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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
LOS ANGELES 




SOUTH AUSTEALIA: 



ITS HISTORY, RESOURCES, AND PRODUCTIONS, 



EDITED BV 



ATILLIAM HARCUS, Esq., J.P. 



ILLUSTRATED FROM PHOTOGRAPHS TAKEN IN THE COLONY. 



WITH MAPS. 



Published by Authoritv of the Government of South Australia, and Dedicated 
(BY Permission) to his Excellency Sir Anthony Musgrave, K.C.M.G., &c., 

uO'SEiiNOR AND COMMANDER-. N-CniEr' OF THf CO'^O.SY. 



LONDON: 
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEAELE, & EIVINGTON, 

CROWN BUILDINGS, 188 FLEET STREET. 

1876. 



^All rights Teserved.'] 



c^€l\ 



i-osDox: 

riUNTED BY WILLIAM CXOWES AND SoNS, 
feTAUruKD bTIIELT AND CHARING CUO&B. 



3 

t 



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^7^ 



DEDICATION. 



To His Excellency 
SIR ANTHONY MUSGEAVE, K.C.M.G., 

TiiOVEnNOU AND CoMMAXUEn-IX-CHIEP IN AND OVER HeR MaJESTY's 

Province of Socth Avstralia and the 
Dependencies thereof, &c. &c. Sec. 

Sir, — Tliu following work on the Ilistory, Resources, and rroductions of 
South Australia has been prepared at the request of your Government, and 
is published in the liope that, by giving useful and accurate information on 
tile (Jolony, its advantages as a home for intending cinigrants from the 
^Mother Country may be more fully made known. 

I gladly avail myself of your Excellency's kind permission to dedicate 
the \vork to you. The interest with which you have watched the progress 
of the Colony during the years you have represented Her Majesty in this 
Province gives me the hope that your Excellency will regard a work of this 
kind as useful and well-timed in the present prosperous period of the 
Colony's History. 

I have the honour to remain, 

Sir, 

Your Excellency's most humble uud obedieut servant, 

Wir>LL\:M IIARCUS. 

Hackney, Januunj 1S7G. 



47S1 Rl 

UB SETS 



PREFACE. 



This volume on the History and Eesonrces of the Colony of 
♦South Australia has been prepared at the request and is pub- 
lished by the authority of the Government. 

The Commissioners appointed to collect specimens of our 
products and industries for the Philadeljohia Centenary Exhi- 
t)ition suggested to the Government the advisableness of having 
a Handbook prepared to accompany them, indicating the 
subjects to be treated and the gentlemen who might be en- 
trusted with their treatment. The Commissioners did me the 
honour to suggest that I should Avritc that portion which refers 
to the General History, Government, and Laws of the Province. 
They mentioned ]\Ir. Josiah Boothljy, Under Secretary and 
<jrOvernment Statist, for the Statistical portion ; Dr. Schom- 
burgk, the Director of the Botanic Gardens, for the Flora ; 
3Ir. F. G. Waterhouse, Curator of the ^Museum, for the Fauna 
and Mineralogy ; and Mr. C. Todd, C.M.G., the Postmaster- 
<Teneral and Superintendent of Telegraphs, for the portion 
referring to the Meteorology and the Observatory. 

Tlie Government acceded to the request of the Commis- 
sioners, and they asked me to take the Editorship of the \\()r]c, 
which I at once consented to do. 

In the portion for which I am personally responsible I 
have aimed at historical accuracy, while giving a popular 
account of the progress and resources of the Province. How 
well my coadjutors have done their portion of the work will 
be seen by those who read the several sections. 

In the chapter on the Northern Territory, I have incorpo- 
rated some useful papers written by residents tliere, and pri'- 



VI PREFACE. 

pared for ]»iil»lic;iti()u l>y 3Ir. J. G. Knight, one of the officers 
in the Territory. 

The work is sent forth tt) the })nl)lie with tlic hope that, by 
giving trustworthy information as to the history, progress, and 
resources of the Colony, it may direct greater attention than 
has yet been given to one of the largest, most prosperous, and 
most promising Colonics under the sway of Her IMajesty the 
Queen of Great Britain and Ireland ; and that it may be 
of service to persons in the old country who may be contem- 
plating a residence in the fair Provinces of Australasia. 

Three years ago I published, by request of the Govern- 
ment, a "Handbook for Emigrants," which has been largely- 
distributed in tlie United Kingdom. So rapidly, however, is 
history made iu a new Colony that some of the information 
given in that little work is already out of date. The present 
volume is more ambitious in its aim and more complete in its 
finish than the " Handbook " was. 

I have been considerably indebted in preparing the volume 
to Ml'. Anthony Forster's well-written and comprehensive work 
on South Australia, published in 18G6 ; and I am pleased to 
acknowledge my obligations to a writer whoso information is 
generally accurate and trustworthy. 

Thougli tlie volume is published '• By authority of the 
Government," I am responsible for its contents. The Ministry 
and the Officers in the various ]-)epartments of the Government 
Service have assisted me in every possible way, for which I 
give them my thanks. I am afraid I have tried the patience 
of some of them — especially that of the Government Printer. 



^y. n. 



IIacknkt, South Austualia, 
1876. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTOK Y. 

PAGE 

England a Colonizing Nation — Difficulties of Planting a Young Colony — 

Progress of South Australia 1 



CHAPTEE II. 

EXTENT OF THE COUNTRY. 

Continent of Australia — Extent of Territory — Number of Colonies — 
People — British, Irish, Teutonic — -Extent of South Australia in 
Square Miles — Three Divisions — South Australia Proper, Central 
Australia, and Northern Territory 5 



CHAPTEE III. 

THE FATHERS AND FOUNDERS OF THE COLONY. 

Origin of the Colony — The Wakefield System — Combination of Capital 
and Labour — The South Australian Association — • The Act — 
Principles on which the Colony was established — To be no Charge 
on the Mother Country — No State Church — No Convicts — 
Family Emigration — Mr. G. F. Angas 7 

CHAPTEE IV. 

PIONEERS. 

Governors — Sir John Ilindmarsh, Colonel Gavvler, Sir George Grey, 
Colonel llobe. Sir Henry Young, Sir R. G. MacDonnell, Sir Dominic 
Daly, Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, Sir Anthonj'" Musgravc — The 
Administration of each Governor 12 



VI 11 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER V. 

rilYSICAL FKATURES OF THE COLONY. tagb 

Productions — Fruits and Flowers — Cereals — Cliniiite Ihvouraltle to 

Health — JtainlaU 18 

CH AFTER VI. 

CENTRES OF POPULATION. 

Adelaide the ^Metropolis — Site favourable — Handsome Streets and 
Buildings — Tort Adelaide, Navigation of Eiver — Shipping — 
Country Towns and Ports — Mining Townships 22 

CHAPTER VJI. 

GOVERNaiENT AND LAWS. 

Three Estates — Governor, Legislative Council, House of Assembly — 
Early Government — First Constitution — Two Houses — Quali- 
fications of Members and Electors' — Manhood Suffrage — Ministry, 
Titles and Offices — Civil Service — Powers and Privileges of each 
House — Parliament Supreme — Liberal Constitution, worked well 
— Proceedings in Parliament — Governor follows advice of his 
Ministers 30 

CHAPTER YIII. 

ELECITON OF MEMBERS. 
Mode of Election for each House — The Ballot — Political Amenities . 42 

CHAPTER IX. 

LOCAL GOVERNIMENT. 

Corporations and District Councils, Powers of each — Poad Boards — 

Subsidizing Local Pates by Grants from Public Funds .... 46 

CHAPTER X. 

THE JUDICATURE. 

Courts — Constitution of Supreme Court — Judges, their Duties and 
Salaries — Local Court of Appeals — Court of Insolvency — Local 
Courts — Police Court — Coroners — The Grand Jury — Justices of 
the Peace — Police — No Military or Volunteer Force — Kifle Clubs 
and Drill 49 



CONTENTS. '. IX 

CHAPTER XI. 

THE LAND. page 

Pastoral Pursuits — Squatter's Life — Wealthy Sheep-farmers, their 
Hospitality — Valuation and Assessment of Piuns — Agriculture — 
First Attempts at Wheat Growing — Land Sold — Land under 
Cultivation — Table of Land Cultivated under AVheat, Yield in 
Bushels, and Average per Acre — Small Cost of cultivating Wheat 
— Piidley's Reaping Machine 55 

CHAPTER XII. 

THE LAND LAWS. 

Upset Price of Land, one Pound per Acre — Division of Land into 
Hundreds — Original Land Laws — Cash Purchasers — Evils of 
Land Broking — Strangways's Act — 'Credit Selections — Surveys 
■ — Conditions of present Land System — Success of System in 
Northern Areas — New Townships and Ports 62 

CHAPTER XIII. 

THE HILL EIVER ESTATE. 

Combining Agriculture with Stockbreeding — Great Farm — The 
Mechanical Appliances for working it — Regulation for Workmen 
on Estate — Success C>9 

CHAPTER XIV. 

THE REAL PROPERTY ACT. 

Sir E, Pi. Torrens — Early Struggles to establish Act — Oi^position of 
Legal Profession — Principles of Act — Transferring Peal Estate by 
Registration of Title — Indcfeasibility of Title — Simplicity and 
Cheapness — Lands' Titles Commissioners and Solicitors — Assurance 
Fund — Amendment of Original Act — Great Success of the Law — 
Value of Property brought imder the Act — Taken up in neigh- 
bouring Colonies 75 

CHAPTER XV. 

RAILWAYS. 

Difficulties of Carriage in a New Country — Macadamized Roads, Extent 
and Cost — First Railway to Port Adelaide — Extravagant Cost — 
Other Lines — Present Extent of Railways — New Lines in process 
of Construction — New Lines proposed to be carried out — Proposal 
to borrow £3,000,000 SO 



X CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

MINES AND MINING. page 

South Australia rich in Minerals — First Discoveries — The Kapnnda 
Cojipcr Mine — The Burra Burra — South Australian Mining 
Association — Yorke's Peninsula Mines — Wallaroo, Moonta, Doora 
— Immense Value of Copper raised — Smelting Works — Mineral 
Laws and Leases — Getting up Companies on 'Change — Mining a 
great Benefit to Colony 86 

CHAPTER XVII. 

THE EIVER MURKAY AND ITS TRADE. 

Discovery of the Murray hy Captain Sturt — Opening of River for 
Trallic — Sir Henry Young's interest in the River — Goolwa, Port 
Elliot, and Victor Harbour — Neg'lect of Trade — Efforts of Victorians 
to secure it — Railway to the Murray from Port Adelaide — The 
Murray Mouth — A proposed Canal to Ooolwa — Value of River to 
the Colony 92 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE TRANS-AUSTRALUN TELEGRAPH. 

Origin of Idea — Stuart's Travels — Cable Company's Proposal — Com- 
mander Noel Osborn — Act passed for Construction — Mr. Todd's 
Preparations — Difficulties of the Undertaking — First Failures — 
Mr. Patterson's Expedition — IMr. Todd's Expedition — Completion 
of Work — First Telegram — Banquet in Adelaide to celebrate 
Cumpletion of Work — Great Success — Conflicts with Natives — 
Lines and Cables to New Zealand and Western Australia ... OS 

CHAPTER XIX. 

EXPLORATION. 

Captain Sturt — Mr. E. J. Eyre — I^yre's Journey to King George's 
Sound — J. MacDouall Stuart — Victoria Exploring Exjiedition : 
Death of Burke and Wills — Colonel Warburton, John Forrest, 
Mr. Gosse, and Mr. Lewis — Hon. T. Elder's valuable Assistance in 
Work of Exploration 110 

CHAPTER XX. 

COLONIAL INDUSTRIES. 

Staple Industries — Wool, Wheat, and Copjier — Meat Preserving — Manu- 
liicture of Leather — Woollen Manufactures — Wine-making, Vine- 
yards — Other Industries — Chamber of Manufactures 121 



CONTENTS. XI 

CHAPTEE XXL 

IMMIGRATION. i-agk 

Necessity for ImjX)rting Labour — Efforts of Colony in this Direction — 
Temporary Cessation of Immigration — Wages high — Good Colony 
for Working Men — Nationalities — Provisions of Emigration Act 
— Voyage and Outfit — Hints to Immigrants on Arrival .... 12G 

CHAPTER XXII. 

ItELIGIOUS. 

No State Church — Strong ru,'ligious Feeling — Success of the Churches 

— Sects and Parties — Places of Worship 135 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

EDUCATION. 

First Education Act passed, 1851 — Its Principles and Organization — • 
Good done by it — Colony outgrown it — Attempts to pass a New 
Act — Now successful — Higher Education — Universitj' — Princely 
Gifts of Mr. W. W. Hughes and Hon. T. Elder — Council of 
University — Institutes 130 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

CONCLUSION. 

Colonization an Imperial Question — Federation — No Degeneracy in 
Population in Australia — Advantages of South Australia — Wealthy 
Colonists — Comfort of Colonists — No Poverty — Colony needs to 
be better known — A great Future before it lH 

SUPPLEMENTARY CHAPTER. 

THE NOllTHEllN TEERITORY. 

Acquisition of Territory by South Australia — First Attempts at Settle- 
ment — Failure of first Party — Kecall of Government Eesident — 
Subsequent History — Survey of Land by Mr. G. W. Goyder — 
Country rich and auriferous — Gold Mining — Tropical Industries — 
Wreck of the Gothenhurg — Papers on Territory by Ilesidents : 
General Sketch by Mr. J. G, Knight ; Settlement, by Mr. G. 11. 
McMinn; Climate and Overland Telegraph, by Mr. J. A. G. Little ; 
the GoUlficlds, by Mr. J. A. Plunkett ; Indigenous Vegetation, 
&c., by Mr. J. G. Knight ; Conchology, by Mr. W. T. Bednall . 148 



XII CONTEXTS. 

ADDITIONAL CHAPTER. 

CENTRAL AUSTRALIA. pace 

Mr. J. A. Giles's Paper on Central Australia — Description of Country 
along 'rclegra}ih Line — Pine Creek — Tclegrapli Stations at 
Katherine River, Daly AVaters, Powell's Creek, Tennant's Creek, 
Parrow Creek, Alice Springs, Charlotte Waters — The IMacDonneil 
Panges — Natives along Route — Supi>ly of Water 187 



Flora of South Australl\. By R. Schojiburgk, Phil. Dr., Director 205 

The Fauxa of South Australl\. By F. G. Wateriioupe, Esq. . 281 

Mines axd Minerals of South Australia. By J. B. Austin, Esq. 297 

Statistical Sketch of South Australia. By Josiaii Boothby, 

Esq., J.P., Under-Secretary and Government Statist 313 

South Australia: its Observatory and METE0R<ii.oiiv. By 

Charles Todd, Postmaster-General, &c 395 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIOXS. 



PACK 

1. Post Office and Town Hall, Adelaide . . to face Tith-jyage 

2. First Settlement of Adelaide in the Year 1837 1 

3. Government House, Adelaide 12 

4. Fern Waterfall, in the Neighbourhood of Adelaide .... 18 

5. The Town Hall, and King William Street, Adelaide. ... 22 

6. St. Peter's, Episcopalian Cathedral at North Adelaide ... 24 

7. Bridge over the Onkaparinga Eiver at Clarendon, South of 

Adelaide 28 

8. The Parliament House, North Terrace, Adelaide 32 

9. Grenfell Street, Adelaide, with the Publishing Office of 

THE ' EeGISTER,' the PRINCIPAL DaILY NeWSPAPER 34 

10. Corner of Weymouth and King W^illiam Streets, Adelaide, 

WITH THE Publishing Office of the ' Advertiser ' Daily 

Paper 3G 

11. Hindley Street, Adelaide 40 

12. Another View of the Town Hall and adjacent buildings . . 46 

13. The Supreme Court, Adelaide 48 

14. The Local Court House, Adelaide 50 

15. Eundle Street, Adelaide 52 

16. OuLLiNA Gap, Country Scene 55 

17. Lindsay House, Angaston, the Eesidence of George Fife 

Angas, Esq., forty-five miles north of Adelaide 56 

18. Field of Wheat, showing the Eeaping Machines at work . . 61 

19. Bush Scene, near Angaston 64 

20. Hill Eiver Farm, the property of C. B. Fisher, Esq., showing 

Ploughing operations 68 

21. The same — Sowing operations 70 

22. The same. Polling 72 

23. The same. Harrowing 74 

24. The Imperial Chambers, King William Street, Adelaide . . 76 



XIV LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGE 

'J5. TiiK l^viuvAY Station, Adelaidk 80 

20. Till". IIami.ky Kailway Bridgk 82 

27. The Kapunda Copper Mine, sixty mii.es north ok Adelaide . . 87 

28. River Murray Steamboat, wrni Wool kargk in tow .... 92 

29. Cattle and Bush Scene near Angaston 94 

30. The Adelaide Plains, viewed krom Mount Loety Range, 

looking west 96 

31. Pure Merino Rams 120 

32. Herd of Mixed Cattle and Bush Scenery 122 

33. Another View with Cattle 124 

34. The Club House, North Terrace, Ai)Kr,Aii)E 134 

35. Model Schools, Adelaide 138 

3G. The South Australian Institute and Library, North 

Terrace, Adelaide 142 

37. Waterfall Scenery^ Morialta, near Adelaide 143 

38. The Waterfall Gully', in the IMount Lofty Range, kear 

Adelaide 146 

39. Views in the Botanical Gardens, North Terrace, Adelaide — 

(1) The Residence of Dr. Schomburgk, Director of the 

Gardens 204 

40. (2) The Lake 20G 

41. (3) Large Gum Tree, and Native Shrub Plantation . . . 210 

42. (4) Another View of the Lake 212 

43. (u) The Cockatoo House on the Lake 218 

44. (6) The Conservatory 222 

45. (7) The Rose Plantation 224 

46. (8) The Plantation of Medicinal Plants 228 

47. (9) The Victoria Regia House 232 

48. (10) The Middle Path 240 

49. Scenery on the Mount Barker Road 250 

.50. The Burra Burra Copper Mine 298 

51. Ditto Ditto 300 

52. The New Lunatic Asylum, Park Side, Adelaide 336 

53. The Government Offices, King William Street, Adelaide . . 342 

54. The Bank of Australasia, King William Street, Adelaide . . 348 

55. The National Bank of Australasia, same street 350 

56. Farming Scene, on the Gawler Plains, near Adelaide, with 

Reaping Machines 352 

57. General View of Farming Implements and Stock, on a South 

Australian Farm 355 

58. The South Australian Reai'Ing jMachine, originally invented 

i!y. Mr Ridley, a South Australian farmer, and miller . . 358 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. xv 

PAGE 

59. The Clakendon Vineyard, thirty miles south of Adelaide, 

THE property OF E. J. Peake, Esq., S.M 3G0 

60. Sheep-Shearing operations 363 

6L Victoria Flour Mill, the property of the ilux. W. Dlffield, 

IM.L.C, NEAR Gawler Town, twenty miles north of Adelaide 370 

62. Flock of Sheep, with a magnificent Gum Tree (Eucalyptus 

Globosa) 372 

63. Gumeracha Bridge, thirty miles N.E. of Adelaidi-: 377 

64. Aqueduct, connecting the Old and New AVater Reservoirs . . 378 

65. The Old Reservoir for supplying Adelaide with Water . . . 380 

66. General Post Office, Adelaide 382 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTOKY. 

England a Colonizing Nation — Difficulties of Planting a Young Colony — 
Progress of South Australia. 

There can hardly be a more interesting study for a thoughtful 
mind than to trace the progress of a young Colony from its 
early settlement until it obtains a position of something like 
settled stability which justifies the hope of future advance- 
ment. Amongst the Colonies and dependencies of Great 
Britain, we find many opportunities of tracing this gradual 
and steady growth. No modern nation has ever attained the 
art of successful colonizing as England has done. Other 
nations have tried it, but with very little success. Spain, 
Holland, and France have each in its turn attempted to form 
many offshoots from the parent stem ; and though, in the 
beginning, Holland was moderately successful, she never 
learnt the art as it has been brought to its present high state 
of development by Great Britain. Spain won the New World, 
but failed in creating a second Sjjain in the far wilds of that 
wondrous land across the Atlantic. America owes its present 
greatness not to the blue blood of Spain, but to the energy, 
industry, and perseverance of the Anglo-Saxon race. A 
" Greater Britain " sprang from the loins of the Fatherland ; 
and no Englishman can look upon the great people now 
constituting the American nation without pride, while rccog- 

B 



2 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. I. 

niziug in tlieni many of tlio qualities which have grown np 
in the lapse of centuries in the Northern Ishind of the sea. 
France has also attempted the work of colonizing, but her 
Colonies have been military settlements, with but small 
power of attracting population. Algeria and New Caledonia 
come far short of an Englishman's idea of successful colo- 
nization. 

To successfully plant a young Colony, and to carry it 
on through its earliest struggles and difficulties, seems to 
require special qualities, physical, moral, and intellectual, 
which are possessed in their highest form by the Anglo-Saxon 
people. It is a small matter to supplant the aboriginal 
inhabitants of a barbarous country and to secure possession 
of their land. The superiority which comes from civilization 
is soon acquired, and the feebler race bends before the 
stronger, as the reeds bend to the sweep of the winds. The 
difficulties of successful colonization arise from very different 
causes than the mere conquest of native races. It is in 
l:)attling with nature, conquering the soil, holding on against 
capricious seasons, fighting with the elements and compelling 
the earth to yield what it never yielded before — a reward 
for man's toil— that the real triumphs of an old people in 
a new land are seen. The pioneers of civilization in every 
new country have to w'ork on in the midst of untold diffi- 
culties and trials, which test courage, faith, and patience. 
A few, who are l)ut ill-qualified for such a life, fall in the 
unequal strife, but the majority succeed. tSteady perseverance, 
a brave courage, an unwavering faith in the virtue of hard 
Avork, and an undimmed hope in eventual success — these are 
the high qualities possessed by the hardy pioneers of civil- 
ization in new countries ; and it is not too much to say that 
these are qualities which distinguish the Britisli people, and 
whicb have made them the most successful colonizers the 
world has ever seen. Of course, the hard work is done at 
first. Some labour that others may enter into the results 
of their labour. .Vs tlio stability of the building depends 
on the foundation being well laid, as the fruit of the tree 
depends on the seed that is sown, so the future of a new 



€HAr. I.] PEOGEESS OF THE COLONY. 3 

Colony depends greatly on the ckaracter of tliose who were 
the first to make their homes in the wilderness, to break up 
the virgin soil, and to subdue the earth. The character of 
the Pilgrim Fathers — brave men fleeing from persecution, and 
ju-eferring civil and religious liberty in the desert to bondage 
in the city — impressed itself on the States of New England. 
That character has been modified by time and surrounding 
circumstances, but in its root-power it is still there. The 
same thing is witnessed in these southern Colonies of the 
British Empire. 

I propose to give some account of one of these young 
Colonies, which has been planted and has grown to its present 
dimensions within the memory of men now living, and who 
had much to do with its earliest history. The Colony of 
South Australia is not yet forty years old ; it has a popu- 
lation of not more than 210,000, and yet it has done a brave 
work in the interests of humanity, and already possesses a 
history of which neither we nor those who established it need 
be ashamed, as I shall endeavour to show in this brief sketch. 
As a social question, having relation to the progress and wel- 
fare of civilized states, the story of this young Colony's history 
is worth telling. I want the reader of this work to see how 
a prosperous community, having within itself all the elements 
of future development and national greatness, has grown up 
within a generation from very small beginnings, how much of 
this is owing to natural advantages, and how much to the 
energy, enterprise, and persevering industry of the early 
pioneers. We have tried, and not unsuccessfully, the experi- 
ment of establishing a free Colony on a free soil, where 
liberty may flourish without running into licentiousness 
where the daring expansiveness of the energetic present has 
not broken away altogether from the wholesome traditions 
of the past, where the freest of the free i)olitical and religious 
institutions may flourish harmoniously with a prijfound regard 
for, and attachment to, the old monarchical institutions with 
which wo were familiar in the days of our cliildliood. I think 
I shall be able to show that this experiment has been to a Lirge 

B 2 



4 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. I. 

extent a successful one. We have shown how the broadest 
form of political liberty can be enjoyed without lawless excess, 
how religion can be preserved without a State Church, and 
how the government of the people can be carried on by the 
peo})le without losing our attachment to the Throne and Person 
of our (^ucen. 



Chap. II.] EXTENT OF SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



CHAPTEE 11. 



EXTENT OF THE COUNTRY. 



Continent of Australia — Extent of Territoiy — Xumber of Colonies — People 
— British, Irish, Teutonic — Extent of South Australia in Square Miles 
— Tliree Divisions — South Australia Proper, Central Australia, and 
Northern Territory. 

The vast Island Continent of Australia, formerly known as 
New Holland, comjjrises somewhere about 3,000,000 square 
miles of territory — only a little less than the territory of the 
whole of Europe. It is at present divided into five Provinces 
— New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, 
and Western Australia, with an aggregate population now 
approaching two millions of souls. It is one of the richest 
countries in the world ; and the settlers, principally British, 
Irish, and Teutonic, have shown all the high qualities of 
courage, perseverance, industry, and hopefulness Avhich cha- 
racterize tlie race from which they spring. 

South Australia is neither the oldest nor the youngest of 
the Australian sisterhood of Colonies. It was founded in the 
year 1836, and several of the first colonists still remain to see 
the results of their early labours. As originally settled, the 
Colony contained 383,328 square miles, or 245,329,920 acres ; 
but since then it has received two large accessions of territory 
— the first, a strip of land lying between its western boundary 
and the eastern boundary of Western Australia ; and the 
second, a large tract of country stretching northwards from 
the 26th parallel of soutli latitude to the Indian Ocean, and 
from the 129th to tlio 138th degrees of east longitude. The 
first addition was known as " No IMan's Land," and the 



6 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. II, 

second is now kuuwn us the Northern Territory. The Colony- 
may be regarded as comprising three divisions — Sonth 
Australia proper, Central Australia, and the Nortliern Terri- 
tory — and it stretches across the whole continent from the 
Southern Ocean to tlie Indian Ocean — the total area com- 
prising 914,730 square miles, or 585,427,200 acres. 



CiiAP. III.] OEIGIN OF THE COLONY, 



CHAPTEE III. 

THE FATHERS AND FOUNDERS OF THE COLONY. 

Origin of the Colony — The "Wakefield System — Combination of Capital and 
Labour — The South Australian Association — The Act — Principles on 
which the Colony was Established — To be no Charge on the Mother 
Country — No State Church — No Convicts — Family Emigration — 
Mr. G. F. An gas. 

The settlement of South Australia as a separate and distinct 
Colony originated with a few gentlemen in London. Nego- 
tiations were opened with the Imperial Government in 1831 
with a view to obtaining a charter giving certain concessions 
to the projectors. Possibly from the affair not being in 
proper hands in the first instance, the negotiations came to 
nought. They were resumed in 1834, when a meeting was 
held in Exeter Hall for discussing the principles on Avhicli 
the new Colony was to be established. Mr. Edward Gibbon 
Wakefield, an advanced political economist for those days, 
had thought out a system of colonization, which he main- 
tained was the only true system possessing the elements of 
stability and success. His system was based on two prin- 
cij)les : in all cases to sell the land for a fair and reasonable 
value, and to devote the j)roceeds to the introduction of labour 
from the Mother Country. He maintained that the worst 
thing that could happen to a new country was to give the 
land away in large blocks ; and he found a striking illustra- 
tion of this in the history of Western Australia. Grants of 
land of 20,000 or 50,000 acres had been made to favoured 
individuals, but they had turned out to be utterly worthless. 
The " fathers and founders " of the Colony of South Australia 



8 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. III. 

resolved to start it on the principles laid down by Mr. Wake- 
field, and Colonel Torrens in his speech at the Exeter Hall 
meeting entered into an elaborate exposition and defence of 
the Wakefield system. Referring to Western Australia, the 
gallant Colonel said : — " What has been the fate of the Swan 
Eiver Colony? We have seen that the combination in the 
Australian Colonies, and in Sydney and Van Diemen's Land, 
caused them to flourish ; but there were no convicts sent out to 
Swan River, and the principle of combining labour was there 
abandoned. Numerous grants were made ; a single individual 
had 50,000 acres ; one person, I believe, had 500,000. These 
immense tracts separated the people, so that they could not 
communicate at all. They were so severed that, instead of 
being able to assist each other, though they were famishing, 
they could not pass through the unreclaimed lands to tell 
their state of destitution. Capital was sent there, but it was 
unproductive. Labourers were sent there ; some of these died 
from want, and the others went to Van Diemen's Land. Out 
of four thousand persons only fifteen hundred remain." 

Now, the object of the originators of this Colony of South 
Australia was to combine labour and capital. They who had 
money were to emigrate by means of their own resources, 
purchase land in limited blocks, as far as possible within given 
areas, and the money received for the land was to be used in 
l)ringing out labour. By this means it was believed there 
^^ould be a healthy combination of capital and labour, and 
the population would be concentrated within certain surveyed 
districts, where the early settlers ANould be able to help one 
another. 

At the outset it was resolved that the price of land should 
be 12s. an acre, to be increased after a fixed time to £1 per 
acre. Men of means would bring out their money, purchase 
land on which they would settle, and with the money paid 
for it immigrants would be introduced into the new settlement, 
wliose labour would be aA'ailable for working the land and 
making it productive. These preliminary points being settled, 
an application was made to tlic Inqierial l*arliament for an 
Act, by an association of gentlemen calling themselves "The 



Chap. III.] THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN ASSOCIATION. 9 

South Australian Association." In August of 1834 the Act 
was passed. This Act defined the limits of the new Colony, 
gave power to persons approved by the Privy Council to 
frame laws, establish courts, appoint officers, chaplains, and 
clergymen of the Church of England or Scotland, and to levy 
duties and taxes. Three or four Commissioners were to be 
appointed by the Crown to carry the Act into execution. The 
lands of the Crown in the Colony were to be surveyed and 
open for purchase by British subjects, or let on rent for three 
years — the purchase-money and rent to be employed in con- 
ducting the emigration of poor persons from Great Britain or 
Ireland to the South Australian Province or Provinces. 

The Act was favourable to the family emigration system — 
a clause expressly providing that " No person having a 
husband or wife, or a child or children, shall, by means of the 
emigration fund, obtain a passage to the Colony, unless the 
husband or wife, or the child or children, of such poor person 
shall be conveyed thither." The Commissioners were em- 
powered to borrow £50,000 for emigration until the sale of 
lands enabled them to pay the cost of passages for the 
emigrants. For the cost of founding the Colony they were 
also empowered to borrow £200,000 on bonds, which were to 
be a charge on the future revenue. One clause deserves to be 
specially mentioned, because to it the Colony owes to a large 
extent the good order of its people and the security to life and 
jn'operty which have distinguished it from the very beginning. 
Clause 22 provides " That no person or persons convicted in 
any Court of Justice in Great Britain or Ireland, or elsewhere, 
shall at any time, or under any circumstances, be transported 
as a convict to any place within the limits hereinbefore 
described." 

In the Colonies of New South Wales and Van Diemen's 
Land, and more recently in Western Australia, the taint of 
convictism seriously deteriorated the pure stream of social and 
moral health of the community. The evils of this system of 
lotting the penal scum and felonry of Great Britain into these 
new lands was known to tlie founders of South Australia, wlio 
were not ignorant of the earlv social life of New South Wales 



10 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [CuAr. III. 

an<l A'aii l>itiiicu's Land, and they resolved that hou\ the first 
hour of its history the new Colony should 1)0 preserved from 
this fatal taint. The law has boeu carried out. Indeed no 
convicted felon from any i)art of the \\i)rld, whose sentence has 
not expired, even thougli he may hold a ticket-of-lcave, is 
allowed to live in South Australia. At the present time every 
passeng-er landing here from A\'estern Australia, where trans- 
ported convicts are still found, is obliged to show his official 
clearance before he is permitted to take up his residence in 
the Colony. Another clause in the Act provides that no part 
of the expense of founding and governing the Colony shall 
fall on the Mother Country ; and another, that if at the end 
of ten years the population of the Colony shall be less than 
20,000, the unsold lands shall revert to the Crown. 

This Act was subsequently amended in certain particulars, 
especially repealing the authority given to the Commissioners 
to appoint ofiKcers, chaplains, and clergymen, and since then 
the State has iiad no connexion with any form of religion or 
church organization. The first Commissioners appointed were 
—Colonel Torrens (chairman), Messrs. George Fife Angas,. 
Edward Barnard, William Hutt, J. G. Shaw Lefevre, W. A» 
3[ackinnon, Sam. Mills, Jacob Montefiore, Geo. Palmer, Geo. 
Barnes, and Bowland Hill. The latter gentleman (afterwards- 
Sir liowland Hill, originator of the penny postal reform) sub- 
sequently became secretary to the Commissioners. Of the 
foundation principles on which South Australia was established, 
we may here mention these three : — That it was never to be a 
charge on the Mother Country ; that there ^^ as to be no State 
Church recognized ; and that the trans})orted ])risoners from 
Great Britain were never to be admitted to its shores. These 
three principles have been fully carried out. The Colony has 
been no expense to TJ reat Britain ; there is no State Church ; 
and convicts, except those convicted in the Colony, are 
unknown. 

The first Commissioners found considerable difficulty in 
starting their scheme, and at one time there was a danger of 
the thing falling through and becoming a grand failure. To 
prevent this, Mr. George Fife Angas, one of the Commissioners, 



Chap. III.] MR. G. F. ANGAS. 11 

was largely iustrumental in starting the South Australian 
Company, for the purchase of land and the settlement of a 
population on the land. Mr. Angas is one of the best and 
most useful colonists the Province has ever had. He devoted 
time and labour to the Colony when it needed the best assist- 
ance of its best friends. More than this, he risked to a large 
extent his considerable private means to give the Province a 
start on a safe footing. This venerable gentleman still lives 
amongst us, and he has the satisfaction of seeing the prosperity 
of the community which he did so much to aid at first. In 
that prosperity, as was fitting, Mr. Angas greatly shared ; and 
now full of years, honours, and usefulness, he is spending the 
close of his days in the quietude of his beautiful Lindsay 
House, one of the loveliest spots in the whole Colony. When- 
ever the history of South Australia is written, the name of 
George Fife Angas must occupy a prominent position in its 
records. 



12 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. 1Y. 



CHAPTEE IV. 

PIONEEKS. 

Governors — Sir John Himlmarsh, ("olouel Gawlcr, Sir George Grey, Colonel 
Eobe, Sir lleury Young, Sir E. G. MacDonnell, Sir Dominic Daly, Sir 
James Fergusson, Baronet, Sir Anthony LIusgraye — The Adminis- 
tration of each Governor. 

The first Governor of Soiitli Australia was Captain (afterwards 
8ir John) Hindmarsli, who received his appointment early in 
1836. Mr. James Hurtle Fisher {afterwards Sir James) was 
appointed Eesident Commissioner for the sale of Crown Lands, 
and Colonel Light was appointed Surveyor-General. Colonel 
Light arrived at Kang-aroo Island in August of that year, and 
on December 28, 1836, Governor Hindmarsh and his party 
landed at Holdfast Bay from the Buffalo, and under a venerable 
gum tree, a short distance from the shore, the Members of the 
Coun(!il and other officers were collected, and the Orders in 
Council creating South Australia a British Colony, and the 
Commission of Governor Hindmarsh, were read. This is our 
commemoration day ; and on the 28th of December every 
year very large crowds of persons, from various parts of the 
Colony, assemble at Glenelg — a marine townshi}) which has 
sprung up in Holdfast Bay — to celebrate the foundation of 
the Colony. 

When the official party arrived, there were considerable 
disputes as to the site of the capital city. Colonel Light from 
the first fixed u])<iii tlie spot where the City of Adelaide now 
stands ; although an influential party were in favour of En- 
counter Bay, outside the (Julf of St. Vincent. Happily the 
Surveyor-General carried his point, and subsequent experience 



Chap. IV.] HINDMAESH— GAWLEE— GEEY. 13 

has shown that he was right, as I shall prove when I refer 
more at length to the metropolis. 

The dual government by Governor and Eesident Commis- 
sioner, as might have been expected, did not work well, and 
grievous divisions soon occurred amongst the officials. After 
only fourteen months' term of office. Governor Hindmarsh was 
recalled, and was succeeded by Colonel Gawler, in whom the 
sole authority vested — the services of Mr. Fislier, as Eesident 
Commissioner, being dispensed with. During Colonel Gawler's 
administration, the Colony passed through the greatest trials 
and difficulties it has had to encounter. Financial embarrass- 
ments — the results of folly and extravagance — threatened and 
almost accomplished the complete destruction of the settle- 
ment. Money was scarce, and labour, which ought to have 
been productively employed in developing the resources of 
the Colony, Avas concentrated in the city, where men, instead 
of producing something from the land, lived on each other. 
To save the Colony, Governor Gawler commenced extensive 
public works, to pay for which he drew upon the Lords of the 
Treasury, and had his bills returned to him dishonoured. 
This was not to be wondered at, for, as we have seen, one 
princijde on which the Colony was founded was that it was not 
to cost the Mother Country one penny. The money was sub- 
sequently advanced by the Imperial authorities as a loan, and 
the difficulty was tided over. Probably Governor Gawler did 
the best he could under the circumstances ; but the Home 
Government were dissatisfied with his administration, and 
treated him in a somewhat scurvy manner. Captain George 
Grey, a young officer who had been exploring in Western 
Australia, on May 10, 1841, walked into Government House, 
and presented to Colonel Gawler a commission appointing him 
(Captain Grey) Governor of the Province iii succession to 
Colonel Gawler. 

However hard tliis might have been for Governor Gawler, 
there can be no doubt it was of great advantage to the 
Colony. Captain Grey began his administration by the dis- 
play of those high qualities of prudence, firmness, and decision 



14 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [CiiAr. IV. 

■wliicli lie sul).sof|U('iitly cxhihitcd at the Cape and in Now 
Zealand. He commenced a policy of retrenchment, which, as 
ii matter of conrse, exposed him to a great deal of obloquy 
and misrepresentation. The wages of tliose employed by the 
Government were cut do\\n to the lowest point ; and this 
forced tlie labour, which was far too much concentrated in the 
city, into the hands of private employers. The effect of this 
wholesome action was soon seen. Working men, who had 
been hanging about the city, wont into the country, and the 
land was brought under cultivation. One important improve- 
ment in the government of the Colony was made at the time 
Captain Grey became Governor. The Commissioners were dis- 
pensed with, and the Home Government undertook the direct 
management of the Colony. A new direction was given to the 
industry of the colonists ; and when they became convinced 
that their success lay in subduing the earth, in cultivating the 
soil, and in pastoral pursuits, a new impulse was given to their 
energies. The necessaries of life became cheap ; and, although 
money was not over-plentiful, beef, mutton, and flour were 
clieap, and there was neither want nor complaining amongst 
the people. Governor Grey's administration will always be 
remembered with satisfaction and gratitude. He first insjiirod 
the people with a feeling of self-reliance, and taught them to 
live within their means. 

He was succeeded by Colonel Robe, a man very diflerent 
from Captain Grey. Governor Eobe was a respectable, 
honourable, upright English Tory. All his prepossessions 
and traditions were on the side of authority, which his mili- 
tary training had deepened and intensified. He looked with 
sometliing like contempt, which ho took no pains to disguise, 
at the lil)ci-;il tendencies of tho handful of people ho had been 
sent to govern in the (Queen's name. He tried to govern by a 
small clique of men who- had but little sympathy with the 
liulk of the colonists. The poor Govcrn(n- lived in hot water 
during tho whole of his administration. The colonists refused 
to be treated as children ; and, as he did not respect their 
rights, they paid no attention to his feelings. He was very 



Chap. IY.] KOBE— YOUNG— MACDONNELL. 15 

Aveary of his office before he was relieved by the Home 
Government. 

He was succeeded by Sir Henry Young, who was a different 
stamp of man altogether from his predecessor. He entered 
very heartily into all those schemes which were likely to assist 
in the government and development of the Colony. One of 
the most important events that took place in Governor 
Young's time was the opening of the Kiver Murray for navi- 
gation. I shall have something to say of this noble river later 
on, and may only remark here that up to Sir Henry Young's 
time it had not been turned to any useful account. With 
properly constructed steamboats, the river can be navigated 
for something like 2000 miles ; but unfortunately the outlet 
to the southern ocean is dangerous, and often impracticable. 
J^esides assisting to open up the river. Sir Henry set his mind 
on establishing a great port near to its mouth. A large sum of 
money was uselessly wasted on this fruitless attempt ; and the 
few stones which now lie at what was ambitiously called Port 
Elliot will remain a lasting monument to Governor Young's 
unwise zeal. 

Sir Henry Young was succeeded by Sir Richard Graves 
MacDonnell ; a man of very considerable ability and great 
energy of character. More than any Governor who had pre- 
ceded him, he came into close contact with the colonists as a 
whole. He had a pleasant manner, considerable tact, and 
warm sympathy with all the interests of the Colony, public 
and private. He was exceedingly popular during the whole of 
his administration, and he left the Colony amidst the regrets 
of those who knew him. During his government, as I shall 
show more fully subsequently. Constitutional Government was 
established, with two branches of Legislature, both elective. 
During his administration the Colony made rapid strides of 
ju'ogress. The full energies of the people were brought out, 
and wisely directed towards objects of public usefulness. Our 
Railway system was greatly extended, tlie Electric Telegraph 
was established, and Exploration was pushed forward to a 
remarkable degree. New and valuable copper mines were 
discovered on Yorke's Peninsula, which now support a })()})uhi- 



16 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. IV- 

tion of some 20,000 persons, and farming operations were 
largely extended. 

In March, 1862, Sir liichard was succeeded by »Sir Dominic 
Daly, a man of great official experience, an excellent adminis- 
trator, and a very popular Governor. He was a Eoman 
Catholic ; he kept his religious views to himself, and never 
obtruded them into the region of politics. He was accessible 
to all classes of the community, and identified himself with 
everything likely to promote the welfare of the colonists. He 
died in the Colony, and was deeply mourned by all classes, 
whose loving esteem he had won by liis urbanity and quiet 
English hospitality. During his administration the Colony 
was visited by H.E.H. the Duke of Edinburgh, who, it is 
well known, formed a high opinion of the cheery and kind- 
hearted old gentleman. 

During the interregnum between Sir Dominic's death and 
the arrival of his. successor, the Eight Honourable Sir James 
Fergusson, Bart., tlie Government was administered by 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hamley, who was the senior officer in 
command of Her ]\[ajesty's forces in the Colony at the time 
of Governor Daly's death. Sir James was appointed by the 
Conservative Government, in whose ranks he had held office 
as Under-Secretary for India and the Home Department. 
For several years, he represented Ayrshire in the House of 
Commons. Sir James was free and open-handed in his 
expenditure, and very liberal in all his personal dealings 
witli the Colony. He is a man of very considerable ability, 
a clear thinker, and an effective speaker. Though, perhaps, 
his higher qualities were not recognized as they ought to 
liave been, he was regarded as an intelligent and a high- 
minded gentleman, who maintained tlie dignity of his re- 
sponsible position, and creditably represented Her jMajesty 
by the liberal administration. The establishment of tele- 
graphic communication between Australia and Europe was 
carried out during His Excellency's term of office : his 
efforts to aid in the accomplishment of this great work were 
fully recognized ; and shortly after its comj)letion he was 
promoted, by ^Fr. Gladstone, to the governorship of New 



Chap. lY.] DALY— FEKGUSSON— MUSGEAVE. 17 

Zealand. Sir James suffered, wliile in Adelaide, a serious 
family affliction in the deatK of his wife. Lady Edith Eamsay, 
daughter of the late Marquis Dalhousie. 

In the interval between the departure of Sir James and 
the arrival of his successor, the administration of affairs was 
in the hands of the Chief Justice, Sir R. D. Hanson, whose 
long residence in the Colony and thorough acquaintance 
with its public affairs and history eminently qualified him 
for the position he temporarily occupied. I may add that 
Mr. G. M. Stephen and the Honourable B. T. Finniss each 
discharged the duty of Acting Governor, at different times, 
under circumstances similar to those under which Sir R. D. 
Hanson acted. 

The present Governor of the Colony is Sir Anthony Mus- 
grave, K.C.M.G., about whom it would not be fitting that 
much should be said here. He is a quiet, scholarly gentle- 
man, who does his work without ostentation ; and those who 
■are brought into close official contact with him speak highly 
of his urbanity and ability. We may state that the salary 
paid to the last three Governors has been £5000 a year, the 
Private Secretary receiving £500, and the Aide-de-Camp £150. 



1^ SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. V. 



CHAPTER Y. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE COLONY. 

rruductioiis — Fruits ami Flowers — Cereals — Climate favourable to Health — ■ 

Eainfall. 

I iiAvi: already stated that the total area of the Colony, 
stretching- from ocean to ocean, comprises 914,730 square 
miles, or 585,427,200 acres. A country so large, covering- 
so many square miles, has, as a matter of course, a great 
diversity in its physical features. Magnificent plains of 
agricultural land, mountain ranges, stretching for hundreds: 
of miles, and often covered with large timber, chiefly euca- 
lyptus, and lovely and enchanting valleys, through which 
in winter creeks — in some instances deserving the name of 
rivers — run. On the other hand, there are in several parts 
of the Colony long stretches of arid plains on which vege- 
tation is stunted and cultivation difficult, if not impossible. 
On these plains, however, the greatest mineral wealth of 
the Province has been found, and there is every reason tO' 
believe that the earth is still full of riches, which only 
wait the employment of capital and labour to develop. 

For many years, indeed ever since Stuart completed 
his journey across the continent, it was supposed that Central 
Australia, as a whole, was a wretched country, which could 
never be turned to any profitable account. One result, 
however, of the spirited enterj)risc of South Australia, in 
carrying a telegraph line from Port Augusta to Port Darwin, 
has been to prove that there is an immense territory fully 
capable of carrying large herds of horses and cattle ; and 
already some spirited young men have gone out far beyond 




Fkkn Watkkfall. 



Chap. Y.] FEUITS AND FLOWEES— CEREALS. 19 

the formerly recognized frontier to commence pastoral pursuits, 
with every prospect of success. 

The southern part of the Colony is Avonderfully productive. 
The finest wheat ever grown in the world has been grown 
within a few miles of Adelaide. At international exhibitions, 
both in England and on the Continent, South Australian 
wheat obtained the gold medal for the finest exhibited by any 
country. But wheat is only a part of our produce. All the 
fruits that flourish in England will grow Avell in this Province. 
AjDples, pears, almonds, cherries, strawberries, currants, rasp- 
berries, gooseberries, rhubarb, and filberts have been produced 
in the southern part of the Colony. But, in addition to these, 
we can grow in abundance those fruits which are only pro- 
duced in hothouses in England. Grapes, peaches, apricots, 
nectarines, and figs grow in the open air with a small amount 
of culture. Oranges do wonderfully Avell in the Colony, with 
only a little care. I have seen whole acres of healthy orange 
trees laden to the very ground with the golden fruit. At 
the same time may be seen, on the same tree, the lovely 
orange blossom, the green fruit, and the oranges fully ripe. 
Some of the colonists have gone to great expense in the 
cultivation of the orange, and their labour and enterprise 
have been amply rewarded. All these fruits, which are 
luxuries to the poor — and even to a large section of the 
middle class — in England, are, during the season, the daily 
food of the poorest in South Australia. When the fruits 
are ripe, there are but few tables on which several pounds 
of grapes or dozens of peaches and ajDricots are not found. 
A dozen pounds of grapes can be bought in the market for 
sixpence, and a dozen peaches for threepence or fourjjence. 
Another delicious luxury in hot weather is the water-melon, 
which grows freely, and is eaten with avidity to any extent — 
especially by children — without the slightest evil effect. It 
would do an Englishman's heart good to look upon the 
breakfast-table of a South Australian of moderate means, 
groaning under the weight of the most luscious fruits. 

In the northern part of the Colony tropical fruits can be 
produced to any extent, and tropical industries carried on with 

c 2 



20 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. V. 

suitable labour. The pine-apple and banana, amongst fruits, 
and the sugar-cane, the cotton plant, rice, tea, and coffee may- 
all be produced there — in fact, all tropical products will 
iiourish : and the time is not far distant when these industries 
will be cultivated to a large extent with the facilities which 
are now offered to settlers by the Government, and to which 
I shall refer at greater length by and by. 

The climate of South Australia is, unquestionably, salu- 
brious. For eight months in the year, nothing can be more 
delightful. During the summer months, from December to 
March, the heat is sometimes intense : on many days the 
thermometer registers from 105° to 110^ in the shade. But 
the heat is dry, and therefore does not produce the same 
exhausting effect upon the colonists that a moist heat would 
do. On such days people wisely doff their woollen clothing, 
and dress all in white — even to their helmets and boots. 
Cases of sunstroke sometimes occur in spite of all precautions ; 
l)ut these are very rare compared with the large number of 
])ersons who, without due precaution, expose themselves to the 
fierce rays of the burning sun. As the result of experience 
and observation I can say that even on the hottest day men 
can follow their ordinary employments without excessive 
exhaustion : indeed, to be fully employed appears to be 
necessary to enable them to bear the great heat. On a very 
hot day, the worst thing is to lie kicking one's heels and 
doing nothing else. But a hot wind, attended with a dust- 
storm, such as we have twice or thrice during the hot season, 
cannot be apologized for — it is an unmitigated nuisance. 
These hot north winds, however, are happily rare, and they 
never continue more than a day or two. When the change 
comes, the temperature is sometimes lowered thirty or forty 
dotrroes in the course of an hour or two : and the unhappy 
wi"ht who was melting in the morning may be shivering in 
the evening. This is what we have to expect occasionally in 
our hot montlis. 

But nothing can be more delightful than the other eight 
months of the year. Even when, the heavy winter rains come, 
whicli flood our streets and swell our rivers from contemptible 



Chap. Y.] EArNFALL. 21 

waterholes to miglity torrents, Sontli Australians can afford 
to be jolly. In this Colony rain is always a blessing. It 
gives the promise, and is the cause, of future wealth ; and 
the more rain we have, the more abundant is our agricultural 
and horticultural produce. The average rainfall at Adelaide 
is about twenty-one inches during the year, falling princij)ally 
in the months of May to October, on about 110 days. In the 
hilly districts the fall is from eight to ten inches greater. In 
England the average is twenty-four inches. On the days 
during the months when it does not rain, the climate is un- 
surpassably beautiful ; the air is pure, soft, balmy, and cool — 
such as one might imagine would blow over " the plains of 
heaven." On such days mere existence is enjoyment. And 
the climate has been found to be most beneficial in chest 
complaints with persons of tender lungs : medical testimony 
of the first class has shown that the Australian climate is 
quite equal, if not superior, to that of Madeira for persons 
with weak lungs. Several invalids have come to the Colony 
suffering from asthma, bronchial affections, and consumption, 
whose days have been lengthened, if their lives have not been 
ultimately saved, by the dry, pure, and salubrious atmosphere. 
Of course persons do die of consumption in South Australia ; 
but this is generally when they arrive too late, the disease 
having taken too great a hold upon their system. 



22 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [CiiAr. YI. 



CHAPTEE VI. 

CENTRES OF POrULATION. 

Adelaide the Metropolis— Site Hi vourable— Handsome Streets and Buildings 
— Port Adelaide, Navigation of River — Sliijiping — Country Towns and 
Ports — Mining Townships. 

The City of Adelaide is the metropolis of the Colony ; and, 
as I have stated before, the site was selected and the city laid 
out by Colonel Light, the first Surveyor-General. It is situ- 
ated a few miles inland from the shores of St. Vincent's Gulf, 
discovered by Lieutenant IMatthew Flinders in the early part 
of the present centur}', which is divided from Spencer's Gulf 
l)y a narrow tongue of land running from the north to within 
a few miles of Kangaroo Island. This slip of land is called 
Yorke's Peninsula, on which the world-famous Wallaroo and 
Moonta Copper Mines were discovered some fifteen years ago. 
A few miles to the north of Holdfast Bay there is an arm of 
the sea which runs inland for ten or twelve miles, on which the 
principal port of the Colony, Port Adelaide, stands. Eight 
miles from the Port is the City of Adelaide. It lies on a 
fine plain about five miles below the picturesque hills known 
as the Blount Lofty Ivange— the Mount itself being 2300 feet 
liigh, and a conspicuous object from the Gulf and from the 
surrounding country. Adelaide is divided into two parts — 
north and south — by the River Torrens, which is spanned by 
two or three substantial bridges. The main traffic, however, 
is over what is called the City Bridge, wliich has been found 
too limited in size for the demands made upon it. A new and 
much larger one will shortly be erected on the site it now 
occupies. South Adelaide is at present the skeleton of a large 



Chap. YI.] ADELAIDE : ITS STEEETS. 23 

and imposing city, though the vacant streets are filling up 
very fast, and but for the high price of building labour it 
would grow much faster. The city is about one mile and 
one-third one way, and something less than a mile the other. 
Three sides form straight lines, and are called North, South, 
and West-terraces ; the fourth. East-terrace, is irregular in 
its shaj)e. The streets are all laid out at right angles — ^fol- 
lowing the points of the compass. The city is surrounded 
by a belt of land about half a mile wide, which is called Park 
Lands ; and the fine open space thus secured outside the city 
is favourable for health. The citizens are allowed, for a small 
consideration, to depasture cattle on these Park Lands ; and 
on the eastern side lies the old Adelaide racecourse, which, 
however, is to be partly abandoned for a new one near to 
Glenelg, and on the line of railway. In South Adelaide there 
are five squares, the principal one being in the centre of the 
city, neatly planted with flowers and ornamental shrubs. This 
is situated between the Treasury Buildings and the Courts of 
Law, and a vast number of pedestrians pass through it every 
day. 

Some of the streets in South Adelaide are very handsome. 
King William-street, which runs from north to south, bisects 
the city in its centre, and is one of the handsomest streets in 
the Southern Hemisphere. Here are found the Government 
Offices — a fine substantial pile of buildings, forming a solid 
block which covers a large area. This block contains the 
Treasury, the offices of the Chief Secretary, and Public Works 
offices ; the offices belonging to the Crown Lands Department, 
the Education Department, and the offices appropriated to the 
Governor, in which he holds his Executive Council meetings. 
Adjoining the Government buildings stands the handsome 
Town Hall, belonging to the City Council, with a lofty tower 
of considerable architectural beauty. On the opposite side of 
the street is the Post Office, also a fine building with a lofty 
tower, which accommodates both the Post Office and the Tele- 
graph Departments. The Town Hall and Post Office are built 
of a fine white freestone, found in valuable quarries about 
fifteen miles from the city. In the same street there are 



24 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. VI. 

other imposing structures — including the Eagle Chambers, 
the offices of the Advertiser, Chronicle, and Express newspapers, 
the warehouses of Messrs. D. and W. Murray, the Bank of 
Austrahasia, the National Bank, and the Savings Bank — all 
buildings that would do credit to any city in the Avorld. In 
another street the commodious premises of the Register, Oh- 
server, and Journal nowsj)apcrs arc situated. I may state that 
the principal business is carried on in South Adelaide — North 
Adelaide being a favourite place for merchants' and trades- 
men's residences, for which the elevated situation makes it 
admirably suited. 

.Vmongst the most striking buildings in the city are the 
churches, some of which are very handsome, and have cost a 
large amount of money. A new cathedral, dedicated to St. 
Peter, is now in course of construction for the English Church. 
Only part of the original design is at present being carried 
out, at a cost of something like £14,000. AVhen completed, it 
will be worthy of the large and influential body for whose use 
it is being erected. Hitherto that Church has been far behind 
some of the others in the character of their ecclesiastical 
architecture. St. Paul's and Christ Church are good-sized 
buildings, but they have little architectural display ; while St. 
Luke's and St. John's are very humble in style. The Eoman 
Catholics have one fine building — their cathedral church — 
dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. It is possessed of but little 
external ornament, but its proportions are fine and shapely; 
and when it is completed, by the erection of the tall and 
beautiful spire, which is part of the design, it will be a very 
imposing edifice. The Congregationalists, Baptists, Wesley ans, 
and Presbyterians have taken the lead in Church architecture 
— these bodies having several noble churches. The Stow 
3[emorial Church and the North Adelaide Congregational 
Cliurch are stately and costly buildings belonging to the 
Congregationalists, while the Hindmarsh Square Church, 
belonging to the same body, though somewhat vulgar in 
style, is nevertheless a large and commodious building. The 
Baptists have two fine buildings, one in North and the other 
in South Adelaide, each of which has been erected at a cost 










|l;iiiiiiiiiliiii;iiiiiii;;iiiiiii: ii:i i:ii:i:ii:iililiiii;jiii!lil|i:jiiiiiiiiii;HiiiiiiiM^ 



Chap. YI.] BUILDINGS OF ADELAIDE. 25 

of many thousands of pounds. The Wesleyans covet in their 
places of worship size, convenience, and comfort, rather than 
outer display ; but some of their more recently erected churches 
are by no means deficient in architectural grace. They have 
several good buildings in Adelaide. There are three Presby- 
terian churches in the city, somewhat pretentious in style, and 
convenient and commodious for the purposes of worship. 

Amongst the handsome private residences in the city the 
doctors have shown most taste. North-terrace is the site which 
they have selected as their local habitation, and something like 
half a dozen elegant houses have sprung up there within the 
last ten or twelve years — two of the handsomest recently. 
Taking the city altogether, and remembering that it is not 
forty years old, it will be admitted that it presents an exceed- 
ingly creditable appearance. Immediately around it and on 
its border line are some of our public benevolent institutions. 
The Destitute Asylum, the Lunatic Asylum, and the Public 
Hospital, are on North-terrace. There is a second Lunatic 
Asylum a little way out of the city, which is a striking build- 
ing regarded from an architectural point of view. But the 
glory of Adelaide, and the j)ride of her citizens, is our beautiful 
Botanic Garden, which, under the magic wand of the accom- 
plished Director, Dr. Eichard Schomburgk, has grown into a 
thing of beauty which will be a joy for ever. We are a quiet 
undemonstrative people, not much, given to what Mr. Anthony 
Trollope called " Australian blowing," but we do boast of our 
gardens ; and if this be a weakness, it is one in which we are 
encouraged, if not justified, by all visitors who see them. They 
who have seen all the Botanic Gardens in the other Colonies 
without a moment's doubt or hesitation give the palm to ours. 
Dr. Schomburgk has the clear insight and creative power of a 
poet ; and he has created a scene of beauty on which the eye 
can never feast itself sufficiently. When H.E.H. the Duke of 
Edinburgh was in Adelaide, he visited the Garden again and 
again, and always with increasing delight. 

Immediately around Adelaide there are several towns and 
villages, the principal of which is Port Adelaide, to which I 
have already referred. Like other shipping towns, it has but 



26 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [CiiAr. YI. 

little that is picturesque or beautiful. Its origin was a swamp 
in a creek — a most unwholesome and unsavoury spot. But 
.skill, enterprise, and money have made the port what it is. 
Like some of the towns of Holland, it has been literally built 
ujD out of the sea. Millions of tons of silt, obtained by dredg- 
ing the river and the harl)our, have been piled up on the old 
treacherous swamp. Hugo sombre warehouses have been 
erected, where the merchants carry on tlieir business. Sub- 
stantial wharfs have been built at great cost along the shores 
of the creek, or, as it is now called, the river. Alongside 
these wharfs, three or four deej), lie every year magnificent 
vessels, whose crowded tapering masts look like a forest. The 
progress of the Colony has attracted a fleet of fine vessels to 
the Port, many of them equal in size and elegance to any 
vessels in any part of the world — from 1000 to 1700 tons 
register. Until within the last year or two, our exports have 
been chiefly copper and wool ; but to these are now added 
wheat, tallow, preserved meats, and mimosa bark. The wool 
ships were long favourite vessels for passengers, the masters 
and owners laying themselves out for this branch of trade. 
Very many colonists go " Home," as the old country is still 
called, every year, and the captains of the clipper-ships who 
have been long in the service are as well known as any 
Adelaide merchant. The friendly terms on which the colonists 
are with many of these shipmasters makes a voyage home in 
one of their handsome ships something like a pleasure trip. 
The tonnage of vessels usually trading with Port Adelaide 
will be given elsewhere in this work ; I need only say that a 
stranger would be greatly astonished to see what a large fleet 
of vessels is required to carry away the produce of 210,000 
people, and to bring them those supplies from the old countries 
of Europe on which they are still to a large extent dependent. 
The navigation of the river was much impeded by a bar of 
limestone crust about two miles long, which prevented vessels 
of deep draft from getting into the harbour. At a consider- 
able expense this bar has been removed by dredges, to a width 
of 200 feet, along the whole two miles ; and now vessels draw- 
ing nineteen or twenty feet can pass in and out. The Marine 



Chap. YI.] NAVIGATION OF EIVEE— SHIPPING. 27 

Board, who have charge of the river and the Port, now propose 
dredging another 100 feet off the bar, which will give a channel 
of 300 feet clear. A little over a mile from the Port, on the 
beach of the open Gulf, is the Semaphore Station, where the 
j)ilot service is centred, and where the daily papers have the 
establishment of their Shipping Keporter, Outside the Sema- 
phore Beach is the anchorage for vessels which arrive when the 
state of the tide will not allow them to pass up the river to the 
Port. They lie from three to five miles off, but constant com- 
munication with the shore is obtained by the fine boats and 
steam launches of Mr. Jagoe, the Shipping Keporter. There is 
now a proposition before Parliament to make an outside 
harbour, with a jetty and railway accommodation. 

About six and a half miles from the city, in the opposite 
direction, is the watering-town of Glenelg, situated in Holdfast 
Bay, where the Colony was proclaimed in 1836. This is a 
pretty and convenient little town, with several handsome 
streets. It is always crowded with visitors during the summer 
season, and is now connected with the city by a light railway, 
having trains frequently running in the course of the day, so 
that hot and dusty citizens are constantly running down to the 
seaside for a breath of fresh air. Glenelg is the calling-place 
for the Peninsular and Oriental Company's mail steamers on 
their voyage both to and from Point de Galle. The steamers 
lie at anchor in the Gulf, about two miles from the jetty, and 
the mails and passengers are conveyed to and fro in a small 
steamer chartered for the purpose. About a couple of miles to 
the southward of Glenelg is the quiet and pleasant little town 
of Brighton, with seaside residences dotted about here and 
there. Should the railway be extended to Brighton, as has 
been proposed, it will become a favourite place of resort for the 
2)eople of Adelaide. Several suburban townships and villages 
lie under the hills. The principal of these are Norwood and 
Kensington, Mitcham and Glen Osmond. These townships 
being very pleasantly situated, most of the handsome residences 
command a fine view of the waters of the Gulf — liaving for a 
background the Mount Lofty range of liills. Many of the 
suburban gardens are rich and beautiful, and vineyards and 



28 . SOUTH AIJSTEALIA. [Chap. VI. 

orangeries aboiiiKl. AVlion the fruit trees arc iu bloom, or 
covered with the ripening fruit, they present a scene of rare 
beauty, while the air is fragrant with the mingled odours of 
" Araby the blest." 

Several of the country towns have reached considerable 
dimensions, and are still growing in importance. Amongst 
these I may mention Gawler, Kapunda, Eiverton, Clare, and 
the Burra to the north, which have been established for many 
years. But lying far away beyond these, on what are called 
the northern agricultural areas, important townships are spring- 
ing up where five or six years ago the whole country was only 
a series of sheep runs and cattle stations. Amongst these I 
may mention George Town, James Town, Caltowie, Laura, 
Gladstone, and Port Pirie. Four years ago there was not 
a house at Port Pirie. Vessels loading wool lay off in the 
Gulf, and lighters came up the dirty choked-up creek and 
carried off a few bales at a time. Now Port Pirie is an impor- 
tant town, with streets laid out, handsome shops, commodious 
warehouses, seven wharfs, and a splendid steam flour-mill. A 
railway is now being constructed to connect the Port with the 
country inland, and it is hoped that the first section of this 
line will soon be open for traffic. At the head of St. Vincent's 
Gulf is Port Wakefield, with a railway running upwards of 
twenty miles inland, and at the head of Spencer's Gulf is Port 
Augusta, where several ships load wool every year for the 
English market. 

Between the two Gulfs, as I have previously said, lies the 
great mining district of Yorke's Peninsula, and on it there are 
three fine townships, and a railway eighteen miles long. Port 
Wallaroo is a thriving jDlace, Avith a considerable amount of 
shipping, and very large copper smelting works, which support 
many families. It contains some good and substantial build- 
ings, and a jetty alongside which vessels of considerable 
tonnage can lie. Many of these are colliers constantly em- 
ployed in carrying coal from Newcastle, New South Wales, for 
consumption in the Smelting Works. Kadina is six miles 
from Port AN^dlaroo, and is immediately contiguous to the 
famous Wallaroo Mines, which were first discovered iu 1860^ 




!5 
O 
Q 

d 



O 



Chap. VI.] MINING TOWNSHIPS. 29 

It too is a flourishing township. Twelve miles distant to the 
southward is Moonta, one of the richest copper mines ever 
worked in any part of the world. Here are two townships 
— what is called the mining township and the Government 
township, or Moonta proper. This is the largest and most 
imj)ortant town on the Peninsula, and the largest place of 
worship in the Colony is a chapel recently erected for the 
use of the Wesleyan Methodists. Most of the miners are 
Cornishmen, who have a great attachment to the religious 
body founded by John Wesley. The southern portion of the 
Peninsula has been taken up for agricultural purposes, and a 
considerable population is settling there. They have already 
got one good port called Edithburgh ; and it is proposed to 
establish a second, called Ardrossan. 

To the east, south-east, and south of Adelaide, there are 
some important townships which have been long established, 
though they have not made so much progress as those in the 
north and on the Peninsula. Amongst these I may mention 
Woodside, IMount Barker, Strathalbyn, Goolwa, Port Elliot, 
and Port Victor. Farther to the south-east, approaching the 
border line between South Australia and Victoria, are the towns 
of Naracoorte, Penola, Mount Gambler, and Port MacDonnell, 
in addition to two other ports — Kobe, in Guichen Bay, and 
Kingston, in Lacepede Bay. The country around Mount Gam- 
bier is wonderfully rich, and the land, because of its fruit- 
fulness, has sold at high ]3i'ices. Indeed this district has not 
inapi^ropriately been called " The Garden of South Australia." 
]n addition to these I may mention that there are a few 
German townships where our Teutonic fellow-colonists have 
settled, and where they follow various industrial pursuits with 
the perseverance and success which are characteristic of the 
country from which they spring. Hahndorf, Lobethal, and 
Tanunda are the chief of these German towns. The houses 
are built in the quaint, gable-roofed style which the Teutons 
so much affect, and present an exceedingly pleasant and 
picturesque appearance. 



30 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [CiiAr. YII. 



CHAPTEE YII. 

GOVERNMENT AND LAWS. 

Three Estates — Governor, Legislative Council, House of Assembly — Early 
Government — First Constitution — Two Houses — Qualifications of 
Members and Electors — Manhood Suffrage — Ministry, Titles and 
Offices — Civil Service — Powers and Privileges of each House — Pailia- 
ment Supreme — ■ Liberal Constitution, Avorked well — Proceedings in 
Parliament — Governor follows advice of his Ministers. 

The Government of the Colony is to a certain extent after the 
model of the British Constitution. We have not exactly three 
Estates — Sovereign, Lords, and Commons — but we have the 
representative of the Sovereign and two Houses of Parliament 
— the Legislative Council and the House of Assembly. Both 
Houses are elective, but only the Assembly can be dissolved 
at the will of the Governor. Every four years one-third of the 
members of the Council retire, but they can offer themselves 
for re-election. I have already pointed out that in the begin- 
ning the management of the Colony's affairs Avas in the hands 
of a Board of Commissioners in London, who were represented 
here by a Eesident Commissioner for Lands. The Act con- 
stituting the Colony provided that local government should be 
granted as soon as there was a population of 50,000 souls in 
the Province. I need hardly say that the attempt to govern 
the new settlement by a Board 1G,000 miles away was a de- 
cided failure. Indeed, it was not possible that it could be 
a success. Communication between London and the Colony 
was infrequent and irregular; and it must be admitted that 
for a few years the outlook for the Province was a very dark 
one. Provoking misundcrstandiugs and unseemly quarrels 



Chap. YII.] FIRST CONSTITUTION. 31 

amongst the officers, which sometimes led to public scandals^ 
were far too common. Until the year 1851 the Executive 
power vested with the Governor and a Council of eight, all 
appointed by the Governor — four of them being official and 
four non-official members. The official members were reallv 
paid officers in the Governor's department, and were directly 
responsible to him. The real power was in his hands — he 
possessed supreme control over the Crown lands, and he was- 
immediately responsible only to the Imperial authorities. 

In 1851, however, the first Constitution was granted to the 
Colony. An xict was passed authorizing the formation of a 
Legislative Council, consisting of twenty-four members, one- 
third of whom were to be nominated by the Governor, and the 
other two-thirds to be elected by the people. The qualiiication 
for members of the Council was a freehold property of the 
annual value of £200, or of the total value of £2000. Voters- 
must possess a small property or house qualification, and a 
man could vote in as many separate districts as he had the 
qualification in. This Council had power to make laws for 
good government, but it could not touch the land. That 
remained under the personal control of the Governor. There- 
can be no doubt that this first Council — partly elected and 
partly nominated — did a good work for the Colony during its- 
existence. It made some mistakes, and squandered a good 
deal of money for unnecessary and useless purposes ; but on 
the whole it deserved well of the Colony during the few years- 
of its existence. 

Very soon, however, the people began to agitate for fuller 
parliamentary representation and responsible government in its 
widest scope. The men who drew up the present Constitution 
Act held very liberal views in politics, and they went boldly 
for manhood suffrage, and vote by ballot. In England at that 
time such a suffrage was regarded as the wild dream of unprac- 
tical political Chartists and visionaries. There were a few of 
the old Tory school in this Colony who held very mucli the 
same view ; and great and glorious battles were fought by the 
Liberals on one side and the Conservatives on the other, over 
the form which the infant constitution should assume. Hap- 



32 SOUTH AUSTKALIA. [Chap. VII. 

pily for the Colony, however, the men of broad and liberal 
views were largely in the majority, and the present Constitu- 
tion Act was passed. It has indeed been slightly modified in 
formal matters within the last year or two, but in its essential 
principles it is the same as that which received the Eoyal 
Assent in 1856. 

The Act provided for two branches of Legislature — a 
Legislative Council and House of Assembly ; the former to 
consist of eigliteen members, and the latter of thirty-six. The 
Government is now vested in the Governor, representing the 
Throne, and the two Houses of Parliament. The Parliaments 
are triennial, with annual sessions, although in cases of 
emergency there may be more than one session in the year. 
The qualifications for a member of the Legislative Council are 
that he must be thirty years of age, and must have resided in 
the Colony three years. The electors for the Council must be 
twenty-one years of age, must have a freehold estate of the 
value of £50, or a leasehold of £20 annual value, having three 
years to run, or must occupy a dwelling-house of 2ol. annual 
value. The whole Colony votes as one constituency for 
members of the Council — the elections for one-third of the 
number of members taking place every four years. In the case 
of the death or resignation of a member, and on the vacancy 
being declared by the House, a new election takes place. 
There are two admitted defects in the constitution of the 
Legislative Council which it is not easy to rectify. The first 
is, that in the event of their being pertinaciously obstructive 
to necessary legislation, there is no means of bringing public 
opinion to bear upon them — there is no power to dissolve the 
House, and send the Council as a whole to the constituency. 
In this respect their power is greater than that of the House 
of Lords. If that august body proves obstructive, the Sove- 
reign, by the creation of new peers, can introduce fresh blood, 
and thus overcome the vis ineriise of the obstructionists ; but 
the Governor of this Colony cannot create new members. The 
second defect is the expense which must necessarily be in- 
curred in filling up a vacancy. The cost of putting the whole 
electoral machinery throughout the Colony into operation for 



Chap. YII.] THE TWO HOUSES OF PAELIAMENT. 33 

the election of a single member is very considerable. It has 
been proposed, in order to meet the lirst difficulty, that at 
every general election for the House of Assembly, one-third 
of the members of the Legislative Council should go to the 
constituency, so that public opinion on any question of special 
interest before the country might be brought to bear on the 
Council as well as on the Assembly. This proposal has not, 
however, been very cordially accepted. It is held that the 
object of a second Chamber is to be a check upon hasty 
legislation, and that it ought not to be amenable to public 
opinion, which on some occasions may be unwisely excited. 

The House of Assembly, as at first constituted, consisted of 
thirty-six members, returned by seventeen districts — the City 
of Adelaide returning six, two districts one each, and the rest 
two each. The Electoral Act was subsequently amended, 
Adelaide being divided into two districts, and the Colony 
being re-arranged, so that there should be eighteen districts 
in all, each returning two members. It was found, however, 
after the lapse of a few years, that by the shifting of popula- 
lation and the opening out of new country for settlement, the 
old electoral divisions were very unequril ; and in the Parlia- 
ment of 1873 a new Electoral Act was passed, increasing the 
number of members of the Assembly from thirty-six to forty- 
six, with a new arrangement of the districts. The l*arliament 
now sitting is the first elected under the new Act ; and, so far, 
there is every reason to be satisfied with the Act. 

The only qualification for an elector for the House of As- 
sembly is that he shall be a British-born or naturalized subject 
of Her Majesty, of the age of twenty-one years, and that his 
name shall haxe been on the electoral roll of the district in 
Avhich he votes for six months. Aliens can be naturalized by 
taking the oath of allegiance, and paying a fee of half a 
guinea, after which, when they have been on the roll six 
months, they are eligible to vote. The qualification for a 
member of the Assembly is the same as that for an elector. 
Any man qualified to elect is qualified to be elected, with two 
exceptions. According to the Constitution Act, Judges and 
Ministers of Kcligion of all sects cannot sit in either branch of 

D 



34 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. All. 

the Legislature. 'J'hcre are seiiiid reasons for this restriction. 
It is always wise to keep the legislative and the judicial func- 
tions apart. The Judges are to interpret and administer the 
law, and not to make it. Xor would it increase the wise legis- 
lation of the Province to admit clergymen to the ranks of 
practical legislators. Indeed, we do not think that there are 
many clergymen who would care to leave their higher duties 
to come down and mingle in the ranks of those who fight tht3 
fierce political battles by wliich a young community pushes its 
wav to national progress and success. 

The Executive usually consists of tlu.' (Governor and the 
six Responsible Ministers of State, the Chief Justice, Sir 
Richard Davies Hanson, who administered the GJ(jvernment as 
Acting Governor before Governor Musgrave arrived, being at 
present the only person in tlie Colony not a 3Iinister who 
occupies a seat in the Executive Council. Formerly there 
were only five Ministers of State — the Chief Secretary, with a 
salary of £1300 ; the Attorney-General, £1000 ; the Treasurer, 
£900 ; the Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration, 
and the Commissioner of Public Works, £800 each. An Act 
recently passed, however, increased the number of 3Iinisters to 
six, and fixed all the salaries at £1000 each. The Chief Secre- 
tary is the official medium of communication between the 
jMinistry and the Governor on all departmental matters, and 
lias official precedence in Executive Council and in all State 
ceremonies. Although, in England, the person whom the 
Queen sends for to form a Government is almost always the 
Premier, it often happens otherwise in South Australia. The 
gentleman forming the ]Ministry can select what office in the 
Ministry he thinks proper, and often elects not to be the head 
of the Government ; but if a member of the Assembly, he 
usually, but not invariably, leads the House and represents 
the Government there. It is generally held that one of the 
Ministry ought to be a member of the Legislative Council, 
whatever office he may hold in the Government. At the 
present time the Chief Secretary is a member of the Council, 
and the Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration is the 
acknowledged Premier and leader of the Assembly. During the 




■$i 



Chap. YII.] THE MINISTRY. 35 

last Administration the Chief Secretary was leader in the 
House of Assembly, and the Commissioner of Crown Lands 
and Immigration represented the Grovernment in the Legisla- 
tive Council. The offices at present held by the Ministers are 
— Chief Secretary, Attorney-Greneral, Treasurer, Commissioner 
of Crown Lands and Immigration, Commissioner of Public 
Works, and Minister of Agriculture and Education. The 
titles of the first five are fixed by law, but that of the sixth 
Minister dejjends upon the Governor. At first the sixth 
Minister was called Minister of Justice and Education ; at 
present he is called Minister of Agriculture and Education. 

Each of these Ministers is at the head of a departmentj 
having a staff of officers under him, with a confidential 
Secretary, who is a permanent officer. The Chief Secretary 
has an Under-Secretary, the xlttorney-General a Secretary, 
the Treasurer an Under-Treasurer, and the two Commissioners 
and Minister of Agriculture and Education each a Secretary. 
In addition to these Secretaries, the most important officers 
in the Civil Service are the Auditor-General, and the Post- 
master-General, responsible to the Chief Secretary ; the 
Engineer-in-Chief, responsible to the Commissioner of Public 
Works ; the Surveyor-General, responsible to the Commis- 
sioner of Crown Lands and Immigration ; the Crown Solicitor, 
responsible to the Attorney-General ; and the President of 
the Marine Board, resjionsible to the Treasurer. The Agent- 
General in London is also responsible to the Treasurer. 

The frequent changes of Ministries have been the subject of 
imfavourable remarks from those who are not intimately ac- 
quainted with the actual working of Constitutional Government 
in these Colonies. There is no doubt that there are blemishes 
in our political system, which sometimes lead to waste of time 
and neglect of public business. The real fact is, political 
parties in this colony are not strongly defined, and we have 
not yet reached the wholesome system of governing by party, 
which has worked so successfully in the old country. We 
liavo but few of those " burning questions " which so strongly 
divide parties at home. We have no ecclesiastical questions 
to trouble us, and no foreign relations to disturb us. There 

D 2 



36 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. YII. 

is but little of what is known as loyalty to party. Any man 
who is strong enough to get a majority of members to join 
him on any question has no hesitation in turning out any 
Government in order that he may be " sent for " by the 
Governor to form a new administration. The result of this 
is that few Ministries remain in office more than about 
eighteen months or two years. Hence our frequent changes 
of Ministries. 

The jjower of the two Houses of Parliament is co-ordinate 
in all respects but one, and that is an important one. 
According to the Constitution Act, the Bills for appropriating 
any part of the revenue, or for imposing taxation, must 
originate in the House of Assembly. The Assembly have 
given a A^ide interpretation to this clause, and claim for 
themselves the supreme control of the finances of the Colony. 
They deny the right of the Council to alter a Money Bill in 
any way, but claim that they must either approve it as it is or 
reject it altogether. The Council deny that they are pro- 
hibited from altering a Money Bill, so long as they do not 
interfere with those clauses providing for raising or appro- 
priating money. The contentions between the two Houses 
on this point have frequently led to long and energetic 
discussions, and have sometimes threatened something like 
a dead-lock in legislation. Conferences between the Houses, 
however, and the exercise of good sense and a spirit of 
conciliation — a slight giving way on each side — have hitherto 
been sufficient to prevent differences reaching an extreme 
jioiut. If a crisis of this kind were to arise, there can be 
no doubt that sooner or later the Legislative Council would 
have to give way. All the traditions of Constitutional 
Government in England, on which our system is based, 
and by which it is interpreted, go to show that the power 
of the purse must rest with that branch of the Legislature 
directly responsible to the country, and on which the voice 
of the country can be immediately brought to bear. I do 
not think, however, that there is much danger of a question 
of privilege being forced to its ultimate issue. The good 
sense of each House will prevent this. Difficulties will 




M 
O 

B 



iiiii'i^iiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii i iiiiiiiiiii ijli 



Chap. VII.] PAKLIAMENT SUPEEME. ol 

arise in the future as they have arisen in the past, but 
they will be tided over. The state machine may jar and 
creak occasionally, but a little common-sense oil to lubricate 
the frictional parts will soon make it run smooth again. 

The power of the Parliament in the Colony is as nearly 
as possible absolute. It is true that the Governor represents 
the Imperial authority, and that all Acts passed in the Colony 
have either to be assented to by him in the name of the 
Queen, or be sent home for the signification of Her Majesty's 
pleasure, before they can have the force of law. But the 
Imperial j)ower of disallowance is very rarely exercised. Our 
Parliament is too wise to pass measures repugnant to the 
principles of Imperial legislation, and the practical result is 
that our legislation is not interfered with. We have success- 
fully worked out the experiment of a wholesome democracy — 
the government of the people by the people — as nearly as 
possible to its ultimate issues. We hold that the people can 
govern themselves, and ought to govern themselves, without 
any foreign intervention whatever. The Imperial authorities 
tacitly acknowledge this, and practically leave us to manage 
our affairs in our own way, without anything approaching to 
irritating interference. There is no country in the world 
where more political freedom exists than in South Australia. 
The English Government have given us this great Colony to 
do the best we can with it — to people it and to develop its 
resources. We pay nothing to the Mother Country for the 
privileges we enjoy ; all our public funds are spent in the 
Colony and for carrying on its advancement. The confidence 
reposed in us has not been misplaced. We have caused no 
anxiety to the Home Government, and that Government has 
exercised no arbitrary power over us. We are, as I have said 
before, a practical democracy, and yet there is not a more 
loyal people in the British Empire than we are. We are 
proud of our nationality and privileges as Britons — we are 
unwavering in our attachment to the Person and Throne of 
the Queen. We arc as much interested in all that relates to 
Her, and to the safety, dignity, and progress of Great Britain, 
as the people who live in Middlesex or Yorkshire are. We 



oS SOUTH AUSTRALIA : [Chap. VII, 

liiivo always resented tlio representations made by a knot 
of fussy people in England, who have taken npon tliemselves- 
to complain of the grievances of the Colonies, and to threaten 
the Home Government with their secession from British rnle. 
We know littk^ of thesi; grievances ; we seldom complain 
of ill-treatment, and we deprecate, as an insult to our inex- 
tinguislialde loyalty, any hint tliat we wish to separate from 
the grand old country, of whose history we feel proud, and 
with which it is our highest boast to be identified. We have 
shown that the most liberal political institutions are not 
incompatible with the profoundest loyalty to the Queen and 
Government. 

On the whole our liberal institutions have worked well. 
Good government has been carried out, and the country has- 
made progress. Indeed the marvel is that our State Machine- 
has worked so smoothly and successfully as it has. We have 
no j)rofessional legislators. The men who have been called to 
tlie Parliament are, for the most part, plain men, who know 
but little of politics as a science, and as a rule are but 
moderately educated. They are, I suppose, much on a par 
with the men who first assumed the Government of the 
United States, when they separated from the Mother C^ountry. 
Some of our members have shown singular aptitude for 
political work, and have educated themselves up to a high 
state of efficiency and usefulness. Not a few of them are able 
speakers — strong in debate, and lucid in exposition. They 
have shown, too, a large amount of administrative j^ower, as I 
shall show later on ; they have brought out and put to the 
test of practical success laws which have excited the surprise 
and admiration of other nations, and have been imitated by 
them. JJut perhaps the one fact, wliicli more than all others- 
redounds to their credit, is, that dm-ing a Parliamentary 
Government of nearly twenty years no whisper of corruption 
has been breathed against a single member. It is said that 
democratic institutions necessarily lead to political corruption. 
I can only say that it has not been so in this Colony. 
Members liave schemed, finessed, log-rolled, to serve their 
districts, but never tt» put money in their own pockets. 



CiiAr. \n.] PROCEEDINGS IX TAELIAMEXT. 39 

Indeed so jealously have they guarded the political business 
of the Parliament that, to avoid all suspicion of seeking their 
j)rivate ends, a majority has never been obtained large enough 
to vote for a moderate payment of members. We have 
members in very humble circumstances, Avho willingly devote 
their time and labour to the business of the country, without 
fee or reward, and not a breath of suspicion has been raised 
against their public honesty. 

The order observed with respect to the introduction and 
passing of Bills through Parliament is the same as that which 
prevails in the Imperial Legislature. Where Bills touch the 
revenue, a message has to come down from the Governor, and 
leave to introduce this has to be obtained in committee of the 
House of Assembly. If leave is granted, the Bill is then 
presented and read a first time without discussion, the debate 
on the principles of the measure being reserved for a second 
reading. When the second reading is carried, the Speaker 
leaves the chair, and the House goes into committee for 
the consideration of the separate clauses ; the Chairman of 
Committees taking the place of the Speaker. When the 
clauses have been carried, the House resumes, and the Chair- 
man reports to the Speaker that the Bill has passed through 
committee. A day is then fixed for the adoption of the 
report, when a clean reprint of the Bill, certified by the 
Chairman of Committees, is placed in the hands of the 
Speaker, and either the report is adopted or the Bill is re- 
committed for further consideration. When the report is 
finally adopted, a day is fixed for the third reading, on which 
discussion is allowed, though, as a rule, the third reading is 
carried without debate. The Bill is then finally passed and 
sent up to the Legislative Council, where it is immediately 
read a first time. Its subsequent course through the Council 
is similar to that through the Assembly. At the end of tlio 
Session the Governor comes down to prorogue Parliament, 
and in the presence of the two Houses he assents to all Bills 
that have been passed, reserving such as he deems necessary 
for Her Majesty's pleasure. 

On all general questions oi" public policy and administra- 



40 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. VII. 

tidu the Governor follows the advice of liis Responsible 
Ministers. If his oj)inion is at variance with theirs on any 
matter of importance, he can advise with them ; but in the 
end he is bound to follow their advice, or, as a matter of 
course, they resign their positions, and the Governor has to 
find other advisers. There is a good reason for this. The 
Ministry, and not the Governor, are responsible to the Parlia- 
ment and the country for their measures and administration. 
So well is tliis principle acknowledged that members are not 
allowed to refer in Parliament to the Governor in such a way 
as in the slightest manner to influence votes. In practical 
■working the Governor invariably follows the advice of his 
Ministers, leaving them to justify to the House the advice 
they tender. There is one point on Avhich the Governor is 
instructed by the Queen to exercise his own judgment, even 
though it be against the advice of his Ministers ; that is in 
the exercise of the prerogative of pardon. When a man is 
found guilty of a caj)ital offence, and sentenced to be hanged, 
the case is reviewed in Executive Council, and the Council 
are furnished with the advice of the Judge who tried the case. 
Ministers then express their opinion as to whether the law 
shall take its course, or whether there is any ground for 
mitigating the sentence. As a rule the Governor and his 
advisers agree on the matter ; but in the event of a disagree- 
ment the Governor is authorized by his instructions to follow 
his own judgment, but in such a case he has immediately to 
report the whole of the circumstances, with the reasons which 
led him to differ from his advisers, to the Colonial Office in 
London. I am not aware that any difficulty of this kind has 
ever arisen between the Governor and his Ministers since the 
establishment of Constitutional Government in this Colony. 
When prisoners have obtained the royal clemency, it has been 
on the advice of jMinisters. 

The supreme authority is vested in the Parliament, and is 
exercised through the Executive, The Governor, like the 
Queen at home, has very little actual power in the govern- 
ment, though, if he be a wise man, he exerts very considerable 
influence both political and social. He is bound, however, 



Chap. YII.] GOVEENOE FOLLOWS ADVICE OF MINISTEES- 41 

to follow the advice of his Ministers, or they resign, and a 
Governor who allowed his Ministers to resign for such a 
reason would have great difficulty in finding other gentlemen 
to take their places. No dead-lock of this kind has ever 
arisen, or is likely to arise, under the administration of such 
Governors as are sent out to these Colonies now. 



42 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. ^'III. 



CHAPTEE YIIL 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

Mode of Election for each House — The Ballot — Political Amenities. 

Our system of election is very simple, and eminently cal- 
cnlatecl to prevent political excitement and to maintain good 
order. It was not so in the beginning, for we brought with 
us the popular old English system of nomination on the 
hustings and open voting on the day of election, I need 
hardly say that, amongst a people springing from the British 
stock, we had at our elections a repetition of the scenes which 
used to make an English election such an amusing and a 
lively affair. Party feeling ran very high on the establish- 
ment of Eepresentative Government. There was one question 
^^hich more than any other sharply defined parties, and ex- 
cited a good deal of political antagonism until it was finally 
settled ; I mean the State Church question. I have already 
stated that one principle on which the Colony was founded 
was the entire separation of the Church from the State. 
When, however. Constitutional Government was established ^ 
a strong effort was made to obtain a modified form of State 
aid to churches. The most of the old colonists resisted this- 
attempt, and they were bravely supported by many who had 
(•()m(! to the Colony later on. The issue, however, became the 
battle cry at some of the early elections; and the scenes which 
took place were lively, if not somewhat rowdy. The sup- 
porters of the two parties were ranged on separate sides on 
the day of nomination ; and when feeling rose high, sticks, 
and stones were freely used instead of arguments. Not much 



Chap. VIII.] MODE OF ELECTION— THE BALLOT. 43 

mischief ^vas clone, hoAvevcr ; and a few broken heads and 
bloody noses were all the sears of honour which excited voters 
bore from the field of battle. 

But when written nominations of candidates were sub- 
stituted for nominations on the hustings, and vote by ballot 
■was substituted for 023en voting, the rowdy element at once 
disajjpeared from the elections, and everything became quiet 
and orderly. Indeed, the complaint now is that our elections 
are tame and lifeless to a fault, and that j)olitical apathy is in 
some respects worse than political excitement, even though 
attended with a few broken heads. Still, no one Avould like to 
go back to the old system. 

In an election for the Legislative Council the candidates are 
nominated in writing by the Eeturning Ofiicer for the Pro- 
vince (at present Mr. Sheriff Boothby), Avho, in a public 
meeting called for the pur^xjse, reads out the names of the 
candidates with the names of their proposers and seconders. If 
there are more candidates than vacancies, which is usually the 
ease, the proceedings are adjourned till a day named, when the 
election is to take place. Candidates are not allowed to 
address the electors within twenty-four hours of the beginning 
of the election. The Seturning Ofiicer for the Province has 
his deputies in every polling place to receive the votes. In 
the polling room there are several private booths, into which 
one elector only is allowed to pass at a time to record his vote. 
The elector enters a polling booth, and gives his name and 
residence to the clerk. If his name is on the roll, he obtains a 
voting paper containing the names of all the candidates in 
aljihaljctical order, opposite to which are squares — thus [^, 
All he has to do is to place a cross inside the square opposite 
the names of the candidates for whom he wishes to record his 
vote — thus |x|. If a voter crosses more squares than there are 
vacancies, or places the cross outside the square, or places any 
other mark or writing on the voting paper except the cross 
inside the square, his paper is informal, and his vote is lost. 
The instructions are clear and simple enough, and yet at every 
election a considerable proportion of the papers are found on. 
scrutiny to be informal, and are of course rejected. Some 



44 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. YIII. 

enthusiastic oloctors sign their names to the paper, others draw 
lines through some of tlie names ; others record their effusive 
political feeling by such remarks as " Jones is a duffer," or 
" (Smith for ever." All such papers are incontinently con- 
demned and rejected at the scrutiny, for the very obvious 
reason that the object of tlie ballot is to preserve absolute 
secrecy as to tlie manner in which any elector votes. The 
elector having obtained his voting paper, and his name having 
been ticked off on the roll, lie retires into one of the private 
booths, where he finds a pencil, and there, in complete privacy, 
he puts his cross against the candidates he wishes to see 
returned. He then folds his paper and hands it to the 
Returning Officer, who in his presence, without opening it, 
places it in a locked box. The key of this box is held by 
the Returning Officer for the Province, who alone can open 
the box. When the voting paper has been placed in the 
box, the elector's duties are over. His vote is recorded, and 
the act is irrevocable. All tliese boxes are sealed by the 
Deputy Returning Officer and forwarded to xVdelaide as soon 
as possible. 

On the day appointed for the scrutiny the Returning 
Officer, attended by as many clerks as he requires, proceeds to 
open the boxes. Each candidate may be rejiresented at the 
scrutiny by a person to whom he gives written authority to act 
on his behalf, but he cannot be present in person. His per- 
sonal interference at an election ceases some hours before the 
voting begins, and he appears on the scene no more until the 
result of the election is publicly declared. 

The scrutiny is a long and tedious affair, extending in the 
case of elections for the Legislative Council over several days. 
When the work is done, a day is appointed for the declaration 
of the poll, and the result is made known. The candidates 
present, successful and unsuccessful, then return thanks ; a 
vote of thanks is moved to the Returning Officer, who 
responds ; and tliree cheers for tlie Queen chjse the elections. 
The successful candidates are from that time, and during the 
period they are in the Council, entitled to the designation of 
" Honourable " within the Colony ; and when the Governor 



Chap. YIIL] POLITICAL AMENITIES. 45 

addresses the two Houses, lie addresses them as " Honourable 
Gentlemen and Gentlemen." 

The order observed in the election of members for the 
Assembly is substantially the same as that I have described, 
except that the scrutiny takes place and the poll is declared at 
the head j)olling place in each district. It may be asked how 
candidates are brought into contact with the electors, so that 
they may have the opportunity of expounding their political 
sentiments. This is done before the day of nomination. 
Public meetings are held in the several districts, sometimes 
two of them in one day, when the candidates make their 
speeches, and are interrogated by the free and independent 
electors. Some of these meetings are racy enough, and are 
amongst the few excitements enjoyed by the people living in 
the remoter districts. As a rule candidates travel in company, 
and are on terms of perfect good humour and fellowship. They 
often ride in the same conveyances, stay at the same inns, eat 
at the same tables, and "shout" for each other and their 
friends in pleasant "nobblers." But on the platform they 
speak of each other freely enough — pointing out each other's 
political sins and shortcomings in vigorous language, and 
chaffing each other unmercifully. It is, however, as a rule all 
done in a " Pickwickian " sense, and difference of opinion and 
keen political strife do not generally destroy personal friend- 
ship and good fellowship. The bitter rancour of political 
antagonism which is seen in some countries is comparatively 
unknown in South Australia. It is not that our public men 
do not feel strongly on political questions, but we are so closely 
mixed up in social and business life that we cannot afford to 
allow political asperities to pass beyond the region of politics. 
I have often seen two or more gladiators denouncing each other 
in the House in the strongest language allowed by rules of 
Parliamentary debates meet immediately after in the refresh- 
ment room, when one would smilingly say to the other, " Have 
a drink ?" and the men who a few minutes ago were figura- 
tively flying at each other's throats are hobnobbing like old 
friends, as they probably arc. This is one of the pleasantest 
and most creditable features in a political life. 



4G SOl'TH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. IX. 



CHAPTEE IX. 

LOCAL G0YERN3IENT, 

Corporations and District Councils, Powers of each — Eoad Boards — Sub- 
sidizing Local Eates by Grants from rublic Funds. 

"VVe have two kinds of iustitutions for looal solf-nfovoniment 
— Corporations and District Councils, and for the latter the 
Colonv is indebted to Governor Sir Henry Young. Very 
early in the history of the Colony the City of Adelaide pos- 
sessed a corporation for the control and management of muni- 
cipal affairs. At first it ^vas divided into councillors and 
iildermen — the mayor being chosen by the council as the chief 
magistrate. The corporation system was adopted by other 
ventres of populations — the Adelaide model being follow'ed. 
In 1862, however, a new Corporation Act was passed, which 
made two essential alterations ; the office of alderman was 
4ibolished, and the mayor was to be elected by the whole 
l)ody of ratepayers, and not by the council. The result of 
tliis has been that mayors are sometimes selected from 
members of the council, l)ut more frequently fr(un outside. 
District councils consist of bodies of men elected by the rate- 
payers living within a pr()claimc(l district. They have charge 
of public matters within the district, more especially with 
district roads. These districts may be proclaimed on the 
memorial of a certain number of ratepayers, addressed to the 
Governor, and publislied in the Gazette. Counter memorials 
may be presented by those opposed to the establishment of 
a council in a given district. When a district council is 
formed, it is invested witli p(;wer to levy a rate not exceeding 




H 



Chap. IX.] LOCAL GOVEENMENT. 47 

one shilling in the pound on the assessed value of the pro- 
perty in the district. This amount is supplemented by an 
equal amount — pound for pound — from the public Treasury. 
They who tax themselves for roads and public works are 
assisted out of the general revenue. The same rule applies 
to corporations — the Government must have proof, however, 
that the money has been actually exj^ended on such works 
before they grant the subsidy. The system has worked re- 
markably well. It has fostered tlie important principles of 
self-government, and has trained the people to help themselves 
if they would obtain help from the public funds of the Colony. 
The members of the Council are elected annually, and, on 
the whole, they do their work very well. There is a large 
number of these councils scattered all over the Colony, and 
they have exercised an important influence on the progress 
of the Province. 

In addition to these district councils, who have charge of 
local roads, there are road boards, who have charge of what 
are called the main roads of the Colony, and who are supplied 
Mith funds to make and maintain in repair these trunk lines. 
In the first instance, there was only one central main road 
Ijoard, which had charge of all the main roads, and the members 
of which were appointed partly by the district councils, and 
partly nominated by the Government. This board has been 
of immense service to the Colony. The hundreds of miles 
of fine macadamized roads radiating in all directions from the 
metropolis, and extending for hundreds of miles, are the admi- 
ration of all strangers who visit South Australia. We owe 
these to the gratuitous labours of members of the Central 
Eoad Board, who have done their work well. As the Colony 
extended its settlement, however, the fact was realised that one 
board was not sufficient for the duties thrown upon it ; there- 
fore an Act which has recently passed, and which has just come 
into operation, has created several of these boards — the first 
members of which have been appointed by the Government. 
Provision is made for their future appointment by election. 
There is a growing feeling, however, that, wherever prac- 
ticable, iron railways should take the place of macadamized 



48 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. IX. 

roads. The roads iuvolve a continual annual expense for 
maintenance, which grows in proportion as the roads are 
extended. The railways, after a very short time, support 
themselves. I shall have something more to say on this 
subject when I come to deal with our railway system as it is, 
and as it is intended to be. 




o 



CM 



Chap. X.] CONSTITUTION OF COUKTS. 49 



CHAPTEE X. 

THE JUDICATURE. 

Courts — Constitution of Supreme Court — Judges, their Duties and Salaries 
— Local Court of Appeals — Court of Insolvency — Local Courts — • 
Police Court — Coroners — The Grand Jury — Justices of the Peace — 
Police — No Military or Volunteer Force — Ilifle Clubs and Drill. 

As a matter of course no community can exist without laws, 
and laws are of no use unless they are faithfully administered. 
Judicial officers for the administration of these laws were 
therefore very early appointed in the history of the Colony. 
We have several classes of courts, the highest of which is 
the Supreme Court of the Province. It possesses the powers 
of the Court of Queen's Bench, the Court of Common Pleas, 
and the Court of Exchequer, though these are modified to 
some extent to meet the special circumstances of the Colony. 
We have also a Court of Equity, answering as far as prac- 
ticable to the Court of Chancery at home. The Supreme 
Court has Three Judges — a Chief Justice, and a Second 
and a Third Judge. In addition to his other duties, one 
of the Judges, at present the Second, has also to discharge 
the duties of the Judge-in-Equity. The Chief Justice is at 
present also Judge of tlie Vice-Admiralty Court, though his 
'duties in this respect are by no means onerous. The salary 
■of Chief Justice is £2000 a year, and the salaries of the Second 
and Third Judges £1700 a year. The duties of the present 
Second Judge are very much confined to the Court of Equity, 
though he sits in banco with the other Judges. The ordinarv 
<iriminal and civil business is divided pretty equally between 
■the Chief Justice and the Third Judge. The character of the 



50 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. X. 

Bcncli is decidedly high, the whole of the Judges being men 
of eminent ability, in whose judgment and impartiality the 
highest confidence is placed. There is a Local Court of 
Appeals, consisting of the Governor and the Executive Council, 
except the Attorney- General. This Court rarely sits, but its 
simple machinery can be put in operation at any time. The 
highest Court of Appeal for the Colonies is the Judicial Com- 
mittee of the Privy Council ; and cases are frequently sent 
home on ajjpeal to that Court. As in other civilized com- 
munities, we have sometimes to complain of the expensive- 
delays in the Supreme Court ; and to remedy this, it is pro- 
posed to adapt the English Judicature Act to this Colony — 
fusing law and equity ; and doing what is necessary to cheapen 
and simplify legal jn-oceedings. 

We have also a Court of Insolvency, presided over by a 
highly competent legal gentleman, with a salary which has. 
just been raised to £1200 per annum. In several districts of 
the Colony Local Courts are established, having both criminal 
and civil jurisdiction, and combining, to some extent, the- 
English County Courts and the Eecorders' Courts. These- 
Courts are presided over by paid Special Magistrates, who, for 
the most part, are laymen, not technically learned in the law. 
These Local Courts can adjudicate on personal actions up to 
£100. A Special Magistrate and two Justices, or a Special 
Magistrate, with a jury of four, constitutes a Court of Full 
Jurisdiction. A Special Magistrate alone constitutes a Court 
of Limited Jurisdiction, and can hear and decide cases where 
the amount at issue is under £20. On its criminal side, a 
Court of Full Jurisdiction can hear and determine cases of 
felony and petty larceny, where the punishment does not ex- 
ceed two years, or the fine does not exceed £100 ; and also mis- 
demeanors and minor offences. Attempts have been made to 
enlarge the powers of Local Courts, where the procedure is 
very simple and inexpensive, but so far they have not been 
successful. It has been considered by some that it would be 
Aviscr to simplify and cheai)en the })roccdure in the Supreme 
Court than to enlarge the jurisdiction of the Local Courts, 
which are presided on er by non-jH-ofessional gentlemen. Th& 



Chap. X.] LOCAL COUETS. 51 

class of (Special iMagistrates, as a whole, are men of consider- 
able attainments, who bring great intelligence to bear on the 
discharge of their judicial functions. Cases of appeal from 
their decisions to the higher Courts are not frequent, and on 
the whole substantial justice is done. Still it is questionable 
whether it would be wise to trust them with enlarged juris- 
diction. It would be better to have justice cheaply and quickly 
administered in the Supreme Court, by thoroughly qualified 
Judges, than to give much larger powers to the Local Courts 
as they are at present constituted. 

In the City of Adelaide there is a Police Court, constituted 
under a special Act, and presided over by an able Magistrate. 
This Court sits from day to day, and deals with minor offences, 
such as are common enough in all centres of population, and 
dispenses summary justice on offenders. Serious crimes are 
investigated in this, as well as in the Magistrates' Courts in 
the country, and persons charged with such crimes are com- 
mitted to take their trial in the Supreme Court of the Colony. 
In these preliminary investigations the evidence is recorded, 
and witnesses are bound over in their own recognizances to 
appear at the trial and to give evidence. The Police and 
other Magistrates are empowered to grant bail in certain 
classes of offences, and, if they decline to do so, an application 
can be made to a Judge in Chambers, who can grant it at his 
discretion. 

There is no official C^oroner in the Colony, though for 
many years there was such an officer for the City of Adelaide 
and its suburbs. All Justices of the Peace are, in virtue of their 
commission. Coroners, and any one of them can hold an inquest 
into the cause of death or fire on being moved thereto by the 
2:)olice. Indeed a Justice can, of his own authority, summon a 
jury and hold an inquest ; but the rule is that, until a case of 
death or fire is rej)orted to him by the j)olice, he does not 
move. After investigating any case rejjorted to him, he can, if 
he tliink proper, give a certificate to the police, a copy of 
whicli is transmitted to the Attorney-General, to the effect 
that having investigated the circumstances he does not con- 

E 2 



52 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. X. 

sider an inquest necessary. When an inqncst is held, the 
(Joroner takes do\vn the evidence, and transmits it to the 
Attorney-General. Under the Act he lias power to commit 
any person criminally implicated in the canse of a death, 
for trial either on the charge of murder or manslanghter ; and, 
on his warrant, the person so implicated is committed to gaol 
to await his trial. He has the same power with reference to a 
person who has criminally caused a fire. 

The Grand Jury system has long been abolished in the 
Colony, the Attorney-General now discharging the functions 
once resting with the jury. It is his business to carefully look 
through tlie depositions ; and if, in his opinion, there is not 
sufficient ground for putting a person committed by a Magis- 
trate or Coroner on his trial, he reports it to the Judge in 
Court, and the prisoner is discharged. I may state that the 
distinction between barristers and solicitors does not obtain in 
this Colony. Any lawyer can act in the double capacity. 
English barristers can act as solicitors, and Colonial solicitors 
as barristers. In legal firms a common rule is to have one 
member for the office work and another for court business — 
one to write and the other to talk. The men at the head of 
the bar at the present time are Colonially trained lawyers. 
None of the present Judges were English barristers : two were 
English attorneys, and one a Colonial practitioner. 

A great deal of the magisterial business of the Colony is 
performed by unpaid Justices of the Peace, especially in the 
country districts. The Justices, as a rule, are men of sound 
sense, though making no pretension to superior education or 
technical legal knowledge. They principally deal with com- 
mon offences, where they can hardly go wrong. For their 
general guidance a " Justice's Manual " has been prepared by 
the Government, and each Justice on his appointment receives 
a copy of this useful work. Unlike the county magistrates in 
England, they have no clerk to advise them, so that in the ad- 
ministration of the laws they are left solely to the exercise of 
their own judgment, which is generally sufficient to guide them 
to a fair and just decision on the cases on which they have to 
adjudicate. These gentlemen do a large amount of work for 



Chap. X.] THE POLICE FOECE. 53 

the country gratuitously, for which the social distinction con- 
ferred by the position is considered a sufficient reward. 

The police force of the Colony is under the supreme con- 
trol of a Commissioner, who has inspectors under him. The 
force is divided into two classes, mounted troopers and foot 
police. The pay of the troopers is higher than that of the 
ordinary constables, and the result is that the position is much 
sought after. They are a remarkably fine body of intelligent 
men — some of them being of good education and family. They 
are well mounted on valuable horses — Commissioner Hamilton 
taking great pride in his men and their horses. Something- 
approaching to military discipline is maintained in the force. 
The uniform of the troopers is very handsome and imposing. 
Indeed, so struck was H.K.H. the Duke of Edinburgh with it 
that at his request a full suit was prepared for him to take 
home. The men are all supplied Avith swords and revolvers ; 
and Avhen on parade, they present a fine picture of athletic 
strength and careful drill. The bulk of the troopers are dis- 
persed through the Colony — inspectors having charge of given 
districts. 

The foot police, who are chiefly employed in the city, are 
also a fine body of men, though not equal to the troopers. 
They are under the immediate charge of the Metropolitan 
Inspector, who lays and conducts informations in the Police 
Court. A portion of the foot police, who have shown extra 
skill and intelligence, are told off for detective duty, and some 
of them have displayed considerable ingenuity in the detection 
of serious crimes. Indeed the whole force is a credit to the 
Colony. Their numbers seem very disportionate to the popu- 
lation, and especially to the wide area which they have to cover ; 
but the community is a very orderly one, and needs but little 
police supervision or control. 

We have no military or volunteer force in the Colony. For 
some years a company of regulars were kept here, and at one 
time the volunteer movement was taken up with great enthu- 
siasm. The troops, however, were removed and the volunteers 
died out. There is at the present time a growing feeling in 
favour of reviving: the volunteer force, and it is not at all im- 



54 SOUTir Al'STEATJA. [Chap. X. 

])rMl>:il)l(' that it may \><' rcoricanizod. liiflo clubs are kept uj) in 
sonic parts of the Coh)ny for competition in rifle practice ; and we 
have several very superior marksmen amongst us who would not 
be afraid to compete at AVimbledon if it were not so. far away. 
In friendly comi)etitions here some lireat scores have been made 
by our crack marksmen. It is felt that it is hardly creditable 
that a wealthy Colony lilce this should be absolutely without 
any defensive force at all. AVe have, however, amongst us a 
considerable number of young men Avho have been trained to 
the use of arms, and know something of drill ; and, if the 
necessity should arise to organize a force, they would form a 
useful nucleus around w^hich others could gather, and from 
whom they could learn something of soldiership. The present 
(lovernment intend to give great prominence to drill in the 
Xew Education Eeculations. 




a 

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Ohap. XL] PASTOEAL PUESUITS. 55 





CHAPTER XL 

THE LAND. 

Pastoral Pursuits — Squatter's Life — Wealtliy Sheep-farmers, their Hospitality 
— Valuation and Assessment of Runs — Agriculture — First Attempts at 
AVheat Growing — Land Sold — Land under Cultivation — Table of Land 
Cultivated under Wheat, Yield in Bushels, and Average per Acre — ■ 
Small Cost of Cultivating Wheat — Ridley's Reaj^ing Machine. 

PASTORAL PURSUITS. 
I HAVE already referred to the immense area of land now 
com23rised in the Colony of South Australia. Sir Charles 
Wentworth Dilke, Baronet, in his " Greater Britain," describes 
it as " The widest of all the British Colonies, and nearly as 
large as English Hindostan." Very early in the history of the 
Colony land was taken up in what were then considered very 
remote districts for pastoral pursuits, including the breeding 
of sheep and cattle. The settlement of the country in tliis 
way was closely connected with that daring exploration for 
which the Colony has obtained a high and deserved reputation, 
as I shall show in a subsequent chapter on South Australian 
explorers and exploration. The beginning of this industry 
was very simple and unpretentious. Young men, with just 
capital sufficient to purchase a few hundreds or thousands of 
sheep, a dozen horses, a year or two's rations, and to hire a 
shepherd or two, sallied out into what was then a te7Ta incognita 
to seek their fortune. They settled on suitable country, erected 
a rude liut, and thus laid the foundation of their fortunes. The 
life at first was a hard and rough one, involving many priva- 
tions ; but it was not altogether without its compensating plea- 
sures. There was plenty of work, and tliat of itself ke('i)s life 



56 SOUTH AUSTEATJA. [Chap. XI. 

from stagnating. There was the pleasure of seeing the flocks 
and herds increase. The himhing season brings a pressure of 
work which requires the best energies of all liands on the 
station. Shearing too is always a scene of busy activity, and 
getting tlic wool to the market before roads were known taxed 
the ingenuity of the cleverest of the " squatters," as pastoral 
lessees of the Crown were early eallcil, and the designation 
sticks to them to the present day, and will do so so long as 
jiastoral pursuits are carried on. 

The squatter's life in the beginning was not without a spice 
of danger, which required continual vigilance and activity to 
guard against, and a brave heart and a strong arm to meet when 
it actually came. In those days the natives were enemies not 
to be despised ; and before they learnt to fear or trust the white 
man, they were not slow to resent his intrusion upon their hunt- 
ing grounds. They plundered his huts, killed his sheep and 
cattle, and sometimes attacked himself or his shepherds. He 
had, therefore, to be always on the watch to protect himself 
and his property. The aborigines had been accustomed to kill 
for food all the indigenous animals found in their country : and 
it was hard to teach them that they had no right to touch the 
sheep and cattle of the squatter. They learned this in the end 
by a rough and bitter kind of experience ; but in the early 
days of squatting they were a constant dread and annoyance 
to the settler. 

As the flocks increased, the squatter had to pusli out into 
new country, and runs were extended farther and farther 
inland. Leases of wide stretches of country, compreheuding 
in some cases hundreds of square miles, were granted on a 
mere nominal payment, and many of the squatters grew rich 
rapidly. All pastoral leases are held with the condition that 
wliencver the land is required for agricultural j)urposes, the 
squatter must turn out on receiving six months' notice, he 
being paid for the substantial improvements made on his run. 
Tlic squatter is therefore the pioneer of the agriculturist. 
When the land is wanted for agriculture, he has to retire 
farther into the interior. 

