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Retired Director General of the Civil Registry and Bureau 
of Demographical Statistics of Uruguay. :: :: :: :: 
Author of Physical Geography ; Geography of America ; 
Ideas in Zoology ; Climatology of the La Plata Region, 

Translated from Spanish 




Copyright, 1919, by 





HiSTOBiCAL Information Regarding Epoch-making Events 
IN South America 


I. Region of the La Plata River 1 

II. Historical Information about the Central 

Andean Region — Peru and Bolivia 66 

III. Historical Information About the North 
Andean Region — Venezuela, Colombia and 
Ecuador 72 


IV. Orography and General Configuration of 

South America 81 

V. The Vast Natural Regions of South America 90 

VI. Hydrography 110 

VII. Climatology of the La Plata Region 113 

VIII. The Native South American 117 

IX. Present and Fossil Fauna of South America 126 

X. Demography 140 

XI. Political Organization of the Various South 

American States 149 

XII. Cities of South America 159 

XIII. Transportation Rail and Water Routes 

of South America 163 

XIV. The Meat-Producing Region of South Ameri- 

ca — the La Plata Valley 173 










The Cereal -Producing Region of South 
America — the Argentina 183 

The Mineral-Producing Region of South 
America — Chile, Peru and Bolivia 186 

The Tropical Fruit-Producing Region of 
South America — Brazil, Ecuador, Colom- 
bia, Venezuela and Paraguay 194 

Future South America (Rod6) 213 

Statistics — Comparison of the General Com- 
merce OF South America; Currency, Weights 
and Measures 218 



South America, 1777 26 

Relief Map of North America 82 

Relief Map of South America 83 

Physical Map of South America 90 

Political Map of South America 159 

Means of Communication in South America — Rail- 
roads AND Navigation Lines 163 




The Aborigines — Peoples of the Andes and the Pampas — Submissive Disposition of 
the Andeans — Haughty and Fighting Spirit of the Pampas — How these Peoples' Institu- 
tions Contributed to the Formation of this Very Marked Contrast — Conquest of the 
Region of the La Plata River — Condition of the Indians of South America During the 
Conquest — ^The Jesuits — System of Jesuitical Government — Social Condition of the 
Indigenes of BoUvia — Spanish Settlements in Uruguay — Disputes Over the Oriental 
Territory of Uruguay Between Spaniards and Portuguese — Founding of the Viceroyship 
of the Rio de La Plata in 1776 — Last War Between Spain and Portugal (1800) for the 
Oriental Missions of Upper Uruguay — Invasions by the English in 1806 and 1807 — Pop- 
ular Movements Forerunners of the South American Revolution in Caracas in 1711 and 
1713, Cochabamba in 1730, Asuncion in 1731, Quito, Chuquisaca, Montevideo and 
Caracas in 1809 and Buenos Aires in 1810 — Artigas Victor in the First Battle of the La 
Plata River Against the Spaniards at Las Piedras in 1811 — The Orien tales Abandoned 
by the Buenos Aires Assembly, Obliged to Combat the Spaniards and Portuguese — 
Exodus of the People of Eastern Uruguay. 

The Aborigines 

At the time of the discovery of America by Columbus in 
1492, it was inhabited by many millions of Indians unevenly 
scattered throughout its various regions, some of which and 
among them what are now known as Peru and Bolivia com- 
pared in density of population with some of the European 
countries of the same period. There is no 
Conteast between ^^ta ou which to base au account of the 

the Peoples of 

^^«^ndes and the exact number of Indians inhabiting these 
regions at the time, but it remains an undis- 
puted fact that Perti and Bolivia had a number of cities 
with a dense population depending principally upon agricul- 
ture, the mining industry being then of little importance, 
due to the lack of commercial intercourse with the outside 
world, for excepting the settlements which now comprise 
Ecuador and Colombia, they were all inhabited by savages. 
The Punas Heladas (bleak, frozen regions) of Bolivia, 
which are at 4,000 meters above the level of the sea, had been 



the center of an advanced civilization which left the famous 
ruins of Tiahuanaco, colossal city which must have exceeded 
in population the city of Cuzco, the capital of the Empire 
of the Incas, which the Spaniards found there on their 
arrival in Peru. 

The founders of Tiahuanaco were not the miserable 
Aimaras who were first visited by the Spanish conquerors, 
but a banished and ignored tribe who were destroyed or 
compelled to migrate by the advance of a more barbarous 
and warring nation from the land to the south which is now 

The whole Tiahuanaco race may have disappeared or 
been obliged to abandon its native haunts through some 
change in the living conditions on the lofty Bolivian plateau, 
which having risen higher through the action of some seismic 
disturbance became uninhabitable for man and his progeny. 
For were it not for the vast mineral wealth first found there 
by the Spaniards — principally silver, which gave more than 
a thousand million pesos, from the Potosi and other nearby 
regions — and the rich deposits of lead, copper, tin, etc., 
which are now being developed, the Puna, that bleak and 
frozen region, would now be completely deserted. This 
meseta (plateau) has not always remained at its present 
elevation, which fact is made evident by the soil of the 
pampas, composed mostly of sediment such as is deposited 
under water and not only found on low, level ground but at 
more than one thousand meters above the sea on the sides of 
the Cordillera Real of Bolivia, which slopes as far as the 
immense desert-like plain called El Chaco. 

On the same soil of the pampas, which covers the Argen- 
tine plain, and which is to be found at more than one thou- 
sand metres elevation, numerous species of fossils have been 
discovered corresponding to the tiger, the predecessor of 
the elephant, ape, megatheriums, etc. No better proof than 
this need be asked to substantiate the fact that the Bolivian 
plateau has risen considerably higher than its original eleva- 
tion above sea level. 


These changes have occurred quite frequently in South 
American regions as well as in other parts of the world, as is 
the case in the desert of Sahara in the African continent, 
where at one time abundant streams drained its vast 
domains and luxuriant vegetation and domestic animals of 
all kinds were to be found ; these included the ox, a likeness 
of which has been found hewn in the rocks, no doubt carved 
there by the unknown settler of that unrecorded epoch. 

The upheaval of the Alps mountains to beyond a certain 
height intercepted the northerly rain-laden winds, thereby 
making a barren, arid desert where once vegetation 
abounded and beautiful rivers flowed. 

The tablelands of Patagonia — a desolate arid region from 
the Andes to the Atlantic, which Darwin termed "Accursed 
Land" — possess fossil fauna of mammals similar to that of 
the pampas, a fauna so rich in species and variety of form 
(more than 1,500 of the 5,000 known throughout the world) 
that make this the biggest fossil graveyard of the world. 

You may find there all the species of fossils, from the 
predecessor of the horse to that of the ape, which bears closer 
physical resemblance to man, not excluding the anthropo- 
morphus of Asia and Africa, the gliptodon which furnished 
Darwin with material proof for the elucidation of the meta- 
morphosis, for it was this gigantic gliptodon which proved 
to be the predecessor of the "mulita" of the pampas. The 
fossil species of La Pampa and Patagonia will be dealt with 
in another part of the book. 

These huge creatures, like the megatherium, the primitive 
horse and other herbivorous animals, had to have an over- 
abundance of food. The gigantic forests where they wan- 
dered at will, stand today petrified mute witnesses attesting 
to the history of the region. 

The change in the elevation of the Andean range in rising 
to a height that impeded the eastbound course of clouds from 
the Pacific, which produced rain to feed this flora, gradually 
caused its disappearance as well as that of the animals. 
Evidences of this upheaval are found at Mendoza in the 


pampa soil which formed the prairie now at 1,000 metres 
above sea level. The changes of La Patagonia are identical 
to those of the Bolivian plateau. 

The theory that the American Indians are descendants of 
the Mongolians and that the famous plateau of Pamir may 
have been the cradle of humanity, can not now be accepted. 
The paleontological records show that the new world of the 
Spaniards is older than that which was believed to have 
been the primitive home of man. 

The race which inhabited the Andean region at Cuenca 
on the borders of Lake Titicaca, had reached a high state 
of civilization, as is verified by the Templo del Sol (Temple 
of the Sun), the palaces and tombs of the Incas, the high- 
ways, the aqueducts and various other improvements, prod- 
uct of engineering skill. Politically, this nation was not 
as far advanced as others which were considered barbarians, 
among them the Charruas, Arancanos and the tribes of the 
pampas, all of which constituted several true republics 
where all governmental functions were directed by parlia- 
ments or assemblies and where the executive was openly 
elected by the male members of the tribe. Every Indian was 
endowed with individual sovereign privileges to freely elect 
his governing chief, whom he obeyed strictly in all that 
obedience was due. 

The Quichuas and Aimar^s were organized under govern- 
ments similar to that under the then reigning kings of the 
Orient and of Egypt, whose subjects blindly obeyed every 
wish of a potentate whom they had not elected to power, but 
who had by divine inheritance received the authority to 

This socialistic system, wherein the state not only gov- 
erned but also interfered in every act of the life of the indi- 
vidual, from the cultivation of the soil to even the most 
harmless diversions, and where the police vigilance had 
reached the stage where every ten individuals were watched 
by a sort of deputy who became responsible for the short- 
comings of others and such as he himself could not have 


possibly prevented, had broken up the spirit of individual 
initiative and spontaneity and caused the people to become 
accustomed to entirely depend upon and expect everything 
from the government. 

The absolute and complete submission of the Indians to 
the self-constituted authorities, together with the want of 
initiative which is the main characteristic of the Andean 
Indian, was in direct contrast to the aggressiveness of the 
Pampas, Araucanos, Charruas and Guaranles. 

The Spaniards with a handful of men subdued powerful 
nations of millions of inhabitants, by merely mastering the 
Incas. Pizarro with only 180 soldiers of infantry and thirty- 
seven of cavalry started from Panama in 1531 to conquer 
Peru, which was then in itself a powerful empire of severaT 
million population, and accomplished his mission, while 
Don Pedro de Mendoza with more than one thousand men 
founded the city of Buenos Aires in 1535 and had to abandon 
it on the following year, after losing half of his men on 
being attacked by the Querandies and Charrtias. 

The Charriias occupied what is now Reptiblica Oriental del 
Uruguay and crossed the river to assist in the expulsion of 
the invaders. The Spaniards, on being driven from the land 
which they had temporarily taken possession of and on which 
site is now situated the city of Buenos Aires, planned to 
reoccupy it, and returned later with additional reinforce- 
ments under the command of Garay, and again founded the 
city whose inhabitants were constantly engaged in defend- 
ing themselves from continuous assaults. 

Soils, the discoverer of the La Plata River, on attempting 
to take possession of the territory which is now Republic 
of Uruguay, was killed, together with some of his compan- 
ions, by the Charruas, who very heroically' defended their 

The Spaniards later planned to found a settlement near 
the site where Soils died, but the Charruas burned down the 
Spanish fortress and drove the Spaniards out of the country. 

In 1600, Hernandarias de Saavedra, Governor of Para- 


guay, thought that the time had come to exterminate the 
Charrfias, and so, at the head of 600 Spaniards, undertook 
the journey to Uruguay, where he arrived after a strenuous 
four months' campaign. The Charrtias engaged him in bat- 
tle on the banks of the Uruguay and the Spaniards were so 
decisively defeated that only their leader escaped, according 
to the Spanish writer Centenera in his book "La Argentina." 

This disaster caused Hernandarias to petition the king of 
Spain, Felipe II, stating that it was impossible to subdue 
the Charruas by force of arms and that the missionaries 
must be resorted to, which proposal was accepted by the 
king, who sent the first missionaries to the La Plata River. 

In subsequent encounters with the Spaniards from time 
to time, the Indians, now victors, now vanquished, yet never 
slaves, came into the possession of horses which had been 
introduced by the Spaniards and became invincible warriors. 

The Querandles and other tribes which were never van- 
quished first fought against the Spaniards, and later met 
the Argentinos in fierce encounters in the vicinity of Buenos 
Aires until 1879, when the conquest of the desert was finally 

The Guaranies of Paraguay proved no less fearless adver- 
saries in the defense of their native country against the 
Spaniards who founded Asunci6n, but instead of resorting 
to force the subjection of this tribe was at last effected by 
the Catholic missionaries. 

The aggressive character of the people of the southernmost 
regions of South America was fully demonstrated by their 
initiative in the war of independence against Spain, for it 
was the Gauchos of the La Plata River, descendants of the 
Indians, who were the first to take up arms to fight for their 
independence. They were the liberators of Bolivia and 
Peru, and would have gone to Colombia and Venezuela if 
Bolivar's men of the plains and those of his generals, Paez 
and Piar, descendants of the Guaranian race, had not ven- 
tured upon a like undertaking. Nevertheless, the indepen- 
dence of Peru and Bolivia would not have been secured with- 


out the assistance rendered by the Gauchos of La Plata, 
descendants of the Pampas, Charrtias and Guaranles, all 
settlers of the plains. 

Conquest of the La Plata Region 

Once the discovery of America by Columbus became a 
realization, Spain and Portugal lent material assistance to 
the undertakings which resulted in the discovery of South 
America as a whole, followed by its conquest and its divis- 
ion in almost equal parts between the two. 

One of the exploring expeditions, under the command of 
Juan Diaz de Soils, arrived in 1516 at the mouth of a great 
river, or more properly speaking, the great estuary which he 
called Mar Dulce (Fresh Sea), as he admired its immensity. 
This name was later changed to Rio de La Plata. Soils was 
killed by the Charruas on descending to the east side of the 

Following the same route that Soils had traveled, Her- 
nando Magallanes, Portuguese, in the service of Spain, 
arrived at Mar Dulce in 1520, and, as one of the members 
of his crew beheld the hill which rises opposite the capital 
of the state of Uruguay, exclaimed "Monte-vi-eu" (Mount 
saw I), which was later corrupted into Montevideo. 

Sebastian Cabot, who had been in the service of England 
and who discovered part of the North Atlantic coast, came 
afterwards to take possession of the land and govern it in 
the name of the sovereigns of Spain. After reaching the La 
Plata River, Cabot discovered the great river Parand, 
ascending it to its affluent, the Bermejo, where he received 
from the indigenes several pieces of silver, which had prob- 
ably come from Bolivia. On his return to Spain, Cabot 
presented the pieces of silver to the court, and the opinion 
was that this metal was very abundant in the region drained 
by the river discovered by Soils, and so the name of Mar 
Dulce was changed to the less appropriate one of Rio de 
la Plata. 

At a later period, in 1535, came Don Pedro de Mendoza 


with more than one thousand men to substitute Cabot and 
founded the city of Buenos Aires. The city was attacked by 
the Indians, who compelled the Spaniards to retire shortly 
afterwards to the fort of Sancti Spiritus, founded by Cabot 
on the Parand. 

Mendoza was succeeded by his lieutenant, Ayolas, the 
founder of the city of Asuncion on the river Paraguay. 
Not long after Ayolas was killed by the Indians, and in his 
place the settlers of Paraguay elected Domingo Martinez 
de Yrala provisional governor. 

Paraguay, which comprised all the region drained by the 
rivers La Plata, Parang and Uruguay, and the capital of 
which was Asunci6n, was the first center of civilization in 
the discovered regions. Yrala was succeeded by Alvar 
NtiSez Cabeza de Vaca, who in turn was replaced by Ortiz de 
Zdrate, the predecessor of Don Juan de Garay, who again 
founded the city of Buenos Aires in 1580. Hernando Arias de 
Saavedra, who was afterwards elected Governor by the set- 
tlers and his election confirmed by the Crown, was the last 
of the conquerors of the La Plata, a native of Asuncion. 

In 1617 the vast territory of which Asuncion was the 
capital city was divided into two parts: Paraguay on the 
north, and what was termed Province of Buenos Aires on the 
south, which comprised Buenos Aires and the adjacent 
territory lying between the rivers Paran4 and Uruguay, also 
the lands to the east of Uruguay to the Atlantic, called 
Banda Oriental (Eastern Bank), inhabited by such fierce 
tribes as the Charruas, Yaros and Minuanos. 

The latter was a specially important region for the reason 
that the livestock which had been abandoned by the Span- 
iards years before had rapidly multiplied. On the other 
hand, Paraguay was far richer in food vegetable products 
than what the Guaranies, a less combative tribe, had to 
offer to the conquerors. 

This abundance of livestock prompted the Spaniards to 
colonize the Banda Oriental. The first settlement, known 
as Santo Domingo de Soriano, was founded in 1624 on the 


river Negro, a big inland stream, and at a point not far from 
the river Uruguay in one of the most fertile regions and 
where livestock thrived best. The settlement of San Sal- 
vador, which had been founded there previously, had to be 
abandoned, due to attacks by the Indians. 

Condition of the Indians of South America During the 


Before the establishment of missions the Indian subjects 

were distributed among the Spanish leaders, and formed 

what were known as E^icomiendas, com- 

Reducciones (Set- -, n -r -,• e -, ±^\ i j- 

tiements of con- posed of ludiaus of both sexes employed in 

different kinds of work for the exclusive 
profit of their masters. According to regulation these 
Indians could not be sold, neither could they be mistreated 
nor driven out on account of illness or old age. Thus did 
Yrala organize the first Reducciones of the Indians taken 
prisoners. Whenever they submitted voluntarily they were 
gathered together in villages, with their chief at the head 
under the denomination Encomienda Mitayo, which was 
awarded as a prize to the chief. 

These groups were not as much sought as those known as 
Yanacones, as only two months work from each man per year 
was allowed for the benefit of the Spaniards, and, besides, 
under the same arrangement, the women, children and chiefs 
were exempt from all work. 

Through repeated complaints, which the Auditor of Char- 
cas investigated in 1612 previous to action upon them, all 
personal work was abolished and recommendation made 
that the new settlements be left to the Jesuits. 

The Jesuits who had been summoned in 1609 established 
themselves at La Guaira, opposite the famous cascades which 
are formed by the Parand, and founded the Reducci6n of 
Loreto and others, which, after attacks by the Mamelucos 
of San Paulo, were transferred to the site of the present day 
missions comprising the territory between the upper Parand 


and the upper Uruguay at the bend where the former turns 
eastwardly. This took place in 1631, when the Reducciones 
of Corpus, San Ignacio, etc., were founded and which con- 
stituted the Western Missions, now the mission territory in 

Each villa or tribe was entrusted to two Jesuits, who 
were absolute owners of all the property and who disposed 
of everything at will. There was a Municipal Council in 
each settlement, but nominally only, as the Jesuits were the 
masters. All the work of cultivation, construction and 
lesser industries performed by the Indians was for the bene- 
fit of the Order of Jesuits, which fed them, clothed them 
and furnished them with all the necessaries of a simple life. 

Azara, the celebrated Spanish sage, who planned the 
boundaries between the Spanish and Portuguese possessions, 
in speaking of the Missions, gave accurate information 
regarding these settlements. 

All Indians between the ages of eighteen and fifty years 
paid annually one peso per head to the Royal Treasury, and 
in addition, each tribe had to contribute 600 pesos. 

In order to isolate their settlements from commercial 
intercourse with all other peoples, the Jesuits separated 
each tribe by deep pits and stockades and built big gates, 
under guards, at points on the roads leading to and from 
the settlement, allowing no one to enter or leave without a 
written order. They permitted horseback riding only to 
those of the Indians who looked after the livestock. The 
Jesuits had provided themselves with cannon and equip- 
ment and built adequate fortifications. 

When the Jesuits refused admittance not only to the 
Indians and the Spanish authorities, but to the priests as 
well, it was the impression that they intended the organiza- 
tion of a Jesuitical empire. Azara says : "The dances which 
the Jesuits introduced among their tribes consisted largely 
of instruction in fencing and the use of the sword, as I have 
myself seen. The women were never allowed to dance." 

The Jesuits were English, Italian and German, and the 


few Spanish among them had neither office nor authority. 
The Spanish Government limited itself to telling the Jesuits, 
after a century and a half, that it was time to grant some 
liberty to the Indians by permitting them to have self- 
governing powers, the right to trade and transact business 
with the Spaniards, and in fact, that they should be extri- 
cated from the confinement in which they were kept like so 
many rabbits in a warren. 

The Jesuits stated that the Indians were not capable of 
governing themselves and promised to gradually reestablish 
private property, which in fact did not exist, as everything 
belonged to the Order. Each family was assigned a small 
piece of ground for cultivation two days out of each week 
for their own benefit. But inasmuch as the Indians could 
not sell their produce the arrangement was of no advantage 
to them for the reason that the Order paid for their products 
just what it saw fit. In the end, according to the Indians, 
the Jesuits disposed of the products of these properties 
together with their own. 

"It is beyond all doubt," says Azara, "that the Jesuits 
governed these tribes arbitrarily, they themselves not being 
responsible to any one, and disposed of the properties of 
the different settlements and the individual work of the 
Indians just as freely as was done by the Indian chiefs 
who succeeded them, though the Jesuits were more consid- 
erate, only requiring them to work half of the day, amused 
them with dancing, festivals and tournaments and supplied 
them with sufficient food and clothing. All needlework was 
assigned to the musicians, sextons and choir boys, as the 
women attended only to the knitting of the cotton." 

Manufactures by the Indians of fabrics, cotton and to- 
bacco, as well as mate (Brazilian holly), vegetables and 
medicinal herbs, were transported to other cities and there 
sold in order to bring other articles back. The churches, 
which were sumptuously adorned, consumed a large portion 
of the income. 

A decree calling for the expulsion of the Jesuits from 


their domains was issued on February 27, 1767, by Carlos 
III, but the mandate was not complied with until the follow- 
ing year for fear of an uprising. The Indians did not want 
to obey the Spanish civilian authorities who were in con- 
flict with the clergy, and in all disputes upheld the. latter. 
These disputes brought about the downfall of the missions 
and caused the scattering of the Indians throughout the 
forests, finally reducing their number from 144,000 in 1767 
to only 45,000 in 1804. 

Were the Jesuits good colonizers and did they prove good 
sponsors of civilization? I say. No. To civilize does not 
mean merely to feed and clothe and impart an appearance 
of culture, but it means enlightenment as to the duties and 
privileges that all free men have in order to stabilize society 
so that civil equality may make of each man a social entity 
capable of successfully contributing to the solidarity of a 

The Jesuits could have accomplished this after one and 
a half centuries of rule, but they failed, as is proven by the 
fact that on their disappearance all else went with them 
and only the ruins of the temples remained. They did not con- 
struct, for after one and a half centuries — according to them- 
selves — the Indians were not capable of self-government. 

"To deprive a people from practicing self-government 
because of incapability," says Macaulay, "is as irrational 
as it is to refuse to operate for cataract on the eye of a 
patient for the reason that he will not be able to at first 
see the objects before him, the retina not being used to the 
light, but which faculty can be acquired after training the 
eye as to distance by the necessary reaction on the optic 

The same thing is true of the Paraguayan Indians of the 
time of Francia and L6pez, who after forty years of domina- 
tion had not organized even one tribe capable of self-govern- 
ment, but who governed by tyranny, notwithstanding the 
fact that this tribe by its material progress bore evidence of 
a modern race. 


The Argentinian, Agustin Alvarez, says in one of his 
well-known works : "The races of mankind are not improved 
by their ethnical but by their mental transformation, for 
the ability to succeed does not take root in the skin or the 
bony framework of man ; neither is man's value based, as 
is that of the ox, on the load that it pulls, value of its hide, 
tissue, fat and bone. Improvement in the breeding of live- 
stock is merely physical, but the development of the human 
race must be accomplished through the spirit." 

To quote Horace Mann : "The opinion of the most com- 
petent, most tranquil, most experienced instructors of the 
young, is, that we can within two or three generations 
through our school system and without undue sacrifice have 
this beautiful dream come true (he referred to the reforma- 
tion of corrupted humanity) and see the best wishes of all 
philanthropists fulfilled. The value of the school is insuper- 
able. It will before long, before the lapse of centuries, yes, 
within two or three generations, bring about the modification 
of the races. There are neither young nor old nations, 
neither are there superior nor inferior nations." And 
neither are the Latin people inferior to the Germans, 
as these latter in their delirium had come to believe, nor are 
the Latin races inferior to the Anglo-Saxon, or these to the 
Latin, whose highly developed culture has at times charmed 
and dazzled them, as is demonstrated by history in the 
alternating predominance of first one nation and then 

Predominance comes during an historical period to the 
most highly intellectual, the most industrious and the most 
perseverant nation of that particular period. Japan, next 
to China, is the oldest civilized nation in the world, but 
having adopted the educational system of the Occidentals, it 
is to-day a young nation in the Eastern Hemisphere and its 
intellectual men are among the most renowned in medicine 
and other sciences. The Americans have demonstrated the 
truth of the assertion by Horace Mann, by transforming, in 
less than a quarter of a century, the mental development of 


the Filipinos raised and educated under the antiquated 
political rule of Spain. 

Social Condition of the Indians Under Spanish 

"No more miserable and humiliating condition of humanity 
can be pictured than was that of the Indians at work in the 
fields. One of the iniquitous laws of the colonies, the per- 
sonal tribute of the Mitas (enforced service of Indians) 
remained in force after independence till 1857. From 
each settlement a certain number of indigenes was recruited 
annually to contribute during the year to the work 
in the mines, on the farms in the cultivation of the soil or 
the raising of livestock, and in the shops where the tocuyo 
(shirting) fabrics were designed. The Indians thus forced 
to serve were called Conciertos." 

"Whoever consults the Noticias Secretas (secret notes) of 
Jorje Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, wherein the system of Mitas 
is portrayed as it was carried on during the latter period of 
the Colonies, and how without any material difference it 
existed until the middle of the nineteenth century, can feel 
that deep melancholia emanating from a clear vision of the 
abyss of human wickedness. Obstinate Indians were 
dragged to the shops' prison by tying their hair to the tail of 
the rider's horse. Only one of every ten of those thus forced 
to slavery ever returned alive." 

"In order to still further torment the Mitayo (Indian 
subject to Mitas) and humble his last remaining particle of 
self-esteem they would further punish him by cutting his 
hair to the roots, which punishment was to him the worst 
of ignominy. All this painful discipline has created in the 
heart of the Indian not only the habit but the necessity of 
suffering. Whenever treated kindly he appears nonplussed 
and believes that he is being deceived. On the other hand, 
he becomes accustomed to the harshest tyranny, with the 
half-harrowing, half-repugnant meekness of a much abused 


and despised canine, and as is often the case with the com- 
mon watchdog that feels neglected and leaves home after a 
prolonged lapse of time between whippings." 

"At the time of the abolition of the unjust personal trib- 
ute exacted under the rule of Robles, many were the Indians 
that became frightened at the new order of things and acted 
as if a revered tradition was being violated and became 
homesick for the old slavery days. Away from the spur 
and influence of chastisement the Indian is indolent and 
weak. No promise can be made that he will believe nor 
reward big enough to stimulate him. It is not within the 
scope of his understanding that labor is ennobling and 
should be voluntary. He has neither love of freedom nor 
idea of rights." 

"The emancipation movement as regards Spain at the 
time of the liberal yet unfortunate uj)rising of 1809, also 
the ephemeral declaration of independence two years later, 
and finally the adhesion to the triumphal impulse of Boli- 
var's hosts, were the achievement of the few settled and 
cultured Creoles in whom the inspiration to be free was 
uppermost and ranked above all else. The idea of mother 
country and patriotic passion for same were conceived at 
the hidalgos (public meeting houses) of the cities where the 
traditional rivalry between 'chapetones' (imported Span- 
iards) and Creoles was self-evident." 

"The motley crowd of indigenes remained untouched by 
the idea and the love, even though it be sent forth as a 
horde or an army, its share of unredeemable blood to pay. 
Plebeian liberty did not obtain in them that heroic and 
genial incarnation which evolved into sculptural align- 
ments within the breast of the Gauchos of the La Plata and 
within the plainsman of other parts of Colombia and in 
Venezuela. Even long after the revolution it often hap- 
pened that the Ganan Indian of the haciendas, ignoring 
the existence of the nation, believed that the mita to which 
he was subject was imposed yet in the king's name." 

"The revolution not inspired by the Indian was even less 


of a reality to him. The change in his condition was neg- 
ligible. Within the republic the Indian continued to 
acquiesce as the conquered race, the wretched clay upon 
which the social edifice is planted. The mestizo aims to 
deny his half of indigenous blood and endeavors to attest 
by his filial wickedness the purity of his lineage. The Indian 
clergyman with difficulty reaches the benefice. The uni- 
versity is a step-mother to him of humble birth. The 
plebeian Indian, like the horse changed from master to 
master, sees his state as a helot confirmed. He is mis- 
treated and annoyed by the slovenly grouch of the streets. 
When the Negro slave finds his task growing burdensome 
he turns to the Indian transient and compels him to do his 
work for him." 

"Cruelty that has perhaps been lessened by the law is 
kept alive through habit. The rapacious claw of the 'Cor- 
regidor) (corrector — magistrate) passed as had the vintage 
of blood of the 'Encomendero' (agent), but the whip for 
the Indian remains clutched in the right hand of the boss 
of the hacienda, the head man in the shop, the local doctrine 
leader, the uncivil and domineering curate, who also 
assumes executionership. His tyrants have trained him 
upon being lashed to rise and kiss the hand of the whipper 
and to say, 'Dios se lo pague' (May God reward you), and 
if it be the hand of the black slave that has mercilessly 
come down on his back, whether on his master's account or 
the slave's own hatred and iniquity, the Indian, the wretched 
Indian of South America, kisses the hand of the slave. So 
continues he in a darkened night, in the shadows of which the 
spirit casts not even a ray of enthusiasm, or of eagerness, 
nor even of idle curiosity. The unfulfilled promise, the lie, 
sordid fruits of weakness and fear, form the timid defense 
with which he endeavors to repress the march to martyr- 
dom's excesses. Smiles of heavenly hope he sees not, as he 
knows not their radiancy, and the religion which taught 
him is to him nothing more than an unctionless monotone. 
Death to him means neither joy nor sorrow. Only the 


ephemeral exaltation of inebriety brings forth from the 
depths of his slavery-bewitched soul, benumbed-like hob- 
goblins of daring and bravery, passionate phantoms display- 
ing in the lightning rays of madness, the idol of vengeance." 

"The air of nobility, emanating from illustrious birth or 
from the superiority of the profession, was maintained in 
all the purity of Spanish tradition, either through the pre- 
eminence of the families' descendants, of founders of cities 
and the dignitaries of the Colony, or the aristocratic aureola 
of the clergy, or the army or the academic degrees. All the 
occupations were of lower order; industrial work, the 
mechanic arts were assigned to Indians and mestizos or to 
the few foreign immigrants. Territorial wealth, perpetu- 
ated in fact on the society of colonial origin, was distrib- 
uted among very few. That mountain beyond, one of 
nature's wonders, that far-off prairie to which no horse's 
gallop finds an end, that valley which could produce bread 
enough for an empire, are very often the property of one 
single man, rich feudal patrimony where the bent figure 
of the indigene represents the rustic who satisfies every 
obligation to the master. Numberless clergymen distributed 
among the settlements in convents, together with the mul- 
titude of secular ecclesiasts, caused the population the effect 
of the plant that is being attacked by ants. 

"Also in contiguous hierarchy was the attorney, capable 
and only versatile personage acquainted with all phases of 
understanding as a politician, writer, poet, orator, and 
carrying wherever he went as the keys to universal knowl- 
edge, his Peripateticism, also his Latin. To complete the 
scene of the privileged fraternity, there was the soldier, the 
personification of a force, as a rule, uncultured and rough, 
but who acquired prominence through the laurels of eman- 
cipation and inclined to the leadership in politics, to which 
he had to offer some assistance at the first timid show of 
reaction against the all-embracing clerical influence." 

"The aggregate of society thus constituted was that of a 
vast convent which, as in the time of the feudal lordships, 


had near its fortified walls an abbatial hamlet which sounds 
of activities of disputes or festivities were lost in the lofty 
and austere majesty of monastical silence." (Pages from 

All the Indians of Bolivia had to pay tribute to the 
Spanish treasury in manner as follows : Those called Origi- 
narios, the most distinguished of the Indian settlements, 
owning land in the valley and on the puna (plateau), paid 
nine pesos and six reales (one real is about one eighth of a 
peso) per head per year. The Agregados, owning a very 
small portion of land in the valley or a larger one on the 
puna, paid seven pesos annually, that of the "Forasteros," 
who owned no land, four pesos annually. 

They had established the Caja General de Censos (General 
Annuity Funds) for the purpose of paying tribute in case 
of epidemic or poor crops. The lands were assigned on a 
usufructuary basis and could never become private prop- 
erty. Tribute was expected only from the Indians, who 
should have been by right the owners of the lands. When- 
ever tribute was demanded from a Negro, a Mestizo (half- 
breed) or a white, the Court would exempt him, stating: 
"Having proved that he is not an Indian he is hereby ex- 

Bolivar abolished the law of tribute in 1825, but it was 
reestablished and remained in force until years afterwards. 

The excessive mortality rate brought about by Spanish 
colonization of South America is briefly explained in the fol- 
lowing lines : 

"Though we were good, useful farmers we were sent into 
the mines, where they loaded us like so many beasts of 
burden carrying baskets of ore, and so making life for us 
down in the bowels of the earth harsh and unendurable." 

The same system which decreed that landed property 
should never belong to the individual but to the State, pre- 
vailed in the empire of the Incas for thousands of years and 
was adopted by the Spaniards, who did not suspect that 
the modern Georgians were to come centuries after to find 


this old-as-the-world system to be the panacea of all social 
evils. In Russia, just before the outbreak of the war 
which has recently come to an end, there were vast regions 
of millions of square kilometers ruled under the strictest 
communism dividing the land periodically in parcels allotted 
on a usufructuary basis according to the number of mem- 
bers of each family. It was practiced as the Peruvians did, 
as did also the Jews during their celebrated jubilees held 
every fifty years. 

Mackenzie in his very interesting book, "Russia," dC' 
scribes the result of the system in that country in the fol- 
lowing manner: "Nobody digs either a ditch or a well, nor 
plants a tree, nor constructs a durable dwelling, nor a fence* 
or any other improvement, for he knows he builds for some- 
one else," The Georgians do not take into consideration 
the fact that if the land is valuable, it is due in almost 
every case to the accumulated work of man where one 
family has had the possession of it for several generations 
and has improved it continuously. 

The most fertile fields of the La Plata and where the best 
livestock is raised owe their productivity largely to the 
industry of the settlers, who were obliged to root out and 
eradicate weeds, thorns, and thickets of all kinds, annihilate 
the beasts of prey, and at the same time defend themselves 
from savage tribes. 

Where no inducement exists for man to become the pos- 
sessor of the land he cultivates, the land will be of little 
or no value, as no one is willing to toil for the exclusive 
benefit of others. 

At the time the slaves of Brazil were given their liberty, 
the Brazilian landowners, under the impression that the 
slaves were the only laborers, believed, or pretended to be- 
lieve, that Brazil would suffer a terrible calamity because 
nothing would be produced. It was their opinion that the 
Negro no longer under the lash would not work', yet the 
reverse happened. Production increased as the effort of 
the freed Negro to do better work increased. The same 


results would have been obtained had they decreed that 
each Indian work for his own benefit. 

The Indian Problem 

Such was the condition of the Indian of the Andean tribes 
of South America under Spanish domination, and it so 
remained until a few years ago. The laws enacted have 
had the tendency right along to better the condition of the 
Indian, for there have constantly appeared legislators who 
have been inspired by a sense of humanity and justice to im- 
prove their condition. Yet laws are impotent against the 
customs of tribes that for centuries have received their train- 
ing in the conqueror's school of barbarism. 

What could be expected of a conquering nation whose 
hero, Pizarro, the Conqueror of Peru, could neither read 
nor write? What could be expected of a cruel, ignorant, 
and fanatical army which only aspired to plunder? The 
Araucanos, indefatigable defenders of their native land, 
compelled the Conqueror Valdivia to drink melted gold and 
made him atone for all the crimes committed by his sol- 
diers, who, like their leader, had only one desire as they 
conquered, and that was the accumulation of riches, even 
if it were necessary to decapitate millions of human beings. 

The Indians of Peru, victims of the most abject slavery, 
the product of absolute monarchies, were unable to defend 
their soil against a handful of adventurers. 

Following the overthrow of Spanish rule, the great 
Bolivar, through wise legislation, initiated the regeneration 
of the Indian, but being that the political directors, descend- 
ants of the Spaniards, had the same defects as their predeces- 
sors, the tendencies of the Liberator availed little or noth- 
ing. Even to-day the Indian desirous of living a free, un- 
trammelled life is compelled to ascend the summit of lofty, 
glacial mountain peaks of 4,000 to 5,000 meters elevation 
looking after his small herd of llamas and alpacas. Should 
he venture to descend to the plains from his dwelling amid 
the clouds, he becomes the victim of a Government that 


places him in barracks to equip him as a soldier. Should 
he hire out to work he becomes the victim of an employer 
who pays him a miserable wage of one quarter to one half 
dollar per day without meals. He starts to work at sun- 
rise, after partaking of a scanty breakfast, works all day 
without a morsel of food, only now and then chewing on 
coca leaves to check his hunger. 

Notwithstanding this condition, there are over 2,000,000 
Indians in Peru who have nothing to subsist on. Yet the 
influx of hundreds of thousands of Chinese coolies is looked 
upon with favor, notorious gamblers who at night stake 
their earnings of the day before, and who are both morally 
and physically inferior to the Indian. 

It is pathetic to find the Chinese hotels and lodging houses 
of Callao and Lima crowded with the lower element of the 
populace who are partly attracted there by the ridiculously 
low prices of meals, then to gamble away the few cents 
saved at the expense of their stomachs. The Chinaman's 
love of gambling is such that it is not uncommon to find the 
employer become the servant of his servant, the former 
having staked his entire hotel on one unlucky play of the 
night before. 

The admission of the Chinese has been harmful and will 
prove even more so as time goes on, not only because the 
Chinaman is mentally and physically the Indian's inferior, 
but also economically, inasmuch as the Chinaman with his 
long and varied experience is a more successful farmer, 
knowledge which the Indian can in time acquire with his 
superior intelligence. The fault lies with the Governments 
which, absorbed in preoccupied politics, neglect those vital 
problems which should make the foundation and the bul- 
wark of a nation. 

Imagine what 2,000,000 farm hands trained in all the 
branches of agriculture could accomplish oh soil so un- 
usually fertile as that of Peru, where sugar-cane, cotton, 
and various other plants for which the soil seems to be 
particularly adapted, yield such good returns. What enor- 


mous production this country would contribute to the 
world at large should it collect the energy of so many- 
hands right at its doors, only awaiting the opportunity to 
be called by other more enterprising nations. When we 
turn to Argentina, with its copious production of 5,000,000 
tons of cereals, which it places in European markets, and 
which is the product of work done almost entirely by 1,000,- 
000 Italian laborers who have transformed the country from 
a purely live-stock raising community to first place in the 
world's granary, we can form a fair idea of what the evolu- 
tion of Peru will be when it learns to utilize its idle millions. 

Besides the resident laborers of Argentina, it has been 
benefited by the added experience of thousands of golon- 
drinas (swallows) farm-hands transported directly from 
Italy, who engage in agricultural work during the winter 
of the northern hemisphere, and during three or four months 
of the austral summer season at the end of which time 
they return to Europe. The golondrinas have stayed away 
since 1914, and will remain absent till no one knows when, 
as many, perhaps, have gone with the departed ten million 
and more laborers for whom Europe now mourns and whom 
the whole world will miss. Should there be any extra hands 
in Italy, they will perhaps go to France, whose shops have 
lost 2,000,000 men in the recent war, or perhaps to England 
or to both. Argentina will therefore have a shortage of 
human working machines which have contributed to its 
present prosperity. It will lose tens of thousands of vigor- 
ous young men when French and Belgian industries start 
anew — where they can afford to offer a higher wage than 
Argentina because their products show a correspondingly 
larger profit. But Argentina could advantageously substi- 
tute Italian labor with Indian labor from Peru and Bolivia, 
the Indian being an agriculturist, has cultivated maize for 
centuries, is as a rule sober in his habits, and possesses 
endurance and unusual physical strength. 

The Bolivian railroad now under construction, and which 
will connect Quiaca and Uyuni, will permit the transfer 


of laborers from Peru aud Bolivia to Argentina, something 
wliicli deserves primary consideration in the service of the 
Bolivian-Argentine railway. This might not coincide with 
the Utopian idea of the Argentinos that this railroad will 
turn the Bolivian market to them, as they believe that there 
is nothing that Bolivia can export in either mineral or 
vegetable products that can afford the freight from Quiaca 
to the ports of Buenos Aires and Rosario, which are at a 
distance of about 400 leagues (1,200 miles more or less) 
from the Bolivian frontier by rail. The mineral and vege- 
table products will always be exported through the Pacific 
ports, excepting lumber, sugar, and coffee, which can be 
transported out of the country much more economically 
via I*ort Suarez on the Paraguay, opposite Corumbd 
(Brazil), a river port with service by the Lloyd Brazilian 
Steamship Line, which steamers connect with Buenos Aires, 
Montevideo, Rio de Janeiro and all ports of the Brazilian 
coast line. One very much needed improvement would be 
a railroad from Santa Cruz de la Sierra across the Bolivian 
Chaco in order that this market coiild be successfully de- 
veloped, a fact which ought to interest the Bolivian republic 
above everything else. 

It is of necessity that l^eru and Bolivia consider both the 
utilization of the Indian and his intellectual and moral 
development as the primordial problem affecting his ex- 
istence. How much better it would be for these two 
nations to solve the Indian question, than to employ the 
energy of their intellectual lights in disputing with their 
neighbors the Argentinos, Paraguayos, Brasileros, Ecua- 
torianos and Colombianos over parcels of lands which can 
not compare in natural wealth to those that remain aban- 
doned and unproductive within the confines of their native 

We do not make mention of Chile, which country is in 
conflict with the countries of Peru and Bolivia, for the 
reason that this is an entirely different proposition involv- 
ing self-love and national dignity. The illusory ambition of 


seeking additional lands, is a universal malady. Geograph- 
ical vanity seems to be a world-wide contagion. Spain has 
bnried hundreds of thousands of her soldiers on African 
soil where she has covetously sought new lands to conquer, 
while at the very doors of the city of Madrid there lies a 
desert-like region unfilled and worthless and which might 
as well be a part of the African desert so desolate and 
barren it is. 

Italy with its maremmas, its pontin lagoons, its malaria 
on the outskirts of Rome as described in the bulletins 
announcing the manner of combating this terrible disease, 
and its Isle of Sardinia now almost deserted and which at 
one time provided the whole of the Roman Emj)ire with its 
grain, seeks new lands in Abyssinia where the torrid heat 
of the sun would have ere this made victims of legions of 
Italian soldiers had not Menelik awakened them to the fact 
that they were merely chasing phantoms. 

The Uruguayans have lost half of their territory by hav- 
ing it snatched away from them by the Portuguese and their 
descendants, the Brazilians. This, however, does not affect 
the size of their territory, inasmuch as their gauchos and 
capitalists have literally taken possession of the province 
of Rio Grande where they own vast areas of land, and the 
lack of additional territory also is made up by their attrac- 
tive Montevideo, the residential city of all the big land- 
owners, as it is also the principal port of exportation for 
their abundant livestock production. 

First Spanish Settlements in Uruguay 

The first settlements of the Banda Oriental (Eastern 
Bank) had as their object the defense of the territory 
against the Portuguese who invaded it to 
StS T' ^^"^ carry off livestock into Brazil to San Paulo, 
betwe^en^'pamards which was fouudcd by Criminals of all 
and Portuguese gorts. These wcre a constant menace to 

Spanish colonization. 


The Portuguese founded the Colony of Sacramento in 
1680 opposite Buenos Aires, from which place they were 
driven out by the Spanish Governor, The Portuguese Gov- 
ernor was made prisoner and deported to Lima. Hostili- 
ties continued until 1G81 when the treaty between the Cortes 
of Spain and Portugal decreed the return of the Colony to 
Portugal until such a time as the boundaries of the Spanish 
and Portuguese colonies be determined. 

In 1704 the Spaniards of Buenos Aires received instruc- 
tions from the Metropolis to dislodge the Portuguese from 
the Colony which they proceeded to do, compelling the 
Portuguese to evacuate. But, in 1715, by the treaty of 
Utrecht, it became the possession of Portugal once again. 
Later, in 1720 and 1722, they tried to occupy Montevideo, 
but failed. 

