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Full text of "South Carolina. Resources and population. Institutions and industries"

V 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
AT LOS ANGELES 





\ 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



RESOURCES AND POPULATION. 



INSTITUTIONS AND INDUSTRIES. 



PrBTJSHKD RY THE 



STATE BOARD OF AGRICULTURE 






OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Governor HUGH S. THOMPSON, Chairman. 



A. P. BUTLER, Coniniissioner. 



^ 



/ .OK, S.C. 



' r 't:!*/ 1'kintep!= 



/ 

/■ 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PA^RT I. 

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTORY. Location. Area : Maps. General Feati 
Rivers. Regions. Agriculture : Small Grain, Rice, Indigo, Indian Corn, Cot 
Sea Island Cotton, Remarks. Diagram op Crops, 1(j70 to 1880 pp. 1 

CHAPTER II. COAST REGION. Location ; Area, CharacterLsties. Geolo 
Subsidence, Erosion, Sedimentation, Formation of Islands, Topography. Physi 
Features, Tides. Soils : Uplands. Bays, Salt-^NIarshes. Analyses : terror, Occurr- 
of Marls, &c. Climate : Health. Statistics. Productions. Cotton : Three Kind 
Seeds, Hyl^rids, Origin, Improvement, and Characteristics of Sea Isiand. Far: 
Number, Value of Land. Labor : Tenures, Credits, Diagram, Enclosur«,>s, Draina' 
Plows, Hoes, Fallows. Culture: Of Sea Island Cotton. Enemies: Of\ the Pla 
Handling. Seed: Santees and ]Mains. Limits: Of Culture. Cosr' of Prodnctii 
Yield, Itemized Statement of Expenditures pp. 14- 

CHAPTER III. LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. Locatk 
Physical— Features, Rivers, Lakelets, Elevation, Drainage, Irrigration, Freshet,. 
Geology: Cretaceous, Buhrstone, Santee Marls, Ashley and Cooper Marls. Phos- 
phates : Occurrence, Characters, Fossils, Changes, Origin, Extent. Mining. Soils : 
Ui)lands, Analyses, Swamps. Growth. Climate : Health. Statistics. Productions : 
Rice Culture, Oats, Grasses. Area: In Cotton. Farms: Labor, Wages, Rents. Value 
of Land, Credits. Tillage: Fallowing, Rotation of Crops, ^Manures. C'otton : Culture, 
Hai-^'5ng. Cost : Of Production. Disasters to the Plant. Abstract of Township Cor- 
v -me pp. 4-I-7(>. 

^TP:R IV. T'PPER PINE BELT. Location. Elevation: Water Courses- 
r : Cretaceous, Miocene, and Eocene Marls, Buhrstone. Soils : Analyses. Pee 
jc Lands, River Lands, Swamp Lands. Climate: Frost Diagram. Growth: Indian 
Fires, Productions Statistics. Advances: To Farmers. Size of Farms. Laijor: 
Wages, Rent, Value of Land. Table : Exhibiting Production in Relation to Credits, 
Size of Farms, those Rented and those Worked by Owners. Enclosures: Drainage, 
Fallows, Rotation, Tillage, Growth on Lands Lying Out, Manures. C'otton : Culture, 
Handling. Ratio : Of Lint to Seed Cotton. Shipping. Grass, Lice, Rust. Cost : Of 
Production. Ditto in 1848. Ab.stract ; Of Township Correspondence pp. 71-io;». 

CHAPTER V. RED HILL REGION. Location. Geology: Sienna Colored 
Clay, Gravel Bed, Buhrstone, Siliceous Rock. Soils: Analyses. Climate. Growth. 
Statistics PP. llO-lKi. 

\ CHAPTER VI. SAND HILL REGION. Position and Area: Elevation, Contour, 
Diagram, Streams, Lakelets, Blowing Wells. Geology : Granite, Sandstone, Loose 
Sand, Kaolin Clay. Soils : Analyses. Growth and Productions. Clbmate. Sta- 

asTics I-PP. 117-120. 

1 



TAHLK OF CO .TKNTS. \ 

K VII. I'IKDMONT RKGION. Location, Name, Kluvatioiis. Fiill\ 
'atershods, Rivers, Table, Navigation, (teology : Triple Oeciirrence \ 
leiss, Hornblende, Mica Slate, Ores and Minerals, Talc Slate, Diauiondh 
, Trap. GoD) Mines: Occurrence, Diagram, Golden Age, Silver, l.ead. Zinc, 
'.ismntli, Iron, IJarytes, Manganese, (ilrai)hite, Felsi)ar. Asbestos, Soapstone, 
'Urmaline, CVjriniduni, Zircons. Soils: Disintegration of Rocks. Soils: (iray 
nalyses. Red Loams, Analyses, llornblendic, Analyses, Mica Slate, Clay Slate, 
•i, Trappean, Analyses, Bottom Lands. Climatk: Temi>eratiire, Rainfall, 
Malarial Line. (Jkowtii : Cane, Pines, Chestnut. PaonrcTioNs : Cattle, Hemp, 
), Grapes, Bermuda (irass, Lucerne. St.atistics : Farm Values and Prodiu-tions 
tion to Sy.steni of Agriculture, Table, Deductions Land Holdings, Provisions, 
nces, Banks. Labor, Wages, Value of Lands, Rents. Tilla(;e : Rotation, Fallovv- 
J)ld Fields, Manuring. Cotton Culture, Enemies Crab Grass. Ginning, Shipping, 
of Production. Abstract of Townsliii) Correspondence pp. 12(1-182. 

IAPTKR VIII. ALPINE RECilON. Location: Features, Great Fault, Water- 
s, Mountain Knobs, Elevations, Aspect. Geology : Rocks, Ores, Minerals. Soils, 
istics. Labor. Tillage. Cotton Culture. Ginning. Abstract of Township Corres- 

ience pp. 183-195. 

HAPTER IX. WATER POWERS. Sources of Information. Three Regions, 
ysical Conditions, Climate, Rainfall. W.vter Courses, Table, Power Utilized, Table. 
sTHon of Estimating Water Power. Summary of Powers, Notes. Affluents of the 
vannah, Aggregate of Power, Employment of Water Power, Cost pp. liHi-208. 

CHAPTER X. LIST (JF VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOITH CAROLINA. 
Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Bibliography pp. 209-264. 

CHAPTER XL LIST OF THE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CARO- 
LINA. Introductory: Insects, Bibliography, Spiders, Hundred-legs, Crabs. Worms, 
Parasites, Cuttle-fish, Sn.vils, Mussels, Star-fish, Jelly-fish, Corals, Sponges, 
Infusoria, Bibliography pp. 205-:5]l. 

CHAPTER NIL LIST OF THE PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. Flowering 
Plants, with two seed leaves, with one seed leaf. Flowerless Plants, Horsetails, 
Ferns, f'lub-mosses. Water-ferns. ]\Iosses. Lichens. Seaweed. ^lushrooms. Sum- 
mary. Bibliography pp. 312 — 3:")9. 



TABLES. 

TABLE I. Meteorological Records from 17o2 to 188U. 
TABLE II. Statistics of the Agricultural Regions of South Carolina, 1880. 
TABLE III. Statistics of the Agricultural Regions of South Carolina, 1870. 
TABLE IV. General Statistics of Agriculture in South Carolina, and in the United 
States, from ISoO to 18(i0. 

TABLE V. Agricultural Statistics of eacli Township of South Carolina, in ISMO. 

/; 

N. B. The data of Tables II., III., and V. may be localiz";d by reference to the Map 

accompanying this Volume. 



\ 



t^A^LE OF CONTEJ^TS. Yli 



PA^RT II. 

CHAPTER I. POPULATION. Indians, Origin, Numbers, Synopsis of Nations and 
Tribes, Survivors. Negroes, Introduction of. Numbers of Imported, Rate of Increase 
from 1714 to 1790, from 1790 to 186.}, Increase of Free Negroes, Inctrease in Soutii Caro- 
lina, 1810 to 1880, Compared with Other Populations, Intermixture, Females, Centres of 
Population, Divergence of African and P^uropean. Distribution of Negro, Foreign, and 
Aggregate Population according to Elevation, to Mean Annual Temperature, to Summer 
Temperature, to AV'inter Temperature, to Highest Temperature, to Lowest Temperature, 
to Rainfall. Distribution within the State, Chronologically. Diffusion. Eukopeans, 
Chronology 1497 to 1783, Numbers, 1790 to 1880, Increase, 1790 to 1S80, Tables, Diagratn, 
No Antagonism of Races, Prospect. Movement of Population, Population ^laps, 1790 to 
1880, Tables. Foreigners. Sexes. Ages, Aggregate Years Lived, Ratio of Different Ages, 
Tables, Military Age, Citizenship Age, Table. Dwellings and Families, Tables. 

pp. 363-399. 

CHAPTER II. VITAL STATISTICS. Mortuary Records, Comparison of Deaths 
in South Carolina and in the United States, Diagram, Death Rate of Foreigners. Mar- 
Ri.vGES : Table, Season. Births: Number, Table, Season, Plurality Births, Still Births. 
Deaths: Table, 18.33-59, Months, Ages, Longevity, Causes of Death, Malarial Dis- 
eases : Census of 1880, Mortality in the Different Regions of the State, Age, Sex, 
Principal Diseases pp. 400-421. 

CHAPTER III. INSTITUTIONS. Government and Laws of Soutli Carolina. Origin 
of the name Carolina. Character and Nationalities of the Colonists, Government 
under the Lords Proprietors. Locke's Constitution, the Royal Governors, Cont-titutions ol 
1776 and 1790, Progress between the Revolutionary War and Secession. Leadinc; Prin 
ciples of the Constitution, Declaration of Rights and Form of Government, Legislative 
Department, Executive De]iartment, Judicial Department ; The Suffrage, Taxation, 
Education ; The Militia, Marriage and Divorce, Amendments and Revision of the 
Constitution. The .Statute Law, Crimes and Punishments, Murder, Rape and Arson, 
Manslaughter, other Crimes and Misdemeanors. Law of Proi-erty, Public Instruc- 
tion, Department op A(;kicultuue, Immigrants and Seamen, Gener,\l Re.marks, 
Authorities consulted pp. 421-444. 

(JHAPTER IV. A SKErCH OF EDUCATION IN SOUTH CAROLINA. 

pp. 44.">-'549. 

CHAPTER V. CHURCHES. Church of England, other Churches, Negro Churches, 
Tables PP. oo0-5o6. 

CHAPTER VI. OCCUPATIONS. Population Accounted for. Percentage of Wor'f- 
ers, Increase. Sex, and Nativity, Changes of Occupation, Agriculture, Professional and 
Personal Services, Trade and Transportation, Manufactures and Mining. The Insane : 
Idiots, Blind, Deaf Mutes, Paupers, Prisoners Pp. •Vi7-.i72. 

CHAPTER VII. MANUFACTURES. Compared with Agriculture, Retrospect, 
Growth. Present Condition. Cotton Goods, Cotton Ginning. Fertilizers, Flour and 
Grist Mills. Sawing Lumber, Turpentine, and other Manufactures. Mining : Phos- 
phates, Kaolin, Granite, Fisheries PP- •'^7.3-610. 

CHAPTER VIII. THE HISTORY AND PRESENT CONDITION OF TRANS- 
PORTATION IN SOUTH CAROLINA PP- <ill-fi40. 



vm 



'J'AJJLK ()!<' ("ONTKN'l^fc!. 



CHAPTER IX. DEBT AND TAXATION. Fiscal History, Jiunk of tlie State. 
l.vTERNAi, Imi'kovkmkxts: Fixan'cial (Jonditiox, ]S')9-1S6H, 1871-2, 1882. Tahlk of 
Deht axi) Taxation: 1S01-18S1. Fkdkual Taxation : Internal Revenue Customs: 
Sunniuiry, three Plates PI>- ('>41-(5.5S. 

CHAPTER X. TOWNS OF SOUTH (lAROLlNA. Retrospect, Table of Towns 
and Trading Points; Bank Statement, 1841) to 1881. Coast Rkgiox : Port Royal, Beau- 
fort, INIount Pleasant, (,'liarleston, Georgetown. Lower Pixe Belt : Hampton, Colleton, 
Berkeley, Williamsburg:', Clarendon, Horry. Ui'per Pixe Belt: Barnwell, Orange- 
burg, Sumter, Darlington, Marlboro, Marion. Red Hill and Sand Hills : Aiken, 
Lexington, Richland, Columbia, Kershaw, Chesterfield. Piedmont Region : Abbeville, 
Anderson, Chester, Fairfield, Greenville, Lancaster, Laurens, Newberr}^ Spartanburg, 
Union, York. Alpine Recuon : Oconee, Pickens pp. 6o*.»-7]ii. 



E R R A T A . 



lOth page, last line, for ISOU read iSol). 
11th page, 5tli line, for IS.'iO read 1860. 
12th page, 4th line, for State read United States. 
15th page, 3(ith line, for erosive read eroded. 
22d page, 87th line, for being read was. 
S2d page, 4th line, for 11.4 read 1.14. 
lllm page, ;j7th line, for by read but. 
112th page, 4th line, for literal read littoral. 
lir)th page, 10th line, for included read unculti- 
vated, 
llilth page, 2i>;th line, for in read it. 
122d page, 80th line, for said read sand. 
124th page 18th line, for Piedmont read Alpine. 
124th page, 2()th line, for truly read to rely. 
124th page, 8ilth line, for herd read head. 
lS2d page, 10th line, omit "and their gradual 

.slopes on their northeastern face." 
208th page, oth line, for 187(i read 1870. 
214ih page, 14tli line, f(^r uctivagans read nocti- 
, vagans. 

Y^Sth page, ISth lino, for spring read spiny. 
'L>4:!d page, 27th line, after Prof. Goodc insert 
1 annually. 

•i'Oth i)age, i:?th line, for Polaris read Polaris. 
•-10th page, loth line, for ratarius read aratrarius. 
240th page, 27th line, for Bollosoma read Koleo- 

soma. 
251st page, :id line, for Klcthari read Klephario. 
2i')lst page, 15th line, for colsos read Colias. 
25:M page, 4th line, for basis road bases. 
'2.').8d page, ;{Olh line, for Himrhamphus road 
Hemirhamphus. 



2>lth page, 14th line, for of fishes read of otlier 
fishes. 

2.54th page, 22d line, for eyloid read cycloid. 

254th page. 24ih line, for kell read well. 

2»th page 24th line, for vertebrate read verte- 
brae. 

250th page, 12th line, for Sepidosteusread Lepid- 
osteus. 

318th page, 24t.h line, for copillina read copallina. 

325th page, loth lino, for masculata read macu- 
lata. 

350th page, 3()th line, for Hooka's read Hooker's, 

oft)th page, 5th line, for natives read nations. 

;WOth page, 20th line, for counties read States. 

oSlst page, 13th line, for ;i77 read 402. 

380th page, (ith line, for eighty road seventy- 
eight. 

308th page, 2tith line, for Belquiver read Belgium. 

406th page, 18th line, for 428 read 417. 

40()th page, 24th line, for 277 read 2()0. 

40()th page, 24th lino, for read ,9. 

413th page,'20th line, after mortality read from 
this cause. 

5(i8th page, 38th line, for B read P. 

574th page, 2Ist line, for possesses read pos- 
sessed. 

578th page, 17lh line, for rcnumcration read re- 
enumeration. 

(Wist page. Kith line, for changes read charges. 

()48t,h page, 1st line, read "years subsequently 
was, in the hands," &c. 



PART I. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE COUNTRY. 



CHAPTER I. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



LOCATION. 



The State of South Carolina lies between North latitude 32° 4' 30^' and 
35° 12' and longitude West from Washington 1° 30' and 6° 54\ 

AREA. 

William Gerald De Brahm gave to the public, in 1757, the first Map of 
South Carolina, estimating the area of the State at 33,760 square miles. 
James Cook, in 1771, and Henry Mouzon, in 1775, published in London 
excellent maps of the State, from which Drayton and Ramsay make the 
area 24,080 square miles. Between 1816 and 1820 the State expended 
$52,760 on a map of the State, under the direction of John Wilson ; this 
map was published in 1822. The State spent $12,000 more for this pur- 
pose in 1825, and obtained Robert Mills' large Atlas of South Carolina, 
probabl}'^ the most accurate map of the State even to this day. Mills 
estimates the area of the State at 30,213 square miles, The United States 
Census of 1870 places it at 34,000 square miles, while the census of 1880 
makes it 30,170. Thus, although geography may be held as one of the 
exact sciences, it seems that these geographers, with no material changes 
in the boundaries, vary in their estimates from twenty-six to thirty- 
seven per cent. • 

BOUNDARIES. 

The State approaches in shape the form of an isosceles-triangle. The 
equal sides being on the North, the boundary line of North Carolina, and 
on the South and West, the Savannah river separating it from Creorgia. 
The apex of the triangle rests upon the summits of the Blue Ridge moun- 
tains. The base sweeping with a gentle s shaped curve from the south- 
west to the northeast, forms part of the Atlantic shore line of North 
America. This line is parallel, or nearly so, with about one-half the 



4 INTRODUCTORY. 

coast lines of the continents of the earth, as witness the northwest coast 
lines of America, Europe and Africa, and the southeast coast lines of 
South America, Africa and Asia. 

GENERAL FEATURES. 

Parallel also with this coast line trend the divisions between the various 
geolo<>ical formations of the State. First, extending not more than ten miles 
inland, we have the strata of the post pleiocene resting on the formations 
of the eocene. These, with here and there a patch of the. meiocene and 
cretaceous formations, stretch back into the interior about one hundred 
miles, until they reach the crystalline rocks, whose well marked line has, 
during the entire past history of the State, divided it socially, politically 
and industrially, as well as physically, into M^hat has always been known 
as the up-country and the low-country of Carolina. This division of the 
State into up-country and low-country by the line bounding the .southern 
margin of the crystalline rocks, and trending northeast and southwest 
across its central portion, is strongly marked in everything, in the hills 
and highlands of the up-countr}', with their heavy red clay soils, and in 
the gentle slopes or Avide flats of lighter colored sandy loam of the low- 
country, in the rapid, turbid water courses of the one, and the slow, clear 
currents of the other; in the vegetable growth, the chestnut, the deciduous 
oaks and the short leaf pine, occupying the up-country, and the long leaf 
pine, the magnolia and the evergreen oaks, with the long gray moss, 
marking the. low-country ; and lastly, in the manners, character, ancestry, 
and even in the very tones of voice of the inhabitants. Passing beyond 
the lower margin of the crystalline rocks and proceeding towards the 
mountains, we find in all the various strata — in the order of their super- 
position — one above the other, the limestones, the itacolumite, the clay 
talc and mica slates, the gneiss and the granite — that the same parallel- 
ism is maintained throughout, the prevailing strike in all being N. 20° to 
30° E. if we regard tlie movements of the atmosphere, we find here also 
that the predominating currents of the air move in a northeasterly and 
southwesterly direction. 

RIVERS. 

Perpendicular to this direction — that is to say, in a southeasterly 
course — the four great rivers, with their numerous tributaries that drain 
and irrigate South Carolina, make their way from the mountains to the 
.sea. Before leaving the crystalline rocks — the point that marks their 
lower falls and the head of steam navigation — the rivers have received 
the rapid currents of nearly all their aftluents. Thereafter their stately 



INTKODUCTORY. O 

flow proceeds more slowly, passing the great inland swamps of the low 
country, as if the waters still remembered when they found issuances 
through these ancient deltas. In the great freshet of 179(5, the waters 
of the Santee river broke through at Hell-Hole swamp, and made their 
way to the sea through Cooper river. During the same freshet, the 
Savannah river made its way through the swamps of Hampton county, 
and emptied its waters through Broad river into the sea at Port Royal. 
As each river leaves the region of rocks to enter the borders of the low- 
country, it makes a sudden and well-marked detour eastward, except the 
Savannah, which seems to have had its bed shifted westward at this line 
of demarcation. Thus, had the grooves cut through the ancient strata of 
tlio crystalline rocks by these streams been prolonged among the sands 
and clays of the low-country, their estuaries would have been quite 
difierent from what they are at present. Had the line of the Savannah, 
as it channeled its way ages ago through the mica, slate and gneiss rock 
of Oconee, Anderson and Abbeville counties, not been thrown westward 
by the granites of Horse creek and the high sand and clay hills of Aiken 
county, it would have continued its course to Broad river, at present 
that magnificent arm of the sea forming the head of Port Royal harbor. 
Here it would have been joined, too, by the waters of the North and 
South Edisto, had they not been deflected eastward by the granite rocks 
and sand hills of Aiken and Orangeburg counties. Here, also, the 
waters of the Santee, containing those of the Wateree and Congaree, 
Avould have joined them, had they followed the line of the ancient 
channel of the Catawba, their most easterly affluent, as it grooved its 
way through talc slates and granites of Lancaster, York and Chester 
counties. It would seem more appropriate that some great Father of 
Waters, having these proportions, should have built up such a grand 
delta as the islands, rivers, sounds and bays of Beaufort present, rather 
than it were the sole and undisputed estuary of such insignificant 
claimants as the rivers Tillifinny, Pocotaligo and Coosawhatchie, 
preserving in their long names alone the memory of the noble river 
that once must have found its way to the ocean here. Noting the 
remarkable parallelism in this eastward deflection of nearly all the water 
courses of Carolina, it would seem that one and the same cause must 
have produced these changes. Such a cause would have been an 
upheaving force — or forces, rather — operating from the southwest to the 
northeast, in the line of the eruptive rocks that cross the State from 
Edgefield to York counties. We may readily imagine how these 
successive elevations running from the southwest, after turning the 
Savannah into its present delta, pushed the other streams eastward, 
dropping the different affluents as it passed along, leaving the Combahee 



G INTRODUCTORY. 

and Edisto at St. Helena sound, as the Tillifinny, Pocotaligo and 
Coosawhatchie were left at Port Royal to mark the delta there, and losing 
the Ashle}' and Cooper rivers at Charleston harbor, while the Santee, 
moved further westward, still marks out its channel to the sea near 
AVinyaw bay. 

Again, on the near approach of the rivers to the sea, some of them 
show a deflection westward. But the previously noticed parallelism does 
not obtain in this case. In some, as in the Pee Dee, the westward bend 
is well marked. In others, as in the Edisto, the river is merely turned 
from an eastward to a south course, while the Santee seems scarcely at 
all diverted from its eastwardly course. It would not seem, therefore, 
that this change had resulted from the action of any single cause, but, 
rather, that it was the resultant of opposing forces, operating with 
varying intensities. Such forces would be found in the southeasterly 
currents of the streams themselves, opposed by that southwesterly ocean 
current — a recurrent of the Gulf Stream — that sweeps along the Carolina 
coast. Where the river currents were strong, and loaded with a wealth 
of detritus from the drainage of an extensive back country, it would hold 
its own against the ocean current, dam it out and establish for itself the 
direction of its outlet. Hence the Santee piles up its banks and carries 
the shore line out beyond Cape St. Romain, and all the coast southwest 
of it, the site of ancient and actual deltas, is lined with islands. Short 
or sluggish streams, however, supported by the detritus of no great 
water-shed — as the Waccamaw river — would yield readily to the action 
of the ocean currents, conform to their direction, establish no nests of 
islands at their deltas, but leave the sea to make a smooth, bare sand 
beach. Such we find the curving shore from Georgetown entrance to the 
North Carolina line to be, where, for twenty miles on a stretch, a carriage 
may roll along the beach at low water, leaving in the hard sands not 
the slightest impress of its wheels. 

Crossing the crystalline rocks nearly at right angles, the waters, in 
their course through the up-country, encounter a series of natural dams, 
which, while it renders them easily available as water-powers, seriously 
oljstructs navigation. The passage of boats, say of two hundred tons 
burthen, as a rule, reaches inland but very little farther than the 
remarkable belt of high and healthy sand hills which lie along the lower 
borders of these rocks. 

The tortuous course into which the streams have been forced by the 
causes already stated, after entering the low country, while it has 
increased the navigable waters of the State, giving, " apart from creeks 
and inlets of the sea, an inland navigation of twenty-four hundred miles," 
has seriously impeded the drainage of the low country, creating there 



INTRODUCTORY. 7 

some fifty-five hundred square miles of swamp lands, which, though 
naturally, when reclaimed, of almost inexhaustible fertility, remain to 
this day for the most part waste, the prolific source of the miasms so 
deleterious to the health of this region. Numerous suggestions to remedy 
this evil have been made, but as yet nothing has been attempted on a 
scale commensurate with the importance of the undertaking. The 
Legislature even refused, in 1846, to grant a charter to a company 
proposing to prolong the channel of the Edisto in a direct line through 
Wassamassaw swamp to the Ashley river ; and a suggestion of a similar 
character, for straightening the Santee through to the Cooper river, and 
draining, thereby. Biggin, Fair Forest, Walleye, and the numerous 
adjacent swamps, made by Governor Seabrook, in 1848, met with no 
response. Such works would have reclaimed for the plow large bodies 
of soil, consisting of fine mud and decomposing vegetable matter, resting, 
"^t a depth of five to ten feet, on marl or gravel ; restored the adjoining 
uplands to remunerative culture; and would have established on a 
secure foundation the healthfulness of the entire region. 

PHYSICAL AND AGRICULTURAL REGIONS. 

In addition to the two grand divisions of South Carolina already dwelt 
upon into the " up-country " and " low-country," it will facilitate the con- 
sideration of the agricultural characteristics of the State to treat of them 
under certain minor natural and parallel sub-divisions, which are quite 
well marked. These are as follows : 

I. 77(6 Coast Region, It coincides very nearly with the post pleiocene 
formation, rareh' extending inland more than ten miles from the shore 
line. It consists — 

1st. Of the Sea Islands lying south of Santee river, and containing 
about eight hundred square miles. 

2d. The salt marshes, uncovered at low tide, bordering and intercalating 
with the Sea Islands, capable of being reclaimed, and embracing six 
hundred square miles. 

3d. The continuous shore line. north of Santee river and Georgetown 
entrance, three hundred square miles in extent. 

II. The Lower Pine Belt or Savannah Region, lying inland and j)arallel ivith 
the Coast Region. It has a width of about fifty miles, attains a maximum 
elevation above the sea of one hundred and thirty feet. It may be 
divided, 

1st. Into the region below the influence of the tides, the rice fields of 
South Carolina. 



8 INTKODUCTORY. 

2d. The rofj^ion above tide water, notable for its turpentine farms and 
its cattle ranges. 

III. The Upper Pine Belt or the Central Cotton Belt, having a width of twenty 
to forty milefi. It is covered ivith a yronih of love/ leaf jrine, mixed, with oak and 
hickory. The soil consists of a light sandy loam underlaid by red and 
yellow clays. It has an elevation above the sea of from one hundred and 
thirty to two hundred and fifty feet. Large inland swamps, bays and 
river bottoms of unsurpassed fertility, covering five thousand five hundred 
square miles, are interspersed among the two regions last named. 

IV. The Bed Hills are immediately north of the last region. Tliey 
have an elevation of three hundred to six hundred feet above the sea. 
The soil is red clay and sand, and there is a heavy growth of oak and 
hickory. They embrace the range of-hills extending from Aiken county' 
through Orangeburg to Sumter, where they are known as the High Hills 
of Santee, and also the ridge lands of Edgefield, famous for their fertility. 

V. The iSand Hill Begion. A remarkable chain of sand hills, attaining 
an elevation above the sea of six hundred to seven hundred feet, and 
extending across the State from Aiken to Chesterfield counties. 

VI. The Piedmont Begion includes that portion of the State known as 
the upper country. It has a mean elevation above the sea level of four 
hundred to eight hundred feet. Its soils are — 

1st. The cold gray lands overlying for the most part the clay slates. 
2d. The gray sandy soils from the decomposition of granite and gneiss. 
3d. The red hornblende lands. 

4th. The trappean soils, known as flat woods meadow or black-jack 
lands in various sections. 

VII. The Alpine Begion is the extreme northwestern extension of the 
rocks and soils of the region just mentioned, differing from the former by 
its more broken and mountainous character, and by its greater elevation, 
ranging from nine hundred feet to three thousand four hundred and 
thirty feet at Mount Pinnacle, near Pickens C. H., the highest point in 
the State. 

AGRICrULTURAL RETROSPECT. 

The first permanent settlers established themselves on the sea-coast of 
South Carolina in 1()70. Bringing with them the traditions of a hus- 
bandry that must have been very rude at a i)eriod so long ante-dating the 



INTRODUCTORY. 9 

Tullian era of culture, and adapted solely to the requirements of 
colder latitudes, they met with such poor success in the cultivation of 
Euroi)ean cereals that they soon found it would be more profitable to em- 
})loy themselves in collecting and exporting the products of the great for- 
ests that surrounded them. In return for the necessaries of life, they ex- 
ported to the mother country and her colonies, oranges, tar, turpentine, 
rosin, masts, potashes, cedar, cypress and pine lumber, walnut timber, 
staves, shingles, canes, deer and beaver skins, etc. It is interesting to re- 
mark in tlie accomjDanying diagram, that after being more or less in 
abeyajice during a period of two hundred years, amid the. fluctuations of 
other great staple crops, these forest industries seemed, in 1870, about to 
assume their ancient supremacy once more. With the settlement of the 
up-country the culture of small grain became more successful ; and when 
Joseph Kershaw established his large flouring mills near Camden, in 1760, 
flour of excellent quality was produced in such abundance as to become 
an article of export of considerable consequence. In 1802, flouring mills 
had proven so profitable that quite a number were established in the 
counties of Laurens, Greenville and elsewhere. About that time, how- 
ever, the attractions of the cotton crop became so great as to divert atten- 
tion from every other, and the cereals lost ground, until the low j)rices of 
cotton prevailing between 1840 and 1850 prej^ared the way for a greater 
diversity of agricultural industries, and the small grain crop of 1850 ex- 
ceeded four million bushels. Since then cereal crops have declined, and 
seem likely to do so, unless the promise held out by the recent introduc- 
tion of the red rust proof oat should be fulfilled and restore them to 
prominence. 

In 1 093, Landgrave Thomas Smith — of whose d'escendants more than five 
hundred were living in the State in 1808 (a number doubtless largely in- 
creased since), moved perchance by a prophetic sense of the fitness that 
the father of such a numerous progeny should provide for the support of 
an extensive population — introduced the culture of rice into South Caro- 
lina. The seed came from the island of Madagascar, in a vessel that put 
into Charleston harbor in distress. This proved a great success, and as 
early as 1754, the colony, besides supplying an abundance of rice for its 
own use, exported one hundred and four thousand six hundred and 
'eighty two barrels. Great improvements were made in the grain by a 
careful selection of the seed. Water culture was introduced in 1784, by 
Gideon Dupont and General Pinckney, rendering its production less de- 
pendent on the labor of man or beast than any cultivated crop. In 1778, 
Mr. Lucas established on the Santee river the first water power mill ever 
adapted to cleaning and preparing rice for market — the model to which 
all subsequent improvements were due — diminishing the cost of this pro- 



10 INTRODUCTORY. 

cess'to a degree incalculable without some standard of reference as to the 
value of human labor, on which the drudgery of this toil had rested for 
ages. In 1828, one hundred and seventy-five thousand and nineteen 
tierces were exported, and the crop of 1850 exceeded two hundred and 
fifty thousand tierces, that of 18()0 was something less, and in 1870 the 
product tumbled headlong to fifty-four thousand tierces. 

INDIGO. 

In 1742, George Lucas, governor of Antigua, sent the first seeds of the 
indigo plant to Carolina, to his daughter, Miss Eliza Lucas (afterwards the 
mother of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney). With much perseverance, 
after several disappointments, she succeeded in growing the plant and ex- 
tracting the indigo from it. Parliament shortly after placed a bounty on 
the production of indigo in British |)Ossessions and this crop attained a 
rapid development in Carolina. In 1754, two hundred and sixteen thou- 
sand nine hundred and twenty-four pounds and in 1775, one million 
one hundred and seven thousand six hundred and sixty pounds were 
produced. But the war with the mother country, the competition of in- 
digo culture in the East Indies, the unpleasant odor emitted and the 
swarms of flies attracted by the fermentation of the weeds in the vats, but 
above all the absorbing interest in tlie cotton crop, caused the rapid de- 
cline of its culture, and in the early part of this century it had ceased to 
be a staple product, although it was cultivated in remote places as late as 
1848. 

* INDIAN CORN. 

Indian corn, the grain which, " next to rice, supplies food to the largest 
number of the human race, * * the most valuable gift of the new 
world to the old," as a plant unknown to European culture, and in ill 
repute as the food of the ever hostile red man, received little attention 
from the early settlers. Nevertheless, with the steadiness that marks true 
merit, it worked its way to the front rank among the crops grown in the 
State. As early as 1739 it had become an important article of export and 
continued such until after 1792, in which year ninety-nine thousand 
nine hundred and eighty-five bushels were exported. About this time, 
in consequence of the absor})tion by cotton of all surplus energy, it fell 
from the list of exports and shortly after entered tliat of imports, on 
which to-day — taken in all its forms — it stands the largest. But its cul- 
ture was )>y no means abandoned ; on the contrary, the crop grew in size 
with the increase of the population. In 18^0, more than sixteen millions 



• INTRODUCTORY. 11 

of bushels were produced. In 1857, Dr. Parker made, near Columbia, the 
largest crop per acre ever obtained anywhere ; from two acres he gath- 
ered three hundred and fifty-nine bushels, and one acre gave two hun- 
dred bushels and twelve quarts. In consequence of the higher prices of 
cotton the corn crop was reduced in l&fio by one million of bushels ; in 
1870 it had gone down one half, having fallen to seven and a half 
million bushels. 

-i r r- 

COTTON. r ^''-t- 

Cotton is mentioned in the records of the colony as early as 1664, and 
in 1747, seven bags appear on the list of exports from Charleston. In 
1787, Samuel Maverick, and one Jeffrey, shipped three bags of one hun- 
dred pounds each of seed cotton from Charleston to England as an ex- 
periment, and were informed for their pains by the consignee, that it was 
not worth producing, as it could not be separated from the seed. In 1790 
a manufactory of cotton homespuns was established by some Irish, in 
Williamsburg county, the lint used being picked from the seed by hand, 
a task of four pounds of lint per week being required of the field laborers 
in addition to their ordinary work. All this speedily changed with the 
invention of the saw gin by Eli Whitney, in 1794. The first gin moved 
by water power was erected on Mill Creek, near Monticello, in Fairfield, 
by Capt. James Kincaid, in 1795. Gen. Wade Hampton erected another 
near Columbia, in 1797, and the following year gathered from six hundred 
acres, six hundred bales of cotton, and cotton planting became soon after the 
leading industry in nearly every county in the State. The crop steadily 
increased in size until 1860, when the three hundred and fifty thousand 
bales produced in the State were worth something over fourteen millions 
of dollars. From this date to 1870 there was a great decline, the crop of 
that year being more than one-third less than the crop of ten years pre- 
vious, and reaching only two hundred and twenty-four thousand five 
hundred bales. 

TABLE, 

Showing the Production of Cotton in South Carolina froni 1830 to 1880: 



Years. ^fJ^^H^ Ve%1ft! Lbs. Lint Cotton. 

1830 
1840 
1850 
1860 
1870 
1880 



185,166 X 341 = 63,446,606 

156,600 X 394 = 61,710,274 

300,301 X 429 = 128,829,129 

353,412 X 477 = 168,577,524 

224,500 X 442 = 90,229,600 

516,490 X 475 =-245,486,305 



1 2 INTRODUCTORY. • 

SEA ISLAND COTTON. 

The first crop of sea island cotton was raised on Hilton Head,, in 1790, 
by William Elliott. This crop reached its year of maximum production 
in 1827, when 15,140,798 pounds of long staple cotton was exported from 
the State ; in 1841 it had fallen to 6,400,000 pounds. Since 1850 this crop 
has fluctuated from a minimum in 1867 of 4,577 bales to a maximum in 
1872 of 13,150 bales. 

Even in so brief a summary as this, the attention of the reader must be 
called to the remarkable influence exerted on the three great crops of 
corn, cotton and rice, by their culture on the South Carolina coast. 

The finest, as food for man, of all the known varieties of corn is the 
white flint corn, peculiar to the sea islands. 

The finest cotton ever produced is the long staple cotton of Edisto 
island, which has sold for $2 per pound, when other cottons were bring- 
ing only nine cents. 

Carolina rice heads the list in the quotations of that article in all the 
markets of the world. Not only has its yield and culture been brought 
to the highest perfection here, but mankind are indebted to the planters 
of this coast for the mechanical inventions by which the preparation of 
this great food stuff, instead of being the most costly and laborious, is 
made one of the easiest and cheapest. 



DIAGRAM 



13 



Slioiinng the relative importance and fluctuations of the staple crops cultivated 
in South Carolina from 1670 to 1880. The money value 
of each crop is estimated for the year of its maximum pro- 
duction anterior to 1880, and a point assigned it above tlie 
line A B. From this point the distance of the line of each 
crop above the line A' B is dctei-mined by the amount jyro- 
duced tnthout regard to prices. 



1 -H — M — X — K — K — K — X Upland Cotton. 

2 Corn 

3 Sea Island Cotton 

5 Indigo. 

6 r-H-t-H-i— i-t-H-i— i-HH-hH-H Forest Products. 

7 ^-J — I — I I I I > ' Small Grain. 




I 



} 



CH^F»TER II. 



THE COAST REGION. 



LOCATION AND AREA. 

The coast of Carolina, from the mouth of the Savannah river to that of 
Little river, on the North Carolina line, is about one hundred and ninety 
miles in length. East of the outlet of the rivers, that is northeast of 
Winyaw Bay, the coast line curves inland, there are no islands, and the 
smooth hard beach (noted for its delightful seaside residences during the 
summer months) that forms the continuous shore line, is of little interest 
agriculturally. South of Winyaw Bay, whence issue the waters of Black 
and Lynch's rivers, and of the Great and Little Pee Dee, with the Wac- 
camaw, the Santee river, with its great watershed in North and South 
Carolina, draining an extensive region stretching to the highest eleva- 
tions of the Apalachian range, dikes its delta out into the ocean, and the 
shore line swelling seaward becomes lined with numerous islands. From 
this point to Charleston Harbor the islands, though numerous, are small 
and low, and in this distance of more than fifty miles not more than seven 
hundred acres are planted in cotton, yielding about two hundred and 
seventy-five bales of long staple. South of Charleston Harbor the islands 
increase rapidly in size and number to the waters of Port Royal, where 
they line the shore in tiers three and four deep. They attain their maxi- 
mum development around Broad river, and diminish again in size and 
.number more rapidly even than they had increased, as they approach 
the Georgia line at the mouth of Savannah river. The Sea Islands are 
; separated from the mainland by numerous salt water rivers, creeks and 
inlets of the sea. 

GEOLOGY. 

The coast region corresponds almost exactly with the post-pleiocene for- 
■mation. Its strata of sand, clay and mud, have an estimated thickness of 
about sixty feet, stretching inland some ten miles and thinning out at a 
slight elevation above tide water. They rest in Horry and Georgetown 
on the pleiocene, and for the remainder of the coast, on the eocene, in 
which occur the phosphate deposits of the Ashley, the Cooper and the 
Coosaw rivers. 



THE COAST REGION. • 15 

The origin and formation of the sea islands may be accounted for by 
one of four possible suppositions. 

1st. By a subsidence of the coast resulting in the submergence of the 
lower lands. This explanation was offered by Sir Charles Lyell, and 
recently by Professor G. H. Cook, wjho believes that the whole Atlantic 
seaboard is sinking. 

2d. By the elevation of the sea bottom. This theory has not been 
maintained by any one and need not be considered. 

3d. By the erosive action of the tides and currents of the sea, cutting 
into the shore line and detaching, as it w^ere, portions of the mainland. A 
theory of Professor Shaler. 

4th. By an outgrow^th of the land into the sea, resulting from the dei)0- 
sition at the mouths of the rivers of the detritus- brought down by their 
currents from the interior. 

Mr. Tuomey shows in detail that the instances of the submergence of 
oak, pine and cypress trees, and other landmarks, adduced as evidence 
of subsidence of the coast, occur in localities of restricted area. That the 
lands immediately adjacent show no signs of participation in this move- 
ment, which they would do if the cause were so general a one as the sub- 
sidence of the coast. That encroachments of the sea of a purely local 
character after storms explain the phenomena. And lastly, that if it were 
admitted that the submerged live oak and pine stumps near Little River, 
or the dead cedars and cypress of the " Church Flats," on Wadmalaw 
island, were evidence of a subsidence of the coast, the rate at which it is 
progressing, according to this datti, is so rapid that on this low lying 
shore, sea w^ater would long since have been admitted to the rice planta- 
tions, totally destroying them, and that St. ;Michaers Church, the orna- 
ment of Charleston, would now be a geological ;nonument of the greatest 
interest, with its tall spire only protruding above the waves. 

If the sea islands resulted from the erosive action of ocean currents, we 
should expect to find them most numerous in localities where the erosive 
action is most manifest. Such a locality is the recess of Long bay, hol- 
lowed out by the action of the sea, between Winyaw bay, the outlet of the 
great rivers of South Carolina and the outlet of the rivers of North Caro- 
lina at Cape Fear. So far is this from being the case, however, that there 
is not a single island on this incurving line of erosive coast. On the con- 
trary, it is only when the land bellies out into the sea near where the 
great rivers deliver their detritus to its waves that the seii islands make 
their appearance. 

At this point, namely, at Georgetown entrance, we look in vain for 
evidence of erosion. The records all point the other way, to a gradual 
encroachment of the land upon the sea. Thus, in the year 17U0, the 



IG THE COAST REGION. 

" Rising Sun," a large vessel, with three hundred and forty -six passengers, 
that could not cross the Charleston bar, made its way without a pilot to 
the present site of Georgetown, a thing utterly impossible during the last 
one hundred years. Moreover, a comparison of the soundings on Chart 
No. 428, of U. S. Coast Survey of 1877, with a Chart of the same locality, 
published in Drayton's View of Soutli Carolina, in 1802, shows that, instead 
of any scouring out or erosion, there has been a great filling up in the 
interval. Seaward from Georgetown Light House, Drayton gives depths 
of 9 feet to 30 feet, where Captain Boutelle only found 0| feet to 19 feet 
of water. Inside the entrance, where the water once was 30 to 36 feet, the 
mean level of low tide now only gives a depth of 9 to 31 feet. Ten sound- 
ings taken off South Island average now 7| feet, while ten soundings in 
the same locality on Drayton's Chart average 18 feet. 

It would seem, then, according to the fourth and remaining hypothesis, 
that the Sea Islands were an outgrowth of the mainland into the sea. 
And that this is but a continuation of tlie process by which the tertiary 
plain, stretching back to the feet of the ancient and lofty Apalachian 
chain, was itself formed. The broadest portion of this plain lies under' 
the loftiest and broadest vestiges of this mountain chain, whose denuda- 
tion furnished the most abundant material. Northward, under lesser 
elevations, which could only furnish less material, the tertiary plain 
gradually wedges out and the sea approaches the mountains. The slow 
uniformity of this long process of growth is further shown by the gentle 
and uniform slope with which this plain approaches the sea. Nor does 
it end abruptly there. For one hundred miles or more the sea scarcely 
exceeds one hundred fathoms, until it suddenly deepens to two thousand 
fathoms under the gulf stream. The sea islands are not isolated phe- 
nomena peculiar to this period. In the interior the intricate network of 
swamps and bays corresponding with the present inlets, creeks and rivers 
of the coast, represent the old channels and deltas through which the 
waters flowed, when the pine fiats and ridges, still resting in the meshes 
of this network, were themselves veritable sea islands. 

Prof Toumey refers to Murphy's island, south of South Santee inlet, as 
furnishing a typical illustration of the manner in Avhich this occurs. A 
bar is formed at the mouth of the river by the action of the ocean. 
" Breakers make their appearance seaward, and gradually push forward 
the sand as they approach the shore. When the sand rises above the 
surface, the water becomes too shallow to produce breakers ; they disap- 
pear, and commence again off the shore, and further south. An eddy is 
formed between the sandbar and the shore, in which the river deposits 
its sediment. From an eddy it is changed, first into a lagoon, and then 
into a mudflat, which increases until the level of high water is reached. 



THE COAST REGION. 17 

It tlien becomes a marsh and is taken possession of by the marsli reed, to 
be succeeded, when the debris collected by their growth has raised the 
locality above high water, by tufts of rushes. Meanwhile seaward, the 
sands, first pushed up against the outflowing current of the river by the 
ocean, are dried by the sun, and then blown forward and heaped into 
hills and ridges, forming a protection against the encroachments of the 
waters whence they came. Every breeze blowing landward carries along 
with it particles of fine sand, till they meet with a log or bush, or other 
obstacle, when they begin to accumulate in proportion to the velocity of 
the wind, sometimes with extraordinary rapidity — piling up and running 
over the top, rising in ridges and hills to the height of thirty or even of 
forty feet. The prevailing winds of this region, the southwest and north- 
east, are indicated by valleys running in this direction through these 
hills." 

In the manner thus described, the salt water of the ocean being ex- 
cluded, the surgent island is prepared for the growth of fresli water 
plants, such as the cypress and other swamp trees, while pines and pal- 
mettoes, the advance guard of the vegetable kingdom, establish outposts 
wherever a few inches of intervening sand renders them safe from im- 
mediate contact with sea water. 

This theory will also account for certain topographical features observed 
on these islands and in their vicinity. The highest land is usually found 
on the margin of the island. A fact which, viewed in connection with 
the general observation that the banks of streams are higher than the 
adjacent alluvial lands, strongly sustains the vieAV of their deposition from 
river currents. The prevailing shape of the islands is triangular. The 
apex is directed southwest, often terminating in marshes, while the higher 
and dryer base faces northeast. From Mr. Tuomey's observations, it 
appears that it is the sandbar on the northeast that first rises above the 
waves, remaining the most elevated, while the growth proceeds in a south- 
westerly direction. This southwardly growth results from a deflection of 
the river current that is transporting the material of which the island is 
to be formed. Whether this deflection toward the right (or the southwest) 
be due, as Prof. Kerr thinks, to a force arising from the earth's rotation, 
which deflects all moving bodies to the right in the northern hemisphere, 
or to the prevailing south westwardly current along these shores, or to 
both, it is certain that such a deflection clearly exists. Seaward it may 
be clearly noted in the charts of the coast survey in the depositions now 
taking place at the mouths of the rivers. The ship channels are always 
found to the south of the harbors. Inland, the south and southwest bend 
of the rivers has been already mentioned ; and coupled with it is the 
observation made long since by Mr. Ruffin, that the blufts are on the west 
2 



18 THE COAST REGION. 

and the swamps are on the east banks of these streams, or as it would be 
stated from observations on the sea islands, the short slopes face north 
and cast, and the long slopes south and west. The contours of the slopes 
throughout the tertiary plain conform generally to tliis rule, and may 
be accounted for in this way. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

In approaching the coast from the sea about the time the white caps of 
the first breakers are seen, a long, low line of smooth, hard, sandy beach, 
for the most part of a snowy whiteness, makes its appearance. Immedi- 
ately inland from the beach swell the undulating ridges of blowing sand, 
ripple-marked by the action of the wind, in striking similarity to the 
wave marks of water. 

Here the palmetto meets you, standing often solitary and alone, a con- 
sjDicuous landmark in the picture. Beyond rise the dark green turrets of 
the pine, beneath which a tangled growth of myrtles and vines is found. 
Sometimes more than one ridge of sand hills, with an average elevation of 
ten or fifteen feet, must be traversed before the borders of the salt marsh are 
reached. The salt marshes, their stiff, green reeds rising out of the black 
ooze visible at low tide, and at the flow apparently floating on the water, 
with here and there a stray palmetto or a group of under-sized live oaks, 
their limbs covered with the long, gray moss, form the scarcely varying 
framework of all landscapes among the sea islands. Everywhere these 
marshes are penetrated by salt rivers and creeks of greater or less width 
and depth, and surround islands varying from a few acres to many square 
miles in area. These islands attain a height of ten to fifteen feet — rarely 
of twenty-five or thirty — above high tide. The mean rise and fall of the 
tides is 6.9 ft. at the mouth of the Savannah river ; 6.7 ft. at Port Royal ; 
5.1 ft. at Charleston harbor, and 3.5 ft. at Georgetown entrance, showing 
a marked diminution as you advance northeast algng the coast. The 
influence of the tide extends to a distance of thirty miles in a direct line 
from the sea, up the Savannah river, and about fifteen miles up the San- 
tee. Salt water, however, usually ascends the Santee river only about 
two miles, and even when the current of the river is diminished in seasons 
of great drought, not more than four miles. Up Georgetown bay it 
reaches farther, and is sometimes injurious to the crops at a distance of 
fourteen miles. What has been said of the Santee in regard to fresh and 
salt water, is true to nearly the same extent of the Savannah river. 

SOIL 

The soil of the sea island consists, for the most part, of a fine, sandy 
loam. This soil rests on a subsoil of yellow sand or yellow clay, of fine 



THE COAST REGION. 19 

texture and deepening in color, sometimes to red. These clays give a yel- 
low hue to the otherwise gray surface, which is noticed by Mr. Seabrook 
as indicating lands peculiarly adapted for the production of the silky 
fibre of long staple cotton. Besides these soils there are numerous flats, or 
fresh water swamps, known as bays ; here and there a few of these have 
been reclaimed by drainage ; the soil is a black vegetable mould of great 
fertility, resting on fine blue clay and marl. To a very limited extent 
the salt marsh has also been reclaimed, but as yet agriculture has availed 
itself so little of the vast possibilities in this line, that the chief value of 
the salt marsh attaches to its use in furnishing forage and litter for stock 
and inexhaustible material for the compost heap. Low as these lands lie, 
they are susceptible of drainage. The following analyses will indicate 
more in detail the character of the soils : 

(1) 

Insoluble matter 89.368 

Soluble silica 2.062 

Potash 0.131 

Soda 0.077 

Lime 0.077 

Magnesia 0.038 

Br. ox. manganese 0.154 

Per oxide iron 0.598 

Alumina 3.051 

Phosphoric acid 0.163 

Sulphuric acid 0.154 

Water and organic matter 4.789 

Carbonic acid. 

(1) Is soil from northeast end of James island, furnished by Elias Riv- 
ers, Esq., for analysis, to Dr. Eugene A. Smith, of Tuscaloosa, Ala., and 
may be taken as a specimen of the less sandy soils of the sea islands. 
Such land will yield three hundred pounds of long staple lint one year 
Math another. 

(2) Is by Prof. C. U. Shepard, of Charleston, of soil from Mr. J. J. Mi- 
kell's place on Edisto island, famous for having long and profitably pro- 
duced the finest grade of sea island cotton, and may be considered as a 
representative soil. 

(3) Is also by Prof. C. U. Shepard, being an analysis of an air-dry speci- 
men of salt marsh. 

These analyses will serve to correct serious errors in statements as to 
the poverty of sea islands, made by J. B. Lyman and J. R. Sypher, in a 





m 


(3) 




92.480 


58.110 




0.425 


0.328 


i 


0.200 


0.190 
1.476 




0.892 


0.420 




trace 


0.317 


} 


2.490 


1.860 
1.131 




0.095 


0.062 




0.070 


0.422 




2.928 


44.865 




0.420 


0.840 



20 THE COAST REGION. 

work on cotton culture, publislicd by Orange Judd & Co., New York. It 
is stated tliere (page 129) tliat a chemical analysis discloses the fact that 
the soil on an acre of sea island cotton land, taken to the depth of one 
foot, contains only fifteen pounds of phosphoric acid and twenty pounds 
of potash. By the above analyses, however, we find an average of more 
than one-tenth of one per'ccnt. of phosphoric acid, and one-sixteenth of 
one per cent, of potash'. Allowing a cubic foot of earth to weigh one liun- 
dred pounds, we w'ould have on an acre to the depth of one foot four mil- 
lion, three hundred and fifty-six thousand pounds, of which one-tenth pf 
one per cent, would be four thousand, three hundred and fifty-six pounds, 
showing nearly two long tons of phosphoric acid instead of fifteen pounds 
to the acre. The potash, by the same calculation, would amount to five 
thousand and fifty pounds instead of twenty pounds to the acre. Thus, in 
the place of being barren for lack of these ingredients, each acre of the sea 
islands possess an amount which, if rendered available to plant growth, 
w^ould suffice for the production of over eight million, six hundred and 
eighty thousand pounds of lint cotton, as they do not, by Jackson's and Shep- 
ard's analyses, constitute the one-twentieth of one per cent, of cotton fibre. 
Basides, the salt marsh materials for maintaining and developing the fer- 
tility of the soil abound throughout the coast region. There are numer- 
ous deposits of post pleiocene marl on the islands, as at Daton's swamp, 
Johnson's island, Stono creek, Edisto island, James Seabrook's island, 
Distant island, near Beaufort, and elsewhere. The banks of " raccoon 
oyster " .shells, peculiar to this latitude, are found in abundance on 
this coast and furnish excellent and easily accessible stores of lime. 
These shells are also used for concrete for walls, known as tabby 
work. The walls of forts several centuries old attesting its dura- 
bility. Roads and streets are also made smooth and hard by their use. 
Here, also, in the Stono, Edisto, Coosaw, Bull, Morgan, Johnson's, Beau- 
fort and Broad rivers, and in other creeks and marshes, is found, and 
largely exported as a fertilizer to foreign lands, the phosphate rock. Ex- 
periments have also demonstrated that the fish, so numerous in these 
waters, may be caught and used for manures. 

CLIMATE. 

Notwithstanding their proximity to the mainland, the sea islands 
enjoy in a high degree the equable climate peculiar to islands generally. 
The extremes of temperature are, as might be expected, greatest in the 
direction of low temperature, and the cold, which is sometimes injurious 
to the orange and olive trees, destroys, also, the germs of many insects, as 
of the cotton caterpillar, inimical to vegetation; and of more importance 



THE COAST REGION. 21 

still, it destroys the germs of disease, as of yellow fever and of numerous 
skin diseases that flourish in similar regions elsewhere, preventing them 
from becoming indigenous, and keeping them exotics forever, recjuiring 
3'^early renewal from without. 

Table I, at the end of Part I, presents the leading features of tlie coast 
climate, as preserved in the records of meteorological oljscrvations made 
at Charleston, S. C. 

Notwithstanding the amount of rainfall and proximity to the sea, the 
climate is not excessively moist, as might be inferred. This is owing to 
the large number of clear days, averaging about two hundred and tliirty- 
five during the year, against an average of eighty-six days in which rain 
fell, and forty-four cloudy and rainless days. Fogs are of very infrequent 
occurrence. Vegetation is usually checked by cold for not more than six 
weeks in the year, from the middle of December to the first of February. 
Nature, that does not allow the inhabitants of higher latitudes to become 
purely agricultural in their pursuits, forcing them, during the snows and 
ice of winter, to seek occupation in other arts and industries, here bares 
her bosom the year round to furnish food and work for man, and seed 
time and harvest occur in every month. 

HEALTH. 

By the U. S. Census for 1870, it appears that the minimum number of 
deaths in South Carolina occur during the month of October. After that 
month the number steadily increases during winter and spring, until the 
month of May, when the maximum number of deaths take place. From 
this date the mortality diminishes, more rapidly than it has increased, 
until the minimum in October is reached. By the same authority it 
is also shown that the groups of diseases most fatal during the month of 
May are such as hydrocephalous, apoplexy, accidents and injuries, none 
which can in any way be considered as due to climatic or local influences. 
From this it follows that death, and, consequently, ill health, in South 
Carolina cannot be attributed to the preponderance of any climatic or 
local causes, but supervene from such causes as may and must exist 
everywhere. The correctness of this negative conclusion may be safely 
accepted as descriptive of the sanitary condition of the State at large. 
There has been, however, and not Avithout some foundation, an idea 
prevalent regarding the unhealthfulness of the coast region from malarial 
causes, which requires mention, especially as occurrences of recent date 
have greatly modified it. While the sand ridges between the rivers have 
always been esteemed healthy ; while the w^ll-kept vital statistics of the 
city of Charleston show that its health record will compare favorably 



99 



THE COAST REGION. 



with tliat of other cities; and while inimerous locahtics alon<2^ the coast, 
as Mount Plcapant, Sullivan's island, and Beaufort, and many other 
places were much frequented as health resorts during the summer 
months, even by people from the up-couiltry, it was confidently predicted, 
at tlie commencement of the late war, that no picket line along the coast 
betAvecn the armies could be maintained during the sunmier months. 
To the surjjrise of nearly every one, however, such did not prove to be 
the case. Climatic influences interfered in no way Avitli the vigorous 
prosecution of hostilities. And it was demonstrated that large Ixxlies of 
white men, under proper hygienic regulations, with the use of quinine as 
a preventive, might be safely counted on to endure unusual exposure and 
toil on these shores during the heat of summer. Since the war numerous 
white families, who formerly removed to the North or to the up-country 
during summer, have remained upon their farms the year round in the 
enjoj-ment of their usual health. By the census enumeration of June, 
1880, the death rate among the rural population of the entire sea island 
district was fourteen per one thousand for the preceding year. Of the 
twenty-three, white men who were enumerators of the tenth cen&us on 
the sea islands, during the months of June and July, 1880, there was no 
day lost from work on account of sickness, though many of them Avere 
unaccustomed to the exposures which the work necessitated. Doubtless 
the prophylactic use of cpiinine has had something to do with the 
apparently increased healthfulness of this section, but it is also true thai 
the danger to health was formerly greatly overestimated. With thorough 
drainage and careful attention to the rules of health, and especially to 
securing pure drinking water, there is no question that fevers might be 
expelled here as completely as they were from the fens of Cambridgeshire, 
in England, where they once prevailed, but have since yielded to 
the above methods. During the excessively hot and dry summer of 
1728, "yellow fever" made its first appearance in Charleston. At greater 
or less intervals of time it has since visited the city during the summer 
months. After 1748 it did not make its appearance during a period of 
forty-four years. John Drayton writes, in 1801, "to the natives and long 
inha])itants of the city it has not yet been injurious." The germs of this 
disease have never been naturalized on this coast, and reipiire a fresh 
importation every year. An epidemic occurring in Charleston during the 
war being clearly traced to a vessel from Havana, that had run the block- 
ade, and, as Mr. Drayton describes it, this disease still remains restricted 
to certain localities, within a few miles of which perfect immunity from 
it may be enjoyed. This was clearly shown in the very fatal epidemic 
imported into Port Royal in 1877, causing a number of deaths there, 
while no case originated in the town of Beaufort, four miles distant, to 



THE COAST REGION. 



23 



which place, however, patients suffering from the disease in Port Royal 
were carried for treatment. 

The following table is from the reports of the Board of Health, and 
shows the number of deaths occurring in each one thousand of tlie 
population of the city of Charleston : 





1881 


1880 


1870 


1878 


1877 


AVERAGE. 


Whites 


21) 
47 


22 
41 


23 
40 


23 
41 


25 
50 


9S 


Negroes 


4(3 


Total 


40 


33 


32 


38 


37 


34 







The figures for 1880 show fifty per cent, more deatlis than were 
reported by the enumerators of the tenth U. S. Census. Of 1,621 deaths 
in 1881, Gl, or nearly 4 per cent, were of persons over 80 years of age. 



STATISTICS. . 

The population of the coast region, exclusive of the towns of Beaufort, 
Charleston and Georgetown, is 67,132. Of this number, 83 per cent, are 
colored, being the largest percentage in any region of the State, the 
proportion of the colored to the white population decreasing in each 
successive region as 3'ou go inland, until it is only 27 per cent, in the 
mountain region. This percentage has decreased on the coast since 1870, 
appearing in the census of that year as 00 per cent., a difference of 7 per 
cent. The population per square mile is 30.4, which, in spite of the 
large amount of marsh land, is the largest of any region in the State, the 
ratio varying elsewhere from 11.7 in the sand hills, to 37.8 in the upper 
country or region of the metamorphic rocks. 

The farms are 5,847 in number, and average 3.4 per square mile, which 
is the largest average of any of the regions of the State except that of the 
upper country, which is 3.7 per square mile ; but excluding the six 
hundred *|uare miles of m^rsli on the coast, no similar tract of waste land 
being found in the upper country, the ratio of farms to area is much greater 
on the coast than elsewhere. This is not the case with the ratio of farms to 
population, which here reaches a minimum of eight-hundredths of a 
farm per capita, or twelve and one-half people to the farm, while in the 
sand hills it reaches fourteen-hundredths of a farm per capita, or seven 
people to the farm. This shows that here the population is in excess 
even of the small farms ; and there being no other occupation, except, 



24 THE COAST REGION. 

perhaps, p)hosphatc mining, in wliicli they may be employed, it follows 
that a large number must earn a living as farm laborers or live without 
employment, both of which conclusions are correct. 

The work stock numbers 7,692 animals, being eleven-hundredths of an 
animal per capita, which is more than the ratio in the lower pine belt, 
but less than that of the other regions. The work stock per square 
mile is 4.5, being greater than in any other i-egion, except in the upper 
pine belt and Piedmont regions. 

The product of r/rain, including corn, small grain and rice, is 793,669 
bushels, being 11 bushels per capita, the minimum found in any region 
of the State. Per square mile, the average is 466 bushels, which 
compares favorably with an average of 501 bushels for the whole State, 
especially when the salt marshes are allowed for. This is an increase on 
the crop of 1870, which was only stated at 389,720 bushels, or 229 bushels 
per square mile, and 18 bushels per capita, the latter figure being much 
diminished by the larger population returns of 1880. 

The total of all stock, including work stock, is 43,946, averaging 25.8 per 
square mile against an average of 57.1 for the whole State, and 0.65 per 
capita, being a little less than half the average of the whole State, which 
is 1.27. This is an increase since 1870, the average then being 9.4 per 
square mile, and 0.70 per capita. 

The acreage of improved land is 106,772, being 62 acres per square mile, 
not quite one-tenth of the total area, and 1.5 acres per capita, as against an 
average of 3.8 acres per capita for the whole State. The bulk of this 
land is planted in corn, cotton, small grain and rice, there being only 
9,552 acres in other crops and fallow ; a large part of the latter being, 
doubtless, the cotton lands left fallow by the best jjlanters each alternate 
year. 

PRODUCTIONS. 

The olive and orange tree bring their fruit to full perfection on the 
South Carolina coast. Once only during a period of sixteen years pre- 
vious to 1880 were the orange trees injured by frost, when the tops of 
about one-fourth were killed, while the roots put out fresh shoots ; the 
fruit from single trees in the neighborhood of Beaufort has for a series of 
years sold for $150 to $250. The oranges of this region bring a higher 
price in the market and are thought superior to those grown further 
south. Even tlK^ l>anaiui, with a not expensive winter protection, has 
hecn made to ripen its fruit. Fig trees of every variety, with little or no 
attention, grow everywhere and produce several abuntlant crops yearly ; 
so that could some process similar to the Alden process for drying fruit 



THE COAST REGION. 25 

be adapted to them, they might become an important staple of export. 
Every variety of garden produce does well, as witness the extensive truck 
gardens on Charleston Neck, which furnish large supplies of fruits and 
vegetables of the finest quality to distant markets. The wild grapes, 
which attracted the notice of the first French colonists in 1562, still 
abound, and perhaps the largest grape vine in the world is one eighteen 
inches in diameter, near Sheldon Church, Beaufort County. Hay made 
of Bermuda grasses, ranking in the market with the best imported hay, has 
been profitably grown. Five acres at the Atlantic farm have, for a series 
of years, yielded nine thousand pounds per acre yearly, and on the Stono 
farm two tons one year, and four and a half another, has been made to 
the acre. Winter vetches grow wild, and the vine of the cow pea fur- 
nishes an abundant forage, besides increasing the fertility of the soil. The 
red rust proof oat, recently introduced, is peculiarly adapted to the mild 
winters of this region, yielding readily, and with great certainty, thirty to 
fifty bushels per acre. Should an increase of the population call for a 
larger food supply, the sweet potato would furnish it to an extent prac- 
tically unlimited. Indigo, rice, hemp, beans, peanuts, the castor oil bean, 
the sugar cane, and many other sub-tropical fruits and vegetables, too nu- 
merous to catalogue here, have been successfully cultivated as field crops. 
Indian corn, of the white flint variety, yields in the coast counties a little 
more per acre than the average yield of the same crop throughout the 
State. Nevertheless, only a very limited attention is bestowed on the 
culture of any of these articles, the leading crop, to the exclusion or 
dwarfing of all others, being 

LONG STAPLE COTTON. 

In every handful of ordinary cotton seed, three varieties, presenting 
well marked differences, may be recognized at a glance. The largest of 
these is covered with a green down ; another, smaller and much more 
numerous seed, is covered, with a white or grayish down ; the third variety 
is naked, smooth and black. Whether these three sorts of seed corres- 
pond to three classes under which the numerous varieties of cotton are 
arranged, that is, the green seed with gossypium hirsutum or shrub 
cotton, attaining a height of ten or twelve feet, a native of Mexico, and 
varying as an annual, biennial or perennial, according to the climate in 
which it is grown ; the white seed, with gossypium herbaceum, or 
herbaceous cotton, an annual, attaining a height of two feet, native of the 
Coromandeb coast and the Nilgeherries ; the black seed, with gossypium 
arboreum, or tree cotton, a native of the Indian Peninsular, but attaining 
a height of one hundred feet on the Guinea coast, and producing a silky 



26 THE COAST REGION. 

cotton, it may not be possible to say. The black seed, however, is not 
(listin<i;uislKMl from the seed of the long staple or sea island cotton. If 
selected from among the other varieties of iii)land cotton seed, it will in a 
series of years produce a finer, silkier and stronger fibre than ordinary 
uplands. If the best and purest sea island cotton seed be planted in the 
neighborhood of the upland or short staple cotton they will readily 
hybridize. Among the numerous varieties of hybrids thus produced, 
there will prominently appear a vigorous plant, with a very large green 
seed. The staple of these green seed plants varies greatly, in some in- 
stances being very short and coarse, in others longer and finer even than 
the best sea island. The most marked characteristic, however, of these 
hybrids will be the size and vigor of the plants, the size of the seed 
and the very small amount of lint they 3'ield. A noticeable feature, 
too, is the large number of vigorous, growing, but unfruitful, plants that 
these green seed hybrids produce, their large, glossy leaves showing above 
the other plants, but bearing the season through neither bud or blossom. 
Possibly such plants merely resume the biennial character of the tree or 
the shrub cotton and would be fruitful the second season. 

Were it in place here to offer a theory, these characteristics of this 
green seed hybrid might be adduced as evidc^ice of a reversion to the 
original type of the allied species which Darwin refers to, as a frequent 
occurrence among hybrids produced between remoter and more dissimilar 
varieties. 

ORIGIN OF LONG STAPLE COTTON. 

It would be a matter of much interest to determine the origin and his- 
tory of the varieties of cotton now in cultivation. The difficulties of doing 
this are much increased by the very wide geographical range occupied by 
the plant. The earliest explorers, Columbus, Magellan, Drake, Capt. 
Cook, and others, seem to have found it almost everywhere in the broad 
belt extending from the equator to 30° S. and to 40° and 45° N. latitude, 
where it now grows. Although it is not found among those oldest of vest- 
ments, the wrappings of Egyptian mummies, its use was known to man in 
Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and the outlying islands of the sea, in 
the remote past, far beyond the historic age. Its very name itself bears 
evidence to this, occurring as it does in many, and in the mo.st ancient 
languages. Thus through the Dutch ketoen, Italian cotone, Spanish al- 
godon, we pass to the Greek kiton, turned wrong side out in the Latin tunic, 
to the Arabic katan, the Syriac kethene, the Samaritan kitana, the Sanscrit 
katan, the Hebrew kuttoneth (Gen. xxxvii : 23, 31), the Ethiopic kethan, 
the Chaldee kethan ; and Gesenius conducts us to a most ancient and 
obsolete Semetic root, kathan, signifying to cover. Nevertheless nothing 



THE COAST REGION. 27 

can show more clearly the importance of tracino- and nnderstanding the 
histcrv of plants under cultivation than the variations and improvements 
in black seed cotton since its introduction on the Carolina coast. It is 
known that the first bale of long- staple cotton exported from America, in 
1788, was grown on St. Simon's island, Georgia. That this bale was 
grown by a Mr. Bissell, from seed that came from either the Bahama or 
the Barba^loes islands. Singularly enough the authorities leave this mat- 
ter in doubt — the Hon. Wm. Elliott saving it came from Anguilla, one of 
the Bahamas, and Signor Filippo Partatori (Florence, 18G6) saying it 
came from Cat island, one of the Barbadoes. But as Anguilla is one of 
the Barbadoes, and Cat island one of the Bahamas, it would seem diflicult 
to decide to which group of islands Ave are indebted for these seed. How- 
ever, as Mr. Thomas Spalding, of Sapelo island, says in a letter to Gov- 
ernor Seabrook, in 1844, that three parcels of long staple cotton seed were 
brought to a gentleman in Georgia, from the Bahamas, in 1785 and 178G, 
it would seem that the seed reached our coast from those islands. In the 
Bahamas it was called gossypium barbadense, in consequence doubtless of 
being brought from Barbadoes. In the latter island it was known as 
Persian cotton (Edward's West Indies, vol. iv.,p. 363) and was thought to 
have come from that country where it was originally derived from the 
gossypyum arboreum of India. Be this as it may, Mrs. Kinsey Burden, of 
Burden's island, Colleton county, S. C, obtained some of these seeds from 
Georgia and planted them. This crop failed to mature, and the first suc- 
cessful crop of long staple cotton grown in South Carolina was planted in 
1790, by William Elliott, on the northwest corner of Hilton Head, on the 
exactspot where Jean Ribault landed the finst colonists and erected a column 
of stone, claiming the territory for France a century before the English 
settled on the coast. Mr. Elliott's crop sold for lOid. per pound. Other 
planters made use of this seed, but it was not until Kinsey Burden, Sr.,of 
Colleton county, began his selections of seed, about the year 1805, that at- 
tention was strongly called to the long staple. Mr. Burden sold his crop 
of that year for twenty-five cents per pound more than did any of his 
neighbors. He continued to make selections of seed and to improve his 
staple, and in 1825 he sold a crop of sixty bales at $1.16 per pound. The 
year subsequent his crop sold for $1.25, and in 1828, he sold two 
bales of extra fine cotton at $2.00 per pound, a price not often exceeded 
since. The legislature was on the point of offering Mr. Burden $200,000 
for his method of improving the staple of cotton, and Mr. Wm. Seabrook, 
of Edisto, was prepared to pay him $50,000 for his secret, when it was 
discovered that the fine cotton was due wholly to improvements made in 
the seed by careful and skillful selections. Since then the greatest care 
has been bestowed upon the selection of the seed, and to sucli perfection 



28 THE COAST REGION. 

was the staple brought by this means, that the crops of some planters 
were sold, not by sample, but by the brand on the bale, as the finest 
wines are. During the war the cultivation of the finest varieties being 
abandoned on the islands, the seed removed to the interior greatly dete- 
riorated in quality. So scarce, on this account, was good seed directly 
after the war, that J. T. Dill, a cotton merchant in Charleston, at one 
time had in an ordinary letter envelope the seed from which all the bet- 
ter qualities of long, staple cultivated now was derived. Nor have the 
improvements made by careful selection of the seed ceased in later years. 
The staple has kept fully up to the best grades of former days, and the 
proportion of lint to seed cotton has been increased. Formerly one pound 
of lint cotton from five pounds of seed cotton of the fine varieties was con- 
sidered satisfactory. Thanks to the efforts of Mr. E. M. Clark, a fine va- 
riety of cotton has been recently found, which yields one pound of lint to 
three and one-half pounds of seed cotton, preserving at the same time the 
strength, length and evenness of fibre characteristic of the best varieties. 

APPEARANCE OF THE PLANT. 

The sea island cotton plant is a larger and more vigorous grower than 
the upland plant. It withstands the vicissitudes of the heat and cold 
better, and it is less subject to disease ; blight and rust do not afi'ect it as 
readily as they do the upland cotton, nor does it shed its forms and bolls 
to anything like the same extent. These remarks as co rust apply also 
to those varieties of uplands in which the length of the staple has been 
improA'ed b}-^ selection of the seed, and rows of this are often seen healthy 
and vigorous, while the short staple uplands around are withered with 
the rust. The early growth of the sea island is so vigorous, that it main- 
tains itself in fields infested with Bermuda and nut grass, as the uplands 
could not do. The leaves are larger, smoother, and of a brighter green 
than uplands, and the flowers are larger, handsomer, and of a more 
golden yellow. But the bolls are smaller, and instead of being five-lobed 
are only three-lobed — these lobes being so sharp pointed as to prick the 
fingers, to the Serious inconvenience of pickers not accustomed to gather 
it. Of course the small size of the bolls requiring so many to make a 
pound, adds much to the tediousness and expense of harvesting the crop. 
The fibre of tJie lint is much finer, stronger, smoother and silkier than 
uplands; and while tlie latter is only ^ to f inches in length, the sea 
island will measure 1^ to 2^ inches; the color, too, has a cast of creamy 
yellowness not observed in uplands. 



THE COAST REGION. 29 



LABOR AND SYSTEM OF PLANTING. 

On the sea islands of Carolina, field labor is performed almost exclu- 
sively by negroes. Nearh^ all of them are engaged in farming on their 
OM^n account ; a large number own farms; a still larger number rent lands 
for cultivation, and even the laborers are paid most generally by granting 
them the use of so many acres of land for certain stipulated services. 
The total number of farms on the islands is stated to be fifty-four hundred 
and fifty-three, but the number probably exceeds six thousand, the enu- 
merators having had the lands and crops cultivated by renters returned 
by the landowner, and consolidating them as being in some sort under 
one management, when they were, in reality, entirely independent — an 
error ever likely to occur, and sometimes quite difficult to avoid, and 
which has no doubt caused the number of farms to be underestimated 
and their size overestimated in manv sections of the South. The largest 
number of acres of sea island cotton planted under one management 
nowhere exceeds one hundred acres. • The white planters do not proba- 
bly average more than thirty acres, and this necessitates that they 
should be landlords of considerable estate. For as the laborers are fre- 
(juently given five to seven acres for tw^o days' work in the week, and as 
this two days' work per week does not suffice for the cultivation of more 
than four acres, to cultivate thirty acres of cotton under this system 
requires seventy-five acres of land; add to this the amount usually 
planted in corn and other crops, and we will have one hundred and 
twenty acres. As under the best system the land lies fallow every other 
year, the planter of thirty acres of cotton will require two hundred and 
forty acres of open land ; and as scarcely one-fifth of the land is under 
cultivation, such a planter will probably own some twelve hundred acres. 
Thus there is no proportion between the size of the farm actually culti- 
vated and the land holdings — the first being quite small and the last 
large. This state of things is owing to absence of capital and the low 
price of land and labor. Lands which were worth $50 to $60 an acre 
more than half a century ago (Mill's Statistics S. C, pp. 372 and 472), and 
which had increased in value down to 1860, being until recently either 
w^holh^ unsaleable or selling at $10 per acre or less. 

WAGES. 

On .James island, which at this time is perhaps under a more progres- 
sive system of culture than the other sea islands, laborers are paid cash for 
their work, at the rate of fifty cents per diem and $10 per month, with 



30 THE COAST REGION. 

Ijoard— tlio latter boin,": a ration of tlirce pounds of bacon and one peck 
of o-rist a week, with shelter and fuel. The soil and the condition of the 
laborers is reported as improving, and cash -wages are considered prefer- 
able to the share, or the land system of payment. Arable land rents 
here at $2 an acre per annum. The i)rice of land is from $15 to $80 an 
acre. A few laborers own their houses, but very few own any farming 
land. 

On John's island, cash wages are from $8 to $10 a month, with board. 
Most of the laborers, however, are engaged for two days' work a week by 
allowing them a house, fuel, and six to seven acres of land free of rent. 
The report is that the system is not satisfactory. The lands worked by 
the landlords are improving; that worked by the laborers on their own 
account is deteriorating rapidly. The labor is not so easily controlled as 
when cash wages are paid. The lands vary greatly in- price — prices 
ranging from $2.50 to $20 per acre, with some lands valued recently still 
higher. Kent is higher tlian on James' Island, in consequence of a sys- 
tem tliat increases the demand by multiplying small farmers, and it is 
^about $3 per acre per annum. 

On Edisto island, the two days' system prevails. The laborer gives 
the landlord two days' work in every week during ten months of the year, 
and receives in return a house, fuel, and six acres of arable land, which, 
together with such other land as he may rent, he cultivates on his own 
accovmt during the remainder of the wcQk. When extra work is required 
on the farm, these laboring tenants are employed at fifty cents by the day. 
The system is reported as being quite unsatisfactory, these two days 
hands not cultivating more than two acres as an average for the pro- 
prietor, and burdening his estate with the support of a much larger 
po})ulation than necessary to its cultivation. By means of this, however, 
a large amount of resident labor is secured on the place, which is of prime 
importance during the cotton-picking season. The laborers themselves 
prefer this system, having four days out of the week for themselves, they 
are more independent, and can make any day they choose a holiday. As 
a rule, they are comfortably off, and about seven per cent, are reported as 
owning homes of their own and some land. The land for which they 
pay rent .service generally deteriorates in value. The lands worked by 
the proprietors are among the very best on the sea-coast, and are improv- 
ing. The average yield' of cotton on the whole island is a bale to 2.6 
acres ; for the six largest planters it is a bale to 1.7 acres. Considering 
the (piality of the staple produced, it may be safely said that the larger 
farms yielded between two and three times as much as the small ones. 
Lands here are worth from $10 to $25 per acre — formerly they were 
worth from $50 to $70 per acre. Small tracts rent for about $4 per acre 



THE COAST REGION. 31 

per annum, larger tracts for less. And there is a state of things which 
tends to reduce the saleable value of lands, while it increases the rental 
value of it. 

West of St. Helena sound, land is almost without exception in the 
hands of small negro farmers, either as tenants or ^proprietors. Much of 
this land, valued formerly at $40 to $60 an acre, was confiscated, as a 
war measure, by the U. S. government. A good deal of it was purchased 
hy negroes at the government sales, at $1.25 an acre, on credit, and is still 
owned by them. The size of the land-holdings is from one to twenty 
acres, and nowhere is more than fifteen acres of cotton cultivated under 
one management. Much of the land is uncultivated, and the remainder, 
in small patches, varying from one-eighth of an acre and less to three 
acres in size, is planted in corn, cotton and sweet potatoes, curiously 
intermingled. Nowhere in the State, not even among the gardens on 
Charleston Neck, is the system of small culture so strikingly illustrated. 
The farmers usually own a cow, a mule or horse, and the work stock is 
sufficiently numerous, though of a very inferior quality. Farm fixtures 
are of the simplest and cheapest description. There is seldom any shelter 
for the stock, the cabin of the proprietor being generally the only house 
on the premises. The stock is fed on marsh* grass, with a little corn, and 
is, in a large measure, subsisted by being picketed out, when not at work, 
to graze on such weeds as the fallow spontaneously furnishes. Plows 
are numerous enough, but the chief reliance is upon the hoe, which, for 
several generations, was the only implement known to agriculturists on 
this coast. These small negro farmers have enjoyed many advantages. 
They bought their lands on easy terms, at one-thirtieth to one-fiftieth of 
their value. They had the benefit of the famine prices of cotton during 
the war for their staple product. Since the war, the industries connected 
with the working of the phosphate rock in the rivers, and on the main 
lands adjacent to them, have furnished the men with employment at 
higher wages than could be obtained elsewhere in the State. The 
opening of the railway to Port Royal harbor has, also, made a demand 
for labor in loading and unloading vessels, at a better per diem than was 
elsewhere obtainable. Graded schools were early established here, and 
have been maintained on a large scale, uninterruptedly, for many 3'ears. 
Fish, oysters and game abound, and poultry, as chickens, ducks and 
turkeys, do particularly well. This adds largely to the ease with which 
these people subsist. They live comfortably, happily and peacefully. 
All the larger houses and buildings about the old farmsteads have rotted 
down or been burned down, and have been replaced by small cabins and 
a few country stores, where the traders, invariably white men, who take no 
part in the cultivation of the soil, collect and dispose of the crop and supply 



32 THE COAST RKGION. 

the cominuiiity Avith .such articles of food and dress as arc required. Most 
of the men are engaged at the pliosphate works, or on the wharves at Port 
Royal, and the heft of tlie farm work is performed by the women and 
children. Land is worth $10 to |15 an acre. (See opposite table, showing- 
relation of size of farms, number of work stock and production.) 

CREDITS AND ADVANCES. 

Purchasing supplies on a credit prevails to a considerable extent,, 
especially among the small farmers. The exact rate at which these 
advances are made cannot be given, as it is not charged as interest, but 
is included in an increased price asked for supplies purchased on credit. 
It varies from twenty to one hundred per cent, above the market value 
of the goods, according to the amount of competition among the 
store-keepers, who here, as elsewhere in the State, are b}'' far the most 
prosperous class of the community, in proportion to the skill and capital 
employed. The better class of farmers do not approve of this credit 
system. It furnishes facilities to small farmers, and encourages them to 
undertake operations they cannot make remunerative to themselves ; it 
reduces the number of laborers, and precludes high culture. The rental 
value of land is thus increased, and land which could not be sold for $10 
may be rented for $5. The thriftless culture resulting from the small 
farms, unduly multiplied by this unhealthy stimulus of credit, causes 
many acres to be thrown yearly out of cultivation. Thus the increasing 
demand to rent land, in consequence of the increasing facilities for credit 
to small farmers, and the constantly diminishing area of arable land, 
resulting from the very imperfect system of culture their lack of means- 
forces them to adopt, create high rents, injurious to the small former, 
and impoverishes the landlord by deteriorating the quality of his land, 
as well as by abstracting the labor he could employ iu remunerative 
culture. 

TILLAGE AND IMPROVEMENT. 

The sea islands have, since 1866, enjoyed a law special to them, requir- 
ing the owners of live stock to enclose them. Owing to this and to the 
numerous creeks and marshes that intersect these islands, and which 
serve as natural divisions, when required, between the different fields^ 
fences are not a burden on the agriculture of the coast lands, and there 
is comparatively little fencing. 

Drainage, although said by Gov. Seabrook to be so little attended to on 
the sea islands as to be scarcely worthy of being considered a regular ag- 
ricultural operation, has of necessity always been practised to some extent. 






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"I 
o 



THE COAST REGION. 33 

The remarkably high beds on which cotton is planted here, being from 
eighteen inches to two feet high, subserves this purpose. The best jilant- 
ers have long had open drains through their fields. These were gener- 
ally made by running two furrows with a plow, and afterwards hauling 
out the loose dirt with a hoe, thus leaving an open ditch, if it may be so 
termed, a foot or more in depth. In recent years the enterprising farm- 
ers on James' island have made deeper ditches and placed plank drains 
in them. Seeing the great benefit resulting from this, they subsequently 
replaced the plank with regular drainage tile. In this way they have 
reclaimed a good deal of land, besides adding largely to the value of that 
already under cultivation. The outlets open to the sea at low-water 
mark and the pressure of the water in the pipes preserves a constant out- 
flow even at high tide. So that land only a foot or two above high-water 
mark, is susceptible of thorough drainage to the depth of four or even 
five feet. The borders of these islands being usually their highest parts, 
and the interior often quite low, a wide field for improvement is offered 
in this direction. 

In the early part of the century, when agriculture had so far devel- 
oped the value of these lands as to make $60 an acre for planting land 
not an unusual price, the use of the plow was entirely unknown here, and 
all the operations of tillage were performed by hand with the hoe alone. 
This continued to be the usual practice until the war. Since then plows 
have come more and more into use, until their employment is now quite 
general. 

Fallowing is practiced to the extent that land planted in cotton one 
year is pastured by cattle and sheep, not hogs. It is claimed that great 
benefit is derived by having the loose soil of the islands trodden by stock 
during the year they lie fallow. The rapid growth of bushes, briars and 
weeds is kept down by the stock, and the dried stems of the cotton stalks 
of the previous year are broken up and trampled down. If care be taken 
" that the grass is not eaten so close as to expose the soil on the tops of 
the beds to the summer sun," it is found when the stock are turned off in 
November, to range through the fields, that the pasture " is in exactly the 
right condition for the coming season's cotton fields, with no cotton 
stalks, or troublesome growth to be got off, or under the land and make 
it too husky." 

About one-half of the land formerly cultivated is reported as " turned 
out " on John's island, and the same or a larger proportion on Wadma- 
law. On the other islands less land has passed out of cultivation, but no- 
where has the acreage under cultivation increased. 



34 THE COAST REGION. 



CULTRMTION. 

A mule can do tlic plowing nHjuired in the cultivation of thirty acres 
in sea island cotton, and can, in addition, cultivate a sufiicicncy of land to 
supply corn for its own feed, perhaps something over. The first step in 
the preparation of the land is to hoe off the weeds (" hurricane "), cut up 
the cotton stalks, and pile and burn this litter. This costs forty cents per 
acre. Bushes are grubbed up at a cost of seven cents per acre. The land 
is not broken up broadcast with the plow, but early in February two fur- 
rows of a single-horse turning plow are run in the old alleys, making a 
trench seven or eight inches deep. In this furrow a subsoil plow may or 
may not be run, according to the character of the subsoil. Wherever un- 
der drainage is practised, as on James island, the furrow is generally used. 
Before plows came into use this trench was never made, and even now it 
is omitted by some of the most successful planters. Into this trench, or 
into the middle of the alley, where there is no trench, the manure is 
placed. This consists usually of about twenty cart loads of marsh mud 
and one thousand to one thousand four hundred pounds of cotton seed. 
Stable and lot manure, together with composts of marsh mud and rushes, 
are also applied in the furrow at the rate of forty cart loads per acre on 
such a portion of the land as the limited number of stock enables the 
farmer to treat in this method. On the lines of manure thus laid doAvn, 
a certain quantity of commercial fertilizer is drilled. This practice, 
wholly unknown former!}', is very common now, even the smallest negro 
farmers often going heavily in debt to obtain these fertilizers from the 
store-keepers. They are handy, obviate the labor and care of stock and 
the forethought and toil of collecting and manipulating composts. On 
James island and John's island a mixture consisting of two hundred and 
fifty pounds acid phosphate, two hundred pounds kainit (German potash 
salt) and two hundred pounds calcined marl is applied per acre. On 
Edisto island they use two hundred poun<ls fish scrap (half dry in bar- 
rels), two hundred pounds kainit and two hundred pounds acid phosphate 
per acre. On St. Helena island little fertilizer is used. Cotton seed is 
worth $15 to $20 per ton, and the commercial fertilizers from $15 to $30, 
which would make $15 an acre the cost of the manure among the best 
farmers. 

The land is now ready for listing, which is done by hauling on to the 
manure with a hoc the soil from the tops and sides of the old bed. A 
more recent practice is to lap in with two furrows of a turning plow on 
the manure. This costs oidy seventeen and one-half cents per acre, 



THE COAST REGION. . 35 

while the listing with the hoe costs eighty cents, although the latter has 
the great advantage of bringing all the vegetable mould and humus di- 
rectly to the spot where the roots of the plant are to grow. Over the 
mass of dirt, weeds, manure, etc., thus collected in the old alley, a double 
roller, five feet from centre to centre, and weighing about eight hundred 
pounds, is passed to press together and compact the whole, completing 
two rows at a time. All this should be completed by the first to the mid- 
dle of March, and the bed is then built up by lapping in two more fur- 
rows on a side, with a single or double horse turning plow. 

The land is now ready for planting, which may begin any time after 
the 20th of March ; but the 1st to the 10th of April is the time preferred. 
Cotton planters are not used. Three hands do this work ; the one ahead 
chops a hole with a hoe on the top of the bed at intervals of twelve to 
eighteen inches ; another hand drops eight or ten seed in each hole, and 
the third follows and covers carefully with the hoe. Three to four pecks 
of seed are used to the acre. The seed makes its appearance above ground 
in eight to twelve days after being planted, and the stand is perfected 
from the second week in April to the first week in May. Hoeing begins 
about the first of Ma}'. The second hoeing takes place the last of May. 
The plows then break out the middles (the spaces between the new beds 
where the old beds stood). The hoe hands follow, and pull up the loose 
dirt left by the plow to the foot of the cotton. This is called hauling ; 
by it the new bed is completed, the cotton is kept from " flagging " (falling 
down), and the grass is kept under. It costs eighty cents per acre. At 
the second hoeing some stalks are thinned from the bunch in which the 
seed breaks the ground, and at each succeeding hoeing and hauling other 
stalks are removed, until in July only one stalk of each bunch is left. 
There are four hocings and four haulings by the last week in July, one 
or more furrows with a sweep plow being run through the middles pre- 
vious to each hauling. By the last of July the culture is completed, 
except to run a furrow with the sweep between the rows in August, to 
destroy grass and keep the cotton growing. 

The first blossoms appear about the middle of June, when the cotton 
is fifteen inches Righ, and the bolls open towards the end of August, when 
the plants have attained a growth of four to five feet. Cotton picking 
commences from the last week in August to the second week in Septem- 
ber. For the first picking, while the cotton is thin, one and a half cents 
per pound seed cotton is paid. Subsequently the price is one cent per 
pound, never less, until the last of November, when it rises again to one 
and a half to two cents. By the 15th December the crop is gathered. 

Mr. W. E. Fripp, a progressive planter on John's island, remarks in 
concluding his report : " No improved implements are used or needed 



3(i THE COAST REGION. 

in son island cotton culture." " Any one hand, with ordinary implements 
and management, can make four times as much cotton as he can gather." 
Naturally this suggests the reflection, wliat is to be done, in a region 
devoted almost exclusively to cotton culture, with tlie three hands not 
needed during the cultivation of the crop, ])ut of paramount importance 
during the picking season. What industries can be introduced to give 
them employment? It would seem, whatever they are, they must be of 
such a character as is suited not only to cheap labor, but to cheapen labor. 
Already the cotton picker pockets one-sixth of the gross value of the crop, 
and is a heavy burden on the producer. At $7.50 per bale, which is 
below the actual cost of picking, it requires an expenditure of $40,000,000 
to $45,000,000 to gather the crops now made. This large sum is paid out 
in the space of two montlis for work in which the most unskilled and 
least robust laborers excel. Just here there is a gorge in the industry of 
the cotton belt, piling up a vast reserve of stagnant energies to surmount 
the obstacle of cotton picking. Should it ever be removed, and ma- 
chinery be invented to reduce the cost of this Avork, improvements in 
culture would follow so rapidly, and the product of cotton could be so 
greatly increased, that, besides being used for clothing, it might become 
one of the cheapest materials for building purposes. Everywhere, in the 
production of this staple, improvements are possible to an indefinite 
extent; but when cotton picking is reached, there, as in gold digging, 
the only resource is a human being, an unskilled drudge, at low wages. 
This absolute dependence of cotton production on purely human labor 
has not been without its humanizing influences, and king cotton has been 
more powerful to preserve friendly relations between the stronger and 
the weaker race than military governors and reconstruction acts. The 
comparatively small amount of manual labor necessary for crops of grain 
or hay might, had such crops replaced the culture of cotton, have left the 
negro with as little support on American soil as the Chinaman, and their 
hegira to the West, or to Africa, might have been possible ; as it is, the 
home of the cotton pickers has been made too soft and easy a place to 
them to render any such occurrence at all probable. 

4 

DISEASES AND ENEMIES. 

As has been already stated, the long staple cotton is a more vigorous 
grower and less subject to diseases than upland cotton. Neither sore 
shin, blight, rust, or the shedding of fruit in unfavorable seasons, seems 
to affect it to the same extent. Its enemies are in the vegetable kingdom, 
weeds and grass, especially tlie nut grass and the Bermuda, and against 
these the constant and skillful use of the hoe and plow are the only safe- 



THE COAST REGION. 37 

guards. The most dreaded enemy of the crop is the cotton caterpillar, 
which makes its appearance in warm wet spells in the latter part of 
summer, and speedily consumes the foliage. At one time so great and 
constant were the depredations of these worms, that it was feared that 
they would, as they did for some years, put a stop to the profitable cul- 
ture of this crop. Now, however, by the use of paris green the planter 
counts securely on contending successfully with them, and no .crop has 
been lost in late years where it has been used in season. A mixture of 
one pound of paris green, one of rosin, and forty pounds of flour, is dustc^l 
by hand over the leaves on the first appearance of the worm, and this 
inexpensive process secures exemption from their ravages, even when 
they come in such numbers and work with such rapidity, that the por- 
tion of a field not treated to the mixture in consequence of the interven- 
tion of Sunday, is consumed beyond remedy. 

BREPARATION OF THE COTTON FOR MARKET. 

When the cotton has been picked, weighed and housed, it is next 
spread out in the sun, on what is called " an arbor." This is a platform, 
usuall}'' made of inch boards, raised a few feet above the ground and 
some tw^enty-five feet or more square. Here the sun and air dries the 
cotton, preventing it from heating, which it is liable to do when stored 
in bulk, and it is also thought to cause the lint to absorb some of the oil 
in the seed, which adds to the silky lustre of the fibre. After being thus 
dried, it may be either stored or passed at once to the " whipper," a 
machine that knocks out the dust and sand, and leaves the cotton whiter 
and more open. Formerly, when the price was higher than it is at 
present, it was all assorted. A hand was given one hundred and fifty 
pounds of seed cotton as a day's task, which he thoroughly overhauled, 
picked out all specks, stained cotton, fragments of leaf, etc. At present, 
however, this is usually done by two hands, who examine the cotton as it 
passes into the gin, and two others behind the gin, who pick out cracked 
seed, motes, etc., as the lint issues from the gin. The roller gin in 
some form has always been used for detaching the lint from black 
seed cotton. Nearchus, the admiral of Alexander the Great, reports its 
use among the Hindoos in his time. The first roller gin used in this 
country was one constructed in 1788, by Mr. Bissell, of Georgia, the gen- 
tleman already mentioned as having introduced this variet}'^ of cotton. 
It consisted of two short wooden rollers moving in opposite directions, 
each turned by a boy or girl, and giving, as the result of a day's work, 
five pounds of lint cotton. To this succeeded the foot or treadle gin, im- 
ported from the West Indies, where they had been in use, having reached 

172613 



38 THE COAST REGION. 

there Avitli tliis varieiy of cotton seed, descendants, doubtless, of the Hin- 
doo jiins, mentioned by Kearchus. h\ 1790, Dr. Joseph Eve, a distin- 
<iuished })hysician and poet, tlien of tlie Bahama islands, but subsequently 
a resident in Georgia, near Augusta, made great improvements in this 
gin, and adapted it to be run )>y horse or water power. It was claimed 
that his gin would detach the seed from short staple cotton ; but it ap- 
pears not to have succeeded in doing this. Other improvements took place 
in the roller gin, from time to time ; and about 1840, F. McCarthy, of 
Alabama, devised a machine Avhich bears his name, and has been in use 
ever since on the sea islands. Shortly after this, small steam engines 
were used with the McCarthy gin, and now oxen and horses have been 
discarded and all the gins on the sea islands are run by steam power. 
A two horse power is required for each gin, which turns out on an average 
a bale weighing three hundred and fift}^ pounds as a day's work. 
There is a recent English improvement of the ^IcCarthy gin, known on 
the sea islands as the double McCarthy. This gin gives two bales in a 
day's work ; but as it requires greater skill to attend it, they are not in 
general use; two, however, are in successful operation in the large gin- 
house of Mr. John G. Nichols, on St. Helena island. 

The great subdivision of the land into small farms under independent 
management, renders it impracticable for each cotton planter, as formerly, 
to have a gin and ginhouse of his own. To meet this state of things, 
" toll" gins have been established. They are usually in the hands of 
store-keepers at the various boat landings. The largest establishment of 
this sort is the one above mentioned on St. Helena island. Here ten gins 
under one shelter are run by one steam engine. Bagging is kept on hand 
for the convenience of customers, and the cotton is either purchased by 
the proprietor of the gin, or shipped by him directly from the ginhouse 
to any American or European port the planter may prefer. There being 
a large store on the premises, where the wants of the planters are sup- 
plied throughout the year, and a skilled machinist being in constant 
attendance on the gins, to keep everything running in the best order, it 
is much patronized. Almost the entire crop is prepared and marketed 
here, and planters, even as remote as Edisto island, bring their cotton to 
be ginned and disposed of at this gin, saving thereby, as they say, the 
heavy charges of wharfage, storage, insurance and commission, which are 
incurred when sent to city factors to be sold. This establishment is 
worked, in connection with others of a similar character along the coast 
of Georgia, and in Florida, which together handle and dispose of eight 
thousand or nine thousand bales of long staple cotton annually. 

The usual charge at these gins is three and a half to four cents per 
pound, lint, and they are said to pay well. The cotton is packed in 



THE COAST REGION. 39 

Dundee bagging, in round bales. No press is used, as it is thought it 
would injure the fibre. The work is done by hand, the cotton being 
beaten into the bag with a pestle. At the large ginhouse on St. Helena, 
however, even this work is accomplished by machinery. The bag is con- 
veniently suspended from an iron hoop, and a disc of two inch plank, 
exactly fitting the bag, and moved b}^ steam, pushes the cotton in, secur- 
ing greater dispatch and accuracy in the packing. 

The seed is used for manure, and when sold for this purpose, brings 
twenty-five to thirty-five cents per bushel of forty pounds. In 1880., only 
about fifty tons were exported from Charleston, chiefly to Egypt, to be 
used as planting seed. In this connection an incident related by Governor 
Seabrook illustrates the difficulties •attending the handling of newly in- 
troduced products. In 1796, on Mr. Brisbane's White Point plantation, in 
St. Paul's Parish, the disposition to be made of the cotton seed, which 
" the gins bfegan to furnish freely, became a perplexing question. Being 
carelessly thrown on the ground, the hogs ate it and they died. It was 
then put into pens, but the pigs found their way between the interstices 
of the rails and shared the fate of their elders. As a last resort, and with 
a view to be rid of the nuisance, it was deposited in a small creek con- 
tiguous to the Mansion House. There, at low tide, it soon generated a 
miasmatic odor, which, when the wind was favorable, was so offensive 
as to create a strong feeling against the future culture of the crop." 

AVhat has been written refers distinctly to the sea islands. A conside r- 
able quantity of long staple cotton in addition is grown on the mainlands 
and is known as Santees and as mains. The general economy of the cul- 
ture is the same as on the sea islands. The seed is obtained annually or 
biennially from the islands, as it is thought to deteriorate very rapidly on 
the mainland. In the absence of determinate experiments for a series of 
years it is not easy to say what the cause of this deterioration is, or even 
if it is due to causes of a permanent character. That the seed does deteri- 
orate is a fact beyond question. But whether it would do so if not ex- 
posed to hybridization with uplands, and if the selections were made with 
the same skill and patience that is shown by the sea island planters, can- 
not be said to have been demonstrated. To be perfectly secure from the 
influence of uplands it should be planted at least three miles distant from 
it, that being determined as the range of the bee whose search for honey 
and pollen is the fruitful source of this miscegenation. New factors too 
might have to be taken into consideration in the selection of the seed on 
new soils and in a new climate. Crops of sea island cotton have been 
made as high up as Orangeburg and Aiken counties. The yield was as 
good as on the coast, and the staple, while ranking well in the market, 
did not command the higher prices. Were a serious effort made for a 



40 THE COAST REGION. 

iiunibcr of years, it is not improbable tliat tlic culture of this high-priced 
cotton might Ijc much extended. 

It is difficult to find a satisfactory answer to the question why is long 
staple cotton planted exclusively on the coast. Uplands have been tried 
there, and it has been found that they yield no more than long staple, 
which of course caused their abandonment as less profitable. The only 
explanation offered is to refer this case to that general law of cultivated 
plants, that their culture is most profitable at the northern limit at which 
they can be grown, inasmuch as their yield at that point is greater, their 
cultivation cheaper, the period of growth being shorter, and their product 
of better quality. This certainly is true to a large extent of cotton. 
Latitude is the only reason that can»be given why the Carolina long sta- 
ples are superior to those of Florida and Georgia. Cotton samplers say 
that the same is true of uplands, and the staple grown near the moun- 
tains are finer, stronger, and more even than the crops raised south of 
them. The rapid advance that cotton culture is making in the Piedmont 
country would seem to show that its culture there was being found more 

profitable than further south. 

* 

THE COST OF COTTON PRODUCTION. 

Th<3 eost of production may be considered from two points of view. 
First, the actual cost to certain producers, of whom inquiry has been 
made. Second, what may be termed the rational cost, that is, the labor, 
material and capital necessarily expended in production, directly or 
indirectly, by the producer himself, or by some one else. The first is 
real, but by no means expresses everything involved. For instance, on 
unsaleable land, a landholder, with little or no expenditure of caj)ital, 
may produce a certain amount of cotton with labor given in return for debts' 
that could not be otherwise collected. Such cotton would cost almost 
nothing to the producer. Between this and the opposite extreme, where 
the land had been bought above its real value, and a large expenditure 
made in the culture, theje is every variation of individual experience — 
from one of immense profits, to one ending directly in bankruptcy. The 
rational cost, on the other hand, is purely theoretical ; in estimating the 
cost of each item of expenditure, it must be generalized and reduced to an 
average that does not, perhaps, conform exactly to the experience of any 
individual. It summarizes these items, and leaves them recorded for 
consideration. Both methods are given. Messrs. Hinson & Rivers, on 
James' island, say $80 a bale of 400 pounds, or 20 cents per pound. Dr. 
A. B. Ro.se, of Charleston, puts the cost at $70 per acre, which should yield a 
bale of 350 pounds, which gives, likewise, 20 cents per pound. One of 



THE COAST REGION. ' 41 

the most, if not the most, successful among sea island planters, Mr. 
J. J Mikell, of Edisto, says the cost is 15 cents per pound there. 

Before considering the rational cost, a word should be said as to the 
amount of production. The liighest yield on record to one acre is oGG 
pounds of lint, on a single acre on Mr. Schaffer's place, on Wadmalaw 
island. A planter on John's island made an average of 290 pounds of lint 
per acre, on a tract of 20 acres, while small- farmers in the same locality 
produced only 50 pounds to 75 pounds lint per acre. The members of 
the Farmers' Club on James' island recorded, for 1870, an average yield 
on their fields of 280 pounds of lint. On Edisto island, there is a tract 
of 100 acres, producing, in that year, 210 pounds of lint per acre, and 
conservative farmers there consider 200 pounds of lint an average on the 
larger- iarms, year in and 3'ear out, a fair yield of fine staple. In Mills' 
Statistics of South Carolina, published in 1825, it is stated that a 
farmer on Edisto island produced, on an extensive scale, an average of 
270 pounds of clean cotton to the acre. He also states that there were 
lots of land that had produced 435 pounds of lint to the acre. From 
which it would appear that the soil, climate, and old methods of culture 
had a capacity not very far inferior to that with which the invention of 
fertilizers, and of improved implements and methods, at the present time, 
endows this locality. 

The following table presents the rational cost, giving an itemized 
account of all expenditures, as reported by intelligent sea island planters. 
The first three columns are from Edisto, the yield being placed at 200 
pounds of lint cotton to the acre. Number four is from James' island, 
the yield taken at 280 pounds of lint per acre. Number five represents 
the average expenditures of the better class of small farmers on John's 
island : 



45f 



THE COAST REGION. 



Cost of each Item of Labor and Material expended in the Culture of an Acre 

of Cotton. 



ITEMS. 



ONE. 



TWO. ; THREE. FOUR. FIVE. 



Rent or interest on money invested 
in lands 

Wear and tear of implements . . . 

Cleaninoj and burning weeds and 
stalks^ 

Other cleaning up 

Digging and carting salt mud . . . 

Spreading salt mud 

Cotton seed for manure, 20 bushels, 
at 85 cents 

La|)ping mud and seed in with two 
furrows, or rolling ditto .... 

Fish scrap, 200 lbs., and spreading, 
15 cents 

Kainit, 200 lbs 

Acid Phosphate, 200 lbs 

Spreading last two, 15 cents each. . 

Commercial manures 

Home-made manures 

Applying manures 

Bedding up with plow 

Splitting middles 

Breaking out ridge of old bed . . . 

Planting 

Replanting 

Seed 

Eight to ten hoeings and haulings. 

Blowings with sweep plow .... 

Thinning and regulating stand . . 

Cleaning ditches 

Picking cotton 

Sunning and drying cotton . . 

Ginning, cleaning and packing . . 

Bagging and twine, per bale. . . . 

Hauling to gin 

Hauling to steamboat and freight to 
city 

Storage, insurance, weighing, dray- 
age and selling 

Foreman's wages and rations. . . 



$ c. 

5 00 
1 00 

40 

07 

1 00 

80 

6 40 



12* 



G5 
50 



2 00 
30 



"Zo 



121 

45 

20 

30 

60 

25 

121 

10 

00 

15 

00 

55 



50 

2 50 

2 75 



5 00 
1 00 

40 
07 



121 



?? c. 

5 00 
1 00 

40 
07 



f c. 
3 00 



25 



15 



6 50 



25 

45 

40 

25 

121 

50 

25 

30 

60 I 

25 

12i| 

10" 

00 

15 

00 

55 

40 

50 



2 50 

1 50 



50 

25 

45 

40 

25 

121 

50 " 

25 

30 

60 

25 

121 

10 

00 



10 00 

2 00 

55 

50 

50 



7 00 
55 
40 

50 

2 50 



50 

25| 

1 50 
6 00 

2 50 
50 



11 20 



8 80 
55 
50 

50 

2 50 



Total 45 69» 51 2914^ 52 I 52 25 27 32 



THE COAST REGION. 



43 



It would be a still more difficult problem to arrive at a satisfactory 
estimate of the profit per acre to the farmer. This would vary, in the 
first place, according to the grade of cotton produced, the prices fluctuat- 
ing, with the fineness of the staple, from 30 cents all the way up to $1.10 
I)er lb. The value of the cotton, too, would depend greatly on the hand- 
ling of the crop, whether it was picked in time, properly stored, sunned, 
dried, ginned, and moted — in all of which operations the skill, care, and 
forethought of the farmer would count for a great deal. But if we place 
the price of the cotton at 40 cents per pound, we may offer the following 
estimates as coming somewhere near the correct deductions to be made 
from the data furnished by the foregoing figures. 



Cost of Cotton Per Pound, and Profit Per Acre. 






ONE. 


TWO. THREE. 


FOUR. 


FIVE. 


Cost per pound . . . 


22 8-lOc. 


251c. 241c. jlS 3-oc. 27 3-lOc. 


Do. plus value of seed "j 
produced and less in- V 
terest on investment, j 


17 9-lOc. 


20 7-lOc. 19 3-lOc. 15 1-lOc. 


21|c. 


Profit per cultivated acre' |45 20 $38 20 1 $41 40 i $69 72 


$78 25 



These figures can, of course, onl}' be approximately correct, but the 
Avide difference that prevails between large farms and high culture, and 
the small farms and insufficient culture, is a hopeful indication that the 
efforts at improvement have met with success, a success that would be 
much enhanced if we estimate the improved value of soil itself, where 
high culture has been practiced. 



CHAT^TER III. 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA 

REGION. 



LOCATION AND BOUNDARIES. 

Contiguous to and immediately inland from the coast region lies the 
Lower Pine Belt, or Savanna region, of South Carolina. Northward it 
may be bounded by a line dividing Hampton county nearly in half, 
leaving the Savannah river in Lawton township, running east across the 
county and through Broxton and Warren townships, in the northwest 
corner of Colleton county, to Orangeburg county, including the town- 
ships of Branchville and Cow Castle. Thence along the northern bound- 
ary of Charleston county to the Santee river. Leaving the Santee river 
about Wright's Bluff, this line traverses Clarendon county to its north- 
east corner, crosses Lynches river, descends that river to a point opposite 
where Catfish creek empties into the Great Pee Dee ; follows that stream to 
Barker's creek, passes up it to Reedy creek^ down it to the Little Pee Dee, 
and up that river to the North Carolina line. The section thus bounded 
includes the half of Hampton county, nearly all of Colleton, two town- 
ships in Orangeburg, all but the northwest corner of Clarendon, the 
southwest portion of Marion, the whole of Williamsburg, and all Charles- 
ton, Georgetown and Horry counties not lying on the coast, and com- 
prises nearly one-third of the entire State. 

THE PHYSICAL FEATURES 

of the Lower Pine Belt bear a striking analogy to those of the coast 
region. The uplands, the so-called " pine barrens," represent the sea 
islands. Numerous large fresh water rivers replace the great salt water 
rivers and arms of the sea along the coast, and the interminable net-work 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 45 

of extensive swamps and bays recall the salt marshes of the coast. Eight 
large rivers receiving all the M-ater that falls in South Carolina, and a 
large proportion from the watershed of North Carolina, besides several 
smaller rivers and innumerable lesser streams, traverse this -region and 
furnish more than 1,000 miles of navigable waters. The general ap- 
pearance of the country is low and flat. The uniform level of the sur- 
face is scarcely broken anywhere, except here and there on the banks of 
the streams ])y the occurrence of slightly rolling lands. Lime sinks are 
found and there is a notable chain of them south of Eutawville, between 
the great bend of the >Santee river and the head waters of Cooper river. 
In a depression of the sjbirface a miniature lake, never exceeding fifty 
yards in length by a dozen in width, and sometimes only a few feet in 
diameter, is found. The water is oi crystalline clearness, with a visible 
depth of twelve to fifteen feet, and is contained in a funnel-shaped hollow 
of the blue limestone rock, that underlies the soil at the depth of a few 
inches. These lakelets or springs have no outlet, but at their bottom 
Assures in the limestone rock, leading to unknown depths, are observed. 
Through these fissures numbers of all the varieties of fresh water fish 
common to this locality, including eels and alewives, some of them of 
considerable size are seen to pass. So numerous are these »fish that if all 
these open basins were put together into one, it would not afford food or 
breeding space for one-hundredth part of the fish found in any one of them. 
The inference seems warranted that there is here, in the caverns of 
the limestone rock, a subterranean stream or lake many miles in extent. 
The maximum elevation of this region above tide-water is reached at 
the village of Branchville on the South Carolina railway, and is 134 
feet. From the data furnished by the surveys of the railroads traversing 
this region, the Port Royal, South Carolina and Wilmington roads (the 
Charleston and Savannah road runs near to and parallel with the coast, 
and the surveys of the Northeastern road have been destroyed), it ap- 
pears that the average slope is about 3| feet per mile. This slope, how- 
ever, seems to be much more rapid in the western and narroAver part than 
it is in the eastern and broader portion of the belt. Altmans, on the 
Port Royal railroad, is 105 feet above mean high tide at the head of 
Broad river, 18 miles distant in a direct line, giving a fall of 5.8 ft. per 
mile. Branchville is 134 ft. above the sea, which at North Edisto inlet, 
near Jehossee island, is 48 miles distant, making the fall 2.8 feet per mile. 
In the east the railroad bridge of the Great Pee Dee is 52 miles from the 
sea and has an elevation above it of only about 59 feet, or but little more 
than one foot to the mile. This fall Avould, with skillful engineering, be 
sufficient for thorough drainage. Left as it is, however, wholly to the 
operations of nature, this desirable object is far from being accomplished, 



4Ct THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

and the broad Ijut slow currents of the tortuous streams never free the 
swamps and lowlands of their superfluous water. So level is the country 
and so abundant the supply of water, that the engineering skill and out- 
lay required .to perfect its drainage would, at comparatively small addi- 
tional outlay, render the larger part of the surface susceptible to cultiva- 
tion l)y irrigation. In connection with drainage and the embankment 
of the rivers, the assertion is frequently made, that such works are less 
])racticable now than formerly, when they were attempted in conse- 
([uence ot the increased size and frequency of freshets, resulting from 
cutting down the forests, the chief obstructions to the rapid passage of 
rain water into the streams. In the absence of records giving exact data 
on this point, this assertion rests more on the apparent nature of the 
case than on ascertained facts. On the contrary, nothing can be more 
certain than that no subsequent freshet has attained the height and ex- 
tent of the great flood of 1796, known as the Yazoo freshet, and that none 
has exceeded the May freshet of 1840. 

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 

Out-crops of the cretaceous rocks of the secondary formation occur 
east of the Santee river, in numerous localities in the Lower Pine Belt of 
South Carolina. Commencing at Little river, in the southeastern corner 
of Horry county, Prof Tuomey followed these rocks to Mars Bluff on the 
Great Pee Dee and to points as far north as Darlington C. H. They make 
their appearance on Lynches river in about the same latitude, and were 
traced by Mr. Ruffin as far west as Kingstree, the countj^ seat of Williams- 
burg. They consist of a soft marl of a dark gray color, containing (as at 
Mars Bluff) the remains of belemnites in great number. This marl av- 
erages about 34 per cent, of carbonate of lime, and rests on a stratum of 
hard lime or marl stone, which yields 75 per cent, of carbonate of lime. 
The marl stone in turn rests on a black shale of laminated clay, which 
rests on beds of sand. The buhr-stone reaches down into the Lower Pine 
Belt in several localities along its northwestern edge. Prof. Tuomey 
thought he had traced it as far as the Ashepoo river in Colleton and to 
Huspa creek in Beaufort county. But as tlie rocks he referred to are now 
recognized as belonging to th^ phosphate rock formation, the bulir-stone 
does not extend .so far south as he supposed. 

The body of the Lower Pine Belt is underlaid by marl belonging to 
that portion of the eocene formation of the tertiary, designated by Mr. 
Ruffin the Great Carolina Bed. These marl beds are divided into two 
well-marked groups, known as the Santee marls and as the Ashley and 
Cooper river marls. The Santee marls are the older, lower and more ex- 



THE LOWER PIXE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 47 

tensive formation. Reaching from Mazyck's ferry on the San tee in 
Charleston county to Vance's ferry on that river in Orangeburg county, 
and underlying nearly the whole of Clarendon county, they have been 
traced along Potato creek as far north as Sumter county. Westward they 
extend through Colleton, Orangeburg, Hampton and Barnwell counties, 
to the Savannah river ; reaching as high up on that stream as Shell blutl", 
a noted locality in Burke county, Ga. Their northern margin rests on 
the buhr-stone, and to the west and south they pass under the Ashley and 
Cooper marls. The Santee marls form the lowest member of the cal- 
careous strata of the Charleston basin, and was designated by Prof. 
Tuomey the Coralline bed of the Charleston basin, being composed of 
the remains of corals and gigantic oyster shells. It consists of strata of 
soft marl, marl-stone and green sand, and is very rich in carbonate of 
lime, averaging 90 per cent, of that valuable ingredient of the soil. 

Resting on the Santee marls, and passing out with them beneath the 
pleiocene and post-pleiocene of the coast under the sea to a great depth, are 
the Ashley and Cooper marls. Unlike the Santee marls, they contain 
neither corals or oyster shells, but are composed of minute many cham- 
bered shells (Polythalamia and Foraminfera). These marls are of a 
dark gray color and granular texture, sometimes so compact as to render 
the material suitable for building purposes. Prof. Tuomey mentions a 
ruined house, erected long ago, by Sir John Colleton, of this material, 
which reminded him of Portland stone. The marks of the tools upon 
the walls exposed to the weather were as well defined as if they had been 
impressed yesterday, and the angles of a tasteful mantelpiece, handsomely 
moulded and decorated, were as sharp, despite its long neglect, as when 
first executed. These marls are not so rich as the Santee marls and av- 
erage only about GO per cent, of carbonate of lime. They have long 
been known, however, to contain a notable quantity of phosphate of 
lime, and a great interest attaches to them, as it is the fragments broken 
from their irregular surface, and rounded by the waves, which have been 
converted into the nodules rich in phosphate of lime and known as 

PHOSPHATE ROCK. 

The deposits of phosphate rock occur over a wide range of country, 
reaching from North Carolina to Florida, and extending in some instances 
as much as 60 miles inland. Vertically, so far as their occurrence in 
quantities of value economically is concerned, their distribution is con- 
fined within narrow limits. They are found at the bottom of rivers, 20 to 
30 feet in depth, and on land they occur at an elevation but slightly 
above mean high tide, so that the tides of the existing sea, supplemented 



48 THE LOWKR PINK BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

in a few instances perhaps by tlie action of storms, is sufficient to account 
for any movements that these water-worn nodules have undergone. The 
rock of commerce occurs always above the marl, and is known as the land 
or water rock, according as it is found in the one element or the other. 
The water rock is darker in color and harder than the land rock, and is 
frequently found in a layer or sheet of cemented or tightly compacted 
nodules, overlying the marl at the bottom of the rivers and creeks, where 
it either forms the bottom itself or is overlaid by a deposit of mud of 
greater or less depth. It has been seldom dredged for at a depth exceed- 
ing 20 feet. The land rock is found at a depth of 2 feet to 10 feet (and 
more under elevations) below the surface of the soil, but is not mined at a 
depth exceeding 5 to 7 feet. It is found' in masses or nodules, varying 
from the size of a potato to several feet in diameter. These nodules are 
rounded, rough, indented, and frequently perforated with irregular cav- 
ities. They vary in color from olive or bluish black to a yellowish or 
grayi.sh white. Their specific gravity is 2.2 to 2.5. Their hardness from 
0.5 to 4." The fragments of a nodule give pff a peculiar foetid odor on 
friction. By analysis it is found to contain phospliate of lime 55 to 61 
per cent., carbonate of lime 5 to 10 and organic matter and water 2 to 
10 per cent., "with small quantities of fluorine, iron, magnesia, alumina 
and sulphuric acid, besides sand. The land rock is found in a loose 
layer, varying from a few inches to 30 in depth, averaging about 8 
inches. It occurs in sand, mud, cla}^ or peat, and is often intermingled 
with numerous remains of land and marine animals. Among the former 
are the remains of the mastodon, elephant, tapir, deer, and of our do- 
mestic animals, the horse, the cow and the hog. Thus showing that these 
very animals whicli were imported by the first white settlers had once 
iuhaljited this region, from which they had disappeared, so far as tradi- 
tion informs us, before the advent of man, furnishing Prof. Agassiz with 
one of his strongest arguments in favor of '' independent centres of crea- 
tion." The remains of these land animals are found intermingled with, 
but never imbedded in, the phosphate rocks, giving no evidence that there 
was any community of origin between them. So abundant are the re- 
mains of marine animals that Mr. Toumey named this formation the 
" Ashley Fish Bed." Most striking among these remains are the beauti- 
fully preserved t^eth of sharks, from 2 inches to 4 inches in length ; if the 
proportions between the teeth and the bodt found among existing sharks 
obtained Avith these monsters, they must have been (]0 feet to 80 feet in 
length. The sharks teeth, on the other hand, found in the Santee marls 
do not differ nuich as regards si^e from tho.se of the sharks now living on 
the coast, and artesian wells in the phosphate region yield, at a depth of 
700 feet below, these colossal teeth — teeth similar in size to the ancient 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 49 

fossil teeth found far inland, imbedded in the Santee marls, and to those 
of the fish now living in the vicinity. As to the origin of the phosphate 
rock, the identity of the fossil shells it contains with those of the under- 
lying marl make this much certain, that it consists of fragments broken 
from the irregular surface of the marl, and that its rounded and nodular 
form was imparted to it by the action of the waves and currents to whicli 
it was subsequently subjected. The important question of how a marl 
containing originally 60 per cent, of carbonate of lime and 2 to 4 per 
cent, of phosphate of lime has been changed into one containing 50 to 60 
per cent, of phosphate of lime and 5 to 10 per cent, of carbonate of lime 
remains for consideration. * It is a noteworthy circumstance, that, while 
the great body of the eocene marls in South Carolina have preserved their 
constitution almost unchanged, a remarkable change is manifest at the 
beginning and at the close of the series ; in the buhr-stone on the north- 
ern border, and in the widely removed phosphate rock on the southern ; 
in the buhr-stone the original carbonate of lime composing the shells has 
been replaced b}^ silica, reiulering great masses of rock, that once might 
have imparted valuable properties to the soils, valueless agriculturally ; 
in the phosphate region masses of carbonate of lime have been converted 
into the phosphate, rendering them still more valuable to the tiller of the 
soil. Two theories have been offered to account for this substitution of 
the phosphate for the carbonate of lime. 

One theory assumes that the fragments of marl were charged with the 
sweepings from guano beds formed above them by the congregation there, 
at some indefinite time in the past, of vast flocks of birds ; in this case, 
bones of the birds should be among the fossils preserved in these beds. 
No such remains having been found, but instead the remains of numerous 
animals, such as the mastodon and elephant above mentioned, and it was 
thought that immense herds of these animals had collected at one time 
about the shallow salt lakes in which the nodules were left upon the re- 
cession of the sea, just as animals now do about the salt licks of Kentucky, 
and that the phosphoric acid derived from their excrements and remains 
wrought the change in the marl. To this it is objected that the spots 
where the most of these bones are found are not the richest in phos- 
phates ; and while it is by no means probable that the nodules were in 
all, or even in most instances, formed where they are at present found, it 
is difficult to suppose that agencies of such local and restricted character 
as salt licks could account for the conversion of so great a mass of material, 
over an area so extensive, as that presented by the phosphate formation. 

The other explanation of the formation of these rocks is, that certain 
mollusks possess the power of separating the phosphate of lime from sea 
water, and that through their instrumentality the marl, and especially 
4 



50 THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

tlio upper strata, became charged with a certain amount of phospluite of 
lime. That the proportion of the phosphate of lime thus obtained to the 
whole body of the.superficial layers of the marl was afterwards increased; 
1st, by the removal of a considerable amount of the carbonate of lime, 
rendered soluble Iw the percolatic^n through it of rain water containing 
carbonic acid, derived from the decomposing vegetable matters in the soil 
overlaying the marl. 2d, by a well known proneness of phosphoric 
acid, when diffusely distributed, to concentrate and to give rise to concre- 
tionary processes similar to those observed in the flint nodules and peb- 
bles of the English chalk. This theory agrees with the diffused occur- 
rence of phosphate of lime in the superficial layers of the marl, as well as 
with the fact that the upper la^^ers of the deposits and the outside of the 
nodules are the richest in phosphate. It substitutes for a local cause a^ 
general one, commensurate at once with the wide area occupied by the 
phosphate rocks and by the phosphatic marls of the South Atlantic sea- 
board. Such a cause also might have been in operation ages ago, when 
the layers of phosphate rock, found at a depth of 300 feet in artesian 
borings, were forming ; and it may be in operation now, as the dredging 
work of the United States Coast Survey shows that the marls accumulat- 
ing, at the depth of 200 fathoms on the floor of the Gulf Stream, between 
Florida and Cuba, contain a considerable percentage of phosi)hate of 
lime. 

No systematic survey, determining the extent of these deposits, has 
yet been attempted. The only information on this bead comes from 
prospectors, seeking easily accessible rock in localities convenient for 
shipment. Widely varying estimates as to the quantity of the rock have 
been ventured. Some have placed it as high as five hundred millions of 
tons, and others as low as five millions. The latter is the estimate of 
Prof Shepard, who has prepared a map of the region. He traced the 
deposit over 240,000 acres, and roughly estimates the accessible rock as 
covering only about 10,000 acres. Even this estimated area at 800 tons 
per acre, Avhich he gives as an average, should yield 8,000,000 tons. But 
if we examine a single mining region, as that for instance occupied by 
the Ccoaw company, we must conclude that he has very greatly under- 
estimated the amount. This company has the exclusive right to a terri- 
tory of about 6,000 acres in Coosaw river, besides the adjacent marshes, 
yet unexi)lored. Everywhere the river bottom is covered with rock, 
which for the most part forms a solid sheet, varying from 8 inches to 1^ 
feet in thickness. Taking the lesser thickness, we have, with a specific 
gravity of 2.5, after subtracting 25 per cent, for loss in washing and dry- 
ing, something over 1,700 tons to the acre, which would give for the 
river territory alone belonging to this one company something more than 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 51 

ten millions of tons. And in effect this company (which is the only 
thoroughly equipped river mining company now at work, 1881) con- 
.«ider. in spite of their large plant, consisting of extensive drying sheds 
and wharves, three heavy dredges, four large steam tugs, sixty large flats 
and a numerous fleet of smaller ones, besides washers, workshops, &c.. 
by which they daily raise and prepare for market hundreds of tons of 
rock, that their supply of material is practically unlimited. From the 
works of this company fleets of dredging boats belonging to other parties 
may be seen at work, and in the neighborhood there are several well 
known localities where rock as rich, as abundant, and, with suitable ma- 
chinery as accessible, is found, but which remain unworked. It seems re- 
markable that while coal mining at great depths is found profitable, 
when the product sells at $3.00 per ton, that capital has not more eagerly 
sought employment in these superficial deposits, worth never less than 
$5.00, and now $0.00 per ton. 

There are ten (1881) companies engaged in land mining. The land 
either belongs to them or is leased by them for a term of years. Parallel 
ditches, two yards wide, are sunk through the soft soil to a depth of 4 feet 
to 7 feet, to the stratum of sand or mud in which the loose layer of phos- 
phate nodules is found. The rock is shoveled out, thrown into heaps 
and transported by rail to the washers situated on the wharves, whence it 
is shipped. A common laborer will raise a ton a day, for which he is 
paid $1.75. The product of the land rock is about 100,000 tons a year, 
and the most of it is ground and manufactured into acid phosphates and 
other fertilizers, by the eight manufacturing companies within the State. 

The river miners work under charters from the State, which grant 
them a general right to Avork a specified territory with any other comers, 
or under an exclusive right to such territory. In either case they pay a 
royalty .to the State of $1.00 for every ton of rock raised. The river 
works yield about 10(1,000 tons of rock per annum ; being harder, and 
therefore more difficult to grind, it has been mostly shipped to foreign or 
northern ports to be manufactured. Labor receives good wages at this 
work. Divers raising the rock from a depth of 10 feet or 12 feet, paid by 
the amount raised, working IJ hours on the ebb and IJ on the flood tide, 
earn as much as $18 a week. This work is neither dangerous or un- 
healthy, and those engaged in it seem to enjoy their aquatic exercise. It 
is thought that large quantities of rock underlie the salt marshes between 
the high and low water mark, which would be the property of the State. 
So far very little work, and no extensive exploration, has been made in 
this direction. In fact, vast cpantities of the best rock yet unworked 
cover the bcttom of many of these rivers. 

The total amount of phosphate rock mined from the 1st of June, 1874, 



r)2 THE LOWER PINE liELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

to the 31 ?t of January, 1882, is estimated at 1,505,550 tons ; of tliis about 
44 per cent, was shipped to foreign ports. The royalty of ^1.00 per ton 
paid to the State for rock raised from navigable waters amounted, in 1881, 
to 1124,541 ; a single company, the Coosaw, paying $99,135. In this 
year 71,316 tons of river rock were shipped to foreign, and 52,225 tons 
to domestic ports. The State can safely count on a much larger revenue 
from this source for years to come, for at this rate of production the 
Coosaw company itself would not exhaust the rock in sight, without 
further exploration in its own territory, in 120 years, and the demands of 
agriculturists for this valuable material, while they can scarcely be less 
than at present, are likely to increase very much. 

SOIL. 

The 7,000 square miles, of uplands in the Lower Pine Belt comprises 
three leading varieties of soil : 1st. A sandy loam, with a white sandy 
subsoil. 2d. A sandy loam, with a yellow subsoil. 3d. A sandy loam, 
witli a clay subsoil ; the clay is generally yellow, but sometimes it is red. 
The surface soil is lighter or darker, in proportion to the varying quan- 
tities of vegetable matter it contains, and where the clay subsoil occurs, 
it assumes, on cultivation, a mulatto color. These soils bear a strong re- 
semblance to the sea island soil, having this advantage, however, over 
them that are very generally underlaid by easily accessible beds of 
marl, richer in lime than those of sea islands. In drainage, however, 
they compare unfavorably with the sea islands. For the scouring effect 
of the rise and fall of the tide, which keeps the water ways around the 
islands open, is not only not experienced in this belt, but, on the contrary, 
the luxuriant water growth that flourishes here has filled up the chan- 
nels, converting them into swamps, through which scarcely any current 
passes. This, in connection with the level character of the country, 
renders the body of these lands wet. But for this, the good mechanical 
constitution of the soil, being light and easily tilled, and at the same 
time (except in the case of white sandy subsoil) sufficiently compact to 
be retentive of manures and moisture, together with the abundance of 
marl and of peat and muck at hand as amendments to the virgin soil, 
would have made them most desirable lands for tillage. As it is, not 
more than one acre in 22 is under cultivation, and the jiricesof lands, are 
from $5.00 down to 50 cents. 

The following analyses by C. U. Shepard, Sr., from Toumey's report, 
give an idea of the constitution of some of the poorer soils of this re- 
gion, classed as pine barren. 1. Loose sandy soil. 2. Dark gray soil. 
3. Very light sandy soil. 4. Loose yellow sandy soil : 



THE LOWER PIXE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 



53 



Silica 

Alumina . ... 

Peroxide iron, and carbonate and phosphate 

lime 

AA'ater of absorption and organic matter. . . 



92.57 



91.641 94.00 
.94 



1.70 1.70 



0.71 
5.03 



93.00 



.81 



0.50 0.50 1.20 
6.16' 4.56 4.09 



100.00 100.00 100.00100.00 



Dr. J. L. Smith furnishes, in the report cited, the following analyses of 
cotton lands in this section. In 1,000 parts of surface soil : 



Sand 

Clay 

Moisture . , . . 
A'^eoetable matter 



2 



760 

140 

30 

70 



900 i 800 680 800 

62 ! 165 270 170 

8 j 12 20 10 

30 I 22 I 30 20 



P-ortions of these soils, soluble in warm muriatic acid, were found to 
contain })hosphoric acid. 

The 4,500 scj^uare miles of overflowed lands in the savanna region 
present quite a variety of swamp lands. The most elevated of these are 
cypress ponds — shallow flats, with an impervious clay bottom, thickly 
grown with small cypress. Some of them contain a thick deposit of 
vegetable matter, and, when drained, have proved very productive. Next 
in order come the almost impenetrable bays, thickly set with a growth of 
bay, gum and tulip trees, and a dense undergrowth of vines and bushes. 
The soil is peat or muck, resting on blue mud, and underlaid by marl 
and sand. Then come the open savannas and the river bottoms, a rich, 
tough, loamy soil, having at times a depth of sixty feet, derived from the 
denudation of the upper country, whose " richest possessions are found 
in well-sifted purity in these vast swamps." These are the rice lands of 
Carolina. Taken all in all, whether we consider the physical character 
of the soil, the amount of organic matter it contains, the variety of its 
mineral constituents, or the subtropical climate of the locality, with the 
facilities for irrigation, either for culture or to renew the surface fertility, 
they are, perhaps, excelled in productiveness by no lands in the 
world. 

GROWTH. 

The characteristic growth of the uplands is the long-leaved pine, ex- 
tending in open pine woods over the wide plain, with scarcely any 
undergrowth except here and there the scrub oak and grasses of the 



54 TJIIC LOWKR I'IXE V.VA.T, OR SAVANXA RKGIOX. 

<^eiuis nris{a(l(( and sjiardolns, llic wire and dro}) seed grass. The j)almetto 
reaches only a lew miles inhind from salt water, but the live oak is found 
as much as sixty miles from the shore line. The magnolia, tulip tree, 
sweet and l)lack gum, the whifee and red bays, the white oak, the black 
walnut, the elm, hickory and cypress are among the largest and most 
conspicuous trees of the sAvamps; the undergrowth, commencing with a 
fringe of gall berry {jiruioH (/laber) on the margin of the swam])s, and 
consisting of a great variety of gra})e, briar and other vines, myrtles, &c., 
is very dense. 