Many of the wealthiest men in the Colony at the present 




_J^^__L_J 1 ^tti T Y ' I 



Chap. XI.] WEALTHY SHEEP-FAEIklEES. 57 

time, and several ^\bo liave returned to spend their handsome 
fortunes and to end their days in the okl country, began here 
in a very humble way. Some of them went out, as I have 
mentioned, with a few hundreds or thousands of sheep, and 
lived far from the abodes of men for years, and only occasion- 
ally visiting Adelaide to purchase rations or to dispose of 
their wool; and some did not ev6n do that, but trusted all 
to agents in town. Others were only shepherds, and by 
saving their earnings — there were neither temptations nor 
means of spending them at first — they got a few sheep to- 
gether, and were eventually enabled to take up a small run 
for themselves ; and the first start made, in many cases 
success came rapidly. Shepherds Avho knew all about the 
management of sheep made good squatters ; they Avent on 
increasing their flocks and taking up new country, and their 
Avealth increased in geometrical ratio. They lived in the 
quietest possible way, spending but a mere fraction of their 
income. I could point to a score of such men who have made 
large fortunes, which they have well earned, and, having 
handed over the hard work of the station to their sons, have 
retired to enjoy their well-earned leisure and to spend their 
ample fortunes. As a class, they are honourable and kind- 
hearted men. A squatter's hospitality has become proverbial 
in Australia. Having had many opportunities of testing it 
in the far bush, I can speak from personal experience. The 
best the station afibrds — accommodation, food, and horses — 
are freely placed at the disposal of any one who knows how 
to behave himself. There are, of course, exceptions, and a 
churlish squatter may sometimes be met Avith, but very rarely, 
I have more than once been surprised and delighted to meet in 
some far-distant and out-of-the-way place an elegant and hos- 
pitable family — the sons manly and intelligent young fellows, 
and the daughters possessing the accomplishments of elegant 
young ladyhood, and a few other accomplishments which are 
only to be picked up in the bush, such as catching and saddling 
a half wild horse and joining in a kangaroo hunt on his back. 
This is not often the case, for young ladies' horses on a station 
are generally not as well broken as they are well ridden. 



58 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XT. 

A few years au'o tlic leases Avliicli the squatters bad held 
•on exceedingly low terms Avere subjected to a new valuation 
on their renewal. Tlie Surveyor-General, Mr. CJ. W. Goyder, 
a highly coni})etent man, was appointed valuatt)r, and he per- 
formed this onerous and unpleasant duty with great impar- 
tiality. His work was a very important one, and required for 
its proper discbarge not only high professional ability, but 
integrity and firmness of character; and these, it is admitted, 
3Ir. Goyder possessed in an eminent degree. His largely 
increased valuations astonished some of the squatters, and 
made them indignant ; but be was supported by public 
opinion throughout the Colony, and the result has shown 
that the poor ojjpressed squatters, as they represented them- 
selves, were very well able to pay the increased assessment. 
Unfortunately for the squatters, but fortunately for the 
Government, the valuations were succeeded by two years of 
dnnight, which tried the lessees severely, and under Avliich 
ssome of them fell poor and almost hopeless. Had the valua- 
tions been made during the years of drought, they would 
have been fixed much lower indeed than the actual value 
would have justified. Indignant as the squatters were, none 
•of them were killed by the valuations. Some of them fell 
from the drought, but those who were able to live over the 
had times became wealthier than ever. At the present time 
the jJastoral interest is in a highly jn-osperons state. A sub- 
sequent part of this work gives the full statistics of this 
industry, from which it will be seen how wonderful has been 
the progress made by our " Shepherd Kings." 

AGRICULTURE. 
When the first colonists arrived, the country was parched 
iijj, the ground hard-baked and apparently unworkable. Yov 
some time the early settlers were content to sit down with the 
•conviction that agriculture on such a soil, and with such a 
-climate, was impossible. A great deal of suffering resulted 
from this false inference. The most important of all the 
necessaries of life had to be imported at a ruinous cost from 
Tasmania; and fiour was actually sold in Adelaide at £100 



Chap. XI.] FIEST ATTEMPTS AT WHEAT-GEOWING. 59 

per ton. Some daring colonists, liowcver, tliouglit they 
would honestly try whether wheat could not be produced on 
the Adelaide plains. The land was tilled, the seed deposited, 
and the result anxiously looked for. Happily, wheat-growing 
became a success from the beginning. Writing, as I do now, 
Avhen the result of the last harvest enabled us to export some- 
thing like 180,000 tons of brcadstuffs, after supplying our 
own wants, it seems almost absurd to think that the early 
fathers and founders of the Colony should even have enter- 
tained a doubt as to the productiveness of the soil and 
climate. For a lonir time, agriculture Avas confined within 
a radijis of say twenty miles of Adelaide, and persons " who 
ought to know " gravely asserted that beyond that radius 
agriculture was impossible. These persons, however, proved 
to be false prophets. During the last harvest, country 150 
miles and more to the north of the metropolis has, without 
the cultivation necessary in England, produced splendid 
wheat, averaging from fifteen to eighteen bushels to the acre. 
And along the wliole distance from Adelaide to these northern 
areas, the land is covered with industrious and prosperous 
farmers. 

Up to the close of the year 1874 the total area of land 
alienated from the Crown amounted to 4,621,956 acres, 
4,504,197 acres having been purchased in fee simple for cash, 
and 416,650 acres under the system of deferred payments — 
showing twenty-two and one-third acres per head of the 
jjopulation. Through the kindness of the Government 
Statist, I am able to bring down these figures to the present 
date. The total area alienated by cash sales is 4,319,102^ 
acres, for which has been realised £5,452,581 9s. 5d. Selec- 
tions of land on credit have been made to tlio number of 
2076, comprising an area of 714,232^ acres, the purchase- 
money of which amounted to £934,519 13s. At the close 
of the year there were 1,330,484 acres under cultivation, of 
which there were under wheat 839,638 acres. The climate 
is capricious for wheat, and the average yield per acre I'rom 
year to year varies considerably. 'J'he 2)lagues from which 
farmers suffer are drought, red rust, takeall, and, very rarely, 



60 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



[Chap. XL 



locusts. Tlie following tabic gives for a series of years the 

number of acres under wheat, the produce in bushels, the 

average j^er acre, and the average price per bushel in 
Adelaide : — 











Averai 


?e per 


Average 


Season. 


Acrfs 


Acres under 


Produce. 


Ac 


le. 


I'rice. 


CultivaUd. 


AVheat. 


Bushels. 


Hush 


. lbs. 


s. d. 


1858-9 


2G4,4o2 


188,703 


2,109,544 


11 


11 


— 


1859-GO . 


361,884 


218,216 


2,103,411 


9 


38 


— 


ISGO-Gl . 


428,816 


273,672 


3,576,593 


13 


4 


• — 


18GI-2. 


4S6,(iG7 


310,636 


3,410,756 


10 


59 


— 


1SG2-:j 


494,511 


320,160 


3,841,824 


12 





4 10 


18G3-4 


555.91)8 


335,758 


4,691,919 


14 





7 10 


18G4-5 


587,775 


390,88G 


4,252,949 


11 





8 7 


1S6.VG 


660,569 


410,603 


3,587,800 


8 


44 


6 2 


18G6-7 . 


739,714 


457,628 


6,561,451 


14 


20 


4 5 


18G7-S 


810,734 


550,456 


2,579,879 


4 


20 


* 7 1 


18GS-1) 


808,231 


533,035 


5,173,970 


9 


42 


5 


1869-70 . 


850,576 


532,135 


3,052,320 


5 


45 


5 3 


1870-71 . 


95'.»,0it<; 


604,761 


6,961,164 


11 


30 


5 


1871-2 


. 1,044,656 


692,508 


3,967,069 


4 


20 


5 6 


1872-3 


. 1,164,846 


759,811 


8,735,912 


11 


30 


5 5 


1873-4 


. 1,225,073 


784,784 


6,178,816 


7 


52 


5 7 


1874-r) . 


. 1,330,484 


839,638 


9,862,693 


11 


45 


— 



A moderate estimate of £10 per ton gives £1,800,000 sterling 
as the result of the harvest, after* supplying all local wants. 
This fact shows liow important the agricultural interest is to 
the Colony generally. To this it must be added that South 
Australian wheat and flour are the finest produced in the 
world. This is seen by the fact that in London it brings 
the very highest price, and in the other Colonies it is bought 
to mix with their own cereal produce. 

The cost of cultivating wheat in South Australia is very 
small compared with that of other countries. Anything like 
scientific farming is rarely, if ever, attempted in the Colony. 
The old saying, '• Tickle the land with a hoe and it laughs 
with a harvest," is almost literally true hero. Virgin soil 
is ploughed up three or four inches deep, and often, without 
even fallowing it, the seed is thrown in, and, should the 
season be moderately favourable, a fair crop rewards the small 
labour of the husbandman. This goes on from year to year — 
anything like a rotation of crops is never attempted. There 
are farms in South Australia which have been annually 
cropped with wheat for twenty or twenty-five years, and 
yet last harvest they produced as abundantly as ever. 




W*^ iP^ A£.t--< 




Chap. XL] SMALL COST OF CULTIVATING WHEAT. 61 

Though, the farming is what wouki l)e called slovenly in 
England, yet as a whole, and over a series of years, it answers 
the purpose of the agriculturist. There are many farmers 
who have grown rich in this way. Beginning on a small 
scale, with a section or two of eighty acres, they have, from 
the profits of one year, enlarged their freeholdings for the 
next, until several of them now have very large and valuable 
estates, which yield them a handsome income. 

From the table published aboA^e, it will be seen that the 
average price of wheat is low, and nothing could enable the 
farmer to thrive, with his comparatively small average per 
acre, and the low price at which he is compelled to sell, but 
the cheaj^ness of production. The expense of cultivation is 
small, and the gathering in of the crop, Mhen it is fully ripe, 
costs a mere trifle. The greatest invention ever produced 
for the agriculturists of South Australia is Ridley's reaping 
machine, which reaps and thrashes the wheat by one simple 
process. A machine of this kind could be used only where 
the climate is dry, and where the grain is allowed to ripen 
and harden in the ear. In some of the Australian Colonies 
the machine cannot be used, in consequence of the moisture 
in the air. In South Australia, however, as soon as the crop 
is fully ripe, the machine is put into the field, and the wheat 
is reaped and thrashed with amazing rajiidity, and at a very 
small expenditure. It may safely be said that the cost of 
farming has been reduced to the minimum in South Australia, 
It is curious to find that some of the most successful farmers 
are men who have been brought up to other trades. Thev 
seem to pick up the art and mystery of the business almost 
instinctively — proving clearly that in this Province no very 
great skill or experience is required to make a successful 
agriculturist. One result of this is, that there is a class of 
independent yeomanry settling on their own freehold lands, 
where they enjoy all the comforts of independence and 
abundance. Below I explain at length the provisions of the 
existing Land Acts, showing the easy terms on which any 
industrious man may get on the land, and, in the course of 
a few years, make it his own. 



C2 SOUTH AUSTEAIJA. [Chap. XTE. 



CPIAPTER XII. 

THE LAND LAWS. 

Upset Price of Land, One Pound per Acre — Division of Land into Hundreds 
— Original Land Laws — Cash Purchasers — Evils of Laud Broking — 
Strangways's Act — Credit Selections — Surveys — Conditions of Present 
Land System — Success of System in Northern Areas — New Townships 
and Ports. 

One principle on which South Australia was started as a 
Colony was the sale of the Crown lands at a price not under 
one pound per acre, the proceeds from the sale to be devoted 
to the introduction of immigrants. 

This princijile, however, was soon modified, and a large 
portion of the money obtained for the lands was devoted to 
the construction of roads and other public works, and sub- 
sequently to meeting the claims of the National Debt. The 
minimum price of one pound per acre has been strenuously 
adhered to. Waste lands, as the unsold Government lands are 
called, divided into Hundreds, and sub-divided into sections of 
about eighty acres each, were offered at auction at the upset 
price of one pound. Competition often ran up the price much 
beyond this amount, and hard-working farmers had but little 
chance in competition with mere speculators, who bought the 
land at a price which the farmer could not afford to give in 
cash, and subsequently let it to him at a good rental, with a 
right of purchase at twice or three times the amount of what it 
had originally cost. On the fall of the hammer, twenty per 
cent, of the purchase money liad to be paid down, and the 
remainder in one month from tlic sale. Lands that had been 



Chap. XII.] LAND LAWS. 63 

offered at auction and passed the hannner could be taken up 
at any time at one pound per acre. 

ScA^eral attempts were made to alter the Avbole system of 
the land laws, which had been worked so as to benefit only a 
very small class of speculators at the expense of the agri- 
culturists. The average price per acre which the Government 
had received for the large territory alienated from the Crown 
was under 25s., but the price to the farmer, who had in many 
instances to purchase second-hand, was 50s. or 60s., or more — 
the difference between the two prices going into the hands of 
the speculators, for the accommodation they gave to the agri- 
culturists who had no money. Objectionable as the system 
was, it is only fair to say that many farmers have grown rich 
under it, and several speculators have done both themselves- 
and the farmers good, by rendering assistance to jioor men 
who wanted to get on the land. 

It Avas felt, however, that the Government might do for 
moneyless farmers what the capitalists and speculators had 
been doing, and might do it on much more reasonable terms. 
Instead of demanding cash, it was resolved to sell the lands on 
credit, with deferred payments, taking sufficient precautions of 
course that the land so disjjosed of should be occupied and 
cultivated. After great consideration, a measure was at last 
carried through the Legislature for this purpose, and became 
law. It is not necessary that I should encumber these pages 
with a minute description of what is known as " Strangways's 
Act," Avhich has been set aside for one more liberal, and better 
adapted to the requirements of poor men. It will be better to 
give a popular description of the law now in force, which \si\\ 
show intending immigrants how, on their arrival in this 
Colony, they can get possession of the land. 

The Land Ad of 1812. — Under this Act (amended in 1874) 
the whole of the Waste Lands of the Colony south of the 26th 
parallel of south latitude forms one area, from which, as fast as 
it is surveyed and declared open to the public, intending jjur- 
chasers can make their selections. There is no selection before 
survey, but an efficient staff of survey officers is always at 
work surveying the land as fast as it is required. Hundreds of 



C4 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XII. 

tlioiisands of acres arc always open for selection, and the work 
of the surveyors is still going forward. 

Price. — All waste lands, other than township and suburban, 
have a fixed value put upon them by the Commissioner of 
Crown Lands, not less than £1 per acre. In improved or re- 
claimed lands the cost per acre of the improvements and 
reclamation is added to the upset price of £1 per acre. Those 
lands which have been open for selection, or which have been 
offered at auction, and neither selected nor sold, may at the 
end of five years be offered for sale in blocks of not more than 
3000 acres, on lease for ten years, at an annual rental of not 
less than Qd. per acre, with a right of purchase at any time 
during the currency of the lease at £1 per acre. 

How to get on the Land. — When any lands are declared 
open for selection, by j^roclamation in the Government Gazette, 
at a fixed price, a day is appointed for receiving applications 
for sections, not to exceed in the aggregate G40 acres, or one 
square mile. The person making the application shall pay at 
the time a deposit of ten per cent, on the fixed price, which 
sum shall be taken as payment of three years' interest in 
advance upon the purchase money. If the price of the land is 
£100, the selector would have to pay a deposit of £10, which 
Avill be all he will be required to pay to the Government for 
three years — about three and three-quarters per cent, per 
annum. At the end of three years he will have to pay 
another ten per cent., whicli will also be received as interest 
for the next three years. If at the end of six years he is not 
prepared to pay the whole of the purchase money, he can 
obtain other four years' credit, on payment of half the pur- 
chase money, and interest in advance on the other half at the 
rate of four per cent, per annum. Lands which have been 
open for selection two years and not taken up may be pur- 
<diased for cash. Tlio scrub lands may also bo taken up on 
verv favourable terms, on long leases. 

Occufation and Imfrovements. — A credit selector may re- 
side on liis land either personally or by substitute. The 
personal resident, however, lias advantages which he who 
resides by deputy has not. In cases of simultaneous appli- 



Chap. Xn.] CONDITIONS OF PRESENT LAND SYSTEM. C5 

cations for the same block, the personal resident has the 
preference over the other ; and at the end of five years, the 
selector who has resided on the land and made all the required 
improvements, and complied with all the conditions, may, by 
paying his purchase money, obtain the fee simple of his selec- 
tion. The selector who occupies by substitute cannot get the 
freehold until the end of six years. 

Purchasers upon credit will be required to reside, either 
personally or by deputy, upon the land at least nine months 
in the year; and absence for any longer time than three 
months in one year renders the agreement liable to forfeiture. 

The credit purchaser will be required to make substantial 
improvements upon the land before the end of the second year, 
to the extent of 5s. per acre ; before the end of the third year, 
7s, 6d. per acre ; before the end of the fourth year, 10s. per 
acre. " Such improvements to consist of all or any of the fol- 
lowing, that is to say : — Erecting a dwelling-house or farm 
building, sinking wells, constructing water tanks or reservoirs, 
putting up fencing, draining, or clearing or grubbing the said 
land." The fences must be of a substantial character. 

Cultivation. — The credit purchaser is required, during each 
year until the purchase money is paid off, to plough and have 
under cultivation at least one-fifth of the land ; but in the 
^vent of his not cultivating this quantity during the first 
year, he will be required to cultivate two-fifths during the 
.second year. 

These are the principal provisions of the Land Act neces- 
sary to be known by persons wishing to settle upon the land 
on the most favourable terms. The land is cheap, the terms of 
payment are easy, and the amount of cultivation required not 
more than any man intending to farm would attempt if the 
matter were left to his own option. 

This Act has worked with signal success, so far as regards 
placing people on the land ; but it has been found defective in 
two or three 2)oints, which it was proposed to alter by fresli 
legislation during the late Session of Parliament. It has been 
found that 640 acres is not enough to enable a man to farm 
profitably, by uniting stock-keeping with ^heat-growing, and 

F 



66 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [CnAr. XTL 

it was proposed to enlarge tlie area wliieb one man may hold 
to 1000 acres. Then it has been found that the present system 
is not sullk'icnt to prevent men " dummying " the land, that is, 
taking it up on credit under false pretences, and by using 
" dummy " selectors getting possession of more land than they 
are entitled to. The new Bill provided, under stringent means, 
for preventing and punishing those men who abuse their 
position and violate the law. But the most serious defect of 
all in the Act is what is known as " limited auction." It is 
provided in the Act that if two or more applications are made- 
for the same block of land, it shall then be put up to auction 
at the price offered — the competition to be limited to the 
applicants who offered the same amount. This seemed a very 
fair arrangement to make, but in practice it has worked mis- 
chievously. In the heat of competition men have run up the- 
price to an unreasonable amount, and the land has been taken 
at prices far beyond its actual value. It is not the policy of 
the Colony to make land too dear. The attracting of poi)ula- 
tion and the settlement of an industrious population on the 
land are accounted of far more importance than getting high 
prices for it. The proposal in the new Bill was to make the- 
ultimate price of all land sold on credit IZ. per acre. In the- 
case of simultaneous applications for the same blocks, the com- 
petition would be on the annual rental, and not on the prin- 
cipal. As soon as the fact is known that there are two or more- 
offering for the same block, each will be invited to write on a. 
paper what rental per acre he is willing to give. If one offers. 
Is. od., and the other Is. Gd., the latter will obtain the block. 
If, however, they should again offer the same amount, the 
nuitter will be decided by lot. The Bill, however, proposing 
these amendments has not been carried, and the land law- 
remains as it was. 

I have said that the present law has worked with singular 
success. Immense areas of land in the Korth have been 
surveyed and offered for sale on credit. Half-a-dozen years 
ago most of this land was used as sheep runs — supporting a 
dozen or a score of persons. Now it is covered with smiling 
homesteads and prosperous farms, on which many hundreds of 



Chap. XII.] SUCCESS OF SYSTEM IN NORTHEEN AEEAS. C7 

iiimilies are settled, with every prospect of future success. In 
the course of a few years, these farms will be the freehold 
estates of a steady and intelligent class of farmers, farming 
their own land, who will constitute the pith and strength of 
the Colony, A few thousands of farmers, each farming his 
own freehold estate of a square mile, or a thousand acres, 
would form an independent and prosperous class, of which any 
country may well feel proud. 

The amount of money due to the Government for these 
lands purchased on credit, which will be due within the next 
six years, amounts to over £2,225,000. There is reason to 
believe that most of the purchases will be completed ; but if 
they are not, the land, greatly improved by the erection of 
buildings and cultivation during the six years, will revert to 
the Government, and can be sold again. 

I had an opportunity of visiting these northern areas just 
before the last harvest, when they were loaded with magnificent 
crops of golden grain. I had seen the country three years 
before, when only a small portion was devoted to agriculture ; 
the rest was still immense sheep runs. I travelled for miles 
day after day amongst the finest crops of wheat I ever wit- 
nessed. In some places the reaping had commenced, and the 
farmers were cleaning up from 14 to 18 bushels per acre. In 
other more favoured spots it reached from 25 to 30 bushels. 
I saw several towns which had sprung up as if by magic, on 
sites where three years before there was not a soul to be seen, 
and where my companions and I lighted a fire, boiled our 
"billy," and made tea for our midday refreshment. A fine 
port in Spencer's Gulf, for the outlet of the produce of the 
district, had risen up from what used to be something like a 
dismal swamp. Wharfs were erected, large stores built, banks 
and churches founded ; and all this was the work of less than 
throe years ! And as far as can be seen, we are just tapping 
that great agricultural district which lies to the north of the 
Burra and Clare. The squatter has to give place to the agri- 
culturist and move backward. Haj^pily for some of the 
wealthiest of them, but unfortunately for the country, they 
have purchased magnificent estates of from 40,000 to 100,000 

F 2 



6.8 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XII. 

acres of fine land. Some of these gentlemen have entered 
into competition with the farmers and have gone largely into 
wheat-growing. Last year a gentleman, specially representing 
an influential Melbourne journal — The Leader — visited this 
Colony and published an interesting and w'ell-written report of 
what he saw. I transcribe to these pages his account of the 
Hill Eiver Estate, the private property of Mr, C. B. Fisher, as 
an example of how men of capital and enterprise are now 
combining the two pursuits of wool-growing and agricultural 
farming. 






Ill III!: 






rv 



i:iiliiiii iiiiiiiiiii:]:ii:iii:i!;;iiiii£:ii'ii:iiiji i:iii':i;: i::::::\^:^ i n li 




Chap. XIII.] THE HELL EH^E ESTATE. G9 



CHAPTER XIIL 

THE HILL EIVEK ESTATE. 

Combining Agriculture with Stock Breeding — Great Farm — The Mechanical 
Appliances for AVorking it — Eegulations for Workmen on Estate — 
Success. 

Hill Eiver Estate, the property of Mr. C. B. Fisher, is 
situated in the County of Stanley, two miles eastward of Clare, 
the furthest agricultural township to the north previous to the 
o23ening up of the new areas. The total distance of Hill River 
from Adelaide is 88 miles, and railway communication is 
obtained by taking the Burra line at Farrell's Flat, 13 miles 
to the east. The property is 60,000 acres in extent, lying 
north and south in a valley between two tiers of hills — the 
eastern tier being, like the country in that direction — tree- 
less ; but the western one, together with some of the un- 
dulating land in the valley approaching its base, is lightly 
timbered with sheaoak and gum. The valley is on an average 
about seven miles broad, and the estate extends about 25 
miles in length ; the Hill River, a permanent creek, which 
takes its rise to the south, running along the centre. The 
valley is composed of a rich deep chocolate soil washed from 
the surrounding high land, which is of slaty conglomerate 
formation set on edge, and running in reefs mixed with quartz 
north and south, along the crests of the boundary ridges. 
The property, which is under the superintendence of Mr. E. 
W. Pitts (formerly of Victoria), who is general manager for 
the whole of Mr. Fisher's property in South Australia, and 
of Mr. J. Emery, who is resident manager, is worked as a 



70 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XTIT. 

sheep-breeding establishment and wheat-growing farm on a 
large scale, the latter being carried on with the ultimate end 
in view of preparing the soil for the sowing down of lucern 
and prairie grass. The station is divided into four different 
establishments, viz., the wool-shed and drafting-yards, seven 
miles down the valley to the north; a new scries of farm 
buildings, two miles to the east, being prepared for harvest ; 
another large farming establishment nearer homo ; and the 
homestead, a stone residence and stabling, surrounded by 
well-kept grounds, orangery, and orchard, comi)rising in all 
twelve acres. In the kitchen-garden of four acres every 
description of vegetable is produced in abundance, and this 
jwrtion of the establishment is found to be very valuable, 
where so many hands are employed. The drafting-yards at 
the wool-shed are of a complete kind for the handy working 
of the sheep, and are flagged in the race and crush dens with 
slate obtained on the property. The buildings for the shearers 
are of stone, divided into dining, sleeping, and cooking depart- 
ments, the latter fitted with the latest apijointments, and a 
separate stone cottage is provided for the overseer. The 
number of sheep shorn is 50,000 — the shearing floor accom- 
modating 40 shearers. The Hill River wool is of the Merino 
combing description, and for length and strength of stajile 
combined with weight of fleece has not been exceeded by any 
other run in the Colony, excej)t Bundaleer, Mr. Fisher's other 
run further north, where the same breed of sheep are kept. 
The clip last year was from 9 lbs. in the wether to 3^ lbs. in 
the lambs in the grease, or an average all through of about 
7 lbs., for which an average of 14:^d. was obtained. Sheep- 
washing is not usual in South Australia, through the scarcity 
of water ; but the chief drawl)ack on Hill River is its hard- 
ness, being brackish and metallic from the mineral nature of 
the watersheds. Amongst some fleeces selected during the 
late shearing for the Sydney Exhibition, one two-tooth jMerino 
ram's fleece weighed 17^ and a four-tooth 21 lbs. About 200 
cattle, some of which are of superior shortliorn blood, have 
lately been introduced, and the intention is to obtain a good 
l)ull and begin that department of breeding. The new farm 



||ii!i||||ii!iii||ii'iiiiiiiiiii^ 




€hap. XIII.] GEE AT FAEM. 71 

buildings are being erected handy to the cultivated land, 
A\hich is about midway in the valley, the furrows running 
lengthwise. The buildings comprise a quadrangle of 10 feet 
high, stone walling 120 feet long each side, roofed with gal- 
vanized iron, with a slope inwards, and divided off into 10 
by 10 loose-boxes for horses, each box containing close feed- 
manger for bruised peas, bran, and cut hay, with which all 
the horses on the place are systematically fed. A well and 
trough for watering occupy the middle of the square, which 
will be built upon further, so as to accommodate 200 horses, 
the total number at present employed on the estate. The 
other buildings consist of men's stone buildings, with dining, 
sleeping, and cooking departments separate, overseer's resi- 
dence, large hay-cutting and corn-bruising house, and* barn 
106 feet by 31, and 15-foot walls, with a holding capacity of 
60,000 bushels of wheat, besides compartments at the rear for 
two blowers and screens for finishing the wheat off in a uniform 
sample after it passes through the winnowers in the field. 
These blowers, which are worked by horse power, and have 
self-acting elevators for passing the wheat from the fans to 
the revolving screen, get through at the rate of 700 bushels 
jicr day each. The cultivated land is in large fields, one of 
which is three miles long, and contains this year 4250 acres 
of wheat, besides 40 acres of peas grown for horse feed and 
a quantity of barley, and 1800 acres new land turned up for 
fallow. Next year the land first ploughed will be three years 
in crop, when it is proposed to yearly lay down that which 
has yielded three crops in lucern and prairie grass, and sliift 
the wheat ground further on to new land. The ploughing was 
performed by thirty-four horse teams drawing a double plough 
each, doing from two or three acres per day, according to the 
time lost in travelling to and from the work, and five single 
ploughs striking out. It is estimated that with the teams 
nearer their work oh acres per day will be accomplished. One 
man is allowed to each plough to manage both driving and 
guiding. Ploughing is done eight inches deep at first, so 
that the land can be turned over afterwards in tlie dry season 
immediately after the removal of the crt)p. The seed, which 



72 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XIIL 

is of several kinds, to ascertain the best, was sown the tirst 
week in June, with six of Adamson's twenty-two-foot broadcast 
machines, so\\ ing-, nnder the management of one man, forty 
acres per day each. The pickling used is bluestone, and an 
ingenious dipping apparatus is used by which a bag at a time 
can be done with much rapidity. The lands are ploughed 
one chain wide, and are harrowed by fifteen sets of six-leaved 
harrows, doing a land in two turns. The first sets are heavy 
and drawn by six horses, and the second, Avhich are lighter, 
go across and finish. The harrowing is finished at the rate of 
500 acres per day. As harvest approaches two-chain wide 
strips are cut by the mowing machines at intervals, cutting 
the wheat into 200-acre blocks, and then strips (ujDon the 
removal of the wheat for hay) are ploughed, together with strips 
right round the crop, for protection against tire. AVhen the 
wheat is ripe, the strippers are then set to work, emptying on 
the roads at each end of the 200-acre blocks. Each stripper 
is drawn by four horses, driving and guiding being managed 
by one man ; and each machine does from seven to eight acres 
per day, according to the weather. Last year twenty-seven 
strippers were emjjloyed, but this harvest ten additional new 
ones will be required. About one winnower to three strippers 
is required on the headlands for cleaning, which is done by 
piece work, the men obtaining Id. per bushel for putting the 
wheat through once, and 2d. for twice. From the winnowers 
in the fields it is carted in bags to the blowers and screens, 
from wliich it is bagged, sewed, and passed into the barn. 
The land under wheat last year was 3050 acres, which yielded 
at the rate of fifteen bushels, thirty-five acres of peas yielding 
forty bushels per acre, and sixty acres of barley giving thirty 
bushels. The (juantity of wheat cut for hay last year for 
home consumption was 600 tons, and this year 800 tons will 
be required. The wheat grown on this farm took the challenge: 
cup, value £50, in Adelaide, for the best 100 bushels in 1873 ; 
the prize at the late show for the best bushel with a sample 
of purple straw weighing sixty-eight pounds ; and the present 
harvest at the time of my visit promised to eclipse any former 
effort. At the farm steading near the home station, a similar 




a 
« 

IS 

a 



Chap. XIII.] MECHANICAL APPLIANCES. 73 

stabling accommodation to that described exists, and as tlio 
supply of Clydesdales increases at another station of Mr. 
Fisher's deyoted to breeding, it is j)i'oposed to increase the 
working capacity of the Hill Elver farm by two-thirds, or 
three steadings in all, with 200 horses each. At this steading 
there is another series of men's buildings, together with chaff 
house, with chaff-cutter, cutting one ton per hour, implement 
yard and sheds, containing in addition to the ploughs and 
strippers, harrows and sowers, already mentioned, fourteen 
waggons, six scarifiers, four hayrakes, ration carts, waggonettes, 
and other vehicles and implements ; a blacksmith's shop con- 
taining two forges, carpenter's shop and saddler's shop for 
repairing, overseer's residence and a large number of cottages 
for the married men who j)ermanently stay on the place. 
Two large dams of water supply the home station and home 
farmstead with water, and there are six others in various parts 
of the run. This work, which is constantly being carried on, is 
done by plough and scoop. Sixteen acres of trees have been 
planted in two-acre blocks in various parts of the run, the kinds 
found to do best being the Tasmanian red gum, Finns insignis, 
and sterculias. A large plantation of about seventy acres for 
trees is in course of preparation above the house, and olive 
2:)lanting is carried on annually. The large quantity of manure 
made by such a quantity of stable horses is carefully looked after, 
and is to be put on the land along with the lucern. Pigs are 
profitably kept upon the waste Avheat ; and on a small experi- 
mental farm, maize, millet, and sorghum have been tried with 
success, and various kinds of wheats are planted in drills to 
Iry their relative merits. The purj)le straw so far has been 
found best. On one portion of the farm also experiments to 
prove the efficiency of subsoil ploughing and other matters 
are attended to. Amongst the improvements to be eventually 
carried out, a public reading room and library are to be added 
to each homestead, and other iheasures of an educative and 
elevating character are to receive attention. The hands 
employed, apart from shearing and harvest seasons, average 
about seventy. When these latter operations are on, the 
number is over 200. Young draught horses are constantly 



74 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [CiiAr. XIII. 

])eing bvoiiglit from the breeding establishment near Adchiide, 
;ind broken by means of waggon, j^lough, scoop, or other of 
the numerous kinds of work constantly going on. 

The following rules of the establishment are posted in the 
various buildings : — Working hours : All hands to rise at 
five A.M., when the bell rings ; horses to be fed, watered, and 
cleaned ; breakfast at six ; all teams to be afield at seven ; dinner 
hour at noon ; work to commence again at one p.m., to continue 
to six in summer and five in winter ; supper at seven ; horses 
to be fed and watered at half-past eight, and the dining-room 
to be cleared and locked up at ten p.m. Wages : First-class 
men will be j^aid at the rate of 20s. per week ; second-class at 
18s. ; third-class at IGs. Any one by good and industrious 
•conduct can raise himself to the highest class. Wages paid 
every fourth week, and at no other time. Any one in charge 
of horses neglecting to feed and tend them properly, or found 
abusing them, will be discharged at once, and forfeit all his 
wages due. Any one wilfully disobeying orders or neglecting 
his duty will be discharged, and will forfeit two-thirds of the 
wages due. Any one found in a state of drunkenness will 
be instantly discharged, and absolutely forfeit all wages due. 
Any one bringing intoxicating liquors on the premises, as well 
as those partaking of them, will forfeit all the wages due, and 
be instantly discharged. Any one found smoking near the 
stables or stacks will be at once discharged and proceeded 
against under the Bush Fires Act. Each man at the time of 
hiring is required to sign the above rules, binding himself to 
^bide by them in all respects. 



Chap. XIV.] SIE E. E. TOEEENS. 75 



CHAPTEK XIV. 

THE EEAL PROPERTY ACT. 

Sir R. R. Torrens — Early Struggles to establish Act — Opposition of Legal 
Profession — Principles of Act — Transferring Eeal Estate by Eogistration 
of Title — Indefeasibility of Title — Simplicity and Cheapness — Lands' 
Titles Commissioners and Solicitors — Assurance Fund — Amendment of 
Original Act — Great Success of the Law — Value of Property brought 
under the Act — Taken up in Neighbouring Colonies. 

A GREAT measure of legal reform, on which the people of 
8outh Australia justly pride themselves, is the Eeal Proj)erty 
Act, devised by Mr. (now Sir E. E.) Torrens, a gentleman then 
holding a public position in the Colony. Mr. Torrens had seen 
and felt, as many more have done, the scandalous delay and 
•expense of transferring real property under the old law of 
England. This system of transferring real estate by deed we 
of course brought with us to this new Colony, where it was 
soon found to be productive of many of the evils which at- 
tended it in the old country. In every fresh transaction in 
real property a new deed was necessary, which recaj)itulated all 
the deeds that had gone before, and which was both cumbrous 
•and costly. It was thought that it might be possible to invent 
.a simpler, cheaper, and safer system ; and the merit of think- 
ing out and formulating this system belongs to Sir E. E. (then 
Mr.) Torrens. He liad formerly been Collector of Customs at 
Port Adelaide, and his official employment made him familiar 
Avith the laws relating to shipping, having, as he states in a 
pamphlet published by him, "just such an acquaintance with 
the English Constitution and laws as ordinarily entered into 
the education of an English gentleman." 



76 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XIV. 

His starting-point was to apply to the transfer of land the 
principles Avliich regnlatocl the transfer of shipping property, 
by means of registration. The idea was a correct one, but 
between its conception and its formulation into a code of law 
there was a long and painful interval. He consulted the then 
Chief Justice, Sir Charles Cooper, and other legal gentlemen, and 
they gave him but little encouragement. He was not a lawyer. 
Many technical difficulties would arise which would need a 
lawyer's trained skill to surmount, and they warned him that 
he might expect no help or support from the profession. Mr. 
Torrens, however, was one of the few men who are not to be 
discouraged by want of sympathy, or beaten by opposition". 
The subject was near his heart, and he pondered over it night 
and day, until it assumed shape and form in his mind. He 
then drafted a Bill, submitted it to some of his friends, listened 
to their suggestions, and adopted them Avhere he thought it 
wise to do so, and then brought it before Parliament. The Bill 
was laughed to scorn by the profession, but it was eagerly and 
enthusiastically welcomed by the public. Most of the lawyers 
stood aloof. For a layman to attempt to alter the whole system 
of transferring real estate by deed which had the prestige of 
immemorial usage in its favour, and to deal with real estate as 
if it were a mere chattel, was as absurd as if a tailor were to 
invent a new method of cutting for fistula, or an illiterate 
ploughman a new method of calculating an eclipse ! Mr. 
Torrens, however, made light of both opposition and ridicule. 
There was a crying evil to be remedied ; he had undertaken to 
remedy the evil, and, in sj^ite of all opposition, he would 
do it. 

Mr. Torrens was returned to Parliament as one of the mem- 
bers for the city for the express purpose of carrying the Bill 
through the Assembly. The legal members opposed him tooth 
and nail, but he had a large majority of willing supporters at 
his back, and tlu; Bill was literally forced through the House 
by " the brute force of a tyrannical majority." There was 
greater opposition in the Legislative Council, which has always 
been found more conservative of old institutions. But public 
opinion and the sense of the community were too strong to be 




iilijij 



Chap. XIV.] PEIKCIPLES OF EEAL PEOPEETY ACT. 77 

resisted, aud the Bill passed the Council, was assented to by 
the Governor on January 27, 1858, and became law. 

When the measure became law, at the request of his friends, 
Mr. Torrens resigned his seat in Parliament, and became the 
official head of the department. He suggested or superin- 
tended all the machinery required for practically working the 
new system. He laboured at it unceasingly, and when the 
Act came into operation on July 2, 1858, all the office 
machinery was ready to work it. 

The first great principle of the Act is the transferring of 
real property by registration of title instead of by deeds ; 
the second is absolute indefeasibility of title. The system is 
very simple and very inexpensive. The certificate of title is 
registered in the official registry at the Lands' Titles Office, 
the owner obtaining a duplicate certificate. All transactions 
under the land appear on the face of the certificate, so that at 
a glance it may be seen whether the property is encumbered, 
or any charges are made upon it. If an owner wishes to mort- 
gage his land, he takes his certificate to the office, and has the 
transaction marked upon it. If he wants to sell, he passes over 
the certificate to the purchaser, and the transaction is regis- 
tered. Any man of ordinary intelligence can do all that is 
necessary for himself when once his property is brought under 
the Act. The only difficulty is in getting the title registered 
at first. After that it is all plain sailing. When a man hold- 
ing property under deed wishes to have it placed under the 
Act, he takes his deeds, which are his title to the property, to 
the office. The deeds are carefully examined by the solicitors 
to the Lands' Titles Commissioners ; and if there is no diffi- 
culty, and after all due publicity is given and precautions 
taken to prevent fraud or mistake, a certificate is issued, and 
the old deeds are cancelled. From the moment the land is 
brought under the Act and a certificate granted, the title of 
tlie person holding the certificate becames indefeasible, unless 
it has been fraudulently obtained ; and he can hold the property 
against the world. 

Provision is made for errors that may possibly occur, by 
which persons may be damnified or deprived of their property. 



78 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. XIV. 

Even though a wrong may have been done, yet an innocent 
hokk'i- of a certificate cannot be dispossessed of his property. 
But to compensate persons who may through error or fraud 
have been deprived of their property, an assurance fund has 
been created by a percentage of one lialfpenny in the pound 
being levied on all property brought under the Act. This 
fund now amounts to between £30,000 and £40,000, and all the 
claims that have been made upon it during the seventeen years 
the Act has been in operation do not amount to £300, which is 
a sufficient proof of the carefulness exercised in the examina- 
tion of old titles before the certificate was issued in the first 
instance. 

Since this Act came into operation, all land grants issued 
from the Crown have been registered under it, and a large 
amount of property formerly held under deed is now registered. 
Confidence in the Act has gradually gone up. The lawyers 
very soon withdrew active ojDposition, and the simplicity of the 
scheme commended it even to the legal mind. Up to the close 
of 1874 the value of the property brought under the operation 
of the Act, including land grants, was £9,260,186. The 
benefit to the community of having a cheap, simple, and 
expeditious method of dealing with land is incalculable. Mr. 
Dudley Field, the well-known American jurist, who was re- 
cently on a visit to his daughter, the wife of our Governor, 
expressed his great admiration at the simplicity of our Eeal 
Property Act, which was much in advance of any system of 
dealing with real estate with which he was acquainted. The 
Act has been amended more than once, to render it more 
workable, but its essential principles have been jealously 
guarded. 

Soon after it was set into healthy operation, Mr. Torrens 
obtained leave from the Government to visit the neighbouring- 
Colonies at their request to explain and help to initiate this 
Act there, and now all the Colonies have adopted the Torrens 
Act of registration of title. The principle of the Act has also 
been accepted by the first jurists at home, and several attempts 
have been made to get it into legal operation. Lord West- 
burv's Act was a step towards it, but it had some serious defects 



Chap. XTY.] GEE AT SUCCESS OF THE LAW. 79- 

Avhieli licive prevented its being a success. Tliere is no doubt 
that it is much easier to introduce the system into new Colonies, 
where titles are easily traced, than into old countries, where, 
during the laj)se of generations, they have become compli- 
cated. 

As the Act has been administered, certain grave defects in 
some of its provisions have been discovered and pointed out 
by the Judges. It was subjected to a thorough revision in 
1862 by a Commission, presided over by the present Chief 
Justice, who was then Attorney-General, and as the result of 
that Commission an amended Act was passed. Other defects 
have been discovered, and a very complete amending and 
consolidating Bill, prepared by Mr. H. Gawler, one of the 
solicitors to the Lands' Titles Commissioners, has twice passed 
through the House of Assembly, but has failed to pass through 
the Legislative Council. This Bill has received the support of 
two Ministries, and as it is urgently required, it, or something, 
like it, must become law. 



80 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. XV. 



CHAPTER XV. 

RAILWAYS. 

Difficulties of Carriage in a New Country — Macadamized Eoads, Extent and 
Cost — First Eailway to Port Adelaide — Extravagant Cost — Other Lines 
— Present Extent of Railways — New Lines in Process of Construction — 
New Lines proposed to be carried out — Proposal to borrow £3,000,000. 

One of the most serious difficulties a new country has to 
contend against is that of obtaining feasible means of com- 
munication between the interior and the seaboard. This has 
been much felt in South Australia, where, with one exception, 
we are entirely without water communication. Our only river 
is the Murray, and that is available for only one part of the 
Colony. Pastoral settlement lies principally in another direc- 
tion, and agricultural settlement entirely so. At first we 
were satisfied with macadamized roads, which have been con- 
structed to a large extent, and at a great cost to the com- 
munity. The extent of main roads, excluding all those under 
the charge of District Councils, is 2707 miles, of which 884 
miles have been thoroughly made with metal. The cost of 
our main roads during the last twenty-two years has been 
about £1,800,000. It is now proposed to extend the road 
svstem where railways cannot be made, for whicli a consider- 
able sum of money is proposed to be borrowed. 

There is, however, a growing opinion, as I have mentioned 
before, in favour of substituting railways for metalled roads in 
all practicable cases. The first locomotive railway line was 
one of eight and a half miles, between Adelaide and the Port, 
which was constructed at a frightful and wasteful cost. In 



Chap. XV.] FIEST EAILWAYS. 81 

the making of that Hue the colonists paid heavily for their 
experience in railway construction. A line running north 
as far as Gawler was next undertaken, and, after a few years, 
it was continued to Kapunda, a distance of about fifty miles. 
►Subsequently it was extended to the Burra, a distance of 100 
miles. These lines have been Avell built, and are now in very 
successful working order. In addition to these the Govern- 
ment have three tramways, Avorked by horse power. The 
oldest of these is a line between Goolwa and Po/t Victor. It 
was built in Sir Henry Young's time as far as Port Elliot, 
Avhen it Avas expected that this port Avould be the grand outlet 
for the Murray trade. Port Elliot Avas superseded by Port 
Victor, and the line Avas extended to that harbour. This short 
line has done good service to the Colony in past times. The 
next tramway Avas a very expensive one, from Strathalbyn to 
jMiddleton, a station on the Goolwa line. The engineering- 
difficulties on this line made it a very costly one, and it has 
never yet paid the expenses of working, leaving out of account 
altogether the interest on its original cost. This line is one 
of our " magnificent failures," the construction of which is 
now greatly deplored. 

Of a very different character is a tramway between Port 
Wakefield and Hoyleton, Avhich has subsequently been ex- 
tended, and is now thirty miles long : a further extension 
of the line is now in progress. This is one of those lines 
of railway which are of the greatest service to the country. 
It connnects a rich and an extensive agricultural district Avith 
a port of shipment ; and the traffic which passes over it annu- 
ally, both passenger and produce, is A^ery large. 

Three additional lines of railway are noAV in progress ; 
the most important of Avhich is one between Port Pirie, in 
Spencer's Gulf, and Gladstone, a new toAvnship in the 
northern areas. It is hoped that a portion of this line, as 
far as Crystal Brook, will be opened in the course of a few 
months. It is intended, ultimately, to carry it as far as 
.lames Town, the centre of the immense agricultural area in 
the North. It is impossible to over-estimate the value of a 
line of this kind, Avhich Avill tap one of the most productiv*- 

G 



82 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XY. 

districts in the Colony. Anotlier short line of fourteen miles 
is in course of construction from Port Broup:hton, also in 
Spencer's Gulf, to a block of a^-ricultural land uhich forms 
one of the earliest agricultural areas proclaimed by the Go- 
vernment. The third line is from Port Wakefield to Kadina, 
about tlie necessity for ■which there is some grave doubt. The 
Government lines whicli liave been finished — leaving out of 
account those now in progress — have cost £1,093,497, in 
addition to £198,793 for rolling-stock. I have omitted to 
mention amongst the lines now in course of construction an 
important one from Kingston to Naracoorte, in the South- 
Eastern District, which is fast approaching completion ; it is 
nearly fifty miles long. 

Our railways have been constructed on different gauges — 
the 5-foot 3-inch, however, predominating. The shorter lines 
are on the 3-foot 6-inch gauge. The " Battle of the Gauges " 
lias been fought here, as it was in England, and it is not yet 
(Mided. The idea we seem to be slowly reaching is, tliat for 
all trunk lines capable of extension the broad gauge is pre- 
tbrablc ; ^^•hile for shorter independent lines the narrow one 
is sufticient. The cost of the lines has, of course, varied to a 
large extent. The Port Tiailway, constructed in 1856, cost the 
enormous sum of £17,500 per mile ; but a short extension, 
connecting it with the northern lines, carried out in 1867, was 
made at under £5000 per mile. Our latest railways have cost 
from £4000 to £6000 per mile. 

Besides the Government railways there arc two private 
lines, constructed by private companies — one in the mining- 
district on Yorke's Peninsula, connecting Kadina with Wallaroo 
and Moonta ; this is about eighteen miles long, and is worked 
by horse power. It has been wonderfully profitable, owing to 
a. favourable contract which the Company made \\ith the 
proprietors of the mines for the conveyance of their ores. The 
fortunate shareholders in this railway have from the very first 
enjoyed very large dividends, besides spending a considerable 
proportion of the profits in improving and extending their 
works. The second private line is one between Adelaide 
and Glenelg, six and a half miles long, and which is almost 




o 



CHAr. XV.] ^ EAILWAY EXTENSION. 83 

exclusively confined to j^assenger traffic. This lino, worked 
by locomotive power, has been working for about two years, 
and has returned handsome dividends to the shareholders. It 
is worked on the cheap principle — there being neither stations 
nor platforms. The passengers enter from the street, as they 
Avould get into an omnibus ; and the working expenses have 
been reduced to a minimum. It is, however, amj)ly sufficient 
for the .traffic, and is creditably conducted. A scheme is just 
now starting by a private company for a street tramway from 
the centre of the city to the eastern suburbs, . about three 
miles in length. The capital has been raised, and the work is 
to be set in hand at once. 

Some years ago an ambitious project was started to carry an 
overland line of railway right across the continent from south 
to north — from Adelaide to Port Darwin. It was proposed 
by Englisli capitalists, on obtaining blocks of land on each 
side of the line, amounting to 200 millions of acres in all, to 
construct a line of railway 2000 miles long to cross the 
continent. The terms, however, were considered too high bv 
the colonists, and there was a strong objection to alienating 
.such a large amount of territory ; so the matter fell through. 
There are sanguine and enterprising men amongst us, however, 
•who still anticipate the construction of such a work before 
many years have elapsed. 

The present Government have initiated a grand policy of 
.railway extension, which has already been brought before 
Parliament. It is to borrow £3,000,000 for the construction 
of railways and other public works. By pushing out the 
settlement of the country we have reached this position, that 
we must greatly extend our main road system, or construct 
railways on a large scale. The settlers in the interior must 
have means of communication with the seaboard, and so with a 
profitable market. The great advantage of railways over 
Toads is that when they are made in suitable localities they 
are self-supporting, wliile roads involve a continual annual 
expense to keep them in repair. Apart then from the greater 
facility for conveyance afforded by railways, on economical 
grounds they are preferable to metalled roads. 

G 2 



84 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [CiiAr. XV. 

Amongst the linos recommended by the Government is 
one 200 miles north of Port Augusta, to connect the rich 
copper mines of the North with the sea. It is believed that 
some of these mines arc more valual)lo tlian any that have yet 
l)een discovered in the Colony. But no copper mine in the 
Morld, unless under very exceptional circumstances, will afford 
a cost of £10 per ton for carriag-e to the seaboard. While 
copper was higher in value than it is now, some of these 
northern mines were carried on even with this ruinous charge 
for carriage. The importance of a line, such as it is proposed 
to construct, has been admitted for years, but difticulties stood 
in the way Avhich prevented its being carried out. I have no 
hesitation in saying that the necessary work will be carried 
out ; and that in the course of two or three years we shall 
luivc connected the rich mineral district of the North Avith 
Port Augusta, at the head of Spencer's Gulf. In addition to 
the facilities it wall give for the conveyance of copper and 
copper ore, it Avill be of great use to the sheep farmers in the 
Xorth, Avhu will be able to send down their wool and to get up 
their supplies at a reasonable cost. 

Another line which the Government pro})ose to carry out 
is one to bring the ]\Iurray trade direct to Port Adelaide. I 
shall refer more particularly to this in a subsequent chapter 
on the Murray and its trade. It is sufficient to say here that 
the Government propose constructing a line of railway from 
Kapunda, already reached by our northern railway, to the 
Xorth-West Bend in the river. The distance will be about 
fifty miles, and the advantages of such a line are pretty 
generally admitted. Other lines of no small importance are 
also embraced in the Government scheme. This bold policy 
has been fully appreciated by the colonists generally, and I 
have no doubt the main features of the scheme will be carried 
out. 

A question has been raised as to whether the Colony is 
justiiied in adding three millions to the national debt. About 
this, however, the most thoughtful minds amongst us see no 
difficultv. We have the smallest debt })er head of the popula- 
tion of any of the Colonies ; our taxation is lighter than in any 



Chap. XV.] NEW LINES PROPOSED. 85 

of the Colonies ; and Ave can easily bear more ; tlie value of 
our exports and imports is increasing every year ; the country 
has almost illimitable resources only waiting to be developed ; 
and in addition to all this, there is due to the Government at 
the present time for land taken up on credit, and payable 
within the next six years, no less a sum than £2,225,000. 
This amount will increase every year, as new lands are sur- 
veyed and purchased by the agriculturists. Our credit stands 
deservedly high in the English money market, and our bonds 
touch the top figure amongst those of the Colonies. 

In connexion with this large proposed expenditure on 
railways, the Government propose spending a considerable 
sum — £100,000 at least — on immigration. They have wiselv 
reached the conclusion that the introduction of labour must 
keep pace with the construction of great public works. It 
would not be well for the Colony to withdraw labour from 
private employers, and it is perfectly legitimate, when public 
Morks on a large scale are to be undertaken, to introduce 
labour at the public cost to carry them out. All the reasons 
which justify the further development of the great resources of 
the Colony justify the introduction of more man-power at the 
public expense. 



86 SOUTH AUSTEALTA. [Chap. XYI. 



CHAPTElf XVI. 

MINES AND MINING. 

Soutli Australia rich in IMinerals — First Discoveries — The Kapunda Coppei* 
Mine — The Burra Burra — South Australian Mining Association — 
Yorke's Peninsula Mines — Wallaroo, Moonta, Doora — Immense Value- 
of Copper raised — Smelting Works — Mineral Laws and Leases — 
Getting up Companies on 'Change — Mining a great Benefit to Colony. 

That the i>rovince of South Australia -was rich in mineral 
<h:'posits was believed very early in its history. Soon after 
the City of Adelaide was laid out, a rich vein of silver-lead 
ore was discovered a few miles distant, which, however, in its 
subsequent working, has signally disappointed the expecta- 
tions Avhich were formed of it. Other mines of a similar 
character were discovered in the southern district, on which 
large sums of money were expended, but they have not been 
worked with success. Gold has also been discovered in several 
parts of the Colony, Avhich have attracted a large number of 
diggers, and where considerable quantities of the precious 
metal have been obtained. So far, however, gold digging has 
not taken its place as one of our great staple industries. 
Hundreds of diggers have made good wages in several pro- 
claimed districts, and some very handsome specimens have 
been obtained. It is generally believed that gold will be 
found ill larger (pumtities than have yet been obtained, and 
that by the expenditure of adequate capital the auriferous 
treasures which arc believed to exist will be brought to lijjht. 
Some half-dozen very likely districts have been tried, and in 
every instance with encouraging results. Bismuth has also 
been found at Balhannah, a place about twenty miles from 



iii!iiHiiiiniiiiini.iihiiiiiiiiiii,i!!i:H!lliiiliiii!.ii.:ii:fe 




Chap. XVI.] FIRST DISCOVEEIES. 87 

Adelaide, and the property promises to become a very valu- 
able one. 

But copper has been our great mineral product, and some 
of the richest mines now worked appear to be almost inex- 
haustible. The first copj^er mine in the Colony was dis- 
covered on a sheep run at Kapunda, and has been worked 
since its discovery with a fair amount of success. It was 
thrown into the shade, however, by the discovery of the 
famous Burra Burra 3Iine, which, for its richness, has obtained 
a world-wide celebrity. Cop])er was discovered there in 18-15, 
and a company, called the South Australian Mining Associa- 
tion, was formed to work it. The capital of the Association 
was raised by the issue of 12,320 shares of £5 each, and the 
total dividends paid have amounted to £782,320. For several 
years past but little has been done at this once famous mine, 
but under new management, and by improved means of work- 
ing, it is more improved. 

This mine, however, great as it was, was eclipsed by the 
marvellous discoveries made on Yorke's Peninsula in 1860. 
A shepherd employed on the run of Mr. W. W. Hughes, on 
the Peninsula — an enthusiastic searcher after copjDcr — found 
a specimen in the beginning of that year. Claims were 
immediately taken out, and the Wallaroo Mines were com- 
menced. The Wallaroo has been a private company from 
the beginning, and no report of its actual earnings has been 
made public. It is well known, however, to have greatly 
enriched its fortunate proprietors, and it is now a property of 
immense value. Only three years ago the proprietors agreed 
to pay a fine of £18,000 to the Government for the renewal 
of two of their leases, and it is said that the profits of one year 
more than covered the amount of the fine. 

This discovery was followed up by one of even greater 
value, about ten miles south of the Wallaroo Mines, and now 
known as the Moonta Mines. From the time that ore was 
first found, the mine was sufficiently remunerative to pay 
all expenses of working. Not a penny of capital was ever 
subscribed ; and within two years a dividend was paid. The 
company is a [)ublic one, and tlie property is divided into 



«^S SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chai*. XVI. 

32,000 shares. Their price is now quotcil at £19 i)er share. 
Thus a property which cost the sliarohohkas iiotliing- is now 
vahicd at over £.jU0,O00. On these mines dividends liave 
heen paid, anionnting to £728,000 ; and hist year, six divi- 
dends were paid — two of 20s., one of 15s., and three of 10s., 
amonnting for the year to £136,000. In addition to this, 
very expensive bnildings and machinery have been con- 
strncted ont of the profits, and at the present time a very 
large population is employed on the mines. The jjroprietors 
have just paid a fine of £10,000 to the Government for a 
renewal of their leases. The most successful of the other 
mines on the Peninsula are the Paramatta, with 5000 shares 
—2600 with 5s. and 2400 with £1 paid up ; and the Yelta, 
A\ ith 3920 shares, on which £7 has been paid up. The Doora 
is the private property of Mr. W. W. Hughes, and gives the 
promise of equalling some of the Peninsula mines in value. 
It has only been worked, however, a year or two. 

On other parts of the Peninsula a large amount of money 
has been expended in legitimate and illegitimate mining. At 
the present time some of the more recent ventures give the 
promise of remunerative results. Pifteen years ago AVallaroo 
Mas an almost uninhabitable sheep run, on which there were 
only a few shepherds' huts ; now it has large smelting works, 
railways, jetties, three large and increasing townships, a whole 
fleet of colliers, carrying coals from Newcastle, New South 
Wales, for the smelting works, cliurches, schools, reading- 
rooms and libraries, two newspapers, and a population of 
about 20,000 souls. 

There can be no doubt that the Colony is only on the 
threshold of its mineral discoveries. It is believed that 
copper is freely scattered over a large portion of this im- 
mense territory. In the North mines of great wealth have 
been discovered, and some of them worked at a profit, 
although the cost of carriage to the seal<oard is very great. 
The mines in the neighbourhood of the Blinman have been 
worked even when the price of copper was unusually low. 
Two hundred or more miles north of Port Augusta tlie country 
is full of copper; and if some cheap means could be dis- 



Chap. XYI.] MINEEAL LAWS AND LEASES. 89 

covered for getting it to a port, a large population would 
settle there. xUtempts are being made to construct a light 
railway 200 miles northward, and there is reason to believe 
that this work will very shortly be commenced, as I have 
shown above. 

Iron ores of a rich percentage of the best iron exist in 
great abundance within an easy distance of the seaboard. Ee- 
cent attempts have been made to smelt and work the iron, 
and on a small scale they have been very successful. Pig- 
iron, of a quality said by judges to be equal to the best 
Swedish, has been exhibited in Adelaide, and was very highly 
sj)oken of. In many places the ironstone is found in the 
midst of large timber, from which charcoal for smelting 
purposes could be obtained without stint. Now, when the 
2)rice of iron has risen so high in Europe, the question of 
investing capital in iron ore smelting in South Australia is 
worth consideration. The supply both of the ore and of 
timber for reducing it is practically unlimited for years to 
come. This is an industry which ought to be turned to 
profitable account. It would add to the wealth of the 
Colony, while it would assist in meeting the growing demand 
in Europe. 

The terms on which leases of waste lands may be obtained 
for mineral purposes are very liberal. The payment of a small 
annual fee gives a right of search ; and leases of lands to be 
worked by bond fide miners are obtained for ten shillings an 
acre. Indeed every facility is given for developing the 
mineral resources of the Colony, both in copper and gold. 
What has already been accomplished in this respect shows how 
easy it is for enterprising men to take up and work mineral 
sections. Very large fortunes have been made, and the re- 
sources of the Colony in this respect seem almost illimitable. 
A great drawback at present is the scarcity of labour. If the 
j)rice of copper keeps up to its present quotation, thousands of 
miners might be profitably employed in this important enter- 
prise. Hundreds of families are now living in the mining- 
townships on Yorke's Peninsula in respectability and comfort 
which could hardly be dreamt of in the old country. Tliore is 



1)0 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XVI. 

every reason to Ix'IicNc that cojjpcr iiiiuiiig" ^\ill 1)C one of the 
most 2)cnnaii('iit and productive of our industries. 

It is diflicult to form any trustworthy estimate of the 
amount of capital which has been invested in mining. It has> 
however, amounted to many hundreds of thousands of pounds^ 
a great portion of which has been hopelessly lost. The 
colonists are subject to periodical fits of mining mania which 
runs like wildfire through the community, infecting all classes. 
It is difticult to know how these fits originate. Something 
promising is discovered in some likely locality. Mysterious 
hints are whispered about on 'Change about a " big thing " 
being discovered. Curiosity is excited, and mining brokers 
are on the qui vive. They who are in the secret wear an air of 
mysterious importance. Knots of knowing hands gather on 
the " flags." There are secret conferences, rushing of brokers 
to and fro ; hansom cabs are summoned, and one or two of the 
smartest of the brokers drive off in haste. All this indicates 
that something is up. Keen mining men, undeterred by past 
experience, are drawn into the excitement. A j)rospectus (more 
or less truthful) is draw-n up, shares are offered and taken up. 
After a while the shares are " bulled " or " bear'd " as occasion 
may arise. Often the discovery is a genuine one, and samples 
are shown to prove its A^alue. Then the country in the neigh- 
bourhood of the discovery is examined and becomes imme- 
diately valuable. Whei-e the lode is rich in a given locality, 
it must be rich all around it. If the original discovery, of 
which the value has been 2)roved, is called, say, the " Nil Des- 
perandum," there is soon started the '• Xorth Nil Desperan- 
dum," the " West Nil Desperandum," the " Great Extended 
Nil Desperandum," and such like. There is then a rush for 
shares, the brokers put money into their purses, and in a few 
days the excitement is at fever heat. Most of the con- 
tiguous "claims prove " duffers," or " shicers ; " and the unfor- 
tunate shareholders, having rushed into the speculation in 
haste, have opportunity to repent at leisure. 

Though a great deal of mischief has been wrought by these 
headlong panics, it must not be forgotten that mining enter- 
prise has often been pushed forward by such means. Some 



Chap. X\L] MINING A GEEAT BENEFIT TO COLONY. 91 

have siiftered, but others by risking their property have helped 
to open out useful mines. The prizes, however, in this mining 
lotterv are much fewer than the blanks ; and while a few have 
grown rich by mining, the many have been cleared out of their 
hard earnings by thoughtlessly yielding to the excitement and 
being carried away in the rush. Mining at best is but a risky 
kind of business ; and yet legitimate mining has done much to 
make the Colony as prosperous as it now is. More detailed 
information on the mines and mining in South Australia will 
be found in a subsequent division of this work, by Mr. F. G. 
Waterhouse. 



92 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XVTI. 



CHATTEE XYII. 

THE EIYER MURRAY AND ITS TRADE. 

Discovery of the Murray by Captain Sturt — Opeuing of Eiver for Traflic — 
Sir Henry Young's interest in the Kiver — Goolwa, Port Elliot, and Victor 
Harbour — Xcgloct of Trade — Efforts of Victorians to secure it — Eaihvay 
to the jMurray from Port Adelaide — The IVIurray Mouth — A proposed 
Canal to Goohva — Value of River to the Colony. 

The only river in South Australia deserving of the name is 
the Murray. We owe its discovery to Captain Sturt, one of 
the bravest and most successful of Australian explorers. In 
1828 this intrepid gentleman was appointed by the Sydney 
Government to trace the River Macquarie to its source. He 
ran it into another river, which was named the Darling, after 
the Governor of Xew' South Wales. The following year Cap- 
tain Sturt was dispatched to follow up tlie discovery he had 
juade tlie year before, and fortunately for him and for 
Australia he diverged from his former route, and instead of 
following the 3Iacquarie and the Darling, he explored the 
Murrumbidgce. Mr. Anthony Foster, in his interesting and 
useful work on South Australia, thus describes Captain Sturt's 
discovery of the Murray : — " This river (the Murrumbidgee) 
Captain Sturt and his companions followed down for nearly 
four hundred miles, where, from its increasing narrowness, 
they were afraid they were about to lose it, and with it anti- 
cipated the loss of all their toil. But just as their hopes had 
been depressed to the lowest i)oint, and they were about to 
give way to despair, they found themselves suddenly projected 
by the contracting current into a magnificent stream, 350 feet 
wide, and from 15 to 20 feet deep. And this proved to bo the 



Chap. XVII.] OPENING OF EIVEE MUEEAY FOE TEAFFIC. 93 

Murray, the Antipodean Nile, the prince of Australian rivers, 
Avhich has since been found to have a navigable course of 
nearly 2000 miles. Such a discovery was sufficient to have 
immortalized the name of any single explorer, but it was only 
the prelude to one of much greater importance — the discovery 
of the Adelaide Plains, and the extensive tracts of agricultural 
land which have since constituted South Australia the granary 
of the Southern Hemisphere." 

It was not until during the administration of Sir Henry 
Young that a vigorous attempt was made to navigate the great 
river. The Government offered a bonus of £4000 for the first 
two iron steamers, of not less than 40-horse power, and not 
more than two feet draught of water when loaded, that should 
successfully navigate the Murray from the Goolwa to the junc- 
tion of the Darling. The Murray Steam Navigation Comj)any 
was originated by Captain Cadell, a man of considerable 
energy and enterprise, and the late Mr. Younghusband, a 
wealthy merchant, who was subsequently Chief Secretary of 
the Colony. This Company soon placed a steamer, the Lady 
Augusta, called after the wife of the Governor, on the waters, and 
she commenced her trial trip amidst great eclat. In 1853 she 
started, under the command of Captain Cadell, with a party of 
ladies and gentlemen on board, including Sir Henry and Lady 
Young, to 23ut to the test the practicability of navigating the 
Murray. The little steamer safely pursued her course to 
Swan Hill, distant 1300 miles from Adelaide, from which His 
Excellency wrote a despatch to the Secretary of State for 
the Colonies, announcing the triumph he had achieved, and 
informing him that the steamer carried back to Adelaide a 
cargo of wool grown in the district, which was the opening of 
a great trade that would be for the benefit of the whole 
of Australia through all future time. 

This successful beginning was as successfully followed up 
for a time by other steamers being placed on the river, and 
a very considerable trade was begun. Ultimately, however, 
there was a collapse ; money was lost in the trade — some who 
tf)ok part in it having been almost ruined, amongst whom was 
the enthusiastic Captain Cadell ; the Company dissolved ; and 



1)4 SOUTH AUSTKALIA. [CiiAr. XVIT. 

all the bright visions of the Murray being the 3Iississippi and 
Port Elliot the Xew Orleans of Australia vanished as the 
morning mists vanish before the rising sun. 

The Murray trade then got into other hands, and it lias 
been carried on Mitli more or less success until the present 
time. There are now several steamers on the river, and they 
are on the whole well supported. They not only navigate the 
Murray, but when the seasons allow, which is far more frequent 
now than when the trade at first began, they steam up the 
Darling as far as Fort Bourke, a distance of 800 miles from 
Wentworth, the junction of the two rivers. 

The one drawback to this noble stream is the difficulty and 
ilanjrer of exit and entrance throuiih its mouth. The Murrav 
mouth has been a standing difficrdty and disappointment to 
the Colony. It is continually shifting, silting up in one 
•channel and opening out anotlier. It is exposed to the full 
sweep of the gigantic waves of the Southern Ocean. Thougli 
river steamers have been navigated in and out hundreds of 
times, there is always some measure of risk about it. 

What is wanted is a safe and commodious harbour fur large 
vessels, where they can lie in security and be loaded with the 
upper river produce brought down by the shallow-bottomed 
steamers. To a certain extent, Victor Harbour has answered 
this purpose ; one or two good vessels do indeed load wool 
there during the season for the London market, and the 
Melbourne steamers call every voyage. But, however good the 
harbour itself may be, it has this serious defect — that river- 
borne wool has to be landed from the steamers at Goolwa, then 
conveyed about twelve miles by rail to Port Victor, put on 
board lighters, and then transhipped from the lighters to the 
ocean-going vessels. All this causes serious expense, and up 
to the present time has hampered and hindered the trade. 
♦Shippers are not willing to send first-class vessels to Victor 
Harbour, ^^llere they have sometimes to lie for months before 
they fill up. Wool-growers up the river refuse to send their 
produce down while uncertainty exists as to finding vessels to 
take it off. The practical result has been that the produce of 
the river, wliich ought to liave. come to our seaboard, lias been 




Ill ill mil lilH Hlillllilllllll illlil •l^": J» Li LiiUiiSIl HIM I 



Chap. XYII.] BAIL WAY FEOM POET ADELAIDE TO MUEEAY. 95 

gradually drifting away to Melbourne. The large and sin- 
gularly productive tract of country lying between the Upper 
]Murray and the Murrumbidgee, called Riverina, ought to send 
its produce by water carriage to the mouth of the Murray ; 
our Victorian neighbours, however, have determined — appa- 
rently, at any cost — to secure this trade for Hobson's Bay. 
A railway has been carried from Melbourne to Echuca, a point 
on the Upj)er Murray ; and the Victorian Government are 
actually conveying the wool at a loss to the revenue. Much 
of the trade, it is feared, is hopelessly lost to this Colony ; 
and our object now is to retain that which still remains in 
our hands. 

There are two methods by which this is sought to be 
effected. The first, and most popular, is to connect the river 
direct with Port Adelaide by means of a railway. All the year 
round there are magnificent vessels at the Port Avaiting for 
freight ; and when the produce is once brought to Port 
Adelaide, it can be immediately dispatched for the home 
market. This cannot be done if it is sent down to Port Victor, 
where it may lie for weeks or months, before it can be shipped. 
To the sheepfarmer much depends on getting the produce 
early to market ; and wool will not be sent to any port where 
it cannot get quick dispatch. 

A railway to connect the Murray with the Port has been 
talked about for many years ; but there is now a probability of 
its becoming an accomplished fact. One great difficulty has 
been to fix upon a route for the line. Local jealousies have 
prevented unanimity. The present Government have fixed the 
route, as I have mentioned already, between Kapunda and the 
North-West Bend, and it is probable that this route will be 
iidopted by the Parliament. There is a strong and influential 
party, however, in favour of a line over the Mount Lofty range 
of hills, which would pass through a fruitful and settled district. 
The two great arguments in favour of this line are — first,' that 
it Avould secure a good trade from the very beginning ; and, 
secondly, that it would be the commencement of a great over- 
land line of railway connecting Adelaide with Melbourne and 
Sydney. These two arguments have great force. The time is 



96 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XVII. 

not far distant when we shall ]\a\o the three Colonies joined 
by railway commnnication ; and if we must tap the Murray, 
something valuable would be gained by tapping it in such a 
direction, and the line constructed would be the beginning of 
an overland route. 

But the strongest, if not the only, argument against a line 
over the hills is its enormous cost. The lowest computation 
makes it about £1,200,000 for the seventy-five miles, which is 
more than the Colony can afford in its present circumstances. 
Wc want lines of railway in other parts of the Colony where 
there is less accommodation for the conveyance of produce to 
the seaboard. At £4000 per mile we could make 300 miles for 
the cost of the seventy-five miles over the range ; or at £5000 
per mile, 240 miles. And it is considered much wiser at the 
present time to open out new country with 300 or 240 miles of 
railway than to spend £16,000 per mile over a line of only 
seventy-five miles over a country where excellent roads already 
exist. It is this consideration that outw eiglis the many advan- 
tages which a line to the river over the hills undoubtedlv 
possesses. 

But apart from railways altogether, there is another great 
scheme before the public, which is enthusiastically advocated 
by the people in the south. That is to make a new mouth to 
the Murray, which w-ould enable ocean-going vessels of large 
tonnage to i)ass in and out without difficulty or danger. Tlie 
harbour of Goolwa on the river is large and commodious, and 
has a sufficient depth of water to enable a considerable fleet of 
large vessels to lie safely, if once they Avere inside. This 
harbour is not more than a mile from the ocean in a straight 
line across the sandhills. The scheme proposed is to cut a 
canal through the sand of sufficient depth and width to permit 
large vessels to pass in and out. The question is one of 
engineering and cost ; and these two are closely connected. 
Engineers say that if a cutting were made the fall in the 
river would be quite sufficient to scour the channel and to 
keep it always clear. The great difficulty, however, is the 
fact that tlic mouth of the canal would have no protection 
against the full swell of the Southern Ocean, and that there 



Chap. XVIL] PROPOSED CANAL TO GOOLWA. 97 

would be times when it would Le impossible for vessels to 
attempt the passage in safety. The answer to this is, that 
such times are by no means frequent, and that when the 
weather was too stormy for vessels to make the entrance, they 
could run for Victor Harbour, a few miles off, where they 
could lie safely until the weather moderated. The Engineer- 
in-Chief cannot recommend the Government to undertake the 
work of making a canal ; but the people in the South have 
obtained an Act to enable a private company to undertake the 
work, and Mr. B. Boothby, C.E., has prepared plans showing 
how it can be carried out at a moderate cost. 

Whether the scheme is feasible, it is not my business tt> 
say, as it is really a matter of engineering ; but if it is, and is 
carried out, it will be one of the greatest works ever accom- 
plished in the Colony. It will be the creation of a new port, 
and will secure the upper river trade to an extent Avhich it is 
impossible to estimate. There is untold wealth, agricultural, 
pastoral, and mineral, in the immense river territory, which 
cannot be fully developed in consequence of the cost of 
conveying the produce to a market which would be developed 
within a very few years if the river were opened to sea-going 
vessels. 

If is not too much to say that we have not turned the one 
great river we possess to full account as a highway for the 
conveyance of produce. A port at its mouth which would 
receive large vessels would more than anything else enable us 
to use the river as we ought ; and if the southern colonists are 
successful in their bold and spirited scheme, they will do more 
for the substantial prosperity of the Province than has ever 
yet been accomplished. Without being over-sanguine, I 
believe a great future lies before the Colony in the fuller 
development of the river trade. 



H 



98 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [CHAr. XVIII. 



CHAPTEE XYIII. 

THE TllANS-AUSTRALIAN TELEGEAril. 

Origin of Idea — Stuart's Travels — Cable Company's Proposal — Commander 
NoelOsborn — Act passed for Construction — Mr. Todd's Preparations — 
Difficulties of ihe Undertaking — First Failures — Mr. Patterson's Expe- 
dition — Mr. Todd's Expedition — Completion of Work — First Telegram 

— Banquet in Adelaide to celebrate Completion of Work — Great Success 

— Conflicts -nith Natives — Lines and Cables to Kew Zealand and 
Western Australia. 

Probably nothing that has been dune during the history of 
South Australia has more strikingly brought out the enter- 
prise of the Colonists than the construction of the Overland 
Telegraph. A few years ago the heart of the continent was a 
terra incognita, about -which there were strange dreams and 
speculations. Now a Mcll-built line of telegraph has been 
carried nearly 2000 miles from Adelaide in the south to Port 
Darwin in the north, and this great work has brought the 
whole of Australia into telegraphic communication with every 
part of the civilized world. We owe this great work primarily 
to Charles Todd, C.M.G., the accomplished and indefatigable 
Superintendent of Telegraphs in the Colony. I purpose 
'i-ivin<r here a brief account of the construction of this bold 
vmdertaking. 

So far back as 1857, Mr. Todd brought forward the 
r|ucstion of connecting Australia ^^ith the old world by means 
of telegraphic communication. The first idea was to connect 
Java with the Gulf of Carpentaria by a submarine cable, 
and Java witli Singapore. Queensland liad pushed her lines 
to a considerable extent northwards, and they could easily haA^e 



Chap. XVIII.] THE TEAXS-AUSTEALIAN TELEGEAPH. 99 

1)een carried to the Gulf of Carpentaria. After Stuart's 
successful journey across the continent to South Australia, the 
thought occurred to Mr. Todd that a land line from Port 
Augusta to North Australia was quite practicable and might 
be constructed at a moderate cost. He brought the question 
officially before Sir K. G. MacDonnell, the Governor, in 1859, 
who immediately communicated with the Secretary of State 
on the subject. The question, however, slept for some years, 
and was revived and brought into prominent notice again 
in 1869, when various schemes were suggested for carrying 
out the scheme. Amongst these, however, three obtained 
prominence ; the first to join the North-West Cape to Ceylon, 
and the second to connect it with Java; and a third, and 
perhaps more favourite scheme was to connect Normanton on 
the north-east with Java. 

At this time the British-Australian Telegraph Company 
was launched, and proposed to bring the cable to our doors 
without subsidy or guarantee. Fortunately at. that time Mr. 
R. Dalrymple Eoss, a gentleman who had been connected with 
the Imperial Commissariat, and who had taken a lively 
interest in opening out North Australia for purposes of trade 
with British India, was in London, and he wrote an able letter 
to the Times, pointing out the importance of opening our 
facilities for trade between Australia and India. He also 
<Iemonstrated the j)robability of a telegraph cable, connecting 
Australia with India and Europe, becoming in a very few 
years highly remunerative to the company who would under- 
take it. Mr. Eoss placed the whole advantages of the scheme 
very clearly and forcibly before the British public, and his 
letter had much to do with hastening the progress of the work. 
There was a cable already to Singapore, and a land line from 
Batavia through Java to Banjoewangie ; and the plan of the 
British-xVustralian Company was to lay a cable from Singapore 
to Batavia, and from Banjoewangie to Port Darwin, with a 
land line thence to Normanton. It was, however, by no means 
a settled fact that the cable would come to Port Darwin at all. 
There was a doubt as to the land route thence to Normanton, 
which, owing to the nature of the country, would be difficult 



100 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. XYIII. 

to construct and expensive to maintain. There was, therefore, 
a feelinf^ in favour of leaving out Tort Darwin and carrying 
the caLh^ direct to Normanton. 

In order to make all necessary inc^uiries, Commander Noel 
Osborn was sent by the Company to Australia. This gentleman 
came on to Adelaide, and jNFr. Todd, in repeated interviews 
with him, put the advantages of a line from Adelaide to Port 
Darwin before him over one through Queensland. He showed 
that our line would be much sliorter, and tliat Queensland 
could easily tap it by a short line from Normanton. Mr. 
H. B. T. Strangways, then at the head of the Government in 
South Australia, took the matter up very warmly, and oftered, 
on behalf of the Government, to construct an overland line 
from Port Augusta to Port Darwin. The British-Australian 
Company would therefore finish their work when they landed 
their cable at Port Darwin, and they would escape all the 
trouble and cost of carrying a land line through a diflicult and 
comparatively unknown country. Commander Osborn saw that 
tliis proposal would relieve the Company of wliat was likely to 
prove their greatest difficulty, and he accepted it. A Bill was 
introduced into Parliament to authorize the construction of 
the line, and though there was a change of Ministry at the 
time, public feeling was so strong in its favour that the Bill 
was carried with something approaching to enthusiasm. Our 
Government pledged themselves to have the line completed 
in eighteen months, and open for traffic on January 1st, 1872. 

The Colony was thus committed to the work, and it was 
only then that Mr. Todd, who, as the head of the department, 
was responsible for carrying it out, began to realize the re- 
sponsibility he had undertaken. Only a few months before the 
duties of Postmaster-General, in addition to the management 
of the Telegraph Department, had been transferred to him. 
With increased official duties pressing very heavily upon him, 
he had undertaken to carry a line of telegraph nearly 2000 
miles long through a country, the greater portion of which was 
unknown, and for an extent of 1350 miles unsettled by white 
men. Stuart, indeed, had passed over a barren strip of this 
country, and had thus proved that its passage was practicable 



Chap. XYIII.] ME. TODD'S PEEPAEATIONS. 101 

in certain seasons of the year to a small and lightly equijiped 
party. For hundreds of miles this country was entirely bare 
of timber, and posts would have to be carted over the whole 
distance where there were no roads. More than this, all the 
wire was to be transported from England by ship, and then 
carted over the distance. Insulators were to be brought from 
Berlin ; and when the order for them went home, the Franco- 
Uerman war had broken out, and serious delay occurred in 
getting the insulators through Denmark. Mr. Todd soon dis- 
covered, too, that it would be necessary to have iron posts for 
a great portion of the line, and these had also to be imported 
from England. Some of the materials were landed at Port 
Augusta, and some at Port Darwin, so that the work might be 
simultaneously commenced at each end. 

To convey them from the seaboard, an extensive system of 
dray parties had to be organized. Horses and carts had to be 
purchased, men selected, tents and provisions conveyed to the 
very heart of the Continent. Two thousand miles of posts and 
wire had to be erected, and all this within eighteen months 
from the time the contract was signed. More than this, a 
practicable route was to be selected ; and Mr. John Koss, 
a clever and an experienced bushman, with a flying expedition, 
was dispatched to run down the country and mark out the 
route. Various sections of the line were let under contract ; 
the Government retaining those most difficult in their own 
hands. The first northern section started from Port Darwin 
as a basis, and the next from the Roper Eiver. Parties were 
to Avork from each of those points and meet in the centre. The 
southern portion, starting at Port Augusta, was also let on 
contract ; and the central, which the Government themselves 
undertook, and which presented the greatest difficulty, was 
entrusted to a fine lot of young men, who entered upon their 
work with great enthusiasm. 

When all was ready for a beginning, the Government 
parties started from Adelaide in August, 1870, and the first 
pole was planted at Port Darwin about the middle of Sep- 
tember, and the first at Port Augusta on the 1st October, 1870. 
Having organized all his forces, and made provision for ob- 



102 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XVni. 

taiuing- all his nooessary material, Mr. Todd started northward 
as far as the Peake, which had l)Oon chosen as a central base 
of operations. Tliere he met Mr. Eoss, and made final arrange- 
ments for the disposition of his forces. The thing was soon 
fairly started,' and 3Ir. Todd returned to Adelaide to watch 
with anxiety the progress of the work, and to arrange for the 
continuous dispatch of materials and provisions as they were 
needed. 

For a time everything went on very successfully, and there 
was every prospect of the work being carried out within the 
contract time. It was supposed that the northern end, starting 
from Port Darwin, would present fewest difficulties, but here 
was the only serious breakdown. Early in July, 1871, when it 
was hoped that a considerable portion of the northern section 
had been completed, we were startled and disappointed by 
3Ir. "VV. ]\rc]\[inn, the Government overseer, returning to Ade- 
laide with the melancholy news that the contractor's expedition 
there had collapsed ; and that, in virtue of the power given to 
him, he had terminated the contract. This was a heavy blow 
and sore discouragement. The other parts of the line were 
being constructed with great success, and no one dreamt of a 
failure at the Port Darwin end. Besides this, only six months 
remained of the contract time, within which the Government 
were pledged to finish the work. 

In this emergency, the Government dispatched Mr. E. C. 
Patterson, assistant engineer, with a large party of men and 
an ample supply of materials, to complete the work. Mr. 
Patterson and ^Fr. Todd were strongly in favour of sending 
the new expedition to the lioper Kiver, and forming a new 
base of operations there. They were overruled, however, and 
the fatal mistake was made of sending the expedition to Port 
Darwin. It arrived at an unfortunate time; the stock died, 
and it was found almost impossible to get the materials trans- 
ported. IMr. Patterson sent back a melancholy report from 
Port Darwin, which cast a gloom over the whole Colony. He 
did what ought to have been done at first — dispatched a vessel 
with his materials to the Koper, and in course of time followed. 
AVitli reference to this period of l)itter disappointment, Mr. 



Chap. XYIIL] MB. PATTEESON'S EXPEDITIOX. 103 

Todd writes : — " IS'iimbers of horses and one-third of the 
bullocks died, and the loads had to be lightened or abandoned 
on the road before the Katherine was reached, and further on 
it was necessary to sink wells before the teams could advance 
with safety ; and ere this was accomplished, down came the 
rains, and a monsoon of unusual severity set in almost before 
the work could be renewed, and stopped all further progress 
for months." 

The men were locked in by floods, chafing, and fretting, 
and eating tlieir hearts, during their enforced idleness. The 
[)recious time was passing away. The whole out-look at that 
time was very black ; and Mr. Todd needed all his bright, 
hopeful, and sanguine spirit to sustain him. 

At this very juncture, in the midst of our bitter disappoint- 
ment, the cable fleet arrived at Port Darwin. The shore end 
of the line was fixed, and the vessels began to pay out the 
cable to BanjoeAvangie, and the work was completed and com- 
munication established with London in November. One of 
the first messages flashed along the line was the humbling 
one for us, " South Australian land line not nearly completed." 
Some of our neighbours began to taunt us with our vanity and 
foolish temerity in undertaking a work which we had not the 
ability to complete, instead of leaving it to one of the other 
Colonies. With the exception of a few people in Melbourne, 
we found none to offer us a word of sympathy, or to give us a 
word of encouragement. 

At this time, when things looked darkest, when Mr. 
Patterson wrote in a somewhat desponding tone, reporting' 
liis losses and asking for the immediate dispatch of large 
reinforcements, the Government, who never lost heart, and 
who were determined to complete the work whatever it might 
cast, asked Mr. Todd himself to proceed to the scene of action, 
and do what was necessary to close up the work. This was a 
serious undertaking for a gentleman who had no acquaintance 
with bush life ; but he accepted the duty at once. He had 
a deep personal interest in the completion of the work which 
liad been suggested by himself, and he felt that his reputation 
to some extent depended on its being successfully carried out. 



101 SOUTH ArSTEALIA. [CaAr. XVIII. 

With liis usual energy and cutlinsiasiu. he collected large re- 
inforcements, Avhicli he dispatched in ^voll-appointed steamers 
to the Eoper Ivivcr, he sailing in one of them. 

The very day before he started, he received the Avolcome 
int('lli<2,once that communication had been established with the 
3IacDonnell Eanges, that the central portion of the line was 
finished, and that the section beyond w^as making rapid pro- 
gress. But for the unfortunate break-dowTi in the Northern 
Territory, the conditions of the contract would have been 
fulfilled almost to the very letter. 

On reaching the mouth of the Eoper in the Omeo steamer, 
Mr. Todd was met by Mr. Patterson. The steamer passed up 
the river, 3[r. Todd giving the Captain an indemnity against 
damage on the part of the Government if he would force the 
Ijar, and they at length reached the jetty which had been 
constructed for unloading the vessels. The materials and 
horses were landed, but their faith and patience were again 
to be tested. All through February and IMarch heavy con- 
tinuous rains fell, and the party could do nothing. As soon, 
however, as the fine weather set in, they loaded up teams and 
started on their final work — Mr. Patterson a2:ain takino- chare^e 
of the working parties. Mr. Todd, having seen a commence- 
ment again made, went round to Port Darwin to complete the 
necessary arrangements there — to inspect the telegraph offices, 
and to make a thorough inspection of the line between Port 
Darwin and the Katherine. Unfortunately he found that a 
great number of the poles had suffered from the ravages of 
white ants, and he arranged to have them replaced with iron 
poles. Having accomplished all this, he returned to the 
Roper, which he reached on May 31. The work now went 
on very successfully, and Mr. Todd resolved to return to 
Adelaide overland along the whole line of telegraph that he 
might judge for himself of the manner of its construction. 
He arrived at Daly Waters Station on June 22. 

Betw^een that point and Tennant's Creek there was a gap 
in the line still to be finished. Until it was completed, Mr. 
Todd established a pony estafette, to ride express with messages 
and keep up a weekly communication between Adelaide and 



Chap. XYIII.] COMPLETION OF WOEK. 



105 



the Old World. He telegraphed to our Agent-General in 
London, informing him of the progress of the work and its 
approaching completion. Several messages came through from 
London on the next day, and then there was silence for some 
months. The cable between Port Darwin and Java had broken, 
and it was a long and weary time before it could be restored. 
This was not altogether unfortunate for us. The Cable Com- 
pany had threatened to enforce the penalties for non-completion 
of the contract within the specified time ; but when their own 
cable broke, we heard no more of these penalties. Meanwhile 
the gap was gradually covered by the line, and a field operator 
accompanied the working parties and kept up constant com- 
munication with Adelaide. On August 22, 1872, the two ends 
of the wire were joined, and the construction of the telegraph 
line across the continent was an accomplished fact. After all 
our difiiculties and heart-breaking disappointments, the work 
was done. On the day the wires were joined and messages 
were flashed direct between Adelaide and Port Darwin, we 
Mere rewarded for all our money, labour, and anxiety. In 
lecturing on this work, Mr. Todd said: — "Thus the great 
work, notwithstanding all disasters and mishaps, was success- 
fully completed within two years ; and he thought he might 
with confidence assert that no line passing through a similar 
extent of uninhabited country, where the materials had to be 
imported and carted over such long distances, or country re- 
presenting similar natural obstacles, had been constructed in 
the same short space of time." It should be borne in mind, 
too, that this great work was undertaken at the sole cost of a 
people numbering at the time less than 200,000 souls. The 
audacity of the enterprise was no less than the success with 
which it was carried out. 

When the work was completed, Mr. Todd was at Central 
Mount Stuart, the very heart of the continent, equidistant 
from north and south ; from east and west. There was some- 
thing singularly appropriate in his receiving the news of the 
completion of the great work in the centre of the continent. 
It was evening when the first message passed through, and im- 
mediately he received kind congratulatory messages from the 



106 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XMIL 

Government, and all sorts of people, expressing their joy at 
the completion of the work which he suggested, and which he 
did so much to carry out. These messages came flashing 
through, and he replied to them in high delight, until from 
sheer weariness of hand and brain he had to wish his friends 
in Adelaide '' Good night," and shut off the communication. 
If he had not done so, he would have been kept receiving and 
answering messages all through the night. 

3Ir. Todd now hastily pursued his journey to Adelaide, 
accom]:)anied by 3[r. Knuckey, a fine young fellow, who had 
shown himself to be one of his most efficient and faithful co- 
adjutors in the work. He was followed by his party, and he 
and they received a cordial welcome in the city. A grand 
banquet was given to them in the Town Hall, presided over 
by His Excellency Sir James Fergusson, Bart., who gracefully 
announced the fact that, in recognition of the importance of 
the work achieved. Her Majesty had conferred on the Chief 
Secretary, Mr. Ayers, the honour of K.C.M.G., and on Mr. 
Todd and the Agent-General of the colony in London, Mr. 
Francis S. Button, the honour of C.]\[.G. At that banquet 
messages were sent from the room to London and Washington, 
and answers received in due course. 

When the work was completed and the line successfully 
opened, its immense importance was at once recognized. 
Some, indeed, who were envious at our success and unjust in 
their criticisms, asserted that the line was little better than a 
sham — that it was ill-constructed, and that it would tumble to 
pieces in a few months. Mr. Todd indignantly refuted these 
mendacious statements. He had travelled over the whole line, 
and he stated that it was well and substantially built ; and the 
result has shown that he was right. It has been in operation 
upwards of three years, and we have never yet had seven days' 
interruption. Heavy storms have occasionally torn down por- 
tions of the line, but these have been replaced in a day or two. 
Indeed, communication between Australia and England has 
suffered much more from breaks in the cable than from any 
faults in our land line. 

It was feared that the line might suffer from the wild 



Chap. X^'III.] GEEAT SUCCESS OF TELEGEAPH LINE. 107 

natives in the interior, avIio, from malice or ignorance, might 
cut the wires. Singuhirly enough, however, there has been no 
instance of their doing so. They seem to have a wholesome 
dread of the telegraph. During the process of building, the 
operators gave several of the curious blackfellows electric 
shocks, which alarmed them beyond measure, and vividly 
appealed to their imagination. They learnt to associate the 
peculiar sensation caused by the shock with the line, and this 
has prevented them interfering with it. The terror caused by 
reports of " whitefellow's devil " spread like wildfire amongst 
the timorous savages. They have attacked the operators at 
the stations, and sometimes with fatal consequences, but they 
fight shy of the wires. I cannot do better than conclude this 
chapter on the Overland Telegraph with a quotation from Mr. 
Todd's lecture as reported in the newspapers : — " The work 
which they undertook and successfully consummated, though 
single-handed, had, it is true, proved a costly one — far more 
costly than they anticipated ; but repayment would be 
speedy. To take one fact — without the telegraph it would 
have been imj)ossible for South Australia to have disposed of 
the large surj)lus produce of last harvest, except at such a 
sacrifice as would have ruined their farmers. With the tele- 
graph, the wants and prices of all the markets of the world 
were known to them without delay ; and, beyond that, they 
possessed the means of securing ships from every quarter, till 
their ports were crowded with the finest fleet ever seen in 
South Australian waters, ready to carry away their golden 
grain to the millions who were eager to consume it. He was 
assured by merchants, most competent to form an opinion, that 
the telegraj)h had realized for the Colony at least £150,000, in 
the advanced price it had enabled us to obtain for our wheat. 
The telegraph might check unhealthy speculation, but it made 
commerce safer — tended to equalize j)i"ices, put the farmer, 
merchant, and consumer on a footing of equality, and by the 
more speedy liberation of capital it chcaj^ened all commodities 
and the necessaries of daily life." 

I may say that, in addition to the advantages of the tele- 
graph thus referred to by Mr. Todd, its construction has led to 



lOS SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XVIIL 

the opouing out and settlement of tlio interior country, as 
nothing else couhl liave done. Land has been taken up for 
grazing far beyond what only a few years ago was thought 
possible. It has been discovered that Central Australia is not 
such a bleak and barren desert as it was once thought to be. 
But tlie benefits secured by the overland line are not confined 
to this Colony. Victoria uses it more largely than all the 
other Colonies put together ; indeed, I believe, she sometimes 
gets tlie credit of having undertaken and constructed the 
work. Renter's agency has its head-quarters in Melbourne, 
from which all public messages are sent ; and this has given 
the impression that the line belongs to Victoria instead of to 
South Australia. Victorians themselves would be the last to 
grudge us the credit to which we are entitled for our pluck 
and enterprise ; but English people, in their ignorance of 
Australian Geography, persist in regarding Victoria as . 
Australia, instead of keeping it in mind that it is the 
smallest Province in the whole of Australia, thougli perhaps 
the most wealthy. 

There are now only two great works necessary to bring the 
whole of tliese Colonies of the South into telegraphic commu- 
nication with the whole civilized world, and these are about to 
be completed. The most important is a cable to connect New 
Zealand with Australia ; and a contract has already been 
signed by the New Zealand Government and the English 
Company for this Avork, which will be finished in the course of 
a few months.* The second is a line to connect South and 
West Australia; and this too is in process of construction. 
The Western Australian Government are bringing on their 
line from Perth to Eucla — the boundary township in the 
Great Australian Bight ; and our Government are carrying 
a line to join them there. When these two works are finished, 
all the Colonies Avill be in communication with tlie Old AVorld 
and America. It is our pardonable boast that no country in 
tlie world, with such a small population and such limited 

* The New Zealand-Australia Cable was successfully laid and completed 
early in February 1S7G, and communication opened to the pul)lic on the 15th of 
tliat niontli. 



Chap. XVIII.] LIKES WITH OTHER COLONIES. ' 109 

resources, lias done as mueli in the way of telegraphic exten- 
sion as South Australia has done. 

In a work which professes, as this does, to give accurate 
information resjiecting a Colony which hitherto has been but 
little known, I thought it desirable to give a somewhat lengthy 
account of a work which, had it been accomplished by an old 
and long-established people, would have been regarded as a 
great undertaking, but when carried out by a mere handful of 
people, in spite of many and grievous discouragements which 
could not be foreseen or guarded against, assumes an import- 
ance which cannot very well be over-estimated. The bulk of 
the men who carried it through were young-born and bred 
South Australians ; and the brave way in which they set them- 
selves to the work, and encountered and over-mastered all 
difficulties, shows that the new generation, born and brought 
up here, have lost none of the high qualities of courage, 
energy, and endurance which have always characterized the 
Anglo-Saxon race. This is the class of men whom we may 
safely trust to advance the future progress of the Colony — men 
full of pluck, patient and hopeful under difficulties, and fruitful 
in resources in the face of danger or unforeseen obstacles. The 
construction of the Overland Telegraph may be regarded as a 
test of the capabilities of young Australia, and as a satisfactory 
answer to the question whether they inherit the high qualities 
which have made their fathers great. 



110 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. XIX. 



CHAPTEK XIX. 

EXPLORATION. 

Captain Sturt — Mr. E. J. Eyre — Eyre's Journey to King George's Sound — 
J. MacDouall Stuart — A'ictoria Exploring Expedition: Death of Burke 
and "Wills — Colonel Warburton, John Forrest, Mr. Gosse, and Mr. Lewis 
• — Hon. T. Elder's valuable Assistance in Work of Exploration. 

When the first colonists settled in South Australia, but little 
was known of the immense territory whicli had been ceded to 
them by the Crown. Captain Sturt's adventurous voyage 
■down the Murrumbidgeo and the Murray (to which I have 
referred elsewhere) led to the discovery of the fine country 
which is now so well settled, and where the early colonists 
selected their homes. It was soon found that the new Colony 
was admirably adapted for pastoral pursuits ; and the country 
within some fifty miles of Adelaide was taken up. Enter- 
j)rising men went out farther into the interior to look for new 
country. The whole of the land more than fifty miles north of 
the metroj)olis was a terra incognita. Our first explorers were 
young men in search of good country for sheep runs. Great 
hardships were often endured by these men, and not unfrc- 
quently valuable lives were sacrificed in the search for country. 
The explorers liad to be on their guard against tlie natives, 
some of whom were crafty and cruel, and resented what they 
regarded as an unwarrantable intrusion on tlieir territory. But 
the want of water in a hot and barren land was often a worse 
enemy than a whole tribe of blacks. To tell of the sufferings 
endured by some of the first explorers would occupy more 
space than I can afford in this work. For the same reason I 



Chap. XIX.] EXPLOEATION : STURT— EYEE. Ill 

cannot attempt to give any account of tlie great explorers 
which the other Colonies have produced. 

One of the first and bravest of South Australian explorers 
was Edward John Eyre, who occupied the position of Eesident 
^Magistrate and Protector of Aborigines at Moorundee, and who 
subsequently became Governor of Jamaica, where it is admitted 
he committed some mistakes of administration, for which he 
j)aid more than an adequate penalty. Mr. Eyre was an able 
man and a s^jlendid bushman. He had large experience in 
conducting expeditions in charge of stock from one Colony 
to another, and his humanity towards and care for the 
natives, while he held the office of Protector, were generally 
recognized. 

On behalf of a number of gentlemen in South Australia, 
Mr. Eyre undertook the leadership of a party to explore the 
unknown country lying between this Colony and Western 
Australia. The funds were subscribed by the projectors of the 
expedition — Mr. Eyre himself contributing in money and 
horses more than half the amount. The first object was to 
push on northward, and then strike off in a westerly direction. 
The expedition consisted of E. J. Eyre, as leader ; E. B. Scott, 
assistant and companion ; J. Baxter, overseer ; Corporal Coles, 
T, Houston, E. McRobert, and two native boys. They started 
from Adelaide on June 18th, 1840, in an imposing cavalcade — 
several ladies and gentlemen accompanying them some short 
distance on horseback. The Government had placed at their 
disposal a small cutter, to convey their stores to the head of 
Spencer's Gulf and Streaky Bay. Unexpected difficulties pre- 
vented their pushing their way northward, and the party pro- 
ceeded to Streaky Bay. This was made the base of operations ; 
and a month was employed by Mr. Eyre and one of the natives 
in a fruitless attempt to get beyond the Great Australian Bight, 
in which he lost three of his horses. Prudence would have 
suggested an abandonment of the expedition and a return to 
Adelaide. Mr. Eyre, however, felt that he must do something 
to justify the confidence placed in him ; and while jiondering 
over the situation, he formed the bold resolution to land Jiis 
stores, send back his party in the cutter to Adelaide, and, with 



112 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. XIX. 

one white man and tliroe blacks, push liis ^vay throii,i;h to 
Iving George's Sound, in Western x\.ustralia, or to perish in the 
attempt. He fully knew the danger which he was about to 
incur ; but his overseer, Baxter, was willing to accomjmny him, 
and the perilous journey began. 

About ten years ago Henry Kingsley told the story of that 
remarkable expedition in the pages of Macmillans Magazine, 
in his own graphic style. Poor Eyre sufiered the greatest 
])rivations ; but he bore up with a brave heart, until his 
faithful overseer was cruelly murdered by two of his natives, 
and then he almost broke down. The natives deserted him 
after murdering his overseer and robbing him of a considerable 
(quantity of his provisions, and he was left alone with a little 
black lad as his only attendant. He was not able to bury the 
body of Baxter, but wrapped a blanket round it and left it 
where it fell, and rushed " from the melancholy scene, accom- 
panied by Wylie (the boy), under the influence of feelings 
which neither time nor circumstances will ever obliterate." 
j\[r. Eyre adds in his journal : — " At this time I had nothing 
on but a shirt and a pair of trousers, and suffered most acutely 
from the cold ; to mental anguish was now added intense 
bodily pain. Suftering and distress had well nigh over- 
\\ helmed me, and life seemed hardly worth the efibrts necessary 
to prolong it." He appeared to be now alone in the world. 
Two out of the three natives had betrayed the confidence he 
placed in them, and murdered his only white companion. A 
single act of treachery on the part of his native boy, Wylie, 
might have ended his days, and left his bones to whiten in the 
desert ; but the poor boy was faithful to the last. W^hat a 
picture for an artist would Eyre and Wylie — representatives of 
the highest and lowest forms of humanity — jxishing on their 
weary way over hitherto untrodden deserts, aftbrd ! Hungry, 
thirsty, fainting, and naked, they pushed on, until at last they 
reached the little town of Albany, in King George's Sound, 
where they had been expected, but long given up for lost. 

In his journal Mr. Eyre tries to describe his feelings on 
terminating his journey. He says : — " For a moment as I 
stood gazing at the town below me, that goal I had so long 



Chap. XIX.] EYEE'S JOUENEY TO KING GEOEGE'S SOUND. 113 

looked forward to, liad so laboriously toiled to attain, was at 
last before me, a thousand confused images and reflections 
crowded tlirougli my mind, and the events of the past year 
were recalled in rapid succession. The contrast betw^een the 
circumstances under which I had commenced and terminated 
my labours stood in strong relief before me. The gay and 
gallant cavalcade that accompanied me on my way at starting, 
the small but enterprising band that I then commanded, the 
goodly array of horses and drays, with all their well-ordered 
appointments and equipment, w'ere conjured up in all their 
circumstances of pride and pleasure ; and I could not restrain 
a tear as I called to mind the embarrassing difficulties and 
sad disasters that had broken up my party, and left myself and 
Wylie the two sole wanderers remaining at the close of an 
undertaking entered upon under such hopeful auspices." This 
perilous journey was of little use from a commercial point of 
view. The country passed over was worthless for pasture, 
although the country this side of Fowler's Bay has been taken 
up for pastoral pursuits. But Eyre's bravery, endurance, and 
perseverance are none the less to be commended on this 
account. 

Thirty years after this journey was made, it was repeated 
from the opposite side by Mr. John Forrest, a fine young West 
Australian explorer, who with a small party passed over it with 
but little inconvenience or difficulty. Mr. Forrest told me that 
again and again he camped on Eyre's old camping ground, 
which he recognized at once, and which seemed to have re- 
mained undisturbed from the time he and .Wylie left it. I 
shall have something more to say of this brave young West 
Australian explorer, who in crossing the continent in the lati- 
tude where Eyre hoped to have crossed it when he first started 
from Adelaide, endured very great privations. 

The next explorer of note Avho attempted to penetrate the 
mystery of Central Australia was Captain Sturt, a man whose 
name should never be mentioned without respect. lie had 
won his spurs as an explorer, but the heart of the continent 
had a fascination for him, and he was resolved to find out what 
it contained. There was an idea prevalent that somewhere in 

I 



114 SOUTH AUSTPxALIA. [Chap. XIX. 

tlie centre avouM bo found a great inlaiul sea, and Captain 
Stiirt determined that he would prove or disprove this idea by 
actual observation. In 1844 he started, Avith a well-equipped 
l>arty, on an exploration to the north. Ilis surgeon was 3Ir. 
J. H. Browne, now a wealthy squatter, and his draughtsman, 
3Ir. J. 3IcDouall 8tuart, who was destined to be the first white 
man who travelled across the continent from south to north. His- 
journey would be worth describing if I had space here to de- 
scribe it. No party ever suffered more than tliis did. For six 
months they were shut up far away to the north, able neither 
to advance nor retreat, in a temperature averaging 100 degrees. 
Again and again Captain Sturt and Mr. Bro\Nne struck out in 
various directions, trying to find a practicable outlet from the- 
miserable trap into which they had fallen. The water in the 
creek on which they were camped was gradually disappearing, 
and the prospect was a very gloomy one. One of the party, 
Mr. Poole, became very ill, and the leader of the exploration 
resolved to send him and Mr. Browne back to Adelaide ; but 
3Ir. Browne resolutely resisted, and wished to remain to share 
the fate of his intrepid chief. Poor Poole sunk under X)riva- 
tion and disease, and was buried in the far distant bush, another 
martyr to scientific discovery. Captain Sturt still refused to 
return. At length sickness broke down the little remaining 
strength of the party ; Captain Sturt became so feeble that he- 
lost the use of his limbs. Sturt succumbed at last, and the 
party had reluctantly to retrace their steps. On reaching 
Murrundee the party rested for a while, and Mr. Browne pushed 
on to Adelaide to announce their return. In 18G6, after an 
absence of eighteen months, Captain Sturt arrived in Adelaide. 
Mr. Foster, to whom I am much indebted for this chapter, says 
in his Avork on South Australia : — " The results of an exploring 
expedition depend so much upon the nature of the season 
when it is undertaken that it is difficult to say whether or not 
Captain Sturt might have succeeded in crossing the continent 
had he followed up some of the advantages he had gained. 
Cooper's Creek, which he discovered, is now found to be the 
key to the route across to Port Darwin and tlic Gulf of Car- 
pentaria. Had he traced it further in its easterly course, it. 



Chap. XIX.] STUAET'S EXPLOEATIONS. ll'* 

must Lave brought hiiu to the Barcoo, and from thence the 
country \voukI have been open to liim either to the north or to 
the north-east." 

For a while after Sturt's journey South Australian explora- 
tion appeared to rest ; but several expeditions were undertaken 
by the Government between 1857 and 1859, without adding- 
very much to our knowledge of the interior. In 1859, Mr, 
Stuart, Sturt's former companion and draughtsman, commenced 
that grand series of exploring journeys which, after many 
difficulties and disappointments, at length terminated so 
successfully. In the first instance he went out as the agent of 
Messrs. Chambers and Finke, gentlemen interested in pastoral 
jjursuits ; but the tale he had to tell on his return from these 
journeys induced the Government to fit out an expedition for 
further exploration of the continent, of which they gave Mr, 
Stuart the command. He failed in his first attempt ; but the 
Government had confidence in his prudence and determi- 
nation, and they sent him out again. Again he failed, simply 
because under the circumstances it seemed impossible to 
succeed. For a third time he offered his services to the 
Government, which were again accepted. He had an ex- 
cellent party fitted out at the expense of the Government, con- 
sisting of himself in command ; W. Kekwick, second ; F. G. 
Waterhouse, naturalist ; F. W. Thring, third officer ; W. P. 
Auld, assistant ; S. King, J. Billiat, J. Frew, H. Nash, and 
J. McGorgery. They pushed on from the terminus of Stuart's 
former journey, and on the whole the difficulties were fewer 
than they anticipated. On July 10, 1862, they struck the 
Adelaide Eiver, and Stuart then knew that his triumph was. 
near. In his journal he says : — " July 24. Started twenty 
minutes to eight o'clock, course north. I have taken this 
course in order to make the sea-coast as soon as possible, 
which I suppose to be distant about eight and a half miles ; 
by this I hope to avoid the marsh. I shall travel along the 
beach to the north of the Adelaide. I did not inform any 
of the party except Thring and Auld that I was so near the 
sea, as I wished to give them a surprise on reaching- 
it. ... At eight and a half miles came up in a broad 

I 2 



116 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. XlX. 

valley of Mack alhivial soil, covered A\ith long grass; from 
this I can licar tlio Avasli of the sea. . . . Stopped the 
horses to clear the way whilst I advanced a few yards on to 
the beach, and was delighted and gratified to behold the water 
of the Indian Ocean in Van Diemen's Gnlf before the party 
with the horses knew anytliing of its jiroxiniity. Thring, who 
rode in advance of me, called out, 'The sea!' which so took 
Ihcni all by surprise that he had to repeat the call before they 
understood what was meant ; hearing which they immediately 
gave three long and hearty cheers. . . . Thus have I 
through the instrumentality of Divine Providence been led to 
accomplish the great object of the expedition, and to take the 
whole party through as witnesses to the fact, and through one 
of the finest countries man would wish to pass — good to the 
coast, and with a stream of running water close to the sea." 

It is impossible to over-estimate the value of Stuart's last 
and crowning cx})editiou. It threw daylight upon a country 
of which little or nothing was previously known ; it showed 
that it was possible to cross this country, and in ordinary 
seasons to find water at easy distances ; and it led to the 
commencement of the great work of the transcontinental 
telegraph line, which has brought the whole of the Australias 
into daily communication with the old world. Mr. Stuart was 
rewarded by the Government and the Parliament for the 
magnificent work he had accomplished ; and full of honours 
he returned to the old country to end his days. He received 
the Gold Medal of the Koyal Geographical Society for his 
important discoveries ; but he did not live long to enjoy his 
honours and rewards. The hardships he suffered told even- 
tually even on his iron constitution. His name, however, 
is imperishably connected with exploration in Australia. He 
led the way which it is comparatively easy now to follow. 
He was the pioneer in a land which had never before been 
trodden by the foot of white man ; and to-day there are 
thriving cattle stations where a dozen years ago Stuart urged 
his weary way amidst the unbroken stillness of Nature, when 
it was doubtful whether he would succeed or lie down in 
the desert to die. 



Chap. XIX.] COLONEL WAEBUETON'S EXPEDITION. 117 

It docs not come within the scope of this work to describe 
at length the melancholy and disastrous history of the ex- 
pedition fitted out by the Victorian Government to find a way 
across the continent, and of which a brave man — Richard 
O'Hara Burke — was the leader. The Burke and Wills ex- 
pedition was sadly mismanaged, and resulted in the sacrifice of 
the lives of the leaders, who, almost within sight of home, lay 
down in the bush and died, utterly worn out and exhausted. 
These men crossed the continent to the shores of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria, and returned as far as Cooper's Creek, where 
their strength gave way, and they fell vanquished in the strife 
bv hunger, thirst, and fatigue. The Victorian Government 
nobly sent out an expedition to bring back the remains of 
these brave men to Melbourne for sepulture, and, strangely 
enough, Mr. A. Hewitt, the officer in charge of the precious 
burthen, arrived in Adelaide on the very day the colonists 
here were welcoming Stuart on his return from his successful 
journey. 