In order to prevent further assaults by the Portuguese, 
Zabala, Governor of Buenos Aires, founded the city of San 
Felipe y Santiago de Montevideo in 1726. The Portuguese 
of the Colony continued their incursions from all sides but 
again without success, and finally by the treaty of 1750 be- 
tween Spain and Portugal the Colony was ceded to Spain. 
This treaty fixed the Ibicuy River — tributary of the Uruguay 
— as the boundary between the Spanish and Portuguese 
possessions. Notwithstanding the treaty, the Portuguese 
occupied the Colony until 1762, when the Spaniards resorted 
to a twenty-five day siege and forced the Portuguese to 

Zeballos, then Spanish Governor, proceeded east and took 
the fortifications of Santa Teresa and San Miguel, which 
the Portuguese had built on Spanish soil. 

The Ibicuy boundary should have been mutually accepted 
as the dividing line between the Republics of Uruguay and 
Brazil, but the latter, contrary to all justice, extended its 
domain farther south as far as the Cuareim River, This 
treaty was endorsed by and imposed upon Uruguay by 
Argentina under the government of General Urquiza in 
1851. The Government of Uruguay declared that it ac- 


cepted the imposition inasmuch as it lacked the necessary 
means to defend its rights. 


The Viceroyship of the La Plata River was established 
in 1776, taking- in addition the gubernatorial districts of 
Paraguay and Tucuman, under Viceroy Don Pablo de Zeba- 
llos, who took possession of the Colony, and in so doing 
demolished its ramparts. 

The treaty of 1777 granted to Spain all of the dominion 
of the Banda Oriental of Uruguay. Zeballos, a progressive 
ruler, divided the territory into eight districts, each under 
an intendent, and gave the settlers permission to trade with 
outsiders, which until then had been prohibited. 

All merchandise that had come to Uruguay in the past 
came through the Ports of Panama and Portobelo, thence to 
Potosi to La Plata, its price increasing from 800 per cent 
to 1,000 per cent. This liberty of commercial activity gave 
importance to the Banda Oriental for its abundant live- 

Hostilities were again renewed between Spain and 
Portugal in 1800, the Portuguese taking possession of the 
Misiones Orientales (Eastern Missions) of Upper Uruguay, 
which they retained according to the treaty of peace that 
followed. This started the boundary disputes between 
Brazil and Argentina, which were submitted for decision to 
the President of the United States of America only a few 
years ago. 

Invasions op the La Plata by the English 

The English having profited by their triumph at Traf- 
algar in 1805, 'attacked in 1806 the city of Buenos Aires with 
an army of 6,000 men, and as no resistance was offered, due 
to cowardice on the part of Viceroy Sobremonte, the Eng- 
lish quickly took possession of the city. 

The Spaniards of Montevideo soon after planned the ex- 
pulsion of the English from Buenos Aires, and embarking 



at Colonia, under command of Liniers, they descended near 
the city and with the cooperation of the men and women 
residents advanced upon the invaders, and after a bloody 
struggle the English finally capitulated. 

In his proclamation, the leader of the patricians stated: 
"The men born in America are not inferior to the Spaniards 
or Europeans and no one surpasses them in courage." 
Viceroy Sobremonte was repudiated by the people master 
of their own destinies, and named Liniers in his place. 

The defeat of the English caused great enthusiasm in 
Spain, and the Cortes awarded as a recompense to Monte- 
video, a coat-of-arms and the title "Muy Leal y Recon- 
quistadora Ciudad" (Most Loyal and Reconquering City). 

The English returned and captured the coveted port of 
Maldonado at the mouth of the La Plata River and marched 
against Montevideo with 8,000 men, laying the city waste 
and capturing it after a slaughter where the English them- 
selves suffered great losses. This battle took place during 
the month of February, 1807. In July of the same year, 
the English advanced upon Buenos Aires, but the opposing 
forces surprised them by the stubborn resistance they offered 
and forced the English to retreat, also compelling them to 
surrender the sea coast of Montevideo, which they abandoned 
on the 19th of the following September. 

The short stay of the English at Montevideo proved bene- 
ficial to the native South Americans, as it helped them to 
foresee the realization of their aspirations for a better gov- 
ernment and the assurance of political and commercial 
liberty. It was then that the first daily appeared in the La 
Plata region. 

Popular Movements Forerunners of the South 
American Revolution 

The spirit of independence among the American settle- 
ments had been cropping out for some years, and in refer- 
ence to its manifestations the Spaniard Antonio Juan de 
Ulloa said in 1731 : "It seems improper that among people 


under the same Government and having the same blood 
coursing through their veins that there should exist such 
enmity, ill-will and hatred, and that the cities and large 
centers of population should be the scenes of discord and 
continued opposition between the Spaniards and the 

Two revolutionary movements were started in Venezuela 
in the years 1711 and 1713, the first one proclaiming a 
native born King, and the second was an uprising by the 
Creoles against the monopoly created by the Compania 
Giupuzcana of Caracas. 

In 1730, the Mestizos of Cochabamba secured the right to 
elect Alcaldes (Mayors) and Corregidores (Town Magis- 
trates) from among the Creoles and to the exclusion of the 
Spaniards. In August, 1809, the natives of Quito failed to 
recognize the Spanish authorities ruling over them and 
established an assembly under the title of "Soberana" 
(Supreme). During the following May, the Creoles of 
Chuquisaca in Bolivia deposed the Spanish authorities and 
organized a governmental assembly. Two months later the 
natives of La Paz rose up in arms under the cry "Mueran 
Los Chapetones" (Death to the Spaniards), and also organ- 
ized a governmental assembly and in their proclamation 
stated: "The time has now come to raise the banner of 
liberty over these unfortunate colonies." These two revo- 
lutions were crushed by the Spaniards, who, following their 
established precedents, put the leaders to death. 

In 1809 Montevideo was the scene of a conspiracy wherein 
Don Joaquin Sudrez, Larraiiaga, Perez, Barreiro, Monte- 
rroso, and other patriots planned to strike a blow to Spanish 
rule in the La Plata region. 

Mention must be made of Miranda, who had ten years be- 
fore organized in the City of London the association called 
Gran Reuni6n Americana (Great American Union) for the 
purpose of framing a republican constitution for the various 
Spanish colonies. Among the prominent members of the 
Society were Alvear and San Martin, natives of Argentina ; 


O'Higgins, Chilean ; NariSo and Montufar, Granadinos 
(from U. S. of Colombia, at that time Nueva Granada) ; 
Rocafuerte, Ecuadorian; Caro, Cuban, 

The so-called ''Guerra de los Comuneros" (War of the 
Comuneros-party opposed to the tyranny of Carlos V) of 
Paraguay in 1723, was the expression of an enraged public 
at the city of Asuncion when the then Governor Vic- 
toria, an appointee of the Spanish Crown, following a 
custom of the Metropolis, gave up his office, for a monetary 
consideration, to Balmaceda. In consequence of this, the 
Cabildo of Asunci6n arrayed itself against the Governor and 
opposed him with unusual zeal. The Royal Audience of 
Charcas sent Antequera, a native attorney and prosecuting 
member of the Audience, to settle the dispute. As an 
American, Antequera favored the Cabildo and decreed the 
imprisonment of the Governor, who lost no time in leaving 
the country. 

The Cabildo represented the wishes of the people against 
the authority and tyranny of the Metropolis. The Viceroy 
of Peru, on hearing the complaint of the deposed Governor, 
ordered Antequera to reinstate him in office, to which 
Antequera replied that he would not respect the order, as 
the authority of the people was superior to that of the King. 

In support of the stand that he had taken, Antequera 
caused Paraguay to revolt, the people investing him with 
the powers of Governor in opposition to the King's will, 
just as the Comuneros of Castilla had done under the com- 
mand of Juan de Padilla, in defense of Spanish municipal 
liberties against the tyranny of Carlos V, son of Juana La 
Loca (Jane the Insane) and Emperor of Germany and King 
of Spain, that historical figure whose record so closely resem- 
bles that of the German ex-Kaiser, now a refugee in Holland. 

Antequera was prepared for the Spanish forces which 
were marching against him, decisively defeating them with 
a loss of 800 of his own men. On withdrawing from 
Paraguay, he assembled the Cabildo and advised that opposi- 
tion be made to the entry of the new Spanish Governor. 


Antequera, being later apprehended, was tried and executed 
in Lima in 1731. 

Turning back two centuries, 1540, Gonzalo Pizarro, in 
Peru, revolted against Spain, and Carbajal, his next in com- 
mand, ordered the royal banner burned. They were both 
arrested and summarily executed. From this time onward 
the smouldering spirit of independence kept constantly 
growing and developing, finally preparing the people for the 
memorable outburst recorded as the Pronunciamiento (up- 
rising) of Buenos Aires on May 25, 1810 (South America's 
Fourth of July), when the people at a public demonstration, 
which took place in the city of Buenos Aires, proclaimed 
a governmental Junta. 

The leaders of the revolution pledged themselves not to 
recognize any other government than that of Fernando VII 
— even if such were not their intention. 

The people of Caracas in Venezuela had one month before, 
on the 19th of April, dismissed the Spanish rulers and ap- 
pointed an Assembly to govern in the name of Fernando 
VII. Chile did likewise on the 18th of September following. 

These manifestations of discontent were further incited 
by the proclamation issued by Napoleon I, Emperor of 
France, in behalf of his brother Joseph Bonaparte for the 
throne of Spain while the Emperor was holding Fer- 
nando VII, the legitimate owner of the Spanish Crown, a 
prisoner at Bayona. This was the cause of the Spanish 
revolt at Madrid on the 2nd of May when the Supreme 
Governmental Assembly at Sevilla was organized to govern 
in place of the imbecile King, Fernando VII. 

The Buenos Aires Junta two days after its organiza- 
tion sent out a proclamation inviting the settlements to ap- 
point Deputies, and on the strength of this invitation the 
Royalist Party invited the Assembly to recognize the Board 
of Regency of Spain. Liniers in Cordoba revolted in sup- 
port of this pretension of the Crown, was promptly subdued 
by the Assembly forces, and he and his companions executed 
in the month of August, 1810. 


Montevideo, a well fortified city under the Realistas 
(Royal Party), was opposed to the revolution, and, on the 
arrival of the Viceroy Elio, the hostilities with Buenos Aires 

The Banda Oriental of Uruguay declared for the revolu- 
tion, with Viera and Beuavides at Ascencio near Mercedes, 
at the head, and supported by the garrison of the city of 
Mercedes under the command of Fernandez. Artigas, later 
commander of the Orientales, joined with a strong force, 
which increased the army of patriots to 3,000 under the com- 
mand of Belgrano, who was later succeeded by Rondeau. 

The Artigas detachment was rushed to Montevideo, meet- 
ing the Spanish forces near Las Piedras where he engaged 
them in battle, annihilated them, and made their leader. 
General Posadas, prisoner. This was the first battle, 
"Batalla de Las Piedras," in 1811, which was won by South 
Americans in the war of independence and which gave 
General Artigas, Commander of the Orientales, increased 

Not long after, Artigas, together with General Rondeau, 
who commanded the Argentine forces, laid siege to Monte- 
video, but soon withdrawing under resolution by the Argen- 
tine government, claiming that it was imperative that the 
army be sent to Perti. 

Exodus of the People of Eastern Uruguay 

The Orientales, on being left with only their own forces 
by the Argeutinos, who had previously signed a treaty with 
the Spanish Viceroy of Montevideo, were obliged to combat 
not only the Spaniards but also the Portuguese, who had 
invaded the territory of the Orientales to protect the 
Spaniards, their temporary allies. 

Artigas, as the leader of the Orientales, protested against 
this treachery of the Buenos Aires Government and with- 
drew to the interior accompanied by the patrician families, 
including all the women and children and the aged, all of 


whom were giving up their native land and suffering untold 
hardships rather than become a foreign master's slave. 
This noble act of collective heroism is known in South 
American history as the "Exodo del Pueblo Oriental del 
Uruguay" (Exodus of the People of Eastern Uruguay). 

Artigas, with his small army and his people, had to cross 
to the western bank of the Uruguay in order to save them- 
selves from complete destruction on being attacked by the 

The Army op Argentina Crosses the Uruguay to Combat 
THE Portuguese . 

The Buenos Aires Junta protested against the entry 
of the Portuguese army, which, according to the treaty, 
should have returned to Brazil. Being unable to come to 
an immediate settlement, the war with the Spaniards and 
Portuguese was started, and accordingly the Argentinos 
sent an army under Rondeau against Montevideo. 

Artigas of the Orientales, as per agreement entered into 
with Rondeau, brought his forces and formed the left wing 
of the army of patriots and began the advance on 

On April 5, 1813, Artigas brought together delegates 
from among the Orientales who, in Congress assembled, 
recognized the authority of the Buenos Aires Junta, 
appointed a municipal body entrusted with the internal 
governmental functions of the province, and sent five depu- 
ties to the general Congress which was to convene in Buenos 
Aires. These deputies had instructions to ask for the abso- 
lute independence of the provinces of the La Plata and the 
formation of a Confederacy of all of them, constituted under 
a republican form of government. These were the cele- 
brated instructions of 1813, which had as their fundamental 
principle, on petition by the Oriental Deputies, the im- 
mediate declaration of absolute independence of the 
colonies, permanently relieving them of all obligations of 
fidelity to the Spanish Crown and the family of the Bor- 

kp:gion of the la plata kiver 33 

bones, and that all political connections between the colo- 
nies and Spain be and remain completely abrogated. They 
were not to accept, in substitution of the absolute regime, 
any other than a republican form of government nor any 
other system than the "Confederacion de los Estados 
Soberanos del Plata" (Confederacy of the Sovereign States 
of the La Plata). The celebrated instructions of 1813 came 
newly to light in 1867, having been found at Asuncion dur- 
ing that year and published in 1878. 

Historians, both friends and enemies of Artigas, com- 
mented on them without knowing what they really were. 
These instructions form the basis of a constitution pat- 
terned after that of the United States of America. Such 
were the views of the leader of the Orientales, though the 
form of government that those people should have who still 
called themselves subjects of Fernando VII had not yet 
been defined. 

On Congress refusing to accept the Oriental Deputies, 
Artigas petitioned the Argentine General Rondeau, head 
of the army, for a new edict on the election of Deputies, and, 
according to the Argentine government, elections should 
be held at the encampment, or general headquarters, of the 
Argentines, on the 8th of the following December. 

Thus was elected the Provincial Representation, which 
appointed three Deputies to the Congress of Buenos Aires 
and a municipal assembly of three members. This election 
was protested by Artigas, inasmuch as it did not represent 
the true wishes of the people, besides the fact that it had 
been conducted under the pressure of the army of Argentina. 

Besides the 5,000 Orientales under Artigas, there re- 
mained just a few lukewarm citizens, as are found every- 
where, who prefer a life of ease to making sacrifices for 
principle, in most cases the tranquil and peace-loving resi- 
dents of the cities. So, what the group of Argentine citizens 
assembled at the Argentine encampment under Argentine 
influence, resolved, was not the opinion of the Orientales, 
and Artigas did right in protesting as he did. 


This disagreement with the govGrnment of Buenos Aires 
brought about the separation of the Orientales from the be- 
sieging forces on the 21st of January, 1814. The rejection 
of the Deputies sent by Artigas in 1813, was the first demon- 
stration of the narrow-mindedness of the Buenos Aires 
Junta or Committee, which desired complete and blind 
submission to its mandates, not taking into account the 
fact that they themselves, as a ruling body, were not a direct 
product of the popular will, but of a small coterie self- 
styled "Government of the Revolution." The same privilege 
belonged to Artigas, who was publicly known as the leader 
of the Banda Oriental. The government of Buenos Aires 
could not object to the Oriental representation as designated 
by the leading citizens of the country, while the members of 
the government were self-appointed, and they exercised au- 
thority without consulting the various provinces. 

The city of Montevideo surrendered on the 20th of June, 
1814, with 5,000 men and 300 cannon. 

Zorrilla de San Martin, in speaking of the revolutionary 
spirit of the day, said : "Had we time at this moment to 
traverse all of the regions of America and acquaint our- 
selves with the revolutionary condition, we would find it 
useful. The sun of liberty appears to be sinking. The 
triumvirate government of Buenos Aires, without thought 
or fixed purpose, gropes in the dark, seeking or waiting for 
the man who never comes, and who should be recognized 
by his crown of gold. The Constituent Assembly cannot 
constitute anything as it lacks abiding faith. It does not 
declare independence, and much less will it adopt any 
symbols, coat-of-arms, or its own money, but neither does 
it abandon the Spanish flag — the royal flag — for it is bound 
to the ancient Metropolis by a traditional monarchical 
spirit. It will not burn down the fleet, but will calk it 
instead for the probable return to the port from whence it 
came. It will enact important reforms, but within the 
Spanish organism. It is somewhat similar to the con- 
stituency of Cadiz and nothing more. We need not hold 


it responsible for this, neither shall we try to lessen its 
renown. It was to be expected, it is humanlike. Artigas, 
who was more of a seer than a sage, dictated his instructions 
of the year 1813. With these instructions or fundamentals, 
Artigas with the same confidence that led Washington and 
Jefferson, drafted the chapters of the South American gospel. 
At no place in austral America had a similar declaration 
been written." 

''Fernando VII will continue to rule morally in our midst. 
Belgrano and Rivadavia will go to Europe within a year 
to recognize Carlos III. There they will meet Sarratea, 
Argentine General, but they will not come to an understand- 
ing and only failure will they find. Belgrano, disappointed 
in Europe, will plan to crown a descendant of one of the 
Incas kings. It is essential that he be a king. The declara- 
tion of independence of the united provinces of the La Plata 
will be effected only three years after, on July 9, 1816, by 
the Tucumiln Congress, and this will be the glorious day 
of Argentina." 

''The Tucumdn declaration was made nevertheless after 
delays, fear, and hesitation, and the very same pr6ceres 
(illustrious citizens) who sanctioned it, far from de- 
claring it like Artigas as the substitution of the colonial 
regime on a republican basis, they importuned at that time 
and subsequently for the establishment of a European 
dynasty on the La Plata." 

"What would the noble republic of Argentina give to-day, 
what would we, all the sons of the La Plata give, to see 
embodied in the records of the Tucum^in Congress, the 
instructions of Artigas?" ("Epopeya de Artigas.") 

Artigas's Instructions of 1813 

Which were presented by the Deputies of Eastern Uruguay before 
the General Constituent Assembly of Buenos Aires 

1st. To demand the declaration of absolute independence 
for these colonies, and cessation of all obligations of fidelity 
to the Crown of Spain. 


2nd. To accept no other system than a confederacy call- 
ing for a covenant of reciprocity with the provinces which 
make up the State. 

3rd. To promote civil and religious liberty within all its 
conceivable bounds. 

4tlL That each province establish its government on the 
above basis besides that of the Supreme Government of the 

5th. Both national and provincial governments to be 
divided into Legislative, Executive, and Judicial depart- 
ments, each one independent of the other in authority. 

6th. These three branches are never to be united, but 
will act independently of each other. 

7th. The Supreme Government to be concerned only in 
general State matters. Other matters to be handled 
specially by their respective provincial government. 

8th. The territory now occupied by the people of the 
eastern coast of Uruguay, as far as the fortress of Santa 
Teresa, will constitute one single province called Provincia 
Oriental (Eastern Province). 

9th. That the seven Mission villages, also those of Batovi, 
Santa Tecla, San Rafael, and Tacuarembo, which are occu- 
pied by the Portuguese, to be reclaimed when the proper 
time comes, and as territory which has always belonged to 
this province. 

10th. That this province for the present enters into a 
separate binding alliance of friendship with each one of the 
others for their common defense, protection of their liberty, 
and for their mutual and general happiness, each in turn 
binding itself to assist each one of the others against all 
violence or attack against all or any of them for reason 
of religion, sovereignty, commerce, or any other pretext 
whatever it might be. 

11th. That this province shall retain its sovereignty, 
liberty and independence, all powers, jurisdiction, and 
privileges which shall not expressly be delegated by the 
Confederacy to the united provinces in Congress assembled. 


12th and 13th. The ports of Maldonado and Colonia, with 
free access for the imj^ortation of merchandise and the 
exportation of fruits with the corresponding custom-house 

14th. That no tax or duty be imposed on articles exported 
from one province to another, nor any preference given 
through regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports 
of one province over those of another, neither are the vessels 
which are destined from this province to another to be com- 
pelled to enter, anchor, or pay duty in still another province. 

15th. Not to permit the enactment of any law for this 
province covering property of foreigners who die intestate, 
or covering fines and forfeitures which formerly applied to 
the King, or on territory of the latter, as long as it does not 
by ordinance determine to what funds to have same applied 
to, as the only department legally entitled from its economi- 
cal jurisdiction. 

16th. That this province should have its territorial con- 
stitution, with the privilege of sanctioning the general con- 
stitution of the United Provinces, as would be drafted by 
the Constituent Assembly. 

17th. That this province shall have the right to increase 
its regiments to the number required, name the officers of 
companies, regulate its militia for the protection of its 
liberty, not violating the right of the people to keep and 
possess arms. 

18th. That military despotism be duly and completely 
annihilated by constitutional measures that shall insure 
the inviolability of the people's sovereignty. 

19th. That the seat of government of the United Provinces 
be of necessity and indispensably situated outside the city 
of Buenos Aires. 

20th. The Constitution shall guarantee to the United 
Provinces a republican form of government, and shall insure 
each one against all domestic violence, usurpation of its 
rights and liberty and sovereign security. 

The above are the essential articles of the proposed con- 


stitution, which Artigas, as leader of the Uruguayans and 
the people of Uruguay, wanted as their Federal Constitu- 
tion for the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata, These 
represent the principles of the Constitution of the United 
States of America, which were later adopted by the Argen- 
tine Constitution of 1816. 

Had these principles been accepted since 1813, we would 
not have had to regret the bloody civil wars between the 
Orientales and the PorteSos (residents of Buenos Aires), 
and between Artigas and the Directorate of Buenos Aires, 
and which acceptance would have made the Uruguayan 
Republic an integral part of the United Provinces of to-day. 

The Deputies of Eastern Uruguay were not admitted to 
the Constituent Congress or Assembly for the reason that 
the Election Ordinance proclaimed by the Triumvirate, 
which exercised the executive power of the nation by its 
Article No. 5, prohibited the Deputies from receiving im- 
perative orders as national deputies. None of the provinces 
had taken part in the preparation of this ordinance, as the 
Triumvirate, following Spanish practice, really believed 
that the Buenos Aires government, as the heir of the Vice- 
roys, could dictate measures of a general character without 
the consent or opinion of the different settlements constitut- 
ing the nation. The government of the Triumvirate was 
aware of the opinion of Artigas, as he had expressed it to 
General Rondeau, to the effect that it was his aim to dis- 
regard the interference of Buenos Aires in the Oriental 
province soon after the termination of the war. 

Artigas so arranged the Instructions as to provide meas- 
ures to secure the autonomy of the Oriental province, while 
the Porteiios took measures to defeat his purpose. It is 
perhaps surprising that Artigas should have given instruc- 
tions to the Deputies; but, in fact, it was nothing out of 
the ordinary, as it was a case wherein the people were in 
accord with their leader as well as with the Deputies, and 
they were all in favor of the autonomy of their province. 
The idea of autonomy had been fostered in Antigas's mind 


since 1811, when, in a communication to the Paraguayan 
government, he stated : '^The Banda Oriental is the sister, 
the ally, of Buenos Aires, hut it has its own boundaries, 
which have been pointed out by nature/' 

The War Between Orientales and Portends 

The war between the Orientales and the Portenos — the 
Uruguayans and the residents of Buenos Aires respectively 
— broke out soon after the seizure of Montevideo. This 
war was provoked by the intolerance of the people of Buenos 
Aires toward the spirit and inclination shown locally among 
the Orientales. The Argentine provinces of Santa Fe, 
Cordoba, Entre Rios, and Corrientes, on accepting the pro- 
tection offered by Artigas, seceded from Argentina. Shortly 
after the secession of these provinces, Director Posadas 
started peace negotiations with Artigas, and on the 17th 
of August drafted a decree revoking a former one fixing a 
price on Artigas's head, acclaiming him in the later decree 
a faithful servant of the mother country, bestowing upon 
him the rank of Colonel, and conferring on him the office of 
General Commander of the Oriental campaign. 

Peace did not last very long, for on the 1st of January, 
1815, the forces of the Orientales, under Rivera, met those 
of Buenos Aires at Guayabos, under the command of Dor- 
rego, where the latter were completely routed. It was an 
encounter of brother against brother, as had been that of 
Carreras and O'Higgins at Maipo on August 26, 1815, and 
that of Bolivar and Castillos, at Cartagena, on the 12th of 
December, 1814. 

The government of Buenos Aires having changed hands, 
orders were given for the dislodgment of the Argentine 
forces from Montevideo, which was effected, and the with- 
drawal of the Argentine troops completed on the 25th of 
February following. The city was then occupied by the forces 
of the Orientales, who hoisted the first patriotic flag on the 
La Plata River, which has been called the Flag of Artigas, 
consisting of one white between two blue stripes, and a red 


stripe diagonally crossing the other three. The first na- 
tional coat-of-arms of Uruguay was adopted the same year. 
This emblem had as its center a balance — symbol of equality 
— and beyond, the radiant sun around which was the motto : 
'^With liberty neither do I offend nor fear/' 

Following the fall of the Argentine government under 
Alvear, a provisional law was enacted on May 5, 1815, which 
directed the installation of the Tucumdn Congress, which 
proclaimed the Independence of Argentina. 

Discord Among the Leaders op Argentina 

The deep-rooted differences between Artigas and the gov- 
ernment of Buenos Aires had become pronounced even 
among the leaders of "Mayo" (Argentina's month of Inde- 
pendence), as is described by Mitre, the reputed Argentine 
historian, in his story of Belgrano, as follows : "Hardly had 
a year elapsed when the revolutionary arena was destitute 
of its most renowned leaders — Moreno, the inspiration of 
the revolution, died while at sea; Alberti, member of the 
Mayo commission, died before he saw his work completed; 
Berruti and French, the two political orators of the cele- 
brated 25th of May (Independence Day), had been ex- 
patriated as of the criminal class; Rodriguez Pena, the 
energetic force of the preaching campaign which preceded 
the revolution ; Ascu6naga, who had so efficiently cooperated 
in its triumph ; Vieytes, the indefatigable companion of Bel- 
grano in the tasks that prepared the change of 1810; all 
of them ignominiously persecuted, and whose friends of other 
days referred to them as frenzied fanatics, frantic demo- 
crats, expatriates, moral perverts, blood-thirsty plunderers, 
infamous traitors, rebels, low-lived, cynical, seditious in- 
surgents, poison ivylike, and corruptors of the people." 

Zorrilla de San Martin says : "That struggle will continue 
indefinitely, it will continue in a rage and implacable, and 
the man will not be there until the tyrant appears ; revolu- 
tions, mutinies, tumultuous disorders, political conspiracies 
will follow each other without interruption within that 


chaotic nucleus where the political rulers will rise and fall 
— thanks for this, as in many cases, to intrigue — betraying 
the lofty' interests of the South American Independence. 

"It is not then possible that the capitan of blandengues 
(old-fashioned regiment), the man of sincerity, Artigas, 
will be a party to it, nor will he swear thereto the uncondi- 
tional submission of his people to any faction. He is the 
order ; he comes to ask for means to liberate his country, and 
will accept whatever means are given him and from whomso- 
ever he receives them, because he is ready to liberate it with 
those men, without those men, and against those men should 
it become necessary." 

These remarks of two historians of the La Plata give 
a complete idea of the grievous discords which held sway 
within the element that directed the revolution, and they 
also explain sufficiently well the state of anarchy which 
prevailed among the governing heads, just as it has hap- 
pened during momentous events which have revolutionized 
the world. Add to this the want of political education and 
of party discipline, as well as ideas of assumed authority 
inherited from the mother country and incompatible with 
political liberty, and you will form some conception of 
politics at that time. A group of well-meaning citizens, yet 
arrogant and ill-prepared to govern, imposing their will 
on the great majority of the citizens who were not heard in 
any manner. 

The haughtiness of Artigas is explained in the fact that he 
was the leader of the Orientales, the most fertile land of war- 
riors, the capital of which — Montevideo — proudly displayed 
the motto, ''Muy fiel y reconquistadora ciudad," and which 
had been and still was the best fortified place of the Rio de la 
Plata, and the rival of Buenos Aires. 

Artigas and the Orientales could not be mere satellites of 
the Committee which had assumed power. "The Banda 
Oriental has boundaries, she is the sister, the ally, to Buenos 
Aires," Artigas had said in his note of December 7, 1811, 
which was read publicly at the City of Asunci6n in Para- 


guay, amid the acclamations of the people, and adding: "The 
Orientales have sworn an irreconcilable hatred to all forms 
of tj^ranuy, and have sworn not to lay down their arms 
until every foreigner leaves the country." 

Artigas, desirous of securing autonomy for his loved 
Provincia Oriental, wished to embody in his instructions a 
federal constitution patterned after that of the United 
States of America, while on the other hand, individuals at 
the head of the Buenos Aires government, descendants of 
good Spanish stock, self-constituted authorities, could not 
conceive any other plan except one on the Spanish style, 
with all the exaggerated ideas of a unitary and despotic 
centralism as formulated by Carlos V. 

The Army of Argentina Rebels Against the Buenos 

Aires Government_, Installing General Rondeau 

at the Head 

General Alvear, not through his meritorious accom- 
plishments — he being a very young man at the time — but 
through the intrigues which were in vogue at the time, was 
appointed General of the Army of Peru, but the army 
leaders of Alto Peru refused to recognize him as such, there- 
by establishing a regrettable example of insubordination. 
The Army of Peru rose up in rebellion against Alvear on 
the 19th of December, 1814, demanding the continuance of 
Rondeau. Director Posadas, in view of the disobedience 
shown his government, renounced his authority on March 
9, 1815, but against all discretion the Constituent Assembly 
entitled Logia (lodge) Lautaro, which was a sort of political 
masonic lodge, named Alvear as Director, whose position 
became indefensible, since his defeat by Artigas with Do- 
rrego as Lieutenant, and since the army disregarded him. 

In the meantime, Belgrano and Rivadavia were searching 
Europe for a Prince to occupy the throne of the Provincias 
Unidas (United Provinces) independently of Spain. The 
monarchial scheme was shared by San Martin, Belgrano, 
Rivadavia, Sarratea, and Puyrred6n. Director Posadas 


comment was, "What difference does it make whether the 
ruler-to-be be called Desk, Table or Bench, Emperor or 

Following the battle of Guayabos, the government of 
Buenos Aires had sent ambassadors to arrange terms of 
peace with Artigas, peace being endorsed by Artigas under 
condition that the City of Montevideo be surrendered and 
the forces withdrawn, which was accepted by Buenos Aires, 
and its forces evacuating on February 27, 1815, as before 

Alvear would not give in, and signed a communication 
which placed the provinces of the Rio de la Plata under 
the authority of England, but this note, which was to have 
been delivered by Minister Garcia to Strangford, failed to 
be delivered, Garcia limiting himself to state to the 
English Minister that the Provinces of the La Plata had 
depended on the support of England in order to save them- 
selves from falling into the clutches of Spain. A subsequent 
revolution in Buenos Aires destroyed the power of Alvear, 
who sought refuge on an English battleship, and the Con- 
stituent Assembly dissolved. 

The United Provinces of the La Plata, in congress as- 
sembled at Tucuman, declared their independence on the 
9th of July, 1816. 

The Last Portuguese Invasion 

The Portuguese invaded territory of the Oriental province 
with an army of 10,000 men, commanded by Lecor, for the 
purpose of expelling Artigas and taking possession of the 
territory comprising the Banda Oriental. The Oriental 
forces, though weakened, offered stubborn resistance, and 
Director Puyrredon intimated to the invader that the terri- 
tory should be abandoned, and proposed to Artigas his 
assistance, on condition that the Oriental Division render 
obedience to the Directorate and to the Congress, and that 
the Argentine flag be hoisted instead. Artigas most em- 
phatically opposed the proposition, ordered the Argentine 


document to be consigned to the flames, and started prepara- 
tions for the defense of his country. We quote from Ar- 
tigas's note, in answer to the Argentine proposal, the follow- 
ing: ^'^The leader of the Orientales has at all times demon- 
strated that he loves his country too well to sacrifice this 
noble patrimony for the contemptible price of necessity/' 
He gathered 4,000 men, who were unable to check the ad- 
vance of the Portuguese into Montevideo, which had been 
abandoned by its small patriotic garrison. 

During the rule of Puyrredon, the political parties were 
divided into Unitario and Federal. The Federal's preten- 
sion was that the province of Buenos Aires, which yielded 
larger returns, should not be under the national govern- 
ment, but that it be governed under autonomy, or in other 
words, he was asking for just the same conditions that the 
Banda Oriental of Uruguay wanted. Among the leaders 
of the Federal Party were Dorrego, Agrelo, General French, 
the Anchorenas, and other influential personages. They 
had as their organ a daily called La Cronica, where it was 
claimed that the Director Puyrredon was implicated with 
the Portuguese who had invaded Uruguay. This expose 
gave an excuse to Puyrredon to have them deported to the 
Antilles, together with the Oriental patriots. Colonels 
Pagola and Valdenegros, and other men of distinction. On 
arriving at Baltomire, the deported patriots issued a mani- 
festo reading: ''What is this crime of ours if among the 
many facts that confront us we have believed that the gov- 
ernment is implicated in schemes of perfidy and treachery, 
and that it had called and entreated the Portuguese to in- 
vade the Oriental territory." It is not strange therefore 
that Artigas should have believed Puyrredon to be a traitor. 

The Orientales Abandoned by the Argentinos 

After several engagements with the Portuguese, Artigas 
proceeded to Entre Rios to secure reinforcements in Argen- 
tina, but instead of assistance he was received by the chief- 
tain Ramirez, his former prot6g6, in a hostile and warlike 


attitude, and who, in a consequent encounter with Artigas, 
defeated the latter, who was compelled to withdraw into 

Artigas, an unnoticed hero, was slandered by nearly all 
the Argentine historians, but his instructions of 1813, which 
were newly brought to light in 1868, when they were found 
in the city of Asuncion, together with other documents bear- 
ing his signature, place the leader of the Orientales among 
the first statesmen of America, both in thought and action. 
(Refer to the Book, "Instructions of the Year 1813," pub- 
lished by Miranda, Libreria Nacional, Montevideo, 1916.) 

Opinion Given by President Monroe's Commission to 
Argentina in 1818 Regarding Artigas 

The testimony given by the United States Government 
Commission, which was sent to Argentina during the Monroe 
administration to study the political situation at the time 
the Argentine government asked of the great northern re- 
public to recognize the independence of the United Provinces 
of the La Plata, proves the truth of our statements. The 
members of this commission who went to Argentina aboard 
the frigate "Congress" in 1818, were Cesar A Rodney, John 
Graham, and Theodore Bland. President Monroe, on ex- 
plaining to the United States Congress the purpose of this 
commission, officially requested that provision be made for 
the necessary funds to defray the expenses of the said com- 
mission. It was at the memorable session of the United 
States Congress in March of 1818, during the five days 
from March 21 to 28, which were exclusively devoted to the 
Argentine matter, that Clay was inspired to express the 
following sentiment: "Artigas appears to be in truth, a 
republican, a man of strong mind and strong understand- 
ing, brave, active, intelligent, devoted to his country, and 
possessing the entire confidence of the people of whom he 
is chief." (Smith of Maryland, U. S. A. Congress, March 
28, 1818.) 


It was at the most critical period of the struggles of 
Artigas and his brave gauchos, trapped as they were by 
their enemies, that the North American commission arrived. 

Clay maintained that instead of a commission, a govern- 
ment representative should be sent, and that the independ- 
ence of the Spanish-American republics should be recognized. 
The government's attitude was to defer recognition until re- 
ceipt of report, to which Clay answered by quoting Washing- 
ton's remarks: "Born in a land of freedom, my fervent 
prayers and best wishes are irresistibly roused wherever I see 
an oppressed nation break the barriers that separate her 
from freedom." "The United States of America, Clay con- 
tinued, "must not wait for the Kings to recognize the only 
other republic besides ours, in order to do likewise. If the 
health of the European monarchies depends upon the death 
of the republics of America, then the security of the Ameri- 
can republic must not be restrained by the others born at 
her side." Clay concluded his oration by saying: ''The only 
champion of democracy in these regions is the hrave and 
chivalrous Artigas" 

In his report to President Monroe, Commissioner Rodney 
sent extended and detailed information covering all the 
events which took place in the La Plata region since its 
discovery, including all documents obtained in Buenos Aires, 
the central point of the territory dominated by the enemies 
of Artigas, to whom the Argentine historians referred as 
the bandit, captain of smugglers, highwayman, blood- 
thirsty bandit, and other similar not endearing terms. The 
Rodney report ends with this statement : "It is fair to add, 
nevertheless, that General Artigas is considered by persons 
worthy of belief, to be a consistent supporter of the inde- 
pendence of his country. A decisive opinion on such a 
delicate question could be hardly expected from me inas- 
much as my position does not permit me full view of the 
condition of the territory as a whole. I have not yet had 
the satisfaction of a formal interview with General Artigas, 
who is unquestionably a man possessing singular and ex- 


ceptional talents. But were I to dare conjecture, I do not 
believe it impossible that in this as well as in the majority 
of local disputes there is fault on both sides. It is to be 
lamented that they are in open hostility." Commissioner 
Graham said: "General Artigas and his followers claim 
that the intervention of the Buenos Aires government is to 
dominate them and to compel them to submit to conditions 
which will rob them of the privileges of self-government 
which they believe they are entitled to demand. They state 
that they are desirous of joining the people of the western 
bank of the river, hut not in such a loay as to he left siihject 
to the tyranny of Buenos Aires. This war has had as its 
origin a combination of causes, wherein perhaps both fac- 
tions have something to complain of and something for 
which to repent. Mutual interests demand their union, but 
much discretion and moderation are needed to secure it ; in 
fact, a great deal more than what can at this moment be 
expected from the irritated spirit of some of the leading 
personages of both sides." 

At the same time that the American envoys were writing 
these reports, Puyrredon wrote to San Martin as follows: 
"Artigas has been completely routed by the Portuguese and 
compelled to seek shelter in the forests with very few of 
his bandits." San Martin had sent two messengers from 
Chile with instructions to go to the Artigas camp for con- 
ciliation, but this move was unfavorably received by Puyrre- 
don, who reproached San Martin for having interfered, and 
ordered the messengers to return from Mendoza without 
interviewing Artigas. 

The report of the third commissioner, Mr. Bland, says: 
"Artigas put the plans of the Buenos Aires government to 
the test, demanding that the Banda Oriental he considered 
and treated as a state. This demand was considered at 
Buenos Aires as the most irrational criminal offense and 
defiant rehellion against the only lawful government of the 
United Provinces, which government, according to its doc- 
trine, emhraced all of the viceroyship of which Buenos 


Aires had always been and by right was then and should 
continue to he the capital whence all authority should 
emanate. Artigas opposed and denounced this as a mani- 
festation of an unjust and arbitrary spirit of domination on 
the part of Buenos Aires, and to which he could not in any 
manner submit. Artigas, though driven first in one direc- 
tion and then in another, attacked by the Portuguese on 
one side and by the patriots of Buenos Aires on the other, 
and on guard against an unexpected attack by the 
Spaniards, has the entire population in a state of submis- 
sion to the power of his will. It may be said that Artigas 
and his gauchos valiantly defend their homes, their country, 
and their rights, and that the King of Portugal plans to 
enlarge his domains by adding the province to Brazil." In 
speaking of the peasants of the province Oriental, Bland 
says : ^'They are the most formidable guerillas that have ever 
lived." They rank second to hone in physical prowess, and 
the deeds of valor ascribed to them by far surpass those of 
the Parthes, the Escitas, and the Cossacks of the Don. 

"Revolutionary America had in the culmination of its 
justifiable revolution, and from the very beginning, one true 
adherent and armed supporter, Artigas. Yet all is not 
known, except by the people who guard within their soul 
the glory of that tradition, for it happens that some of the 
most interesting and appealing facts about the La Plata 
revolution have not either been written or propagated. This 
came to me as I read the excellent resume, written in such 
clear and precise style, which the illustrious noble, Rufino 
Blanco Fombona, presented at the Madrid conferences, re- 
garding the origin of contemporary America." 

"It is locally admitted that the revolution of the extreme 
south originated and was maintained in a monarchial atmos- 
phere, which appears to be relatively true, as no mention 
is made of Artigas, instigator of democracy, harassed and 
pursued like a beast of the jungle, by the monarchial 
oligarchy of the Posadas and the Puyrredons, and then 
slandered in transient history by writers inheriting the 


hatred of monarchial politici. A fundamental revision of 
comparative worth is a new task on the history of this 
region of the south, and when this revision has been com- 
pleted and certain ghastly and mediocre figures have passed 
to a secondary plane, one figure will continue to grow to 
gigantic proportions as a figure worthy of America, the 
chieftain with lionlike grasp who in 1813 hoisted the flag 
of integral organization and clearly defined republicanism — 
which Bolivar also took up soon after, though in a less 
fervent form, in opposition to the monarchial program of 
San Martin." (From Jos6 Enrique Rodo, in Motives de 

Ignorance regarding the true history of the La Plata, and 
ignorance as to the true part played by Artigas, are the two 
main reasons for the many errors which we find in books 
of American history. In a book recently published in the 
City of New York (Appleton, 1918), and written by Don 
Enrique Santibdiiez, former instructor of universal history 
in the preparatory school in the City of Mexico, we read in 
substance the following : "Artigas represented in that chaos 
the chieftain whom we very frequently find in Latin America, 
who does not recede from any act of brigandage or false 
report, provided he can dominate his unfortunate country." 
This Mexican historian honestly believes that Artigas was 
another Pancho Villa. He is a new grave-digger for the 
Oriental hero who, to quote Mitre, the Argentine historian, 
"Has been buried definitively." "We two," wrote Mitre 
to Lopez (another Argentine historian), after a dispute, 
"have shown the same predilection for the great men and 
the same repulsion for the disorganized barbarians, like 
Artigas, whom we have buried historically/' 

But the historically dead one returns to life, and an 
aureole of glory, which no other Platenese caudillo (chieftain) 
or hero possesses, now crowns his head, for the reason that he 
was the only democrat of his time in the La Plata region, and 
the only one who did not doubt the ultimate triumph of the 


The Orientales Take Up Arms Against Brazil 

The Banda Oriental was annexed to Brazil, under the title 

of Provincia Cisplatina, thus forming part of the kingdom 

of Portugal. Soon after, on the 21st of 

Invasion of Thirty- 
three— 1825— September, 1822, Brazil declared its inde- 
pendence from Portugal, with the usual 
result — a conflict between the two nations, the Brazilians 
being compelled, under their leader, Lecor, to withdraw 
from Montevideo to Canelones. 

The Oriental Knights, members of a patriotic society, sent 
a commission to Buenos Aires to propose the incorporation 
of a Banda Oriental with the United Provinces, and so pre- 
sented themselves before the cabinet minister, Rivadavia. 
The latter remonstrated, stating that he could not accept 
the proposal until presented by a regularly constituted 
government. This provoked Lavalleja, future leader of 
the famous Thirty-three, to revolt. But on being pursued, 
and not having any resources at his command, he was 
unable to offer resistance, and therefore migrated into 

On the 20th of October following, the Cabildo of Monte- 
video decided to enact the law exacted by the Buenos Aires 
government, and so the neighbor communities in meeting 
assembled unanimously declared : "That the province as 
a whole, and particularly the capital, placed itself freely 
and of its own free will under the protection of the Buenos 
Aires government, that they considered the act of incor- 
poration with the Portuguese monarchy null, criminal, and 
arbitrary — the act having been sanctioned by the Congress 
of 1821, composed largely of employees under the pay of the 
Portuguese King, and that the province of Oriental of Uru- 
guay did not belong, and should never belong, to any other 
power, state, or nation than that of Rio de la Plata, of which 
it had been and still was a part." 

Three days after the issuance of the above declaration, 
the Portuguese General, in compliance with instructions 


received from Lisbon, abandoned the town to Lecor, and 
he himself set sail for Portugal. 

The patriots Lavalleja, Manuel Oribe, Zufriategui, and 
others got together and jointly entered a binding agreement 
to invade the province of Oriental, and accordingly invaded 
the territory on April 19, 1825, on the Agraciada coast. 
These venturesome heroes were thirty-three in number. They 
swore on their knees before the flag to liberate their native 
land or die in the attempt. The motto inscribed on the 
banner of liberty, which Lavalleja caused to wave, read : 
"Liberty or Death." 

The group of patriots under this banner was augmented 
by the forces of Rivera and others, and on the seventh of 
May laid siege to the city of Montevideo. On the 20th of 
August the National Assembly convened at Florida and 
named Lavalleja Captain General. On the 25th of August 
the said assembly declared the independence of the Pro- 
vincia Oriental and its incorporation with the Argentine 
provinces, and so advised the government of Buenos 

On the 20th of the following September, the Orientales, 
under Rivera, defeated the Brazilian forces at Riucon de 
las Gallinas. General Lavalleja routed another Brazilian 
army at the battle of Sarandi, under the cry, "Shoulder 
Carbine, Sabre in Hand," which triumph was enthusias- 
tically celebrated in Buenos Aires. 