CLIMATE. 

In the absence of weather records, it is difficult tg express the difference 
between the climate of lower pine belt and that of sea coast, already 
descriljcd, more definitely than to say that it is such difference as is to 
be found between the conditions favorable for the growth of the cabbage 
palmetto, which barely touches the southern border of the belt, and of the 
live oak, that just extends to its northern or inland margin. A low, flat 
country, intersected by numerous swamps, might naturally be thought 
very sickly. This region, however, has one advantage. Almost every- 
where there are found small tracts, islands, as it were, of dry, sandy soil, 
heavily timbered with the long leaf pine, which is a barrier to the in- 
vasion of malaria. These retreats furnish places of residence as healthy 
as are to be found anywhere; such a place is the village of Summerville, 
on the 8. C. li. R., a liealth resort that divides with Sullivan's island the 
patronage of the citizens of Charleston during the warm weather. 
McPhersonville, in Hampton, and Pineville, in Georgetown, are villages 
of tlie same character, and there is scarcely a neighborhood that has not 
some such healthy spot as a place of residence during summer. The 
dread of malaria is mucli less than it was when the opinion that the 
colored race was exempt from such influences was adduced as an argu- 
ment to show the providential nature of their location here to develop 
these fertile lands. The reverses of fortune, sustained as a result of the 
war, have forced many wliite families to reside the summer long W' here it 
was once thought fatal to do so, and the experiment has been successful, 
thus exploding the idea that white people cxjuld not enjoy health here 
during the summer months. Rei)lies from twenty-three townships state 
without excei)tion, that the inhabitants enjoy good health, and that a 
considerable i)ortion of the field work is j)erformed by whites — a great 
change since the war. Tln' census returns give hfteen deaths per one 
thousand i)Oi)ulation in the i)Oi'tions of Charleston and Colleton counties 
lying in this reiiitni, for the vear 1880. 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 55 

STATISTICS. 

The lower pine belt contains 10,226 square miles, of which 4,500 are allu- 
vial or swamp lands, either covered with water or subject to overflow. The 
tilled land is 358,533 acres, by the census returns of 1880, which is 30 per 
cent., or 171,306 acres, less than the number given by the census of 1870. 
There are 1.6 farms and 35 acres of tilled land per square mile, or 20 
acres of tilled and 400 acres of untilled land to the farm. Something 
less than 1 per cent, of the total area, or 6.4 acres per square mile, is 
})lanted in cotton ; there is in grain of all kinds 15.8 acres, and in other 
crops and fallow, 13 acres per square mile, with 1.8 head of work stock 
and 23 head of all live stock. These figures represent the minimum 
(the area in other crops and fallow alone excepted) to be found anywhere 
in the State. Notwithstanding the small proportion of stock to the area, 
the people here are the staunchest adherents of the fence law, and claim 
entire freedom of range for their cattle. This, too, while the entire num- 
ber of stock of all sorts is only 1.15 per capita of the population, being- 
less than in any part of this State, except upon the coast. 

The population numbers 203,748 (including 49,999 in the city of 
Charleston), or 18.9 per square mile, which is less than in any part of 
the State, the sand hills excepted, where the numl>er is 11.7. The ratio 
of colored to white is greater tlian elsewhere except upon the coast, and 
is sixty-nine percent., the same that it was given at in 1870. 

Tlie tilled land is 1.7 acres per capita; .2 acres more than on the coast. 
This is not quite one-lialf the average for the whole State, and is owing, 
1st, to the large area of unreclaimed swamps; 2nd, to the number of the 
population engaged in the turpentine and lumber business. The large 
l>odies of land held solely for the forest products they yield, as turpentine, 
lumber, shingles, staves, &c.^ accounts for the fact that while the number 
of farms to the square mile is few, the number in proportion to the pop- 
ulation is as great, even as among the small farms on the coast, being one 
to every twelve and a half of the population. Nevertheless the amount 
of land tilled per capita has decreased thirty-eight per cent, since 1870. 
Showing that the forest industries are gaining on agriculture. 

In point of production we have 2.7 bales of cotton per square mile 
against 1.9 in 1870, an increase of forty-one per cent., but still less than 
half the minimum produced elsewhere, except on the coast. Per capita 
the yield is only sixty-eight pounds of lint, but per acre planted in cotton 
it is 219 pounds, showing that in tliis little cultivated region the yield of 
the land planted is not only above the average of the State, but is abso- 
lutely the maximum any where reached. So, too, of the grain crop, while 



5G THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

it was only seven bushels in 1870, and in 1880 only eleven bushels per 
capita, and only 236 bushels to the square mile, it averages over fifteen 
bushels to every acre planted, which is nearly Hfty per cent, above the 
average of the State. The increase in the amount of grain produced has 
been eighty -two per cent, on the crop of 1870. Tlie work stock during 
the same period have increased fifty per cent., and the live stock seventy- 
six per cent. 

The explanation of these seemingly paradoxical facts is found in the 
consideration, that this fertile but thinly peopled region is scarcely re- 
claimed at all from the dominion of the waters for man's uses. That there 
being neither capital or organized labor commensurate with this under- 
taking, what of either of these forces is to be found, employs itself in cul--- 
tivating the poorer, but more easily tilled land, or in the more tempting 
occupation still of gathering the products of the forest, whioli nature with 
lavish hand offers in abundance. 

PRODUCTIONS. 

The most characteristic, if not the most important, crop of this region 
is the rice crop. The various methods of its culture fall under two classes, 
the dry and the wet culture. 

The dry culture is pursued on uplands and on low grounds not suscep- 
tible of irrigation. It is cultivated very much like cotton, planted in 
drills two and a third to three and a half feet, and in hills eighteen to 
twenty-four inches apart, twenty to thirty seed being dropped in the hills. 
The ground is afterwards kept clean and stirred by the use of the plow 
and hqe, with one hand picking of the grass in the hills, when the rice 
is about six inches high. The yield varies with the soil and culture, from 
fifteen bushels to fifty bushels to the acre. Tliis rice sometimes fetches a 
fancy price, as seed rice, being free from the seed of the red rice that 
springs up as a volunteer in the fields under water culture. 

The water culture of rice is conducted on three sorts of low grounds. 
1st. Flats, which may be irrigated from ponds or water " reserves " lying at 
a higher level. 2nd. River swamps, into which water may be conducted 
by canals running from the river above, and returned to it again at a lower 
level ; such lands may be found anywhere in the State. 3rd. The tide 
water lands, which are only found near the coast. These lands lie in such 
a position on the lower course of the rivers, that while they are subject to 
a sufficient " pitch of the tide" to irrigate them on the flood and to drain 
them on the ebb, they may be dammed against the invasion of salt water 
below and from the freshets above. By taking in the fresh water from 
the rivers above and letting it out below at low tide, these lands have been 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 57 

reclaimed as low down as the salt marshes. They are of limited quantity 
and of inexhaustible fertility, the waste of cultivation being constantly 
restored by the ricli deposits from the turbid streams that irrigate tliem. 
Formerly their value was estimated in hundreds of dollars per acre. Since 
the war the difficulty of obtaining labor has changed this, many of the 
finest plantations remain uncultivated, or are only partially cultivated, and 
lands once worth from |200 to $300 per acre may now be bought at from 
$20 to $30, or less. There are more than two million of acres of land, 
consisting of inland and river swamps, and of fresh water and of salt 
marshes, admirably adapted to rice culture, now lying unused, in this 
section of the State, most of it in its original wilderness. There are nu- 
merous methods employed in the water culture of rice, from that known 
as dry culture, when water is sparingly used, to that known as the "all 
water culture," where the crop is only dried cnce or twice during the 
season for the purpose of weeding it. Usually it is flowed four times. 
Known as the " sjjrout flow," to perfect germination, the " point flow," to 
stretch up the young plant, the " long flow," when the plant is six to eight 
inches high, after* the first and second hoeings, and the " lay by flow," 
after the third hoeing and until harvest. The fine mud and decomposed 
vegetable matter that compose this soil is so soft that a horse will readily 
bog in it, and therefore horse power has been little used in their cultiva- 
tion, an objection that, with the solid cross dams at short distances, would 
not apply to the plow moved by steam power. Horse power has, how- 
ever, been used so far as to show that seed drills for planting and the 
mowing machine for harvesting may be successfully employed in rice 
culture. Under these circumstances, taking into consideration the amount 
and certainty of the yield, from forty to eighty bushels i)er acre, and the 
improved machinery for threshing and hulling, there is perhai)S no food 
crop so entirely under the control of mechanical inventions, and so little 
subject either to the vicissitudes of season, or the uncertainties of human 
labor as the rice crop. The straw is much superior as forage to that of 
any of the small grains, and except the hulls of the grain, there is no 
waste in the crop, the very dust from the pounding, known as rice flour, 
being most nutritious food for stock. 

Although eighty bushels per acre is generally given as a, large field 
crop, the possibilities of the product are much greater, and Mr. Kinsey 
Burden reports a yield from selected seed at the rate of 1,486 bushels per 
acre. The rice crop for the whole State averages 20 bushels to the acre. 
This means 600 pounds of merchantable rice, worth say $30 ; 400 pounds 
of straw, worth $2.80 ; and 100 pounds of flour, $1.50— in all, $35.30. 
Cotton gives an average of 182 pounds per acre, which, at ten cents, 
would be only $18.20, or a little over half the gross yield of rice. Why 



58 THE LOWKR PINK BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

is it, tlien, that rice culture is in so depressed a condition, and cotton 
culture so flourisliing ? It may be briefly stated as that condition of in- 
dustry which favors small enterprises, and discourages accumulation of 
capital in large investments and tlic organization of laljor into large 
masses, which the embankment, drainage and irrigation of a rice field 
requires. 

It has also been asserted that tlie i)r()tective duty of 2J cents per 
pound on rice operates adversely to its culture. This culture recjuires a 
large outlay of vested capital in dams, ditches and waterways. But as 
an act of Congress may ain^ day remove the protective tariff, and thus 
lower the market value of the product by one-third or more, capital is 
unwilling to encounter such a risk, refuses to enter into permanent in- 
vestments in improving and restoring these lands, or in mortgages given 
for this puri)Ose, and prefers to restrict itself to hand to mouth advances 
on the growing crop at exorbitant rates. Thus throwing largely into the 
hands of mere speculators what was once tlie most solid and certain in- 
dustry of the State. One thing is certain : while the cotton croj) has 
largely increased, even while burdened with a tax of two cents per i)0und 
on it, the rice crop, with the protection of a duty of two cents per pound, 
has not recuperated, and amounts to scarcely one-third of the production 
it attained formerly without protection. 

The allurement of the read}^ money realized by collecting the products 
of the forest, and by rice and cotton culture, has diverted attention from 
other cro[)s in this section. The culture of corn as a market cro}) would 
be profitable. The red rust proof oat is admirably adapted to this 
climate, and is one of the most certain crops, yielding readily thirty 
bushels to fifty bushels to the acre. Although Xew England, and even 
European, hay has for many years been i)urchased to subsist, in i)art, the 
work stock in this section, Mr. Ruffin, who came from the clover fields of 
Virginia, says in his official report on the agriculture of the lower and 
middle parts of South Carolina : " Few countries possess greater natural 
fiicilities, or which are more improvable by industry, for producing in 
abundance, grasses, hay and live stock, and their products of nieat, butter 
and milk, all of which are now so deplorably deficient." 

COTTON. 

Although the lower pine belt comprises nearly one-third of the State, 
it produces only a fraction over five per cent, of the cotton crop. The 
per centage of the total area planted in cotton is less than one-tenth of 
one per cent, in the southeastern third of Charleston county, in the whole 
of Georgetown county, and in the greater portion of llorry county. 



THE LOWER TIXE CELT, OK SAVANNA REGION. 59 

From one-tenth to one per cent, of the area is planted in cotton in the 
lower half of Hampton county, in Colleton county, in the northeastern 
portion of Charleston county, in the southern third of AVilliamshurg, and 
in portions of Horry. From one to five per cent, of the area is planted 
in cotton in the northeastern corner of Colleton, in the northeastern part 
of Charleston, in the upper two-thirds of Williamsburg, in the lower one- 
fourth of JMarion, and in Clarendon county. 

LABOR AND SYSTEM OF FARMIXG. 

In Colleton county, the farms on which cotton is planted vary in size 
from fifty to two hundred acres, and are in some instances as much as 
four hundred acres. A system of mixed farming is pursued ; food sup- 
plies mostly, and in an increasing degree, are raised at home. Bacon, 
however, for the laborers is usually bought in Charleston. There are a 
few white laborers, and the labor is chietly performed by negroes. Wages 
vary from $6 a month to $120 and to ^150 a year. Very few farms are 
worked on shares; when it is done, the landholder usually furnishes all 
sup})lies, and takes one-third of the cotton and one-half of the provision 
crop. The share system is not entirely satisfactory ; the quality of the 
staple is not affected by it, but the cj^uantity produced is small, and the 
land deteriorates. ]\toney wages are preferred, because it places the man- 
agement under intelligent control, enables the laborer to meet his current 
expenses and preserves his independence from debt. The condition of 
the laborer is good, and about two per cent, of the negro laborers own 
some land, or the houses in which they live. The market value of land 
is two to five dollars. The rent is from one dollar and fifty cents to three 
dollars an acre. The system of receiving advances on the growing cotton 
crop is. diminishing. 

In Williamsburg county, the farms on which cotton is planted vary 
from one hundred to six hundred acres in size. Mixed farming is prac- 
ticed ; the family supplies of the landlord being usually raised at home, 
those of the laborer purchased in Charleston ; the tendency to raise sup- 
plies is increasing. There are some white laborers, but generally negroes 
arc employed ; wages averaging eight dollars a month, are paid monthly 
or oftener. A few cotton farms are worked on shares — the terms being 
one-quarter of all crops for the landlord, he for the most part advancing 
all supplies, for which he is repaid. Land deteriorates under the share; 
and improves under the wages system, which latter is better for the 
laborer, his energies being more intelligibly directed his labor is more 
productive and worth more, besides it induces economy, enables him to 
understand fully his financial condition, and he is more satislicd at the 



60 THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

end of the year, than when there is a settlement of accounts, the run of 
wliich he cannot keep. There is little demand for land ; the price ranges 
from two to fifteen dollars an acre. It rents for one to two dollars an 
acre; more generally for one-quarter or one-third of the crop. The 
system of credits and advances on the growing cotton croj) j)revails largely 
from one-half to three-quarters of the farmers, both black and white, 
receiving such assistance. 

In Clarendon, the usual size of a cotton farm is eighty acres. Mixed 
farming is practiced, but much of the supplies consumed is purchased in 
Charleston, though the tendency to raise them at home is increasing. 
The field labor is performed by native whites and negroes. Laborers are 
usually contracted with by the year, and the settlement takes place at its 
close. One-third of the crop to the landlord is the usual rate, where 
cotton farms are worked on shares, he advancing all sup})lies, for which 
he is repaid. The share system is preferred to wages. The condition of 
the laborers is good, and about five per cent, of them own houses and 
lands. Land is worth from three to five dollars an acre, and rents for 
one dollar per acre. The lions for advances on the gro"\ving crops, re- 
corded in the Clerk of Court's office for the year ISSO, numbered 2,716, 
or one to every farm save nine, and aggregate $283,317.18. 

In Horry, the farms average fifty acres, and run from ten acres to two 
hundred acres in size. All supplies are made at home. The laborers are 
largely white natives, but there are some negroes. Wages five to sixteen 
dollars by the month, fifty dollars to $125 by the year. No cotton farms 
are worked on shares. The soil improves under culture. Wages system 
preferred'. The condition of the laborers is good, and about twelve per 
cent, of the negroes own houses and land. Unimproved land sells for one 
to two dollars an acre ; very few advances on the crop, and those wholly 
for fertilizers. The liens on the growing crop recorded in the Clerk's . 
office, 1880, numbered twenty-seven, and aggregate $1,179.80. 

TILLAGE AND IMPROVEMENT. 

In Colleton county, one-quarter to one-half of the swamp lands are re- 
ported as thrown out of cultivation, but none of the lighter uplands. In 
Williamsburg, ten to thirty per cent, of the cultivated lands have been 
abandoned. In Clarendon, at least one-third of the cultivated lands have 
been turned out since the war ; in Horr}'-, very little. These lands all 
produce as well as virgin soil when reclaimed and again brought under 
cultivation. The depth of plowing is usually four inches with a single 
horse plow; sometimes a doid)le horse plow is used, and a de])th of six to 
seven inches attained. Subsoiling is little practiced ; fall plowing is es- 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 61 

pecially adapted to these light soils that are not run together and packed 
by winter rains, but it is not generally practiced, because the weak force 
on the farms are scarcely ever sufficiently up with the work to afford the 
time. Fallowing is only practiced to the extent of letting fields lie idle 
during summer, which it is found greatly benefits them. A rotation of 
crops is attempted so far as the exigencies of the cotton crop allow ; by 
following cotton with corn, and that in the same year with oat§, sowing 
peas on the stubble, and following with cotton again next si)ring. Home 
made manures are used, so far as they go, with excellent results. Composts 
of muck and stable manures are coming more into use, and the field pea, 
either turned under green or allowed to wither on the surface, adds largely 
to the fertility ; by these means almost any of the uplands are made to 
produce a bale of cotton to the acre. The limited means at the disposal of 
the farmers in these regards, in a section where little attention is paid to 
corn and cattle, is largely supplemented by the purchase of commercial 
fertilizers, especially the Charleston phosphates. In Clarendon, these are 
used almost exclusively, but in Colleton they are coming somewhat into 
disfavor, and the preference is given to the potash salts. Cotton seed, 
which were once thought to be only valuable as a manure for corn, are 
now applied with great benefit to cotton, and with the exception of a very 
small amount fed to stock, it is all employ etl in this manner; selling at from 
ten to fifteen cents a bushel. 

PLANTING AND CULTIVATION. 

Under the best system the land is broken up broadcast, with single or 
double plows, in the winter or early spring, but the prevailing practice is 
simply to turn the old beds into the alleys by running the bar of a single- 
horse plow to them, making two to four furrows to the bed, the usual 
width of the rows being three and a half feet. This leaves an open furrow 
in the centre of the old bed, in which the manure is deposited as early as 
practicable in February and March. The furrows are then re-covered, 
and the dirt thrown on the manure, the bed built up again, and the 
land is ready for planting. The seed used belongs to the more prolific 
and improved varieties of short staple, and passes under the names of 
Dickson's or Herlong's improved, select, or cluster cotton. From one to 
three bushels are sown to the acre. Cotton-planters are much used, a 
cheap machine, drawn by a mule, rolling on a wheel similar to that of a 
wheelbarrow, by the rotation of which motion is imparted to fingers that 
keep the seed moving in a hopper containing them, and from which they 
fall into the furrow ; a plow in front of the hopper opens a trench to receive 
the seed, and a board follows and covers. There is an arrangement to 



G2 THE LOWER I'INE liKI/r, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

reojulatc the amount of seed sown, and a good hand and nuile will easily 
]»lant six acres a day and do it in tlie 1>est manner. The only oljjection to 
the use of the macliilie is the difliculty of oljtaining n careful hand to 
work it; simple and easy as it is, practically it is found tlioy allow the 
seed to give out, plant them too deep, of neglect to cover them — such care- 
lessness, which may escape notice at the time, resulting as irreparable loss 
in injury to the stand. On this account much seed is sown in a trench 
opened on the top of the bed, made with a plow or some implement de- 
vised for the purpose, or in holes chopped at proper intervals with a hoe. 
The latter method has the advantage of spacing the plants more accu- 
rately than can be done after they come up, by chopping them out with a 
hoe. Planting takes place about the 10th of April. The seed appear above 
ground in five to ten days, altliough when late planted, in dry time, 
they may remain in the ground for four weeks, and when the rain 
comes, still give a good stand. The work of chopping out the plants 
in the drill, to a stand twelve to fifteen inches apart, is commenced 
as soon as they are firmly set, that is when they have a height of 
five inches, and the third, or first true leaf makes its appearance. 
It is desirable to complete the thinning early in June, in order 
that the plants may spread when the forms or squares are making 
their appearance. The after cultivation consists usually of four hoeings 
and four plowings, to keep the plant' free from grass and the surface 
soil light and porous. These are completed from the last of July to 
the 1st of August. The plant attains a height of ten to fiJteen inches 
before blooming, and the first blooms make their appearance from the 
1st to 20th of June. The first open bplls are seen from the last of 
July to the middle of August. Picking commences from the middle 
of xVugust to the 1st of September. By the 10th of November the 
cotton is generally all picked. Black frost occurs sometimes as early 
as the 20tli of October, but is not counted on until the middle of No- 
vember, and it is sometimes deferred as late as the middle or end of 
December. 

Cotton attains a height of two to four feet, and is most productive at 
three feet. Fresh upland, unmanured, yields from 300 to 1,000 pounds 
of seed cotton, the average being safely set at 600 pounds. Under good 
cultivation, even without manure, five crops may be taken without 
diminishing the yield ; 1,200 pounds of seed cotton is thought, on an 
average, to yield a bale of 400 pounds of lint, and the estin\ates of the 
amount required for this purpose range from 1,000 to 1,300 pounds. 
It is thought by some that the staple on old is shorter than on fresh land, 
but so nice a point is difficult to decide, and there is no general opinion 
upon the subject. 



THE LOWER PINE CELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 03 

PREPARATION OF THE CROP FOR MARKET. 

The cotton is housed or carried to' the gin as fost as picked, and the 
object is to prepare it for market with tlie greatest (hspatch. The ginning 
season closes about tlie Cliristmas hoUduys. A variety of saw gins — the 
Henry, the Brown, and the Winship — are employed. Mr. Grace, of 
Colleton, uses the needle gin. They vary in size, from forty to fifty saws, 
require, when run by liorse-power, one mule to fifteen saws. About half 
the gins are run by steam engines of from six to ten horse-power ; the 
balance by horses. The average of lint turned out per hour is '217 pounds, 
but it varies from 120 pounds per hour on a forty-saw Winship gin, run 
by horse-power, to 400 pounds on the needle gin, run by steam. There 
is, also, a variety of presses. The old-fashioned screw is gradually being 
replaced by lever presses of cheap construction. Man and horse power 
alone are used, four men and one to two horses packing from six to 
eight bales a day. Rope has been entirely replaced by iron ties for baling, 
and the arrow tie is generally used. Gunny bagging is used, the object 
being to get the heaviest in the market. IMuch of it is furnished from a 
bagging factory established in Charleston, which produces annually 
about the amount consumed in the State. The bales range from 450 to 
550 pounds, and the average is 500 pounds. The crop is shipped by 
sailing vessel direct to New York from Horry county, at a cost of $1.75 
per bale, and all charges, including insurance, commission, &c. &c., 
amount to |3 to $3.50 per bale. Elsewhere, the crop is mostly shipped to 
Charleston — if by river, the Santee and Pee Dee, at a cost of $1 per bale; 
if by rail, on the Northeastern or Charleston and Savannah railway, at 
$1.25 per bale The total cost of marketing, including freight and all 
charges, when sent to Charleston, is reported at from $3 to $5 per bale. 

The total cost of production is stated at seven cents per pound, at six 
cents to seven cents, at five cents to ten cents, varying with the season, 
and at eight cents. 

From the following table, taken from the statements of planters as to 
the cost of the labor and material expended in cultivating an acre of 
cotton, it would appear that this averages $31.32 in the lower pine belt. 
Such cultivation should produce a 500 pound bale, but allowing for the 
vicissitudes of season, and taking 450 pounds of lint as a fair yield under 
this plan of operations, putting this at ten cents at the gin house, we have 
a net profit of $13.68 per acre, making the cost of lint cotton per pound, 
6 1-10 Qents, or a little less than the above estimates. This profit per 
acre i.^ not credited with the value of the 1,000 pounds of cotton seed 
produced, amounting to about $10 more. 



64 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 



Cost of each Item of Labor and Material expended in the Cultivation of 

an Acre of Cotton : 



Rent 

Fencing, Repairs and Interest 
Knocking stalks ...... 

Pulling and burning stalks . 

Other clearing uj) 

Listing . . 

Bedding with hoes 

Breaking up 

Harrowing 

Barring old beds 

Splitting middles 

Reversing 

Laying off 

Commercial manures .... 
Home-made manures .... 

Ap[)lying manures 

Bedding up 

Splitting middles 

Knocking off beds 

Planting — opening 

dropping. . , . 

covering. . . . " 

Replanting 

Seed ..... 




00$ 3 
00 1 
20 



00$ 2 
OOi 1 
25 . . 



1 00 



25 



50 
25 



Thinning 

Plowing ! 1 

Hoeing j 2 

Picking ] 5 

Hauling to gin 

Ginning j 3 

Management i 1 

Wear of implements \ 

Bagging and ties j 1 



16 

ool 

00 
65^ 
30| 
30: 
15| 

20! 
20' 

40j 

B 

OOi 



60 5 
lOi 
OOi 

00 . . 
40! . . 
()( 



25 
00' 
OOi 
501 

50; 

25 
25 

25: 
25; 

40 
50 
25 
00 
60 
10 
37 



00 
00 

25 
50 



20 
40 



20 

2 50 
1 25 

25 
30 
32 
10 
40 
20 
10 
10 
45 
10 
1 00 

3 00 



00 
00 
50 
00 



1 00 1 00 



Total ■ . . . . |$31 851$35 97|$26 1^ 



DISEASES, INSECTS, ENEMIES, &C. 



It may be safely said that more injury is done to cotton in this section 
by grass than by anything else, and the only remedy that can be devised 
against this is hoeing and plowing. Crab grass is the chief intruder. In 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 65 

warm and wet seasons the cotton sometimes grows too much to weed, when 
heavily manured. Topping is tried as a remedy, but it is thought that un- 
der-drainage would be more eflfective. " Sore shin " is supposed to result 
from bruising the plant from careless hoeing, and is not a trouble of 
much consequence here. Shedding occurs in extremes of heat and cold. 
Rust and blight make their appearance late in Jul}^ and August ; they 
are attributed to the exhaustion of some elements of the soil, and potash 
is very popular as a remedy ; they are likely to occur on coarse, sandy, 
ill-drained soil. Caterpillar is seldom hurtful, and Paris green has been 
used successfully for its destruction. 



ABSTRACT OF THE REPORTS OF TOWNSHIP CORRESPOND- 
ENTS IN THE LOWER PINE BELT. 

HAMPTON COUNTY. 

Coosawhatchie Township: Pine uplands — light, porous, gray, sandy 
loam, with yellow sand, sometimes with yellow and red clay subsoil. 
Swamp lands — vegetable mould or fine alluvial deposits, resting on blue 
mud. About one per cent, under cultivation. Land for sale at from two 
to ten dollars per acre ; improved land rents at from one dollar to three 
dollars per acre. Phosphate rocks found, but not developed. Clay of 
good quality for brick making. Summer pasturage of native grasses 
good ; fine growth of cane in swamps for winter pasturage. Little at- 
tention paid to stock. Very little white labor in the lower, but a good 
deal in the upper portion of the township. — H. D. Burnett, Grahamville, 
S. C. 

Peeples Township: Uplands — light, sandy loam, with clay in some 
sections ; subsoil generally a coarse, 3'ellow sand, under which is found 
red clay, with strata of coarse, white gravel and quicksand. Price of 
land, one dollar to five dollars. Rents, one dollar per acre. Wages of 
labor, fifty cents to one dollar per day. One-half of field labor performed 
by whites. — J. H. Steimage, Jr., Early Branch, S. C. 

COLLETON COUNTY. 

AdarrCs Run : Level, light, sandy loam, on dark sandy subsoil. Depth 
to water in wells, five to ten feet. Price of land, three dollars to five 
dollars per acre. Wages of day labor, seventy-five cents for men, fifty 
cents for women. One twentieth of field work is done by whites. Marl 
in abundance. 
5 



66 THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

Cam : Lands level, flat, nio.^tly elay loam, sometimes sandy, yellow 
clay subsoil. Corn yields ten to thirty bushels per acre ; rice, ten to forty 
bushels per acre. Much land is rented, little for sale, price two dollars to 
four dollars per acre. Much ash, poplar and cypress timber in Four-Hole 
swamp. Little attention paid to stock. Day wages, forty cents. 

George's : Lands level ; two-thirds fine sandy loam, light gray color, four 
to six inches to sandy subsoil, resting on clay. Corn yields ten bushels, 
rice fifteen bushels, and sugar cane 300 gallons syrup per acre. One-third 
in swamps and bays unreclaimed. Price of land $2 to $5 per acre. Clay 
for brick. Three water-powers, one working, the other two abandoned. 
Wages forty to fifty cents a day. One-third of field work done by whites. 

Gloven' : Fifteen per cent, pine uplands, barely rolling enough for good 
drainage. Soil coarse sandy loam, resting on red clay, with a white coarse 
sand below it. Ten per cent, abandoned rice fields. Soil, vegetable mould 
two to four feet deep, resting on stiff blue clay ; easily reclaimable by 
cleaning out the old canals and ditches, which, while serving to drain 
and irrigate the land, would also give water transportation for the pro- 
duce. Seventy-five per cent, swamps and hammocks unreclaimed, but 
very fertile, yielding, when fresh, fifty bushels corn per acre, and yield- 
ing now twenty-five bushels to thirty bushels corn, after being worked 
every year without manure since 1852. Nearly all the land owned by 
non-residents, and for sale ; rents when improved for two dollars per acre. 
Sells for cash at from fifty cents to two dollars per acre. Lower portion 
underlaid by phosphate rock, but not developed. Stock do well, but little 
attention is paid to it. Wages fifty cents a day. One-tenth of the farms 
worked by white men. — H. C. Glover, Walterboro, S. C. 

CHARLESTON COUNTY. 

St. Thomas and St. Denis : Once one of the wealthiest and most popu- 
lous parishes of the Colony and State, now scarcely one per cent, of the 
land under cultivation. Uplands level, light, sandy loam, resting on 
clay. Natural growth — pine, live oak, palmetto. Swamp lands unre- 
claimed, except the rice plantations on Cooper river. Industries — three 
brick -yards, five turpentine stills, and wood for fuel boated to Charleston. 
Phosphate rock abounds in AVando river and the adjacent swamps, not 
developed. 

St. John's Berkeley : Much of the land unreclaimed swamp ; there is a 
belt of open prairie near the Santee, running from Orangeburg to the 
St. Stephen's line. Soil, light, fine sandy loam, resting on yellow clay ; at 
six inches to twelve inches depth below chalk and marl are found. Lime 
rock crops out on Santee river, that hardens on exposure and might be 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 67 

utilized for building material ; water, near the river, limestone ; inland, 
free stone. Price of land, $1 to $5 an acre. One place sold for $8. Very 
little field work by whites ; negroes hire at from twenty cents to forty 
cents per day, or $50 to $75 by 'the year, or work two days in the week 
for a house and as much land as they can cultivate, or on shares, the land- 
owner furnishing all except manures, and taking half Timber abundant 
for lumber, staves, shingles, hoops, &c. 

St. Stephen's : Lands along the river rolling, for • the rest level and 
swampy ; soil, a sandy loam, resting, at depth of six inches to twenty 
inches, on subsoil of stiff red clay. Much unreclaimed swamp, composed of 
alluvial deposits and rich vegetable mould. Some marl stone found on the 
river, with some green sand. Price of land, $1 to $5; per diem wages, 
average forty cents ; the long staple cotton, known as Santees, formerly 
grown here, neglected now; woods grass, swamp cane and marsh 
furnish a good range for stock, to which little attention is paid. 

St. Andrew's : Fine, dark, gray, sandy loam, resting, at six to ten inches 
depth, on blue clay, underlaid by phosphate rock and marl. No land for 
sale ; rents at from $1 to $3 per acre ; eighty per cent, not under cultiva- 
tion ; cane, woods grass, and swamp marsh furnish a good range for stock. 

CLARENDON COUNTY. 

Mott's Township : Three-fourths level, fine, gray, sand}'' loam, six inches 
to twelve inches to yellow sand (sometimes clay) subsoil, clay found one 
to two feet beneath surface ; one-fourth white, sandy soil, and stiff clay 
land, or black flat land. Yields 700 pounds of seed cotton, five to twenty- 
five bushels of corn, ten to twenty-five bushels of rice. Land sells from 
$2 to $10 an acre, and rents for from $1 to $5 ; unimproved water-powers 
on Lynch's river and Douglass swamp. Two-thirds of field work done 
by whites ; wages average sixty-two and a half cents by the day. 

^S*^. PauVs : 1st. Light sandy soil ; near the river swamp, not subject to 
overflow ; contains lime, and is very productive. 2d. Inland from last, a 
belt of stiff clay land, called " bay land," produces a bale of cotton to the 
acre, without manure. 3d. The highlands, comprising the body of 
the township, known under the name of " clay lands," low and somewhat 
rolling, a sandy loam with small gravel in it, subsoil, yellow clay. Marl 
is found four to eight feet below low water mark ; yields 700 pounds of 
seed cotton, ten to twenty bushels corn, and the same of rice. Sugar-cane 
two to three hundred gallons of syrup per acre ; potatoes two to four hun- 
dred bushels. Half the landholders reside outside the township ; land 
mostly rented to negro farmers for four hundred pounds of lint for one 
mule farm ; two hundred pounds for one ox farm. White farmers do their 



68 THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

own field work ; labor only to be had by tlie job or by the day, at forty 
cents to one dollar. Land sells cheap for cash ; on time at from $4 to $6 
per acre. 

Manning : Surface level ; two-tliirds uplands, fine dark sandy loam, rest- 
ing on subsoil of yellow sand with yellow clay at one to twelve feet, beneath 
which a blue clay is found ; alluvial bottoms. Virgin upland soil yields 
fifteen bushels corn, or six hundred pounds seed cotton, or two hundred and 
fifty bushels potatoes per acre. Price of land, one dollar to twenty dollars 
per acre. Besides clays, kaolin, etc., there are peats of good quality, marl 
and lime rock. Wages of day labor, fifty cents to one dollar. One-third 
of farm work done by whites. 

Sammy Swamp: 1st. Light, dark gray, sandy loam. 2d. Reddish 
clay and sand loam, with clay subsoil. 3d. Low, flat, sandy loam, with 
a gray clay subsoil ; wet, but produces well when drained. No. 2, the 
most productive, yielding, with manure, two thousand pounds of seed 
cotton. Price of land, one dollar to ten dollars per acre. Day wages, 
forty cents to one dollar ; one-half the field labor performed by whites. 
Marl, as a shell rock, underla3^s this township at a depth of five feet. 

WILLIAMSBURG COUNTY. 

Hips Township : Lands low, flat, level ; uplands fine, dark gray, sandy 
loam, with yellow sand subsoil ; clay found at a depth of eighteen inches ; 
swamp lands unreclaimed ; yield of cotton, two hundred to four hundred 
pounds per acre ; corn, eight bushels ; rice, fifteen bushels ; rent for one 
dollar and fifty cents per acre ; can be bought for cash at three dollars to 
four dollars per acre ; two water-powers unimproved ; amount of white 
labor increasing ; day wages fifty cents ; abundance of yellow pine, oak, 
cypress, etc., for lumber, staves and shingles. 

Scranton : Low, level lands, with fine, gray, sandy soil ; subsoil of 
yellow sand, beneath which is fine, stiff clay, overlying quicksand ; four 
per cent, under cultivation ; yield — corn ten bushels ; rice, twenty bushels ; 
potiitoes, one to four hundred bushels ; cotton, eight hundred to twelve 
hundred pounds in the seed ; price, from one dollar and fifty cents to 
tJiree dollars per acre ; rents for one dollar, or one-fourth of the crop. 
Strata of marl occur ; some valuable water-powers ; turpentine, shingles 
and staves are gotten ; abundant timber, including black walnut ; wages, 
a day, fifty cents for men, thirty cents for women ; five-sixths of the work 
done by whites. 

Camp Ridge: Lands low, level ; large swanps unreclaimed; upland 
fine, sandy loam, gray and dark, with yellow sand subsoil, under which 
occurs clay and sometimes strata of marl ; about one per cent, cultivated. 



THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 69 

Forests yield staves, shingles, yellow pine lumber and turpentine. Yield 
of corn, two to twenty-five bushels ; rice, five to fifty bushels ; seed cotton, 
two hundred to eighteen hundred pounds. Land sells from one dollar 
and fifty cents to three dollars per acre ; improved land rents from one 
dollar to three dollars per acre ; lands rented mostly to negro tenants, a 
house and six to twelve acres given for two days' work in the week for 
ten months of the year ; day wages, from twenty cents to seventy -five 
cents ; half of the field work done by whites. 

Suttin's : Near the river, lands rolling, fine, dark sand ; six inches to 
clay subsoil ; wells twenty -five to fifty feet deep. Further off, low, flat, 
light sandy soil, one foot to clay subsoil ; wells, four to ten feet deep ; 
strata of marl rock occur ; white oak staves, shingles, ton timber, &c., 
abound in the forests, besides turpentine. Yield, without fertilizers, six 
to twenty bushels corn, one-half to one bale cotton. Turpentine lands 
sell for one dollar and fifty cents to two dollars per acre ; other lands, 
three dollars to ten dollars per acre. Day wages, fifty cents to one 
dollar ; nine-tenths of the field labor white, though the negroes are one 
and one-half to one of the Avhites. 

Mingo : The uplands level, fine sandy loam, gray to darkish and black, 
with clay subsoil. Swamps yield fifty to eighty bushels corn per acre ; 
rice, twenty to fifty bushels ; uplands, ten bushels corn, one-half bale 
cotton, without manure ; sweet potatoes, one hundred to three hundred 
bushels per acre. Naval stores, white oak staves, cypress shingles, and 
other forest products abound. Day wages, fifty cents on farms, one 
dollar in turpentine business ; land rents from one dollar to two dollars 
per acre, sells for two dollars to three dollars. Three-fourths of field work 
by whites. Yellow calcareous sands and marl occur. 

MARION COUNTY. 

Britton^s Neck : Most of the land river swamps or inland swamps, 
known as bays or back swamps ; not reclaimed, but might be. The up- 
lands are pine ridges and flats, a gray, sandy loam ; four to twelve inches 
to subsoil of yellow clay ; produce well. Cypress timber and other swamp 
woods in abundance ; cattle raising much followed formerly. Day wages, 
fifty cents ; much, if not most, of the field work done by white men. 

HORRY COUNTY. 

Gallivant'' s Ferry : Three-fourths of the land is a fine, dark gray, sandy 
loam, six inches to twelve inches to subsoil of red, less frequently of 
yellow clay, below which pipe clays of various colors occur. One-fourth 



70 THE LOWER PINE BELT, OR SAVANNA REGION. 

swamp land of great fertility, but unimproved. Yield, three hundred 
to fifteen hundred pounds seed cotton per acre, five to thirt}^ bushels corn, 
fifteen to thirty bushels rice. Nine-tenths of the labor performed by 
whites, and directed principally to collecting forest products, timber, 
staves, shingles, naval stores, &c. 

GEORGETOWN COUNTY. 

Planiet'sville. Large inland swamps, not cleared ; pine upland, white 
to gray colored sandy soil, Avith a subsoil of sand, sometimes of red clay ; 
tide water rice lands, alluvial deposits, four to fifty feet thick. Price of 
uplands, one dollar to fifteen dollars per acre ; of rice lands, three dollars 
to fifty dollars per acre. Wages fifty cents per day. 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 



LOCATION, PHYSICAL FEATURES AND GEOLOGY. 

The upper pine belt of South Carolina is sometimes called the middle 
country, as distinguished from the upper country and the low country, 
between which it lies. It has also been known as the central cotton 
region of Carolina, having formerly led, as it still does, in some regards, 
in the culture of that staple. It may be defined as that portion of the 
State lying between an elevation above the sea of 130 and 250 feet. It 
crosses the State, in a northeasterly direction, from the Savannah river to 
the North Carolina line. To the south it is bounded by the lower pine 
belt, where the fiat, open piney woods, with an undergrowth of coarse 
grasses, gradually gives place to the higher and more rolling pine lands, 
with an undergrowth of oak and hickory. To the north, the upper pine 
belt sweeps round the feet of the interrupted range of high red hills 
traversing the State, or rises, in the intervals of this range, to the still more 
elevated sand hills. It comprises, generally, the counties of Barnwell, 
Orangeburg, Sumter, Darlington, Marlboro and Marion. The northern half 
of Hampton and the northwest corner of Colleton are included in it. Along 
the rivers, it penetrates northward beyond the limits of the counties named. 
As uplands, on the first level above the swamps, it extends, in Aiken 
county, as high up the Savannah as Old Fort Moore, at Sand Bar ferry ; 
in Richland, it reaches along the Congaree nearly to Columbia, em- 
bracing«the wide, level area of Lower Township, lying between that river 
and the sand hills ; along the Wateree, between the swamps and the High 
Hills of Santee, it passes into Kershaw county, and along the Great Pee 
Dee it passes up among the sand hills of Chesterfield. 



72 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 



PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

The land is level, without being flat, and is sufficiently rolling to insure 
good drainage for the most part. While the general slope follows the 
southeasterly course of the rivers, the land rises more rapidly in the Avest, 
which gives the region a marked easterly slope in addition to its south- 
easterly inclination. Thus, in the west, Appleton, on the Port Royal 
railroad, 46 miles distant from tide water, has an elevation of 259 feet, 
while Orangeburg, on the South Carolina railway, 65 miles from tide 
water, has only the same elevation, and Wedgefield, on the Manchester 
and Wilmington road, 74 miks from tide water, has an elevation of only 
236 feet ; these being the highest points on the respective roads. The 

WATER COURSES 

rising in this region, or in the sand hill region above, are clear and rapid, 
while the larger rivers passing through it, that come from the mountains, 
are turbid. The latter iurnii^h this region with A'aluable facilities for the 
transportation of produce. On the western side, the Savannah is navi- 
gable to Augusta for steamboats of two hundred to three hundred tons 
burden. The Salkehatchie river, rising in Barnwell county, might be 
rendered navigable to the county seat, b}^ ■ removing logs. The two 
Edistos might be rendered navigable for small steamboats, and if the 
contemplated canal, connecting these streams with the Ashley river, were 
opened, it would become an important avenue for the cheap transporta- 
tion of produce. Steamboats carrying eight hundred to one thousand 
bales of cotton have passed up the Santee and its confluents, the Con- 
garee and Wateree, as far as Granby (two miles below Columbia), 
and to Camden. In the east, the Great Pee Dee is navigated to Cheraw, 
one hundred and twenty miles in an air line from the sea, by steamers ; 
for smaller craft, Lynch's river (the Kaddipah) and Black Creek were 
navigable, the one eighty, and the other thirty miles from where they 
join the Great Pee Dee. The Little Pee Dee is also navigable for vessels 
of considerable burden. Besides the large streams mentioned, tliere are 
numerous smaller ones in this region, flowing with a rapid current, 
through healthy localities heavily timbered with pine, and capable of 
furnishing water-powers sufficient for the largest factories. Such are the 
Three Runs creeks and the Little Salkehatchie river, in Barnwell, with 
many smaller mill creeks ; in Orangeburg, such are Four Hole, Caw Caw, 
Halfway, Bull, and Dean swamps, with many lesser mill streams (on the 
ridge between the North and South Edisto, springs of tine drinking water 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 73 

furnish a water-power sufficient for grinding and ginning, a few hundred 
feet from the spot where they issue from the earth). In Sumter, such 
are Black river, Scape, and Big and Little Rafting creeks ; in Darlington, 
Cedar (where a cotton factory was erected in 1812 by General Williams), 
Sparrow, High Hill, Swift, Dake, Jeffry's, Middle, and Brickhold creeks, 
with others ; in Marlboro, Crooked, Beaver Dam, Three Runs, Naked, 
Muddy, White's, Phill's, Husband's, and Hick's creeks ; in Marion, Cat- 
fish, Ashpole, Buck, Sweet, Big, Smith, and Pope creeks. There are 
numerous small lakes, chiefly in the swamps, but sometimes on the up- 
lands ; in Barnwell, there is one, a beautiful sheet of clear water, two 
miles in circumference, with a beach-like shore, affording a fine drive, 
and surrounded on all sides by high and healthy pine uplands. The 
sweep wells, the bucket being attached to a pole, fastened to a long lever 
balanced near its middle, are characteristic of this region ; generally they 
are from ten to twenty feet in depth, with only a short wooden curb on 
top, for the rest uncurbed, being dug through a fine, compact, yellow or 
red clay, to a stratum of quicksand, in which an abundant supply of 
pure and cool water is found. 

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 

West of the Black river, in Sumter county, the line where the buhr-stone 
formation passes under the Santee marls, traverses the centre of the upper 
pine belt. North of it occur the silicified shells of the buhr-stone ; south 
of it, the coralline marls, both belonging to the eocene. East of the 
stream named, and in the direction of Darlington courthouse, occur 
numerous outcroppings of the miocene marls, in Sumter and Darlington 
counties. Lower down, in Darlington and Marion counties, on the 
waters of Lynch 's river and of the Great and Little Pee Dee, extensive 
beds of marl of the cretaceous formation of the secondary make their ap- 
pearance. 

Commencing on the Savannah river, a few miles above the mouth of 
the lower Three Runs, Mr. Tuomey traces the upper limit of the Santee 
marls to Tinker's creek, the dividing line of Aiken and Barnwell counties ; 
thence, southeasterly, to Binnaker's bridge, on the South Edisto river ; 
thence to Caw Caw swamp, north of Orangeburg, and across to Halfway 
swamp, where, below the site of Stuart's old mill, the most satisfactory 
locality is found for observing the passage of the buhr-stone formation 
under the green sand, overlaid by thick strata of Santee marls ; thence 
to the Santee river, and across that stream into Clarendon and Sumter 
counties. As an average, the Santee marls are found to contain 88t^j per 
cent, of carbonate of lime, and were formerly in considerable use as an 



74 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

amendment to the soil. Quantities of excellent lime were also obtained 
from them by burning, especially by Dr. Jamison, on Caw Caw swamp. 
The green sand marls intercalated with them contain 30 per cent, of car- 
bonate of lime, and 22 per cent, of green sand. 

The marls of Sumter and Darlington, examined by Mr. Tuomey, were 
found to contain 60 to 70 per cent, of carbonate of lime, with traces of 
phosphate of lime. Larger quantities of the latter are said to have been 
found here since attention has been directed to the value of phosphates. 

SOILS. 

The upper pine belt contains something over 6,000 square miles, about 
one-sixth of which is swamp and the remainder uplands. 

The uplands consist of a fine, light, gray, sand}^ loam, resting on a sub- 
soil of red or yellow clay. In the east, in Marlboro and Marion, it is 
usually found at only three inches to four inches. In the west it is often 
deeper, and a subsoil of yellow or red sand intervenes between it and the 
surface soil ; even here the depth to clay is seldom as much as two feet. 

The following are the anal3'ses of these soils, made by Eugene A. Smith, 
of Alabama, for the Tenth United States Censi?is : 

Insoluble matter .... 93.695 

Soluble Silica 1.483 

Potash 0.076 

Soda 0.060 

Lime 0.114 

Magnesia 0.202 

Bn. Oxide of Manganese . 0.020 

Peroxide of Iron .... 0.737 

Alumina 1.846 

Phosphoric acid 0.036 

Sulphuric acid 0.106 

Water and organic matter 1.771 



(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


91.230 


96.000 


84.754 


2.489 


0.950 


4.435 


0.092 


0.040 


0.192 


0.046 


0.027 


0.069 


0.092 


0.052 


0.068 


0.046 


0.062 


0.294 


0.105 


0.023 


0.036 


0.760 


0.564 


1.997 


2.389 


0.456 


4.854 


0.125 


0.049 


0.022 


0.160 


0.063 


0.236 


•3.091 


1.561 


3.312 


100.625 


99.843 


100.269 


2.245 


1.441 


4.518 



Total 100.146 

Hydroscopic moisture @ 

75° F 2.512 

No. 1 is from the Johnson field, on the Cathwood plantation of P. F. 
Hammond, in Aiken county, near the Savannah river, the soil being taken 
uniformly, as all the samples were, to the depth of twelve inches. The 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 75 

original growth was long leaf pine, with undergrowth of post oak and 
black jack runners. The land was cleared in 1835 and has been planted 
continuously in cotton for the last thirteen years, yielding from 1,000 to 
1,200 pounds seed cotton average on two hundred acres last year. The 
cotton being a long staple variety of uplands, selling for two to five cents 
a pound above ordinary uplands and not very prolific. 

No. 2, from Gov. Hagood's plantation, near Barnwell C. H. ; mulatto 
soil ; original growth, long leaf pine ; oak and hickory undergrowth ; 
yield 764 pounds seed cotton, average for ten years on one hundred and 
forty acres. 

No. 3, field of Hon. C. S. McCall, near Bennettsville ; original growth 
long leaf pine, with undergrowth of oak and dogwood ; has been planted 
for two or three generations ; yield for several years past, one bale per 
acre. 

No. 4, virgin forest soil, from red clay ridge, near Marion and Marlboro 
line, on Donohoe, plantation of W. D. Johnson ; growth, large hickory, 
oak and pine ; similar land under present culture averages for large fields 
a bale of cotton to the acre one year with another, when planted for a 
succession of years in the same crop. 

The following analyses are by Prof Shepard, and were published in 
Tuomey's Agricultural Survey of South Carolina, in the year 1848. No. 

1 is from the cotton lands below Columbia, in Richland county ; and No. 

2 is from near Bennettsville, Marlboro county : 

(1) (2) 

Organic matter 9.00 5.40 

Silica 76.50 77.30 

Alumina 6.60 4f80 

Oxide of iron 2.40 5.00 

Lime 1.00 0.80 

Magnesia 0.50 1.00 

Potash and soda trace 0.00 

Phosphates 0.00 0.00 

Water and loss 4.00 4.70 



100.00 100.00 

The Pee Dee lands were little esteemed formerly, and seventy-five years 
ago many of them were considered so impoverished by cultivation as to 
have been abandoned by their owners for the fresh lands of Alabama. 
Under the present system of culture they are the most productive and 
certain in the State. As the above analyses show no superiority of the 



76 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

chemical constituents of these soils, it must be stated that their greater 
productiveness can only be attributed mainly to their excellent and ju- 
dicious management, by which lands, naturally yielding only three to 
four hundred pounds of seed cotton, are made to give a bale of cotton one 
year witli another. A good, though not a thorough, drainage, by open 
ditches, has lowered the water level in those lands at least four feet. The 
physical properties of the soil lend themselves readily to improvement. 
The sandy surface soil, although thin, is very fine, and the clay is of so 
fine a texture as to be usually described as floury. It is noteworthy, also, 
that fresh land of a grayish color, or where the plow turns up the subsoil 
of a yellowish or reddish cast, blackens on exposure, and becomes darker 
year by year as they are cultivated. The exemption from drought, which 
these lands in large measure enjoy, while greatly due to their drainage 
and good tilth, may depend somewhat on the body of live water in the 
quicksand which underlies them at a depth of fifteen to twent3'-five feet, 
whose inhaustion, in hot dry seasons, through the fine texture of the in- 
tervening clays, is not unlikely. At any rate this locality rarely sutlers 
from drought. 

The swamps, covering 1,000 square miles of this region, are of two 
descriptions : 

1st. The river swamps. The soil is of a mulatto or mahogany color, 
and is a heavy alluvial loam, rendered lighter sometimes by an admix- 
ture of fine sand and mica, whence they are called isinglass lands. Such 
swamps are found on the banks of the Savannah, the Santee, the Con- 
garee, Wateree and Pee Dee rivers, varying from narrow strips to broad 
bottoms six and eight miles in breadth. The following is an analysis made 
for the patent office, by C. T. Jackson, M. D., of Boston, in 1857, of the 
alluvial soil of the Savannah river : 

Silica 78.000 

Alumina 10.040 

Lime 0.260 

Magnesia 0.200 

Potash 1.000 

Soda 0.730 

Peroxide of iron and oxide of manganese 4.850 

Phosphoric acid 0.310 

Sulphuric acid trace. 

Chlorine 0.050 

Crenic, apocrenic and humic acids 0.400 

Insoluble vegetable matter 4.300 

100.140 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 



77 



The body of these swamps lie below the point where the above sample 
was obtained, and are of course more fertile. Such soil, well cultivated, 
yields, without manure, 1,200 to 1,500 pounds of seed cotton, and from 
forty to seventy-five bushels of corn. These lands were being rapidly 
cleared and cultivated anterior to the war. Since then they have been to 
a great extent abandoned for the higher and more easily tilled uplands. 
The freshet of 1865 broke the dams on the Great Pee Dee, which excluded 
the freshets, and they have never been repaired. These lands are subject 
to overflow, and the erection of levees for protection has been only prac- 
ticed here and there by large planters. In the absence of records show- 
ing the risk from freshets to these lands, the following extract from a 
plantation record, kept by James H. Hammond, is taken. The island 
field is at Silver Bluff, on Savannah river, and lies rather lower than the 
average of the Savannah river swamps. It received no manure, and be- 
ing small and of little moment in the larger operations of the plantation, 
it had hardly average care bestowed upon it. It was planted continuously 
in corn and pumpkins (no record kept of the latter crop, which was always 
abundant). The years not entered are due to the absence of the proprie- 
tor, the land being planted as usual : 



Year. Acres Planted. 

1838 25 

1839 25 

1840 15 

1841 20 

1842 25 

1843 20 

1844 25 

1845 25 

1847 10 

1848 25 

1849 . . 25 

1850 25 

1851 25 

1852 25 

1854 30 

1855 30 

1859 30 

1860 25 



Crop. 


925 


bushels, 


950 


a 


450 


u 


675 


(t 


2,075 


li 


895 


it 


850 


<( 


500 


a 


832 


a 


974 


(( 


1,000 


(I 


250 


(( 


587 


(( 


800 


a 


600 


<( 


240 


a 


900 


(( 


600 


(( 



Giving an average yield of thirty-five bushels corn per acre. During 
these twenty -two years only one crop was seriously damaged by freshets. 



78 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

The great August freshet of 1852 injured one-third of the crop so that it 
could only be fed to hogs. Tlie fluctuations of yield from eight to eighty- 
five was due to the seasons to a very small extent, and resulted chiefly 
from neglect of this field for larger interests. 

2d. The other descriptions of swamps arc known as bays, or upland 
swamps, and creek bottoms. They occur on the smaller streams, and 
rarely exceed two miles in width. They are also found in bodies of seve- 
ral thousand acres in the pine lands, on the second levels from the rivers — 
probably ancient lakes, choked up with water-growth. The soil is black, 
consisting largely of decomposed vegetable matter, with a depth of three 
to fifteen feet, resting usually on white sand. The following analysis was 
made by Professor Shepard, of a sample taken from the swamp of South 
Edisto river : 

Organic matter 28.00 

Silica 60.00 

Alumina 4.00 

Oxide of iron 3.40 

Lime 0.50 

Potash and soda trace 

Water and loss 5.10 



100.00 



From 1845 to 1860, a good deal in the way of clearing these lands was 
done. Since then they have been much neglected, of necessity, and are 
relapsing into their original state. They are not suitable for cotton, but 
produce large crops of corn. The Cowden plantation gave for twelve 
years, without manure of any sort, an average yield of thirty-five bushels 
of corn per acre, on 600 to 900 acres in one field. One year 600 acres gave 
an average of sixty-two and one-third bushels of corn per acre. Now it 
does not produce even enough to feed the stock of the negro renters, who are 
cultivating patches of cotton on its margin, owing to the abandonment of 
all drainage. 

Under the system of agriculture, at present pursued, the chief atten- 
tion is paid to the more easily tilled, but less fertile uplands.^ Neverthe- 
less, there is in the upper pine belt a body of 600,000 acres of productive 
corn land, now almost wholly neglected, but once cultivated with great 
profit, when corn was worth only fifty to sixty cents a bushel, capable now 
of yielding fifty per cent, more than the present entire corn crop of the 
State. 



The latest Sthe earliest Fros 
by James H 




ExPLANATiON OF Tabi>e. — Take the 1st column, the Year 1832, am 
there was frost on March 7th, and lower down, in same column, on Xo 
first on November 11th, and so on through each year. 



The latest a the earliest Frost in each year j'rom a plantation book of record kept 
by James H.Hammond near Silver Bluff S.C. 




Explanation- op Table— Take the 1st column, the Year 1832, and il will be seen bv the heavy lines (which denote the clay on whirh Ihe frost felDtliat 
there was frost on March 7th, anJ lower down, in same column, on Xovcmberlltb.showins: thai the hist frost that fcll in 1S32 was on March 7tli, and the 
first on November Utli. and so on through each year. 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 79 



CLIMATE. 



The upper pine belt is a peculiarly healthy region, and throughout its 
extent Mills and Simms, in their statistics, have enumerated a remarkable 
number of instances of longevity. There are no prevailing diseases 
unless it be a mild type of malarial fever during autumn, along the 
river swamps. The upland swamps not being subject to overflow, and 
resting on sand, are nat troubled with these complaints when drained and 
cultivated. The seasons most favorable for cotton are those in which 
there is a dry, cold winter to facilitate the preparation of the land. Light 
showers in April to insure germination. A dry and warm May and June, 
not only to render the destruction of the grass easy, but, as the cotton- 
planters term it, to " cook the cotton plant" ; hot weather, and even 
drought, at this stage of growth, increasing its productiveness. In July 
and August, hot weather, and seasonable showers, to keep up the strength 
of the plant and promote fructification. A dry fall for picking. The 
length of time between the latest frost in the spring and the earliest frost 
in autumn has an important bearing on the crop, and, in the absence of 
other records, the preceding table is given. 

Although the cotton planting during these years was sometimes com- 
pleted as early as the 30th of March, irreparable injury to the stand was 
only inflicted once, in 1849, when snow fell on the loth of April, and was 
succeeded by cold weather. Nor do the autumn frosts always destroy the 
plant completely ; blossoms at Christmas and New Year are not unfre- 
quently seen, and there are occasionally winters of such mildness that 
the old cotton roots throw out fresh shoots in the spring, and there are rare 
instances where fields lying out have thus borne a crop the second year, that 
was worth gathering. 

GROWTH. 

The early settlers in this region were stock raisers. They kept up 
the Indian practice of burning off the woods during the winter. The 
destruction of the undergrowth by this means favored the growth of 
grasses, and numerous herds of almost Avild cattle and horses found abun- 
dant pasturage, chiefly upon what was known as the wild oat, and the 
wild pea-vine. The cattle were sometimes slaughtered for their hides and 
tallow. The names of many townships and neighborhoods still testify to 
this primitive industry, as Steer Pen, Steerpoint, Horse Pen, and Pen Cor- 
ner. The uplands were covered, as they still are, with a large growth of 
yellow pine, but a deer might then have been seen, in the vistas made by 
their smooth stems, a distance of half a mile, where now, since the dis- 
continuance of the spring and autumn fires, it could not be seen fifteen 



80 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

paces for the thick growth of oak and hickory that has taken the land. 
Among the many varieties of oaks, the live oak does not appear, except 
as a planted tree ; the water oak, however, attains perfection, covering with 
its evergreen foliage, not unfrequently, an area of half an acre, and meas- 
uring eight to ten feet through at the root. This is the northern limit of 
the magnolia in its wild state, and of the gray moss. The swamp woods 
are cypress, white oak, gum, ash, liickory, beech, elm, and black walnut. 
Besides the pine, there is on the upland, dogwood, liickory and eight or 
ten varieties of oak, among which are tlie forked leaf blackjack, indica- 
tive here of a dry and thirsty soil ; and the round leaf blackjack, showing 
a moister and more fruitful soil. The olive, the Italian chestnut, and 
pine, varieties of mulberry, the fig, peaches, apples, pears, pomegran- 
ites, plums, pecan nuts, English walnuts, grapes, &c., are successfully 
grown. 

PRODUCTIONS. 

The staple crops are cotton, corn, oats, ry6 (the southern variety), and 
wheat, to a limited extent ; peanuts, yielding an average of forty bushels per 
acre, sweet potatoes and rice. The culture of indigo and tobacco has been 
abandoned, though once found profitable. Considerable attention is paid 
in some localities to forest products — turpentine, pine timber, cypress 
shingles, and white oak staves. Little attention is paid to stock raising. 
Ninety to ninety-five per cent, of the work stock, oxen excepted, are im- 
ported. Cattle, hogs and sheep depend almost entirely for their support 
upon such food as the range furnishes, with as little (or less) looking after 
as the first settlers bestowed on their wild herds. Mills gives the stock 
in Orangeburg county, in 1825, as follows : cattle, 25,000 ; sheep, 10,000 ; 
swine, 50,000. In the census of 1880 it stands : cattle, 16,573 ; sheep, 
5,700 ; swine, 37,742 — a decline in the total of 20,000, notwithstanding 
the population has increased from 15,563, at that time, to 40,995 in 1880, 
agriculture remaining still their chief pursuit. Besides clay for bricks 
and marl (except a deposit of iron ore near High Hill creek, Orangeburg), 
no minerals of value have been discovered in this region. The Fee Dee 
is the last river to the south where herring is caught in large numbers. 
Shad in the spring, and sturgeon.and rockfish in the summer and autumn, 
ascend all the rivers in this region, except that shad never enter the 
waters of the Little Pee Dee, notwithstanding they are clear and deep like 
those of the Edisto. 

STATISTICS. 

The upper pine belt covers about 6,230 square miles, and has a popu- 
lation of 221,409, or 35.5 to the square mile, bearing in this regard about 
the same proportion to the other regions of the State that it did in the 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 81 

enumeration of 1870. Tlie percentage of colored population is sixty 
against sixty-three in 1870. 

The area of tilled land is 948,521 acres, being 152 acres to the square 
mile, or nearly one-fourth of the entire surface. It is 4.2 acres per capita, 
and twenty-one acres to ' the head of work stock. These lands being of 
easy tillage, not unfrequently forty-five acres, exclusive of small grain, is 
well cultivated to the mule. This is an increase of 167,497 acres over 
the enumeration of 1870, by no means proportionate to the increase 
in the population since that date. More than one-third, or 358,505 acres, 
is in cotton, which is nine and a third per cent, of the entire surface, and 
twenty-six per cent, of the cotton acreage of the State. It is ten acres to 
the work animal, and one and a half acres per capita of the population ; 
418,417 acres are in grain crops of all kinds, including corn, small grain 
and rice ; 169,79(3 acres are in fallow and in other crops ; as fallow is not 
regularly practiced in the husbandry here pursued, and as the other crops 
include only sugar cane, potatoes, orchards and gardens; almost exclu- 
sively for local use, and consequently small, this figure includes some of 
the corn lands whose culture has been so largely abandoned, but which 
are not yet entirely grown up. 

The farms number 19,649, averaging nearly fifty acres of tilled land to 
the farm, which is the largest average in the State. Their relation, how- 
ever, to the population remains about the same as in the regions south of 
this, viz : one farm to twelve and a half of the population ; nortli of this 
the number of farms in proportion to the population increases. 

The crops are : 

Cotton, 148,050 bales, against 83,210 in 1870, an increase of seventy 
per cent. It is tw^enty-eight per cent, of the crop of the State. The yield 
is 327 pounds lint per capita, the largest, except in the comparatively 
small Red Hill region, where it is 348 pounds of lint. The average yield 
per acre is 202 pounds of lint, which is also larger than elsewhere, except 
for the small crop of the lower pine belt. In Marlboro county, the yield 
per acre averages 267 pounds of lint, and the yield per capita, 536 pounds 
of lint. This is the maximum product in the State, and entitles the region 
to its designation as the central cotton belt of Carolina. 

The grain crop is 3,631,302 bushels, an increase of one and a half mil- 
lions of bushels on the returns of 1870. This includes corn, small grain 
and rice, and constitutes twenty-one per cent, of the grain crop of the 
State. It is sixteen bushels per capita of the population, and 8.6 bushels 
per acre. Allowing eighty bushels a year to the head of work stock, the 
35,469 head in this region would leave less than 600,000 bushels for the 
population, two and three-quarter bushels per capita, with nothing for the 
other live stock. The maximum average product is attained in Marlboro, 
6 



82 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

ten and a quarter bushels j)er acre, twenty and a half bushels per capita 
of population. 

The live stock number 313,811, wliich is one to every thirteen acres; 
sixteen to each farm ; 11.4 head to each one of the population; two to 
the bale of cotton, and one to every eleven bushels grain jjroduced. 

SYSTEM OF FARMING AND LABOR. 

A mixed system of farming is pursued in the upper pine belt, and the 
attempt is made to raise at least a portion of the necessary farm supplies. 
They are not raised, however, to the extent they were formerly, and al- 
though the reports all state that the tendency to raise them is increasing, 
the deficiency still remains very great, as the number of liens given for 
provisions and recorded against the growing crop show. In Barnwell there 
were 2,026 liens, averaging one hundred and twentj^-five dollars, being 
eight dollars and eighty cents per bale of cotton produced ; in Orangeburg 
there were 2,470 liens, averaging ninety dollars, being nine dollars and 
eighty-seven cents per bale; in Darlington there were 3,925 liens, averaging 
one hundred dollars, being sixteen dollars and forty cents per bale ; in Marl- 
boro there were 1,183 liens, averaging one hundred and ten dollars, being 
five dollars and forty cents per bale ; in Marion there were twelve hundred 
liens, averaging one hundred dollars, being five dollars and a half per 
bale. The number of liens for 1880 show an increase on those given 
above for 1879. This does not indicate a diminution in the amount of 
supplies raised by farmers, but only shows an increase in the number of 
laborers who are seeking a credit, to enable them to do business on their 
own account as tenant farmers. It is by this class chiefly that the liens 
are given, mostly for provisions, next for fertilizers, and to some extent 
for mules and farm implements. It is the general experience that these 
small tenant farmers, mostly negroes, meet their obligations to the best 
of their ability ; nevertheless, a mortgage given in January or February, 
on a crop not to be planted until April, is not taken as a first-class com- 
mercial security, and consequently the charges on the advances are 
heavy ; for instance, when the cash price of corn is seventy five cents, 
the credit price is not unfrequently one dollar and twenty cents and up- 
ward. 

West of the Santee and "Wateree rivers in this region, the average acre- 
age in cotton to the farm is fourteen acres; on onl}^ one farm is there over 
four hundred acres in cotton ; in seventeen townships the maximum acre- 
age is under one hundred acres ; in twenty it is one hundred to two hun- 
dred ; in five it is two hundred to three hundred ; in two it is three 
hundred to four hundred. 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 83 

East of the rivers named there are farms having over six hundred 
acres in cotton, the average acreage in cotton to the farm is sixteen acres. 
Here forty-six per cent, of the farms are rented, and fifty-four per cent, 
worked by the owners. Of the rented farms, thirteen per cent, are over 
fifty acres, while of those worked by the owners eighty per cent, are 
above that figure. 

The laborers are chiefly negroes, but the number of whites engaged in 
field labor is largely increasing, in some localities, especially east of the 
Pee Dee, where one-third to one-half the field labor is performed by 
whites. The general price of day labor is fifty cents and food, though it 
fluctuates from forty cents to seventy-five cents. The class of day laborers 
is also largely increasing, being recruited from the increasing class of 
tenant farmers, who supplement their earnings by hiring out when not 
busy with their own crops, or when pressed for ready cash. Contract labor- 
ers are becoming much fewer ; the general wages is ten dollars a month 
and rations, but in some localities it is as low as six dollars to eight dol- 
lars, and in others as high as twelve dollars to fifteen dollars, the higher 
prices prevailing in the northeast, the lower to the southwest, being less 
where the percentage of negroes is greatest, and vice versa. Hands 
hired by the year receive from ninety dollars to one hundred and twenty 
dollars, with rations, shelter firewood and truck patches. Hands, how- 
ever, have always preferred, when contracting for a year's work, to have 
some interest in the crop, and this desire has steadily increased so as to 
have become by far the most general practice. This has been arranged in 
so many, and in such complicated ways, as to preclude any general de- 
scription. For instance, a widely adopted system is one proposed as early 
as 1866, by a negro laborer in Silverton township. The laborer works 
five days in the week for the land owner and has a house, rations, three 
acres of land, and a mule and plow every other Saturday to w^ork it when 
necessary, with sixteen dollars in money at the end of the year. Had he 
worked four days and a half per week for the land owner, and one and a 
half days for himself, this would have been equivalent to one-fourth of 
the crop and his food. The sixteen dollars was intended to cover the fifty- 
two half days more than this, which he worked.* This system proved 

* This freedinan was impressed with the belief that the share of tlie laboier should 
be his food and shelter, and one-fourth of the produce. AVhile he was sure that 
his proportion covered this, he could neither state the rationale as above given, or ap- 
parently understand it, when stated. It inaj'' serve as an illustration of the instinctive 
processes by which these people seemed to grasp intuitively the most complicated j)rob- 
lems, and the most advanced doctrines in the great questions as to the remuneration of 
labor. Only just emancipated, they at once take ground, to which the laborers of the 
old world seem to have been struggling up through all the centuries since the abolition 
of serfdom. 



84 THE UPrER PINE BELT. 

very successful, and the second year a number of laborers proposed to 
work only four days, feed themselves and take double the land and mule 
work, without the money. The third year three-day hands came in, fur- 
nishing in part their own work stock ; and as some hands paid the rent 
for a house and an acre of land by giving two days work a week, there 
were found various classes of hands on the same places, working from two 
to six days in the week. The share system is practiced more largely in 
Barnwell than in Hampton, and still more in Darlington and Marlboro. 
The terms are generally the same, the employer furnishing land, teams 
and implements, the laborer feeding himself and getting one-third to one- 
half, after paying for his pro rata of bagging, ties, and fertilizers. Chan- 
cellor Johnson says (Marlboro county) : " I have a good many tenants, 
white and black. I furnish the stock, food for it, pay one-half the black- 
smith, fertilizer, bagging and ties account, and furnish ginning facilities ; 
the tenant (has his garden and potato patch free) does all the work, from 
repairing fences and ditches to preparing the crop for market, my ad- 
vances are repaid and the crop is equally divided. The tenants generally 
get at the rate of eight to ten bales for each mule they work, grain for their 
family supplies and enough to make their meat. I get the same amount of 
cotton and more than grain enough for the next year's crop. I have had 
some tenants over ten years." He prefers hired labor where the planta- 
tion is not too large, that is about eight plows. The advantage of 
either system depends upon the character of the individual, good tenants 
being sometimes poor laborers, and vice versa. Each locality reports 
favorably of the system pursued there. 

In Hampton, the wages system is preferred, the laborers run no risks, 
the soil is improving, the condition of the laborers good, very few of them 
own house or land. Lands sell from one dollar to twenty-five dollars per 
acre, and rent for one dollar to three dollars in small patches ; little land 
is rented. 

In Barnwell, the laborer decides under which system he will work. 
Share hands and renters pick cleaner cotton than wage hands. The 
wages system is preferred, by the planters, the laborer runs no risks, his 
pay is net money, he spends it and lives and works better, and land im- 
proves. The condition of the laborer is good and improving, cjuite a 
number own houses and lands. The market value of land is three dollars 
to ten dollars an acre, including imi)roved and unimproved. The rent 
is from one dollar to three dollars in money ; in kind it is seventy- 
five pounds of lint cotton per acre, or one thousand pounds of lint 
for a forty acre farm, or a five hundred pound bale for fifteen to twenty 
acres. 

In the lower part of Orangeburg, year hands receive monthly six dol- 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 85 

lars ; the share system is also practiced here ; no preference expressed be- 
tween the two. The condition of the laborers is reported as good. The 
market valne of land is from two dollars to ten dollars ; and a good deal 
is rented from two to four dollars. 

In Darlington, wages b}^ the 3'^ear are one hundred and twenty dollars 
for men, ninety dollars for women, with house, rations, fuel and truck 
patches. The share system and tenant system are largely practiced ; 
the laborers do not work so well, nor do they realize so much, but 
they prefer less and to be independent of control ; their condition is 
good, two per cent, own houses and land. The market value of land 
is ten dollars, and the rental yields about seven j)cr cent, on the invest- 
ment. 

In Marlboro and Marion, a considerable part of the field labor is per- 
formed by whites ; day wages are from thirty to sixty cents, by the month 
six dollars to twelve dollars, and the same when engaged for the year, in 
all cases with board. The share and tenant system are largely practiced 
(see above for terms, &c.). Condition of the laborers good, they are 
contented and happy ; three to five per cent, of the negroes own 
land or a house. The market value of land is ten dollars to fifty dollars 
per acre, and rents are from three dollars to fifteen dollars per acre. 
(For further particulars see abstract of reports of township corres- 
pondents.) 

From the southwest of Aiken county it is reported that the tendency to 
raise supplies fluctuates with the price of cotton, being increased by low 
and diminished by high prices. The share system is largely practiced, 
the laborer having one-third where he feeds himself, one-fourth where he 
is fed, the land owner advances everything, and the laborer's proportion 
of the expenses is taken out of the crop. The share system is not gene- 
rally satisfactory ; it is difficult to get cotton cleanly handled ; land worked 
under the supervision of the proprietor generally improves ; when rented, 
especially to negro tenants, it rapidly deteriorates ; five per cent, of the 
negro laborers own land or their house ; those who work steadily are 
prosperous, the proportion that do this is not, however, large. The 
market value of land is four dollars to fifteen dollars per acre, in- 
cluding wood land ; tilled land rents for from one dollar to five dollars 
per acre. 

The following comparison in some of the regards above treated of be- 
tween Darlington and ]\Iarlboro counties is off"ered, because in 1870 Dar- 
lington led all the counties in the State in the production of cotton, nearly 
doubling the crop of the next highest ; now it stands eighth in total pro- 
duction, and Marlboro stands highest in the yield per capita and per acre; 
the counties lie side by side : 



8G 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 





Yield in 
lbs. lint 
Cotton. 


Amount 

of liens 

for each 

Bale of 

Cotton 

produced 

in 

1879. 


FARMS. 


COUNTIES. 


5 

O 

Ph 


'f-t 
o 

o 
PM 


Percentage. 


Percentage 

worked by 

owners. 


Percentage 
worked by 




IB 

1 

43 
55 


O ;-, 

^^ 

57 

45 


renters. 




Under 

fifty 

Acres. 


Over 

fifty 
Acres. 


Under 

fifty 

Acres. 


Over 

fifty 
Acres 


Darlington... 
Marlboro 


339 
536 


197 

267 


$16.40 

$5.40 


17 
12 


83 
88 


85 

80 


15 
20 



TILLAGE AND IMPPvOVEMENT. 

Enclosures, under the colonial laws, that have not been changed, are 
required to be cattle proof. The fences are built of pine rails ten feet 
in length, running about one hundred to the cord, Avorth usually fifty 
cents a cord, and are split for fifty cents per hundred, making the cost 
one dollar per hundred in the woods. Fourteen rails make eight feet in 
length of worm fence, or 9,240 rails per mile, lasting, on an average, five 
years. A recent act of the legislature allows each township to determine 
by vote, whether the crops or the stock shall be enclosed, if the latter, the 
township to tax itself for the fences necessary to protect it from the stock 
of the adjoining townships. To this date few townshi^^s in this belt have 
availed themselves of this laAv.* 

Drainage is little practiced in this region ; the culture of the swamps 
being generally abandoned, and the uplands being thought not to require 
it. In Marlboro and Marion, however, great benefit results from a system 
of open ditclies very generally adopted (see above soils). Little or noth- 
ing is required in the way of hillside ditches on these comparatively level 
lands, Avhere little injury is experienced from washing. 

The former practice of allowing fields to lie fallow, for the benefit of 
the growth of weeds, Avhich increased the vegetable matter in the soil, and 

*Since the above was written the State legislature has passed a general law for 
the whole State, making it incumbent on the owners of live stock to see that they 
do not trespass on others. Thetillerof thesoil is no longer com{)elled to build fences to 
protect thefruitsof his labor from the inroads of his neighbors' cattle, thus saving all cost 
in building and repairing fences, estimated in 187U at $917,000 by the 10th U. S. Census. 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 87 

which killed by their shade the grasses that were especially troublesome 
on cultivated lands, has been almost wholly abancloned. Nor is there 
any regular or general system of rotation of crops. Cotton lands espe- 
cially are planted year after year in the same crop, and if properly man- 
ured, are thought to improve. Rotation, when practiced, is two years 
cotton, one year corn ; small grain is planted in the ftiU, after the corn is 
gathered, and the next summer a crop of corn or cow-peas is grown on 
the stubble, to be followed the next spring by cotton. In Marlboro county, 
land planted in cotton for fourteen successive years, without additional 
manure, except the increased cotton seed from the larger croi)s, })roduce 
double what they did at first. 

The fall plowing of cotton and corn lands, once much practiced, has 
been very generally abandoned ; some still think it pays to break the 
land eight or ten inches deep in the fell about every fourth year, other- 
wise it is only done to turn under weeds on land that has been resting. 

The depth of tillage varies from two and a half to six inches, measured 
on the land side of the furrow, and it is very rare to see more than one 
animal used in plowing. It is only the larger farmers, who are becoming 
scarcer, who use two-horse plows occasionally. 

The amount of land once cultivated, that has been abandoned, is stated 
as very little in Hampton county ; at from ten to twenty per cent, in Barn- 
well ; at ten to fifteen per cent, in Orangeburg ; at twenty-five per cent, in 
Darlington, and, excluding swamps, at nothing in Marion and Marlboro. 
When the uplands are turned out in this region, they grow up first in 
broomsedge, which is succeeded by short leaf pine, beneath which in time 
all grass and undergrowth disappears. When again taken in, they yield 
well with manuring, but without good treatment they deteriorate more 
rapidly than virgin soil. It is a cj[uestion — on which there is a diversity 
of opinion — whether the second growth of pines is a benefit or an injury 
to land ; in the lower country it is thought to be injurious, supporting 
the view that narrow leaved growths do not improve the soil. In the upper 
country the opinion is, however, decided that the soil improves under the 
old-field pine. With some other growths there is no question, in this 
regard ; for instance the persimmon always improves lands, and seems to 
exert no bad influence even on the growing crops in cultivated fields, it 
being often remarked that the tallest cotton is found under such trees, 
where it is dwarfed by the proximity of a pine or a post-oak. Certain 
other forest trees seem to favor particular growths here, as the sugarberry, 
under which verdant patches of blue grass are often seen, when found no 
where else. There seem to be friendly and unfriendly relations among 
plants. Bermuda grass will not grow under pines or cedars, but thrives 
most under the Euonymus. Polk is said to give the rust to cotton, 
and Jamestown weed will, it is believed, eradicate nut grass. 



88 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

Grecii manuring, especiall}^ with the cow-pea, is regarded favorably, al- 
though it is not practiced as a system. Sown broadcast^, manured with the 
" Ash element " (a cheap fertilizer composed chiefly of lime and potash) 
and turned under after the Amines are wilted by frost, remarkable results 
have been attained. Col. Thomas Taylor says that lands subject to rust, 
and never yielding more than seven bushels of wheat, have given twenty- 
six bushels under this treatment. After the cotton is laid by a furrow is 
sometimes run in the alley, and cow-peas drilled in, forming the basis on 
which the next year's cotton bed is to be constructed. Peas grown among 
corn are esteemed highly for the beneficial influence they exert on the 
soil, as Avell as for the crop they yield. 

The limited amount of stable and lot manure, furnished chiefly by the 
work stock, other cattle being rarely fed or penned systematically, is much 
valued. Cotton seed is wholly used for manure, and its use has much in- 
creased, either alone, or composted with woods mould and litter, or the 
superphosphates. These means of maintaining the fertility of the land 
are largely supplemented by the use of guajios and other fertilizers. In 
Marlboro county the general rule is, to return to the land all the cotton 
seed produced on it, and in addition one sack of Guanape guano, or 
half a sack of it, with one hundred pounds of superphosphates, and if 
rust is apprehended, one hundred pounds of kainit. Lands so treated 
are counted on with much certainty to give a bale of cotton to the acre 
one year with another. This may be taken as the best established and 
most successful practice regarding manures. There are wide variations 
from it. A very few, but not the least successful farmers, purchase no 
commercial fertilizers and rely wholly on cotton seed, composts of woods 
moulds and leaves, and stable manure. The use of fertilizer is very gen- 
erally deprecated as mithrifty and extravagant, but the facility with 
which they may be obtained and used, makes their employment the 
general practice. 

The first step in preparation for planting cotton is to dispose of the old 
stalks. If small, the}' are not attended to. Ordinarily they are knocked 
to pieces by hand with a club. Machines have been devised for this pur- 
pose, but have not proved successful, thus leaving a field open to inventors. 
When the stalks are very large, say four to five feet high, they have to be 
pulled up, and sometimes to be burned. Some planters pull up the stalks 
and lay them in the furrow on which the bed is to be made ; it is objected 
to this practice that the plow in cultivation strikes the buried stalks and 
destroys the young cotton. 

The furrow for the bed is either run in the alley between the rows, or 
the old bed is barred off" and the furrow run through its centre. The 
first practice alternates the cotton rows every year, the second plants on 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 89 

the same spot. The rows are rarely under three feet three inches, they 
average three and a half, and are sometimes four feet, and even five feet, 
on land making a large growth. The manure is placed in the furrow, and 
the bed is built up in February and March, the object being to get cotton 
•seed in and covered as early as possible to prevent its sprouting and heat- 
ing after planting, which is injurious to the stand. In ]\hirlboro the fer- 
tilizers are not applied with the cotton seed, but a furrow is run through 
the bed just before planting and the fertilizer put into it then. The usual 
practice has been to put the manure in as deeply as possible ; a practical 
difficulty in accomplishing this arises from the settling of the finely pul- 
verized and lightly thrown up beds ; and finer and specifically heavier 
particles of the soil pass through and under the coarser and lighter cotton 
seed, compost, or stable manure. So that even after the greatest care to 
cover them deeply has been taken, they disappoint the planter by appear- 
ing at or near the surface during planting or the subsequent* cultivation 
of the crop. A very successful practice in Aik^ and Barnwell counties 
has been to put the manure in a shallow furrow, but to finish the bed by 
splitting the middle out with a double horse shovel plough running to 
the depth of fourteen inches. This leaves the sides of the beds and the 
alley light and loose, and it is kept so by after cultivation. The sweep 
runs shallow in the harder soil near the plants, and deeper in the looser 
soil of the alley, and can thus skim the surface and destroy weeds near 
the plant witliout cutting the roots ; the drainage of the bed is increased, 
and loose earth is provided, where it alone can be maintained during cul- 
tivation, in the alley, to absorb atmosj^heric moisture, and to dirt the 
plant or manure. 

Planting occurs during the month of April, from the 1st to the 30th. 
Early planting runs the risk of frost, late planting runs the risk of a dry 
spell, which not unfrequently prevents cotton planted the last of April 
from coming up before the first of June. These risks are nearly equal, 
and the early planting has the additional advantage of a longer season 
for its growth and maturity. Bancroft's or Dicksons's improved cluster 
cotton seed are generally used ; a prolific cotton, making a good yield of 
lint, being sought after, without regard to the qualit}' of the staple. Im- 
proved staples have been produced, and are profitably cultivated by the 
larger planters who ship it themselves to the North, or Europe. Smaller 

*It appears that particles of the solid earth are not at rest, but are t-ontinually in 
movement, caving in and settling after rains, &c. So that here the law of specific 
gravities also operates, and in tlie lapse of time, the diverse components are assorted, 
finding their true level ascertainly as acork rises or lead sinks in water. In illustration 
of this law, large quantities of bones, buried two feet deep, in land formerly prepared 
for vineyards in this region, have, in the course of ten years, worked their way to the 
surface. 



90 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

farmers, confined to the home markets, cannot sell such staple to advan- 
tage, and therefore neglect it. The quantity of seed used depends on the 
method of planting ; in drilling by hand, the most common practice, three 
bushels is required ; with tlie planter, which is coming more into use, 
one to one and a half bushels answers; with the dibble, a two-wheeled 
implement, drawn by a horse, the wheels running on the beds and mak- 
ing holes for the seed by blocks fastened on to the tire, a half-bushel will 
do. The seed comes up according to the greater or less favorableness of 
the season, in from four to ten days after planting. The young plants 
are thinned out to hills eight inches to twelve inches apart, sometimes to 
eighteen inches ; usually only one stalk is left, some prefer to have two. 
Thinning occurs four to six weeks after planting, from the time the third 
to the sixth leaf makes its appearance, and is completed early in June. 
Blossoms first appear when the plant is six inches to twelve inches high, 
from the 10th to the 20th of June. Bolls open forty-two to forty-five 
days after the blossom ir^ the latter part of July and first of August. In 
favorable seasons,, picking has commenced before the 12th of August ; or- 
dinarily not until the 20th. The cotton is picked and ginned as fast as 
it opens, and the work can be done, the best planters estimating the loss 
of leaving it in the field, even during good weather, for a few weeks, as 
very heavy. All the crop is picked by the 1st to the 15th of December, 
and by far the most of it in the market before Christmas. The after cul- 
tivation of the crop consists of four to five ploughings with the sweep and 
three to four hand hoeings, and is completed from the first of July to the 
last of August. 

GINNING, BALING AND SHIPPING. 

No decided preference for any of the numerous gins used in this region 
can be ascertained ; those most commonly in use are the Brown, Winn- 
ship, Gullett, Carver, Findley and Massey, Elliott, Winn, Taylor and Ex- 
celsior. Thirteen correspondents report that four employ steam engines, 
seven employ horse power, and two employ water power in ginning. The 
steam gins turn out two hundred and twenty-five to four hundred pounds 
lint per hour, the horse-powers one hundred pounds to two hundred 
pounds in the same time, the water-powers two hundred and fifty to four 
hundred. The estimate of seed cotton required to make four hundred 
pounds of lint, varies from 1,200 to 1,400 pounds, and averages 1,225 
pounds. On this point a correspondent says: " The proportion of lint 
varies largely with the season, with the variety of cotton, with the stage 
at which the cotton is picked, and even with different bolls of the same 
variety picked at the same stage. I plant a large part of my crop with 
a fancy long staple upland variety. I have known it to require 1,800 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 91 

pounds seed cotton average through the season to make a bale of five 
hundred pounds, while the past season the entire crop gave at the rate 
of a five hundred pound bale to 1,540 pounds of seed cotton. A few 
years ago my crop of Rio Grande, a very short staple variety, gave a five 
hundred pound bale to 1,365 pounds of seed cotton. Cotton picked 
damp, and that suffered to remain sometime without picking, gives the 
smallest proportion of lint, while that picked as soon after opening as the 
bolls dry off gives the best. I once picked a large number of bolls from 
a patch, itself grown from selected seed, weighed them separately on a 
druggist's scales and separated the lint from the seed by hand. The 
poorest boll gave nineteen per cent, of lint, the best thirty-six per cent. 
The weight of the heaviest boll, seed and lint, was one hundred and 
thirty-six gross, and of the lightest, forty-two gross. Even such wide va- 
riations as these could not have been detected by the eye or without the 
use of the scales." 

Owing to the unsatisfactory character of the mechanical arrangements 
for using horse power, the use of horses for ginning is being superseded 
by steam engines. It was thought that traction engines would supply 
this want, and, like steam grain threshers, would move from farm to farm 
and gin the cotton. They were tried to a considerable extent, but it was 
found that the exigencies of the farmer did not allow him to keep his 
cotton, as he might his grain, until the gin came to him, and that it did 
not pay to move the gin once or twice a day, to gin the crops, bale at a 
time as it was gathered, so that they have been mostly abandoned. 

There is a similar diversity as to the press in use. In twelve gin houses 
there were six hand presses, the Brooks, Schofield, McBride, Finley, Board- 
man, and Smith, packing about eight bales with four hands per day. 
There was one water press, and one run by steam, four old wooden-pin 
screw presses run by mules. Four hands on the Smith or the Bogirdman 
press will average a bale every fifty minutes : eight men and three mules 
on the old screw will average a bale every thirty minutes ; by pushing, 
more can be done. The delay and cost in packing occurs in treading the 
light, loose cotton into the box, at which only one, or at most two men 
can work, the other hands being meanwhile idle. Formerly the lint- 
rooms were built very large, and twenty or thirty bales were ginned be- 
fore any was packed. Now with smaller lint-rooms, and with condensers 
coming into use as a preventive of fire, the cotton is packed as fast as it 
is ginned. Feeders to gins have been tried, but owing to the difficulty of 
keeping them in order, they are not much used. 

Rope for baling has been entirely replaced by the iron " Arrow " tie 
and the heaviest gunny bagging is used. The bales vary in weight, from 
four hundred and fifty pounds to five hundred and fifty pounds, and 



92 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

average four hundred and eighty-nine pounds. Shipments to market 
arc made during the fall months, from September to .Januar\'. By steam- 
boat there are no extra charges for extra weight ; the cTiarge is seventy- 
five cents per bale on the Savannah river to Savannah, and one dollar on 
the Pee Dee to Charleston. On the Port Royal railroad to Charleston or 
Savannah the charge is two dollars per bale of four hundred and fifty pounds 
or less, and twenty cents for each hundred pounds over that weight. On 
the South Carolina railway the charge from Augusta is one dollar for 
way stations on this route, one dollar and fifty cents and thirty-five cents 
per hundred weight over five hundred pounds. From Darlington to 
Charleston by rail the charge is one dollar and twenty-five cents. From 
Marlboro and Marion it is three dollars and twenty-five cents to Xew 
York, and one dollar and fifty cents to Charleston or Wilmington by rail ; 
in the latter there is an extra charge (amount not stated) for bales weigh- 
ing over four hundred and fifty pounds. 

DISEASES, ENEMIES, &c. 

There are few crops grown anywhere more certain than the cotton crop 
in the upper pine belt. A complete failure never occurs, and a reduction 
of twenty per cent, in the yield is an unusual occurrence. The greatest 
variations have been in an increase of product under better cultivation, 
and it is believed that a wide field for development lies in this direction. 
The principal obstruction to the growth of the plant is the crab grass,* 
necessitating constant labor and vigilance, or resulting in fatal injury to 
the crop. Usually the task is one acre in hoeing, which is completed by 
dinner time ; but most frequently it is far from being thoroughly done. 
In Marlboro, where the work is well done, and perhaps on this account, 
two acres is the task and it is completed by 4 P. M., usually. 

Drought is very seldom injurious, except during the fruiting season in 
July and August. Sore shin, except as resulting from bad hoeing, is not 
known. 

Lice, a minutt aphid, appears on the underside of the leaves in May 
and later, and gives them a curled, but at the same time a deeper green 
appearance. Dry weather is favorable to them, and in good seasons they 
are not thought to injure the plant. Some say they promote fruitfulness. 
In bad seasons, /. e., excessive drought, during fruiting, rust appears ear- 
liest and is most injurious where these aphids have been most numerous. 

Rust and blight affect the crop, especially during the fruiting season ; 
it is most injurious to the prolific short-limbed cluster cotton. Under fa- 

*Corruption for crop grass, being found only on c-ultivated lands, and often furnished 
excellent crojjs. 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 93 

vorable conditions the plant will take on a heavy crop of fruit in four to 
six weeks, any time from the middle of June to the middle of September. 
At such a period it will cease to grow, the leaves will pale and turn red, 
all the energies of the plant being devoted to reproductive efforts. Com- 
mercial fertilizers promote this crisis, by contributing more to the fruit- 
fulness than to the growth of the plant. Any vicissitude of the weather, 
heat or cold, wet or drought, will seriously enfeeble or even kill the plant 
in tliis its term of labor, especially on poor, sandy, or ill-drained soils. 
A crop will have been made, the utmost that the soil, the variety of seed, 
and the seasons admit of, but the future growth and fruitfulness of the 
plant is checked or destroyed. This is what is usually termed rust or 
blight. The remedies are, varieties of the plant that are more vigorous 
growers, those of longer limb, and less given to excessive fruiting ; stable 
manure in the place of fertilizers ; the potash salts are used with marked 
benefit ; and thorough drainage. 

Cotton sheds by far the largest portion of the forms which come on it, 
and the closest observers state that in the great mass of our cotton lands, 
the cotton plant will not, in the best of seasons, mature into open bolls 
one in five of the blossoms that appear, generally not one in ten. Reme- 
dies for this are being sought in the selection of seed, and in various 
methods of culture, but nothing decided has been thus far obtained. 

When the early season is wet and warm, the plant may run too much 
to weed. Some attribute this in part to late thinning and deep cultiva- 
tion ; others think it may be checked by running a deep, narrow furrow, 
closing after the plow, close to the cotton. Short-limbed varieties of cot- 
ton, cotton seed and phosphates as fertilizers, are recommended as remedies. 

Although the cotton caterpillar moth is frequently met with, even dur- 
ing the severest winters, the worm rarely makes its appearance before 
September, and hardly ever does any damage. 

CHARGES ON SELLING. 

In addition to freight, these consist of the following items, at the rates 
stated : commissions on sales, two and a half per cent. ; storage, twenty-five 
to fifty cents per bale per month ; drayage, wharfage, mending, forty cents ; 
insurance, twenty-five cents. These charges vary slightly, and Avith freight, 
amount to from three-quarters to one cent per pound of lint, or a little 
over seven per cent, on the net sales. 

COST OF PRODUCTION. 

Eight correspondents state the cost of production at six to eight cents 
per pound lint; one at eight and a half cents; one at twelve and a half 



94 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 



cents; one at four cents. Paul F. Hammond, of Beech island, furnishes 
the following : " The cost of production varies greatly with the character 
of the land cultivated, and the skill of the planter. The complement of 
hands and mules is two of the former and one of the latter. The items 
of expense are, w^ages of hands, meat for hands, cost per annum of mule, 
exclusive of feed ; extra picking, guano, gear, implements, bagging and 
ties. One mule and tw^o hands will cultivate, on an average, twenty acres 
in cotton, fourteen acres in corn and fovir acres in oats, making grain 
enough to furnish bread to the hands, and feed for the mule. I am in- 
clined to think that 4,000 pounds of lint, including weight of bagging 
and ties, to the mule, is rather above than below the average. In some 
instances planters may reach a production of 8,000 or even 10,000 pounds 
of lint to the mule, while more frequently those who fall below 2,000 
pounds may be met with. In the following estimates no allowance for 
taxes, rents, interest on capital invested, nor for the services of the pro- 
prietor or manager, nor for transportation or charges for selling, is made. 



Twelve bales Eight bales | Four bales 
to the mule, to the mule, to the mule. 



Wages for two hands per annum. 
Meat for hands, 300 lbs., @ 8 cents 
Cost of mule per annum . . . 

Extra picking 

Guano 

Gear and implements 

Bagging and ties 

Cost per pound lint . . . , 



$180 00 
24 00 
30 00 
48 50 
60 00 
10 00 
13 50 



$366 00 
6.10c. 



$180 00 
24 00 
30 00 
20 00 
60 00 
10 00 
9 00 

$333 00 
8.321c. 



$180 00 
24 00 
30 00 



00 


00 


10 


00 


4 


50 



$308 50 
15.221c. 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 



95 



Table showing the cost of each item of Labor and Material expended in the cul- 
tivation of an acre of Cotton in the Upper Pine Belt Region of South 
Carolina : 



ITEMS. 



1. 



Rem 

Fencinsr, repairs and Interest on 

Knocking stalks 

Pulling and burning stalks 

Other cleaning up 

Listing 

Beddinsi with hoes 

Breaking up 

Damming 

Barring old beds 

Splitting middles 

Reversing 

Laying off 

Manures, Commercial 

Manures, home-made 

Applying manures 

Bedding up 

Splitting middles 

Knocking off beds 

Planting, opening. 

Planting, dropping 

Planting, covering 

Replanting 

Seed 

Thinning 

Number of plo wings, 5, 5, 5 and 6 

Number of hoeings, 4, 4. 1, 4 

Picking 

Hauling to gin 

Ginning 

Management 

Wear and tear of implements... 

Bagging and ties 

Total 

Cost per pound lint 



2 00 $ 2 00 

1 00 40 

20 12 



Profit, per acre, at ten cents per 
pound 



Profit, deducting charges for 
rent and management 



50 



1 50 



50 



25 

3 00 

2 00 

25 

50 



20 
2.5 
20 
50 
30 
25 

1 85 
80 

6 75 
15 

2 25 
5 00 



05 



1 50 



3. 



4. 



9. 



$ 3 00 I 2 50 



10. 



1 35 
831 5.5 



3 50 

4 00 
38 
37 
18 
15 
20 
20 
10 
28 
50 
28- 

2 00 

1 00 
6 00 

50 

2 00 
1 00 



07 



«23 45 
826 45 



1 35 

S2S 98 



07 



811 02 
814 02 



15 

2 00 

3 00 
15 



a5 



10 
35 
50 

1 65 
60 

5 00 



300 
5 00 



« 2 .50 $ 2 50 8 4 00 8 40O83CO83 00 



3 .50 
2 25 
08 
50 
25 
25 
25 



25 
05 
50 
15 
2 25 

1 40 
4 70 

60 

2 60 
2 50 



1 10 1 20 
«26 90 827 IS 
08 1-6 06 9-10 

86 40 811 92 

814 40 816 92 



05 



S3 



'i 



33 
' 2.5 

3 00 

4 2-5 
57 
33 
20 



10 

30 

30 

133 

1 00 

6 00 

25 

2 



1 15 



52.5 12 



067-40 



«11 



814 30 



1 00 



10 
4 50 
3 00 
1 00 

75 



16 



10 

30 

20 

2 50 

1 75 

5 50 

50 

1 &5 

2 00 



1 2.5 



1 25 



4 50 

3 00 

2 50 

1 00 

50 

20 

30 



3 00 
2 00 
5 00 

1 00 

2 00 
2 00 



1 00 
10 
20 



13 
6 25 
5 CO 
35 
50 
25 



60 



2 25 
2 00 
6 00 
50 
2 50 



1 10 1 30 1 &5 1 08 



50 



•Jo 

fiOO 
2 50 
50 
25 
10 
10 
25 
25 
20 



50 

40 

2 25 

2 00 

5 00 



2 00 

3 00 



10 



2.5 



11. 



00 



12 
1 50 



30 
50 
2 00 
1 50 
5 00 
luO 

1 20 

2 00 



3 75 

1 00 

15 



18 

4 .50 

5 00 
75 

1 50 



25 



25 
50 
200 
2 00 
6 00 
75 
2 00 



827 35 835 75 f32 S6 831 43 



08 



25 



810 75 



107-10,082-10 



82 45 87 14 



83 55 811 14 



094-10 



81 87 



87 87 



4 25 
1 10 1 10 

826 77 8S6 78 



08 09 4-5 



53 83 22 



811 53 $11 22 



96 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

1. E. H. Pceples, Lawton Township, Hampton county: Makes a bale of 4.10 pounds lint cotton 
per acre under this culture— seed cotton 1,350 pounds, cotton seed thirty bushels. 

2. Hotner H. Peoples, Peeples' Township, Hampton county: Average l,iWO pounds seed cotton, 
400 pounds lint, twenty-seven bushels seed. 

3. G. Varn, Esq., Folk's Store, Colleton county: Crop 1,000 pounds seed cotton, lint .3;J.3 pounds, 
seed twentj'-two bushels. 

4. W. B. Kice, Bamberg, Barnwell county : Crop 850 to 1,500 pounds per acre, say 1,175 seed cotton, 
average .SOI pounds lint, twenty-six bushels seed, at twelve and a half cents. 

5. John S. Stoiiey, Allendale, Barnwell county: Yield 1,200 pounds seed cotton, 370 pounds lint, 
seed twenty-two bushels 

6. O.N. Bowman, Rowesville. Orangeburg county: 1,100 pounds seed cotton, 370 pounds lint, 
twenty-six bushels seed. 

7. E. T. atackhouse, Little Rock, Marion county : He says, " I worked last year twenty acres in 
cotton on contract with Esau Page, which actually cost as follows: All work repairing fencing, 
picking, ginning, Ac, 8314.00; Commercial manures, Slll.OO ; feed and rent of mule, SlOd.OO; wear 
aud tear to machinery, S3o.00; hauling straw, &c.. to stable, S13.00; bagging and ties lor twenty- 
nine bales, 310.00; for my direcliou, 3.50.00. Total, S702.0U, or S85.00 per acre. Crop. 13,277 pounds 
lint cotton. Contract satisfactory; has run for several year.s. Rents 230 of the 290 acres of his 
home larm for forty- four pounds lint cotton. Renters engage to make all repairs and keep up 
fertility ol land. Estimate on 1,000 pounds seed cotton, 333 pounds lint, twenty-three bushels seed." 

8. W. D. Johnson, Marion C.H.: Yield 1.200 pounds, 400 pounds lint, thirty bushels seed. In a 
good year 1,400 to 1,500 pounds seed cotton. N. B. The rent and home made manure, i. e., cotton 
seed, constitute one-half or more of profits. 

9. C. S. McCall, Kennettsville, Marlboro county: Average yield 1,000 pounds, 333 pounds lint, 
twenty-three bushels seed. 

10. Edward E, Evans,Society Hill, Darlington county: Yield 1,000 pounds, 333 pounds lint, twenty- 
eight bushels seed. 

11. Henry P. Duvall, Cheraw, Chesterfield county : Y'ield 1,200 pounds, 400 pounds lint, thirty 
bushels seed. 

The mean of the above estimates makes the cost of cotton 8 3-10 cents; not calculating the im- 
provement of the land by culture or any of the numerous perquisites attending such eraplo.v- 
ment. The average profit per acre is 17.80, deducting charges for rent and management it isS15.75. 
Thrift and management will aiso reduce and even wipe out many of the items charged as ex- 
penses. Home-made manures, consisting largely of cotton seed which is reproduced each suc- 
cessive year in constantly increasing quantity, is such an item. 

It is interesting to compare these estimates of the cost of prodiic- 
insT cotton with those made in former times. A writer in the 
Carolinian, in 1848, declares that five cents a pound for cotton will not 
pay a profit, and gives this statement as the experience on a plantation 
wdth twenty field hands, total investment, $20,000. 

Expenses for 1848. 

Wages of overseer , $ 300 00 

Blacksmith and medical accounts 65 00 

Clothing 88 00 

Bagging and rope for 120 bales cotton 150 00 

Taxes 30 00 

Salt $12, nails $5.00, hoes $4.50 21 50 

Hospital supplies • 7 50 

Wear and tear of land 330 00 

Wear and tear of mules, wagons, &c . . 200 00 

Transporting cotton to market at seventy-five cents per bale . . 90 00 

$1,282 00 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 97 

Crop 120 bales of 350 pounds, 42,500 pounds lint, cost three cents per 
pound, not counting interest on investment. That, at seven per cent., 
would have made the cost six and a third cents, omitting to credit the 
account with all perquisites to the planter, as a home and home supplies, 
with increase of negro property, &c. 

Mr. Solon Robinson, of New York, in an extensive tour through the 
South, gave, in 1848, the following carefully prepared statement regard- 
ing the plantation of Col. Williams, of Society Hill, Darlington county, 
South Carolina : 

CAPITAL INVESTED. 

4,200 acres land (2,700 cultivated) at $15 per acre $ 63,000 00 

254 sli^ves at §350 average, old and young 89,900 00 

60 mules and mares, one jack, one stud 3,720 00 

2,000 head of cattle . ' 2,000 00 

23 carts, six wagons 520 00 

500 head of hogs 1,000 00 

60 bull-tongue plows, 60 shaving plows, 25 turning plows, 18 

drill plows, 15 harrows 262 00 

All other plantation tools, estimated . 1,000 00 

Total investment • . . . $161,402 00 



EXPENSES. 

Seven per cent, interest on first five items $11,103 00 

3,980 yards Dundee bagging at 16 cents 536 80 

3,184 pounds rope at six cents 191 04 

Taxes 263 04 

Three overseers, wages $900, medical attendance $317.50 . . . 1,217 50 

Iron and tools purchased 200 00 

Clothing account 1,579 50 

Fifty sacks of salt $80.00, lime and plaster $194.00 274 00 

Carpenters and blacksmith work extra 100 00 

Outlay for gin belts, &c 80 00 

Molasses, tobacco and flour 170 00 

Three-eighths cent per pound freight and charges for market- 
ing cotton 2,069 00 

$17,894 48 



98 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

CROP. 

13,509 pounds bacon for home place and factory §075 00 

Beef and butter for ditto and sales 500 00 

1,100 bushels corn for ditto and sales j . . . . 550 00 

Eighty cords of tan bark for tan yard 480 GO 

Charges to others for blacksmith work 100 00 

Mutton and wool for home use and sales 125 00 

$2^30^ 
This sum, that is products other than cotton, deducted from 

expenses above stated leaves then $15,404 00 

This was the cost of a cotton crop of 351,000 pounds lint cotton, mak- 
ing the cost per pound 4 7-10 cents. The cotton was sold at seven cents 
per pound. Omitting charges for interest and taking no account of the 
increasing value of the property, this gives 11 6-10 per cent, profits on 
the total investment. Mr. J. J. Lucas, also from Society Hill, Darlington 
county, reports, for 1879, that the cost of making cotton is twelve and a 
half cents per pound, that the value of land is ten dollars and not fifteen 
dollars per acre, as Mr. Williams states it, and that rents pay seven per 
cent, on tlie investment in place of the above. 

It Avill be noticed that the cost of transportation to market and charges 
for selling, &c.,were about one-half in 1848 what they are now. 

Abstract of the replies of Township correspondents, arranged accord- 
ing to the Counties, Supervisor's Districts (Sup. Dist.) and Enumeration 
Districts (E. D.) of the 10th United States Census, in which they resided :- 

Hampton County, (2d Sup. Dist. 10th United States Census.) 

Lawton Toimiship, [E. D. 118 and 119) : Northern part rolling, remainder 
level. Swamps on the Savannah river and other water courses, lor the 
most part unreclaimed ; one-third, a stiff mulatto upland, with clay sub- 
soil borders the swamp ; two-thirds, upland, a dark gray sandy loam, 
underlaid by clay at the depth of eighteen to twenty inches. Crops under 
good cultivation yield four hundred pounds lint cotton, twelve to twenty 
bushels corn, thirt}^ bushels oats, fifteen to fifty bushels rice ; peanuts, 
twenty-five to fifty busliels ; sugar cane sj^rup, two hundred gallons per 
acre. Timber, best 3'ellow pine, cypress, white oak, ash and poplar. 
Stock raising has been profitable, and might be greatly enlarged, there 
being abundance of Bermuda grass, cane and swamp mast. Wages of 
field labor, forty to fifty cents a day ; one-tenth performed by whites. A 
large portion of the laborers rent lands, obtain supplies by giving a lien 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 99 

on the growing crops to the country merchants, and Avork most of the 
time on their own account. Land sells from two dollars to ten dollars 
per acre ; rents for one-fourth of the crop, or one dollar to two dollars in 
money. Health good, except mild type of malarial fever in low places. 
Pecples' Township, {E. D. 120): One-fourth of the land in swamps. The 
uplands slightly rolling ; soil coarse and fine sandy loam, gray to brown and 
black in color. Subsoil yellowish red, blue and brown clay, containing brown 
pebbles, underlaid by gravel and quicksand at twelve to twenty feet, in 
which water is found. Considerable business in collecting turpentine, 
getting timber and shingles and sawing lumber. Little attention paid to 
stock. Wages for field work, eight dollars per month ; one-half field 
labor performed by whites. At Pondtown there is a large number of 
white farmers owning small tracts of lands, doing all their own work and 
working out for wages, Avho are prosperous and excellent laborers, free 
from debt. Land rents for two dollars an acre. Malarial fever in the 
swamps, otherwise healthy. 

Barnwell County, (2d Sup. Dist. 10th United States Census.) 

Bull Pond, (E. D. 20) : Gray pine lands, generally level, a fine sandy 
loam with clay subsoil. Growth, pine, oak and hickory. Little attention 
paid to stock. Wages, forty cents per day. Five per cent, of field labor 
performed by whites. No land in the market; one-half is rented for 
eighty pounds of seed cotton per acre. Yield, about one bale to the three 
acres, rented land badly cultivated, reduces the general average. 

Allendale, (E. D. 25) : " Light clay lands," rather elevated and rolling. 
Soil, a light clay loam, gray and yellow in color, underlaid by clays of 
various hue, from red to purple, also sandy subsoil. Growth, pine, oak, 
hickory, dogwood, maple, poplar, ash, black walnut, cypress. Marl occurs 
and is available. Two streams, twenty and forty feet wide, respectively, 
with velocity of three to four miles an hour, furnish water powers. Little 
attention paid to stock. It might be profitably raised. Wages, forty to 
fifty cents a da3^ One-tenth of field labor performed by whites. No 
lands in the market. No fevers except in the river bottoms. 

Bennett Springs, {E. D. 26) : Land level. Soil, sandy subsoil, sometimes 
red clay and sometimes red sand. Growth, pine, oak and hickory on the 
uplands ; usual growth of the Savannah river swamps on that stream. 
Crops, seven hundred and fifty pounds of seed cotton, ten bushels corn, 
twenty-five bushels rice, seventy-five bushels peanuts per acre. Some 
business done in shingles, staves and turpentine. Stock raising might be 
made profitable. Six gins and grist mills driven by water power, not 
more than one-fifth of which is utilized. No prevailing diseases. No 



100 THE UPPER PINE BELT, 

field work performecl by whites. Mueli of the land is rented for five 
hundred pounds lint cotton for twenty-five acres. 

Willistcm, {E. D. 37): The level lands are a sandy loam, with clay sub- 
soil within two feet. The rolling lands are a clay soil. Clay extends 
beneath the soil and subsoil to depth of twenty to sixty feet, as shown in 
wells. Growth, yellow pine, oak, hickory. Crops, ten to twelve bushels 
corn, eight hundred to one thousand pounds seed cotton; oats, twenty- 
five to thirty bushels per acre. Little attention paid to stock. Edisto 
river is a clear stream, one hundred feet wide, six feet deep, velocity, tw^o 
to three mites an hour. Two mill streams empty into the Edisto. Wages 
of field labor, six dollars to ten dollars, and rations, per month. One- 
third ol field work performed by whites. Very little improved land for 
sale. It rents from two dollars to three' dollars per acre, supplies and 
rents secured by a lien on the crop. 

Orangeburg County, (2d Sup. Dist.) 

Hebron, {E. D. 143) : Some valuable swamp lands on the North Edisto 
river and its tributaries. Uplands rolling sometimes, but generally level, 
without being flat. Soil, mostly a fine sandy loam, subsoil sandy, in some 
places clay. Growth, pine, with large red oak in places. Crops, ten to 
thirty bushels corn per acre, four hundred and fifty pounds lint cotton to two 
acres, thirty to thirty-five bushels rice per acre. Some business in tur- 
pentine, shingles, staves and timber is done. Stock is not, but might be 
raised profitably. Wages of field labor, forty to fifty cents a day. One- 
fourth of it performed by whites. North Edisto affords a large water- 
power, and there are two flour and four saw mills on its tributaries. Land 
rents for two dollars an acre, or one-fourth of the crop. There are some 
tracts for sale at five dollars an acre. 

Liberty, {E. D. 144) : Large bodies of swamp lands on the North Edisto, 
consisting of deep, black vegetable mould, resting on clay. Little of it 
improved. The uplands are elevated, fine, dark, gray, saridy loam, six to 
eight inches to subsoil of yellow clay, underlaid by chalk and clay. 
Growth on uplands, pine, oak, hickory and dogwood. As much as 2,000 
pounds of seed cotton, thirty bushels corn, and sixty bushels oats per 
acre has been made on these lands, but the usual average is much less. 
Wages of farm labor, forty cents a day. One-half to two-thirds of it per- 
formed by whites. Very little land for sale; prices, three dollars' to ten 
dollars an acre. The poorer lands are rented at from one dollar to two 
dollars an acre. The locality is very healthy. 

Willoiv, {E. D. 154): Some very fertile, but mostly unreclaimed, swamps 
on the South Edisto and its tributaries. Uplands level, line, gray, sandy 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 101 

loam, six to eighteen inches to subsoil of sticky clay, beneath which sands, 
gravel and chalk are found. Marl occurs on South Edisto river. Growth, 
pine, oak and hickory. Crops, fifteen bushels corn, one-half bale cotton, 
twenty bushels oats per acre. There is a large turpentine factory. The 
tributaries of the Edisto furnish water powers for ginning and grinding. 
Stock does well, and might be profitabl}'' raised. Wages for field work, 
fifty, cents a day. One-third of the field work performed by whites. 
Land for sale at four dollars to ten dollars an acre ; rents from two dollars 
to three dollars. Generally healthy ; mild form of chills and fever 
sometimes. 

Union, [E. D. 153) : Land level. Soil, fine, gray, sandy loam, three 
inches to yellow sand subsoil, and eighteen to twenty inches to yellow 
clay, containing sometimes numerous brown pebbles, which become mixed 
with surface soil and give it a darker color. Growth of uplands, pine, 
ash, hickor}^ and dogwood ; of the swamps, elm, poplar, ash, white oak, 
gum. Crops, six hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, fifteen 
bushels rice, one hundred and fifty bushels sweet potatoes, three hundred 
gallons sj^rup per acre. Besides the South Edisto river, there are Cooper 
creek, ten feet wide, two feet deep, velocity two miles an hour ; Snake 
creek, fifteen feet wide, four feet deep, velocity two miles an hour. Some 
industry in shingles, hoops and turpentine. No attention paid to stock ; 
it might be profitably raised. Wages for work, forty cents per day. One- 
fourth of field work performed by whites. Mild form of chills and fever 
in swamps, otherwise healthy. Lands sell at five dollars to six dollars an 
acre, and rents for two dollars and fifty cents. 

Goodbye's, {E. D. 141) : Lands level. Soil, light sandy loam, with oc- 
casionally a stiff strip. Subsoil, at six inches depth, light yellow clay. 
Growth, pine, oak, hickory. One-third of the field labor performed by 
whites. Lands sell from one dollar to five dollars, and rents from one 
dollar to two dollars an acre. Some chills and fever. 

Van.ces, {E. D. 155) : Lands level, except along Santee river, where they 
are rolling. Soil, fine sandy loam, beneath which is a yellow sand sub- 
soil resting on red clay, that extends to a depth of twenty to thirty feet 
on the river, and twelve to fourteen feet elsewhere, to the depth of the 
wells in both instances. Growth, pitch pine. Crops, five to twenty-five 
bushels corn, five hundred to fifteen hundred pounds seed cotton, ten to 
forty bushels oats per acre. Marl occurs in abundance. Little attention 
given to stock ; it might be profitably raised. Some lands for sale at 
eight dollars to ten dollars an acre. Some chills and fever. 

Sumter County, (3d Sup. Dist. 1 0th United States Census.) 

Privateer, {E. D. 120) : Lands level ; light gray sandy loam, with sub- 



102 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

soil of yellow sand and clay. Growth, pine, oak and hickory. Crops, 
five hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn per acre. A 
black rock found that is used for building to some extent. Forest 
products are turpentine and shingles. Several mill sites. Wages for 
field work, fifty cents a day. All kinds of stock do well. Land sells at 
from three dollars to twelve dollars ; rents from one dollar to five dollars 
per acre. 

Concord, {E. D. 114) : Lands low and level, much of it swamp ; up- 
lands dark gray calcareous sands, with clay subsoil at depth of eight 
inches to ten inches that extends to the depth of the wells, fifteen 
feet to twenty feet. Marl occurs. Wages, fifty cents a day for field labor, 
one-fourth of which is performed by whites. Little land for sale ; rents 
for one dollar and fifty cents to two dollars per acre. Some chills and 
fever. 

Mt. Clio, {E. D. 110): Lands level; dark sandy loam, four inches to 
six inches to subsoil of red clay, beneath which layers of white clay and 
fine sand are found to the depth wells- are dug, fifteen to thirty feet. 
Growth, pine, with occasional ridges of oak and hickory. Average crop, 
four hundred pounds seed cotton. Marl occurs. Scape creek affords 
fine water power. Wages for farm work, forty cents to fifty cents a 
day ; one-eighth of field work performed by whites. Lands sell from 
five dollars to ten dollars, and rent from one dollar to three dollars an 
acre. 

SJiiloh, {E. D. 123) : Land level. Soil, light, loose sandy loam, four 
inches to six inches to subsoil of yellow clays underlaid by stiffer clays, 
containing gravel to the depth of the wells, sixteen feet to twenty feet- 
Growth, pine, oak and hickory. Crops average eight hundred pounds 
seed cotton, eight bushels corn ; as high as one and a half bales of cotton 
per acre has been made. Marl is found under all the swamp lands. 
Stock raising might be made profitable. Farm labor receives fifty 
cents a day ; in some portions nearly all the work is done by whites. 
Land sells from five dollars to eight dollars an acre, rents for one- 
fourth to one-third of the crop. Sometimes chills and fever, otherwise 
healthy. 

Bishopvillc, (E. D. 112) : Western or upper part sand hills, the middle 
undulating, known as " ridge lands ;" tlie lower part level. Soil, light 
sandy loam, six inches to two feet to red clay subsoil, extending to the 
depth of the wells, ten to twenty feet. Growth, pine, with occasional 
spots covered by large red oaks and hickory. Crops, eight hundred 
pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, but the tenant system has so dimin- 
ished the yield that an average can not be stated. Wages, fifty cents for 
field labor, more than one-half of which is performed by whites. Land 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. ^ 103 

sells at eight dollars to ten dollars, and rents at from two dollars to four 
dollars an acre. 

Darlington County, (3d Sup. Dist. South Carolina.) 

Fair's Bay, (E. D. 48) : Lands low, level, interspersed with bays that 
are very productive when reclaimed ; uplands, a fine light sandy loam of 
a dark gray color. Subsoil, light sandy clay, underlaid by white clay- 
Heavily timbered with pine and oak ; swamp growth, oak, poplar, walnut 
and cypress. Crops, cotton, five hundred pounds to fifteen hundred pounds 
seed cotton, eight bushels to fifteen bushels corn, fifteen bushels to thirty 
bushels rice. Little attention paid to stock. Much of the land uncleared. 
No demand to purchase land ; rents for from one dollar and fifty cents 
to two dollars per acre. No prevailing disease; fifteen deaths in 1880 — 
no three from same cause. Farm labor, thirty to fifty cents a day. Nearly 
all the whites do field work. 

Hartsville, (E. D. 36) : One-half lands elevated, level. Soil, coarse gray 
sandy loam. One foot to subsoil of yellow clay, underlaid by alternating 
strata of sand and clay. The other half hilly, broken and sandy ; not 
very productive. Growth, pine, oak and hickory. Crops, six to eight 
hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, five to forty bushels small 
grain per acre. Large beds of chalk occur. Black creek affords good 
water power. Wages, fifty cents. Onedialf the field work done by 
whites. Land sells for six dollars to twenty dollars an acre ; rents for 
two dollars to four dollars. A^ery healthy. 

Tlmmonsvillc, {E. D. 49) : Soil, a stiff" mixture of sand and clay, with a 
red clay or pipe clay subsoil at four inches to six inches depth, underlaid 
by very stiff clay and gravel to the depth of the wells, ten feet to twenty 
feet. Growth, pine, oak and dogwood. Crops, eight hundred to two 
thousand pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, ten to one hundred bush- 
els oats, ten to fifty bushels rice per acre. Grapes do especially well and 
a good deal of wine is made. Gee3e are raised in great numbers. Lake 
Swamp creek, twenty feet wide, four feet deep, velocity three to four miles 
an hour. One-half of the field work done by whites. No land for sale 
price ten dollars to fifty dollars; rents for three dollars to six dollars an 
acre. Very healthy. 

Florence, {E. D. 35) : Lands level, flat. Soil, dark sandy loam, four 
inches to five inches to subsoil of red clay. Growth, pine and small oaks. 
Crops, seven hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, twenty bushels 
to thirty bushels oats per acre. Wages, fifty cents a day. No field work 
done by whites. Improved lands sell at from ten dollars to twelve dollars 
an acre. About half the lands are rented at two dollars and fifty cents 
per acre. 



104 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

High Hill, {E. D. 37) : Land flat. Soil, a dark clay loam, with clay sub- 
soil to the depth of the wells, fifteen feet to twenty-five feet, when a yellow 
sand is found. Growth, pine, oak and hickory. Improved lands sell at 
eight dollars to twelve dollars, and unimproved at three dollars to six 
dollars an acre. One-fourth field work performed by whites. 

Antioch, [E. D. 29) : Lands level. Soil, mostly sandy, though clay lands 
cover a considerable portion of the township; subsoil, red clay and red 
sand, the latter is best adapted to corn, the former to cotton. Growth, 
pitch and yellow pine, oak, hickory and dogwood. ISIuch fine shingle 
and stave timber, and a considerable amount of turpentine produced. 
Little attention is paid to stock. Several water powers. Farm labor, forty 
cents to fifty cents ; one-half or more performed by whites. Lands rent 
at from five hundred pounds to one thousand pounds lint cotton for a 
one-horse farm (thirty acres). Very healthy. Much uncertainty in se- 
curing laborers. 

Society Hill, {E. D. 45) : There are clay lands, mostly swamp along the 
Pee Dee river. The central portion is rolling ; the soil is a fine sandy 
loam, four inches to subsoil of a yellowish color, turning white on ex- 
posure ; underlying this is red clay, in the west the gum flats, consisting 
of fine black sand, have a similar subsoil. Grow^th of uplands, pine, oak, 
and dogwood ; of the swamps, white oak, ash, and poplar. Crops, aver- 
age three hundred pounds seed cotton, eight bushels corn, thirty bushels 
oats per acre ; under good culture 1,500 pounds to 2,000 pounds seed 
cotton, and twenty bushels to twenty-five bushels corn per acre is made. 
A sand stone is used for building chimneys. Cedar creek is twenty feet 
wide, three feet deep, velocity three miles an hour. Wages, fifty cents a 
da3^ Locality very healthy. Improved lands sell at ten dollars to twelve 
dollars an acre, unimproved at three dollars to five dollars. 

Palmetto, {E. D. 43) : Lands rather rolling. Soil, of coarse and of fine 
sand, mixed with clay ; subsoil, red clay ; growth, pine and oak. Crops, 
five Iiundred pounds seed cotton, eight bushels corn, twenty bushels oats 
per acre. High Hill creek is twenty feet wide, with good fall ; Black 
creek is forty feet wide, eight feet deep, velocity four to five miles an hour. 
Wages, fifty cents a day. No land offered for sale ; rents for about two 
dollars an acre. 

Marion County, (3d Sup. Dist., 10th United States Census.) 

Cain, {E. D. 87) : Lands level ; soil, fine dark gray sandy loam, six 
inches to eighteen inches to clay subsoil, beneath which occur strata of 
marl and clay. Growth, pine, oak, dogwood, cypress, &c. Crops, seven 
hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn per acre. Wages of field 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 105 

labor, twenty-five cents to fifty cents a day ; one-third field work done by 
whites ; land sells from three dollars to ten dollars an acre. 

Rowell, {E. D. 101) : Lands level ; soils, on the bottoms, heavy ; on 
the uplands, a light "fluffy" sandy loam, on a red clay subsoil. 
Growtli, pine, oak, poplar, dogwood, hickory, cypress, &c. Some business 
done in shingles, hoops, staves and turpentine. Fine pasturage for 
stock. Wages for field work, forty cents to fifty cents a day for men, 
and thirty cents to forty cents for women. The locality has been very 
healthy for fifty years. Land sells for ten dollars, and rents for two dol- 
lars an acre. 

Jeffries, {E. D. 91) : Prevailing soil a sandy loam, mixed witli clay, 
varying in color from yellowish to dark gray, and resting on subsoil of 
red and yellow sand, containing a good deal of clay. The higher lands 
have more clay, the bottoms are more sandy. Much very fertile land 
unreclaimed on the Great Pee Dee and other water courses. Most of the 
land needs drainage. Growth of lowlands, oak, hickory and dogwood ; 
on ridge lands, pitch and yellow pine, with oak, &c. Grapes are unfail- 
ing, and grow with little care. Stock raising has been profitable. Wages 
for field work, thirty cents to forty cents a day ; one-third of it performed 
by whites. Some fever in the swamps, otherwise healthy. Some lands for 
sale at five dollars to ten dollars an acre. 

Marlon, {E. D. 95) : Lands level or slightly rolling, one-half known as 
"fluffy soil," is a dark gray clay loam, four inches to twelve inches to a 
subsoil of red or yellow clay. The other half is fine dark sandy loam, 
with subsoil of yellow sand ; below the subsoil occur clays of various 
colors, which extend to the depth of the wells, ten feet to twenty-five feet, 
where excellent water is found in a stratum of quicksand and gravel. 
Very fertile bodies of unreclaimed swamps may be purchased at fifty 
cents to one dollar an acre, admitting of thorough drainage and easy til- 
lage. Growth, pine, oak, hickory on uplands, Avith the usual swamp 
growth. Crops, eight hundred pounds seed cotton, fifteen bushels corn, 
twenty bushels rice, two hundred bushels sweet potatoes, under good cul- 
ture much more is made. Much attention is paid to fruits, which do well ; 
the finer varieties of grapes succeed admirably ; the scuppernong is native 
to the locality. Timber for shingles, staves and hoops abundant, and 
some turpentine. Marl occurs. Field work, paid forty cents to fifty 
cents a day ; one-half of it performed by whites. A little land for sale 
at five dollars to eight dollars an acre, more for rent at two dollars to six 
dollars an acre, or one-fourth or one-third the crop, rent for a portion of 
the crop preferred. No malarial disease ; very healthy. 

Kirhy, {E. D. 72) : Land level. To the north, coarse, sandy soil, three 
feet to ten feet to light colored clay, mixed with gravel. In the centre, 



106 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

the land is darker and finer. To the south, there is a gray loamy soil, 
resting at one foot to three feet on bright red clay. The ridges on what 
is known as the " slashes," is a mulatto soil on dark red clay, beneath the 
clay, white sand, mixed with gravel, is found. Growth, long and short 
leaf pine, with the usual swamp growths on the water courses. Crops, 
eight hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, twenty bushels oats, 
twenty bushels rice per acre. The sandy lands were formerly considered 
worthless, a bale to three acres was unusual ; now with manures and ju- 
dicious culture, an average of 1,500 pounds to 2,000 pounds seed cotton 
is not uncommon. Farmers now who do not make their supplies and a 
bale to the acre are not considered as doing well, e. //., a farm of three 
hundred and thirty acres in cotton made, last year, three hundred and 
forty-six bales ; on smaller fields more has been made ; last year a farm 
of twenty acres made 44,600 pounds seed cotton. Besides thorough til- 
lage, twenty or thirty loads of straw or litter, one hundred pounds to tw^o 
hundred pounds Kainit, with one hundred and fifty pounds or two hun- 
dred pounds of superphosphate or of Peruvian guano, is appUed to the 
acre. The " Thomas grape," a fine variety scuppernong, was first culti- 
vated here, and is still found wild. Farm wages, for men. fifty cents a 
day ; for w^omen, thirty cents; one-eighth of the field w^ork is performed 
by whites ; some fever near the river, otherwise remarkably healthy. 
Improved lands rent for five dollars an acre, unimproved for a four hun- 
dred pound bale for a one-horse crop. Lands sell from three dollars to 
one hundred dollars an acre. 

Lef/eWs, {E. D. 93) : Rolling clay lands, sometimes flat and low. The 
sandy soils are level and dry. The subsoil mostly a yellow clay, some of 
red, or yellow sand. Sand is found again four feet to ten feet beneath 
the clay, and in some places marl occurs. Wages of field labor, forty 
cents to fifty cents a day, four dollars to eight dollars a month. One- 
half of the field w^ork done by whites. Knows of no land for sale, may 
be bought for four dollars to ten dollars an acre. Rents for one-third or 
one-fourth of the crop, or worked on shares for one-half to two-thirds of 
the cotton, and two-thirds of the corn ; rents often yield five dollars to 
ten dollars an acre. 

Hillsboro, {E. D. 90) : Soil a darkish gray clay loam, six inches to eight 
inches to a yellow clay subsoil, overlying a very compact red clay that 
reaches twelve feet to twenty-five feet, the depth of wells, where water is 
found in c|uicksand. In the eastern part thousands of acres of most 
fertile sw^amp lands might be reclaimed by drainage. There are also 
some sandy soils, with yellow sand subsoil. Crops, ten bushels to twenty- 
five bushels corn, five hundred pounds to fifteen hundred pounds seed 
cotton, one hundred bushels to two hundred and fifty bushels sweet po- 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 107 

tatoes per acre. Field work paid thirty cents to forty cents a day ; one- 
third done by whites. Health good. 

Carmichael, (E. D. 88) : Lands elevated and level. Soil, a fine sand or 
red clay loam, containing much vegetable mould, underlaid at two feet 
or more by a very dark clay. Growth, pine, oak, hickory and dogwood, with 
juniper and cypress in the swamps. Average crops, one thousand pounds 
seed cotton, twelve bushels to fifteen bushels corn, fifteen bushels wheat, 
thirty-five bushels oats, twenty-five bushels rice per acre. Grapes do un- 
usually well. Field labor paid, thirty-five cents to fifty cents a day ; one- 
third of it done by whites, a sturdy wide awake population of Scotch 
descent. Locality very health}^ Some land for sale at two dollars to 
thirty-five dollars an acre. Most of it rented to laborers at two dollars to 
eight dollars an acre, or for one-third of the crop. 

Harlteesville, {E. D. 89) : ]\Iost of the land is elevated and level, some of 
it, however, is low enough to require drainage. Three-fourths of the 
soils are fine clay, with little vegetable matter, except in the bottoms ; 
one-fourth are sandy soils, with a subsoil of yellow^ clay, mixed with 
sand; it is the best 'adapted to corn and small grain; beneath the subsoils 
clay is found to the depth of the wells, fifteen feet to twenty feet, where 
water is found in quicksand. Growth, on uplands, pine and oak ; in the 
swamps, poplar and cypress ; much timber is rafted down the Little Pee 
Dee. Provision crops are neglected for cotton, and high prices for the 
advancement of suplpies are paid. No fever, the locality is very healthy. 
Price of lands, six dollars to forty dollars an acre. Farm labor paid, 
thirty cents to fift}'^ cents a day ; one-half the field work done by whites. 

Marlboro County, (3d Sup. Dist., 10th United States Census.) 

Red Hill, {E. D. 110): Lands generally level or slightly rolling; rarely 
hilly or broken. The cultivation of large bodies of rich river lands on 
the Great Pee Dee has been abandoned, or they are rented to negro ox- 
farmers. Some bay lands have been reclaimed. To the north, the up- 
lands are a sandy loam, resting on dark clay. Growth, oak and hickory. 
Crops, six to twelve hundred pounds seed cotton, ten to fifteen bushek. 
corn, eight to forty bushels oats, fifteen to twenty-five bushels wheat. 
Fruit very fine. Wages of farm labor, fifty cents to seventy-five cents a 
day. One-eighth of field labor done by whites. The best land will com- 
mand twenty-five dollars to thirty dollars ; average lands fifteen dollars, 
and river bottoms two dollars and fifty cents per acre. Ordinary land 
rents for one hundred pounds seed cotton an acre, or two four hundred 
pound bales for a one-horse farm. Some fever on the river, elsewhere 
remarkably healthy. 



108 THE UPPER PINE BELT. 

Benndt^ville, {E. D. 105) : Lar^e bodies of bottom land on the Pee Dee; 
once ver}' productive, are now abandoned. Culture is chiefl}- confined to 
the uplands, which are level or gently undulating. Soil, a fine sandy 
loam, resting at four inches on red clay underlaid by a chalky clay. 
Growth, pine, oak and dogwood, with the usual swamp growths. Crops, 
one thousand pounds to fifteen hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels 
to thirty bushels corn, twenty bushels to sixty bushels oats, fifteen bushels 
wheat per acre. Grapes, fruits and vegetables do well. Wages for farm 
work, fifty cents to seventy-five cents a day ; one-third of it done by 
whites. Two large mill creeks traverse the township. Little land for 
sale, price ten dollars to twenty-five dollars. Rent, three dollars to five 
dollars per acre. Very healthy. 