Our most recent exploration was that of Col. Warburton, 
who was commissioned by the Hon. T. Elder (who has shown a 
spirit of large-hearted enterprise, not only with reference to 
exploration, but in relation to the progress of the Colony 
in various ways) to search for cattle country to the west of the 
Telegraph line, in the centre of the continent. The gallant 
Colonel was an old explorer, and in S23ite of his many years he 
undertook the trying work. Several camels were placed at 
his disposal, and he had a small and carefully selected party to 
accompany him. He started from one of the stations on the 
Telegraph line in high hope for the west. Many months 
passed without any news being heard of him, and grave 
misgivings were felt as to the fate of the expedition. At 
length, however, after a silence of something like twelve 
months, news was heard of him. One of his party turned up 
at one of the most northern stations in Western Australia and 
reported that the brave old Colonel was camped many miles 
away, with no provisions but camel's flesh — and very little of 
that ; ill, wasted to a shadow, gaunt, and half-starved. Imme- 
diate assistance was sent to him, and it was just in time. The 



118 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. XIX. 

imrtv could not liavo surviNcil many davs lonii'er. Nothing 
could exeoiMl the kindness and Imnianity of the AVestern 
Australian (Jovornnicnt and |)fo]>l(\ The Chief Secrctavy. the 
lion. A\'. Jiarh'O, made the ex])edition his special care, supplied 
them with all that was necessary for their comfort — and that 
included almost every thina- — and then sent them on to 
Adelaide, where the gallant Colonrd was received with enthu- 
siasm. He subsequently visited England, received the Gold 
Medal of the Royal Geographical Society, and was made 
C.M.G. in 1875. 

Happily this Colony had an o[iportuiiity of returning the 
kindness of our western neighbours to Colonel Warburton 
and his party. I have already mentioned the fact that Mr. 
John Forrest, a young West Australian, some years ago 
travelled from King George's Sound to Adelaide on the 
route Avhich 3Ir, E. J. Eyre travelled thirty years before. 
Proud of his success, the AVcstern Australian Government 
commissioned him again to tind a way from the westward 
to South Australia, in a latitude nearer the centre of the 
continent ; in fact, somewhere on the line which Colonel 
Warburton contemplated when he set out. Mr. Forrest had 
a very small party, consisting of his brother Alexander, two 
assistants, and two black fellows. This small party endured 
great hardship, and were exposed to many dangers. The 
country through which they passed was wretched in the 
extreme until they got within a few hundred miles from the 
Telegraph line. Nothing but indomitable pluck and careful 
management on the part of the leader could have saved the 
party. But at length, after four months' weary travelling, 
they struck the line, and ran it down until they came to a 
telegraph station, Avhere they received from the master in 
charge such a welcome as brave men were entitled to. The 
news of their safe arrival was telegraphed to Adelaide the 
same day, and caused the greatest delight to the people here. 
It was resolved that they should have a public reception, and 
that something should be done to show how we appreciated 
the kindness of the West Australian people to our veteran 
explorer. Colonel AVarburton. The day of Air. Forrest's 



Chap. XIX.] FOEREST — GOSSE — LEWIS. 119 

entrance into Adelaide "was kept as a general holiday. 
Thousands of persons crowded into the city from all parts 
of the Colony ; the streets through which the little party 
passed were gaily decorated ; they were greeted with en- 
thusiasm as they rode in their travelling equipage on their 
poor lean horses ; and congratulatory addresses were presented 
to them. Not even when the Duke of Edinburgh entered 
Adelaide was there a greater, or a more enthusiastic, crowd to 
welcome him. 

We have had other explorers of late years also, who, 
through no fault of their own, have been less successful than 
those we have referred to. Mr. Gosse and Mr. Lewis have 
made some valuable discoveries of country to the west of the 
Telegraph line, and they have added considerably to our 
knowledge of the country ; but their discoveries have not 
been of a character so vividly to strike the imagination as 
those I have briefly attempted to describe. They have had 
their uses, however, and their value will be acknowledged 
in time to come. 

As a Colony we are very proud of what we have accom- 
plished in the way of exploration. No community so small 
has ever done what we have in this respect, and the cost has 
been very trifling to the Colony. Our explorers soon learnt 
the important lesson, that to be successful they must travel 
lightly, with as few impedimenta as possible. Some of the 
earlier expeditions broke down by their own weight ; and it 
was found that a lightly equipped party of about half-a-dozen 
men of the right sort could accomplish a great deal more 
than one provided on a more ambitious scale. Poor Burke 
discovered this, and he left his cumbersome party behind, and 
]nade a dash across the continent with only two or three 
companions. 

Australia has a beadroll of martyrs to scientific exploration 
of which any country might feel proud ; and we feel proud of 
them. Their material rewards have been but little, but their 
names are written in ineffaceable letters on the annals of the 
(Jolony, and future generations Avill point to them as amongst 
the bravest and noblest of Australia's sons. Amongst the 



120 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [CnAr. XIX. 

Colonies who have furnished some of the bravest of these. 
South Australia oceupies a prominent place. Indeed, when- 
ever a man has loeen needed for any special 'work, requiring 
peculiar gifts and qualities, that man has been forthcoming ; 
and in nothing has this been more manifest than in the; 
number and character of our explorers. 



Chap. XX.] STAPLE INDUSTRIES. 121 



CHAPTEE XX. 



COLONIAL INDUSTKIES. 



Stajile Industries — AVool, Wheat, and Copper — Meat Preserving — Manu- 
facture of Leather — Woollen Manufactures — Wine-making; Vineyards 
— Other Industries — Chamber of Manufactures. 

I HAVE already mentioned the three great staple industries of 
the Colony which over a series of years have been the source 
of our wealth — pastoral, agricultural, and mining jDursuits. 
All these are established on a permanent basis, and bid fair 
to enrich us for ages to come. The immense tracts of country 
which lie far away in the interior must be devoted to pastoral 
occupation with yearly increasing flocks and herds, the source 
of untold wealth to the squatters or sheep-farmers. The 
quantity of agricultural land taken up for industrial 'settle- 
ment is increasing year by year, and there are millions of 
acres which, with the manifest changes now taking place in 
our climate, will yet be surveyed and purchased for agri- 
cultural industry. All that is wanted to open out a large 
portion of this valuable territory is facile means of communi- 
cation with a market. Unless carriage of produce be made 
cheap, we shall soon reach the boundary beyond which wheat 
cannot be profitably cultivated. The Colony is awakening to 
the importance of this subject, and there is a determination 
to build light and cheap lines of railway to various parts of 
the province, by wliich the produce can be carried at a 
moderate rate. Wheat-growing is certain to extend, and wo 
shall have to look more steadily to the old countries of Europe 
fur a market. As the shipping charges for freight to England 



122 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. XX. 

jiiiuniiit to soiuctliiii;^- like half tlie value — soinetimos cunsicU-r- 
iibly more — of the grain as sold here, every means will have 
to be tried to cheapen carriage within the Colony. Our great 
■copper mines on the Peninsula show no signs of failure, but are 
AS rich now as ever they were. In addition to these there are 
vast tracts of country which are full of minerals, and which 
will be developed as mining property so soon as we can get 
•over the serious cost of transit to the seaboard. Our three 
^reat staple industries, then, bid fair to be permanent. 

But there are other industries which are slowly taking 
root amongst us, and which only want a little fostering care 
to develop into something greater and more profitable. 
Amongst these I may mention the preserving of meat, which 
has become a very important trade. Its progress, however, 
is dependent on the price of sheep, AVhen they fetch a good 
price in the open market, it does not pay to preserve them, 
h^o far as the sheep-farmer is concerned, one of the uses of 
preserving is to keep the price of sheep from falling below a 
<;ertain price. In this way the price can always be kept up to a 
•certain remunerative figure. Of course this is better for the pro- 
<Iucer than for the consumer, and of late complaints have been 
made that the price of butcher's meat is altogether too high. 
The squatters started a meat-preserving company for them- 
selves,* with a view of obtaining what they regarded as a fair 
value for their sheej) ; but they made a sad mess of it as a 
•commercial speculation, and the business is now in private 
hands. A few years ago beef and mutton were very cheap. 
Hind quarters of mutton could be bought for 2d. to 2^d. per 
lb,, and fore quarters at Ihd. Those prices are quite doubled 
now. Of course compared with London prices meat is still 
•cheap enough, and people here eat a great deal, most persons 
having it twice or throe times a day. At one time, when, 
owing to long continued drought, feed was scarce, thousands 
of sheep were boiled down simply for the tallow, the meat 
being buried or turned into manure. I believe this is some- 
times done now, but not to any great extent. 

The manufocture of leather has also become a very impor- 
tant industry. tSkins and liides are plentiful, and tanneries on 



Chap. XX.] MANUFACTUEES. 123 

n very extensive scale exist in and around Adelaide. With, 
the increase of this business has also come the establishment 
of boot and shoe manufactories, employing large numbers of 
persons. In these all the latest improvements in use in Eng- 
land have been adopted, and an article is turned out which is 
in no way inferior to what used to be imported. Though the 
price of labour is much higher here than at home, colonial- 
made boots and shoes equal in quality to those made in Eng- 
land can be sold quite as cheap as the imported article. Tlie 
manufacture of slop goods has also become an important in- 
dustry of late years, employing great numbers of young women, 
.and as a necessary consequence limiting the supply of good 
domestic servants. Imported slops are at as great a discount 
now as imported boots. No attempt has been made to esta- 
blish a system of protection here. The farthest we have gone is 
to have an ad valorem duty of 5 per cent, and in a few cases 
10 per cent, on imported goods, and to allow what may be 
regarded as the raw material used in our manufactures to 
■come in free of duty. This, however, is not carried out fully. 

We have also commenced the manufacture of woollen 
fabrics on a limited scale, a woollen mill having been esta- 
blished at a little German village called Lobethal, about twenty 
miles from Adelaide. Tweeds, flannels, and blankets have been 
made ; and although they lack the finish of imported goods, 
they are substantial fabrics for ordinary wear. By the intro- 
duction of new machinery and higher skill, there will be an 
improvement in the quality of the manufactures. Seeing we 
grow the wool in abundance, there is no reason why this 
industry should not become a flourishing one in the course of 
.a few years. 

The manufacture of wine may now be regarded as an 
established industry, although it has not been so pecuniarily 
successful as it was once expected to be. But this has arisen 
from want of skill in making it, and in managing it in the 
cellar. Thousands of acres of vines have been planted, and 
hundreds of acres have again been jjulled up. When vine 
culture first began in the Colony, there was, as a rule, no care 
exercised as to the selection of tlie proper kinds for wine- 



l^i SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [CiiAr. XX. 

luakin^-, Everybody knew that wine was made from grapes^ 
and one kind of grape was considered to 1)0 about as good as 
another. In the same vineyard there wonkl be a dozen dift'erent 
sorts of vines, and the grapes were all pressed together and 
made into wine. Of course wine so made, though probably 
wholesome enough, was wanting in character. This is altered 
now. Our vignerons have learnt that there is a difference in 
the quality of grapes, and that they should be kept distinct in 
the manufacture of good wine. Then they have learnt by ex- 
perience, observation, and reading, the best methods of making 
and cellaring the wine ; and we have vineyards in the Colony 
which produce as good and wholesome a wine as any man could 
desire to drink. After years of labour and much bitter dis- 
appointment, we are now getting a good market for our native 
wines in England. There is one thing in their favour — they 
are the juice of the grape, without adulteration, and in most 
cases without being brandied. The taste for pure wine needs 
to be formed and cultivated in England, and when that is done 
there will undoubtedly be a great demand for it. Much mis- 
chief was done to the trade at first by sending home ill-made, 
immature, and unsound samples, which caused a prejudice, if 
not a disgust, against them. Our vignerons have learnt wisdom 
since then, and it may be safely said that no wines go homo 
now which are not pure, clean, and wholesome. 

Eor the encouragement of special industries, we owe a great 
deal to a useful Society which has grown up during the last 
two or three years, called the Chamber of Manufactures. It 
consists of gentlemen warmly interested in the cultivation of 
native industries, who have devoted a large amount of time 
and trouble to the work. They have had useful papers read 
iind printed, and have kept persistently before the puljlic mind 
questions which but for them would have been neglected. The 
growth of mulberry trees for sericulture, of olives for the 
manufacture of olive oil, and several other smaller and un- 
pretending industries, have been carefully fostered and en- 
couraged by the Chamber. 

There can be no doubt that the future of the Colony will 
greatly depend on the establishing and carrying on of such 



Chap. XX.] A FIELD FOE OTHER INDUSTEIES. 125 

manufactures as are suitable to a young community, and as 
we are able to undertake. We have a young generation grow- 
ing up amongst us, for whom profitable employment must 
be found. Neither pastoral, agricultural, nor mining pursuits 
will absorb them all ; but manufactures will. Nothing more 
fatal can happen to a community than for its young men to be 
driven away to other countries in search of employment which 
their own country does not afford them. No country that has 
been purely pastoral or agricultural has ever made progress ; 
there must be, in order to secure ^iccess, combined with these 
pursuits a moderate amount of manufacturing activity. We 
are coming to this state of things — somewhat slowly, it is true — 
but we are coming, and when we reach it, we shall make another 
long step towards future permanent prosperity and success. 
There are many industries inviting capital and labour for their 
development, and in due time both will be provided. We 
have in the Colony all that is requisite to make us great ; and 
we only want an increase of labour and capital for our rapid 
progress. The labour we are importing, though not so rapidly 
as to meet the immediate pressing claims. Our present 
Government, however, fully realize the importance of this 
question, and have determined to spend large sums of money 
to increase the man-power of the Colony ; the capital we are 
creating year by year. 



126 SOUTH AUSTKALIA. [Chap. XXT. 



CHAPTEE XXL 

IMMIGRATION. 

Necessity for Importing Labour — Efforts of Colony in this Direction — 
Temporary Cessation of Immigration — Wages Higli — Good Colony for 
Worl^ing Men — Nationalities — • Provisions of Emigration Act — Voyage 
and Outfit — Hints to Immigrants on Arrival. 

All new Colonies are as a matter of course dependent for 
their prosperity on a plentiful suj^ply of labour. However 
fruitful the land and rich in natural resources, it is nothinj^ 
without labour. Its treasures will be hidden, its wealth remain 
undeveloped, until the toil of man brings them to light and 
translates the possible into the actual. As we have seen, the 
Wakefield system of colonizing was to combine capital and 
labour, the cajDitalist purchasing the land and the money paid 
for it being devoted to the introduction of men to work it. 
For many years the Government of South Australia carried 
on a large system of immigration in a somewhat improvident 
way. Many persons who were brought out here at a cost of 
from £15 to £16 per head made Adelaide simply a port of call, 
and as soon as opportunity offered passed on to the other 
Colonies, especially to Victoria, where the discovery of gold 
created a great demand for all sorts of labour. 

So strongly was it felt that we were spending our money 
to provide immigrants for Victoria that for some years no 
provision was made for the introduction of labour at the public 
expense. During that time the Colony passed through a 
period of trial. Unfavourable seasons, extending over a few 
years, retarded our progress to some extent, and the demand 
for labour was less than it had ever been. This period of 



CHAr. XXI.] NECESSITY FOE IM]\nGEATIOK 127 

depression, liowevor, was only temporary, and very soon the 
demand for labour very much exceeded the supply. It was 
then felt that a great Colony like Sonth Australia, with untold 
wealth awaiting development, could never prosper as it ought 
by the mere increase to its population from the excess of birtlis- 
over deaths. Even they who had been most opjDosed to immi- 
gration at the public expense felt that it would never do ta 
go on without immigration any longer. The Legislature wa& 
compelled by outside pressure to pass an Act for its resump- 
tion, which Act is now in force. Something considerable ha& 
been done during the few years the Act has been in existence ; 
but up to the present time the Government have j)roceeded 
very cautiously in introducing labour. It is now proposed to 
advance more rapidly, and during the present year the Govern- 
ment have £120,000 at their command for carrying on immi- 
gration on a more extended scale. A very large supply of 
labour is required to carry out the great public works which 
are now in progress, and which are contemplated. Private- 
enterprise is also very much cramped and fettered by the 
scarcity of man -power. 

Wages are as high as in any of the Colonies, and generally 
are at the least 50 per cent, higher than they are in England. 
In the present prosperous state of the Colony, thousands of 
working men might be introduced and find employment 
without the slightest danger of reducing the price of labour. 
A principle which regulates the immigration system is to> 
maintain the proportion of the nationalities — English, Irish^ 
and Scotch — according to the proportion in the United King- 
<lom, so that there shall not be a preponderance of any one 
people. The principle is not very steadily adhered to ; nor 
is it necessary. It is found that all classes, as a rule, make 
good immigrants ; and the Irish, who half-starve at home 
become well-to-do colonists when they get a fair start here. 
From the beginning the Colony has obtained a considerable 
number of families from Germany — and they make good 
colonists. Greater facilities are now being given for the intro- 
duction of German immigrants, whose industry and thrift 
make them desirable colonists. The following explanation of 



128 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Chap. XXI. 

the provisions of the Immigration Act I transcribe from my 
" Handbook for Emigrants," published a few years ago, which 
I hope will be found useful to those who may be looking to 
the Southern Colonies as their future homes, and who wish for 
information to guide them : — 

" Persons coming out to the Colony at tlieir Own Expense. — 
Emigrants who have been approved by the Emigration Agent 
in England, and paying the whole cost of their passage, or 
persons paying the passages of such persons, will be entitled 
to a land order warrant. On their arrival in the Colony, they 
will receive from the Commissioner of Crown Lands a land 
order, in exchange for their warrant, of the value of £20 for 
each adult, and £10 for each child between the ages of one 
and twelve years. This order will be immediately available 
in cases where the holder desires to occupy, reside on, and 
cultivate the Crown land, and will be received as payment, or 
part payment, of interest on the purchase-money of any land 
tlien open for selection. The land order will be available for 
the imrcliase of any land open for sale, after two years' con- 
tinuous residence in the Colony. An emigrant and his wife 
and four children between the ages of one and twelve years, 
paying their own expenses to the Colony, would be entitled to 
land orders of the value of £80 in all. If they wished to take 
up land on credit under the system of deferred payments, their 
orders would become immediately available as j^ayment of the 
interest ; but in that case they must reside on the land and 
cultivate it. If they wish to purchase the fee simple of any 
lands open for purchase, they can use their land orders for this 
purpose after they have been two years in the Colony. 

" Land Orders Granted to Shippers, Companies, Associations, 
or Societies. — The following is in full the clause in the regu- 
lations which refer to this provision : — ' Any person or persons, 
company, association, or society desirous of bringing out to 
South Australia, at his own or their own expense, suitable 
emigrants from Europe, approved by any emigration agent, 
for the purposes of settling on the Crown lands thereof, and 
cultivating the same, or for engaging in any colonial industry, 
and who shall enter into an agreement with the Commissioner 



Chap. XXI.] PKOVISIONS OF EMIGEATION ACT. 129 

of Crown Lands and Immigration for the conveyance of sncli 
emigrants from Europe to South Australia for the purposes 
aforesaid, and also enter into a covenant Avith the said Com- 
missioner that such emigrants shall reside continuously in the 
said Colony for two years, at the least, from the date of their 
arrival, shall be entitled to receive, on the arrival of such 
suitable emigrants in the said Colony (and, if aliens, after 
naturalization), a land order, in the form contained in the 
Third Schedule hereto, which laud order shall be of the value 
of £16 sterling for each adult emigrant, and a land order of 
the value of £8 sterling for each child between the ages of 
one and twelve years ; and every such land order shall be im- 
mediately available for the purchase of any Avaste lands of the 
Crown which may be offered for sale, or which may be open 
to selection for cash or on credit, in any part of the said 
Colony.' This regulation is intended to encourage the em- 
ployers of labour in any new or established industry to bring- 
out suitable labour to assist them in their enterprise. 

" Assisted Emigration. — Under the Act, the classes of per- 
sons eligible for assisted emigration are — Artisans, agricultural 
and other labourers, miners, and gardeners, under 50 years of 
age ; single female domestic servants, or widows (without chil- 
dren under 12), not exceeding 35 years of age, the Avives and 
children of married emigrants. Eligible candidates are further 
described as being ' in the habit of working at one of the call- 
ings mentioned above, and must be going out Avith the inten- 
tion of Avorking at one of the occupations. They must be 
sober, industrious, of good moral character, in good health, 
free from all mental and bodily defects, within the ages speci- 
fied, appear physically to bo capable of labour, and have been 
vaccinated or had the smallpox.' 

" Ineligihle Candidates. — Passages cannot be granted to jxt- 
sons intending to proceed to any other Australian Colony than 
South Australia, to persons in the habitual receipt of parish 
relief, to children under tAvelve Avithout their parents, to hus- 
bands Avithout their Avives, or Avives Avithout their husbands 
(unless, in the last three instances, the parents, husband, or 

K 



130 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XXI. 

wife be iu f^outli Aiistraliu), to single womeu who have had 
illegitimate children, or to persons who have not arranged with 
their creditors. 

" Towards the expenses of the passages of eligible candi- 
dates, the following sums must be paid : — Under twelve years 
of age, £3 ; twelve years and under forty, £4 ; forty years and 
under fifty, £8. This amount may be paid cither in London 
to the Emigration Agent, or in Adelaide, at the office of the 
Commissioner of Crown Lands and Immigration. The candi- 
date for assisted immigration, or the person AAho nominates 
him, must apply to Mr. F. S. Dutton, C.jM.G., Agent-General 
of the Colony, 8, Victoria Chambers, Westminster, from whom 
all necessary information will be obtained. He must fill up a 
form which will be supplied by Mr. Button, giving the Chris- 
tian and surname of the persons nominated, or their proposed 
transferees, the names of all children under twelve, whether 
they have been nominated in the Colony or not, the ages of 
each person at last birthday, the day and year when each per- 
son was born, whether single or married, and where the hus- 
band or wife does not emigrate the reason must be stated ; the 
trade or calling, whether the applicant has been in the Colony 
before, whether he has any relations in Australia, or in any 
other Colony, and if in Australia, the other Colonies where 
they reside. In addition to this, there must be a certificate by 
a physician or surgeon, testifying that, after examination, the 
applicants show no signs of heart disease or pulmonary a^ec- 
tions, that they are of sound mental and bodily health, that 
they are entirely free from every disease usually considered 
infectious or contagious, and that each person appears to be of 
the age set a-gainst his or her name ; that none of them are 
either lunatic, idiotic, deaf, dumb, blind, mutilated, or de- 
formed in person, or otherwise infirm, and that they are 
capable of earning a livelihood in the Province, at their 
declared callings. A certificate is also required, from a magis- 
trate, clergyman, or Roman Catholic priest, testif^'ing that the 
applicants arc of good moral character. In the case of any 
(lii'liculty arising, the intending emigrant should place himself 
at once in communication A\ith Mr. Dutton, at the address 



€hap. XXL] VOYAGE AND OUTFIT. 131 

mentioned above, from whom all necessary information will be 
obtained. 

" Voyage and Outfit. — Supposing the candidate and his 
family accej)ted, the next matter is to prei^are for the voyage, 
Avhich will occupy about ninety days— during which every 
extreme of climate will be experienced. Suitable clothing 
must therefore be j^rovided, at the expense of the emigrant' 
The outfit will be inspected before sailing by an officer ap- 
pointed by the agent. The smallest quantity that will be 
allowed is — For each male over twelve, six shirts, six pairs of 
stockings, two warm flannel shirts, two pairs of new shoes or 
boots, two complete suits of strong exterior clothing, four 
Ttowels, and two pounds of marine soap ; and for each female 
'Over twelve, six shifts, two flannel petticoats, six pairs of stock- 
ings, two pairs of strong boots and shoes, two strong gowns 
(one of which must be of warm material), four towels, and two 
pounds of marine soap. Two or three coloured shirts for men, 
and an extra supply of flannel for women and children are 
very desirable. The quantity of luggage for each person 
■over twelve must not exceed twenty cubic (or solid) feet, nor 
half a ton in weight ; it must be closely packed in one or more 
strong boxes, or cases, not exceeding fifteen cubic feet each. 
Larger packages and extra luggage, if taken at all, must be 
paid for. Mattresses and feather beds, fire-arms and offensive 
^veapons, wines, spirits, beer, gunpowder, joercussion caps, 
lucifer matches, and any dangerous and noxious articles, 
cannot be taken by emigrants. I would suggest, however, 
that in addition to the articles of wearing apparel actually 
required by the regulations, emigrants would do well to pro- 
Adde themselves with materials for increasing their stock. A 
few extra yards of flannel, calico, and print, with an extra pair 
•or two of shoes or boots, would be found very useful on the 
voyage. Where there are children, a number of cheap caps 
should be provided, as young people are apt to lose their head- 
coverings overboard. A good ham and a cheese would also be 
found very useful as a change from the ship's diet ; and a few 
j)Ounds of jam would be acceptable to the children. 

" There is no doubt that a three months' voyage in an 

k'2 



lo2 SOUTH AUSTKALIA. [Chap. XXI. 

eiiiigniut sliip, under the most favourable circumstances, will 
make large demands upon the patience, temper, forbearance, 
and hopefulness of the emigrants. Inconveniences such as 
they may not have suiVored before will have to be endured ; 
and the best thing emigrants can do is to make up their minds 
to boar them cheerfully. As a rule, in welI-a])i)ointed ships, 
the food is good, and the aeeominodation as fair as can be 
expected. Emigrants, too, generally enjoy excellent health. 
They would do well to provide themselves with useful and 
interesting books — especially school books for tlieir children : 
intelligent parents may lay the foundation of a respectable 
education in the minds of their eliildren during the spare 
hours of the voyage. 

" On their arrival in the Colony, immigrants will probably 
feel somewhat strange. The consciousness that they are 
15,000 miles away from the land of their birth, and from the 
friends whom they have left behind — the conviction that they 
are amongst entire strangers, and that they will probably see 
the old land no more, may sadden them for a moment. But, 
on the other liaud, they will iind that in many respects the 
new country is but little different from tlie old. The streets, 
wharves, railways, telegraph lines, gas lamps, water fountains, 
public buildings, shops, carriages, omnibuses, and cabs, will all 
remind them of what they have been accustomed to at home. 
If they are careful, industrious, and respectable, they will soon 
make friends, and Iind associations which will bring back the 
scenes of the past. They will find that our political institu- 
tions are most liberal ; and very soon after their arrival they 
Avill be able to exercise their voting power for Members of Par- 
liament, and to exercise some influence on the public affairs of 
the Colony. With whatever religious body they sympathise, 
they will fin<l representatives of that body in almost every part 
of the Colony : the Anglican Church, with its bishop, priests, 
and deacons ; the Koman Catholic Churcli. with its handsome 
edifices and charitable institutions; the Presbyterian Church, 
with its able and energetic ministers ; the Congregationalists 
and Baptists, who have some of the handsomest churches and 
most elof^uent preachers in the Colony; the Methodists, as full 



Chap. XXI.] HINTS TO BIMIGEANTS. 133 

of fire and zeal as they are in the old country — the sister- 
hood of denominations who trace their parentage to the 
old 3Iethodist stock ; Unitarians, New Church, and Jews are 
all found in the Colony ; so that the stranger, whatever his 
religious views may be, is certain to find members of his own 
body with whom he can sympathize and hold fellowship. Con- 
nected with all these religious institutions there are well- 
attended and well-conducted Sunday Schools, with a noble 
band of earnest and devoted teachers. 

" He will want education for his children, and he will find 
day schools all over the Colony, in which a fair education may 
be obtained ; or if he aims at something higher than these, 
there are many excellent private schools, which would do no 
discredit to the old country. From St. Peter's Collegiate 
School several young men have gone home and taken good 
positions in the English Universities ; and, as we have 
intimated elsewhere, our own University will be in full opera- 
tion before long. 

" Does the newly arrived immigrant wish to keep himself 
acquainted with the literature of the world ? He will find 
means of doing so in the local institutes, which are kept well 
supplied with the best works of modern times. Does he wish 
to know what is taking place in the Colony which he has made 
his new home ? He will find it in the morning, evening, and 
weekly newspapers published in the city, and in the journals 
published in the country. 

" If he feels an interest in the drama, he will find a pretty 
little theatre, respectably conducted, and in which, from time 
to time, actors and actresses of high professional standing are 
fouud. If he loves music, he will occasionally get a taste of 
English and Italian opera ably rendered, while amateur per- 
formances of music are frequent enough. If he has a penchant 
for the turf, for manly sj)orts and pastimes, he will find racing 
well encouraged, hunting during the season, cricket, football, 
and boating. If he is a freemason, an oddfellow, a forester, or 
an ancient druid, he will find lodges, courts, and other trysting- 
places. If he likes his beer, he will find respectable inns ; or 
if he takes kindly to colonial wine, he will be able to get it 



134 SOUTH AUSTKALIA. I^kkv. XXI. 

almost us cheap as ale. If ho is a teetotaller, reehabite, or 
good templar, he will liud brothers ami co-^\orkeES all here- 
before him. It is really curious to see how soon and how 
carefully the people of South Australia have reproduced the- 
institutions of the mother country. In cases of accident or 
misfortune the hospitals, asylums, and public charities, as in 
the old country, are easily accessible. 

•' There are three things to be carefully avoided by the 
newly arrived immigrant — the immoderate use of strong drink,, 
which leads to poverty ; gambling, which leatls to dishonesty ; 
and idle loafing, ^hich leads to disgrace. The great thing is- 
to get work soon, to eat plenty of good food, which, is cheap 
enough, to cultivate habits of industry and economy, and so to 
encourage the pleasant conviction that he is getting on, and 
surely working his way to independence. That conviction will 
be one of the greatest luxuries a working man can enjoy." 



Chap. XXIL] NO STATE CHUECH. ' 135 



CHAPTEE XXIL 



EELIGIOUS. 



No Slate Cliurch — Strong Eeligious Feeling — Success of the Churclies — 
Sects and Parties — Places of Worship. 

I HAVE already said that the foundations of the Colony were 
laid on the principle of the entire separateness between State 
and Church. It was determined that no form of religion 
should be distinctively recognized by the State, but that all 
churches should be on the same footing of equality, none being 
specially honoured or subsidized, and none being placed under 
any civil disabilities. This did not arise from any feeling of 
indifference to religion on the part of the founders of the 
Colony, but from a conviction that the sphere of civil govern- 
ment and the sphere of church organization and action were 
entirely separate. The vigorous attempts made by the earliest 
settlers to supply themselves with church ordinances according 
to which they might worship the Creator as they had been 
accustomed to do, showed that a very deep interest in religion 
was compatible with a very strong feeling against State 
religion. I am not called upon here to say whether the 
determination was right or wrong. I have to deal with the 
matter historically. 

One or two attempts were made years ago to obtain some 
recognition from the State of one or two churches, but public 
feeling was so strongly against it that the attempt has never 
been repeated. The question is now settled, and the Church 
and the State have agreed to pursue their own separate 
courses, without jostling each other, or intruding upon each 



130 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [CiiAr. XXII. 

otlier's domains. Writing as an historian, I am bound to say- 
that tlie result has Leon satisfactory. Voluntary effort and 
private benevolence have been sufficient to provide the wliole 
community with churches and the ordinances of religion. The 
amount of money and religious zeal expended in this way 
A\()uld bo remarkable in any community, but is especially so in 
a small and not very wealthy community like ours. 

The Church of England in Australia, or the Episcopal 
Church, is numerically at the head of all the denominations, 
and in ^South Australia as elsewhere is a very important and 
influential body. The head of the Church is the Right Rev. 
Augustus Short, D.D., Bishop of South Australia, who was 
appointed by Letters Patent as the first Bisho}) in 1847. 
Bishop Short is a fine, hale old gentleman of 70, with a robust 
physique and a vigorous mind. He is the leau ideal of a 
missionary Bishop, working as hard as the most hard-worked 
curate in his Church. He is indeed " in labours more abund- 
ant." His career in the Colony has been a very honourable 
and successful one. He is a Churchman to the backbone, and 
has defended his Church when occasion called for it with great 
A'igour ; but he is respected by all sections of the religious 
community for his ability, consistency, and kindness of spirit. 
He is, too, a thorough man of business, with high adminis- 
trative powers. 

The present respectable position occupied by the Episcopal 
Church in the Colony is very much owing to his intelligence, 
unwearying zeal, and true Christian character. His life has 
been an eminently useful one ; and now, full of years and 
honour, he has the satisfaction of seeing the Church, of which 
he is the official head, in a high state of efficiency and 
prosperity. The bishop has under him in his diocese the 
Dean of Adelaide, two archdeacons, two canons, something 
like fifty clergymen in holy orders, and a large staff of 
licensed lay readers, Avho conduct religious services in various 
parts of the Colony. The property of his Church is valuable, 
and has been so wisely invested as to i)roduce an annually 
increasing revenue for Church purposes. 

The Roman Catholic Church in the Colony is also an 



Chap. XXII.] EELIGIOUS SECTS AND PAETIES. l.'>7 

important and a numerons body. The first Bishop was Dr. 
3[urphy, who was respected by the whole Colony and beloved 
by his own people. He was succeeded by Bishop Geohegan, 
who, after a few years of service, gave place to .-Bishop Shiel, 
a genial, fine-spirited old ecclesiastic, who died in the Colony 
amidst general expressions of regret. The present Bishop is 
Dr. Eeynolds, a quiet, hard-working clergyman, who served 
his Church in the Colony for many years as an industrious, 
toiling priest. His co-religionists are proud of the fact that 
one of their own priests, whose self-denying labours were so 
well known to them, was selected by His Holiness the Pope 
for the highest ecclesiastical honours in the Colony. Bishop 
Keynolds has a large staff of priests and sisters under him, a 
considerable portion of them being connected with the Society 
of Jesus. The Jesuits devote themselves very largely to the 
work of education, and they have a college in the North for 
religious and secular students, which is said to be very ably 
conducted. There is also a convent in Adelaide, under the 
management of Dominican nuns, which is devoted to the 
education of young ladies. The ordinary schools are con- 
ducted by several sisterhoods, members of which also devote 
themselves extensively to works of charity. 

The Wesley an Methodists are a large body, and the 
country districts owe much to them for the religious ordi- 
nances which they enjoy. In this work they are ably sup- 
ported by the Primitive Methodists and Bible Christians, who 
have erected chapels in and supplied religious teaching to 
every little village and hamlet in the Province. Their 
ministers, regular and lay, work hard, and the sparsely popu- 
lated districts owe much to them. The Wesleyans have a 
large number of churches and preaching places, a numerous 
body of preachers and Sunday School teachers, and they 
constitute one of the most powerful of all the religious bodies. 
The other two bodies I have mentioned, who have a close 
resemblance in doctrine and organization to the old Wesleyans, 
have less influence in society than the old Wesleyans, but in the 
extent of their self-denying labours they are second to none. 

The Congregationalists, Baptists, and Presbyterians, occupy 



lo8 SOUTH AUSTEALTA. [Chap. XXII. 

a different ecclesiastical position, and aim at a more restricted 
Avork than the churches I have already referred to. Their 
work lies principally in the centres of population, where they 
manage to attract the intelligent, hard-headed, and practical 
men amongst us. 3Iembers of these Churches are foremost in 
political life, and they come to the front in business and 
political organizations. They are rich in handsome churches^ 
and strong in social influence. Their ministers are amongst 
the best educated and the most eloquent preachers in the 
Colony, and their people amongst the well-to-do colonists. 
The conduct of the Press of the Colony has been very much in 
their hands. Possibly the freedom of thought engendered by 
democratic ecclesiastical institutions has something to do with 
the position they take in the politics and Press of the Province. 
Amongst the smaller denominations, the Unitarians, who have 
one pretty little church in the City, occupy a prominent 
l)osition for their intelligence and social influence. All these 
Churches build their places of A\orship, support their ministers^ 
carry on their Sunday Schools, and engage in many works of 
benevolence, without receiving one penny from the State. 
I ought to say also that the Jews, Avho form a very respectable 
and influential section of the community, have erected a. 
handsome synagogue in Adelaide, which is presided over by 
an accomplished minister. 



Chap. XXIII.I FIEST EDUCATION ACT, 1851. 139 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

EDUCATIOX. 

First Education Act passed, 1851 — Its Piinciples and Organization — Good 
done by it — Colony outgrown it — Attempts to pass a New Act — Now 
successful — Higher Education — University — Princely Gifts of Mr. 
W. W. Hughes and Hon. T. Elder — Council of University — Institutes. 

The system of public education in South Australia has existed 
for nearly a quarter of a century, the Act constituting it 
having- been passed in 1851. Its original intention was to 
assist, by Government grants, the people to educate their 
children, giving them "a good secular instruction, based on 
the Christian religion, but apart from all theological and con- 
troversial differences on discipline and doctrine." The Act 
has been administered by an Education Board, with paid 
secretary and inspectors. The Board licenses schoolhouses 
and teachers, and, within certain restrictions, assists teachers 
by annual grants which they receive in addition to the school 
fees. Though over a series of years the system worked mode- 
rately well, and under it a considerable proportion of the 
population have received a fair amount of elementary instruc- 
tion, it has been felt of late that something better and more 
adapted to the present state of the Colony was needed. Under 
the old system the teachers were miserably j)aid, and the 
qualifications of many of them far below the growing necessi- 
ties of the community. Several attempts have been made to 
pass an improved Bill through Parliament, but until the pre- 
sent time these have not been successful. It has been difficult 
to settle the principles of a great and comprehensive measure, 
and until these were settled, no further step could be taken. 



140 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [CHAr. XX HI. 

Tliis year, however, the Government introduced, and luive 
carried through Parliament, a greatly improved measure, whi(^h 
has received the Governor's assent, and is now the law of the 
land. The future management of the public education will 
be in the hands of a Council of Education, with a paid presi- 
dent, secretary, and insj)ectors, directly responsible to the 
3[inister of Education. Schools will bo established wherever 
there is a certain number of children of a school age, who will 
23ay a moderate fee to the teachers. In addition to the fees, 
the teachers will be paid, by the Government, through the 
Council, salaries varying from £100 to £300 per annum. 
Schoolhouses will be provided, and the necessary education, 
material. Grants of public lands will be set apart every year, 
and placed under the control of the Council, the rents from 
which will be devoted to school purposes. Four and a half 
hours each day will be devoted to secular instruction, previous 
to which the Bible may be read without note or explanation : 
practically, the instruction will be secular. All children of 
school age will be required to be under instruction until a 
certain standard of attainment, to be fixed by the Council, is 
reached : so far, the system will be compulsory. Provision is 
made for the gratuitous instruction of children whose parents 
can show that they are not able to pay for it ; but fees may 
be enforced in all cases where inability to pay them has not 
been proved. It will thus be seen that the three great prin- 
ciples of public education which are now so much in vogue 
are adopted in the Bill, with certain modifications. The 
education is secular — but not to the exclusion of the Bible ; 
free to those who cannot afford to pay a small fee ; and com- 
pulsory wherever practicable. Provision is also made for the 
establishment of model and training schools, of boards of 
advice, and for the systematic examination of teachers, and 
their classification according to their attainments and pro- 
ficiency. The Government propose to borrow for the present 
erection of schoolhouses, and has voted a large sum for the 
payment of teachers' stipends out of the general revenue. 
No one claims anything like perfection for the measure, but 
it is the best that could be carried under the present circum- 



Chap. XXIII.] NEW ACT— HIGHEE EDUCATION. 141 

stances of the Colony, and it is a very great improvement on 
the system which it is intended to snppLxnt. 

For higher education we have some admirable educational 
institutions, at the head of which stands St. Peter's Collegiate 
School, belonging tQ the Church of England, and under the 
very efficient management of the Kev. Canon Farr, M.A. 
This school was established in 1818, mainly by the exertions 
of the Bishop, and it was incorporated the following year. 
It occupies very handsome and commodious premises in a 
pleasant suburb about a mile from Adelaide. The course of 
education is liberal, and some valuable exhibitions and 
scholarships are connected with it. Several of the youths 
trained in it have taken good positions at the English Uni- 
versities. It is pursuing a career of usefulness which will 
increase every year. 

Prince Alfred College belongs to the Wesleyan Methodists, 
and is a more recent institution. The fine pile of buildings, 
a ])ortion of which, however, is only completed, occupies a 
pleasant site a little way out of town ; and the first stone was 
laid in 1867 by H.E.H. the Duke of Edinburgh, on his first 
visit to the Colony. The branches of a liberal education are 
taught, under the head mastership of Mr. J. A. Hartley, B.A., 
who vacates his position shortly in order to enter U2)on the 
responsible duties of President of the Council of Education ; 
and the institution has been well supported from the 
beginning. 

In addition to these two public institutions, there are 
several high-class private schools in the Colony, several of 
which have been eminently successful in turning out fairly 
educated young men, many of whom are now occupying 
honourable positions in the Colony. 

Our most recent success in education has been the esta- 
blishment of the Adelaide University, which is now in process 
of formation. We owe this institution to the generosity and 
public spirit of a wealthy colonist, Mr. W. W. Hughes, who 
has been very successful in connection with copper mining 
on Yorke's Peninsula. A few gentlemen anxious to found a 



142 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XXIII. 

oolle<^e, primarily lor the education of candidates for the 
Christian ministry, waited upon Mr. Hughes to ask for a con- 
tribution in aid of the movement. The intimation they 
received of Mr. Hughes's proposed benevolence pointed to 
a sum so much beyond their largest expectations that for a 
moment they were somewhat bewildered by the munificence 
of the proposed gift. Mr. Hughes offered £20,000 ; and the 
projectors of the Union College, principally clergymen of 
various denominations, very much to their credit, suggested 
the establishment of a University rather than a college. 
My. Hughes consented, and endowed two chairs of £600 per 
annum each, simply reserving the right of nominating the 
two first professors. The movement grew, an Act was passed 
bv Parliament for the incorporation of the University, and a 
grant of 50,000 acresof land was made towards its support, with 
a building site of five acres on Xorth-terrace ; and an annual 
grant of 5 per cent, from the public funds on all sums contri- 
buted for the University. The only conditions required were 
that no religious tests should be required of either students or 
professors, and that the first council should be nominated by 
the Governor as soon as the Bill was carried through Parlia- 
ment. The Hon. Thomas Elder, a wealthy merchant and 
sheep-farmer, spontaneously gave a donation similar to that of 
Mr. Hughes, £20,000, without any conditions or restrictions 
-whatever. These acts of princely generosity are creditable to 
•ijentlemen who have made their wealth in the Colony, and will 
110 doubt be followed by others on whose industry Providence 
has smiled. The whole control of the University is vested in 
a council of twenty members. The Chief Justice, Sir Richard 
Davies Hanson, Knight, has been elected Chancellor ; and the 
Bishop of Adelaide, Dr. Short, Yice-Chancellor. These ap- 
pointments gave general satisfaction. The two '' Hughes 
Professors," the Rev. John Davidson and the Rev. Henry 
Read, M.A., occupy the chairs of I'^nglish Language and 
Literature and Mental and floral Philosophy, and Classics 
and Comparative Philology. The Council have secured in 
England a Professor of Mathematics, 3Ir. Horace Lamb, and 



I'll liiii'r 





Waterfall. Mortalta, Adelaide. 



Chap. XXIII.] ADELAIDE TJNIVEKSITY— INSTITUTES. 143 

another of Natural Sciences, Mr. Tate, who are expected to 
arrive in the Colony early in 1876. The University is at 
present in its infancy, but it will soon be in full working order. 
My short sketch of our educational means and appliances 
would be incomplete without some reference to the South 
Australian Institute and Museum. It was incorporated by 
Act of Parliament in 1855, to promote the general study of 
the arts, sciences, literature, and philosojihy. It possesses a 
valuable library, and a good museum. A j)art of the library is 
circulating, and a part for reference and perusal in the read- 
ing-room. The Museum is under the competent management 
of Mr. Waterhouse, whose interesting chapter on the Fauna 
and Minerology of South Australia will be found in this 
volume. Both the Institute and Museum are sadly crippled 
for want of space, but this will be remedied shortly, as plans 
for a new building have been selected by the Government. 
The Institute is supj)orted by an annual vote from the public 
funds, and by the personal subscriptions of members. The 
Society of Arts and the Philosophical Society are affiliated to 
the Institute, and have a share in its management. 

Country Institutes, which are widely spread over the 
Colony, are branches of the principal Institute in the city, 
and are supplied with books and periodicals from town. The 
Parliament have always contributed pound for pound raised by 
voluntary subscriptions towards the erection of the country 
Institutes, and to assist towards the annual expenses. 

Looking at all these facts, I think it will be admitted that 
for so young a Colony, with so limited a population as South 
Australia, it is to our credit that we have not forgotten the 
necessity and importance of having trained up amongst us an 
intelligent and well-taught people. The results have been 
satisfactory on the whole. The majority of our young people 
are fairly educated and fitted for the positions which they 
occupy, or to which they aspire. Several of our Members of 
Parliament were born and have been educated in the Colony, 
and they shape well in the performance of their legislative 
duties. 



144 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Chap. XXTV. 



CHAPTEK XXIY. 

CONCLUSION. 

Colonization an Imperial Qu(;stion — Federation — No Degeneracy in Popula- 
tion in Australia — Advantages of South Australia — Wealthy Colonists 
— Comfort of Colonists — Ko Poverty — Colony needs to be better 
known — A great Future before it. 

There is no doubt that colonization will continue to be a 
question of the greatest interest to the British people. Our 
old island home in the North Sea is getting over-crowded, and 
an outlet is wauted for its surplus population. This has been 
felt for years past, and some millions of the Queen's subjects 
have been forced out of the land of their fathers to find or 
make a " Greater Britain " in the lands of the west and the 
south, and to reproduce there — shall I say with amendments 
and improvements ? — the institutions under which they were 
nurtured. Most of these have settled in the United States of 
America, and have been lost to the nation as British subjects. 
Great numbers, however, have settled in Canada, where the 
separate Colonies now form one great confederated people, with 
a history before them the magnificence of which it is impossible 
to forecast. These Colonies of Australia arc of more recent 
origin ; but their progress has been great and remarkable. 
Wo must bear in mind tliat we are 15,000 miles away from 
the mother country, and tliat under ordinary circumstances 
about three months must be spent on the ocean by those who 
immigrate before they can reach the new country of their 
adoption. This fact, of course, places the Colonies of Australia 
at a disadvantage when compared with Canada or the United 
States. Notwithstanding this, however, Ave have made large 



Chap. XXIV.] ADVANTAGES OF SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 145 

progress during the last forty or fifty years. The foundation 
of future greatness has been well laid ; and when we become a 
confederated nation, A\hich must happen within a very few years, 
we shall reproduce in the Southern Pacific, with such modifica- 
tions as are duo to soil and climate, another Britain, which will 
play its part in the future history of the world. 

So far we see no signs of degeneracy in the race. There 
are differences slowly going on, and probably in the course of 
a few years the physical peculiarities of Australians will be as 
distinctively marked and separate from the native-born Britons 
as the American type has become in 200 years. There may be 
alteration without deterioration ; and I believe the intellectual 
and moral life of the peoj)le here will sufter no decline. We 
shall differ in accidentals from the old stock, as the man 
differs from the child — but the real manhood of the Anfflo- 
Saxon race will remain, in spite of all accidental changes ; and 
those qualities which have made our fathers great will not be 
lost by their far-off children. So I believe it will be with our 
political institutions and our social life. We shall modify 
these without destroying their higher qualities. In some 
respects the new generation of the south may improve upon 
the old tyjie, while we hold fast by the underlying principles 
which have made it famous. 

Amongst the Colonies which are destined to greatness, I 
believe South Australia is in the foremost rank. She possesses 
most of the elements of expansion and progress. I know no 
Colony which presents greater attractions or gives a higher 
promise of success to careful, industrious, hopeful settlers than 
South Australia does. It has a magnificent and salubrious 
climate, a fruitful soil, an abundance of mineral Avealth, 
millions of acres of unoccupied land inviting the industrv of 
man. It has a free Government, liberal institutions, the 
smallest amount of taxation, and the necessaries of life are 
obtainable at the cheapest rate. Its land laws will enable any 
industrious man to get on the soil, and in the course of a few 
years to make a handsome estate his own with only hard work 
and moderate self-denial. No man in South Australia who 
has health, and is willing to work, need be poor — as poverty is 

L 



146 SOrXH AUSTIIALIA. [(HAr. XXIV. 

miderstooil and iVlt in the older eoniitrics of liUrope, There 
are hundreds who came here with nothing!: who are now wealthy 
men, whose families are growing- up around them in positions 
of respectability and lionour. Some have returned to the old 
country to educate their (diildren, and to show them something- 
of the relinements which belong to the more settled states of 
society ; but most of tliem, after a few years' absence, return 
to the land where they liave acquired their wealth, made their 
homes, and formed those associations which are most abiding. 
With a wise forethought, the Imperial Government have from 
time to time recommended some of the most useful of the 
Colonists to Her Majesty for special distinction, as those who 
have served their country well ; and, as a rule, honours thus 
conferred have been worthily w orn. Some names have already 
taken root amongst us, brought by worthy settlers in the 
beginning of the Colony's history, which will go down with 
honour to the coming generation as the names of the Pilgrim 
Fatliers are now honoured in New England. 

While large fortunes have been acquired by a special class, 
the savings of the poorer have been considerable. More than 
three-quarters of a million sterling is deposited in the Savings 
Bank, the interest on which varies from 4 per cent, to 5 per 
cent. Most of this belongs to the humbler classes, and repre- 
sents a portion of their savings. It is, however, only a small 
portion. Many of the artisan class have, through the aid of 
building societies, erected for themselves comfortable cottages, 
surrounded by pretty, fruitful gardens, and they are thus able 
to live rent-free — a matter of no small moment in a country 
where house rent is high. For real substantial comfort there 
arc few countries more highly favoured than South Australia. 
The large sums of money which liavo been raised ^oluntarily 
for the building of churches and the support of religious and 
educational institutions, show a well-to-do people, who, after 
supplying their own wants, can si)are considerable sums for 
such objects. 

I have been many years in the Colony, and I can honestly 
say I have never seen anything approaching to the terrible 
poverty and consequent suffering Avhich I remember existing 




P 



Chap. XXH'.] THE COLONIAL QUESTION. 147 

in such towns as Liverpool, Birmingham, Newcastlc-on-Tvne, 
and London. When I have seen the comfort in which the 
l^oorest, who can work and are willing to work, live in this 
Province, the abundance of good food — not to mention the 
luxuries — which they enjoy, I have wished that we could 
transjjort to our shores such of the sufiering English poor as 
are willing to work if they could only obtain remunerative 
emjjloyment. 

I honestly believe that if the Colony of South Australia 
were better known ; if the advantages it offers to the working 
classes and industrious men with some little capital were under- 
stood, thousands of families w'ould soon be attracted to its 
shores. Very much land remains to be possessed and subdued 
and brought into use. For this, above all things, we want 
people, and I believe the people will come when they know 
■what we have to offer them. The " Colonial Question " is one 
for the Empire as well as for the Colonies. As the father lives 
jigain in his children and grandchildren, so Great Britain 
lives again, perhaps a more vigorous and a grander life, in her 
Oolonies. All we ask from home is a word of encouragement 
now and then, and a spirit of forbearance and a forgiving 
sympathy if we do occasionally make a mistake or two. To 
make mistakes belongs to the period of youth, and as we grow 
older we shall grow wiser. We do not ask for money — we can 
make plenty of that for ourselves ; but we sometimes hunger 
for a kind word of recognition, and we do ask that our efforts 
— blundering as they may sometimes prove — to raise up a new 
England in the south, not unworthy of the old stock from 
■which we came, may be treated with respect. We are even 
now the best customers England has for her merchandise ; we 
supply her ^^■ith a great deal tliat she needs, and without w hicli 
she would be less ju-osperous than she is. We take her as our 
model, and try to be what she has been in her grandest days, 
and we say, " Do not look coldly upon us ; for one day vou 
will be as proud of us as a father is proud of his brave and 
stalwart sons." 



L 2 



148 SOUTH AUSTEATJA. [Surr. Chap. 



SUPPLEMENTAEY CHAPTER. 

THE NOETHERN TERRITOEY. 

Acquisition of Territory by South Australia — First Attempts at Settlement 
— Failure ol' first Party — Recall of Government llcsiilent — Subsequent 
History — Survey of Land hy Mr. G. W. Goyder — Country rich and 
aurifei-ous — Gold Minin;:^ — Tropical Industries — Wreck of the Gothen- 
hurg — Papers on Territory by Eesidents — General Sketch by Mr. 
J. G. Knight ; Settlement, by Mr. G. R. McMinn ; Climate and 
Overland Telegraph, by Mr. J. A. G. Little ; the Goldfields, by Mr. .T. A. 
Plunkett ; Indigenous Vegetation, &-c., by Mr. J. G. Knight ; Con- 
chology, by Mr. W. T. Bednall. 

The Xortlicrn Territory, or Alexandra Land, comprises the 
immense tract of country which "was made over to .South 
Australia as one of the results of the explorations of Mr. J. 
31cI)ouall Stuart. It contains an area of 531,402 square miles, 
or 340,097,280 acres. It is bounded on the north by the 
Indian Ocean ; on the south by the 26th parallel of south 
latitude ; on the east by the 138th meridian of east longitude ; 
and on the west by the 129th meridian of east longitude. 

When Stuart returned from his last journey across the 
Continent, after having successfully shown the practicability 
of the overland route, our Government entered into negotiations 
with the Imperial Government for tlie cession of the newly 
discovered territory to South Australia. Whether it was wise 
for the Colony, having ample territory already, and possessing 
but a limited population, to undertake the responsibility of 
settling a new and immense district, may admit of grave 
doubt. The matter, however, was taken up with considerable 
enthusiasm at the time. It was resolved to survey and offer 
for sale a considerable quantity of land on the north-western 



Sdpp. Chai>.] first attempts AT SETTLEMENT. 149 

portion of the Continent. The land sales took place in 
Adelaide, in ]\[arcli, 18G4, before the surveys had commenced. 
The land was divided into country sections and town blocks — 
the proprietor of a section being entitled to a town block. The 
land was sold in order that the funds might be devoted to the 
cost of surveying and settling the country in the first instance. 
A considerable number of sections were purchased by English 
speculators, who risked their money on the chance of its 
becoming a profitable investment in the future. Priority in 
choice of selections amongst the purchasers was to be deter- 
mined by lot ; and the Government entered into an arrange- 
ment with the selectors to have the land surveyed and readv 
for selection within five years of the time of the sale. The 
land was readily taken up, and preparations were immediatelv 
made for dispatching a party to North Australia to carry on 
the work of survey, and to protect life and property there. 

The most important question the Government had to deter- 
mine was the choice of a Government Resident, who should be 
at the head of the j)arty, and under whom the surveys were to 
be carried out, and by whom the first little community of 
settlers were to be governed. The gentleman selected for this 
responsible position, Lieut.-Colonel Boyle Travers Finniss, was 
believed to possess high qualifications for the office. He was 
an old colonist, who had large experience in public life. He 
had been Treasurer of the colony, and at one time Acting- 
Governor. He was an officer of high rank in the A^olunteer 
force, and he was a surveyor by profession. The Government 
who appointed him were highly commended for their judicious 
selection ; and the general impression was that a better choice 
could not have been made. Mr. Finniss set to work imme- 
diately to prepare for the departure of the first expedition, in 
which he was liberally assisted by the Government. The 
officers of the party were : — B. T. Finniss, Government Eesi- 
dent; J. F. Manton, Engineer and Surveyor; F. E. Goldsmith, 
Surgeon and Protector of the Aborigines; Ebenezer Ward, 
Clerk in charge and Accountant ; Stephen King, Storekeeper ; 
John Davis, Assistant Storekeeper and Postmaster; W. Pearson. 
J. AVadham, and A. R. Hamilton, Surveyors ; R. Watson and 



150 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Supp. Chap. 

J. W. ( >. iM'iinrtt, (Iraiigiitsmen. In addition to these there was 
a strong- party of chainmon, labonrers, and able-bodied seamen. 
It is worth noticing- that Mr. Ward, who went ont as Clerk in 
charge, is at the present time the Minister in the Government 
who, from his position, has official charge of the Northern 
Territory. 

The Government cliartered a good vessel — the Henry Ellis 
— for the first expedition, and fitted her np in such a way as in 
all respects to promote the comfort of the men during the 
voyage, and amply sup])lied her with stores, instruments, and 
weapons for the protection of the party on their arrival. In 
the instructions given to the Government Kesident, Adam Bay 
was suggested as a likely place for the first town ; but he was 
left with full discretion to select another site if, after examina- 
tion, he found that unsuitable. Mr. Finniss was also instructed 
to establish and cultivate friendly and confidential relations 
with his party, and especially to see that no injustice was done 
to the natives of the country. 

Before the expedition sailed a luncheon Avas given to the 
party at Port Adelaide, presided over by the Chief Secretary, 
]Mr. (now Sir Henry) Ayers, and in tlie presence of Governor 
Sir Dominic Daly. It was an exceedingly interesting gather- 
ing, and high hopes were cherished of the success of this bold 
attempt to establish a new settlement in Northern Australia. 
j\[r. Finniss made an admirable speech, in the course of which 
he expressed the fullest confidence in his officers. A few days 
afterwards the expedition sailed, carrying with it the best 
wishes of the whole people of the Colony. In June, 1864, the 
Henry Ellis cast anchor in Adam Bay, and the party landed. 
Unfortunately, before the voyage was over, misunderstandings 
had grown np between the head of the party and some of his 
officers, and thes(} misunderstandings became more serious after 
the pavtv had taken possession of the Territory. The first 
river camp was fixed on July 1, and the men celebrated what 
they regarded as the actual commencement of their work by 
broaching a barrel of beer which some one of the party had 
brought to the tent. 

It is not mv business here to refer at anv length to the- 



Supp. Ch.U'.] EECALL of MR. FINNISS. 151 

iinfortuuate disasters which attended the first attempt to settle 
the Xorthern Territory, or to pronounce any judgment as to 
t]ie causes of these disasters. I have to describe results rather 
than causes. The expedition resulted in a decided failure. 
(Quarrels between the CTOvernment Eesident and his officers 
led to a state of utter disorganization. The head of the party 
seemed to lose all control o^er it. Mr. Finniss selected 
Escape Cliffs as the site of the town against the protests and 
remonstrances of some of his officers and gentlemen Avho repre- 
sented the selectors. But little progress Avas made with the 
survey ; the party became dissatisfied, insubordinate, and idle. 
Quarrels took place with the natives, who stole the insuffi- 
ciently protected stores, and who were punished without dis- 
crimination. The reports which came from the Territory to 
Adelaide were of the most disheartening character. The 
Government Resident complained of his officers, and his 
officers complained of him. Meanwhile precious time was 
being wasted, and but little was being done towards the survey 
of the country. 

Some of the settlers purchased a small boat — the Forlorn 
Hope—wiilx which to leave the settlement. In this boat they 
sailed 1600 miles to Champion Bay, and proceeded thence to 
Adelaide, where they brought before the Government what 
they averred to be the actual state of things at Adam Bay. 
The Colony was indignant at what they heard. Mr. Finniss 
was called upon for explanations, which, being deemed unsatis- 
factory, he was finally recalled to Adelaide, and Mr. IManton 
was left in command. A Court of Inquiry was appointed by 
the Government to investio:ate certain charo-es which had been 
laid against Mr. Finniss, and the evidence was fully reported. 
The Court found that the Government Eesident was wanting 
in tact in the management of his men, that he had not shown 
skill in organizing their labour, and that he had not taken 
sufficient care to protect the stores upon which the party were 
dependent. A majority of tlie Commission also blamed Mr. 
Finniss for selecting sucli an unsuitable site as Escape Cliffs 
for the townsliip. They alsi» found tliat he had not shown 
sufficient tact and care in his dealings witli tlie natives, and 



152 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Supp. Chap. 

tliat he had unnecessarily left the Territory without leave. 
The report, however, stated that the party entrusted to Mr. 
Finniss included many persons unfitted for the work for which 
they were engaged, and that some of the witnesses called 
manifested so much personal animosity towards 3Ir. Finniss as 
to render their testimony of comparatively little value. The 
result of the inquiry was the removal of the Government 
Resident from his position. 

Under the administration of IMr. ^Eanton there was not 
much improvement. The impression became stronger and 
more pronounced that Adam Bay was not the proper place 
for the settlement ; and the question was gravely discussed 
whether it would not be better to pay back to the selectors 
their money with interest, withdraw the expedition, and 
abandon the settlement — thus confessing that we had failed in 
our first attemjit at colonizing. Looking back now, many 
persons believe that this would have been the best course 
to adopt ; but neither our pride nor our self-interest would 
allow us to come to this determination. 

The next step taken by the Government Avas to find, if 
possible, a better site for a new settlement. Captain Cadell 
was dispatched to the Gulf of Carjientaria to see what advan- 
tages offered there. With his usual enthusiasm he undertook 
the congenial work, and on his return he presented a highly 
poetical report of his explorations and investigations, which 
was received with ridicule, almost amounting to contempt. 

The state of things was now becoming serious. The five 
years within which the Government had pledged themselves 
to have the surveys completed, and the land open for selection, 
were rapidly jjassing away, and nothing practical had been 
done. Escape Cliffs was abandoned, and the party recalled, 
and the Government were at their wits' end to know what was 
to be done. The London selectors banded themselves together, 
and somewhat insolently demanded back their money with 
interest. This demand was resisted by the Government, who 
still hoped to iinisli the survey. They passed a ]')ill through 
the Parliament to give to the original selectors a greatly 
increased area over that to whicli tliey were entitled, in 



Scpp. Chap.] SUEVEY BY ME. G. W. GOYDEK. 153 

consideration of the delay which had taken phice in the 
surveys ; but this offer was limited to those who undertook to 
withdraw the threatened legal action against the Government. 
Many of the selectors acceiDted this offer, but the bulk of 
those in London refused it, and persisted in their demand for a 
return of their money. 

At this time Mr. G. W. Goyder, the energetic Surveyor- 
General of the Province, was requested by the Government to 
go personally to the Northern Territory with a competent and 
thoroughly equipped j)arty, to select a site, and to complete 
the survey without delay. Mr, Goyder undertook this re- 
sponsible work, and soon got a fine party together. The 
Government justly had confidence in his judgment and 
energy, and left the work very much to his discretion. He 
selected Port Darwin for the site, and laid the foundation of 
Palmerston as the chief town. As soon as he arrived, without 
allowing one day for idleness, he set his band of surveyors to 
work in various parties, he himself moving amongst them from 
place to place, directing, encouraging, and animating them all 
by his personal presence and labours. There was no dissatis- 
faction, grumbling, or insurbordination ; and, under the 
controlling spirit of one energetic man, the great work, which 
five years had failed to accomplish, was completed in a few 
months. Had Mr. Goyder been dispatched in the first instance, 
the Colony would have been saved the shameful disasters 
which attended the first attempts to settle the Northern 
Territory, and the large sums of money which they cost, and 
V hich were extravagantly wasted in the most reckless way. 

In another part of this work I have described the con- 
struction of the Overland Telegraph, which has its northern 
terminus at Port Darwin. In the course of its construction 
ample evidence was given of the auriferous nature of much of 
the Territory, and when the surveys were completed, a con- 
siderable number of settlers went there principally with a 
view to gold digging. A form of government was provided 
I'or the settlement, which still exists, and which has been 
modified to some extent especially in the judicial and ad- 



154 SOUTH AUSTEATJA. [Supp. Chap. 

nuiiistrative dopartnu'iits. The jiapors Avliieh follow — and to 
"whieli these remarks are intended as an introduction — which 
have been written by competent gentlemen in the Territory, 
and edited by Mr. J. G. Knight, describe better than I could 
do the present condition and prospects of the Territory, They 
may be accepted as perfectly trustworthy, as they are the 
result of personal observation and experience. 

That the Xorthcrn Territory, notwithstanding all its disas- 
trous and humiliating history, is a rich country, and destined 
to become a great settlement, every one who knows it is. 
convinced. It has been grossly mismanaged, and therefore it 
has so far been a huge failure. Its resources, however, only 
need to be prudently and energetically developed to bring* 
wealth to the settlers. The Parliament has made Palmerston 
a free port, with a view to encourage trade with other countries. 
In this respect it possesses greater advantages than Singapore. 
It is almost certain to become the entrepot from which. 
Australian horses will be supplied to the Indian Government 
as remounts for the army. Mr, R, D, Eoss pointed out th& 
advantages of Port Darwin for such a purpose years ago, and 
went, accredited from Governor Fergusson to the Governor- 
General of India, in order to point out the advantages of the 
place as a remount station for collecting and dispatching- 
Australian horses, and the matter has not been lost sight of. 
The Northern Territory has cost this Colony a great deal of 
money, but there can be no doubt that every })enny will one 
day be paid back with interest. The adojition of a wise and 
energetic policy for the encouragement of semi-tropical pro- 
ducts and for developing the mines will give it a start ; 
and a fair start is all that it really needs to ensure ultimato 
success. 

Before allowing the residents in the Xorthern Territory to 
speak for themselves in the papers which follow, there is one 
more point to which I must refer, I have mentioned above 
that a new scheme of law administration is to be adopted in 
North Australia, Until now the system in existence in South 
Australia had noeessarily to be a})plic(l in the North. Prisoners- 



Supp. Chap.] WEECK OF THE " GOTHENBUEG." 155 

charged with serious offences, which could not be dealt witli in 
the Local Court at Palmerston, had to be brought down to 
Adelaide, with all the expense of conveying witnesses, and all 
the delays consequent on the distance of the Territory from 
Adelaide. This year the Government determined to hold a 
Circuit Court at Palmerston, presided over by one of the 
Judges of the Suj^reme Court of the Province. Mr. Justice 
AVearing, the Third Judge, was therefore dispatched to hold a 
Court, and was attended by the necessary officers. He and his. 
party reached Port Darwin in safety ; the Court was held, and 
they embarked in the steamer Gothenburg for the return 
voyage. Unfortunately, however, the steamer ran on a reef 
lying off the coast of Queensland, and in the course of a few 
hours became a total wreck — the greater portion of her 
passengers and a crew thus meeting with an untimely death. 
Over a hundred persons — men, women, and little children — 
M ere ruthlessly swept from the deck of the ill-fated vessel. A 
few escaped in boats, but the great majority went down making- 
no sign. Amongst the sufferers were Judge Wearing ; his 
Associate, Mr. Pelham ; IMr. AVhitby, acting Crown Prosecutor ; 
the Honourable T. Reynolds, who for many years had been a 
leading politician of the Province, and his wife ; and the 
Captain and his chief officers. No calamity that ever befel 
the Colony produced such a feeling of sorrow or such a kind 
expression of heartfelt sympathy as this. For a time we were 
stunned by the news, and walked like those in a dream. But 
when the first shock passed away, there was an immediate cry 
for help for the families of those who had gone down in the 
sea. The Parliament took care of the families of those who 
died in the service of the Government, and made liberal 
provision for them ; and the generous benevolence of the 
l)ublic took charge of the rest. A sum of between £9000 and 
£10,000 was at once contributed and judicicmsly distributed 
amongst the sufferers ; and when this act of justice \Nas 
done, the Colony breathed more freely. 

The law is now so altered that all offences except felonies 
punishable by death shall be dealt witli by a Local Court, at 
Palmerston, and other cases, of whicli it is not. })robable there 



156 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Supp. Chap. 

^vill be many for some time to come, will be brought down to 
Adelaide for trial. With these introductory remarks, I now 
give the Papers on the Northern Territory, which have been 
edited by Mr. Knight. 



[T/ie ivhole of the following Section is edited by Mr. J. G. Knight.'] 
GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION. 

The Northern Territory, of which Port Darwin is the har- 
bour for shipping, is situate in latitude (of Fort Hill) 12^ 
28' 30" soutli ; longitude 130^ 52' east. The harbour is very 
spacious, comprising many square miles of water, varying in 
depth from four to fifteen fathoms. It is high water, at full 
and change, 5 hours 25 minutes. Springs rise from sixteen to 
twenty-four feet; neaps, two to twelve feet. The tides are 
irregular — the ebb stream making 40 minutes before high 
water. 

There are numerous branches from the Port, as will be seen 
on reference to the charts — one of the principal being that 
running to 8outhport, twenty-four miles from Palmerston, and 
the chief inland depot for landing and forwarding goods to the 
goldfields. This tributary is navigable for vessels of large 
burthen. A substantial jetty is erected at Southport for the 
accommodation of shipping and lightering. At Port Darwin 
preparations are being made for the construction of a jetty, to 
be carried out so as to afford a depth of twenty feet at low 
Avater spring tides. Two causeways' have already been formed 
for present use, by which lighters can discharge into drays at 
almost any time of tide. The charge now made for lightering 
and landing goods from vessels is fourteen shillings per ton. 
The largest ships afloat can easily enter and safely anchor in 
Port Darwin. 

THE SETTLEMENT. 
By G. E. McMiNN, Esq., Senior Surveyor. 

Two hundred and seventy years have elapsed since the 
Dutch navigators first explored the north coast of Australia, 
making many discoveries in the shape of rivers and harbours, 



Sui'p. Chap.] SETTLEMENT OF NOKTHERX TEERITOEY. 157 

that to the present day are little further known. Even pre- 
vious to this date the Portuguese are su^^posed to have been 
acquainted with the existence of the present country. In the 
year 1772 Captain Cook circumnavigated Australia, adding 
further to the geographical knowledge previously obtained. 
After this but very little appears to have been done on the 
north coast until the settlement at Port Essington (one of the 
best harbours within the limits of the Northern Territory) was 
formed in 1831, by Sir Gordon Bremer. The settlement at 
Port Essington was established by the Imperial Government 
as a military post and harbour of refuge for distressed vessels. 
It received no support from private settlers ; consequently it 
secured very little public attention. No attempt ajDpears to 
have been made, on any extensive scale, to test the producing 
(capabilities of the country. This establishment existed for 
nineteen years, being finally abandoned in 1850. It was during 
that period that Leichardt made his memorable journey from 
Sydney to Port Essington. 

In 1862 Mr. John McDouall Stuart, a South Australian 
explorer (whose name, with the names of Gregory and 
Leichardt, is historically associated Avith the Northern Terri- 
tory, and well deserves remembrance), succeeded in crossing- 
the continent from Adelaide to Adam Bay on the north coast ; 
and having reported the country as suitable for settlement, 
an application was made to, and a grant obtained from, the 
Imperial Government, by which all that portion of Australia 
lying between the 129th and 138th meridians of east longitude, 
and north of the 26th parallel of soutli latitude, together 
with the adjacent islands, was ceded to the Colony of South 
Australia ; containing, independently of the islands, an area 
of about 531,402 square miles. 

In 18G4 the South Australian Government, for the purj^ose 
of inducing settlement on the north coast, sold a large quantitv 
of land at a low rate ; and Colonel Finniss, first Government 
Resident of the Northern Territorv, was sent out with a larire 
staff to execute the surveying. This expedition, from various 
causes, but chiefly from the land-owners objecting to the site 
selected by Mr. Finniss for settlement (Esca23e Cliffs), 2>roved 



158 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Supp. ("hvp. 

a total fiiiluvo, and was recalled, after having undergone many 
changes, in 1808, without having accomplished the survey, 
thus causing an immense waste of valuable time. 

In 1869 another expedition was fitted out under the com- 
mand of IMr. Ct. AV. Goyder, Surveyor-General of South 
Australia, by whom the whole of the survey required was 
made in the following year. The site selected this time 
was Port ])av\vin and its immediate neighbourhood. Gold was 
iliscovered in different localities, during the execution of the 
work, by some of the survey parties, but not in sufficient 
<[uantities to warrant any one at that time in saying a payable 
goldiield existed. Shortly after this. Captain Douglas was 
appointed Government Eesident of the Territory, and a per- 
manent staff selected to assist in the official manas-ement of 
the new settlement. Captain Douglas retired in May, 1874, 
and Dr. Millner became Acting-Kesident till the end of 
October, 1874, when the present Government Resident, ^Iv. 
G. B. Scott, assumed the direction of affairs. 

As before mentioned, the area of the Xorthern Territory is 
•computed at 531,402 square miles, the greater portion of which 
is admirably adapted for pastoral purposes, being well-grassed 
aud watered. At present about 7000 miles are held by intend- 
ing settlers. The amount of land surveyed was 653,000 acres : 
of this 274,000 have been selected, leaving the balance of 
379,000 acres open for selection. The whole of this lies imme- 
diately around Port Darwin, and contains some very valuable 
blocks suitable for tropical agriculture. 

The goldfields of the Xorthern Territory are now ascer- 
tained to be very extensive. At present gold is known to 
exist over a block of country containing about 1700 square 
miles, which has been indifferently prospected ; and as countrv 
of a similar character extends for a much greater distance, it 
is more than probable that, when it has been prospected, the 
area alread}' known will be but a small portion of the whole 
auriferous country, ^tany valuable gold-bearing quartz reefs 
have been discovered and worked ; about ninety leases for 
mining have been granted, the larger portion of which are at 
present lying idle, owing to want of capital to develop them. 



8upr. Chap.] MINERAL WEALTH OF N. TERRITORY. loO 

Ivieli deposits of alluvial gold have also been found ; but it is 
believed that the main lead or deposit has not yet been 
struck ; many competent mining authorities who have visited 
the Northern Territory giving it as their unqualified opinion 
that ultimately this will be one of the largest and best pro- 
ducing goldfields known. 

At present there are several prospecting parties out at 
considerable distances ; some of these have been largely 
assisted by Government, and considerable interest is evinced 
in connexion with their movements. Should the parties who 
are now prospecting haj)pen to find a good alluvial goldfield, 
their success will be no more than is expected by a great 
number of experienced persons. Eich deposits of copper, iron, 
and lead, are known to exist throughout the country. These, 
however, will remain comparatively valueless until the con- 
struction of a railway to a place of shipment reduces the cost 
of carriage. The coast is annually visited by a large number of 
Malay j)roas from Macassar, their object being " trepang fish- 
ing;" and, judging from the perseverance displayed by these 
people in making a long yearly voyage, and the risks they 
encounter from other sources, they must find it a profitable occu- 
pation. Pearl-shell is also known to exist in many of the waters. 

It should have been mentioned before that settlements 
Mere formed by Sir Gordon Bremer, both on 3Ielville Island, 
in 1824, and also at Eafiles Bay, near Port Essington, previous 
to the final adoption of Port Essington. At each of these 
places a number of buffalo were turned out, and these have 
increased to such an extent that at the present day large herds 
may be met with for more than 100 miles along the coast in 
the neighbourhood of Port Essington (where there are also a 
few English cattle and Timor ponies), also for a considerable 
distance along the coast. 

THE LAND ACT 

for the Northern Territory, as will be seen, has been framed 
with a view to liberality, and offers the following advantages 
to intending settlers : — Any ap})licant may apply for and re- 
ceive the fee simple of any unselected country land which has 



160 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Supp. Chap. 

been first offered at auction and passed the lianinior, or which 
has been dech\red open for selection, on jiayment of seven 
shillings and sixpence per acre. Persons so desirous may pur- 
chase lanil to the extent of 1280 acres upon " credit," that is, 
the land is applied for at the same price as before-mentioned ; 
but, instead of paying the purchase-money down, the purchaser 
obtains a lease of the land for ten years at an annual rental of 
sixpence per acre, and the purchaser has the option of paying 
the full amount of purchase-money at any time during the 
currency of the term, and on so doing receives a grant of the 
land. Any person applying to the Commissioner for a s})ecial 
survey of 10,000 acres in any locality may obtain the same on 
paying the cost of survey, and receive the fee simple on pay- 
ment of seven shillings and sixpence per acre. 

A special clause of the Act that will unfortunately be of no 
avail after the expiry of the present year, but which it is hoped 
may be re-enacted, provides that whenever any applicant for 
country land states in his application that he intends to use 
tlie land applied for in the cultivation of rice, sugar, coffee, 
tea, indigo, tobacco, or cotton, or any other tropical or semi- 
tropical productions, he shall be allowed to select a. block of 
country land not less than 320 acres nor more than 1280 at an 
annual rental of sixpence per acre ; and if such applicant shall 
prove to the satisfaction of the Commissioner, at the expira- 
tion of five years, that he had at the expiration of two years 
cultivated one-fifth of the land selected, and after the second 
year an additional one-tenth of tlie entire area, and at the ex- 
jiiration of five years he had one-half of the whole of the land 
selected under cultivation with any of the aforesaid produc- 
tions, and that the whole is enclosed with a fence, then the 
money that has been paid for rent will be considered to be 
the purcluise-money for the land, and on application the pur- 
chaser can obtain the grant thereof. Thus the fee simple of 
such land only costs the applicant two shillings and sixpence 
per acre. Land may also be leased for j)astoral purposes at a 
rental of sixpence per square mile for a term of twenty-five 
years ; blocks applied for not to consist of less than twenty- 
five square miles nor more than 300 square miles. The run 



Supp. Chap.] CHAEACTER OF NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 161 

must be declared stocked Mitliiii tliroe years from the quarter 
date next succeeding the date of the application, at the rate 
of two head of large cattle or ten head of small for every 
square mile of country applied for. 

CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRY. 

The laud bounding the coast is in a great measure low 
and uninteresting, in very few instances being more than 
100 feet above the sea level; wherever the coast is high, it 
is generally in the nature of cliffs, composed of sandstone, 
marl, and ironstone ; the lower portions are partly sandy 
beaches, but principally mud flats, thickly fringed with man- 
groves. The country inland is, generally speaking, of a very 
level character, over which railways could be easily con- 
structed, and is in a great measure destitute of conspicuous 
landmarks. At a distance of from 30 to 100 miles from the 
coast a tableland is met with, varying in height from 300 to 
900 feet, and near the Victoria River it attains a height of 
nearly 1700 feet. 

The rivers of the Northern Territory must not be over- 
looked, for many of them — the " Roper," " Adelaide," " South 
Alligator," " Liverpool," and " Victoria " — will hereafter prove 
to be of considerable importance for inland navigation. 

THE CLIMATE. 

By J. A. G. Little, Esq., Senior and Inspecting Of3ficer of the Post and 
Telegraphic Department, Port Darwin. 

The year has two climatic divisions, consisting of the wet 
season, from October to April, and the dry period, from May 
to September. The different changes of these seasons are so 
uniform and regular that they may be predicted almost to a 
day. Signs of the approach of the Avet season appear imme- 
diately after the sun has crossed the equator during the spring- 
equinox, in September, Avhen the strong E.S.E. monsoon — 
which has been blowing continually throughout the dry season 
— ceases, and is succeeded by calms and light variable winds ; 
the weather becomes intensely hot, and small thunder clouds 
gather over the land, increasing in size and density day by 

M 



162 80UTH AFSTItAl.lA. [Surp. Chap. 

(lay. until they burst in terrific thunderstorms, accompani(Ml 
I>y liuiricaiic squalls of \viiul and rain, '^riiese storms at iirst 
take place every four or ti\c (la\s. uiailually increasinji" in 
number until the eml of X(>\enil)er. \\lien they occur almost 
daily. I'lu-y come uj) in a dense black hank, and travel so 
^•ery rapidly that they are generally out of sight on thc!- 
western horizon within forty minutes. About an inch, or 
sometimes more, of heavy driving rain accompanies each 
storm ; but in the year 1871 the writer of this article saw tw(> 
inches and three quarters of rain gauged within ten minutes 
during one of these squalls. 

iJurino- December the K.W. monsoon <;raduallv iiains the 
ascendency, and blows steadily, with an occasional break of 
calm weather. The thunderstorms disappear, the sky becomes 
overcast and clouded, and the atmosphere gets thoroughly 
saturated with moisture, so much so that leatherwork becomes 
green with milde\\', if not constantly attended to ; the 
binding of books becomes soft, and sugar or salt, if exposed 
in an open vessel, will soon liquefy. This is felt to be an 
agreeable chanire after the intensclv hot A\cat]iei-. duriiii'- the 
change of the monsoon in October and November; and 
tdthough the humid atmosphere induces profuse persjjiration, 
the effects of the weather arc not nearly so unpleasant or 
severe as those attending the dry heat experienced in the 
southern portion of Australia during the same and two suc- 
ceeding months. 

The N.W, monsoon is accompanied by rain almost daily ., 
and increases in force until the latter end of January or be- 
ginning of February, when it is blowing in lull heart, and 
penetrates with its copious and fertilizing showers into the- 
very centre of Australia. During this period thick, dam]> 
weather prevails, the clouds being very low, and scud and 
banks of nimbus })ass over almost constantly from the N.W.. 
to the S.1%. with great rapidity. The maximum temperature- 
in the shade during the day in this weather is l)G^, and tho 
minijuuni during the night is 05°. 

On the approach of the autumn e([uinox, the N.W. mon- 
soon gradually dies away, and is succei-ded again by the calms^ 



Sui'P. Chap.] CLIMATE OF NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY, 163 

variable winds, tliunderstorins, and oppressive weather, until, 
abuut the end of April, when cooler weather is felt, the S.E. 
monsoon sets in, and the dry season may be said to have fairly 
commenced. This wind is characterized by a clear sky, enjoy- 
able weather, heavy de\\s, and. cold mornings and nights, so' 
much so that blankets can be used when sleeping. It blows, 
oft" the coast without intermission, and with great force, almost 
throughout the season, being in full heart during June and 
July. At Port Darwin and other places adjacent to the coast 
the monsoon generally drops in the afternoon, and is some- 
times succeeded by a sea breeze, which is merely local, and 
only extends a few miles inland. The atmosphere is clear 
and dry, and rather hot during the middle of the day. The 
maximum temperature in the day being 89^, and the minimum 
during the night 56^. 

AVith regard to the suitability of the country for European 
labour, the writer of this article can affirm — after four years' 
experience — that a man cannot perform the amount of con- 
stant AYork that he is capable of accomplishing in a more 
temperate climate ; but still there is nothing to prevent a 
moderate day's work being done — and further, there is an 
almost entire absence of those enervating influences which 
prostrate the European labourer in other tropical countries,, 
such as India, Java, Singapore, or Africa. Workmen carry 
out their various avocations throughout the day without 
taking any precaution to ward off the rays of the sun — the 
eight hours' system being usually adopted, as in other parts 
of Australia. The climate, in fact, may be said to be more of 
that type which is generally known as Australian, rather than 
tropical ; and the same remark will — with very few exceptions 
— also apply to the Jlora, fauna, and perspective of the country. 
It is free from cholera and other scourges of hot countries, and 
on the whole may be considered healthy. Intermittent fever, 
commonly known as fever and ague, is prevalent at times, 
especially in low-lying localities, or immediately after the w et 
season ; but this complaint is not dangerous in itself^ and can 
often be prevented by a moderate and judicious use of medicine 
and a small amount of bodily exercise. 

M 2 



164 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Surr. Chap. 

Tlio iusuct nuisances, such as flics, mosquitos, or sandflies, 
disappear very quickly on any oxt(!nt of timber and grass 
l)eing cleared away. C'lutliin<;- of a light description is worn 
throughout the year — Avhitc llrill^• tlie Lest; hut, owing to the 
ahsence of " dobios," or native washerwomen, any new comers 
should for the present bring a plentiful supply of coloured 
articles. Cloth or tweed clothing is not often used, and 
flannel is not recommended, as it produces attacks of prickly 
heat. Persons contemplating planting any kind of tropical 
produce should arrange to have their ground cleared in the 
dry season, and ready for seed during the commencement of 
the rains in October, so that the plants may have the full 
benefit of the wet season and humid weather. Vegetable 
growth is very rapid immediately after tlie rains set in, and 
the country becomes covered with grass knee-deep in the 
course of a few weeks. This grass runs up to a lieight of about 
six or eight feet during the wet season, and ripens early in 
May, when it is burnt. It springs again on flats or damp 
places, and generally continues green and fit for fodder 
throughout the year. The following is a statement of the 
raiiitall for tlie last four seasons : — 

Wet season— 1871-72 77-801 inches. 

„ 1872-73 (;2-254 „ 

., 1873-74 ."w-oSO „ 

„ 1874-73 5(5-000 „ 

THE OVERLAND TELEGRAni. 
15y J. A. G. Little, Esq. 

On the ]'eturn of Mr. John McDouall Stuart, the explorer, 
to Adelaide in the year 18G2, after having successfully crossed 
the Australian Continent from the southern seaboard to the 
northern coast, in the course of which journey he proved the 
existence of a practicable route interspersed with tracts of 
valuable country in a region hitherto considered an impassable 
desert, the idea of constructing a line of telegraph — two 
thousand miles in length — through to the northern coast, and 
so opening up aud utilising the country discovered by Mr. 
Stuart, and also to connect with an An 2:lo- Australian cable to 



Sui'P. Chap.] THE OYEELAND TELEGEAPH. 165 

bo brought down to meet it from Singapore or Java, was at 
once grasped by 3Ir. Charles Todd, the present Postmaster- 
General of the Colony, and speedily cast into form by him and 
brought before the authorities of the day. 

The measure, though generally approved of, was considered 
a little too large for the then resources of the Colony, which at 
that time contained a population of only about 150,000 people, 
and yielded an annual revenue of £500,000 sterling ; so the 
question was postponed from year to year in an indefinite form, 
although Mr. Todd never lost sight of it, and frequently urged 
the importance of the matter on the Government. 

In the meantime the Colony had formed a small settlement 
under the management of Lieut.-Colonel Finniss on the 
northern coast at Escape Cliffs, near the mouth of the Adelaide 
Eiver, which after two or three years had to be abandoned in 
favour of another at Port Darwin,^ under the control of Mr. 
G, W. Goyder, Surveyor-General of the Colony ; and sub- 
sequently of Captain B. Douglas, Collector of Customs of 
South Australia. 

These settlements suffered very much from their isolated 
position and want of communication with the settled districts 
in the more southern portion of Australia, and so the idea 
of a line of Telegraph from Adelaide to Port Darwin slowly 
and steadily found favour until 1870, when the successful and 
profitable working of the Atlantic and Anglo-Indian cables 
gave an impetus to telegraph extension all over the world, 
resulting in the formation of the British- Australian Telegraph 
Company, for the purpose of putting down a cable from 
Singapore to Port Darwin via Java. 

The South Australian Government, acting under the power- 
ful advice of the Governor — Sir James Fergusson — and also of 
]\Iessrs. Strangways, Ayers, and other leading politicians of the 
day, decided at once to carry out the scheme of the Overland 
Telegraph recommended by Mr. Todd, and undertook to com- 
plete the whole and have it ready to meet the cable on 
January 1, 1872, a period of about twenty months. The work 
Avas then placed in the hands of Mr. Todd for execution, and 
he, with an admirable system of organization and ingenuity, 



ion ■ SOrTTT AT-STT^ATJA. [Srrr. Ciur. 

tided it ovor many great and unforeseen dinieulti(\s, and 
l)ron<^lit it to a suecessfnl completion. 

Six hundred miles of the work at eai-h <iid wi'rc let to 
pnblic contractors, acting under Government Superintendents, 
no great difficulty being anticipated on either of these two 
sections ; but 3Ir, Todd reserved the section in the centre — 
about six hundred miles — eventually extended to nearly eight 
hundred miles, and which, it must be remembered, had only 
Jjcen traversed by one lightly equipped party of white men — 
]Mr. Stuart's — to be constructed under his own immediate 
supervision. 

Jfe divided tlie work on this central portion into live 
different parts, and commenced organizing parties of officers 
and men for each section ; fivo officers of known ability and 
experience, viz. : — Messrs. Knuckey, G. E. ]\[cMinn, AV. W. 
Mills, A, T. Woods, and W. Harvey — all of whom had taken 
leading parts in the pioneer expedition to the Xorthern 
Territory — being selected to take command of the different 
parties. 

Every care and forethought was exercised in the prepara- 
tion and outfit of these parties, who, it must be remembered, 
had to travel for months, with their waggons loaded with wire, 
material, rations, tools, and every other articl(> re(|uircd, over 
long stages — the furthest nearly twelve hundred miles in 
lengtli — before they got on to their ground ; and over an 
uninlial)ited region, Avhore water was supposed to be scarce, 
where roads had to be made, bridges constructed, Avells sunk, 
liigh jDrecipitous ranges, and belts of desert and lofty sandliills 
crossed ; the three latter obstacles having proved in previous 
times almost insurmountable difficulties to ^Ir. Stuart's ex- 
ploratory expeditions. This region A\as so utterly unproductive 
with regard to game and other articles of sustenance that every 
ounce of food required, until the completion of the work, and 
also for the return journey, had to be taken with them. 

The parties proved to be so well organized and ably led 
that they ;irri\(Ml dii their ground witlioiit any liitch whatever, 
Jind not only complet('<l their portion of the line, within the 
ostimated time, but also erected one hundred miles extra of 



8riT. CiiAr.] THE OVERLAND TELEGEAPH. 167 

poles, aud on the arrival of more wire, finislied off in all abont 
two hundred miles of line in addition to their legitimate 
2)ortion. Great difticulty was experienced throughout tlie sec- 
tions owing to the scarcity of suitable timber for poles, but by 
traversing the country in every direction, and carting the 
poles great distances — sometimes over one hundred miles — 
the requisite number was at last obtained. 

While everything Avas progressing so very satisfactorily and 
-smoothly on the most difficult portion of the works, the con- 
tractors at both ends were encountering difficulties. Assistance 
was })romptly rendered to the Southern contractor, which 
i'uabled liim to complete the works within a few weeks after 
time ; but the expedition of the Northern [contractor, after 
<>recting about 220 miles of poles, collapsed entirely — most of 
tlie draught stock required for transit having died, and nearly 
idl the men returned to Adelaide. 

The Government immediately sent round to Port Darwin 
hj sea a large and most powerfully equipped expedition under 
tlie command of Mr. E. C. Patterson, the Assistant Engineer- 
in-Chief of the Colony, to promptly finish off the work ; and, 
as an additional inducement, offered the Assistant Engineer a 
])onus of £1.")00 if he managed to get the work done in time ; 
hut this party also encountered difficulties, which rendered the 
completion of the work within the specified time hopeless. 
The Government tlierefore sent Mr. Todd himself round with 
reinforcements, and he very wisely took his steamers 100 miles 
up the Eiver Eoper in the Gulf of Carpentaria, and made that 
place the base of operations, instead of Port Darwin, thus 
.saving about 300 miles of carting, and obtaining a better road. 
An unprecedentedly wet season was encountered immediately 
after his arrival, rendering the country impassable for loaded 
teams for some time ; but as soon as the weather improved, 
great activity took place, and 31r. Todd completed the line on 
August 22nd, 1872, being a little over eight months after time 

The British- Australian Cable, after being successfully laid, 
lu'oke for some little time, and was not repaired until October 
•i2nd, 1872, when telegraphic communication was estaltlishcd 
between Austi'aJia and all parts of the World — the first recipients 



168 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Supp. Chap. 

of a message from London being Messrs. ^FacEwans & Co., of 
^rdbourno. The bcnctieial results of this great work became 
apparent at once. AVitliin six months after the opening 
of the line the Colony netted nearly a quarter of a million 
.sterling extra on their wheat harvest through the telegraph 
enabling sales to 1)C made in foreign markets. 

Gold, discovered in payable quantities by the jSTorthern 
contractors' party, led to the opening up of valuable goldfields 
and the settlement of a considera1)le number of peojile in the 
Xurtlicru Territory. J'iiic deposits of copper, load, and iron, 
have since been discovered, and will no doubt at some future 
time prove highly remunerative. Stockholders quickly pushed 
their lierds out along the line, and at the present moment the 
cduntry near the centre of Australia is being rapidly taken up 
for pastoral purj)oses. All classes were directly or indirectly 
benefited, seeing at once the utility of this great reproduc- 
tive work, A\hich it is hoped will soon be followed by a 
railway along the same route, and which, witli a corresjjonding 
measure for the introduction of a proportional amount of popu- 
lation, will still further develop the lino resources of the whole 
country. »Siuce the completion of the line, iron poles have 
been gradually introduced to replace the wooden ones, which, 
when finished, \\ ill render the work thoroughly substantial, and 
reduce the maintenance expenditure to a miuiminn. 

THE (iOLDFIELDS. 
By J. A. Pllnkktt, Esq., Chief Warden. 

From Palmcrston, the chief town of the Northern Territory, 
to the nearest officially recognized gold-bearing reefs — those at 
Stapleton — the distance is about sixty-four miles in a south- 
south-eastern direction. To avoid a long detour by land, the 
first part of this journey — as far as 8outhport, which is twenty- 
five miles, is usually made l)y water, up an estuary of Port 
Darwin Bay. For the remainder of the distance — and, indeed, 
all tlie way to the most soutliern and distant reefs — there is an 
excellent bush road; wliieli, moreover, has been improved in 
various places, and is maintained in good order by road parties 
employed by the Government. Here it may be observed that 



Supp. Chap.] GOLDFIELDS OF NORTHERN TERRITORY. 1G9 

all tliroiigli the settled parts of the Territory the bush roads 
are exceedingly good, and generally keep in excellent order 
for traffic — excej)t, of course, during the four or five months of 
the rainy season, when they are nearly impassable. 

From Stapleton to the most southern reefs — those at Pine 
Creek — the road is about ninety miles : it runs the entire Avay 
close to the Overland Telegraph Line ; and though it winds 
about hero and there, it takes on the whole a south-eastern 
course. All the quartz reefs in the Territory on which any 
work Avorth mentioning has been done, and all the alluvial 
diggings, lie either east or west of this road: — most of them 
being within a few miles of it, and the furthest from it not 
being more than twelve miles to the east. From this it will be 
seen that the whole of the gold-bearing country which, as yet, 
has been proved to be of any value stretches away in a south- 
eastern direction from Stapleton ; though it must be added 
that small quantities of gold have been discovered in many 
other parts of the Territory. In a brief sketch like this, it 
would be impossible to notice separately the fifteen or sixteen 
•lifferent places in Avhich gold-mining operations have, at some 
time or other, been carried on ; and so the remarks made here 
must, for the most part, be of a general nature. In none of 
the places just mentioned has the search for gold been entirely 
unsuccessful ; and nothing surprises one more than the little 
difficulty people appear to have had in discovering, anywhere 
in the country between Stapleton and Pine Creek, either 
auriferous quartz or auriferous clay. It must, though, be 
admitted that the amount of success has been far from uniform, 
and that in many instances the gold obtained has been 
altogether inadequate to compensate for the labour expended 
in getting it : but, as will be shown further on, the ill luck in 
these cases has been more than counterbalanced by fortunate 
results in others. 

Except one or two reefs, which run nearly du(! north, the 
reefs for the most part extend in a north-western or a north- 
north-western direction, and in several instances they can be 
traced for two or three miles. They lie, generally, in ranges of 
scjmewhat rugged hills ; though in one or two [)la(;cs they are in 



ITO SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Supp. Chav. 

iiat jivonnd, Tliose, however, in tlir hills have hitherto jn-ovccl 
tar iiKtrc valnalile than the others. As iiiiii'ht he cxpcctctl, 
there is i^reat diversity in the si/e and qiuilitv ot the dift'ereiit 
reefs. Some of them are several feet wide, w 1 1 i 1 e ( it hers, properly 
.speaking, should not be called "reefs" at all, heing only narrow 
""leaders " — thongh the latter are nsnallv more clearly defined, 
and. ill projiortion to size, nuich richer than the tornier. Gene- 
rally speaking, the owners of a qnartz claim in the Territory 
obtain anriferons stone from the very surface of their ground, 
Itiit lind that, as they sink, the reef or leader, as the case may be, 
widens considerably, but decreases in richness : hence it hap- 
pens that the results of the first crushings are usually much 
richer in proportion to the stone operated on than those of 
-subsequent crushings — though, owing to the increased quantity 
of stone, and the increased ease with which it is obtained, the 
latter crushings are generally more remunerative in proportion 
to the money and the labour expended. This last rennirk 
^ipplies more especially to some of the hill claims, where, to 
facilitate operations, tunnels have been driven to meet tlie 
bottoms of the shafts. It may be said of all the reefs in the 
Territory that, whether the gold-l)earing stone in them is rich 
or not, there are but few difticulties to contend with in getting 
it : in fact, if some means could be devised for storing, during 
tlie wet season, large quantities of water sufficient to last tlie 
ililferent batteries , through the remainder of the year, the 
engineering difficulties connected with (piartz mining in 
the Territory wouhl be very small indeed. ^N'o very (h^ej) 
sinking has been necessary as yet ; the shafts, even in tin; 
midst of the rainy season, are quite free from water; and 
nowhere are there any obstacles to prevent the making of a 
good road or tramway, either to a battery already erected or 
to a convenient site for a battery. 

1 p to th(! present, thougli a great deal of money has been 
expended in quartz-reeling on the goldfields, and a good deal 
•of st(me raised and crushed, it cannot be said that as an 
industry (piartz-mining has been fairly tried in the Territory. 
The fact is^ the work done has been distril)uted over too many 
l^laces ; — too many claims have been tested in a superficial and 



Supr. Chap.] GOLDFIELDS OF NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 171 

desultory way, and too few systematically worked. Xotwitli- 
staiiding- this, lioweyer, it is an nndeniable fact that, conntinii; 
■all the stone crushed in the Territory from the yery lirst till 
now, the average yield of gold has been more than one ounce 
for every ton of stone crushed ; and, if we take as a criterion 
the more recent crushings only — that is, those of the List seven 
months — there is good reason for expecting that in future the 
iiverage yield will be considerably greater. 

At present the only reefs to which any attention is being 
devoted are (taking them in order from north to south) the 
iStapleton Reefs, the Howley Reefs, the Britannia Reef, the. 
Yam Creek Reefs, the Extended Union Reef, the Union and 
the Lady Alice Reefs, and the Pine Creek Reefs. But of 
these, the Union and the Lady Alice Reefs, and the Pine 
Creek Reefs, are the only ones on which work is being done on 
anything like an extensive system. As has been already indi- 
cated, it is impossible in this sketch to notice specially the 
different claims ; but the following facts will, it is hoped, help 
the reader to form something like a correct estimate of the 
value of the quartz reefs generally. 

The present writer, in his capacity as Chief Warden, has 
made it his business to collect from time to time, for his official 
reports, all the information he possibly could about the gold- 
fields ; and in this Avay he has managed to obtain full and, he 
Ijelieves, pretty accurate accounts of no less than thirty-three 
crushings, all of which have taken place since the resumption of 
crushing operations in the early part of last December. For 
some of these crushings, no doubt, care was exercised in select- 
ing the stone ; while in other instances quartz and mullock 
were indiscriminately collected and passed through the bat- 
teries. From some of the crushings, the yield of gold was as 
low as a few pennyweights to the ton of stone ; but from others 
it was four, or five, or six ounces to the ton : a\ hilc in one in- 
.stance, a few tons of qaartz yielded eighty-one ounces of gold 
to the ton of stone. 

The total result, however, of the thirty-tliree crushings is 
AS follows : — 2732^ tons of stone have yielded 4.">27 oz. IN dwt. 
of gold, or a little inore tlian 1 oz. 12 dwt. lor every ton ; — a 



172 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Suit. Chap. 

result uliicli speaks for itscH'. .'ind i^-ocs lar t«» warrant the good 
opinion \\liich many jtcvsons still ciitrrtaiii respecting the 
Xorthern 'rciritniy i|uartz reels. This calculation does not 
include all the cnishings iu the Tcrrilory since the 1st of 
December; but it includes every one since then of Avhich the 
writer bus been able to obtain the particulars, and there have 
been but few others, Th(Dre are at present ten crusliing- 
machines in the Territory ; — one at Stapleton, one at Howley, 
four at Yam C^reek, two at Union, and two at Pine Creek. 

So much having been said about quartz-reefing, it becomes 
necessary now^ to say a few words about the alluvial diggings. 
Alluvial digging has been tried in a small way, and with 
varying success, in the neighbourhood of several of the reefs ; 
but the only diggings that can be noticed here are the prin- 
cipal ones — those at Sandy Creek, at Stewart's Gully, and at 
Sailor's Gully, all of which lie near the Yam Creek reefs. 
Sandy Creek and Stewart's Gully extend nortli and south, but 
Sailor's Gully runs east and west. The first-named place is on 
a confined flat in a valley, while the two otlier diggings are — 
as their names im})ly — in narrow glens. In these places about 
fifty j^cople are engaged in alluvial mini]ig ; but only very 
few of the claims can bo said to pay well, and from many of 
them the yield of gold is very small indeed. The ground 
seems to be what diggers call " very patchy," that is, the 
owners of a claim may find a fair amount of gold one day, but 
after that work for several days without getting any. Up to 
the present, there has been no deep sinking on any of these 
diggings. A nugget weighing over twenty-two ounces — the 
largest ever discovered in the Territory — was found recently 
in Stewart's Gully ; but this piece of luck must be regarded 
as somewhat excei^tional, and Stewart's Gully is gradually 
being deserted owing to the scarcity of Avater, the diggers 
moving for the dry season to Sandy Creek, where there is 
water all the year round. There exists great diversity of 
opinion as to the value of these diggings. Some persons 
of good experience maintain tliat, if the claims were smaller 
and the number of diggers increased, the more thorough 
examination of the irround which this would cause would be 



Supp. Chap.] GOLDFIELDS OF NORTHEEN TEEEITOEY. 173 

sure to result in some valuable discoveries. There are others, 
however, of equally good experience, Avho hold quite the 
opposite opinion, and consider the ground to be naturally 
very poor. The writer ventures to think that the latter 
persons are correct in their opinion ; and though it cannot 
be denied that many persons have done pretty well on these 
diggings, he considers that, on the whole, alluvial digging in 
the Territory has so far resulted in but little success. 

It only remains now to say a few words about the Gold 
Mining Law and Eegulations. 

A gold-mining claim in the Territory can be held under 
either a miner's right or a lease. A miner's right costs 10s., 
and remains in force till the first of December following the 
date on which it is issued. It can, of course, be renewed like 
any other licence. It empowers a man to hold as an " ordinary 
claim " an area of ground, 25 yards by 25 yards for an alluvial 
claim ; or 30 yards by 30 yards (in old ground) for a puddling 
claim ; or 200 yards by 250 yards for a quartz-reef claim. In 
the event of fresh discoveries being made at certain con- 
siderable distances from ground already worked on, "pro- 
specting claims " are granted varying in size according to the 
distance from the old claims ; but the smallest " prosjDecting 
claim" is double the area of an ordinary claim. Besides 
complying with a few necessary formalities, the holder of a 
claim has only to work it properly in order to retain it, and 
for every three months' work done on it, he is entitled to 
obtain three months' exemption from working it. If he does 
not comply with the formal regulations, or if he does not work 
his claim, he is liable to forfeit it ; while, if he abandons it 
altogether for a certain time, anyone else having a miner's 
right can go on the claim and take possession of it. 

Under the Eegulations, too, very liberal provisions are 
made for enabling the holders of miners' rights to obtain, on 
the payment of certain fees, the right to take up areas of 
ground for residence sites, business sites, dam and machine 
sites, &c. &c. All disputes respecting ground held under 
miners' rights are settled by the Warden, from whose decision, 
however, an appeal to the Palmerston Local Court is allowed. 



1 74 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Srrr. Chap. 

The holders of quartz claims, or of '*' deep shiJcing " alluvial 
claiius (of Avliich latter, however, there are none in the Terri- 
tory), hv ;iji|il\ iim- to the Government Resident, through the 
^^':lnlt■ll. call olitaiii leases for their claims, varying in duration 
from seven to twenty-one years, and at a yearly rent of 10s. an 
acre. Leases for similar periods, and at a similar rent, can 
also be obtained, for machine, race, dam, or reservoir sites, of 
areas of ground varying in extent from ten to twenty acres. 
The regulations respecting the working of leased claims are 
nearly the same as those for the working of claims held under 
miners' rights. The great advantage of having a lease is — 
that the holders cannot be compelled to give up their ground, 
unless by the Warden's taking proceedings against them in 
the Local Court at Palmerston, which, of course, would not be 
done for any mere technical breach of the Eegulations, or 
unless there were very good cause. 

In concluding this brief sketch, the writer wishes to say 
tliat, in the space allotted to him, he has not been able to give, 
nor has he- aimed at giving, anything more tlian a general 
account of the goldtields. He hopes, however, that notwith- 
standing this his remarks may be found useful in assisting- 
persons at a distane(3 to form some idea about the prospects of 
gold-niininir in the Xorthern Territorv. 

DO . 

INDIGENOUS YEGETATIOX. 
By J. C. Knight, Esq. 

The indigenous products of the jSTorthern Territory, like 
the rest of the Australian Colonies, yield little or nothing, 
ailapted to sustain civilized life, while they afford sufticient to 
support the aboriginal pDjuiIanon. The native grasses have, 
hoNvever, l)een practically tested, and found to yield abundant 
nutrition to fatten horned cattle and horses. When it is 
stated as a fact that for liundreds of luih'S inland there is 
scarcely a foot of ground which is uncovered by trc-es, plants, 
or herbage of one kind or another, growing in rank luxuriance 
(in some cases on rocky strata, without any apparent soil to 
sustain vegetable existence), and that such fruits as the banana, 
cocoa-nut, custard-apple, pine-apple, and tamarind, thrive on a 



Supr. Chap.] AYOODS OF NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 175 

hard elayoy or iron-stone soil, within a few yards of the sea, it 
may not be unreasonable to infer that the jungle and swamp 
might be speedily reclaimed and made to yield, under the 
genial tropical influence of this peculiar clime, productions of 
great commercial yalue. 

NATIVE WOODS. 

\_This Article refers ixirtlcularly to Specimens of Timler forioarded to the 
Tliiladd'plda Exhibit ion. '\ ■ 

The coast of the Northern Territory does not apj^ear to be 
so abundantly furnished with useful and ornamental woods as 
some other of the Australian Colonies ; but as no steps have 
yet been taken to explore the country for timber, it would be 
j)remature to speak very positively on the subject. In starting 
to make a collection of native timber, the writer has been 
agreeably surprised at the variety and beauty of som'e of the 
specimens he has met Avith. They have been obtained in 
haste, and do not represent a fiftieth part of the different kinds 
growing in the Territory ; allowance must also be made for 
the specimens being cut from the growing trees, and forwarded 
witliout the slightest chance of " seasonino-." 

Notwithstanding these drawbacks, some of the samples 
will be found well worthy of examination, particularly the 
following : — 

No, 1. Locally called " paper bark " — is one of the most 
abundant as well as one of the best woods in the Territory ; 
it grows to a diameter of three to four feet, and is admirably 
adapted for piles, girders, bed-plates for engines and stamjjing 
machinery, ship's knees, and heavy carjientering in generaL 
This is one of the few timbers not attacked by the Avhite ant. 

No. 2. Termed " iron bark " — is an excellent wood, very 
dense and durable ; might be used in many cases as a sub- 
stitute for lignum vitm. The tree grows to an average diameter 
of eighteen inches, and is j)retty plentiful. I think the A\o()d 
is superior to the iron bark of the Southern and "Western 
Colonies of Australia, and it is certainly handsomer in grain. 
It is ])roof against the white ant. 

No. v^ Known as cypress pine — is an excellent timber, well 



176 SOUTH AUSTTJATJA. [Scrp. Chap. 

adapted both for carpenter's and joiner's work, being clean in 
the o-rain and easily wronirht. The tree grows to a diameter 
of twelve to eighteen inches, and is rarely touched by the 
ant pest. 

No. 4. Called bloodwood — is one of the most abundant of 
the useful woods — both it and paper bark being chiefly used 
in the construction of bridges on the road to the goldfields. It 
is a fine sound timber, and is found up to two feet six inches 
in diameter. 

No. 5. Tccoma — is worthy of special examination as a 
liandsomc wood for furniture, resembling, as it does, the 
much admired tulip wood of Queensland. It is found near 
Palmerston, and in many of the jungles. The bark of this 
tree is said to yield valuable tannin matter for medical 
purposes. 

No. 6. Termed red cedar — is another showy furniture wood, 
capable of being successfully introduced in decorative work. 

No. 7. Usually called cedar — is a furniture wood, suitable 
to be worked in with No. 0. 

No. 8. Called milkwood, from the fact of the tree, on being- 
tapped, yielding a fluid resembling milk. This wood, being 
easily wrought, is adapted for many kinds of cabinet work. 

No. 9. White cedar. The texture of this wood is very 
similar to pine ; it may, therefore, be classed as a useful and 
inexpensive timber. 

No. 10. Blackwood. This timber does not grow to a very 
larf>*e size, the trees usually met with not exceeding fifteen 
inches in diameter ; it is a sound and valuable wood, and, for 
some purposes, a not inelegant substitute for walnut. 

No. 11. Banyan. This tree yields but a small quantity 
of straight v/ood, the trunks and branches being always greatly 
contorted. It might be tried for wood engraving. 

No. 12. IMangrove. This most extraordinary tree forms a 
dense belt of vegetation along the banks of the rivers, as 
well as on the sea coast. It appears to flourish under tidal 
influence — its numerous roots branching from the trunk above 
o-round and appearing as resting on the surface, rather than 
penetrating the soil. There are many varieties of this timber, 



Sdpp. Ch.kv.] acclimatized VEGETATION. 177 

some of which show wood of great beauty in the variations 
of colour, those being apparently due to the chemical action of 
the sea water upon the fibrous structure of the timber, and not 
to changes of tint due to the annular growth of the tree. The 
bark of the mangrove is valuable for tannin, and is believed 
to be rich in potash, but I have not yet had the means of 
testing it. It also yields a good dye. A sample of the bark 
is exhibited, to A\liich the attention of chemists and tanners is 
particularly invited. 

Xo. 13. Called cedar — a good useful wood. 

No. 14. A rich yellow wood. 

No. 15. Plum tree. 

'No. 16. Eugene apple ; a curiously striped wood. 

No. 17. Called lancewood, useful for boat-building. 

Xo. 18. Satinwood, a bright yellow timber, useful for fur- 
niture. 

No. 19. Prickly ash. 

No. 20. Honeysuckle. 

No. 21. Called the quinine tree. A decoction of the wood 
yields a strong bitter, said to be good in cases of fever. 

No. 22. Fan Palm. Tliis wood is prized for making walk- 
ing-sticks, picture-frames, &:g. 

No. 23. Wild nutmeg tree. - 

No. 24. Cabbage Palm. This wood is much sought after 
for making walking-sticks, billiard cues, and the like. 

No. 25. Prickly ash. 

No. 26. He-oak. 

No. 27. A wood plentiful in the jungles. 

No. 28. Bamboos grow to a diameter of four or five inches, 
and often used in the interim for making houses. Some very 
pretty cottages luxve been built entirely (including the roof) 
of bamboo. 

ACCLIMATIZED VEGETATIOX. 

Nature appears to have bequeathed to Art a soil and climate 
capable of yielding, under proper treatment, a prodigal return 
for skilled cultivation. Nearly all the kinds of tropical fruits 
-and vegetables whicli liave been fairly tried are found to thrive 

N ■ 



178 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Surr. Chap. 

and flourish in these latitudes. The phmtain and banana grow 
wherever tliey are stuck in the ground, and produce excellent 
fruit. A number of cocoa-nut trees phinted three or four years- 
ago look in splendid condition. Pine-applos of delicious flavour 
reach maturity with great rapidity in the Government Botanic- 
Garden. The "custard apple," also known as "sour sop," and 
the papaya yield most delicious fruit. The tamarind tree- 
gro\\s well. The guava thrives also, as likewise the rosella. 
Splendid specimens of the mango are obtained at Port Essing- 
ton. The lemon and orange trees in the Government Garden 
are growing rapidly, and appear to take kindly to the soil and 
climate. In vegetables, the melon tribe succeeds admirably,, 
and will soon grow as weeds in certain favourable localities. 
The yam and sweet potato are being cultivated with great 
success. Arrowroot has been tried on a small scale, and thrives 
exceedingly well. 

