at the corner of Corrientes and 
Esmeralda is a few blocks distant. At these the price for 
room and board with bath privilege is from 9 to 12 or 14 
pesos a day; for room with morning coffee only, 5 to 8 pesos 
a day. 

On the Avenida, which means always the Avenida de Mayo, 
are the Hotels Splendid, Metropole, Paris, Majestic, Ca- 
ticzers New Hold, all of the first rank with pension prices 
from 10 or 12 pesos up. Also on the Avenue near the Plaza 
de Mayo is the Hotel Nuevo, said when built to have been the 
acme of elegance. The Phoenix, San Martin 780, more quiet 
and less pretentious than some of the others, is much pat- 
ronized by English. One preferring lower prices will find 
good board and rooms at the Pension Caviezel for from 7 
to 9 or more pesos daily (elevator), an excellent location on 
the Avenida, Rivadavia and Esmeralda (painfully neat, some 
one said, which is hardly a fault), a Swiss proprietor ; another 
pension of the same name is at the next corner, with prices 
a little higher. At the Hotel Albion on the Avenue rooms 
without board may be obtained, cheaper but less attractive, 


and furnished rooms elsewhere at 2-4 pesos a day, accord- 
ing to style and location. 

Comfortably settled in a good hotel, what is first to be 
done f I should say, after morning coffee take a stroll around 
the center of the city, down the Avenue, turning to the left 
on Florida with a glance at the shop windows, down Cangallo 
to Reconquista and the Plaza at the right. If time is short 
begin at once sight-seeing there, the center of the old and 
new city, a historic site for nearly four centuries. Called 
by Garay, Plaza Grande or Mayor, containing 8 acres or 
more, it is now Plaza de J/at/o. The center, regarded as the 
Altar of the Country, has been occupied by a modest monu- 
ment, an obelisk called the Pyramid of ilay, commemorat- 
ing the Revolution of 1810. For this, excavation was made 
in April, 1811. This will now be replaced by a great 
and worthy monument on the same spot to the same 
event, voted by the centenary commission to the com- 
peting artists, Gaetano Moretti and Luis Brizzolara. 
The splendid marble monument, having a base 150 feet 
square, will be a trifle taller, the base supporting a 
colossal obelisk 115 feet high, upon which will stand a 
group of statuary, the apotheosis of the Argentine flag: a 
figure representing the New Nation waving the sacred ban- 
ner, preceded by Progress crushing down Ignorance and 
Prejudice, and acclaimed by Revolution, Justice, and the 
People. Other statues and reliefs will be used in decoration. 
An interesting innovation will be a large chamber within the 
monument to be used as a museum and to contain as a first 
relic the actual Pyramid of May, the first memento of the 
glorious dawn of liberty. This monument is to be finished 
and in position in 1916. 

Of other monuments already decorating the Plaza, one 
erected in 1906 faces the Avenue, a fine group of marble por- 
traying a figure, the City of Buenos Aires, being crowned 
by Progress ; a child, the Future, observing the act. Towards 
the other end of the Plaza, the east, is an equestrian statue 
of General Manuel Belgrano, one of the first Council of Gov- 
ernment, appointed by the Corporation of the City, May 25, 
1810; he was afterwards a commander of Argentine troops, 


gaining victories at Tucuman and Salta, in 1812 and ? 13, 
later suffering defeat in Bolivia, after which he resigned the 
command to San Martin. The rest of the Plaza is occupied 
by gardens, walks, and fountains. Occasionally there is 

At the southwest corner of the Plaza is the ancient Cabftdo 
where met, May 22, 1810, on the upper floor, a popular 
assembly which declared the authority of the Yiceroy incom- 
patible with public tranquillity. May 25 the Cabildo ap- 
pointed a Junta or Council of Government with Don Cornelio 
Saavedra as President. The Viceroy having already with- 
drawn to avoid bloodshed, the Council took the oath the same 
afternoon; Saavedra addressed the people from a balcony 
with an appeal for order and harmony. Thus the revolution 
triumphed without bloodshed, and from here spread to other 
sections, where long struggle was necessary ; to Argentina, the 
success in all the countries south of Ecuador was largely due. 

The most imposing structure on the Plaza is the Govern- 
ment Palace on the east. On this spot in 1595 the construc- 
tion of a fort was begun ; but it was 1718-1720 before a con- 
siderable fortress was erected, whose walls remained till 1853. 
They were then demolished for a custom house, which in 
1894 was destroyed to make room for the present palace. 
This great brick edifice, 400 feet long and 250 deep, with 
two wings of slightly different form, constructed at different 
periods, contains offices of the President of the Republic and 
of the various Ministers, of the Interior, of Foreign Relations 
and Worship, of Finance, of Justice and Public Instruction, 
of Agriculture, of Public Works (Hacienda), of War and 
Marine. In the building are several libraries, the most im- 
portant that of the Ministry of Foreign Relations (State 
Department), where in iron cases are the treaties with foreign 
nations since 1811, some of these, real works of art, superbly 
engrossed on parchment with enormous wax seals. The en- 
trance on the north side gives access to two large and elegant 
salons where receptions and banquets are given by the Presi- 
dent, his official residence occupying this end of the building. 
The banquet salon, richly furnished in Louis XV style, con- 
tains a central chandelier, a notable work of art made in the 
country by Azaretto. There is also a fine marble figure rep- 


resenting the Argentine Republic, and there are busts of the 
various Presidents. Within the building are several patios 
and pleasant reception rooms. Sentinels abound, but the 
doors are open and on business days at the usual hours the 
building is accessible to the public. On feast days, if neces- 
sary, permits to enter may be obtained from the Superin- 
tendent of the Palace. 

On the north side of the Plaza, coining from the Palace, 
one first reaches the Chamber of Commerce, in 1885 estab- 
lished in its present edifice, though inaugurated as a Bolsa 
de Comercio in 1854 with 118 members. It has now above 
4000, and is a very important establishment. Operations in 
1909 amounted to a value of 328 million pesos. The same 
year the Clearing House account for banks was 4% billion 

In the same block at the corner of Reconquista is the 
Bank of the Argentine Nation, the most powerful institution 
in the Republic. Founded in 1902 with a debt of 50 million 
pesos in bills emitted as its capital, thanks to a rigid organic 
law, excellent administration, and the honesty of its directors, 
it has become a great financial power. In October, 1908, the 
capital was increased by $17,800,000 gold As a Bank of 
the State, no dividends are made, the animal profit of fifty 
per cent being converted into gold reserve and added to the 
capital. January 1, 1910, the capital was 113 million pesos, 
the reserve 39 millions gold. The bank in 1910 had 121 
branches in the provinces and 8 agencies, mostly in their own 
buildings, making easy the commercial transactions for cattle 
and agriculture, in contrast to our own difficulties, due to 
the silly prejudice against a Central Bank, so serviceable in 
all other countries, It performs all the operations of other 
banks, these in 1909 amounting to 645 million pesos. 

At the west end of the north side is the Cathedral, on the 
spot selected by Garay for the church in 1580, when a simple 
structure with mud walls and thatched roof served the pur- 
pose. An edifice with arches in the present form was begun 
in 1701, but the facade in imitation of the Madeleine in Paris 
was built in the time of Rivadavia by the architect Catelin. 
The great semi-spherical dome, covered on the outside with 
blue and white squares in the Spanish style, is a contrast to 


the other roofs. The interior has a central nave, two aisles 
and a transept, well proportioned except for the great thick- 
ness of the pillars. The side chapels are not of especial im- 
portance save the third on the right, the sepnlcher of the 
great San Martin, liberator of Chile and Peru, a patriot whose 
purity of motive, possibly his ability, equaled that of Wash- 
ington, though he was far less happy in the contemporary 
appreciation of his services ; not until after his death receiv- 
ing his merited honors. The octagonal chapel is effectively 
lighted from a small dome above. Four marble plaques bear 
the names Lima, Chacabuco, San Lorenzo, and Maipu, re- 
minding of his glorious deeds. In the center a bronze 
sarcophagus containing the ashes of the hero has several 
pediments upon a broad marble base which bears also four 
marble blocks. On three of these stand marble statues, in 
front, that of Liberty, at the sides, Labor, and Commerce. 
The block in the rear carries laurels and palms only, with 
a bas relief representing the battle of Maipu. In front are 
the arms of Argentina, at the sides those of Peru and Chile. 
On the right stands a bust of the great patriot, the whole 
forming a worthy, artistic, and most impressive monument. 

On the west side of the Plaza at the corner of the Avenida, 
with entrance on the latter, is the Municipal Palace or City 
Hall, where the Executive Department of the City Govern- 
ment has been located since 1892, the Deliberative Council 
meeting at Peru 272. The Intendente or Mayor is appointed 
for two years by the President with the approval of the 
Senate, and may be re-appointed. The Deliberative Council 
of 22 is also named by the President, as the elections formerly 
held gave poor results. On the other side of the Avenue are 
the Civil Courts. 

The Avenida de Mayo, in front of the Capitol, extends 
from the Plaza de Mayo a little more than a mile to the 
Plaza, about 100 feet wide, paved with asphalt, lined with 
trees, and with a row of posts for electric lights in the center. 
Cut through the block between Rivadavia, originally the main 
street, and Victoria, the next street south, at a cost of ten 
million pesos, it was opened for traffic July 9, 1894. It is 
considered by some the finest street on this hemisphere, others 
prefer the Avenida Central in Rio, while all who admire sky- 


scrapers will insist that it is not to be compared to Fifth Ave- 
nue, Adjoining the City Hall, is seen on the right the splen- 
did edifice erected by Dr. Jose C. Paz for La Prenm. As 
the finest newspaper building in the world for the sole use 
of a single publication, it should be visited by every traveler, 
though only certain parts are open for inspection. There 
are five stories above ground and two below, the sub-basement 
containing the electric fixtures and the paper storage room. 
On the next floor is the machinery, presses, etc., with a room 
at the back 120 feet long and 25 deep for the distribution 
of papers. On the ground floor on the Avenida are the 
bureaus of administration, as for advertising, etc., and the 
museum; while fronting on Rivadavia are rooms for free 
consultation with physicians and lawyers. One flight up, a 
long one, for ceilings are high, but there is a good elevator, 
are the handsome rooms of the chief editors. A fine salon 
with luxurious appointments, Turkish rugs, furniture up- 
holstered in leather, sofas and armchairs, and a heavy carved 
table, is the reception room, where gentlemanly attendants 
in uniform are at your service, a contrast indeed to the dingy 
hallways where people are kept, by often pert youths, from 
entering the sacred though bare and noisy quarters of the 
editorial staff of some of our great and wealthy journals. 
On the other side of the large patio is a handsomely decorated 
hall seating 500, with furniture of red and gold, used only 
for entertainments for the employees. On the next floor are 
various editorial rooms, on the fourth luxurious apartments 
for the entertainment of distinguished guests from abroad. 
At the top are rooms for photography, composing, etc. On 
the turret is a statue holding a powerful electric light, the 
rays of which are visible to a great distance. The editor of 
this great newspaper, which like its building in some respects, 
for instance in the amount of its telegraphic despatches, is 
superior to any in the United States, is Dr. Adolfo E. Davila, 
who has held the office since 1877. To him the paper owes 
a large share of its progress which is deemed worthy of its 
palatial setting, 

A little farther up is the great store of Gath & Chaves, one 
of the best in the city, and at 633 the fine building of the 
Progreso or Progress Club. Opposite is the Diario building, 


which in 1911 had just been afflicted with a fire. The Diario 
is an important, perhaps the leading afternoon paper. Along 
the way are many hotels and other business structures. Some 
of the buildings, like the Prensa, are almost covered with 
electric light bulbs, probably remaining from the Centennial 
display in 1910, when lighted obviously producing a brilliant 

At the upper end of this splendid avenue, beyond a large 
Plaza, is the CAPITOL, strongly reminiscent of the one in 
Washington, but none the worse for that. The plans were 
by the late Victor Meano ; the cost was $9,000,000. It may be 
mentioned in passing that the Plaza in front was constructed 
for the celebration of the Centenary in the short space of 
&0 days; four solid blocks of buildings were torn down, 
ground was filled in, leveled, and grassed, walks were laid, 
trees, shrubs, and flowers planted, fountains with colored 
waters, obelisks, candelabra, and statues were erected, and all 
done at a cost of $5,000,000, in time to receive their guests 
in 1910. And ra call South Americans slow! Monuments 
to the Constituent Assembly of 1313, the Congress of 1816, 
and to General Mitre are to be added. 

The central facade of the Capitol, setting a trifle back from 
the line of the projecting wings, is adorned with a fine portico 
and approached by a stately staircase having on each side an 
equestrian statue. The central dome is a remarkable work, 
the pillars supporting it covering 300 square meters. To 
sustain the weight of 30,000 tons, the foundations were laid 
30 feet deep, and an inverted dome of stone was fixed. No 
one should fail to visit the top of the great dome, which pro- 
vides a splendid view over the city and the broad river; or 
the magnificently furnished reception halls and legislative 
chambers. The Senate Chamber, arranged for but 30 mem- 
bers, is a small room though provided with two galleries. The 
larger Chamber of Deputies has three rows of galleries, the 
first for the diplomatic corps with an especial reservation for 
ladies, some of whom come to hear the debates. The acoustics 
are said to be poor and the heating inadequate. There are 
conference rooms, a library, rooms for secretaries, etc. The 
Houses regularly meet from May 1 to the end of September, 
but the sessions are usually prolonged until January by 




Executive Decree. The Deputies meet Monday, Wednesday, 
and Friday at three, the Senate on the alternate days. The 
Chamber of Deputies, semi-circular in form, has 130 seats 
besides eight for the Ministers, here admitted to their delib- 
erations. There is a platform for the President and two 
secretaries. Behind the Presidential chair is a portrait of 
Valentin Alsina. 

Mow the platform is a table for stenographers, two of 
whom write a report of the proceedings, published the 
day following. Members speak from their places receiv- 
ing polite attention, especially noticeable in comparison with 
the practice in Assemblies of older nations. There is no 
division of seats for political parties, nor special garb for 
President or Ministers. Each Deputy has a desk with writing 
material. For each 33,000 people, and for an additional half 
as many more, one Deputy is elected for four years, receiving 
a salary of 18,000 pesos. Every two years one half of the 
House is renewed. The Senate Chamber also has seats for 
the Ministers. The Vice President, according to the Consti- 
tution, is the presiding officer. Strangers of distinction de- 
siring to visit the sessions of Congress may obtain from the 
Secretary cards of admission to the galleries. 

The characteristic of the city first obvious is its extreme 
neatness, in strong contrast to our chief cities; then the nar- 
row streets of the business section and the absence of sky- 
scrapers, each of which will seem to Americans generally an, 
evidence of backwardness and provincialism. The former 
certainly is a great defect, inherited from colonial times, 
which the officials of recent days have been and still are 
endeavoring to remedy. As the widening of all the streets 
at once was obviously impossible, to relieve the congestion 
of traffic and to beautify the city, the Avenida de Mayo was 
constructed. Soon two diagonals, wonderfully diminishing 
the present difficulty, will be cut from the north- and south- 
west corners of the Plaza de Mayo through the busiest parts 
of the city. Although the streets in the center are only 33 
feet wide, since the buildings have mostly but two or three 
stories, they do not lack air and light, as in so many of the 
streets of New York; the height of all buildings being limited 
according to the width of the street on which it stands, an 


excellent and necessary rule. All of these narrow central 
streets are one way thoroughfares, both for cars and other 
vehicles. Natty policemen stand, not at a few, but at dozens 
of busy corners, regulating traffic. Yet in spite of their best 
efforts blocks are frequent, sometimes delaying cars for ten 
or fifteen minutes. It may be mentioned that the city has, 
in proportion to the inhabitants, twice as many policemen 
as New York, generally courteous and obliging. In order 
to help a little, the corners of many buildings and side- 
walks have been chopped off in accordance with a law pro- 
mulgated some years ago, though long not strictly enforced. 
Many of these old streets will be widened in time, as new 
buildings must be set 10 or 12 feet farther back, a temporary 
disfigurement, ultimately of great advantage. "West of the 
Capitol all streets are wider. New ones must have a breadth 
of at least 60 feet. In the newer sections are many beautiful 
broad avenues, the Santa Fe and Alvear in some respects 
surpassing the Avenida. There is an excellent service of 
electric cars, one writer says the best on this hemisphere, 
already supplemented by a subway now being constructed 
from the Plaza de Mayo to Plaza 11 de Setembro. This one 
completed, others will be promptly begun; not as in New 
York ten years after they should have been finished. For in 
Buenos Aires, packing like sardines is not permitted, as will 
be discovered, perhaps with indignation, when a car marked 
campleto passes without a pause, and one has to wait several 
minutes for a second or a third. Within, all are comfortable, 
the seats, each for two, facing the front with an aisle between, 
where no one is allowed to stand; on the broad rear platform 
six only are permitted. With carriages so cheap, anyone in 
a hurry can easily afford to patronize them. The cars with 
large figures in front, as in Chile, a fashion which, might well 
be introduced in our cities, are easily distinguished ; the hotel 
porters and the policemen being usually able to tell you two 
or three numbers of the several cars which may take you to 
your destination, and the points at which, these are to be 
found. Also a little red guide book, Gwa Peuser, purchas- 
able for 10 centavoSy will give all necessary information as to 
railways and electric ears, carriage tariffs, etc. 
An afternoon drive may be taken in auto, car, or carriage. 


Setting out in good season, one may first traverse a fey 
streets in the center of the city, the fashionable Florida t< 
Plaza San Martin, returning by Reconquista to the Plaza d 
Mayo, cross down to Parque 9th of July below the govern- 
ment Palace, then go by Paseo de Julio and Avenue Alveaz 
to Parque 3rd of February, commonly called Palermo. After 
a drive in the park return may be made by Santa Fe and 
Callao to the Capitol building and upper end of the Avenue, 
or by other streets past the Recoleta, the Aguas Corrientea, 

The calle Florida is par excellence the fashionable prom- 
enade of the city. Though narrow like the others and but ten 
blocks long, it is distinguished from the rest by having no car 
tracks and is lined by many of the most fashionable shops, 
beginning with Gath & Chaves extending from the Avenue to 
Rivadavia; though to be accurate, this is on Peru instead of 
Florida, the old Rivadavia street being the dividing line 
where the names change and the numbering each way begins, 
instead of the Avenue as would seem more natural Besides 
many of the best shops, there are on Florida many fine resi- 
dences, among these one between B. Mitre and Cangallo be- 
longing to the Guerrero family 5 one on the left in the Louis 
XV style between Corrientes and Lavalle, the home of Juan 
Pena ; opposite is that of Juan Cobo. Beyond Lavalle on the 
right is the magnificent home of the Jockey Glitb, soon to be 
abandoned for a larger and still more costly establishment. 
This Club, noted as probably the richest in the world, with 
an entrance fee of 300, nearly $1500, yet having a consider- 
able waiting list, receives so large an income from the receipts 
at the races that it hardly knows what to do with it. Its pres- 
ent edifice has a noticeable facade, a fine entrance hall and 
staircase, on the first landing a famous Diana sculptured by 
FaJguieres. Corinthian columns, ornamentation of onyx, 
ivory, and azul are part of the decoration. A fine banquet 
"hall, various dining-rooms, luxurious drawing and reading 
rooms, rooms for cards, billiards, fencing, baths, etc,, and a 
few to which ladies are admitted with a member for afternoon 
tea > unite to make this the equal of any Clubhouse in the 
world. Beautiful paintings and other expensive luxuries, 
like tapestries and carving, contribute to the elegance of the 


establishment On moving from their present quarters to the 
much larger and more splendid structure now being erected 
near the Plaza San Martin, the Club will present this edifice 
to the Government to be occupied by the Department of 

Beyond on the same side between Viamonte and Cordoba, 
a large building with arcades, covered by a glass roof, occu- 
pies the entire square. This, called the Bon Marehe, is used 
naainly as an office building and contains some Bureaus of 
various Ministries. Formerly the National Museum and the 
Academy of Fine Arts were here located, but the Museum 
or Gallery now occupies a fine building on Plaza San Martin, 
with the Academy adjoining. The Florida ends at this Plaza, 
one of the handsomest of the city, surrounded by many splen- 
did edifices, adorned with large trees, flowers, shrubbery ; and 
at the upper end an equestrian Statue of San Martin. The 
Art 5lB&eum is at the east end of the north side ; farther west 
are stately residences, as also on the south side. Here, 
between Florida and Maipu is the office of the United States 
Legation, easily distinguishable by the United States Coat 
of arms above the door, should the flag not be floating from 
the projecting staff. Happily in the South American coun- 
tries visited, the legations are all suitably housed, though it 
is said that at least one Minister of ours to Argentina, paid 
more for his house rent in Buenos Aires than his entire salary. 
It is obviously not a position to be sought at present by a 
man with only his talents to recommend him. Returning by 
Reeonquista one would pass many fine business blocks, includ- 
ing banks* 

Driving past the Government Palace and turning down to 
the left, we come to the Parque Wi of July in the rear of 
the palace, from which we proceed again north on the way 
to Palermo. Buenos Aires boasts of 74 parks and plazas 
altogether, with an extent of 10 million square meters. The 
9th of July is modeled after the Champs ISlysees, having a 
broad avenue with gardens of the Renaissance style on each 
side. It begins at the south with a half circle in which a 
statue, probably Rivadavia, was to be placed. In the middle 
is a circle with an artistic fountain by the French sculptor 
Moreao, and at the north end, opposite Cangallo, is a pretty 


fountain by an Argentine artist, Lola Mora. Along Ike way 
are cafes, restaurants, and concert halls. 

Proceeding along the Paseo de Julio, with its line of shrubs 
and flowers, one may continue by the fine Avenue Alvear 
through the most fashionable quarter of the city. The Ave- 
nue, bordered with flowering trees and palms, is lined with 
palatial mansions, in the midst of beautiful grounds and 
gardens. At the fashionable hour this avenue is filled with 
vehicles, rented victorias, the stately carriages of the resi- 
dents, and many automobiles, which although numerous have 
not yet seemed to lessen the multitude of carriages. 

Almost too soon the Park is reached, its formal title, the 
3rd of February, recalling the defeat of the tyrant Rosas in 
1852 by General Urquiza with an army of soldiers from Ar- 
gentina, Uruguay, and Brazil, Eosas then, fleeing to an Eng- 
lish ship and to permanent exile. He formerly resided on 
the site of the Round Point. This park covering 3,677,000 
square meters corresponds to Central Park, New York, or 
Hyde Park, London, though it is more at one side, being on 
the border of La Plata River- The many beautiful, shaded 
avenues are, on the dies de modo or days of fashion, thronged 
with carriages before or after dinner according to the season, 
when thousands of people may be seen enjoying the spectacle 
as well as the fresh air, the ladies displaying magnificent 
toilets for the pleasure of all beholders. 

The drive should be continued to the lake, where the 
charming pagoda-like Restaurant of the Lake will be admired. 
At certain times and seasons, it is quite the thing to enjoy here 
at the price of three pesos y a cup of afternoon tea, etc., to the 
accompaniment of a good orchestra. At a kiosk on the round 
point of the lake, La Granja Blanca offers for refreshment 
sterilized rmlfr and other dairy products. Not far distant 
is the Restaurant Palermo^ to which persons wishing to dine 
there are gratuitously conveyed from the center of the city. 
Excellent entertainment with good orchestral music is said 
to be provided at a moderate price for this city. 

Within the area of the park are included enclosures for 
various sports. Close to the lake is the ground of the Cricket 
Club with chiefly English members. Enclosed by the ave- 
nues Pampa, Ombu, Alsina, and Palomar, covering a space of 


about 125 acres, are the Golf Links of the Argentine Club, 
with a course of 5300 yards. A Gymnastic and Fencing Club 
possesses a fine court for their exercises, where much fre- 
quented contests are often held, as also in the bicycle track. 
The northwest end of the Park is occupied by a Rifle Range, 
covering 10,000 square meters. An imposing facade is flanked 
by two towers 60 feet high, from which a magnificent pan- 
orama may be witnessed. Three large gateways with glazed 
iron doors open into a vestibule 80 feet long, from which two 
doorways lead to the shooting galleries, 300 feet long and 20 
wide; 38 targets all double and movable give ample oppor- 
tunity for shooting, eight at a distance of 150 feet for revolver 
practice, twenty at 1200, and ten at 1600 feet, for rifle shoot- 
ing- Shields of iron and banks of earth give protection 
against poor shots. Admission is free and any one by pay- 
ing for the cartridges will be supplied -with arms and allowed 
to practice to his heart's content. Contests both national 
and international are frequently organized. 

Near the rifle range is the great hippodrome. Beyond it, 
outside the park, is a field of 30 acres belonging to the Argen- 
tine Sporting Association. This contains a track of 3500 feet 
for trotting races with sulkies, and one of 3200 feet for ob- 
stacle races with hurdles, fences ? and ditches of water. The 
space in the center of the course is used for polo and football. 
Clubs from Uruguay and South Africa have participated in 
games held here by the Argentine Football League. 

The glimpse now gained of the Argentine Hippodrome will 
incite to a visit on one of the gala days, Thursday and Sun- 
day, when many will enjoy a display superior to anything 
of the sort previously witnessed. Nothing in the United States 
approaches it. While some Americans asserted that this was 
the finest Racing Ground in the world, a gentleman of Buenos 
Aires stated that it hardly equaled Longehamps. However, 
the buildings here are superior. The spectators are accom- 
modated in a row of great white stands, that for the especial 
use of the members of the Jockey Club and their families being 
largely of white marble and capped with a graceful roofing. 
Behind the upper rows of seats is a spacious promenade with 
tables for afternoon tea, and farther back large and well ap- 
pointed club rooms. 




Worthy of attention is the long series of other white build- 
ings, elaborate and spacious, for all required purposes, also 
the space enclosed by the track: not the usual bare field but 
a plat decorated with flower beds, greenery, and rivulets 
crossed by little white bridges. There are three tracks one 
inside another, the outermost a mile and three quarters in 
length. The grounds outside the track are embellished with 
flowers, lawns, and trees, the eucalyptus, pines, and palms; 
an excellent band discourses music; while a throng of gaily 
dressed people, the men (at least the Argentines), in fault- 
less attire, the ladies in elegant Parisian costumes with a lib- 
eral display of jewelry, contribute to the brilliant spectacle. 

The season is a long one, continuing from March 4 to 
December 30, with 56 regular functions. The races are of 
a high order (the riders generally Argentine), the most im- 
portant being for the Jockey Club Prize, Sept. 8, the Cup of 
Honor, Sept. 16, the National Prize, Oct. 7, and the Inter- 
national, Oct. 28. These are the true Society events, the 
dates varying slightly with the year. On these occasions the 
throng is so great that movement is impossible. In 1905 
the winner of the National Prize received $27,000 and the 
sale of tickets reached $346,000. In the year 1906, the betting 
at two pesos a ticket was equal to $20,000,000. Persons of 
distinction or with influential friends may be able to procure 
an invitation to the official stand. For seven pesos, tickets 
may be purchased admitting to everything except that, or for 
two pesos to the old stand and four to the new. 

To attend the races one may go by train, every five minutes, 
from Retire Station, by tram (15 civs.) marked Carreres 
from Parque de Julio, by carriage at two pesos an hour, or 
with a livery carriage for 15 pesos the afternoon. 


LEAFING Palermo Park by the broad Ave. Sarmiento, one 
lias on the left the Zoological Garden ; on the right, a feature 
of Argentine life of the highest importance, the buildings and 
grounds of the Rural Society, granted by the Government to 
the Society for the annual agricultural and cattle shows. 
Upon grounds which cover 180,000 square meters are fine pa- 
vilions for various purposes ; stables accommodating 500 horses 
or cattle, park room for 736, a roofed space for 3500 sheep, 
an enclosure of 4500 square meters as show ground, with two 
stands seating 2000 persons. There are three large pavilions 
and others smaller for the display of agricultural machinery 
and products, and an immense kiosk for the products of the 
dairy. The exhibitions, occurring in the months of Sep- 
tember and October, concluding with horse races, are a social 
event. In order to appreciate the leading position in such 
matters held by Argentina, one must attend one of these ex- 
positions, so well conducted as to have attained a degree of 
perfection unsurpassed in the world in the number and pure 
blood of animals exhibited. These expositions, organized by 
Benor G. A. de Posadas in 1858, have been a powerful in- 
fluence in the improvement of stock and in the pride taken in 
blooded animals. They were the starting point of Argentine 
stock breeding. The Sociedad Enrol was organized in 1866. 
During the Presidency of Sarmiento 1868-74, an Agricul- 
tural Bureau was organized, and in 1898 the Ministry of 
Agriculture, a prime necessity in view of the staple indus- 
tries of the country. 1905 was the record year for the ex- 
hibition of cattle, with 2389 head, after which a limit was 
fixed to the number of entries in each class by one exhibitor. 
The variety of cattle most favored is the Shorthorn, forming 
88 per cent, 9 per cent are Heref ords and there are some Dur- 



hams and other breeds. Of the sheep, more are Lineolns, 
of horses, Clydesdales and Percberons, with some Morgan 
race horses. The leading nations of Europe took part in 
the International Exposition, June, 1910. At the National 
Exhibition in September, the sales amounted to over 

A separate Fat Stock show is now held, with high priced 
sales and with frozen meat sent to England. Congress has 
devoted 100,000 pesos annually to such an exhibit. 

The fine studs of the country contain 400 thorough-bred 
stallions and 3000 brood mares, producing 1500 foals yearly. 
There are 66,500 thorough-bred horses. Ormonde, purchased 
for 19,000, was sold in the United States for 23,000. 
Diamond Jubilee cost 30,000 guineas, Flying Fox 37,000. 
Cyllene, bought for 30,000 was sought for at double the 
price to be returned. The sons of these horses, raised in this 
splendid climate, are excellent runners. 

In the agricultural section are exhibited cereals and other 
products; from the north, coffee, cotton, and tobacco; more 
important, the linseed, wheat, corn, and rape, also beans and 
peas, woods, fruits, wools, ostrich feathers, grape and wine 
products, potatoes, sugar cane, yerba mate ; minerals, marble, 
onyx, petroleum, silver; agricultural machinery, pumps for 
watering stock, windmills, engines, threshing machines, 
shearers, locust destroying machines, etc. 

At the Bound Point of this Avenue is a Statue of Domingo 
-F* Sarvmento (after whom the avenue is named) by the 
sculptor Rodin. Unveiled May 25, 1900, it represents Sar- 
miento advancing over the laurels which have fallen at his 
feet, his face expressing the serenity, decision, and energy, 
which characterized him. 

The statue rests upon a block of marble, on the face of 
which Apollo, the god of light and thought advances, dis- 
pelling shadows, while the Python, representing Ignorance 
and Foulness slinks back in death. Two other statues in the 
Park are, one, in front of the Administration Building, of Dr. 
Carlos G. Burmeister, who was many years director of the 
Museum of Natural History, the other of Dr. Eduardo Costa, 
a remarkable jurist who rendered great services to the State. 

On the Avenue are seen two bronze lions, reproductions 


of those at the Palace of Luxembourg in Paris. They have 
been much admired, as the most perfect representations of 
these animals jet produced. 

At the end of the short Ave. Sarmiento is the Plaza Italia, 
adorned with & striking monument by the sculptor Macagnani 
of General Giuseppe Garibaldi, the gift of resident Italians 
and Argentines uniting in a sentiment of fraternal admiration 
for the hero, who is here represented on horseback The 
monument, inaugurated June 2, 1&04, has below at the sides 
of the pediment two statues; one, Victory, who many times 
crowned the hero with laurels, the other, Liberty, for which 
he shed his blood. Excellent bas-reliefs represent episodes in 
Garibaldi's life. 

In the angle between Sarmiento and Avenue Las Heras as 
the entrance to the Zoological Garden and between the latter 
and Santa, F6 an entrance to the Botanical Garden, this not 
always open, the principal gateway being in the middle of 
Hie side on Santa F6, No. 3951. To each of these Gardens 
an entire half day should if possible be devoted and some 
persons would enjoy a longer time in each. Now observing 
only their location, we return to the city in time for dinner 
by Ave, Santa F6, a street about ten miles long, extending 
from Plaza San Martin out to the suburb Belgrano. At No. 
3795 adjoining the Botanical Garden is the National Con- 
servatory of Vaccitwfion (dependent on the Department of 
Hygiene) where children are vaccinated by thousands and 
from which vaccine is sent to all parts of the Republic except 
the Province of Buenos Aires. On the other side of the 
Avenue, on the corner of Uriarte, is an Association of young 
Society ladies, called Las Filomenas, its purpose that of giv- 
ing to poor children a practical education by teaching them. 
a trade. A new route will be by the broad Ave. Callao to 
Ave. de Mayo, but thus will be missed many fine residences 
on Santa F6 which, however, will keep for the next time. 

To see the Botanical Garden one may drive rapidly about, 
or take the leisurely walk which is necessary fully to appre- 
ciate its beauties. This important institution, said to be un- 
equaled in the world, is the work of the celebrated Carlos 
Thays, its organizer and director. His red brick residence 
ii directly in front of the Tn^n gateway. Just within the 




birds, -while smaller ones hold other varieties, lovely white 
parrots, and some entirely pink with curious head feathers, 
probably macaws. These, with the beautiful white peacocks, 
are especially fascinating; the black and white swans are 
noticeable. Many other animals, snakes, etc., too numerous 
to mention, are also on exhibition. In attractive restaurants 
a large dish of ice cream may be had for 30 civs., and various 
other viands. 

Less extensive than the great collection in the Bronx, the 
animals are more magnificently housed, and across the beauti- 
ful lakes the Garden has many vistas of romantic beauty. 

In the central portion of the city are many attractions 
meriting the attention of the tourist. The Museum of Fine 
Arts on Plaza San Martin, northeast corner, contains a worthy 
collection of paintings, chiefly of the modern French School. 
This Museum, decreed by the National Government, July 16, 
1895, was organised by Edward Schiaffino and opened Dec. 
25, 1896. The collection has been formed from a legacy by 
Adrian E. Rossi of 81 canvases, donations from a large 
number of private individuals, works of art belonging to the 
State previously scattered in various public buildings, and 
by many purchases. It includes a considerable number of 
pieces of sculpture. Among the paintings of various schools 
may be observed the familiar names of Puvis de Chavannes, 
Meissonier, Van Ostade, Luca Giordano, Corot, and dozens 
more. The collection is well arranged and lighted, and a full 
half day is requisite to give a cursory glance at the fine works 
of art here assembled. 

A number of private galleries in the city afford evidence of 
refined taste and of the desire of persons of great wealth 
to acquire collections of artistic worth. To visit these in the 
homes of their possessors, persons desiring the privilege should 
endeavor to procure a card of introduction, though in some 
cases permission may be gained by direct application to the 
owners, who courteously receive strangers, whether amateurs 
or artists. The gallery of the estate of Jose Prudeneio de 
Guerrico, Corrientes, 537, is a museum of art as well as 
picture gallery, called one of the first in South America. 
With many others it contains works of Daubigny, Corot, Diaz, 
ileissonier, Greuze, Rosa Bonheur. The gallery of Parmenio 


T. Pinero, Corrientes, 633, has a splendid specimen of Sorolla, 
a fine example of Castro Plaeencia, with works of Dore, 
Bonheur, Fortuny, etc. At Talcahuano 1138, the salon of 
Laurent Pellerano presents paintings, classical, international, 
and Argentine, 40 of Italian artists, 18 Spanish including 
Murillo and Sorolla, 9 French and a good number of Argen- 
tine. In the salon of Dr. Joseph E. Semprun, Tueuman 757, 
is a collection of various styles, with many fine works pur- 
chased in Europe since 1830. The gallery of Jean Canter, 
B. Mitre 516, contains paintings, sculpture, pottery, and en- 
graving of various styles and periods. The gallery at Maipu 
929, belonging to Piladeo Soldaini, open on Sundays from 
one to three, has a collection especially of Italian and Spanish 
artists with more than 50 different signatures. At Paraguay, 
1327, in the home of General Garmendia are 150 paintings 
including canvases of rare merit by unknown and by famous 
artists, and portraits of members of the family, with an in- 
teresting museum of armor of the fifteenth and sixteenth cen- 
turies, fire arms, poniards, and daggers of various periods, 
historic swords of Gen. San Martin, Rozas, and others, and 
personal relies of the Paraguayan war in which the General 
was engaged 

The Museum of Natural History at the corner of Peru and 
Alsina, with entrance on the former, is of great value ; but in 
1911 was so badly housed that a small portion only of its 
treasures were visible. Decreed by the Assembly, May 27, 
1812, and actually installed after an ordinance of Rivadavia, 
Dee. 31, 1823, little was accomplished until the fall of the 
tyrant Eozas. At length the post of Director was offered to a 
professor of the German University of Halle, Charles Germain 
Conrad Burmeister, who, by a previous journey to Brazil 
and Rio de la Plata, had greatly advanced scientific knowledge 
of the fauna and flora of these regions. Dr. Burmeister, 
landing in Buenos Aires September, 1861, developed the 
institution into a renowned scientific establishment. The re- 
markable paleozoologie section has a world wide reputation. 
Fossil animals of the antediluvian epoch, largely derived from 
the Argentine pampa, were reconstructed by the scientist, 
who wrote many works embodying the result of painful re- 
search in reference to prehistoric creatures. After 30 years 


of service the great scholar at the advanced age of 95, re- 
solved to retire, but anxious for the continuance of his work 
he first secured the appointment of Dr. Charles Berg, pre- 
viously in Montevideo. To Dr. Burmeister, who believed 
that the Museum was for the benefit of science and not to 
gratify idle curiosity, is due the fact that the Museum is so 
badly housed ; as when a new edifice was proposed he said 
he would be buried there rather than leave. Many improve- 
ments in the display of objects have been made by Dr. Berg, 
but want of light and space is apparent, and the collection 
will soon be transferred to a building in consonance with its 
merits. The present edifice is an ancient cloister of the Jesuits 
in which the University was installed Nov. 3, 1783. The 
greater part of the visible exposition is up one flight. Of 
especial interest are the enormous skeletons of pre-historie 
animals. The Museum has five sections, including Zoology, 
Paleontology, Ethnology, Botany, and one of Geology and 
Mineralogy; also a library of more than 10,000 volumes, 
chiefly important works for the study of Natural History. 

No one should fail to visit the National Historical Museum 
in the Parque Lezama, open on Thursdays and Sundays from 
noon to four, and entered from calle Defensa, 1600. The 
six rooms and a gallery are so crowded with relics that the 
Government is planning the construction of an edifice more 
worthy to preserve the trophies of the glorious record of the 
country's history. The better one's acquaintance with this 
history, the far greater pleasure in the examination of these 
relies of the past; but at least a casual glance is due from 
every traveler. The Museum was created in 1890 as a mu- 
nicipal institution by Senor Adolph P. Carranza, with 191 
objects: private donations, and trophies previously preserved 
in the Government Palace and the Natural History Museum. 
In 1891, it became national in character and since Sept. 1897, 
it has been in its present locality. In 1907, it contained 
4500 pieces, not all on exhibition on account of insufficient 
space. At the left of the entrance are the offices, at the right, 
the salons. The library, originating with a gift of Director 
Carranza, contains 1500 volumes of American History and 
MS. of great importance. The Museum has a rich collection 
of numismatics, 4000 pieces, including rare examples of medals 


commemorating the epoch of Independence, and many of 
other periods. In the first salon may be seen on the left 
a celebrated plaque of silver with reliefs in gold sent in Au- 
gust, 1807, by the Corporation of Oruro, Bolivia, to Buenos 
Aires, and to General Liniers, to commemorate the retaking 
of the city. Above is the sword of the British General Beres- 
ford, surrendered by him at the time of capture. From the 
plaque is suspended a shield no less famous, called Tarja de 
Potosi, of gold and silver, presented by the ladies of that city 
to the general and patriot, Manuel Belgrano; and with this 
are medals in memory of his triumphs at Salta and Tucuman. 
In this and other rooms are two royal Spanish standards, one 
dating from 1605 ; portraits of Viceroys ; explorers, as Valdi- 
via, Mendoza, Ponce de Leon, discoverer of Florida, Pizarro, 
and others; many pictures of battles; furniture, dishes, and 
other relics of distinguished men. At the doorway of the third 
salon, is a silver statue of the British Minister, George Can- 
ning, presented in 1857 to Dr. Alsina. In the salon is a 
reconstruction of the chamber in which San Martin lived and 
died, the furniture, pictures, etc., given by his descendants, 
with pictures of the battles in which he fought, and a hundred 
other interesting objects. In the fourth room is preserved un- 
der a glass his uniform as Protector of Peru, and his saber of 
Moorish style. Medals, flags, and various other interesting 
relics are here also. The sixth room has, with other relies, 
trophies, and representations of the war with Paraguay. 

The Libraries of the city will be visited by tourists of literary 
tastes if not by others. The National Library was founded at 
the very birth of the nation in 1810, by the Revolutionary 
Junta, who placed in charge Dr, Mariano Moreno. In 1796, 
the prelate, don Manuel Azamory Eamirez, had at his death 
left his books for this object, but the English invasion in 1806 
delayed the execution of the plan. The project received en- 
thusiastic support in the substantial form of gifts. Installed 
in a house of the Jesuits where it remained till 1902, it was 
then removed to its present quarters on calle Mexico, 560- 
566, soon to be enlarged. A fine vestibule and staircase lead 
to the spacious reading-room. There is a handsome hall for 
lectures, and the ordinary appurtenances of a library. The 
institution in 1880 passed from the hands of the City to the 


Government, when Buenos Aires was federalized. The build- 
ing, heated In winter, is then open from 11.30 to 4; in sum- 
mer, from noon till 5. The last figures obtainable were of 
200,000 volumes and 10,000 MS. 

Equally interesting is the Library of the late General B. 
Mitre, preserved in his former residence, San Martin, 336, 
where he died; this, Congress has decreed a public monu- 
ment in recognition of his glorious services to the nation as a 
statesman, a writer, and a soldier. The dissipation of the 
library would have been a public calamity. It is a bibliogra- 
phic treasure, amassed by General Mitre during fifty years of 
active intellectual life. It is distinguished by American his- 
torical works* especially documents and MS. collected for his 
own writings, the Story of Belgrano, 3 vol. and of San 
Martin, 4 vol. The library has twelve sections, including 
the works on the pre-Columbian native races of America, 
their languages, culture, geography, etc.; the discovery of 
America; farther exploration; Rio de la Plata in general 
and particular; Spanish America; Portuguese America; 
North America; boundary limits, laws, seals, constitutions, 
treaties, etc.; with letters and stamps. I was interested to 
observe under glass a letter written by Sidney S. Rider of 
Providence, informing the General of Ms election as an 
Honorary Member of the Rhode Island Historical Society, an 
evidence that his fame had reached one corner of the United 

The Library Bivadavia, Lavalle, 935, founded May 20, 1879, 
by the Bernardino Rivadavia Association, is free to readers, 
but the members pay one peso a month for the privilege of 
taking out books. It contains about 30,000 volumes. 