Hebron, {E. D. 108) : Level to flat lands. Soil, a sandy loam, mixed 
with clay on clay subsoil. Growth, pine, oak and dogwood. Crops, eight 
hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels to thirty bushels corn, ten bush- 
els to forty bushels oats, five bushels to thirty bushels wheat per acre. 
All fruits do well. Wages, fifty cents to seventy-five cents a day ; one- 
fourth of field work done by whites. No prevailing disease. Land sells 
from ten dollars to fifty dollars an acre ; rents for three dollars to five 
dollars an acre. 

BrightsviUe, {E. D. 106) : Lands elevated. Two-thirds of the soils fine 
gray sandy loam, with j^ellow sand subsoil resting on red clay ; the other 
one-third the same, without the clay. Growth, pine, oak and dogwood. 
Crops, eight hundred pounds seed cotton, eight bushels corn per acre. 
Wages, fifty cents a day ; two-thirds of the labor performed by whites. 
No prevailing disease. No land ofi'ered for sale or to rent. 

AdamsviUe, (E. D. 104) : Lands level or a little broken. Soil of fine 
and coarse whitish or yellowish sand, ten inches to fifteen inches to sub- 
soil of red clay, under which a chalky clay occurs. Growth, pine, oak, 
hickory and dogwood. Crops, one thousand pounds seed cotton, fifteen 
bushels corn, seventy-five bushels oats, twenty bushels wheat per acre. 
Crooked creek is twenty feet wide, eight feet deep, fall eight feet per mile. 
Wages, fifty cents a day. One-half of field work done by whites. Very 
little sickness of any sort. No land offered for sale ; price would be 
twenty-five dollars an acre ; it rents for one hundred and twenty-five 
pounds seed cotton, or two bales of five hundred pounds for one-horse 
farm (twenty-five acres). 

Red Bluff, {E. D. 109) : Prevailing soil a gray or brown sandy loam, 
with subsoil the same, less the vegetable matter, resting at one foot to two 
feet on clay that extends eighteen feet to the bottom of the wells, where 
excellent and abundant water is found in quicksand. Growth, pine, oak, 
hickory, dogwood and gum. Great resources in timber, hooj)s, shingles, 



THE UPPER PINE BELT. 109 

turpentine, &c., untouched, except a little rafted down the Little Pee Dee. 
There is a mill at Red Bluff, on the Little Pee Dee ; the river here has a 
width of fifty-five feet, a depth of six feet, and a current of three miles 
an hour. Crops, one thousand pounds seed cotton (many farms yield a 
bale per acre), and fifteen bushels corn. Farm wages, forty cents to sixty 
cents a day ; one-half of the field work done by whites. Little land 
offered for sale ; prices range from five dollars to forty dollars an acre. 
Rent, in money, is six dollars an acre, or one-third of the crop. 



CH^I^TER V. 



THE RED HILL REGION 



LOCATION. 



The very gradual slope of the upper pine belt having attained an ele- 
vation of two hundred to two hundred and fifty feet above the sea level, 
an irregular and somewhat interrupted line of high hills is encountered. 
These hills rise two to three hundred feet above the plane of the upper 
pine belt in the distance of a few miles, and not unfrequently this eleva- 
tion is attained in traversing a few hundred yards. To the south and 
east extensive views over the gentle and irregular slope of the lower 
country are exposed from the summit of these declivities. To the 
north and west a sort of table land stretches back and gradually merges 
into the higher and more extensive sand hill region of the 8tate. 

The general trend of these hills correspond pretty nearly with that of 
the other regions of the State. Starting on the Savannah river near 
Hamburg, they extend across the southern and western portion of Aiken 
and the northern townships of Barnwell counties. Following the north- 
ern boundary of Orangeburg, they acquire their greatest width in that 
county around Fort Motte, near the confluence of the Congaree and the 
Wateree rivers. West of the Santee river their course is more to the 
north, and they constitute that remarkable line of hills traversing Sumter 
county, long known as the " High Hills of Santee." Included in this re- 
gion is also a body of lands in Edgefield county, known as the " Ridge," 
which lie along the Augusta and Charlotte railroad. Although the latter 
are above the outcrop of the granite rocks, being continuous with the 
red hills, and resembling them closely in physical features and soil, 
they are described with them. 

While these red hills form a well marked bolt across the State below 
the sand hills, from the southwestern part of Aiken county to the north- 



THE RED HILL REGION. Ill 

eastern corner of Snmter, they are not continuous, but are interrupted at 
greater or less intervals by the protrusion of the sand hills. Mills' descrip- 
tion of them east of the Santee river will give an idea of how this occurs. 
He says, " they take their rise about nine miles north of Nelson's ferry on 
the Santee, and form that fine body of brick mould land (3d Sup. Dist., 
E. D. 14 and 15) in tlie Richardson settlement. After continuing eight 
miles, they become suddenly sand hills a little above Manchester. At 
the end of eleven miles they again become red land, which continues to 
Buck creek, nine miles above Statesburg. These hills up to this point 
appear to hang over the Wateree swamps, but now they diverge and turn 
to the northeast, with one ridge in the middle forming a backl)one ; 
breaking off into hills towards the Wateree, and sloping off gradually 
towards Black river. At Buck creek the hills again become sandy, which 
gradually increases for fifteen or sixteen miles, to Bradford Springs ; a 
little above this place they join tile sand hills of the middle country." 
If these alternations were carefully traced it is probable they would be 
found to be due to removal by denudation of the red clay loam from the 
slopes of sand and gravel that rise in the sand hills. For the sienna- 
colored clay loam, characteristic of this region, seldom has a depth greater 
than twenty feet, and is underlaid by beds of sand and gravel. 

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 

The red hill recjion belong-s to the buhr-stone formation of the eocene. 
It presents a series of four quite dissimilar and well marked strata. 
Commencing with the superior, or more recent, these are : 

1st. Beds of red sienna-colored siliceous clay, having a thickness of 
fifteen to thirty feet, and containing fragments of buhr-stone. It was the 
observation by Mr. Tuomey of the passage of these clays under the marl 
and green sand formations of the Charleston basin, at the Belle Brough- 
ton place, on Halfway swamp, in Orangeburg county (E. D. 150), which 
satisfied him that Mr. Lyell had erred in supposing that the buhr-stone 
overlaid the calcareous beds in South Carolina. This observation settles 
a point of considerable practical importance. For as the buhr-stone under- 
lies and forms the floor of the lime formations of the eocene, no marl beds 
need be looked for above the line of its occurrence. 

2d. Beds of coarse red and yellow sands, having a thickness of thirty 
to sixty feet. In these beds are sometimes found, at a depth of fifty feet, 
crystals of rutile, either lying loose among the sands or imbedded in 
rounded masses of quartz or felspar, water-worn by still quite perfect 
pyramidal crystals of quartz an inch in length, are also found among these 
sands. 



112 THE RED HILL KEOIOX. 

3d. Masses of buhr-stone, composed of silicified shells and other organic 
remains of the eocene. Among these shells gasteropoda predominate, 
which, together with the presence of land shells, and shells of mollusks 
which live in marshes(Auriculae), indicate the literal character of the for- 
mation. The leaves of oak, beech and willow trees, silicified or converted 
into lignite, were found here by Mr. Tourney. On Cedar creek, in Aiken 
county, there arc beds of buhr-stone thirty feet in thickness, and at several 
points between this locality and the Savannah river on the west, and the 
San tee and Congaree on the east, there are extensive outcrops of this mate 
rial, from which mill-stones of excellent quality, equal to the best French 
buhr, have been quarried. In the southwestern corner of Aiken county, on 
Hollow creek (E. D. 16), beds of lignite .occur, underlaid by clay that was 
used by the ordinance department during the late war for the manufac- 
ture of fire-proof crucibles, and pronounced equal to the best Stourbridge 
clay for that purpose. Similar beds of lignite are found in Chesterfield 
county, on Whortleberry branch, and at Mr. Croghan, underlaid by clay of 
the same character. 

4th. Beds of a white siliceous rock, varying from a laminated siliceous 
clay to a hard rock, having a jointed structure, breaking with a conchoidal 
fracture, and resembling menilite. This curious rock has been traced from 
near Aiken C. H. to the northern f)art of Clarendon county. In the latter 
county there is a remarkable occurrence of it on the public road just 
north of Gov. Manning's residence (3d Sup. Dist. E. D. 15). On the head 
waters of Congaree creek this rock is sawed into blocks, fashioned with 
an axe, and used for building chimneys. It resists disintegration Avell, 
and its extreme lightness facilitates its carriage and handling. 

Below the series of strata thus described are the great beds of loose 
sand, intermingled with kaolin and variousl}' colored clays, which rise 
into the extensive sand hill region, lying north of the red hills. 

SOILS. 

The reddish loam of this region presents an appearance somewhat sim- 
ilar to that of the soils derived from the hornblende rocks in the upper 
country, but it is not so tenacious and waxy. Although when not culti- 
vated it becomes very hard in dry weather, in wet weather, owing to the 
large amount of sand it contains, the intervals when it can not be worked 
are short. Vegetable matter rots rapidly in it, and for this reason long 
manures (as composts) are better adapted to it than commercial fertilizers. 
The former are rapidly incorporated and well retained, and there is no 
soil that responds so well or is so capable of great improvement under 
treatment with stable and lot manures as these. Worked without ma- 
nure they rapidly consume themselves and become unproductive. 



THE RED HILL REGION. 11 



Q 



The following analyses of typical soils in this region were made by 
Dr. Eugene A. Smith, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, for the 10th United States 
Census : 

1. 2. 

Insoluble matter 88.960 89.340 

Soluble silica . . • 3.055 2.847 

Potash 115 .138 

Soda 050 ^ .063 

Lime 062 .077 

^lagnesia 028 .061 

Br. oxide of Manganese 098 .096 

Peroxide of Iron 1.250 1.559 

Alumina 4.000 3.686 

Phosphoric acid 075 .067 

Sulphuric acid 047 .038 

Water and organic matter 2.621 1.668 

Total 100.361 99.650 

Ilygoseopic moisture absorbed at 80° Fah. . . 1.982 1.444 

These samples were taken uniformly to the depth of twelve inches on 
the table land in Amelia township, Orangeburg county, about three miles 
below the junction of the Wateree and Congaree rivers, from the place 
of J. Peterkin, Esq. The three hundred and seventy-five acres in cotton 
on this place made, in 1879, two hundred and fifty bales of cotton. No. 
1 is from woodlands never cleared ; the growth, large red oak and hick- 
ory, with a sprinkling of very large short leaf pine. No. 2 is from a field 
that has been planted for more than one hundred years ; having on it a 
crop of about twelve hundred pounds of seed cotton to the acre when the 
sample was taken. The field had received only cotton seed and com- 
mercial fertilizers as manures for a number of years. Prof. Toumey, in 
his survey of South Carolina, published in 1848, gives the following 
analvses of these soils ; 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Organic matter. 5.60 7.00 4.40 

Silica 66.90 71.00 80.30 

Alumina 9.60 8.50 6.60 

Oxide of Iron 6.00 4.00 3.70 

Lime 2.00 1.56 0.90 

Magnesia 50 1.00 trace. 

Potash and soda trace. .50 . . . 

Water and loss 9.40 6.44 4.10 

8 100.00 100.00 100.00 



114 THE RED HILL REGION. 

No. 1 was from near Orangeburg village, the southern limit of the 
region under consideration, and near the line where the buhr-stone passes 
under the Santee marls. 

No. 2 was from Lang Syne, the same plantation from which the sam- 
ples analyzed by Dr. Smith, were taken. 

No. 3 was from the " High Hills of Santee," near Statesburg, in Sumter 
county. 

CLIMATE. 

Having an elevation of four hundred to five hundred feet and upwards 
above the sea level, the red hills enjoy a dryer and more bracing atmos- 
phere than the regions to the south. While it is a notable fact that they 
are not so subject to the severer influences of storm winds as the lower 
lying lands, the ordinary movements of the air are more perceptible there 
than in the lower grounds. Thus, during the extremest heats of summer, 
there is rarely a night when the refreshing influence of a gentle south 
wind is not felt, blowing with a uniformity as though it had directly 
traversed the seventy miles intervening between these slopes and the 
ocean. Owing to this movement of the air and to its greater dryness, 
late spring frosts are of less frequent occurrence here than they are fur- 
ther south. Nor is vegetation destroyed by cold so early in the fall. In 
ascending these hills in the autumn and early winter at a certain eleva- 
tion a stratum of warm air is encountered, which seems to cling about 
the hill-tops, while a much chillier night air fills the bottoms. These ad- 
vantages at one time made this region famous for its fruits. During the 
severest winter of the last half century the banana and the sago palm 
in the open ground, protected only by a few handsful of cotton seed on 
their roots, though cut by the frost, retained sufficient vitality to throw 
up vigorous shoots the ensuing spring. This greater length of growing 
season has also made attempts at growing sea island cotton and sugar 
cane more successful here than lower down. The whole region is remark- 
ably healthy, no taint of malaria approaches it and it is in an unusual 
degree free from epidemics of every description. For these reasons many 
localities here, especially the " High Hills of Santee," were formerly much 
frequented as summer and health resorts by planters from all parts of the 
State, as well as from other Southern States. 

GROWTH. 

The long leaf pine thins out on these hills and is sometimes replaced 
by short leaf pine of large growth. Their southern aspect is the upper 
limit of the long gray moss. The characteristic growth, however, is oak 



^ THE RED HILL REGION. 115 

and hickory of large size. All the oaks common to the section attain 
here an unusual size, including even the blackjack and the post oak, not 
conspicuous elsewhere for their growth; the red oak, however, sur- 
passes them all in size, measuring sometimes as much as seven feet in 
diameter, while trees four feet and five feet through are not uncommon. 
The live oak when planted does w^ell, the chinquapin is found wild in 
the w^oods; the Roman chestnut, the pecan nut, the English walnut, 
and the almond, bear abundant crops. So that the region is to a large 
extent suitable for the growth of plants natural to higher and to lower 
latitudes. 

STATISTICS. 

The red hill region contains about 1,620 square miles, and has a popu- 
lation of 44,866, being 27.6 to the square mile. Fifty-six per cent, are 
colored. 

The area of tilled land is 234,682 acres; being 144 acres per square mile, 
or 22 per cent, of the entire surface ; and five acres per capita of the pop- 
ulation. 

The number of farms is 4,568, being 2.8 per sc[uare mile, or a farm to 
nearly every ten persons ; averaging for the w^hole, 228 acres to the farm, 
of which fifty is under culture ; the remaining 178 being included and 
for the most part yielding no return wdiatever. 

The crops are cotton, in which 84,939 acres are planted, yielding 34,249 
bales of cotton in 1879. Averaging a yield per acre of 183 pounds of 
lint, or 348 pounds per capita for the whole population ; which is the 
largest' yield per capita of any region of the State, This is a little more 
than six per cent, of the area planted in cotton in the whole State, and 
yields six and six-tenths per cent, of the entire crop of the State. In 
grain of all sorts 114,425 acres are planted, yielding 804,443 bushels, a 
little over seven bushels to the acre, and seventeen bushels per capita of 
the population, a yield wholly disproportionate to the capabilities of the 
soil, which is particularly adapted to small grain. This area is a little 
over six per cent, of the total area planted in grain in the State, and the 
yield is four and seven-tenths per cent, of the total crop of the State. Of 
course very little rice is planted here, which in part accounts for the fall- 
ing off, that being the most productive grain crop in the State ; but lands 
which in 1825 made an average of eight to twelve bushels (see Mills, p. 
660), and wdien well manured, thirty-four bushels of wheat per acre, and 
from ten to twenty-five bushels of rice to the acre, and still more when 
planted in rye and oats, are far below their normal production Avhen 
yielding as above indicated. In fallow and other crops there is 35,318 
acres, nearly fifteen per cent, of the land once under cultivation. The 



110 THE RED HILL REGION. 

culture of much of this land is abandoned as a consequence of the disas- 
ters that have overtaken the rich planters, who formerly lived here, inci- 
dent to the results of the war. 

The work stock numbers 7,663, not quite five to the square mile, one 
to every thirty acres of tilled land, and to every six of the population. 

The live stock is 61,569, chiefly hogs; thirty-eight to the square mile, 
and nearly one to every four acres of cultivated land. 

At Wedgefield, on the Columbia and Wilmington Railroad, these lands 
are well cultivated and sell as high as twenty-five dollars an acre. At 
Fort Motte, on the Columbia and Charleston railroad, the prices are fifteen 
dollars to twenty dollars an acre, and in Millbrook, Aiken, by the South 
Carolina railroad, they sell for fifteen dollars to twenty dollars, 
and in Beech island, in the same county, near Augusta, Georgia, 
the}^ have recently brought over forty dollars an acre. The great 
body of these lands, however, lying off the railroads, are to be had 
at much lower prices. Large tracts, by no means inferior to those 
already mentioned, except as regards accessibilit}- , are offered at from 
three dollars to ten dollars an acre. It is remarkable that mere accessi- 
bility should affect prices to this degree. For, while the lands themselves 
produce every variety of crop, they are well adapted to cotton, of which 
a two-horse wagon can transport as much as two hundred dollars worth 
at one load ; the roads are excellent and there is scarcely a point that is 
a day's journey removed from a market. That not one-fourth of these 
lands, capable of supporting, in health and abundance, as large a popula- 
tion as land anywhere, are under cultivation, illustrates how much is 
wanting in capital and population to develope the resources of this section. 



CHAPTER VI. 



THE SAND HILL REGION. 



The sand hill region of South Carolina stretches across the State from 
the Savannah river, opposite to Augusta, to the intersection of the North 
Carolina line by the Great Pee Dee river. The average distance of its 
lower border, among the Red Hills, from the sea, is about ninety-five 
miles. Its length is one hundred and fifty-five miles. Its width is 
variable; the maximum, which is reached in Lexington county, is about 
thirty miles, and the average width will hardly reach twenty miles. It 
occupies the larger portion of five counties, viz : Aiken, Lexington, Rich- 
land, Kershaw and Chesterfield. The upper j^ine belt, ascending the 
eastern bank of the Congaree river, in Richland county, until it touches 
the granite rocks of the Piedmont region at Columbia, divides the sand 
hill region into two portions, an eastern and a western portion. 

THE PHYSICAL FEATURES. . 

The physical features of this region are of a monotony aptly charac- 
terized by the term " pine barren," applied to it. The hills slope up 
from the Savannah river to a plateau, having an elevation at Aiken C. H. 
of about six hundred feet above the sea level. Beyond the North Edisto 
river the gradual ascent is resumed, until an elevation exceeding seven 
hundred feet is reached in Piatt Springs township, in eastern Lexington, 
whence there is a rapid descent of more than five hundred feet in a short 
distance to the Congaree river. East of this stream the rise is again 
gradual, and the maximum elevation is reached on the northeast border of 
Richland county, where the hills again descend abruptly to the Wateree 
river. Beyond this river there is no data as to levels, except that on the 
water shed of the Great Pee Dee there is evidence as to extensive denudation 
of the surface to a depth of at least one hundred and fifty feet. The evidence 
is furnished by a conical hill rising in central Chesterfield one hundred 
and fifty feet above the surrounding country, and known as Sugar Loaf 



118 



THE SAND HILL REGION. 



mountain. This hill consists of horizontal layers of sand and kaolin 
cla3's, similar to the prevailing formations of the sand hills, aud lias been 
preserved from denudation by blocks of ferruginous sandstone covering 
its top and sides, identical in character with the same sandstone, known 
as ironstone, found on the summit of these hills in many otlier localities. 
The following diagram presents a view of the relative elevations of this 
region : 




Se.\. Level. Aiken. Lexington. Richland. Kershaw. Chesterfikld. Sea Level. 

A Savannah River ; B South Edisto River ; C North Edisto River ; D Congaree River ; E Wateree 
River; i^Lyneh's River ; G Pee Dee River ; i/ Ailcen Court House; /Sugar Loaf Mountain. 

Scale— 35 miles per inch. Elevation 100 feet per xV inch. 

This longitudinal section of the sand hills illustrates once more the 
law already noticed as prevailing elsewhere — that the long slopes face 
west and south, and the short slopes face east and north ; and, also, that 
the western portion of the State is more elevated than the eastern. It 
will also be noticed that, notwithstanding their just reputation for great 
dryness, these pine barrens are well watered. They are crossed by seven 
rivers of considerable size, having an aggregate length among these 
hills of more than two hundred miles. Of creeks, not counting lesser 
streams and branches, there is an aggregate length in this region of 
eleven hundred and seventy miles, capable of furnishing a large amount 
of water power. For instance, one average creek out of the seventy-eight 
found here, Horse creek furnishes in the single township of Gregg, in 
Aiken county, power for a large paper mill and three cotton mills, being 
1300 horse power utilized, and estimating the power not employed, 
the stream can furnish 2500 horse power. Showing that the streams 
of medium size in this region have a capacity for work, now scarcely 
utilized, greater than that of all the work stock of the State. On the 
margins of these streams there are more than 100,000 acres of bottom 
lands, for the most part uncleared, but capable of being rendered, by 
drainage and irrigation, in the highest degree productive. The water of 
these streams, which are little subject to freshet, but maintain a flow of 
great uniformity throughout all the seasons of the year, is as clear as that 
of the purest springs. Spring branches, and even streams of considerable 
size, sink sometimes into the loose sands of this region and disappear, to 
appear at distant points as " boiling " springs, that is, springs bubbling 



THE SAND HILL REGION. 119 

up with some force, and throwing out considerable quantities of fine, 
white sand. The action of these underground streams in removing and 
transporting these fine sands, accounts for a number of circular depres- 
sions not very different in appearance from lime-sinks, found scattered 
here over the elevated flats and plateaus, and when, by an accumulation 
of vegetable growth or a caving in of the earth, the channels of these 
streams are obstructed, rains sometimes fill these depressions, giving rise 
to clear sheets of water or lakelets. Another phenomenon occurring here, 
and not well understood, are blowing wells, of which there are several. 
For example, on a high sand hill in Hammond township, Aiken county, a 
number of unsuccessful attempts were made during many years to dig a 
well. At length an auger, eight inch diameter, penetrating the loose, 
coarse, white sand, and nothing else, to a depth of one hundred and 
twenty feet, encountered a bold stream of excellent water. When the 
well was curbed and completed, it was found that a current of air issued 
from it all the time, which, in threatening and stormy weather, acquired 
such force as to make itself heard at some distance, and to blow several 
feet into the air a hat or cloth laid over the orifice. 

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 

These hills form a dividing ridge between the more recent formations 
of the low country and the very ancient formations of the upper country. 
Their southern aspect overlooks the tertiary plane descending to the sea 
shore of the Atlantic. On the north they reach the clay slates (dipping 
north) of Edgefield, Lexington, Richland and Chesterfield counties, and 
the granite and gneiss rocks of Kershaw county. Outcrops of these most 
ancient rocks occur among the sand hills themselves, as follows : 

In Aiken county, granite occurs on Horse creek, and granite overlaid 
by gneiss rock and hornblende slate on the South Edisto, where the 
Columbia road crosses in. 

In Lexington county, granite is found at Quattlebaum's mill, on 
Lightwood creek. 

In Kershaw county, masses of steatite occur on Spears, Twenty-five 
Mile, and Pine Tree creeks, and at Liberty Hill and at other places 
rounded blocks of coarse granite are seen, " as though they were pushed 
up through the sand." 

Next to the granite is found a stratum of sandstone, consisting of the 
ruins of the granite consolidated into a pretty hard rock. It occurs on 
Horse creek, on the ridges at the head of Lightwood creek, on Congaree 
creek, where Mr. Tuomey observed in it comminuted fossils of the eocene 
type ; at the Rock House, in Lexington count}', ^^•here it has been quarried 
for architectural purposes, and on Second creek, in the same neighbor- 



120 THE SAND HILL REGION. 

hood, where silicified shells and fragments of lime were found embedded 
in the stone. 

Lying on this sandstone are extensive beds of loose white sand, inter- 
mingled with strata of clay of various colors, the whole having an 
estimated vertical thickness of one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet. 
Large beds of kaolin clay, free from grit or other impurity, and of great 
whiteness, are found intercalated among these sands. Several quarries 
to the west of Aiken C. H. having been worked with much profit, the 
material being used as porcelain clay, and also by paper manufacturers. 
Some of the clays of Lexington county, beautifully mottled with various 
colors, harden, on exposure, to such a degree that it is thought they 
might be utilized for ornamental building purposes. 

The last member of this series of strata is the " ironstone," already 
alluded to as covering the summit of Sugar Loaf mountain. Next in 
order comes the porous, siliceous rock, resembling menilite, and the buhr- 
stone series. 

SOILS. 

The characteristic of the soils of this region is the loose rounded sands 
wdiich form their chief constituent. The organic matter which it con- 
tains consists largely of charcoal, resulting from burning off the woods, 
principally the pine straw (leaves of the pine). Occasionally there are 
rounded hills of very fine sand of a dazzling whiteness, of such purity 
that they seem just to have emerged from the waters, or to have been 
blown together by the winds on the seashore. There are, however, many 
elevated flats, which, under good culture and manuring, give excellent 
crops, and in the vales, the soil is often very productive ; it is cultivated 
with care, and continues to jDroduce so long as there is an atom left of 
anything that can sustain a plant. 

The following analyses of the sand hill soils were made by Prof. C. JJ. 
Shepard, Sr., in 18-46 : 

No. 1. No. 2. No. 3. 

Water of Absorption 5.500 8.00 . . 

Organic Matter 8.500 . . 6.50 

Silica 77.000 81.00 80.00 

Protoxide of Iron 4.005 * • I •-> aa 

Peroxide of Iron 3.50 j 

Alumina ' 5.00 5.50 5.60 

Lime trace 0.40 0.60 

Magnesia trace trace . . 

Phosphates trace . . trace' 

Water and Loss 1.60 4.30 

100.05 100.00 100.00 



THE SAND HILL REGION. 121 

No. 1 is surface soil near Aiken ; No. 2 is subsoil of the same ; No. 3 is 
from Piatt Springs, Lexington. 

In recent years, under high culture, " on a lot in Aiken, adjacent to the 
one where tlie above analysis was made, the product was forty bushels of 
corn, and thirty bushels of wheat per acre." Since the introduction of fer- 
tilizers, level lands in the neighborhood of the South Carolina railway, 
which sold in 1860 for three dollars an acre, have sold for thirty dollars 
and even as high as forty dollars an acre. Throughout this region 
thousands of acres, equal and superior to these, though not immediately 
upon a railroad, are for sale at one dollar to five dollars an acre. 

GROWTH AND PRODUCTIONS. 

The growth is almost exclusively long leaf pine, and on the more 
barren ridges, even this tree becomes stunted, and sometimes, on the 
higher and finer sand crests, yields its place to the New Jersey tea plant, 
which alone covers the dazzling whiteness of the sands. Usually, how- 
ever, there is a heavy growth of long leaf pine, and this tree here — almost 
on its northern limit in the State — attains its highest perfection, not only 
as regards size, trees of three feet and four feet in diameter being not un- 
common, but also as to the quality of its wood, which has more heart 
and is more resinous than elsewhere, a fact duly recorded in the names 
of localities, as Lightwood creek, and Lightwood Knot springs, the in- 
habitants of even this mild climate being not unmindful of the light and 
warmth furnished by this excellent fuel. There is often an undergrowth 
of the forked leaf blackjack, and where there is a suspi^^ion of moisture 
in the soil, this is replaced by the round leaf blackjack, a sure indication 
here of better soil. On the hillsides, there are not unfrequently out- 
croppings of kaolin, and here a growth of kalmia adds a pleasing variety 
to the monotony of the pine forest. 

Besides the staple products of cotton, corn, the small grains, peas and 
potatoes, common to this latitude, these soils have been thought specially 
adapted to certain other crops. One locality has been known for more 
than one hundred years as " Pinder Town," from the number of pea-nuts 
formerly produced there. ]\Iany years ago the lands of Lexington and 
Kershaw were thought especially adapted to the growth of Palma Christi, 
and even with the rude appliances for its extraction in those early days, a 
yield of one hundred and fifty gallons of excellent oil per acre was ob- 
tained. These sandy soils produce sorghum, which, while it is of smaller 
growth than that on more fertile lands, yields more abundantly a syrup 
that is much superior in quality. No where are Avatermelons produced 
with such ease and certainty, in so great quantities, of so large a size, and 



122 THE SAND HILL REGION. 

SO fine a flavor as on the poorest of these lands. There was no finer veg- 
etable or flower garden in the State than that of the late William Gregg, 
situated on a high and sandy liill between Aiken and Graniteville ; one 
scuppernong vine covered the fourth of an acre with its luxuriant and 
productive growth. On the apparently barren hills of this vicinity there 
also flourished formerly a most remunerative culture of the peach. The 
late James Purvis cultivated, with three hands, sixty acres in this fruit, 
and in six years he made five crops, realizing on each from §5,000 to 
^10,000. Neighboring orchardists engaged in this culture have more 
than once made five hundred dollars to the acre. The 

CLIMATE 

of the sand hills is dry, tonic, sunny and stimulating, and entirely free 
from malarial influences. They have long been a resort during winter 
for consumptives from northern latitudes, and during the summer months 
for persons from the lower country of the State. The inhabitants them- 
selves enjoy an unusual degree of health. Cases of great longevity are 
common, and the death rate is unusually low. For example, in Piatt 
Springs township, Lexington, in a population of eight hundred and fifty- 
three by actual count, there were only two deaths in 1879, and only four 
deaths in 1880. Of the latter three were of persons over eighty years of 
age ; nor can this be considered an exceptional case. 

The period without frost has an average duration of two hundred to 
two hundred and twenty -five days, nor are they of very frequent occur- 
rence, even during midwinter. 

The mean annual temperature is 62°, 50^ Fah. The winter mean is 
48°, 53^ Fah. The spring mean is 55° Fah. The summer mean is 75° 
Fah., and the autumn mean is 71°. Excluding August, the warmest month 
of the year, the mean for autumn, i. e., September and October, would be 
68° Fah. The average diurnal range of temperatures is 12°, 65\ a frac- 
tion less than at the important health resort of Santa Barbara, California. 
The elevation and the porous subsoil of said, in which water is found only 
at a depth of eighty feet to one hundred and twenty-five feet, make this 
a remarkably dry climate. Steel instruments may be exposed for months 
without rusting ; matches left open never miss fire ; moth and mould are 
rarely seen, and the cryptogameous plants are feebly represented. Ob- 
servations at Aiken show that the relative humidity of tlie air is 64.0-4, 
being less than at an}' of the fiimous health resorts of Europe, except 
Cannes and Hyeres, wliich are somewhat less, due, perhaps, to the preva- 
lence of the mistral. Heavy dues never occur. Fogs are also rare. The 
number of rainy days varies from twenty-nine to forty-five, and of the 



THE SAND HILL REGION. 123 

remainder, two hundred and sixteen to two hundred and thirty-nine are 
clear, leaving only eighty-four to one Jmndred and seven cloud}'- days. 
During sixteen years the rain fall at Aiken varied from 33.87 inches to 
56.49 inches, with an average of 46.70. During five years six falls of 
snow were recorded, but as a rule there were only a few flakes, which 
melted as soon as they reached the ground. Sleet is more frequent than 
snow, but disappears on a few hours exposure to the sun. The prevailing 
winds are from the south and southwest. The water of wells and springs 
is of a superior character, being transparently clear, with a temperature 
varying from 62° to 64° Fah. (Climate and topography of Aiken, by 
E. S. Gaillard, M. D., Richmond, Va. ; Aiken as a Health Station, by W. 
H. Geddings, M. D.). It must be remembered that this description applies 
to no restricted locality, but refers to an area of more than 2,000 square 
miles, where the sanitary conditions above alluded to are present with the 
terebinthinate and healing odors of a great pine forest. 

AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS. 

The area of the sand hill region is estimated at 2,441 square miles. 
The population is 28,612 ; being 11.7 per square mile, nearly one-third 
less than the average of the State, and less than in any other region. 
Fifty-nine per cent, of the population is colored. 

The area of tilled land is 151,359 acres, which is sixty-two acres to the 
square mile, or a fraction under one-tenth of the entire surface. This is 
twelve acres below the average of the State, and less than in any other 
region except the lower pine belt, where it is thirty-five acres per square 
mile. It is five and a third acres per capita of the population, the largest 
proportion in the State, and is due to the few towns and railroads in the 
region, leaving the rural population more exclusively to agricultural 
pursuits. 

The tilled land is divided among 4,238 farms ; giving thirty-five acres 
of tilled land to the farm ; five acres less than the average for the State. 
The number of farms in proportion to the j^opulation is greater than 
anywhere else, being one farm to every seven of the population. More 
farms are worked by their owners, and fewer by renters than elsewhere. 
Thus in Kershaw and Chesterfield counties, sixty per cent, of the farms 
in the sand hills are worked by the owners, and forty by renters ; in the 
portion of the same districts embraced in the upper pine belt, the Red 
Hill and the Piedmont regions, fifty-six per cent, of the farms are rented. 
This independent small proprietary has exercised its influence on the ag- 
ricultural policy of the State, and the long opposition to a change of the 
fence law is largely due to them. They have also, in times past, been a 



124 THE SAND HILL REGION. 

third party, as it were, stretching across the middle country of the State, 
between the larger farmers of the upper country on the one hand, and 
the planters of the lower country on the other. This, together with the 
sparsely settled country. Where heavy sand hills were not favorable to 
transportation, before the days of railroads, has made this section in some 
sort a barrier between these two sections, socially and industrially, as it 
is geologically. 

The crops are : cotton, 35,433 acres, two per cent, of the entire surface ; 
yield, 15,055 bales, 6.1 bales per square mile, or about one hundred and 
ninety-three pounds of lint cotton per acre, a little above the average of 
the State, owing doubtless to the large area from which the small number 
of acres planted is selected. The yield per capita is only two hundred 
and thirty-nine pounds, less than in any portion of the State north of 
the lower pine belt and south of the Piedmont country. 

Corn and other grain, 93,283 acres, yielding 920,444 bushels, a fraction 
less than ten bushels per acre, but thirty -two bushels per capita of the 
population, nearly double the average for the State, and twelve bushels 
per caj^ita more than the next highest (the Piedmont) region. Another 
result of an independent small proprietary and of a rural population re- 
moved from the thoroughfares of travel and of trade, and forced truly on 
their own resources for subsistence. 

In all other crops and fallow there is 22,043 acres, most of which is in 
orchards and gardens. 

The work stock numbers 8,518, being 3.8 per square mile, which is less 
than in any region of the State, except among the extensive unimproved 
forests of the lower pine belt, where the proportion is only a little more 
than half the above. The ratio of work stock to population is 29-100 to 
one, being nearly double the average of the State. This is owing to the 
larger proj^ortion of rural population, and consequently of farmers em- 
ploying stock ; to the small independent farm-holdings, separated by wide 
tracts of unimproved land ; the small proportion of crops worked by 
hand, such as cotton and rice and the larger proportion of land in grain, 
tilled chiefly by horse power ; and to the great facility and cheapness of 
keeping stock on home-raised supplies, in place of doing so with corn and 
hay brought from the north and west. These same reasons will account 
for there being only seventeen acres of tilled land to the head of work 
stock, seven acres less than the average of the State, although the lands 
are light and of easy culture. 

There is 70,901 herd of all kinds, being only twenty-nine to the square 
mile, which is eight less than the average for the State, and less than any 
where in the State, except upon the sea coast, and in the lower pine belt. 
This statement will doubtless seem very strange to the farmers in these 



THE SAND HILL REGION. 125 

regions, affording the widest ranges of forest pasturage for stock, and who 
consider stock-raising as one of their most important concerns. This 
opinion among the sand hills arises from the fact, that there is 2.47 
head of stock to each one of population, nearly double the average for 
the State, which confirms the importance of their stock to them, while it 
fails to show that lands in woods-pasture, with freedom of range for stock, 
give as much return in stock as lands under cultivation. On the con- 
trary, tables here appended, show that the amount of live stock per 
square mile increases, with the increase in the number of acres of tilled 
land per square mile. Whence it follows that stock raising in this State 
has passed out of that early condition of things, w^hen wild stock roaming 
at large yielded the largest return. 



CHAPTER VII. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 



LOCATION, PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

The Piedmont region of South Carolina coincides very nearly with 
what is known as the upper country of the State. It includes the whole 
of eight counties, to wit : Abbeville, Anderson, Newberry, Laurens, Union, 
Fairfield, Chester and Lancaster. It also embraces the northern portion 
of Edgefield and Lexington, and the northwestern portions of Pichland, 
Kershaw and Chesterfield. The southern parts of Oconee and Pickens, 
and the southern and larger portions of Greenville, Spartanburg and York 
are within its limits. A line drawn from a point on the Savannah river 
three miles above Hamburg to Columbia, and running thence northeast to 
where the Great Pee Dee river crosses from North into South Carolina, 
defines, in a general way, its southern border. Its northern boundary 
follows, in the main, the direction of the Atlanta and Charlotte Air Line 
railroad, which lies on the edge of the Alpine region, just north of the one 
under consideration. 

PHYSICAL FEATURES. 

The physical features of this portion of the State entitle it to the name 
of the Piedmont Region. Its rocks are so similar to those of the Blue 
Ridge mountains that, though they have been broken down, levelled off, 
and worn away by exposure, during the countless ages, to the vicissitudes 
of the seasons, they are, and always have been, the foot hills of the 
Apalachian range, while the broken and mountainous region to the 
north, usually spoken of as the Piedmont country, might be better called 
the Alpine or Sub- Alpine region of the State. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 127 

The elevation of thirty-one points in the Piedmont region, varying 
from a minimum of 179.5 feet on the granite rocks at the Congaree bridge, 
below Columbia, to a maximum of 880 feet at Belton, on the Greenville 
railroad, give a mean elevation above the sea of 590 feet. The mean 
elevation of the Columbia and Augusta railroad, where it passes along 
the southern border of the region, is 575 feet. That of the Air Line rail- 
road in South Carolina, lying to the north of it and almost wholly within 
the Alpine region, is 910 feet. Between these two lines, therefore, a dis- 
tance of some ninety miles, there is a general rise of the surface of three 
hundred and thirty-five feet, or less than four feet to the mile. This is a 
gentler slope than that of the tertiary plain or low country. The distance 
from the sea to its northern border being about one hundred miles, and 
the difference in elevation something more than five hundred feet, or over 
five feet to the mile. 

The face of the countr}' presents a gently undulating plain, which be- 
comes more rolling as it approaches the rivers and larger streams, and is 
finally hilly and broken above the bottoms and narrow, low grounds, 
through which the numerous water courses find their passage. 

While the general rise in the surface is less than that in the low country, 
the rise in the beds of the streams, owing to the resistance of the under- 
lying rocks, which prevent the water from deepening their channels, is 
much greater. Thus, the elevation above the sea of the lower falls of 
these rivers is, for the Savannah, 133 feet ; for the Congaree, 135.3 feet; 
for the Wateree, 133 feet; but where they enter this region from the 
north, the surface of the water has an elevation above the sea level of 
403 feet for the Savannah, of 552 feet for the Broad river, and of 514 feet 
for the Catawba. This gives an average difference of 3G0 feet in about 
83 miles, or a fall per mile in the Piedmont region of 4| feet, against an 
average fall in the lower course of these rivers of about 1.2 feet per mile. 
While this renders the navigation of the upper portions of these rivers 
difficult, it adds largely to their availability as water powers for moving 
stationar}^ machinery. 

The Savannah river, on the western boundary of the State, passes 
through the metamorphic rocks for more than one hundred miles, and 
although it receives many affluents, and some of them quite large, on its 
eastern bank, they join at such an acute angle as to make its eastern 
water shed very narrow — scarcely anywhere exceeding twenty miles 
in width. To the east, Lynch's river passes through this region for about 
twelve miles, its western water shed not exceeding five miles. Between 
these two narrow water sheds in the east and west there is an interval of 
about one hundred miles. The numerous streams traversing this inter- 
val belong to one river system, and unite shortly after entering the ter- 



128 THE riEDMONT REGION. 

tiary plain to form the Santce river, which lias been called the river of 
South Carolina. The swift Catawba, with a fall of nearly six feet to the 
mile, merges into the Wateree and forms the eastern and main channel 
of this river system. Its larger affluents all reach it from the west, those 
from the east being, in comparison, small. Tlie Saluda, on the other 
hand, the most westerly river of the group, receives all its larger affluents 
from the east ; a high ridge on its western water shed, for the most part 
barely five miles wide, separates its waters from those flowing into the 
Savannah. The triangular space enclosed between these two streams and 
washed by their numerous tributaries, viz : Reedy, Little, Bush, Broad, 
Ennoree, Tyger, Pacolet and Fair Forest rivers, besides many large creeks 
and branches, bears ample, evidence to the erosion it has suffered. The 
softer rocks, such as talc and mica slates, found beyond these streams on 
the eastern and western ridges of the triangle, are wanting within, it 
having been washed away, leaving behind them only the hard gneiss or 
the still harder granite to dispute the passage of the waters. 

RIVERS. 

The following gives the leading characteristics of some of these streams 
so far as they have been ascertained, numerically : 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 



129 



TABLE. 





NAME OP 

AFFLUENT OR 

RAPID. 

1 


LOCAL FEATURES. 




N.\MB OF 


DISTANCE. 


Length in 
Miles or 
Yards. 


FKET. 




RIVER. 




Place 
Whence 
Measured. 


"5 


■o 


ft 
Q 


So 

- i> 

■5 CO 

>'z 

ft 


REMARKS. 




iStevens Creek 


8 

ir- 

29 
401^ 
64 
71 


Augusta.. 


55 miles. 

OOOfeetl" 
5 miles... 
60 miles. 
7 miles... 
45 miles. 


10." ' 
35. 

74.8" 

12!"" 

20. 
18. 

so!' ■ 

20. 

39."' 
80. 

17. 


13.50 
600 

1200 
150 

2400 
90 

2100 
30 
120 


5 
3 
5 
2 
2 
2 

1 
30 


0.8 

10. 
0.7 

10. 






Reach 




.1 


Bluejacket Shoal 

Long 8hoal 




:: •••• 


Little River.. 

Trotter's 8hoal 

Rocky River 




>> 


Lee's Shoal 




Rocky Rivfei 
isiivaiuiah .. . 


Gregg's Shoal 

'Middleton Shoal 


85 

88 

89 

95 
107 
1071^ 
110 

nvA 

IWA 

144 

2 

10 

22 

32 

43 

76 

84 

91 

94 

15 

27 
&5 
41 
40 

15 

39 

47 

44 
6 
12 

14 

61 
67 
69 
75 
23 
26 
40 

81 
93 
97 
98 
114 

9 

9 
20 


,. 


1 mile 

1 mile 

12 miles. 
5 miles... 
14 miles.. 
70 miles.. 
1'/$ miles 
3U0 y'ds... 

1 mile 






1 Little Generosiee 

McDaniel Shoal 




11 


Little Beaver Dam Cr. 
Senaca River 


Fall in creek. 


•• 


240 

500 

45 

120 
90 

100 
60 
60 
60 
60 
1200 
75 


2 
5 

6 

15 
1^ 


2.5 
6.6 




1. 


Hatton's Shoals 






Big Beaver Dam Cr'k. 
Guests Shoals 


Fall 2 miles above 
mouth 


a 


A. &C. A.L. R. R 

Saluda Canal 

Di'eher's Canal 




.'Pallida 


Columbia. . 




34. 
21. 
45. 

70. 
25. 
30. 

26.5 












„ 


Calk's Ferry 

Bush River 


'.'.'.'.'.'. 


3 miles... 
35 miles 
40 miles:. 
55 miles.. 




" 


Little River 




'I 


Reedy River 




•t 


Great Falls 

Narrow Shoals 




i> 


Columbia 


2.9 miles 
14 miles.. 




'I 


Cedar Shoals 




Broad River. 


Bull Sluice 

Cedar Creek 




1. It 


Little River 




<t IC 


Summer Shoal 


1666 yd's. 


11.6 




.1 >> 


Buck Shoal 




11 11 


Lyle Shoal.. 


From mouth. 

Columbia 

From mouth. 


1640 y'ds. 
92 miles.. 


"■11.36 

15. 

36. 

70. 

„„... 

41. 




>l ti 


Ennoree River 


Navig'ble 110 railes 


'I » 




Pennington's Fort. 


.1 11 


11 11 


303 y'ds... 
528 y'ds... 
75 miles.. 


Musgrave's Fort. 


.1 14 


U 11 


Mountain Shoal. 


11 11 


Tyger River 


180 


2 




Navigable 30 miles 


11 11 




Hawkins Shoals. 


• 1 11 


11 11 










Calk's Bridge. 


11 11 


11 1 


• 
Columbia 


40 miles.. 


750 
15 

150 
10 

30 
30 
75 

450 


6 
5 

2 
15 
19 

5 




Fair Forest Creek 




Wood's Ferry 


has 6 miles above 
a fall of 25 feet. 


11 


Turkey Creek 




11 


Lockhart Creek 


From mou til. 
Columbia 


1.4 miles. 
bO miles.. 
]4 mile... 
86 y'ds,... 
880 y'ds .. 

2.5 miles.. 
18 miles.. 


47.6 

20!'" 

10. 

16. 




11 11 


Pacolet River 




11 II 




Trough Shoals. 


" •• ::: 


11 11 
Thickettv Creek 


Hurricane Shoals. 


11 11 


King's Creek 




11 11 


Roaring Bull Sluice... 
Cherokee Shoal 




11 11 


Wateree Riv. 


5 J.^miles 

'Smiles... 
72 miles.. 
2 miles... 


103.9 
178V 
29. 




1' 11 


Quinn's Ferry 


N. Carolina Line. 


Catawba i 


Cireat Falls 






Fishing Creek 




1. 11 


Landsford 











130 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

The Savannah river is now navigable for pole boats carrying fifty bales 
of cotton for one hundred and and fifty -four miles above Augusta. The 
report of the Chief Engineer U. S. A., 1879, states that, for an outlay of 
$188,000, a permanent channel, three feet deep and sixty feet wide, of 
safe and easy navigation for such boats, could be made. For $97,000, in 
addition to the above, one hundred and fourteen miles could be made 
into a steamboat channel, ninety feet wide and three feet deep. 

The Saluda river is navigable for eighty-four miles above Columbia, 
where it unites with the Broad to form the Congaree river, for the same 
kind of boat. 

The Broad river is navigable for one hundred and thirteen miles in 
South Carolina, above Columbia, and for twenty-eight miles more in 
North Carolina, for this class of boats. It has a total length of one 
hundred and seventy-five miles. 

The Catawba river has a fall of three hundred and twenty -five feet in the 
fifty-five miles of its course in South Carolina. Its banks are three hun- 
dred to three thousand feet apart, and from ten to one hundred feet high. 
Above Rocky Mount, in Chester, there is a fall at one point of fifty feet 
in four hundred yards. It has a total length of two hundred and seventy- 
two miles, and its source is two thousand five hundred feet above the 
level of the sea. 

The data above given w^ere obtained by surveys made in the dryest 
season of a very dry year, and, therefore, represents these streams at ex- 
treme low water. This low stage of the water prevails during October 
and November. At other seasons, the volume of water would be, on the 
average, two or three times as great. The rivers are subject to freshets, 
rising twenty to thirty feet above low water mark, this rise being greatest 
where they issue from the Piedmont region. No local falls under ten feet 
have been entered in the table, although such falls not unfrequently 
afford the most available powers. Together, these streams furnish a 
navigable highway of four hundred and five miles, which might be greatly 
and permanently improved and much increased for a moiety of what the 
same length of railroad would cost. 

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. 

The rocks of the upper country of South Carolina are a continuation 
of and similar to the rocks of middle North Carolina, identified by the 
Geologist of that State, Prof. W. C. Kerr, as belonging to the Laurentian 
and Huronian formations. They are held to be the most ancient of rocks, 
and antedate the unnumbered ages during which the varied forms of 
plant and animal life have succeeded each other on this planet. Disclos- 



THE PIEDMONT REGIOX. 131 

ing themselves no evidence free from question that any living things 
existed at the period when they were formed, it is upon their flanks, and 
largely from material furnished by their disintegration, that the whole 
series of formations composing the surface of the earth and marking the 
different geological eras of its history has been built up. In South Carolina 
these oldest rocks appear among the sands of the tertiary — the most 
recent geological age. The records of the intervening ages have dis- 
appeared, and the stone pages upon which the introductory and conclud- 
ing chapters of the earth's history are written, here lie side by side. 
Among the oldest of these rocks are the 

GRANITES, 

which have their outcrops in Carolina along three nearh'- parallel lines, 
as follows : 

1st. On the most southern of these lines the granite shows itself among 
the sand hills at Graniteville, on Horse creek, Aiken count}^, and thence 
at various points in a northeasterly direction to Columbia. Notable quar- 
ries for building materials are worked at Graniteville and at Granby, 
below Columbia. 

2d. The second line of outcrop extends from the neighborhood of 
Horn's creek, Edgefield county, across Newberr}^ Fairfield and Kershaw 
counties, to the northwestern corner of Chesterfield. In Edgefield, New- 
berry and Fairfield, the granite is associated with beds of hornblende rock 
and forms the substratum of a heavy, dark, red clay loam, which is one 
of the best and strongest soils in the State. Here, also, quarries of excel- 
lent granite, fine-grained and easily splitting, have been found, especially 
in Newberry and Fairfield counties, where inexhaustible quantities of 
the best building granite are found. There is a beautiful flesh-colored 
porphyritic granite found in Kershaw. In Edgefield and Lancaster it 
becomes coarser and syenitic in character. 

3d. The third line of outcrop stretches through Laurens, Union and 
York counties. In the vicinity of Union C. H., the granite is of exceed- 
ingly fine grain, and well adapted for architectural purposes, but the most 
of it on this line is characterized by a coarse porphyried structure, and it 
shows itself in an undecomposed state at only a few points. 

GNEISS, 

or laminated granite, forms by far the larger portion oi the rock under- 
lying this region. No strict line of demarcation between it and the gran- 
ite has been established. In mineral constituents, color and grain, they 



132 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

are alike and seem to shade off insensibly into each other. This explains 
why, in nearly every township, the occurrence of rock, well adapted for 
building, and called granite, is reported in greater or less quantities. 
The most marked difference is, that where the stratiform character of the 
gneiss is most marked the hornblende beds, associated with the granite, 
and of such high value as a soil yielder, disappear. Although traversed 
by numerous veins, this rock has so far furnished nothing of importance 
to the miner in this State. Its general dip is slight and to the southeast. 
On its southern border, however, the gneiss rock is found with a vertical 
dip, as at Edgefield C. H. South of the Saluda river, in Lexington, it is 
found between the granite and the clay slates, dipping X. E. 80°. In 
Xewberry, near the thirt}- mile post on the Columbia road, a coarse feld- 
spathic gneiss, alternating with hornblende slate, forms an anticlinal ridge, 
dipping southeast on its southern, and northwest on its northern slope. 

Immediately overlying the gneiss, belts of hornblende slate, of no great 
breadth, and having nowhere an ascertained thickness exceeding twenty- 
five feet, are exposed. 

MICA SLATE. 

These belts of hornblende generally surround isolated areas of mica 
slate, which overlie them. The}^ are found chiefly towards the north, 
along the base of the triangle formed by the affluents of the Santee, or to 
the west of this river system in Abbeville, Anderson, Greenville and Pick- 
ens. They occupy the summit of ridges, as of King s Mountain, in York. 
On the water courses they give place, first to the hornblende slate, and 
then to the gneiss, which forms almost everywhere the beds of the streams. 
They have an ascertained thickness, exceeding in no single locality one 
hundred feet. ]\Iines sunk in them have, in several instances penetrated 
to the underlying gneiss. Mica slate thus occurs as large islands, the 
remnants, perhaps, of what may once have been a succession of wave-like 
parallel folds, dipping gently with the Atlantic slope to the southeast and 
covering the entire surface, but disappearing long ago under the erosive 
action of the present river system of the State. Numerous gold mines 
and veins bearing copper, lead and silver, have been found in these rocks, 
and, to a limited extent, worked. The iron furnaces of Cowpens and 
Hurricane Shoals are also located in this formation. Mica of excellent 
quality has been mined in Dark Corner township, Anderson, and in Ab- 
beville. In the former locality beryl and copper are also found ; corun- 
dum and zircons are found in Hall township, Abbeville, and in other 
localities. Asbestos occurs near Glenn Springs, Spartanburg, a noted 
health resort, the curative virtues of whose waters, with those of many 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 133 

other similar springs in this region, is clue to the minerals dissolved from 
these mica slates during their j^assage through them. 

TALC SLATES. 

Next in the order of superposition above the.-mica slates occur extensive 
areas of talc slate. These rocks seem to have yielded more completelj^ to 
the erosive action of the rivers even than the mica slates. They scarcely 
appear at all in the angle enclosed between the Catawba and the Saluda. 
Their largest outcrops are east of the Catawba, in Lancaster and Chester- 
field, and separated from these by the whole width of the river system of 
the State, eighty miles, to the southwest they occur on the further side of 
the Saluda, in Edgefield and Abbeville. These two localities are the great 
gold-bearing regions of the State. 

ITACOLUMITE. 

On Broad river, near the northern boundary of the State, where Union, 
York and Spartanburg corner, an interesting series of rocks occur, the 
most peculiar of which is a flexible* sandstone, the itacolumite or diamond 
bearing rock, which gives its name to the group under the designation of 
the itacolumitic series. Thus far only one diamond has been found in 
South Carolina, though several have been obtained from the continuation 
of these rocks, both in Georgia and in North Carolina. 

CLAY SLATE. 

South of the rocks above mentioned, and extending along the edge of 
the tertiary from Edgefield to Chesterfild, a broad belt of clay slates 
occur. On their southern border, among the sands of Lexington and 
Chesterfield, or just north of the granite in Kershaw, Richland and 
Edgefield, these clay slates dip northwest 14° to 18°. This angle increases 
further north, until the slates stand vertically ; still further on the dip is 
reversed to the southeast. In Edgefield and Lexington, where they occupy 
the widest areas, these rocks seem to have had their positions much dis- 
turbed, and Avhile the edges of the strata preserve their northeasterly 
strike, their faces are turned alternately northwest and southeast — now 
towards the mountains, and again towards the sea. These clay slates are 
contiguous to the Jurassic strata of North Carolina. Mr. Tuomey found 
in Chesterfield fossils which he credited to the new red sandstone, and in- 
timated that these slates themselves might possibly be identified with the 
paleozoic series. It seems at least certain that they overlie, and are, there- 



134 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

fore, younger than the other rocks of this region, excepting, possibly, the 
itacohimitic scries alone. 

TRAP. 

The Trappean rocks remain to be mentioned. They are found chiefly 
on two lines. The principal one is the most southerly and extends from 
Edgefield across to where the Catawba enters the State. Their trend is a 
little more to the north of east than that of the other strata, which they 
therefore cross at an angle. Their greatest development is in Chester and 
York, where they form the substratum of a large body of very peculiar 
lands, known as the blackjack lands. These Trappean rocks show them- 
selves along another line parallel with this one and to the north of it, 
stretching from Calhoun's Mills, in Abbeville, to the Lockhart shoals on 
Broad river, in Union. Here they also give rise to a peculiar and inter- 
esting body of lands known as the " flat woods " of Abbeville, and the 
" meadow lands " of Union. In Chester and York the prevailing dykes 
are of melaphyre and of aphanitic and dioritic porphyry ; in Abbeville 
of felsitic and dioritic porphyries. 

This brief sketch of the geological features of the region requires a 
reference to the ores and minerals found there : 

GOLD. 

" Gold," writes Governor Drayton, in 1802, " is said to have been found 
in sufficient c[uantity to be made into a ring, but this is only a report of 
what is said to have taken place many years ago." In 1826, the occur- 
rence of gold in Abbeville and Spartanburg is merely mentioned by j\Iills 
in his " Statistics of South Carolina." The United States Census of 1840 
states, that " fifty-one hands were engaged (chiefly in iron mines) in min- 
ing in South Carolina." In 1848, Mr. Tuomey found over two hundred 
hands at work in the Brewer gold mine in Chesterfield, from which more 
than $1,000,000 in gold has since been taken. In 1859, Lieber writes on 
a line on the map of the State crossing it at the lower border of the meta- 
morphic rocks : " Above this line most streams contain some gold in their 
sands." At that date twenty-one gold mines had been opened in the talc 
slates of Chesterfield and Lancaster, and ten in the same slates in Abbe- 
ville and Edgefield ; among the latter, the Dorn mine, that has yielded 
$1,100,000 and upwards in gold. In Spartanburg, in Union and York 
there were nineteen gold mines, mostly in the mica slates, and in Green- 
ville and Pickens, eight others, chiefly gravel deposits — in all fifty- 
seven. Work has been abandoned since the war in all or in nearly 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 135 

all of these mines. With rare exceptions, if any, it was never 
systematically conducted, as may be inferred from Mr. Tuomey's 
description of the Brewer mine, which was leased to twenty or thirty in- 
dependent companies, numbering three to six persons each, and having 
each a portion equal to about twelve feet square of the surface. 

From the returns of the 10th U. S. Census it appears that besides 
minor minerals, to the value of $27,709, South Carolina produced in 1879 
of gold $13,040 ; ranking in the order of production of this metal 
fifteenth among all the States, and third among the States east of 
Dakota 

Gold occurs in South Carolina : 

I. In numerous gravel deposits. Of these, one class occur in beds of 
rounded and water-worn pebbles and gravel, showing that the material 
has been transported from a distance. Other deposits are found among 
angular fragments of rocks, and these, in some instances, have been 
traced back to the neighboring rocks, from which they were derived. 

II. In silicious veins of three leading types, viz. : 

1st. The " Carolina group " of crystaline quartz veins. The upper part 
of the vein abounds with iron pyrites. The gold is in coarser grains and 
more abundant above. In descending, the vein contracts and the gold 
lessens in quantity. At the same time copper makes its appearance and 
increases steadily in quantity so far as followed, and with the copper is 
frequently associated ores of manganese, lead and silver. These veins 
extend from the itacolumite above, down through the clay, talc and mica 
slates into the underlying gneiss. They are most productive of gold in 
traversing the talc slates. Of this type was the neighboring Reid mine, 
of North Carolina, famous for having yielded a nugget of twenty-eight 
pounds, and another of eighty pounds, and of which Lieber writes ; " I 
question if any one spot in California or Australia ever produced as much 
gold." 

2d. The saccharoid veins of a fine granular quartz, resembling powdered 
sugar. Only traces of these veins are found in the itacolumitic rocks, 
and none in the clay slate. They have their greatest productiveness in 
the talc slates, becoming less so as they descend through the mica slates 
to the underlying gneiss. 

3d. The hornstene lenticular veins, irregular, wedge-shaped, detached 
quartz veins, having sometimes very rich pockets. They are found only 
in the talc slates. 

III. In gold-bearing beds of the slate rock itself. These auriferous 
beds are found only in ihe talc slate, save in one instance in the overly- 
ing clay slate. The following diagram, after Lieber, showing the relative 



136 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 



position of the different rocks and the degree of development of the gold 
veins of the various types in each by the size of the dark blocks opposite 
its name, may make this clearer : 



Geological 
Eras. 



Rocks in the 
Order of 

THEIR 

Superposition 



VEINS. 



< 

o ^ 
^ 2 



o 

Pi 

o 
o 



< 

O 
H 



o 

i-i 



-pv , A •!■ f Super If acolumitic 

Post Auriferous I Limestone. 



II. 

Auriferous. 



III. 

Sub-Auriferous. 

IV. 



'' Itacolumitie 
Rocks. 

{ Clay Slate. 
Talc Slate. 
Mica Slate. 



(^ Gneiss. 



Anti-Auriferous— Granite. 







These facts support the views of Sir Roderick Murchison and Lieber, 
that there has been a golden age among the geological periods. Here it 
seems clearly marked as the period when the talc slates were forming. 
As to whether the gold came up from the bowels of the earth, through 
the agency of eruptive forces peculiar to that or a subsequent period, or 
had a meteoric origin, falling upon what was then the surface, from the 
interplanetary spaces, just as iron dust is now falling on the perpetual 
snows of the east coast of Greenland, may be matter for discussion. Gold 
certainly gives out at certain depths ; whether it exists at all at still lower 
depths is unknown. That it exists outside of the earth the metalic 
vapors of the sun and stars revealed by the spectroscope renders prob- 
able. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 137 

ORES AND MINERALS. 

Silver in argentiferous galena is found in Spartanburg and Laurens, 
and more recently in Edgefield and Abbeville. Across the Savannah 
river, from the last named localities, the mining of this ore for silver, as 
well as for lead and the zinc blende associated with it, is attracting much 
attention at this time. 

Copper is found everywhere in the gold veins of the " Carolina group." 
As it increases regularly with the depth to which tlie veins have been 
worked, experts h%^e been satisfied that it will be found in remunerative 
quantities. "With this view, work was being vigorously pushed in the 
Mary and in the Wilson mines, in York, just previous to the war. Since 
then attention has not been directed to the matter. 

Bismuth, in quantity, was found by Mr. Tuomey at the Brewer gold 
mine in Chesterfield. 

Iron in magnetic and specular ores is found in inexhaustible quantities 
on the western slope of King's mountain, in York, Spartanburg and 
Union, one also in Chester and Abbeville. Brown htematite occurs in 
the mica slates of Pickens and Spartanburg, and has been used at the 
Pacolet and Cowpens Iron Works. Bog iron ore occurs in nearly every 
county of the State. 

Limestone appears in York, Spartanburg, Laurens and Pickens. 

Barytes, in great quantities, occurs near the Air-Line railroad in York. 

Manganese, in great purity and abundance, is found at the Dorn mine 
in Edgefield, and also in Abbeville, York, Laurens and Anderson. 

Graphite, in considerable quantities, is found in Williamston township, 
and elsewhere in Anderson, also in Spartanburg, Greenville and Laurens. 

Feldspar* of excellent quality, in extensive veins, occurs in Easley 
township, Pickens ; in Lowndesville, Abbeville, and also in Anderson 
and Laurens. 

Asbestos occurs in Spartanburg, Laurens, York, Anderson and Pickens. 

Steatite or soapstone is found in Chester, Spartanburg, L^nion, Pickens, 
Oconee, Anderson, Abbeville, Kershaw, Fairfield and Richland ; whet- 
stones and flagging stones are found in Edgefield, Abbeville, Chester, 
Lexington, Fairfield, and the Pee Dee country. 

Sphiel rubies, in Pickens ; tourmaline, in York, Edgefield, Laurens, 
Anderson and Oconee ; beryl, in Edgefield and Laurens ; corundum, in 
Laurens, Anderson and Oconee ; zircons, in Abbeville and Anderson. 

SOILS. 

The area of land in the Piedmont region whose culture is impeded by 
the rocks prevalent there, is comparatively insignificant. This is due to 



138 THE PIEDMONT REGION, 

the rather remarkable extent and depth of the disintegration of these 
rocks. It is not an uncommon occurrence that wells sunk through 
granite to a depth of thirty or forty feet, require for their excavation no 
other implement than a spade. Frequently so thorough is the decom- 
position, that the sides of railroad cuts and of mines might be mistaken 
for a heap of transplanted materials, did not the existence of seams and 
quartz veins, which may be always traced on the fresh surfaces, make it 
certain that the rock had rotted where it stood. The chief impediments 
to culture are the masses of quartz rock, once forming these veins, but 
now scattered broadcast over the surface, in consequence of the rotting 
and denudation of the strata that contained them. This is especially the 
case among the clay slates, and often the first indication which a traveller 
has that he has entered the Piedmont region is the sight of fields and 
woods covered with angular fragments of these white quartz rock. The 
inclination of the rocks of this region allows drainage along their edges, 
and even where the rock is near the surface, water seldom collects above 
them to an injurious extent. 

Owing to the transportation and intermixture (often by the wind) of 
the debris from the different rocks, the areas of the soils derived from 
each can be characterized with much less distinctness than the areas 
occupied by the underlying rocks themselves. Nevertheless three lead- 
ing varieties of soil may be traced, with much clearness, viz. : the gran- 
itic, the clay slate and the Trappean soils. 

I. The granitic soils occupy by far the largest area, as under this head 
is comprised the soils whose substratum is granite and gneiss, and also 
those resting on the hornblende, talc and mica slates. These soils are 
characterized b}^ two distinct names : 1st. the gray sandy soils ; 2d. the 
red cla}'^ soils. 

1st. The gray sandy soils occupy the ridges and levels, and have been 
formed by the gradual separation of the silicious and argillaceous materials 
found in the debris ol the decomposing rocks that underlie them. This 
has been etfected by a process of lixiviation, during which the rain water 
not running off", owing to the level nature of the land, sank directly into 
the earth, carrying down with it the heavier and finer particles of the 
clay through the interstices of the lighter and larger particles of sand. 
This gives a light, loose, warm sandy loam, varying in depth from three 
to eighteen inches, and fine or coarse, according to the grain of the rock, 
from which they are derived. The subsoil is red or yellow clay. Such 
soils are of easy culture, respond readily to the use of commercial ferti- 
lizers, and are well adapted for cotton. For these reasons they are much 
more highly esteemed now than formerly. The following analii^^ses of 
them are taken from Tuomey's report ; 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 139 



(1) 

Organic matter 3.G2 

Silica 84.30 

Alumina 5.80 

Iron oxide 2.00 

Lime 0.50 

Magnesia 0.40 

Potash and soda 0.50 

Water and loss 2.88 



C2) 


(3) 


(4) 


(5) 


2.G0 


1.20 


3.00 


0.00 


00.00 


83.00 


80.00 


80.00 


7.40 


5.40 


7.00 


9.80 


3.00 


2.00 


4.00 


2.00 


0.00 


0.60 


0.02 


0.30 


1.00 


0.75 


0.00 


0.40 


O.GO 


0.00 


0.50 


0.70 


5.40 


7.05 


5.48 


G.80 



100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 

No. 1 is from Pinckney township, Union ; No. 2 is from Waterloo 
township, Laurens ; No. 3 is from Donaldsville township, Abbeville ; No. 
4 is from Sullivan township, Laurens ; No. 5 is from Central township, 
Pickens. 

2d. The red clay loams are the prevailing soils of the hilly and broken 
country. Occupying slopes of greater or less declivity, the loose sand 
has been washed away as fast as it has been released from the tenacious 
clay, b}^ the process of lixiviation, or settling, above alluded to. The 
washing of these hills is not so destructive of their fertility as it would 
have been if the soil were not formed from rocks rotting in situ, and thus 
including at every depth, all the numerous and varied elements of the 
parent rocks. Thus it happens here that the earth from the bottom of 
deep wells, usually barren elsewhere, has been found, when spread over 
the surface, to increase notabl}^ the fertility of fields. Galled spots, 
deprived of all humus and every trace of organic matter, are, of course, 
iDarren for a time, but even their nakedness is soon covered by the old- 
field pine, and their thriftiness restored. As might be expected, with the 
clearing of the lands, and the washing down of the ridges, the amount of 
gray lands is diminishing, and the amount of red lands is increasing. 

Mr. Tuomev gives the following analyses of these soils : 

(6) (7) (8) 

Organic matter 2.18 4.50 G.OO 

SiHca 74.00 71.60 66.60 

Alumina 10.00 9.40 11.60 

Iron oxide 3.50 3.70 4.00 

Lime 1.00 1.40 1.00 

Magnesia 40 0.50 0.06 

Potash and soda trace. 0.06 0.40 

Water and loss 8.92 8.84 10.34 

100.00 100.00 100.00 

No. 6 is from Liberty Hill, Kershaw ; No. 7 near York village ; No. 8 
north of Pendleton village. 



140 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

The following analyses of soil of the same character, from near Spartan- 
burg, collected by Prof. W. C. Kerr, of North Carolina, was made by Dr. 
Eugene A. Smith, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, for the 10th United States 
Census. No. 9 is a yellowish red soil, taken to the depth of three inches ; 
No. 10 is its red subsoil, taken to the depth of twenty inches : 

(9) (10) 

Insoluble matter 77.860 43.740 

Soluble Silica 1.790 5.870 

Potash 0.092 0.214 

Soda 0.041 0.087 

Lime 0.036 0.003 

Magnesia 0.070 0.212 

Br. Oxide of Manganese 0.056 0.010 

Peroxide of Iron 5.646 11.700 

Alumina 7.557 26.567 

Phosphoric acid 0.063 0.103 

Sulphuric acid 0.058 0.009 

Water and organic matter 6.167 11.660 

Total 99.436 99.675 

Hydroscopic moisture 4.685 11.210 

Absorbed at 23° C. 22° C. 

The hornblendic soils are a variety of these red clay soils, derived from 
granite and gneiss rock, traversed by seams of hornblende. They are 
dark in color, and of a more brilliant red. They occur in Edgefield, 
about Horn's creek, and most extensively in Newberry, especially between 
the Court House and Asheford's ferry, extending thence into Fairfield. 
They form excellent cotton lands^ and are well suited to the culture of 
all the grains. The following analyses of them are from Tuomey : 

(11) (12) 

Organic matter 0.20 7.00 

Silica . . ' 79.30 80.00 

Alumina 5.20 6.30 

Oxide of iron 1.75 2.20 

Lime ' 0.04 1.00 

Magnesia 0.00 0.50 

Soda and potash 0.06 0.30 

Phosphoric acid 0.00 trace 

Water and loss 7.40 2.70 

100.00 100.00 

No. 11 is from Newberry; and No. 12 is from Monticello, Fairfield. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 141 

Where the mica slates are underlaid by or alternate with gneiss, as in 
Abbeville, they give rise to good soils. In most places, however, the slate 
contains lenticuler quartz grains, coated with mica, which, being inde- 
structi1)le, occupy the surface as the rock disintegrates and gives rise to 
poor soils. The sand of the talcose slate is exceedingly fine, and pack 
very closely. Says Leiber, in speaking of clearing out a spring : " At a 
depth of six inches below the bed of the stream, the sand was as dry as 
ashes, showing that the water had never penetrated to that depth." This 
affords an explanation of the serious effects produced by droughts on such 
soils. 

II. The clay slates underlie a soil that is characterized as a cold gray 
soil. In color they vary from gray to yellow and brown. The subsoil is 
for tlie most part, of yellow clay; but, sometimes it is reddish. These 
soils are better adapted for small grain, and especially for oats, than for 
cotton. They cover an extensive area in Edgefield, and reach along the 
northern border of the tertiary, thence to Chesterfield. The clay slate 
soils in the last named county contain less silica than those of Edgefield. 
Instead of being gray, they are reddish, and are altogether better soils. 

The following analyses are given by Tuomey : 

(13) 

Organic matter 2.40 

Silica 80.72 

Alumina 12.00 

Oxide of iron l.GO 

Lime trace. 

Magnesia 0.50 

Potash and soda trace. 

Water and loss 3.33 



(14) 


(15) 


6.70 


5.60 


76.30 


• 80.30 


10.40 


9.00 


2.00 


2.40 


1.00 


0.50 


0.50 


trace. 


0.40 


0.30 


2.70 


1.90 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

Xo. 13 is from Stevens creek, Edgefield; No. 14 from Richland ; Xo. 15 
from Lexington. 

III. The Trappean soils overlie the extensive dykes of melaphyre and 
aphanitic porphyry, traversing York and Chester counties in a north- 
easterly direction, coinciding very nearly wdth that of the Charlotte and 
Columbia railroad. They give rise to a distinctly marked body of lands, 
known as the " rolling blackjack lands " and as " blackjack flats." The 
latter are the most extensive, and better defined in their characters. The 
lands are level, the streams slow and tortuous, with low banks, notwith- 
standing that the general elevation is little less than that of the surround- 



142 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

ing country. The soil is of a rich, dark brown chocolate color. Some- 
times jet black. The subsoil is a yellow, waxy clay, exceedingly tena- 
cious, and, where the rocks are not thoroughly decomposed, it assumes 
an olive green color. Beneath it the decomposed, and lower down the 
undecomposed, rock is found, called here " iron rock " or " negro head." 
The level configuration of the surface, and the impervious nature of the 
subsoil, interfere naturally with drainage ; an interference, however, not 
at all beyond the remedy of art, as the fall for properly conducted drains 
and outlets is ample. But because they require drainage, these lands, 
which, from their general appearance, and from their chemical analysis, 
should be ranked as among the very best in the State, have received little 
attention. Corn and cotton planted on them turns yellow, " frenches," as 
it is termed. When, however, thorough drainage has been effected, and 
stable manure used, they have j)roved very productive and enduring. 
Such treatment is exceedingly circumscribed, the demand of the present 
system of agriculture being for light lands of easy tillage, whose defects 
of constitution may be at once supplied by the purchase of chemical fer- 
tilizers for the exigencies of the growing crop, and with no view to per- 
manent improvement. The " rolling blackjack lands," as might be in- 
ferred from their name, have a better natural drainage, and have long 
been highly prized for their productiveness. The following analyses of 
these soils were made by Dr. Eugene A. Smith, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 
for the 10th United States Census : 

(IG) (17) 

Insoluble matter 80.340 83.145 

Soluble Silica 9.114 3.585 

Potash 0.135 0.126 

Soda 0.070 0.060 

Lime 0.329 0.389 

Magnesia 0.329 0.251 

Peroxide Manganese 0.210 0.185 

Peroxide of Iron 1.895 3.774 

Alumina 4.701 4.051 

Phosphoric acid 0.060 0.100 

Sulphuric acid 0.150 0.170 

Carbonic acid ... 

Water and organic matter 2.068 4.185 



99.401 100.021 

Hydroscopic moisture . 3.967 8.392 

Absorbed at 82° F. 82° F. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 143 

No. 16 is from an uncleared blackjack flat, a short distance east of Ches- 
ter Court House, considered worthless. No. 17 is from a field of J. B. 
Stokes, southeast of Chester Court House ; the land roHing blackjack, 
having on it a crop of about 1,200 pounds of seed cotton to the acre. 
The soil and subsoil taken uniformly, to the depth of twelve inches in 
both instances. , The dioritic and felsitic porphyries of Abbeville, pro- 
duce a soil known there as the " flat woods." They are found in Cal- 
houn's Mills, Magnolia, Abbeville, Smithville, and Ninety-Six townships, 
of Abbeville county. Formerly, when more capital and skill was em- 
ployed in agriculture, these lands were very highly esteemed. Since a 
cheap and easy, not to sa}'- thriftless, culture has superseded other hus- 
bandry, they are neglected. (For more particular description see Cal- 
houn's Mills township. Abstract of Correspondents.) Mr. Tuomey gives 
the following analyses of these soils. 

(18) (19) (20) 

Organic matter 9.20 10.05 3.40 

Silica 52.00 48.30 53.00 

Alumina 22.10 19.36 19.30 

Oxide of Iron 9.00 8.40 14.10 

Lime 2.50 4.00 1.80 

Magnesia trace. 0.00 0.50 

Potash and soda 0.40 0.90 trace. 

Phosphate of lime 0.00 0.10 0.00 

Water and loss 4.80 8.89 7.90 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

No. 18 is from a well cultivated place north of Calhoun's Mills ; No. 
19, ditto, near Ninety-Six ; No. 20 is from abandoned lands in the meadow 
woods of Union. 

These analyses are indicative of the chemical changes that affect the 
productiveness of these soils. The abandoned field in Union showing a 
great falling off in organic matter, lime and potash, due to insufficient 
drainage and a thriftless culture, at the same time there is a large increase 
of iron, arising doubtless from the absence of those acids resulting from 
the decomposition of organic matter, wdiose office it is to dissolve and 
carry off the injurious excess of the salts of this metal. The large amount 
of lime in all these Trappean soils will be noted, it has induced some 
writers to classify them as calcareous soils, and adapts them peculiarly 
for the growth of pea-vines and clover, which thrive almost spontane- 
ously uj)on them. 



144 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

In addition to the soils above mentioned, there is a large amount of 
bottom lands scattered along the nnnierous rivers, creeks and branches 
that everywliere traverse this well-watered region. Though rarely of 
any great width, they are for the most part of great fertility, and are 
highly valued. In some sections these lands have brought as high as one 
hundred dollars an acre ; the adjacent ridge lands being thrown in at a 
nominal price, just as the pine barrens are, in the sales of the low country 
rice lands. 

CLIMATE. 

The shorter seasons and lower temjDeratures of the Piedmont region, as 
compared with those lying immediately south of it, are but slightly at- 
tributable to differences of elevation or of latitude, these differences being 
themselves slight. In so far as it obtains, it results, perhaps, from greater 
nearness to the mountains, and, as affecting agriculture, still more to the 
heavier clay soils and subsoils, more retentive of moisture, and, therefore, 
colder and later in spring than the lighter sandy loams of the lower 
country. Cotton planting is about ten days later than in the upper pine 
belt. Cotton blooms are also later, but by a lesser period, and the same 
is true of the opening and picking season of the plant ; showing that, 
with a later start, it grows faster, passing more rapidly through its various 
stages to maturity. This region, however, does not seem to be much 
affected b}^ that variableness of temperature common to localities in 
23roximity to mountain ridges. This is shown by the singular exemption 
of certain localities here from the injurious effects of late spring frosts. 
Thus, on Rich Hill, in Pacolet township, Spartanburg, a ridge six miles 
broad, between the Pacolet and Fair Forest rivers, fruit has been injured 
by late frosts but once in forty 3'ears. Localities in L^nion also enjoy this 
immunity in nearl}' the same degree. In the absence of other records, 
some idea of the temperature may be formed by observations on the tem- 
peratures of sjDrings, assuming that this temperature approximates the 
annual mean. Lieber states, as the result of a number of observations, 
that the springs of the Alpine region have a temperature of 55° to 58° 
Fahrenheit ; those on a line passing through the centre of the Piedmont 
region, one of 58° to 61.5° Fahr., and below this line, one of 61.5° to 6Q° 
Fahr. The only accessible records of rainfall are those published by the 
Smithsonian Institution, May, 1881. They give an average annual rain- 
fall in this region of 52.34 inches, varying from 44.05 inches to 60.12 
inches. This gives a greater annual rainfall for this region than for 
those south of it, and places it, in this regard, next to the areas of greatest 
annual precipitation in the United States. The spring rains vary from 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 145 

twelve inches to fifteen inches, and in this regard it holds the same rela^ 
tions as in the former to the regions south of it and to the United States. 
The summer rains are ten inches to fourteen inches less than in the 
regions south of it, and third or midway between the areas of greatest 
and of least summer precipitation in the United States. The autumn 
rains are eight inches to ten inches, and in the counties east of Broad 
river, they are ten inches to twelve inches, being about the same as in the 
region to the south, and midway between the areas of greatest and least 
autumn precipitation in the United States. The winter rains are ten 
inches to fourteen inches, something more than in the lower country, and 
a little above midway between the areas of greatest and of least winter 
precipitation in the United States. In the whole j^ear, and in each 
season of tlie year, the rainfall is less than in the Alpine region north of 
it. As suggesting a possible connection between meteorological condi- 
tions and the interior of the earth's crust, it may be mentioned that it 
has been thought that the synclinal axis running northeast, near Allston, 
on the Greenville railroad, has been, during some years past, a line of 
demarkation between areas suffering from drought to the south of it, and 
areas having seasonable rains to the north of it. The first occupying 
surface under which the rocks dip northwest, and the latter one under 
which they they dip southeast. Along this same line, during the months 
of drought, tremors were observed and ascribed to slight shocks of earth- 
quake. 

In point of healthfulness, this region leaves little to be desired. When 
first settled, the country was entirely free from all malarial influences. 
Subsequently, during the period when the first clearing of the forest was 
in'active progress, the hitherto clean-bordered channels of the streams 
became obstructed, in part with fallen timber and brush from the clear- 
ings, and in part by the washings of the hill sides, under the injudicious 
use of the plow. These washings occurred to such an extent as to alter 
the original level of the surface, and to pile the dirt up around the trees 
in the bottoms until they were killed. Such operations were attended 
with the prevalence of malarial fevers. Later, the uplands having been 
cleared and partly exhausted, attention was directed to the drainage and 
reclaiming of the low grounds for agricultural purposes, and the health- 
fulness of the locality was restored. It has thus happened that, with the 
extension of the settlements, a belt of malarial influences has moved for- 
ward with them, vanishing below and advancing above, until it reached 
the wooded slopes of the mountains before dis'appearing. 



10 



1-lG THE PIEDMONT REGION. 



GROWTH. 

Remarkable changes have occurred in the growth of tlie upper country 
since its settlement, during the middle and earlier part of the ISth cen- 
tury. The " long-drawn, beautiful valleys and glorious highlands," 
spoken of by Lord Cornwallis, were then interspersed with " forests, 
prairies, and vast brakes of cane, the latter often stretching in unbroken 
lines of evergreen for hundreds of miles " (Logan). On the highlands, 
the oak, hickory and chestnut were of large growth, standing so wide 
apart that a buffalo or a deer could be seen by the pioneer hunters for a 
long distance. There was no underbrush, and the woodlands were car- 
peted W'ith grass and the wild pea vine, the latter growing as high as a 
horse's back. The cane growth was the standard by which the early 
settlers estimated the value of the land. If it grew only to the height of 
a man's head, the land was esteemed ordinary ; but a growih of twenty 
or thirty feet indicated the highest fertility. This cane growth not only 
filled the bottoms, but extended up the slopes to the tops of the highest 
hills. Thus it was designed to place the first house built on the present 
site of the town of Abbeville, on the summit of the hill ; but afterwards, 
when the tall cane that covered the whole place was cleared away, an 
error of more than fifty yards was discovered. The Trappean soils around 
Ninety-Six, the " flat woods " of Abbeville, the " meadow woods," LTnion, 
and the blackjack lands of York and Chester were prairies, with no growth 
of trees, but covered, for the most part, with maiden cane. Lipper Caro- 
lina was then not inferior to any portion of the great West as a grazing 
country. Buffalo and deer in great numbers roamed through these 
luxuriant pastures. Henry Foster, a pioneer settler on the Saluda, in 
Edgefield, counted one hundred buffalo grazing at one time on a single 
acre of ground in Abbeville. The original forest has disappeared almost 
altogether, and has been replaced by younger oaks of small growth, by 
underbrush, and by the loblolly pines of the abandoned fields. The cane 
has gone likewise. The wild pea vine is no longer known, though since 
the stock has been penned, under the new fence law, a plant supposed to 
be it has appeared in the open woodlands, with several other grasses not 
observed before. The prairies have become covered with a growth of 
heavy bodied post oak and blackjack ; the latter, in turn, has now given 
place to the cedar in Chester. The chestnut has been dying out for fifty 
years. In some localities where it once flourished, it has entirely gone, 
and in others, the large dead stems and stumps are the only vestige of 
this valuable and stately tree. The chinquapin is also sickening and 
dying, and the chestnut oak likewise. During some yeai-s past, somewhat 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 147 

similar symptoms of disease have appeared in the red and black oak, and 
fears on this account have been entertained. The distinctive growth of 
the region is the short leaf pine, with a large variety of oaks and hickories. 
On the water courses, willow, beech, birch, black walnut, ash, poplar and 
gum abound. In sections, of Laurens the long leaf, formerly unknown in 
this section, has, within the last ten years, appeared among the old field 
pines. The sycamore sometimes attains a great size, one in York being 
twenty-eight feet in girth. The tulip tree, also, is often very large. 
The sugar maple is found, and another maple of larger growth and yield- 
ing a superior sugar, both as to quantity and cjuality, is known in Lan- 
caster, under the name of the sugar tree (Mills). 

PRODUCTIONS. 

The skins and furs of wild animals were the earliest products which 
the upper country gave to commerce. About the middle of the 18th 
century "the cowj)en keepers" and the "cow drivers," led thither by' 
the representations of the trappers, hunters and Indian traders, built their 
cabins among these pastures, and made large enclosures, into which their 
niimerous herds were driven for marking, handling, &c. The business 
was a large one, and numl^ers of neat cattle were driven annually to the 
markets of Charleston, Philadelphia and New York. Horse raising, also, 
was largely engaged in, and so highly were the qualities of the Carolina 
horse of that early day esteemed, that a statute of the provincial Legis- 
latures forbids the introduction of the inferior horses of Virginia 
and other northern plantations. Around the " cowpens " of the stock 
drivers the agricultural settlers appeared. Their crops of wheat and 
Indian corn formed, for many years, a considerable item of export from 
the province. Hemp, particularly between the Broad and Saluda rivers, 
was largely cultivated, and Dr. Brahm says it was the finest and most 
durable grown anywhere in the world for the cordage of vessels. The 
cultivation of tobacco was engaged in, but was restricted by the difficulty 
of bringing so bulky an article to market in the then condition of the 
country roads. It was packed in casks, trunnions fastened to each head, 
shafts attached, and drawn by a horse several days journey to market, as 
a large roller. Silk was grown, and the vine successfully cultivated by 
the early settlers of New Bordeaux, in Abbeville. It is noteworthy that, 
within the last few years, since the French vineyards have suffered from 
the phyloxera, besides the scuppernong roots, hundreds of thousands of 
cuttings of the Warren grape, natives here, have been ordered from France, 
and being planted there they have yielded a wine of excellent quality. 
In 1801, Col. Hill, of York, made forty-eight tons of red clover on eighteen 



148 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

acres of land, although Governor Drayton saj's the season was a very 
dry one. For several years past Governor Hagood has obtained two cut- 
tings a year of excellent hay from fifty acres, and more, that he set out in 
Bermuda grass, on the Saluda river bottoms. The yield is two to four 
tons per acre. Mr. Doty, a" Kentuckian, who owns a blue-grass farm in 
that State, but who is now living at Winnsboro, says, that taking the value 
of the land into account, he makes his forage cheaper on the worn out 
hills of Fairfield than he does on the famous blue-grass lands of his na- 
tive State. His crops are oats and German millet. The latter he esti- 
mates that he houses at a cost of six dollars per ton. Lucerne has long 
been established in this town, and there are stools of this valuable forage 
plant, still vigorous, known. to be fifty years old. In the same town, Col. 
James H. Rion sowed, in 1874, a half acre of red land, a worn out old 
field, infested with nut grass, in lucerne. In 1875 he got one cutting, and 
from that date to 1880, from four to ten cuttings each year. The ten cut- 
tings were obtained in 1878. The lucerne averaged two and a half feet 
in height at every cutting, making a total growth for the season, of twenty- 
five feet. By actual weighing, each cutting averaged 4,189 pounds from 
this half acre, which was also carefully measured, giving a total of twenty 
and a half tons, or at the rate of fort3''-one tons per acre. The mention of 
such facts are not out of place, inasmuch as since the invention of the 
cotton-gin the culture of cotton has so superseded all other agricultural 
pursuits, that it might well be thought that nothing" else could be grown 
here. Cotton planting has become so easy and simple, it requires so little 
individual thought and effort, the money returns are so certain and direct, 
or the crop may be so cheaply stored and preserved from injury for such 
an indefinite time, every business, trade and industry accessory to the 
work of the farmers, from bankers and railroads to imj^lement and fertili- 
zer manufacturers, have become so thoroughly systematized and organized 
in unison with this pursuit, that any change is difficult, and as a conse- 
quence, the manifold resources o^ the country are neglected and un- 
developed. 

STATISTICS. 

The metamorphic region embraces about 10,425 square miles, or nearly 
one-third of the entire State. The population numbers 395,043, the in- 
crease since the census of 1870 being thirt}^ per cent. The density of 
population per square mile varies from twenty-six to twenty-seven in 
Laurens and Lancaster, to forty.six and forty-eight in Newberry and 
Greenville ; the average being 37.8 per square mile, which makes it the 
most thickly peopled portion of the State, except the sea islands, which 
have 39.4 to the square mile. The percentage of colored population 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 140 

varies greatly in the different counties, being as high as seventy in Fair- 
field, and as low as thirty-four in Spartanburg. The average is fifty-eight. 

Of the 6,672,000 acres of land in this region fifty per cent, is in wood 
lands ; twenty-two per cent, is in old fields, and twenty-eight per cent, is 
tilled. There are 38,591 farms. This is an increase of at least eighty 
per cent, since 1870, and of one hundred and eighty per cent, since 1860, 
while the increase in the decade preceding that, a time of much pros- 
perity, did not much exceed one per cent. ; fifty-six per cent, of the farms 
are worked by renters, and forty-four per cent, by owners. This is nearly 
six per cent, more of farms rented than in the State at large, or ten per 
cent, more than in the other parts of the State. The maximum of the 
farms rented is sixty-seven per cent, in Fairfield, and the minimum is 
forty-two per cent, in Laurens ; forty-five per cent, of the farms are under 
fifty acres, but seventy-one per cent, of the rented farms are under fifty 
acres, while only thirteen per cent, of those worked by owners are under 
fifty acres. The farms under fifty acres worked by owners constitute only 
six per cent, of the total number of farms in this region ; thus, notwith- 
standing the great subdivision of farm holding that has been, and still is 
taking place, it cannot be said that land is here, as it is on some of tlie 
sea islands, in the hands of a small proprietary. 

The tilled land is 1,861,922 acres, an increase of fiftj^-six per cent, 
since 1870. This gives an average of 4.7 acres per capita, or nearly one 
acre above the average for the State, and one-half more than in 1870. Of 
it forty-eight per cent, is in grain of all kinds, forty per cent, is in cotton, 
and twelve per cent, is in gardens, orchards, fallows and all other crops. 
The proj)ortion in cotton varies from a maximum of forty-six per cent, in 
Laurens and Union, to a minimum of twenty per cent, in Lancaster. 

The crops are cotton, 274,318 bales, against 94,494 in 1870 ; an increase 
of one hundred and seventy-two per cent., or nearly six times as great as 
that of the population within tlie same period. It constitutes fifty-three 
per cent, of the crop of the State, on less than one-third of its area. The 
average number of bales per square mile is twenty-six, and varies from 
twenty and one-third bales, in Lancaster, to thirty-six and three-quarters 
bales in Newberry. In many of the townships the number of bales 
grown per square mile is much greater. In Fairfield, township No. 3 (E. 
D., 69) produces forty-six bales per square mile ; in Newberry, Floyds 
township (E. D., 114) produces forty-seven ; in Chester, Chester township 
(E. D., 36) produces fifty-nine ; in York, Fort Mill township (E. D., 169) 
produces eighty-four. These facts indicate that the establishment of en- 
larged and improved gin-houses for the better preparation of the staple is 
practicable in many places now, as they show that the main obstacle in 
the way of such establishment, viz. : the distance over which a sufficient 



150 THE pip:dmont region. 

quantity of seed cotton would have to be liauled is greatly lessened. The 
yield of lint cotton per acre varies from one hundred and eighty-eight 
pounds, in Newberry and Lancaster, to one hundred and forty -four in 
Abbeville. The average for the region being one hundred and sixty-six 
pounds of lint per acre, which gives it rank as fifth in the State in point 
of production per acre. The yield of lint cotton per capita of population 
varies from four hundred and three pounds, in Fairfield, to two hundred 
and three pounds in Greenville ; the average is three hundred and sixteen 
pounds, being less than in the red hill region, but more than it. is else- 
where in the State. The grain crop is 7,731,528 bushels, an increase of 
one hundred and thirty-nine per cent, on the crop of 1870. The average 
yield for the whole region is nine bushels per acre, and it varies from a 
maximum average of eighteen bushels per acre in York, to a minimum of 
eight bushels in Laurens ; these variations depending more on the amount 
of attention bestowed on this class of crops than on differences in the 
productive capacity of the soil. Per capita of the population the yield is 
nineteen bushels, which is four bushels more than in 1870. If this were 
all corn, or its equivalent, and were fed to the population at a rate of ten 
bushels per capita yearly, and the work stock at the rate of seventy bush- 
els a head, it would leave, counting nothing for the supply of other live 
stock, a deficiency of 1,091,000 bushels, or about fourteen per cent. Es- 
timated in the same manner, this deficiency was thirty-one per cent, in 
1 870. Compared with the other regions of the State the yield per capita 
is below that of the sand hills, which is thirty -two bushels, and that of 
the Alpine region, which is twenty bushels, but above the four others. 

The work stock is one to every twenty-seven acres of tilled land, the 
average for the whole State being one to eighteen. More land is tilled 
here to the head of work stock than anywhere in the State, except in the 
red hill region. As the lands themselves are not lighter or of easier til- 
lage, this is chiefly due to a more economical use of this power. 

The live stock number 473,180. This gives forty-five to the square 
mile, against an average for the State of thirty-seven. Although this 
region ranks third in its proportion of live stock to area, it was here that 
the first movements in favor of the law requiring the enclosing of stock 
took place. It is also noteworthy that the counties here, in which the 
enclosure of stock has been enforced by law, for some years support fifty 
head of live stock to the square mile, while the four counties in which 
the stock have enjoyed the freedom of ranging wherever they could, sup- 
port only thirty-six head to the square mile. 



THE PIEDMONT RECxIOX. 151 

FARM A^ALUES AND PRODUCTIONS. 

The total of values invested in farms in this region, obtained as the 
sum of the values entered in the 10th United States Census for lands and 
improvments, for farm implements and machinery, and for live stock, 
amounts to thirty-nine millions of dollars, \vhich does not differ very 
widely from the valuation of the same property on the tax returns of 
these counties. The value of farm productions annually, is nineteen and 
a quarter millions of dollars, or forty-nine per cent, on the above invest- 
ment. This percentage varies in the different counties from thirty-nine 
per cent, in Greenville to seventy-one per cent, in Laurens. It may not 
be possible to ascertain, even approximately, how the profits of this pro- 
duction is distributed ; how much of it rests with the farmer and laborer, 
or how much goes to merchants, bankers, and railroads. Nevertheless, 
whoever gets the net profits, it is safe to assume that the value represents 
in a general way the productiveness of agriculture in this region. Here 
are twelve adjacent counties, between whose soil, climate, population, 
social, political and industrial system, there is very great similarity. On 
the other hand, there are very wide variations, among these same counties, 
on four points, frequently and earnestly discussed as affecting fundamen- 
tally, southern agriculture. These are : 

1st. The ratio between the area planted in cotton and that planted in 
other crops. 

2d. The ratio of large and small farm holdings. 

3rd. The proportion of farms rented to those worked by their owners. 

4th. The proportion of the white to the colored population. 



152 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 



Tlie following table will show the relations of these counties in these 
four respects to the percentage of farm production on farm values in each. 

TABLE. 





Percentage 


Percentage 


Percentage 


Percentage 


Percentage 


Names of 


of 
tilled land 


of 
Farms 


of 


of 


of value 
of 


Counties. 


in 


over fifty 


Farms 


Colored 


Farm pro- 
ductions on 




Cotton. 


Acres. 


rented. 


Population. 


farm values 


Newberry . . 


45 


57 


56 


68 


49 


Lancaster . . 


20 


49 


56 


52 


60 


York .... 


34 


66 • 


45 


54 


46 


Laurens . . . 


46 


82 


42 


60 


71 


Spartanburg . 


38 


54 


52 


34 


41 


Edgefield . . 


38 


47 


57 


64 


51 


Chester . . . 


43 


57 


60 


64 


54 


Greenville . . 


34 


48 


53 


38 


39^ 


Union . . . 


46 


47 


m 


56 


50 


Fairfield . . 


39 


45 


67 


70 


00 


Anderson . . 


38 


60 


57 


43 


46 


Abbeville . . 


39 


52 


60 


66 


41 



Considered wholly within the limits of the above data, and bearing in 
mind that they can give only an approximation to the truth, Prof. B. 
Sloan, of the University of South Carolina, states the arithmetical con- 
clusions to be obtained from this table as follows : 

An increase of ten per cent, of the proportion of tilled land in cotton 
increases the values produced by seven and a half per cent. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 153 

An increase of ten per cent, of the proportion of farms over fifty acres 
increases the values produced by five per cent. 

An increase of ten per cent, of the proportion of farms rented increases 
the values produced by one-half per cent. 

An increase of the proportion of colored population increases the values 
produced three and one-third per cent. 

Such conclusions are liable to material modifications, when viewed in 
relation Avith the numerous conditions that complicate such a problem. 
For instance, the increase in the colored population does not necessarily 
show that the proportion of colored farm labor is increased in the same 
ratio ; a fact which will be observed by reference to the reports of town- 
ship correspondents. Nevertheless, if these facts only show in which di- 
rection the answer lies, it follows that these answers are opposed to the 
generally received teachings and theories on these questions, and at the 
same time that these answers are in accord with the persistent and pre- 
vailing practice of those whose decision is paramount in the matter — the 
land owners and the laborers. 

SYSTEM OF FARMING AND LABOR. 

The larger portion of the lands are held in tracts of from two hundred 
to five hundred acres. On three-fourths of the farms mixed husbandry 
is practiced, and on the remaining fourth attention is bestowed almost ex- 
clusively on cotton. 

The attempt to raise farm supplies is, therefore, pretty general, and is 
reported as increasing, except in Laurens, where it remains the same, and 
in Abbeville, where it is decreasing. Usually this attempt is in so far 
successful as to provide a considerable portion of the subsistence for farm 
hands and stock. Bacon is largely imported from the North and West, 
and sometimes, hay and corn also, for farm use. In two instances these 
supplies are reported as brought from North Carolina. The amount of 
provisions raised for sale is everywhere inconsiderable. The facilities 
offered by railroads have largely contributed to this. For instance, in 
Chester the country mills, which were formerly numerous and flourishing, 
have been to a large extent abandoned, since it has been found easier to 
get meal by rail each week as required, from the Merchant Mills in Au- 
gusta, Georgia ; and there is an increasing tendency, under the low rates 
of through fares to supersede the Augusta mills by the product of the 
northwestern mills. 

The system of credits and advances prevails to a large extent, con- 
suming from one-third to three-fifths of the crop before it is harvested. 
The statement is general tliat this is on the decrease, and is correct in so 



154 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

far that a larger amount of supplies is being produced at home, and a 
larger number of purchases for cash are being made by farmers since 
1876. On the other hand, the number of farms having largely increased 
in the same period, the number working on advances, especially among 
the smaller farmers, has largely increased also. The records of the courts 
show that the number of liens on the growing crop is greatly on the in- 
crease ; the rate of increase being twenty-three per cent, per annum for 
the last two years. The number of such liens on record in eleven of the 
counties under consideration is (there being no return from Union) 30,205 ; 
a number nearly equal to the number of farms, but as two or more liens 
are not unfrequently recorded against the same crop, probably not more 
than one-half of the growing crops are under lien. The aggregate value 
of these liens is $2,334,956 ; an average to the lien of seventy-seven dol- 
lars. It appears that. the five counties lowest in the ratio of farm produc- 
tions to farm values have a larger amount in liens, by thirteen per cent., 
than the five counties standing highest in this ratio. In the former the 
recorded indebtedness is four dollars and twenty-eight cents for each acre 
in cotton, on which crop alone liens are taken; in the latter it is two dol- 
lars and eighty-four cents per acre in cotton. As may be inferred from 
the number and average amount of these liens, they are mostly taken 
from the smaller farms, usually renters, for advances made by the land- 
lord, or more frequently by the store keeper. There has grown up in 
this region a system of banks at the county seats, for the accommodation 
of farmers. The National Bank of jSTewberry was the first to be estab- 
lished ; under the excellent and judicious management of its president, 
Robert L. JNIcCaughrin, the operations of this bank have added largely to 
the prosperity and independence of this county ; which, besides leading 
in cotton production in proportion to its area, is, in man}^ other regards, 
the most thriving in the region. The capital of this bank, $150,000, was 
subscribed by the citizens of the county, except $12,000, and ninety-five 
per cent, of the stock, which is at thirty per cent, premium, and not for 
sale, is now held within the county. It has six hundred and fifty-four 
accounts, three-fourths of which are with farmers. These accounts vary 
in amount, from forty dollars upwards ; only sixty-five of them, however, 
reach or exceed $1,000. Since 1872, the rate of discount has been 
from twelve to seven per cent., or from one-half to one-third of the 
average rates prevailing elsewhere in the State. The loans during the 
crop season aggregate $324,000, and the doubtful debts for the operations 
of the last ten years do not reach in all $6,000. Loans are made purely 
on personal security or on collaterals, liens and mortgages are not asked 
for or given. If there is a question as to the abihty of the party seeking 
accommodation to meet his payments promptly, he is required to obtain 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 155 

the endorsement of one or more of his neighbors. In this way it fre- 
quently happens that three neighbors endorse each others notes, so that 
if ill-luck beftill one during a crop season, the others help him through, 
and it is found that such assistance is equalized in a series of seasons. 
Besides the direct assistance this bank affords, its indirect influence is 
highly beneficial, not only does it encourage personal trustworthiness and 
integrity, but by the circulation of its capital during the active season of 
the year, it gives a healthy cash tone to business ; where a large propor- 
tion of the sales are for ready money, the purchases by merchants are 
more carefully and economically made, and even advances on liens are 
less exorbitant than elsewhere. 

Field labor is performed exclusively by natives, and chiefly by colored 
laborers. In Spartanburg, two-thirds of the field labor is performed by 
whites, even where the colored population largel}^ preponderates. The 
reader will find by reference to the township reports, that a considerable 
amount of it is done by whites ; not unfrequently a much larger propor- 
tion than one would infer from the ratio between the races. The laborers 
are healthy, easily managed, work moderately and live easily. Their 
condition is reported as good in eight localities ; as improving in two ; 
and as poor, but contented and happy, in one. Very few negro laborers 
own land or houses in Newberry, York and Abbeville ; sixteen per cent, 
own a house or land in Greenville; and five, per cent, in Spartanburg, 
Fairfield, Chester and Laurens. 

The prevailing wages of field labor is eight dollars by the month, or 
one hundred dollars by the year. In Greenville it is seven dollars, and 
in Laurens it is eight dollars to twelve dollars by the month. In portions 
of Edgefield it is seventy -five dollars per the year. In all cases the la- 
borer is furnished with shelter, rations and firewood, and almost inva- 
riably with a garden and the privilege of raising poultry and some stock — 
a cow or a hog. The farm work is light, and the extreme care formerly 
given to preserving the health of the slaves, has bequeathed regulations 
regarding labor not customary elsewhere. Work commences at sunrise, 
and is over with at sunset ; no night work of any sort being required ; 
the time allowed for meals varies ; for dinner it is from one to three hours, 
according to the length of the days. All exposure to rain or bad weather, 
even in pressing exigencies, is scrupulously avoided, and during excep- 
tionally chilly weather little work is obtained or expected of negro 
laborers. 

A large proportion of the land is worked on shares. When the land- 
lord furnishes the tools, stock, and stock-feed, he takes one-half the crop 
in Laurens, Chester, Abbeville, and York, and in portions of Fairfield 
and Spartanburg. In Greenville, and in portions of the counties last 



156 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

named, the laborer takes one-third, and the landlord two-thirds, under 
the above conditions. In Greenville also, the laborer takes two-thirds, if 
he furnishes tools, stock and feed for it. The portion paid for land alone 
varies from one-third to one-fourth of tlie crop — the latter rate being the 
most general one. 

In Laurens, Newberry and Spartanburg, and portions of Fairfield and 
Chester, wages are preferred, the laborer running no risk of the seasons, 
faring better and working better in consequence. In Aljbeville and York 
the share system is preferred, and is the prevailing practice ; the demands 
on the care and attention of the landlord is less, and the independence 
of control and freedom from steady work it affords the laborer is highly 
prized by him. In Greenville, laborers using stock, tools and provisions, 
find the share system most profitable, otherwise they prefer wages. 

Tolerable satisfaction with the system prevailing in each locality is ex- 
pressed, but the feeling is general that the relations of labor and capital 
are in a transition stage, and, either that those now existing need per- 
fecting, or that better ones would .be preferred. 

Eight out of nine correspondents report that under the present system 
the lands are not improving, but deteriorating, especially those rented 
and worked on shares; the ninth only qualifies the general statement by 
tlie expression, " with care it improves." Though there may be much 
sad reality in these statements, they are to be considered in connection 
with the facts above given, which show that within the last decade the 
two leading crops in this region have increased, one by one hundred and 
seventy-two, and the other by one hundred and thirty-nine per cent. 

Statements regarding the average market value of land vary with every 
locality. They are for Greenville and Laurens, six dollars to ten dollars 
an acre ; for York, six dollars ; for Abbeville and Spartanburg, ten dollars ; 
for Newberry, six dollars to twenty-five dollars ; for Fairfield, three dollars 
to fifteen dollars ; for Chester, seven dollars to eighteen dollars. There 
will be found a fuller detail in the Abstract of Township Correspondents, 
*and attention is directed to their frequently recurring expression, that 
" there is little land for sale, but nearly all of it to rent." Only three out 
of eleven correspondents state the rental of land in money ; it is put in 
York and Chester at two dollars, and in Laurens at three dollars to four 
dollars. Three state that no land is rented for money. In tliese cases 
one-fourth to one-third of the crop — estimated in Fairfield at an average 
of five dollars an acre — is given, or a larger proportion where stock and 
other supplies are furnished. In Abbeville, the average rent is given as 
three bales of cotton for as much land as one plow can cultivate; in Fair- 
field it is nine hundred pounds, and in Chester as much as twelve hun- 
dred pounds of lint. Or, in other words, something over one thousand 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 157 

pounds of lint cotton, worth one hundred dollars, for the rent of tliirty 
acres of land. This would be three dollars and thirty-three cents rental 
per acre, whitdi is the interest at seven per cent, on a capital of forty-seven 
dollars and fifty cents. Taking seven per cent, as the standard rate of 
interest, this may be taken as the intrinsic value at present of the arable 
lands of this region. As, however, only twenty-eight per cent, of the 
lands are under the plow, this amounts only to an average minimum 
valuation of all the land tilled and untilled at thirteen dollars and thirty 
cents per acre. As stated in the returns of the 10th United States Census, 
which may be considered as fairly up to the actual average market values, 
the lands with all farm improvements are put at an average of four dol- 
lars and eighty-seven cents an acre. At this valuation, placed upon them 
by their owners, these lands are paying dividends not less than twenty- 
eight per cent, per annum, not taking into account that more than two- 
thirds of these values are wholly unemployed, and that the remaining 
one-third are operated mainly by the poorest and most ignorant class of 
the community, where want of means alone would prevent them from 
obtaining such returns as good culture would give. If the artificial ab- 
surdities, inherited from the dark ages and feudalism, which enslave land 
even under this free government, and burden its transmission from one 
owner to another, could be abolished, if titles to this species of property 
could be made commercial j^aper, and as convertible as the titles to prop- 
erty in railroads and factories are through the medium of bonds and 
stocks, such paradoxes as the above would be impossible, and that funda- 
mental value, held to be the source of all others, land would be free to 
furnish its full quota towards suj^plying human wants and assisting in 
human progress. 

TILLAGE AND IMPROVEMENT. 

The usual depth of tillage is four inches on the land side of the furrow. 
In Abbeville, Spartanburg, and portions of Chester, it is generally only 
three inches. In parts of Fairfield it is only two inches, but in some 
parts of Chester it is six inches to eight inches. 

The draft employed is almost always one horse ; in a very few in- 
stances two horses are used. 

Subsoiling has only been practiced on a small scale, chiefly as an ex- 
periment, generally with excellent results. 

Fall plowing is very little practiced ; it is opposed to what is known as 
the " David Dickson method of culture," which is the prevalent one, the 
opinion being, that lands broken up in the fall become tightly packed by 
the winter rains, an evil not counterbalanced by the disintegrating in- 



158 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

fluence of frosts in this mild climate. The additional expense is also a 
consideration. To the limited extent to which it is done, five reports 
give the results as good, and in York and in portions of Chester, it is re- 
ported as greatly on the increase ; five other reports state that it is of 
doubtful advantage or none. 

Rotation of crops is nowhere reduced to a system. With a moderate 
use of manures, and careful culture, the same lands are planted for years 
in cotton, it is thought not only without deterioration, but with actual 
improvement. The ratio which the price of cotton bears to that of meat 
and corn affects the succession of crops more than anything else. Never- 
theless, there is but one opinion as to the beneficial influence of a rotation 
of crops as a cheap means of preserving the thriftiness of the soil. The 
succession of crops, as elsewhere in the State, is cotton, corn and small 
grain. The clean culture of cotton leaves the land in good order for any 
crop, and the small grain is planted in the same year, after the corn is 
gathered. Usually, the Jand is kept in cotton from three to five years, 
and after one crop of corn and small grain is taken from it, the culture 
of cotton is resumed. 

FALLOWIXG. 

Fallowing forms no part of the system of culture, and it is thought that 
the exposure of the soil, by tillage, to the summer sun is injurious. The 
fallows consist chiefly of the lands lying out after the small grain crops 
are gathered, in May and June, and even these are generally used as pas- 
tures for stock. The 

OLD FIELDS 

are preferred, in many instances, to wood lands, and they are being 
cleared of the short leaf pine that covers them, and replanted. They pro- 
duce well with fertilizers, and, under careful treatment, are thought equal 
to any of the land. One of the principal reasons for abandoning these 
lands in the first instance Avas the washes and gullies produced by the 
unskillful use of tlie plow. Efforts to remedy this by horizontal culture 
and hillside ditches, where intelligently made — especially where the 
plumb or the level has been used to lay off the rows and ditches — have 
been very successful. Unskillfully made ditches, however, often do more 
harm than good. Filling the gullies with brush is a safer and a ver}' 
effective practice, but no attempt at under drainage, to remedy washing, 
has been made. The damage to the soil is mainly to the hillsides, and 
it is seldom the bottoms are injured by the detritus they receive. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 159 



MANURING 

has for its basis cotton seed. About one thousand pounds of cotton seed 
are obtained from each bale of cotton, which makes 137,000 tons the 
supply of this region. Of this, 25,000 tons, at two bushels per acre, is 
used for j^lanting; a small amount is fed to stock. None is carried to the 
oil mills, and very little is sold, the price being ten to fifteen cents per 
bushel ; the balance, about 100,000 tons, is returned to the soil as manure. 
For small grain, it is sown broadcast, and plowed in with the seed in the 
fall. For corn, it is killed by heating, and applied in the hill. For cotton, 
it is becoming the practice to compost it with acid phosphates and stable 
manure, sometimes with the addition of other litter and lime. It is ap- 
plied in the drill, at the rate of a ton to two to four acres. This leaves a 
large portion of tilled land to be supplied with manure from other sources. 
Corn rarely receives any manure, and the deficiency for the cotton lands, 
when cotton seed and stable manures are exhausted, is supplied by the pur- 
chase of ^commercial fertilizers. The amount purchased in this region 
reaches an aggregate cost of nearly one-half million of dollars, or $1.98 
for each acre planted in cotton. It varies, from a maximum in Spartan- 
burg of §3.33 per acre in cotton, to a minimum of .92 cents in Abbeville. 
It is used most extensively in Spartanburg, Greenville, York and Ander- 
son, to stimulate the grow^th and maturity of the cotton plant in these 
counties, which, being more elevated and nearer the mountains, have a 
shorter growing season. In Newberry, the county most productive in 
cotton of the region, the average is $1.02 per acre in cotton. Green 
ntanuring has been practiced only as an experiment. Such experiments 
with pea vines have had a very promising success, but it has been found 
better to allow the vines to wither before turning them under. 

CULTIVATION. 

Fallow lands or lands that have been in other crops, and sometimes the 
heavy red lands, are broken up broadcast during the winter and spring. 
The great body of the lands, however, being plant-ed year after year 
in cotton, the usual method is to lay off in the alley with a shovel plow, 
drill in the manure, and bed to it with a turning plow. Three to five 
furrows complete the bed, and the land is ready for planting. On the 
thinnest lands, the rows are two and one-half feet apart — generally they 
are three feet to three and one-half feet — and on the strongest lands they 
are four feet. Planting commences on and after 10th April, and is com- 
pleted on or before the 10th of May. The seed used is the short liinbed 



100 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

cluster variety of cotton, kiiowu under the name of Dickson's improved, 
or Boyd's prolific. It is rather a delicate plant, a prolific bearer, 
of early maturity, and a short staple. Carefully sown, one bushel of seed 
will plant an acre, though as much as three and sometimes five bu.shels 
are used. With a planter, two bushels answer, and two to two and one- 
half may be taken as the average. Most of the seed is sown by hand, in 
a furrow opened by a small plow, and covered by various devices of 
boards, propelled by hand or by a horse. On the smooth, well-prepared 
land, planters, especially the Dowdow, are much used and well thought 
of. The seed comes up in four to ten days in favorable seasons ; late 
plantings* in dry seasons are longer in appearing, and may not come up 
in a month, and then give a good stand. This occurrence is always a 
misfortune, as it not only retards the crop, but allow's the grass a chance 
to overtake it. As soon as the stand is perfected, thinning commences, 
and the cotton is chopped out with a hoe to spaces varying from six 
inches on thin lands to eighteen inches on the strongest, usually to nine 
inches and twelve inches. 

The after cultivation consists in keeping the ground light and lo(jse by 
the use of the plow, and in keeping the grass out of the row with the hoe. 
A great variety of plows are u^sed for this purpose — twisters, turn-plows, 
shovels and harrows ; the later workings, when the plant is fruiting, are 
usually given by passing twdce through the row with a sweep, which 
skims the surface. Generally there are four plowings, and four hoeings ; 
sometimes three answer.. 

When the plant is ten inches to fifteen inches high — usually about the 
1st of July — it begins to bloom, though blooms are sometimes noticed as 
early as the loth of June. Open bolls appear about the middle of Augui^ ; 
in favorable seasons they are sometimes seen the last of July, and at other 
times not until the 1st of September. Although in some instances the 
plant grows as high as four feet to five feet, the height at which it is 
thought to be most productive here is from two feet to three feet. Pick- 
ing may commence about the 25th of August, but it is not in full blast 
until the 1st to 20th of September. The crop is gone over three to four 
times, and it is all out of the field by Christmas ; sometimes as early as 
the 20th of November. 

DISEASE AND ENEMIES. 

In its early growth, unless in exceptionally windy and cold seasons, 
or through bad hoeing, cotton does not suffer here at all from " sore shin." 
Nor does it often run to weed ; in unusually warm and wet seasons, or on 
strong fresh land this may occur ; cultivation and manuring are thought 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 161 

to check excessive growth, and to promote fruiting. Worms are rarely 
seen in this region, and are not at all feared. Shedding and rust are 
often injurious. The first is likely to occur during alternations of dry 
and wet weather. Black rust is confined to ill-drained soils, especially to 
those of the trap rocks. Wet weather is more likely than dry and hot 
weather to affect the cotton plant injuriously here. No crop grown any- 
Avhere over so extensive an area is more certain than is the cotton crop in 
this region. Drainage and stable manure, with fairly good culture, are 
unfailing remedies for such diseases as have as yet affected it. The 
enemy most dreaded and most certain to require the best efforts of the 
farmer to hold it in check, is grass ; and, with one consent, the species is 
known as " crab-grass," " a corruption," John Drayton says, " of crop- 
grass, as it was unknown until the land was cultivated." BeBrahm, 
writing of Carolina in 1752, says: "Because new land produces scarce 
any grass, and once hoeing will do for the season, but the grass comes 
and increases in such a manner that sometimes three hoeings are scarce 
sufficient in one season, and when this comes to be the case, the plant- 
ers relinquish these fields for pastures and clear new ground of its 
wood." This grass makes an excellent hay, attaining a height of two 
feet to three feet, and yielding from one to four tons to the acre, according 
to the land and the season. Next to cotton picking, however, it is the 
chief source of trouble and expense in the culture of this crop. 

GINNING. 

The ginning and picking season open and close together. The gins in 
general use are Brown, Winnslops, Taylor and Hall gins. The most 
generally used power is horse-power — four mules and the old wooden 
cog-wheel gearing. Such power is used for gins of forty to forty-five saws, 
and the out-turn is about two and a half pounds of lint an hour to the 
saw, or an average of about eleven hundred pounds of lint as a day's 
work for a gin. With steam and water power the same number of saws 
are made to do double this work, but it is questionable if it is so well 
done. The cotton on the average does not quite third itself, and as esti- 
mated, 1,231 pounds of seed cotton are required to make four hundred 
pounds of lint. This gives seventy-one bushels of seed as the daily pro- 
duct, per gin, in the estimate above stated. For baling, six out of eleven 
reporters used and preferred the old wooden screw, run by horse power ; 
two used the Scofield press, and the remainder the Finley and other 
hand-presses. It appears with these presses, if three to four hands and 
one to two mules are employed, the out-turn for ten hours Avork is about 
four thousand pounds of lint in eight or nine bales. The iron arrow tie 
11 



102 THE PIEDMONT REGION, 

has entirely superseded rope for baling. Jute bagging, the heaviest Dun- 
dee, or the domestic Ludlow is used. The weight aimed at in the bale 
varies from four hundred pounds to five hundred pounds ; the average is 
four hundred and fifty-two pounds. 

SHIPPING AND SELLING. 

As soon as the cotton is packed it is moved to market, commencing 
about the 1st of September ; by the end of the year almost the whole crop 
has passed out of the farmers' hands. The farmer usually sells to the 
merchant at the nearest railroad station, and has only a charge against 
him of ten cents a bale for weighing. In some localities the transporta- 
tion, hauling from Laurens county to Greenville, is stated to cost two 
dollars a bale. Cotton shipped by railroad to New York costs three dol- 
lars and fifty cents a bale. To Charleston it costs, from Fairfield, two 
dollars to two dollars and twenty-five cents ; from Spartanburg, two dol- 
lars and fifty cents ; from Abbeville, two dollars and seventy-five cents. 
From Chester the charge is, to Charleston, forty-eight cents per hun- 
dred weight; to New York it is sixty -three cents per hundredweight. 
Cotton shipped from Fairfield to Charleston, and sold by the farmer, 
costs, everything included, four dollars and fifty-seven cents for a bale 
weighing four hundred and sixty-five pounds, and it is usually estimated 
at about one cent per pound. 

COST OF PRODUCTION. 

This is estimated in four reports at seven cents ; in one report at eight 
cents, and in one at nine cents per pounds of lint. The following table 
exhibits the detailed statements on this head. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 



163 



Cost of each Item of Labor and Material expended in tlm Cidtivation of an 

Acre of Cotton. 



ITEMS. 



llenL 

Fencing, repairs interest on. 

Knocking stalks 

Pulling and burning stalks.... 

Other cleaning up 

Listing 

Beddini with hoes 

Breaking up 

Harrowing 

Barring old beds 

Splitting middles 

Reversing 

Laying ofT 

Commercial Manures 

Home-made Manures 

Applying manures 

Bedding up 

Splitting middles 

Knocking off beds 

Planting, opening 

Planting, dropping 

Planting, covering 

Replanting '. 

Seed 

Thinning 

Three phiwings. 

Three hoeinjrs 

Picking 

Hauling to gin 

Ginning 

Management 

Wear and tear of tools 

Bagging and ties 

Total 



$3 50 

25 
50 
10 

1 00 



Cost per pound, deducting cotton seed at 12 cents 
per bushel 



Profit per acre, cotton 10 cts. per pound, seed 12 
cts. per bushel, 



Profit, rent excluded from cost.. 



2 00 

2 50 

50 

1 00 

30 

15 

30 

05 

30 

50 

1 00 

1 50 

C 15 

1 00 

■5 33 

50 

1 00 

1 00 



29 (i9 



06 



13 21 



10 17 



II. 



$9 90 



813 33 



25 



1 00 



25 
4 00 

20 
25 
25 

40 
20 
20 

30 

50' 
1 00 
4 80 

1 60 



1 00 



III. 



25 



1 00 



25 
4 50 
2 00 
15 
75 
25 

25 



30 
50 
1 50 
1 50 
6 00 
10 
1 78 



1 00 



IV. 



S2 60 



2) 85' 35 66 



05 f 



IS 9fi 



7 00 



V. 



34 00 



40 



10 



1 00 



18 
3 00 
1 50 

10 

as 

17 

16 
10 
16 

25 

40 

1 00 

1 20 

5 Oil 

1 60 

1 00 
85 



20 &5 



05 i 



14 as 



30 



1 00 



25 

4 00 

1 00 

15 

75 



25 

40 

1 33 

1 20 

4 00 

200 
22 



22 5-3 



9 51 



26 m> 20 33| 16 9Sl 13 51 



VI. 



$3 00 



25 
1 00 

25 

50 
10 



25 



20 

40 

1 50 

1 00 

3 00 

1 00 

99 

50 

45 



067-10 



6 2t 



9 2» 



VII. 



83 00 



20 



ATerage. 



1 00 



25 
3 00 
1 00 

50 

75 

15 

101 
I 
10 

10 

12H 

50 

60 
1 20 
3 00 

25 

90 



50 



17 97 



1-10 



3 71 



6 71 



So 61 

10 
18 
07 
U 



93 



zo 

3 07 

1 14 

23 

66 

18 



39 

1 00 

1 23 

4 66 

a5 

1 74 

17 

22 

80 



23 78 



06 7-10 



10 01 
16 62 



I. R. C. Carlisle & J. S. Rennick, Newberry, yield 400 pounds lint Cotton, 825 pounds cotton seed. 

II. Jno. C. Fiennikeu, Chester, yield 390 pounds lint Cotton, 804 pounds cotton seed. 
HI. VV. L. Donaldson. Greenvide, yield 400 pounds lint Cotton. 800 pounds cott.on seed. 

IV. G. H. McMaster. Fairfield, yield 330 pounds lint Cotton, 670 pounds cotton seed. 

V. James Pagan, Winnsboro, yield 300 pounds lint Cotton, 620 pounds cotton seed. 
Vr. W. R. Bradley, Abbeville, yield lOS pounds lint Cottcm 400 pounds cotton seed. 
VII. .Ino. A. Summer, Lexinoion. yield 20) pounds lint Co ton, 420 pounds cotton seed. 
Average, 318 pounds lint Cotton, 64S pounds cotton seed. 



104 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

Abstract of reports of township correspondents in the Piedmont Region 
of South Carohna : 

Abbeville County. 

Cokesbury Township {E. D. 12): Lands liilly and broken, light, gray, 
gravelly and sandy soils, six inches to eight inches to subsoil of yellow, 
sometimes of dark red cla3^ Streaks of red clay and mulatto soils traverse 
these sandy soils. Underlying the subsoil is rotten sandstones, soapstone, 
tough clay, and rotten mica slate. Growth, oak, hickory and pine, gen- 
erally small. Lands occasionally change hands at seven dollars to ten 
dollars an acre. Field labor is paid fifty cents a day, one-fourth to one- 
third of it performed by whites. 

Doncddsville ToiLmsliip{E.D. 11): Lands level, soils fine, light, gray, sandy 
loam, with some clay loam ; subsoil red and yellow clay, underlaid by 
solid clay. Growth, oak, hickory, walnut, poplar and pine. Crops, corn, 
ten bushels ; wheat, eight bushels ; oats, fifteen bushels ; barley, fifteen 
bushels; potatoes, thirty bushels; seed cotton, six hundred pounds to 
one thousand pounds per acre. Lands sell for three dollars to ten dollars 
an acre. Uplands rent for one-fourth, bottoms for one-third of the crops. 
A good deal is rented for four hundred pounds to eight hundred pounds 
of lint cotton for a one-horse farm. Quarries of building rock are worked. 
Traces of gold occur. Lime rock is said to be found. Large w^ater- 
powers on Saluda river. No attention is paid to stock, which might be 
made profitable. No prevailing diseases. Field labor is j^aid forty to 
fifty cents a day, w^ith board ; nearly one-half of it is performed by whites. 

Greenwood Township, {E. D. 13) : Surface level and rolling.* Soils, fine 
gray, sandy loam and rich clay loam ; subsoil, red clay. Growth, oak, 
hickory and pine. Some land for sale at three dollars to ten dollars an 
acre. Average crop, six hundred pounds to seven hundred pounds seed 
cotton per acre. Lucerne, clover and millet do w^ell. Summer pasturage 
abundant. Sheep kept during the winter on cotton seed and turnips, at 
a cost of thirty cents a head. Attention is being much directed to stock 
raising since the abolition of the fence law. Field labor paid fifty cents 
to seventy-five cents a day ; one-fourth is performed b}'' w^hites. 

Smithmlle Township {E. D. 16) : Lands elevated and rolling. Soil, a fine, 
gray, sandy loam, and a red clay loam, with subsoil of clay resting on 
clay or a fine white earth, resembling chalk. Growth, oak, hickory and 
pine, wdth wild clover and various grasses. Crops, six hundred pounds 
seed cotton ; ten bushels corn on uplands and twenty-five to thirty bush- 
els on bottoms. Lands sell from three dollars to ten dollars per acre. 
Wages of farm labor, fifty cents a day to one dollar and fifty cents and 
two dollars during harvest; one-fourth performed by whites. 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 1G5 

Whitehall Toimishij) {E. D. 15) : Level and undulating lands. The post- 
oak and hickory land is a coarse, gray, sandy soil, resting on red clay, the 
red bottom lands are on the creeks and branches. Growth, oak, hickory 
and pine. Wild clover and native grasses abound. Crops, the best fresh 
land will make a bale of cotton, without manure ; a bale to two acres is a 
good average ; ten bushels to sixty bushels of corn ; ten bushels of wheat ; 
twenty bushels to one hundred and twelve bushels of oats an acre. Par- 
ticles of gold found in all the small streams. Traces of manganese occur. 
Most of the lands are rented for eight hundred pounds to one thousand 
pounds of lint cotton for twenty-five acres. Price of land from eight 
dollars to ten dollars per acre, and advancing. Very little field work 
done by whites. No climatic disease ; locality very healthy. 

Bordeaux Township {E. D. 5) : Ridge lands elevated and rolling. Soil, 
a sandy loam, with spots of gravel and rock, with a subsoil of yellow- 
clay, mixed with sand, underlaid by a stiff red clay. Growth, oak, 
hickory, gum and pine, with some chestnut. There are extensive river 
bottoms, also creek and branch bottoms, which are very fertile. Crops, 
five hundred pounds to one thousand pounds seed cotton ; ten bushels to 
forty bushels corn ; twenty bushels oats per acre. Land can be bought at 
five dollars an acre ; rents for two bales of four hundred pounds of cotton 
for a one mule farm, or one-fourth of all crops. More than a million 
dollars in gold has been taken from the Dorn mine ; and several new 
mines have been recently discovered. The Savannah river. Reedy river 
and Longcane afford numerous water powers. One-fifth of the farm work 
performed by whites. 

Ninety-Six Township {E. D. 14) : Lands undulating, very little hilly. 
Soil, a gray sandy loam, and a deep red soil, subsoil generally clay, under- 
laid by clay. Soft rock and white chalk. Growth, oak and hickory, 
with some pine. Crops, half a bale of cotton ; fifteen bushels of corn ; 
twenty bushels of oats per acre. Very little land for sale ; most of it 
worked on shares ; little worked by hired labor. 

Cedar Springs Townshij) (E. D. 3) : High rolling ridges, broken and hilly 
on the streams. Soils, a gray sandy loam, and mulatto and red clay 
loams. Sandy soils coarser than in the low country ; these are consid- 
ered, since the introduction of fertilizers, as the most paying lands. 
Subsoils clay, underlaid at eighteen feet to twenty feet, by granite slates 
and an ash colored earth that has some fertilizing qualities. Growth, 
oaks of all kinds, short leaf pine, walnut, hickory, sugar-maple, cucum- 
ber tree and white gum. Crops, six hundred pounds seed cotton ; ten 
bushels of corn; twenty-five bushels to seventy-five bushels of oats; 
ten bushels to fifty bushels wheat. A little land for sale at three dollars 
to ten dollars an acre for some ; but not the best. Rent from three dollars 



i6G THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

to ten dollars an acre, or on shares. Building granite and soapstone oc- 
cur. Gold, silver, lead, copper, zinc and iron are found. Longcane creek 
furnishes several good water poAvers. Lucerne, clover, blue, orchard and 
timothy grass are found to do well. No local diseases. One-half the 
field work performed by whites. 

Calhoun Mills TownsJa'p (E. D. 6) : The flatwoods are low, flat land. 
Soil, a black loam, resting on a tenacious yellow clay, containing masses 
of carbonate of iron, which, when broken off by the plow and mixed 
with soil, give rise to the appellation, " Buckshot " lands ; underlaid by 
decomposed felsitic and dioritic porphyry, that becomes hard in descend- 
ing. Growth, heavily-bodied post oak and scaly bark hickory. Old 
fields grow up in persimmon and sassafras, later, in old-field pine. Lands 
wet, require draining ; make good corn crops. Clover, peas and the grasses 
do well ; but cotton rusts. Surrounding the flatwoods, like the rim of a 
cup, are the rolling, hilly, red lands. Growth, oak, pine and hickory. 
Some of these lands, under cultivation since the Be volution, with little 
manure, will produce good crops still; although they have been poorly 
farmed, and are much washed. I have made thirty bushels of corn, forty 
bushels oats, fifteen hundred pounds of seed cotton to the acre : but this 
is above the average. Excellent bottom lands are found on Little and 
Savannah rivers, and the small streams. Spring-water and shallow wells, 
impregnated with iron and sulphur. Farms may be bought at from two 
dollars to ten dollars an acre ; if well improved will sell higher. Traces 
of gold, copper and antimony have been found. Eurite furnishes blocks 
of excellent building material, a very fine granite, hammondite occurs, 
and soapstone. Farm wages, ten dollars a month, with rations, garden, 
the privilege of a cow and of poultry raising. 

Anderson County. 

Anderson Court House (E. D. 18): Level in the north and east; rolling 
to the south. Soil : 1st. A stiff, sticky, red clay, with deep red subsoil. 
2d. Red, loamy soil, mixed with fine sand, and having a red subsoil. 3d. 
Gray sandy soil, with yellowish subsoil. Growth, oaks of all kinds, 
liickor)' and pine. Crops, cotton, a bale to three acres ; corn, ten bushels ; 
oats, ten bushels to fifteen bushels an acre. Some land for sale, at ten 
dollars to fifteen dollars an acre. Rents for one five hundred pound bale 
of cotton for every ten acres. Farm labor paid fifty cents a day ; one- 
half of it performed by whites. Has forty acres set in clover," orchard 
grass and red top, which does well. 

Garvin Toumsliip {E. D. 27) : Land elevated and rolling, with some flats. 
Soil : 1st. A gray or brown sandy loam, on red or yellow cla}'. 2d. Red 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 167 

loam ; depth of soils two inches to eight inches ; the soils on bottoms 
have a depth of from two inches to six inches, or more. Beneath the 
subsoil is a fine, gray, soapy, sandy earth, mixed with mica. It has been 
used successfully as manure. Growth, red, white, black, post, Spanish 
and chestnut oaks, chestnut and hickory. Very little land for sale ; price 
from eight dollars to ten dollars an acre. A good deal to rent for one- 
fourth the cotton, two-thirds of the other crops. Croppers furnishing 
labor and paying for guano, get one-third, two-fifths or one-half of the 
crop. The worn out old fields, grown up in pines, are, when cleared again, 
more productive than virgin forest, yielding with one hundred and fifty 
pounds of guano one thousand pounds of cotton the first year. Clover 
and other grasses do well. Wages of farm labor six dollars to ten dollars 
a month ; about one-half performed by whites. 