Excellent " sugar cane " is grown at the Government Gar- 
dens. It is believed that the tea phxnt would thrive well in 
certain districts, and the same may be said of sj^ices, but none 
have yet been planted. One or two cotton trees in the grounds- 
of the Government Eesident have yielded excellent-looking- 
staple. " Indian corn " lias been sown in several portions of 
the Territory, and from the success which has attended the- 
experiments its cultivation will soon be greatly extended. In. 
provender for cattle, the couch grass thrives in a wonderful 
manner, and is eaten with avidity. The buflalo grass also- 
promises to grow both rapidly and well. 

The few fruits and vegetables above referred to afford but 
a faint idea of what is capable of being successfully culti- 
vated, for, as a matter of fact, there has not yet been any ex- 
perimental gardening attempted beyond the little done at the- 
Government liutanical Garden and in the grounds of Mr. 
Li111<\ llie Sub-Inspector of the Telegraph. However, the- 
trilling amount of work already done has sliown such excellent 
results that gardening is now beginning to be thought of in 
t.'arnest. Gardens have been formed on tlic })rinci2)al quartz; 
mines at the goldfields, and the benefits of liaving a supply of 
fresh vegetables are beiug manifested in the imj^roved health 



Supp. Chap.] NATIVE AXBEALS IN N. TEEEITOEY. 170 

of those engaged on the claims. All the cultivation u])- 
country is being performed hj Chinese Coolies — white labour 
Ijeing by far too expensive for such work. 

NATIVE ANIMALS. 

The ordinary types of the Australian Fauna are found 
here. The irrepressible kangaroo and emu, bustard (wild 
turkey); the pelican, wild goose, and duck, teal, widgeon, 
•j^lover, quail, and several varieties of beautiful pigeons, king- 
fishers, black and white cockatoos, and parrots, are met with, 
and plentiful in their particular haunts. 

The waters of Port Darwin may be said to be full of fish, 
but, unfortunately for the people, they are very difficult to 
catch with hook and line. The supply of the local market is 
now in the hands of one or two Malay boatmen, who frequently 
manage to net in the course of an hour as many fish as they 
can sell for £4 or £5. With this money they retire to enjoy 
• themselves, and only return to marine pursuits when they 
■ require fresh funds, leaving the townspeople in the interval 
craving for this kind of food, so suitable for a hot climate. A 
steady and constant fisherman, properly equipped, would soon 
realize a fortune in Port Darwin. Fine large turtle are often 
seen in the harbour, but are rarely caught. Oysters of excellent 
flavour are plentiful at Port Essington, where an establishment 
for curing trepang has been started by some enterj)rising 
settlers. 

Snakes are not so frequently met with in the Northern 
Territory as in many other parts of Australia. Those of the 
Python kind appear to be the most numerous. They are found 
sometimes fifteen feet in length, and are very fond of visiting 
hen-roosts. The writer has never heard of any fatal case of 
snake poisoning. 

Crocodiles abound in some of the rivers, especially the 
Koper and the Adelaide ; they are sometimes seen and have 
also been felt in Port Darwin and in the river to Southport. 
Some small specimens are exhibited in bottles, and also the 
eggs. 

Centipedes, big spiders, and scorpions are sometimes met 

N 2 



180 SOFTTT AT'ST'RATJA. [Supp. Chap. 

-witli when not sought for— cliioHy in old wooden buildings, 
(oek roaches and crickets are pretty plentiful and very de- 
structive. However, as good stone buildings with cemented or 
tile floors supersede those of wood, these domestic nuisances 
will become less and less. Our old friend, the " rodent," has 
not neglected visiting the Northern Territory. One of his 
favourite nocturnal pastimes is to run along the framing of 
your roof and tumble on the sleeper in his hammock. 

The white ant pest deserves a special paragraph ; in 
appearance it is fat and yellow, about the size of the gentles 
used by anglers — the creature is rarely seen unless unearthed, 
always working under cover, protecting itself by a shield of 
glutinous earth as a shelter from the attacks of its constant 
enemy, the small black ant. The white ant ai)pears to have 
a wide margin for taste— it eats through almost anything — 
leather, wood, tobacco, soap, books, clothes, — nothing short of 
sheet-iron will arrest its ravages. Ordinary fir or pine, or 
ordinary hard wood, afford this ravenous insect a special feast, 
and no timber except cypress, pine, and paper-bark, iron-bark, 
bloodwood, and a few other woods, obtained in tlie Northern 
Territory, or the jarrah from Western Australia, is capable of 
Avithstanding its attacks. Some si:)ecimens of ant-eaten wood 
are exhibited, as well as a portion of the ant-hill. There are 
hundreds of thousands of those hills in the Territory, many 
being upwards of 23 feet in height, and 6 feet to 10 feet in 
diameter. They are very strong, resisting the heavy j)ressure 
of tropical rains, the larger ones appearing to be of great age 
— possibly some hundreds of years. There is another destruc- 
tive insect called the " borer," not met with near the sea- 
coast, but very active and mischievous inland, its attacks 
being chiefly levelled against timber. This creature is about 
the size of a small fly. Its head is armed with a kind of 
auger, which it drives with great force against the wood pro- 
posed to be attacked. The point of the auger is inserted 
while the body performs a series of rapid revolutions, perhaps 
a thousand in a minute, and thus bores a hole into the timber 
as perfectly as could be exocutod by a carpenter's gimlet. 
On a still night the nois(,' of this boring operation can be dis- 



SUPP. Chap.] LIVE STOCK IN NOETHEEN TEEEITOEY. 181 

tinctly heard. In consequence of the destruction caused to 
wooden buildings by the ravages of the white ant, the Govern- 
ment authorities have determined on erecting all future struc- 
tures of stone, with concrete floors faced with Portland cement. 
Mosquitos and sandflies are very troublesome, especially be- 
tween the months of January to April, and mosquito nets 
are very generally used ; the best material for this purpose is 
cheesecloth — muslin not being strong enough to stand the 
wear and tear to Avhich they are liable. These nets are usually 
made about 6 feet 6 inches long, and 3 feet high, with a strong 
calico top and bottom — a slit being made along the centre of the 
bottom, through which the person enters, and as the body 
covers the opening thus made, the curtain is proof against the 
inroads of all insects ; it is like getting into a cage, and placing 
your back against the door. Travellers in the bush- usually 
have a fly, i.e. a light awning, nine or ten feet square, over 
their curtains, to keep oft' the night dew, and with this arrange- 
ment over a hammock, slung between two trees, enjoy the most 
healthy and undisturbed repose. The writer has been nearly 
as much troubled with mosquitos in South Australia, Victoria, 
and New South Wales, as in the Northern Territory, but not 
for so many months in the year. 

LIVE STOCK. 

The buffalo appears to thrive well in the Northern Territory ; 
large herds are met with on Melville Island, thirty-five miles 
from Port Darwin. At Port Essington they are so numerous, 
together with Timor ponies, that large tracts of country (over 
1200 square miles) have lately been taken up under lease by 
Messrs. Lewis, Levi, and Way for the purpose of collecting 
these wild possessions of the soil, to supply the market at 
J^ort Darwin. It is also intended to form a cattle station there. 

Imported horned cattle fatten well; a herd of bullocks, 
In-ought over from Queensland by Mr. de Lautour, were in 
splendid condition, which was further improved by grazing for 
a time at Knuckey's I^agoon, thirteen miles from Palmerston. 
The sheep driven from Queensland to the inland stations of 
the Telegraph Department thrive well, but do not appear to 



182 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Surr. Chap. 

•ret on so lavonralily near tlic soa-coast. The tSuxuii merino 
sheep seem to take more kindly to the pasturage, and will pro- 
l>a1>ly he selected as the sort hest fitted to the Territory. A 
solitary deer hrought from Timor became quite fat, when it 
was sacrificed to the demand for fresh meat. It is to be hoped 
tliat some deer will bo introduced and set loose for the benefit 
of the sportsmen, as well as for the purposes of trade. 

BUILDING MATERIALS. 

The woods having been already referred to, a few words 
may be devoted to some other of the materials used in building. 

Granite is met with in immense masses at the Finniss 
Tiiver, fortv-six miles from Palmerston, and over hundreds of 
S([uare miles beyond. 

Sandstone is abundant, especially along the coast ; the 
town of Palmerston rests on a bed of this material, whicli 
appears to consist of a fine loamy sand or marl, hardened l)y 
pressure and chemical action, and interspersed with numerous 
fossil impressions. Fossils are very rarely met with ; the 
samples marked A show two or three, which are all that could 
be found after a good deal of searching. The stone makes ex- 
cellent rubble masonry, but is too full of shakes and veins to 
admit of its being wrought into large ashlar. The harder seams 
yield fair road metal. 

Clays. — Fine micaceous clays of a marly character, both 
white and yellow, are readily found. These clays, when mixed 
with ironstone sand, make excellent bricks, and will no doubt 
be largely used when the real City of Palmerston begins to be 
erected. 

Lime. — Xo limestone has yet been met with in the settled 
districts, and, so far as a superficial examination of out-cropping 
strata enables one to judge, it is not likely to be found. In the 
absence of limestone, Nature has provided some large deposits 
of shells close to the town, from which excellent lime is made. 

Sand. — After several experiments made by the writer of 
drift and pit sands, it has been found that the dark-coloured 
ironstone detritus with lime makes the best setting mortar. A 
fair substitute for lime mortar is found in the earth of which 



•vSupp. Chap.] THE TOWNSHIP OF PALMEESTON. 18o 

tlie ant-hills are formed, the ant producing a glutinous sub- 
stance to bind the earthy particles together. This material, 
when moistened and beaten up, makes an excellent floor, and 
answers for bedding brick or stone. 

Barh. — Eough buildings and settlers' huts are usually 
roofed with bark, which is cut and brought in by the blacks. 
This bark makes a cool and weather-proof roof for two or three 
years, but looks rough and unsightly. The better class of 
buildings are covered with galvanized corrugated iron, Xo. 26 
gauge, which, when coated with white on the outside, is found 
to be the best kind of roofing. 

The new settler can readily make for himself a comfortable 
log-hut by using upright poles about six inches diameter, two 
feet in the ground and ten feet above, and covered with a roof 
of bark. 

PALMERSTOX. 

The township of Palmerston is well selected on the margin 
of Port Darwin. A plan of the town shows that it occupies 
an area of about 800 acres, including roads and reserves, and 
embraces 946 allotments, each being half an acre. The prin- 
cipal buildings are the G-overnment Residence, the offices of 
the British-Australian Telegraph Company, the offices of the 
South Australian Overland Telegraph, and residences for the 
officers, the new Police Station and Gaol, the Government 
Offices, Local Court House, and residence of Colonial Surgeon, 
the Palmerston Hospital. Several of the Government officers 
have quarters in a place called the Camp, at the foot of Fort 
Hill. The principal stores are those belonging to Mr. Lindsay, 
]\[r. Adcock, Mr. Allen, and Mr. Skelton. A large auction 
room is established by Messrs. Cohen and Solomon. The only 
bank is a branch of the English, Scottish, and Australian 
Chartered Bank. 

The geographical situation of Port Darwin is superior to 
that of Singapore or Macassar for trading with the neighbour- 
ing islands, as vessels can sail to the northern groups either in 
the east or west monsoons, Avhereas in the case of Singapore 
•or Macassar the proas can only visit them once in the course of 
.a year. Many of the islands within a week or two's sailing 



I'Sl sni ril Al'STKAI.IA. [Suit. Chai-, 

• listaiH-c tVoia l\)it Darwin contain largo and intelligent popn- 
latiojis ready to trad r with English Colonies in preference to 
the Dntcli. Yalnahlc })rodncts, such as tortoiseshell, pearl- 
shill. trcpang. iintniegs, ])alni wine, S:c., are obtainable from 
these places, as ucll as valuable and cheap labour of the kind 
so much needed in the Northern Territory. 

Tlie wages paid to meclianics in l*almerston arc 15s. per 
day. lal>ourers lO.s. ; those working up llic country receive 
luglier rates ; good working miners on the goldtields are paid 
£o })er week, with tlieir board, or £4 10s. per week without 
board. A few steady domestic servants would tind ready 
engagements at £1 per week or more. 

The charge made for board and lodging at the hotels i:> 
S.js. joer week. Of course where two or three live together, 
and cater for themselves, the cost is less than the above- 
amount. The following are about the average prices of pro- 
visions : — Fresh meat i)er lb., Is. dd. ; bread the 2 lb. loaf, 
i)ch ; preserved meat in tins, per lb., Is. ; fresh potatoes per 
cwt., £1 5s. ; fresh onions per lb., 9f?. to Is. ; flour per cwt.. 
£1 Gs. Few people pay rent, mostly living in tents, huts, or 
houses built by themselves. A good deal of domestic drudgery- 
is saved by the labour of the aborigines, who cut wood, carry 
water, and wash clothes, in return for whicli they receive a 
little flour, and the scra})s from the table. The foregoing 
])lain and unvarnished facts and figures are submitted alike 
for the information of the capitalist and the working classes. 
To the former it is suggested that there are few places in the- 
world which offer land capable of yielding all kinds of tropical 
and subtropical products so readily and on such advantageous, 
terms as this Northern Territory of South Australia ; and witli 
regard to its resources in gold, there is an immense area known 
to be auriferous, in which hundreds of quartz reefs have alread\- 
been found, many of tliem luiving been proved, even by in- 
adequate machinery and too costly labour, to be remunerative. 

To the latter, if belonging to the really industrious classes, 
it may be said that no man able and willing to do a fair dav's- 
work for good wages is likely t(j remain unemployed. 

To another — unfortnnately too numerous — class, which. 



Supp. Chap.] CONCHOLOGY OF POET DAEWIX. 185 

includes neither the capitalist, the trader, nor the bona fide 
working man, the earnest advice of the compiler of this sketch 
is— stay away. As to the climate, the writer Avith his son 
have been two years in the Territory, and have never had an 
hour's sickness. 

CONCHOLOOY OF POET DAEWIN. 
By AV. T. Bed:;all, Esq. 

The northern coast of Australia forms the southern boundary 
of the Indo-Pacific molluscan province, and Port Darwin is 
situated about the centre of it — having New Guinea to the 
north-east, and the islands of the Malayan Archipelago to the 
north and north-west. The harbour of Port Darwin was visited 
by King in his survey of the north coast in 1818 to 1822, 
Avith whom sailed the now celebrated Dr. Darwin, after Avhom 
the Port has been named. It is a splendid, deep, and tranquil 
harbour, and would, no doubt, if the dredge were used, yield 
a splendid harvest to the naturalist. There are many reefs in 
it, which are left uncovered at Ioav Avater. The coast line is 
formed of high cliffs, and large masses of broken rocks and 
immense boulders, alternating Avith of patches sandy beach — 
tropical vegetation luxuriantly groAving to the Avater's edge ; 
and in the indented arms it is thickly fringed Avith the man- 
grove. The molluscan fauna of this (natural) province are 
mostly carnivorous, the vegetable feeders being very poorly 
represented — probably OAving to the absence of any large 
extent of seaAveed. 

The pearly nautilus is found outside the heads. The 
genus Miirex is Avell represented, including the beautiful M. 
monodon ; so also is Fusus, by a giant sjDCcies — probably F. 
eolosseus (Lk.) ; the lovely Scalaria pretiosa is also occasionally 
taken here ; and the pearl oyster occurs too, but has not yet 
been found in large quantity — the specimens taken, however, 
are very fine. The mangrove swamps are the home of Ceri- 
tliium telescopium, Pyrazus ijolustre and sidcatum, Ceritliidea 
Kleneri, Auricida auris-jiuhe, Cassidida angulifera, a species of 
Flacuna, &c. &:c. 

The followino- genera occur in Port Darwin : — Murex, 



186 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Supp. Chap. 

TnqiJion, Fiisiis, Tugilina, Pleurotoma, Triton, llanella, Buc- 
cinum, Nassa, Purjnira, AncUlaria, Fasciolaria, Turhinella, 
Vol Ufa, McJo, Miira, ColiimbeUa, Cassis, Dolium, Natica, Rnma (?), 
Scalaria, Terehra, Solarium, Convs, Stromhus, Cijp'xa, Yolva, 
Cerithium, Vertagus, Pyrazus, Cerithidea, Littorma, Planaxis, 
Turritella, Vermetns, Siliquaria, Onustrus, Caluptrxa, Nerita, 
Turbo, Trochus, Delphinula, Polydonia, Clancidus, Monodonfa, 
Euchelus, Monilea, Stomatia, Haliotris, Fissurella, Emargimda, 
Parmapliorus, Dentalium, Patella, Chiton, Pholas, Solen, Cid- 
tellus, Saxicava, Corhula, Anatina, dfactra, Psammohia, Tellina, 
Tellinella, Donax, Venus, Cliione, Cytlierea, Circe, Cardium, 
Hemieardium, Chama, Lucina, Pijthina, Cardita, Mytilus, Modis- 
laria, LitJiodomus, Meleagrina, Perna, Malleus, Pinna, Area, 
Pecten, Spondylus, Placunanomia, Placuna, Vulsella, ;ind Osfrea. 

The following species are common to Ceylon and Port 
Darwin : — Psammohia cxrulescens, Tellina {Phylloda) foliacea, 
Cytlierea gihhia, Venus corhis, Cardium rugosum, Meleagrina 
margaritifera (the pearl oyster), Pecten joleuronectes, DelpliinuJa 
laciniata, Monodonta lahis. Turbo versicolor, Pyrazus ixdustre, 
CeritJdum telescojpium, and Cyprxa tigris. Three species of 
land shells are found in the neigh bonrhood of Port Darwin — 
Helix pomum (Fer.) ; a brown, horny species of the same type 
as H. Grayi ; and H. Jjseudo-Meadei (Brazier), intermediate 
between H. Pomum and H. Meadei (H. Edivardsi, Cox.), a 
Queensland species : it differs from H. jpomum in the surface 
of the columellar margin, in being stippled like tlie surface of 
a thimble — and from H. Meadei in colour. Tlie fresh-water 
species comprise Paludina, Lymnea, Physa, Cyclas, and Unio. 

Altoo-ether the molluscau fauna obtained in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Port Darwin is of a very interesting charac- 
ter; comprising many shells worthy of our notice from their 
beautiful and curious forms, and also tlioir rarity in the cabinet 
of the collector. 



Add. Chap.] CENTEAL AUSTRALIA. 187 



ADDITIONAL CHAPTER. 

CENTRAL AUSTRALIA. 

Mr. J. A. Giles's Paper on Central Australia — Description of Country along 
Telegraph Line — Pine Creek — Telegraph Stations at Katherine Pdver, 
Daly AVaters, Powell's Creek, Tennant's Creek, Barrow Creek, Alice 
Springs, Charlotte Waters — The MacDonnell Ranges — Natives along 
Route — Supply of Water, 

Since the foregoing was in type, tlie following interesting and 
well-written account of Central Australia, along the line of 
telegraph, has appeared in the Register. The writer, Mr. 
J. A. Giles, is well acquainted with the whole of the country 
which he describes. It is the best and most trustworthy ac- 
count of Central Australia which has yet been published, and 
I gladly transfer it to these pages. It will be seen that Cen- 
tral Australia is by no means the barren desert which it was, 
and is, supposed to be. There is an immense tract of country, 
with good feed for cattle, and water to be depended on, over 
almost the whole of the line. The description of the several 
telegraph stations is worth reading. With these few prefatory 
remarks, I now reprint Mr. Giles's interesting and instructive 
paper : — 

" The country from Palmerston to the reefs at Pine Creek 
has been so often described that repetition would be simply 
tedious, and as Pine Creek is the last settlement south of Pal- 
merston on the overland route, it will suffice to take tliat 
locality as a starting-point. A description of the country, 
with the waters and distances, may not be only interesting, but 
of material service to those likely to undertake the journey. 

" Starting from Pine Creek, the first water is at ' Stuck-up 



188 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Ai-u. Chap. 

< 'aiiij).' lour miles distant, the road passinij;' through low slate 
hills, with iiuinerous quartz roofs. Tho hills are lightly tim- 
bered with gum, bloodwood, and other trees, and tolerably 
well grassed. ' Stuck-up Camp,' so called by the telegraph 
])arty, they having been detained there by the wet season, is 
on the head of the Cullen Eiver. There is a fine hole of per- 
manent water here, and the road to tho Cullen Crossing, nine 
miles off, is through a granite country, with low timbered rises, 
and broad, open, and well-grassed flats between. There is 
plenty of 2)ermancnt water at the crossing, where the river is a 
deep sandy channel. On tho south side open and w'ell-grassed 
country extends to a distance of eight miles to tho Fergusson 
River. The route is also marked by the same characteristics. 
The Fergusson is a broad and deep river, running for several 
months in the year. Plenty of water is to be obtained in the 
driest seasons, and the surrounding land is good. The stream, 
after meeting the Cullen about eight miles to the westward, 
joins the Katherine River, about forty milos further to the 
south-west. From the Fergusson Crossing to Driffield's Creek, 
four miles away, the road passes over slate and quartz hills, 
splendidly grassed and timbered with gums, stringybark, 
bloodwood, and other trees. The Driffield is a tributary of 
the Fergusson, w ith a deep sandy bed, and some good water- 
holes above the crossing. From hero to the Edith River, ten 
mih's on, the road passes through another hilly region of slate, 
quartz, and ironstone, thickly timbered in places, and well 
grassed. 

" The Edith is a small stream flowing to the west, and 
running throughout the year. There are fine paper-barks, 
gums, and palms growing along the banks ; the surrounding 
country being hilly, open, and sjilendidly grassed, with black- 
soil flats along the river. The locality is similar for the next 
four miles to the Phillips Creek, a tributary of the Edith. 
Here the land changes, becoming very stony, with high broken 
ranges of slate, quartz, ironstone, and trap rock. This con- 
tinues for about three miles, and then come very rough broken 
hills covere(l with honeycombed boulders of basaltic rock. 
The road winds tlirouirh those, ascendinc: ofraduallv for about 



Add. Chap.] KATHERINE STATION. 189 

tliree miles to the top of the tablehxnd, from which the countrv 
has a gradual fall to the Katherine Eiver, a distance of twenty 
miles. ' Bay of Biscay ' Plains, covered with quartz, ironstone, 
agate, and flint pebbles, are now met with, and the soil gra- 
dually becomes richer towards the Katherine, the hills being 
capped with immense masses of blue limestone, and here and 
there are huge isolated rocks of sandstone. The soil is a rich 
chocolate loam, magnificently grassed and lightly timbered, 
while nearer the Katherine are flats of rich black soil. 

" The Katherine Eiver is, at the crossing, about 500 yards 
broad, from cliff to cliff, and 90 to 100 feet in depth. The 
stream itself is, at the driest time of the year, about 150 feet 
wide, and has an average depth at the fording-place of 2^ feet. 
This is at the driest time of the year, but during the wet season 
the water often rises to within a few feet of the tops of the 
cliffs. From what I know of this river, and from information 
obtained from others who have lived for some time on it, I am 
strongly of opinion that it will, when explored, be found 
navigable, at a moderate flood, to the Telegraph Station. 
Should it be so, it will save 200 miles of land carriage. The 
land on either side is magnificent, consisting of rich black 
loam, chocolate, and brown clay, with lighter soils, all splen- 
didly grassed and timbered. From the Katherine Station the 
road passes through similar country to that on the northern 
bank, but with more limestone, which is piled up in the most 
singular manner, forming pillars, arches, and passages. All 
this limestone country is full of caves. At 12 miles from the 
Katherine the road enters a sandy tableland, well grassed, and 
heavily timbered with gums, bloodwood, ironbark, &c., with 
here and there belts of large pines. It is about six miles 
across this tableland, from which the road descends into heavy 
forest country, well grassed. At four miles the country changes 
to thick ragged scrub, scantily grassed. The soil is of a light 
description, covered with small brown ironstone gravel. This 
extends to the King Creek — three miles. This creek rises in 
the rough hills to the eastward, and flows to the westward, and 
is permanently watered. At the crossing the country is jjoor 



190 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Add. Chap. 

and sciul»l>y, l)ut a tVnv miles do\\n the creek arc fine open Llue- 
grassed plains, with line la<>;ouns. 

'• From this creek to Abraham's Lagoon, a distance of 40 
miles, the road passes through alternate patches of good and 
inferior country, crossing three creeks. The Eoper Creek is 
three miles from the King, the Gum Billabongs 14, and thence 
to the Stirling the distance is 15 miles. None of these creeks 
contain permanent water. Abraham's Billabongs are long deep 
ponds, in heavy paper-bark and gum forests, and are permanent, 
and well stocked with several kinds of fish, including black cod, 
catfish, and a small wliito fish. There is a splendid black soil 
all along these lagoons. Three miles from here is the Bitter 
.S})ring, tdose to the road, in a small hollow on the banks of the 
Roper River. An immense volume of water issues from under 
a ledge of limestone rock, and the water is of a slightly bitter 
and sweet taste. It is a dangerous place to water stock.- The 
channel is only about three feet wide, and of great depth, with 
a thick growth of corkscrew palms overhanging. There is a 
small extent of open Avell-grassed plains on the west side of 
the road. To the east, about 200 yards distant, is one of the 
branches of the Upper Roper, rendered conspicuous by the 
lofty and dense mass of vegetation growing along the banks, 
consisting of gigantic paper-barks, gums, corkscrew palms, and 
in places the tall stately fan palm, which here grows to the 
height of 60 feet. At Bitter Spring the road branches into 
two, the left hand track following the river to the Roper 
Depot, and the Leichardt's Bar, 130 miles, the overland tract 
turning off to the right, to the AVarlock Ponds on the Upper 
Elsie, I'l miles, through rather sandy and heavy timbered 
country, well-grassed. 

" The Warlock Ponds, in the Elsie Yalley, are large deep 
ponds of permanent water from two to three hundred yards long 
and from eighty to a hundred yards broad in the dry season. 
In the wet season, and for a month or two after, the valley 
is full, and is two hundred yards broad and about three to four 
feet deep. Some few miles down the Elsie are vast paper- 
l»ark swamj)s, the sources of the Elsie proper, which is a strong 



Add. Chap.] DALY AVATEES STATIOX. 191 

running stream. At the lower crossing on the Roper road the 
bed is composed of minute white shells of a great depth, and is 
worse to cross than a quicksand. From the Warlock Ponds 
the road crosses undulating country for 25 miles to the Birdum 
Creek, timbered with stringybark, gum, bloodwood, ironbark, 
and other trees. The Birdum Creek is in a broad shallow 
valley, rising at Stuart's Swamp and Daly Waters, and run- 
nino; north to the Elsie, a distance of from 95 to 100 miles. 
There are plenty of fine clay waterholes all the way, but none 
are permanent. In the wet season the whole valley, which is 
from half a mile to three or four miles broad, is inundated. It 
is timbered with box and gutta-percha trees, and covered with 
a thick growth of blue grass. About 20 miles from the Daly 
• it is covered with wild rice, which grows to the height of seven 
or eight feet, and bears a grain a little smaller than the com- 
mon rice, and with a black husk. On either side of the valley 
the country is undulating, and in some places sandy, with 
thick clumps of trees and shrubs interlaced with creepers and 
vines. The ebony tree is first met with here, and towards the 
,Daly dense belts of hedge trees and open forest country well- 
grassed are met with. The road from the Elsie, after striking 
the Birdum, follows along the eastern side of the valley for 
about 70 miles, then crossing it and following the western 
bank for 20 miles to Daly Waters Telegraph Station, which is 
situated on the Daly Creek at Stuart's Camp. The station is 
a strong; wooden buildino; of sawn slabs of bloodwood and 
ironbark, roofed Avith galvanized iron, and contains officers' 
quarters, office, store, and kitchen. There is also a large iron 
store used for the telegraph construction stores. In front of 
the building is a securely fenced garden well stocked with 
sweet potatoes, Timor pears, bananas, pine-apples, lettuces, 
radishes, beans, &c., and a tamarind tree, grown from seed 
planted in 1872 by Mr. R. C. Burton. It is now about ten 
feet high. There is also a well-grassed paddock, a mile 
square, enclosed by a wire fence. The stock at this station 
consists of horses, cows, sheep, and goats, all of which dt> 
remarkably well, and arc in splendid condition. The region 
round the station is open forest, splendidly grassed. A road 



192 SOUTH AUSTIN A LI A. [Add. Chap. 

o-oes from here to I.oicliardt's Bar, on the Roper Kiver. From 
Daly AVaters to Frew's Ironstone Pond, a stretch of 50 miles, 
the route passes through alternate patches of open forest land, 
well grassed, and dense hedge-tree and mulga scrubs. The 
usual halting-places on the journey arc ^EcGorrorey's Pond, 
14 miles on Auld's Pond, three miles furtlier ^Fillner's Lagoon, 
iinothcr 14 miles then Johnston's Lagoon (12 miles distant), 
and next on eight miles to Frew's Pond. None of these 
waters, however, are permanent. 

" Frew's Pond is a circular basin, about 300 yards in cir- 
cumference, Avith a depth of about twenty feet for a tliird of 
the circumference on the west side, ^here the bank slopes 
gradually into the water. On the other side are perpendicular 
walls of conglomerate ironstone. When full, the pond is a fine 
one, but as the water gets low, it becomes almost undrinkable 
in consequence of the thousands of divers and cormorants 
which frequent it. There are some splendid sturdy old box 
trees growing round, and the ground is covered with a thick 
short green grass like a carpet, making it one of the prettiest 
and best camps on the road. T'o the east the country is 
scrubby, and to the west and south arc open plains of black 
^ Bay of Biscay,' subject to inundation. Tlie drainage is all to 
the westward. Four miles from Frew's Pond the road enters 
Sturt's Plains, crossing it in seventeen miles. To the east the 
forest runs parallel to the road at a distance of about six 
miles, but on the west not a tree is to be seen as far as the eye 
can reach, until the traveller is about halfway over, when a 
point of forest appears in the distance. This plain is entirely 
•composed of black soil, and during the wet season is com- 
pletely under water to a depth of a foot, with a very gradual 
flow to tlic \\ est ward. After the water lias drained off, the 
herbage and grass is most luxuriant. 

" The plains having been crossed, belts of hedge tree with 
fine open stretches of land are met with for seven miles to the 
north, when the Newcastle Waters are reached. This- water- 
course rises to the eastwanl of the Ashburton Eange, comes 
close round to tlie north end, flows south for thirty-five miles, 
and finally empties itself into Lake AVoods. Along the whole 



Add. Chap.] POWELL'S CEEEK STATION. 1J^'^» 

of its course there are magnificent reaches of permanent water, 
varying in length from one to two miles and from 100 to 200 
yards in breadth, with broad, open, and gently sloping banks 
covered with a short green grass. There are thousands of 
pelicans, ducks, geese, and immense numbers of cormorants 
in the vicinity. The district is also thickly populated with 
natives, who have always shown a hostile feeling to the 
whites. They are a fine race, tall and well-made, with faces 
free from beard or moustache — a peculiarity observable in all 
the tribes from the north coast to the MacDonnell Eanges. 
The Ashburton Eange runs parallel to the. Newcastle the 
whole way, and is from two to four miles distant from it, 
the road going between the two, through splendidly grassed 
country. The range is rough and stony, composed of a hard 
white sandstone. The camping-places along here are the 
North Newcastle Reach, thence nine miles to the Express 
Reach, twelve miles to the South-East Bend, and ten miles 
to the South Newcastle Reach. From the South Newcastle to 
the Lawson Creek is six miles. The creek rises in the Ash- 
burton Range, and flows to the west into Lake Woods, which 
is about two miles from the crossing of the creek. There is no 
permanent water at the crossing, but about a mile and a half 
up the creek in the range is a fine spring. There is good land 
on both sides. From here to the Fergusson Creek, twelve 
miles off, the route passes over good country, lightly timbered 
and well grassed, and skirting the foot of the range. The 
Fergusson is a large deep creek rising in the range, and 
emptying into Lake Woods. It has some fine waterholes and 
several springs in the range, and is surrounded by splendidly 
grassed valleys and flats. 

" From the Fergusson Crossing to Powell's Creek Station 
is fourteen miles, the intermediate territory being patchy. 
The way leads through the ranges, and a short distance to the 
westward good land opens out into extensive well-grassed 
plains. The station on the Powell's Creek is a fine substantial 
stone building, roofed with galvanized iron. There is a fine 
spring of good water within fifty yards of the station. On the 
east and south sides are high rocky liills, witli a valley to the 



104 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Add. Chap. 

south-east, through \\liich the creek, which is ph'utifully sup- 
plied with permanent water, conies. The stock here consists 
of horses, cows, and sheep, and they all do well. 

" From Powell's Creek to Eenner's Springs is nineteen 
miles, the road for the first seven miles winding through the 
Powell's Creek Valley. It then ascends a small range, and 
after four miles crosses the Ringwood Creek, which is the first 
creek falling to the eastward from the Ringwood to Renner's 
Springs, a distance of eight miles, mostly through scrub and 
spinifex. 

" Renner's Springs -.ux' close to a high pile of rot-ks, and 
consist of mounds covered with reeds. There are several fine 
gum-trees growing round, and on the east is a fine open well- 
grassed plain with a range of hills beyond, about two miles 
from the springs. From here for the next forty miles the land 
is poor, with patches of scrub and spinifex and stony hills. 
Three creeks are met with, all running to the westward, but 
without permanent water. The first is the North Tomkinson, 
sixteen miles from starting-point. The Middle Tomkinson is 
seven miles on, the South Tomkinson seven miles further, and 
ten miles from this are Kirchner's Ponds. These are not j)er- 
manent, but hold water for a long time after rain. The sur- 
rounding district is good and well grassed with several different 
varieties. Permanent water also is obtainable by following 
the creek to the eastward for about six miles. From these 
ponds to the Morphett Creek — eight miles — the country is for 
the first four or five miles very good ; but it then becomes 
scrubby, and in places stony. The Morphett is a very broad 
gravelly creek running to the eastward, with permanent water 
obtainable about three miles down it, and ^\ itli some good land 
on both sides. From here it is three miles to Attack Creek, 
the region being open and well grassed to the eastward, with a 
low, rocky range about a mile on the west side of and parallel 
to the road. Attack Creek is large, rising in high ranges to 
the westward, and running to the north-east. There are fine 
holes of water in it, but they are not permanent. 

" From Attack Creek it is forty miles to Tennant's Creek 
Telegraph Station, the journey winding through stony hills 
covered with sj^nifex for the first twenty miles, and crossing 



-Add. Chap.] TENNANT'S CEEEK STATION. 195 

"the North Hay ward Kiver after eight miles ; the South Hay- 
ward two miles further, and the Gibson at the end of another 
five miles. All these creeks flow to the eastward, and have 
Tio permanent water near the crossings. The Phillips Creek, 
five miles from the Gibson, is in better country, and, though 
not permanent, contains water for several months after rain. 
There is no water between this and Tennant's Creek, twenty 
miles away, and the country is scrubby and poor. Tennant's 
•Creek Telegraph Station is another creditably and sub- 
stantially built stone structure, situated on rising ground 
-about a quarter of a mile on the western bank of the creek, in 
which, however, there is no permanent water ; but a well has 
T3een sunk, and a sufficient supply obtained for station pur- 
poses. The surrounding district is open, and well grassed 
^long both sides of the creek. There are horses, cows, and 
sheep here, and all in fine order. About t^velve miles down 
the creek there is splendid country. From the station to 
Kelly's Well, a thirty-two miles' stage, the way passes through 
•a wretched locality of nearly all scrub and spinifex, and 
•destitute of water close to the road. Near Mount Samuel 
there is a small patch of good grassed land and a little water, 
but it is not permanent. Mount Samuel is a high hill with 
^n immense dome-shaped mass of shiny black magnetic iron 
on the summit, Avhich gives it a most peculiar appearance. At 
Kelly's Well there is plenty of water to be had by clearing out 
the sand which washes in after every rain, the well being sunk 
in the bed of a small creek. The vicinity is well grassed. 
From here the road passes through fair country to the Gilbert 
Creek, excepting one or two patches of spinifex, and there is a 
high range all the way about five miles to the east of the road. 
The Gilbert, twenty miles from Kelly's Well, is a large sandy 
<ireek, rising in the range, where there is permanent water and 
running to the westward. There is no permanent water at the 
<;rossing, but large holes are met with, and these hold water 
for a long time after rains. The district is good and well 
grassed on both sides of the creek. 

" From here to the Bonney, fourteen miles, the country is 
tolerably open and well grassed, witli one creek, the McLaren, 

2 



1^6 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Add. Chap. 

but it lias iiu water. ^J'he ]junney is a very large rocky creek 
rising in high ranges to the east, and running to the westward. 
'J'hero is no pernument water at the crossing, and the sur- 
rounding region is very inferior, being scrubby and covered 
with S2)inifex. From the Bonney the route passes up a narrow 
valley, and after five miles passes the Dickson Creek, a tribu- 
tary of the Bonney, and passes over a rough stony range, and 
descends on to the Sutherland Creek, where so many sheep 
have been poisoned — Mr. Ralph jMillner having lost 1500 in 
1871, and Mr. Alfred Giles 500 in 1873, and 400 more in 1875. 
The skeletons are Iving all along the road for several miles. 
From the Sutherland the track crosses a low rocky spur, and 
also the Wauchope Creek, small and dry, fifteen miles from 
the Bonney. The next twelve miles are through good land to 
the Wickliffe Creek, where there are two camping-places — one 
about two miles west of the telegraph line at a deep clay 
waterhole, and the other a mile to the east of the line at 
Thring's Swamj), which is about two miles in circumference. 
The water is not permanent at either place, and the surround- 
ing country scrubby and inferior. For the next twenty-eight 
miles, from the Wickliffe to the Taylor, the chief character- 
istics are scrub and spinifex. The Taylor is a large sandy 
creek, rising in the Forster Range, which, running in a 
northerly course for forty miles, gradually trends away to the 
westward. The route now follows the northern bank of the 
Taylor for ten miles, and then crosses it and takes the western 
bank for thirty miles. Some good waterholes are fallen in 
with, but it is doubtful whether they are permanent. From 
the Taylor to Barrow Creek, a nine miles' stretch, the traveller 
passes through good grassed land, with open plains and high 
ranges to the east, west, and south, l^arrow Creek Telegraph 
Station is situated round the western end of a high cliff- 
capped range close to its foot, and nearly facing the Forster 
Range. It is a strong stone building, built in the form of 
a square, having a square court-yard inside. The only en- 
trance is by a gate at the rear opening into the court-yard, 
whence doors lead into the officers' rooms, store, kitchen, and 
men's quarters. There is no permanent surface water, but a 
well has been sunk, and a plentiful supply of brackish water 



Add. Chap.] BAEEOW CEEEK STATION. 197 

has been obtained. For drinking purposes the water has to be 
carted nine miles from the Taylor. Splendid grassed country 
surrounds all Barrow Creek. There are horses, cows, and 
sheep at the station. 

" Resuming the journey, the road passes through good land 
for three or four miles, which, however, gradually becomes 
hilly, stony, and covered with spinifex. After ten miles the 
track ascends the western end of the Forster Range, winding 
up a steep spur. On the summit of the range an extensive 
view is obtained to the east, south, and west. To the south, at 
a distance of about thirty miles, is Central Mount Stuart, high 
and massive looking, and high ranges stretch out to the S.W., 
AV., 'N., and N.E., some within a few miles of the road, and 
others a long way off, with open grassy plains and deep green 
serpentine lines running through them, the latter indicating 
gum creeks. There are also large patches and belts of the 
black and sombre-looking mulga spread out like a map before 
the traveller's eye. From the top of the Forster Range the 
road descends in spurs about two miles in length, at the 
foot of which is the Stirling Creek, which the road follows 
for about eight miles, through a level, open, and splendidly 
grassed region. After leaving the Stirling, a good-grassed and 
lightly timbered locality is traversed for twelve miles to the 
Hanson, a very broad, sandy, gum creek, which rises in the 
Mount Freeling Ranges, and, running in a northerly course, 
rounds the eastern end of Central Mount Stuart, and gradually 
trends to the westward. There is very little surface water in 
the creek, but abundance can be procured by digging from six 
inches to a foot in the sand. The route follows the eastern 
bank of the Hanson for twelve miles, and Central Mount 
Stuart is then about two miles off on the opposite side. From 
here to the Tea-tree Well, fourteen miles off, very fair land is 
traversed. This well is about fifteen or twenty feet deep, with 
a splendid supply of water. It is surrounded with a good 
strong fence, and has a large gum trough by it. A lever has 
been erected for raising water, but the natives pulled it down 
and threw it into the well, along with a lot of iron telegraph- 
poles, whieli they carried from the line, and a lot of rubbish. 
"From Tea-tree AVell to the Woodforde Creek— twelve 



] r>8 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. [Add. Chap . 

miles— the coTintry is very good, fine, open, short-grassed' 
])lains, with here and there a few chimps of trees. The Wood- 
I'orde is a deep sandy creek rising in the 3Ioimt Freeling 
Rancres, and runnini'- to tlie eastward. There is no surface- 
water at this crossing, and only a small supply obtainable by- 
digging in the sand. The route, after crossing the creek,, 
follows the eastern bank for three miles, crossing again, and 
then following the west side for nine miles, and re-crosses. 
Plenty of water is to be got by digging in the sand at this 
crossing. The locality on both sides of the creek is excellent. 
The road now leaves the Woodforde and enters a long valley 
formed by the ]\[ount Freeling Eange on the west, and the 
Mount Boothby lianges on the east. This valley is about 
twelve miles through, and water may be obtained by turning 
off when about nine miles up, and making for IMount Freeling, 
striking a creek after about half a mile, and following it ui> 
into a deep rocky gorge, where there is a plentiful supply of 
the pure element. The route, before leaving the valley, passes 
the foot of Mount Boothby — a very high, black-looking, and 
frightfully rugged elevation. Coming out of the valley, the- 
traveller skirts along the foot of the western range to the- 
Xative Well, an irregular-shaped hole about ten feet deep. 
There is a slight soakage from the bottom of this well, but not 
more than a few gallons in the twenty-four hours ; probably^ 
if it were sunk a few feet, a good supply might be obtained,, 
as it is favourably situated, being in the centre of a gap in a. 
high range running east and west, and through which the road 
})asses. From this point thirty-six miles on to Burt Creek,, 
the district traversed is extremely poor, the first sixteen miles- 
being spinifex and sand, with poplar trees scattered about, and 
the remaining twenty miles are characterized by thick mulga 
scrub, but the land is tolerably well grassed. The Burt is a 
small creek rising in the Strangways Eange to the eastward,, 
and emptying out on to o})en plains ; there is no water here,. 
but nevertheless the surrounding region is magnificent, and 
would do splendidly for sheep, being thickly grassed with short,, 
line grass, salt and blue bush, and geranium and other herbs. 

" From the Burt to Alice Springs Telegraph Station is- 
thirty-six miles, the first six miles being througli country 



Add. Chap.] ALICE SPKINGS STATIOX. 199 

similar to that just described. The next four or five miles 
are covered with rather scrubby rises ; then follow eight miles 
of open mulga scrub, splendidly grassed, and with plenty of 
geranium and other herbage, the soil being a rich red loam. 
The next two miles consist of open and splendidly grassed land, 
with srtltbush and herbage ; and here also is the Ten-Mile 
Creek, the water of which is slightly impregnated with soda. 
The creek is on the top of the MacDonnell tableland, over 
2000 feet above the sea level. From this j)oint the road 
descends for ten miles to the Alice Springs, winding about 
in every possible direction through a perfect jumble of granite 
hillocks, the last descent being down a very steep hill covered 
with immense granite boulders, with only just room enough 
for a dray to pass between. From the hilltop a most magni- 
ficent view is obtained. Right in front is an immense range 
stretching to the east and west as far as the eye can reach, 
having the appearance of an enormous red wall. No animal, 
excepting the rock wallaby, could scale it. At intervals of 
several miles there are gorges, through which creeks find their 
way, but it is only through one or two of these gorges that it 
is possible to take a dray, and then only when the creeks are 
dry. xifter descending this hill, the track, after winding about 
a little further, reaches the Alice Springs. The station is 
situated on the western bank of the Todd Creek. On the 
opposite side is a rocky hill composed of large granite 
boulders, at the foot of which is a large and deep waterhole. 
Close behind the building is another high hill of huge boulders, 
and all round are rocky hills. In front of the station, about 
half a mile off", are two gaps, through one of which goes the 
Todd Creek, and the road to Messrs. Bagot and Smith's station 
through the other, a high rocky hill dividing them. Through 
these gaps a view of the before-mentioned red range, distant 
about three miles, is obtained. The station is built on the 
same principle as that at Barrow Creek. Messrs. Bagot and 
Smith's property is twelve miles east of the telegraph station 
on the Jessie Creek. About 200 yards at the back of the 
station is a high rocky range, in which the Jessie takes its 
rise, running over ledges of rock and falling into a most re- 
markable gorge, the mouth of which, close to the station, is 



-("> S(^rTH AUSTKAT.IA. [Add. Chap. 

ubout thirty yards wide, the walls rising up perpendicularly 
to a great height. On entering the range, the gorge opens 
out in a circular form with perpendicuhir cliti's over a hundred 
feet in lieight all nmiid. The bottom is tilled with enormous 
))()ulders. Where the creek comes from seems to be a complete 
mystery, and it is only by threading your way amongst the 
rocks right up to the very fctot of the cliff at the end of the 
gorge that the traveller solves the problem by discovering a 
\evy narrow passage leading skywards, and down which a nice 
little stream of (dear water is always running. In front of the 
st ition, about ibur miles away, is the red range through a gorge 
of which the Jessie Creek flows. The e:oro:e referred to is onlv 
to be got through by swimming a deep pool of water occupy- 
ing the whole width of the gorge, and the cliffs rise from the 
water perpendicularly to a height of 200 feet. ISix miles further 
along the range towards the Alice Springs is another gorge, 
the Emily, also full of water, but not deeper than about three 
feet. This is about 300 yards through and about thirty yards 
wide. The eastern cliff is a solid mass of rock, rising up quite 
smoothly and perpendicularly for 300 feet. The western wall 
is the same height, but more broken. Five miles from this 
along the range is the Heavitree Gorge, through which the 
Todd Creek runs. This gorge is eighty yards wide, and the 
(;reek which occupies the whole width, is dry here, with a 
smooth bed of white sand. The cliffs are very rough, and rise 
perpendicularly to the height of 500 feet. The next gap — 
T'cmple Bar — is twelve miles away. Tlic Roc Creek, the over- 
land telegraph line, and the road go through it. The creek 
is dry, and, like the Todd, has a level sandy bed. The 
cliffs here are not so high, and slightly sloping. The country 
l)etwecn this rani>:e and the northern one forms the finest ffrazino- 
land in Australia. The northern range is composed of coarse, 
grey hornblende, granite, blue slate and tra|) rock, steatite, and 
several other rocks ; and the southern of a hard, close-grained 
red and white sandstone, the grains highly crystalline. A 
complete jumble of low sharp-pointed slate hills make up the 
intervening district, covered with ironstone, quartz, and mica. 

" After passing through Temple Bar, twelve miles from 
Alice Springs, the traveller turns to the westward, crossing 



Add. Chap.] ALICE SPRINGS TO CHAELOTTE WATEES. 201 

limestone ranges, and descending into a deep valley about a 
mile wide, with another high parallel range on the south 
side. The valley is well grassed, and the route follows it for 
about eight miles, and then turns through Fenn's Gap in the 
southern range, entering another parallel valley about a quarter 
of a mile wide, with a very high rocky range on the south side. 
The road now tracks this valley for about fourteen miles to the 
Jay Creek, close under an immense range, the highest points of 
which are 3Iount Conway, a stupendous dome-shaped mountain, 
Brinkley's Bluff to the west, and Mount Charles on the east. 
It is said that they have been estimated as being over 4000 
feet above the sea level. The road, after crossing the Jay 
Creek, passes over a low hilly region to the Hugh, an immense 
gum creek rising in the range and flowing to the south. There 
is abundance of water here. Following along the eastern bank 
of the Hugh for eight miles — about three miles through a 
splendid district belonging to Mr. Gilbert — the track crosses 
over lightly timbered mulga rises, well grassed, for five miles 
to Messrs. Gilbert and Conway's station, Owen Springs, on the 
Hugh, at the Waterhouse Kange, which is long and composed 
of dark-red, cross-grained sandstone. The station is pleasantly 
situated on rising ground, at the foot of the range, close to the 
gorge which the Hugh passes through. The locality is fine 
and open to the north-east. From here the road follows the bed 
of the Hugh through the gorge for about two miles, thence across 
open country, striking the creek again after five miles, and 
crossing it, passes through mulga country for ten miles, again 
reaches the creek at McClure's Springs, in the James Range, 
and follows it through gorges, crossing it repeatedly for seven 
miles to Stuart's Waterhole. From here, the route passes over 
spinifex country for twenty-eight miles to the Long Waterhole, 
^^ here there is good country. Four miles further on, the track 
again crosses the Hugh at the Deep Crossing, thence passing 
tlirough a fine region to Mount Burrell, on the Hugh, fourteen 
mihjs distant. This is a fine open liilly district, watered, well 
grassed, and with plenty of herbage and cotton-lnish. 

" The next water from here is Percy's Hill, a distance of 
seventeen miles, on the Hugh, the journey being through the 
same description of country. From Percy's Hill to the double 



202 80 1'T I r AUSTRALIA. [Add. Chap. 

crossing of the Hn^h — ten miles — the road passes over a 
luiserahle sandhill region covered with spinifex in most })laces. 
The creek here runs down to the foot of high broken cliffs, 
under which plenty of water is to be obtained by digging in 
the sand, liunning along the foot of the cliffs for about half 
a mile the creek suddenly turns, and doubles back, almost on 
its former course. There being no way round the bend by the 
cliffs, the track has to cross it twice, and, continuing through 
high sandhills for twenty-two miles, reaches the B Depot, on the 
Hugh, near its junction w'ith the Finke River, crossing it here 
for the last time. The [whole course of the Hugh is thickly 
timbered with splendid gums, from three to four inches in dia- 
meter, to several feet, growing to a great height, and perfectly 
straight. From the B Depot to the Horseshoe Bend, on the 
Finke Eiver, is twelve miles, the intermediate country con- 
sisting of sandhills^' for the first three or four miles, though 
the remainder is well grassed open mulga land. 

" The Finke at this point is considerably over a mile in 
width, and the mainV-hannel has a clear smooth bed of fine 
white sand over half a mile wide. There is plenty of surface 
water, which towards the dry season becomes brackish. The 
river rises in the northernmost of the MacDonnell Ranges, and 
runs to the S.E. for 400 miles, passing to the east of the Char- 
lotte Waters Station, about nine miles off, gradually trending 
to the eastward, and beyond is unexplored. It was supposed 
that it emptied itself into Lake Eyre. But the explorations of 
the lake by Mr. Lewis give no clue to the supposition. There 
must be a much largcn- lake to the north of Lake Eyre, as there 
is, besides the Finke, Todd, Roe, and several other streams — all 
of which are very large gum creeks — the whole of the drainage 
from the MacDonnell Ranges east of the Alice Springs, and 
which extends for, as far as is at present known, over a hun- 
dred miles. 

" From the Horseshoe Bend to the Finke at Blount Mus- 
grave, fifteen miles, the road passes through the mulga forest, 
well-grassed, and with a few sandhills, for about seven miles, and 
then comes open grassed country and high-peaked hills to the 
east, north, and west, the summits covered with gypsum and 
having a snow-capped appearance. From Blount IMusgrave, 



Add. Chap.] CHARLOTTE WATERS STATION. 203 

where there is plenty of water, both salt and fresh, the way 
passes over stony, undulating, well grassed, and open territory 
to the Finke. Crossing ten miles thence, it goes to the Goyder 
Creek, thirty miles, through a fairly grassed, hilly, and rather 
stony region, with here and there patches of mulga scrub. 
Crossing the Goyder, a large sandy creek running into the 
Finke from high ranges to the westward, the road for the next 
thirty miles, to Charlotte Waters Telegraph Station, is charac- 
terized by mulga scrub, open plains, sandhills, and stony rises 
poorly grassed. 

" Charlotte Waters Station, situated on the creek of that 
name, is a fine substantial building of white freestone, and 
erected on the same plan as the Alice Springs and Barrow 
Creek Stations. The surrounding country is open, level, and 
thickly strewn with fragments of brown clinker-looking iron- 
stone and gypsum. From this point 200 miles on to the 
Peake Station the district is stony, barren, and, with one or 
two exceptions, the picture of desolation. The redeeming 
features are the Adminga Creek locality — eighteen miles from 
Charlotte Waters — and the Macumba Creek, about 102 miles 
further on, both of which are well grassed ; and at the latter 
there is a horse station belonging to Mr. Gilbert, of Pewsey 
Vale, from whence to the Peake the country is exceedingly 
stony. About two miles from and on the south side of the 
Peake Creek is Messrs. J. and C. M. Bagot's cattle station. All 
the buildings are substantial stone structures, and situated on 
the side of a stony range immediately above a cluster of fine 
springs. Although the country has a stony and barren appear- 
ance, the cattle are in excellent condition. From the Peake 
to Beltana, a distance of 270 miles, the same stony indications 
are met with. The road passes several mound springs, some 
of which are thirty or forty feet in height, with a circular 
basin on the top, from which the water runs in streams to the 
plain beneath. To the left of the road is Lake Eyre, and on 
the right, several miles distant, are liigh bold ranges. 

" The MacDonnell Eango country, from the James Eange 
to Barrow Creek, 250 miles, is, as far as climate, water, grasses, 
and herbage are concerned, admirably adapted for sheep, cattle, 
and horses, but the carriage of stores constitutes a serious. 



*iO-± SOUTH AUSTEALIA. [Add. Chap. 

"li'iiwliack bnth in rr^L^'ard t(t })ric(' and time. This must form 
a doc'id(.'d (obstacle to tlic iiitrodut'tion of sheep. Should ever 
the railway to Port Darwin he started, the whole of this country 
would be available for pastoral jjurposes. The climate is much 
milder than in the Northern runs of South Australia, and the 
country is infinitely better grassed. With regard to the natives 
on the overland route, there is this difference observable 
between them. From the MacDonnell Ranges to the north 
coast they are hostile and treacherous to the whites. This is 
especially the case along the Newcastle, where they are very 
numerous. The men are generally tall and well formed, with 
faces destitute of beard and whiskers. The w omen and children 
are rarely to be seen, and then only by coming upon them 
unawares. The MacDonnell Eanges tribes are the very oppo- 
site to this. The men have long sharp-pointed beards, with 
the head shaved from the forehead to near the top of the head. 
Their foreheads are painted jet black with some filthy com- 
l)ound of grease, charcoal, and gum, and they are the most 
villainous-looking rascals on the whole route. The Finke 
natives are a much finer looking race, but have the same long 
2)ointed beard. All the tribes south of the MacDonnell Ranges 
are, so far, peaceably disposed towards the whites. 

" In conclusion, it may be stated that the foregoing de- 
scription faithfully represents the country and the w^aters as 
tliey actually are on the route of the Overland Telegraph line 
in comparatively dry seasons. In ordinary wet seasons there 
is water in abundance for nine months out of the year ; but in 
many of the places above alluded to it is not permanent, as. 
for instance, on the Tomkinson Creek and between Daly Waters 
and Frew's Pond. Water in abundance is often found from 
one season to the other in Attack Creek and the Phillips. 
All to east of the line from Charlotte to Daly Waters tlie 
region is a terra incognita. All the best country appears to 
be to the eastward, there being more ranges and open country, 
and it ouglit to be worth exploring. From Barrow Creek on 
tlie west of the line the country is also unexplored, and there 
must be an extensive lake country west of Lake Woods, as tlie 
drainasT'' in tliat dircH-tion is immense." 



ITS FLOEA. 205 



FLOEA OF SOUTH AUSTEALTA. 

By E. ScnoMBUEGK, PniL.Dr... Dirfxtoh, 

KMiJUT OF THE ISirERlAL ORDER OF THE CROWN ; OF THE ORDER OF MERIT OF 
PHILIPPE THE MAGNANIMOUS, AND THE ORDER OF THE CROWN OF ITALY; MEM. 
OF THE IMPERIAL CAROL. LEOPOLD. ACADEMY ; HON. MEM. BOT. SOC. MAGDEBURG ; 
COR. MEM. ZOOL. SOC. LONDON; C.M.R.B.S. LOND. ; C.M.B.S. EDIN. ; C.M.G.S. liERL. 
AND DRESD.; CM. fOC. NAT. CHERB. FRANCE; C.M.H.S. BERL. AND FRANK. ON M.; 
CM. SOC. PHYS. JIEDICA, ERLANGEN ; H.M.R.S. N. S. WALES ; ETC. ETC. 

iSouTH AuSTKALiA cloGS not oifei' the contrasts and changes in 
its configuration and climatical condition that are found to 
exist in the east, north, and west of the vast continent. It is 
deficient in high wooded mountain chains and deep moist 
gullies ; and, with the exception of the Eiver Murray, has no 
great rivers, and but few lakes or swamps. The rainy season 
is of short duration, and its rainfall limited, the average being 
only 19 to 21 inches during the year. Its climate also, with 
the exception of the intra-tropical part, is of a more equal 
' character than that of the other parts of Australia. xVll these 
characteristics may account for the flora of South Australia 
being less numerous in genera and species of plants, compared 
with those of the other j^axts of Australia. 

Throughout its varied zones there is not a greatly marked 
diversity in the ^physiognomy of its vegetation, and its exhibits 
on the greater part of its area are of a similar character. In 
character the South Australian flora is intermediate between 
the south-eastern, south-western, and the tropical floras of 
Australia. The absence of high mountain chains imparts to 
the country and vegetation a degree of monotony from the 
absence of the umbrageous forest region. 

The most predominant orders of the South Australian flora> 
like those of the other parts of the Continent, are — Lepu- 
minosx, Myrtaceic, Comjyositse, Proteaeepo, CvKciferop, Iiul)iacea\ 
•Ani\. Graminese ; abundant in genera, species, and individuals. 



200 Sdl'l'll ATSTKALIA. 

A'ery siiijj;ularly ciicuniserilKMl .iic tli(? genera and species in 
urea ; many are found in one s[»ot alone, and a diversity in 
8oil and locality hrings forth otlier genera and species; the 
rapid succession of forms and the contrast in this respect 
between the northern and southern parts being remarkable. 

The bark of most of the trees is usually smooth and of a 
greyish colour, which no doubt is accounted for by the slight 
atmospheric changes — the contrast not being so sudden and 
great as in colder climates. Most of the leaves of the trees 
and shrubs are coriaceous, rigid, and pungent, and of a shining- 
glaucous colour, which is especially perceptible in the orders 
Proteacem and Epacrldeie. Yellow-coloured flowers are the 
most predominant. 

The preponderance of the two great genera of the Austra- 
lian flora, viz., Eucahjptas and Acacia, also prevails over the 
wliole area of South Australia, but with a deficiency in species 
in comparison with those of the west and east flora. The 
number of species of Eucahjpts known at jjresent in Australia 
is about 134 ; of these only 30, and of Acacia, of which 300 
species are described, only 70 appear in South Australia. 

The trees of South Australia do not reach so great a height 
as those in the east, north, and west; the average that our 
tidiest trees, the Eucahjpts, obtain being from 100 feet to 120 
feet, with a stem of from 4 feet to 5 feet in diameter ; and 
such trees are only found in districts favoured by good soil, 
or on the banks of the rivers ; but these heights sink into 
insignificance compared with those of trees indigenous to 
Victoria, Tasmania, and Western Australia, where it is stated 
that Eucalyptus glohulus reaches 300 feet and E. collosa, F. 
Muell., of Western Australia, 400 feet ; but, more astonishing 
still, tliat a fallen tree of E. aniijgdallna, Labill., in the 
Dandenong Mountains, Victoria, measured 420 feet in length. 

The presence of different species of trees in South Australia 
is also limited in comparison to the other parts of Australia, 
According to Baron von Mueller, the list of trees above 30 feet 
in height in Australia comj)rises 950 kinds. Of these 88 are 
found in South- Western Australia, only 63 in South Australia, 
146 in "S'ictoria, 385 in New South Wales, 526 in Queensland, 



ITS FLORA. 207 

212 in Xortli Australia, and 29 in Central Australia. Onlv 
the Eucalijpts furnish South Australia with timber. They are 
found in all parts over the area of the Colony, and constitute 
most useful timber-producing trees. 

Amongst the eighteen to twenty species of Eiicahjjjts 
appearing in the extra-tropical part of South Australia, there 
are only four to six kinds which are most valued. These are 
distinguished by certain colonial names, such as red, white, 
and blue gum, stringybark, and j)eppermint, Eucalyi)tus rostrata, 
Schlecht. ; viminalis, Labill. ; odorata, Behr. Their timber is 
highly valued for building, railway, water, and wheelwright 
work, as naves, felloes, and s^^okes, and as posts for fencing 
and other purposes. The stringybark, Eiicahj2)tus obliqua, 
Lher., is much valued, being^ the only kind fit for shingles, 
and, as a free-splitting wood, the best for forming rails ; but 
it is not so durable as the other kinds. 

The wood of the Acacia tribe is only useful for cabinet- 
work and turning, for which purpose the blackwood. Acacia 
melanoxylon, R. Br., is very much valued. The wattle of the 
colonists, Acacia 2')l/cnantha, Benth., is very valuable, on account 
of its freely exuding gum, and also for its bark, the latter 
containing excellent tanning qualities ; and both these pro- 
ducts form a very important article of export. The wood of 
the so-called sheaoak, Casuarina stricta, Ait., is of an excellent 
character and used for cabinetwork, turning, and handles for 
tools. 

The tea-trees, a name applied by the colonists to the genera 
Melaleuca and Leptospermiim, constitute a class of hardwood 
usually found in low, moist situations, and on the banks of 
creeks ; is valuable on account of its imperishable nature when 
used underground, or even in water. The timber is remarkably 
close-grained, extremely hard when dry, very heavy, and gene- 
rally sound in the heartwood, which is not always the case 
with other hard-wooded trees. 

The pretty mottled wood of the native pines of South 
Australia, Frenela robusta, A. Cunn., and rliomhoidea, Endl., 
lack durability, and are mostly used for fencing stuff and fuel. 
The native cherry, Exocarpus cwpressiformis, Labill., the honev- 



208 SOUTH AUSlTvALIA. 

sucklo, Banlcsia marginata, Cuv., furnish also handsome woods 
for cabinetwork; and Myoporum af?n»/»rtf?r»i,Il. Br., has a white 
soft timber, extremely tough, forming excellent knees for boats. 

A most remarkable fact in South Australian vegetation is 
the absence of native eatable fruits, of which there are none de- 
serving the name, except a few berry-bearing shrubs belonging 
to the order of Ejxicrideas and Santalacepe, Astroloma, and Leu- 
copogon, the principal species of which, the native currant of 
the colonists, Astroloma humifusum, R. Br., and the so-called 
native peach, Fusanus acuminahis, R. Br., bearing a globular 
fruit of the size of a small peach, with a succulent epicarp and 
a hard, bony, much-pitted endocarp, are all South Australia 
can boast of. There is also a deficiency in eatable root-bearing 
plants. 

A great many genera of i)lauts of other countries which 
possess valuable and powerful medicinal properties have 
numerous congeners in the extra-tropical and more especially 
in the intra-tropical portions of South Australia, of which I will 
only mention the following orders, viz. — Euphorhiacefe, TJrticem, 
Campanulacese, Solanese, Apocyneee, Leguminossp, Asclepiadese, 
Gentianem, Scrojjhidarinese, &c. ; containing numerous genera 
and species, probably possessing similar valuable properties, 
which may be considered as so much buried riches hitherto un- 
heeded, and therefore not utilized. Only lately the wonderful 
febrifugal properties of the Eucahjpts have been discovered in 
Europe. The polygonaceous plant, MuehJenheclda adpressa, 
Meisn., called by the colonists " Native Sarsaparilla," produces 
the same effects as the true Smilax Sarsaparilla, Lin. ; and the 
Erijtlirfea avstralis, R. Br., contains the same bitter as its con- 
gener in J']urope, Erythroea Centaurium, Pers. There are, no 
<loul)t, many trees of the orders Urticese and Sapindacese con- 
taining also that valuable substance caoutchouc, especially the 
species of Ficus, so abundant in the intra-tropical part of South 
Australia. 

The same ignorance prevails also with regard to the fibrous 
and dye plants. Of the first I will only mention the Limwi 
marginale, A. Cunn. ; Hibiscus tiliaceus, Lin. ; the Crotalaria 
dissitiflora, Benth., from the fibres of which tlie natives pre- 



ITS FLOEA. 



209 



pare tlioir fishing nets and cordage. Several other pLints are 
known to possess the same properties, especially P/»^e?e<x sfr/cto, 
Meisn. ; axijiora, F. Muell. ; and microcepliala, R. Br. 

Gum and resin-bearing trees are also abundant. I have 
already mentioned the valuable gum of the wattle, Acacia pjc- 
nantlia, but there are several more species producing gum, as 
Acacia acuminata, Benth., &c. 

The conspicuous plants which greatly contribute to the 
interesting character of the Australian Flora, the grass trees 
of the colonists — Xanthorrhoea q_uadrangulata, F. Muell., and 
semiiilana, F. Muell., exude a resin, Avhich contains nitro- 
])icric acid, from which a valuable dye may be prepared. 

The flora of South Australia provides copious material for 
the manufacture of the best paper. Not alone a great number 
of representatives of the Graminem and Cyperacese, viz.: — 
Dichelagne crinita, Hof., Xerotes longifolia, R. Br., Cyprus lu- 
ciclus, R. Br., vaginatus, R. Br., Scirpus Jacustris, Lin., but also 
the bark of Eucalypts, and the leaves and bark of Casuarina, 
provide splendid material for paper. 

Poisonous plants are known, though there are not many in 
South Australia. One of the most dangerous to the sheep 
stock is the Lotus australis, Andr., which is very generally dis- 
tributed, and does great injury ; but I consider the poisonous 
principle lies mostly in the seed. The River Darling Pea, 
Swainsona Grayana, Lindl., produces also poisonous effects on 
the cattle, especially on horses. A Lohelia, L. pratioides, 
Benth., fortunately is not frequently seen in South Australia, 
but it appears more plentiful in Victoria, to the great injury of 
stock. 

Although the injurious weed Solanum nigrum is common in 
most tropical and temperate parts of the globe, I think it has 
been introduced into Australia with cultivation. Lawrencia 
spicata, Hook., is also considered by the stockholders on the 
Peninsula injurious to cattle and sheep. But as the plant is 
eaten by the cattle before seeding without injury, I believe 
that the rigid, pungent, bracteate leaves with which the flower- 
spike is densely covered, especially in the upper part, and 
which, as the seed ripens, become more coriaceous and pungent, 

p 



210 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

arc the (lan^-erous ])avts of the jilimts, and tlicsc parts, when 
eaten in quantity, uill, no doubt, injure the mucous membrane 
of the stomaeli, and jjroducc inflammation. As the uniform 
cliaracter of the order of Malvareiv, is tliat it abounds only in 
mucilage, and is totally destitute of all unwholesome qualities, 
it would be very peculiar sliould this spc^cies contain ])oisonous 
jtroperties. 

A very peculiar phenomenon of the South Australian vege- 
tation is, that most kinds of tnics and shrubs, Avhen dying, di(^ 
from the tops downwards. It is also a remarkable character- 
istic that by age the common habit of plants is often much 
changed, which is proved by the fact that during the period of 
development and subsequently the individual parts of those 
Avhich are not flowering and fruit-bearing are different. This 
anomaly, caused by age and time, not only refers to the dimen- 
sions of leaves and flowers, but also to their nature. 

If we review the several orders of plants of Houth Australia, 
we find that the extra-tropical part is characterized by the re- 
jnarkable absence of several orders, although it is not impossible 
that by further discoveries in the central part — as this part has 
as yet l)een but imperfectly explored — a few representatives 
of one or the other order may yet be found ; but probably the 
number will not be extensive. The extra-tropical part of South 
Australia is destitute of the following orders, viz. : — Sima- 
ruhese, Burseracew, Meliacew, Saliclnece, Celastrinese, ximpelidee, 
Anacardiaeese, Magnoliacex, Bixlneie, AraliacecV, 3Ialpighiace£e^ 
Guttiferse, Erieaceos, Flumhaglnese, 3Iyrsinex, Sapotaceee, Ehe- 
nacese, Styriacese, Hj/drojyhijllaceiv, Gesneriacefe, SaxifrageiB, 
Samydacew, Elmagne.v,, Ciqvih'ferw, Fiperacex, Selaginese, 
Scitammeas. 

Although the order Orchidex is represented by numerous 
species of terrestrial ones, there is an entire absence of 
cpiphital Orchids in the extra-tropical ])art. So are also 
Gryptogamio plants extremely rare ; even the order Filices is 
j^oorly represented. 

The orders most abundantly distributed over the whole 
area are : — Leguminosse, Myrtaceas, Compositse, Chenojwdiaceie, 
Crucifene, Proteaceic, Goodenoviacefe, Eiiphorhiacex, Scrophu- 




!5^ 



^ 



PS 

O 
< 

H 

O 



ITS FLOKA. 211 

larinea', Ficoideee, Boragineiv, Labiateai, Amarantaceie, Con- 
volvulacese, Epacrideis, TJrticese, Orchidem, Amaryllideir, Liliaceie, 
Restiacex, Cyperaceie, and Grammetv. 

Having given a general descrij^jtion of the flora of South 
Australia, I proceed now to its special peculiarities in tlie 
several localities or regions individualized and distinguished 
by the predominance of one or more families, although the 
boundary is in no way so sudden as to preclude certain sjoecies 
from spreading over all regions, especially trees, which, at the 
same time, are equally common in the scrub and grass lands ; 
iind also herbaceous plants, a great number of whicli appear in 
tlie grass land, scrub, and forest region. 

jSTotwithstanding the little apparent difference in the for- 
mation of its surface soil and climate, the flora of South 
Australia introduces itself to the observer in its geographical 
extension by special and peculiar forms of plants in regions. 
These are the regions of the forest land, scrub land, grass land, 
iind the intra-tropical region. 

Forest Land Eegion. — -The region of the forest land 
in South Australia occupies mostly the mountainous districts, 
4xnd extending along the base of the mountain chains. The 
forests have not the fulness and lofty growth of those of other 
countries. The underwood is of a medium size, more open 
and less difficult to penetrate ; the forests are of less extent, 
and are intercepted by tracts of grass land. The Eucahjpts are 
the most predominant forest trees — the stringybark forming 
often whole forests in some mountainous districts, but seldom 
,seen on the plains. Eucahji^tm panieulata, Sw. ; viminalis, 
Lal)ill. ; rostrcda, Schlecht. ; odorata, Behr., are the most 
j)revalent species. 

The trees of the forest do not appear crowded, and seldom 
do the branches of a tree reach those of a neighbouring one. 
The declivities of the mountain ranges are for the most part 
similarly timbered, the trees sometimes extending to the sum- 
mits, often only half or two-thirds of the remaining part 
being grassed, here and tliere with copses of Ljw-growing 
shrubs, and stunted and much ramified trees ; often the whole 
■declivities are grassed without even a shrub or tree. 

r 2 



'2V2 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Another feuture of thu taMclaiid in the Itill}- districts is 
the a})pearancc of occasional hills, clotluMl only with a scanty 
covering of tnssocky grasses, among fragments of ironstone, 
(|uartz, and sand, destitnte of all other yegetation, except 
small scattered trees of the Casiiarina stricta, Ait., and glauca, 
Sicl)., and the peppermint, E^icahjptus odorata, Belir. 

The level tableland is generally covered with grass, hut 
deficient in shrubs. Here, scattered, are to be seen the most 
stately and majestic trees of Eucahjpts ; sucli tablelands 
appearing more like a park — the trees standing seemingly 
at measured distances, single or in small clumps, as if planted 
by the hands of a landscape gardener. The soil of such 
tableland is generally speaking very rich, and produces 
abundant crops of cereals. The underwood of the forests is 
mostly represented by the following genera, viz., Correa, 
Alyxia, Prostranthera, GreviUea, HaJcea, Isopogon, Exocarpus, 
Acacia, BanJcsia, Cassia, CaJythrix, Pommadeyis, Leucopogon, 
Leptospermum, Daviesia, Dillwynia, Eiitaxia, Platylohium, PiiJ- 
tenxa, and shrubby Eucalypds. 

The beautiful genus Epjacris, which is only represented in 
South Australia by one species, E. impressa, Labill., frequently 
covers whole mountain ridges and declivities ; when in bloom, 
the different shades of colour of its flowers produce an effect 
not easily described. 

The most prominent and striking effect of the mountain! 
forest region is produced by the grass trees, Xantliorrlicea quad- 
rangidata, F. Muell. ; and semipjlana, F. 3Iuell. These plants 
have a peculiar grotesque appearance of a type unknown in 
other countries, at once arresting every traveller's attention by 
their strangen(>ss. 

They ai)pcar mostly on the ridges and declivities of rocky 
and stony hills, almost devoid of any other vegetation, and are 
also found on some wooded lands, but never on the plains. 
Xantliorrhoea quadrangulata grows from 10 to 12 feet high, 
often with a trunk about one foot or eighteen inches in diameter, 
and the flower stalk from 6 to 10 feet high. Sometimes speci- 
mens are found repeatedly branched in a dichotomous manner, 
all the branches of equal thickness, which gives them a most 




o 



ITS FLOEA. 213 

grotesque appearance. This species appears only in hilly 
districts ou the most rocky declivities ; they drive their 
straggling roots into the crevices of the rocks several feet 
down amongst the accumulated vegetable soil. The grass trees 
are of slow growth ; the largest specimens must be several 
hundred years old. The second species, Xanthorrhoea semipJana, 
is often found at the base of the hills in sandy soil ; it forms 
its stem underground, which extends often two to three feet 
before the few straggling roots appear, and the leaves lie close 
on the ground. This species is also of an ornamental character. 
The valuable brownish yellow, resinous exudation of the root 
and lower part of the stem, I have already mentioned. 

The deep gullies formed by the ridges and hills, in which 
the dew most frequently supplies the place of rain during the 
dry season, are covered with shrubs and ferns. The soil is 
generally formed of black or sandy peat of a very humid 
nature, being watered by streamlets running throughout the 
year, and forming, in some rocky situations, picturesque cas- 
cades. In such gullies are associated the most delicate and 
beautiful plants the flora of South Australia produces. Only 
in such places do ^^e find assembled the handsomest ferns in 
great profusion, the stately Toclea africana, Willd., Avith trunks 
often 5 feet to G feet in circumference, often formine; im- 
jienetrable thickets along the rocky banks of the streamlets ; 
Gleichenia microphjlla , R. Br., thriving luxuriantly in the 
crevices of the rocks ; with the elegant Adianium iethiopicurn, 
Lin., Botrijcliiuhi ternatum, Swartz, Lomaria discolor, Willd., 
and capensis, Willd., Aspidium moUe, 8w., Grammitis lepto- 
piliijlla, Swartz, and rutifolia, R. Br., interspersed with tlio 
lovely Viola hetonicxfoUa, Sw., and hederacea, Labill., which 
border the water edges ; and the blue flowers of Cae&ia and 
white of Burchardia give a great charm to such waterfalls not 
easily described. 

The declivities of the gullies are mostly taken possession of 
by the luxuriant-growing Pteris esciilenta, Forst., massed toge- 
gether and forming often impenetrable thickets, while the 
graceful Cheilanthes tenuifolia, Swartz, is generall}'' found in 
the grass land at the base of the hills, extending even a sliort 



- 1 1 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

distance into ihc [)laiiis. There also grow magnificent trees of 
Eucahjjptis. 

In sncli gullies, with their fertile soil and cool cliine, the 
greatest part of our culinary vegetables are grown for the 
market to a degree of perfection unknown elsewhere, and un- 
interruptedly supplied throughout the year. Not vegetables 
alone, but fruits, viz. : — Gooseberries, strawberries, raspberries 
and currants, &c., are raised in the same perfection. 

At the base, and also extending further up on the slopes of 
the hills generally, in spots least covered with underwood. 
a[»])ear the various and beautiful terrestrial Orchids, Avith their 
delicate and quaint flowers, together with other monocotyle- 
donous plants, A'iz. : — Patersonia longiscajm, Sweet, Hyporh 
qlahella, E. Br., Civsia ixirvi flora, R. Br., Arthropoclium laxum^ 
11. Br. 

The most conspicuous Orchids are : — Glossoclia major, E. 
Br., Caladenia Patersoni, E. Br., latifolia, E. Br., carnea, E. Br., 
Gyrtostylis reniformis, E. Br., Pterostytis cucullata, E. Br., 
reflexa, E. Br., harhata, Lindl., longi folia, E. Br., Tlichjmitra 
aristata, E. Br., carnea, E. Br., Diiiris iMliistris, Lindl., macu- 
lata, Sm., Joiigifolia, E. Br. The genus Pterostylis is repre- 
sented by numerous species. This asjiect of the forest region 
applies to the Barossa Eange, the most prominent near the 
coast. Other mountain ranges in the far north may present 
different features. 

The Scrub Land Eegion. — The regions of the so-called 
scrub land appear over the whole area of South Australia, ex- 
tending more or less in the different district ; but more so in the 
north and east, occupying about one-eighth of the whole area 
of the Colony. They form loug stretches of desolate arid 
plains — the soil being of the poorest description, and unfit for 
cultivation, changing from loamy clay to pure sand ; the 
surface is covered -with fragments of silieious rock, ferrugi- 
nous sand, and ironstone ; of water in these tracts there is no 
indication. The vegetation is of a stunted character, and the 
scrub is nearly destitute of grasses and other herbage ; the 
few genera of the first are mostly Neurachne, Stijm, Isolejms, 
Sinnifex, tlw well-known kangaroo grass, Antliistiria ciJiata,. 



ITS FLOEA. 21.3 

and a few Juncacex, viz., Xerotes f/Janca, 11. Br., and filiformis, 
IX. Br. ; and these grow only in tufts, considerably apart from 
each other.- The absence of other herbage is as great during 
tlie summer ; but this almost entire deficiency is compensated 
by an endless variety of genera and species of shrubs. The 
general impression given by the scrub is dismal, although the 
great varietv of shrubby plants associated there makes it highly 
interesting to the botanist. These shrubs reach generally the 
height of four to six feet, interspersed with stunted and rami- 
fied trees of the genera Casuarina, Eucahiptus, Santalum, Mela- 
leuca, Exocarjnis, CamijJioromyrtus, Dodonsea, FreneJa, BanJcsia, 
cVc. Smaller shrubs of the genera Fimelea, Leucopogon, Dill- 
injnia, Hibhertia, Acrotriche, Calythrix, cover the ground, and 
are overtopped by higher growing ones, such as HaJcea, Logania, 
Alyxia, Mi/ojyorum, Stenochilus, Euphrasia, Thomasia, Bursaria, 
Pomaderris, Haloragis, Melaleuca, Leptospermum, Eutaxia, 
Acacia, Isopogon, Correa, Fihagodia, &c., forming sometimes 
impenetrable thickets ; in other localities the scrub consists 
only of Eucalyptus dumosa, A. Cunn, ; sometimes formed by 
other bushy Eucalypds, viz., Eucalypjhis uncinata, Turcz. ; H- 
color, A. Cunn. ; and incrassata, Labill., growing only six to 
eiofht feet hio-h, and extending; hundreds of miles. 

The most predominant colour of the leaves of the scrub 
is a glaucous green, interspersed hero and there with whitish 
leaves of the Bhagodia and other shrubs, having reddish brown 
leaves. Most of the leaves are ovate, entire, coriaceous, 
and pungent ; shrubs with pinnated leaves are seldom met 
with. 

The monotonous and dismal look of an extensive scrub is 
depressing, especially when viewed from an eminence. The 
e({ual height of the vegetation, tin* dull glaucous colour of 
the foliage, look in the distance like a rt)lling sea reaching the 
jiorizon — at least the first sight of the Murray scrub, extend- 
ing hundreds of miles, produced this impression on my mind. 
Everyone avoids the scrub as much as possible — many have 
lost their way there and perished for want of water. 

All the scrubs in the different districts produce the sanu' 
common impression, but the plants comprising them are not 



216 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

tlio same genera and species, locality and soil affecting the 
character of the flora. 

Shrubs of one kind or another are found in flower in the 
seruh throughout the year. 3lost kinds produce tlieir flowers 
in September and October, tlie rainy season therefore alters the 
physiognomy of the scrub very little ; but it calls into life 
numerous terrestrial orchids, of Avhich a good many kinds 
inhal)it the scrub, viz. : — Erochihis, Caladenia, Diuris, Prasso- 
phyllum, Bipodium, Microtis, Cyrtoshjiis, &c. These appear 
with some perennial and annual plants, viz. : — Helichrysum, 
Drosera, Helipterum, Scsevola, Brunouia, Thysonanthus, Eiq^hra- 
sia, Goodenia, Hypoxis, Senecio, &c., and annual grasses ; but 
their duration is short, as with the setting in of the dry season 
they disappear as rapidly as they appeared. 

A most valuable scrub plant, at least for the pastoral com- 
munity, and appearing copious in the northern districts, is the 
so-called salt bush, Atri])lex nummularia, I\. Br., on which 
during the summer and in times of drought the sheep subsist. 
If all other vegetation is suffering from the drought, the salt 
bush alone withstands the intense heat of the sun and main- 
tains it freshness, and saves thousands of sheep from starvation. 

The Geass Land Kegion. — The so-called grass land forms 
the principal part over the whole area of South Australia, 
consisting in endless undulating plains, stretching from the 
coast towards the north and east. Along the coast and hun- 
dreds of miles inland the grass plains have mostly disaj^peared, 
and now form agricultural districts producing the finest 
cereals known — the soil varying from the best to some indif- 
ferently good. 

But the grass plains of the interior, especially towards the 
north, so extensive as to be lost in the horizon, are like 
deserts, emphatically monotonous and desolate. Only here 
and there will be found some fertile spots of grass land, but 
not of large extent, alternating with bare sandstone ridges or 
I'olling sandhills, interspersed with gravelly and waterless 
flats. Their surface is often saline, covered with sharp angular 
or weatherworn fragments of various sizes of ironstone, quartz, 
rcddisli-colourcd sandstone, and conglomerate, sujiporting only 



ITS FLOEA. 217 

a scanty herbage of Atriplex, Kocliia, Salkoniia, and Sahola, 
Spinifex and other perennial grasses, growing in tufts, tinging 
the sandy surface. Groups of stunted shrubs and small 
ramified trees, sometimes of a limited extent, rise from the 
plains like islands of the ocean. They mostly consist of tlie 
sheaoak, Casuarina stricta, Ait., glauca, Sieb., and dishjJa, 
Vent., Eucalyptus odorata, Behr., dumosa, A, Cunn., virgata, 
8ieb., wattle, Acacia injcnantlm. The plains near the coast are 
of a different character, the soil mostly fertile, extending often 
to the sea, and constituting a great part of our arable land. 

The stratum of humus or fertile soil covering these plains 
occasions also an essential alteration in their vegetation. 
The grasses consist of more nourishing kinds, viz. : — Foa, 
Panicum, Festuca, Agrostis, Airia, Andropogon, Cynodon, Stipa, 
Fennisetum, Bromus, Eriachne, Anthistiria, Hordeum, &c. Here 
appear also a great number of low-growing shrubs, such as 
B'ursera, Grevillea, and small ramified trees of peppermint, 
Myoporum, Fittosporum, Casuarina, and Acacia, either single, 
or sometimes forming groves, without underwood, like oases in 
the desert. The banks of the rivers and creeks, which mostly 
cease running during the summer, are lined with majestic 
gum trees, often of immense dimensions, and shrubs extending 
more or less upon the plains, according to the nature of the 
soil. This vegetation, on both sides of the rivers, appears like 
green ribbons, following their curves ; these banks have their 
peculiar flora ; here ajjpears Viminaria, LeptosjJermum, Mela- 
leuca, Myoporum, Hardenhergia, &c. ; herbaceous plants, Sitim, 
Mimidus, Myriogyne, Senecio, Lobelia, Feiroselinum, Eryngium, 
Lotus, and the following Juncaceae and Gramineae — Juncus, 
Luzula, Xerotes, Neurachne, Deyeuxia, Stipa, &c. 

The grass land, in fact the whole configuration of the 
plains, has a great similarity to the Savannas of 'British 
< \ uiana — naturally there is a great discrepancy with regard to 
the two vegetations ; but the Savannas have mostly the 
undulating ground, the scattered ramified trees, the oases, 
the rivers lined with a green bolt ; and the appearance of the 
grasses and herbage covering the area, has, during the dry 
season, the same sunburnt yellow character, and is destitute of 



218 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

all green herbage. After the setting in of the rainy season, 
there is the sanic magic appearance of the grasses and 
herbage. 

In the month of ^fay the rainy season generally com- 
mences, 'which has a magical effect npon the herbage of the 
plains ; a few heavy showers change the aspect of the dried-up 
grasses and herbage into a green and beautiful carpet. 

The rapidity witli -which especially the annual grasses 
spring up is such that in a few days the plains appear clothed 
^\ith luxuriant verdure, which only northern countries ordi- 
narily produce. With the grass are also recalled to new life 
the yellow flowers of Ranunculus aquatiUs, Lin. ; Jafj^aceus^ 
>Sm. ; rirularis, Banks ; Oxalis cognata, Steud. ; llypoxis 
(/lahclla, 1\. Br. ; with the white flowers of Drosera rosulata, 
J^ehm. ; tlic bine of the Wahlenhergia gracilis, Dec. ; Anguil- 
laria higlandulosa, E. Br. ; StacJchoiisia ohtusa, Lindl., with its 
perfume-spreading flowers. 

Every week adds new colours to the beautiful carpet. The 
scarlet flowers of Kenncdya p-ostrata, the violet ones of Sicain- 
sona procumhens, F. Muell. ; and lessertifoUa, Dec. ; the delicate 
flowers of Thysanotiis Patersoni climbing up the dry grass 
stalks, or overrunning small shrubs. The flowers of the 
isolated trees or copses of the wattles soon glitter in their 
yellow clothing. The Loranthus Exocarpi, Behr., and Miqiieliy 
Lehm., growing parasitical of the Casnarinas and Eucalyptus, 
odorata, adorned with their red flowers hanging in the air. 
The small shrubs of Bursera sjnnosa are covered with their 
white flowers, mingled with the red of different shrubby 
Grevilhas, Conijwsitu', arc seen blooming over tlu^ plains in all 
cohairs; and every week brings new representatives of floral 
beauty. 

But by the middle of November the number of flowering 
1)1 ants already lessens considerably, the annual grasses and 
other herbaceous plants begin to dry up, droop, and disappear, 
and in January the grass land resembles a ripe thinly sown 
cornfield, and we find only solitary shrubs covered with a few 
flowers or a few plants of Convolvulus eruhescens, Lobelia gihhosa^ 
].abill,, the latter with their leafless and fleshy stalks, and 



i^Mli 




o 



o 



ITS FLOEA. 21 & 

Mesemhrijanthemum. aiistrale, Soland. In some localities this 
period apj)ears earlier or later. 

The seeds of the annual plants have been scattered, 
perennial herbage returned to its dormant state, to awake to 
new life at the setting in of the following rainy seasons ; and 
the plains have during the summer months a dismal dried up 
appearance. 

There is another kind of grass land, appearing here and 
there in large tracts called "Bay of Biscay land." Such 
tracts have a peculiar, undulating surface, and look like a 
vaving sea which has suddenly become motionless. The soil 
is considered very good, of a chocolate colour and produces 
fine wheat crops, but it must be ploughed several years before 
the surface becomes level. 

The flora of the Bay of Biscay land too has its peculiarity ; 
the Eucalypts shunning such tracts, which, however, are rich 
in Comjpositx and grasses, but poor in Monocotyledons. 

The sea beach is mostly bordered with a belt of arborescent 
shrubs and small trees of ramified growth, viz. : — Melaleuca 
Preissiana, Schau, decussata, R. Br., Alyxia, shrubby Eucahji^ts, 
Myojporum, Pittos]porum, and Santalum, interrupted ^^ ith a thick 
Jjelt of Avicennia officinalis, Lin., extending along the coast. 
The sandy, often saline, tracts stretching towards the plains 
are covered a\ ith Atriplex, Tetragona, Aster, Ajnum, Eui^lirasia, 
Zygophyllum, Nitraria, Erir/eron, Cotida, Podolepis, Erodium, 
Helichrysum, Leptorhynchus, Dianella, ArthroiJodium, Salsola, 
and Mesemlryanthemum, which are often supplanted by tracts 
of Spinifex, Xei'odes, Juncus, Anthistiria, Leindosperma, Isolejns, 
CJiictosj)ora, Cladium, and Carex. 

Intka-teopical Eegion. — According to CJ. W. Goyder, 
Esq., Surveyor-General, the country, especially near the coast 
<»f the intra-tropical part of South Australia, consists prin- 
cipally of tableland of from 60 to 150 feet above the level of 
the sea, falling thence gently towards the sea, although form- 
ing liero and there into cliffs, which are fringed with dense 
tliickets of various sized timber, matted together witli bamboo, 
and a variety of climbing plants and shrubs. The low lands 
near tin; sea, especially such as arc under the influence of the 



220 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

tide, are covered \\\\]\ dense mangvoYes, Avicennia officinalis, 
Lhi., and lihixopliora mucroiiata, Lam. These, as the land 
ascends to a higher level, give place to palms, Pandanus, 
MelaJeucas, LeptosjJer'tmims, GreviUeas, JEucahjids, and Acacias, 
forming an open forest. Amongst the nnderwood are found 
ferns, Avoids, as AmotyJiojiJialhis cam])anuJatus, Dec, and 
Taccaceie, Tacca innnatifida, Lin. 

The grass over the whole, or nearly the Mhole, of the 
surface of the ground, grows luxuriantly, of A\hich the most 
prominent genera are the following : — Fuirena, Cyin'us, Eleo- 
charis, Cimhopogon, FimhristyJis, Panicum, Setaria, Sporoholus, 
Anthistiria, Eriachne, &:c. The soil is mostly good, and of a 
dark brown colour, with small nodules of ferruginous sandstone 
upon the surface. 

Near the sea, and generally upon a watercourse near its 
junction with the sea, swampy flats occur, containing timber of 
large gro\\th and rank vegetation. Tlio lakes and waterpools 
are covered with waterlilies, Nijmjplixa gigantea and Nelumhimii 
speciosum, Willd., showing their beautiful flowers in various 
shades of blue, pink, or crimson. The flats on either side of 
large rivers also contain good soil, except where they join the 
higher land, where there is a belt of sandy character, poor to 
look at, though covered with timber and grass. The same kind 
of open forest, undulating and flat land, exists over the area, 
sometimes the soil changing suddenly from a dark brown to 
a very light loam, the soil improving and the vegetation along 
the rivers becoming luxuriant. 

Judging from the plants collected by Mr. Schultz, who was 
employed for about two years there as a naturalist, during 
which time he obtained about 700 species of plants, the intra- 
tropical flora of South Australia does not present the luxuriant 
growth and umbrageous foliage we are used to see in other 
tropical floras. The number of species is also very small, 
owing, no doubt, to the dryness of the climate ; and from the 
same cause it is deficient in Epiphytal Orchids, palms and ferns. 
Acacias, Eucalypts, Ficus, Bomhax, Cupania, Terminalea, PsycJio- 
tria, Grevillea, form tlie prevailing timber trees, and line the 
rivers ; but the Eucalypts and Acacias do not reach the gigantic 



ITS FLOEA. 221 

size of their brethren in the extra-tropical region. The follow- 
ing- orders are well represented, viz. : — EujyJiorhiacew, Comioositx, 
Convolvulacepe, Buhiacese, Goodenoviaceoe, Ler/iiminosw, TJrticefe. 

The representatives of the intra-tropical flora of South 
Australia seem to extend towards the east, as a great number 
of genera and species reach to the Gulf of Carpentaria, and 
even further. A great many species of the Indian flora appear 
along the coast of the intra-tropical part, viz. : — Strychnos, 
Tamarindus, the Cajuput tree, Melaleuca leucadendron, appear 
abundant along the banks of the rivers, and even over the dry- 
sandstone tableland, but of less luxuriant growth. 

The Naturalized Plants of South Australia. — It is 
an historical fact that whenever man settles in a new country, 
he not only carries the weeds that are most troublesome in 
cultivated ground along with him, but he also exercises a 
potent influence over the indigenous vegetation, especially 
when he engages in agricultural and pastoral pursuits. The 
jDlough, the axe, the flocks and herds, are enemies to existing 
vegetation ; and as cultivation advances one representative 
after another succumbs to the foreign influence. But the 
j)lough, axe, and herds are not the sole destroyers of the 
native herbage, for with cultivation are introduced noxious 
weeds, and the new comers, finding a suitable soil and climate, 
spread with alarming rapidity, and become possessors of the 
ground — ejecting the native plants, or taking their places by 
them as if they Avere truly indigenous. 

In proof of this I will only mention the names of a few of 
such intruders, not only upon cultivated ground, but also over 
the uncultivated districts, to the great injury of the native 
herbage, viz. : — The Cockspur, Centaurea melitensis, Lin. ; the 
Scotch thistle, Carduus Marianiis, Lin., and Onopordoii Acan- 
thiimi, Lin. ; the Cape Dandelion, Cryptostemma calendidacea, R. 
Lr. ; the Bathurst burr, Xantliium spinosum, Lin. ; the French 
catchfly, Silene gallica, Lin. ; the Stink Aster, Anthemis Cotula, 
Lin. ; the so-called sheepweed, Litliospermum davuricum, Lelim. ; 
and ai'vense, Lin., which already cover large tracts of pasture 
land, and will extend further and further, to the destruction of 
the native herbage. Legislation has not succeeded, notwith- 



222 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



stainliiii:- lame siiiiis liavc l)ccn (>x])on(l(^<l, in «'xtiv|)atini;- the 
two must injurious intrudcn's, viz., the ►Scotcli thistle and tb(! 
Bathurst burr, and it remains to be seen Avhetlier the altered 
circumstances, which seem to be so favourable to their growth, 
will prove permanent, or. by an ovor-stiraulation, a change 
will be gradually effected in tlie constitution of the intruders, 
bringing about degeneracy and subsequent extinction. 

It will not be uninteresting to give here a list of the more 
troublesome weeds naturalized in South Australia, in addition 
to those already mentioned : — 



I-rpi(linm ruderalc, I;iii. 
Capsclla 15ursa-])afitnri.s, Lin. 
,\lii]ilcx patula, lAn. 
IJrlica ur(Mis, Lin. 
Polygonum uvicnlaro, Liu. 
Cnicus lanceolatus, Ijin. 

arvensis, Ifnllni. 

palustris, Willd. 
Cyuara Scolynius, J;in. 
ATiajjjallis arvensis, Ijin. 
(iuaphaliura luteo-album, Liu. 



Cerastinui vulgaliiin, Lin. 
Fumaiia oflicinalis, I. in. 
Raplianus Ilaphanistruni, Lin. 
Stellaria media, Ian. 
Lytlirum liyssopitbliinn, Lin. 
Portnlaca oleracea, lAn. 
Fmnieulum vulgarc, Lin. 
Sonclius asper, Vill. 
Solanum nigrum, Lin. 
Cirsium lanoeolatnni, Scop, 
arvense, Scop. 



A good many grasses from other countries, especially 
European, have become domiciled in South Australia, which 
have improved the pasture near the coast materially. 

The Soutli Australian cereals are considered to bo the 
finest grown in the world ; and it is a fact that, with the ex- 
ception of the intra-tropical, all fruits from other parts of the 
globe thrive most luxuriantly in South Australia, and come 
to a perfection, in size and flavour, in the different localities of 
the Colony, hardly known in other countries ; and most fruits, 
vegetables, and useful plants are found to improve materially 
by the change, as the climatic conditions often succeed in 
modifying and improving their condition. The finest grapes 
are grown on tlie plains; here they ripen to great perfection, 
and the S(juth Australian wine must soon obtain a high 
i'haracter in the foreign markets. On the plains also grow 
apricots, peaches, nectarines, oranges, citrons, lemons, and 
shaddocks, plums, cherries, figs, almonds, mulberries, olives, 
Arc; while in the liills and gullies are grown straw- 
berries, raspberries, currants, walnuts, chestnuts, filberts, &c., 
of the best quality. In such gullies are also raised the 




^ 

•s 



a 
< 



ITS FLOEA. 223 

finest vegetables iuul other culinaiy herbs, at all seasons, in 
great abundance, as also on the j)lains during the rainy season ; 
cauliflowers, often two feet in diameter, are not seldom seen ; 
cabbage, turnips, asparagus, artichoke, leeks, onions, beet, 
oarrots, potatoes, endive, lettuce, radish, celery, &c. ; cucumbers, 
the luscious fruits of the sweet and water melon, pumpkins, &c., 
growing to a flavour and size which at home w^ould be con- 
sidered as an exaggeration when described. 

The advancement in the taste for horticulture and flori- 
culture in South Australia is most praiseworthy and on the 
increase, as jDroved by tlie many tasteful gardens which are 
now seen, not only in town, but in the environs and country ; 
therefore the importation and acclimatization of the most choice 
foreign j)lants, especially florists' flowers, is marvellous, and 
most of these newcomers improve so in size and the perfection 
of their flowers as to astonish any European gardener. At the 
Botanic Glardens are cultivated about 5000 outdoor plants, 
mostly from all parts of the world. 

The Alpine plants will not prosper in the gardens of the 
plains, but find a genial clime in the hills and gullies (from 
about 1000 feet to 2000 feet above the level of the sea), where 
we find the camellias, azaleas, rhododendrons, and other Alpine 
plants in great profusion. In such situations thrive also our 
northern forest trees, oaks, beeches, birch, abies, &c. ; while 
the elms, ash, poplars, Robinias, &c., luxuriate in the j)lains. 
In the same localities the Califoruian pines, cyj)resses, and 
some of the European pines thrive, but the Himalayan and 
several of the European pines succeed only in the hills. 



£27(6 ohservations contained in the following pages have been extracted from 
jjapers read hy me before the Chamber of Manufactures, in Adelaide, 
with the object of giving greater publicity to several undeveloped resources 
of South Australia.'] 

The following vegetable productions, although not yet 
fornung articles of export, or of much colonial consumj)tion, 
might be raised with advantage by immigrants who may not 
be in possession of largo capital. The lands, especially the 
gullies in the hilly districts, are adapted for many other 



224 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

branches of agriculture tliau the all-engrossing object — the 
cultivation of cereals — and from amongst those mentioned 
the less wealthy cultivator can make his selection. 

.Sericultuke. — The importance of introducing sericulture 
into South Australia is undeniable, as we have clear evidence 
of the adaptability of our climate to the production of an 
excellent quality of silk, for which the demand is now un- 
limited, in consequence of the disease amongst the silkworms 
])rcvailing in the silk-pvoducing countries in Europe, which 
is unknown here. Considering how silk manufacture has in- 
creased for centuries, and still continues to do so, the demand 
can never fail. For many years, with all my energy, I have 
advocated sericulture as a paying industry, and advised the 
extensive planting of the mulberry. To facilitate the scheme, 
I made inquiries in Europe as to what kind of mulberry was 
now considered the best for feeding the silkworm, and intro- 
duced the seeds, and offered for distribution the young plants 
of the most approved kinds ; but I am sorry to say the demand 
for these Avas very limited, and I hailed with delight the 
judicious act of the Government in providing the means for 
laying out the first mulberry plantation in South Australia 
at the ^lagill Orphanage, where my surplus stock could be 
used. The object aimed at in this scheme will prove in future 
most advantageous to that establishment. There is no doubt 
that the production of silk will become one of our most im- 
portant industries, which will at the same time be a practical 
and useful aid to the ordinary occupation of our farmers. As 
the silk manufacturers now prefer the cocoons to the reeled 
silk, this will save a good deal of the tedious work of seri- 
culture. 3[any will say I am too sanguine in regard to the 
result of sericulture in South Australia, but I think I see 
my way clearly ; and I am more and more convinced by the 
favourable letter Mr. G. Francis received some time ago from 
the Silk Supply Association, London. This gentleman had 
sent different cocoons of his raising to that body to test their 
value, and received the gratifying news that they were worth 
from 3s. to i)s. Gd. per pound. If we consider that ()s. per 
pound is the highest price obtainable for the best cocoons in 




o 



ITS FLOEA. 225 

England, is not 5s. Gd. per pound a most encouraging fact in 
regard to the quality of the South Australian cocoons ? I am 
informed by another gentleman, an enthusiastic sericulturist, 
3rr. Wurm, that by receiving 6s. per pound cocoons would 
pay wqW. In regard to the growth of the mulberry through- 
out the Colony, I may say it grows everywhere. We find the 
trees growing at Glenelg and Brighton, close to the beach in 
sand, as luxuriant even as in the hills or elsewhere. In Italy, 
as I understand, sericulture is divided into three different 
branches — namely, the growing and selling of the mulberry 
leaves, the rearing of the cocoons, and the reeling of the silk ; 
and, in comparison with the work employed, one pays as well 
as the other. But it is not my intention to give a scientific 
descrij)tion of the manufacture of silk, or the culture of the 
mulberry ; and, in order not to trespass too much, I will not 
go into the dry details of figures as to the enormous amount 
of money which is spent in producing silk, but will only call 
your attention to the extraordinary fact that the sum paid 
for silkworm eggs from China and Japan is about £100,000 
vearly. Although I feel aware that in giving bonuses great 
caution must be exercised, yet I feel confident that a bonus 
for the first half ton of cocoons, in four bales of 250 lbs. each, 
would be worth the consideration of our Parliament. I have 
mentioned half a ton, feeling that, limited to a smaller quan- 
tity, it might only lead people to cultivate for the bonus, 
without an earnest desire to promote the industry. I am 
expecting by every mail a quantity of mulberry seeds, and 
[)robably, next season, will be prej)ared to distribute a number 
of plants. This, I find, is a good plan to lay the basis of new 
industries. There are many j)eople who shrink from the 
trouble of procuring seed and raising the plants, but if they 
can get trees, they will plant them. I may also mention hero 
that, after many trials of different kinds of mulberries for the 
food of the silkworm in the silk-producing countries have 
been made, the white mulberry [Mo7'us alba) is now considered 
the best ; but a variety {Moms multicaulis) is used for the 
voun": worms, it beginning to leaf four ^Yeeks earlier than 



'2'2() SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

'Morns aJha^ and tliiii kiud sliould not be omitted in any mnl- 
1 terry plantation. 

Flax and Hemp. — We may say, with ovatification, tliat 
tlie energetic and enterprising farmers in the South have hiid 
the basis of a new and probably remunerative industry — that 
of flax-o-rowinij:. If we consider the unfavourable season the 
llax-growers had to contend with, the first result is in every 
way most encouraging ; and I hope, for the well-doing of the 
Colony, that other districts will follow the example, as there 
is no doubt that flax will grow in most of our districts, and 
yield a fair return. I would also call the attention of the 
farmers to the growth of the hemp plant, another saleable 
article, much sought after in the home markets, both for its 
iibre and seed. The latter is noted in the last price current 
at 44s. to 48s. per hundredweight ; and, considering the heavi- 
ness of the seed, it yields a remunerative i:»rice. The hemp 
plant will grow in any kind of soil, and could probably be 
grown throughout the Colony with profit ; and to show what 
an important plant hemp is, which produces one of the best 
(iordages, during the last three quarters of the year 1050 tons 
of cordage and rope have been imported. This shows the 
great importance of the attention of our colonists being called 
to the subject. 

Beeteoot. — I am convinced that the soil and climate, 
especially in the neighbourhood of Mount Gambler, is admi- 
rably adapted for the growth of the beetroot, for the manu- 
facture of sugar and otlier purposes. According to the latest 
statistical news from home, there are at jiresent 1184 beet 
sugar works on the Continent of Europe, and the total produce 
of these is about four and a half million hundredweights of 
sugar annually ; upon an average about 4000 lbs, is obtained 
from 500 cwt. of beet, and this quantity is the yield of about 
two and a half acres. The refuse, after the sugar is extracted, 
forms an excellent article of food for cattle, and is considered 
even better than any specially cultivated for the purpose ; a 
good quality of paper is also made from it. The molasses is 
also used up for fodder, not being fit for sweetening on account 
of the mineral salt it contains. As mentioned before, there is 



ITS FLORA. 227 

no doubt that the beet will grow in many districts of the 
Colony ; and if we can produce the beet sugar for the same 
price as cane sugar imported, it will become a flourishing- 
industry ; and then we must consider the fact that with a 
beet sugar manufactory the fattening of cattle must be con- 
nected, which will also produce a fair return. But this is not 
all — the farmers, by beet-growing, wdll have the advantage of 
a rotation crop, the want of which is severely felt in ^^outh 
Australia. In Prussia, where beet sugar manufactories are 
established, no cereal fields are observable for miles around — 
the eye only meets beet fields, they paying the farmer far 
better than cereals. 

Hops. — Of this very important plant we have already- 
proof of successful growth in the samples of hops grown at 
Lobethal, Encounter Bay, Mount Barker, and Mount Gambler ; 
at the latter locality it is already cultivated extensively, with 
satisfactory results. It is true we have not many favourable 
districts in the Colony for the profitable growth of this valu- 
able plant ; but there is no doubt that in other districts besides 
the above-named, suitable spots will be found. 

Tobacco. — -There is no doubt that many districts of the 
Colony are well adapted for the culture of tobacco. Mucli 
attention was given to its cultivation in the early days of the 
Colony, and superior tobacco was made ; but its cultivation 
became entirely neglected when the high prices of wheat which 
have since ruled made that cultivation more remunerative 
than that of tobacco. I remember in the year 1851 seeing at 
Lyndoch Valley a tobacco-field which not only attracted my 
attention, but created my surprise and admiration, having 
scarcely seen better plants during my travels on the Orinoco. 
I will not maintain that the South Australian tobacco could, 
or ever will, surpass the South American or West Indian in 
flavour ; but we shall produce, no doubt, a fair sample, just as 
good as is j)roduced on the Continent. I was so much aston- 
ished at seeing this Lyndoch Valley field of tobacco that I 
measured some of the leaves — and on referring to my note- 
book I find that their average size w'as twenty-one inches long, 
by twelve inches wide. I am convinced that having gained 

Q 2 



228 SOUTH AUSTIIALIA. 

exporioiicc in its manufncturo, we shall produce a fair sample ' 
and slioidd \\c even fail in this the lirst or second year, the 
])r(idnco could Itc used for sheepwash, and remunerate the 
grower, .if we c(jnsider the fi'reat sum "which the Government 
derives from the duty on imported tobacco, I think wo should 
endeavour as much as possible to retain at least one part of 
the money in the Colony, which is yearly sent away for 
tobacco. I may repeat, there is not the slightest doubt that a 
great many districts in our Colony are adapted for the grow'th 
of this, I may say, indispensable luxury — namely, the South, 
the neighbourhood of Adelaide, Hope Valley, 3[ount Barker, 
Gumeracha, Blumberg, Lyndoch Valley — and many more 
favourable spots would be found. xVt the Botanic Garden- 
good plants may be seen growing, notwithstanding the late- 
nnfavourable season, producing good leaves, without the 
slightest attention being paid to them. Local tobacco and 
cigar factories have been established, but at present mainly 
dej)end on imported leaf tobacco for their supply, 

Zante Cueeants, Sultana and othee Kaisins. — It is: 
a gratifying fact to observe that our first sample of Zantc 
currants sent to Melbourne are considered by our neighbours 
as of most excellent quality, superior, cleaner, and of better 
(juality than that of the imported ones. And we in South 
-Vustralia till now have thought little of them. The proverb, 
" A prophet is not thought much of in his own country," is 
here applicable. We produce an article which is considered 
superior to that we import, and yet very little has been done in 
the culture of the Zante currant and raisins. If we consider 
that the annual import of dried fruits into the Australian 
Colonics is generally more than £120,000, and as we know 
that our climate is in every way favourable to these produc- 
tions, is it not surprising that no more attention has been paid 
to these sources of profit ? I w ould strongly recommend all 
the vignerons, especially the smaller ones, having from one to 
three acres of vineyard, to graft all the worthless kinds of 
grapes with Zante currant, Sultana, and other raisin grapes,. 
It is gratifying to me to have added something to this exten- 
sive branch of industry by the introduction of the Sultana 




^H 



o 



'<i 



Q 



pq 



ITS FLOEA. 229 

grape, wliich is regarded by the vlgnerons with extreme satis- 
faction. I may say that, from information received, probably 
more than two-thirds of the 1100 grafts I distributed hist 
year liave grown; and this valuable raisin, which commands 
the highest prices in the European markets, may be con- 
sidered as established in the Colony. Yery little attention 
has been paid to the drying of apples, apricots, plums, figs, 
iind other fruits, from which some profit could be derived, 
but which unfortunately are frequently left to rot on the 
ground. 

Almonds. — Of these till now very little has been thought, 
and in consequence the trees have been utterly neglected, 
because, as the phrase goes, " they won't pay ; " but I am of 
a different opinion, since I have seen that the almonds will 
form a ^Jrofitable export. In the last Loudon Prices Current, 
Jordan almonds are quoted at 85s. to 24:0s, per cwt. ; and in 
their shells, 60s. to 70s. Is this not an encouragement to pay 
more attention to this, till now, neglected tree,- which will 
grow in every locality — a tree which is satisfied with every 
soil, and will produce every year a bountiful return ? We 
see hundreds, I may say thousands, of almond trees scattered 
over the Colony ; we see trees in nearly every garden — but 
their fruits are worthless. I think two-thirds of the trees 
grown here are only seedling j^lants. Naturally tliey never 
will produce a marketable fruit ; the grafting knife should 
be used, and I Avould recommend the Jordan and Brandis 
varieties, which are much sought after by the trade. I ho2)e 
horticulturists, as well as agriculturists, will take this into 
their consideration ; for it must be plain to them that 
almonds will pay for export for the little trouble bestowed on 
them. There may be many nooks and corners on their 
property where almost nothing else Mill grow. I can assure 
them the almond tree will be satisfied with such spots — 
only they must not neglect trenching the ground first. 

Olives. — I think there is scarcely any country where the 
olive thrives better than in South Australia. Having been 
largely planted by the early colonists in a variety of situa- 
tions, and in diverse soils, there is abundant evidence of 



230 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

their facility <<t' cultiire in tlio fine growth of the trees, 
yicldiiig Jariicr t|uantities of fruit, Avhich is eagerly sought 
for by manufacturers of oil, now carrying on their operations 
with success. The samples produced are considered as fine 
as the best Italian oil, and, being pure, are of course far 
better than that usually imported. But little labour is re- 
• [uir»'(I ill the cultivation of the olive after the seedlings 
( \\ liicli can be procured in abundance) are planted and grafted, 
and tiic picking of the fruit is easily done by women and 
cliiMnn. The niarhet price of the berries is about 5s. to 
"in. 6d. per ewt.. and oil in (piantity lias been sold at auction 
at from 6s. (Jd. to lO.s. }>er gallon, the retail price being 12s. 
for best quality. Large plantations have lately been made, 
and this indnstry may now be considered an established fact. 
There is a large home consumption and an unlimited export 
market. 