The Library of the Sociedad Tipogrdfica Bonaerense, Solis 
707, with more than 5000 volumes, is noteworthy as receiving 
all journals and reviews of the Republic. Open 7-10 p. m. 
Entrance free. 

There are especial libraries : that of the Faculty of Medicine, 
Cordoba 2180, open daily to students and the public, and 
having more than 20,000 volumes, that of the Law, Moreno 
350, and that on Education, well stocked on this subject, for 
the use of teachers and others who may apply. The library 




of La Prensa is open to the public from 2 to 7 and from 9 to 
12 p. m. 

In this connection reference to the newspapers seems appro- 
priate. The leading journals publish news from every cor- 
ner of the globe, all that is worthy of interest : they contain 
much more foreign news and cable dispatches than any New 
York paper. Instead of the enormous quantity of trivial gos- 
sip about public and private individuals which forms so large 
a part of the reading matter of most of our papers, they have 
in addition to real news of State, and of mercantile and 
commercial matters at home and abroad, articles scientific 
and literary, information as to art, music, and every field of 
activity. In their high ideals of duty in molding public 
opinion and in correcting abuses, they are regarded by foreign 
critics as among the most important and advanced of the 
world. To this, the first rank of their press, belong the 
Prensa and the Nation among morning papers, the Diario, 
of afternoon. These, with El Pais, Tiempo, La Razon, and 
La Patria degli Italiani show the highest degree of excellence 
as to their illustrations, typography, material, and housing. 
La Nacion, originating in 1857 under the name Los Debates, 
was edited by Gen. Mitre until 1862, and in 1870, took its 
present name. It is noted for the elegance and literary char- 
acter, as well as for the intrinsic value of its writings. There 
are more than 400 publications in the Republic including 100 
in foreign languages, many naturally poor and ephemeral 
in character. There are some excellent illustrated papers; 
Caras y Caretas, the P. B. T. and La Illustration Sud-Amer- 

On the Plaza Lavalle are several important buildings of 
great interest to every tourist. On the west side is the new 
Palace of Justice on a site formerly occupied by the Artillery 
Armory, a work of much splendor both without and within ; 
the edifice, of the neo-G-reek style, constructed by Joseph E. 
Bernaseoni after a design by the French architect, Norbert 
Meillar, at a cost of about a million and a half dollars. The 
main building, 125 feet in height, has seven stories, the four 
central bodies surmounted by a cupola. Steps lead from the 
Plaza to a broad portico and vestibule, from which fine stair- 


ways conduct to the third floor, the seat of the Supreme Court 
Other great staircases lead up from north and south; from 
Lavalle street is a covered passage way admitting vehicles 
with criminals. On the main floor are the chambers for 
Federal Courts and their Secretaries, the Criminal and Cor- 
rectional Tribunals. A Jury Hall is an amphitheater seating 
700. The Supreme Court Boom on the third floor, 70 by 38 
feet and 60 feet high, is separated from the front by a fine 
gallery looking upon the plaza. Every floor is arranged for 
eight tribunals or courts, each with audience chamber, pri- 
vate rooms for judge and secretaries, and rooms for employees. 
There are several patios adorned with beautiful columns, one 
ia style somewhat after the Caryatides of the Erechtheion 
in Athens. The archives will be kept on the ground floor: 
the three upper stories are reserved for use when needed. Six 
passenger elevators and two freight supply required service. 
On the opposite side of the plaza is a building which to 
many will be still more attractive, the Colon Theater, with- 
out its equal in America, and some say in the world. No 
shops disfigure the ground floor, nor do any of the fagades 
resemble the walls of a prison. The exterior is of the Ionic 
order of architecture below, the Corinthian above, and at the 
top a rather composite construction. The height to the cor- 
nice is about 80 feet. From the main entrance on the plaza 
a vestibule leads to a hall 45 by 90 feet and 80 feet high, from 
which a staircase 45 feet wide and adorned with 16 large 
statues conducts to the level of the orchestra chairs of the 
auditorium, one of the largest in the world, accommodating 
3570 persons. The entire length of one balcony is nearly 
250 feet, 10 more than that of St. Charles in Naples. The 
floor space 90 by 70, has 900 chairs- on 7 levels. The stage, 60 
feet broad and 65 feet high, from foundations to arch is 150 
feet. The building is fire-proof, with fine acoustic properties, 
and the best of light, heat, and ventilation. The cost was 
nearly $2,000,000. The theater is a government building 
where operas are performed by the leading European artists, 
Mascagni and others conducting. It has been said that the 
Argentines discover the great singers ; later they come to New 
York The seats are more expensive than at the Metropolitan 
and the audience is as brilliant as any in the world. 




Tlie edifice north of the theater deserves more than a pass- 
ing glance, a beautiful school building called the President 
Roca, fitted with all the latest improvements and containing a 
charming patio at which every one should take a peep, since 
this may be done without disturbing the inmates. An equally 
beautiful school building is the Sarmiento on Callao. On the 
opposite side of the Plaza Lavalle is another excellent and 
well equipped school 

Many theaters there are besides the Colon; the Opera, at 
Corrientes 860, now used for light opera, the San Martin on 
Esmeralda 257, the National Theater designed for the repre- 
sentation of works written in the country, and many more of 
all classes including vaudeville and cinematograph, as may 
be seen by consulting the daily papers. The performances 
begin usually at 8.30, sometimes at 9. For the opera, full 
dress is de rigueur, the ladies en decollete; and the spectacle 
on a fete day, as the 25th of May or 9th of July, should not 
be missed by the tourist. 

At the CoUsee Argentin, Chareas 1109, is a permanent 
circus of modern arrangement accommodating 1700. 

In the city are many Conservatories of Music and musical 
societies. Concerts are given in various places, besides those 
in the Parks by the excellent military bands. 

Six blocks west of Plaza Lavalle and two north, facing 
Paraguay street, is a fine building occupying a whole block, 
the purpose of which would hardly be suspected. Instead of 
the public institution which it might be supposed to contain, 
it has indeed public works, tanks containing the city's water 
supply. It is called the Aguas Corrientes and may be in- 
spected within, on a permit to be procured from the President 
of the Commission, Rivadavia 1255. A fine view of the city 
will be enjoyed from the roof. 

The building opposite is the Normal School for Girls. 

A little farther west is the building of the Med/ical School, 
facing Cordoba, and on the corner of Los Andes. The fine 
edifice contains offices, lecture halls, a large amphitheater, 
laboratories, dissecting rooms, library, etc. The handsomely 
decorated salon where degrees are conferred has a ceiling of 
artistic merit representing th^triumph of Science. Paintings 
on the walls illustrate some of these, such as Jenner in- 


nocaUting with the first vaccine, Pasteur examining" cultures 
of microbes, and many others. In the amphitheater is a 
large painting by Charles Leroy, representing Meditation 
upon Death, presented by Dr. Toribio Ayerza. The school has 
annexes for Pharmacy and Dentistry and in a separate build- 
ing a School of Obstetrics for midwives. Opposite the Medi- 
cal School, is the Ma^ertvtiif Hospital, and connected with the 
former the Morgue, equipped in the finest manner with re- 
frigerators and every facility desirable for such an establish- 
ment The public entrance is on Junin. The standard of 
the Medical School is so high that only about 60 per cent of 
its students are graduated. Other departments of the Univer- 
sity are located in different parts of the city. A beautiful 
structure of the Gothic style of architecture has been designed 
for the Law SchooL The Agricultural School in the sub- 
urbs has commodious buildings and large grounds. 

The Eecoleta Cemetery, no one should fail to visit. "Well 
within the city, it is easy of access by car or carriage, in the 
direction of Palermo Park but not so far, a city of the dead 
among the living, a crowded city with no room, for more, 
save in the lot and tombs already well filled. The Munic- 
ipal Cemetery now in general use, supplied with a crematory, 
is the Chacarita, five miles from the Plaza. But in the Re- 
coleta are monuments to many Argentine heroes, and splendid 
works of art which would adorn any gallery. To mention 
even the most notable of these would require too much space. 
A few only may be named. In a chapel near the entrance is 
a great marble Crucifix by Monteverde, the Christ represented 
in realistic agony. A beautiful statue of Grief by Tantar- 
dini stands upon the tomb of Quiroga. The finest of the 
tombs is said to be that of Dr. Francois J. Muniz, physician, 
soldier, and philanthropist, A superb female figure of bronze 
representing Science, is seated below, a bust of the physician 
is above. The tombs of Ayerza, of Oeampo, and others are 
also adorned with beautiful statues of allegorical figures. A 
full half day should be allowed for a careful study of the 
works of art and the tombs of many famous Argentines. 

A visit to the Frigomficos and to the Docks and Harbor 
should be on the programme of every tourist. Those who care 
for such things may like first to visit the Slaughter Houses 




on the edge of the town, the extreme west, at a place appro- 
priately called Nueva Chicago. These, inaugurated March, 
1900, occupy an immense rectangle on Merlo, Arco, and San 
Fernando streets, about 1200 by 3000 feet. The abattoirs 
against the outer wall cover each 400 square feet and the 
courts for the animals, 15,000 feet; room for 30,000 head of 
cattle. All arrangements are of the best fashion, with suitable 
constructions for every necessity, including a crematory for 
useless animals. To see the animals slaughtered, a visit should 
be made in the early morning. The tramways leading thither 
may be taken on calle San Juan or on Kivadavia ; round trip 
by the former, 70 ctvs.; by the latter 10 ctvs. each. way. An 
hour must be allowed for the journey. 

Many who will prefer to be excused from visiting slaughter 
houses may yet enjoy a visit to the great Frigorificos, where 
no unpleasant sights need be witnessed, but where some in- 
sight may be gained into the wonderful industry which has 
been so great a factor in the rapid increase of Argentina's 
wealth. An electric car.will take one to the bridge across the 
Riaehuelo, an important structure of iron opened in August, 
1902, of immense service to the teams carrying loads to the 
Central Produce Market, the Mercado Central de Frutos 
(not fruits), where cattle and agricultural products are sold 
for export, an immense traffic, the most important, it is said, 
in South America. As long ago as 1906, 5000 vehicles daily 
crossed this bridge. At the left on the other side is the Fri- 
gorifico La Blanca, opened Sept. 1903, an establishment of 
imposing appearance and completeness with its courts, offices, 
and warehouses. Passing some of these, one comes to a pool 
in which animals by the hundred are bathed before going 
to the slaughter house, whither we are not obliged to follow. 
Here is a track on which run automatic cars transporting the 
slain animals to the air chambers. Three boilers of 200 
horse power, a depot of ammonia, a fire engine and two 
electric light installations are beyond the three refrigerating 
chambers, which will accommodate at the same time 7000 
beef and 70,000 sheep. The pipes of ammonia are 60 miles 
long. To see rows on rows of hanging cattle covered with a 
thin coating of snow as it appears, really frost, which on 
pipes and walls is a quarter of an inch thick, is quite im- 


pressive. The fortunate visitor may be regaled by the Eng- 
lish Superintendent with a hospitable cup of tea. 

Beyond this establishment is the Mercado de Frutos, the 
great wool market of the world, where other products also 
are sold, grain, cattle, fruit, etc. The iron building which 
covers over 30 acres cost $4,155,000 gold. It contains 72 
cranes and elevators, 44 hydraulic presses, motors, engines, 
etc. With a capacity of over 50,000,000 Ibs. of wool the 
greatest quantity yet stored was in Feb. 1901, when there 
were 35 million Ibs. within and 5 million in wagons outside. 
To see the wools being sorted, and other operations, and at 
other times of the year the different products of the season 
is of very great interest. 

Above the bridge, the Frigoiifico La Negra, founded in 1883 
by Sansinena, employs nearly 700 men and boys, has four 
Stem refrigerating machines, and three from Switzerland, and 
with a capital of $3,000,000 pays annual dividends of from 
18 to 50 per cent. Another establishment called Frigorifico 
Argentina, a joint stock company, is nearly as large as the 
Mercado dos Frutos. A single man kills 6000 sheep daily, 
so skillful is he and so perfect are the arrangements. In 
connection with the beef is a department for making Liebig's 
Extract. Many interesting operations carried on here would 
take too long to describe. 

A great establishment in this quarter is that of Domingo 
Noceti & Co. with immense workshops, foundry, iron-work, 
etc., connected with the railway. 

On the way thither or on the return, several important 
institutions may be passed or visited. 

The Hospital Mercedes for the Insane, established in 1863, 
is well located on the calle Brandsen, on high land with fine 
large buildings and grounds, the latter including well paved, 
shaded streets, parks, and gardens. It has separate apart- 
ments for persons needing continual surveillance, and for 
all grades and conditions, each section with refectory, salon, 
dormitory, etc. ; also workshops for the manufacture of many 
articles, and opportunities for gardening, painting, music, etc., 
for those who are able to work. At one time there were more 
than 1000 poor patients and 132 paying. Baths, medicinal 
and plain, a gymnasium, library, music, and billiard rooms 




are provided. Opposite is a Building for Idiots, established 
1855 by philanthropists, with accommodations for 500. 

The Arsenal of War, also in this quarter of the city, may be 
reached by cars coming down Callao and Entre Rios, though 
located on Pozos between Garay and Brazil Everything 
needful for the making or repairing of war material, for the 
furnishing of barracks and most of the military establish- 
ments, is here provided. The workshops will interest many, 
and the depot of war supplies. The buildings, lighted by 
electricity, are surrounded by large and well planted gardens. 
There is a gallery for artillery practice. If passing along 
the Ave. Callao, at 540 tiie school building Sarmiento should 
be noticed, admirable both without and within. 

The splendid Docks of Buenos Aires deserve the attention 
of every visitor. Although now utterly inadequate for the 
requirements of the city's commerce they are models as far 
as they go. When constructed it was supposed that they 
would provide ample accommodations for many years, as no 
one looked forward to the astonishingly rapid growth of both 
city and commerce. The port has two sections, the original 
and natural harbor at the Riaehuelo south of the city, where 
the stream so called, entering the River, allows ships drawing 
18 feet only to go some distance up. The docks on both sides 
of this stream form a very important auxiliary to the more 
modern section on the River, the tonnage some years ago 
reaching 1,200,000 annually. 

The chief port constructed on the bank of the great River 
is composed of two large basins called the north and south 
darsenas, and between these, four docks. The Darsena Sud 
is more than half a mile long and 500 feet wide, the first and 
second docks are about 1800 by 500 feet, the other two a little 
smaller. The Darsena Nord lias an area of a million square 
feet. In the basins the depth of water is 21 feet, in the 
docks 23.9 at the lowest. The entire water surface of this 
port is over 150 acres. The Riaehuelo has but two sheds for 
merchandise; this, the Capital port, has 24 depots, 8 of iron 
and 16 of masonry. Their dock frontage is 8000 feet, their 
capacity over 2 million cubic feet. There is hydraulic motive 
power, four motors, 36 elevators, and all other necessities, 
including nearly 50 miles of railway. 


Two large grain elevators at Docks 2 and 3 belong to 
private companies, one with a capacity for 85,000 tons of 
grain. Next to these is a mill for making flour, the Rio de 
la Plata, which cost $15,000,000. The port is lighted by 
electricity, 180 lamps of 280 watts, and 261 of 400 watts 
placed 100 feet apart, so that ships can come in by night as 
well as by day. It is said to be the best lighted harbor in 
the world, except that of London. New York is far behind. 
The cost of the harbor works was approximately $35,000,000. 
Plans are already made for vastly greater facilities extending 
for miles np the river. 

The neatness and cleanliness of the docks and their ap- 
proaches will probably excite the greatest astonishment, and 
the manner in which they are shut off from the rest of the 
city by the beautiful Parqne de Julio and the Paseo Colon. 
Between these and the river is an Immensely broad, well 
paved street with appropriate structures and ample room for 
all traffic. A call to see the Immigrants' Hotel, where fine 
accommodations for the use of the immigrants are provided 
in several large buildings close to the Darsena Nord, is well 
worth while. 

An excursion by no means to be omitted is that to El 
Tigre, the fashionable summer and boating resort, where 
regattas at times occur and where all kinds of water craft 
are in evidence. It is a short rail or boat ride, an hour or so, 
to the delightful spot where the river Tigre flows into La 
Plata. The former is overspread with a perfect network of 
islands covered with trees, gardens, meadows, and charming 
vine-clad cottages. On the main shore are pretty hotels and 
restaurants with music and other attractions, people in out- 
ing flannels and in evening dress, a delightful combination of 
wealth, fashion, and natural beauty, which every one may 

An excursion should be made from Buenos Aires to La 
Plata; according to one's taste and pocketbook, to Mar del 
Plata. A visit to an estanda will be greatly enjoyed if per- 
mission can be obtained from the proprietor; but the large 
ones near the city are few in number and obviously it would 
be inconvenient for them to entertain all passing travelers. 
With friends at court, the few may be able to arrange a visit. 




At estancias far out on the campo it is different, and the rare 
stranger is pretty sure to receive a welcome. 

La Plata. The excursion requires a full long day. The 
journey is made by rail from the fine large station on the 
Plaza Constitucion, by the Southern Railway, the F. C. S. 
The first important station is Quilmes, 9 km., a historic spot, 
taking its name from an Indian tribe which was conquered 
and deported in 1670. Here landed, June 25, 1806, the 
English General Beresford with 2000 soldiers for the capture 
of Buenos Aires, meeting with temporary success; and off 
shore Feb. 24, 1827, Admiral Brown defeated the Brazilian 
squadron during a war for the possession of Uruguay. A 
pretty Gothic church may be seen from the station. On 
the edge of the town is a vineyard, a brewery also. So far 
come electric cars, starting from a bridge over the Eiachuelo 
in the part of the city called Barracas. JYom the station 
Pereyra, 39 kilometers, a branch road goes to the port of 
Ensenada, and in this vicinity are several large estancias, the 
San Juan, the Pereyra, and the Estancia Grande. Fifty- 
seven kilometers southeast of Buenos Aires and five from 
Ensenada is La Plata, a city made to order, like "Washington, 
to be the capital, not of the Republic, but of the Province, 
we should say State, of Buenos Aires, after the city, B. A., 
had been made the Federal Capital. The decree was promul- 
gated Nov. 19, 1882. The city is well planned with rec- 
tangular blocks, but with the addition of many diagonal 
boulevards, of parks and plazas. On account of the wonder- 
ful growth of Buenos Aires, so near, the development of La 
Plata has not equaled expectations, as for many years was 
the case with our own capital, Washington ; but in time, like 
that, it will become a splendid city. The chief points worthy 
of observation are the various Government Buildings, the 
Casa de Gobierno, residence and offices of the Governor, 
the Legislative Hall, the City Building (MunicipaJidad), the 
Direction de Escuelas, the Department of Engineers, the 
great University Buildings, the Astronomical Observatory 
founded by the Government in 1883, and most famous of 
all, the Museum. A carriage may be hired at the station at 
one peso an hour, or a tramcar will make a considerable cir- 
cuit, fare 10 centavos. A large Asylum for Mendicants, satis- 


fying an important social necessity, has been erected by the 
philanthropist, Placide Martin. 

The La Plata Museum (open fete days including Sundays 
from 1 to 4), having a world wide reputation for its large 
collection, anthropological and ethnological, was founded Sept. 
17, 1884, by Francisco P. Moreno. While the departments 
mentioned are the most famous, the museum also contains 
sections devoted to zoology, geology and mineralogy, and to 
archaeology. The substantial architecture of the building and 
the arrangement of the interior and of the specimens is equal 
to that of European collections. Unscientific persons will be 
interested in many of the objects presented, the stuffed ani- 
mals, the skeletons of prehistoric creatures, the mummies, the 
pottery, and other objects. 

Mar del Plata, called the Newport of South America, is an 
extremely expensive and fashionable seaside resort about 250 
miles from Buenos Aires. The night trains with Pullman 
cars are well patronized. In the summer season tickets must 
be procured in advance and rooms engaged at the hotels. 
The Hotel Bristol y Ajnerican plan, 12 pesos up, is the most 
luxurious, equipped with every possible convenience. The 
Grand, Victoria, Hoyal and many others are very comfortable, 

The city has more than 10,000 inhabitants, with boulevards, 
plazas, splendid chalets and "cottages" of the Newport 
fashion. There are casinos, theaters, golf course, bathing 
establishments, and everything requisite for a resort of wealth 
and fashion on the grandest scale. 



AMONG the nations of the ancient or the modern world, not 
one do we know with a history in some respects so extraor- 
dinary as that of Paraguay. Yet of the thousands annually 
who will soon be making the South American Tour, scarcely 
one would be tempted by historic interest to journey 1000 
miles from the beaten track. But the greatest waterfall in the 
world! Ah, that is another matter ! A waterfall bigger than 
Niagara, as high and with more water? Truly, that is the 
tale! So while the majority, who wish to make the trip in 
three months or so, or who have come in the wrong season, may 
go directly on from Buenos Aires to Montevideo, some will 
decide to visit the Iguassu Falls, and then, being near, will 
cross over to Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay. 

To a few it would be pleasant to make the entire journey 
upward in the fine steamers of Mihanovich. Although the 
banks of the wide Parana are too distant and too flat to afford 
much scenic beauty, there is some interest in calling at various 
cities along the way, and in noting the gradual change from 
a temperate to a tropical clime, with the variation in verdure 
and animal life, especially of birds ; higher up between nar- 
rowing shores or islands are fascinating stretches of forest, 
interspersed with pretty pastoral scenes. All the way to 
Asuncion, a week's journey, one may sail in the same com- 
modious steamer; but if first visiting the Falls, a change will 
be made at Corrientes ; for the Alto Parana on which Posadas 
is situated is more, shallow than the Paraguay on whose bank 
is Asuncion. 

The shorter way, appealing to the greater number, is to go 
by rail to Posadas, thence by steamer to the Falls and return, 
continuing by rail from Posadas to Asuncion. The river 



route, obviously shorter Doming down, may be taken for the 
return to Buenos Aires, or the rail route through Posadas. 

The cross-country ride through the provinces of Entre 
Bios and Corrientes on the way to Posadas will give a view 
of the fertile pampas and their rich agricultural products, 
of enormous herds of cattle, and of the wooded banks of the 
Uruguay ; through Misiones, of a pretty rolling country. The 
towns are generally small At last accounts a day and a 
half was required for the journey. 

Posadas, capital of the territory Misiones, is a thriving 
town of 10,000 inhabitants, destined to more rapid growth, 
now that it has through railway connection with Buenos 
Aires, and, after crossing the Parana, with Asuncion; the 
whole section will share in the prosperity promoted by better 
transportation facilities. The three hotels of Posadas, one of 
which, terms, $2.00 a day, is called fairly comfortable, will 
be sure to improve. There is a fine Government Building on 
the principal plaza and other public edifices, a beautiful prom- 
enade with native and exotic trees. The river is here about 
a mile and a quarter in width. 

Iguass Palls. To visit the Iguassu Falls one sails from 
Posadas in a boat of moderate size 100 miles up the Parana 
to the mouth of the Iguassu, and half a mile up that stream 
to Port Aguirre, where a building, called a hut, serves as 
hotel, store, and post office. As the Alto Parana separates 
Argentina from Paraguay, the Iguassu separates it from 
Brazil, flowing from the east, from its source in the moun- 
tains near the Atlantic. Twelve miles more one proceeds on 
mule or horseback, a four hours* ride. By 1915, so rapidly 
are improvements made, doubtless there will be an automo- 
bile traveling a good road ; and a primitive establishment on 
the edge of a rocky gorge will have been transformed for the 
globe trotters into a large hotel with luxurious accommo- 
dations. Perhaps, however, the tourist who arrives before 
the pristine beauty of the wild surroundings are converted 
into artificial adornment may enjoy equally well the mag- 
nificence of the spectacle. Prom the inn near the Falls, a 
public spirited and wealthy lady of Argentina has had a 
roadway constructed, 65 feet wide, more than half a mile 
along the bank of the stream to the top of the Argentine Fall. 


For the river, here a mile and a half in width, double that 
of Niagara, also has two falls, the Brazilian farther up 
nearer the other shore. In the midst of this primeval trop- 
ical forest, the roar of the great cataract is startling; on the 
other hand it may seem still more startling to approach 
through an absolutely silent forest quite to the edge of this 
tremendous cataract, the wind sometimes unaccountably car- 
rying the noise in an opposite direction. Above the Falls the 
river is very wide ; taMng a sharp turn it makes three leaps, 
the last about 200 feet, where unequal erosion has given some- 
thing of a horseshoe shape. Zigzag paths cut in the cliff lead 
down to several beautiful view-points. "When the stream is 
low, it may be crossed above the Falls by canoe and wading, 
to a point called the Garganta del Diablo, the Throat of the 
Devil, close to the Brazilian Falls; the traveler with steady 
nerves leaning over the precipice, in the midst of howling 
waters and showers of spray, may there have a glorious view 
of the foaming abyss beneath. In low water the Brazilian 
and Argentine Falls each measure a quarter of a mile along 
the edge. Separated by masses of rock in some places cov- 
ered with forest, they are then quite distinct; but when the 
river is high they are practically one, the whole measuring 
nearly two miles across, indeed a worthy rival of Niagara, 
as figures show, in the midst of wild and delightful scen- 

Comparing this with the other two great cataracts of the 
world, Victoria and Niagara, the African fall leads in height 
with a leap from 210 to 360 feet, that of the Iguassu is 
196-210 feet, and Niagara but 150-164 The width of the 
Victoria is slightly more than Niagara's; the Iguassu with 
its 13,123 feet has more than double the breadth. In the 
volume of water also the Iguassu is greater with 28 minion 
cubic feet a minute to 18 million for each of the others. Our 
great Niagara thus seems outdone by both, while in the mag- 
ical beauty of the surroundings there is no comparison. The 
Argentine Government is already awake to the necessity of 
preserving from spoliation by the greedy and destructive 
hands of men this one of the world's marvels for the admira- 
tion and enjoyment of posterity, and is planning for the de- 
velopment here of a great National Park, foreseeing that vis- 


itors will come from all parts of Europe and America when 
aware of the attractions and tliat the comforts of travel will 
be supplied. 

One having the spirit of the true explorer may continue 
up the Alto Parana River, now dividing Paraguay from 
Brazil, 125 miles farther, to the foaming cataracts of La 
Gmyra, sometimes called the Seven Falls and said to be the 
mightiest on earth. Above these is a great lake from which 
the water emerging comes down over precipices through a 
narrow gorge at one point but 250 feet wide. The waters 
drop in one leap after another 310 feet, descending into the 
gorge below with a force so tremendous as to form a mael- 
strom by the side of which the Niagara whirlpool is a quiet 
spot They are calculated all together to have a force of 
4*3 million horsepower, from a mass of 13,000,000 cubic feet a 
minute. Four hundred miles farther up stream are the 
Uberaponga Falls. 

Buins. One who delights in these will find a further at- 
traction in the territoiy of Misiones, Not so ancient as the 
Inca and other remains in Peru and Bolivia, they still have an 
interesting history. Here in Misiones, and in neighboring 
regions of Brazil, occurred the earliest and most successful 
attempt yet made for the civilization of native tribes, instead 
of their extermination or exploitation, ruthlessly practiced 
for centuries in most parts of North and South America. 
The earliest settlements of the Indians made by the Jesuits 
were in the countries of Paraguay and Brazil ; but as a result 
of the attacks of the Portuguese, who carried the Indians off 
into slavery, the Jesuits migrated to the south shores of the 
Alo Parana and to the region along the Uruguay, taking 
with them their proteges, who through humane treatment had 
become submissive to their influence. Thirty villages were 
ultimately established, which in 1732 were in a prosperous 
condition with 30,362 families. Envy thus arose from which 
and other reasons the Jesuits were expelled from the colonies 
as also from Spain in 1768, Bereft of their leaders the In- 
dians, happily domesticated and employed, soon began to 
scatter, and in 1817 the villages were destroyed. The ruins 
of these large establishments, surrounded and overgrown by 


thick woods, are mute, impressive witnesses of the criminal 
folly of man and of the destructive power of nature. 

Such ruins exist at Apostoles, a railway station 35 miles 
from Posadas, though the best preserved are at San Ignacio 
Mini, 11 miles from Santa Ana, 1% miles from the hank of 
the Parana. 


Before crossing the river into Paraguay, a glance at its strange 
history is in order. Wonderful indeed it appears, that almost in 
the center of this great continent, eight hundred miles from the 
sea, a city was founded August 15, 1536, by three hundred Span- 
iards, a full century before Roger Williams made a settlement on 
the shores of Narragansett Bay and seventy-one years prior to the 
first English colony established in North America. The names of 
Juan de Ayolas and his faithful aid, Captain Martinez de Irak, 
should stand out more prominently in the list of American pioneers. 
A land route to the newly discovered rich gold country of Peru was 
what they were seeking. With this end in view Ayolas established 
a fortified settlement on the site of Asuncion ; then having made 
peace with the Indians he pursued his way north and west in the 
hope of winning through to Peru. For this purpose he had been 
sent by Pedro de Mendoza, after that leader had established a small 
colony at Buenos Aires. Sailing up the river to a natural port 
which he called La Candelaria, he left here the ships with Iifcla and 
forty men, with orders to wait for him four months. Then he 
plunged into the vast and gloomy forest. 

Somewhat later the Governor of Buenos Aires, Francisco Euiz 
Galen, hearing of Ayolas* disappearance, with six ships and two 
hundred men, sailed up to Asuncion, arriving about when Irala for 
the second time returned from La Candelaria for necessary sup- 
plies, Galen, asserting authority, refused Irala a vessel to go back. 
Months elapsed before the faithful Irala with angry urging at length 
obtained the vessel. It was now the autumn of 1538, long after 
the time set for Ayolas* return. Still Irala waited, ignorant that 
Ayolas and all his followers were lying dead in the forest not far 
distant. For while Irala had been urging his demand for the ves- 
sel and supplies, Ayolas, who had journeyed among hostile Indians, 
swamps, and forests to the mountains of Chareas, had returned un- 
scathed with gold and silver to find the banks of the river de- 
serted and no vessel in waiting. The tragedy was complete when 
the Indians fell upon the little band and slaughtered every one. 


Again Irala descended to Asuncion and again returned to wait, till 
at last lie learned from the Indians of the unhappy fate of his 
chief and sadly went back to Asuncion. There he was enthusiastic- 
ally acclaimed Governor and Captain- General of the colony. 

Although his subsequent career was far from smooth he was 
more fortunate, as well as more faithful and able, than most of 
the conquistador es y at last, while still in office, dying peacefully, in 
1557, at the age of seventy. Years of jealousy and strife followed. 
Meanwhile the settlement at Buenos Aires had been abandoned. 
Though re-established in 1580, Asuncion remained the chief Span- 
ish city on the eastern slope of South America until near the close 
of the eighteenth, century. When, however, in 1776 a Viceroy was 
appointed for the region of La Plata, he had his seat in Buenos 
Aires. Sometime after the revolution there of May 25, 1810, a 
small army was sent from Buenos Aires to Paraguay with the ex- 
peetation that they too would revolt. Instead, the Argentines were 
defeated; but a little later the people of Paraguay demanded the 
assignation of Governor Veiazeo. It was given and a new gov- 
ernment was peacefully organized, to be followed by many changes, 
until in 1844 Carlos Antonio Lopez was elected President. This 
office he held until his death in 1862 when he was succeeded by his 
eon, Francisco, both men being really dictators. Unfortunately the 
son, who had visited Europe, conceived the idea of becoming a 
second Napoleon, and at once began to strengthen and discipline the 
army and to fortify the country. Uruguay, as usual involved in 
difficulties, appealed to Lopez for assistance against Brazil. Lopez, 
on his way to invade that country crossed Argentine territory al- 
though permission had been refused. Uruguay meanwhile becom- 
ing reconciled with Brazil, Paraguay became involved in a war 
against these three countries. Presumably, a war between one small 
country and the two greatest of South America would be of short 
duration. Not so! Six years the war continued, inflicting upon 
the little country, through slaughter and disease, loss and suffering 
unparalleled, costing the allies also severe distress. No more heroic 
struggle is recorded in history. Though with a splendid army of 
fighters, the resources of Paraguay gradually diminished, a victory 
winning no lasting 1 good. A chain barrier fixed across the river, 
with fortifications, long kept the enemy out. Wooden cannon" were 
constructed from the hardwood of the forest; but at last the forts 
were passed. In December, 1868, after a severe defeat, Lopez 
abandoned Asuncion to continue his struggle in the interior. De- 
feated in August, 1869, in a last battle, he fled farther into the for- 
est, till finally, March, 1870, his horse becoming mired in a swamp, 
he was Mlled by a spear thrust after refusing to surrender. 


Freed at last from his ruthless domination the country had 
peace; but alas! of the population of nearly a million and a half 
six years earlier, but 280,000 it is said remained. An army deci- 
mated is supposed to suffer terrible loss. Here five-sixths of the 
entire population perished, the cattle and agricultural resources were 
destroyed. Few able-bodied men had survived; boys even to the 
age of ten had been impressed into the army; delicate women had 
been compelled to work in the fields for the production of grain to 
sustain life, and had suffered many unspeakable hardships. The 
struggle of the Greeks against the Persians was not so desperate, 
or prolonged to so bitter an end. This, moreover, was wholly un- 
necessary, the Dictator Lopez being the culpable aggressor; none the 
less, this story of the unparalleled heroism of a people should be 
more familiar to the world outside. 

A season of recuperation and freedom followed, but many years 
were needed for the nation to retrieve in population and resources 
the position it held before the war. Not yet indeed are the inhabit- 
ants so numerous, nor have they learned the advantages of peace. 
No longer ago than November, 1911, an insurrection broke out, 
which for six months or more caused devastation and bloodshed. It 
is to be hoped that peace will now be preserved. 

Curiously enough, the people of Paraguay pride themselves upon 
being the most homogeneous and united of all the South American 
Republics, as they are among the best fighters. Not that they are 
of pure Spanish descent! They are an amalgamation of the early 
Spanish settlers with the Guaranis, the most numerous and intelli- 
gent of the Indian tribes in the neighborhood. An illustration of 
the fallacy of certain theories, the result is a strong and handsome 
white race, preserving with Spanish culture and virtues the warlike 
nature of the Guaranis and unusual virility for a people on the 
edge of the tropics. 

From Posadas across the river to Villa Encarnacion the 
through trains are now carried on large ferry boats as 
planned. The journey to Asuncion may therefore be made 
by through, ears from Buenos Aires, the road having recently 
been widened, and iron bridges erected over the various 
streams. It is a pretty, rolling country, still sparsely set- 
tled, with forests, open grass lands, and occasional small 
villages and farms. 

By Eiver to Asuncion. Should one prefer to sail up the 
river to Asuncion and return by land, which on some accounts 
might be the more pleasurable, one would drive in the early 


morning to the docks of the D&rsena Sud, whence the great 
steamers of the Mihanovieh Lines ply to Montevideo and to 
the north. Also there are boats of the Lloyd Braziliero twice 
a month. Excellent steamers provide every essential com- 
fort, and the person for whom the sea is too boisterous may 
find pleasure in this experience. Unless with, a considerable 
party one should be something of a linguist to enjoy fully the 
excursion^ as the crowd will be cosmopolitan, representing 
perhaps a dozen different countries. 

" A multitude of vessels will be passed ere the ship sails 
freely on the great brown stream, so like the sea except in 
color. It first seems like a river, only on the entrance to the 
Parana, where the steamer winds in and out among low 
islands, fringed with rushes and willows. Several ports are 
passed on the left bank, but most of the way now, as far as 
Corrienteg, the stream is so wide that only one bank is visible. 
The water swirls along 2y 2 knots an hour. There are .vistas 
of green and silver, occasional sails, and gradually higher 

Bosario. The first call is made next morning at this, the 
second city in Argentina, with nearly 200,000 population, 
founded by Francisco Grodoy in 1725, but having small pros- 
perity until, in 1859, General Urquiza made it a port of entry. 
Ocean steamers drawing 24 feet come to its docks, for as a 
grain port it leads Buenos Aires. The city is situated on 
bluffs, one says 60, another, 300 feet high. An expensive sys- 
tem of docks has been arranged to suit the varying height of 
the river. Sacks of grain are sent down through chutes into 
the holds of the vessels. The river here is said to be 20 miles 
wide, though with numerous islands it does not so appear. 

Rosario is a great railway center, roads leading to Men- 
doza and the Trans-Andine, to Bolivia, of course to the Capi- 
tal and to other cities; it is expected .that a road soon will ex- 
tend to the Amazon basin. Rosario compares with Buenos 
Aires somewhat as Chicago with New York; it may have a 
similar if less rapid development. On higher land, with wider 
streets than Buenos Aires, in other respects it is naturally in- 
ferior. There are several hotels, the Grand, Central, Royal, 
Britannia, and Prascati called comfortable, with prices more 
moderate, as they should be; the new Victoria Restaurant is 




good enough for any one. There are excellent pnblic build- 
ings, especially a magnificent Custom House, the Palace of 
Justice, a busy Bolsa (Exchange) on calle Cordoba, a hand- 
some street with good shops ; a beautiful park, boulevards, and 
fine dwellings. Electric cars supply adequate service. There 
are many English here, who have a pleasant Club ; also there 
is a Strangers' Club. 

ParanfiT Above Rosario a call on the other side is made at 
Diamante, then one at Parana, capital of the Entre Rios 
Province, a pleasant town of 30,000, founded in 1730 by a 
colony from Santa Fe. On the Plaza de Mayo is an imposing 
Government Building, and a Cathedral whose twin white 
towers are seen afar. The Plaza Alvear near the river is more 
beautiful, with graceful palms and flowering trees, above 
which rise the towers of a fine church, the San iEguel. The 
Paseo Rivadavia, a broad, shaded promenade, conducts to the 
Urquiza Gardens. Here broad walks and stone stairways, 
among blossoming shrubs and flowers, and handsome trees, 
lead down to the river or to the top of gentle slopes, which 
afford a panorama of the winding river and of a broad 
expanse of rolling country, especially admirable after the flat 
plain. A large new theater offers entertainment. We have 
doubtless all heard that "If wishes were horses, beggars might 
ride/' and in Parana they really do. The city has electric 
cars, the workshops of the Entre Rios railway, and is a dis- 
tributing and shipping point of importance, also an educa- 
tional center. One interested in this phase of Argen- 
tine life may visit the School Alberdi, seven miles distant, 
a Normal College of Agriculture, the only one in the Republic. 
It aims to furnish all the learning necessary for rural man- 
agers, the knowledge requisite for the administration of an 
e&tancia, both for cattle raising and agriculture, to give in- 
formation as to suitable exploitation of especial sites, and, 
besides furnishing technical knowledge, to develop initiative, 
perseverance, and ability for direction and organization. The 
estate covers 1000 acres, cultivating wheat, flax, corn, oats, 
alfalfa, potatoes, besides 5000 trees of choice varieties. 

Santa Fe. Opposite Parana is Golastine, the port of Santa 
Fe, the former for ocean vessels, smaller river steamers only 
sailing up the tributary, Quiloaza, to the capital city, seven 


years older than Buenos Aires. This also was founded by Juan 
de Garay, a short distance from the larger river, as in those 
days of smaller vessels a quieter port was desirable than the un- 
ruly Parana. Onee a rival of Rosario, it has now with a popu- 
lation of 50,000 been left far in the rear. 

One of the public buildings, the Casa de Senadores, is a 
historic place where in troublous times five National conven- 
tions have been held, 1828-31-53-60-66; many provincial 
assemblies have met here for constitutional reforms of the 
Province. From the lofty tower there is a fine view of the 
city and surrounding country. Among other important 
buildings are schools, a Public Asylum, and several churches, 
the Metropolitan erected 1741 originally with a single nave, 
two being added in 1834- Some historic relics within are four 
splendid marble basins for holy water, gift of the Tyrant 
Rosas, a chasuble of richly embroidered satin made at 
Misiones about the middle of the last century, a painting from 
Cuzeo, of date 1751, representing the beheading of Saint 
Pirmin, a Christ sculptured in relief on a block of fine white 
marble framed in Corinthian bronze, and a portrait of Saint 
Peter. The Church of St. Domingo, corner 3rd of February 
and 9th of July, commenced in 1786, now entirely renewed, 
contains a silver tabernacle with Byzantine design, a diadem 
of the patriarch Santo Domingo, and other valuable relics. 
San Francisco Church, Comercio and Ecuador streets, begun 
in 1652, completed 1680, has relics of the noted general, Stan- 
islas Lopez, who is buried under the cupola, and a remarkable 
Jesus of Nazareth. La Merced, on Comercio and Gen. Lopez 
streets, built in 1728, contains a fine oil painting of the Vir- 
gin. The Cathedral now in construction, in the form of a 
Latin cross, will be a monumental work. A statue of San 
Martin, like the one in B. A., adorns the plaza of his name, the 
pedestal representing a condor, the symbol of strength, and of 
the victories of the great General contributing to the Inde- 
pendence. A municipal theater which, cost $125,000 has a 
handsomely decorated foyer. The hotels, Grand, Central, etc., 
are all rather poor. 

Higher up the Parana, towns are more scattered but calls 
are more frequent. Santa Elena is a town with a large 
saJ&dero, a meat-curing factory. At La Paz wood arid char- 


coal are an important element of trade. The scenery becomes 
more pleasing. A severe thunderstorm may afford temporary 
excitement. Crude native "boats floating down strea'm are 
met, bamboo laden schooners, rafts of quebracho timber. 
These, too heavy to float, are supported by common wood 
placed beneath. The ports Bella Vista and Piraguacito are 
centers of the quebracho industry. This remarkable wood, 
the name meaning hatchet-breaker, one of the hardest known 
species, is largely used for railway ties throughout South. 
America, and to some extent for furniture. From the red 
colored -variety tannin is extracted, so valuable in the tan- 
ning of hides. This was first effected in France in 1874. In 
1889 the first factory for tannin manufacture was erected at 
Puerto Casado, Paraguay, the country where it is most largely 

Corrientes, founded April 3, 1588, with 25,000 population, 
is an important and busy place, exporting rich woods for 
building and cabinet making, sugar, cotton, and tobacco, 
horses, sheep, and cattle. The city, three days from Buenos 
Aires, is 25 miles from the junction of the two great rivers, 
the Alto Parana and the Paraguay, and from the frontier. 
To visit by this route Posadas and the Iguassu Falls one 
would here change to a boat of lighter draft, as rapids below 
Posadas allow passage in the dry season of steamers drawing 
no more than three feet. 

To Asuncion one continues in the same steamer, as the 
Paraguay River, though considerably narrower, permits 
steamers of 12 feet draft up to that city. Floating islands 
are frequent, orchids and parrots are numerous ; alligators in 
profusion bask in the sun, disdaining to move at the occasional 
crack of a rifle aimed in their direction. Islands of green 
with flowers of lavender float upon the stream. Blossoms 
of purple and of white depend from the creepers which em- 
brace the trees of the forest. Giant scarlet flowers a foot in 
diameter spring from a green cactus. Human life is rare. 

