(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The southern California district of the Communist Party, structure, objectives [and] leadership. Hearings"

Cy5 0(ro^^79/ 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




GIFT OF THE 

GOVERNMENT 
OF THE UNITED STATES 



THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT 
OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY 

Structure — Objectives — Leadership 



HEARINGS 



BEFORE THE 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
HOUSE OE REPRESENTATIVES 



EIGHTY-SIXTH CONGRESS 
FIRST SESSION 



PART 3 

FEBRUARY 24 AND 25, 1959 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Un-American Activities 



INCLUDING INDEX 




HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

DEPOSITED BY THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

MAY 14 1959 

UNITED STATES 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
382fi3 WASHINGTON : 1959 



COMMITTEE ON UN-AMERICAN ACTIVITIES 
U.S. House of Representatives 

FRANCIS E. WALTER, Pennsylvania, Chairman 
MORGAN M. MOULDER, Missouri DONALD L. JACKSON, California 

CLYDE DOYLE, California GORDON H. SCHERER, Ohio 

EDWIN E. WILLIS, Louisiana WILLIAM E. MILLER, New York 

WILLIAM M. TUCK, Virginia AUGUST E. JOHANSEN, Michigan 

RiCHAED Aeens, Slaff Director 

n 



CONTENTS 



Part 1 

September 2, 1958: Testimony of — I'aee 

Dorothy Ray Healey 18 

Afternoon session: 

Dorothy Ray Henley (resumed) 49 

Statements of Loren Miller and Al Wirin (attorneys for Don 

Wheeldin) " 54 

Mary Lois Newman 55 

David Francis Arkin 68 

Thomas D. Creed 63 

Horace V. Alexander 68 

September 3, 1958: Testimony of— 

Cyril Valentine Briggs 75 

Alexander Ende 82 

Herbert Biskar 84 

Marvin Biskar 90 

Sophie Kishner 93 

Joseph Solomon 96 

Stella Choyke Biber 99 

Afternoon session: 

Joseph I. Gavron > 102 

Esther Goldie Sokolow 110 

Sakae Ishihara 114 

Bernard Burton 118 

Part 2 

September 4, 1958: Testimony of — 

Harriet Blair 137 

Lorris Gosman 140 

Jane Swanhuyser 142 

Julius Kovner 144 

Bertha Marshall 148 

EUie Henrickson 152 

Fay Kovner Mukes 159 

Rosemary Lusher 162 

Afternoon session: 

Rosemary Lusher (resumed) 168 

Reva Mucha Zwolinski 180 

Leon Pape 187 

Edith Weiner Pape.. 192 

Naomi Claire Blair 196 

Sophie Silver 201 

Jessie Josephson 203 

Archibald MacNair, Jr 205 

Charles H. Mosley, Jr 207 

Felix Padilla 209 

EliKatz 210 

ni 



IV CONTENTS 

September 5, 1958: Testimony of — Page 

William A. Wheeler 213 

Jerry Atinsky 214 

Margarete Ann Byler 218 

Elizabeth Ricardo Jackson 220 

Ola Ross Pacifico 222 

Henry Saz er 224 

Vivian Vallens 227 

Leo Baef sky 230 

Estelle Parness 232 

Irving SarnofF __ 233 

William W. Talbot '__'_ 235 

Part 3 

February 24, 1959: Testimony of — 

Charlene Mitchell 237 

Seymour D. Brodsky 254 

Admiral George Dawson 255 

Eleanor Smith 258 

Clarence George Young 260 

Afternoon session: 

Helen Blair 263 

Ethel Biskar 267 

Edward M. Enfiajian 270 

August Maymudes 273 

Shifra Goldman 274 

February 25, 1959: Testimony of — 

Matilda Molina Tolly 279 

Mark Robinson 282 

Delfino Varela 284 

Ben Karr 288 

Afternoon session: 

Sophie Siminoski 290 

Harry Hunt 293 

Arthur Brown 296 

Robert Klonsky 301 

Philip Rafalow 304 

Solomon Monroy 306 



Index. 



1 



Public Law 601, 79th Congress 

The legislation under which the House Committee on Un-American 
Activities operates is Public Law 601, 79th Congress [1946], chapter 
753, 2d session, which provides: 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States 
of A merica in Congress asse?nbled, * * * 

PART 2— RULES OF THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 

Rule X 

SEC. 121. STANDING COMMITTEES 

:(: =(: * * * * * 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities, to consist of jiine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 

(q) (1) Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(A) Un-American activities. 

(2) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommit- 
tee, is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (i) the extent, 
character, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in tlie United States, 
(ii) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American propa- 
ganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and attacks 
the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitution, and 
(iii) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress in any necessary 
remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session) the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-American 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such 
times and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, 
has recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

4: 4: 9): 4: >): 4= 4= 

Rule XII 

LEGISLATIVE OVERSIGHT BY STANDING COMMITTEES 

Sec. 136. To assist the Congress in appraising the administration of the laws 
and in developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem neces- 
sary, each standing committee of the Senate and the House of Representatives 
shall exercise continuous watchfulness of the execution by the administrative 
agencies concerned of any laws, the subject matter of which is within the jurisdic- 
tion of such committee; and, for that purpose, shall study all pertinent report 
and data submitted to the Congress by the agencies in the executive branch of 
the Government. 

V 



RULES ADOPTED BY THE 86TH CONGRESS 

House Resolution 7, Jumiary 7, 1959 

******* 

Rule X 

STANDING COMMITTSES 

1. There shall be elected by the House, at the commetieemeTit of each Coii- 
p;ress, 

******* 

(f|) Com?nittee on Un-American Activities, to consist of nine Members. 

Rule XI 

POWERS AND DUTIES OF COMMITTEES 
******* 

18. Committee on Un-American Activities. 

(a) Un-American activities. 

(b) The Committee on Un-American Activities, as a whole or by subcommittee, 
is authorized to make from time to time investigations of (1) the extent, char- 
acter, and objects of un-American propaganda activities in the United States, 
(2) the diffusion within the United States of subversive and un-American prop- 
aganda that is instigated from foreign countries or of a domestic origin and 
attacks the principle of the form of government as guaranteed by our Constitu- 
tion, and (3) all other questions in relation thereto that would aid Congress 
in any necessary remedial legislation. 

The Committee on Un-American Activities shall report to the House (or to the 
Clerk of the House if the House is not in session") the results of any such investi- 
gation, together with such recommendations as it deems advisable. 

For the purpose of any such investigation, the Committee on Un-AmericaJi 
Activities, or any subcommittee thereof, is authorized to sit and act at such times 
and places within the United States, whether or not the House is sitting, has 
recessed, or has adjourned, to hold such hearings, to require the attendance 
of such witnesses and the production of such books, papers, and documents, and 
to take such testimony, as it deems necessary. Subpenas may be issued under 
the signature of the chairman of the committee or any subcommittee, or by any 
member designated by any such chairman, and may be served by any person 
designated by any such chairman or member. 

26. To assist the House in appraising the administration of the laws and in 
developing such amendments or related legislation as it may deem necessary, 
each standing committee of tlie House shall exercise contiiuious watchfulness 
of the execution by the administrative agencies concerned of any laws, the subject 
matter of which is within the jurisdiction of such committee; and, for that 
purpose, shall study all pertinent reports and data submitted to the House by 
the agencies in the executive branch of the Government. 

VI 



THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT OF THE 
COMMUNIST PARTY 

Structure — Objectives — Leadership 

(Part 3) 



TUESDAY, FEBBUARY 24, 1959 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Lo8 Angeles^ Calif. 

EXECUTIVE session ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to call, at 9:30 a.m., in room 229, Federal Building, Los 
Angeles, Calif., Hon. Francis E. Walter (chairman) presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. Walter, 
of Pennsylvania; Morgan M. Moulder, of Missouri; and August E. 
Johansen, of Michigan. 

Staff members present : Frank S. Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; William A. 
Wheeler, investigator; and Mrs. William A. Wheeler, acting clerk. 

Chairman Walter. The committee will come to order. 

Will you raise your right hand, please? Do you swear the testi- 
mony you are about to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP CHAELENE MITCHELL, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JEAN KIDWELL 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 

Mrs. Mitchell. Charlene Mitchell. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss or Mrs. ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Mrs. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counsel. 

Mrs, Mitchell. lam. 

Mr. Tavenner. Counsel, will you please identify yourself? 

Miss KiDWELL. Miss Jean Kidwell, Pestana & Kidwell. 

Mr. Tavenner. Of the Los Angeles Bar ? 

Miss Kidwell. Yes. 



* Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 

The executive testimony herewith released formed part of the baclcground information 
on which is based the "Report on the Southern California District of the Communist 
Party: Structure — Objectives — Letadership," H. Rept, No. 259, released by the Committee 
on Un-American Activities on Apr. 3, 1950. 

237 



238 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Chairman Walter. This is a continuation of the hearing begun by 
the Committee on Un-American Activities in Los Angeles, Septem- 
ber 2, 1958. It is authorized by a resolution adopted by the committee 
on the 23d day of January 1959, which reads as follows : 

Be it resolved, That a hearing by the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
or a subcommittee thereof, to be held in Los Angeles, Calif., or at such other 
place or places as the chairman may designate, on such date or dates as the 
chairman may determine, be authorized and approved, including the conduct 
of investigations deemed reasonably necessary by the staff in preparation there- 
for, relating to the extent, character, and objects of Communist Party activities 
in California, with special reference to such activities in southern California, 
the legislative purpose being : 

1. (a) To obtain additional information for use by the committee in its con- 
sideration of section 16 of H.R. 9352 relating to the proposed amendment of 
section 4 of the Communist Control Act of 1954 referred to the Committee on 
Un-American Activities on August 19, 1957, prescribing a penalty for knovdngly 
and willfully becoming or remaining a member of the Communist Party with 
knowledge of the purpose or objectives thereof ; and 

(b) To obtain additional information, adding to the committee's overall 
knowledge on the subject so that Congress may be kept informed and thus pre- 
pared to enact remedial legislation in the national defense and for internal 
security, when and if the exigencies of the situation require it. 

2. In the exercise of continuous watchfulness of the execution by the adminis- 
trative agency concerned of laws, the subject matter of which is within the 
jurisdiction of this committee, to obtain information to assist the House in 
appraising the administration of such laws and in developing such amendments 
or relate<i legislation as the committee may deem necessary. 

Be it further resolved, That the hearings may include any other matter within 
the jurisdiction of the committee, which it, or any subcommittee thereof appointed 
to conduct this hearing, may designate. 

Let the record show that pursuant to law and the rules of this com- 
mittee, I, as chairman, appointed a subcommittee for the purpose of 
conducting these hearings composed of Eepresentatives Morgan M. 
Moulder and August E. Johansen, as associate members, and myself, 
Francis E. Walter, as chairman. 

Tlie order of appointment of the subcommittee will be set forth in 
the record at this point. 

(The order of appointment is as follows :) 

February 5, 1959. 
To: Mr. Richard Arens, Staff Director, House Committee on Un-American 
Activities. 
Pursuant to the provisions of the law and the rules of this committee, I hereby 
appoint a subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities, consisting 
of Representatives Morgan M. Moulder and August E. Johansen as associate 
members, and myself, Francis E. Walter, as chairman, to conduct hearings in 
executive session in Los Angeles, Calif., Tuesday, February 24, 1959, at 10 a.m., 
on subjects under investigation by the committee and take such testimony on 
said day or succeeding days, as it may deem necessary. Please make this action 
a matter of committee record. 

If any member indicates his inability to serve, please notify me. 
Given under my hand this fifth day of February, 1959. 

/s/ Francis E. Walter, 
Chairman, The Committee on TJn- American Activities. 

Mr. Walter. The committee resolution adequately sets forth the 
subject and purposes of this hearing. As stated at the inception of 
the hearing in September, information has come to the committee of 
renewed Communist Party activities in this area. The direction and 
extent of this renewed activity and its purposes are deemed by the 
committee to be of such importance to the welfare and defense of 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 239 

the country as to justify this investigation in order that remedial 
legislation may be recommended designed to meet new threats of 
subversion. 