The Argentine Congress declared the incorporation of 
the Provincia Oriental with the United Provinces, and 
demanded its release from the governmental authorities 
of Rio de Janeiro. This brought about Brazil's declaration 
of war, which the Argentine government answered by the in- 
tervention of its army in crossing the Uruguay, thence 
marching north and encamping on the plains of Ytuzaingo. 
The combined forces of Argentinos and Orientales consisted 
of 7,000 men, against 9,000 Brazilians, including 3,600 Aus- 
trians sent by the Emperor of Austria as a nucleus for the 
Brazilians' forces, to his political associate, the Emperor 


of Brazil, the Austrian General, Bauer. There were many 
Austrian oflScers, members of the Brazilian Stafif. 

The republican forces were rewarded with victory, and 
in due time a treaty of peace was signed, wherein England 
took part by guaranteeing the complete independence of 
the Provincia Oriental on the 27th of August, 1828. The 
Uruguayan Constitution was sworn to on the 18th of July, 
1830, and recently amended on March 1, 1919. 

The War Against the Despot Rosas 

General Rivera, who was elected the first President, 
served four years, and President Oribe, elected to succeed 
_ „ „ him, did not serve out his term, which was 

The New Troy . ' ' 

interrupted by a revolution, and Oribe 
obliged to resign the presidency. Rivera, who again occu- 
pied the presidential chair, declared war in 1839 against 
the despot Rosas of Buenos Aires. 

Oribe, on giving up the presidency, placed himself at the 
disposal of the tyrant, who was then ruling as an absolute 
king. Oribe, becoming Rosas' sword, relentlessly per- 
secuted the Unitarians, enemies of the latter. After 
defeating all of Rosas's enemies, Oribe, who was an able 
general, came to Montevideo with a powerful army of 14,000 
men, besieging the city on the 16th of February, 1843. The 
siege lasted for nine years, and gained for the city the title 
of "Nueva Troya." During this prolonged siege, the par- 
tisans of the despot Rosas dominated the whole of the 
Oriental campaign. Montevideo was the retreat of the most 
illustrious Argentine enemies of Rosas, the "Unitarios" 
(Unitarians), among them Mitre, Paz, Plorencio Varela, 
and a good many Europeans, like Garibaldi, who was at the 
head of the Italian legion. 

Rosas was the most cruel tyrant that ever ruled in 
America. He established a despotic form of government, 
over which he ruled for twenty years, during which time 
he mercilessly persecuted his enemies and confiscated their 
property. He leaned upon and catered to the lowest element, 


and his audacity reached such a stage that he had his photo- 
graph placed on the altar of a church in place of one of 
the images. He was inimical to all forms of civilization 
and oppressed all foreigners. The laws were proclaimed 
under the caption : "Death to the unclean, loathsome, and 
savage Unitarios, enemies of God and Man. Long live the 
Restorer of the law." His adherents were the most dreaded 
assassins. "La Mazorca," organized by Rosas, was an organ- 
ization of bandits, associated for the purpose of whipping 
and murdering all Unitarios without any process of law. 

It was this despotic cruelty that drove the Unitarios and 
their families into Montevideo and Chile. Two thousand 
two hundred Argentinos were murdered during this reign 
of terror and tyranny. His outrages against the French 
caused the French fleet to blockade the port of Buenos Aires, 
and it was then that he added to his title, that of "Restaura- 
dor de las leyes," the one of "Defensor de la Independencia 
Americana" (Defender of American Independence), when 
instead he should have acquired the title of "Defensor de la 
barbarie pampeana" (Defender of pampean cruelty). 

The Triple Alliance Against Rosas 

It appears almost incredible to-day to read of the atroci- 
ties committed by Rosas, but nevertheless it remains a fact. 
He was a bloodthirsty emulator of Neron. "Amalia," by 
the well-known author Jos6 Marmol, gives a very good idea 
of who Rosas was and what took place under his dominion. 
Rosas claimed to be a federalist, but had no conception 
of what a federal government should be, as his government 
was as absolute as the most exaggerated form that could 
be found in any country in the world. All of Argentina 
was a gathering of savage gauchos, who controlled in their 
territory in the various provinces, also as absolute owners 
of the land. 

In December, 1850, the defensive government of Monte- 
video celebrated a treaty of ofifensive-defensive alliance with 
Brazil and the Argentine provinces of Entre Rios and Cor- 


rientes, against Rosas. The Argentine General, Urquiza, 
crossed the Uruguay with his troops to attack Oribe, and 
thus deprive Rosas of the former's support. The Brazilians 
also entered Oriental territory. Oribe was soon after 
abandoned by his best leaders, and nearly all of his army, 
composed mostly of Argentinos, joined Urquiza's troops, 
and Oribe was compelled to capitulate on October 3, 1851, 
thereby terminating the siege of Montevideo, which had 
lasted for a period of eight years, seven months, and twenty- 
two days. 

The allied forces, numbering 30,000, invaded the province 
of Buenos Aires, finally accomplishing the overthrow of 
Rosas on the third day of February, 1852. He sailed in an 
English vessel to England, where he died several years later. 
Thus was fulfilled the prophecy of MArmol, the poet who 
said : "Ni el polvo de tus huesos America tendr^" (Not even 
the dust of your bones will America retain). 

War Against Lopez, the Tyrant op Paraguay 

Another tyrannical government had been implanted in 
Paraguay by the dictator Francia and the members of the 
L6pez family, his successors, making it necessary for the 
Argentinos, Orientales and Brasileros to organize a triple 
alliance to demolish it (treaty of May 1, 1865). No more 
bloody war has been fought on American soil than that be- 
tween the Lopez forces and those of the nations allied 
against him. The conflict lasted five years. Paraguay was 
ruined and its man power almost completely annihilated 
defending a tyrant ruler, not defending the land, as the allies 
did not intend to acquire territory by conquest, seeking only 
to rid the republics of America of a despotic government 
which was a constant menace to their comfort. 

Paraguay was then the first military power in South 
America, and her position would have entitled her to the 
sobriquet of "The Germany of America." Her ruler, L6pez, 
had ideas in common with the would-be world-conqueror ex- 
Kaiser, leading his people to believe that he was fighting for 


the liberty of the country which he ruled as a tyrant, just as 
the Kaiser succeeded in making his subjects believe that the 
allied nations had provoked the war as a pretext to deprive 
them of their commerce and rob them of their wealth. These 
two absolute monarchs differed, in that L6pez died fighting 
the enemy, while Wilhelm II, after careful planning and 
watching for the opportunity that finally came, succeeded in 
making his flight to neutral territory though he yet had a 
powerful army and navy at his command. 

''Paraguay lost over 500,000 men in this war, of whom 160,- 
000 died in the field of battle, 40,000 among those executed 
and tortured to death, 200,000 victims of cholera epidemic, 
etc., and lastly, a vast number died of hunger." (Geography 
of Paraguay, by Hector F. Decoud, Asuncion, 1896.) 

The citizens of Paraguay have familiarized themselves 
with the depraved record of L6pez, as is proven by the 
earnest protest recently made at Asuncion when some one 
planned to honor the memory of the tyrant Lopez. His case 
should be treated in like manner as that of the Kaiser, who 
is being cursed by his former countrymen as having been the 
instigator of the most terrible catastrophe ever recorded in 
history, for Paraguay's position in American politics at that 
time was identical to that of Germany in European poli- 
tics until destroyed by the recent war which proved the 
Kaiser's undoing, under which government the people as 
a whole were further advanced in a general way but polit- 
ically the least competent — the government of Germany 
having been conducted as were those of medieval times. The 
political education of the people is worth far more than all 
German "Kultur" methods such as make her unfit for real 
self-government, due to the fact that her subjects have been 
brought up to obey and given no opportunity to practice any 
form of free government. 

The Oriental Republic in 1885 exempted Paraguay from 
payment of the war debt and returned to the latter all the 
trophies of war which the Orientales had captured during 
the conflict, with the statement that the war had not been 


waged against the noble Paraguayans but against the despot 

The Causes Which Led to the Independence of South 
America prom Spain 

In the chapter wherein Professor Shepherd explains the 
causes which led to the Independence of Spanish America, 
he says : "Few movements in history have been so much mis- 
understood and few have displayed such a complexity of 
purposes and methods, and none has presented a stranger 
outcome as the series of revolutions which from 1810 to 1826 
destroyed the power of Spain in America." The struggle is 
best explained by regarding it from a threefold point of 
view: Spanish, Spanish-American and European, "In the 
first place," says Shepherd, "it was a fight between Span- 
iards of the New World and a conservative government of 
the Old World." We would say more fittingly that it was 
a struggle between the old spirit of Spain anterior to Carlos 
V and the absolute ideas of domination of the latter, which 
destroyed Spanish liberty. In Spain, Padilla and the Comu- 
neros revolted against the absolute power of Carlos V (who 
ruled according to the German way) and were defeated, 
but the triumph of the absolute monarchy proved disas- 
trous for Spain, as America could not become the victim 
of tyrannical government, without protesting, which was 
done by the War of the Comuneros of Paraguay in 1723, 
who in their proclamation resolved : ''That the authority of 
the people was superior to even that of the Mngj" This 
revolution was suppressed and its leader executed after he 
resigned his command, but there remained within the breast 
of each Paraguayan and Platense a concealed animosity 
towardvS the tyranny of Spain. Shepherd credits the Indians 
as being neutral or inclined to favor the government of the 
metropolis; this may be true of the Indians and Mestizos 
of Peru and other Andean districts, trained in the school of 
despotism or absolute government of the Incas. These In- 
dians did not detect any difference between their old form of 


government and that administered bj Spain. Indian the- 
ocracy did not recognize citizenship, and had it not been 
that the Spaniards forced the Indians to work, these would 
have perhaps preferred the Spanish form of government. 
But such was not the case with the pampean Indian of the 
La Plata, the Charrtia of Uruguay, the Arauoano of Chile, 
and the Guaranl of the Paraguay and of the Bolivian plains, 
who were never subdued, who always maintained their inde- 
pendence and were the first to assist in the expulsion of the 
Spaniards, and also contributed the larger number of de- 
fenders to the cause of independence, many of the city resi- 
dents remaining neutral, preferring a tranquil existence, 
whether as subjects of Si3ain or of any other dominion. 

Other factors which Shepherd and many other historians 
believe had an influence on the independence of the South 
American colonies were the ideas evoked in connection with 
the American and French revolutions, as well as those ad- 
vanced by the philosophers Montesquieu, Rousseau and Vol- 
taire, neither of which was known but slightly in South 
America. Books and printed matter were not at that time 
world-known, and besides, the great majority of South 
Americans, particularly the residents of the champaign, 
who took an active part in the revolutions, the real patriots, 
were unable to read. It was not ideas, it was not what 
the philosophers said that aroused those patriots, but it 
was the spirit of freedom in the Indian and the Creole before 
Spain's time, during the rule of Spain and after the victory 
over Spain. It is that same spirit that causes them to revolt 
and take up arms against the seat of government when it 
no longer respects their rights. These are the horrible revo- 
lutions which so alarm the Europeans ivhen contrasting the 
South American revolutionists with the meek and tolerant 
people of some of the countries of Europe, among them the 
Germans, Austrians, etc., who will stand for the most tyran- 
nical or despotic form of government. 

The moment for which the South Americans had so long- 
ingly waited to accomplish their desires came when Napo- 


leon invaded Spain, as we hereinbefore stated. We must 
insist that the independence was not brought about by the 
dreamers and thinkers, but by the plainsmen, men of action 
— the gauchos of the La Plata, the 'llaneros (plainsmen) of 
Venezuela, and Nueva Granada (now Colombia), Bolivar 
and Artigas, the "Caudillos," who embody the souls of 
peoples, and San Martin, Sucre and Cordoba, the generals 
who win the battles for freedom. 



Indian Council — Board of Traffic and Commerce — The Royal Audience — Consulates — 
The Viceroys — The Governors — The Cabildos — Town Mayors — Spanish Municipal Laws 
— Padilla and the Comuneros. 

Indian Council. 

The discovery and settlement of America, which placed 
such vast domains under the authority of the King of Spain, 
had an immediate influence on the public administration of 
the Metropolis whereby the opportunity came to create new 
special authorities entrusted exclusively with American 

The judicial concept on Spanish domination of America, 
decreed complete separation of its affairs and those of the 
Metropolis, the only tie binding America to Spain being 
the authority of the Sovereign who governed Spain 
under the mandate of a public law which insured the people 
a certain participation in public matters, particularly as to 
the levying of taxes voted upon by the Cortes (Senate and 
Congress of Deputies in Si)ain). America became the ex- 
clusive property of the Sovereign with all rights vested in 
him and combining the Executive, Legislative and Judicial 
powers, with authority thereby to tax and alienate the prop- 
erty if he so desired. 

Consequently, America did not form a governmental part 
of Spain, it being only and exclusively the property or 

» From the " Historical Manual of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay," by Santiago 
Bollo, Libreria Nacionali Montevideo. 


dominion of the Sovereign. We will see further on how at 
the beginning of the struggle for the independence of South 
America that this judicial concept of sovereignty was to be 
the legal doctrine to be invoked for its severance from the 

The supreme authority on whom rested all matters rela- 
tive to America consisted of an Advisory Board which bore 
the title "Consejo Real de Indias" (Royal Indian Council) 
which body was appointed as were all other supreme 
colonial authorities, directly by the Crown. 

One of the functions of the Council was the drafting of 
Ordinances and Laws pertaining to civil as well as econo- 
mical and religious matters which it presented for final 
approbation to the King who on finding them to his liking 
would publish them and order their enforcement. The 
Council also attended to the revision of all plans by the 
viceroys who, on the Council's mandate, would submit them 
to the King. 

Board of Commerce 

The Board of Commerce established at Sevilla, about the 
year 1605, was also a collegiate body composed of President, 
Treasurer, Accountant, three Advocate Judges and Prose- 
cutor. The functions of this Board were to attend to all 
matters relative to commerce and navigation in connection 
with America, to directly supervise the dispatching and 
registering of all vessels destined to take care of the Indian 
trade, and to exercise civil and criminal jurisdiction on all 
cases arising therefrom. 

The Royal Audience 

The Royal Audience had judicial supervision within the 
territory to which it was assigned and had the authority as 
a second and third higher tribunal to hear civil and crim- 
inal cases originating before the lower courts, and having 
besides, the right to pass on the appointments of those 


The members of these Audiences were appointed by the 
King with whom this assembly communicated directly and 
which privilege contributed largely to earning for it the 
high consideration in which it was held. 


The Indian Consulates, established since 1543, composed 
an institution adapted to the commerce of America and at- 
tended to the settlement of all disagreements between the 

The election of the Consuls was conducted by two graded 
bodies, or in other words, the carriers in a body selected 
thirty of their number who, in turn, elected the Consuls. 

The Viceroys 

The executive power in the territory of the colonies rested 
on the Viceroys, who, as the name indicates, were the direct 
representatives or delegates of the Crown and vesting in 
themselves such political powers as the Sovereign had not 
already delegated to some one else. 

The vast American domains had during the colonial 
period, only four viceroj^ships, namely: Mexico, Nueva 
Granada, Peru and Rio de la Plata, organized according to 
the latter, in the year 1776. 

As the Crown's representatives, the Viceroys had supreme 
jurisdiction over all matters and under no other appellate 
authority than the King himself. They had the right to 
modify judicial deliberations, and, in fact, provide them- 
selves with the supreme authority of the King, without any 
other limitation than what was expressly prohibited. 

The Viceroys had under their immediate jurisdiction 
several Governors, each viceroyship being divided into 
gubernatorial districts which, in some cases, embraced large 
territorial areas. The Viceroys were also Commanders-in- 
chief of land and sea forces with supreme military au- 
thority and the privilege to appoint and discharge the com^ 
manding officers of the land forces. 


Such responsibility attached to the office of Viceroy to 
which supposedly highly respectable men of the Metropolis 
were appointed, that they were prohibited from coming to 
America in company with their wives and sons and the 
wives of the latter. 


Each Governor and Intendant comprised the Executive 
Department in their respective gubernatorial district into 
which the viceroyship was divided. They were, as a rule, 
appointed by the Viceroy, but these appointments were 
temporary, as the appointment only became effective after 
confirmation by the King. Some of these appointments 
were not confirmed at times and therefore the provisional 
Governor would retire in favor of the King's appointee. 

As a necessary qualification, the prospective Governor 
had to be a native born citizen of Spain and he should bind 
himself not to contract marriage in the territory where he 
was to assume authority. 

The general functions of the Governors were the same as 
those of the Viceroys within their respective jurisdiction, 
excepting that the latter were superior in authority. When- 
ever a vacancy occurred, whether through death or for any 
other reason, or the appointee failed to take up the duties 
of his office at the time, the Royal Audience would take 
charge until the appointment of a successor or until the 
original appointee was ready to exercise the duties of his 

Cabildos (Town Assemblies) 

The only authority that did not emanate directly from 
the Metropolis amidst the various regulations which com- 
pletely absorbed the rights and privileges of the native 
born American, was the institution called Cabildo or Ayun- 
tamiento (Town Assembly) whose members were elected 
from among Spaniards or Americans without distinction, 


only that the candidate be a resident of the town and a man 
of sound moral character. Theoretically, the Cabildo was 
the genuine representative body of the people, an adulter- 
ated imitation of the ancient Comunas of the Metropolis 
which shared in the carrying out of public questions through 
the deputies sent from the towns by the efforts of the 
Comunas, to the General Congress. 

We have stated that this institution represented the 
people only theoretically, for although the election of its 
members was originally by popular acclaim, besides holding 
elections to name a successor to fill each vacancy occurring, 
the truth was that the sovereign reserved unto himself the 
right to name a few of its members who were none other 
than the five appointed for life, who naturally had more 
prestige than those who were elected annually, not alone 
for the reason of their owning the position but also in 
recognition of the origin of their authority as the repre- 
sentatives of the interests of the Sovereign. 

The municipal power of Spain had suffered the first of 
the illegal attacks of the throne, and at the time to 
which we refer it had been deprived of its attributes and 
independence. It existed only as a ridiculous image of 
what it once had been. National sovereignty was originally 
concentrated in the municipal power. It was the legiti- 
mate organ of expression of each community's social inter- 
ests, but the fusion of the divers monarchies and lordships 
into which the peninsula was divided, together with the 
plan of centralization evolved by Fernando the Catholic 
and consummated by Carlos V accomplished the ruin of 
that municipal power. By the time of the conquest there 
remained not a trace of this power in the Cabildos. Subse- 
quent Indian legislation reduced these institutions to an 
absolute nonentity and reversed the order of their functions 
by completely surrendering them to the despotic and arbi- 
trary government of the Metropolis. 

Carlos V, King of Spain and Emperor of Germany, was 
not a Spaniard. He was German on his father's side and 


by education, and was not even familiar with the Spanish 
language at the time of his occupation of the throne. He 
surrounded himself from the very beginning of his reign 
with a German Court and a government conducted k la 
Germanica, in no different manner than was the recently 
deposed German Kaiser, the instigator of the war that has 
destroyed Europe. Carlos V died insane while confiued 
in a convent, and the Carlos V of the present day, as a 
criminal also, will in time be called to justice. 

Were the Spaniards to familiarize themselves with the 
history of Carlos V, there would be no German sympathiz- 
ers among them, inasmuch as it was the Germanic system 
that brought about the ruination of Spain and Spanish 

Whenever the Cabildo sat in private session it was de- 
nominated Cabildo Cerrado (Reserved Assembly), but when 
the public was admitted to its deliberations it was called 
Cabildo Abierto (Open Assembly). The latter would con- 
vene either on petition by the people or of its own volition, 
the conduct of its deliberations being similar to that of 
assemblies of the old democracies. 


The corregidores were the exclusive functionaries of 
those districts where the indigenes under subjection were 
congregated, their duties being to impart justice in cases 
where Indians and Spaniards were in dispute, to represent 
the former in all such cases and more specially to train 
them in all the industries, strictly prohibiting them from 
keeping any of the profit from their own work. These 
oflScials were also appointed by the Crown. 

Spanish Municipal Rights 
In Spain as well as in America at a later period, munic- 


ipal power was vested in the Cabildos whose members were 
the direct representatives of the people and 
ComunenJy^CMem- ^^® medium throiigh whom the necessary 
opposing th7 en- arrangements were made in the selection 

ScSV? 0^ Deputies to be sent to the Cortes who in 

turn, as we have learned, drafted legisla- 
tion on matters relative to taxation and were also re- 
sponsible for the security of the fundamental laws of the 
nation, should these at any time be in danger of being ab- 
sorbed by the power of the Sovereign. 

The elections of Deputies to the Cortes were conducted 
at the Town Hall or Cabildo headquarters under the chair- 
manship of the Cabildo. The powers with which they were 
invested clearly specified the wishes of the civic bodies they 
represented, leaving it to the people to be the judges with 
the privilege to pass on the use or misuse that the Deputies 
would make of these powers. Thus, the Cabildos were 
primarily the bodies entrusted to guard the rights and 
privileges of the civic communities as well as to take the 
lead should the people revolt at any time against the viola- 
tion of their prerogative. Such was the action taken in 
1520 when on the occasion of Carlos V leaving Spanish 
territory to go to Germany, the Cortes met in session at 
Santiago de Galicia to confer on a subsidy which was asked 
by the King to pay for the expenses of his trip. 

Therefore, taking advantage of the opportunity afforded 
by the Cortes, the majority of the Spanish cities sent their 
Deputies with explicit instructions demanding that the 
King stay within the confines of the nation, or in case he 
should absent himself therefrom, to leave part of the na- 
tional territory in the hands of the various cities and not to 
centralize it in one foreign regent, thereby violating 
monarchial laws. 

Padilla and the Comuneros 

These Deputies had express orders not to take part in the 
voting on the question of subsidy until action had been 


taken by the King on the various petitions made through 
them by their respective cities. But instead, the Deputies 
went before the Cortes, tied hand and foot, voting for all 
measures that the King through his minister demanded of 
them. This disloyal action was the signal for a general 
insurrection by the cities represented, and their taking up 
of arms in defense of their trodden rights. The first one to 
give the signal was Toledo, supported by two of the mem- 
bers of his Cabildo, Don Juan de Padilla and Don Fernando 
Davales. This revolution was suppressed by force of arms 
and the leaders executed. This also sounded the death 
knell to Spanish liberty under the despotic reign of Emperor 
Carlos V and that of his successors. This same Carlos V, a 
native of Gante, was the one who in reply to a lawful peti- 
tion from his fellow-citizens in support of their rights, had 
them executed as a warning to all who dared complain. 




Conquest of Peru — Empire of the Incas — Upper Peru from 1810 to 1812 — Spanish 
Invasions into Argentina — Argentine Invasions into Upper Peru — San Martin Crosses the 
Andes — Bolivar and San Martin — The Guayaquil Conference. 

The CoNQUEsr op Peru 

The conquest of the Andean region first began in 1524 
by the famous conquerors Francisco Pizarro and Diego 
de Almagro, who started from Panama and, traveling along 
the Pacific coast, penetrated as far south as Peru. The two 
sons of Huaina Capac — Huascar and Atahualpa — were at 
war against each other at the time of the arrival of the 
Spaniards. Huascar solicited Pizarro's assistance against 
his brother Atahualpa, who did likewise when in 1532 he 
went before Pizarro in great pomp and splendor. This 
was the opportune moment of which Pizarro took advantage 
to treacherously imprison Atahualpa, who was tried for 
imaginary crimes and executed. One of Atahualpa's sons 
was proclaimed luca, but his reign was of short dura- 
tion, as he died soon after having assumed power. 

Pizarro returned to Spain and obtained the confirmation 
of his authorit}', Almagro being designated for the conquest 
of the lands to the South. Pizarro founded the City of 
Lima on the site which to him seemed the most proper for 
the exchange of communications with Spain. In the mean- 
time, Almagro proceeded in a southerly direction and ex- 
plored Chile, but failed to find any gold, which was his 
main object, and also that of Pizarro. Almagro's troops 
had been reduced considerably in numbers in crossing the 


desert of Atacama and later in crossing the mountains, 
Almagro returning to Peru very much disappointed and 
disillusioned. Valdivia was finally the conqueror of Chile. 

The Peruanos rose up in rebellion and attacked the 
Almagro troops, who routed the former and took the city 
of Cuzco, which Almagro claimed as his own. The civil 
strife between the Spanish factions started, culminating in 
the defeat of Almagro, who was made prisoner and decapi- 
tated. Pizarro was soon after assassinated by Almagro's 

Gonzalo Pizarro next assumed authority and revolted 
against Spain, which action was later indorsed by Carbajal, 
who burned the royal banner to the ground and hoisted one 
which he himself designed. Both Pizarro and Carbajal 
died in battle against the royal army, which had been 
organized by Pedro de Gasca, sent from Spain to assume 
control of the government of Peru. 

In looking back into the remote past to the first Peruvian 
Empire, founded 3,000 years before the beginning of the 
Christian era, we find little to establish its identity, but 
such is not the case with the empire founded in the year 
1100 A. D., by Manco Capac, which dynasty numbered 
thirteen emperors, ending with the rule of Tupac Amaru, 
who was beheaded by the Spaniards in 1571. The empire 
was named Tauantinsuyu, which in the Quichua language 
means "The Four Regions." The god of these agriculturists 
was the Sun, whose rays ripen the earth's products and 
give life to creation throughout. The lands were divided 
into three equal portions : one for the Inca Emperor, another 
for the Sun and priests, and a third for the people. Each 
married man received a parcel of land, which increased with 
each new son born to the family. The lands were again 
divided after the harvesting of the crops. Farming was 
done in common, first cultivating the lands of the Sun, then 
those of the soldiers, and lastly those of the individual 
families. The Great Spirit, supporter of their religion, was 
known as Pachacamac, whose symbol was the Sun. The 


inhabitants were familiar with astronomy, and the seasons 
of the year had special recognition; Spring and Summer, 
when nature appears the brightest, was the "Season of 
Creative Heat," while Autumn and Winter represented the 
"Season of the Darkened Side." 

They were also familiar with the twelve signs of the 
zodiac, and the Milky Way was to them a belt of luminous 
matter. Their chronological records dated back 3,000 years 
before the present era began. They used to celebrate festivi- 
ties in honor of the Sun when the rays of this heavenly 
body attained their verticality at the Tropic of Capricorn. 
Instead of penmanship they used "Quipus," which con- 
sisted of strings of various colors, which with the aid of 
knots tied in divers ways, enabled them to record a variety 
of events. Their architecture was of a massive style like 
that of the Egyptians, and their buildings more substantial 
than those of the Romans, as attested by the ruins of their 
temples, the Cuzco Palace, and several other works of con- 

Alto (Upper) Peru prom 1810 to 1812 

We will take a passing glance at the regions of Alto 
Peru (Bolivia), where the general headquarters of the 
Spanish troops were situated, and which troops had instruc- 
tions to advance upon and attack the patriotic army of 

The Army of the North under the command of Balcarce, 
entered Bolivia on the 27th of October, 1810, attacked Cota- 
gaita, and was defeated. A second attack was successfully 
carried out, this time at Suipacha, ending with the capture 
of Cotagaita. The attacking army proceeded north and 
on meeting defeat at Huaqui was compelled to retreat to 
Argentine territory. 

After the defeat at Huaqui, the Army of the North, under 
instructions from Belgrano, initiated its campaign and was 
victorious at the battle of Piedras River on the 2d of Sep- 
tember, 1812, and soon after routed the enemy at Tucuman, 


pursuing the Spanish army to Salta, where they were 
obliged to capitulate. 

Belgrano penetrated Upper Peru, which was in revolt 
against Spain, went to Potosi, and on his march north- 
wardly he was attacked by Viceroy Pezuela, his forces being 
first defeated at Vilcapugio in October, 1813, and later at 
Ayouma on the 14th of November following. The Argentine 
troops had again failed in their mission, and returned 
to Argentine territory a second time. 

These fruitless attempts convinced the army of patriots 
that this was not the proper route for them to carry on 
a successful campaign against Spanish power, and con- 
sidered the plan of maritime connections to reach Lima, the 
capital of Peru and center of all resources used by Spain. 
This was the idea conceived by General San Martin, who was 
more capable and better prepared than Belgrano to take 
charge of the campaign. The Army of the North under 
Rondeau again ventured into Upper Peru, a third time 
reached Potosi, and though favored in a way that it had not 
been formerly, was completely routed at Sipe Sipe and 
forced to retreat. 

Spanish Invasion of Northern Argentina Checked by 


After the battle of Sipe Sipe, the Spaniards invaded Salta 
and Jujuy in 1816, but were checked by the brave gauchos 
of Giiemes, fearless soldiers and expert riders, such as the 
Orientales of Artigas and Rivera, who had battled against 
veteran Spanish troops. The courage displayed by the 
gauchos was such that they would venture near enough to 
throw their lasso around the soldiers on guard duty and 
drag them away as prisoners. The gauchos finally drove 
the Spaniards out by their continued surprise attacks, 
though without the implements so necessary in battle. 

The Army of Argentina Crosses the Andes to Chile 
San Martin was at Cuyo organizing the army which was 


to cross the Andes for the purpose of attacking the 
Spaniards in Chile and thence go by water to Peru. On 
completing the preparations for his Chilean campaign, with 
his Army of the Andes in two divisions of 4,000 soldiers and 
1,200 recruits, San Martin left the encampment at Mendoza 
and began his journey across the Andes through the passes 
of Uspallata and Los Patos, encamping in the valley of 
Aconcagua in Chile. In their first encounter, which took 
place at Chacabuco, the Spaniards were routed and almost 
the entire army captured. San Martin next entered 
Santiago, the capital of Chile, which Junta de Notables 
(Council of Notables) elected him Supreme Director of 
Chile, but San Martin did not accept the honor and there- 
fore the title was bestowed upon General O'Higgins. 

The Spaniards, through a surprise attack in the valley 
of Cancha Rayada on the 10th of March, 1818, caused the 
Argentine army to scatter, but it was promptly brought to- 
gether by San Martin, who led it to victory in the battle 
of the valley of Maipo on the 5th of April, 1818. This 
glorious victory opened the road to Peru. 

On the 20th of August, 1820, San Martin, at the head of 
4,430 Argentines and Chilenos, set sail from the port of 
Valparaiso with the Chilean fleet under the celebrated 
Admiral Lord Cochrane, disembarking on the coast of Peru 
on September the 8th. 

BolIvar and San Martin — Conference at Guayaquil 

The Spaniards scattered throughout Peru and the Argen- 
tine frontier numbered 20,000. 

The army commanded by San Martin had its first triumph 
against the Spaniards at Cerro de Pasco, going from there 
to Lima the capital of the Viceroyship of Peru, thence to 
Callao, a strongly fortified port, both of which had been 
recently abandoned by the Spanish forces. 

During the same period, another illustrious patriot, Gen- 
eral Bolivar, "Libertador del Norte" (Liberator from the 
North) had after hard-fought battles reached Guayaquil, 


having first liberated Venezuela, Colombia and Quito. On 
being invited to a conference in Guayaquil, San Martin met 
the other liberator to consult upon a plan for the conduct of 
the Peruvian campaign. Bolivar expressed his desire to 
continue his campaign through Peru, and so San Martin 
realized that the only thing for him to do was to withdraw 
and make the sacrifice in behalf of the South-American 
cause in order that Bolivar could lead his army to Peru and 
thereby consummate its independence through the destruc- 
tion of the only remaining center of Spanish power. San 
Martin arrived at Lima on the 20th of August and pre- 
sented his sealed resignation to the Constituent Congress 
duly assembled, leaving soon after for Chile. On accepting 
his resignation. The Congress bestowed upon San Martin 
the title: "Fundador de la Libertad del Peru" (Founder of 
the Liberty of Peru) and "Capitan General de sus ejercitos" 
(Captain General of its Armies). Thus terminated the 
career of one of the greatest generals of the war for South- 
American independence. 






Independence of the North Andean Region — Miranda and Bolivar, Northern Heroes — 
The Liberating Armies of the North and the South Shake Hands in Peru — Sarmiento's and 
Rodo's Opinion of Bolivar. 

Miranda and Bolivar — Northern Heroes 

We will now look into the important events which pre- 
ceded the independence of the provinces of the Andes. We 
have already stated that one month before the Cry of 
Freedom by the Argentinos of Buenos Aires, in the month of 
May, the people of Caracas, in public meeting assembled, de- 
clared that "Venezuela in the exercise of its natural and 
political rights" would proceed to establish a government 
which would exercise its authority in the name and as the 
representative of Fernando VII. Bogota did likewise, 
establishing another assembly on July 20th, and Chile's on 
September the 18th. 

The Miranda revolution failed in 1812, when he capitu- 
lated at San Mateo. He was sent to Cadiz and imprisoned 
in the Carraca (the navy yard in Ci\diz, Spain) with a ring 
placed around his neck like a common criminal, in which 
prison he died in 1816. Miranda's comrades, Bolivar and 
the other leaders migrated to Cartagena (New Granada, 
now Colombia), which was in the hands of the revolu- 
tionists. Bolivar, who initiated his campaign in 1813, after 
seven victories reached Caracas, his native land, a trium- 
phant hero. In his manifesto of June 15 he stated the 
following: '' Spaniards and Canaries — Reckon with Death, 



notwithstanding your neutrality. Americans — Count on 
Life though guilty you might be." This was in retaliation 
for the butcheries and atrocities committed by the 

In 1813, after alternate victories and defeats, Bolivar 
started the organization of an Assembly. During the fol- 
lowing year he was defeated at Lapuerta and Aragua by 
the bloodthirsty Boves, who also triumphed over Kivas and 
Bermudes at Maturin. Three thousand of the inhabitants 
of this latter town were put to the sword by Morales the 
barbarian. While these executions were taking place, 
Bolivar went before the government of Nueva Granada, 
where he was appointed Captain General. Little rould 
he accomplish at this time, due to the civil war which was 
then going on, so he sailed for Jamaica, whence he was to 
return later to prepare for his third campaign into 

At about this time (1815) the Spaniards received rein- 
forcements, with the addition of 10,000 veteran troops under 
Morillo, which together with the Caracas reinforcements, 
formed an army of 16,000 well equipped men, 5,000 of whom 
marched against Cartagena, which was abandoned by its 
garrison after a siege which lasted 180 days. Six thousand 
people died of hunger and disease, besides 400 old men, 
women, and children who were beheaded under Morales' 

In 1816, Bolivar returned for his third campaign, with re- 
sources furnished him by Petion of Santo Domingo. He 
met with reverses at the beginning and dispersed his troops 
under the command of his lieutenants Mariiio, Piar and 
Paez, and set sail for Haiti, due to discord in the ranks. 

On being summoned again, Bolivar presented himself 
at Barcelona, Venezuela, in 1816. He failed in his first at- 
tempt to capture Caracas and asked the protection of his 
general "Black" Piar, who was the owner of the llanos of 
the Orinoco, and who advised Bolivar to start operations in 
the region of Guayana, to which Bolivar acceded. Piar next 


defeated the Spaniards at San Felix, and shortly after, on 
being found guilty of conspiracy against Bolivar, was ar- 
rested and executed. 

Bolivar, later reinforced by Paez, mustered an army of 
4,000, which was subsequently annihilated by a surprise 
attack at Rincon de los Toros. Bolivar, then, with only forty 
men he was able to get together, marched into San Fer- 
nando. So ended the year 1819. 

Bolivar's next reinforcements came with the addition of 
General Santander of Nueva Granada, who joined him at 
the foot of the Andes, completing an army of 2,500 men for 
the invasion of Nueva Granada, which was being defended by 
Viceroy Samano with an army of 4,000 men. After many 
minor incidents, Bolivar routed the Spaniards at Boyacd, 
where he captured 1,600 prisoners along with their leader, 
Barreiro. Bolivar then fought his way triumphantly into 
Bogota, and on the 8th of September issued a proclama- 
tion announcing the consummation of the union of Venezuela 
and Nueva Granada under the name of Repiiblica de 

Bolivar proposed before the Congress of Angostura 
(Venezuela) the union of The Republic of Colombia with 
Venezuela, Nueva Granada, and Quito (now Ecuador), 
which proposal was enthusiastically and unanimously 
adopted. The confederacy covered 115,000 square leagues 
with a population of 8,000,000. Its banner was that of 
Miranda, hoisted by him in 1808. Bolivar was appointed 
Provisional President on the 17th of December, 1819, and 
military operations were immediately begun against Morillo, 
who had 12,000 men under him. 

The Northern and Southern Armies of Liberation Shake 
Hands in Peru 

It was at this historical moment, which turned out to be 
the most important of the revolution, that the Generals, San 
Martin in the South and Bolivar in the North, without 
previous notice or agreement, simultaneously started both 


campaigns against Peru, which was then the principal 
Spanish fortification in America. 

Bolivar started from Venezuela, by destroying the enemy 
forces numbering 5,000 men at Carabobo on the 24th of 
June, 1821. This triumph permitted him to enter Caracas 
a second time as the victor. It proved to be the decisive 
battle for the independence of Colombia. 

The Congress of Cucuta sanctioned the new constitution 
and elected Bolivar first President for a term of four years. 
He delegated his oflice to his Vice-President, Santander, and 
placed himself at the head of the troops assigned to liberate 

On the completion of arrangements of a few unimportant 
details in Ecuador, Bolivar named General Sucre as the 
leader of the military campaign. The first few engagements 
proved disastrous to the American patriots. General Sucre 
was defeated at Huachi and was compelled to seek aid from 
San Martin, who sent General Arenales to the Quito frontier, 
thence to Guayaquil. Thus, 1,500 men of the Army of the 
South joined forces with the Army of the North during 
January, 1822, to combat Spanish rule. 

Following the conference held in Guayaquil, Bolivar 
moved to Peru, and at the head of his army triumphed at the 
battle of Junin. On being defeated, the Viceroy La Serma 
decided to concentrate his forces at the Apurimac and there 
fight a decisive battle. He opened his offensive campaign 
in December. The opposing armies met on the pampas of 
Ayacucho, the Spanish under the command of the Viceroy, 
while General Sucre assumed command of the South Ameri- 
can forces. General Cordoba, a young man twenty-five j^ears 
of age, but of magnetic personality, raised his hat high 
in the air and imperatively commanded : "March on ! Arms 
at will! Conquerors dash I" and with one accord, 3,000 
Colombian bayonets advanced with such vigorous energy 
that they demolished everything in their way. The Viceroy, 
desirous of checking defeat, dashed amid his troops to en- 
courage them, but was himself wounded and taken prisoner. 


The Spanish army capitulated. Officers and men were taken 
prisoners and the liberty of Peru accomplished. 

Alto Peru, to do honor to its liberator, changed its 
old historic name to that of '^Republica de Bolivia" and the 
name of its capital to "Sucre" in honor of the victorious 
General of Ayacucho. 

Sarmiento's and Rodo's Opinion of San Martin 


Don Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, native of Argentina 
and one of the most brilliant intellects which South America 
has produced, said in criticising a biography of the Hero of 
the North : "In that biography, as in all the others that have 
been written about him, I have seen the European General, 
the Marshals of the Empire, a less colossal Napoleon, but I 
have failed to see the South American caudillo (the chief- 
tain) in a revolt by the masses of the people. I see a repro- 
duction of Europe, but nothing that reveals America to me." 

"Venezuela has plains, pastoral life, barbarian life, purely 
American — from these the Great Bolivar sprang forth." 

"The manner in which the European and American 
writers have written the history of Bolivar, corresponds 
to San Martin and other military men like him. San 
Martin was not popular as a 'Caudillo,' he was truly and 
only a General. He had received his education in Europe 
and came to-South America at the time his country was in a 
state of revolution, enabling him to organize the army at his 
ease under the European plan, and conducting the fighting 
in the regular way according to prescribed rules." 

"San Martin's expedition into Chile was a methodically 
conducted conquest like that of Napoleon into Italy. But 
if San Martin had had to command 'guerrilleros,' and had 
been defeated at one point, then joined a group of 'llaneros' 
farther on, they would have hanged him on the second 

"The world does not yet know Bolivar, the real Bolivar, 
and it is quite probable that when the true interpretation 


of his higher psychological being is vividly explained, he 
may then appear even more extraordinary and great." 

The celebrated Uruguayan writer Jos6 Enrique Rod6 
says of Bolivar : 

"Great in thought, great in action, great upon being glori- 
fied, great upon being victimized by misfortune; great in 
exalting that which might be impure in the souls of the 
great, and great to endure in loneliness and in death, the 
tragic atonement of greatness. Many there are whose lives 
show a more perfect harmony, a finer moral or esthetic sense, 
but few that manifest such resolute character of greatness 
and of strength, and few that control with like fortitude the 
sympathetic feeling of heroic imagination." 

"Bolivar, the revolutionst, the bushwhacker, the general, 
the leader of men, the tribune, the legislator, the president, 
all in one and all in his own style, represents an unparalleled 
originality which assumes and includes that of the land 
upon which he lived and of the means he had at his com- 
mand. He did not fight like the European strategist, 
neither did he employ for his visions as a founder other 
than the divided elements furnished by institutions founded 
on universal experience and justice, and neither did he leave 
in the ensemble any image like anything that had gone 
before. That is why we dote upon him, that is why he con- 
trols us and why he will always remain as the hero par 
excellence, representative of eternal Spanish-American 
union. He — far better, for reason of his greatness and still 
more so for his eminence above the sectional leaders in 
whom semi-barbaric originality became individualized — per- 
sonifies that which is characteristic and peculiar in our 
history. The clay of America, pierced by the breath of 
genius, transformed its flavor and its aroma into qualities of 
the spirit which exhaled in a vivid flame, an original and 
distinct heroic personality." 

"The Alcibiades, the writer, the statesman of Caracas, was, 
whenever the occasion demanded it, the intrepid gaucho of 
the pampas of the North — el llanero (the Plainsman)." 






South America compared with other continenta — Structure of both Americas — Descrip- 
tion of its Andes — Mountain systems of Brazil — Has the Andean relief changed? — South 
American appearance during the tertiary epoch — The South American of the tertiary 
age — Change of hving conditions on the Patagonian and Bolivian plateaus. 

South America Compared with Other Continents 

The continent of South America, like the continents of 
North America and Africa, is triangular in shape but 
smaller than either of these two, as the following figures 












North America. . . . 



South America. . . . 









South America ranks fourth in size, is two-thirds as large 
as North America and as large as Europe and Australia 

Structure of Both Americas 

The structure of South America resembles that of North 
America. On the west, the high range of mountains called 
the Andes corresponds to the Rocky Mountain Range of the 
latter, though the former range has higher peaks, and 
plateaus of from 3,000 to 4,000 meters elevation. On the 



east, the range of mountains along the coast of Brazil, which 
vary from 1,000 to 2,000 meters above sea-level, corresponds 
to the Allegheny Range of the North American continent. 
(Figure No. 1.) 

Description op the Andes 

The Andean Range and its branches cover one-ninth of 
the territory of South America, or an approximate area of 
two million square kilometers, attaining its widest expanse 
in Bolivia, where it extends from the Real (Royal) or Interior 
Range to the Western or Exterior Range, a distance of 750 
kilometers — region of Lake Titicaca, 18° south. The length 
of the Andes from the Strait of Magellan, at the southern 
extremity of Chile to Cape Gallinas at the extreme northern- 
most point of Colombia, is 7,500 kilometers. They are the 
highest man-inhabited mountains in the world, where human 
habitations are to be found at more than 4,000 meters above 
sea-level. One of these, the station of Punto Alto, is at 4,788 
meters elevation on the slope of Titicaca on the Antofagasta- 
La Paz railroad. At 5,592 meters above sea-level, latitude 
16° in Peru, there is a small settlement of Indian herders of 
whom The Geographical Magazine made special mention in 
1917. The large cities of Potosi, La Paz (capital of Bolivia) 
and Pimo are approximately at 4,000, 3,000 and 4,260 
meters elevation, respectively. It can be said of Bolivia 
that it is the roof of America, as Pamir is the roof of the 

The Andes mountains are the second highest in the world, 
next to the Himalayas in Asia. Mount Aconcagua, the high- 
est peak, which is 7,1.30 meters above sea-level, is in latitude 
32° S., in line with another high peak. Mount Tupungato, at 
6,510 meters elevation, and also in line with the city of 
Mendoza. Next in height to Mount Aconcagua comes Cerro 
de Huascan, in Peru, at 6,721 meters, and Mount Sorata, in 
Bolivia, at 6,017 meters elevation. The average cubical di- 
mensions of the Andes mountains in kilometers are. 7,000 in 
length, 160 in width, and 4 in height. 