Holland's Store Toionship [E. D. 23) : The ridges are flat topped, and are 
a fine gray sandy loam, on clay subsoil ; not having washed under cultiva- 
tion, they have steadily risen in value. Near the rivers and creeks the land 
is hilly and broken, the soil a red clay, and soft micaceous rocks are found. 
Growth, oaks, hickory, sourwood, dogwood and old-field pine. Since the 
abolition of the fence law has restricted the range of cattle, many grasses 
and forest plants, thought to be extinct, have re-appeared, among them 
the wild pea and vetches. Wild oats are getting so abundant that large 
tracts of wood lands look like oat fields. Crops, one-third of a bale of 
cotton, ten bushels to twenty-five bushels corn, on upland ; and twenty 
bushels to fifty bushels on bottom land, six bushels wheat, ten bushels to 
twenty bushels oats per acre. Traces of gold are found. A bed of brown 
hammotite covers a square mile or more, and near it is a knob of soap- 
stone, much used for hearthstones. Generostee creek furnishes six mill 
sites of twenty to fifty horse power, and at McDaniel's shoals, on the Sa- 
vannah river, there is a fall of twenty-five feet to forty feet in two miles. 
Wages of farm labor, fifty cents a day ; for ditching and harvesting, one 
dollar and sixty cents ; more than one-half performed by whites. 

Equality Township (E. D. 28) : The ridges are flat or rolling, of a light 
gray, gravell}^ and sandy porous soil, suited to cotton, but requiring fer- 
tilizers to preserve their fertility. Towards the streams the land is more 
hilly and broken. Soil, a stiff red clay on a red clay subsoil ; there are lands 
under cultivation, yielding good crops, that were cleared one hundred years 
ago, and have been worked for the last twenty-three years without manure. 
Subsoil underlaid by rotten gneiss, mica, slate and hornblende, about 
one-sixteenth dark brown loamy creek bottoms. Growth, black, white, 
post and turkey oak, hickory, pine and chestnut. Crops, eight hundred 
pounds seed cotton, fourteen bushels to forty bushel corn on uplands, 
thirty bushels to seventy on bottoms, eight bushels to thirty bushels 



168 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

wheat, twenty-five bushels to one hundred bushels oats per acre. Pea- 
vines and red clover make good forage crops. Traces of gold are found, 
but no regular mining. Field labor paid fifty cents a day and board, and 
is largely performed by whites. 

Williamston Tounship {E. D. 29) : Land rolling. Soil, light brown or 
reddish sandy loam, five inches to six inches to subsoil of red clay, mixed 
with sand. Beneath the subsoil rotten gneiss rock is found. Growth, 
oak and pine, with some hickory and ash. Cotton yields a little less than 
three-fourths of a bale per acre. Provisions not much raised. Price of 
land, ten dollars to thirty dollars per acre. Graphite of good quality is 
found in lumps over a considerable area, also red hermatite. The Pied- 
mont and Pelzer factories are two large cotton mills on the Saluda. At 
the first it is estimated that a twenty-foot dam will give over eight hun- 
dred horse power ; at the latter an eight-foot dam will give three to four 
hundred horse power. The Allen shoals, between the two, is about equal 
to the Piedmont falls. Below the Pelzer factory, the Clement shoals fur- 
nish a fall of fourteen feet, with abundant rock and an excellent site for 
building. Native grasses and cane afford forage. Little attention is paid 
to stock. Day labor, fifty cents to one dollar and twenty-five cents. 
Nearly one-half the field work is performed by whites. Williamston is a 
health resort, with a chalybeate spring, containing iron, magnesia, potash, 
sulphur, iodine and an excess of carbonic acid ; and it has a large male 
academj^ and female college, with one hundred and twenty-five pupils. 

Varemies Toivnsliij) (E. D. 20): Land elevated and rolling; sometimes 
hilly and broken. Soils are : 1st. Fine and warm sandy loam, three inches 
to four inches to a yellowish sandy or dark drab-colored subsoil. 2d. 
Clay loam, four inches to eight inches to a red or brown subsoil, which is 
generally stift' clay, underlaid for ten feet by stiff red clay, that there be- 
comes mixed with rock, mica, sand and rotten looking clay of all colors. 
Growth, red, post, black, white and water oak, hickory, elm, pine, black- 
jack and blackgum. Crops, four hundred pounds seed cotton, fifteen 
bushels corn, eight bushels wheat, twelve bushels oats an acre. Lands 
sell at eight dollars to twenty dollars an acre ; rents for one-third of the 
crops. Building granite abounds. The McDonald mine yields gold, 
some silver and rubies. Corundum of inferior quality is found at various 
places ; also zircons and beryl. High shoals on Rocky river has a fall of 
thirty-one feet in three hundred yards, estimated as furnishing one hun- 
dred horse power. 

Chester County. 

Baton Rouge Tomiship {E. D. 37) : Rolling lands. Soils, gray, sandy, 
gravelly, six inches to red clay subsoil and red clay loam. Growth, oak, 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 109 

ash, walnut, pino, hickory. Lands rent for two bales cotton per one-liorse 
farm. There is a gold mine, not worked now, however. The Lockhart 
shoals furnish a great water power. The river is one-fifth of a mile wide, 
eight feet deep, and has a fall of forty-seven feet in one-half a mile. 
Field labor paid fifty cents per day ; one-half performed by whites. 

BossviUe Toivnship {E. D. 43) : Northeastern corner, blackjack land and 
level ; the balance hilly and broken. Soils, gray, sandy loam, red and 
mulatto clay loam. Subsoil, mostly red clay and grayish pipe clay. 
Growth, a variety of oaks, hickory, blackjack and old field pines. Crops, 
ten bushels to twelve bushels corn, four bushels to five bushels wheat, 
fifteen bushels to twenty bushels oats, and three hundred pounds to four 
hundred pounds cotton an acre. Sixty bushels of corn have been made 
on my place. Lands for sale at ten dollars to twelve dollars an acre ; 
rent for three bales of cotton of four hundred pounds to the mule, and 
less. Much land could be rented for clearing it up. Most of it having 
been thrown out is grown up in old field pines. Good building granite is 
found. An immense water power furnished by the old State canal on 
Catawba river. Farm wages, fifty cents a day ; one-fourth performed by 
whites. 

LewisviUe Toivnship {E. D. 42) : Broken into hills and ridges, about one 
hundred and fifty feet higher than the valleys of the numerous streams 
crossing it. ooils, a gray sandy loam, and a red clay loam, resting on 
red clay. In the northwest the blackjack lands have a grayish or whitish 
pipe clay subsoil. Growth, many varieties of oaks, pine, chestnut, walnut, 
and chinquapin. Cedar is taking the place of the old field pine. Little 
land for sale. Most of it is forest. Abundant water powers. A large 
cotton factory is being built on Fishing creek. 

Chester Townshij) (E. D. 36) : Northwestern portion a light, sandy soil. 
Growth thirty years ago was chestnut and chinquapin. They have died 
out, and been replaced by oak and hickory. Once considered worthless, 
these lands, with fertilizers, now produce heavy crops of cotton, and sell 
for from ten dollars to fifteen dollars an acre. The middle portion is the 
blackjack lands, level and flat, requiring ditching. The blackjack is 
disappearing, and being replaced by oaks. These lands are adapted to 
corn and clover and the grasses. With ditching, stable manure, kainit, 
to prevent rust, they make good cotton crops. Spring water is limestone. 
They may be bought for from two dollars to five dollars an acre. The 
southern portion is mulatto or rod land. It is broken and hilly ; hard to 
cultivate ; rents to negroes for seventy-five cents to one dollar an acre. 
Farm wages, from forty cents to fifty cents a day ; one-fourth performed 
by whites. 



170 the piedmont region. 

Edgefield County. 

Wise Townshij^ (E. D. 65): Lands elevated and hilly and broken, with 
narrow bottoms on the creeks. White sandy and red clay loam the pre- 
vailing soil. Subsoil heavy, red, clay, gravelly Growth,-short leaf pine, 
white oak, red oak, walnut, hickory and maple. Average yield, four 
hundred pounds seed cotton, eight bushels corn, fifteen bushels oats per 
acre. Most of the land rented by the year for one-fourth of the crop ; 
may be purchased on easy terms. Good building granite and soapstone 
are found, with clay, used for making earthenware. Several mill sites ; 
very healthy ; only about one-tenth of the field work performed by 
whites^. 

Eyan Townsliip {E. D. 60): Lands elevated and slightly rolling. Soil, 
a fine, gray, sandy loam, with a 3^ellow clay subsoil, and a coarse mulatto 
loam, with red clay subsoil. The subsoil is close and compact, and is 
underlaid by slates, soapstone and granite. Growth, short leaf pine, 
cedar and a variety of oaks, hickory, walnut, dogwood, ash and elm. 
Crops, six hundred pounds of seed cotton, fifteen bushels corn, fifteen 
bushels wheat, thirty-five bushels oats, twenty-five bushels peas, one hun- 
dred and fifty bushels potatoes per acre. Lands sell at from three dollars 
to ten dollars an acre, and rent at fifty dollars for a one-horse farm. Gold, 
manganese, silver and copper ores are found, but are only slightly devel- 
oped. Wild clover, cane and several native grasses afford pasturage. 
Stock raising is profitable, and could be made more so. Farm wages, 
fifty cents per day ; one-tenth of it performed by whites. 

Washington Township {E. D. 63) ; Elevated, hilly and broken in the 
upper portions. The level soils are gray, sandy and gray clay loam. 
Subsoil, grayish, light colored clay, underlaid by red clay, flint and slate 
rock. Growth, w^hite, red and post oak, hickor}^ and pine. Crops, one- 
fourth to three-fourths of a bale of cotton, twent}'' bushels to forty-five 
bushels oats, ten bushels to twenty-five bushels corn, five bushels to twelve 
bushels wheat per acre. Ver}'' little land for sale, prices ten dollars to 
twenty dollars an acre ; rents from three dollars to five dollars per acre. 
Good water powers on Stephen's creek. Very little field work done by 
whites. 

Rehobeth Township (E. D. 62) : Hilly, some level places and a few flats. 
Soil, a dark or light gray loam, with subsoil of red clay, underlaid by clay 
slate. Growth, oak, hickory, pine, ash and cedar. Crops, one-fourth to 
one bale of cotton, ten bushels to tAventy bushels corn, ten bushels to 
twenty bushels wh6at, ten bushels to thirtj^-five bushels oats an acre. 
Know of none for sale, plenty to rent, for two bales to the plow. Prices 
of land would average from two dollars and fifty cents to eleven dollars 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 171 

an acre. Traces of gold. Large water powers on Stevens and Turkey 
creeks. Wages of field labor, thirty cents to seventy-five cents a day ; 
one-twentieth of it performed by whites. Very healthy. 

Dimtonsville Township {E. D. 45) : Rolling lands. Soils, clay loam, 
mixed with small particles of clay slate, or with grit or a stiff waxy clay. 
Subsoils of the first two varieties composed of shatters of rotten clay slate ; 
of the last, yellow and deep red clay, underlying the subsoil is red clay, 
clay slate, granite and chalk. Growth, oak, hickor}', pine and ash. 
Crops, one-third of a bale of cotton, fifteen bushels to fifty bushels oats, 
five bushels to ten bushels wheat, seven bushels to ten bushels corn an 
acre. Land for sale at four dollars to five dollars an acre ; rents for fifty 
dollars for what one horse can cultivate ; house, firewood and pasture in- 
cluded. There are three slate quarries, and traces of gold. Grasses do 
well on flat places. Very healthy. Farm wages, fifty cents a day, and 
board ; one-third performed by whites. 

Grey Township {E. D. 51) : Level, undulating and hilly, not broken. 
Soil, mostly a gray clay loam, underlaid by gray slate rock. Growth, red, 
black, post, white and other oaks, with hickory, pine and dogwood. Crops, 
six hundred pounds to eighteen hundred pounds (with acid phosphate) 
seed cotton, ten bushels on upland to thirty bushels on bottoms of corn, 
five bushels to ten bushels of wheat, ten bushels to forty bushels oats per 
acre. Unimproved lands sell for from three dollars to five dollars an 
acre. Little improved land for sale ; it rents for eight hundred pounds 
to one thousand pounds seed cotton for forty acres. Arable land, farmed 
on shares, everything furnished but labor and rations, and the crop divided. 
Traces of gold are found, and there are quarries of soapstone and whetstones, 
but not much developed. Good chalk and clay for manufacture of earth- 
enware abound. Farm wages, fifty cents a day ; cradlers, one dollar and 
twenty-five cents to one dollar and fifty cents. No prevailing disease. 
One-fourth of the labor is performed by whites. 

Mohley Township (E. D. 56) : Generally level. Soils, gray clay loam, 
underlaid by hard and soft slate rock. Growth, mostly pine. Crops, 
three hundred pounds to eight hundred pounds seed cotton, five bushels 
to twenty bushels corn, five bushels to twenty bushels oats per acre. 
Some land for sale at from five dollars to ten dollars per acre. A good 
deal to rent for four hundred pounds lint cotton for ten to fifteen acres. 

Hibbler's Township (E. D. 53) : Generally level, in some parts hilly. 
Soils, a black clay loam, with red clay subsoil ; and a gray clay loam, 
with white and yellow clay subsoil. The subsoil is underlaid by slate rock 
and some granite. Growth, white oak, red oak, ash, pine and poplar. 
Crops, eight hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, thirty bushels 
oats, twenty bushels wheat per acre. Land sells for four dollars per acre ; 



172 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

and rents for four hundred pounds lint cotton for twelve acres ; some slate 
and soaptones are found ; also veins of gold. Clover and grasses do well. 
One-half of the field work performed by whites. 

HiiWs Township {E. D. 54) : Elevated and rolling. Soils, gray and red 
clay loam, two and one-half inches, the subsoil of yellow or red clay. 
Growth, oak, hickory and pine. Crops, six hundred pounds seed cotton, 
ten bushels to fifteen bushels corn, fifteen bushels to thirty-five bushels 
oats, eight bushels to twenty bushels wheat per acre. Lands sell for five 
dollars to ten dollars an acre, and rent for two dollars to three dollars an 
acre. Fine water power on Saluda river. Very healthy. One-half of 
the field work is performed by whites. 

Cooper Township (E. D. 49) : Lands rolling. The prevailing soil a stiff, 
red clay. The subsoil is the same, with absence of vegetable mould. 
There are also flat lands, known as " buckshot " or " black gravel soils," 
very dark. Cotton rusts, and corn " frenches " on them ; but oats do 
well. Flint and black rock (trap) occur under the subsoil. Growth, 
white, red and post oak, hickory and pine. Crops, five hundred pounds 
cotton (seed) to one bale, ten bushels corn on the hills, twenty-five bush- 
els to forty bushels on the bottoms ; ten bushels to forty bushels wheat, 
twenty-five bushels to seventy-five bushels oats per acre. Blue grass is 
making its appearance. Red and yellow clover do well. Stock raising 
has been made profitable by a few persons on the streams, where native 
grasses and clover, growing wild, furnish good pasture. Farm. wages, 
from twenty-five cents to fifty cents a day ; sixty dollars to seventy-five 
dollars by the year with board. 

Fairfield County. 

Fairfield Township {E. D. 79) : Lands level, rolling, sometimes hilly and 
broken. Soil, light gray sandy loam, with yellov>^ clay subsoil and red 
mulatto loam, with red clay, subsoil underlaid by red clay, granite and 
decomnosing rocks. Growth, short leaf pine, oak, elm, walnut. Fine 
building granite. Little attention paid to stock. Wages of field labor, 
men, fifty cents to seventy -five cents ; women, thirty cents to fifty cents a 
day. The negro not a success as a tenant. The land for sale at six 
dollars to eight dollars an acre, and one-half to rent 'for one-fourth of the 
crop. Varieties of granite, iron rock and soapstone occur. Gold and 
iron have been mined. Bermuda grass and clover do well ; also crab- 
grass and swamp grasses. Stock raising is found profitable. One-twen- 
tieth of the field work performed by whites. 

Fairfield, No. 10 Township {E. D. 70) : Hilly, rolling or broken. Soil, a 
fine sandy loam, with yellow clay. Subsoil, a heavy clay loam, and a 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 173 

shallow, gravelly soil, with red subsoil of red clay, mixed with gravel ; 
under the subsoil strata of red clay and sand of variegated colors, with 
gravel, are found. Growth, red and white oak, hickory, ash, Avalnut and 
short leaf pine. Crops, one-third of a bale of cotton, eight bushels corn, 
five bushels wheat, ten bushels to thirty bushels oats per acre. Know of 
no lands for sale ; rents are one-fourth the crops. Farm labor, from 
twenty-five cents to fifty cents a day. 

No. 2. Township {E. D. 68) : Elevated, broken and hilly. Soil, fine sandy 
loam, with red clay subsoil, underlaid by soft rock. Growth, oak, hickory 
and gum. Crops, one hundred pounds lint cotton, six bushels corn, five 
bushels wheat, fifteen bushels oats per acre. No land for sale, but much 
rented for three dollars to four dollars an acre. Very little field work 
done by whites. 

No 1. Township {E. D. 67): Elevated and mostly hilly, with some table- 
land, considerable bottoms on Broad river and its tributaries. Soil, of a 
gray, chinquapin, sandy loam, and red clay loam. Subsoil, red or mu- 
latto clay. Growth, oak and hickory, and old field pine, the latter assist- 
ing greatly the recuperation of worn out soil. Crops, three hundred 
pounds to fifteen hundred pounds seed cotton, six bushels to twenty -five 
bushels corn, fifteen bushels to fifty bushels oats, eight bushels to fifteen 
bushels wheat per acre. Little land for sale, most of it rented for one- 
fourth of the crop, or for from one to six bales of cotton for a one-horse 
farm. Good water power at Lyles's ford, on Broad river. The Egyptian 
or Means grass grows luxuriantly on the red lands. Wages of field labor, 
fifty cents a day ; one-fifth of it performed by whites. 

No. 1. ToionsMp {E. D. 67) : Hilly ; three-quarters of the soil coarse and 
sandy ; one-fourth stiff red clay. Subsoil, red or mulatto colored clay. 
Growth, oak, hickory, pine and blackjack. Some land for sale at eight 
dollars to ten dollars an acre. Wages, forty cents a day, except in harvest 
time, then one dollar and fifty cents. One-fifteenth of the labor is Avhite. 

No. 5. Township {E. D. 71): Lands elevated and rolling. The soil is a 
sandy loam. Subsoil, stiff red clay, underlaid by rotten granite. Growth, 
red, white and blackjack oaks, and old-field pine. Cash price of lands, 
in large tracts, three dollars ; in smaller tracts, six dollars to seven dollars 
an acre. Most of it is rented ; field stock and implements furnished 
for one-half the crop, or for from two to four bales of four hundred and 
fifty pounds of cotton for one-horse farm. Traces of gold found, but not 
mined. One-fifth of the field labor performed by whites. 

No. 4. Toimship {E. D. 70) : Elevated and broken. Soil, gray and yel- 
low, gravelly, and sandy loam, and red clay loam. Subsoil, red clay. 
Growth, oak and hickory. Crops, four hundred pounds seed cotton, ten 
bushels corn, ten bushels wheat, twenty bushels oats per acre. Some 



174 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

lands for sale at six dollars to seven dollars an acre ; rent for about one 
dollar and fifty cents. 

Greenville County. 

Greenville Township {E. D. 82) : Land rolling. Soil, gray sandy loam, 
four inches to subsoil of fine red clay, underlaid by soft gray rock. 
Growth, red, white, black and chestnut oaks, hickory, ash, walnut, dog- 
wood and pine. Crops, about eight hundred pounds seed cotton, and 
twenty bushels of the various grains per acre. Lands sell for ten dollars 
to forty dollars an acre. There is good brick clay and abundant water 
power on Reedy and Saluda rivers. About one-fourth of the field work 
is performed by whites. 

Gant Toivnship {E. D. 83) : From level to rolling ; more or less hilly 
and broken on the streams Soils, a gray sandy loam and a red clay loam, 
six inches to sixteen inches to subsoil of red or brown clay, underlaid by 
sound and rotten granite, sometimes coarse and fine gravel. Growth, as in 
last, with the addition of long leaf pine. Crop, one-half bale of cotton per 
acre. Clover and the grasses do well, when attended to. Attention is being 
directed to fruit culture, especially apples. Price of land from ten 
dollars to fifteen dollars an acre. A large proportion rented for one- 
third the crop, or where stock, tools, seed, provisions and feed are ad- 
vanced, for one-half the crop. Cost of fertilizer divided by renter and 
owner. Iron ores occur. Abundant water powers on Reedy and Saluda 
rivers. No climatic disease. One-twelfth or more of the farm w^ork per- 
formed by white men, women and children. 

Bates Township {E. I). 96): Land rolling. Soil, coarse, dark, sandy 
loam, six inches to eight inches to subsoil of deep red, sometimes of dark, 
mulatto clay, underlaid by clay and dark gravelly sand. Growth, oak, 
hickory and chestnut. Crops,*six hundred pounds to seven hundred 
pounds seed cotton, twelve bushels to forty bushels corn, eight bushels 
wheat, fifteen bushels oats per acre. Lands sell from six dollars to ten 
dollars an acre ; improved bottoms at forty dollars to fifty dollars ; rent, 
from two dollars and fifty cents to five dollars per acre, or for one-third 
the grain and one-fourth the cotton crop. Granite and red soapstone, 
with other good building materials found. Gold found in the branches. 
Wild clover, grasses and cane furnish forage. Three-fourths of the 
labor performed by whites. 

Dunklin's Township {E. D. 85) : Mostly rolling, some parts level and some 
flat. Soil, a gray sandy loam, and a red clay loam, both with red clay 
subsoil, underlaid by coarse gray gravel ; sometimes by gray rock mixed 
with flint Growth, oak, hickory and pine. Crops, one-half to one and 



THE PIEDMONT 'REGION. 175 

on€-half l>ales of cotton, fifteen bushels corn, seven bushels to twenty 
bushels wheat, fifteen bushels to fifty bushels oats. The mud bottoms on 
Keedy river will produce fifty bushels of corn to the acre, and the corn 
crop would be largely increased, if this stream, now much obstructed by 
logs, was cleared out. Clover, lucerne and the grasses do well, when at- 
tended to. Lands sell for ten dollars an acre; about one-half is rented 
annually. Shoals on the Saluda river unimproved, afford abundant 
water power. Good building granite is found. Farm wages, from eight 
dollars to ten dollars a month. One-half the field work performed by 
whites. 

Paris Mountain Township (E. D. 90 and 97) : Level, broken and hilly. 
Soils, sandy, chocolate and clay loam. Subsoil, red clay, underlaid by a 
white gravelly earth, containing mica. Growth, oak, hickory and pine. 
A little land for sale from five dollars to twenty dollars an acre. Build- 
ing granite and soapstone are found. Farr's mills and Mackelheny's 
shoals on Saluda river furnish water powers. Farm wages, fifty cents a 
day ; one-half performed by whites. 

Lancaster County. 

Waxhaw's Township (E. D. 84) : Land rolling. Soil of southern portion red 
loam, ten inches to red clay. Subsoil, granite, crossed by j^orphyritic 
dykes. Northern portion, coarse, light colored sand, four inches to 
white clay, rocks, talcere slate ; underlying subsoil a light colored dirt, 
showing mica. Growth, oak, hickory, short leaf pine and holly. Crops, 
eight hundred pounds seed cotton, and twelve bushels corn per acre. No 
land for sale. Plenty to rent for eight hundred pounds to fifteen hun- 
dred pounds lint cotton to the work animal. Splendid water power near 
Land's ford, on the Catawba. Field labor paid fifty cents a day, without 
rations ; comparatively none performed by whites. 

Pleasant Hill Township {E. D. 42) : Generally level. Soil, coarse sand, 
three inches to eight inches to red cla}'' subsoil. Growth, pine, oak, 
and hickory ; on the bottoms, black gum and poplar. Crops, six hundred 
pounds cotton (seed), ten bushels com, eight bushels wheat, ten bushels 
or twelve bushels oats per acre. Not much land for sale. Unimproved 
land is selling for three dollars, improved land for five to ten dollars an 
acre ; rents for one-fourth of the crop. There is a gold mine, and kaolin 
is found. Long and* short leaf pine in abundance. Little attention paid 
to stock ; might be profitably raised. Have practiced medicine here for 
twenty-three years, and know of no place freer of disease. More than 
one-half the field labor is performed by whites. Wages, fifty cents a day 
and fed. 



170 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

Cedar Creek Towmldp {E. D. 18) : Elevated, hilly, and broken. Soil, coarse 
sand and sandy loam ; subsoil, yellow clay, underlaid by red, gravelly 
clay. Growth, short leaf pine, oak, and hickory ; abandoned fields grow 
up in loblolly pines in three to six years, which, in turn, give place to 
cedar. Crops, seven hundred pounds of seed cotton, eight bushels corn 
per acre. Land sells at from three dollars to ten dollars per acre. Un- 
limited water power on the Catawba river, which is one hundred and 
fifty yards wide, three feet deep, and flows nearly with the velocity of a 
cataract. Little attention paid to stock. It might be made profitable. 
Good building granite. Very healthy. Wages of field labor thirty to 
fifty cents a day. 

Flat Creek Towmhvp {E.D. 79): Some level land, but mostly hilly and 
rocky. Soils, coarse and fine, white, sandy loam and red clay loam ; sub- 
soil, a red clay. Growth, long leaf pine, oak and hickory. Crops, one-half 
bale of cotton, ten bushels corn, ten bushels wdieat, ten bushels oats per 
acre. Price of land, from two dollars to ten dollars. There are several 
gold mines. Valuable mill sites on Lynch's River. 

Cane Creek Township : Elevated, rolling, in some places nearly level. 
Soil, a fine, sandy loam, changing to clay loam near the streams ; subsoil, 
red clay, underlaid with yellowish clay and gravel. Growth, oak and 
hickory, also short leaf pine. Crops, eight hundred pounds seed cotton, 
ten bushels corn, fifteen bushels oats per acre ; an average, on twenty 
acres, of eighteen hundred pounds seed cotton has been made. Know of 
no land for sale. At Land's ford, the Catawba river is three-quarters of 
a mile wide, one foot to three feet deep, with a fall of thirty feet to the 
mile. Lucerne, red and white clover, orchard, meadow, red top and blue 
grass, all do well. These lands sold for fifteen dollars to twenty-five dollars 
before the war, and have been under cultivation for nearly two hundred 
years. 

Laurens County. 

Jacks Township {E. D. 103) : Elevated and rolling. Soils, red or mulatto 
clay loam, with red clay subsoil, and gray, sandy lands, Avith a light- 
colored clay subsoil. Growth, red, white, post, and water oaks, hickory 
and walnut, some sugar maple. Hundreds of acres of abandoned land 
are grown up in short leaf pine ; in the last decade, many long leaf pines 
have appeared among them, and are rapid growers. • Crops, five hundred 
pounds seed cotton, eight bushels corn, twenty bushels oats, eight bushels 
to ten bushels wheat, are about the average ; on the bottoms, fifty bushels 
corn per acre is made. Know of no lands for sale. There are thousands 
of acres, owned by non-residents, rented to freedmen for a portion of the 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 177 

crop, and miserably farmed. There is an immense amount of fine granite. 
No prevailing sickness. Amovmt of field work performed by whites in- 
creasing. Wages, fift}^ cents a day and rations. 

Waterloo Township {E. D. 106): Hilly,' washes when not properly 
ditched. Soils sandy, gravelly, and clay loam ; color mulatto, sometimes 
a deep red ; depth, two inches to three inches to a pale red clay subsoil, 
underlaid by clay, and in some places, by a dusky or bluish sandy earth. 
A very hard, bluish granite rock found in some wells. Growth, red, 
white, and post oak. Lands thrown out of cultivation grow up in pine, 
and are more productive than the original forest. Crops, six hundred 
^pounds to twelve hundred pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn on up- 
lands, and fifty on bottoms, fifteen bushels oats, eight bushels wheat per 
acre ; crab grass, after small grain, yields, sometimes, hay to the value 
of twenty dollars an acre. Lands for sale at from five dollars to twenty 
dollars per acre. Indications of gold are found in many places, but 
no mines are worked. Reedy river and Saluda river furnish valuable 
water powers. These streams are much obstructed by logs. Farm labor 
paid ten dollars a month, generally employed for a share of the crop ; 
one-fourth of it is performed by whites. 

Sullivan's Township {E. D. 105) : Elevated ridges and level land between 
the streams. Soils, a fine sandy loam, gray and chocolate in color, and 
a red clay loam, resting on red clay subsoil. Growth, oak, hickory, ash, 
dogwood, poplar, walnut and elm, with abundance of cedar along the 
Saluda river. Crops, five hundred to twelve hundred pounds seed cotton, 
ten bushels to thirty bushels corn, twenty bushels to thirty bushels bar- 
ley, fifteen bushels to sixty bushels oats, and eight bushels to twenty-five 
bushels wheat to the acre. Land can be bought at five dollars to ten 
dollars an acre ; rents for one-fourth of the crop, or eight hundred pounds 
lint cotton to the plow ; sometimes the laborer boards himself and pays 
one-half to the land owner, who furnishes everything else. Gray and 
blue granite, the latter used as mill rocks, are found. Gold, copper and 
lead are found, but not mined. Lime rock crops out on Reedy river, and 
below Garlington falls, on Reedy river, it is quarried for monuments and 
for lime burning ; soapstone of fine quality also occurs. The great falls 
on Saluda river, at the head of navigation, are seventy feet in two miles. 
Abundant water powers are also furnished by other falls on the river, by 
five falls on Reedy river, by falls on Rabnor creek. Ver}^ healthy. One- 
half the field work performed by whites. 

Scuffletown Toimship- {E. D. 104): Undulating. Soil, gray, gravelly, 
sandy loam ; subsoil, clay. Growth, oak, hickory, maple, pine, cedar and 
walnut. Crops, six hundred pounds to twelve hundred pounds seed 
12 



178 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

cotton, five bushels to thirty bushels corn per acre, Know of no land for 
sale ; rents for one-fourth of the crop. 

Newberry County. 

Cromer TownsJiij} {E. D. 112) : Level and flat, rolling on the rivers. 
On the levels, fine, gray, sandy loam, six inches to eight inches to subsoil 
of red cla}'. The rolling lands have a clay soil and subsoil ; sand and 
gravel underlies the subsoil. Growth, oak, hickory, walnut, cedar and 
pine. Crops, one-half bale of cotton, ten bushels corn, twenty bushels 
oats, eighty bushels barley, nine bushels wheat, seven bushels rye per 
acre. About one-tenth of the land for sale for six dollars to eight dollars 
an acre, and one-half to rent for one-fourth of the crop. Varieties of 
granite, iron rock and soapstone occur. Gold and iron have been mined. 
Bermuda grass and clover do well, also crab grass and swamp grasses. 
Stock raising is found profitable. Field labor is paid fifty cents a day ; 
one-twentieth of it performed by whites. 

Hellei'Toimsliip {E. D. 119): Lands elevated, level, along the streams, 
hilly. Soils, fine sandy loam, gray or whitish, eight inches to twelve 
inches to subsoil of fine, compact, red clay, free from grit. Growth, oak, 
hickory, short leaf pine, walnut, mulberry, ash and maple. Japan clover 
and Bermuda grass cover the land when left uncultivated, and the 
Egyptian or Means grass grows luxuriantly along the borders of streams, 
and on sandy bottoms. Land for sale in small tracts at eight dollars to ten 
dollars an acre ; three-fourths of it for rent;. if stock, stock feed, and im- 
plements are furnished, the rent is one-half the crop ; for the land alone, 
it is four hundred pounds lint cotton for every twelve or fifteen acres, or 
one-third of all crops. Granite of the finest quality for building abounds. 
Splendid water powers on Broad river and Hellers creek. Little atten- 
tion paid to stock raising. Wages, seventy-five dollars to eighty-five dollars 
per annum, or fifty cents a day, with board. One-fifth to one-seventh of 
the field labor performed by whites. 

Jalapa Township {E. D. 113) : Lands hilly and broken. Soil, red clay 
loam, eight inches to red clay subsoil, underlaid by red clay. Growth, 
oak and hickory. Three mill sites. Wagesj fift}' cents a day with board. 
Very little white labor ; negro labor very unreliable, only willing to work 
about one-third of the time. 

Saluda Old Town TownsJiip (E. D. 115): Lands level or gently un- 
dulating, broken into abrupt slopes near the rivers and creeks. Soil, on 
the uplands, red clay loam and gray, sandy loam, subsoil of red — rarely 
of yellow — clay ; a very fine and nearly white granite underlies the clay 
at the depth of ten to twenty feet. The Saluda river bottom averages a 



THE PIEDMONT REGION. 179 

mile in width, and is a ver}^ rich, alluvial soil. Growth, short leaf pine, 
oak, ash, hickory, walnut, poplar ; a considerable variety of native grasses 
afford good summer pastures, both on the uplands and in the bottoms, 
and cane for winter pasturage is abundant. Crops from one-third to one 
bale cotton, seven bushels to fifteen bushels corn on uplands, and twenty 
bushels to sixty bushels on bottoms, twenty bushels to fifty bushels oats, 
eight bushels to twenty-five bushels wheat per acre. One-fourth of the 
land for sale at six dollars to twelve dollars an acre ; one-half for rent for 
two to two and one-half bales of cotton for a one-horse farm of thirty 
acres or more. There is a mill-dam across Saluda river. Little attention 
is paid to stock. Field labor is paid fifty cents a day ; about one-sixth 
of it is performed by whites. Locality healthy. Traces of gold are found. 
,MayMnton Toivnship (E. D. Ill): Bottoms level, uplands rolling, hilly 
and broken near the water courses. Soil, red clay and gray, sandy loam, 
underlaid by red and snuff-colored clay ; depth of soil, three inches to 
five inches ; below the subsoil, granite, gneiss, hornblende and traprocks 
occur. Growth, hickory, several varieties of oaks, short leaf pine, cedar, 
walnut, dogwood, ash, poplar ; cane abundant in the bottoms. Crops, 
from four hundred pounds to twenty-nine hundred pounds seed cotton, 
from five bushels to one hundred bushels corn, from six bushels to forty 
bushels wheat, from twenty bushels to one hundred bushels oats an acre ; 
clover has given four tons per acre. All for rent for from one hundred 
pounds to three hundred pounds seed cotton per acre ; not much land 
for sale ; price seven dollars to fifteen dollars per acre. There is excellent 
granite for building. Broad river is six hundred yards wide ; depth, in 
shoals, four feet ; velocity, in shoals, estimated at thirty miles an hour ; 
fall, at Lyles ford, eighteen feet in a mile. Ennoree river eighty yards 
wide, six feet deep ; velocity, six miles in an hour. Wages of field labor 
fifty cents a day ; one-fourth performed by whites. Very healthy. 

Spartanburg County. 

Cowpens Township {E. D. 145): Rolling. Soil, coarse, gray, sandy" 
loam, with subsoil of red clay, underlaid by mica slate. Growth, white 
and post oak, hickory and pine. Bottom lands very fertile. Gold is 
found, and there are several fine water powers on Pacolet river, notably 
at Clifton cotton factory. One-half of the labor is performed by whites. 

Glenn Springs Township {E. D. 143) : Elevated, level. A dark gray, 
sandy soil, eight inches to ten inches to subsoil of red clay. Growth, oak, 
hickory, pine. Crops, six hundred pounds seed cotton, eight bushels to 
ten bushels corn, eight bushels to ten bushels wheat, twenty bushels to 
forty bushels oats per acre. Land sells from five dollars to twenty dollars 



180 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

per acre, and rents for one-third of the crop. There are several gold 
mines and an asbestos mine. Glenn Springs has long been a health re- 
sort for those using mineral waters. One-third of the labor is white. 

Cherokee Tomiship (E. D. 140) : Elevated, rolling, with steep hills on 
the large streams. Soil, a gray, sandy loam, with yellowish sandy sub- 
soil, aixl a red clay loam, with stiff, red clay subsoil, underlaid by a 
yellowish isinglass earth that crumbles on exposure, and enriches the 
soil when strewn on the surface. Growth, oak, hickory, and pine. Crops, 
seven hundred and fifty pounds seed cotton, ten bushels corn, eight 
bushels wheat, fifteen bushels oats per acre, a yield that is more than 
doubled by manuring and good culture. Lands sell for eight dollars to 
ten dollars an acre ; rent for one-fourth of the crop, or, with stock and 
tools, for one-half. Bottom lands are very fertile. Gold is found, aijd 
iron mines were formerly worked. There are several mineral springs. 
The north fork of the Pacolet furnishes great water power. All the cul- 
tivated grasses may be grown. Farm wages, fifty cents a day ; three- 
fourths performed by whites. 

Fairforest Township {E. D. 142) : Rolling ; on the water courses, hilly 
and broken. A gray, sandy loam, underlaid by a yellowish or dark red 
clay, is the prevailing soil ; there is some clay loam ; ten to fifteen feet 
below the clay subsoil, rotten, and sometimes decomposed, granite and 
gneiss are found. Growth, oak and hickory, occasionally chestnut and 
walnut. Crops, four hundred pounds to eight hundred pounds seed 
cotton, ten bushels to fifteen bushels corn, five bushels to ten bushels wheat 
per acre, without fertilizers. Traces of gold. Valuable water powers on 
Tyger river. The ridge between Tyger and Fairforest rivers is well 
adapted for fruit growing, being seldom affected by frosts. Lands are 
advancing in price, selling from eight dollars to fifteen dollars an acre. 
About one-half the farm labor performed by whites. 

Pacolet Toimiship (E. D. 145) : High, table land. Soil, a fine sand, 
twelve to fourteen inches to a light red clay subsoil, deepening in color 
as j^ou descend ; at twenty to twenty-eight feet, solid or disintegrated 
granite is met ; in the northwest, lands are red clay. Lands sell from 
ten dollars to fifteen dollars an acre, and rent for one-third of the 
crop. There is a quarry of fine granite. Shoals on the Pacolet have a 
fall of twenty-two and one-half feet in one hundred yards, and a mile 
below, there is another fall of thirty-three feet. All garden vegetables, 
melons and grapes do well. Rich Hill, a high plateau, six miles in ex- 
tent, between the Pacolet and Fairforest rivers, is unequalled for the pro- 
duction of fruits of all kinds. Frosts have injured it but once in forty 
years. Farm wages, from eight dollars to ten dollars a month. Two- 
thirds of the field work done by whites. 



the piedmont region. 181 

Union County. 

Uaion Township {E. D. 150) : Lands broken, hilly. A light, gravelly 
soil, resting on red clay subsoil, underlaid by granite rocks. Water of 
the shallower wells impregnated with magnesia ; of deeper wells pene- 
trating the granite freestone. Growth, short leaf pine, oak, dogwood, 
sassafras, walnut, beech, poplar. Price of lands much advanced since 
passage of stock law ; sell for ten dollars to twenty dollars an acre. A 
fine-grained, hard, durable, and easily split granite abundant. Water 
powers, a fall of twenty feet on Fairforest river, over granite rocks, and 
another of five and one-half feet ; several falls on Tj'^ger river. Stock 
raising not considered profitable. No attention paid to anything but 
cotton. No prevailing disease. Very healthy. 

Goivdeysville Township (E. D. 156): Hilly, and a good deal broken. Pre- 
vailing soil red clay, with a red clay subsoil ; some sandy soil, with white 
clay subsoil. Underlying subsoil is granite, and some rotten rock, or 
white clay. Growth, short leaf pine, oak and hickory. Bermuda and 
Means grass thrive. Clover grows finely. Creek bottoms, rich, sandy and 
vegetable loam. Crops, seven hundred pounds seed cotton, corn, upland, 
twelve bushels to twenty-five bushels, and fifty bushels on bottoms per 
acre. Lands sell from five dollars to fifteen dollars an acre ; rent for 
one-third of the crop. Several mill sites on creeks, and unlimited water 
power on Broad river. Stock might be profitably raised, but no attention 
is paid to it. Field labor, ten dollars a month, and fifty cents a day. No 
local disease. Three-fifths of the field work performed by whites. Seve- 
ral gold and iron mines. 

Santee Township {E. D. 149) : Lands generally level towards centre of 
tow^nship. Prevailing soil is a fine w^hite sandy loam ; along Broad and 
Tyger rivers, red clay hills ; depth to subsoil of pipe clay six inches to 
twelve inches. Sand underlies the pipe clay. Growth, short leaf pine, 
oak and hickory. -Average crops, six hundred pounds seed cotton, ten 
bushels corn, and fifteen bushels oats per acre. Price of lands increased 
from two dollars and fifty cents to ten dollars per acre, since passage of 
stock law. Sandy lands considered the poorest before the use of commer- 
cial fertilizers, now bring the highest prices. A neighbor made last year 
forty bales of cotton, a sufficiency of corn, and sold seed oats, on a two- 
horse farm. Not an isolated case. Know of no lands for sale. Most of 
it to rent for three four hundred and fifty pound bales of cotton for a 
one horse farm, which usually contains forty acres in cultivation and sixty 
acres in old field pastures and woodlands. Almost impossible to hire a hand 
for wages. Laborers prefer to work on shares or to rent. A mill site on 
Broad and also on Tyger rivers. No attention paid to stock. Day labor 



182 THE PIEDMONT REGION. 

on farm, fifty cents a day, with rations ; seventy-five cents without. Very 
healthy. Don't know a doctor who lives by his profession in the county. 
One-fifth of the field labor performed by whites. 

•Goshen Township (E. I). 155) : Hilly and rolling. Soil, fine, dark gray, 
light sandy loam, two inches to four inches to subsoil of stiff red clay, or 
pipe clay, with rocks underlaid by whitish sand, hard and soft rocks, with 
some isinglass. Growth, different oaks, poplar, ash, walnut and pine. 
Crops, one-half bale of cotton, eight bushels to fifteen bushels corn, on 
uplands ; twenty bushels to fifty bushels, on bottoms ; ten bushels to 
eighty bushels oats, four bushels to ten bushels wheat per acre. Clover 
and the grasses do well, where attended to. Lands sell from five dollars 
to ten dollars an acre ; rent for three bales of cotton for a one-horse farm. 
Farm hands paid eight dollars a month. No attention paid to stock 
raising, except some fine horses. A very small proportion of the labor 
is white. 

• 

York County. 

King^s Mountain Township {E. D. 170) : Lands rolling or level, in places 
mountainous, elsewhere hilly. Soils, sandy, rocky gravelly or clay loam, 
with red or yellow clay subsoil. Growth, oak ; where cut down it is suc- 
ceeded by broom sedge and pine. Crops, twelve bushels corn, upland ; 
thirty bushels creek bottom ; wheat, ten bushels to twenty bushels ; oats, 
ten bushels per acre. The poorest soils yield cotton well, with aid of 
guano. Fine monumental granite, iron ores and barytes are found. 
Lands sell for from two dollars and fifty cents to ten dollars an acre. 
Healthy; negroes suffer from consumption. Wages of field labor, fifty 
cents a day, or ten dollars a month, with board ; one-half of it performed 
by native whites. 

BeHiesda Township {E. D. 162) : The hilly and rolling lands are red 
clay or sandy soils, with yellow clay subsoil. These are the best cotton 
lands. The level or flat lands are the blackjack lands. Black, rocky 
soils, with pipe clay subsoil, underlaid by a hard, whitish, gravelly sub- 
stance, produce the small grains well, but cotton rusts and continues 
yellow or frenches after a few years cultivation, unless stable manure is 
applied. Lands sell from two dollars to twenty-five dollars an acre, and 
rent for eight hundred pounds of lint cotton for a one-horse farm of 
twenty-five or thirty acres. 



OHi^LPTER Vlir. 



THE ALPINE REGION. 



LOCATION. 



The Alpine Region of South Carolina occupies the extreme north- 
western border of the State. Commencing at King's mountain, in York 
county, it extends westward through Spartanburg, Greenville, Pickens and 
Oconee counties, widening in the three last named, until it embraces a 
tier of the most northern, townships, two or three deep. This wedge- 
shaped area has a length of one hundred and fourteen miles, and a width 
varying from eight to twenty-one miles. 

THE PHYSICAL FEATURES 

of this region present a rolling table-land, broken and hilly on the mar- 
gin of the streams, but scarcely anywhere inaccessible to the plow. It 
has a general elevation above the sea level of 1,000 to 1,500 feet. The 
gently undulating surface extends to the mountains, Avhose rock-bound 
walls often rise suddenly to their greatest height. The southeastern face 
of King's mountain rises perpendicularly five hundred feet above the 
plain, and its northwestern slope descends gently towards the Blue Ridge 
mountains. Table Rock also rises eight hundred feet vertically, or a 
little overhanging above the southeastern terrace at its base, formed of 
the loose fragments that in the course of ages have fallen from above. 
The steep ascent of these mountains from their South Carolina or south- 
eastern face, and their gradual slope on their northeastern face, and their 
gradual slope to the northwest, where the mountains of North Carolina 
rise apparently from a level country, is the reverse of the prevailing rule 
on the Atlantic slope, which is, that the short, steep sides face northwest, 
and the long, gentle slopes face southeast. Lieber thinks that these 



184 THE ALPINE REGION. 

mountain cliffs indicate the occurrence here, in the remote past, of a great 
fissure or crevasse in the earth's crust, a gigantic fault when tlie southern 
slopes fell down hundreds of feet and exposed the precipitous rock w^alls 
that now face the southeast. 

The boundary line of South Carolina reaches the most easterly chain 
of the Appalachian mountains, known here as the Saluda mountains, 
near the corner of Greenville and Spartanburg counties, and follows the 
summits of the ridge for fifty miles (thirty miles in an air line) until it 
intersects the old Cherokee Indian boundary line. From this point the 
mountain chain, here called the Blue Ridge, curving lightly to the north, 
passes out of the State, and the boundary line pursues a more southerly 
and a straight course to where the east branch of the Chatuga river in- 
tersects the thirty-fifth degree of north latitude. The Chatuga, flowing 
westward to its junction with the Tugaloo river, which in turn becomes 
the Savannah river, flowing to the southeast, are the northwestern and 
western boundaries of the State. The mountain chain divides the w^aters 
of the State flowing to the Atlantic Ocean from those flowing northward, 
which eventually find issuance to the southwest through the Tennessee 
and Mississippi rivers into the Gulf of Mexico. Considering the water-shed 
of South Carolina alone, the culminating point wdience the rivers of this 
section flow, is to be found in the horse-shoe curve of the mountain chain 
north of the straight boundary line referred to as uniting the Chatuga 
and the Blue Ridge. Hence the numerous sources of the Keowee river, 
White Water, Toxaway, Jocassee and other creeks take their rise and flow 
nearly due south. The main stream of the Saluda sw^eeps away to the 
east, and the Chatuga hurries westward. 

It was from a noted summit" of this range (Whiteside) that Mr. James 
E. Calhoun observed, as early as 1825, that the character of the mountains 
change from an unbroken chain to isolated masses towards the south. 
Such isolated masses form a striking feature of the mountains of South 
Carolina, and they make their appearance over a wide area of the State, 
extending w^est and east from Stump House mountain, near Walhalla, in 
Oconee county, past Paris mountain, in Greenville, Gilke's mountain, in 
Union, to King's mountain and Henry's Knob, in York. Southward 
they reach to Bird's mountain, in Laurens, Parson's mountain in Abbe- 
ville, and Ruft's mountain on the Newberry and Lexington line. The 
narrow^ mountain ridge that divides the river system of the Mississippi 
from that of the Atlantic slope, and the interdigitation, as it were, of the 
sources of the Hiwassee and Tennessee with those of the Savannah, have 
long suggested to engineers the possibility of establishing an interflow , 
between these w^aters. A canal, Mr. Calhoun says, across Rabun Gap 
would pour thirty-five miles of smooth water from the Little Tennessee 



THE ALPINE REGION. 185 

into the Tugaloo river, while the Chatuga, the Hiwassee, the Toxoway, 
and innumerable mountain streams of this well-watered region would 
serve as feeders to maintain the water supply in any desired quantity. In 
1873 water was drawn from Black creek, an affluent of the Tennessee, 
across the Gap, to Izell's mills, on Chicken creek, an affluent of the 
Savannah. 

The elevation above the mean level of the sea of the following points 
in western South Carolina were determined by the United States Coast 
Geodetic Survey: King's Mountain, 1,(392 feet; Paris Mountain (near 
Greenville), 2,054 feet; Caesar's Head, 3,118 feet; Mt. Pinnacle (near 
Pickens, the highest point in South Carolina), 3,430 feet. 

The bracing and healthy climate of this region, its beautiful scenery, 
the bold mountain outlines, the rich luxuriance of every growth, no 
stunted plant on mountain side or summit, every part, even the crevasses 
of the rocks, covered with trees and shrubs of some kind, all full of life 
and vigor ; the clear, swift streams that everywhere leap in a succession 
of cascades from crag and cliff, and sparkle in their course along the 
narrow but fertile valleys, have made it for generations a health and 
pleasure resort during summer. 

THE GEOLOGICAL FEATURES 

of this region are very similar to those of the one lying immediately 
south of it. The prevailing rock is gneiss, sometimes changing into 
granite, of good building qualities, and sometimes slaty, furnishing su- 
perior flagging stones, a 'remarkable locality of which occurs eight milas 
south of Pickens Court House, on the Greenville road. For the most 
part, the rock is found at a depth of thirty to fifty feet beneath the sur- 
face in a state of greater or less decomposition. Above the gneiss, whose 
out crops are much confined to the beds of streams, islands of mica slate, 
occupying the more elevated lands, are found. The largest of these iso- 
lated bodies extends for a considerable width along the ridges above the 
Chatuga river. 

The proportion of mica slate is greater here than elsewhere in the 
State. Between the mica slate and the gneiss, and cropping out almost 
everywhere around the edges of the first named rock, are extensive seams 
of hornblende rock, and its decomposition adds largely to the fertility, 
especially of the creek and river bottoms, of this region. Above the mica 
slate, on the large body of that rock on the Chatuga, some talc slate is 
found. The last named slate underlies a considerable area of itacolu- 
mitic sandstone that, in turn, support several bodies of limestone rock. 
A number of limekilns have been in operation here. 



186 



THE ALPINE REGION. 



Of the useful ores and minerals of this section, it may be further 
stated : 

There are numerous gold deposits, at some of which washings have 
been carried on with much profit. Vein mining, in spite of many 
promising indications, has not been regularly undertaken. 

Indian and Revolutionary traditions tell of lead mines, which in former 
times furnished belligerents with an ample supply of this necessary 
metal. Unfortunately, these traditions have not preserved the dis- 
closure of their locality. At the Cheohee gold deposit mine, on the head- 
waters of Little river, in Oconee county, Lieber examined a very prom- 
ising vein of argentiferous galena, which he thought might be profitably 
developed. 

Traces of copper were observed by Lieber on Tyger river, in Spartan- 
burg county, near the Galena mine above mentioned, and in some mill 
races in southern Pickens and Greenville. 

Graphite is found on Paris mountain, and also in Oconee county. 

Manganese and iron occur, but have not been explored. 

^^aluable soapstone quarries have been worked to a limited extent in 
Pickens. Large sheets of transparent mica have been found near Wal- 
halla, and asbestos of good quality is reported as occurring near Seneca 
City. 

THE SOILS. 

The soils are similar to those found elsewhere in the State, which are 
produced by the decomposition of gneiss rock in situ. On the more level 
uplands, a gray, sand}'^ loam, with a red, and sometimes on the mica 
slates, with a yellowish white, clay, predominates. On the hillsides, a 
stiff, red clay soil prevails. In the bottoms, a still darker loam, more 
thoroughly saturated with lime and potash from the decomposed horn- 
blende and mica slates, is found. Those bottom lands have long been 
highly esteemed as yielding abundant crops of corn, the small grains, 
and the grasses. Little thought or attention was bestowed on the up- 
lands previous to the attempt so successfully made within the last few 
years to introduce upon them the culture of cotton. 

CLBIATE. 

According to the physical charts of the ninth United States census, 
and the rain charts of the Smithsonian Institute, 2d Ed., 1877, this region 
has a mean annual temperature corresponding with that of Kansas or 
New Jersey. The more mountainous portions have, however, a mean 
annual temperature that corresponds with that of Montana, or the lower 



THE ALPINE REGION. 



187 



region of the great lakes. The mean of the hottest week of 1872, taken 
at 4h. 35m. P. M., was 90° F. The mean of the coldest week of 1872-3, 
taken at 7h. 35m. A. M., was 25° F. 

The prevailing winds are from the southeast, and the mean velocity of 
the movement of the atmosphere is much below the average for the 
United States at large. In the frequency with which the region is 
traversed by storm areas of say fifty miles in diameter, it ranks with the 
lowest in the United States. With the more extensive region south of it, 
it is peculiarly exempt from destructive storms. 

Blessed with an unusual number of clear days and a large amount of 
sunshine, the fig tree thrives here without protection, at an elevation of 
fifteen hundred feet above the sea. " The climate is less subject to sudden 
changes than in the plain below. Vegetation is late, but when once fairly 
begun, is seldom destroyed by subsequent frosts. Neither are there any 
marks of trees being struck by lightning,* or blown up by storms." 
(David Ramsay, Hist, of S. C.) 

The annual fall of water is over sixty inches, and this is, therefore, 
among the regions of heaviest precipitation in the United States. For 
spring, it is over eighteen inches, and for autumn, it is twelve inches, 
which are also the maximum in the United States. In winter, it is six- 
teen inches, which is less than the maximum, and in summer, it is four- 
teen inches, which places it third in a series of five, or just medium. 
Dewless nights rarely occur, and the luxuriant vegetation of this region 
does not in consequence suffer from the rigor of extreme droughts so fre- 
quent elsewhere. 

The following observations on the temperature of springs in this region 
were made by Lieber : 



Locality. 


Time of 
Observation. 


Temperature. 




ATMOSPHERE. 


WATER. 


Poinsett Spring, in Greenville, 
near N. Carolina line . . . 


7th June, 7| A. M. 


72.050° 


56.86° 


Spring on Jones' Gap Road, 
near Turnpike gate. . . . 


16th June, 2 P. M. 


75.74° 


57.56° 


Cold Spring, or Caesar's Head. 


29th June, 9^ A. M. 


80.60° 


55.40° 


House Spring, Cassar's Head . 


29th June, lOJ A. M. 


78.80° 


57.50° 



*lt is a saying in this region that " to pick the teeth with a splinter from a tree struck 
by lightniug. will cure the toothache ; " the meaning being that such a splinter is not 
to be had. 



188 THE ALPINE REGION. 



GROWTH. 

The prevailing growth is oak, chestnut, and short leaf pine. Proceed- 
ing toward the mountains, the following trees mark the ascent in the 
order here named : Rock chestnut, oak (quercm primus mmiticold), cucum- 
her tree {magnolia accuminatar), mountain laurel {rhododendron maximum), 
white pine (piniis strohus), hemlock or spruce pine {abies canadensis). The 
forest products are shingles, tan bark, and dogwood, with other hard 
woods, besides abundant timber for building purposes. The Indians 
once gained their chief livelihood here by gathering and disposing of 
medicinal herbs, such as spigelia marylandica, ginseng and snake root, 
which are to be found in great abundance. 

STATISTICS. 

The Alpine region of South Carolina embraces an area of 1,250 square 
miles, and is, therefore, the smallest division of the State here treated of. 
The population numbers 34,496, an increase since the census of 1870 of 
sixty-six per cent. This gives the density of the population as twenty- 
seven to the square mile which is below the average of the State, and 
less than in other regions — the sand hills and lower pine belt alone 
excepted. Twenty-six per cent, of the population is colored. 

Eighty per cent, of the land is wood land and forest, sixteen per cent, 
is tilled, and four per cent, is in old fields. The area of tilled land has 
more than doubled since 1870, being now 132,791 acres, and then, only 
64,802 acres. This is 3.8 acres per capita of population, against 3.1 acres 
in 1870, showing that improvement has more than kept pace with the 
increase of the population. 

The number of farms is 4,646, which gives an average of twenty-eight 
acres of improved land to the farm. Of this number, forty-three per 
cent, is under fifty acres, and may be considered as in the hands of small 
farmers. Nevertheless, there are some large landholders in this region. 
For instance : Mr. James E. Calhoun owns a body of 100,000 acres* of 

*0n the marjiin of his plat of these lands, Mr. Calhoun remarks : " Well timbered, 
soil good, scenery superb. It is so healthy that no physician ever lived in that part of 
the country. There are mineral springs. Cultivation is exclusively by white labor. 
It is a plateau within the ' thermal belt,' where fruit is never affected by frost Gold, 
iron, lime, hydraulic cement and kaolin are known to be abundant. Report adds 
silver, copper, lead and corundum. The Blue Ridge railroad runs twelve miles through 
it. In its lentrth of twenty-two miles and width of fifteen miles, it would be difficult 
to find a single spot two miles distant from water powers, of which there are 
more than eighty miles in direct line, and which, if developed, would be e.vempt from 



THE ALPINE REGION. 189 

land along the Chatuga river, in Oconee county. Of the farms forty-five 
per cent, are rented, and of the rented farms seventy-four per cent, are 
under fifty acres — showing that the renters are farmers on a small scale. 
Of the fifty-five per cent, worked by their owners only fifteen per cent, 
are under fifty acres. Of bona fide small proprietors, if landliolders of 
under fifty acres, who till their own land, may be termed such, the num- 
ber is small, being only seven per cent, of the total number of farm- 
holders. By far the larger number of farms are rented for a portion of 
the crop, very few being rented at a fixed money rental. For instance : 
in five adjacent townships in Greenville, where there are six hundred 
and thirty-one farms rented, only one is reported as rented at a fixed 
money rental. 

Of the tilled land, 88,76G acres, or sixty-five per cent., is in grain of all 
kinds ; 25,740 acres, or tw^enty per cent., is in cotton ; and 18,285 acres, 
or fifteen per cent., in fallow, and all other crops, including gardens, 
orchards and vineyards, and a small area in tobacco. 

The average yield of grain is only a little over eight bushels to the 
acre, and does not express the capability of this section for the produc- 
tion of this article. Fields of corn on bottom lands averaging forty to 
sixty bushels an acre are not uncommon, and the minimum calculation 
of the crop for uplands without manure is ten to twelve bushels per acre, 
while twenty to thirty bushels are obtained by good culture. Rice has 
grown here, without any manure, over one hundred bushels to the acre, 
though very little of it is planted. The yield of grain per capita is 
twenty bushels, and is greater than elsewhere in the State, except in the 
Sand Hill region. 

The average yield of cotton to the square mile is 6.3 bales, an increase 
of over six hundred per cent, since 1870. This is more than upon the 
coast; in the lower pine belt, and in the sand hill region, but much less 
than elsewhere in the State. The average yield of lint per acre planted 
in cotton is one hundred and forty-one pounds, Avhicli is sixty per cent, 
more than the yield on the coast, but less than elsewhere in the State. 
The yield per capita is one hundred and five pounds of lint against four- 
teen pounds in 1870. This is one hundred per cent, more than the 
yield on the coast, and seventy per cent, more than the extensive lower 

taxation for ten years. Immigrants are exempt for five years. The northwestern 
States ought to be most urgent for an outlet to the ocean througli the Tennessee, Hi- 
wassee, Tugaloo and Savannah rivers. Besides being tlie shortest and safest, and always 
available, it would bring them directly in front of the marts of the world ; whereas, by 
des(;ending the Mississippi, tiiey are thrown widely away, and, moreover, are made to 
encounter deadly malarial diseases every season, and yellow fever at short intervals. 
The eastern cities should also advocate this outlet, since it would place the vast pro- 
ductions of the Northwest within easy grasp of their coast shipping." 



190 THE ALPINE REGION. 

pine belt. Still it is not one-third of the yield in the remainder of the 
State. 

The work stock number 5,798, against 4,096 in 1870. This is 4.1 to 
the square mile, the average for the State being 4.4. The ratio of work 
stock to the population is less than elsewhere in the upper country, but 
more than in the regions below the red hills. There are twenty-two acres 
of tilled land to the head of work stock, which is more than elsewhere in 
the State, except in the red hills and the metamorphic region. 

Other live stock numbers 66.035, being more per square mile than else- 
where in the State, and more per capita of the population except only 
anions the sand hills. 



LABOR AND SYSTEM OF FARMING. 

The farms are very rarely larger than can be worked by four horses. 
The landholdings average from one hundred and fifty to three hundred 
acres, including woodlands. The larger portion of the farm supplies are 
raised at home, but near the towns, and along the Air-Line railroad sup- 
plies from the west are largely purchased, the system of credits and ad- 
vances to the smaller farmers prevails, absorbing with rents, not unfre- 
quently, seven-eighths of the entire crop. Most of the land is rented or 
worked on shares. The cash rental varies from two dollars and fifty cents 
to four dollars an acre ; the usual terms are one-fourth the cotton and 
one-third of the grain ; where stock and implements are furnished by 
the landlord, he gets one-half the crop. The average market value of 
lands is stated at five dollars an acre ; improved lands sell at from six 
dollars to ten dollars an acre. About one-half the field laborers are ne- 
groes, and since attention has been given to cotton culture they are on the 
increase. Wages are fifty cents a day ; six dollars to eight dollars a month, 
with board ; seventy-five dollars a year, with board. The condition of in- 
dustrious laborers is good. The number of negro laborers owning houses 
and land varies from one to five per cent, according to the locality. 



TILLAGE AND IMPROVEMENT. 

One-horse plows are generally used, very rarely two horses. The 
depth of the furrow on the land side varies from three to four inches. 
Subsoiling is not practiced. Occasionally lands lie fallow, and the result 
is beneficial if stock are not allowed to destroy the crop of grass and 
weeds. Cultivated fallows are unknown. There is no system in the ro- 



THE ALPINE REGION. 101 

tation of crops. After land has been planted two or three years in cotton 
it is planted one or two years in wheat, corn or oats ; the results of such 
a change are excellent, if stock is kept off the stubble. Fall plowing is 
little practiced ; it has been found of advantage where stubble, grass or 
weeds cover the land to turn them under at this time. The amount of 
land in old fields is not great. Such fields, after lying out eight or ten 
years, have been found to produce as well as ever, and most of them have 
been brought into cultivation again. The washing of hillsides does not 
amount to a serious evil, and it is reported as easily prevented and effect- 
ually checked by hillside ditching when necessary. The use of commer- 
cial fertilizers has largely increased with the facility of obtaining them 
by railroad, and the practical demonstration of their value in the culture 
of cotton. Cotton seed is worth ten to fifteen cents a bushel ; little of it is 
sold. It is applied green and broad-cast as a manure for wheat, and com- 
posted with stable manure as a fertilizer for cotton. A portion of it is 
fed to stock. • 

COTTON CULTURE 

was a leading industry in the upper counties of South Carolina previous 
to 1826. The crop raised was from one hundred and twenty pounds to 
two hundred pounds lint per acre in the four most northerly counties, 
and averaged one hundred and forty-five pounds. At that date, however, 
and for long afterwards, probably not an acre of cotton was planted in the 
region now under consideration. The opening of tlie Air-Line railroad 
having reduced the cost of fertilizers, attention was drawn to the large 
bodies of gray sandy lands hitherto little considered, and experiments in 
cotton growing by their aid proved so successful that the cultare w^as 
largely increased. It has extended over the table lands and even up the 
mountain slopes, and is now grown in every township of the region except 
one, Chatuga township, in Oconee county, already referred to as the cul- 
minating point of the river system. It has been found that while the 
season is shorter, the stimulation of the growth by the use of fertilizers 
compensates for this. The same tillage as is given further south ex- 
pended here in a shorter period of time has a like effect in pushing the 
plant to maturity. With slave labor this was inconvenient, if not im- 
practicable. With free labor it is, if anything, easier and cheaper to ac- 
complish thirty days work in three days than to do it in ten. It has been 
further found that the growth of the plant is steadier here; it does not suffer 
from those checks during long dewless intervals, which retard its progress in 
the hotter and dryer sections. The claim is also made, that better cotton is 
grown here than further south. Experienced cotton buyers have long given 



192 THE ALPINE REGION. 

preference to staples of both long and sliort cottons grown towards the 
northern limits respectively of their culture. It is said that the fibres 
are stronger and of more equal and uniform length, admirable qualities, 
which might naturally be expected from a short, steady and continuous 
growth. For all these reasons, together with the improvements in the 
selection of seed, by which the period of growth is lessened and an earlier 
and more simultaneous ripening of the fruit is obtained, it is expected 
that what has been already done is only the commencement of a much 
wider extension towards the mountains of the growth of the cotton plant. 
No peculiarities of cotton culture are to be noted in this region. Little 
or no previous preparation is given to the soil until it is thrown into 
ridges thirty inches to four feet apart, according to the strength of the 
land, just before planting. The seed is planted from the 10th to the 20th 
of April, commencing on the same date as in the region below, but con- 
cluding earlier by ten to twenty days. About two bushels of seed are 
used to the acre, and it is, for the most part, sown by hand, the outlay of 
twelve dollars for a planter being generally considered too great for the 
advantage gained, especially by small renters, who hold their farms only 
for the crop season. The seed comes up in six to fifteen days. The 
variety preferred is some one of the cluster cottons, prolific bearers, of 
early maturity. In two weeks after planting, the cotton is chopped out 
with a hoe to about twelve inches apart, sometimes to only six inches, 
and on very strong land, intervals of eighteen inches between the plants 
may be left. If the soil be well stirred with the ploAV, and kept clean in 
the drill with the hoe, the cotton will have obtained a height of eight 
inches to eighteen inches by the 1st to the 10th July, when blossoms will 
appear. The first blooms are now looked for the latter part of June, but 
until the last year or two, they were never expected before the 4th of 
July, and even that was thought early. Open bolls are seen from the 
25th of August to the 1st of September. Picking commences from the 
10th to the loth September. The growing season ends with the first 
black frost, which occurs about the 15th October to the 1st November. 
The crop is gathered by the 15th to the 31st December. The plant is 
considered most productive when it attains the height of two feet. Fresh 
lands yield seven hundred pounds to twelve hundred pounds of seed 
cotton. The same lands, after two to ten years culture withc^ut manure, 
yield six hundred pounds to four hundred pounds seed cotton ; with 
moderate manuring and fairly good culture, they improve. It is esti- 
mated that it requires here an average of twelve hundred and twenty-five 
pounds of seed cotton to produce a bale of four hundred pounds. 



THE ALPINE REGION. 103 

DISEASES AND ENEMIES 

are restricted here almost exclusively to one — frost. Caterpillar is un- 
known. A little rust and shedding occur on ill-drained soils, but there 
is no general complaint regarding them. The vegetable enemies of the 
plant are crab grass, with now and then complaints of rag weed and May- 
pop vine. 

GINNING 

here differs in no regard from the accounts already given of it in the other 
regions. The weight aimed at for the bale is four hundred and fifty 
pounds to five hundred pounds, and the average obtained, from the state- 
ments made, is four hundred and eighty-three pounds. 

Farmers sell their cotton to the merchants at the nearest railroad sta- 
tion, without charges of any kind, and make no estimate as to the cost 
of shipping and selling. 

The cost of production is estimated at eight cents to ten cents per 
pound. No itemized statement of the cost of culture could be obtained 
from this region, and it probably differs in no wise from that in other 
regions. 

Abstract of the reports of township correspondents for the Piedmont 
Region : 

Oconee County. 

Wagner Toionship {E. D. 120): Lands hilly and rolling, embracing 
Stump House mountain, the slopes of which are very fertile ; below the 
mountain there is much table or level land. The soils are, 1st, a gray, 
sandy soil, underlaid by stiff clay, with partially decomposed slates at a 
depth of fifty feet ; this soil is well adapted to cotton : 2d, a mulatto 
soil, producing tobacco well, the culture of which is found very re- 
munerative and is yearly increasing : 3d, black, loamy soils of creek and 
branch bottoms, ver}^ productive in corn, oats and the grains. The 
growth is pine, oak, hickory, very large chestnut, and dogwood ; the last- 
named wood is being sawn into blocks for shuttles, and shipped north by 
the carload. One-half mile from Walhalla there is an inexhaustible 
quarry of very fine building granite ; very large plates of mica are also 
found here. Numerous swift, clear streams afford abundant water powers 
not developed. Land is cheap, but is not priced by the acre. Stock 
13 



194 THE ALPINE REGION. 

raising might be made profitable. Field labor is paid fifty cents a day, 
two-thirds of it performed by whites. There are no prevailing diseases. 

Keowcc Township {E. D. 12.3) : Southern portion nearly level, western 
portion hilly ; Smeltzer's mountain in northeast corner. Soils chiefly 
gray, sandy soils ; the bottoms of the Keowee river, averaging two 
hundred yards in width, and extending eighteen miles through the 
township, are very fertile ; the subsoil is red, sometimes white clay. 
Growth, pine, oak, ash, hickory, chestnut, beech, blackjack, dogwood. 
Crops, corn, thirty bushels per acre in bottoms, twelve bushels on uplands ; " 
sweet and Irish potatoes, one hundred bushels per acre; tobacco does 
well, is grown only for home use ; cotton was not planted before 1879 ; 
the average yield is six huntlred pounds seed cotton per acre. Improved 
lands, with river or creek bottoms, would sell for ten dollars an acre ; 
improved uplands at three dollars to five dollars an acre ; forest lands at 
two dollars ; a large pine forest recently sold at less than one dollar per 
acre. Not more than one-tenth of the lands under cultivation ; about 
one-third of the farming lands for rent, at from one-third to one-fourth 
the crops, or where stock and tools are furnished, at one-half. There are 
fourteen fine water powers in the township. There are four tanyards. 
Most of the farm lands, hitherto neglected, are well suited for cotton cul- 
ture, under the present method, with the use of fertilizers. 

Pulaski Township (E. D. 124): The Stump House mountain belt crosses 
the southern portion ; on the north, along the Chatuga river, and on the 
west along Tugaloo river, the river hills and cliffs make it mountainous ; 
through the centre a belt three to four miles wide of well-watered rolling 
land is found. The numerous crreeks and branches crossing it have bot- 
toms, fifty yards to two hundred yards in width, of great fertility, yield- 
ing, with good culture, twenty -five bushels to eighty bushels of corn, and 
abundant grass crops. Fruits do well ; apples, from the early June to 
the late winter produce well, grapes grow well also. The soil is mostly 
a sand}'^ loam, with red, sometimes with yellow clay subsoil. Limestone 
is found and there is a lime-kiln in operation. Soapstone of excellent 
quality occurs. Not more than one-twelfth to one-fifteenth of the land is 
under cultivation. There are numerous water-powers, there being on- four 
streams twelve falls, varying from thirty feet to one hundred feet fall per- 
pendicular. TJiere are indications of gold, silver and copper ores, but no 
regular mining is done. Lands sell for fifty cents to ten dollars an acre. 
Parties clearing have tlie use of it free of charge for two to four 3'ears. 
Rent is one-third of the crop, or one-half if stock and tools are furnished. 
Fine stock ranges are found among the mountains, the large droves of 
sheep, however, destroy the grass for the cattle. 



^ 



the alpine region'. 195 

Pickens County. 

Hurricane TownsJiip {E. D. 131) : Country for the most part broken and 
liilly. Soil, a light yellowish brown loam, three inches to five inches to 
a stiff red clay, lying on sandstone and gray rock. Growth, pine, oak, 
and hickory. The uplands yield ten to twenty bushels corn per acre. 
Within a few years the people have found out that they can raise cotton, 
the lands producing five hundred pounds to one thousand pounds seed 
cotton to the acre. Lands for sale from two dollars to ten dollars an acre. 
There is considerable good bottom land on the streams. Four creeks 
aiford good water-powers. There are no prevailing diseases. Nine-tenths 
of the field labor is performed by whites. 



cha.:pter IX. 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Between the years 1816 and 1826, $1,712,626 were expended by the State 
of South CaroUna in internal improvements. A large portion of this 
amount was appropriated to building nine canals around the rapids of 
the Wateree, the Catawba, the Congaree, the Broad and the Saluda rivers, 
with a view to the improvement of their navigation. From time to 
time surveys of these streams, especially by engineer officers of the 
United States army, have been made with the same object in view. In 
the absence of anything like a general or detailed account of the water- 
power of the State, it was upon reports regarding these works that per- 
sons interested in the matter chiefly relied for information. Quite re- 
cently, however. Gen. Francis A. Walker, Superintendent of the 10th 
United States Census, as a part of the census work, has had a survey of 
the water-power of the Southern Atlantic water-shed made by Mr. George 
F. Swain, S. B., Instructor in Civil Engineering in the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, Boston, Mass. Mr. Swain's report, just published 
l)y the census office, contains a large amount of new 'and very valuable 
information ; so far as South Carolina is concerned, it is the first attempt 
to give a systematic account of its water-power. In the endeavor here 
made to condense a statement of the points of chief interest in this report 
relating to this State, the reader is informed that Mr. Swain's report is so 
closely written and so full of facts that it is not susceptible of such treat- 
ment satisfactorily, and those interested in the subject are referred to 
the report itself 

Mr. Swain divides the Southern Atlantic water-shed into tlireo belts, 
running in a northeasterly direction, parallel for the most part with each 
other, and also with the sea coast on the southeast, and with the general 
trend of the Appalachian mountain chain on the northwest. These are : 

I. The eastern belt, reaching inland from the coast one hundred to one 
hundred and forty miles, and formed by the slowly descending slope of 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 197 

the tertiary plain. In South Carolina the average elevation of the streams 
at the upper edge of this belt above tide level is about seventy feet in an 
average distance, following the windings of the streams of about two hun- 
dred and fifteen miles ; this gives something like 0.3 foot fall per mile, 
and of course renders the streams of this section, as a rule, unavailable 
as motor powers, although the smaller streams sometimes have such fall 
as to allow of their use for cotton gins, grist, and even for saw mills. For- 
merly along the coast of Carolina tidal water-power was utilized for rice 
mills, but this motor has been here superseded by steam. 

II. The middle belt comprises what has been described as the " Red 
Hill," "Sand Hill " and " Piedmont" regions of South Carolina, with a 
portion of the upper pine belt, in all about 18,000 square miles. It has a 
general elevation above the sea level of about six hundred feet, and 
the average fall of the streams passing through it varies from two feet to 
seven feet per mile. This is the region of the great water-powers, and to 
it Mr. Swain has devoted his chief attention. 

III. The western belt is among the mountains. In South Carolina it 
is described as the Alpine region, and embraces about twelve hundred 
square miles. The streams here are numerous, and tneir fall is very great, 
but they are much inferior in volume to those of the middle belt, and 
consequently rank below it, as affording water-power of tlie largest 
capacity. 

The advantages offered by the water-power of South Carolina are much 
enhanced by topographical and climatic conditions prevailing here. 

The undulating plateau of the Piedmont region has a pervious soil to 
an average depth of fifty feet or more, formed by the unusuall}' deep dis- 
integration of the metamorphic rocks, and presenting a mixture of sand 
and clay, well adapted for the al)sortion of rain water. This pervious 
soil rests at the depth indicated on the impervious strata of rock, granite, 
and gneiss, or the various slates, which impede the deeper percolation of 
water. The streams have cut their channels down to these underlying 
beds of rock, and it is along their surface that constant supplies of water 
held in reserve by the permeable soils of their water-sheds are received, 
thus adding largely to the amount and the regularity of their flow. A 
similar condition obtains among the sand hills, where the porous sands, 
through the interstices of which the rain disappears almost as readily 
and rapidly as it does through the air, rest at a depth of one hundred 
feet to one hundred and fifty feet on impervious beds of kaolin clay. . As 
a consequence the streams of the sand hill region lose little of the rain- 
fall through surface evaporation and maintain a flow hardly affected per- 
ceptibly by unusual seasons of rain or drought, and Mr. Swain more than 
once expresses his astonishment at the horse-power furnished by streams 



198 WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

having so small a drainage area. This result is likewise promoted by 
the extensive woodlands of the middle and western belt, which occupy, 
according to the census of 1880, something more tlian seventy-five per 
cent, of the surface. The larger streams of the Piedmont region, in ad- 
dition to their drainage area within the State, receive the rains from 
3,058 square miles of water-shed in North Carolina. The rocky beds of 
these streams afford everywhere good sites and permanent foundations 
for mill dams, while the high angle at which they cross the ledges of rock 
increases the perpendicularity of the fall, and presents a clean smooth 
edge, adding to the facility with which the water-power is made available. 
Thus, at ^'^anPatton's shoals, on the Enoree river, so very even is the edge 
.of the rock that a single plank bolted to it, forms a sufficient dam by which 
1,550 honse-power maj*^ be utilized. " The facilities for storing water are 
on the whole good." — Swain. Besides the resources of the neighboring- 
pine forests, building material is furnished everywhere in the excellent 
clay for brick-making that is found. In addition to these, the metamor- 
phic rocks laid bare on the banks of the streams furnish material for dams 
and buildings of the best quality. Besides soapstone, gneiss^ talc and 
mica slates, there are few localities where a fine-grained and easily split- 
ting granite is not to be had. The last named rock extends even into the 
sand hill region, forming the shoals and rapids in the streams there, and 
has been utilized in the structure of the large cotton mill at Graniteville 
on Horse creek. 

Speaking of the climate, Mr. .James E. Calhoun writes: "Blessed with 
sunshine and showers throughout the year, there is just winter enough 
to keep the insects in check, while the pomegranate and the fig do not 
require to be sheltered. Destructive storms of wind, rain or hail never 
occur here. Living immediatel on they banks of a river half a mile 
wide (Trotters's shoals, on the Savannah), I am never troubled with mos- 
quitoes. Nowhere can there be found a larger percentage of the popula- 
tion of seventy 3'ears and upwards. I am an octogenarian, with the fresh 
vitality of twenty -five." Low water from snow-fall or freezing, and fresh- 
ets from ice gorges are unknown here. It has been argued that in more 
bracing climates, as in ]\Iaine, the operatives in factories can accom})lish 
ten per cent, more work than in these warmer latitudes. It is possible that 
unacclimated Northern operatives might experience some such degree of 
languor here. Nevertheless there are few better workers than the Southern 
factory hand. The climate does disincline the Southern white to out-of- 
door employment, and, surrendering, in a large measure, farm labor to 
the colored race, they eagerly seek employment in factories. "Thus it 
happens that factory hands are much more abundant than would be an- 
ticipated from the density of the population. Northern mill owners have 



AVATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



199 



not been slow to express their high estimate of Southern help. Contrast 
with the negro element of the population cultivates a pride of race which 
-inspires a higher tone and renders the white working class more reliable 
than it is usually found elsewhere. Labor unions and leagues are un- 
known, and there are those who maintain that this freedom from labor 
troubles, and the permanency and certainty they enjoy in their help 
more than compensates for some remoteness from railroad transportation. 
The expense saved in the item of heating adds largely to the economy of 
factories, and by rendering the conditions of life easier and healthier, it 
promotes the increase of an already very prolific population, which, if 
prevented from migrating and fostered by such capital as would open up 
employment in manufactures, would respond readily to almost any de- 
mand made upon it. 

The average annual rainfall is stated at fifty-two inches, and it proba- 
bly exceeds rather than falls below this figure. This is from four inches 
to six inches more than in the same region in Virginia, North Carolina 
and Georgia. The following statement shows how it compares with the 
rainfall of the New England and Middle States, the maan of observations 
made at twenty-six station? on the principal rivers in those States being 
given : 





6 


Summer. 


Autumn. 


'A 


Year. 




In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


In. 


Piedmont region of South Carolina.. 


12 


14 


10 


16 


52 


New England and Middle States 


11 


12 


10 


9 


42 



There are four chief river systems in South Carolina — the Pee Dee, 
the Santee, the Edisto and the Savannah. The numerous salt water 
rivers, important as they are for purposes of communication along the 
coast, and even for a considerable distance into the interior, are omitted, as 
tidal water-power is not to be considered. Such streams as flow through 
the level country, although they are sometimes of considerable length, with 
large drainage areas, and affording some water-power, as the Big and 
Little Saltkehatchie and others, are likewise omitted. The following 
table exhibits the leading features of these rivers. The number of mills 
and the horse-power utilized are from the enumerator's returns for the 
10th United States Census ; the estimate of drainage area, length and fall, 
are bv Mr. Swain : 



200 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Table, giving Names of Streams, Numbe)' of Mills, Horse-Powei' Utilized and 
estimated Drainage Area, Length and Fall of the Rivers of South Carolina. 



NAME OF STREAM. 


DRAINAGE 

AREA IN 

SQUARE MILES. 


Hi 





7\ 


HORSE-POWER 
. EMPLOYED. 


Pee Dee System. 
Great Pee Dee and lesser tributaries (9,700 sq 
miles in North Carolina) 


17,000 
1,200 
2,000 
1500 
1,350 


159 
65 
50 


0.44 


62 

2 

21 

13 
26 


880 


Waccamaw 


22 


Little Pee Dee 




243 


Black River 


232 


Lyuch's River 


240 




383 








Total 


124 


1760 


Santee System. 
Santee River 


14,725 
5,225 

4 375 
7,965 

4,950 
730 
720 
475 

2 350 
386 


184 
116 

76 
50 

1C5 

7(. 
36 
50 
HO 
60 


0.5 

1 to 4^ 

5.24 
1. 

3.9 

"4 to 7" 

7 
3 to 6 




AVateree and tributaries 

Catawba and tributaries (1,725 sq. ra. dr. area 
in North Carolina 


28 

40 

27 

38 
36 
52 
37 
103 
66 

4L'7 

95 

78 
8 


375 

825 


Congaree and tributaries 

Broad and tributaries (1,400 sq. lu. dr. area in 

North Caroli na... 

Enoree and tributaries (length iu straight line).. 
Tyger River and tributaries " '' " '' .. 
Pacolet and tributaries •' ' » •• _ 
Saluda and tributaries 


384 

640 
574 
626 
809 
2,267 
1,330 


Reedy River (fall greater than Saluda or Enoree) 






Total 


7,830 


Edisto System. 
North and Houth Forks and tributaries 


1,535 

11,000 
143 
650 
530 
241 
908 
870 
350 


60 

355 
20 


2 to 4 

4 to 2^ 
20 


1,126 


SAV.ANNAH River Syste.m. 
Savannah River and lesser tributaries (5,000 

sq. ra dr. area iu Georgia) , 

Horse Creek 

Stevens Creek . . 


1.453 

1.807 


Little River 


40 
60 
49 
3(^ 




10 

7 
75 
28 

206 

124 

427 

95 

206 

852 


252 


Rocky River 


7 to 8J 
6J 


121 


Seneca River and affluents 


880 


Tugaloo Ri ver 


313 


Chatauga River 








Total 


4 806 


Recapitulation. 
Pee Dee system.. 








1 760 


Santeesystera 

Edisto system 





7,830 
1.1. >6 


Savannah system 








4,806 












Toal 


15 522 



\ 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



201 



The kind of mills and the amount of power employed by each may 
be summarized thus : 



KIND OF MILL 



HORSE-POWER 



Grist and flour mills 
Cotton factories . . . 

Saw mills 

Cotton gins 

Miscellaneous . . . . 

Total 




The water-power that a stream will furnish is determined by its fall and 
its volume of water. The amount of fall is accurately determined by a 
carefully made line of levels. The time allowed Mr. Swain to survey 
the large field allotted to him enabled him to visit in person only a few 
of the most important water-powers, and even in these instances the only 
instrument of measurement he could use was a Locke pocket level, with 
which he says he was in some cases " enabled to arrive at quite close ap- 
proximation of the fall, while in others the results obtained are liable to 
large errors." To determine the volume of water in a stream is a much 
more difficult, tedious and delicate matter. Accurate gaugings of the 
stream are to be made, and these are to be continued through the different 
seasons of the year, and for a series of years, before the average amount 
of flow to be relied on can be stated. " In the absence of such a series of 
gaugings," Mr. Swain was forced, in order to arrive at any approximate 
estimate of power, to adopt an entirely different method. He i)oints out 
the uncertainty of this method, and is scrupulously careful that his errors, 
whatever they may be, shall always be on the safe side — that is, below 
tJie mark, but never above it. His method consists, first, in determining 
the drainage area of the different streams by geometrical measurement 
on the best maps accessible to him, and here he naturally remarks on the 
inaccuracy and lack of agreement among the maps ; the next was the 
determination of the average annual rainfall and the spring, summ.er, 



202 WATER-rOWEES OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

autumn and winter rainfall on each drainacre basin. Here, again, the 
number of years during wliich observations have been recorded, at least 
so far as South Carolina is concerned, leave much to be desired, espocially 
in the regions remote from the sea coast. Then comes the consideration 
of the very complex factors affecting the disposition of this rainfall, the 
proportion dissipated hy evaporation under the various and varying in- 
fluences of temperature, the humidity of the atmosphere, the prevalence 
of winds, the permeability of the soil, and its protection by forests, and, 
lastly, the residue remaining to be discharged by the streams. Now, it 
would seem that in these regards, the item of temperature only excepted, 
the discharge of streams in the South should be greater than those of the 
North. The force of the wind is less. No large lakes present broad sur- 
faces for evaporation There is no loss by evaporation from snow and 
ice during months of the year. The soil is deeper and more permeable, 
and its protection by forests must be as great or greater. For the streams 
of the sand hill region Mr. Swain seems to allow some force to such con- 
siderations in placing the minimum flow at one-third to one cubic 
foot per second for each square mile of drainage area. For the 
other streams of South Carolina he allows a less discharge, placing 
the minimum flow at 0.13 to 0.23 cubic feet per square mile of 
drainage area, notwithstanding that the average minimum flow in 
ten New England rivers which he gives, is 0.26 cubic feet. Whenever 
Mr. Swain's estimates of fall or flow differ from those made by others, it 
will be found that Mr. Swain's is much below theirs. As an instance of 
how much such under-estimates may amount to, Mr. Swain himself points 
out that while his estimate of the minimum flow on the Portman shoal, 
of Seneca river, is one hundred and eiglity-nine cubic feet per second, 
" it must be speciall}' mentioned here that Maj. Lee, who is an engineer 
of eminence, long experience and well acquainted with the country, 
writes that ' one thousand cubic feet of water per second all the year 
round — two-thirds of the year double this flow — is to be had.' " But, 
however far short of the aggregate Mr. Swain's estimates of the water- 
power may be, there can be no question that, under the circumstances, 
he has accomplished a great deal, and, as a preliminary reconnoisance, his 
treatise is invaluable. 

Mr. Swain makes four estimates of the horse-power at each locality he 
mentions : 

I. The minimum, being the minimum flow during a period not exceed- 
ing a few days at intervals of several years. 

II. The minimum low seasons. This occurs for a period of three to 
six weeks, when the stream is at its lowest. In most years the average 
flow during: the season of least flow will exceed this amount, and a small 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 203 

storage of water will render it available at all times. This flow is ascer- 
tained by taking twenty -eight per cent, of the rainfall as the amount dis- 
charged by the streams. This would be something like fourteen and a 
half inches for the middle and western water-power regions o/ South Car- 
olina, but Mr. Swain limits it not to exceed ten inches to thirteen inches. 

III. Maximum with storage. This is the same as the last, assuming 
that by storage (ponds arid dams) a discharge of two inches to four inches 
on the water-shed can be added thereto, less for the larger and more for 
the smaller areo.s. 

IV. Low season flow dry years. Without storage this flow may be de- 
pended on. In ordinary years a quarter more may be calculated on. 

The following summary of the water-power of South Carolina, so far 
as investigated by Mr. Swain, through correspondence or by personal ex- 
amination, will not be liable to any charge of being an over-estimate. 



204 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA, 



Summary of Powers on Rivers in South Carolina, Examined by G. F. Swam 
S. B., Special Agent Tenth U. S. Census. 







Falf,. 


Flow 

Pkk 

.Second. 


H0R.SE-P0WER 
AVAILAIJLK. 


STREAM AND LOCALITY. 


To 

X 


a 




S 

s 

£ 

1 


1 
i 


si 

S3 




,/ 


VVateree River, Wnteree Canal (a) 

Tributaries: IJiji Pine Tree Creek 1 ,1. 


4.S76 

55 

12 

3,600 

3,425 

I«,5 

223 

380 

7,300 

115 

4,76ii 
4,525 
4,I.S0 

3,4yo 

2 590 

2,400 

1,3,S7 

1 357 

1,142 

1,132 

375 

280 

2:!4 

234 

91 

94 

94 

30.S 

274 

112 


Feet 
.52 
40 
18 
173 
40 


5 rn. 


963 

28 

6 

793 

750 

18 

2.5 

5') 

1,680 


3,500 

55 

12 

2.900 

2,900 

160 

200 

330 

B,200 


5,700 

.3.2 

07 

I5,0.i( 

3,400 

2 

28 

50 

4,20(J 

66 


7,7.50 

41 

3 2 

21 000 

4,6.50 

3 

4.5 

68 

5,50tj 


20,700 


8 850 

6 3 

4.9 

24,0<I0 

5270 
3 4 


Lillle •' 1 ^^^ 




Catawba Hiver, 'ireat Falls (c) 


8 m. 


.57,00) 

13.000 

18.2 

22,8 

37.0 

15 500 

13.2 


Tributaries of Catawba River : Rocky Creek 










5.6 

8 


Sugar Creek 






Congaree River at Columbia. 


22 A 
34 




6,400 


Tributaries of Congaree River: CmisareeCr'k ), , 

Red Bank Cr'kr^'- 

Broad Kiver, Bull Sluice (/) 

Ninety-Nine Island Shoal 

Boney Shoal 


12 

17.2 

tj.O 

IKil 

113; 

9.7o 








40 

2 mi) 

925 

1.775 

1,350 

8.50 

:h 900 

2 3">0 

2,3.50 

1250 

36* 

144 

4.)0 

6 
290 
42 
25 
32 
272 
1^0 
90 

""m 

000 

"lib 

1,275 

2,700 

1.5' 10 

1000 

75 

150 

"■2V0 
9.4 
45 

32 

'2050 
8.100 

800 

1 150 

1..500 

2,275 

12 

3.2 
1.1311 

4.50 
1.700 

114 

3 1 




2%"m. 

0.94'm! 
4.930 ft. 
?, SOO ft. 


'"62 
42 

a5 

35 
10 
10 
10 
45 

'"27 
62 

■62 

"70 
62 

670 


"406 
300 
250 
2.50 
100 
100 
100 
3.30 

"m 

420 

'i,m 

400 


"'2ri56 

700 

1.350 

1,1.50 

6.50 

2 000 

ISOu 

1 ,8(M) 

1,000 

280 

112 

3;S0 

48 

2.50 

3^ 

20 

v5 

204 

70 

72 

35 

81 
420 

70 

1.000 
2100 
1,1.5*1 

800 
60 

120 

■ 160 

7 

34 

40 

25 

5,700 
.560 
825 

l.OHO 

1,600 

9 

2 5 

9.36 

H75 

1,20: 1 
102 
2 3 


7.9-56 

2 000 

5.000 

;(,,voo 

2,.5.50 

ll,0<JO 

6900 

6,900 

4.000 

1,1.50 

725 

2.400 

310 

1,.5.50 

3411 

200 

260 

1500 

274 

2,S8 

"140 

' '»ii'3 

2.860 

""•m 

3 800 
8,100 


3,250 
1,075 
2,000 
1.600 
1 000 


Summer Shoal 

Lyle's Shoal 

Neal's Shoal 


Lot'kliart's .Slioal (</) 


47 (ill 11 111 


4, .500 
2 700 
2.700 
1,4.50 


fslnety-Nine Island Shoal 

Cherol<ee Shoals (h.) 

Surratt Shoal 


50 
50.2 
35 
10 
l(i 
70 
12 
.55 
30 
18 
23 
40 
9 
36 
2(» 
11 
14 
35 

27 
60 
15 
8") 
16 
31 
20 
55 
5 
10 
21 
20 
....... 

20 
22 
6) 

8 
10 
75 

9 
14 
1.8 
30 


3.20 m. 

2 m. 
1.75 m. 

1 m. 




Enoree River, Yarboro Mill 


176 


Mountain Slioal (t) 




500 


i.eatherwood shoal 




72 


Van Patton Shoal 




?M 


Pelliam Manufacturing Company.. 




51 


Buena Vista Factory 




31 


Teagiie's Kail 


80 ft. 


39 


Tvger Rjver, Hill's Factory 


320 


Nesbitt's 


200 


Ott's Mill 


300 yds 


2o5 


(leveland"s 


60 


Dean's Mill 


50 


2.5 


Ballinger's ' 


32 


Penny .shoal 

< 'rawfordsville (J ) 


50 


3(i0yd's! 


42 
40 


Murphy's, Fair Forest Creek 


ISO 

3.^0 

S2 

S2 

2,350 

2 350 

2.300 

G:i5 

(iOO 

5-3 

400 

.3S0 

386 


i:i5 


Pacolet River, Trough Shoals (k) 


700 


Hurricane Shoals I) 




91) 


(ilendale (h) 


•>oo 


Saluda River, SaludaFactory (0) 


1.500 


Mouth of Saluda 


2,U m. 
I m. 

\% m. 


3 'tV. 


Dreher's Canal (p) 


4,400 I T.=V1 


Great b'alls (17) 


4.000 
.300 
600 

"976 

45 4 

70 

"260 
710 

slsoii 

21.7.50 


1 20") 


Mattox Mill 


90 


Erwin's Mill (?•) 


175 


Pelzer Manufacturing Company (s). 

Piedmont Manufacturing Co. (t) 

*Reedy River 


"284 


■■75 ft. 

.500 yds. 

"6i"o"ft! 
7 m. 
% m. 
1 m 

5 rn. 


11 1 


TuMibling Shoals (iv 


53 


Fork Sh<)a» (2:) 






Reedy River Manufacturing Co. (,(/).. 
Camperdown Mills 


87 


89 


+C<)X it Markley's Factory {z) 

Savannah River, HUie Jacket .Shoal 

Trotter's Shoal 


2,H61 

2 212 

2.100 

2.078 

i,90'i 

531 

18{ 

815 

775 

710 

lis 

140 


12 

2.:^50 
9 ifl% 


Cherokee Shoal 

Gresig's Shoal 




2.100 !)00 
3.2001 1 :25 


Middleton's Whoal 

McDaniel's Shoal 

Tributaries Savannah River :Little River 


"79 
22 
20 

189 
ll 
20 


4.50 
1.5s 
925 

"825 
135 
16S 


4.000i l,7tM) 

6,100 2,000 

51 14 


Long Cane 


■■■3!) 
17 
60 
60 




18 36 


Tugaloo River, Hatton's Shoal 


V4 m. 

1 m. 

2 m. 


4.0051 1,287 


fiuest's shoal 


1 a50 5'20 


.Seneca River, Portmans Shoal 


5 020 19.50 


Twelve Mile Creek 


92) 165 


Litile River 




19. 1 1 4.0 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 205 

v'«) A canal here built by the State. 1818-28, Is five miles long and has flfty-two feet fall, with 
six locks. <iul would be available in utilizing the entire power. 

(6) Streams in sand lulls of Kershaw county. The horse power given per foot fall. That 
given here may be doubled by storing the water at night. Other tributaries to the Wateree fur- 
nish good poweis, concerning which n(j detailed information could be obtained. 

(c) Three State canals here: 1st, Lower canal, one mile long, with three locks. The total 
amount of WJiter could be utilized through it. 21. Middle canal, three miles long, having three 
flights of locks, viz., four locks thirty-two feet lift, four locks thirty-six feet lift, three locks 
twenty-seven feet lift, another lock above, nine feet lift, and guard lock, in all, thirteen locks, 
one hundred and four feet li t. At any and all the three flights, the facilities for using a large 
power are very great; building room ample. 

The upper canal is the property of Mrs. S. A. Boylston, of Winnsboro, S. C. It is one and 
three-fourths miles long, on the west side of Catawba river, and enters Fishing creek at a poini 
about five miles from Fort Lawn, on the Chester and Cheraw railroad. The total fall is fifty-one 
feet. There aie two flights of locks; the lower one has four locks, thirty-three feet lift ; the upper 
has two locks, fifteen feet lift. These works are well built of cut stone laid in cement are in 
good preseivalion, and were constructed by the State at a cost of about $1U0,<I00. There are four 
factory sites, with ample building room. The first site has a fall of twenty-four and twenty-one- 
one-hundredths feet; the second, of .thirty feet; the third, of thirty-eight feet; the fourth, of 
thirty-three feet. Granite of the best quality is at hand.* The available power is estimated 
at fifteen thousand horse-power. 

(d) State canal here, two miles long, dam, guard lock, and four other locks of thirty-five feet 
lift; abundant building room , no liability to overflow. 

(e) Sand hill streams of Lexington. Those of Richland not examined. 

(/) The State of South Carolina is now engaged in developing the power in Broad river, from 
Bull Sluice shoal, by building a dam at that point, with a canal two and seven-eighths miles 
long, extending to Gervais street in the city of Cjlumbia. The works are being built first-class 
in every respect, with dimensions sufficient to give four hundred and fifty-three horse powers of 
water for each foot fall. The total power developed wiU be, on the average fall, about 10,030 horse 
powers of water. 

The Saluda and Broad rivers unite opposite the city of Columbia. These streams, near their 
confluence, have, in ordinary low water, a flow with sufficient fall to yield 40,000 horse-powers of 
water if propi>rly developed. They take their rise in the Blue Ridge mountains, flowing through, 
in their upper course, a wooded country, giviuir them a very uniform flow of water, and suflfering 
but little from high water, and that but of short duration. This magniflcent power has surround- 
ings adapting it to manufacturing purposes equal to any locality in the South ; a liealthy climate, 
an abundance of the naw material, railroad facilities in every direction, with good sites for 
buildings, and other desirable features. (Maj. Thos. B. Lee, Engineer Columbia canal.) 

(,(/) St ite canal here, 7,809 feet long with guard lock and six other locks of first-class cut stone 
masonry, cost $130,000. Estimate of cost to put gates, locks and masonry in good ordei, $3,7&4. 
Used in lSo2. 

(/i) Above is site of abandoned works of Magneticlron Ore Company. Three hundred horse 
power obtained, with surplus of water all the time from fall of ten leet. A fall of sixteen feet is 
available; banks very favorable for building. 

(i) Above Mountain Shoal are Kilgore's, Yarborough's, Flemmlng's and WoflTord's shoals, 
having available falls. 

(.7) South Tyger river, drainage area one hundred and eight square miles; furnishes two to 
seven horse-power per foot fall, and has several av^iilable falls. 

(fc) Above are Brown's mill, fourteen feet fall; Hammett's mill, ten feet fall; Crocker's, 
Thompson's forils, shoals and other rapids. 

(I) Above is Lindner shoal, eight feet fall; North and South Pacolet forks, with eighty square 
miles drainage area ; each have numerous falls of twelve feet to thirty-four feet. 

(71) Beiow ( jlendale, on Sampson's fork, is a fall of fifteen feet— ninety horse-power ; above are 
several good shoals. Thicketty creek, one hundred square miles drainage area; Bullock's and 
King's creeks, seventy-two square miles drainage area, and Buffalo creek, one hundred and seven- 
ty-two square miles drainage area, empty into Broad river. BufTalo creek has considerable fall, 
with five and one-halt to fifteen horse-power per foot fall. 

(o) There is here a State canal two and one-half miles long five locks, thirty-four feet lilt; 
might be repaired, and would render available double the present fall. 

(p) State canal here, two and one-half miles long, with four locks, twenty-one feet lift. 
Between this p.dnt and the Newberry an<l Lexington line are seven falls, viz. : Wise's ferry, 
seventeen leet; Hunter's ferry, six feet; Snellgrove's isla.id, nine feet; M.inning island, fifteen 
feet; Simm's ferry, fifteen feet. Above, in Newberry and Edgefield, are McNary's mill, eleven 
feet; Pei kin's ford, ten feet; r$ouknight's mill, six feet. 

(q) Mills gives this fall as seventy -six feet. 

(r) Above are Harper's shoals, eight feet: Kay's and Gambrell's shoals. Poor's and Cox's mills. 



200 WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

eight feet; Hamilton's shoal, ten feet ; Ilrlland's shoal, fifteen feet in three hundred yards, one 
and one-quarter miles from r-iilroad: Blackhurn's inland shoal, ten feet,; Tripp's sluml, sixteen 
feet. 

(.1) Above, Allen's shoil, fourteen feet fill in two hundred and fifty yards ; may be increased 
to 18 feet. 

(t) Above are Blassingarae's, Harrison's, Farris's and other shoals, all about six miles from 
Greenville. 

(w) Above is Cedar falls, twenty-one feet. 

(art Above are Harrison's and Houff's mills, ten feet fall each; Log shoal, fourteen feet fall; 
Ashmore's mill, ten feet fall, and Linderman'.s shoal. 

(.(/) Jones's paper mill, eleven and one-half feet fill, fifty horse-power; Parkin's mill, eleven 
feet fall; Green's shoal ; ^>awmill shoal, nine feet fall. 

(z) Tributary to Reedy river are Laurel creek and Rearburn creek, with a good fall of twenty- 
six feet at Goodgion's mill, and another of fourteen .'"eet at Fuller's factory. 

(*) Twelve Mile creek, tributary of the Saluda, in Lexington count.v, has a drainage area of 
ninety-three square miles, and five horse-power per foot fall at low water. .Several falls on it are 
from seven feet to twelve feet, and might be increased to twenty feet or thirty feet. Other tribu- 
taries are. Little Saluda river, draining two hundred and ninety-seven square miles in Edgefield ; 
Bush river, one hundred and five square miles in Newberry; Little river, two hundred and 
twent.y square miles. 

(t; North Fork Saluda, draining flfty-six square miles, has a perpendicular fall of two to 
three hundred feet over a gneiss ledge, and another not quite so high. .Middle Fork drains 
flfty-six square miles. South Fork drains seventy-eight square miles; on it Rock shoal has nine 
feet, and an unused sho d, twelve feet fall. A mill sixteen miles from Greenville has eighteen feet 
fall. All the head waters abound in cataracts, some several hundred feet, almo^t verticil. 

The tributaries and affluents of the Savannah river not enumerated 
above are in the sand hill region — the Upper and Lower Three Runs, 
Hollow creek and Horse creek, all considerable streams. On Horse 
creek 1,807 horse-power have been utilized, and there is a large amount, 
say one-third, still unemployed. The streams named should furnish at 
least as much as this one, which would give about 10,000 additional 
horse-power available in this section alone. Above the fall line Big Stevens 
creek is a large stream, and so are Big and Little Generostee creeks. 
Tugaloo river has for its tributaries Big Beaver Dam, Choestoe and 
Chauga creeks. The Chatauga river has Brasstown, AVhetstone and 
other considerable tributaries, scarcely any spot in its drainage basin 
being two miles from a water-power. Seneca river has Deep, Eighteen- 
Mile, Twenty -three Mile, Twenty-six Mile and Conner's creeks, all large 
streams, with abundant fall. The Keowee river has Toxaway, Big Es- 
tatoe and Whitewater creeks, the latter with one fall of six hundred feet 
in three hundred yards. This whole region abounds in streams of clear 
"a'ater flowing over rock, having numerous cataracts and fed by an annual 
rainfall of more than sixty inches. 

In the above statement the available water-power examined is estimated 
at something over 300,000 horse-power. Of this amount about 4,000 
horse-i^ower only are employed by all kinds of mills, Avhich is only a 
little more than one per cent. The returns of the census enumerators, 
however, above given, show that altogether more than 15,000 horse-power 
are actually employed by mills in this region. Now, it is more likely 
that Mr. Swain would pass over without examination such water-powers 



WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 207 

as were not utilized than such as were, and tlie total may be safely in- 
creased in the proportion in which he has done this, which would be to 
multiply the above total by four. So that, without further allowance for 
ins low estimates or for the improvement that art might effect by dams 
and canals, there can be no question that from the lower line of hill 
country northward in South Carolina there is more than a million of 
horse-power in water-powers, varying in size from thirty to thirty thousand 
horse-power, easily and cheaply available under condition peculiarly ad- 
vantageous, not counting the presence of the large amount of raw ma- 
terial in the shape of cotton to be manufactured. 

A million of horse-power is about eighty per cent, of all the water- 
powers now in use in manufacturing throughout the United States. It 
is about seven times the amount of water-power now employed in the 
United States in the manufacture of cotton goods, and nearly four times 
the steam and water-power together so employed. It is sufficient to move 
all the cotton factories, grist and flour mills and saw mills now worked 
by water throughout the entire country. If such a power were used in 
manufacturing cotton goods it would call for 600,000 operatives; in 
grinding flour and grist, 75,000 ; in sawing lumber, over 200,000. It 
appears, therefore, that the supply, for some time to come, must be in 
excess of any demand likely to be made on it. If, however, the present 
rate of increase in the employment of water-power in South Carolina 
should continue, the time when all this power might be utilized is not so 
indefinitely remote as might at first sight be thought. The amount of 
water-power employed in manufacturing in South Carolina was thirty- 
three per cent, greater in 1880 than it was in 1870. At this rate about two 
hundred and twenty years would elapse before all this power would be 
required. Just at the present time, however, the rate of increase is much 
greater than this. By the census of 1880, only 2,398, H. P. water-power was 
employed in the manufacture of cotton goods. By an enumeration, how- 
ever, made by the State Department of Agriculture, in November, 1882, 
it was ascertained that 4,113, H. P. water-power were thus employed, an 
increase of seventy -one per cent, in a little over two years, or ten times 
greater than the rate of increase shown between the 9tli and lOtli 
United States Census. Up to this date this rate of increase is maintained, 
and may be said to be accelerated, rather than diminished. How long it 
will continue, and what will limit it, can not now, with any certainty, be 
estimated. The increase in the employment of steam-power in South 
Carolina, as given in the 9th and lOth Census, is much greater than that 
of water-power, and amounts to one hundred and sixty-four per cent. Of 
the total power used in manufacturing in South Carolina, in 1870, G9.62 per 
cent, was water, the balance being steam, but in 1880 this ratio is much 



208 WATER-POWERS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

reduced, and water gives only 53.63 per cent, of the total power employed. 
This tendency of sup[)lantihg the use of water by steam prevails thi'ough- 
out the United States, with the exception of five only of the newer and 
remoter States and territories. For the whole country the percentage of 
steam in the total power used has risen, since 1876, from fifty-one to sixty- 
four per cent. 

Under the United States tariff protecting manufactures, no pressing 
necessity has been felt for attention to economy in the matter of motive 
powers. The present attitude of the public mind seems to indicate that 
this state of things will not obtain much longer, and the cost of motive 
powers of different kinds and in different localities must become a ques- 
tion of much consequence. The following statement exhibits the cost of 
water and steam powers at several well-known manufacturing points : 

Annual Rent or Estimated Cost of One Horse-Power. 

W.\TEIi-POWER. STEAM-POiVER. 

Lawrence, Mass $14 12 $64 00 to $74 00 

Dayton, Ohio 38 00 33 60 

Birmingham 20 00 

Cohoes, New York 20 00 

Turner's Falls, Mass 10 00 

Augusta, Georgia 5 50 

It is estimated that if the State rents the water it is now developing at 
Columbia at five dollars per annum for one horse-power, that it will ob- 
tain a handsome revenue from the labor and material expended. 

At seven per cent, on the cost of dams and canals for the water-power 
utilized and available in South Carolina, the following is a statement of 
the cost of a horse-power per annum at several factories in this State : 

Langley $2 10 

Graniteville 5 81 

Vaucluse 7 00 

No. l,Camperdown 43 

Glendale 39 

Saluda Factory 28 

Average for the whole, one dollar and seventy cents per annum per 
horse-power. 



CH^^PTER X. 



A LIST OF THE VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF 
SOUTH CAROLINA.* 



BY FREDERICK W. TRUE, 

CURATOR IN THE V. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



SUB-KINGDOM VERTEBRATA. THE VERTEBRATES. 
CLASS MAMMALIA. MAMMALS. 

A class of hair-clad vertebrates, possessing a four-celled heart, dis- 
charging warm, red blood, which contains both white and red cor- 
puscles. Skull with two condyles. Limbs never less than a single pair, 
never more than two pairs. Symmetry of the two sides of the body com- 
plete. Young from a minute egg, brought forth alive, and nourished 
by a secretion (milk), from modified glands of the skin. 

*This list is based, in part, upon data furnished by Dr. G. E. Manigault, of the 
Charleston Museum. The literature relating to the vertebrate fauna of the Southern 
States has likewise been carefully examined. That the list may not be a merely nom- 
inal one, the mark of interrogation has been placed before the names of those species 
whose range is supposed to extend over South Carolina, but whose occurrence in the 
State has not been recorded. An exception is made, however, in the case of species 
known to occur in both North Carolina and Georgia. These are included without 
question. A comparison with the list published by Prof. Gibbes, in 1847, is almost im- 
practicable on account of the many changes which have occurred in the nomenclature 
and determination of species, resulting from the progress of the study of vertebrate 
zoology since that time. F. \V. True. 
14 



'210 VBRTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH rAJtOUNA. 

A group of uiiimals representing the liigliest phases of the develop- 
nient of life. To man, the highest exponent of the class, the less 
perfected species stand in the most important relations, both as being, in 
a sense, his progenitors, and as furnishing him with those things which 
are quite indispensable to his sustenance and advancement. A number 
of species have existed in a state of domestication from time immemorial. 

Compared with lower groups, the class is a small one, although 
having no inconsiderable number of species. Al>out three hundred spe- 
cies inhabit North America. 



SUB-CLASS MONODELPHIA. 

Mammals, whose .young are of considerable size and almost perfect 
development at birth. The anterior portion of the brain, or cerebrum, 
much overlaps the posterior jDortion, or cerebellum (super-order Edu- 
cahilia), or leaves the latter considerably exposed (super-order Incdu- 
(■abilia). 



SUPER-ORDER EDUCABILIA. 



ORDER CARNIVORA. CARNIVOROUS MAMMALS. 

Flesh-eating mammals, having both fore and hind feet well devel- 
oped ; in one sub-order, Pirmipedia or Seals, for aquatic progression; 
in others, for terrestrial progression. The thumb or pollex of the fore 
limb is never opposable to the lingers, as in man. Teeth of three 
sorts, molars, canines and incisors. 

It is somewhat difficult to define this order in a manner intelligible to 
all, since the distinctions are mostly of an anatomical nature. Two of its 
representatives, however, the house cat, Felis domcMica, and the dog. Cam's 
familiarhi, are familiar to every one. The Carnivores furnish but little 
food supply for man, but Iheir thick furs enable him to withstand the 
rigors of winter. In the tropics, where one branch of the order, that of 
the cats, reaches its liighest development, they are decidedly more 
harmful than useful to man. 



VERTEBRA! E AXIMAI.S OF SOUTH (AHOIJNA. 211 



FELID.E. 



WILDCAT.. Lynx rufus (Guldenstiidt), Kafinesquo 
PUMA or PANTHER.* Felis concolor, Liime. 



CANID.-E. 

WHITE-AND-GRAY WOLF. Canis lupus. Linn': griseo-albus. 

RED FOX. Vulpes fulvus, Desuiarest. 

GRAY FOX. XJrocyon virginianus, iSolirel)or) Gray. 



Ml'STELID.F.. 

BROWN MINK. Putorius vison. Scbreber) Gapi>. ' 
ER]MINE; ST<:tAT. Putorius erminea, (Linne) Griffith. 
AMERICAN OTTER. Lutra canadensis. (Turt<Mii F. Cuvicr. 
COMMON SKUNK. MepMtis mephitica, ' Slim-. BainL 
LITTLE STRIPED SKUNK. Mephitis putorius, ' Linnei Co',ics.+ 



PROCYOXID.E. 

RACCOON. Procy'bn lotor, i Linne) Storr. 

URSID.E. 
BL.\CK BEAR Uraus americanus. PalLi?;. 

PHOCID.E. 

C;OMMON SEAL-t Phoca vitulina, Linne, 



*Probably extinct in South Carohna. 

tlnclnded upon the authority of Catesby as interpreted by Coue?. 
XA s=eal was oaujzht in the harbor of Charleston in is">2 The -pocimen i.-- now in the 
museum of the College of Charleston. — G. E. ^I. 



'212 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA; 



ORDER UNGULATA. HOOFED MAMMALS. 

Herbivorous, terrestrial mammals, possessing three sorts of teeth, the 
])ermanent series of which is preceded by a set of milk teeth. Fingers 
and toes encased in horny coverings or hoofs, and never prehensile. 
i3ne sub-group with liorns or antlers, and more or less complex stomachs 
(Artiodactijli) — deer, antelope, swine, &c. ; another with neither {Per issodac- 
tyll) — horses, tapirs, &c. 

The most useful of mammalian orders, including the majority of domes- 
ticated animals, and furnishing the greatest proportion of the most valu- 
able animal products employed in the arts and for consumption. 

The order is not abundantly represented in North America, the num- 
l)er of recognized species being about fifteen. 

CERVID^. 

VIRGINIA DEER. Cariacus virglnianus (Boddaert), Gray, 

WAPITI ; ELK. Cervus canadensis, E^rxleben. (Extinct.) 

BISON; BUFFALO. Bison americanus, (Gmelin) Smith. (Extinct.)* 



ORDER CETE. WHALES. 

An order of aquatic mammals, devoid of hind limbs, but possessing 
fore limbs, modified into paddles, the fingers being furnished with an 
unusual number of bones, and enveloped in a common integument. 
Skin without hair ; teeth, when present (porpoises, sperm whales, &c.), 
conical and not preceded by milk teeth ; absent in some species (baleen 
whales), which are furnished, instead, with horny plates. 

The whales are, perhaps, the least known of mammals. The number 
of species is still unsettled, and the habits and migrations of some are yet, 
entirely unknown. 

*Mr. Vincent killed the last elk known of in South Carolina, in Fairfield 
co.:nty. The following statement regardin;:^ the last buffalo known on the Atlantic 
slope is by Col. Chas. C. Jones, Jr., of Augusta, Ga. : 

" I have seen the skull of a buffalo, with the horns still attached, in good state of 
preservation, which was ploughed up in a field in Brooks county, Georgia ; and the 
father of Mr. J.imes Hamilton Couper, of St. Simon's island, shot a wild buffalo early 
in the present century, near the head waters of Turtle river, not very far from Bruns- 
wick, Georgia. The swamp is known to this day as Buffalo swamp. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 213 

The majority of toothed whales subsist upon fish and cuttlefish, while the 
whalebone whales devour immense quantities of small organisms, prin- 
cipally crustaceans, which they strain out from the water taken into the 
mouth, by means of their baleen plates. 

The whale fishery, once a most extensive industry, has shrunken to 
comparatively small proportions, principally on account of the disuse of 
whale oil as a burning fluid. 

BAL^NID^. 

RIGHT WHALE.* Eubalaena cisarctica, Cope. 

ZIPHIIDiE. 
BOTTLE-NOSED WHALE.* Hyperoodon semijunctus, Cope. 

DELPHINID.E. 
PORPOISE. ?Phocaena brachycion, Cope. 



SUPER-ORDER INEDUCABILIA. 



ORDER CHEIROPTERA. BATS. 

An order of mammals at once distinguishable from all others by 
the great modification of the anterior limbs for purposes of flight. The 
fingers are much elongated, devoid of nails except in one family, and 
connected with each other and the body by an extremely thin skin. 
Thumb abortive, and furnished with a strong hook or nail. Teeth of 
three sorts, encased in enamel. Young suckled by pectoral mammae. 

The bats form a group of moderate size, and are distributed through- 
out the globe. They are eminently fitted for aerial progression, but walk 
very awkwardly and with much difficulty. They are active only during 
the dark hours, remaining, during the day, in secluded places, suspended 

* Specimens of both these Cetaceans have been caught in Charleston harbor, and 
their skeletons are in the museum of the College of Charleston. — G. E. M, 



214 VKRTEHKATE ANIMALS OF SOVTH CAROLINA. 

by the liijid foot, Avliich arc furnished with strong, acutely-pointed claws. 
The majority eat insects and worms, but a few are fruit eaters. They 
are most abundant in tropical countries.' North American species, about 
twenty-five. 

NOCTILIONID.E. 
LARGK-NOSP^I) BAT. Nyctinomus 'brasiliensis, GeoflVoy. 

VESPERTILIONID.E. 

TWILIGHT KA'l". Nycticejus crepuscularis, LeConte. 

RED B.VT. Atalapha noveboracensis, (Erxleben) Peters. 

HOARY P. AT. Atalapha cinerea, (Beau vois) Peters. 

CAROLINA BAT. Vesperugo serotinus, (Schreber) Keys, and Bias. ; fuscus. 

GEORGIAN BAT. Vesperugo georgianus, (F. Cuvier) Dobson. 

LITTLE BROWN BAT. Vespertilio subulatus, Say. 

SILVERY-HAIRED BAT. Scotophilus uoctivagans, LeConte. 

BLUNT-NO.SED BAT. Vespertilio lucifugus, LeConte * 

BIG-EAR]':d BAT. Plecotus macrotus, LeConte. 



ORDER, INSECTIVORA. INSECT EATERS. 

A group of small mammals, possessing many of the characteristics of 
the bats, but having both fore and hind limbs adapted for walking. The 
two bones of the fore-arm are separate. The mammae are inguinal. 

This order, of which the common mole forms a well-known example, is 
composed mostly of burrowing animals, which feed upon insects and live 
a secluded life. Few or none are of economical value, and the moles, at 
least, prove obnoxious to the farmer by injuring his pasture land. 



SORICID^. 

3IA8KED SHREW. Sorex personatus, Geofi'roy. 
CAROLINA SHREW Blarina brevicaudata, (Say), Baird. 



* Vespertilio virginianus, Kuduhon and Bach man, a species of uncertain identity, is 
included by Gibbes in the South Carolina fauna. " V. nigrescem, Bachman," also given 
by Gibbes, I have been unable to find a description of. 



VERTEBRATE AXIMALS OF -SOUTH CAROLINA. 215 



TALPID.E. 

COMMON MOLE. Scalops aquaticus, (Linne) Fischer. 
STAR-XO.SED MOLE. Condyl'ira cristata, (LinnL^) Desmarest. (G.) 



ORDER GLIRES. RODENTS. 

A large order of mammals, at once distinguishable from' all other pla- 
cental mammals by the form of incisor teeth, which are bent into an arc of 
greater or less magnitude, possess a chisel or gouge-like edge, and grow 
perpetually from a soft pulp. Canine teeth are wanting ; the feet are 
suited for walking and leaping. 

The species of rodents are more numerous than those of all other 
orders of mammals combined. They are distributed throughout the 
world. Some, as the squirrels and chipmunks, are adapted for arboreal 
life, while others, as the marmots, live in the open prairies. The com- 
mon rat has been introduced everywhere where commerce has pene- 
trated. 

The rodents are of comparatively little commercial value, although 
some families, as the beavers, furnish beautiful furs, and others, as the 
squirrels and hares, may supply some considerable amount of palatable 
food. On the other hand, many members of the family MuridR, or rats, 
are injurious to grain and other products of husbandry.* 



SCIURID.E. 

? EASTERN CHICKADEE. Scuirus hudsonius, Pallas ; hudsonius. 

SOUTHERN FOX SQUIRREL. Sciurus niger, Linne; niger. 
? NORTHERN GRAY iSQUIRREL. Sciunis carolinensis, Gmelin ; leucotis. 

SOUTHERN GRAY SQUIRREL. Sciurus carolhiensis, Gmelin ; carolinensis. 

FLYING SQUIRREL. Sciuropterus volucella, (Pallas) Geoff. ; volucella. 

CHIPMUNK ; STRIPED SQUIRREL. Tamias striatus, (Linne) Baird. 

WOODCHUCK ; GROUJSiD HOG. Arctomys monax, (Linne) Schreber. 

*The Jumping Mouse, Zapus hudsonius, (Zimm.) Cones, representing the iiimily Zapo- 
(lidx, is included by Gibbes in the fauna of South Carolina, but apparently without 
reason. 



210 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



MURID.E. 

BROAVX RAT. Mus decumanus, Pallas. (Introduced.) 
BLACK EAT. Mus rattus, Linne. (Introduced.) 
COMMON MOUSE. Mus musculus, Linne. (Introduced.) 
MUSK RAT. Fiber zibethicus, (Linne) Cuvier. 
PINE MOUSE. Arvicola pinetorum, (LeConte) A. and B. 
COMMON MEADOW MOUSE. Arvicola riparius, Ord. 
H .\RYEST MOUSE. Ochetodon humilis, ( Aud. and Bach.) AVag. 
RED MOUSE. Hesperomys aureolus, f Aud. and Bach.) Wag. 
COTTON MOUSE. Hesperomys gossypinus, LeConte. 
GRAY-BELLIED MOUSE. Hesperomys leucopus. Wagner. 
RICE-FIELD MOUSE. Hesperomys palustris, (Harlan) Wagner. 
FLORIDA OR WOOD RAT. Neotoma floridana, Say and Ord. 
COTTON RAT. Sigmodon hispidus, Say aud Ord. 

CASTORID^. 
AMERICAN BEAVER. Castor fiber, Linne. (Extinct) 

LEFORIDM, 

GRAY RABBIT. Lepus sylvaticus. Bach man ; sylvaticus. 
MARSH HARE. Lepus palustris, Bach man. 



SUB-CLASS DIDELPHIA. 

A sub-class of mammals distinguished from the j^receding by the fact 
that the young are born in an incompletely developed condition, and 
are protected in a pouch on the abdomen of the mother, where they are 
retained for several months, being nourished by the milk secreted 
by the mammae therein contained. The sub-class contains but a single 
order, the Marsupalia. 

The n:|^rsupials vary very much in size, and are mostl}' confined to 
Australasia. A single famil}', the Didelphidx, or opossums, inhabits 
America, and is peculiar to our continent. 

DIDELPHID.E. 
OPOSSU-M. Didelphys virginiana, Shaw. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 217 



CLASS AVES. BIRDS. 

A class of oviparous, warm-blooded, air-breathing vertebrates, having 
the anterior limbs greatly modified for flight. Hind limbs always 
present. Exoskeleton in the form of feathers. Teeth in existing species 
absent. In certain extinct forms, Odontorniths, teeth are present. 

The birds form a remarkably compact class of animals. They have 
attracted more attention on account of their beauty and prevailing harm- 
lessness than, perhaps, any group of animals, and vie with the mammals 
in the degree of their usefulness to man. 

No corner of the globe is without representatives of this group. 
About nine hundred and twent3^-four species and sub-species are North 
American. Many orders, such as the ostriches, are not represented in 
our country. 



ORDER PASSERES. PASSERINE BIRDS. 

Birds having four toes fitted for perching, but never versatile, i. e., ca- 
pable of being turned laterally from one position to another. Hind toe 
on a level with the others, and always with a claw as long or longer than 
that of the middle toe. Tail-feathers twelve, primaries (the stiff feathers 
inserted from the bend of the wing to the tip, and usually ten in num- 
ber), nine or ten. Sternum uniform in pattern in the various species. 

This group of birds is the most numerous of all in species. The 
musical capabilities are developed in a high degree, and throughout 
their structure they display " the highest grade of develoiannent and the 
most comj^lex organization of the class." — (Coues). Their relations to 
the success of agriculture are varied, some families being granivorous, 
and doing much damage to corn and grain, others being insectivorous, 
and hence of importance in reducing the abundance of noxious insects. 
Recognized North American species, about three hundred and forty. 



TURDIDiE. 

WOOD THRUSH. Hylocichla mustelina, (Gmel.) Baird. 
WILSON'S THRUSH. Hylocichla fuscescens, (Steph.) Baird. 
? GREY-CHEEKED THRUSH. Hylocichla alicise, Baird. 
OLIVE-BACKED THRUSH. Hylocichla ustulata rfwainsoni, (Caban.) Ridgw. 



218 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

HERMIT THRUSH. Hylocichla unalascae pallasi, (C'abanis) Ridgway. 

AMERICAN ROBIN. Menila migratoria, (Liniu-) S\v. and Rich. 

MOCKING BIRD. Mimus polyglottus. aJnne) Boie. 

CAT-BIRD. Galeoscoptes carolinensis, (Linn^) Caban. 

BROWN THRrSH OR THRASHER. Harporhynchus rufiis, (Linn^) Caban. 



SAXICOLIDtE. 
BLUE-BIRD. Sialia sialis. (Linne) Haldeman. 

SYLVIID.E. 

BLUE-GRAY GNATCATCHER, OR FLYCATCHER. Polioptila carulea, 

(Linne) Sclater. 
RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET, OR WREN. Regulus calendula, (Linn6) 

Lichtenstein. 
GOLDEN-CRESTED KINGLET. Regulus satrapa, Lidit. 

PARID^. 

TUFTED TITMOUSE. Lophophanes bicolor, (Linn^) Bonaparte. 
BLACK-CAPPED CHICKEDEE, OR TITMOUSE. Parus atricapiUus, Linn6. 
CAROLINA TITMOUSE, OR CHICKADEE. Parus carolinensis, Audubon. 

SITTID.E. 

WHITE-BELLIED NUTHATCH. Sitta carolinensis, Gnielin. 
? RED-BELLIED NUTHATCH. Sitta canadensis, Linne. 
BROWN-HEADED NUTHATCH. Sitta pusilla, Latham. 

CERTHIID.^. 
BROWN CREEPER. CertMa familiaris mexicana, (Gloger) Ridgway. 

TROGLODYTID.E. 

CAROLINA WREN. Thryothorus ludovicianus. (Gni.) Bonaparte. 
BEWICK'S WREN. Thryomanes bewicki, (Aud.) Baird. 
HOUSE WREN. Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 210 

LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN. Telmatodytes palustris, ( Wilson) Baird. 
SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN. Cistothorus stellaris, (Light.) Acb. 
WINTER WREN. Anorthura troglodsrtes hyemalis, ( Vieillot) Coues. 

MOTACILLID^. 

AMERICAN TITLARK. Anthus ludovicianus, (Gm.) Liclitenstein. 

MNIOTILTID^. 

BLACK-AND-WHITE CREEPER. Mniotilta varia, (Linne) Yieillot. 
PROTHONOTARY WARBLER. Protonotaria citrea, (Bodd.j Baird. 
SWAINSON'S WARBLER. Helonsea swainsoni, Andnbon. 
WORM-EATIxVG WARBLER. Helminthotherus vermivorus, [Gm.) Salvin & 

Godman. 
BACHMAN'S WARBLER. Helminthophaga baclimam, (Aud.) Cabanis. 
BLUE-WINGED YELLOW WARBLER. Helminthophaga pinus, (Linne) BairU 
GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER. Helminthophaga chrysoptera, (Linne) Baird. 
NASHVILLE WARBLER. Helminthophaga ruficapilla, (Wiis.) Baird. 
? ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER. Helminthophaga celata, (Sayj Baird 
TENNESSEE WARBLER. Helminthophaga peregrina, (Wilson) Baird. 
BLUE YELLOW-BACKED WARBLER. Panila americana, (Linn^) Bonaparte. 
CAPE MAY WARBLER. Perissoglossa tigrina, (Gmelin) Baird. 
SUMMKR YELLOW BIRD; YELLOW WARBLER. Dendroeca jestiva, (Grn.) 

Baird. 
BLACK-THROATED BLUE WARBLER. Dendroeca cserulescens, ( Linne) Baird. 
YELLOW-RUMP WARBLER. Dendroeca coronata, (Linne) Gray. 
BLACK-AND-YELLOW WARBLER. Dendroeca maculosa, (Gmelin) Baird. 
BLUE WARBLER ; CERULEAN WARBLER. Dendroeca carulea, (Wils.) Baird. 
CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER. Dendroeca pennsylvanica, (Linne) Baird. 
BAY-BREASTED WARBLER. Dendroeca castanea, (Wilson) Baird. 
BLACK-POLL WARBLER. Dendroeca striata, (Forst.) Baird. 
• BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER. Dendroeca blackburniae, (Gm.) Baird. 
YELLOW-THROATED WARBLER. Dendroeca dominica, (Linne) Baird. 
BLACK-THROATED GREEN WARBLER. Dendroeca virens, (Gmelin) Baird. 
PINE-CREEPING WARBLER. Dendroeca pinus, (Wilson) Baird. 
YELLOW RED-POLL WARBLER. Dendroeca palmarum hypochrysea, Ridg- 

way. 
PRAIRIE WARBLER. Dendroeca discolor, (Yieillot) Baird. 
WATER THRUSH. Siurus nsevius, (Bodd.) Coues. 
GOLDEN-CROWNED THRUSH Siurus auricapillus, (LinntM Swains. 
LARGE-BILLED WATER THRUSH Siurus motacilla, (Yieillot) Coues. 



220 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. - 

CONNECTICUT WARBLER. Oporornis agilis, (Wilson) Baird. 
KENTUCKY WARBLER. Oporornis formosa, ( Wilson) Baird. 
:\I0URNINC4 WARBLER. Geothlypis pMladelphia, (WiLson) Baird. 
MARYLAND YELLOW-THROAT. Geothlypis trichas, (Linne) Cabanis. 
YELLOW-BREASTED CHAT. Icteria virens, (Linne) Baird. 
HOODED WARBLER. Myiodioctes mitrata, (Gniel.) Audubon. 
BL\CK CAPPED YELLOW WARBLER. Myiodioctes pusiUus, (Wils.) Bp. 
? SMALL-HEADED FLY CATCHER Myiodioctes minuta, (Wils.) Baird. 
CANADL\N FLY-CATCHING -WARBLER; CANADA FLY-CATCHER. Myio- 
dioctes canadensis, (Linne) Audubon. 
AxMERICAN REDSTART. Setophaga ruticilla, (Linne) Swainson. 



VIREONID^E. 

RED-EYED YIREO; RED EYED FLY-CATCHER. Vireosylvia oHvacea, 
? PHILADELPHIA YIREO. Vireosylvia pMladelpMca, Cassin. 
WARBLING VIREO. Vireosylvia gilva, iVieili.) Cassin. 

(Linne) Bon. 
YELLOW-THROATED VIREO ; YELLOW-THROATED FLY-CATCHER. Lani- 

vireo flavifrons, (Vieillot) Baird. 
BLUE-HEADED VIREO OR FLY-CATCHER ; SOLITARY VIREO. Lanivireo 

solitarius, (Vieillot) Baird. 
WHITE-EYED VIREO. Vireo noveboracensis, (Gm.) Bonaparte. 



LANIID.E. 

LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE. Lanius ludovicianus, Linne. 
? GREAT NORTHERN SHRIKE. Lanius borealis, Vieillot. 

AMPELID^. 

CEDAR WAX-WINCt; CEDAR BIRD. Ampelis cedrorum, (Vieillot) Baird. 

HIRUNDINID^. 

PURPLE MARTEN. Progne subis, (Linne) Baird. 
? CLIFF SWALLOW. Petrochelidon lunifrons, (Say) Lawrence. 
BARN SWALLOW. Hirundo erytbrogastra, Boddaert. 
WHITE-BELLIED SW^\LLOW. Tachycineta bicolor, (Vieill) Cabanis. 
BANK SWALLOW. Cotile riparia. (Linne) Boie. 
ROUGH- WINGED SWALLOW. Stelgidopteryx serripinnis, (Aud.) Baird. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 221 



TANAGRID^. 



SCARLET TANAGER. Pjrranga rubra, (Linne) Vieillot. 
SUMMER REDBIRD. Pyranga sestiva, (Linne) Vieillot. 



FRINGILLIDtE.. 

PURPLE FINCH. Carpodacus purpureus, (Gm.) Baird. 

AMERICAN GOLDFINCH; YELLOWBIRD. Astragalinus tristis, (Linn^) 
Cabanis. 