You may proceed, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mrs. Mitchell. I have a statement that I would like to submit 
before the committee if this is possible. 

Mr. Walter. You may submit the statement and it will be made a 
part of our records. 

Mr. Tavenner. State your address, please. 

Mrs. Mitchell. 2411 West 23d Street. 

Mr. Tavenner. Los Angeles? 

Mrs. Mitchell. That is right. 

IMr. Tavenner. AVhen and where were you born ? 

J^Irs. Mitchell. 1930, in Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your maiden name ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Alexander. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, briefly, what 
your formal educational training has been ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. The usual grammar school, high school, and com- 
pleted 2 years of college. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you attend college ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Herzl Junior College in Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date of the completion of your 
work ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I think June of 1950. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien did you first come to California to make it 
your place of residence? 

Mrs. Mitchell. About 4 years ago. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live prior to that? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Chicago, 111. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I refuse to answer that question on all the grounds 
afforded me by the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you at this time a salaried employee of the 
Communist Party in the Southern District of California? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your first employment after coming to 
California 4 years ago? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your occupation in Chicago before 
coming to California ? 

Mrs. INiiTCHELL. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you be a little more definite as to the time that 
you came here? 

Mrs. Mitchell. It is roughly 4 years ago. I can't remember the 
exact date. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you sent here by the Communist Party from 
Chicago ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on the previous grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. T^^ien you first came from Chicago to California did 
you engage in youth work in this area? 

Mrs. IVIiTCHELL. Same answer. 

Mr. TAATi:xNi:K. By youth work, I mean youth work within the 
Communist Party. 

38253 — 59— pt. 3 2 



240 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you associated from the time of your arrival 
in Los Angeles to a comparatively recent date with the Labor Youth 
League ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. You are going into the field of my aiRliations and 
associations, and I must refuse to answer on the grounds afforded me 
by the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. What grounds are those ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. All of the grounds of the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you relying upon that part of the fifth amend- 
ment relating to self-incrimination ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. The Constitution and all its amendments. 

Mr. Moulder. Mr. Chairman, may I interrupt? May I ask that 
the witness be directed to answer the question for the reason that there 
should be some showing of whether or not she is acting in good faith 
in claiming the protection of the Constitution. 

Mr. Walter. Yes ; I direct you to answer that question. 

Mrs. Mitchell. I refuse on the grounds of the first, the fifth, and 
all those amendments that protect my rights. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, I think I should read into the record 
that the Labor Youth League was cited by Attorney General J. How- 
ard McGrath in his letter released August 30, 1950, as a "Communist 
organization" which "has taken the place of the two prior organiza- 
tions as the organization for young Communists," — that is, the Young 
Communist League and American Youth for Democracy. 

Did you attend the Labor Youth League convention held in Los 
Angeles in July of 1956 ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously men- 
tioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not one of the seven members of the pre- 
siding committee of that convention ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Labor Youth League is not now in existence, 
is it? 

Mrs. IMiTCiiELL. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know why it went out of existence ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not a fact that it went out of existence because 
its activity had become publicly known and, therefore, it could not be 
supported ? Is that not true ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you at this time a member at large of the Com- 
nmnist Party of the United States ? 

Mrs._ Mitchell. You are again going into the field of associations, 
affiliations, and I must refuse to answer you on the previous grounds 
that I mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member at large of the National Com- 
mittee of the Communist Party of the United States ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. That is the same question, and the same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in attendance at a meeting of the District 
Council of the Comniunist Party for Southern California held on 
July 27, 1958, at which time a report was made by delegates who 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 241 

attended a meeting of the National Committee of the Communist 
Party held in New York City June 28, 1958 ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on all previous grounds mentioned. 

Mr, Walter. May I interrupt at that point, Mr. Tayenner. I 
think it is very important if we could possibly induce this witness 
to tell us what happened at that meeting. 

Mr. Tavennek. I am asking her about a meeting which she attended 
in Los Angeles, the purpose of which was to receive reports from the 
delegates who attended the national committee meeting. 

Dorothy Healey, who, according to the committee's information, is 
the head of the Communist Party in the Southern District of Cali- 
fornia, and is also a member of the National Committee of the Com- 
munist Party, made an extensive report to the Southern California 
District convention in April 1957. That report has been introduced 
in evidence as exhibit 7 in her testimony. I want to read to you from 
a page of that report : 

Youth. We are not in a position to project a definitive program of work among 
youth. We know that the future of our party lies in our ability to win youth to 
the cause of socialism. But while we cannot yet answer the question of what 
type of Marxist youth organization should emerge ,we can state that high on the 
priority list on our party's program should be the planned and conscious ap- 
proach toward the young people in the mass organizations and unions in which 
we participate. This means developing teen-age programs in those organizations, 
designed to answer the needs and interests of young people. 

Were you present when that report was made ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. All of these things, it seems to me, that you are 
reading, are matters of public record. I just don't think the committee 
is really interested in these things. I think it is more interested in 
harassing people. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are more interested in whether you knew about 
it. 

Mrs. Mitchell. I just refuse to answer on the grounds I have al- 
ready given you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not made cochairman of the Youth 
Commission of the Communist Party in Southern California for the 
purpose of carrying out the directives that came down from the na- 
tional committee and as reported by Dorothy Healey ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I must refuse to answer these questions on the 
grounds that I have already given you. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee how many persons com- 
pose the Youth Commission of the Communist Party in this area? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Ethel Biskar made your cochairman? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is Shifra Goldman a member of your Youth Com- 
mission ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. It seems to me that you have subpenaed me here. 
Why should I have to testify about other people ? I am not going to 
give to this committee any kind of names or anything else that may 
help this committee. I refuse to answer that question on the previous 
grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have a direction that the witness answer the 
question ? 

Mr. Walter. You are so directed. 



242 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mrs. Mitchell. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is Eleanor Smith a member of this commission ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was a person by the name of Edward Enfiajian a 
member of this Youth Commission at one time ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was lie not dropped from this commission and re- 
lieved of responsibility on it because his activities on this commission 
might publicly identify him as a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I must refuse to answer on the previous grounds 
mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many youth organizations of the Communist 
Party are there in the Southern District of California ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. You are changing these questions around just like 
that, but the same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the begining of 1959, were there not three youth 
clubs in operation in this area ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were not one or two adult members of the Com- 
munist Party assigned to each club ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Walter. What were the names of the clubs, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Ta^t.nner. One was a study group, according to the committee's 
information, Imown as Shifra Goldman Group. Is that correct? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You and August Maymudes were assigned to a 
more advanced group of the young Communist group, were you not? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on the previous grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Ta'\^nner. The third group that I mentioned Avas made up of 
ex-members of the Labor Youth League, is that not true ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not a fact that Admiral Dawson was the adult 
member who was assigned to this last mentioned group ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Taatenner. In other words, if our information is correct that 
you are cochairman of the youth movement in this area, you refuse to 
give this committee any information about the advancement of its 
work ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. It seems to me if this committee is at all interested 
in subversives then they should really go where the subversives are. 
I know nothing of why this committee has to come to Los Angeles 
when time after time incidents of terrors and bombings take place 
against my people, the Negro people in the South, even here, as a mat- 
ter of fact, and this committee does nothing about that but here it 
comes into Los Angeles to investigate, as it calls it, so-called subver- 
sives. This I can't understand. It seems to me if this committee is 
really interested then they can investigate the KKK, the TAHiite Citi- 
zens Council, any number of organizations that are really subverting 
this organization. 



COMMUlSfISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 243 

Mr. Waliter. You know the difference between those activities 
and the activities we are investigating. I am not going to waste 
my breatli reminding you of what they are. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you consider the Communist Party as being a 
political party, or would you consider it to be a subversive activity 5 

Mrs. Mitchell. You are again asking me as to opinions and ideas. 
I will discuss these things with you in an open forum but I am not 
going to answer you that in this type of committee hearing. 

Mr. Moulder. My conclusion is that you consider the Communist 
Party or the Communist Party activities as not being subversive. 

Mrs. Mitchell. When and if we want to discuss the ideas and opin- 
ions of any organization, then maybe we could go and discuss them in 
an open forum but I will not sit here in this room and discuss these 
opinions with you. 

Mr.TAVENNER. Wliy? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Because I feel I would be giving up my constitu- 
tional liberties and I would not be acting as a decent American citizen. 

]SIr. Tavenner. Is not the actual reason that you do not want to give 
information regarding the activities of the Communist Party because 
then Congress will have the full facts ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. It seems to me that Congress has an awful lot of 
facts on an awful lot of things and they have not done much about it, 
especially this committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are gathering more facts all the time and we 
hope to get some from you. We certainly have obtained complete 
information about this community. 

Mrs. Mitchell. Did you get facts about Little Rock ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, we have. 

Mrs. Mitchell. You have not moved on Little Rock and you have 
been here twice. 

Mr. Tavenner. We have obtained facts about what the Communist 
Party wants to do about infiltration and that you are a member of the 
national committee. What do you know about that ? 

Mr. Walter. About what ? 

Mr. Tavenner. About the decision of the Communist Party to 
infiltrate into the NAACP. 

Mrs. Mitchell. I have not violated any laws. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is not my question. You brought up the 
question, now let us follow it. 

Mrs. Mitchell. Then I refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
previously mentioned. 

Mr. Moulder. May I ask what knowledge of subversive activities 
you have at Little Rock ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. It seems to me that this whole committee should, 
if it does not know, know about the question of Governor Faubus who 
has refused over and over again to follow the Supreme Court's mandate 
of 1954 outlawing segregated schools, when children are having to go to 
schools with bayonets at them and then all of a sudden they can't go 
that way because the Congress has not yet seen fit to pass a bill that 
will protect those children. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have such a personal knowledge ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. There is a child who goes to Los Angeles High 
School because he could not go to a decent school in Little Rock. My 



244 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

father comes from Georgia, where, when he went to Georgia, they 
strung him up on a pole outside of a high school. I know about these 
things and I know the sheriff knew and I know there are Congressmen 
who sit in Congress who sit there in defiance of the 14th amendment. 
Because they are supposed to be elected by the people who vote. Here 
are people in Mississippi — only three-tenths of 1 percent of Negroes 
in Mississippi can vote. If this is not subverting the Government, 
then I don't know what is. It seems to me this committee should be 
perfectly willing to investigate such activity. 

Mr. Walter. That is not within our jurisdiction, but since you have 
been so willing to talk why do you not talk about the things pertinent 
to this hearing ? 

Mr. Tavenner. In the February 25, 1957, issue of The New Leader 
there is an article entitled "U.S. Communists Convene," by Walter K. 
Lewis. I read this paragraph : 

* * * The Communists directed special emphasis to the Negro question in their 
declaration of principles, and Carl Rachlin reported that a major effort to in- 
filtrate the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the 
National Urban League should be anticipated. 

What has been done in this area to carry out what was indicated 
should be anticipated in this field ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I must stand on my constitutional rights and re- 
fuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, have you not advanced $45 of 
Communist Party money to a member of the NAACP at UCLA and 
you did it in the name of the Youth Commission of the Communist 
Party? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Moulder. That is a very interesting point. Do you mean by 
the same answer that you are claiming protection of the fifth amend- 
ment of the Constitution ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. All the grounds that I previously stated. 
^ Mr. Tavenner. On September 21, 1958, there was a District Coun- 
cil meeting of the Southern California Communist Party, and accord- 
ing to the committee's information, you were present. Before I ask 
you any questions about that, I want to ask you whether or not it is 
true that you are one of the 62 members of the District Council of the 
Communist Party for the Southern District of California ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. You are questioning again in the same way and I 
give the same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you not one of the 10 executive board members 
of the district council ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not true that Don Wheeldin, before he resigned 
on March 26, 1958, was also a member of this same executive board 
with you ? 