Andes Meters 

Aconcagua ^'l^*^ 

TupuDgato 6,550 

Cerro Mercedario 6,670 

Cerro Porongoe 6,052 

Cerro Juucal 6,070 

Mont Piasia 0,772 

Cerro de Colorados 6,115 

Volcan LluUaico 6,620 

Volcan Lincancaur 6,000 

Moute Illimani (Bolivia) 6,400 

Monte Sorata " 6,617 

Andes Meters 

Volcan Sajaraa (Bolivia) 6,424 

Volcan Misti (Peru) 6,100 

Nudo Cuzco " 6,000 

Cerro Ampato " 6,950 

Huascan " 6,700 

Chimborazo (Ecuador) 6,310 

Cotopaxi " 5,943 

Sierra Tocul (Colombia) 5,984 

Nevado Tolima " 5,584 

Columna, Sierra Nevada (Vene- 
zuela) 5,000 

Mountains of Bbazil 


Serra dos Orgaos 2,391 

Agulhas Negras 2,994 

Serra de Pirineos 2,932 


Square Kilometera 

(1 Square Mile = 

2.5S96 Square 


United States 110,000,000 

Brazil 8,550,000 

Argentine 2,950,000 

Mexico . 


Bolivia . . . 
Colombia . 
Venezuela . 


Ecuador . . 
Paraguay . 
Uruguay. . 




























Amazon 5,000 

Parand 4,500 

Madeira 3,240 

Purus 3,000 

San Francisco 2,900 

Yapura 2,800 

Tocantins 2,500 

Orinoco 2,250 

Paraguay 2,200 

Xingu 2,100 


Jurua 2,000 

PUcomayo 2,000 

Ucayale 1,900 

River Negro of Amazon 1,700 

lea o Putimiayo 1 ,600 

Tapajos 1,500 

Uruguay 1,500 

Mamord 1,500 

Beni 1,300 

Magdalena 1,300 

Mountain Systems op Brazil 

The range of mountains on the coast of Brazil, which, 
together with all its ramifications, form the backbone of 
Brazil, cover a much larger area than the Andes mountains, 
in fact twice the area, or about 4,000,000 square kilometers, 
though considerably lower than the Andean range. 

Has the Andean Relief Changed? 

Why is the mountainous region of South America the most 
densely pojjulated? Have living conditions changed in the 


Bolivian, Andean, and Patagonlan regions? It will be 
noticed that the most densely populated districts of South 
America are the tropical mountainous regions, particularly 
in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. The 
climate of the plains of the Amazon is extremely warm and 
moist. It is specially remarkable that the indigenes of 
Bolivia and Peru have preferred the almost barren frozen 
Andean Punas to the fertile plains, which, under cultivation, 
will yield the largest variety of vegetable products known to 
man, but which climate, as that of the plains of the Amazon, 
is exceedingly warm. It was in the arid frigid regions of 
the high mountains of Peru that the Incas founded their 
highly cultured empire, not unlike the kingdoms of the 
Pharaohs of ancient Egypt. 

The famous ruins of Tiahuanaco of Bolivia, which are now 
in a desolate waste, represent the handicraft of a civiliza- 
tion preceding that found there by the Spaniards at the time 
of the exploration of the new world. But it can hardly be 
believed that the nation, which had developed into such a 
powerful empire, could have prospered as the Empire of the 
Incas did in a semi-sterile region such as it is now. There- 
fore, the belief that the region of Bolivia has passed through 
a transformation in the upheaval of its soil, from an eleva- 
tion of 1,000 to 2,000 meters, to more than 3,000 meters to 
which it has risen since that unknown imperial epoch, up to 
the present time, and that the whole Andean region has had 
a like change. When comparing the present soil formation 
of Patagonia, so desolate and arid that Darwin called it 
"Accursed Land," with that of the same region which pro- 
duced the gigantic fossil fauna, among which remains we 
find the mammoth animals which only luxuriant forests 
could feed, and these very forests being now in a petrified 
form by the changes which thousands of years have wrought, 
it can not be doubted that the "punas heladas" of Bolivia 
have undergone a similar change. 

European science, influenced by religious tradition, located 
the primitive home of man in Asia, and, later, when the first 


fossil remains of man were fouud at Simia together with 
Proboscidea and colossal Rodens and Edentates, the wise 
men were then of the opinion that Europe was where man 
first appeared on earth. Ameghino, noted Argentine natur- 
alist, on discovering the largest ossarium of big mammals 
which has yet been found, revealed the fact that the Pampa 
Argentina is the most complete page in the history of the 
world, for the reason that it has never been entirely sub- 
merged, and beginning with the cretaceous period of the 
secondary epoch, the various species of animals continued 
to record their evolution in this part of America without in- 
terruption for millions of years. So that on the side of the 
Andean range, which sprang forth from the waters during 
the Azoic or lifeless era, are the tertiary and quaternary 
terrains, which were the cradle of reptiles, mammals and 
man. Thus, it is explained, that the present soil of Argen- 
tina, Bolivia and Brazil constitutes today the largest fossil 
animal graveyard in the world, and which has contributed 
more than 1,500 species of fossils such as are not found any- 
where else on the globe. It means, in fact, that South 
America has contributed one-third of the species of fossil 
remains which are known today. 

At the time of the secondary epoch, when the cretaceous 
terrains of the Patagonia region appeared above the water, 
there was no such land as the Northern Hemisphere with 
exception of a few islands widely scattered in the northern 
vast watery expanse. What now constitute the mainlands 
of Europe, Asia and North America were yet under water. 
The Southern Hemisphere consisted then of a large tract of 
continental land including what is now Patagonia, the 
Pampas and a part of Brazil, which were united to Africa 
by a body of land which is known today under the name of 
Arquelensis, just as Patagonia w^as united to Australia and 
New Zealand by the lands of the Antarctic, which were 
under the icy regions recently discovered by Admundsen, the 
noted Arctic explorer. The present conditions of the Pata- 
gonia region are not altogether adapted for a stupen- 


dous development of animal life, which were just the reverse 
conditions during the secondary epoch. The Andean range 
was very low and did not obstruct the moist winds from the 
Pacific Ocean as is the case today. The climate was moist 
and warm and the vegetation compared with the flora which 
we find today growing on the plains of the Amazon. The 
forests of palm trees and coniferous plants are to be found 
in a petrified state, covering large areas, among which are 
also found large trunks of the hardness of flint. 

We find, in these petrified forests buried in the reddish 
sandstone, the petrified skeletons of mammoth animals which 
today are extinct, such as the Dinosaur u, or huge crocodiles, 
measuring 30 meters in length ; the Miolania, gigantic 
turtle with horns like those of an ox, and measuring four 
meters in diameter; the Physornis, a runner bird of prey 
twice as large as the iiandu (American ostrich) of the 
pampas ; the Peludos, of the size of an ox ; the Parastrapote- 
therium, which was much larger than the elephant of the 
present day; the Proroterido, the primitive horse; and the 
Pyrotherium, which on migrating into Africa and later into 
Asia was transformed into Mastodon and Dinoterium. 

Appearance op South America During the Tertiary Epoch 

During the tertiary epoch the appearance of the whole 
world changed. The Northern Hemisphere became conti- 
nental, the Arquelensis, which joined South America and 
Africa, disappeared and South America took its present 
aspect. Therefore, the Hehreiv Cosmogony results entirely 
in error. The southern part of the New World was the first 
habitation of animal life including man, for as man was 
one of the last mammals, it is not probable that on the 
South American continent becoming the primitive home of 
the bigger species of mammals, not excluding the ape, 
man would not have appeared also. The Trigodon, another 
monster about the size of the rhinoceros, inhabited the Pata- 
gonian region during the tertiary period, also the Gliptodon, 
a huge tatti or armadillo or "mulita," the shells of which 


were used as houses, according to all indications, by the 
primitive man of the pampas, his contemporary, as is proven 
by the human remains found with fragments of burnt earth 
which were part of ancient fireplaces, with the remains of 
bones chipped and broken by blows, and those of the primi- 
tive man measuring one meter in height (about 39 inches). 
There are also found the complete skeleton of the Mega- 
therium, measuring eight meters in length, and the Toxodon, 
corresponding in size to the hippopotamus, an aquatic mak- 
ing its abode in river streams. Some of these skeletons 
have been found with the points of stone spears and arrow- 
heads of the first man of Patagonia, buried in the backbone 
and the bones of the leg. Also, skeletons of the Smilodon of 
the tiger family, with canine-teeth in the shape of a saw, 
and much larger than the species of Asia and Africa. 

The South American op the Tertiary Age 

The Scientific Congress, which met in Tucumdn in De- 
cember, 1910, and which was attended by the geologists, 
zoologists and other men of science of Argentina, declared 
the Toxodon to be of the tertiary epoch, adding that the spear 
and arrowheads found imbedded in the bones were genuine. 
Therefore, it remains a proven fact that the man of the 
tertiary epoch was an inhabitant of South America, and 
that he is not the exclusive patrimony of the so-called Old 
World, as is claimed by the wise men of Europe. 

Ameghino, the naturalist, has received the fullest confir- 
mation, since his death in 1911, regarding his conjecture of 
the existence of man in the Patagonia region during the 
tertiary era. 

The celebrated naturalist, Agassiz, had already given it 
as his opinion that it would have been possible for man to 
have lived in America during the tertiary era, as Voltaire 
also stated in 1775 that man could have appeared at the 
same time in Europe and in America, and asked — "Could 
not man have appeared on both continents at the same time, 


just as the fly did?" All that has been said has its attesta- 
tion in the museums of La Plata and Buenos Aires, where 
they have complete skeletons of the animals described and 
that of the ape fossil of the Santa Cruz river in Patagonia, 
which, according to Mahoudeau, instructor in the Paris 
School of Anthropology, has more characteristics in common 
with man than any other. 

Change of Living Conditions on the Patagonian and 
Bolivian Plateaus 

As in the case of the Bolivian plateau, it will perhaps be 
possible to demonstrate later on that the same conditions 
prevailed there as in Patagonia and that conditions of life in 
general were very different from what they are today. It is 
probable that the same uijheaval that caused the change in 
elevation of the Bolivian plateau, also caused the change in 
living conditions in the Patagonian territory, and that the 
change took place simultaneously in both places. 

Were it not so, it could not be explained how the great 
Bolivian plateau could have been settled during the time of 
the Incas, inasmuch as the severity of the climate and the 
barrenness of the soil were such as to make the territory in- 
adequate for the primitive inhabitants' first abode, when 
they could have selected the Andean slopes and valleys with 
an extraordinarily fertile soil and a milder and healthier 
climate than that of India, which had been the home of 
hundreds of millions of men since the remotest times. Be- 
sides, the formation of the soil of the pampean region, that is 
to say, its geological structure and composition, is identical 
with that of the eastern plains of Bolivia, Paraguay and a 
large area of the Amazonian region. The soil is of the same 
yellowish color and composed principally of sand And clay 
in almost equal proportions. The soil is rich in fossils of 
similar mammals, small shells forming large banks and 
other mollusks of salt and fresh water varieties, proving con- 
clusively that these areas had been covered by water from 
the sea and by river-floods alternately. 


The extensive salt-pits of the central part of the Argentine 
republic, which cover an arc circle 700 kilometers in length 
within the provinces of Rioja, Catamarca, Tucuman and 
Santiago del Estero, are not deej) deposits of salt, btit a thin 
layer of sea-water salt, like that found in the salt-pits of 
Jujuy, Salta, and on the great Bolivian plateau, which de- 
jjosits were probably formed by the salt which had been 
dissolved by sea-water. 

The Andean range was much lower than it is today, both 
in the northern and southern parts of the present terri- 
tory of Argentina, particularly in the north, where the 
ground was so low that the waters from the Pacific Ocean 
would through several narrow passages inundate the terri- 
tory of northern Argentina and southern Bolivia. We find 
today in southern Patagonia the big lake Buenos Aires, 
which is crossed by parallel 46° S,, at 227 meters above 
sea-level, like a gigantic condor climbing the Andes, the 
waters of this lake flowing into the Pacific through the 
Barker or Las Heras River and into the Atlantic through the 
Deseado River. This communication between the two 
oceans had been maintained at many points of the Andean 
range before the upheaval, which was the fundamental and 
immediate cause for the stopj^age of abundant rains easterly 
bound for the Patagonian region, and resulting in the dis- 
appearance of the gigantic flora which fed the largest fauna 
of mammals that has ever inhabited the globe. The Andean 
valleys of the Patagonian region, which were thus visited by 
the rain-laden winds from the Pacific Ocean, are today a vast 
expanse of fantastic petrified flint formations of what was a 
wonderful Patagonian forest in prehistoric times. The west- 
ern slope of the region of Patagonia which is in Chilean 
territory, is noted for its magnificent forests which receive 
copious rains. This region is very similar to that of North 
America along the Pacific coast states of California, Oregon 
and Washington and the western coast of Canada. 



Description of its vast regions: Region of the Andes, Region of the Plains, divided into 
the Plains of the La Plata or the Pa7npas, the Plains of the Amazon, the Plains of the Orinoco; 
How was the soil of the Pampas, which cover one-third of the territory of South America, 
formed? — Opinions of Darwin, D'Orbigny. Bravard, Burmeister and Ameghino, regarding 
this formation — Analogous formation of the loess and]the soil of the Pampas — Burmeister's 
error regarding the fertility of the Pampean soil. Fossils of the Pampean soU — The Pata- 
gonia of today and what it was during the tertiary epoch — The plateaus of the Brazilian 

Region of the Andes 

As hereinbefore stated, the mountainous regions of the 
Andes and its branches, which measure 7,500 kilometers in 
length, cover an area of 2,000,000 square kilometers, reach- 
ing to a height of 7,130 meters above sea-level at the Mount 
of Aconcagua (Argentina) and more than 6,000 meters ele- 
vation at other points in Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. The 
Andean range, which is several hundred meters in height at 
the extreme southern portion of Patagonia, increases gradu- 
ally in height until it reaches parallel 32° S., with Mounts 
Aconcagua 7,130 meters high, and Mounts Tupungato, Mer- 
cedario and Juncal at more than (5,000 meters above the sea. 
It again attains considerable height farther north at the 
Bolivian frontier, with higher peaks in Bolivia and Peru. 

From the extreme southern point of the continent the 
range is a heavy, massive main line till it reaches parallel 27° 
S., where it divides into two branches — the eastern branch, 
which is farther from the Pacific, is the Cordillera Real 
(Royal Range) in Bolivia. Between the two ranges lies the 
great Bolivian Plateau, which is 800 kilometers in length 
north and south and more than eighty thousand square kilo- 
meters in area. 


the Brazilian frontier impede further navigation, makes 
the Guajamirin Railway to Port Velho an indispensable 


In Peru there are three parallel branches of the Andes, 
between which lie the extensive plains through which run 
the big rivers Marau6n, or Amazon (tive thousand kilometers 
long), the Huallaga and the Ucayali, which reach far into 
the interior of the country and are large navigable streams, 
particularly the Amazon, which admits steamers of 18 feet 

The Andean valleys of Peru and Bolivia are extremely 
fertile, producing cofifee, cocoa, cotton, rubber and all the 
tropical products. The valleys of the eavstern slope of Bolivia, 
called "Yungas," are the most fertile regions on the globe. 
The Pacific coast along the northern part of Chile and Peru 
has very little rainfall, but tropical products, such as 
sugar-cane, cotton, cocoa, etc., are raised in the regions 
where they have irrigation. The climate of the valleys and 
coast is very warm, but no fevers prevail. Mining is 
the main source of wealth in these two countries, as well 
as in Chile. These are the largest producers of copper, 
lead, zinc, silver and tin. Chile and Peru produce nitre 
and guano, the latter being used as a fertilizer. Peru 
and Bolivia also i^roduce the well-known coca (from which 
cocaine is extracted), quinine and other medicinal plants. 

The Yungas and the Bolivian plains, where the tributaries 
of the Madeira River (tributary of the Amazon), 3,000 kilo- 
meters in length and navigable as far as the Bolivian fron- 
tier, yield a large variety of vegetables, which cannot be 
exported either to the adjoining countries, to Europe, or to 
North America, due to want of transportation facilities. 
Rubber is the only product exported, as its commercial value 
warrants the payment of high freight rates. The tributaries 
of the Madeira River iire the rivers Beni, Mamore and Purus, 
and the tributary of the latter — Acre River — which flows in 
the territory of the Acre, is remarkable for its abundant 
rubber production. These rivers are navigable for small 
vessels, but the fact that the cataracts of the Madeira at 
the Brazilian frontier impede further navigation, makes 
the Guajamirin Railway to Port Velho an indispensable 


route for the products of Bolivia that are exported to Eu- 
rope and North America via the Madeira and Amazon. 

The Andean valleys of Peru and Bolivia, which face east- 
wardly, have a larger rainfall than those facing westwardly 
or toward the Pacific Ocean, and are therefore more fertile. 
Peru, having an outlet through the Marafion and its tribu- 
taries to the Atlantic, and through its numerous ports on 
the Pacific, can export its products to all parts of the world, 
yet its principal source of wealth, like that of Bolivia, lies 
in its minerals. The plateaus, which are at 3,000 and 4,000 
meters elevation, have the richer mines and are consequently 
the places which are more densely populated. The climate 
at 4,000 meters, which is the region of the Puna Brava, is not 
mild, the mean temperature being from six to ten degrees 
centigrade. On the Puna, at less than 4,000 meters and 
not under 3,000, the mean temperature is from twelve to 
fourteen degrees centigrade. 

The rainy season starts in November and lasts until the 
following March. The hot months of the year are from Au- 
gust to November. The months of May, June and July are 
cold with frequent snows. The region of perpetual snow 
is above 6,000 meters, and still higher on the western slope. 
The Central plateau of Bolivia is the region for products 
such as potatoes and other vegetables which constitute the 
principal food of the Indian, who also cultivates quinoa and 
maize in the valley. 

Ecuador is also in the Andean region. The Andes are 
here divided into two large branches which enclose a narrow 
valley called El Callejon. The two ranges called Oriental 
and Occidental, beginning from the equator as far as parallel 
3° south, are united by a chain of high mountains called 
Parano de Azuay, 4,500 meters above the level of the sea. 
The highest peak in Ecuador is the majestic Mount Chim- 
borazo, 0,400 meters high. The most dreaded volcanoes of 
South America which are in the republic of Ecuador are the 
Cotopaxi, Snni>ay, Tunguragua, Cayamb^, and also below the 
equator the Pichincha and others. It could be called the 


"Land of Volcanoes and Earthquakes." Here we also find 
the most densely populated region — the plateau or Puna, 
which has a mild climate, though just below the equator. 

Quito, the capital, which is 3,000 meters above sea level 
and at a few minutes distance from the equator, has by 
reason of its altitude a mean temperature of 15° centigrade, 
which is somewhat colder than the temperature of Monte- 
video and Buenos Aires, latitude 35° south, and the Tambo 
of Antisana at 4,500 meters elevation has the mean tempera- 
ture of Petrograd — i° centigrade, 

Ecuador has two seasons, the rainy or winter, and the dry 
or summer season, the latter being also the windy season. 
The winter lasts from December till May, and summer the 
remainder of the year. The region along the coast has very 
little rainfall, and, as has been observed for several years 
past, there seems to be a tendency to its complete cessation, 
as happened in Peru, 

On the other hand, the Oriental region of the plains has a 
heavy rainfall which feeds many large rivers, tributaries of 
the Amazon, such as the Napo, Pastassa, Santiago and 

The boundary between Ecuador and Peru, which nature 
has pointed out by the Maranon, or Amazon, has been the 
source of a long dispute between the two countries, and in 
fact, Peru exercises authority over the Port of Iquitos and 
the territory on the north bank of the Amazon, farther 
north beyond the bend of this river where it changes its 
course from a northerly to an easterly direction. So, part 
of the tributaries of the Amazon — the rivers Napo, Tigre, 
Pastassa and Santiago — are in the zone occupied by Peru 
where it joins Colombia, with which country Peru also has a 
dispute on boundaries. It is possible that all these questions 
of boundaries between Peru and Chile for Tacna and 
Arica, and the boundary disputes between Venezuela and 
Colombia and between Colombia and Ecuador with Peru, 
will be submitted to arbitration before the tribunal of the 
League of Nations, 


Whether this or some other means will be the solution of 
these boundary controversies, it can be affirmed at this time 
that settlement will be arranged before long, as the epoch of 
wars and conquests has terminated since the intervention 
of the United States of America in the European War. We 
still remember President Wilson's comment at the time of 
his departure for Europe to the Allied Congress, when he 
said in substance that the governments of America which 
will nof try by all means to prevent their peoples from being 
incited into war to settle their international disputes will 
be responsible to the world for their failure. These remarks 
were prompted by the outrages committed by the mob of 
Peru and Chile in the Tacna and Arica dispute. 

Since the opening up of the Panama Canal, the Republic 
of Ecuador has planned to turn the commercial route 
to the Pacific, and to this effect a railroad line has 
been constructed from Quito to Guayaquil and another one 
is projected to extend from Port Bolivar on the Gulf of 
Guayaquil, to the Santiago River, a tributary of the Amazon. 
The Andean range at Pasto in southern Colombia separates 
into three smaller ranges called Oriental, Central and Occi- 
dental, all being less than 6,000 meters high. These valleys, 
which extend north and south, are drained by the Magdalena 
and its tributary, the Cauca, neither one of them being diffi- 
cult to navigate. The Magdalena is navigable only by small 
steamers as far as Girardot, which is the port for Bogota, 
the capital of Colombia. The Atrato River also runs in a 
northerly direction, as does the Magdalena, and flows into 
the Sea of the Antilles. The climate and products compare 
with those of Ecuador, and in addition, Colombia produces 
platinum and emeralds, which are not to be found anywhere 
else in the Andean region. On the east side of the Andes, as 
in the other countries of the Andean region, are immense 
plains drained by the tributaries of the Amazon, remarkable 
for their fertility and variety of vegetable products, among 
which rubber is the most valuable. 

The princii)al commercial products of the Andean valley 


are coffee, cocoa aud quiuiiie. The Putumayo and Yapnra, 
tributaries of the Amazon, aud the Inirida and other tribu- 
taries of the Orinoco, drain this region. The eastern range 
branches off into northern Venezuela aud forms a mountain- 
ous zone to the coast of the S.ea of Antilles; it has fertile 
plains, and its climate aud corresponding products vary with 
the altitude, as in the other mountainous districts of the 
Andes. No point in Venezuela is over 6,000 meters above 
sea-level. The Orinoco, which is 2,000 kilometers long, drains 
the plains extending south of the Andes as far as the Parime 
range, which separates them from the plains of the Amazon. 
The Orinoco is a large navigable stream and a ver\^ im- 
portant commercial route to the Atlantic. The plains of the 
Orinoco are adapted to cattle-raising. 

A resume of all that has been said regarding the coun- 
tries in the Andean region north and south of, and including 
Bolivia, and which we find to have the same structure, can 
be given as follows : 

First. Plateaus or punas, varying from a mild to a very 
cold climate, scanty vegetation, large mineral wealth aud a 
dense population dependent on the mining industry. 

Second. Valleys of the Andes at a low elevation, with an 
abundance of tropical vegetable products, such as coffee, 
quinine, sugar, cotton, etc., cultivated with great care and in 
suflSciently large quantities to supply local and foreign 

Third. The plains drained by the tributaries of the Am- 
azon, which among other products furnish high-grade lumber 
and rubber to the markets of the world. 

The Plains 

The plains extend from one end of the continent to the 
other, a distance of 7,000 kilometers north and south and a 
maximum width of 5,000 kilometers east and west in the 
region of the Amazon along the line of the equator, occupy- 
ing two-thirds of the continental area, or 12,000,000 square 
kilometers in all. The plains are divided into three large 


zones, or slopes, called Plains of the Orinoco, Plains of the 
Amazon, and Plains of the La Plata or the pampas. 

The plains of the Orinoco occupy more than 1,000,000 
square kilometers, mostly in Venezuela. The land is well 
adapted to cattle-raising, though the climate is very warm, 
which with its long dry spells makes it unsuitable for Eng- 
lish breeds, which the packing industry prefers. Native 
cattle can be raised successfully as in Paraguay and Brazil. 

Humboldt, in describing the plains of the Orinoco, says: 
"When, through the vertical effect of the sun's rays which 
no cloud can obstruct, the parched weed falls like dust and 
the hardened soil cracks open as if disturbed by a violent 
earthquake, then if opposing winds clash on the surface, and 
the clashing terminates in a circular motion, the whole plain 
presents an extraordinary spectacle. Vapor-like, the sand 
ascends with the rarified whirlwind, perhaps charged with 
electricity, like a dark funnel-shaped cloud with its point 
sliding over the earth like the roaring water-spout, which is 
so much dreaded by the experienced navigator. The skies, 
which appear dei)ressed, cast only a semi-day light blurred 
and livid across the desolate plains. The horizon seems to 
close in abruptly, tightly hugging the desert and squeezing 
the heart of man. Suspended in atmosphere which the 
horizon conceals, the burning, dust-like sand feeds the sultry 
heat in the air. Instead of coolness, the eastern breezes 
bring on new heat from some place long under the rays of 
the sun. The water-puddles which the palm-tree shades, but 
which the sun has robbed of its verdure, gradually disap- 
pear and go. Animal life falls into a lethargy; the crocodile 
and the boa lying deep in the dried clay appear to have lost 
all sense of motion. Everywhere the drought announces 
death, and everywhere it besets the terrified traveler, who is 
deluded by the resplendence of the rays of reflected light giv- 
ing the appearance of an undulated surface. Cattle and 
horses roam aimlessly about enveloped in clouds of dust, 
tormented with hunger and an unquenchable thirst. The 
former bellowing plaintively, the latter with necks stretched 


against the wind lustily inhaling the air, trying to locate 
some pool of water not yet swallowed by the rays of the sun. 
When after a long drought the welcome rainy sea.son arrives 
the scene of the desert changes. The pale blue of the sky 
which until then had been devoid of clouds, takes on a lighter 
hue. The Southern Cross is hardly discernible in the night 
across the darkened space and hardly has the dampness 
touched the surface of the earth when the mist-laden desert 
is to be seen covered with a variety of grasses. Later the 
moistened clay rises bejond the edge of the swamps; a sud- 
den noise is then heard as of an explosion of a small marshy 
volcano, as the soil rises and shoots up in the air. He who 
happens to be familiar with this phenomenon rushes away 
on its being announced, as it means that a monstrous aquatic 
serpent or a crocodile is leaving its grave as the first water 
ripples form and awaken it from its seeming death." 

The plains of the Amazon, which have an abundance of 
vegetation, occupy half of the area of Brazil and a large zone 
in the adjoining countries — Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and 
Bolivia — or about 7,000,000 square kilometers, drained by 
the great river and its big tributaries. They slope slightly 
from west to east and territory' on both the northern and 
southern hemispheres is drained by tributaries of the 
Amazon. These rivers form the largest fluvial network in 
the world with 50,000 kilometers of navigable waters, the 
combined length of which could circle the globe at the equa- 
tor with 10,000 remaining kilometers, which is the distance 
from the La Plata to the City of London. Their great vege- 
table wealth has only in part been developed for want of 
transportation facilities, as is the case in many other wealth- 
producing districts of South America. No other part of the 
world offers as fine a grade and as large a variety of lumber, 
including cedar, pine, ebony, lignum-vitse, jacarandd and 
rosewood. The industries are limited to the extraction of 
India rubber, rosin, etc. The climate of the Amazonian 
region is equatorial, that is, it is a uniform high tempera- 
ture. There is no dry season as in the tropical regions; the 


rainfall is heavy the entire year. Agassiz, who explored 
this region, gave the name of "Marea Semestral" (semi- 
annual tide) to the flood-tides of the northern and southern 
tributaries, which alternate every six months. It is a well- 
known fact that the Amazon runs parallel to the equator and 
that its affluents lie in both hemispheres. The rains follow 
the sun and every six months the rainfall is heavier alter- 
nately in each hemisphere. The heavy rains temper the 
climate and so It is not as warm as it is in other equatorial 
regions. According to Agassiz, the maximum temperature 
is not over 30° centigrade and the climate, though somewhat 
unhealthy, is not unsuited to human habitation, as are parts 
of India and certain equatorial regions of Africa. So, one 
half of Brazil is covered by the plains of the Amazon and 
the other half by the mountainous region of the coast. 

The variety of vegetation distributed over these valleys is 
so great that it divides them into belts, as follows: 

First — The Palm Tree Region occupies a wide strip on the 
banks of the Amazon in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, 
and produces a diversity of tropical fruits, among which are 
bananas, dates and cocoanuts, and another palm, some of 
which grow to twenty-five meters in height, others very small 
with leaves so wide that the Indians use them for roofing 
their houses. Agassiz counted more than one hundred dif- 
ferent varieties of palm trees in this region. 

Second — The Region of Tree-like Ferns occupies a belt 800 
kilometers wide across the whole width of the Amazonian 

Third — The Region of Virgin Forests has an immense 
wealth of gums, rosins and medicinal plants, and extends 
from the mouth of the Amazon to Bahia. This is the zone 
of the gum-extracting industry. 

Fourth — The Coffee, Tobacco and Sugar Region includes 
the plains and valleys of eastern Bahia as far as Santa Cata- 
lina. Four-fifths of the coffee consumed throughout the 
world comes from Brazil and most of it is exported through 
Rio de Janeiro and Santos. 


Fifth — The Cotton Region extends from Pari\ to Rio <le 

The Pampas of the La Plata 

The pampas of the La Plata, which extend from the Brazil- 
ian transversal region (Sierra Parecis), latitude 20° S. to 
parallel 40° S., a distance of 2,000 kilometers north and 
south, are noted for their big forests, which 
Origin of the ]{q [^ f\^Q uorthern part and are named 

Pampean Soil ^ 

Chaco and Paraguay, and which produce the 
hardest woods known — the lapacho, fiandubay, quebracho, 
etc. — and are also noted for their magnificent prairies 
which, lying in the southern part, are nowhere equalled in 
the raising of live stock for meat purposes, and in the pro- 
duction of wool. Live-stock raising has become a scientific 
industry and the agricultural industry has been developed 
to the extent that Argentina is to-day one of the largest 
grain-producing countries of the world. This is "Pampa 
Fertil," which occupies the southeastern portion of the La 
Plata basin, including the whole of the Province of Buenos 
Aires as far as the Negro River. This is the most favoretl 
of all the regions of Argentina as to fertility of soil, mildness 
of climate, abundant rains and accessibility for communi- 
cation with the rest of the world, through its large and 
important ports — Buenos Aires, Rosario, La Plata and 
Bahia Blanca. Its climate compares with that of southern 
Europe ; a sub-tropical climate, in other words, a temperate 
climate with no cold season. Four months, June, July, Au- 
gust and September, the thermometer registers a mini- 
mum temperature of 5° centigrade. It rains the year round, 
with a heavier rainfall during the Spring and Summer, 
though more rainy days during the winter months. There 
are four mouths with a mean temperature of 20° C. Few 
days during the summer season have a temperature exceed- 
ing 35° and less than 5° during the Winter season, along the 
eastern border. Farther in the interior, in Cordoba for in- 
stance, the maximum is 43° C. and the minimum 8° C. below 


zero; at San Luis 40° maximum above and 7° minimum 
below zero; Victoria, in the pampean territory, 40° above, 
11° below. The maximum temperature of Montevideo is 38° 
and Buenos Aires 40°, which takes place every five years or 
more. In fact, from a climatological standpoint, Monte- 
video is the most fortunate city in the world, for added to 
its advantage in having a sub-tropical climate, the fact that 
it is a peninsula on high ground and open to the ocean winds, 
it enjoys a maritime climate during the Summer months 
when those winds prevail. The reader may refer to L. C. 
BoUo's ''Climatologia Platense," Montevideo, 1916, Libreria 
Barreiro y Ramos. 

The northern part of the La Plata plains (Chaco, Para- 
guay, Matto Grosso of Brazil, eastern plains of Bolivia) 
which, as we have said, is covered hj forests among the most 
valuable in the world from a standpoint of lumber material, 
is called the Northern Littoral, which it derives from its big 
streams the Parand and the Paraguay, which, together with 
the Uruguay, form the great estuary of the La Plata. The 
Paraguay, a tributary of the Parauil, penetrates into the 
heart of the continent and is navigable almost to its source, 
its principal ports being Cuyabd and Corumb^, which are in 
the heart of Brazil. Port Suarez, which is opposite Corumb4 
on the plains of Bolivia, is a promising port for commercial 
communication between this region and the ports of Monte- 
video and Buenos Aires. Cuyabd is in latitude 16° S. while 
Montevideo is in latitude 35° S., or a distance of nearly 20 
degrees, approximately 1,200 miles, which have the service 
of several steamship lines. This is the future great impor- 
tant route from the La Plata to the Amazon, as the Arinos 
River, a tributary of the Tapajos, one of the largest tribu- 
taries of the Amazon is just a few miles distant from the 
Paraguay where canal communication could be established 
to connect all the South American streams. Captain Bossi 
has written a book in regard to navigation of upper Para- 
guay, giving the details as to the facilities for the enterprise. 
It is yet remembered in Brazil that pieces of artillery have 


been transported from Cuyabd via the Paraguay and after 
crossing a few miles by land have been shipped at Port Velho 
on the river Arinos, the tributary of the Tapajos, finally 
reaching the Port of Pard or Belem, via the Amazon. The 
reader can readily form an idea of how important these navi- 
gation connections would be within the interior of the 
South American continent through lands which embrace all 
climatic belts with an abundance of the most valuable prod- 
ucts of the soil, over an area more than 2,000 miles in length 
from the equator south to Buenos Aires and Montevideo, a 
distance of 35 degrees. This northern littoral has a warm 
climate with its dry season during the Winter. A large por- 
tion of Matto Grosso, lying in the valley of the La Plata in 
Brazil, has an equatorial climate with a mean annual tem- 
perature of 20° C, and rain the year round. 

Referring again to the soil of the Fertil, or Southeastern 
Pampa : Throughout the whole expanse of this vast plain, 
under a growth of vegetable mould and under the sandy 
marshes and shell banks, the soil is composed of a clayish 
sand to a depth of from fifteen to twenty meters, and as 
much as fifty meters in some places. It varies in color from 
a dark gray in certain parts to a whitish and yellowish hue 
in others. This soil formation lies uncovered on the banks 
of the rivers and on the hills and high ground where the 
mould has been carried away by the water. Large forma- 
tions of solid rock, called Toscas, composed of lime, clay and 
sand, are also found. The pampean soil does not contain 
fossil sea-life, but a great quantity of land fossil mammals, 
such as the Megatherium, Toxodon, and other gigantic ani- 
mals, which we have already mentioned. Fresh water mol- 
lusks and varieties of salts have been found. The soil con- 
tains a certain amount of lime which emits carbonic acid 
whenever brought in contact with sulphuric acid. D'Orbigny 
referred to this soil as "Pampean Formation" and Darwin 
called it "Pampean Slime." The former considered it supe- 
rior tertiary soil, while the latter believed it to be a late 
quaternary. Bravard, another great naturalist, was in 


accord with D'Orbigny. Burmeister, at one time Director 
of the Buenos Aires Museum, claimed it was quaternary 
and corresponding to the Deluge period in Europe. The 
artesian wells in the city of Buenos Aires show this pampean 
formation to be thirty meters in depth, and in excavations 
between the La Plata and the Tandil ridge of mountains it 
is found to have a depth of fifty-six meters. This kind of soil 
is not to be found beyond the Colorado River, which boun- 
dary Darwin pointed out as being the extent of this forma- 
tion. At Mendoza, which is 800 meters above sea-level, the 
formation described is fourteen meters deep and has the 
same gigantic fossil mammals: Megatherium, Mastodon, 
Gliptodon, etc. The soil formation in the San Luis district 
is the same, according to Burmeister. It is also found be- 
tween Entre Rios and Santa Fe, between the rivers Uruguay 
and Parani, in the Oriental Republic, a large part of the 
Chaco, in Paraguay, and the eastern plains of Bolivia. This 
soil formation continues to a great height on the Mount of 
Montevideo. The southern part of the Republic of Uruguay 
is also covered with humus, or vegetable mould. It is found 
on the river Negro, near Mercedes in Uruguay, along the 
rivulets Coquimbo and Sarandi, and at Talar where the large 
deposits of gigantic fossil mammals are found. But nowhere 
in the pamj^ean soil is there any fossil sea-life, which proves 
that it does not owe its formation to the action of sea-water. 
Not a vestige of marine infusoria is found, even with the aid 
of the miscroscope. The question arises, How was the pam- 
pean soil formed? According to D'Orbigny, Darwin, Bra- 
vard, Burmeister, Ameghino and other sages, several have 
been the factors which have contributed to the formation of 
this soil. Ameghino, who knew more about the soil by rea- 
son of his having always lived in the country and who there- 
fore made a closer and longer study of it, says that many 
have been the causes which together have shared in its forma- 
tion, principally the action of the winds (the theory also 
advanced by Bravard) which have carried the material dur- 
ing heavy windstorms, as in the case of the "loess" which 


form the soil of China. It represents the accumulation of 
material which the winds have piled up for centuries. The 
loess of the Rhine are of like origin. 

Richtofen, the geologist, was the first to demonstrate the 
origin of the loess caused by the winds in China, to which 
conclusion he arrived after a very close study of the Chinese 
soil. The loess soil which formed a border around the des- 
erts of Central Asia specially attracted his attention. The 
wind-storms of that region caused him to understand the 
action of the winds on soil formation. The dust which is 
carried by the winds is the last product in the pulverization 
of the sand. It is carried to the edge of the dry belt, where 
it precipitates through the action of the rain, or falling by it^ 
own weight becomes fastened to the weeds, the roots of 
which have left as traces the little canals characteristic of 
the loess soil. By erosion the rain-waters and the river- 
streams have transported the loess formation for long dis- 
tances and dei)Osited it in the form of alluvions at the bot- 
tom of lakes and on the banks of rivers. According to 
Fritch, the volume of dust which was transported in 1863 
by the trade-winds of northeastern Sahara to the Canary 
Islands amounted to 4,000,000 cubic meters. This dust is 
similar to that of the loess of China, which form its yellow 
soil, similar to that of the pampas. Loess soil formation 
covers at least 20 per cent of the surface of China, the region 
of the Mississippi, the pampas and other regions. He who 
has witnessed the cyclones produced by the Zonda winds of 
the plains of San Juan in the republic of Argentina, which 
are similar to those of the simoom of the Sahara, can very 
well appreciate the powerful action of the wind as a carrier 
of the material which has made the pampean soil what it is. 
Ameghino affirms that the pampean soil is not of marine 
origin but that it is the result of the combined action of the 
rains, rivers, winds and the subterranean forces, which have 
caused depressions and upheavals of the soil. He has shown 
that the soil at the foot of the Cordoba ridge is a quartz 
sand which gradually changes to impalpable mud at the 


mouth of the Parana. This proves the fact that the greater 
part of the material which forms the pampean soil between 
Cordoba and Rosario comes from the decomposition of rock 
of the Cordoba ridge of mountains. The fragments of rock 
from the mountains first form into boulders, the separate 
particles of material being carried away in the form of sand 
to a greater distance, and the material which comes from the 
decomposition of feldspar is carried to the valley of the 
ParanA, where part of it remains, and part of it, together 
with clay which the Parana carries from the north, is 
finally deposited on the plains of Buenos Aires. So it is 
everywhere; the pampean soil contains a larger proportion 
of sand as it nears the mountains and a larger proportion of 
clay the farther the distance from the mountains that formed 
it. The soil of the republic of Uruguay, which is farther 
away from the mountain range is much harder, due to the 
large percentage of clay over sand. The action of the carry- 
ing winds is very evident in many places where the sands 
and dirt have formed deep banks where fossil remains are 

Among the opinions given by men of science, regarding 
the fertility of the soil of the pampas, it is well to note the 
serious error committed by Burmeister when he asserted 
in his important work, "Physical Description of the Republic 
of Argentina," published forty years ago, that the soil of the 
pampas was unfit for cultivation and that live-stock raising 
would be the only industry. It was Burmeister's belief that 
plants inferior to those native to the soil should be the kind 
cultivated, and cited the lands of Brazil, where the gigantic 
forests were cut down and in their place coffee-trees and 
sugar-cane were planted. He said : "The pampas produce 
only miserable grasses consisting of plants inferior to wheat 
that the planters want to cultivate. These attempts will 
have no success. These are positive facts," he said, "which 
are proven by Liebig's Agricultural Chemistry." But ex- 
perience has refuted the erroneous statement which so in- 
jured Argentina, for to-day the pampas lead the world in 


grain production, sending five million tons of wheat, com, 
barley and oats to European and North American markets. 

Fossil Eemains of the Pampean Soil 

In conclusion, and so that the North American reader may 
be able to compare its antiquity with that of the soil of the 
Northern continent, we will briefly enumerate the fossil 
mammals of the pampean soil, as follows: 

Primates — Besides the fossil remains of man, there are in 
Brazil and Argentina, the Protopithecus of Brazil (Lund) 
and the Protopithecus Bonaerensis (Gervais and Ame- 
ghino), which compare with the Anthropomorphus. There 
are four species of Primates (Cebus) and other apes of 

In North America the true fossil ape of the tertiary age is 
not known, and the apes of today, natives of Central America 
and Mexico, are South American types. In Europe and 
Asia they appear in the Miocene epoch, but these species have 
no predecessors in the most ancient formations of that same 
region, and it is evident that they came from South America, 
where they had lived, crossing over the Arquelensis or the 
continent which united America and Africa. The apes 
called "Homunculideos" or "Hombrecillos (little meu ) de 
Santa Cruz" in Patagonia, are, in the opinion of Dr. Mahou- 
deau, Instructor in the Paris School of Anthropology, the 
species which bear closer resemblance to man and which 
show closer relation to the common trunk from which man 
and ape originated. It is possible that the predecessor of 
man had its origin in the Pampa Argentina. 

Cheiroptera — Seven species of bats have been found. 

Carnivorous — Smilodon populator, stronger than the lion 
of today, and stronger than the Smilodon which is now on 
exhibition at the Museum of Natural History in New York 
City, the fossil remains of which were found on soil of the 
United States of America. 

Canis — Eleven species of dogs and the fossil Canis Azarae. 

Artotheriums — Gigantic bears unlike the present species. 


Tipoteridos — Order discovered by Gervais and Ameghiuo. 
Includes the tipoterium, of which there are three species, 
and the Toxodon, of which five species have been found corre- 
sponding in size to the rhinoceros. 

Solipede — Three species of horses have been found, 
among them the Equus Argentinus (by Burmeister). The 
South American horse of the present day was introduced 
by the Spaniards. 

Macrauquenia — Twice as high as the horse, and combining 
the characteristics of the giraife, camel and llama. 

Prohoscides — There are two species of Mastodons: Hum- 
boldt and Andium. No fossil elephants have been found. 

Ruminants — There are several species of Auchenia, 
Cierves, Antelopes, etc. 

Edentates (toothless) — The Megatherium family. — The 
American Megatherium is much larger than the elephant. 
It is on exhibition in nearly all the museums of the world. 
There are five smaller species, and several of the Milodon 
type. Among the Edentates, mention must be made of 
several of the animals with armour-like coverings not un- 
like that of the Armadillo. These are the Gliptodon species 
with an armour covering which in some places measures 
two meters in thickness; exhibited in the museums of La 
Plata and Buenos Aires. These armour coverings were 
used as tents by the fossil man of the pampas of the 
tertiary age, as verified by marks of the handiwork of 
primitive man, and which can not be disputed. 