PINE GOLDFINCH ; PINE FINCH. Chrysomitris pinus, ( Wils.) Bonaparte. 
? SNOW BUNTING. Plectrophanes nivalis, (Linni') xMeyer. 

SAVANNAH SPARROW. Passerculus sandwichensis savanna, fWils ) Ridg- 
way. 

GRASS FINCH. Pocecetes gramineus, (Gm.) Baird. 

YELLOW-WINGED SPARROW. Coturniculus passerinus, (Wils.) Bonaparte. 

HENLOW'S SPARROW OR BUNTING. Coterniculus henslowi, (And.) Bon- 
aparte. 
? SHARP-TAILED FINCH. Atnmodromus caudacutus, (Gm.) Swainson. 
? SEA-SIDE FINCH. Ammodromus maritimus, (Wils.) Swainson. 

WH [TE-CROWNED SPARROW. Zonotrichia leucophrys, (Furster) S\vain.son. 

WHITE;-THR0ATED sparrow, zonotrichia albicoUis, (Gm.) Bonaparte. 

TREE-SPARROW. Spizella montana, (Forst.) Ridgway. 

CHIPPING SPARROW. Spizella domestica, (Bartram) Cones. 

FIELD SPARROW. Spizella pusilla, (Wils.) Bonaparte. 

BLACK SNOW BIRD ; SNOW BIRD. Junco hyemalis, (Linne) Sclater. 

BACHMAN'S FINCH. Peucsea aestivalis, (Lieht.) Cabanis. 

SONG SPARROW. Melospiza fasciata, (Forster) Scott. 

SWAMP SPARROW. Melospiza palustris, (Wils.) Baird. 
? LINCOLN'S FINCH, Melospiza lincolni, (And.) Baird. 

FOX-COLORED SPARROW. Passerella iliaca, (Merrem) Sw. 

CHEWINK; TOWHEE GROUND-ROBIN. Pipilo erythrophthalmus, (Linne) 
Vieillot. 

CARDINAL GROSBEAK; REDBIRD OR CARDINAL REDBIRD. Cardinalis 
virginianus, (Brisson) Bonaparte. 

ROSE-BREASTED GROSBEAK. Zamelodia ludoviciana, (Linne) Cones. 

BLUE GROSBEAK. Guiraca cserulea, (Linne) Swainson. 

INDIGO BUNTING. Passerina cyanea, (Linne) Gray. 
? PAINTED BUNTING ; NONPAREIL. Passerina ceris, (Linne) Gray. 

BLACK-THROATED BUNTING. Spiza americana, (Gm.) Bonaparte. 



222 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ICTERID.E. 

BOBOLINK ; IMAY-BIRD; REED BIRD; RICE-BIRD. Dolichonyx ory'zivonis, 

(Li line) Swainson 
COWBIRD. Molothrus ater, (Bodd.) Gray. 
RED-AND-BUFF-SHODLDERED BLACKBIRD. Agelaeus phoeniceus, (Linn<^) 

VieiL 
MEADOW LARK. Sturnella magna, (Linn6) Swainson, 
ORCHARD ORIOLE- Icterus spurius, (Linne) Bonaparte. 
BALTIMORE ORIOLE Icterus galbula, (Linne) Cones. 
BULLOCK'S ORIOLE. Icterus buliocki, (Swainson) Bonaparte 
RUSTY BLACKBIRD OR GRACKLE. Scolecopliagus ferrugineus, (Gmelin) 

Swainson. 
BOAT-TAILED GRACKLE OR .lACKDAW. Quiscalus major, Vieillot. 
PURPLE GRACKLE. Quiscalus purpureus, (Bartr. i Licht. 

CORVID.E. 

CO?*I]MON CROW. Corvus frugivorus, Bartr. 
? AMERICAN RAVEN, Corvus corax carnivoras, (Bartr .) Ridgway, 
FISH CROW. Corvus ossifragus, Wilson. 
BLUE JAY. Cyanocitta cristata, (Linne) Strick. 

« 

ALAUDID^. 

SHORE LARK. Eremophila alpestris, (For.st.) Boie. 

TYRANNID.E. 

KINGBIRD; BEE MARTIN. Tyrannus carolinensis, (Unn^j Temminck. 
GREAT-CRESTED FTA^-CATCHER. Myiarchus crinitus, (Linn6) Cabani?. 
]'Ha:BE BIRD ; PE WEE. Sayornis fuscus, i G m . ) Baird. 
• OLIVE-SID ED FLY-CATCH EU. Coatopus borealis, i. Swaing.) Bp. 
WOOD PEWEE. Contopus virens, ( Linne) Cabanis. 

TRAILL'S FLY-CATCHER. Empidonax pusillus trailli, (Audubon) Baird. 
Y FLLO W-BELLIED Fr,Y-CAT( U ER. Empidonax flaviventris, Baird. 
ACADI \N, OR SMALL GREEN-CRESTED FLY-CATCHER. Empidonax aca- 

dicns, (CJmelinI Baird. 
LiCAST FLY-CATCHER. Empidonax minimus. Baird 
YELLOW-BELLIED FLY-CATCHER. Empidonax flaviventris, Baird. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLIXA. '2"23 



ORDER PICARI.E. PICARIAN BIRDS. 

Birds witli four toes, the hinder small, sometimes absent, with a claw 
shorter than that of the middle toe. Third and fourth toes. sometimes 
with fewer than the normal number of joints; second and fourth some- 
times versatile. Tail feathers eight to twelve, but usually ten ; primaries, 
ten, 

A much varied group of peculiar birds, with imperfect musical powers. 
Includes the humming birds, in some respects the most beautiful of 
birds. Mostly insectivorous or carnivorous, and, with a few exceptions, 
of great usefulness to the farmer. "Widely distributed over the globe, 
except the humming birds, which are strictly American. 

TROCHILID.E. 

IJUBY-THROATED HUMMING BIIID. TrocMlus colubris, Linne. 

CYPSELID.E. 
CIIIMNF.Y SWIFT OR " SWALLOW." Cliffitura pelasgica. { Linne) Baird. 

CAPRIMULGID.E. 

CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW. Antrostomus carolinensis, (Gm) Gold. 
WHIP-POOE-WII,L. Caprimulgus vociferus, i Wils.) Bp. 
NIGHTHAWK. Chordeiles popetue, (Vieillot) Bainl. 

PICID.E. 

IVORY-BILLED WOODPECKER. Campephilus principalis. iLinne) Gray. 
HAIRY WOODPECKER. Picus villosus, Linne. 
DOWNY WOODPECKER. Picus pubescens, Linne. 
RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER. Picus querulus. Wilson. 
YELLOW-BELLIED AVOODPPX'KER. Sphyrapicus varius fLinne), Baird. 
PILEATED WOODPECKER OR BLACK WO< iDCoCK. Hylotomus pileatus. 

(Linne) Baird. 
RED-RELLIED WOODPECKER. Centunis carolinus. (Linne) Bp. 
REDHEADED WOODPECKER. Melanerpes erythrocephalus. (Linne) Sw. 
YELLOW-SHAFTED FLICKER. Colaptes auratus, (Linne) Sw. 



224 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

ALCEDINID^E. , * 

BELTED KINGFISHER. Ceryle alcyon, (Linne) Eoie. 

CUCULID.E. 

YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO. Coccyzus americanus, (Linne) Bonaparte 
BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO. Coccyzus erytliroplithalinus, (Wils.) Baird 



ORDER PSITTACI. PARROTS. 

Brilliantly colored birds, with extremely thick bills, strongly hooked 
tongues short and fleshy (.Jordan). The outer toe of the foot reversed, so 
that two toes are opposed to two (zygodactyle). 

Well-known birds, much admired for their gorgeous plumage, and for 
the quaint efforts at speech which some can be trained to put forth. 
Inhabitants of tropical countries. Not well represented in North Amer- 
ica, but abundant in South America. 

PSITTACID.E. 
CAROLINA PARAKEET.* Conurus carolinensis, (Linne) Kuhl. 



ORDER RAPTORES. BIRDS OF PREY. 

Large and powerful carnivorous birds, with strong beaks and sharp 
claws. Four toes, the fourth sometimes versatile. Legs frequently 
feathered to the ankle. Tail feathers, twelve ; primaries, ten. 

Found in every part of the world. The order includes some of the 
strongest flying birds. Many are obnoxious to the poultry keeper 
(hawks), while others (buzzards) are of great service in removing carrion. 

STRIGID.E. 

?BARN OWL. Aluco flammeus americanus, (And.) Ridgway. 
LONG-EARED OAVL, Asio americanus, (Steph.) Sharpe. 
SHORT-EARED OWL Asio accipitrinus, (Pallas) Newton. 

■"■Extinct in South Carolina — G. E. M. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 22") 

BARRED OWL. Strix nebulosa, Forster. 

LITTLE SCREECH OWL. Scops asio, (Linn4) Bonaparte. 

GREAT-HORNED OWL. Bubo virginianus, (Gm.) Bonaparte. 

SAW-WHET OWL. Nyctale acadica, (Gmel.) Bp. 

SKOWY OWL. Nyctea scandiaca, Linm'. 



FALCONID.E. 

PEREGRINE FALCON DUCK HAWK. Falco peregrinus n»vius, (Gm. 

Ridf^way. 
PIGEON HAWK. iEsalon columbarius (LinnL'), Kaup. 
SPARROW HAWK, Tinnunculus sparverius (Linne), Yieillot. 
AMERICAN OSPREY; FISH HAAVK. Pandion haliaetus carolinensis, (Gm. 

Ridgway. 
SWALLOW-TAILED KITE Elanoides forficatus, (Linne) Ridgway. 
MISSISSJPPI KITE. Ictinia subcserulea, (Bartram) Coues. 
MARSH HAAVK ; HARRIER. Cirius hudsonius, (Linne) Yieillot. 
COOPERS HAAVK. Accipiter cooperi, Bonaparte. 
SHARP-SHINNED HAWK. Accipiter fuscus, (Gmelin) Bonaparte. 
RED-TAILED HAAVK. Buteo borealis, (Gm.) Yieillot. 
RED-SHOULDERED HAAVK. Buteo lineatus, (Gm.) Jardine. 
AVHITE-TAILED HAAVK. Buteo albicaudatus, Yieillot. 
? BROAD-WINGED HxAAVK- Buteo pennsylvanicus. (AVils.) Bonaparte. 
? ROUGH-LEGGED HAAVK. Arcbibuteo lagopus sancti-johannis, (Gm.) Rid- 

-way. 
? GOLDEN EAGLE. Aquila chrysaetus canadensis, (Linne) liidgway. 
BALD EAGLE; GRAY EAGLE. Haliaeetus leucocephalus, (Linne) Savig. 



CATHARTID^E. 

TURKEY BUZZARD. Cathartes aura, (Linne) Illiger. 

BLACK YULTURE ; CARRION CROW. Catharista atrata, (Wils.) Lesson. 



ORDER COLUMB^. DOVES. 

Birds, typified in the common dove, having small heads and 
straight beaks, homy at the tip, which is separated from the softer por- 
tion by a constriction. The hinder toe on a level with tlie rest. 
"^15 



226 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA, 

Birds of downy plumage and gentle manner. Monogamous. Many 
species domesticated. Abundant in most regions, but especially so in 
the East Indies. The Columba livia of that part of the globe is supposed 
to be the ancestor of all the domesticated breeds of pigeons. 



COLUMBIDiE. 

MESSENGER; WILD PIGEON. Ectopistes migratoria, (Linn^) Sw. 
MOURNING DOVE; TURTLE DOVE. Zenaidura carolinensis, (Linne) Bp. 
GROUND DOVE. Chamsepelia passerina, (L.) Swainson. 



ORDER GALLINiE. GALLINACEOUS BIRDS. 

Mostly thick-set birds, having short and stout wings, legs and bills, 
the latter convex and horny and not constricted. Hind toe elevated, 
shorter than the rest, sometimes wanting. 

A large order of the most useful l)irds, including some of the domes- 
tic fowls and the principal game birds. Too well known to require 
comment. 



MELEAGRID^E. 
WILD TURKEY. Meleagris gallopavo americana, (Bartram) Coues. 

TETRAONIDiE, 
? RUFFED GROUSE. Bonasa umbellus, (Linne) Steph. 

PERDICIDiE. 

PARTRIDGE; BOB WHITE; AMERICAN QUAIL. Ortyx virginiana, (L.) 
Bonai)arte. 



VEKTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 227 

ORDER LIMICOLiE. SHORE BIRDS. 

Birds usually of small size, with rounded heads, long legs and necks, 
and long, soft bills, suited for probing in the mud. Hind toe elevated. 

Largely aquatic and widely distributed. Abundant in America. The 
order includes many much valued game birds. 

PLATALEID^E. 
? ROSEATE SPOONBILL. Ajaja rosea, (Rrisson) Ridgway. 

H^MATOPODID^. 
AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHER. Hsematopus palliatus, Temminck. 

STREPSILID.E. 
TURNSTONE. Strepsilas interpres, (Linne) Illiger. 

CHARADRHDiE. 

BLACK-BELLIED PLOVER. Squatarola helvetica, (Linni?) Cuvier. 

GOLDEN PLOVER. Charadrius pluvialis, Linne. 

KILLDEER; KILLDEER PLOVER. Oxyechus vociferus, (Linne) Reich. 

SEMFPALMATED PLOVER, ^gialites semipalmata, (Bonap.) Cabanis. 

PIPING PLOVER, ^gialites meloda, (Ord) Bp. 

WILSON'S PLOVER. Ochtliodromus wilsonius, (Ord) Reich. 

SCOLOPACID.E. 

AMERICAN WOODCOCK. Philohela minor, (Gmel.) Gray. 

ENGLISH SNIPE. Gallinago media, Leach. 

WILSON'S SNIPE. Gallinago media wilsoni, (Temm.) Rids,'way. 

RED-BREASTED SNIPE; GRAY SNIPE. Macrorhamphus griseus, (Gmel.) 

Leach. 
? RED-BELLIED SNIPE; GREATER GRAY-BACK. Macrorhamphus griseus 

scolopaceus, (Say) Cones. 
STILT SANDPIPER. Micropalama himantopus, fBonap.) Baird. 
KNOT. Tringa canutus, Linne. 



228 VEKTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

PUKPLE SANDPIPER. Arquatella maritima, (Biunn) Baird. 

GRASS SNIPE. Actodromus maculata, (Vieillot) Coues. 

BONAPARTE'S SANDPIPER. Actodromas fuscicoUis, (Vieill.) Ridgway. 

LEAST SANDPIPER. Actodromas minutilla (Vieill.) Bj). 

RED-BACKED SANDPIPER. Pelidna alpena americana, Cassin 
? CURLEW SANDPIPER. Pelidna subarquata, KTulb.) Cuvier. 

SEMIPALMATED SANDPIPER. Ereunetes pusillus, iLinnej Cassin. 

SANDERLING. Calidris arenaria, (Linne) Illiger. 

MARBLED GOD WIT. Limosa fedoa, (Linne) Ord. 

HUDSONIAN GODWIT. Limosa haemastica, (Linnej Coues. 

TELL-TALE; GREATER YELLOW-LEGS. Totanus melanoleucus, (Gmel.) 

Yioillot. 
YELLOW LEGS; LESSER YELLOW SHANKS. Tetanus flavipes, (Gmel.) 

A'ieiilot. 
SOLITARY SANDPIPER. RhyacopMIus solitarius, ( Wils.) Cassin. 
WILLET; STONE CURLEW. Symphemia semipalinata, (Gmel.) Hartlaub. 
FIELD PLOVER; BARTRAM'S SANDPIPER. Bartramia longicauda, (Bech- 

stein) Bp. 
BUFF-BREASTED .SANDPIPER. Tryngites fuscescens, (Vieill) Cabanis. 
SPOTTED SANDPIPER. Tringoides macularius, (Linne) Gray. 
LONG-BILLED CURLEW. Numenius longii'ostris, Wils. 
HUDSONIAN CURLEW. Numenius hudsonicus, Latham. 
ESKIMO CURLEW. Numenius borealis, (Forst.) Latham. 

PHALAROPODID.E. 

? RED PHALAROPE. Phalaropus fulicarius, (Linne) Bp. ' 

? NORTHERN PHALAROPE. Lobipes byperboreus, (Linne) Cuv. 

? WILSON'S PHALAROPE. Steganopus wilsoni, (Sab.) Coues. 

RECUR VIROSTJRID.E. 

? AMERICAN AVOSET, Recurvirostra americana, Gmelin, 
•? BLACK-NECKED STILT. Himantopus mexicanus, MuUgord. 



ORDER HERODIONES. STORKS AND HERONS. 

Birds of ])eciiliar appearance, with long legs and S-shaped necks, 
and with broad wings and short tails. Hind toe long, and usually 
not elevated. Bill long, hard and pointed, with sharp, cutting sur- 
faces. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 220 

Readily recognizable birds of odd form. Of no considerable value 
commercially. Certain species are or have been venerated by different 
nations, c. g., the European stork and the sacred ibis of Egypt. 



ARDEID.E. 

GREAT BLUE HERON. Ardea herodias, Linne. 

AMERICAN EGRET; WHITE HERON. Herodias alba egretta, (Gmel.) Ridg- 

way. 
SNOWY HERON. Garzetta candidissima, (Gmelin) Bp. 
LOUISIANA HERON. Hydranassa tricolor ludovicianuas, (Wils.) Ridgway. 
LITTLE BLUE HERON. Florida cserulea, (Linne) Baird. 
GREEN HERON. Butorides virescens, (Linne) Bp. 
NIGHT HERON. Nyctiardea grisea naevia, (Bodd.) Allen. 
WHITE-CROWNED NIGHT HERON. Nyctherodius violaceus, fLinn^) Rich. 
AMERICAN BITTERN. Botaurus lentiginosus, (Montague) Stepb. 
LEAST BITTERN. Ardetta exilis, (Gm.) Gray. 

CIRCONIID.E. 
AVOOD IBIS. Tautalus loculator, Linne. 

IBIDID.E. 

WHITE IBIS. Eudocimus albus, (Linne) Wagler. 
GLOSSY IBIS. Plegadis falcinellus, (Linne) K.aup. 



ORDER ALECTORIDES. RAILS AND CRANES. 

Birds somewhat resembling the herons. The hind toe small and ele- 
vated. " Body more or less compressed. Wings short, rounded, con- 
cave. Tail short and small ; size various." — (Jordan). 

A comj^aratively small order of tall birds, chiefly valued as game- 
birds. 



230 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



RALLID^. 

RED-BREASTED RAIL; MARSH HEN. Rallus elegans, Audubon. 
CLAPPER RAIL. Rallus longirostris crepitans, (Gniel.j Ridgway. 
VIRGINIA RAIL. Rallus virginianus, Limie. 
SORA RAIL ; CAROLINA RAIL. Porzaua Carolina, (Linn6j Baird. 
LITTLE YELLOW RAIL. Porzana novoboracensis, (Gmel.) Balrd. 
LITTLE BLACK RAIL. Porzana jamaicensis, (Gmel.) Baird. 
PURPLE GALLINULE. lonornis martinica, (Linne) Reich. 
FLORIDA GALLINULE. Gallinula galeata, (Liclit.) Bp. 
AMERICAN COOT. Fulica americana, Gmel. 
? AVPIOOPING CRANE. Grus americana, (Linue) Temm. 



ORDER LAMELLIROSTRES. ANSERINE BIRDS. 

Birds with flattened bills, raised on the edges into a series of tooth- 
like ridges. A high, compressed head, with small eyes. Usually with 
short legs (excepting the flamingoes, in which they are remarkably long), 
giving a " squatty " appearance. All swimming-birds to a greater or 
less extent. 

In economic importance this group compares favorably with the galli- 
naceous birds. " An important and familiar order, comprising nearly 
all the 'water-fowl ' which are valued in domestication or as game-birds." 

The order is comparatively small, and includes but two families, the 
ducks and the flamingoes. 



PH^ENICOPTERID^. 
? AMERICAN FLAMINGO. Phoenicopterus ruber, Linne. 

ANATIDiE. 

WHISTLING SWAN. Olor americanus, (Sharpless) Bp. 

SNOW GOOSE. Chen hyperboreus, (Pallas) Boie. 

AMERICAN WHITE-FRONTED GOOSE. Anser albifrons gambeli, (Hartlaub) 

Cones. 
CANADA GOOSE. Bernicla canadensis, (Linne) Boie. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 231 

BRANT GOOSE. Bernicla brenta, (Pallas) Steph. 

MALLARD. Anas boscas, Linne. 

BLACK DUCK. Anas obscura, Gmelin. 

GAD WALL. Chaulelasmus streperus, (Linne) Gray. 

PIN-TAIL DUCK ; SPRIG-TAIL DUCK. Dafila acuta, (Linne) Bonap. 

BALDPATE. Mareca americana, (Gmel.) Steph. 

SHOVELLER ; SHOVELLER DUCK. Spatula clypeata, (Linne) Boie. 

BLUE-WINGED TEAL. Querquedula discors, (Linne) Steph. 

GREEN-WINGED TEAL. Nettion carolinensis, (Gmel.) Baird. 

WOOD DUCK ; SUMMER DUCK. Aix sponsa, (Linn6) Boie. 

SCAUP DUCK ; BIG BLACK-HEAD. Fulix marila, (Linne) Baird. 

LITTLE BLACK-HEAD. Fulix affinis, (Eyt.) Baird. 

RING-BILLED BLACKHEAD : RING-NECKED DUCK. Fulix coUaris, (Donov.) 
Baird. 

CANVAS-BACK. .^lythyia vallisneria, (Wils.) Boie. 

REDHEAD, .ffiytbyia americana, (Eyt.) Bp. 

AMERICAN GOLDEN-EYE. Clangula glaucium americana, (Bp.) Ridgway. 

BUTTERHEAD ; BUFFLEHEAD. Clangula alveola, (Linne) Steph. 
? LONG-TAILED DUCK ; OLD SQUAW. Harelda glacialis, (Linne) Leach. 
? AMERICAN SCOTER. (E Jemia americana, Sw. and Rich. 
? AMERICAN VELVET SCOTER. Melanetta velvetina, (Cassin) Baird. 
? SURF DUCK. Pelionetta perspicillata, (Linne) Kaup. 

AMERICAN SHELDRAKE. Mergus merganser americanus, (Cassin) Ridg- 
way. 

RED-BREASTED SHELDRAKE. Mergus serrator, Linne. 

HOODED SHELDRAKE. Lophodytes cucuUatus, (Linne) Reich. 



ORDER STEGANOPODES. TOTIPALMATE BIRDS. 

Toes entirely webbed ; the hinder one lengthened. Bill horny, but 
never lamellate. A prominent gular pouch. 

A tolerably large group of medium sized or large birds, aquatic and 
largely marine. Fish-eating. Well distributed over the globe. 



TACHYPETID^E. 
FRIGATE PELICAN ; MAN-OF-WAR BIRD. Tachypetes aquila, (Linne) Vieil. 



■232 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

PELECANID.E. 

AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN. Pelecanus erythrorhynchus, Gmelin. 
BROWN PELICAN. Pelecanus fuscus, Linne. 

PHALACROCORACID.E. 
FLORIDA CORMORANT. Phalacrocorax dilophus floridanus, (And.) Ri.Jgwii\ 

PLOTIDiE. 

SNAKE BIRD; AMERICAN ANHINGA. Plotus anhinga, Linne. 

SULARID^E. 

COMMON GANNET. Sula bassana, (Linne) Brisson. 
BOOBY GANNET. Sula leucogastra, (Boddert) Salvin. 



ORDER LONGIPENNES. LOXGAVIXGED SWIMMERS. 

Birds with peculiarly long and pointed wings, and possessing remark- 
able powers of flight. Feet webbed ; hind toe small (sometimes wanting) 
and elevated. 

This order includes only two families, the gulls and the petrels. 
Both are largely marine, subsisting on fish. Being excellent flyers they 
are often found manv hundred miles from land. 



RHYNCHOPSID.E. 

BLACK SKIMMER. Rhynchops nigra, Lmne. 

LARID^. 

GREAT BLACK -BACKED GULL. Larus marinus, UnnL 
HERRING GULL. Larus argentatus, Briinn. 
RING-BILLED GULL. Larus delawarensis, Ord. 
LAUGHING GULL. Larus atricilla, Linne. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 233 

BONAPARTE'S GULL. Larus philadelpMse, (Ord) Gray. 

BULL-BILLED TERN ; MARSH T1<:rn. Sterna anglica, Montag. 

COMMON TERN. Sterna fluviatilis, Namnann. 

FOSTER'S TERN. Sterna forsteri, Nuttall. 

CABOT'S TERN. Sterna cantiaca acuflavida, (Cabot) Ridgway. 

ROYAL TERN. Sterna regia, Gambel. 

ROSEATE TERN. Sterna dougalli, Montague. 

LEAST TERN. Sterna antillarum, (Lesson) Cones. 

BLACK TERN. Hydrochelidon lariformis surinamensis, (Gmelin) Ridgway. 

PROCELLARIID^. 

GREATER SHEARWATER. Puffinus major, Faber. 

DUSKY SHEARWATER. Puffinus audubonii, Finscb. 
? BLACK-CAPPED PETREL. (Estrelata haesitata, (Temm.) Coues. 
? MOTHER GARY'S CHICKEN ; STORMY PETREL. Procellaria pelagica, Linne. 

WILSON'S PETREL. Oceanites oceanica, (Kubl) Coues. • 



ORDER PYGOPODES. DIVING BIRDS. 

Birds with veiy short wings and pahnate or lobate feet. External por- 
tion of the body legs very short, causing awkwardness in terrestrial pro- 
gression. Bill horny, variously serrate or lamellate. 

Strictly American birds. Noted for their powers in diving and lack of 
proficiency in flight. About twenty-one species are recognized. One 
member of this group, the Great Auk, Alca impeniiis, has been exterminated 
within a century. Purely marine and mostly arctic birds. 

PODICIPITID^. 

AMERICAN RED NECKED GREBE. Podiceps holbolli, Reinhardt. 

HORNED GREBE. Dytes auritus, (Linne) Ridgway. 

THICK-BILLED GREBE ; DABCHICK. Podilymbus podiceps, (Linne) Lawrence. 

COLYMBIDiE. 

LOON. Oolymbus torquatus, Brunn. 

RED-THROATED DIVER. Colymbus septentrionalis, Linne. 

BLACK-THROATED DIVER. Colymbus arcticus, Linn6. 



234 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 

ALCID^. 
? C OMMON PUFFIN. Fratercula arctica, (Linnt") Steph. 



CLASS REPTILIA. REPTILES. 

Air-breathing vertebrates with cold, red blood. Exoskeleton developed 
as scales (serpents and lizards), or horny or bony plates (tortoises). Limbs 
absent (serpents), or present and adapted for walking and swimming. 
Eggs hatched externally (oviparous reptiles), or in the body of the parent 
(ovoviviparous reptiles). 

A large class of useful (tortoises) and baneful animals, remarkable for 
their varied modifications of structure. Many species which are per- 
fectly harmless, and possess great interest for the unbiased observer, are 
commonly regarded with an aversion kept alive by the fables of folk-lore. 
Aljout two hundred and sixty species are North American. Five orders 
are usually recognized. 



ORDER OPHIDIA. SERPENTS. 

Reptiles of an extremely attenuated form, devoid of limbs (rarely 
possessing rudiments of hind limbs), and with the two halves of the 
lower jaw united by ligament. Right and left lungs unequally developed. 
Exoskeleton in the form of scales. Oviparous. 

This order includes some of the most venomous of all animals. Only 
two poisonous families, however, are represented in the United States, 
namely, the rattlesnakes {Crotalidse), and the harlequin snakes {Elapidee). 
All other North American snakes, except five species, belong to the great 
family Colahrixhe, and are perfectly harmless. About one hundred and 
thirty -two species of this order inhabit North America. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 235 



CROTALIDiE. 

BANDED KATTLESNAKE * Crotalus horridus, Linne. 
WATER RATTLESNAKE. Crotalus adamantens, Beauvois. 
GROUND RATTLESNAKE. Caudisona miliaria, (Linnu) Baird and Girard. 
BLACK RATTLESNAKE ; PRAIRIE RATTLESNAKE ; MASSASAUGA. Caudi- 
sona tergemma, Say. 
WATER MOCCASIN. Ancistrodon piscivorus, (Lacepede)Cope. 
COPPERHEAD. Ancistrodon contortrix, (Linne) B. and G. 



ELAPID^. 

BEAD SNAKE. Elaps fulvius, (Linne) Cope. 

COLUBRID^. 

GROUND SNAKE; WORM SNAKE. Carphophiops amoenus, Say. 
VALERIA'S SNAKE. Virginia valerise, Baird and Girard. 
BROWN SNAKE. Haldea striatula, (Linne) B. and G. 
CROWNED TANTILLA. Tantilla coronata, Baird and Girard. 
RED-LINED SNAKE. Abastor erythrogrammmus, (Daudin) Gray. 
RED-BELLIED HORN SNAKE. Farancia abacura, (Holbrook) B. and G. 
YELLOW-BANDED SCARLET SNAKE, Cemophora coccinea, (Blumpnbaoh) 

Cope. 
SCARLET SNAKE. Osceola elapsoidea, (Holbrook) B. and G. 
SCARLET KING SNAKE. Ophibolus doliatus doliatus, (Linne) Cope. 
RED KING SNAKE. Ophibolus doliatus coccineus, (Linne) Cope. 
HOUSE SNAKE ; MILK SNAKE ; CHICKEN SNAKE ; THUNDER AND 

LIGHTNING SNAKE. Ophibolus doliatus triangulus, (Linne) Cope. 
THUNDER SNAKE;! KING SNAKE; CHAIN SNAKE. Ophibolus getulus 

getulus, (Linn6) Cope. 
BLOTCHED KING SNAKE. Ophibolus rhombomaculatus, Hoi brook. 
RING-NECKED SNAKE. Diadophis punctatus punctatus, (Linne) Cope. 

* This and the suoceedino; species of venomous snakes, except the harlequin, can be 
readily distinguished from the innocent ones, on close examination, by the presence 
of a i)it in the cheek, between the eye and the nostril. No infallible remedy seems to 
have been discovered for the cure of bites of these serpents. The immediate cauteriza- 
tion of the wound and the application of large quantities of stimulants, alcohol, whisky, 
and the like, internally, constitute the treatment most generally successful. Delay in 
this matter is dangerous. 



23G VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

? RING-NECKED SNAKE. DiadopMs punctatus amabilis, (Linne) Cope. 

XANTUS' SNAKE. Hypsiflena ochrorhyncha, Cojie. 

GREEN SNAKE. Cyclophis sestivus, (Linnej Giinther. 

CHICKEN SNAKE. Coluber quadrivittatus, (Holbrook) B. andG. 

MOUNTAIN BLACK SNAKE. Coluber obsoletus obsoletus, (Say) Cope. 

RED-HEADED COLUBER. Coluber obsoletus confinis, (B. and G.) Cope. 

CORN SNAKE. Coluber guttatus, (Linn^) B. and G. 
? COUPER'S SNAKE. Spilotes couperi, Ho' brook. 
? GEORGIA SNAKE ; INDIGO SNAKE. Spilotes erebennus, Cope. 
?PINE SNAKE; BULL SNAKE. Pityophis melanoleucus, (Daudinj Holbrook. 

BLACK SNAKE. Bascanium constrictor. (Linne) B. and G. 

COACH- WHIP SNAKE. Bascanium flagellum, (Shaw) True. 

RIBAND SNAKE; SWIFT GARTER SNAKE. Eutsenia saurita, (Linne) B. 
and G. 
? LONG'S GARTER SNAKE. Eutaenia proxima, Say. 

STRIPED SNAKE ; GARTER SNAKE. Eutaenia sirtalis sirtalis, (LinneJ Cope 
? CHURCHILL'S GARTER SNAKE. Eutaenia sirtalis dorsalis, (Linne) Cope. 

GRASS SNAKE. Eutaenia sirtalis ordinata, (Linne) Cope. 

STORER'S SNAKE. Storeria occipitomaculata, Storer. 
-? DE KAY'S SNAKE. Storeria dekayi, Holbrook. 

BROWN QUEEN SNAKE. Tropidonotus leberis, Linne. 

GREEN QUEEN SNAKE. Tropidonotus rigidus, Say. 

BELTED WATER SNAKE. Tropidonotus fasciatus, (Linne) Holbrook. 

WATER SNAKE ; WATER MOCCASIN. Tropidonotus sipedon sipedon, (Linne) 
Cope. 

COPPER BELLY. Tropidonotus sipedon erythrogaster. (Linne) Cope. 

DARK-SPOTTED WATER SNAKE. Tropidonotus taxispilotus. Holbrook. 

BLOWING VIPER ; HOG-NOSED SNAKE. Heterodon platyrbinus, Latreille. 

BLACK HOG-NOSED SNAKE. Heterodon platyrMnus atmodes, (Latreille) Cope. 

BLACK VIPER. Heterodon platsnrhinus niger, (Latreille) Yarrow. 

HOG-NOSED SNAKE. Heterodon simus simus, (Linn^) Cope. 



ORDER LACERTILIA. LIZARDS. 

A very compact order of reptiles, presenting close affinities with the 
serpents. From these they are distinguished, however, by the presence 
of external ears, the o.sseous union of the two halves of the lower jaw, and 
the occurrence, in the majority of cases, of visible limbs.* 

* The " glass snake," Ophiosaurm ventralis. although devoid of external limbs, presents 
the remaining and fundamental characteristics of the lizards, and is not to be regarded 
as a serpent. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 237 

The lizards, as a class, revel in sunshine and all warmth, and abound 
most in countries where these things are most plenty. In the United 
States, they live principally in the southern States, though one or two 
species make their way as far north as Pennsylvania and Washington 
Territory. Man}^ species will bite when provoked, but few are venomous. 
The order will repay a far greater amount of attention than has yet been 
bestowed upon it. 

SCINCID^. 

GROUND LIZARD. Oligosoma laterale, (Say) Girard. 

SCORPION; RED-HEADED LIZARD; BLUE-TAILED LIZARD. Eumeces 
fasciatus, (Linnet Cope. 



TEID.E. 

SIX-STRIPED LIZARD. Cnemidophorus sexlineatus, (Linnt) Dumeril and 
Bibroii. 

ANGUID.E. 
GLASS SNAKE. Ophiosaurus ventralis, Daudin. 

IGUANID.E. 

BROWN LIZARD. Sceloporus undulatus undulatus, (Harlan) Cope. 

ANOLID^. 

GREEN LIZARD. Anolis principalis, (Linne) Cope. 



ORDER TESTUDINATA. TORTOISES. 

An order of reptiles characterized by the absence of teeth, and the 
modification and expansion of the ribs and vertebrae to form a more or 
less bony chamber, which covers and protects the soft part of the body. 
Exoskeleton usually in the form of horny scales. Oviparous. 



238 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

This order is, perhaps, the most useful of tlie chiss, at least from an 
economical point of view. The flesh and eggs of the sea turtles furnish 
palatable and nutritious food, while the scales of some species, the hawk- 
bill turtles, afford the beautiful " tortoise-shell " of commerce. The terra- 
pins and soft-shelled turtles are the delight of the epicure. The " gopher " 
is the hon bouche of the Southern negro. INIany species of tortoises now 
unused might be employed for food were it not for prejudice. 

The tortoises have a very peculiar distribution, being most largely 
represented in the eastern parts of America and Asia. About seventeen 
genera and forty-two species inhabit the United States. 

SPHARGIDID.E.* 
LEATHER TUETLE. Lermatochelys coriacea, (Vandelli) Strauch. 

CHELONIID^.* 

LOGGERHEAD. Thalassochelys caretta, (Linne) True. 
GREEN TURTLE. Chelonia midas, (Liiine) Schweigger. 

TRIONYCHID^. 

SOUTHERN SOFT-SHELLED TORTOISE. Aspidanectes ferox, (Sohw.) Wagler. 
SPRING SOFT-SHELLED TORTOISE. Aspidonectes spinifer, (Les.) Agassiz. 

CHELYDRID.E. 
SNAPPING TURTLE. Chelydra serpentina, (Linn.:^) Schw. 

CINOSTERNID^E. 

MUSK TORTOISE; STINK POT. Aromochelys odorata, (Latreille) Gray. 
MUD TORTOISES. Cinosternum pennsylvanicum, (Rose) Gray. 

EMYDID.E. 

FLORIDA TERRAPIN. Pseudemys concinna, (LeConte) Gray. 
YELLOW-BELLIED TERRAPIN. Pseudemys scabra, (Linnr) Cope. 
SALT WATER TERRAPIN Malacoclemmys palustris, (Gmelin) Agassiz. 

*These marine turtles occur along the greater part of the Atlantic coast of the 
United States, and although likely at any time to be found on the shores of South 
Carolina, cannot properly be said to be included in its fauna — F. W. T. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 230 

CHEQUERED TERRAPIN. Chrysemys picta, (Hermann) Grya. 
CHICKEN TERRAPIN. Chrysemys reticulata, (Bosc) Cope. 
SPECKLED TORTOISE. Chelopus guttatus, (Schw.) Copo. 
COMMON BOX TORTOISE. Cistudo Carolina, (I.inn^j Gray. 

TESTUDINID^. 
GOPHER. Xerobates polyphemus, (Daudin) Cooper. 



ORDER CROCODILIA. CROCODILES. 

An order of lizard-like reptiles, with four legs, fitted for walking or 
swimming, the feet being webbed. Skin hard and raised into scales, 
beneath which there are often bony plates. Tail with a series of scales, 
each crested on the back. Teeth conical,, rootless. Heart with two ven- 
tricles. 

The Crocodilia, of which the prominent North American species, the 
alligator, is well known, form a compact group, better represented in 
past time than at present. They live in sluggish rivers and ponds, and 
subsist largely on animal food. 

Species of this order are abundant in South America. In North 
America there are but two recognized species, the alligator and the 
Florida crocodile {Crocodilus acutus, Cuvier). 

ALLIGATORID^. 
ALLIGATOR Alligator mississippiensis, Daudin.* 



CLASS AMPHIBIA. AMPHIBIANS. 

A class of cold-blooded vertebrates, closely allied to the fishes. They 
breathe when young, or throughout life, by external gills. Limbs, when 
present, present bony elements homologous to those in the limbs of rep- 

*The question has been raised whether there are two species or varieties of alligators 
in North America, differing in color and other characters. Observations on this point 
would be of great value.— F. W. T. 



240 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

tiles. Skill usually Avitliout scales. Eggs without hard shell, strongly 
resembling those of fishes. 

A class of animals mostly of no economic value. The frogs, however, 
furnish excellent food, and the toads are invaluable to the agriculturist 
as insect-eaters. Many absurd notions exist regarding these animals, 
which have no foundation of truth, Ijut are progeny of ignorance and 
prejudice. The majority of amphibians are entirely harmless. 



ORDER ANURA. TAILLESS AMPHIBLA.XS. 

Amphibians without tails in the adult state. Body broad and short ; 
legs large, usually adapted for jumping. Young (tadpoles) with tail and 
gills, but without teeth. 

A comparatively small group of clo.sely allied animals, found through- 
out the world. Some are almost exclusively terrestrial {Bnfoniche and 
Hylad-x), while others are almost totally aquatic. This and the remaining 
orders of amphibians are, in certain respects, the least known of the 
vertebrates. 

RANID^. 

BULL-FROG. Rana catesbiana, Shaw. 
GREEN FROG; SPRING FROG. Rana clamitans, Merrem. 
SHAD FROG. Rana haiecina halecina, i^Kalm) Cope. 
MARSH FROG. Rana palustris, LeCcnte. 
WOOD FROG. Rana teniporaria silvatica, (Linne) Coi)e. 
? FLORIDA FROG. Rana areolata capito, ( Baird and Girard) Cope. 

SCAPHIOPID.E. 

SOLITARY SPADE-FOOT. ScapMopus holbrookii. (Harlan) Baird. 

HYLID^. 

GREEN TREE-TOAD. Hyla carolinensis, Pennant. 
DAUDIN'S TREE-TOAD. Hyla femoralis, Daudin. 
COMMON TREE-TOAD. Hyla sauirella. Daudin. 
? FLORIDA HYLA. Hyla gratiosa, LcContc. 
CHAMELION HYLA. Hyla carolinensis samifasciata, iPennanti Cope. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 2-41 

ANDERSON'S HYLA. Hyla andersoni, Baird. 

DARK-GREEN TREE-FROG. Chorophilus nigritus, (Leconte) Cope. 
BLACK-SPOTTED BROWN TREE-FROG. Chorophilus ornatus, (llolbr ) Cope. 
? TREE FROG. Chorophilus ocularis, Daudin. 
CRICKET FROG. Acris gryllus gryllus, (Leconte) Cope. 
WESTERN CRICKET. Acris gryllus crepitans, (LeConte) Cope. 



ENGYSTOMID.E. 
CAROLINA TREE FROG. Engystoma carolinense, Holbrook. 

BUFONID^. 

LATREILLE'S TOAD. Bufo lentiginosus lentiginosus, (Shaw) Cope. 
AMERICAN TOAD Bufo lentiginosus americanus, (Shaw) Cope. 
OAK FROG. Bufo quercicus, Holbrook. 



ORDER URODELA. SALAMANDERS. 

Amphibians, possessing elongated bodies, covered with smooth, naked 
skin. Four hmbs present. No external gills in the adult. Tail long, 
round or flattened. 

A large group of peculiar and, usually, small animals. 



PLEURODELIDiE. 

EASTERN WATER LIZARD. Diemyctylus miniatus miniatus, (Raf.) Cope. 
GREEN TRITON. Diemyctylus miniatus viridescens, (Raf.) Cope. 



DESMOGNATHIDiE. 

BLACK TRITON; BLACK SALAMANDER. Desmognathus nigra, (Green) 

Baird. 
BRO VVN TRITON. Desmognathus fusca fusca, (Raf ) Cope. 
EARED TRITON Desmognathus fusca ariculata, (Raf) Cope. 
16 



242 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



PLETHODONTID^. 

TWO-STRIPED SALAMANDER. Spelerpes bilineatus, (Green) Baird. 
YELLOW-BACKED SALAMANDER. Spelerpes guttolineatus, (Holbrook) 

Cope. 
RED SALAMANDER; RED TRITON. Spelerpes ruber ruber, (Daudin) Cope. 
MOUNTAIN TRITON. Spelerpes ruber montanus, (Duudin) Cope. 
SALMON TRITON. Gyrinophilus porphyriticus, Green. 
LEAST SALAMANDER. Manculus quadridigitatus, (Holbr.) Cope. 
VISCID SALAMANDER. Plethodon glutinosus, (Green) Baird. 
RED-BACKED SALAMANDER. Plethodon erythronotus, (Green) Baird. 



AMBLYSTOMIDiE. 

BURROWING SALAMANDER. Amblystoma talpoideum, (Holbrook) Gray. 
OPAQUE SALAMANDER. Amblystoma opacum, (Gravcnhorst) Baird. 
SPOTTED SALAMANDER. Amblystoma punctatum, Linne. 
TIGER SALAMANDER. Amblystoma trigrinum, Green. 



MENOPOMID.E. 

HELLBENDER. Menopoma alleghiense, Harlan. 
TENNESSEE HELLBENDER. Menopoma fuscum, Holbrook. 



AMPHIUMID^E. 
CONGO EEL. Ampbiuma means, Linne. 



ORDER PROTEIDA. PROTEANS. 

Tailed amphibians, with large external gills persistent throughout life. 
The lungs, however, retain a more or less functional capacity. 

Peculiar animals, closely resembling fishes, for which they are fre- 
quently mistaken by the unlearned. Some species inhabit caves and are 
blind. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 24^ 

PROTEIDiE. 

GIBBES' PROTEUS. Necturus punctatus, Gibbes'. 
LAKE SIREN ; PROTEUS. Necturus lateralis, Say. 

SIRENID^. 

STRIATED SIREN. Pseudobranchus striatus, LeConte. 
SIREN. Siren lacertina, Linne. 



CLASS PISCES. FISHES. 

Cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates, with fore and hind limbs, the pecto- 
ral and ventral fins, adapted for swimming. A more or less bony skull. 
A relatively small brain. The single or unpaired fins, namely, those 
on the median line of tlie back (dorsal fins), and that behind the vent 
(anal fin), do not represent limbs, but are special developments from the 
skin. A distinct lower jaw. A heart witli, two cells and an arterial bulb. 
Breathing carried on by means of gills (branchiae). Skin covered with 
scales or bony plates ; rarely naked. 

The foregoing definition is intended to include the true fishes and the 
ganoid fishes, such as the sturgeons and gar-pikes. 

The fislies constitute a very large group, whose representatives vary 
greatly in size, form and mode of life. They are distributed everywhere 
over the globe, occurring in all bodies of water, whether large or small 
as well in arctic as tropical regions. A few lakes, such as the Dead Sea. 
are uninhabited by fishes. Other bodies of water of cjuite as unusual a 
character, such as hot springs and saline springs, often contain represen- 
tatives of this class. 

Fishes form the object of the most completely organized, extensive, and 
important industry anywhere carried on in connection with animals in 
the wild state. The fisheries of the world, according to Prof. Goode, furnish 
products at the present time valued at not less than $235,000,000. Not 
only do fishes furnish an abundant food-supply, but, also, great c^uan- 
tities of other valuable products, such as oils and fertilizers. 

About thirteen thousand species of fishes are known, of which some 
thirteen hundred are North American. 



244 VERTEBRATE AXIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA, 

Sl'B-CLASS PHYSOCLISTI. CLOSED-BLADDER FISHES. 
ORDER PLECTOGNATHI. 

Fishes which have the intermaxillary bone (that in front of the upper 
jaw bone) immovably united with the jaw bone. Ventral fins absent. 
Skin hard, rough, or covered with plates. Marine fishes. 

ORTHAGORISCID^. 
SUN-FISH. Mola rotunda, Cuvier. 

TETRODONTID^. . 

PIN-CUSHION; RABBIT FISH. Chilomycterus geometricus, (Bl. and Schn.) 

Kaup. 
SMOOTH PUFFER ; TAMBOR. Lagocephalus Isevigatus, (Linne) Gill, 
ROUGH PUFFER ; BLOWER ; SWELLFISH. Tetrodon turgidus, (Mitch.) Gill. 
? SPENGLER'S PUFFER. Tetrodon spengleri, Bloch. 

BALISTID.E. 

LONG-TAILED FILE FISH. Alutera schoepffi, ( Walb.) Goode. 
CHECKERED FILE FISH. Alutera scripta, (Osbeck) Bleeker. 
HOG FISH ; FILE FISH Ceratacanthus aurantiacus, (:\Iitch.) Gill. 
STORER'S FILE FISH ; FOOL FISH. Monacanthus broccus, (Mitch.) Dek. 
• EUROPEAN FILE FISH ; OLD-AVIFE; LEATHER-JACKET. Balistes capris- 
cus, Gmelin. 

OSTRACIIDiE. 
COW-FISH ; CUCKOLD. Ostracium quadricorne, L. 



ORDER PEDICULATI. 

Fishes, prominently represented by the goose-fish (Lophius piscatorius), 
which are peculiar in having the wrist-bones elongated so as to form a 
sort of arm, at the juncture of which with the body the gills open. Ma- 
rine fishes. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 245 



MALTHEID^E. 

?.BAT FISH ; NOSE FISH. Malthe vespertilio,(Linn^) Ciivicr. 

? SPOTTED SEA-BAT. Malthe vespertilio nasuta, (Guv. and Val.) J. and G. 



LOPHIID^. 

?FISHIXG-FROG; MONK-FISH; GOOSE-FISH; ALL-MOUTH; BELLOWS- 
FISH ; ANGLER. Lophius piscatorius, Linne. 



ORDER HETEROSOMATA. FLAT-FISHES. 

Fishes which are peculiar in that the anterior portion of the skull is 
so twisted that the sockets of both eyes are brought to the same side, one 
being vertical, the other lateral. The posterior portion of the skull is 
normal. — (Cope). 

The Flat-fishes form a compact group, all the species being included 
in a single family. They are almost exclusively marine, and are widely 
distributed. About four hundred species are recognized. 



PLEURONECTID^. 

TONGUE-FISH; LONG SOLE. Aphoristia plagiusa, (Linne) J. and G. 
SPOTTED SOLE ; HOG CHOKER. Achims lineatus, (Linn6) Cuvier. 
GRAY FLOUNDER. Etropus crossotus, J. and G. 
NEW YORK FLOUNDER. Paralichthys ommatus, Jor. and Gilb. 
FLOUNDER. Paralichthys squamilentus, J. and G. 
? PALE-SPOTTED FLOUNDER. Paralichthys albigutta, J. and G. 
SOUTHERN FLOUNDER. Paralichthys dentatus, (Linne) J. and G. 
FLOUNDER. Paralichthys ocellaris, (Dek.) J. and G. 
FLOUNDER Citharichthys spilopterus, Giinther. 



ORDER ACANTHOPTERI. SPINY-RAYED FISHES. 

This is the great order of typical modern fishes. The skull is symmet- 
rical. The gills and their covers (the opercular apparatus) are normal and 



240 VERTEBRATE AKIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

complete. The former open anterior to the pectoral fins. The anterior 
rays of tlie dorsal and anal fins exist as spines. 

The fishes of tliis order are of wide distribution, and among them are 
found both marine and fresh-water forms. The majority of the marine 
food-fishes belong 'here. About six hundred species are found in the 
waters of and about North America. 



GADID.E. 

HADDOCK. Gadus aeglifinus, L. 
EARLL'S HAKE. Phycis earlli, Bean. 



OPHIDIID.E. 
? BROWN SNAKE-FISH. OpMdium marginatum, DeKay. 

LYCODID^. 
Lycodalepis pclaris, (Sabine) J. and G. 

BLENNIID.E. 

?Clinus nuchipinnis, Quoy and Gaimard. 
CAROLINA BLENNY. Blennius carolinus, (C. and V.) J. and G. 
? BLENNY. Hypleurochilus geminatus, (Wood) J. and G. 
SPOTTED BLENNY. Isesthes punctatus, (Wood) J. and G. 
HENTZ, BLENNY. Isesthes hentzii, ( Les.) J . and G. 
OLIVE-GREEN BLENNY. Isesthes scutator, J. and G. 
BOSC'S SHANNY. Chasmodes boscianus, (Lac.) Cuv. and Val. 

BATRACHIDiE. 

TOAD FISH ; OYSTER FISD. Batrachus tau, (Linne) Cuv. and Val. 
MIDSHIP3IAN. Porichthys plectrodon, J and G. 

GOBIESOCID^. 
Gobiesox strumosus, Cope. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 247 



TRIGLIDiE. 

FLYING ROBIN'. Cephalacanthus spinarella, (Linne) Lao. 

LINED SEA-ROBIX ; FLYING FISH. Prionotus evolans, (Linn^) GilL 

AVEB-FINGEKED SEA-ROBIN; CAROLINA ROBIN. Prionotus palmipes, 

(MiOth.) Storer. 
SEA-ROBIN. Prionotus tribulus, Cuv. and VaL 
SPOTTED SEA-ROBIN. Prionotus scitulus, J. and G. 



SCORP^NID^. 
SCORPION. Scorpsena steamsii, Goode and Bean. 

GOBIID^. 

? SCALELESS GOBY. Gobiosoma bosci, (Lac.) J. and G. 
BLACK GOBY. Gobius carolinensis, GiU. 
OLIVE GOBY. Gobius encaeomus, J. and G. 
STRIPED SLEEPER. Dormitator lineatus, Gill. 
OLIVE CULIUS. Culius amblyopsis, Cope. 

Lepidogobius thalassinus, J. and G. 
Gobionellus oceanicus, (Pall.) J. and G- 

URANOSCOPID^. 

? NAKED STAR-GAZER. Astroscopus anoplus, (Cuv. and Val ) Brevoort. 
Astroscopus y-grascum, (C. and V.) Gill. 

CH^ETODONTID^E. 

? ANGEL-FISH ; ISABELITA. Pomacanthus ciliaris, (Linn.) J. and G. 
? BANDED BRISTLE- TOOTH. Cbffitodon maculocinctus, (Gill) J. and G. 

EPHIPPIID.E. 
ANGEL FISH ; MOON FISH. Chffitodipterus faber, (Bronss.) J. and G. 



\ 



248 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



LABRID^. 

BLACK-FISH ; TAUTOG. Tautoga onitis, (Linne) Giinther. 

Caliodon ustus, Cnv and Val. 
i; AZOR-FISH. • Xyrichthys lineatus, Cnv. and Val. 
ELIJE-FISH ; DONCELLA. Platyglossus radiatus, (L.) J. and G. 



GERRID^E. 

? BROWN GERROID. Gerres homonymus, (Goode and Bean) J. and G. 
SILVER GERROID. Gerres gulo, C. and V. 



SCI^NID^. 

SPOTTED SEA TROUT ; SALMON TROUT. Cynoscion maculatum, (Mitchell) 

Gill. 
SALT-WATER TROUT ; WEAK FISH. Cynoscion regalis, (Bloch) Gill. 
SALT-WATER TROUT. Cynoscion thalassinus, (Holb.) Gill. 
WHITE TROUT : SALT-WATER TROUT. Cynoscion nothus, (Holb.) Gill. 
DRUM. Pogonias chromis, (Linn^') C. and V. 
YELLOW TAIL. Liostomus xanthurus, Lacepede. 
CHUB. Scisena stellifera, (Block) J. and G. 
SILVER PERCH. Sciaena chrysura, (Lac.) J. and G. 
SEA-BASS; SPOTTED-BASS. Sclsena ocellata, (Linne) Giinther. 
CAROLINA WHITING. Menticirrus albumus, (Linne) Gill. 
SHORE WHITING. Menticirrus littoralis, (Holbr.) Gill. 
CROAKER. Micropogon undulatus, (Linne) Cuv. and Val. 
CROAKER Larimus fasciatus, Holbrook. 



SPARID^E. 

BREAIM. Pimeleptenis boscii, Lacepede. 

SPOT-TAILED PIN-FISH. Diplodus caudimacula, (Poey) J. and G. 
BREAM. Liplodus holbrooki, (Bean) J. and G. 
BREAM. Lagodon rhomboides, (Linne) Holbrook. 
SHEEPSHEAD. Archosargus probatocephalus, ( Walbaum) Gill. 
PORGY. Stenotomus argyrops, (Linne) Gill. 
GILT HEAD. Spams aculeatus, (Cuv. and Val.) Gill. 
FLASHER. Lobotes surinamensis, (Bloch) Cuvier. 
? WHITE GRUNT. Diabasis trivittatus, (Bloch and Sdni.) J. and G. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 240 

STRAIGHT-BACKED GRUNT. Diabasis chrysopterus, (Linn.) J. and G. 
BLACK GRUNT. Diabasis formosus, ( L., J. and G. 
? VIRGINIA HOG-FISH. Pomadasys virginicus, (Linne) J. and G. 
SAILOR'S CHOICE; HOG-FISH. Pomadasys fulvomaculatus, (Mitchell) J. 

and G. 
MANGROVE SNAPPER ; BASTARD SNAPPER. Lutjanus aurorubens, (Cuv. 

and Val.) Vaillant- 
YELTING ; GLASS-EYED SNAPPER. Lutjanus caxis, (BL, Schn.) Gill. 



SERRANID^. 

SOAP-FISH. Rypticusmaculatus, Holbr. 
RED GROUPER. Epinephelus morio, (Cuvier) Gill. 
BLACK GROUPER. Epinephelus nigritus, (Holbr.) Gill. 
SQUIRREI- FISH; SERRANO. Serranus fascicularis, Cuv. and Val. 
GRAY SERRANO. Serranus trifurcus, (Linn.) J. and G. 
BLACK FISH. Serranus ratarius, (Linne) J. and G. 
ROCK-FISH ; STRIPED BASS. Roccus lineatus, (BL, Schn.) Gill. 
WHITE PERCH. Roccus americana- (Gmelin) J. and G. 



PERCIDiE. 

YELLOW PERCH ; AMERICAN PERCH ; RINGED PERCH. Perca ameri- 
cana, Schranck. 
BARRATT'S DARTER. Pcecilicthys barratti, (Holbr.) J. and G. 
? Nothonotus vulneratus, (Cope) Jor. 
? Nothonotus rufilineatus, (Cope) Jor. 
CRAWL-A-BOTTOM. Hadropterus nigrofasciatus, Agassi z, 

Alvordius crassus, Jordan and Brayton. 
? Alwrdius neviensis, (Cope) Jor. 
?Bollosoma eflfulgens, (Grd.) Cope. 
?Boleosoma olmstedi, (Storer) Agassiz. 
? loa vitrea, (Cope) J. and B. 



CENTRARCHID.E. 

SMALL-MOUTHED BLACK BASS. Micropterus dolomieu, Lac 

Lepomis holbrooki, (Cuv. and ^'ai.) IMcKay, 
BLUE SUNFISH ; COPPER-NOSED BREAM ; DOLLARDEE. Lepomis pallidus, 

(Mitch.) Gill and Jor. 
LONG-EARED SUNFISH. Lepomis megalotis solis, (Cuv. and Val.) McKay. 



\ 



250 VERTEBRATE ANI^[ALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

? LONG EARED SUNFISH. Lepomis auritus, (L.) Raf. 

Lepomis elongatus, (Iloiljr ) Gill and Jor. 
BLACK -BANDED SUNFISH. Mesogonistius chsetodon, (Baird) Gill. 

Enneacanthus simulans, (Cope) McKay. 
? Enneacanthus gloriosus, (Holbr.) Jor. 
? Enneacanthus obesus, (Baird) Gill. 
3IUD SUNFISH. Acantharchus pomotis, (Baird) Gill. 
Centrarchus macropterus, (Lac.) Jor. 



APHREDODERID.E. 
? PIRATE PERCH. Aphredoderus sayanus, (Gilliams) DeKay. 

BRAMID.^. 
Pteraclis carolinus, Valenciennes. 

CORYPH^ENID^E. 
Coryphaena sueuri, Cuv. and Val. 

STROMATID.E. 

HARVEST FISH. Stromateus peru, Linne. 

POMATOMID.E. 

BLUEFISH ; SKIP-JACK. Pomatomus salatrix,.(Linne) Gill. 

CARAXGID.E. 

HORSE FISH. Selene setipinnis, (Mitch.) Liitken. 
SILVER MOON-FISH. Selene vomer, (Linn(5) Lutken. 
DOTTED SCAD Decapterus punctatus, (Agassiz) Gill. 
MACKEREL SCAD. Decapterus macarellus, (Cuv. and Val.) Gill 
? BIG-EYED SCAD. Caranx crumenophthalmus, (Bloch) Lac. 
YELLOW CREVALLE. Caranx pisquetus, Cuv. and Val. 
HORSE CREVALLE. Caranx hippos, (Linne) Giinther. 
HORSE CREVALLE. Caranx fallax, Cuv. and Val. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 251 

GREEN CREVALLE. Caranx falcatus, Holbr. 
? BEAN'S CREVALLE. Caranx beani, Jordan. 

THREAD FISH. Blethari crinitus, (Akerly) DeKay. 

THREAD FISH. Chloroscombrus chrysurus, (Linne) Gill. 

SHORT PAMPANO. Trachynotus ovatus, (Linne) Giinther. 

GLAUCOUS PAMP \N0. Trachynotus glaucus, Cuv. and Val. 

CREVALLE ; CAVALLI. 

POMPYNOSE Trachynotus carolinus, (Linne) Gill. 

POMPYNOSE. Seriola fasciata, (Bloch) C. and V. 

KUDDER FISH; BONITO. Seriola zonata, (Mitch.) C. and V. 

RUDDER FISH. Seriola carolinensis, Holb. 
? YELLOW-TAl L. Seriola lalandi, Cuv. and Val. 
? PILOT-FISH. Naucrates ductor, (Linn.) Raf. 



SCOMBRID^. 

MACKEREL. Scomber colsos, Gmelin. 

MACKEREL (occasional)- Scomber scombrus, Linne. 

BONITO SKIP-JACK. Sarda mediterranea, (Bl. and Sch.) J. and G. 

HORSE MACKEREL. Orcynus thynnus, (Linne) Poey 

SPANISH MACKEREL. Scomberomorus maculatus, (Mitch.) J. and G. 

BLACK-SPOTTED SPANISH MACKEREL. Scomberomorus regalis, (Bloeh) J. 

and G. 
SIERRA. Scomberomorus caballa, (Cuv. and Val) J- and G. 



TRICHIURIDiE. 

HAIR-TAIL. Trichiurus lepturus, Linne. 

XIPHIIDiE. 

? BILL-FISH ; SPEAR-FISH ; AGUJ A BLANCA. Tetrapturus albidus, Poey. 
? COMMON SWORD-FISH. Xiphias gladius, L. 

EL AC ATI D^. 
CRAB-EATER; COBIA. Elacate Canada, (Linne) Gill. 

ECHENEID^. ' 

REMORA. Echeneis remora, L. 

LONG-JAWED REMORA. Phthirichthys lineatus, (Menzies) Gill. 

PEG A DOR. Echeneis naucrates, L. 



252 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

POLYNEMID^. 
Polynemus octofilis, (Gill) J. and G. 

SPYR^NID^. 

PICUDA ; BARRACUDA PIKE. Spyrsena picuda, Blccla and Schn. 
? BARRACUDA. Sphyrsena guaguancho, Cuv. and ^'al. 

ATHERINID^. 

? SILVERSIDES. Menidia notata, (Mitch) J. and G. 
AVANDERING SILVERSIDES. Menidia vagrans, (Goode and Bean) J. and G. 
BOSC'S SILVERSIDES. Menidia vagrans laciniata, Swain. 
CAROLINA SILVERSIDES. Atherina Carolina, Cuv. and Val. 

MUGILID^. 

MULLET. Mugil albula, Linne. 

WHITE MULLET; LIZA. Mugil brasiliensis, Agassiz. 



ORDER HEINIIBRANCHII. HEMIBRANCHS. 

A small order of fishes, allied to the Acanthoptcri, but having the 
mouth bounded above by the premaxillary bones only, and the bones of 
the throat reduced in number. The ventral fins are abdominal. 

The North American species are but eleven in number. All the rep- 
resentatives of the order are of small size and economically unimportant. 



GASTEROSTEID.E. 

STICKLEBACK. Apeles quadracus, (Mitch.) Brevoort, 

CO:iIMOX STICKLEBACK ; BURNSTICKLE. Gasterosteus aculeatus, L. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 253 



ORDER LOPHOBRANCHII. 

Fishes with tufted gills and small toothless mouths, bounded above by 
the premaxillary bones and carried at the end of a long snout. The 
l)asis of the pectoral fins are elevated, and the skin is covered with bony 
plates. 

Small fishes of peculiar form and curious and interesting habits. Six 
species representing two families occur in North American waters. 
Fishes of the sea and brackish waters. 



HIPPOCAMPID^. 

FLORIDA SEA-HORSE. Hippocampus stylifer, J. and G. 
SEA-HORSE. Hippocampus heptagonus, Raf. 



SYNGNATHID.E. 
LOUISIANA PIPE-FISH. Siphostoma louisianse. (Glinther) J. and G. 

ORDER SYNENTOGNATHI. SYNENTOGNATHOUS FISHES. 

Fishes in which the shoulder-blade is connected with the skull by 
means of a post-temporal bone. The parietal bone of the skull is very 
small. The ventral fins are abdominal, and, as in the case of the others, 
are without spines. » 

This order includes but a single family, the Scomber cscidse, or Flying- 
fishes and Gar-fishes. They have peculiar elongated mouths, and are 
carnivorous. The family is represented in North America by seventeen 
species. Marine fishes. The flying-fishes have attracted much attention 
on account of their curious aerial performances. They are able to sus- 
tain themselves in the air for about a minute at a time, during which 
period they vibrate their " wings " or pectoral fins, and move with great 
rapidity. At such times they are fleeing from their aquatic enemies. 

SCOMBERESOCID^E. 

FLYING FISH. Exoccetus novaboracensis, Mitchill. 
FLYING FISH. Exoccetus hiUianus, Gosse. 
HALF-BEAK. Himrliamplius unifasciatus, Ranzani. 



254 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

SH0RT-X0SI:D skipper. Scomberesox brevirostris, Peters. 
? SAURY ; SKIPPER ; BILL-FISH. Scomberesox saurus, ( Wulb.) Fleming. 

SILVER GAR ; BILL-FISH. Tylosurus marinus, (Bl. and Schn.) J. and G. 
? NEEDLE-FISH. Tylosurus Mans, (C. and V.) J. and G. 



SUB-CLASS PHYSOSTOMI. SOFT-RAYED FISHES. 



ORDER APODES. EELS. 

An order of fishes well known from its representative, the common 
Eel. The maxillary bones and gilhcovers are frequently wanting, as are 
in all cases the ventral fins. The vertebne are unusually numerous. 
No spines in the dorsal and anal fins, which are not distinct from the 
tail. The body is serpentine and usually entirely without scales. 

There has been much doubt relative to the manner in which eels 
spawn, but it has at length been proved that the mode is not unlike that 
of fishes. The male is smaller than the female. 



ANGUILLIDiE. 

? CONGER EEL. Conger niger, (Risso) J. and G. 
CO:»IMON EEL. Anguilla rostrata, (Le Sueur) DeKay. 
GOLDEN SNAKE-FISH. Ophichthys chrysops, Poey. 



ORDER HAPLO^IL HAPLOMOUS FISHES. 

In the fishes of this order the mouth and gill-covers are normal, and 
the former is furnished with teeth. The ventral fins are present (except 
in a few instances), and are abdominal in position. The vertebra? are 
normal. The scales of the head and body are eycloid. 

A large group of fishes of varying size, of which the family of Pikes 
are kell known. The majority inhabit fresh waters. Tlie Cyprinodonts 
swarm in every brook. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 255 



ESOCIDiE. 

COMMON EASTERN PICKEREL ; GREEN PIKE. Esox reticulatus, Lesueur. 
BANDED PICKEREL. Esox americanus, Gmelin. 



CYPPvINODONTID.E. 

r Girardinus fomiosus, Gid. 

Gambbusia patruelis, (B. and G.) Girard. 

Zygonectes cingulatus,, (C. and V.) Jor. 

MINNOWS. -{ Zygonectes zonatus, (]Mitoh,) Jor. 
I 

Zygonectes chrysotus, (Giinther) Jor. 

'Zygonectes melanops, (Cope) Jor. 

j^ ?Zygonectes atrilatus, Jordan and Brayton. 

COMMON KILLTFISH; MUMMICHOG ; SALT-WATER MINNOW. Fundulus 

heteroclitus, (L.) Gimther. 

? Fundulus nigrofasciatus, (Le S.) C and V. 

Fundulus similis, (Baird and Girard) Gthr. 

KILLIFISH ; MAYFISH ; ROCKFISH. Fundulus majalis, (Walb.) Gthr. 

Fundulus swampius, (Lac.) Gthr. 

? Cyprinodon variegatus, Lacepede. 



AMBl YOPSID^. 
BLIND-FISH. Chologaster cornutus, Agassiz. 



ORDER ISOSPONDYLI. ISOSPONDYLOUS FISHES. 

A veiy large order, of which many representatives are Avell known, 
but which it is dificult to define on account of the hick of positive char- 
acters. The vertebrate, mouth and gills are normal. The latter are 
four in number, and behind the last is a slit. In several families, 
notably in the Salmonidse, an adipose, rayless fin is found on the back. 
The order has nearly a hundred representatives in North America, in- 
cluding the Salmons, Herrings, and other very important food-fishes. 



SALMONIDyE. 

BROOK TROUT ; SPECKLED TROUT. Salvelinus fontinalis, (Mitch.) GiU and 
Jor. 



256 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

SCOPELID^. 
SAND PIKE ; LIZARD FISH. Sinodus foetens, (L.) Gill. 



ENGRAULIDID.E. 

ANCHOVY.. Stolephorus brownii, (Gmelin) J. and G. 

MITCHILL'S ANCHOVY. Stolephorus mitchillii, (C and Y.) J. and G. 



DOROSOMATID.E. 
GIZZARD SHAD ; HICKORY SHAD. Dorosoma cepedianum, (Le S.) Gill 



CLUPEIDiE. 

MENHADEN ; BUG FISH. Brevoortia menhaden, (Mitch.) Gill. 

SHAD. Clupea sapidissima, Wilson. 

THREAD HERRING; MENHADEN. Opisthonema thrissa, (Csbeck) Gill. 

BRANCH HERRING. Clupea vernalis, Mitch. 

HICKORY SHAD ; FALL SHAD. Clupea mediocris, Mitchill. 

GLUT HERRING ; BLUE-BACK. Clupea asestivalis, .Mitchill. 
? COMMON HERRING ; " WHITEBAIT " (Young.) Clupea harengus, L. 
? ROUND HERRING. Etrumeus teres, (DeKay) Crunther. 



ELOPID.E. 

TARPUM; JEW-FISH. Megalops thrisoides, (Bloch and Schneider) Giinther. 
BIG-EYED HERRING. Elops saurus, L. 



ALBULID.E. 
? LAD Y^FISH ; BONE.FISH. Albula vulpes, (L.) Goode. 



ORDEPv PLECTOSPONDYLI. PLECTOSPONDYLOUS FISHES. 

A large group of fishes, with normal mouths and gills, but with the 
first four vertebree much modified. They are mainly inhabitant of fresh 
water, and abound alike in large rivers and tiny brooks. They vary 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 257 

much in size, some species being the smallest of all fishes, while others, 
such as the Buffalo fish, are conspicuously large. More than three hun- 
dred species are recognized as inhabiting North America. 



CYPRINIDiE. 

CARP. Cyprinus carpio, L. (Introduced). 
SOUTHERN BREAM. Notemigonus americanus, (L.) Jor. 
BREAM. Notemigonus gardoneus, (C. and V.) Jor. 
Squalius vandoisulus, (Val) Jor. and Gilb. 
? CHUB ; HORXED DACE. Semotiius corporalis, (Mitch.) Putn. 
r Ceratichthys zanemus, Jordan and Brayton. 
DACE, -j ? Ceratichthys labrosus, Cope. 

Ceratichthys hypsinotus, Cope. 

Minnilus scepticus, Jordan and Gilb. 
? Minnilus matutinus, (Copei Jor. 
FALL-FISH. ^ ? Minnilus altipinnis, (Cope) Jor. 

j Minnilus chiliticus, (Copej J. and G. 
I Minnilus chlorocephalus, (Cope) Jor. and Gil. 
? RED FALL-FISH. Minnilus rubricroceus, (.Cope) J. and G. 
RED-CHEEKED SHINER. Minnilus coccogenis, (Copej Jordan. 

f Cliola pyrrhomelas, (Cope) J. and G. 
SHINERS, -j Cliola chloristia, Jordan and Braytun. 

1. Cliola nivea, (Cope) J. and G. 
MILKY-TAILED SHINER. Cliola galactura, (Cope) J. and G. 
I Cliola euryopa, (Bean) J. and G. 
Cliola storeriana, (Kirt ) J. and G. 
Cliola saludana, Jor. and Brayt. 
? Cliola spectruncula, (Cope) J. and G. 



SHINERS. 



CATOSMIDiE. 

JUMPING MULLET ; JUMP-ROCKS. Moxostoma cervinum, (Cope) Jordan. 
r ? Moxostoma conus, (Cope) Jordan. 
? Moxostoma crassilabre, (Cope) Jordan. 
JUMPING I ? Moxostoma thalassinnm, (Cope) Jordan. 
MULLETS 1 ? Moxostoma pidiense, (Cope) Jordan. 
I ? Moxostoma velatum, (Cope) Jordan. 
I Moxostoma papillosum, (Cope) Jordan. 
? WHITE MULLET. Moxostom album, (Cope) Jordan. 
BLUE MULLET. Moxostoma coregonus, (Cope) Jordan. 
17 



258 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

SPOTTED MULLICT; STRIPED SUCKEPv Minytrema melanops, (Raf.) Jordan. 
? CREEK FISH; CHUB SUCKER. Erimyzon sucetta, (Lac) Jordan, 
? HOG SUCKER; STONE ROLLER; TOTER ; CRAWL-AP.OTTOM ; HAMIMER- 

HEAD; STONE LUGGER; HO(i MOLLY, Catostomus nigricans, Le 

Sueur. 
? COMMON SUCKER; WHITE SUCKER; BROOK SUCKER; FINP:-SCALED 

SUCKER. Catostomus commersoni, (La(rpode) Jordan. 



ORDER NEMATOGXATHI. CAT FISHES. 

This order is principally typified in the well-known cat-fishes {Silurida). 
The lower jaw is rudimentary, and prolonged into the base of the longest 
of the barbels which adorn the chin. There are no real scales, but some- 
times Iwny plates in the skin. 

These are mostly fresh-water fishes, and are particularly abundant in 
South America. 



SILURID.E. 

FORK-TAILED CATFISH, ^lurichthys marinus, (Mitch.) Baird and Girard. 

SEA CATFISH. Arius felis, (L.) J. and G. 

CHANNEL CAT ; WHITE CAT. Ictalurus punctatus, (Raf.) Jordan. 

MUD CAT. Amiurus platycephalus. (Grd.j GilL 

GREEN ;mUD cat. Amiiirus brunneus, Jordan. 

Noturus insignis, (Ridi.) Gill and Jonlan. 
? Noturus eleutherus, Jordan. 



SUBCLASS HOLOSTEI. BONY GANOIDS. 

ORDER HALECO^IORPHI. AMIAS. 

Ganoid fishes with partially heterocercal tails, vertebrae concave at 
both ends, and peculiarly modified pectoral fins. The intestine with a 
rudimentary spiral valve. But one species is known. It inhabits the 
fresh waters of the United States. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA, 259 



AMIIDtE. 

MUD FISH; DOG-FISH; BOW-FIX; GRIXDLE ; "JOHN A. GRINDLE;" 
LAWYER. Amia calva, L. 



ORDER GINGLYMODI. GAR-PIKES. 

TliG Gar-Pikes resemble the Amias, and with them form the sub-class 
Holostei or Bony Ganoids. The tail is heterocercal ; the vertebrae are 
concave only in front. The jaws are elongate, the upper being the longer. 
The body is covered with rhombic plates. 



LEPIDOSTEID^E. 

LONG-NOSED GAR ; BILL-FISH; COMMON GAR PIKE. Lepidosteus osseus, 

(L.) Agassi z, 
SHORT-NOSED GAR. Sepidosteus platystomus, Raf. 



SUB-CLASS CHRONDROSTEI. 
ORDER GLANIOSTOMI. STURGEONS. 

An order of ganoid fishes possessing an elongated body covered with 
five rows of bony scales or shields. There are four barbels under the 
mouth, which is toothless and opens directly downward. The tail is 
heterocercal. 

A small order of peculiar and readily recognizable fishes, usually of 
large size, and mostly inhabiting fresh waters northward. A few spe- 
cies are marine. The eggs of these animals furnish the well-known 
caviare, a food product more extensively eaten in Europe than in 
America. 

ACIPENSERIDiE. 

SHARP-NOSED STURGEON. Acipenser oxyrhyncus, Mitch. 
SHORT-NOSED STURGEON. Acipenser brevirostris, LeSueur. 



260 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



CLASS ELASMOBRANCHII. SHARKS AND RAYS. 

Having a cartilaginous skeleton, no swim-bladder and a naked skin, 
or one covered with plates. The skull is cartilaginous. The pectoral 
fins are large. Teeth are invariably present. The eggs are few, large, 
often laid within a leathery, tendrilled case, secreted by a large gland in 
the oviduct. 

The class contains two sub-classes, the Chiniffiras, Holocepliali, which 
have sub-terminal mouths, large fins, very long tails, and naked skins ; 
and Sharks and Rays, Plagiostomi, which have inferior mouths, shorter 
tails, and skin covered with large, placoid scales. The sub-class of the 
Cluma^ras is undivided, but in the sub-class Plagistomi, two orders are 
recognized, the Sharks, Squali, and the Rays, Raix. All are marine. 

This class' was more fully represented in the past than at present. 
The American species are not well known. The members of the group 
have but little commercial value in America, except among the Chinese 
of the West coast. In Europe, however, skates are quite extensively 
eaten. Sharks, especially those species known as dogfish, furnish con- 
siderable quantities of oil. 



ORDER RAI.E. RAYS. 
CEPHALOPTERID.E. 

DEVIL-FISH. Manta Mrostris, f Walbaum) J. and G. 

MYLIOBATID.E. 

CLAM-CRACKER ; BISHOP RAY. ^tobatis narinari, (Euphrasen) Miil'er and 
Henle. 
? COW-NOSED RAY. Rhinoptera quadriloba, (Les.) Cuvier. 
? SHARP-NOSED RAY'. Mylobatis fremenviUei, LeSueur. 



TRYGOXID.E. 

BUTTERFLY RAY. Pteroplatea maclura, (LeSuear) Miiller and Henle. 

STING RAY. Dasyatis sabina, 'LeSueiin Goode and Bean. 
? STING RAY ; STINGAREE. Dasyatis centrurus, (Mitch.) J. and G. 
? SAY'S RAY". Dasyatis sayi, (LeSueur) Goode and Bean. 



VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 201 

RAIID.E. 

? CLEAR-NOSED RAY. Raia eglanteria. (Lac.) LeSneur. 
? SUMMER SKATE. Raia erinaceus, Mitchill. 
? WINTER SKATE. Raia laevis, Mitcliill . 

Raia ornata, Garman. 

Raia plutonia, Garman. 

TORPEDINID^. 
TORPEDO ; CRAMP FISH. Torpedo occidentalis, Storer. 

RHINOBATID^. 

SPECKLED LONG-NOSED RAY. Rhinobatus lentiginosus, Garman. 

PRISTID^. 
SAW FISH. Pristis pectinatus, Latham. 



ORDER SQUALL SHARKS. 
SQUATINID.E. 
? ANGEL-FISH ; SHARK RAY. Sauatina angelus, Dameril. 

LAMNID^. 

MACKEREL SHARK, Isurus glaucus, (M. and H.) J. and G. 

CARCHARIIDiE. 

SAND SHARK ; SHOVEL-NOSE. Carcharias americanus, (Mitch.) Jordan and 
Gilbert. 



2()2 VERTEBRATE ANIMALS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



SPHYRNID.E. 

HAMMER-HEADED SHARK. Sphyrna zygaena, (Linni) 31. and H. 
SHOVEL-HEAD SHARK ; BONNET-HEAD. Reniceps tiburo, (Liniiej Gill. 



GALEORHINID.E. 

SHARP-NOSED SHARK. Scoliodon terras-novse, ( Rich.) Gill. 
SHORT-NOSED SAW-TOOTH. Hypoprion brevirostris, Puey. 
SMOOTH HOUND ; DOG-FISH. Mustelus hinnulus, f Blainv.) J. and G. 

GINGLYMOSTOMATID^. 
NURSE SHARK. Ginglymostoma cirratum, (Gmel.) M. and H. 



CLASS LEPTOCARDII. LEPTOCARDIANS. 

A class of aquatic vertebrate animals in which the skull is undevel- 
oped, being represented by a continuation of the cartilaginous back-bone 
(notochord). The brain and the heart are not developed. 

A very limited group of rather rare animals, the lowest of the verte- 
brates, connected witli the fishes, in a systematic arrangement, through 
the class 3Iarsipo branchiates, or lamprey, eels and hog-fishes. All are 
marine. The following species belong to the order Clrrostomi : 



BRANCHIOSTOMID.E. 
LANCELET. Branchiostoina lanceolatum, (Pallas) Gray. 



BIBLIOGKAPHY. 



1. GENERAL WORKS ON BIOLOGY. 

Jevons — The Principles of Science. Vols. 
I. and II. London: Maemillan & Co., 
1874. 

Spencer — The Principles of Biology. Vols. 
I. and 11. American .edition. New- 
York : D. Appieton & Co., 1S81. 

Darwin" — On the Origin of Species. Ameri- 
can edition. New York : D. Appieton 
ct Co., 1880. 

2. GENERAL WORKS ON ZOOLOGY: 

Semper — Animal Life. New York: D. Ap- 
pieton & Co., 1881. 

Gegendbaur — Elements of Comparative 
Anatomy. English Translation. Lon- 
don : Maemillan & Co., 1878. 

Balfour— A Treatise on Comparative Em- 
bryology. Vols. I. and II. London : 
Maemillan & Co., 1880. 

Huxley — An Introduction to the Classifi- 
cation of Animals. New edition. Lon- 
don, 1882. 

3. WORKS RELATING TO NORTH 

AMERICAN MAMMALS. 

Baird— Mammals of North America. Phila- 
delphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1859. 

Gill — Arrangement of the Eamilies of 
Mammals. Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington. 

Coues — Mustelidaj, or Fur-Bearing Ani- 
mals. L'nited States Geological Sur- 
vev. Washington, 1877. 



Allen — History of North American Pin- 
ne|)eds. United States Geological Sur- 
vey. AVashington, 1880. 



Coues and Allen— Monographs of North 
American Rodentia. United States 
Geological Survey. Washington, 1S77. 

Allen, H. — :\Ionograph of the Bats of 
North America. Smithsonian Insti- 
tute, Washington, 1864. 

Jordan— Manual of the Vertebrates of the 
Northern Ignited States. Second edi- 
tion. Chicago : Jansen, McClurg & 
Co., 1878. 

4. WORKS RELATING TO NORTH 

AMERICAN BIRDS 
RiDGWAY — Nomenclature of North Ameri- 
can Birds. United States National 
Museum, Washington, 1881. 

Baird — Review of American Birds. Smith- 
sonian Institution. Washington, 1864. 

Baird, Brewer and Ridgway — A History 
of North American Birds. Land Birds. 
Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1874. 

Coues — Birds of the Nortliwest. United 
States Geological Survey. Washington, 
1874. 

Cooper— Ornithology of California, Vol. I, 
Land Birds. Baird, Editor. Cambridge: 
1870. 

5. WORKS RELATING TO NORTH 
AMERICAN REPTILES AND BA- 
TRACHIANS. 

Cope — Check-List of North American Rep- 
tilia and Batrachia. Smithsonian In- 
stitution, Washington, 1875. 

Agassiz— Contributions to the Natural His- 
tory of the United States, A'ois. I. and 
II. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1857. 

Holbrook— North American Herpetology, 
Vols. I.-V. Philadelphia. 1842. 



264 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



Baird and Girard — Catalogue of the Ser- 
pents of North America. Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, 1853. 

BouLANGER — A Catalogue of the Specimens 
of Batrachia Salientia and Ecaudata in 
the British Museum, Second edition. 
London, 1882. 

6. woEKs rp:latixg to north 

AMERICAN FISHES. 

GooDE — Fishery Report, United States 
J 0th Census, Vol. It, Part 33. Fishes, 
Washington. [In Press]. 

GuNTHER — An Introduction to the Study 
of Fishes. London, 1881. 



GiiL— Li.st of the Families ot Fishes. 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 
1872. 

Gi'NTHER — Catalogue of the Fishes in the 
Briti.sh Museum, Vols. I.-VIII. Lon- 
don, 1SG4. 

Jordan — Coniril)utions to North American 
Ichthyology, Nos. 1 to 3. United States 
National Museum, Washington, 1877, 
1878. 

Jordan and Gilbert. — Synopsis of the 
Fishes of North America. Bull. I'i, 
L'. S. National Museum, Washington. 
1883. 



CHAPTER XT. 



A LIST OF THE INVERTEBRATE FAUNA 
OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



BY L. 0. HOWARD, 

U. S. AGRICULTURAL DEPARTME^"T, WASHINGTOX, D. C. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

* 

As an appendix to the report of Professor Tuomey, on the Geology of 
South Carolina (Columbia, 1848), appeared a list of the fauna of the 
State, prepared by Prof. Lewis R. Gibbes. To the portion of that list 
upon the invertebrata, the present paper may be considered as a supple- 
mait, so far as the classes Insecta, Arachnida, and INIyriapoda are con- 
cerned, and as a revision of the remainder of the list, including many 
species since described, and others which have since been found to form 
part of the fauna of the State. For the portion of the list relating to the 
Insecta, I am myself responsible. With regard to the order Araneina 
(spiders), I have been enabled, through the kindness of Mr. George 
Marx, of Washington, to present not only a list of the described species, 
but to add to it a large number of undescribed species, indicated by Mr. 
Marx's manuscript names. The list of Myriapoda I have compiled from 
Prof. H. C. Wood's monograph of this group. For the remainder of the 
list, beginning with the Crustacea, Mr. Henry W. Turner, of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, is responsible. He has carefully compared Prof. 
Gibbes' list with the more recent publications, and the list is as accurate 
as the limited time and material will allow. 



2(;r, 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



It will be noticed that where a species is recorded from an adjoining 
State, rendering it highly probable that it also occurs in South Carolina, 
the State is entered after the specific name in parenthesis. The species 
is recorded without remark (1), Avhen it has been collected within the 
confines of the State ; (2), when, as is frequently the case, it has been 
collected at Savannah, just across the border line; and (3), where it has 
been recorded both from North Carolina and Georgia, or from ^''irginia 
and Georgia, as, in such case, it is almost certain to be also found in 
South Carolina. 

With the Class Insecta, a comi:)lete list would swell this work for be- 
yond its practical recjuirements. I shall, therefore, confine myself to the 
enumeration of the principal species which are injurious to vegetation, 
or which are beneficial through their direct products, or from the fact 
that they prey upon or are parasites upon injurious species. This enu- 
meration is supplemented, however, by a list of such works as the student 
will find useful in filling out gaps. In this list no works are mentioned 
which do not bear upon the geographical distribution of the species. 

LELAXD 0. HOWARD. 

AVashington, October 22, 1882. 



SUB-KINGDOM ANNULOSA. 
CLASS INSECTA. 



[Air breathinc; articulates, with three regions (head, thorax and abdomen), six 
legs, and usuallj' wings.] 

LIST OF WORKS. 



BoiSDUV.\L AND LeConte — Histoire General 
et Iconographie des Lepidopteres et 
des Chenilles de TAmerique Septen- 
trionale, Paris, 1833. 



Cresson, E. T. — Xotes on the Species be- 
longing to the sub family Ichneumon- 
ides found in America, north of Mexico. 
Trans. Am. Entomological Soc, 1877. 



CoMSTOCK, J. H. — Report on Scale Insects. \ Edwarps, W. H.— The Butterflies of North 
An. Rept. U. S. Dept. Agric, 1880. j America. Bo.ston, 1879. 

Cresson, E. T. — Catalogue of the described [ Glover, T. — Manuscript Notes from my 



species of several families of Hymenop- 
tera inhabiting North America. Proc. 
Entomological Society Philailelphia, 
1801 -CO. 



Journal — Hemiptera AVashington, 
187(). (Onl}' a few copies printed from 
stone for private distribution.) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



237 



Hagen, De. H. a .— Synopsis of the Neurop- 
tera of North America. Washington, 
Smithsonian Institute, 18(11. 

LeConte, J. L. — All of Dr. LeConte's gen- 
eral papers in the Proceedings Acad. 
Sciences, Pliilada., and Proc. American 
Philosoph. Soc. 

LeConte and Horn — The Rynchojihora of 
America north of Mexico — Proc. Am. 
Phil. Soc , 1876. 

Morris, Dr. J. G.— Synopsis of tlie described 
Lepidoptera of tlie United States, 
Washington, Smithsonian Inst., 1862. 

XoRTox, Edvv.— Catalogue of the described 
Tenth redinidaj of North America 
Trans. Am. Entom. Soc, 1867-68. 

Osten-Sacken, C. R — Catalogue of the 
dest'ribed Diptera of North America. 
Washington, Smithsonian Inst. 1878. 



Packard, A. S., Jr.— A Monograi)h of the 
Geometrid Moths, or Phala'nidu', of 
the United States. Vol. X. Reports of 
the U. S. Geological Survey of the 
Territories. Washington, 1876. 

de Saussure, Henri— Synopsis of American 
Wasps. Washington, Smithsonian In- 
stitute, 1875. 

Smith and Abbott- The Natural History 
of the rarer Lepidopterous In-ects of 
Georgia. London, 1797. 

Thomas, Cyrus— Synopsis of the Acrididtc 
of Nortii America. U. S. Gelogical Sur- 
vey of the Territories, Vol. Y. Wash- 
ington. 1873. 

Zimmeemann, C. — Synopsis of the Scolyti- 
dse of America, north of Mexico, with 
Notes and an Ajjpendix by Dr. LeCcntc 
Trans. Am. Entom. Soc, 1868. 



ORDER HYMENOPTERA. 

[Four membranous wings with comparatively few veins; the posterior wings 
smaller than the anterior; moutli parts formed for sucking and biting ; metamorphosis 
complete] 

Of the families Uroceridx (Horn-tails), Cynipidx (Gall-flies), Evaniidse, 
Prodotrupidse, Chrysididse, Formicidas (Ants), Mutillidse, Scoliadae, Pompilidpp., 
Sphegidse, Larridse, Bembecidep., Nijssonidfe, Cmbronidw, Vespidx (true V^^ asps) 
Andrenidse, and Apidx (Bees), we shall omit detailed lists. 



FAISIILY ICHNEUMONID.E. ICHNEUMON FLIES. 



As all Ichneumon Flies are of prime importance, in that the}' are para- 
sites upon other insects, we give as complete a list as possible of the 
principal sub-family. 



208 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



SUB-FAMILY ICHNEUMONIN^, 



Ichneumon saucius Cress, 
maurus Cress, 
viola Cress. 
cincticornis Cre-s. 
galenas Cress., (Va.) 
centrator Say. 
cseruleus Cress, 
nierus Cress, (Va.) " 
subcyaneus Cress 
vittifrons Cress, 
sublatus Cress., (Va.) 
azotus Cress., (Va-) 
imifasciatorius Say. 
bronteus Cress, 
wilsoni Cress., (V:i.) 
versibilis Cress., (Va.) 
comes Cress-, (Va.) 
laetus Brulle, (Va.) 
zebratus Cress., (Ga.) 
parvus CresA, (Va.) 
flavizonatus Cress., (Va.) 

Hoplismenus morulus (Say), (Va-) 

Amblyteles montanus (Cress.), (Va.) 
illaetabilis Cress., (Ga.) 
indistinctus (Prov.), (Ga ) 
fraternus (Cress.), (Va.) 

Trogus exesorius Brulle. 

ob^dianator Brulle. 
bruUei Cress. 



Iclineumon paratus Say, (Va.) 

vinulus Cress., (Va.) 
honestus Cress., (W. Va., Ga. 
leviculus Cress., (Va.) 
grandis Brulle, (Va.) 
rufiventris Brull6, (Va.) 
devinctor Say. 
insolens Cress, 
lewisii Cress, 
trogiformis Cress, 
instabilis Cress, 
funestus Cress-, (Va.) 
mains Cress, 
duplicatus Say. 
annulipes Cress., (Va.) 
scitulns Cress., (Va.) 
seminiger Cress., (Va-) 
volens Cress, 
mucronatus Prov., (Va) 
nanus Cress, 
rutilus Cress., (Va.) 



Amblyteles nubivagus Cre-ss-, (Va.) 
subrufus (Cress.) (Va.) 
suturalis (Say), (Va-) 
concinnus (Say.) 

Trogus apicalis Cress. (Ga.) 

austrinus Cress., (Ga.) 
nubilipennis Hald. 



FAMILY CHALCIDID.E. CHALCIS FLIES. 

The species of this family, also parasitic upon other insects, have been 
very little studied in this country, hence the list subjoined, on account of 
the present state of knowledge, can hardly be considered as even indi- 
cative of the genera : 



I^eucospis affinis Say. 

Smicra torvina Cress, (Va ) 
nortonii Cres.s., (Va-) 
bracata Sanborn, (Va.) 



Smicra mariae (Riley.) 

nigrifex Walk., (Ga.) 
mirabilis Cress, (Ga ) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 269 

Chalcis ovata Say, Cluilcis minuta Fabr, (Ga.) 

PliasijDnophora sulcata, Westw., (Ga.) 

Perilampiis alexinus Walk., (Ga.) rerilampus (.-yaneus Brulle. 

lepr.os Walk., (Ga.) 

Isosoma honlei (Harr.) (The joint worm-fly.) 

Spalangia politus (Say) (Va.) 

Episteuia coerulata Westw., (Ga.) 

Eupelmus mirabilis (Walsh.) 

Meta])elma spectabilis Westw-, (Ga.) 

Comys bicolor Howard, (Ya.) 

Chiloneiirus albicornis Howard, (Va.) 

Aphycus emptor Howard, (Va.) 

Blastothrix longipennis Howard, (Va.) 

Aphelinus inali (Hald.) Aphelinus fu.scipennis Howard, (Va.) 

mytihuspidis LeBaron. pulchellus Howard, (Va.) 

abnormis Howard, (Va.) 

Coccophagus lecanii Fitch. Coccophagas varicornis Howard, (Va.) 

fraternus Howard, (Va.) 

Enplectrus comstockii Howard, (Ga ) 
Cirrospiius esurus, Riley, (Ga.) 
Trichogramma pretiosa Riley. 



FAMILY TENTHREDINID.E. SAW FLIES. 

The larvae of all the saw flies, sometimes called " false caterpillars," 
are injurious to vegetation. The following list is taken mainly from 
Norton's Catalogue of the described Tenthredinidoe : 

Cimbes americana Leach. 

Schizocerus plumigera (Klug.) (Ga.) 

Atomacera ruficoUis Norton, (Va.) 

Hylotonia macleayi Leach. Hylotoma abdominalis, Lpach, (Ga.) 

analis Leach, (Ga.) humeralis, Beauv. 

virescens Klug, (Ga.) coccinea Fabr. 

Pristiphora tibialis Norton, (Va.) Pristophora grossu'ariae Walsh., (?) (Na- 

tive currant worm). 

Emphytus iuornatus Say, (Va.) Emphytus varianus Norton, (Va.) 

apertus Harr., (Va.) testaceus Norton, (Va.) 



270 INVKRTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Dolerus arvcnsis Say. 

Sclandriu vitis Harris, (The vine saw fly.) 

obtiisa (Klug.) (Ga.) " Selandria iabiata (Klug.) (Ga.) 

MaiTophya puldiella (Klug.) (Ga.) Macropliya tibiator Norton, (Va.) 

tlavicoxae Norton, (Va.) formosus (Klug.) 

Taxonns albido-pictus Norton, (Va.) 
Strongylogaster multicinctus Norton, (Va.) 
Tenthredo 14-punctatus Norton, (Va.) 

Lophyrus fabricii Leach, (Ga.) Lophyrus al)bottii Leach, (Ga.) (Pine saw 

fly.) 
compar Loach, (Ga.) americanus Leach, (Ga ) 

Lyda semicincta Norton, (Va.) Lyda aniplecta Fabr. 

circumcincta Klug., (Ga.) 



ORDER LEPIDOPTERA. BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS. 

[Wings, four, membranous; covered witli imbricated scales. Mouth parts formed for 
sucking : Metamorphosis complete.] 

FAMILY PAPILIONID^. BUTTERFLIES. 

There are about seventy-five species of diurnal Lepidoptera or Butter- 
flies in South Carolina, We Avill mention, however, only three species, 
distinguished by their particularly injurious larvae : 

Pieris rapae L. (The Kape Butterfly, parent of the "Imported Cabbage-Worm.") 

protodice Bd. (The Southern Cabbage Butterfly). 
Goniloba proteus L. (The Roller-Worm Butterfly). 



FAMILY SPHINGID.E. HAWK-MOTHS. 

Sphinx Carolina L. (The tobacco-worm of the South). 
Philampelus pandorus Hb. (Injurious to the vine), 
achemon Dr. (Injurious to the vine). 
Darapsa myron Cr (Injurious to the vine). 
Thyreus abbotti Swains. (Injurious to the vine). 



IXVERTEBEATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



271 



FAMILY AEGERID.E. CLEAR-WINGED MOTHS. 

Aegeria exitiosa Saj'- (Peach tree borer), 
tipuliformis L. (Currant borer). 



FAMILY BOMBYCID.E. SPINNERS. 

Although this famil}^ contains many leaf-eating caterpillars, none are 
sufficiently noted to be mentioned here. "We give, however, several of 
the larger spinners, the silk of which has been or could be used. 

Actias luna (L.) 
Attacus cynthia Dru. 
Antheria ])ol3'phemus (L.) 
Callosamia proniethea (Dm.) 
Samia cecropia, (L.) 



FAMILY NOCTUID.E. OWLET MOTHS. 



This family comprises many of the most injurious insects of the State, 
which we shall give somewhat in detail. Every species not otherwise 
designated in the list is a cut-worm in its larva state : • 



Agrotis baja S. V. 

norinaniana Gr. 
c-nigrum Limi. 
bicarnea Guen. 
subgothiea Haw. 
tricosa Lintner. 

herilis Gr. 
pleeta Liun. 
cupida Gr. 

Mamestra legitima Gr, 

subjuncta G. and R. 
Hadena arctica Boisd. 
Hyppa xylinoides Guen. 
Prodenia conimelinae Guen. 
Trigonophora periculosa Guen. 
r-brunneum Gr. 



Agrotis clandestina Harr. 
incivis Guen. 
lubricans Guen. 
velleripentiis Gr. 
messoria Harr. 

annexa Treitach., (one of the cot- 
ton cut-worms), 
malefida Guen. 
ypsilon Rott. 
saucia Hiibn. 

Mamestra hiudabilis Guen. 
Hadena miselioides Guen. 
Prodenia flavimedia Harv. 



272 INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Eu])lexiii lucipara (L.) 
Nepbelodes viohins Guen. 
Ilydroecia nictitans Bonk. 

Lapliygma friigiperda (Sm. and Abb.) (Grass-worm). 

Leuc-ania pallens L. Le'.icania unipuncta, (Haw.) (Army worm 

of the Xorth.) 
phragmitidicola Gr. pf^eudargyria Guen. 

Aletia xylina (Say). (Cotton worm). 
Plusia brassicae Riley. (Cabbage looper). 
Ileliothis armitrera Hiibi. (Bjll-Worm or Corn E.ir Worm). 



FAMILY GEOMETRID.E. 

The larvae of the Geometridae are familiarly known as " measuring- 
worms," or " loopers." Dr. Packard, in his MonograjDh, referred to before, 
enumerates 184 species found in the limits of the Alleghanian and Caro- 
linian faunae, and the great majority of these are doubtless to be found 
in South Carolina. A common example is the " Gooseberry Span-worm " 
{Eufitclda riberia, Fitch). The larva of Eugonia siibsignaria (Hiibn.) has 
recently done much damage to frnit trees in Fannin County, Georgia, 
and is very common in South Carolina. 



FAMILY PYRALID.E. 

This is a poorly defined and very miscellaneous family. It has recently 
been split up into several smaller families, but it answers our purpose to 
consider it as a whole. The habits of the larvae are extremely varied, 
and many of them are very injurious. The most injurious South Caro- 
lina species are subjoined : 

Asopia costalis (Fabr.) (The Clover Hay "Worm). 

Pempelia lignosella Zell, (The smaller Corn-Stalk Borer). 

Distraea sacchari (Fabr.) (The large Corn-Stalk and Sugar-Cane Borer). 

Chilo oryzaeellus Riley. (The Rice-Stalk Borer). 



FAMILY TORTRICID.E. LEAF ROLLERS. 

This is a large family of -small moths, the larvae of which roll the 
leaves of different trees and plants. Although injurious to a certain 
degree, they rarely occur in sufficiently great numbers to become mark- 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



273 



edly so. A familiar example in Carolina is the " Cotton leaf-roller," 

(Loxotiinla nmiccana, Harr. ?) 



FAMILY TINEID.E. LEAF MINERS. 

The larvae of this family are mainly leaf-miners, twig borers or case 
bearers. About eight hundred species have been described in the United 
States. The most injurious South Carolina species is undoubtedly the 
Angoumois grain n\oi\^ ^jlelechia cerealla, Oliv.). The clothes moth 
{Tinea fiarifroutella, Linn.) is also a familiar example. 



ORDER DIPTERA. FLIES, GNATS, ETC. 

[Wings, two ; the posterior pair re [ilaced by a pair of knobbed threads ("poisers" 
or "balancers"): Mouth parts formed for sucking : Metamorphosis complete.] 

The collected North Amarican Diptera number about 5,000 species of 
sixty families. We shall mention here the eight families which possess 
the greatest economic interest. 



FAMILY CECIDOMYID^. GALL FLIES. 

This family contains several very injurious insects, two of which arc 
found in South Carolina, as will be seen in the following list: 

Ceeidomyia chrysopsidis Locw, (D. C.) Cejidomyia hirtipes 0. S., (D. C.) 

destructor Say. (Tlie Hes- serrulatae O. S., (D. C.) 

sian fly). 
Diplosis caryae 0. S., (D.C.) Diplosis robiniae (Hald.) (D. C.) 

maccus Loew, (D. C.) . tritici (Kirby). (The Wheat 

Midge.) 



FAMILY CULICID^. MOSQUITOES. 



Culex boscii R. Desvoidy. 
rubidus R. Desvoidj' 

18 



Culex taeniatus Wied., (Ga.) 

taeniorhynchus Wied. ( Atlantic 

States.) 



274 INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



FAMILY ASILID^. ASILUS FLIES. 

The Asilus, or " Robber-flies " are of much interest, as they destroy 
other insects, both injurious and beneficial ; 

Leptogaster carol inensis Schiner. 

Diogmites discolor Lrt'W. { Kills cotton vorms.) 

Atomosia piiella Wied. 

Dasyllis saffrana Fabr. 

Laphria caroliiiensis Scliiner. Laphria melanogaster "Wied. 

flavescens Macq. georgina Wied- 

bicolor, Wied. (So. States.) 
Andrenosoma pyrrhacra AVied. 
Mallophora boiiiboides Wied, (Ga.) Mallophora orcina Wied. 

clausicella Macq., (Va ) 
Promachiis quadratus Wied, (Ga.) Proniacbus rufipes Wied, (Ga.) 

Erax apicalis V\ ied- (Kills cotton worms.) Erax feniiratus Macq. 

bastardi Macq., (N. A.) 
Proctacanthus heros Wied. Proctacanthus longus Wied, (Ga.) 

Neomoctherns gracilis Wied. 
Tolmenis annulipes Macq. Tohuerus notatus Wied. 



FAMILY OESTRlDiE. BOT-FLIES. 

Gastrophilus eqni Fabr. \ Horse hot-fly.) Gastrophilus nasalis L., (N, A.) 

haemorrhoidalis L., (N. A,) 
Hypoderma bovis DeG. [Cattle botfly) Hypoderma lineata Villier.s, (N. A.. Ky.) 
Oestrus ovis L. [Sheep botfly.) 
Cephenemyia phobifer Clark. 

Cuterebra buccata Fabr. Cuterebra horripilum Clark, 

cuniculi Clark (Rabbit hot-fly.) 



FAMILY TACHINIDiE. TACHIXA FLIES. 

The Tachina flies much resemble common house flies. They are 
parasitic upon other insects : 

Trichopoda ciliata Fabr. Trichopoda liirtipes Fiibr. 

cilipes Wied. lanipes Fabr. (Ga".) 

flavicornis R. Desvoidy. pltmnpes Fabr. 
formosa Wied. (Ga.) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 275 

(Jrymnosoma luliginosa R. Dosvoidy. 

Cistogaster immaculata Macq. 

Ocyptera epytiis Walk., (Ga) Oryptera litiiarta Oliv. 

Ervia triquetra Oliv. 

Jurinia amethystina Macq., (Ga.) .Turinia virginiensis Maoq , (Va.) 

georgica Macq., (Ga.) 
Micropalpus piceus Macq. 
Gonia aiiriceps Meigen, (Ga ) 
Nemoraea leucaniae (Kirk.). {Preys on the Armij-n<orn>.) 

trixoides, "Walk., (Ga.) 
Tachina atra Walk., (Ga.) Tac'hiiia interrupta Walk., (Ga. ) 

Clytia atra R. Dewoidy. 



FAMILY HIPPOBSCID^. FOREST FLIES AND SHEEP TICKS. 

Olfersia americana (Leach\ ithe owl tick), 
ardea;- Macq,, CS. A.) 
brunnea Oliv. 

Ornithomya avicularia L. (X. A.i (bird tick). 
nebulosa Say, (N. A.) 
pallida Say, (N. A.) 

Melophagus o villus L., (X, A.), (.sheep tick). 

Ilippobosca equina L., (N. A.), horse tick). 



ORDER COLEOPTERA. BEETLES. 

[Wings four; anterior pair (e^z/^ra) meeting, usually, in a straight lino down the 
hack. Elytra much thickened, forming a case, under which tlie posterior wings are 
folded: Posterior wings membranous: Mouth parts formed for l»iting. ]\retamor- 
phosis complete.] 

Tliis is the best known order of Insects. Some eight thousand five hun- 
dred species have been described in tlie United States and Canada, and, at 
an estimate, some four thousand species will probablybe found, by diligent 
collecting, in South Carolina. An extensive collection of the Colcoptcru 
of the State was made by Dr. C. Zimmerniann, who resided f(»r some 
time at Columbia. This collection is now in the po.ssession of the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Camlnidge, Mass., a)ul Dr. Ziminer- 
m.ann's MS. notes are in the good care of Dr. LeConte. of IMiiladelphia 



276 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



The luiiiiber of known species of South Carolina Coleoptera is so great 
that, in order to keep our list to its proper proportions, we have intro- 
duced simply an authoritative list of the genera of the more important 
families. For this list we are indebted to Mr. E. A. Schwarz, a Avell- 
known Coleoptcrist. Each of these genera is represented in South Caro- 
lina, those in italics being essentially Southern genera. 



FAMILY CICINDELID.E. TIGER BEETLES. 

The beetles of this family are all jiredaceous. 

Tdrachu West. Cicimlela Linn. 



FAMILY CARABID/E. GROUND BEETLES. 

The ground beetles are mostly carnivorous ; some of the species have, 
however, been found to be vegetable feeders. 



Omophron Latr. 
Calosoma Web. 
Carabus Linn. 
Nomaretus LeC- 
Cychriis Fabr, 
Pasiiuachus 
Scarites Fabr. 
Dyschirius Bon 
Ardistomis Pntz. 
Aspidoglosm Futz. 
Clivina Latr. 
Schizogenins Futz. 
Brachvnus Web. 



Panag?eus Latr. 
Morio Latr. 
Heluomorpha Lat. 
Galerita Fabr. 
Pterosticlius Bon. 
Amara Bon 
Badister Clairv. 
Diplochila Brulle. 
Diceelus Bon. 
Anomoglossus Cha. 
Chl?enius Bon. 
Oodes Bon. 
Cratacanthus Dej. 

Tai'bvs 



Casnonia Latr. 
Leptotrachelns Latr. 
Eucperus LeC. 
Lebia Latr. 
Ntmotarsns LeC. 
Tetragonod eras Dej. 
Apristus Chaud. 
Blechrus Motsch. 
Apene.s LeC. 
Cymindi^ Latr- 
Phloexena Chend. 
Callida Dej. 
Coptodera Dej. 
Ziegler. 



Calathus Bon. 
Platynus Bon. 
Loxandrus LeC. 
Euarthrus LeC 
Agonoderus Dej. 
Anisodactylus Dej. 
Anisotarsus Chd. 
Gynandropus Dej. 
Bradyt'ellus Er. 
Selenophorus Dej. 
Harpalus Latr. 
Stenolophus Dej. 
Bembidium Latr. 



FAMILY COCCINELLID^. LADY-BIRDS. 

Tlie familiar lady-birds are, in the main, beneficial by destroying in- 
jurious insects. Certain species have, however, been found to be vege- 
tarian. 



Megilla Muls. 
Hippodamia Cher. 
Anisosticta Chev. 
Coccineila Linn. 



Cycloneda Cr Exochomns Redi. Scyninus Kug. 

Anatis Muls. CEiieis Muls. Cephaloscymmts Cr. 

Psyllobora Cliev. Braobyacantha Muls. Pentilia. 

Cbilocorus Leach. Hyperaspis Chev. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



277 



FAMILY SCARABEIDiE. 

Many of the Scarabeids are vegetable feeders ; others feed upon dung 
and decaying animal and vegetable material. These last are here 
omitted. 



Serica McLeay. Diplotaxis Kirby. 

Macrodactylus Latr. Lachaosterna Hope. 

Cyclocepliala Latr. Polyuiceclius LeC. 

Ckalepus McLeay. Xyloryetes Hope. 

Ligyrus Bnriii. Strategus Hope. 

Aphonus LeC. Dynastes Kirby. 



Polypliylla. 

Anomala Koeppe, 
Phileurus Latr. 
AUorhina Burm. 
Euphoria. 



Strigoderma Burm. 
Pelidnota McLoay. 
Osmoderma Lep. 
Gnorimus Lep. 
Trichius Fabr. 



Cremastochilus Kn. Vultxus Scriba. 



FAMILY BUPRESTID^. 

The larva; of the Buprestida3 are wood-borers. 



Calcophora Sol. 
Dicerca Esch. 
PiDKcilonota Esc-li. 
Buprestis Linn. 



Cinyra Lap. Actenodes Lac. Agrihis Sol. 

Melanophila Esch. Acmjeodera Esch. Taphrocenis Sol. 

Anthaxia Esch. Mastogenins Sol. Brachys Sol. 

Chrvsobothris Esch. Rhseboscelis Chev. Brachyscekis Sol. 



FAMILY ELATERIDiE. CLICK-BEETLES. 



The larvae of 

Cerjphytiim Latr. 
Melasis 01! v. 
Deltometopus Bv. 
Fornax Lap, 
Anelastes Kirby. 
I'erothops Er. 
Adelocera Latr- 
Elater Linn. 



the " Click-beetles " are the familiar 

Drasterius Esch. Lacon Germ. 

Megapenthes Cand. Chalcolepidius Esch. 
MonocrepidinsEseh. Alaus Esch. 
Dicrepidius Esch. Hemirhippus Latr. 



Ischiodontus Cand. 
Ludius Latr. 
(Jrthostethus Lac 
Crigmns LeC. 



Cardisphorus Esch. 
Horistonotus Cand. 
Cryptohypnus Esch. 
Dolopius Esch. 



' wire-worms. 

Glyohonyx Cand. 
Melanotus Esch. 
Limonius Esch. 
Athous Esch. 
Sericosomus Esch. 
Corymbites Latr. 
Asaphes Kirby. 
Melanactes LeC. 



Cebris Fabr, 



FAMILY TELEPHORIDiE. SOLDIER BEETLES. 

The larva; of the Soldier beetles often destroy injurious larvfc : Thus, 
Chauliognathus marginatus destroys the Cotton worm. 
Cbaiiliognathus Telephorns Schdfler. Ditemnns LeC. Malthinus Utr. 

Hentz. PolemiusLeC. Trypherus LeC. MalthodcsKiesenw. 

Podabrus Westw. Silis Charp. Loberus Kiesenw. 



278 



IWEl.TEnUATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



FAMILY CERAMBYC 

The liU'Vie of tlie Long-horn« arc 

Malio'lon Serv. Clytus Laicli. 

Orthosjma Scrv Xylotrechus Cliev. 

Prioiius Geoff". Neoclytus Thorns. 

Sphenoytetluis Hald! Clytanthus Thorns. 

Aseaiuni E.sc-h. Mirroclytus LeC. 

Crioc-ejihahis ^luls. ("yrtophoriis LeC. 



T'dlomorpha Blanch. 
Euderces LeC 
Atimis Hald. 



Smodifuni LeC. 
Dularius Tlioins. 
Phyton Xewm. 

Callymoxys Kraatz. Distenia Serv. 

Moloivhus Fabr. Necydalis Linn. 

Rhopalapiiora Serv. Rhagium. 

Batyle Thorns. Centrodera LeC 

Steno.spbeniis Ilald. Toxotus Serv. 

Cyllene Xewm. Gaurotes LeC. 

Arhopalus ?-erv. Strangalia Serv. 
Typooerns LeC. 



'ID.E. LONG-HORKS. 

almost all wood-borers. 
Phymatode-s INluls- Liopus Serv. 



CEme Xewin. 
ChionXewm. 
Ebiiria Serv. 
Ehiphidion Serv. 
Tvhjnotus Hald. 



Lepturges Bates. 
Hyperplatys Hald. 
Graphisurus Kirby. 
Acanthocinns Stepji, 
Dectes LeC. 



HeterachthesXewin. Ecyrus LeC. 



Curius Xewni. 
Leptura Serv. 
Cyrtinus LeC. 
Psenocerus LeC. 
Monohammu.s Serv. 
Dorchaschema LeC. 
Hetoemis Hald. 
Goes LeC 

Aoanthoderes Serv. 
Leptostylus LeC. 



Eiipogonius LeC. 
Oncideres Serv. 
Ataxia Hald. 
Hippo'psisServ. 
Saperda Fabr. 
Mecas LeC. 
Oberea Muls. 
Tetraopes Serv. 
Am phionyi'ha Thorns. 



FAMILY CHRYSOMELID.E. LEAF BEETLES. 

This family includes many of the most injurious beetles, including 
the Colorado Potato-beetle, the Sweet Potato-beetle, the Grape-vine Flea- 
beetle, and many others. 

Pliyllecthi-usLeo. 

Luperus Geoff. 

Diabrotica Chev. 

Adimonia Laich. 

Galerucra Geoff. 

Trirhabda LeC. 



Donacia Fabr. 
Macroplea Sam. 
Orsodachna Latr. 
Le:na Fabr. 
Anommi Lac. 
Babia Chev. 
Saxlnlx Lac. 
Coscinoptera Lac 
Chlamys Knoch. 
Exema Lac. 
Monachus Chev. 



Pachybrachys Chev. 
Fidia Baly, 
Xanthonia Baly. 
Heterasj)is Chev. 
Glyptosjelis LeO. 
Myochrons Chev. 
Typophorus Chev. 
Paria LeC. 
Metachrouia Chev, 
Colaspis Fal»r, 
Chry.somela Linn. 



Systena Chev. 
Orthaltica Cr. 
Lyperaltica Cr. 
Crepidodera Chev. 
Epitrix Fond. 
Mantura Steph. 



Piichyonychus Ciiev. Cerataltica Cr. 
Hypolarapsis Cik. Chaetocnema Steph. 



Cry ptocephalus Geoff. Gastrophysa Chev. 
Triachus LeC. Melasoma. 

Diachns LeC Cerotoma Chev. 

(;riburiu.s Hald. Chelimorpha Chev. 

Phv.sunota Boh. 



CEdionychis I^atr. 
Disonycha Chev. 
Graptodera Chev. 
Longitarsus LeC. 
Batophila Fond. 
Phyllotreta Fond. 
Aphthona Chev. 
Dibolia Chev. 



Psylliodes Latr. 
Blepharida Chev. 
Odontota Chev. 
Charistena Baly. 
Microrhopala Chev. 
Cassida Linn. 
Coptocyla Chev. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



279 



. FAMILY MELOIDiE. BLISTER-BEETLES. 

The Blister-beetles are vegetable feeders, but their larva? are usually 
parasitic. 

Meloe Linn. Epicanta Redt. Pomphopcea LeC. Tetraonyx Latr. 

:\Iacrobasis LeC Pyrota LeC. Cantharis L. Zonitis Fabr. 

Nemof'natlia 111. 



COLEOPTERA RHYNCOPHORA. 

[Sevfi-al of the old family, including the weevils and the Staphylinids, are now united 
in this group, which may be called a sub-order. Nearly all the species are injurious.] 



FAMILY RHINOMACERID^. 

Rhinomacer Fabr. 



Auletes Sch. 



FAMILY RYNCHITID^. 

P^usnamptus Sch. Rynchites Hbst. Pterocolus Sch. 



FAMILY ATTELABID^. 

Attelabus L. 



Epic.vriis Sch. 
Phyxelis Sch. 
Agraphus Sch. 



FAMILY OTIORHYNCHID^. 



Neoptochus Horn. 
Pachnseus Sch. 
Tanymecus Sch. 



Pandeletejus Sch. 
Brachystylus Sch. 
Aramigus Horn. 



Aphrastus Sch. 
Eudiagogus Sch. 



Sitones Sch. 
Listronotus Jekel. 
Macrops Kirby. 
Pachylobus LeC. 



FAMILY CURCULIONID^. 

Anchodemus LeC. Conotrachelus Sch. Coeliodes Sch- 
Lissorhoptrus LeC. Rliyssematus Sch. Ceutorhynchus Germ 
Bagous Germ. Chalcodermus Sch. 

Otidocephalus Chev. Zaglyptus LeC. 



Pelenomus Thorns. 
Coelogaster Sch. 



280 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Hylobins Sch, 
Pissodes Germ. 
Lixu.s Fabr. 
Dorytomns Sch. 
Desmoris LeC. 
Pnchytythius Jekel. 
Smicrunyx Sch. 
Phyllotrox Sch. 
Endahis Lap. 
Bracliybamus Germ. 
Onychylis LeC. 



Eupsalis Lac. 



Magdalis Germ. 
Anthonomus Germ. 
Orchestes III. 
Prionomerus Sch. 
Piazorhinus Sch. 



Acamptus LeC. 
Aoalles Sch. 
Tyloderma Say. 
Phyrdenu.s LeC. 
Cryptorhynchus 111. 



Tlivsanocnemis LeC. Piazurus Sch. 



Gymnetron Sch. 
Miarus Sell. 
Laemosaccus Sch. 
Centrinus Sch. 
Zygobaris LeC 



Copturus Sch. 
Acoptus LeC. 
Tach3goni:s Sch. 
]Mononychu.s Germ. 
Craponius LeC. 



Balaninus Germ. 



FAMILY BRENTHIDiE. 



Eliinonclms Scli. 
Trichoburis LeC. 
Aulobaris LeC. 
Baris Germ. 
Onychobaris LeC. 
Pseudobaris LeC 
Ampeloglypter LeC. 
Madams Sch. 
Stethobaris LeC. 
Barilepton LeC. 
Plocamus LeC. 



FAMILY CALANDRID^. 



Rhyncophorus. 
Sphenophorus Sch. 
Calandra Chauv. 



Dryopthorus Sch. 
Cossomus Clairv. 
Stenomimus WoU. 



Phloephagus. 
Wollastonia. 



Amaiirorhinus. 

Stenoscelis. 



FAMILY SCOLYTID^. 



Platypus Hbst. Xyleborus Eich. 

Corthylus Er. Cryphalus Er. 

Monarthrum Kir.sch. Xylocleptes. 
Pityopthorus Eich. Tomicus Latr. 
Hypothenemus West.Micracis LeC. 



Scolytus Oliv. 
Chramesus LeC. 
Phloeotribus Latr. 
Cne-sinus LeC. 
Hvlesinus Fabr. 



Phloeosinus Eich. 
Carphoborus Eich. 
Pendroctomus Er. 
Hvlastes Er. 



ORDER HEMIPTERA. 



[Wings, four; anterior portion either of same thickness throughout, and, usually, 
sloping at sides, or thickened at base with thinner extremities which overlap : Moutii 
parts formed for sucking : Metamorphosis incomplete.] 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 281 

SUB-ORDER HOMOPTERA. 

[Heniiptera liavinji' the anterior winjis of the same thickness throufrhont. and 
usuallj' si ipino; at the sides : IMoutli parts inserted at the jjosterior and inferior por- 
tion of tlie head.] 

FAMILY COCCID^. BARKLICE. OR SCALE INSECTS. 

This is one of the most injurious families of insects. The species have 
been very little studied, so that their geographical distribution is not well 
known. A number of species have been described by Prof Com.stock, 
from the District of Columbia, and, as the majority of these will proba- 
bly be found in South Carolina, thej^ are included in the following list : 

Aspidiotus ancylus Putnam, (D. C, on Ma- Aspidiotus pini Comst., (Ga., on pines), 
pie, Peach, Hackberry.) 
obscurus, Comst., (D. C, on tenebrieosus Comst. (D. C, on 

Willow and Oak.) red Maple.) 

Diaspis carueli Targ., Tozz.— (D. C, on Diaspis rosae fSandberg). (On Rose, Black- 
Juniper and Arbor Vitae.) berry and Raspberry.) 
Chionaspis euonymi Comst., (Va., on Euon- Chinaspis nyssae Com.st. (On Black Gum.) 

ymus. 
furfurus (Fitch). (D. C, on Apple.) pinifoliae (Fitch). (On Pines.) 

Mytilaspis poniorum (Bouclie). (On Apple.) 
Lecaniuni hesperidum (L.) (On Ivy and Orange.) 
Kermes gallaeformis Riley. (On Oak.) 
Dactylopius destructor Comst. (INIealy bug.) 
longifilis Comst. (D. C.) 

FAMILY APHIDID^. PLANT LICE. 

About 170 species of Plant lice have been described in the United 
States. They are very injurious insects, and are familiar to all gardeners 
and florists. During the past year the grain louse {SipJionopliom avenae, 
Fabr.) has done much damage to wheat in North and South CaroHna. 
We mention some of the most prominent South Carolina species : 
Siphonophora avenae (Fabr.) (The grain Si phonophora rosae Beau v. (0;i i?ose.) 

louse.) 
Myzuscerasi (Fabr.) [On Cherry.) Myzus persicae (Selzer). {On Peach.) 

Aphis mall Fabr. [On Apple.) Aphis brassicae Linn. {On Cabbage.) 

maidis Fitch. On Corn.) 
Schizoneura lanigera Hausm. {The Woolly Schizoneura americana Riley. {On Elm.) 

Apple Louse.) 
?emi)higns alnifolii Riley. {On Maple.) 
Phylloxera vastatrix Planchon. {Tlie Grape Phylloxera.) 



282 INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

FAxMlLY CICADELLIDil^]. LEAF HOPPERS. 

This is a family of large extent, and is not well worked up. The com- 
mon " Grape vine thrips " {Erythroneara vitis Fitch) is a good exam[)le. 
The Clcadula cxitiosa of Uhler did much damage to winter grain in York, 
Ahbeville, Union, and Laurens counties, South Carolina, in the sf)ring of 
1879, and another member of this family, Diedrocephala jiavice}')^ Rilov, 
was concerned in the same work. 



FAMILY CICADID.E. " LOCUSTS." 

The Seventeen Year Locust (O/cac^a septendecim Linn.) is the best known 
representa,tive of this family. 



SUB-ORDER HETEROPTERA. 

[Hemiptera havinc; the anterior wings thickened at base, with thinner extremities, 
which overlap on tiie baclv : Mouth parts inserted at the anterior and inferior portion 
of the head.] 

This sub-order is one of great extent and includes many of our most 
injurious insect enemies, as well as many of the most beneficial predatory 
species. The North American species have been carefully monographed 
by Mr. P. R. Uhler, of Baltimore, and this inonograph wull probably be 
published before long as one of the Smithsonian contributions. 



FAMILY REDUVIID^. 

The insects of this family prey upon other insects and may be classed 
as veiy beneficial to man. 

Nabis lerus Latr. {Do'troys plant lice.) 

Prionotns cristatus L. [TIic " Wficel-bug," or "Devils^ Coach Horse ;" ilestrot/s <i variety of 

injuriouA insects.) 
Sinca multispuiosa Say. {Destroys the Cotton- worm). 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 283 



FAMILY CORLSID.E. 

The mcni])ers of this family (we use it for convenience in its old sig- 
nification) liavo varied liabits, some being vegetable feeders and very in- 
jurious, while others are carnivorous ; others still combine the two habits : 

Acanthocephala feinorata Fabr. {Destroys cotton and army icurmn.) 
Anasa tristis DeG. (Feeds on garden cegetubles.) 

arinigera Say. 
Antliocoras insidious Say. (" Fahe. Cldncli bay.'''') 

Corimelaena pulicaria Germ. (Punctures strawberry and rus2)'jerry plants.) 
Euschistis tristigma Say. (Carnivorous.) 
lieptoglossus phyllopus L. (Destroys Cabbage-bug.) 
Lygaeus bicrucis Say. 

lineolaris Beau v. (Punctures plants.) 
Micropus leucopterus Say. (Chinch bug.) 
Nezara hilaris Say. (Destroys Cotton-worms.) 
Oebalus typheus (Fabr ) (Carnivorous.) 
Pirates biguttatus Say. (Feeds on Bed-bugs.) 
Podisus cynicus Say- ( Vegetable feeder ; also carnivorous .) 

spinosus Dallas. (Destroys Cotton- ^vorms.) 
Stracliia histrionica Hahn. (The Harlequin Cabbage bug.) 



FAMILY MEMBRACID.E. 

Mention is made of this family on account of its containing, amojig 
its members the common bed-bug (Acanthla lectularia, L.) 



FAMILY PEDICULIDAE. BODY LICE. 



ORDER ORTHOPTERA. CRICKETS, GRASSHOPPERS, ETC. 

[Wings four ; anterior ])air tbickened and usually overiapiiing ; posterior pair thinner 
and folded in plates longitudinally : Mouth parts formed for biting : Metamorphosis 
incomplete.] 

This order includes many injurious insects. We shall make special 
mention of four of the seven families, omitting the Phasmifhr (Walking- 
sticks), Blattklie (Cockroaches), and Forficulidx (Earwigs). 



284 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



FAMILY GKYLLIDiE. CRICKETS. 

This family is not well worked up for America. Among the South 
Carolina species we mention only the following : 



Gryllus luctuosus Serv. 



Gryllus abbreviatiis Serv. 



Gryllotalpa longipennis Sriuld. {Mole cricket.) 
Oecanthus niveus Harr. [Snoivy tree- cricket.) 



FAMILY LOCUSTID.E. LONG-HORN GRASSHOPPERS. 

Microeentrus retinervis Scudd. (" Xaty-did."') 

Orchelimum glaberriuin Burm. (?) Orchelimum agile DeG. 

Xiphidium fasciatum DeG. 

Conocephalus crepitans Scudd. 

Phanerotptera curvieauda Harr. 



FAMILY ACRIDID^. GRASSHOPPERS OR TRUE LOCUSTS. 

The members of this family are all so injurious that we shall give as 
complete a list as possible. 



Tryxalis brevipenis Cliarp. 
Opomala punctipennis Serv. 

bivittata Serv. 
Pyrgomorpha punctipennis Thos. 
Stenobothrus admirabilis Uld. (D. C. S. 111. 

occidentalis Sauss. 
Tragocephala infuscata Harr. 
Tomonotus sulphureus Sauss. 
(Edipoda sordida Burm 

Carolina Linn. 

fene.stralis Serv. 

rugosa Scudd. 
Pezotettix longicornis Saues. 

edax Sauss. 
"[Jaloptenus femur-rubrum De Geer. 

differentialis Thos. 
Chrouiachris (;olorata (Serv.) 
Acridium rubiginosnm Harr. 

alutaceum Harr 

americanum (Hrury.) 



Opomala varipes Serv. 
marginicollis Serv. 

Chrysochraon viridis (So., 111. and Fla.) 
Stenobothrus Maculipennis Scudd. 

Tragocephala viridifasciata Harr. 
Tomonotus xanthopterus (Burm.) 
Q<]dipoda discoidia Serv. 

phtenicoptera. 

sincerata Harr. 

Pezotettix scudderi Uhl (Md.) 

Caloptenus bivittatus (Say.) 

Oxya claviger (Serv.) 

Acridium ambiguum Thos. (Tenn.) 

obscurum (Fabr. 

obtusum Burm. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



285 



Khomalea centurio (Drury.) 
Tettix ornata (Say.) 

femorata Scudd (Md. 
Tettigidea lateralis (Harr.) 



Rliomalea marci Serv. 
Tetlix oxycephala Burm. 

Tettigidca polyniorpha (Burm ) (Ala.) 



FAMILY MANTID^. 

The insects of this family are raptatorial, and prey upon other insects. 
The common South Carolina species is Ilcuitis Carolina Linn., commonly 
known as the " Rear-horse." It is common all through the South, but 
was originally described from Carolina. » 



ORDER NEUROPTERA. 

[Wiiigs four, membranous, net-veined, generally large and of nearly equal size; 
Mouth-parts formed for biting : Metamorphosis complete or incomplete: Abdomen 
of female with no sting or piercer.] 

This is a very heterogeneous Order, and none of its members are of 
sufficient importance economically to merit special mention here Dr. 
Hagen, in his synopsis (1S61), mentions eight hundred and twelve 
North American, of which twenty-nine onh' are from Carolina, while 
one hundred and four are from Georgia. This, however, cannot be 
taken as an index to the true number of species in the State 



CLASS ARACHNOIDEA. 

[Body of two regions (cephalo-thorax and abdomen) : thorax with eight legs : ab- 
domen with six spinarets: head without antenn* : No metamorphosis.] 



ORDER ARANEINA. SPIDERS. 

[Jaws used exclusively for biting; abdomen spherical, sac-shaped, not divided 
into segments, and attached to the cephalo-thorax by a slender pedicel.] 



280 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



FAMILY EPEIROIDiE. ORB-WEAVERS. 



Gastcracantlia canrer (Hentz.) 
Acrosoma spiuea (Hentz.) 
rugosa (Hentz.) 
Arjiiope riparia (Hentz ) 
Kj)eifa insularis Hentz. 
septima Hentz. 
(lomicilioriim Hentz. 
INJiranda bonibyeinaria (Hentz.) 

displicata (Hentz.) 
Acanthepeira stellata (Hentz.) 
verrucosa (Hentz. 
Ocrepeira ectypa (Walk.) 
Cyrtophora tuberenlata ]\Iavx M.S. 
Cyrtarachne cornigera (Hentz.) 
Singa foliata (Hentz.) 

pratensis (Hentz.) 
rubella (Hentz.) 
Zilla globosa (Keyserling.) 
labyrinthea (Hentz.) 
placida (Hentz.) 
gil)berosa (Hentz.) 
Epeira prompta Hentz. 

albida Marx MS. 
Fbyllira maraeata Hentz. 
Hypiiotes cavatus (Hentz) 
Nephilla plumipes Koch. 



Acrosoma mitrata (Hentz.) 

Argiope fasciata (Hentz.) 
Epeira vulgaris Hentz. 

strix Hentz. 

thaddeus Hentz. 
^Miranda nigrostriata ^larx MS. 

heptagon (Hentz.) 
Acanthepeira spinosa Marx MS 



Singa tetragnathoidcs Marx MS. 
nigrifrons Marx MS. 

Zilla maculata Keys. 

hortorum (Hentz.) 

scutulata (Hentz.) 

caudata (Hentz.) 
Epeira fera Marx MS. 

textrix Marx MS. 
Phjdiira riparia Hentz. 



FAMILY THERIDTOID.E. SNARE-WEAVERS 



Episenus truncatus "Walk. 

Erigone coccinea (Hentz.) 

indirecta Cambr. 

neophita (Hentz.) 

Linyphia comunis Hentz. 

marmorata Hentz. 
scripta Hentz. 
Miniethus interfecta Hentz, 
Thalaiiiia parietalis Hentz. 



Erigone anglica (Hentz.) 

oscitabundum (Hz.) 
rosida (Hentz.) 

Linyphia conferta Hentz. 
costata Hentz. 

ISIimethus tuberosus Hentz. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



287 



ThoiitUnin vulgare Hentz. 

serpentinum Hentz. 

maniioratum Hentz. 

boreale Hentz. 

studiosiim Hentz. 

frondeum Hentz. 

ernciatiim Hentz. 

fnnebre Hentz. * 

cancellatnm Hentz. 
Lathrodeitus verecundus (Hentz.) 
Sninthrus tlavidus Hentz. 



Tlieridium intentum Hentz. 
blandum Hentz. 
lyia Hentz. 
sphaerula Hentz. 
trigonum Hentz. 
tectum Hentz. 
])ic-tinn Hentz. 

fuliaceuni Hentz. 



FAMILY PHOLCOIDiE. 