Mrs. JSliTCHELL. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not true that Horace V. Alexander was 1 of 
the 10 members ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Thomas Creed ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Cornelius Crowe ? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 245 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not a fact that Ben Dobbs is also a member 
with you ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not also a fact that Bernard Lusher, who is 
prominent in the field of labor, is also a member of this executive 
board with you ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. And Nemmy Sparks ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. When Don Wlieeldin resigned, according to the 
committee's information, it was planned that William Taylor, form- 
erly of Washington, D.C., was slated to become a member of the 
board. Has he yet become a member ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I referred you to the fact, according to the com- 
mittee's information, that there was a meeting on September 21, 1958 — 
that was after the committee's hearing here in Los Angeles last Sep- 
tember — of the District Council of the Communist Party for the 
Southern District of California, and that you were present. I want 
to ask you some questions about that meeting. 

In fact, I have what purports to be a copy of the minutes of that 
meeting. Will you examine it, please, and state whether or not the 
action reported there was the action at that meeting. 

(Papers handed to the witness.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you identify that document as a copy of the 
minutes ? 

Mrs. Mitchell Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked "Mitchell Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Walter. It may be marked and made a part of the record. 

(Document marked "Mitchell Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the committee's information and as 
stated on those minutes, the meeting was held at Park Manor, 607 
South Western Avenue in Los Angeles. Is that not correct ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Exhibit 1, which I showed you, has a statement that 
there were in attendance 42 delegates and one visitor. 

Mrs. Mitchell. Who was the visitor ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Paragraph C, at the bottom of the first page, is as 
follows : 

Dorothy reported for the district board on the experiences, lessons, and of 
the recently concluded hearings of the House Un-American Activities Commit- 
tee. Twelve delegates spoke in the discussion. 

What did Dorothy Healey have to say about the hearings of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same question and same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You seem to be smiling. Something of an unusual 
character must have occurred. 

Mrs. Mitchell. No ; I am laughing because you are asking me the 
same questions in a different manner. 



246 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Dorothy Healey at this meeting explain why 
the Communist Party did not call a meeting of the subpenaed 
witnesses ? 

Mrs. MrrcHELi.. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she not explain before that meeting that it was 
much better that a districtwide meeting of all the subpenaed people 
be held under the auspices of the Citizens Committee To Preserve 
American Freedoms? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. The Citizens Committee To Preserve American 
Freedoms did hold such a meeting in August of 1958, did it not? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I ask the witness be directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Walter. You are so directed. 

Mrs. Mitchell. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds 
afforded me by the Constitution and all its amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Frank Wilkinson was one of the speakers, was he 
not? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Various subpenaed witnesses, including Don Wheel- 
din, were called upon to stand up at the meeting, and some of them 
spoke, did they not ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on the previous grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. What functionary of the Communist Party made 
the arrangements for, or negotiated with, the Citizens Committee to 
Preserve American Freedoms for the sponsoring of that meeting ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on the previous grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it the purpose of this meeting to encourage or 
induce the subpenaed witnesses to stand together in defying this 
committee? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Citizens Committee 
to Preserve American Freedoms in August of 1958 ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I will not discuss my affiliations with any organi- 
zation before this committee. I refuse to answer on the previous 
grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you present at the meeting of the Citizens 
Committee to Preserve American Freedoms? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I now want to go back to this meeting of the District 
Council of the Southern District of California, Communist Party, at 
which Dorothy Healey, according to the minutes, spoke of the experi- 
ences and lessons of the hearing before this committee, and I ask you 
whether or not she did not admit to the group to which she was speak- 
ing that the committee in questioning her had correct information of 
what had transpired at a former meeting of the District Council. 

Mrs. Mitchell. I must refuse to answer on the grounds previously 
mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did she not tell you that the information was so 
accurate that the committee must have had the meeting room bugged 
or had an informer present ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 



I 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 247 



Mr. Tavenner. Referring again to exhibit 1, the minutes, I made 
reference to the statement m the minutes that 12 delegates spoke in 
the discussion relating to the committee. 

"V^^io were some of them ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Sophie Silver, as one of them, discuss the lack 
of security which exists in the Communist Party of the Southern Dis- 
trict of California ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Incidentally, was not a security provision taken at 
the holding of this very meeting designed to deceive the public as to 
the nature of the meeting that was being held ? 

Mrs. JMitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was there not placed on the announcement board at 
the Park Manor a sign that your meeting was the "Midtown Forum" ? 

Mrs. Mitcpiell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was not Harry Hunt also a speaker on the subject 
of the committee ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Did not Wally Talbot also participate in the debate ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were cotreasurer with a white person for the 
subpenaed witnesses' fund, were you not ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Do you always make this big difference ? 

Mr. Taa-enner. What big difference ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Is it something that is a white person? Do you 
always make such a difference ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I am in this case. 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I will state why. As 1 of the 12 persons who dis- 
cussed the hearing of the committee, did you not charge that the 
white Communist Party members were discriminating against you 
by turning over their money to the white cotreasurer instead of paying 
you? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You specifically charged, did you not, that Henry 
Sazer was guilty of this type of conduct in connection with a $40 
contribution made by him ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Exhibit 1, constituting the minutes of the meeting, 
shows that a motion was made, seconded, and carried, that the party 
be mobilized to participate in the campaign to abolish the House 
Un-American Activities Committee. You recall that, do you not? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any action taken on your complaint with regard 
to discrimination against a Negro member by the white members of 
the Communist Party with regard to payment of contributions? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was any action taken at the meeting with regard 
to the complaint made by yon that you were being discriminated 
against ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 



38253 — 59 — pt. 3- 



248 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Moulder. You were referring to discrimination a little while 
ago in Little Kock and elsewhere. Don't you wish to give us informa- 
tion about any discrimination which might be going on within the 
Communist Party ? 

Mrs. MrrcHELL. The outward terror, the harassment, the murder of 
Negroes that has taken place in the South, in my opinion, is com- 
parable — there is nothing comparable to it. 

Mr. Moulder. I mean the principle of it, maybe not to the same 
degree, but the principle. 

Mrs. Mitchell. I don't think the principle anywhere else is the 
same. 

Mr. Moulder. You were complaining about discrimination. If it 
is false, would you not want to deny it ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I will neither deny nor affirm anything this com- 
mittee wants to know regarding my affiliations or ideas. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has information that the last meet- 
ing of the District Council of the Southern California Communist 
Party was held at the same place on October 24, 1958, and that the 
attendance at this meeting had fallen off to about 30 members. Can 
you account for this percentage of decrease in attendance ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on the previous grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is Bernard Lusher chairman of the Labor Commis- 
sion of the Communist Party for the Southern California District 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he report at this meeting held on October 24 
of the advantages of uniting in one group all the labor members from 
the different sections and clubs of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did he not publicly state in that meeting that the 
main purpose of this type of organization was to influence the political 
thinkmg of the people in the imions ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on the grounds previously mentioned. 

Mr. Walter. Did he say what he meant by political thinking? 

Mr. Tavenner. No, sir. 

You were present at that meeting ; were you not ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner, According to the committee's information, you were. 

The committee's information is that the next meeting followmg 
that one was held in November of 1958 but you were not present. 
Why were you not present ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in New York at the time that meeting 
was held ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not in attendance in November of 1958 
at the National Committee meeting of the Conununist Party in New 
York City? 

Mrs. Mftchell. I stand on the previous grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Our information is that you were present at a 
District Council meeting held not long thereafter in Los Angftles on 
December 21, 1958. Am I correct that you were present ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 



COMMUNIBM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 249 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Dorothy Healey at this meeting announce that 
you were not in agreement with a resolution passed at the national 
committee meeting on "Theoretical Aspects of the Negro Question in 
the United States"? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, did she not announce that you were 
opposed to the action that had been taken ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on the previous grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the resolution to which Dorothy Healey 
referred and with what did it deal ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did not the resolution to which she referred relate 
to a change in the party position tliat Im.d been taken as long ago 
as 1928 with regard to the Negro people in the United States con- 
stituting a nation within a nation ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. This has been the subject of considerable testi- 
mony before the committee in the past where the committee was 
rather ridiculed by the Communist Party for contending that the 
Communist Party had adopted a program, or a line, taking the posi- 
tion that the Negro people constituted under Stalin's definition a 
nation within the United States. But vrhen this was attempted to 
be changed, you opposed the change, did you not? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Ta\-enner. Do you admit that the Communist Party had been 
wrong for 30 years, from 1928 until 1958, in its position that the 
Negroes constituted a separate nation within the United States? 

Mrs. Mitchell. We are discussing now opinions ? 

Mr. Tavenner. No. 

Mrs. Mitchell. I don't understand the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. Let me restate it, then. Did you not state at this 
meeting on December 21 that you were opposed to any change in the 
position taken by the Commmunist Party as long ago as 1928 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Just a minute, 
-which position was and continued to be up until 1958 that the 



Negro people were a separate nation within the United States? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on the previous grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did not Dorothy Plealey continue to point out that 
she was in favor of the change and against the view taken by you? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did not Dorothy Healey take a very strong position 
against you in this matter ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. In fact, you and Dorothy Healey have not gotten 
along very well together. You look surprised. 

Mrs. Mitchell. Is the committee interested in how I get along 
with people ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, when an issue is involved. 

Mrs. Mitchell. I must refuse to answer on the ground previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did not Dorothy Healey run into a great deal of 
diflSculty in the meeting of the District Council of July 27, 1958, re- 



250 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

garding the Thompson report from the national committee and the 
Dennis report in the matter of the discussion of Nagy in Hungary ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I will not discuss with you my opinions or any- 
body's opinions before this committee. I must refuse to answer on 
the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dorothy Healey made a minority report about 
which she was very severely taken to task by members of the Com" 
munist Party. Is that not true ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Max Steinberg introduced a resolution to remove 
her as chairman of the party and possibly the only thing that saved 
her was that Pettis Perry moved that the motion be tabled. Is that not 
correct ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. I wonder if the stenotypist could reread the state- 
ment the witness made a few moments ago to the effect that she would 
not discuss any opinions before this committee ; hers or anyone else's. 

Mrs. Mitchell, is it not true you did discuss before this committee 
your opinions about Little Rock and alleged wrongs in the South ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. That is true. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Do you have a double standard ? There are some 
qpinions you will discuss before this committee but not others; is 
that right? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I don't get the question. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. You have just said you would not discuss your opin- 
ions or anyone's before this committee ; yet you acknowledge that you 
did discuss your opinions regarding Little Rock, so you have a double 
standard. Some opinions you will discuss before the committee. 

Mrs. Mitchell. It seems to me tliat I am not required to discuss 
my opinions before this committee. There are those that I v/ill discuss 
that I would like this committee to be aware of. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have any knowledge of any subversive plans 
or acts of disloyalty to our Government occurring or being planned at 
any of the meetings mentioned by Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. You have placed the same questions maybe in a 
different way that Mr. Tavenner has and I must give you the same 
answer. 

Mr. Moulder. If you had such knowledge of subversive or disloyal 
acts or plans to overthrow our form of government by force and vio- 
lence or to cooperate with the international scheme of the world 
Communist Party movement, would you tell us about it ? 

Mrs. MncHELL. It is my feeling that this committee does not ac- 
complish whatever it is set out to accomplish. 

Mr. Moulder. That is not responsive to my question. 

Mrs. Mitchell. I am trying to answer your question if you will 
give me just a moment. 

It seems to me if anyone is guilty of any crime or any criminal act 
that she should be called before a jury, a regular court, and be given 
his day in court to answer to such charges, but to come before such 
a hearing as this where, admittedly, the Supreme Court says in the 
Watkins decision that Congress has no riglit to investigate 

Mr. Moulder. That is not responsive. You heard the chairman's 
statement at the beginning of this hearing that the objective of this 



f 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 251 



committee is to secm'e inl'ormiition to enable the Congress to better 
legislate upon problems facing our country — the threat of the Com- 
munist movement, and the efforts on the part of the Soviet Union to 
dominate the world, including our own country. 

If you have any information along that line, would you give it to 
us to enable us to properly formulate legislation for your protection 
as well as the rest of the people of this Nation ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. There are already such laws to protect this coun- 
try. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have any such information or knowledge ? 

