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Full text of "South Boston preservation study"

BOSTON 

PUBLIC 

LIBRARY 







1981 Survey & Planning Grant 



PART I - SOUTH BOSTON 



BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

GOVERNMENT DOCUMENTS DEPARTMENT 

RECEIVED 

JUN - 1 138^ 




ubmitted September 15, 1982 to 
iviassachusetts Historical Commission 




Boston Landmarks Commission 
Boston Rede\'elopment Authority 



South Boston 

B65L 

1982 



SOUTH BOSTON PRESERVATION STUDY 

Prepared by 

Rosalind Pollan 
Carol Kennedy 
Edward Cordon 

for 

The Boston Landmarks Commission 

August 1982 



Table of Contents 

I. Introduction 

Brief History of South Boston 
Review of Architectural Styles 
Notable Areas of Development and Sub Area Maps 

II. Methodology 

General Procedures 
hvaluation - Recording 
Research 

III. Recommendations 

A. Districts 

National Register of Historic Places 
Boston Landmarks Commission 
Further Study Areas 

B. Individual Properties 

National Register Listing 

Boston Landmarks Commission Designation 

Further Study Areas 

Appendix I - Sample Inventory Forms 
Appendix II - Key to 100' Scale Inventory Maps 
Appendix III - Inventory Coding System 

Map I - South Boston Study Area 

Map II - Sub Areas 

Map ill - District Recommendations 

Map IV - Individual Site Recommendations 

Map V - Sites for Further Study 



I. INTRODUCTION 

The South Boston Preservation Study, conducted from November 1981 to August 
1982, was administered by the Boston Landmarks Commission, with the assistance 
of a matching grant-in-aid from the Department of the Interior, Heritage 
Conservation and Recreation Service, through the Massachusetts Historical 
Commission, Office of the Secretary of State, under the provisions of the 
National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. The local share of the project was 
provided by the Boston Landmarks Commission and by in-kind contributions 
of the Boston Redevelopment Authority. The study was conducted by 
Rosalind Pollan, Carol Kennedy, and Edward Gordon, architectural historians 
and consultants to the Boston Landmarks Commission. Staff supervision was 
provided by Judith McDonough. 

The goal of the project was to undertake an in-depth architectural and histor- 
ical survey of the South Boston study area and to make recommendations for 
National Register and Boston City Landmarks designations. Specific goals 
included preparation of individual information forms for certain selected 
buildings of architectural or historic significance, as well as evaluating the 
relative significance of each building for which a form was prepared. 

The method of recording and evaluating buildings, as explained in the Methodology 
section, follows the pattern established in the earlier Dorchester and Central 
Business District Preservation Studies conducted by the Boston Landmarks 
Commission in 1977 and 1980. 

The boundaries of the 1981-2 South Boston Study Area are shown on Map 1. 



Brief Topographical History of South Boston 

Originally a peninsula of about 579 acres. South Boston separated Boston Harbor 
and South Bay from Dorchester Bay and was connected to Dorchester (of 
which it was a part) by a neck of land encompassing the area now known as 
Andrew Square and the surrounding vicinity formerly called Washington 
Village. Part of the Dorchester land grants and described as Dorchester 
Neck, the South Boston peninsula was marked by several ponds, streams, and 
swamps which have not survived and prominent hills of which only Dorchester 
Heights (Thomas Park) and Brush Tree Hill (Independence Square) remain. 

Filling operations have altered all of South Boston's original shoreline. The 
flat industrial land northeast of First Street was largely the result of fill 
undertaken during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, and the east 
end of the South Boston peninsula was linked to Castle Island by Marine 
Park. By 1910, filled land had extended the size of South Boston to 1,333 
acres, slightly more than two square miles, and the South Boston Bay was 
reduced to the narrow Fort Point Channel. 

During the 17th and 18th centuries. South Boston served Dorchester as pasturage 
and remained rural. It is believed that the first house on the peninsula was 
built in 1674 by James Foster with the Blake House at City Point following in 
1680. Large farmsteads were created on Dorchester Neck from grazing land 
by the late 17th century, and a handful of houses were scattered along or 
near the primary early road which ran from Dorchester to City Point 
approximately on the present route of Dorchester Street, Emerson Street, and 
hast Fourth. 

The annexation of South Boston resulted from a real estate speculation on the 
part of Joseph Woodward, Harrison Gray Otis, and others. Having acquired 
land at the Dorchester Neck, these speculators applied to the General Court 
to annex the whole area to the Town of Boston. In 1804, after strenuous 
opposition from Dorchester, the General Court acted favorably upon the request. 
A year later, the South Boston Bridge Proprietors opened the peninsula's first 
direct link with Boston - a 1,551-foot bridge located on the site of the present 
Dover (East Berkeley) Street Bridge. In conjunction with the construction of 



this bridge, the Dorchester Turnpike (today's Dorchester Avenue) was built 
and extended between First Street in South Boston and Dorchester Lower Mills, 
near Milton, 

South Boston's present grid street pattern was largely determined by a stip- 
ulation in the Act of Annexation which provided that land be set aside for 
streets, a school, a meeting house, and burial ground. This requirement was 
executed through the acceptance of Mather Withington's survey and street plan 
of 1805. Withington's design established Broadway and L Streets as principal 
axes, provided for the rectilinear and regular blocks of A through Q and First 
through Eighth Streets, and promoted the later 19th century institutional use 
of the present Independence Square area. 

Despite this laying out of streets and the completion of the Dover Street 
Bridge and the Turnpike, South Boston developed slowly in the first quarter 
of the 19th century. In 1825, with its population of 1,986, it was a dis- 
apointment to its developers. But South Boston grew rapidly between 1825 
and the outbreak of the Civil War, and it is the nature of this period of 
growth that determined much of the present character of South Boston's 
urban fabric. During this period, the peninsula's industrial potential was 
recognized. Consequently, land values in South Boston rose 450% between 
1835 and 1845. The South Boston Iron Works were incorporated in 1827, the 
Fulton Iron Works in 1835, the City Point Iron Works were established in 
1847, and, most significantly for the area north of First Street, railroads 
entered the peninsula in 1845. 

In 1845, the Old Colony Railroad tracks were laid along the present Old Colony 
Avenue, crossed Fort Point Channel near West Broadway and terminated at 
the Kneeland Street Station. A decade later the Boston and New York Central 
laid its tracks parallel to B Street and across the Fort Point Channel to South 
Station. The Boston Wharf Company, served by the Boston and New York 
Central on made land north of West First Street, built the Congress Street 
Bridge which the city acquired in 1855 for $60,000. The acquisition of this 
bridge and the opening of the northern portion of A Street which also occurred 



in 1855 provided the first major public way linking industrial South Boston to 
both Boston proper and to residential South Boston south of First Street. 

This expenditure was fully justified in 1855 as South Boston, with a population 
of 17,931, had become the third largest ward in the city. The growth rate of 
its population during the decade of 1845-1855 was 65.87% (during the same 
period the population of the city as a whole grew 42.20%, and in this decade 
the number of registered voters in South Boston increased 41.16% (from 1,421 
to 2,116) against an increase in the city as a whole of only 14.69% (with 23,342 
registered voters out of a population of 162,748 in 1855). 

During the 1850's, South Boston was industrially dominated by iron foundries 
and machine shops. At this time, the South Boston Iron Vi/orks was the largest 
foundry in the country, and the Bay State Iron Company at City Point was 
the largest manufacturer of railroad track in New England. Ship yards in 
South Boston shared the prominence of those in the East Boston, and 
Harrison Loring's City Point works were in successful operation through the 
1890's. The South Boston Gas Works began operation in 1852, and in 1861, 
the first petroleum refinery in Boston was established as the Stephen Jenney 
and Company. 

With its population growing rapidly to service its expanding industrial complex 
(which later received a major boost during the Civil War) by 1855, South 
Boston included more dwellings (almost 2,000 units) than any other ward in 
the city. Of these houses the great majority were wood frame structures put 
up as 2i-story single-family dwellings with gabled ends set facing the street. 
After 1860, brick and frame row housing, often Mansard roofed and developed 
as rental units or for speculative sale, became an increasingly frequent 
building type. During the '80's and '90's, two-family residential buildings 
became increasingly prevalent, and by the turn-of-the-century , triple decker 
housing began to predominate. 

Also characterizing the last two decades of the 19th century in South Boston 
is a considerable growth of public and private institutions necessitated by the 
district's increasing residential population and which resulted in the expansion 
of the Carney Hospital, the ground-breaking for the new Gate of Heaven Church, 
the construction of the South Boston High School, and the completion of the 



Strandway with the resulting recreational development of the southern and 
eastern shore of the peninsula. Marine Park (begun in 1881), the Strandway 
(begun in 1889), and the connection to Castle Island were all projected as 
part of Frederick Law Olmsted's Boston Park System which included Columbia 
Road and which was built as a parkway and as the link between South Boston's 
landscaped shore, Franklin Park, and the Arnold Arboretum. 

During the twentieth century. South Boston has experienced the development 
of handsomely designed triple decker houses and single and two-family bungalow 
style homes along Marine, Columbia, and Farragut Roads, the increasing use 
of West Broadway and the lower blocks of East Broadway for commercial activity, 
the construction of brick apartment complexes along and near Columbia Road 
beginning in the 1930's with Old Harbor Village, - the first public housing 
project in the United States, and the further improvement of storefront recre- 
ational and beach facilities including the construction of the L Street Baths. 



A Review of Architectural Styles 

An outline review of South Boston's architecture reveals that the area includes 
representative and distinguished examples of all of the major building styles 
of the period between the time of annexation, 1804, and the 1940's. The earliest 
development remaining in South Boston is Federal in style; these buildings 
are, for the most part, frame, modestly scaled, plainly trimmed, gable roofed 
houses. Architecturally notable examples of the Federal style however do 
survive, the most significant of which is the substantial brick, 2^-story, low 
hipped roof, 5-bay central entry, ca. 1805 John Hawes House at 568 East 
Fifth Street, corner of K. The Hawes House is reportedly South Boston's 
earliest extant building. Also of particular interest is the row of 4 brick 
Federal style row houses with arched recessed entries at 318-324 E Street 
(corner of West Broadway) and the double frame house at 92-94 B Street, 
although in deteriorating condition, still maintaining its period sidelight and 
transom entries. 

Creek Revival construction begins to appear in South Boston during the 1830's 
and, as in the earlier Federal style, surviving buildings are all residential 
structures. Important examples of Creek Revival housing mostly dating from 
the 1840's and early 1850's, are scattered throughout the study area with the 
most impressive concentration remaining along and in the vicinity of West 
Fourth Street between E and F. Other pockets of Creek Revival development 
are located in the C Street, and East 4th, and East Broadway area, and along 
2nd Street between I and K. 