EiciNUS OR Castor Oil Plant. — This tree, considered as 
worthless as the almond, we see thrive in every locality, and in 
every soil, poor or rich. We see it grow close to the coast in 
almost pure sand, covered with seed, and generally regarded 
as a nuisance. But the hundrcdweiefht of seed of this 
nuisance is noted, according to the last Prices Current, as 
worth 10s. to 12s. The ricinus, as I remarked, will grow 
where scarcely any other vegetation will grow, and such spots 
are generally found on farms. Why not plant them with 
ricinus ? After })lunting, there is little or no trouble except 
gathering the seeds, which can be accomplished by children ; 
and if a tree brings only 3s. to 4s. a year, it is worth the little 
attention bestowed on it. 

Mustard furnishes a very important, and, I believe, a paying 
article of commerce, and I am satisfied would thrive with us in 
all our districts if it were not for the aphis. The mustard 
plant belongs to the same natural order as the cabbage plant 
— the Cruciferai — whose representatives are, without exception, 
so unmercifully attacked by this scourge that I fear the mus- 
tard plant would not escape its ravages ; but, as Australia is 
the land of anomalies, my fear may be premature, and the 
aphis may afti'r all not do so much harm to the plant as I 



ITS FLOEA. 231 

fcav. Our fanners should at least make some trials. The 
northern plains would probably be well adapted for the growth 
of the mustard, as the plants in too rich a soil would grow 
too luxuriant in their stalks and leayes. If we consider the 
great quantity of mustard imported into this Colony, there is 
no doubt the cultivation of the plant would pay. 

Eape. — If I did not fear the ravages of the aphis, as rape 
belongs to the same natural order as that of the mustard, I 
would strongly recommend the culture of this most valuable 
oil-producing plant, as its oil maintains high prices in the 
European markets, in consequence of the crops on the Con- 
tinent not being with certainty depended on, as they are often 
destroyed by frost or snow, which we have not to fear in South 
Australia. 

SuNFLOWEK.'— The extensive culture of the sunflower, es- 
jiecially in Russia and Germany, is a fact. The chief profit 
from this plant is procured from the seed, which contains forty 
per cent, of a sweet oil only second in value to the olive oil. It 
is now more than 200 years since this valuable plant, a native 
of Peru and Mexico, was introduced into Europe ; and, strange 
to say, until now its valuable qualities were never brought to 
account. The Russian husbandmen were the first who bestowed 
their attention on the useful oil which the seeds contain. They 
commenced the cultivation of the sunflower first on a small 
scale, planting the seeds in nooks and corners, on the sides of 
walks, &c. The value of the oil soon became known, and was 
more and more appreciated, so that at the present time the 
cultivation of the sunflower in Russia is carried on to such an 
extent that in the year 1866 more than 100,000 cwt. of sun- 
flower oil was manufactured, the value of which was one and a 
half million roubles. The third part of this oil was exported 
to the Prussian port of Stettin, whore it was rapidly sold Avitli 
rising prices. This export from Russia, and the steady increase 
of the culture of the sunflower there, opened the eyes of the 
German farmers, and they began the cultivation of tlie sun- 
flower with the same j)rofitable result. The oil, as I have al- 
ready mentioned, is only second to the olive oil, and is not only 
used in house-keeping like the former, but mostly as a lubri- 
cator for the delicate machinery of textile fabrics which in- 



232 SOUTH AUSTKALIA. 

crease throughout Euto])c. nud Avliich m consequence liave in- 
creased the demand Inr the expensive olive oil. From the 
stalks of the plant the liussians manufacture a valuable potash, 
the residuum is used as oil-cake ior fattening- cattle, and the 
leaves of the plant for manure. Should not this profitable culture 
of the sunflower in Tiussia and Germany also l>ean inducement 
to our farmers to introduce this payable branch of industry tt) 
<mr Colony ? Climatic^ difficulties in the way of the growtli of 
the sunflower do not exist in South Australia. AVe see the sun- 
flower, with its smiling face, in our gardens, thrive most luxu- 
riantly in every kind of soil. The oidy fault that could be 
found with it is that it exhausts the soil ; yet this could be re- 
medied by manure. AVould it not be desirable that experi- 
mental trials should be made this season ? Let us begin like 
the Russians, and plant the seeds first in nooks and corners ; 
and should it succeed, cultivate it more extensively. The re- 
.sult should be freely discussed in our Farmers' Clubs. It may 
become in the future as profitable to South Australia as it is at 
the present time to Russia and Germany ; and it is to be hoped 
that the farmers will give their earnest attention to this most 
important branch of industry. 

The following extract from the New Land Act, lately 
])rought into operation, shows the importance attached to this 
industry, and the special facilities granted to those who may 
intend planting olive, almond, and other trees mentioned 
therein : — 

Caltication of Olices, &c. 

AC}. If any selector shall be desirous of ciigiigiiig in the cultivation of osiers, 
olives, mulhcrries, vines, apples, pears, oranges, ligs, almonds, or hops, or such 
otlier plants as the Governor in Council may define by I'roclamatiou in the 
GazMe. the planting and cultivating in a husl)andlike manner of one acre of 
land with any of the above trees or i)ian(s sliall, for all <)i<^ jtnrposes of this 
Act, be deemed to be equivalent to the cnitivation of six acres of such land as 
hereinbefore defined: I'rovidcd that such cnltivating Ix^ haiin Jitln continued 
and kept up to the satisfaction of the Commissioner until full payment of the 
purchase-money, but not otherwise: Provideil tliat if such selector shall wish 
to grow artificial grass, as a rotation of crops, he may, every tliird year, plant 
and cultivate lucern or artificial grass for such purpose, and in tliat case tlie 
l)lan(iiig of three acres of land with lucern or artificial grass during such third 
year shall be deemed to be equivalent to tlie cultivation of one acre of cereal 
or root crops. 

Canary Seed, — This is another plant whose cidture till 
now has been entirely overlooked by our farmers, and which, I 



ITS FLOEA. 233 

am sure, will tlirivo all over the Colony. It is a fact to be 
M'onderecl at, if we consider the enormous prices often paid for 
this seed in the Colony, which not seldom have risen to 2s. and 
'2s. Gel. per pound. I think the generally ruling price — od. to 
4:d. per pound — would leave the grower a fair margin for tlie 
little trouble in cultivating it, and it is a plant which would be 
satisfied with any soil and situation. 

Gkam, Yetches, Yellow Lupin, and jMaize. — AYith the 
exception of oats and barley, very little attempt has been made 
by our farmers to grow other grain for cattle. I am most 
sanguine of the profitable growth of gram in this colony. 
•" Gram " (says the Inglewood Advertiser) " bids fair to be ranked 
among our profitable products before long. Its value as horse- 
feed has long been acknowledged, and the possibility of grow- 
ing it is now beyond a doubt. Some time ago Mr. J. Roberts, 
who cultivates one of those little patches of ground that dot 
the clearings made from the scrub here and there, planted a 
few rows of this valuable East India pea, and now he has a 
•capital crop nearly ripe. The plants look strong and healthy, 
the drought notwithstanding, and are covered with filled pods. 
On one plant, covering not over four inches of ground, no less 
than 139 full-grown pods were counted." The successful cul- 
tivation of this plant would be a great good, and the attention 
of farmers can be very fairly directed towards it. The yellow 
lupin has for some years gained on the Continent a high fame 
with the farmers ; in fact, it has supplanted the oats, vetches, 
and other horse-feed, as a plentiful and wholesome fodder, in 
its green state as well the seeds. The cultivation of maize is 
also overlooked, which, I am sure, will thrive in tli(* tSouth 
profitably. 

Lentils.— This is a plant, I believe, very little known for 
food in England, but thought much of on the Continent, whore 
it is cultivated to a great extent as one of the most profita1)le 
^•rops, as it thrives well even on stony and barren soils, and 
may l^e admirably adapted for certain districts in our Colony. 
The lentil has a traditional history, not alone on the Continent, 
but also in Arabia, where it is grown still more extensively, 
being considered as the plant used in the preparation of the 



234 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

dish fur A\liicli Esau sdld his hirthriiiht to Jacob, as stated in 
the 25th chapter of Genesis. I am glad to see, in the last 
numLcr of the Journal of the Agricultural Society of Neia 
South Wales, a gentleman (Iv. "Wynne) also recommends the 
[daut for extensive growing in Sydney. He says — " I saw 
himdreds of acres sown with the lentil in the ncighbonrhood 
of JJethlehem. The soil where I found the lentil lionrishiiig 
with such abundant growth was of the poorest description, and 
so stony that it was a wonder to me how any kind of useful 
plant could thrive there at all. Having myself, as an invalid, 
derived very great benefit from it in the form of Dr. Barry's 
Revalenta, I can honestly recommend it as the most wholesome 
article of diet of which I have any experience, the most essen- 
tially valuable property of it being the facility with which it 
can be assimilated, and its great power of nutrition. I need 
hardly say it would be a source of real gratitication to me if my 
humble efforts to introduce it to this country should have suc- 
ceeded in calling the attention of agriculturists and all well- 
wishers of the Colony to its valuable properties as a health- 
restoring food ; and I am not without hope of seeing it become 
one of the ordinary j^roducts of this Colony." The Conti- 
nental people in this Colony know its value, and large quanti- 
ties of lentils are imported by our German merchants. 

Capers. — There is no doubt we could produce this desirable 
luxury equally well as in the southern part of Europe. In the 
neighbourhood of Toulon it is cultivated in the orchards in the 
intervals between figs and olive-trees. xVs a pickle the flower- 
buds of the caper are in great esteem, and form an important 
article of commerce throughout Europe. In the Mediterranean 
the flower-buds of the caper are gathered just before they 
begin to expand, which forms a daily occupation for children 
during six months, when the plants are in a flowering state. 
As the buds are gathered, they are thrown into a cask, among- 
as much salt and vinegar as is sufficient to cover them, and, as 
the supj)ly of capers is increased, more vinegar is added. When 
the caper season closes, the casks are emptied, and the buds 
assorted according to their size and colour— the smallest and 
greenest being reckoned the best — and put in smaller casks 



ITS FLOEA. 233 

of fresh viuegar for commerce ; and in this state they Avill 
keep for five or six years. Considering- the little work the 
growing- of this important commercial article involves, it wonld 
be worth while for onr horticnlturists, especially in the gullies, 
where this j^lant will grow most luxuriantly, to make the 
attempt to cultivate the true caper (Capixiris spinosa). 

Chicory. — Since the introduction of this plant in the 
Colony it has become in some places so prolific as to be con- 
sidered a nuisance, and yet of this we import yearly great 
quantities, as shown in our import returns, viz. : — Total for 
the last three quarters, 54,960 lbs., say at 23s. M. per cwt., 
£629 15s. The manufacture of chicory is so simple and inex- 
l^ensive that we might easily produce sufficient not only for 
our home consumption, but also for that of the neighbouring 
Colonies. 

Liquorice. — My attention has been called to the liquorice 
plant, Glycyrrhiza glcibra, Dec, on which, in perusing the last 
number of the Journal of Ajyj^Ued Science, I found an interest- 
ing article in reference to the consumjition of this valuable 
commercial plant. It could be grown here with little trouble 
and cost in almost any locality and soil. According to the 
above-mentioned journal, it arrives at maturity in from three 
to four years, when the roots can be taken up, and the proprie- 
tor may expect to derive some return for his outlay in rent and 
labour. The depth to which these strike downwards often 
equals the height of a man, and the soil needs, therefore, to 
1)0 free from stones, which cause the roots to become crooked 
or warped, and thus diminish the value of the liquorice as a 
saleal )lo commodity. The same land will produce a continuous 
crop ; but then a good addition of manure is needed. The 
ground, to be properly prepared, must be spade-trenched to a 
dcptli of three to four feet, and laid in ridges upon the toj) 
until the spring; when the mould has become pulverized, the 
ridges can be levelled and j)rcpared for planting. The beds 
are three to four feet wide, and must be kept clean during- the 
summer, and about November (this in South Australia would 
be in June) when the sap lias descended and the tops appear 
yellow, the old stems or stalks are cut off close to the ground 



2o() SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

Avitli a sharp pniuing knife, tlio spaces between the roots being 
turned over and left rough. The roots are usually dug up 
with a large three-pronged fork, and stacked in trenches, and 
tliis sta(tlving is clVectod in a dry and sheltered place, the roots 
being placed upright witli layers of sand between them, and a 
good layer of several inches thick on the top. In this manner 
the stack is preserved by the; proprietor until required for 
market. 

Osier. — Not only does this very useful shrul> keep the em- 
bankments of rivers from falling in, but it would also give a 
profit to the grower, having the advantage of giving employ- 
ment to the basketmakers. I need only mention the great 
number of baskets and various other osier work yearly im- 
ported into this Colony from Europe and America. For 
favourable places for its cultivation, I mention only the banks 
of the Onkaparinga, the jMurray Flats, and Inman Yalley ; 
but many other localities undoubtedly would be found. 

Broom Millet supplies the material of a not unimportant 
article, viz., American brooms, which are so much imported, 
and for which we send a large sum of money away, that could 
be retained in the Colony, as there is not the slightest doubt 
that the broom millet will grow just as well with us as the 
Sorghum saccharatuni does, and the skill for manufacturing the 
broom might soon be obtained. The millet will grow well 
especially in the hills and the Southern Districts. It should 
be sown in the latter end of August, but rather thin, so that 
the plants may grow vigorous, and produce a greater develop- 
ment of inflorescence, which part is used for the manufactun^ 
of the broom. This industry has already been introduced into 
Victoria and New South Wales ; and in the latter Colony, 
especially Newcastle, the brooms are largely manufactured, 
and already exported to South Australia. 

TuE Esparto Crass (MacrocMoa tenacissima). — A native 
of Sj)ain, Portugal, Greece, and N(u-th Africa. It has gained 
during the last few years a great mercantile rejiutation in 
regard to the valuable fibre, not alone for the manufacture of 
ropes and other articles, but as contributing also an excellent 
material i'or the best writing paper, without any other admix- 



ITS FLOEA. 237 

ture. Tiiiis from the great use now made of it by the paper- 
makers, it has become an essential article of import into 
England and other places, and a source of wealth to the 
countries producing it. The import in 1871 into England 
alone is considered about 140,000 tons, and that of Esparto 
grass, ropes, and other articles manufactured from it, about 
19,000 tons. Notwithstanding this large importation of the 
raw material for paper-making, and that the paper-makers use 
of late a good many other substances for jjaper-making not 
used before, the scarcity of material becomes more evident 
every day, and the consequence is the constant rise in the 
price of paper. The Gardeners^ Chronicle, 15th June, 1872, 
says : — -" It is with some concern that we learn that both in 
Algeria and Spain, instead of mowing the Esparto grass at the 
proper season, the natives pluck it up in the most reckless 
manner." Consul Turner, of Cartagena, says : — ■" It is very 
evident to all concerned that these people are destroying the 
growth of the grass by their manner of plucking it." From 
the above-named port there was a falling-off during the past 
year in quantity exported to the amount of 5000 tons, which 
in a great measure is to be accounted for by the present 
reckless system of collecting it. Here again is an instance of 
natural production being wantonly destroyed by man, in sjjite 
of his deriving a benefit from it ; we may thus say the j^rogress 
of civilization is the occasion of waste and destruction. The 
value of dry Esparto grass is about £5 to £5 10s. per ton ; 
and it is said that, under favourable circumstances, as much as 
from six to eight tons can be obtained from an acre. It grows 
on the poorest soil, especially limestone or sand; in fact, 
Avliere the soil will produce no other A^egetation the Espart( > 
grass will grow. It grows even in the sands of the Sahara, on 
stcmy hills, and on the very brink of the coast. I liave not 
the slightest doubt that the grass will thrive with us, and that 
the many thousands of acres of arid land, of a limestone or 
sandy nature, whicli is scarcely fit for pasture, may, by sowing 
with Esparto grass, become useful. Considering the similarity 
of our climate with that of Sj)ain, and, in fact, the north of 
Africa, we have no fear that our droughts would affect its 



2:>8 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

uvowtli — mil] lidw its introdnction woulil l)onelit South 
Australia if om- dcsorts could be changed into productive 
districts ! For a long time past I have endeavoured to intro- 
duce seed of this valuable grass as an experiment, but without 
success. I communicated with the ]5otanic Gardens and 
seedsmen in Europe on the sul)ject ; the answer was — " Not 
obtainable, the seed is not in the trade ; the Spaniards won't 
part with it " — and I had already given up the hope of 
(obtaining any. The more agreeably therefore was I surprised 
by receiving one ounce of seed from Mr. Bull, of London. I 
am glad to say that this seed arrived in good condition, 
though it is said the Spaniards, before parting with the seed, 
destroy its power of germinating, to prevent its introduction 
into other countries. IMy seed must have escaped such 
manipulation, as it has nearly all grown, and I am now in 
possession of about 1000 plants, all of which I intend to jdant 
tmt to procure as much seed as possible for distrilnition next 
year. It is now most extensively planted in the south of 
France ; and it is said that no other crop will pay better, 
especially considering that it "will grow on the poorest soils. 
It is propagated by seeds, and also by dividing the roots. 
The question will naturally be asked — Suppose we succeed in 
growing the grass here, where shall we iind a market for it ? 
Our enterprising and go-ahead neighbours in Victoria have 
already established a paper-mill, and a second one is con- 
templated in Sydney ; so that, if we succeed, the market 
for the grass is close at hand, and I think it would even jjay 
to export to England, as a hydraulic press would reduce the 
bulk materially. 

Opium. — South Australia, as far as climate and soil are 
(concerned, offers no difficulty to the cultivation of the poppy, 
as we see it thriving in many parts of the Colony, and 
probably we could produce a good sample of the drug. Mr. 
G. Francis exhibited not long ago, at the Agricultural Show, 
opium prepared by him, ^hich was considered as fair a samphi 
as could be derived from the first experiment. If we consider 
the enormous sum which isj yearly expended in opium, and 
that the cidtivatiun and niaiiui'acture can be undertaken by 



ITS FLOEA. 230 

young people, it is highly desirable that an attempt should be 
made to cultivate the poppy. 

Cochineal. — Every one of us is acquainted with the 
cochineal insect which produces the splendid, valuable, and 
much used dye called " carmine," and of which Mexico and 
the West India Islands export large quantities every year. 
The trade is likewise supplied with the same article from 
Brazil and East India, but Mexico furnishes the largest 
quantity, and at the same time the finest quality. Till the 
year 1725, the breeding of the cochineal insect was entirely 
confined to Mexico ; and the Government, with the strictest 
care, kept it secret ; and till then it was generally believed in 
Europe that the cochineal was not an insect, but a kind of 
seed. In the year 1785, Thierre de Menonville, a Frenchman, 
with the greatest danger to his life, brought a few living- 
insects to French Domingo, where they soon were acclimatized. 
During 1827 the insect was, by Bertholet, introduced to the 
Canary Islands, and lately, with the best results, in Corsica 
and Spain. If the insect thrives well in Spain and Corsica, 
why should it not do the same in Australia ? Both kinds of 
the cochineal plant, Opuntia Tuna and Opuntia coccinellifera, 
which I introduced by raising from seed, grow luxuriantly in 
the borders at the garden, without having had the slightest 
care bestowed upon them ; this proves that the plant will 
thrive in South Australia. The second and most important 
question is, how to introduce the insect. This could be done 
only on living plants in so-called Wardian cases. It is not 
the place to give a description of the treatment of the 
cochineal insect, and the prejiaration of the carmine ; but to 
give you only one instance of the extent of the cochineal 
trade, I will mention that the export of cochineal alone of the 
Mexican Province Oaxaca amounts to three-fourths of a million 
dollars annually. Xow, assuming that one pound of cochineal 
is worth $10, and that 70,000 insects make a pound, they must 
rear an immense quantity of insects. Not that I am sanguine 
of its success in this Colony, but we should try it. It is true 
the discovery of the splendid aniline colours have done the 



240 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

(■aniline trade some liaviii ; notwithstanding -wliicli it is still a 
most flourishing trade. 

Perfumes. — An abler pen than mine has already drawn tlie 
attention of the public to this one of the great indnstries. 
3[r. S. Davenport, in his able pamphlet on the same subject^ 
has referred to the great benefit to be derived from this source ; 
and I have much j^leasure in commending its perusal. If we 
consider that British India and Europe consume about 150,000 
gallons of handkerchief perfume yearly ; that the English 
revenue for Eau de Cologne alone is about £8000 a year ; 
that the total revenue for imjDorted perfumes is estimated at 
about £40,000, and that one great j)erfume distillery at 
(/annes, in France, uses annually about one hundred and forty 
thousand jiounds of orange blossoms, twenty thousand pounds 
of acacia flowers {Acacia Farnesiana), one hundred and forty 
thousand pounds of rose flower-leaves, thirty-two thousand 
pounds of jasmin blossoms, twenty thousand pounds of tube- 
roses, together Avith a great many other sweet her1)s, we may 
judge of the immense quantity of material used for perfumes. 
Most of the flowers which provide the material for perfumes 
grow luxuriantly with us, namely, mignonette, verbena, jasmin, 
rose, lavender, Acacia Farnesiana, heliotrope, rosemary, pepper- 
mint, violets, Avall-flowers, laurel, and oranges, from which 
alone three different scents are produced. These plants thrivo 
probably in greater perfection here than in any part of the 
' world. Xo doubt South Australia should be a perfume-pro- 
ducing country. We see flourishing here some of the most 
valuable scent plants. We have the wattle, myall wood, and 
other native plants, yielding valuable scents. But two things 
arc needed to encourage the enterprise. First — Freedom of 
the still, so as to license distilling in vessels of less than 
twenty-five gallons' capacity ; and, secondly, the hona fide 
advertisement of a capitalist manufacturer, that he will buy 
any quantity of specified flowers, leaves, roots, or plants, at a 
marketable price. Then some farmer may be temiited to 
plant a few acres of lavender or mint, another geraniums or 
rosemary, another aniseed, whilst plantations in hedgerows, or 



ITS FLOEA. 241 

suck like places, of roses, cassia, together with contributions 
from gardens, would lay the foundation for an export trade. 
Then it must be also noted that whatever the value which the 
jilants yield in flower, fruit, leaves, and stems, it is increased 
threefold under manufacture, and this manufacture consumes 
other local produce, called into existence by it, such as olive 
and other oils, fats, alkalies, wheaten flower, colouring matter, 
pottery and glass ware, which combine to make the farmers 
and the manufacturers contribute largely to the maintenance 
of population and the wealth of the perfume countries. To 
advance this highly remunerative industry, as I have already 
mentioned, a modification in the law of licensing stills should 
be made to hond fide perfume distillers, as the present law 
restricts stills to a range of capacity between 25 and 50 
gallons. Perfume stills for the finer perfumes are best at 
about 8 to 10 gallons. It is therefore to be hoped that our 
legislators would take this into their earnest consideration. 
To encourage the development of new industries, every facility, 
with respect to distillation of perfumes, should be given, even 
at the sacrifice of a small amount of revenue. To show 
the value of perfumes to the countries adapted for their pro- 
duction, the following table, compiled from the publications of 
Piesse and Brande, and the Cornhill MagayAne, October, 1864, 
may show why it is so : — 

£ 

One acre of jasmin plants, 80,000, •will produce 5000 lbs. of 

flowers, value Is. . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 

One acre rose trees, 10,000, will produce 2000 lbs. of flowers, 

value 9d. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 

One acre of orange trees, 100, at ten years old, 2000 lbs. of 

flowers, value 6(/. . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 

One acre of violets, IGOO lbs. of flowers, value 2s. . . . . 160 

One acre of cassia trees {Acacia Farnesiana), 302, at three 

years, 900 lbs. of flowers, value 2s. . . . . . . . . 90 

One acre geranium plants, 16,000, 40,0001bs. leaves, producing 

2 oz. of distilled otto per cwt., at 5s. per oz. . . . . 200 
One acre of lavender, 3547, giving flowers for distillation, value 30 

Further, without knowing the produce per acre, I add the otto 
j)er cwt., which the following plants are said to yield : — Rose- 
mary, per cwt., will yield 24 oz. of otto oil ; aniseed, 35 oz. ; 
caraways, from 3 lbs. to 4 lbs. 12 oz. fennel seed, 2 lbs. ; 
pachouli, 28 oz. 



242 SOUTH AUSTKALIA. 

TITR XOKTHERN TEERITOEY. 

Ill addition to what is said in a previous chapter, giving a 
general outline of the Northern Territory, it is now my 
intention to state how far its capabilities and resources may 
l)rove of advantage to colonists and the Mother Country, in 
regard to its capabilities for tropical agriculture. 

I will first say a few words on the great importance of my 
scheme proposed to the late Government, for the establishment 
of a standard experimental nursery for tropical commercial 
plants, at our young settlement. Port Darwin, My idea is, to 
lay out about eighty acres of land adapted to the growth (jf 
tropical commercial plants, so that at least plants or cuttings 
may be available for cultivation by the settlers ; and it would 
be a matter of very considerable moment to new settlers who 
contemplate tropical agriculture, to obtain from such an esta- 
blishment suitable plants, seeds, &c., at a low price, to commence 
with. If the grower had to import his own, the delays would 
be great, as there would be, at least during the first few years, 
little opportunity to import such plants from other countries. 
The cost of such an establishment would not be great ; and, in 
a few years, if the Government charges a trifle for the plants, 
])robably the garden would pay its own expenses. I made the 
following proposal to the late Government : — " Sir — I have the 
lionour to lay before you a scheme for forming at Port Darwin 
a standard experimental nursery of troj^ical commercial plants, 
for the benefit of future colonists who may settle there as tro- 
pical agriculturists. Of all the vegetable products capable of 
being propagated within the tropics, a very large proportion 
are objects of commercial value in Eurojje. The favourable re- 
port of competent judges who have visited the country leaves 
no doubt that Port Darwin is eminently suited to the cultiva- 
tion of such productions. Having had now an opportunity of 
examining various soils from the Northern Territory, I find 
they are very similar, and by no means inferior, to the soils 
which I have received from Java, Hongkong, Ceylon, Mauri- 
tius, and other tropical countries with which I am acquainted, 
r am strongly of opinion that the soils of tlie Northern Terri- 



ITS FLOEA. 243 

tory would prove appropriate for the same tropical productions 
as are cultivated in the countries above named ; and the climate 
may be also considered very favourable for the growth, leaving 
every prospect of success for tropical agriculture. With re- 
spect to the mode with which these objects might be usefullv 
carried out, I would suggest that about thirty acres of land 
should be selected as a standard nursery. In making a choice 
of such land, it would be very desirable that due regard should 
be had to the variety of soil and undulating character of 
the country, as suitable to the various physical requirements 
of the j)lants intended to be cultivated. The following plants 
I have good reason to believe could be cultivated with success, 
viz., sugar, cotton, coffee, tea, rice, cassava, arrowroot, indigo, 
ginger, cardamom, nutmeg, cocoa, tobacco, maize, pepper, castor 
oil plant, pimento, vanilla, sarsaparilla, rhea or Chinese grass 
plant, cocoa-nut palm, and many more. From the information 
I have received, I think that the tableland situated about thirty 
miles from the coast would prove favourable for the cultivation 
of the cinchona or quinine tree ; the importance of which is so 
well known that most of the Governments of tropical and subtro- 
pical countries are now turning their attention to its cultivation, 
the demand for quinine now exceeding the supply rendering it 
a matter of great consideration. I would beg to add, in laying 
out such a standard experimental nursery the success would 
greatly depend, on the ability and experience of the superin- 
tendent appointed. It would j^rove highly important, if judi- 
ciously managed, to the future settlers by enabling them to 
procure from such an establishment plants, cuttings, seeds, &c., 
only to commence the cultivation of such as are suitable to the 
country. As director of this Garden I could materially assist 
the carrying out of this project, as being in constant communi- 
cation with the Botanic Gardens of tropical countries, I could 
readily procure from them such plants, seeds, &c., as might bi^ 
required, and conveniently forward them when the intended 
communication with the new settlement is established." We 
have the proof how important and necessary such an establish- 
ment would be for the development of the resources of our new- 
Province. It would be useless to dwell U2)on the importance 

R 2 



244 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

of the cultivation of sugiir iiml cotton, wliicli lias been the 
f(juiidation of the prosperity of many Colonies ; and I do not 
hesitate to sav that all kinds of cotton, from the best long 
staple down to the finest short staple, might be cultivated, 
which would vie with the best in the world ; nor do I hesitate 
to say tluit sugar and cotton will become in future the great 
staples of Port Darwin. 

But the fertility of the soil is adapted for numerous other 
branches of tropical agriculture, and we may expect a safe re- 
turn for the investment of capital in the cultivation of other 
crops demanding less capital and less manual labour than sugar 
and cotton, of which other crops I will enumerate a few. 

Of the cereal grains, Indian corn deserves more attention 
than it has hitherto received. Indian millet, which, under the 
name of Guinea corn, is so extensively cultivated in the West 
Indies, might be raised to a large extent. The cultivation of 
(iocoa will be most suitable to the less wealthy individual, as it 
demands so little labour and outlay. Alexander Humboldt ob- 
serves, in alluding to Spanish America, that cocoa plantations 
are occupied by persons in humble condition, who prepare for 
themselves and their children a slow but certain fortune. A 
single labourer is sufficient to aid them in their plantations, 
and thirty thousand trees assure competence for a generation 
and a half. 

Of equal interest would prove the cultivation of cinnamon 
and nutmeg, of Avhich the average home consumption is esti- 
mated at one hundred and twenty thousand pounds' weight per 
annum. Pepper, jumento, could undoubtedly be cultivated 
with great success in Port Darwin, and form an article of ex- 
port. A rich soil in mountains, valleys, or along the banks of 
rivers which are not subjected to inundations, is considered to 
be the most eligible for the growth of ginger, cardamoms, and 
turmeric. 

'I'Uese valuable commercial plants I am convinced will grow 
in marshy situations. Also the valuable dye indigo, which 
thrives so well in a moist climate, would pay the cultivator 
most handsomely. 

Numerous other articles might be recommended to be 



ITS FLOEA. 245 

raised, viz., senna and numerous species of cassia, to wiiicli 
genus that drug belongs ; sarsaparilla, and many other medical 
l)lants, for all of which the Northern Territory would afford 
proper soil for cultivation. 

Before closing, I must say a few words in regard to the cul- 
tivation of the cinchona or quinine tree, for which every possible 
attempt should be made at Port Darwin. It is a well-known 
fact that the consumption of quinine has increased enormously, 
but in consequence of the wanton destruction of the quinine- 
tree forest in South America, the demand has exceeded the 
supply duriDg the last few years ; and any effort that can be 
made to increase the supply, and thus reduce the high price, 
is well worthy the attentive consideration of every one interested 
in alleviating the sufferings of humanity. Thousands of people 
died in the late fever in Mauritius and the East Indies for want 
of quinine ; they had not the means to give the enormous prices 
asked for it. Probably the tree might thrive at Port Darwin. 
Why should we not make the attempt to grow quinine there, 
and thus become benefactors to ourselves and others ? It is 
well known that most of the Governments of tropical and sub- 
tropical countries are now turning their attention to its cultiva- 
tion. About 1000 quinine trees have lately been planted in the 
Island of St. Helena. The quinine trees do well in Mauritius, 
Queensland, Ceylon. Probably their cultivation can also be 
successfully accomplished at Port Darwin. 

The synopsis of the Flora of South Australia is mostly com- 
piled from the valuable work of G. Bentham and F. Mueller's 
" Flora Australiensis." By the constantly occurring new dis- 
coveries, esiiecially in the central part of South Australia, the 
synopsis cannot be considered quite complete. 

The plants enumerated in the intra-tropical Flora have 
been mostly collected by Mr. Schultz in that locality. 



24G SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



DICOTYLEDONS. 

EANUNCULACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 5 G enera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 

Extra-Trojiical Flora. 
rinnatif: micropbylla, Dec. I Ranunculus lappucous, Sm. 

li'aiiiiuculu.s u'luatilis, Lin. | rivularis, J'>auks. 

liitra-T/ojjicaJ. 
Clematis glvcinoiilos, Dec. 

DILLENIACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 5 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Extra- Tropical. 



llililxTtia sericea, JBenth. 
virguta, K. Br. 
Billardicri, F. Mucll. 



Hiblicitia dcalbata, Bentli. 

angustitblia, Beuth. 
Icpidota, E. Br. 



Hibbortia stricta, R. Br. 

faseiculata, R. I'r. 
{rlaberrima, F. MuclL 



Iiitra-Tropicnl. 



Hibbertia oblongata, R. Br. 
Pachynema dilatatum, Benth 
junceuni, Bcntli. 



MACtXOLIACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Geniis. 

No representative in South Australia. 

AN0NACEJ3. 

Indigenous in Australia, 6 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus, 

Intra-Tropical. 
Pulyaltliia nitiJissinia, Benth. 

MEXISPERMACE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 7 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genera. 
Intm-Tropical. 
Stephuniii hernanditcfolia, "Wulp. 

NYMPHiEACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Inira-Tropical. 
Nymphwa gigantea, Hook. | Nclumbiuin spiciosuni. AVilld. 

I'.\1'AYERACE.E. 
In(li<j,ciiuus in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

F.j-tra-Troincul. 
Papavcr horrid um, Dec. 



ITS FLOEA. 



24" 



CRUCIFEKiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 15 Gcuera. 

South Australia, 8 Genera. 



Nasturtium palustre, Dec. 
Alyssuiu liuifoliuin, Stcph. 
iSisymbrium officinale, iScop. 
Cardaiuine laciniata, F. Muell. 

liirsuta, Lin. 
Blcnnodia filifolia, Bentli. 

trisecta, Beutli. 

nasturtioides, Bcnth. 

cardaminoides, F. Muell 

curvipes, F. Muell. 

brevipes, F. Muell. 

lasiocarpa, F. Muell. 



Exfra-lVojoical. 

Blcnnodia canoscens, E. Br. 
Stenopetalum velutinum, F. Muell. 
lineare, R. Br. 
spbserocarpum, F. Muell. 
nutans, F. Muell. 
Capsella procumbens, Fries. 
Lepidium phlebopetalum, F. Muell. 

strongylophyllum, F. Muell. 
papillosum, F. Muell. 
tbliosum, Dcsv. 
ruderale, Lin. 



CAPPAEIDE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 7 Genera. 

South Australia, 4 Genera. 



Capparis Mitclielli, Lindl. 

Cleome tetraudra, Banks. 

oxalidea, F. Muell. 
Polanisia viscosa, Dec. 
Cadaba capparoides, Dec. 



Extra- Tropical. 

Inira-Tropical. 

Capparis umbellata, R. Br. 
iimbonata, Lindl. 
lucida, E. Br. 
quinifiora, Dec. 



VIOLARIE/E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Viola betonicsefolia, Sm. I lonidium floribiindum, Walp, 

hederacea, Labill. | 

Intra-Tropiccd, 
lonidium aiirantiacum, F. Muell. 

BIXINE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Extra-Tropical. 



Ccclilospcrmum Fraseri, Planch, 
lieteroneurum, 

F. Muell. 



Cocblosperinum Grc?;orii, 

F. Muell. 



PITTOSPORE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia. 9 Genera. 

South Australia, 4 Genera. 

Pittosporum phillyrajoides, Dec. | Billardiera cymosa, F. Muell. 

]5ursaria spinosa, Cav. | Clieiranthera linearis, A. Cunn. 

Marianthus bignoniaceus, F. Muell. I volubilis, Benth. 

Billardiera scandens, Sm. | 

Iidra-Tropical. 
Citriobatus pauciflorus, A. Cunn. 



248 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

TREMANDRE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Aiistralia, 1 Genus. 

Extra-Tropical. 
Tetrathcca pilosa, I.ubill. 

rOLYGALE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Comesperma volubile, Labill. I Comesperma polygaloides, F. Mucll. 

calymega, Labill. | 

Intra-Tropieal. 
Polygala lejitaloa, Dec. I Polygala arvcnsis, Willd. 

crioccphala, F. Mucll. rliinanthoides, Soland. 

orbicularis, Bcnth. | stenoclada, Benth. 

FRANKENIACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

Extra-Tropical. 
Frankcnia pauciflora, Dec. 

CARYOPHYLLE.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 10 Genera. 

South Australia, 8 Genera. 
Ex tra- Tropica I. 

Sagina procumbens, Lin. 



GypsopLila tubulosa, Boiss. 
Silenc galliea, Lin. 
Cerastium vulgatum, Lin. 
Stcllaria glauca, With. 

multiflora, Hook. 



Spergularia rubra, Pors. 
Polycarpon tetraphyllum, Lin. 
Polycarpa^a synaudra, V. Muell 



In tra- Tropical. 
Polycarpa}a longiflora, F. IMucll. I Polycarpoea corymbosa, Lam. 

violacca, Benth. I brevitiora, F. Muell. 

stamiuodina, F. Muell. | involucrata, F. Mucll. 

rORTULACEiE. 
Indigenous in Australia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 

Extra-Tropical. 
Portulaca olcracca, Lin. I Calandrlnia calyptrata. Hook. 

C'alaudrinia polyandra, Bcnth. j pygnia^a, F. !Muell. 

pusilla, Lindl. Claytonia australasica, Hook. 

volubilis, Benth. | 

Intra-Tropical. 



Portulaca bicolor, F. Mucll. 

napiformis, F. Muell. 
australis, Endl. 



Portulaca digyna. F. ]Muell. 
Calandriiiia uniflora, F. Muell. 
CTacilis, Benth. 



ELATINE/E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Elatine americana, Am. I Bergia perenuis, F. IMuell. 

Bergia pusilla, Benth. | 



ITS FLOEA. 



240 



Hypericum japonicuni, Tliunb. 



IIYPERICINEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

Extra-Troincal. 



GUTTIFERiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 
Ko representative in Soutli Australia. 



MALVACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 15 Genera. 

South Australia, 13 Genera. 



Extra-Tropical. 



Lavatcra plebeia, Sims, 
^lalvastnim spicatum, A. Gray. 
Plagianthus spicatus, Benlh. 

glomeratus, Benth. 
microphyllus, F. Muell. 
Sida corrugata, Lindl. 

intricata, F. Muell. 

virgata, Hook. 

petrophila, F. Muell. 

calyxhymenia, J. Gay. 



Abutilon leucopetalum, F. Muell. 

AvicennjE, Gaertn. 

Fraseri, Hook. 
Hibiscus Trionum, Lin. 

KrichaufSanus, F. Muell. 

Huegelii, Endl. 
Fugosia hakeaefolia, Hook. 
Gossypium Sturtii, F. Muell. 
Codonocarpus cotinifolius, F. ^lucll. 



Sida macropoda, F. Muell. 
sub.-picata, F. Muell. 
spinnsa, Lin. 
rhombifolia, Lin. 
cordi folia, Lin. 
Abutilon indicum, G. Don. 
amplum, Benth. 
auritum, G. Don. 
Urena lobata, Lin. 
Hibiscus rhodopetalus, F. Muell 
Trionum, Lin. 



Intra-Tropical. 

Hibiscus radiatus, Cav. 

zonatus, F. Muell. 

leptocladus, Benth. 

geranioides, A. Cunn. 

tiliaceus, Lin. 

divaricatus, Grah. 
Fugosia punctata, Benth. 
Thespesia populnea, Corr. 
Adansonia Gregorii, F. Muell. 
Bombax malabaricum, Dec. 



STERCULIACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 19 Genera. 

South Australia, 6 Genera. 



Thomasia pctalocalyx, F. Muell. 
Lasiopetalum discolor, Hook. 

Behrii, F. Muell. 



Extra-Tropical. 



Lasiopetalum Baueri, Stcetz. 

Schulzenii, Bunth. 



Sterculia fcetida, Lin. 

ramiflora, Benth. 
caudata. Heward. 
(juadrifida, R. Br. 



Intra-Tropical. 

I Ilelictercs Isora, Lin. 
I Melochia corchori folia, Lin. 
Waltheria americana, Lin. 



2o0 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

TILIACE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 7 Genera. 

South Australia, 4 Genera. 
Intra-Tropical. 



riiTwid oricntalis, Lin. 

multitloi-;i, Juss. 

polypuiiii, Kdxb. 

l)revilloi;i. IJcntli. 
Triimifctta apijcudiculatu, F. Miull. 
glauccscens, 11. Br. 



Corchorus acutangulus. Lam. 
fascictilaris, Lam, 
puniilio, R. Br. 
.sidoidis, F. MxK'U. 

Elococarpus obovatus, G. Don. 



Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Extra-Troincal. 
Liuuiu iiiargiuale, A. Cuim. 

MALPIGHIACEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera, 
No reijresentative in South Australia. 

ZYGOPHYLLE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

SoiTth Australia, 3 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 



Tiibuliis tcrrestris, Lin. 
liystrix, E. Bi*. 
Nitraria Schoberi, IJn. 
Zygophyllum apiculatum, F. Mnell. 
glauccscens, F. Miiell. 



Zygophyllum iodocarpum, F. Mucll. 
prismatothecuui, 

F. MuclL 
Billardieri, Dec. 
fruticulosum, Dec. 



Iiiira-Tropical. 
Tribulus cistoidcs, Lin. [ Tribulus bicolor, F. Muell. 

pcutaudrus, Benth. | angustifolius, Benth. 

GEEANIACEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 4 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 

rdargonium anstralc, Willd. 

Jlodiuyanum, Lindl. 
Oxalis corniculat;i, Lin. 



CUraiiium dissoctum, Lin. 

Erodium eygnorum, Nces. 

cicutarium, I^her 



SIMARUBE.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, G Genera. 

Sou til Australia, 1 Genus. 

Intra-Tropical. 
Harrisonia Brownii, A. Juss. 



ITS FLOEA. 



251 



PwUTACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 29 Genera. 

South Australia, 9 Genera. 



Zieria veronicea, F. Muell. 
Boronia Edwardsii, Benth. 

cairulescens, F. Muell. 

polygalifolia, Sni. 

inoriiata, Turcz. 

filifolia, F. Miu'll. 
Eriostemou diftbrmis, A. Ciinn. 
Phebaliiuii ])imgens, Benth. 
bilobum, Liudl. 



Boronia affinis. E. Br. 

lanceolata, F. Muell. 



Extra- Tropical. 

Pliebalium linearis, A. Cunn. 

glandulosuni, Hook. 
Microcybe paucitiora, Turcz. 
Correa seraula, F. Muell. 
alba, Andr. 
speciosa. Ait. 
decumbens, F. IMucll. 
Geijera parviflora, Lindl. 

Iidra-Tropical. 

I Zanthoxylum parviflorum, Benth. 
I Micromelum pubescent, Bhime. 



BUESERACE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Canarium aiistralasicum, F. Muell. 



MELIACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 10 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Dysoxylon Muelleri, Benth. I Owenia reticulata, F. Muell. 

Owenia vernicosa, F. Muell. ] Carapa moluccensis, Lam. 



OLACINE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, G Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Extra-Tropical. 
Olax Benthaniiana, Miq. 

Intra-Tropicul. 
Opilia amentacea, Eoxb. 

ILICINE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 
Jso representative in South Australia. 



CELASTRINEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 5 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Celastrus Cunninghamii, F. IMucU. i Denhamia obscura, Meisn. 

Denhaniia oleaster, F. Muell. | 



or^o 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



STACKHOUSIE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 
Ex t ra-Tropical. 
Staclvhou.-ia spathiilata, Sieb. | Stackhousia monogyna, T.abill. 

Lit ra-Tropical, 
Stackhousia viminea, Sm. 

PvIIAMNE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 12 Genera. 

South Australia, 7 Genera. 
Extra- Tropical. 



Sjjyridium suhocreatum, Keissek. 
vo.villiffruiii, Reissok. 
criooephaliim, Fenzl. 
Stonauthemumleucopliractum, Keissek. 

Wutcrhnusii, Benth. 
Cr^'ptandra Iiispidula, Keissek. 
aiiiara. Sin. 
tomentosa, Lindl. 



Pomadcrris apetala, Labill. 
obcordata, Fcnzl. 
racemosa, Hook. 
Sijyridium parvifoliiun, F. Muell. 
spalhulatum, F. Mncll. 
phli'liopliyllmn, F. IMucll. 
coactilitbliuiii, Kcis.sek. 
haliiiaturimiin, F. Muell. 
bifiduin, F. Muell. 

Intra-Tropical. 
Veiitilagjo viminalis, Hook. I Alpliitonia cxcelsa, Rtissek. 

Zizyphus CEuoi)lia, Mill. | 

AMPELIUE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 14 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Yitis cordata. Wall. I Leea sambucina, Willd. 

tiifolia, Lin. | 

SAPINDACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 14 Genera. 

South Australia, 4 Genera. 
Extra-Tropirnl. 



Heterodendron olerefolium, Desf. 
Dodonaja viscosa, Lin. 

attenuata, A. Cimn. 

procuinbens, F. Muell. 

lobulata, F. Muell. 

bursarifolia, Behr. 



Dodontca Baueri. Endl. 

he.xandia, F. Muell. 
humilis, luidl. 
boraiiisefolia, G. Don. 
stenozyga, F. 3Iuell. 



Intra-Tropical, 



( 'ardiospermum Halicacabum, Lin. 
Schmidelia serrata, Dec. 
Cupania anacardioides, A. Rich. 



Dodona3a viscosa, Lin. 
Distichostemon phyllopteru«, F. ^Muell. 



ANACARDIACE/E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 5 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 

Lit ra-Tropical. 
Buchanania angustifolia, Roxb. 1 Semecarpus Auacardiuni, Roxb. 



ITS FLOEA. 



25: 



LEGUMINOS^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 92 Genera. 

South Australia, 57 Genera. 



Extra-Tropical. 



Isotropis Wheeleri, F. Miiell. 
"\'iminari;i denudatn, Sm. 
Daviesia corymbosa, Sm. 
ulicina. Sm. 
genistifolia, A. Cimn 
incrassata, Sm. 

brevifolia, Liiull. 

pectinata, Lindl. 
Aotus villosa, Sm. 
Fhyllota Sturtii, Bentli. 

pleurandroides, F. Muell. 
Brachysema Chambersii, F. Muell. 
Pultcnrea daphnoides, Wendl. 

stiicta, Sims. 

mucronata, F. IMuell. 

pedunculata, Hook. 

mollis, Lindl. 

rigida, K. Br. 

acerosa, K. Br. 

vestita, K. Br. 

laxiflora, Benth. 

largiflorens, F. Muell. 

densifolia, F. Muell. 

villifera, Sieb. 

involucratn, Bentli. 

prostrata, Betith. 

canaliculata, F. Muell. 

tenuifolia, R. Br. 
F.utaxia empetrifolia, Sclilecbt. 
Dillwynia hispida, Lindl. 

floribunda, Sm. 

cinerascens, R. Br. 

patula, F. Muell. 
Platylobium obtusangulum, Hook. 
Bossitca prostrata, R. Br. 
riparia, A. Cunn. 
Templetonia retusa, R. Br. 
egena. Benth. 
Hovca longifolia, R. Br. 
Goodia lotifolia, Salisb. 
Crotalaria Cunningliamii, R. Br. 

dissitifiiora, Benth. 
Pentadynamis incana, R. Br. 
Trigonclla suavissima, Lindl. 
Lotus cnmiculatus, Lin. 

australis, Andr. 
Psfiralea eriantha, Benth. 

patens, Lindl. 

adscendens, F. Muell. 
Indigofera viscosa, Lam. 

brevidens, Benth. 
australis, Willd. 
Sesbania aculeata, Pers. 
Clianthus Dampieri, A. Cunn. 



Swainsuna Greyana, Lindl. 
galegifolia, R. Br. 
pliacoides, Benth. 
Bnrkittii, F. Muell. 
oligophylla, F. Muell. 
campylantha. F. Muell, 
procumbens, F. Muell. 
phacifolia, F. Muell. 
lessertiitolia, Dec. 
mierophylla, A. Gray, 
laxa, R.Br. 
Lespedeza lunata, Bentli. 
Glycine falcata, Benth. 

clandestina, Wendl. 
Latrobeana, Benth. 
tabacina, Bentli 
Hardenbergia monophylla, Benth. 
Kennedya prostrata, R. Br. 
Vigna lanceolata, Benth. 
Cassia eremopliila, A. Cunn. 
artemisioides. Gaud. 
Sturtii, R. Br. 
desolata, F. Muell. 
Petalostyles labicheoides, R. Br. 
Acacia continua, Benth. 
spinescens, Bentli. 
colletioides, A. Cunn. 
tetragonophylla, F. Muell. 
rupicola, F. IMuell. 
rhigiophylla, F. Muell. 
aiieura, F. Muell. 
stereophylla, IMeisn. 
oxycedrus, Sieb. 
verticillata, Willd. 
rigens, A. Cunn. 
papyrocarpa, Bentli. 
calamifolia. Sweet, 
armata, R. Br. 
vomeriformis, A. Cunn. 
obliqua, A. Cunn. 
acinaceu, Lindl. 
lineata, A. Cunn. 
anceps, Dec. 
raicrocarpa, F. Muell. 
moiitana, Bentli. 
vernieiflua, A. Cunn. 
dodouffiifolia, Willd. 
sentis, F. Muell 
retinodes, Schleclit. 
neriifolia, A. Cunn. 
pycnantha, Bentli. 
notabilis, F. Muell. 
salicina, Lindl. 
prominens, A. Cuuu. 



254 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



Acacia Lrachybotiya, Beiifli. 
Wattsi;ina,'F. Muell. 
niyi-til'olia, Willd. 
sublanata, Benth. 
homalo[)liylla, A. ("iinn. 
Oswaldi, K. iMiicll. 
stenophylla, A. Ciiini. 



Acacia farinosa, Lindl. 

inelanoxylon, R. Br. 
Iniii^ifolia, Willd. 
Burkittii, F. IMuell. 
cyperopliylla, F. Mucll. 
.sck-ropiiylla, Tandl. 
decurreus, Willd. 



Iiitra- 
Isotropis pavviflora, Bcntli. 
Burtonia subidata, Bentli. 
Jacksonia dilatata, Beatli. 

odoutoclada, F. IMiiell. 
veruicosa, F. MiicU. 
Crotalavia ciisj)ata, F. ]\Iuell. 
linifblia, Lin. 
Xovae Holland i a?. Dee. 
trifoliastrimi, Willd. 
dissitiflora, Bcutli. 
Psoralca badocana, Benth. 

pustulata, F. IMnel]. 
leucantha, F. Muell. 
ludigofcra liirsuta, Lin. 

.saxicola, F. ]Mucll. 
1 in i folia, Retz. 
viscosa, Lam. 
cordifolia, Heyne 
haplophylla, F. Muell. 
tiita, Lin. 
Tephrosia juncea, R. Br. 
porrecta, R. Br. 
simplicifolia, F. IMuell. 
reticulata, R. Br. 
crocca, R. Br. 
polyzyga, F. Muell. 
Stuartii, Benth. 
eriocarpa, Bentli, 
filipes, Benth. 
Sesbania graudiflora, Pcrs. 
cCgyptiaca, Per.s. 
Zornia diphylla, Pers. 
Desmodium trichostachyum, Bentli. 
Muelleri, Benth. 
biarticulatiim, F. IVIuell. 
Pycnospora hedysaroidcs, R. Br. 
Uraria cylindracea, Benth. 

lagopoides, Dec. 
Alysicarpus rugosus, Dec. 
Clitniia au.stralis, Benth. 
Glycine tonientosa, Benth. 
Galactia tenuiflora, Willd. 
Canavalia obtusifolia, Dec. 
Phaseolus Mungo, Lin. 

vulgaris, lAn. 
Yigna v(?xillata, Benth. 
lutea, A. Gray, 
lanceolata, Benth. 
Erythrina vespertilio, Benth. 
Atylosia grandifolia, F. Muell. 



Tropical. 

Atylosia cinerea, F. ]Muell. 
Rliynchosia rhomboidea, F. Muell. 
australis, Benth. 
minima, Dec. 
Eriosema chinense, Vog. 
Flcmiugia pauciHora, Bentli. 

lineata, Roxb. 
Abrus precatorius, Lin. 
Dalbergia dcnsa, Benth. 
Pongamia glabra, Vent. 
Peltophoium ferrugincum, Benth. 
Guilandina Bonducella, Lin. 
Cassia Absus, Lin. 

chamsecrista, Lin. 

sutfruticosa, Koen. 

venusta, F. Muell. 

notabilis, F. Mnell. 

oligoclada, F. ]\IuelI. 

leptoclada, Benth. 
Bauhinia Hookeri, F. Muell. 
Erythrophloeum Laboucherii, 

F. :Muell. 
Dichi'ostachys cinerea, W. & Am. 

Muelleri, Bentli. 
Neptunia gracilis, Benth. 
Acacia crassicarpa, A. Cunn. 

Cunninghamii, Hook. 

dimidiata, Benth. 

holosericea, A. Cunn. 

latescens, Benth. 

loxocarpa, Benth. 

pilifcra, Benth. 

polys tachya, Benth, 

Simsii, A. Cunn. 

tumida, F. Muell. 

patens, F. Muell. 

Baiieri, Benth. 

heraignosta, F. Muell. 

Wickhami, Benth. 

lysiphloca, F. Muell. 

linarioides, Benth. 

umbellata, A. Cunn. 

xylocarpa, A. Cunn. 

conspersa, F, Muell. 

torulosa, I3entli. 

plectocarpa, A. (^unn. 

tumida, F. Muell. 

latifolia, Benth. 

huraifusa, A. ('nun. 

faruesiaua, Willd. 



ITS TLOEA. 2oo 

ROSACEA. 
Indigenous in Australia, 7 Genera. 

South Australia, 5 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Rubus parvifolius, Liu. | Acsena ovina, A. Cunn. 

Alcliemilla arvensis, Scop. | Sanguisorbi-e, Vahl. 

Intra-Tropical. 
Farinarium Griffithianum, Benth. I Eiibus moluccanus, Liu. 

Nonda, F. Muell. | 

SAXIFRAGES. 

Indigenous in Australia, 20 Genera. 

No rej)resentative in South Australia. 

CRASSULACES. 
Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Tillaea verticillaris, Dec. I Tillsea recurva. Hook. 

macrautha, Hook. [ 

DROSERACEZE. 
Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Extra-Tropical. 



Drosera glanduligera, Lebm. 
pygmoDa, Dec. 
binata, Labill. 

Intra-Tropical. 
Drosera iudica, Lin. | Drosera petiolaris, E. Br, 



Drosera Wbittakerii, Planch 
anriculata, Backh. 
Meuziesii, E. Br. 



HALORAGES. 
Indigenous in Australia, 7 Genera. 

South Australia, 6 Genera. 
Extra-Troprical. 



Haloragis tencrioides, A. Gray. 
Meionectes Brownii, Hook. 
Myriophyllum variajfolium. Hook. 

elatinoides, Gaud. 

verrucosum, Lindl. 

Muelleri, Sond. 

integrifolium. Hook. 
Ceratopbyllum demersum, Lin. 
Callitriche verna, Liu. 



Loudouia aurca, Liudl. 

Bebrii, Scblecbt. 
Haloragis mucrouata, Bentb. 

Gossei, F. Muell. 

elata, A. Cunu. 

ceratopbylla, Endl. 

acutangula, F. Muell. 

micrantba, R. Br. 

heterophylla, Brongu, 

tetragyna, Hook. 

Intra-Tropical. 
Haloragis acanthocarpa, Brongu. 

RHIZOPHORE.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 4 Genera. 
Intra-Tropiial. 
Ebizopbora raucronala, Lam. I Bruguiera Rbeedii, Bluin. 

Ceriops Candolleaua, Arn. ] Carallia integerrima, Dec. 



25G 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



COMBRETACEJE. 
ludiguuous ill Aiistralia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 
Intra-Trojjical. 
TLiminalia platyptera, F. Sluell. I Teriniaalia platypliylla, F. IMuell. 

volucris, R. Br. | grandiflora, Bentli. 

bursarina, F. IMncll. Macropteraathes Kekwickii, 

circumaluta, F. MucU. | F. Mucll 

MYRTACEvE. 
Indigenous in Australia, 42 Genera. 

South Australia, 18 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 

Melaleuca uncinata, E. Br. 

glomerata, F. Muell. 
squamea, Labill. 
lasiandni, F. Miioll. 
linophylla, F. Muell. 
Eucalyptus virgata, Sieb. 
obliqua, Lher. 



Darwiuia micropetala, Benth. 

Schuermauui, Benth. 
Verticordia Wilhelmii, F. Muell. 
Calythrix tetragona, Labill. 
IJiotzkya glaberrima, F. Muell. 

geuetylloidcs, F. Muell. 
'J'liryptomeue Miqueiiana, F. Muell. 
ericsea, F. Muell. 
Elliottii, F. Muell. 
Maisonneuvii, F. Muell, 
IMicromyrtus microphylla, Benth. 
BiBckea crassifolia, Lindl. 
Behrii, F. Muell. 
Leptospermum laevigatum, F. Muell. 
scoparium, Forst. 
lanigerum, Sm. 
myrsinoides, Schlecht. 
Kunzca pomifera, F. ^luell. 
Callistemon cocciueus, F. Muell. 
salignus, Dec. 
teretifolius, F. Muell. 
brachyandrus, Lindl. 
Melaleuca acuminata, F. Muell. 
decussata, R. Br. 
Wilsonii, F. Muell. 
Preissiana, Schau. 
armillaiis, Sm. 

Inti-a- Tropical 



capitellata, Sm. 
leucnxylon, F. Muell. 
gracilis, F. Muell. 
paniculata, Sm. 
bicolor, A. Cunu. 
odorata, Behr. 
uncinata, Turcz. 
hemiphloia, F. Muell. 
cneorifolia, Dec. 
corynocalyx, F. Muell. 
brachypoda, Turcz. 
cosmophylla, F. Muell. 
dumosa, A. Cunn. 
incrassata, Labill. 
viminalis, Labill. 
rostrata, Schlecht. 
Stuartiana, F. Muell. 
oleosa, F. Muell. 
foccunda, Schau. 



Verticordia Cunninghamii, Schau. 
Calythrix microphylla, A. Cunn. 
conferta, A. Cunn. 
arborescens, F. Muell. 
laricina, R. Br. 
Thryptomene Maisonneuvii, F. INIuell. 
Leptospermum abnorme, F. Muell. 
Melaleuca acacioides, F. Muell. 

symphyocarpa, F. Muell. 
leucadendron, Lin. 
genisti folia, Sm. 
dissitillora, F. Muell. 
Eucalyptus miniata, A. Cunn. 

platyphylla, F. Muell. 
corymbosu, Sm. 
terminalis, F. Mucll. 
clavigera, A. Cunn. 
granditblia, R. Br. 
pruinosa, Schau. 



Eucalyptus crebra, F. Muell. 

brachypoda, Turcz. 

patellaris, F. Muell. 

tesselaris, F. Muell. 

phoenicea, F. Muell. 

latifolia, F. Muell. 

ptychocarpa, F. Muell. 

dichroniophloia, F. jNIucII. 

terminalis, F. Muell. 

tetrodoiita, F. Muell. 
Tristania lactiflua, F. Muell. 
Xanthostemon paradoxus, F. Muell. 
Osbornia octodonta, F. Muell. 
Eugenia Smithii, Foir. 

eucalyptoides, F. Muell. 
Armstrongii, Benth. 
Barringtonia acutangula, Gaertn. 
Careya arborea, Roxb. 



ITS FLOEA. 25" 

MELASTOMACE.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Osbeckia australiana, Naiid. | Melastoma malabathricum, Liu. 

LYTHRARIEzE. 
Indigenous in Australia, 5 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 
Extra-Tropicul. 
Animannia iudica, Lam. I Lythrum liyf^sopifolium, Lin. 

Lythrum Salicaria, Lin. | 

Inira-TropicaJ. 
Ammannia Eotala, F. Muell. I Animannia indica. Lam. 

pentandra, Roxb. | Lythrum arnhemicum, F. MueU. 

OXAGRARIE.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Ex tra- Trop ica I. 
Epilobium jnuccum, Forst. Epilobium pallidiflorum,_Soland. 

gliibellum, Forst. Jussiaea repeus, Lin. 

tetragouum, Lin. 

Intra-Trojncal. 
.Jussitea suffruticosa, Lin. | Ludwigia iiarviflora, Roxb. 

SAMYDACE.E. 

Indigenous in Aiistralia, 2 Genera. 

No representative in South Australia. 

PASSIFLORE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Modccca australis, E. Br. 

CUCURBITACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 9 Genera. 

South Australia, G Genera. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Trichosunthes cucumeriua, Lin. I Bryonia laciniosa, Lin. 

Luffa segy|)tiaca. Mill. | INlelothria Cuiininghamii. F. Muell. 

graveolons, Roxb. I Mukia scabrclla, Arn. 

Cucumis trigonus, Roxb. | 

FICOIDE.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 8 Genera. 

South Australia, 7 Genera. 

Mesembryanthenium sequilateralo, Tetragonia implexicomc, Hook. 

Haw. Aizoou quadrifidum, F. ]\Iuoll. 

australe, SoLind. (lunnia septifraga, F. IMuell. 

crystallinuin, Liu. ; >Mollugo orygioides, F. Muell. 
Tetragonia expaus>a, JMurr. Cerviana, Ser. 



258 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



Sesiivium portulacastrum. Liii. 
Trianthema crystullina, Y:ilil. 
pilosii, F. Jlucll. 



Intra-Tropical. 

Trianthema rhyncliocalvptra, 

F. Muell. 
Mollugo triprastrotheca. F. MiioU. 



ump.kltjfeh.t:. 

In(liy,enoiis in Australia, 13 Genera. 

South Australia, 7 Genera, 



Ex tra- Tropica 1. 

Tracliymenc glaucifolia, Bentli. 
Xanthosia piisilla, Bung:e. 

dissecta, Hook. 
Eryngium rostratum, Cav. 

vesifulosum, Laliill. 
Apiiim australe, Thou. 
Crantzia lino;ita, Nutt. 
Daiiciis brachiatus, Sieb. 



Ilyilrocotyle viils;aris, Lin. 

liirta, K. Br. 

laxiflora, Uec. 

callioarpa, Bungo. 

capillaris. F. Muell 

asiatica, Lin. 
Trachymene australis, Bentli. 

jjilosa. Sm. 

criocarpa, Bentli. 

Intra-Tropical. 
TTydrocotyle grnnimatocarpa, F. Muell. I Trachymene glandulosa, Bcutli. 
Trachymene villoma, Benth. | hemicarim, Benth. 

ARALIACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 6 Genera. 
No representative in South Australia. 

COKNACE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 
No representative in South Australia. 



T.oranthus angustifnlins, H. Br 
liiiearifolius. Hook. 
Exocarpi, Belir. 
linophyllus, Fenzl. 



LOPtANTHACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 5 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 

Loranthus pcndulus, Sieb. 

Quandang, Lindl. 
grandibracteus, F. jMnell. 
Yiscum articulatum, Bnrin. 



Loranthus eelastroides, i^ieb. 
longiflorus, Desv. 
pendulus, Sieb. 
Exocarpi, Belir. 



Tnlra-TiopicaJ. 

Loranthus siguatus, F. Muell. 
Quandang, Tiindl. 
grandibracteus, F. INIuell. 
Yiscum angulatuin, Ileyne. 



CArRIFOLTACEiE. 
Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 
Extra- Trop icul. 
Sanibucus Caudicliaudiana, Dec. 



ITS FLORA. 



259 



RUBIACEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 29 Genera. 

South Australia, 7 Genera. 



Hedyotis tillreacea, F. Muell. 
Dentella repens. Forst. 
C'anthiiim latifoliura, F. 3Iiicll. 
Opercularia scabrida, Schlcfht. 

hispida, Siireug. 

ovata, Hook. 

varia, Hook. 



Extra-Tropical. 

Opercularia umbellata, Gatrt. 
Asperula scoparia, Hook. 
Galium geminifolium, F. INIuell. 

Gaudichaudi, Dec. 

australe, Dec. 

Aparine, Liu. 



lledyotis Auricularia, Lin. 

pterospora, F. Muell. 
Dentella repeus, Forst. 
Knoxia corymbosa, AVilld. 
Gardenia megasperma, F. Muell. 

suffruticosa, E. Br. 
Eandia densiflora. Benth. 
Ixora timorensis, Dec. 

tomeutosa, Eoxb. 

coccinea, Lin. 
Timonius Eumphii, Dec. 
Guettarda speciosa, Lin. 



Inlra-Tropical. 

Canthium lucidum, Hook. 

coprosmoides, F. ]Muell. 
Coclospermum reticulatum, Beuth. 
Psychotria nesophila, F. Muell. 
Spermacoce breviflora, F. Muell. 

exserta, Benth. 

leptoloba, Benth. 

brachystema, E. Br. 

membranacea, E. Br. 

marginata, Benth. 

auriculata, F. Muell. 
Scyphiphora hydrophylacea, Gaert. 



COMPOSITE. 
Indigenous in Australia, 94 Genera. 

South Australia, 66 Genera. 



Adenostemma viscosuiu, Forst. 
iJlearia grandiflora, Hook. 

pannosa, Hook. 

stellulata, Dec. 

tubuliflora, Benth. 

ramulosa, Benth. 

floribunda, Benth. 

lepidophylla, Benth. 

pimeleoides, Benth. 

conoeephala, P. Muell. 

Muelleri, Benth. 

Stuartii, F. Muell. 

decurrens, Bentli. 

glutinosa, Benth. 

teretifolia, F. Muell. 

glandulosa, Benth. 

rudis, F. Muell. 

picridifolia. Benth. 

ciliata, F. Muell. 
Yitfadiuia australis, A. Eich, 
Podocoma cuneifolia, E. Br. 
Erigerou liuifolius, Willd. 
Mhiuria leptophylla, Dec. 

Candollei, F. Muell. 

Cunninghamii, Benth. 

integerrima, Benth. 



Extra-Tropical. 

Minuria dcnticulata, Benth. 

susedifolia, F. Muell. 
Calotis cuneifolia, E. Br. 

cymbacantha, F. Muell. 
erinacea, Steetz. 
scabiosifolia, Sond. 
scapigera. Hook, 
lappulacea, Bentli. 
plumulifera, F. ]Muell. 
porphyroglossa, F. Muell. 
hispidula, P. Muell. 
dentex, E. Br. 
Lagenophora Billardieri, Cass. 
Huegelii, Benth. 
Brachycome diversifolia, Fisch. 
goniocarpa, 8i>nd. 
pachyptera, Turez. 
Muelleri, Sond. 
graminea, P. INIuell. 
basaltica, P. IMuell. 
trachycarpa, F. ^Muell. 
exilis, Sond. 
debilis, Sond. 
decipicns, Honk, 
cardiocarpa, F. Muell. 
ciliaris, Less. 

s 2 



20O 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



IJnicliycoiiic ealocarpa, F. ^[lu II. 

colliiia, Ik'iitli. 
Moueutelf.s si)liiiccliitiis, I.ubill. 
Pliichea Eyreii, F. .^Imll. 
Epaltes aii.stnilis, I.uss. 
Siegesbeckiii oricntalis, I. in. 
Eclipta platyglossii, F. Muell. 
Glossogyne teniiifolia, Cass. 
C'otula iilifolia, 'r]miil>. 

coronopi folia. Tan. 
aiislralis. Hook, 
reptaus, ]Jt-nth. 
Myriogync luimita. I-et^s. 
Blachanthiis jmsilliKs, F. IMucll. 
MyriocL'plialiis rliizoccphahis, Beutb. 
Itudallii, Ikuth. 
Stuaitii, ]>i'Utli. 
Augiautlius toiucutuKu.-:, AVciidl. 
])kuropappus, Bcntli. 
biachypa])piis, F. MiK'll. 
])iisillus, Bcntli. 
Preissianiis, Bentb. 
strictus, Bcnth. 
Gnephosis Burkittii, Bmtli. 

skirropliora , B' -nth. 
arachnoidea, Tuicz. 
Calocephalus Brownii, F. ^Mucll. 
Sondfii, F. Muell. 
lacteus, Les.s. 
citrens, Less, 
platycophalus. Bontli. 
Ceplialipterum Dnimmondii, A. Gray. 
Gnaphalodcs uligiuosum, A. Gray. 
Craspedia Richea, Cass. 

pleiocephala, F. Muoll. 
chrysantha, Beuth. 
globosa, Benth. 
Chthonocepiiahis psendnevax, Steetz. 
I.Kodia achilleoides, 11. Br. 
Cassinia aculeata, R. Br. 
la^vis, R. Br. 
aculeata, R. Br. 
spectabilis, R. Br. 
laiochlamys Behrii, Sond. 
Toxantlnis ])erpiisillus, Tiircz. 

iluelleri, Bentli. 
Rutidosis lielichrysoides, Dec. 

Piimilo, Bentli. 
Millotia teniiifolia, Cass. 
Ixiohena leptolepis, Benth. 
sui)ina, F. IMuell. 
toiiientcsa, Sond. 
Atlirixia tenella, Bentli. 
Podotheca angustifolia, Cass. 
Podolepis acuminata, R. Br. 

canescens. A. Cunn. 
rugata, I.abill. 
I.essoni, Bentli. 
Sienissenia. F. Muell. 
pallida, Turcz. 



Leptorliyuclius squamatus. Less, 
aiiibiguus, Benth. 
pulchellus, F. MuelL 
elongatus, Dec. 
"Waitzia, Sond. 
Schcenia Cassiniana, Steetz. 
Ilelichrysum Lawrencella, F. ^luclL 
Cotula, Dec. 
Baxteri, A. Cuun. 
scorpioides, Labill. 
rutidolepis, Dec. 
fibtusifolium, F. IMuelL 
bracteatum, Willd. 
leucopsidium. Dee. 
Blandowskianum, Steetz. 
podolepideum, F. Muell. 
apiculatuni, Dec. 
adnatum, Benth. 
forrugincum, Less. 
Waitzia corynibosa, Wendl. 
lielipterum anthenioides, Dec. 

polygalifoliuni, Dec. 
tloriljundum, Dec. 
stipitatum, F. Muell. 
incanuni, Dec. 
hyalospermuDi, F. Muell. 
striatum, Benth. 
corymbiHornm, Schlecht. 
pygmieum, Benth. 
moscliatnui, Benth. 
pteroeliietuni. Bentli. 
exiguuui, F. 3Iuell. 
dimorpholepi.s, Benth. 
Gnaphalium luteo-album. Liu. 
japonicum. TJxunb. 
indutum. Hook, 
Stuartina IMuelleri, Soud. 
Erechthites arguta. Dee. 
mixta, Dec. 
quadridentata, Dec. 
hispidula, Dec. 
Senecio Gregorii, F. Muell. 

megaglossus, F. MuelL 
magnificus, F. Muell. 
lautus, Forst. 
australis, 'Willd. 
Behrianus, Sond. 
bracliyglossus, F. Muell. 
odoratus, Hornem. 
Cunninghamii, Dec. 
bypoleucus, F. Muell. 
velleioides, A. Cunn. 
Cymbonotus Lawsonianus, Gaudicb. 
Microseris Forsteri, Hook. 
Hypocbffiris glabra, Lin. 
Picris hieracioides, Lin. 
Soncbus oleraceus. Lin. 
Erodiophyllum Elderi, F. IMuell. 
Pterigeroii densatifolius, F Muell. 



ITS FLOEA. 



201 



Intra- 
Vevnonia cinerea, Less. 
I'leurocarpioa denticulata, Benth. 
Elephantopus scabei', Lin. 
YittacUnia brachycomoicles, F. Muell. 

macrorhiza, A. Gray. 
Oalotis breviseta, Benth. 
JSphajranthus liirtus, Willd. 

microceplialns, Willd. 
Monciiteles spliacelatus, Labill. 

.'ipliseranthoides, Dec. 
.Blnniea integrifolia, Dec. 
.liffusa, K. Br. 
Cunninghamii, Dec. 
I'lucliea iiidica, Less. 

Eyrea, F. Muell. 
I'lpaltes australis, Less. 
Pterigeron filitbliiis, Benth. 



Tropical. 
j Pterigeron macrocephalus, Benth. 
odoriLS, Benth. 
Coleocoma centaurea, F. Muell. 
Thespidium basillorum, F. Muell. 
Eclipta platyglossa, F. ]\[uell. 
Wedelia verbesinoides, F. Muell. 
I biflora, Dec. 

Moonia ecliptoides, Benth. 

procumliens, Benth. 
Spilantlies grandidora, Turcz. 
Bidens bipinnata, Liu. 
Glossogyne tenuifolia, Cass. 
Flaveria australasica, Hook. 
Myriogyne miuuta, Less. 
Eutidosis Brownii, Bentli. 
Helichrysum bracteatum, Willd. 
apiculatuiii, Dec. 



STYLIDIE^E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 



Stylidium graminlfolium, Swartz. 
CiBspitosum, R. Br. 
calcaratuni, 1!. Br. 

Stylidium Floodii, F. Muoll. 
tioribundum, B. Br. 
leptorhizum, F. Muell. 



Stylidium despectum, E. Br. 
Levenhookia dubia, Sond. 



latra-Tropical. 

I Stylidium alsinoides, R. Br. 

I schizanthum, F. Muell. 

I iiedunculatum, K. Br. 



GOODENOVIEJ]:. 

Indigenous in Australia, 12 Genera. 

South Australia, 8 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 



Leschenaultia divaricata, F. Muell. 
Vellcia connata, F. Muell. 

paradoxa, E. Br. 
Goodeuia ovata, Sm. 

amplexans, F. INIuell. 

varia, E. Br. 

cserulea, E. Br. 

geniculata, E. Br. 

hirsuta, F. Muell. 

calcarata, F. Muell. 

Nicholsoui, F. Muell. 

grandiflora, Sims. 

Mitchellii, Bentli. 

Chambersii, F. ]Miiell. 

albifiora, Schlecht. 

cycloptera, E. Br. 



Goodeuia piunatifida, Sclileeht. 

glauca, F. Muell. 
Selliera radicans, Cav. 
Scajvola spinescens, E. Br. 

(lepauperata, E. Br. 

eollaris, F. Muell. 

•suaveolens, E. Br. 

ovalifolia, E. Br. 

crassifolia, Labill. 

ajmula, E. Br. 

liumilis, E. Br. 

juicrocarpa, Cav. 

linearis, E. Br. 
Dampiera rosmariuifolia, Schlecht. 
Brunonia australis, Sm. 



Goodeuia Armstrongiana, Doc. 
pumilio, E. Br. 
})urpurascens, E. Br. 
.sepalosa, F. ^Nluell. 



Intra-Tropical. 

1 Goodeuia azurea, F. ]Muell. 

I heterochila, F. Muell. 

hispida, E,. Br. 
j auriculata, Bentli. 



202 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



Goodenia coronopifolia, E. Br. 

microptera, F. JIiull. 

lampiospeinia, F. jMucll. 
Calogyiic pilosa, 11. Br. 
fc«c£evola Kcenisfii, Vahl. 



Sca^Yola CunningLamii, Doc. 
angulata, R. Br. 
icvoluta, It. Br. 
ovalifolia, 11. Br. 



T.uliclia gibLosa, T-abill. 
rhombifolia, Vr. 
anceps, Tluinb. 
pratioides, Beiith 



Lobflia mcmbranacea, I>. Br. 
hitc'iioi)hylla, Benth. 
(j^uadrangularis, R. Br 



ERICACEAE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

Xo representative in South. Australia. 

CAMPANULACE/E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 4 Genera. 
Extra- Tropical. 

I Lobelia lieterophylla,'Labill. 
I Pratia puborula, Bcnth. 
I Isotoma petrrea, F. Muell. 
I AVahlenbcrgia gracilis, A. Dec. 

Inlra-Tropical. 

Lobelia dioica, R. Br. 
Wahleubcrgia gracili.s, A. Dec. 



EPACRIDE/E. 
Indigenous in Austialia, 24 Genera. 

South Australia, 8 Genera. 
jLxtra-Trojjical. 



8typhelia pusilliflora, F. IMuell. 
Abtroloma humifusum, R. Br. 

cono.stepliioides, F. Muell. 
Brachyloma ericoides, Sond. 

daphuoides, Benth. 
Lissanthe strigosa, R. Br. 
Leucopogon Richei, R. Br. 

australis, R. Br. 

virgatus, R. Br. 



Leucopogon ericoides, R. Br. 

cordifolius, Lindl. 

hirtellus, F. Muell. 

rufus, Lindl. 

Woodsii, F. INIuell. 
Acrotriclie serrulata, R. Br. 
ovalifolia, R. Br. 
Epacris imprcssa, Labill. 
Sprengelia incarnata, Sni. 



PLUMBAGINEiE. 
Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Plumbago zeylanictt, Lin. | Acgialitis annulata, R. Br. 

PEIMULACEiE. 
Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Aiuigallis arvensis, Tan. | Samolus repens, Pers. 

MYRSINE.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 5 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Iiitra-Tropical. 
iEgiccras majus. Gat rtn. 



ITS FLOEA. 263 

SAPOTACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 5 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 

Sersalisia sericca, R. Br. I Mimusops parvifolia, E. Br. 

Acliras myrsinoides, A. Cunn. [ 

EBENACEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 
Infra-Tropical. 
Diospyros cordifolia, Eoxb. I Maba humilis, E. Br. 

Cargillia laxa, E. Br. | 

STYRACACE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 
No representative in South Australia. 

JASMINES. 

Indigenous in Australia, 5 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Intra- Trop ica I. 
Jasmiuum didymum, Forst. I Jasminum semuhim, E. Br. 

lineare, E. Br. Notelsea microcarpa, E. Br. 

simplicifo]ium, Forst. I 

APOCYNE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 12 Genera. 

South Australia, 6 Genera. 

Extra-Tropical. 
Alyxia buxiColia, E. Br. 

Intra-Tropical. 



Carissa lanceolata, E. Br. 
Alyxia spicata, E. Br. 

thyrsiliora, Benth. 
Tabernoemontana orientalis, E. Br. 
pubescens, E. Br. 



Alstonia verticillosa, F. Muell. 
Wrightia pubescens. E. Br. 
saligna, F. Muell. 
Parsonsia velutina, E. Br. 



. ASCLEPIADE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 14 Genera. 

South Australia, 9 Genera. 

Ex tra-Tropical. 
Sarcostemma australe, E. Br. I Marsdenia Leicliardtiana, F. Muull. 

Cynauchum floribundum, E. Br. | 



Intra-Tropical. 



Gymnantbera nitida, E. Br. 
Secamone elliptica, E. Br. 
Sarcostemma australe, E. Br. 
Vincetoxicum carnosum, Benth. 
Cynanchum pedunculatuin, E. Br. 

floribundum, U. Br. 
Tylophora macrophylla, Bentli. 



Tylophora flexuosa, E. Br. 
Marsdenia cinerascens, E. Br. 

velutina, E. Br. 

Hullsii, F. Muell.' 
Gymncma stenophyllum, A. Gray. 

sylvestre, E. Br. 
Hiiya Nicholsoniaj, F. Muell. 



2CA 



SOriH ArSTRALTA. 



Aritrasacnio pai'iuloxa, Tl. I5r. 
J.ogania longifolia, H. iU: 
crassifolia, R. Br. 



L()(:iAX[.\CK.E. 

Iiulio-oiunis in Australia, G Genera. 

South Australia, 4 Genera. 
l-lxfra-Tnipiral. 

Logania onata. E. Br. 

linifolia, Hchloclit. 



3Iitrasacrac stcUata, R. Br. 

tenuiflnra, Bcnth. 
lutea, F. Miicll. 
lot)giflora, F. Miiell. 
hevifi, Benth. 
iiulica, Wight. 



Iiifra-Tropical. 

Mitrasacmc cnnnata, I\. Br. 
data, Iv. Br. 
laricifolia, K. Br. 
Fagrrca racemosa, Jack. 
Strychnos lucida, K. ]ir. 

psilo-spcrma, F. Mucll. 



St-bsea ovata, R. Br. 
Frythrjiea australis, R. Br. 

Erytliraea australis, E. Br. 
Canscora dift'usa, R. ]{r. 



GENTIANE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 7 Genera. 

South Australia, 5 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 

I Gentiana montana, Forst. 
I Yillarsia reniformis, R. Br. 

Itdra-Troplial. 

I Liiniianthemiim grininatiim, Griseb. 
I iiHliciun, Thw. 



HYDROPHYLLACEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Geniis. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Iiitra-Tropical. 
Ilyih-olca zcylanica, Vahl. 

BORAGINE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 12 Genera. 

South Australia, 10 Geneia. 
Extra- Tropica I. 



GiiliU'iiia prociunbens, Lin. 
Jlcliotropiuin curasr^avicum, Lin. 

curopreum, Lin. 

nodulatum, Valil. 

aspcrrinuim, R. Br. 

ovalifoliiiin, Forsk. 

plciopterum, F. Mucll. 



Heliotropium filaginnidts, Bcnth. 
Halgania strigosa, Sohlccht. 
Trichodesma zcylanioum, R. Br. 
^lyosotis australis, R. Br. 
I">itrichiura anstralasicuni, A. Doc. 
Echinospermiim concavum, F. 3IueiL 



Cordia ily.xa, Lin. 

subcordata, Lam. 
Eliretia acuminata, R. Br. 

saligna, R. Br. 
Tournefortia argcntca, Lin. 
Cohlenia proeumbons, Lin. 
Heliotropium fasciculatum, R. Br 
ovalifolium, Forsk. 



Jiilra-Tropical. 

Hcliotrojiium prostratnm, ]{. Br. 

vcntricosum, 1!. I$r. 

paucifloruia, R. Br. 

tenuifolium, R. Br. 

])aniculatum, R. Br. 

divcrsifoliujii. F. Muell. 
'J'richodosma zcylanioum, R. Br. 



ITS FLOEA. 



205 



CONVOLVULACE^. 

lucligeuous in Australia, 11 Genera. 

Sunth Australia, 8 Genera. 



Il)Oinoea costata, F. Muell. 
Convolvulus erubescens, Sims. 
Cressa cretica, Lin. 
Evnlvulus alsinoides, Lin. 



Ipnmoca alata, E. Br. 

angustifolia, Jacq. 
criocarpa, K. Br. 
dissecta, Wilkl. 
diversifolia, E. Br. 
riava, F. Muell. 
l^es-caprse, Eoth. 
sessiliflora, Eoth. 
paniculata, E. Br. 
quinata, E. Br. 
hederacea. Jacq. 
lougiflora. E. Br. 
carnosa, E. Br. 
reptans, Poir. 
abrujita, E. Br. 



Extra- Trojnca I. 

I Dicliondra repens, ForsL 
I Wilsouia humilis, E. Br. 

roUmdifolia, Hook. 

Intra -Tropical. 

Ipomcea gracilis, E. Br. 
Muelleri, Bentb. 
incisa, E. Br. 
heterophylla, E. Br. 
erecta, E. Br. 
Convolvulus parviHorus, Yahl. 
Polymeria angusta, F. Muell. 

ambigua, E. Br. 
Breweria linearis, E. Br. 
media, E. Br. 
brevifolia, Bentb. 
pannosa, E. Br. 
Cressa cretica, Lin. 
Evolvulus alsinoides, Lin. 
Dichondra repens, Forst. 



SOLANE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 7 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 



Solaunm nigrum, Lin. 

aviculare, Forst. 
simile, F. Muell. 
oligacantbum, F. Muell. 
esuriale, Lindl. 



Extra- Tropical. 

Solanum chenopodinum, F. ^Mueil. 
Sturtianum. F. Muell. 
hystrix, E. Br. 
petropbilum, F. ^lucli. 



iSolanum nigrum, Lin. 

tetrandrum, E. Br. 
discolor, E. Br. 
esuriale, Lindl. 
diversiflorum, F. Muell 
horridum, Dun. 



Ititra-Tropicul. 

Solanum quadriloculatum, F. ^Muell. 

ellipticum, E. Br. 
Physalis minima, Lin. 

peruviana, Liu. 
Nicotiana suaveolens, Lehm. 



SCROPHULARINE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 30 Genera. 

South Australia, 15 Genera. 



Extra- Tropical. 



Aiithocercis anisantba, Endl. 

angustifolia. F. Muell. 

Eadesii, F. Muell. 
!Mimulus repens, E. Br. 

prostratus, Bentb. 
Mnrgania lloribunda, Benth. 
<'3!ratiola peruviana, Lin. 
Liriiosella aquatica, Lin. 



Veronica decorosa, F. Muell. 

Derwentia, Andr. 

gracilis, E. Br. 

distans, E. Br. 

calycina, E. Br. 

Eupbrasia coUina, E. Br. 

scabra, E. Br. 



-^(j SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



Adeiinsma Mucllei-i, Benth. 
Slcinodia viscoaa, Ivoxb. 
debilis, Bcnth. 
Morgauia glabra, Iv. ]5r. 
Linmophila gratioloides, E. Br. 

punctata, Blumc. 

hirsuta, Benth. 

scriata, Gaudicb. 
Yandellia pubescens, Benth. 



Intra-Tropical. 

Vandellia subidata, Benth. 
Centmnthera hisj)ida, B. Br. 
Buchucra tetragnna, E. Br. 

urtieil'dlia, 11. Br. 

linearis, K. Br. 

tenella, K. Br. 
Striga cnrviilora, Benth. 
multillora, Benth. 
Ilcmiarrhena plantaginea, Benth. 



LENTIBULAKIE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 

South Australia, I Genus. 
Ititra-Trojncal. 
Utricularia stellaris, Lin. I Utricularia chrysautha, li. Br. 

fulva, F. Muell. | exoleta, K. Br. 

OllOBANCHACE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Extra-Tropica I. 
Orobanche ceniua, TjOoA. 

GESXEPJACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 
No representative in South Australia. 

BIGNONL\CE/E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Spathodea filiformis, Dec. | Spathodea heterophylla. II. Br. 

ACANTHACE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 11 Genera. 

South Australia, 7 Genera. 

Extra-Tropical. 
Justicia procumbens, Lin. 

Intra-Tropical. 
Nclsonia campestris, 11. Br. I Justicia procumbens, Lin. 

Hygrophila salicifolia, Nees. Dicliptcra glabra, Dec. 

Kuellia acaulis, K. Br. Hypoestes Horibnnda, 11. Bi\ 

Acanthus ilieit'olius, I>in. | 

PEDALTNE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Extra-Tropical. 
Josephinia Eugenise, F. 3Iuell. 

Intra-Tropical. 

Josephinia imperatricis, Vent. 



ITS FLOEA. 



261 



MYOPORINE.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 13 Genera, 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 



Extra- 
IMyoporum serratum, R. Br. 
deserti, A. Cunn. 
parvifolium, E. Br. 
platycarpum, li. Br. 
Pholidia Dalyana, F. Muell. 
scoparia, R. Br. 
crassifolia, F. Muell. 
Behriana, F. IVIuell. 
Sibbifolia, F. Muell. 
divaricata, F. Muell. 
santalina, F. Muell. 
Eremophila rotundifolia, F. Muell. 
oppositifolia, R. Br. 
Paisleyi, F. Muell. 

Intra- 
Eremopliila Latrobei, F. Muell. 
longifolia, F. Muell. 



Tropical. 

Eremophila Sturtii, R. Br. 

Christophori, F. Muell. 
Latrobei. F. Muell. 
Macdouellii. F. Mnell. 
longifolia, F. Muell. 
polyclada, F. Muell. 
Freelingii, F. Muell. 
Goodwinii, F. Muell. 
Brownii, F. ]Muell. 
scoparia, F. Muell. 
Duttoni, F. Muell. 
maculata, F. Mm-ll. 
latifolia, F. Muell. 
aiternitbiia, R. Br. 

Tropical. 
I Eremophila Willsii, F. Muell. 



SELAGINEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

No representative in South Australia. 

VERBENACE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 20 Genera. 

South Australia, 8 Genera. 
Extra- Tropical. 
Verbena officinalis, Lin, 1 Avicennia officinalis, Lin. 

Clerodendron floribundum, R, Br. | 

Intra-Tropical. 



Dicrastyles ochrotricha, F. Muell. 
Denisonia ternifolia, F. Muell. 
Premiia obtusifolia, R. Br. 

integrifolia, Lin. 

acuminata, R. Br. 
Clerodendron inerme, R. Br. 

floribundum, R. Br. 



Clerodendron Cunninghamii, Beuth. 
Gmelina macrophylla, Benth. 
Vitex trifolia, Lin. 

acuminata, R. Br. 

glabrata, R. Br. 
Avicennia officinalis, Lin. 



Mentha australis, B. Br. 

gracilis, B. Br. 

.serpyllifolia, Benth. 

grandiflora, Benth. 

satureioides, li. Br, 
Lycopus australis, R. Br, 
Prunella vulgaris, liin. 
Scutellaria humilis, R. Br. 
Prostanthera rotundifolia, R. Br, 
spinosa, F. Muell. 
Behriana, Schlecht. 



LABIAT.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 21 Genera. 

South Australia, 15 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 

Prostanthera striatiflora, F. Muell. 
eurybioidcs, F. Muell. 
microphylla, A. Cunn. 
aspalathoides, A. Cunn 
calycina, F. ^Muell. 
chlorantha, F. JIuell. 
Westringia rigida, R. Br. 
T eucrium racemosum, R. Br. 
corymbosuni, R. l$r. 
sessiliflorum, Benth. 
Ajuga australis, R. Br. 



:2(;s 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



< )('iiiuim sanctum, I.in. 
IM(i.sc-}iosniii iiustralf, Bontli. 
rkotruntliiis parvillorus, Willd. 
Colcus scutullarioicks, Bcnth. 



Iidra-Tioji'tad. 

I Ilyptis suaveolcns, Poit. 

I Dysopliylla vcrtioillata. Beuth. 

I -Vuisomelcs salviFolia, Jl. ]5r. 



PLANTAGINE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 8 Genera. 

iSouth Australia, 1 ( Jenus. 
Ej-lia-Tropical. 
]']aiitago coroiiojnis, Lin. | Plantago varia, 1!. ]3r. 



rilYTOLACCACE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 5 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Didymotheca thesioides, Hook. I Codonocarpus pyraniidalii*, F. Muell. 

Oyrostemon cyclotheca, Benth. J cotinifolius, F. Muell. 

lutra-Tropical. 
<]!yrostemon ramulosus, Dcsf. 

CtlEXOrODIACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 o Genera. 

South Australia, 13 (Iniera. 
Extra- Trop tea I. 



lihagodia Billardieri, R. Br. 
paiabolica, 11. Br. 
Gaudichaudiana, Mii|. 
crassifolia, R. Br. 
spinescens, R. Br. 
nuUms, 11. Br. 
<Jlicuopodium Nitrariacea, F. ^lucll. 

niicrophylluni, F. ^ludl. 
glaucuni, Lin. 
carinatum, R. Br. 
pumilio, R. Br. 
cristatuni, F. IMni'lI. 
atriplicinuni, F. ^Intll. 
Dysjiliania liLtorali.s, R. Br. 
Atrijilix Ktipitata, Bentli. 
paludosa, R. Br. 
nummularia, Ivindl. 
cinerea, Poir. 
incrassata, F. ]\Iuell. 
vcsicaria, Howard. 
))atula, liin. 
velutinolla, F. IMiulI. 
lissivalve, F. Mii.ll. 
angnlata, Bcntli. 
.seniibaccata, R. Br. 
Muelleri, Bcntli. 
prostrata, R. Br. 
pumilio, R. Br. 
leptocarpa, F. Mut-ll. 



Atrijilex halimoides, Lindl. 

liolocarpa, F. Muell. 

spongiosa, F. Muell. 

Enchykeua toraentosa, R. Br. 

villosa, F. :\rii(ll. 

Kochia lanosa, Lindl. 

oppositifolia. l'\ ^lucll. 
brevi folia. R. Br. 
criantha, F. IMuell. 
villcsa. Lindl. 
pcdiColia, F. Muoll. 
ajipres.sa, Bentli. 
apliylla. R. Br. 
cUiata, F. Muell. 
brachyptern, F. Muell. 
Chenolea, scleroliBuoidcs. F. Muell. 
Babbagia dipteroearpa, F. ^luell. 
.Sclcrolaiua unidora, \l. l$r. 

diacantlia, Benth. 
bicnrnis, Lindl. 
bifiora, R. Br. 
paradoxa, R. Br. 
Threlkeldia dift"usa, R. Br. 
Anisacantlia divaricata, R. Br. 

bicuspis, F. Muell. 
Salicornia tenuis, Benth. 

australis, Soland. 
Salsola Kali, Lin. 



ITS FLOEA. 



260 



Infra-Tropical. 
Rbagodia crassifolia, E. Br. I Atriplex humilis, F. ^luell. 

Chenopodium Xitrariacca, F. Mucll. | Anisacantha glabra, F. Mucll. 

auricomnm, Liudl. I Salicornia leiostachia, Bonth. 

Dysphania littoralis, E. Br. | Salsola Kali, Lin. 



PARONYCHIACE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Extra- Trojncal. 
Sclerantbus pungens, E. Br. 

AMAEANTACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 9 Genera. 

South Australia, 7 Genera. 



Extra-Tropical. 



Hemichroa pentandra. R. Br. 

diaudra, R. Br. 
Tricliiuium obovatum, Gaudich. 

alopccuroideum, Liiidl. 

nobile, Liudl. 

corymbosum, Gaudich. 

exaltatum, Bontli. 

lielipteroides, F. Muell. 

Beckerianum, F. INIuell. 

goinphrenoides, Miq. 



Trichinium erubescens, Miq. 

spathulatuni, R. Br. 
leucocoma, Miq. 
parvifoliiim, F. Muell. 
Ptilotus 3Iurrayi, F. Muell. 

alopecuroideus, F. Mucll. 
latifolius, R. Br. 
Alternanthera nodiflor;t, R. Br. 

nana, R. Br. 
Gomphrena brachystylis, F. ]Muell. 



Intra-Tropical. 



Amaranthus leptostachyus, Benth. 

iuterruptus, R. Br. 
Trichinium obovatum, Gaudich. 

incanum, R. Br. 

astrolasium, F. Muell.' 

dissititiorum, F. Muell. 

distans, R. Br. 

alopecuroideuni, Lindl. 

exaltatum, Benth. 

fusiforme, R. Br. 

calostachyum, F. Muell. 



Ptilotus conicus, E. Br. 

corymbosus, R. Br. 
spicatus, F. Muell. 
Achyranthes aspera, Lin. 
Alternanthera nodiflora, R. Br. 

nana, R. Br. 
Gomphrena cauesceus, E. Br. 
flaccida, E. Br. 
conica, Spreng. 
diffusa, Spreng. 
parviflora, Benth. 



Emex australis, Steinh. 

Rumex crispus, liiu. 

Brownii, Campd. 
dumosus. A. Cunn 
bidens, R. Br. 

Polygonum aviculare, Liu. 



POLYGONACEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 4 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 

Polygonum plebeium, E. Br. 
prostratum, R. Br. 
minus, Huds. 
attenuatum, R. Br. 
Muhlenbeckia adpressa, jMcissn. 

Cunninarlianiii, F. ]\Iur 



Runu'X luvlophihis, F. Muell. 



Intra-Tropical. 

I Polygonum minus, Iluds. 



270 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



NYCTAGINE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Extra'Tropieal. 
Bocrhaavia diffusa, T.in. 

Infra-Tropical. 
Boerliaavia diffusa, Lin. 

MYRISTICE/E. 

Indigenous in Aiistralia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Tntra-Tropical. 
IMx ristica insipida, R. Br. 

MONIMIACR^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 8 Genera. 
No representative in South Australia. 

LAURTNE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 8 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Extra-Troj^lcal. 
Cassytha glabella, R. Br. I Cassytha raelantlia, R. Br. 

pubcscens, R. Br. | 

Intra-'Trojncal. 
Tetranthera laurifolia, Jacq. | Cassytha glabella, R. Br. 

PROTEACE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 29 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 1 Genera. 



Pctropbila circinata, Kipp. 

multisecta, F. Muell. 
Isopogon ceratophyllus, R. Br. 
Adenanthos sericea, Labill. 

ternainalis, R. Br. 
Cono.spormum patens, Sclileolit. 
I'crsoonia juniperina, Tjabill. 
Xylonii;lurn pyriforme, KniLjbt. 
Grevillea Theleraanniana, Kndl. 

pterospermn, F. Muell. 

ilicifolia, R. Br. 

Youngii, F. Muell. 

JTUicifolia, Hook. 

Treuriana, F. Miull. 

lavandulaccii, ydileclit. 

aspera, R. Br. 

Rersoonia falcata, R. Br. 
Helicia australasica, F. Muell. 
Grevillea ngrifolia. A. Cunn. 

Goodii. R. Br. 

clirysodendron, R. Br, 

Dryandri, It. Br. 

bolio.sperma. R. Br. 

Wickliami. jMeissn. 



Extra-Tropical. 

1 Grevillea Wiekharai, iSIeissu. 

pauci flora, R. Br. 
j Huegellii, Meissn. 

stricta, R. Br. 
parvi flora, R. Br. 
Hakea Pampliniana, Kii>p. 
vittata, R. Hr. 
rostrata, F. IMuell. 
rugosi), R. Br. 
leucoptera, R. Br. 
cycloptera, R. Br. 
inultilineata, Meissn. 
nlicina, R. Br, 
flexilis, F. IMuell. 
Banksia marginata, Cav. 
ornata, F, Muell. 

Infra-Tropical. 

Grevillea dimidiata, F. ^rucll. 
pungens, R. Br. 
leucadendron, A. Cunn. 
Hakea cbordopiiylla, F. Muell. 
I lorea, R. Br. 

' arborescens, R. Br. 

Stenocarpus Cunninghamii, R, Br. 



ITS FLOEA. 



271 



THYMELE^J. 

Indigenous in Australia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 



Pimc'lea glaxici, E. Br. 

spathulata, Labill. 
ligustrina, Labill. 
liumilis, R. Br. 
simplex, F. Muell. 
microcephala, R. Br, 
serpyllifolia, R. Br. 

Pimelea punicea, R, Br. 



Extra-Tropical. 

Pimelea flava, R. Br. 

petrophila, F. Muell. 
curviflora, R. Br. 
octophylla, R. Br. 
petrsDa, Meissn. 
phylicoides, Meissn. 
stricta, Meissn. 

Intra- Tropical. 

1 Pimelea concreta, F. Muell. 



EL^AGNACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 
No representative in South Australia. 

NEPENTHACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 
No representative in Soutli Australia. 

EUPHORBIACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 37 Genera. 

South Australia, 18 Genera. 



Euphorbia australis, Boiss. 

Drummondii, Boiss. 
Wheeleri, Baill. 
eremophila, A. Cunu. 
Poranthera ericoides, Klotzsch. 

microphylla, Brongn. 
Beyeria opaca, F. Muell. 

uncinata, F. Muell. 

Intra- 
Euphorbia atoto, Forst. 

Schultzii, Benth. 
Armstrongiana, Boiss. 
INIuelleri, Boiss. 
Drummondii, Boiss. 
micradenia, Boiss. 
serrulata, Reinw. 
eremophila, A. Cunn. 
Poranthera microphylla, Brongn. 
Antidesma Ghaesembilla, Gaertn. 

Sf'hultzii, Benth. 
Dissiliaria baloghioides, F. Muell. 

tricornis, Benth. 
Petalostigma quadriloculare, F. Muell. 
Phyllantiius ditassoides, F. Muell. 
Adami, F. Muell. 
ochropliyllus, Benth. 
rigidulus, F. Muell. 
baccatus, F. IMuell. 



Extra- Tropical. 



Bertya rotundifolia, F. Muell. 
Amperea spartioides, Brongn. 
Phyllanthus calycinus, Labill. 

Fuemrohrii, F. Muell. 
thymoides, Sieb. 
I Gunnii, Hook. 

Adriana Klotzschii, F. Muell. 

Tropical. 

] Phyllanthus Urinaria, Lin. 
I trachygyne, Benth. 

maderaspatanus, Lin. 
Carpentaria?, F. Muell. 
gratidisepalus, F. Muell. 
miuutiflorus. F. Muell. 
lacunarius, F. Muell. 
Breynia stipitata, F. Muell. 
Securinega obovata, F. IMuell. 
Hemicyclia sepiaria, W. & Am. 
lasiogyne, F. Muell. 
Briedelia tomentosa, Blume. 
Croton Schultzii, Benth. 
Verreauxii, Baill. 
arnhemicus, F. IMuell. 
Mallotus nesophilus, F. Muell. 
Sebastiania chamelaja, F. IMuell. 
Excrecaria Agallocha, Tan. 

parvifolia, F. Muell. 



o-o 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



I'ariutiiria debilis, Forst. 



Celtis pbilippincnsis, Blanco, 

paniculata, Planch. 
Treraa amboinensis, Blume. 

aspera, Blunie. 
Ficus nesophila, IM^^. 

retusa, Lin. 

leucotricha, I^Iiq. 

coronulata, F. jMuclI. 



URTICE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 17 Genera. 

South Australia, 7 Genera. 

Extra- Trop ical. 

I Urtica incisa, Puir. 
Jidru-Tropical. 

Ficus orbicularis, A. Cunn. 
aculeata, A. Cunn. 
scobina, Bentli. 
aspera. Foist. 
!Malaisia tortuo.^a, Blanco. 
Fatoua pilosa, Gaudich. 
I'aiiutaria debilis, Forst. 



Casiiarina stricta. Ait. 
glauca, Sieb. 
distyla, Vent 



CASUAEINE/E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Ex tra - Tropica I. 

Casuarina torulosa, Ait. 

bicuspidata, Beiith. 



Casuarina suberosa, Otto. 



Intra-Tropical. 

I Casuarina equisetifolia, Forst. 



PIPEEACEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 

No representative in South Australia. 

ARISTOLGCHIACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Intra-Trojncal. 
Aristolochia Thozetii, F. Muell. 

CQPULIFER^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 
Ko representative in South Australia. 

SANTALACEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 8 Genera. 

South Australia, 5 Genera. 
Ex tra- Trop ical. 

Ijoptomcria aphylla, R. Br. 



Fiisauus acuniinatis, E. Br. 

persicarius, F. Mucll. 

spicatus, R. Br. 

crassifolius, R. Br. 
('Imictnuii plomeratuni, R. Br. 
.si)icatuni, F. ]Muoll 

8antahnu lanocolaiuiiu R. Br. 
uvatum, R. Br. 



Exocarpus cupressit'orniis, Labill. 
spartea, R. Br. 
aphylla. R. Br. 
stricta, R. Br. 



Jutra-Tropical. 

I Exocarpus latifolia, R. Br. 



ITS FLOEA. 

BALANOPHORE.E. 

Indigenons in Australia, 1 Genus. 
Ko representative in South Australia. 

CONIFEEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 11 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Freuela robusta, A. Cunn. | Frencla rhomboidea, Eiull. 

Intra-Tropical. 
Frenela robusta, A. Cimn. 

CYCADE.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Infra-Tropical. 
C3'cas media, E. Br. 



MONOCOTYLEDONS. 

HYDROCHARIDE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 5 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 
Infra-Tropical. 

Ottelia alismoidcs, Peis. I ValUsneria spiralis, Liu. 

Blyxa Iloxburgbii, Eicb. | 

SCITAMINE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 7 Genera. 

Ko representative in South Australia. 

OECHIDE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 48 Genera. 

South Australia, 20 Genera. 
Exfra-Tropical. 

Prasopbyllum fuscum, E. Br. 

nigricans, E. Br. 
IMicrotis porrifolia, Spreng. 
Corysantlics fimbriata, E. Br. 
Ijyperantbus nigricans, E. Br. 
Pterostylis concinna, E. Br. 

curta, E. Br. 

nutans, E. Br. 

cucullata, E. Br. 

reflexa, E. Br. 

barbata, Lindl. 

mutica, E. JJr. 

rufa, E. Br. 

longifolia, E. Br. 



Tlielyniitra ixioides, Sw. 

aristata, Lindl. 
longifolia, Forst. 
fusco-lutea, E. Br. 
carnea, E. Br. 
antennifera, Hook. 
Diuris jialustris, Lindl. 
]iiaculata, Sm. 
pedunculata, E. Br. 
isulphvirea, E. Br. 
longifolia, E. Br. 
Ortboceras strictum, E. Br. 
rrasopbylluiu striatum. 11. Br. 
patens, B. Br. 



27-1 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



Pterostylis vittata, I-indl. 
Acianthus exsertus, 11. IJr. 
Eriochilus autumiialis, 1*. Br. 
Cyitostylis rcuifornns. It. Br. 
Caladenia 3Ifiiziesii, 1\. Br. 
filamentosa, R. Br. 

Tiilra-Tropical 



Caladeuia Patorsoni, R. Br. 

latifolia, R. Br. 

carnea, R. Br. 

deformis, R. Br. 
Glassodia major, R. Br. 



Dondrnbium dicupluim, F. IMucll. 
Vanda Hindsii, Lindl. 
Qeodiirum pictum. I.iiidl. 
Kulopliia VL'HOsa, Rciclil). 
Dipodium pimctatum, R. Br. 



Ilabeuaria triiicrvi.s, "Wielit. 

clongata, R. Br. 

gramini'a, T.indl. 
Calautlio veratritblia, R. Br. 



BURMANNIACE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genns. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Iidva-TropicaJ. 
Burmannia disticlm, Lin. | Burmannia juucca, Soland. 

Ii;iUE/E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 7 Genera. 

South Australia,' 2 Genera. 
Ex tra- Trap ica ?. 
Patcrsonia longiscapa. Sweet. | Ortbrosanthus multiQorus, Sweet. 

AMAPxYLLIDE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 13 Genera. 

South Australia, 8 Genera. 
Extra-Tro}yical. 
Crinum flaccidum, Herb. 1 Hypoxis glabella, R. Br. 

pedunciUatum, R. Br. | pusilla, Honk. 

Calostemma purpnreum, R. Br. I bygrometrica, Labill. 

luteum, Siius. | 

I}itm-Tropical. 
na3modonim laxum, R. Br. I Cnrciiligo on.'fifolia, R. Br. 

brevicaule, F. JNIuelL | llypoxis maruiiiata. R. Br. 

cocciueum, R. Br. | Criuuin asiaticum, Lin. 

Hubvirens, F. Muell. venosuiu, R. Br. 

jjarvifiorum, Bentb. | Calostemma album, R. Br. 

TACCACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Ldra-Troincal. 
Tacca pinnatilida, Forst. 

DIOSCORIDE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Dioscorea trans ver.sa, R. Br. I Dioscorca sativa, Lin. 

gUibra, Roxb. | 



ITS FLOEA. 275 

ALISMACE^. 
Indlgenoiis in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Posidonia australis, Hook. | Cymodocea antartica, Endl. 

Intra-Tropical. 
Alisma oligococcum, F. Muell. 

PALM.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, G Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 
Intra-Tropical. 
lavistona incrmis, R. Br. 1 Seaforthia elegans, R. Br. 

liumilis, E. Br. j Corypha australiSj R. Br. 

PANDANE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Paudanus pcdunculatns, E. Br. | Pandanus spiralis, E. Br. 

TYPHACEZE. 
Indigenous in Aiistralia, 2 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Typlia angustifolia, Liu. | Sparganium angustifolium, Mich. 

AE0IDEJ5. 
Indigenous in Australia, 4 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 
Arum orixeuse, Eoxb. | Gymnostachys auceps, Benth. 

Intra-Tropical. 
Amorphophallus campanulatus, Dec. 

LBMNACE.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Extra- Tr epical. 
Lemua miuor, Liu. | Lemna trisulca, Lin. 

LILIACEiE. 
Indigenous in Australia, 14 Genera. 

South Australia, 6 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 



Thysanotus paniculatus. E. Br. 

I'atcrsoni, R. Br. 
Stypandra cajspitosa, R. Br. 
Arthropodium pauiculatum, R. Br. 

fiinbriatuui, R. Br. 

pendulum, Spr. 

minus, R. Br. 



Arthropodium laxum, R. Br. 
Bulbiuo bulbosa, Haw. 

semibarbata, Spr. 
Tricoryne scabra, R. Br. 
Ctesia parvillora, R. Br. 
vittata, R. Br. 



27G 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



Iiilra-Trnpicnl. 
Tricoryne ehitiur, R. Br. | Thysaiiotus chiysantlms, F. Mucll. 

Imligfuuiis in .Vustralia, .'5 Genera. 

South Australia, ;) (u'liora. 
Extra-Tropical. 



Anj,'uillaria liii;laiiiluli>sa, II. Br. 
• lidica, 11. Br. 
miilldra. 1!. Br. 
imlica. It. Br. 



Burcliardia iimlK'llata, IJ. Br. 
Sclit'lhamracrii undiilata, B. Br. 
multitloni, 11. Br. 



smilace.t:. 

ludigenons in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Smilax latifolia, B. Br. I Biposnniim album, E. Br. 

elliptica, 1!. Br. | Drymnphila cyanocarpa, R. Br. 

ASPAEAGE.E. 
Indigenous in Australia, G Genera. 

South Australia, 4 Genera. 
E.i:tra-Troji/riil. 
Eu.streplius lutifolius, 11. Br. I Diauella casrulea, Tiiii.s. 

augustifolius, R. Br. | revoluta, E. Br. 

Tnfra-J'ropical. 
Cnrdyline canna-folia, R. Br. I Asparagus fasciculutus, R. Br. 

Dracasua angustifolia, Roxb. | 

^T^ROTIDE/E. 

Indigenous in Australia, G (Jenera. 

South Australia, 4 Genera. 
Exfra-TrojncaL 



Xe/otcs glauca, R. Br. 
liliformis, R. ]>r. 
leucocephala, 1!. Br. 
rigida, R. Br. 
longifolia, R. Br. 
fluviatilis, R. Br. 



Xerotcs tenuifolin. R. Br. 

iDiuula, R. Br. 
Dasypogon bromeliiKfolius. R. Br. 
Xantliorrhani semiplana, F. Muell. 

quadraimulata,F. Muell. 



JUNCE.E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 

South Aiistralia, 2 Genera. 
Exlra-TropicuJ. 
Juncu.s i)alli(liis, R. ]!r. Juncus CT'si)it().«a, Iv 'Sivy 

pri.^iiiatocarpo.s, R. Br. ])!aiiifolius, R. Br. 

inai-itiums, R. Br. iiustralis, Desf. 

vagiiiatus, R. Br. j pallidum, R. Br. 

gracilis, R. Br. | coimnunis, E. Mey. 

revnlutus, R. Br. l)auciilorus, R. Br. 

Holoscha'Dus, R. Br. I>tizula canipestris, Des. 



ITS FLOEA. 277 

PHILYDREiE. 

Indigenous in Ai;stralia, 1 Gemis, 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Intra-Trojncal. 
Pliilydrum laniiginosimi, R. Br. 

COMMELINACE^. 

Indigenous in Australia, 3 Genera. 

South Australia, 3 Genera. 
Ejctra-Tropical. 
Conimelina ensifolia, R. Br. I Aneilema acuminata, R. Br. 

lanceolata, R. Br. i Cartonema spicatuni, R. Br. 

Aneilema anthericoides, R. Br. \ 

XYRIDE.E. 

Indigenovis in Australia, 2 Genera. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Exfra-Trnpical. 



Xyris o}ierculata, Labill. 
gracilis, R. Br. 
bracteata, R. Br, 



Xyris paludosa, R. Br. 
scabra, R. Br. 
denticulata, R. Br. 



FLAG ELL AIlIEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Intra-Tropical. 
Flagellaria indica, Lin. 