The Patagonian Region of the Present Day and AVhat 
It Was in the Remote Past 

Patagonia, which was at one time one of the most fertile 
regions on the globe, is today a vast arid tract, almost unin- 
habitable for reason of its sudden and extreme climatic 
changes and limited rainfall. The winter temperature falls 
as low as SO'^ C. below zero at Colonia Sarmiento and 
Bueii Pastor on the Chubut, and to 28° C. below in many 
places; the summer temperature rises at times to 40° C. 


above zero at points on the rivers Chubut and Negro, and in 
the southern pampas. This contrast is due to the dryness 
of the air, the rainfall being exceedingly low throughout the 
Patagonian region excepting on the Andean valleys of the 
Neuquen and a few other places. Onelli, the Argentine 
explorer, who served as a member of the Commission on 
boundaries with Chile, and is therefore thoroughly familiar 
with this region, says in his recent book, "Climbing the 
Andes," B. A., 1916 edition : ''Patagonia has a uniformly 
monotonous and gloomy aspect ; its step-like graded plateaus 
alternating with its mountains of basalt, appear aston- 
ishingly duplicated along the line from the Negro river to 
the Strait of Magellan, 15,000 sq. leagues." The abrupt and 
smooth coast line is destitute of all vegetation, and its 
gloomy appearance can, perhaps, be better imagined than 
described, for this is the region to which Darwin applied 
the term "Accursed Land," to which we have alluded before. 
The land which can be utilized for sheep-raising purposes 
covers an area of 8,000 square leagues, figuring on about 
1,500 head to a square league or a total of 12,000,000 sheep, 
which is a small figure, for were the rainfall heavier a much 
larger number could be accommodated. The remaining 7,000 
square leagues of surface will remain unserviceable for an 
indefinitely long time, due to the difficulty, and, I dare say, 
impossibility of finding fresh artesian water. The fertile part 
of the Patagonian region is that which penetrates into the 
heart of the Andes through the "'Valles Gordilleranos" 
(valleys of the range), comprising 4,000 square leagues of 
fertile soil with abundant rains, large forests and metals 
which can be easily exploited through the advantages of an 
abundant supply of fuel and motive force, which can be 
obtained from the numberless streams and water-falls found 
in the district. This region can be properly referred to as 
the ^'Switzerland of Argentina," having even larger lakes 
than those of Switzerland in Europe, surrounded by high 
mountains. We find there the great lakes : Argentina, which 
is 120 kilometers long by 50 kilometers wide ; Buenos Aires 


Lake, 150 kilometers long; Nahuel Huapi Lake, resem- 
bling a gigantic octopus, 100 kilometers in length, and many 
others. There are more than 100 lakes of considerable 
size. The lakes of the Andes, which Frey numbered from 1 
to 70, and which are considered large bodies, do not appear 
on the maps. 

The Sterile Pampa 

The sterile pampa region with its barren deserts occupies 
the northwestern part of Argentina as far as the foot of 
the Andes mountains. It is sandy in certain places and 
saline in others ; very little rainfall with a tropical African 
climate during the summer season, and very cold in winter. 
The only vegetation found consists of a species of feeble, 
thorny shrubbery. High temperature of 46° centigrade at 
Santiago del Estero, and 41° at San Juan, Rioja, have 
been recorded, temperature such as is recorded in the Desert 
of Sahara. In the very same region the thermometer 
registers six and eight degrees below during the winter 
months, and has fallen as low as twelve and fourteen below, 
at San Luis and Mendoza. 

The Mountainous Region of Brazil and the Plateaus op 
THE Brazilian System 

The great system formed by the Coast Range and many 
other chains of mountains, attains its maximum height 
(2,944 meters) at Agulhas Negras, and 2,932 meters at the 
Pyrenees in Goyaz. It covers an area of 4,500,000 square 
kilometers, which is equal to almost half of the territory of 

Two million square kilometers of this area have a 
healthy and temperate climate. This comprises the most 
densely populated and most widely cultivated region in- 
cluding the states of San Paulo, Rio Janeiro, Bahia, 
Pernambuco, Santa Catalina, and Rio Grande del Sur. 
Most of the coffee, tobacco, cotton, sugar-cane, lumber, 
and tinctorial plants produced, come from the valleys, while 


the plateaus are being utilized for cattle-raising, where 
there are more than 28,000,000 head at the present time. 
One of the leading regions of the live-stock industry is Matto 
Grosso, situated in upper Paraguay, known as the plateaus 
of the Parecis Range, and which is now accessible by the 
railroad recently built from Corumb^ to San Paulo and 
Santos. The jerked beef, prepared in this region, is shipped 
via the Parand and the La Plata, for consumption in Brazil. 
Another very important live-stock state is Rio Grande del 
Sur, which adjoins the Republica Oriental del Uruguay, and 
ships prepared beef via the Uruguayan Central Railroad to 
Montevideo, whence it is exported to foreign markets. This 
route is also used for the exportation of wool, hides, fats and 
other animal products, the value of which amounts to more 
than 40,000,000 dollars annually. Live stock is also an im- 
portant industry in the states of Goyaz and Minas. Not 
so much beef is exported, as the consumption among the 
24,000,000 inhabitants of Brazil is in itself an important 
item, figuring that the proportion is a little more than one 
animal for each inhabitant, while Argentina has 30,000,000 
head of cattle and 67.000,000 head of sheep for 8,000,000 
inhabitants, and Uruguay for its one and a half million 
population, has 8,000,000 cattle and 20,000,000 sheep. 

The United States of America at one time exported large 
quantities of beef, for in 1890 their 65,000,000 head of cattle 
were more than enough for the population of 60,000,000, but 
they are today importing large quantities of beef from the 
La Plata region in order to keep pace with the consumption 
of their 110,000,000 population. It is possible that Brazil 
will be able to increase its production of live stock and has 
accordingly taken very good steps to effect it. 



Influence of the Andean Range on the Hydrography of South America— The Line of 
Perpetual Snow on the Andes — The Great Hydrographic Slopes of South America — Ist, La 
Plata Slope — 2d, The Amazonian Slope — 3d, The Slope of the Orinoco — 4th, Pacific Slope. 

Influence op the Andean Range on the Hydrography 
OP South America 

The Andean Range is the water-shed between the two 
large drainage slopes, one over a long and narrow tract, 
the other extending over nearly the whole continent. Due 
to its great height this range has a marked effect on the 
climate and the rainfall, in obstructing the moisture-laden 
clouds carried by the eastern winds. 

The Line op Perpetual Snow on the Andes 

It is noticeable that the eastern slope has a heavier rain- 
fall than either the plateau region or the western slope of 
the Pacific. The line of perpetual snow is at a higher alti- 
tude on the mountains along the Pacific Coast than on 
the eastern range where the snowfall is heavier. Perpetual 
snow is at a height of 6,000 meters on the western range 
of Bolivia, while at an elevation of 5,200 meters on the 
eastern Cordillera. It is of course a natural fact that the 
line of perpetual snow descends to a lower elevation the 
farther the distance from the equator, to wit : at Mt. Acon- 
cagua 33° south, 4,482 meters elevation; at Mt. Sarmiento, 
55° south, 1,072 meters. As the rainfall of Ecuador is 
heavier than in Bolivia, the line of perpetual snow is higher, 
or 4,600 meters on Mt. Cotopaxi, which is situated almost on 
the line of the equator. 



The Great Hydrographic Slopes of South America 

The eastern or Atlantic slope consists of three slopes 
drained by the three large rivers of South America : the 
Orinoco, the Amazon and the La Plata, the first two being 
2,200 and 5,000 kilometers long, respectively, and the third 
is formed by the rivers Parana and Uruguay, 4,500 and 
1,500 kilometers, respectively. In the chapter devoted to 
"Means of Communication" we show in detail how easy 
it would be to establish communication between the La 
Plata and the Amazon through the rivers Parang and Para- 
guay and the Tocantins, tributary of the Amazon, a project 
which should attract the attention of enterprising Yankee 
concerns to whom nothing seems impossible. This route 
could be established far more economically than the one 
contemplated by the English, in Africa, from the Cape 
through the South African republics, through the Congo 
and the Nile to Cairo, Egypt, a part of which is already 
completed. The reader can easily observe the conditions of 
navigation of South America, by consulting the map on 
"Communications" found in another part of this book, with 
reference to river communication and railroad lines now in 
operation as well as those being planned. The so-called Rio 
de la Plata is a big estuary formed by the Parand and 
Uruguay, both of which have their origin in the tropical 
region of Brazil. The La Plata is 180 miles wide at its 
mouth, where it flows into the Atlantic Ocean, between Cape 
Santa Maria in Uruguay and Cape San Antonio in Argen- 
tina. The distance across the estuary, between Montevideo 
and Buenos Aires, is 120 miles and 30 miles from Buenos 
Aires to the nearest point in Uruguay. The part of the 
river from Montevideo, toward Buenos Aires, is fresh 
river-water, and east of Montevideo salt sea-water. Monte- 
video is a seaport. The Parand is a very large stream 
not unlike the Mississippi of North America, as to abun- 
dance of water, general course and different climatic 
belts through which it flows. The Paraguay, the principal 


tributary of the Parand, though far more useful as a navig- 
able stream, compares with the Missouri River. It is 
navigable by small steamers almost to its source. The great 
central zone of Brazil, with its immense wealth of lumber 
and live-stock, can have direct communication with the 
Atlantic Ocean through the Paraguay into the Parana and 
the La Plata, Bolivia, which is devoid of seacoast though 
nearer to the Pacific than to the Atlantic, has outlet through 
the Paraguay, with Port Suarez on one of the tributaries of 
the above river which flows through Bolivian territory, 
and far more advantageous for Bolivian commerce than 
the Beni, Mamore, Madeira and Amazon. One steamship 
line connects Port Suarez with Buenos Aires and Monte- 

The Amazon, which is 5,000 kilometers long, is the largest 
river in the world, both as regards volume of water and the 
number of its big tributaries. The combined length of the 
navigable streams, including the Amazon and its tributaries, 
and which extend to both hemispheres, is 50,000 kilometers. 
The Madeira, which flows from far in the interior of Bolivia, 
is 3,000 kilometers long. The Tapajos, Xingu, Purus, Tocan- 
tins are each more than 2,000 kilometers in length. The 
Negro is the main northern tributary. In our chapter 
"Means of Communication" we give a more detailed account 
as to the navigation and the importance of the tributaries 
of the Amazon. 

The rivers of the Pacific slope are of very little importance, 
the principal streams being the Barker, Aysen, Valdivia, 
Bueno, etc., of the Chilean republic. It is a well-known fact 
that the northern littoral of Chile and Peru is a dry and 
riverless region. Ecuador has one large river, on the side 
of the Pacific, the Guayaquil. Colombia has the rivers Mag- 
dalena and Atrato, which are very important navigable 



Climate of the Coast Belt — Basis of Temperature of the Coast Belt — Temperature of the 
Pampean, the Central and the Patagonian Regions — The Law of Rains — Transparency of 
the Sky in the Various Zones of the La Plata Region. 

Climate op the Coast Belt 

In addition to what has been said in describing the 
regions of the Andes and the plains, we will here supplement 
that which relates to the Climatology of the La Plata, which 
embraces the best known regions of the South American 
Continent, there being over 200 meteorological observatories 
scattered from Tierra del Fuego to Paraguay and covering 
the territory of the republics of Argentina, Uruguay and 
Paraguay, or from parallel 22° S. to 56° S. a distance of 
700 leagues, or 34 degrees of latitude, which is half the 
length of the continent north and south. The meteorological 
department of Argentina is under the direction of North 
American meteorologists who publish a daily weather re- 
port or bulletin. The tract of land situated between and 
on the Uruguay, Parang and Paraguay rivers is called 
Littoral, supposed to reach not only to Buenos Aires, but 
includes the Atlantic littoral as far as Patagonia. 

Basis of Temperature op the Littoral Belt 

The Littoral, which is the most thickly populated district 
of Argentina and Uruguay, has a temperate climate, which 
gradually gets colder as the distance from the equator in- 
creases and as is the natural result on all regions under 300 
meters elevation. We give below the average temperature of 



the last ten years beginning with the City of Asuncion on the 
north : 



Asunci6n (Capital of Paraguay) 22 42 

Corrientes (Argentine Republic) 20 42 

Sal to (Republic of Uruguay) 18 

Montevideo (Republic of Uruguay) 16 38 -6 

Buenos Aires (Argentine Republic) 16 40 -6 

Bahia Blanca (Argentine Republic) 14 42 -8 

Montevideo has perceptibly the same average mean 
temperature as Buenos Aires, though not as warm in sum- 
mer as the latter, and a maximum temperature of 38° C, 
which is recorded only about every eight or ten years, which 
is not the case in Buenos Aires, where this maximum is 
reached almost every summer. Buenos Aires has also colder 
winters, due to the cold winds which sweep over the city 
from the mountain range, and which winds have risen in 
temperature after crossing the estuary of La Plata, which 
waters have a minimum temperature of 5° or 6°C. above 
zero. The coldest time of day is between six, and seven 
o'clock in the morning. It must be borne in mind that 
Montevideo has a maritime, and Buenos Aires a continental 

Temperature of the Central and Patagonian Regions 

In Argentina, as the distance from the littoral or coast 
increases the intensity of heat or cold increases until, at 
the Pampa, there is a maximum temperature of 44° and 46° 
C, in the provinces of Santiago, Tucuman, etc. 

The mean maximum temperature of this central zone can 
be compared with that of the warmest regions of the globe, 
as is shown by the following figures : 



Catamarca (Recreo) 34 

Santiago del Estero 35 

Cruz del Eje (C6rdoba) 33 

Uaadi-Half a (Nubia) 34 

Maaaua (Central Africa) 34 

Kartiun (Soudan) 33 


Patagonia has an excessively cold winter climate, which 
goes down to 30° C. below zero at the Neuqueu in Colonia 
Sarmiento and other places. In the summer the temper- 
ature rises to the other extreme, registering 42° C. on the 
Chubut at port Madrin on the Atlantic. Many are the 
places where the temperature rises to 40° C. in summer and 
falls to 25° below zero during the winter. 

The Law op Rains 

The rainfall gradually decreases towards the southern 
extremity, following the natural result of rainfall, being 
heavier nearer the tropics and lighter as it nears the poles. 
In the northern part of the Littoral, which comprises Para- 
guay, Chaco and the Mission district, there is a rainy season 
between April and September, with a heavy rainfall the re- 
mainder of the year. Farther south, between the rivers 
Uruguay and Parantl or Argentine Mesopotamia, the rain- 
fall in the summer and winter is equal. 

The following table shows the decrease in the annual 
rainfall (in millimeters) from north to south: 

Asunci6n (Paraguay) 1320 

Concordia (Argentina) 1070 

Montevideo 934 

Buenos Aires 930 

Mar del Plata 690 

Patagones 310 

In the region of the sterile or midland Pampa, the decrease 
in rainfall is noticed the farther the distance from the 
Uruguay river between the parallels 30° S. and 35° S., which 
is the latitude of the Republica Oriental del Uruguay. The 
diminution is about at the rate of 100 millimeters for each 
100 kilometers. Therefore, the rainfall of 900 to 1,000 milli- 
meters on the coast of Uruguay is only 200 millimeters in 
San Juan, at the foot of the Andes, making irrigation indis- 
pensable for all agricultural products raised in this latter 
region, which, nevertheless, is the best wine-producing zone, 
its grape competing with the best made in Andalusia, 


Spain, and in the wine-producing districts of Portugal. All 
the best grades of fruits and vegetables, native to the region, 
are also raised. 

The Patagonian region has very little rainfall excepting 
at Neuquen (1,820 mm.) and at San Martin de los Andes; in 
a few other places it is considerably less. On the Pata- 
gonian coast the rains are few and far between, the maxi- 
mum corresponding to Trelev, which is 560 mm. On the 
other hand, the rainfall on the Chilean side is from 2,000 to 
3,000 millimeters, only equaled in the Amazonian region. 
Punta Arenas, on the Strait of Magellan, at a great distance 
from the Pacific, has little rainfall (400 mm.). Refer to 
L. C. Bollo, "Climatologia Platense" Barreiro y Ramos, 
Montevideo, 1916. 

Transparency of the Sky in the Various Zones op the 
La Plata Region 

Regarding the condition of the sky, few places can com- 
pare with Uruguay in clearness and transparency, prin- 
cipally because the atmosphere is free from haziness and 
dust. This fact alone entitles Uruguay and Argentina to 
display the sun as their symbol together with the white 
and azure hues, which their flags unfold. 

CONDITION OP THE SKY. A Perfectly Clear Sky is marked 100 


Montevideo 51 

Asunci6n 45 

Buenos Aires 46 

Bahia Blanca 44 


Tucumdn 58 

C<3rdoba 53 

San Luis 44 


La Quiaca 38 

Salta 56 

Mendoza 35 



Is there One Singular Type of Native South American ? — Was South America First 
Settled by Men from another Continent ? — The Various South American Races, Accord- 
ing to D'Orbigny: Andean-Peruvian, Pampean, Brazilian-Guaranitica — The Races of South 
America do not descend from the Mongolians — The Americans were the first to use cop- 
per, which metal was unknown to the Egj'ptian, Asiatic and European peoples, and were 
the first to discover bronze which the South American introduced during the invasions 
of the Eastern Hemisphere — The Esquimaux of today, of American origin, invaded Green- 
land and Northern Asia. 

Is There One Singular Type op Native South American f 

We will not here discuss the origin of the American, who 
was considered, until just recently, a modification of the 
Mongol type, which it resembles slightly, though a great 
many of the nations of the South American indigenes are as 
ditlerent from the Mongols as they are from the Caucasians. 
The Yuracares, of the Mamor6 river in Bolivia, and of whom 
D'Orbigny made a very close study, having resided among 
them for about eight months, are almost white in color and 
have a fine physique. The Chiriguanos of Bolivia, on the 
river Pilcomayo, have a light-copper complexion. The Im- 
baburenos of Ecuador are as white of skin as the Europeans. 
The Cariazos, also of Ecuador, have an aquiline nose like 
the Jivaros of the Pastaza river, while the Zaparos of the 
Napo resemble the Chinese. According to tradition, Manco 
Capac, who founded the Empire of the Incas, 1,000 years 
before the present era, had white skin and golden hair as 
had his wife. 

Was South America First Settled by Men from Another 


Mr. Andres Lamas, well-known Uruguayan publicist, in 
his introduction to the work of Lozano, "History of the 



Conquest of Paraguay, La Plata River and Tucum^n," 
says : "We do not know of any American myth or tradition 
to which we can attribute the supposition that America 
might have been settled by emigrants from another 

"We find traditions of invasions, conquests, colonization, 
transmigrations, the supplanting of various tribes whose 
origin we ignore but who appeared to have been moving and 
operating within the same continent and coming from the 
interior of the mainland." 

"We find traditions of civilized men of divers American 
races, traditions of white-skinned golden-haired men, of 
barbates, who have had more or less influence in the do- 
minion, culture and destinies of peoples. But there is no 
tradition to tell us that such and such a tribe or such and 
such men were the settlers of an uninhabited land. On the 
contrary, each one in its turn appears, according to its re- 
spective tradition, to have functioned and established its 
dominion over people already occupying the premises, who 
either were or considered themselves aborigines. Therefore, 
not only is there want of a determined fact, myths and 
native traditions that will permit us to suppose that 
America was settled by immigrants from another continent, 
but the American myths and traditions existing are in 
opposition to this supposition. This is the opinion of one 
of the most celebrated historians of the La Plata, who, with 
great ardor and devotion, made a thorough study of these 

The opinion that became so general some time ago that the 
Mongolians had migrated into and settled in America, was 
due to the fact that many invasions into North America 
came from the North, but in South America we find that the 
invasions were just the reverse. Manco Capac went to 
Cuzco, from the South ; the civilization which he founded 
and the palaces constructed in Tiahuanaco, all preceded 
Manco Capac's time and emanated from people that came 
from the South; the tribes that destroyed Tiahuanaco and 


exterminated the inhabitants fifteen centuries ago, also came 
from the South; the great invasion, which put an end to the 
second dynasty of the Incas of Cuzco, proceeded from Argen- 
tina ; the Yncasica civilization started from the South travel- 
ing in a northerly direction, going from Cuzco to Quito and 
thence to Ecuador; the Guarani race, which contributed a 
larger number of inhabitants to South America, started its 
invasion from Paraguay northwardly to the Amazon, the 
Orinoco and the Caribbean or Antilles Isles ; the Caribbeans 
were Guaranles; the Tupies a family branch of the Guar- 
anies, moving northwardly drove away the indigenes from 
the territory where today stands Rio Janeiro. The Mexicans 
make mention of invasions which have come into their terri- 
tory from the South. 

If South America was the continent where the ape and the 
biggest ape first api^eared, it is not altogether impossible 
that it also had human inhabitants contemporaneously with 
the Old World or even before. Could it be that the At- 
lantida of Platon is the Arquelensis, which united America 
and Africa? And do not the names of Atlantic and Atlas 
mountains indicate invasions by Mexicans of Tlascala who 
arrived from Western Lands, according to tradition of the 
indigenes of Old Berberia, now Marruecos and Tunes? 
There is no other language that could have applied these 
names distinctly of Mexican origin. 

The South American Races 

According to D'Orbigny 

Going back to the subject of the indigenous races of South 
America, we are indebted to the celebrated French natur- 
alist, D'Orbigny, for a good classification based on the 
principal anatomical characteristics. Although it may not 
correspond exactly with the details given at a later date 
through anthropology, then an almost unknown science, he 
furnishes by means of his exactness in detail a perfect idea 
of the man of South America. The sage D'Orbigny resided 


in America several years and was able to understand those 
peoples. The Andean-Peruvian race was of dark olive com- 
plexion, small stature, horizontal eyes and rather high fore- 
head. It is divided into three branches : Peruana, Aniiciana, 
and Araucana. Average height of the Peruano, 1.59 meters; 
large, aquiline nose ; lips, medium ; cheekbones not high ; 
long, oval face, in fact, characteristics which the Mongolian 
does not possess. To this branch belong the Quichuas and 
Aimaras of the Peru-Bolivian Plateau, the founders of the 
Empire of the Incas, which, as we have said, attained 
civilization comparable to that of Ancient Egypt. 

The Anticiana: average height, 1.64 meters; nose not uni- 
form in shape; dark-olive complexion, more or less fair; 
forehead, not low; horizontal eyes; face, oval. To this 
branch belong the Yuracares, almost white in complexion, 
who live in the forests of Bolivia, and the Mocetones, etc. 

The Araucama: Average height, 1.64 meters; complexion, 
veiy dark brown ; face, almost circular ; nose, short and flat ; 
high cheek-bones; forehead, rather high. Araiwanos Ran- 
queles and Fueguinos of Patagonia are descendants of the 
Araucanos of Chile, the PeJiuenches of Patagonia and the 

The Pampean Race: Very tall; arched forehead, not low; 
horizontal eyes; dark-olive skin. This race inhabited the 
Pampa Argentina and the territoiy of Uruguay. It is di- 
vided into three branches: Pampeana, CJiiquitana and 
Moxcana. The Pampean is tall of stature, averaging 1.68 
meters in height; complexion, brown, dark-olive or reddish 
brown; long face; flat nose; very large mouth; high cheek- 
bones; many are ferocious in appearance. 

The Patagones and Tehuelches, of Patagonia, the extinct 
Charrnas, of Uruguay, and the Tohas, and others of the 

The Chiquitana and Moxana branches are scattered 
throughout the Bolivian plains of Moxos and Chiquitos. 

The Brasilo-Ouaranitica Race: Yellowish with a pale 
reddish tinge; moderate stature, average 1.62 meters; 


rounded forehead; circular face; small protruding mouth, 
thin lips, cheek-bones somewhat regular ; stockily built. The 
larger part of tlie indigenous ])opnlation of Brazil, Paraguaj' 
and the regions of the tributaries of the Amazon belong to 
this race. 

The Querandies, who settled on the right-hand side of the 
La Plata when Buenos Aires was founded, belong to the 
Guaranies branch. 

The Races of South America Are Not Descendants of 
THE Mongolians 

We believe that upon inspection of the descriptive char- 
acteristics as given by D'Orbigny, regarding the principal 
American peoples, they will be found convincing enough to 
cause us to abandon the Mongolomanian idea of the sages 
who make of the Mongolian race an enormous bag wherein 
they cram all things about which they are unable to give a 
satisfactory explanation. The I'eruvian race, which 
founded one of the greatest empires that have ever existed, 
is distinguished mainly by the fact that their cheek-bones 
are not high, contrary to the most noticeable characteristic 
of the Mongolians, which is predominant even among the 
races to which the Mongolians are related, as for instance 
the Magiares, and all the descendants of Mongolians found 
in Russia today. The Guaranies and Peruanos, who repre- 
sent, perhaps, the largest of the South American races, are 
also noted for their high cheek-bones. 

The region of Pamir, which the believers of the Mongolian 
immigration idea have selected as the original home of man- 
kind, and which place they claim was the starting point of 
the great invasions that went into Europe from Asia, is on 
account of its climatic conditions of excessive heat and cold 
during the opposing seasons, the contrasting changes be- 
tween the places which are bathed by the rays of the sun and 
those in shade, as well as by its barrenness, lack of water 
and fuel, the least desirable location for human life to have 
grown and developed. Its present inhabitants are among 


the most inferior of the Asiatic races of today. It can not 
be aflSrmed that the conditions of life may have been better, 
as was the case in Patagonia and even in the Desert of 
Sahara, for notwithstanding the nntiring study of that 
region, by famous explorers, particularly the English, not 
even a vestige has been found which might establish the fact 
that there was at one time a more profuse vegetation or a 
partially advanced civilization, and not a trace that there 
might have been, in that particular region, a higher order of 
animal or vegetable life nor of a more civilized man. It is 
like the other legends, which treat about the antiquity of the 
white races of India, as the Dravidians, and that attributed 
to the Aryans, this latter legend having been completely 
disproved by the conscientious study of the most renowned 
investigators of a later period. The celebrated structures of 
India and everything that was considered remotely ancient, 
are found to date back only a few centuries prior to the con- 
quest by Alexander the Great. Yet some of these novels are 
being used as a historical text today in certain universities. 
Like the oldest civilized regions of Egypt and Chaldea, 
though their history only goes back 7,000 years, these 
regions, due to their fertility of soil, were the centers of 
numerous organized nations, which found means of subsist- 
ence and proper living conditions for the successful develop- 
ment of the species. But what are 7,000 years against 
18,000, which the Mexican traditions claim for their civiliza- 
tion, the antiquity of the Empire of the Incas and still the 
older civilization j)recediug that of the Incas, and which is 
attested by the ruins of Tiahuanaco? 

There exists one fact which proves that the people of 
America exerted some influence in European civilization, 
they being the first to use copper, as in no part of the Old 
World was copper known, neither among the Egyptians 
who made use of brass many thousands of years before 
the Europeans did. As bronze is an alloy of copper and 
tin, it is natural to suppose that if copper was unknown 
to both the Europeans and the Egyptians, and known to 


the native Americaus, who used it as arrow points, the 
latter were the inventors of bronze, which product has 
played such an important part in the civilization of the 
Eastern Hemisphere. It has also been demonstrated that 
the Eskimo are natives of America and differ from the 
Mongolians, who are brachicephalus, in that the Eskimo are 
unquestionabl}^ the most dolichocephalic of all the peoples 
of the world. The Eskimo, on being pushed away by other 
people, spread to the Arctic regions and crossed to 
Greenland and Northern Asia. This invasion differed en- 
tirely from tliose which might have taken place from Asia 
to America, and of which there may have been several in the 
course of all the past ages. 

The primitive races of America are represented by the 
Eskimo in the North, the Botocudos of Brazil, and the 
Tekiuicos and Pecherais of Tierra del Fuego; their respec- 
tive languages are unlike those of their immediate neighbors ; 
they have a dolicocephalus cranium. In Europe, the Bas- 
cos and the Bereberes are considered the primitive races; 
the former believe that they are the descendants of the 
Iberians, who inhabited a large part of western France and 
part of Italy. The Bereberes of Marruecos and Tunis, 
formerly Berbery, have many things in common with the 
inhabitants of Livia, who in many ways resembled the 
Iberians. All these peoples have suffered many changes, due 
to the intermingling with the peoples of contiguous terri- 
tory, though they yet retain a certain degree of similarity 
to the native American. The Bereber, like the native Ameri- 
can Indian, has scanty beard; red skin; black and straight 
hair; dqlicocephalus cranium. The Berberes (Guanches) 
also inhabited the Canaries, and spoke a language similar 
lo the Basco. The Bascos resemble the Indian of America 
in that they both have black, straight hair and a dolico- 
cephalus cranium. The Fulos or Fullahs of the Soudan in 
Africa have also the same complexion and hair of the 
American Indian. 

Columbus claimed that the inhabitants whom he found at 


Hispaniola and on the i.sland of Guahamani resembled the 
Canarios. Casteluau, noted explorer, says in his book 
"Voyage dans I'Ameriqne du Sud :" "I have found it an im- 
possibility to examine the beautiful Egyptian paintings in 
the British Museum, without registering surprise on notic- 
ing the striking resemblance of many of the subjects to the 
Indians of the New World, among whom I have lived for 
many years. The best artist could not paint a better repro- 
duction of the savages of South America than has been made 
by these very able masters." 

The reputed French geographer, E. Reclus, declares that 
the Mutugorri, Iberian people or ancestors of the Bascos, 
were of a reddish complexion. Michelet, celebrated French 
historian, says that on beholding the Etruscan vases, they 
reminded him of the Mexican statues of Palenque. The 
reader will no doubt have noticed that the resemblances 
described by these eminent men are not a mere accident, but 
they cause one to ponder and realize that there was a re- 
semblance between the oldest races of the two hemispheres — 
Oriental and Occidental — and there is one additional proof 
in the fact that there existed another continent which 
joined these two — the Arquelensis, which joined Brazil and 
Africa, or the Atlantida of Platou, which joined Mexico to 
Berberia and Spain and which was the road used by the 
Mexicans, who were probably the ancestors of the Bascos, 
Bereberes, Fulahs and Egyptians. 

Platon says in his Timeus, that Solon on his trip to Egypt 
beard one of the priests exclaim : "Oh Solon ! Oh Solon ! 
You Greeks are young still. There is not one single old 
man among you. You accept as facts what are emblematic 
fables. Y'ou only have information as to one Deluge which 
has been preceded by many. Athens has existed as a civil- 
ized community for ages, and has for a very long time been 
famous in Egypt, for feats which you ignore and the history 
of which is on record in our archives. There you may 
secure information as to the antiquity of our nation. There 
you will learn about the heroic manner in which the 


Atheniaus of old times checked a formidable nation which 
had established itself over Europe and Asia through an in- 
vasion by warriors coming from the Atlantic Sea. This 
body of water partially surrounded a large tract of land 
situated opposite the entrance to the Strait called 'Columns 
of Hercules.' This region was larger than Asia and Libia 
combined. There was a large number of islands between 
this land and the Strait. The country, about which I have 
just spoken, or Atlantida island, was governed by united 
sovereigns. In one of their expeditions they took posses- 
sion of Libia as far as Egypt on one side, and on the other 
they traversed the whole region as far as Tirreni. All our 
people were at one time slaves, our grandfathers becoming 
our liberators when their fleet defeated that of the Atlan- 
tidos. A short time afterwards their island became sub- 
merged, and the region which was larger than Europe and 
Asia combined disappeared instantaneously." There is a 
similar tradition in America. "At one time there was in 
Central America the Empire of Xibalba, governed by two 
kings, who were Supreme Chiefs of the empire and who had 
ten other kings under them, each one the ruler of a large 
kingdom, establishing among themselves a sort of council, 
which decided matters of common interest. Gradually they 
extended their dominion over the whole world, but a sudden 
deluge came and they all disappeared." (Brasseur de 
Bourbourg, Histoires de nations civilisees du Mexique et de 
I'Am^rique Centrale.) 

Be this the trutli or a mere myth, science considers 
possible the existence of the Atlantida island, and Pale- 
ontology considers it even more necessary in order to 
explain the emigration of the big mammals from Europe to 
North America and from South America to Africa. 



The present fauna of South America is cliaracterized by 
the absence of Proboscides and Hypoides, but such was not 
the case in ages past, this continent having furnished more 
ungulates or hoofed-animals with hoof and skull, and also 
had a large number of Proboscides (animals with prehensile 
extension of the nose like the elephant) and Hypoides or 
primitive horse. Eight speces of ungulates are known, all 
of which have disappeared ; four of these — the Tillodont, An- 
cylopoda, Amblypoda, and Condylartha — are found among 
fossil remains in Europe and North America. A larger 
variety was found in South America. The sub-orders now 
extinct, Protougulata, Litopternos, Toxodontia and Typo- 
theria, were exclusively South American. In brief — 
This continent had all the ungulates that ever lived and are 
yet living in the other continents, thereby proving that 
Bouth America was the primitive home of all ungulates, 
and the center of irradiation which reached across the 
Arquelensis, uniting Brazil and Africa, and across the land 
joining Patagonia and Australia — the Austral Continent, 
the route taken by the Marsupials, from which the Kangaroo 
of Australia descends. The Comadreja (Opossum) of the 
Pamj^a is the predecessor of the Kangaroo and the oldest 
of the mammals living today. The gigantic ungulate Am- 
blipodes, primitive South American species, had a bulk and 
heavy frame like the elephant's, though having much heavier 
and stronger legs and five toes on each foot. The family of 
the Astratoperiums developed into a larger species than 
the elephant, of which we have as an example the I'arastra- 
l)otherium. Several species of the family of the Protohippus 
are known to be the predecessors of the horse today. The 



primitive horse had five toes ou each foot, the toes gradually 
disappearing until finally only one remained, that of the 
present horse. An exhibit in the American Museum of 
Natural History of New York shows this and other phases 
in the evolution of the horse. It is known in this museum 
as Eohippus (Aurora horse), and it is stated that it lived 
3,000,000 years ago. In North America it inhabited the 
regions of New Mexico and Wyoming. The Pyrotherium 
compared in size with the elephant of today. It is repre- 
sented in Africa by the Moeritherium, Paheomosdon, etc., 
and in Europe and Asia by the Mastodon and Dinotherium. 
The Pyrotherium of the Pampa, the ancestor of these species, 
crossed the Arquelensis, which united both continents, just 
as the Mastodon and the Dinotherium passed from Europe 
to North America, over the now submerged continent, which 
may have been Atlantida. Ou crossing Panama, these two 
gigantic mammals returned to their mother land, the home 
of their ancestor, the pampean Pyrotherium of the cretace- 
ous era. 

In cases where the intermediate evolutionary order of 
animal life is not to be found in a continent, but its primi- 
tive and ulterior forms are discovered, it conclusively proves 
that the evolution of the preceding species took form in 
another continent, and also proves that the missing species 
passed from one to the other continent where its transforma- 
tion took place, as is the case with the horse, which was not 
in existence in America at the time of the Spanish explora- 
tion ; yet, its fossil remains are found in both Americas, but 
in larger number in South America. There are fifty species of 
the primitive horse found in America, showing its evolution 
up to the species of the present day, meaning that the horse 
originated in America, which fact is attested by the various 
fossil remains found throughout the vast territory lying be- 
tween the Argentine Pampa and the State of Nebraska in 
the United States of America, where all the evolutionary 
species up to the horse of today are found. 

The North American reader, in studying the evolution of 


the borse at the Museum of Natural History in New York, 
will notice the following five principal characteristics: 

First — Eohippus, having five toes; second — Protorohip- 
pus, with four toes; third — Mesohippus, with three toes; 
fourth — Protohippus, with three toes (the two lateral toes 
which formerly touched the ground, having become shorter, 
no longer touched the ground) ; fifth — Equus, with onlj'^ one 
toe like that of the horse of today. This evolution took place 
during the tertiary epoch. 

The ancestors of the camel are not fouud in Africa, the 
home of the present species, but existed in South and North 
America in form as follows, which are camel fossil remains : 
Palaucheuia magna, Palacoloma Wedelli, Palacoloma Oweni, 
Palacoloma Mayor, etc. 

The ancestors of the anthropoid apes (Gorilla, Orang- 
outang and Chimpanzee) of Asia and Africa, originated in 
the I'ampa and not in Asia and Africa. (Consult Ameg- 
hiuo's "Doctriiia y Descubrimientos" Buenos Aires, 1915, 
and I'aleontologia Argentina, 1904. — The New York Public 

The Trigodon was a species of Toxodou much larger than 
the rhinoceros of today, having an enormous triangular 
head, a very large horn which protruded from the middle 
of the forehead, and an exceedingly small brain, making this 
l)robably the most stupid of animals. 

The Edentates include many fossil species of pampean 
formation, among them the Megatherium, which in some 
cases attained a growth of eight meters in length. The 
Mylodon had its whole body covered with exuding bony 
l>ores arranged in the shape of paviug-stoues. One of these 
animals, the Neonn/Iodon, appears to have lived recently, for 
there have been found in the caves of Patagonia fresh bones 
incased in dried meat and hide, with hair intact and in its 
natural color, which can be seen at the Museum of Buenos 
Aires and American Museum of Natural Historj'^, New York. 

The Maorauchcnia was a species much larger than the 
horse, neck longer than that of the giraffe, very long legs. 


three toes ou each foot like the tapir's, with a trunk like 
that of the elephaut. 

Certain animals appeared during the Pliocene epoch, 
which are not of South American origin. There are several 
strange forms, like the Felinos, and among them the Smilo- 
don, a tiger much more formidable than the African lion, and 
with unusually large saw-like canine-teeth; gigantic bears 
as large as oxen; mastodons, some of African origin and 
some American. These migrations have taken place alter- 
nately and reciprocally between South America and the other 
continents, as may have happened in the case of primitive 
man. At the same time these migrations explain the changes 
of fauna of the various continents. Thus, the Toxodon of 
the Pampa reached Nicaragua ; the Gliptodon reached Ana- 
huac in Mexico, near the site of the Mexican capital, and as 
far as the States of Texas and New Mexico in the United 
States; the Carpincho of Uruguay and Paranii traveled as 
far as Florida ; the Megatherium and Milodonns, which had 
become extinct in the Pampa, are found in the States of 
California and Carolina and in places along the Mississippi 

No fossil apes are found on tertiary soil of North America, 
and the present species in Mexico and Central America are 
South American types; in Europe and Asia, fossil apes of 
the Miocene epoch have recently appeared, but they had 
already been discovered on Patagouian tertiary soil (Ho- 
munculus of Santa Cruz) the skull of which very closely re- 
sembles that of man. Of all species of apes inhabiting the 
Old World, none has its predecessors in the same continent, 
which leads scientists to believe that they are descendants 
of the fossil species found in South America, which conti- 
nent they inhabited in the very remote past. The Homiin- 
cuius of Santa Cruz combines a larger number of character- 
istics common to man than any other of the apes, and it 
appears to be the primitive trunk from which the American 
species became separated from the anthropomorphus of 
Asia and Africa, and the homiuideos. The belief that the 


Pampa was the primitive home of man is further coufii'med 
by the fact that among the fossil remains found, there are 
two toxodons of the tertiary epoch — one with a spear point 
imbedded in the trunk, between the ribs, and another with 
an arrowhead through the bones of the leg. These indica- 
tions of the existence of the man of the tertiary age, which 
came to light during the years 1917 and 1918, confirm the 
opinion of the late (died in 1911) naturalist, Ameghino, who 
found traces of the tertiary man of the Pampa. 

According to this Argentine naturalist, the honumculus 
types, natives of South America, crossed to the Old AVorld 
towards the end of the Eocene or at the beginning of the 
Oligocene epoch, over the remaining part of the Arquelensis, 
which, as we have stated, united South America and Africa. 
This is proven by the discovery of small fossil anthropoids 
at the oligocene period of Northern Africa, as was foretold 
by Ameghino. There the species retrograded instead of ad- 
vancing, giving place to the fossil and present anthropoids 
of Europe, Asia and Africa. 

The man of South America (homo pampaeus) invaded 
North America during the same period as the mammoths 
— Megatherium, Milodon, Toxodon and Gliptodon — of the 
Argentine pampas. These perished, but man separated into 
two branches, one invading the Northwest and the Asiatic 
continent, and the other going in a northeasterly direction, 
crossed the continental bridge, which at the beginning of the 
quaternary epoch connected Canada and Europe, penetrated 
the latter continent through the west and gave origin to 
the man of Neanderthal, of Spy, and la Chapelle aux Saintes, 
now extinct species. Other groups gradually occupied 
Europe, and through evolution came the transformation into 
the Caucasian. Amegliiuo in his book, "Doctrina y Des- 
cubrimientos," says: "I consider it an impossibility for any 
of the species of the apes of today to evolve into man, inas- 
much as their evolutionary i)roeess has taken a divergent 
course which at each step separates them farther from 
man. All the fossil apes so far discovered in the Old World 


belong to these diverging and retrograding branches. The 
same applies not onlj- to the renowned Pitecantropo of 
Java, but also to the man of Neanderthal, both of which 
would represent extinct divergent lines which have become 
separated from the central trunk, during a comparatively 
recent period. The anthropomorphic apes are, in the opinion 
of Ameghino, our degenerated or retrograded brothers and 
not our first cousins, as Darwin believed. 

Such is Ameghino's opinion regarding the races of man- 
kind, and which opinion more closely coincides with the 
information that is being gathered through the natural 
sciences. We mentioned in chapter II the principal fossil 
remains of the Panipa. 

The Man of Chapalmalal — Full Sanction 

"The Congress of Natural Sciences which met recently in 
Tucum^n, and in which all the eminent scientists in our 
country, both national and foreign, took part, has just given 
recognition by unanimous vote to the authenticity of the 
weapons, instruments and fossil remains found by Dr. 
Carlos Ameghino at Chapalmalal, and which were presented 
by him as an attestation of the existence of man during the 
remote prehistoric ages." 

The Congress which has recognized this authenticity as 
well as that the objects were found in their proper place, and 
that they were made and in use during that geological era 
to which belong the animal fossil remains that have also 
been found — backbone and femur of the Toxotlon, both with 
incrusted quartz points of arrow and spear — thus gives the 
fullest sanction that may be desired by our country (with 
representation of the foreign scientific element) to the fruit- 
ful labor and self-evident scientific knowledge of Dr. Carlos 
Ameghino, Director of the Paleontological and Anthropolog- 
ical departments of our museum, 

"The matters herein referred to, received the special atten- 
tion of the Congress, which on terminating its labors at one 
of the sessions, gave a vote of thanks to the erudite Paleon- 


tologist. Therefore^ the last investigations made at Mira- 
mar and Chapalmalal, together with the proof of the ex- 
istence of man during that geological epoch, have been 

"These facts had been formerly recognized by the commis- 
sion appointed by Dr. Angel Gallardo as Director of the Na- 
tional Museum of Natural History, and by Dr. Joaquin V. 
Gonzalez, Rector of the La Plata University. The members 
of this commission were: Dr. Santiago Roth, Director of 
Mines and Geolog}' of the Province of Buenos Aires and In- 
structor of Paleontology; Dr. Walter Schiller, Instructor of 
Mineralogy and collaborator in the management of Mines 
and Geology of the country ; Moises Kantor, Instructor En- 
gineer; Dr. Lutz Witte, Geologist of the mines within the 
province; Dr. Luis Maria Torres; Dr. Carlos Ameghino." 

"This commission after a careful study, drew up an affi- 
davit which has been published in Spanish and in French, 
enumerating the articles found and asserting that 'The 
ocular inspection of the site where the above liandiwork is 
found does not show any indication which would lead any 
one to suppose that the articles described were buried at a 
period subsequent to the formation of the covering layer; 
that they were in proper position and were therefore con- 
sidered objects of human handicraft, contemporary to the 
geological stratum where they were deposited.' " 

"Taking in consideration," adds the affidavit, "all the cir- 
cumstances surrounding these discoveries, as well as the con- 
dition of the objects and the relative stratification of the 
layers, the commission oi)ines that the objects in question 
show traces of the hand of man who lived during the geo- 
logical epoch corresponding to the Chapalmalense stratum." 

"This closing declaration of the said scientific authorities 
was afterwards adopted by another commission later ap- 
pointed, and is now corroborated by the significative sanc- 
tion of the Congress of Natural Sciences." 

"Thus, scientific evidence asserts itself and leaves those 
who would fain deny it in a lamentable state." 


Published in "La Nacion" (principal Argentine daily) of 
Buenos Aires, issue of Dec. 15, 1916, regarding the de- 
liberations of the Tuiornun Scientific Congress, which met a 
few days before. 

Extraordinary Fish Wealth op La Plata 

Montevideo has, since the colonial epoch, been famous 
lliroughout the civilized world for its extraordinary wealth 
and variety of fishes, such as will satisfy the most exacting 
taste. Its supply by far exceeds that of most of the seaport 
town.*; of Europe, not excluding England, Holland and other 
countries of northern Europe. 