PholcuH atlantieiis Hentz. 
Spennaphora meridionalis Hentz. 



Pholous pullulus (Hentz.) 



FAMILY SCYTODOID.E. 

Scytodes cameradus Hentz. Loxosceies longipes Marx :\rP. 

FAMILY AGALENOID/E. FUNNEL SPINNERS. 



Dirtyna sublata (Hentz.) 

volupis Keys. 
Amaurobiusatrox Marx MS. 
Cirlotes comunis Marx MS. 
Tegenaria medicinalis Hentz. 
Halmia pulchella Marx MS, 
Asalena nania Hentz. 



Dictvna moderata ^larx MS. 



FAMILY DRASSOID.E. ASSASSIN SPIDERS. 



Trachelas inermia Marx MS. 
I/iooraniun zonarium (Hentz.) 
crocatum (Hentz ) 
^licaria nitens Marx MS. 
Herpylbi8 ecdesiasticus Hentz, 
bicolor Hentz. 



Liocranum variegatum Marx IMS. 



Herpyllns vulgaris Marx MS, 



288 



invertf:brate fauna of south Carolina. 



Anyphrona liillens (Hentz.) 
albens (Hentz.) 
Phonolitlius nitens Marx MS. 
Gnaphosa variegata (Hentz ) 
Clubiona pallens Hentz. 

obesa Hentz. 

piscatoria Hentz. 

tranguilla Hentz. 

celer Hentz. 

saxatiles Korh. 
Cheiracanthiam albicum i\Iarx MS. 

saltabunduni (Hentz.) 
Drassus aureolis Marx MS. 

longipalpus Marx MS. 
Phriirolithus nitens Marx MS. 



Anypbicna gracilis (Hentz.) 

Pbonolitlius fasciatus Marx MS. 
Gnapbosa colunibiana ]\Iarx MS. 
Clubiona amarantha AValk. 

abottii Kodi. 

excepta Koch. 

corticalis Walk. 

riparia Koch. 

CheiraL'anthiiun atrox Marx MS. 

riparium Marx MS- 
Drassus tristis Marx MS. 

pavidus Marx MS. 
Phrurolithus fasciatus Marx MS. 



FAMILY DYSDEROID^. 



Pylarus bicolor Hentz. 



FAMILY FILISTATOID^, 

Filistata hibernalis Hentz. 



FAMILY THERAPHOSOID.E. MINING SPIDERS. 



Atypns niger Hentz. 
Paeliyiomerus solsticialis (Hentz.) 
Eurypelma bicolor (Hentz.) 
Mvgale truncata Hentz. 



Pacbylomerus carolinensis (Hentz.) 
Euryiebna gracilis (Hentz.) 



FAMILY THOMOSOID.E. CRAB SPIDERS. 



Xysticus triguttatus Keys. 

pulgerimus Keys. 

lenis Keys. 

punctatus Keys. 

elegans Keys. 
Osyptilla georgiana Keys. 
Coriarachne versicolor Keys. 
Syneina i)arvula Keys. 



Xysticus limbatus Keys, 
emertonii Keys, 
variabilis Keys. 
gulosus Keys. 



Synema nigroinaculata Keys. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



280 



Misumena spinosa Keys. 

rosea Keys. 

americana Keys. 
Diaea lepida Thorell. 
Runcinia brendelli Keys. 
Tmarus candatus Keys- 
Tibellus duttoni Keys. 
Thanatus rhombodoidus Marx MS. 
Philodromus aureolus Keys 
laticeps Keys, 
vulgaris Hentz. 



Misumena georgiana Keys, 
vatia Walk. 



Thanatus rubicundus Keys. 
Philodromus infuscatus Keys. 

imbecillus Keys. 

molitor Marx MS. 



FAMILY LYCOSOID^E. WOLF SPIDERS. 



Lycosa scutulata Hentz. 

punctulata Hentz. 
Tarentula sagitata (Hentz). 
ocreata (Hentz). 
ruricola (Hentz). 
lenta (Hentz). 
carolinensis (Hentz). 
georgiana (Marx MS). 
fatifera (Hentz). 
Trochosa furio.sa Marx ms. 
Dolomedes tenebrosus Hentz. 
tenax Hentz. 
albineus Hentz. 
urinator Hentz. 
Ctenus literalis Marx MS. 
Ocyale carolinensis (Hentz). 



Lycosa funerea Hentz. 

Tarentula saltatrix (Hentz). 
erratica (Hentz). 
litoralis (Hentz). 
maritima (Hentz). 
aspersa (Hentz). 
ripararia (Hentz). 



Dolomedes sexpunctatus Henta. 
marginatus Marx IMS. 
audax Marx MS. 



Ocyale variegata Marx MS. 



FAMILY OXYOPOID^. LYNX SPIDERS. 



Oxyopes viridans Hentz. 
scalaris Hentz. 



Oxyopes salticus Hentz. 
astutus Hentz. 



FAMILY ATTOID^. JUjMPING SPIDERS. 



Attus insolens Hentz. 
cardinalis Hentz. 
capitatus Hentz. 
militaris Hentz. 

19 



Attus parvus Hentz. 
rarus Hentz. 
niger Hentz. 
gracilis Hentz. 



290 



IXVERTEHRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



multicolor flentz. 

sexpunctatus Hentz. 

falcarius Hentz. 

bebes Hentz. 

oastaneus Hentz. 

taenifolia Hentz. 

elegans Hentz. 

familiaris Hentz. 

tripunctatus Hentz. 

laystaceus Hentz. 

atiosns Hentz, 

fasciolatus Hentz. 

rufns Hentz. 

podagrosus Hentz. 

rupicola Hentz. 

nubilis Hentz. 

parvus Hentz. 
Epiblemum faustum Hentz. 
Hentzia palmarum (Hentz). 
Synemosyna formica Hentz 

scorpionia Hentz. 



leojiardus Hentz. 
puerperus Hentz. 
vittatus Hentz. 
coronatus Hentz. 
coccatus Hentz. 
pulex Hentz. 
anratus Hentz. 
viridipe-s Hentz. 
multivagus Hentz. 
cristatus Hentz. 
mitratus Hentz. 
sylvanus Hentz. 
superciliosus Hentz. 
morigerus Hentz. 
cyaneus Hentz. 
oftavus Hentz. 



Synemosyna epliippiata Hentz. 
picata Hentz. 



ORDER PEDIPALPI. 

[Maxillary palpi greatly enlarged, ending in a forceps ; abdomen jointed.] 

FAxMILY PHALANGTD.E. HARVEST MEN, "DADDY-LOXG- 

LEGS." 

Phalangium dorsatum Say (?) (Va.) Phalangium maculosum Wood, 
vittatum Say. ventrico3:nn "Wood- 

calcar Wood. grande Say. 

forinosum Wood. • nigrum Say. 



FAMILY GONILEPTID.F:. 

Gonyleptes ornatum Say. (?) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 291 



ORDER ACARINA. MITES. 

[Cephalo-thorax merged with the non-jointed abdomen : Month parts adapted for 
biting or sucking.] 

The Mites of this country have not been well studied, and we shall 
omit them from our list. 



CLASS MYRIAPODA. 

[Body cylindrical ; composed of from ten to two hundred joints.] 



ORDER CHILOPODA. CENTIPEDES. 

[Each body-joint simple, and bearing a single pair of legs: Head composed of two 
regions; one before and one behind the mouth.] 



FAMILY CERMATIIDiE. 

Cermatia forceps Rafinesque. 

FAMILY LITHOBIIDiE. 

Lithobinus americanus Newport. 
Bothropolys multidentatus Newport. 



FAMILY SCOLOPENDRIDyE. 

Scolopendra heros var., castaniceps Wood, Scolopendra.viridis Say; (mountains of 

(Ga.) ^''^•) 

polymorpha VVood. 
Cryptops hyalina Say (Ga.) 
Opisthemega postica Wood. 
Soolopocryptops sexspinosa (Say). 



202 INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



FAMILY GEOPHILID/E. 

Mecistocephahis melanotus Wood (Ga.) 

Geophilus laevis AVood (Ga.) 

Strigamia laevipes Wood (Ga.) Strigamia taeniopsis Wood (Ga. 



ORDER DIPLOPODA. MILLIPEDES. 

[Body divided into numerous joints, each furnished with two pairs of short legs.] 

FAMILY LISIOPETALID^. 

Spirostrephon lactarius (Say). 



FAMILY JULID.E. 

Julus rainutus Brandt. 

Spirobolus marginatus (Say). Spirobolus spinigerus Wood. 



FAMILY POLYDESMID^. 



Paradesmus erythropygus Brandt. 
Fontaria virginiensis (Drury). 



FAMILY POLYXENID^. 

Polyxenus fasciculatus (Say). 

FAMILY POLYZONID.E. 

Octoglena bivirgata Wood (?) Ga. 

FAMILY SIPHONOPHORID^. 

Brachycybe LeContii Wood (?) Ga. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTPI CAROLINA. 



293 



CLASS CRUSTACEA. 

[Articulate animals with two pairs of antennae or feelers, with jointed appendages 
to some of the abdominal segments, with gills or vesicles for breathing air in water, 
and a hard chitinous or subcalcareous covering to the body] 



ORDER DECAPODA. TEN-FOOTED CRUSTACEANS. 



Achelous spinimana DeHaan (N. C. 
Alpheus minus Say. 



Cancer borealis Stm. (Atlantic coast). 

Cambarus immunis Hagen (N. C. ) 
latimanus LeConte. 
lecontei Hagen (N. C.) 
pencillatus LeConte. 



Achelous gibbesii Stm. (N. C.) 

depressifrons Stm. (N. C.) 
Alpheus heteroehelis Say (N- C.) 
Araneus cribrarius Dana (N. C.) 
Calappa marmorata Fabr. 
Callianassa stimpsonii Smith (Atlantic coast). 
Callichirus major Stm. 
Callinectes hastatus Ordway [Sea-crab). 
Cancer irroratus Say (Rock-crab). 
Cambarus (Cray-fishes Fresh water.) 
advena. 
acutus. 

blandingii Harlan, 
carolinus Erichson. 
Carinus moenas Leach (Atlantic coast). 
Clibanarius vittatus Stm. (N. C.) 
*Crangon vulgaris Fabr. 
Euceramus praelongus Stm. (N. C.) 
Eurytium limossum Say. 
Eupagurus (Hermit-crabs, living in abandoned shells of periwinkles, and other mol- 

lusks; the following three species are found) : 
E. annulipes Stm. 
longicarpus Stm. 
pollicaris Stm. 
Gebia afflnis Say. 
Gelasimus. (Fiddler-crabs. Very abundant on the muddy banks of salt-marsh, 

streams, and hiding in holes in the ground). 
G. minax LeConte (N. C.) 
pugnax Smith, 
pugillator (N. C.) 



* This is the common shrimp. It may be distinguished from its congener, the common prawn, 
by the character of the rostrum or beak that projects Irom the head end of the back. This oeak 
in the sTiriwp is short, with a single spine behind it. In the prawn it is long, upturned, and 
toothed, having eight or nine teeth on the upper edge, and three or four on the lower. The name 
of the common pj-awn. is Palaemonetes vulgaris. 



294 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Hepatus decorus Gibbes. {Spotted crab.) 

Heterocryi)ta granulata Gibbes. 

Hippa talpoida Saj', 

Hippolysmata Murdemanni (Gibbes) Stin. Hippolysmata paludosa. 

Homariis ainericanus M. Edw. {Lobster.) 

[The common Lobster has been found at Ft. Macon, North Carolina, but it does not 
ajipear to have been recorded from South Carolina.] 



Lepidops scutella Desm. (N. C.) 
Libinia caniliculata Say [Spider crab). 
Lithadia cariosa Stm. (N. C.) 
Menippe mercenaria Say {Stone crab). 
Metoi)orha]iis calcarata Say. 
Xeptunus sayi Stm. (Atlantic coast), 
(^cyopoda arenaria Say {Land crab). 
Palaemonetes carolinus Stm. 
Panopeus herbstii M. Edw. 
Panopeus depressus Smith (Atlantic coast.' 
Peneus braziliensis Latreille. 

constrictus Stimp.son. 
Pelia mutica Gibbes- 
Persephone punctata Browne. 
Pilumnus aculeatus M. Edw. 
Pinnixa cha3topterana Stimpson (N. C.) 

cylindrica Say {S. C.) 
Pinnotheres maculatus Say 
Piagusia. 

Platyonichus ocellatus Herbst {Sand Crab. 
Pontonia domestica. 
Porcellana ocellata Gibbes- 
Ranilia muricata Edw. (Atlantic coast.) 
Sesarma cinerea Bosc 
Tozeuma carolinensisKingsley (N. C.) 
Urocaris longicaudata Stimpson. 
Virbius pleuracanthus Stimpson (X. C.) 



Libinia dubia (M. Edw ) 



Palaemonetes vulgaris Say {Common praiun) 
Panopeus harrisii Gould (Atlantic coast). 
Panopeus sayi Smith (Atlantic coast.) 
Peneus setiferus M. Edw. 



Pinnixa sayana Stimpson (X. C.) 
Pinnotheres ostreura Sa'y {Oyster Crab.) 

Porcellana sociata Say. 
Sesarma reticulata Say. 



ORDER STOMAPODA. 

[Seven or eight pairs of legs. Eyes pedunculated. Gills genei-ally attached to the 
false fat of the abdomen.] 

Squilla dubia M. Edg. ? Squilla neglecta Gibbes. 

empusa Saj'. scabricauda Sas. 

? mantis. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 295 



ORDER AMPHIPODA 

[Seven pairs of legs. Eyes sessile. Membraneous vesicles for breathing organs. 
Body frequently compressed.] 

Amphitlue dentata Say. 

Gammarus mucronatus Say. Gammarus fosciatus Say. 

Talorchestia longicornis Smith (commonly known as Beach-flea, and Sand-hopper.) 



ORDER ISOPODA. 

[Seven pairs of legs. Eyes sessile. Gills for breathing organs. Body usually de- 
pressed] 

Armadillidium pilularis Say [Pill-hug.) 

Asellus communis Say. Asellus lineatus Say. 

Conilera concharum Hargr. 

Idottea cteca Say. 

Livoneca ovalis Say [Fish-louse.) 

Lygia gaudichaudii M. Edw. ( Wharf-louse ) 

Nesfea caudata Say. 

Nerocilla variabilis Gibbes. 

Porcellio (probably several species; on land only; commonly known as sow bugs and 

pill bugs.) 
Sphteroma quadridentata Say. 



ORDER L^MODIPODA. 

[Posterior segments of body provided with legs. Eyes sessile. Breathing by 
vesicles. All marine.] 

Caprella equilibra Say. Caprella geometrica Say. 



EATOMOSTRACA. 

[This group includes several orders of cru.staceans, which have mostly a horny or 
chitinous shell. Most species are minute, and many live in fresh water.] 

Cyclops naviculus Say. 
Cypris sp. 



29G INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Cy there bifasciata Say. 

Daplinia angnlata Saj'. 

Limulus polyphemus Linn. (This species has a long, pointed, spine-like tail. It at- 
tains a length of more than a foot. It is commonly known as the Horse-shoe 
Crab, also King Crab.) 



CIRRIPEDIA. BARNACLES. 

[Six pairs of forked, cileated limbs. Permanently attached in the adult state ] 

Acasta spongites. 

Balanus balanoides Stm. (Acorn barnacles.) 
ebnrneus Gould, 
galeatus Darwin. 
Lepas (Goose barnacles.) 
anatifera Linn, 
anserifera Linn, 
pectinata Spengler. 



CLASS ANNELIDA. TRUE WORMS. 

[Mostly with red blood ; body with external segmentation. Xo jointed appendages. 
Aquatic respiration by means of the general surface of the body, by involutions of the 
skin, or by gills.] 



ORDER POLYCH.ETA. 



Arabella opalina Verrill (N. C.) 

Anthostoma robustum Verrill (N. C.) 

Cistenides gouldii Verrill. 

Diopatra cuprea Claparede 

Hydroides dianthus Verrill (N. C.) 

Nephthys picta Ehlers. 

Nereis limbata Ehlers. 

Rhynchobolus aniericanus Verrill (N. C.) 



INVERTEBKATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 297 

Sabellaria vulgaris Verrill (N. C.) 

Sabella micropthaluia Verrill (N. C.) 

Serpula fascicularis Lam, 

Spio caudatus. 

Spirorbis sp. 

Terebe'la conchifera Pall. Terebella ventricosa Bosc. 



ORDER OLIGOCH^TA. 

Lumbricus terrestris Linn. (This is the common earth or angle worm.) 



ORDER HIRUDINEA. LEECHES. 

Clepsine SM^ampina Diesing. (Upon frogs and toads.) 



CLASS SCOLECIDA. 

[Mostly parasitic; possessing a ■water- vascular sj'stem.l 



ORDER TURBELLARL\. NON-PARASITIC. 



Balanoglossus aurantiacus Verrill. 
Cerebratulus ingens Verrill (N. IJ.) 
^reckelia ingens Leidy. 



ORDER GORDIACEA. HAIR WORMS. 

[In one state parasitic in grasshoppers, etc. They are the so-called Hair-snakes 
when in water.] 



208 INVERTEBRATE FAUXA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER NEMATODA. ROUND WORMS. 

The two following doubtless occur : 
Trichina spiralis. (The pork parasite.) 
Anguillula aceti, (Vinegar eel.) 



ORDER TiENIADA. TAPE WORMS. 

Ttenia echinococcus is found in the dogr, and T;enia mediocanellata and solium in 
man. (For further information, see Verrill's work on Parasites.) 



MOLLUSCA. 

CLASS CEPHALOPODA. 

[Mollusks with a distinct head ; around the mouth are eight or more tentacles ; body 
enclo.*ed in a mantle ; two or four plume-like gills.] 

Loligo brevis Blainville. (Squid.) 
Octopus granulatus Lam. (Cuttle-fish.) 
Ommastrephes bartramii Lesueiir (N. C.) 



CLASS GASTEROPODA. 

[Shell univalve ; locomotion effected by a ventral foot or fin-like organ : head dis- 
tinct.] 

TERRESTKIAL OR LAND SXAILS. 

Glandina truncata Gmelin. 

Hyalina cernioidea Anthonj'^ (N. C.) Hyalina ligera Say (Ga.) 

arborea Say (Eastern U. S.) demissa Binney (Ga.) 

indentata Say (East. U. S.) fulva Draparnaud (U. S.) 

intertexta Binney (Ga.) interna Say (Ga.) 

(Helicodiscus) lineata Say (E. U. S.) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



290 



Macrooylis concava Say (Ga. 
Helix alternata (East U.S.) 

perspectiva Say (East. U. S.) 

posteliana Bland (Ga.) 

espicola Eavenel. 

hazardi Bland (Ga.) 

pustula Fer. 

pustuloides Bland (Ga.) 

leporma Gould (Ga.) 

spinosa Lea (Ga.) 

barbigera Redfield (Ga.) 

stenotrema Fer (Southern States.) 

maxillata Gould (Ga.) 

monodon Rackett (East. U. S) 

palliata Say (Ga.) 

obstricta Say. 

appressa Say. 

inflecta Say (Ga.) 



Helix rugila Shuttleworth (N. C.) 
tridentata Say. 
liillax Say. 

introferens Bland fN. N.) 
hopetonensis Sliuttleworth. 
major Binney. 
albolabris Say. 
elevata Say (Ga.) 
clarkii Lea (N. C.) 
christyi Bland (N. C.) 
exoleta Binney (Ga.) 
wheatleyi Bland (N. C.) 
thyroides Say. 
bucculenta Gould (N. C.) 
jejuna Say (Ga.) 
pulchella Mueller. 

aspera Mueller (European. Intro- 
duced.) 



Bulimulus dealbatus Say (N. C.) 

Stenogyra decolata Linn. (Introduced from Europe at Charleston, S. C.) 



Pupa pentodon Say. 

fallax Say. 
Vertigo milium. 
Succinea avara Say (East U. S.) 

obliqua Say (Ga.) 
Sonites kopnodes Binney (Ga.) 

laevigata Pfeiffer (E. U. S.) 
inornata Say (N. C.) 
Tebennophorsus carolinensis Bosc 
Limax flavus Linn. 



Pupa contracta Say (East. U. S.) 

costioaria Say. 
Vertigo ovata Say. 
Succinea campestris. 

Sonites sculptilis Bland (N. C.) 
elliotii Redfield (N. C.) 
suppressa Say (East. U.S.) 



MOSTLY FRESH WATER 
Carychium exiguum Say. 
Melampus bidentatus Say. 
Limnsea columella Say 
Physa gj'rina Say. 
Planorbis lentus Say. 

glabratus Say. 

trivoluis Say (U. S.) 
Pomus depressa Say (Ga.) 
Viripara intertexta Say (Ga.) 

contectoides Buiney (Ga.) 
Melantha decisa Say. 



Melampus obliquus Say (On beach N. C.) 
Limnsea humilis Say. 
Phy.«a heterostropha Say (Ga.) 
Planorbis bicarinatus Say (E. U. S.) 
parvus Say. 



Viripara georgiana Lea. 
Melantha coarctata Lea. 



300 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Lioplax cydostomatiformis Lea (Ga.) 
Bythinella tennii)es Coupr. (Ga.) 
Poinatiopsis laj^idaria Say (Ga.) 

(Under stones in wet places), 
Helicina articulata (Ga.) 



MOSTLY MARINE. 



Utriculus canaliculatus Say. 
Bulla solitaria Say. 
Chiton apiculatus Say. 
Entalis pliocena T. and H. (N. C.) 
Crepidula formicata Linn. 

formicata var. intorta Say (N. 

conveya Say. 
Fissurella alternata Say. 
Zizyphinus sp. (N. C.) 
Turbo crenulatus Gm. ? 
Littorina irrorata Say. 
Scalaria humphreysii Keiner (N. C.) 

angulata Say. 
Solarium granulatum Lam. (N. C) 
Vermetus radicula Stimpson (N. C.) 
Cerithium sp. (N. C.) 
Bittium nigrum Tott. 

greenii C. B. Ad. (N. C.) 
Triforis nigrocinctus C. B. Ad. (N. C.) 
Chemnitza spirata Ktz. and Stm. 
Odostomia seminuda C. B. Ad. 
Turbonilla interrupta Tott- (N. C.) 
Obeliscus crenulatus Holmes. (N. C.) 
Eissoa pupoidea Ktz. and Stm. 
Eulima oleacea Ktz. and Stm. 
Sigaretus persjiectivus Say. 
Natica pusilla Say. 

Porcellana (Cypraea) exanthema Linn. 
Pleurotoma cerina Ktz. and Stm. 
Marginellaapicina Menke. (N. C.) 

guttata Dillwyn. 
Oliva literata Lam 



Crepidula unguiformis Say (N. C.) 
C.) aculeata Gmelin. 



Littorina dilatata d'Orbrgny. (N. C. 
Scalaria lineata Saj'. 

turbinata Conrad (N. C.) 



Bittium sp. (N. C.) 



Odostomia impressa Say. 



Eulima conoidea Ktz. and Stm. 



(N. C.) 

Pleutotoma plicata C. B. Ad. (N. C) 
Marginella roseida Redfield (N. C.) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



301 



Olivella mutica Say. 
Columbella avara Say. 

lunata Say, 
Dolium galea Linn. 
Seinicassis granulosa Lamarck (N. C.) 
Cassis cameo Stm. (N. C.) 
Purpura floridafta Conr. (N. C.) 
Ilyonassa obsoleta Say. 
Nassa vibex Say. 

Ceritliiopsis terebralis C- B. Adams. 
Acus concavus Say. 
Anachis similis Verrill. (N. C.) 
Eapana (Fusus) cimerea Say. 
Busycon pyrum Dillw. 

canaliculatum Linn. 
Cancellaria reticulata Linn. 
Fasciolaris tulipa Linn. 

distans Lara. 
Ranella caudata Say. 
Murex spinicostata Val. (N. C.) 
Strombus pugilis Gm. (N. C.) 
INIitra granulosa Lamarck. 



Columbella mercatoria Linn. (N. C.) 
ormata Ravenel ? (N. C.) 



Nassa trivittata Say. 
Acus dislocatus Say. 



Busycon carica Linn. 

perversum Linn. 

Fasciolaris gigantea Kriener. 



Strombus alatus Gm. 



CLASS PTEROPODA. 

Free ; swimming by means of two wing-like appendages (epipodia) 
Styliola acicula Lesuenr (N. C.) 



CLASS LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 



Gills in the form of lamellae ; shell bivalve. 



302 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



FAMILY UXIOXID.E. FRESH-WATER CLAMS OR MUSSELS. 



Unio abbevillensis Lea. 

aberans Lea (N. C.) 

angustatiis Lea (Cooper River.) 

barrattii Lea (Abbeville.) 

beaverensis Lea (N. C.) 

bisselianus Lea (N. C.) 

buxens Lea (Abbevil'e.) 

castus Lea. 

catawbensis Lea (X. C.) 

charlottensis Lea (N. C.1 

chathamensis Lea (X. C.) 

cistellaeformis Lea. 

complanatus Sol. 

concavus Lea (Abbeville.) 

confertus Lea (Santee canal.) 

congaraeus Lea (Congaree River.) 

contignus Lea (X. C.) 

contractus Lea (X. C.) 

cnratus Lea (X. C.) 

datus Lea (X. C.) 

decoratus Lea (Abbeville Dist.) 

dorsatus Lea (X. C.) 

emmonsii Lea (X. C.) 

exactus Lea (X. C.) 

fulvus Lea. 

gastonensis Lea (X. C ) 

geddingsranus Lea (Congaree River.) 

gracilentus Lea (X. C.) 

griffitbianus Lea. 

hepatieus Lea (Salkaliatchie River.) 

humerosus Lea (X. C.) 

indefinitus Lea (X. C ) 

ineptiis Lea (Abbeville Dist ) 

insulus Lea (X. C ) 

jejunus Lea. 

lanceolatus Lea (X. C.) 

lazarus Lea (Abbeville Dist.) 

livingstonensis Lea (X. C.) 

lucidua Lea (X. C.) 

meeklenbergensis Lea (X. C.) 

mediocris Lea (X. C.) 



Unio merus Lea (Abbeville Dist.) 

micans Lea (X. C.) 

tnodioliformis Lea (Santee canal.) 

nasutulus Lea (N. C.) 

neusensis Lea (X. C.) 

nubilis Lea (X. C.l 

obesus Lea. 

oblatus Lea (X'. C) 

palliatus Lea fX. C ) 

pawensis Lea (X. C.) 

percoarctatus Lea (X'. C.) 

perlatns Lea (X. C.) 

perlucens Lea (X, C.) 

pernodosus Lea (X. C.) 

perstriatus Lea (Abbeville Dist.) 

pertennis Lea (X. C.j 

planilaterus Con. (X. d) 
protensus Lea (X. C.) 
pullus Con (Wateree River.) 
pumihis Lea (X. C.) 
purus Lea (X. C.) 
pygmaeus Lea (Abbeville.) 
quadriiaterus Lea. 
raleighensis Lea (X. C.) 
ravelianus Lea (X. C.) 
roanokensis Lea (X. C.) 
rostrum Lea (N. C.) 
rufusculus Lea (Abbeville Dist.) 
sordidus Lea (Abbeville Dist.) 
spadiceus Lea (X. C.) 
squalidus Lea (.X. C.) 
squamens Lea (X. C.) 
striatulus Lea (X. C.) 
tenerus Rav. 

tuomeyi Lea (Abbeville Dist.) 
utriculus Lea (X. C.) ■ 
vaughanianus Lea (Camden.) 
viridulus Lea (X. C.) 
watereensis Lea (Wateree canal.) 
waccamawensis Lea (N. C.) 
veldoncnsis Lea (N. C.) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Margaritana marginata Say. jMurgaritana triangulata Lea. 

raveneliana Lea (N. C.) 
Auodouta doliaris Lea (N. C.) Anodonta virgulata Lea (N. C.) 

dunlapiana Lea. 

MARINE SPECIES. 



Teredo megotara Hanle}'. 
Pholas triincata Say, 



{Ship Worms.) 

Teredo dilatata Stm. 
Pholas costata Linn. 



Panopa\a bitrancata Cour. (fossil?) (N, C. 



Strigilla flexuosa Say. 
Tellina iris Say. 
polita Say. 



Ziriiha?a crispata Morch. 

Saxicava distorta Say. 

Pandora trilineata Say (N. C.)' 

Lyonisia hyalina Cour (N. C.) 

Cochlodesma leanum Conr. (N. C.) 

Gastrochpena sp. (N. C.) 

Panoprea aniericana Conr. (N. C.) 

Myalina subovata Conr. (N. C.) 

Corhula contracta Say. 

Mya arenaria Linn (long Clam.) (Tliia is also called the soft-shelled claui.) 

Solemya velum Say (N. C.) 

Siliquaria bidens Chenin (N. C ) Siliqiiaria gibba Spengle. 

Solen ensis Linn. (Razor shell.) 

Strigilla sp (N.C.) 

Tellina alternata Say. 

tenera Say. 

tenta Say. 
Abra ?equalis Say. 

Amphidesma constrieta? Phill. (X. C.) 
Semele orbiculata Say 
Cumingia tellinoides Cour. 
Donax variabilis Say. 
Mactra lateralis Say. 

solidissinia Chem. 
Raeta lineata Say. 
Petricola pholadiformis Lam. 

Venus mercenavia Linn. (Quahog ) (This is the common round clam.) 
Lucinopsis sp- (N. C.) 
Dorsinia discus Reeve. 

Cytherea gigantea Chemn. (N. C.) Cytherea convesa Say (N. C.) 

Tottenia manhattensis Verrill (N. C.) 
Chione grata Say (N. C.) 
Gemina totteni Stm. (N. C.) 



Jlartra raveneli Cour. (N. C) 

Rteta canaliculata Saj'. 
Petricola dactylus Sow. 



304 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



{Sea Mussel? 



Mercenaria mortoni Conr. (N. C.) 

violacea Schum. (N. C.) 
Cardita tridentata Say. 
Astarte lunulata Conr. 
Diplodonta? punctata Say (N. C.) 
Lucina chrysostoraa (N. C.) 
Liocardium mortoui Conr. (N. C.) 
Cardium isocardia Linn 

muricatum Linn. 
Chama macrophylla Chemn. (N. C.) 

Mytilus carolinensis (N. C.) 

edulis Linn. (N. C ) 
Argina pexata Gray (Bloody clam.) 
Modiola americana Leach (N. C.) 

castanea Say? 
Modiolaria lateralis Say. 

Avicula atlantica Lam. 
Pinna muricata Linn. 
Leda acuta Conr. (N. C.) 
Yoldia limatula Say, 
Nucula proxima Say. 
Area americana Gray. 

holmesii Kurtz. 

lienosa Say. 

noa2 Linn. 

occidentalis. 
Pectunculus charlestonensis ? Holmes. 
Pecten nodosus Lam. 

concentricus Say. 
Lima scabra Born. 
Plicatula depressa Lam. 

Ostrjea virginiana Latr. 
equestris Say. 

Anomia glabra Verrill (fossil ?). 

TUNICATA. 

[Body protecte-l by a leathery, elastic integument, 
of a respiratory sack.] 

Molgula pellucida Verrill (N. C ) 

Cynthia partita Stm. (N. C.) 

Amaroecium stellatum Verrill (X. C.) 



Mercenaria violacea var. notata (N. C.) 



Lucina strigilla Stm. 

Laocardium Ijevigatum Lam. (N. C.) 

Cardium magnum Born. (N. C.) 

Chama arcinella Linn. 



Mytilus cubitus Say. 



Modiola plicatula Lam. 

hamatus Verrill (N. C ) 



Pinna seminuda Lam. 



Area transversa Say. 
limula Conr. 
ponderosa Say. 
incongrua Say. 



Pecten dislocatus Say. 



(Oysters) 

Ostrrea fundata Say. 



Mouth opening into the bottom 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



305 



BRACHIOPODA. 

[One nerve ganglion ; shell bivalve ; mouth with two long cirriferous arms. Mostly- 
fossil.] 

Lingnla pyramidata Stm. (N. C.) 



BRYOZOA OR POLYZOA. 

[Body consisting of a double -walled sack ; mouth surrounded by a circle or crescent, 
of hollow, ciliated tentacles. Animals always in composite colonies.] 

Crisia eburnea Lamx. (N. C) 
Amathia alternata Lamx. (N. C.) 
Vesicularia armata Verrill (N. C.) 
Aetea anguina Lamx. ? (N. C.) 
Bugula turrita Verrill (N. C.) 
Acamarchis neritina Lamx. (N. C.) 
Membranifora lineata Busk. (N. C.) 
Biflustra denticulata Smitt (N. C.) 
Hippothoa hyalina Smitt (N. C.) 
biaperta Smitt (N. C.) 
Cellepora avicularis Hisscks (N. C) 
Lepralia americana Verrill (N. C.) 
Discopora nitida (N. C.) 



Membranifora catenularia Smitt (N. C.) 
Hippothoa (Aescharella) variabilis Verrill. 



CLASS ECHINODERMATA. 

[Radiate animals, with a calcareous shell, or with calcareous spicules in the skin- 
They possess an ambulacral system.] 



ORDER HOLOTHUROIDEA. SEA CUCUMBERS. 

[Echnioderms covered with a coriaceous skin, in which are calcareous granules or 
spicules. Shape of body, elongated, slug like.] 

Thyone briareus Selenka (N. C.) 
Pentamera pulcherrima Ayres. 
Thyonella gemmata Verrill. 
Anaperus caro^nus Frosch. 

20 



300 INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER ECHNOIDExV. SEA URCHINS. 

[Echinoderms with a shell usually globose in shape, and made up of calcareous 
plates, having a definite arrangement. Teeth present, forming a complicated mechan- 
ism, known as Ari.stotle's lantern, Pedicellaria present in some ] 

Arbacia punctulata Gray (N. C.) 

(Commonly known as the purple sea-urchin). 
Cidaris tribuloides Bl. 
Clypeaster subdepressus Ag. 
Echinanthus rosaceus Gray. 
Echinometra subangularis Desml. 

Echinocardium flavescens A. Ag. Echinocardium cordatum Gray. 

Encope emarginata Ag. 
Mellita pentapora Liitken | Sand cakes. 

sexforis A. Ag. j Shape flattened. 

Moira atropos A. Ag. 
Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis A. Ag. 

(Commonly known as the green sea-urchin). 
Toxopneustes variegatus A. Ag. (X. C.) 



ORDER ASTROIDEA. STAR-FISHES. 

[The viscera extending into each of the five arms. Pedicellaria present. No teeth.] 

Asterias forbesii Verrill (X. C.) Asterias spinosus Link. 

Astropecten articulatus (Say) Luetken. 
Luidia clathatra (Say) Luetken. 



ORDER OPHIUROIDEA. BRITTLE SEA-STARS. 

[Body discoidal ; the five arms do not contain prolongations of the alimentary canal- 
No pedicellaria. A masticatory apparatus.] 

Ophiura brevispina Say. Ophiura elongata Say. 

Ophiophragmus wurdemanni Lyman (N. C.) 
Ophiotrix angulata Ayres. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA. OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



CLASS ACALEPH.E. JELLY-FISHES. 

[Radiate jelly-like animals, with a central cavity hollowed out of the mass of the 
body, which is usually made up of four (or some multiple of four) parts.] 



Bolena littoralis McCready. 

Mnemiopsis gardenir Agassiz. 

Beroe punctata Esch. 

Idyiopsis clarkii Ag. 

Stomolophus meleagris Ag. 

Dactylometra quinquecirra Ag (N. C.) 

Cyanea versicolor Ag. 

Foveola octonaria A. Ag. 

Cunina discoides Fewkes (N. C.) 

Cheiropsalamus quadrumanus F. Mueller 

Tamoya haplonema F. Mueller (N. C.) 

Persa incolorata McCready. 

Liriope scutigera McCreadj'. 

Oceania folliata Ag. 

Eucheilota ventricularis McCready. 

Dipleuron parvum Brooks (N. C. 

Clytia bicophora Ag. 

Platj'pyxis cylindrica Ag. 

Campanularia carolinensis Verrill (N. C.) 

Eucope divaricata A. Ag. 

Eutima mira McCr. 

cuculata Brooks (N. C.) 
Aglaophenia tricuspis Ag. 

trifida. 
Nematophorus sp. Brooks (N. C.) 
Plumularia quadridens McCr. 
Dynamena cornlcina McCr. 
Diphasia (nigra-like) Ag. 
Margelis carolinensis Ag. 
Nemopsis bachei Ag. (Charleston). 
Endendrium ramosum McC. 
Turritopsis nutricula McCr. (Charleston). 
Stomatoca apicata McCr. (Charleston). 
Willia ornata McCr. 
Dipuriiia cervicata McCr. 
Corynetis agassizii McCr. 
Gemmaria gemmosa McCr. 
Pennaria tiasella McCr. 



Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz. 



(N. C.) 



Campanularia noliformis McCr. (N. C.) 
Eucope obliqua Brooks (N. C.) 
Eutima emarginata Brooks (N. C.) 

variabilis McCr. 
Aglaophenia rigida ? AUraan (N. C.) 



Plumularia (catharina-like) McCr. 
Dynamena bilateralis Brooks (N. C.) 



Endendrium tenue ? A. Ag. (N. C) 



Dipurina strangulata McCr. 



Pennaria inornata Brooks (N. C.) 



308 INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Ectopleura tnrricula Ag. Ectopleura ochracea A. Ag (N. C.) 

Parypha cristata Ag. 
Streenstrupia gracilis Brooks (N. C.) 
Hydractinia polyclina Ag. 
Eudoxia alata McCr. 
Diphyes pusilla McCr. 
Physalia arethusa Til. 
Velella mutica Bosc. 
Porpita linniana Less. 
Nanomia cara A. Ag. 

Obelia commissuralis McCr. (Charleston). 
Lafoea calcarata A. Ag. (Charleston). 

Sertularia cornicina Verrill (Charleston). Sertularia carolinensis Verrill (N. C.) 
( Desmoscyphus ) achilleas Ver- 
rill (N. C.) 
!Pelagia cyanella Peron and Lesueur (N. C.) 
Diphasia sp. (N. C.) 



CLASS POLYPI OR ANTHOZOA. 

[Eadiate animals, with a tubular or sack-like body, in the centre of the summit of 
which is an opening called the mouth, which is surrounded by one or more rows of 
tentacles.] 



ORDER ALCYONARIA. CORAL ANIMALS. 

[Body built on the plan of four ; eight pinnately fringed tentacles. They are 
called the Asteroid Polypes. The red coral of commerce belongs here.] 

Renilla renifornis Cuvier (N. C.) 

Leptogorgia carolinensis Verrill (N. C.) Leptogorgia virgulata M. Edw. (N. C.) 

setacea Verrill (N. C.) 
Anthopodium rubens Verrill (N. C.) 
Titanideum suberosum Verrill (N. C.) 
Telesto fructiculosa Dana (N. C.) 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 309 



ORDER ACTINARIA. SEA ANEMONES &c. 

Sagartia leucolena Verrill (N. C.) 
Paractis rapiformis M. Edw. (N. C.) 
Halocampa producta (Stm.) Verrill (X. C.) 
Calliactis sol Verrill (N. C.) 
Aulactinia capitata Verrill (N. C.) 
Cladactis cavernata Verrill (N. C. ) 
Cerianthus americamis Verrill (N. C.) 
Ilyanthus chloropsis (Ag.) Verrill (N. C.) 
Paranthea pallida Verrill (N. C.) 



ORDER MADREPORARIA. 

[The polypes of this order have tentacles, mostly six or some multiple of six in 
number. Most corals are formed by animals of this group. They abound in tropical 
waters ] 

Astrangia danse Ag. (Star coral.) 

Oculina arbuscula Verrill (N. C.) Oculina implicata Verrill (N. C.) 



PROTOZOA. 

[Animals generally of minute size, composed of a nearly structureless, jelly-like 
substance, having no definite body cavity, presenting no trace of a nervous system, 
and whose alimentary apparatus, if at all differentiated, is very rudimentary. 



SPONGIDA. SPONGES. 

Microciona prolifera Verrill (N. C.) 

Chalina arbuscula Verrill (N. C.) 

Cliona sulphurea Verrill (N. C.) 

Hircina campana Nardo (N. C) 

Spongia vermiculata var. Hyatt (N. C.) 

Spongelia spinosa Hyatt (N. C.) Spongelia dubia var. foraminosa Hyatt (X.C.) 

Dysidea fragilis Johnston ? (N. C.) 

Doubtless, if the fresh water ponds are examined, other sponges will 
be found growing in quiet spots on submerged branches, stones, &c. 
The student is referred to an article by H. J. Carter, in the Ann. and 



310 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



Mag. Nat. Hist., Febr., 1881, on the known species of Spongilla\ also, to 
Mr. E. Potts, Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., Pa., who is making a special study of 
Fresh Water Sponges. 



MICROSCOPIC PROTOZOANS. 

[Most of the following Rhizopads and infusoriuns were originally described by 
Ehrenberg.] 



Amreba proteus 
Amblyophis viridis. 
Amphileptas anser. 
A reel! a dentata. 
Difflugia pi'oteiformis. 
Dinobryon sertularia. 
Epistylis anastatica. 
Euglena pleuronectes. 
Hydatina senta. ' 

Lepadella ovalis. 
Megalotrocha alboflavicans 
Monostyla lunaris. 
Ophrydium versatile. 
Peridininm carolinianum Bailey.* 
Pterodina patina. 
Scardidiuni longicaudum. 
Squamella oblonga. 
Vorticella clorostigma. 



Arcella vulgaris. 
Difflugia spiralis Bailey. 



Euglena viridis. 



Peridiniuni cinctum Ehrenberg. 



The following Protozoans belonging to the Rhizopoda, as defined by Leidy, are so 
wide spread in the fresh waters of the United States-, that they probably all occur in 
South Carolina. They are to be looked for in the ooze of ponds, among Sphagnum in 
swamps, etc. 



Amoeba verrucosa Ehrenberg. 
Pelomyxa villosa. 
Difflugia pyriformis Perty. 

urceolata Carter. 

cratera Leidy. 

acuminata Ehrenberg. 
Xebela collaris Ehren 
Arcella discoides Ehren. 



Ama3ba radiosa. 

Difflugia lobostoma Leidy. 
corona Wailich. 
constricta Ehren. 



Arcella mitrata Leidy. 



INVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



311 



Centropyxis aculeata Eliren. 
Cochliopodium bilimbosum Auerbacli. 
Pamphagus mutabilis Bailey. 
Pseudodifflugia gracilis Schlumberger. 
Cypboderia ampulla Ehren. 
Campascus cornutus Leidy. 
Euglypha alveolata Dujardin. 
Sphenoderia lenta Schlumberger. 
Actinophrys sol Miiller. 
Actinosphserium eichornii Ehren. 
Acanthocystis chretophora Schrank. 



Cochliopodium vestitum Archer. 
Pamphagus hyaliiiis Ehren. 



Most of the above species marked (N. C.) are given on the authority of Drs. Coues 
and Yarrow, whose papers on the fauna of Ft. Macon, N. C, in the Proc. Phila. Acad- 
Sci., 1871 and 1876. will be found of value to the student. We suggest that those in- 
terested endeavor to verify and add to this list. 

The following works, most of which have been used in the revision, will be useful 
to the student of South Carolina Invertebrata : 



Invertebrates of Vineyard Sound ; by A. 
E. Verrill in the Rep. U. S. Fish Com- 
mission, 1871-72. 

Land and Fresh Water Shells of N. A. j 
by W. G. Binney. Smithsonian Mis- 
cellaneous Collections. 

A Synopsls of the Family Unioxid.e : by 
Isaac Lea- 4to, Phila., 1870. 

Monograph of N. A. Astacid.e ; by Her- 
mann Hagen, Museum of Comp. Zoolo- 
gy, Cambridge, Mass. 

The External and Internal Parasites 
OF Man and Domestic Animals ; by A. 
E. Verrill in the Eeport Connecticut 
Board of Agriculture, 1870. 



Illustrated Catalogue of N. A. Acalephs 
or Jelly Fishes ; by A. Agassiz, Mu- 
seum Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
1865. 



History of the Infusora ; 
Published in London. 



Pritchard. 



Microscopic Observations made in S. C, 
Ga. and Fla. ; by J. W. Bailey, and 
published in the Smithsonian Contri- 
butions to Knowledge, Vol II., 1S51. 

Fresh Water Phizopoda of N. A. ; by 
by Jos. Leidy. IJ. S. Geol. Survey, 
1879. 4to, with 48 plates. 

(The last three works treat wholly of 
microscopic animals.) 



CHA.PTER XII. 



A LIST OF THE MORE COMMON 

NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS 
OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



BY H. W. RAVENEL, 

AIKEN, S. C, MAECH, 1882. 



SERIES I. 

Flowering plants, with roots, stems, leaves, fruit and seeds. Phaenogams. 

CLASS I. 

Plants with two seed leaves (cotyledons), as cotton, peas, &c., having 
stems with bark and pith, and a woody layer between them : growth 
by annual layers between the wood and bark ; veins of the leaves form- 
ing a network. Dicotyledons or Exogens. 

DIVISION L 

Having two sets of floral leaves, one green, the other colored ; the 
colored leaves more or less numerous ; separate. Polypetalous. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



313 



ORDER I. CROWFOOT FAMILY. RANUNCULACE^. 

Herbs or climbing shrubs, with water_v, acrid juice : leaves general!}^ divided, with 
leaf stallc dihxtedat base ; ovaries distinct, numerous ; fruit dry. 



1. CRISPED CLEMA.TIS; BLUE JESSAMINE. 

2. TRAVELER'S JOY ; LEATHER FLOWER. 

3. VIRGIN'S BOWER. 

4. DWARF CLEMATIS. 

5. WOOD ANEMONE 

6. CAROLINA ANEMONE. 

7. LIVER LEAF. 

8. EARLY MEADOW RUE. 

9. MEADOW RUE 

10. RUE ANEMONE. 

11. ORANGE ROOT ; YELLOW ROOT ; GOLDEN 

SEAL. 

12. MARSH MARYGOLD ; COLT'S FOOT ; 

GROUND IVY. 

13. CELERY-LEAVED CROWFOOT ; BITING 

CROWFOOT. 

14. CREEPING CROWFOOT. 

15. ROUGH CROWFOOT, 

16. SHINING CROWFOOT. 

17. SMOOTH CROWFOOT. 

18. DWARF CROWFOOT. 

19. COLUMBINE. 

2f). BLUE LARKSPUR. 

21. TALL LARKSPUR. 

22. DWARF LARKSPUR. 

23. GARDEN LARKSPUR. 

24. MONKSHOOD ; WOLFSBANE. 

25. YELLOW ROOT. 

26. RATTLE-TOP; BLACK SNAKE ROOT; CO- 

HOSH. 

27. BANEBERRY; WHITE COHOSH. 



Clematis crispa. 
Clematis viorna. 
Clematis Virginica. 
Clematis ochroleuca. 
Anemone nemorosa. 
Anemone Caroliniana. 
Hepatica triloba. 
Thalictrum dioicum. 
Thalictrum comuti. 
Thalictrum anemonoides. 

Hydrastis Canadensis. 

Caltha palustris. 

Ranunculus sceleratus. 
R. repens. 
R. recurvatus. 
R. nitidus. 
R. abortivus. 
R. pusillus. 
Aquilegia Canadensis. 
Delphinium azureum. 
D. exaltatum. 
D tricome. 
D. consolida. 
Aconitiim uncinatum. 
Zanthorhiza apiifolia. 

Cimicifuga racemosa. 
Actaea alba. 



ORDER II. MAGNOLIA FAMILY. MAGNOLIACE^. 

Aromatic trees or shrubs, with alternate, leathery leaves, and large, showy flowers. 



1. MAGNOLIA; BIG LAUREL. 

2. SWEET BAY; AVHITE BAY. 

3. LONG-LEAVED CUCUMBER TREE. 



Magnolia grandiflora. 
M. glauca. 
M. Frazeri. 



314 NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

4. HEART-LEAVED CUCUMBER TREE. M. cordata. 

5. CUCUMBER TREE. M. acuminata, 
(i. UMBRELLA TREE. M. umbrella. 

7. TULIP TREE ; POPLAR. Liriodendron tulipifera. 



ORDER III. CUSTARD APPLE FAMILY. ANONACE.E. 

1. PAPAW ; CUSTARD APPLE. Asimina triloba. 

ORDER IV. MOONSEED FAMILY. MENISPERMACE^ 

Climbing, shrubby vines. 

L RED-BERRIED MOOXSEED. Cocculus Carolinus. 

2. MOONSEED. Menispermum Canadense. 



ORDER V. BARBERRY FAMILY. BERBERIDACE^. 

1. BARBERRY. Berberis Canadense. 

2. BLUE COHOSH; PAPOOSE ROOT; SQUAW 

ROOT. • Caulophyllum thalictroides. 

3. UMBRELLA LEAF. Diphylleia cymosa. 

4. WILD JALAP; MAY-APPLE; MANDRAKE. Podophyllum peltatum. 



ORDER VI. POND-NUT FAMILY. NELUMBIACE.E. 

Aquatic lierbs, with large, circular, floating leaves. Fruit, a nut. 
1. WATER CHINQUEPIN; POND NUT. Nelumbium luteum. 

ORDER VII. WATER SHIELD FAMILY. CABOMBACE.E. 

Aquatic herbs with floating leaves. 

1. WATER SHIELD. Brasenia peltata. 

2. NARROW-LEAVED WATER SHIELD. Cabomba Caroliniana. 

ORDER VIII. WATER LILY FAMILY. NYMPHEACEiE. 

Water plants, with round or heart-shaped leaves. Fruit, berry-like. 

1. WATER LILY ; POND LILY ; BONNETS. Nymphaea odorata. 

2. YELLOW WATER LILY. Nuphar advena. 

3. ARROW-SHAPED WATER LILY. N. sagittifolia. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 315 



ORDER IX. PITCHER PLANT FAMILY. SARRACENIACE.E. 

Perennial marsh herbs, with hollow, pitcher or trumpet-shaped leaves, and nod- 
ding flowers. 

1. HUNTSMAN'S CUP; PITCHER PLANT. Sarracenia purpurea. 

2. RED-FLOWERED TRUMPET LEAF. S. rubra. 

3. SIDE-SADDLE FLOWER ; TRUMPETS ; 

FLY-TR\P. S. flava. 

4. SPOTTED TRUMPET LEAF; FLY-CATCHER. S. variolaris. 



ORDER X. POPPY FAMILY. PAPAVERACEiE. 

L MEXICAN POPPY ; THORN APPLE ; 

PRICK LY POPPY. Argemone Mexicana. 

2. PUCCOON ; BLOOD ROOT. Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

ORDER XL FUMITORY FAMILY. FUMARIACE^E. 

These are mostly mountain plants. 

ORDER XII. MUSTARD FAMILY. CRUCIFER.E. 

Herbs with pungent juice ; the four petals of the flower forming a cross. 

1. WATER CRESS. Nasturtium officinale. 

2. MARSH CRESS. Nasturtium palustre. 

3. WALTER'S CRESS. N. tanacetifolium. 

4. SPRING CRESS. Cardamine rhomboidea. 

5. PEPPER ROOT. Dentaria diphylla. 

6. SICKLE POD. Arabis Canadensis. 

7. TANSY MUSTARD. Sisymbrium canescsns. 
8 HEDGE MUSTARD. S. officinale. 

9. WHITLOW GRASS. Draba vema. 

10. WART CRESS ; SWINE CRESS. Senebiera pinnatifida. 

11. PEPPER GRASS. Lepidium Virginicum. 

12. SHEPHERD'S PURSE. Capsella bursa-pastoris. 

13. SEA KALE. Cakile maritima. 



ORDER XIII. VIOLET FAMILY. VIOLACE^. 

1. BLUE VIOLET. Viola cucullata. 

2. HAND-LEAF VIOLET. V. palmata. 

3. WILD PANSY ; HEARTSEASE. V. tricolor, va. arvensis. 



31G NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

4. HAIRY VIOLET. V. villosa. 

5. ARKOW-LEAF VIOLET. V. sagittata. 

6. BIRD-FOOT VIOLET. V. pedata. 

7. PRIMROSE-LEAF VIOLET. V. primulsefolia. 

8. LA^X■E-LEA^ VIOLET. V. lanceolata. 

9. PALE VIOLET. V. striata. 



ORDER XIV. ROCK ROSE FAMILY. CISTACEiE. 

1. FROST WEED. HeUanthemum Canadense. 

2. ROCK ROSE. . H. Carolinianum. 

3. SMALL PIN-WEED. • Lechea minor. 

4. LARGE PIN-AVEED. L. major. 

ORDER XV. SUN DEW FAMILY. DROSERACE^. 

1. THREAD-LEAVED SUN DEW. Drosera filiformis. 

2. LONG-LEAVED SUN DEW. D. longifolia. 

3. ROUND-LEAVED SUN DEW. D. rotundifolia. 

4. SHORT-LEAVED SUN DEW. D. brevifolia. 

5. VENUS' FLY-TRAP. Dionaea muscipula. 

ORDER XVI. PARNASSIA FAMILY. PARNASSIACE.E. 
.1 GRASS OF PARNASSUS. Pamassia Caroliniana. 

ORDER XVII. ST. JOHN'S-WORT FAMILY. HYPERICACE^. 

1. ROCK ROSE. Hypericum prolificum. 

2. ST. JOHN'S-WORT. H. perforatum. 

3. GROUND PINE ; ORANGE GRASS. H. sarothra. 

4. ST. PETER'S-WORT. Ascyrum crux-Andrese. 

5. MARSH JOHN'S-WORT. Elodea Virginica. 

ORDER XVIII. PURSLANE FAMILY. PORTULACCACE^. 

1. PURSLANE. Portulacca oleracea. 

2. GARDEN PORTULACCA. P. pilosa. 

3. SPRING BEAUTY. Claytonia Virginica. 

4. SEA PURSLANE. Sesuvium pentandrum. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



317 



ORDER XIX. PINK FAMILY. CARYOPHYLLACEiE. 



1. SANDSPURRY. 

2. PIXE CHEAT; SAND SPURRY. 

3. INDIAN CHICKWEED. 

4. SAND-WORT. 

5. SAND-WORT. 

6. CHICKWEED. 

7. STAR CHICKWEED. 

8. ONE-FLOWERED CHICKWEED. 

9. MOUSE-EAR CHICKWEED. 

10. STAR CHAMPION. 

11. INDIAN PINK. 

12. CATCH-FLY. 

13. SOAP-WORT 

14. COCKLE. 



Spergularia rubra. 
Spergularia arvensis. 
Molugo verticilata. 
Alsine squarrosa. 
Arenaria serpyllifolia. 
Stellaria media. 
S. pubera. 
S. uniflora. 
Cerastium vulgatum. 
Silene stellata. 
S. Virginica. 
S. antirrhina. 
Saponaria officinalis. 
Agrostemma Githago. 



ORDER XX. MALLOW FAMILY. MALVACEA. 



1. MALLOW. 

2. SPRING MALLOW. 

3. VELVET LEAF. INDIAN MALLOW. 

4. MARSH MALLOW. 



Malva rotundifolia. 
Sida spinosa. 
Abutilon Avicennae. 
Hibiscus Moscheutos. 



[In this order are also the Garden Okra, Hibiscus esculentus, and the Cottou-phmt, 
Gossipj'um herbaeeum, and the Althea.] 



ORDER XXI. THE LINDEN FAMILY. TILIACEAE. 



1. SOUTHERN LINN. 

2. W^HITE LINN. 



Tilia pubescens. 
T. heterophylla. 



ORDER XXII. CAMELLIA FAMILY. CAMELLIACEAE. 



1. LOBLOLLY BAY. 

2. STUARTIA. 



Gordonia Lasianthus. 
Stuartia Virginica. 



LUnder the Order Aurantaceae, Orange Family, may be mentioned the Orange, both 
sweet and sour, the Lemon, and the Shaddock, which are cultivated in the southern 
portion of the State, extending up as far north as Charleston.] 



318 NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

ORDER XXIII. PRIDE OF INDIA FAMILY. MELIACEAE. 

1. PRIDE OF INDIA. CHINA BERRY. Melia azadarach. 

Now well naturalized. 

ORDER XXIV. ' FLAX FAMILY. LINACEAE. 
1. WILD FLAX. Linum Virginicum. 

ORDER XXV. WOOD SORREL FAMILY. OXALIDACEAE. 

1. FURPLE WOOD SORREL. Oxalis violacea. 

2. WHITE WOOD SORREL. 0. acetocella. 
3 YELLOW WOOD SORREL. 0. stricta. 

ORDER XXVI. GERANIUM FAMILY. GERANIACEAE. 

1. CRANESBILL, ALUM ROOT. Geranium maculatum. 

2. CAROLINA CRANESBILL. G. Carolinianum. 

ORDER XXVII. BALSAM FAMILY. BALSAMINACE^. 

1. PALE TOUCH-ME-NOT. Impatiens pallida. 

2. JEWEL WEED— SPOTTED TOUCH-ME-NOT. I. fulva. 

ORDER XXVIII. RUE FAMILY. RUTACE^. 

1. PRICKLY ASH ; TOOTH ACHE TREE. Z inthoxylum Carolinianum, 

2. HOP TREE. Ptelea trifoliata. 



ORDER XXIX. CASHEW OR SUMACH FAMILY. 
ANACARDIACE^. 

1. STAG-HORN SUMACH. Rhus typhina. 

2. SMOOTH SUMACH. R. glabra. 

3. COMMON SUMACH. R. copillina. 

4. DWARF SUMACH. R. pumila. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 319 

5. POISEN SUMACH ; POISEN ELDER. R. venenata. 

fi. POISEN OAK. R. toxicodendron. 

7. POISEN VINE. R. radicans. 

ORDER XXX. VINE FAMILY. VITACE.E. 

1. FOX GRAPE. Vitis Labrusca. 

2. SUMMER GRAPE. V. sestivalia. 

3. FROST GRAPE ; AVINTER GRAPE. V. cordifolia. 

4. BULLACE ; SCUPERNONG. V. vulpina. 

0. VIRGINIA CREEPER ; AMERICAN IVY. Ampelopsis quinquefolia. 

ORDER XXXI. BUCKTHORN FAMILY.. RHAMNACE.E. 

1. SUPPLE JACK. Berchemia volubilis. 

2. TI-TI. Sageretia Michauxii. 

3. CAROLINA BUCKTHORN. Frangula Caroliniana. 

4. JERSEY TEA ; RED ROOT. Ceanothus Americanus. 

ORDER XXXII. STAFF TREE FAMILY. CELASTRACEiE. 

1. STRAWBERRY BUSH ; BURSTING HEART. Euonymus Americanus. 

2. BURNING BUSH. E. atropurpureus. 

3. WAX-WORK ; BITTER-SWEET. Celastrus scandens. 

ORDER XXXIII. BLADDER-NUT "FAMILY. STAPHYLEACE^. 

1. BLADDER-NUT. Staphylea trifolia. 

ORDER XXXIV. SOAP BERRY FAMILY. SAPINDACE/E. 

1 SOAP BERRY. Sapindus marginatus. 

2. BUCK-EYE; HORSE-CHESTNUT. ^sculus Pavia. 

3. YELLOW BUCK-EYE. JE. flava. 

4. SMALL FLOWERED BUCK-EYE. .ffi. parviflora. 

ORDER XXXV. MAPLE FAMILY. ACERACE^. 

1. ASH-LEAVED MAPLE ; BOX-ELDER. Negundo aceroides. 

2. RED MAPLE. Acer rubrum. 

3. SILVER MAPLE. A. dasycarpum. 

4. SUGAR MAPLE. A. saccharinum. 

5. STRIPED MAPLE. A. Pennsylvaricum. 



320 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER XXXVI. MILKWORT FAMILY. POLYGALACE^. 



1. BACHELOR'S BUTTON. 

2. SENECA SNAKE-ROOT. 

3. BLOOD-RED P'OLYGALA. 



Polygala lutea. 
P. senega. 

P. sanguinea. And many other 
species. 



ORDER XXXVII. PULSE FAMILY. LEGUMENOS^. 

Herbs, shrubs and trees with compound alternate leaves, fruit a legume or pod. 
A large and very important family of plants— weli represented in our State. 



1. RATTLE BOX. 

2. PARTRIDGE PEA. 

3. LUPINE. 

4. HAIRY LUPINE. 

5. BLUE LUPINE. 

6. RED CLOVER. 

7. WHITE CLOVER. 

8. CAROLINA CLOVER. 

9. BUFFALO CLOVER. 

10. RABBIT-FOOT CLOVER. 
IL YELLOW CLOVER. 

12. HOP MEDICK, LUCERNE. 

13. YELLOW MELLILOT. 

14. WHITE MELLILOT. 

15. BUCK ROOT. 

16. INDIGO BUSH. 

17. LOCUST; FALSE ACACIA. 

18. CLAMMY LOCUST. 

19. ROSE LOCUST. 

20. VIRGIN'S BOWER; AMERICAN WISTARIA, 

21. RABBIT-PEA; GOAT'S RUE. 

22. CAROLINA INDIGO. 

23. INDIGO. 

24. MILK VETCH. 

25. VETCH ; TARE, 

26. WILD VETCH. 



Crotallaria sagittalis. 

C. ovalis. 

Lupinus perennis. 

L. villosus, 

L. diffusus. 

Trifolium pratense. 

T. repens. 

T. Caroliniana. 

T. reflexum. 

T. arvense. 

T. procumbens, 

Medicago lupulina. 

Melilotus officinalis. 

•M. alba. 

Psoralia canescens. 

Amorpha fruticosa. And one 

other species- 
Robinia pseudo-Acacia. 
R. viscosa. Only in the moun- 
tains. 
R. hispida. 
Wistaria frutescens. 
Tephrosia Virginica. And two 

other species. 
Indigofera Caroliniana. 
I. Anil. Introduced and formerly 
cultivated. 
Astragalus glaber, 
Vicia sativa, 

V. Caroliniana. And two other 
species. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



321 



27. PENCIL FLOWER. Stylosanthes elatior. 

28. JAPAN CLOVER. Lespedeza striata. A native of 

Japan— now natu.-alized and spreading everywhere— also three or four 
more native species. 

29. BEGGAR'S TICKS. Desmodium. Thin is a huge fam- 

ily of plants, of which there are sixteen species growing in the State. 
The term " Beggar's Ticks " is indiscriminately applied to all of them, 
from the peculiar formation of the Legume, or seed-pod, composed of 
jointed parts, easily separated, and clothed with hooked hairs, causing 
them to adhere to clothes of any one brushing them. 



30. DOLLAR PLANT. 

31. WILD GROUND-NUT. 

32. WILD BEAN. 

33. NATIVE ERYTHRINA. 

34. WILD PEA VINE. 

35. MILK PEA. 

36. WILD INDIGO. 

37. JUDAS TREE; RED BUD 

38. WILD SENNA. 

39. FLORIDA COFFEE; STYPTIC WEED. 
40 PARTRIDGE PEA; GOLDEN CAS.SIA. 

41. HONEY LOCU.ST. 

42. ONE-SEEDED L03UST. 

43. SENSITIVE PLANT. 



Rhynchosia monophylla. And 
two other species. 
Apios tuberosa. 
Phaseolus perennis. And two 

other species. 
Erythrina herbacea. 
Atnphicarpa monoica. 
Galactia pilosa And four other 
specie?. 
Baptisia tinctoria. And seven 

otlier species. 
Oercis Canadsnsis. 
Cassia Marylandica. 
C. occidentalis. 

C. chaTnsorista. And two other 
si:)ecies. 
Gladitschia triacanthos. 
G. monosperma. 
Schrankia angustata. 



[Under this Order are many of our cultivated plants— Garden Peas, Cow Peas, Beans, 
Ground-Nut, or Pindar, or Pea-Nut— and many others.] 



ORDER XXXVIII. ROSE FAMILY. ROSACE/E. 



1. CHICKASAW PLUM. , 

2. RED PLUM ; AUGUST PLUM. 
3 SOUR PLUIM. 

4. WILD CHERRY. 

5. WILD ORANGE: MOOK OR.ANGE. 

6. INDIAN PHYSIC. 

21 



Prunus Cbicasa. 
P. Americana. 
P. umbellata. 
P. serotina. 
P. Caroliniana. i 

Gillenia trifoliata. 



line ever- 
green.) 



'>•) 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED I'LANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



18. 

11). 
20, 
21. 
21. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
20. 
27 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 



AMERICAN IPECAC. 

AGRIMONY ; FEVERFEW. 

WILD BURNET. 

AYENA. 

CINQUIFOIL ; FIYE-FINC4ER 

STRAWBERRY. 
WILD STRAWBERRY. 
COMMON STRAWBERRY. 



G. stipulacea. 
Agrimonia eupatoria. 
Sanguisorba Canadensis. 
Geum album. 



WILD 



HIGH- BUSH BLACKBERRY, 

JUNlfBERRY^ 

LOW-BUSH BLACKBERRY ; TRAILING 

BLACKBERRY. 
FLOWERING RASPBERRY. 
PURPLE RASPBERRY. 

SWAMP ROSE. 

WILD OR DWARF ROSE. 

EGLANTINE ; SWEET BRIAR. 

CHEROKEE ROSE. 

NARROW-LEA YED THORN. 

SUMMER HAW ; RED HAW. 

HAIRY THORN. 

DWARF THORN. 

SCARLET HAW. 

SUMMER HAW; POND HAW. 

PARSLEY-LEAVED HAW. 

COCKS PUR HAWTHORN. 

TREE HAW. 

CRAB APPLE. 

NARROW-LEAVED CRAB. 

CHOKE BERRY. 

WILD CRANBERRY. 

SERVICE TREE. 



Potentilla Canadensis- 

Fragaria Virginiana. 

F. vesca. (This .species stray.s 

from gardens and has become 

naturalized.) 
DEW BERRY Rubus viUosus. 
R. cuneifolius. 



R. trivialis. 

R. odoratus. ( In the mountains.) 
R. occideutalis. (In the moun- 
tains.) 
Rosa Carolina. 

R. lucida. 

R. rubiginosa. 

R. laevigata. 

Crataegus spatbulata. 

C. fiava. 

C. glandulosa. 

C parvifolia. 

C. coccinea. 

C. aestivalis. 

C. apiifolia. 

C. Crus-galli. 

C. arborescens. 

Pyrus coronaria. 

P. angustifolia. 

P. arbutifolia. 

P. er3rthrocarpa. 

Amelancliier Canadensis. 



Pe, 



[The cultivated representatives of this large and important order are, the Apple, 
ar, Quince, Plum, Peach, Apricot, Almond, Cherry, Roses, Spireas, etc.] 



ORDER XXXIX. CAROLINA ALLSPICE FAMILY. 
CALYCANTHACE.E. 

1. SWEET-SCENTED SHRUB. Calycantbus floridus, and two 

other species. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



)0'"> 



ORDER XL. DEER-GRASS FAMILY, MELASTROMACE^. 



1. DEER GRASS. 



Rhexia glabella, and five otluT 
species. 



ORDER XLI. LOOSE-STRIPE FAMILY. LYTHRACEiE. 



1. LOOSESTRIFE. 

2. SWAMP LOOSE STRIFE. 

3. BLUE WAX WEED. 



Lytlinun alatum. 
Nesea verticillata. 
Cuphea viscosissima. 



[The Crape Myrtle (Lagerstroemia Indica), so common in cultivation as a flower- 
ing tree, from Eastern Asia, belongs to this order ] 



ORDER XLII. EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY. OXAORACE^. 



1. EVENING PRIMROSE. 
2- SUN DROPS, 

3. SEED BOX. 

4. WATER PURSLANE. 

5. ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE. 

G. MERMAID WEED. 
7. WATER MILFOIL 



Oenothera biennis. 

0. fruticosa, and two or three 

other species 
Ludwigia altemifolia. 
L. palustre, and ten other species. 
Circaea Lutetiana. (In the 

mountain^.) 
Proserpinaca palustris, and one 

other species. 
Myriopbyllum verticillatum. 



ORDER XLIII. CACTUS FAMILY. CACTACE^. 



L PRICKLY PEAR. 

•2. CROWFOOT PRICKLY PEAR. 



Opuntia vulgaris. 
0. Pes-Corvi. 



ORDER XLIV. CURRANT FAMILY. GROSSULACEiE. 

L SMOOTH GOOSEBERRY. Ribes rotundifolium. (In the 

mountains.) 



ORDER XLV. PASSION-FLOWER FAMILY. PASSIFLORACE.E. 



1 . MAY POP ; PASSION FLOWER. 

2. YELLOW PASSIFLORA. 



Passiflora incamata, 
P. lutea. 



524 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER XLVI. GOURD FAMILY. CUCURBITACE.E. 



1. COMMON GOURD ; CALABASH. 
L>. ONE-SEEDED CUCUMBER. 



Lagenaria vulgaris. 
Sicyos angulatus. 



[In tliis order are the Squash, Pumpkin, Watermelon, Muskmelon, Cantaloupe, 
Cucumber and Gherkin of the gardens.] 



ORDER XLVII. ORPINE FAMILY. CRASSULACE^. 



1. WILD ORPINE. 

2. THREE-LEAVED STONE CROP. 

3. MOUNTAIN MOSS. 

4. DITCH STONE CROP. 



Sedum telephoides. (In the 
mountains. ) 
S. tematum. 

S. pulchellum. (In the mountains.) 
Penthorum sedoides. 



ORDER XLVIII. SAXIFRAGE FAMILY. SAXIFRAGACE^. 



1. LETTUCE SAXIFRAGE. 

2. EARLY SAXIFRAGE. 

■■). ALUM ROOT. 

4. FALSE MITRE-WORT. 

5. MITRE-WORT. 

(J. GOLDEN SAXIFRAGE. 

7. WILD HYDRANGEA 

8. SNOWY HYDRANGEA. 

9. CLIMBING DECUiVIARIA. 

10. ITEA. 

11. SYRINGA. 

12. ROUGH SYRINGA. 

13. SCENTLESS SYRINGA. 



Saxifraga erosa. (In the moun- 
tains.) 

S. Virginiensis. (In the moun- 
tains.) 

Heuchera Americana. 

Tiarella cordifolia. 

Mitella diphylla. 

Chrysosplenium Americanum. 

Hydrangea arborescens. 

H. radiata. 

Decumaria barbara. 

Itea Virginica. 

Philadelphus grandiflorus (In 
tlie mountains.) 

P. hirsutus. (In the mountains.) 

P. inodorus. 



ORDER XLIX. WITCH HAZEL FAMILY. HAMAMELACE.^. 



1. WITCH HAZEL. 

2. DWARF ALDER. 

3. SWEET GUM. 



Hamamelis Virginica. 
Pother gilla alnifolia. 
Liquidambar styraciflua. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



oZO 



ORDER L. PARSLEY FAMILY. UMBELLIFERiE. 



1. PENNY-AVORT. 

2. WATER GRASS. 

8. SAXICLE; BLACK SNAKE ROOT. 
4. BUTTOX .:JXAKE ROOT. 



.1 DWARF CARROT. 

6. COMMOX CARROT. 

7. WATER HEMLOCK. 

8. BISHOP WEED. 

9. AVATER PARSXIP. 

10. MEADOW PARSXIP. 

11. AXGELICA. 

12. ARCHAXGELICA. 

13. WATER DROP- WORT. 

14. COW-BANE ; PIG POTA.TOE. 

14. CHERVIL, 



Hydrocotyle Americana. 

H. umbellata, and two or three 
other species. 

Sanicula Marylandica, and one 
other species. 

Eryngium Virginianum. (Wo 
have five species of Eryngiuni, 
and most of them are known 
as Button Snake Root.) 

Daucus pusiDus. 

D.carota. (Some what naturalized. I 

Cicuta masculata. 

Discopleura capillacea. 

Slum lineare. 

Thaspium aureuin, and two other 
scecies. 

Ligusticun actaeifolium. 

Arcliangelica hirsuta. 

Tiedmannia teretifolia. 

Archemora rigida, and one other 
species. 

Chserophyllum procumljens. 



ORDER LI. GINSENG FAMILY. ARALIACE.E. 



1. SPIKENARD. 

2. WILD SARSAPARILLA. 

3. PRICKLY ASH ; HERCULES CLUB. 

4. GINSENG; SANG. 

5. DWAKF GINSENG. 



Aralia racemosa. 
A. nudicaulis. 
A. spinosa. 

Panax quinquefolium. (In the 

mountains ) 

P. trifolium. (In the mountains.) 



ORDER LII. DOGWOOD FAMILY. CORNACE.E. 



1. DOGWOOD. 

2. SWAMP DOGWOOD. 

3. SOUR GUM ; BLACK GUM ; PEPPERIDGE. 

4. TUPELO; POND TUPELO. 

5. SWAMP TUPELO ; COTTON GUM. 
G. OGEECHEE LIME ; SOUR TUPELO. 



Comus Florida. 

0. sericea, and tliree other species. 

Nyssa multiflora. 

N. aquatica. 

N. uniflora. 

N. capitata. 



32G 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



DIVISION II. Floral envelopes double, consisting of both calyx and 
corolla, the latter mostly united into one petal. Monopetalous. 



ORDER LIII. HONEYSUCKLE FAMILY. CAPRIFOLIACE^. 



1. CORAL BERRY. 

2. BUSH HONEYSUCKLE. 

o. WOODBINE; HONEYSUCKLE. 
4 YELLOW WOODBINE. 

5. HORSE GENTIAN. 

6. ELDER. 

7. RED- BERRIED ELDER. 

8. BLACK HAW. 

- i». SHEEP BERRY. 
10. POSSUM HAW^; SHAW^NEE HAW. 
n. ARROW-WOOD. 



Symphoricarpus vulgaris. 
Diervilla triflda. (In the moun- 
tains.) 
Lonicera sempervirens, 
L. flava. 

Triosteum perfoliatum, 
Sambucus Canadensis. All over 
the State. 
S. pubens. In tlie mountains. 
Viburnum prunifolium. 
V. Lentago. 
V. nudum. 
V. dentatum. 



ORDER LIV. MADDER FAMILY. RUBIACE^. 



L SMALL BEDSTRAW. 

2. BUTTON WEED. 

3. BUTTON BUSH. 

4. PARTRIDGE BERRY; RUNNING BOX. 

5. GEORGIA BARK. 

6. BLUETS ; DAISEY. 

7. PINK ROOT. 

8. MITRE WORT. 

9. YELLOW JESSAMINE. 



Galium trifidum. And tliree other 
species. 
Diodia Virginiana. 
Cephalanthus occidentals. 
Mitchella repens. 
Pinckneya pubens. 
Houstonia coerulea. And several 
other sjiecies. 
Spigelia Marylandica. 
Mitreola petiolata. 
G-elsemium sempervirens. 



ORDER LV. VALERIAN FAMILY. VALERIANACE^. 
1. LAMB LETTUCE. . Fedia radiata. 



ORDER LVI. COMPOSITE FAMILY. COMPOSIT.E. 

1. IRON WEED. Vemonia Novaeboracensis. And 

two other species. 

2. ELEPHANT'S FOOT. Elephantopus Carolinanus. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



327 



3. blazing star. 

4. button snake-root. 

5. va^^illa plant. 

(]. thorough-wort; bone-set. 

7. trumpp:t weed. 

8. upland bone-set. 

9. rich weed. 
10. wild horehound. 

n. DOG FENNEL. 
12. DOG FENNEL. 

13 CLIMBING HEMP-WEED. 

14. MIST FLOWER. 

15. WHITE-TOPPED ASTER. 
IG. ASTER ; STARWORT. 

large genus, compri.sing about thirty-five species found in the State, but 
they have received no common names. 

17. DAISEY FLEA-BANE. ' Erigeron strigosum. 

18. HOG-WEED; HORSE-WEED. E. Canadense. 

19 FLEA-BANE. E. Philadelphicum. 

20. ROBBIN'S PLANTAIN. . E. bellidifolium. 

21. GOLDEN ROD; ANISE-SEED GOLDEN ROD. Solidago odora. 



Liatris squarrosa. 

L. spicata. 

L. odoratissima. And six or seven 

otlier species. 
Eupatorium perfoliatum. 
E. purpurem. 
E. sessilifolium. 
E. ageratoides, 
E. aromaticum. 
E. fceniculaceum. 
E. coronopifolium. And eleven 

other species. 
Mikania scandens. 
Conoclinum coelestinum. 
Sericocarpus conyzoides. 
Aster corymbosus. Tliis is a very 



[This is another large genus, comprising over thirty species in this State. Most of 
them are called indiscriminately Golden Rod, but that name more proi)erly applies to 
the species noted above.] 



22. SILK GRASS ; SCURVY GRASS. 
23 COTTONY SILK GRASS. 

24. ELECAMPANE. 

25. GROUNDSEL; CONSUMPTION WEED. 

26. MARSH FLEA BANE. 

27. STINKING FLEA BANE. 
2S. BLACK ROOT. 

29. LEAF CUP. 

30. BEAR'S FOOT. 

31. ROSIN WEED. 

32. MARSH ELDER. 

33. BUFFALO WEED. 

34. RAG WEED; CARROT WEED ; STICK WEED 



Chrysopsis graminifolia. 
C gossypina. 
Inula Helenium. 
Baccharis halimifolia. 
Pleuchea bifrons. 
P. fcetida. 

Pterocaulon pyclmostachyuin. 
Polymnia Canadensis. In the 

mountains. 
P. uvedalia. 
Silphium laciniatum. 
Iva frutescens. 
Ambrosia trifida. 
A. artimesiaefolia. 



328 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



35. COCKLE BUR ; SHEEP BUR. 

36. THORNY COCKLE BUR. 
:;7. BRAZILIAN COCKLE BUR. 



Xanthium strumarium. 
X. spinosum, 
Acathospermum xanthioides. 



This Exotic is a recent introduction of about twenty years ago. Spreading from the 
woollen mills of Augusta, Ga , it has extended along the railroads in all directions, and 
may be found at nearly every station. 



38. SEA OX-EYE. 

39. ZINNIA; OLD MAID. 

40. OX-EYE. 

41. PURPLE CONE FLOWER. 

42. CONE-FLOWER. 
NARROW-LEAVED SUN -FLOWER. 

have several other species in the 
Flower, Helianthus annuu^^, and tl 
Helianthus tuberosus, are partially 

43. TICK-SEED. 

44. TICK-SEED SUN-FLOWER. 

45. TALL COREOPSIS. 

46. BUR MARYGOLD. 

47. BEGGAR'S LICE. 

48. BEGGAR'S LICE ; SPANISH NEEDLES. 

49. STICK WEED ; CROWN BEARD. 

50. SNEEZE WEED. 

51. MAY WEED; FALSE CHAMOMILE. 

52. MILFOIL; YARROW. 

53. OX-EYE DAISY ; WHITE DAISY; WHITE 

WEED. 
54 TANSY. 

55. WILD WORMWOOD. 

56. EVERLASTING. 

57. CUD WEED. 

58 EVERLASTING. 

59. FIRE-WEED. 

00. INDIAN PLANTAIN. 

61. RAG WORT. 

62. THISTLE. 

63. SWAMP THISTLE. 

64. YELLOW THISTLE. 



Bdrricliia frutescens. 

Zinnia multiflora. Stray from the 
gardens. 

Heliopsis Isevis. 

Echinacea purpurea. 

Rudbeckia hirta. 

Helianthus angustifolius. We 
State. The common cultivated Sun- 
le Jerusalem or Ground Artichoke, 
naturalized. 

Coreopsis discoidea. 

C trichosperma. 

C tripteris. 

Bidens chrysanthemoides. 

B. frondosa. 

B. bipinnata. 
Verbesina Siegesbeckia. 
Helenium autumnale. 
Maruta Cotula. 
Achillea millefolia. 

Leucanthemum vulgare. 
Tanacetum vulgare. Sparingly 
naturalized. 
Artemesia caudata. 
Gnaphalium polycephalum. 
G. purpureum. 
Antennaria margaritacea. 
Erechthites hieracifolia. 
Cacalia atriplicifolia. 
Senecio aureus. 

Cirsium lanceolatum. Introduced 
and naturalized. 

C. muticum. 
C. horridulum. 



NATIVE AND NATUEALIZEI) PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



329 



05 BURDOCK. 

66. IIAWK-WEEl). 

67. RATTLE-SNAKE WEED. 

68. WHITE LETTUCE. 

Gl). GALL OF THE EARTH. 

70. DANDELION. 

7L FALSE DANDELION. 

72. WILD LETTUCE. 

73. BLUE LETTUCE. 

74. SOW THISTLE. 



Lappa major. 

Hieracium scabrum. 

H. venosum. 

Nabalus albus. 

N. Fraseri. 

Taraxacum Dens-Leonis. 

Pyrrhopappus Carolinianus. 

Lactuca elongata. 

Mulgidium acuminatum. 

Sonchus oleraceus. 



ORDER LVII. LOBELIA FAMILY. LOBELIACE^. 



1. CARDINAL FLOWER. ' 

2. GREAT LOBELIA. 

3. BLUE LOBELIA. 

4. INDIAN TOBACCO ; LOBELIA. 



Lobelia cardinalis. 
L, syphilitica. 
L. puberula. 

L. inflata. And three or lour 
other species. 



ORDER LVIII. CAMPANULA FAMILY. CAMPANULACEyE. 



1. BELL FLOWER. 

2. MARSH BELL FLOWER. 

3. HARE BELL. 

4. VENUS' LOOKING-GLASS. 



Campanula Americana. 
C. aparinoides. 
C. divaricata. 
Specularia perfoliata. 



ORDER LIX. HEATH FAMILY. ERICACE^. 



1. BLUE HUCKLEBERRY. 

2. DWARF HUCKLEBERRY. 

3. BLACK HUCKLEBERRY. 

4. BEAN BERRY. 

5. SWAMP HUCKLEBERRY. 

6. DEER BERRY ; GOOSEBERRY. 

7. CREEPING HUCKLEBERRY. 

8. SPARKLE BERRY. 

9. GROUND IVY; MAYFLOWER; TRAILING 

ARBUTUS. 

10. MOUNTAIN TEA ; WINTER GREEN. 

11. DOG LAUREL. 

12. TI-TI. 



Gay-Lussacia frondosa. 

G. dumosa. 

G. resinosa. 

G. ursina. In the mountains. 

Vaccinium corymbosum. 

V. stamineum. 

V. crassifolium. 

V. arboreum. 

Epigaea repens, 
Gaultheria procumbens. 
Leucothce Catesbaei. 
L. aciiminata. 



330 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA, 



13. 
14. 

15. 
If). 
17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 



24. 



FETTER BUSH. 

STAGGER BUSH. 

PEPPER BUSH. 

SOUR WOOD; SORRELLTREE. 

WHITE ELDER; SWEET PEPPER BUSH. 

CALICO BUSH ; KALMIA. 

WICKY; SHEEP LAUREL. 

PURPLE HONEY-SUCFvLE. 

BLAZING HONEY-SUCKLE. 

CLAMMY IIONEY-SUCKLE. 

SMOOTH HONEY-SUCKLE. 

LAUREL; ROSE BAY. 



25. OAK-LEAVED LAUREL. 
2G. DWARF LAUREL. 

27. SAND MYRTLE. 

28. FALSE WINTER GREEN. 

2;) PIPSISSEWA; PRINCES PINE. 
:50. SPOTTED WINTER GREEN- 
:]1. DUTCHMAN'S PIPE; EYE-BRIGHT. 
o2. PINE SAP. 



Andromeda nitida. 

A. Mariana. 

A. Ligustrina. 

Oxydendrum arboraum. 

Clethra alnifolia. 

Ka?.mia lati folia. 

K. angustifolia. 

Azalia nudiflora. 

A. calendulacea. 

A. viscosa. 

A. arborescens. 

Rhododendron maximum. In 
the mountiiins. 

R. Catawbiense. In the moun- 
tains. 

R. punctatum. In the moun- 
tains. 

Leiophyllum buxifolium. In the 
mountains. 

Pyrola rotundifolia. 

Chimapbila umbellata. 

C. maculata. 

MjaDtropa uaiflora. 

M. Hypopitys. 



ORDER LX. GALAX FAMILY. GALACIX.E. 
1. COLT'S FOOT. Galax aphylla. 



ORDER LXL HOLLY FAMILY. AQUIFOLIACE^. 



1. COMMON HOLLY. 

2. DAHOON HOLLY. 

3. YAUPON. 

4. GALL BERRY ; INK BERRY. 

5. TALL GALL BERRY. 



Ilex opaca. 
I. Dahoon. 
I Cassine. 
Prinos glaber. 
p. coriacea. 



ORDER LXII. STYRAX FAMILY. STYRACE^. 



1. MOCK ORANGE. 

2. SNOW-DROP TREE. 

3. SWEET LEAF; YELLOW WOOD. 



Styrax grandifolia. 
Halesia tetraptera. 
Symplocos tinctoria. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 331 

ORDER LXIII. CYRILLA FAMILY. CYRILLACE.E. 
I. BUIIX-WOOD BARK ; HE HUCKLEBERRY. Cyrilla racemiflora. 

ORDER LXIV. EBONY FAMILY. EBENACEyE. 
1. PERSIMMON. Diospjrros Virginiana. 

ORDER LXV. SAPODILLA FAMILY. SAPOTACEiE. 

1. BUCK THORN. BumeUa lyciodes. 

2 TOUGH BUCK THORN. B. tenax. And two other species. 

ORDER LXVI. PLANTAIN FAMILY. PLANTAGINACEiE. 

1. PLANTAIN. Plantago major. 

•2. NARROW-LEAVED PLANTAIN. P. lanceolata. And three other 

species. 

ORDER LXVII. LEAD-WORT FAMILY. PLUMBAGINACE^E. 

1. MARSH ROSEMARY. Statice Caroliniana. 

ORDER LXVIII. PRIMROSE FAMILY. PRIMULACE.E. 

L FEATHERFOIL. Huttonia inflata. 

2. LOOSE STRIFE. Lysimachia stricta. 

2. FIVE SISTERS. L. quadrifolia. And three or four 

other species. 

3. AMERICAN COWSLIP. Dodecatheon Media. 

4. PIMPERNEL. Anagallis arvensis. 

5. CHAFF WEED. ' Centunculus minimus. 

6. BROOK WEED. Samolus floribundus. 



. ORDER LIX. BLADDER-ROOT FAMILY. LENTIBULACE.E. 

f 

1. BLADDER WORT. Utricularia inflata. And seven 

other species ; mostly in bogg}' grounds, or floating in still waters. 

2. BUTTER WORT. • Pinguicula lutea. 



332 NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER LXX. BIGN0NI4 FAMILY. BIGNONIACE.E. 



1. CKOSS VINE. 

2. TRUMPET FLOWEK. 

3. CATALPA. 

4. UNICORN PLANT. 



Bignonia capreoleta. 
Tecoma radicans. 
Catalpa Bignonioides. 
Martynia proboscidean 



ORDER LXXI. BROOM-RAPE FAMILY. OROBANCHACEiE. 



1. BEECH DROPS. 

2. SQUAW ROOT. 

3. CANCER ROOT. 



Epiphegus Virginiana. 
Conopholis Americana. 
Aphyllon uniflorum. 



ORDER LXXII. FIG-WORT FAMILY. SCROPHULARIACE.E. 



1. MULLEIN. 

2. MOTH MULLEIN. 

3. FIG WORT. 

4. SNAKE-MOUTH. 

5. BEARD-TONGUE. 

6. TOADFLAX. 

7. MONKEY FLOWER. 

8. HEDGE HYSSOP. 

9. FALSE PIMPERNEL. 
10. CULVER'S PHYSIC. 
IL PAUL'S BETONY. 

12. PURSLANE SPEEDWELL. 

13. CORN SPEEDWELL. 

14. FICKEL SPEEDWELL. 

15. BLUE HEARTS. 

16 FALSE FOX-GLOVE. 

17. FLAX-LEAVED GERARDIA. 

18. PURPLE GERARDIA. 

19. CHAFF SEED. 

20. LOUSE WORT. 

21. COW WHEAT. 



Verlaascum Thapsus. 
V. Blattaria. 
Scrophularia nodosa 
Chelone glabra. 
Penstemon pubescens. 
Linaria Canadensis , 

Mimulus ringens. 
Gratiola Virginiana. And two 
or three other species. 
Ilysanthes gratioloides. 
Veronica Virginica. 
V. serpyllifolia. 
V. peregrina. 
V. arvensis. 
V. agrestis. 
Buchnera Americana. 
Dasystoma pubescens. And three 
other species. 
Gerardia linifolia. 
G. purpurea. And three other 
species. 
Schwalbea Americana. 
Pedicularis Canadensis. 
Melampyrum Americanum. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OP SOUTH CAROLINA. 333 



ORDER LXXIII. ACANTHUS FAMILY. ACANTHACE^ 

1. RUELLIA. 

2. WATER WILLOW. 



Diptercanthus strepens And two 
other ispecies. 
Dianthera Americana. 



ORDER LXXrV. VERVAIN FAMILY. VERBENACExE. 



L WHITE VERVAIN. 

2. BLUE VERVAIN. 

3. VERVAIN. 

4. FROG FRUIT. 

.'). AMERICAN MULBERRY; WILD MUL- 
BERRY. 
(5. LOP SEED.' 



Verbena urticifolia. 
V. hastata. 

V. ofiicinalis. And two other 
species. 
Lippia nodiflora. 

Callicarpa Americana. 
Pliryma leptostacliya. 



ORDER LXXV. MINT FAMILY. LABIAT.E. 



]. SPEARMINT. 

•>. PEPPER MINT. 

3 ROUND-LEAF MINT. 

4. BUGLE WEED. 

5. DITTANY. 

(). MOUNTAIN MINT. 

7. HORSE BAL^NI. 

S. PENNY ROYAL. 

9.. BASIL THYME. 
10. BALM, 
n. WILD SAGE. 

is the common garden sage. 

12. HORSE :MINT ; RIGNUM. 

13. HORSE MINT. 

14. GIANT HYSSOP. 

15. CATNIP. 
IG. HEAL-ALL. 
17. SCULL-CAP. 



Mentha viridis. 
M. piperata 

M. rotundifolia. All our Mints 
are introduced. 
Lycopus Virginicus. 
Cunila mariana. In the moun- 
tains. 
Pycnanthemum incanum. And a 
few other species. 
Collinsonia Canadensis. 
Hedeoma pulegioides 
Calamintha Nepeta. 
Melissa officinalis. 
Salvia urticifolia. S. ofRcinatis 
S. Coccinea, is partly naturalized. 
Monarda punctata. 
Blephilia ciliata. 
Lophanthus nepetoides. 
Nepeta Cataria. 
Brunella vulgaris. 
Scutellaria versicolor. Five or six 
other species. 



334 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



18. MACBRIDA. 

19. DRAGON HEAD. 

20. DEAD NETTLE; HEX-BIT. 

21. HOREHOL'ND. 

22. MOTHER WORT. 

23. HEDGE NETTLE 

24. FALSE PENNY ROYAL. 

25. BLUE CURLS. 
2G. WOOD SAGE. 



Macbridea pulchra. 
Physostegia Virginiana. 
Lamium amplexicaule. 
Marru"bium vulgare. 
Leonurus Cardiaca. 
Stachys aspera. 
Isanthus coenileus. 
Trichostema dichotomum. 
Teucrium Canadense. 



ORDER LXXVI. BORAGE FAMILY. BORAGIXACE.E. 



1. HELIOTROPE. 

2. INDIAN HELIOTROPE; TURNSOLE. 

3. GROMWELL 

4. HAIRY PUCCOON; GROMWELL. 

5. ROANOKE BELL; VIRGINIA* COWSLIP. 

6. HOUND'S TONGUE. 

7. WILD COMFREY. 

8. BEGGAR LICE. 

9. FORGET-ME-NOT 



Heliotropium Curassavicum. 
Heliophitum Indicum. 
Onosmodium Carolinianum. 
Litnospermum hirtum. 
Mertensis Virginica. 
Cynoglossum officinale. 
C. Virginicum. 
C. Morisoni. 
Myosotis laxa. 



ORDER LXXVII. WATER- LEAF FAMILY 
HYDROPHYLLACEiE. 



1. WATER LEAF. 



Hydropliylluin Virginicum. (In 
the mountains.) 



ORDER LXXVIII. POLEMOXIUM FAMILY. POLEMOXIACE.E. 



1. PHLOX. 

2. WILD PINK ; RUNNING PHLOX. 

3. HAIRY PHLOX. 



4. GREEK VALERIAN. 

5. FLOWERING r^IOSS. 



Phlox paniculata. 

P. subulata. 

P. pilosa, and three or four other 
species ; the Texan Phlox, 
Phlox Drummondii, of . the 
gardens, is partially natural- 
ized. 

Polemonium reptans. 

Pyxidanthera barbulata. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER LXXIX. CONVOLVULUS FAMILY 

1. CYPRESS VINE. 

2. MORNING GLORY. 

3. WILD POTATOE. 



4. SWEET POTATOE. 



5. BIND WEED. 

(i. LOW BIND WEED. 

7. SILKEN BIND WEED. 

8. DWARF GROUND CONVOLVULUS 

9. DODDER ; LOVE VINE. 
10. LOVE VINE. 



CONVOLVULACE.E. 

Quamoclit vulgaris. 

Pharbitis NiL 

Ipomea pandurata, and three 
other speL-ies. 

Batatas edulis. (This can scarcely 
be said to be naturalized, the frosts of winter killing 
the tubers, and the plant not maturing seed. We 
have a native species growing on the sands of the 
coast, B. Littoralls.) 

Calystegia sepium. 

C. spithamea. 

Evoivulus sericeus. 

Stylisma humistrata. 

Cuscuta arvensis. 

C. Gronovii. 



ORDER LXXX. 

1. NIGHTSHADE. 

2. HORSE NETTLE. 
8. SODOM APPLE. 



4. GROUND CHERRY. 

5. JAMESTOWN WEED 

STRAMONIUM. 



NIGHTSHADE FAMILY. SOLANACE^E. 

Solanum nigrum. 

S. Carolinense. 

S. aculeatissimum. (Among the 
cultivated representatives of this order are the Jeru- 
salem Cherry, (S. Pseudo-capsicum), Tomato (S. Ly- 
copersicum), the Irish Potatoe (S. tuberosum), and 
the Egg Plant or Guinea Squash (S- Melongena). 

Physalis viscosa. 
; THORN APPLE ; 

Datura stramonium. 



ORDER LXXXI. GENTIAN 

1. CENTENARY. 

2. FIVE-FLOWERED GENTIAN. 

8. FRINGED GENTLA.N. 

4. SAMPSON SNAKE ROOT. 

5. SAMPSON SNAKE ROOT. 
(]. SAMPSON SNAKF. ROOT. 

7. NARROWS-LEAVED GENTIAN. 
S. COLUMBO. 

9. FLOATING HEART. 



FAMILY. GENTIANACEiE. 

Sabbatia angularis, and six other 
species. 
Gentiana quinqueflora. 
G. crinita. 
G. ochroleuca. 
G. Elliottii. 
G. saponaria. 
G. angustifolia. 
Frasera Carolinensis. 
Limnanthemum lacunosum. 



336 NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER LXXXII. DOGBANE FAMILY. APOCYNACE.E. 

1. INDIAN HEMP. Apocynum canabinum. 

2. DOGBANE. A. androsagmifolium, 

3. PERIWINKLE. Vinca rosea. {Naturalized. ) 



ORDER LXXXIII. MILKWEED FAMILY. ASCLEPIADACE.E. 

1. POKE MILKWEED ; SQUAW ROOT, Asclepias phytolaccoides. 

2. PLEURISY ROOT ; BUTTERFLY WEED. A. tuberosa. 

3. PURPLE MILKWEED. A. purpurascens. 

4. SWAMP MILKWEED. A. incarnata. 

5. RABBIT'S MILK. . A. amplexicaulis, and eight other 

species. 

6. GREEN MILKWEED. Acerates viridiflora 

7. RUNNING MILKWEED. Gonolobus hirsutus. 



ORDER LXXXIV. OLIVE FAMILY. OLEACE.E. 

L DEVIL WOOD; AMERICAN OLIVE. Olea Americana. 

2. PRIVET. Ligustrum vnlgare. (Partly natu- 

ralized.) 

3. FRINGE TREE ; OLD MAN'S BEARD. Chionanthus Virginica. 

4. WHITE ASH. Fraxinus Americana. 

5. WATER ASH. F. platycarpa. 

6. RED ASH. F. pubescens. 

7. GRP:EN ash. F. viridis. 



DIVISION III. Floral envelopes single, consisting of a calyx onl}'-, 
or altogether wanting. Apetalous. 



ORDER LXXXV. BIRTHWORT FAMILY. ARISTOLOCHIACEtE. 

1. HEART LEAF. Asarum Virginicum. 

2. HEART LEAF. A, arifolium. 

3. WILD GINGER. A. canadense. 

4. VIRGINIA SNAKE ROOT ; SMALL SNAKE 

ROOT. Aristolochia serpentaria. 

5. BIG SARSAPARILLA ; WILD GINGER. A. sipho. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAPvOLINA. 337 

ORDER LXXXVI. POKEWEED FAMILY. PHYLOLAECACE^. 
1. POKE WEED. Phytolacca decandra. 



ORDER LXXXVII. GOOSE-FOOT FAMILY. CHENOPODIACE^. 



J LAMB'S QUARTERS. 

2. WORM SEED: JERUSALEM OAK. 

o. ORACHE. 

4. SAND ORACHE. 

0. SEA GOOSE-FOOT. 

G. SAMPHIRE. 
7. SALT- WORT. 



Chenopodium album. 
C. anthelminticum. 

Atriplex hastata. (Sea shore.) 
Obione arenaria. (Sea shore.) 
Chenopodina maritima. (Salt 

marsh.) 
Salicorniaherbacea. (Salt marsh.) 
Salsola kali. (Sea shore.) 



ORDER LXXXVIIL AMARANTH FAMILY. AMARANTACE^. 



1. AMARAXTH. 

2. GREEX AMARANTH. 

3. THORNY AMARANTH. 

4. DWARF AMARANTH. 

5. WATER HEMP. 

(). FORTY KNOT ; REBEL PLANT. 



Amarantus albus. 
A. hybridus. 
A. spinosus. 
Euoxolus pumilus. 
Acnida canabina. 
Alternanthera achyrantha. 



ORDER LXXXIX. BUCKWHEAT FAMILY. POLYGOXACE.E. 



L SOUR DOCK. 

2. SWAMP DOCK. 

3. BLOODY DOCK. 

4. BITTER DOCK. 

5. GOLDEN DOCK. 

6. SORREL. 

7. SORREL. 

8. BUCKWHEAT. 

9. PRINCE'S FEATHER. 

10. LADY'S THUMB. 

11. SMART WEED. 

12. WATER PEPPER. 

13. KNOT GRASS. 

22 



Rumex crispus. 
R verticillatus. 
R. sanguineus. 
R. obtusifolius. 
R. maritimus. 
R. acetosella. 
R. hastatulus. 

Fagopyrum esculentum. (Par- 
tially naturalized.) 
Polygonum orientale. 
P. persicaria. 
P. acre. 

P. hydropiperoides. 
P. aviculare. 



338 -NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

14. SCRATCH GRASS. P. arifolium. 

15. TEAR THUMB. P. sagitatum 

16. FALSE BUCKWHEAT. P. dumetorum. 

17. ERIOGONUM. Eriogonum tomentosum. (In the 

Sand Hills.) 



ORDER XC. LAUREL FAMILY. LAURACEiE. 

1. RED BAY. Persea Carolinensis. 

2. SASSAFRAS. Sassafras officinale. 

3. SPICE BUSH. Benzoin odoriferum. 

4. POND BUSH. Tetranthera geniculata. 

ORDER XCI. MEZEREUM FAMILY. THYMELEACE^. 
1. LEATHER-WOOD; MOOSE- WOOD. Dirca palustris. 

ORDER XCII. SANDAL WOOD FAMILY. SANTALACE^. 

1. TOAD FLAX. Comandra umbellata. 

2 OIL NUT ; BUFFALO NUT. Pyrularia oleifera. 

ORDER XCIII. MISTLETOE FAMILY. LORANTHACEiE. 
1. MISTLETOE. Phoradendron flavescens. 

ORDER XCIV. LIZARD-TAIL FAMILY^ SAURURACE^E. 
1. LIZARD-TAIL. Saururus cernuus. 

ORDER XCV. HORN-WORT FxVMILY. CERATOPHYLLACE.E. 

1. HORN-W^ORT. CeratophyUum demersum. (In 

etill water. 

ORDER XCVI. WATER STAR-WORT FAMILY. 
CALLITRICHACEiE. 

1. WATER STAR-WORT. Callitriche verna. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 339 

ORDER XCVII. RIA^ER WEED FAMILY. PODOSTEMACE^E. 
1. RIVER WEED. Podostemon ceratophyllum. 



ORDER XCVIII. SPURGE FAMILY. EUPHORBIACE^. 



1. FLOWERING SPURGE. 

2. WARTED SPURGE. 

3. WILD IPECAC. 

4. SPOTTED SPURGE. 

5. SHORE SPURGE. 

6. VARIEGATED SPURGE. 

7. QUEEN'S DELIGHT. 

8 CANDLE TREE; WAX TREE. 

y. THREE-SEEDED MERCURY. 
10. NETTLE. 

IL TREAD SOFTLY; HORSE NETTLE. 
12. CASTOR OIL PLANT. 



Euphorbia corollata. 

E obtusata. 

E. Ipicacuanhae. 

E. maculata. 

E. polygonifolia. 

E. marginata. Naturalized. 

Stillingia sylvatica. 

S. sebifera. (Naturalized.l 

Acalypha Virinica. 

Tragia urens. 

Cnidoscolus stimulosus. 

Ricinus communis. 



ORDER XCIX. CROWBERRY FAMILY. EMPETRACEJ]]. 



1. HEATH CERATIOLE. 



Ceratiola ericoides. (In the Sand 
Hills.) 



ORDER C. NETTLE FAMILY. URTICACE.E. 



1. TALL NETTLE. 

2. STINGING NETTLE. 

3. WOOD NETTLE. 

4. CLEAR WEED. 

5. PELLITORY. 

6. FALSE NETTLE. 



Urtica gracilis. 

U. urens. 

Laportea Canadensis. 

Pilea pumila. 

Parietaria Pennsylvanica. 

Boemeria cylindrica. 



ORDER CI. MULBERRY FAMILY. MORACE.E. 

1. MULBERRY. Moms rubra. 

2. FRENCH MULBERRY; PAPER MULBERRY. Broussonetia papyrifera. 



[The edible fig (Ficus carica) belongs to this order.] 



340 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA, 



ORDER CII. ELM FAMILY. ULMACE.E. 



L WHITE EL:\r; COMMON ELM. 

2. SLIPPERY ELM. 

3. WAHOO; WIXGED ELM. 

4. PLANER TREE. 

5. SUGAR-BERRY TREE ; HACKBERRY. 



Ulmus Americana. 
U. fulva. 
U. alata. 

Planera aquatica. 
Celtis occidentalis. 



ORD-ER cm. PLANE TREE FAMILY. PLATANACE^. 
1. SYXAMORE; PLANE TREE. Platanus occidentalis. 



ORDER CIV. WALNUT FAMILY. JUGLANDACE.E. 



s. 

9. 
10. 
11. 



BLACK WALNUT. 

WHITE WALNUT; BUTTERNUT. 

SHELL-BARK HICKORY^ 

THICK SHELL-BARK HICKORY. 

PECAN NUT. 

WHITE HICKORY. 

PIG-NUT HICKORY. 

SMALL NUT HICKORY. 

NUTMEG HICKORY. 

BITTER-NUT HICKORY^ 

WATER BITTER NUT. 



Juglans nigra. 

J. cinerea. 

Oarya alba. 

C. sulcata. 

C. olivaeformis. (Naturalized.) 

C. tomentosa- 

C. glabra. 

C. microcarpa. 

C myristicseformis. 

C. amara. 

C. aquatica. 



ORDER CV. OAK FAMILY. CUPULIFERiE. 



1. WILLOW OAK. 
•2. LAUREL OAK. 
;;. MY^RTLE OAK. 
4. SHINGLE OAK. 

■'i. TURKEY OAK; HIGH GROUND WILLOW 
OAK. 

6. DWARF OAK. 

7. LIVE OAK. 

8. DWARF LIVE OAK. 

9. WATER OAK. 

10. BLACK JACK. 

11. SCRUB OAK. 



Quercus Phellos. 
Q. laurifolia. 
Q. myrtifolia. 
Q. imbricaria. 



Q. cinerea. 
Q. pumila. 
Q. virens. 
Q. maritima. 
Q. aquatica. 
Q. nigra. 
Q. Catesbaei. 



(Coast.) 
(Mountains.) 



(Coast. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA 



341 



12. BLACK OAK. 

13. SCARLET OAK. 

14. RED OAK. 

15. SPANISH OAK ; RED OAK. 

16. BEAR OAK. 

17. POST OAK. 

18. WHITE OAK 

18. OVER-CUP OAK. 

19. MOSSY-CUP OAK. 

20. SWAMP CHESTNUr OAK. 

21. ROCK OAK. 

22. CHESTNUT OAK. 

23. CI-IINQUAPINOAK. 

24. CHESTNUT 

25. CHINQUAPIN. 
2(3. BEECH. 

27. HAZEL NUT. 

28. BEAKED HAZEL NUT. 

29. HORN BEAM ; IRON WOOD. 

30. HOP HORN BEAM. 



Q. tinctoria. 

Q. coccinea. 

Q. rubra. 

Q. falcata. 

Q. ilicifolia. (INIountains.) 

Q. obtusiloba. 

Q. alba. 

Q- lyrata. 

Q. macrocarpa. (Mountains.) 

Q. prinus. 

Q. monticola. (Mountains.) 

Q- castanea. 

Q. prinoides. 

Castanea vesca. 

C. pumila. 

Fagus feruginea. 

Corylus Americana. 

C. rostrata. 

Carpinus Caroliniana. 

Ostrya Virginica. 



ORDER CVI. WAX-MYRTLE FAMILY. MYRICACE^. 



1. WAX MYRTLE; BAYBERRY. 

2. DWARF MYRTLE. 

3. SWEET FERN. 



Myrica cerifera. 
M. pumila. 
Comptonia asplenifolia. 



ORDER CVIL BIRCH FAMILY. BETULACE.'E. 



1. RED BIRCH. 

2. BLACK BIRCH. 

3. ALDER. 



Betula nigra. 

B. lenta. (Mountains.) 

Alnus serrulata. 



ORDER CVIII. WILLOW FAMILY. SALICACE.E. 



1. SWAMP WILLOW. 

2. GRAY WILLOW. 

3. WEEPING WILLOW. 

4. CAROLINA POPLAR. 

5. COTTON TREE. 

6. LARGE-TOOTHED ASPEN. 

7. LOMBARDY POPLAR. 



Salix nigra- 

S. tristis. (Mountains.) 

S. Babylonica. (Naturalized.) 

Populus angulata. 

P. herterophylla. 

P. grandidentata. 

P. dilatata. (Naturalized.) 



342 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER CIX. PINE FAMILY. CONIFER.E. 



1. TABLE MOUNTAIN PIXE. 

2. JERSEY OR SCRUB PINE. 

3. SPRUCE PINE; WALTER'S PINE 

4. SHORT-LEAF PINE ; OLD FIELD PINE. 
.5. PITCH PINE. 

(). PO.N'D PINE. 

7. LOBLOLLY PINE; OLD-FIELD PINE. 

5. LONG-LEAF PINE; YELLOW PINE. 
9. ELLIOTT'S PINE. 

10. WHITE PINE. 
n. BALSAM FfR. 

12. BLACK SPRUCE. 

13. WHITE SPRUCE. 

14. HEMLOCK SPRUCE. 

15. RED CEDAR. 

16. WHITE CEDAR. 

17. CYPRESS ; B.ALD CYPRESS. 

18. ARBOR VIT.E. 



Pinus pungens. (Mountain.s.) 

P. inops. 

P. glabra. 

P. mitis. 

P. rigida. 

P. serotina. 

P. Taeda. 

P. australis. 

P. Elliottii. 

P. strobus. i^Iotintains.) 

J^bies Fraseri. (Mountuins.) 

A. nigra. (Mountains.) 

A. alba. (Mountains. 

A. Canadensis. (Mountains). 

Juniperus Virginiana. 

Cypressus tbyoidcs. 

Taxodium distichum. 

Thuja occidentalis. 



CLASS II. 

Plants with one seed leaf {cotijledon), as the Grasses, Sedges, Palms, &c., 
having stems composed of cellular tissue, and scattered bundles of woody 
fibre and vessels, without proper pith ; bark in concentric layers, and in- 
creasing in diameter by the deposition of new fibrous bundles. Leaves 
mostly alternate, entire, and parallel-veined ; commonly sheathing at 
the base, not falling off by an articulation. Monocolytedons or Exogens. 



ORDER ex. PALM FAMILY. PALM^. 



1. PALMETTO; CABBAGE PALMETTO. 

2. SAW pal:\ietto. 

o. DWARF PALMETTO. 
4 BLUE PALMETTO. 



Sabal Palmetto. 
S. serrulata. 
S. Adansoni. 
Chamaerops hystrix. 



ORDER CXI. ARUM FAMILY. ARACE^. 



1. INDIAN TURNIP. 

2. DRAGON ROOT. 

3. ARROW ARUM. 



Arisaema triphyllum. 
A. Dracontium. 
Peltandra Virginica, 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 343 

4. SPOON FLOWER. Xanthosoma sagittifolium. 

5. GOLDEN CLUB ; WATER DOCK. Orontium aquaticum. 

6. CALAMUS. Acorus Calamus. 



ORDER CXII. DUCK-WEED FAMILY. LEMNACEiE. 

L DUCK-WEED. Lemna minor, and two other spe- 

cies. Very small aquatic plants 
floating in still water. 



ORDER CXIII. CAT-TAIL FAMILY. TYPHACE^. 

1. CAT-TAIL. Typha latifolia. 

2. BUR REED. Sparganium ramosum. 



ORDER CXIV. POND WEED FAMILY. NAIADACE.E. 

1. EEL GRASS ; SEA WR \CK. Zostera marina. 

2. DITCH GRASS. Ruppia maritima. 

3. POND WEED. Potamogetonpectinatus, and four 

other species. 



ORDER CXV. WATER PLANTAIN FAMILY. ALISMACEtE. 

1. WATER PLANTAIN. Alisma Plantago. 

2. ARROW GRASS. Triglochin triandrum. 

3. ARROW LEAF. Sagittaria variabillis, and four 

other species. 



ORDER CXVL FR0G3BIT FAMILY. HYDROCHARIDACEiE. 

1. WATER WEED. Anacharis Canadensis. 

2. TAPE GR.iSS. Valisneria spiralis. 

3. FROG BIT. Limnobium Spongia. 



ORDER XCVII. ORCHIS FAMILY. ORCHIDACE.E. 

1. ADDER'S MOUTH. Microstylis ophioglossoides. 

2. TWINING BL\DE. Liparis liliifolia. 

3. CORAL ROOT. Corallorhiza odontorhiza. 

4. PUTTY ROOT. Aplectum hiemale. 



344 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



5. BEARDED PIXK. 

(3. CRANE-FLY ORCHIS. 

7. TREE ORCHIS. 

8. POGONIA. 

11. SHOWY ORCHIS. 

10. YELLOW ORCHIS. 

11. GREEN ORCHIS. 

12. YELLOW FRINGED ORCHIS. 

13. WHITE FRINGED ORCHIS. 

14. CRESTED ORCHIS. 

15. RAGGED ORCHIS. 

16. TWISTED ORCHIS ; LADY'S TRESSES. 

17. RATTLESNAKE PLANTAIN. 

18. TURVYBLADE. 

19. YELLOW LADY'S SLIPPERS. 

20. PURPLE LADY'S SLIPPERS. 



Calopogon pulchellus. 
Tipularia discolor. 
Epidendrum conopseum. 
Pogonia ophioglossoides, and 

three other species. 
Orchis spectabilis. 
Platanthera flava. 
p. bracteata. 
P. ciliaris 
p. blephariglottis. 
P. cristata. 
P. lacera. 

Spiranthes cemua. 
Goodyera pubescens. 
Listera australis. 
Cypripedium pubescens. 
C. acaule. 



ORDER CXVIII. CANNA FAMILY. CANNACE^. 

1. INDIAN SHOT. Canna flaccida. 

2. CANNA. C. Indica. Partly naturalized. 



ORDER CXIX. AMARYLLIS FAMILY. AMARYLLIDACE^. 



1. ATAMASCO LILY 

2. SPIDER LILY. 



Amaryllis Atamasco. 
Pancratium rotatum. And three 
other sj^ecies. 
.". RATTLESNAKE'S MASTER-PIECE : FALSE 

ALOE. Agave Virginica. 

4. AMERICAN ALOE. A.Americana. (In cultivation.) 

5. YELLOW STAR GRASS. Hypoxis erecta. 



ORDER CXX. BLOOD-WORT FAMILY. HiEMODORACEiE. 

1. RED ROOT Lacbnanthes tinctoria. 

2. WHITE STAR GRASS ; COLIC-ROOT. Aletris farinosa. 

3. GOLDEN STAR GRASS. A. aurea. 



ORDER CXXI. PINEAPPLE FAMILY. BROMELIACE^. 



1. LONG MOSS. 

2. BARTRAM'S MOSS. 



Tilandsia usneoides. 
T. Bartramii- 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 345 

ORDER CXXIL IRIS FAMILY. IRIDACE.E. 

1. BLUE FLAG. Iris versicolor. 

2. THREE-PETALLED FLAG. I. tripetala. 

3. CRESTED IRIS. I. cristata. 

4. DWARF IRIS. I. verna. 

5. BLTJE-EYED GRASS ; PEPPER GRASS. Sisyrinchiun Bermudianum. 

ORDER CXXIII. YAM FAMILY. DIOSCOREACE^E. 
] . WILD YAM. Dioscorea villosa. 

ORDER CXXIV. SMILAX FAMILY. SMILACE^. 

1. EVERGREEX S:MILAX ; CHINA ROOT. Smilax Pseudo-China. 

2. SARSAPARILLA. S. glauca. 

3. RED-BERRIED BAMBOO. S. Walteri. 

4. LAUREL-LEAVED SMILAX. S. laurifolia. 

•5. CARRION FLOWER. Coprosmanthus herbaceus. 

6. WAKE ROBIN. Trillium sessile. 

7. WILD PEPPER. T. erytlirocarpum. (In the moun- 

tains.) 

8. CUCUMBER ROOT. Medeola Virginica. 

ORDER CXXV. LILY FAMILY. LILIACE^. 

1. TURK'S CAP LILY. Lilium superbum. (mountains.) 

2. CAROLINA LILY. ' L. Carolinianum. (Low Country.) 

3. YELLOW LILY. L. Canadensis. (Mountains.) 

4. ORANGE LILY. L. Pbiladelpbicum. 

5. GATES BY'S LILY ; SOI^THERN LILY. L. Catesbasi. (Flat woods in low 

country.) 
0. SPANISH BAYONET. Yucca aloifolia. 

7. BEAR GRASS. Y. filamentosa, and two other 

species. 
S. DOG'S TOOTH VIOLET; YELLOW ADDER'S 

TONGUE. Erythronium Americanum. 

0. SOLOMON'S SEAL. Polygonatum biflorum. 

10. FALSE SPIKENARD. Smilacina racemosa. 

11. LILY OF THE VALLEY. Convalaria majalis. 

12. WILD ONION. Allium mutabile, and two or three 

other species. 



346 NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



ORDER CXXVI. COLCHICUM FAMILY. MELANTHACE.E. 

1. BELL-WORT. Uvularia perfoliata, and three 

other species. 

2. BUNCH FL0WP:R. MelantMum Virginicum. 

3. BIG HELLEBORE; BEAR CORN. Veratrum viride. (Mountains.) 

4. FLY POISON ; CROW POISON. AmiantMum muscatoxicum. 

5. BLAZING STAR ; DEVIL'S BIT. ChamaeUrium luteum. 

6. FALSE ASPHODEL. ToSeldia glabra. 



ORDER CXXVIL. RUSH FAMILY. JUXCAOE.E. 

1. BIG RUSH. Jtmcus eSfussus, and twelve otlier 

species. 



ORDER CXXVIII. PICKEREL-WEED FAMILY. 

PONTEDERACE.E. 
1. PICKEREL WEED. Pontederia cordata. (Swamp.) 

ORDER CXXIX. SPIDER-WORT FAMILY. COMMELYNACE.E. 

1. DAY FLOWER. Cominelyna communis, and two 

other species. 

2. SPIDER- WORT. Tradescantia Virginica. 

3. ROSE SPIDER-AVORT. . T. rosea. 

ORDER CXXX. YELLOW-EYED GRASS FAMILY. 

XYRIDACEiE. 

1. YELLOW-EYED GRASS. Xyris brevifolia, and seven other 

species. 

ORDER CXXXI. PIPE- WORT FAMILY. ERIOCAULONACEJE. 

1. PIPE- WORT FAMILY. Eriocaulon.decangularie, and two 

other species. 

2. YELLOW PIPE- WORT. Paepalanthus flavidus. 

3. HAIRY PIPE-WORT. Lachnocaulon Michauxii. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 347 



ORDER CXXXII. SEDGE FAMILY. CYPERACE.E. 



4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 

S. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 

13. 
14. 
15. 

16. 

17. 

18. 

19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
2.3. 



STRIGOSE CYPERUS ; BRISTLE-SPIKED 

GALINGALE. 
JOINTED CYPERUS. 
COMPACT-HEADED CYPERUS. 
SHARP GRASS 
YELLOW CYPERUS. 
SLENDER CYPERUS. 
NUT GRASS. 
GRASS NUT. 

SHEATHED DULICHIUM. 
DWARF KY'LLINGIA. 
UMBRELLA GRASS. 
SPIKE RUSH. 



SWORD GRASS. 
WEAK-STALK SCIRPUS. 
LARGE MAESH SCIRPUS. 
MARITIME SCIRPUS. 

COTTON GRASS. 

TICK-SEED GRASS ; BEAK RUSH 

HORNED RUSH. 
BALD RUSH. 
SAW GRASS. 
TWIG RUSH. 
NUT RUSH. 



^i. TUSSOCK SEDGE. 



Cypems strigosus. 

C. articulatus. 

C. vegetus. 

C. virens. 

0. flavescens. 

C. gracilis. 

C. rotundus. 

C.repens,and fifteen other species. 

Dulichium spathaceum. 

Kyllingia pumila. 

Fuirena squarrosa. 

Eleocharis equisetoides, ami sLk- 
teen other species. 

Scirpus pungens. 

S. debilis. 

S. lacustris. 

S. maritimus, and four or five 
other species. 

Eriophonim Virginicum. 

Rhyncliospora plumosa, and twen- 
ty other species. 

Ceratoschoenus machrostacliyus. 

Psylocarya rhynchosporoides. 

Cladium effusiim. 

C mariscoides. 

Scleria triglomerata, and four 
other species. 

Carex stricta. (Tliis very large 
genus of sedges, Cfur-r, containing about seventy-five 
species in the Southern States, is well represented in 
South Carolina, but there are few that have attracted 
attention enough to have acquired common names. 
There are some fifty or sixty species within the 
limits of our State.) 



ORDER CXXXIII. GRASS FAMILY. GRAMINE.E. 

1. RICE GRASS; FALSE GRASS. Leerzia oryzoides, and two other 

species. 

2. CULTIVATED RICE. • Oryza sativa. (The common rice 

in cultivation.) 



34s 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



3. WILD RICE ; INDIAN KICK. 

4. WILDCATS. 

5. FLOATING WILD RICE. 
G. FLO.-VTING FOX-TAIL. 

7. MEADOW FOX-TAIL. 

8. TIMOTHY; CAT'S-TAIL GRASS ; HERD'S 

GRASS. 

9. BEARD GRASS. 

10. WIRE GRASS ; DROP-SEED GRASS. 

11. BLACK SEED GRASS. 

12. RUSH GRASS. 

13. THIN GRASS. 

14. HAIR GRASS. 

14. BENT GRASS ; HERD'S GRASS. 

15. DELICATE HAIR GRASS. 

16. WOOD REED GRASS 

17. NIMBLE WILL ; DROP-SEED GRASS. 

18. HAIR GRASS. 

19. REED BENT GRASS, 

20. FEATHER GRASS. 
2L WIRE GRASS. 

22. POVERTY GRASS. 

23. THREE-ARMED GRASS. 



24. MARSH GRASS. 

25. MARSH GRASS. 

26. MARSH GRASS. 

27. FLAT GRASS 

28. BERMUDA GRASS ; JOINT GRASS. 

29. LEMON GRASS. 

30. CROW-FOOT GRASS; EGYPTIAN GRASS. 

31. GOOSE-FOOT GRASS. 

32. SAND GRASS. 

33. MELIC GRASS. 

34. CANE; LARGE REED. 

35. REED; DWARF CANE. 
3G. SPIKE GRASS. 

37. MAY GRASS ; SPEAR GRASS. 

37. BLUE GRASS; MEADOW GRASS. 

38. BLUE GRASS. 

39. ORCHARD GRASS. 

40. ERAGROSTIS. 



Zizania aquatica. 
Z. miliacea. 

Hydrocholoa Carolinensis. 
Alopecurus geniculatus. 
A. pratensis. 

Phleum pratense. 

Polypogon maritimus. (Sea coast.) 

Sporobolus junceus. 

S. Indicus. (Common about lawns.) 

Vilfa aspera. 

Agrostis perennans. 

A. scabra. 

A. alba. 

A. aracbnoides. 

Cinna arundinacea. 

MuMenbergia diffusa. 

M. capilaris. 

Calamagrostis coarctata. 

Stipa avenacea. 

Aristida striata. 

A. dichotcma. 

A. purpurescens, and five other 

species, all of which are known 

as " Wire Grass." 
Spartina juncea. ^ In the salt 
S. polystachya. > marshes of 
S. glabra. j the coast. 

Eustacbys petrsea. On the coast. 
Cynodon dactylon. 
Ctenium Americanum. 
Dactyloctenium jSgyptiacum. 
Eleusine Indica. 
Triplasis Americana. 
Melica mutica. 
Arundinaria gigantea. 
A. tecta. 

Brizopyrum spicatum. 
Poa annua. 

p. pratensis. ] Both species are 
P. compressa. ) called Blue Grass. 
Dactylis glomerata. 
Eragrostis. Nine species of this 

grass. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZKD PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



349 



41. FESCUE GRASS. 

42. TALL FESCUE; MEADOW FESCUE, 

43. CHEAT: CHESS. 

44. RESCUE GRASS. 

45. BEACH GRASS. 

46. REED GRASS. 

47. LYME GRASS ; RYE GRASS." 

47. BOTTLE BRUSH. 

48. DARNEL; RAY GRASS. 

49. HAIR GRASS. 

50. WILD OAT GRASS. 



Festuca Myurus. 
F. elatior. And four other spedes. 
Bromus secalinus. And one other 
species. 
CeratocMoa breviaristata. Nat- 
uralized. 
Uniola paniculata. And two 

other species. 
Phragmites communis. 
Elymus Virginicus. And one 

otlier species. 
Gymnosticliium Hytrix. 
Lolium Temulentum. 
Aira flexuosa. 
Danthonia spicata. 



[Triticum vulgare, Wheat; Secale cereale, Rye; Hordeum vulgare, Barley; Avena 
sativa, Oats, are iu common cultivation.] 



5L 
52. 
53. 
54 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 



59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63 
(>4. 
65. 
66. 

67. 

68. 
69. 
70. 
71. 



TALL OAT GRASS. 

SWEET-SCENTED GRASS. 

SOUTHERN CANARY GRASS. 

VELVET GRASS. 

FLOATING PASPALUM. 

SHEATHED PASPALUM. 

TWIN SPIKED PASPALUM. 

JOINT GRASS ; RICE-FIELD JOINT GRASS. 



Arrhenathenim avenaceum. 

Anthoxantlium odoratum. 

Phalaris intermedia. 

Holcus lanatus. 

Paspalum fluitans. 

P. Walteri. 

P. Digitaria. 

P- distichum. This crass is some- 



times confounded with Bermuda Grass, or highland joint grass, Cynodon, 
Dactvlon. 



EARLY PASPALUM. 
SMOOTH PASPALUM. 
PURPLE PASPALUM. 
HAIRY-LEAVED PASPALUM. 
FLORIDA PASPALUM. 
CRAB-GRASS. * 

ERECT PANICUM. 
GUINEA GRASS. 

TEXAN MILLET. 
PURPLE PANICUM. 
GAPING PANICUM. 
COMPRESSED PANICUM. 
SEA-SHORE PANICUM. 



P. prsecox. 
P. Iseve. 
p. undulatum. 
p. ciliatifolum. 
P. Floridanum. 
Panicum sanguinale. 
p. filiforme. 

P. jumentorum. Introduced and 
partly naturalized. 
P. Texana. Partly naturalized. 
P. gibbum. 
p. hians. 
P. anceps. 
P. virgatum. 



350 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



74. 

75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80- 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 



BITTER PANICUM. 
LARGE WATER PANICUM. 
HAIRY-STALKED PANICUM. 
NARROW-LEAVED PANICUM. 
BROAD-LEAVED PANICUM. 
LARGE-SEEDED PANICUM. 
FEW-FLOWERED PANICUM. 
VISCID PANICUM. 
ROUGH-STEM PANICUM. 
MANY-BRANCHED PANICUM. 
COCK'S-FOOT GRASS. 
SOFT PANICUM. 
CREEPING PANICUM. 

genus among the Grasses. 



P. amarum. 
P. geniculatum- 
P. capillare. 
P. angaustifolium. 
P. latifolium. 
P. scoparium. 
P. pauciflorum. 
P. viscidum. 
P. scabriusculum. 
P. dichotomum. 
P. Cnis-Galli. 
P. molle. 

P. hirtellum. This is the largest 
There are some omitted from this Ust, as 



So. 
8G, 

87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 



they have not received common names. Most of the common names 
above (of Paspahim and Panieum) have been taken from Elliott's 
Sketches. 

FOX-TAIL. Setaria glauca. 

ITALIAN MILLET. S. ItaUca. Along the coast natu- 

ralized. 

SAND SPUR. Cenchrus tribuloides. 

COCK'S SPUR. C. echinatus. 

GAMA GRASS. Tripsacum dactyloides. 

BROOM GRASS. Andropogon scoparius. And five 

or six other species, nearly all of which are called '• Broom Grass " 



91 FOX-TAIL. 

92. INDIAN GRASS. 

93. WOOD GRASS. 

94. I\IEANS' GRASS ; JOHNSTON'S GRASS 

CUBA GRASS ; COCO GRASS. 



Erianthus alopecuroides. And 
one other species. 
Sorghmn avenaceum. 
S. nutans. 

S. Halapense. Naturalized. 



[Of the Sorghum in cultivation there are the Durrah Corn (S. Vulgare), the Broom 
Corn and Sweet Sorghum (S. saccharatum) and the Guinea Corn (S. cernuumj. 



SERIES II. CRYPTOGA^IS, OR FLOWERLESS PLANTS. 

Vegetables destitute of proper flowers, and producing, in place of seeds, 
minute homogenous ])odie3 (spores) containing no embryo. 



NATIVE AND NATUEALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 351 



CLASS III. ACROGENS. 

Plants with a distinct steni, growing from the apex only, containing 
woody fibre and vessels. 



ORDER CXXXIV. HORSE-TAIL FAMILY. EQUISETACEiE. 
1. SCOURING EUSH ; HORSE-TAIL. Equisetum lavigatum. 



ORDER CXXXV. FERNS. FILICES. 



1. POLYPOD. 

2. HOARY POLYPOD. 

3. BRAKE. 

4. DWARF BRAKE 

5. LIP FERN. 

G. MAIDEN HAIR ; HAIR FERN. 

7. WOODWARDIA. 

8. WALKING LEAF. 

9. SPLEEN WORT. 

10. EBONY SPLEEN WORT. 

11. BLADDER FERN. 

12. WOOD FERN. 

13. SHIELD FERN, 

14. SENSITIVE FERN. 
13. CLIMBING FERN. 
IG. FOWERING FERN. 

17. MOON WORT, 

18. ADDER'S TONGUE. 



Polypodium vnlgare. 

P. incanum.and one other species. 

Pteris aquilina. 

P. Cretica. 

Cheilanthes vestita. 

Adiantum pedatum. 

. Two species. 

Camptosorus rhizophyllus. In 

the mountains. 

Asplennium pinnatifidum. In the 

mountains. 

A. ebeneum. And two or three 

other species. 
Cystopteris fragilis. 
Aspidium Thelypteris. 
A. Novseboracense. And two 

other species. 
Onoclea sensibilis. 
Lygodium palmatum. 
Osmunda regalis. And two other 
species. 

Botrychium Virginicum. And 

one other species. 

Ophioglossum vulgatum. 



ORDER CXXXVI. CLUB-MOSS FAMILY. LYCOPIACE/E. 



1. CLUB-MOSS. 

2. CAROLINA CLUB-MOSS. 

3. GROUND PINE. 



Lycopodium clavatum. 
L. Caroliannum. 
L. dendrodeum. 



352 NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF 80UTII CAROLINA. 

4. CREEPING CLUB-MOSS. L. alopecuroides. 

5. SELAGINELLA. • Two species. 

6. PSILOTUM TPJQUETRUM. 



ORDER CXXXVII. WATER-FERN FAMILY. HYDROPLERIDES. 

L FLOATING AZOLLA. Azolla Caroliniana. In still 

water. 



CLASS IV. ANOPHITES, OR ACROGENS. 

Cryptogamous acrogenoiis plants, growing upwards by an axis or stem, 
and usually furnished with distinct leaves (sometimes the stem and 
foliage confluent into a frond) composed of cellular tissue alone. 



ORDER CXXXVIII. MOSSES. MUSCI. 

These small and inconspicuons plants have attracted so little of general attention 
that scarce!}' any of them have received common or popular names. It is onh' of late 
years that they have claimed the attention and study of Botanists in our country. 
The eliler American botanists confined themselves mostly to the larger and more con- 
spicuous flowering plants; and thus it is that there are many new species continually 
being discovered. 

The same may be said of all the other lower Cryptogams, thS Hepatics, the Lichens, 
the Fungi, and the Algje. 

A mere list of scientific names of species of all these Cryptogams, besides occupying 
more space than can be spared, would be of little interest, except to botanists I ^vill, 
therefore, give an enximeration only, — and say that in my own herbarium there are 
about 127 species of Musci collected within the limits of the State. 



ORDER CXXXIX. LIVER WORTS. HEPATIC^. 

Of this order I have in my herbarium sixty-five species collected in this State. 



CLASS V. THALLOPHITES, OR THALLOGENS. 

Flowerless plants of the low^est grade, entirely composed of cellular 
tissue, with no distinction of stem, root, and leaves ; not growing by 
buds, nor furnished with reproductive organs analagous to flowers ; some 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 353 

of the lowest forms remarkable for the spontaneous movements they 
exhibit. 

ORDER CXL. LICHENS. LICHENES. 

Perennial plants spreading in the form of a lobed-thallus over trees, or ui)on rocks, 
or on the ground. Some of them contain nutritious qualities, and are used in the arts 
and in medicine. The Iceland Moss of the druggists shops (Cetraria Islandica) con- 
tains eighty per cent, of gelatinous nutritious substance. The Tripe de Jioch; (Rock 
Tripe) is a species of Umbilicaria, and the Eein-deer Moss is a Cladonia. Some of them 
yield important coloring matters, and are employed in the arts. 