In South Boston, the Creek Revival house, most typically, is a frame, 2-story 
plus attic, 3-bay, building with pedimented street-facing gable roof and wide 
corner pilasters. Creek Revival houses of this type that are of special note 
for their architectural quality are 401 and 411 West Fourth Street, 249 Emerson, 
310 West 3rd, which displays the triangular attic window characteristic of South 
Boston development and not often seen in other areas, and as a representative 
of brick construction in this form, 117 West 3rd. Other Creek Revival resi- 
dences of architectural interest include - the impressively scaled double house 
at 512-514 East Broadway which unfortunately has been re-sided but remains 



distinguished by its double-story pilasters and its entry hood supported by 
massive foliate consoles, and the similar frame houses at 375 and 377 West 
Fourth also with tall pilasters dividing the buildings' facades. Also locally 
significant is the unusual double frame house at 110-112 Jenkins Street with 
its paired recessed and pilaster trimmed entries, the frame row at 92-100 
F Street, the narrowly proportioned 3-story brick house at 5821 East 8th, 
and the small scale brick workers row at 591-597 East Second. 

Dating from the 1850's are several handsome examples of a combined Greek 
Revival/ italianate style which combines the temple front forms of the earlier 
manner with decorative and often energetic bracketing. Two tine examples of 
this style are the handsomely detailed houses at #52 and #82 G Street. 

The Gothic Revival Style which is contemporary, in general, with the Greek 
Revival enjoys a rather wide representation in South Boston. Often charac- 
terized by steep gable roofs, pointed arched windows, and in housing by 
"gingerbread" trim at the roofline, the style is exemplified in the study area 
by St. Augustine's Chapel of 1819-33, an early example of brick Gothic Revival 
church architecture, and two decades later, by the 1844/53 granite Roman 
Catholic Church of Saints Peter and Paul on West Broadway between Dorchester 
Avenue and A Street. 

Residential examples of this style are usually seen in cottage scale houses. 
In South Boston a unique run of these were built in the 1860's by local de- 
veloper Benjamin James at 9-23 and 10-20 Linden Street. Of this group, only 
a single house, 21, retains its elaborate and robust bargeboard trim. Now 
the O'Brien Funeral Home, the Sears/Woods house at 146 Dorchester Street, 
near Old Harbor, remains the most ambitious example of Gothic Revival resi- 
dential development in South Boston. 

Although extant row housing in South Boston dates back to the Federal period, 
and several Greek Revival rows were built in the district, it is not until the 
1860's that the form begins to predominate. The Italianate or Bracketed style 
which appears in full force during the 1850's and survives as late as the '80's 



coincides with the district's first extensive row house development. As in 
indicating by its name, the style is associated with the use of bracketed 
detail at rooflines, door hoods, porches and window cornices. 

There are many handsome examples of Italianate housing in the district, and 
the most repeated house type of this style is represented by earlier forms of 
the 3-bay, 2-story plus attic, street facing gable roofed building, and by the 
3-story, 3-bay, flat roofed, row house which is credited as the forerunner of 
the triple decker. Gable roof houses of high design quality and built during 
the mid-1850's and to the 1860's include 855 East 5th Street, 903 East 4th 
Street, 313 Emerson, and 2-6 Leeds. Important examples of Italianate row 
housing are the bow fronted row houses at 491-5 East Broadway and the flat 
fronted brick row of 1856 up the street at 528-536. An unusual multi-family 
bracketed style double residence with 4-story rectangular towers is located at 
190-192 West 7th and was built by 1868. 

Architecturally significant non-residential Italianate style buildings in South 
Boston include the former Hook and Ladder Station #5 at 457 West 4th Street, 
the 1863 Gate of Heaven Church, now the church Parish Hall and Sunday School, 
and the 1874 granite faced church of St. Vincent de Paul. Both churches 
were designed by prominent architect Patrick C. Keeley. 

During the 1860's bracketed housing begin to display the then fashionable mansard 

roof. Important groupings of Mansarded Italianate residences are the 1869-70 

brick bow fronted row across from Independence Square at 797-827 East Broadway, 

the double frame houses of the mid '60's at 746-8 and 750-4 East 5th, and 

901-5 East Broadway, and the extensive row of modest frame houses at 261-283 West 

5th. 

Mansard houses were built in South Boston as early as 1858, e.g., 158-164 
Dorchester Street, and became the most popular building form of the Civil 
War and post-war eras. In South Boston, mansard housing encompassing a 
full range of building type including the substantial house of wealthy local 
entrepreneurs and industrialists, as for example, the brick mansions at 
789 East Broadway, belonging to Harrison Loring and the Gray/Dana House 



across the street at 788. Large scale frame mansard residences include the 
Manning/Johnson House at 69 Thomas Park and the house with the unusually 
deep set-back at 928 East Broadway. The Souther/Gavin House at 546 East 
Broadway was designed by well known architect Gridley J.F. Bryant and is 
similar in form and detail to contemporary high style houses in Boston's Back 
Bay. Mansard row housing becomes an important building form in the developmen 
of the vicinity around Telegraph Hill and the area east of G Street, and notable 
examples range in scale from the block-long brick pavillion-plan row at 283-305 K 
between East 5th and East 6th, to the diminutive one-story plus Mansard brick 
block at 86-102 I Street. 

The Mansard style is also used for institutional and public architecture, the 
best surviving examples of which are Hose Company #9 at 116 B Street (1860), ■ 
the former District 12 Police Station (1874) at 675 East 4th Street, and the | 

Capen School (1871), now St. Peter's School, corner of I and East 6th, designed 
by the architectural firm of Cummings and Sears. 

During the 1870's, the Mansard style occasionally is combined with other 
Victorian modes. Of considerable note are the mansarded Stick Style Walbridge 
and Gogin Houses, respectively at 56 and 61 Thomas Park. High Victorian 
Gothic in combination with mansard housing is exemplified by the brick row 
facing Independence Square at 47-53 M Street and these at 151-157 I Street, 
505-11 East 6th, and 114-124 F Street. 

As is usual for the style which utilized freely treated Gothic forms and a color- 
istic use of materials. High Victorian Gothic appears for the most part, in 
institutional and commercial architecture. In South Boston, High Victorian 
Gothic is in full display in the Samuel J.F. Thayer designed Hawes Unitarian 
Congregational Church (now the Albanian Cathedral of St. George), 1872^ 
St. Augustine's Church (1870-4), and the 1873 Monks Building at 412-414 West 
Broadway and 142-146 F. Also built in this lively style, is the brick apart- 
ment block with cornerstore at 828-834 East 5th. 

Queen Anne, the architectural style that characterizes the development of many 
districts in the city that were built-up during the last quarter of the 19th 
century, makes its strongest appearance in South Boston in two-family and 



10 



triple decker construction. Notable examples of two-family dwellings designed 
in the Queen Anne style are the group of houses at 10-12, 14-16, 18-20 and 
26-28 Story Street. 

Despite the formal constraints of the triple decker building type, the rich 
handling of materials and imaginative use. of form and shape associated with 
Queen Anne are apparent in the designs of the handsome three-family houses 
at 936 East Fourth, 206-8 L Street, 665 East 8th, and 448-50 East Seventh. 
Queen Anne also is represented, in the study area, by brick row housing, as 
for example, at 57-60 Thomas Park, the apartment and row house complex at 
92-108 L, and the brick row at 934-942 East Broadway which was designed by 
Patrick VV. Ford, Other architecturally notable Queen Anne residential buildings 
in South Boston include the double frame houses with ornate dormers at 84-86 
Street, the Driscoll House, at 585 East Broadway, a frame, three-story, flat 
roofed residence designed by John A. Hasty and built in 1892, and the 1887 
Hotel Eaton at 309-11 Emerson. Queen Anne commercial buildings include 
Bethesda Hall, the 1890 office and retail block designed by Winslow and 
Wetherall, and 150-154 West Fourth, built in 1904. 

Turn-of-the-century development in South Boston resulted, for the most part, 
in the construction of apartment buildings and triple decker dwellings. Many 
of South Boston's triple decker houses were designed in the Colonial Revival 
Style, which is more formal and symetrically organized than the Queen Anne 
and is dependent on classically derived detail. Colonial Revival triple deckers 
of high architectural quality tend to be dispersed through the City Point area 
with important examples located at 1650-1662, 1772-1776, and 1788-1794 Columbia 
Road, 415 K Street, and 923-931 East 4th. 

Although much of South Boston's Colonial Revival residential architecture is 
connected with- triple decker construction, other impressive examples of the 
style include the double two-family at 46-48 N, (facing Independence Square) 
the substantial Falvey House of ca. 1905 at 948 East Broadway and, just opposite, 
at 945, the Taylor House which was built in 1936 and imitates the form and 
scale of an eighteenth century residence. The most conspicuous example of 



11 



Colonial Revival in the study area is the landmark Dorchester Heights Monument, 
a steeple-like marble fronted tower built in 1900-2 after designs by architects 
Peabody and Stearns. 

Another late nineteenth century-early twentieth century style, the Renaissance 
Revival is reserved, in South Boston, primarily for institutional architecture, 
and is used for the 1901 Carney Hospital Infirmary Building (now part of Marion 
Manor] at 4 Old Harbor Street and the South Boston Municipal Court at 535 East 
Broadway (1913). Classical Revival, the companion style to the Renaissance 
Revival, was often used for the design of apartment blocks. Several tine 
apartment buildings, all distinguished by their use of copper sheathed bays 
were built around the turn-of-the-century along West Broadway and include 
479, corner of Dorchester Street, 373-5 and 313-319 E, and 82, corner of A. 

Pleasant and well maintained single and two-family bungalows built during the 
early decades of the twentieth century, characterize the City Point area around 
Marine Road with occasional robust bungalow style triple deckers interspersed, 
as for example at 177-179 M. Other Bungalow style buildings of interest in 
the study area include the South Boston, Columbia, and Boston Yacht Clubs, 
each constructed in 1899. 

After World War I, architecturally significant, buildings put up in South Boston 
encompass a mix of styles and include the 1931 Art Deco L Street Baths, and 
along the north side of West Broadway between Dorchester and F, the 1919 
Tapestry Brick Cinema and post office block, the 1935 Art Deco South Boston 
Supermarket, and the 1947 Classical Revival South Boston Savings Bank. 

From this complex and varied architectural legacy, the consultants have 
identified areas deserving of recognition and as landmark, architectural con- 
servation, and/or National Register districts, areas deserving further study, 
outstanding individual landmarks as well as individual buildings worthy of 
further study and recognition. These recommendations are detailed in 
Section III. 



12 



Notable Sub-Areas of Development 

South Boston West 

The South Boston-West study area was a part of the land originally annexed 
to Boston in 1804 from Dorchester, with the southerly boundary of the annexed 
area running along what is now 9th Street. At that time, the land boundary 
at the north was approximately along today's First Street, with an inlet about 
at D Street, and the western boundary near present Dorchester Avenue. "Nook's 
Hill" stood in the area now Third and B Streets. Considerable filling in of 
low and marshy areas took place throughout the 19th Century, providing, along 
the western boundary, sites for iron foundries and other industrial uses. 