Mrs. IMiTcnELL. I have to refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. That is what I thought. 

Mr. Tavenner. Actually, the Communist Party attacks all laws 
dealing with security such as the Smith Act, the Walter-McCarran 
Act, and various acts relating to the employment of subversives. They 
fight, also, the FBI, which is engaged m fighting espionage and sabot- 
age and other matters affecting the national defense and safety of the 
country. 

These veiy minutes show that the Communist Party is endeavoring 
to mobilize forces to abolish this committee. In fact, it is engaged in 
every type of activity that it can think of against the interests of this 
country in the field of subversion. Is that not true ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. If I am here accused of any criminal acts, then I 
think that I should be called before a grand jury, but I do not think 
that 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you answer my question ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I must refuse to answer your question on the 
grounds previously stated. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Do you believe in the Constitution of the United 
States? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I do. I believe in it and I fight for it. 

Mr. Moulder. Does the Communist Party believe in it? Does it 
support its principles ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. You are asking me about organizations and af- 
filiations and I will not answer those questions before this committee. 
I refuse to answer on the grounds previously mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Has any action been taken on Steinberg's motion ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on the previous grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not oppose Dorothy Healey at the meeting 
of July 27, 1958, to which I liave referred by making a motion that the 
reports which had been made be adopted — that is, the majority re- 
ports, which Dorothy Healey had opposed ? 

Were you not the one who made the motion that the committee re- 
ports be accepted ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. What is the pertinency of this kind of question to 
the legislation that Mr. Walter referred to ? 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. Does the Constitution require the Congress to pro- 
vide for the general defense of the Nation ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Does Congi-ess provide it ? 

Mr. Johansen. Does the Constitution require Congress to provide 
for the general defense ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I think so, but -what has this kind of question to 
do with providing for the national defense of the country? 



252 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Walter, As a result of hearings of this sort over a period of 
years, recommendations have been made to the Congress which have 
resulted in the enactment of close to three dozen different laws, and 
I do not know how many Executive orders. 

You see, the accomplishments have been great — perhaps too great 
for your purpose. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Those laws were enacted pursuant to the constitu- 
tional authority vested in the Congress of the United States. 

Mrs. MrrcHELL. They are all reprehensive laws and also very anti- 
democratic. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Will you answer the question, please ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Will you repeat the question ? 

Mr. Tavenner. The question is whether or not you made the mo- 
tion to accept the majority report from the national committee. ^ 

Mrs. Mitchell. I must stand on the previous grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. In making that motion, in speaking to it, did you 
not support the position of the Communist Party with regard to the 
execution of Nag}', that is, were you not in favor of it ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Here again, this is an area of opinion and ideas on 
a certain subject. What happens in Hungary, happens in Hungary, 
and I must refuse to answer you on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you support the sending of Soviet troops into 
Hungary ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I think the Hungarians will take care of their own 
problems in their own way. They are a countiy outside of our own 
soil. I have nothing to do with Hungary and I feel that my efforts 
can much better be put to use in our own country, whatever they may 
be, and I must refuse to answer your question on the previous grounds 
mentioned. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. I want to go back for a moment to my questioning 
of you regardin^T your work among the young Communist groups. 

Referring again to the minutes introduced in evidence as Mitchell 
Exhibit No. 1, I see that considerable emphasis was placed upon a 
drive, a Communist Party drive, to suppoi-t the People's World. Sec- 
tion E of the minutes carries nearly half a page relating to a report 
made by "Ben." Is that individual Ben Dobbs ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Ta"\^nner. What was the quota assigned to the various units 
of the Communist Party in this area for money to be raised for the 
People's World? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on the previous grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of what appears to 
be, or purports to be, a report of the SoutheiTi California District 
People's World drive standings as of October 24, 1958, showing 28 
sections of the Communist Party by name, the quota assigned to each, 
the amount raised by each after October 9, 1958, and the total raised. 

Mr. Walter. Where were those 28 sections ? 

Mr. Taa^enner. In the Southern District of California. They are 
the sections that comprise this new Southern District of California. 

Mr. Walter. What is that new Southern District ? 

Mr. Tavenner. That is the name of it. 

Mr. Walter. Of what does it consist ? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 253 

Mv. Tavenner. The State was divided into two districts, as we 
brought out at the September hearings, and the Southern District 
was described in that testimonj'^ as being bounded on the north by 
Santa Barbara and Keni (bounties and everything south of that was 
in the Southern District. 

Mr. Walter, Does that inchide San Diego? 

Mr. Tavennek. Yes, sir. 

I hand you the report and ask you whether you can identify it as a 
cori'ect report. 

Mrs. iSliTCiiELL. I must stand on the j^revious grounds. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Have you seen the report before ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavennek. Are the 28 sections named there the correct titles 
for the sections of the Communist Party for this district ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. IMoulder. So you decline to answer for the same reasons previ- 
ously stated as provided for in the Constitution? 

Mrs. Mitchell. That is correct. 

Mr. Tavenner. This report shows a quota assignment of $43,000 for 
these 28 sections, does it not ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. It further shows that as of the date of this report 
$39,468.07 of that quota had been raised. \Vliat is the total mem- 
bei-ship of the 28 sections of the Communist Party in this district? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I must refuse to answer on the grounds previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no other questions. 

Mr. Moulder. I assume you have heard this many, many times. 
Are you now a member of the Commmiist Party ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I must refuse to answer you on the grounds of the 
U.S. Constitution. 

JNIr. Moulder. Have you ever been ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. James E. Jackson of New York was the individual 
who, as a member of the National Committee of the Communist Party, 
made the report which caused the change of the position of the Com- 
munist Party with regard to the Negro question, was he not ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I must refuse on the same grounds as previously 
given. 

Mr. Tavenner. Jam.es E. Jackson is now in the Soviet Union, is he 
not, as a representative at the 21st Congress of the Communist Party 
of the Soviet Union ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You opposed his report, did you not ? 

Mrs. Mitchell. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You opposed it on the gromid that the Negro people 
still constitute a nation within a nation in the United States? 

Mrs. Mitchell. I stand on the previous grounds mentioned. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Walter. The witness is excused. 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the tmth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Brodsky. I do. 



254 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

TESTIMONY OF SEYMOTJK D. BRODSKY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LEO FENSTER 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please ? 

Mr. Brodsky. Seymour Brodsky. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by counseL 

Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. Fenster. Leo Fenster, 11363 Santa Monica Boulevard, Los 
Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you bom, Mr. Brodsky. 

Mr. Brodsky. October 26, 1916, in Johnstown, Pa. 

Mr, Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your for- 
mal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Brodsky. I graduated from high school and a couple of years 
of college. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you attend college ? 

Mr. Brodsky. Los Angeles Junior College, it was, at that time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

Mr, Brodsky. In Wilmington. 

Mr. Tavenner. In Wilmington, Calif, ? 

Mr, Brodsky, Yes, sir, 

Mr, Tavenner. Wlien did you move to California ? 

Mr, Brodsky. In 1921. 

Mr, Tavenner, Wliat is your occupation ? 

Mr, Brodsky, I work in a drug store. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the committee's information, you were 
present as a delegate to the organizational meeting of the Southern 
California District Council of the Communist Party held at Park 
Manor, 607 South Western Avenue, Los Angeles, on April 13 and 14, 
1957. Is that information correct as to you ? 

Mr. Brodsky. I will have to refuse that question on the grounds of 
self-incrimination. 

Mr, Tavenner, Wliat are the various functionary positions that you 
have held in the Communist Party ? 

Mr, Brodsky, I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds, 
sir, 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not, as long ago as 1950, an organizer for 
the Western Division of the Los Angeles County Communist Party? 

Mr. Brodsky. I refuse that question on the same grounds, sir, 

Mr, Tavenner. Has not your specialty or your field of particular 
activity in the Communist Party related to organizational work and 
building up the numerical strength of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Brodsky. I refuse that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party as 
long ago as 1940 ? 

Mr, Brodsky. I refuse that question on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not a member of the Young Communist 
League as early as 1935 ? 

Mr, Brodsky, I would refuse that on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr, Tavenner, Are you aware that upon the reorganization of the 
Communist Party in California by the establishment of a Northern 
and Southern District that the plan of the organization for the 
Southern District included the appointment of 62 District Council 
members ? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 255 

Mr. Brodsky. I would refuse on the grounds of self-incrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. Who was chairman of the organizational meeting 
held on April 13 and 14, 1957 ? 

Mr. Brodsky. I would refuse on the grounds of self-incrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. Healey Exhibit No. 10 is a document entitled, "The 
Constitution and Organizational Committee Moves the Following for 
Action by the Convention." A part of tliis resolution related to the 
organizational setup of the Commmiist Party in southern California. 
Did you play any part in that organizational effort? 

Mr. Brodsky. I refuse on the same grounds, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Commmiist Party ? 

Mr. Brodsky. I refuse on the same grounds. 

Mr. Walter. We have no questions. The witness is excused. 

Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Dawson. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ADMIRAL GEORQE DAWSON, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, HERBERT W. SIMMONS, JR. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mr. Dawson. Admiral George Dawson. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that the witness is accompanied by 
counsel. 

Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Simmons. Herbert W. Simmons, Jr., California Bar, 343 West 
Vernon. 

Mr. Tavenner. Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Simmons. That is right. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Dawson ? 

(The witness conferred witht his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. Summerville, Tex., April 26, 1927. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

(The witnesses conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. On the advice of my counsel I refuse to answer that 
question on the grounds of the first and fifth amendment of the Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. The marshal's return on the service of the subpena 
on you shows that you were served at 6511/^ West 59th Place, Los 
Angeles. Is that your residential address ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I think I answered that question previously on the 
grounds of the first and fifth amendment to the Constitution. I refuse 
to answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have a direction ? 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Dawson. Under advice of my counsel, I refuse to answer that 
question on the grounds of the first and fifth amendment to the Con- 
stitution. 

Mr. Walter. You have merely been asked where you live. Do you 
feel if you told this committee where you live you might subject your- 
self to criminal prosecution? 

38253 — 59— pt. 3 4 



256 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of the 
first and fifth amendment on advice of my counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you first come to California ? 

(Tlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment upon the advice of my counsel. 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
tlie first and fifth amendments of the Constitution upon advice of my 
counsel. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has information that you were a 
delegate to the California State convention of the Communist Party 
held on January 19 and 20, 1957. Is that information correct? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

iNIr. Dawson. On the advice of my counsel, I refuse to answer that 
question on the basis of the first and fifth amendments to the Consti- 
tution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Yfei'e you a delegate to the California State con- 
vention at the date indicated? 

(Tlie vritness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. On the advice of my counsel, I refuse to answer that 
(luestion on the basis of the first and fifth amendments to the Consti- 
tution of the United States of America. 

>.Ir. Ta\'enner. Were you a delegate to the Southern California 
District convention of the Coromunist Party on April 13 and 14, 
1957? 

(The witness conferred with his coimsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. On the advice of my counsel, I refuse to answer 
that question on the grounds of the first and fifth amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investigation has shown that you 
were active in the Labor Youth League work in Los Angeles for a 
period of time. Will you tell the committee, please, whether you have 
at any time been connected with the Labor Youth League in Los 
Angeles ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. On the advice of my counsel, I refuse to answer that 
riuestion on the grounds of the first, and fifth amendment to the 
Constitution. 

Mr. Moulder. Mv. C'hairman, I would like to ask the witness this 
question : Is it because counsel so advises you to answer in that way 
or do you, yourself, believe in good faith that if you answered that 
([iiestion it would subject you to criminal prosecution? 

CTlie witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to ansAver that question on the grounds of 
the first and fiftli amendm(Mit to the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

Mr. Taaionner. Were you not in 1956 the. legislative director of the 
Los Angeles County Labor Youth League? 