ERIOCAULONE^. 

Indigenous'in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 

Extia-Tioi)ii;al. 
Eriocaulon australe, R. Br. I Eriocaulon nanum, R. Br. 

imlliduQj, R. Br. | cinereum. It. Br. 

Intra-Tropical. 
Eriocaulon scariosum, R. B. I Eriocaulon nutans, F. ]Muell. 

stillulatum, Hook. | 

RESTL\CE/E. 

Indigenous in Australia, G Genera. 

South Australia, 6 Genera. 
Extra-Tropical. 



Restio australis, R. Br. 

tetraphyllus, Labill. 

complanatus, R. Br. 
Leiitocarpus tenax, R. Br. 

Brownii, Hook. 
Hypolaena fastigiata, R. Br. 



Caloroplius clongatus, Labill. 
Centrolepis aristata, Roem. & Scliult. 

jiulvinata, Roem. & Scliult. 
Alepyrum Muelleri, Hook. 

polygonum, R. Br. 



278 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



Cyijcrus Guuuii, Hook. 

vap^inatiis, K. 13 r. 
carinatus, I{. 15r. 
lucidus, It. Br. 
alopecuroidcs, Rottb. 
Chffitospora tfiuiissiina. Hook. 
niteus, U. Vn: 
imborbis, li. Br. 
axillaris, K. Hr. 
Gymnosr-hceuus spha'rocephalus, Hk. 
Chorizaiulra enodis, Xtes. 
Eleocliaris sphacelata, Pi. Br. 
gracilis, II. Br. 
pahistris, R. Br. 
Isolepis multicaulis, Schlecht. 
riuitans, R. Br. 
nodosa, R. Br. 



CYPERACEiE. 

Indigenous in Australia, 29 Genera. 

Sontli Aiistralia, 15 Genera. 
Ej:tra-Tropical. 

Isolepis prolifera, R. Br. 

setacea, R. Br. 

cartilaginea, R. Br. 

riparia, R. Br. 

Sc'irpus maritinms, Liu. 

triqiicter, Lin. 
Lepidosperma concavmn, R. Br. 
gladiatuni, Labill. 
longitudinale, LabilL 
laterale, R. Br. 
linearis, R. Br. 
C'ladium junceum. Hook. 

tetraquetriim. Hook, 
scha-uoidcs, R. Br. 
Gabnia trifida, Labill. 

Psittacorum, Labill. 



Cyperus Ilaspan, Liu. 
Abildgardia monostachya, Yahl, 
Echoenoides, R. Br. 
Carex inversa, R. Br. 

apprcssa, R. Br. 

littorea, Labill. 

fascicularis, Soland. 

lougifolia, R. Br. 
Finibristylis dichotoma, Vahl. 



Intra-T topical. 

Fimbristylis sqnarrulosa, F. jMuclL 
acuminata, Nees. 
rythicarpa, F. Mucll. 
j communis, R. Br. 

Fuirena glomerata, Vahl. 
Isolepis barbata. R. Br. 
, Diplacrum carieiuum, R. Br. 
j Eleocliaris acuta, R. Br. 



GRAMIKE.T]. 

Indigenous in Australia, 64 Genera. 

South Australia, 44 Genera. 



Tetrarrhena tcnacissima, Nees. 
acuminata, R. Br. 
ItEvis, R. J3r. 
iSpinifcx birsutus, Labill. 
fragilis, R. Br. 
sericeus, R. Br. 
^licrolajna stipoides, R. Br. 
Anthcsteria australis, R. Br. 
Hemartbria compressa, R. Bi'. 

uncinata, R. Br. 
Hicrochloa rariflora, Nob. 

antarctica, R. Br. 
Alopecurus geniculatus, Lin. 
Stipa semibarbata, R. Br. 
pubescens, R. Br. 
setacea, R. Br. 
elegantissima, R. Br. 
micrantha, R. Br. 
mollis, R. Br. 
ramoi-issima, Tiin. 
Diclielachne crinita, Xob. 



Extra-Tropical. 

Diclielachne stipoides, Xob. 
Pcutapfgon Billardieri, R. Br. 
Eragi'ostis lacunaria, F. INIuell. 
Agrostis quadriseta, R. Br. 
stolonifera, Tiin. 
Billardieri, R. Br. 
£emula, R. Br. 
scabra, R. Br. 
parviflora, R. Br. 
Echinopogon ovatus, Pal. 
Polypogon monspeliensis, Desf. 
Phragmites communis, Trin. 
Danthonia semi-annularis, R. Br. 
nervosa. Hook, 
pilosa, R. Br. 
pauoiflora, R. Br. 
palli.la, R. Br. 
paradoxa, R. Br. 
Glyceria fluitaus, R. Br. 
Poa australis, R. Br. 
allinis, R. Br. 



ITS FLOEA. 



279 



Too. parviflora, E. Br. 
dlgitata, R. Br. 
concinna, II. Br. 
tenera, F. Muell. 
Kccleria cristata, Pers. 
Festiica bromoides, Liu. 

distichophylla, Hook, 
littoralis, Labill. 
plebeia, E. Br. 
Triticum scabrum, E. Br. 
Audropogon tenuis, E. Br. 

triticeus, E. Br. 
sericeus, E. Br. 
Lagurus ovatus, Lin. 

stipoides, E. Br. 
Aristida contorta, F. Muell. 

vagaus, Cav. 
Arundo Pliragmites, Lin. 
Cynodon Dactylon, Pers. 
teuellus, E. Br. 
Chloris truncata, E. Br. 

Sporobolus pidcliellus, E. Br. 
Authesteria ciliata, Lin. 

frondosa, E. Br. 
Eragrostis polymorpha, E. Br. 
Eriachne aveuacea, E. Br. 
Lselisemum triticum, E. Br. 
i^etaria glauea, Beauv. 
iSpinifex fragilis, E. Br. 
Cymbopogon procerus, E. Br. 



Chloris latevalvis, F. Muell. 

meccana, Hoclist. 
Hordeum pratense, Huds. 
Microlaina stipoides, E. Br. 
Pauicum Crus-galli, Liu. 

decompositum, E. Br. 
Triraphis mollis, E. Br. 
Ciuna ovata, Kunth. 
Cenchrus australis, E. Bi-. 

Brownii, E. S. 
Sporobolus elongatus, E. Br. 

actiuoclados, F. Muell. 
Eriauthus fulvus, Benth. 
Pappophorum commune, F. Muell. 
Setaria glauea, Beauv. 
Lappago racemosa, Willd. 
Deyeuxia Forsteri, Kunth. 
Dactyloctenium ^gyptiacum, Willd. 
Monachather paradoxa, Steud. 
Cymbopogon cygnorum, Minor. 



Tntra-Tropical. 

Pauicum angustum, Trin. 

polyphylhmi, E. Br. 

effusum, E. Br. 

ovalifolium, Beauv. 

Petiverii, Triu. 

decomijositum, E. Br. 
Ectrosia leporina, E. Br. 
Aristida stipoides, E. Br. 



ACOTYLEDONS. 



FILICES. 

Indigenous in Australia, 35 Genera. 

Soiith Australia, 23 Genera. 



Botrychium Luuaria, Siv. 

ternatum, Siv. 
Ophioglossum vulgatum, Lin. 
Schiza^a dichotoma, S\v. 
Todea africana, Willd. 
Gleicheuia circinata, E. Br. 
Ijindssea linearis, S\v. 
Adiautum sethiopicum, Lin. 
Lomaria capensis, Willd. 
discolor, Willd. 
procera, S\v. 
lanceolata, Spreng. 
Patorsoni, Spreng. 
fluviatilis, Spreng. 
Chcilanthes tenuitblius, Sw. 
distans, A. Br. 
Siebcrii, Kunz. 
vellea, F. Muell. 



Pteris falcata, E. Br. 
incisa, Thuub. 
iinibrosa, E. Br. 
esculenta, Forst. 
Asplenium flabelliformis, Cav. 
obtusatum, Forat. 
bulbiferum, Forst. 
Aspidium molle, S\v. 

decompositum, Spreng. 
Grammitis leptophylla, Sw. 
rutitblia, E. Br. 
australis, E. Br. 
Gymnogramuia Pozoi, Kuiiz. 
NotochUena Eeynoldii, F. INluell. 

tVagdis, Hook. 
Polystichium vestitum, Presl. 
Ncphrodium dLCompositum, E. Br. 



280 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



Jntra-T. 
Scliiztca dichotoma, S\v. 
Acrostichum aureiim, JAn. 

pteroidcs, Hook. 
Adiantiim Immlatuni, Be auv. 
l.iudsaya oiisifolia, S\v. 

tciiera, Drvaud. 
llabcllulata. J )nand. 
I-ygodiiim bcaiulcns, S\v. 

semibipinnatiuii, 1'. 15r. 
luicropbylluni, 11. lir. 
(ileichenia dichotoma, "NVilld. 
I'olypodium quercifolium, Lin. 



'fO]i/rnl. 
I'olyiiodiuin Uinnrei, Borg. 
Asiiidiiim unituni, S\v. 
Blccluium oiicntalc, I. in. 

scirulatum, ]!i('h. 

striatum, It. Br. 
Ccratoptoiis tlialictroidcs, Biongn. 
CluilantliL's fragillina, V. ^Muull. 

tcnuifolia, Sw. 
Ptoris aqiiiliua, F. 3Iiioll. 
Opbioglossum viilgatiim, liin. 
Botrycliium Yirgiiiianiim, Hw. 
Noto'cbla^na fragilis, Ilumb. & Bonpl. 



LYCOrODIACE.'E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 2 Genera. 

South Australia, 2 Genera. 
Kxtra-Tiopical. 
Lycopodiiim deiisum, Labill. I I^ycopodium volubik\ Forst. 

varium, E. Br. | Scdaginclla Belangeri, Sw. 

MARSILEACE^. 
Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Extra-Tropical. 
ilarsiloa macropiis, Ilook. | Marsilea quadrifolia, Lin. 

SALVINIE/E. 

Indigenous in Australia, 1 Genus. 

South Australia, 1 Genus. 
Extra-Tropical. 



-Vzolla rubra, E. Br. 



Azolla pinnata, R. Br. 



ITS FAUNA. 281 



THE FAUNA OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Bv F. G. Waterhouse, Esq., C.M.Z.S., H.M.E.S. and F.L.S. 

New South Wales, &c. &c. 

In order to make this work as complete as possible, it was 
arranged to give a classified list of fauna indigenous to the 
Colony. Mr. F. G. Waterhouse, the able Curator of the Mu- 
seum, whose fitness for the work will be admitted by all who 
know him, undertook to present a classified catalogue of the 
animals and birds which are met with in South Australia. For 
a series of years ]Mr. Waterhouse has been collecting materials, 
the results of which are embodied in the following pages. 
With other forms of animal life he has not dealt. Keptiles, 
insects, and fishes, to have been exhaustively catalogued and 
classified, would have taken more time than Mr. Waterhouse 
has at his disposal, and would have required a lifetime to 
prepare carefully. It would have exceeded, too, the limits of 
this volume. The mammals and birds are of greatest interest. 
It will be borne in mind that Mr. Waterhouse confines his 
attention to the indigenous fauna of the Colony. All the 
domestic animals, and most of the birds known in Europe, 
have been acclimatized here, and without a single exception 
they seem to do well. 

The third chapter in this division of the book is on mines 
and minerals, in the preparation of which Mr. Waterhouse has 
been assisted by Mr. J. B. Austin — a gentleman who has paid 
a great deal attention of to the sul)jcct. In the former part 
of the work, I have glanced generally at the mining interest ; 
but this chapter goes more into details than I could do, and it 
is the result of personal and practical knowledge on the part 
of the writer. 

With these few prefatory remarks, I now allow 3Ir. Water- 
house to speak for himself. 



282 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

"AUSTKALIAN VERTEBEATA : MAMIMAT.S. 

" According to Mr. Gerard Krefi't, the able Curator of the 
Australian Museum, Sydney, the fauna of Australia is distin- 
guished by a large number of marsupial animals, -which are 
now extinct in almost every other part of the world, and con- 
sidered to be the oldest mammals known. A few living species 
allied to our Dasyures still exist in America, and fossil remains 
were found in France and England, which indicate the presence 
of marsupials at a very early jieriod, when mammalian life was 
at its infancy ; in fact the general belief is, that the first 
mammals belonged to the marsupial or pouched tribe. The 
isohited position of Australia may have caused these animals 
to retain their stronghohl licre much longer than in other 
countries ; and it is almost certain that many of their prede- 
cessors were also marsupials, equal in size to the rhinoceros 
and the hippopotamus. 

•• The living species arc of moderate growth, and the largest 
do not exceed two hundred pounds in weight ; they are divided 
into carnivorous or flesh-eating and herbivorous or grass-eating 
sections, with a few genera of mixed feeders. 

" At a rough estimate, we know 110 marsupials in Australia, 
to which must be added — twenty-four bats, one dog, thirty rats 
and mice ; and a number of seals and whales, which, inhabiting 
the ocean, are not restricted in their habitat. The most peculiar 
Australian animals are the duck-billed platypus, and the spiny 
ant-eater ; both of which are peculiar to this country. 

" Of the placental series — the curious water-rats or beaver- 
rats must be mentioned as being purely Australian. The 
dog was, no doubt, a very early introduction, because fossil 
remains were discovered contemporaneous with the great ex- 
tinct marsupials of post-pleiocenc times. Of man we have but 
scanty evidence regarding the length of his existence here ; 
in not one instance were weapons or implements obtained ^yit]^ 
the remains of fossil animals. Stone weapons are still used 
by many tribes, and the primitive art of splitting, grinding, 
and shaping various rocks into hatchets and spear heads is 
not yet lost. 



ITS FAUNA. 



283 



" The subjoined is a list of the mammals found in the 
ProAdnce of South Australia ; those marked with an asterisk 
came from the Northern tropical portion of this Colony : — 

MAMMALIA. 

CHEIROPTERA. 
a. Frugivorous Bats. 



P. poliocephalus 



PTEROPUS. 

. Grey-headed ] * P. funereus Funeral vampire. 

vampire ] 
h. Insectivorous Bats. 

MOLOSSUS. 
M. australis Australian molossiis. 

TAPHOZOUS. 
* T. flaviventris Yellow-bellied taplxozous. 

RHINOLOPHUS. 
* E. aurantius Orange horse-shoe bat. 

SGOTOPHILUS. 

S. Gouldi Gould's bat I S. picatus Pied bat. 

morio Chocolate bat | 

VESPERTILIO. 
V. macropus Great-footed bat. 

CANIDiE.— DOG TRIBE. 

CANIS. 
C. Dingo The dingo. 

PHOCIDiE.— SEAL TRIBE. 

STENORHYNCHUS. 
S. leptonyx Sea leopard. 

ARCTOCEPHALUS. 
A. lobatus Cowled seal. 



EODENTIA.— EAT TRIBE. 

a. Long-eared Rats. 



HAPALOTIS. 

II. alliiics "White-footed bapa- H. Mitchellii... IMitdiell's hapalotis 

lot is cervina Fawn-coloured liapa- 

conditor ... Building hapalotis lotis. 

h. Short-eared Rats. 



284 SOUTH AUSTKALIA. 

MUS. 

M. fuscipcs "Dusky-footed rnt I M. Ciouldi "Wliite-footcd rat 

vcllerosiis ... Tawny .. luiiui.s Little „ 

assimilis ... Allied „ | 

c. Water Hats. 



]I. ehrysogastcr Goldeu-bcUicd bea- 
ver rat 
fulvolavatus Fulvous beaver rat 



HYDI^OMYS. 

H. leucoiraster "White-bellied beaver 
rat 
lutrilla Small beaver rat. 



CETACEA.— WHALE TEIBE. 

BAL.ENA. 
B. Australi.s. 



MARSUPIALIA. 

EHIZOPHAGA.— WOMBAT TRIBE. 
PHASCOLOMYS. 
P. latifrons ... Broad-fronted worn- I P. platyrhinus Hairy-nosed wombat 
bat I niger Black „ 

CAEPOPHAGA.-PHALAXGER TEIBE. 

PHASCOLARCTOS. 
P. cinereus Koala or native bear. 

PHALANGISTA. 
P. vulpina Vulpine plialangcr [ P. viverrina ... Yivcrrine pbalanger. 

DROMICIA. 
D. glirifonnis Thick-tailed dromicia. 

CUSCUS. 
* C. brevicaudatus Short-tailed cuscus. 

rETA"URISTA. 
P. taguanoides Great flying phalanger. 

BELIDEUS. 



B. flaviventer TiOng-tailed belideus 
sciureus ... Squirrel-like „ 
brcvicei)s ... Sliort-headed „ 



B. notatus Striped-tailed 

belideus 
* ariel Ariel. 



AC ROB AT A. 
A. pygmrea Pigmy aerobates. 

POEPHAGA.— KANGAROO TRIBE. 

MACROPUS. 
JM. major ( J reat grey kangaroo ] M. fuliginosus Sooty kangaroo. 

OSPHRANTA. 
O. rufns Great red kangaroo | O. crebescens... Uroo kangaroo. 



ITS FAUNA. 285 

HALMATURUS.— WALLABY. 
II. Greyi Grey's wallaby | H. DerLiauus... Derby's -wallaby. 

PETROGALE.— ROCK WALLABY. 
P. xauthopus Y'ellow-footed rock wallaby. 

ONYCHOGOLEA.— XAIL-TAILED KANGAROO. 
0. luuata. 

LAGORCHESTER.— HARE KANGAROO. 
L. le^TOroides Hare kangaroo. 

BETTONGIA.— BETTONGS, OR JERBOA KANGAROOS. 

B. Graii Gray's jerboa kangaroo I B. Ogilbyi ... Ogilby's jerboa kan- 

caiupestris Plain „ „ | garoo. 

HYPSIPRYMORUS.— RAT KANGAROO, 
H. Gilberti... Gilbert's rat kangaroo | H. i^latyops Broad-faced kangaroo. 

ENTOMOPHAGA.— BANDICOOT TEIBE. 
PERAMELES. 
P. fasciata... Banded bandicoot | P. obesula ... Short-nosed bandicoot. 

PERAGALIA. 
P. lagotis Long-eared peragalia. 

CHCEROPUS. 
C. castanotis Chestnut-eared chceropus. 

SATJCOPHAGA.— NATIVE CAT TEIBE. 

DAS YURUS.— NATIVE CAT. 
D. maculatus Spotted-tailed dasy- I D. vlverrinns Variable dasyurus 
urus. I Geofi'royi Geofiroy's „ 

PHASCOGALE.— BRUSH-TAILS. 
P. penicillata Brush-tailed phasco- 1 P. calura ... Handsome-tailed 
gale I phascogale. 

ANTECHINUS.— BROAD-FOOTED "POUCHED MICE." 
A. Swainsoni Swainson's antechinus I A. leucopus "White-footed 
flavipes... Rusty-footed ante- | antechinus. 

chinus I 

POD ABRUS— SLENDER-FOOTED "POUCHED MICE." 
P. crassicaudatus Thick-tailed poda- I P. allipcs ... Wliite-footed 
brus I podaljrus. 

MYRMECOBIUS.— BRUSH-TAILED ANT-EATER. 

M. fasciutus Branded niyrmecobius. 

c. Mouotremata. 

ECHIDNA.— SPINY ANT-EATER. 
E. hystrix Spiny ant-eater. 

ORNITHORHYNCHUS. 
0. aup.tinus Duck-bill platj'pus. 



280 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



"BIRDS. 

" Tho Avi Fauna of Australia is considcral)lo, t]iouj2,ii por- 
lia])S not so rich as that of other countries under the same 
hititu(h\ Australia is famous for the beauty of lier many 
parrots, over sixty species of which are found here ; the lioney- 
eaters are also numerous and varied in plumage, Avhile bower- 
buihling birds, mound-raising- mcgapodes, and stately emus, are 
peculiar to this favoured region. Game species abound ; there 
are many pigeons, ducks, geese, plovers, and quail, and every 
bay or island along the coast-line is swarming with noisy sea- 
birds. Some large groups are however absent ; we have no 
woodpeckers, no humming-birds, no trogons, and but a few 
good songsters. Other handsome forms compensate in some 
measure for this loss. Numerous game and singing birds luive 
been imported from other parts, and all thrive Avell. 

" I'lie total number of species is nearly 700. 

'*' The following is a list of the species found in the Pro- 
vince of South Australia ; those marked with an asterisk are 
from the northern tropical portion of tlie Colony : — 

AYES. 

ORDEE EAPTOPiES. 
FAM. FALCONID.E. 

Aquila aiidax Wodgc-tailed eagle 

morplinoick's Tjittle ctigle 

Polioat'tus Iciicogaster White-bellied sea-eagle 

Haliastur leucostenms White-breasted eagle 

spheimnis Whistling eagle 

Paiidionlcucocephalu.s AVJiitc-headed os])rey 

Falco hypoleucus <Trey falcon 

nielanogeuys Black-cliecked falcon 

subniger Black falcon 

lunulatus Wl lite-fronted falcon 

llierocidea bcrigora Brown hawk 

occidentalis Western brown hawk 

'JMnnnnculus cenchroides Nankeen kestrel 

Leucospiza raii New Holland goshawk 

Nov;e-IIollandi;e Albino goshawk 

Astur approximans Australian goshawk 

crueutus West Australian gosliawk 

Accipiter torquatus Collared sparrow-hawk. 

irypoctinia raclanostcrnoii Black-breasted buzzard 

Milvus aftinis Allied kite 

isurus Square-tailed kite 



ITS FAUNA. 287 

Elanus axillaris Black-shouldered kite 

scriptus Letter-winged kite 

*Baza subcristata Crested hawk 

Circus assimilis Allied harrier 

Jardiuii Jardinc's harriei'. 

FAM. STRIGID.E. 

Strix Novffi-Hollandioe Masked owl 

delicatula Delicate owl 

*Hieracoglaux ruf us Rufous owl 

connivens Winking owl 

Spiloglaux marmoratus Marbled owl 

boobook Boobook owl 

maculatus Spotted owl. 

OEDER INSESSOEES. 

FAM. CAPRIMULGID^^. 

^gotheles Novse-HoUandia; Owlet nightjar 

Podargus Cuvieri Cuvier's podargus 

* phalajnoides Moth-plumed podargus 

Eurostopodus guttatus Spotted nightjar. 

FAM. CYPSELIDiE. 

Chsctura caudacuta Spine-tailed swift 

*Cypselis australis Swift. 

FAM. HIRUNDINID^. 

Ilivundo neoxena Welcome swallow 

fretensis Torres Straits swallow 

Hylochelidon nigricans Tree swallow 

Lagenoplastes ariel Fairy martin 

Cheramoeca leucosterna White-breasted swallow. 

FAM. MEROPID^. 
Merops omatus Australian bee-eater. 

FAM. CORACIDI.E. 
*Eurystomus pacificus Australian roller. 

FAM. ALCEDINID^. 

Dacelo gigas Great brown kingfisher 

* cervina Fawn-breasted kingfisher 

Toderamphus sanctus Sacred kingfisher 

pyrrhopygius Rcdbacked kingfisher 

* sordidus Sordid kingfisher 

*Cyanalcyon Macleayi MacLeay's kingfisher 

Alcyou azurea Azure kingfisher 

pulchra Beautiful kingfisher 

* pusilla Little kingfisher. 

FAM. ARTAMID.F. 

Arfamus sordidus Wood swallow 

minor Tattle wood swallow 

cinereus Grey-breasted wood swallow 

melanops Black-faced wood swallow 

personatus INIarked wood swallow 

superciliosus Wiiitc-cyebrowed wood swallow 

leucopygialis Wliite-rumped wood swallow. 



288 . SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

FAM. AMPELIDiE. 

riinliilotus punctatus Spottcil (liaiuoiul binl 

rubrieatus llod-lorod iliamoiulbinl 

istriatus Striated diumoiul bird 

artiiiis Allied diaiuond bird 

uroj)}'gialis Yellfiw-ruinped diainDiid bird 

xautUopygialis YcllDw-runiped diaiaoud bird. 

FAM. LANIAD-F. 

Strcpera fuligiuosa Sooty crow slirike 

aiguta Hill crow slirike 

aiiaplioiiciisis Grey crow slirike 

Gymiiorbiua tibiren Piping crow slirike 

Icuconota Wlate-backcd crow slirike 

Cracticiis nigrogularis IMaek-tliroatcd crow shrike 

* picatus Pied crow shrike 

* aigeiiteiis Silvery-backed crow shrike 

* quoqui Quoy's crow shrike 

toripuitus ('(dlared crow shrike 

Grallina picata I'iud gralliua. 

FA^r. CAMPEPAGINiE. 

Grancalus nielanops Plack-faced grancalus 

* hypoleucus AVhite-bellied grancalus 

Ptcropodocys phasianella Ground grancalus 

*Campephaga karu Northern caiiipeiihaga 

humeralis Whitr-shouldeicd campophaga 

Pachyccphala gutteralis AVhite-should(!red tiiickhead 

* melanura Ulack-tailcd thickhead 

rutivcntris Kufous-breastcd thickliead 

rufogularis lu-d-tliroated thickliead 

Gilberti (Jilbert's thickhead 

* simplex Plain-coloured thickhead 

CoUuriciucla harmonica Ilarniouious shrii;e thrush 

rufiventris Pntl-hcllied shrike thrush 

* brunea Prown shrike thrush 

* parvula fjittlc shrike thrush 

* rufogaster IJosy-breasted shrike thrush 

Falcunculus frontutus Frontal shrike thrush 

Orcoica cristata Crested oreoica. 

FAM. DICRUIHD.E. 

*DicruriX3 bracteatus Spangled drongo shrike. 

FAM. MUSCICAPID.E. 

Ehipidura albiscapa White-shafted fantail 

* dryas Wood fantail 

* isura Xorthern fantail 

motacilloides Plack fantail 

* pictata Pied fantail 

Seizura inquieta llcstless llycatcher 

*Piezorhyiiciius nitidus Sliining tlycatclur 

*Myiagra concinna Pretty llycatcher 

Micrteca facinaus 15ro wu flycatcher 

Gcrygouo fusca Prown gerygono 

culici vera 'Western trerygone 

* magnirostris (ireat-billed gerygone 

* chloronota (JrcHii-backed gerygone 

Smicroruis brcvirostris Sliort-billed smicrornis 

* liavescens Yellow-tinted smicroruis. 



ITS FAUNA. 289 

FAM. SAXICOLID^. 

Erythroilryas rhoJiuogaster Pink-breasted wood robiu 

Petrceca multicolor Scarlet-breasted robin 

Goodeuovii Ked-capped robin 

phcenicea Flame-breasted robin 

Melanodryas cucuUata Hooded robin 

* picata Pied robin 

Drymodes brunneopygia Buff-sided robin 

Eopsaltria griseogularis Grey-breasted robin. 

FAM. MENURID^. 

SjDhenostoma cristatum Crested wedge-tail. 

FAM. ■ ? 

Malurus cyaneus Superb warbler 

Lamberti Lambert's warbler 

leucopterus White-winged warbler 

leuconotus White-backed warbler 

* cruentatus Brown's warbler 

Amytis texilis Texile wren 

striatus Striated wren 

n. sp Goyderi 

Stipiturus malachurus Emu wren 

Sphenura brachyptera Bristle bird 

Hylacola pyrrliojiygia I\ed-rumped hylacola 

cauta Cautious hylacola 

Cisticola exilis Exile grass warbler 

lineocapilla Lineated grass warbler 

Sericornis osculans Allied tericornis 

* lajvigaster Buff-breasted tericornis 

Acanthiza py rrhopygia Ited-rumped acauthiza 

iuornata PJain-coloured acanthiza 

nana I>ittle acanthiza 

Geobasileus chrysorrhous Yellow-rumped acanthiza 

reguloidos Buff-rumped acanthiza 

Ephthianura albifrons White-fronted ephthianura 

aurifrons Orange-fronted ephthianura 

tricolor Tricoloured ephthianura 

Xerophilla leucopsis White-faced xerophila 

pectoralis Gibson's xerophila 

Pyrrholemus brunneus Red tliroat 

Calamanthus fuliginosus Striated calamanthus 

campestris I'ield calamanthus 

Chthonicola sagittata Little chthonicola. 

FAM. MOTACILLID^. 

Anthus australis Australian pipit 

Cincloramphus cruralis Brown cinclonimphus 

cantilans I Mack-breasted cincloramphus 

Ptenoedus rufescens Rufous-tinted cincloramphus 

Sphenceacus galactotcs Tawny grass bird 

gramineus Little grass bird. 

FAM. SYLVIAD^. 

Calamolierpc australis Reed warbler 

Mirafra Ilorsficldii Ilorslield's brush lark. 

U 



290 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

FAM. FRINGILLID^. 

^Egintlia temporalis Eed-eyebrowed finch 

Neochmia phaeton Crimson finch 

St;i,i;;onopleina guttatu Spotted-sided finch 

Tivniopygia castcnutis Chestnut-cared fnicli 

*roephihv Gouklia) Gouldian grass finch 

* mirubilis Beautiful grass finch 

* acuticauda Long-taikd grass finch 

* personatii Masked grass finch 

Emblama picta Painted finch. 

FAM. MELURID/E. 

Pitta iris Rainbow pitta 

Cinclosoma punctatum Spotted ground thrush 

castanotum Chcstnut-backed ground thrush 

cinnamoenunu Cinnamon ground thrush 

Oreocincla lunulata Mountain thrush. 

FAM. PARADISEIDJi:. 

*Chlamydera nuchalis Great bower bird 

maculata Spotted bower bird 

Mimeta viridis New South Wales oriole 

* aflinis Allied oriole 

* flavocincta Chestnut-marked oriole 

*Specotheres flaviventris Northern sphecothcros 

Corcorax mdanoramphus White-winged corcorax 

Struthidea cinerea Grey struthidea. 

FAM. CORVID/E. 

Corvus australis White-eyed crow. 

FAM. CRATEROPODID.E. 

Pomatostomus temporalis Temporal pomatostomus 

rubeculus Red-breasted pomatostomus 

superciliosus White-eyebrowcd pomatostomus 

ruficeps Chestnut-crowned pomatostomus, 

FA^r. MELIPHAGID.E. 

Meliornis Nov£e-Hollandife New Holland honey-eater 

Lichmera australasiana Tasmanian honey-cater 

Glycyphila fulvilrons Fulvous honcy-euter 

albifrons White-fronted honey-cater 

* fasciata Fasciated honey-eater 

Stigniatops ocularis Brown honey-eater 

* subocularis Least honey-eater 

Ptilotis sonora Singing honey-eater 

fiavigula Yellow-throated honey-eater 

luucotis Wliite-cared honey-eater 

cratitia Wattle-cheeked honey-eater 

ornata Graceful honey-eater 

plumula Plumed honey-eater 

* fiava Yellow honey-cater 

penicillata White-plumed honey-eater 

chryso|)S Yellow-faced honey-eater 

*Stomiopera unicolor Uniform honey-eater 

Plectorhynclia lanceolata I-anceolate honey-eater 

Meliphaga phrygia Warty-faced honey-eater 

Lichnotentlia picata Pied honey-eater 

Conophophila albigularis White-throated honey-eater 



ITS FAUNA. 291 

Conophophila rufigularis Ked-throated honoy-eater 

Acantbogenys lufigularis Spring-cheeked honey-eater 

Anthocbsera caruuculata Wattled lioncy-eater 

Anellobia mellivora Brush wattle bird 

Tropidorbynchus corniculatus Friar bird 

* buceroides Helmeted friar bird 

* argenticeps Silvery-crowned friar bird 

* sordidus Sordid friar bird 

Acantborbynchiis tenuirostris Spine-bill 

*MyzomeIa sanguinolenta Sanguineous honey-eater 

* crythrocephala Red-headed honey-eater 

* pectoralis Banded honey-eater 

* nigra Black honey-eater 

* obscura Obscure honey-eater 

*Entomyza albipennis White-quilled honey-eater 

Melithreptus gularis Black-throated honey-eater 

lunulatus Lunated honey-eater 

* albogularis White-throated honey-eater 

Myzantha garrula Garrulous honey-eater 

obscura Sombre honey-eater 

* lutea Luteous honey-eater 

Dicseum hirundinaccum Swallow dica;um 

Zosteroi^s cser ulescens Grey-backed zosterops 

* luteus Yellow zosterops. 

FAM. CERTHIAD^. 

Climacteris scandens Brown tree-creeper 

rufa Rufous tree-creeper 

* melanura Black-tailed tree-creeper 

leucophta White-throated tree-creeper 

*Sittella leucoptera White- winged bittella 

pileata Black-capped sittella. 

FAM. CUCULIDiE. 

Cacomantis i^allidus Pallid cuckoo 

tlabelliformis Fan-tailed cuckoo 

insperatus Brush cuckoo 

* dumatorum Square-tailed cuckoo 

Mesocalius osculans Black-eared cuckoo 

Lamprococcyx plagosus Bronze cuckoo 

* minutillus Little bronze cuckoo 

basalis Narrow-billed cuckoo 

Scythrops Novse-Hollandige Channel-bill 

*Eudynamis Flindersi Australian koel 

*Centropus macrourus Great-tailed coucal. 

FAM. PSITTACIDiE. 

Cacatua galerita Sulphiu--crcsted cockatoo 

Leadbeateri Leadbeater's cockiitoo 

sanguinea Blood-stained cockatoo 

roseicapilla Rose-breasted cockatoo 

Licmetis tenuirostris Long-billed cockatoo 

*Calyptorhynchus raacrorhynclms Great-billed black cockatoo 

Leacliii I>each's black cockatoo 

xanthonotus Yellow-eared black cockatoo 

Callocephalon galeatum Gan-gan cockatoo 

*Polytelis Alexandra) The Princess of Wales's parrakeet 

u 2 



292 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

Polytelis nulainira Black-tailed pairakcet 

*Ptistes coccincoptenis ("rimson-winfjed lory , 

Platyccrcus Barnardi Barnard's jiainikeot 

Z(jnariiis Banded parrakcet 

Pennantii Pennant's parrakeet 

adclaidensis Adelaide parrakcet 

venustus Beautiful parrakeet 

exiniius IiO;e-ljill jianakeet 

Psopliotus ha'Ui'.itorrlious Ived-veuted parrakeet 

xantliorrliuus Yellow-vented parrakeet 

multicolor A'aried parrakcet 

liainiatonotus Ped-rumped parrakeet 

Pupliema elegans ]''Jegant ijrn.s.s parrakeet 

aurantia Orange-bellied grass parrakeet 

petrophila Pock grass parrakeet 

splendida Splendid grass parrakeet 

Bourkii Bourk's grass parrakeet 

IMelopsittacus undulatus "Warbling grass parrakeet 

Calopsitta Novaj-Hollandiie Cockatoo parrakeet 

Pezoporus formosus Ground parrakeet 

Geopsittacus oecidentalis Western ground parrakeet 

Tvatbamus discolor Swift lorikeet 

Trichoglossus multicolor Blue-bellied lorikeet 

* rubritorquis Iled-collared lorikeet 

*Ptilocliera versicolor Varied lorikeet 

Glossopsitta australis Musk lorikeet 

porpliyroceiihalus Porphyro-crowned lorikeet 

pulsilfa Little lorikeet. 



ORDER RASORES. 

FAM. COLUMBIDJ^. 

*Myristictivora spilorrhoa White nutmeg pigeon 

*Ptlinopus Ewingii Ewing's fruit pigeon 

*Chalci)phaps chrysocLlora Tattle green pigeon 

I'liaps chalcoptera Comnion bronzewing 

elegans l?rusli bronzewing 

hist rionica Harlequin bronzewing 

*Gcophaps Smithii Snath's bronzewing 

Pophophaps i)luniifera Plumed bronzewing 

ferruginea Pust-coloured bronze winj 

Ocyphaps lophotes Crested bronzewing 

Erythrauchaina humeralis Barred-shouldered dove 

Geopelia tranquilla Peaceful dove 

* placida Placid dove 

Stictopelia cuneata Little turtle-dove 

FAM. MEGAPODID.E. 

Leipoa occllata Ocellafed leipoa 

*Megapodius tumulus Australian megapode. 

FAM. TURNICID.E. 
Turnix varius Varied turnix 

* castanotus Chestnut-backed turnix 

velox Swift-flying turnix 

pyrrhothorax Eed-crested turnix 

Pedionomus torquatus Collared jiluin wanderer. 



ITS FAUNA. 29^ 

FAM. PERDICID^. 

Cotumix pectoralis Pectoral quail 

Synoicus australis Swamp quail 

sordidus Sombre quail 

* cervinus Northern quail 

Excalfatoria australis Least swamp quail. 

ORDER GRALLATORES. 
FAM. STRUTHIDIONIDJ]:. 

Dromanius Novse-Hollandise Emu 

inornatus Spotted emu. 

FAM. OTIDID^. 
Clioriotis australis Australian bustard. 

FAM. CHAPADPJD^. 

(Edicnemus grallarius Southern stone plover 

*Esacus magnirostris Large-billed shore plover 

Hsematopus longirostris White-breasted oyster-catcher 

fuliginosus Sooty oyster-catcher 

Lobivanellus lobatus Wattled plover 

* personatus Masked plover 

Sarciophorus pectoralis Black-breasted plover 

Squatarola helvetica Grey plover 

Charadrius orientalis Australian plover 

Eudromius austral is Australian dottrell 

Cirrepidesmus asiaticus Asiatic dottrell 

* Geoifroyi Geoffroy's dottrell 

JEglalites monacha Hooded dottrell 

nigrifrons Black-fronted dottrell 

-^gialophilus ruiicapillus Bed-capped dottrell 

Ochthodromus inornatus Allied dottrell 

bicinctus Double-banded doltrell 

Erythrogonyx cinctus Red-kneed dottrell. 

FAM. GLAREOLID^. 
*Glareola grallaria Practincole Australian. 

FAM. HIMANTOPODID^. 

Himantopus leucocephalus White-headed stilt 

Cladorhynchus pectoralis Banded stilt. 

FAM. RECURVIROSTRID^. 
Eecurvirostris rubicoll is Red-necked vaocet. 

FAM. LIMOSTDiE. 
*Limosa uropygialis Barred-rumped godwit. 

FAM. TRINGID^. 

Limnocinclus acuminatus Marsh tringa 

Ancylochilus subarquatus Curlew sandpiper 

Actodromas australis Little sandpiper 

Actitis hypoleucos Common sandpiper 

Glottis glottoides Greenshank 

Strepsilas interpres Turnstone 



294 SOUTH AUSTKALIA. 

FAM. SCOLOPACID^. 

Galliiiago ausfralis New Holland snipe 

Khynchifa aiistralis Australian rhyncba?a. 

FA:\r. • ? 

Niimcnius cyanopus xVustmlian curlew 

m-opygialis Australian winibrel 

juiuor Littlo wimbrel. 

FAM. TANTALID-E. 

Carphibis spinicollis Straw-necked ibis 

Tlireskiornis strictipeunis White ibis 

Falcinellus igneus Glos.-y ibis 

I'latakaregia Eoyal spoonbill 

riatibis flavipes Yellow-legged spoonbill. 

FAM. GRUID.E. 
Grus australasianus Australian crane. 

FA^I. CICONID.E. 
*Xenorliyncliiis australis Australian jabiru. 

FAM. ARDEIDJ^.. 

Ardea cinerea Common heron 

pacifica Pacitic heron 

Novffi-Hollandi:e Whit e-fronted heron 

Herodias alba Australian egret 

egrettoides Phmud egret 

melauopus Spotless egret 

aslia Sombre egret 

* picata Pied egret 

Demiegretta jugulari.-. . Black-reef heron 

* Greyi White-reef heron 

Nycticorax ealadonieus Nankeen night heron 

Botaurus poiciloptilus Australian bittern 

But'jroides flavicollis Yellow-necked mangrove bittern 

Ardetta pusilla Minute bittern 

Porphyrio m* lanotus Black-backed porphy rio 

Tribonyx ventralis Black-tailed tribonyx 

Gallinulatenebrosa Sombre gallinule 

Fulica australis Australian coot 

Hypotaiuidia philippensis Pectoral rail 

Rallus brachypus Lcwiu's water rail 

*Eulabeornis eastaneiveutris Chestnut-bellied rail 

Porzana fluminea Spotted water crake 

palustris Little water crake 

tabuensis Tabuau water crake. 

ORDER NATATORES. 

FAM. ANATID.E. 

Chenopis atrata Black swan 

Cereopsis Novai-Hollandiic Cereopsis goose 

Anseranas melanoleuca Scmipalmated goose 

Chlamydochen jubata Maiied goose 

*Xettapu3 pulchellus Green pigmy goose 

Tadurna radjah Kajah sheldrake 



ITS FAUNA. 295 

Casarca tadornoides Chestnut-coloured sheldrake 

Anas superbosa Australian ■wild duck 

punctata Australian teal 

Stictonetta najvosa Freckled duck 

Spatula rhynchotis Australian shoveller duck 

Malacorhy nchus menibranaceus Pink-eyed duck 

Dendrucygua Gouldi Gould's A\Iiistling tree duck 

Eytoni Eyton's tree duck 

Nyroca australis White-eyed duck 

Biziura lohata Musk duck. 

FAM. LAEIDiE. 

Larus pacificus Pacific gull 

Bruchigavia Jamesonii Silver gill 

Stercorarius catarrhactes Great skua. 

FAM. STERNID^. 

Sylochelidon caspia Caspian tern 

*Thalasseus cristatus Torres Straits tern 

jDoliocercus Bass's Straits tern 

Sterna melanorhyncha Southern tern 

Sternula nereis Little tern 

Hydrochelidon leucopareia Marsh tern 

Onychoprion I'uliginosa Sooty tern 

paiiayen.sis Panayan tern 

Anous stolidud Noddy tern 

melanops Lesser tern 

* leucocei^halus White-capped tern. 

FAM. PROCELLA.EID^. 

Diomedia cxulans Wandering albatross 

cauta Shy albatross 

culminata Culminated albatross 

nielanophrys Black-eyebrowed albatross 

Phocbetria fuligiuosus Sooty albatross 

Ossifragra gigantea Great petrel 

Adamastor ciuerea Great grey petrel 

Pterodroma Solandri Solander's petrel 

.iEstrelata leucocephala White-headed petrel 

leucoptera White-winged jaetrel 

Haloboena cserulea Blue petrel 

Puffinus uugax Allied petrel 

Nectris brevicaudus Short-tailed petrel 

Thiellus sphenurus Wedge-tailed petrel 

Thalassoica glacialoides Silvery-grey petrel 

Darpion capenais Cape petrel 

Prion turtur Dove-like prion 

ariel Fairy prion 

Bankii Bank's prion 

vittatus Broad-billed prion 

Procellaria nereis Grey-backed storm petrel 

Oceanites oceanica Yellow-webbed storm petrel 

Frcgetta melauogastcr Black-backed storm petrel 

grallaria White-bellied storm petrel 

Pelagodroma fregata White-faced storm petrel 

Halladroma urinatrix Diving petrel. 



296 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

FAM. PELICANID.^. 

Pelicanus conspicillatvis Australian pelican 

Phalacrocnrax Novre-IIollaiuli;u Australian cormorant 

varius Pied corraoraut 

leucogaster AV'hitc-breastcd cormorant 

melanoleucus Tjittle cormorant 

stictocephalns Little black cormorant 

Plotus Xovse-Hollandiso New Holland darter 

Sula au.stralis Australian gaunet 

cyanops ^lasked gaunet 

* liber Brown gannet 

* piscator Red-legged gannet. 

FAM. PODICIPEDiE. 

Podiceps australis Australian tii>pet grebe 

nestor Hoary-headed grebe 

gularis Black-throated grebe. 

FAM. SPHENISCID^. 
Eudyptnla minor Little penguin. 



ITS MINES AND MINEEALS. 297 



MINES AND MINEEALS OF SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

By J. B. Austin, Esq. 

The vast mineral deposits (existing over thousands of square 
miles of country) in the Colony of South Australia have, for 
the past thirty years, contributed very largely to our national 
wealth. At times the mineral products of the Colony have 
been the highest in point of value of any of our staples ; but 
they have for some years past taken the third place — wheat 
now ranking first, and wool second. 

The history of mining in the Colony dates from the year 

1843, when the Kapunda Mine was discovered on Captain 
Bagot's sheep run, fifty miles from Adelaide. In January, 

1844, about ten tons of rich copper ore were sent down from 
the mine, and caused considerable excitement. In 1848 the 
first steam-engine commenced to pump the water from the 
mine, the depth of which had at that time reached nearly 
twenty fathoms. Subsequently the workings have been car- 
ried down to nearly four times that depth. In December, 
1849, the smelting of the ores was commenced, and they were 
reduced to regulus, thus effecting a great saving in cartage 
and freight. More recently the production of fine copper, in 
place of regulus, was for many years successfully carried on. 
The quantity of ore raised since the opening of the mine until 
it was made over to an English Company, averaged 2000 tons 
a year, giving an average produce of about 19 per cent, of fine 
copper. The Kapunda Mine was the means of the establish- 
ment of one of the principal provincial towns in the Colony, 
and which formed the nucleus of a large and thriving popu- 
lation. 

The Burra Mine was discovered about two years after the 
Kapunda, and at double the distance from Adelaide — 100 miles 



298 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

north of the city. In the year 18-45, one hundred mjles north was 
considered rather a forniidaLle journey, but the astounding 
reports of the wonderful richness of the new mine induced 
many persons of all classes to undertake the trip, in spite of 
the hardsliips and privations to he experienced. The "'Special 
Survey " of 2U,U0U acres requisite to secure this valuable pro- 
perty according to the land regulations of the period was taken 
uj) on 16th August, 1845, and six weeks after the first shot 
was fired, blasting a large mass of rich ore, with which several 
bullock drays were loaded and dispatched to Port Adelaide. 
For many years the carriage of stores, machinery, &c., to the 
mine, and of ore to the Port, was done entirely l>y bullock 
drays, and the traffic on the Burra road was something enor- 
mous. When it is remembered that the journey under most 
favourable circumstances would occupy a bullock team from 
eight to ten days, and more frequently longer, and that there 
was a constant stream of about 800 teams on the road, some 
idea may be formed of the traffic. AYhen we add to this the 
facts that each team consisted of eight bullocks, and that for 
the first six years of the mine's existence nearly 80,000 tons 
of ore, or 13,000 tons a year, were sent to the Port and shipped 
to England, the magnitude of the interest becomes apparent. 
An immense deposit of exceedingly rich ore — red oxide, mala- 
chite, and blue and green carbonates of copper — was found on 
the surface, and at first the removal of it was more like quarry- 
ing than mining. Some thousands of tons were taken away 
before any very great depth was sunk in the shafts. Subse- 
quently shafts and drives were sunk and extended, until in the 
a<»:o;re2;ate the 2:alleries measured some miles in length. But 

Co O O D 

the sinking was not carried do^\n to a greater depth than 
seventy-five fathoms. 

For some years past the yield of ore has been but small, 
but under the vigorous management of Captain Sanders efforts 
are being made to clear out some of the old workings, and to 
open up new ground, and the Captain is sanguine of ultimate 
success. For several years upwards of 1000 jDcrsons were 
employed on the mine, and some five or six townshij^s sprang 
up in the neighbourhood, containing a considerable number of 



ITS -MHiES AND MINEEALS. 299 

inhabitants besides the miners and their families. The Burra 
is now connected with Adehxide by railway. 

The total quantity of ore raised from the Burra Mine during 
the twenty-one years from its commencement was 215,132 tons, 
giving an average produce of 22 per cent, of fine copper, worth 
over £4,000,000. The total amount expended by the Company 
was £1,982,005, of which no less than £1,568,859 represents 
wages. The gross profits amounted to £882,436, of which 
£776,160 was paid to the shareholders in fifty-five dividends, 
or £315 on each share of £5. In years gone by many thousands 
of pounds' worth of ore in fine particles was lost by being washed 
away in the creek, for want of means to save it. More recently 
thousands of tons of this waste material have been recovered 
and passed through jiggers and other machines for saving the 
ore. 

The Burra Mine was for many years one of the richest in 
the world, and its discovery saved the Colony from impending 
ruin after the terrible crisis of 1842. For sixteen years the 
Burra Mine was without a rival, as to the vast extent and rich- 
ness of its deposits of ore. But in 1860 the discovery of the 
Wallaroo, and shortly after of the Moonta Mines, on Yorke's 
Peninsula, bid fair to disprove the often repeated saying that 
" there was only one Burra in the Colony." Although the 
AVallaroo Mines promised to turn out well, it was many months 
before the proprietors felt sure that their enterprise would not 
prove a losing one. A very large amount of capital was 
expended by the wealthy firm of Elder and Co. and Mr. W. 
W. Hughes, until the mine account stood with above £80,000 
on the debit side. A few months after this, however, their 
pluck and perseverance were rewarded by rich discoveries of 
ore, Avhich ensured profitable results from the large outlay 
incurred. The development of the mine now proceeded so 
rapidly as to induce the proprietors to erect smelting works at 
AVallaroo Bay, about five miles from the mine, for the reduction 
of the ore. Since 1862 the progress of the Wallaroo Mines has 
been very encouraging and satisfactory. The lodes in some 
parts of the mine are extraordinarily large and productive, 
measuring from ten to thirty feet in width of nearly solid ore, 



300 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

wovih aLout 12 per cent, of fine copper, and producing as mucli 
as sixty tons of ore to the fathom. The general run of the 
lodes, however, is from five to ten feet in thickness. 

The total number of miners and labourers employed in the 
Wallaroo Mines is 833. The rate of wages is as follows : — 
Tributers, £2 2s. per week ; tutworkmen, £2 per week ; under- 
ground and surface labourers, £1 13s. per week ; boys, from 
4s. 6d. to 18s. per week. In connexion with the Wallaroo 
Mines, extensive smelting works were erected at W^allaroo 
Bay, and are probably the largest and most complete in the 
Southern Hemisphere. They comprise thirty-six furnaces and 
t\Acnty-one calcining kilns, where 210 men are employed. 
The same proprietary have another smelting establishment at 
the Hunter Kiver, in New South Wales, where they have 
erected twenty-one furnaces, and employ 101 men. By this 
arrangement the vessels which bring coal from New South 
Wales to Wallaroo take back copper ore to the Hunter River 
smelting works, so that a saving of freight is effected. During 
the fifteen years since the opening of the Wallaroo Mines, the 
total quantity of ore raised has been 290,GG9 tons of 21 cwt., 
but the average of the first five years was under 8000 tons, 
Avhile the average of the five years ending 1874 was over 
26,000 tons. The total quantity of coi:)per made at these 
smelting works is 58,777 tons up to 1874. This includes a 
jjortion of the produce of the Wallaroo ]\ Lines, and of 197,394 
tons purchased from the Moonta and other mines. 

The country in the neighbourhood of the Wallaroo Mines 
being evidently metalliferous, numerous other claims were 
taken up in the vicinity, and a great deal of work was done 
with the view of finding payable copper mines. In some 
instances good lodes were struck, and worked for a few years 
Avith fair results ; but of all that were opened only three, 
besides the original Wallaroo Mine, are being worked with 
anytliing like payable returns. These are the Devon Consols, 
the Kurilla, and a more recently discovered mine, the Doora. 
This last is the property of Mr. W. W. Hughes, and is 
yielding large quantities of payable ore. 

About a year after the discovery of the Wallaroo Mines, a 



ITS MINES AND MINEEALS. 301 

still more valuable find was made eleven miles to the south- 
west, and two from the sea-coast. A quantity of small stones 
of green carbonate of copj^er being found on the surface of the 
ground, some pits were sunk, and a fine lode of ore was cut at 
a small depth. This was the commencement of the now world- 
renowned Moonta Mines. Several eighty-acre sections were 
secured by the Messrs. Elder & Co. and Mr. Hughes, and 
subsequently the Moonta Mining Company was formed. The 
1600 acres of mineral land now held by the Company is the 
richest mineral property in the Colony, and not far from being 
the richest in the world. Since the first discovery several very 
rich and productive lodes have been cut, the most recent being 
a sjjlendid course of fine yellow ore, four feet in width, at the 
depth of 100 fathoms. This lode alone will give employment 
to a large number of persons for many years to come. 

During the first twenty months after the opening of the 
Moonta Mine 8000 tons of ore, averaging nearly 25 per cent, 
of fine copper, were raised, and dividends amounting to 
£64,000 were paid from the proceeds. During this early 
period of the mine's existence — in September, 1862 — a large 
quantity of ore being required for shipment at Port Wallaroo, 
eleven miles from Moonta, 1700 tons were delivered in nine 
days by means of bullock drays. On another occasion, since 
the construction of the railway between Moonta and Wallaroo, 
forty tons of malleable or native copper were sent away in one 
train of ore trucks by rail. There are twenty-seven shafts on 
the mine, all in active work ; the least in depth is twenty-seven 
fathoms, and the deepest 143 fathoms. The others vary from about 
75 to 115 fathoms, and are for the most part yielding profitable 
returns. The last report from the mine states : " At the 130 
fathoms level the lode is turning out seven tons of 20 per cent, 
ore per fathom. In a winze below the 115 fathoms level (in 
another shaft) the value of the lode is five tons of 25 per cent, 
ore per fathom. ... At the 100 fathoms level the lode 
has turned out on the average six tons or 18 per cent, ore per 
fathom," and so on. In some places we read tlie lode is j)oor, 
turning out only one ton of 16 per cent, ore per fathom, &c. 
But the great productiveness of the mine is seen from the fact 



302 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

that the average yearly returns from the commencement have 
been 18,220 tons of ore (twenty-one cwt. to the ton), of an 
average yearly value of £197,270 lis. od. The present rate 
of production is nearly 2000 tons per month, the average pro- 
duce of the ore being about 20 per cent, of fine copper. During 
the half-year £32,000 has been paid in dividends. This notice 
of the 3Ioonta Mine may be appropriately closed by the fol- 
lowing statistics for the fourteen years since the mine was 
opened : — 

Total ore raised (twenty-ono cwt. to tlio ton) 2o5,089 tons 1 cwt. 

Amount realized on ore sold £2.761,787 18«. Id. 

AVorking expenses £1,710,906 9s. 6d. 

Expended on buildings and plant £137,608 3s. 9d. 

Dividends paid to shareholders £928,000. 

The total number of hands at present in the employ of the 
Company is 1525, including eighteen officers in the mine, and 
three in the Adelaide office. 

There are several mines in the neighbourhood of the Moonta, 
Avhich have for some years been worked witli more or less 
success. The Yelta is the oldest of these, and it has turned 
out a considerable quantity of ore. The Hamley and Para- 
matta mines have done rather better, and recently have shown 
great improvement ; the latter has paid dividends, and the 
lormer is about to do so. They are both very valuable pro- 
perties. Some other adjacent mines, as the North Yelta, the 
Mid-Moonta, &c., are being worked with fair prospects of success. 

In two or three localities, near the River jMurray, copper 
has been found and mines opened. At Callington, near the 
Bremer, and about thirty-six miles from Adelaide in the direc- 
tion of the Murray, a copper mine has been worked for many 
years with a moderate degree of success. There are also several 
other mines in the neighbourhood which have turned out a 
considerable quantity of copper. A few miles from this there 
is a remarkable mine, the Wheal Ellen, about three miles from 
the Town of Strathalbyn. It was originally worked for silver- 
lead, and some fine lodes of galena were opened. About 2000 
tons were raised, yielding a good percentage (about 70 per 
cent, of lead), and 90,000 ounces of silver, besides a proportion 
of gold, varying from one to two ounces to each ton of pig lead. 



ITS MINES AND MINEEALS. 303 

A large quantity of auriferous gossan is found in this mine, 
and the assay of samples sent to England gave at the rate of 
from four to six ounces of gold to the ton. 

In another silver-lead mine near Normanville, on the south- 
west coast, gold at the rate of two ounces to the ton was ob- 
tained from the lead. 

At the depth of thirty fathoms, in the Wheal Ellen, a fine 
lode of red oxide of copper was discovered, and in this part of 
the mine, at any rate, the lead seemed likely to give place to 
the copper. This mine, like many other promising mineral 
properties in the Colony, is at present idle ; but if labour were 
more abundant, it might probably be worked at a good profit. 
The gold alone ought to pay for extracting. 

The most extensive mineral district in the Colony is that 
lying to the north, north-east, and east of Port Augusta. It 
has, for convenience of description, been divided into four 
large districts. The central, comprising the following mines : — 
The Blinman, Sliding Eock, 3Iount Rose, Warrioota, Vocovo- 
cana, Mallee Hutt, Mount Emily, &c. The Mount Plantagenet 
district, comprising the Mount Craig, Kanyaka, Willow Creek, 
Prince Alfred, Matawarangala, and other mines. The Western, 
comprising the Beltana, Lake Torrens, Mount Deception, 
Wirtaweena, Mount Lyndhurst, &c. And the Northern, in- 
cluding the Yudanamutana, the Daly, and Stanley mines, 
&c. That portion of the country is for the most part ill- 
adapted to agricultural purposes, on account of the dryness of 
the climate, the nature of the soil, and the distance from a 
market. It is, however, good pastoral country, and abounds 
in vast mineral wealth. Enormous lodes of the richest iron 
ore may be seen rising high above the surface of the ground. 
Huge lodes of copper are traceable for miles through the 
country, and in some places the green ore may be seen for a 
considerable distance, though generally speaking the nature of 
the ore is only discovered on a closer examination. In certain 
parts the copper ore lies scattered in quantities over the ground, 
like broken road metal. Occasionally a huge " boil " of rich 
ore is found on some elevated part of the lode, as at the Yuda- 
namutana and the Nuccaleena mines, from the latter of which 



304 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

COO tons were quarried from near the surface. Ores of 60 and 
70 per cent, are frequently found cropping out above ground, 
consisting of red oxides and rich grey and other ores. Some- 
times green and bhie carbonates, green muriates and malachites 
are met with. A common form of copjior ore in the North is a 
brown livcr-colourod ore, largely mixed with iron, but contain- 
ing from 30 to 40 per cent, of fine copper. Crystallized red 
oxide and rul)y copper, also malleable or virgin copper, are 
frequently found. 

The extent and richness of the mineral deposits in the 
North are almost incredible to those who have not seen them ; 
but hitherto the high cost of cartage and labour has operated 
very much against their development. If a grand trunk line 
of railway were constructed at least 200 miles north, to near 
Yudanamutana, leaving the mining companies to connect 
their properties with it by branch lines or wire tramways, the 
one great obstacle to the successful working of the mines 
would bo removed. Such a railway is in contemplation by 
the present Government, and when carried out, it will pro- 
bably do more to advance South Australia than any public 
work yet undertaken in the Colony. ■ 

The opinion has sometimes been expressed, with reference 
to our northern mines, that the ore will not hold down to any 
depth. In one or two instances there would seem to have 
been some little warrant for such an opinion, but there are 
several other cases showing that it is by no means the rule. 
In the Yudanamutana and Blinman Mines, regular, well- 
defined, and productive lodes were worked to a considerable 
depth without showing any signs of running out. In other 
mines also, as the Mount Rose, the Kanyaka, and the Daly 
and Stanley 3Iines, the nature of the country as well as the 
appearance of the lodes, at a depth of ten to fifteen fathoms, 
would warrant every expectation of their proving permanent. 
It may sometimes happen, as at the Nuccaleena Mine, that an 
immensely ricli deposit of ore on the surftice has left the lode 
poor for some fathoms below, and the country becoming hard, 
the lode has got pinched, but probably at a greater depth it 
would " make " again. 



ITS MINES AND MINEKALS. 305 

A very remarkable mine is being worked at Sliding Eock 
Creek, about thirty miles north of the Blinman. It contains 
a very large quantity of malleable copper in a finely divided 
state, and mixed with a kind of clay, which is easily worked. 
The stuff as raised does not contain more perhaps than 5 per 
cent, of copper, but by the aid of jDuddlers, jiggers, &c., it is 
easily dressed up to 75 per cent. Water being plentiful, the 
dressing operations can be carried on Avithout difficulty. The 
depth of the workings is at present thirty-five fathoms, and 
there appears to be a large quantity of native coj)i)er and rich 
oxides in the mine. The total number of hands em^^loyed at 
present is about 120, but probably more will be put on shortly. 
Smelting works have been erected on the mine, and some 
smelting done. 

It may be mentioned, also, that the English and Australian 
Copper Company have smelting works at Port Adelaide and at 
i^ewcastle (in New South Wales). Each of these establish- 
ments has twelve furnaces, with room for extension, when a 
larger suj)ply of ore is obtained from the working of the 
mines in the North and elsewhere. The works at Port 
Adelaide smelt from 7000 to 8000 tons of copper ore per year, 
using from 10,000 to 12,000 tons of coal. At Newcastle they 
smelt about 5000 tons of ore. The quantity of fine copper 
turned out is about 3000 tons a year from both establishments, 
and the total number of hands employed is about 140. The 
fire clay used in the furnace is obtained from the Company's 
property at the Burra. The Company is under the manage- 
ment of Mr. E. Cooke, M.P., Mr. V. Laurence being sub- 
manager and accountant, and is paying dividends at the rate 
of ten per cent, per annum. 

From personal inspection of the northern mines, the writer 
of this article holds a very strong opinion that when railwav 
communication affords facilities for Avorking them, which do 
not at present exist, the mineral wealth of that part of the 
country will be developed in an extraordinary degree. The 
ore is generally rich, and the ground easy to work. A large 
extent of the country presents no serious engineering diffi- 
culties in the way of railway construction. 

X 



30G SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

lu an article like this it is not necessary to enumerate all 
or even a large proportion of our mines. It may be stated 
that mineral deposits of greater or less richness are very 
■widely diffused throughout the Colony. These deposits have 
been traced over an area of country extending COO miles from 
south to north, and 250 miles from east to west. The mineral 
that has been most largely and profitably worked is copper ; 
and during three years, ending December 31st, 1862, when a 
mining mania was at its height, no less than 1576 mineral 
sections, of eighty acres each, had been taken up. 

Our deposits of iron are also of wonderful richness and 
enormous extent, but, owing to the absence of coal, and the 
high price of labour in the Colony, they have been but little 
worked. Native iron has been found so pure that it has, 
without any preparation, been welded on to a piece of manu- 
factured iron, and stood well. An attempt was made, about 
two years since, to undertake the smelting of iron in the 
southern part of the Colony, where certain facilities, as fuel, 
lime, (fcc, existed in close proximity to exceedingly rich ore. 
As far as concerned the production of first-class pig iron, and 
its subsequent manufacture into wrought iron and steel, the 
attempt was highly successful, but owing to two or three 
hitches at starting, the shareholders in the company which had 
been formed lost heart, and the project was for a time 
abandoned. Several of those who first took the matter up, 
however, have still great faith in the ultimate success of iron 
smelting in South Australia, and as our population increases, 
and other favourable circumstances arise, we may expect to see 
this important industry revived. 

Lead ore also abounds in the Colony, and contains a pro- 
portion of silver, in many cases, as high as fifty and even sixty 
ounces to the ton of galena. For many years, our lead mines 
were worked, but they were not considered sufficiently re- 
munerative to warrant the continuance of operations. If 
however, at some future time, circumstances should enable the 
ore to be raised, or the metal extracted at less cost than at 
present, there is abundance of galena to be found in South 
Australia. Silver ore yielding as high as thirty per cent, of 
silver has been found, and some rich ore is known to exist on 



ITS MINES AND JUINEEALS. 307 

private property, but the largest attempt to work a silver mine 
in the Colony proved a failure. 

Besides the metals already mentioned, many others have 
been met with. Tin has only been found in small quantities. 
3Ianganese exists in certain localities, associated with a small 
percentage of cobalt ; and a very large deposit of manganese 
of 80 per cent., showing cobalt, is reported in the north. 
Plumbago is found in the Port Lincoln District and elsewhere, 
and zinc occurs with copper and other ores. 

Bismuth is found in various parts of the Colony, some 
hundreds of miles distant from each other — :on the western 
side of Spencer's Gulf, above Franklin Harbour ; in the 
Stanley Mine, 230 miles north of Port Augusta ; and near 
Balhannah, sixteen miles to the south-east of Adelaide. The 
Balhannah 3Iine contains an exceedingly rich deposit of 
bismuth, and in other respects claims to be one of the most 
remarkable mines in the world. Copper was first found in 
considerable quantities, associated with bismuth, and about 
£25,000 worth was raised. Then gold made its appearance, 
and after the bismuth was smelted, it was found to contain on 
an average about five ounces of gold to the hundredweight 
of metal. Some of the specimens from this mine are exceed- 
ingly curious and beautiful — showing copper, native bismuth, 
and gold in the same stone. Cobalt in small quantities, and 
antimony and plumbago also exist in the ore from this mine. 
About £7000 worth of bismuth has been disposed of at prices 
ranging from 4s. to lis. per pound. The ore contains from 
20 to 80 per cent, of pure metal, and some pure (native) 
bismuth is also found. The sinking has been carried down 
to the depth of fifty fathoms, where the lode is very wide, 
but " drcdgy," yielding about a ton of bismuth to the fathom. 

Although South Australia was the first of the Australasian 
Colonies in which gold was discovered, gold mining has hitherto 
made but little progress here. There are now, however, three 
or four gold mines giving such promises of success as to make 
it appear not impossible that in a few years we may have 
extensive reefs of the precious metal developed. Gold was 
found in the hills, about twelve miles from Adelaide, about 

X 2 



308 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

the year 1844, Liit at the time the finder Avas not aware 
of the nature and importance of his discovery. About the 
year 1852-3, alhivial diggings were discovered in the hills, 
near Echunga, ahout twenty miles south-east of Adelaide. 
The goldfield did nut prove very rich, nor of any great extent, 
but a few hundreds of diggers did tolerably well by steady 
work, and some small fortunes were realized by the more suc- 
cessful. For many years a number of plodding people made 
a fair living at these diggings, and in the aggregate a con- 
siderable amount of gold — about £600,000 — was obtained. It 
is the opinion of several persons of experience that deep 
sinking in this locality would be very likely to result in the 
opening up of rich leads. Gold-bearing reefs are known to 
exist in these diggings ; and another inducement for trying 
the ground is the existence there of a deposit of diamonds, 
over a hundred having been unearthed at various times. It is 
very difficult to ascertain how many, or what value of precious 
stones have been found on the Echunga diggings, but actual 
knowledge enables me to speak confidently of over one hundred, 
varying in value from £1 to £20 for a single diamond. Even 
this return shoidd be sufficient to stimulate the search for 
more. 

Some years later another goldfield was discovered a few 
miles farther south, at Jupiter Creek, where a good deal of 
gold was obtained, including a few respectable nuggets, the 
largest weighing 12 oz. Farther away still, in a south-easterly 
direction, gold has been found at the Meadows, but the wet 
nature of the ground has proved a great hindrance to working. 
]More recently another patch of auriferous country was opened 
and successfully worked, about three miles north-west of the 
old Echunga diggings, about a mile from the village of Hahn- 
dorf, and within the same distance of the Onkaparinga Eiver, 
which has been proved auriferous in many parts of its course. 
Some very good finds were made, and one or two promising- 
reefs opened. A few diggers are still at work on all these 
dijrerinecs, and one at least of the reefs is being worked with 
very good prospects. 

About 18G0 a goldfield was discovered in the Barossa 



ITS MINES AND MINEEALS. 309 

Itanges, ten miles east of Gawler. For three or four years 
it was worked with a fair amount of success, and proved in 
places to be rich in the precious metal. But little is being 
done there now, as the payable ground was limited in extent, 
and no fresh discoveries of importance were made. However, 
the prosj)ecting which was carried on in the neighbourhood 
resulted in the discovery of a payable quartz-reef, where the 
Lady Alice Gold Mine has been successfully worked for about 
two years. A singular feature in this mine is that a rich 
lode of copper ore was cut within 100 feet from the surface, 
and the gold is frequently seen sticking in the copper. It 
was thought that the copper would " kill the gold," but up to 
the present time both metals appear to have improved as a 
greater depth has been reached. The returns of gold have 
varied considerably — from 7 dwts. to 1^ oz. to the ton of quartz. 
During the first twelve months 3049 tons of stone were crushed, 
yielding 1913^ oz. of gold, the value of which was £7415, 
being £683 more than the total paid-up capital of the Com- 
pany. About £500 worth of copper was also raised. The 
profits for the first year, over working expenses, amounted to 
£1895 12s. 5d. On a subsequent occasion, after some very 
rich crushings, the profits for five weeks were £1400. At the 
present time operations are being extended, and machinery of 
double power has been erected. Other mines are being worked 
on the same line of reef, with good prospects of success. 

Another locality where a very rich deposit of gold was 
found is near Mount Pleasant, and thirty-one miles east from 
Adelaide. A few inches below ths surface at " Scott's Gold 
Mine " the soil was rich in the precious metal, and many loose 
stones of quartz were turned up containing lumps of gold. 
One stone, about half the size of a man's head, contained thirty 
ounces of gold ! Upwards of £2000 worth was obtained in a 
short time, after which a Company was formed with the view 
of carrying on more extensive operations, and searching for 
the reef supposed to exist on the land. The Comj)any pur- 
chased the lease of the Section for twenty-one years, and 
expended some £3000 without obtaining any great return, the 
gold produced only amounting to £510 in value. Kecently, 
however, a j^romising-looking quartz leader has been followed 



310 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

dowu to a depth of eighty feet, where it has rim into a good 
soKd reef three feet thick. From the wonderful richness of 
the stuff found on the surface, and the nature of the strata 
below, it is the opinion of experienced persons that a very- 
payable reef should be found here. Other similar deposits of 
gold were discovered in the same neighbourhood, and within 
a mile of Scott's, 

The best-looking and richest gold reef yet found in the 
Colony is at Waukaringa, 200 miles north of Adelaide. It is 
well defined, and, geologically speaking, in excellent gold 
country, and extends for many miles nearly east and west. 
Sufficient work has been done to prove the reef to be gold- 
bearing — at least at intervals — for a length of seven miles, 
and forty miles to the eastward in the same line of country 
gold has been found in the reef. Three good mines have been 
opened, and the value of the reef proved in them for above a 
mile in length. Here at a depth of seventy feet the reef varies 
from 5 feet to 18 feet in width. The Alma Mine has during 
little more than six months, and in less than four months' 
actual work, with the battery (ten head of stamps) turned out 
above £5000 worth of gold, the stone averaging all through from 
one and a quarter to one and a half ounce to the ton. A great 
deal of the stone might be picked so as to get at least five 
ounces to the ton from a number of tons. The matrix is chiefly 
a kind of loose rotten-looking ironstone, mixed with quartz. 
On the Balaclava Company's claims, 700 yards to the east 
of the Alma, the reef (over eight feet wide), carries solid 
quartz for about half its thickness, and ironstone in the other 
half. 

There are several other localities in various parts of the 
Colony where very promising discoveries of gold have been 
made, but where the amount of work done has been insufficient 
to fairly test the value of the deposits. The belief, however, 
is gradually gaining ground that the precious metal is far 
more extensively difiused throughout South Australia than has 
hitherto been thought to be the case. 

From the progress of gold discovery in the Colony during 
the past four or five years, it is highly probable that before 
long we may find numerous reefs that will pay for working. 



ITS MINES AND MINEEALS. 311 

Unfortunately too muck money lias been wasted in the Colony, 
either through the ignorance or design of persons engaged in 
mining operations, otherwise the sums expended, had they been 
judiciously applied, would have produced in many cases far 
better results. The constant practice of " mining on the Ex- 
change " interferes greatly with the legitimate work of de- 
veloping the vast mineral resources of the Colony, and even 
good and payable mines have been nearly ruined by this repre- 
hensible practice. 

Allusion has been made to the finding of diamonds on the 
Echunga goldfields. Other precious stones have also been 
found in the same neighbourhood, and a number and variety 
of gems in different parts of the Colony. One of the Echunga 
diamonds is unique as a specimen of perfect crystallization. 
Forty-eight facets may be distinctly counted by the aid of a 
magnifying glass, and are as regular as though they had been 
cut by a lapidary. This diamond weighs one and a half carat, 
and is of fine brilliancy. It is the property of Mr. H.. Henzen- 
roder, a connoisseur in gems. Other stones and gems which 
have been found in the Colony may be enumerated as follows : 
Amethyst, agate, beryl (both precious and common), blood- 
stone, carnelian, cairn-gorm, calcedony, emerald, garnet, lapis- 
lazuli, onyx, opal (both precious and common), spinal ruby and 
sapphire, sardonyx, and topas. Of the last-named some fine 
yellow specimens have been obtained, equal to the Brazilian, 
and many colourless stones ; but these are generally inferior 
in point of hardness. The Anglican Bishop of Adelaide, some 
time since, had a pastoral staff presented to him set with a 
number of native gems, including most of those named above. 

Other useful mineral productions found in South Australia 
are : — Antimony, asbestos, baryta, bitumen, cobalt, calcsjjar, 
dolomite, fireclay, fluorspar, fuller's-earth, gypsum, kaolin clay, 
lignite, marble, magnesia, magnesian limestone, mica, mercury, 
nickle, ochre, platinum, salt, schorl, slate (very fine, both roof- 
ing and paving), soapstone, native sulphur, tellurium, tourma- 
line, wolfram, &c. 

In the South-East, near the Coorong, there is a remarkable 
substance found on the surface ; it occurs in tough thin cakes, 
and from its resemblance to india-rubber it has been called 



o 



12 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



luincml cauiitcLuuc. These cakes vary iu thickness from that 
of a sheet of coarse brown paper to an inch. Many tons of it 
lie scattered over a considcrahlo area of f^ronnd. A quantity 
of tlic substance was collected and brought to Adelaide, where 
a brilliant illuminating korosine oil was obtained from it by 
distillation. This oil was found to be superior to the best 
American, in at least one very important quality, that of being 
non-explosive, and not becoming inflammable under a tem- 
perature of 150° Fahrenheit, whereas the Amercan oil ignites 
at 108^. The soil in the neighbourhood whore it is found 
appears to be impregnated with inflammable oil, which can be 
extracted by means of distillation. Borings have been com- 
menced, but not carried to any great depth ; the indications met 
with, however, were very encouraging, as oil was found floating 
on the water in the holes. Shale, dolomite containing pectens, 
and other fossils, have been met with in sinking. A few gentle- 
men have secured from the Government a fifteen years' lease 
of 10,000 acres on which to search for petroleum, and they are 
about to seek the assistance of English capital to carry on 
the work. 

The following brief summary of our mineral exports at 
different periods will helji to show the progress made in this 
respect : — 

111 1845, the first year when copper was exported from tlio 

Kapunda and liurra Mines, the value was stated £ 

at 10,02n 

., 1846 the export of minerals amounted to 143,231 

„ 1856 „ ,. „ 408,042 

., 18r.rt ., ., ,. 824,501 

„ 1874 „ „ „ 700,323 

It should, however, be cx})laiiied that the greater value of 
the mineral exports in 1866 arose from the higher price of 
copper in that year, and not from the greater quantity pro- 
duced : in fact the quantity was much less in 1866 than in 
1874. In the former year the exports amounted to 6463 tons, 
12 cwt. of copper, and 16,824 tons of ore, while in 1874 they 
were 6629 tons 7 cwt. of copper, and 22,854 tons of copper 
ore. In 1864 the value of the lead exported was £13,318, and 
in 1866, £11,318, since which time it has almost ceased. Our 
})roduction of gold is probably over £25,000 a year. 



ITS STATISTICS. 313 



STATISTICAL SKETCH OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By Josiah Boothby, Esq., J.P., 

UNDER SECRETARY AND GOVERNMENT STATIST ; 
HONORARY CORRESPONDING SIEMBER OF THE STATISTICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



CONTENTS, 

Geographical Position — General Government — Local Government — Popu- 
lation — Births, Deaths, and Marriages — Immigration and Emigration 
• — Education — Public Worship — Charitable Institutions — Administra- 
tion of Justice — Land Transfer — Revenue and Expenditure — Loans 
for Public Works — Banking — Savings Banks — Land and its Occupation 

— Agriculture — Pastoral Occupation — Manufactures — Import and 
Export Trade — Staple Products: Wheat, Wool, Copper — Shipping — 
Eiver Murray Trade — Railways — Roads — Waterworks — Postal Com- 
munication — Telegraphs — Rates of Wages — Prices of Provisions, &c. 

— Meteorological. 

The following paragraphs furnisli a statement of facts, based 
upon official records, showing the present position of South 
Australia, and the progress made from time to time since her 
colonization in 1836 — not forty years ago. Exhaustless natural 
resources, a salubrious climate, indomitable industry and enter- 
prise in her jjeople, and a freedom and stability in her insti- 
tutions, have together placed South Australia in the high rank 
she occupies amongst the dependencies of the British Crown. 

GEOGKAPHICAL POSITION. 

That portion of the Continent of Australia bounded on the 
cast by the 141st degree of east longitude, on the north by the 
2i')ih degree of south latitude, on the west by the 132nd degree 
of east longitude, and on the south by the Southern Ocean, 



314 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

WHS cuustitutcd a lUitish l*rovinco by Act of Parliament 4 t^' 5 
AVilliain IV. c. 95, under the designation South Australia. 
The area contained within those limits is estimated to be 
oOO,000 square miles, or 192,000,000 acres, nearly twice and a 
half that of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1861, the territory 
known as " No Man's Land," about 80,000 square miles, lying 
between the boundaries of South and Western Australia, was 
added, by Act 24 and 25 Vict. c. 44, making the western 
boundary the 129th degree of east longitude. 

All the country north of the 26th parallel of south lati- 
tude, between the 129th and 138th degrees of cast longitude, 
has also been annexed to South Australia, and is known as 
the Northern Territory. The present northern boundary is the 
Indian Ocean, latitude 11° S. ; the southern boundary, the 
Southern Ocean, in latitude 38° S. The Province of South 
Australia covers twenty-seven degrees of latitude, and twelve 
degrees of longitude, forming, at present, the largest British 
colony — the area extending over more than 900,000 square 
miles. 

The northern coast-line included in the before-mentioned 
limits, starting from the 138th degree of east longitude, about 
120 miles west of the Albert Eiver, comprises the western 
shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria, trending northward to Cape 
Arnhcim ; thence west to Port Essington (latitude 11° S,), 
thence south-west across Van Diemen's Gulf, into which the 
Adelaide Eiver (Stuart's furthest) flows, opposite Melville 
Island ; and thence to longitude 129° E., Cambridge Gulf, 
into which, about 100 miles within the boundary, the Victoria 
River flows. The western boundary is in the 129th degree 
of east longitude, running from Cambridge Gulf to a point 
west of the head of the Great Australian Bight, in latitude 
32° S,, whilst the eastern boundary runs northerly on the 141st 
degree of east longitude to latitude 20° S., thence west to 
longitude 138° E., thuncc north to the Gulf of Carpentaria. 

The southern coast-line extends from latitude 38° S. longi- 
tude, 141° E. to latitude 31° 45' S., longitude 129° E., and 
from its peculiar configuration presents a sea-board of over 



ITS STATISTICS. 315 

2000 miles in length. Between the eastern boundary, near 
Cajje Northumberland, and Encounter Bay, west of the mouth 
of the Kiver Murray, the coast is generally low and sandy. 
There are, however, excellent shipping places available for 
large vessels — among them Port Victor, Lacepede Bay, Guichen 
Bay, Kivoli Bay, and Port MacDonnell. Westward of Spencer's 
Gulf is a succession of secure harbours, several of large extent, 
and with good anchorage for ships of considerable tonnage. 
Port Lincoln, Smoky, Denial, Venus, Streaky, and Fowler's 
Bays are important shipping places to the westward. 

The coast-line is also deeply indented by two large gulfs — 
the eastern, St. Vincent's Gulf, running inland to the north- 
ward for eighty-five miles, and the larger, Spencer's Gulf, run- 
ning N.N.E. towards the heart of the colony for one hundred 
and eighty miles. These gulfs have a mean breadth of thirty 
and fifty miles respectively, and both taper towards their 
northern ends. St. Vincent's Gulf is sheltered by Kangaroo 
Island, ninety miles in length, which lies to the southward of 
it, leaving two fine entrances, one from the westward through 
Investigator's Straits, twenty-eight miles broad, and the other 
from the eastward through Backstairs Passage, eight miles in 
width. 

The principal agricultural and mineral districts of the 
Colony are contiguous to the two gulfs, the shores of which 
are seven hundred and eighty miles in length, the greater part 
being entirely protected from the ocean swell. Numerous out- 
ports and shipping places, of which there are over fifty, enable 
settlers to ship their produce at a very small cost. These gulfs 
are divided by Yorke's Peninsula, some one hundred and 
twenty miles long, and twenty miles broad, having large tracts 
of wheat-growing land, and the principal seat of mining- 
industry. 

Situate on the eastern side of St. Vincent's Gulf are the 
following ports : — Ports Adelaide, Glenelg, Wakefield, Wil- 
lunga, Noarlunga, and Yankalilla ; and on the west, or penin- 
sula side, shipping places at Edithburg, Stansbury, and 
Ardrossan. The eastern side of Spencer's Gulf is supplied by 



olG SOUTH AUSTKALIA. 

Ports Moonta, A\'allaroo, Broiighton, Pirie, and Port Augusta 
at the head of the gulf, while Franklin Harbour, Tunhy 
Bay, and Port Lincoln, are on the western side of the 
same gulf. 

A mountain range commences at Cape Jervis, at the eastern 
entrance to Gulf St. Vincent, and extends in a northerly direc- 
tion, averaging some thirty miles in breadth, and dividing the 
waters flowing eastwards into the Eiver Murray and lakes, and 
Avestwards into the gulf. The highest point is Mount Lofty, 
after which the range is named, having an elevation of 2334 
feet above sea level. Descending rapidly on the western side, 
marked by numerous glens and valleys for about three miles, 
it declines gently over the extensive Adelaide Plains for five 
miles, to the capital, from thence a plain of six miles (almost 
level) stretches to the sea-coast. 

Oj)posite the north end of the gulf the range separates into 
parallel ridges, divided by fertile plains of an average width of 
eight miles. 

On the eastern side of Spencer's Gulf, and about ten miles 
from its shore, the Hummocks and Flinders lianges rise to a 
considerable height. Mounts Remarkable, Brown, and Arden, 
and other points, being about 3000 feet above the level of the 
sea. From the head of the gulf the range sweeps easterly and 
then northerly, and forms a chain of hills extending to latitude 
29° 30'. This chain, however, separates into distinct ridges, 
with wide valleys, generally north and south, intervening. In 
the south-eastern portion of the Colony there are several 
volcanic craters, Mounts Gambler and Schanck being the 
most remarkable ; the former being 900 feet high, and having 
at its base soil of the richest description. Throughout the 
remainder of the district are low ridges parallel to the coast, 
with intervening swamps and j^lains. 

Adelaide, the capital of the Province, is situate about five 
miles from the eastern shore of St. Vincent's Gulf, in latitude 
34" ;j7' S. and longitude 138" 38' E., and Port Adelaide, the 
principal port, is about seven miles north-west from the City, 
and connected therewith by rail. 



• ITS STATISTICS. 317 

GENERAL GOVERNMENT. 

The Constitution granted to South Australia by Her 
Majesty, by virtue of Imperial Act 13 and 14 Victoria, c. 59, 
was proclaimed on the 24th October 1856, on which day the 
Queen's' assent to the Constitution Act, No. 2 of 1855-6, was 
received in the Colony. Under that Statute the Parliament 
consists of two Houses — the Legislative Council and the 
House of Assembly — the former being composed of eighteen 
members, and the latter, at that time, of thirty-six. In 1873 
the electoral districts of the House of Assembly were increased 
from eighteen to twenty-two, and the number of members from 
thirty-six to forty-six. 

The Legislative Council, which cannot be dissolved by the 
Governor, is elected by ballot, the whole Province forming one 
electoral district for that purpose. Each member is elected 
for twelve years ; and every four years the six members who 
have been longest on the roll of the Council retire. The 
qualification for a member of the Legislative Council is that 
he shall have attained the age of thirty years, that he is a 
subject of the Queen, and that he has resided in the Province 
for three years. The qualification of a voter for this branch of 
the Legislature is that he shall be twenty-one years of ao-e, a 
natural-born or naturalized subject of Her Majesty, and have 
been on the electoral roll for a period of six months. He 
must also either be possessed of a freehold of the value of 
fifty pounds, or of a leasehold of the annual value of twenty 
pounds, having three years to run, or with right of purchase ; 
or be in occupation of a dwelling-house of the annual rent 
value of twenty-five pounds. The constitution of the Legis- 
lative Council is unaltered by the late amendment of the 
Electoral Act. The total number of voters for the Legislative 
Council is 18,445, or forty per cent, of the adult male popula- 
tion. 

The House of Assembly, which is liable to dissolution by 
the Governor, is elected for three years ; and of the twenty- 
two districts represented in it, three return three members 
each, eighteen two members each, and the other returns one 



318 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

member only. The Constitution 'Act prescribes no other 
<|nrtlirication as necessary for a member of the House of 
Assembly than that lie shall be an elector. An elector's 
qualification to vote is that he shall be of full age, and have 
been six months on the electoral roll. The total number of 
electors on the roll for the Assembly is 34,404, or seventy- 
five per cent, of the adult male population. 

Eesponsible Government is carried on by six Ministers, 
members of the Legislature, who form the Cabinet, and who 
are ex officio members of the Executive Council, advising the 
Crown, in the person of Her Majesty's representative. His 
Excellency the Governor of the Province. 

The following are the titles of the ministerial officers, 
viz. : — Chief Secretary, Attorney-General, Treasurer, Commis- 
sioner of Crown Lands and Immigration, Commissioner of 
Public AVorks, and Minister of Agriculture and Education. 
Each Minister has control over several departments of the 
public service, the duties of which are conducted by i)erma- 
nent official heads. 



LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 

Local self-government was established in South Australia 
as far back as 1840, in which year the Corporation of 
Adelaide was constituted ; but elective Municipal Institutions 
only became general during the administration of Sir Henry 
Young. Most beneficial results have flowed from the adop- 
tion of the principle. Under it the people have been taught 
the lesson of self-reliance, and have cheerfully taxed them- 
selves for the prosecution of public works of general utility, 
over which the local authorities — a Board of from five to seven 
members elected by and from the ratepayers of the District — 
exercise control. Although the State supplements pound for 
pound all sums raised and expended on public works in the 
District, the Council liave in their hands the entire manage- 
ment of such expenditure^ and of all municipal affairs. With- 
out such Councils it Avonld have been difficult to introduce 
into sparsely populated and unsettled districts many of the 



ITS STATISTICS. 319 

social and political advantages now enjoyed by people resident 
at considerable distances from the seat of Government. 

Corporations have been established in the principal centres 
of population to the number of sixteen, and ninety District 
Councils, constituted throughout the settled districts. The 
total annual rateable value of property is £1,045,711, of which 
£391,929 is within the limits of 3Iunicipal Corporations, and 
£653,782 is within the boundaries of District Councils. The 
usual rate declared upon the assessment is one shilling in the 
pound sterling. The total revenue of these local bodies in 
1874 was £125,351, and the amount expended on works of 
l)ermanent utility £80,945. 

The following return of the aggregate assessments and 
receipts of the several Municipal Corporations and District 
Councils, and the amount expended on local improvements, 
affords a reliable index of the steady settlement of the country 
during the last ten years : — 

Expended 
Local Improvement. 
£ 
43,185 
72,865 
80,944 

Of the total municipal income, about one-fifth was con- 
tributed by the State in the shape of grants, and the expen- 
diture on local improvements of a permanent character was 
two-thirds of the total receipts. 

POPULATION. 

Inhabitants. — The population of South Australia at the 
close of 1875 was estimated to be 210,442 souls. The last 
Census was taken on 2nd April 1871, on the same day and in 
the same manner as those of Great Britain and her other 
Australian Colonies. A general idea of the social condition of 
the people at the present time may be gathered from a review 
of the chief points then inquired into, bearing in mind the 
fact that whilst the number of the population has increased by 
one-third, a more than proportionate advance has been made 
in industrial progress, material wealth, and social prosperity. 





Rateable 




Year. 


Annual Value. 


Eeceipts. 




£ 


£ 


1865 


684,095 


75,296 


1870 


920,951 


86,499 


1874 


... 1,045,711 


125,351 



520 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



Altogether seven enumerations have taken place since the 
establishment of the Colony— latterly at intervals of five 



veavs- 



-as sliown in the following; tahlo : — 









I'orui.ATios. 






Date of EsusiF.UATroK. 












Jlales. 


Females. 


Total. 


1844. 


February 26 


9,526 


7,840 


17,366 


1846. 


February 26' 






12,670 


9,720 


20,390 


1851. 


January 1 






35,302 


28,398 


63,700 


1855. 


March 31 






43,720 


42,101 


85,821 


1861. 


Ai)ril 8 






65,048 


61,782 


126,830 


1866. 


INIiircli 20 






85,334 


78,118 


163,452 


1S71. 


April 2 




... 


95,408 


90,218 


185,626 


ISTf). 


December 31 


(estira 


ited) 


107,914 


102,498 


210,442 



In the foregoing table the aborigines are not included. At 
the Census of 1871 they numbered 3369, so far as could be 
ascertained. 

It will be observed that during the last ten years there has 
been a numerical increase of population to the extent of 
46,990, or nearly one-third. The total population enumerated 
in 1871 was 185,626, of which 95,804 were male, and 90,218 
females. The number at the close of 1875 is estimated, as 
before said, to be 210,442, namely, 107,944 males and 102,498 
females. So close an approximation to equality in the 
numbers of the sexes is highly satisfactory, and testifies to 
the settled character of the people. 

Distribution. — One of the most important facts brought 
out by the Census is the way in which the population is dis- 
tributed throughout the country. A frequent review of the 
movements of the people is essential to the carrying on of the 
duties of Government in a country where settlement advances 
so rapidly that centres of population arise where but a few 
vears before sheep only depastured. 

The returns under this head are exceedingly satisfactory, 
as showing that eighty-five per cent, of the whole number of 
the poo})lo arc resident in the country districts, and employed 
directly or indirectly in the cultivation of the soil, or in the 



ITS STATISTICS. 321 

production of mineral and pastoral wealth. Since 1861 the 
residents in the city have increased from 18,303 to 27,208, 
or by forty-eight per cent. During the same ten years the 
settlers in the country districts have increased from 108,527 to 
158,413, or by forty-six per cent. 

The table on page 322 shows the number of inhabitants, the 
number of males and females, the number of houses, and the 
number of adult males in each county, and in the Province, at 
the date of the Census of 1861 and of 1871. 

In a country where so large a proportion of the people is 
engaged in agricultural and kindred pursuits, population must 
be widely distributed. There are, however, in addition to the 
City of Adelaide, with a present population of over 30,000 
(exclusive of suburbs, which may be computed at as many 
more), other populous townships, viz. Kensington and Norwood, 
with 5132 inhabitants ; Moonta, 4775 ; Hindmarsh, 3221 ; 
Port Adelaide, 2482 ; Kapunda, 2273 ; Wallaroo, 1983 ; 
Kadina, 1855 ; Gawler, 1652 ; Gambierton, 1604 ; Kooringa, 
1561, Glenelg, 1324 ; and Clare, 1004. There are 20 town- 
ships with between 500 and 1000, and 60 with between 200 
and 500, and some 150 villages with an average of less than 
200 inhabitants. 

Birth-places. — The returns showing the birth-places of 
the people indicate a steady increase in the number of the South 
Australian born and of British birth, as well as, in a lesser 
degree, of those from British possessions other than the United 
Kingdom. The native-born element, of course, preponderates, 
forming 55 per cent, of- the population ; the next largest class 
being persons of English birth, who form twenty-five per cent. 
Ireland has contributed eight per cent., and Germany and 
Scotland each 4*5 per cent. The proportion of males and 
f(>males in the settled districts is about equal. There are more 
English men than English women, and more Irish women than 
Irish men. Out of 8309 Germans, 4681 are males and 3628 
females. Of the 185,626 enumerated in 1871, 102,676 were 
native-born, 46,752 were of English birth, 14,255 came from 
Ireland, 8309 from Germany, 8167 from Scotland, 3469 
from other British possessions, and 1356 from other foreign 

Y 



322 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



States. The eliildrcn of CJcnnau aiul other eolonists from 
foreiirn countries are returned us South Australians. 



v. -M 



1" f~ — I- ri :* 

iS — I- i^ 



'f ^1 * ~ "*; 


— 


oi :": 


1-1 — y -^ 


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'-^ ■>! 


I^ -J cc X 


CO 


(M -tl 



•_r — r r — i.'^ c^ lO "fl co iM o 

— I - :- c; r. : ^3 -" ~ '-^ rC '^ • ^ 



. 5^ -f O -M 



o X — v: r: -+■ 

2 --5 X X r-; ir: ^ 

30 i-H :<; rH (M 



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r Tl -f ri " '^ 
M -r X 1- -^ w 

r-^ -r X r; 



(M -H --0 -f -+i c<i 

— . i~ r: -M I- -fi . _ 

■M X o — . " ro : -M ".-; X n Tl 



; " Tl -c Tj — ' 



— c O «0 
1^ CO t^ 



-+< CO Ci -tl 



X — I c; i^ i^ o is 

W~(M r-l r-( 



tl Tl CO i?5 CO CO c — rt c5 rl 

CO' i-i CO O -Tl i-~ 



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:r Tl -+■ Tl "-I ^ 
-+- 1-1 t^ TI 



is r; ir :f 
: t5 3 •5< CO 



9 -' 



-*ii.'cr;-Huoot— S5t>Tj>noo(MCOh-r^TiTio--r^co 

lO -H Tl O --^ -H I— CO O ^ t^ l.O -f Ifi -tl -^f 'O l^ IM iT 1^ CO Tl 
-S»l^COCOlOlOCOOiCCC5C<ll- -tl r^-tiCOOX 



•aosiocooeo ot^cooiMO 

r^ocooiMto lom-^ciocco 

ociooiocoQO ;»C'ti^ir5 0O 

iTI rH l> Tl * Ca (M T^l 



o :o o -H 

■ -^ — I I- CO 

: -tl X x: -t^ 



Tl "O 



CO C r. i-O X CO ^ C3 Tl O Tl — O Tl l.O Tl CO — . X — I- 10 
— " -^ X — I lO I- CO -J CO CO O X l^ l^ l~ ~. C Tl I ~ C: — ' 
■ O -^ C: l^ X CO lO <X O t-- CO -tl l^ rH Tl l^ ^ -r ' 



W CO O Ci 



rH CO lO IM CO 



a)-4<0 10 0D(M C5ITJ"Jt-C0Tl 

COXXCOCOCO C»C-H~XO 
Tl l^ ~ CO 1(0 T4 ; CJ l-O l.O O -tl 

(M -tl rH O 



Tl i~ r^ CO 

• lO l^ CO lO 

: i3 tJh CO I- 



. . . t.-! 

::::::::::::::•:::::::: it-* 

•n r/: eS r- cS 

.i f-i O _2 ;:i 

:::::::: :::::::::- -. : : S g : § ^ ^ 

, J ' 'g I -|1 ' ' 2 I '^ 1^ 

2^ -5 t: « o-:: 2 c 3 ^ bc o -- -3 ~ •::^ .e 5 o ^ ^ ^ « ^ 



ITS STATISTICS. 



323 



Conjugal Condition. — With reference to the conjugal 
state, there were, in 1871, 30,002 married males and 30,029 
married females. Married women exceed in number the 
married men in towns, and the reverse is the case in the 
country districts, Avhere also bachelors predominate. The 
proportion of bachelors to spinsters at marriageable ages (all 
above fifteen), is as twenty-one to fifteen, but of adults as 
eleven to five. The following table shows the number of 
married, unmarried, and widowed persons, males and females, 
of the age of fifteen and upwards : — 

Number. 
Unmarried , 

Married 

Widowed , 

Ages. — The proportion in which the number of males and 
females at the under-mentioned periods of age stood to the 
total of the Province is as follows : — 



(■Bachelors 

\ Spinsters 


21,638 


15,179 


'Husbands 

(Wives 


:{(),002 


:50,029 


/Widowers 


1,571 


[Widows 


3,521 



i The Colony. 


City of Adelaide. 


Rural Pastoral Districts 
and Shipping. 


, Persons.] Males. Females. 


Persons. Males. 


Females. 


Persons. Males. Females. 


All ages 185,626 


95,403 1 90,218 


27,203 12,699 


14,509 


158,418 82,709* 75,709 


Under 5 | 31,450 

5 and under 15 ' 52,237 
15 and under 21 20,625 
21 and upwards 81,141 


15,920 ' 1.5,530 
26,277 25,960 
10,088 I 10,537 
43,003 3*1,138 


3,992 i 1,983 
6,950 3,340 
3.249 1,350 
12,997 6,012 


2,009 ; 27,458 13,937 | 13,521 
3,610 1 46,287 22,937 22,350 
1,899 1 17,376 '. 8,738 8,638 
6,985 ! 68,144 36,991 31,153 



From the above statement it will be seen that in a popula- 
tion of 185,626 souls, seventeen per cent, were inftmts under 
five, twenty-eight per cent, were children under fifteen, twelve 
23er cent, youths, and the remaining forty-three per cent, of 
the whole number were adults. 

Taking the number of persons between the ages of fifteen 
and sixty-five, viz. 98,365, as fairly representing the class 
upon whom devolves the duty of sustaining the extreme youth 
and the bulk of the old age of the country, it will be seen that 
such class forms fifty-three per cent, of the whole population. 
The man power — that is, all males of fifteen years and up- 

Y 2 



324 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



\var(ls— numbers 51,271. or but tweiity-eiglit per cent, of the 
whole people ; being- three per cent, below the proportion iu 

18G1. 

OccurATiox. — Yerv lull intormation with regard to the 
occupations of the people has been obtained at each census, 
and no returns can be more practically useful than those 
which show in what direction the labour of the country is 
chiefly employed. The; following classification shows the 
nunilier under each lu'ad in 1871 : — 



Qi IX TATIOXS 



TlIK I'lIOVIXCE. 



Persons. Males. . Females 



Class I 

I. Persons engaged in tlie general and looul j 
government of the colony, p )liee, &c. ... , 
II. Professional : persons in the learned pro- 
ffssinns (with their immediate subordi- 
nates) not in the Government service ... 

III. Professional : i)er.>ons engaged in literature, | 

fine arts, and sciences ... ... ... i 

IV. Trading : persons who buy, sell, keep, or 

lend mom-y on goods f 

V. Personal offices: persons engaged in enter- 
taining, clothing, and performing personal 

offices for man 

YI. Manufacturing : persons engaged in art and 
meclianical productions, and in working 
and dealing iu mineral, vegetabk", and 

animal matters 

VTI. Mining: persons engaged in 

VIII. Agricultural, horticultural, and pastoral: 
jiersons working land and engaged in 
growing grain, fruit, animals, aiid other 
products 
IX. Carrying : persons engaged iu the convey- 
ance of men and goods 

X. Persons dealing in food and drinks 

XI. Miscrllaneous pursuits : persons engaged iu 
occupations not embraced in other classes 
XII. Indipendont means: persons of property or 
rank not returned under any office or 
occupation ... 
XIII. Persons engaged iu domestic othces or 
dutits, and of no six^citied occupation, 

scholars, &c 

XIV. Persons maintained at public cost or by the 
community ... 
XV. Persons whose pursuits have not been speci- 
fied, or were luiemploycd, &c 

Tota] of tlie j)opulaIion 



1,405 1,482 



G45 
1,575 
4,301 



7,.S49 
3,338 



24,224 



644 

765 

3,960 



7,842 
3,338 



23,600 



1 
810 
341 



10,802 2.712 8,09C» 



618 



2,917 
1,7:52 


2,915 
1,672 


2 
60 


6,060 


5,919 


141 


543 


3GS 


175 


117.706 


38,262 


79,504r 


914 


620 


324 


1,4.35 


1,;!03 


1 132 



185,626 I 95,408 90.21S 



ITS STATISTICS. 325 

Agricultural, pastoral, and horticultural pursuits are those 
upon which the labour of the majority of the industrial popu- 
lation is bestowed, the number actually engaged therein being 
24,224, or forty-three per cent, of the specified occupations of 
males. 

Mining is the next prominent branch of industry. Its 
importance cannot be judged of by the comparatively small 
number of persons returned as directly engaged in it. The 
great extent and richness of our mineral jjroperties afford 
profitable employment to large numbers of artisans, mechanics, 
and others, who are returned under the lieadings " Trades " 
and " Manufactures," but who are in fact dependant upon the 
prosecution of mining industry. The total number of miners 
was 3338 in 1871, 1504 in 1861, and 840 in 1855. 

The next most important class of manufacturers, persons 
engaged in art and mechanical productions and working and 
dealing in mineral, vegetable, and animal matters, numbers 
7849, of whom only seven are females. 

The next class in point of importance are persons, chiefly 
females, engaged in entertaining, clothing, and performing- 
personal offices for man, numbering altogether 10,802. 

The trading class amounts to 4301 ; persons engaged in 
conveying men and goods, 2917 ; persons dealing in food and 
drink, 1732 ; professional j)ersons engaged in literature and 
the fine arts, 1575 ; persons in the learned ^professions, 645 ; 
persons engaged in the general and local Government, police, 
ifcc, 1495 ; persons engaged in miscellaneous occupations not 
enumerated in the above classes, 6000 ; and the residue of the 
population, 120,688, composed chiefly of persons engaged in 
domestic duties, scholars, &c., including those whose pursuits 
have not been specified and also persons of independent 
means. 

The following table sliows the occupations of the poj^ula- 
tion and the number of persons engaged in them, arranged in 
numerical order : — 



326 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

MALES. 

Orici'ATiox. Number. 

Farm labourers ami servants 11,128 

Farmers 8,531 

Lalioun^rs (branch nf Ial)onr iiii(l<(iiic(l) ... ... 5,013 

OviTseers on stations, stockmen, slicpherds, hutkeepers, station 

labonrcrs ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 2,500 

Miners— C'(>pi)Lr 2,100 

Carters, slabbers, engine-ilrivcrs, stokers, and 

otliers on mines ... ... ... ... 530 

(^old 319 

Smelters, ore-dressers, ifcc... ... ... ... 223 

^liners and diggers (otherwise undefined) ... 124 

Lead ... 42 

3,338 



C'onnnercial clerks, assistants in shops, storcmen, &c. ... ... 2,057 

Builders, carpenters, building surveyors, timber merchants, 

Biiwyers, i;c. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 1,786 

Blacksmiths, whitesmiths, founders, mechanical engineers, iVi'. ... 1,682 

Tailors, shoemakers, dretsmakers, ontlitters, liatters, &c. ... 1,439 

Slioj) and storekeepers, warehousemen, dealers, hawkers, «S:c. ... 1,200 

Other artisans and mechanics — printeis, bookbindei s, coopers, &c. 1 , 162 

Masons, bricklayers, slaters, hodmen, stucco-men, &c. ... ... 1,137 

Carriers, draymen, bid lock-drivers on roads, lightermen, &c, ... 1,108 

Engaged in sea navigation — sailors, ship stewards, &c. ... ... 927 

Horticultural— market gardeners, gardeners (master), &c. ... 867 

Vegetable food chiefly and driidis — bakers, confectioners, green- 
grocers, &c. ... ... ... ... ... 840 

Animal food chiefly — butchers, potdterers, fishmongers, &e. ... 832 
Domestic servants (general) — cooks, coachmen, grooms (private 

servants) 791 

Qnarrymen, brickmakers, road and railway labourers, &c. ... 726 
Workmen in Government employment — messengeis, oftice- 

keepers, chainmen in survey parties, telegraph con.itructf)rs, 

&e 6G4 

Other occupations — ])roprietors of labour markets, billiard-tablo 

keepers, &c 594 

Owners and drivers of coaches, cabs, watermen, &c 555 

Officers of general government fudges, resident magistrates, 

government clerks, surveyors, &c. ... ... ... ... 524 

Bankers, brokers, accountants, auctioneers, commission agents, 

&c 499 

Coach and cart makers, wheelwrights, implement makers, &c. ... 493 

Inn and lodging-house keepers, inn servants, &c. ... ... 482 

Teachers, schoolmasters, tutors, &c. ... ... ... ... 405 

I'astoral — squatters, stockholders, graziers, sheepfarmers, &c. ... 393 

"\Vood.s])litteis, fencers, bushmen (otherwise undefined), &c. ... 312 

Cabinetmukeis, fnrniture dealers, carvers and gilders, turners, itc. 299 
Tanners, fellniongers, soapboilers, woolsorters, charcoal burners, 

&c. 249 

Clergy, ministers. i)riests, missionaries and their subordinates, 

pew-openers, v'tc 245 

Other professions — authors, editors, reporters, photographers, 

musicians, &c 237 

Police, wardens, turnkeys, &c. 217 

Annuitants, indejiendent means, &c. ... ... ... ... 211 

Merchants, imiiorters, Arc. ... ... ... ... ... ... 204 

I'orters and messengers (not assistants in shops or stores) ... 171 

Contractors (branch undefined) ... ... ... ... ... 160 

Carried forward 53,978 



ITS STATISTICS. 



327 



OCCLTATIOK. ■ 

Brought forward 

Vignerons, dressers, gardeners, &c 

"Woodcutters, water-carriers, woodmen, &e. 
Overseers (branch of labour undefined) 

Physicians, surgeons, oculists, dentists, &c. 

Architects, civil engineers, surveyors (laud), draughtsmen, &c. 

Dispensing chemists, druggists, &c. 

Lawyers, barristers, attorneys, conveyancers, &c 

Persons deriving income from houses — -householders, house pro 

prietors, &c. 
Law clerks, law stationers, bailiffs, &c. 
Officers of corporations, district councils, &c. 

Gentlemen (not otherwise defined) 

Cattle-dealers and saleyard keepers, farriers, poundkeepers, &c. 
Church officers, vergers, sextons, &c. 

Eesidte of the Male Population. 
Children, relatives, visitors, &c. (not otherwise defined) ... 
Scholars, whether in public or private schools, or at home 
Unemployed, " No occupation at present "... 
Occupation not stated 
Patients in hospitals, asylums, depots, &c. 
Prisoners 



Total of the male popidation ... 



NUMBKB. 

53,978 
154 
154 
148 
123 
123 

9G 

90 

87 
80 
77 
70 



10 




55,223 



40,185 
95,408 



FEMALES. 



Occupation. 



Domestic servants (general), cooks, &c. 

Dressmakers, milliners, tailoresses, &c. 

Teachers, schoolmistresses, governesses, music teachers, &c. 

Farm labourers and servants, &c. ... 

Farmers 

Assistants in shops, &c. 

Shop and store keepers, dealers, hawkers, &c 

Other occupations 

Annuitants, independent means, &c. 

Inn and lodging-house keepers, inn servants, &c. 

Persons deriving income from houses — house proprietors, &c, 

Vegetable food chiefly and drinks — bakers, confectioners, green 

grocers, &c. 
Animal food chiefly — butchers, poulterers, fishmongers, &c. 
Ladies (not otherwise described) 

Horticultural — market gardeners, &c. 

Shepherds' wives assisting as hutkeepers, &c 

Vigncrons, dressers, &c. 

In Government employment — office keepers, nurses, &c. 

Otlier professions — -authors, musicians, &c. 

Merchants, importers, &c 

Pastoral — squatters, stockholders, graziers, shccpfarmers, &e 

Registry office keepers, (S:c 

In Goveriunent employment 

Employed by corporation — office keepers, &c. ... 

Other artisans and mechanics — -bookbinders, iSrc. 

Chemist and druggist (proprietor) 

Mason (ditto) 

Blacksmith (ditto) 

Carried forward 



NUMBF.n. 

6,443 

1,552 

803 

330 

244 

170 

IGl 

141 

117 

95 

38 

32 

28 

20 

18 

11 

9 

8 

7 

<; 

G 
4 
3 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 

10,253 



328 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



OCCITATION. 



Brou'jlit fdiwiinl 



Guilder 'proprietor) 
C'abiiit tiuaktr (ditto) 
Tann. r, \o. (tlitt..) .. 
Wood and watir (-trtci 
Porter and URSsen'rir 



Resiuie of the Female Population. 
Cliildrcn, relatives, visitors, &c. (not otherwise defined) 
AVives, widows, Arc. ... 
Scholars, wlictlicr in jjiililic or private schools, or at lionu; 

Patients in hospitals, asyUinis, depots, kc. 

Occnputions not stated 

Unemployed, " Xo occupation at present," I'cc 

Prisoners 



Xl'MBER. 

10,253 
1 
1 
1 
1 
1 



34,826 
30,555 
14,123 

284 
84 
48 
40 



10.258 



Total of the female pojjulation 



79,900 
90,218 



Eeligions of the People. — The various religious de- 
nominations were ascertained at the census taken in 1871, 
and the numbers in connection with each were found to be 
as follows : — 

Number. Tor cent, of the 

Cliurch of England 

Koman Catholic ... ... 

"NVesleyan Methodist 

Lutheran, German 
I'resbvterian 

Baptist 

Primitive Jlethoilist 

Congregational or Independent ... 

Bible Christian 

Cliristian Brethren 

Methodist New Connectii'U 

Unitarian ... 

Moravian 

Society of Friends ... 

New Jerusalem Church ... 

Jews 

Protestants (not otherwise defined 

Other Eeligions 

Object 

Not stated 

Excluding those cases in which objection was taken to 
affording the information, or tlie information was not given, it 
would ajjpoar that about eiglity-tive per cent, of the whole 
population are members of I'rotestant Churches, and the 
remaining fifteen per cent, are Koman Catholics. The Church 
of England is represented by twenty-seven per cent., the 
Wesleyan Methodi.sts by fifteen per cent., the German Luther- 
ans by eight per cent., Presbyterians by seven per cent., and 



Number. 


i'or cer 
Popu 


I. n 

Utic 


50,849 


27 


39 


28,r)(!8 


15 


44 


27,075 


14 


59 


15,412 


8 


30 


13,371 


7 


20 


8,731 


4 


70 


8,207 


4 


42 


7,9()9 


4 


29 


7,758 


4 


18 


1,188 




64 


363 




20 


()62- 




36 


210 




11 


92 




05 


137 




07 


4.35 




23 


4,753 


2 


55 


508 




27 


5,436 


2 


92 


3,808 


2 


04 



ITS STATISTICS. 



329 



the Congregationalists, Bible Christians, Primitive MetliodistS) 
and Baptists each by about five per cent, of the total population. 

Education. — The returns under this head only show the 
number of persons able to read and write, those able te read 
only, and those unable to read. Omitting children under five 
years of age, the proportion of each class is as follows :^ — ■ 
Seventy-five per cent, of the population can read and write, 
fourteen per cent, can only read, and ten per cent, can neither 
read nor write. 

Of the rising youth, say from fifteen to twenty-one years of 
age, ninety-one per cent, can read and write, six per cent, 
can read only, and only three in every hundred are totally 
uneducated. 

That j)arents are alive to the necessity of giving their 
children a degree of education which they, from the circum- 
stances of their early life, were precluded from receiving, is 
proved from the fact that whilst among the adult population 
sixty-one in every 1000 are returned as unable to read, the 
number of youths of both sexes between the ages of fifteen and 
twenty-one who cannot read is only thirty in every 1000 ; the 
numbers specified ten years before being respectively eighty- 
three in every 1000 adults as against fifty-one in every 1000 
youths unable to read. 