Settlement of the area had been sparse up until annexation in 1804, consisting 
of a few large farming estates. Access to Boston and Dorchester was initially 
via "Little Neck", where Andrew Square now is located. With the building of 
the bridge which connected Dover Street in Boston with Fourth Street in South 
Boston, land values increased and development accelerated somewhat. Commercial 
and residential development was clustered primarily at the west end of the 
area, along Fourth Street, Dorchester Turnpike (Avenue), and Broadway. 
The old South Boston Hotel, at 99-101 W. 4th remains from this early develop- 
ment period, as does the brick block at the southwest corner of E Street. 
(#318-24) and West Broadway (#363-5), ca. 1820's. An iron foundry was located 
south of the bridge, with a glass house around First and B Streets, at the 
water's edge. Churches in the area were located at Broadway and C, at A, 
Broadway between D and E, and, on Dorchester Street, St. Augustine's Chapel, 
the only remaining from this early period. South of Fifth Street, no structures 
were indicated on surveyor Hale's map of 1830. 

Between 1830 and 1852, the area saw considerable development; a surviving 
residence from early in this span is #92-94 B Street, a double wood frame 
structure, dating from the early 1830's. Typical residential structures were 
wood frame, in the Greek Revival mode (e.g., 361 and 411 W. 4th,). Industrial 
and manufacturing interests expanded as well. The northern area, particularly 



13 




i^^ii^^ifc 



along the water's edge, became a focus for manufacturing and shipbuilding. 
Other industries by 1852 were machine shops, iron foundries, a tallow factory, 
carriage manufactory, and rope walk. 

Although the industrial development in South Boston West remains concentrated 
in those areas where it had become focused by the mid-1 9th century, little 
physical evidence remains of those early manufactories, which included exten- 
sive iron works along the West side of Dorchester Bay. Manufacturing buildings 
from later in the century which survive include those at 27-8 Damrell and 
314-330 W. 2nd. 

As the industrial element of South Boston gained increasing importance, 
newly-developed regions took on a denser character, with row housing (e.g., 
346-52 West 3rd and 261-83 W. 5th) and later apartments becoming the norm. 

Increasing numbers of Irish immigrants necessitated considerable expansion on 
the part of the Catholic Church during the century. Ss. Peter and Paul was 
completed in 1844, and rebuilt with larger capacity by 1853. New parishes 
were established soon after, in the 1870's, those in the South Boston West 
area being St. Augustine's and St. Vincent's. 

Late in the century earlier buildings along Broadway began to be replaced 
with more up to date, larger stores and office/apartment blocks (e.g., 
403-415 and 373-5 Vi/. Broadway). The single block between F Street and 
Dorchester Street on Broadway shows the most examples of commercial 
buildings from the 20th century in South Boston-West, with the U.S. Post 
Office and Broadway Theater (1919), South Boston Market (1935), and South 
Boston Savings Bank (1947). New construction in the 20th century is fairly 
limited in the areas, probably a result of declining population in the area. 

Today, one finds vacant lots and deteriorated buildings scattered throughout 
the area, but particularly in the neighborhood of the D Street housing project 
area. Commercial activity in this region of South Boston is now focused near 
Broadway's intersection with Dorchester Street. 



15 



The strongest alterations in pinysicai cinaracter of tine Soutii Boston-West 
section occurred in the areas now covered by tlie D Street Housing Project, 
wiiicln previously contained much wood frame and some brick single- and double- 
family housing and commercial development, as expansion had moved eastward 
from the original bridge. St. Peter's Lithuanian Catholic Church on Flaherty 
Way with its rectory behind provide reminders of a different physical setting 
in earlier days. While a general economic decline of the area leaves many 
structures in deteriorating condition, there has not been a large-scale razing 
of older areas for new construction in recent years. Although numerous "gaps" 
in the building fabric exist where individual buildings have been demolished 
or destroyed by fire, the general height of two to four-story buildings is 
consistent in the district. Of the non-residential portions, Dorchester 
Avenue probably reflects to the least degree its 19th century appearance. At 
least one building from the Norway Iron Works survives (383 Dorchester Avenue) 
but with its facade completely altered and later additions almost obscuring the 
early structure. 

Addition of siding (asbestos, aluminum, vinyl) during this century is fre- 
quently found on residential structures, with some obscuring and removal of 
decorative elements such as brackets, ahd consoles. West Broadway retains 
many 19th century early 20th century commercial buildings, but most have 
experienced considerable storefront alteration. 

As a whole. South Boston West is very densely developed, with only a few of 
the early remaining houses having any amount of front yard; houses generally 
abut one another or nearly so, and are situated with only a sidewalk between 
the front wall of the structure and the street curb. 

Andrew Square 

The Andrew Square section of South Boston, originally part of Dorchester, 
was called "Little Neck" until 1850 when the name was changed to Washington 
Village. Until the construction of the first bridge between Boston and South 
Boston, Little Neck provided the only road to the peninsula, via present 
Dorchester Street. At the time of Boston's annexation of the territory, the 
southwest boundary of South Boston was along present 9th Street. 



16 



Construction of the Dorchester and Milton turnpike (1805) (now Dorchester 
Avenue), a toil road instituted by private developers, shortened the possible 
travel distance into Boston from Andrew Square considerably. A toll gate was 
located at the junction of Boston Street (now Dorchester Street), Preble Street 
and the turnpike. It was here that commercial development focused and has 
remained concentrated. 

Citing their distance of 4 miles to Dorchester's town hall and over one mile to 
any school, inhabitants of the Little Neck sought annexation to Boston 
beginning in 1836 and accomplished in 1855, after considerable opposition by 
much of Dorchester. 

In 1848 a school was erected at the location of the present O'Reilly School 
(Dorchester at Middle Streets). By 1852 Washington Village was still a small 
settlement, but the Old Colony Railroad had been opened through the area 
(along what is now Old Colony Avenue). Houses such as the Creek Revival 
ones at 27-29 Dexter Street and 165-9 Dorchester Street were typical of this 
period. Dexter Street itself reveals changing house types over the ensuing 
years, with the Italianate #23 and two Mansards, #15 and #19) built by 1864. 
A few houses on Middle Street and Lewis (now Jenkins) had been present in 
1852, including #10-12 Jenkins. Cable-fronted Italianate houses such as those 
at #2-6 Leeds had been built by 1863, with the more imposing #52 Woodward 
soon after, by 1867. 

The land of present Old Harbor Village housing project was originally low 
marshy land and remained undeveloped by 1919. This project, begun in 1936, 
was the first public housing in the United States. Two building types are 
found here, row apartments with small individual front yards, and multi- 
family apartment blocks with balconies, arranged with open space between. 
Mature trees give an unusually shaded character to the streets through the 
project, unlike much of South Boston which has no building setbacks at all. 

Columbus Park, created with filled land near the turn of the century, exhibits 
several Period Revival structures (ca. 1920-30's). The Park, combined with 
Carson Beach, provides welcome open space on the edge of the Andrew Square 



17 



area. Streets such as Dorchester Avenue, Dorchester Street, and Old Colony 
Boulevard, which cross the Andrew Square section of South Boston give par- 
ticular emphasis today to vehicular traffic and its attendant modern commercial 
development. 

bouth Boston East 

South Boston East includes all of the area east of Dorchester Street between 
the north side of East 8th and the south side of East first and extends to 
Castle Island and the shoreline beyond Day Boulevard. The area is basically 
a densely developed residential district with most of its housing dating 
between the late 1840's and the 1920's, and in form predcrrinantly 2-story 
plus attic and 3-story, narrow, brick and frame single, double, 2-family, and 
triple decker dwellings built up to the street line on very small lots. 
Industrial uses in this sub-area are confined to East First treet an the 
north side of East Second. With the exception of corner stores and occasional 
retail blocks, most of the commercial development in the area is located on 
East Broadway between Dorchester Street and L, and much of this commercial 
activity is housed in first floor renovations of 19th century residential 
buildings. Open space within the dense fabric of South Boston East includes 
the landscaped sites on Telegraph and Brush Tree Hills, now Thomas Park 
and Independence Square respectively, the Hawes and Union Cemeteries 
mid-block between Emerson Street and East 5th, and the linear park and 
beaches which stretch from Castle Island along the easterly and southerly 
shoreline to Dorchester. 

Within South Boston East, several smaller districts are apparent. These 
include the area around Telegraph Hill (see separate description for area), 
Mt. Washington Area, Bay View (vicinity of I through L, south of East Seventh) 
Independence Square, and City Point, the easterly most residential area in 
South Boston. 

The earliest extant housing in South Boston East dates from ca. 1805 through 
the 1830's and generally is scattered along South Boston's earliest road which 
corresponds to today's Dorchester Street, Emerson Street, and East Fourth. 
Examples of this construction remain at 411 R East 3rd, 480-482 East 4th, 



172-204 Emerson, and, at the point, the Samuel Blake House at 927-931 R East 
Broadway. The ca. 1805 John Hawes House, a substantial brick 5-bay, central 
entry residence is located on the northwest corner of K and East 5th, and 
when built was part of an 8-acre estate. Also dating from this period and 
unfortunately destroyed by fire in the 1960's, was the 1833 Hawes Place Church, 
late the South Boston School of Art, which was located on the triangular church- 
green-like site at the intersection of Emerson, East Fourth, and K Street. 
During the 1830's, the corner of East Broadway and I Streets was the location 
of the Mt. Washington Hotel which, from 1839-1912 served as the Perkins School 
for the Blind. This large, brick, Greek Revival style building was demolished 
to make way for the 1913 South Boston Municipal Court. 

By mid-century, residential development began to cluster around Dorchester 
and East 4th Streets, G Streets and East Broadway, East Broadway and Emerson 
(near K,) I Street near Second and at City Point. Houses from this period 
included single and double dwellings as well as rows including, at 591-7 East 
Second, the brick worker's row probably put up by Bay State Iron Works which 
maintained a sizeable plant on the water side of East First Street, near I. 
By 1859, Bay State Iron was New England's largest manufacturer of iron for 
railroad tracks. 

During the 1860's and 70's, stretches of East Broadway, part of the main east- 
west street in South Boston were developed with brick and frame houses and 
rows of high architectural quality, and fashionable residential areas began to 
take form in the vicinity of Mt. Washington and Independence Square. 
Mt. Washington, encompasses in its substantial and predominantly brick develop- 
ment, notable examples of Italianate and Mansard row housing and includes at 
564, the Back Bay style Second Empire Souther/Gavin House (1868). Souther, 
a prominent local businessman was the owner of the Bay State Brewery, a Victorian 
industrial building still remaining at the corner of H Street and East 2nd. 

Contemporary with the development of Mt. V/ashington, the Bay View district 
around the lower end of K Street, began to sub-divide for housing during 
the 1850's as a neighborhood of gable-roofed frame Greek Revival, Greek 
Revival-ltalianate, and Italianate houses. Around 1870, the character of 



19 



K Street began to undergo considerable change and quickly was transformed 
into a densely built neighborhood of Mansard brick rows many of which were 
put up by resident developers. 