It is difficult to find better edible fish than the pescodilla 
dc red, hrotula, pejerrcy, ancliou, corhina, sargo, etc., and 
other varieties which abound in Montevideo, Maldonado, and 
all along the coast of tlie Atlantic. Several of these species 
come from South Atlantic waters as they migrate north, 
seeking a warmer climate during the winter season, hatching 
their eggs in the estuary of La Plata, where they find in the 
sediment brought down by the waters of the Parancl and 
Paraguay, an abundant supply of vegetable food or phyto- 
plankton in the form of microscopic seaweed, which makes 
an excellent food. In Canada it is the sea-coralline 
wrack that attracts the codfish of Terranova. The zoo- 
plankton must necessarily be very abundant, inasmuch as it 
is formed by microscopic animals like the foraminiferes, 
nocticules, radiolares, etc., which abound in temperate 
waters. Our book in Zoology, published in 1894, states that 
certain species migrated, among them, the anchovy, which 
is found near Montevideo only during the Autumn and 
Winter. The immigrating species are still unknown, as the 
Institute on Fishes, founded a few years ago, has not made 
a complete study of them as yet. The French naturalist, 
A. Bouyat, has included in his book, "Les Pecheries de la 
Cote d'Afrique" (Challamel editeur, Paris, 1908), the life 
of the fishes of the Atlantic. The said author, who is in- 
structor of Zoology in the Institute of Agriculture in Monte- 


video, says in his book, "Contribution al etude de la pec-he 
maritime en Uruguay," that the abundance of sardines dur- 
ing certain epochs seems to indicate that the coast is 
frequently visited by shoals of sardines, and that a complete 
study as to their migrating habits should be made. The 
author of this book lives near the seashore of Montevideo, 
and it has been his observation as well as that of the fisher- 
men of that region, that there are certain periods of the year 
when large schools of fish come from the South Pole as far 
as the estuary of La Plata. Many species, such as the 
pejerrey and the boga, find their way during the winter 
months into the Paraml and Uruguay and their tributaries. 
The supply of fish in Montevideo is sufficiently large for 
home consumption and for exportation to the Buenos Aires 
markets, large quantities being carried by all the night 
steamers that leave Montevideo for the Argentine capital. 
The fish bureau, under the direction of Don Juan Nelson 
Wismer, a North American expert, sells the highest grade 
fish on the street markets at six cents per kilo (less than 
three cents per pound) . During certain days of the summer 
season, the fish caught in nets reach such vast proportions 
that it sells at the rate of twenty liters for one-half of a 
peso (approx. a five gal. measure for about fifty cents) at 
the Pocitos of Montevideo. 

Bouyat says in his book, which we have already men- 
tioned : 

First — Fish is very abundant on the Uruguayan coasts. 

Second — The edible species are abundant enough to make 
the fish industry a profitable occupation under wise manage- 

Third — The demand for fresh fish, due to the proximity 
of the cities of Buenos Aires and Montevideo, makes it even 
more attractive from a commercial standpoint. 

Fourth — The conditions, which will be found for the future 
exploitation of the industry, are to a great extent superior 
to those to which all foreign enterprises will have to be sub- 
ject in both the old and the new continents. In fact, the 


field of operations — the La Plata River — which is a veritable 
sea at Montevideo, is at just a few hours' ride from the center 
of consumption. The fishing boats, in case of storms, have 
adequate shelter at Montevideo and Maldonado, and while 
on duty at night have the advantage* of splendidly lighted 
coast line, which receives its illumination from the light- 
houses of Polonio, Santa Maria, Jos6 Ignacio, Punta del 
Este, Islas de Lobos y Flores, Banco Ingles, and Punta 

A refrigerator has been recently constructed at the port of 
Montevideo, in order to facilitate exportation to the interior 
of the country. The city of Buenos Aires itself has developed 
a profitable fishing industry and brings great quantities of 
fish from Mar del Plata, a southern port, and from the lakes 
of Chascomus. Montevideo exports from twenty to thirty 
million kilos of fresh fish annually. There are plants in 
Montevideo and Maldonado for the preparation of canned 
and salt fish, which is intended for shipment to points in the 

The Uruguay, the Parand and their tributaries have big 
fish such as the snrubi, pacfl, pati, manguruyi^, etc., which 
average as much aS 40 to CO kilos in weight each, delicious 
eating and quite well adapted for canning purposes. The 
Liebig plant of Fray Bentos, a port of the Uruguay, manu- 
factures fish oil for its own machinery and for export pur- 
poses. Schools of big fish are constant visitors at this port. 

Tliere is no ostricultural plant at any point on the La 
Plata. It is the opinion of many that a profitable business 
could be developed by some North American concern which 
would establish in Montevideo an oyster-farm on a big scale, 
with two cities of a combined population of more than two 
million inhabitants to feed. 

The 20 to 30 million kilos of fish that Montevideo exports 
should be increased to 80 or 100 million for consumption in 
Buenos Aires and the rest of the Argentine Republic, which, 
having no inland streams, the only fish to be had is from the 
lake Chascomus and others of the province of Buenos Aires. 


The Neuqueu aud other streams of Patagouia have iish 
hatcheries (salmon, trout, etc.) for fish imported from the 
United States, but the great distance to the Buenos Aires 
market and the competition with the La Plata fish industry 
right at the door of the consumer make the former a more 
risky enterprise. 

The wealth represented by the fish industry of the prin- 
cipal fish markets of the world is represented by the statis- 
ical figures of 1910 as given below, according to the Interna- 
tional Council's report on activities on the sea : 

Year 1910 

Value — 

Million Million 

Country Kiloa Dollars 

England 666 38 

Norway 629 12 

Scotland 442 14 

France 230 22 

Germany 166 8 

Holland 137 8 

Iceland 78 2 

Sweden 119 

Ireland 52 

United States America , ... 70 

See the synopsis of the species of vertebrates, cox^ied from 
L. C. Bollo ''l^ociones de Zoologia" (published in Monte- 
video, in 1890, in five volumes with 540 illustrations, at Li- 
breria Nacional de Barreiros y Ramos). 











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Composition of the Present Population of South America — Demographic CocflBcients 
Compared — Alcoholism, factor in the Mortality rate — Growth of the Large Cities of South 

Composition of the Present Population op 
South America 

The popiilatioii of South America as a whole, represents 
the issue of the crossing of the Spanish and Portuguese with 
the Aborigines. The purity of the indigenous race being 
now found only in isolated districts of the Andean moun- 
tains and on the plains drained by the Amazon, Paraguay 
and Parana. Peru and Bolivia have a preponderance of in- 
digenous population, the workingmen in the mines and on 
the farms being Indians and Mestizos. The same thing is 
true of Paraguay and Central Brazil where the Guaraui 
Indian that makes up the bulk of the working population 
retains his racial purity. The Indian and the Mestizo of 
Chile, Bolivia, Peru and other countries of the Andean 
region has by nature great physical strength and en- 
durance, and the added fact that he is thoroughly acclimated 
and is more frugal in his habits, makes him a more competent 
worker in the mines than the European. 

Brazil had for centuries imported negroes from Africa for 
work in the fields, agriculture being at that time its main 
industry, but slavery was finally abolished without having 
to resort to a conflict such as the war of secession, which 
caused so much bilteruess and sorrow in the United States 
of America. The population in general represents a mix- 



ture of IiidiaDS of the Guaranies family, uegroes aud 
Eiiropeaus. During the last few years the European ele- 
ment has increased considerably, particularly among the 
Germans and Italians, the latter settling at San Paulo, 
Minas and Rio de Janeiro, and the former at Rio Grande, 
Santa Catalina, Parana and other places farther south. The 
German immigrants and their descendants who have been 
educated under Germanic methods, hoped aud expected to 
see Germany triumphant in the world's greatest war, an<l 
planned to secede from Brazil and form a separate state 
under the dominion of the empire. 

The Portuguese population held first place until 1873, 
when it ceded to the Italian which now constitutes half of 
the foreign population. Brazil has more than two and one- 
half million foreigners out of a total of 24,000,000, or 10 per 
cent of the whole. Ai-gentina, according to the census of 
1914, had 2,358,000 foreigners, of whom there were 1,470,000 
men and 884,000 women, or a total [topulatiou of 7,885,000, 
the foreign element therefore representing 30 per cent of the 
population. Buenos Aires, the capital, showed still a 
larger proportion, for out of a total of 1.575,000 there were 
777,000 foreigners, almost an even 50 per cent. In 191G, the 
foreign element of Argentina was divided as follows: 
Italians, 92l),000; Spaniards, 820,000; Russians, 93,000; 
French, 79,000; Euglish, 27,000; Germans, 2G,000; Austria- 
Hungarians, 38,000; Turks, 04,000; Swiss, 14,000, as per 
data furuished by '*La Naciou" of Buenos Aires, January 
1, 1917. 

The Italians, who hold first place, are the most thorough 
and efficient agriculturists, excepting the "golondrina" im- 
migrants, who go to the La Pftita to engage specially in 
agricultural pursuits during the farming season, returning 
to Italy in April or May. Next to the Italians, the 
Spaniards represent the largest number of any one nation- 
ality, in fact they have been the only immigrants that South 
America has had in recent years. 

The Oriental Republic of Uruguay, with one and one-half 


milliou inhabitants, has 250,000 foreigners, among whom the 
Italians and Spaniards are in the majority. There are no 
Indians in this republic as in the other countries of South 
America, not excluding Argentina, which has many in the 
Patagonia region and on the Chaco, the two northern and 
southern extremities of the country. 

In Montevideo, the majority of the inhabitants are 
foreigners, but in the country the native or Creole element 
is on the ascendancy. The Creoles are descendants of the 
Spaniards and Italians principally, with a very small jier- 
centage of Charrua blood among the gauchos. The latter 
are a healthy and strong people, and as a rule superior 
in intelligence to the European i^easants who come to the 
La Plata, and can adapt themselves to all kinds of labor. 
The disappearauce of the Indian from the Uruguayan repub- 
lic is due to the fact that this region was the main battle 
ground during the wars waged by the natives against the 
Spaniards, Portuguese and Brazilians during the eight 
years of struggle that Montevideo suffered at the hands of 
the tyrant Rosas, at that time dictator of Buenos Aires, 
as well as to the many civil wars which had taken place 
within the republic from time to time. His passion for war, 
linked with his love for freedom, were the fundameuiai 
causes of his disappearance. In 1830, there yet remained 
a large Indian population, numbering thousands, in the 
northern part of Uruguay. They engaged in battle with the 
army of Montevideo. General Rivera (Don Beruabe), who 
was considered one of the most brilliant militarists of the 
age, was killed. The Indians, after being defeated, scattered 
throughout the whole country, finally settling among the 
whites, and a new nation of vigorous and intelligent men was 
born — the Gauchos. 

Demographic Coefficients Comtarbd 

Vegetative growth, or the difference between births and 
deaths, is the essential force of young nations because it is 


the priucipal factor iu their growth. Immigratiou is an- 
other contributiug factor, but this is not coutiuuous, for 
there are periods, as for instance, that between the years 
1914 and 1919, when this contributing factor is suspended. 
The countries of South America mostly favored by nature 
for the increase of the population are Argentina and 
Uruguay, for reason of their exceptionally healthful 
climate, their abundance of food products and their absence 
of epidemic (smallpox, tj^^hus, diphtheria, malaria fever, 
etc.) as the result of adequate hygienic measures. According 
to data secured through the Demographic Bureau of Uru- 
gxinj, founded by L. C. Bollo, the vegetative growth of the fol- 
lowing countries is given on a basis of 1,000 inhabitants : Re- 
public of Uruguay, 22; Argentina, 21; England, 13; Ger- 
many, 12; Austria, 7; Italy, 7; Chile, 0. 

Brazil was dreaded by the immigrants who were kept 
away by the terrible diseases to which the country was sub- 
ject. The mortality rate of Santos, Rio de Janeiro and 
other ports had reached an alarming figure. Under the 
American methods of hygiene of today, the yellow fever has 
completely disappeared. 

The Oriental Republic of Uruguay, with less than half the 
population of Chile, shows a higher rate of increase. Chile 
has 30 deaths to every 36 births per 1,000 inhabitants, or a 
vegetative growth of (i per 1,000, while Uruguay has a growth 
of 22, almost four times as much as Chile. Its birth rate is 
higher than the latter and its mortality rate less than half 
of its birth rate. Besides, the republic of Chile has little or 
no immigration. It would be interesting to present the 
demographic data of other countries, but though many may 
have an established civil registry, they have no complete 
demographic statistics. But it is a well-known fact that the 
rest of the South American countries where the indigenes 
are in the majority, pay little attention to hygiene and 
the consequence is that they are decimated by typhus, 
tuberculosis, small-pox, diphtheria, syphilis and other dread- 
ful contagious diseases. The Republic of Uruguay has di- 


rectecl the passage of a law compelling the construction of a 
modern sewerage system in all towns or villages of over 
10,000 population. This work of construction is under the 
direction of the well-known American firm — Ulien of 

Alcoholism Factor in the Mortality Rate 

Alcoholism, a world-wide evil, is, next to tuberculosis, the 
biggest factor in the increase of the mortality rate. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Fernet, 10 per cent of the mortality of Paris 
is due to alcoholism, and according to Dr. Salterain of Mon- 
tevideo, 5 per cent of the mortality of the latter city may be 
attributed to the same cause, w^hich is low in comparison to 
what it is in other parts of the world, as will be seen by the 
figures below, which appear in Dr. Salterain's book entitled 
"Sobre el Alcoholismo." The author of the said book is a 
highly intellectual Uruguayan physician and one of the 
leading anti-alcohol propagandists of the First Anti-alco- 
holic Congress held in Montevideo in 1918. 

Number of liters of pure alcohol per inhabitant con- 
summed annually in the form of whiskey, beer, wine, etc. 
Annual average from 1801 to 1895 inclusive: 

Liters Liters 

France 15.83 Roumania 9.74 

Belgium 12.58 Germany 9.25 

Spain 12.05 British Isles 8.17 

Denmark 10 . 87 Austria-Hungary 7 . 99 

Switzerland 10 . 73 Uruguay 5 . 30 

Italy 10.30 Russia 5.21 

Portugal 10.10 Sweden 4.43 

Central Europe 10.39 

It will be noticed that in Spain, Italy and Portugal, 
though showing a high rate, not many drunkards are found, 
due to the fact that they consume mostly wines to the 
exclusion of the stronger alcoholic drinks like absinth, 
whiskey, gin, cognac, etc. 

According to notes by Dr. Etchepare, physician at the 
hospital for the insane (Asylum of Montevideo), 21 per cent 
of the mentally deranged owe their condition to alcoholism. 


We have no exact data regarding this matter on the other 
countries of South America, but it is widely known that 
Chile and a few other countries show a high rate of alco- 
holic consumption. The mortality rate of 80 per 1,000 in- 
habitants in Chile is largely due to alcoholism, while 
Uruguay, which shows a small percentage of alcohol con- 
sumed, has a mortality rate of less than 15 per 1,000. It is in 
countries showing a constantly increasing mortality rate 
where dry laws should be enacted, something that would be 
almost impossible in Chile, as the biggest land-owners whose 
large vineyards reijreseut a great deal of their wealth, would 
consider themselves bankrupt the moment that any law 
prohibited the use of wine and chicha. These same land- 
owners now control and sit in Parliament to draft the 
laws of the country. It is essential, in order that nations 
may sweep away all obstacles which obstruct their progress, 
to first eliminate from all law-making bodies, the commercial 
strategists who enact laws for their own exclusive benefit 
and with no thought of public health or morals. If the wel- 
fare of mankind demands that no vineyards be planted be- 
cause the wine and chicha therefrom are detrimental to the 
health of the individual, -then why not plant apple, pear and 
peach trees, which fruits have a sure market everywhere? 

The wealthy land-holders of South America should not 
lose sight of the fact that the condition of the working 
people of the rural districts is bad, that it has to be im- 
proved, and if this is not done they will be laying the founda- 
tion for Bolshevism, and conditions then carried to the 
other extreme causing the suppression of private property. 
Experiments are being made in Chile in connection with the 
preparation of raisins so that the exportation of grapes in a 
dried form may be made easy, as is done in Spain. In 
Uruguay and in Argentina the workers in the fields use the 
infusion of "mate" leaves (ilex-paragnayensis) and no 
alcohol. The workingman believes that cold water drinking 
during fatigue produces discomfort and sickness at times, 
and so whenever he can procure mate he will not drink 


alcohol. This infusion is very healthful and even nutritious, 
has a smaller quantity of the alkaloids found in coffee and 
tea and is very economical. 

The power of nations is not based on the number of its 
inhabitants, but on the race which forms the kernel of its 
population. One million white men are worth far more to 
a nation than five or six million Indians or Creoles, the 
cross between the Indian and the European. Thus, Uruguay 
stands as the first among the countries of South America in 
the evolution of modern ideas. It was the first to establish 
the secularization of cemeteries formerly in the hands of the 
Catholic church, as well as equality of civil rights among 
foreigners and natives (1869) ; the first to establish laical 
compulsory education (1879), compulsory registration and 
civil marriages (1879), absolute divorce (1908), absolute 
separation of church and state, and absolute religious 
liberty (1918) embodied in the new constitutions, also pro- 
portional representation and a collegiate government 
wherein the functions of the Executive are divided between 
the President of the Republic and an Administrative Board 
of nine members. It is a form of transition between the 
collegiate government of Switzerland and the presidential 
system of the other republics of America. 

Growth of Large Cities 

No other countries in South America show as large an 
increase in population as Argentina and Uruguay. The 
latter country's steady and rapid growth is shown by the 
following figures: 


Yeax Population 

1796 30,000 

1829 74,000 

1852 131,000 

1860 '. 227,000 

1873 450,000 

1895 822,000 

1919 1,500,000 


The City of Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, shows 
also a wonderful gradual increase as follows: 

Buenos Aires 

Year Population 

1801 40,000 

1822 55,000 

1852 76,000 

1869 117,000 

1889 523,000 

1919 1,600,000 

Next to Buenos Aires, Montevideo shows a more rapid 
growth than any other South American city, and the figures 
below are self-explanatory: 


Year Population 

1803 4,700 

1813 13,000 

1852 33,000 

1860 57,000 

1884 164,000 

1889 216,000 

1919 450,000 

Montevideo's population is approximately one-third that 
of the whole country (Uruguay), while Buenos Aires has 
about one-fifth of the population of Argentina. It must be 
borne in mind that Montevideo is the capital and com- 
mercial center of a country, the area of which is only about 
200,000 square kilometers, and Buenos Aires is the capital 
of a country covering 3,000,000 square kilometers. 

Brazil has several important cities which show a large 
increase in population during the last few years, particularly 
Rio de Janeiro and San Paulo, the latter having grown from 
250,000 in 1800, to more than 400,000 in 1919. 

The city of Montevideo, besides having the advantageous 
commercial position at the entrance of the La Plata estuary 
and at the same time being on the route of steamers bound 
for the Pacific via the Strait of Magellan, has a specially 
attractive seashore, inasmuch as the improperly named Rio 
de la Plata does not reach Montevideo, which is on a gulf 
formed by the Atlantic, as its salty and clear waters indi- 


cate. A large number of raisers of live-stock in Brazil, with 
business interests in the state of Rio Grande, make their 
home in Montevideo, and many others come from different 
parts of Brazil to enjoy the many advantages which the 
beaches of Montevideo afford the pleasure-seeker. Its 
thoroughly modern and luxurious hotels compare with the 
best in the world. The ''Casino del Parque," on the seashore, 
is as sumptuous as that of Monte Carlo, and with its roulette 
and other games contributes more than a million dollars 
annually to the municipality, a large part being used for 
charity purposes. Another very attractive Casino at a short 
distance from the city on the Carrasco beach resembles that 
of Ostend. This Casino, which cost |2,000,000 to construct, 
compares with the best in Europe. Montevideo also enter- 
tains large numbers of tourists from Buenos Aires, where 
they have very warm summers. The large influx of tourists 
into Montevideo during the summer season is also largely 
due to the excellent accommodations offered by the comfort- 
able steamers which cross the estuary of La Plata during 
the night between the hours of 10 :00 p. m, and 6 :00 a. m. The 
steamship lines, which have service along the Uruguay, per- 
mit the inhabitants of Paraguay and those of the eastern 
Argentine region, to change to Montevideo without any 
difficulty or inconvenience, while at the same time the 
Brazil trains bring large numbers of Brazilians who regu- 
larly' spend their summers at the beaches of Montevideo, prop- 
erly called the "Ostend" of Kouth America. 



Following the imlependeuce of the several South American 
States which comprised Spanish America, came the dis- 
ordered conditions which are a natural result in newly 
formed nations born to independence without a previously 
acquired political education. Consequently there were revo- 
lutions after revolutions in all the different states until they 
secured a definite organization. The Europeans above all, 
have disdainfully looked upon these states which have lived 
in almost constant strife, the Europeans failing to under- 
stand the spirit of justice which has been the prime in- 
stigator of the revolutionary convulsions among the South 
American populace, who have revolted from time to time 
against the powers which have been guilty of tyrannical 
acts and which have violated the rights of the citizens, con- 
trary to what their respective state constitutions prescribe. 

A fraudulent election, or a violation of the rights of the 
citizens, in some form or another, has nearly always served 
as the spark that has kindled the revolutions. The Euro- 
peans cannot understand the pride of the South Americans, 
for the very simple reason that the former have been born 
and reared in a servile school, a political school which trains 
the individual to look upon his king or emperor, and the 
powerful military government with its imposing army, 
as an almost divine, superhuman entity. 

The Parliaments of nearly all of the European nations 
may be anything but the result of regularly conducted elec- 
tions by the people in selecting the most honest, impartial 
and patriotic of their citizens to serve in what should be a 



representative body. Instead, they are composed of the 
most servile individuals whom the governing authorities can 
possibly find, and who receive from the same authorities the 
support of the oflScial element in order to be sure of winning 
the elections. The government respects no scruples in pub- 
licly recommending the official candidates. 

The traveler, visiting the various European countries, can- 
not but feel surprised at the almost unbelievable blind obedi- 
ence of the masses, not necessarily to the laws enacted in 
Parliament, but to the most trifling of police regulations and 
the whims of minor authorities. Obey is tlie icatcJiword, 
obey in silence and ivithoiit protest. Such was the govern- 
ment of Germany, Austria and other European nations. 

The unfairness of the accumulated vote, entitling each 
citizen to as many as three votes, elections by cities, which 
for reason of this or the other special privilege of nation- 
ality can elect a certain number of deputies when some 
other larger and more important city elects just one-half of 
the number, and many other similar unjust regulations have 
been in vogue in Austria and Germany, these regula- 
tions having been tacitly tolerated by the so-called citizens. 
Any of these extreme violations would have been the cause 
of an anned revolution in South America. 

We will not deny that many revolutions have not been 
altogether justified, but it is more worthy of the man to 
revolt against injustice even though the faults of govern- 
ments be exaggerated, than to maintain an attitude of abject 
servility which is characteristic of the European, tvith hut 
a feio exceptions. 

When Carlos V assumed the control of Spain in 1519, he 
destroyed the power of the Cabildos, representative bodies 
of national sovereignty, and when subsequent Indian legisla- 
tion reduced the powers of these institutions to a complete 
nullity by surrendering everything to the absolute and arbi- 
trary system of the king's central government, Spanish lib- 
erty ceased to exist, as did the party of the Comuneros of 
Castilla under Don Juan de Padilla and his followers, who 


fought so nobly in defense of independence and freedom, and 
against the imijerial and germanic system of him who dis- 
played the double diadem of King of Spain and Emperor of 

It is true that on certain important occasions, the Open 
Cabildos of America were the people's tribunals, but these 
assemblies, where each and every citizen had the privilege 
of being heard, met in session but few times. 

It may be said that since the revolution of the party of 
the Comuneros of Castilla, Carlos V, Felipe II and the 
other kings governed South American possessions through 
their viceroy just as they pleased, excepting a few times when 
the people of the American colonies rose up in protest and 
succeeded in securing an audience. 

And so Spanish America was under an arbitrary form of 
government inspired by what personally suited the king and 
his delegates, as it is a well established fact that the South 
American colonies did not belong to Spain but were the 
exclusive property of the king. We read in the book entitled 
"Memorias Sobre la Influeucia Social de la Conquista 
Colonial de ios Espaiioles en Chile" (Treatise on the Influ- 
ence of Spanish Colonial Conquest on Chilean Society), by 
the eminent Chilean writer Lastarria, the following: "The 
Cabildos of the Chilean part of the population had no other 
sphere of action than the jurisdiction intrusted to the Town 
Mayors and the police powers conferred upon the councilmeu 
in such cases as the law prescribed, or on the will of the 
official governing the colony in the name and as representa- 
tive of the monarch. This institution was therefore of no 
benefit to the people; on the contrary, it favored and was 
devoted to the throne on which its existence depended. 
It was in fact, though of secondary importance, an instru- 
ment of the will of the king and his individual interests. 
We can therefore establish beyond a doubt the fact that the 
despotic monarchy in all its deformity and with all its vices 
tvas the political form of government from lohich our society 
sprang and developed, for such was its constitution and its 


mode of being during all of the colonial era. This political 
form of government spread its corrupting influence in our 
society all the more energetically for the reason that to this 
system alone was reserved the right to create, inspire and 
direct our habits, and further, that it was supported by the 
religious power with which it formed a confederacy on which 
was founded the theoretic omnipotent despotism that con- 
quers all." 

The Cabildo of Buenos Aires consisted of twelve members, 
four of whom were life appointees, and the balance for a 
certain specified number of years. In smaller cities the 
Cabildos had from six to twelve members according to their 
importance, besides exercising duties in the administration 
of justice, such as Mayor Ordinary, Judge of Festivals, 
Police Judge, Prosecutor, Defender of the Poor, etc. 

Another factor which robbed this assembly of the emi- 
nently popular characteristic that the municipal spirit of 
the institution required, was the presence of the Governor, 
who was its President Inherent, and though he had no voice 
in the proceedings, he had the right to vote in case of a tie. 
Therefore, the influence that the presence of a magistrate 
invested with such authority had on the members of the 
Cabildo, can well be imagined. Notwithstanding this, the 
Cabildos gave legal recognition to the struggle for inde- 
pendence right at its incipiency, as they assumed the repre- 
sentation of the people in the absence of the legal authority, 
on the imprisonment of the sovereign. 

"This deficiency in the guarantees offered by the Spanish 
government, will be the cause for the first disturbance within 
the patriotic government, the proceedings of which are a re- 
production of the Colonial government; the same tyranny 
over the masses by the small oligarchy in control of the 
government; the same lack of respect for public opinion, 
which is not in any way consulted in public matters; the 
same dictatorial and despotic manner in dealing with the 
various sections of the country, which compose the nation." 

When the divers divisions of what once constituted the 


great domain belonging to the King of Spain, secured their 
independence, the newly constituted governments followed 
the same despotic methods of government. Buenos Aires 
established since 1810, a government under the direction of a 
society of influential individuals, who, though cultured, did 
not understand the rudimentary principles of a free govern- 
ment. This society was known as "Logia Lautaro," a secret 
order founded by Miranda, which continued to rule despite 
the fact that it did so in violation of the law, inasmuch as 
public matters should not be carried on secretly. 

This group of well-intentioned but politically unfit citizens 
were the rightful heirs of Spanish political incompetence 
based on despotism. All the civil wars which have taken 
place can be attributed to the ineflSciency in governmental 
afifairs, inherited from the mother country. 

Yet practice and experience have enabled the South 
American countries to become exemplary governments, many 
of which could serve as models of progressivism for some of 
the governments of Europe, specially as some of the latter 
are just beginning their apprenticeship in the matter of 
government organization deserving of popular approbation. 
In this connection we ask : "How many lustrums will elapse 
before they become thoroughly republican forms of govern- 
ment?" Not long, let us hope, for the people have awakened 
and buried the crowns deep in the ground. 

Following their independence, the three northern repub- 
lics — Venezuela, Nueva Granada and Ecuador — formed a 
confederacy under the name of Colombia, selecting as their 
first President, the Liberator Bolivar. This confederacy 
was short-lived, as Bolivar's resignation brought about its 
dissolution and the organization of three separate and in- 
dependent states was effected, as follows: Venezuela, a fed- 
eral republic; Colombia, a unitarian republic, formerly 
federal ; Ecuador, a unitarian republic. 

Peru, Bolivia, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay are unitarian 
republics. Argentina and Brazil, the two most important 
countries of South America, have adopted a federal form 


of government with a constitution patterned after that of 
the United States of America. 

As to the relations between Church and State, all these re- 
publics exercise religious liberty, but in Argentina, in Chile, 
and in the other Spanish-speaking countries, the Church 
has maintained its influence to the extent that it has pre- 
vented the enactment of laws granting divorce, with excep- 
tion of Uruguay, which has the most progressive legislation 
of all the countries of South America. Both Uruguay and 
Brazil have separated the State from the Church. 

Primary education is compulsory in all the different 
South American states, and the university training in some 
of them competes with leading European countries and with 
the United States of America. The primary schools of Uru- 
guay and Argentina show a superior rating over those of 
France, Italy and Spain. Other places show a large per- 
centage of illiteracy, particularly where the indigenes are in 
the majority. 

All the mediums that modern civilization has to offer for 
the general advancement of the individual — primary and 
technical institutions of learning, scientific societies, up-to- 
the-minute illustrated magazines and dailies, fashion estab- 
ments, municipal water plants, heating plants, sewerage 
systems, comfortable public conveyances, luxurious theatres, 
electric lighting systems, magnificent hotels, etc., etc. — are to 
be found in all large cities and important commercial 
centers of South America. 

The large operatic companies of Milan, Italy, visit Buenos 
Aires and Montevideo every winter, remaining during the 
months of May, June, Julj^ and August. Dramatic, light- 
opera and vaudeville companies frequently visit Buenos 
Aires, Montevideo, Rio Janeiro, Santiago and other large 

The modistes and tailors offer the very latest Parisian 
creations, and as to general innovations, many new inven- 
tions are introduced in South America before they become 
known in Europe, for in order to avoid European competi- 


tion, the merchants turn to South America with all the 
novelties that the mind of the inventor can conceive. 

There is no restriction to the admission of men of all 
nationalities and the use of passports is unknown. Every- 
body enters and leaves the ports without permission of any 
kind, provided the individual is not a notorious vagrant or 
criminal. It is not supposed that the color of the skin im- 
parts either intellectual or moral superiority, neither is it 
feared that the labor of the foreigner will in any way hurt 
that of the native, as is the belief of the North Americans, 
Australians and South Africans, who bar the Japanese and 
the Chinese. Intellectual superiority belongs to him who 
studies and toils the hardest. 

The member of the small negro population that remains 
in the La Plata, is not only mentally and morally the equal 
of the average European immigrant, but is far more in- 
telligent than the immigrants who come from certain parts 
of Russia, the Balkans and other backward countries of the 
Old World. Some of these poor unfortunates are not only 
ignorant but almost barbarians, while a large number of the 
Negroes have been brought uji in the homes of cultured 
people who have given them a thorough education. Nearly 
all the Negroes of this region can read and write and are 
unusually refined of manner. 

The South Americans have not committed the error that 
the North Americans did in building a Chinese wall between 
white and black, in the way of barriers in hotels, barber- 
shops, etc., and even on railroads where they arrange to 
have separate ticket-oflSces for the colored people. 

Had the blacks intermarried with the whites it would have 
taken only a few generations of mulattos with each new 
generation lighter-complexioned than the preceding one, for 
the black coloring to have disappeared as it has in the La 
Plata, and as it is gradually disappearing in Brazil, the 
Negro being only a small fraction of the total white popula- 
tion. If the barrier continues, in time there will be 15, 20, 
30, 40 million and more men who will have consummate 


hatred for the rest of their countrymen of another race, and 
this causes the weakness of nations. 

Political Heritage of Spain 

It is in order to explain the idea that the Spaniards had 
as to the functions of the State and the rights and duties of 
the citizens, so that the reader may form an opinion and have 
a clear understanding as to many of the historical events 
which have taken place in the countries of South America. 
We have been specially favored by the opportunity afforded 
us to read about the events as described in the history of 
Spain, whether it refers to Spain as the mother country in 
its internal development, or in its relations with its col- 
onies in America, written by English and American writers 
of note, such as Hume, Prescott, Robertson, etc., who in our 
opinion appear more impartial than the Spanish historians 
who, imbued with erroneous ideas as to what patriotism 
should be, are not sufficiently independent themselves to 
speak authoritatively. 

There has recently appeared a very interesting book by the 
eminent Professor William R. Shepherd of Columbia Uni- 
versity, in the city of New York, which book has been trans- 
lated into Spanish by the distinguished VenezAielan pub- 
licist Don R. Blanco Fombona. The reader, who is desirous 
of a more thorough knowledge of the political history of 
South America, should read this instructive volume entitled 
'*La America Latiua" (Latin America). Professor Shep- 
herd treats of Spanish psychology as a competent authority 
only can, for besides being thoroughly conversant with 
world history, he has lived in Spain and visited some of the 
South American countries. 

With reference to government. Professor Shepherd says: 
"To the Spaniard, for example, his village, town or province 
was his country. What lay beyond local bounds was some- 
thing to be regulated by officials in whose appointment, pre- 
sumably, he had no choice. An absolute monarchy and an 
absolute church, that would safeguard the individual 


against a foreign foe, and alien faith, were all that could be 
desired in larger concerns. Accordingly, whether he lived 
in his native land or in a distant colony, he felt more or less 
content, so long as his local privileges were undisturbed. 
The spirit of individualism was strong, but its manifestation 
worked within narrow lines. On this foundation Spain, 
and to a great extent Portugal, based their respective 
systems of colonial administration. 

"On the other hand, following equally the Roman prin- 
ciple of 'divide and rule,' powers, duties and privileges were 
rather vaguely defined, with the result that officials, classes 
and .individuals were set off deftly against one another." 

"No colonial authority was permitted to grow too strong, 
and no colonial counterpoise to become too weak to serve 
the interests of the mother country. Every person, what- 
ever his rank or station, and every governing body enjoyed 
the privilege of communicating directly with the govern- 
ment in Spain, and the exercise of the privilege was con- 
stantly encouraged. By this means temptation to arbitrary 
conduct could be restrained, no less than expressions of dis- 
satisfaction checked or mollified which otherwise might 
bring on a revolt. Where abuses existed, they were apt to 
take the form of pecuniary corruption, rather than of willful 

Regarding the church Shepherd says: "No monarch of 
the time was deemed to be so Catholic as his Majesty of 
Spain, and none enjoyed in his dominions oversea so great 
an amount of ecclesiastical power. By various papal 
grants, within twenty years after the discovery of America, 
the Spanish crown was given substantially complete juris- 
diction there over the organization and activities of the 
church. In exercise of the 'royal patronage' (real patro- 
nato), it controlled appointments to benefices and other 
holdings, regulated the conduct of the clergy, and disposed 
of ecclesiastical property and revenues." 

"The Church, in fact, was the greatest instrument of 
authority which the crown possessed in the colonies. Just 


as it had perpetuated in Europe the traditions of Rome, so 
in the New World it perpetuated those of Spain. Rather 
than secular agencies of any sort, it was the clergy who ad- 
justed the relationship between the whites and the Indians, 
who inculcated loyalty to the Spanish throne and contributed 
in general to the maintenance and extension of Spanish rule. 

"In order to prosecute the work of the Church more effec- 
tually, the Inquisition was set up, in 1569. Thereafter con- 
fining its attention exclusively to the European element in 
the population, that dread tribunal punished heretical 
Spaniards and foreigners, like sailors, smugglers and 
pirates, who might have the misfortune to fall into its 
clutches. But, except for its censorship of thought, the ac- 
tivities of the Inquisition in America were much less per- 
nicious than has been commonly supposed. 

"So great were the wealth and influence of the Church that 
it became customary to estimate the importance of a given 
locality by the number of its ecclesiastical buildings." 




8anta Fe (50,000), a very old city on the Parana; Bahia 




The most important city of South America is Buenos Aires 
on the banks of the La Plata river. It has a population of 
more than 1,640,000, and next to Paris it is the largest Latin 
city in the world. More than half of its population is of 
foreign extraction, the largest percentage of which are 
Italians and Spaniards. Therefore, it is Latin because of its 
language, its Spanish origin and the majority of its in- 
habitants. It possesses all the qualities of a big capital 
city — magnificent palaces, university, museums, excellent 
hotels, beautiful boulevards, and an unusually active and 
extensive business district for the reason that it is one of 
the most important of the world's ports. It is the federal 
capital of Argentina. 

Its skyscrapers are built on the American plan. Its 
tower of Giiemes, with its attractive restaurant at 270 feet 
from the ground, is one of its main structures and one which 
no doubt would attract favorable comment if duplicated in 
New York City, The congestion of traffic in the business 
streets has compelled the construction of a subway. 

Rosario is the second city of importance in Argentina, It 
has more than 200,000 inhabitants, and as a port it is also 
second in importance to Buenos Aires. 

Other important cities are: La Plata (120,000), near 
Buenos Aires; Cordoia (100,000), a very old city, which has 
the oldest university of the La Plata; Tucumdn (80,000), 
in the center of the republic in a sugar producing region; 
Mendoza (50,000), often called the "California of Argen- 
tina" on account of its large production of fruits and wines; 
8anta Fe (50,000), a very old city on the Parand; Bahia 



Blanca (40,000), a seaport of great importance in southern 

In Uruguay, at the mouth of the La Plata river and at a 
distance of 120 miles from Buenos Aires, is situated the City 
of Montevideo (450,000), capital of the republic, noted for 
its beautiful beaches, mild climate, splendid hotels with 
special bathing accommodations, wonderful parks, its model 
university, and thoroughly up-to-date private schools and 
colleges. It is a port of exceptional importance, not only 
commercially, but due to its geographical position, it is also 
attractive from a residential standpoint, at the same time 
combining as it does extraordinary educational advantages. 

Other important cities in Uruguay are: Salto and Pais- 
andu, two important ports also on the river Uruguay, with 
a population of more than 30,000 each; Mercedes, on the 
river Negro, with 25,000 population. 

The second largest city in South America is Rio de 
Janeiro with a population of 1,000,000. Its enviable loca- 
tion, on a magnificent gulf surrounded by high mountains, 
entitles it to first place among the panoramic cities of the 
world. It is a highly cultured city and its importance as 
one of the leading centers in the world of commerce, par- 
ticularly in the exportation of cofifee, is well known. 

The city of Bahia, or Sao Salvador (300,000), is one of 
Brazil's principal ports, and so is the port of Recife, or 
Pernambuco (250,000), through which large quantities of 
cofifee and sugar are exported; Belen, or Para (170,000), 
large city in northern Brazil, is another port of commercial 

All these cities have been at one time or another infested 
with yellow fever, but it has been eradicated, thanks to the 
efforts of the health authorities. 

The Paulistas, or first Portuguese settlers of Brazil, estab- 
lished themselves in the state known as San Paulo, where 
their intermarriage with the Indians produced an ener- 
getic and venturesome race — the Mamelucos of San Paulo — 
who undertook the conquest of lands in the interior, in 


search of Indians whom they could enslave. They later at- 
tacked the La Guayra Missions on the boundary line of 
Paraguay, penetrating along the eastern side of Uruguay, 
this time in search of live-stock. The Mamelucos were the 
highwaymen of the colonial times and the dreaded foes of 
the Spaniards, who were their direct opposite. The region 
of San Paulo has furnished to Brazil this country's organiza- 
tion, the largest number of men of note. The city of San 
Paulo is the second city of importance in Brazil, with a popu- 
lation of 400,000. It has one of the world's famous uni- 
versities situated away from the coast, with Santos, the 
world's largest coffee exporter, as the most convenient port. 

Santiago (350,000), the capital of Chile, stands on the 
bank of a small river. It is a famous center of culture, and 
has among its institutions of learning a world-known uni- 
versity and excellent preparatory schools. Valparaiso, 
with a population of 170,000, is the port for Santiago, and 
the most important on the Pacific coast of South America. 

Other important cities in Chile: Iquique (40,000), a port 
of importance in northern Chile; Coquimho, noted for its 
rich copper mines; Goncepcion, Talcahuano, Valdivia and 
Puerto Mont. 

La Paz (94,000), the capital of Bolivia, is at 3,100 meters 
elevation. Potosi (200,000), at 4,000 meters above sea-level, 
is remarkable for its silver mines. Sucre, Chuquisaca or La 
Plata, formerly the capital, is a city of great historical 

Lima (150,000), the capital of Peru, is only 10 kilometers 
from the port of Callao (48,000), and is also an interesting 
historical center, having been the capital of the Viceroyship 
of Peru. Other important Peruvian cities are: Ciizco 
(30,000) and Arequipa. 

Quito (50,000), the capital of Ecuador, stands on a high 
plateau in the central part of the republic. It is surrounded 
by high volcanic mountains, one of which is Mt. Cotopaxi. 
Ouayaquil (51,000), on the gulf of the same name, is the 
leading seaport, 


Bogota (125,000), the capital of Colombia, is 2,650 meters 
above the level of the sea. Barranquilla (50,000), on the 
river Magdalena, is the second in importance and the leading 
port of Colombia. Medellin and Cartagena are also im- 
portant cities of the republic. 

Caracas (75,000), capital of Venezuela, the home of the 
Liberator Bolivar, is just a few kilometers distance from the 
coast and from the port of La Guayra (25,000), the prin- 
cipal port of Venezuela. Valencia and Maracaibo are two 
leading commercial centers, and Ciudad Bolivar. 


MAPA de: las grandes vias 

:l Plata al Amaionas 





Similar Configuration of Both Americas — The Large Navigable Rivers in the Interior 
of the Continent — Principal Railroad Lines — The Future Great Commercial Route of 
South America Across the Center of the Continent — Comparisons of Railroad Lines of 
the CountrieB of South America — The North American Railroads. 

Similar Configuration of Both Americas 
(See Coiitinental Relief Map) 

Both North America and South America are alike in 
shape, both being triangular with the widest angle on the 
side of the Atlantic (Labrador in North America and ex- 
treme eastern Brazil in South America), and the longest 
side, formed by the Rocky Mountain Range and the Andean 
Mountain Range respectively. It will also be noticed that 
the eastern range of mountains of the coast of Brazil corre- 
sponds to the Allegheny mountains of North America, and 
the Andes and the Rocky mountains correspond not only to 
the general formation but even as to sub-divisions as for 
instance: the Sierra Nevada corresponds to the Cordillera 
Occidental of the Andean mountain system, while the Cordil- 
lera Real, or Oriental of Peru and Bolivia, corresponds to 
the main range of the Rocky mountain system. 

The desert plateaus of the Salt Lake region correspond to 
those in Bolivia in the region of Lake Titicaca. The great 
river Parand and its tributary the Paraguay, conform to the 
Mississippi and the Missouri rivers of the United States of 
America, and like the latter, run from north to south through 
both warm and temperate climes, but with the position of 
the climatic belts reversed. In South America, the lands 
in the northern part have a tropical and semi-tropical 



climate, while the corresponding latitude north of the 
equator embraces the southern portion of North America. 

The Parang forms a delta at its mouth, but much larger 
than that formed by the Mississippi. Conditions of naviga- 
tion in the Parana and the Paraguay are superior to those 
of the Mississippi, particularly the Paraguay, which with- 
out any special arrangement or contrivance, is navigable 
throughout its course. 

The Mississippi-Missouri stream is 7,200 kilometers long. 
The Parand itself measures 4,500 kilometers in length. The 
volume of water which the La Plata river (that of the 
joint streams of the Parand and Paraguay) empties into the 
ocean is 42,000 cubic meters per second of time (debit) in 
comparison to 17,000 cubic meters of the Mississippi stream, 
or two and one-half times as large. The Amazon shows still 
a larger volume — 80,000 to 120,000 cubic meters per second 
of time. 

The region of British Columbia and California on the 
Pacific coast of North America is represented in South 
America by the region in southern Chile with its many 
archipelagos covered with immense virgin forests where 
gigantic trees for building material may be found. Cali- 
fornia's vineyards are duplicated in the Valle Central 
(Central Valley), often referred to as the "Chilean Cali- 

Dr. Berg, naturalist and former Director of the Buenos 
Aires and Montevideo Museums, following his return from 
a trip of exploration which he made to the island of Chiloe 
and others of southern Chile, stated that the forests of Chile 
surpassed in grandeur those of Norway and Sweden, where 
he had visited several times. The extreme southern part of 
Chilean Patagonia has equally as heavy rainfall as the 
region of British Columbia, and its fishing season corre- 
sponds to that of Alaska. 

The warm coast line of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia is a 
rei)roduction of that of western Mexico with its occasional 
affliction of yellow fever germs. 


The continent of South America has 25,000 kilometers of 
coast-line divided thus: Atlantic Ocean — 16,000; Pacific 
Ocean — 9,000, the Atlantic taking in two sides of the tri- 
angle. It has not the solidity of either Asia or Africa over 
which it has the advantage, like North America, of its large 
navigable rivers through the interior of the continent. As 
to the proportional ratio between length of coast-line and 
continental surface, it occupies third place as follows: 
Europe — 1 kilometer of coast-line to 289 square kilometers 
of surface ; North America — 1 to 207 ; South America — 1 to 
720; Asia— 1 to 763; Africa— 1 to 1,420. 