The following table affords a comparison of the degree of 
education in the different Australian colonies : — 



Xame of CoLOsy. 


Proportion of every 1000 Children between five 
and fifteen years of age who could 




Read and Write. 


Kcad only. 


Not Read. 


South Australia 

Victoria 

New South Wales 

Queensiaud 


57G 
(J40 
53(j 
512 


234 
207 
209 
246 


190 
154 

2.^5 
242 



BIKTHS, MAERIAGES, AND DEATHS. 

The Province is divided into twenty-eight registration 

districts for the purpose of recording births and deaths and 

for the registration of marriages. The number of births 

registered during 1875, was 7408, namely, males o774, and 



ooO SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

femalos 3C)?A. Tbo following tables show the number of births 
at ([uiiKnu'uniul jx'ricxls: — 



Years. 



185« 
1861 

1800 
1871 
1 ST.") 



IMales. 



2336 
2808 
3470 
3(;!)5 

:'.77i 



Femnles. 



2152 

2683 
3312 
3387 

3.j:i4 



Total. 



4488 
5551 

ti782 
70S2 
71 OS 



The avei'age birth-rate is thirty-seven per thousand of 
the population, which compares favourably with the birth- 
rate in Enjifland and AYales, viz, thirty-three per thousand. 
The jiroportion of births is 104 males to 100 females, or the 
same proportion as is recorded at home. The number of 
marriajres reo-istered in 1875 was 1G8S. 

There is an average of eight marriages per thousand of 
the population, being almost identical with the rate in the 
IMother Country. The annexed statement shows the number 
of marriages solemnized by each denomination in 1866, 1871, 
and 1875 : — 



MARRIAGES. 



Solemnized 


1866. 


1871. 


1875. 


Bv the ( 'Inm-h of Enp:liiml 


325 


284 


.391 


„ lioniiin (.'atholie.'s... 


183 


177 


199 


„ IjHthcran.s ... 


101 


82 


99 


,, CoTij^resational Intlfpciulcuts 


122 


95 


110 


„ Wc'slcvans ... 


164 


178 


300 


Frt'O Churrli of Sfothuul 


1 


3 


9 


., Presbyterian 


108 


88 


92 


C^hrisliaTis ... 


14 


21 


33 


Bapti-sts 


47 


58 


82 


Bil.le Cliristians 


81 


93 


109 


., Piiniitivo Mftli(iili.st.s 


!t4 


107 


162 


., Metlmdist New Coniiectioii 





7 


S 


., ISIoraviaiis ... 


1 


2 


3 


„ Ilnitaiiaiis ... 


6 





4 


„ .T.ws 


3 


... 


2 


„ Di.striot lvf2:i.strars 


43 


76 


76 


„ Cliristiaii Bretlireii 




2 


1 


„ Mi.ssion to Abnrif,M!ics 




3 


... 


„ New Jerusalem Church ... 


... 


4 


2 




1299 


1250 


1688 



ITS STATISTICS. 



The rate of mortality throughout the Province was much 
higher in 1875 than usual, owing to the jjrevalence of zymotic 
diseases — measles and scarlatina — which caused (local diseases 
sujiervening) an advance of the death-rate, especially amongst 
infants and children. The total deaths registered were 2118 
males and 1918 females, 
the mortality in the years mentioned : — 



The following is a table showing- 



Years. 



Males. 



18.56 


658 


489 


1861 


1095 


867 


ISfiG 


1537 


1216 


1871 


1852 


1026 


1875 


2118 


1918 



1147 
1962 
2753 
2378 
4036 



Xearly one-half of the mortality is of infants under two 
years — a rate not so high as rules in England. A larger 
number of male than of female children die at that period 
of infimcy. 

The following table shows the average death-rate for ten 
years under each class of disease in England and in South 
Australia : — 



Deatii-kate per 1000 of Populaiiox 



Class. 



I. Zymotic . . . 
II. Constitutioiiiil 

III. Local 

IV. Developmental 
V. Violent ... 

VI. Unspecified 



All causes 




The average death-rate in South Australia is fifteen per 
thousand, as compared with twenty-two per thousand in 
Enofland. 



332 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION. 

Last year, G56G persons arrived in South Australia, and 
4019 left it, yielding an increase of the popnlation from this 
source of 2547 persons. During that and tlic preceding- 
twelve months assisted immigration A\as resumed by Grovern- 
ment after a lapse of several years. The sum voted by 
Pari lament for the introduction of immigrants during the 
coming year (1876) is £100,000, and the balance of the amount 
voted for expenditure in 1875, equal to £18,551, is also available 
for the like purpose. These sums provide a fund sufficient for 
the introduction of about six thousand adults, or between four 
and live hundred souls monthly. 

When it is considered that tluring the jiast live years nearly 
two and a half millions of acres of land have been taken up 
for agricultural settlement, a steady and moderate increase 
of man power, suitable to the requirements of the country, 
becomes an absolute necessity. Such additional labour will be 
readily absorbed into the general population without pro- 
ducing any disturbance of social interests. This large aug- 
mentation of the area occupied by tlie farming classes has 
taken place during a period in which the influx of population 
from abroad oidy amounted to 4555 souls. 

The followino; statement shows the total immigration and 
emigration during each of the past five years, and also the 
number of immigrants introduced at the public expense : — 





Immigration. 


Immigration. 


Ininiignints nt Public 
' E.xpensc. 


Year. 


Males. Fema',ei.| Total. 


Males. 1 Females. 


Total. 


' Males. iFemalfs. 


Total. 


1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 


1,(581 851 
1,(504 797 
3,0(54 1,4S4 
3,555 2,002 
4,311 2,255 


2,532 
2,401 
4,548 
5,557 
G,5GG 


2,037 1,145 
2,173 1,232 
2,12G 1,04(5 
2,22G 1,045 
2,718 1,301 


3,182 
3,405 
.3,172 
3,271 
4,019 


1 

104 122 
1,192 1 9G0 
1,156 911 


226 
2,152 

2,067 


Total . . . 


14.215 7,389 


21,004 


11,280 5,769 


17,049 


2,452 ! 1,993 


4,445 



Government immigration was resumed in 1873 ; since the 
commencement of which year the balance of immigration over 
omiiifration lias amounted to 0200 souls, or 1704 more than 



ITS STATISTICS. 333 

the number introduced at the expense of the »State. It will 
also be noticed that the jtroportion of immigrants at their own 
cost largely increased during tlie past year. 

EDUCATION. 

The administration of the public votes for educational 
purposes, and the control and management of State assisted 
schools throughout the Province, have been vested, since 1851, 
in a Central Board of Education. 

The number of schools licensed by the Board in 1874 was 
three hundred and twenty, of which fourteen were within the 
City of Adelaide, twenty-seven in other corporate towns, and 
two hundred and seventy-nine in the country districts. Pre- 
siding over these schools, were two hundred and seventeen 
licensed schoolmasters and ninety-eight licensed schoolmis- 
tresses. The number of scholars attending was 17,426 ; of whom 
9625 w^ere boys,' and 7801 girls. The average attendance at 
all schools was 13,774 for one month ; the average number on 
the roll at each school was fifty-four, and the average attend- 
ance forty-three, w^hilst the percentage of attendance to the 
number on the rolls, during one month, was 79. 

The following table shows the operations of the Board last 
year as compared with 1870. 

ISrO. 1874. 



Number of licensed schools ... ... ... 300 

Number of licensed schoolmasters 222 

Number of licensed schoolmistresses 72 

IBovs 8 491 
UllLS.. .b,bl/ 
15 108 
Average attendance ' 11,9G9 



320 
217 

98 

Boys... 9,025 
Giils... 7,801 



17,42G 
13,773 



The expenditure of the Board in 1874 was £29,689, being 
an advance of £9266 upon that of 1870. The total sum 
expended in aid of erecting district school-houses has been 
£22,207. The average amount of school fees paid for each 
scholar by parents, &c. was 19s. 7^d. The average expense to 
the State of each licensed scliool was £83 10s. Qd. 



334 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Ju addition to schools rocoivin*!; aid from the (Jovernnioiit, 
there have always existed a large niiinber of private schools 
■with an average attendance of about 700U scholars. 

During the past year, a new Education Act was passed, 
providing that the future management of public education shall 
be committed to a Council, with a paid president and staff 
of officers directly responsible to the Minister of Education — a 
member of the Cabinet. Mr. Harcus thus describes the nature 
of the improvements contemplated by the new measure : — 
" Schools will be established wherever there is a certain number 
of children of a school age a\ ho will pay a moderate fee to the 
teachers" [viz. M. per child per week]. "In addition to the 
fees, the teachers will be paid by the Government, through 
the Council, salaries varying from £100 to £300 per annum. 
.Schoolhouses will be provided, and the necessary education 
material. Grants of puljlic lands will be set apart every year, 
and placed under the control of the Council, the rents from 
which will be devoted to school purposes. Four and a half 
hours each day will be devoted to secular instruction, previous 
to which the Bible may be read — without note or explanation : 
practically, the instruction will be secular. All children of 
school age will be required to be under instruction until a 
certain standard of attainment (to be fixed by the Council) is 
reached : so far, the system will be compulsory. Provision is 
made for the gratuitous instruction of children whose parents 
can show that they are not able to pay for it ; but fees may be 
enforced in all cases where inability to pay them has not been 
proved. It will thus be seen that the three great principles 
of public education which are now so much in vogue are 
adopted, in the Bill, with certain modifications — the education 
is secular, but not to the exclusion of the Bible ; free, to those 
who cannot afford to pay a small fee ; and compulsory, wherever 
practicable. Provision is also made for the establishment of 
model and training schools, of Boards of Advice, and for the 
systematic examination of teachers and their classification 
according to their attainments and proficiency, and for scho- 
larships." 

^^'ith a view of sho^^ing that Parliament is desirous of 



ITS STATISTICS. 335 

fostering and encouraging tlie growth of a comprehensive 
system of public instruction, it may be stated that the follow- 
ing grants of money and land have lately been made : — 
Towards the exj)enses of the Education Department, payment 
of teachers, &c., a yearly sum of £60,000 ; and a like amount 
for the erection of public school-buildings. One hundred and 
twenty thousand acres of the public estate were also granted to 
the Council, and provision made for setting apart 20,000 acres 
in future years. To the University of Adelaide, lately esta- 
blished, an annual grant of five per cent, on all sums contributed 
to the University from private sources (at present amounting 
to over £40,000), and also an endowment of 50,000 acres of 
land. For the maintenance of Institutes, and for the erection 
of buildings connected therewith, the sum of £16,000. 

The South Australian Institute, established in 1856, contains, 
under one roof, a Public Library and Museum, a Circulating 
Liljrary, and a Public Beading and News Eoom. It has also 
incorporated with it societies for the promotion and study of 
Philosophy and the Fine Arts. The Institute is managed by 
a Board of Governors, and is subsidized by the State. The 
seventy-five country institutes which the parent institute has 
affiliated are scattered over the length and breadth of the 
Pnwince. They are governed by Committees elected by the 
members of each institute. About twenty possess buildings 
half the cost of which has, in each case, been defrayed from the 
public revenue. 

The number of volumes in the Library of the South 
Australian Institute is 18,837 ; the number of subscribers is 
715 ; and the number of volumes in circulation during the 
year, 54,648. In the country institutes, the number of volumes 
is 42,393 ; the number of members, 2904 ; the aggregate 
income (exclusive of the Government grant), £3360 ; and the 
number of volumes circulated during the year has been 76,487. 

PUBLIC WORSHIP. 
The voluntary principle, or freedom of religion from State 
assistance and consequent control, was established in South 
Australia from the date of its foundation. The beneficial 



oor* 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



results (if its opcratidu under tlic eireumstances of this com- 
iiumitv may be estimated by the fact that two-thirds of the 
jiopulation are provichnl with suitable accommodation for the 
observance of jtublic worsliip. The number of eliurehes, 
chapels, rooms, and other buildin;j:s used for public worship at 
the end of 1874 was 87G, jiroviding 132,000 sittings, dis- 
tributed in the proportion sliown in the following table : — 









Number of 








Number of 


Rooms 


Number of 




Number of 


Sittings 


and other 


Sittinpa 




Churches 


in sucli 


BuiMing!!, 


In such 


Denomi.vatios. 


or 
Cliapels. 


Churches 

or 
Chai)el3. 


used for 

I'uhlic 

Worship. 


Koonis, 
&c. 




1874. 


1874. 


1874. 


1874. 


Cliurch of England 


7.-5 


19,4.V2 


38 


1,273 


Church of Bci.tUiiKl 


2 


150 


— 


— 


Konian CathoHcs 


42 


11,500 


5 


4 SO 


Congrcgationalists or Iinlepcndeiitd 


36 


8,400 


10 


40(^ 


Baptists 


27 


5,725 


11 


680 


Wosleyau MetliodUts 


ItiO 


30,296 


104 


2,000 


German Lutherans 


31 


5,324 


8 


400 


Bihhf Cliristians 


86 


14,000 


20 


750 


Primitive Methodists 


106 


14,000 


41 


1,000 


Methodist New Connection 


2 


625 


2 


90 


Free Presbyterian 


4 


600 


4 


300 


Prcsbyteria'n Church of South Austraha... 


15 


3,960 


13 


1,190 


Unitarians 


1 


300 


1 


100 


Moravians ... 


1 


200 


— 


— 


Friends, Society of 


2 


200 


— - 


— 


New J erusah'u'i Cliurch 


1 


130 


— 


— 


Christians (Brethren, Disciples, Sec) 


20 


5,000 


9 


2,450 


Hebrews 


1 


200 


— 


— 


Totals 


(ill) 


120, 062 


26(J 


11,113 



Ten years ago there were 535 churches, containing SG,000 
sittings. Tlio number of Sunday schools in 1874: was 525, 
attended by 35,G71 children, instructed by 4650 teachers, of 
whom 2200 were male and 2450 female. The average attend- 
ance of scholars has been uninterruptedly increasing year by 
year since 1865, when the number reached 23,739. 




< 



ITS STATISTICS. 337 

CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 

Ample provision is made by the state for the relief aud 
support of that helj^less section of the community A\hich may 
be divided into aged and sick, persons mentally infirm, and 
orphan children. 

The Adelaide Hospital is a Government institution, under 
the management of a Board consisting of professional and non- 
j)rofessional members, who with an efficient staff of officers 
administer the affairs of the institution. During the year 
1874, there were 1806 inmates of the Hospital, of whom 98 
died, 1579 were discharged, cured, or relieved, and 129 re- 
mained on the last day of the year. The daily average 
number of patients was 134. There are five hospitals in the 
<'()untry districts, and in addition thereto provision is made for 
medical attendance on the indigent sick throughout the settled 
portions of the Colony. 

Two hospitals for the insane are also provided by the State, 
and are conducted on the same principles as similar asylums 
in the Mother Country, and with great efficiency. For every 
100,000 of the population, South Australia has 195 insane 
persons ; England has 226. The total number of cases treated 
Mas 464 ; the daily average number in the asylums was 352 ; 
tlie number of admissions was 106 ; the number of patients 
discharged, cured, or relieved, was 81 ; and the number of 
•deaths Avas 32. Patients able to maintain themselves are 
also admitted for treatment upon paying reasonable fees. 

The asylum for the relief of infirm and destitute persons 
not requiring active medical treatment affords assistance to 
the necessitous. The rule is rigidly followed of excluding 
from in-door relief any able-bodied person, and out-door relief 
is only given to males in consequence of sickness — and then 
<mly on medical certificate ; it being understood that no man 
<iapable of working and able to earn his own livelihood should 
be assisted from the funds of the institution. The cases of 
Avidows and orphans, or females deprived of their natural pro- 
tectors, are exceptionally regarded ; and applicants for relief of 
this class are treated according to circumstances, and receive 
all necessary assistance. The average number in the asylum 

z 



338 SOUTH AUSTEAIJA. 

of mule adults is 175, cliiefly intinn and decrepit, and 83 
Iciiiale adults. Seventy-two. jji-incipally young children, were 
maintained in the Industrial Schools connected with this 
iustitutioD. On arriving- at a suitable age, the children are 
placed with or adoi)ted by private families, under what is 
known as the boarding-out systtun, under the careful super- 
vision of the department, assisted by a committee of ladies who 
voluntarilv devote the necessary time to overlooking the 
children's welfare. Some five hundred orj)hans and neglected 
ciiihlren have by these means found comfortable homes, and 
the system generally is considered to have worked with great 
success. 

The protection of the aborigines and the <luty of supplying 
tiieni with medical comforts in sickness, &c., is performed by a 
public officer. The welfare of these people has also been 
attended to by several long-established institutions, mainly 
supported by voluntary contributions. 

Among other benevolent institutions of a private character 
are the Strangers' Friend's Society, Hebrew Philanthropic 
Society, Female Kefuge, Homoeopathic Dispensary ; institutions 
for the relief of the blind, deaf, and dumb ; cottage Ikuucs for 
the aged and infirm poor and widows ; Convalescent Hospital ; 
Orphan Home, for the reception and training of orphan girls ; 
Prince Alfred's Sailors' Home ; and Servants' Home. 

Although not strictly coming under the head of charitable 
institutions, it is desirable to mention that twenty-eight 
Masonic lodges, English, Irish, and Scotch constitutions, are 
distributed throughout the Colony. 

Friendlv Societies have also been for many years in active 
operation under local legislation, and are firmly established 
with a large accumulated fund at their disposal. The chief 
orders of these societies are, I.O.O.F., M.U. ; the Ancient 
Order of Foresters ; the U. O. Oddfellows ; the Ancient Order 
of Druids ; two Indepcnident Orders of Pechabitcs, and the 
Order of Good Templars. The total number of members of 
Friendly Societies is 15,092 ; their total income, £42,464 ; 
their total expenditure, £35,434 ; and their total assets amount 
to £S7,250. 



ITS STATISTICS. 



339 



ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE. 

The legal tribunals of the Province consist of a Supreme 
Court, presided over by the Chief Justice, and two Puisne 
Judges ; the Court of Yice-Admiralty, of which the Chief 
Justice is Judge ; the Court of Insolvency, presided over by a 
Commissioner ; Local Courts of Civil Jurisdiction, presided over 
by Stipendiary Magistrates ; and Police Magistrates' Courts. 

Subjoined is a statement of the proceedings in the Supreme 
Court in its civil jurisdicti(jn, during the years 1865, 1SG9, and 
1874:— 







1865. 


1869. 


1874. 


Common Law — 








No. of Writs issued 


.. ■ 


710 


610 


479 


No. of Records entered for trial ... 




51 


61 


35 


Total amount for whicli judgments signed 


£12,530 


£23,444 


£19,390 


Equity — 










No. of Bills filed 




18 


33 


30 


No. of Claims 




9 





— 


No. of Petitions 




25 


23 


27 


Testamentary — 










No. of Probates 




88 


102 


167 


Amount sworn to 




£277,070 


£155 267 


£394,180 


No. of Letters of Administration 




56 


55 


89 


Amount sworn to ... 




£16,670 


£38,860 


£57,680 


Matrimonial Causes Jurisdiction — 










No. of Cases 




• 14 


7 


18 


Appellate Jurisdiction — 










No. of Special Cases from Insolvency^ 


1 


1 


2 


Court 


J 








No. of Appeals from Local Courts 




33 


16 


16 


No, of Writs of Certiorari removing Judg 


-} 


44 


56 


48 


mcnt from Local Court 


No. of Writs of Habeas Corpus, Mandi 
mus, &c.... 


■} 


6 


6 


5 


No. of Special Cases ... 




4 


9 


— 


No. of Writs of Summons 




366 


216 


159 



The number of writs passing through the Sheriff's office 
during the same years was as follows : — 



Capias ad satis. 
Fieri facias ... 
Other writs . . . 



865. 


1869. 


1874 


17 


31 


25 


36 


35 


18 


15 


16 


11 



Totals 



as 



82 



54 



The following table shows the number of insolvencies, 
assignments, &q., and the amount of liabilities and assets 

z 2 



:{}{) 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



specified in the iiisolvcuts' schedules, also taken for the same 
interval of five years: — 



\o. of Adjutlieatimis insiU'd — 

On Pflitioii of Creditors... 

On Petition of Imprisonid Debtors 
Of which, in furina iKiitjifris... 

On I'etition of Debtors at lari^e 

Totils 
Amount of Liiibilitics, as sliosvn in tlie In-) 

solvents' Schedules ... ... j 

Amount of As.sets, as shown in tlie Insol-^ 

vcnt.s' Schedules ... ... ... j 

Aiuiiunt of Deficiency, as shown in the l\\-) 



solvents' Schedules 



12 




13 


23 


39 




(18 


t;7 


38 




«!7 


60 


58 




fi3 


nil 


109 




144 


90 


£117,482 


£7."),8tJ8 


£54,037 


£(i9,- 


■41 


£31,60") 


£19,434 


£47,741 


£44,2(53 


£35,202 



Local Courts of civil jurisdiction are establislied in all the 
principal towns throughout the Province, and nimiber forty- 
five. They are arranged in circuits, and are presided over by 
Stipendiary 3Iagistrates. These courts adjudicate in all per- 
sonal actions involving amounts up to £100, and in actions 
of ejectment where the land is under the Eeal Property Act, 
and does not exceed £100 in value. A Special and two 
other ]\lagistrates, or a Special Magistrate and a jury of four, 
eonstitutc a court of full jurisdiction, and one Special Magis- 
trate a court of limited jurisdiction. The latter does not 
adjudicate on amounts above £20. 

The following return shows the number and extent of pro- 
ceedings in the Local Courts. The figures given as amount of 
judgments obtained after hearing do not, of course, represent the 
whole amount recovered through the agency of these Courts, as 
a considerable proportion of the claims are settled out of Court 
after issue of the summons, and do not come on for hearing : — 



claims niadi' in tlic Local 
Courlb of 


Number of Suiu- 
inon.ses Issued. 


Amount of Claims sued 
for. 


Judgments obtained 
after Hearing, 


1865. 1869. 


1874. 


1865. 


1869. 


1874. 


1865. 


1869. 


1874. 


Limited Juritdiclion — 

Up to £5 

Above £5 and up to £10 
„ £10 „ ^-io 
' Full Jarisdicllon — 
Abov<! £20 .-lud up to £30 
,, £3l» .. £50 
„ £.'>0 „ £100 
„ £100, "liy consent " 


3,8fl6 
1,134 
1,014 

3fl3 

3-27 

•US 

2 


5,264 
1,879 
1,348 

610 
468 
373 

1 


6,074 

i,yj6 

1,318 

507 
369 
280 


£ 
9,(J56 
10,251 
14,478 

9,388 

12,720 

18,3.4 

240 


£ 
11,653 
13,184 
19,376 

14,813 

18,281 

29,490 

134 


£ 
14,')32 
14,363 
17,985 

12,635 

H,-'G5 
20,508 


2,699 
3,345 
5,120 

3,419 
3,! '30 
5,416 


3,430 
4,615 
6,703 

5,240 
6,153 

8,789 
205 


3,345 
3,i*86 
5.46U 

4,187 
4,809 
4,856 




7,314 


9,U43 


11,074 


74,528 


104,931 


94,191 


23,931 


35,138 


26,616 



ITS STATISTICS. 



341 



The legal profession numbers eighty-five members ; the 
two branches of barrister and attorney are united. A valuable 
law library, containing about two thousand volumes, is attached 
to the Supreme Court. 

The criminal records of the Courts are calculated to convey 
a favourable impression of the law-abiding impulses of the 
South Australian community, the proportion of serious crimes 
being exceedingly small. In fact, the " criminal class " may 
be said to be unknown in South xiustralia. Following is a 
statement of the number of convictions in the Supreme Court 
during the years named : — 



Number of Felonies — 

Against the person 

Against property 
Total number of Mibdenieanours 

Total ... 



ie65. 


IS-CJ. 


1«7(. 


12 
24 


17 

87 
17 


7 
53 
14 


134 


121 


74 



The annual number of convictions in the Supreme Court 
has averaged during the last three years seventy-two, or only 
one in three thousand of the population. During the past ten 
years capital punishment has been inflicted in four instances — 
amongst them one aborigine suffered the extreme penalty of 
the law. 

The following table shows the number of cases of felony 
and misdemeanour preliminarily investigated in the Police 
Courts, and how they were disposed of — whether by committal 
to the Supreme Court, summary convictions under the Minor 
Offences Act, conviction of juvenile offenders, or by dismissal 
of cases : — 



How disposed of. 


1865. 


1869. 


18T4. 


Committed to Supreme Court 

Committed to Local Court Full Jurisdiction 

Convicted — ^Minor Ort"t;nces Act 

Convicted — Juvenile Offenders 

Cases dismissed 


197 
79 

155 


237 
61 

^7 


l.-)0 

150 

22 

132 


Total 


431 


505 


454 



342 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

About uiu'-lmlf of tlio commitments for trial in the Supreme 
Court resulted in eonvietion. 

In addition to the preliminary investigations above referred 
to, the Stipendiary ^Magistrates liave summary jurisdiction in 
cases of breaches of the provisions of Acts of Parliament 
where the penalty is limited to fine, or to fine and imprison- 
ment. Tliis class of offences is principally composed of cases 
of drunkenness in the streets, offences under the Police Act, 
common assaults, breaches of the Waste I.ands and Impounding 
Acts, the Merchant Shipping and Marine Board Acts, and 
non-compliance with IMunicipal bylaws. 

The following table indicates the number of cases heard 
and determined in the years 18G5, 1869, and 1874 : — 



Informations under Acts of Councils, Sec. — 








Dismissals 




732 


749 


688 


Convictions 




2,632 


3,129 


3,445 


Drunkenness . . . 










Dismissals 




105 


8(> 


55 


Convictions 


Total 


1,530 


1,540 


1,615 




4,999 


5,504 


5,803 



Considering the increase of population during the ten 
years, the relative number of convictions, especially in cases 
of drunkenness, has materially declined. 

LAND TRANSFER, LIENS, MORTGAGES, ETC. 
The Statute known as the Real Property Act of South 
Australia affords a facile and convenient process by which the 
transfer of landed property may be accomplished in as easy 
and cheap a manner as any ordinary commercial transaction. 
Where almost every man is a landowner, or is interested in 
land — either as vendor or vendee, lessor or lessee, mortgagor 
or mortgagee — dealings in real estate become a matter of 
almost everyday occurrence. It may be said to be quite 
exceptional for an individual in South Australia not to be, 
more or less, personally interested in the establishment of a 
simple and inexpensive method of dealing with this description 
of property. There can bo no question that the operation of 




1^ 

> 
o 



ITS STATISTICS. 



543 



Siupnpnt 'pv J"^ uojivjado 



O O to i(^ M (C 



O -^ TD -1- 



O to O O O «o 



r^ a iS 



•^ ■* f^ 



iC 00 to M 



rH lO W5 



-^ u? to O 



lO if5 ■^ TT ^J" 



COU^--CO'^COtOr^OClt^ 
tOinfOODOSOOXtOtOrH 

f-iMC^C^CO'^'WtOIQCOtOtOtO 



C^ •* O .-- CO 
00 rt to O CO 



<^ 00 00 o 



•sainsopajoj 



•si!-iA\. 



■^jnog JO sjapjQ 



•sao8S3T Xq sauaAoaay; 



•pajtsod 
-ap '-Dry 's^uatunSissy 



•S}»aAi30 iCttBapqjiAV 



•3:y 'snoissttnsuBix 



•saDaaoiq; 



■sjsnjx JO sainpaqas 



•sasoai JO sjapuauntj 



•sasBaT; jo sjajsuBjjL 



•saDUBjqinnoua' 



•saajsujx JO saopBuiniojij; 



•o:y 'sjBaABO 



•spuiisqv noi^vjfsiSag 



•-CaiUO^lY JO BIBAiOjJ 



■sa3B3jwi\[ JO sa3jBqDst(j 



II"! 



rt^woac^iftcoro 



(-i.-ii-i'^xicio-^cir-Mio 



I I I I I I I I I 



O N OS O M 
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COtO<Or-t-^— i(£)CiM«OOC 



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]44 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



the iiu^ismx' lias liccu lii;^lily advaiita^f^oiis to tlic comnmnity : 
and as considerable interest is attached to the working of so 
important a reform, a detailed statement is c^iven of the trans- 
actions of the office in each year since its establishment in 
IS.IS. (See page 343.) The total value of the lands brought 
under the operation of this law amounts to nearly ten millions 
sterling. 

An Assurance i'lmd in connection Avitli the Act was esta- 
blished with a view of meeting claims for compensation on the 
part of any person who, through error or fraud, might suffer 
from the carrying out of the jjrinciples of absolute inde- 
feasibilitv of title. This fund is derived from a contribution 
of one halfpenny in the i)ound levied on all property brought 
under thcOj^n-ation of the Act; it now amounts to over 
£30,000, and is invested in Government securities. The claims 
(»n the fund have reached £308 up to the present time. 

The follo^^ing statement shows the number and amount of 
liens, mortgages, and other securities for advances of money 
reffistered during: the vears mentioned : — 



Years. 


Jlortgages on Land. 


!iIortgages on Stock. 


Liens 


on Wool. 


Bills of Sale, &c. 




No. 


£ 


No. 


£ 


No. 


£ 


No. 


£ 


1866 ... 


2,252 


1,033,422 


91 


266,031 


22 


51,072 


158 


130,153 


1871 ... 


l,9r2 


920,891 


151 


116,875 


36 


82,513 


259 


67,498 


1-::. ... 


■2,<:-n 


I,2s9,6;i5 


15. 


254,508 


41 


55.043 


268 


168,194 



Of the total amount of mortgages on land registered last 
year, £997,77.") — or three-fourths of the whole — were advances 
u})on land uiuler tlie o}K'ration of the Real Property Act. 



REVENUE AND EXFENDITUIIE. 

The finances of the Colony of South Australia have never 
been in a more ])rosperous condition than at present. The 
returns of receipts from all sources of revenue indicate the 
stinidy progress and growth of the community, and there is a 
tone of elasticity which promises well for the future. 

The (icneral Ivevciiue for the vcar ended 31st December 



ITS STATISTICS. 



345 



1875 amounted to £1,143,312 5s. lOcl, to wliicli must be 
added the balance to credit at the commencement of the year, 
£92,077 2s. '2d., making a total income of £1,235,989 8s. 

The Total Expenditure by the Government during the 
same period was £1,176,412 18s. lOd., leaving a balance at the 
end of the twelve months of £59,576 9s. 2d. 

The Public Loan Account is kept distinct from that of the 
General Eevenue. 

The receipts of the year amounted to five pounds twelve 
shillings per head of the population. The amount of revenue 
contributed through the Customs — the only source of general 
taxation — was thirty-three shillings per head, an amount lower 
than the rate of taxation in the Mother Country, or in any of 
the other Australian Colonies. 

The following table gives the amount of revenue derived 
under the several heads of receipt : — 



Heads of Keceipt. 



Customs 

Marine 

Rents, &c., crown lands 

Rents — ordinary 

Licences — business ... 

Postages and telegraphs 

Fines, fees, and forfeitures . . . 

Sales of Government property 

Reimbursements in aid 

Miscellaneous ... 

Interest and excliange 

Railways and tramways 

Waterworks 

T„„i, 1 (Proceeds of 
Ijand sales <T x j. i-.. 

(Interest on credit 

Immigration ... 



ales 



3.'39,103 

9.237 

85,744 

1,120 

13.920 

78,818 

27,582 

437 

11,991 

4.561 

2,7G2 

183,09."> 

30,895 

177,530 

112,038 

4,473 

£1,143.312 



In young communities the general Government has neces- 
sarily imjiosed upon it functions and duties from which, in 
more advanced conditions of society, the State is exempt. The 
construction of railways, waterworks, telegraphs, roads, public 
buildings, &c. must, if entered into at all, be undertaken at 
the public cost. Moreover, such works must, in common pru- 
dence, be constructed on a scale in advance of the actual 



346 SOITII AUSTEALIA. 

requirements of th<' moniont. In South Australia siu^li ex- 
penditure forms a large proijortion of the whol(\ will benefit 
future Lrt-norations >Mjually with the present, and must not be 
regarded as ordinary current cost of Government. 

Tile sid)joined talde shows the expenditure, specified under 
the respective heads of service for which it was incurred : — 

Hkads of Expenditure. 

Civil li^t IS, 900 

The legislature 10,803 

Civil estaltlisliiiieiits ... ... ... ... ... HG,0:;J5 

Judicial ami legal deitiirtineiitri ... ... ... 3l,0o9 

Police r)0,245 

(Jaols anil prisons 1'2,337 

Education 42,(j3G 

(charitable institution.s ... ... ... ... 54,042 

Military defences 882 

I'obtal and telegraph services 132,744 

Customs ... ... ... ... ... ... ll,o77 

Harbours and lights 10.498 

rublic works 247,940 

Hallways and tramways ... ... ... ... 177,456 

"Waterworks ... .". 18,117 

Survey and crown lands ... ... ... ... 37,46G 

Retiring allowances, &c. ... ... ... ... 9,919 

Interest and e.xchange 4.838 

iVIiscellaneous ... ... ... ... ... ... 58,894 

Immigration 27,139 

Interest on loans for public works 142, 476 

Redemption of ditto 34,400 



£1,17(5,412 



The payments may be summarised as follows : — The ordinary 
expenses of Government (including judicial and legal depart- 
nu'uts, police, gaols, prisons, &c.) amount to £262,000, or 
twenty-five shillings per head of the population, being eight 
shillings less than the taxation; £43,000 is devoted to educa- 
tion ; £54,000 to charitable institutions ; and £328,000 is 
required for the service of reju'oductive works. Among these 
latter, railways require £177,000, the receipts from that source 
being £183,000. The waterworks take £18,000, and the re- 
ceipts therefrom are £31,000. The post and telegraph services 
absorb £132,000, and the revenue contributed by them is 
£78,000. Tlie interest on the bonded debt amounts to 
£142,000, averaging fourteen shillings per head of the popu- 



ITS STATISTICS. 347 

lation ; but an amount very much larger than this is annually 
saved by the reduced cost of carriage and other facilities 
afforded to the public by the works constructed out of the 
loans upon which this interest accrues. The cost of the sur- 
vey and management of Crown lands was last year £37,000 ; 
and £27,000 was devoted to the introduction of immigrants. 

The expenditure on public works and in reduction of loans 
amounted to £282,000, being 105,000 more than the sum re- 
ceived during the year from the proceeds of the sales of waste 
lands. The Crown lands being the capital of the Colony, it is 
important to note that not only were the receipts derived from 
their sale devoted intact to improving the public estate, but a 
sum equal to one-third more, derived from the general revenue, 
was also expended in the same direction. 

LOANS FOR PUBLIC WORKS. 
Legislative sanction has been accorded from time to time 
for the raising of moneys by way of loan for the prosecution of 
re})roductive public works, such as railways, tramways, water- 
works, telegraphs, harbour improvements, and other public 
purposes. The following return shows the amount of Public 
Debt outstanding on 31st December 1875 for each of the 
several Public Works, and the total rate of indebtedness per 
head of the population, and for each undertaking : — - 





Public Debt. 




Amount. 


Rate per 
Heml. 




£ 


£ #>. (1. 


Railways 


... 1,381,000 


6 110 


Tramways ... 


131,500 


12 


Waterworks 


511,600 


2 8 6 


Telegraphs 


378,400 


1 16 


Harbours and lights 


328,000 


1 12 


Roads 


236,000 


1 2 


Public purposes 


168,500 


16 


Northern Territory... 


185,000 


17 6 


Total 


... £3,320,600 


£15 15 



If it be asked what the Ci)lony has to show in the shai)e 
of permanent improvements, it may be answered that there are 
three hundred and forty miles of railway. The city, port, and 



348 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

siil»iirl»s ol' Adelaide, with sixtv thousand residents, have an 
aliiiiidaiit and euiistaid \vater supply. Harbours have been 
deepened and improved, and navigation rendered easy by an 
almost perfect system of li<,ditlionses. Eighteen hundred miles 
of macadamised roads are in effective order, and the Province' 
is traversed from nortli to soutli and from east to west by tele- 
graphs, over live thousand miles in length, bringing us into 
instantaneous communication with the whole world. 

The earlier loans were issued bearing six per cent, interest, 
but those of late years bear four per cent. only. The present 
price of South Australian four per cents is 95^. Interest and 
reclemption is payable in London on 1st January and 1st July 
in each year. The currency of the bonds is generally thirty 
years. Kedemptions to the amount of £678,400 have been 
made since the first issue of bonds in 1854. 

BANKING. 
Six banking institutions carry on business within the 
Province, namely, the Bank of South Australia, Bank of 
Australasia, Union Bank of Australia, National Bank of 
Australasia, English, Scottish, and Australian Chartered Bank, 
and Bank of Adelaide, all of which have establishments in the 
principal seaports and inland townships, numbering altogether 
sixty-four branches and agencies. Quarterly general abstracts 
are published of the average amount of liabilities and assets 
of the several Banks, taken from their weekly statements, and 
they comprise in each case a return of the notes and bills in 
eireulation, the balances due to other Banks, and deposits with 
and without interest. The total average liabilities of the six 
Banks amount to £3,278,121, and the total average assets to 
£5,157,868. The following tal)le shows the total average 
assets and liabilities of all the Banks taken for the last 
quarter of each of the years mentioned : — 

18C1. ISCG. 1871. 1S7!>. 

£ £ £ £ 

Liabilities ... 1, 024, CSC 1,71. "),;«),■) 1 , 802 , (J^I 3.278,121 
Asset:* l,8(Ji),0(J8 3,(i20.0(;2 3,524,412 5,1.')7,868 





mm 
mm 

ii'i 



II' 






„,,,„:., !lv";W: if 

"'"''"' m^^ 

Ml 



m* 



II « 



pq 



ITS STATISTICS. 



349 



The annexed statement shows the position of each Bank as 
set forth in the quarterly return of December 1875 : — 




ITS STATISTICS. 



551 



principal townships throughout the Colony, in connection with 
Telegraph and Money Order Offices. Deposits are received in 
sums from One 8hilling up to £500 ; but interest is only 
allowed up to £250. The rate of interest paid is now five 
pounds per cent, per annum. The following statement shows 
the operations and progress of the institution, at intervals, and 
gives a iair index of the jjosition of the Avorking classes who 
most largely avail themselves of the facilities afforded by the 
bank for the safe investment of small sums at a fair rate of 
interest. 



184S 
18.")! 
1S5(; 
18(51 
IBGtJ 
1871 
1875 



Number of 
Deposilora. 



Amount 
depubited. 



Amount 
withdittwn. 



214 

732 

1,4<J9 

3,248 

7,67!) 

14,270 

22,GG2 



6,473 

10,224 

2t),328 

65,373 

124,427 

237,053 

419,914 



1,180 

12 761 

27,142 

37,627 

147,524 

191,161 

393.686 



Amount of 
Depositors' 
Balances. 



£ 

5,313 

14,340 

52,775 

121,414 

249,329 

490,844 

816,827 



Total 
J'unds. 



5,414 
14,785 
57,060 
131,590 
266,700 
516,999 
845,276 



The total number of depositors last year Avas 22,662, the 
average sum at the credit of each being thirty-six pounds. 
The total deposits of the year amounted to £420,000, and the 
total funds of the institution to £845,276, invested chiefly in 
(Government securities (£291,334) and on mortgage of free- 
hold property (£239,711). The Keserve Fund amounts to 
£28,448. In South Australia, the depositors in Savings Banks 
are one in ten of the population, in New South Wales one in 
twenty, and in Victoria one in thirty. 



LAND AND ITS OCCUPATION. 

Excluding that portion of the Province known as the 
Xorthern Territory, the total area of South Australia is about 
383,328 square miles, or 245,329,920 acres. It may be roughly 
estimated that not more than 250,000 square miles are at jiresent 
put to profitable use. Agricultural settlement has not extended 
150 miles from the coast, and pastoral occupation may be said 
to have reached no farther than 500 mik^s, although squatters 



352 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

liavf lately lakni up larj;e areas of laud discovered by recent 
explorations (lyin^^ chiefly on the route of the overland tele- 
.t;ra})h), and which are considered capable of carrying stock. 
'l\vcnty-six counties have been proclaimed up to date, 
embracing 40,907 square miles, or 20,218,880 acres. Of 
this large area, only 0,283,881 acres have been alienated 
Iroiu the Crown, amoiuiting, nevertheless, to thirty acres 
for every man, woman, and child in the Colony, or one 
hundred and twenty acres for each male adult. About one 
in every five acres of the alienated land is under tillage; the 
.remainder is used for pastoral jturposes only. All land is 
surveyed by the Government ju'ior to sale, and is divided into 
farms of extent varying from eighty to six hundred and forty 
acres, the necessary reserves being made for railways, public 
highways, watering of stock, &c. This land is thrt)wn open for 
selection in large quantities, from 50,000 to 100,000 acres 
being put np at one time. At present there is as much as half 
a million of acres of land surveyed and open for immediate 
selection. The total area of land held for pastoral jiurposes 
beyond the boundaries of the counties mentioned is estimated 
to be 188,000 square miles. 

The table on i)age 353 shows the names of counties, their 
art^a, the quantity of land sold, and the acreage surveyed and 
open for selection. 

At the close of 1875, of the total area of land alienated 
frofii the Crown, namely 0,283,881 acres, 4,0o4,549 ticres had 
been jiurchased in fee simple for cash, and 1,049,332 acres 
under tiu^ system of deferred payments. The demand for 
land during the past twelvemonths was very great, being 
more ccjnsiderable than in any previous year, amounting to 
080,050 acres, as compared with 424,130 acres in 1874, Of 
this quantity, 1130,079 acres have been sold for cash, realizing 
£175,007 ; 555,971 acres were taken up by selectors who 
agreed to pay on the expiry of their term of credit £704,140, 
paying a deposit of £70,423, which is treated as interest during 
the term of agreement. With regard to the 130,079 acres of 
land sold for cash during the year, wliich, as has been stated, 
realized £175,007, it will be understood that 351 acres were 



ITS STATISTICS. 



oOo 



town lands, averaging £33 an acre, or £13 per acre more than 
the j)rice realized for town lands in the previous year ; that 
6,701 acres were suburban lands which realized an average 
price of £2 17s. per acre, and tlic remainder was country land, 
the average price of which (where the land — namely, 28,337 
acres — was sold outright at a fixed price) was £1 Os. Ihd., or 



COUNTIKS. 


Area 

in Square 

Miles. 


Area in .\crcs. 


Purdiased 

Land tu 31st 

I>ecember 

1S75. 


Extent of 
Land 
held by- 
Freeholders. 


Land open 

for 
Selection. 








Acres. 




Acres. 


Adelaide 


1,1G1 


743,040 


594,369 


313,010 


1,220 


Gawler 


979 


626,560 


438,667 


220,731 


27,652 


Light 


84S 


542,720 


518,183 


372,598 


198 


Stanley 


1,420 


908,800 


773,300 


438,863 


29,873 


Victoria 


1,527 


977,280 


603,793 


178,464 


5,128 


Kimberley 


1,440 


921,600 


39,793 


1,737 


9,414 


Daliiousie ... 


1,220 


780,800 


206,789 


41,061 


22,845 


Fergusson 


2,000 


1,280,000 


304,424 


147,142 


77,635 


Daly 


1,236 


791,040 


283,684 


62,016 


68,112 


Frome 


1,404 


898,560 


269,384 


19,481 


39,363 


Hindmar.sh ... 


1,032 


660.480 


340,788 


207,311 


38,362 


8tm-t 


1,343 


859,520 


337,443 


212,209 


87,653 


I'^yre 


1,340 


857,600 


245,403 


138,203 


61,796 


Buna 


1,767 


1,130,880 


217,473 


151,950 


2,279 


Young 


2,015 


1,289,600 


690 


320 





Hamley 


2,135 


1,366,400 


80 


80 





Alfred 


1,855 


1,187,200 









Albert 


2,136 


1,367,040 


1,765 


1,735 





Iiussell 


1,542 


986,880 


157,498 


86,097 


16,693 


Buckingham 


1,612 


1,031,680 


34,616 


2,198 


829 


Card well 


1,856 


1,187,840 


1,234 


794 




IVIacDonnell 


1,944 


1,244,160 


119,835 


52,824 


15,165 


Eobe 


2,028 


1,297,920 


236,922 


239,552 


9,286 


«irey 


2,347 


1,502,080 


453,418 


368,221 


11,352 


Flinders 


1,100 


704,000 


100,979 


67', 663 


44,873 


Carnarvon ... 


1,680 


1,075,200 


2,884 


4,062 


— 


Total 


40,967 


26,218,880 


6,283,414 


3,323,322 


569,728 


Pastoral Districts ... 


— 


— 


2,238 , 


352 




r; rand Total . . . 


40,967 


26,218,880 


0,285,652 


3,323,674 


569,728 



Ihd. per acre above the upset price of one pound. SG,784 of 
the acres which have been sold on credit, and the purchase of 
wliich is now completed, realized £1 4s. Id. an acre, or 4s. 7d. 
above the upset price of one pound. 

Turning to the sales of Crown lands on credit during the 
year 1875, and which have been stated as amounting to 

2 A 



^'-^-i SOUTH AUSTEALTA. 

555,971 acres, 51C,G40 acres wvw sfleetud Ly agriculturists 
wlio entered into an agreement to reside upon the land either 
l^crsonally or by a servant, and to carry out the necessary 
coiiditiuiis of inipruvement and cultivation, agreeing to pay 
ttn the average £1 7s. 6d. per acre at the termination of their 
agreement, when they would become entitled to the fee simple 
of the land. Selections whieh had been taken up previously, 
and hail been i'orfeited eitlier voluntarily or by reason of 
neglect in carrying out the requirements of the Act, were 
re-selected to the extent of 25,087 acres, and the average 
l)riec agreed to be paid by the new holders was £1 10s. Sd. 
\)CT acre. 

The following table shows the number of acres sold on 
credit since the introduction of the existing land system and 
the aggregate amount to be paid on the termination of the 
ao-reements : — 





Area in Acres. 


Amount. 


1871 


'J 89,802 


£372,536 


1872 


2;trt,'J."i7 


397.284 


1873 


279,512 


435,485 


1874 


352,166 


596 096 


1875 


.555,971 


764,140 


Total . 


.. 1,777,498 _ 


£2,565,544 



The total quantit}' of land taken up during the five years 
since the Act has been in operation is 1,777,498 acres, for which 
£2,5G5,544 was agreed to be paid. Of this amount, £2,406,251 
still remains on credit awaiting the termination of the agree- 
ments. 

The following are the principal provisions of the Land Act 
of 1872 : — " All waste lands, other than township and sub- 
urljan, have a fixed value put upon them by the Commissioner 
of Crown Lands, not less than £1 per acre. In improved or 
reclaimed lands the cost per acre of the improvements and 
reclamation is added to ,the upset price of £1 per acre. 
Those lands wliicli have been o})en for selection, or which have 
been offered at auction, and neither selected nor sold, may at 
the end of five years be offered for sale in blocks of not more 
than 3000 acres, on lease for ten years, at an annual rental of 
not less than Gd. per acre, with a right of j^urchasc at any time 
during the currency of the lease at £1 per acre. 



ITS STATISTICS. 355 

"When any lands are declared open for selection, by 
proclamation in the Government Gazette, at a fixed price, a day 
is appointed for receiving applications for sections, not to 
exceed in the aggregate 640 acres, or one square mile. The 
person making the application shall pay at the time a deposit 
of ten per cent, on the fixed price, which ' sum shall be taken 
as payment of three years' interest in advance upon the 
purchase money. If the price of the land is £100, the selector 
would have to pay a deposit of £10, which will be all he will 
be required to pay the Government for three years— about 
three and three-quarters per cent, per annum. At the end of 
three years he will have to pay another ten per cent., which 
will also be received as interest for the next three years. If at 
the end of six years he is not prepared to pay the whole of the 
purchase money, he can obtain other four years' credit on 
payment of half the purchase money, and interest in advance 
on the other half, at the rate of four per cent, per annum. 
Lands which have been open for selection two years, and not 
taken up, may be purchased for cash. The scrub lands may 
also be taken up on very favourable terms, on long leases. 

" A credit selector may reside on his land either personally 
or by substitute. The personal resident, however, has advan- 
tages which he who resides by deputy has not. In cases of 
simultaneous applications for the same block, the personal 
resident has the preference over the other ; and at the end of 
five years, the selector who has resided on the land and made 
all the required improvements and complied with all the con- 
ditions may, by paying his purchase money, obtain the fee 
simple of his selection. The selector who occupies by sub- 
stitute cannot get the freehold until the end of six years. 

" Purchasers upon credit will be required to reside, either 
personally or by deputy, upon the land at least nine months 
in the year ; and absence for any longer time than three 
months in one year renders the agreement liable to forfeiture. 

" The credit purchaser will be required to make substantial 
imj)rovements upon the land before the end of the second 
year, to the extent of i)s. per acre ; before the end of the 
third year, 7s. Qd. per acre ; before the end of the fourtli yeai', 

2 A 2 



o5G SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

J (Is. per acre. 'Such iinprovcinonts to consist of all or any 
of tlio following, tluit is to say: — Erecting a dwelling-house 
or farm building, sinking wells, constructing water tanks or 
reservoirs, putting up fencing, draining, or clearing or grubbing 
the said land.' The fences must be of a substantial character. 

" The credit purchaser is required, during each year until 
the purchase money is paid off. to plough and have under 
cultivation at least onc-lifth of the land; but in the event of 
his not cultivating this quantity during the first year, he will 
be required to cultivate two-fifths during the second year." 

Tli(^ diagram A (opposite) shows at a glance the progress 
made in settlement and agriculture during the last twenty-five 
years. . 

AGRICULTUEE. 

Where over four-tenths of the male population of a 
community are engaged in farming pursuits, the necessity for 
(•ollecting authentic information regarding the progress of 
agriculture is sufficiently apparent. For many years past the 
annual statistics collected on this subject have afforded a mass 
of records the value of which every year becomes greater. 

The Special Commissioner of the Crown Colonies at the 
A'ieuna Exliibition (3Ir. William Robinson, now Governor of 
the Bahamas), in reporting to the Imperial Government, 
said : — " Of all the British Colonies, South Australia exhibits 
the most striking picture at present of farming industry, and 
on the whole seems to be the place where, good as the 
]al)ourer's condition may be elsewhere, he has, by prudence 
and industry, the best clianco of rising in the social scale, and 
becoming in his turn the employer of labour," and further, 
" the yeomanry who have found a home in South Australia, 
and who are at once tillers of the soil and employers of labour, 
are more than any one class the real bone and sinew of the 
Colony ; and the industry which has so widely covered the 
land with farms, homesteads, tillage, and fencing of every 
description, has probably never been equalled in its result in 
any British Colony in the same number of years by the same 
amount of population. It is by tlie spread of agriculture that 
the greatest amount of industrial prosperity has been created. 



A. 

ADELAIDE, SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

Diagram showing the Population, Acres Sold, Acres Cultivated, Acres ix AViieat, 

AND Wheat Harvested. 



0'-•c2cori^loco^•oo®0'-^wc0'^l0®^•oo®o«-«c^o^•<i*»o 

O0O0O0O000O0O0O0CO00O0O00000O00OCO00CX)CO00000000O0<S) 

iH r-l iHr-lrHflrHrHrHr^r1t-lrHtHTHffHrH»HT°<rH<-i r=4 »-» i— « vH i-S 




POPULATION- 
ACKES IN WHEAT- 



ACRES SOLD 



= ACRES CTJLTrVATED -i- 



QUANTITY OF WHEAT REAPED [quarters] -♦ *^ -»- 



358 



SOUTH AUSTTIALTA. 



jiiid tlio real settlement of tlic cdiniti y most cifectually accom- 
plished." An analysis of the statistics of the last fifteen 
years abundantly ])r()ves the soundness of His Excellency's 
judg-ment. 

The area of land alienated in South Australia is 0,283,881 
acres, or 120 acres for each male adult. Of this area, 1,330,484 
acres are under cultivation, showing a result of one in every 
4*3 acres of purchased land to ho under tillage. There are six 
acres and a half of cultivated land for each individual of the 
])opulation, e(|ual to twenty-eight acres for each adult male, or 
sixty acres for eacli person returned at the last census as 
engaged on farms. The following table exhibits very clearly 
the o})eration of the new land system, as regards settlement 
and cultivation, since its inauguration in 1871 : — 







Acres 


iiiKler Cultivation. 




Counties. 














1870-71. 


1871-2. 


lS7'J-3. 


1873-4. 


1S74-5. 


Adelaide 


181, 3G0 


177,808 


171,015 


169.378 


165,350 


Gawler 


159,755 


179,192 


197,193 


193,002 


199,158 


Light 


248,400 


2G2,.526 


264,624 


251,951 


245,491 


Stanley 


1-25,421 


155,580 


lr,7,502 


162,160 


167,715 


Victoria 


5,6'J7 


20,2G3 


79,539 


116,981 


154,494 


Kimberlcy 


— 


— 


9;;i 


2,054 


7,760 


Dalhousif ... 


— 


— 


1.894 


8,. 569 


29,497 


Fergusion 


1,412 


G,7nG 


10,731 


25,789 


38,744 


Daly 


15,335 


24,SG9 


43,231 


43,156 


68,246 


Frome 


7G4 


542 


507 


6,247 


16,268 


Hindmarsli... 


77,. 585 


73,911 


63,926 


61,153 


54,942 


8turt 


40,107 


34,221 


37,782 


43,679 


35,767 


Eyre 


27,648 


27,937 


37,585 


37,853 


45,790 


Burra 


11,445 


18,103 


19,8G5 


23,981 


24,943 


Hamley 


2 


G 


5 


16 


14 


Albert 


— 


1 


— 


— 


— 


Russell 


7,94G 


9,234 


11,503 


12,686 


13,591 


BuckiiiLrliam 


99 


94 


463 


1,682 


2,763 


Cardwtll ... 


2G2 


229 


150 


131 


290 


MacDonnell 


2,922 


4,1G3 


5,. 535 


5,767 


4,936 


Robe 


5,924 


<;,'.i22 


7,676 


8,537 


8,573 


Grey 


41,158 


30,548 


3G,612 


44,684 


40,313 


Flinders 


4,240 


4,427 


4,612 


4,637 


4,903 


Carnarvon ... 


1,045 


1 , 056 


993 


759 


772 


Pastoral Districts ... 


479 


228 


372 


221 


164 



Total 



9.")9,0()6 1,041,G5G 1,1(;4,S4G 1,225,073 1,330,484 



About t\v(»-tliirds of the total area cultivated is cropped 
with wheat, of which cereal 839,038 acres were reaped last 



\ > 




ITS STATISTICS. 359 

year, yielding an aggregate of 9,862,693 busliels, the largest 
quantity yet produced in the Colony. The crop was a fair 
average one, of excellent quality, and, considering the scarcity 
of farm labour, was safely and early secured. It is important 
to note that, whilst the area of wheat grown has increased more 
than one hundred per cent, during the last ten years, the 
population has only increased thirty per cent. 

The harvest now being gathered is expected to produce 
twelve million bushels, which will permit of an export of over 
230,000 tons of bread-stuffs, after providing for home require- 
ments. 

Annexed is a statement showing the total area of land 
under cultivation, the acreage under wheat, the gross produce 
of the harvest, and the average yield per acre at intervals of 
five years : — 





Seasous. 


Acres 


Ac-res under 


Protiucp, 


Average per 




Cultivtuwi. 


Wheat. 


Wheat. 


Acre. 










Bushels. 


]5iish. lbs. 




1860-61 


428,810 


273,672 


:i,576,593 


13 4 




1865-6 


660,509 


410,608 


3,587,800 


8 44 




1870-71 


959,006 


604,761 


6,961,164 


11 30 




1874-5 


],:^30,484 


839,638 


9,862,693 


11 45 



With regard to the comparatively low average yield above 
shown, it must be borne in mind, in judging of the relative 
productiveness of the soil of South Australia as compared with 
that of other countries, that a great portion of the land has been 
sown with wheat continuously for many successive years without 
manure or rest, and, being in the hands of small proprietors, 
lias received only the minimum of cultivation. This, of course, 
tends to reduce the general average ; but there are many 
districts where farming is carried on on a large scale, and with 
proper appliances, where tlie yield of this cereal is from ten to 
fifteen bushels per acre beyond the average shown above. 

As evidence of the high quality of the South Australian 
grain, it may be mentioned that the prize wheat exhibited at 
the Agricultural Show s during the past ten years has averaged 
68 lbs. weiglit to the Imperial bushel. 

In 1865-6 there were 423,881 acres under grain, viz. wheat. 



:5G0 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



barley, oats, and peas, and in 1874-3 tliero were 8G0,475 acres ; 
so that within the j)eriod specified the acreage so occupied was 
more than (h)ubled. 

Under other cro})s, Hax, hay, potatoes, orchard, garden, vine- 
yard, and falhtw land, there w-ere 229,182 acres in 1865-G, and 
442,900 in 1874-5, or nearly double. The total quantity under 
cultivation at the earlier date was 660,569, and at the later, 
1,330,484, or more than double the acreage. The extent of 
land now under hay cultivation is 160,931, and of fallow-land, 
264,327 acres. In 1858, only eighteen years after the Province 
was founded, there were 89,945 acres of land under wheat 
culture ; in 1865-6, there were 410,608 ; and in 1874-5, no less 
than 8oi),()o8 acres. 

The following table shows the extent of land under cultiva- 
tion, and each descrij^tion of crop, at quin(piennial intervals 
since 1860-61 : — 







Acres under Cultivatiuii in Years 






Crops. 














1860-61. 


1 

1865-6. 


isTo-n. 


isT-i-.-.. 


For Grain — 












Wlicat 


... 


273,072 


410,008 


604,761 


839,638 


Burley 




11,386 


9,302 


22,912 


13,724 


Oats ... 




2,273 


2,872 


0,188 


2,785 


Peas ... 






969 


3,719 


4,328 


For Green Forage — 










Wilt at, Barley, Oat.s, &c. 


2,174 


2,514 


2.000 


],117 


Sorghum 




IIG 


230 


— 


. — 


Lucerne 




1.72U 


1,424 1 


3,445 


6,699 


Permanent Artificial Grassc s. . . 


1,830 


3,408 


3,712 1 


19,200 


Flax- 


... 

* 








186 


274 


Other Crops 




584 


1,272 


829 1 


434 


Hay 




55,818 


101,990 


140,316 


160,931 


Potatoes ... 




2,348 


2,775 t 


3,370 


4,. 582 


Orchard ... 




2,147 


2,554 


2,763 ! 


3,077 


Garden ... 




3,!ll0 


3,919 


4,345 


4,2.57 


Vineyard ... 




3,180 


0,029 


6,131 


5,051 


Fallow Land 




67,090 


110,037 


153,723 


264,327 


Tut,.!- 


428,810 


000,509 


959,006 1 


,330,484 



\ ine culture is an important and progressive industry. 
Tliei-e are 5050 acres of land devoted to this purpose, the total 
number of vines being 5,155,988, of which 4,874,507 are in 




o 



ITS STATISTICS. 361 

bearing. The produce of these vineyards for the year ended 
]\rarch 1875 was 648,186 gallons of wine, about one hundred 
and thirty gallons per acre. 

The suitability of the soil and climate of South Australia 
to the growth of wine was soon discovered by the early settlers, 
some of whom had brought from Europe a variety of high class 
vine cuttings. The slopes of the hills produce wines of a full- 
bodied character similar to those of Spain and Portugal, whilst 
those made in the more elevated districts resemble the lighter 
wines of the Khine. Whilst the local demand is fully supplied 
at very cheap rates, a considerable export trade in wines of a 
higher character is carried on, and which might be increased 
to a great extent but for obstructive fiscal laws. Whilst the 
lower class wines of the Continent are admitted to the ports of 
the Mother Country at a minimum rate of duty, the Customs 
dues charged upon superior wines from Australia are so high 
as to be almost prohibitory- 

That the wines of South Australia are, as a rule, of a 
high character is proved by the fact that they have always 
been awarded prizes at the several Great International 
Exhibitions. 

The introduction of flax-growing into the ordinary routine 
of farm operations, has been followed by considerable success. 
The prices realized for this commodity in the European markets 
have been very encouraging. 

Considerable attention has also been paid to the manufacture 
of preserved fruits, and the drying of raisins and currants. This 
branch of industry is rapidly progressing, and, whilst it now goes 
far to supply local requirements, will probably soon develop 
into an export trade. 

Almond trees are of rapid growth, and large quantities of 
a superior description of soft-shell almond are gathered yearly 
for home consumption and for shipment. 

South Australia possesses all the conditions requisite for the 
successful and prx)fitable culture of the olive. This tree, like 
the vine, was early introduced into the Colony, and its growth 
and productiveness have been so remarkable that large planta- 
tions have been established and stocked with the best Con- 



362 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

tiueiital varieties. Ulive uil of tlio most delicate character has 
been expressed, aiul gained awards at the various Exhibitions. 
Its purity and general superiority over the imported article of 
commerce has acquired for it a first position in the market. 
The produce of the plantations is eag-erly purchased by persons 
who have entered upon the business of the manufacture of oil. 
It may be stated, as showing the importance which is attached 
to the cultivation of the olive, as of the mulberry (of which 
several i)lantations of the most suitable kinds exist for the 
developmcMit of sericulture), the almond, vine, orange, fig, and 
hop, that the land laws provide that the planting and cultiva- 
tion of one acre of land with any of these trees shall be 
equivalent to the cultivation of six acres of cereals. 

Orclianls, gardens, and vineyards abound, and, in short, the 
variety and excellence of the fruits and vegetables produced in 
the Colony cannot be surpassed. The climate and soil enables 
the productions of temperate and tropical regions to be cultivated 
almost side by side, and throughout the year ; and offers an 
unlimited field of profitable occupation in connection with 
ordinary farming pursuits. 

PASTORAL OCCUPATION. 

Notwithstanding the large area of land lately alienated from 
the Crown, and the extension of agricultural operations, the 
acreage of land taken up for squatting purposes and the increase 
in the number of ilocks and herds have been very ccmsiderable. 
All descri}»tions of stock, wlietlier horses, cattle, or sheep, have 
thriven and increased rapidly. 

Of late years the enclosure and sub-division of runs (enabling 
the shec]) to roam at will during the whole year) has been found 
to produce greatly improved results, both as regards the quality 
of the stock and of the wool. Large numbers of sheep are 
owned by settlers, wIkj advantageously combine sheep-farming 
with agriculture. 

tSome conception of the growth of the pastoral interest may 
be formed from the fact that, whilst in 1851 the total area of 
land leased from the Crown for pastoral purposes was 15,000 
sqiuire miles, at the present time there are no less than 200,000 



ITS STATISTICS. oCo 

square miles in occupation. During the same period tlie 
number of horses has increased from 6500 to 93,000 ; of horned 
cattle from 75,000 to 185,000 ; and of sheep from 1,000,000 to 
over G,000,000, whilst the exports of wool have increased from 
4000 to 118,000 bales. 

The following table shows the progressive increase in horses, 
cattle, and sheep, at each quinquennial period between 185G 
and 1875 : — 



Sheep. 



1856 


22,260 


272,746 


1,962,460 


ISGI 


52,. 097 


265,434 ' 


3,038,356 


1866 


70,829 


123,820 


3,911,610 


1871 


78,125 


143,463 


4,412,055 


1875 


93,122 


185,342 


6,120,211 



With reference to the slight comparative increase in cattle 
it should be noted that more profitable results are found to 
accrue from the breeding of sheep than from great cattle. The 
latter pursuit is more extensively followed in the neighbouring 
colonies. 

During the last ten years the average price of first-class fat 
bullocks has averaged £14 10s., and of first-class fat wethers, 
15s. per head. 

The enclosure of the sheep runs, the formation of dams and 
reservoirs in which large bodies of water can be stored, and the 
sinking of wells, are the most important improvements required, 
and are those to Avhich the greatest attention is now being- 
paid. By these means an immense area of land has been 
opened up, and stocked with both sheep and cattle. 

Almost limitless tracts of country bordering on the trans- 
continental telegraph line, as well as land laid open by recent 
exjjlorations, are awaiting pastoral occupation. 

MANUFACTUEES. 

A few years ago, flour mills and tanneries were almost the 
only representatives of local manufactures ; A\hilst these have 
largely increased in number and efficiency, many important 



364 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

additions luive been made to the list. The fulluuiiig is a 
statement of the more important ; some are conducted on an 
extensive scale, and, from the constantly increasing number of 
hands employed, manufacturing industry generally would 
ajjpear to be in a highly flourishing state. It will be noticed 
that most of the industries mentioned have their raw material 
at hand in the produce of the country, and are for that reason 
much more likely to be permanent in their character. 

Milling is a very important branch of trade, over seventy- 
five thousand tons of flour having been exported during the 
past year. There are eighty-five steam flour mills in the Pro- 
vince, with 1500 horse-power, driving 275 pairs of stones. 

Four moat-preserving establishments are in operation, and 
there are eight boiling-down works. 

Sixty tanneries and follmougeries, and several large wool- 
washing works, are distributed throughout the country; ten 
soap and candle factories ; five bone-dust mills ; and two glue 
and size works. 

Thirty-one steam saw mills, twenty-seven foundries, eighty- 
six agricultural implement works (chiefly for reaping and 
winnowing machines), and twenty-nine coach and waggon 
builders' shoi)s are in active work. 

In addition to five patent slips, there are eight ship and 
twelve boat building yards. 

Several marble and sixteen slate quarries of excellent 
quality, and over one hundred building-stone quarries, have 
been opened, of \\liich latter nineteen are free-stone, a superior 
descri])tion being largely used in public and private buildings. 
There are seventy brickyards in operation (including six for 
fire-bricks), sixty limekilns, and seven potteries and tile and 
pipe works. 

The gasworks of the Colony are eight in number, of which 
two are for the supply of the City of Adelaide and suburbs^ 
one is at Port Adelaide, and the remaining five are in the prin- 
cipal country towns. 

Besides one woollen tweed factorv, there are six clothino; 
factories, four hat factories, twelve boot and shoe factories. 



ITS STATISTICS. 3G5 

and four dye w(3rks. There are also three flax mills, tliree 
iNjpe walks, and two brush manufactories at work. 

There are twenty-nine breweries ; thirty soda-water and 
cordial factories ; one hundred and two wine-making establish- 
ments ; ten biscuit bakeries ; ten jam and preserve and seven 
confectionery manufactories ; six dried fruit and three olive- 
oil factories, and one ice-work. 

Among other miscellaneous local productions and manu- 
factures, are the following : — Barilla, billiard table, baking 
2)owder, blacking, cayenne pepper, cement, cigars, filjre, glass 
bottles, plaster of Paris, washing machines, sauces and pickles, 
salt, safety fuze, gas stoves, iron safes, bedsteads, galvanized 
iron and tin ware. 

BirORT AND EXPORT TRADE. 

The expansion of commerce and the development of the 
material resources of South Australia are clearly exhibited in 
the returns under the above head. Although able, as large 
agricultural and pastoral producers, to supply ourselves with 
the greater portion of the necessaries of life, we are dependent 
upon Great Britain and foreign markets for a considerable 
number of articles which enter into general consumption. 

T'he total value of the imports and exports to and from 
«'ach country, exhibiting tlie balance of trade, is shown in the 
.subjoined table. Tlie combined import and export trade of 
1875 amounted to £9,000,000 sterling, of which £4,200,000 were 
imports, and £4,800,000 exports, showing a balance in favour 
of .South Australia of £GO0,000. The total external trade 
averaged £45 per head of the population, or £175 for each 
adult male. The imports amounted to £20 per head of the 
population, and the exports to £24 ; or, taking the adult male 
population as the basis of the calculation, the imports amounted 
to £80, and the exports to £9G, or an excess of exports over 
imjiorts of £10 per adult male. 



366 



SOUTH AUSTKALIA. 









Kxcr-ssof 


Kxcfs. of 


Countries. 


Imports. 


Kxjiorts. 


Impoits. 


Expo Its. 




£ 


£ 


4.- 


£ 


Great Britain 


2,381,673 


2,612.817 





231.143 


Victoria 


822,600 


' 852,715 





30,054 


New South Willr^ 


477,147 


689.115 





211,967 


Western Australia 


36,347 


62.372 





26,025 


New Zealand 


9,406 


44,115 





34,709 


Queensland 


22,888 


216,800 





193,912 


Tasmania 


40,272 


2,794 


37,478 


— 


India 


36,969 


30,679 


6,289 


— 


Ceylon 


3,972 


4.187 


— 


215 


Cape Colonv 


1,133 


137,018 


— 


135,885 


Natal... ' 


5,653 


44,445 


— 


38,792 


jManritiws 


95,743 


38,732 


57,011 


— 


8ingai)oie 


5,226 


241 


4,984 


— 


Hon,!^ Kon;;- ... 


28,379 


40 


28,339 


— 


Canada 


21.687 


— 


21,687 


— 


United State.s 


28,502 


— 


28,502 


— 


New Caledonia 


SI 


46,315 


— 


46,234 


China 


82,933 


9 


82.924 


— 


Sweden and Norway 


63.068 


— 


63,068 


— . 


Java 


40,061 


19,583 


20,477 


— 


Brazil 





3,000 


— 


3,000 


Franco 


— 


70 


— 


70 


Total 


£4,203,802 


£4,805,051 


£350,761 


£952,010 



Of the total imports, £4,203,802 in value, mure than one- 
half, viz. £2,381,673, came from the United Kingdom, £882,000 
from Victoria, £477,147 from New South AYales, £214,045 from 
Foreign States, and the remainder from various British pos- 
sessions. 

Of the total exports, £4,805,031 value, products represent- 
ing £2,012,817 were exported to the Mother Country, £852,715 
to Victoria, £089,115 to New South Wales, £08,977 to 
Foreign States, and the remainder to other British possessions. 

The following table shows the total imports and exports 
for the years stated :— 







Imi'out and 


Export Tkade. 




YiMis. 


Tutul. 


Imports. 


Expoi ts. 






£ 


£ 


f 




1851 


1.292,864 


690.777 


602.087 




1856 


3,032,269 


1.366.529 


1.665,740 




1861 


4,008.329 


1,976,018 


2,o:;2.:;ii 




1866 


5,693,879 


2,835,142 


2,8.")S.7:17 




1871 


5.740,419 


2,158,022 


3,.^s2,:;n7 




IST.-. 


'.i,(H)s,s,"i:; 


4,2(13,802 


4,805,0.")! 



ITS STATISTICS. 



367 



Since 1851, the commerce of the Colony has increased 
seven-fold, from £1,292,864 to £9,008,853 sterling. This is 
clearly shown in Diagram B (page 368). The last five years 
have shown a rapid expansion, trade having increased from 
£5,740,419 to £9,008,853, or by sixty per cent. 

The following table shows for each of the past ten years the 
total import and export trade, the total imports showing the 
home consumption and re-exportations ; also, the total exports, 
distinguishing those of the f)roduce of the Colony, and showing 
the balances of produce exported over imports consumed : — 









Imports 
retained 
for Home 
Consump- 
tion. 








Balance 


Years. 


Combined 

Import iind 

Export 

Trade. 


Total 
Imports. 


Imports 

re- 
exported. 


Total 
Exports. 


Exports of 

Produce 

of the 

ColoDy. 


Produce 
exported 

over 
Imports 














consumed. 




^ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


I860 


5, 69,;, 879 


2,835,142 


2,516,128 


319,014 


2,858,737 


2,539,723 


23,595 


1867 


5,671,016 


2,506,394 


2,117,867 


388,527 


3,164,622 


2,776,095 


658,228 


186S 


5,057,810 


2,238,510 


2,023,036 


215,474 


2,819,300 


2,603,826 


580,796 


1869 


5,747,805 


2,754,770 


2,484,174 


270,596 


2,993,035 


2,722,438 


238,264 


187U 


4,449,281 1 


2,029,793 


1,733,603 


296,190 


2,419,488 


2,123,297 


389,694 


1X71 


5,740,420 t 


2,158,022 


1,868,368 


292,536 


3,582,397 


3,289,861 


1,521,493 


1872 


6,540,194 


2,801,571 


2,587,233 


214,536 1 


3,738,623 


3,524,087 


936,854 


1873 


8,428,960 


3,841,101 


3,527,163 


302,667 


4,587,859 


4,285,192 


758, 02» 


1874 


8,386,145 


3,983,290 


3,438,874 


534,580 


4,402,855 


3,868,275 


429,401 


1875 


9,008,853 


4,203,802 


3,840,851 


362,951 


4,805,051 


4,442,100 


601,249 



In order further to illustrate the description of our external 
trade, the following statements are appended, showing resj)ec- 
tively the quantities or values of the chief articles imported 
and exported in the five years ending with 1874 : — 



I.aiports^Chief Articles, 1870-1874. 



j\pparel and slops, value (£) 
15ags and sacki — Cornbags, bales ... 
Woolpacks, do. ... 
Beer, porter, ale, cider and perry, galls . 
Rlasiing-powder, lbs. 
Bouts and shoes, value (£)... 

Candles, lbs 

Chicory, lbs 

Coals, coke, and other fuel, tons ... 
Cocoa and chocolate, lbs. ... 

Cotfee, lbs 

Cutlery and hardware, value (£) ... 
lirapery do. 

Earthenware and china do. 

Fruit (dried), cwt 

Groceries and oilmen's stores, value (£)., 

Hops, lb.-* 

Iron — Bar and rod, tons 

Sheet and hoop, do 

Pit;, do 

Manufactures, value (,£) 



19,383 

8,256 

3,358 

215,211 

179,676 

60,010 

807,497 

106,281 

88,756 

84,196 

413,896 

33,579 

863,865 

25,979 

13,243 

48,231 

227,953 

3,601 

1,137 

749 

212,489 



20,951 
11,900 
3,216 

283,375 

315,252 
73,422 

618,189 

191,072 
83,583 
90,911 

371,770 
30,447 

947,455 
21,807 
15,167 
53,902 

274,770 

2,778 

1,2S9 

512 

232,091 



2,832 


1,246 


3,407 


5,064 


1,886 


1,818 


218,455 


174,295 


418,120 


156,720 


62,018 


48,441 


461,900 


416,338 


73,926 


55,886 


82,502 


73,983 


59,337 


52,089 


346,234 


380,060 


21,734 


14,011 


647,062 


467,697 


10,429 


7,764 


9,019 


11,110 


26,834 


26,805 


246,853 


238,790 


3,964 


2,457 


713 


667 


331 


144 


95,811 


98,183 



6,452 

3,822 

1,135 

191,114 

145,750 

53,496 

471,589 

107,532 

52,310 

56,402 

549,167 

38,617 

499,046 

11,493 

8,267 

30,154 

;il 0,558 

1,954 

1,460 

0S6 

70,254 



B. 



ADELAIDE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

PlAGIJAM .SllOWIMi THE rOPVLATIOX, Sllirr:N"G, EXPORTS, IjirOIiT-S, AM) COMIUXKD 

lMroi;r and Export Tkadk. 
O'-'CQC0TJ^>OC0^•C0ffiO'H0IC0'*^C0^•C0®O'-^02C0rJ^^O 

oooooooooocooooooocooooooooooooooooooooocooooooooooo 




POPULATION SHIPPING [Tomi] * ♦ ^ EXPORTS £-i-<-i IMPORTS 

COMBINED IMPORT AKD EXPORT TRADE £ 



ITS STATISTICS. 369 

Impouts — Chief Articles, 1870-1874 (continued). 



Implements and tools, value (£) ... 
Jewellery, plale, and plated good.s, do. 

Malt, centals 

Oil — Sperm and other fish nils, gallons 
Linseed, rape, hemp, &c., do. 
Mineral and other oils, do. 

Potatoes, tons 

Rice, do 

Saddlery and harness, value (£) ... 
Sewing machines, do. 
Spirits — Brandy, gallons 

Rum, do 

Gin, do 

Whisky, do 

Sugar, cwt 

Tea, lbs 

'i'in— Block, value (£) 

Tobacco, lbs 

Cigars, do 

Wine, gallons 

Wood-Palings, No. 

Sawn, hewn, &c., loads ... 



1874. 


18T3. 


IS 72. 


1871. 


1870. 


40,130 


36,719 


23,180 


29,128 


17,403 


39,177 


30,670 


21,425 


15,624 


11,367 


28,341 


36,392 


22,585 


29,77.! 


24,615 


6,883 


12,698 


6,116 


12,692 


8,693 


80,173 


79,516 


72,742 


54,966 


33,234 


332,230 


237,137 


210,322 


222,456 


167,460 


1,413 


5,022 


2,591 


4,774 


4,717 


294 


488 


310 


2.1" 


260 


20,406 


19,223 


16,951 


11,3^5 


7,804, 


16,205 


18,186 


12,998 








116,013 


83,215 


87,148 


54,787 


32,990 


42,941 


25,804 


29,63-< 


27,128 


29,634 


18,558 


21,408 


13,560 


15,283 


16,245 


24,407 


20,596 


11,615 


12,403 


13,416 


159,277 


141,262 


135,2-27 


116,556 


59,501 


1,699,708 


1,678,325 


1,025,667 


1,221,848 


854,887 


15,279 


25,433 


14,895 


8,037 


5,628 


400,623 


379,507 


277,454 


241,820 


331,012 


21,129 


23,275 


14,944 


13,748 


18,715 


45,956 


34, 8*1 


31,6i6 


22,966 


17,611 


1,566,327 


1,687,764 


1,098,914 


840,635 


461,315 


22,504 


29,970 


16,450 


11,889 


15,976 



Exports— Chief Articles, 1870-1874. 








1874. 


1873. 


1872. 


1871. 


1870. 


Animals — Horses, No 


42 


74 


80 


162 


273 


Sheep, do. 


1,385 


1,049 


1,017 


430 


62 


Bacon and Haras, cwt 


35 


30 


143 


29 


10 


Bark, tons 


2,650 


4,580 


7,850 


5,073 


5,431 


Bones, do 


195 


210 


880 


217 


520 


Beer, galls. 


37,710 


20,564 


21,257 


23,746 


21,930 


Biscuits, cwt. 


862 


1,084 


496 


335 


233 


Butter and cheese, cwt 


1,206 


615 


1,564 


565 


202 


Corn— Flour, tons 


58,635 


57,171 


38,319 


46,841 


27,371 


Barley, bushels 


6,678 


3,658 


20,904 


28,152 


19,672 


Bran and pollard, tons 


2,461 


1,477 


2,220 


3,316 


2,167 


Wheat, bushels 


1,538,464 


3,837,616 


1,261,424 


2,520,432 


376,632 


Dr.npery, value (£) 


33,839 


29,890 


26,605 


19,687 


31,320 


Kggs, do 


7,987 


8,158 


7,965 


8,701 


8, 4116 


Fish (dried), cwt 


701 


277 


509 


676 


823 


Fruit (fresh), value (£) 


3,768 


3,329 


3,385 


2,292 


2,970 


l)ried, cwt 


610 


1,500 


1,590 


1,325 


822 


Groceries, value (£) 


1,199 


2,962 


6,439 


9,832 


9,575 


Gmn, cwt 


995 


476 


851 


555 


5,415 


Hay, tons 


198 


162 


663 


297 


258 


Hides and skins, value (£) 


16,139 


10,593 


13,472 


8,798 


4,266 


Honey, cwt. 


4 


201 


34 


131 


46 


Hops, lbs 


21,105 








__ 





Jam, value (£) 


3,216 


5,969 


5,570 


4,176 


7,396 


Leather, cwt. 


958 


1,329 


3,327 


4,508 


2,884 


Metal — Copper, do. 


132,587 


141,744 


149,050 


127,911 


109,211 


Ore — Copper, tons 


22,854 


27,382 


26,964 


20,127 


20,886 


Preserved meats, cwt 


11,248 


13,943 


12,526 


10,000 


4,885 


Salt, tons 


80 


184 


277 


70 ' 


214 


Soap, cwt. 


1,533 








_ 





Sugar, do. 


917 


4,162 


15,126 


5,015 


1,790 


Tallow, do. 


25,670 


40,106 


33,700 


63,328 


30,142 


Tea, lbs 


21,238 


46,648 


135,038 


69,597 


123,798 


Tobacco, lbs. 


40,509 


30,518 


42,826 


57,752 i 


77,631 


AVax, cwt 


50 


173 


41 


126 


51 


Wool, do 


39,844,024 


35,973,434 


34,650,631 


32,656,427 


26.218,t2H4 


AVine— South Australian, gallons 


59,174 


46,400 


4t,910 


21,788 


50,085 


Foreign, do. 


5,586 


S43 


2,768 


3,101 


3,394 


Spirits— Brandy, do. 


10,657 


8,140 


9,913 


7,590 


15,61!» 


Gin, do. 


1,644 


331 


539 


381 


1 ,212 


Rum, do. 


2 , 3iir> 


2,023 


2,429 


1,826 


4,980 


Whisky, do. 


1,537 


970 


682 


732 


960 



2 B 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



STAPLE PRODUCTS. 



It will be necessary, however, to refer more particularly to 
the chief sources of the material wealth of the country, which 
may he classified under the heads of agricultural, pastoral, and 
mining produce. The following abstract shows the progress 
made in the exports of staple products from 1851 to the present 
time, stated at intervals of five years : — 

SrAri.E PRODrCE Expout:?. 





VeolS. 


r.ital. 


Ilreadsluffs. 


"Wool. 


Minerals. 






£ 


£ 


+" 


£ 






1851 


540,902 


73,3.19 


148,036 


310,916 






1856 I 


1,398,867 


5.56,371 


412,163 


408,042 






1861 1 


1,888,639 i 


712,789 


623,007 


452,172 






1866 ' 


2,539,723 


645,40] 


990,173 


824,501 






1871 


3,289,861 ' 


1,253,429 


1,170,885 


648,569 






1875 


4,442,100 


1,680,996 


1,833,519 


762,386 





From the foregoing statement, it appears that out of 
■£4,442,100 worth of staple produce, the value of breadstuffs 
amounted to £1,G80,996, or thirty-six per cent, of the whole ; 
that wool represented £1,833,519, or forty-two per cent. ; and 
copper £7G2,38G, or twenty-eight per cent. ; the balance of 
£165,199, or four per cent., being miscellaneous products. 

Breadstuffs, — The exports of w heat, flour, and other bread- 
stuffs, constitute thirty-six per cent, of the total exports of 
iSouth Australian produce, and have increased from a total 
value of £73,000 in 1851 to £1,680,000 in 1875. The exports 
of breadstuffs during the last" twelve months were as follows : — 
Flour, 76,209 tons, value £819,395 ; wheat, 479,882 quarters, 
value £831,266 ; and bran and pollard, 5,512 tons, valued at 
£27,888, or together a total of £1,678,549 sterling. 

The following table exhibits the remarkable development of 
this the most important branch of local industry. Giving the 
(luantities ex})orted will prove more useful than a statement 
merely showing the value, and furnish a more correct basis 
upon which to estimate the extent of substantial jirogress made 
by the agriculturists during the past decade: — 



ITS STATISTICS. 



71 



Bran and Pollard. 



Wheat. 



Quantity. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Quantity. 



1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 



Tons. 
30,496 
43,703 
23,591 
38,653 
27,371 
46,842 
38,319 
57,170 
58,635 
76,209 



498,924 
498,222 
405,982 
495,589 
354,012 
594,482 
510,826 
737,160 
783,489 
819,395 



'Ions. 


£ 


2,5;:o 


18,517 


3,274 


14,549 


1,787 


10,841 


2,847 


15,303 


2,167 


12,210 


3,816 


14,495 


2,220 


9,525 


1,477 


7,906 


2,461 


15,563 


5,512 


27,888 



ars. ■ 

46,756 
301,543 

55,876 
195,031 

47,079 
315,054 
157,678 
479,702 
192,308 
479,882 



£ 
126,601 
521,690 
148,603 
371,221 
99,600 
639,348 
.333,890 
965,577 
428,753 
831,266 



The total exports of colonial p-ocluce in breadstuffs and 
grain during the period referred to was — of flour, 440,989 
tons, of the value of £5,698,081 ; of wheat, 2,270,909 quarters, 
of the value of £4,466,549 ; and of bran and pollard, 28,121 
tons, of the value of £146,797. Diagram C (page 372) shows 
the prices of wheat at Port Adelaide in each month during 
the past ten years. 

The quality of South Australian wheat and flour is of such 
excellence as to command the highest price in the markets of 
the world. The great bulk of the crop is shipped to the 
United Kingdom, the daily fluctuations in whose markets are 
made known here by telegram. Xew South Wales, Queensland, 
Cape Town, Mauritius, New Caledonia, and several Eastern 
ports also receive considerable consignments of South Austra- 
lian flour. 

The harvest of 1875-6 — now in course of being garnered — 
is expected to yield 230,000 tons of breadstufis beyond local 
requirements for food and seed ; or an excess, available for 
export, of the value of two and a quarter millions sterling. 

Wool. — That pastoral pursuits are being conducted ^\ith 
great success in South Australia is illustrated by the state- 
ment furnished on page 370, showing the export of wool during 
the last ten years. 

It will be remarked that the export of wool has increased 
fifty per cent, during the past five years, and doubled during 
the decade. The total value of South Australian wool shipped 

2 B 2 



o B 



P 

o 





o 



ITS STATISTICS. 



ill 1856 was £412,163; in 1866, £990,173 
reached £1,833,519 sterling. 



and in 1S75 it 



Years. 



S. A. Wool. 



1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 



Lbs. 
19.739,523 
19,350,195 
28,899,190 
27,022,671 
21,169,256 
31,2.10,677 
33,709,717 
32,967,941 
35,593,805 
39,723,249 



Other Wool. 


No. of 
Bales. 


Lbs. 




1,168,562 


61,977 


3,283,597 


66,395 


1 730,335 


86.913 


1 3,510,141 


87,150 


1 2,049,028 


87,394 


1,405,750 


97,532 


940,914 


100,017 


3,005,493 


105,306 


4,250,219 


114,845 


4,785,425 


126,046 



Total 
Weight. 


Total Value. 


Lbs. 


♦; 


20,908,085 


1,064,486 


22,633,792 


1,144,341 


29,629,525 


1,346.323 


30,522,812 


1,128,568 


26.218,284 


1,000,344 


32,656,427 


1,350,689 


34,650,631 


1,692,609 


35,973,434 


1,808,622 


39,841,024 


1,998,939 


44.508,674 


2,066,227 



The aggregate number of bales shipped last year was 
126,046, as against 87,394 in 1870, and 61,977 in 1866. 

Considering the vast extent of available territory at present 
unoccujDied in South Australia, there would appear to be little 
doubt that the extraordinary progress already made in the 
production of wool will steadily continue. The excellent 
(juality of the staple, the great suitability of the climate, giving 
almost complete immunity from scab, fluke, and other diseases 
peculiar to sheep, taken together with the security of tenure 
enjoyed by the pastoral lessees, conduce to the rapid develop- 
ment of this profitable industry. 

Copper. — South Australia owes no little of its j)rosperity to 
the employment of a large number of its people, directly and 
indirectly, in the working of her copper mines, several of 
which, whilst supporting a very considerable section of tlie 
colonists, have been exceedingly profitable to the ^proprietors. 
The principal mines are the Burra, the Wallaroo, and th(i 
Moonta. From the first of these, 215,000 tons of ore were raised 
during 31 years from the commencement of operations, pro- 
ducing four millions sterling. The total amount expended by 
the company was £1,982,000, of which £1,568,000 rejn'esented 
wages, the gross profits being £882,000. Since the ojjcning of 
the Wallaroo Mines, the total quantity of ore raised therefrom 
has been 290,000 tons, and the average of the past five years lias 



;74 



SOUTH AUSTBALIA. 



been 20,000 tons. Tlic ^lounta iiiiuos wcro discovered in 18G1, 
since whicli year 2.3.3,000 tons of ore have been raised, realizing 
£2,700,000. " A profit of £928,000 has been divided amongst 
the sharehoklers of this magnificent property. 

In 1844, shortly after the discovery of copper in South 
Australia, the t(jtal value of the minerals exported was £0430 ; 
in 18.31 it reached to £310,910 ; in 1801 it amounted to 
£4.34,172 ; in 1871, to £048,509 ; and in 1875, to £702,380. 

The following table exliibits the steady productiveness of 
South Australian mines, distinguishes the quantity of fine 
copper shipped from the quantity of ore exported in its crude 
state, and gives the estimated value of each. 





Ycura. 


Fine C 


upper. 


Cojipe 


■Oie. 


'J'otal Valine, 
all Minerals. 






Cwt. 


£ 


Tons. 


£ 


£ 




1860 


120,272 


584.50.-) 


16,824 


225,683 


824.501 




18G7 


156,863 


627,384 


11,430 


113,409 


753,413 




1868 


104,227 


400,691 


20,725 


207,519 


624,022 




1869 


02,788 


371,566 


2(!,835 


250.259 


627,152 




1870 


109,421 


394.919 


20,886 


173,861 


574.090 




1871 


127,911 


518,080 


20,127 


119,903 


648,569 


1872 


149.050 


t;S0,714 


26,964 


122,020 


806.364 


187:'. 


141,744 


63.i.i:!I 


27.382 


133,371 


770,590 { 


1874 


1.32,587 


557,306 


22,854 


136,530 


700.323 


1875 


136,835 


578,065 


26,436 


175,101 


1 762,386 



The smelting works in connection with these mines are of a 
very extensive and costly character, employing a large amount 
of skilled labour.. 

Miscellaneous Products. — In addition to the chief staples 
above referred to, a variety of minor articles of produce are 
annually exported, last year amounting in the aggregate to 
the value of £174,034, including the following principal items, 
viz. : — Tallow, 25,070 cwt., £38,511 value ; Preserved Meats, 
1,259,820 lbs., £28,241 ; Leather, £4410 ; Hides and Skins, 
£10,139; AViue, 59,174 gallons, £19,240; Bark, 2050 tons, 
£14,552 ; Eggs, £7987 ; Dried and Fresh Fruits, £4977 ; 
Jams and Preserves, £3210 ; Potatoes, 735 tons, £3178 ; Soap, 
15.33 cwt., £1804; Salt, 80 tons; Gum, £1251; Slate, £1253; 
and other articles of less value. 



ITS STATISTICS. 



o i . ) 



SHIPPING. 

The rapid growth of the external commerce of South 
Australia necessitates the employment of a largely increased 
amount of shipping, as will be seen from the following returns. 
Ko less than 844 vessels entered inwards in 1875, of a total 
caj)acity of 316,823 tons, and with crews numbering 15,64-4 
men ; giving a daily average of 1000 tons register for every 
working-day throughout the year. Of 95 vessels, having 
an aggregate carrying capacity of 50,000 tons, lately in Port 
Adelaide on one day, were the following : — Steamers — one of 
1300 tons, three between 400 and 550 tons, and three under 
250 tons ; ships and barques — one of 2128 tons, one of 1777 
tons, six of 1000 to 1500 tons, nineteen between 500 and 1000 
tons, and twenty-five between 200 and 500 tons — besides eight 
brigs, twelve schooners, and sixteen coasters. The subjoined 
abstracts relate only to vessels arriving at or departing from 
South Australian ports from or to other countries, and is 
exclusive of a large number of steam and sailing vessels 
employed solely in the coasting trade of the Colony. 

The following figures represent the aggregate number of 
vessels inwards and outwards, and the total registered tonnage 
in the years specified : — 



Years. 

1851 
185G 
1861 
1866 
1871 
187") 



Numb?r 
of Vessels. 



538 

867 

788 

1,039 

1,238 

1,(!31: 



Tonnage. 



1.55,002 
230,390 
199,331 
339,871 
373,624 
611,381 



It will be noted that the increase in the shipping during the 
last five years has amounted to no less than seventy per cent. 
In addition to the chief port of the Colony (Port Adelaide), 
at which two-thirds of the foreign shipping trade is carried 
on, there are many outports from which there is a direct export 
trade witli other countries. It has been elsewhere mentioned 
that the configuration of the coast-line, and the numerous 
shipping ports, enable vessels of considerable tonnage to be 



37G 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



laden \\h\\ -whoai, wool, and other produce of the adjacent 
districts within a short distance of the 2:>lace of production. 
The folloAving table shows the shipping business done at each 
of these ports : — 



Tuiuiage. 



Namos of 
Ports. 



Port Adelaide ... 
Port Augusta ... 
Port Bronghton 
Port Caroline ... 
Port (ilenelg ... 
Port MacDounell 
Port Mooiitji ... 
Murray Hivcr... 
Port Noarluiiga 
Port Hirie 
Port liobe 
Port Victor 
P>.it Wakefield 
Port Wallaroo ... 
Port Willunga 
Port YankallUa i 

Totals 



4S9 


418 


907 


205,998- 


169,206 


375,204 


7,550 


6,446 


1-3,996 


1 


8 


9 


92 


5,790 


5,882 


6 


151 


157 


•) 


4 


6 


1,935 


2,658 


4,593 


39 


58 


97 


31 


31 


62 


b,553 


8,863 


17.416 


689 


701 


1,390 


■26 


26 


52 


2SI,821 


29,630 


58,501 


3,498 


3,645 


7,143 


69 


71 


140 


15,515 


15,511 ^ 


31,062 


1,256 


1,257 


2,513 


1 


1 


2 


65 


44 


109 


4 


4 


8 


98 


86 


184 


6,425 


5,786 


12,211 


593 


516 


1,109 





2 


2 


— 


373 


373 


— 


17 


17 


14 


23 


37 


5,776 


10,934 


16,710 


146 


280 


426 


2G 


26 


A2 


8,654 


6,854 


15,508 


612 


612 


1,224 


14 


10 


24 


4,b02 


4,619 


9,421 


377 


214 


691 


7 


12 


19 


3,810 


6,221 


10,031 


100 


165 


265 


64 


65 


129 


26,003 


26,920 


52,923 


760 


757 


1,517 


1 


6 


7 


167 


892 


1,059 


7 


39 


46 


1 


1 


2 


207 


207 


414 


' 


" 


14 



!i44 790 ,1,634 I 316,823 294,558 , 611,381 I 15,644 14,869 30,513 



The above return includes the number of steamers arriving 
at and departing from ports on the River Murray, the arrivals 
numbering eighty-six, and the departures ninety-eight, during 
the year. 

THE KIVER MURRAY TRADE. 

South Australian enterprise opened the River Murray to 
navigation in 1853, as well as, at a later period, its great 
tributaries, the Darling and the Murrumbidgee. Since the 
t)pening of tliese rivers the whole of that immense tract of 
pastoral country known as Riverina has been heavily stocked, 
jirodiicing now about two hundred thousand bales of wool 
annually. The Murray is navigable for a distance of 2000 
miles from its mouth at Goolwa. The Darling, from its junc- 
tion at Wentworth, is navigable to Fort Bourke, 800 miles, 
and for a short period some 300 miles further into Queens- 
land. The Murrumbidgee, entering the Murray some 300 
miles frtnn Wentworth, is navigable to Wagga, a distance of 
700 miles, to whicli town railway communication with Sydney 



ITS STATISTICS. 



377 



will shortly be extended. Forty steamers and fifty barges are 
occupied in the trade. At present, the larger portion of the 
upper river traffic is diverted up-stream to Echuca, and thence 
by railway to Melbourne, owing to special inducements held 
out by the Victorian Government, who convey wool over that 
line at less than cost. As, however, the natural advantages of 
down-stream navigation are so great, saving £2 or £3 per ton 
in freight, as compared with the railway route, there is little 
doubt that the bulk of the carrying trade will eventually 
revert to South Australia. Surveys are being made, and 
proceedings taken for opening the Murray Mouth to large 
vessels, alongside which the river boats will thou discharge. 

EAILWAYS. 

Including those just approaching completion, there are 
three hundred and seventy-one miles of railway in South 
Australia, three hundred miles of which are worked by loco- 
motives. The following table shows the length of the several 
lines and their termini : — 



Government Lines — 

Adelaide and Port Adelaide, including wharf lines 

Adelaide, Gawler, Kapunda, and Burra 

Strathalbyn, Goolwa, and Port Victor 

Port Wakefield and Blyth's Plains 

Port Wakefield and Wallaroo 

Poi-t Piiie and Gladstone 

Port Broughton 

I.acepede Bay and Naiacoorto 

Total 

I'rivate Cojipanies' Lines — 
Adelaide ami Glenelg ... 
ivadina, Wallaroo, and Moonta 

Grand Total 



Locomotive. 



29S 



Horse 
traction. 



9^ 




12i 


— 


— 


32 


42 


— 


3^ 


— 


32 


— 


— 


14 


51 


— 



46 



25 



300 



71 



The cost of construction of the lines at j)resent in working 
has been £1,155,267. They are single lines, of five-foot three- 
inch gauge. Sixty miles arc laid witli rails sixty-five pounds 
to the yard, and tlie remainder with rails of forty pounds to 



378 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



the yard. In adilitioii, the cost of rolling- stuck and ()th(U- 
jjlant amounted to £221,918, making a total of £1,337,185. 
The cost of construction, exclusive of rolling stock, was, for 
the Adelaide and I'ort Kaihvay, £17,433 per mile; for the 
Kapunda liailway, £11,191 ; and for the extension to the 
Eurra, £5072. The rolling stock on the Government lines 
consists of the following : — Twenty-nine locomotives, fifty-one 
passenger carriages, and six hundred and thirty-three goods 
waggons of all descriptions. 

The estimated cost of the one hundred and forty-six miles 
approaching completion is £667,000 — the average cost being 
£4600 j)er mile. 

Up to the close of 1874, the total receipts amounted to 
£1,772,376 ; the working expenses to £1,066,937, reconstruc- 
tion to £104,147, and maintenance to £420,500, leaving a 
balance of £180,789 to profit. 

The receipts for the year 1874 amounted to £132,806, 
and the expenditure to £124,610, showing a balance of £8196 
towards meeting interest on cost of construction. 

The folloAving statement shows the amount of goods and pas- 
senger traffic, and the total receipts at intervals of five years : — 





Years. 


Miles 


Passenger 


(ioods 


Total 




open. 


Traffic. 


Traffic. 


Receipts. 










No. 


Tons. 


£ 






1856 


n 


241,886 


26,354 


19,498 






1861 


58 


306,140 


138, 6h3 


90,489 






1866 


58 


405,502 


161,671 


114,131 






1871 


133 


384,389 


211,683 


110,963 






1875 


133 


386,117 


301,530 


166,710 





The mileage run by trains in 1866 was 128,957 ; in 1871, 
275,131 ; and it increased to 386,117 in 1875. 

The two lines worked by horse traction are, together, forty- 
six miles in length ; the train mileage run was 135,316, the 
total receipts £9387, and the working expenses £9037 ; the 
number of passengers carried was 31,895, and of goods 30,370 
tons. The rolling stock consists of fourteen passenger car- 
riages, and 185 goods trucks, and fifty-six horses are employed. 



ITS STATISTICS. 379 

The average charge for carrying passengers on the Gc>^."ern- 
ment railways ranges from Id. to l^-cZ. per mile, and the charge 
for carrying a ton of goods one mile is '2^d. to 2'^d. A bushel 
of wheat is carried from the Burra to Port Adelaide, a distance 
of one hundred miles, for Id. — before the construction of the 
railway it cost double. A ton of ore is now brought from 
the Burra 3Iines to Port Adelaide for 21.s-., whereas, jirior to the 
opening of the line, it cost oos. to 4Us. to convey it to a port 
of shipment. 

The policy pursued has been to reduce the cost of carriage 
to a minimum, with a view of developing the resources of the 
agricultural and mining districts through which the lines of 
railway pass. Without railway communication the limit 
within which wheat could be profitably grown would have 
been reached many years ago, and the quantities now pro- 
duced could not be brought to a place of shipment except by 
steam power. As much as twelve hundred tons of wheat has 
sometimes to be brought down in a day. Although the rail- 
ways only yield a return but little in excess of the cost of 
working, and maintaining them in good order, the facilities 
and cheapness of transit more tlian counterbalance the burthen 
of interest which falls upon the general public, who benefit in 
a direct ratio by the prosperity of the producing interests. 
Frequent communication between distant places situated on 
the lines of railway is secured to an extent which a private 
company having to realize dividends could not possibly afford. 

Two railways have been constructed by private companies 
— one is a line connecting Adelaide with Glenelg, a populous 
watering-place, at which the ocean mail steamers call on their 
arrival from and departure for Suez. This line, under seven 
miles in length (single line, 5-foot 3-inch gauge), cost in con- 
struction £15,875, or about £2200 a mile. The great passenger 
traffic and frequency of communication necessitate the use 
of a large proportion of rolling stock as compared with the 
length of the line. It consists of four locomotives and 
eighteen passenger carriages. The total cost, including roll- 
ing stock, amounted to £53,432. The traffic receipts since 
the line was opened in August 1873 have amounted to 



'jSO south AUSTRALIA. 

£25,911, and the working expenses, including maintenance, 
to £lo,87U, sliowing a balance of £12,041 to profit of the 
undertaking. The working expenses amunntod to lifty-three 
per cent, of the receipts. 

The other private line connects the Wallaroo and Moonta 
]Mines with the sea-board at Port AVallaroo. It is twenty-five 
miles long, and is worked by horse traction. The original 
capital was £00,000, on which twenty per cent, has been 
divided during each of the past ten years. The present value 
of the property is £1)0,000, the difference having accrued from 
profits expended in improving and extending the works, which 
include jetty accommodation. 

ROADS. 

Large sums of money have been expended on the con- 
struction and maintenance of main trunk lines of road in the 
settled districts, through which there are 2700 miles defined. 
During the past twenty years, about £1,750,000 have been 
devoted to these works, and, with the exception of £200,000, 
the whole cost has been defrayed from the general revenue, no 
special toll or rate having been levied. The aggregate number 
of miles macadamised is 884, which are maintained in good 
order. In addition to the main lines, perhaps as many more 
miles of district or by-roads have been constructed and kept 
in repair by local municipalities. For this purpose funds are 
raised by a rate on landed property, supplemented by grants- 
in-aid from the general revenue. Fifty miles of metalled 
streets [have already been formed in the City of Adelaide 
alone. The average cost of construction and metalling main 
roads is estimated to be £1000 per mile, and of maintaining 
them in repair £00 to £100 -pev mile annually. 

WATERWORKS. 

Considerable attention has been paid to tlie subject of water 
su]»ply, wliicli was first undertaken as a })ublic work in 1857. 
In addition to a high-pressure sujiply to the city and suburbs 
of Adelaide, water has been ]ai<l on to several other centres 
of population, among which are I'ort Adelaide, Glenelg, ]*ort 




f^ 

p^ 



ITS STATISTICS. 381 

Augusta, Port Pirie, Port Elliot, Kadina, and Mooiita. The 
Kiver Torrens is the source of supply to the city and suburban 
townships Port Adelaide and Glenelg. The water is col- 
lected in a masonry dam, from which it passes by means of an 
aqueduct three and a quarter miles in length, into two reser- 
Toirs, the larger of which has a water area of 167 acres, with a 
storage capacity of 945 millions of gallons. The smaller 
reservoir has a water area of twenty-seven and a half acres, 
and contains 140 millions of gallons. The supply is conveyed 
to the city by an eighteen-inch main, five miles in length. 
The primary mains are from fifteen to twenty-one inches in 
diameter, of a total length of nine miles ; the secondary mains 
are from ten to fifteen inches, and fourteen miles long ; and 
the street mains are from three to ten inches, of a length of 
134 miles. The furthest point of supply is sixteen miles 
distant from the reservoirs. From these sources over fifty 
thousand people are supplied. The highest water level of the 
reservoir is one hundred and seventy feet above the highest 
point in the city, and three hundred feet above the sea. Ample 
2)rovision is made for the suppression of fire, hydrants being 
laid throughout every street and road, at intervals of about 
four chains apart. 

The total amount of the loans raised for the construction 
of waterworks is £620,000. The receipts amounted to 
£14,651 in 1865 ; to £22,600 in 1871 ; and to £30,895 in 
1875. The charges for water have been reduced from time 
to time, the rate for that supplied through meters being now 
eighteenpence per thousand gallons. 

POSTAL COMMUNICATION, 

Great attention has been devoted to the subject of j^ostal 
communication. Considering the thinly peopled and extensive; 
area of the outlying settled districts, more than ordinary 
facilities are afforded the public by frequent and rapid desj)atcli 
of inland mails. A uniform rate of twopence per half-ounce is 
charged ujion letters carried to places within the Province, and 
a like rate for letters posted to the sister Colonies of Austral- 
asia, whether by overland mail thrice a week, or by the regular 



382 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

intercolonial steam eonuuuuication l)y sea. Xo eliar<^ti is made 
for the carriage of newspapers, either inland or to any part of 
the world, so far as the South Australian Post Office is con- 
cerned. Book packets and parcels are carried at a low rate, 
and the system is extensively used. The direct four-weekly 
mail communication with Europe and the East, under contract 
with the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company, 
is performed on an average under forty days from London to 
Adelaide with great punctuality. The following table shows 
the rapid extension of postal communication, a sure criterion 
of progress : — 





Years. 


No. of 
Post 

Offices. 


Miles 
travelled 
by trails. 


No 


of 


, 




Tietters. 


Newspapers. 


Income. I 




1856 


102 


— 


844,853 


785,008 


£ 
8,925 




1866 


226 


809,160 


2,703,105 


1,968,120 


27,987 




1875 


357 


l,r)12,42G 


4,431,525 


2,950,997 


43,205 



Taking the last ten years, it will be remarked that the 
number of Post Offices has increased from 22(3 to 357 ; of 
distance travelled by the mails, from 809,160 to 1,542,426 
miles ; of letters, from 2,703,105 to 4,431,525 ; and of news- 
papers, from 1,968,120 to 2,950,997. The income of the 
Department has been as follows: — In the year 1856, £8925; 
in 1866, £27,987 ; and in 1875, £43,205. 

The Money Order system is in full operation in all the 
principal towns of the Colony, there being eighty-two offices 
in all. ]\roney Orders are also issued and paid in connection 
with Great Britain and Ireland, Germany, Canada, and all the 
Australian Colonics. The system of Telegraphic Money 
Orders is also availed of to a large extent. The orders issued 
in 1874 numbered 18.879, of £61,190 value; and 13,072 were 
paid, amounting to £42,282. 



ITS STATISTICS. 383 

TELEGRAPHS. 

The geographical position of South Australia being prac- 
tically that of the most western of the grouj), the first port of 
arrival and the last of departure for mail communication witli 
Great Britain and the East, necessitated early and earnest 
attention being devoted to the extension of the South Aus- 
tralian telegraphs, so as to afford instantaneous communication 
■with Melbourne, Sydney, and Brisbane. After this work had 
been accomplished by the several Governments, the question 
of direct telegraphic communication with Europe naturally 
became one of great moment to South Australia, she having 
under her control that portion of the continent from south to 
north through which an overland line could best be carried. 
In order to accomplish this vast undertaking, from which such 
great results have flowed, and an immense area of territory 
opened up for settlement. South Australia, at her own risk and 
cost — which has amounted to over £370,000 — determined to 
enter upon the work of erecting a line of telegraph some 2200 
miles in length, across a continent which had only been tra- 
versed by an exploring party. 

The first local line of thirty-six miles of telegraph was laid 
twenty years ago, and the receipts of the department were 
£366. In 1858 intercolonial communication was opened by 
the addition of 350 miles. In 1861 the total length of wire 
open was 914 miles, and the receipts were £7382. In 1872 
the overland line to Port Darwin was completed, when cable 
communication was established with London. The completion 
of this work brought the length of wire up to 3731 miles, and 
the total receipts to £14,684. Every township and port of any 
importance is connected with the city by means of telegraph, 
the number of stations open being 105, between which tele- 
grams are sent at a uniform rate of one shilling for ten 
words, which sum covers tlic transmission of a message over 
a distance of a thousand miles. There is a uniform cluirjre 
of 10s. 6fZ. a word on messages sent between Adelaide and 
London. The traffic in 1875 over the transcontinental lino 
in connection with the European cable amounted to £104,205, 



384 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



the nuiuber of messajros boino: 9709. To show the ramifica- 
tions of the t('h'<;ra})h system in Australia, it is only needful 
to mention that the length of lines open or closely approaching 
c(mipletion is 28,285 miles ; and the number of stations 547. 





Xo. of 


MilPs of 


Colonies. 


Stations. 


Wire. 


South Australia 


105 


5,004 


New South Wales 


137 


7,904 


Vietoriii 


163 


4,613 


Quecnshmd 


i)0 


3,617 


Tasmania 


H2 


547 


Wcsturu Australia 


20 


1.600 



At the close of the year 1875 there were 3904 miles of 
wire open throughout the Colony, and there are 1100 miles 
now in course of construction. The 105 stations already 
erected employ 230 officers, operators, and messengers. The 
number of messages inland and intercolonial transmitted in 
the year was 315,342, and international 9709, making a total 
of 325,051. The revenue of the year was £33,616, of which 
amount £17,083 was derived from inland messages, £4762 
from intercolonial and £11,771 from international messages. 
Ilie f(jl lowing table shows the operations of the South Aus- 
tralian Telegraph Department from the commencement : — 





No. of 


Miles of 


No. of 




Years. 


Stations. 


Wire Open. 


Messages. 


Receipts. 










£ 


1856 


7 


30 


14,738 


36G 1 


1861 


27 


914 


76,709 


7,382 


1865 


45 


1,173 


112,844 


11,735 


1872 


86 


3,731 


170,902 


14,684 


1875 


105 


3,901 


325,051 


33.616 



There is a through communication with all the sister Colo- 
nies, Victorifi, New South Wales, Tasmania, and Queensland. 
The connection of Western Australia with the telegraphic 
circle is rapidly being accomplished, when the continent of 
Australia will be traversed by wire from north to south and 



ITS STATISTICS. 385 

from east, to west. A cable is now being laid to connect New 
Zealand, thereby completing the chain which will unite the 
whole of the British possessions at the Antipodes with the 
Mother Country and the rest of the civilized world. 

Daily weather and shipping reports are interchanged be- 
tween the several ports and principal towns throughout the 
whole continent. 

EATES OF WAGES. 

The following compilation, by Mr. J. Kemp Penny, Labour 
Agent, is taken from the South Australian Register newspaper 
of 29th January 1876. It shows the rates of wages paid 
in Adelaide to skilled labourers and other tradesmen, the 
j)rices varying of course according to the proficiency or skill 
of the individual and the season of the year. Great care 
has been taken in every instance to procure authentic in- 
formation : — 

Bookbinders. — 30s. to £3 per week ; forwarders, 35.s. to 
45s. ; finishers, 60s. to 70s. 

Bootmakers. — At the principal factories piecework is the 
rule, but some men are employed on day work, whose average 
earnings are 40s. to 45s. per week, while very expert hands 
earn over £3. Female machine hands receive weekly from 
15s. to £1, while girls as tackers, &c. receive from half-a-cro\Mi 
to 15s. The present prices at piecework are as follows : — 
Men's Goods — Eiveting Wellingtons and riding boots, 2s. ; half- 
wellingtons, Is. 9c?. ; side-sj)rings. Is. 6cZ. ; strong lace-up, 2s. ; 
finishing Wellingtons and riding boots, 2s. ; half-wellingtons, 
Is, ^d. ; side-springs. Is. Qd. ; strong lace-up, Qd. Women's 
Goods — Eiveting side-springs, plain. Is. Id. ; plain leather 
boots. Is. ; slippers, 4cZ. ; finishing side-springs, plain, Is. 2d. ; 
j)lain leather boots, ScZ. ; slippers, od. Girls (from 10 to 13), 
calf, riveting side-springs, plain, Qd. ; finishing do., 8cZ. ; good 
female fitters from 12s. to 14s. 