The first halt in Paraguay, now on the right bank, while 
Argentina continues on the left, is Humaytd where the fa- 
miliar colors red, white, and blue, app|pr instead of the Ar- 
gentine blue and white only. This being a garrison town, 
low barracks are visible and soldiers in khaki. A conspicuous 


object is a great red brick church, battered and rent from 
top to bottom, a mute and mournful witness of that strange 
six years' war. Attacked by the allies, the defensive army 
under Col. Martinez made long and suitable resistance, at 
length retreating to the church which was bombarded from 
the boats. Surrender was at last compelled. Lopez at this 
was so enraged that, as Martinez was not at hand, he seized 
his wife and dragged her along with his army. After suf- 
fering frightful tortures, her hair mostly torn from her head, 
she suffered death from merciful bullets. That she was a 
relative, of Lopez was nothing to the monster of cruelty who 
caused a brother to be shot and his own mother to be flogged. 

The country on the left with low banks is called the Chaco, 
first the Argentine, and above Asuncion the Paraguayan; it 
is a wonderful section many times traversed, but not yet 
thoroughly explored; with the region to the north one of the 
least known parts of the earth. From the highlands of 
Bolivia at the northwest the slope is extremely gradual caus- 
ing many swamps. With some poor land there is more with 
rich vegetation, immense forests, wild animals of many kinds, 
including boa constrictors. And there is a tale of a creature 
called Mboya Jagwa, dog snake, a water serpent unknown to 
science, 60 or 70 feet long with a head like a dog and a hooked 
tail. The Indians all agree in their description of it, and one 
village moved to another part of the country because one of 
these creatures had settled near by. 

Two days have passed on the clearer waters of the Para- 
guay when a strange sight appears in this alluvial land; some 
large stone buildings and great boulders of red stone along the 
bank, then a rocky sugar loaf mountain, not very high, a mere 
babe of a mountain, but a pleasing sight in this flat land. A 
different country is here ; red cliffs, honeycombed with caves, 
rise from the shore. One more corner, and the city of 
Asuncion appears, after so much wilderness, an imposing 
display of white walls, roofs and spires, facing not only the 
stream up which we have sailed, but the broad PILeomayo,f 
flowing in from the northwest, which marks on that side the j 
boundary between Argentina and Paraguay. 

Asuncion, capital of Paraguay, is called by one English 
writer the cleanest, nicest town on the river above Buenos 


Aires. Situated on a hillside above the stream, it has fine 
natural drainage ; and good air and sunshine make it a healthy 
place, to which many come from the south to recover from 
tuberculosis. A thousand miles from the sea it is only 203 
feet above the ocean's level. With a population of 80,000 it 
is still a quiet, sleepy town ; for several hours at noon in sum- 
mer the streets are practically deserted. The Gran Hotel del 
Paraguay is supplied with baths, has French cooking, and 
English is spoken. A Paraguayan peso is said to be worth 8 
cents gold, so it may be well not to have too many. 

On the main Plaza, of course, is the Government Palace, 
which was built by Lopez just before the war and is now used 
for the offices of the President and the Members of his Cab- 
inet; the second story windows afford a splendid view; here 
a breeze is ever blowing. The National Library deserves a 
visit, for it contains the finest existing collection of old Span- 
ish documents connected with the history of the Plata region, 
and Jesuit annals from 1534 to 1600; interesting accounts 
also of what was nearly a condition of State Socialism under 
Dr. Praneia and the elder Lopez. These documents, carried 
off by the younger Lopez when he abandoned the capital, 
were for many years in peasants ' houses at Piribebuy, where 
many valuable manuscripts were used as waste paper. 

The Museo de Bellas Aries boasts of at least one Murillo 
and half a dozen other paintings which would adorn any 
European collection; portraits too of many historical per- 
sonages. The streets, paved with stone and lined with white- 
washed walls, well reflect the sun ; here is repeated the saying 
that only the English and mad dogs walk on the sunny side 
of the street, although the climate even in summer is not 
marked by extreme heat. From Tacumbu, the summit of the 
ridge above the town, a beautiful view will be had of long 
"stretches of winding river up and down, and leagues over the 
Chaco forests opposite as well as the rolling country to the 
east. The forests are not of one or a few kinds of trees. 
Out of a number of 163, in a space 100 yards square, there 
were 47 (not 57) varieties. The land is well adapted to 
intensive cultivation, on account of the great variety of prod- 
ucts which may be raised. There is good hunting, boar, 
jaguar, monkeys, red wolf, etc., and a great field for scien- 


tists in both vegetable and animal worlds. Also there is a 
chance for the treasure seeker ; for when Lopez fled from the 
capital he took with Mm seven cartloads of specie, at least 
$5,000,000. One cartload, on account of hot pursuit, was 
dumped over the bank into a river. The rest was carried on 
and buried in the midst of a swamp where it was marked by 
a wooden cross. This cross was burned in a prairie fire, 
Lopez and all of his men perished, the records were lost ; but 
one man is reported as living who followed the wheel tracks 
to the end. However, the money obviously belonged to the 
Government of Paraguay and if found, which is improbable, 
a good portion at least would have to be forfeited to the 

Every one who comes to Asuncion will wish to purchase a 
bit of Nanduty lace, as it is called, a specialty of Paraguayan 
handiwork, some of it very fine and beautiful. It bears re- 
semblance in patterns to Mexican drawn work ; it is not, how- 
ever, drawn, but is genuine lace, Tt may be purchased also 
in Buenos Aires; perhaps sometimes in Montevideo, but none 
could be found there in 1912 in spite of a strenuous hunt, 
nor in Eio either. The prices are moderate, and no man need 
hesitate about purchasing a piece. No woman will. 

Another specialty of Paraguay is the yerba mate, some- 
times called Paraguay tea, which is raised also in neighbor- 
ing parts of Argentina and Brazil. This herb, Ilex para- 
guayensis, or South American holly, grows as a bush or tree 
resembling the orange. The leaves, which are bright green, 
are used to make a tea, in these three countries very popular 
with natives, and with many immigrants ; it is being gradually 
introduced into Europe. The leaf is smoked and powdered. 
The beverage is made by putting some of this powder into a 
small gourd called a mate, and pouring on boiling water. 
After it has steeped a while, flavored with lemon or sugar, 
it is drunk through a lombilla, a tube enlarged at the end to a 
sort of oval ball, with small holes which admit the liquid, but 
are supposed to keep out the powdered tea. The natives and 
others drink this on all occasions. Taken in moderation it 
is very wholesome, of more or less the same class as tea and 
coffee, but containing less tannin than either; of caffein or 
them it has less than tea but about the same as coffee. It 


does not irritate but soothes the nervous system, and is bene- 
ficial to the digestion unless used to excess. When used 
instead of food it becomes injurious. Thus a gentleman, 
Scotch, who had been in the habit of taking 12 or 14 cups in 
the morning and eating nothing until noon, at length found 
himself in a bad way. Placed by his doctor on a sensible diet, 
a good breakfast with only 2 or 3 cups of mate, he found his 
health soon restored. It is estimated that in South America, 
despite the great coffee production, 10,000,000 persons drink 
mate. It is sold in England, France, Germany, and other 
countries of Europe, the United States being slowest in learn- 
ing to appreciate its excellence. In 1909 more than 2 million 
pounds were produced. Plantations are now being set out 
and its production and consumption are certain to increase 



THE country of Uruguay has the distinction of being the 
youngest, and the smallest in area, of all of the South Amer- 
ican Republics. It must not, however, be inferred that it is 
therefore the most backward. On the contrary, its financial 
reputation is of the best, its bonds selling in Europe at par 
and above, while the population to the square mile is greater 
than that of any other country in South America. Although 
small, indeed, by the side of its neighbors, Brazil and Argen- 
tina, it is twice the size of Portugal and about the same size as 
New England combined with Maryland; a trifle smaller than 
the Brazilian State of Sao Paulo, or than our State of 


While the very first landing in the Plata River section was 
naturally made in this country, Juan Diaz de Solis with fifty of his 
followers here going ashore in 1515, unfortunately to meet death at 
the hands of hostile Indians, the permanent settlement of Monte- 
video was delayed until December 24, 1726. The Charrua Indians 
inhabiting- the country seem to have been a particularly fierce tribe, 
and several attempts at settlement in various places resulted dis- 
astrously. In the seventeenth century, a number of colonies had 
been established by the Franciscans and Jesuits, including 1 one at 
Colonia, which site with the country in general, at that time called 
the Banda Oriental, was long a bone of contention between the 
Spanish and the Portuguese. 

After the Junta of Buenos Aires had in 1810 established its rule 
within its own borders, Montevideo was for a short time the seat 
of the Spanish "Viceroy; but the people of Uruguay soon became 
eager for independence and under the leadership of Artigas a war 
was waged for years, sometimes against the Spanish, then against 
the Portuguese, and even the Portenos of Buenos Aires. After 
the destruction of the Spanish fleet by Admiral Brown, Montevideo, 
June 20, 1814^ surrendered to the besieging army, and the Span- 
ish, power on the River Plata was ended. General Alvear of 



Buenos Aires, for a short time in command, presently withdrew 
leaving the city in the hands of one of Artigas' lieutenants, the 
General remaining in camp on the Uruguay Riven In 1816 the 
Portuguese from Brazil invaded the country, and Artigas was 
finally obliged to take refuge in Paraguay. 

When in 1824 the power of Spain was finally destroyed on the 
whole continent, Uruguay alone was destitute of independence. 
In the midst of rejoicing at Buenos Aires over the victory of 
Ayacueho, Lavalleja, who had earlier distinguished himself against 
the Spaniards, and other exiles from Uruguay were moved to free 
their own country from foreign dominion. It was a small band of 
thirty-three men, Treinta y Tres, now a popular name in Uruguay, 
that set out from Buenos Aires for the invasion of that country. 
Having crossed the Uruguay River, they soon obtained forty re- 
cruits and after a brief skirmish with the Portuguese forces took 
the town of Dolores. General Rivera, sent against Lavalleja, for- 
sook the Brazilian service and with his men joined the patriots. 
Soon the whole of Uruguay was in arms, an independent govern- 
ment was established at Florida, The Portuguese fleet was later 
defeated by the Argentine Admiral Brown, and a series of victories 
culminating in the battle of Ituzaingo, which made the expulsion of 
the Portuguese seem inevitable, incited Lavalleja in October, 1827, 
to proclaim himself Dictator, though in July, 1828, he voluntarily 
resigned the office. In August both Argentina and Brazil ac- 
knowledged the independence of Uruguay and on May 1, 1829, the 
national authorities made a formal entry into Montevideo. 

After a constitution had been adopted, July 18, 1830, the Na- 
tional Assembly in October elected Rivera, President, to the great 
disgust of Lavalleja who at once plotted against the government. 
Rivera, however, twice drove him from the country into Brazil 
and served his term of four years* The second President was 
General Oribe, one of the Thirty-three, who combined with Lavalleja 
against Rivera and, with the assistance of the Argentine Dictator 
Rosas, defeated him in a battle which was of especial historical 
importance from the fact that the red and white colors were used 
to distinguish the forces, ever since emblems of bitter strife as 
the badges of the two parties called Colorados, Rds, and Blancos, 
Whites, the former that of Rivera, the latter of Oribe. 

Sighting was almost continuous until the fall of Rosas in 1851, 
Giro became the fourth President in 1852 but in 1853 revolts began 
again. The deaths of Rivera and Lavalleja about this time had 
no effect in promoting peace. Strife continued until in February, 
1865, Flores, having obtained the active support of Brazil and en- 
tered Montevideo, was made Dictator of the Republic* Then little 


Paraguay, previously asked to interfere, jealous of Brazil's power, 
continued the fight. And Paraguay, with her army of 80,000 men, 
might have been equal to any one of the countries alone. During 
this war Flores, who was of the Colorado party, was assassinated 
in Montevideo, a terrible visitation of cholera occurred in 1868, and 
a financial crisis that ruined thousands in 1869. Troubles were in- 
cessant and up to the present time hardly a single President has 
had an entirely peaceful term. That after this prolonged condition 
of turbulence, the Republic shows so remarkable a degree of devel- 
opment and prosperity is wonderful indeed. 

As to the country in general, it may be said that while it 
possesses no striking features such as lofty mountains or great 
waterfalls, it is a beautifully diversified region, with no flat 
or desert land, but with low ridges, valleys, and rolling plains, 
in some parts well wooded. It is admirably adapted for graz- 
ing and agricultural products. The climate is healthful and 
delightful, the population, numbering about 1,300,000, is more 
homogeneous than in most of the Eepublies, and forms an 
enterprising and progressive nation. 


HOTELS. Pyramides, Sarandf corner Ituzaingo; Grand Hotel 
Lanatta, Sarandi 325; Central, 25 de Mayo, 245; Oriental, Solis, 
corner Piedras; Palado, Calle Florida; Globe, 25 de Agosto and 
Colon. In the suburbs, Parque TJrbano, and Potitos. 

Excellent electric cars and service. Fare in center of the city, 
4 cents, farther out 6, 8, 10, and to Colon, 14 cts. Carnage fare 
$1.00 or $1.50 an hour. Post Office, Sarandi 207. Postage, letters 
to United States or Europe, 8 cents; cards, 2 cents. 

Uruguay dollars, pesos, are worth a little more than the Ameri- 
can; $10.00 United States currency equals $9.66 Uruguay. Or $1.00 
Uruguay equals about $1.04 of our money. 

The office of the United States Minister is on the 18 de Julio, 
221, that of the American Consul in Treinta y Tres; 53. The Brit- 
ish Legation is at 445, 25 de Mayo, the Consulate at 20 Parana. 

On landing at Montevideo a carriage may be taken to the 
hotel preferred, or decision reserved until they have been 
inspected. No one in the center of the city is pre-eminent but 
several -will be found satisfactory except to the hyper-critical. 
First may be mentioned the PyrawAdes Hotel on Sarandi at 


the corner of Ituzaingo, near the Plaza Constituei6n, highly 
spoken of. "Well known is the Grand Hotel Lan-atta facing 
the same plaza ; the Oriental Hotel, the Central, the Globe, the 
Florida, are all available, close to the center of the city. 

A clean, homelike, and agreeable city is Montivideo, most 
attractive as a place of residence, and preferred by many to 
the great metropolis farther up the river, with its million 
more inhabitants. About the size of our own capital, "Wash- 
ington, it is large enough for all practical purposes, and is the 
home of a wide-awake community. Several days should be 
devoted to the various objects of interest, which include parks, 
suburban and seaside resorts of great beauty and elegance. 

Sight-seeing may be commenced with a stroll in the center 
of the city, after which excursions by car or carriage will 
be in order. As in Buenos Aires, the cars are conveniently 
numbered, which renders the service especially valuable to 

Plaza Constitution, sometimes called the Matriz, is a good 
place to begin. Of the twelve large plazas, this, with several 
others, has a pretty garden occupying the center. On the east 
side is the CabUdo, a quaint old building now used for the 
Legislative Assemblies, the only building of historic impor- 
tance in the city, which is practically all new. Opposite is the 
Cathedral with towers 133 feet high. To the handsome in- 
terior, paintings and other decorations have recently been 
added, and there is a sweet-toned organ. On the south side 
next to the Lanatta Hotel is the Uruguay Club, which is hand- 
somely housed, its imposing salon for receptions and balls the 
occasional rendezvous of the elite of the city. On the north 
side of the plaza is the home of the English Club. 

On the Plaza Independence not far away, reached by the 
ealle Sarandi, is the Government Palace containing the offices 
of the President and Ministers, presently to be superseded by 
a splendid structure on the principal avenue, 18 de Julio. 
Just off the corner of this plaza is the Solis Theater, with a 
handsome Ionic front, a rather ancient building for Mon- 
tevideo, more than fifty years old, its right wing housing the 
Museum. The theater which has recently been remodeled, 
now seating over 3000, is one of the fine establishments of 
South America, though rivaled in Montevideo by the newer 


theater Urquiza, corner of Andes and Mercedes, which was 
inaugurated by Bernhardt in 1905. In one or the other of 
these have appeared nearly all of the most noted European 
artists, at least of the Latin races, stars of the drama and 
of the opera both. The people are great lovers of the theater 
and more than 2000 performances are given in a single year 
with about two million spectators. 

The Museum includes a considerable collection of specimens 
of the natural history and geology of the country; many 
relics of the native Indian tribes now altogether extinct, such 
as hundreds of stone bolos and other weapons, with primitive 
utensils; souvenirs of the colonial wars, and some paintings 
by artists of Uruguay and Europe. 

The new Legislative Palace on the Avenida Agraciada is a 
magnificent building with two fine plazas in the front and the 
rear, and space on all sides. The basement will contain fire- 
proof chambers for the archives, and rooms for lighting, heat, 
and service. The ground floor has a great vestibule and a 
corridor 55 feet wide extending to the rear of the building, 
crossed by three others 10 or 12 feet wide. Near the entrance 
are quarters for the guard of honor, and farther in are rooms 
for police, telephone and telegraph, wardrobes, and other pur- 
poses. On the front a great marble staircase 55 feet wide 
leads up from the ground to the entrance on the main floor. 
Pedestals with costly bronze statues are designed to divide the 
staircase into three sections. Two ramps, one on each side of 
the stairway, permit the ascent of vehicles to the main en- 
trance in front of a large hall, Pasos Perdidos, 55 feet wide 
and 160 long, embellished with columns, and with a staircase 
leading to the floor above. The two large chambers for the 
Senate and the Representatives, one on each side, are 66 feet in 
diameter and two stories in height, with galleries for the Press 
and the public. In the front of the building are salons for 
the President and the Ministers, with private rooms, and at the 
sides and back are rooms for the officials of Congress. The 
design was one of the Argentine architect, Meano, modified 
to suit local taste and conditions. The building, which was 
to cost $2,000,000, -is expected to be complete in 1914. 

Other interesting buildings are those of the University, 
the School of Arts and Trades, and the Agricultural Institute. 




There are two groups of new University buildings, erected at 
a cost of $2,000,000; the one on the Ave. 18 de Julio contain- 
ing the central offices of administration with the Schools of 
Law and Commerce, the other, the several buildings contain- 
ing the Medical School, the Chemistry Building, and housings 
for the Institute of Hygiene, Physiology, etc. The Adminis- 
tration Building occupies an entire block between Caigna and 
Yaro, where formerly was the School of Arts and Trades. 
Of classical Italian architecture, with two stories and a high 
basement, it contains ten class rooms seating from 50 to 100 
each, two halls seating 200, and one accommodating 800. 
There is a law library of 30,000 volumes, one of the best in 
South America, while for the present the National Library 
also is in the building. The large high school occupies a 
handsome structure covering most of the block south, facing 
on Lavalleja. It is well fitted up with laboratories, gym- 
nasium with baths and rest room, class rooms light and airy, 
and with all modern scholarly and hygienic equipment. 

The Medical School occupies the block formerly the Plaza 
Sarandi, being surrounded by the streets Uruguayana, La- 
dislao Terra, Tatay and Marelino Sosa, not far from the new 
Congressional Palace. There are three separate buildings 
which are arranged and fitted up in a style which would 
meet the demands of such an institution anywhere. The cen- 
tral part of the main building is occupied by the various 
offices, council chamber, library, and reading room, a hall 
seating 1000, etc.; one wing is devoted to the Institute of 
Physiology, the other to that of Anatomy. The Department 
of Chemistry has a fine building on Ladislao Terra and Tatay, 
the Department of Hygiene, one on Ladislao Terra and 

Other Schools which might be connected with the Univer- 
sity but which have a distinct organization are the Agricul- 
tural and the Veterinary. The latter is a little farther* out 
on one of the principal avenues of the outer city, the Lar- 
ranaga, with grounds covering 30 acres. It will ultimately 
include a number of buildings for the various departments, 
Laboratories, Clinics, Autopsies, etc., but at present is con- 
fined to laboratories, class rooms, and hall for clinics. The 
School of Agriculture is a fine large building in the suburb 


of Sayago, 45 minutes by electrics from the center of the 
city, fare 10 cents. The edifice contains excellent laboratories, 
class rooms, and general offices, and is doing an important 
work of great value to the country. The four-story building 
near the harbor landing, formerly occupied by the University, 
is now used as an Engineering School. 

A Pedagogical Museum of considerable interest to one with 
some knowledge of educational problems and work, is on the 
north side of the Plaza Libertad next to the Athenaeum, an 
institution of much literary and scientific importance in 

Another educational edifice which some may be glad to visit 
is one which houses both the Military Academy and the Naval 
School. The situation is a convenient one on the edge of the 
city with grounds covering 30 acres, yet only 15 minutes by 
electric car from the center of the town. The building with 
a fagade 250 feet long fronts on Ave. Garibaldi, but sets 
back 60 feet allowing space for a pretty garden. In the left 
wing are the class rooms of the Military School, in the right 
those of the Naval. On the next floor are dormitories, baths, 
etc* In the center are rooms common to both, a casino, fenc- 
ing-room, and a large hall for festal occasions. Above is a 
tower with steel cupola for the Astronomical Observatory. In 
the rear are great depots, naval and military, a large gym- 
nasium, a swimming tank, 100 by 150 feet, stables, hospitals, a 
riding course, athletic field, etc. On the inside, covered gal- 
leries permit passage from one building to another in the rain ; 
the U shaped constructions surround a large space orna- 
mented with trees. There is excellent ventilation in the main 
building, windows on both sides, so that in class and in the 
infirmary each student enjoys much more air space than the 
highest amount prescribed. 

The School of Arts and Trades in San Salvador street, be- 
tween SCnas and Magallanes, may be reached by cars 36 and 

Other institutions which may be visited are the Peniten~ 
tiary, the Markets, and the Cemeteries. The first may not 
interest every tourist; but if one desires to see a model con- 
struction of this category, arranged according to the most 
modem tenets of penal science and of hygiene, the oppor- 


trinity here presented should be seized. It has a fine situation 
near the river on Punta Carreta (30 minutes by Car No. 35, 
fare 8 cts.), especially open to the southeast winds well venti- 
lating courts and interiors. The rectangular plan was pre- 
ferred to the radial. Back of the administration building 
is the entrance to the prison proper, which is surrounded by 
a great wall nearly 40 feet high. Here a military guard is 
placed. On one side of a central corridor is the Mtchen and 
bakery, on the other, the laundry. Separated by a large 
court from these is the prison house with 384 well lighted 
cells, each 13 feet long, 8 wide, and over 10 feet high, fur- 
nished with iron folding bed, book shelf, bench, and porcelain 
bowl and seat. Opening on a corridor 20 feet wide, the cells 
are arranged in 4 stories, to which lead marble and iron stair- 
cases and elevators. Fifty baths are at the service of the pris- 
oners, who may choose either warm water or sea water for 
their ablutions. Workshops of eight classes are provided for 
the convicts: iron and tin work, carpentry, broom and shoe 
making, printing, and book binding. Two patios, 160 by 220 
feet, afford space for recreation, and -there is room within the 
enclosure for two more prison houses if at any time they are 

Every one likes to see Markets if not prisons. Of these 
there are four, most important, the new market Agricola for 
wholesale trade, built of iron except for the base wall, and 
roofed with glass according to the Dion system, the construc- 
tion covering 65,000 square feet with a central height of 72 
feet. Provision is made for the entrance and circulation 
of carts; four galleries 45 feet wide surrounding the large cen- 
tral open space provide shelter for attendants and for the 
service of the market. 

Of the four cemeteries, the Central at the foot of Yaguaron 
street is called the best ; the Buceo, which is the largest, may be 
reached by Car 39, and by Car 38 which runs to the suburb 
Uwon, passing the Buceo and the beautiful British Cemetery 
adjoining. All of these are finely situated on a bluff above 
the water. They are adorned with trees and flowers, and con- 
tain many fine monuments, some of which are sculptured by 
noted artists. 

The Parks and Watering Places, most important features 


of Montevideo life, have perhaps been left too long; they are 
attractions of the highest rank which no one should overlook, 
however short his stay. The largest and finest park is called 
the PradOy which contains also the National Botanical Gar- 
dens. One may here roam for miles among immense mag- 
nificent trees, half a century old, sheltering smaller palms and 
bamboos, flowering shrubs, and beautiful gardens; here too 
are lakes and grottoes, vegetation of cool and of warmer 
climes, a region more delightful on account of the hills and 
hollows with which it is diversified, in pleasing contrast to 
the flatness of the Argentine shore. The park, which is sur- 
rounded by villas and chalets, is approached by three fine 
avenues and may be reached by three lines of ears, 2, 44, 
and 47 (8 ets. fare) in 25 minutes. 

A little nearer the city and on the other side, close to the 
ocean, is Parque Tfrbano, served in a ride of 20 minutes by 
six lines of cars, Nos. 5, 6, 7, 33, 36, and 46, with 4 ets. fare. 
This is a most popular recreation ground, a large park with 
trees, flowers, lakes, pretty bridges, etc., a great circular ave- 
nue, a theater of novelties, and near the entrance on the side 
towards the sea a pavilion where popcorn is made and sold 
by a fine young man and his happy looking wife, both from 
the United States. Popcorn is a new and popular article of 
food for the natives; every American will certainly wish to 
buy some. Business is good and the young couple enjoy the 
place and the people, though now expecting to come home 
some day. The seashore in front is called Playa Ramirez, a 
fine bathing resort. On the sands stand a multitude of little 
bath-houses on wheels, which a horse draws out into the water, 
thus permitting less display of gay bathing costumes or of 
bathers than on our own beaches, a custom with obvious 
advantages. The men generally go in on one side of the 
iron pier, the women and children on the other. 

Close to the Park and the Beach is an imposing hotel and! 
casino, four stories high, the TJrbano, with 300 rooms, a great 
dining hall, and other salons, called the finest and most 
luxurious hotel in South Am erica. It was erected at a cost 
of $600,000, and since it was opened in 1909 it has been a 
point of attraction to many of the best Argentine society, as 
well as to the people of Uruguay. 




Potitos, a little farther out, is another much frequented 
bathing resort. The Thursday and Sunday concerts at both 
beaches attract thousands. In the vicinity are many fine 
residences. A splendid esplanade along the shore leads to 
Trouwtte, another -beach beyond. Poeitos, the most fashion- 
able of the resorts, also has a hotel of the first rank. 

On the port side of the city many improvements have been 
made and more are planned. Along the south side of the 
promontory a fine esplanade is to be constructed to extend 
also along the east shore to Eamirez and Poeitos in the man- 
ner of the Avenida Beira Mar at Rio de Janeiro. Poeitos, 
a 30 minutes' run, is served by the cars 31 and 37, fare 8 cts. 

Under the head of parks may be included the Zoological 
Gardens at Villa Dolores (ears 38 and 39, time 20 minutes, 
fare 8 ets.), a private property, but open to the public for 
a small fee. In addition to a considerable collection of ani- 
mals, unusually extensive in the line of birds and domestic 
fowls, there are various artistic features, artificial grottoes, 
lakes, waterfalls, imitation of classical ruins, etc. A rather 
original feature is a little cemetery of various animals, their 
graves marked by life-size sculptures: lions, dogs, a rabbit, 
a cock, even a huge anaconda, a curious collection. The 
entrance fees are devoted to charitable institutions of the city. 

The Hippodrome and horse races, if not quite equaling the 
grand display at Buenos Aires, are in excellent style,- the 
accommodations are elegant and luxurious, and the races 
under the direction of the local Jockey Club are fashionable 
events where many notable horses have appeared. The 
receipts are in the neighborhood of $2,000,000 annually, the 
prizes in 1910 were over $400,000. The Hippodrome, estab- 
lished in 1888 at the suburb Maronas, may be reached by 
Cars 13, 17, and 51 after a 45 minutes 7 ride, for the sum of 
1Q cts. Eaces occur on days of -fiesta from the first Sunday 
in March to the middle of January. During the short vaca- 
tion the horses rest and take sea-baths at Buceo beach near 
by. At the gala events, when 15,000 people may be present, 
elegant toilets are much in evidence, with many automobiles 
and carriages. The betting is said not to be carried to such 
an excess as in some other places, practiced not as a means 
of livelihood but as a pastime, as people bet only what they 


can afford. A members 7 stand was recently erected at a 
cost of $60,000. In the same direction is the Parque Central, 
a ground for athletic sports, served by Cars 51 and 52 in 25 
minutes at a cost of 6 ets. The people are fond of sports, 
and football is a high favorite; 10,000 persons may -attend 

The Immigrants' Hotel on Bella Vista Beach, opened July 
18, 1908, is an excellent institution, capable of receiving 
1000 guests, and containing all suitable offices. 

In mentioning these points of interest several suburbs have 
been spoken of, but others should if possible be visited, as 
these form one of the great attractions of the city. One of 
the most enjoyable and important of these excursions is to 
the Cerro, a hill overlooking the bay, to be reached in 55 
minutes by No. 16 car, fare 14 cts., or by ferry from the 
landing every half hour, fare 10 ets. It is well to go one 
way and return another. "While the hill is not very high 
and is easily climbed it is notable for several reasons* It 
was the occasion of the name, Montevideo, / see a moun- 
tain; it is the first true hill on the banks of the Plata, and, 
far more wonderful, it is the last (so Mr. Koebel says), for 
over 1000 miles; since the river Parana, as well as the Plata, 
flows through a very flat country and the next hill is close 
to Asuncion in Paraguay. Other hills there are in Uruguay 
and higher, but these are along the Atlantic coast and not on 
the rivers. From the Cerro there is a varied panorama, 
worth seeing if one has time to devote to the excursion on 
one side the bay, the city on the promontory, lapping over**bn 
the mainland, the coast line, and the ocean slightly blue; 
on the other the level shore and the yellowish brown river. 

Of the nearer surburbs the Paso Molino on the way to the 
Prado is one of the best residential districts. The suburb 
of Colon, ear 41 (60 minutes, 14 cts.), is one of the prettiest; 
this car passes through Sayago suburb where the Agri- 
cultural Institute is situated. The ride is a charming one, 
with pretty qwntas all along (houses set in their own gar- 
dens), and at Colon restaurants, pleasure gardens, and miles 
of avenues of stately eucalyptus trees. 

Other Towns. If one has time for more distant excursions 
there are a number of places which deserve a visit, some of 


these more accessible from Buenos Aires. The old town of 
Colonia, to which boats often run from the Argentine capital, 
is across the river, and three miles from that old-fashioned, 
quiet city is a new resort called Eeal de San Carlos, where a 
great hotel is planned and where some attractions are already 
installed, a bull ring, though the fights are now discontinued, 
another ring for pelota, a fine, sandy bathing beach, a modest 

The great Liebig Establishment, its products of world-wide 
fame, situated at Fray Bentos on the Uruguay Eiver, is also 
easily visited from Buenos Aires. This Company, now with a 
capital of $5,000,000, with estancias in Paraguay and in sev- 
eral provinces of Argentina, established its first factory at 
Fray Bentos in 1865. Since that time, in addition to enor- 
mous development there, another large plant has been created, 
10 miles farther up the river, but on the other side, in Ar- 
gentina. Their beef extract, their Oxo capsules, and their 
Lemco have a deserved reputation the world over, as for these 
productions the best of meat only is used, instead of the leav- 
ings of poor or diseased meat said to be employed in some 
other establishments. All of the products are obliged to 
undergo a strict test? in order to have the use of the Liebig 
name. For their employees, 1500 in number, pleasant homes 
are provided, medical attendance, schools for the children, 
recreation grounds, etc. 

From Montevideo excursions may easily be made to two 
unique resorts in Maldonado, the next State east of Canelones 
in which the capital is situated. Both of them face the broad 
Atlantic, though still on the south shore. Especially should 
every lover of nature, of plants and trees, improve this op- 
portunity. Not money-making pleasure-grounds are these, 
but each the labor of love of a Uruguayan gentleman of public 
spirit and of great wealth. 

Punta Ballena has been converted into an Eden by Antonio 
D. Lussieh, founder of the first life-saving station in America. 
A natural diversity has been intensified by art. The Point by 
a ridge is divided into two parts on the east are green mead- 
ows, lakes, woods, and animals; on the west, nature is stern 
and savage with rocks and barren sands, grottoes, etc. On 
a height which commands a view of the Punta del Este, the 


sea, the Lobos Island and Lighthouse, Senor Lussich has con- 
structed a residence with a beautiful garden in which roses are 
a specialty, and a wonderful park including among the re- 
puted two million trees the finest collection of eucalyptus in 
South America, more than 100 varieties. 

Piriapolis. Probably even more worthy of a visit is Piria- 
polis, to which a railroad has recently been opened. Francisco 
Piria, possessor of an immense estate in this region, in addition 
to beautifying a portion, has initiated a reform now being fol- 
lowed by others. He sells on easy terms to the poor consid- 
erable tracts for cultivation. The city which, he has laid out 
on the seashore is called an enchanted region unlike any other. 
Surrounded by mountains in the form of a horse-shoe open 
to the sea, it is arranged with, avenues 100 feet wide and with 
twenty plazas. A still wider avenue five miles long, in part 
macadamized, bordered by large trees, crosses the entire prop- 
erty. On the city streets are 40,000 tall eucalyptus trees 
twenty years old, arranged in perfect lines. The beach, the 
finest on La Plata River, beautifully smooth, so that chil- 
dren can bathe in safety, has an area of 150 acres. Around 
the city, and in one large grove are several million trees, 15 to 
20 years old, some, 120 feet high. The hotel, called the finest 
in the country, has 140 elegantly furnished suites with great 
salons and dining hall, a portico 250 feet long. In front a 
beautiful park overlooks the ocean; at the sides is the Park 
of Roses, where Senor Piria has planted 30,000 rose trees. 
Besides these there are groves of willows, walks, and a trellis 
more than a quarter of a mile long, affording grateful shade. 
Close by is a Casino four stories high with a 300-foot front. 
An artesian well supplies daily 10,000 gallons of good water. 
All modern conveniences are provided, such as the latest 
electric and laundry devices. 

Two hills separate this beach from the next. On Cerro 
Ingles is a Fountain of the Virgin, of mineral water which 
has constructed a stalactite grotto. On the Cerro de los 
Toros is another mineral spring. High up among grottoes 
and cascades, in a semi-circular wall of rocks, is a bronze bull 
of double size, weighing nearly three tons, with a stream of 
dear water from the rocks above issuing from its mouth. 
On the same Mil is a Greek temple to Aphrodite 30 feet high, 


the cupola supported by six marble columns; in the center 
a bronze Venus with a jug under her arm from which will 
pour daily 5000 gallons of mineral water. All of the spring 
waters have been analyzed and pronounced good 'for dyspep- 
sia. At the summit of this Cerro de los Toros is a Mnd of 
crater, at the bottom of which, to be seen only from the top 
of the hill, are woods and meadows. On the Pan de Azuear, 
one of the surrounding mountains, sheltered by a natural 
wall of granite, is a row of colossal palms. A chalet has here 
been erected for the benefit of youths making an excursion. 
On the Cerro Ingles as well, there is a chalet for tourists. The 
mountains around, of much interest, are also a source of 
great wealth, being composed of superb porphyry, black with 
veins red or white, red with black veins, green with white, 
about 50 beautiful varieties. The Pan de Azuear, nearly 2000 
feet tall, alone is of rich granite, with blocks 200 and 250 
feet high, from which monoliths may be taken. Senor Piria 
has in this section a ranch with blooded cattle, a tract of 
vineyards, a grove of 10,000 olive trees, and a chateau and 
other buildings erected at a cost of $100,000, The place is 
three hours from Montevideo by sea and now that it is ac- 
cessible in two hours by rail, it will soon become widely known 
as a resort of extraordinary charms, 


THE extent of the great country, the exact title of which 
is the United States of Brazil, most of us hardly realize. 
With fifteen times the area of France, it covers more ground 
than the United States without Alaska and our more recent 
acquisitions, is larger than the whole of Europe, and is fifth 
in size (Percy Martin says third) among the nations of the 
world. While now it contains barely 22 millions of inhabi- 
tants, about five to the square mile, the great scientist and 
explorer Humboldt once prophesied that it would in the 
future be the most thickly settled portion of the globe, since 
from the richly productive nature of the soil life may there 
be supported with small exertion. 

Of a somewhat triangular shape, Brazil extends a distance 
of 2600 miles from north to south and 2700 from east to west. 
Although in large part under or near the equator and without 
lofty mountains, it yet has considerable elevation, averaging 
2000 to 3000 feet over more than half of its territory; not 
enough to occasion extreme cold anywhere, but sufficient to 
induce a more healthful and comfortable climate in such sec- 
tions. Bordering on every South American country except 
Chile ard Ecuador, it is favorably situated for having inti- 
mate commercial relations with all, when its settlements have 
spread out in every direction, instead of being chiefly in 
districts near the coast, with a few in the Amazon valley. 


Accidentally discovered by Europeans within ten years after the 
first landing of Columbus on Western soil, somq years elapsed be- 
fore it received a permanent settlement. Pedro Alvarez Cabral, a 
Portuguese nobleman, by good fortune holds the honor of having in 
1500 first beheld the most eastern shores of the American continent. 



Sailing from Lisbon for the East Indies with a fleet of vessels, 
Cabral was instructed by Yasco da Gama who had made the first 
all-sea voyage to that region to bear away to the southwest, in order 
to avoid the frequent calms off the coast of Guinea, until he should 
reach 34 south latitude when he should turn east. While fol- 
lowing these directions, on the 2d of May Cabral sighted a moun- 
tain which, as it was Easter week, he called Pasehoal. The next 
day he anchored off shore of the present State of Bahia, to com- 
memorate which event, May 3 is a Brazilian national holiday and 
the date of the assembling of Congress. Ten days Cabral remained 
at anchor taking formal possession of the land, and having some 
communication with the Indians who appeared friendly. On the 
news reaching Portugal in the fall, another expedition was at once 
sent out and the coast was explored almost to La Plata, nearly 
2000 miles, by Amerigo Yespueci, who was, however, disappointed 
by finding no wealth of gold or silver and no civilized inhabitants. 
The only article of immediate value seemed to be brazilwood 
which, furnishing a bright red dye, was in demand in Europe. 
Thus the land was called the Country of Brazilwood, soon shortened 
to Brazil. 

The name America later bestowed upon the land which Vespucci 
explored, and which "he first declared to be not a part of the Orient 
but a separate continent, was afterwards extended to include the 
northern half. Thus it seems peculiarly unfortunate that we 
should arrogate to ourselves the title of being the Americans, our 
only apology for so doing being the fact that we have no other 
name by which we can be called, a fact, however, which does not 
entitle us to forget that there are others. 

The first real settlement by the Portuguese was made in Jan- 
uary, 1532, at Sao Vicente near the port of Santos, soon after which 
a second post was established on the high land above, in the vicinity 
of Sao Paulo. Subsequently grants were made by King John III 
of Captaincies, twelve in number, each, one hundred fifty miles along 
the coast; these beginning at the mouth of the Amazon and ex- 
tending south to the island of Santa Catarina. Six permanent 
colonies were founded, but the only ones early amounting to much 
were Pernambuco and Sao Paulo, later Bahia and Rio de Janeiro. 

The Jesuits, who were prominent in the early settlements, gave 
particular attention to Christianizing the Indians, bringing them into 
settlements under their jurisdiction and instructing them both in 
agriculture and in various industrial arts. Their labors were 
chiefly in the States of Sao Paulo and Minas. As their system in- 
terfered with the exploitation of the Indians by the Paulistas these 
attacked the Jesuit settlements, within twenty-five years, it is said, 


lolling 300,000 of the natives, and finally destroying all the Jesuit 
settlements on the tipper Parana. 

In 1558 a nobleman, Mem da Sa, a soldier, scholar, and able ad- 
ministrator, as Governor, succeeded in consolidating the govern- 
ment of the various colonies and in establishing the Portuguese 
power on a firm basis, in spite of difficulties with Indians and with 
Preneh settlers. In 1581 Philip II of Spain by obtaining the erown 
of Portugal became also the ruler of Brazil. During the sixty 
years of Spanish domination the expansion of Brazil to the west in 
territory which had been assigned to Spain was permitted, as a 
matter of no importance, later, however to involve unforeseen con- 

In the seventeenth century there were years of struggle against the 
Dutch who first, in 1623, captured Bahia, to lose it in 1627; in 1630 
they captured Pernambueo which they retained twenty-five years, 
at one time having under their control two-thirds of the population 
and developed resources of Brazil, Bahia and the southern provinces 
alone remaining in the hands of the Portuguese. Portugal having 
meanwhile recovered its independence from Spain, the Brazilians 
made continued efforts under the leadership of John Fernandez to 
expel the Dutch. At last they succeeded and January 26, 1655, the 
latter signed a capitulation for the surrender of Pernambueo and 
all other holdings in the country. This struggle fostered the de- 
velopment of a national spirit among the colonies, while the fact 
that the coast was held by the Dutch impelled the opening of land 
routes of communication in the interior. Cattle ranges became nu- 
merous, rumors of gold were heard, and in 1690 the Morro Velho, 
one of the great gold mines, of the world, was discovered. 

The eighteenth century saw many conflicts in the south, in Rio 
Grande and Uruguay, but in 1777 peace was declared with bound- 
aries as at present. During this period occurred a literary de- 
velopment, sir of the leading Portuguese poets appearing, not in 
Rio, but in Minas, twenty days on muleback from the coast. In 
1807, John, Prince Regent of Portugal, came over, fleeing, with his 
court and with much property, from Napoleon. Received with en- 
thusiasm, he opened to commerce the five great ports, encouraged 
literature, art, science, and education, and the immigration of for- 
eigners, thus inaugurating a movement which gradually transformed 
the country. After the fall of Napoleon, Prince John, returning in 
1821 to Portugal, left his son Pedro in charge, with the hint that if 
there was any likelihood of Brazil asserting her independence, as 
the Spanish provinces had done, he should put the crown on his 
own head. This on October 12, 1822, he did, being crowned Con- 
stitutional Emperor of Brazil* The separation from the Mother 


Country occurred without bloodshed in Rio, while from the re- 
maining ports the Portuguese garrisons were expelled with little 
difficulty. Troubles came afterward. Pedro, regardless of the 
constitution, attempted to be a despot. After quelling a revolt in 
the north, becoming involved in war with Argentina which ended 
with the independence of Uruguay, and having alienated his earlier 
supporters, he was compelled in 1831 to abdicate in favor of his 
infant son. Stormy times continued so that after a nine years* 
regency Pedro II, when only fifteen, was proclaimed of age and took 
the throne. Nine years more were required for the pacification 
of the whole country, when prosperity of all kinds followed. In 
spite of the expensive war with Paraguay and other drawbacks, 
commerce increased, general industry developed, and political re- 
forms were instituted. In 1888 during the absence of Dom Pedro in 
Europe a bill for the abolition of slavery, having passed both 
Houses of Congress, was signed by Princess Isabella as Regent. In 
1889 the old Emperor, who had returned, was summarily expelled, 
without even twenty-four hours 7 notice to gather together his be- 
longings; the diffusion of republican ideas among the soldiery mak- 
ing the revolution possible without bloodshed. A Provisional Gov- 
ernment instituted many reforms, organized the Provinces into 
States, established universal suffrage, the separation of Church and 
State, etc. A Congress was assembled in February, 1891, a consti- 
tution was -adopted, and Deodoro was elected President. Extrava- 
gance and insurrections followed, then financial distress which 
reached its height in 1900. Since that period the country has ad- 
vanced rapidly in wealth, population, and in all other lines of de- 

The individual States are less closely bound together than with us, 
and have greater power, being able to fix export and import taxes 
against each other. 