The industrial base of South Boston, particularly its machine shops, iron 
foundries and iron mills experienced considerable growth during the Civil War 
era, and by the 1860's development of the area east of Dorchester Street required 
construction at 608 I Street, of South Boston's second Catholic Church which 
was completed in 1863 and dedicated to Mary, Gate of Heaven. This church, 
now the Parish Hall and Sunday School, was replaced at the end of the nineteenth 
century, by the much larger cathedral form building on the opposite corner. 
Population growth coupled with industrial and residential development during 
the late 1860's and '70's resulted in the construction in the Broadway Hill and 
Bay View vicinities of new institutional and church buildings including the 
1872 Hawes Unitarian Congregational Church at 523 East Broadway, the 1871 
Capen School, corner of I and East 6th, and the 1874 District 12 Police Station, 
675 East 4th Street, now Gavin House. 

The streets north and south of East Broadway in the Mt. Washington Vicinity, 
intensively built up during the 1870's and '80's, are characterized by brick 
and frame Mansard row housing as well as late nineteenth century brick and 
frame multiple family housing, including Queen Anne and Colonial Revival Triple 
deckers. South Boston's extensive complex of repeated triple deckers is located 
in this area, between 423-455 East Seventh and 458-482 East 8th and was put 
up 1903-7. 

Early twentieth century development in the Mt. Washington and Bay View areas 
was limited, for the most part, to triple decker and bungalow-style housing. 
Unlike West Broadway, East Broadway experienced little apartment house con- 
struction and early 20th century building was generally restricted to triple 
decker and bungalow-style dwellings. Later twentieth century development 
had limited impact on the area but does include the remarkable 1933 Art Deco 
L Street Baths, the 1957 Shepley, Bulfinch, Richardson, and Abbott South 
Boston Branch Library^ and the rather sprawling new Tynan Elementary and 
Community Public School on Emerson and East 4th. Privately developed modern 
brick apartment complexes have been constructed along Columbia Road since 



20 



the late 1930's. The are generally 1-3-stories in height but more recent 
development has produced some inappropriately scaled view-obstructing apartment 
towers, the tallest of which, to date, is the 17-story building at 1410. 

The development of Independence Square began in 1822 when the City of Boston 
purchased a 60-acre tract in the vicinity formerly known as Brush Tree Hill. 
Bounded by L Street, Boston Harbor, N Street, and East 4th Street, the 
city lands contained several institutions including the House of Industry, the 
House of Reformation, and a hospital for the insane. The presence of these 
institutions at the eastern end of Dorchester Neck apparently discouraged 
residental development in the area, and as late as 1850, only a few Greek 
Revival and Italianate dwellings were located on Emerson Street {part of the 
Old Road) and East 5th between K and N Streets. Of these houses, the most 
notable are the well-maintained temple-form house at 249 Emerson and the frame 
Creek Revival double house at 620-22 East 5th, both of which date from the 
1840's. 

By the late 1850's, the institutions had been dismantled, and the city lands 
were gradually sold to private investors. South Boston's early 19th century 
street grid was extended through the city lands, streets were paved and gas-lit, 
and in 1855 Independence Square was laid out. Omnibus routes were converted 
to horse drawn lines along Broadway and Dorchester Streets by 1858. These 
improvements initially stimulated house construction around Lincoln Park, one 
block to the south of Independence Square. By the mid-1 860's Lincoln Park 
was bordered by frame Italinate dwellings (i.e., 313 Emerson Street), a brick 
bow front row (746-754 East 4th) and a pair of substantial double Mansard 
houses at 756-758 and 760-762 East 4th. 

At the close of the 1860's, Independence Square and the stretch of East Broadway 
between L and M Street began to assume appearance of a fashionable residential 
quarter. During the mid-60's, several elaborate French Mansard mansions were 
built for local well-to-do machinery manufacturers, important examples of these 
include the brick residences at 789 East Broadway (Harrison Loring House) 
and at 788 (Cray/Dana House), both of which were built on ample corner lots. 



21 



Speculator/builders like John M. Scott, Adoniram Burrell, and later Daniel W. 
Beckler put up dignified row Inouses that faced onto Independence Square. 
These include 797-827 East Broadway (1868-71), - a brick bow front row on 
the south side, the High Victorian Gothic row at 47-53 M Street, and 58-62 N 
Street, a well-crafted Queen Anne row developed in 1887. Particularly 
noteworthy is the limestone and marble faced row at 766-774 East Broadway 
(1874). During the 1880's, a Queen Anne style Apartment Hotel, The Hotel 
Eaton, was built on one of the last large lots in the area at 311 Emerson. 
Also of interest is the John A. Hasty - designed frame, double, two-family 
house at 46-48 N Street which was built in 1895. 

Notable non-residential buildings located in the vicinity of Independence 
Square include the 1890 Queen Anne/ Romanesque Revival Pilgrim Hall building 
at 732-34 East Broadway which housed various social and service organizations 
as well as the office of prominent South Boston builder William T. Easton, and 
St. Brigid's Church, a Modern Gothic building, constructed in 1933 and situated 
on land occupied between 1864 and c. 1915, by an Episcopal orphanage. 

City Point, the area east of Street, has a long development history and was 
from 1680 until the early 19th century, the exclusive domain of the Blake 
family. The original Blake complex of main house, barn, out-buildings and 
orchard was located near the site of the present Samuel Blake House which 
was built in 1835 at 927-924R East Broadway (near P Street). 

By the 1850's, the South Boston street grid had been extended to the City 
Point area. The Blake family began to sell off its land holdings and by mid- 
century, a cluster of Greek Revival and Italianate houses lined East 4th and 
East 5th Street. Today, Greek Revival houses, e.g., 918-920 and 924 East 
4th, rub shoulders with early 20th century triple deckers. Dating from the 
1850's, is an outstanding Downingesque Italianate cottage located at 855 East 
5th Street. 

From ca. 1865 until 1873, commodious, well-crafted Mansard residences were 
built virtually on every street east of P from East Broadway south to East 6th. 
Notable examples include the double house at 901-903 East Broadway (ca. 1868) 



22 



and 928 East Broadway, built a year earlier for James Collins, a wholesale 
liquor dealer and real estate speculator who was responsible for developing 
much of the City Point area during the late 1860's to late '80's. Developed 
by Collins in 1884 on lots adjacent to his residence, is the notable Queen 
Anne brick row at 936-942 East Broadway which was designed by architect 
Patricl< W. Ford. 

Prior to the 1890's, landfill development of the Strandway, the waters of 
Dorchester Bay touched the southern side of East 6th Street. During the 
1870's and '80's, East 6th between and Q Street (later Farragut Road) had 
the appearance of a seaside resort and was the location of yacht clubs, piers, 
hotels, and a skating rink. The substantial brick mansard house at 866-68 East 
6th Street was known during the 1880's as the Atlantic House and apparently 
was used as a hotel. 

Construction of Marine Park (1883-1895) triggered a triple decker building 
boom at "The Point" around the turn-of-the-century. Large lots that had been 
carved from the Blake Estate were further subdivided, and handsome triple 
deckers often with octagonal bays and classical cornices (e.g., 921-930 East 
4th Street) added interest to the residential fabric of the Farragut Road, 
East 4th, and East Broadway streetscape. 

Telegraph Hill 

Much of the district area around Telegraph Hill, was, during the 18th century, 
included in the Bird Estate, a large tract of land that stretched from the Old 
Road (Emerson Street) across the heights to the flats in the vicinity of today's 
East 8th Street. The Bird homestead, almost in the center of the estate was 
located near the present-day intersection of H and East 5th Streets. Originally 
the twin peaks of Telegraph Hill and the now lowered Mt. Washington (Broadway 
Hill), Dorchester Heights was in fact the highest ground in South Boston and 
provided strategic locations for fortifications that were instrumental in 
breaking the siege of Boston and forcing the evacuation of the British. 



23 



In 1849, a reservoir for South Boston's water supply was built on Telegraph 
Hill soon afterwards, the hill's easterly side was levelled and around 1852, 
developed into the landscaped park that remains characteristic of the site 
today. 

The vicinity of Telegraph Hill began to develop as a residential district by 
the 1830's and remaining from this period is the John Hawes Bird House of 
ca. 1830 which was built on the lower slope of the heights on East 4th near 
Dorchester Street (now 480-482 East 4th). Although houses were scattered 
along Dorchester Street, and Greek Revival dwellings and rows were put up 
along East 4th and on G Street, near East 4th, at mid-century, the area 
immediately surrounding the reservoir and the park remained undeveloped. 
Several houses of high architectural quality, however, were constructed 
during the 1850's in the Telegraph Hill vicinity - viz: the Greek Revival/- 
Italianate residences at 52 and 82 G Street, the Gothic Revival Sears/Woods 
House at 146 Dorchester Street, the Italianate Briggs/Hersey House, adjacent 
at 142 Dorchester, and the staggered row of early Mansarded houses at 
158-162 Dorchester. 

During the 1860's and early '70's, a housing boom on Telegraph Hill resulted 
in development of the blocks between the west side of Pacific and the east 
side of G with Italianate, Gothic Revival, and Mansard houses and rows, many 
of which were put up by local builder/developer Benjamin James who lived at 
12 Thomas Park for almost 40 years. The south side of the hill with its 
panoramic views of the bay, provided locations, during the '60's and '70's, 
for substantial residences of rather individualistic design including the Second 
Empire Manning House at 689 Thomas Park and the Mansard/Stick Style houses 
at 56 and 61. Brick and frame Mansard houses in pairs or in rows account 
for much of the development along the north side of Thomas Park, the adjoining 
blocks of Mercer, Telegraph, Gates, National, Atlantic, and Pacific Streets. 
Later, housing along the park frontage includes brick and frame Queen Anne 
rows (e.g., 57-60 Thomas) as well as some nicely designed two-family bungalows. 

Institutional and public uses of sites on or near Telegraph Hill include the 
Carney Hospital complex, now part of Marion Manor, the South Boston High 
School, completed in 1901 and built on the old resevoir site, and the 



24 



Dorchester Heights Monument, a marble-faced observation tower, put up on 
the summit of the Hill in 1900-1902 and providing South Boston with its most 
conspicuous architectural landmark. 



25 



II. METHODOLOGY 



General Procedures 



The South Boston Preservation Study essentially consisted of three procedures: 
field survey, documentary research, and evaluation. The field survey of all 
properties within the study area was conducted on foot. Approximately 5,000 
structures were visually surveyed. In addition, the style, material, and type 
of each building were recorded on a 100-scale, Figure 5 photogrammetiric base 
map. The key to this map can be found in Appendix II. The second 
procedure involved documentary research using Boston archives, libraries, 
Suffolk County Deeds, and relevant respositories, to investigate primary and 
secondary sources. The third procedure was evaluation of the entire survey 
which resulted in recommendations for preservation activity. 