I have in my herbarium 258 species, collected in this State. 



ORDER CXLI. SEA WEEDS. ALG^. 

Leafless plants with no distinct axis, growing in water (fresh or salt water) and rarely 
on trees, consisting either of simple vescicles or of articulated filaments, or of lobed 
fronds. Many of the marine sea weeds have useful properties. The " Irish Muss " 
(Chondrus crisi:)us) of the shops is used for its gelatine in making blanc-mange. 
Many other species have similar qualities, and the famous edible " Swallow's-nests " 
of the Chinese is composed of a species of Alga. 

Of the Algse found in our State, Prof. Harvey, in his " Nereis Boreali-Americana," 
gives twenty-eight marine species found in Charleston harbor. These added to my 
own collection, amounting to 1-10 species (composed altogether of those inhabiting 
fresh water, trees, &c.), will give a total for the State of 168 species. 



ORDER CXLII. THE MUSHROOM FAMILY. FUNGI. 

Plants growing on dead or dying matter, — sometimes on living plants, — often on the 
ground, deriving nutriment mostly from the substance on which they grow. Fruit 
various in external character. Spores either naked or contained in utricles (Asci) and 
then called Sporidia, — mostly producing a mass of threads or cells (Mycelium) from 
which the plant grows. 

This is an immense Order, counting by the thousands ; but a small proportion of 
which have attracted popular attention — and we cannot pretend to do more than 
merely to indicate a few of the more prominent and conspicuous forms which affect 
us, either for their benefits or for the evil they entail. 

They comprise a great variety of external form and size, from the larger Mushrooms 
which we see on the ground and on trees, to the minute species which infest the 
leaves of plants, and are scarcely visible to the naked eye. 

If the annual loss on our cultivated crops by insect depredation is estimated at mil- 
lions of dollars, no less do the minute fungi do their part to the same effect, in tlie 
form of rust, smut, mildew, and mould. Most growing plants— crop plants— are more 
or less infested by these microscopic organisms, wldch injure them to some extent, and 
frequently destroy vitality. It is only of late years that much attention has been 
drawn to them. In fact, it is only through the superior microscopes, so much improved 
of late, that we can form any idea of their structure and organization— and thus pro- 
ceed in a proper manner towards their treatment. Their structure, habits and mode 
23 



354 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



of jtropatration must be investi<:ated and understood, before any legitimate mode of 
treatment can be devised. But in order to do this, ^ve have first to collect, classify and 
arran^'e them in some intelligible order, and to give them names, so they may be 
known, and so that scientists, in describing them, may know what they are talking 
about. The first pioneer work therefore is to make collections, and then classify and 
arrange them by some definite method for future use. To thoughtless persons it may 
seem useless to devote attention to such small objects, and even frivolous to occupy 
oneself with such matters, but the day for such comments is passing away. As we 
learn more and more of the works of the Creator, we see that "small and great" are 
only terms of our own. They have no place in the vocabulary of nature. In fact it 
is by the examination antl study of these simplest forms of life, tliat we are enabled 
to learn more of the higher and more complete forms. They assail us directly at all 
points. Their minute and invisible spores are everywhere present — in the air we 
breathe and in the water we drink. Diseases, injurious to animal as well as vegetable 
life, owe their origin to them and their destructive agency, — and demand our attention. 
It is to these simplest forms of the animal and vegetable kingdom, as easiest of com- 
prehension, that the most profound philosophers of our day are turning their inquiries 
and studies in their search after the origin of life. 

Every one is familiar with the ordinary Mushrooms which we see springing up about 
the woods, or on the roadways, and in fields and gardens — how numerous they are — 
and how they vary in color, and size. These are tlie Agarics. They constitute a very 
large genus of fungi, and to them belongs the famous edible Mushroom, and many 
others which are not only wholesome food, but even sought after as delicacies. They 
are the most highly organized group of the order There are doubtless many un- 
wholesome, and some very poisonous, members of this genus, but probably the much 
largest portion are either innocuous or wholesome. The late Dr. Curtis, of North Car- 
olina, who paid special attention to this branch of botany, proved by personal experi- 
ment, the wholesome properties of over one hundred different species. In Europe, 
where population is more dense, large ciuantities are consumed. In our newer country, 
where the means of living is easier, we hear less of tliem, because other food is more 
abundant. 

I will now proceed to note a few of the most prominent and well known species (in 
accordance with the arrangement in the previous part of this paper) and then give an 
enumeration of the whole number of fungi found in our State. 



1. IMPERIAL MUSHROOM. 

2. FLY-AGARIC. 

3. HALLIMASCIIE. 

4. CLUSTERED AGARIC. 

5. PARASOL MUSHROOM. 

6. LONG-ROOTED MUSHROOM. 

7. OYSTER MUSHROOM. 



Agaricus Caesareus. Edible ; in 

woods. 
A. muscarius. Poisonous ; in 

woods. 

A. melleus. Edible ; in clusters on 

rotten stump.s. 

A. caespitosus. Very similar to 

the last. 

A. procerus. In lawns and woods ; 

edible. 
A. radicatus. Edible ; in woods. 
A. ostreatus. Edible ; on dead 

trunks. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



OOO 



8. COMMON MUSHROOM. A. campestris. This is also tl.e 

fiuuous eatable miishrootn of Europe, and cultivated for market in large 
quantities. 

9. PEACH-SCENTED MUSHROOM. A. amygdaUnus. Fully as good 

as the last 
10. FIELD MUSHROOM. A. arvensis. Also very good. 

[The Agarics constitute one of the largest genera among fungi. We have collected 

and noted about different species growing in this State, of which a large portion 

are edible. 



11. LA CHANTARELLE. 

12. DRY-ROT 

13. FAIRY-RIXG MUSHROOM. 

14. BEEF-STEAK MUSHROOM. 

15. MEDUSA-HEAD MUSHROOM. 

16. CLAVARIA. 



Cantharellus cibarius. Edible ; 

in woods. 

Merulius lacrymans. In cellars 

and damp wood. 

Marasmius oreades In woods ; 

edible. 

Fistulina hepatica. Edible ; on 

trees. 

Hydnum Caput - Medusae. On 

trunks. 

. Most of the 



17. JEWS-EAR. 

18. STINK-HORN; DEVIL'S BREATH 

19 PUFF BALL ; EGG MUSHROOM. 



20. EARTH-STAR. 

21. HYDROMETER. 

22. CUSTARD MUSHROOM. 

23. LITTLE-NEST. 

24. RUST. 

25. CEDAR BALLS 

26. RED RUST. 

27. SMUT. 

28. CORN SMUT. 

29. CLUSTER CUPS. 



Clavarias are edible. 
Herniola auricula- Judae. On logs. 
Phallus rubicundus. In fields and 
roadside. 
Lycoperdon Bovista. Very good. 
There are also several other smaller species equally good. 
Geaster fornicatus. 
G. hygrometricus. 
.ffithalium septicum. On logs; 
not eatable. 
Nidularia pulvinata. 
Puccinia graminis. Common on 
grasses. 
Podisoma macropus. On Cedar 

trees. 
Uredo rubigo. Common on grasses 
and cereals. 
Ustilago Segetum. On oats, &c. 
U. Zeae. On Indian corn, destroy- 
ing tlie ear. 
.fficidium. There are large num- 
bers of species, growing on various 
plants. 



35G NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

80. HORNED CLUSTER CUP. RoesteUa. Many species of this 

al.si>, mostly on the Api>le family. 

31. BLACK-SEED GRASS SMUT. Helminthosporium Ravenelii. 

Very common on Black-seed 
grass (Sporobolus Indicus), and 
destroys the seed. 

32. MORELLE. Morchellaesculenta. Good, edible. 

33. EARTH TOXGUE. Geoglossum hirsutum. In woods. 

near rotten logs. 

34. PLUM DISEASE. Sphseria morbosa. Attacking the 

living branches. 
36. TUCKAHOE; INDIAN POTATOE. Pachyma cocos. 

30. MOULDS. Various species of Mucor, Pennicilium, &c. 



[Note. — In the above " List of the more Common Native and Naturalized Plants of South 
Carolina," I have only noted : 

1st. Such Phsengamous plants as were most common and well known, and had 
received popular names. To have given the botanical names of all others would have 
exceeded the limits to which this paper is restricted. In the recapitulation, at the 
end, I will state the whole number found within the limits of our State, including 
those above-mentioned. 

2d. Of Cryptogamous plants, there are but very few that have received popular 
names, and to these few I have alluded ; and for the same reason as stated above, I 
have omitted the others, but I will also give, in the recapitulation, the whole number 
found thus far in our State. I am not aware that any other botanists .have ever made 
any collections of the lower Cryptogams within our State, except the late Dr. Curtis 
(who resided a few years at Society Hill) and myself, nor have any catalogues ever 
been published ' Not having access to Dr. Curtis' collections to ascertain his species, I 
am compelled to consult only my own Herbarium. In stating the number, therefore, 
it must be borne in mind that these are only what I have myself collected in this 
State.] 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 357 



SUMMARY. 

FLOWERING PLANTS— Exogens, about ■ 1,310 Species. 

Endogens, about 500 

1,810 

FLOWERLESS PLANTS— Filices, about 30 

Equisetaceee 1 

Lycopodiacefe 9 

Hydropterides 1 

Characeaj 3 

Musci, about 127 

Hepaticfe, about 65 

Licheiaes, about 258 

Algai, about 168 

Fungi, about 1,920 

2,582 

Total species found in the State 4,392 



358 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



LIST OF BOOKS, PAMPHLETS, CATALOGUES AND 
CONTRIBUTIONS TO SCIENTIFIC MAGAZINES. 



RELATING TO THE BOTANY OF THIS STATE. 



Flora Carolinian a, Thomas Walter; 1 
Vol. London, 1787, 

Flora Carolin.eensis, J. L. E. Shecut ; 1 
Vol. Charleston, 1806. 

Carolina Florist, by John Drayton ; 1 
Vol., 1807. MSS. in library of State Uni- 
versity, Columbia, S. C- 

Sketch of the Botany of South Carolina 
and Georgia, Stephen Elliott ; 2 Vols. 
Charleston, 1817-1824. 

Catalogue of Ph^.nogamous Plants and 
Ferns, Native or Naturalized, found 
growing in the Vicinity of Charles- 
ton, John Bachman. 1834. 

Catalogue of the Plants of Columbia 
and its Vicinity, Lewis R. Gibbes. 
1835. 

A Medico-Botanical Catalogue of the 
Plants and Ferns of St. John's Berke- 
ley, F. Peyre Porcher. 1847. 

Catalogue of the Natural Orders of 
Plants in the Vicinity of the Santee 
Canal, as Represented by Genera 
AND Species, H. W. Ravenel ; Proc. 
Am. Ass. Adv. Science, Vol. III. 1850. 

Flora of the Lower Country of South 
Carolina, Wm. Wragg Smith ; Proc. 
Ell. Soc. 1859. 

Notice of Some New and Rare Plants 
FOUND IN this State, H. W. Ravencl ; 
Proc. Ell. Soc. 1856. 



Description of a New Species of Baptisia 
(with plate), H. W. Ravenel; Proc. 

Ell. Soc 185G. 

Some Rare Southern Plants, H. W. 
Ravenel ; Bulletin Torrey Bot. Club, 
New York, 1876. 

Description of Species of Fungi found 
NEAR Charleston, S. C, M. Bosc. 
French Consul, in Berlin Magazine, 
1811. 

Contributions to the Cryptogamic Botany 
OF South Carolina, H. W. Ravenel ; 
Southern Medical Journal. 

Fungi Caroliniani Exsiccati, H. W. Rav- 
enel ; Charleston, 5 Vols. 1852-1860. 

Fungi Americani, H. W. Ravenel ; Lon- 
don, 8 Vols. 1878-1882. 

Enumeration and Description of South 
Carolina Fungi, M. C. Cooke-Gre villea. 

London, 1878. 

Thirty New Species op American Fungi, 
Baron de Thuemen. Vienna, 1878. 

Species of American Hyphomycetes, 
Baron de Thuemen. Vienna, 1879. 

Notes on the Marine Alg.e of S. C. and 
Florida, J. Cosmo Melvil, inTrimens' 
Journal of Botany, Vol. IV. Lon- 
don. 



NATIVE AND NATURALIZED PLANTS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



359 



PUBLICATIONS OF A MORE GENERAL CHARACTER, IN WHICH THE 
BOTANY OF THE STATE IS ILLUSTRATED. 



Flora Boreali-Americaxa, Andre Mi- 
chaux. 1796. 

Flora op North America, Frederick Pursb. 
1814. 

Sylva Americana, or Forest Trees of 
North America, F. A. Michanx. 1804. 



North American Fungi, M. J. Berkley. 
Grevillea, London, 1873-1874. 

The Erysiphei of the United States, C. 
E. Bessy. 1877. 

The Valsaei of Norih America, M. C. 
Cooke. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Pha., 1877. 



1838-1840. 

Southern Eotany, Darby. 1 Vol 

Flora of Southern LTnited States, A. W. 
Chapman. 1860. 1 Vol. 

Resources of the Southern Fields and 
Forests, F. Peyre Porcher. 18G9. 1 
Vol. 

Nereis Boreali American:, W. H. Harvey. 
3 Vols. Smithsonian Institution. 1857. 

Prodromus of a Study of North American 
Fresh AVater Alg.e, H. C. Wood. 1869. 

Contributions to the History of the 
Fresh Water Alg.e of North America, 
H. C. Wood. Smithsonian Institution, 
1873. 1 Vol. 

Species of Fresh Water Alg.e, Francis 
Wolle. Bull. Tor. Bot. Club. New 
York. 

Synop.sis Fungoru.m Carolin.e, L. de 
Schweinitz. Leipsick, 1822. 1 Vol. 

Synopsis Fungorum in Boreali-America, 
L. de Schweinitz. Philadelphia, 1831. 
1 Vol. 

Introduction to Cryptogamic Botany, M. 
J. Berkley. London, 18.57. 1 Vol. 

Contributions to the Mycology* of North 
America, Berkley «& Curtis. Silliman's 
Journal, 1848. 

Contributions to the Mycology of North 
America, Berkley & Curtis. Hooke's 
London Journal of Botany. 

Mycosraphia, seu IcoNes Fungorum, M. C, 

Cooke. 1875-1879. Six Parts. 



North American Flora, Torrey and Gray. ; The Hypo.mycetous Fungi op the United 

St.\tes, M. C. Cooke. 1877. 

Synopsis op the Discomycetous Fungi op 
the United States, M. C. Cooke. 
Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Science, 1875. 

The Myxomycetes of the United States, 
M. C. Cooke. Annals of Lyceum of 
Nat. Hist., New York. 

Species of Lycoperdon in United States. 
Ch. H. Peck. Albany Institute, 1879. 

Musci Boreali-Americani, Sullivant t\: 
Lesquereux. 1856. 

The Mosses and Hepatics of U. S., East 
OF the Mississippi, W. S. Sullivant. 
1856. 

Icones Muscorum, W. S. Sullivant. 1864. 
1 Vol., with plates. 

Musci Appalachiani, C. F. Austin. 1870. 

Hepatice Boreali-A.merican,e, C. F. Aus- 
tin. 1873. 

Description of Mosses and Hepatics, C. F. 
Austin. Bull. Tor. Bot. Club. 

Genera Lichenu.m, or an Arrangement 
OF the North American Lichens, Ed. 
Tuckerman. 1 Vol. 1872. 

A Llst of North American Lichens, H. 
Willey. 1873. 

Observations on North American Lichens. 
Ed. Tuckerman. 

Synopsis of North American Lichens, Ed. 
Tuckerman. Part I. 1882. 

Botany of North Carolina (in connection 
with the Geological Survey of the 
State), M. a. Curtis. 1867. 



TABLE I. — Ahstrad of Meteorological Observations in South Carolina, Recorded h 







Year 


1752 


1 Ih?. 


1754 


1755 


1756 


1757 


1758 


1759 


1791 1792 


1793 


r 










1 Aknttm. Mk\?c 


























2 
3 


Highest 


















90 

28 


93 
30 


89 
30 






Lowest 






















Winter Mean. 


58 


58 


60 


53 


56 


57 


53 


53 
















H 




Highest 

Lowest 


83 
18 

76 


82 

28 
75 


86 
22 
75 


80 
27 
73 


84 
26 

74 


79 
25 
76 


84 
29 
76 


81 

28 

77 










O 1 " 

S ! 












7 

8 
9 


Summer Mean. 












j 






Highest 


101 
49 


i 
911 <^i 


90 
46 


96 
46 


90 
45 


94 
35 


93 
55 










42 


49 


















1 






10 
11 
12 
13 
14 


Annual Total. 


46.49 

1.96 

10.70 

27.16 

6.47 


40.93 

2.59 

18.87 

17.41 

5.06 


37.64 44.14 

3.50 7.13 

11 711 i?;q9 


33.76 
8.93 
8.21 

10.07 
6.55 


40.17 

8.47 

18.31 

11.31 

2.01 


31.95 

2.48 

10.92 

12.92 

5.63 


34.51 
6.49 
8.74 

16.15 
3.73 










o 










'Z 


Summer 

Autumn 












13.88 
8.55 


13.21 
7.88 










■< 










ti 






1 










15 










j 














K 


16 

17 

18 


Hi'diest 






















I 




























O 
< 








.| 














|__ 


n 


19 


















































• 


Prevailii 


loAVind 








. 1 







































1 1 


- 



mSk 



Lu. 



UDB 



vij" 



TVHIE I— •I'"'''"''' I'i Milmmhgkal OhHCfcations in South Carolina, Remnkil by Dr. Lionel Chalmen, fi-om 1762 to 1759 ; by John Drayton, from 1791 to 

from ISee t^ 187S ; in Office of United States Signal Service 



1801; 

Bureau, 



n Timncy's Geological Reportu of South Carolina, from ISlC lu ISIfG; in Official Returns of flmrkxlon City Rciiinlrarn 
from 1S7S to 1880. 



1 

h 

3 


" -^ — 


1752 


1763 


1754 


1765 


1750 




1757 


1758 


1759 


1701 


7792 


170S 


ifM 


1795 


1706 


1797 


I79a!l79fl 18001801 


ISlb 


1811 


1818 


1819 


1820 1823 1824 


1825 


1827 


1829 


1880 


183dl842 


1843 


1844 


1845 


1846 


1866 


1867 


1808 


1869 


1870 


1871 


1872 


1878 


R 


1876 


1876 


1877 1878 


1879 


1880 




p 








1 


1 1 1 


1 








1 


1 1 


1 


1 


£l 


i 










1 




1 .1 1 
















00 




67 


67 










64 
94 
20 
54 


63 
90 

2 












1 








65 
96 
19 


«6 05 
96 96 


66 
97 
23 
55 


U6 07 u- 67! «■■; 














1 






9o] 98 
28 30 


89 
30 


.'SI 

i34 


92 
29 


80 

17 


88 
22 


88 
31 










89 91 
19 24 


94 

28 


80 
10 


100 
22 






















100 07 104 -100 
36 26 23j 13 






"'*'" 










. .. . i 












































1 


58 


58 


60 


53 


1 

eo| 57 


53 


53 
























IVi 


55 


56 


54 


66 






58 


66 






B 1 1 " ■* 






















































1 ' - 


Highral 

Lowest 

9CUUSR MEA^^ 


83 
18 

76 


82 
28 
75 


80 
22 
75 


80 
27 
73 




84 
29 
76 


:: 

77 














































84 
20 

74 


! 


















1 






20 
74 


25 
76 


















1 


. 




























1 




















































74 












77 


73 




77 


'77 




74 


75 


79.9 


75.8 77 76 








r 








; 
















































-. 
• 






Highest 

Lmrert 


101 
49 


91 
42 


91 
42 


90 


90 
46 


00 
45 


94 
35 


















































90 
41 
























! 






55 

















































































1 








" 




1 




























































1 








48.49 
1.90 
10.70 
27.10 
C.47 


40.93 
2.59 
18.87 
17.41 

.iOI 


37.64 
3.50 
11.71 
13.88 


44.14 
7.13 
16.92 
13.21 
7.88 


33.761 40.17 

1 


31.95 
2.48 
10.92 
12.92 
5.63 








.|... 


71 


58. 55 


48 


76 


















1 








30.5 


48.6 








48.27 
11.28 
13.49 
10.92 
12.59 


60.88 
12.41 

7.74 
24.23 

0.49 








78.4 
11.24 
31.34 
26.91 


80.14 77 44 60. 40.07 


60.77 
8.96 
15.97 
1663 








6.49 
8.74 
16.16 
3.73 


































0.15 
1410 
11.84 

4.4,1 


11.27 
22.3! 
20.09 
7.39 


12.36 
19.70 
16.84 
13.23 


9.37 
9.88 
9.81 
13 97 


12.13 
9.22 

14.73 
7.43 


9.09 


11.9 19.44 




" i" 
" 11? 


Summer....... 

Autumn 

Winter. 


8.21 
10.07 
6.55 


18.31 
11.31 
2.01 


















































i 


22.73 28.20 
19.19 15.44 
11.05 10.30 


16.56j 11.02 
16.341 10.58 
7.30| 9.63 




3 ' 

f |i< 









.i... 


; 









































8.40 
8.47 





I6.30' 10.62 11.40 


1 

28:i3 


















1 














































1 


I_....l 




1 1.1 . 






















30.13 
30.58 
20.60 


i 




1 1 




1 1 1 1 ' I 1 1 I 


i in; HiKiifflt 











■■ 






.1... 






1 1 J .. 

























30 359 
29.020 


30.794 
29.4M 


30.670 
29.630 


30.091 30.608 30.514 


30.600 
29.6C0 


30.730 30.730 30.057 30.059' 30.534130.314.30.009 30.680 




1716 
171; 
1118 
619 


i 

1 1 


Lowest 






1 






1 


















FMBi^Eorliorf 






















T 1 1 






' 


6 on. 








1 


[ 














1 




lODec 2 OctillNovl29Nov 2UVov 

1 1 
10Apr22MarllMar| OFeb 5 Apr 


26K01' 




19; Utei - 






































1 






















1 






SOA^r 




-" - -=--— — _ 














1 1 








1 






















1 










frenil 

















' L...L...L.. 


1 


1 1 




34 


>.w. 


.... 


8.W. 


8.W. 

84 




E. 
OS 


8.W. 

73 


s.vr. S.W. 

78 66 


S.W. S.W. 


S.W. 


s.w. 

132 


S.W(. S. S.W.i S. jS.-B'. 


S.W. 
106 


S.W. S.W. 2620 


So. on 


«J«rainroll..... 


1 j 


711 I1OIJ77J74 






— ■ — 


^-=^^i^^ 


-— 






...... 




















^ 


J J^ 




= 


























































































f 















yiDVr 



■RNDi 



UBKa&Y 



TABLE U.— Table compiled from Ceimis Returns of ISSO, shoiving the A', 

each Agrt 



AGRICULTURAL 

REGION 

OF 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 



AREAS 

IN 

SQUARE 

MILfiS. 



1. Alpine Region ... 

2. Piedmont Region 

3. Sand Hill Region. 

4. Red Hill Region.. 

5. Upper Pine Beit.. 

6. Lower Pine Belt.. 

7. Coast 

8. Total 



Population. 



1,251 
10,425 
2,441 
1,(520 
6,230 
10,226 
1,700 



33,893 



25,182 
173,819 
11,730 
19,742 
88,564 
61,206 
10.828 



COLOBED 



391,071 



9,314 
221,224 

16,882 

25,124 

132,845 

142,542 

56,308 



604,235 



NUMBER 
OF 
TOTAL. FARMS. 



34,496 
395,043 

28,612 

44,866 
221,409 
203,748 

67,132 



995,306 



ACRES 

OF 
TILLED 
LAND. 



Co 



ACRES. 



4,646 
38,581 

4,238 

4,568 
19,386 
16,598 

5,847 



132,791 
1,861,902 
151,359 
234,682 
948,521 
358,533 
106,772 



25,74 
748,51 
35.43 
84,93 
358,50 
63,55 
80,69 



93,864 3,794,5601,347,38 



TABLE III. — Table compiled from Cenms Returns of 1870, shovAng the I 

Agricul 



AGRICULTURAL 


AREA 

IN 

SQUARE 

MILES. 




Population 




ACRES 

OF 

IMPROVED 

LAND. 


- 


REGION 

OF 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 


WHITE. 


COLORED. 


TOTAL. 


BAL 

OF 

COTT' 


1. Alpine Region 

2. Piedmont Region 

3. Sand and Red Hills " 

4 Upper Pine Belt 


1,251 

10,425 
4,001 
6,230 

10,226 
1,700 


16,020 
138,392 
29,665 
44,238 
58,342 
2,135 


4,785 

135,478 

46,758 

85,230 

124,511 

19,052 


20,805 
273,870 

76,423 
129,468 
183,853 

21.187 


64,802 

1,214,679 

333,540 

780,024 

729.839 

87,655 

! 


1 

93 
24 

83 


5. Lower Piue Belt 

6- Coast 


2U 
1 






7. Total 


33,893 


289,792 


415,814 


706,006 


3,010,539 


224 







1 



TABLE U.— T(ibh winpihl fmn Census Hdwns of ISSO, xho 



iny the- Arm, Popiilatimi, Tilled Lands, Leadmg Oro}is and Slock, with the Hdalicmg to Arm and Pnjmlutk 
each AgncuUaral Regixyti of South Carolina. 



AGlilcrWlIKAL 

BEGIOX 

OF 

SUL'TH I'AKULINA. 




Popi-LATIOK. 


Jl. 


.,°1 


CtyiTos. 




S.OCK. 


STOCK. 


Per Sqoahe Mile 


Per Capita op Population. 


i 

1 


u. 

To 




SQIABF. 






.0... 


.0,.. 




BL^nEts 


1 • 
1 1 


1 . 


1 

8 

1 
< 


s 


1 

2 

1 


1 


t 

jl 

O 


1 




■^ ■ 
1 .^ 


Si 

r 






1,251 
10,425 

2,441 

1,1)20 
■ 6,230 
10,220 

1,700 


23,182 
173,819 
11,730 
19,742 
88,6I>4 
61,206 
10,828 


9,314 
221.224 
16,882 
26,124 
132,845 
142,542 
56,308 

60*,235 


34,496 
395,043 

28,612 

44,866 
221.409 
203,748 

67,132 


4,046 
38,681 

4,238 

4,068 
19,386 
16,698 

5,847 


132,791 
1,861,902 
161,369 
234,682 
948,521 
368,633 
106,772 


25,740 
748,610 
36.433 
84,939 
368,605 
63,658 
30,696 

1.347,381 


7,970 
274,318 
15,065 


712,031 
7,731,628 
920,444 


.5,798 60,036 
69.(i03l 473,180 
8,618 70,901 
7,(;03l (11.569 
35,4691 313.811 
18,4.53 235.724 


27.6 3.7 106 
37.8 3.7i 178 


20 
71 
14 
62 
67 
6 
18 

39 


6.3 
26.3 

6.1 
21.1 

23.7 
2.7 
6 

15.1 


569 
741 
377 
490 
682 
236 
466 

501 


4.ll 52 
6.6| 46 


11 


3.S 105 
4,7 310 
6.2; 2»9 




22 








09 
14 
10 
08 
08 


191 .I7I1.I 
32| .291 2.4 








193 17 






27-6 
35.5 
18.9 
39 4 

29.3 


2.8, 144 
3.1 1 152 
1.6i 35 
3.41 62 

2.7 111 


4.7 
6.6 
1.8 
4.6 

4.4 


38 
60 
33 
26 



37 




6. Upper Pine Belt 


148,0501 3,631,302 


4.2! 3J7 iej .161 i.4 


202 
219 
92 


21 
12 
U 


5 




8,543 
610,490 


793,669 


1.5' <2I 11 


.n .0 



















391,071 


995,306 


17,010,693 




.15 1.27 
















-, — 1 - 







TABLE l\l.~T(xhk compiled fn 



Cenms Retimis of 1S70, shoxmng the Popidation, Improved Land, Leadmg Crops, d-c., 
Agricultural Region of South Carolina. 



nih their Bdatio-ns to Area and Population in each 



AGRICULTURAL 




POPIILATIOS. 


■M.EOVE„ 


.AEES 


OEA... 


HI 


— 


Per Sqdaee Mile. 


Per Capita of Popl-latios. 


REGION 

OF 

SOUTH C.4H0LINA. 


SQBAEE 


.n.xE. 


COEOEE. 


.O.AE. 


1 


i 

si 

¥ 

•< 


1 1 

1 1 


1 

1 


1 

> 




r 


.1 

►J c 

II 
1" 


'i 

a 

1 

n 


1 


1 






L Alpine Region 

-■ Pieillnont Repiun .. 

' S«nJan^lRedlIill,•• 


1,251 

10,425 
4,061 
6,230 

10,226 
1,700 


16,020 
138,392 
29,665 
44,238 
58,342 
2.135 


4,785 
135,478 
40,768 
86,230 
124.611 
19,052 


20.806 
273.870 

76,423 
129,468 
183,853 

21.187 


64,802 
1,214,679 
333,540 
780,024 
729.839 

87,655 


1,299 400,449 
93,494 4.467.365 
24.222 987.343 


4,096 
47,779 
12,544 
20,214 
13,965 

2,115 


32,865 
297..378 

92,053 
149,448 
133,740 

10,134 


10 
27 
IS 
20 
IS 
12 


61 
116 

32 
125 

61 

51 


1. 

8.9 
6.9 
11.7 
1.9 
1.1 


320 
428 
243 
347 
129 
229 


3.2 
4.6 
3. 
3.6 
1.2 
1.2 


26 
28 
22 
24 
13 
9 


3.1 
4.2 
4. 

6. 
2.8 
4.1 


14 


19. 
16. 
12. 
17. ■ 
7. 
18. 


19 16 
.16 1-4 
.16 11 
.17 1-1 
.07 0.7 
.10 7 


1 
2 
3 


o. Lower Pine liell 


20,403 
1,873 


1,327,318 
389,720 


5 






'■ Total 


33,893 


289,792 


415,814 


706,006 


3,010,639 


224,500 


9,735,469 


100,715 


721,118 


20 


8S 


6. 


287 


2.9 


21 


42 


147 



















TABLE IV. — General Statistics of Agriculture for the United States and for 
South Carolina, according to the United States Census, with the Percentage 
of Increase and Decrease in each Particular, since 1850. 



1S80 



1870 



1860 



1850 



Percentage of 
Increase 

OK 

Decrease. 



1880 1870 1860 



!N umber of Farms. 



Total land in Farms, 
acres 



Average Size of. 
Farms, acres 



U.S. 
.S. C. 

U.P. 
s. C. 



{ 

'ercentage of unim- ( U.S. 
proved Land i iw 
Faims % { S. C. 



Value of Farms. 



Val 
M 



. ^ (I 

ue of FarmingJ j 

achinery 8 [ji- 



Val ae of Live Stock, $ 
Horses, number 



U.S. 
B.C. 
U.S. 

\ IS. c. 

U.S. 

s. c. 

U.S. 

s. c. 

U.S. 

s. c. 



Mules and Asses, 
number 



j jU. S. 

is. c. 



WorkintiOxc 
ber 



n,Num-J 



Milch Cows, number.. 
Other Cattle, number 

Sheep, number 

Swine, number 

Butter, pounds.. 



U.S. 

S. C. 
U.S. 

s. c. 

U.S. 

s. c. 

U.S. 

s. c. 

U.S. 

s. c. 

U.S. 



lis. c 



4,00«,907 

93,864 

536,081,835 

13,457,613 

46.9 

69.3 

131 

113 

10,197,096,776 

68,677,482 

400,520,055 

3,202,710 

1,500,464,609 

12,279,412 

10,357,488 

60,660 

1812,808 

67,005 

993,841 

24,507 

12,443,120 

139,881 

22,488,-550 

199,321 

35,192,074 

118,889 

47,681700 

628,198 

777,250.287 

3,196,851 



2,659,985 

51,889 

407,735,041 

12,105,280 

53.7 

75.1 

153 

233 

9,262,*- 03,861 

44,808,763 

336,878,429 

2,282,946 

1,525,276,457 

12,443,510 

7 145,370 

44,105 

1,125,415 

41,327 

1,319,271 

17,685 

8,935,332 

98,693 

13,566,005 

132,925 

28,477,951 

124 594 

25,134,569 

895,999 

514,092,683 

1,461,980 



2,044,077 

: .3,171 

407,212,5.38 

16,195,919 

59.9 

71.8 

199 

488 

6,645,045,007 

139,652,508 

246,118,141 

6,151.657 

1,089,329,915 

23,934,465 

6,249,174 

81,125 

1,151.148 

56,456 

2,254,911 

22,629 

8,585,735 

163,938 

14,779,373 

320,209 

22,471,275 

2:33 509 1 

33,512,867 

965,779 

4.59,681,372 

3,177,934 



1,449,073 

29,967 

293,560,614 

16,217,700 

615 

74.9 

203 

541 

3,271,575,426 

82,431,684 

151,587,638 

4,136,354 

514,180,516 

15,060.015 

4.336,719 

97,171 

559,331 

37,483 

1,700.744 

20,507 

6,385,094 

193,244 

9,693,069 

563,935 

21,723,220 

245,551 

30,354,213 

1,065,503 

313.545,306 

2,981,850 



50 


24 


80 


26 


31 


00 


11 


*24 


*6.8 


*6.2 


*5.8 


3.3 


*n 


*23 


*38 


*52 


10 


30 


53 


*67 


20 


36 


41 


*62 


*1 


40 


*1 


*48 


51 


14 


37 


*45 


61 


*2 


62 


*28 


*24 


*41 


38 


*21 


39 


4 


41 


*38 


65 


*7 


49 


*140 


23 


27 


*5 


»49 


89 


*25 


57 


*58 


51 


H 


119 


*85| 



41 

10 

35 

CO 

*1.6 

*3.1 

*46 

*11 

103 

69 

62 

48 

100 

59 

21 

*19 

106 

50 

32 

10 

34 

*15 

51 

*76 

3 

*18 

10 

*9 

46 

6 



Note.— In the three columns shoAving percentage of increase and decrease, decrease is indi- 
cated by *. In comparing the values of 1880 with 1870. it IS to be renienibered that the average 
prenr. ium of gold for the latter was 25.') per cent. 



TABLE IV. — (Concluded.) — General Statistics of Agriculture for the United 
States and for Soidh Carolina, according to the United. States Census, with 
the Percentage of Increase and Decrease in each Particular, since 1S50. 















Pekc 


ENTAGE OF 














Increase 
















OR 






1»80 


1870 ♦ 


IS60 


1850 


Deckease. 




1880 1870 


1860 


AVool. pounds -| 


U.S. 

s. c. 


155,681,751 
272,758 


100,102,387 
156,314 


60,264,913 
427,102 


52,516,959 
487,23:3 


55 
74 


65 
*61 


14 
*10 


Cotton, bales < 


U.S. 

s. c. 


5,755,359 
522,518 


3,011,996 
224 500 


5,387,052 
353,412 


2,409,093 
300,901 


91 
132 


*78 
*36 


117 
17 


Corn, bushels < 


U.S. 

s. c. 


1,754,591,676 
11,767,099 


760,944,549 
7,614,207 


838.792,742 
15,065,606 


592,071,104 
16,271,454 


130 
54 


*9 
*95 


41 
*7 


Rice, pounds < 


U.S. 

s. c. 


110,131,373 
52,077,515 


73,635,021 
32,304,8-'5 


187,167,032 
119,100,528 


215 313,497 
159,930,613 


49 
61 


*60 
*72 


*13 
*25 


Wheat, bushels < 


U.S. 

s. c. 


459,483,137 
962,358 


287,745,626 
783,610 


173,104,924 
1,285,631 


100.485,944 
1,066,277 


59 
22 


66 
*39 


73 
20 


Oats, bushelfi < 


U.S. 

S. c. 


407,858,999 
2,715,505 


282,107,157 
613,593 


172,643,185 
936,974 


146,584,179 
2.322,155 


41 
ai2 


*63 
*36 


17 




*59 


Barley, bushels ^ 


U.S. 

S. c. 


43,997,495 
16,257 


29,761,305 
4,752 


15,825,808 
11,490 


5,167,015 
4,583 


47 
242 


88 
*58 


206 
IM 


Rye, bushels < 


U.S. 

s. c. 


19,831,595 
27,049 


16,918,795 
36,165 


21,101,380 
89,091 


14,188,813 
43,790 


17 

*25 


*I9 

*59 


32 




103 


Irish P Ota toes,; 


U.S. 


169,458,,539 


143,337,473 


111,148,867 


65,797,896 


18 


28 


68 


bushels 1^ 


8. C. 


144,942 


83,252 


226,725 


136,494 


74 


*63 


67 


Sweet Potatoes,) 


U.S. 


33,878,693 


21,709 824 


42,095,026 


38,'268,148 


53 


*48 


10 


bushels : 1 


s. c. 


2,189,622 


1,342,165 


4,115,688 


4,337,469 


63 


*67 


*5 



TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 

by Townships. 
FIRST SERIES. 



Population. 



Cotton 



Stock. 






Grain. 



c a CSS 

mcg on 






691 
885 
853 
925 
1345 
1568 
1337 
1462 
1009 
1207 
820 
1471 
1868 
1648 
886 
1039 
1046 



852 
999 
893 
929 
1404 
1602 
1315 
1468 
1068 
1250 
857 
1474 
1900 
1678 
907 
1067 
1092 



627 
530 
430 
726 
954 
697 
358 

1072 
849 

1287 
886 

1177 

1096 
942 
375 
441 
725 



916 
1354 
1316 
1128 
1795 
2473 
2294 
1858 
1228 
1170 

791 
1768 
2672 
2.3H4 
1418 
1665 
1413 



1543 

I 
1884 

1746 

1854 

2749 

1 

3170 

2652: 



1140 

t 
9805 



368 119 
4486 1205 



88071 :3902il031 



2930 323 



2077 
2457 
1677 
2945 
3768 
3326 
1792 
2106 
2138 



12240 
14988| 
20180 
12140 
1518i; 
10452 

12326' :5618 
433l! [2795 

12957 6167 

ll 
23348:16315 

I 
16876 13809 



16 26 



11784 
10842 



9061 15081 



4974 1393 

67751953; 

I ! 

5816 18331 

5286 1682 

5696 2128j 

45101450 

1929 

2208 
2081 ! 
2047 
1289 
1265 
14551 



4562 
4702 



114 206 
188 274 
158 257 
153:217 
265282 
1512.39 
185 '234 
124128 

! 

250^244 

222!290 

1 
218 284 



117 



181 



129 179 
177 199 



187 449 

143 577 

104 478 

21 302 

28 227 

27 413 



27 380 



36 2270 



521 
7661 

14.38 
1162 



18602 
20937 
21910 



2318 
8966 
10731 

12893 



37405 10540 



1163329581 18288 



I 
854i:25648 

1748! '47526 

i 
1284!i32818 

987' '34930 



11687 
12663 
6182 
9382 



797; 24543 
155:1009 44388 
375'l247!;3!840 44B80 
665 L5.57 27848 '39338 



7903 
136191 



768 1852018107 
802 2013512377; 



■335 1056 129677 

I ll 



9978 



589 
4978 
3836 
4485 
4766 
8910 
6559 
8599 
5286 
8654 
6426 
6467 
9730 
9532 
5707 
6281 
6800 



76 
22 



15 

105 



875 
958 
1118 
740 
704 
805 
641 
1047 
1258 
1114 
1260 
1176 
1069 



31 i! 1175 

32 ' 940 



935 

758 



975 
1019 
1098 
777 
732 
799 
652 
1008 
1301 
1125 
1199 
1370 
1112 
1145 
970 
968 
788 



1024 
1051 
873 
739 
926 
830 
767 
1244 
1274 
1358 
1452 
1679 
1198 
1206 
1232 
901 
993 



1343 

778 
511 
774 
526 
811 

1285 
881 

1007 
867 
983 

1114 
678 

1002 
553 



1850 
1977 



9910 



221&:2()0l 

II I 
1517 207' 



94 
1339 



1437 

16041 

! 

1293 233 

11 
205.5J 195 

I 
2.559 316 

2239! |308' 

2159! 385^ 

I I 
2546 !239 

218l|221 

232o|[334 

1910 318 

1903 280 

1546 291 



223 

3776 

I ■ 
10716 3779 1571 

I; 

9736 ;^08 1351 



8292j 
7869 



2678 1 968 
3398 1219: 



125 227 
152 207 
'157 



123 

184 
6825 2636 1007 1127 151 



10980 4375 



1415 176 



143 



43 

18 201 

25' 251 

22' 286 

50| 321 

8 1 269 

26 248 



53 



2731 



10104 3204 1163 148 205! 38 349' 



116.33 
12189 
9205 
10263 



!4026 1222 ;i83 222 
4311 1317! 209 209 
4216 1376 
j-f 809 1567; 



181! 195 
125 220 



1779 



121871 [4388 

IO682' 3S30 1675 
8129 3684 1460 
9545 3714 1334; 



131 1911 

132 177 



416 
469 

sioj 

282 

4641 
434 
311 

357 



43 
339 
370 
329 
350 
190 
250 
368 
334' 
497 
460 
325j 

452 

I 

653l 

I 
.532' 

375' 

198 



11 1 2607 
597l!.30403 
412 30634 
526' '28700 



25077 
[30969 
575 27914 
566||26061 



3640 
8355 
7344 
2743 
4711 
3762 
5682. 
74291 



741 
5291 
6284 
5190 



427 683' 33878 8368; 



809 



5751 
4073... 
7104 
5383 



120 



976 31917 
901! 43930 
394; 24295 
6&3!30236 

915 352071 

" I 

932[ 36449; 

3S4J 481 32566| 

28; 714''21803l 



73981 
6637! 
7214' 
5611 
6551 
3569: 
2936^ 
2660 



6296 291 
8130 18 

6843! 

I 

75961 

9240| 

7727! 

62181 

i 
511--ii 5 



TABLK V. — AgriculHral Statistics of South Carolina, /or the year 1880, 

hy Townslti-ps. 
FIRST SERIES— (Continued.) 



Population. 



Cotton. 



CQ 



Stock. 






OQ 



a S 



02 02 



Grain. 



£«| 0«! ^PQi Stfl 



.885 


1014 


1999 


2066 


1757 


1802 


1140 


1205 


668 


720 


1296 


1358 


1.321 


1.321 


1832 


1844 


952 


970 


1945 


1994 


631 


650 


577 


589 


1022 


1064 


1211 


1220 


1296 


1236 


672 


710 


1064 


1121 


31 


31 


905 


878 


1215 


1161 


1866 


1779 


1443 


1452 


735 


745 


1476 


1482 


1329 


1329 


562 


.5.35 


812 


747 


618 


640 


912 


762 


1234 


1284 


1420 


1410 



978 
778 

1314 
816 
329 
814 
904 

1148 
554 



921 

3287 
2245 
1529 
1059 
1840 
1741 
2528 
1368 



1899 
406.5 
3559 
2345 
1388 
.2654 
2645 
3676 
1922 



33 1078 
3.57 22274i 



205651 
11001 
6597, 
136571 
13563 
281! 20102: 
241 10623 



480 
9512 
|8513 
'5065 
3470 
6534 
6030 
7365 
4715 



223 
35.36: 

2558 
1910! 
1377 
2453 

2290; 
2839 
1857 



38 22 



21 



26 

467 

18 599 

280 

240 



26| 

413' 1208' 

I 1 

229|1416 

69 i 993 

85 566 

I 

478 1028, 

3511 748; 

I 1 

693 1727j 

195 10661 



\ 2.361 2159 
01.535' 1^164 
52293 6473 
37645} 9765 
J32204J 0418J 
|39510| 12358 
3441411314 
153715 20759 
143628 5873 



697 
4691 
4831 
4045 

875 
4413 
5:^23 
8613 
2277 



1062 
473 
545 
354 

1086 
852 

1075 

1010 

26 

787 

1177 
775 

1398 
337 

1062 

1174] 
315 
508 1 
262 
310I 
951 
479' 



2877 

808 

621 

17.32 

1375 

1680 

307 

1175 

36 

996 

1199 

2870 

1498 

1143 

1896 

1482 

802 

1051 

996 

1364 

1567 

2351 



3939 
1281 
1166 
2086 
2461 
2.532 
1382 
2185 
62 
1783 
2376 

3645 

! 
2S96i 

1480 

29,58 

2056 

1117 

1559 

1258 

1674 

2518 

2830 



11924 
10730 

6828 

7726 
13559 
11895 

7568 

16262 

588 

9265 
14133 
17717 
10283 

6800 

15555 

I 
17196| 

44081 

7418 

7125! 

8048 

9435 

13677 



I 
554312394 



2218 
:2656 
1641 
,5644 

12617 

I 

2119 

I 

{3556 

I 260 

3200 

3917 



819 

857 
1593 
2305: 
1038J 

875 
1486 

116 

903 
1753 



!9221 .3389 

1.5909 '2339, 

82s! 



17542 
4579 
il600 

4084 
12875 
4550 
4718 



.3227I 
18-38 

471 
1750 

754 
1471 
1850 



702712831 



365 212 
88 93 
84 142 
84 1.30 
218 



137 



178 



171 234 



354 
281 
2.36 
219 
547 
430 
407 
422 
24 
375 
497 
438 
563 
344 
304 
604 
219 
170 
285 
300 
299 
822 



667 
436 
41 
919 
505 
492 
4.58 
483 
24 
615 
675 
372 
S06 
472 
354 
1159 
477 
320 
363 
440J 
365 
434 



643 I396il30462i247.37i 

34 1 992 20800 ! 1.5134' 

! i! I I 

8711034 12007 106081 

i • I 1 

IS61 769 19102 6069 



2121i 43634 



25801, 



12081 147582!40166| 



17439 

36117 

260 



1062; 1870 ,19208 
49| 1584 1.31653 
131'! 1677 
1626 48095 21811 

2634:41852:38753 

i 
17S6 :32158'23571 

2695 36252133760 



11021 

1814 



14279] 14041 

I 
34480! 16782 



2907 45630137544 



646J12378 
1092 '14734 
619jll039 
993;20067 
1419 '27949 



7524 
4475! 

13884' 

I 

10265' 
471li 



1245 23748.11191 



4006 
2.532 
2472 

540 
4801 
6653 
4747 
4277 

110 
4190 
5759 
1658 
4192 
2305; 
4254! 
39S1 
2218 
1722! 
2435 j 
2207 
1340! 
^442 



24 



TABLE v.— Agricultural Statisiics of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 

by Townships. 
FIRST SERIES.— (Continued.) 



Population. 



1003 
1209 
1394 
1200 
79G 
782 
763 
437 
1260 
1011 
631 
823 
922 
1480 



1147 
1213 
1473 
1236 
726 
737 
793 
462 
1298 
1074 
661 
824 
918 
14S9 



Cotton. 



« 






bo 






ee 




<u 


<u 












« 


cS 





< 


w 


s 



685 
705 
527 
489 
207 
217 
605 
180 
1131 
576 
387 
262 



1465 
1717 
2340 
194 
1315 
1302 
951 
719 
1427 
1512 
905 
1385 



303 1537 

611 1 2a58 

I 



2150, j 85 
2422j 1200 
2867 jl86 

2436 :355 

1 
1522i ,204 

1519] t234' 

!i 
1556! 183 

899 97 

2558 219 

20881196 

1292! 130 



Stock. 



Grain. 



S^ 



383o;;2506| 996 I 30 ' 105 
19312 5241 |213C 130310 



12268 16587 2710 

i 

47389 '7665 3481 



7492 4559 



12368 
5748 
6400 
7737 

10457 



j4307 

2879 



4149 
5941 



1566 



1647 



1210 



6517! .3511 

li 
6741)3435 



1118 
|l.35 
i 441231 

1542 I 62 154 
950; 88' 1 26 
33 in 



14331 

17881 



122J188 
2741195 



1146: 60 

j 

1147J 77 



12799 0920 2753 83 



1840 224 

2969! 328 14836: 8493 2955 125 369 



1 . 


67| 


« 


199 


4 


248 


12 


253 


6 


218| 


53 


190| 


76 175 


16 115 


62 305 


53 535 


30 157^ 


26 


193 


4 248 


43 


366' 

i 



42 33 



237 


37 


267 




229 


70 


90 


84 


428 


408 


410 


258 


326 


327 


308 


87 


185 


206 


493 


179 




995 41035 9357 

II 



1205 
1648 
1086 
866 
851 
1008 
1147 
1136 
1175 



89 


1172 


90 


1144 


91 


1134 


92 


893 


93 


810 


94 


942 


95 


437 


96 


1083 


97 


775 



1350 


1529 


1957 


1840 


1066 


637 


866 


831 


830 


1058 


999 


1153 


1214 


1373 


1115 


1156 


1119 


1247 


1220 


1306 


1103 


1444 


1133 


1662 


913 


1477 


851 


1547 


997 


1590 


440 


786 


1083 


15'52 


698 


785 



2555; 
3605! 



2152 239' 6409 2.505 



1026 
1765 
1515 

901 

623 

854 1 2007 195 



132 
615 



1732, 
1681; 



7193, 
5748 



3013 
2568 



10S34 4277 



151 
13 

1156 1 127 
1 LSI i! 128 j 103 

789|! 7914c 



1095 
1047 
1086 
803 
605 
3591 
114] 
349' 
91 
604 
688 



1.384! 140 

I I ■ I 1 
2361 :257 j 13039 4321 1 1220[ i 113 

f' i i| It « 
11456' 4760 1842| 1230 



22511196 

! 
2294 397 



2392, 
2247i 



2267 290 



8689, 5308 2052 ' 142' 223 
10655 3923 



8309 
8117 



155' 
1225 



2732 

3372! 1202 '226 



1836 2361 7599j|2131 
1661 12671 6569! 11059 
1939 321! 629ll' 802 
877; lee! .3041 63 



21661 

I 

1473! 



3561 8840| 12073 
227 666412148 



896 


204 


425 


149 


310 


124 


20 


84 


718 


185 


889 

1 


147 



14 
12| 

235! 

266] 

205 

376 

353 

648 

515' 

317 

341 

402' 

I 

305 

339 

333 

241 

400 

269 



2:311 12:3 



17! 



162 
2520 



218 



390 23154 



675 129743 

472' '19799 

ij 
649 33721 

262j 665^-21494 

482|1143 |35158 

4132' 1314 33686 

I '• 
277! 758,263941 



455 912,138703 

545; 664! 1321' 38187! 
i . 1 

271 562 1276 44693 



418 



1545(388ft5 



50212082178065 



.387 38Jlll48 24865' 



63512519 |61324 
90 939 31623 



260 
60 
4059 
315-2 
2396 
4744 
4661 
6192 
8101 
4624 
4300 
34:30 
2154 
2114 
2300 
20 
5194 
4906 



26 
1300 
3061 
319S 
2854 
5172 
4624 
4820 
3921 
2242 
3679 
5204 
6021' 
6131! 
2921! 
299' 
3955 
2701! 



20 



420 
53 



TABLE v.— A r/ri cultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 1S80, 

by Townships. 
FIRST SERIES.— (Continued.) 



Population. 



Cotton 



Stock. 






Grain. 



03 



;;« om ^b 



5^ S 

5a 



98 
99 
100 
101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 



385 
1869 
1490 
1678 
2400 
1371 
1022 
1198 
1999 
1186 



367 
1966 
1463 
1738 
2461 
1426 
1038 
1205 
2019 
1157 



408 
1249 

990 
2136 
1116 

814 

708 
1357 
1689 
1289 



344 
2586 
1963 
1280 
3751 
1983 
1352 
1046 
2329 
1054 



752 
3835 
2953 
3416 
4867. 
2797 
2000 
2403 
4018 
2343 



722 
12520 
15163 
18423 
23277 
15069 
10396 
11797 
19194 
12837 



227 
8.565 
6964 
6370 
10608 
6580 
4966 
4905 
9999 
4580 



83 
3268 
2648 
2595 
4369 
2469 
1707 
1907 
.3613 
1763 



32! 840 

1212ij48978 

1320 33573 

15001 156063 

1300 '.52610 

9181 136722 

t 
548|j25170 

921 40340 

i! 
1405 150760 

8001 36877 



435 
13671 
28496 
10993 
32314 
10855 

6417 
14792 
23322 

8115 



153 
8439 
7128 
6077 
8430 
4976 
4197 
7866 
9540 
5437 



27 



1083 
1057 
740 
736 
1341 
1114 
1399 
1012 
1107 
1313 
918 
1208 



1259 
1083 
816 
765 
1340 
11.30 
1431 
1090 
1123 
1285 
923 
1192 



1012 
522 
446 
346 
573 
440 
759 
361 
461 

1574 
908 
834 



1330 
1618 
1110 
11.58 
2108 
1804 
2071 
1741 
1769 
1054 
932 
1566 



2342 
2140 
1556 
1504 
2681 
2244 
2830 
2102 
223o! 
2628 
1840 
2400 



1029 
8164 
10569 
7987 
12684| 
1142.5 
14936 
10955 
13082 
13010 
10129 
12408 



603 
4059 
4494 
3912 
5471 
5414 
6991 
5456 
6084 
4328 
42.54 
6243 



258 
1828 
1773 
1565 
2475 
2332; 
3055J 
2091 
2642 
2067 
1675 
2.331 



40 
II 152 

18 1 200 
7 193 
51 389 

4 321 

5 317 



134! 288 



236 234 



69 
184 
320 

42 
152 
337 
206 
222 
271 
1128 
251 
320 



2365 
13258 

663 18993 8635 



1895 
15989 



li 



|22773| 4329 
398:^8! 11033 
10221 27734 14253 



869 
1157 



740 
3486 
3765 
2171 
5225 
5989 



14881 |37932j2H41j 7308 
922JJ25382! 10809] 4086 
1142 25690 2253 4 j 
22811 138576 45075, 



1123J24431 

147ll 136627 



15226 
9284' 



7763 
11765 
6304 
5531 



1563 
1497 
314 
891 
351 
1793 
1090 
380 



1684 
1588 
404 
957 
390 
1820 
1144 
390 



2380 
2092 

678 
1521 

715 
2133 
1688 

748 



867 
993 

40 
327 

26 
1480 
546 

22 



324 
308.5 

718 
1848 

741 
3613 
2234 

770 



8075 
13660 
292.5 
6622 
2669 
11895 
7443 
2545 



1882 
4505 



4701 
1143 



1727 

42 

3880 

1469 

51 



505 

I 

12i 

1250: 

410J 
13! 



205 


99 


79 


361 


293 210 


98 


485 


66 


51 


54 


197 


192 


111 


132 


371 


46 


38 


118 


150 


248 


201 


78 


427 


161 


97 


97 


281 


70 


19 


44 


169 



331 60016860 
784 721112131 

350,1066! 827| 

1 I i 
603 14112146 



244' 744 

I 



47680 
20431 
42655 



1069; 15164 
533 475 1727' '58188 

210: 69511300; 132348 

I I 'I 
2271 739 11013; 118505 



4906 


2828 


13376 9082 


806 


202 


3208 


1555 


357 


365 


11115 


7754 


5147 


3530 


uv 


51 



12 



20 



105 



TABLE V.- 



- Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 
by Townships. 
FIRST SERIES.— (CoNTiNUEP.) 





0. 

H 

a 

O 
H 

O 

d 


Population. 


& 

fa 

d 


a 

1 

< 


Cotton 


Stock. 


Grain. 


> 

O 

'■J 


03 

a> 

"3 




2 


■6 


• 


"5 


H 


re 

u 
« 
< 




5 


1 


S 


p 






d 
% 

CO 


® 

s 


a . 


o5 

a s 

om 


1- 


P 

man 


O 
O 

'A 
W 
W 
O 


128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 


905 
i 1502 
840 
738 
572 

1088 
416 

1085 


951 
1528 
879 
732 
595 
1073 
425 
1060 


1195 
2IS1 
1358 
1256 
1107 
1424 
626 
1526 


661 
849 
361 
214 
60 
737 
215 
619 


1856 
3030 
1719 
1470 
1167 
2161 
841 
2145 


310 
357 
280 
258 
195 
229 
131 
307 


0014 
12395 
10997 
5400 
5048 
8124 
3ia3 
12446 


2747 
4721 
2142 
1629 

458 
3195 

283 
3189 


724 
1723 
855 
379 
133 
1008 
88 
814 


175 

i 

219 

140 

I1I5 

i 

151 

137 

82 

166 


168 
239 
182 
6(i 
40 
150 
68 
1&3 


43 
30 
33 
97 
75 
20 
52 
2 


291 
439 
340 
308 
267 
333 
170 
363 


147 
474 
316 
217 
313 
366 
210 
279 


553 
635 
827 
648 
985 
512 
478 
398 


1292 45372 

1493 '50021 

1604 53857 

1454 26395 

1588' 32001 

1 
1259 42966 

1039 31294 

1338' 32158 


4360 
3719 
3367 
2691 

558 
4942 

300 
4050 


3135 
8821 
3434 
1760 
1231 
5211 
852 
6916 


63 

70 
899 


H 
'A 

O 


136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 


970 
588 
2612 
1884 
1416 

nil 

818 
1215 
1917 

929 
2181 
1148 

941 
2051 


1099 

596 
2615 
1897 
1490 
1143 

912 
1330 
1963 

922 
2239 
1189 

986 
2217 


1049 

682 
3421 
2818 
2381 
1511 

923 
1699 
2581 
1180 
2753 
1509 
1114 
2751 


1020 
502 

1836 
963 
525 
743 
807 
846 

1299 
671 

1667 
828 
813 

1517 


2069 
1181 
5257 
3781 
2906 
2254 
1730 
2.545 
3880 
1851 
4420 
2337 
1927 
4268 


8 
18 
,537 
335 
340 
^171 
295 
411 
523 
270 
'562 
211 
176 
376 


196 

248 
21199 

9390 
10979 
10668 
10454 
11577 
14890: 

7963 
20519 

7771 

9714 
13167 


67 
113 
7881 
4165 
314 
4800 
3747 
5229 
5247 
3939 
8714 
4098 
3299 
4922 


26 
44 
3366 
1630 
12.3 
1810 
1304 
1725 
1959 
1460 
4202 
1353 
1199 
1955 


13 

18 
366 
227 
2.50 
'129 
157 
182 

bg 

153 
320 
176 
155 
'240 


4 

2 

416 
362 
250 
298 
193 
173 
307 
158 
277 
168 
202 
276 


30 

50 

113 

3 

3 

100 
11 
12 
16 

2 
82 


8 
12 
825 
543 
57S 
402 
307 
510 
748 
350 
328 
313 
345 
476 


11 

1015 
652 
466 
672 
497 
597 

1187 
270 
870 
287 
393 
376 


547 
821 

1088 
235 
450 
412 

1473 
434 

1039 
342 
457 
710 


10 
15 

2286 
1346 
1682 
1224 
1075 
1492 
1834 

809 
2.531 

788 
1190 
1125 


405 
480 
j71560 
J84450 
47772 
26512 
33369 
'39993 
59971 
33056 
78056 
35980 
28555 
53295 


430 
5792 
5479 
5579 

10196 
6521 
4900 
4724 
3696 

11941 
2140 
8868 
4303 


136 
206 

15201 
8724 
5099 
5975 
5508 
4698 
4067 
1972 

16085 
2542 
5108 
4610 


18 

100 


O 

o 

Iz; 

O 

ID 


150 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
159 


1775 
1116 
729 
1064 
840 
846 
1605 
1060 
1555 
1280 


1862 
1116 
766 
.1123 
874 
876 
1647 
1078 
1572 
1296 


1566 
979 
825 

1208 
271 
333 

1849 
988 

1660 
837 


2071 
1253 
670 
979 
1443 
1389 
1409 
1150 
1467 
1739 


3637 

2232 
1495 
2187 
ni'l 
1722 
3252 
2138 
3127 
2567 


159 
322 
216 
301 
212 
214 
126 
309 
397 
268 


9076 
15532 
8096: 
8849 
7195 
8901 
12210 
9887 
15936 
12895 


4728 
7480 
3586 
4379 
3693 
3675 
5997 
3832 
7269 
i6272 


1656 
2469 
1397 
1555 
1443 
1445 
2506 
1338 
2537 
2165 


147 
158 
114 

172 
125 
118 
204 
195 
250 

il60 

i 


205 

230 
171 
239 
171 
201 
348 
277 
369 
319 


14 

2 
54 
41 
29 
25 
11 

7 
29 


259 
479 
267 
401 
225 
251 
502 
473 
561 
594 


330 
583 

468 
320 
364 
430 
704 
428 
778 
591 


126 
459 
185 
447 
61 
252 
354 
286 
502 
396 


630 
1079 
729 
836 
893 
854 
1279 
1326 
1957 
1314 


29063 
53814 
21591 
43364 

21159 

1 
25070 

162270 

134161 

.52766 

36072 

j 


4542 
6720 
5313 
2787 
2S70 
5052 
3613 
2755 
5566 
3122 


2712 
4412 
219H 
3622 
537 
1677 
5163 
4556 
6735 
2044 




...... 



TABLE Y. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 

by Toivnshijys. 
FIRST SERIES.— (COxNCix-DED.) 





w 




Population. 






-O 1 
a> 1 

H 

39 

< . 


COTTONl 




Stock. i Grain. 






o 

H 
o 
6 


— 
« ■ 


w 

s 




■6 

u 
o 



o 


o 


1 

Ei, 
<•- 
O 

c 

;5 


1 












> 

E- 

G 
O 


Acreage. 

Bales. 

Horses, 
Mnles. 


a 
o 

K 
O 

p 


3 w 


Other 
Cattle. 

Sheep. 


|l u tt a. 

% "5 = 1 « = 

; 1 


V* 

^1 


15 

it 




160 


2080 


2168 


2063 


2185 


4248 


264 


13887 


5596J2332'l98l353 


15 


421 


411 


549 


li 

923' 62924 8655 


825:^ 






161 


1230 


1342 


1232 


1340 


2572 


225 


18636 


4959 2ia3 222 376 


3 


377 


496 


705 


1234 660S7 10305 


8464 






162 


1836 


1845 


1299 


2382 


8681 


,306 


19664 


7905,3299 348 400 


14 


522 


500 


270 


I486: 67865 


19082 


9116 


25 


O 


163 ! 


1106 


1140 


1055 


1191 


2246 


190 11311 


35564317; 1711304 

1 '' 1 


31 


411 


705 


725 


184.Si, 62966 


5131 


5013 




164 


1675 


1671 


1315 


2031 


a346 


229 j 16556 


6167124^ 138 393 


33 


453 


575 


427 


1163 68365 


7172 


5922 




16.3 i 


1180 


1269 


992 


1457 


2449 


,179J 8447 


1020 1558131 177 


14 


236 


270 


20 


632 224W 10246 


2586 





i4 


166 


993 


1001 


670 


1324 


1994 


28913.591 


5719 2261 123 278 


35 


290 


175 


161 


579 3;}456 10727 


3856 




o 


167 


1210 


1231 


1667 


774 


2411 


227 


7070 


22421 82o';166!228 


25 


338 


518 


992 


1177 58081 1 4000 


7071 




168 


1168 


1060 


683 


1545 


2228 


263 


24127 


7577 3226| 162 482 


8 


298 


170 


106 


711 66427 16674 


8021 






169 


1407 


1427 


1392 


1412 


2831 


311 


14817 


7341 


2798 I85i309 


7 


338 


325 


232 


1107 55.312 21928 


7408 






170 


134b 


2345 


1665 


1009 


2674 


315 


11765 


j 154 


64 


215 360 

1 


39 


436 


374 


1245 


1745 626ft5 5662 

ii 


9463 





TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 18 SO, 

by Tow7iships. 
SECOND SERIES. 



POPTTLATION. 



COTTO> 



Stock. 



iSo 






Grain. 



o- 



■ -^ x'— I * — 






1 


592 


2 


818 


3 


445 


4 


1183 


5 


1129 


6 


884 


7 


923 


8 


175 


9 


251 


10 


260 


11 


329 


12 


1005 


13 


260 


14 


443 


15 


1192 


16 


1018 


17 


579 


18 


980 


19 


474 


20 


583 


21 


328 



999 
400 
1444 
1262 
9a5 
877 
200 
255 
227 
321 
923 
261 
45S 
1250 
lOlS 
591 
951 
453 
548 
307 



479 
701 
450 
2157 
1404 
419 
3«8 
302 
329 
317 
412 
1028 
389 
491 
490 
401 
429 
788 
524 
736 
299 



721 

1116 

395 

470 

987 

1370 

1412 

73 

180 

170 

238 

90u 

132 

410 

1952 

163- 

741 

1143 

403 

395 

336 



1200 
1817 
845 
2627 
2391 
1789 
180o! 

375' 

509 
487 
650 
.928 
521 
901 
2442 
2J36 
1170 
1931 
927 
1131 
635 



6162 
86 
4992 
1075 
4630 
6982 
9693 
1369 
279' 
3003 
3' 
10601 
3123 
4258 
9187 
11107 
6977 
13308 
5740 
8588 
4043 



1781 
173 
1151 
212 
1381 
2968 
4461 
388 
506 
837 
602 
2900 
679 
1269 
3493 
3532 
2458 
4501 
1747 
1165 
783 



678 

116 

392 

63 

613 

1246^ 

1909i 

111 

160 

316 

191 

1242 

244 

500I 

1324 

1283 

1134; 

1521 

609 

345 

2931 



95 


78 


20 


13 


90 


64 


18 


8 


56 


98 


86 


167 


114 


285 


43 


17 


54 


37 


56 


45 


83 


49 


173 


163 


52 


45 


86 


77 


83 


1C9 


115 


206 


78 


133 


105 


233 


93 


92 


107 


72 



59 



53 



221 
23 
254 
54 
221 
241 
170 
135 
169 
122 
218 
414 
166 
162 
287 
271 
220 
624 
208 
283 
190 



382 
19 
374 
54 
426 
160 
362 
244 
320 
133 
401 
767 
381 
380 
425 
501 
350 
715 
300 
278 
423 



80 



726 



188 



1173 



1190 
232 
1482 



16197 
1289 
11770 



19218 



1416:23106 
22321 [55135 
626 7050 
10408 



774 
1439 
231 
1194 
1109 



8020 
11484 
27618 
12075 
19474 



11971 118624 



2.506 
1103 
1429 



.38970 

16472 

35570 
i 
11331 [12323 

18031 119583 

875' 13540 



7376 

835 
1054 

61 
2719 
2355 
9185 

588 

451 
1901 
1084 
6429 

485 
2977 
8035 

970 
3088 
2189 

665 
1322 

570 



1059 



12 



1882| 61 

52! 100 

269 220 

391 350 

317 1830 

12171 

148o| 390 

1001 



1527 
2762 
1822 
1725 

272 

10 

1110 

653 
117] 
1699 
1932 



12 
12209 
11 
1340 
80 
243 
199 



TABLE y. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 

by Townships. 
SECOND SERIES.— (CoNTiNiED.) 



»: 














•d 




t 
















s 




Population. 






c; 


COTTOK 






Stock. 






09 








, 


hJ 






































O 

o 


OS 

0) 

■5 




5 



s 

c 
d 


S 
< 


1 












OS 

« 

C 

'<i4 


I 


i 

c 




0) 

ill) 

03 

<! 


0! 

a 

n 


<u 
t 






s 




ii5 




a, 





1 1 



Gkaik. 






i: 2 

C35 



22 i 1260 



40 



1709 

II32J 

9261 

I 

1081 

1791 

772^ 

1290' 

I 
728| 

960' 

I 

1211 i 

lOool 

I 

1021 1 
905J 
580 1 
4.37 
787 
933 

1341 



1320 


8.52 


1728 


1770 1103 2376 


1174 


848 


1458 


838 


518 


1246 



25.S0r227 11222 .5112 1615 136,150 



1782 



4.57 1622 

1431 2142 

795 4301 1137 

I 

]310; 383 2217 



776 
1012 



552 952 
3781 1594 



1203! 900 



1514 



801 
1293 



1008 1262 

1070' 807 

I i 
856, 5261 1235 

i 
622j 355 817 

396| 466' 387 

760 095 852 



3479 214 17044 57672184 

ll I I ! 
23061 204 1 10907 4232! 1393' 

1764i'l80 8803 42761362 

2079 17.3 1.3.584 .5027 1879 

II i I 
a573| 1296; 17302 7251245; 

11 I I 
1567 145,10272, 4006 1.53; 

2600 'l68'2352U 62412010 

1.504| 161 8670 1962 689 

1972; 1169 13165' 4879' 1856 

2414 217 18291 1567 1378 



100,162 
129 197 1 



39 399 7.5.5 



249 223 



2063 
2100 



891 
1328 



78b 
1104 



1038 
1565 



1761 ll 



1203 "UlO 
853'!10J 
1547 128 



24614167 
19 J 8678 
160 10375 
12952 
5785 2059 612 



6726 2319 

3323! 1284' 
J3640 1060 
12635 



1261 

1091 



1824 
2669 



9480! 3144 1035 
96081 ls715 1360 

!| 

128811:4984 1880 



268 120 
128 



462 
241 
332 
280 
331 
435 
389 
784 
16 259 
250 



471 
936 
717 

388 
.301 
306 

56! 198 496 
23; 188l 525 



I I 
2 278 

52 308 



60 1.596 

58; 1964. 

I I 

118jl774| 

jlOll 

319 2173 

140 3144J 

1429 

163 126-5 

7620201 

I 

140 2.339 

182794 

276128341 

I 

93 2334 

37 14.58 

I 

.... 15021 



'28371 5795 . 



39695116670 773 
33035 7782 1820 
22843 2900 Zo\ 
3.5178; ft556| 8361 
53432' 16841 3582 
22299! 38851 482 

2823442830 

123635 3868 109 
39287 2650 3431 
^12911 74071 540i 



41221 
35725 



78 1776 
123 2139 



6744 2668 
73951 348 

29723 5064 843 

I ' 

122460] 3491 1 793 

22657' 3324 1741 

2 485' 4981 247 



2292 
21S' 



127895 
139144 



9263 95 
12704:2817 



490 
2932 

765 
91 

370 
1730 
7241 
2840 
2942 

754 

715 

2125 

1424 

69 

593 

484 
112;? 
22f5 

700 



1117 
1367 
1157 
1277 

877 



! 1788 
I 973 



1432 
1551 
1268 
1336 
856 



1215 1298 



1821 
884 



10831 1164 



2ia5 
1613 



2262 
1702 



616 

228 
29 

525 

412 
51 
25 

146 
35 
77, 

298 



1933 
2690 
2396, 
2(t88 
1321 
2462 
3581 
1711 
2212 
4320 
3017 



2549 
2918 
2425 
2613.464 
1733; {300 
2513 183 
3609 ,392 
1857!i274 
2247 180 
4397 '459 
33151160 



2705] 936 

ii 
4097 1296 

5436 I 783 

3174' j 435 

2192! 783 

6874 1776 

23291 804 

ll 

8152 1647 

5688 3017 

I 
8375, 93 



211 


38 


264 


91 


275, 


114 


137 


168 


124 


327 


185 


159i 


75 


331 


61 


899 


207 


12 


81 



11 1131 
30 149' 



20 151 



161 148 

2881 213 

758 j 1100 

744 305 

88 



57 
914 
650 

12 
263 



816 5038 

368 14145[ 200 

1206,19862 121 1 

972 11681 400' 

449 6951 I 



565,31339 
377110856 
134j 533 7776 
56 12591 i21987 
93 715'! 6117 



800, 



20 
330. 



2183 

2812 
17333 

8629 

510 

74113 

6532 



3721 
285215 



TABLE Y .—Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year ISSO, 

hy Townships. 
SECOND SERIES.— (Continued.) 



80 
81 
83 
84 
85 

175 
8G 
87 
S8 
Si) 
90 
91 

173 
92 
93 
95 
96 
97 



Population. 



1198 

500 

1281 

744 

406 

2133 

451 

1699 

1907 

1032 

2042 

1715 

1167 

702 

1145 

2077 

989 

822 

1238 



1252 

507 

1281 

651 

412 

2088 

462 

1557 

1837 

1008 

2101 

1628 

1212 

698 

1226 

2161 

988 

800 

1104 



112 

8 

77 

70 

37 

1219 

29 

1221 

931 

239 

919 

314 

152 

67 

189 

151 

784 

2.36 

252 



2338 
999 
2485 
1328 
781 
3002 
881 
2035 
2813 
1861 
3224 
3029 
2227 
1333 
2182 
4087 
1193 
1366 
2090 



2450 
1007 
2562! 
1398 

818 
4221 

913 
32-56 
37441 
2100J 
4143 
3343 
2379 
1400 
2371 
1238 
1977! 
1622 



23.570! 
2312 
2:524 
3555 
12S9 
4693 

1372 

I 
284 130111 

210 1 61261 

115l 37J2 



8728 
7260 
7765 



A5\ 460-i 



2342 60 



8515 
7190' 
3981 
2410 
3419 



Cotton. 



C3 



434 

37 

256 

262 

88 

1161 

103 

4261 

15S 

3 

2384 

3262 

2607 

'567 

16,54 

2998 

481 

509 

177 



201 

12 

I 

55 

»133 

35 

590 

41 

1678 

71 

1 

886 

1003 

1124 

531 

511 

913 

137 

153 

53 



Stock. 









218 221 



49 



58 



350 

3:)5 

8 

32 

527 

6 

2816 

1260 

217 

907 

100 

147 

223 

59 

212 

889 



2.53 3.35 
303 388 



137 

51 
140 
402 

80 

1.50a 
522 
742 
523 
3a5 
193 

93 
130 
699 
213 

48 



GUAI.V. 



i-hCQ 



c: 3 r = --3 



113 

227 

398 

378 

84 

29J1 

121 

3904 

13ou 

674 



1695 
5069 

10937 
5038 
2597 

479.57 
2.S01 

44155 

8982 

3876: 
I 
2176; 128740 

18821 |2S818 

823! 1444i 



' 1215 22 



137h 

364 

585 

I 

20441 

658 

751 



1.5.550 
104)0 
16364 
9674 
9255 
4766 



514 

300 

18 

.550 

85 

8427 

815 

580 

ysoo 

2570 
425 
105 
160 
180 
923 
260 
700 



20 



800 

225 

1785 

66 

1.3325 

16202 

2990 

12182 

.50703 

87.562 

56320 

1532 

34433 

87 

45 

2011 

1289 

45108 



224-S5 

1270 
l:«l 
623 



27499 

143;J 
1315 
560 



22565 


27419 


19984 





696 






896 


1807 


2703 


21 


1349 


196 


53 


12'5 


2.521 


2616 


72 


5810 


1205 


820 


175 


1008 


1183 


48 


939 


2 


1 





14 


5 


212 


192 


149: 


4 


122 



2410 

5005 
1397 



930 
1810 



IWBLE y. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, foi' the year 18S0, 

by TownsJi'ips. 
SECOND SERIES.— (Continued.) 



Population. 



>- — ; 





c 

cS 


£ 

o 
c 


H 

0) 

o 

< 


105 


3379 


2J9 


7639 


130 


60r» 


192 


16699 


200 


3237 


149 


3608 


190 


2926 


242 


3733 


122 


3257 


■MH 


5418 


m 


2947 


167 


2212 


148 


4143 


95 


4780 


65 


5493 


246 


3851 


224 


5219 


269 


9840 



Cotton, 



Stock. 



aci Si ^ 



oo 



02 



Grain. 



("I'll "J ! t; "J 
5ffi| CK ^£ 



92» 



99 
100 
101 
102 
103 
lOJ 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 



2217 

989 

1248 

1134 

106 ♦ 

451 

744 

1319 

847 

972 

725 

679 

84H 

747 

741 

830 

1775 

932 



2192 
979 

1273 

1183 
926 
426 
6^7 

1339 
861 

1050 
5S1 
&58 
900 
743 
814 
782 

1779 
945 



537 

1207 
49 

1207 
760 
427 
390 
971 
160 
713 
403 
179 

1167 

611 

78 

776 

1553 
906 



3872 

761 
2 172 
1110 
1230 

450 
1011 
1687 
1548 
1315 

903 
11.58 

581 

849 
1477 

836 
2001 

911 



440t 
1968 

2521 

I 
2317J 

1990; 

877 
14:31 
2(558 
1708 
202S 
1306 
1337 
1748 
1490 
1555 
1612 
3554 
1877 



421 
659 
163 

2847 
387 
816 
236 
554 
357 
904 
385 
396 
440 
486 
373 
247 
524 

1192 



1661 
28.S] 
74 
117S 
187 
456 
129 
253 
119 
376 
182 

u; 

170 
229 
103 
139 
245 
440 



80110 
267 132 



132 05 
50 



458 
1032 
294 
1479 
510 
593 
87' 
379 
299 
546 
725 
584 
1223 
383 
472 
515 
17.79 
1153 



409 
2774 

518 
3749 
281^ 
2236 
1385 
1331 

120 



16011800 



1328 
1051 
1585 
1027 
530 
3334 
2203 
2979 



8533 
29891 
14715 
43039 
[21137 
! 14949 
19168 
22.584 

7273 
17185 
15408 
17696 
19172 
11880 
I 9536 
j31975 
J36511 
135880 



30 
2903 

200 

16440 

3765 

2985 

1176 

350 

358 
8345 
2896 

12U 
2805 
6970 

618 
4970 
2730 
8436 



623 



30 



30 



194 



5C301 
7210 
138c22 
5840 
a5?l 
8150 
4750 
6940 

56221 
8750 
7033 
2584 
3509 
7220 

52184 
4413 

19980 
9560 



931 


832 


705 


1058 


1763 


304 


6943 


782 


245 


145 


75 


113 


689 


1245 


519 


1374 


1486 


1591 


1090 


1987 


3077 


390 


15714 


5490 


1677 


313 


191 


9i 


798 


1740 


766 


4577 


12a3 


1309 


555 


2037 


2592 


204 


12818 


4411 


1720 


138 


216 


39 


685 


1035 


503 


2864 


980 


1033 


338 


1675 


2013 


1-32 


7473 


3803 


1414 


76 


134 


19 


189 


419 


362 


926 


2415 


2290 


2236 


2499 


47a5 


307 


164J6 


4698 


1874 


318 


248 


32 


931 


682 


494 


4572 


964 


9.58 


757 


1155 


1922 


142 


5344 


697 


230 


133 


58 


34 


469 


400 


152 


1240 


899 


861 


311 


1449 


1760 


63 


2574 


1328 


442 


58 


64 


11 


230 


364 


38 


951 


446 


4*3 


284 


595 


879 


76 


1126 


202 


47 


35 


14 


27 


320 


825 


161 


445 



22709 
47550 
41471 
19228 
68602 
14505 
11190 
2629 



1430 




14867 


64 


15219 




7493 




15266 


83 


1990 




1805 




495 


9 



25253 
5850 
1950 
275 
8750 
7523 
8S54 
1371 



TABLE Y .—Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 

by Townsldi^s. 
SECOND SERIES.— (Continued.) 





0,' 






1 




•0 














3 

09 


Population. 




c 


Cotton 




Stock. 




Grain. 




1 

O 

d 

;2i 






1 


s 

u 

Cm 

c 
d 


1 

< 












O 




s 


O 

a 


"5 
1 


6 

i 
< 


CO 

« 


4) 

c 
B 


1 


a 






sa 


u 6 

13 


02 


6 

c 

i 

rJ2 


a* . 

it 


OP3 









123 


367 


376 


617 


126 


743 


113 


3711 


'477 


169 


96 


40 


85 


265 


534 


334 


1658 


15030 


220 


2270 


995 




124 


441 


451 


758 


134 


892 


117 


3832 


147 


61 


104 


57 


36 


230 


483 


396 


1503 


14200 


663 


2578 


263 




125 


1168 


1258 


1459 


967 


2426 


346 


12024 


4101 


1588 


250 


289 


6 


485 


1062 


890 


2914 


37178 


21515 


6475 






126 


458 


485 


696 


247 


943 


144 


5066 


736 


279 


127 


51 


48 


297 


586 


455 


1406 


17551 


925 


2762 


725 




127 


723 824 


625 


922 


1547 


155 


4741 


1211 


524 


62 


129 


64 


226 


455 


35 


1161 


25690 


2188 


1483 


550 


o 


128 


611 


597 


800 


408 


1208 


142 


5712 


1436 


482 


144 


64 


58 


262 


498 


436 


1409 


17127 


2892 


2817 


55 


55 

O 


129 


1008 


1066 


837 


1237 


2074 


191 


10633 


3503 


1510 


130 


295 


5 


346 


798 


506 


1955 


34318 


24978 


3933 


100 


H 

O 


130 


920 


8fi5 


1063 


722 


1785 


181 


8003 


2641 


1035 


291 


107 


18 


309 


555 


578 


1705 


22552 


12873 


4305 


121 




131 


033 


621 


848 


406 


1254 


201 


7329 


2092 


913 


221 


122 


16 


310 


623 


606 


1916 


2740 


15104 


5017 


2 


132 


1025 


1040 


1370 


695 


2065 


220 


9635 


1915 


732 


233 


175 


18 


384 


830 


743 


2379 


27185 

1 


19922 


6879 


485 




133 


437 


414 


658 


193 


851 


122' 3723 


661 


289 


103 


36 


35 


199 


456 


136 


1574 


13625 


260 


2109 


405 




134 


720 


755 


925 


550 


1475 


236J 8355 


2200 


848 


224 


249 


4 


451 


735 


1619 


2781 


,29415 


19398 


592-4 


45 




135 


605 696 


440 


861 


1301 


150 5016 


1642 


637 


76 


114 


20 


327 


662 


178 


1691 '23598 

i 


352 


1615 


790 




136 


1780 


1884 


629 


30aT 


• 3664 j303 16798 6707 


2931 


175 


318 


33 


371 


489 


110 


1531 


31T74 


9445 


145 


1210 




137 


1013 


997 


667 


1343 


2010 


2ul 6144 


1050 


467 


151 


90 


30 


184 


594 


400 


1847 


25069 


7633 


137 


6421 




138 


1052 


1064 


768 


1348 


2116 


216 11293 


3302 


1472 


188 


174 


23 


295 


871 


487 


2079 


41685 


1885 


2584 


3510 




139 


1441 


1440 


864 


2017 


2881 


377 


18039 


5794 


2378 


226 


269 


43 


555 


1020 


74 


2766:'47708 


2782 


1414 


150 




140 


561 


588 


361 


788 


1149 


161 


5546 


764 


301 


134 


38 


19 


209 


467 


617 


1859 


12042 


3883 


6 


5025 




172 


532 


503 


541 


494 


1030 


154 


6440 


1564 


531 


116 


71 


12 


229 


460 


206 


1467 


22607 


10791 


S88 


1903 




141 


760 


730 


433 


1057 


1490 


141 


5938 


2546 


931 


|109 


121 


9 


112 


374 


225 


1249 19550 


4826 


42 


6221 




142 


1372 


1309 


1182 


1499 


2681 


262 


13562 


3893 


1392 


231 


217 


95 


448 


671 


310 


4857 


45686 


6703 


4129 


6924 


k; 
^ 


113 


474 


486 


510 


450 


960 


152 


4429 


1208 


390 


115 


58 


42 


236 


477 


573 


1002 


16549 


1293 


1319 


690 


o 


144 


623 


592 


621 


594 


1215 


97 


5013 


1018 


358 


110 


34 


15 


136 


320 


55 


1019 


14548 


5366 


1387 


1389 




145 


1200 


1228 


419 


2009 


2428 


109 


13281 


48a' 


2093 


157 

1 


220 


3 


152 


466 


110 


1380 24109 


5294 


128 


2293 


t2 


146 


830 


833 


548 


1115 


1663 


222 


8833 


2472 


883 


203 


169 




292 


598 


329 


2453 


128832 


7694 


191 


13143 




147 


604 


663 


272 


995 


1267 


116 


5809 


1443 


660 


1100 


1(X) 


7 


147 


439 


246 


1088 


'17420 


4766 


235 


4033 


55 


148 


1054 


1086 


927 


1213 


2140 


36 


1298 


295 


183 


38 


21 




55 


96 


24 


1C9 


4800 


1385 




1340 


O 


149 


1941 


1965 


833 


3073 


3906 


296 


20314 


5816 


2560 


295 


2.54 


11 


362 


665 


738 


2454 


56599 


15722 


797 


8.560 




150 


970 


1024 


393 


1601 


1994 


215 


9050 


3886 


1503 


,136 


177 


13 


150 


570 


48 


1736 


20127 


4624 


406 


450 




151 


796 


716 


446 


1066 


1512 


149 


8:m 


2603 


1167 


114 


160 


12 


143 


271 


82 


1370 


158231 2838 


66 


506 




152 


596 


664 


387 


873 


1200 


159 


8216 


2082 


694 


102 


120 


2 


137 


361 


259 


1878 


12220 9180 


84 


4550 




153 


706 


712 


381 


1037 


1418 


135 


8222 


248] 


881 


117 


111 


14 


196 


482 


99 


1136' 1668910067 


392 2203 




151 


857 


891 


978 


770 


1748 


203 


9317 


2921 


940 


189 


81 


21 


324 


451 


179 


1879 29058 


7240 


1044 1150 




155 


636 


650 


206 


1080 


1286 


161 


5231 


2410 


842 


80 


109 


14 


169 


348 


170 


1092 


11181 


3104 


122 2425 




156 


785 


787 


576 


996 


1572 


195 


7418 


2172! 887 

1 1 


152 75 

1 


16 


197 


424 


236 


1342 


23601 


11100 


679 1025 

1 



'ABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 

by Toivnships. 
SECOND SERIES.— (Concluded.) 





h 


Population. 


1 


•a 1 

s i 


Cotton 






Stock. 






Grain. 




02 










s 


Hi 






































a 










^ 








o 












CS 












<o 
















3 


o 
6 
12; 


ai 

a; 


_2 

a 




o 

1 


1 


o 
d 


H 

3) 

< 


Q 
he 
09 
<U 
Ut 
O 
< 




10 

CO 


a 


X 








06 


a 

« 

n 
02 


02 




"5 

omj 


Wheat 
Bushels 

Rice, 
Bushels 




157 


789 


799 


1140 


448 


1588' 220 


3731 765 


22.5 1 58 


88 


145 


388 


240 


155il211 


10921 


56o! 




H 

D 
O 
O 


158 


1168 


1118 


1024 


1262 


2286' 200 

ji 


6365 2504 


917' 


101 


97 


89 


336 


4.37 


592 1402 


17652 


403 


551! 290 


159 


481 


529 


423 


587 


1010 


95 


2512 


553 


254 


60 


50 


9 


100 


72 


^'i 


5324 


5110 


500 


150 


160 


945 


1092 


374 


1663 


2037 


187 


5655 


2251 


1163 


95 


168 


40 


190 


164 


44 519 


23414 


5199 


785 


2540 


161 














j 
























Q 


to 


4639 


5397 


4338 


5698 


10036 


9 


194 


91 


59 


6 


10 




12, 12 


12 


490 


190 






167 


























1 
1 












168 


1604 


1556 


244 


2916 


3160, i396 


18198 


6618 2635 '■ 80 

ij 


282 


197 


220 289 


200 886 


:39892 


705 


147 


109 


1121 


1093 


154 


2060 


2214 


320 


9989 


52:3:3 19261 88 


195 


95 


195 


2.5S 


161 1017j 


19173 


1592 


9 350 


C! 


170 


1739 


1768 


519 


2988 


3507 


491 


12292 


7150 


2696 145 


259 


180 


353 


351 


302 


968J 


.31567 


6354 


52 




171 


1359 


1376 


969 


1766 


27351322 

il 


9936 


:3196 1098'!l84 

i 11 


247 


85 


405 


682 


327 


I8O9' 


22607 10791 [ 


1872 

1 



TABLE Y .—Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 

hy Toimships. 
THIRD SERIES. 





i 

1 

H 
fa 
O 

o 


Population. 


1 

CO 

s 

O 

6 


C 

•d 
<u 

to 

< 


Cotton 


Stock. 


Grain. 


K 

O 

o 


CO 


(U 

s 


i 


a 
u 

O 

5 




< 




CO 




1 


a 

a 
XI 

O 
M 

1 


i6 




a. 


a; 

i 

OS 


c 

Si 
IS 


d S 




m 

1 = 


o 



w 
5 

H 

a 

a 


1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 


639 
1265 

435 

488 
1187 

882 
1112 
1015 

983 


586 
1378 

483 

499 
1170 

879 
1157 
1090 
1097 


891 
773 
516 
746 
1499 
1273 
1411 
1440 
949 


334 

1870 
402 
241 
858 
488 
858 
665 

1131 


1225 
2643 
918 
987 
2357 
1761 
2269 
2105 
2080 


!l46 

165 

t 
19 

149 

359 

232 

317 

303 

247 


3790 
7108 
1939 
3495 
9189 
7937 
8824 
9914 
8606 


930 
2791 
622 
406 
.3538 
2820 
2531 
2897 

1905 

1 


325 
1273 

499 

143 
1387 
1?32 

932 
1164 

778 


! 93 
113 
25 
66 
196 
'129 
,197 
189 
jll9 


47 
103 
30 
19 
100 
154 
115 
169 
114 


100 
86 
6 
IM 
337 
114 
268 
96 
172 


276 
181 
29 
275 
472 
427 
458 
173 
362 


392 
307 
53 
26f. 
230 
859 
879 
864 
759 


444 1545 
109 1429 
5 177 
264 1360 
616 1321 
830 1865 
1256 2099 
514 2187 
329 1736 


1 

19651 
2(>162 
10120 
14569 
38172 
32493 
j37883 
40142 
27938 


540 
10712 
6775 
408 
4876 
2770 
7246 
5588 
2731 


416 
799 

198 
1598 
1378 
2118 
3728 
85 


25 

75 
81 

10 


z 

o 
u 

"^ 

o 

PS 
< 

o 


10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 


253 
804 
4S0 
348 
928 
580 
367 
,.2 
512 
481 
275 
407 
457 
496 
212 
899 
496 
357 
536 


255 
832 
484 
343 
932 
575 
354 
728 
527 
446 
299 
388 
498 
533 
190 
852 
45-5 
352 
547 


259 
435 
295 
516 
317 
122 
170 
692 
332 
754 
287 
224 
326 
422 
248 
323 
172 
275 
93 


249 

1181 

669 

175 

1543 

1033 

551 

748 

707 

173 

287 

571 

629 

607 

154 

1428 

779 

434 

990 


508 
1636 
964 
691 
1860 
1155 
721 
1440 
1039 
927 
574 
795 
955 
1029i 
402 
1751 
951 
709 
1083 


80 
171 
118 
114 
242 
168 

85 
107 
164 
120 
100 
144 
165 
170 

61 
213 
191 
112 
200 


3453 
9166 
5046 
2407 
9150 
3711 
2917 
3201 
5125 
4075 
1928 
3288 
3909 
4483 
1617 
7082 
4138 
2197 
5403 


321 
3126 
1526 

526 
3838 
1743 

855 
1032 
1152 

971 

524 
1061 
1406 
1521 

471 
2498 
1817 

729 
1557 


95 
998 
516 
135 
1353 
512 
256 
327 
398 
321 
172 
303 
439 
451 
141 
788 
630 
214 
514 


38 
110 
47 
53 
119 
72 
40 
55 
51 
94 
27 
45 
49 
55 
36 
84 
56 
48 
61 


21 
113 
61 
40 
137 
82 
34 
58 
79 
46 
22 
64 
60 
74 
15 
113 
91 
22 
52 


31 
35 
27 
40 
31 
18 
37 
30 
63 
51 
31 
56 
38 
60 
33 
79 
76 
43 
56 


111 

181 
147 
117 
328 
134 
139 
201 
197 
190 
153 
151 
198 
170 
74 
282 
217 
170 
189 


140 
401 
257 
167 
271 
325 
336 
396 
407 
243 
216 
229 
265 
250 
134 
531 
326 
165 
277 


80 

78 

5 

218 

46 
147 
40 
190 
228 
172 
50 
101 
47 
61 
10 
14 

102 


678 
931 
782 
1102 
1355 
987 
744 
1450 
1907 
1544 
851 
1039 
1068 
968 
699 
1752 
947 
836 
989 


3913 
,17582 
12605 

9195 
16976 

8809 

8118 
13920 
jl5976 
14822 

7295 

8505 
11321 
12908 

6190 
20784 
14626 

8538 
10241 


790 
2299 
1495 

880 
8341 
102r 

535 
3197 
1003 
1404 

275 
1140 
2412 
1350 

150 
1158 
418 
903 


42 

12 

• 59 

27 

48 

24 

34 

6 

182 

51 

121 
10 
5 


252 

810 

1132 

1530 

985 

190 

990 

1685 

1925 

6999 

775 

1784 

610 

1350 

1202 

2925 

6i9 

1317 

1570 



TxVBLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, foi' the year 1880, 

by Townships. 
THIRD SEEIES— (Continued.) 





M 

s 

Z, 

b 
o 

6 


POPTJLATION. 


ce 

s 



d 


•6 

a 

— 

X 

s 


Cotton 


Stock. 


Grain. 


z, 

3 


"5 


i 
fa 




o 

a 




a7 

? 

u 


< 


1 


C 
PS 


a 

s 


S 
i< 








0- 
* 

1 


% 


.a 


1 




29 


578 


576 


563 


591 


1154 


112 


4627 


1980 


701 


90 


49 


54 


125 


126 


42 


11 
838i!l4617 


2107 


542 


38 




30 


811 


776 


170 


1417 


1587 


195 


9386 


4782 


1769:1106 


157105 


225 


202 


411 


1310128547 


4326 


55 


980 




31 


700 


713 


722 


691 


1412 


175 


6879 26691 1129' 164 


68' 53 


178^ 326 


61 


1459 17893 


5100 


1281 650 




32 


1387 


1429 


774 


2042 


2816 |206 


7245 


3238 


1192 96 


92 


93 


142 232 


7 


921 16747 


5359 


287 


890 




33 


657 


661 


287 


1031 


1318 


153 9028 


3122 


1102 


90 


74 


81 


120 


161 


17 


829 17613 


4546 


274 


784 




34 


578 


582 


651 


509 


1160 161 


4953 i 1J13 


413 


80 


78 


74 


187 


341 


80 1509 14872 


7242 


240 


2942 




35 
36 


1515 
771 


1567 
766 


972 
901 


2110 
636 


3082 
1537 


57 
164 


5358 
6730 


1437 
2755 


668 
1215 


70 
135 


37 
112 


37 
61 


•81 
204 


48 
215 


168 410:10130 
1791526-23350 


2265 
4565 






8 

O 


874 


4125 


37 


841 


813 


529 


1125 


1654 


159 


7178 


3350 


1351 


152 


92 


65 


180 


168 


191 1596 24186 


3323 


524 


1258 


38 


325 


346 


432 


239 


671 


93 


30001 


834 


287 54 


40 


30 


145 


286 


116 1256 10715 


859 


314 


895 


39 


780 


784 


542 


1022 


156i 


157 


S999 


3426 


1332 il35 


117 


58 


163 


221 


228 1222 21835 


6485 


745 


253 


40 


1162 


1063 


1186 


1039 


2225-235 


10019 


3781 


14801171 


132 


109 


317 


330 


62 2927 36338 


4629 


245 


1725 


2 

<! 


41 


766 


777 


835 


708 


1542 192 


T702' 


3177 


1230 


156 


97 


■50 


168 


236 


48 1537,j26447 


3032 1320 

1 


285 


42 
43 


764 

844 


748 
794 


205 
364 


1307 

1274 


1512 93S 


7935 

8630 


3447 


19^7 


,107 
■137 


135 
144 


126 
70 


162 
136 


309 
185 


179' 1139' 117078 
4a3 1167, 27475 


1030 
7275 






1638 


171 


j 
4641 1942 


492 


672 




44 


626 


683 


710 


599 


1309 


202 


6822 


2751 964j 144 


86 


74 


178 


280 


50 1599 21720 


3181 


900 


612 




45 


1307 


1357 


450 


2214 


2564 236 


9713 


4501 


2031 


1153 


192 


144 


165 


202 


57 794 


33336 


12999:1391 


20 




46 


653 


647 


859 


441 


1300 219 


7177 


3209 


1338 Il52 


95 


29 


197 


473 


149 1524 19070 


6133 1657 


193 




47 


826 


880 


757 


949 


1706 157 


7841 


3070 


12661 136 


99 


59 


150 


155 


25 


1406,127879 


5967 


1731 


692 




48 


505 


586 


305 


786 


1091 168 


3923 


1732 


634' 47 


56 


106 


150 


228 


13 


927;;15096 


290 




21C8 




49 


734 


807 


715 


826 


1541 116 


3955 


1403 


631100 45 


49 


130 


134 


591027 15923 


3503 


581 


850 


H 


50 


1197 


1360 


737 


1820 


2557 



















.™.. 














51 


944 


979 


167 


1756 


1923 


66 


5398 


2 


1 


47 


87 


111 


323 


328 


1450 


152(1 


7825 


1584 




132125 


n 


52 


644 


685 


455 


874 


1329 


|140 


2413 


78 


22 


71 


26 


185 


564 


661 


999 


2ft55 


12051 


550 




28725 


o 


53 
54 


539 
1974 


518 
2082 


231 
466 


826 
a591 


1057 
40.57 


49 
120 


1237 
5234 


44 
36 


22 
17 


33 
63 


17 
83 


46 
105 


90 
334 


199 
534 


42 
531 


330 
1139 


1 3032 
6320 






850 


2; 


227 




123434 




55 


1019 


1177 


155 


2031 


2196 


44 


2846 


17 


11 


25 


76 


169 


113 


195 


280 


378 


2160 


900 




31382 


56 


717 


803 


144 


1376 


1520 


22 


1223! 






22 


8 


46 


34 


51 


25 


104 


871 


80 





12220 


o 


57 


1661 


1680 


344 


2997 


3341 


69 


2219 


20 


8 


44 


30 


66 


98 


59 


118 


35 


3611 


400 




63661 


o 


58 


801 


832 


757 


876 


1633 


117 


1584 


166 


74 


59 


15 


126 


359 


366 


501 


1393 8491 

1 






1810 



TABLE V. — Agricultural Statisti^^ of South Carolina, for the year 1880, 

by Townships. 
THIRD SERIES.— (Continued.) 



POPTJLATION. 



a s 

I' Si. 



3 2 



Cotton 



< M 



Stock. 






Grain. 



ao 



o ** 



^P3 



om 



s ^ 
^m 






67 



622 648 



1074 
1177 
438 
374 
634 
553 
487 
611 
1182 
650 



1062 
1185 
392 
322 
636 
558 
474 
643 
1244 
608 



1119 


151 


1013 


1123 


1477 


885 


738 


92 


522 


174 


1054 


216 


935 


176 


878 


83 


446 


808 


1683 


743 


767 


491 



1270 

2136 

2362 

830 

696 

1270 

1111 

981 

1254 

2426 

1258 



2359 
2645 
1553 
2541 

2056 
4578 
3141 

2340i 

27771 
45831 
578 



1232 
1772 
212 
433 
821 
458 
1063 
586 
2084 
1032 



2720 
2499 
2552 
1602 
2641 
3563 
2279 
2279 
2430 
5095 
1555 



8569 
11941 
9495 
8102 
7973 
16120 
11536 



10260 
14395 
5524 



67 
240 
123 
114 

30 
259 
126 
50 
23 
25 



2661 
8266 
2950 

995 

285 
1933 
2122 
1725 

710 
2850 

613 



1704 
2976 
824 
1598 
1057 
1250 
1236 



1621 
3112 
956 
1675 
1016 
1252 
1261 



1191 
976 

1315 

1452 
717 

1215 
788 
762 



1128 

1043 

ia57 

1389 

692 

1210 

889 

779 



2227 


1098 


1841 


4247 


832 


948 


52S 


2745 


732 


1341 


1046 


1456 


686 


1811 


568 


1751 


572 


1447 


1858 


814 


1221 


1620 


681 


728 


1472 


&53 


1229 


448 


334 


1207 



332.5 
6088 
1780 
3273 
2073 
2502 
2497 



14691 
15054 
320 
9169 
9063 
11789 
8542 



7681 
154 
5534 
[3208 
|5381 
13244 



1407 
3232 
74 
2020 
1226 
1917 
1404 



2319 
2019 
2672 
2841 
1409 
ai25 
1677 
1541 



15890 
8273 

10800 
9006 
7095 

13710 
8022 

10062! 



5154 
3471 
4715 
3400 
3098 
4684 
2154 
4068 



2191 
1539 
2109 
1437 
1127 
2009 
884 
1383 



1508 
1011 



16 34 



280 
353 
490 
403 
156 
431 
79 387 
17 145 



391 375 



447 312 
495 82 



3507 
2996 
18 
1216 
1329 
1352 
854 



48041 
42932 
980 
36525 
27289 
26850 
37340 



98& 
1004 
22971 
1345 

436 
1612 
1532 



42898 
31022 
52,571 
41040 
30649 
42498 
32039 



44 321 '19222 



634712912 



5011 
650 
5030 
7300 



487 



150 
1402 



1336 
1030 



2989 528 14 
7075 62 2950 



8154 
3556 
5430 
6383 
8008 
7043 
654' 
3264 



2029, 
1675 
2343 
1990 
1805 
2727 
3473 
810 



TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of South Carolina, for the year 1880,. 

by Tawnships. 
THIRD SERIES.— (Continued.) 





si 




i! 


73 




















as 

b 
O 

d 




Population. 




a 

(3 

-a 


OOTTOW. 




Stock. 






Ghai:w. 




& 
o 


i 


S 

ID 




. 

<u 


5 


1 

i\ 

o , 


1 t <o 

6 i 






Li 

u 

< 


1 
"3 


m 

<o 
to 




X 



3 


a 
s> 
X 



M 
u 

c 


Sail 


D. 
(0 

CD 


1 
« 1 

5 ' 

^ : 

"1 


-321 

5«j 


.1 . 
— ' S 

5 te - X 

cSPfCS 






85 


702 


736 


660 


778 


11 1 I 
143a tl32 6451 12580 


1297) 


1 
781126 


40 


218 .349 


1 i, 
347 i 19771:27437 

1 ' ' 


5704 


1363 


279 




86 


713 


707 


659 


761 1420i|182; 3670* 


5761 229* 


71 33 


159 


3.53 705 


205:3572 11061 


492 


46 


3920- 




87 


1183 


1222 


969 


1416 3405li272j 8540i 


2169i ^ 


129 92 


204 


331 367 


201 


1548J^1552 


739 


42 


3821 




88 


743 


772! 832 


682 


15151 183' 7138! 


.3046il543l 


98 183 

1 


65 


243 


387 


382|2586l 131258 


3303 


G98 


1740- 




89 


1374 


1309 


1096 


1587 


2683-^ 279tI27a* 


4701i;W89l 

1 ' 


1901234 


12 


304 


661 


238l2581:-12679i 14253 

j 1 ' 


3047 


730 




90 


1124 


1145 


1234 


1035 2269*1231 9192; 


2480 1072 


185(127 


76 


270 


516 


272-2290J 135800 


2685 


290 


9801 


tn" 


91 


1222 


1305 


811 


1716! 25271:228 98.55' 


3&^ 1521 


221146 


129 


309! .566 


5.55 29681)33030 


5110 


10 


13553- 




92 


830 


848 


719 


959 


1678! -1301 SOSO' 


ssei'isri* 

1 1 


101 1127 


85 


258 


538 


615l2247i .22291 


6147 


412 


2312. 


s 


93 


783 


829 


940 


672 


1612lil91 6134 
17701 i244 8086 


1900 


84a 


I23I 60 


96 


257 


.358 


331 2294) ;19502| 8334 


25 


195a 


94 


844 


926 


967 


803 


3868|2098 


112 


180 


67 


189 221 


13012659' :.36800 


3192 


1208 


350 


O 

1-1 


95 


1178 


1257 


893 


1542 


2435i268|10720 


2971 '1401 


214 


127 


149 


2311 3a5 


2361208.5; ;35886 


6265 


»45 


7525- 


< 


96 


414 


410 


468 


356 


824 


151 290 


44I 36 


,20 


2 




18^ 27 


74JJ 590 


325 




136- 


97 


1062 


1058 


888 


1232 


2120 


2191 6565 


3072 840 


135 


93 


150 


323. 504 


193 20061:22336 


4053 


462 


6321 




96 


664 


714 


736 


642 


1378 


11331 6715 


24.51 


1122 


97 


102 


49 


152 249 


299 1770:22990 


4449 


675 


1635 




99 


879 


897 


1027 


755 


1776 


J231 


4754 


J1503 


594 


110 


36 


273 


353 


322 


61I2955II2122I 


1753 




5342 




100 


1431 


1476 


1716 


1191 


290711291 


10963 


|4243 


1601 


213 


128 


130 


421 587 


428:3396J 137460 


2075 


168 


3723 




101 


532 


590 


387 


735 


1] 221)141 


4143 


11158 


486 


87 


37 


118 


212 345 


1122296113927 


1183 


12 


1325 




102 


984 


1014 


661 


1337 


1996 


220 7140 


i2849 141o| 


146 


98 


127 


332 384 


9013179 ;23.364 


3705 


28 


1999 




103 


j 131 


99 


204 


26 


230 


1 41 47^ i 19 d 


7 


1 


43 


1011 104 


96:1468 i 2588 

1 li 


44 




32 


r^ 


104 


1363 


1333 


1330 


1366 


2696' '215 


11336' 558513630; 


^3 167 


34 


265 


434 


22 2263 52650 


7110 


.3327 






105 


! 1539 


1632 


868 


2303 


3171 


162 


128131 i6498i4212i 


176 228 


6 


166 


286 


330 1367 41020 


12090 


1048 


40^ 


O 


106 


1 931 


958 


869 


1020 


1889 


185 


7635,132951193^ 


167 141 


5 


187 


384 


113i2008 :33054 


3433 


2673 


15- 


o 


107 


965 


973 


853 


1085 


1938 


175 


11006' 4215I2146 


119 188 


48 


254 


475 


97 2200i!31015 


7399 


637 


850 


108 


1434 


1395 


1229 


1600 


28291 ;196 

h 


11431; 4949J3048 


195 208 


18 


254 


667 


25 2387! 44762 

1 


7.S15 


4655 


425- 




109 


1220 


1215 


1011 


1424 


2435j;196 


11763|!5417J3132 


195 204 


18 


290 


577 


88i2332^ 49955 


7491 


3510 


20 




110 


1480 


1530 


870 


2140 


3010! 203 


10.581 5671J2867 

1 1 


185 204 


49 


290 


485 


861654' 38162 


9366 


1735 


75 


S 


111 


1282 


1348 


996 


IGM 


2630 ilflii 


10864 L'ifi:^i:'?74n 


145(2.^ 


53 


291 


675 


' '! 

£04i17lK< 47P(lfl 


8976 


2492 








j 




1 











! 


1 





TABLE V. — Agricultural Statistics of Smdh Carolina, far the year 1880, 

by Townships. 
THIRD SERIES.— (Concluded.) 





h 








1 




•6 












03 

o 
H 
fa 
o 

d 

15 




Population. 


s 

u 
cS 
fa 



d 


ci 

1-5 

H 

(S 

< 


Cotton. 


Stock. 


Ga^ 


IW. 


H 

P 

o 
o 


■3 


s 

CO 


6 














< 


CO 


X 




3 


a 

'A 








06 


ft ® 
<jj c 

03 ro 


a" 

..a 


00 

oc'— 

on 


Wheat, 
Bushels. 

Rice. 
Bushels. 




112 


1178 


1131 


977 


1382 


2309 


261 


10168 


4910 


2304 


175 


177 


43 


252 


513 


59 


1762 


32385 


6529 


467 


360 




113 


825 


798 


487 


1136 


1623 


102 


4825 


2637 


1182 


84 


119 


13 


116 


189 


28 


749 


17275 


4289 


87 


38 




114 


1013 


1135 


606 


1542 


2148 


294 


9052 


2445 


865 


128 


130 


78 


283 


442 


454 


2019 


30009 


4232 


79 


4926 




115 


1409 


1371 


734 


2016 


2780 


290 


9702 


3891 


1544 


171 


148 


98 


343 


653 


210 


2399 


38438 


4769 


167 


3460 




116 


279 


311 


106 


485 


590 


103 


3146 


928 


344 


82 


46 


16 


90 


228 


16 


647 


8943 


703 


14 


153 


(m 


117 


1144 


1160 


439 


1865 


2304 


242 


8620 


3323 


1256 


105 


159 


60 


237 


420 


152 


1509 


30072 


6720 


83 


8238 


7, 


118 


885 


888 


300 


1473 


1773 


171 


11142 


2566 


1190 


111 


146 


56 


240 


257 


249 


1450 


24405 


5397 


161 


301 


O 


119 


1244 


1212 


594 


1862 


2456 


344 


102.56 


4880 


1685 


160 


257 


93 


287 


504 


131 


1022 


32598 


6063 


153 


3322 


H 


120 


1047 


1124 


725 


1446 


2171 


261 


8932 


3401 


1159 


137 


122 


86 


308 


307 


OSS 


1937 


28160 


3366 


1008 


395 


121 


1013 


1021 


403 


1631 


2034 


261 


9269 


4305 


lft51 


137 


156 


115 


259 


215 


101 


1608 


26074 


4114 


25 


860 




122 


1087 


1089 


446 


1780 


2176 


352 


9708 


5568 


2118 


109 


197 


46 


235 


280 


227 


1617 


24007 


2801 


77 


36 


02 


123 


1208 


1197 


1069 


1336 


2405 


327 


7.S46 


2719 


1013 


156 


112 


163 


3S6 


420 


156 


29f2 


boi23 


8372 


156 


132 




124 


984 


966 


862 


1088 


1960 


2r2 


7643 


3907 


1341 


123 


116 


93 


277 


192 


17 


1255 


p6189 


1700 


171 


450 




125 


1495 


1566 


372 


2689 


3061 


244 


9a50 


4,583 


1820 


145 


183 


28 


285 


229 


122 


1260 


[22396 


2015 




175 




126 


1546 


1609 


468 


2687 


3155 


350 


7897 


3189 


1313 


136 


118 


182 


245 


353 


152 


1685 


34726 


4106 


66 


3243 




127 


888 


1123 


1035 


976 


2011 


20 


382 


96 


47 


27 


4 




28 


18 




34 


1378 


1466 




250 




128 


1097 


994 


357 


1734 


2091 


273 


7360 


4763 


1602 


155 


173 


31 


359 


124 


40 


2026 


136888 


2930 




2912 




129 


367 


366 


465 


268" 


733 


114 


1732 


205 


66 


59 


21 


56 


570 


990 


2684 


2006 


7463 


40 




1425 




130 


1145 


1181 


615 


1711 


2326 


192 


6360 


1888 


707 


132 


74 


208 


476 


781 


148 


2375 


121571 


eas 




4128 


k4 


131 


949 


965 


317 


1597 


1914 


244 


5463 


1799 


5^4 


105 


54 


229 


267 


578 


714 


1761 


|15621 


728 




4732 


EH 

5^1 


132 


1188 


1209 


972 


1425 


2397 


120 


4276 


758 


273 


89 


38 


155 


306 


708 


630 


2255 


12126 


1528 


15 


2342 


& 

n 


133 


1387 


1455 


595 


2247 


2842 


273 


7838 


2182 


774 


138 


105 


160 


424 


844 


97 


2443 


26383 


943 


5 


6820 


C3 


134 


647 


625 


792 


480 


1272 


175 


3843 


769 


238 


79 


39 


199 


225 


287 


758 


2269 


18882 


475 


23 


6932 




135 


648 


&17 


208 


1087 


1295 


102 


3522 


751 


312 


47 


48 


56 


182 


450 




844 


8355 


210 




2426 


03 


136 


809 


810 


1217 


402 


1619 


160 


4618 


1038 


339 


99 


43 


164 


251 


327 


637 


2340 


19161 


068 


138 


5319 


1^ 


137 


702 


669 


362 


1009 


1371 


151 


2817 


643 


245 


45 


44 


141 


393 


539 


104 


2074 


18330 


66 




1612 


r^ 


138 


728 


753 


237 


1244 


1581 


247 


2899 


831 


336 


71 


66 


107 


401 


477 


1002 


1504 


9436 


210 


20 


4721 


i-i 


139 


963 


1038 


410 


1591 


2001 


147 


5755 


1606 


646 


125 


44 


146 


283 


453 


646 


1688 


17761 


707 


88 


5842 




140 


1351 


1406 


1026 


1731 


2757 


241 


7884 


1722 


581 


159 


60 


195 


509 


875 


702 


3076 


[25862 


1.647 


41 


6926 




141 


385 


394 


232 


547 


779 


124 


1623 


473 


134 


38 


19 


62 


137 


227 


100 


1064 


6019 






721 




142 


667 


656 


310 


1013 


1323 


196 


5455 


1166 

— ~rr 


392 


68 


47 


99 


328 


655 


1279 


1078 


14737 


1646 


70 


1852 



PART II. 



AN ACCOUNT OF THE PEOPLE. 



24 



CHAPTER I 



POPULATION 



INDIANS. 



The tlirce fundamental races of mankind, the yellow, the white and the 
black — the American, the European, and the African — are occupants of 
the soil of South Carolina. AVithin her borders, as elsewhere on many 
wider fields throughout human history, the still unsettled problems of 
the conflict and intermingling of races present themselves for solution. 
Although four centuries barely separate-us from the discovery of America, 
it would be quite as difficult to give an accurate statement of the nations 
and tribes of the Indians and of their numbers, as encountered by the 
first European explorers, as it would be to turn back forty centuries and 
to disentangle the Egyptian, Ethiopian, Libyan, Chaldean, Nubian and 
Berber races, united under the sixth dynasty of the Pharaohs iu the con- 
struction of the })yramids. The history of the. Indians is almost a blank. 
Their earth mounds, stone implements and weapons, and other relics, 
throw only a very uncertain glimmer of light over their past. Their vague 
traditions are known in some instances not to retain any count of many 
memorable events for even one century. Their origin is a subject open to 
the widest conjecture. Adair entertains the fanciful notion that they are 
descended from the lost tribes of Israel, and the proximity of Northwest 
America to Asia, has suggested their migration by way of Behring Straits 
to this continent. The most recent researches, noting on the other hand 
a general westward migration of the Indian tribes from the Atlantic to the 
interior, and tracing a resemblance between their languages and that of the 
Basque people of Europe, hold that they are emigrants from that country. 
That they were driven thence by the intrusion of the Aryan hordes from 



364 • POPULATION. 

the East, themselves contemplative and submissive races, whose character 
and language was modified by the high spirited, liberty-loving aborigines 
of Central and Western Europe, whom they absorbed or dispersed. A 
remarkable fact in the economy of the Indians is, that they alone, of all 
the peoples of the world, possessed and cultivated Indian corn, and that it 
was their only cereal. That the most valuable of all the grains should 
have been the exclusive possession of one people is sufficiently strange, 
but becomes much more so, when it is considered that this people were 
the least advanced of all in the arts of peace, that they were the poorest and 
most thriftless of laborers, in fact, in no sense laborers at all, and yet that 
they depended entirely for their bread on this grain, requiring more skill, 
care, and labor in its culture than any other. 

Great discrepancies exis't as to the estimates of the condition and num- 
bers of the Indians between the accounts of travelers in the 16th and in the 
18th centuries. The latter, in explanation of the small number of frag- 
mentary tribes they found, where great and powerful nations were reputed 
to have dwelt, give the traditions of great wars, famines and epidemics, that 
were said to have occurred. The prevailing opinion now is that these were 
not exceptional occurrences among the aborigines, but that they had always 
been subject to such disasters, which had kept in check their population and 
their civilization. Bancroft and Draper think that, by the highest estimates 
that can be placed upon their numbers, all the Indians east of the Missis- 
sippi, from the Gulf of Mexico to the St. Lawrence, did not, 200 years ago, 
exceed 180,000. As the great plains of the West were not habitable for man 
before the introduction of guns and horses by the Europeans, the estimate 
of these distinguished authorities may be considered as applying, with in- 
considerable additions, to the whole area of the United States having its 
drainage towards the Atlantic. This area contains now (Rep. Secretary 
of Interior, 1881) 203,608 Indians, and the number of Indians in the 
United States, exclusive of Alaska, is 255,938. 

Governor Drayton hazards the opinion that the Indians of South Caro- 
lina may have numbered originally 30,000 or 40,000 souls, but gives no 
data upon which it is founded. Adair says, that old traders stated that 
about 1700, the Cherokees had 6,000 warriors. In 1752, he found only 
some 2,300 warriors among them, and says, " so great a diminution, that 
after a like revolution of time there will be few of them alive." A predic- 
tion regarding the destructibility of a race, that, like many similar ones, 
has fallen far wide of verification. i\Ir. Bancroft says that the " Chero- 
kees are more numerous now than ever." 

The oldest reports from Georgia claim that there were only a few In- 
dians within 400 miles of Savannah. John Lawson estimates very suc- 
cinctly the Indian population of North Carolina as 4,780, men, women 



rOPULATION. 



3G5 



and children, including 1612 fighting men, in the year 1700. Judging 
from his journal of a thousand miles travel among the Indians, from 
South to North Carolina, they could not have been more numerous in this 
State at that date. 

The following is a synopsis of tlie natives and tribes of Indians men- 
tioned as residing in South Carolina : 



NATIONS. TRIBES. 

12.'? 

Cherokee Echotee, Nequassee, Tehohee, 

4 5 6 

Chatusee, Noyowee, Chagee. 

7 8 9 

Estatoe, Tussee, Cussatee, 

10 11 12 

Tugoola, Keowee, Echav, 

13 14 lo" 

Aconee, Toxaway, Seneka, 

16 17 " 

Tewraw, Tukwashwaw, 

IS 19 2) 

Chickerohe, Naguchie, Totero, 

21 _ 22 23 

Quacoratchie, Chota, Enoc, 

_ 24 25 20 

Stickoey, Esaw, Sapona, 
Wisack. 



II 

Catawba. 



28 



The Cherokees were a moun- 
tain race, occupying extensive 
territory in Alabama, Tennessee, 
Georgia, North and South Car- 
olina and Kentucky. Less than 
1-10 *of this territory is in the 
present boundaries of South 
Carolina, comprising the coun- 
ties of Oconee, Pickens, Ander- 
son, Greenville and Spartan- 
burg, which would make the 
number of warriors in this State 
by Adair's computation, to have 
been 230, or a total population 
not exceeding 1000. They were 
expelled in 1777, for siding with 
the British, and are now the 
most advanced in civilization of 
the Indians. 

The Catawbas were a Cana- 
dian tribe, driven thence, in 
1650, by the more powerful Coik 
newangas. Part of their num- 
ber amalgamated with the 
Chickasaws and Choctaws. The 
remnant reached South Caro- 
lina in 1660, fought a great bat- 
tle with the Cherokees on Broad 
river, and made that stream the 
dividing line between the two 
nations. They occupied York, 
Chester and Lancaster counties. 
Their warriors were estimated 
by Governor Glenn at 400, giv- 
ing a population of about 1600. 



366 



POPULATION. 



III. 

tJchees. 



29 



IV. 

Creek or -^o 3i 32 

Mus Koo-ee Savanna, Sernna, Cusoboe. 

3.3 34 m 

Yamassee, Huspa, Cosah. 



About 1-8 of tlie territory of 
the Uchees extended across the 
Savannah river into Aiken, 
Edgefield and Barnwell coun- 
ties. There is no estimate of 
their numbers. Their Princess 
of Cutifachiqui (Silver Bluff) 
entertiiined DeSoto Avith great 
splendor, according to the narra- 
tive of the gentleman of Elvas 
(1540). They were absorbed by 
the Creeks, and have left no 
trace excei:)t in the name of a 
small stream in Silverton town- 
ship, Aiken county, and of a 
neighboring steamboat landing 
on the Savannah, Talemeco, af- 
ter their great temple, which it 
is said stood there in DeSoto's 
time. 

Fragmentary tribes on the 
Savannah river, south of the 
Uchees, in Barnwell county. 

The Yamassees numbered 
about 100 men, women and 
children, near Pocotaligo, in 
1715, and were driven across 
the Savannah, by Governor 
Craven. Twenty men of the 
tribe were left at Saint Augus- 
tine, Florida, in 1743, and they 
were absorbed by the Seminoles. 

The Yamassee, or Jamassi, 
were one of a small number of 
isolated tribes, of dark com- 
plexion, found widel}' scattered 
among the inhabitants of North 
and South America. Supposed 
to have been immigrants from 
Africa prior to the European 
discovery of America (see Hu- 



POPULATION. 



3G7 



Salutab. 



Cono^aree. 



Santee. 



39 40 

Westoes and Stonoes. 



■11 42 

Wateree and Chickasee. 



43 

Waxsaws. 



44 

Wenee. 



45 

"Win yaw. 

46 

Sewee. 



man Species, Ly A. De Quatie- 
fages). If this be so, it explains 
why D'Alyon persisted in slave 
hunting about Beaufort (1521), 
these negroes being valuable as 
laborers, while the Indians were 
worthless. It were strange, too, 
if negroes first occupied this sec- 
tion where they now predomi- 
nate. 

Located near Saluda old town, 
Newberry county, removed to 
Connestoga, in Pennsylvania. 

On the river of that name. 
Jno. Lawson visited them in 
1700, and found a town of 12 
huts, one man at home and the 
women gambling. 

Near Nelson's Ferr}', in Clar- 
endon. Jno. Lawson found a few 
of their huts, in 1700. 

Between Edisto and Ashley 
rivers, in Colleton and Charles- 
ton counties, amalgamated with 
the Catawbas. 

On Pine Tree Creek, KershaAV 
county, Lawson says they Avere 
more populous than the Con- 
garees. 

Lawson makes a day's march 
from the last. 

Indian, old township, Wil- 
liamsburg county. 

On the inlet of that name. 

On Sewee bay. Lawson says 
the larger part of them were 
lost at sea, or rescued and sold as 
slaves by the English, in an at- 



3G8 POPULATION. 

tempt they made to open direct 
communication with England, 
by a fleet of canoes, in which 
they put to sea in the direction 
whence they had observed the 
English vessels arrive. 

47 48 

Saraw or Clieraw. Chesterfield and Marlboro 

counties, absorbed by the Ca- 
tawbas. 

49 

Kaclapaw. Lynch's creek, joined the Ca- 

tawbas. 

The Pee Dees are not mentioned, as it is thought the name is of Euro- 
pean origin, probably from P. D., the initials of Patrick Daly, a white 
man, carved upon a tree by an early settler. The nineteen tribes, claimed 
under the Creek nation, occupying at least one-half of the State, appears 
to have been very insignificant in numl^ers, according to the earliest au- 
thentic accounts of them. Governor Glenn sums them all up in one sen- 
tence. " There are among our settlements several small tribes of Indians, 
consisting only of some few families each." Lawson says of them : " Al- 
though their tribes or nations border upon one another, yet you may oft- 
en discern as great an alteration in their features and disposition (he was 
much impressed by the comeliness of the Congaree women) as you can in 
their speech, which generally proves quite different from each other, 
though their nations be not above ten or twenty miles in distance." 

Admitting, however, that these scattered and fragmentary tribes 
equaled in numbers the Cherokees and the Catawbas, there is no data 
for supposing that the total Indian population within the present bound- 
aries of South Carolina could have much exceeded 3000 at the date of 
the early white settlements. 

Accepting Lawson's enumeration (above given) of the Indians of North 
Carolina, and assuming an equal density for them in the two States, there 
would have been 2870 Indians in South Carolina. 

Adopting the maximum estimate of Bancroft and Draper, it would give 
a population of one Indian to five square miles, or 6116 for South Caro- 
lina. In 1750 there were in South Carolina 64,000 whites and negroes, 
so tliat even at this early date immigrants from across the Atlantic ex- 
ceeded the aborigines by more than ten to one. 

By the census of 1881, the number of Indians, chiefly Catawbas, in 
South Carolina, is 131. This statement would seem to confirm the very 
general notion as to the rapid process of decay and extinction among the 



roruLATioN. 309 

Indians. Such A conclusion is, however, by no means warranted, if account 
is taken of the number of Indians removed from the State and residing 
on reservations west of the Mississippi. The Cherokees are there more 
populous and prosperous than ever, and with them are Santees, Senekas, 
and the other small tribes absorbed by them. Furthermore, there is scarce- 
ly a township in the State in which one or more families (chiefly negroes) 
are not found, showing the distinct traces of the Indian descent which 
tliey claim. If such half-breeds numbered 6-10 of one per cent, of the 
present population, there would be as much Indian blood in South Caro- 
lina to-day as at the date of its settlement by the Europeans. The inter- 
mixture of the Indians with the whites and negroes was facilitated by the 
total absence of all moral restraint among their women — there was no 
word for continence in their languages — as Avell as by the remark- 
able lack of sexual initiative on the part of the men, as observed by 
LaAvson and others. In 1758, Anthony Park found a solitary Scotchman 
among the Indians west of the Alleghanies, who had lived there forty 
years and was the father of some seventy cliildren in the nation. One 
hundred such Scotchmen would have transmitted to another generation 
as much Indian blood as was found in Carolina by the first settlers. 

The conclusion from such facts can only be that an inferior race, in a 
condition of absolute savagery, brought into contact with superior races, 
enjoying all the advantages of the highest civilization, has not only not 
dwindled aw^ay and perished, but has fully held its own and perpetuated 
itself. So indestructible is a race of men. 

NEGROES 

were brought to America as earl}' as the year 1503. In 1511 they were 
pronounced by the Spaniards to be more robust and hardy, more capable 
of enduring fatigue, and more patient under servitude than the aborig- 
ines. The labor of one negro was computed as equal to that of four 
Indians. Charles V., in 1516, granted a privilege that was transferred to 
the Genoese merchants, of introducing four thousand Africans to the 
Spanish colonies; and Queen Elizabeth, through her agent. Sir John 
Hawkins, engaged, about 1507, in a lucrative African slave trade with 
these colonies. A Dutch vessel, in 1618, sold part of her cargo of Africans 
to the English colonists on James river, Virginia. The first negroes 
brought to Soutli Carolina were brought by Sir John Yeamans, from the 
Barbadoes, in 1671. The year following, white slaves from England were 
sold in Virginia at £10 apiece, while negro slaves brought there, at the 
same date, from £20 to £25. In 1727, the citizens of South Carolina 
loudly complained of the importation of Africans, both because they 



370 roruLATiON. 

■were Africans, and because they could only be slaves. * The mother 
country, however, persisted in forcing them upon the colony, maintain- 
ing, as late as 1745, that " the African slave trade was the great pillar 
and support of the British plantation trade." 

The negroes were brouglit from the whole western coast of Africa, be- 
tween the Sahara and Caffre land. There is no record of their lineage. 
A single ship would bring emigrants of different nations, and from places 
a thousand miles apart in Africa. They came as strangers to each other ; 
they brought no common language, no abiding usages, no worship, no 
nationality. The admixture of diverse people thus inaugurated, was 
further greatly increased by the numerous and widely remote settlements 
in America among which the negro emigrants were distributed. Never 
in the same space of time was any race so rudely mixed, shaken together 
and sifted out. 

Raynal and Hume compute that, outside of the United States, nine 
millions of Africans were forcibly imported into the various European 
settlements. The present treatise is not concerned with their fate, still it 
may be mentioned, that, of the total import into the British West Indies 
of two millions of Africans, there remained to enjoy the advantages of 
emancipation, in 1834, only six hundred and sixty thousand. 

Nor was this fearful mortality due to climatic causes ; for among the 
British troops in the West Indies, the average annual death rate for the 
whites was 8.81 per cent., and for the negroes, 3.91 per cent. 

The importations of negroes into the United States never approached 
these figures. In Macpherson's Annals of Commerce (Vol.VL, p. 150, et seq.), 
such statements as these are to be found. During the eight months end- 
ing 12th July, 1753, five hundred and eleven negroes were imported into 
Charleston ; fourteen hundred and eighty-two Africans were imported 
into Georgia in the years 1765 and 1766 ; from 1783 to 1787 none were 
brouglit directly from Africa to the United States, but it was estimated 
that three hundred came annually from the West Indies. The slave 
trade was abolished by Act of Congress in 1776, but was reopened for the 
port of Charleston for four years — 1804 to 1807. During this period the 
following numbers of African slaves were imported in two hundred and 
two vessels into Charleston, by citizens of foreign nations and the United 
States, as here given : 



POPULATION. 371 

By English merchants 10,649 

" merchants of Rliode Island 8,238 

" " of other foreign nations 5,177 

" " and planters of Charleston and vicinity 2,006 

of other Northern States 1,400 

of France 1,078 

of other Southern States 687 

Total . • 38,775 

In 1714, there were in all the English colonies, from New Hampshire 
to South Carolina, fifty-eight thousand eight hundred and fifty Africans, 
of wliom it was tliought that about one-half had been imported. H. C. 
Carey, in his work on the slave trade, domestic and foreign, gives the 
following estimate of the numbers of Africans imported subsequent to 
that date : 

Prior to 1714 30,000 

1715 to 1750 90,000 

1751 to 1760 . . . .■ 35,000 

1761 to 1776 74,500 

1771 to 1790 34,000' 

Subsequent to 1790 ... 90,000 

Total 353,500 

By the United States census of 1790, there were 757,208 negroes, which 
would make 464,858, the number of the natural increase. This would be 
for the whole period of seventy-six years, from 1714 to 1790, a natural 
increase upon those already in the country, and imported during that' 
time, of something over one hundred and fifty-eight per cent., or more 
than two per cent, per annum. 

At the date of the emancipation of the negro slaves, which practically 
took place in 1865, they numbered about 4,600,000. Subtracting the 
number imported during this period, viz : 90,000 (a very large estimate), 
and not counting those who emigrated, this gives an increase of 3,752,792, 
or the enormous natural increase in seventy-five years of four hundred 
and forty-two per cent. If there be something repulsive to the delicate- 
minded in this rapid pi'opagation of the human species under slavery, 
perhaps it may be admitted that it were better, as in this case, that twelve 
should be emancipated where one was enslaved, than as in the case of the 



372 



POPULATION. 



Britisli AVest Indies, where the philanthropists only found one to be 
emancipated wliere four had been enslaved. 

But this rapid increase is by no means due to slavery. The free negroes 
increased during slavery even more rapidly, and while their numbers 
were augmented by manumitted slaves, the fact that their increase was 
somewhat the same in the slave, as in the free States, shows that it was 
dependent in a large degree on the birth rate. The numbers are for the 

FREE NEGROES. 





1790 


18G0 .■ 


P. C. Incietist 


United States , . . 


. . 59,527 


488,070 


723 


South Carolina . . 


. . 1,801 


9,914 


450 



The census of 1880 shows that there are 6,580,793 negroes in the United 
States, an increase of 1,980,793, or a natural increase of forty-three per 
cent, during the fifteen years which have elapsed since emancipation. 

Practically, there has been no importation of negroes from foreign coun- 
tries into South Carolina since 1810. By the U. S. Census of that year, 
there were 200,919 negroes in the State. The census of 1880 shows that 
the number has increased to 604,332. But these figures do not show the 
full rate of increase. For in 1880, of negroes born in South Carolina there 
were 93,498 residing in other States, chiefly in Georgia, Mississippi, Ala- 
bama and Florida, in the order here named. On the other hand, there 
were only 15,513 negroes residing in South Carolina, who were born out- 
side of the limits of the State. Showing a nett loss of 77,985 by emigra- 
tion in the negro population. Nor is this loss so great as the one in the 
preceding decade on the same account. By the census of 1870, it appears 
that 97,479 negroes born in South Carolina were living in other States, 
while the negro population of the State was only increased by 7,219, born 
beyond its limits, showing a nett loss of 90,260 in a smaller population 
than that of 1880. 