(The witness conferred x>:\th his counsel.) 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 257 

INIr. Dawsojst. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fiftli amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you serve in the Armed Forces of the United 
States ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fiftli amendment to the Constitution of the United States 
of America. 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. Did you 
serve in the Armed Forces of the United States ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of 
the first and fifth amendment of tlie Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. Walter. Do you feel if you admitted that you served in the 
Armed Forces of tlie United States that you would be subject to 
prosecution ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments of the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not discharged from the United States 
Army for refusing to sign the required loyalty oath ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution to the United 
States. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee is in possession of information indi- 
cating that there is a youth organization of the Communist Party in 
Los Angeles which is generally referred to as the Admiral Dawson 
Group. Will you state, please, whether or not you have been assigned 
by the Communist Party to serve as an adult in connection with the 
work of a group of the young Communist members in this area ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments of the United States. 

Mr. Tavenner. I may have misdescribed the organization I had 
in mind. The organization, as I understand it, is a group of former 
members of the Labor Youth I^eague. Have you been assigned by 
the Communist Party to work with a group of former members of 
the Labor Youth League ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments to the Constitution of the United 
States of America. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are a member of the Youth Commission of the 
Communist Party of the Southern District of California at the pres- 
ent time, are you not ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first amendment to the Constitution and the fifth amendment to 
the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Tavenner. At the April 1957 meeting of the Commimist Party 
of the Southern District of California, did you hear the report made 
by Dorothy Healey regarding youth organizational work ? 



258 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first amendment to the Constitution and the fifth amendment to 
the Constitution of the United States of America. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is being done now in Los Angeles to imple- 
ment the plans of the Communist Party with regard to youth in this 
area? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first amendment to the Constitution of the United States of America 
and the fifth amendment to the Constitution of the United States. 

Mr. TA^^ENNER. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Dawson. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of 
the first and fifth amendments of the Constitution of the United 
States. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Walter. The witness is excused. 

Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Smith. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF MRS. ELEANOR SMITH, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
HERBERT W. SIMMONS, JR. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Smith. Eleanor Smith. 

Mr. Ta^t.nner. Miss or Mrs. ? 

(The vritness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You certainly do not have to consult with counsel to 
answer that question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

IMrs. Smith. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of tlie 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Smith. Same answer. 

]\Ir. Walter. Do you honestly believe that if you told this commit- 
tee whether you were married you would be confronted with probable 
criminal prosecution ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. S:\iiTH. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Moulder. As I understand the question, the question was to 
determine whether or not she was acting in good faith. 

You have not answered in response to the chairman's question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that the witness is accompanied by the 
same counsel who accompanied the former witness. 

His name is Herbert Simmons. 

Mr. Simmons. My name is Herbert Simmons, 343 West Vernon, 
Los Angeles, Calif., of the California Bar. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 259 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside? 

(The \^'itness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Smith. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question as to where 
you reside. 

(Tlie witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Smith. The same answer. I refuse to answer on tlie grounds 
of the first and fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavtenner. The marshal's return shows that you were served at 
651 West 59th Place, Los Angeles. Is that the place of your resi- 
dence ? 

(The Avitness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Smith. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Moulder. The chairman propounded the question to you a few 
moments ago testing your good faith in using the Constitution as a 
protection in your refusal or declination to answer. 

The questions that are being submitted to the witness are formal, 
introductory requests. Do you realize and understand that taking the 
position you do in refusing to answer any questions, regardless of what 
they might be, may possibly place you in a position of being subject to 
prosecution for contempt ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Smith. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment to tlie Constitution. 

Mr. Moulder. I wanted the record to be clear that you are being- 
advised by the committee of the position in which you are placing 
yourself by just taking a belligerent attitude in refusing to answer any 
question regardless of whom it is submitted by, either counsel or mem- 
bers of this committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Admiral George Dawson ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Smith. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted his address is 6511/^ West 59th Place, 
which must be next door to you. Doesn't he live next door to you ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Smith. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. At this time you are a member of the Communist 
Party in this area, are you not ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Smith. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Ta\t;nner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Smith. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. How are you employed ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel) 

Mrs. Smith. I am unemployed. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your last employment ? 



260 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Smith. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavennee. Do you appear here pursuant to a subpena served 
on you ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Smith. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Moulder. Let the record show that the witness has stated her 
name and that she has been unemployed. 

How long have you been unemployed ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Smith. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Walter. The witness is excused. 

Will you raise your right hand ? 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony you are about to give 
will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help 
you God ? 

Mr. Young. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP CLARENCE GEORGE YOUNG, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, HERBERT W. SIMMONS, JR. 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 

Mr. Young. My name is Clarence George Young. 

Mr. Tavenner. Counsel will please identify himself for the record. 

Mr. Simmons. Herbert W. Simmons, Jr., California Bar, 343 West 
Vernon, JjOs Angeles, Calif. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you live, Mr. Young ? 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer that question on the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Walter. You are here in response to a subpena, are you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. Would you repeat the question, please ? 

(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

]SIr. Walter. What are you doing here then, if you are not appear- 
ing in response to a subpena ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Would you not have very seriously incriminated 
yourself if you had not responded to the subpena? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I don't understand the question that you just asked. 

Mr. Moulder. The point is to find out whether or not you are the 
proper person appearing here as a witness as a result of the issuance 
of a subpena. If you are the wrong man, then most certainly an error 
has been committed. Wliat is the name on the subpena ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Clarence Young. 

Mi\ Moulder. Is that yourname ? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 2t)l 

Mr. Young. I stated that Avlien I came in here. 

Mr. Moulder, What is your address ? 

Mr. Young. I refused to answer that question. 

Mr. Moulder. What does the subpena served show ? 

Mr. Tavenner. The subpena shows it was served upon Clarence 
Young at Consolidated Western Steel at 5700 South Eastern. 

Mr. Moulder. Is this the right man ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Was this paper served on you or a copy of it? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer that question on the ground of tlie 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Johansen. Why are you here ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. Repeat the question, please ? 

Mr. Johansen. Why are you here ? 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you employ an attorney before you came into 
this room ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. Yes ; I did acquire an attorney and he is sitting here 
by my side. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did you do that if you were not subpenaed here 
as a witness? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I don't particularly understand that question as you 
put it. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why would you go to the trouble of getting a lawyer 
to come here with you unless you were subpenaed by the marshal to 
come? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta\t:nner. Let me see your driver's permit. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. You have handed me your driver's permit which is 
in the nam^e of Clarence George Young, address, 6511/2 West 59th 
Place, Los Angeles. Did you not live at that address in September of 
last year, 1958? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. You do not live at the address on your driver's permit 
now, do you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have changed your address from that now 
appearing on your driver's permit to 1503 Broadacres, Compton, have 
you not ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment. 



262 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. You are employed by Consolidated Western Steel 
at 5700 South Eastern, Los Angeles, are you not? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Moulder. In order to make the record clear, may I interpose 
this statement : First, to explain to the witness that the normal ques- 
tions now being submitted to you are, as I would understand it, to 
ascertain whether or not you are the proper witness named in the 
subpena. It is a very simple proposition and certainly there is no 
question about the authority of this committee to issue subpenas. 

The witness has refused to give us the information to ascertain 
whether or not the person intended to be subpenaed is you and you 
have refused to answer those questions. Now, you understand, do you 
not, that by so refusing you may be placing yourself in the position 
of being in contempt of this committee and the Congress of the United 
States and subject to prosecution for refusing to answer those ques- 
tions. You do understand that, do you not? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Young. I still refuse to answer the questions on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Young, in any event, you are the Clarence 
Young wlio was on the organizing committee of the Labor Youth 
League in Los Angeles, are you not ? 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you occasionally engage in the work of an 
artist or cartoonist ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Ta"\^nner. Are you the Clarence Young who was active in 
the Independent Progressive Party in 1947 ? 

(The witnesss conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born ? 

Mr, Young. I was born in New Orleans, La. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. You came to Los Angeles from New Orleans in 
1947, did you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the question on the first and fifth 
am.endments. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have done work in drawing cartoons under the 
alias of "Clay" for the Pacific Coast Youth Recorder, a defunct official 
organ of the Labor Youth League, have you not ? 

(The witness conferred wdth his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the questions on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are the Clarence Yomig who has been active 
in the Young Progressives of America, the Civil Rights Congress, and 
the American Youth Peace Crusade, are you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 263 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are the Clarence Young who is a member of 
the District Council of the Communist Party for the Southern District 
of California at this time, are you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tav-ennek. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you still refuse to answer the question as to 
whether or not a subpena was served upon you to appear before this 
committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Simmons. For the purpose of the record, I will stipulate that 
he is one and the same person. 

Mr. Moulder. I am asking the witness. Were you subpenaed and 
are you appearing here as the result of a subpena being served upon 
you? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) ^ 

Mr. Young. Would you repeat the question again, please? 

(The pending question was read by the reporter.) 

Mr. Young. Yes. I did receive a subpena and I am here because 
of that reason. 

Mr. JoiiANSEN. Then, it was not a truthful statement which you 
made under oath that to answer that question would jeopardize your 
rights under the first and fifth amendments ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Young. I refuse to answer the question on the ground of the 
first and fifth amendment. 

(Whereupon, at 12 :07 p.m., Tuesday, February 24, 1959, the hearing 
was recessed, to be reconvened at 2 p.m., the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION, TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 24, 1959 

Mr. Moulder (presiding) . The committee will be in order. 

Do you solemnly swear that the e\'idence you are about to pve will 
be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Miss Blair. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF HELEN BLAIR, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ROBERT W. KENNY AND J. ERANKEL 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 

Miss Blair. Helen Blair. 

Mr. Tavenner. Miss or Mrs. ? 

Miss Blair. I use Miss. I am divorced. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is noted that you are accompanied by two gen- 
tlemen. Will they please identify themselves for the record ? 

Mr. KJENNY. Robert W. Kenny. 

Mr. Frankel. J. Frankel. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are both members of the State Bar of Cali- 
fornia ? 

38253 — 59— pt. 3 5 



264 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Kenny. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Frankel. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside, Miss Blair ? 

Miss Blair. 1774 North Orange Grove Avenue, Hollywood. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a native of the State of California ? 

Miss Blair. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere were you born ? 

Miss Blair. Michigan. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in California ? 

Miss Blair. Since 1932. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation ? 

Miss Blair. I am unemployed at the moment. I was self-employed 
for a period and then I have done free-lance secretarial work. Part 
of the time I was married and then I had jobs. 

Mr. Tavenner. What type of employment when you were self- 
employed ? 

Miss Blair. In the silk screen art business. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat has been your formal educational training? 

Miss Blair. I graduated from the Morenci, Mich., high school and 
attended the University of Michigan for a year and tlien, later, went 
to a business school, both in Boston and in Washington, D.C. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's information is that you attended 
the organizational meeting of the newly formed Southern California 
District organization of the Communist Party which was held on 
April 13-14, 1957. I would like to ask you whether you did attend 
that convention. 

Miss Blair. I will decline to answer that question on the grounds 
of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive in advance of that convention a 
report by a Dorothy Healey regarding the National Committee meet- 
ing of the Communist Party held in February 1957 ? 

Miss Blair. I decline to answer that on the same grounds as pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Dorothy Healey presented at the meeting to which 
I referred, the one of April 13-14, 1957, a program for the advance- 
ment of the Communist Party in this area. Have you participated 
in any way in the advancement of that program ? 

Miss Blair. This question I also refuse to answer on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Moulder. Miss Blair, do you know Dorothy Healey ? 

Miss Blair. This question I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you personally acquainted with the program 
of reorganization of the Communist Party in the Los Ajigeles area ? 

Miss Blair. I refuse to answer this question on the same grounds 
as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the executive board of the 
Southern California Chapter of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions? 

Miss Blair. This question I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated that you are divorced. Was your mar- 
ried name Helen B. Stewart? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Blair. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 265 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee from time to time has included in 
its investigation the activities of the Communist Party in connection 
with the Rosenberg case. Were you active in the work of the Com- 
mittee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case back in the year 1953 ? 

Miss Blair. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of a letterhead un- 
der the date of July 2, 1953, of the Committee to Secure Justice in the 
Rosenberg Case, and ask you to examine the seventh name in the list 
of sponsors and state whether or not you find your name there as one 
of the sponsors of that organization. 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Miss Blair. I refuse to answer this question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to introduce the document and ask that it 
be marked "Helen Blair Exhibit No. 1." 