Because of the considerable number of dwellings within the survey area, the 
decision was made to record buildings or areas of particular historic and/or 
architectural significance using the standard Boston Landmarks Commission 
Building Information Form (Appendix I). 244 information forms were 
completed. Buildings selected for inclusion in these forms were marked on a 
100-scale South Boston map by black dots with accompanying notations of 
inventory form numbers. 

South Boston was divided into the following sub-areas which were primarily 
determined by historic research and topographical divisions: Andrew Square, 
South Boston West, South Boston East, Telegraph Hill, (Map II). 

Evaluation and Recording 

• individual Buildings - Building Information Forms were completed for 244 
individual structures, using the following criteria in the selection 
process: 



26 



1. Uniqueness in Soutin Boston, as for example, 57 Thomas Park, 98-100 H 
Street, 582i East 3tli Street, 19 Thomas Park, 568 East Fifth Street, 
Monks Building, South Boston Savings Bank Building, 9^5 East 
Broadway, 484 East 4th Street, 

2. Good examples of an architectural style and/or type, as for example, 
249 Emerson Street, 52 G Street, 789 East Broadway, 855 East 5th, 
788 East Broadway, 21 Linden Street, 545 East Broadway, 585 East 
Broadway, 797-827 East Broadway, 375 and 377 West Fourth, L Street 
Baths, 206-8 L Street, 1650-1662, 1772-1776, and 1788-1794 Columbia 
Road. 

3. Association with important national or local events or personalities, as 

for example, St. Augustine's Chapel, Francis James House (495 East Broadway) 
Dorchester Heights Monument, Briggs/Hersey House (142 Dorchester Street), 
Samuel Spinney House (601 East 8th Street). 

4. Prominent visual landmarks, as for example, Hawes Unitarian Congregational 
Church, now the Albanian Cathedral. Gate of Heaven Church, Dorchester 
Heights Monument, Fort Independence, Church of Saint Peter and 

Saint Paul, South Boston Municipal Court, South Boston High School, 
Marine Park and the Strandway. 



27 



The buildings selected were next evaluated as to relative architectural and 
historical importance using the following six-category system: 

I . Highest Significance : 
Buildings in Catetory I are considered to have national significance. 

* as buildings associated with Boston history , particularly the Colonial 
and Revolutionary War periods 

* as nationally-known examples of the work of Boston architects, or 

* as examples of particular building styles or types which became 
prototypes for similar buildings throughout the nation or which are 
rare throughout the nation . 

All buildings in this category merit designation as Boston Landmarks and 
are eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Buildings 
which fall into Category I are coded on the survey forms with the number (] 

II. Major Significance 

Buildings in this category are considered to have the highest significance 
to the City of Boston, the Commonwealth and the New England Region 

* as the city's most outstanding examples of their style or building 
type, distinquished for high-architectural quality and high degree 
of intactness 

* as early or rare examples of the use of a particular style or building 
technology in Boston 

* as buOdings outstanding in their setting, with particular urban 
design value, or 

* as buildings of the highest regional or local historical significance. 

Although often less well known than buildings in Category I, these 
buildings are also considered to meet the criteria for designation as Boston 
Landmarks, as well as being potentially ehgible for individual listing in 
the National Register of Historic Places. Buildings which fall into Category 
are coded on the survey forms with the number (II). 

III . Significant 

Buildings in Catetory III are considered to be of significance to the City 
of Boston 

* as fine examples of the work of Boston architects 

* as buildings which made an important contribution to the character 
of a street or area 



28 



* as buildings with strong historical associations with major Boston 
industries or events, or 

* as fine examples of a particular style or building type. 

All buildings in Category III falling outside the boundaries of suggested 
National Register Districts are considered eligible for individual listing in 
the National Register of Historic Places. In some cases, buOdings in 
Category III may also meet the criteria for designation as Boston City 
Landmarks. Buildings which fall into Category III are coded on the 
survey forms with the number (III). 



IV . Notable 



Buildings in Category IV are considered important to the character of their 
particular street, neighborhood, or area 

* as an integral part of a visually cohesive streetscape or integral 
element within a district 

* as buildings with some individual architectural distinction, whether 
because of their materials, craftsmanship or detailing 

* as the best examples in their area of a particular style or building 
type, or 

* as buildings with some local historical significance. 

Buildings in Category IV are not considered significant enough to be 
designated as Boston City Landmarks or to be listed individually on the 
National Register of Historic Places. 

Buildings which fall into Category IV are coded on the survey forms 
with the number (IV). 

Minor 

Buildings in Category V are of little architectural or historical in interest 
but may be considered to make a minor contribution to the streetscape 

* as buildings which are compatible with surrounding structures in 
scale, style, materials or fenestration patterns, or 

* as buildings with some architectural interest or integrity. 

Buildings in this category are not considered eligible for designation as 
Boston City Landmarks or for individual listing on the National Register 
of Historic Places . Buildings which fall into Category V are coded on 
the survey forms with the number (V). 



VI . Non- Contributing 

Buildings in Group VI are considered to be visual intrusions , incompatible 
with the surrounding architectural fabric. Buildings in Category VI are 
coded on the survey forms with the number (VI). 

29 



• Districts - Were evaluatea on tiie basis of the distirictiveness of indi- 
vidual buildings and cohesiveness of tine streetscape, and in some instances, 
the historical significance of the area. Whenever possible, buildings were 
grouped into National Register districts rather than singled out for 
individual listing (A/iap 111). 

Research Procedure - Research was focused on determining date or date range, 
architect and/or builder, original property owners and original appearance of 
buildings recorded on individual forms, as well as sequence of neighborhood 
development and street development pattern. The investigation procedure fol- 
lowed these general stages: 

1. Field observation and building description. 

2. Examination of building permits. 

3. Examination of maps, and atlases using the collections at the Boston Public 
Library, Boston Athenaeum, and Massachusetts State Library. 

4. Examination of Boston directories, as well as histories of South Boston 
including Simonds' History of South Boston (1859), Gillespie's Illustrated 
History of South Boston (1900), and Toomey and Rankin's History of South 
Boston (1901). 

5. Deed research at the Suffolk County Registry of Deeds. 

6. Examination of local newspapers including the Boston Transcript , 
Boston Globe , and the Boston Pilot . 

7. Examination of photographs and views in the collections of the Boston 
Public Library-Print Department, the Society for the Preservation of New 
England Antiquities, and the Bostonian Society. 

Photography - Photographs were taken for buildings described on individual 
Building Information Forms. These photographs were taken by all three con- 
sultants. 



30 



Information Organization - The 100-scaie map (Building Style/iViaterial /Type) 
ano copies of all building information forms will be kept on file at the offices 
of the Boston Landmarks Commission and will be available for consultation. 
Building information forms are organized in a loose-leaf notebook are further 
arranged alphabetically by street address. These Building Information Forms, 
which are numbered using a system aaopted for all survey and inventory purposes 
in Boston (Appendix III), are also available for study at the Boston Landmarks 
Commission. Duplicate building information forms also will be kept on file at 
the Massachusetts Historical Commission, the Boston Public Library-Art Department, 
the South Boston Branch Library, the Bostonian Society, the Boston Athenaeum, 
the Library of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, 
and the Library of the Boston Redevelopment Authority. 

A file on architects, builders, and developers active in South Boston was 
organized with information recorded on 3x5 index cards and subsequently 
transferred to typed listing arranged alphabetically by name. This list will 
be available for consultation at the Landmarks Commission and copies at the 
agencies and institutions previously listed. 



31 



III. RECOMMENDATIONS 

As outlined in the Methodology section, the survey results were evaluated for 
architectural and historical significance. Based on this evaluation, recom- 
mendations for preservation activity were made by the consultants. The recom- 
mended activities consist of listings of individual buildings and districts in 
the National Register of Historic Places and designation as Landmark or 
Architectural Conservation Districts by the Boston Landmarks Commission. 
The recommendations of properties and brief descriptions of their architec- 
tural characteristics follow. 

A. Recommendations for Districts 

The recommendations are divided into four parts: those recommended for both 
National Register and Landmark Districts, those recommended for both National 
Register and Architectural Conservation Districts, those recommended for 
National Register Districts, and those recommended for further study. Proposed 
districts are shown on Map III. 

National Register and Landmark Districts 

1. Independence Square Landmark District - (Roughly circumscribed by the 

Lee Playground, N Street from 2nd to Emerson Street, (including St. Brigid's 
R.C. Church), Lincoln Square, the Hawes Cemetery, 92-108 L Street, 
both sides of East Broadway from L to M Streets and M Street from East 
Broadway to E 3rd.) 

The district contains an unusually rich collection of late 1850's - 1880's 
row houses and detached mansions grouped around two parks. Independence 
Square is a 6^-acre park on top of Broadway Hill (formerly known as 
Brush Tree Hill). Lincoln Park is a small triangular ornamental park 
bounded by E 4th and Emerson Streets. The several substantial French 
Second Empire Mansions and double houses are singular in type in Boston. 
Most notable are the Harrison Loring House and stable (ca. 1864, 789 East 
Broadway; a Boston Landmark, 1981) and the Solomon S. Cray estate 



33 



(1866, 788 E. Broadway). Among the architects represented are, 
S.S. Woodcock 

(High Victorian Gothic row at 47-53 N St., ca. 1873), William T. Eaton, 
(Hotel Eaton, Queen Anne Apartment Hotel at 311 Emerson Street, 1887), 
Daniel W, Beckler (Queen Anne brick row at 56-62N Street, 1887) and 
John A. Hasty's double Colonial Revival 2-family at 46-48 N Street, 1896. 
In addition, this district encompasses the Hawes Cemetery, South 
Boston's oldest burial ground founded 1817). 

National Register and Architectural Conservation Districts 

2. West Fourth and F Streets District (362-396 and 361-403 W. 4th; 
92-124 F Street) 

Considered eligible as the most intact concentration of mid-1 9th century resi- 
dences in the South Boston-West survey area. Because 4th Street provided 
the connection to the first South Boston bridge, some of the earliest and most 
distinguished residences were built along the street. Numerous good examples 
of Greek Revival (e.g., 377, 401, 411), Mansard, (380) and Italianate residences 
(392-4) are extant. J 

#361, on a prominent site at the corner of E Street, was the home of Henry Homer 
Municipal Court crier, and built in 1842 or 1843. #375 was the home by 1866 
of Gilbert Wait, provisions dealer at Washington Market who later built "Wait's 
Hall" and became a real estate broker. The Greek Revival house at 377 was 
built by 1844 when Daniel Safford, blacksmith, sold the property to Charles C. 
Conley, housewright. Thomas Blasland, apothecary, purchased the property 
in 1865 and made his home here. Captain Jonathan Nickerson's residence was 
380 W. 4th by the year 1843. Number 389 had become the residence by 1849 
of Horace Smith, at that time in partnership with Richard Williamson selling 
dry goods. Smith was employed by the city as an assessor by 1860. The 
row at 114-124 F Street, fanciful examples of High Victorian Gothic fashion, 
seems to have been built by Gifford and Goodwin, carpenters. 