Laege Rivers of South America 

The interior of South America is drained by the Parand, 
the Paraguay and the Amazon, which has tributaries 3,000 
kilometers long, among them the Madeira, a large navigable 
stream. Many of these streams are navigable for long 
distances as will be noticed on the map "Means of Communi- 
cation" appearing in this book, Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, 
Ecuador and Colombia have communication with the At- 
lantic Ocean through the Amazon. 

Principal Railroad Lines 

There are two interoceanic railroads: Buenos Aires to 
Valparaiso, 1,200 kilometers long, and another one from 
Bahia Blanca to Zapala at the foot of the Andes, to be ex- 
tended to the Pacific at Valdivia. 

The railroad line which connects Montevideo and Rio de 
Janeiro, a distance of 3,100 kilometers, runs along the east- 
ern coast of Brazil, and is to be extended to Bahia and 
Pernambuco, where it will connect with Atlantic steamers, 
thus shortening the time of travel from Europe to the La 
Plata. On crossing the Atlantic to Dakar on the west 
coast of Africa, a distance of 1,200 miles, it will in time be 
possible to make connection with the railroad projected 


across the Desert of Sahara to the Strait of Gibraltar and 
across to Spain. 

A new line has been recently completed across Brazil from 
Corumb^, a port on the Paraguay, eastwardly to Rio de 
Janeiro (2,200 kms.), via San Paulo and Santos. Thus, 
the distance of fifteen days from Corumbd via the Parana 
and the La Plata to the Atlantic, has been reduced to five 
days. From Corumbd this line will cross the Chaco river 
to Cochabamba in Bolivia, which has connections with 
Pacific ports. This will be the most important interoceanic 
railroad line in the continent. 

Chile has a longitudinal railroad extending from Port 
Mont in the southern part, via Iquique to Tacna, covering a 
distance of 3,541 kilometers, according to the map by Don 
Juan de Santa Cruz, cartographer. Ministry of Railways 
of Chile. 

The Central Argentino railroad extends from the port of 
Rosario on the Paran<^ to the Argentine-Bolivian frontier 
to Cordoba, Tucuman, Salta and Jujuy, as far as Quiaca, 
which is 3,000 meters above sea-level. It will be constructed 
across the Bolivian plateau to Tupiza and Uyuni (200 kms.), 
over the line that goes to La Paz, the capital of Bolivia, and 
which starts from the port of Antofagasta in Chile. Were 
we to follow the meridian, the distance would be 12 degrees 
with Rosario, 34° south latitude and Quiaca in latitude 
22° south, a distance equal to 1,200 kms., but as the por- 
tion that lies between Rosario and C6rdoba runs east and 
west for a distance of 400 kms. or 4 degrees, and it has 
numerous curves, its entire length is more than 3,000 kilo- 
meters. (See map "Means of Communication.") From 
Uyuni the line extends to Lake Titicaca at Guaqui, where 
connection with steamers is made, crossing the lake (4,000 
m. elevation) to Puno on the opposite side, the starting 
point of the railroad to Cuzco, the famous city of the Incas. 
There is no railroad connection from Cuzco to Huancayo, 
the terminal point of the line from the port of Callao, only 
650 kilometers. In fact there are only 850 kilometers that 


lack railroad communication from Buenos Aires on the 
Atlantic to Callao on the Pacific, and to Lima, the capital 
of Peru. 

The railroads of Bolivia connect with three Pacific ports 
— Antofagasta, Arica and Mollendo. The Antofagasta line 
crosses the Andes at a height of 4,788 meters at the station 
called Puuto Alto. The Bolivian Central railroad, which 
runs across the plateau as far as Lake Titicaca, has branches 
to Potosi, La Paz and Cochabamba and a short branch is to 
be constructed to extend to port Chimore over the Mamore, a 
very important navigable stream connecting with the 
Madeira, a tributary of the Amazon. 

The cataracts of the Madeira (Saltos Girau) impede the 
navigation of this large stream and so it became necessary 
to construct the railroad from Guajaramirin to Porto Velho 
(200 kms.). The government of Brazil constructed this line 
as compensation for the territory of Acre, which Bolivia 
ceded to Brazil, and which is valuable for its plentiful 
rubber production. 

Bolivia plans the construction of another railroad line 
from Riberalta, a port on the Beni river, which is navigable 
from Port Pando near the city of La Paz, to the upper 
terminus of the railroad to the Madeira, at a point on the 
Beni river where navigation is obstructed. Bolivia has 
better prospects in securing an outlet for its vegetable 
products through the La Plata where freight rates are lower, 
besides having the opportunity to dispose of a large portion 
of the products which differ from those of the La Plata 
region. Many of its minerals would also find there a ready 
market, but the bulk of minerals should be exported to 
Europe and North America. Port Suarez, Bolivia, on the 
affluent Paraguay river, is situated opposite the Brazilian 
port of Corumb^, which has direct regular steamer communi- 
cation with Montevideo and Buenos Aires, and a few steamers 
have occasional service from Port Suarez to La Plata ports. 

A railroad is planned to connect Port Suarez with Cocha- 
bamba in central Bolivia, in connection with the railroad 


running through the plateau, thus establishing rapid com- 
munication with the La Plata region. 

Peru has, besides the railroad from Mollendo to Arequipa, 
Puno and Cuzco, another one from Callao, its most important 
port, to Lima, Oroya and Pasco, the last two situated in the 
most productive mineral region of Peru. 

This is the highest railroad in the world, its highest point 
being Galera, near Oroya, 4,814 meters elevation (approx. 
16,000 ft. ; the highest peak in Europe is Mt. Blanco at 4,810 
m. elev.), and, in the short distance traversed, it runs 
through three climatic belts — hot on the coast, temperate on 
the plateau, and very cold on the lofty summits over 4,000 
meters above sea-level. The line of perpetual snow in this 
region is at 5,500 meters in the Cordillera Occidental and at 
a lower altitude on the Oriental. On the Alps, the line of 
perpetual snow in Switzerland is at 2,800 meters, reason 
for the Jungfrau railroad operating at Interlaken only 
during the summer, the last station being at 3,100 meters 

In order to complete the Pan-American railroad it will 
be necessary to construct the lines north of Pasco in latitude 
10° south, to Guayaquil, which has railroad connection with 
Quito just below the equator, thence to Panama in latitude 
9° north across Colombia, a total distance of 19 degrees or 
1,900 kms. in a straight line. In all, there are more than 
3,000 kilometers over which to construct a railroad that 
will extend from Panama to the city of Buenos Aires. La 
Paz, the capital of Bolivia, would be the central point of the 
Pan-South American railroad, the distance from La Paz to 
other important centers, in kilometers being: Lima, 1,800; 
Rio Janeiro via Port Suarez, 3,000; Asuncion, capital of 
Paraguay, along the Pilcomayo, 1,800 ; Montevideo via Salto 
and Asuncion, 3,300; Buenos Aires via the Quiaca and 
Central Argentina railroad, 2,640; Santiago, Chile, 2,600. 

The construction of the Pan-American South American 
railroad will not prove as diflScult a task as the railroad 
which is being built by the English through Africa, and 


which will connect Cairo with the Cape of Good Hope at the 
southernmost extremity of the African continent. This 
railroad would have no doubt been completed by this time 
had not the world-war interrupted its construction. 

The distance to be covered across continental Africa from 
Cairo to the Cape is 10,000 kms., with the following connect- 
ing lines: Cape Town to Elisabethville near Lake Tanganyika 
(5,000 kms.), already built; Elisabethville to Lake Tangan- 
yika (500 kms.), under project; Lake Tanganyika to Lake 
Albert (700 kms.), under project (distance across Lake 
Tanganyika 750 kms.) ; Khartum to Cairo (2,000 kms.), 
already built; Khartum to Lake Albert (1,800 kms.), under 
project. Total 10,000 kms. ; 3,000 kms. of this distance are 
yet without a railroad necessary to connect both the north- 
ern and southern extremes of Africa, with steamer connec- 
tion to cross Lake Tanganyika (750), as is done in making 
the connection at Lake Titicaca (275). 

We trust that the capital of enterprising Yankees will be 
a contributing factor in the completion of what both 
Americas have so long desired — the Pan-American Railroad 
— by ' building it over the remaining 3,000 kilometers in 
South American territory and joining it to the lines which 
connect New York with Mexico and ultimately with the 
countries of Central America. 

The Future Great Commercial Route op South America 

From the La Plata to Panamd route — the Parand, the Paraguay, the Tapajos, the 
Amazon, the Rio Negro to Panam^. 

The Pan-American railroad, which is planned to cross the 
Andean region and into the Argentine republic, is badly 
needed in order to facilitate the commercial relations be- 
tween the countries of the Andes, as well as to more closely 
bind their ties of friendship, but it will not be the best com- 
mercial route for the interchange of business relations be- 
tween the region of La Plata and that of the Amazon and 
the United States of America. 

The railroad from Buenos Aires to Lake Titicaca can 


not possibly compete in the matter of freight rates with the 
river transportation of the ParanA and the Paraguay to 
Port Suarez and CorumM in latitude 19° south, and to 
Cuyaba in Brazil, latitude 16° south, directly east of Lake 
Titicaca, which is the route used by the Lloyd Brasiliero 
Steamship Line. From Cuyaba, northwardly, the river of 
the same name can be navigated as far as the land that 
separates it from the source of the Arinos, a tributary of the 
Tapajos which finds its way into the Amazon. It is at this 
point, between the source of the Cuyabd and the Arinos, that 
the canal uniting the La Plata and the Amazon should be 
built, and which, according to Captain Bossi, who explored 
the region, will not be a diflQcult task to accomplish. The 
Tapajos river is obstructed for navigation by cataracts (see 
corresponding map), which can be avoided by building a 
lateral canal, finally connecting with the Amazon westwardly 
to Rio Negro to the frontiers of Colombia and Venezuela, 
from which place a railroad could be constructed across 
Colombia towards Bogota and Panamd as the terminal 
points. Not more than 1,200 kilometers of railroad would 
have to be built across the republic of Colombia, which to- 
gether with two canals on the Tapajos river would establish 
an economical commercial route from the La Plata to the 
Panama Canal. The reader will observe by the map that 
the route Parand-Tapajos follows the Greenwich meridian 
of longitude 58° west, starting from latitude 34° south, to 
very near the equator, or a distance of a little over 3,G00 
kilometers north and south. Therefore, the distance of G,000 
kilometers from Buenos Aires to Panama is divided as 
follows : 

Buenos Aires to the Amazon 3,600 

Point of entry, Amazon to Rio Negro 1,200 

Raih-oad, Rio Negro to Panama 1,200 

It is our opinion that this enterprise would receive the ap- 
probation of Argentina, Colombia and Brazil. There is at 
present a steamship line connecting Paisandu, Buenos 
Aires and Montevideo with Manaos on the Amazon at the 


mouth of Rio Negro by a roundabout way via the Atlantic 
and the Amazon, which is equal to about double the dis- 

It will be noticed that this proposed great, commercial 
route of South America (marked in blue on the map), 
crosses lands in both the torrid and temperate zones, which 
are not accessible by the routes now available. The La 
Plata would ship wheat, flour, meat and other products and 
would in turn receive lumber of all kinds, mate, tobacco, 
tapioca, rubber, etc. In comparing this route with that of 
the interior of Africa, which the English are about to com- 
plete, we find that the latter passes through less fertile soil, 
not as rich in either animal or vegetable life, besides, the 
former is only half as long and its construction will be far 
more economical. The length of the African route is 10,000 
kms. ; the South American, 6,000 kms. 

The distance over desert land, where the railroad of the 
central African route is yet to be constructed, is 3,000 kilo- 
meters, while there are only 1,200 kilometers of desert land 
and sparsely settled district over which the railroad through 
Colombia would have to be built. 

It will be noticed that 4,800 kms. of the G,000 of the great 
South American route, are through large streams where no 
locks are needed, only a few small canals. 

The central railroad of Colombia will cross the Guaviare 
and Meta, navigable tributaries of the Orinoco, thereby 
establishing communication with the Atlantic, Before the 
Panama Canal was constructed, there was a plan to build 
a canal connecting the Rio Negro and the Orinoco, a difficult 
and expensive undertaking according to explorations made 
by Michelena under instructions by the Venezuelan govern- 
ment. From now on, the Panama route will be the logical 
route for the western coasts of both Americas, for the com- 
mercial intercourse between Australia and Europe and for 
the principal north Atlantic ports dealing with the Pacific. 
Considering this fact, the direction of the Central Colom- 
bian© railroad might be changed to start from the ports of 


Tabatinga or Iquitos, should it prove more economical or 
convenient to operate. 

Yeah 1919 

Area Length of Per Each 

Square Railroads — 100 Square 

Kilometers Kilometers Kilometers 

Brazil 8,550,000 23,000 270meter3 

Argentine 2,950,000 33,000 1,120 

Peru 1,769,000 2,780 150 

Bolivia 1,470,000 1,800 120 

Colombia 1,300,000 1,000 77 

Venezuela 1,020,000 925 89 

Chile 757,000 8,200 1,083 

Ecuador 307,000 561 180 

Paraguay 253,000 250 90 

Uruguay 187,000 2,600 1,400 

Year 1919 

• United States 9,386,000 410,000 4,300 

Canada (Dominion of) 9,659,000 44,000 450 

Mejdco 1,987,000 25,000 1,200 

The railroad mileage of the leading South American coun- 
tries, including the United States of America for purposes 
of comparison, is as follows, in consecutive order of greatest 
mileage: United States, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, etc., but 
taking in consideration the area of each country and the 
proportion of kilometers of railroad to square kilometers of 
surface, they rank as follows: United States, Republica 
Oriental del Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Brazil, etc. 

The railroads of South America are private property, as 
in the United States, England and Canada, and not govern- 
ment property, as in the case in Germany, where the govern- 
ment owns 90 per cent of the stock, in Austria 82 per cent, 
in Russia 77 per cent, in Italy 73 per cent, and in France 17 
per cent. 




Live Stock Inventory — Live Stock Killed in Uruguay and Argentina — Wool Production 
of the La Plata. 

The La Plata Valley comprises the republics of Argentina, 
Uruguay and Paraguay, the Brazilian provinces of the 
Matto Grosso region (which is crossed by the Paraguay, a 
tributary of the Panama which, together with the Uruguay, 
forms the great estuary of the improperly named "Rio de la 
Plata"), and the province of Rio Grande del Sur, drained by 
the Uruguay and its tributaries. 

Inventory of Liue Stock, Including Cattle and Sheep in Argentina, Urugvay, 
Paraguay and Brazil, in 1919 

Number Number Head of Head of 

per Sq. Kilo- per Sq. Kilo- Cattle Sheep 

Cattle meter Sheep meter per Inhab. per Inhab. 

Uruguay 8,000,000 48 20,000,000 112 5.3 13 

Argentina 31,000,000 11 81,000,000 27 3.8 10 

Brazil 30,000,000 4 1.2 

Paraguay 5,000,000 20 500,000 2 5. 2 

The foregoing figures plainly show that the republics of 
Uruguay' and Argentina are the two leading live-stock coun- 
tries of South America, in the production of both cattle and 
sheep. The live stocli of Paraguay and Brazil is not as 
heavy in weight, and the meat is not as high a grade as that 
of the other two, and consequently sells at a lower price. 
This is due principally to the fact that the live stock of the 
La Plata consists almost exclusively of the Durham and 
Hereford breeds of English stock. These breeds can not be 
successfully raised in Brazilian and Paraguayan territory 
on account of the excessively warm climate, the many differ- 
ent varieties of insects that infest certain districts, and the 
small nutritive value of its grasses, causing these breeds to 



gradually depreciate, and very often starve. Brazil has 
successfully tried the acclimation of the zebu of India, but 
its meat is somewhat tough and not as palatable as that of 
the native breeds, which, though not to be compared with the 
stock imported from England, is fairly satisfactory. The 
meat value of the native cattle is only about half of that of 
the English breeds introduced, besides not attaining full 
growth until the sixth or eighth year, while the English 
cattle have a high grade market value at three or four years 
of age. . 

The belt of the La Plata region, which is better adapted to 
the raising of live stock, lies between the parallels 30° to 40° 
south latitude, which embraces the republic of Uruguay 
lying between parallels 30° and 35°, a large portion of 
Argentina which lies between the rivers Paran.'i and Uru- 
guay, the provinces of Buenos Aires and Cordoba, and the 
Pampa district. The leading live-stock states in Brazil are 
the following: 


Rio Grande del Sur 6,500,000 

Minas Geraes 6,300,000 

Bahia 2,800,000 

Matto Grosao 2,700,000 

Goyaz 1,900,000 

San Paulo 1,700,000 

The State of Rio Grande, which heads the list, adjoins 
the republic of Uruguay on the north, and has a milder 
climate than central or northern Brazil. The other states 
are in the central part of the republic, where it is exceed- 
ingly warm and consequently not at all suitable for the 
breeding of English stock. 

In numbers, the United States of America shows a larger 
production of live stock than Argentina, but their produc- 
tion of 60,000,000 head is not sufficient for their 110,000,000 
inhabitants, and therefore the necessity of importing large 
quantities of meat from the La Plata region. Uruguay is 
the largest producer and exporter in comparison to the 
number of inhabitants, with 5.3 head of cattle and 13 


head of sheep for each inhabitant ; Argentina is second, with 
3.8 and 10 per inhabitant, respectively. The proportion 
per square kilometer: Uruguay, 48 head of cattle and 112 
head of sheep ; Argentina, 11 and 27 respectively. 

The price for a good steer in La Plata varies from 80 to 
100 pesos, or at the rate of about $0.15 to |0.20 per kilo. 
The average steer weighs from 600 to 700 kilos. In Matto 
Grosso and in Paraguay, the price of steers varies from 30 
to 40 dollars. The best Brazilian cattle are found in the 
State of Rio Grande, but not as high a grade as that of the 
La Plata. The provincial governments of San Paulo and 
Rio Grande are taking steps to improve the tarious breeds. 

The Republic of Argentina has an intensive live-stock in- 
dustry and cultivates large alfalfa fields for the increase of 
the market value of its cattle and sheep, while the Republic 
of Uruguay, which nature has favored with specially attrac- 
tive climatic conditions, heavier rainfall and milder summer 
weather, has left it entirely to nature to supply the food for 
its vast herds, but should Uruguay follow other methods, its 
production of live stock could be doubled and perhaps quad- 
rupled, inasmuch as its numerous river-streams could be 
economically and profitably utilized in the irrigation of 
lands, as is being done by Argentina on the Rio Negro, 
Neuquen, Meudoza, San Juan, etc. 

Thus, the La Plata districts could increase their live-stock 
production with the improvement of the breeds and the 
fields and the cultivation of forage. Brazil could likewise 
increase its production, but the climate of the plains of 
Matto Grosso and Goyaz, which have the best prairie land, 
is too severe for the development of the English breeds. 
The states of San Paulo and Minas can better afford to try 
the improvement of their live stock in a general way, for 
though in the same latitude as the other central states, the 
climate of their high plateaus is much cooler and healthier 
in everj-^ respect. 

Uruguay exported in 1916 638,000 head of cattle which 
were prepared in various packing houses and factories, in- 


eluding that of Liebig of Fray Bentos; 846,000 were pre- 
pared iu 1917, 273,000 of which came through the plant of a 
North American concern. The Liebig factory, which makes a 
specialty of extract of beef, prepared 101,000. The "sala- 
deros" jjrepared jerked-beef which is cut in pieces in the form 
of blankets, for exportation to Cuba and Brazil. The num- 
ber and the value of the beef prepared at the various cold 
storage plants, packing houses and factories for the year 
1916 was 638,000 bovines and for 1917 816,000, with a price 
of 126,636,000 and |35,329,000 respectively. 

The total production in Uruguay, including local consump- 
tion, was 797,000 bovines in 1916, and 863,000 in 1917. The 
Liebig factories prepare the canned beef, beef extract and 
tongue, and the cold storage plants also prepare these same 
products with exception of the beef extract. 

Sheep prepared in 1916 : 192,000. In 1918 the Swift plant 
exported hog products such as ham, bacon, sausages, fats, 
etc. The pig-breeding industry promises to have a regular 
and rapid growth. 

An increase in the preparation of meats in the cold-storage 
plants is noticeable, and a diminution in the preparation of 
jerked or dried beef. During the five years from 1891 to 
1895 inclusive, the packing houses of Uruguay, Argentina 
and Rio Grande in Brazil, prepared jerked beef from 
9,891,000 animals or an average of about 1,978,000 per year. 
The five years from 1911 to 1915 inclusive, the number de- 
creased to 6,496,000, or a yearly average of 1,299,000. This 
reduction may be attributed to the establishment of the 
large cold storage plant of Swift at Montevideo and others 
at Rio Grande, which had none before. The suet exported in 
1916 from Uruguay, 35,000 tons. 

Argentina exported in 1917, 71,000 bovines and 355,000 
tons of frozen beef, 38,000 tons cold-storage beef, and 39,000 
frozen mutton — a total of 432,000 tons and 71,000 bovines. 

The exportation of meats has constantly increased since 
1910, and the prices have also increased in proportion to the 
demand. In Montevideo and Buenos Aires, high grade 


cattle sold for as much as fO.20 per kilo, bringing the price 
of the average steer weighing 600 kilos, to |120 American 
gold. Salt meats and jerked-beef will gradually disappear 
from the Argentine and the Uruguayan market. Uruguay 
exported in 1917 only 7,G00 tons valued at |2,000,000. 

Price of Livestock ai the Ldniers Market in Buenos Aires on the 18th of Feb- 
ruary, 1919 
Value of the Argentine peso at the prevailing rate of exchange, $0.45 

Oxen for consumption and packing-house purposes $150 to 231 

High grade steers 280 

Steers for packing-house purposes 219 to 230 

Medium size steers 189 to 204 

Medium fattened steers 167 to 186 

Small steers for consumption 44 to 146 

Cows 72 to 210 

Heifers 35 to 126 

Calves 25 to 108 

The Matanza Market {Buenos Aires) had prices as follows 

Geldings for cold storage $13 to 21 

Geldings for slaughter house 21 to 25 

Sheep for cold storage 14 to 24 

Lamb 4 to 9 

Lamb for cold storage 10 to 12 

Montevideo market prices on the same day 
Exchange, American $1.00 value; Uruguay, $0.82 

For cold storage and factories — Per kilo 

On the hoof $0.11 to $0.14 

Per kilo 
Cows $0,092 to $0,120 

For local consumption: 

Oxen $0,118 to $0,126 

Steers 0.115 to 0.135 

Cows 0.103 to 0.133 

High grade cows 0.140 

Calves 0.90 to 0.150 

Value of the Uruguayan gold dollar — on the date last 
above mentioned — 12.695 in Argentine currency; four Uru- 
guayan gold dollars per £. 

Live stock constitutes the principal and almost exclusive 
exportation of the Republica Oriental del Uruguay. In 
1916, the value of agricultural products exported amounted 
to one and a half million dollars, against seventy-one million 
dollars' worth of live stock. There has been a noticeable 
annual increase since 1890, when the live stock exported 


showed a value of |26,000,000, |37,000,000 in 1900, 
171,000,000 in 1916, and more than |100,000,000 in 1917. This 
rapid increase does not necessarily correspond to the in- 
crease in the number of head, but to the higher prices paid 
for correspondingly higher grade stock, the weight of which 
has also increased materially with the improvement of the 
breeds by the introduction of the Durhams and Herefords. 
In order that the reader may form an idea of the difference 
in value between the native and the mestizo cattle or the 
native cattle improved vdth the English breeds, we give the 
following figures as per data of the Argentine Rural Board 
for the Buenos Aires market for the month of December, 
1918, in Argentine money: 

Mestizo steers 220, 200, 170 pesos 

Native steers 140, 110 " 

Mestizo cows 160, 115 " 

Native cows 135, 75 " 

The sheep production has decreased considerably in Uru- 
guay within the last ten years, for though there was a total 
of 28,000,000 head in 1908, there are at present only 
20,000,000, with a slight increase in 1918 and 1919 over the 
few years preceding. The Uruguayan wool sells at a higher 
price than that of Argentina, because it is much cleaner. 

The total exportation of meat of all kinds from Uruguay 
during the year 1916, was 120,000 tonSy classified as follows: 

On a basis of 1,000 kilos to a ton, and four Uruguayan 
gold dollars per pound sterling, on February 15, 1919, at 
the following rate of exchange — Change at par — 51 1/16 
pence; 1 Uruguayan dollar==:|1.035 American, or |1.072 
Argentineans Francs 36 cents (5.36 Francs). 


Frozen beef 63,000 tons $15,189,000 Uruguayan 

Cold storage beef 8,000 " 2,291,000 

Canned beef 20,000 " 5,800,000 

Beef extract 210 " 504,000 

Frozen mutton 3,700 " 843,000 

Jerked beef 4,100 " 1,045,000 

120,000 " Total, $25,682,00 " 


In 1917, the exportation of meats amounted to 125,000 
tons and 74,000 live bo vines. 

The decrease in sheep production is plainly shown by the 

figures below, which represent the wool exported from 

Uruguay : 


Annual average during the five years from 1906 to 1910 48,898,000 

Annual average during the five years from 1911 to 1915 58,556,000 

1914 44,587,000 

1915 37,904,000 

1916 30,602,000 

1917 39,627,000 

1918 45,000,000 

Wool exported by Argentina during 1917 127,000,000 

According to data published in the Argentina Statistical 
Bureau, the wool exported from Argentina in 1917 
amounted to 127,000 tons, which figures do not correspond 
to the 81,000,000 head of sheep as shown by the Argentine 
statistics. Figuring the weight in kilos to correspond to the 
weight of the Uruguayan sheep, the Argentine sheep should 
not have numbered more than 60,000,000. 

Live Stock Sold in the North Montevideo Market in 1916 and 1917 

Bovines Sheep 

Con- Cold Con- Cold 

sumption Storage Total sumption Storage 

1916 219,165 419,340 638,505 51,000 192,000 

1917 182,148 664,432 846,580 158,778 Nothing 

The quantity of meat consumed by the city of Montevideo, 

was 32,000,000 kilos in 1915 and 34,000,000 in 1916. Hides 

exported through the port of Montevideo in 1916 and 1917, 

as follows : 

Salted Dried Salted Young Ox Dried Young Ox Grand 

Bovines Bovines and Heifers and Heifers Total 

1916 675,699 920,825 205,625 26,759 1,828,908 

1917 920,825 809,110 250,379 60,304 2,040,618 

In 1917, 5,349,000 kilos of fat, and 10,526,000 kilos of 
tallow were exported: dried blood, 2,000,000 kilos; gut, 
453,000 kilos. 

Total value of exports from Uruguay for 1910, |73,000,000 ; 


for 1917, 1103,000,000, of which 97 per cent represents live- 
stock products. 

Price of Meat in Montevideo 
Price per kilo 
1913 1916 

Minimum Maximum Minimum Maximum 

Roast $0.18 $0.24 $0.16 $0.40 

Pulp 0.17 . 0.16 0.32 

Loin 0.27 0.24 0.40 

Livestock Killed in Slaughter-house in the Country Districts of Uruguay in 


Bovines 98,000 

Sheep 80,000 

The above figures do not include the live stock which is 
exempt from taxation, as it is not destined for consumption 
by the people living in the farming districts, but for con- 
sumption in the towns and cities. 

The live-stock industry of the Republica Oriental is 
favored, as we have already stated, by its exceptionally mild 
climate. Snow falls on an average of about every fifty 
years. There are several old residents of that region who 
had never seen snow until 1918, when it covered nearly the 
whole republic. Therefore, no shelter is needed for the live 
stock. That still bigger results are not shown, may be at- 
tributed to the fact that the live-stock raisers do not cultivate 
forage for consumption during the summer season, which is 
the critical period, inasmuch as if there is an insufficiency of 
rainfall there is naturally a scarcity of grasses, which causes 
the stock to starve in the congested districts. So in order 
to prevent this, the live-stock raisers arranged to graze no 
stock on a certain part of their pastures, so that they may 
utilize it in summer should the occasion require it, but which 
will not be needed in case of sufficient rainfall. It means 
that very valuable ground is going to waste, besides check- 
ing what would undoubtedly be a much larger increase in 
the production. The author happens to know of a big ranch 
owner who lost 30,000 head of cattle just for neglecting to 
plant forage, which would have saved his stock. 


Argentina has many extensive prairies devoted to the 
cultivation of alfalfa hay where the livestock may roam at 
will. This would be impos.sible in Uruguay, but alfalfa hay 
could be cultivated, and in due time mowed, dried and 
stacked. The alfalfa fields of Argentina are at quite a 
distance from the ports, in some cases a distance of about 
250 miles, which means of course considerable expense in 
the transfer of either live stock or forage to the point of ship- 
ment. In Uruguay the ports are a little distance from the 

The Uruguayan alfalfa differs from that of Argentina, in 
that the stalk of the former is shorter and more slender but 
has more leaves, which makes it more valuable for feeding 
purposes, the leaves being the nutritious part of the forage. 
Its productive powers last for five years and in some cases 
longer, which is suflScient time for it to yield good returns to 
the land owner. The alfalfa which is cultivated in Brie, 
France, and in all the Champagne region, lasts three years. 
The soil of Uruguay has all the elements necessary for the 
cultivation of alfalfa, such as potassium, lime and phos- 
phorus, and as the air supplies the nitrogen it does not 
need nitrates like other plants. As a fertilizer, use may be 
made of the phosphate obtained from the bones to be had 
from the "saladeros" at ten dollars per ton of 1,000 kilos, 
which, when burnt and crushed, is sufficient for one hectare 
of surface (2,471 acres). Its reaction is the same as in the 
extraction of phosphorus, the phosphoric acid being slowly 
replaced by carbonic acid and forms carbonate of lime and 
frees the phosphoric acid dissolved in water and assimilated 
by the plants. 

The natural reaction lasts for five or six years, and there- 
fore no fertilizer is needed during that time. Potassium 
may be obtained by burning yuyo Colorado, an indigenous 
plant similar to the salsola of Spain, and which had been 
utilized in the making of soap, for ages past. If in addition 
to this, advantage is taken of the opportunity that Uruguay 
affords through its numberless small streams, which are not 


to be duplicated by any other country in South America, 
and the land properly irrigated, if necessary, it can be readily 
appreciated that the scientific cultivation of forage will 
materially increase the production of live stock. 

The region of Brie in France, produces about 6,000 kilos 
of alfalfa hay every year for three years, which quantity has 
been surpassed in the same length of time by a field in Villa 
Colon near Montevideo, and in addition, the Montevideo 
alfalfa continues to yield for five years instead of three as 
in Brie. 



Agricultural Statistics of Chile, Uruguay and Argentina. 

The republics of Chile and Uruguay produce wheat and 
other cereals in sufficient quantities not only for local con- 
sumption, but also for export, though the quantity exported 
is very small in comparison to that exported by Argentina. 

Chilean Agriculture 

Chile has more than 700,000 square kilometers of surface, 
but the portion which can be utilized for agriculture even 
resorting to irrigation, is limited. The agricultural district 
called Valle Central, is scientifically cultivated and pro- 
duces cereals of all kinds, vegetables and fruits, and the 
best of wines. According to the Chilean Bureau of Statis- 
tics published by the Central Statistical Department, the 
wheat production of Chile for the year 1916 was as follows : 

Quantity of Wheat Quantity per 

Hectares Cultivated Harvested Hectare 

422,000 484,000 metric tons 1,100 kilos 

Other agricultural products harvested in Chile in 1916 : 

Metric Tons of 1,000 
Kilos Each 

Corn 39,000 

Oats 92,000 

Barley 94,000 

Beans 52,000 

Bean-pods 11,000 

Chick-pea 1,200 

Lentil 960 

Potatoes 316,000 

The 57,000 hectares of vineyards produced 1,145,000 hecto- 
liters of wine and 294,000 hectoliters of chicha. 



As to live-stock, Chile does not have enough for its own 
consumption and therefore imports large quantities from 
Argentina. Chile had in 1916, 1,869,000 bovines and 
4,568,000 head of sheep which produced 14,300 metric tons 
of wool. The southern region of Magallanes had almost 
half of the number of sheep (2,071,000). The larger part of 
the cattle is found in the austral provinces of Llanquihiie 
and Valdivia, and the central provinces of Santiago and 

Uruguayan Agriculture 

The Republica Oriental del Uruguay could develop into 
a great agricultural center like Argentina, as its soil pro- 
duces wheat, barley, oats and other grains, but being 
sparsely settled, only enough for local consumption is culti- 
vated. Irrigation is not necessary inasmuch as its one meter 
of annual rainfall is evenly divided throughout the seasons 
of the year, besides, it has more rivers than any other 
region of the same area in South America. It produces high 
grade wines, finest of fruits and vegetables, particularly 
fruits such as oranges, peaches, plums, pears, apples, etc., 
which compare with the best of their kind in California. In 
fact, it could be developed as a fruit center also, were the 
industry to be exploited as it is in the United States of 

Lands cultivated in Uruguay in 1916-1917 : 

Tons of 1,000 Kilos 

Wheat 315,000 hectares 146,600 

Corn 253,000 " 175,400 

Oats 57,000 " 27,900 

Argentine Agriculture 

The area under cultivation in Argentina in 1917 was much 
smaller than what was under cultivation in 1913 immedi- 
ately preceding the breaking out of the European war, or 
12,000,000 and 13,000,000 hectares respectively. Products 
exported in 1917: 


Year 1917 

Oats 271,000 metric tons 

Flax 141,000 " 

Corn 893,000 " " 

Wheat 935,000 " 

Wheat flour 112,000 " 

Total agricultural exports for 1917, 2,400,000 tons valued 
at 144,000,000 gold pesos ; total live-stock products, 947,000 
tons valued at 370,000,000, or a total valuation of 520,000,000 
gold pesos. (|5 Argentine equals English pound.) 

The agricultural products, which, since 1907, had been 
gaining in value over the live stock, diminished in 1917, but 
the increase in the prices of meat and wool covered the 
agricultural deficit of that year. Wool sold for as much as 
double the price paid in normal times, from 10 to 14 gold 
pesos in 1917. 



Mineral Wealth — Mineral Production of Peru, Bolivia and Chile — Commercial Activi- 
ties of these Countries. 

Mineral Wealth of Chile 

After describing the wealth of the La Plata region which 
can adequately be called the ''Region of Cereals, Meat and 
Wool/' we next take np the study of the great Andean 
Mineral Belt, which comprises central Peru, Bolivia and 
northern Chile, and which region produces nearly all the 
niter, and a large portion of the copper, lead, silver and a 
few other metals of world-wide importance. 

The northern part of Chile from Coquimbo to Iquique and 
the whole Peruvian coast form a vast arid region which on 
account of its having no rainfall had remained uninhabited 
until valuable minerals such as copper, iron, lead, etc., were 

Mineral Production of the Andean Region in 1916 

$1.00 Chilean peso= 18 d. =$0,222 Am. Del. 1 Bol.-=19>^ d. 1 Peruvian Pound = Eng- 
lish Pounds. 




Value in Chilean Pesos 

Value in 

Value in Peruvian 




























Borate. . . 




Common salt. . 





Antimony. . . . 






Petroleum. . . . 


Vanadium .... 








The principal minerals of Chile — Principal min- Principal Peru- 
Niter and copper. erals of Bo- vian minerals 

livia — Copper — Copper and 

and antimony. Petroleum. 

Mineral Wealth in Chile 1916 

Niter constitutes the priucipal source of wealth of Chile, 
and in 1916 it represented 66 per cent of the total value of 
minerals exported from Chile, the Antofagasta district lead- 
ing with 199,000,000 pesos, and Tarapacd second with 
131,000,000. Next to Niter, Copper is the principal mineral 
of Chile. Value of Chilean copper exported in 1916, 
89,000,000 pesos, or 20 per cent of the total value of minerals 
exported. Copper is found nearly throughout the whole of 
central and northern Chile, from Tacna and Antofagasta to 
Santiago and O'Higgins, Antofagasta and O'Higgins being 
the best producing regions. 

Coal ranks third, of which 1,400,000 tons valued at 
138,000,000, were exported in 1916. The southern districts 
of Concepcion, Arauco and Magallanes produce the most of 
the coal of Chile. 

Iodine is fourth in rank, with a production of 20,000,000 
pesos, in the districts of Antofagasta and Tarapaca. Silver 
comes next, the value of the quantity exported in 1916 hav- 
ing amounted to 2,200,000 pesos. Sulphur is next in rank, 
2,000,000 pesos value having been exported in 1916. (See 
table of mineral production of Chile.) 

The percentage of mineral wealth of the four principal 
mining districts of Chile is divided as follows : Antofagasta 
51 per cent; Tarapaca 29 per cent; Concepcion 6 per cent; 
O'Higgins 5.4 per cent. 

Niter exported to the United States of America in 1916, 
165,000,000 pesos; Great Britain, 32,000,000; France and 
other countries, 32,000,000. Total amount of other minerals 
exported: United States, 239,000,000; Great Britain, 
104,000,000 ; France, 35,000,000. 

Nationalities represented in the mining industry of Chile, 
based on the average value of production, rank as follows: 


Chileans, 192,000,000; English, 136,000,000; North Ameri- 
cans, 59,000,000 ; Germans, 44,000,000. 

Antofagasta, a very important port of exportation, is 
utilized by Bolivia by means of the railroad which connects 
the said port with the city of La Paz, the capital of Bolivia, 
over the Bolivian plateau. The traffic in minerals from 
Bolivia through the port of Antofagasta is indeed of great 
importance, as is also that through the ports of Mollendo 
and Arica, which are north of Antofagasta, and are the 
terminal points of railroads in Bolivia. 

Principal minerals exported from Bolivia through the 
port of Antofagasta in 1916, and their corresponding value, 
as follows: Tin, 27,000,000; Antimony, 14,000,000 Chilean 
pesos ; Woljran, about 1,000,000 ; Silver, 1,200,000. Through 
the port of Mejillones also in northern Chile and just a few 
miles north of Antofagasta, Bolivia exported: Tin, 
15,000,000; Antimony and other minerals, 1,000,000 Chilean 
pesos approximately. Through the port of Arica, another 
Chilean port situated about half-way between Iquique and 
Mollendo, Bolivia exported a total of 73,000,000 Chilean 
pesos worth of Copper, Tin, Wolfran, Antimony, etc. 

Principal ports for the exportation of minerals, in the 
order of their importance, and value of exports in Chilean 
pesos: Antofagasta, 83,000,000; Iquique, 83,000,000; 
Mejillones, 64,000,000; Tocopilla, 42,000,000; Valparaiso, 
40,000,000; Caleta Buena, 35,000,000; Taltal, 28,000,000; 
Coloso, 18,000,000; Pisagua, 11,000,000. 

Mineral Wealth of Peru in 1917 

Peru is also very rich in minerals. The value of mineral 
exports about equally balances that of vegetable exports, the 
former averaging about 43,000,000 Peruvian pounds, which 
are equal in value to English pounds sterling, and the latter 
44,000,000 in 1916. The main source of mineral wealth is 
derived from the copper and petroleum which are exported 
chiefly to the United States of America, England and Chile, 


Minerals exported from Peru in 1917, value in Peruvian 

Peruvian pounds 

Metallic copper 6,077,000 

Petroleum and by-products 1,182,000 

Vanadium 309,000 

Tungsten 99,000 

Copper 103,000 

Silver 38,000 

Lead 35,000 

Lixiviated sulphides 101,000 

Metallic silver 5,000 

Metallic lead 16,000 

Silver precipitate 16,000 

Concentrated copper 70,000 

Peru's percentage of imports and exports with its leading 

clients in 1917 in millions £. 

England Stales Chile 

Imports 20 57 13 

Exports 17 57 8 

Next come Bolivia, with £1,990,000 imports and £1,660,000 in exports. 

Routes for the Transportation of Peruvian Commerce 

The 32,000,000 Peruvian pounds, which represent the 
commercial activities of Peru during the year 1917, were 
divided in the manner of routing, as follows : Maritime, 
30,926,000; Fluvial, 1,092,000; Overland, 127,000. 

The maritime traffic both on Peruvian importation and 
exportation is distributed through four of the principal 

ports, thus : 

Percentage of Percentage of 

Port Imports Exports 

Callao 72% 53% 

Mollendo 8 9 

Paita 5 4 

Eten 3 3 

The fluvial ports: Iquitos of Amazon — Imports, 3%; exports, 3%. 

The fluvial i)orts: Iquitos of Amazone, import 3 per cent; 
export 3 per cent. 

Peru has many other Pacific seaports besides those already 
mentioned, to wit: Salaverri, Trujillo, Chiniboto, Corro 
Azul, Pisco, etc., and on the Amazon, the ports of Iquitos, 


Loreto and Leticia, the latter near the mouth of the Javary, 
which is near the boundary line of Brazil. The large tribu- 
taries of the Amazon in Peru are navigable to very close to 
the Andes. 

Peru principally imports among manufactured articles, 
the following: tinctures, colors, chemical products, cotton, 
wool and jute fabrics, paper and cardboard, iron and iron 
supplies, electric, industrial and agricultural machinery, 
powder, dynamite and other explosives. 

Peru's exports in 1917 were divided as follows: Animal 
products, 11 per cent; vegetable, 41 per cent; mineral, 43 
per cent. The mineral and vegetable products chiefly ex- 
ported in 1917, were: metallic minerals, sugar, cotton, 
borate, gum and petroleum. The principal animal products 
exported : 

Peruvian Pounds 

Alpaca wool 845,000 

Sheep wool, washed 645,000 

" , unwashed 219,000 

Hides, sheep-skin and kid 343,000 

Cattle 84,000 

Principal vegetable products exported in 1917, and value 
in Peruvian pounds: 

Sugar 4,111,000 Cotton-seed oil 120,000 

Cotton 4,878,000 Cotton-seed and paste. . . 96,000 

Gums 598,000 Rice 187,000 

Cocaine 36,000 Toquilla straw hats 40,000 

Commercial Activities in Peru 
(1 Peruvian Pound=Euglish Pound.) 

The Peruvian pound as the standard unit of value was 
adopted since 1897. It is equal in value to the English 
pound sterling which is equivalent to 5 Argentine gold 
dollars. The Sol of gold is the fifth part of 1 pound. 

The augmented commercial activities in Peru during the 
quinquennium of 1913-1918 were due to two essential 
reasons : first — increase in the price of all commodities, and 
second — increased production. 


In studying the statistical records of the last 16 years 
beginning with 1902, we notice a gradual, though slow in- 
crease, as the following figures indicate — value in Peruviaji 
pounds : 

Years Imports (Pounds) Exports (Pouv/is) 

1902 3,420,000 3,700,000 

1917 13,500,000 18,137,000 

or 293 per cent increase on imports, and 350 per cent on 
exports in 16 years. The last five years computation shows 
the following increase: 

Years Imports (Pounds) Exports (Pounds) 

1913 6,088,000 9,137,000 

1914 4,827,000 8,767,000 

1915 3,095,000 11,521,000 

1916 8,683,000 16,541,000 

1917 13,500,000 18,643,000 

Principal Imports in 1917 

Cotton fabrics 1,942,000 Peruvian pounds 

Metals 3,689,000 

Implements, etc 1,168,000 " 

Food 1,537,000 

Among the imported articles of food, we find : wheat 
(404,000 Peruvian), fats, wines, fresh and dried fruits, and 
canned milk. 

Bulky articles and materials imported: lumber, mineral 
coal, oils and cement. 

Commercial Activities in Bolivia — 1915 
(1 Boliviano— 19|d.) 

The Bolivian statistics on raw material, show that 
Bolivia produces all the principal minerals known, the min- 
ing industry constituting its principal source of wealth. 

The exports for 1915 amounted to 95,000,000 bolivianos. 
One boliviano is equal to 19^ English pence. 

The value of the raw material exported amounted to 
90,000,000 bolivianos, which was nearly the entire value of 
Bolivia's exports. Among the minerals, tin leads with 44,- 
885,000 bolivianos out of a total of 90,000,000. Tin exported 


in 1912 and 1913 : 60 and 67 million bolivianos respectively. 
Out of a total of 36 million kilos of tin, 35 million went to 
England and 1 million to the United States of America. 
Bolivia ranks second with 29 per cent of the world's produc- 
tion of tin, the Straits Settlements leading with 55 per cent. 
The copper (rosicler) exported in 1915 amounted to 
9,000,000 bolivianos, or a total production of 17,000,000 kilos, 
of which 13 million were exported to the United States of 
America and 4 million to England. Copper in bars, which 
was exported to the same countries, amounted to 4 million 
bolivianos. Total copper production, 14,000,000 bolivianos. 
Production of Wolfran, 792,000 kilos, valued at 1,000,000 
bolivianos, exported to the United States and England. 
Antimony produced, 17,000,000 kilos valued at 13,000,000 Bs., 
exported also to the United States and England. Bismuth 
comes next with 600,000 kilos, valued at 3,600,000 Bs., 
exported to England. The production of Silver in 1915 
was 2,982,000 Bs., and in 1918 it reached 8,000,000 Bs. 
Lead and Gold were produced in smaller quantities — 
362,000 and 306,000 Bs., respectively. The Gum elastic 
or Rubber produced in 1915, reached 5,000,000 kilos worth 
10,000,000 Bs., the greater part of which was exported to 
the United States. 