Mr. Moulder. It will be so marked and made a part of the record. 

(Document marked "Helen Blair Exhibit No. 1," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a thermofax copy of an excerpt from 
the September 11, 1952, issue of the People's World, and I ask if you 
see there an item headed, "24 Sponsor Rosenberg LA Meeeting." 

(Document handed to witness.) 

Miss Blair. This I decline to answer also on the same grounds. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. I desire to introduce this document into evidence 
and request that it be marked Helen Blair Exhibit No. 2. 

Mr. Moulder, The document will be so marked and made a part of 
the record. 

(Document marked "Helen Blair Exhibit No. 2," and retained in 
committee files.) 

Mr. Tavenner. I read into the record a part of this document with 
the chairman's permission : 

Twenty-four prominent Southern Californians were listed today as sponsors 
for Friday's rally to secure justice for Ethel and Julius Rosenberg, sentenced to 
die in a frameup "spy" case. Atty. William Esterman, local chairman of the 
National Lawyers Guild, will chair the meeting at 8 :30 p.m., Sept. 12, at Em- 
bassy auditorium. Ninth st. and Grand ave. 

Speakers will include John Howard Lawson, Samuel Ornitz and Horace V. 
Alexander. * * * 

On the sponsors list are Dr. Murray Abowitz, Jack Berman, Helen 
Blair, and others named there. Were you a sponsor of the meeting 
described in this article ? 

Miss Blair. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you know William Esterman as a member of 
the Communist Party ? 

Miss Blair. I decline to answer that question, also, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1952, the date of Blair Exhibit No. 2, and, also, on July 2, 1953, the 
date of the letterhead of the Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosen- 
berg Case ? 
. Miss Blair. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what knowl- 
edge you have of the activity of the Communist Party in this area in 



266 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

the promotion of the work of the Committee to Secure Justice in the 
Eosenberg Case ? 

Miss Blair. I decline to answer that question, also, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a sponsor of the Los Angeles Committee 
for Protection of Foreign Bom in a conference held on February 28, 
1954, on the campaign to repeal the Walter- McCarran Law ? 

Miss Blair. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a thermofax copy of an excerpt from 
the February 2, 1954, issue of the People's World and ask you to 
state wliether or not you see there a statement that joining the com- 
mittee in sponsorship of the conference w^ere Dr. Murray Abowitz, 
Jacob Aspiz, Helen Blair, and certain other persons ? 

Miss Blair. Same answer. 

Mr. Moulder. May I pursue the statement here for a moment ? 

The question is, do you see that on that document ? The document 
is handed to you and it is a very simple question. Does your name 
appear in the article ? 

Miss Blair. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds of the 
fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you participate in a sponsorship of that move- 
ment ? 

Miss Blair. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to introduce the document in evidence and 
ask that it be marked "Helen Blair Exhibit No. 3." 

Mr. Moulder. It will be admitted into evidence as requested by 
counsel. 

(Document marked "Helen Blair Exhibit No. 3," and retained 
in committee files.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Did I ask you where you were born ? 

Miss Blair. Yes ; Morenci, Mich. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Miss Blair. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. You came to California from Michigan ? 

Miss Blair. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. In what year ? 

Miss Blair. 1932. 

Mr. Moulder. You say by professional occupation you are a stenog- 
rapher, self-employed ? 

Miss Blair. Yes. I do free-lance work, mostly. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you work out of an office ? 

Miss Blair. Occasionally. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have a headquarters ? 

Miss Blair. Not in other offices. 

Mr. Moulder. You are just subject to call at your residence ? 

Miss Blair. Yes. 

Mr. Moulder. How long have you been here in California? 

Miss Blair. It is 25 years. 

Mr. Moulder. During that period of time were you permanently 
or continuously occupied in any office? 

Miss Blair. At various times for periods of a couple of years. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 267 

Mr. Moulder. Law offices or other business enterprises ? 

Miss Blair. A couple of short periods in law offices, generally in 
small industry or other offices. 

Mr. Moulder. In the performance of such service, were you ever 
called upon to perform services for any Communist Party organi- 
zation ? 

Miss Blair. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds 
as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you live at one time in Seattle, Wash.? 

Miss Blair. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about to 
give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. BisKAR. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF ETHEL BISKAR, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
JOHN T. McTERNAN 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state you name, please ? 

Mrs. BiSKAR. Mrs. Ethel Biskar. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel accompanying the witness please 
identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. McTernan. I am John T. McTernan, 112 West 9th Street, Los 
Angeles, 15. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mrs. Biskar ? 

Mrs. Biskar. I was born in New York City in 1935. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mrs. Biskar. Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your address ? 

Mrs. B1SKA.R. 4112 Palmwood Drive. 

Mr. Ta%'enner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Biskar. Ten years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that, where did you live ? 

Mrs. Biskar, New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mrs. Biskar. Junior high school, senior high school, and junior 
college. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your employment record since you 
have been in Los Angeles ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Biskar. It is very difficult for me to remember each job. Do 
you want me to go into every job I have ever had? 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present employment? 

Mrs. Biskar. I am employed by the Pacific Telephone and Tele- 
graph Co. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long ? 

Mrs. Biskar. Four and a half years, 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that, what was your employment? 

Mrs. Biskar. I worked for an insurance company. 

Mr. Tavenner. For how long a period ? 



268 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mrs. BisKAR. About 6 months. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that, how were you employed? 

Mrs. BisKAR. I worked in tlie garment industry. 

Mr. Tavenner. What phase of the garment industry ? 

Mrs. BiSKAR. I was an operator. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period of time were you so employed? 

Mrs. BiSKAR. The year was 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Biskar, the committee's investigation has dis- 
closed that on January 20, 1957, you were a delegate to the California 
State convention of the Communist Party held in Los Angeles; is 
that information correct ? 

Mrs. Biskar. I am going to have to refuse to answer that question 
on, first of all, the grounds of the first amendment which gives me 
freedom of speech, press, assembly, etc., and also, on the grounds that 
I feel if I were to answer this question I would be undermining the 
traditional liberties and rights of the people of this country. 

I also refuse to answer this question on the grounds of the fifth 
amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
1957? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. To be more specific, on January 20, 1957. 

Mrs. Biskar. I will have to refuse to answer on the grounds previ- 
ously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you think it would undermine the rights of 
the people of this country if you were to tell this committee what you 
know about communism in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Biskar. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. TA^^:NNER. Were you in attendance at the organizational meet- 
ing of the Southern District of the Communist Party for the State of 
California held in Los Angeles on April 13-14, 1957? 

Mrs. Biskar. Same answer. 

Mr. Taatenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
that time ? 

Mrs. Biskar. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has information that you are pres- 
ently under assignment of the Communist Party in youth work. Are 
you engaged in that type of work for the Communist Party? 

Mrs. Biskar. I will refuse to answer that question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you at this time a member of the Youtli Com- 
mission of the Communist Party for the Southern District of Cali- 
fornia? 

Mrs. Biskar. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to the reorganization of the Communist 
Party in Southern California in April of 1957, had you at any time 
been a member of the Labor Youth League ? 

Mrs. Biskar. I will have to refuse to answer that on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend a meeting of the Labor Youth 
League at the Danish Auditorium, 1359 West 24th Street, on Febru- 
ary 17,1956? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 269 

Mrs. BisKAR. Same answer. 

Mr, Tavenner. Did you attend a lecture on dialectical materialism 
given by Frank Carlson before the Los Angeles County Labor Youth 
League on August 16, 1956, at a meeting held at 1261 South Andrews 
Place in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. BisKAR. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is the answer? 

Mrs. BisKAR. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, you refuse to answer ? 

Mrs. BisKAR. On the grounds that I have already stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investigation discloses that the 
Labor Youth League was dissolved on February 24, 1957. Were you 
a member of it at the time of its dissolution ? 

Mrs. BiSKAR. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. During the course of this hearing — in fact that 
pliase of it which was held in September of 1958 — there was introduced 
in evidence a copy of a letter known as the letter of the 22 persons 
who signed grievances against the Communist Party. That is, by 
22 persons who were members of the Communist party. 

Are you acquainted with the preparation of that letter ? 

Mrs. BiSKAR. I refuse to answer on the grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Subsequent to that, there was a letter of resigna- 
tion sent into the Communist Party under date of March 26, 1958. 
Do you know anything about the preparation of that letter? 

Mrs. Biskar. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you aware of the fact that the persons who 
signed that letter of resignation did so in part for the reason that the 
Communist Party was under the complete control of the Soviet 
Union ? 

Mrs. BiSKAR. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr, Taat3nner. Did anyone approach you about the signing of a 
letter of resignation ? 

Mrs. Biskar, Same answer, 

Mr, Tavenner, Do you know how many youth group organizations 
there are in the Communist Party in Los Angeles at this time ? 

Mrs, BiSKAR, Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner, Do you laiow whether adult members of the Com- 
munist Party are, or have been, assigned to these groups of young 
Communists for the purpose of directing them in their studies? 

Mrs, BisKAR, I refuse to answer that question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated, 

Mr, Tavenner, Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

Mrs. BiSKAR, Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. I have one or two questions which I think should go 
into the record. 

You say you were born in New York ? 

Mrs. Biskar. That is true. 

Mr. Moulder. You came to California at what age ? 

Mrs. BiSKAR, Thirteen. 

Mr. Moulder. You came here with your parents ? 

Mrs. BisKAR. Yes. 



270 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Moulder. Were they born in New York ? 

Mrs. BiSKAR. I don't see where this has any bearing on this 
investigation. 

Mr. Moulder. Maybe not. It is just preliminary questioning into 
your background. I was wondering whether your people were born 
in America or if they were naturalized. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. BiSKAR. I do not think it is pertinent to this investigation. 

Mr. Moulder. I do not have any other questions. Do you have any 
questions, Mr. Tavenner ? 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no other questions. 

Mr. Moulder. You are excused. 

liaise your right hand, please. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about to 
give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and noth- 
ing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. ENriAJLA^N. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF EDWAUD M. ENFIAJIAN, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOHN T. McTERNAN 

Mr. Ta\^nner. \Yiil you state your name, please ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. My name is Edward M. Enfiajian. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identif v himself for the record ? 

Mr. McTernan. John T. McTernan, 112 Northwest 9th Street, 
Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I was born in Los Angeles in 1928. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. 944 North Western Avenue, Los Angeles, 29. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived in Los Angeles all your life ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I have, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What has been your formal educational training ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I was educated in the public schools in Los Angeles, 
Los Angeles City College, and I have a bachelor of arts degree from 
Los Angeles State College and I have done graduate work since then. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you awarded your B.A. degree? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I am not sure of the date. I believe it was in 1954 
or 1955. It was in the summer. 

Mr. Tavenner. How are you employed? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I am employed as an engraver, a trophy engraver, 
and related work. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been so employed ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. About 4 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investigation has disclosed that the 
first interest that you have shown in the Communist Party was around 
the year 1956 when you became active in the Labor Youth League. 

Did your first interest in the Communist Party begin at that time 
and in that phase of Communist work ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. Are you asking me of my interests ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Was that your first interest in the Communist 
Party? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 271 

Mr. Enfiajian". Would you repeat that question, please? 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the committee's information correct that your 
first interest in the Commimist Party was during the year 1956 ? 

Mr. Enfiajiax. I will have to decline to answer that question, sir. 
on the constitutional grounds which are afforded me. 

Mr. Tavenner. The constitutional grounds? 

Mr. Enfiajian. That's right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What constitutional grounds? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I have specificaUy in mind the first amendment 
of the Constitution and the fifth amendment of the Constitution and 
other privileges granted by the Federal Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you including that provision of the fifth 
amendment relating to self-incrimination? 