34 



3. Mt. Washington District (508-564, 509-535 Broadway, 41-47 H Street, 
1-3 H Street Place), 

District considered eligible as a pocket of handsomely-designed houses in mix 
of styles, located on rising ground along South Boston's Major East-West street, 
and including notable and significant examples of Creek Revival, Italianate, 
Second Empire and Mansard housing. Located within the Mt. Washington District 
at 512-14 Broadway, is the double Greek Revival Monks/Hawes House (1845), 
adjacent at 516-18, the brick double Mansard Kenney/Hersey House (1874), 
the ca. 1856 flat-fronted Italianate row at 528-536, and the Second Empire 
Souther/Gavin House at 546 built in 1868 after designs by Gridley J.F. Bryant. 
Opposite, on the south side of Broadway, is the 1872 Samuel J.F. Thayer designed 
Hawes Unitarian Congregational Church (now St. George Albanian Orthodox 
Cathedral)* and the 1913 Renaissance Revival South Boston Municipal Building - 
James E. McLaughlin, architect. 

4. Telegraph Hill District (Circumscribed approximately by the north side of 
East 4th, the east side of G, the north side of West 8th, the east side 
of Gates, and the southerly side of Dorchester Street.) 

Telegraph Hill, the most topographically prominent residential area in South 
Boston is considered eligible for its inclusion of the Dorchester Heights 
Monument** which is located within a landscaped oval plan park laid out in 
the early 1850's, and for its surrounding high quality residential development. 
Characteristic of the Telegraph Hill District are several of South Boston's most 
distinguished examples of residential architecture which date from ca. 1833 
through the 1880's and include the late Federal/Greek Revival John Hawes Bird 
House at 480-82 East 4th (ca.1830). Greek Revival/ltalianate Harrison Briggs 



* Separately recommended for Boston Landmark status. 

** Part of Boston National Historical Park and listed in the National 
Register. 



35 



House at 52 C (ca. 1852), the Gothic Revival houses at 21 Linden (ca. 1863) 
and 146 Dorchester Street (1859), the substantial Mansarded Walbridge, Cogin, 
and Manning residences respectively at 56, 61, and 69 Thomas Park and dating 
from the late 1860's through mid-1870's, the 1870's Mansard row houses at 
7-9, 13-14, 15-26 Thomas Park, and (ca. 1875) the High Victorian Gothic 
Hutchins House at 46. Much of the residential fabric lining the north side of 
Thomas Park between the east side of Atlantic Street and the west side of G 
and along Atlantic Pacific, Linden and G were put up by influential South 
Boston developer and businessman Benjamin James who lived at 12 Thomas Park 
for almost 40 years. 

Architecturally notable non-residential buildings in the district include the 
early 1870's brick High Victorian Gothic female seminary at 484 East 4th, South 
Boston High School (1899-1901), Herbert D. Hale, architect, and the 1901 Carney 
Hospital Infirmary (now part of Marion Manor) at 4 Old Harbor Street, corner 
of Dorchester-Magginnis, Walsh and Sullivan architects. 

5. K Street District . 



(258-406 and 267-415 K Street; and 675, 680, 681-3, 687 East 4th; 559-561, 
562-566, 582, 583-597 East 5th; 2-16 and 1-15 Beckler Avenue; 569, 586-600, 
589-599 East 6th; 569, 580-586 East 7th; 593, 595, 604, 606, 607 East 8th; 
48-50, and 64 Marine; and 1592, 1596, 1614-20 Columbia Road). 

District qualifies as an architecturally impressive and intact north-south 
street which is the location of some of South Boston's most notable Mansard 
brick rows — several of which were put up by local builder Daniel Beckler. 
Examples of particular interest include the pavillion plan block at 283-305 K 
which was constructed in 1870-1 and built by Beckler who lived in its central 
entry corner house at East 6th; - the (ca. 1871) Mansarded stone-fronted Queen 
Anne row at 298-308 which has been attributed to Beckler; - and the bow-fronted 
brick Mansard row (ca. 1871) attributed to builder David A. Berry, who lived 
down the street at 318 K. 



36 



Also of importance to the development history of the area are the gable-roofed 
frame Creek Revival /Italianate and bracketed houses at the lower end of the 
street which are survivor's from the mid-century establishment of the vicinity 
as the neighborhood of Bay View. Examples of this earlier housing are 372 K 
(1852) and the Samuel Spinney House (1853) at 601 East 8th, corner of K. 

The K Street District is also of significance for its inclusion of the landmark 
ca. 1805 John Hawes House*** at 569 East 5th, (and 279 K Street). The Hawes 
House is a substantial and intact (with italianate alterations) 2i-story, low 
hipped roof, central entry, brick. Federal style residence and is reportedly 
South Boston's oldest extant building. Other buildings of note along and in 
the K Street vicinity include at 675 East 4th, the former Police Station 12 
(1874) and on the northeastern corner of East 4th, the Georgian Revival K Street 
fire station, designed by Harrison Atwood and built in 1932. 

6. City Point District 

(Roughly bounded by Farragut Road, E. Third Street, P Street and the 
northside of E. 6th) 

District has historical associations with the Blakes - one of the first families 
to settle on Old Dorchester Neck which became South Boston. Various Blakes 
lived at City Point from 1680 to 1866. The Samuel Blake House, a Creek Revival 
frame structure, is still extant behind a triple decker at 927-931 R East Broadway. 
This tree shaded area adjacent to Marine Park is considered eligible for its 
variety of well-preserved 19th and early 20th century structures. Particularly 
noteworthy is the well detailed Italianate House of druggist Michael Cleason 
(1856) at 855 East 5th Street) the French Second Empire James Collins Mansion 
at 928 East Broadway (1867) and a handsome Queen Anne brick row at 934-942 East 
Broadway designed in 1884 by Patrick VV. Ford. Also sell represented are 



*** Recommended separately for Boston Landmarks and National Register 
status. 



37 








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Classical Revival triple deckers, particularly 921-931 East 4th Street. South 
Boston's only substantial Colonial Revival Mansion, built during the early 1900's 
for the Falvey Department Store family is still extant at 948 East Broadway. 

7. Columbia Park to Castle Island Waterfront District 

Considered eligible as district having historical associations with late 19th 
century Frederick Law Olmsted - designed municipal park system. Waterfront 
district stretches approximately 2i miles from early 19th century Fort 
Independence on Castle Island to early 1900's Columbia Park. 

Lining the well-landscaped William J. Day Boulevard (constructed as The 
Strandway (1893-1896) are four yacht clubs built in 1899 in shingle Colonial 
Revival and Queen Anne and Bungalow styles (South Boston Yacht Club, Columbia 
Yacht Club, Puritan Canoe Club and The Boston Harbor Yacht Club). In addition, 
the Art Deco L Street Bath House built in 1931, has historical associations 
with Mayor Michael J. Curley. Field House at Carson Beach, ca. 1910 is an 
appealing example of a Tapestry Brick public building. 

B. Recommendations for Individual Properties 

The recommendations are divided into four parts: (1) those properties listed 
in the National Register or designated as Boston Landmarks and recommended 
for additional protection, (2) those recommended for both National Register 
listing and Boston Landmarks designation, (3) those recommended only for 
National Register listing, (4) those recommended for further study. See Map IV 
for individual recommendations and Map V for further study recommendations. 

National Register Properties or Boston Landmarks Recommended for Additional 
Protection 

1. Dorchester Heights, Thomas Park - (SB 900) Monument, 1900-2, Peabody 
and Stearns, architect. 

Part of the Boston National Historical Park and listed in the National Register. 
Steeple-like marble monument/observation tower commemorates the evacuation 



39 



of Boston by the British on March 7, 1776 through the successful efforts of 
the Continental Army, local militia, and volunteers in the fortification of the 
Heights and the strategic use of cannon brought to South Boston from Fort 
Ticonderoga. Qualifies for designation as a Boston Landmark. 

2. Fort Independence, Castle island - (SB 907} 1801-9;. John Foncin, engineer. 
With alterations of 1836-56 and 1870-1. 

Listed in the National Register, and merits Boston Landmarks designation. 
Fort Independence is the oldest continuously used military fortification in the 
United States. Its antecedents go back to 1634 and the existing granite pen- 
tagonal structure dates from 1801-9. 

3. Harrison Loring House - 789 East Broadway, c. 1864, (SB 46) a Boston 
Landmark and recommended for National Register listing. 

Loring built this French-ltalianate brick with brownstone trim mansion house 
with a view towards his shipyards down on M Street. The stable is intact, 
and the large corner site is surrounded by an unusually robust cast iron fence 
set in a brownstone curb. 

Recommended for National Register and Boston Landmark Designation 

4. St. Augustine Chapel and Cemetery - Dorchester Street between West 6th 
and Tudor Streets. Chapel built 1819/1833. (SB 509 and 800). 

St. Augustine Chapel is considered eligible as an early Gothic Revival religious 
building having important association with the development of the Catholic 
religion in South Boston, now the dominant religious element. The cemetery, 
the first set aside in Boston for Catholic burials, contains graves of numerous 
Boston priests and many of the city's Irish immigrants of the 19th century. 
Land for the cemetery was purchased by Father Jean-Louis Cheverus, first 
Bishop of Boston. The building was constructed in 1819 as a mortuary chapel 
for Father Matignon, who had organized the Catholic Church throughout New 



40 



England with Cheverus. Expanded in 1831, the St. Augustine's Chapel served 
as the South Boston's only Catholic Church until 1844 when Ss. Peter and Paul 
was built. 

5. Church of Ss. Peter and Paul and Parochial Residence - (45 and 55-9 West 
Broadway). 1845/1853. Cridley J.F. Bryant, architect. Residence, 
1868/1890's. (SB 534 and 149]. 

Designed by prominent Boston architect Cridley J.F. Bryant, Ss. Peter and 
Paul church qualifies as a distinguished example of Cothic Revival architecture. 
Related to other buildings of Bryant's design in material, Quincy granite, it 
was begun in 1842 and dedicated in 1845. A severe fire in 1848 left only the 
exterior walls standing, but the edifice was rebuilt in similar manner and 
dedicated again in 1853. It remains today a significant visual and social 
landmark for South Boston. The extensive parish of the church included ail 
of South Boston plus additional territory until 1863, when Gate of Heaven 
Church was opened in the eastern area of the peninsula. 

The parochial residence is a large 3-story red brick building with double swell- 
bowed facade, sandstone trim, and a porch with a single arched entry. Queen 
Anne in its present character. It has been connected with the church at least 
since 1868, when it was smaller with only one projecting bay. The alteration 
date was between 1891 and 1899. 