Before embarking at Montevideo for Brazil it is wise to 
procure a little Brazilian money, which is more troublesome 
than any other. A milreis is about 33 cents; but instead of 
having 100 cents in what might be called their dollar they 
have 1000 reis. Five hundred reis sounds like a good deal; 
to pay 200 or 300 for car fare appears quite exorbitant; but 
remembering that 100 reis is only 3% cents it seems more 

The large majority of tourists will embark at Montevideo 
for Santos in one of the fine ships of the Lamport & Holt 
Line, the Hamburg American, or the A boats of the Royal 


Mail, all of which are comfortable, even luxurious. Ten days 
must be allowed, and from twenty to thirty will be enjoyed 
in the delightful cities of Sao Paulo and Eio de Janeiro. 
Brazil is an immense country, larger, we must remember, than 
the United States proper, and to see Sao Paulo and Bio only, 
affords little more knowledge of the Bepublie than a glimpse 
of New York and Boston gives of ours ; yet in a four months' 
tour of the continent, that is all that can be arranged. The 
traveler with more time at his command may find pleasure 
and profit in visiting other portions of the great Bepublie. 
This may be done, so far as Southern Brazil is concerned, in 
two different ways. The tourist may take at Montevideo one 
of the boats of the Brazilian Lloyd Line, which call at the 
principal ports all along the coast, and thus journeying in 
complete comfort, may visit many prosperous cities, where he 
will be astonished by the high degree apparent, of culture, 
of business energy, and of rapid growth and progress. Or, 
if preferring as long as possible to avoid the sea, he may 
proceed from Montevideo to Bio all the way by land, and 
thus gain some idea of the great interior country, here so 
different from the vast Argentine plain, with much variety 
in scenery and enormous possibilities for future development. 
This railway journey at present requires four or five days 
to Sao Paulo, more time than by express steamer, and in- 
volves more fatigue and hardship. At last accounts there 
were no through sleepers, the road in places was rough and 
dusty and altogether slow. The distance to Bio is nearly 
2000 miles. But on a new road through a rapidly developing 
country, quick changes and improvements may be looked for, 
and by the time any of my readers is ready for the overland 
journey, it is highly probable that it may be made in three 
days, perhaps in through sleepers. In one of these, the 
tourist may now set out from Montevideo, where details as to 
the comforts and duration of the journey may best be secured. 
The entire region is scantily peopled all the way to Sao Paulo 
and there is no unusual or striking scenery, except in ascend- 
ing to the plateau beyond Santa Maria in the state of Eio 
Grande do Sul, and in the descent to the town of Uniao in 
the Iguassu Valley. Along the route traveled, Uruguay and 
Southern Brazil show a pretty country of rolling pasture laaid 


to Passo Fundo in Eio Grande do Sul; then comes a hilly 
district covered with primeval forest, chiefly pine, to Ponta 
Grossa in Parana and beyond, and in the State o Sao Paulo 
highlands, agricultural and pastoral. A few villages of from 
500 to 5000 people are scattered along the way, with two towns, 
Santa Maria and Ponta Grossa, of ahout 15,000 each. Within 
a few years it is possible that a cross railroad, already 
planned, will be built from Sao Francisco on the coast to 
Uniao, the station above referred to in the Iguassu Valley, 
and thence onward to the Iguassu Falls and Asuncion. When 
this road is finished it may be desirable to visit Montevideo 
from Buenos Aires; returning thither one might go by rail 
or steamer to Bosario and Asuncion, then across to the Iguassu 
Falls and on by rail to Uniao and thence proceed to Sao Paulo. 
A coast railway is now planned between Rio and Porto Alegre 
(963 miles) by which it is expected that the journey will be 
made in 25 hours. 

Eio Grande do Sul. By a coasting steamer, one will first 
visit the State of Kio Grande do Sul, the most southern in 
Brazil, well away from the tropics, hence with a temperate 
climate, much like that of Georgia, and largely settled by 
Germans. For a State with considerable seaboard, the loca- 
tion of its three chief cities on a fresh water lake or lagoon 
may at first appear curious, yet of course there is a reason. 
The coast being fiat and generally sandy the best harbor is 
the lagoon, separated from the sea by a sandy spit of land 
only a few miles wide. The entrance, a narrow strait near 
the south end, has a considerable sand-bar on which engineers 
have been at work to secure a passage 33 feet deep, affording 
ingress to large ocean steamers. This will greatly augment 
the present important commerce. The larger steamers now 
entering go only to the city Bio Grande do Sul at the south- 
ern extremity of the Lag5a dos Patos, Lagoon of the Ducks, 
named from one of the tribes earlier inhabiting this region. 
The town has fine wide streets, many handsome buildings, and 
in the Praga Tamandare, on which stands the Post Office and 
Public Library, one unique feature: the only monument in 
Brazil, it is said, commemorating the freeing of the slaves. 
The citizens are justly proud of their Library of 40,000 vol- 
umes, probably the best south of Sao Paulo, and of the fact 


that they possess the oldest newspaper in Brazil except the 
Jornal do Commercio of Rio. 

Porto Alegre. As the Lagoon is 150 miles long (30 wide), 
it is a long sail, 12 hours, to Porto Alegre, the capital and 
chief town of the State at the northern end. Three hours 
from Rio Grande a call is made at the pleasant town of 
Pelotas, beyond which there is little to see on account of the 
width of the lagoon. The beef industry in the form of salt 
beef factories is a chief feature of the prosperity of Pelotas, 
and rows of beef strips hung up in the sun to dry, with an 
occasional factory, may be seen for miles along the shore. 
Porto Alegre, settled in 1742 by colonists from the Azores, 
after the Prussian Revolution in 1848 received many Ger- 
mans, so that one-fourth of its 100,000 inhabitants are now 
of German descent. The own has some handsome public 
buildings, including a City Hall with marble columns from 
native quarries, and some that are old and ugly. A large 
stone building near the quay houses the public market, where 
fruit, vegetables, dairy products, etc., are sold at modest 
prices in comparison with those at Buenos Aires and Rio. The 
climate is healthful, with some freezing weather in the winter, 
and snow in the mountainous section inland. Minerals are 
found in the State, including coal, but the chief wealth is 
cattle; not the blooded stock of Argentina but good enough 
for jerked beef. Also agricultural products are important, 
one settlement, chiefly of Italians, exporting annually a mil- 
lion dollars' worth. A beautiful waterfall 400 feet high called 
Herval may be visited a few hours from Sapyranga on the 
railway between Porto Alegre and Taquara. 

Going north from Rio Grande the steamers of the Brazilian 
Lloyd and the Costeira lines call in the next State, Santa 
Catharina, at its capital FlorianopoUs, one of the most pic- 
turesque of Brazilian cities, on an island of the same name. 
Facing the mainland five miles across the Strait, with a back- 
ground of hills rising from 1000 to 3000 feet, it is a charming 
contrast to the more level country previously visited. In the 
principal plaza a stone monument with a pyramid of cannon 
balls at the top commemorates those who, as Volunteers, per- 
ished in the Paraguayan "War. Though a town of 30,000 
people it is a quiet place where they mostly stay at home 


evenings and go to bed by ten o'clock. A little farther north, 
the port of Sao Francisco, called the best south of Santos, 
from the building of the Iguassu, Paraguay, and other rail- 
ways is destined to be of great importance. 

Paranagua. In the State of Parana, one of the most beau- 
tiful of Brazil, detached in 1858 from the State of Sao Paulo, 
a call is made at Paranagua, its chief seaport, from which 
yerba mate, grown in the interior, is an especially important 
export. In this State and the next, the larger and pleasanter 
cities are on the high land in the interior. The low semi- 
tropical strip along the shore is separated from the plateau 
region within by the Serra do Mar or Coast Eange, extending 
far north very near the shore. Eivers, like the Iguassu and 
Parana, rising almost within sight of the Atlantic, flow thou- 
sands of miles to increase the waters of La Plata. The 
capital city, Curytiba, with 50,000 inhabitants, may be vis- 
ited by rail from Paranagua, a delightful four hours' journey 
of 60 miles, among'the valleys and up the slopes of the hills 
and mauntains of the Serra do Mar, the climb to an altitude 
of 3000 feet being made without cogs or cables, by means of 
high trestles, bridges, and 17 tunnels. The journey is said 
to surpass in beauty the better known ride from Santos to Sao 
Paulo, presenting a variety of natural scenery seldom found 
in so short a trip, along with rich semi-tropical vegetation, 
pine forests, and manifestations of industrial development. 
The State spends more in proportion upon education than does 
any other in Brazil. It possesses unlimited resources in cattle, 
agriculture, mines, and forests. The pine tree of Brazil, the 
Araucaria Irasiliensis, especially prominent in this State, 
differs greatly in appearance from pines in the United States. 
They are a striking feature of the landscape, growing with a 
single straight trunk, sometimes 125 feet, with a diameter of 
six feet. Thus they somewhat resemble a palm, though 
crowned at the top with branches in shape like a bowl, bare 
to the end, where globes of dark crispy green leaves recall a 
candelabrum. All parts of the tree are useful; the fruit is 
edible, the nut is used to manufacture buttons, and the wood, 
for building and other purposes. 

Beyond Curytyiba the road goes on to meet the through line 
from Montevideo at Ponta Grossa. Not far from the June- 


tion is a curiosity called Vflla Velha, old village, reminding of 
the Garden of the Gods, but even more remarkable. The 
reddish rocks of sandstone have had part of their formation 
cut away by time and water, leaving rocks which resemble 
houses, walk, or ruins, some, 300 feet high like castles and 
towers, with low bushes growing among them, the whole 
having the appearance of an abandoned city. Curytiba, like 
Sao Paulo, though much smaller, is a wide awake, modern 
city with handsome buildings, hotels, etc., and a boarding and 
day school conducted by two American ladies. An important 
industry is the preparation of yerba mate for market, 20 
large mills existing for this purpose in various parts of the 
state. The mate profits sometimes reach 100 per cent 

In the vicinity of Antonina, a pretty town on the same bay 
as Paranagua, is a curiosity called sambaquys, mounds, 71 in 
number, the work of a pre-historic race containing skeletons, 
pieces of pottery and of polished stone of varying aspect, ap- 
parently indicating a progress in culture through generations. 
Unfortunately many of these remains have been put to the 
prosaic use of making lime, but some near Lagoa Santa still 
await the archaeologist and the ethnologist. 


THE State of Sao Paulo, called the most progressive, if not 
the most important in Brazil, has for its chief seaport the 
city of Santos, to which the majority of tourists will have 
come hy express steamer from Montevideo. Every ship calls 
at Santos, even coming up to the docks, so that all must see 
this city. The only question is whether or not to go up to 
Sao Paulo, distant two hours by rail. This should be no 
question. Every one must go if only for the ride and a 
glimpse of this prosperous and busy capital, returning the 
same afternoon. Fare one way 12$900. Should the steam- 
er's schedule not permit of this excursion, one should still go, 
. and either wait over until the next steamer, a ticket on the 
Lamport and Holt serving also on the Royal Mail, or proceed 
from Sao Paulo by rail to Bio, fare 54$500. Or if preferred, 
one may continue in the same steamer to Bio, thence return 
later by rail to Sao Paulo, and embark at Santos on his home- 
ward journey, an arrangement which affords certain advan- 
tages. In this way one has the great pleasure of twice enter- 
ing the magnificent harbor of Rio, which it were a pity to 
miss altogether. On the other hand, journeying by rail from 
Sao Paulo one may, if on the right train, enjoy a wonderful 
view of the city and harbor while descending from the plateau 
above down to sea level. But as somewhat similar views may 
be had from Corcovado, Tijuea, and the road to Petropolis, 
this is less important and desirable than the view of Bio from 
the sea, peculiarly entrancing at early dawn. To stay over 
from one weekly steamer to the next is not too much if one 
cares to visit a coffee plantation and see a little of the coun- 
try; a day or two is better than nothing. 

The name of Sao Paulo, the greatest coffee-producing region 
of the world, is less familiar to people generally than that of 
its seaport, Santos, as the name Santos is attached to a very 



small portion of the coffee thence dispatched to all quarters 
of the globe. As almost every one occasionally or regularly 
drinks coffee, under the name of Java, Mocha, or another, 
which lias 'been grown in Sao Paulo, there is an especial inter- 
est in learning something of the country. Sao Paulo is an 
active flourishing State, not at all in accordance with the 
general idea of Brazil, chiefly associated with the hot Amazon 
basin; it is an upland temperate region of 75,000 square 
miles, a trifle larger than the whole of New England with 
New Jersey added, 

Brazil, like most other tropical lands, is fortunate in having 
a fair portion of her surface considerably elevated above the 
sea, and thus with an agreeable climate of quite temperate 
character* The Coast Range, which includes the Serra do 
Mar extending from Espirito Santo to Santa Catharina is 
indeed a godsend to the country, endowing it, through regions 
of great extent, with wonderful scenic beauty, besides mod- 
ifying the climate ; while in Sao Paulo and Minas Geraes, a 
parallel range with two peaks^ Itapeva and Marins, 7000 and 
8000 feet, confers additional advantage. Between these two 
ranges, as also west of the second, the land is high, the low- 
land being confined to a narrow strip along the coast. 
Unlimited water power, one estimate is 2,000,000 horsepower, 
now unexploited, is a valuable asset of the State,- for the 
various tributaries of the Parana have a number of large 
cataracts both useful and beautiful, the Itapura Fall 1500 feet 
wide and 40 high, the Avanhandava 50 feet high, and others. 
In spite of this the rivers in considerable stretches are navi- 
gable. Besides the cultivation of coffee for which the State is 
pre-eminent, sugar, cotton, rice, and tobacco, fruit and cereals 
are, or soon will be, important productions. 

Santos. The port of Santos (Hotels, Grande, Washington, 
Internaeional), called one of the best and most important of 
the world, receives annually more than 1500 steamers besides 
sailing vessels. The largest ocean liners anchor alongside the 
quay, which extends from the Sao Paulo Railway Station two 
miles down along the front of the town. The fine docks were 
built by a local company, which in 1892 began the construc- 
tion, on a base from 10 to 20 feet thick, of a huge sea waU of 
granite rising 5 feet above high water mark. Hydraulic 


and other machinery is provided to receive and discharge 
freight, and commerce has grown rapidly until, in 1911, it 
amounted to $160,000,000 exports and $65,000,000 imports. 
Santos is an ancient town founded in 1544 or earlier by 
Braz Cubas. A hospital established by this gentleman, the 
first charitable institution in Brazil, was called Todos os 
Santos, from which the name Santos was gradually used to 
designate the town. After his death at an advanced age, 
Braz Cubas was buried in the chapel of the hospital. Its 
early origin might seem to indicate that the place was par- 
ticularly unhealthy, and it has in fact had a bad reputation 
as a seat of yellow fever; but for some years now it has been 
' as healthful as need be. The State and City authorities, 
awaking to the importance of such matters, accomplished the 
sanitation of the port by means of a perfect system of drain- 
age and a good water supply. 

Though the fact is not apparent, Santos, a city of 70,000 
people, is situated, 3 miles from the ocean, on an island, the 
northeast shore of Sao Vicente; but so close is the island to 
the mainland that in the dry season when the river has no 
water it becomes a peninsula. On the opposite side of the 
river-like channel by which ships enter the harbor, is a larger 
island, Santo Amaro. It is all very pretty, as luxuriantly 
clad hills slope almost to the water's edge. At the southwest 
end of the island, Sao Vicente, is the old town of that name, 
an hour by rail from Santos. Toward the south end are two 
popular summer resorts where some of the Santos people, 
especially the foreigners, live all the year around, while from 
the interior many come down for the summer. At the en- 
trance of the channel called Guaruja, the fortress of Barra 
Grande on the east guards the harbor, while opposite is the 
suburb of Barra with charming country homes. Half way 
up the channel the docks give evidence of commercial activity. 
Opposite the city of Santos on the island Santo .Amaro, be- 
yond the hills is the seashore resort Guaruja, called the most 
picturesque in South America, on a rounded knoll overlooking 
the ocean, among higher hills clothed with virgin forest. 
This fashionable resort which is reached by means, first, of a 
short sail across the channel, then of a half hour's railway 
ride, not so grand or expensive as Mar del Plata, has natural 


advantages far greater. Near the white sandy shore are 
pretty streets lined with, chalets and Queen Anne cottages, a 
casino, a large hotel with gardens, and luxuriant natural 
vegetation; accommodations may be procured here at reason- 
able prices, except during the season, when people from all 
over Brazil make the place full to overflowing. 

At Santos every one goes ashore if only for the few hours 
that all ships tarry. The business streets are close by and the 
pretty central plaza but a short distance. This old part of 
the city between the docks and the 15th of November street 
preserves the narrow old-fashioned alleys, we should call 
them, of the colonial period, by no means unpleasant on a hot 
day. Although warm, it is usual to see persons hurrying 
about, for business is done between ten and f onr, a shorter day 
than in most Brazilian cities; here imperative, as many busi- 
ness men daily come in the morning from Sao Paulo, return- 
ing by the afternoon train. A Brazilian writer whose trans- 
lator's English is frequently amusing says, "People do not 
run, they fly. The sweat dampens the collars, the converses 
are resumed to the exchange of monosyllables, as it is neces- 
sary that everything be finished before the last train starts," 
Away from the business section are broader streets and fine 
houses, with a hotel called excellent Two long wide avenues, 
Nebia and Anna Costa, crossed by streets which are gradually 
being built up, extend towards the sea. Street ears run 
in this and other directions, and if time permits it is a pleas- 
ant ride to a pretty seashore suburb with rolling surf and 
attractive dwellings at the end of the route. 

But now we must climb the Cubatao Hill, we might even 
say mountain, to the capital city, by the Sao Paulo Railway. 
An elevation of 3000 feet is gained in a very short distance, 
as the Serra do Mar is indeed close to the shore. The height 
seems too steep to climb with any ordinary means, and in fact 
it is. Extraordinary means are employed, inclined planes on 
a much larger scale than we have seen before, of novel con- 
struction and carrying regular railway coaches. It is a 
strange and wonderful ride through tropical forests, along 
the side of steep inclines of great picturesque beauty. Often 
when the region is shrouded in mist a rift therein, disclosing 
a tremendous chasm below, has a rather startling effect. 


This railway is ranked by experienced British engineers 
among the great mechanical achievements of the world, such 
as the Brooklyn and Forth bridges. Due to the initiative of 
Visconde de Maua, it makes an ascent of 2600 feet in the short 
distance of seven miles. Beginning only 15 feet above the 
sea five inclined planes with a grade of eight per cent, each 
about a mile and a quarter long, serve for the rapid climb. 
Four intermediate levels of about 600 feet each separate the 
planes; a bankhead at the top is a little longer. Above each 
plane is a stationary engine to run the cables, and to grip 
these a small special engine is attached to each car. The 
winding engines for the cables are built under the track, 
partly underground, receiving light from the side. One i$ 
surprised to see two double roads, but the first proving in- 
sufficient for the freight traffic, soon after 1895 a new incline 
was begun, just above on the same slope, with improved tech- 
nical arrangements. The tracks are very curious. On the 
inclines each double track has but three rails for both up and 
down, these being 1.6 meters distant one from another, the 
middle rail serving for both the ascending and the descending 
cars, which obviously do not meet on the inclines, but may on 
the intermediate levels. On each side, in the center of the 
space between the middle and the outside rails, the pulleys are 
fixed which carry the cable. This is an endless steel wire of 
enormous strength, run by a 1000 horsepower engine, and 
capable of carrying 6 freight or 3 passenger cars at a time. 
The entire capacity of the cables is 17,500 tons daily, or under 
pressure 22,000 tons. These remarkable engineering works 
as greatly deserve the attention of the tourist as the scenery. 
In this short section there are 16 viaducts, 15 tunnels, and 
two miles of retaining wall, with a volume of masonry exceed- 
ing 80,000 cubic meters. For one cutting over 150 feet deep, 
300,000 cubic meters of earth was removed. The Grota 
Funda viaduct is 334 feet long and nearly 150 feet high in 
the center. Two viaducts have masonry arches, the rest steel. 
A difficult problem was the drainage, and many surface drains 
of the extensive system may be observed in passing. The 
road, though but 100 miles long, extending from Santos to 
Judiahy and passing Sao Paulo half way is one of the richest 
in the world. In spite of the enormous expense involved in 


its unusual construction, from the fact that it carries the 
most freight and charges the highest prices, it yields the 
largest dividends of any road in Brazil, sometimes fifty per 
cent. Its heaviest earnings come from the transport of 
coffee, as in the section served by this line there are perhaps 
15,000 plantations with 500 million coffee trees. From these 
the road carries 7 of the 10 million bags annually exported, 
besides ordinary freight transportation. The passenger 
traffic hardly pays, or greatly increases in volume, as the 
two hours' ride from Sao Paulo to Santos is more than most 
men care to take daily. 

HOTELS. The Sportsman, the Grand, the Majestic, the Albion. 

After climbing the mountain side, an hour more over a 
rolling country brings one to the station called Luz, in the 
city of Sao Paulo, said to be the largest and most costly rail- 
way station in South America, and one of the finest in the 
world. The tracks are arranged below the street level, hence 
there are no grade crossings. This city, the second in Brazil, 
and with its about 400,000 inhabitants taking third position 
among the cities of South America, will be a surprise to 
most travelers. Located on the Tropic of Capricorn, its ele- 
vation gives it a healthful climate which in combination with 
other advantages has produced men awake to the spirit of 
progress and eager to develop the astonishing resources of this 
richly endowed State. The city is not only the capital and the 
seat of State Government, but a notable center of education 
and industry, and the home of many men of great wealth. 
It is an ancient city, going back to the middle of the sixteenth 
century, 1554, its name Sao Paulo, which had been pre- 
viously applied to a Jesuit college here, being transferred 
to the new settlement by the Governor General of Brazil, 
Mem de Sa. Though of greater age than any city in our 
own country, for three centuries it made small progress. 
In 1872 it was a town of 26,557 people. But within the last 
forty years it has shown amazing growth, which few of our 
cities can parallel, an increase of nearly fifteen fold. Al- 
though on the edge of the tropics, from its elevation of 3000 




feet, it has a climate like that of Southern Europe. Prom 
the neighboring mountains it receives an excellent water 
supply, while its site on rolling ground affords excellent 
drainage facilities and in places a splendid outlook. 

The hotel accommodations are unfortunately inadequate 
for the rapid development and business of the city. They 
are fairly comfortable, though apt to be over-crowded. It is 
well if possible to engage a room in advance. The Sports- 
man's Hotel on the rua Sao Bento is by some called the best; 
the Grand, the Albion, and the Majestic are not far distant. 
The prices are all about the same, from $3.50 to $5.00 a day, 
American plan. A new hotel is now being constructed, large 
and modern. The main streets of the business center, 
naturally the old part of the town, are rather narrow and 
not all checkerboard fashion as in most of the cities visited. 
This, no doubt, is due to the fact that the surface is irregular, 
with hills and valleys such that in one place a viaduct 800 
feet long and 50 wide, called the Viaducto CM, forms a 
curious street leading from the rua Direita over an old part 
of the town, once a tea garden, to a hill in the newer section, 
where the handsome Municipal Theater is situated. This 
imposing edifice, with streets on all sides, recently erected at 
a cost of a million dollars, compares with the best in Europe 
and surpasses any in the United States. The seating capacity 
is a trifle less than that of the Paris Opera House. The 
seats for the orchestra are, according to the Wagner system, 
placed below the general floor level. 

The commercial center of the city, not far from the hotels 
mentioned, is a triangular plaza called Tiradentes. The rua 
Sao Bento, the Quinze de Novembro, and the Direita are th 
principal shopping and business streets. The Largo de 
Palado is a square near by, on which is the fine Palace of 
Congress; the handsome Agricultural Building of the Ger- 
man style; the Treasury, covering 700 square meters, the 
work of a Brazilian architect, Bamos Azavedo; and the 
Judiciary Building of the Roman Doric order. Other note- 
worthy buildings are the Post Office, the Exchange, the 
Chamber of Commerce, and the Public Library. Some of 
the finest streets are the Avenidas Tiradentes, and the Bangel 
Bestana passing the Largo de Concordia with the always 


interesting Market Place, the ruas da Liberdade, Santo 
Amaro, da Consolagao. The last three lead to the splendid 
Avenue Paulista, with shaded parkway along the center, the 
finest boulevard of the capital, on which are many of the 
handsomest residences. Of course the city has electric lights 
and cars, and many miles of fine asphalt pavements, though 
in the outskirts, on account of the city's rapid growth, there 
may be a few streets yet unpaved, which should be avoided. 
Automobiles and fine carriages are numerous, and delightful 
drives may be taken to see the fine public buildings and the 
multitude of charming and splendid private residences. 
From a residential point of view few more attractive places 
will be found anywhere. The many churches one writer 
calls magnificent, another says only the modern ones are of 
artistic merit. The Cathedral, the churches of Sao Pedro, 
$. Oongalo, and Bemedios are among the most important. 

Many of the fine buildings of the city are devoted to educa- 
tional purposes. The city takes especial pride in its Poly- 
technic School, said to be the best in Brazil, in view of its 
fine laboratories, the practical character of the studies, and 
its imposing edifice opened in 1894. Instruction is given in 
architecture and in civil, industrial, agricultural, mechanical, 
and electric engineering. Also it has a School of Chemistry, 
with courses in dentistry and obstetrics. The Government 
maintains a Law School having a five years 7 course. Its 
library of 50,000 volumes is free to the public. About the 
same size is the general Public Library. The fine large 
Normal School, overlooking the Praa da Republica, occupies 
a whole square near the center of the city. With a library 
of 12,000 volumes, with laboratories, museums, rooms for 
manual labor, gymnastics, and military exercises, it is said to 
be equal in equipment and installation to any in America. 
A kindergarten, equal to the best in any part of the world, 
occupies an annex. A Commercial School for training book- 
keepers and tradesmen, is included in the educational system. 
A spacious building east of the Jardim Publico is occupied 
by the Lyceum of Arts and Trades, where various trades are 
taught, such as tailoring, carpentery, printing, and many 
others. This institution, with towards 1000 pupils, is sup- 

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tffAt."^' \ ' >>' , 'A,-.'<~ -jfl* - A ' - ' 




ported by a private association. Especially noteworthy by 
Americans is the famous Mackenzie College, opened in 1892 
on the corner of rua de Sao Joao and Ypiranga. Schools 
of lower grades were established in 1870 by Presby- 
terians, gradually becoming a complete graded system from 
kindergarten to high, school. On this model the government 
schools were largely planned and on the floor of the Brazilian 
Congress the school system was said to have been the greatest 
factor in their educational development of the last twenty 
years. The college was the first of American fashion in 
Brazil. Coeducation is followed, though the girls live else- 
where. The Chamberlain Dormitory was erected in 1901 for 
the boys. The President of the College is Dr. H. M. Lane, 
and the institution is affiliated with the University of the 
State of New York 

One of the most important points of interest in Sao Paulo, 
though on the outskirts of the city, at the same time a monu- 
ment and an institution of learning, is the Ypiranga, a splen- 
did edifice erected in 1885 on the spot where, in 1822, the 
Independence of Brazil was proclaimed. As it is regarded 
as one of the finest structures in Brazil, the name of the artist, 
Caviliere Tomaso G. Bezzi, is given. The building, which 
fronts on a broad open space, houses a museum with treas- 
ures of historical and scientific interest, many curious and 
valuable relics, and fine paintings by Brazilian artists. The 
beautiful Park, the Jardim Pullico or Jardim da Luz, will 
naturally be visited by every one. Directly opposite the Luz 
Station, created by Royal Charter in 1790, it was first opened 
in 1825. Adorned with a profusion of flowers, trees, a pretty 
lake, and other decorations, it is a delightful resort for resi- 
dent and stranger. 

Well worthy of a visit is the Hotel of Immigrants, a large 
establishment fitted up in the most sanitary and appropriate 
manner. Thousands of families from Europe are here wel- 
comed annually, and entertained free of charge for a short 
period. A Government agent speaking their language meets 
the strangers on their arrival in Santos, and escorts them 
to this Hotel. Later they receive free transportation to 
wherever in the State they desire to go, and their interests are 


looked after by a board. This State is the only one with its 
own especial department of immigration and active propa- 

High-grade institations of a sanitary character are numer- 
ous in the city, as a Bacteriological, a Sero-therapie, a Pasteur, 
and various other Institutes. Fine large hospitals for general 
and special diseases, and for colonists of various nationalities, 
will be observed in an extended drive. 

Coffee. If time permits, the tourist will surely enjoy a 
visit to a great coffee plantation. There are none in the 
immediate vicinity of Sao Paulo, but it is a pleasant journey 
of 80 miles to the city of Campinas, in the vicinity of which 
are fazendas galore. This is one of the oldest and most 
flourishing towns of the State, with a population of about 
50,000, modern and prosperous, well paved and lighted, with 
good schools and a fine large Cathedral. 

The State of Sao Paulo now furnishes one-fourth of the 
world's coffee supply and this section is one of the largest 
producing districts in Brazil. Near Campinas, the great 
fazenda of Baron Geraldo de Rezende will charm the favored 
visitor. A magnificent house and gardens, with a splendid 
collection of rare orchids and 800 varieties of roses, are a not 
unnatural possession of the owner of half a million coffee 
trees. A much vaster estate but too remote for many trav- 
elers to inspect is that of the coffee Mng of the world, Col. 
Francisco Schmidt, Coming as a colonist to this state he 
has achieved a success of which one might well be proud. 
Of the 700,000,000 trees in the State, Col. Schmidt owns more 
than one per eent> 7% million. On the various planta- 
tions live 8000 people, contented and prosperous; a school 
is provided for each village. The soil and climate of Sao 
Paulo are so well adapted to this industry that the crop is 
several times as heavy to the acre as in most other coffee 
growing countries. A family of three or four persons can 
take eare of 10,000 trees and by cultivating other agricultural 
products at the same time could live on the proceeds. 

In 1817 the first shipment of coffee was made from Brazil, 
about 6000 bags; in 1906, 13 million bags were exported, 
10 million being the average. The consumption of coffee in 
recent years has wonderfully increased. Though generally 




considered less injurious than tea, both, should be utterly 
tabooed to children and young people. To persons of mature 
years who have not taken it earlier to their injury, its mod- 
erate use may not be harmful, in some cases may even be 
beneficial. In humid climates it seems to be used freely with 
less ill effects than in a dry and bracing air, where habitual 
stimulant of any sort may be undesirable. 

Although famed for its coffee, Sao Paulo can produce 
almost anything else: rice, sugar, cotton, tobacco, tea, cocoa, 
wheat, com, sweet potatoes, other vegetables, and fodder 
plants are among its products. Of these, the marmallade de 
cavallo, is called the most nutritious of fodder plants known. 

From Sao Paulo to Rio the journey may be made by land 
or sea. If going by rail, one may be advised to take the 
night train, on the ground that there is nothing to see, that 
it will be dusty, and that the ride of 12 hours is a long and 
fatiguing day's journey; the distance is about 310 miles. 
Also a day is thus gained to spend either at Sao Paulo or 
Bio. On the other hand, some persons who have made the 
trip by daylight speak of it with enthusiasm. In the early 
morning one passes on gentle slopes fields of glossy green 
coffee trees, groves of oranges, jungles of palms and bananas, 
with enormous clumps of feathery bamboo, and little towns 
on the hillsides. At the stations are women selling fruit, and 
negro boys with trays of tiny cups of black coffee, hot and 
sweetened. After a while an alluring stream is passed, with 
pleasant towns. Midday is hot and dusty. Farther on are 
reddish grassy slopes and in climbing the wooded ridge many 
cattle may be visible. Higher ascends the train, the valleys 
are blue below: delightful scenes are on every hand, moun- 
tains abrupt and fantastic appear. Yet ever there is soft 
rich verdure ; at last comes swift descent towards a panorama 
of wonderful loveliness. At dusk the train rolls into Bio, 
where, says the Involuntary Chaperone, "All the dreams come 


NEARLY all tourists, whether from the north or south, will 
arrive at Hio by water. Leaving Santos in the late after- 
noon, on a fairly swift steamer, one is liable, unless an early 
riser, to find the ship at anchor in the harbor when he comes 
on deck in the morning. But if never at other times eager 
to see the sun rise, or impatient to behold beauties which are 
permanent in character, let every one who has the smallest 
appreciation of glorious scenery be awake to enjoy the 
entrance into the harbor of Bio, which to many will be the 
culminating joy of the whole delightful journey. With the 
good fortune to approach at daybreak under propitious skies 
this magnificent harbor, unrivaled upon the globe, one will 
rejoice in a vision of splendor surpassing his highest con- 
ceptions of beauty, forever to be treasured among his choicest 
memories. One who is loath to lose his early morning nap 
may fancy that to view the spectacle towards sunset as one 
sails away homeward will answer just as well ; but such is not 
the case. It is the morning light on the triple range of hills 
behind the city, which lies west of the entrance to the bay, 
that enhances the ever charming scene to a spectacle of 
unparalleled loveliness. 

From a distance, if heaven send no veil of mist, will be 
seen on the landward side a row of incomparable titans 
guarding the city; islands also appear: on the right, a large 
flat rock, Hha Raza> bears a lighthouse with double electric 
lights, red and blue, and if one is coming from the north, 
the Itaypu Point is rounded with the pretty little Father and 
Mother Islands near; approaching from Santos these appear 
farther away at the right. The lofty hills or mountains at 
the left attract the most attention. In the distant blue or 



purple, a gray bald head called Gavea is noticeable, a famous 
landmark of the harbor, in the profile of which some fancy 
a resemblance to "Washington. While still outside the harbor 
we see other summits, the less known and less sharp peak of 
Andarahy, more distant, Tijuea and the Organ Mts., and 
nearer, at the right of Gavea, the world famed Corcovado 
Needle, with the city at its foot, or perhaps we should say 
head, since the point of the needle, the smaller end, is quite 
obviously above. Whatever else in Rio be neglected, the 
Corcovado must be known and visited. Other cities have 
boulevards^ if less beautiful, fine buildings and parks; but 
there is one Corcovado in all the world. Still approaching 
the narrow harbor entrance we have glimpses of the city 
close to the portal, and notice that its suburbs even stretch 
to the ocean and along splendid beaches quite to the foot of 
Gavea; while on the opposite shore also are many dwellings. 
Long before, we have admired the celebrated Pao do Assucar 
(loaf of sugar), a striking and enormous conical rock over 
1300 feet high, standing forth boldly into the channel en- 
trance, which it guards upon the left, while opposite on the 
right a rough rock promontory, together with the Assucar, 
forms a splendid gateway. 

Not merely rock protection has Eio but in these days of 
jealous strife she must needs possess grim fortresses also; 
on the right Imbuhy and Santa Cruz, on the left Sao Joao 
and Mallet. The multitude of peaks and heights around the 
city a Brazilian writer speaks of as "a lively guard produced 
by the contortions of a cataclysm." To him everything 
seems dancing. In truth when the heavenly tints of sunrise 
are added to the wondrous shapes and hues of ordinary day, 
the picture has an unearthly beauty which no tongue or pen 
can describe. 

As we pass the Assucar close at hand, we perceive that 
while the other rock faces are smooth, bare, and practically 
perpendicular, this side is rough and shows a bit of green, 
no doubt the slope where once the ascent was made, so the 
story goes, by a hardy Englishman who planted on the sum- 
mit a British flag. A great hue and cry followed this daring 
act. A reward was offered to any one who would fetch the 
banner down. The bribe was vain, till at length the culprit, 


detected, himself removed the offending colors from the staff 
which long remained above. 

Just beyond the Assucar, on the curving shore, we see a 
part of the fashionable residence district On the edge of 
the first deep bay, a large building devoted to the Ministry 
of Agriculture may be distinguished, and close by, the Benj. 
Constant Institute and the National Hospital for the Insane. 
On the eastern shore of the bay is Jurujuba, the hospital for 
epidemic diseases, the pretty beach of Icarahy, then Nietheroy, 
a pleasant town, capital of the State of Rio ,- for the City of 
Rio de Janeiro is a Federated Capital like Washington. 

This wonderful bay, opening towards the south, contains 
an extraordinary number of fascinating little ones of grace- 
ful outline, with which acquaintance should be made later. 
Attention is now directed to the wooded slopes and rock cliffs 
of the serried peaks and mountain ranges, to the smiling city, 
to the blue waters thickly sprinkled with ships, and dotted 
with islands. The bay has the name Gtutnabara, as well as 
the more familiar one, Rio de Janeiro ; the former an Indian 
name, arm of the sea, now more frequently applied to the 
inner and larger portion of the gulf; the latter given by 
mistake when it was first visited January 1, 1502, by Gonzalo 
Coelho, who without sufficient exploration, supposing it to be 
the estuary of a great river, called it Rio de Janeiro, River of 
January. From this the people later were called Flumin- 
enses or River Folk. 

In 1531 the French took possession of the bay, to be driven out 
soon after by Alfonso de Sousa who erected a small fort. The 
French returning in 1555 under the command of Yillegaignon ef- 
fected an entrance to the bay, fortified an island and established a 
colony largely of Huguenots who maintained very friendly rela- 
tions with the Indians; but in 1560, Mem de Sa, the Governor- 
General of Brazil in Pernambueo, which was earlier settled, estab- 
lished a fort on the peninsula in front of the Sugar Loaf, Sao 
Joao, and captured the island stronghold of the French, who, re- 
treating to the mainland, there remained with the support of the 
Indians. In 1565 Estaeio de Sa, nephew of Mem, arrived with re- 
inforcements. After much fighting, concluded by a fierce battle 
between the Morros (hills) da Gloria and da Yiuva, when the 
French and Indians were routed, the site of Rio fell into the pos- 
session of the Portuguese. On the death of Estaeio from a wound 


received in the last battle, Mem de Sa founded a city which he called 
Sao Sebastiao. This he left in charge of his nephew Correia de Sa 
on the Morro do Castello. 

Once more, in 1710, the French returned. They entered the town, 
but in the streets were assaulted so fiercely that they capitulated. 
After their commander Bu Clere had been mysteriously assassinated, 
another French fleet arriving 1 defeated the Portuguese; but after tak- 
ing possession of the city later withdrew on receiving a heavy in- 

In 1762 or ? 63 Rio was made the Capital of Brazil and the resi- 
dence of the Viceroy in the place of Bahia; partly through the efforts 
of Gomes Freire de Andrade, Count of Bobadella- During his ad- 
ministration a notable work was achieved, the construction of the 
great aqueduct of Santa Theresa, by which water was brought from 
the Carioea River to the center of the city. It crossed a part of the 
town on a double archway, which now bears a tramway. Other im- 
provements followed, including the draining of the great marshes, in 
the section near the present Mangue Canal. By the close of the 
eighteenth century Rio was not only the chief city of Brazil but the 
largest and most important of South America. Not so favorably lo- 
cated as to back country as some others, especially Sao Paulo, its 
fine harbor gave it commercial importance, greatly increased by the 
discovery of gold and precious stones in the State of Minas, as by 
this port most of the adventurers entered, thence following a long 
Indian trail. 

When the Royal family arrived from Portugal in 1808 the city, the 
largest in South America, had forty-six streets, nineteen open squares, 
many churches, and the usual public buildings. Its growth, though 
continuous, has been hampered until the last decade by the unhealth- 
fulness of the city, especially the scourge of yellow fever, also by 
wars, extravagance, and other troubles. With the reorganization of 
the finances of the country and the establishing of its credit during 
the Presidency of Dr. Campos Salles 1898-1902, the regeneration 
of the city under the later Presidents was made possible and the ex- 
penditure of $100,000,000 for improvements in the Federal District 
within the last ten years. _ On the most charming site imaginable a 
new and splendid city has been created which, still in the process of 
transformation, soon will even better compare with its uniquely beau- 
tiful surroundings. 

To one entering the bay, which is nearly 100 miles in cir- 
cumference, its great size is not apparent, as the large inner 
sea is cut off by points and islands in such a way that the 
shape and magnitude of the entire gulf is undisclosed. Its 


configuration as a whole is remarkably like tliat of the coun- 
try, roughly triangular with the apex at the south. Among 
the numerous islands, three close to the shore may be par- 
ticularly noticed: the Island Cobras with a fort where polit- 
ical prisoners have been confined; the Fiscal Island upon 
which is a pretty Gothic structure, headquarters of the Cus- 
tom House inspectors, hence the name; and Villegaignon, 
named for its first settler, also bearing a fortress. 

Tour ship may sail past the greater part of the city to 
the new and splendid docks where you may step ashore at 
your ease, or pause at a common anchorage in front of the 
main business section of the city, where you have the advan- 
tage of landing at the Caes dos Mineiros close to the Custom 
House. All about are ships of every size and as usual of al- 
most every nationality except our own. Once indeed I saw 
here the Stars and Stripes, floating above the deck of a 
schooner from Maine, on its annual visit to bring ice and ap- 
ples from that cooler clime. Yachts and launches, pretty and 
plain, gasoline and rowboats flit about, among ships of larger 
size, at anchor or sailing, two of these probably the great Bra- 
zilian warships, the Minas, and Sao Paulo, a few years ago the 
scene of serious unpleasantness due to a marine insurrection. 

The city, stretching for miles along the curving shore, 
presents a most attractive sight. With corresponding depth 
its size would be immense, but its width is barred, as effect- 
ively as is New York's by its two rivers, by the high steep 
range which leaves small space between its foot and the sea; 
indeed, it thrusts forward several sharp projections quite into 
the water, and chains of modest hills over which the 
dwellings climb. Thus the city is subdivided into many sec- 
tions, to which one may proceed only in a roundabout man- 
ner. Straggling in a charming way over the level patches 
of ground and part way up the lower slopes of some parts of 
the lofty rearward rampart, it affords room for a population, 
now practically a million, with plenty of space for more. 
The second city in the Southern Hemisphere, the fifth in all 
America, though older than any in the United States, its 
modern growth and development have been brief and rapid. 

But without more ado we must hasten ashore and have a 
closer look at the beauties spread before us. If at the docks, 


a few steps out, through the fine warehouses or around them, 
bring one to a broad splendid avenue where passing ears will 
in twenty minutes bear its occupants to the center of the city, 
and to the Alfandega or Custom House. Also carriages may 
be in waiting, a trifle dearer than in Buenos Aires, but with 
modest fees as compared with New York. From the anchor- 
age, one must take a boat to the steps of the Caes dos Mineiros, 
where men and boys wait to conduct you to the Alfandega 
for the examination of baggage. This may be a tedious oper- 
ation which a judicious tip is liable to accelerate. As the 
office is closed from 11 to 1, it is important to be early on 
shore, else you may be compelled to return in the afternoon 
for your heavy baggage, or even to wait until the next day. 
Officials and underlings are usually polite, but here often 


HOTELS. The Avenida, Avenida Rio Branco; Estrangeiros, Praca 
J. de Alencar; International, Sylvestre; America, Cattete; France, 
Praga 15 de Novembro; Allen's, Rua Hmnayta; Tijuca (Tijuea) ; 
Grande, Lapa; G-lobo, Primeiro do Marge; Pensao Suissa, Largo da 

Restaurants. FranJcisTcaner, Avenida Rio Branco, 152; Heim, As- 
semblea, 119 ; Londres, Assemblea, 115 ; Paris, Uruguayana, 41 ; and 

United States Consulate and Embassy: Avenida, 117. British 
Consulate: Rua General Camara 2. 