Mr. Enfiajian. Yes, sir, I am including that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you active in the Labor Youth League work 
of the Communist Party in 1956 ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I Avill not answer that question for the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a matter of fact, were you not on the finance 
coimnittee of the Labor Youth League? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr, Tavenner. The coimnittee has introduced into evidence during 
the course of these hearings a statement purportedly made by Dorothy 
Healey at the organizational meeting of the Communist Party in 
April of 1957 in which she outlined the program of the youth work 
of the Communist Party. We have introduced evidence relating to 
the type of youth work performed since that time in conformity with 
that program. 

Now, I want to ask you whether or not you were at any time, or 
whether you have at any time since April 1957, been a member of the 
Youth Commission of the Commimist Party for the Southern District 
of California. 

Mr. Enfiajian. I will decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not a fact that in October of 1958 you were 
given a position on the section level of the Communist Party in 
Southern California which made it inadvisable for you to continue 
work with the Youth Commission? 

Mr. Enfiajian. Are you asking me a question, sir ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mr. Enfiajian. Would you mind restating the question? 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not a fact that you were given a position in 
October of 1958 on the section level of the Communist Party which 
necessitated your removal from the position of a member of the Youth 
Commission of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I will not answer that question on the same 
grounds, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party in 
October, 1958? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I will not answer that question for the same 
grounds. 



38253— 59— pt. 3- 



272 COMMtTNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you at this time organizational S4>iretary of 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 
Mr. Moulder. What did you say your age was ? 
Mr. Enfiajian. I said I was born in 1928. 

Mr. Moulder. Have you ever served in the Armed For.ws of the 
United States? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I have, 

Mr. Moulder. In what capacity and what period of time f 
Mr. Enfiajian. I enlisted in the Air National Guard of California 
and that unit was called into Federal service on May 1, 1951 . I served 
until 1953 in the Air Force of the United States. 
Mr. Moulder. You were discharged ? 
Mr. Enfiajian. I was. 

Mr. Moulder. Did you receive an honorable discharge? 
Mr. Enfiajian. Yes, sir. 
Mr. Moulder. Are you married ? 
Mr. Enfiajian. No, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. What is your present occupation ? 
Mr. Enfiajian. I am doing engraving work for a trophy shop. 
Mr. Johansen. Did you, as a member of the Armed Forces, take an 
oath stating that you were not a member of any organization com- 
mitted to the overthrow of the Government of the United States by 
force and violence ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Johansen. Do I understand you, then, to say tliat you believe 
that it would incriminate you to answer a factual question as to 
whether you did take such an oath? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Enfiajl^n. My attorney advises me that I do not have to state 
the reason for claiming my privileges under the Constitution. 
Mr. Johansen. You were honorably discharged ? 
Mr. Enfiajian. That is correct. 
Mr. Johansen. Did you serve in Korea ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. No, sir, I did not. The principal part of mj serv- 
ice was in Germany. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party before 
you became a member of the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time while serving in the Armed Forces ? 

Mr. Enfiajian. I decline to answer that question, sir, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Moulder. Were you a member of any organization which seeks 
to overthrow our present form of Government by force or violence? 
Mr. Enfiajian. I decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 273 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about to 
give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Maymudes. I do. 

TESTIMONY OF AUGUST MAYMUDES, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

JOHN T. MeTERNAN 

Mr. Tavenner, Will you state your name, please ? 

Mr. I^Iatmudes. August Maymudes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell your last name. 

Mr. Maymudes. M-a-y-m-u-d-e-s. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record? 

Mr. McTernan. John T. McTernan, 112 Wast Ninth Street, Los 
Angeles 15, Calif. 

Mr. Tavenner. "Wlien and where were you born ? 

Mr. Maymudes. I was born August 25, 1930, in the city of New 
York. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Maymudes. At 811 or 813 North Iliberian. There are two 
apartments with a common entrance and I have never been quite sure, 

Mr. Tavenner. Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Maymudes. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Maymudes. Since 1933. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Maymudes. Pharmacist. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been following that occupation? 

Mr. ]VL\YMUDEs. I have been employed in the field for 8 years. I 
have been a licensed pharmacist for about a year and a half. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee briefly, please, what 
your formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Maymudes. Public schools in Los Angeles through high school 
and a degree in doctor of pharmacy from the University of Southern 
California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you acquainted with Shif ra Goldman ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse to answer that question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you also acquainted with Edward M. Enfiajian ? 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Admiral Dawson ? 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Ethel Bi; kar? 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. And Charlene Mitchell ? 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Eleanor Smith? 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse on the same basis. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Maymudes, are you familiar with a report made 
by Dorothy Healey at the organizational meeting of the Communist 



274 COMMUNISM m southern CALIFORNIA AREA 

Party for the Southern District of California held in April, 1957, 
relating to the youth movement in southern California? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. TA^'T:NNER. Shortly after that meeting, in April of 1957, were 
you appointed to the Youth Commission of the Communist Party com- 
posed of the persons whose names I asked you about a few moments 
ago? 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Youth Commission of 
the Communist Party for the Southern District of California ? 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse to answ^er on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you served in the Armed Forces of the 
United States ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Maymudes. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. Maymudes. FromMarchof 1951 until February of 1953. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what branch of the service were you ? 

Mr. Maymudes. I was in the Army. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you receive an honorable discharge ? 

Mr. Maymudes. Yes, I did. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party prior 
to your entry into the armed service ? 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse to answer on the same grounds as previous- 
ly stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at any 
time while you were serving in the Armed Forces of the United States ! 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. In w^hat area did you serve ? Were you in Korea ? 

Mr. Maymudes. I served in Japan the majority of my time. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in Korea during any part of your service ? 

Mr. Maymudes. No. 

Mr. Johansen. Did you, upon entering the Army, take an oath 
swearing that you belonged to no organization which advocated the 
overthrow of the Government by force and violence ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Johansen. Are you a member of the Communist Party now * 

Mr. Maymudes. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Moulder. The witness is excused. 

Do you solemnly swear that the testimony which you are about 
to give before this committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I do. 

TESTIMONY OP SHIFRA GOLDMAN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ESTHEE SHANDLER 

Mr. Tavenner. State your name, please. 
Mrs. Goldman. Shif ra Goldman. 
Mr. Tavenner. Miss or Mrs. ? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 275 

Mrs. Goldman. Mi's. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell your first name, please, 

Mrs. Goldman. S-h-i-f-r-a. 

Mf. Tavenner. Will counsel accompanying the witness please iden- 
tify herself ? 

Miss Shandler. Esther Shandler. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your maiden name, Mi-s. Goldman ? 

Mrs. Goldman. Before I answer that question, I would like to in- 
quire to the nature of this discussion here today. 

Mr. Moulder. May we ask counsel for additional information con- 
cerning her location and so forth ? 

Miss Shandler. I am located at 208 West 8th Street, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. The witness has asked to be advised with respect to 
this hearing. 

At the beginning of this meeting, the chairman announced that this 
is a continuation of the hearing begun here in September of 1958. 
He read into the record the resolution adopted by this committee on 
the 23d of January 1959, authorizing the holding of this hearing, 
which I will review with you. Tlie resolution is as follows : 

Be it resolved,, That a hearing by the Committee on Un-American Activities, 
or a subcommittee thereof, to be held in Los Angeles, Calif., or at such other 
place or places as the chairman may designate, on such date or dates as the 
chairman may determine, be authorized and approved, including the conduct 
of investigations deemed reasonably necessary by the staff in preparation there- 
for, relating to the extent, character and objects of Communist Party activities 
in California, with special reference to such activities in southern California, 
the legivSlative purpose being : 

1. (a) To obtain additional information for use by the committee in its con- 
sideration of section 16 of H.R. 9352 relating to the proposed amendment of 
section 4 of the Communist Control Act of 1954 referred to the Committee on 
Un-American Activities on August 19, 1957, prescribing a penalty for knowingly 
and willfully becoming or remaining a member of the Communist Party with 
linowledg*' <«f the purposes or olgectivrs theroof : and 

Cb) To obtain additional information, adding to the committee's overall 
knowledge on the subject so that Congress may be kept informed and thus 
prepared to enact remedial legislation in the national defense, and for internal 
security, when and if the exigencies of the situation require it. 

2. In the exercise of continuous watchfulness of the execution by the admin- 
istrative agency concerned of laws the subject matter of which is within the 
juridiction of this committee, to obtain information to assist the House in 
appraising the administration of such laws and in developing such amendments 
or related legislation as the committee may deem necessary. 

Now, my question to you is, will you please state your maiden name ? 

Mrs. Goldman. In view of what you just read to me, what relevancy 
does my maiden name have to your discussion? 

Mr. Tavenner. May I haA^e a direction? It is a matter of iden- 
tification of the witness. 

Mr. Moulder. It is purely an introductory statement asked of you 
so you may identify yourself for the record as a witness subpenaed 
here before this committee and you are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Goldman. If I understand the question correctly, you want 
my identification. I have identified myself as the person identified 
in the subpena. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you please answer my question ? 

(The witness conferred with her comisel.) 



276 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. I am not certain whether the chairman directed her 
to answer the question. 

Mr. Moulder. Yes, she has been directed to answer the question. 

Mrs. Goldman. I feel that this is an invasion of my rights under 
the Constitution of the United States to freedom of speech and as- 
sociation and I will claim the privileges of the two amendments that 
guarantee me these rights, the first and the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you relying upon that part of the fifth amend- 
ment which relates to self-incrimination ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I would say the right of a witness not to testify 
against himself, yes. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Do you honestly believe that to answer the ques- 
tion as to what your maiden name was would tend to incriminate 
370U? 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mr. Tavenner. If you do not honestly believe that, you are just 
attempting to play with this committee. 

Mrs. Goldman. I stand on the same answer I gave previously. 

Mr. Moulder. I did not understand the witnesss' name stated in 
the beginning. "^^Hiat did you say it was ? 

Mrs. Goldman. G-o-l-d-m-a-n. 

Mr. Moulder. What is the first name ? 

Mrs. Goldman. S-h-i-f-r-a. 

Mr. Moulder. Is that Miss or Mrs. ? 

Mrs. Goldman. As I stated before, it is Mrs. 

Mr. Moulder. Then you are married ? 

Mrs. Goldman. No, I am not. 

Mr. Moulder. You are divorced? 

Mrs. Goldman. Yes, I am. 

Mr. Moulder. Since you answered those questions concerning your 
marital status, will you tell us what your name was before you were 
married ? 

Mrs. GoLMAN. I would like to decline to answer the question on 
the same grounds previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. A^^ien and where were you born ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I was born in the United States in 1926, 

Mr. Tavenner. In what part of the United States ? 

Mrs. Goldman. New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. WiU you state the date and place, please ? 

Mrs. Goldman. 1920 ; that makes me 32 years old. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere do you now reside ? 

Mrs. Goldman. Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. At what address ? 

Mrs. Goldman. 4419 Seventh Avenue. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Goldman. Approxunately 15 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you lived in Los Angeles continuously since 
that date? 

Mrs. Goldman. Yes, I have. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the conmiittee what your formal educational 
training has been. 

Mrs. Goldman. I graduated high school and I proceeded to college. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliere did you attend college ? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 277 

Mrs. Goldman. The University of California at Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. How many years did you attend ? 

Mrs. Goldman. Four and a half years. 

Mr. Taatenner, What was your last year of attendance ? 

Mrs. Goldman. Do you mean which year did I leave the school? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes. 

Mrs. Goldman. 1948. 

Mr. Tavenner. That was your last attendance? 

Mrs. Goldman. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your profession ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I am a bookkeeper. 

Mr. Tavenner. Hom- long have you been employed as such? 

Mrs. Goldman. It has been several years, about 4 years or there- 
abouts. Three or four years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mrs. Goldman, the committee has introduced in 
evidence as Healey Exhibit No. 7, a report which she made to the 
Communist Party Southern District of California convention held 
on April 13, 1957. A part of that report deals with the youth move- 
ment of the Communist Party. Are you familiar with that part of 
her report? 