6. John Hawes House ** - 568 East 5th Street (and 279 K Street) Built ca. 1805. 
(SB 70) 

Qualifies as a substantial, brick, 5-bay, central-entry, 2i-story, low-hipped 
roof Federal house remaining substantially intact and representing the most 
important surviving example of early nineteenth century architecture in the 
study area. In addition, the Hawes House appears to be the earliest extant 
building in South Boston. John Hawes, the original owner and occupant of 
the house was a major benefactor to the district and donated land to for the 



** Also included in recommended NR/ACD districts. 



41 



location of a burial ground, and through his will of 1813, provided financial 
support for South Boston public schools and funds for the maintenance of two 
congregational church societies. 

7. Hawes Unitarian Congregational Church ** - (Now St. George Albanian 

Orthodox Cathedral, 523 East Broadway. 1872, Samuel J.F. Thayer, architect 
(SB 515) 

Considered eligible as an architecturally distinguished Ruskinian Gothic church 
which retains much of its original design and colorful detail. The Hawes 
Unitarian Congregational Church (also called the Second Hawes Congregational 
Church) is a major work of a prominent Boston architect, who lived, at the 
time of its construction, nearby at 170 Dorchester Street. 

Since 1949, the church has served as the Cathedral and mother church of the 
Albanian Orthodox Church in America. The interior remains substantially intact 
with alteration for its present use including the installation of iconic murals 
and a carved alter screen completed in 1912 by South Boston Albanian artisan 
Master Dimitri. Interior designation is also recommended. 

Recommended for National Register Only 

Residential: 1 



^. 249 Emerson Street - 1844-5. (SB 90) 

Qualifies as an intact and handsomely detailed Greek Revival residence built 
by Milo Furbush, Boston trader. Owned by a succession of grocers during 
the 19th century. 

Churches: 

9. St. Augustine Roman Catholic Church - 225 Dorchester Street, 1870-4, 
Patrick C. Keeley, architect. (SB 512) 

Qualified as a fine example of High Victorian Gothic religious architect and as 



42 



a design by a church architect of national reputation, St. Augustine dates 
from the period of rapid growth in South Boston's Irish immigrant population 
and is a monument of that period of the area's social history. 

10. St. Vincent de Paul Catholic Church - 212 West Third - 1874, Architect 
Patrick C. Keeley. (SB 535) 

Considered eligible as a notable Italianate church designed by prominent relig- 
ious architect. This building is successor to St. Vincent's which was on 
Purchase Street before Fort Hill's levelling in 1872. Both the parish and many 
of that neighborhoods' Irish immigrants made South Boston their new home. 
Granite block from the earlier church were used in constructing this edifice. 

11. Gate of Heaven Church Complex - Gate of Heaven Church (now Parish 

Hall and Sunday School) - 608 East nth Street (1862-3). Patrick C. Keeley, 
architect; 127 I Street, St. Agnes Convent (1879). Patrick W. Ford, 
architect; Gate of Heaven Church, 615 East 4th Street (1892-1912), 
George Clough, architect. (SB 520, 530, 522). 

Considered eligible as a complex of three handsome religious buildings designed 
by locally and nationally prominent architects. The Gate of Heaven Complex 
is also significant as a physical document of the growth of the Catholic com- 
munity in South Boston during the second half of the nineteenth century. 
Originally a mission of Saints Peter and Paul, Gate of Heaven became a separate 
parish in 1866 and by the 1890's was the largest parish in the district. 

Institutional 



12. Capen School - (now St. Peter School) - 518 East 6th Street, corner of I 
(1871) Cummings and Sears, architects. (SB 525) 

Qualifies as an important and intact example of 1870's Mansard style institutional 
architecture and as a public building designed by the well established firm of 
Cummings and Sears. The school was named for Lemuel Capen, who was minister 



43 



of the Hawes Place Congregational Society (1823-36] and one of the early 
residents of the nearby Bay View district. 

13. Choate Burnham School - (now South Boston Heights Academy, 486 East 3rd 
Street (1892-4). Edmund March Wheelwright, architect (SB 518) 

Considered eligible as a fine example of the Mediterranean Style which is in- 
frequently seen in Boston, as a good representative of small scale late 19th 
century schoolhouse architecture, and as the work of a prominent and influ- 
ential Boston architect. Designed while he was city architect, Choate Burnham 
is only one of a handful of schools that Wheelwright executed in this style. 

14. Bigelow School - 350 W. 4th Street. 1901, Charles J. Bateman, architect. 
(SB 536) 

Qualifies as a good example of a Classical Revival Style public school. Designer 
of the structure, Charles J. Bateman was city architect. The same location 
was the site of its predecessor, dedicated in 1850, and named for the Honorable 
John P. Bigelow, then Mayor of Boston. The school was closed by 1976, and 
remains unused in 1982. 

15. Oliver Hazard Perry School - 1904. Clough and Wardner, architects. 
770 East 8th Street. (SB 526) 

Eligible as a notable Classical Revival primary school designed by an estab- 
lished Boston architectural firm. 

Commercial 



16. South Boston Savings Bank Building - 368-372 West Broadway & 325-7 E 
Street. (SB 405) 

Considered eligible as a handsome example of a Neo Crec commercial building, 
this brick block with granite facade on Broadway housed the South Boston 



44 



Savings Bank and branch of the Public Library by 1872. Alterations to the 
structure were carried out in 1871 by the architectural firm of Peabody and 
Stearns, 

17. Monks Building (366 W. Broadway/328 E Street - 1873. Alexander R. 
Estey, architect (SB 404) 

Qualifies as an excellent example of High Victorian Gothic commercial design. 
Constructed in 1873 to the design of Boston architect Alexander R. Estey, in 
1875, it housed Monks & Co., flour and grain dealers, and become the home 
of the Mattapan Deposit and Trust Company in 1892. 

18. Pilgrim Hall - 732-34 East Broadway. 1890. William T. Eaton, builder. 
(SB 401) 

Eligible as mixed-use commercial space with meeting hall and as a fine example 
of a Queen Anne/ Romanesque Revival Masonry building. Pilgrim Hall housed 
social and service clubs, a school, and the office of South Boston builder 
William T. Eaton. 

19. Bethesda Hall - 403-15 W. Broadway. 1890, Winslow and Wetherell, architects. 
(SB 409) 

Qualifies as a notable example of Queen Anne commercial architecture. A hand- 
some, large 3-story brick structure with terra cotta frieze, it was built for 
retail and office space in 1890 for the heirs of Esther Baker. Designed by 
the firm of Winslow and Wetherell, the building was constructed by builders 
Clark and Lee. Before 1900, Falvey's store was housed here. At the turn of 
the century. Murphy's Department Store moved to this location. 

Industrial: 



20. Boston Beer Company - 249 W. 2nd Street. (SB 700) 

Considered eligible as an early surviving manufacturing building in the South 



45 



Boston area. In 1852, Cox & Co.,'s brewery was on this site, in a smaller 
building. The brewery was expanded by 1874 and by 1882 had reached its 
present large proportions, as the Boston Beer Brewery. 

21. S.A. Woods Machine Company - 27-37, 38 Damrell Street. (SB 701) 

Qualifies as a complex of Victorian industrial buildings once part of the 
S.A. Woods Machine Company, prominent manufacturers of woodworking machinery. 
The company had obtained over 50 patents for such machinery designs by 1900; 
their first operations at this site were in 1866, though the extant structures 
date from the late 19th century. Number 28 was the main building, which 
houses machine shops, pattern shop, and woodworking. Its architectural style 
is Panel Brick, while 27-37 is Queen Anne in design. The one-story portion 
of 27-37 functioned as a stable and pattern store house, respectively, by 1886. 

22. Hersey Manufacturing Company - 314-330 W. Second. (SB 708) 

Qualifies as a remaining structure of the Hersey Manufacturing Company, one 
of South Boston's important industries in the 19th century which had operations 
here until 1960; their products were steam engines, general machinery, machines 
for sugar processing, soap manufacture, water meters and pumps. Beginning 
operations here with wood frame buildings in 1860, their later structures were 
brick, such as this remaining 5-story Victorian industrial building at the cor- 
ner of 2nd and E. Its addition on Dresser Street, a steel frame and brick 
infill edifice, was built about 1910. 

Further Study 

The following sites may also be considered for their architectural contributions, 
but should not be individually designated if part of a district unless research 
indicates greater significance. In-depth research should include title searches 
and investigation of private papers, newspaper accounts and other primary 
sources. See Map V. 



46 



1 . Residential 

92-94 B Street (SB 1) 

A two-story frame Federal double house, one of the few surviving from that 
period in South Boston. The property was conveyed from Jacob Pike, house- 
wright, to Timothy Abbott, trader, in 1831, and a house was on the site by 
1834. 

99-101 West 4th (SB 411) 

The South Boston Hotel was housed in this building for some years, and it is 
one of only a few Federal structures remaining. Alterations over the years, 
particularly the stuccoing of the exterior, have damaged the structure's 
integrity. 

363-5 W. Broadway; 318-324 E Street (SB 150) 

Row of brick Federal houses with hipped roof which may date from earlier than 
1824, when the property was sold by Bardiner Greene, Esq. to Elijah Harris, 
brickmaker. 

17 Dixfield Street - (SB 10) 

Vernacular, central entry, side-facing gable roofed house on a large lot of 
rising land facing Dorchester Bay. 17 Dixfield was owned in the late 1840's 
by the estate of West India Goods Merchant David Nickerson. Possibly dated 
from 1830's. 

27-29 Dexter Street (SB 9) 

This 2i-story Greek Revival frame double house was built prior to 1847. Owned 
by 1852 by Dexter Wadleigh, builder, and William Sharp, lithographer, it is 
the earliest building on the street. 



48 



10-12 Jenkins (SB 109) 

Unusual, large double Creek Revival house which was built prior to 1852. 
Owners of the structure by 1874 were Jerome B. Carpenter (a carpenter) and 
Mrs. Cordelia B. Davis (wife of Lorenzo D. Davis, carpenter). 

161-167 West 2nd - SB 153) 

Built by 1852, this is unusual in South Boston as a surviving Greek Revival 
row in brick. 

368-370 E Street, and 305 W. 2nd (SB 20) 

A two-story frame residence with gable and hipped roof, this building was 
constructed prior to 1852. It may have originally had a central hall plan, with 
a later addition on the north side. 

5821 East 8th Street (SB 85) 

Built by 1852, this unusual, narrowly proportioned, three-story plus attic, 
street-facing, pedimented brick residence remains in a good state of preser- 
vation. 

495 East Broadway (SB 38) 

Originally part of a 4-unit Italianate brick row built in 1860, 495 is the most 
intact of the remaining three buildings. James, who apparently put up the 
row with his neighbor Howard Clapp, was known at the time of this death as 
the last surviving mason to have worked on the Bunker Hill Monument. 

190-192 W. 7th Street by 1860 (SB 174) 

Notable for its unusual Italianate form of 3-stories with two 4-story towers. 
Unusually early multiple-family dwelling, possibly a prototype for the later 
triple deckers. 