Brass-founders. — 9s. to 12s. per day. 

Brewers. — 30s. to 50s. per week. 

Beickmakers. — 13s. per 1000 on the back. 

Builders. — In this trade firms have adopted the eight 

2 c 



'^S6 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

hours' system. The prices rulin<i: are — For stonemasons and 
Avallers, i)s. to 10s. per day ; stonecutters, 9s. to 9s. 6d. ; 
phisterers, do. ; brickhiyers, do. ; shiters, a shade higher ; car- 
penters, 8s. to 9s. ; hibourers, Gs. to 7s. ; pick and shovel 
men, do. 

Bakers. — Foremen are receiving from £1 15s. to £2 15s. 
per week, and second hands from 25s. to £2, with board and 
lodging; skilled confectioners proportionately higher. 

Butchers. — Engagements are made by the week. The 
present rates are — For shopmen, 35s. to 50s. ; youths, 15s. to 
£1 ; slaughtermen, 30s. to £2 ; and small goods men, from 30s. 
to £2 5s., with board. 

Basketmakers. — Piecework make wages from 50s. to 
£3 7s. per week, mostly canework. 

Cabinetmakers. — Engagements are chiefly made by piece- 
work, but when by time the following are the customary rates 
per day of eight and a half hours : — First-class workmen, 9s. 
to 10s. ; second do., 8s. ; upholsterers, 8s. 6cl. to 10s. ; makers 
of deal tables, meat-safes, &c., from 7s. Cd. to 9s. 

Carters. — 25s. to 35s. per week. 

Coaciibuilders. — The wages per week vary according to 
the following scale : — Smiths, from £3 to £3 10s. ; bodymakers, 
from £2 14s. to £3 ; wheelers, £2 10s. to £3 ; painters, £2 to 
£2 14s. ; trimmers, do. ; vicemen, £1 10s. to £2. 

Coopers. — Work is chiefly done by the j)iece ; when other- 
wise, however, the day is understood to consist of eight hours, 
for which the remuneration varies from 8s. to 9s. In piece- 
work 2s. is paid for a cask of three gallons, 2s. 6d. for five 
gallons, and os. Sd. for one of ten gallons. 

Coppersmiths. — 9s. to 12s. per day. 

Drapers. — 30s, to 70s. per week. 

Farriers. — Firemen per day of ten hours, 10s, ; floormen, 
from £2 5s, to £2 10s, per week. 

Gardening. — Gardeners, 6s. to 7s. per day ; digging, Vxl. 
(sandy soil) to Is, per rod (ordinary garden soil) ; trenching, 
by contract ; pruning, 2s, 6d. to 4s. per 100 vines, 6s. to 7s. 
daywork. 

Gasfitters. — In regular employment the wages vary from 



ITS STATISTICS. 387 

j£2 to £3 per week ; when employed by the day, they receive 
from 8s. to 10s. 

Galvanized Tin Iron Workers. — Daywork from 8s. to 
10s. ; week of 48 hours, £2 2s. to £2 14s. 

Gunsmiths. — 9s. to 12s. per day. 

Iron- Workers, — Boilermakers per day of eight hours get 
from 10s. to lis. ; smiths, do. ; fitters and turners, do. ; 
moulders, do. ; labourers, from 6s. 6d. to 7s. Qd. 

Iron Trade. — General smiths, 9s. to 10s. per day ; first- 
class smiths, 9s. per day ; fitters, 9s. to lis. per day ; wheel- 
wrights, 8s. to lis. per day ; moulders (first-class), 9s. per day ; 
painters, 5s, per day ; engine-drivers, 7s. to 10s. per day ; 
sawyers, 7s. to 8s. per day; carpenters, 7s, to lis. per day; 
turners, 7s. to 8s. per day ; foundry hands, Os. to 7s. per day ; 
labourers, 6s. to 7s. per day. 

Jewellers. — Ordinary workmen, £2 10s. to £4 10s. per 
week, and more skilled workmen, engravers, &c., £5 to £6. 

Millers. — 50s. to 60s. 

Plumbers. — Very good hands obtain from lis. to 12s. per 
day of eight hours ; inferior workmen, £2 8s. per week. 

Painters and Glaziers. — These tradesmen generally 
receive 8s. to 10s. per day of eight hours, or Is. to Is. dd. per 
hour. Grainers and writers, 10s. per day, or Is. od. per hour ; 
very good writers and grainers, lis. to 13s. per day. 

Paperhangers. — 9d. to Is. 6d. for 12 yards. 

Printers. — Compositors, newspaper, Is. per 1000 ; jobbing 
hands, £2 15s. per week ; pressmen £2 15s. 

Saddlers. — Most of the work done in this trade is by the 
piece, but when by time, the following are the rates : First- 
class harness men from 8s. to 9s. per day of 10 hours summer 
9 hours winter ; second class or jobbing, from 5s. to 7s. 6d. • 
first-class saddle hands, from 10s. to 12s. 

Sailmakers. — Is, 2d. to Is, Zd. per hour, eight hours per 
diem. 

Seamen's Wages (Intercolonial) are steady at £5 per 
month. 

Stonebreakers. — 3s. per yard. 

Storemen. — 30s. to 50s. per week. 

2 c 2 



'^8S SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Tinsmiths.— 11 fZ. to Is. 4(?. por lionr. 

Tailors. — Wages, lOtZ. jDer hour piecework, or Is. per hour 
dnywork. Good workmen are now earning from £4 to £5 per 
week. Females receive a corresponding increase. 

Tanners and Curriers. — The working day is ten hours. 
Beamsmen in the lime yard get from £2 to £2 10s. per week ; 
strikers and finishers from oih. to 40s. ; tanners from 36s. to- 
42s. ; curriers' work is all dune by the piece and on agreed 
Conditions. First-rate workmen who have served their full 
apprcMiticeship term are earning from £3 10s. to £4 10s. per 
week. 

AVatciimakers. — The wages given vary from £3 10s. to 
£4 per week. 

Wheelwrights. — Is. to Is. Sd. per hour. 

Female Domestics. — Per week, with board and lodging — 
General servants, 8s. to 12s. ; cooks, 10s. to 20s. ; housemaids, 
8s. to 12s. ; kitchenmaids, 8s. to 10s. ; housekeepers, 10s. to £1 ;■ 
laundresses, 10s. to 16s. ; nursemaids, Ss. to 12s. ; nursegirls, 
4s. to 7s. ; charwomen, 3s. to 4s. per diem. 

Shearers. — Shearers, 20s. per 100 ; rollers, 15s. ; pressers- 
25s. ; sewers, 20s. ; dumpers, 20s. ; pickers, 12s. ; cooks, 40s. ; 
butchers, 25s. ; cooks' mates, 20s. j)er week. 

Station Hands. — Drovers, £1 to £1 10s. per week, or 
10s. 6(1. per day and find themselves ; boundary-riders, 17s. to 
25s. per week ; sheplierds, 17s. to 20s. per week ; married 
couples, per annum, £52 to £75 ; lambminders, 10s. to 15s. 
per week ; bullock-drivers, 20s. to 25s. per week ; knockabout 
hands, 17s. to 20s. per week ; bush carpenters and blacksmiths, 
30s. per week ; cooks, 17s, to 25s. per week ; water-drawers,. 
18s. to 20s. per week. All the above are with rations and 
cxjienses paid up to the station. 

Farm Hands. — Ploughnuju, 20s. per week ; general farn> 
servants, 20s. to 30s. per week ; married couples, females to 
cook, cVc, 20s. to 30s. per week ; harvesters, 25s. to 35s.. 
per week ; boys, from 10s. to 12s. ; youngsters tailing cattle 
and sheep, 4s. to 8s. per week ; teamsters, 20s. to 30s. ; hay- 
harvesters, 25s. to 35s.; all \\ith board and lodging. 

JMisCELLANEOUS. — Fencers, post and 3-wire fence, £10 to 



ITS STATISTICS. 389 

£20 per mile ; do,, j)er rod, three-rail, 2s. to 3s. ; wire do., 
4s. to 7s. ; cabmen, 20s. to 30s. per week with, board and 
lodging ; busmen, 35s. to 40s. per week without board ; 
labourers, Gs. to 8s. per diem without board and lodging ; 
ostlers, 20s. to 25s. per week with board and lodging. Sawyers, 
logs at pit, 13s. per 100. 

Average Wages of Miners. — Moonta District — Miners, 
per week, eight hours' shift, £2 2s. ; breaksmen do., none 
employed ; engineers, from £1 16s. to £2 15s. ; tribute, £1 18s. 
to £2 5s.; on contract, from £1 16s. to £2; owners' account, 
5s. 6d. per day. 

Scale of Kations per Week — 10 lbs. flour, 12 lbs. meat, 
2 lbs. sugar, ^ lb. tea. 

pracES OP PROVISIONS. 

The following are the current quotations in Adelaide, as 
taken from the public prints, of live stock, farm and garden 
produce, provisions, groceries, &c. : — 

Wholesale, Flour, Grain, &c. 

Flour, fine silk-dressed, por ton of 2000 lbs., at £ s. d. £ s. d. 

the Port, baj;s Included 11 to 11 5 

Ditto ditto, country brand 10 5 „ 11 

AVheat, per bushel of GO lbs., larj;o lots, at the 

Port (old) 5 — 

Ditto ditto (new) 4 8 „ 4 9 

Bran, per bushel <jf 2011)s., at the Port, bags 

included T.. 12,, 1 2*^ 

Pollard, per bushel of 20 lbs 11 „ 1 u" 

Oats, per bushel of 40 lbs., witliout bags 4 0,, 4 (j 

Barley, per bushel of 50 lbs., without bags ... 5 G „ G 

Wholesale, Dairy and Farm Prodice. 

Bacon per lb. 10 — 

Butter peril). 10 — 

Ditto (I'otte.l) per lb. 11 — 

Cheese per lb. 9 — 

Eggs per doz. tU — 

Hams peril). ll" — 

Lard per lb. 1) — 

Onions per. cwt. 11 — 

Honey per lb. :^ — 

Hay per ton 3 10 — 

Prairie grass per bush. 8 — 

Seed, Lucerne per lb. 12 • — 

Peas per busli. ;! C, — 

Vetches per bush. 8 — 



390 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



Hides, salted 

Butchers' Green 

Hoofa 

Green Kangaroo Skins 

Skins, Calf 

Ditto, Wallaby 
Sbauk Bones 



Hides, Skins, Bones, ic. 

per lb. 

each 
per ton 

per doz. 

each 
per doz. 
per ton 



£ s. d. 

4i to 
15 

1 10 
7 
14 
10 
5 



£ s. d. 

5 

2 10 

2 10 

2 5 

10 

1 15 
10 (> 



Bark, "Wattle, ground 
Ditto, ditto,^ chopped 



Bauk. 



per ton 
per ton 



7 

5 10 to G 







Tallow. 



Tallow, Beef, for Export 
Ditto, Mutton, ditto 



per ton 32 
per ton 34 



Wool. 



Washed 

Greasy 

Wine (Colonial) 

Good sound Colonial Wine of Inst 
year's vintage, for large quan- 
tities in bulk 

Superior ditto 

Colonial Spirits, in bond 



Basils 

Colonial Calf... 
Ditto Kip 

Ditto Sole 
Ditto Kangnrno 
Ditto Wallabv 



per lb. 


11 


to 


1 2 


per lb. 


7 


., 


S 



per gall. 


1 


fi 


to 


4 





per gall. 


5 





., 


10 





p£'r gall. 


3 


G 




— 




Leather. 












per doz. 


15 





to 


1 





per lb. 


4 





»> 


5 


6 


per lb. 


2 


3 


9? 


2 


6 


per lb. 


1 


2 




1 


7 


per doz. 


1 15 





»> 


4 





per lb. 


12 







14 






Copper. 



Wallaroo 
Burra ... 



Horses, Draught 
Ditto, Liglit ... 
Bullocks. Fat... 



per ton 82 0' 
per ton 82 



TiivE Stock. 



30 to 
12 „ 
10 „ 



45 
20 
15 



Sheep, Fat Wethers, 12s. to 17.s., according to season. 



IIetail Farm and Dairy I'noDUCE. 

Quotations: — Bread and Flour — Bread, 'ihl. to 3M. per 2-lb. loaf; do., 
aiirated, 3'/. 2-lb. loaf ; flour, l.VZ. to 2(7. per lb. Bntdior's meat — Beef, 4d. to 
Sd. per lb.; mutton, 2d. to M.; lamb, 2s. r,ij. to ^x. Gr/. perquaitcr; pork, 7^/. 
to 8(Z. ; veal, 5(Z. to 8fZ. Dairy produce — Bacon, Is. to Is. 2d. per lb.; butter, 
fresh, Is. 2d.; do., salted, l.s'. 2d.; cheese, Ik.; eggs, !.«. per dozen; fowls, 5s. 
per pair; ducks, (is. to Gs. GfZ. per pair; geese, G.«. each; hams, Is. 2d. per lb. : 
honev. 5^. per lb.; lard. Is. jier lb.; milk, id. to Od. per ((uart ; pigeons. Is. 3J. 
to Is. ryl. per pair; rabbits, tame. Is. each ; wild do., l.s'. per pair; turkeys, Gs. to 
10s. each. 



ITS STATISTICS. o9I 

Groceries. 

Tea, 2s. to 2s. 6(1. per lb. ; sugar, 3d. to ild. per lb. ; coffee, Is. Gd. per lb. ; 
rice, 3d. to 5d. per lb. ; salt, Id. per lb. ; tobacco, 4s. to 4s. Gd. ; soap, 3d. to id. 
per lb. 

Hay Market. 
Best wheaten hay, £4 10s. per ton; good mixed do., £3 15s. 

East-End Market. 

Vegetables — Beans (broad), 28. to 2s. Gd. per bushel ; beans (French), Is. 3d. 
to 2s. per dozen lbs. ; beetroot, Is. to Is. Gd. per dozen ; cabbages, Is. Gd. to 4s. 
per dozen; do. (Savoys), 2s. to 3s. per dozen; capsicums, Is. to Is. 3d. per lb. ; 
carrots, Is. Gd. to 2s. per dozen bunches; cauliflowers, 3s. to 5s. per dozen; 
celery, 4s. to 6s. per dozen heads ; chillies. Is. to Is. 3d. per lb. ; horse-radish, Gd. 
to lOd. per lb. ; garlic, id. to Gd. per lb. ; lettuces, Gd. to Is. 3d. per dozen ; 
marjoram, Gd. to 8rf. per dozen bunches ; mint, Gd. per dozen bunches ; onions, 
6s. Gd. to 8s. Gd. per cwt. ; parsnips, Is. Gd. to 2s. Gd. per dozen bunches ; peas, 
3s. to 4s. per bushel; potatoes, 4s. Gd. to 5s. per cwt.; radishes, Gd. to 8d. per 
dozen bunches; do. (turnip), Gd. to Sd. per dozen bunches; rhubarb, 2s. to 3s. 
per dozen lbs. ; sage, Gd. to Sd. per dozen bunches ; shalots, id. to Gd. per lb. ; 
thyme, Gd. to 8d. per dozen bunches; tomatoes. Is. Gd. to 2s. per dozen lbs.; 
trombones, 4s. to 7s. per dozen ; turnips, Is. Gd. to 2s. per dozen bunches ; 
vegetable marrows, Is. Gd. to 3s. per dozen ; watercress, Gd. to 8d. per dozen 
bunches; cucumbers, Gd. to 3s. per dozen. Fruit — Almonds (green), 2d. per 
lb. ; do. (hprd-shell), 2d. per lb. ; do. (soft-shell), Gd. per lb. ; do. (cracked), 8d. 
per lb. ; apples, Is. Gd. to 3s. Gd. per bushel; apricots, 20s. to 22s. per cwt. ; do., 
2d. to Gd. per dozen ; Barcelona nuts, 7s. per dozen lbs. ; citrons, 15s. per cwt. ; 
damsons, 2s.'Gd. to 3s. per bushel ; figs, 2d. to Gd. per dozen ; gooseberries (Cape), 
dd. to lOd. per lb. ; grapes. Is. Gd. to 2s. per doz^n lbs. ; lemons, 9d. to 2s. per 
dozen; melons (water), 15s. to 18s. per cwt.; nectarines, 2d. to 3d. per dozen ; 
oranges, Is. to 2s. Gd. per dozen ; peaches, 2d. to Gd. per dozen ; pears, 2s. Gd. to 
4s. per bushel; plums, 3s. to 4s. per bushel; strawberries, Gd. to 8d. per lb. 
Dairy produce — Bacon, lOd. per lb.; do. (green), '3d. per lb.; butter (fresii), 10(7. 
to Is. per lb. ; cheese (English), Is. Gd. to Is. Sd. per lb.; do. (colonial), 7rf. to 
8d. per lb.; dairy pork. Sd. per lb.; ducks, 4s. to 4s. Gd. per jjair; eggs, lid. to 
Is. per dozen ; fowls, 3s. Gd. to 4s. per pair ; geese, 4s. to 4s. Gd. eacli ; ham, is. 
to Is. Id. per lb. ; lard, dd. per lb. ; turkeys, 5s. to 9s. each. Miscellaneous — 
Beeswax, lOd. to Is. 2d. per lb.; colonial wine, 2s. to Gs. per gallon; colonial 
jam, r)d. to 7d. per lb. ; flowers, 2d. to Is. per bunch ; honey, .32s. to 34s. pei cwt. ; 
rabbits, Ls. to Is. Gd. per pair; pigeons, Is. 3(7. to Is. Gd. per pair. 

The rent of a dwelling suitable for an artisan and his 
family in Adelaide or the immediate suburbs varies from six 
to fifteen shillings per week, but in the country towns the rate 
is less. Large numbers of artisans, however, reside in their 
own freehold cottages. The savings of a few years have in 
many instances sufficed to enable them to accomplish this. 
Land is cheap, and the necessary advances for the erection of 
dwellings are readily obtainable from the several Building 
Societies. Cottages, with fuel and water, are provided for 
ploughmen, shepherds, and other labourers employed on farms 



392 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



or shecp-nins. The lolli >\\ in i,^ arc (quoted rates for house rent 
and for lioard and hxh^iiiLi-: — 



House Rent. 
Two rooms, 4s. to (jx.; three rooinw, Gk. to lOs. ; fmn- lomns. S.<. to 15s.; six 
rooms, 12s. to 'J5s. free from taxes; siii<;le room, 2s. (jd. ; ilitt<i (liirnislicil) Os. to Ks. 
per week. Gas is 8s. to 12s. per lUOO eubio feet, ami water laid oil Is. Ud. per 
1000 gallons. 

BoAUD AND Lodging. 
Per week at Buslimwi's Club, 18s.; at private houses, for single young men, 
shopmen, «fcc., ISs. to ISs. ; clerks, &c., 20s. to 30s.; fciugle femaks, 10s. to 15s.; 
private lodgers at hotels, 208. to -il. is. 

Wearing apparel is procurable at the under-mentioned 
prices : — 

Working men's black cloth suits, 39s. to 90s. ; every day wear, 29s. to 65s. ; 
moleskin trousers. 6s. 6d. to lOs. 6d. ; tweed suit, 298. to 80s. ; jacket, 13s. to 40s. ; 
waistcoat, 5s. to lis. ; trousers, Ss. to 25s. ; boys' clothes, 15s. to 40s. per suit. 



METEOEOLOG IC AL. 

The following tables give the mean monthly rainfall at 
Adelaide during the thirty-six years 1839-74, and the result of 
tlie 3Ieteorological Observations made at the Observatory 
during tlie ten years 1865-74 : — 



Months. 



January 
February 
March ... 
April 
May ... 
Jime 
July 

August ... 
September 
October . . . 
November 
December 



Rainfall (36 Years, 1839-U). 



INfoan. 



No. ..f 
■Wot 
Days. 



Lea«t. 



Moan 
Evapora- 
tion, 
Five Years. 



Inches. 










Inches. 


0-722 


4 


4-000 





000 


10-641 


• 670 


3 


3-100 





000 


8-802 


0-881 


5 J 


3-753 





000 


7 • ()08 


1-760 


•^i 


6-780 





250 


4-474 


2-814 


13 


6-340 





690 


2-902 


2 -It 15 


14 


7-800 


1 


138 


1-795 


2 -SO I 


\r, 


5-380 





72(i 


1-959 


2-i;2l 


It; 


6 ■ 240 





675 


2 067 


2-071 


13i 


4-640 





711 


3-427 


l-7:i!» 


10 


3-834 





460 


5-981 


1-26:5 


5 


3-5.50 





100 


6-979 


0-894 


5J 


3-977 


105 


9-420 



21-091 114 



— 66-655 



ITS STATISTICS. 



393 















i-V 


l.-O 








CO 


-tl 1-1 


C^l 


^ 







_, , 






























•looAV 


W 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




-tl 

CM 


CO 10 

CM CM 


-fi Ci 
CM (M 


s 


CM 





CO 





CO 


(N 








C-1 CO 


CM 


C5 


CO 




' 


uo isa.MOi uu^rc 


CO 

IT. 










CO 


CO 






CO 
CO 

-tl 


c» 

CO -tl 


-tl l> 

-tl -tl 




1-0 




uo 








-H 


-H ir: 






■uns m 


-ti 


cr> 





CO 


-H 





^.4 


CO 


^ 


Ci 


-tl 




3 


jsaiiSin liinpv 


■■^ 


10 





-tl 

f— 1 


r: 


CM 

1—1 


irj 


CO CO 


1.0 -0 


1.0 


CO 




-1 




(M 


rH 


r-H 


t> 


00 


I— 1 





rH 


T-H C5 


(M 


CO 






•uns 


10 


-*l 








C5 


,_, 


CO 


1-H 1> 


tH 1-1 


CO 









ui ^saqSiji UB9H 


CO 
I— 1 


CO 
I— 1 


CO 
I— 1 


Oi 











1-H 1-H 
r-( i-H 


cq (M 

I-H i-H 


CO 
t-l 


CM 

y—l 




■U0I)1!.I 





CO 


Tf< 


t> 


00 


CO 


00 


CO CM 


CO 


CO 






-nd8.\a JO 3iui 


_ 


^^ 


rj 


cr> 


(M 





t^ 


C5 -H 


-H |> 










•^=5 


-L'i9dlUaX UKJIVI 





CO 





iO 


LO 





-tl 


■^ 


LO 





UO 




boe papaaaxa 




























•duiax S'.iC"a 






r> 


i—i 














IM TjH 





CO 


-H 






JO "0^ 82Bi8AV 






















-H 


C5 


CO 


t^ 


r-l 





t^ 


rH ^ 


Ci -tl 


r-^ 


CO 


1^ 

CO 

o 






IBuaniQ; UBdj\[ 






CO 


Ci 


CO 


-t< 


-tl 


l^ 


~n 

CM C-1 


CM 




C-l 

CO 


•■jqStK Sni-inp 





-* 


»o 


00 


1-1 


■*! 


I— 1 


CM CO 


I-H CO 




"5 


"3 


}sa.\\o'i UBai\[ 


CO 


CO 


CO 








10 




-+1 


10 t- 


1-H -tl 



CO 
10 


0^1 

uo 


•Xr^d atn Suunp 


'^^ 


CO 


00 





(M 


■* 


00 


CO -^ 


I> 


CO 


'tl 


>* 




>> 


^sauSjH ui!ai\[ 


CO 




■X) 


00 


-+1 


CJ3 
CO 


CO 


00 


CM CO 

CO CO 


-f 00 


CO 
00 


CO 


y. 


H 


P 


















































CH 








-H 

















CM 


r-l CO 


1-H Ci 


uo 


CM 


Ed 






•lanmiutit 


t^ 


t^ 


CO 


^ 


CO 


r^ 


-H 


-tl 10 


CO 


CO 


-H 








-tl 


-f 


TtH 


tH 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO CO 


CO -tl 


-tl 


CO 




10 





00 


o- 


CO 





10 


i> 


10 





10 


o 






•tunraixcj\[ 


CO 





t^ 


CO 


00 


CO 


CM 


•*! 


CO 


CM 


CO 


^ 








1— < 


1-H 








uo 


r^ 


r^ 


00 00 


rH 


rH 


I-H 










'"' 


■"I 


" 












I-H 1-H 


"-I 


^_l 




t^ 


c» 


1—1 


CO 


(M 


'^ 





t- C5 


UO 10 


-+I 










CO 


cc 





Ttl 


CO 


tH 


,_, 


CO CO 


CM 


_, 


CO 










l^ 


l- 


I- 







10 


10 


10 


CO CO 


l^ 


CO 

-0 






iCi 


r- 





-n 


CO 


^ 


00 


CO 


t> CO 











^ 


^ 







CO 


Oi 


CO 


l-H Ci 


CM 


00 







13 


•1S3M0T 


IM 




•^ 


TTl 


CO 


T—l 


I— 1 


1-H 


C<I CM 


I-H 







;: 







a 


a 





C5 





C5 


05 C5 


Ci Oi 


03 


Ci 




^0' 








(M 






CM 


CM 


CM (M 


Oi CM 


(M 


CM 




c^l 





,_, 


CO 


h- 


CO 


CO 


CM CO 


-H 


t^ 


CO 




r- 




"O 


10 





CO 




CO 





C5 00 


10 


CO 


CO 




£l 


•}saq8!H 


^ 


C4 




CO 


"O 


10 


»o 


-tl CO 


CO CO 




IQ 




^ s 







































-5 


' 


^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO CO 


CO CO 


CO 


CO 




CO 





C3 





(M 


en 





ic 


CM 


Ci 


CO 










CO 


1^ 







CTi 


r>i 


C3 CM 


-tl (X) 





CO 




B 


•K'v 6 'uwaiv; 


X 




Ci 














C5 C5 


Ci 00 


00 














a 











C5 





Ci C3 


C5 Ci 


C5 


Ci . 








CM 


(M 


Oi 


CO 


CO 


CM 


CO 


CM CM 


CM CM 


CM 


CM 














: 






: ^ 


: b' 










.s 


>% 


>. 












rJO 




S 








a 



5 


g 




< 


c? 







2 a 

S (13 


1 i 
6i 


g 

53 

CJ 




ci 



394 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

From which the following hygrometric results arc de- 
duced : — 





TeniptTiitiire 


Elastic Force r)cKree of 




of Dew I'oiiit. 


of Viipour. 


Humidity. 




Degrees. 


Indies. 


(Saturation = 100.) 


Junuary 


... o2-8 


0-400 


48 


Fcbrimi y . . . 


... r)i5-0 


0-40.^> 


48 


Maicli 


... ol-l 


0-377 


51 


April 


... r)0-2 


0-3U3 


fJO 


May 


... 47-lt 


0-335 


07 


June 


... 40-3 


313 


74 


J Illy 


... 44-0 


0-289 


77 


Aujjust 


... 45-0 


0-298 


73 


JSeptcmhor 


... 4(5-0 


0-310 


()(> 


October 


... 47:{ 


0-32G 


57 


Novoinber ... 


... 49-a 


0-352 


54 


Decenibor ... 


... so-i 


0-3G2 


47 


Year ... 


... 48-3 
CONCLUSION. 


0-338 


GO 



The general statistical table, appended hereto, gives the 
principal items of information, illustrating the progress of 
South Australia from its foundation. In glancing at this 
retrospect, one cannot fail to recognize the great success that 
has attended the enterprise of a handful of Englishmen, who, 
without adventitious aid, have, during a single generation, 
established a flourishing community, reproducing most of the 
social and material advantages of the Jlother Country, and 
much of old world civilization, conducive to the happiness and 
prosperity of a jjcople. Fifty thousand men, supporting thrice 
their nundjer of women and children, occupy two hundred 
thousand square miles of pastoral country, and possess six 
millions of sheep ; own six million acres of land, and grow 
twelve million bushels of wheat; conduct an external com- 
merce of nine millions sterling, and raise one million of 
revenue. Such is the material result shown in the thirty- 
ninth voar of the colonization of South Australia. 



PROVINCE 



—J'. Other Crops 



i02 



n 



ts £2,406,251 remains on crcdl 

ea alienated, 6,283,881 £ 



Acres. 



9,619 



16,345 

18,896 

22,143 

29,840 

88,458 

99,326 

113,157 

100,604 

144,620 

130,369 

147,965 

170,747 

162,846 

168,555 

176,542 

213,929 

254,336 

289,331 

298,122 

329,915 



Horses. 



480 

800 

1,060 

890 

1,560 

1,576 



2,000 



6,488 



10,184 

22,260 
26,220 
34,629 
40,471 
49,399 
52,597 
56,251 
59,008 
62,899 
73,993 
70,829 
74,228 
75,409 
73,828 
83,744 
78,125 
82,215 
87,455 
93,122 



Minerals. 



127 
6,436 

19,020 
143,231 
174,017 
320,624 
219,775 
365,464 
310,916 
374,778 
176,744 

94,831 
155,557 
408,042 
458,839 
373,282 
411,018 
446,537 
452,172 
547,619 
542,393 
691,624 
620,112 
824,501 
753,413 
624,022 
627,152 
574,090 
648,569 
806,364 
770,590 
700,323 
762,386 



SHIPPING, 
Inwards & Outwards. 



I 
Numl)!'..' Tonnage. 



RAIN- 
FALL. 



425 

197 

150 

104 

139 

225 

278 

301 

412 

549 

559 

538 

739 

869 

947 

711 

867 

970 

741 

792 

662 

788 

766 

886 

1,236 

1,220 

1,039 

1,136 

903 

1,112 

916 

1,238 

1,033 

1,531 

1,440 

1,634 



!,592 



83,787 

37,036 

25,354 

15,533 

18,489 

26,558 

49,509 

62,641 

90,956 

155,920 

174,455 

155,002 

202,507 

260,917 

290,534 

225,923 

230,390 

282,368 

192,391 

216,128 

209,036 

199,331 

216,521 

255,493 

321,388 

357,290 

339,871 

343,819 

277,872 

333,507 

287,989 

373,624 

347,360 

515,040 

534,550 

611,381 



19-84 

24-23 

17-96 

20-32 

17-19 

16-88 

18-83 

26-89 

27-61 

19-74 

25-44 

19-51 

30-63 

27-34 

27 

15-35 

23-15 

24-02 

21-16 

21-52 

14-85 

19-67 

25-19 

22-84 

22-92 

19-45 

14-75 

19-94 

19-35 

17-88 

13-85 

24-1 

23-5 

23-17 

21-6 

19-14 

31-45 



YEAK. 



1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 
1859 
1860 
1861 
1862 
1863 
1864 
1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 
1869 
1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 
1875 



STATISTICAL VIEW SHOWING THE PROGRESS OF TEE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA SINCE ITS FOUNDATION. 





„ 


„..™. 






MAIL 


IlTUICr.A. 








..,.^™a™. 






LTCBE, 




uv.s™,,. 


-.OK. 


»o«ro„r 


T„». 


sr.....™c..«o.,K., 


wS" 


-oT..^ 










..„ 


--!-- 










™», 






...... 


...„,. 


ffiS" 


WW.. 


^7 


0.,^,.. 


HOOM. 0.lllt. SLk[., 


".„„:.^ 


i.;r 


...». 


..„,. 


^^.. 


w„,. 


>„„„.. 




...... 


?ia. 






















£ 






£ 


Acrcj, 


AtlM. 


AtlM. 


ACfM. 




1 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ ; 


£ 


£ 






lDeli».~ " 






1836 




412 1 134 
















60 915 


























- [ 






9 






1836 




1837 
















































~ 












18S7 






6.000 




S3 






























2,600 






167,682 


0.442 






































826 


96,186 










120 






800 




108;700 


















350 














1840 
















30 


618 




15 


565 


151665 


2.503 








1,060 






















8,740 




725 


83.787 


24-23 






18)1 




















89,999 






















392:995 


288 


348 












35,485 








17-96 






18U 








H3 


70 








404 


68,134 
















1,560 


26,000 j 


300,000 






319 


75 


248 


































1,213 




24 




















1,676 




331,000 








80 


858 




160 


















1814 
















26 








022 


61666 


































6,436 












1815 


:!•'?? 








HI 












49 


658 


















3331278 


184 


819 














19.020 




26,558 




1815 






































2,000 


66!986 


681)374 




330 


099 


312 


838 




















i": 






, ™ 


5oa 


311 


7:664 


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- 


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888;S94 1 










465 


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1,002:371 1 


588 


648 










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64:728 


4i;s07 


13,302 


9,619 


6,188 


60_[034 


984;i90 






572 


570 


817 


54S 


Sra 


73 


35I 


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1851 




\m 


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r 


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230:020 


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89.945 


23,402 




10.184 


74.220 




























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236 


















HM,708 


fiS.Ohti 
















■20R,423 


162.011 


o. 


13.896 


22,260 


272,746 


.062,4611 










556 


371 


412,163 




867 


230.390 24-02 


1857 




!S' 


"■■:'' 








■ ,17-; 














l.^.^M 


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310,400 1 


2,075,805 


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71° 


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1858 




f 






': ::^! 


',';a! 


l!031 

i:i52 


.V27 


111 7.:; 


















2787205 
265.434 


2,824,811 
3.038.356 


i's'l 


i ':::': 














'V ;; ;:;^ 


1862 
1803 

1866 










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3!651 


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1867 




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■' ■'11 


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21302 


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1870 












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1,250 


2,532 


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1871 




l.i. 


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1874 




ISIS 


-'"'"- 


io;,o« lo^iibs 


i;Ms 


i',ize 


i]m 




4;o4»|i;i«;3i2 


i;i76,112 


""'■"'" 


»yijai207 


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S.OOSISM 


4,203,802 


4,805,051 


1 4,442,100 


l,6b0,aw 


1,833,519 


762,331, 


1 '■'" 


'"M " 


^ 



e (exclusive of Northern TerriUty), 245,; 



still unalienated, cslimated to bo about 238,070,400 m 



rATISTICAL VIEW SHOWIN^a THE PROaRE.S OF THE PEOYINCE OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA SINCE ITS FOUNDATION (.-..W). 



614 


II 


1 



ig 


602 


s 


735 
785 


"', 


y.m 




\:m 



1,921 101.94C 
ijll I 125;351 



1 



lUNDATION {continued). 



IKS 
UNCILS. 


(JIIURCHE3 


PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 






AND 

CHAPELS. 






YEAR. 








eceipts. 




Xumber. 


Scholars. 




£ 


143 


64 


1,867 


18.50 





143 


115 


3,031 


1851 





150 


170 


5,744 


1852 





142 


111 


5,273 


1853 





174 


125 


5,464 


1854 


43,848 


198 


1.38 


6,039 


1855 


56,631 


213 


147 


6,516 


1850 


66,323 


294 


167 


7,480 


1857 


55,471 


358 


182 


8,237 


1858 


52,609 


319 


198 


9,282 


1859 


53,192 


343 


210 


9,843 


1860 


56,818 


374 


219 


10,711 


1861 


54,426 


410 


227 


11,417 


1862 


59,050 


431 


247 


11,769 


1863 


63,545 


455 


2(J7 


12,959 


1864 


75,296 


461 


279 


13,686 


1865 


81,377 


492 


292 


14,690 


1866 


[08,234 


511 


308 


14,600 


1867 


90,329 


547 


325 


15,567 


1868 


94,086 


568 


330 


16,328 


1869 


86,499 


579 


300 


15,108 


1870 


99,711 


598 


307 


15,791 


1871 


101,946 


G07 


307 


15,123 


1872 


105,675 


613 


315 


17,222 


1873 


125,351 


610 


320 


17,426 


1874 


— 


— ■ 


— • 


■ — • 


1875 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA: 
ITS OBSERVATOEY AND METEOROLOGY. 

By Charles Todd, C.M.G., F.E.A.S., 

POSTMASTEK-GENERAL AND Sl'PEUINTENDENT OF TELEGRAPHS, AND 
GOVERNMENT ASTRONOMER. 

In a young Colony where a mere handful of people have 
had to bring vast wastes under cultivation, build new homes, 
construct roads and railways, and carry out other extensive 
public works necessary for the development of the country 
they have traversed the ocean to occupy, it is not to be 
expected that much time, thought, or money can be devoted 
to Science and Art. With so many pressing and more imme- 
diately important claims upon a limited revenue, little can be 
spared in the early days of a new settlement for the promotion 
of those higher purposes and objects which commend them- 
selves . to our intellect and attract our best sympathies. 
This is a j^enalty man has to -paj when he leaves the crowded 
civilization of old countries to seek fresh and more ample 
fields where his enterjmse and vigour will have freer scope. 
Colonists necessarily become great utilitarians, but to the 
credit of Australians an intelligent visitor to our shores will 
find that, whilst we have been vigorously employed in sub- 
duing nature till the wilderness blossoms as the rose, and have 
laid the foundations of a great and prosperous nation, the 
sacred cause of education has not been overlooked, nor have 
th«; advantages of mental culture ever been despised. 

The Observatory, for the reasons just explained, is as yet 
but a very modest and unpretending institution, presided over 
by the Government Astronomer, who is also Postmaster- 
General and Superintendent of Telegraphs. It is situated on 
the West Park Lands, having the City of Adelaide and the 



39G SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

Mount Lofty Ranges on the east, and St. Vincent's Gulf, 
towards which the hind gently slopes, at a distance of about 
four miles on the west. Until recently its operations were 
chiefly confined to meteorology, but advantage was taken of 
the transit of Venus, in December 1874, to procure a fine ten- 
foot equatorial, by Cooke & Son, of York. 

The only other astronomical instrument is a forty-two-inch 
transit instrument, by Simms, kindly placed at our disposal by 
the Victorian Government, pending the erection of a transit 
circle which it is intended shortly to obtain. 

The object-glass of the equatorial has an aperture of 8 inches, 
with a focus of 9 feet 11 inches, the telescope being carried 
by a massive iron pillar, standing on a pier of solid masonry 
having a broad foundation of concrete. The whole is enclosed 
in a dome eighteen feet in diameter, revolving on cannon balls. 
The pillar which carries the telescope consists of two parts, 
the upper part turning on the lower by means of a pinion 
working into teeth round the circumference of the lower pillar, 
so that the polar axis may be set to the meridian, or to any 
desired angle with the meridian. By means of a massive 
toothed iron semi-circle, into which works a large horizontal 
screw, the polar axis can be set parallel with the horizon, or 
brought within 25 or 30 degrees of the vertical ; and is set to 
the meridian in the manner already described. 

Clock-work motion is provided, and by a somewhat novel 
arrangement the clock can be made to drive the telescope in 
either direction. These three adjustments give the instrument 
an almost universal character, adapting it to either hemi- 
sphere. 

The hour circle and the declination circle are read by 
verniers, the former to two seconds in time, and the latter to 
ten seconds in arc. 

A long microscope at the eye-end of the telescope en- 
ables the observer to read or set the declination circle to 
any reading without leaving his scat, the vernier and arc of 
the circle being illuminated by the same lamp which lights 
the field of view. 



ITS OBSEEVATOEY AND METEOEOLOGY. 397 

At the eye-end of the telescope is a position circle, and 
the instrument is provided with a complete battery of eve- 
pieces, including a double micrometer and transit eye-pieces, 
with various powers, Huyghenian eye-pieces ranging up to 
060, and total and first surface reflection prisms. 

There has also been added since a fine universal auto- 
matic six-prism spectroscope, by Browning, Avith an arrange- 
ment for reversing the rays so as to give a dispersive power 
ranging from two to twelve prisms. 

A time ball at the Semaphore, about nine miles distant, 
is dropped daily at 1 p.m. by voltaic current from the Obser- 
vatory. The ball is on the toj) of a high tower, so that it is 
visible to the shipping in the inner harbour at Port Adelaide, 
and in the roadstead outside in the gulf. 

Meteorological observations are made daily at 9 a.m., 12 
noon, 3 p.m., 6 p.m., and 9 p.m., and comprise readings of 
barometer, dry and wet bulb thermometers (including maxi- 
mum and minimum temperatures during the 2-1 hours), solar 
and terrestrial radiation, direction and force of wind, rainfall,, 
evaporation, ozone, amount of cloud, and general character of 
the weather. The temperature of the soil is also ascertained 
by mercurial thermometers, whose bulbs are respectively 8, 5, 
and 3 feet beneath the surface. 

The barometer by Adie of London is fixed in the transit- 
room, the cistern being about 140 feet above the sea-levels 
The internal diameter of the tube is 0*5 inch. The zero 
of the brass scale (silvered) is an ivory point to Avhich the 
surface of the mercury in the cistern is adjusted before- 
reading, and by means of the vernier the scale can be read 
off to 0-002 inch. 

The thermometer, including the dry and wet bulb, and 
self-registering instruments, are mounted about 5 feet 6 inches 
from the ground on an improved form of the Greenwich stand, 
modified to suit the climate, the instruments being well pro- 
tected from the sun and rain and screened from the sky, but 
otherwise fully exposed to currents of air, the stand being at 
some distance from any building. 



398 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

A corresponding set of instruments were mounted in 1869 
in an octagon-shaped ^^■ooden structure, 10 feet in diameter, 
with wide open Littico walls, 5 feet 9 inches high, sur- 
mounted by a conical louvre roof, carried to a height of 13 
feet, with a rain-gauge at the top, the standard rain-gauge 
being on the ground. The building is floored with planks, 
and the whole is well painted white. The instruments are 
fixed a little ov(^r 5 feet above the floor on a skeleton frame 
of wood, supported by a stout post securely planted in the 
centre of the building. A similar thermometer stand was 
adopted at the Sydney Observatory, and with some modifica- 
tions seems well suited to a hot climate — perhaps better suited 
than the Greenwich stand — and, in the opinion of the writer, 
is certainly to be preferred to the double louvre box designed 
by Mr. Thomas Stevenson of Edinburgh, and adopted by the 
Scottish Meteorological Society. Sudden fluctuations of tem- 
perature are, however, not so readily or so quickly followed or 
indicated, and the thermometers as a rule lag behind those on 
the Greenwich stand. 

The solar radiation thermometer — which is, as are nearly 
all the otlier self-registering instruments, of Negretti and Zam- 
bra's make, having a black glass bulb enclosed in an exhausted 
glass tube — is held about 5 feet from the ground by two light 
wooden arms screwed on to a stout post planted in an open 
space of ground. 

The ground thermometers, made by Grimoldi of Mel- 
bourne, are placed vertically in a wooden trough filled with 
earth, and buried so as to have the bulbs respectively 8 feet, 
5 feet, and 3 feet beneath the surface of the ground, the upper 
part of the scales being about a foot above and enclosed in a 
cupboard painted white. 

'I'he rain-gauges are of Glaisher's form, having a circular 
receiving surface 8 inches in diameter, the gauge being 
placed on the ground on a clear space, where it is wholly un- 
sheltered in every direction. There are three gauges — two 
being on the ground, and the third on the top of the 
thermometer house before mentioned. 



ITS OBSERVATOKY AND METEOROLOGY. 399 

The evaporation is ascertained in the following maimer : — 
The atmometer, or evaporation tank, consists of a large box 
made of well-seasoned red gum, lined with zinc ; the box 
is 4 feet square, and 3 feet 6 inches deep, and is sunk in 
the ground to a dejDth of 3 feet, and is kept filled with 
water to within 3 or 4 inches of the top. The height of 
the water-level is measured every morning at 9 a.m., thus 
— A stout brass bar is placed diagonally over one corner of 
the tank, resting horizontally on two iron plates ; at right 
angles to this bar is a vertical graduated rod, movable by 
rack and pinion, and read by means of a fixed vernier to 
O'Ol inch. The lower end of the rod is pointed, and is care- 
fully set to the water-level in a 2-inch tube fixed in the 
tank, the tube being perforated at the bottom. A perfectly 
smooth surface is thus obtained, even in the highest winds. 
A rain-gauge by the side of the tank shows the rainfall 
received by the latter. A similar tank is placed at the 
waterworks reservoir, a sheet of water of twenty-seven acres, 
near the foot of the hills, 281 feet above the sea, and about 
six miles from Adelaide. 

Similar, but less complete, observations are carried on at 
several of the telegraph stations in the Colony, including Port 
Darwin on the north coast of Australia ; and also at the light- 
houses. Eain-gauges have also been supplied to about seventy 
stations, which send in returns monthly. 

Besides this, every telegraph office transmits to Adelaide a 
report on the state of the weather, &c., each morning at 9 a.m., 
and similar reports are received from the principal coast offices 
in the other Colonies. These reports are published daily at 
the central telegraph office. 

Thus it will be seen that, on the completion of the telegraph 
to Western Australia, now in course of construction, the ob- 
server in Adelaide will possess the means of knowing the 
prevailing state of the weather each day nearly all round the 
sea-board of Australia, and over a great portion of the interior, 
information which, if riglitly used and interpreted, cannot fail 
to be most useful. The stations on the overland telegraph, 



400 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

from Adelaide to Port Darwin, are especially serviceable in 
determining the southerly march of the north-west monsoon, 
which prevails on the north coast from towards the middle of 
November to March, and occasionally extends its influence in 
heavv thunderstorms right across the continent. 

What luis boon said will servo to show that the Observatory 
is performing useful work. Unfortunately its operations have 
been crippled, and the periodical publication of returns has 
been stoj)ped fur want of adequate assistance, the Government 
Observer, in addition to the onerous official duties of Post- 
master-General and Superintendent of Telegraphs, having been 
called away for lengthened periods to secure the successful 
completion of the overland telegraph, a national undertaking- 
of vast importance, which has been referred to in a previous 
portion of this hand-book. Eecently, however, an assistant 
observer, Mr. Alexander Kingwood, and a cadet have been 
appointed. 

"With this augmentation of strength it is proposed shortly 
to take up fresh work, and introduce improved systems of 
observation. The present transit instrument will be replaced 
by a transit circle, having a six-inch object glass, and thirty- 
inch circle. It is also recommended that photographic regis- 
trations of the variations of the barometer temperature and 
humiditv, on the same principle as that adopted at Kew and 
Greenwich, shall be introduced ; and in view of the great 
importance of possessing reliable statistics of tlie average 
maximum and minimum rainfall at different jjlaces, as 
affording a clue to the law governing its distribution and 
annual fluctuations, the Government, at the instance of the 
Astronomer, have sanctioned the issue of rain-gauges to. 
persons residing in selected localities who may be willing to 
take charge of them and undertake to furnish regular returns 
to the Observatory. 

In view^of the real wants of a young community, the 
Government Astronomer is anxious to turn the Observatory to 
account in the promotion of high-class education, by the 
delivery at the Observatory of lectures on the physical sciences 



ITS OBSEEVATOEY AND METEOEOLOGY. 401 

to students, and in a recent official report to the Government 
he remarks : — ■" With regard to the special work and object of 
the Observatory as a public institution, it would, I think, be 
well to bear in mind that the Observatory is required not so 
lauch for the furtherance of astronomical science — for which 
there is, perhaps, ample and better provision elsewhere — as for 
educational pur230ses, as an important adjunct to our university 
<ind higher class schools for both sexes. It will, of course, have 
its regular work such as I have described, and it will be able 
to render valuable aid in those fields of astronomical research 
which do not involve continuous observation or , heavy compu- 
tations — such work, in fact, as may be safely left to observatories 
like ours, which do not possess a large staff of official observers. 
We could take up, among other things, solar and stellar spec- 
troscopy, sun spots, double stars, and, what the Astronomer 
Eoyal, Sir G. B. Airy, has pointed out as a great want, ob- 
servations of occultations, eclipses, and transits of Jupiter's 
satellites. On these we may be usefully employed, but beyond 
this I must confess that I am more anxious to see our Obser- 
vatory popularised as a school of physical science, at which 
regular courses of lectures should be delivered on practical 
and physical astronomy, navigation, meteorology, magnetism, 
electricity, heat, light, and optics. In naming this list of 
subjects, taking so wide a range of cognate sciences, I need 
hardly say that, with my other duties as the director of so 
large a department of the public service as the Post Office and 
Telegraph, especially too after so long a residence in the 
Colony, it would be impossible for me to attempt to carry out 
€ven a tithe of what I have ventured to indicate as the best 
way of utilizing the Observatory in the promotion of high-class 
education ; but I could continue to direct the operations of the 
observatory, and collect together the apparatus required for 
lectures and other purposes." 

Having described the Observatory and its operations, it 
remains to say a few words in respect to the climate. Here as 
elsewhere the weather is a fertile subject for conversation, and 
people whose avocations are affected by its changes are never 

2 D 



•102 SOUTH AU.STliALIA. 

tired of talking about it — at one time in terms of j^raise, at 
another in terms of complaint; but what, perhaps, Avould most 
strike a visitor from colder and more humid climates, is 
the fact that people here never complain of rain ; on the con- 
trary, a wet day is generally announced l)y such expressions as 
" Splendid rain to-day, I hope it is general ; " *' What fine rains 
we are having, they extend well north ; " and they only who 
know A\hat it is to have consecutive weeks, and in some parts 
many months, of unclouded sky and hot sun can appreciate the 
real luxury of rain. Our climate, beautiful as it really is, 
aifording as it does a greater number of pleasant days on which 
outdoor pursuits can be carried on with buoyancy of spirits, 
one must confess is a wee bit dry, a fact which vegetation on 
the plains during our summer season sufficiently attests. The 
clearness or transparency of the atmosphere is something 
wonderful, and owing to its dryness the heat, except on hot- 
wind days, is seldom oppressive unless one is lazy. Cricket 
matches are played with the usual enthusiasm before crowds of 
spectators with the thermometer ranging between 90° and 100° 
in the shade, and the writer has ridden fifty miles in the day 
with the temperature as high as 110° without much incon- 
venience or distress — the secret of which is that these high 
temperatures are always accompanied by such an extreme 
dryness of the air that perspiration affords instantaneous 
relief. When a fierce hot wind is blowing, and the thermo- 
meter stands perhaps at something over 100°, the wet bulb 
thermometer will show 65°, and it is this which enables persons 
to bear the heat of our summer and carry on their usual pur- 
suits with less inconvenience and discomfort than is felt in 
tropical and damp climates, though the temperature may be 
15° or 20° lower, but nearly saturated with aqueous vapour, as 
at Port Darwin, where during the rainy season of the north- 
west monsoon, the thermometer may stand at only 88°, whilst 
the wet bulb at the same time indicates 86°. Such an atmo- 
sphere, we need hardly say, is far more enervating than the hot 
and dry air of the Adelaide plains. 

The observations at the Observatory satisfactorily represent 



ITS OBSEEVATOEY AND METEOEOLOGY. 403 

the climate of tlie plains for some distance north and sonth of 
Adelaide, but on the Mount Lofty Eanges close by the citizens 
in an hour or two find a much lower temperature, and twenty 
minutes by railway carries them to the invigorating breezes of 
the gulf; and except when kept back by strong easterly and 
northerly winds, the sea breeze usually sets in soon after 
10 A.M., and sweeps across the plains, tempering the heat 
during what Avould otherwise be the hottest hours of tlie 
day. 

The hottest months in the year are December, January, 
and February, when the temperature on the plains frequently 
exceeds lOO'^in the shade. November and March are also hot ; 
but the nights, especially in the former month, are cooler, and 
the heat is seldom of long duration, rarely reaching 100° in 
the shade, and, coming in suddenly with a strong hot wdnd, is 
followed quickly by a change to cool or even cold weather. A 
few hot days occasionally occur in October, but even in the 
hottest months, especially in December, the weather is often 
broken by cloudy, cold intervals, with strong south-west Avinds, 
veering gradually to south and south-east. This state of 
things will continue for several days, during which the wind 
from the south-east will usually freslien towards sunset, a bank 
of cloud forming over the Mount Lofty Eanges with cold nights, 
the temperature falling rapidly after sunset. The duration of 
these south-easterly winds appears to depend upon the weather 
on the eastern coast ; and the presence of the bank of cloud on 
the ranges, and the persistence and force of the wind, often 
indicate gales and rain on the coasts of New South Wales and 
Queensland, although the weather here may be fine and clear 
overhead. As the easterly wind moderates, it gradually hauls 
to the north, and alternate land (easterly) and sea (south- 
westerly) breezes set in with fine weather, getting warmer and 
warmer, till another spell of extreme heat is experienced. The 
heat is sometimes followed by rain, especially in the earlier 
part of the season, setting in with the surface wind light at 
north-east, but the upper current north-west. This is usually 
presaged by aggregations of cirro-cuuiuli, which close up into 

2 D 2 



404 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

a bank, with a hard sharply defined outline, gradually spreading 
over the sky, the clouds at the same time increasing in density 
as they change their character with scud forming beneath. 
The rain increases as the wind veers to the north-west, and 
often extends over a large area to the north, and is sometimes 
accompanied with heavy thunder and lightning, usually termi- 
nating with a gale from the south-west. The same thing 
occurs in the winter, but the wind at that season hangs longer 
about the west, often Ixicking to the north-west with heavy 
rain and wind. These are usually our heaviest and most 
widely diffused falls, the rains from the south-west seldom 
extendino; far inland. 

Regarding the summer as extending from October to 3Iarch 
inclusive, the highest temperature recorded during the ten 
years 1865 to 1874 was 113*5 in January 1867, and the same 
in November 1865 ; and the lowest, 38"5, in October 1871. 
The highest reading in the sun during the same period was 
164*0 in January 1870, and the lowest reading of a thermo- 
meter, with its bulb on wool placed on the ground, was 24*6, 
in October 1871. The monthly moan temperature is highest 
in January and February, being nearly equal in the two 
months, viz. 73'7 and 73*8 respectively. The mean temjiera- 
ture of December is about 71*4 ; March, 70*1 ; November, 66*5 ; 
and October, 62*5. 

After ]\rarch the temperature falls rapidly, very rarely 
reaching 90^ in the shade in xVpril (only six times in five years), 
the mean temperature for that month, deduced from ten years' 
observations, being 64*6, or 5*2 below that of the preceding 
month, whilst for ]\[ay it is only 58'2. The weather during 
April and a great part of 3Iay is simply perfection, and the 
same applies to most of the winter and till the end of October. 
Although corresponding to the autumn or early winter of 
Europe, it is virtually spring when vegetation, refreshed by the 
first rains after the drought of summer, bursts into fresh life, 
and the whole surface of tlie land is clad with verdure. Heavy 
rains frequently fall in 3Iay, the largest recorded being 6*340 
inches in 1851, the wettest year since records were commenced 



ITS OBSERVATORY AND METEOROLOGY. 405 

by Sir G. S. Kingston in 1839, but the mean for the thirty-six 
years ending- 187-4 is 2*814 inches. 

The coklest months are June, July, and August, the mean 
monthly temperature of which are 54'4, 51*5, and 53"7 
respectively. The highest temperature recorded in those 
months during the ten years 1865-1874 was 80*0, in August 
1865, and the lowest, o4'l, in August 1872. During the same 
period the solar thermometer reached 130"5 in August 1874, 
and the thermometer on wool fell to 24*6 in July 1873. At 
this season of the year the temperature during the day generally 
ranges between 55° and 70"', the latter being only occasionally 
reached, and falls on the average to about 45° in the night, 
sometimes much lower. These and May are usually our wettest 
months, the average quantity falling during this period, deduced 
from thirty-six years' observations (1839-1874 j, being 11*181 
inches, the monthly averages being respectively 2"814, 2*915, 
2-801, and 2*621 inches, for May, June, July, and August. The 
average number of wet days in these months for the same 
period was 13 days in May, 14 days in June, 16 days in July, 
and 16 days in August. The greatest number of wet days in 
any one month was 29 days in July 1861, on which the total 
fall was 4*082 inches, and in the following year there were 24 
wet days, and 5*075 inches in the same month. The maximum 
quantity recorded in one month was 6*340 inches on 19 days 
in May 1851 ; 7*800 inches on ten days in June 1848 ; 5*380 
inches on 17 days in July 1865; and 6*240 inches on 21 days 
in August 1852. The least quantity in the same months was 
0*245 inches on 5 days in May 1839 ; 1*138 inches on 9 days 
in June 1844 ; 0*726 inch on 12 days in July 1859 ; and 
0*675 on 3 days in August 1860. These quantities, of course, 
refer to the plains of Adelaide ; on the hills and in the south- 
eastern portion of the colony the rainfall is much heavier. 
The following tables will sufficiently indicate the climatic 
characteristics of Adelaide during each month of the year : — 



406 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 







,- 


,_ 


,_ 


,- 


_ 


_ 


.- 


_ 


, 1 


■o 


■M 


o 


CO 


£' 3 




CO 


co 


"O 


CO 
CO 




c4 


-r 
(>4 


^ 


C-"l 


(M 


o5 


CO 


-tl 




Ci 


o 


c^ 


o 


o 


(M 


CO 


O 


(M 


Ci 


00 




1 '1"".^ 




























T~ — 


no lS3A\0-[ lll.)l\; 


CO 


CO 


^M 


1^ 


CO 


.~( 


00 


oo 


o 


-ti 


1- 








'O 


• ^ 


i-O 


-* 


-f 


-f 




CO 


•*! 


-f 


-+i 




■* 






o 


CO 


(M 


CO 


o 


l^ 


-+I 


IQ 


-t< 


-tt 


".O 


o 


o 




•line; HI 


-t< 


00 


ira 


o 


-H 


"O 


,-^ 


o 


00 


_i 


o 


C5 


"t 




}Sitir;![i imnoy 


■~o 




IQ 




CO 


T'l 


fM 


CO 




" 


■^i 


l.O 


CO 


(M 


_ 


rt 


1- 


X 


^ 


CO 


^ 


o 


^ 


c:i 


(M 


CO 


r^ 


•ans 


lO 


-H 


O 


^ 


a 


_( 


CO 


,_, 


1- 


-H 


C5 


CO 


o 




in isonSjii uBdj^ 


CO 

l-H 


CO 


CO 


(M 




o 


o 

r-i 


-^ 


1-H 
l-H 


!M 


l-H 




IM 




■UOflBJOdtJAJ 


to 


00 


•*! 


l> 


00 


CO 


00 


CO 


(M 


CO 


O 


CO 


l-H 




JO 3JUI 


^ 


^ 


(T5 


o 


(>J 


o 


r^ 


(75 


^ 




t^ 


C5 


lO 


-. 


-u.iodtuax u<-'ajt 
■o06 popaa.ixa 


o 


« 


lO 


>« 


i-O 


".O 


-ti 


-tl 






o 


4.01 


»o 




























■dmax s.Cu(i 


o 


o 


I- 


-^ 


o 




o 


o 


o 


!M 


-n 










JO -0^ oSlUJAV 


























CO 


•aSuTTjj 


-n 


05 


CO 


t- 


r-, 


o 


o 


l-H 


^ 


a 


^ 


l-H 


^ 








CO 


05 


CO 

l-H 


I— 1 


I— 1 


1-H 


OS 

l-H 


(M 




Its 


© 

CO 


•Hl3i»^ Suunp 


O 


-* 


»o 


OD 


rH 


-n 


r-i 


(M 


CO 


l-H 


CO 


t- 


c 




■JSJAVOI UBaj^ 


» 




00 

in 


LO 


O 








1> 


O 


4< 


CO 

to 
































E 


a 


•;Cb([ 0111 Siiijnp 


-H 


CO 


00 


lO 


(M 


-# 


00 


CO 


tH 


o 


t> 


00 


•^ 


^ 


IsailSlH uiow 


O 


i 


r—i 


'ti 


CJ3 


1—1 


on 


fN 


CO 


■* 


00 


CO 


CO 




c 


CO 


00 


00 


t^ 


CO 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


I> 


l> 


00 


t- 






































l-H 


>n 


m 


Ci 


o 


o 


(N 


I— 1 


CO 


l-H 


OJ 


no 


iM 






■iuniU!ii!i\r 


,^ 


h- 


o 


^ 


on 


r^ 


^ 


-tl 


»c 


00 


o 


CO 


-tl 






TtH 


'^t^ 


'ti 


'tl 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


^ 


'^^ 


CO 




>-z 


O 


OD 


o 


CO 


o 


>« 


o 


t> 


o 


>o 


o 


• m 




•iuum!\\:)\; 


CO 


o 


1- 


-/) 


r/) 


CO 


0<) 


o 


-H 


o 


CO 


w 


CO 










O 


Ci 


OO 


r^ 


1^ 


oo 


00 


o 




l-H 






- 


,, 


'^ 








-H 










I-H 

i.O 


l-H 


l-H 


CO 


^ 


« 


(M 


o 


t- 


C5 


o 




•UBO]J 


-:^ 


CO 


o 


-H 


rn 


-H 


^H 


CO 


CO 


(N 


CO 


^^ 


CO 


1 




I- 


l^ 


I- 


:o 


lO 




lO 


o 


iC 


CO 


CO 


t- 


CO 






l.O 


1- 


o 


tl 


CO 


^ 


00 


o 


CO 


t^ 


CO 


lO 


CO 






-t< 


-^ 


CO 


o 


CO 


C2 


CO 




05 


o 


r>i 


05 


C5 


•3 


"tSO.ttOI 


I-J 


CO 


-f 


'tl 


CO 




rH 


l-H 


o 


IM 


(M 


l-H 


O 






^ 


C5 


o 


C5 


C5 


o 


o 


C5 


o 


c:5 


CJ 


C5 


C5 


1?; 




ITJ 


<M 


(>J 


C^ 


(>< 


!M 


Oi 


!M 


Oi 


a^ 


CN 


OJ 


<M 




(M 


O 


^ 


CO 


r^ 


CO 


CO 


(N 


CO 


o 


-t< 


t^ 


CO 










o 


CO 




CO 


o 


Ci 


00 


KO 


o 


CO 


CO 


oT! 


•5Saqg|n 


^ 


iM 


CO 


CO 


"O 


lO 


"O 


'•f 


CO 


CO 


CO 


l-H 


o 


^ s 




O 


O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


a £ 




CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 




CO 


o 


C5 


o 


(M 


00 


o 


m 


o 


(N 


o 


OS 


CO 


-* 






» 


1^ 




o 


o 


Ol 


m 


Oi 


^ 


00 


o 


CO 


n 


•KV 6 'laMlV 


cc 


oo 


a 


o 


o 


Ci 


o 


Cl 


a 


a 


00 


00 


05 






cr. 


a 


a 


o 


o 


05 


o 


«5 


m 


a 


Ci 


C5 


03 






(M 


r>l 


'>i 


CO 


CO 


c^ 


CO 


<M 


(M 


!M 


!M 


iM 


(M 








c: 




i 


o 
c 




So 

-< 


a 

1" 


O 

O 


»4 

a; 

s 

> 

o 


i 





ITS OBSEEVATOEY AND METEOEOLOGY. 



407 



Resclt of the Mean Monthly Eaixfall at Adelaide durixg the 
Thirty-six Years 1839-1874. 



Months. 




!Mean. 


Mei\n 

No. of 

W( t 


Greate=t. 


Least. 


Mean 
Evapora- 
tion 






Days. 






Five Years. 


January 




Indies. 
0-722 


4 


4-000 


0-000 


Inches. 
10-641 


February 




0-G70 


3 


3-100 


0-000 


8-802 


March ... 




0-881 


5J 


3-753 


0-000 


7-608 


April ... 




1-760 


8J 


6-780 


0-250 


4-474 


Ma y 




2-814 


13 


6-340 


0-690 


2-902 


June 


2-915 


14 


7-800 


1-138 


1-795 


July 


2-801 


16 


5-380 


0-726 


1-959 


Augu.st ... 




2-621 


16 


6-240 


0-675 


2-667 


September 


- 


2-071 


13J 


4-640 


0-711 


3-427 


October ... 




1-739 


10 


3-834 


0-460 


5-981 


November 


. 


1-203 


5 


3-550 


0-100 


6-979 


December 


• 


0-894 


o.i 


3-977 


0-105 


9-420 




21-091 


114 


— 


— 


66-655 



From wliich the following liygrometric results are de- 
duced : — 





Temperature 
ot Dew Point. 


Elastic Force 
of Vapour. 


Degree of 
Humility. 




Degrees. 


; Indies. 


(Saturation = 100.) 


January 
February . . 


52-8 
58-0 


0-400 
0-405 


48 
48 


March 


51-1 


0-377 


51 


April 


50-2 


0-363 


60 


May 
June 


47-9 
46-3 


0-335 
0-313 


67 
74 


July 
August 


44-0 
45-0 


0-289 
0-298 


77 
73 


September . . 
October 


46-0 
47-3 


0-310 
0-326 


66 
57 


November .. 


49-3 


0-352 


54 


December .. 


50-1 


0-362 


47 



Year 



48- 



0-.338 



60 



408 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



For purjioscs of comparison, tlie following table gives the 
mean temperature at Adelaide, Clare, Mount Barker, Mount 
Gambier, and Kobe ; also the maximum and minimum for 
the year 1874. 





- 




ct 


X 


r. " 


:- 


_ 


_ 


y: 


^ 


x 


-. 


X 


= 




3 




CO 


(M 


(M i-l 


CO 


IM 


C5 


o 


CO 


cc 


o 


C^l 


03 


1 




(O 


O 


«o o 


w 


un 


•>tl 


lO 


»o 


lO 


CO 


CO 


o 


1 




(M 


(M 


<M CO 


CO 


Tf 


00 


CI 


CO 


o 


(N 


o 


C5 


o 




CO 


<o 


iM a 


cr 


^^ 


C5 


CO 


IM 


lO 


r- 


0^1 


CO 


(4 


5 1 

o 

s 


•r. 


o 


Oi 


00 I- 


CO 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


l^ 


c^ 


C5 






(M 


nn 


lO o 


(M 


^ 


o 


OO 


CO 


l-H 


o 


IM 


CO 




<; 
































U? 


Oi 


o 


O lO 


o 


o 


t- 


CO 


1— 1 


JN 


lO 


t- 


CO 








■* 


■<*< 


■*! -"tl 


■^ 


■* 


eo 


CO 


'^H 


tH 


Tt^ 


tH 


CO 

C3 




d 




(M 


CO 


'^ o 


IM 


CO 


»o 


CO 


t> 


o 


00 


CO 








in 


(M 


O 05 


•o 


^H 


m 


o 


,_l 


CO 


t^ 


(>] 


CO 




'^ 




o 


o 


O lO 


in 


o 


-<*H 


■*! 


o 


o 


o 


CO 


o 






o 


o 


o o 


»+< 


o 


00 


i-O 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


• 






-f 


O -H 


(N 


o 


CO 


o 


-H 


_l 


CO 


Ift 


^H 


.^a 


-S 


1^ 


o 


Ci 


CI cc 


1^ 


CO 


CO 


1^ 


r^ 


C5 


CO 


o 


o 


Q 




























f— 1 


o 


^ 

<! 




o 


CO 


O lO 


o 


(M 


o 


o 


00 


CO 


CO 


o 


o 






o 


CO 


rH lO 


(M 


T-l 


I— 1 


o 


o 


CO 


t^ 


,^ 


o 








■* 


'S^ 


■^ CO 


CO 


CO 

o 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


■* 






C 




o 


o 


CO (M 


I— 1 


tH 


CO 


00 


o 


00 


1—1 




C 




t^ 


-tl 


-- o 


(M 


CO 


•* 


CO 


05 


t^ 


05 


-f 


CO 


C 

•§ 


(C? 




CO 


w 


CO o 


1« 


■^ 


^ 


■* 


■* 


lO 


o 


































5 






lO 


o 


o o 


o 


© 


o 


o 


o 


lO 


i-O 


o 


lO 


d 




o 


o 


I- o 


IM 


r^ 


o 


C^l 


r^ 


o 


03 


cq 


C5 


-4>^ 


r^ 


o 


o 


O Ci 


1- 


CO 


CO 


1^ 


CO 


crj 


cyj 


o 


o 


3 


























t—i 


1— • 


S 


J 




o 


1^ 


O GO 


00 


m 


o 


o 


o 


o 


CO 


o 


o 




< 


c 




o 


^ M 


(M 


^ 


<-. 


o 


'M 


(M 


-fl 


(M 


o 






is, 


Tt< 


■*! 


■«*< M 


CO 


CO 


(M 


N 


CO 


CO 


CO 


^ 


t- 




, 




o 


o 


■* CO 


'*l 


uo 


(M 


o 


lO 


o 


CO 


l-H 








-f 


o 


lO -+I 


,_, 


C2 


1^ 


OO 


,_c 


(M 


CO 


CO 


o 




" 




t> 


t~ 


CO CO 


o 


"+1 


■*! 


■* 


»o 








CO 






do 


(M 


00 »o 


OO 


^ 


00 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


b 


. 


s 


o 


OO 


•^ OO 


CO 


lO 


CO 


-H 


r- 


r^ 


CO 


Ifl 


o 


o 


1 




C5 


05 00 


t- 


CO 


CO 


l-~ 


co 


00 






1—1 




o 


o 


o o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 




< 




CO 


in 


»o o 


t^ 


>o 


00 


,_( 


CO 


00 


Oi 


CO 


OO 






)S 


■* 


■* 


■* -^ 


CO 


CO 


(>J 


CO 


















-t< 


CD 


-t< -n 


00 


t> 


TfH 


CO 


lO 


OO 


r-. 


<M 


00 










C5 


t^ CO 


cr> 


O-l 


o 


Ol 


CO 


(M 


Tt< 


(M 


^H 


4 
5 


- 




l^ 




b CO 


1--; 


lO 


•^ 


lO 


tn 








o 
1—1 


« 




o 


CO 


o o 
o o 


CO 




CO 


o 


J-t 
o 




l-H 


CO 




.*! 




o 


O 05 


t^ 


CO 


CO 


t^ 


t^ 


a 


a> 


o 




<i 






r-( 


























1 


d 


o 


(M 


o o 


m 


I-l 


(N 


o 


I-H 


o 


(M 


(N 


(M 




<! 


^ 


o 


00 l> 


r-< 


on 


-H 


o 


CO 


o 


CO 


CO 


-+• 






■^ 


o 


>o 


•*! ■* 


■<*< 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


■^ 


■*! 


-f 






c 




>> 


>1 


'' • 










1 




3 


o 

"a 


eS 




S 




1^ 














o 

o 
3Q 


a 




o 

Cj 

o 


;>H 



ITS OBSERVATOEY AND METEOEOLOGY. 



409 



From the foregoing it will be seen that the barometer is 
highest during the winter months, Avhen the air in the interior 
is cold and dense, and winds set towards the coast ; and lowest 
during the summer, when the atmosphere in the heated interior 
becomes rarified, and the winds have a general set inwards 
from the coast, the monthly means ranging from 29"809 inches 
in December to 30*020 in July. The mean reading for each 
quarter for the decennial period was — 



or for 




January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

Aiigust 

September 

October 

November 

December 



Six summer months 
Six winter months 



29-884 inclies. 
"30-003 inches. 
29-978 inches. 
29-877 inches. 



... 29-880 inches. 
... 29-991 inches. 



The highest reading during the ten years was 30*533 
inches, in June 1873, and the lowest 29*096 inches, in September 
1867. The fluctuations of the barometer are greatest during 
the winter months, as shown by the following table, which 
exhibits the range of the barometer in each month during the 
ten years 1865 to 1874, the greatest range in any one month 
being 1*379 inches, which occurred in August 1870, and the 
least range, 0*474 inches, in January 1865. 

Range of the Barometeu in each Month dl-ring the Ten Years 1865-1874. 



Months. 


1863. 


1866. 


1867. 


18U8. 


1869. 


1870. 


1871. 


1^72. 


1873. 


1874. 




Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inclies. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Jan. ... 


0-474 


0-547 


0-736 


0-536 


0-679 


0-877 


0-589 


0-802 


0-521 


0-666 


Feb. ... 


0-719 


0-716 


0-754 


0-788 


0-573 


0-575 


0-614 


0-637 


0-674 


0-590 


March 


0-642 


0-761 


0-642 


0-597 


0-766 


0-510 


0-539 


0-477 


0-662 


0-792 


April... 


0-693 


0-631 


0-690 


0-958 


0-665 


0-663 


0-549 


0-735 


0-709 


0-559 


Wiiy ... 


0-818 


0-929 


0-741 


0-669 


0-727 


0-960 


0-834 


1-032 


0-840 


1-060 


June... 


0-722 


0-90t 


0-794 


1 • 097 


0-794 


1-037 


0-728 


I'lie 


1-084 


0-900 


July... 


1-231 


0-777 


0-964 


1-019 


0-801 


0-721 


1-145 


1-057 


0-836 


0-725 


August 


0-894 


l-0»8 


1-U3 


0-827 


0-748 


1-379 


0-768 


1-067 


0-828 


0-849 


Sept. ... 


0-662 


0-«43 


1-125 


0-853 


0-759 


0-691 


0-942 


0-583 


0-769 


0-944 


Oct. ... 


0-889 


1-079 


0-916 


0-686 


0-957 


0-943 


0-818 


0-808 


0-762 


0-798 


Kov. ... 


0-715 


0-725 


0-831 


0-692 


0-794 


0-682 


0-740 


0»702 


0-553 


0-698 


Dec. ... 


0-807 


0-6.-i5 


0-540 


0-598 


0-816 


0-808 


0-729 


0-681 


0-914 


0-738 



410 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

The mean, tlic greatest, and least laimc of the barometer 
deduced iVom the foregoini:- tahlr is as follows: — 





Sleai) Riingo. 


(jrontPft liaiigo. 


Least Range. 




Jiiclio.-:. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


Jnnvmiy 


... 0(;:!i7 


0-S02 in 1872 


0-474 in 18G5 


Febiuarv 


... OiUiiO 


0-7SS in 1S(;S 


0-.^)7:^ in 1869 


March 


... 0(;:;ss 


0-7'.t2 in 1S74: 


0-477 in 1872 


April... 


... ()C,S.")2 


O-'.ioS in 187:5 


0-549 in 1865 


May ... 


... ((SCIO 


l-OGO in 187-t 


0-669 in 1868 


June ... 


... ()-:i-j-jt; 


1-116 in 1872 


0-722 in 1865 


July ... 


... ();)27(i 


1-281 in 18G;) 


0-721 in 1870 


August 


... ((•'.•."ii;i 


l-;579 in 1870 


0-768 in 1871 


Scjittniber 


... (tsiTI 


1-125 in 1867 


0-(;(;2 in 1870 


October 


... OSiJ.'tC 


1-079 in 18(;(J 


0-686 in 1868 


Novcnilier 


... 0-71:^2 


0-8:^1 in 1807 


0-55:^ in 1873 


December 


... o-7:iiu 


0-914 in 187:5 


0-540 in 1867 



The barometer usually rises as the wind, except iu the case 
of mere local land and sea breezes, veers from north-west round 
by south to south-east, where it attains its maximum, falling as 
it goes gradually round by north to north-west, where it reaches 
its minimum. In the winter gales, when the wdnd clings to west 
and backs to north-west, the barometer falls, and bad weather 
may be looked for ; and in the summer, when it holds to the 
north-east, with a falling barometer, a hot wind is certain. 

Sir G. S. Kingston, the Speaker of the House of Assembly, 
whose experience of the colony extends from its first settlement 
in 1830, and who has kept with scrupulous care a record of 
the rainfall since the beginning of 1839, speaking of weather 
prognostics in an elaborate parliamentary paper on the rain- 
fall of Adelaide, remarks that — 

'• Tlie heaviest rains throughout the year may be expected 
with a wind at about north-east, tlie rain then commencing to 
fall gently and the wind light, both gradually increasing as the 
latter veers round to the north, and thence to the north-west, 
when the violence of both rain and wind has much increased ; 
after this the wind may be expected to draw round to the west 
with still increasing violence, till the wind has got to the south 
of west, when the rain generally ceases, or at least rarely falls, 
except in heavy squalls and showers, and the weather clears uj). 
The time occupied by a continuous fall of rain, as thus described, 
rarely exceeds twelve hours. The wind will, however, frequently 
hang at about west, with a few points' variation to the south 



ITS OBSERYATOEY AND METEOROLOGY. 411 

and north, for some days, during which period rain occurs in 
showers if to the south, and more steadily in proporti(jn to the 
northing of the wind. The heaviest rains, assuming a tropical 
character, may be expected after a hot north-east wind, drawing- 
round to the north-west, at which point an inch of rain and 
upwards has often fallen within the hour, accompanied with 
heavy thunder and lightning ; or, as in October 1854, the rain 
is represented by tremendous hailstorms, the hail assuming 
the form of flat pieces of ice. 

" As regards the use of the barometer in forming a judgment 
on the weather to be expected, I have to observe that the 
barometer invariably begins to fall with a north-east wind, 
continuing to fall as the wind increases in violence, and draws 
round by the north, north-west, and westerly, at and about 
which point it reaches it lowest figure ; the barometer im- 
mediately begins to rise rapidly with the least southing in the 
wind. Now, although a low barometer thus agrees with the 
heaviest fall of rain, it is impossible to draw any accurate con- 
clusions from it as to certainty of rain or otherwise ; unless, 
indeed, when the wind is violent, as then, even with every 
appearance of heavy cloudy weather, rain rarely occurs. Calm, 
murky weather, accompanied by a low state of the barometer, 
is the most favourable indication for rain. 

" I have frequently seen the barometer at its lowest point 
(as observed by me), 29*3, the wind blowing hard, accompanied 
by cloudy weather, when no rain has fallen. On the other 
hand, I have known some of the steadiest and most copious 
rains to occur with the barometer at 30*2 and falling, the wind 
light or nearly calm. 

" I may add that, generally during the fine weather, a land 
and sea breeze alternates during the twenty-four hours. After 
sunset the wind generally blows from about south-east to cast, 
dying away about daylight ; and a light south-west wind springs 
up about 9 A.M. ; but, failing to do so, the night wind towards 
morning draws round from east to north-east, by north to 
north-west, and west towards the afternoon ; and, should it 
hang to the north of east, with a falling barometer, it is a 
certain precursor of a hot wind. 



412 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

"It may not he uninteresting to add hero that whereas 
Sydney was visited Ly tremendous storms and floods from 
the 19th to the end of July 18G0, yet during that period the 
weather here was unusually fine for the time of year ; that the 
barometer was, during all that time, above oO inches, and very 
steady, oscillating slightly each day, its whole range not 
exceeding 0*2 ; the wind was very light from S.E. to N.E. and 
N.W., and that I did not record a drop of rain all that time — 
an unjirecedented event at that period of the year." 

It may be added that the changes or fluctuations of the 
barometer have almost invariably a progressive march, speak- 
ing roughly, from west to east, the maximum and minimum 
occurring in Western Australia, from two to four days in 
advance of Adelaide, where they are noted from 12 to 24 hours 
before Melbourne, and about 24 to 40 hours before Sydney and 
Brisbane. 

The winds during the summer tend generally on all sides 
towards the heated interior, which may be roughly described 
as a vast plain broken by a few ranges, none of which are of 
any height or magnitude ; on the south coast, the wind being 
S.E. and S., varied by occasional S.W. gales, following a hot 
wind from the K.E. and K. ; whilst during the winter, as will 
be presently seen, N.E. and northerly winds preponderate. 
On the east coast it is S.E., E., and N.E., whilst further north 
and round the north coast the north-west monsoon, for some 
months before and after the summer solstice, presses down 
south with varying force, often making itself felt as far south 
as the MacDonnell Ranges on the southern edge of the tropics 
in the centre of the continent. Xorth of the IMacDonnell 
Ranges the winds at this the summer season are variable, S.E. 
and N.W. winds alternating with calms ; and heavy electrical 
storms with rain prevail \\ith increasing intensity northwards 
to the coast. South of the MacDonnell Ranges S.E. winds pre- 
vail during the greater part of the year, but in the summer 
they are often influenced by the N.W. tropical current, and 
then, veering to the N.E. and N., will sweep over South 
Australia as a hot wind, the birthplace of which seems to be, 
speaking approximately, somewhere about latitude 26". Our 



ITS OBSEEVATOEY AND IVIETEOEOLOGY. 413 

experience of the climate of the interior of Australia is, as yet, 
liut limited, but the stations on the Great Overland Telegraph 
now furnish accurate daily reports of the weather, direction of 
wind, upper currents, and rainfall. These reports show that 
the prevailing wind, except during the middle of the summer, 
is S.E. I have long been of opinion that the southerly dip of 
the monsoon largely influences the climate of South Australia 
proper, as well as that of Victoria. In seasons of drought, or 
when the summer in the interior is dry, the north-west monsoon 
Tains thin off, and barely reach the centre in occasional storms. 
But when the monsoon is strong, and blows well home, the 
tropical rains and thunderstorms will stretch right across the 
continent well into the northern country of South Australia to 
within about two or three hundred miles of Adelaide ; and 
occasionally these tropical rains will reach the south coast. A 
w^et season in the interior will probably coincide with a hot 
summer in South Australia and Victoria ; whilst a cool summer, 
when strong polar currents keep the temperature down, and 
the south-east winds are powerful, will denote or coincide with 
a dry summer in the interior, and a weak N.W. monsoon. 
The winter rains of the south, it may be remarked, thin off 
about three or four degrees north of Adelaide, rarely pene- 
trating to lat. 28° ; and summer rains are not to be depended 
upon far south of the tropics. Between those parallels is a 
wide belt of five or six degrees having an uncertain rainfall, 
•subject to droughts, very seldom getting rain during the 
■winter, but mostly depending on summer thunderstorms, the 
frequency and intensity of which, it is not improbable, may be 
found closely to coincide with the magnetic cycle of eleven 
and a quarter years, which is believed to determine the fre- 
quency of aurorae, magnetic storms, and solar spots. This, of 
course, is only conjectural, and is not to be accepted till proved 
by increased experience. At present we have little or no data. 
It is, however, remarkable that Mr. Meldrun, the Government 
Observer at the Mauritius, has recently expressed an opinion 
that the cyclones of that latitude are found to coincide with 
the period or cycle referred to. 



414 SOUTH AUSTltALTA. 

It may ami vcvv jdobably ^\ill be found to be that, ^vllile 
the ^v(■t siumner.s in tlit; north and interior taper off to a 
dronght, each succeeding- year as a uhoh' becoming drier and 
drier, the drought will break np stKhlcidy with a heavy down- 
pour, and yet the electrical storms in regard to their frequency, 
and the seasons in regard to their general rainfall, may co- 
incide more or less approximately with the so-called magnetic 
cycle. 

Be this as it may, an idea of this possible coincidence, 
floating as it were in my mind, induced me, in 1870, to expect 
that we should have a continuance of favourable seasons in the 
interior for carrying out the overland telegraph, of which 
advantage should be taken; and it has strangely happened 
that, since the completion of that undertaking in 1872, up to 
which time the rains were ample, the summers have got 
liraduallv drier, and the drought has slowly extended south- 
ward. The last drought in the north was in 1865, Avhen the 
country for hundreds of miles was a desert, bare of feed, and 
strewed with the bones of dead animals, the settlers losing- 
many thousands of cattle and sheep. This was followed by a 
succession of good seasons, and in 1870, 1871, and 1872, copious 
rains fell over the whole of the interior. How far the drought 
of 1865 extended north, I have no means of knowing, as we 
had then no telegraph, and it was not till the beginning of 
1874 that the rainfall was regularly recorded ; but the seasons 
following- 1872, south of 19° or 20^ south latitude, became drier, 
and in 1875, and up to the present date, February 1876, very liittle 
rain fell between the 24th and 30th parallels, and even farther 
south. And the country north of Spencer's Gulf, especially on 
the east side of tlio hlinders Range, is now suffering- somew^hat 
from drought, ^\hi(•h extends eastward to Queensland and New- 
South "NN'alos. But to be forewarned is to be forearmed. If 
man cannot alter the laws of Nature, a correct knowledge of 
them often serves to mitigate tlieir effects where ignorance 
would invite disaster. Our large stockowners are not likely to 
suffer to the same extent in any future drought. Coincidently 
with this dry season in tlie north, tlu' southern portion of the 



ITS OBSEEVATOEY AND METEOEOLOGY. 415 

Colony, embracing the whole of the agricultnrul districts, say 
south of Mount Kemarkable, was favoured with rains throughout 
the year 1875 considerably in excess of the average. 

The distribution of rain seems somewhat capricious, and 
places not far apart will often show a very different rainfall, 
where local causes are apparently insufficient to explain the 
large difference in the yearly average. Speaking generally, 
the average annual rainfall on the plains of Adelaide, west of 
the ranges, for about 100 miles north, is about 18 to 21 inches, 
the mean at Adelaide for the 36 years 1839 to 1874 being, as 
we have seen, 21*091 inches. On the Mount Lofty Kanges it is 
much more, the average at Mount Lofty for the 10 years 
1865-74 being 40-677 inches ; at Charleston, 32-981 ; Mount 
Barker, towards the eastern verge of the range, 29-906 ; 
Gumeracha, 32-269 ; whilst at Mount Eemarkable, about 180 
miles north of Adelaide, immediately round the Mount, it is 
24-465 inches. 

On the eastern side of the Mount Lofty Eanges, and along 
the valley of the Murray, the rainfall is less than on the 
Adelaide plains, being at Strathalbyn, immediately at the 
foot of the ranges, 18-652 inches. At Montura, on the plains 
about 10 miles to the east of the range, and near the northern 
shores of Lake Alexandrina, it is 15-876 ; at Goolwa, near the 
mouth of the Murray, 17-597 ; and at Blanchetown, one 
hundred miles in a direct line up the river, only 12-739 inches. 
In the south-east, at Robe (Guiehen Bay), 3Iount Gambler, 
Penola, and Naracoorte, the average annual rainfall, deduced 
from the same period (10 years 1865-74), is 25-581, 30-599, 
28-026, and 22*775 inches respectively. On Yorke's Pen- 
insula it is less than at Adelaide, being only 13*016 inches at 
AVallaroo, and at the head of Spencer's Gulf, Port Augusta, it 
dwindles down to 9-218 inches. 

The table on page 407 shows the mean rainfall and tlie 
greatest and least quantities registered in each month during 
the thirty-six years 1839-1874, with respect to which I would 
here explain that })rior to 1857 I have availed myself of the 
valuable tables prepared by Sir George Kingston. As regards 
the monthly means, Sir George Kingston's results arc nearly 



416 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



identical witli those I have given, but in some years there is a 
discrepancy in the totals which is probably due to heavy local 
showers and tl\e efVects of wind. Taking Sir George Kingston's 

the averatre in the followine: 



figures, the 
years :■ — • 



ill 



cxceeae 



led 



Iiiclips. Days. 

1840 24-2y:{ 99 

18Jt; 26-88.") 108 

1847 27-«13 107 

1849 2.T-444 110 

1851 30-(JiiS 128 

18.^2 27-34 118 

1853 26-995 127 

1855 23- 145 124 

1856 24021 118 



Inches. Dayp. 

1858 21-522 107 

1861 25-187 129 

1862 22-844 114 

1863 22-915 131 

1870 24-100 132 

1871 23-505 122 

1872 23-155 130 

1873 21-595 114 



In 1875 the rainfall exceeded the average, the quantity 
registered at the Observatory being 28"964 in 157 days, and 
31-455 inches by Sir George Kingston. 

The years in which the rainfall fell below the average 



were :- 





InchcR. 


Days 


1839 ... 


... 19-840 .. 


... 102 


1841 ... 


... 17-95(J .. 


... 93 


1843 ... 


... 17-192 .. 


... 104 


1S44 ... 


... 16-878 ... 


... 136 


1845 ... 


... 18-830 ... 


... 124 


1848 ... 


... 19-735 ... 


... 114: 


1850 ... 


... 19-.504 ... 


... 88 


1854 ... 


... 15-346 ... 


... 105 



TnchoP. Days. 

1859 14-852 95 

1860 19-670 119 

1864 19-445 109 

1865 14-750 96 

1866 19-935 115 

1867 19-3.50 106 

1868 17-880 103 

1869 13-850 110 



Sir George Kingston's tables show that the average yearly 
rainfall, arranged in periods of five years, was as follows : — 



1839-1843 

1844-1848 
1849-1853 
1854-1858 



Inches. 
19-907 
21-9!S8 
25 • 983 
21-038 



18.59-1863 
1864-1868 
1869-1873 



Inches. 
21-093 
18-276 
21-241 



Or, divided into ])criods of seven years- 

AveraiXf for aeveii vearc;, 1839-1845 
Ditto ditto 1846-1852 

Ditto ditto 1853-18.59 

Ditto (lilto 1860-1866 

Ditto ditto 1867-1873 



And— 



Average for ten years, 1839-1848 
Ditto ditto 1849-1858 

Ditto ditto 1859-1868 



Inches. 
19-321 
25-307 
21-005 
'20-677 
20-190 

Inches. 
20-940 
23-510 
19-828 



ITS OBSEEVATOEY AND METEOEOLOGY. 



417 



The total rainfall in some years is unduly swelled by 
heavy storm rains falling during the summer ; the rains which 
are most valuable to the agriculturist are those which fall 
in the months of April, May, June, July, August, September, 
and October. I have, therefore, shown in the following 
table the rainfall recorded during those months in each 
year, from 1839 to 1875, using the Observatory records after 
1856. 

Kainfall registered in Adelaide during the months of 
A^iril, May, June, July, August, September, and October in 
each year, from 1839 to 1874, both inclusive : — 







r.ainfall in 




Rainfall in 




Rainfall in 






Years. 


7 months. 


Years. 


7 months. 


Years. 


7 months. 








Inches* 




Inches. 




Inches. 






1839 


14-436 


1851 


25-608 


1863 


20-345 






1840 


17-315 


1852 


22-480 


1864 


17-237 


, 




1841 


14-163 


1853 


24-437 


1865 


13-716 






1842 


15-683 


1854 


13-050 


1866 


17-195 






1843 


13-952 


1855 


17-090 


1867 


16-206 






1844 


13-818 


1856 


20-094 


1868 


16 084 






1845 


15-481 


1857 


12-678 


1869 


10-253 






1846 


19-295 


1858 


12-650 


1870 


18-567 






1847 


22-920 


1859 


11-647 


1871 


14-926 






1848 


15-700 


1860 


14-696 


1872 


17-152 






1849 


22-089 


1861 


17-508 


1873 


17-169 






1850 


11-044 


1862 


19-484 


1874 


15-180 





Mean quantity of rain registered in the seven niontlis, Apriljli^.^tj, . , 
May, June, July, Augvist, September, aud October, for 36 years/ '" 

On this subject. Sir George Kingston, who has been 
a careful observer since the foundation of the Colony, 
makes the following valuable remarks in an elaborate 
report on the rainfall of the Colony, laid before Parliainent 
last Session. 

" A careful examination of the rain register tables has 
induced me to consider the year as divided into three distinct 
periods or seasons — thus, during the first four months of the 
year, namely, January, February, Marcli and April, the 
average amount of rain is found to be 3*74 inches, or not quite 
one inch, per month. The next five months. May, June, July, 
August, and September, give an average amount of 13"361 

2 E 



418 SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

inches, or 2*627 inches per month ; whih^ the last three 
mouths, October, XoYem})er, and Decemher, the rainfall may 
be expected to reach 4-004, or one and a third inch, per 
month. I am inclined to disrou^ard the nsual divisions of the 
year, and to call tlie live months, ]\[ay to Se])tcml)er, spring — 
(hiring this period are carried on all the most imj)ortant 
operations of tlu^ agriculturist and horticulturist, in sowing 
and planting. Tlie three months at the end of the year, 
October, November, and December, I regard as the summer f)r 
harvest months — during tliese months, our grain crops are 
generally secured on the plains, except on rare occasions, and 
in the hills, where the harvesting of grain extends into 
January. The tirst four months of the year, January, Feb- 
ruary, March, and April, as in the old country, following on 
the harvest, form, to a certain extent, the autumn of this part 
of the world — the vineyards and orchards then yielding their 
produce ; but, owing to the deficiency of rain, vegetation 
is very generally at a standstill. Want of moisture in tln^ 
atmosphere, accompanied by intense heat, putting a stop to 
vegetation, and baking the surface of the ground, has a some- 
what similar effect, in so far as agricultural pursuits are 
concerned, to that produced by the wet and frosts of the 
winters in England. 

" With reference to the inferences to be drawn from these 
tables, as to the beneficial influence of the rainfall at any 
period on agricultural or horticultural operations, I must 
observe that a mere inspection of the tables is of little use in 
leading to just conclusions ; the benefit of the rainfall depends, 
not so much on the quantity during a given month, as on the 
rapidity or otherwise of its fall, as well as the season of the 
year. 

" During the months of January and February the ground 
is so liot that a fall of even half an inch in the twenty-four 
hours serves only to wash the dust off the trees, does not 
penetrate into the ground, and eva})orates almost as quickly 
as it falls. The ground is tlien so dry and parched that 
nothing under an inch of rain at one fall, during these months. 



ITS OBSERVATOEY AND METEOROLOGY. 419 

is of much value to renew the exhausted energy of vegetation ; 
while, from the end of April to September, the quantity of 
rain during the twenty-four hours is of little importance as 
compared with the frequency of its occurrence — keeping the 
ground constantly moist, and provided that the average of the 
monthly falls are fiiirly kept up, the ground is more benefited 
by the occurrence of numerous rainy days than by a great fall 
in any one day. However, there is no rule without an excep- 
tion, and a heavy soaking rain of at least an inch is always to 
be desired towards the end of March or beginning of April, as, 
should the -ground then get a good soaking, it will start the 
grass for the stockowners before the cold weather sets in ; and 
the sun having tlien lost much of his power, the grass, when 
then well started, will not be burned up, as is the case after 
heavy rains at an earlier period of the year. On the other 
hand, to the agriculturist on the plains, heavy rains in 
February are beneficial, as enabling him to commence plough- 
ing ; while as regards the interests of the vinegrowers and 
proprietors 'of orchards, my opinion is, that so long as the 
rainfall of the year does not fall below twenty inches, the want 
of rain during January, February, and the early part of March, 
is not injurious to them, provided that copious rains have 
fallen during the months of November and December, so as to 
promote the growth of the plants and fill out the fruit, leaving 
it to be matured during the drier weather. Wines made during 
such seasons will, I imagine, be for superior to those made in 
years when the rainfall in January and February exceeds the 
average. 

" The year 1860 affords a good illustration of the fallaciou-i 
deductions that may be drawn from these tables, for, while 
the rainfall of that year is considerably below the average, 
also much less than in the years 1855, 1856, 1857, and 1858, 
the harvest is generally admitted to have been in excess of the 
average yield of those years. 

" In attempting to account for this anomaly, I would remark 
that the rainfall of 1860 has differed greatly from that of pre- 
ceding years in the intensity of its fall. That is to say, while 

2 E 2 



420 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

ill former years I have recorded as miicli as tbree-foiirths of an 
inch falling during a violent thunderstorm iu less than half 
an hour, ilooding the ground and rapidly escaping from the 
surface, the same quantity of rain this year has occupied many 
hours in its fall, so that the ground has been gradually soaked, 
and the greater part absorbed by the soil to a considerable 
depth. On the 4tli of April, when the fall amounted to 3"15 
inches (tlu^ largest (piantity ever recorded by me in one day), 
the ground had boon partially prepared for it by the rains in 
the middle of 3Iarch ; the rain fell gently and steadily, lasting, 
at intervals, the greater part of tlie twenty-four hours, and was 
nearly all absorbed. It will also be seen that the rain in the 
first six months of 1860 amounted to 12-709 inches, against an 
average of 10"028 inches for the same period, and the ground 
was thus thoroughly soaked to a considerable depth, and 
enabled the crops to stand the subsequent dry weather. On 
the other hand, the rainfall of the last six months was only 6"909 
inches, or only little more than half that due to the period 
(11"923 inches). The drought at the end of July and up to 
the middle of August will, doubtless, bo in the memory of 
many. Between the 17th July and the 19th August w-e were 
without any rain (0'002 inch, which fell on the 17th August, 
may fairly be considered as nothing). A similar drought for 
five weeks at that season of the year has not been observed, and 
the fears of the Colonists were justly aroused for the harvest ; 
providentially, we had about three-fourths of an inch by the 
end of the month, 0'61 inch having fallen on the 21st August, 
and although each remaining month of the year shows a rain- 
fall far below^ the average, a somewhat similar quantity of rain 
to that in August fell on different days of the month of Sep- 
tember and October. The rains on these occasions were, as 
before remarked, gentle, continuing for several hours, soaking 
into the ground ; and being followed by many days of cloudy 
weather, little or no evaporation took place, and the crops 
derived the fullest possible benefit from the limited quantity 
of rain." 

The following table shows the rainfall at the under-men- 



ITS OBSERVATOEY AND IMETEOROLOGY. 



421 



tionecl places during the year 1875, and the approximate mean 
annual rainfall at the same places : — 



Locality. 



Rainfall 
in 1875. 



Adelaide Observatory 

Adelaide — Sir G. S. Kingston 

American River, Kangaroo Island 

Angorichina 

Auburn 

Blanchetown 

Brookside 

Buchsfelde . . . 

Bun gar ee 

Cape Jervis . . . 

Charleston ... 

Clare 

Clarendon ... 

Collingrove ... 

Edithbui-gh ... 

Gawler 

Georgetown ... 

Goolwa 

Gumeraclia ... 

Kanmantoo ... 

Kanyaka 

Kapunda 

Kingston 

Kooringa 

Mannanarie ... 

Miittawarrangala 

Melrose 

Meningie 

Montura 

INIoonta 

Mount Barker 

Mount Gambia 

Mount Lofty 

Naracoorte 

Normanville 

O'Hallorun Hill 

Outalpa 

Pariiiga 

Pcnfleld 

Peiiola 

Poonindie ... 

Port Augusta 

Port Elliot ... 

Port Lincoln 

Port Wakefield 

Robe 

Stratlialbyn 

Tanunda 

Wallaroo 

Willowie 



964 
455 
777 
660 
340 
640 

940 
837 
127 
225 
570 
520 
025 
993 
868 
970 
060 
330 
370 
125 
155 
920 
780 

400 
470 
300 
833 
035 
123 
194 
410 
710 
495 
867 
529 
640 
970 
770 
000 
930 
666 
830 
135 
380 
893 
350 
180 
740 



Approximate 


Number 


Annual 
Mean. 


of Years. 


21-155 


36 


21-360 


38 


20-274 


9 


15-019 


9 


24-0-24 


10 


12-739 


7 


22-279 


8 


20-433 


8 


32-981 


10 


24-440 


10 


17-3G2 


7 


17-597 


10 


32-269 


6 


12-976 


9 


19-202 


7 


19-367 


9 


20-823 


6 


13-458 


7 


24-465 


7 


19-113 


10 


15-876 


6 


29-906 


10 


30-599 


10 


40-677 


10 


22-775 


7 


19-905 


7 


22-871 


10 


12-290 


7 


28-026 


10 


9-218 


10 


20-813 


8 


18-909 


9 


25-581 


10 


18-652 


10 


21-156 


6 


13-016 


10 


— 


— 



422 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



Localitj'. 



}i;iiiirull 
in 1875. 



AjiiproNimat ■ 
Annual 
Mean. 



Niiiubfr 
of Yfjra. 



Willunpi I 34-370 

Weutwoitli, New South Wales ... ' 13-290 

Yankalillu 34-830 

Yarroo ' 21-825 

Palmerston, Nnrthern Territory ... ;)(J-r)00 

Soutliport 50-835 

Yam Creek 47-050 

Piue Creek 49840 

River Katlicriiie 45-993 

Daly Waters 35-529 

Powell's Creek 22-830 

Teanaiit's Creek ... ... ... 18-350 

Barrow Creek 15-08G 

Alice Sprinrjs ... ... ... 15-270 

Charlotte Waters 3-975 

Peake [ 4-810 

Stiangwavs' Sprinirs | 5-238 

Beltaiia " 10-390 

Blinman 20-829 



27-204 
15-884 
29-170 
17-654 
03-252 



10 


7 
5 




Closely associated with the rainfall, and the relative humidity 
of the air, is the amount of evaporation from the surface. I 
have ill previous pages explained the means taken to determine 
this, and in the table on jiage 407 I have given the mean 
auKnint of evaporation in each month of the year. The fol- 
lowing table shows the actual amount of evaporation in each 



SIean Ajiolxt of Ev.\tonATioN ktjking each Month fou Five Years, 
AT Adelaide. 

















Mean 


Months. 


1870. 


1871. 


1872. 


1873. 


1874. 


Jlean. 


Amount 
per (lieni. 




Inches. 


Inches. 


inch<s. 


Inchps. 


Jndips. 


Inches. 


Inches. 


January ... 


11-390 


8-S32 


10-720 


10-739 


11-518 


10-041 


0-353 


February ... 


10-955 


7-901 


8-145 


7-928 


9-083 


8-802 


0-314 


March 


8 - 050 


7-310 


7-846 


7-708 


6-527 


7-008 


0-245 


Ai)ril 


4-005 


4-042 


4-491 


3-885 


4-740 


4-474 


0-149 


May 


2-474 


2-372 


3-438 


2-690 


3-537 


2-902 


0-094 


June 


2-0-27 


1-840 


1-709 


1-428 


1-905 


1-795 


0-060 


July 


1-747 


1-978 


2-584 


1-851 


1-035 


1-959 


0-063 


August 


2-003 


2-829 


2-831 


2-387 


2-024 


2-607 


0-086 


September... 


3-481 


3-928 


3-779 


2-914 


3-035 


3-427 


0-114 


October . . . 


5-322 


5-741 


5-878 


7-125 


5-839 


5-981 


0-193 


November. . . 


6-990 


0-005 


0-881 


7-168 


7-787 


6-979 


0-233 


December . . . 


9-000 


8-495 


8-515 


10-805 


10-287 


9-420 


0-304 


Totil per ann. 


09-310 


01-939 


00-823 


66-628 


68-583 


66-656 


— 



ITS OBSEEVATORY AND METEOEOLOGY. 423 

month and year during the five years 1871 to 1874, the mean 
for each month, and the mean daily evaporation in eacli 
month ; from which it will be seen that the greatest evapora- 
tion takes place in January, when it ranges from about 9 
inches to over 11 inches, the mean for the month being 10641 
inches, and the least in June, when it varies from about li to 
2 inches, the mean being 1-795 inches. 

During the three hottest months the amount of evaporation 
per diem averages about one-third of an inch, as much as six- 
tenths of an inch sometimes being taken up on a hot-wind 
day, whilst in the coldest months it barely averages seven- 
hundredths of an inch a day. 

With regard to the state of the sky, it will be sufficient 
here to state that during the summer months, November to 
March or April, there are about 15 to 20 almost wholly clear 
days in each month, March, April, and November being usually 
more cloudy than December, January, and February. In the 
winter months. May, June, July, and August, 10 or 11 wholly 
(dear days may be expected, though it has haj)pened in July 
that rain has fallen on 29 days. 

The mean amount of cloud in each month of the year, 
taking the whole sky as 10, is approximately as follows : — 



January 


4 


July 


6 


February . . . 


.S 


A ugust 


G 


March 


4 


September... 


5 


April 


4 


October 


4 


May 


6 


November . . . 


5 


June 


G 


December ... 


4 



The alternate land and sea breezes at Adelaide are of 
course local, being confined to within a comparatively narrow 
strip of coast line ; their effect is to cause the wind in fine 
weather during summer, and occasionally in the winter, to 
complete an entire circuit of the compass in the twenty-four 
hours, the resultant direction for the year at different hours 
being — 

At Gh. A.M. about E.N.E. 
!) h. „ „ N. by E. 
12 noon „ W. by S. to W.S.W. 
31i. i-.M. „ S.W. 
Gh. „ „ S.S.E. to S.S.W. 
Oh. „ „ S.E. 



424 



SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



The resultant direction in different years at these hours 
shows rcmarkalJe iixity — thus in the four consecutive years 
1860, 1801, 1862, and 1863, we have— 



18G0. 



ISGl. 



1862. 



1S63. 



G h. A.M. . 


.. S. 113 11 E. 


S. 109 34 E. 


S. 108 7 E. 


S. 114 53 E 


:)h. „ . 


170 25 


IG'J -ii) 


157 31 


168 43 


12 noon . 


28i T).-) 


283 38 


279 10 


276 10 


3 h. P.M. . 


331 30 


311 18 


306 20 


315 


6h. „ . 


30 


4 22 


348 2 


333 



The above results are obtained in the following manner: — 
Let n he the number of times the wind has blown from any 
one direction, irresp(M'tive of velocity, and a be the angle which 
that direction makes with the meridian, measured from south 
round by east ; then each direction may be resolved into its 
components, n cos a, n sin a in the direction of the meridian 
and at right angles to it. 

Let A = n cos o + n' cos a' + n" cos a" + &c. 
B = Jt sin a + "' sin a' + n" sin a" + &c. 

B 

Then tan 6 = - 
A 

where 6 is the resultant direction of the wind, measured from 
south round by east. 

Eeducing the number of points to eiglit, and apportioning 
the intermediate points (S.S.E. &c.) equally amongst those 
next adjacent (S. and S.E., &c.) the following table shows the 
number of times the wind blew from the different points in 
each quarter of the year, commencing October 1873, and 
ending September 30, 1874 : — 




ITS OBSEEVATOEY AND JIETEOEOLOGY. 



425 



From which it appears that the proportion of S. winds to 
N. winds, and E. winds to W., in each quarter, was — 





r S 


6 A.M. 

40 


9 A.M. 

37 


Noon. 
48 


3 P.M. 

68 


6 r.M. 
63 


9 P.M. 

G7 


First Quarter ... . 


N 
E 


35 
51 


39 
38 


30 
29 


10 

21 


5 
85 


12 
47 




i W 


32 


41 


63 


68 


53 


32 




s 


5i 


49 


51 


66 


76 


64 


Second Quarter... < 


N 
E 


23 
55 


21 
34 


17 

25 


3 

23 


3 
33 


3 
47 




[ W 


30 


30 


47 


48 


28 


7 


Third Quarter ... ■ 


s 

N 
E 


27 
47 

G6 


15 

41 

4G 


19 
40 

23 


32 
32 

16 


31 
21 

24 


24 
23 

29 




^ W 


10 


14 


38 


50 


26 


16 


Fourth Quarter... 


S 

N 

E 


23 

59 

G3 


28 
58 

47 


19 
43 

17 


27 
34 

12 


28 
23 

15 


17 

28 

26 




- W 


~ 21 


21 


48 


62 


36 


20 



Combining the Summer quarters (1st and 2nd), we have — 



And similarly the 



And for the Year — 



N 



Summer — Six Months. 





6 A.M. 


9 A.M. 


Noon. 


3 P.>r. 


G P.jr. 


9 P.M. 


s 


94 


86 


99 


134 


139 


131 


N 


58 


60 


47 


19 


"s" 


15 


E 


106 


72 


54 


44 


68 


94 


W 


62 


71 


110 


116 


sl 


39 




WlNTEi;- 


-Six Months. 








S 


50 


43 


38 


59 


59 


51 


N 


106 


99 


83 


66 


44 


51 


E 


129 


93 


40 


28 


39 


55 


W 


~ "31" 


35 


86 


112 


62 


36 



144 
164 



129 
159 



137 
130 



193 

"85" 



198 
"52" 



182 



E 
W 



235 
"93" 



165 

106 



94 
196 



228 



107 
143 



149 



426 SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 

It will thus bo seen that dmiuf!: the summer months south 
winds largely predominate over north winds — especially in the 
afternoon and evening, northerly winds bearing a larger pro- 
portion about and shortly after sunrise, the prevailing direction 
during the night being E. to S.E. and S.W. during the day ; 
while in the winter months N. and N.E. winds preponderate, 
except for a few hours in the afternoon, when local S.W. sea 
breezes often set in. 



ITS OBSEKVATOEY AND METEOEOLOGY. 



427 



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ITS OBSEKVATOEY AND METEOEOLOGY. 



429 



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430 



SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 



Table Xo. 4. — Mrnii Temperaf are of Erajwraf ion, for each Month diiriiuj Ten Years 
(lS(;5-74), ,tf Aih'hiiih-. 



MoDths. 


1863. 


1866. 


1867. 


IbtiS. 


1869. 


1«V0. 


1871. 


1872. 


1S73. 


1874. 


January... 


590 


62-1 


Gl-(3 


59-G 


GOl 


GO-G 


62-1 


65-8 


63-4 


Gl-5 


Februnry 


oa-8 


63-2 


G4-2 


Gr4 


GO -3 


G2-5 


63-8 


61-7 


63-3 


57-4 


March ... 


GO-3 


GO-0 


58-3 


Gl-9 


59-G 


59-5 


58-7 


Gl-3 


57-5 


56-9 


April ... 


57-5 


57-G 


58-3 


5G-G 


55-4 


57-1 


i56-8 


54-7 


55-9 


57-1 


May 


52-0 


55-3 


54-4 


.la-o 


51-0 


51-7 


54-9 


51-G 


53-5 


51-1 


June 


48-4 


50-7 


53-0 


49-7 


50-4 


50-9 


51-7 


50-7 


50-1 


47-8 


July ... 


47-7 


49-0 


49-4 


46-5 


47-3 


47-4 


48-2 


49-6 


47-6 


45-5 


August ... 


49-8 


50-2 


50-3 


50-0 


48-9 


48-7 


50-1 


47-2 


50-6 


47-3 


September 


521 


51-4 


51-0 


52-7 


49-G 


50-2 


52-1 


51-6 


52-3 


48-6 


October... 


53-6 


54-2 


54-2 


5G-2 


52-3 


55-8 


52-9 


54-2 


56-0 


541 


November 


57-8 


55-2 


55-1 


GO -2 


56-6 


55-7 


56-8 


60-6 


59-7 


52-8 


December 


57-4 


.'-.8 -5 


5G'8 


Gl-2 


58-3 


59-6 


62-8 


58-0 


60-7 


59-7 


Means . . . 


54-7 


55-6 


55-G 


55-G 


54-1 


54-9 


56-0 


55-6 


55-9 


53-3 



Mean toiiii)eiatuie 


of evaporation fo 


■ January (10 years) 


Gl-6 


Ditto 


ditto 


February 


ditto 


Gl-8 


Ditto 


ditto 


March 


ditto 


59-4 


Ditto 


ditto 


April 


ditto 


GG-7 


Ditto 


•litto 


May 


ditto 


52-8 


Ditto 


ditto 


June 


ditto 


50-3 


Ditto 


ditto 


July 


ditto 


47-8 


Ditto 


ditto 


August 


ditto 


49 3 


Ditto 


ditto 


September 


ditto 


51-2 


Ditto 


<litto 


October 


ditto 


54-3 


Ditto 


ditto 


November 


ditto 


57-0 


Ditto 


ditto 


December 


ditto 


59-3 



ITS OBSEEVATOKY AND METEOEOLOGY. 



431 



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SOUTH AUSTEALIA. 



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to to to to to 1^ 1^ t^ [^ l^ 

xxxxxxxxxx 



LONDON : I'KINTED BV WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. 



THE LIBRARY 

UNIVERSliy C CALWOBNlAi 

LOS Ai\G£LES 



LNIVERSITV Oi CALIFORNIA, LOS ANGELES 

THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

This book is DUE on the last date stamped below 



iUN 7 1952 



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