Lines of Communication in Bolivia 

Bolivia utilizes the ports of Antofagasta, Arica and Mol- 
lendo on the Pacific, for the exportation of its minerals, 
being connected with these ports by the railroads, which 
extend to the mining centers. Arica has more trafiic for 
the reason that it is the shortest route, but the Bolivians 
complain about the insufficiency of rolling stock to take 
care of their shipments and the lack of shipping facilities 
at the port, which is smaller than the port of Antofagasta, 
the leading seaport of that region for south bound commerce. 

The traffic with Argentina will not be of much importance 
until the railroad from Quiaca on the frontier to the towns of 
Tupiza and Uyuni is completed. The railroad Oran-Em- 


barcacion tends to augment commercial traffic along the 
eastern region. 

The leading consumers of Bolivia's exports (in bolivianos) 
rank as follows: England, 66,000,000; United States, 
25,000,000; Argentina, 1,400,000; France, 817,000; Chile, 
747,000. Bolivia imports from the United States, 4,770,000 ; 
England, 3,600,000; Peru, 4,200,000; Chile, 3,300,000. 






We have in previous chapters described the regions where 
cereals and livestock are produced (Argentine and Uru- 
guay) ; mineral producing region (the Andean republics of 
Chile, Bolivia and Peru) ; and we will now describe the 
regions where the tropical products of South America are 
to be found. These products include : coffee, cotton, tobacco, 
sugar, mate, bean cocoa, rice and lumber. 

We learned that the agricultural industry of Peru is about 
equal in importance to its mining industry, particularly in 
the production of sugar and cotton. Ecuador, Colombia 
and Venezuela also have like products which make the bulk 
of the exports, but Brazil is the largest exporter of tropical 
products, inasmuch as its area is larger than all the other 
countries of the central region combined and the fertility of 
its soil is such that everything is produced in vast quantities. 
We have also learned that Brazil has 30,000,000 bovines, 
but considering that it has a population of 24,000,00, and its 
climatic conditions not being altogether suitable for the 
development of the best breeds of cattle, it is reasonable to 
believe that Brazil will not be a large exporter of meatvS, 
and its southern region (Rio Grande and Santa Catalina) 
and portions of the central plateaus (San Paulo, Matto 
Grosso, Goyaz, etc.) will raise enough livestock to supply the 
local markets. Out of 30 million bovines, exported 2G,000 
tons in 1910 and 51,000 in 1917. The foregoing figures repre- 
sent hardly half of the quantity of meats which Uruguay 



exported in 1917, and less than one-fourth of the meat which 
Uruguay exported in 1916. 

However deficient the conditions might be for the raising 
of livestock in Brazil, specially sheep, it is endowed with 
exceptionally desirable conditions for the production of 
tropical products of all descriptions. The celebrated natur- 
alist Agassiz, whom we have mentioned quite frequently 
and whose reports are worthy of repetition and belief, made 
a thorough study of the fauna and flora of Brazil during a 
trip of several years' duration in the Amazonian region, and 
in describing its natural wealth he made it clear that 
there was no other region in the world which could compare 
with it in the variety and abundance of fine grade lumber, 
which can be utilized for general and naval construction. 

Brazil produces all the hard woods not subject to decay 
in water, such as the nanduhay, which is used in the con- 
struction of fences on the farms of the La Plata, also the 
quebracho, lapacho and viraro of Chaco and Paraguay, 
which are of equal hardness and incorruptibility. The pine 
forests of Brazil, which pine is now being utilized on the La 
Plata in the absence of Canadian pine, cover areas of hun- 
dreds of thousands of square kilometers. Should Brazil at 
any time control her own merchant marine and be in a posi- 
tion to properly exploit her extraordinary wealth of lumber, 
she will inundate the world with lumber which Europeans 
have not even seen, and which lumber is adapted to all works 
of construction not excepting marine. 

The lumber now used in Europe and in the United States, 
in the construction of piers, does not compare with the beams 
of various kinds of hard wood (quebracho, urundey, fiandu- 
bay, etc.), which trees are larger than any that grow in 
Europe, and which last indefinitely under water. Notwith- 
standing this enormous wealth, the exportation of lumber 
from Brazil has just recently begun to show any importance, 
particularly the pine and cedar forests, which produced 
64,000 tons of lumber in 1916, and 144,000 tons in 1918. 
These are very large forests all along the coast of the Atlau- 


tic, on ranges not far from shipping points. The Brazilian 
cedar has, on account of its low price, replaced the Canadian 
pine in the construction of doors, windows and shutters. 

Rubber, a product which has created world-wide demand, 
is very abundant in the region along the tributaries of the 
Amazon, specially on the Acre over territory drained by this 
river, a tributary of the Purus, which territory Bolivia 
ceded to Brazil in exchange for the railroad of the Madeira. 
Rubber exportation has decreased during the last few years, 
from 25,000 tons in 1914 to 15,000 in 1918. 

Brazil has been exporting rice to the La Plata, replacing 
that which had been coming from Italy and Spain. In 1916 
she exported 36,000 tons to the La Plata markets. Flour 
of Tapioca, known on the La Plata as farina, has shown the 
largest increase in production, 45,000 tons of this product 
having been shipped to Montevideo and Buenos Aires in 
1918. This article of food is very popular in Uruguay, as 
it is an excellent and exceptionally nutritive substitute for 
the potato. 

Though Brazil has very valuable minerals, only manganese 
(two million pounds exported in 1918) and coal are ex- 
ploited, the latter for the consumption of the Brazilian 

The following figures give Brazil's exports during the first 
nine months of 1918 : 

Nine Months 
Value in Pounds 
Product Sterling 

Coffee 13,000,000 

Rubber 2,600,000 

Sugar 2,240,000 

Tobacco 1,790,000 

Mate 1,500,000 

Bean 1,300,000 

Cocoa 1,200,000 

Carnauba (wax) 900,000 

Rice 800,000 

Lumber 800,000 

Brazil's exports gradually increased from year to year 
since 1914 till 1917, when the maximum value of £63,000,000 


in 1917 was reached ($46,000,000 in 1914). The imports 
also increased during the same period, from 35,000,000 in 
1914 to 44,000,000 in 1917. 

Tropical Regions of the Northern Andes — Ecuador_, 
Colombia, Venezuela 


(1 Sucre = 10.50) 

Next to Brazil, which is the largest region for the cultiva- 
tion of tropical products, there is a smaller region composed 
of the countries occupying the northern part of South 
America, and which are Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela. 
Though they are small compared with Brazil, they cover a 
large expanse of territory. Ecuador has an area of 300,000 
square kilometers, and the other two, more than one million 
square kilometers of surface each ; in other words, Colombia 
or Venezuela either one is larger than France and Germany 
combined, but the production does not correspond to the 
extent and wealth of its agricultural products — coffee, sugar, 
cotton and cocoa. 

Since 1877, Ecuador has quite methodically increased its 
production of cocoa, exporting 45,000,000 kilos in 1917, of 
which 37,000,000 were shipped to the United States. Total 
valuation of cocoa exported that year, 26,000,000 sucres (1 
Sucre equal in value to |0.50 American gold). 

Coffee exported in 1917 : 2,669,000 kilos, of which quantity 
2,400,000 went to Chile. Total coffee production for 1917 : 
1,300,000 sucres. 

Unpeeled tagua exported in 1917: 7,700,000 kilos, valued 
at 616,000 sucres, nearly the entire quantity having been 
exported to the United States. Peeled tagua exported dur- 
ing the same year: 8,500,000 kilos, valued at 1,160,000 sucres, 
the United States being the biggest consumer (over 5,000,000 
kilos). England and Spain came next with more than 
1,000,000 kilos each. The production in 1913 was much 
larger, when the total quantity exported amounted to 
31,000,000 kilos. 


The rubber exported by Ecuador in 1917 amounted to 
more than 412 tons with a valuation of 728,000 sucres. 

The value of the hides exported during the same year was 
1,320,000 snores. Value of straw hats exported: 1,918,000 
sucres, most of which were sent to the United States. The 
quantities of tobacco, quinine and cdscara de mangle ex- 
ported, were of small importance, the largest being that of 
tobacco, value 20,000 sucres. 

The value of Ecuador's total exports for 1917, was 33,- 
500,000 sucres, 28,000,000 of which represented the exports 
shipped through Guayaquil. Besides the products above 
mentioned, Ecuador exported (within the above valuation) 
wool, 836,000 sucres; gold bars, 1,824,000, and 900,000 in 
minerals (not specified, as the statistics only refer to 
mineral ores) . 

The value of Ecuador's imports for 1917 was 20,900,000 
sucres of which 12,000,000 came from the United States, 
5,000,000 from England and more than one million from 
Spain. More than 19,000,000 came through Guayaquil. 
Principal articles imported : Fabrics, 6,000,000 ; food, 
3,000,000 ; metallic articles, 1,500,000 ; clothing, 1,000,000. 


(1| Colombiano =z |1.00) 

Colombia occupies fourth place in South America, in 
extent of territory (see Table of Statistics). It is at pres- 
ent in dispute with Ecuador and Peru regarding the question 
of boundaries. 

Brazil, Argentina and Bolivia rank first in the order 
named. Colombia has an area of 1,300,000 square kilo- 
meters, of which, more than two-thirds (805,000) comprise 
the plains drained by the tributaries of the Amazon — large 
navigable streams, among them the Caquetd, 2,200 kilometers 
long, the Putumayo and the Yapura. The Orinoco forms 
part of the boundary between Colombia and Venezuela. The 


principal tributaries of the Orinoco are the Ouaviare and 
the Meta. 

The plains of Colombia produce high grade lumber, rub- 
ber, coffee, cocoa, cotton, tagua, etc. Cattle thrive well in 
this region. 

The mountains cover more than 400,000 square kilometers 
of surface in the central part, and are more than 3,000 
meters above sea-level. The highest points are Suma Paz 
(4,810 meters) and Sierra de Cocul (5,784 meters). The 
climate at 3,000 and 4,000 meters elevation is very mild and 
agreeable, and in direct contrast with the very warm and 
moist climate of the plains. 

At the "Nevado de Tolima" the Central range attains a 
height of 5,584 meters. It is in this mountain district where 
the population is concentrated, and where the capital and 
larger cities of Colombia are situated. Here we find the 
bulk of the white population the descendants of the 
Spaniards, of pure Spanish blood, and the mestizos. Ac- 
cording to Don Rafael Uribe y Uribe, 66 per cent of the 
population is composed of pure whites and mestizos, the 
latter the cross between whites and Indians, called "criollos" 
and whose skin shows the characteristics of the white race, 
with a very slight tinge of a copperish hue. Indians comprise 
14 per cent of the population, Negroes 4 per cent and the 
cross between the Indians and Negroes 6 per cent. 

The Andes in Colombia are divided into three small 
ranges, called Occidental, Central and Oriental, which, 
starting at the southern extremity, open up like the ribs of 
a fan with large valleys between, running north and south, 
and over which valleys the large rivers of Colombia flow — 
the Magdalena (1,700 kms.) ; the Atrato (570) ; the Cauca, 
a tributary of the Magdalena (1350). These three rivers 
flow in a northerly direction into the Caribbean Sea. Ac- 
cording to Humboldt, the Sierra Nevada of Santa Marta 
forms an isolated mountain system near the Caribbean Sea, 
terminating at Mt. Horqueta (5,847 m. elev.). 

These ranges form the relief and the three zones of 


Colombia : The dry and sultry coast with very little rainfall ; 
the eastern plains, and the central plateau which is at 3,000 
to 4,000 meters above sea-level. 

Bogota is the principal and the capital city of Colombia. 
Population, 150,000. Elevation, 2,650 meters. It has a 
very pleasant climate, the average mean temperature being 
14° centigrade, three degrees colder than Montevideo and 
Buenos Aires, which cities are in latitude 35° south, while 
Bogota is in latitude 4° north. 

Bogota is a city of culture, its famous university having 
won for it the title of the "Athens of the North." The 
"Salto de Tequendama," one of the wonders of America, is 
at a short distance from the city. Here the Bogota river 
drops precipitately a distance of 146 meters. Another spot 
of interest near the city is the "Abismo del Pandi," a crevice 
or gulch 5 kilometers long and 85 meters deep. 

Other important cities: Medellin (71,000 pop.) ; Barran- 
quilla (48,000) ; Cartagena (36,000) ; Pasto (27,000) ; Call 
(27,000) ; Manizales (34,000). 

Colombia at one time formed a part of Greater Colombia, 
which also included Ecuador and Venezuela, over which the 
Liberator Bolivar presided, but which union was dissolved 
in 1830, when it took the name of Republica de Colombia. 
During the dominion by Spain it was called Nueva Granada. 

Coffee represents 50 per cent of the exports of Colombia, 
which in 1916 amounted to 31,000,000 pesos in value. The 
exports of 1915, in Colombian x>esos — (rate of exchange, 1 
Colorabiano is equal to fl.OO American at par) were: 

Vegetable products 19,400,000 

Mineral " 7,200,000 

Animal " 3,100,000 

Manufactured " 1,100,000 

Live animals 520,000 

The Colombian pound is equivalent to the English pound 
sterling, or |5.00 gold. 

The exports in either of the years 1912, 1913, 1914, and 
1915, surpassed those of the year 1916, particularly in 1913, 


when the value of the exports reached 34,300,000 pesos 

Value of vegetable products exported: 1916, Coffee, 12,- 
000,000; bananas, 2,000,000; tobacco, 011,000; tagua or vege- 
table ivory, 300,000; rubber, 723,000. 

Value of minerals exported : Gold, 5,200,000 ; platinum, 
2,017,000. Emeralds did not make a good showing, although 
the Muzo emeralds have become quite famous. 

Value of animal products exported : Hides, 2,993,000 ; 
sheep-skins and others, 83,000. 

Value of manufactured products exported : Sugar, 211,000 ; 
Panama hats, 871,000. 

Value of live animals exported: Cattle, 514,000; horses, 

Colombia has 7,000,000 head of cattle. 

Value of exports to the United States of America : Vege- 
table products, 19,000,000; mineral products, 6,000,000; 
animal products, 2,750,000; manufactured products, more 
than 1,000,000. 

Out of a total value of 31,000,000 of Colombia's exports, 
27,000,000 went to the United States of America. 

Value of Colombia's imports for 1916 : 29,000,000, of which 
more than half (10,500,000) came from the United States. 
Then followed England with 7,500,000; Spain, 700,000; 
France, 600,000; Italy, 550,000. Principal articles im- 
ported: Textiles, 13,400,000; metals, 2,240,000; food, 
2,400,000; drugs and medicines, 1,300,000; agricultural and 
mining machinery, 830,000; books and paper, 913,000; bev- 
erages, wines and liquors, 000,000. 

The three ranges of mountains make communication be- 
tween central Colombia and the raclfic Ocean and the 
Caribbean Sea extremely difficult. The Magdalena and the 
Atrate rivers admit small ves.sels far into the interior of the 
country. The capital has railway connection with the 
Magdalena, at the port of Girardot. 

There are ten short railroad lines with a total longitude 
of 1,000 kilometers, connecting the cities in the interior with 


the Pacific ports, and which lines run as follows: Buena- 
ventura to Call on the Cauca valley ; Cartagena, a port on the 
Caribbean Sea, to Calamar on th« Magdalena ; Santa Marta 
on the Caribbean Sea to the banana producing region, and to 
the Magdalena : Port Girardot on the Magdalena to Chicoral, 
connecting with the railroad at Buenaventura, a port on the 
Pacific; Cucuta to the Zubia river on the Venezuelan 

Principal ports: Barranquilla, Puerto Colombia or Saba- 
nilla, ^anta Marta and Riohacha on the Caribbean Sea, and 
Buenaventura on the Pacific. 


(1 Bolivar equals 1 Franc gold, or |0.19) 

Venezuela is a large country of more than 1,000,000 square 
kilometers in area. (See Table of Statistics.) The Orinoco 
river divides the country into two parts — the northern por- 
tion comprises the valleys of which we have made mention 
before in the chapter on orography, also a few mountain 
chains, the last straggling ramifications of the Andes, and 
which end on the Caribbean Sea. 

We will leave the description to an eminent Venezuelan 
writer, R. Blanco Fombona, who has been Governor of the 
territory of the Amazon, the southern region lying between 
Rio Negro and the Parima mountains: 

"The Orinoco first flows in a northerly direction to Mai- 
pures, where it suddenly comes upon a mountain of granite 
which obstructs its way. A terrific struggle between two 
veritable giants, the River and the Mount, takes place. The 
Mount interposes, but the River persists and finally its 
waters run over the promontories of stone. The River 
passes but the Mount will not give in and so the Orinoco 
(the River) is compelled to change its course by turning to 
the right and continuing its journey to the sea, no longer 
flowing north but from west to east. The field of struggle 
is along a stretch 50 to GO kilometers in length. The Mount 


seems to advance against the stream which has beeo gradu- 
ally demolishing its granite prows by the force of its rush- 
ing waters. These rock crumbs, these fragments of stone, 
are not merely pebbles or chipped stones, but gigantic 
rounded boulders having the appearancee of cupolas of sub- 
merged temples or raised but roofless stelas, obelisks or 
ramparts, or even that of stumps of well-shaped trees in a 
forest of lifeless vegetation. 

"The Orinoco stream rushes precipitately over the rugged 
rocky passes, dashes against the high walls of granite and 
spreads over the sides, forming magnificent cataracts. The 
thundering noise of its raging waters reechoes in the desert 
many miles away, rhythmical, muffled, constant, as if that 
continuous thunder were the throbbing heart of the far dis- 
tant forest. Such are the rapids of Atures and Maipures: a 
mountain of granite crumbling in the bed of the stream, a 
massive gate of stone, a sealed gate placed there by nature 
for the coming civilization, and it will not yield until the 
power of dynamite pronounces its command to open up. 

These rapids are avoided by the traveler who steps on laud 
on reaching this point and connects with that part of the 
river which lies separated from the field of struggle, then 
continues on his way. The indigenous products of the upper 
Orinoco and the Rio Negro, which are sent to Ciudad 
Bolivar, as well as the merchandise which is sent back from 
the latter place, are transferred, upon reaching the rapids, 
to oxen drawn carts." 

In speaking of the territory of the Amazon, Fombona says : 
"That land is one of the most beautiful and fertile regions of 
the globe, though jet unknown. It is drained by some of 
the largest rivers — the Rio Negro and the Orinoco. The 
latter connects with the Amazon, through the Rio Negro and 
the Casiquiare. The yet virgin forests cover hundreds of 
square leagues, where rubber, sarsaparilla, vanilla, zarrapia, 
and a variety of tropical, resinous and medicinal woods of 
the finest grade are produced, 

"Rubber is the principal product exploited, and it yields 


vast raturns. Rubber is bought from the Indian at 160 
bolivares (francos) per quintal (one hundred kilo weight) 
and it is sold in Europe for SOO bolivares. The 150 bolivares 
are paid to the Indian, not in money but in merchandise of 
prime necessity, sold to him at a profit of about 200 per cent. 
It is a country of fables: it has large rivers of different 
colors, one with dark waters, one with almost black — Rio 
Kegro — (Black River), another with reddish water — the 
Atadapo — another with green waters — the Cataniapo — and 
still another with yellow waters — the Guaviare. Many 
races of Indians inhabit Venezuela, and all are harmless, 
most of them are of industrious habits, and some of them 
very intelligent. In this region poverty is unknown and 
gold is plentiful, and though only at a distance of eight 
degrees from the equator, the climate which is tempered by 
the coolness from the rivers and the constant fanning of 
the numerous trees, is indeed very pleasant. Only one bad 
thing exists there and that is — the white man — he of the 
motley crowd who has gone there to amass a fortune in that 
country. All lawless individuals who are seeking shelter 
from the branch of society that pursues them, go there. All 
merchants who have failed and wish to rebuild their fortunes 
at the expense of scruples, go there. The territory of the 
Amazon is, in the plain twentieth century, somewhat similar 
to what all America may have been at the time of the first 

The exploitation of which the Indian workman is a victim 
is general over all South America from the Putumayo and 
the Orinoco to Paraguay. It suffices to read Barret's "El 
Dolor Paraguayo" to form an idea of the barbarism and 
iniquity with which the workingmen who prepare the yerba 
mate in Paraguay are treated. 

The tributaries of the Orinoco — Ventuari, Caura, Caroni 
— are important streams which drain the mountainous terri- 
tory in the southern part, covered by thick forests which 
produce all kinds of fine lumber. The other tributaries — 
Guaviare, Vichada, Meta and Apure — which drain to the 


left, are also large streams. The Meta aud the Guaviare 
iiow for a considerable distance of their course over the 
plains of Colombia, having their source at the foot of the 
Oriental range. The Casiquiare river joins the Atabasco, a 
tributary of the Orinoco, with the Rio Negro a tributary of 
the Amazon. The tributaries of the Orinoco are navigable 
for a long distance, as may be observed on the map ''Means 
of Communication." The Orinoco offers navigable waters 
for transatlantic traffic to near the mouth of the Apure, from 
which point it becomes more shallow due to various cata- 
racts which are found along its course though permitting the 
navigation of small vessels, except at the rapids of Atures 
and Maipures. 

Communication between the Amazon and the Orinoco, 
through the Rio Negro, the Casiquiare and Atabaspo, is 
difficult. This route was studied by Micheleua and Rojas 
through recommendation of the Venezuelan government. 
The shortest route is through the Rio Negro aud the isthmus 
of Pimichiu lying between this river and the Temi, a tribu- 
tary of the Atabaspo. The land here is level, and within 
the 60 kilometers of distance there are a few lakes. The 
cities of Maroa and Yavite, which are on the line of the 
projected canal, are daily increasing their operations. 

The plains of the Orinoco, which we have described in the 
continental orography at the beginning of this book, occupy 
almost one-fourth of the territory of Venezuela. The Carib- 
bean Hills, the Segovia Highlands and the Merida Range, 
are to be seen on the northern and northwestern part of 
these plains, near the coast. Near Caracas rises the Silla 
to 2,800 meters, and greatest height is attained at Columna 
on the Sierra Nevada, which is 5,000 meters above sea-level, 
and has perpetual snow. 

We stated in the orographical section that the mountain- 
ous district of the northern part formed by the Andes is 
divided into warm, temperate and cold belts, according to 
the altitude, and that the products correspond to the three 
climatic belts, ranging from cocoa in the lower valleys to 


moss, which is only found in the high frozen regions or 
paramos. La Guayan, or rather, all the territory to the 
south called the territory of the Amazon, which includes all 
the land between the Parima and the Rio Negro, is drained 
by upper Orinoco. This region is exceptionally rich in 
lumber, such as mahogany, silk-cotton-tree, balata or gum- 
tree, cinchona, palms, cedars, etc. Shomburg's catalog 
gives 2,500 species of plants in Venezuela which are the same 
as are found in Brazil and on the plains of Colombia. 

The similarity of the fauna of Venezuela and Brazil is 
noticeable — gimnotus electric, alligators, 'boas, carpinchos 
or capyhara, comadrejas or opossums, ant-hear, and even 
the sheep-tick, which attacks not only sheep but cattle as 
well and which kills so many animals in the La Plata, where 
they find it necessary to bathe the live stock in water pre- 
pared with insecticide in order to protect it from this hor- 
rible plague. Even the Indians of Venezuela, called Caribes, 
belong to the race of the Guaranies, who inhabit Brazil and 

The same gigantic skeletons of the Megatherium, which 
inhabited the Pampa of Argentina, are found on the banks 
of the tributaries of the Orinoco. 

The gauchos or llaneros of the plains of the Orinoc.o re- 
semble the gauchos of the La Plata in habits, indomitable 
courage, in the earnestness displayed in the war of inde- 
pendence, moral character, as they both descend from the 
Guaranies and Spaniards. 

These gauchos herd several million head of cattle, though 
how many is not definitely known, but it is the opinion of 
some Venezolanos, that there are eight or ten million, while 
others claim that they own no more than two million head. 
Leonardo V. Dalton, in a very interesting book published in 
London in 1912, stated that according to data he received in 
Venezuela, the number of cattle at that time would pot 
exceed two million head, but that there were as many as 
eight and one-half million in 1888. 

We have not been able to obtain any additional data after 


visiting the Consulate General of Venezuela in New York, 
and the same thing is true regarding inforjuation about 
Colombia and Ecuador, inasmuch as the publication of 
statistics in these three countries is limited. Among the 
minerals, the following abound : Petroleum, gold, silver, cop- 
per and iron, but on inspection of the table of exports, the 
reader will notice that the mineral production is small con- 
sidering the vast natural resources of the country. 

Agriculture is the main industry of the country, large 
quantities of coffee, cocoa, sugar and corn being produced; 
the first three form the bulk of vegetable products exported. 
Minerals exported : Melted gold, copper, asphalt, petroleum. 

The exportation of meats is beginning to be of importance, 
and it is believed that the plains of the Orinoco will in time 
supply a good quantity of the meat to the packing industry. 
The exports also include live cattle and hides. 

Other miscellaneous articles exported : Fine pearls, pea- 
nuts, goat-skins, sole-leather, fine lumber, beans, balata, 
rubber. Traffic is handled mostly through La Guayra, 
Maracaibo and Puerto Cabello, which are about equally im- 
portant. Next in importance are the ports of Ciudad 
Bolivar, Carupano, Puerto Sucre, La Vela and Cristobal 

Two-thirds of the exports of Venezuela go to the United 
States, the balance mostly to France, Spain, Curacao and 

Imports received from the United States about 80 per cent, 
the balance mostly from England, Spain and Italy. 

There are under operation 925 kilometers of railroads. 
The principal lines are: Caracas to the port of La Guayra; 
Valencia to Puerto Cabello; Caracas to Valencia; Trujillo 
to Seiba on Lake Maracaibo; Barquisimeto to Tucacas. 
The standard unit of value is the bolivar, which is equiva- 
lent to the franc (gold). 

The total value of Venezuela's imports in 1916 were 
13,000,000 dollars against 23,000,000 of exports. (See the 
Table on South American Commerce.) 


Principal articles exported in 1915, in bolivares: 

Coffee 54,600,000 Cattle 1,400,000 

Cocoa 22,039,000 Rubber 1,400,000 

Hides 8,600,000 Sole-leather 600,000 

Balata 2,900,000 Fine pearls 859,000 

Melted gold 7,800,000 Dividive 680,000 

Greda gold 1,300,000 Frozen and salt meat . . 600,000 

Sugar . 2,900,000 Panela 530,000 

Goat-skins 2,800,000 Feather 529,000 

Copper 1,700,000 Tobacco 439,000 

Asphalt 1,420,000 Auriferous sand 246,000 

Lumber 160,000 

Paraguay — Central and Tropical Region 
|1 gold Paraguayo = 1 dollar) 

Paraguay is an inland country without coastline the same 
as Bolivia, lying as it does in the heart of the continent. 
The Tropic of Cajjricorn crosses it at one and a half degrees 
north of a point half-way between the northern and southern 
boundaries, near where its historical capital city is situated 
on the Paraguay river. This territory, lying between the 
rivers Paraguay and Parana, was the cradle of civilization 
of the La Plata region, and was also the principal center 
of the Guaranies, who were scattered throughout the whole 
continent as far as the Orinoco and the Antilles, as the 
Caribes who inhabited these islands were slightly related 
to the Guaranies, from whom they descended. 

Though Paraguay is an inland country, it has communica- 
tion with the whole world through the rivers Paraguay, 
Parand and La Plata. There are Argentine navigation 
lines which have service between Buenos Aires and Asun- 
cion under regular schedule. There is also a Brazilian line 
with service between the same points but which goes farther 
north beyond Paraguay, as far as Matto Grosso, which in 
Portuguese means "Large Forest," as that part of Brazil is 
covered with magnificent forests of trees which can be 
utilized for all kinds of work of construction. 

The Brazilian port of Corumb;'\ on the Paraguay is in lati- 
tude 19° south, that is, six degrees north of the city of 


Asuncion. There is another city still farther north in 
Brazil, the city of Cuyaba, which is in latitude 16° south, on 
the river of the same name, which city also communicates 
with the La Plata and Brazilian ports on the Atlantic, 
through the same steamship line as above indicated. The 
Paraguay river corresponds in the hydrography of South 
America to the Mississippi river of the United States, the 
Paraguay running parallel to the Parana, but navigable to 
a greater extent than the latter, for the reason that it has 
no cataracts or other obstructions to impede is navigation 
for small vessels. 

The Parand has a parallel 24° south, the celebrated catar- 
acts of the Guayra, which together with those formed by the 
Yguazu, are the two most magnificent in South America. 
The Yguazu is a large tributary of the Parana. In regard 
to navigation facilities, the Paraguay stands alone in South 
America, for it is navigable to its very source, which is on 
the Sierra I'arecis, which is the water-divide of the valleys 
of the La I'lata and the Amazon. 

At a short distance from the port of Cuyaba, 15 to 20 
kms., is the source of the Arinos river, which flows iuto the 
Tapajos, a tributary of the Amazon. This region has been 
very thoroughly explored and described by Captain Bossi of 
the Italian navy, in a book he had published in 1875, explain- 
ing how easy it would be to construct a canal across this 
stretch of territory in order to connect La Plata and the 
Amazon. The Brazilians transported in time past cannons 
through the Cuyaba route to Pard, a port at the mouth of 
the Amazon. (See map on "Communications.") 

The port of Corumbii in Brazil is opposite Port Suarez 
in a tributary of the river Paraguay, Bolivia, the latter 
being Bolivia's center of communication with the La Plata. 
This port will be still of greater importance when it is 
connected with Santa Cruz de la Sierra (425 miles by auto 
road), a very rich agricultural section of Bolivia, where 
sugar, cocoa, cotton, coffee and other tropical products 
abound. This is the future great route of Bolivia for the 


traDsportation of the vegetable produce of the most fertile of 
its regions. 

Its mineral products would have a better and more 
economical outlet via the railroads to Antofagasta, Arica 
and Mollendo, being that the minerals are exported to the 
United States and Europe, but the vegetables will have a 
better outlet via the La Plata, where a market will be found 
for them in the exchange for La Plata products and for 
goods which come from Europe. The construction of the 
Central Argentine railroad will be much more expensive, 
due to the long distance which it will traverse (1,500 miles 
from La Paz to Buenos Aires), as explained in the chapter 
on "Communications." 

The distance from Corumba and Port Suarez to Plata is 
covered in ten days, bj small vessels making only eight miles 
per hour, stopping at ten or more ports before reaching 
Montevideo and Buenos Aires, but that distance could be 
covered in half of the time, as it is only a stretch of 15 de- 
grees following the meridian of Greenwich (58) or 900 miles, 
while via the Parana with its many bends the distance is 
],200 miles, which could be traversed in 100 hours by steamers 
making 12 miles per hour, and counting on 50 hours for stops, 
it would mean 150 hours or six days. But taking the train 
at Asuncion and traveling say at about 40 kms. (24 miles) 
per hour, the trip from Asuncion, the capital of Paraguay, 
to Montevideo can be made in 24 hours. By this route, via 
Asuncion, Posadas, Salto and the Central Uruguayan rail- 
road, the traveler can go from Sucre or Potosi in Bolivia 
to Montevideo in 59 hours, as shown in the book "Ferro- 
carriles Sud-Americanos" by the Uruguayan engineer Sr. J. 
J. Castro, which book was very well received by the Railroad 
Congress, which met in Buenos Aires in 1895. (We refer 
the reader to our map on "Communications," the detailed 
map of South America, and to the chapter "The Future 
Great Route of South America," so that he may form an idea 
as to the river connections through the continent, from the 
La Plata to the Panama Canal.) 


What we have herein stated proves that Paraguay is not 
what the superficial reader might imagine, who looks at the 
map and sees a country isolated from the rest of the world. 

The portion of Paraguay which lies east of the river which 
gives this country its name is drained by the Paranii, which 
stream is navigable all along the Brazilian and Argentine 
frontier as far as the cataracts or Salto del Guayra. 

Another portion of the territory of Paraguay lies be- 
tween the rivers Paraguay and Pilcomayo, which is part of 
the region called El Chaco, a vast plain which occupies 
territory in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Brazil. There 
is a dispute at present between Bolivia and Paraguay on the 
question of the El Chaco boundaries. Thus, the exact area 
that Paraguay covers can not be definitely ascertained, for 
it varies from 253,000 to 445,000 square kilometers, the 
latter figures with the boundary line of Bolivia at parallel 
18° south, the former would be the undisputed territory. 

The boundary between Paraguay and Argentina was fixed 
by President Hayes of the United States of America, who 
was selected as arbitrator, and he pointed out the Pilcomayo 
river as the boundary between the two countries. 

The Paraguayan territory is an undulated surface with 
hills of a few hundred meters elevation, and is drained by 
large streams which during the rainy season overflow and 
leave certain portions of its soil covered with water. The 
soil is very fertile and the climate, though warm, is never 
extreme. The contrast between the opposing seasons of the 
year is little. It has a heavy enough rainfall for its 
agricultural products and no need of irrigation even for its 
abundant supply of tropical products, such as cotton, 
tobacco, sugar-cane, coffee, bananas, oranges, cocoa, timber 
of aU kinds, .specially hardwoods among them, the que- 
bracho, nandubay, algarrobo, viraro, lapacho, etc., which on 
account of their lasting properties make them very valuable 
in the construction of buildings, implements, wagons, and 
fences. The hardwood region is in the Argentine and 
Bolivian Chaco. Annual rainfall 1.G46 millimeters. 


The most precious of the trees found in Paraguay is the 
"yerba mate" (Brazilian holly, ilex paraguayensis), the 
leaves of which when roasted and pulverized, or even whole, 
make delicious tea substitute. The celebrated French 
naturalist Bompland described the mate region thus : "The 
geographical section of the 'yerba' is marked in as singular 
a way as that of the jjrecious trees which yield the quinine 
of Peru, and deserves mention. Take a ruler and place one 
of its edges on the mouth of the Rio Grande, a river in 
southern Brazil which flows into the Atlantic, and the other 
edge on Villa Rica, a city of southern Paraguay; all along 
this line and to the territory northeast of same for a con- 
siderable distance may be found large fields of 'yerba' grow- 
ing in its natural state, while on the soil lying southeast of 
this line, whether at the foot of or within the mountains, 
only a few widely scattered plants are found." The infusion 
of "yerba mate" has thein and caffein in smaller quantities 
than tea and cofifee, has stimulating properties, quenches 
thirst and satisfies hunger as does the coca of Bolivia. Cases 
are cited where soldiers have lived for two and three days 
without any food and drinking "mate" only. It is more satis- 
fying in summer, when it not only quenches thirst but makes 
a cool and refreshing beverage. 

Yet, notwithstanding the fact that Paraguay is one of the 
most fertile countries of South America, the quantity of its 
products is very small, as is the case also with its exports, due 
principally to the scarcity of men, as the man power of Para- 
guay was exhausted during the prolonged war which the 
tyrant Lopez fought against Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay, 
when 160,000 men were killed in battle and the rest were 
subsequently decimated by various forms of disease — 
cholera morbus, typhus and small-pox. 

Principal products exported : Tobacco, timber, yerba mate, 
oranges and bananas. Live bovines, salt meat and hides 
are also exported. 



Oration Delivered by the Celebrated -Uruguayan Writer 

Jose Enrique Rodo before the Chilean Congress 

AT THE Centennial Anniversary of the 

Independence of Chile 

I should here be the voice of a people. I should be 
capable to iustill it and maiutain it in my words in order to 
transmit to you the intensity of emotion with which my 
people share in the enthusiasm of this Centennial, for that 
which this Centennial has that is American and for what 
it has that is Chilean. 

For that which it has that is American, permit me to 
grant preeminence to this characteristic over the other. 
Higher than the Centennial of Chile, than that of Argentina, 
than that of Mexico, do I feel and perceive the Centennial 
of Spanish America. In spirit and in facts of history there 
is only one Spanish-American Centennial, for in spirit and 
in facts of history there was only one Spanish-American 
revolution ; and the unity of this revolution consisted not 
alone in harmonious blending of men and events which con- 
tributed to its realization and its dissemination over a whole 
continent, but chiefly in that the historic destiny of that 
revolution was not to enlighten an inorganic ensemble of 
nations to remain separated by narrow sentiments of country 
and nationality, but to spread over the face of the earth a 
perennial harmony of peoples united by commonness of 
origin, of tradition, of language, of customs and of institu- 
tions, by geographical contiguity and by all things that can 
possibly serve as a foundation for the unity of a collective 



These are, therefore, in America, the days of a great Cen- 
tennial which single and complex will lengthen into two 
decennials, evoking day by day in each American people, the 
reminders of the independence and of the organization, that 
variety of reminders which remains forever, as the most 
exalted and the most sacred in the history of nations. 

It could be said that an imposing assembly, which has 
been gathering since the long ago, watches us and listens — 
the assembly composed of those generations which created 
for an everlasting future a liberated America. So, on this 
unique occasion, the generations living today can make be- 
fore this heroic restored past, two assertions which will 
satisfy and comfort them. As testimonials to the first of 
these — the unanimity and solemnity of this international 
adhesion which the American Centennial incited in Argen- 
tina yesterday and which in Chile it incites today, and which 
assertion is to the effect that this, the so-much-discussed, so- 
much-opposed, so-much-defiled Spanish America, by out- 
sider's ignorance and pride and even by the scepticism of its 
own children, now begins to live before the conscience of 
the universe, and is beginning now to attract the attention 
and the interest of the world, not for its resplendence and 
spontaneity of culture as yet, not for its political influence 
in the society of nations, but it has by the virtuality and 
reality of its wealth, by the force and energy displayed in its 
material development, which although it may not constitute 
a definite proof of civilization, at least furnishes a solid 
foundation as the rustic and strong origin in the organiza- 
tion of peoples who some day will be giants in spirit. 

For a long time after our emancipation the world failed 
to recognize us, or knowing us slightly and disdainfully 
refusing to know us better, it doubted us. Perhaps, some- 
times, embittered by the apparent unfruitfulness of innu- 
merable efforts of anguish, obscure sacrifices, we doubted our- 
selves, and this cruel doubt did not forgive-^at the Geth- 
semane of Santa Marta — the lacerated soul of the Liberator. 
But after all, we have conquered doubt, and today our hopes 


for the immediate future are lofty and firm and the faith 
of the world begins to reward and confirm them. We were 
until yesterday only a little more than a geographical name 
and started to become a power ; we were a rash promise, and 
started to become a reality. 

Another encouraging assertion is permitted by the man- 
ner in which this first century ends ; and it is, that the Span- 
ish-American nations begin to show a resolute and clear 
conscience in the unity of their fate, in the inviolable soli- 
darity which takes root in what is fundamental of their past 
and lasting with the extent of their infinite future. Auguste 
Comte expressed his profound faith in the future conscience 
of the solidarity of humanity, saying that humanity as a 
collective being does not exist as yet, but that it will some 
day. Let us suppose that America, our America, that of our 
family, begins to exist as a collective being conscious of its 
identity. The assembling of the various Congresses, the 
building of railways connecting one country with another, 
the settlement of international disputes, the closer com- 
munion of intellectual ties, all tend to show that a well- 
developed American conscience exists. 

I have always believed that in our America it is not pos- 
sible to speak of many distinct countries, but of a country 
single and great. I have always believed that the idea of 
country is lofty, that it is the expression of what is most 
ennobling in man's sensibility — love of the soil, the poetry 
of memories, the ecstasy of glory and the hope of eternal life. 
In America more than anywhere else is there room without 
denaturalizing the idea, to magnify it, to diffuse it, to cleanse 
it of what is narrow and negative, and to elevate it for the 
natural virtue of what it holds that is positive and prolific. 
It is proper to build above the native country the American 
country, and to hasten the day when the children of today 
— the men of the future — on being asked the name of their 
country, they will not reply with the name of Brazil, nor 
the name of Chile, nor that of Mexico because they answer 
with the name of America. 


Any international American politics not guided toward 
this end and not adjusted to the preparation of this harmony 
will be void and misguided politics. 

I will repeat here what I had occasion to say recently: 
When America first joined the ranks of history, it was not 
only a new geographical entity that appeared on the face 
of the globe. We must realize that with America came a 
new spirit, a new ideal — the spirit and the ideal of the fu- 
ture. Europe, the master of civilization, which has in- 
structed us and nursed us in her ideas of liberty and justice, 
fruit of her experience and her genius, has the right to expect 
that, once relieved of the wearisome load of tradition, we 
will do something more besides repeating them. She has 
the right to expect that we incorporate them in reality, or 
at least, that we strive energetically to live up to them. If 
there were no originality in our own civilization and if we 
could add nothing in the actual course of life to what is 
imitated and inherited, what would the revolution of 1810 
mean, in a definite way, but a superficial convulsion, un- 
worthy of such praise? What else could it mean but that 
we would continue to be colonies in spirit after ceasing to 
be colonies in political reality? 

Those who considered it an unrealizable miracle for peo- 
ples to interchange relations through other means than those 
of international traditions, founded on force and deceit, and 
that America should be the place for its accomplishment, 
forget that a greater miracle is being realized and is tangi- 
ble — the materialization of this Centennial. 

If little more than a century ago, or in other words, if 
previous to the time of the North American independence 
and the French Revolution it had been affirmed that 
Democracy and the Republic as permanent forms of social 
and political organizations would not only become a realiza- 
tion with great and powerful nations, but that they would 
extend through the whole length and breadth of a continent 
and that this prodigy would be the offspring of the obscure 
European colonies then submerged in the soporiferous sleep 


of infancy, the assertion would have appeared as the most 
laughable paradox. 

So, when the virtuality of ideas and the energy of young 
and vigorous nations have been efficient enough to transform 
obscure colonies into self-possessed nations, and to implant 
from one to the other extremity of a continent the advanced 
forms of organization and of government which a little more 
than a century ago seemed to man's common sense mere 
empty Utopias, why doubt that that virtuality of ideas and 
that same energy of young and vigorous nations will some 
day, internationally, accomplish in America that which the 
sceptics of today hold in dreams and chimeras in opposition 
to the fatal laws of history: An exaltation of the idea of 
country; a future of peace and love among nations; inter- 
national harmony founded on the accord of the interests 
of all by the loyal respect of the rights of each separate 




Yeae 1911 — (In Dollars) 

Belgium $200 Germany 

Great Britain 174 United States . . . 

Cuba 110 Brazil 

Argentine 98 Italy 

France 84 Austria-Hungary . 

Uruguay 80 Spain 

Chile 71 



Yeab 1915 — (Million Dollars) 

Importation, SS5 Millions. Exportation, 1,176 Millions, 

Importation Exportation 

Argentina 220 541 

BrazU 146 257 

Chile 55 117 

Uruguay 36 76 

Colombia 18 29 

Peru 15 68 

Venezuela 13 23 

Ecuador 8 15 

Paraguay 2 8 


1913-1916 Compared 

(Union Pan-American Review) 


United States. 
Great Britain. 





















1913-1916 Compared 1913 









United States 24% 

Great Britain 23% 

Germany 16% 

France 8% 












Linear or Long Measure 
1 statute mile = 1,760 yards = 5,280 feet = 5280 x 0.3048 meter = 1,609 meters 244 
millimeters = 1609.244 meters. 

1 nautical mile ■= 6,085 feet = 1,855 meters. 1 sea mile >= 1,885 meters. 

1 fathom = 6 feet = 1.828 meters. 1 yard = 3 feet = 0.914 meter. 1 meter = 3.280 feet. 

1 acre = 4,840 square yards. Square Measure 

1 hectare ■= 2.471 acres. 100 hectares = 247.1 acres = 1 square kilometer. 
1 square mile = 258.9666 hectares = 2 square kilometers 5 896 meters = 2.5896 square 

1 pound = kilogram 450 gram. Weight 

degree centigrade = 32 Fahrenheit. 180 degrees Fahrenheit ■■ 

Monet (at par) (Gold) 
Uruguay — SI = 1-035 American = SI. 072 Argentine (Gold). 
ChiU — $1 = 0.222 dollar. Bolivia — Boliviano «= 2.06 francs. 
Peru — 5 soles = 1 English pound. 
Brazil — Milreis gold = 2.75 francs. 
Ecuador — 1 Sucre = $0.50. Colombia — $1 = 1 dollar. 
Venezuela — 1 boUvar = 1 franc. Paraguay — $1 = 1 dollar. 

100 centigrade. 


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