49 



866-868 E. Sixth Street ca. 1868 (SB 80) 

Second Empire Mansion. Known as Atlantic House during the 1880's. 

828-834 E. Fifth Street ca. 1880 (SB 72) 

Large High Victorian Gothic commercial-multi-family brick building located on 
corner site. 

948 East Broadway ca. 1905 (SB 37) 

Substantial Colonial derived residential built for Falvey Department Store 
family. 

65 Farragut Road ca. 1905 (SB 95) 

Queen Anne/Colonial Revival triple decker at corner of East Broadway and 
Farragut Road facing Marine Park. Has distinctive corner tower and good 
detail. 

2. Churches : 

St. Peter's Lithuanian Church - Flaherty Way, near B Street. (SB 528) 

Constructed c. 1900, this Romanesque Revival church, now surrounded by 
the D Street housing project, is a rare surviving structure from the time 
before the project's construction. By the turn of the century. South Boston 
had become a principal area of settlement for the city's Lithuanian immigrants. 

3. Institutional : 

Benjamin Pope School - 1883, 709 E. Fifth (SB 524). 

Vi/ell preserved Queen Anne/Chateausque primary school, architect is C.J. Bateman, 



50 



4. Industrial : 

Storage Facility, V^faiworth Manufacturing Company - 881 East First Street, 
c. 1904 (SB 705) 

This storage facility was designed by Fehmer and Page for the Walworth Company, 
a pipe tool concern established in South Boston in 1847. 

603-609 E. First Street - 1915. (SB 706) 

Light manufacturing brick structure designed by H.M. Haven and William W. 
Crosby for M.F. Cahill's electrical protective device company. 

Macallen Company 435-7 Dorchester Avenue, Foundry, and Creenbaum Streets. 
(SB 702) 

Large, six-story Georgian Revival brick manufacturing building which housed 
the Macallen Company by 1910, manufacturers of electric railway materials. 



51 



BOSTON LANDMARKS COMMISSION Building Information Form Form No. '/oV A rea South Boston 



366 V. Broadway 
ADDRESS 328 E St. 



COR. 



NAME 




present 
MAP No. 2 IN/ HE 



Monks B uilding 



original 

_SUB AREA qnnrh Ro-,fnn-:jpqr 
architecture arcnives 
DATE 1873 Boston Public Library, Fine Arts De p t 



ARCHITECT^ 
BUILDER 



source 
Alexander R. Estey 



Public Librar- 



source 



source 

OWNER in 1882: R.J. & E.H. Monks, Trs. 



original 



present 



PHOTOGRAPHS SB 5 4/ *& 4/3^82 



TYPE (residential") sing le double row 2-fain. 3-deck ten apt. 
TillTl 



(^ (non-residential) ) (lOVv\m.^CAcd 



NO. OF STORIES (1st to cornice) 3 
ROOF gable cup o 1 a 



plus attic 



dormers 



MATERIALS (Frame) clapboa rds shingles stucco asphalt asbestos alum/vinyl 
C LOther^ fl)rick^ stone concrete iron/steel/alum. 

BRIEF DESCRIPTION Elaborate 3_J./2 story High Victorian Gothic brick commercial, 

building with steeply gabled roof of polychrome slate featuring cross 
gables,. Light stone trims the dark brick with stringcourses. and hood 
molds. The lancet-arched l/l sash windows feature jig-sawn decoration above 
upper saah^ .A long narrow structure in plan, the long E Street facade 
erfiibits elaborate dormers, chimneys, and turrets. 

EXTERIOR ALTERATION (^"fiino^ moderate drastic sT^pre front now aluminum & glass 



CONDITIOJTgoo^ fair poor 






NOTEWORTHY SITE CHARACTERISTICS 



LOT AREA 



3346 



sq. feet 



commands prominent corner location 



(Map) 



SIGNIFICANCE (cont'd on reverse) 

An excellent example of High Victorian Gothic 
commercial design. Constructed In 1873 to the 
design of Boston architect Alexandra R.. Estey, 
in 1875 t'.-.s bulldla? housed llonl.s o. C:., fioui- 



53 



-jn:. 



Moved; date if known 



Themes (check as many as applicable) 



Aboriginal 
Agricultural 
Architectural 
The Arts 
Commerce 
Communication 
Community/ 
development 



Conservation 
Education 
Exploration/ 
settlement 
Industry 
Military 
Political 



Recreation 

Religion 

Science/ 

invention 
Social/ 

humanitarian 
Transportation 



Significance (include explanation of themes checked above) 

and 5rain dealers yfao nlso had Locations at ll'j Er^sc and Ji C^n^z^ss in 
Boston. Tna building, on Congress uzs ceslgnec by E^tey as --rell. 
In 1892 the Mattapan Deposit and Trust Company was fontiec and by 1900 
had its offices in this distinguished building. Richard J. Monks was 
a founder and in 1900 Presidaat of the Trust Company and was described 
by Gillespie In his History of South Boston as "one of South Boston's 
leading capitalists." Richard's father, John P. Monks, had been a 
prominent lumber merchant In previous years with yards on First Street. 

Caroline M. GUI had sold the property (but apparently not this building) 
to R.J. 6e E.H. Monks Trs. In 1873. 



Preservation Consideration (accessibility, re-use pc 
for public use and enjoyment, protection, utilities, 

recommended for National Register designation 




Bibliography and/or references (such as local histories, deeds, assessor's 
records, early maps, etc.) 

Gillespie, Charles B. Illustrated History of South Boston. 1900. 
Boston Public Library, Fine Arts Department. Architectural archives. 
Atlases: 1874, Hopkins; 1882, Hopkins. 
Suffolk Deeds: 1156 303. 



54 



Color # 



APPENDIX II 



Colonial 
(1-30-1775) 

Federal 



(1790-1830) 

Greek Revival 
(1830-1855) 

Gothic Revival 
(1840-1860) 

Italianate 
(1845-1885) 

High Victorian 

Gothic 

(1860-1890) 

Mansard 
(1860-1890) 

Stick Style 
(1870-1880) 

Queen Anne 
(1870-1900) 

Romanesque 

Revival 

(1875-1895 

Shingle Style 
(1880-1900) 

Renaissance 
Revi val 
(1885-1930) 

Victorian/ Industrial 
Commercial Style 
TT885-1905) 



Residential 

unmarked, single family 
2F: two family 
3D: triple decker 
A: apartment 
Gar: garage 
Barn: stable or 
carriage 



Commercia l 
Rl : retail store 
(1-2 stories) 



■S*918 
!#930 
l#931 
]#919 




]#904 
#906 

#933 
#911 
#907 
#909 

l#913 
l#914 

#912 



Chateauesque/ 

Norman 

(1890-1905) 

Beaux Arts 
(1890-1915) 

Georgian or 
Colonial Revival 
(1890-1930) 

Federal Revival 
(1900-1920) 

Modern Gothic 
(1890-1940) 

Jacobethan 
(1895-1930) 

Classical 

Revival 

(1895-1930) 

Mediterranean/ 

Mission 

(1900-1930) 

Bungalow 
(1900-1930 

Early 20th Century Commercial 

Tapestry Brick 

(1910-1940) 

Art Deco/ 

Moderne 

(1925-1940) 

International 
Style/ Modern 
(1927- 

Contemporary 
Suburban 



l#916 





3 #927 



#939 

#935 



f .t'l 'iisri 



S#963 



]#964 



(1940- 
Institutional 



Ch: 


church 




Sc: 


school 




Mp: 


municipal 






(police. 


f i re , 




library, 


etc.) 


H: 


hospital 
home 


nursi 


Cb: 


club 




Manufacturing 





M: manufacturing 
W: warehouse 



55 



Building Materials 

IF) brick 

(s) stone 

(so) stucco 

(m) metal 

(co) concrete 

(gl) glass 



VAC: vacant 
//// drastically 



APPENDIX III 
Historic Inventory Map Coding System - Boston 



City is divided into the following districts, note abbreviations. 
A capital letter or pair will always precede a number for coding. 



EB 


East Boston 


SB 


C 


Charlestown 


JP 


N/W 


North End/Waterfront 


R 


BB 


Back Bay 


D 


BH 


Beacon Hill 


RD 


SC 


Bay Village/Chinatown 


WR 


FK 


Fenway/Kenmore 


HP 


AB 


Allston/Brighton 


GC 


MH 


Mission Hill 


WE 


SE 


South End 


CBO 



South Boston 

Jamaica Plain 

Roxbury 

Dorchester 

Rosiindaie 

West Roxbury 

Hyde Park 

Government Center/North Station 

West End 

Central Business District 



2. Numerical system is divided into the following use categories. 
(MHC code is the underlying structure here with additional break- 
downs to deal with the large number of structures in the City). 

Buildings 1-799 

Further broken down into: 

Residential 1-399 

(including all types of residential structures, apartments, 
out buildings, such as carriage houses, barns, stables, 
and garages) 

Commercial 400-499 

(including retail, office, bank, gas stations, fast food, 

auto repair, super markets, shopping center, hotel, theatre, 

combined commercial/residential) 

Institutional 500-699 

(including church, school, municipal, hospital, nursing 
home, club, R.R. station, civic, stadium) 

Manufacturing 700-799 

including manufacturing, lofts, factory warehouse, mill 

Cemetary 800-899 

Structures, Parks, Monuments, Markers 900-999 

(including bridge, canal, dam, tunnel, road/path, windmill, 
fort, standpipe, marker/tablet, statue, fountain, milestone, 
parks, benches, training fields, clocks) 

Streetscapes 1000-X 

3. Example of how to use system 

D159 - reflects a residential structure in Dorchester 

H900 - reflects a bridge in Hyde Park 

H371 - reflects a commercial structure in Hyde Park 57 



EB 







58 



CITY OF BOSTON 

KEVIN H. WHITE, MAYOR 



BOSTON LANDMARKS COMMISSION 
MEMBERS 



Pauline Chase Harrell, 
Lawrence A. Bianchi 
Libby Blank 
Romas A. Brickus 
Susan S. Davis 
Thomas J. Hynes, Jr. 
Martha L. Rothman 
Henry A. Wood 



Chairwoman 



ALTERNATES 

Roger P. Lang, Vice Chairman 

Virginia Aldrich 

Stanford O. Anderson 

John F. Cooke 

Joan E. Goody 

Rosalind E. Gorin 

Imre Halasz 

Luix Overbea 

Carl A. Zellner 



Marcia Myers, Executive Director 
Judith B. McDonough, Survey Director 
Barbara E. Clancy, Administrative Assistant 
Eugenie Beal, Director, Environment Department 



BOSTON REDEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY 



Robert L. Farrell, Chairman 
Joseph J. Walsh, Vice Chairman 
James K. Flaherty, Treasurer 
Clarence J. Jones, Member 
William A. McDermott, Jr., Member 
Kane Simonian, Secretary 
Robert J. Ryan, Director 



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BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY 

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