Churches. British, Rua Evaristo da Yiega; American Methodist, 
Rua Conde de Baependy. Y. M. C. A. Building, Rua da Quitanda 

Money. A milreis is 33 cents; 100 reis 3^ cents; a eonto is 1000 
milreis, written 1000$. 

Carriages. Four wheels, for two, first hour, 6$; second hour, 3$; 
two wheels, for one, 4$, first hour; 2$, second hour. 

Taxis. (For one or two persons), first hour 8$; second, 4$. 
Course about a mile l.$400, for each quarter mile after, 200 reis. 

Postage. Two hundred reis to the United States or Europe. 

Language spoken, Portuguese; also often French. Spanish gen- 
erally understood. 


Avenida do Rio Braneo, the National Library, the Fine Arts Mus- 
eum, the Cathedral, and the Candelaria Church, the Pragas 15 of 


November, and Republics, the Passeio Publieo, the Beira Mar, the 
Botanical Garden, the Pao de Assuear, and CORCOVADO. 

It is a great advantage to have selected one's hotel in 
advance and to have rooms engaged, as the three leading 
establishments are a long way apart. 

The carregadores who have numbers on their hats may 
usually be relied upon to bring in time your baggage to its des- 
tination. Some haggling over the price is usual, as large fees 
are demanded; not too large perhaps for those who carry 
them on foot, but more than an ordinary express company 
would ask for the same distance. The carregadores carry suit 
eases and other small packages, several of them, on their 
heads, at least to the cars, where they must pay their fare. 
Also it must be said that baggage is not allowed in electrics 
of the first class (I did once smuggle a suit case) nor make 
a note of tJds is any man allowed without a coat, however 
hot the weather. Even on the street a gentleman under no 
circumstances is expected to carry his coat over his arm. 
One American who did so was politely accosted by a Brazil- 
ian who said, "Man, coat put on!" in the best English he 
could muster. Two milreis would be charged for two or 
three pieces of hand baggage to the Avenida Hotel and four 
or five for a trunk, which would be pushed in a hand-cart; 
double to the Estrangeiros, less to the Suissa. For the Inter- 
national Hotel, the Express Company mugt be employed, but 
with that there may be considerable delay. Each hotel has 
its own especial merit, which to some minds would outweigh 
all others and render possible a decision without personal 
observation ,- many will prefer to spy out the land for them- 
selves. It has been said that there is no really first-class 
hotel in Eio, but a Ritz Carlton now being constructed on 
the Avenida with accommodations for 1200 visitors, will be 
opened in 1914. As hotels are liable to be full, it is wise to 
telephone before going to look at rooms. 

First may be mentioned the Hotel Avemda f American Plan 
$5 up, not because it is the best, but as being in the center 
of things, right on the main business street, the new Avenida 
Eio Branco, Many lines of electric cars start from beneath 
its portico and nearly all the others pass within one or two 


blocks. Naturally it is noisy but persons accustomed to our 
city streets will hardly mind. This hotel, having a restau- 
rant with all night service and music every evening, is the 
largest in Brazil. Many English speaMng tourists, however, 
prefer one of the other two. The Hotel dos Estrangeiros, 
the Strangers', is a large establishment facing the Praga Jose 
de Alencar, a charming ride of 20 minutes from the Hotel 
Avenida in the direction of the Assucar, mostly along the 
boulevard by the sea called the Beira Mar. The hotel is not 
far, about two blocks, from the water, which may be visible 
from the upper windows in the rear; in front several lines 
of ears diverge in various directions. The table is no more 
than fair, though perhaps as good as any ; the price, 12 to 15 
or more milreis daily being sufficient for what is provided. 
Opportunity for sea bathing is near; also for hot and cold 
baths in a hydropathic establishment. The International Ho- 
tel, which seems more out of the city, though reached in about 
the same length of time from the Avenida, is recommended as 
cooler in the hot season, from October to April, and is by 
many preferred at any time, on account of its delightful 
situation 1000 feet above the sea on the way to Corcovado. 
Though the ride is but five minutes longer, the cars do not 
go so often as to the Estrangeiros, which is served by all the 
cars of the Jardim Botanico Co., these passing in an almost 
continuous row under the Hotel Avenida. The ears to the In- 
ternational set out once in 20 minutes from the farther side 
of the Praga de Carioca, a Square just behind the Hotel 
Avenida ; the invisible starting point is around at the back of 
a certain building. This line, called the Santa Theresa, goes 
by the rua do Aqueducto over the arches which once bore 
the aqueduct, across a portion of the city from a hill, the 
Morro de Sto. Antonio, to that of Sta. Theresa, the latter 
being rather a ridge extending from the peak of Corcovado. 
On the steep slope of the ridge the International is situated, 
where the nights are ever comfortable, while the journey to 
and fro is always a delight. The hotel has many suites 
of rooms and bath with hot and cold water, and is a 
favorite resort with many. At these three hotels the rates 
are much the same. 
Should one prefer a more modest establishment with lower 


prices, a finer outlook than any save the International, and 
more conveniently located than any but the Avenida, he may 
go to the Pensao Suissa, kept by a motherly German Fran, 
only ten minutes from the Avenida by any of the Jardim 
Botanieo lines, and looking out upon the bay, the Gloria 
hill, the lovely Beira Mar. The rooms are as neat as possible, 
so that I was able to reply to a gentleman's query as to red 
ants that I had seen none, which seemed to him a great sur- 
prise, as he supposed that every dwelling in Rio contained 
them. The various other hotels and pensions are not without 
merit and patrons. 

One may generally get settled in his hotel in time for the 
noon meal, though the luggage is not likely to arrive before 
the middle of the afternoon. Yet the time should be im- 
proved, either by sight-seeing in the middle of the city, or 
if one is tired by a ride to some of the suburbs. A few 
tourists, caring little for the commercial and business section 
of the city, devote their entire time to the wonders of the 
jewel's marvellous setting. The center of the city should not, 
however, be ignored. Yet a ride in car or automobile, 
according to the length of the purse, will be a delightful 
beginning for the eager tourist. In an auto one may skim 
over a great part of the city's boulevards in a single after- 
noon. Our admiration for these magnificent drives and park- 
ways, unsurpassed in the world in their opportunities for 
delightsome hours, will be heightened if we are mindful of 
tiie astonishing transformation which has here been wrought 
within the last decade. In 1903 Rio was a dirty, not to say 
filthy, city of narrow streets, a place to be shunned, as often a 
hot bed of yellow fever. For its regeneration various plans 
had previously been proposed, but President Rodriguez Alves 
was the man who put one of these into execution. 

The slowness of Latin Americans (in fact of every one 
but themselves), so favorite a theme in the talk of their 
northern neighbors, does not appear in this instance. It 
would puzzle us, I think, to find in the United States any 
city, save San Francisco when necessity compelled, where 
by works of such magnitude a great city has so speedily been 
metamorphosed through the destruction, replanning, and re- 
building of some of the most compact and important busi- 




ness and residence sections. Nearly $60,000,000 was devoted 
to this great transformation. 

The plan which was approved in September, 1903, included 
the construction of a great quay arranged for ships to come 
alongside, furnished with storage warehouses, railways, and 
electric lights, with a parallel avenue 125 feet wide and 2 
miles long; the improving of a cross canal to the sea by 
making it a solidly walled stream, with on each side an ave- 
nue shaded with palms ; the lifting of the railroad from street 
level to a viaduct 16 feet above; the construction of a broad 
avenue straight to the Quinta of Boa Vista, residence of the 
late Emperor; the increase of 'the water supply; the renova- 
tion of the sewerage system with all modern improvements; 
the removal of several hills ; the filling in of large sections; 
the widening of a number of streets; and the formation in 
the heart of the city of a new avenue a mile and a quarter 
long and 120 feet wide. 

The inauguration of the great work of the Avenida Cen- 
tral, as it was originally called, a broad thoroughfare cross- 
ing, from one side to the other, the shallow peninsula oc- 
cupied by the commercial district, on the front of which is 
Caes Pharoux, occurred March 8, 1904, with the participation 
of the President and other officials and with much enthusiasm 
on the part of the people; as a broad outlet for the future 
traffic of the port was seen to be an absolute necessity. The 
foundations of the building numbered 2, 4 and 6 being then 
begun, the great task was swiftly advanced. Day and night 
was the work pushed; 600 buildings within three months 
were, by 3000 workmen, utterly demolished, opening a space 
230 feet wide: 65 feet each side for the new buildings, 120 
for the central paved roadway, and 20 for each sidewalk. 
Along the center of the avenue a row of 53 Pao Brazil trees 
was planted in beds 16 feet long, and 55 posts bear each 3 
electric lights. On the sidewalks are more trees, and posts 
for illumination by gas. As the trees grow larger the beauty 
of the avenue will be increased. Most of the new buildings, 
which mark the introduction into Brazil of American steel 
frame construction, are of fine types of architecture in a 
variety of styles. 

In other sections 1200 old buildings were sacrified to open 


or widen a dozen other streets, these now from 55 to 100 feet 
wide, paved with asphalt or in a few cases with fine granite 
blocks. On all sides new buildings sprang up by magic. 

Of still greater magnitude and requiring more time was 
the improvement of the port, now approaching completion. 
The stone quay more than two miles in length, with sufficient 
depth of water to allow ships of any draught to come along- 
side, is provided with the most modern machinery for hoist- 
ing, loading and unloading ships, and with two stations sup- 
plying electric power for these as well as for lighting already 
in service. Back of the wall, a space where formerly were 
bays and islands has been for the most part filled in, at some 
points for a width of 800 feet. Then along the quay a broad 
avenue was opened. A width of 80 feet for railroad tracks, of 
110 feet for storage warehouses (called armazem) and for 
administration offices, is followed by the broad well paved 
avenue 125 feet wide, bordered with trees and with double 
tracks for electric cars. To fill in this great space sand was 
dredged from the bay, and earth was brought from Senado 
Hill, now completely leveled. 

While these great matters were undertaken by the general 
Government, the new Mayor of Eio, Dr. Francisco Passos, 
attended to the broadening of other streets, repaving with 
asphalt or with 'granite blocks; to the embellishing of the 
city with gardens, etc., and to the construction of the beau- 
tiful boulevard four miles long and 110 feet wide along the 
water front towards the Pao do Assucar. Even the resur- 
rection of San Francisco in one way seems less wonderful 
than Eio's transformation, in that the former was compulsory, 
the latter voluntary. The greatest work in Eio was more in 
preparing anew the foundations than in the actual con- 
struction. It was, says the Brazilian writer from whom I 
have already quoted, "the work of an enterprise." He 
modestly says that there is nothing especial to say about the 
buildings of Eio. As to those of a residential character he 
asserts that some are nice, "but the majority of them is an 
awful sight reminding antiquity/' To me they did not so 
appear, the many being pretty and tasteful, if unpretentious, 
while the dwellings of the poorer classes are less hideous than 
those inhabited by the poor in our own country. 


While the most delightful of the hours spent in Bio may 
be those devoted to excursions to the suburbs, one should 
visit also the commercial section, the public buildings, the 
shops, the market ; and traverse some of the streets, wide and 
narrow, where the life and business of the city go on. A day 
or two may profitably be spent in the busy marts of trade. 

One may set out from Caes Pharoux, to which suitable 
attention will hardly be given when landing. Here is a great 
Square or Plaza, in Portuguese a Praga, that of November 
15, Quinze de Novembro. At the right as you face the water- 
front is the Ferry House for the boats running across to 
Nictheroy. From here also depart excursion boats on Sun- 
day for a trip around the bay. The Praga has the usual 
pretty garden in the center, with a bronze equestrian statue 
of General Osorio, Marquez do Herval', one of the command- 
ers in the Paraguayan War, and also leader of the State 
forces of Eio Grande do Sul in an insurrection against the 
first President of Brazil. On the right hand side of the 
square, as one faces the water, near the Ferry House, is a 
four-story building more than 150 years old, of typical co- 
lonial architecture, once the residence of an aristocratic fam- 
ily, now a lodging house. The large terra eotta building is 
devoted to the Ministry of Transportation. The two-story 
pink building, higher in the center, is of -greater interest. 
Erected in 1747 and now occupied by the Department of 
Telegraphs, it was first the home of the Colonial Governors; 
on the arrival of Prince Joao it became his residence, and 
later served as the Imperial Palace. It was here that the 
Princess Regent, Isabella, signed the Emancipation Decree, 
May 13, 1888, as a tablet on the wall sets forth, and from here 
the Emperor Dom Pedro was taken, Nov. 17, 1889, to be 
placed upon a warship and banished to Europe, after the 
proclamation of the Republic, Nov. 15. 

On the street, rua Dom Manoel, which separates these two 
buildings, next to the Ministry of Transportation, is a large 
green edifice which houses the Naval Museum. This Museum, 
founded by imperial decree in 1868, was opened to the public 
in 1884 with inaugurating ceremonies by the Emperor. On 
the anniversary of the battle of Riachuelo, an important naval 
victory in the Paraguayan campaign, the museum was first 


opened in its present quarters June 11, 1898. Free entrance 
daily, from 11 till 2, except Sundays and holidays. The first 
section of the museum contains 29 oil paintings of Brazil's 
great naval tattles, 15 of these by the celebrated marine 
artist, Chevallier E. de Martino, a protege of Dom Pedro II, 
and later named by Queen Victoria Marine Painter to the 
Court of England. Picture number 5, of the battle of 
Riachuelo, is considered one of his best works. In the second 
section are portraits and photographs of the Ministers of 
Marine and naval heroes, including the British Admiral 
Cochrane, who also helped the Spanish Americans in their 
struggle for independence. Becoming Marquez do Marenhao 
he received a grant of land now held by his heirs. The third 
section contains models of vessels, from the new Dreadnoughts 
down to canoes and fishing boats. The fourth contains flags 
and standards, the fifth, samples of artillery, cannon, and 
projectiles, the sixth, hand weapons, such as spears and rifles, 
the seventh, naval and Indian relies and curios, the eighth, 
medals, souvenirs, etc. 

The large Praa has a smaller continuation at the west, 
facing which, on the corner of rua 7th of September, is the 
Cathedral, to which a great tower is now being added. On 
the other side is a larger church which might be mistaken 
for the official building. Neither is especially handsome, 
inside or out, both interiors being in an ornate rococo style 
which may be admired by some. The Cathedral, however, has 
as a feature of historic interest a slab set in the wall at the 
left of the altar bearing an inscription in memory of the 
discoverer, Pedro Alvares Cabral, whose remains were 
brought from Portugal and interred in the wall of the tower 
in 1903. 

The Cathedral, founded in early colonial days, with this 
tower is less overshadowed by the larger Igreja (Church) 
do Carmo on its right. When the tower foundations were 
sunk, a stratum of sea sand was struck containing fragments 
of ancient sea craft, showing that the shore is now greatly 
advanced. The completed tower will be the highest structure 
in the city. With clocks on three sides it will carry a chime 
of bells, the largest of which, weighing 2% tons, was cast in 
Portugal in 1621. In the interior of the Cathedral is a fine 


main altar, back of wMeh is a painting of the Italian School. 
Sub-altars to the Virgin are on each side of the nave, and one 
to Santa Rosa de Lima, Patron of Sonth America. Near the 
main altar is the throne of the Cardinal Archbishop, and 
formerly there was in front of this a chair of state for the 
use of the Emperor. A flag carried in the Paraguayan War 
by the regiment of Volunteers of the country is near the high 
altar. In the second niche on the right, to one entering, is a 
' * Christ of the Jury, ' ' torn by a mob of Anti-Clericals from its 
place in the Jury Court. Later a new one was there placed 
with great pomp and processions. 

On the other side of rua 7th of September is a large white 
building where the Commercial M^eutn, open from ten to 
four, may be visited. Business men and others are welcome, 
and a Bureau of Information is at hand for the service of com- 
mercial men and manufacturers. Here may be studied the 
coffee grades of the world's great markets, the decisions of 
the Tariff Commission, 229 varieties of Brazilian vegetable 
products, including dyes, inks, aromatics, gums, resins, and 
foods, with many medicinal plants, used among the natives 
but unknown to the scientific world. Here also are 50 va- 
rieties of fibres, 2000 varieties of Brazilian wood, ten of cot- 
ton, an exhibition of the process of rubber making, etc. 

In the same building is the Institute* Historico e Geo- 
grapluco, a society founded in 1838 with a membership from 
among the most intellectual men of the country. There is a 
large collection of rare books and manuscripts, also busts of 
bronze and marble, and relics of various kinds, one of these 
the old Roda or wheel used to receive children at the Casa 
dos Expostos. This hollow wooden cylinder with an opening 
at the side was fixed in the wall. A baby might easily be 
deposited within and the wheel pushed around carrying the 
baby inside, when a bell would ring in the convent summon- 
ing the Sisters to receive the child, which was taken charge 
of and brought up with no questions asked. 

To the south of the Praca beyond the Ferry House, and 
close to the water, is the ever interesting Market Place. 
Fruits, flowers, birds, meat, vegetables, and people, all merit 
attention, as do the well constructed booths and the attractive 
cleanliness of the place. 


Prom this square many lines of electric railways lead in 
various directions, but it is only a short walk to the Avenida 
by the street at the corner of the Cathedral, or by several 
parallel streets. It is better perhaps first to turn to the right 
and follow the important street, Primeiro de Margo, parallel 
to the bay front. On this street is the Post Office, the Bolsa 
or Stock Exchange, of Italian style, one of the finest build- 
ings of the city, the Bank of Commerce, and the Supreme 
Court edifice of beautiful rose-colored stone and marble, 
sumptuously decorated without and within. The Alfandega 
or Custom House, of a green color, may be seen from this 
ma, nearer the shore, on a street of the same name. From 
the Primeiro de Maro many narrow streets lead to the 
Avenida, which some of them cross, among these the Ouvidor, 
long the most famous thoroughfare of Rio and still the fash- 
ionable shopping street. Now alas! it has received another 
name, Moreira Cezar, so you may look in vain for the Ouvidor, 
though every one still calls it by its old appellation. This 
fascinating little street is hardly 20 feet wide. The narrow 
sidewalks are almost too smooth and slippery with variously 
colored tiles. No carts or carriages are allowed in the street, 
the center of which, well paved, is used by pedestrians. The 
street is the rendezvous of high life, as well as of idlers, 
students, politicians, and tourists. Here are the most elegant 
shops, jewelry, book stores, dry goods, etc., with cafes and 
clubhouses, some fine buildings, and others poor. 

But before crossing by this to the Avenida, the Candelaria 
Church a little to the north, on a narrow street of the same 
name, should be visited. This, called the richest church in 
Latin America, deserves a better location on a broad plaza, 
rather than here on this little street. The edifice, planned and 
built by a Brazilian engineer, Evaristo da Veiga, has three 
finely carved bronze doors, and a rich and elaborate interior. 
Fine marble columns, a beautiful ceiling with mosaic decora- 
tions, and fine paintings by the best Brazilian artists, excite 


THE Avenida do Eio Branco, so called since the recent 
death of the famous Baron of that name, formerly the Cen- 
tral, is claimed by Brazilians to be the most beautiful street 
in the world. Though, from one or another point of view, 
other partisans may dispute its pre-eminence, there is no ques- 
tion as to its splendid construction and imposing edifices, 
which for variety and beauty it would be difficult to match 
within the same distance in any other city. Every style of 
architecture is represented, Moorish, Gothic, Italian, etc., 
with varied and lovely coloring. Minarets and towers, un- 
usual mosaic sidewalks, the welcome shade and friendly green 
of trees, the dashing automobiles, fashionable and beautiful 
women, men from almost every clime contribute to the won- 
derful Avenida. Made to order, so rapidly as to take one's 
breath, it is indeed a notable, a marvellous achievement: 
begun in 1904, finished in 1906; and not this only, but the 
beautiful Beira Mar as well. It seems a transformation by 
magic. To mention the various attractive buildings is impos- 
sible. Many banks and important commercial houses may be 
found here, buildings of the leading newspapers, the Jornal do 
Ccmimercio, the Jornal do Brazil, the Paiz, and conspicuous 
near the south end, the National Library and the Art Museum 
on the left, the Municipal Theater on the right, and at the 
very end on the right the Monroe Palace. 

The National Library, called the most valuable in South 
America and, with more than 400,000 catalogued numbers, the 
largest south of the equator, is housed in a handsome building 
of the best modern equipment. This was designed and con- 
structed by the Mayor, General Souza A'guiar, after an inspec- 
tion of the libraries of Europe and America. It contains its 
own departments for printing and binding. The famous 
Ajuda Collection, which was brought over by Prince Joao 



in 1806, when Napoleon's army invaded Portugal, was the 
nucleus. From the old Carmelite hospital in the rua Primeiro 
de Margo it was moved to its own quarters in 1810, when it 
already numbered 60,000 volumes. All schools and periods 
of typographic art may here be found, examples of Johann 
Fust and Peter Schoeffer, Aiding and Plautius, Ibarras, 
Elsivers, and many others. A permanent exhibition has been 
arranged of Books, Manuscripts and Charts, Engravings and 
Prints, Medals and Coins. In the rarity of some of its treas- 
ures, if not in number, the collection compares with the fa- 
mous ones of Europe: a perfect copy of the Mazarin Bible 
printed in 1462, the first from movable type, the first edition 
of the New Testament by Erasmus of Rotterdam, 1514, a 
Novus Orbis Begionum with map of Brazil, 1532, a Roycroft 
Bible, London 1557, and many other rarities. Among the 300 
engravings and prints are worts of Diirer, Cranach, Rubens, 
etc. With over 100,000 prints and above 30,000 (many rare) 
numismatic specimens, a treat is afforded to the specialist. 

The reading room, where it should be, on the main floor, 
is furnished with comfortable leather-covered armchairs and 
individual desks. In the side galleries around the rotunda 
are arranged in glass cases many of the especial gems of the 
rare specimens. In the great stack rooms, I observed many 
books in English, noticing the names of Mark Twain, 
Maeaulay, Dickens, and others. The finest editions of the 
various works in handsome bindings seem to have been 

The library is open from ten A. M. to nine P. M. with the 
usual exception of Sundays and holidays. 

Other libraries which only the specialist will be likely to 
visit are the Fluminense with 90,000 volumes, on the Ouvidor, 
the Libraries of the Army, and of the Navy, that of the M ed- 
ical School with 70,000 volumes, of the Polytechnic with 
70,000, the Senate Library, the Congressional, the Gabinete 
Portuguez de Leitura, occupying a beautiful building in the 
rua Luis de Camoes near San Francisco Square, the Com- 
merce Library in the Stock Exchange Building, and others. 

Next to the Bibliotheca Nacional on the Avenida is the 
Escola de Bellas Artes, the Art School and Museum. Again 
the collection of Prince Joao was the nucleus to which many 




accretions have been made by Government grant and by pri- 
vate donations. Among original works of the old masters 
of various schools which are here to be seen are canvases of 
Caracei, Correggio, Greuze, Guido Reni, Jordaens, Lucas, 
Murillo, Poussin, Rubens, Snyder, Jan Stein, Teniers, Tin- 
toretto, Van Dyke, Velasquez, Veronese, Wouvermans, and 
many others, besides more than 100 never positively iden- 
tified. Among fine pieces of sculpture is one by Rodolpho 
Bernadelli of Christ and the Adulteress. A large number 
of productions of Brazilian artists is also included in the col- 
lection, which is said to be the largest and most important 
in South America. 

Opposite the Fine Arts Museum is the Municipal Theater, 
a splendid edifice, facing a small triangular park, with one 
side on the Avenida. 

The theater, like the Colon in Buenos Aires, is fitted up 
with every modern improvement, mechanical and electrical 
devices above and below the stage, which seems almost as 
large as the auditorium, with rows upon rows of floor drops 
to give the depth desired. A power plant, an air filtering 
and cooling plant, and what is called the most beautiful res- 
taurant in South America, minister to the comfort of the 
audience. The restaurant of Assyrian style in details follows 
Babylonian originals in the Louvre of Paris. The leather- 
covered armchairs in the auditorium, of unusual width and 
well spaced, are especially comfortable. The President, of 
course, is provided with an elegant box, communicating with 
private salon and dining-room on the floor below. Modelled 
after the Paris Opera House, though a trifle smaller, it is 
richly decorated. Designed and built by Dr. Francisco 
Oliveira Passos, son of the great Mayor Passos, during whose 
administration the grand transformation of the city was 
largely effected, the theater was inaugurated in July, 1909, 
with Rejane and an all star French company. It is now 
leased to an impresario who must produce each year a num- 
ber of standard plays, some in Portuguese translation, and 
some plays by native dramatists, further encouraging national 
art by conducting a dramatic school. Visitors may be ad- 
mitted at the rear entrance between ten and four on working 


At the very end of the Avenue, not far from the Theater 
and close to the sea> with open space on every side, stands 
the Monroe Palace, which at the St. Louis Exposition served 
as the Brazilian headquarters, and here, in 1906, as the meet- 
ing place for the second Pan American Congress. It is of a 
rather florid type of architecture, the most ornate of the 
buildings on the Avenue. 

The Monroe Palace has one entrance on the Avenida and 
one on the opposite side towards the Passeio Publico. This 
most ancient of the public gardens of Rio, founded in 1783, 
contains vegetation from this epoch, hence 130 years old. It 
has the usual beauties of tropical parks, trees, shrubbery, 
flower beds, and vines, also several statues, and a pretty build- 
ing, entrance 1 milreis, housing a collection of native fishes. 
This Marine Aquarium, installed in 1904, has 20 sections with 
35 different species; among these, flying fish, feather fish, 
turtles, moon fish, crabs, sea-horses, varieties of lobsters, and 
of marine plants. A pavilion, affording opportunity for rest 
and the purchase of refreshments, supplies also music and 
moving pictures. The garden, which is much frequented, 
was designed by a native artist, Valentina da Fonseca e Silva, 
more familiarly known as mestre Valentine. The artistic 
decoration includes two statues, Apollo and Mercury, the 
arms of Luiz de Vaseoncellos, then Viceroy, the bust in the 
fount of the jacares, and two granite pyramids inscribed 
1783, A* saudade do Rio e Ao Amor do Publico. 

Busts of the poets, Gongalves Dias, and Castro Alves, and 
of the journalist, Ferreira de Aranjo, founder of the Gazeta 
de NotidaSf have been placed in the garden. At the main 
entrance is a gilded bronze medallion of Queen Maria and 
her consort, Dom Pedro III. 

Among the important streets running from the Praa 15th 
of November across the Avenida, a little north of the Hotel 
Avenida, are the Assemblea leading to the Praga da Carioca, 
a short distance from the Avenue, and the rua 7th of Sep- 
tember leading to the Praga Tirandentes farther west. The 
Garden contains an admirable statue, by the French sculptor 
Rochel, of Dom Pedro I, founder of the empire. Continuing 
in the same direction, one will reach the large and beautiful 
Parque da BepuUica, in a Praa or Square of the same name, 


of unusual size for a park near the heart of the business sec- 
tion. Here are woods, lakes, and streams with aquatic birds, 
black and white swans, islands and rustic bridges, a grotto 
with a pretty cascade, 66,000 varieties of plants, many birds 
and animals, and some statuary. 

All of the parks are characterized by luxuriant tropical 

On the Praga, south of the Park, is an immense building, 
the Firemen's Barracks. 

To the northwest, facing a paved square, is the great Station 
of the Central Railwwy, with tracks running into three dif- 
ferent states and to forty or more cities, including Sao Paulo. 
Its revenue is more than $10,000,000 a year. On another 
side of the Praga facing the Park is the Senate House, and 
the Mint with an imposing fagade and some fine ornamen- 
tation in bronze. Other buildings on the sides of the Praga 
are the Ministry of "War, the Barracks, the Normal School, 
the Foreign Office, the Law and the Medical Schools, and 
the National School of Music. 

From the northwest corner of the Park two parallel streets 
run westward, the Visconde de Itauna and Senador Eusebio, 
to the Square Onze de Junho, whence they continue at the 
side of the Canal do Mangue, forming a grand boulevard with 
two rows of royal palms on each side. This double and 
channeled avenue has one sharp bend, turning in the direction 
of the new docks, where the canal empties into the harbor. 
It is a mile and a half in length, has two tracks for electric 
cars, paved ways for wagons, and broad asphalt for automo- 
biles, to which the central stream of water with its massive 
stone embankments and the superb rows of palms add an 
unusual beauty. 

The Zoological Garden, admission 1$000 is reached by elec- 
trics of the Villa Isabel line from the Praga 15 de Novembro, 
a pleasant ride. Some interesting animals are on view, but if 
time is limited, it may be better employed elsewhere. 

From the same Square, cars marked Sao Christovao go to 
the National Museum in the Quinta de Boa Vista. The 
Quinta, a fine large park, deserves a visit, the Aquarium (free) 
also, even should the Museum be closed, as has long been the 
case, for the purpose of extensive alterations. The Museum, 


with other objects has a good collection of archaeological and 
ethnographical specimens. A famous meteorite of unusual 
size, named Bendigo, was formerly in the vestibule. The great 
building was earlier the winter palace of Dom Pedro II. It 
has been proposed to transfer the Zoological Garden to this 
handsome park. 

The various hills remaining in the center of the city, a 
few have been completely leveled, give variety and pie- 
turesqueness to its topography, although interfering some- 
what with ease of locomotion and traffic. Of considerable 
height and steepness, they are slender, so that the way around 
is not over long; thus in the opinion of the tourist who has an 
eye for scenic beauty they are not to be regretted. The 
energetic person with a little time to spare should enjoy the 
ascent of the four hills which are near the Avenida, and of 
one or two of those along the Beira Mar. Near the south 
end of the Avenue, a little back of the Hotel Avenida, is 
the Santo Antonio hill surmounted by a convent of that 
name. The main entrance is from the rua 13th of May, in 
a narrow passage between the Santa Theresa Tramway Sta- 
tion and the Government Printing Office on the left. The 
ancient and massive structure of the Convent, built rather 
to defy the ravages of time than to excite admiration for its 
beauty, has outside walls on the ground floor 4 feet 9 inches 
in thickness. The vast corridors are poorly lighted. Begun 
June 4, 1608, the construction was finished in 1615. The 
hill, originally Morro do Carmo, later took its name from 
the convent. Of the Franciscan Order, the convent is poor, 
but the fine sacristy is worth visiting. Here is antique and 
artistic furniture, such as is rarely seen, carved from jacar- 
anda, one of Brazil's most valuable woods. Here, too, is a 
remarkable wainscoting of blue tile, representing incidents in 
the life of St. Anthony, paintings on wood, a staff done in 
gold and precious stones presented by the Prince Regent, 
another from the Governor of Sacramento, now Uruguay, and 
other curiosities. In 1855 an imperial decree suspended the 
novitiate of religious orders ; by 1886 but one member of the 
community remained,- in 1889, with the establishment of the 
Republic, religious liberty was ordained, other friars were 
admitted, and the work of restoration began. In a large 


saloon of the convent is a stone slab marking the burial place 
of John Forbes Skellater, native of Scotland, who served the 
Kings of Portugal as General and Councillor, accompanying 
H. R. H. to Rio de Janeiro, where he died April 8, 1808, 
at the age of 76. In an old chapel of the cloisters is a 
tomb containing the remains of the Prince Pedro Alfonso, 
son of the Emperor, Dom Pedro II. , Several pictures by 
unknown artists remain from ancient days. 

The hill on the other side of the Avenue, also south of rua 
Assemblea is Castello, at the top of which is the Astronomical 
Observatory with ruins of an ancient church. The easy climb 
by a narrow paved roadway is well worth making for the de- 
lightful view from the summit of the city and harbor below, 
and the more distant mountains in the rear. 

Near the foot of Castello on the east side, facing the bay on 
the Praia de Santa Luzia is Kisericordia Hospital, largest of 
the kind in South America : a great institution with 57 doc- 
tors, 88 nurses and many assistants. In 1910, 12,171 cases 
were treated besides 154,600 outdoor patients. Among other 
numerous and notable philanthropic institutions is the, ad- 
mirable Institute of Protection and Assistance to Infants, on 
rua Visconde do Rio Branco 12, founded by Dr. Moncorvo Jr. 
in 1901 ; accomplishing a great work in the surgical and medi- 
cal treatment of children and mothers, and in propagating in- 
formation as to hygiene. It received a Grand Prize at the 
International Exhibition at Rome 1912. Equally if not more 
distinguished is the Pathological Institute Oswaldo Cruz, also 
founded in 1901. This, outside the city at Maquinhos, 
reached by rail or water in 45 minutes, is called the most com- 
pletely equipped in the world for such work : the study of dis- 
ease germs, the preparation of serums, etc. Its publications 
number nearly 100. The smallpox microbe was here discov- 

Near the north end of the Avenida on the same side as the 
Castello is the Sao Bento hill, at the extremity of the rua 
Primeiro de Margo, the enclosure of the Benedictine Monastery 
above being entered by a large gateway at the bottom of a 
flight of stone steps. Founded in 1591, the existing church 
was built between 1633 and 1642 ; the present monastery was 
begun in 1652. During the French invasion in 1711, the 


buildings were seriously damaged, and the Order contributed 
liberally for the French to leave the town. Nearly half the 
building was in 1732 destroyed by fire. The property, till 
1827 belonging to the Portuguese Congregation, was then 
transferred to the newly organized Brazilian Congregation. 
In 1909 Sao Bento became Abftadia Nullius, equivalent to 
an Archbishopric. It had, in 1912, 20 monks in residence and 
6 in the Rio Branco Mission to Indians in the Amazon region. 
The monastery has, since 1858, maintained a free school for 
boys, primary and secondary, with 400 pupils now in attend- 
ance, and with 500 in a night school. Lay professors assist 
and many distinguished men have here received their early 
education. The Order is very wealthy, owning much prop- 
erty in the middle of the city. It formerly owned the site 
of the Marine Arsenal and" the Hha das Cobras, which was 
purchased in 1589 by the founder of the monastery for 15 
milreis, about $5.00. In the revolt of the Naval Brigade, 
December, 1910, on the Cobras Island, the Government forces 
made use of the monastery, which suffered seriously from the 
return fire. The church, rich in carved and gilded decora- 
tions, is worth a visit. It contains some rare furniture, and 
an ancient organ valuable only as a relic. The sacristy and 
corridors preserve a large number of old paintings. One of 
the cells, containing fine specimens of wood work, with a bed 
formerly used by D. Joao VI, is for the especial use of the 
Papal Nuncio when he descends for a few days from his resi- 
dence in Petropolis. The library of 15,000 volumes com- 
prises many valuable theological works, both in printing and 
in manuscript. 

On the west side of the Avenue, near the same north end, 
is the Morro da Conceigao, easily ascended from rua Acre 
by a paved way with steps. There are many dwellings on 
this hill, with the Palace of the Cardinal Archbishop at the 
top. He prefers, however, to live below in a residence in the 
rua do Bispo. Offices adjoining the Cathedral, in the 7th 
of September street, are used for the official work. Adjoin- 
ing the Palace grounds on the hill top is the Fortaleza, built 
in 1715. Formerly one of the chief points in the defense of 
the city it is now used as a barracks for an infantry regiment. 
The watch towers, old sentry boxes, and the dungeons are of 


interest. The last have been in use, even since the founding 
of the Republic, for the imprisonment of political offenders ; 
in 1893-94, British subjects, among others, were here im- 
mured. The view from this hill-top over the city is the 
most comprehensive to be obtained from any central point. 


Too long, mayhap, have we lingered in the heart of the 
city, longer I fancy than any tourist will do, despite the at- 
tractions in the busy marts of trade, and the stately edifices 
devoted to governmental, artistic, and intellectual purposes. 
The great charm of the city, the feature which makes it incom- 
parable among the capitals of the world, is the number of 
delightful excursions practicable to its enchanting suburbs. 
Some of these may be visited by electric car or automobile, 
as the length of one's purse prescribes, others by boat, and 
one by cog railway. 

Most persons will be tempted to improve the very first 
afternoon by a ride along the front of the bay, on the 
unrivaled Beira Mar, from the Monroe Palace on the Avenida 
to the foot of the Pao do Assucar, a ride without parallel, 
even on the shores of the Mediterranean. This magnificent 
boulevard invites also to a promenade, for a broad walk 
guarded by a handsome railing tops the massive sea wall, 
which rises 15 feet above the wave-sprinkled rocks below. 
Rarely, indeed, the waves rise higher. July 12th, 1911, a 
heavy wind blowing from the south not only dashed breakers 
high above the wall, but with these sent stones weighing a ton 
over upon the boulevard. Next to the promenade come two 
wide asphalt spaces, separated by a strip of grass and a row 
of trees, for automobiles going in opposite directions, 
thronged towards evening with swiftly moving machines. A 
garden strip of varying width follows, beautiful shrubbery, 
brilliant coleas, and other plants with leaves of varied hue, 
gorgeous red salvias, geraniums, and other showy flowers. 
Now comes the wide paved street with ample space for ordi- 
nary vehicles and for the double tracks of the electric cars. 



A few minutes from the Monroe Palace, and almost in front 
of the Pensao Suissa is the Praga da Gloria where Cattete 
street branches from the Beira Mar. The very pretty Garden 
contains two notable monuments: one of these to Pedro Al- 
vares Cabral, discoverer of Brazil, by Eodolpho Bernadelli, 
Director of the School of Fine Arts. This monument inau- 
gurated in 1900, the fourth centenary of the Discovery, rep- 
resents with Cabral the chronicler, Pero Vaz Caminha, and 
the Franciscan, Henrique de Coimbra, who celebrated the first 
mass on the soil of South America. The other monument, 
dedicated in 1902, is a statue of Visconde do Eio Branco by the 
French sculptor, Charpentier. The ascent of the Gloria hill 
close by is worth while for the splendid panorama from the 
summit, if not for the little church above where on the 15th 
of August is a festival. 

Beyond the Gloria hill are finer residences with pretty gar- 
dens, distracting attention from the view of the Sugar Loaf in 
front, the silvery waters on the left, the city of Nietheroy on 
the opposite side of the bay, and the curving inlets of both 
shores. On account of a projecting hill the car tracks leave 
the water's edge for a space, passing back to the Largo do 
Machado, where the offices of the railway are situated, the 
place to go for lost articles. After passing the Hotel dos Es- 
trangeiros, the boulevard is soon regained on the Botafogo 
Bay, a lovely geometrical curve. Again leaving the shore the 
car marked Ministro de Agriculture, alone returns to the Praia 
de Saudade, on which the great Hospital for the Insane is 
passed, the Institute Benjamin Constant for the Blind, and the 
imposing building of the Ministry of Agriculture, the cars at 
length pausing in front of the Military School Building, 
which stands by the ocean shore ; we have now passed beyond 
the splendid Sugar Loaf, so that in the rear of the School 
Building we should find the Praia Vermelha, a beach on the 
great ocean. An Aerial Railway now serves for a trip to the 
tip top of the pinnacle, Pao do Assucar, whence a delightful 
view is obtained of city, bay, and ocean. The same Praia 
Vermelha car passes the base station whence an electric basket 
cable car accommodating twenty persons goes, first to the 
Morro da Urea, return ticket 2$000, then on to the top of the 
Pao do Assueax, return ticket probably 4$000. The journey 


to the top is made in twelve minutes. The distance is nearly 
a mile. 

Other rides partly along the front, or on Cattete street paral- 
lel to the Beira Mar, should be taken to the various suburban 
ocean beaches of Leme, Copacabana, Ipanema, and Gavea, 
backed by picturesque hills, through which a tunnel or two 
has been bored for more direct access. Some of the beaches, 
though rather dangerous for bathing, are more or less pat- 
ronized. Many people wander along the shore, or in pavilions 
regale themselves with beer or coffee. Villas of the wealthy 
and a sprinkling of poorer houses, with several hotels and 
restaurants, show provision for all classes. Everywhere in 
the residential districts outside of the more crowded central 
portion, attention will be continually drawn to the charming 
homes, some of quite palatial dimensions and elegance, the 
majority more modest but generally with some pretty orna- 
mentation, all apparently freshly painted in varied and deli- 
cate shades of color, pink, blue, green, lavender, pearl, buff, 
Alice blue, etc., embowered among vines, shrubbery, and 
palms : an unceasing source of pleasure. 

On the way to the beaches by the rua Cattete, before reach- 
ing the Strangers * Hotel, the President's Palace may be ob- 
served on the left. The large garden extends through to the 
boulevard along the Praia de Flamengo, but the entrance is 
from Cattete. The exterior of the Palace, which was con- 
structed by the Baron of Nova Friburgo and later purchased 
by the Government, is not noteworthy, but the interior has 
magnificent decorations ; the garden would be a fitting acces- 
sory of a royal palace. Next to the Palace is the beautiful 
school building, Rodriguez Alves, a suitable monument to 
the great President of Brazil, in whose administration was 
inaugurated the tremendous undertaking by which the city 
has been transformed. 

Not far from the Hotel Estrangeiros, a beautiful avenue 
lined with royal palms, half a mile long, leads to a fine man- 
sion, which in 1911 was the residence of the President. 

In a long afternoon of four or five hours the entire circuit 
of the city may be made by automobile along the Beira Mar 
on the shore of the bay, then past the ocean beaches to the 
mountains and by a splendid road along the mountain-side 




past Gavea and Tijuea, thence across to the waterfront, and 
by the docks returning to the Avenida Central ; a circuit with 
varied panorama such as no other city of the world affords, 
to which an entire day might better be devoted. 

The Botanical Garden, long celebrated as possessing the 
finest collection of tropical plants among the parks of the 
world, was founded in 1808 by Dom Joao VI when Prince 
Regent of Portugal. At the Avenida Station, a car marked 
Gavea may be taken about once in ten minutes. The route 
is at first a familiar one, near the shore of the bay, but turns 
at length to the west, passing presently under the steep walls 
of Corcovado on the right and near the shore of a consider- 
able lake, the Lagoa Rodrigues de Freitas on the left, a ride 
for which the three-quarters of an hour required is none too 
long. Within the gateway, flanked by small office buildings, 
one is confronted by a splendid avenue of superb palms, 150 
in number, extending in a straight line nearly half a mile. 
The tree trunks, a yard in diameter at the base, are straight 
shafts 75 feet high, ere they are topped by their leafage 
crown. Some distance up, this avenue is crossed by another 
of 140 palms, a fountain adorning the square of intersection. 
These palms, with all those forming colonnades in other parts 
of the city, are descendants of the ancient tree which was 
planted by D. Joao VI. The story goes that some Brazilian 
officers, shipwrecked, were carried to the Isle of France, where 
was a fine botanical garden. One of the officers, Luiz de 
Abreu, after gaining possession of several choice specimens, 
managed to escape with them. Returning to Brazil he pre- 
sented them to Dom Joao, who, transferring them to the Gar- 
den, planted with his own hands the seed of the Royal Palm. 
The tree still standing, 130 feet high, apparently destined to 
flourish for some time longer, is marked by an inscription, 
and will be pointed out by an attendant if overlooked. It 
is not, of course, in any of the rows. Besides hundreds of 
varieties of Brazilian plants, the Garden contains as many 
from all parts of the world; it maintains close relations with 
other Gardens, sending to them hundreds of thousands of 
seeds, as well as making extensive distribution in various parts 
of Brazil. A delightful section at the left of the entrance 
is called the Bamboo Salon, where a walk under the feathery 


archway recalls the aisle of a Gothic cathedral. Of great 
interest is the traveler's tree, somewhat resembling a banana 
plant, of which the sap is like pure cold water. The gentle- 
man who showed me about, kindly cut the stalk with his knife. 
I drank as the sap spouted forth, and found it indis- 
tinguishable from clear water. If the tree would grow in 
desert regions, what a godsend to the thirsty traveler ! The 
victoria regia with its great leaves, four or five feet in diame- 
ter floating on the water is always noteworthy, even if it is 
not the flowering season, there May or June. Naturally 
rubber trees of many varieties are to be seen, coffee 
shrubs, tea plants, and others in profusion, both useful and 
beautiful, a wealth of vines, but fewer orchids, at least in 
blossom, than I had hoped. The candelabra tree, so called 
from its shape, and the cow tree, which supplies a kind 
of milk better for making cement than for drinking, are 
of interest. An especial curiosity is one tree growing 
inside of another, the trunk of the palm being almost com- 
pletely surrounded by the trunk of another tree of entirely 
different character, botli trees now 30 or 40 feet high. 