The extraordinary rate of increase among the negro population is one 
of the most interesting and important questions presented by the race 
problem in America. J. Stahl Patterson, who has made a special study 
of this subject, estimates this rate of increase for the negro race throughout 
the United States has been 33J per cent, for the last decade, while that of 
the native whites at the North was less than 15.7 per cent. Should these 
respective rates of increase continue without interruption, for the next 
century, the negro would outnumber the native Northern whites by 12,- 
000,000, notwithstanding that at the present time the negroes stand six 
and one-half millions to twentv-four and one-half millions of Northern 



POPULATION. 373 

whites. Majorities may not always govern, even under universal suf- 
frage, but they have their importance, and it is interesting to note that 
the competitors in point of increase with the negroes are the Southern 
whites, wliose rate of increase is 30.4 per decade, and immigrants from 
Europe, whose rate of increase here is as great, or greater. 

No effort adequate to even an approximate determination statis- 
tically of the intermixture of the negro and white race, has, as yet, 
been undertaken. The enumeration of mulattos, attempted by the 
census of 18(30 and of 1870, was entirely unsatisfactory, and. in the 
census of 1880, none was attempted. Mr. Patterson, who has given 
attention to the subject, says: "Even now they are no longer negroes. 
One-third has a large infusion of white blood, another third has less, 
but still some, and of the other third it would be diffi-cult to find an 
assured specimen of pure African blood." This is a startling statement, 
but in the absence of statistics, Avho puts it to the test among his negro 
acquaintance, will be surprised at the degree in which it conforms to the 
facts. If the lineage of those negroes whose color and features seem most 
unmistakably to mark them as of purely African descent, be traced, indu- 
bitable evidence may often be obtained of white parentage, more or less 
remote. In such cases it will be noticed that external characteristics are 
by no means invariably associated with internal ones, and that such 
blacks are often more intelligent, and bear morally a closer resemblance 
to the white race than do many bright-colored mulattos. Here, as else- 
where, " in the crossings between unequal human races, the father almost 
invariably belongs to the superior race. In ever}" case, and especially in 
transient amours, woman refuses to lower herself ; man is less delicate." 
{Quatrcfages). 

Thus, whatever advance a race makes, it is the female who preserves and 
perpetuates it. The intermixture of the races being dependent on negro 
mothers will be most rapid and complete where the negro females are in 
excess to the males, and vice versa. In this connection it may be re- 
marked that the number of negro females, in proportion to males, seems 
to have been steadily on the decline in South Carolina since 1850. The 
number of negro females to 100,000 males of that race, as given at the 
following dates, being : 

1850 1860 1S70 1880 

105,290 10-1,192 104,232 102,938 

The last figure is less than tlie ratio of white females to males, which, 
in 1880, is 103,125 to 100,000 males. The proportion of females to males, 
among the negro population, is much greater in some of the Northern 



374 POPULATION. 

States. Thus, in Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania, there were, in 1850, 108,100 females to 
100,000 males in the negro population of these Stajtes ; and in 1880, the 
number is 108,419 females to each 100,000 negro males, 

The centre of the negro population of the United States lies near the 
84 meridian, between the 32 and 33 parallel north latitude, a few miles to 
southeast of Macon, Georgia. On the same meridian, but some 600 miles 
to the north, lies the centre of the foreign born population of the United 
States, between the cities of Toledo and Detroit. The foreign born ex- 
ceeds the negro population by only about 100,000, each being in the neigh- 
borhood of 6| millions. On the same meridian again, and between the 
two centres named, is found at a point in Kentucky, a short distance 
southwest of Cincinnati, the centre of the aggregate j^opulation of the 
United States ; since 1790 this centre has moved westward from the city 
of Baltimore along the 39 parallel of latitude, a distance of 457 miles. 
The wide divergence of these two well marked and nearly equal streams 
of population, the European and the African, while making the same pro- 
gress westward during so considerable a period of time, might naturally be 
taken to indicate that it was a result of natural and insurmountable cli- 
matic and geographical conditions. Between these poles the greater prox- 
imity by 200 miles of the aggregate population to the northern one, in 
consequence of the sympathy of Christendom with the European immi- 
grants, and race prejudice against the African, have confirmed this 
plausible but superficial view, and given rise to many wide spread and 
erroneous impressions, regarding the unsuitableness of the Southern 
section of the United States as a home for the Caucasian race. It 
has come to be regarded as a low, wet, marshy, malarial region, fitted 
for the negro and cotton culture, and owing to these, as it were acci- 
dental features, its chief importance. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that before the advent of negroes, and long before any importance 
attached to cotton, wealthy Englishmen, with the whole country open 
to them, well informed as to its climate and resources, after two centuries 
of explorations, made choice of South Carolina as the locality best 
adajjted for the material development of an English colony. The 
Northern and Middle States were colonized by political and religious 
refugees, or by persons of peculiar social views. The South was chosen as 
a land of promise for those who sought to increase their fortunes, and es- 
tablish a people under conditions most favorable for their development. 
This is not the place to discuss the adventitious circumstances which have 
favored the mis-impressions here referred to ; such, for instance, as the 
changes in the art of navigation, which opened the most direct and speedy 
communication between the nearest points of Europe and America, in 



POPULATION. 375 

spite of ocean winds and currents, whereas the sailing vessels of a 
hundred years ago found their easiest route from Europe even to New- 
York, to he by Charleston. But the relation of the population to climatic 
and topographical conditions, as given by the 10th United States Census, 
will show that these are not rea-l hinderances to the peopling of the South 
with greater numbers of tlie Caucasian race. For while it appears that 
the African race does not thrive outside of certain climatic limits, these 
limits include nothing injurious to the Caucasian race It will be noted 
that the percentage of negroes diminishes in low temperatures 
and that it also diminishes in high temperatures, and that in both 
cases where the negroes decrease in numbers the percentage of for- 
eign born Caucasians increase. It would seem that the more temperate 
and genial climate and the most fertile soils, having been fir.st occupied by 
Africans, European immigrants, mfluenced by prejudice against the insti- 
tution of slavery, which has passed away, and b}" prejudice against a race 
which, as has been shown, has greatly changed, and is in process of still 
greater changes, have settled on less favored soils, under greater extremes 
of climate. 

The following table shows the distribution of the population in eleva- 
tion above the sea level, according to the 10th Census. 

PERCENTAGE OF 

Foreign. Aggregate. Xegro. 

Below 100 ft 28.31 18.25 22.28 

Between 100 and 1000 ft . 40.07 59.41 70.85 

Above 1000 ft 31.62 22.34 6.87 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

Here the negro population occupies the medium elevations, while a 
larger percentage of foreigners occupy low lands or greater elevations. 
The largest percentage of the aggregate population is also found at the 
same elevations with the negro population. And in each instance, ex- 
cept as to extreme elevations, the distribution of the negroes more closely 
approaches that of the aggregate than the foreign does. 

In South Carolina 27 per cent, of the negro population is below 100 ft. 
and of this number one-third is immediately on the coast, and not exceed- 
ing 40 ft. above the sea level. The remaining two-thirds who live below 100 
ft. are thinly scattered over a wide region. It appears that each population 
falls off between an elevation 100 and 500 feet. Owing doubtless to 
the fact that these elevations, more than others, need drainage to render 



376 



POPULATION. 



them suitable for human habitation. Between 500 and 1000 ft. 43 per 
cent, of the negro population of South Carolina is found just where the 
largest percentage of the foreign and the aggregate pojiulation are located 
in the country at large. 

The mean annual temperature of South Carolina varies from 50° in 
the mountains to CA° on the seaboard. Within this range of temperature 
is found fifty-four per cent, of the aggregate j)opulation of the United 
States. 

The following table shows the distribution of the foreign, aggregate 
and colored populations in accordance with the mean annual temperature: 

PERCENTAGES OF VEGETABLE PRODUCTS 

Foreign. Aggregate. Negro. of the regions. 

Below 40° 1.30 1. 0.03 Wheat. 

40° to 50° . . . . 53.G6 37. 3.67 Corn. 

50° to 60° . . . . 40.03 44. 36.52 Tobacco. 

00° to 70° 4.10 17. 57.42 Cotton, Rice, Sugar. 

Above 70° 91 1. 2.36 Tropical Fruits. 

100.00 100.00 100.00 

Both the foreign and the aggregate population are distributed over a 
wider range of mean annual temperatures than the negro. The lower 
temperatures are doubtless not favorable to the latter, if indeed they are 
to any, but they occupy a temperate climate, and one that yields to the 
agriculturist the largest variety of the most profitable crops, with a 
mean annual temperature similar to the region reported to have been the 
birth-place and cradle of the human race. 

The distribution of the population according to the midsummer tem- 
perature, or the mean of July as the hottest month, is : 



percentages of 
Foreign. Aggregate. Negro. 

Below 60° 1.63 1. 0.02 

60° to 70° 17.27 12. 5.44 

70° to 85° 80.69 87. 94.35 

Above 85° 0.41 0. 0.19 

100.00 100.00 100.00 

Here again the bulk of the population forms the mean between the 
negro and the foreign, and the latter has a wider distribution, especially 
as to the extremes of high and low temperatures. 



POPULATION. 377 

The distribution of the popuhition according to Avinter temperature, or 
the mean temperature of January, taken as the coklest month, is as 
follows : 

PERCENTAGES OF 

Foreign. Aggregate. Netiro. 

Below 10° 1.80 1. 0.01 

10° to 30° G3.94 50. 5.39 

30° to 50° 29.1G 44. 82.58 

Above 50° 5.10 5. 12.02 

100.00 100.00 100.00 

Here again the negro has a more restricted distribution in the more 
temperate regions than the foreigner, whose percentages exceed those of 
the aggregate in the extremes of both heat and cold. 

The distribution of the population according to the greatest observed 
heat is as follows : 

PERCENTAGES OF 

Foreign. Aggregate. Negro. 

Below 90° 3.59 ^ 0. 0.07 

90° to 105° 91.87 94. 96.53 

Above 105° 4.54 6. 3.40 

100.00 100.00 100.00 

The extreme high temperatures here referred to are much more fre- 
quent at the North than at the South, and the result is shown by the 
numerous deaths from sunstroke at the North every summer. Such heat 
does occur at rare intervals at the' South, and it is equally as fatal here, 
as witness the deaths in Charleston in June, 1876, when the hottest day 
in more than a century occurred. 

The' distribution under the extremes of cold observed is : 

PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION. 

Foreigners. Aggregate. Colored. 

Below — 45° 0.09 0. 

—45° to 10° 92.52 80. 33.88 

10° to 20° ..... , 4.53 19. 66.00 

Above 20° 2.86 1. 0.12 

100.00 100.00 100.00 

The remarks made regarding other climatic conditions apply here also ; 
the negroes occupy the medium and temperate regions, the aggregate 
population comes next, and on the outside, in the extremes, are the 
foreign born. 
25 



378 POPULATION. 

Distribution of population in conformity to the annual rainfall, Table 1, 
and to the summer rainfall, Table 2. 

Table 1st — i>ercextage of 

Foreign. Aggregate. Negro, 

Below 30 in 12.89 0.08 0.38 

30 in. to 45 in. . . . 54.55 52.57 17.14 

45 in. to 60 in. . . .81.54 89.65 76.88 

Above 60 in 1.02 1.70 5.60 



WO.OO 100.00 100.00 

Table 2d — percextage of 

Foreign. Atrgregate. Negro. 

Below 13° 5.86 2.89 0.20 

15° to 25° 87.83 76.18 38.47 

25° to 35° 6.29 20.77 60.76 

Above 35° 0.02 0.16 0.57 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

It is to be borne in mind that where the annual rainfall is less than 
twenty-five inches, or the summer rainfall, that i's the rainfall during the 
crop season, does not reach fifteen inches, agriculture cannot be conducted 
profitably except by irrigation. And of course the irrigation afforded by 
streams traversing such regions must be so limited that a large agricultural 
population can take no foothold there, hi these arid regions the bulk of 
the population is foreign, and engage little in agricultural pursuits. With 
regard to rainfall, as with the other factors of climate, the percentage of 
negroes is greatest where the conditions are most favorable for the sup- 
port of the human race ; the aggregate j^opulation have the next choice, 
and the foreigners again fall upon less favored regions. AMiile the negroes 
occupy regions of abundant rainfall, this rainfall is nowhere excessive, 
nor does it produce an 'atmosphere saturated with moisture. The porous 
character of the soils of South Carolina, through which the water, not neces- 
sary for vegetation, readily disappears, and the large number of cloudless 
days make mist and fog, mildew and rust, a rare occurrence, so that even 
in areas of the heaviest rainfall the relative humidity of the atmosphere 
is similar to, but even less than that of the most noted health resorts of 
the world. (See Sand Hill Region Climate.) 

Within the State of South Carolina the distribution of the negro popu- 
lation does not appear to have been determinately influenced by climatic 
or topographical conditions. They still prej^onderate most largely along 
the southern and south-western borders of the State, where they were first 



POPULATION. 370 

cofcnized. Hence they have spread over irreguhir areas, maintaining in 
them their preponderance even to the northern boundaries of the State. 
The areas thus successively occupied by them are those where cotton cul- 
ture has been the leading pursuit. They are characterized by a light soil, 
of easy culture, yielding a crop readily and directly convertible into cash, 
requiring no fore-cast as to drainage and fallows, and no complex combi- 
nations of the areas to be directed to tillage and pasturage, to grain and 
cattle. Their minimum percentage to the other population is found in 
Horry county, upon the southeastern seaboard of the State and diagonally 
across the State from this locality, among the mountains in the northwest. 
While three or four lines, where the white population predominates, cross 
the entire State in a north and south direction. 

The rate of increase of the negro population from 1790 to 1860 was 
much slower in those counties in which they were originally the 
most numerous — in Beaufort, Charleston, Georgetown and Colleton. 
Here their numbers were barely doubled during this period, while they 
were being quadrupled in the State at large. They seemed to have reached 
their maximum then, and were on the decline. This was most marked in 
the case of Charleston county. Here, in 1790, they numbered 34,846, in 
1830 they were 65,534, and then steadily declined to 40,822 in 1860. 

Since 1860 the increase has been pretty uniform. Charleston has re- 
gained her losses, and reached and passed her maximum of 1830, num- 
bering now 71,808, but the other counties which were earliest most 
thickly peopled with this race still lag behind, and Beaufort, Colleton 
and Georgetown continue to show considerable losses, while the increase 
of the upper country has been large. This is the more notable, as this 
region where these losses have accrued is the very one thought best 
adapted to the African, being low, wet and warm. 

The geographical indefiniteness of the census of 1870 docs not allow 
the movements of the colored population during the last decade to be 
traced with precision. The following table gives the nearest approximation 
that could be obtained to the facts in this regard. 

PERCENTAGE OF COLORED IN TOT.VL POPULATION'. 

1870. IBSO Increase Decrease. 

Alpine Region 23 27 3 * 

Piedmont Region 49 56 7 * 

Sand and Red Hills 61 56 * 5 

Upper Bine Belt m 59 * 7 

Lower Pine Belt 67 70 3 

Coast Region ....••. 90 84 * 6 



380 ropuLATiox. 

These figures show no tendency of the colored population to sepai^te 
from the aggregate population and to become localized. On the contrary, 
the coast region, where they have preponderated for generations, where 
they own more property than elsewhere, where they have retained 
undisputed control in political affairs, and where, in fine, every condition 
seems most favorable to promote, developc and maintain colored predom- 
inance, exhibits a marked decrease in their percentage of the population. 
At the same time in the Alpine and Piedmont regions, where their num- 
bers have always been smaller, an increase appears whicli more than com- 
pensates for the decrease on the coast. Such fluctuations seem rather to 
indicate that the colored race has a tendency to mix with the white pop- 
ulation in certain limited proportions. This opinion gathers force by 
considering their ratio in the towns as compared with what it is in the 
rural districts in the differe^t sections of the State. Thus, while the 
negroes form 86 per cent, of the rural population of Charleston (old), 
Beaufort and Georgetown counties, they only form 56 per cent, of the pop- 
ulation of the towns themselves. And in the Piedmont region, while they 
are only 35 per cent, of the rural population of Greenville and Spartan- 
burg counties, they form 45 per cent of the population of the towns. 
Of the 739 towns of the united counties having a population of 4,000 
and upwards, only eight are without a colored population. Only three, 
however, in all this number, viz : Newbern and AVilmington, N. C., and 
Danville, Va , have a colored population that reaches sixty per cent., a 
percentage quite common among the rural population. 

The rapidly augmenting and more mobile populations of the towns 
may thus indicate what is to be the general tendency in the pro- 
portions of the races that where negroes are in excess of 56 per cent, they 
w^ill diminish, and where they are less than 45 per cent, they will increase 
in presence of the white race. It is at least more probable that the final 
result will be determined by some law like this, and not by any wholesale 
movement on the part of either race. For the exodus of negroes to the 
northwest api^ears, in the light of the late census, to have amounted to 
nothing, just as their much talked of return to Africa from Charleston 
a few years since did. Mississippi, Louisiana and North Carolina, whence 
the emigrations took place, show large gains in their colored population ; 
while Kansas and Iowa, whither these emigrants went, have actually lost 
in the relative proportion of the black to the white population. But 
while a movement in mass of the negro population has not and may 
never take place, the indications that their general diffusion is progress- 
ing rapidly are well marked. They are now present in greater or less 
number in every State and Territory, and are increasing most rapidly 
where formerly they were fewest. The northern and western non-slave- 



POrULATION. 381 

holding States had less than six per cent, of the negro population of 18G0, 
but they have nearly ten per cent, of the much larger negro poi)ulation 
of 1880; and while the increase during this period was only forty-eight 
per cent, for the whole country, it was one hundred and twenty-five per 
cent, for this region. 

Contrary, then, to the many theories on this subject, the fticts, up to 
this date, point decidedly to a general dissemination of the negro race. 
To say that they are not adapted to -these northern and western latitudes, 
and that they will only go there to be destroyed by the severity of the 
climate, is, to use an argument that has no general application to the 
great movements of mankind. Even now, the foreigners avIio go to 
those same regions, suffer fearfully from the severity of the climate, as 
shown by their death rate (see page 377) ; nevertheless, they continue 
to go. 

The negro in South Carolina is performing a fair share of physical 
labor, but left to himself he is without initiative and is well content to do 
little work and to reap small profits. They are of temperate habits, and 
drunkenness and gluttony are rare among them. Without the more 
robust virtues or vices of the white race, they are cheerful, pleasant tem- 
pered and inoffensive. If they suffered grievous wrongs during slavery, 
as has been so widely asserted, with every opportunity and incitement 
from outsiders to do so, they have shown no disposition to take revenge 
upon their former masters. The personal relations between the two races 
continue most friendly, and perhaps no where in the world and at no 
time in its history, has such easy, considerate, kind and respectful inter- 
course subsisted between employer and employee, as between the Southern 
white man and the negro. 

EUROPEANS 

1497 derived their first knowledge of South Carolina from Sebastian 
Cabot, an English subject, who visited these coasts shortly after 
the discovery of the new world. 

1520 D'Ayllon, in quest of gold and slaves, landed on St. Helena island, 
gave it its name, and claimed the country for Spain. 

1562 Admiral Coligny sends a colony of French Huguenots, in two 
small vessels, to Port Royal ; a settlement of twenty-six persons is 
made there ; but the following year they build a vessel and return 
to France, leaving to the country only its name, Caroline, after 
their king, Charles IX., and a small fort. 

1G29 The country is granted to Sir Robert Heath by Charles I. of 
England, under the name of Carolina. 



382 POPULATION. 

1GG3 Charles II. of England grants the country to certain English 
noblemen, stjded the Absolute Lords and Proprietors of Carolina. 

1670 The proprietors, at an expenditure of £12,000, send out two small 
vessels, under Capt. Wm.'Sajde, to Beaufort. This colony removes 
the next year to Ashley river, and a few years later occupy the 
present site of Charleston, and form the first permanent white 
settlement in South Carolina. 

The proprietors offer to all immigrants lands at £20 per one 
thousand acres ; Avhere cash could not be paid, an annual rent of 
one penny per acre was required. For the first five years every 
freeman was offered one hundred acres, and every servant fifty 
acres, at an annual rent not exceeding half penny per acre. 

1671 The proprietors grant land to a colony from the Barbadoes, 
under Sir John Yeamans. 

1674 The ^proprietors furnish two small vessels to remove a Dutch 

colony from Nova Belgia (New York) to John's island, whence 

they spread into the surrounding country. 
1679 Charles II. provides at his own expense two small vessels to 

transport foreign Protestants, chiefly French Huguenots, to 

Charleston. 
1696 Members of a Congregational church, with Mr. Joseph Lord, 

their pastor, remove in a body from Dorchester, Massachusetts, 

to the neighborhood of Charleston. 
1701 According to Dr. Hewitt, the population of South Carolina 

is seven thousand. It consists of a medley from many countries, 

and of different faiths. There are Cavaliers and Puritans from 

England, Dissenters from Scotland, Dutchmen from New York, 

French Huguenots, and Africans. 
1712 The Assembly of South Carolina offer £1-1 to the " owners and 

importers " of each healthy male British servant, between the ages 

of twelve and thirty years, " not a criminal." 
1715 Five hundred Irish immigrate at their own expense to occupy 

the lands from which Yemassee the Indians have been driven, 

but finding them laid out in liaronies for the Lords Proprietors, 

most of them remove to the North. 

1718 The Lords Proprietors, having advanced £18,000 to' the settlers, 
refuse to furnish additional supplies, and when asked for cattle, 

' reply that " they wished not to encourage graziers, but planters." 

1719 The proprietors sell their right and interest in the soil and gov- 
ernment of Carolina to the king, for £17,500, and an additional 
£5,000 for the quit rents, over due by the colonists. 

172-4 According to Dr. Hewitt, the population is thirty-two thousand. 



POPULATION. 383 

1730 The colonial government marks out eleven townships of twenty 
thousand acres each, and offer fifty acres, rent free for ten years, to 
every man, woman and child who would come over to occupy 
them. After that period a rental of four shillings per one hundred 
acres was to be paid annually. 

1731 The government offers Peter Pury £400 for every one hundred 
effective men brought over from Switzerland. Three hundred and 
seventy arrive, and are granted forty thousand acres on the lower 
Savannah river, at Purysburg. (Full fare across the ocean at this 
time is £5 for immigrants.) 

1733 The Scotch-Irish descendants of the Scotch Covenanters, from 
Downe county, Ireland, settle Williamsburg county, named after 
King William III. 

1735 A colony of Germans settle in Orangeburg county, wliich is 
named after the Prince of Orange. 

173G The Assembly grants a large tract of land on the Pee Dee to 
Welsh settlers from Pennsylvania. 

1739 The council appropriate £6,000 as a bounty to the first two hun- 
dred immigrants (above twelve years of age, two under to count 
as one over that age) from Wales, settling upon the Welsh tract on 
the Pee Dee. They offered in addition to each head above twelve 
•years, twelve bushels corn, one barrel of beef, fifty pounds pork, 
one hundred poinds rice, one bushel salt, and to each male one 
axe, one broad hoe, one cow and calf, and one young sow. 

1746 After the battle of Culloden many of the Scotch rebels were 
removed to South Carolina. 

1750 Saxe Gotha township (Lexington county) was laid off and occu- 
pied by settlers from Saxe Gotha, Germany. In the same year a 
colony of Quakers from Ireland settle Camden (Kershaw county). 

1755 Governor Glenn opens the upper-country for settlement by a 
treaty he makes with the Cherokee Indians, obtaining from them 
the cession of a large tract of territory, and by erecting in the 
Northwest (Pickens county) Fort Prince George. 

1760 After Braddock's defeat, numbers of Pennsylvanians and Vir- 
ginians, feeling insecure on account of the Indians, move overland 
to the upper-country of South Carolina. 

1764 King George furnishes £300, tents, one hundred and fifty stand 
of arms and two small vessels, to a colony of Germans, who receive, 
on reaching Charleston, £500 from the Assembly, and are assigned 
lands in Londonderry township (Edgefield county). 

1764 Two hundred and twelve French Protestants reach Charleston, 
and are furnished transportation to Long Cane, Abbeville county, 
where they settle New Bordeaux township. 



384 

1705 

1783 



POPULATION. 

Population according to Hewit : white, 38,000; colored, 85,000; 
total, 123,000. 

The war of independence being achieved, " multitudes from 
Europe and the Eastern and Middle States of America moved into 
South Carolina. " 



Such, in brief, were the various and numerous peoples who contributed 
to the early colonization of South Carolina. The first permanent settle- 
ment had for its motive the ambition of certain wealthy English noble- 
men. In the hope of increasing their power and wealth, they offered 
lands, transportation, and bounties to all adventurers ; offers not unac- 
ceptable to the crowded populations of Europe, who had fallen heirs to 
religious, social and political oppressions as their sole legacy. Afterwards 
colonization was promoted by direct trade with England, by European 
wars and persecutions, by military disasters in the Northern States, by 
largesses offered to settlers by the local government, and last, but above 
all, by the successful issue of the war of independence, which opened this 
country to the oppressed of all nations. 

The following table shows the population of South Carolina and of the 
United States for each census, from 1790 to 1880 : 



United States. 


South Carolina. 






2 
a* 


o 






P 
cr' 






•'-' 'Jl 


m 


-^ 






GQ 


■^ S ^ ^• 


('ENSUS 




1 u a5 


'^ 






;-. d 


O -r-l ^ !D 




; . k— ^ 


S 2 ^ 


»— ' 






© '^ 


O c3 O o3 


YEAR. 


<'% 


_o 


^^ 


o^ 






^P, 






^ 2 


rii 




Cm 


d 


n3 




a o 






-♦-i ^ . 


^ 


■Ji 


■"^ 


-►J 


o 


cn 




o 






^ 




^O 


• r-- 


3 


Q 
8.2 


O 




1790 . . 


239,935 


3,929,214 


16.4 


249,073 


140,178 


108,805 


.06 




1800 . . 


305,708 


5,308,483 


17.4 


345,591 


196,255 


149,336 


11.5 


.06 


38.7 


1810.. 


407,945 


7,239,881 


17.71 


415,115 


214,196 
237,440 


200,919 


13.8 


.05 


20.1 


1820 . . 


508,717 


9,633,822 


18.9 


502,741 


265,301 


16.7 


.05 


21.1 


1830 . . 


632,717 


12,866,020 


20.3 


581,185 


257,863 323,322 


19.3 


.04 


15.6 


1840. . 


807,292 


17,069,453 


21.1 


594,398 


259,084 335,314 


19.7 


.03 


2.2 


1850 . . 


979,249 


23,191,876 


25.7 


668,507 


274,563 393,944 


22.2 


.03 


12.4 


1860 . . 


1,194,754 


31,443,321 


26.3 


703,708 


291,300,412,320 


23.3 


.02 


5.2 


1870 . . 


1,272,239 


38,558,371 


30.3 


705,706 


289,667 


415,814 


25.3 


.OlA 


0.2 


1880. . 


1,569,570 


50,155,783 


32. 


995.577 


391,105,604,332 


32.9 


.01A41. 



PERCENTAGE OF THE INCREASE 

At Each Census, from 1790 to 1880, of the Population of South 
Carolina, represented Graphically. 




1790 



1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 

PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE OF THE AGGREGATE POPULATION. 
PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE OF THE WHITE POPULATION. 
PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE OF THE COLORED FREE POPULATION. 
PERCENTAGE OF INCREASE OF THE COLOREO SLAVE POPULATION. 



1880 



POPULATIOX, 



385 



Percentage, of Increase of the Population of South Carolina from 1790 to 1880. 





Period. 


White. 


Colored. 


Totals. 




Free. 


Slave. 


South 
Carolina. 


States 
of the 
Union. 


1 

2 

o 
o 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 
9 


1790 to 1800 . . 
1800 to 1810 . . 
1810 to 1820 . . 
1820 to 1830 . . 
1830 to 1840 . . 
1840 to 1850 . . 
1850 to 1860 . . 
1860 to 1870 . . 
1870 to 1880 . . 


40.00 
9.14 

10.85 
8.06 
0.47 
5.97 
6.05 
(«) 55 

35.01 


76.84 
42.98 
49.89 
16.04 

448 

8.26 

10.64 

00 

45 


36.46 
34.35 
31.62 
22.02 

3.68 
17.71 

4.52 

87 

.33 


38.75 

20.12 

21.11 

15.06 

2.27 

12.47 

5.2 

0.2 

41.0 


34.66 
36.30 
33.11 
33.53 
32.74 
35.38 
35.57 
22.22 
29.50 



(a) Decrease. 

THE INCREASE OF THE POPULATION 

of South Carolina from 1790 to 1800 was greater that it has been at any 
subsequent period prior to the census of 1880. The increase for that de- 
cade was much greater than for the country at large, and there were only 
five out of all the States, at that date, that were making a more rapid 
growth than South Carolina. The second decade — the one during which 
the slave trade was temporarily reopened at Charleston — showed a large 
diminution in the rate of increase ; it went down sixteen per cent, below 
that of the country at large, and from fifth, the State fell to eleventh in the 
order of increase. The third decade showed a slight improvement, and 
South Carolina stood thirteenth among the twenty-four States of that 
date in order of increase. In the fourth decade the decrease continued ; 
twenty States had a larger growth, and South Carolina was increasing at 
a rate less than half of that at which the country at large was growing 
in population. The fifth decade was marked in South Carolina by the 
nullification agitation ; the rate of increase fell enormously. While the 
country at large maintained nearly the same rate as at the outset, the 
rate here was only one-seventeenth of what, it had been in 1800, and 
South Carolina stood last of all the States, at this date, except one— Dela- 
ware. There was a marked improvement between 1840-50, the rate of 
increase being nearly six times as great as in the preceding decade. 



386 POPULATION. 

Nevertheless, South Carolina was again lowest, except the "States of 
Vermont and New Hampshire, and the very erroneous opinion was en- 
tertained in some quarters that, like those States, she had about reached 
the limit of the population that her soil would sustain. The next de- 
cade opened with the first secession agitation ; there was a still lower 
rate of increase, and South Carolina still stood behind all the States ex- 
cept Vermont and New Hampshire. Then came the sixth decade, of 
war and reconstruction ; the political and social doctrines at variance 
with the publfc opinion of all Christendom came to an open rupture, and 
were submitted to the arbitrament of the sword. The increase of the 
population was less than one per cent. ; among the whites there was an 
actual decrease of one-half of one per cent., and South Carolina was 
behind all the States but Maine. The dust has scarcely lightened from 
the ruin wrought bv this great overthrow than a new South Carolina 
appears, more vigorous than ever. The census of 18S0 shows that, from 
next to last, she has advanced above twenty-nine of her sister States, and 
stands eighth in the order of increase of the population. For the ninth 
decade her increase is forty-one per cent. — higher than it ever was — and 
more than one-third more than that of the country at large. One of the 
most remarkable features of this increase is, that it is not due, to any 
very large extent, to immigration, but chiefly to the large degree in 
which the migration of her natives to other States has ceased. 

The obvious parallelism between the changes of the aggregate popula- 
tion and those of each of its constituent elements, indicates most clearly 
that here there has been no distinctive antagonism of the races and con- 
ditions of men. Slave insurrections and the dread of them have been 
much dwelt on. In reality, they have amounted to nothing. Only two 
are recorded in a period of more than two hundred years. In 1740, a mob 
of drunken negroes, supposed to have been incited thereto by hostile 
Spaniards, marched a distance of fifteen miles, murdering two clerks in 
a warehouse and Mr. Godfrey and his family. They were attacked by 
the congregation of a small country church at Willtown, who at once 
dispersed them without suffering any loss. In 1821, some negroes (34) 
were hanged in Charleston on what was held to be evidence of a con- 
spiracy to excite a slave insurrection. The Hamburg and Ellenton 
riots, in 1876, resulted in seventeen homicides, with, possibly, an equal 
number for all the election conflicts during reconstruction ; and were all 
the casualties resulting from the contests of the whites and negroes in 
South Carolina during the whole history of the State counted, the num- 
ber would not ec[ual that of the agrarian outrages reported in a single 
year in Ireland. For ninety years the increase of the white And colored 
population of the State has moved on parallel lines, with only two ex- 



POPULATION. 387 

ceptions. The variable element in each of these exceptions has been the 
slave population, which, in 1820 and in 18G0, diminished, while the 
white and free colored were augmenting their rate of increase. 

The variations are not great, and were, probably, due to the movement 
of slaves in larger numbers, at these dates, to the fresh lands of the 
Southwest. No such variations appear between the rate of increase of 
the whites and the free colored. With the facts as they presented them- 
selves in 1860, it is remarkable that, in view of the uniformly greater 
rate of increase of the free colored population, that the Superintendent 
of the seventh census should have ventured to predict the disappearance 
of the negro race as the probable consequence of emancipation. It is 
noteworthy, regarding these predictions of the census ofhce, made during 
the war, that, while the white population of 1880 in the United States 
falls fifteen per cent, short of the figure it was thought it would reach, 
the colored population reaches within one-half of one per cent, of the 
number it was estimated at. This prediction was based on the estimate 
that the colored race would increase at the rate of 22.07 per cent, in each 
decade, a rate of increase that is less that the least recorded at any date 
for the aggregate population of the United States. In as much as the 
increase of the colored race has fallen short, in the last two decades, of 
even this moderate figure, the fears that have been expressed by certain 
scientific writers, that their numbers would attain proportions threaten- 
ing the suj)remacy of the white race, are evidently without foundation 
in fact. 

The wonderful recuperation in the rate of increase of the population 
of South Carolina within the last decade, after seventy years of steady 
decline in that rate, and so immediately after the final and overwhelm- 
ing catastrophe of the decade of 1860 to 1870, makes it plain that the 
limit of the natural resources of the State for sustaining a large popula- 
tion has not only not been reached, but that these resources may be said 
to be almost untouched. If the drainage basin of the Santee river, the 
river of Carolina, were peopled as thickly as the basin of the Hudson or 
the Delaware, instead of a population of three hundred thousand, it 
would hold one of more than two and one-half millions. In natural ad- 
vantages, whether the amount of navigable highway be considered, or 
the power its waters could furnish for stationary machinery, and the 
facility with which it might be utilized, or the healthfulness of the cli- 
mate, or the fertility of the soil and the diversified crops it can produce 
—in any and all these regards the river of Carolina will compare favor- 
ably with the others named. If the State were as thickly settled as 
Rhode Islai 1 and Massachusetts, it would contain a population of seven 
to eight millions, a number equal to the population of the entire United 



3S8 POPULATION. 

States in 1810, more than double that of Scotland, and more than twice 
the population of Australia, now paying annually ninety millions of 
dollars interest to England on loans of English capital invested there. 
Meanwhile, ten thousand square miles of the most fertile region of Caro- 
lina does not to-day average as many inhabitants to the square mile as 
are to be found in each house of the old town of Edinburg. Practically, 
therefore, in these regards, the natural advantages and capacities of South 
Carolina may be said to be unlimited. "Whatever her future increase 
may be, it will suffer no let or hindrance on these accounts, but will de- 
pend upon the degree in which she can succeed in establishing and 
maintaining cordial relations with the other States and nations ol Chris- 
tendom. Freed finally and forever from all that in the past has so 
heavil}" shackled their intercourse with outsiders, the polity of her people 
has taken a new and vigorous departure ; they have thrown their gates 
wide open to all comers ; aid and welcome is extended to immigrants ; 
manufacturers are encouraged b}^ relieving the capital invested in them 
from taxation, and their traditional doctrines of free trade would admit 
all people to their commerce. 

MOVEMENT OF THE POPULATION. 

The first settlements took place along the seacoast, thence, slowly mov- 
ing inland, they followed the rivers. There were settlers in the 
upper-countr}^ as early as 1736, but no great progress was made there 
until the middle of the eighteenth century. Meanwhile there remained, 
as there is now and has been during all the movements of population in 
the State, a vacant or thinly-settled belt between the upper and the lower 
country. The State is this day traversed by two such belts of thinly- 
settled country, the sand hill region and the flat lands of the lower pine 
belt. The first is comparatively narrow, and is due to the dry and sandy 
soil which unfits it, in large measure, for the present methods of agricul- 
ture. The other is due to the want of drainage, which, with the accession 
of wealth, will be remedied, and an extensive and fertile region will be 
opened to settlers. 

The Indians were, perhaps the most mobile of all the populations that 
have inhabited South Carolina. Nevertheless, there is everywhere and 
always a continual movement of the population in progress. Even in 
England and Scotland, where the populati^jn might be considered " to 
the manor born," it has been found that only a little over seventy-five 
per cent, were living in the counties where they were b orn. If for coun- 
ties, States are substituted, about the same percentage obtains for the 
United States, a little more than seventy -six per cent, of the native popu- 




-I o 



U U U 111 



5 


S 


S 


< 


UJ 


u 


III 


o 


<r 


rr 


rr 


<n 


< 


< 


< 


u 

I 
1- 


o 


:o 


-) 


or 


r» 


nr 


(/J 


CO 


CO 


111 


ul 


III 


o 


T 


I 


T 




1- 


1- 


1- 


q: 


O 


O 


n 


UJ 

> 

o 


1- 


H 


H 


co 


co 


cn 





OQ OQ CO •" 



z z r t 



o o 
I- h- 

U3 CO 



POPULATION. 



389 



lation being found in the States in which they were born, according to 
the census of 1880. This percentage, however, varies widely in tlie dif- 
ferent States. In Vermont, only fifty-eight per cent, of those born there 
were found remaining in their native State. In Texas, on the other 
hand, this percentage was ninety-five, as given, in both instances, by the 
census of 1880. For South Carolina it is eighty per cent., and only 
fourteen out of thirty-eight States retain more of their native population 
than she does. The fluctuations that have occurred in this regard will 
be seen by reference to the following data, taken from the returns of the 
United States census for the years specified : 

Movement of the Population of South Carolina in the United States, and from 

other Countries. 




1860 



Persons born in S. C. living in the U. S. 
Persons born in S. C. living in S. C. . , 
Loss by movement within the U. S. . . 

Population of S. C 

Gain by immigration from all quarters . 
Balance of emigration over immisration. 



470,257 
276,868 
193,389, . . . 
291,S00'412,408 
14,432: . . . 
178,957[ . . . 



703,708 



1870 



Persons born in S. C. living in the U. S. 
Persons born in S. C. living in S. C. . . 
Loss by movement within the U. S. . .. 

Population of S. C. . 

Gain by immigration from all c{uarters . 
Balance of emigration over immigration. 



418,875 505,899 
270,301408,407 
148,574 97,492 
290,067 415,938 



19,766 

128,809 



17,531! 
79,961 



924,774 

678,708 
246,066 
700,005 
37,297 
208,770 



1880 



Persons born in S. C. living in the U. S. 
Persons born in S. C. living in S. C. . . 
Loss by movement within the U. S. . . 

Population of S. C 

Gain by immigration from all quarters. 
Balance of emigration over immigration. 



500,994 682,8174,183,311 
363,5761588,819 952,395 
137,418j 93,498 230,916 
391,105^604,472 995,577 
27,5291 15,653 43,182 
109,889 77,845 187,734 



390 



POPULATION. - 

Percentage of the Population at each Decade. 



Year. 




1^ 


Colored. 


< 

O 


1860 


Born in S. C. and residing in other States. 
Coming into S. C. from all quarters . . 
Balance of emigration over immigration. 


.66 
.04 
.61 






Born in S. C. and residing in other States. 

1870 ,Coming into S. C. from all quarters . . 

Balance of emigration over immigration. 


.51 

.06 
.44 


.23 

.04 
.19 


.34 

.05 

.28 


1880 


Born in S. C. and residing in other States. 
Coming into S. C. from all quarters . . 
Balance of emigration over immigration. 


.35 .15 
.07 .02 
,28 .13 

1 


.23 
.04 
.17 



There can be no doubt as to the significance of these figures. The 
immense losses the State has hitherto sustained in the migration of her 
natives to other States, is rapidly lessening, especially as regards the 
white population. Natives of South Carolina are found in every State 
and Territory of the Union, not excepting Alaska. They are met with 
in the largest number in the following States, varying in the order here 
named, from 50,000 to 11,000: Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, 
Florida, North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee. Natives of each 
State and Territory of the Union, except Alaska and Washington Terri- 
tory, are found in South Carolina ; the largest number are from North 
Carolina, 17,297; Georgia, 7,641; Virginia, 4,158; New York, 1,070. 
There are, also, among the citizens of South Carolina, natives of each of 
the following countries: Africa, Asia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, 
Bohemia, Canada, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, British 
America, Central America, China, Cuba, ' Denmark, France, Baden, 
Bavaria, Brunswick, Hamburg, Hanover, Hessen, Mecklenburg, Nassau, 
Oldenburg, Prussia, Saxony, Wurtemberg, England, Ireland, Scotland, 
AVales, Greece, Greenland, Holland, Hungary, India, Italy, Malta, Mexico, 
Norway, the Pacific Islands, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Sandwich Islands, 
South America, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and the West Indies, 



POPULATION. 391 

besides thirty-two born on the high seas. The total number of foreign 
born is 7.686, which is 2,300 less than in 1860, showing that the State 
has not yet resumed relations, as they existed previous to the war, with 
foreign countries, despite the efforts being made to encourage immigra- 
tion. That the conditions of life in South Carolina are unusually favor- 
able to foreigners is shown by the fact of the much larger proportion of 
persons descended from foreign born parents in South Carolina than in 
the country at large. Thus, the number of persons in this State having 
one or both parents foreign born is 21,666, or something over 2.8 for each 
resident foreigner, while for the country at large it is only 2.2 for eacli 
resident foreigner. That persons of foreign descent in South Carolina 
should number 182 per cent, of the foreign born population of the State, 
and only 123 per cent, of that of the whole country, is due to the lower 
rate of mortality and to the higher rate of natural increase promoted by 
a more temperate and healthful climate in Carolina, and also doubtless 
to moral causes. These are, that owing to the large colored population 
of the State, the more skillful and intelligent foreigners are able to com- 
mand more remunerative positions in the higher occupations here than 
elsewhere. And when their descendants, having more time for observa- 
tion, ascertain this state of things, they are not slow to migrate hither, 
from places where, from the facilities offered by transportation, their 
parents may have first landed and settled. Thus 12 per cent, of the for- 
eign population of the whole country is engaged in agriculture, but only 
6 per cent, of that population in South Carolina is so engaged ; 14 per 
cent of the foreign population of the country is engaged in personal and 
professional service against 10 per cent, in South Carolina ; and of tiiis 
14 per cent. 11 per cent., or 777,382 foreigners belong to the lowest of 
drudgeries, that is to the class of common laborers and domestic servants. 
In the higher and more remunerative occupations of trade and transpor- 
tation only 7 per cent, of the foreign population of the country at large 
find occupation, while 19 per cent, of that of South Carolina is thus en- 
gaged. Again, in manufactures and mining, 18 per cent, of foreigners 
in the country at large find work, against 11 per cent, of that population 
in South Carolina ; and of this 18 per cent, there are 126,325 miners ; 
74,961 cotton factory operatives, and 167,971 operatives and laborers in 
other manufacturing establishments; making in all 5 per cent, of the 
entire foreign-born population in this class of laborious and compara- 
tively poorly paid occupations. Now that slavery is abolished and labor 
is free here, foreign workmen and artisans will not be slow to perceive 
the better chance offered bv the condition of affairs in Carolina. 



302 POPULATION. 



SEXES. 



There are fourteen thousand seven hundred and sixty-one more females 
than males in South Carolina, or something over three per cent., indi- 
cating a peaceful and settled mode of life, and the prevalence of such 
occupations as furnish employment to females. In the ratio of females 
to males South Carolina ranks sixth among the States of the Union, the 
District of Columbia standing first. The Western and newer States, where 
the conditions of life are harder and the occupations require more robust 
natures, rank lowest, and in some of them the number of females are only 
half the number of males. Within the State the males are slightly in 
excess in Horry and Clarendon counties, and in portions of Colleton, 
Hampton, Barnwell, and Edgefield. Elsewhere females predominate. 

AGES. 

Multiplying the number of individuals enumerated at each age and 
adding the products together, the aggregate number of years lived by 
the population is ascertained. This aggregate for the population of the 
entire United States, according to the late Census of 1880 is 1,211,568,528 
years. If divided by the number of individuals it will give an average 
of 24 7-10 years for each. For South Carolina the average number of 
years for each individual ascertained in the same way is 21 27-100 years. 
At first view it might be inferred that the population of South Carolina, 
having lived fewer years, was the shorter lived. The real explanation is 
however, quite different. Foreigners constitute about 12 per cent, of the 
population of the United States and only 7-10 of 1 per cent, of that of 
South Carolina. The maximum number at any one age among the 
foreign-born population is found between the ages of 40 and 50, while 
among the native population this maximum varies from the age of one 
year for colored females in the United States to six years for the same 
class in South Carolina. Thus it happens that the number of years lived 
by the population, including the larger percentage of adult foreigners is 
swelled by the number of years these immigrants have lived in other 
countries, while the years lived by the native population is diminished 
by the deaths common everywhere in the early periods of life. This 
observation has especial force in South Carolina, owing to the greater 
number of children there. It will be found also that the aggregate of 
years lived by those attaining old age in South Carolina gives an average 
of 77 2-10 years for each person over 70, while this average for the 
country at large, despite the advantage given by the foreign element, is only 



POPULATION. 



393 



76 years. Which indicates that the chances for longevity of persons ad- 
vanced in life is greater in Carolina than elsewhere. If instead of the 
above estimate, the number of individuals enumerated at each age be 
multiplied by the mean future expectation of life from that age, as given 
in life assurance tables, it Avill be found the results for South Carolina 
and for the United States agree very nearly, being about 33 years each 
From an economical point of view, the ages of the population may be 
considered in regard to the proportions between the number of persons 
belonging to the dependent anid the number belonging to the self-sus- 
taining and contributing ages. The following table shows tlie number 
of persons in each 1,000 of the male and female, white and colored native 
population of South Carolina and of the United States at the early de- 
pendent or formative age, 1 year to 15 years ; at the self-sustaining and 
contributing ages, 15 years to 70 years ; and at the later dependent age, 
70 years and over, according to the United States Census of 1880 : 





White. 


Colored. 


Ages. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 




U.S. 


s. c. 


U.S. 


s. c. 


U.S. 


S.C. 


U.S. 


S.C. 


1 to 15 years. 
15 to 70 years. 
70 y'rs & over. 


448 

535 

17 


459 
523 

18 


443 
539 

' 18 


422 

557. 

21 


464 

521 

15 


508 

473 

19 


460 

521 

19 


483 

497 

20 


Total 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 



26 



594 



POPULATION. 



The following table gives the same data for the aggregate population, 
aiul for the male and female foreign born population of South Carolina 
and of the United States, and the average of seven European States: 





Aggregate. 


Foreign Born. 


.-1 












-^ CO 


Ages. 






Male. 


Female. 


O jH 

P 9^ 




1 






B 2 




U.S. 


s. c. 


u. s. 1 s. c. 


U.S. 


s. c. 


> :3 


1 to 15 3'ears 


399 


470 


70 


29 


79 


45 


336 


15 to 70 years 


582 


511 


899 


921 


886 


894 


632 


70 years and over. . 


19 


19 


31 


50 


35 


61 


32 


Total 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 


1000 







The most notable feature in these tables is the greater number of young 
persons in South Carolina than in the country at large and the still 
Greater number than in foreign countries. AVhile this necessarilv adds 
to the burden of the working population, it forms the hope of the future, 
and life is so much easier in South Carolina than it is in more densely 
peopled countries, that the promise to multiply and increase and replen- 
ish the earth is still regarded here as a promise of blessing, and surprise 
is felt that it should anywhere be a burden. There are only two exceptions 
to this preponderance, namely, among the foreign-born and white females. 
The foreign-born however do not seem to find the conditions unfavora- 
ble to them, the proportion that pass on through the working period of 
life to full old age being much greater in this State than it is either in 
tlie United States at large, or in their native countries. The somewhat 
smaller proportion of white females, if not accidental, is otherwise unex- 
plained, unless it results from a diminution of female births, which might 
also account for the diminution of females to males, which has occurred 
within the last decade. 

It will be observed that in the particular above referred to, the ages of 
the population of the country at large resemble those of the European 
populations more than the ages of the population of South Carolina do. 



POPULATION. 395 

In Europe the natural increase of the population is much restrained, the 
closer struggle for existence there tells against the young, adults are re- 
quired to endure its hardships, and hence their preponderance. And it 
is at once sad and curious to recall that in this, these highly civilized 
Christian nations resemble savage tribes, among whom the proportion of 
children to adults is always small. The population of South Carolina, as 
represented by the numbers at the different ages, is one growing rapidly 
by natural increase, and under favorable conditions ; these favorable con- 
ditions being exhibited by the relatively large numbers passing over 
from the working period of life to old age. Such a state of things is 
highly promising, provided that the numbers in tlie early formative age- 
realize by their labors on reaching the self-sustaining and contributing 
age what has been expended in rearing them. 

It is a popular estimate that one-fifth of the population are fighting 
men. If this is intended to designate the natural militia, that is the 
male population over eighteen and under forty-five years of age, it will 
almost always be an over estimate except in a population receiving large 
accessions of adult immigrants or among savage tribes. It is true that 
during the war of secession South Carolina is estimated to have put 
60,000 men in the field from a white population, from eighteen to forty- 
five years, not exceeding 55,046. This was during a period of four years 
however, and the number actually in service at one time probably never 
exceeded 44,000. During the war of the Revolution, 1775-83, South 
Carolina furnished more than eight per cent, of' the entire American 
forces. — (Rep. Secretary of War, May LOt'i, 1790,) although her white 
population was only four per cent, of that of the old Thirteen States. 
During the war with Mexico, 1846-48, the volunteer troops from South 
Carolina sustained one-seventh of all the casualties in the volunteer 
forces of the whole country. South Carolina's losses in the Confederate 
service, 1861-65, is estimated at 12,000 men. While in times of war 
South Carolina thus " stiffened her sinews and bent up every spirit to its 
full height," in times of profound peace, as at present, she feels there is 
" nothing more becomes her than quiet, stillness and humility." Her 
military service is purely voluntary. The whole number of troops en- 
rolled is about 4,000, of whom only about 2,500 parade at inspections. 
The Legislature appropriates $5,500, or $1.35 a man, in aid of those con- 
nected with the military organizations of the State. The following table 
shows, according to the United States Census for the years specified, the 
numbers of the natural militia in the white (native and foreign), the 
colored and in the aggregate population of South Carolina and of the 
United States, and also the percentage of this class in each of the above 
named constituent elements of the population and in the total population : 



396 



POPULATION. 



MALES FROM 18 TO 45 YEARS OF AGE. 





White. 




1 










Colored. 


Per Cent, of 
Population. 


TOTA-L. 




Year. 


Native. 


Per Ct. of 
Populat'n. 


Foreign. 


Per Ct. of 
Populat'n. 


Per Cent. ( 
Populatioi 


1860, U. S . . 


. . . . 


. . 


. . . . 


. . 


.... 


. . 


5,624,065 


20 


1860, S. C . . 














55,046 


IS 


1870, U.S.. 


4,782,409 


17 


1,873,402 


34 


861.164 


18 


7,570,487 


19 


1870, S.C. 


49,721 


17 


2,606 


32 


70,407 


16 


120,154 


17 


1880, U. S. . 


7,028,134 


IS 


1,960,751 


29 


1,242,354 


18 


10.231,239 


20 


1880, S. C . . 


70,616 


18 


2,021 


26 


98,285 


16 


170,922 


17 



It will be noted how much the foreign element adds to this class in 
the country at large, being more than double the colored race, although 
the two populations differ in numbers only about one-tenth of one per 
cent. It will also be observed that this class is on the increase in the 
white population of South Carolina, while there is a marked decrease 
among the negroes, owing, doubtless, to the emigration to other States of 
adult negros. 



POPULATION. 



397 



Similar data from the same sources, in regard to the number of males 
at the age of citizenship, are exhibited in the following table : 

MALES 21 YEARS OF AGE AND UPWARDS. 





White. 




1 








1 


Colored. 


Per Cent, of 
Population. 


Total. 


•i 1 


Year. 


Native. 


Per Ct. of 
Populat'n. 


Foreign. 


Per Ct. of 
Populat'n. 


Per Cent, o 
Population 


18(30, U. S. . 














6,690,620 


^4 


18(30, S C 














64,956 

8,425,941 


21 


1870, U. S. . 


5,811,136 


20 


2.542,475 


45 


1,032,475 


21 


23 


1870, S. C. 


58,269 


20 


4,278 


53 


85,475 


20 


146,614 


20 


1880, U. S. . 


8,270.518 


23 


3.072,487 


46 


1,487,344 


22 


12,830,349 


25 


1880, S. C. . 


82,910 


21 


3,990 


51 


118,889 


19 


205,789 


20 



Here a more remarkable increase is shown in the ratio of voters in the 
native white population, and it is quite sufficient to dispel any apprehen- 
sion than any but native whites will preponderate in this country. This 
increase occurs in South Carolina, but is less marked than in the country 
at large, the population of the State not having yet, in this regard, re- 
covered fully from the losses incurred during the war. Were the races 
arrayed politically against each other, as was practically the case prior to 
1876, it would have required a change of thirteen per cent, of the colored 
voters to the whites in 1880 to give the latter a majority, and, in 1770 it 
would have required a change of more than fourteen per cent. Local 
and restricted political issues between the races may occur hereafter, but 
the plea, that if the whites obtained representation the liberties of the 
colored race would be lost, with which alien white men organized a solid 
black vote in the State, has forever lost its force. The experience of seven 
years has assured the colored race in South Carolina that they have noth- 
ing to fear, as a race, from the native wdiites of the State. 



308 POPULATION. 



DWELLINGS AND FAMILIES. 



AVliile the climate of South Carolina, like that of Greece, Rome and 
Palestine, renders life out of doors pleasant and preferahle for the larger 
portion of the time, and while it never necessitates the protection of 
costly houses, the materials for huilding are abundant and cheap. In 
the upi)er third of the State the crystalline rocks furnish a great variety 
of building stones ; the granite itself being of the very finest quality ; in 
the low country the great lime beds are being utilized in the manufac- 
ture of concrete blocks for building, and the lime rock, though not de- 
veloped, has long since been tested, and found durable (see Lower Pine 
Belt). Clay suitable for brick is found in nearly every neighborhood, 
they are burned at a cost of about $3.00 per thousand, and sell at from 
five to ten dollars per thousand, according to the facilities of transporta- 
tion and the demand. The best yellow-pine lumber may be had for seven 
to twelve dollars per thousand. Cypress, for roofing, is cheap and al)un- 
dant, and there are many varieties of hard woods. The cheapest houses 
are log cabins. Such a house, twenty feet square, with a good wooden 
floor raised a foot or more above the ground, ten feet between joints, 
plastered outside with clay and ceiled inside with split pine boards, with 
a good chimney and board roof, furnishes complete protection against the 
vicissitudes of the seasons, and is estimated to cost, work and material, 
from thirty to fifty dollars, according to locality. The population of 
South Carolina has always enjoyed ample house room, as will appear 
from the following comparison wdth the country at large, not to speak of 
the populations of Europe, W'here, with the exception of France, Wap- 
peaus makes the average number of occupants to a dwelling from 8. 86 in 
Saxony to 5.42 in Belquiver. The following table gives the facts relating 
to dwellings and the number of persons to a family in South Carolina, 
with such general data as serves to exhibit the status here in comparison 
with the country at large : 



POPULATION. 



399 





Dwellings. 


Families. 




c3 
G 


Maxima and Minima 


ej 


Maxima and Minima 


Year. 




for the 


O 


for the 




11 

o 


United States, and 


■^- X^ 


United States, and 




Number of States having 
less than So. CarxDlina. 


11 


Number of States having 
less than So. Carolina. 


1850, S. C. . 


5.39 


2 States having fewer. 


5.36 


8 States have fewer. 


U.S.. 


5.95 


R. L, 6.59 ; Cal., 3.90. 


5.56 


Missouri, 5.89 ; Cal., 3.77. 


1860, S. C. . 


5.18 


7 States having fewer. 


5.14 


10 States had fewer. 


U.s;. 


5.54 


R. I., 6.43; Kansas, 2.96. 


5.28 


La., 5.93; Nevada, 3.38. 


1870, S. C. . 


4.92 


7 States have fewer. 


4.67 


4 States had fewer. 


u. s, . 


5.49 


N.Y.,6.37; Nevada, 3.27. 


5.09 


Ken, 5.67; Cal., 4.35. 


1880, S. C. . 


5.19 


11 States having fewer. 


4.93 


20 States have fewer. 


u. s. . 


5.60 


R. I. 6.68 ; Idaho, 4.24. 


5.04 


W. Va., 5.54 ; Montana, 
3.94. 



CHAPTER II. 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



It is conceded that tlie numbers of all the living in the United States 
are, with inconsiderable exceptions, included in the returns of the 8th 
and the 9th Census. Most strenuous efforts were made at these dates to 
obtain a complete enumeration of those who died during the census years 
of 1860 and 1870. On an inspection of the returns, however, it was ad- 
mitted that in no case did this enumeration approach the actual facts 
nearer than by forty or forty-one per cent. Nor is it expected that much 
greater accuracy will be attained by the results of the 10th Census. For 
instance, the attention of the very intelligent enumerators in the city of 
Charleston, in 1880, being called to the difficulty of obtaining accu- 
racy in the mortality returns no pains were spared to accom- 
plish all that was possible in this regard. The result of the enu- 
meration made the death rate 2.01 per cent. The actual death rate 
obtained from the very accurate city registration being 3.25 per cent. 
A difference of about thirty-eight per cent. Even here it might be ques- 
tioned, whether the enumeration or the registration was the more correct. 
So rapidly does that universal solvent, death, obliterate the traces of the 
things which pass from life, that all memor}' and record of their existence 
vanishes with unexpected, not to say indecent, haste. The known and 
numbered graves are as one grain to the sands of the sea-shore in com- 
parison with the vast multitudes of the unrecorded dead. The intelli- 
gence and power of mankind have been so actively engaged through all 
ages of human progress in devising and perfecting means for the destruc- 
tion of human life, that little of either has been left free to find employ- 
jnent in the preservation of this obstacle to progress, and still less for 
collecting and preserving facts concerning the entrances and the exits on 
the stage of life, and of the ills and accidents which beset the living. 
Without such data any opinion as to the comparative healthfulness of 
populations and localities must be of the vaguest and most uncertain 



VITAL STATISTICS. 401 

character ; unfortunately this circumstance in no wise diminishes the fa- 
cility witli which such opinions are formed, their prevalence, or the tena- 
city with which they are entertained. 

The United States Census returns for 1850, '60, 70 make the average 
annual death rate 1.25 per cent of the aggregate population. The same 
returns make the death rate for South Carolina 1.21 per cent. There 
being no reason to suppose that these returns were more defective in the 
one case than in the other, it may be assumed that the ratio of these per- 
centages to each other expresses with tolerable accuracy the comparative 
mortality of the two populations. 

The following statement touching the same matter is derived from the 
census returns of 1860. It shows the order in which South Carolina 
stands among the other States of the Union in regard to the greatest 
mortality resulting from certain principal classes of disease. 

Percentage of total deaths caused Position of South Carolfna among 
by the following diseases: other States in the order of the 

greatest mortality from these 
diseases : 
24.7 Diseases of the respiratory organs. ..... 32d. 

11.3 Diseases of the nervous system 29th. 

5.9 Diseases of the digestive organs 13th. 

5.0 Violence 13th. 

4.3 Fevers 9th. 

It will be observed that this State, ranking then as 18th in population^ 
ranked as 32d in the number of deaths from those diseases which destroy 
about one-fourth of mankind ; and 29th for diseases destroying more than 
one-tenth. For the less fatal diseases, where the variations are necessarily 
less between different communities, her position was higher. 

The comparison may perhaps be more accurately made by another 
method. If a people were perfectly healthy, and free from all the acci- 
dents of life, death would only result from old age, and the population 
would form an unbroken column from the cradle to the grave, except 
that if it were increasing, the base of the column, representing those 
under one year of age, would be larger than the other diameters, and if 
it were diminishing the base would be smaller. Of course no such con- 
dition of perfect healthfulness is ever found, and the numbers of the liv- 
ing at different ages so far from being represented by a parallelogram 
actually assume the form of a pyramid, with a very broad base for the 
early periods of life, rapidly diminishing, as years advance, and terminat- 
ing towards old age in a very slender and attenuated apex. Neverthe- 
less, that population would be most healthful which showed the greatest 



402 VITAL STATISTICS. 

similarity between the numbers living at each age. To institute a com- 
parison between South Carolina and the country at large, in this regard, 
the diagram on the opposite page has been prepared. The number of 
living persons at the five ages specified were obtained from the 7th, 8th 
and 0th United States Census, and their percentage of the aggregate 
population of the United States and of South Carolina was calculated. 
A perpendicular line, A B, was marked off in lengths corresponding with 
the number of years in each period of life from one to one hundred. The 
scale used was too small to show the relative height for those under one 
year of age, and this class are represented higher than it should be. The 
percentage of the population found in each period was divided by the 
number of years included in the period, and the quotient gave the 
breadth of the block representing the living of that period. 

It will be remarked that while the number under one year old is greater 
in the country at large than in South Carolina, the decrease and conse- 
quent mortality from one to fifteen years is much more marked for the 
whole country than for South Carolina. In the working period of life, 
from fifteen to sixty, the numbers for the country at large considerably 
exceed those in South Carolina. This, however, is unfortunately not due 
to greater healthfulness, but to the large accession of foreign immigrants, 
persons mostly between those ages, very few of whom come to South Car- 
olina. In fact. South Carolina lost heavily by emigration, the emigrants 
being largely of the working age, (see Chapter on Population). Naturally 
it would be expected that the greater numbers between these ages would 
give the United States a marked superiority over South Carolina during 
the succeeding period of life, from sixty to one hundred. It is observed, 
however, that such is not the case. The explanation is found in the excep- 
tionally large death rate of foreigners exposed to the vicissitudes and 
rigors of the northern climate, where the large majority seek homes. 
This death rate is estimated in the census of 1860 as 4.261 per cent, for 
the males who preponderate, while the death rate for the whole country 
is 23ut at 1.75 per cent., and for the white population of the eleven largest 
cities at 2.75 per cent. 

It appears that the black spaces, which represent the dead, are less in 
South Carolina than in the country at large. Still they are of appalling 
magnitude, and if the health of a people be a matter of the first conse- 
quence it would seem that government, alone able to effect it, is called 
on to collect and preserve vital statistics to the end that some light at 
least might be thrown on this great darkness, so pregnant with human woe. 

I. — The proportion of white and colored in the aggregate population of 
South Carolina is summarized in the following table, taken from the 
records of the United States Census ; 



>-« 














Per Cent. 


o 


o 


h-1 


"to 


"en 


2 






p 


to 


•— ' 


en 


S 




oy 


s 


CD 

o 


CD 


en 


CO 

o 






i Population. 

1 


a 


en 








I—' 


1 


2 


O 


o-^oS 


en o o 


o O 


o 
o 


i 

; Ages. 




I—" 








so 




■ 

1 


1 


1 


■■■ 




■ 




o 


^ 








^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 




^^^^^^^H 




(h 


^^ 








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^^^^^^^H 




o 


^^ 








^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 




^^^^^^^H 
























^^ 








^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^I^^^^^^^H 




^^^^^H^l 




3* 


^» 








^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 




^^^^^H 




O 


^ 








^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^1 




^^^1 


/^ 


^ 


















&| 


w 








^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^Hj 




^^^^1 


•^ 


O 
















-H 




^^ 








H^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 




^^^^^H 


H 


3 


^ 








^^^^^^l^^^^^^^^^^^l 




^^^^1 


?j 


- ^% 


i 








^^^^^^^^^^^HH 




^H| 


d 


- -'IT' 


^ 








im^miiini^^i 




^^H 




2? 0.§ 


^^ 












^^^^^1 


> 


^ ?3 "-I 


^ 












^^^^H 


H 




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^^^^^1 


yi 


■ - oS 


1 












■ 


'fi 


2 M 

2 ^2 


1 












^1 






^ 












^^^^1 




.3 ^3 


1 






> 






jlfll 


W 


2 H H H H (t> 






i 




__ 


^^^^ 






^^^^^_ 


■ 


[^5 c 5 S"^ 

c' ij a G 'Tf'XS 






























■^^H 






fc 












^H 




>-. i -1 :^ o 
2 3 ? 5 ■» 3 
:rj; =.g >"> 


1 












H 


73 

o 




^^ 












^^^^^1 


^H 


- = H- 3 -■ 5 


1 








^^HH 




■ 


> 




1 








^^^^H 




H 


o 


5 eg 


1 








^^^^P 




H 


2! 

> 


3 ' i2 


1 








^^^^H 




H 




<_ 


s 


_m 


■ 


jjjjjjll^^^^^^l 




^1 






— 








j_^ 




' G 


H^ 








o 




i_.2 


1^ 


/.„i-5 1— ' 


h- H 05 


a H 


o 


Ages. 


t-'O 


o 


"^O Oi 


CA O O 


o o 


►<! 




s 


or 








s 


















Per Cent. 


1—' 


^ 


^ 


« 


^ 


-* 






o 


o 


(—1 


to 


C7« 


o 




OF 


p 


tc 


CO 


^J 


tc 


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bii b 


CO 


OS 


OS 




POPULATIOK. 


o 


Ol <X! 


o 


to 


rf>. 






' 










' 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



40^ 





PrOPORTIOX to PorULATION. 




m ' 


o o 


m 1 




O li 


1^ r:? 


a> ^ 






Ph O 


> Ch 




- o 


f^-^ 


zi o 


YEAR. 




^^^ 


^(^ 




^_, CD 


•^ O o 


«+-! O 




^ O 


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^-o 




-tJ .— 


^ ^^ , "^ 


■*^ F^ • 






c o 






^S^ 


Sh O PL| 


fe^-^ 






O) 






Ph 


^ 


Ph 


1790. . . .• 


56.28 


0.72 


43.0 


1800 


56.79 


0.92 


42.2 


1810 


51.60 


1.10 


47.3 


1820 


47.33 


1.36 


51.4 


1830 


44.37 


1.36 


54.2 


1840 


43.59 


1.39 


55.0 


1850 


41.07 


1.34 


57.5 


1860. 


41.28 


1.48 


57.24 


1870 


41.05 


58.95 


• * • 


1880 


39.28 


60.72 


- • • 



II. — ]\Iarriages. — In the 4 years, 1856-9, there were registered 6,537 
marriages among the white population, estimated at 287,000, or an 
average of 5.71 annually to each 1,000 of the population. 

The following table gives the ages at which each sex was married 
during the same period : 



J-< 


















o 


















^ 




































(^ 
















aj 























































c 


I^ 


01 


»o 


b 
















O) 


1-^ 


<M 


CO 


-^ 


LO 





r^ 


T^ 


■3 























S 




' ^ 




-*.s 


-1-^ 


-►J 


-+J 






















^ 


^ 





LO 

















(M 


C<J 


CO 


^ 


to 





t^ 



Males . 
Females 



6,537 1 406 
6,5371 2,626 



2,718 
2,173 



Percent 'ge of Marriages 

at known ages : 
Males ...".... 
Females 



5,990 
5,970 



6.7 
43.9 



45.2 
36.5 



1,4291 
613 



858 
374 



23.8 
10.3 



14.5 
6.4 



318160 
138i 31 



7/ 
12 



o 



241547 
2568 



5.3 
2.3 



2.6 
.5 



1.1 

9 



404 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



For the year 1859 the social condition of those marrying is stated as 
follows: 1,213 bachelors, 281 widowers, and 169 unknown. Of the 
widowers more than half married again before they reached 40 years, 
and 20 of them were married beyond the age of 65. Of the women, 
1,340 were maids, 105 widows, and 168 unknown. One-third of the 
widows were married under 25 years, and 2 between the ages of 60 and 70. 

The number of marriages occurring during each month of the year, for 
two years, is given as follows : 



1858 
1859 



2 3^ears.. 



o 



1,689 
1,613 



3,302 





>. 


>> 


fH 


^ 


cS 


a 


:i 





!-> 


rH 


rO 


rl 


<s 


*-z 


l^ 









[129 
1130 



102! 98 
124 100 



110 
99 



:3 

1-5 



88 81 
106 63 







;h 




^1 






o 




<s> 






r^ 




r^ 




^ 


S 


P 


. 


;3 


o 


nO 


o ' 


1-5 


fax: 

< 




o 
o 
O 


> 
o 



CD 



O 
1=1 



83113|104|151190 290150 
81 81 122137il71 308 91 



!259 



226,198,209 1941144 164:i94!226 288,361:598 241 



We have here a striking coincidence in the result of the two years. 
December both times furnishes the largest number of marriages, Novem- 
ber stands second, October third, and January fourth, while we always 
find June lowest and July next. 

III. — Births. — The number of births, with distinction of race and sex, 
is given as follows : 



White Births. 



Negro Births. 





?3 






n f CO 1 








n^^-^fe 

fe rH C3^ 




^ -; 




w 


c3 o <^ ^ !■£ 


^ .; 




w 


o3 o § O wj 


Year. 


2,011 




S 

962 


One in 
ulati 

No.of 
to 10 
male 


5,957 


CD 

3,061 


g 

• 


O 


No.of 
to 10 
male 


1853 . 


1,049 


81.31 


109.04 


2,896 


32.47 105.69 


1854 . 


1,765 


914 


851 


79.31 


107.52 


5,734 


2,939 


2,795 


30.98 105.15 


1856 . 


4,381 


2,294 


2,087 


64.71 


109.91 


14,492 


7,492 


6,980 


26.55 


107.33 


1857 . 


4,628 


2,410 


2,218 


61.26 


108.65 114,292 


7,332 


6,960 


26.93 


105.31 


1858 . 


4,816 


2,479 


2,337 


60.24 


106.07 


14,226 


7,110 


7,116 


27.06 


99.91 


1859 . 


5,677 


2,950 


2,727 


48.27 


108.14 


14,377 


7,287 


7,090 


26.05 


102.77 


Total. . 


23,278 


12,096 


11,182 


73.09 108.17 69,078 


35,221 


33,837 


33.43 


104.08 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



405 



Comparing the births and marriages during the period 1856-0, for 
which the record of each is given, it appears that while tlie average 
annual number of marriages was 5.71 to 1,000 of the j)opulation, the 
births stood 13.6 to the 1,000. These figures apply to the white popula- 
tion. The rate of increase among the negroes Avas much greater. The 
above table makes the average annual number of their births 29.9 per 
thousand. For both races the birth rate was 23 per 1,000. The number 
of births during each month for the four years 1856-9 is given with the 
distinction of sex as follows : 

Births for Four Years. 



Month of Birth. 



Month of 

CONCErTION. 



o o 

rr ca "o 



January. . 
February. . 
March . , 
April . . . 
May . . . 
June ... . 
July . . . 
August . . . 
September . 
October. . 
November . 
December . 

Total. . . . 



April. 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August . 
September 
October . . 
November . 
December. 
January. . 
February . 
March. . . 



4,260 
4,294 
4,974 
5,396 
5,623 
5,604 
5,684 
6,079| 
6,181 
5,717 
5,868 
6,162 



65,792 



2,372 
2,246 
2,721 
2,816 
2,926 
2,876 
2,831 
3,082 
3,067 
2,881 
2,893 
2,978 









33,689 



1,888 
2,048 
2,253 
2,580 
2,697 
2,728 
2,803 
2,997 
3,114 
2,836 
2,975 
3,184 



32,103 



484 

198 

468 

236 

229 

148 

28 

85 

47 

45 

82 

206 



1,586 



^ S 

6 o 



126.16 

109.66 

120.77 

109.14 

108.49 

105.42 

100.99 

102.83 

98.49 

101.58 

97.24 

93.53 



104.31 



This being the whole number of births of known dates, registered in 
South Carolina during this period. From the foregoing tables may be 
deduced the following one, showing the order of relative fecundity of each 
month. 



Returns of 1856 


Sept. 


Dec. 


Aug. 


Oct, 


June 


July 


Nov- 


May 


Apr. 


March 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Returns of 1357 


Sept. 


Aug. 


July 


May 


June 


Nov 


Dec. 


Oct. 


Apr. 


March 


Feb. 


Jan. 


Returns of 1858 


Sept 


Dec. 


Nov. 


Oct. 


Aug. 


May 


Apr. 


June 


July 


March 


Feb. 


Jan. 


Returns of 1850 


Dec. 


Aug. 


Nov. 


June 


May 


Sept. 


July 


Apr. 


Oct. 


March 


Feb. 


Jan. 



406 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



It is remarkable that either January or February always gives the 
lowest number of births, while March uniformly comes next. 

The first quarter gives the least number of births, and the third quarter 
the greatest. If we examine the following table we find that in four 
years the births of known dates registered, stood thus: 



1st quarter, 
13,528. 



2d quarter, 
10,623. 



3d quarter, 
17,804. 



4th quarter, 
17,747. 



If the year be separated into summer and winter months, the former 
embracing the 2d and 3d quarters, and the latter the 1st and 4th, it 
will be observed that there were 34,517 births in the warmer, and only 
31,278 in the colder season. 

It was noticed in the returns of 1858 and 1859 that .January, which 
gave the fcAvest births, gave much the largest male excess ; while Septem- 
ber, November and December, showing the most births, produced the 
smallest proportion of males. December, January and February appear 
to be the months most favorable to conception. 

Plurality Births. — In the returns of twin and triplet births the races 
are not given separately until the year 1859. In that year 428 cliildren 
were born twins or triplets ; wdiich was 2.1 per cent, for all the children 
born. There being 212 cases of such births, the}'' were over 1 per cent, of 
the total number of births. Among the whites there was 74 cases of 
plurality births, and 148 children, the cases being 1.3 per cent, of the 
births, and the children 2.6 per cent, of those born. Among the negroes 
the cases were 138, and the children 277, the former being 9 per cent, of 
the births, and the latter 1.9 per cent, of the children. 

The following table gives the number of plurality births in each month 
for four years : 

Plurality Births for Four Years. 




o 



Whites il4 

XeOToes llO 



141812121 8101416121 Sil0'l48 

16i24 24 321 35i20i25 22118 18 25; 269 

I I I I Mill 



Total in 1859 24 30142 36 44 43 30 39 38 30 26 35'l417 



Total in 1856, '57, '58 29:48 4158 40 63,58:4448,35 50 51 



,565 



Total in four vears . 



53 78 83,94'84 106 88 83,86 65,76 86 '982 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



407 



June is foremost in plurality births, and January stands lowest of all. 
Of 982, the total number, 512 were males, and 470 females, or 108.93 of 
the former to 100 of the latter. 

Still-Births. — The races in these tables are given separately only for 
the year 1859. In this j^ear there were 403 children registered as born 
dead. Of these 139 were whites, or one child was lost out of every 40.80 
births ; and of negroes there Avere 264, or one out of 54.46, whilst in the 
whole number of births in the total population, one was still-born in 
every 49.76. This would give 2.4 per cent, of the white births, and 1.8 
of the negro births still-births : 

Still-Born for Four Years. 




o 



139 
264 

403 
565 



Whites 

Negroes 

Total in 1859 . . 
Total in 1856, '57, '58 

Total in four years. , 



915 

2617 



lojlO 
16.27 



12 



11 



15 20j24 32 



21 35 32 

41 58|40 



2829 
3550 



5883 



629372 



94,95 85 



75 



63 79 



94 968 



For a series of years, January gave almost uniformly the fewest still- 
born as well as plurality and also total births. July, June, December 
and April produced each nearly the same number of still-births, and a 
good many more than the months next highest to them. There are 
more still-born negroes in December and fewer in March, wiiile among 
the whites there were most in August and least in November. 

'''There is a remarkable preponderance of males in the still-births. 
This pre})onderance is greater in the Avhite than in the negro race. In 
the former the still-born were 162.33 males to 100 females. In the latter 
there were only 118.18 males to 100 females. For the two races during 
the whole 4 years the still-born were 121.54 males to 100 females. 

*NoTE. — It is supposed the sex is determined b.v the preponderance of the sexual im- 
pulse in the sexes at genesis. If the female impulse is strongest for the male, males 
are produced; if the male impulse for the female is strongest, females are i)roduced ; 
and the number of males preponderating among the still-born is another among the 
many natural checks to a strong sexual impulse among females, 



408 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



IV. — Deaths. — The following table presents an abstract of all the 
deaths registered in South Carolina during six years, viz : 



Deaths of Whites. 



Deaths of Negroes. 











03 










1 

rt 




























(V 








ai 


ID 






1=1 

Ph 


a5 




C 






^-s 


bJD 


g 






(^ o 


6X3 
< 


Year. 


iz; 




w 


a rt 


<v 


^ 




CO 


OS S 


CD 




(V 


CO 


e5 


s .2 


c3 


>— 1 


CO 




c .2 


cS 




o 


1.— 1 

485 


a 

CD 

457 


O 


> 


o 




a 

1,348 


O 




1853 . . 


942 


173.60 


Unknown. 


2,746 


1,398 


70.44 


Unknown. 


1854.. 


1,117 


582 


525 


127.45 


u 


2,771 


1,414 


1,357 64.11 


(( 


1856 . . 


2,183 


1,101 


1,082 


129.52 


a 


7,627 


3,781 


3,846 54.76 


u 


1857 . . 


2,917 


1,436 


1,481 


97.19 


28.03 


8,770 


4,404 


5,366 43.89 


21.13 


1858 . . 


2,423 


1,265 


1,158 


117.01 


25.36 


7,277 


3,608 


3,669 52.91 


15.29 


1859 . . 


2,003 


1,033 
5,902 


970 
5,673 


136.82 


28.42 


6,318 


3,129 


3,18950.20 


14.87 


Total. . 


11,585 


146.90 


27.27 


35,509 


17,734 


17,775 


65.05 


17.09 



The annual average of registered deaths to the pojDulation was 11.7 per 
1,000. Among the whites it was 7 deaths to the 1,000, and among the 
negroes 15.3, a disproportion not due altogether to the greater mortality 
of negroes, but owing to the fact that the return of deaths among this class 
of the population was more accurate, inasmuch as every case was reported 
by a master, who had sustained thereby a severe pecuniary loss, and 
was on this account less likely to overlook or forget the event. 

As regards the sexes, the proportion of deaths in both races together 
was 100.8 males to 100 females. Among the whites it was 104.03 males 
to 100 females ; among the negroes it was 99.76 males, a difference due in 
part to the preponderance of males among the whites and females 
among the negroes. 

Deducting the deaths from the births, we have an average annual rate 
of increase for both races of 11.3 per 1,000. For the whites it is 6.6 per 
1,000. For the negroes it is 14.6 per 1,000. 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



409 



The following table exhibits the number of deaths occurring in each 
month for four years : 



Months. 



January . 
February. 
March. . . 
April 
May. . . 
June . . . 
July... . 
August . . 
September 
October. . 
November 
December 

Total . . 



1856. 



442 
448 
517 
481 
490 
656 
849 
982 
867 
702 
540 
596 



7,570 



1857. 



446 
463 
529 
568 
570 
849 
998 
1,313 
1,130 
804 
756 
699 



1858. 



9,125 



473 

538 
593 
588 
693 
816 
925 
1,039 
1,014 
758 
636 
718 



8,791 



1859. 



401 
463 
552 

522 
613 
736 

848 
866 
804 
689 
588 
641 



Aggregate 
Four Years. 



Total. 



1,762 
1,912 
2,191 
2,159 
2,366 
3,057 
3,620 
4,200 
3,815 
2,953 
2,520 
2,554 



Per 
Cent. 



5.30 

5.75 

6.89' 

6.50 

7.12 

9.20 

10.90 

12.64 

11.49 

8.89 

7.58 

7.99 



7,723 33,2091 100.00 



It will be observed that only 40.64 per cent, of the deaths occur during 
the first six months of the year, while 59.36 per cent, occur during the 
last six months. 

The following table shows the order of mortality among the months, 
commencing with the most fatal : 



185G, 

1857, 
1858 
1859 



Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 

Aug. 



Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 



July Oct. June 
July June Oct. 



July 



July I Sept 



June 
June 



Oct. 
Oct. 



Dec. 
Nov 
Dec. 
Dec. 



Nov. March 

Dec. I May. 

I 
May I Nov. 

May Nov. 



May. April. Feb Jan. 
April. March Feb [.Tan. 
March'April. Feb. I Jan. 
March April. Feb. Jan. 



The months showing the least mortality correspond very nearly with 
those most favorable to conception. 



27 



410 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



The following table contains the returns of death at different ages, and 
also expresses the aggregate number of each sex dying at proximate ages, 
and their proportions to each other : 













Ago 


rREGATE FOR FoUR YeARS. 


Ages. 


1856. 


1857. 


1858. 


1859. 


o 




















Is 


o • 


o 


a 


Oo 




1,649 


1,821 






o 


o 


ci 






Under 1 year. 


2,122 1,973 


i 7,565 


23.31 


3,892 


3,673 


105.96 


Ito 5 years. 


1,636 


2,151 


1,981 1,560 


7,328 


22.58 


3,841 


3,487 


110.15 


5 to 10 years. 


484 


629 


677 


486 


2,276 


7.01 


1,166 


1,110 


105.04 


10 to 15 years. 


272 


416 


405 


328 


1,421 


4.37 


683 


738 


92.54 


15 to 20 years. 


236 


461 


423 


363 


! 1,583 


4.87 


728 


855 


85.14 


20 to 30 years. 


578 


755 


755 


555 


i 2,643 


8.14 


1,272 


1,371 


92.85 


30 to 40 years. 


439 


613 


554 


505 


2,111 


6.50 


919 


1,192 


77.09 


40 to 50 years. 


362 


479 


472 


406 


1,719 


5.29 


795 


924 


86.03 


50 to 60 years. 


356 


459 


396 


332 


1,543 


4.75 


778 


765' 101.69 


60 to 70 years. 


373 


511 


452 


401 


1,737 


5.35 


875 


862! 101.50 


70 to 80 years. 


313 


407 


345 


322 


i 1,387 


4.27 


700 


687i 101.89 


Over 80 years 


263 

7,061 


326 

9,028 


283 
8,865 


263 
7,494 


1 1,135 


3.49 


542 


593 91.39 


Total .... 


; 32,448 

i 


100.00 


16,191 


16,257 


99.59 



As respects the proportional mortality of the sexes at the same age, it 
will be seen that the male deaths are much in excess up to the age of 10 
years, after which period, as far as 50 years, more females die. ^lales then 
predominate until 80 years, after which females again are remoyed in 
greater proportion. Hence, it appears, that " from the api)roach of 
puberty to the end of the period of reproduction, the female is more liable 
to disease and death." 



Deaths in Extreme Old Age. — There were twenty-two deaths regis- 
tered at the age of 100 years and oyer, of which only four were whites, viz : 
one male and three females, the remaining eighteen (nine of each sex) 
being negroes. The oldest were a black man and a black woman, both of 
whom died in St. Bartholomew's Parish, the former aged 120 years, and 
the latter 110 years. A list of them is here given : 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



411 



Deaths at Advanced Ages. 



Districts. 



Abbeville 

ii 

Barnwell 

Clarendon 

Kershaw 

Laurens 

Lexington 

Marlboro' 

Marion 

Orange Parish 

Prince George, Winyaw 
St. Bartholomew's. . . 



St. Helena 

St. Luke's . 

St. Peter's 

St. Philip's & St. Michael's. 
Williamsburg 



Race. 'Sex.i Month. 



Col'd 



White. 

Col'd 

White. 
Col'd 



White. 
Col'd 



F. November. 
M. 'June. 
M. [Unknown. 
F. June. 
M. I April. 

June. 

July. 

August. 

December. 

November. 
F. |April. 
F. I February 
F. ISeptember. 



M. 
M. 
F. 
M. 
F. 



M. 
M. 
M. 

F. 
F. 
M. 
F. 
F. 
F. 



November. 

December. 

September. 

February. 

December. 

February. 

August. 

March. 

November. 



Ag 


E. 


100 y 


ears. 


100 




100 




100 




100 




100 




102 




102 




100 




100 




104 




100 




100 




100 




100 




120 




110 




100 




100 




100 




100 




100 





Cause. 



Old Age. 



Gastritis. 
Old Age. 

Deljility. 
Diarrhoea. 
Old Age. 

Drowned. 
Old Age. 



This list might be largely added to. One compiled from the records of 
the Sextons of the Cemeteries of the City of Charleston enumerates, be- 
tween 1808 and 1880. tw«nty-seven deaths in that city occurring between 
the ages of 100 and 128. During 1880, forty-five deaths occurred of people 
over 80 years of age — twenty-one whites and twenty -four negroes. Robert 
Mills enumerates among a large number of aged persons, 41 (specifying 
their names and residences) who exceeded 100 years, between 1800 and 
1820, in South Carolina, giving in addition cases like the following : Mrs. 
Morgan, of Darlington County, died in 1805, aged 90, leaving 244 descend- 
ants ; Mrs. Easeley, of Pickens County, was the mother of 34 live-born 
children, having twins only once ; Mr. and Mrs. Neighbors, of Laurens 
county, enjoyed 80 years of married life together ; Mr, and Mrs. Nettles, 
of Sumter County, who had been married 72 years, had 134 descendants 
in 1803. In 1882 there died in Orangeburg County, Mr. and Mrs. Smoak, 
over ninety years of age, leaving within a radius of 9 miles from the spot 
where they had lived so long together more than 300 of their descendants. 



412 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



The following abstract exhibits the relative mortality from each class of 
diseases in the total population during the six registration years : 







1 






Average 




1853. 1854. 1856.'1857. 


1858. 


1859. 


FOR 




42.99,46.15 




36.81 


36.68 


34.65 


28.84 


Six Years. 


I. Zymotic Diseases. . . 


37.68 


II. Uncertain Seat. . . . 


6.58 6.95 


8.75 


11.26 


10.94 


11.62 


9.35 


in. Nervous Organs . . 


5.97 6.95 


7.79 


7.25 


9.15 


10.03 


7.85 


IV. Respiratory Organs. . 


18.23 17.77 


17.69 


19.40 


19.49 


21.97 


19.09 


V. Circulatory Organs . . 


.90; .96 


.95' .84 


.64 


1.30 


.93 


YI. Digestive Organs. . . 


9.68 


6.64 


9.31 12.00 


10.87 


10.94 


9.90 


yil. Urinary Organs . . . 


.01 


.08 


.29 


.21 


.40 


.46 


.24 


VIII. Generative Organs . . 


2.34 


1.80 


2.46 


1.85 


2.32 


2.33 


2.18 


IX. Locomotive Organs. . 


.58 


.35 


.65 


.45 


.42 


.42 


.48 


X. Inteoumentarv Org's. 


.00 


.00 


.06 


.03 


.19 i .05 


.05 


XL Old Age . 


4.37i 4.79 


4.71 


5.11 


4.22 4.41 


4.60 


XII. Violence 


5.26 


7.52 


8.00 


5.91 


6.50 


7.54 


6.79 



In the 1st Class, Measles, Influenza and Whooping Cough are most fatal 
to negroes, and also "fever," which, however, is too vague a term to mean 
any disease in particular. Of Diphtheria, a zymotic which has been very 
prevalent in the Northern States, we have but three deaths recorded in 
1859, all in negroes, two being. under 10 years, and the other one of un- 
known age. 

The second class in order of mortality, is always Class IV., comprising 
the diseases of the Respiratory Organs, at the head of which stands Pneu- 
monia, giving 10.41 per cent, of all deaths from known causes. In negroes 
the percentage is 10 26, but in whites only 7.86, The greater number 
occurred in February, nearly half being under 10 years of age, and there 
beins: 436 males to 304 females. 

Consumption comes next, killing 6.85 per cent, in Avhites, and 3.94 per 
cent, in negroes, the month of July, and the period between 30 and 40 
years of age showing the highest mortality, there being a considerable 
excess of females in both races. Croup destro3'ed 150 children and 1 negro 
Ayoman, the latter between 30 and 40 years of age. It is almost twice as 
fatal to whites as to negroes. The largest number of deaths were in the 
month of November, all but fifteen of the whole being under five ydars, 
and only fourteen between five and ten years of age. 

In Class VI., which is the fourth in fatality, the principal causes are 
Teething, Worms, and indefinite " diseases of the bowels," all of which 
claim the most victims in young negroes. Whites die in larger numbers 



VITAL STATISTICS. 413 

from Colic, Dyspepsia, Enteritis, Gastritis, Hepatitis, Jaundice, Diseases of the 
Liver, Peritoneum, Spleen and Stomach, d'c. There were two deaths among 
negroes from Dirt Eating, both females, one of whom was between ten and 
fifteen years, and the other of unknown age. 

Diseases of the Nervous System, comprising Class III., are the next in 
order, giving a mortality of 10.03 per cent., which is considerabh^ higher 
in 1859 than in any one of the five preceding j^ears. This class has been 
found more fatal to whites in each one of the past years, although more 
deaths of negroes are ascribed always to the indefinite " Convulsions,' 
the most fatal of all causes under this head, as well as to I'rismus 
Nascentium. Apoplexy, Delirium Tremens, Hydrocephalus, Neuralgia, Paralysis 
and Disease of the Spine, were all more severe with whites. 

The l'2th Class, external causes or violence, produced, in 1859, 7.54 per 
cent, of all the deaths, which is a little more than the average for six years. 
As might be expected, it is more than doubly fatal to slaves than to whites, 
the principal figures being from Barns, Accidents and Sujfoccdion, (infants 
smothered, choked or overlaid.) Very few slaves died of Homicide, Intem- 
perance, Neglect, Poison and Suicide. 

Old Age, which forms the 11th Class, furnished 4.41 per cent., which 
is a little below the average for six years. In slaves, the mortality in 
1859 was 4.97, and in whites only 2.75 per cent. A very similar dif- 
ference in the two races is observed every year. As to sex, the femaks 
were in the majority in both races. 



414 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



Table showing the Percentage of the Total Mortality Due to tJie Principal Diseases 
in eacJi Pace, and for the Wltole Population dvring 'Three Years. 





Returns of 


Returns of 


Returns of 






1857. 






1858. 






1859. 


Principal Diseases. 






^L, 






1 










o 


6 




q3 




^ o 


o 


d 






^ 




^^ 


^ 


3i 


o ^ 


^ 




Pneumonia 


10.20 


12.55 


11.90 


6.16 


11.12 


9.84 


7.86 


11.26 10.41 


Typhoid Fever . . . 


9.83 


7.29 


7.99 


10.76 


.87 


9.27 


8.76 


9.36 9.21 


Dropsy 


5.79 


7.43 


6.98 


3.84 


6.50 


5.81 


3.42 


5.83 5.23 


Dysentery ..... 


5.71 


5.66 


5.68 


4.07 


3.01 


3.41 


3.87 


1.65 2.20 


Diarrhcea 


11.51 


2.83 


5.23 


2.84 


1.68 


1.98 


2.64 


1.76 1.98 


Old Age 


3.79 


5.63 


5.11 


3.08 


4.58 


4.22 


2.75 


4.97 4.41 


Measles 


2.57 


5.32 


4.55 


3.55 


3.54 


3.55 


.44 


.76 .68 


Teething 


1.83 


4.57 


3.93 


1.32 


4.19 


3.45 


2.13 


4.18 3.67 


Consumption 


3.83 


3.06 


3.28 


5.31 


2.92 


3.53 


6.85 


3.94 4.67 


Fever 


2.04 


3.31 
3.14 


2.96 
2.95 


1.66 
1.80 


2.65 
2.01 


2.40 
1.95 


1.34 
1.51 


3.36 2.85 


Bowels, disease of . . 


2.44 


1.72| 1.67 


Worms 


.53 


3.37 


2.59 


.52 


3.72 


2.90 


.50 


2.60! 2.08 


Brain, disease of . . . 


3.83 


1.64 


2.25 


3.46 


1.53 


2.03 


.34 


1.551 2.04 


Scarlatina 


2.77 


1.84 


2.14 


7.21 


2.60 


3.79 


5.61 


1.14 2.26 


Whooping Cough . . 


.73 


2.47 


1.99 


1.13 


3.25 


2.70 


1.62 


4.69 


3.92 


Convulsions .... 


.89 


2.11 


1.77 


.94 


2.92 


2.41 


1.85 


2.59 


2.40 


Catarrh 


1.34 


1.92 


1.76 


1.28 


1.35 


1.33 


.39 


2.17 


1.73 


Burns and Scalds . . 


.44 


2.08 


1.29 


.71 


2.22 


1.83 


.95 


2.32 


1.98 


Croup 


1.51 


1.53 


1.52 


2.27 


1.79 


1.92 


3.20 


1.76 


2.12 


Suifocated 


.08 


2.06 


1.51 


.18 


2.35 


1.80 


.33 


3.11 


2.42 


Congestive Fever . . 


1.67 


1.18 


1.32 


1.66 


1.25 


1.23 


1.96 


1.33 


1.49 


Remittent Fever . . 


2.36 


.81 


1.24 


1.80 


1.08 


1.27 


1.51 


1.12 


1.22 


Accident 


1.30 


1.25 


1.26 


1.51 


1.43 


1.45 


.78 


1.61 


1.40 


Cholera Infantum . . 


1.10 


1.01 


1.04 


1.23 


.95 


1.02 


1.57 


1.08 


1.21 


Apoplexy 


1.10 


.90 


.96 


2.08 


1.25 


1.47 


1.79 


.90 


1.12 


Child-birth 


1.10 


.87 


.94 


1.28 


.87 


.97 


.95 


.93 


.94 


Quinsv 


1.34 


.72 


.89 


.71 


.11 


.26 


.28 


.11 


.15 


Paralvsis 


1.75 


.42 


.79 


1.85 


.41 


-.78 


2.19 


.80 


1.15 


Yellow Fever. . . . 








9,15 


.26 

• 


2.55 


• ■ 


• • 















Pneumonia was much more fatal among negroes than among whites, 
especially in the months of January and February, and under 5 years of 
age, as well as between 20 and 40 years. July produced the largest num- 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



415 



ber of deaths from Typhoid Fever, which was most fatal between the ages 
of 15 and 30, and more so by a fraction in negroes than in whites. 

The tables and statements above given are taken, ahnost exchisively, 
from the six annual reports to the Legislature, made by Robert W. Gibbes> 
M. D., Registrar, and published with Acts of the General Assembly. 

The opinion has prevailed widely that certain regions of South Carolina 
were peculiarly liable to malarial fevers of a deadly type. Those regions 
were the Coast and the Lower Pine Belt, comprising together about 10,000 
square miles. The remainder of the State it has never been doubted was 
as free from this scourge as any portions of America. It was also main- 
tained that the negro race was less liable to these malarial fevers than the 
whites. It is, therefore, of interest to consult these reports of the Regis- 
trar regarding the causes, of death in the different climatic regions of the 
State, and as to the two races, to obtain, as far as possible, some numerical 
expression as to the conclusions. 

The following table shows the percentage of total mortality from speci- 
fied causes, resulting from fever, including under the headings Fever and 
Congestive Bilious, Remittent, Intermittent and Yellow Fever, as recorded 
in the Registrar's Reports, arranged with reference to the different 
regions, and compared with the percentage of death caused by Typhoid 
Fever : 



Regions. 



1856.1857. 1858 



1859. 



> c 

<1^ 



I. Alpine 

II. Piedmont 

III. Sand and Red Hill 

IV. Upper Pine Belt 

Y. and \1. Lower Pine Belt and Coast 
For the Whole State . . '. 

Percentage of Deaths from Typhoid Fever. 






3.24 


2.57 


1.83 


14.10 


4.36 


3.65 


4.16 


3.81 


6.45 


3.85 


4.33 

1 


6.25 


7.99 





3.66 

7.66 



5.85 
3.74 



11.80 7.55 



7.87 5.78 



9.27 



3.04 

2.78 



6.92' 8.00 



6.25 4.54 4.52 



7.72 



5.42 



9.21 8.45 



416 VITAL STATISTICS. 

It is to be noted, first, tliat the unusual mortality in the Sand Hill 
Region, in 1856, was confined to Kershaw County. Seventy-five negroes 
died there from fever, while in the other three Counties of the region there 
were only four deaths from this cause. It was, therefore, dependent not on 
any general influence, but probably on some local and accidental cause, as 
a new settlement and clearing on some stream, or the breaking of a mill- 
dam in summer. 2d. The next largest percentage of deaths was on the 
Coast, in 1858, and was due to Yellow Fever, from which cause there were 
178 deaths in the City of Charleston, where the disease was imported, and 
21 deaths in Christ Church, across the harbor, a health resort, to which 
cases contracted in Charleston were doubtless taken for treatment, these 
209 deaths in one locality being all that occurred in the State. There 
Avere also 13 deaths on the Coast from Yellow Fever in 1857, the disease 
being again imported, but not spreading. 3d. In this table is included 
all the deaths that could have occurred from malarial or climatic causes, 
and it is probable many that were not due to these causes, for the general 
term fever may well cover many other sorts of fever than those in 
question. 

But taking the figures as they stand it appears : 

1st. That the number of deaths from Typhoid and Pneumonia much 
exceed those from malarial causes in South Carolina, even crediting the 
imported disease, Yellow Fever, to the latter. 

2d. That if there is an excess of deaths from malaria in the loAver 
country, it does not amount to more than 2.30 per cent., which would 
make the malarial influences of that region rank as tenth among the 
causes of death, or less than the number of infants overlaid and suffocated 
b}^ their mothers. 

Of Yellow Fever it is to be remarked that the epidemics of this disease 
are much less fatal in Charleston than in cities further North, as Norfolk. 
Philadelphia, Brooklyn, and, above all, Boston, Avhere the largest propor- 
tion of deaths to cases occur. Nor is its recurrence anything like as fre- 
quent or its diffusion so great as in New Orleans and along the Missis- 
sippi River. Intervals of over 40 years have occurred between its visita- 
tions to the Carolina Coast, and it is almost invariabl}' confined to the 
immediate locality into which it is imported. 

The following table shows the percentage of total mortality from speci- 
fied causes in each race, resulting from causes that might in any wise be 
termed malarial : 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



417 





Races. 


Malarial Fevers. 
















1857. 


1858. 


1859. 


Total. 


White. . . 




6.61 


14.17 


5.21 


8.13 


Black . . . 


-■ 


5.41 


5.51 


6.04 


5.63 



This table would seem to confirm the general impression that negroes 
are less injuriously subject to malarial influences than whites. But this 
impression requires important modification when it is stated that deaths 
from Yellow Fever is included in the table. It being a question here of 
a large section of country, it is not proper to include a disease that never 
occurs except in one or two restricted localities of that region, and which 
is far more fatal in these localities to foreigners than to natives or resi- 
dents of either race. If, therefore, deaths from Yellow Fever be excluded 
from the table, it will stand thus: 



Races. 


1857. 


1858. 


1859. 


Total. 


White 

Black 


6.22 
5.35 


6.08 
5.21 


5.21 
6.04 


5.93 
5.53 



Thus in 23,770 deaths from specified causes, the white race in Soutii 
Carolina seems to have suffered from malarial influences more than the 
black race by four-tenths of one per cent., a difference which amounts 
literally to nothing. 

It is noteworthy that in the ratio of deaths from specified causes to 
total deaths reported in 1860, under the head of fevers. South Carolina 
stands ninth, while Kansas stands first. 

According to the mortuary statistics of Kentucky for eight years, 
South Carolina for four years. New Orleans for two years, fever, including 
congestive, remittent and intermittent fevers, caused 4.85 per cent, of the 
deaths among whites, and 7.82 per cent, of the deaths among negroes. 



418 



VITAL STATISTIC?. 



Furthermore, the death rate among negroes appears to be much greater 
in localities considered most subject to malarial influences than in those 
less so. Thus, up to ISGO, the returns of the eleven largest cities of the 
United States show an average annual death rate among negroes of 3.47 
per cent. In malarial districts, as New Orleans, it was 5.82 ; in Memphis 
it was 5.74 ; while in Charleston it only reached 2.0G per cent. 

Since this chapter has been in press the compendium of tlie 10th 
United States Census has been published, giving a portion of the Vital 
Statistics collected by the enumeration of 1880. The general results are 
exhibited in the following table : 

Table A. — Percentage of Deaths in the Population of the United States and 
South Carolina, and in the Pojyulation of the Upper, Middle, and Lower 

Country of the latter. 





Total. 


Male. 


Female. 


United States 


1.51 
1.57 
1.09 

1.33 

2.08 


1.53 
1.55 


1.48 


South Carolina 


1.60 


Upper Alpine Region • • . . . 

Middle Country, or Piedmont, Sand and \ 








Red Hill, and Lpper Pine Belt Regions, j 
Lower Coyntry, or Lower \ 






Pine JBelt and Coast Regions j 







It is estimated the number of deaths not reported do not exceed thirty 
per cent, of those reported. The average mortality for the whole country 
is given, when thus corrected, at 18.2 per thousand, as against 20.5 per 
thousand in England, and 21.5 per thousand in Scotland. The slightly 
higher death-rate above given for South Carolina, may be due to a more 
accurate enumeration, or it may be accounted for by the preponderance 
of the colored race, whose death-rate is always higher than that of the 
whites. In this census these respective rates, as given by the enumera- 
tion, are 17.28 per thousand for the colored population against 14.74 per 
thousand for the white population. This difiference is chiefly due to the 
diflerence in infant mortality. Both reasons above mentioned co-operate 
to produce the heavy death-rate in the Lower Pine Belt and Coast region, 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



419 



one-fourth of this population is in the City of Charleston, where an ac- 
curate system of the registration of deaths makes the mortality returns 
more complete than they are anywhere else, except in twenty-two of the 
large cities, w^here the same measures are in force. The colored race 
also forms seventy-three per cent, of the population in these regions, 
against sixty per cent, for the State at large . 

Table B. — Percentage of Total Deaths occiirrmg under 1 Year, vnder 6 
Years, and vnder all Ages among the Male and Female Fopidcdion of 
the United States and of Soidli Carolina, and in the TJf.pcr, 3Iiddle,and 
Loiver Counti^ of the latter. 





All 
Ages. 


Under 
1 Year. 


Under 
5 Years. 




d 
'^ 
^ 




6 




d 




United States 

South Carolina 

Upper or Alpine Region 

• 

Middle Country, or Piedmont, Sand and 1 
Red Hill, and Upper Pine Belt Region. J 

Lower Country, or Lower \ ..... . 

Pine Belt and Coast Region | * * ' * 


51.8 

48.4 

52.7 

47.9 
48.4 


48.2 
51.6 
47.3 

52.1 
51.6 


12.8 
12.2 
18.5 

12.5 
13.0 


10.3 
11.1 

8.0 

10.6 
12.1 


21.5 
23.5 
23.4 

23.7 
23.7 


18.2 
21.2 
14.8 

20.9 
22.0 



The number of deaths under five years of age amount to sixty-three 
per cent, of all deaths in the country at large, and to nearly seventy per 
cent, in South Carolina, due to the excess of infant mortality in the 
colored population. The excess of female over male deaths is due in 
part at least to the preponderance of females in South Carolina. 



420 



VITAL STATISTICS. 



Table C. — Percentages, of Deaths in the United States and in South Carolina, 
and in the Upper, Middle, and Lower Country of the latter, o'esnlting from 
ten principal Diseases. 





S CO 




a 












13 






Diseases of t 
Respiratory S3 


_c 

Oh 

g 




Diseases of th 
Nervous Syste 


Diarrlioeal 
Diseases. 


Diphtheria. 


Diseases of th 
Digestive Org 


CD 


> 

u 
CO 




■| 



w 

CD 
1— 1 
c« 

a 

CD 


United States .... 


14.2 


12.0 


11.0 


8.6 


5.0 


4.5 


3.0 


2.0 


1.2 


1.1 


South Carolina . . . 


12.3 


10.4 


9.2 


8.0 


3.5 


6.2 


3.7 


0.1 


2.2 


1.9 


Alpine Region . . . 


15.7 


7.7 


6.5 


7.7 


1.8 


4.6 


11.1 


0.2 


1.2 


• • 


Piedmont, Sand and ^ 






















Red Hill, Upper V 


13.1 


9.8 


8.6 


9.0 


8.1 


6.7 


4.0 


, . 


2.4 


3.0 


Pine Belt Regions, j 






















Lower Pine Belt and \ 
Coast Regions. j 


10.7 


9.7 


10.4 


6.2 


4.1 


5.7 


2.4 




3.9 


1.1 



Table " C " exhibits the causes of death, and shows that the most fatal 
diseases are less potent in South Carolina than elsewhere. The data, as 
regards malarial diseases, are not given. But deaths from this cause are 
only 2.7 per cent, of the total deaths for the country at large, and 6.5 per 
thousand in the grand group, where it is most prevalent, being in New 
Orleans itself only 4.4 per cent., are less than the deaths in the country 
at large from diseases of the digestive organs. The percentage from con- 
sumption in Carolina is doubtless much larger than it should be, the 
numbers being increased by the deaths of transient visitors, having this 
disease, to health resorts in this State, as well as by the permanent settle- 
ment here of many persons bringing the disease with them, in the hope 
that they may find relief in the mildness of this climate. 



CHAPTER Iir. 



A. SKETCH 



OF THE 



INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS 
OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 



PREPARED FOR THE STATE DEPARTiMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

BY G. H. SASS, Esq OF THE CHARLESTON BAR. 



The first permanent European settlement in South Carolina was made 
by a colony of Englishmen, who landed at Port Royal in 1670. There 
had been several previous attempts at colonization by, French and 
Spanish expeditions, but they had all failed, and had left no trace behind 
them except in the name bestowed upon the Province, which was called 
Carolina, in honor of King Charles IX. of France.* The advantages of 

* The question of the derivation of the name of Carolina i.s a somewhat obscure 
one. Some historians derive it from Charles II. of England. Rivers seems to give 
the ])referen(e to Charles I. of England, because, in the grant by that king to Sir 
Rol)ert Heath, in 1(>30, the country i.s called Carolina, or Carolana. This fact is cer- 
tainly fiatal to the claim of Charles II., but it does not dispose of the prior claim of 
Charles IX. Some of the early annalists (such, for example, as Drs. MoUigan and 
Hewett) say distinctly, that the name was given in honor of Charles IX. ; and it is 
reasonable to suppose that the name given by Ribault and Laudonniere to the country 
surrounding Charles Fort {arx Carolina), in honor of the French King, survived the 



422 INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

Port Royal, with its magnificent harbor, had also been pointed out by 
the French expedition under Ribault, and this led to its selection as a 
landing place by the English colony mentioned above. In 16G3, Charles 
II. of England granted a charter to certain English noblemen, known in 
the history of the Province as "The Lords Proprietors," conveying to 
them all the lands l3'ing between the thirty-first and thirty -sixth degrees 
of north latitude, comprising all of the present States of North Carolina, 
South Carolina and Georgia. This grant was enlarged two years later 
so as to include all between twenty-nine degrees and thirty -six degrees 
and forty seconds, north latitude, and from these two points on the At- 
lantic coast westward to the Pacific ocean. The Bahama islands were 
subsequently added to the grant. The colony which landed at Port 
Royal in 1670 was sent out by the Lords Proprietors, and. was commanded 
by Col. Wm. Sayle. Port Royal proved to be too near to the Spanish 
settlements in Florida, and to the Indian tribes allied with the Spaniards, 
for the peace or safety of the colony, and within a year Col. Sayle deter- 
mined to remove further up the coast. Leaving between themselves and 
their enemies the several rivers, bays and estuaries which indent the 
coast of Carolina between Port Royal and Charleston, the colonists se- 
lected a spot on the west bank of the Ashley river, about three miles 
above the present city, and called it, in honor of the King, Charles Town. 
This situation, however, was soon found to be inconvenient for shipping ; 
and by degrees, the inhabitants of Charles Town began to move lower 
down the river, and to establish themselves nearer the sea. The point 
formed by the confluence of the Ashley and Cooper rivers, and known 
as Oyster Point, w^as low and marshy, and cut up by numerous creeks ; 
but there was sufficient high ground on the Cooper river side to afford 
room for a settlement, and by 1677 there were enough houses built upon 
it to need some designation, and the new settlement was called Oyster 
Point Town. In 1680, so large a majority of the people had removed to 
this spot, that the seat of government was formally transferred to it, and 
its name was changed to New Charles Town. Two years later, the old 
settlement was virtually abandoned, and the new one became the only 
Charles Town. It w^as at that time declared a port of entry, and in 1685 
a collector was appointed. It was not, however, until 1783 that the city 

de.struction of the French colony, and was adopted by the Englisli settlers. This is 
the view held by Simin*, in his '' History of South Carolina." Speaking of the fort 
which Laudonniere called "La Caroline," in honor of the reiirning monarch, he says 
(page 28) : " The name thus conferred extended over the whole country a full century 
before it was occupied by the English. It remained unchanged, and was adopted by 
them, as it really served to distinguish their obligations to Charles II. of England, under 
whose auspices and charter the first permanent Eurojiean colony was settled in 
Carolina." 



INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 423 

was incorporated by the State Legislature under its present name of 
Charleston. 

The colony of Carolina, very early in its history, began to attract to 
itself emigTants from all parts of Europe. Though the Church of England 
was the established church, freedom of religious worship was guaranteed 
to all, and settlers of all social classes and all religious denominations 
began to swell the population. Emigrants were offered land at an easy 
quit-rent, and clothes and provisions were distributed by the Proprietors 
to those who could not provide for themselves. The Proprietors, being 
of the cavalier class, aided or induced many of their friends or dependents 
to emigrate to Carolina ; while the English Puritans, whom the restora- 
tion of the monarchy in England had deprived of many of their religious 
rights, were attracted to the colony by the greater religious freedom there 
enjoyed. Two vessels also arrived from New York with emigrants, and 
in 1671, the Grand Council of the colony laid out for them a town on a 
creek to the south of Stono, to be called James Town, lots in which were 
granted to every person in each family. These colonists were Dutch, and 
they were followed by others of their countrymen from Holland. The 
settlement at James Town was abandoned after a few years, and the 
settlers spread themselves over the country. In 1679, Charles II. pro- 
vided, at his own expense, two small vessels to transport to Carolina a 
few foreign Protestants, who might there domesticate the productions of 
the South of Europe. In 1683, a colony of Irish were attracted to the 
Province by the fame of its fertility, which was spread abroad, and they 
were received with so hearty a welcome that they were soon merged 
in the other colonists ; and about the same time, the remnants of a 
Scotch settlement at Port Royal, who were driven thence by the Spaniards, 
found a refuge in (,'harles Town and its vicinity. In 1685-6, a very im- 
portant accession to the colony was made by the arrival of a large number 
of French Protestant refugees, whom the revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
drove out of France. In 1696, a colony of Congregationalists, from Dor- 
chester, in Massachusetts, settled near the head of the Ashley river, about 
twenty-five miles from Charles Town. 

Such were the components of the colony over which the Lords Pro- 
prietors exercised their original jurisdiction, and for the government of 
which they proceeded to frame a system of laws under the powers com- 
mitted to them in the charter of Charles 11. Their first organized at- 
tempt at such a system embodied itself in the famous Fundamental Con- 
stitutions, generally attributed to the English philosopher, John Locke, 
but probably inspired to a considerable extent by Lord Shaftesbury. It 
is unnecessary here to state in detail the provisions of Locke's Constitu- 
tion. Its principal feature was the establishment of an oligarchy of rank 



424 INSTITUTIONS, OOVERNMFNT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAIiOLIXA. 

and power. The eldest of the eight Proprietors was always to be Pala- 
tine, and at his decease was to be succeeded by the eldest of the seven 
survivors. The Palatine's court was to sit in place of the King, to review 
all laws made by the Colonial Legislature, and to appoint a Governor, 
who was the King's representative in the colony. Three orders of nobil- 
ity were created, called Barons, Cassiques, and Landgraves, tlie first to 
possess 12,000, the second 24,000, and the third 48,000 acres of land, and 
their possessions were to be inalienable. An upper and a lower House 
of Assembly were to be established, which, Avith the Governor, consti- 
tuted the Parliament. A sort of feudal military system was provided, 
and all the inhabitants from sixteen to sixty years of age were subject to 
the call of the Governor and Council. Three terms of religious com- 
munion were fixed. 1st. Belief in a God. 2d. That He is to be wor- 
shipped. 3d. That it is lawful and the duty of every man, when called 
upon by those in authority, to bear witness to the truth. Without ac- 
knowledging these tests no man was permitted to be a freeman or to have 
any estate or habitation in Carolina. But religious toleration within 
these limits was ensured, and all persecution for religious differences was 
expressly forbidden. Supreme Courts were established, but it was de- 
clared to be a base and vile thing to plead the cause of another for money 
or reward. 

It is not surprising that such a system of government should have 
been distasteful to the colonists. The introduction of Locke's Constitu- 
tion was strenuously resisted by the people, and its practical working was 
soon found to be so unsatisfactory that, in 1693, the Proprietors, upon 
public petition, abolished the Constitution, and for a considerable time 
the colony was regulated by certain temporary rules and instructions pre- 
scribed by the Proprietors. The government was of the form which 
Englishmen naturally adopt. The executive power was represented by 
the Proj)rietors, who appointed the Governor and other officers ; the 
Legislature, by a Council or Upper House, also appointed by the Proprie- 
tors, and a Commons House of Assembly chosen by the freemen. The 
first popular election in South Carolina of which there is an}^ record, was 
held in April, 1G72, under a proclamation of the Grand Council, requir- 
ing all the freeholders to elect a new Parliament. From this body five . 
Councillors were chosen, who, with the Governor and the Deputies of the 
Lords Proprietors, formed the Grand Council. 

Such a condition of things could not last. Ihe rule of the Proprietors, 
exercised, as it was, from a distance, and with little regard to the local 
necessities of the colony, soon became -intolerable to the free spirit of the 
people, and in 1719 the colonists at last made up their minds to get rid 
of the Lords Proprietors altogether. The history of the Revolution. 



\ 

\ 

INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 425 

which ensued, need not be given in detail. It was bloodless but decisive. 
The colonists organized a convention, appointed a new governor, and 
announced their intention of casting off " the confused, helpless, and 
negligent government of the Lords Proprietors," and putting themselves 
directly under that of the British crown. In 1721 the government of 
George I. decided in their favor, and in 1729, in the reign of George II., 
the Province was purchased by the crown from the Lords Proprietors, 
and was divided into North and South Carolina. The form of govern- 
ment conferred on the colony was modeled upon the English Constitution. 
It consisted of a Governor, Council and an Assembly. To them the 
power -of making laws was committed. The King appointed the Gov- 
ernor and Council ; the Assembly was elected by the people. 

During the next half century the population of South Carolina steadil}'- 
increased. Many inducements were offered to emigrants. Bounties were 
given, free lands assigned, and the door was thrown open to settlers of 
every description. Parties of emigrants arrived constantly from Great 
Britain and the various countries of Europe. Between the years 1730 
and 1750 a large number of settlers from Great Britain and Ireland, 
Germany and the Palatinate, Switzerland and Holland, found homes in 
South Carolina. The Germans established themselves chiefly in that 
portion of the country around Orangeburg and along the Congaree and 
Wateree Rivers ; the Scotch-Irish settled in Williamsburg ; the Welsh 
along the Pee Dee River, in what are now the counties of Marlboro and 
Marion, and the Swiss along the banks of the Savannah River. After 
the Scotch rebellions of 1715 and 1745 many of the expatriated High- 
landers came to Carolina. The population, which had hitherto been con- 
fined to a radius of about eighty miles from the coast, now began to 
spread into the interior of the State. A large territory was acquired from 
the Indians, embracing the present counties of Edgefield. Abbeville, 
Laurens, Newberry, Union, Spartanburg, York, Chester, Fairfield and 
Richland, and settlements were soon made all through those fertile por- 
tions of the country. Fifteen hundred French arrived from Nova Scotia, 
and in 1704 a French Protestant colony settled in Abbeville District, and 
gave the names of Bourdeaux and New Rochelle to their settlements. 
The cultivation of wheat, hemp, flax and tobacco was introduced by col- 
onists wdio came from Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania, and that 
of the vine and of silk by emigrants from the Palatinate. Indigo, also, 
was for some years profitably cultivated. When the War of Independ- 
ence began, the population of South Carolina amounted to forty tliousand 
souls. It is needless to dwell upon the part played by South Carolina in 
the Revolutionary War. It belongs to the history of the whole country, 
and cannot be treated of here. During the war, of course, the growth 
28 



426 INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

of tlio })opulation was checked, but this was amply compensated by the 
jjrogress made by the State after tlie peace of 1783. Multitudes from 
Europe and the more Northern parts of America poured into South 
Carolina; and Greenville and Pendleton Districts, which were obtained 
in 1777, by treaty founded on conquests, from the Cherokee Indians, 
filled so rapidly with settlers that in the year 1800 those two Districts 
alone are estimated to have contained upwards of 30,000 inhabitants. 
The last group of settlers which the State received from foreign countries 
consisted of several hundred French, chiefly from St. Domingo, who 
settled for the most part in the vicinity of Charleston. 

Inference has been made to the Constitution, of John Locke and to the 
forms of government which superseded it under the Lords Proprietors, 
and, later, under the royal administration of the Province. For the first 
ninety-nine years Charleston was the seat of justice for Provincial Caro- 
lina. In 1712, a Court of Chancery was established in the persons of the 
Governor and his Council, and, later, in 1769, an Act was passed by 
which new District Courts were established at Beaufort, Georgetown, 
Cheraw, C/amden, Orangeburg and Ninety -Six. The Penal Code of Great 
Britain, when introduced into this Trovince, underwent considerable 
revision. An Act was passed in 1712 making certain English Statutes 
of force in the Province, and by that Act the English Common Law was 
declared to be of full force in Carolina, except in a few comparatively 
unimportant particulars. The ancient tenures were abolished, and free 
and common soccage was declared to be the tenure of all lands in the 
Province. The Habeas Corpus Act of Charles II. was also adopted and 
enacted. The Church of England enjoyed a nominal supremacy, but 
liberty of conscience was fully guaranteed to all persons; and all religious 
denominations worked together in the dissemination of moral and relig- 
ious training. The Presbyterians were among the first settlers, and were 
always numerous in South Carolina. The Independents, or Congrega- 
tionalists, in conjunction with the Presbyterians, were formed into a 
church in Charleston as early as 1682 ; and the Baptists formed a church 
there in 1685. The Methodists established themselves in 1785. The 
French Protestants formed a church in Charleston in 1700. The Jews 
have had a synagogue in Charleston since the year 1756 ; and about the 
same period the German Protestants formed themselves into a congrega- 
tion. The Roman Catholics were not organized into a church in South 
Carolina until 1791. The Quakers were ver}^ early in the field, and one 
of the most distinguished Governors of the Province, John Archdale, 
after Avhom one of the streets in Charleston is still called, was a Quaker. 
The im})ulso towards freedom, which had driven the emigrants who set- 
tled Carolina from their homes in the Old World, kept alive in their 



INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LA^S OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 427 

breasts the spirit of religious liberty and toleration, and all through the 
history of the State the same spirit has manifested itself in shaping leg- 
islation and administering government. Such persecution for opinion's 
sake as defaced the annals of some of the other American colonies has no 
place in the history of South Carolina. 

When the State threw off the royal authority, it adopted (in 1770) a 
provisional Constitution, and, so far as the civil power could be exercised, 
this Constitution was in operation during the Revolutionary War. After 
peace was declared, it became necessary to devise a more permanent form 
of government, and, in 17U0, a convention was called, which, after ng^giture 
deliberation, established a Constitution, which, with but few mollifica- 
tions, continued to be the law of tlie State until the end of the great civil 
war. As that Constitution has been superseded by the one now in opera- 
tion, and which was adapted to the new conditions and relations of 
society growing out of the results of the civil war, it will not be necessary 
here to detail its special provisions. The judgment of a learned and 
eloquent writer may, however, be fitly quoted upon its general scope and 
character. " Though the form of government in South Carolina," says 
Ramsay, " has been materially altered six or seven times, yet each 
change has been for the better. In the eighteenth century, while exper- 
iment and the reasoning powers of man were improving the arts and 
sciences, the art of government was by no means stationary. South 
Carolina, as one of the United States, and acting her part in tlie Ameri- 
can Revolution, has practically enforced the following improvements in 
the art of government : 1. That all power is derived from the people, 
and ought to be exercised for their benefit ; that they have a right to 
resist the tyranny and oppression of their rulers, and to change their 
government, whenever it is found not to afford that protection to life, 
liberty and property for the protection of which it was instituted. 2. That 
it is the true policy of States to afford equal protection to the civil rights 
of all individuals and of all sects of religionists, without discrimination 
or preference, and without interference, on the part of the State, in all 
matters that relate only to the intercourse between man his Maker. 3. 
That the ultimate end and object of all laws and government is the 
happiness of the people, and that, therefore, no laws should be passed, or 
taxes or other burdens imposed on them, for the benefit of a part of the 
community, but only such as operate equally and justly on all for the 
general good. 4. That war shall only be declared, or entered upon, by 
the solemn act of the people, whose blood and treasure is to be expended 
in its prosecution. * * * * t- \^ government founded on reason 
and the rights of man, and exclusively directed to its proper object, the 
advancement of human happiness, was first established by common 



428 INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

consent in the eighteenth century, and in the woods of America. Its 
foundation in South Carolina rests on the following principles: No power 
is exercised over the people but what had been granted by them with the 
express view of its being used for the general good. No laws bind them, 
nor are any taxes imposed on them, but with the consent of themselves, 
or representatives freely and fairly chosen every second year by a ma- 
jority of votes. There are no privileged orders. All are equally subject 
to the laws, and the vote of any one elector goes as far as that of any 
other. No freeman can be taken, or imprisoned, or disseized of his free- 
hold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner 
destroyed or deprived of his life, liberty, or property, but by the judg- 
ment of his peers, or by the law of the land. Religion is so perfectly free 
that all sects have equal rights and privileges, and each individual may 
join with any or with none, as he pleases, without subjecting himself to 
any civil inconvenience. These and similar principles of liberty and 
equality pervade the Constitution and laws of the State. The first is the 
work of the people in their sovereign capacity, and prescribes limits to 
all the departments of government. These departments are three — 
legislative, executive, and judicial ; for it is necessar}'- in regular govern- 
ment that laws be enacted, expounded and applied, and finally executed. 
* * ^ * The duties required and the burdens imposed by the laws 
are equally binding on the law makers as on the people. They who are 
legislators cease to be so in the Senate at the end of four years, and in the 
House of Representatives at the end of two, and all power reverts to the 
people till, by a new election, they invest the men of their choice with 
authority to act for them. Every precaution is taken to identify the 
interests of the people and their rulers. If the electors are not wanting 
to themselves, the laws thus cautiously made, impartially expounded, 
and liberally executed by the men of their choice, must be the collected 
will and wisdom of the people deliberately pursuing their own happiness 
as far as is practicable in the imperfect state of human nature. Such, 
after two revolutions in one century, and three attempts to form an 
efficient Constitution, is the result of the efforts of the people of South 
Carolina for the preservation and advancement of their political inter- 
ests." [Ramsay's History of South Carolina, Vol. 2, p. 139, et seq.] 

The period which elapsed between the two great wars was one of con- 
stant growth and prosperity. Under the operation of the constitutional 
government described by Ramsay, the progress of South Carolina was 
marked and steady. The various nationalities which have been shown 
to have contributed to her population became gradually welded together 
into a homogenous whole, and the upper districts of the State soon be- 
came the homes of thriving and industrious settlers. Count}' seats Avere 



INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 429 

established in the different Districts, and various Judicial Circuits were 
formed, the Judges and Chancellors alternating with each other in the 
different Circuits, while appeals were heard in Charleston and Columbia 
by a full Appellate Bench. The pursuits of the people were almost en- 
tirely agricultural, the chief staples of the State, cotton and rice, being 
mainly worked by the aid of African slave labor. The political differ- 
ences between the Northern and Southern States which culminated in 
the civil war, though always existing, did not interfere with the internal 
prosperity of the State. In 1800 the white poj)ulation had increased to 
291,300. In the United States Census of 1860 the white population is 
rated at 391,105 and the colored at 004,332. In the civil war South Car- 
olina put more than 50,000 soldiers into the field, and when the war was 
over, in 18G5, more than 12,000 of her male population had laid down 
their lives in the struggle for independence. The result of the war left 
the State in a j)rostrate and exhausted condition. An immense amount 
of public and private property had been destroyed. Columbia, the capi- 
tal, had been burned by the Federal armies, and the whole machinery of 
government was subverted and overthrown. Under the authority of the 
United States Congress a convention was called in 1868 to frame a new 
Constitution. The present Constitution of South Carolina was framed 
by that convention, and was submitted to the registered voters of the 
State at an election held on the 14th, 15th and 16tli days of April, 1868, 
and was adopted and ratified by them. 

LEADING PRINCIPLES OF THE CONSTITUTION. 

The leading principles of the Constitution may be briefly summarized 
as follows: 

All men are born free and equal, endowed with certain inalienable 
rights, among which are the rights of enjoying and defending their lives 
and liberties, of acquiring, possessing and protecting property, and of 
seeking and obtaining their safety and happiness. Slavery is prohibited, 
as well as involuntary servitude, except in the shape of confinement with 
labor, inflicted as a punishment for crime, of which the party shall have 
been duly convicted. All political -power is declared to be derived from 
and vested in the people alone, and they have the right at all times to 
modify their form of government as the public good may demand. Every 
citizen owes paramount allegiance to the Constitution and government of 
the LTnited States, and no law of this State passed in contravention thereof 
can have any binding force. The American Union is declared to be in- 
dissoluble, and the State shall ever remain a member thereof, and shall 
resist any effort to dissolve it. The right of the people peaceably to 



430 INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

assemble to consult for the common good and to petition the government 
or any dojiartment thereof shall never be abridged. All persons may 
freely speak, write and publish their sentiments on any subject, being re- 
sponsible for the abuse of that right, and no laws shall be enacted to re- 
strain or abridge liberty of speech or the i:)ress. In prosecutions for libel 
upon public officers, the truth of the matter may be given in evidence to 
justify the publication, and the jury in such cases are the judges of the 
law and the facts. Absolute freedom of conscience shall be secured to 
all, with only the provision that such freedom shall not justify practices 
inconsistent Avith the peace and moral safety of society. There shall be 
no established church nor form of religion, but every denomination shall 
be protected by law in the peaceable enjoyment of its own mode of wor- 
ship. The right of trial by jur}^ shall remain inviolate. Every individ- 
ual shall have the same personal rights; that is, no class of persons shall 
have any advantages before the law over an}' other class, and there shall 
be no discrimination between classes or individuals with regard to 
rights, restraints or responsibilities. No person shall be held to answer 
for any crime or offence until the same is fully and clearly explained to 
him ; and he shall not be compelled to accuse himself or furnish evidence 
against himself, but shall have the right to produce all his proofs in his 
defence ; to be confronted with the witnesses against him and to cross- 
examine them ; to have a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury, 
and to be fully heard in his own behalf, either personally or by his coun- 
sel, as he may elect. 

No person shall be aiTCsted, imprisoned, deprived of his jiroperty or 
privileges, put out of the protection of the law, exiled or deprived of his 
life, liberty or estate, except by the judgment of his equals or the law of 
the land. No law shall be passed by the General Assembly subjecting 
any one to punishment without trial by jury, nor shall any law have a 
retrospective effect, but shall apply only to offences committed after its 
passage. 

All Courts shall be public, and every person aggrieved shall have full 
access to them and remedy by due course of law, and there shall be no 
unnecessar}' dela}' in the administration of justice. All persons shall be 
bailable, before conviction, by sufficient sureties, except for capital offen- 
ces where the proof is evident or the presumption great, and excessive 
bail shall not be required. Whipping and corporal punishment of any 
sort are prohibited. The privilege of the writ of liabcas corj^us shall not 
be suspended except in cases of insurrection, rebellion or invasion, Avlien 
]'equired by the public safety. 

No person shall be tried again for the same offence after having been 
once acquitted by a jury. Small offences, under the rank of felonies, and 



IXSTITUTIOXS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 481 

in which the punishment does not exceed a fine of one hundred dollars 
or imprisonment for thirty days, shall be tried summarily before a Jus- 
tice of the Peace, on information under oath, without the intervention of 
a grand jury, but the defendant shall have the right of appeal to a higher 
Court. No person shall be held to ansAver for any higher crime or of- 
fence unless on presentment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in 
the land and naval service of the United States, or in the militia in ac- 
tual service in time of war or public danger. Imprisonment for debt is 
abolished, except in cases of fraud ;' and a certain amount of property 
shall be set aside as a family homestead [as more particularly stated 
hereafter], which shall be exempt from seizure or sale for any debts or 
liabilities, except for debts due the State. No bill of attainder, ex post facto 
law, nor any law impairing the obligation of contracts, shall ever be 
passed, and no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of 
estate. All persons have the right to be exempt from unreasonable 
searches or seizures of their persons, houses, papers or possessions. Such 
searches or seizures can only be made by special warrants formally issued 
by proper officers and supported by affidavits, and containing a particu- 
lar designation of the persons or objects of search, arrest or seizure. Pri- 
vate property cannot be taken for public use, or for the use of corpora- 
tions, or for private use, without the consent of the owner, or a just com- 
pensation being made. 

The Legislature alone has the power to declare martial law. The leg- 
islative, executive and judicial departments of the government shall be 
forever separate and distinct, and it is declared that the Legislature ought 
frequently to assemble for the redress of grievances and the making of 
new laws. The right of the people to keep and bear arms for the com- 
mon defence is recognized and established. Standing armies are prohib- 
ited, and the military power is declared to be always in subordination to 
the civil. In time of peace no soldier shall be quartered in any house 
without the consent of the owner, and in time of war only in such man- 
ner as shall be prescribed by law. 

No person who conscientiously scruples to bear arms shall be compelled 
to do so, but shall be allowed to pay an equivalent for personal service. 
All elections shall be free and open, and all electors shall have the same 
rights to elect officers and be elected. There shall be no property quali- 
fication for holding office, and no office can be held for a longer time 
than during good behavior. Fighting a duel, or sending, bearing or ac- 
cepting a challenge for that purpose, is prohibited, and shall disqualify 
a person for holding office. Representation shall be apportioned accord- 
ing to population, and the right of suffrage shall be secured to all citi- 
zens, and, once obtained, shall not be forfeited by temporary absence from 



432 INSTITUTIONS, GOVERNMENT AND LAWS OF SOUTH CAROLINA. 

the State. Property shall be taxed in proj)ortion to its value, and no 
taxation or iin})Ost of any kind shall be established except by Act of the 
Legislature. No title of nobility or hereditary emolument shall ever be 
granted. All citizens, without distinction, shall enjoy equality of pul)lic, 
legal and political rights. All navigable waters are public higiiwayS) 
free to all the citizens of the State. 

Legislative Department. — The legislative department consists of two 
distinct branches, styled respectively the Senate and the House of Repre- 
sentatives, and both together the General Assembly of the State of South 
Carolina. The House of Representatives is composed of members chosen 
by ballot every second year by the qualified electors of the State. Each 
County of the State constitutes one election district. The General As- 
sembly has the power to organize new Counties by changing the boun- 
darie