A number of pretty pavilions, a lake, grottoes, and cascades 
contribute to adorn the Garden, also several monuments and 
statues. One of the monuments is in memory of the real 
founder of the Garden, Frei Leandro do Sacramento, Pro- 
fessor of Botany in the Faculty of Medicine, a distinguished 
scholar, who on his death in 1829 left the Garden in a flourish- 
ing condition. At the end of the central avenue of palms, 
the monument, Dea Palmaris y was inaugurated in 1906. 
There are various statues of nymphs, a temple of Nike, a 
Belvedere, a colonial portico, and the first statue ever cast in 
Brazil, this in 1783 by Valentim da Fonseca e Silva. In one 
of the buildings by the gate is a herbarium of great value, 
as also a library. Even unscientific persons with no especial 
interest in botany may enjoy a long afternoon wandering in 
the delightful walks, the charm of which is increased by the 
wooded steeps and grim cliffs of Corcovado just above, seeing 
here the side of Corcovado precisely opposite to the one visible 
from the center of the city. One may leave the Garden in 
time to continue the short distance to the end of the line to 
Gavea, where there is a noted spring of water of excellent 


quality. From a spot called Boa Vista, a short climb, the 
panorama is superb. The headlands, Dous Irmaos, are at the 
left, the shores ever beaten by angry waves; in front is the 
broad ocean dotted with islands, one named Rosa bearing a 
lighthouse; on the right imposing Gavea, on whose face near 
the summit may be distinguished lines believed to have been 
traced by some primitive people. The name Gavea, meaning 
topsail, is derived from the shape of the summit. Its ascent 
is possible from the side towards Tijuca and has several times 
been made. 

Corcovado. Most delightful to many of all the days to 
be spent at Rio will be that which is devoted to the As- 
cent of Corcovado; nor should it long be postponed. The first 
clear day or afternoon should be improved, as at some sea- 
sons clouds are frequent. Even setting out with a 
cloudless sky, one may find the goal shrouded in mist, 
or spread out below a mantle of softest sheen conceal- 
ing in part or whole the glorious prospect beneath. There 
is a choice of two routes to the summit: both I strongly 
recommend; every one should go twice; but with time so 
limited that a single trip may be made it is desirable to go 
one way and return the other. The Sylvestre route begins by 
electric car, starting every half hour from the Largo da 
Carioca back of the Avenida Hotel. The other, longer or 
shorter, according to the point of departure, is all by cog- 
wheeled railway; but the base station is 35 or 40 minutes 
from the Avenida. One takes here or farther out a car 
marked Cosme Velho or Larangeiras to the pretty station 
among the Santa Theresa hills, passing on the way the fa- 
miliar Estrangeiros and Largo Machado, there turning to the 
right on Larangeiras, a street as yet unfamiliar. Near the 
end of the line on the left is the station, return ticket 3 
milreis, where one enters a car open at the sides with suf- 
ficiently comfortable seats if you face upwards. The track, 
one meter wide, about two miles long, crosses the valley of 
the Sylvestre stream on an iron viaduct of three arches, each 
80 feet wide, supported on iron pillars with a masonry base, 
then enters a deep trench, later crossing two more bridges. 

At the first station, Sylvestre, those board the train who 
have come by electrics to this point. The latter, after a few 


rods of steep grade from Carioca, wind along the side of San 
Antonio Hill in gradual ascent, then cross on the picturesque 
double arches of the old viaduct to the outlying hill of the 
Santa Thereza ridge. Swiftly speeds the car affording but 
fleeting glimpses of the busy streets and the houses below. 
Winding along the hillside, soon passing the International 
Hotel, with many level stretches and moderate inclines, the out- 
look above or below is enchanting. Any description must fall 
far short of the reality. The conjunction of a great city with 
picturesque scenery, pellucid bays, ragged cliffs, and tropical 
vegetation is unparalleled. One sits enthralled with the 
vision of loveliness. One's entire vocabulary of adjectives 
such as exquisite, entrancing, magnificent, sublime, crowd 
upon the mind, A short distance away towers the massive 
Sugar Loaf, its cliffs so steep and smooth that apparently even 
a fly would find no foothold, unless with a liberal supply of 
Spalding's glue upon his little toes. My cry was not "0 for 
the wings of a dove!" but for the pen of my gifted friends, 
Aked or Gifford, to attempt the glowing description the scenes 
deserve. Here are trees with great bunches of yellow flowers, 
somewhat resembling wistaria, but with a very artificial look. 
Many trees bear large scarlet flowers. One below is covered 
with white blossoms. Pretty villas and gardens are passed, 
the dwellings, pink, blue, green, and terra cotta. In bright 
sunshine smoked glasses may seem desirable to eyes not espe- 
cially strong. As we skirt the hillside in many curves, the 
city below is now on our right, the gleaming bay, and curving 
shore; the next moment the steep slopes or cliffs above; and 
now we move through a dense and quiet forest. A good car- 
riage road is here by the side of the track. A happy couple is 
occasionally seen strolling on a sequestered path. In January 
it was too warm to enjoy a climb, but a leisurely descent would 
at any time be a pleasure. In winter, June, July, and August, 
the ascent would be equally agreeable, and the opportunity 
to pause and enjoy the charming vistas no one could fail to 

At Sylvestre, about 700 feet altitude, where the transfer is 
made to the cog-wheeled railway, there is a little hotel where 
a cup of tea may be enjoyed and a short walk taken, unless 
close connection is made. In this case you must run across 




the track to the booth where tickets are sold, buying for the 
round trip unless minded to walk down; an excellent idea, 
as the time allowed above is short. Descending on foot to 
Sylvestre a car may there be taken every half-hour. The 
hours of the train on the cog railway should be carefully 
investigated, as they are few, and vary with the season; on 
week days formerly 10 and 2, on Sundays nearly every hour 
but the last descending at 5. Now on the cog-wheeled road, 
the grade is at times so heavy that if riding backwards you 
must brace or hang on, lest you slip from the seat. The train 
is run by electricity with four cables and an engine. Six 
kinds of brakes may be relied upon in case of accident; they 
never occur on this line, but occasionally on the tramway. 
Thick woods and a tangle of vines now mostly shut out the 
distant prospect, but these are fascinating. Mosses, ferns, 
and lichens, forest palms, tendril-draped trees with every 
shade of green, orchids, begonias, and other blossoms, trickling 
waters, narrow forest paths, sudden glimpses of the shimmer- 
ing bay, of dark tree-tops, of massive cliffs below, or of craggy 
peak above, make every moment a delight. At the station 
Paneiras, alt., 1500 feet, is the Hotel Corcovado, with restau- 
rant service at all hours and comfortable rooms, a resort for 
convalescents and others. It has a temperature 15 or 18 
lower than in the city and delightful shady walks. At a 
little distance a clearing affords a wonderful outlook. The 
track ends at the foot of a cliff whence a good path of rather 
steep grade leads to the summit 100 feet above, crowned by 
the usual pavilion. This stands quite 2200 feet above the sur- 
face of the bay. One hardly pauses here, but descending 
a few steps goes on to the very end, the brink of the perpen- 
dicular cliff on the south side, with a sheer drop of 1700 feet, 
well protected by a substantial wall with a seat for the feeble 
or the loiterer. And who would not loiter here, with this 
beautiful vision spread out beneath! A panorama of sur- 
passing loveliness! Oh, read Miss Cameron's Involuntary 
Chaperone! and you may gain some small idea of the enchant- 
ing scenes. In afternoon light, in sunset glow, in the quiet 
evening with the twinkling lights below and the serene moon 
above, this is a paradise for lovers, a fairy land for all. 
The view from Tijuca more beautiful! [Who at Corco- 


yado can believe it ? Not I ! But so some have said. There- 
fore to Tijuca must one go if possible. The electric cars 
marked Tijuca, which run from Praga 15th of November 
along rua Assemblea to the suburb, may be taken for the ex- 
cursion. The ride is through a very different section, by the 
Canal do Mangue, then through clean streets, lined by com- 
fortable dwellings of the middle class, some more pretentious 
with pretty gardens, nearly all painted in delicate shades of 
gay colors. In the really suburban section are many fine 
villas, and after a gradual ascent among the hills one descends 
6 miles from the Avenida, at a park, alt. 1000 ft., called Boa 
Vista, on one side of which is a hotel; also an establishment 
where saddle horses may be procured, perchance an automo- 
bile, for the continuance of the journey. These are rather 
expensive 5 a carriage for an hour costs 20 milreis, nearly $7.00, 
an auto of course more. Walks, however, may be taken to 
many pretty spots. A few steps from the Square is a charm- 
ing outlook over city and bay. At the farther side of the 
Square begins the Tijuca forest, and following the road one 
soon reaches (perhaps ten minutes) a picturesque little cas- 
cade. This road may be pursued on foot or horseback in 3 
or 4 hours to the top of the mountain; alt. 3300 feet, from 
which is the superior view above mentioned. Other pretty 
spots to be visited in a drive of two or three hours are the 
Grotto of Paul and Virginia, the Grand Cascade, the Chinese 
View, the Emperor's TaNe, the Excelsior, the Solidao, etc. 
The Furnas at a distance of two miles is a fantastic arrange- 
ment of rocks and boulders, where an interesting garden has 
been established. The road which passes the Vista Chineza 
and the Emperor's Table leads down to the Botanical Garden 
through the rua Dona Castorina. Best of all is to make a 
day of it by automobile from the city, ascending the peak on 
foot or horseback, visiting all the points of interest, and tak- 
ing the glorious ride around by Gavea and the Botanical Gar- 
dens on the return. 


HOTELS. Europa, Rio de Janeiro (German), Pensao Central, ex- 
pensive. Braganza Hotel, Meyer's Pension, moderate. 

An excursion to Petropolis (return ticket 4$) should not be 


omitted, a city of 25,000, the residence of the diplomats, 
formerly the summer home of the Emperor. Once it was 
necessary to cross the bay to Maua to take the train ; the road 
from this point to the foot of the mountains, opened in 1856, 
is the oldest in Brazil. "While the steamboat ride was agree- 
able, it is more convenient to take the train at the Leopoldina 
Railway Station in the city, rather far out, indeed; and at 
least three-quarters of an hour should be allowed to reach it. 
Almost, in spite of a sharp run, I lost my train, which my 
companion did quite. After some miles over the plain, the 
rack and pinion system is employed for the climb, almost to 
the city; when ordinary motors are again used. The ascent 
is delightful, with an ever charming outlook, better perhaps 
on the right, but there should be observation cars in order to 
look both ways at once. The sea is occasionally visible, oftener 
only the luxuriant vegetation, trailing vines, feathery ferns, 
brilliant blossoms, great trees, splendid rocks, and mountain 
streams. An occasional factory is rather a surprise, but with 
all this water power, why not ? This Serra da Estrella is a 
part of the Organ Mts. and of the Serra do Mar or Coast 
Eange of Brazil. Among the hills around, orchid hunters 
find many treasures. Petropolis, in the social season from 
December to May, is a resort of wealth and fashion, a scene 
of gayety, the many beautiful homes filled with guests. 
Founded in 1845 as an agricultural colony by 2000 Germans, 
it became the headquarters of the Diplomatic Corps on ac- 
count of the yellow fever epidemics at Rio. The residence of 
twenty foreign diplomats has made the place important for its 
size. Now that the sanitary conditions of Rio are of the very 
best it is possible that the diplomats may resume residence 
in the capital below. A pretty and unusual feature of 
Petropolis is the stream flowing in several of the principal 
streets, crossed by graceful bridges of wood or of iron, with 
stone embankments partially vine-clad, and beautiful over- 
hanging trees. There are delightful drives, both in the town 
and in the mountainous region about. The wide streets of 
the town, often fringed with magnolias, are bordered by many 
handsome residences amid lawns and gardens with rich trop- 
ical verdure. A bronze monument to Pedro II was dedicated 
February, 1911. The American Embassy is housed in a fine 


old mansion on beautiful grounds. The former summer resi- 
dence of Dom Pedro II, property of the Countess d'Eu, is 
now a College of St. Vincent de Paul. The city has unusual 
educational advantages and many commercial enterprises. 
There is much social gayety in the season, but during the 
months of the rainy weather the fashionables depart The 
City Hall is noted as the best in the state. 

Another city on the mountains, of slightly greater elevation, 
is Nova Fnburgo, three hours from Nictheroy. With an 
elevation of about 3000 feet it enjoys a perfect climate. The 
oldest immigrant colony in Brazil, it was founded by 1700 
Swiss in 1819. This also is a famous summer resort and is 
the center of a productive coffee district. 

Another interesting mountain city is Therezopolis, also 3000 
feet above the sea, commanding delightful views of the ravines 
and cascades of the Organ Mts. and of the beautiful bay far 

An excursion to Nictheroy, the capital of the State of Rio 
de Janeiro, should not be omitted. It is easily made from the 
Caes Pharoux, by ferry every half -hour. With a population 
of 35,000, it is a nice quiet town, with well paved streets and 
pretty squares. From the ferry landing electric cars may 
be taken to the charming beaches of Icarahy and Sacco do Sao 
Francisco, the latter with a beach rivaling Trouville ; the ride 
around by one of the promontories is thoroughly delightful. 
The return may be made through the town of Nictheroy, 
which has some handsome public buildings. 

Equally if not more desirable is a sail into the inner har- 
bor. From Caes Pharous boats go four times daily to the 
Island Paqueta, also to the Governador; (fare to either 500 
reis each way). The former island is especially picturesque, 
with charming embowered chalets. On Sunday afternoons, a 
three hours' sail may be taken; fare 1$500. 




THE large majority of tourists will embark at Eio on one 
of the fine large steamers of the Lamport and Holt Line for 
New York. Eeturn may also be made by way of England 
on a Royal Mail boat. A few may desire a more extended 
acquaintance with Brazil. Some facts are therefore presented 
in regard to other States of this immense Republic and the 
facilities for visiting them. 

Mrnas Geraes. One inclined to journey into the interior, to 
the rich gold and diamond region in the State of Minos Geraes, 
may go by the Central Railway 400 miles north to the 
capital of Minas, Bella Horizonte, a made-to-order city, 
not twenty years of age, but with a population of 30,000, 
already a fine town for its size. While this State has no sea- 
board, no rubber, and no city of 50,000 inhabitants, it has a 
larger population than any other State of Brazil and than 
most of the countries of South America. This is due to its 
good climate and excellent waters, as well as to its rich 
resources. The author Diaz says: /'In this State what 
doesn't hide gold contains iron,- what does not contain coal 
spreads diamonds." Here for a century 80,000 men toiled 
to supply gold to the kings of Portugal. Discovered in 1699, 
the output of the gold mines at the middle of the eighteenth 
century was at its height. Five thousand pounds weight is 
said to have been panned in one year in the area of one square 
mile; in another place 100 pounds in one night; 360,000 
pounds weight were registered in Rio in 1792. The entire out- 
put has been about one billion dollars. In the nineteenth 
century less was produced on account of a heavy tax, new 
methods, and uncertainty as to property rights and mining 
laws. At present there is a revival and a good outlook. The 
oldest producing gold mine in the world is said to be the 



Morro Velho, between Ouro Preto and Bello Horizonte, yield- 
ing one ounce to the ton and 80,000 ounces a year. 

The diamond mines of Jequitinhonha Valley, famous for 
two centuries, were discovered in 1729. The Regent diamond, 
weighing nearly an ounce, found by three convicts in 1791, 
secured their pardon. The Estrella do Sul, now belonging 
to the Rajah of Baroda, picked up by a slave who gave it for 
his freedom, was the highest ransom ever paid for liberty. 
Weighing uncut 250 carats, about half that when cut, it is 
worth $15,000,000. The center of the industry 'is the town 
Diamantina (population 10,000), 600 miles from Rio. Black 
diamonds are found, also amethysts, tourmaline, topaz, aqua- 
marines, garnets, chrysolites, etc., in many places. 

Ouro Preto, the center of the manganese industry, yields 
annually 250,000 tons of 55 per cent ore. Iron, found in 
every part of Minas, for lack of fuel, is not exploited. Plat- 
inum has been found and there is a great variety of granite 
and marble, agates, onyx, and rock crystal, mica, graphite, 
cinnabar, and asbestos. Ouro Preto, the former capital, has 
a mining school, organized in 1903, said to be one of the best 
in the world, with instruction free ; the museum contains a rare 
collection. The State is thought to have a future rivaling 
that of Australia and Kimberley. 

The old capital, of which Diaz says: "In six squares 
everything is in the horizontal plan, but the 52 streets and 
lanes go through tortuous and aceidented places as if they 
were acrobats/' was at length deemed unsuitable; the State 
was investigated for a new one ; the site of a hamlet in a beau- 
tiful valley was chosen, and a branch line was built 10 miles 
from the Central Railway. In 1894 private houses began 
to be erected. Bello Horizonte has fine wide streets, with 
arborization said to be the most artistic of any South Amer- 
ican city. It lias water supply, sewerage, illumination, and 
electric tramways, of the best type, a Government Palace, 
which cost half a million, the finest of the State buildings of 
Brazil, the Department of the Interior, of Finance, and of 
Agriculture, each with, handsome buildings, also the City Hos- 
pital. A small river with pretty cascades running through 
the yalley forms the vertebra of a beautiful park, which with 
great trees, shrubs, and vines, a broad driveway, and pic- 


turesque paths rivals in extent and natural beauty all others 
in Brazil. 

An Agricultural School with a model farm is an important 
educational feature on account of the great fertility of the 
region. Sugar cane, corn, rice, bananas, tobacco, fruits, cot- 
ton, cereals, and many other things are here cultivated, with 
coffee as the chief product, the State being second to Sao Paulo 
in its culture. A concession was made to a North. American 
Company for growing hemp and other fibres, one million trees 
to be planted within four years. Viticulture and the silk 
worm industry are suitable to the region. Vast pasture lands 
support great herds of cattle, nearly 300,000,000 head being 
exported in a single year. The dairy produce of butter, 
cheese, and milk, is very important, and eggs also. It is thus 
evident that Brazil possesses other industries beside rubber 
and coffee, and regions with agreeable climate. The San Fran- 
cisco River flowing north through this section, while navigable 
at intervals, has a series of cascades, among the most pic- 
turesque in the world. Also there are famous mineral springs 
at Caxambu, altitude 3000 ft., with waters resembling those of 
Baden and Spa, with chalets, hotels, and sanatoria, in sum- 
mer crowded with guests ; and other springs in various other 

The next Coast State to Rio is Espirito Santo, though small, 
the third coffee producer, raising also sugar cane, rice, and 
splendid tropical woods; a good climate up on the plateau. 
The capital and seaport, Victoria (20,000 pop.), has an excel- 
lent harbor, now being improved with docks, warehouses, etc., 
soon to be a port of call for large steamers. The next State, 
Bahia, will be mentioned later in the chapter. 

Following Bahia is Sergipe, smallest of the States (a little 
larger than Maryland), 15,000 square miles, but the most 
thickly settled. Another small State is Alagoas; then comes 
the large and important Pernavribuco, its capital so called, but 
more properly Recife; with its population of 150,000, the 
fourth city of Brazil, it is of great commercial importance. 
The name Recife arises from a substantial reef off shore form- 
ing a fine natural breakwater, to which the Dutch made some 
artificial addition, also erecting at its extremity a strong light- 
house tower, the light visible for 20 miles. The city, built on 


marshy ground, by quays and filling in redeemed from the 
sea, from its canals and peninsulas, is called the Brazilian 
Venice. Founded in 1536 by Duarte Coelho, it was in. the 
seventeenth century occupied many years by the Dutch, who 
were finally expelled in 1654 by the patriotic Portuguese. 
From the pretty bridges are many lovely panoramas. Several 
fine markets, two theaters, a handsome Congress Hall, and the 
Governor's Palace on the foundations of that of the Prince of 
Nassau facing the Praga de Republiea are noteworthy. Two 
handsome churches are those of Nossa Senhora da Penha of 
the Corinthian order of architecture and the Boa Vista. The 
chief exports are cotton and sugar; the imports exceed those 
of any Brazilian city except Rio. 

The next State on the north is Parahyba, reputed to 
have vast mineral wealth of coal, iron, gold, precious stones, 
etc., as yet lying tranquil in the soil. Then comes Bio Grande 
do Norte, whose enormous saline deposits along the shore 
partly compensate for its barren stretches of land and fre- 
quent droughts. The following state, Ceard, is closely con- 
nected with the rubber industry, for the reason that on account 
of the barren sands along the coast, and the inland droughts 
the male portion of the inhabitants is in large numbers driven 
to the rubber districts of Amazonas. Seasons not visited by 
drought are characterized by immense crops and bountiful 
dairy products. Fortaleza, the capital, with over 50,000 
inhabitants, among other nice buildings possesses a great pub- 
lie market of cast-iron. Waterworks, planned on a large sc'ale 
to alleviate the effects of the droughts, will be highly bene- 

The adjoining state of Piauhy, with similar low and melan- 
choly shores, also suffers from lack of rain. A town is spoken 
of as "having taken the name of a river that was so poor it 
ought not to have one to give away. 3 ' Maranhao, the last 
state before reaching Para and the Amazon, with a large popu- 
lation of negroes, like Baiia, and of Indians in their primitive 
condition, has as its capital San Luiz, a city founded by the 
French, and, like Bahia, noted for its literary taste and cul r 
ture. An indication of this is that the squares, in other cities 
named after military events and heroes, are here called after 
poets and other writers. 



.The great Amazon Eiver, we all know, is the largest in 
th^, world, yet its immensity is hardly realized. In size of 
basin and volume of water it far exceeds the Mississippi. 
For a distance of 180 miles from shore the Atlantic is fresh- 
ened by its waters, which vary in depth in the estuary from 
90 to 900 feet. Among its 1100 tributaries, great and small, 
there are seven more than 1000 miles long, not counting the 
Maranon and Ucayali, by which it is formed. One, the Ma- 
deira Eiver, has a length of 3000 miles. In the great region 
which it drains there are 1200 varieties of birds and 8000 
animals not found elsewhere, to say nothing of the plants. 
The soil is so rich that corn is returned 800 fold. 

The best time to visit the Upper Amazon is in the dryer 
season, from June to the middle of October, or in January; 
the worst is from February to June. The climate of this 
section is attractive only to those who enjoy heat and rain; 
the heat is not excessive, but continuous; the rain is often 
200 inches annually. Still the climate is called fairly healthy 
for the most part, with small sections very bad. 

Para, the most important in wealth, population, and com- 
merce of the northern States of Brazil, is a name familiar to 
all, to many simply as rubber, to others rather as a city than 
a State : improperly so indeed, as the city by its residents is 
termed Belem. Founded at the mouth of the Amazon in 
January, 1616, it is younger than the other important coast 
cities, while the State, formerly a part of Maranhao, is little 
more than a century old. The date of July 31, 1867, when 
the great river, previously, closed to all but Brazilian steam- 
ers, was opened to the navigation of the world, is that of the 
beginning of Belem 7 s prosperity and wonderful growth. To- 
day a city of 150,000, it lies on the edge of a tranquil lagoon 
called Guaraja Bay, formed by the Para Eiver, one of the 
several mouths of the great Amazon. Along the city front is 
a forest of masts and smokestacks, and vessels of every size 
and character pass to and fro. Fine docks- and warehouses 
have recently been constructed, the work, begun in 1907, to be 
continued by the Port of Para Co., acording to the require- 
ments which are rapidly increasing, since facilities must ulti- 


mately be provided for a traffic from an area of the more than 
three million square miles embraced in the Amazon Valley. 
A channel 30 feet deep leading from the outer river to the 
port is marked by 26 modern buoys, illumined by acetylene 
gas, with lights of 120-eandle power intensified by a lens. 
The port works are equal to the best at Liverpool and Ham- 
burg, having three-quarters of a mile of quay wall with water 
30 feet deep for ocean steamers, 722 feet of wall with 12 feet 
of water for river steamers, and 1500 feet more for smaller 
boats with 9 feet 6 inches of water. The wall of huge blocks 
of concrete is of the most substantial character. On a road- 
way 60 feet wide are electric cranes and railways, back of 
which are large warehouses. Beyond these is a granite-paved 
boulevard, then the city itself, with the Custom House, mar- 
ket, banking houses, stores, and all forms of commercial ac- 

On the large square, Frei Caetano Brandao, in the center 
of which is a statue of the bishop after whom the square is 
named, the founder of the first hospital in the city, stands the 
Cathedral erected in 1710, elegant and harmonious, of rather 
severe exterior, but within brilliantly decorated in high colors. 
On the bay side of this square are the ruins of an old fort 
called Castetto, preserved for historic interest. The principal 
plaza is the Independencia, adorned with flower beds, with 
lawns, bushes, and trees; but the people here loving nature 
and flowers, no one ever steps on the lawns or plucks a blos- 
som, which indeed is the case in the other cities of Latin 
America. In the center of the square is a monument to 
General Gurjao, a superb bronze statue of a soldier who died 
fighting, while he exclaimed, "See how a Brazilian General 
dies! 77 At the side of the plaza, Parque Affonso Penna, is 
the Government Palace erected in 1776, and near by the blue 
tinted City Hall of colonial days, containing in the main hall 
a beautiful painting of the death of the great musician, Carlos 
Gomez, who died here. 

In the square, Visconde de Bio Branco on a marble base 
is the most artistic monument of the city, a bronze statue of 
the Brazilian patriot, Jose da Garma Malcher, with the figure 
of a beautiful young girl below writing the name of the hero. 

PARA 347 

Another garden, Baptista Compos, is a little paradise with, 
fountains, lakes, bridges, plants, etc. 

A unique public recreation ground at the other end of the 
city is a tract of primitive woods, called Basque, dense and 
somber with great trees which as the city grew in that direc- 
tion was with wonderful foresight preserved by the Munici- 
pality. Driveways were opened disclosing its poetic beauty, 
greenhouses, cascades, fountains and other embellishments 
added, making it a resort of which the people are proud. 

The usual Pra$a da RepuWca contains a beautiful marble 
monument with bronze figures commemorating the proclama- 
tion of the Republic. On this square, the heart of the city, is 
the Paz Theater of white marble, imposing and austere, of the 
Corinthian order of architecture, with a tranquil grandeur 
unlike any other in South America. The interior is dec- 
orated with paintings by De Angelis surrounded by high gold 
reliefs, contains a foyer with a beautiful inlaid floor, and has 
everything in lighting and mechanical devices of the most 
modern type. The Paz Hotel is near. 

Notable churches are Santa Anna, built in 1761, and Our 
Lady of the Carmo y about the same date, and Our Lady of 
Nazareth, built in 1802, where seamen especially bring offer- 
ings, wax miniatures of boats and other objects of maritime 
life, forming a curious museum of nautical art. 

The greatest interest and admiration may be excited by 
the Goeldi Museum, one of the most famous in South America, 
and now under the direction of Dr. Jacques Huber. The 
building is surrounded by fine specimens of the Amazonian 
forests with the finest collection in the world of the Hevea 
brasiliensiSy the best of the many varieties of rubber trees; 
and the experimental garden probably contains every species 
of rubber known, with many other plants of commercial value. 
Of equal or greater interest-are the archaeological, ethnological, 
and zoological departments. Here axe collections of pottery 
of extinct Indian tribes inhabiting this region at the time of 
the Portuguese discovery, with funeral urns and pottery from 
mounds of the Island of Marajo. "Weapons and utensils of 
the Amazonian Indians are shown. The collection of Bra- 
zilian fauna comprises a complete series of Amazonian mon- 


keys, a great variety of birds, the larger mammals, as the 
tapir, jaguar, etc., and insects. Many living creatures, 
aquatic birds, parrots, toucans of gorgeous plumage, alli- 
gators, anacondas, boa constrictors, electric eels, and many 
others, safely caged, enchain the attention. 

The Lauro Sodre Institute for industrial and agricultural 
training, a School of Commerce, a Fine Arts Academy, and 
other establishments for education, for the sick, and the poor 
are liberally provided. A fine new Market is not of small 
importance. The broad, clean, well shaded streets are often 
lined with beautiful villas and gardens; though but a degree 
and a half from the equator the heat is not excessive, rarely 
above 90 Fair. 

Manaos. The visitor to Para, is likely to be on his way 
up the Amazon to Manaos or Iquitos ; if a bit of an explorer, 
perchance to Bolivia by the newly practicable Madeira and 
Mamore route, or to the rubber regions in any one of five 
countries. The city of Para is about 80 miles from the pilot 
station Salinas ; and a further journey of 24 hours, nearly 200 
miles, is required, across a bay, then for nine hours through 
a narrow channel, before one really enters the broad stream 
of the great Amazon. Along the narrows the landscape is 
charming; clearings with huts and children are frequent; 
canoes with fishermen, and small steamers calling at the tar- 
racas (plantations) for rubber or to bring provisions are nu- 
merous. The luxuriant vegetation is fascinating. But from 
the remoteness of the shores, on the immense wide river the 
four or five days to Manaos may be somewhat monotonous. 
The greater will be the surprise of the uniformed traveler 
when after 900 miles through the enormous wilderness of 
forest he arrives at this new city, with a population of 80,000, 
truly a wonder of wonders. Its location is at the junction 
of the Rio Negro with the Amazon ; one writer says on a large 
bay, another that it is on the left bank of the Negro eight 
miles from the Amazon. At all events it has a safe and quiet 
harbor with excellent port works arranged to fit the rise and 
fall of the river, about 50 feet. A floating roadway extends 
into the river, a platform and pontoons supporting ware- 
houses; and ocean steamships come alongside. Hills have 
been lowered, shallow places filled in, and waterworks and 


drainage systems supplied; so that a remarkable city indeed 
is here in the forest. It is said to be the best lighted city in 
Brazil. The Municipal street, 100 feet wide, is lined with 
handsome buildings. The Eduardo Ribeiro avenits in the aft- 
ernoon and evening is thronged with people of wealth and 
fashion. The Amazonas Theater, on this avenue and S. Se- 
bantiao Square, is of astonishing magnificence, having cost 
$2,000,000 ; its beautiful colored dome is a conspicuous feature 
from the harbor. The interior compares with the splendid ex- 
terior, allegorical paintings by De Angelis, the celebrated Ital- 
ian artist, ornamenting the ceilings of foyer and auditorium. 
The Palace of Justice, a white marble building in Roman style, 
with a bronze and marble staircase, is also imposing. The 
Cathedral is a vast temple of simple architecture. There are 
excellent school buildings, a public library, a museum with 
curious Amazonian specimens, a spacious market cool and 
well ventilated, and a public garden with music from six till 
midnight. Electric fans are everywhere in evidence, ice here 
manufactured is supplied in abundance, and excellent sanita- 
tion makes the capital surprisingly free from sickness. 

Iquitos. By ocean steamers, the Booth Line from New York 
and from London, the journey may be pursued up the Amazon 
as far as Iquitos in Peru, a city of 15,000 population, when 
the Amazon, over 2000 miles from its mouth, still has a width 
of nearly three miles and an average depth of 25 feet, twice 
that in the rainy season. The city is a few leagues below the 
junction of the Maranon and the Ucayali, by which the Ama- 
zon is formed. Iquitos is quite cosmopolitan with representa- 
tives from various European and American nations. It has 
many warehouses, and commercial and other modern buildings 
of brick and iron. One hundred and fifty feet above the river 
and surrounded by dense forests, the climate is not so bad 
as it might be, though the temperature averages 85 to 90 
all the year around ; as a rule the place is not unhealthy. 

Rubber is the principal occasion for its being and growth, 
and its commerce is rapidly increasing. In all directions lie 
the rubber forests, or more accurately the forests which con- 
tain rubber trees. For these do not grow conveniently in 
groves, except here and there occasionally a few trees, but 
scattered singly in the damp forest, perhaps 100 or 150 trees 


in an estrada or section of about 100 acres, an area which a 
single man can take care of. The estrada is really the path 
leading from one tree to another. The man, called the serin- 
guero y sets out early in the morning with hatchet and tin cups 
or basins; he makes on each tree several incisions, 4 to 6 inches 
apart around the tree. By the time the round of 3 or 4 miles 
is finished it is time for lunch; then the collection may begin, 
the tins containing the fluid called latex are emptied into a 
pail, eight or ten quarts in all, producing about as many 
pounds of rubber. This is finished by noon, after which the 
latex must be smoked over a wood fire; it is coagulated on 
a sort of ladle twirled over the smoke. Fresh coats are added 
when one is dry until a bolacha or biscuit is formed of from 
5 to 100 Ibs. The man who does this work may be a native 
Indian or a resident of Ceara or elsewhere. He works for a 
contractor who may employ several hundred. Many atrocities 
have been committed by these contractors, who have com- 
pelled the defenseless Indians to work for them without pay 
and have inflicted cruelties, torture, and murder upon them 
and their families, especially in the Putomayo district, where 
an English Company has been engaged. Through recent 
investigations the cruelties have been terminated for the mo- 
ment; but such is the greed and inhumanity of some pro- 
fessedly civilized men that close watch must be kept by hu- 
mane officials to prevent further abuses and the extermination 
of harmless savages. 

The rubber is collected in this way from trees called jebe 
or hevea, but there are many varieties of trees which produce 
rubber of varying excellence. A kind of tree called the 
eaucho which grows on higher land is cut down by the 
cauchero and the entire latex is extracted, averaging about 
50 Ibs. to a tree; this is a quality of less value. Brazil has 
a heavy export tax on rubber, Bolivia about half as much, 
while Peru exacts less than a quarter. 

The terrors, perils, and the fascination (to some few) of the 
immense and awful forest are in many books described. Few 
are the explorers who, aided by many hands wielding ma- 
chetes, have penetrated far into the jungle from the flowing 
river roads. For their adventures I have no space. Yet in 
these days of doughty deeds by valiant women, a far more 


wonderful exploit by one who doubtless bad no wish to usurp 
man's functions as an explorer may here be chronicled. Long, 
long ago, in 1769, when the forests were untrodden even by 
the casual rubber gatherer, Madame Godin, to join her hus- 
band in Guiana, left Riobamba in Ecuador with two brothers, 
a nephew, a physician, three women domestics, a negro servant, 
and thirty Indians. Having passed over the great mountain 
range they embarked on a stream, one of the many affluents of 
the Amazon, to meet with repeated disasters. Their boat 
was upset, their supplies and baggage were lost. The Indians 
deserted. A raft being made, this also foundered. Proceed- 
ing on foot, lost in the forest they wandered until, exhausted 
with starvation and effort, they lay down to die. This all the 
rest did, but after two days by her dead companions, Madame 
Godin arose. Shoeless, her clothing nearly gone, with no food 
save roots and herbs she struggled on amid the terrors of the 
jungle till after nine days she met two so-called savages. 
These treated her kindly, ministering to her needs till she was 
able to proceed, then conducted her to a white settlement far- 
ther down. As a white-haired woman she ultimately reached 
Para and joined her husband, a notable illustration of the 
weaker sex. 

The Madeira Mamore Railway. Only the unusually enter- 
prising tourist, the explorer, or the business man will be likely 
to investigate this new railway, but all may like to know a 
little about it. The Madeira, the largest tributary of the 
Amazon, comes in from the south a little below Manaos, and 
is the outlet and means of access to a large portion of the 
state of Matto Grosso in Brazil and of the country of Bolivia 
as well. Continuous river navigation has, however, 'been im- 
possible on acconnt of a series of 19 falls and rapids on the 
Madeira and Mamore rivers within a distance of 200 miles, 
thus preventing earlier development of a section rich not only 
in rubber, but in minerals, and in agricultural and stock-rais- 
ing possibilities. About 570 miles up the Madeira River is 
the new city of Porto Velho, where the railway begins, now 
completed for a distance of 202 miles to Guajara Mirim on 
the Mamore, about due south. Thus has been accomplished a 
work which in 1869 was planned by an American, CoL George 
Earl Church, under a concession from Brazil and Bolivia. 


In 1871 tie turned the first sod of the railway, but financial 
and other difficulties soon caused the suspension of operations. 
In 1878 another effort was made, also to meet disaster. To-day 
the better knowledge of the causes of tropical diseases and of 
methods of sanitation has caused the task to be triumphantly 
concluded. Construction work, begun in August, 1907, was 
carried on with such effect that in spite of many difficulties 
the final section of the road was opened for traffic July 15, 
1912. As yet there is no fast express, two days being required 
for the journey. Porto Velho, the northern terminus of the 
road, on the right bank of the Madeira, is a town of 1500 
people, with an ice plant making six tons a day, piped water 
supply of two kinds, one for internal use, and with wireless 
telegraphic communication with Manaos, hence close relations 
with the rest of the world. To this port ocean steamers may 
come during part of the year, November to June, and large 
river steamers at any time. The residence part of the city is 
on a hill a little back. Regular trains three times a week 
leave at 8 a. m. The greater part of the journey is through 
the jungle in a cut 100 feet wide, though in places the river 
is visible, at Santo Antonio a picturesque view including the 
first cascades. Near Caldeiro Station is one of the worst places 
on the river, called the Devil's Caldron, invisible, however, 
from the track South of Mutum are 25 miles of straight 
track passing through an immense rubber concession to the 
company. At Abuna, 218 kms., where the train is due at 5.30 
p. m., halt is made for the night close to the river. Leaving 
Abuna at 7.30 the next morning the arrival at the terminus 
should be at 3.15 p. m. Villa Murtinho, 93 kms. south of 
Abuna, is just opposite the town of Villa Bella in Bolivia, 
and the junction of the Beni and Mamore, the Bolivian city 
being between the two rivers; the Mamore from here south 
forms the boundary between the two countries. At the ter- 
minal, Guajara Mirim, there is another town of the same 
name on the opposite shore in Bolivia, from which a railroad 
is now being constructed to Riberalta, an important town of 
Bolivia, near the edge of the Amazonian forest and the Bo- 
livian cattle country. For the development of northern 
Bolivia which is drained by the Beni River, this railway will 
be a great motive power, as also for Matto Grosso of Brazil. 


An enormous region of rubber and of many other possibilities 
is hereby rendered accessible, as this great accomplishment is 
to be supplemented in Bolivia by other important connections. 
The formal inauguration of the road already long in use was 
postponed on account of the desire of the President of Brazil 
to assist in person at the ceremonies. 

It is an item of interest that the head waters of the Gua- 
pore River, a branch of the Madeira, are so close to those of 
the stream Aguapehy, tributary to the Jauru and Paraguay 
rivers, that they could be connected by a canal less than 1000 
feet long. Years ago the trip across from the Amazon waters 
to the Paraguay-Parana basin was made in a canoe by hardy 
Portuguese explorers following this route, which in the years 
to come may develop into a frequented waterway. 

Any one wishing to make the journey from Manaos up the 
Madeira to the railway is obliged to pay a tax of 9 milreis, in 
addition to a deposit of 50$ for hospital or funeral expenses 
in ease he should contract yellow fever or other serious ail, 
but the 50$ are refunded on his safe return. 

On the Way Home. Few will sail away from the match- 
less harbor and city of Rio without keen regret and the de- 
termination to revisit them at the earliest -possible moment, 
though with these once lost to view he saajHook eagerly for- 
ward to the conclusion of the homeward voyage. This at pres- 
ent by the Lamport and Holt steamers occupies 16 or 18 
days, which are happily spent on their large and luxurious 
vessels, the several calls en route relieving., any possible mo- 
notony. The weather is generally delightful, two weeks of 
summer, not too hot, followed by one -never J&iows what, for 
the two or three days before reaching New "York. 

A few may prefer to take ship to a European port and spend 
some time on the other side before returning home, but there 
is no longer a necessity for going that way in order to have a 
comfortable voyage. Although the steamers of the English 
Line are a trifle faster, even with the best connection at 
Southampton or Liverpool the time to New York is longer. 

Bahia. About 60 hours from Rio on the third morning of 
the return voyage, the ship is likely to be at anchor in the 
harbor of Bahia, once the capital of Brazil, and now with a 
population of 285,000 its third city. It is 720 miles from its 


ancient rival Founded in 1549 by Thome de Souza this is the 
oldest of all the Brazilian cities and has ever been a place not 
only of commercial importance but of artistic and literary 
culture and of sumptuous religious sanctuaries. Until 1762 
it was the seat of colonial power. The location of the city on 
the east side of a deep and well protected gulf is admirable ; 
its beauty would excite enthusiasm if it were seen before 
Rio instead of afterwards. The name of this city is really 
Sao Salvador, while the bay is Bahia de Todos os Santos, Bay 
of All Saints, the name Bahia of the State having, as in the 
case of Pernambuco and Para, by foreigners been transferred 
to that of its capital city. Its appearance is indeed striking, 
with its upper and lower town, the former crowning a high 
and almost perpendicular bluff, the latter, looking almost as if 
it had been pushed over the edge, occupying a narrow strip 
along the water front, both sections charmingly variegated by 
dense tropical foliage. Conspicuous from a distance are the 
great elevators connecting the upper and lower town and many 
large buildings, towers, and churches. 

In a small boat one may be rowed a mile from the anchorage 
to the landing, then passing to Ribeira street, may follow this 
to an elevator at the right or by a steep and narrow street on 
the face of the bluff may climb to the top. By the elevator at 
the right 15 or 20 may be lifted in a wooden box to the edge of 
a pretty square above, the Praga da Constitucao. At the 
right is the site of the ancient Municipal Building, spoiled by 
the Dutch in 1636, later repaired, and recently rebuilt, with 
a new four-faced clock tower added; but in January, 1912, it 
was riddled by shots from Brazilian warships on account of an 
insurrection. A large attractive building at the rear of this 
square, which formerly was the residence of the Portuguese 
Governors and the Presidents of the Province, has been rebuilt 
from the foundations and is now used for the Governor's of- 
fices, his residence being in Corredor da Victoria. The Amer- 
ican Consulate is well located on a corner of this square. 
Narrow lanes of three centuries gone, lead from here in several 
directions; but some of them are traversed by electric cars 
which frequently leave the Plaza for diverse sections. A pleas- 
ant suburban ride is to the fishing village and suburb of Eio 
o, where a nice luncheon may be obtained j one passes 


BAHIA 355 

on the way out, through, some of the fine residence streets, by 
the side of beautiful parks, and by the lighthouse on Cape 
Barra at the entrance to the bay, on the site of an old fort. 
There is a fine view from the lighthouse top, well worth the 
climb, and one may walk on to Rio Vermelho a little farther. 

The narrow Chili street runs from the Praga da Consti- 
tucao to the Castro Alves Square, 150 feet above the bay, with 
a Statue of Columbus surmounting a marble fountain in the 
garden. On one side is the San Joao Theater. Here also are 
the Paris and the Sul Americano Hotels, and the building of 
the journal, the Diario da Bahia. Following from here Carlos 
Gomez street we may come to the Piedade Square with a pretty 
garden, and a marble fountain with a symbolic statue of an 
Indian stepping on a serpent. On one side of the square is 
the Piedade Church, on another the Senate House, of Italian 
style of architecture. Passing the Police Headquarters, a 
pretty street, Pedro Luiz, with modern buildings, leads to the 
Passeio Pullico, a delightful resting place, the largest and 
most popular in the city, shaded by mango trees, containing 
an obelisk of Egyptian marble, commemorating, one says, the 
arrival of King Joao YI in Brazil, another the opening of 
Brazilian ports to foreign commerce in 1808. At one side, on 
the Afflictos Square, the thick walls of an old fortress have 
been remodeled into police barracks. A steep street leads down 
from the Passeio Publico to a colonial fortification, the Gam- 
loa Fortress at the edge of the water. 

The Largo Duque du Caxias contains in a pretty garden an 
imposing monument of Carrara marble and bronze, 100 feet 
in height, named the Dois de Julho, the date of the evacuation 
of the State by the Portuguese troops in 1824, which sealed its 
independence. At the top of the tall Corinthian Column 
stands the traditional Indian with foot on a dragon, signify- 
ing the triumph over despotism. Colossal figures of bronze 
represent the great rivers of Brazil, with other accessories 
making this one of the finest monuments in Brazil. A notable 
peculiarity of the city is that the monuments are of symbolic 
character and not of individuals, no busts or statues of heroes 
save one to the English philanthropist, Dr. Paterson, a physi- 
cian whose good works were many. In the Praa do Biachuelo, 
which is overlooked by the handsome edifice of the Commercial 


Association, another beautiful monument, a marble pillar sur-, 
mounted by a flying Victory, commemorates the triumph of 
Brazil over Paraguay in the terrible war of 1864r-70. 

Among a number of interesting churches is the San Fran- 
cisco, built in 1713 with elaborate and gorgeous interior deco- 
rations. The Collegia Church of the Jesuits, now the Cathe- 
dral, built of stone prior to 1572, on the Largo Quinze de 
Novembro, has an imposing interior, the details of its ornamen- 
tation, from the design of the main altar to the work in the 
ceiling, making it perhaps the most curious in Brazil. A Bene- 
dictine Church, San Selastiao, on a central eminence, is 
peculiar in being all white inside and out, the main altar and 
the Saints' images of Carrara marble, while the two towers 
and the dome, the highest spot in the city, are white also. 
Oldest of all in Bahia is the Church Nossa Senhora da Ojuda. 

Bahia boasts of one of the best Medical Schools in South 
America, with a finer building than the School in Bio pos- 
sesses ; this on the Largo Quinze de Novembro. It has also a 
Law College and other excellent schools, one of the most val- 
uable, a Lyceum of Arts and Trades founded in 1872 with day 
and night classes, workshops, and class rooms, and 2500 pupils 
in attendance. A Public Library with 30,000 volumes, a Mu- 
nicipal with 20,000, and still others are of good service to the 
people. The Poorhouse is an attractive looking place and 
there are excellent hospitals. 

In the eastern suburbs are charming vistas ; and of homely 
interest are the hundreds of colored women engaged in laun- 
dry work along a little stream with the clothing spread out 
upon the grass and bushes. No machine washed and dried 
clothing there, but all done in good fresh air. 

Bahia is the great cocoa port of Brazil, furnishing about 
one-fifth of the world's supply; the State is wonderfully 
rich in productions of almost every kind. One may ask what 
does it not produce rather than what it does : coffee, tobacco, 
rubber, cotton, sugar, nuts, woods, etc., besides a wealth of 
minerals of great diversity; the largest diamond carbonate ever 
discovered was found here in 1895. It weighed 3150 carats 
and was divided in Paris into smaller stones. Gold, copper, 
and many of the precious stones are found in various sections. 


Even the sand is exported, being worth $100 a ton ; some, at 
least, of a deposit found by an American engineer along the 
shore, called monazite, rich in thorium silicate, used for electric 

The lower part of the city should not be ignored, for here 
are the commercial houses, the markets, Custom House, arse- 
nals, Post Office, factories, and many of the stores. There is 
one pretty plaza, but the streets are very narrow, and at night 
it is wholly deserted for the residential section above, save for 
a few of the poorer classes who live on the steep hillside. 

On the boundary of this state are the Paulo Affonso Falls 
of the San Francisco River, worth visiting if time permits ; the 
valley is one of the most fertile regions of the globe. A line 
of comfortable steamers subsidized by the State, running to 
Pernambuco, gives opportunity to change at Peneda, about 30 
miles up the river, to a smaller boat, which ascends to Piranhas, 
near the foot of the cataract, 150 miles farther, a two days' 
journey. A railway runs from Piranhas to Jatoba, 71 miles, 
to navigation above the Falls. Pedras, the Falls station, is 
about half way. Then a ride of two hours or so brings one to 
the great canon. Men living near, for a small fee, will act as 
guides. There are various rapids and one high fall; the river 
first compressed by rock banks is divided into five narrow 
branches through rock clefts, four of which tumbling down 15 
or 20 feet become a mass of foam and rush down a steep in- 
cline, with a roar audible for miles, in splendid rapids. The 
four branches soon unite, rushing on to the great Fall, the 
Mai da Cachoeira, where all five take a grand leap of 190 feet, 
which may best be surveyed lying prone on a flat rock 72 feet 
above the Fall, too awe-inspiring a sight to be enjoyed by 
every one, but to those of steady nerve a magnificent spectacle. 
A visit to the Bat's Cave may as well be omitted. 

Unless one stays over a steamer in Bahia, one may have but 
a glimpse of the city's many attractions and of course none of 
the unique, solitary, yet some day to be famous, waterfalls. 
Five or six hours only on shore are generally permitted to the 
tourist, though the steamer is likely to delay several more after 
the return on board. But it does not do to take chances on 
so important a matter. 


From BaHa the sail is generally to Port au Spain, Trinidad, 
where the hours will be a pleasure after ten days on the broad 
ocean. Once more you are in a land where you will hear 
English "as she is spoke" in various ways by persons of va- 
rious complexions. A drive past the Victoria Institute, the 
Government House, and the market place to the reservoir, the 
Botanical Garden, and to the beautiful Queen's. Park Hotel 
will be greatly enjoyed ; and the opportunity for shopping in 
the excellent stores or from the natives who bring wares to 
the boat will be improved by some whose purses are not yet 
empty. On the regular steamers, there is no opportunity to 
visit the celebrated Pitch Lake some miles away, a lake with 
an area of 114 acres, on the surface of which one may walk 
if he moves along promptly. This is the main source of the 
supply of asphalt used in the United States. 

The next morning the steamer is at Bridgetown in Barbados, 
a pleasant old town where some hours may be spent in a drive, 
a stroll, or in shopping to buy a few curios or embroideries. 
This is surely British soil, though 90 per cent of the inhabit- 
ants are negroes. Near the landing is Trafalgar Square, with 
a bronze statue of Nelson in the center, justly his due as it was 
he who preserved Great Britain's West Indian possessions in 
1805. Here are the government buildings and 8t. Michael's, 
the Anglican church. A Carnegie Library and a Salvation 
Army Building not far away may be reminders that we are 
approaching home. The Woman's Self -Help Association, also 
on the Square, invites and deserves patronage ; for Indian pot- 
tery and other curios, lace, embroidery, and various edibles 
may here be procured at modest prices. A house called Wil- 
ton at the corner of Bay street and Chelsea road is of interest 
as being in 1751 the temporary residence of George Washing- 
ton, the companion of his elder brother Lawrence, who having 
contracted consumption had come here in the hope of recover- 
ing his health. Dying a year afterward, Lawrence bequeathed 
his estate of Mount Vernon to his brother George. 

Seven days later Sandy Hook is passed; the Statue of Lib- 
erty, the old and new sky-scrapers draw near. 'Every one is 
glad to return, however delightful the journey. Some, if not 
all, of the passengers will in future have a little broader out- 
look ; regarding the Other Americans with somewhat more of 

HOME 359 

respect; well knowing now that there are agreeable scenes to be 
revisited, remote regions to be explored, and for those who 
have the judgment, tact, and energy, wonderful opportunities 
for enterprise. 



ALTHOUGH information and advice in regard to South. Amer- 
ican trade have been liberally proffered in many books and 
magazines, and in various addresses to commercial bodies, a 
few additional remarks may be of service; as from current 
report, cogent need still exists to reiterate with emphasis many 
suggestions previously urged, some of these in a magazine 
article of my own as long ago as July, 1907, but equally im- 
portant to-day. 

Except for certain facts of common knowledge, it would go 
without saying that the first and most important point for a 
manufacturer to consider is whether or not he really cares to 
cultivate South American trade, and will make a determined 
and persistent effort to secure and preserve it ; a few occasional 
sales certainly not being worth while. To form an intelligent 
opinion on this question conditions must be thoroughly under- 

Commercial men should by this time be aware that in the 
regions to the south business opportunities are large and are 
rapidly increasing, that the population of the Latin American 
Eepublics is above seventy millions, and that their commerce, 
amounting in 1912 to two and a half billion dollars, is far 
greater than that of China and Japan together. In fact Ar- 
gentina alone has more commerce than either of these Asiatic 
countries, and Brazil has more than Japan. Further, the ratio 
of increase on our South American continent is greater than 
in those regions of Asia. 

Next, the manufacturer should realize that the longer he 
delays entering the field the smaller will be his chance of 
success ; that the British and Germans have long been on the 
ground, and that, in spite of our fancied superiority in busi- 
ness methods, they will not easily be supplanted. He should 



understand that the South Americans in general are not eager 
to trade with us, their association with Europe, both by blood 
and by steamship lines, being closer and stronger. In some 
countries we are really unpopular; in others they do not 
care a rap about us either way. Many Latin Americans are 
distrustful and suspicious of our nation from a political point 
of view. They dislike the boorish and supercilious manner 
of some of our half -educated traveling, railroad, and mining 
men, although Americans of broader intelligence and better 
manners are well liked. Even in Peru, which country, if any, 
is supposed to be especially friendly, a prominent statesman, 
F. Garcia Calderon, in his recent book on Latin America, ex- 
pressed grave fears of the Yankee Peril, more serious than 
that of the Germans. 

Pleasant speeches at dinner should not blur the fact that 
Latin Americans are more enthusiastic about Latin America 
than Pan America. Capital, to be sure, from any quarter 
is welcomed in undeveloped countries and decidedly better 
bargains will not be despised. Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia 
gladly accept our money for internal development, but Brazil, 
Chile, and Argentina, as a rule, get what they need from 
Europe, nearly a billion and a half dollars being invested in 
Argentina by Great Britain alone. It is time to realize that 
it is for our interest more than theirs to cultivate friendly 
and commercial relations with South Americans. They will 
not be neglected by others or suffer greatly if we do not favor 
them with our presence and regard. To undertake the estab- 
lishing of commercial relations with the idea that it is a con- 
descension on our part is a mistake certain to interfere with 
the rapid extension of business. 

It is obvious that only those American goods which are 
exclusive or which require no tariff advantage can long com- 
pete successfully on even terms abroad with European wares, 
now sold by active enterprising business men determined to 
keep and increase their trade. 

An important and primary consideration is the willingness 
and ability to conform to South American custom in regard 
to credit; it is rulable to defer payment from three to six 
months after the delivery of the goods, the price being fixed 
accordingly or interest being added. Such credit, readily 


granted by European firms, must be given by ours in order 
to secure extensive trade. In some quarters an idea is cur- 
rent that South American credit is not generally good, but 
shippers of many years' experience assert that customers 
there are quite as reliable and honest as those in Europe or 
the United States. Furthermore, certain New York shippers 
take charge of and guarantee the collections, so that no loss 
is possible. Where results have been unsatisfactory it has 
often been due to the incompetence or dishonesty of the 
agent rather than to the Latin American with whom he dealt. 
Naturally suitable precautions should be taken and careful 
scrutiny exercised, as not every one is honest in any quarter 
of the globe. 

As an aid in investigating credit, as well as for other rea- 
sons, the establishment of American banks in the various 
countries is an urgent necessity. Rumors as to plans for these 
have long been abroad, but as yet nothing has been accom- 
plished. Few of our houses may be capable of organizing a 
great chain of banks like that of London and La Plata; those 
who might apparently do not wish to, or they are awaiting 
the passage of the currency bill. But in any of our large 
cities capital might be raised to organize a single bank in 
Rio, Montevideo, Buenos Aires, or other cities, which would 
be a valuable center of credit information as well as of ex- 
change. Under able and cautious management such banks 
would be of great service to our exporters and repay the 
investors with 10 or 12 per cent dividends if not more. 

Much has been said about American Steamship Lines os 
an encouragement to our commerce. While it would indeed 
be a pleasure to see the Star Spangled Banner now and again 
floating from vessels in foreign ports, this is of less conse- 
quence than the banks. If neither business judgment nor 
patriotism impels our multi-millionaires to build up a mer- 
chant marine, our needs will be supplied by others. Already 
we have excellent bi-weekly passenger service from New York 
to Buenos Aires arid every week steamers to Rio. On the 
completion of the Canal we shall have weekly service from 
New York down the West Coast by at least two good lines 
of steamers. In addition a large number of freight steamers 
is already plying to each side. 


With favorable consideration in regard to embarking on 
foreign trade, or even as a preliminary, some ordinary geo- 
graphical knowledge and a slight acquaintance with local 
conditions, easily procured, is highly desirable. It is not a 
prepossessing introduction for a gentleman to receive a letter 
directed "Buenos Aires, Brazil or Chile," as often happens, 
this being one degree worse than if Brazil or Chile were used 
alone, as the former address betrays not merely ignorance but 
the man's indifference to his display of it. The common 
practice of mailing letters with insufficient postage is still 
more annoying, and is absolutely inexcusable. 

Many of our largest industries and some smaller ones al- 
ready have an excellent trade with South America, so that on 
the average the United States stands third in the value of 
goods imported into the various countries. Great Britain is 
first and Germany second. One meets their representatives 

As from six weeks to three months will pass before an 
answer may be received to one's letter addressed to the United 
States Consul resident in the various countries, it is the more 
important to learn as much as possible at home of the char- 
acter of the different localities, the variety of climate and 
productions, the condition of the people and their require- 
ments ; some of which information may be found in the valu- 
able monthly Bulletin of the Pan American Union, in the ex- 
cellent Semi-Monthly, The South American, and in the multi- 
tude of books recently written on the various countries. 

With even the slightest knowledge one might avoid the 
absurdity of sending lawn mowers to Iquique, a barren desert 
where for the few and expensive plots of grass not only the 
water but the soil is imported ; or rubber boots to Lima, where 
only a slight drizzle is ever experienced and small probability 
exists of need in the back country; or old-fashioned chande- 
liers on a three-foot stem to places where electricity is em- 
ployed or where the ceilings are 15 feet high. If ordinary 
precautions had not been ignored, it would seem foolish to say 
that before shipping goods one should ascertain whether such 
articles are wanted in that locality. 

It is well to note that except in the ease of some novelty, 
the people know what they want and insist upon having it. 


They will not take what we think they ought to want or what 
is convenient for us to send. The Latin Americans are quite 
as fashionable and up-to-date as we are ; the Indians, on the 
contrary, want the same thing year after year and for cen- 
turies. If their trade is desired their taste must be catered 
to, for others are ready to supply what they want if we do not* 

Permanent commercial interests alone should be sought. 
Great injury has been inflicted upon the reputation of our 
merchants by the unjustifiable conduct of manufacturers, who 
in dull times have sent men abroad to take orders , then, busi- 
ness at home reviving and rush orders being received, they 
have turned back to their old customers, ignoring the new 
and leaving their orders unfilled, careless of their embarrass- 
ment and inability to supply their needs from any local mar- 
ket. Such trade permanently reverts to the British dealers 
upon whose steadiness they can rely. 

It would seem a gracious act if some of our large manu- 
facturers, instead of wanting the whole earth, should cultivate 
the South American trade, certain to prove profitable, and 
leave some of their home market to be taken care of by smaller 
people not so well prepared for the conquest of distant fields. 

The changeableness sometimes exhibited seems extraordi- 
nary. An American in Bolivia engaged in a large business 
with Indians, after much urging and time spent, was per- 
suaded by a traveling man from New Orleans to give him an 
order for a thousand dollars' worth of goods to be delivered 
within six months. About the time they were expected, the 
American received a letter saying that the firm had concluded 
not to fill any orders to Bolivia 1 

A difficulty frequently experienced where cash sales have 
been made, and an excessive annoyance to the purchaser, is 
that a draft sent at the same time with the goods if not earlier 
reaches the consignee a week, a month, or more before the ar- 
rival of the merchandise. A month's interest is lost by the 
purchaser, with the goods not in hand. When they do arrive 
they are often not as ordered, deficient in quantity and qual- 
ity, and naturally that is the end. 

It should be superfluous to say that merchandise should 
be up to the quality of the sample, but not so. Such hap- 


penings, common at home, will not work abroad where the 
tariff is level and competition free. 

Further, the goods must "be precisely like the sample, not 
even something better. Men who order two-wheeled vehicles 
do not want four-wheeled. The latter in some sections are 
impossible. The assumption that people do not know what 
they want, or the carelessness which permits of gross mistakes 
in shipping goods thousands of miles is evidence of crude 
business ideas and methods. 

In most sections a slight difference in price is not so keenly 
regarded as the quality of the goods and the steadiness of 
price. It is more agreeable to them that an article should 
be sold for 30 cents through a period of years than that it 
should vary from 25 or 28 cents to 32. 

Careful packing of goods, a matter of the greatest impor- 
tance, has for years been continually urged, without avail or 
with but slight improvement. It is as true now as seven or 
eight years ago that packages from the United States on the 
dock in South American ports may be picked out on account 
of their disreputable appearance. Boxes splitting open, bags 
and bales ripping apart, many goods lost or ruined, is the 
continual complaint. Of course there are exceptions. Some 
houses may have reformed. 

A United States official, writing for goods to his New York 
druggist, charged him particularly about the packing. The 
bottles arriving in a pasteboard box were broken. Again he 
tried with definite instructions and the same result. The 
next order went to England, where it was properly filled. 

The persistence in ignoring expert advice is extraordinary. 
Agents in South America often send explicit directions as to 
packing, the size and weight of boxes, etc., without the 
slightest effect. Goods are dispatched in a 500 or 1000 Ib. box 
to a region where they must be transported on the back of 
llamas, whose load is 100 Ibs. The box is left on the dock or 
at the railway station ; the goods are never used. 

New York shippers report that much freight reaches them 
in a condition impossible to embark on the long journey. It 
must be refused or repacked. These are curious commen- 
taries on the supposedly superior business ability of Amer- 


leans. The splendidly bound boxes and bales of British goods 
are in striking contrast. 

On the East Coast transportation by water and rail is gen- 
eral, though not complete. On the West, Chile is well served 
with railroads, Bolivia's are rapidly developing, but an enor- 
mous region remains, especially in Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador, 
where transportation by mules, burros, llamas, and Indians 
will long continue to be the only methods, 

A material factor in securing South American trade where 
agents are employed is the sending of suitable and competent 
men. One of our largest houses, noted for the rather su- 
perior quality of its salesmen, admitted that they had by 
experience discovered that some who were very good salesmen 
here did not succeed there. Precisely why Americans should 
be so reluctant to follow advice from experts on subjects of 
which they are ignorant is a puzzle ; but it is a fact that the 
preaching of many men for many years seems largely to have 
fallen on deaf ears. We should comprehend that South 
Americans are not ignorant barbarians, that in general they 
have more culture, often more education, than our business 
men, that their manners are much better, and that if we desire 
their business we must adapt ourselves in. some degree and 
treat them with courtesy and not arrogance. To speak of them 
as monkeys, savages, and dagoes, even so as to be overheard, 
to commit other acts of unpardonable rudeness in churches 
and elsewhere, boorishly to inform them that they are half a 
century behind the times, are acts which might seem incred- 
ible but are by no means rare. A man who is thoroughly con- 
vinced of his own superiority and who regards the courteous 
amenities of life practiced by Latin Americans as silly and 
time wasting, as an evidence of insincerity and of a lack of 
practical common sense, who fancies himself above the con- 
ventions of dress and manners as practiced in the cities vis- 
ited, and as they are in Europe, who would rush and push his 
wares is likely to make an unfavorable impression and to learn 
that more haste is less speed. 

.It should be obvious that to accomplish much a man must 
speak the languages of the countries visited. What success 
would a man speaking no English have in the United States? 
Spanish is current in all the Republics save Brazil; there it 


is understood by all persons of education, and may do fairly 
in the large cities ; but for an extended tour or a long stay in 
Brazil a knowledge of Portuguese is essential. 

Two extremes are noticed by the observant traveler in South 
America, each of which appears objectionable. Some Amer- 
ican goods are sold at one-half or one-quarter of the home 
price ; which might cause the disinterested layman to conclude 
that our tariff needed revising; other articles are sold at dou- 
ble or triple the price at home (not always the fault of the 
duty), a practice in the long run likely to prove unprofitable. 
Thus a popular sewing machine was bought a few years ago in 
Arequipa at one-fourth the price in Boston. White paper 
made in the United States is cheaper in Chile than in Chicago. 
On the other hand, in La Paz, shoes worth $2.50 cost $5.50 to 
$6.00, kerosene oil sold at about $5.00 for a case of 10 gallons, 
a can of corned beef costs 80 cents ; and ham, 60 to 80 cents 
a Ib. The last, put up by a Chicago packer, could be pur- 
chased more cheaply at retail from an English firm, having 
come by way of London, than at wholesale from the Chicago 
agent on the ground; and the home office would not take a 
direct order. "Whether the price was according to the plans 
of the home office, or the idiosyncrasy of the agent anzious to 
make his fortune in a hurry, is unknown. That some agents 
are arbitrary in their charges might be judged from the fact 
that boots sold at Mollendo for $5.00 a pair were priced in 
La Paz at $14.00. 

The sharp practice of some salesmen is greatly to the dis- 
advantage of others. The man who sold a snow-plow to some 
one on the coast lands of Peru on the plea that the climate 
would change on the completion of the canal no doubt prides 
himself on his smartness, indifferent to the fact that he has 
done much to discredit Americans in all that region. Many 
seem to think that patriotism consists simply in "blowing" 
about their country ; that they might do it a better service by 
honorable conduct and courteous demeanor does not occur 
to them. 

I have heard that in many places on the plateau, as prob- 
ably in the interior, it is customary to charge the poor Indians 
who earn but 50 or 75 cents a day double the already high, 
price which a white man is asked for the same article, a 


sample no doubt of the justice and fair dealing for which we 
are told that men are distinguished, but in which women are 
said to be lacking. 

Ten dollars a day has been allowed as a suitable sum for 
traveling expenses, and one following the railroads and not 
being burdened with heavy samples might find this sufficient. 
In the interior where many pack animals must be employed, 
or with a large supply of baggage to go by rail, and in Brazil 
and Argentina where heavy license fees must be paid, the 
fifteen dollars a day asserted by a recent traveler to be neces- 
sary may be desirable. It depends, too, a good deal upon the 
skill and character of the man. 

The tax on commercial travelers who sell goods or who 
merely exhibit samples and take orders is an item to be con- 
sidered in connection with other expenses. In some countries 
a separate license must be obtained for each Province or De- 
partment, corresponding to our States; in others for each 
Municipality. A few countries, more liberal, exact no fee 

Beginning with Ecuador, $50 is here charged for one visit. 

In Peru no license is required for commercial travelers, 
but there are certain regulations as to samples. If they are 
such as would enter free of duty no charge is made. If the 
articles are dutiable, one of each kind and variety is permitted 
free entry, providing the importer presents in duplicate an 
itemized description of packages and articles, pays the duty 
in cash or with bank draft, and within three months exports 
these samples, thereupon receiving back the cash or bank draft 
which he has deposited. Should there be any deficiency or 
substitution of articles, double duty will be exacted and the 
article substituted will be confiscated. 

If samples enter Peru by Mollendo to go to Bolivia, not to 
return by the same route, they are dutiable, unless the 
Peruvian Consul in La Paz sends a certificate that the samples 
have entered Bolivia. The duty previously paid is then 
refunded. A fee of $12.50, TJ. S. gold, is charged by the city 
of Arequipa as a license in that particular section. 

Bolivia is a more expensive country to visit and for that 
reason is omitted from the itinerary of many travelers. The 
policy of the Government seems particularly injudicious in 


view of the fact that their country is out of the way, that it 
has no great cities, and that large sales are required to cover 
the additional time and cost of the journey even without the 
considerable fee exacted. 

Further, each municipality collects a fee for itself; there 
is no general tax. The fee varies according to the class of 
goods but in general for La Paz, the chief city (pop. 80,000), 
is 300 lol. or $116.70 U. S. gold,- never more. The author- 
ities of Coehabamba are said to charge 1000 bol. for the priv- 
ilege of selling in their pretty city, while Oruro demands but 
100 ~bol. As to other cities inquiry must be made in the 
country. There is talk of reducing the Coehabamba fee and 
perhaps the Bolivian Government will soon realize that the 
country will do better to adopt the more liberal policy of her 
neighbors, Peru and Chile. It should be added that if two 
persons go together as representatives of the same house each 
one is obliged to pay the tax. 

Chile, like Peru, is extremely favorable to the commercial 
traveler, requiring no permits and no duty on the samples, 
unless in whole pieces of stuff or in complete sets of objects. 
Six months are allowed in which to reship samples free of 

The sections of the East Coast are much more exacting. 

Argentina, noted for high prices generally, also has large 
license fees ; these not for the country as a whole, but for each 
individual State or Province. A license covering the Federal 
Capital, Buenos Aires, costs 500 Arg. pesos, paper, $212.30 U. 
S. gold, and is good for one year. Each State has its own ad- 
ditional charge, mainly good for a whole year, though a few 
have half rates for six months and one or two, monthly 
licenses. These permit either selling goods, or showing sam- 
ples and taking orders. 

Not to enumerate all of the various districts it may be said 
that the fees vary from nothing in Neuquen to 1680 pesos, 
about $700 U. S. gold, in Salta; all of the remaining fees ex- 
cept those of Tucuman, Entre Rios, and Mendoza, which are 
600 pesos ($255), being less than that of Santa Fe, which is 
400 pesos, about $170, per annum. Samples of no value pay 
no duty; on others the duty which is paid is refunded if the 
samples are exported within six months. In some places a 


difference is made in the license fee if but one line of samples 
is offered. 

In Paraguay license fees are charged in each of the five 
chief cities, varying, according to the importance of the firm 
represented, from $84 gold to $385. At other points, the 
license is one-third the amount in these cities. An advisory 
board of merchants fixes the class to which each traveler 
belongs, five classes altogether. No extra charge for repre- 
senting more than one firm. No distinction for selling with- 
out samples. No tax for samples if taken out within six 

Uruguay is said to charge 100 pesos or $103.42 U. S. gold, 
for the calendar year, the license expiring December 31. Ap- 
plication to the Chief of Police of Montevideo on paper with 
a 50 cent stamp being made, the certificate issued must be 
presented to the Director-General of Indirect Taxes to obtain 
the required license. Samples entered under bond are not 
subject to duty. According to the Consul General of Uru- 
guay a license for the city of Montevideo only, all that most 
persons care for, is issued for ten pesos, $10.35. 

Brazil requires no federal tax of commercial travelers but 
the States and cities more than make up this deficiency. As a 
milreis is practically 33 cents, or three milreis about one dol- 
lar, only one figure need be given. 

Para charges 300$" (i e., milreis) as a State tax per annum, 
and 365$ for the city on each visit. If goods are actually 
sold, trader's or hawker's license is also required. 

In Pernambuco there is no State tax, and but 53$for the 
city of Fortalezain Ceara. 

Bahia charges 100$ for a yearly license, but it must be 
renewed if one leaves the country and returns. 

No license is required in Rio unless goods are sold, when a 
trader's license is necessary. 

Sao Paulo State has no tax but the city has a fee of 1000$ 
and the city of Santos 500$. 

The State of Rio Grande do Sul has a tax of 150$ for sell- 
ing in cities, 100$ for towns, 80$ for other places. The cities 
of Porto Alegre, Pelotas, and Sao Gabriel exact each a license 
fee of 200$, Uruguayana 300$, Bage 800$, Sao Borga 60$. 

A power of attorney is generally necessary if agents are 


to receive money, this to be filed with a notary public who 
supplies copies in Portuguese on request. 

Samples of no value pay no duty, but if worth more than 
one milreis duty is levied. The amount is deposited in the 
Custom House and if the goods are checked and sent out from 
the same port the duty will be returned. 

The Central Eailway has a mileage book and the Leopoldina 
Eailway gives a discount of 20 per cent on samples and on 
fares of travelers. 

Information on various matters may be found in the latest 
Exporters' Encyclopaedia; and is furnished to members by 
the Pan American States Association, the National Association 
of Manufacturers, and the American Manufacturers Export 

As to the resources of the South American countries and the 
variety of goods which may be exported thither to advantage, 
these things are set forth in detail in many books, in consular 
reports, and in back numbers of the Pan American Bulletin, 
to be found in our large libraries. I have here space for a 
few remarks only. Since the continent as a whole is still 
thinly settled and largely undeveloped, its productions and 
exports are chiefly mineral and agricultural, its imports manu- 
factured goods, as is the ease generally with young countries. 
Conditions in some respects resemble those in the United 
States half a century ago. Everywhere railways are being 
laid, and bridges built; towns are needing sewers, electric 
lights, street cars, and all modern improvements. The great 
cities are for the most part supplied with these, but many 
smaller ones are thinking about them or have merely made 
a beginning. 

Material and equipment for the building and operation of 
railroads are needed in every country, bridge building ma- 
terial as well. Our steel men, our locomotive and car builders 
have been wide awake to such matters and are doing excellent 
business in some of the countries. Where, as in Argentina, 
most of the railways are financed with British capital, Amer- 
icans have less chance in proportion than in those countries 
where American capital is considerably employed, as in 
Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia. 

Agricultural machinery of almost every kind and agricul- 


tural tools are in great demand on the East Coast, on the 
vast estates of Argentina, to some extent in Uruguay and 
Brazil. They have a smaller sale on the West Coast, where 
mining machinery is one of the prime necessities. Electrical 
apparatus of all kinds is everywhere needed and is largely 
supplied by the General Electric and other companies. 

Although most of the countries have coal, the mines are 
not greatly developed except in Chile; hence much is im- 
ported; a good deal of lumber also, in spite of immense forests, 
as yet unavailable save in a few localities. 

In all of the countries the chief import is textiles, princi- 
pally from Europe, though the United States furnishes a good 
deal of the coarse grades of cotton, canvas, etc. Industrial 
machinery, automobiles and other vehicles, utensils, hardware, 
corrugated iron, sewing machines, paper of various kinds, 
motors, scales and balances, surgical and mathematical instru- 
ments, pianos and piano players, petroleum, gasoline, etc., 
lubricating oils, typewriting machines; canned goods, par- 
ticularly on the "West Coast, including milk, meat, and salmon, 
especially for miners, also used in the rubber country ; leather 
goods, boots and shoes, watches, soap, druggists' supplies and 
medicines, lard, twine, motors, dynamite, arms and ammuni- 
tion, fence wire, pumps, pipings and fittings, tin plate, glass, 
porcelain, watches, phonographs, photographic material, and 
all kinds of novelties and general merchandise are among the 
articles imported; a few animals, chiefly blooded stock from 

Should one desire to engage in business for himself in any 
of the Republics, there are good openings for persons with 
capital who speak the language. Persons without money are 
warned by our consuls not to go, unless they have a definite 
engagement or are specialists in certain lines where experts 
are pretty sure to be desired. 

It is unwise to trust implicitly the stories about wonderful 
mines, though these doubtless exist If genuine, they are 
often impossible to exploit without an enormous outlay of 
capital as was the case with the Cerro de Pasco mines ; more- 
over, as thousands if not millions of people have been deceived 
about mines in the United States and in regard to many other 
money making schemes, it is still more foolish to give credence 


to tales promising untold wealth in those distant countries. 
"With the best of intentions the enthusiast is liable to be mis- 
taken and deliberate fraud is common; therefore, caution is 
ever needed. Yet with careful investigation opportunities in 
almost any line may be found in some one of these rapidly 
developing countries, superior to those afforded in more 
thickly settled regions of the earth. 


Ecuador. In Ecuador, it may be noted, the United States 
stands second among importing nations. As a place for in- 
vestment, enterprise, and residence, it has advantages and 
disadvantages. The coast region, on account of excessive 
rainfall, humidity, and heat, has a less agreeable and healthful 
climate than the rainless Peruvian shores with their moderate 
temperature; malaria and yellow fever being endemic in 
Guayaquil, though probably not everywhere on the coast. 

The sierra and montana regions of the two countries are 
quite similar, the high valleys of the sierra district enjoying 
a healthful and delightful climate. The natural resources 
resemble those of Peru, although the chief exports are dissim- 
ilar. Ecuador's cocoa plantations are her largest source of 
wealth and supply her principal export. Vegetable ivory, 
fruit of the tagua palm, is another important article of pro- 
duction, most useful in making buttons. The manufacture of 
Panama hats is an industry long flourishing. Some coffee and 
rubber are exported, also hides; and sugar cane is raised. 
Eich mineral resources are undoubted ; gold, mercury, copper, 
iron, coal, lead, platinum, and silver; these still undeveloped; 
petroleum and sulphur are found. Many manufacturing in- 
dustries are carried on in a small way, but such goods are 
mainly imported: textiles, food stuffs, clothing, drugs, boots 
and shoes, paper, leather, crockery, vehicles, etc., are some of 
the importations, with material for railroad building and roll- 
ing stock. As the development of the country is regarded as 
twenty-five years behind that of Peru, it would naturally 
afford better opportunities in some directions and poorer in 
others. Eailroads are planned in several directions. 

Peru. The Eepublic of Peru presents probably the great- 
est variety of climate, soil, and productions, to be found in 


any portion of the globe. Along its 1200 miles of coast may 
be raised in the irrigated valleys nearly all tropical and tem- 
perate products. In the sierras will be found practically every 
variety of mineral, and in one place or another climates to 
suit every taste. Whatever one may desire is therefore to be 
procured within its borders, although not all points are 
equally accessible. 

The coast lands present unique advantages for agriculture, 
in that the climate may be depended upon; there is no fear 
of drought, of sudden storms, or of frost, and though within 
the tropics there is no excess of heat. 

Of 50,000,000 acres capable of irrigation in this section but 
2,000,000 now have the facilities, and of these not all are em- 
ployed; hence there is ample room. The difficulty is lack of 
capital and sometimes of labor. 

The chief export of Peru is sugar; and if our Louisiana 
planters on account of tariff reduction feel like making a 
change, they will find in Peru an ample field where four tons 
to the acre are produced and a price of 1% cts. a Ib. will 
bring a profit. 

Cotton plantations offer excellent opportunities; the best 
qualities grow well, Sea Island, Upland, etc. ; also the native 
Peruvian which brings the highest price of all, being hardly 
distinguishable from wool. Yet, as it takes several years to 
come into bearing (it lives 10 or 15 years), the Upland which 
bears in six months is preferred by many. In southern Peru 
vineyards and orchards are a specialty, fruits most delicious, 
figs, melons, grapes, chirimoias, olives, and paltas, with vege- 
tables, and with alfalfa, wheat, and maize. Tobacco is raised 
in various sections and coffee in many, none finer in the 

The sierra country is full of minerals: gold, silver, lead, 
copper, quicksilver, tungsten, cinnabar, vanadium, anything 
you can mention. Every kind of coal is found, though as yet 
the mines are mostly undeveloped for lack of transportation 
facilities ; oil of fine quality exists along the coast in Tumbes, 
in Puno near Lake Titicaea, and in other sections ; borax in the 
Arequipa district ; iron in many quarters ; peat in Junm. On. 
the plateau, besides minerals galore, are excellent cattle lands ; 
many sheep are raised, Scotch shepherds and collies here look- 


ing after them ; the native hreed is crossed with imported me- 
rinos, making good stock, furnishing 5 to 8 Ibs. of wool per 
head. Alpacas every two years yield from 6 to 9 Ibs. of bet- 
ter wool, while the vicuna furnishes a smaller supply of still 
finer grade. 

The east side of the mountains is rather difficult of access, 
but not too far down, affords a delightful climate; a colony 
willing to work would find pleasant homes in various localities. 
In valleys near Cuzco is the finest of cocoa, in the Chaneha- 
mayo or Perene Valley back of Lima and Oroya are millions 
of coffee trees, lower down is plenty of rubber. Some is ex- 
ported by way of Mollendo from the Inambari, Timbopata 
districts, more by Iquitos and Para from the Ucayali, the 
Putomayo, and other sections. While men frequently say 
that they do not go to such countries for their health, it is 
indeed a pity that some seem to forget that they are human 
beings and treat the inoffensive natives in a manner far worse 
than savages. In these regions the heat and humidity are 
unpleasant and in limited sections unhealthy, though the 
dangers are by some over-estimated. Many papers and maga- 
zines publish sensational stories of adventure, often knowing 
them to be exaggerated; all books do not justly represent con- 
ditions. Many stories of hardship, when true, are merely 
evidence of ignorance and bad judgment, utterly foolish con- 
duet quite inexcusable, in sections where others have experi- 
enced not the slightest difficulty. 

Persons with moderate capital not interested in mining or 
agriculture might find it profitable to undertake manufactur- 
ing in certain lines. There are now in the country a few 
factories for cotton, woolen, biscuit making, chocolate, fruit 
preserves, cocaine, and matches ; also flour mills. 

There is opportunity for electrical power in many places, 
for installing electric lights, sewers, water pipes, etc. 

Provisions are in certain sections extremely cheap, in others 

very dear, on account of transportation difficulties. Lima is 

called expensive and it would seem that eggs and chickens 

might be profitably raised near by, also dairy products and 

other supplies. 

At present the chief exports from Peru in the order of 
their value are minerals, sugar, cotton, rubber, wool, petro- 


^ guano, Panama hats, hides and skins, ice, cocaine, coca, 
coffee. The leading imports are textiles, coal, machinery, etc. ; 
from the United States, machinery, wood, drugs, meats, bread- 
stuffs, shoes, coal, hardware, arms and ammunition, soap, 
vehicles, instruments and apparatus, general merchandise. 

It should be noted in connection with Peru, that machinery 
and supplies for railroad construction and for mining are ad- 
mitted free of duty ; also as an item of great importance, that 
the export tax on rubber is less than one-quarter of that ex- 
acted by Brazil and a little smaller than the one fixed by Bo- 
livia. For this reason the country is especially favorable for 
the extension of the rubber industry. 

Bolivia. The products of Bolivia are like those of Peru 
except that its agricultural resources are as yet little devel- 
oped. Hence there is more importation of food stuffs ; flour 
is an article of export from the United States, as well as pre- 
serves and suet. Canned stuffs are useful to the mining and 
railroad people. Cartridges, leather goods, soap, kerosene, 
furniture, clothing, dynamite, firearms, copper wire, iron and 
steel, vinegar, Florida water, wood, agricultural tools, mining 
machinery, lard, cotton, cameras, sewing machines, typewrit- 
ers are other imports. 

Bolivia presents excellent opportunities for mining. Tin 
of first importance, silver, copper, and bismuth are now the 
chief mineral exports, although rich deposits of gold are at- 

The montana country presents conditions similar to Peru, 
for the rubber industry, for the raising of coffee, coca, qui- 
nine, and other products. A grain called quinua, cultivated 
on the plateau, is said to be more nutritious than wheat. The 
alpaca and vicuna here flourish, the former supplying 15 Ibs. 
of wool every other year. Persons who find the plateau region 
cheerless might enjoy the agricultural section part way down 
the eastern slope of the mountains; thus a San Francisco 
gentleman, many years resident of the Garden City, Cocha- 
bamba, over whose climate and future prospects he speaks 
with enthusiasm. Tarija, farther south, has a delightful cli- 
mate and equal prospects. 

One American living on the plateau has been doing a thriv- 
ing business by making monthly trips to the interior 150 miles 


to the east, selling goods at the haciendas and the Indian vil- 
lages, $10,000 worth on a trip, and bringing back fruit and 
vegetables to the cities above. 

The several lines of railway just completed and several 
more in construction make certain the immediate development 
and rapid progress of this country. The possibilities* for the 
production of wool are very large and also for cattle raising. 
The climate of a large part of the country is healthful and 
agreeable, and residence in La Paz and other cities is enjoyed 
by many Americans. Bolivia's rapid development and pros- 
perity is assured, 

Chile. The country of Chile, curiously unique in shape, 
being excessively long and thin, extends over 2000 miles from 
north to south, with a width of from 105 to 248 miles from 
east to west. Although so narrow, it has each way three well 
marked divisions : from north to south, the rainless, desert and 
nitrate region, within and near the tropics; the temperate 
central section, a rich agricultural district with considerable 
rainfall; and the southern portion, with too much precipita- 
tion, rain, snow, and fogs, largely a forest land with some 
swamps and grazing country. Along the entire shore runs 
the Coast Cordillera with an altitude ranging from 1000 to 
6000 or 7000 feet ; then comes a plateau or valley, in the far 
south a drowned valley with straits and fjords, and at the 
east the great Andes Mts., the height of which forms the east- 
ern boundary line. 

A variety of climate and scenery is obviously presented, 
agreeable to dwellers in the Temperate Zone. Aside from the 
strictly tropical productions, almost everything found in Peru 
and Bolivia is here provided ; minerals galore, especially cop- 
per, iron, and coal, with gold, silver, etc., in addition to the 
world famed nitrates, and iodine. Petroleum and natural gas 
have recently been discovered. Noted, like California, for its 
fine fruits and vegetables, the central section affords ample 
field to increase their production. Here, too, the raising of 
grain and of forage plants is extensively practiced; stock 
farming is a great source of wealth, Chilian horses are of 
noted excellence, and cattle flourish. Viticulture and apicul- 
ture are profitable, the export of honey being important. At 
the south, the growing lumber business offers a fine field to 


experts, as well as the valuable fisheries. The already large 
sheep raising interests are chiefly in the territory of Magellan. 
The canning industry both as to fruits and fish may be 
developed with great profit. Manufactured goods are pro- 
duced to the extent of $130,000,000 worth a year. Railway 
building, which has been rapidly progressing, will for some 
years continue to be an important field of labor. The Govern- 
ment has planned to expend within this decade many millions 
of dollars for public works, hydraulic and maritime, for irri- 
gation, public buildings, and railways. 

The imports include such things as sugar and coffee, also 
petroleum from Peru ; from the United States, mineral prod- 
ucts, especially steel and coal, with machinery of various 
kinds, paper, vegetable produce, textiles, chemicals, etc. 

Presenting conditions similar to our own West Coast, includ- 
ing the earthquakes, the British and German settlers in the 
country have as much enthusiasm for their new home as have 
immigrants to California. In scenery, climate, and oppor- 
tunities, Chile offers unusual attractions. 

I had forgotten to state that valuable oyster beds exist in 
the Gulf of Ancud, and that on the island of Chiloe two crops 
a year of excellent potatoes may be grown. 

Argentina. Argentina with its great plains is entirely dif- 
ferent from the "West Coast countries. From its configura- 
tion, its development, especially its railroad building, has been 
a far simpler proposition. It was easy to raise cattle and with 
the profits thus obtained to cultivate immense agricultural 
properties. Almost every kind of vegetable production is to 
be found in this great Republic, and the rewards of agricul- 
ture and stock raising have been quite equal to the wealth of 
the mines elsewhere and far more useful. 

The plague of locusts is an occasional drawback, but not 
serious enough greatly to interfere with the grand total of 
production. As the boundaries on the west extend along the 
height of the Andes, some mineral wealth exists on their slopes, 
but the possibilities in stock and wheat raising have been too 
attractive for much attention to be devoted to mining mat- 
ters. The agricultural products, wheat, oats, and linseed run 
up into millions of tons; the quantity of exports of these sur- 


passes in value those of the United States, while that of meat 
exported is vastly greater. "With their small population rela- 
tive to the extent of territory it is certain that for many years 
Argentina will raise cattle and sheep enough to help out the 
more thickly settled portions of the globe. To enter into such 
enterprises to-day of course capital is needed, though some of 
the present day millionaires went thither with nothing and 
worked their way to fortune. Wages for mechanics are good, 
and in some other lines, but expenses also are large. Accord- 
ing to the number of inhabitants Argentina has more railways 
than the United States, though not in proportion to the extent 
of territory. Almost everything is imported into the country 
except meat and agricultural products, our share of the im- 
ports being less than half that of Great Britain. 

The northern and southern sections of Argentina still afford 
splendid opportunities to the pioneer, presenting a wide choice 
of climate and variety of employment. In the tropical and 
sub-tropical regions of the north are immense forests for 
exploitation with quebracho, laurel, palms, and woods in end- 
less variety, lands suitable for the culture of coffee, sugar 
cane, yerba mate, cotton, rice, hemp, mandioca, and banana, 
and in places farther south or on uplands, soil for barley, 
wheat, corn, alfalfa, tobacco, the vine, etc. 

The central pampa is of course the especial region for ce- 
reals, wheat, corn, and flax, and thi^is not entirely pre-empted. 
In Patagonia at the south there is a great field for raising 
cattle, sheep, goats, horses, guanaco, and the ostrich, as for 
alfalfa, wheat, and barley, though in the greater part irriga- 
tion is necessary for agriculture. With moderate capital 
pioneers of experience and skill should be able to amass large 

From lack of coal, if not of water power, it is probable that 
agricultural and animal products will long continue to be the 
chief exports of Argentina and that manufactured goods will 
be the principal imports. Textiles and manufactures of 
these are of the greatest value, iron and steel articles come 
second,, railway cars and equipment and other vehicles third, 
then come building materials, earth, stone and coal, and so on, 
every kind of merchandise in use in a civilized country. 


Goods that sell in New York and Paris are likely to sell in 
Buenos Aires, only the Pure Food Law is strict. Chicago 
hams are barred, though British hams are admitted. 

Our farming machinery and tools have been largely sold, 
yet by some the machinery is called too light to last and an 
English make is preferred. An Australian machine, called a 
cropper, a thrasher and harvester combined, has been received 
with much favor. Duties generally are very high. 

For successful competition in foreign markets, the highest 
grade of our goods must be presented and business contracts 
strictly carried out. 

Paraguay, with a healthful sub-tropical climate, possesses 
splendid forests with woods similar to those of the Argentine 
Chaeo, great plains supporting many herds of cattle, and land 
capable of producing excellent cotton, tobacco, fruit, and all 
kinds of tropical growths. The yerba mate which grows wild, 
but may be cultivated, is one of the chief exports, bound to 
increase rapidly, as the beverage, more healthful than tea or 
coffee, is extremely popular even with the European immi- 
grants, and in foreign countries. Hides, quebracho extracts, 
and timber are exports of still greater value. The character 
of the imports is much the same as in the neighboring coun- 
tries. Railroad building is going on, and in spite of recent 
war, internal development is in progress. Railway material 
is free of duty as is the case also with agricultural and indus- 
trial machinery, ship building material, wire fencing, etc. 

Uruguay, with a fine temperate climate and a pleasant roll- 
ing country, is attractive to settlers with an eye to cattle 
raising or agriculture. Americans of this class, as well as 
business men and investors in any line, are cordially welcomed 
by Uruguayans, and finding the atmosphere more homelike 
than in some other places they are well content to stay. 
While agriculture and the live stock industry are the chief 
activities, there are local manufacturing interests which do 
not, however, begin to supply the market. Railway extension 
is in progress, and the navigable rivers are an important 

By far the greatest export is animal production, including 
wool, skins and hides, meat and meat extracts, etc., while agri- 
cultural products are a distant second. 


The imports are similar to tli6se of Argentina, including 
practically everything which it does not export. 

Brazil, like Peru, embraces within its borders an immense 
variety of resources, and a considerable though smaller diver- 
sity of climate. On the highlands of the tropics it is comfort- 
ably cool, as well as in the south. In many quarters it is 
temperate and even subject to frost, in a few places to snow. 

The magnitude of its wealth in rubber, coffee, and all trop- 
ical and sub-tropical productions is well understood; the rich- 
ness of its mineral deposits is less known. Still less perhaps 
is the fact that Brazil is larger than the United States proper, 
and that it contains six cities of 100,000 or more population, 
including one of 400,000, Sao Paulo, and Rio with approxi- 
mately a million. 

Everything is included within her boundaries, and whatever 
one's taste in business, apart from polar exploration, there is 
room for its gratification here opportunities for the settle- 
ment of colonies in delightful climate and surroundings on 
the richest soil, if persons care to indulge in agriculture, and 
locations equally favorable for entering into mining or com- 
mercial industry. Cattle raising is a growing occupation. 
Food stuffs in Rio being very dear, market gardening could 
be engaged in to excellent advantage in many spots on the 
highlands at no great distance by rail from the capital. A 
similar opportunity exists near Buenos Aires, though as land 
in the vicinity is held at a high price it would be necessary to 
go farther out on the railway, or across the river into 

The coffee plantations of Brazil are already so extensive 
as to make entrance into that business undesirable if not im- 
possible, except by the purchase of plantations already in 
bearing. Aside from coffee and rubber, the chief agricultural 
products are rice, cotton, sugar, yerba mate or Paraguay tea, 
mandioca, and cacao, or cocoa. Many manufactured goods 
are now produced, mainly of the ordinary necessities of life, 
leaving plenty of room for importation. It is desired to 
increase such industries. Inducements are offered by the 
Federal Government for establishing ironworks, the State of 
Rio has granted large privileges to the first flour mill, and a 
subsidy to a firm making paper from the reed papyrus which 


grows all along the coast Manufactures of rubber would be 
very profitable on account of the 20 per cent export tax on 
rubber and the high tariff on imports. Steam laundries, fruit 
canneries, chemical works, and other industries may be inau- 
gurated to advantage in various places. 

From the United States is imported a great variety of 
articles, railway cars and locomotives, automobiles, machinery 
of many Mnds, sewing machines, typewriters, apples, general 
merchandise, and other articles without end. 

Railways are being rapidly extended and planned for the 
future, and aside from the rubber business every kind of in- 
dustry and commercial activity may be pursued amid agree- 
able and healthful surroundings. 

It is desirable that one wishing to enter into business of 
any Mnd in South America should make the tour and see for 
himself the character of the country and the opportunities 
offered. At the very least, he should read a number of the 
many books which have been written, although some of these 
contain a few errors and others which have been published ten 
years give wrong ideas on account o the rapid changes ; from 
perusing several of the latest works a fair idea of conditions 
will be gained. Also the poor consuls will be grateful, both 
those of the United States in foreign countries and their rep- 
resentatives here, if people will at least use an atlas and a 
geographical reader if nothing more before writing letters, so 
that they will not bother these hard-worked officials with abso- 
lutely foolish questions. It should not be necessary for con- 
suls to give information which every schoolboy ought to pos- 
sess, although I fear he does not. 

When children and grown people are ignorant of the names 
of the capitals of the various States in the Union, it is perhaps 
too much to expect them to know whether Lima is on the Bast 
Coast or the "West, or whether Argentina is a breakfast food 
or a fish. If my labors incite others to seek further informa- 
tion and especially to make the delightful South American 
Tour, I shall feel that I have performed a genuine service. 


A list of some recent books on South. America is appended. 
By no means complete, it includes works for the most part 
easily obtainable. While some of these present merely super- 
ficial observation, and few profess to be exhaustive, all to the 
average reader will be more or less instructive and entertain- 
ing. A legitimate difference of opinion exists as to people, 
places, and possibilities; other contradictory assertions arise 
from too hasty judgments. Errors, however, are generally of 
minor importance, although in some cases wrong impressions 
of people and places are conveyed. On account of rapid 
changes the books published within the last five or eight years 
are especially valuable ; yet some of those earlier written sup- 
ply important information on. particular subjects. To gain 
a fair idea of the various countries several general works 
should be read and a few of those on the individual Republics. 

Monographs on each of these, published by the Pan Ameri- 
can Union, may be procured at $1.00 a copy. 

The large and handsomely illustrated volumes on Peru, 
Bolivia, Chile, and Brazil by Marie Robinson "Wright, with 
some negligible extravagance of compliment, contain much 
that is of value and hardly procurable elsewhere; historical 
information and descriptions of the general aspect, the re- 
sources, and the conditions of the various countries, presented 
with unusual fulness, accuracy, and elegance. 


John Barrett, Washington, Pan American Union. 1911. 

New York, Charles Scribner's Sons. 1913. $3.00. 

SOUTH AMERICA. "William D. Boyce. Illustrated. Chicago, 
Band, MeNally & Co. 1913. $2.50. 



Boston, Little, Brown & Co. 1913. 

Crowell Publishing Co. 1912. $2.00. 

Bryee. New York, The Macmillan Co. 1912. $2.50. 

SOUTH AMERICA. Forrest Koebel. With colored illustrations. 
New York, The MacmiUan Co. 1912. $5.00. 

eron. B'oston, Small, Maynard & Company. 1912. $1.50. 

Button & Co. 1912. $6.00. 

G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1912. $3.50. 

SOUTH AMERICAN PROBLEMS. Bobert E. Speer. New York, 
Student Volunteer Movement. 1912. 75 cents. 

G. E. B. Clemenceau. New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
1911. $2.00. 

THE AMAZON. H. J. Mozans. New York, D. Appleton 
&Co. 1911. $3.50. 

rier. Spanish American Pub. Society. 1911. $1.50. 

ACROSS SOUTH AMERICA. Hiram Bingham. Boston, Hough- 
ton, MifflinCo. 1911. $3.50. 

tfife. New York, The Macmillan Co. 1910. $4.50. 

ton, Small, Maynard & Company. 1909. $1.00. 

THE ANDEAN LAND. Two Volumes. Chase S. Osborn. Chi- 
cago, A. C. McClurg & Co. 1909. $5.00. 

lar. London, John Murray. 1908. 


THE OTHER AMERICANS. Arthur Buhl. New York, Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 1908. $2.00. 

York, Fleming H. Eevell Co. 1907. $1.50. 

THE SOUTH AMERICANS. Albert B. Hale. Indianapolis, 
Bobbs-Merrill Co. 1907. $2.50. 

PANAMA TO PATAGONIA. Charles N. Pepper. A. C. MeClurg 

& Co. 1906. $2.50. 

THE LAND OP TOMORROW. J. Orton Kerbey. New York, The 
Author. 1906. $1.50. 

THROUGH FIVE REPUBLICS (including Brazil, Uruguay, Argen- 
tina). P. F. Martin. New York, Dodd, Mead & Co. 
1906. $5.00. 

McClure Phillips. 1905. $1.00. 

Vols. G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1904. Each $1.50. 

York. D. Appleton & Co. 1890. $5.00. 

EXPORTERS' ENCYCLOPEDIA (Information as to shipments for 
every country). New York. 1913. $7.50. 


THE PANAMA GUIDE. J. 0. Collins. Panama, Vibert & 

* Dixon. 1912. $1.50. 

Boston, L. C Page & Co. 1912. $1.20. 

Washington, Pan American Union. 1913. $1.00. 

PANAMA, PAST AND PRESENT. Farnhain Bishop. New York, 
Century Co. 1913. 75c. 

THE PANAMA GATEWAY. Joseph Bueklin Bishop. New York, 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 1913. $2.50. 


mian Tourists ' Guide and Directory Co. 1912. $1.50. 


Edward Whymper. New York, Charles Seribner's Sons. 


THE OLD AND THE NEW PERU. M. R. Wright. Philadelphia, 
George Barrie. 1908. $10.00, 

PERU IN 1906 BY ALEXANDER GARLAND. Translated by George 
B. Gepp. London. 1907. 

New York, Charles Scribner's Sons. 1908. $3.00. 

THE INCAS OF PERU. Sir Clements Markham. New York, E. 
P. Button & Co. 1910. $3.00. 

Longmans, Green & Co. 1911. $4.20. 

Charles Scribner's Sons. 1910. $1.50. 

York, Dodd, Mead & Co. 1911. $3.50. 

PACHACAMAC. Max Uhle. The University of Pennsylvania. 
New York, D. Appleton & Co. $10.00. 

New York, Fleming H. Eevell Co. 1909. $2.50. 

PERU (chiefly archaeological). "E. George Squier. New 
York, Harper & Bros. 1877. 

T!HE CONQUEST OF PERU. "William H. Prescott 
GUIDE TO PERU. A. de Clairmont. 


Wright. Philadelphia, George Barrie. 1907. $10.00, 


THE BOLIVIAN ANDES. Sir Martin Conway. New York, 
Harper & Bros. 1901. $3.00. 

ACROSS THE ANDES. C. J. Post. New York, Outing Pnb. Co. 
1912. $1.75. 

York, Dodd, Mead & Co. 1911. $3.50. 


MODERN CHILE. W. H. Koebel. New York, The Maemillan 
Co. 1913. $3.00. 

ton, L. C. Page & Co. 1912. $3.00. 

Chicago, Band, McNally & Co. 1912. $1.00. 

THE REPUBLIC OF CHILE. M. R. Wright. Philadelphia, 
George Barrie, 1905. $10.00. 

CHILE. G. F. Scott Elliott. Charles Seribner's Sons. 1911. 

London, Cassell & Co. 1902. $3.00. 

THE HIGHEST ANDES. E. A. Fitz Gerald. New York, Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 1899. $6.00. 


MODERN ARGENTINA. W. H. Koebel. Boston, Dana Estes 
and Company. 1912. $3.50. 

ARGENTINE YEAR BOOK. Information as to Patents, Banks, 
Industries, etc. Buenos Aires, Robert Grant & Co. 
London, Ledger, Son & Co. 1912. $10.00. 

Dodd, Mead & Co. 1911. $4.00. 

Boston, L. C. Page & Co. 1911. $3.00. 

New York, Charles Scribner's Sons. 1911. $3.75. 


ARGENTINA. "W. A. Hirst. New York, Charles Seribner's 
Sons. 1912. $3.00. 

Tta REPUBLIC OF ARGENTINA (historical and descriptive). 
A. Stuart Pennington. New York, A. Stokes & Co. 

1910. $3.00. 

industries, business and resources). A. B. Martinez and 
Mauriee LewandowsM. Boston, Small, Maynard & 
Company. $3.50. 

Shaw. London, Elkin & Matthews. 

THE ARGENTINE REPUBLIC (for exporters). New York, J. P. 
Santamarina, 80 Wall St. 1911. $2.50. 


Grubb. London, Seeley & Co. 1911. 

PICTORIAL PARAGUAY. A. K Macdonald. C. H. Kelly. 

1911. $4.00. 

IN JESUIT LAND (Jesuit Missions of Paraguay and Argen- 
tina). W. H. KoebeL 1912. $3.00. 

PARAGUAY. M. B. Hardy. New York, Charles Scribner's 
Sons. 1913. $3.00. 


URUGUAY. W. H. Koebel. Charles Seribner's Sons. 1911. 


THE NEW BRAZIL. M. K. Wright. Philadelphia, George 
Barrie. 1908. $10.00. 

BRAZIL. Pierre Denis. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons. 
1911. $3.00. 

UNITED STATES OF BRAZIL. Charles W. Domville-Fife. New 
York, James Pott & Co. 1911. $2.50. 


BRAZIL IN 1912 (for business men). J. C. Oakenfnll. Dis- 
tributed gratis by the Pan American Union. Washing- 

L. C. Page & Co. 1910. $3.00. 

THE SEA AND THE JUNGLE. H. M. Tomlinson. New York, 
. E. P. Button & Co. 1913. $2.50. 

THE FLOWING KOAD. Caspar Whitney. Philadelphia, J. B, 
Lippincott Co. 1912. $3.00. 

IN THE AMAZON 'JUNGLE. A. Lange. New York, G. P. Put- 
nam's Sons. 1912. $2.50. 

BRAZIL. W. A. Cook. New York, American Tract So- 
ciety. 1910. $L25. 

BRAZIL OP TODAY. Arthur Bias (Interesting and valuable). 
Lanneau & Despret, Nivelles, Belgium. 

York, Charles Scribner's Sons. 1870. $5.00. 

1911. $2.50. 


Abruzzi, Duke of, 217. 

Abuna, 352. 

Achaeachi, 144. 

Aconcagua, Mt., 41, 49, 150, 179, 
191, 201, 202; River, 199. 

Aguapehy, R., 353. t 

Alagoas, 343. 

Almagro, Diego de, 44, 61, 62, 118, 
129, 130, 160. 

Alpacas, 123. 

Alto, 145, 147. 

Alto Parana, 260. 

Amazon, 98, 345. 

Amfato, Mt., 109. 

Ancolacalla, 147. 

Ancon: Panama, 33; Peru, 87. 

Ancud, Gulf, 192. 

Antilla, 9. 

Antofagasta, 64, 99, 156, 157, 158, 
159; R. R., 150-153. 

Antonina, 293, 294. 

Apostoles, 261. 

Apurimac, R., 122. 

Araucanians, 160, 193. 

Arequipa, 99, 102-106, 109. 

Argentina, 213-267, 378-380. 

Ariea, 65, 146, 154; R. R. to La 
Paz, 146, to Tacna, 155. 

Arieoma Pass, 110. 

Art Galleries: Lima, 73, 79; San- 
tiago, 183; Buenos Aires, 242, 
243; Asunci6n, 269; Rio de 
Janeiro, 322, 323. 
Arttgas, Jose, 272, 273. 
Aspinwall, Wm. H., 19. 
Asunci6n, 257, 263, 268-270. 

Atacama, 157. 
Atahuallpa, 44, 45, 114. 
Audiencia, 62, 63, 130, 161, 218. 
Ayacucho, 46, 97, 131. 
Aymaras, 124, 127, 135. 
Ayolas, Juan de, 217, 261. 

Baggage, 4. 

Bahia, 343, 353-357. 

Balboa: Docks, 38, 43; Hill, 13; 

Vasco Nunez de, 13. 
Balde, 214. 

Ballivian, Dr. Manuel Vicente, 139. 
Balsas, 40, 125. 
Banks, 362. 
Barbados, 358. 
Barranco, 87. 
Bas Obispo, 24, 25 . 
Beagle Channel, 192. 
Beira Mar, 330. 
Belem, 345-348. 
Bello Horizonte, 341, 342. 
Beni, R., 140, 352. 
Billinghurst, Guillermo, President, 


Bio-bio, R., 193, 194. 
Black Range, 56, 58, 
Blanco, R., 200. 
Bodegas, 210, 211. 
Bogota, 39. 
BoMo, 25. 
Bolivar, General Simon, 63, 64, 


Bolivia, 99, 123, 127-153, 376, 377. 
Botanical Gardens: Kingston, 9; 

Lima, 81; Ardquipa, 105; San- 




tiago, 182; Buenos Aires, 240; 
Montevideo, 280; Rio de 
Janeiro, 333; Trinidad, 358. 

Botofogo Bay, 331. 

Brazil, 286-359, 380-382. 

Bridgetown, 358. 

Buenaventura, 39. 

Buenos Aires, 204, 207, 217-254. 

Cabral, Pedro Alvarez, 286. 

Cacheuta, 207. 

CacMpascana, Lake, 109. 

Cajamarea, 45, 56. 

Caldera, 159. 

Cali, 39. 

Callao, 36, 43, 49, 59-61, 99. 

Callipulli, 193 . 

Campinas, 304. 

Canal, Panama, 13-18. 

Canelones, 283. 

Cape Horn, 191. 

Caraz, 56. 

Caribbean Sea, 8. 

Casapalca, 94. 

Cata, 147. 

Cataeaos, 47. 

Cathedrals: Santiago de Cuba, 9; 
Panama, 32; Lima, 69; Are- 
quipa, 103; Cuzco, 116 ; La 
Paz, 136; Santiago, 173; 
Buenos Aires, 227; Monte- 
video, 275; Sao Paulo, 302; 
Eio de Janeiro, 318; Para, 
346; Bahia, 356. 

Caxambti, 343. 

Cayabamba, 41. 

Ceara, 344, 350. 

Cebollullo, 140. 

Cemeteries: Valparaiso, 167; San- 
tiago, 185-187; Buenos Aires, 

Central Railway of Peru, 91-95. 

Cerro de Pasco, 58, 91, 95-97. 

Cerro Gigante, 13. 

Cerro San Christobal: Lima, 83, 

84, 85; Santiago, 185. 
Chacabueo, 161, 215, 219. 
Chachani, 101, 102, 109. 
Chaco, 268. 

Chagres, R., 13, 22, 23, 24. 
Chan Chan, 50-53. 
Chicla, 94. 

Chile, 154-200, 377, 378. 
Chili, R., 103. 
Chilian, 193. 
Chimborazo, 39, 41. 
Chimbote, 50; R. R., 54, 55. 
Chimu, Grand, 51, 52, 53. 
Chiquian, 58. 
Chiriqui, 27. 
Cholos, 73, 135. 
Cholula, 89. 
Choqquequirau, 122. 
Chorillos, 65, 86. 
Chosica, 91, 92. 
Christ of the Andes, 204, 205. 
Christobal, 21. 
Chulpa, 124. 
Chufio, 138. 
Chupe, 135. 
Chuquiaguillo, 141. 
Chuquiapu, R., 129, 134. 
Chuquisaca, see Sucre. 
Climate, 2, 46. 
Clothing, 4. 
Coast Range, 55. 
Cochabamba, 148. 
Cochrane, Admiral, 63, 162, 195. 
Coelho, Gonzalo, 308. 
Coffee, 304, 305. 
Colastine, 265. 
Colombia, 2, 39. 
Colon, 12, 18-21. 
Colonia, 283. 
Columbus, 8, 13, 21. 
Commercial Travelers, 366, 368. 



Conception, 193, 194. 

Conehi, 152. 

Condors, 205. 

Constitution, 192. 

Conway, Sir Martin, .140, 146. 

Copacabana, 126. 

Copiap6, 159. 

Coquimbo, 157, 159. 

Corcovado, 312, 334, 335. 

Cordillera Blanea, 58. 

Cordillera Real, 125. 

Cordoba, 214. 

Coroeoro, 147. 

Coronel, 192, 193. 

Coropuna, Mfc., 41, 102. 

Corral, 195. 

Corrientes, 257, 258, 267. 

Cortez, Hernando, 9. 

Cotopaxi, 39, 41. 

Credit, 361. 

Crncero Alto, 109. 

Cruz, Oswaldo, Institute, 327. 

Culebra, 14, 15, 24, 25, 26. 

Cumbre, 97, 198, 203, 205. 

Curytiba 293, 294. 

Cuzco, 99, 106, 109, 110, 111-122. 

Darien, 27. 

Desaguadero, R., 124, 152. 

Desolation Isl., 195. 

Diamantina, 342. 

Docks: Callao, 60; Valparaiso, 
163; Talcahuano, 193; Buenos 
Aires, 253; Rosario, 264; San.- 
tos, 296; Rio de Janeiro, 310, 
316; Para, 345; Manaos, 348. 

Duran, 40. 

Earthquakes, 59, 70, 103, 107, 154,' 

165, 188, 208, 209. 
Ecuador, 36, 39-42, 373. 
Empire, 25. 
Entre Rios, 258, 265. 

Espirito Santo, 343. 
Estancias, 215, 254, 255. 
Eten, 48. 

European Tourists, 11. 
Expense of Journey, 3. 

Falkland Islands, 192, 197. 
Fazendas, 304. 
Fitzgerald, E. A., 201. 
Florianopolis, 292. 
Fortaleza, 344. 
Frijoles, 25. 

Galera Tunnel, 94. 
Gamboa, 25. 
Garay, Juan de, 217. 
Gatun, 15, 16, 17, 23, 24. 
Geographical Societies: Lima, 62; 

La Paz, 139; Rio de Janeiro, 


Godin, Madame, 351. 
Goethals, Col. George W., 15. 
Gorgas, Col. Wm. C., 34. 
Gorgona, 25. 
Goyllarisquisga, 96. 
Grace, W. R., 4, 61, 74, 139, 166. 
Grau, Admiral, 64. 
Guanabara Bay, 308. 
Guaqui, 124, 125, 127. 
Guaraja Bay, 345. 
Guaranls, 263. 
Guarina, 144. 
Guaruja, 297. 
Guaruja-Mirim, 351, 352. 
Guayaquil, 36, 37, 39, 40. 
Guianas, 2. 

Harvard Observatory, 105. 

History: Panama, 13, 14; Peru, 44- 
46, 61-65; Inca, 112-114; Bo- 
livia, 129-132; Chile, 160-162; 
Argentina, 217-220; Paraguay, 
261-263; Uruguay, 272-274; 
Brazil, 286-289, 308, 309. 



Home, 353, 358. 

Horn, Cape, 191, 195. 

Hotels: Colon, 18, 19; Panama, 26, 

27, 28; Quito, 42; Trujillo, 50; 

Chimbote, 55; Callao, 61; 

Lima, 66-68; Chosica, 92; 

Oroya, 95; C. de Pasco, 96; 

Mollendo, 99; Arequipa, 102; 

Cuzco, 112; La Paz, 129, 133; 

Valparaiso, 163, 164, 165; 

Santiago, 170, 171; Mendoza, 

208; Buenos Aires, 222-225; 

Eosario, 264; Asunci6n, 269; 

Monteviedo, 274, 275; Santos, 

296; Sao Paulo, 300, 301; Rio 

de Janeiro, 311-314; Petropo- 

lis, 338; Para, 347; BaMa, 


Huacapistana, 98. 
Huailas Valley, 54, 55, 56. 
Huaina Potosi, Mt., 145. 
Huallata Pass, 145. 
Huaman, 88. 

Huancayo, 91, 95, 97, 122. 
Huanchacho, 51. 
Huandoy, Mt., 57. 
Huanuco, 98. 
Huaraz, 54, 58. 
Huascar, 44, 111, 114. 
Huascaran, Mt., 41, 49, 56-58, 203. 
Huatanay, R., Ill, 119. 
Humayta, 267, 

Icarahy, 340 . 

Ignorance, 363, 382. 

Iguassu Falls, 257, 258-260, 267, 

290, 291. 
Illampu, Mt., 41, 125, 127, 128, 144, 

145, 146. 
Illimam, Mt., 41, 125, 127, 128, 

Imports, Character of, 371-373. 

Incas, Empire and Ruins, 113-116, 


Injurious Practices, 363-367. 
Inquisition Hall, 75. 
Inti-Karka, 125, 126. 
Iquique, 155-157. 
Iquitos, 97, 98, 349. 
Irala, Capt. Martinez de, 261. 
Island of Sun, 124, 125. 
Island of Moon, 125. 
Isthmus of Panama, 12-35. 

Jamaica, 10. 

Jamiraya Cafion, 147. 

Jatoba, 357. 

Jauja, 97. 

Jauru, R., 353. 

Jesuits, 260, 287. 

Joao VI, Prince, 288, 317, 322. 

Juarez Ines, 187. 

Judiahy, 299. 

Juliaca, 99, 109, 110, 123. 

Juncal, 200, 203. 

JuDfn: Peru, 95; Argentina, 21. 

Kingston, 10. 

La Candelaria, 261. 

La Guayra Falls, 260. 

La Herradura, 86. 

La Merced, 97, 98. 

La Paz, 99, 128-141, 144, 150. 

La Plata, 255, 256; River, 220. 

La Punta, 59, 87 . 

La Raya, 111. 

La Viuda, Mt., 96. 

Lagoa dos Patos, 291. 

Lagunillas, 109. 

Las Cascadas, 25. 

Las Cuevas, 192, 201 . 

Leguia, A. B., ex-Pres., 71, 85. 

Lesseps, Ferdinand de, 14, 21. 

Libraries: Lima, 81; La Paz, 139; 



Santiago, 184; Buenos Aires, 
245, 246; AsunciSn, 269; 
Montevideo, 277; Rio Grande 
do Sul, 291; Sao Paulo, 302; 
Rio de Janeiro, 321, 322; 
Babia, 356; Bridgetown, 358. 

Licenses, Trading, 368-371. 

Liebig, 283. 

Lima, 59, 60, 61, 66-85* 

Limon Bay, 15. 

Lircai, 178. 

Llai-Llai, 169, 199. 

Llamas, 123, 134. 

Llanganuco Gorge, 57* 

Llanquihue Lake, 195. 

Lluta VaUey, 147. 

Loa R., 153, 

Lopez: Carlos Antonio, 262; Fran- 
cisco, 262, 268, 269. 

Los Andes, 198, 199. 

Lota, 193, 194. 

Luque, Hernando de, 44. 

Lurin Valley, 87, 88. 

Maechu Pichu, 121. 

Mackenna, 215; Benj. VicuSa, 178, 


Mackenzie College, 303. 
McKinley, Mt., 56, 107. 
Madera or Madeira-Mamore" R. R., 

141, 351, 352. 

Magdalena, 87; Channel, 196. 
Magellan, Straits of, 191, 195-197. 
Majes Valley, 102. 
Maldonado, 283. 
Malleco R., 193. 
MamorS R. ? 141. 
Manaos, 348, 349. 
Manzanillo, 20. 
Mapoeho R., 160, 170, 183. 
Marajo, 347. 
Maranbao, 344, 345. 
Marafion, R., 48, 97, 349. 

Mar del Plata, 256. 

Markbam, Sir Clements, 142, 143. 

Markets: Panama, 32; Lima, 74; 
Arequipa, 104; Sicuani, 111; 
La Paz, 137; Santiago, 184; 
Buenos Aires, 251; Montevi- 
deo, 279; Rio de Janeiro, 319; 
Para, 348. 

Matachin, 25 . 

Matarani Bay, 100. 

Mate, see Yerba Mate. 

Matto Grosso, 351, 352. 

Matucana, 90, 93. 

Maule R., 192. 

May si, Cape, 8. 

Meiggs, Henry, 54, 91 ; Monte, 94. 

Melendez, 48. 

Mendoza, 191, 198, 205, 207, 208- 

Mendoza Pedroxde, 217. 

Mercedario, Mt., 202. 

Mercedes, 216. 

Minas Geraes, 341, 342. 

Mindi, 23. 

Mineral Springs: Agua de Jesus, 
108; Yura, 108, 109; Puente 
del Inca, 202; Cacbeuta, 207; 
Caxambu, 343. 

Mines: Coal, 55, 193, 194; Copper, 
51, 56, 96, 147; Diamond, 342; 
Gold, 56, 141, 341; Silver, 51, 
56, 96, 151, 152; Vanadium, 

Miraflores: Panama, 16, 26; Peru, 

Miramar, 169. 

Misiones, 258, 260. 

Misti, Mt., 101, 102, 106, 107, 109. 

Mitre, B., 219. 

Moche, 53. 

Moleno, 147. 

Mollendo, 99, 100, 
Montafia, 90, 97. 



Monte Lirio, 24. 

Montes, President, 132. 

Montevideo, 192, 274-282, 285, 289, 

Morgan, Henry, 13. 

Moro, 58. 

Morococha, 95, 96. 

Morro Velho Mine, 268, 342. 

Mt. Hope, 23. 

Mountain Sickness, 90, 106. 

Muchi R., 51. 

Mufiiz, 216. 

Mu*^ums: Lima, 78; La Paz, 139; 
Santiago, 183, 189, 190; 
Buenos Aires, 243-245; Monte- 
video, 275, 276, 278; Sao 
Paulo, 303; Rio de Janeiro, 
317,319,325; Para, 347. 

Nanduty Lace, 270. 

New Gatun, 23. 

New Orleans, 8. 

Niagara, 259. 

Nictheroy, 308, 340. 

Nitrates, 157, 158. 

Nombre de Dios, 13. 

North Americans, unpopular, 361. 

Novo Friburgo, 340. 

Nusta Espana, 122. 

Obrajes, 140. 

Old Panama, 13, 34. 

Ollentaytambo, 121. 

Open Door, 216. 

Organ Mts., 307, 339. 

Oroya, 94, 95; R. R., 89-95. 

Oruro, 151; Antofagasta R. R., 

Osorno, 195. 
Ouro Preto, 342. 

Pacasmayo, 49. 
Pachacamac, 87-89. 

Pacific Ocean, 43; Discovered, 13. 
Packing, 365. 
Paita, 46, 47, 48. 
' Palca, 98. 

Pampa de Arrieros, 109. 
Pamparomas, 58. 
Pan American Railway, 91, 97. 
Panama: Canal, 14-18; City, 26- 

34; Republic, 27; Hats, 47. 
Pao do Assucar, 307, 331. 
Paqueta, IsL, 310 . 
Para, 140, 344, 345-349. 
Paraguay, 267-270, 380; River, 

267, 353. 
Parahyba, 344. 
Parana R., 213, 220, 257, 261, 264; 

City, 265; State, 291. 
Paranagua, 293, 294. 
Pardo, Manuel, 64. 
PariSa, Pt,, 46, 47. 
Patacamaya, 150. 
Patagonia, 213. 
Paulo Affonso Falls, 357. 
Pedras, 357. 

Pedro I, 288; II, 289, 339. 
Pedro Miguel, 16, 24, 26. 
Pelotas, 292. 
Penadas, 357. 
Penitentes, 206. 

Pefia, Roque Saenz, President, 220. 
Perene*, 98. 
Pernambuco, 343. 
Peru, 44-124, 373-376. 
Peru, Alto, 130. 
Peruvian Corporation, 98. 
Petropolis, 338-340. 
Pichincha, Mt., 42. 
Pichu Pichu, Mt., 101, 102, 106. 
Pilcomayo R., 268. 
Pillar, Cape, 195. 
Piranhas, 357. 
Pirauhy, 344. 
Piriapolis, 284. 



Pisac, 122. 

Pisagua, 156, 157. 

Piura, 44, 47. 

Pizarro, Francisco, 44, 45, 62; 

Gonzalo, 129; Hernando, 62. 
Ponta Grossa, 291. 
Poopo Lake, 124, 152, 155. 
Port Antonio, 10. 
Port au Spain, 358. 
Port Royal, 10. 
Port Stanley, 192, 197. 
Porto Alegre, 291, 292. 
Porto Bello, 13, 21. 
Porto Velho, 351, 352. 
Posadas, 257, 258, 267. 
Potost, 148, 151. 
Prat, Arturo, 64 
Prescott, 44. 
Prison, 278. 
Puca Alpa, 97. 

Puente del Inca, 191, 201, 206. 
Puerto Bermudez, 98. 
Puerto Jessup, 98., 
Puerto Montt, 192, 193, 195. 
Puerto Pando, 140. 
Puna, 40. 
Puno, 123, 124. 
Punta Arenas, 192, 193, 196. 
Punta Ballena, 283. 
Punta de las Vacas, 206. 
Pygmy City, 93. 

Quichuas, 124, 
Quito, 39, 42. 


Railroads: Panama, 23; Guaya- 
quil-Quito, 40-42; Paita-Mar- 
afion, 48; Chimbote-Recuay, 
54; Central Railway of Peru 
(Oroya), 91; Cerroe Pasco 
R. R., 95; Southern Railway 
of Peru, 99, 109; Guaqui-La 
Paz, 127; Arica-La Paz, 146; 

Antofagasta - Oniro - La Paz, 
150; Arica-Tacna, 155; Val- 
paraiso-Santiago, 169; Chilian 
Central Railway, 192; Trans- 
Andine Railway, 198, 213; 
Buenos Aires-Posadas-Asun- 
cion, 257; Montevideo- Sao 
Paulo, 290; Santos-Sao Paulo, 
298,* Sao Paulo-Rio de Ja- 
neiro, 3 05 5 Madeira-Mamore", 

Recife, 343. 

Recuay, 56, 97 . 

Reloncavi Gulf, 195. 

Rimac R., Valley, 46, 91, 92, 99. 

Rio Blanco, 200. 

Rio de Janeiro, 290, 295, 305, 306- 

Rio de Janeiro Harbor, 306-308, 

Rio Grande do Nbrte, 344. 

Rio Grande do Sul, 290, 291, 292. 

Riobamba, 40, 351. 

Root, Secretary, 71, 72, 78. 

Rosario, 264. 

Rubber, 349, 350. 

Rufino, 215. 

Rugs, 123. 

Sacsahuaman, 114, 116, 119, 120. 

Sajama, Mt., 41, 150. 

Salaverry, 46, 50. 

Samanco, 58. 

San Bias Indians, 22. 

San Ckristobal, see Cerro. 

San Ignacio Mini, 261. 

San Juan, 9. 

San Lorenzo Fort, 22. 

San Luis, 214, 344. 

San Martin, General, Jose" de, 63, 

64, 207, 219, 228. 
San Ram6n, 98. 
San Salvador, 8. 



Sand Dunes, 101. 

Santa R., 54. 

Santa Ana, 261. 

Santa Catharina, 292. 

Santa Fe*, 265, 266. 

Santa Lucia, 170, 179. 

Santa Rosa, 214. 

Santa Rosa de los Andes, 199. 

Santiago, 170-190, 198. 

Santiago de Cuba, 9. 

Santos, 286, 287, 289, 290, 295- 

Sao Paula, 295-305; City, 300-304, 

Sao Salvador, 354. 

Sao Vicente, 287, 297. 

Sapyranga, 292. 

Saracocha Lake, 199. 

Sarmiento, Dr., 220. 

Sergipe, 343. 

Serra do Mar, 298, 339. 

Sheppard, T. Clive, 129, 

Sicuani, 111. 

Smelters, 96, 97. 

Smyth Channel, 192. 

Sorata, 144-146. 

Soroche, 90, 106. 

South American Trade, 360-382. 

Southern R. R. of Peru, 99-110. 

Spanish Language, 3. 

Steamship Lines : To Panama, from 
New York, 6, 7; from New 
Orleans, 8; from San Francis- 
co, 11; from Europe, 11; Pan- 
ama to Guayaquil, Callao, Val- 
paraiso, 36, 50; Callao to Val- 
paraiso, Montevideo, and Eu- 
rope, 99, 191, 192; Parana 
River, 257, 258, 263, 264; 
Buenos Aires to Montevideo, 
264; Buenos Aires or Monte- 
video to Rio de Janeiro and 
New York, 289, 290, 341; Rio 
de Janeiro to Europe, 341. 

Stevens, John F., 15, 25. 
Sucre, 149. 
Sugar Estates, 50, 51. 
Supe, 51, 88. 

Tabernilla, 25. 

Tacna, 65, 155. 

Talca, 192. 

Talcahuano, 194. 

Taltal, 156. 

Tamarugal, 157. 

Tambo Valley, 101. 

Tarapaca, 64, 65, 157. 

Tarma, 97, 98. 

Tax on Samples, 368-371. 

{Theatres: Panama, 30; Lima, 74; 

La Paz, 139; Santiago, 184; 

Buenos Aires, 248, 249 ; Santa 

F, 266; Montevideo, 275, 276; 

Sao Paulo, 301; Rio de 

Janeiro, 323; Para, 347; 

Manaos, 349. 
Therezopolis, 340. 
Tiahuanaco, 127, 142, 143. 
Ticlio, 94. 

Tierra del Fuego, 197. 
Tigre R., 254. 
Tijuca, Mi, 337, 338. 
Tingo, 102. 
Tiripata, 110, 111. 
Titicaca Lake, 124-127, 155. 
Toro Pt., 22. 
Trans. Andine R. R., 198-208, 213- 


Trinidad, 358. 
Trujillo, 44, 50, 51. 
Tucuman, 219. 
Tulumayu R., 119. 
Tumbes, 44, 46. 
Tupac Amaru, 118, 130. 
Tupiza, 152. 
Tupungato, Mt., 201, 202. 



Ucayali R., 97,- 122, 349. 

Uhle, Dr. Max, 89. 

Urcos,. Jll. 

tlniao, 290. 

Urubamba, 121. 

Uruguay, 279-285, 3<80; R., 220. 

Uspallata, 206. 

Uyuni, 152. 

Valdivia, 194; Pedro de, 170, 187, 

188, 195. 

Valparaiso, 36/99, 163.-168, 192. 
"tfalverde, Father, 45. 
Vedia, 2lfc. 
Venezuela, 2. 
Vespucci, Amerigo, 287. 
Viacha, 128, 147, 150. 
Viceroys, 62. 

Victoria, 343; Falls, 259. 
VieufLas, 123, 155. 
Vilcabamba R., 122. 
Vileamayu, 111. 
Vileanota, 111. 
Villa Bella, 352. 
Villa Devote, 216. 
Villa Encarnaei6n, 263. 
Villa Mercedes, 214. 

Villa Murtinho, 352. 

Villa, Velha, 294. 

Villaz&n, Eliodoro, President, 132. 

Vifia 1 del'Mar, 168, 171. 

Virgenes, Cape, 195, 197. 

Vitcos, 122. 

Vitor, 102. 

Wallace, J. F./14, 15. 
Waterfalls: Iguassti, 257, 258; ,a 
' ^ Guayra, , 260 ; Uberaponga, 
26d; Herval, 292; Paulo Af- 
'fonso, 357. 
Watling's Isl., 8. 
Western Tourists, 11. 
White Range, 56. 
Whymper, Edward, 41. 
Windward Channel, 8. 

Yankee Peril, 361. 

Yellow Fever, 39. 

Yerba Mate, 270, 271, 294. 


Yungas, 140. 

Yungay, 56, 57. 

Yura, 108, 109. 

Zurbriggen, 201.