Mrs. Goldman. I decline to answer on the gromids previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Shortly after the report made by her in April 1957, 
did you take any part in the implementation of the program for the 
Commmiist youth in this area ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I still decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not a member and are you not now a 
member of the Youth Conmiission of the Communist Party for the 
Southern District of California ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr.' Tavenner. Is there not a youth group in existence now which 
is known as the Shif ra Goldman Study Group ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now engaged in the education of youth in 
Commmiist principles in this area ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I decline on the same grounds. I wish to state that 
I am going to decline all answers to these questions on that same 
ground. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you take the position that you are not going to 
answer any questions ? 

Mrs. Goldman. No ; I did not say that. I mean this type of ques- 
tion. 

Mr, Moulder. Do you have any knowledge of any subversive or 
disloyal acts on the part of any person whom you would consider to 
be a danger to our form of Government ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldman. I still decline to answer on the same groimds. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you have any knowledge whatsoever concerning 
any action being taken by any organization involved with, and in co- 
operation w^ith, the Communist conspiracy or the Soviet Union, Mre. 
Goldman ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I still decline to answer on the same grounds. 



278 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Moulder. In other words, you are taking the position that you 
will not answer any questions as an American citizen concerning any- 
thing which might endanger our Government, our people of America, 
is that correct ? 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Goldman. As I stated, I am not going to answer any questions 
which invade my rights under the first and fifth amendment. That 
is what I meant when I said I would not answer such questions. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Do you mean you will invoke such rights but you 
will decline to answer any questions which relate to a threat to the 
Government and the Constitution which guarantees the very rights 
youenj(w? 

Mrs. Goldman. I invoke my rights and I think I have explained 
why I invoked them and I am still invoking them, if that is in answer 
to your question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I referred to what the committee has ascertained to 
be a youth group of the Communist Party which goes by the name of 
the Shifra Goldman Group. Is it correct that the age spread of the 
members of that youth group is 17 to 30 years ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. What percentage of that group is ready for induc- 
tion into regular membership in the Communist Party at this time? 

Mrs. Goldman. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it the practice in your group to have different 
functionaries of the Communist Party appear before the group as 
instructors ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I decline on the same grounds. 

Mr. Moulder. You are an American citizen, are you not ? 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Goldman. Yes, I am. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Have you ever served as a member of any branch of 
the Armed Forces ? 

Mrs. Goldman. No, I have not. I was not old enough. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Coimnunist Party ? 

Mrs. Goldman. I still decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Moulder. You are excused. 

The committee will recess until 9 :30 a.m., tomorrow. 

(Wliereupon, at 3 :40 p.m., Tuesday, February 24, 1959, the hearing 
was recessed, to be reconvened at 9 :30 a.m., on the following day.) 



THE SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA DISTRICT OF THE 
C03IMUNIST PARTY 

Structure — Objectives — Leadership 



WEDNESDAY, EEBRUARY 25, 1959 

United States House of Representatives, 

Subcommittee of the 
Committee on Un-American Activities, 

Los Angeles, Calif. 
executive session ^ 

The subcommittee of the Committee on Un-American Activities met, 
pursuant to notice at 9 :30 a.m., in Room 229 Federal Building, Los 
Angeles, Calif., Hon. Francis E. Walter, chairman, presiding. 

Committee members present: Representatives Francis E. "Walter, 
of Pennsylvania, Morgan M. Moulder, of Missouri, and August E. 
Johansen, of Michigan. 

Staff members present : Frank S: Tavenner, Jr., counsel ; and Wil- 
liam A. Wheeler, investigator; Mrs. William A. Wlieeler, acting clerk. 

Chairman Walter. The committee will come to order. 

TESTIMONY OF MATILDA MOLINA TOLLY, ACCOMPANIED BY 
COUNSEL, JOHN T. McTERNAN 

Mr. Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mrs. Tolly. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mrs. Tolly. Matilda Tolly. 

Mr. Tavenner. How do you spell your last name ? 

Mrs. Tolly. T-o-l-l-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. McTernan. I am John T. McTernan, 112 West 9th Street, 
Los Angeles, 15. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you "Miss" or "Mrs." ? 

Mrs. Tolly. "Mrs." 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your maiden name ? 

Mrs. Tolly. Molina. 



^ Released by the committee and ordered to be printed. 

279 



280 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you also been known by the married name of 
Berry ? 

Mrs. Tolly. That was my previous name. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside, Mrs. Tolly ? 

Mrs. Tolly. 1822 Bellevue. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born ? 

Mrs. Tolly. Arizona. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. Tolly. I believe since 1926. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your edu- 
cational training has been ? 

Mrs. Tolly. I went a year to high school. 

Mr. Taatsnner. What is your present occupation ? 

Mrs. Tolly. I am a housewife. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your last occupation other than that of 
a housewife ? 

Mrs. Tolly. I don't remember. I have worked all over the city at 
sometime or other, so I really couldn't tell you. I have done practi- 
cally everything. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you at any time used the name Hilda Knox ? 

( The witness conferred with her counsel. ) 

Mrs. Tolly. I invoke the fifth amendment. I refuse to answer that 
question because it might tend to incriminate me and it is not pertinent. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not a fact that you joined the Communist 
Party in 1083 here in Los Angeles and that you registered under the 
name of Hilda Knox ? 

(The witness conferred with her comisel.) 

Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you a photostatic copy of an affidavit of 
registration sworn to on August 16, 1939, to vote, in which it shows 
the affiliation of the affiant. Will you examine it, please, and state 
whether or not this is an affidavit prepared by you ? 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 

(The witness conferred with her counsel.) 

Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked Tolly Exhibit No. 1. 

Mr. Walter. It may be so marked. 

(Docinnent marked "Tolly Exhibit No. 1" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the name appearing in the affi- 
davit as the affiant, namely, Mrs. Matilda Berry, and state whether 
or not that is your signature ? 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 
(The witness conferred with her coimsel.) 

Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Chairman, the affidavit shows that the affilia- 
tion given by the affiant is that of the Communist Party. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 281 

Weie you a member of the Communist Party on August 16, 1939? 
( The witness conferred with her counsel.) 
Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. I Iiand you a similar affidavit of registration, sworn 
and subscribed to on July 16, 1942, and ask you to examine it and state 
whether or not you identify the signature thereto as being your 
signature. 

(A document was handed to the witness.) 
(The witness conferred with her coimsel.) 
Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. I desire to offer the document in evidence and ask 
that it be marked Tolly Exhibit No. 2. 
Mr. Walter. It will be so marked. 

(Document marked "Tolly Exhibit No. 2" and retained in com- 
mittee files.) 

Mr. Tavenner, Were you a member of the Communist Party on 
July 16, 1942 ? 

Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Belmont-Temple Club 
of the Communist Party during the year 1947 ? 

Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. Were you not press director for that club as shown 
by tlie February 28, 1947, issue of the People's World? 
Mrs. Tolly. T refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. It is the committee's information that you were a 
delegate to the California State convention of the Communist Party 
held on January 19-20, 1957. Were you a delegate to that convention ? 
Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. It is the committee's information that you were also 
a delegate to the Southern California District convention of the Com- 
munist Party lield on April 13-14, 1957. Were you a delegate to that 
convention ? 

Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer on the same grounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what assign- 
ments were given to you to carry out Communist Party obligations 
and functions since April 13, 1957 ? 

Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. The committee, from its investigation, has deter- 
mined that special instructions were given from time to time to party 
members to perform certain types of work within churches. Were you 
assigned work of that character ? 

Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer that question, also, on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 
Mrs. Tolly. I refuse to answer that question on the same grounds. 
Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 
Mr. Walter. The witness is excused. 
(Whereupon, at 9 : 55 a.m., the witness was excused.) 



282 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

TESTIMONY OF MARK ROBINSON, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
JOHN T. McTERNAN 

Mr. Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 
Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be the 
truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 
Mr. Robinson. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? 
Mr. Robinson. Mark Robinson. 

Mr Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ( 
Mr. McTernan. John T. McTeman, 112 W. 9th Street, Los 

Angeles, 15. in- -r. i • 

Mr. Ta\^nner. When and where were you born, Mr. Robinson « 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Robinson. I was born in Alberta, Canada, in 1915. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you come to the United States ? 

Mr. Robinson. In 1918. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a naturalized American citizen ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Robinson. I have a certificate of naturalization. I also claim 
citizenship because of the citizenship of my parents. 

Mr. Ta\t3NNEr. In other words, derivative citizenship ? 

Mr. Walter. No. He is naturalized and he claims derivative citi- 
zenship. 

Mr. McTernan. Xo, sir. 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Robinson. I was born in Canada of American citizens and claim 
citizenship thereby. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your father's name ? 

Mr. Robinson. James Roger Robinson. 

Mr. TA^T.NNER. You state you also have a certificate of naturaliza- 
tion. When and where were you naturalized? ^ ^ 

Mr. Robinson. I was naturalized in Pulaski County, Missouri, m 
December, I believe, 1942, while a member of the Armed Forces. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Robinson. At 4441 Lynnfield Street, Los Angeles, California. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you resided in Los Angeles? 

Mr. Rorinson. Since 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live prior to that ? 

Mr. Robinson. Immediately prior to my coming to Los Angeles, I 
was a member of the Armed Forces practically all over the world. 
Do you want me to go further? Do you want to know where I lived 
before that ? 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you enter the armed services? 

Mr. Robinson. In 1942. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were discharged when ? 

Mr. Robinson. 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you hold an honorable discharge ? 

Mr. Robinson. Yes, sir. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 283 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your edu- 
■cational training has been ? 

Mr. Robinson. I am a graduate of a public high school. I have 
one semester in one subject m college. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Robinson. I am a furniture worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party at 
the time of your naturalization in Missouri in 1942 ? 

Mr. Robinson. I decline to answer this question on the grounds 
of the first amendment to the Constitution which invades my right 
to free speech and association and on tlie further grounds that such a 
question is not pertinent to any matters into which this committee may 
legislate. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Robinson, in September, the committee con- 
ducted a hearing in Los Angeles and this is a continuance of that 
hearing. At that time there was introduced in evidence as "Healey 
Exhibit No. 24," a letter under date of March 26, 1958, addressed to 
the National Committee of the Communist Party of the United States 
which was a letter of resignation from the Communist Party of a 
number of individuals. 

Your name does not appear as one of the signatories to that letter. 
However, from the investigation that the committee has made we 
understand that this letter was submitted to you and that you have 
seen it, and that you have endorsed it, and actually have withdrawn 
from the Communist Party. If that is true, we want this record to 
show it. Will you state whether or not you have withdrawn from 
the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robinson. I decline to answer this on the same grounds as 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. This letter contains a statement, Mr. Robinson, on 
behalf of those who signed it, that, "We do not believe that conditions 
are yet ripe for the emergence of a definitive program and organiza- 
tion. But we do feel that more limited steps can be taken which will 
help prepare the soil for something new * * *." 

What is that "something new" referred to in that letter by those who 
resigned ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robinson. I will decline to answer that question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know who composed this letter? 

Mr. Robinson. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you agree with its contents? 

Mr. Robinson. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. As a worker in the furniture business, I assume that 
you were a member of a union in that field, were you not, or are you 
not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robinson. I decline to answer this question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Numerous meetings of the Communist Party have 
been held at which Bernard Lusher, the head of the Labor Commis- 
sion of the Communist Party, spoke and made plans for the work 



284 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

of the Communist Party within the field of labor. Are you acquainted 
with his plans ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. EoBiNSON. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

Mr. Robinson. I decline to answer on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. When you entered the armed services, did you sign 
an affidavit under oath or otherwise swear that you did not belong to 
any organization which advocated the overthrow of the Government by 
force and violence ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Robinson. I decline to answer this question on the same 
grounds. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. In what branch of the armed services did you serve ? 

Mr. Robinson. The U.S. Army. 

Mr. Walter. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon at 10 :45 a.m., the witness was excused.) 

TESTIMONY OF DELFINO VARELA, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
ESTHER SHANDLER 

Mr. Walter. Will you stand and raise your right hand ? 

Do you swear that the testimony which you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Varela. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Varela, ]\Iy name if Delfino Varela. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel accompanying the witness please 
identify herself for the record ? 

Miss Shandler. Esther Shandler, 208 West 8th Street, Los Angeles, 
14. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Varela ? 

Mr. Varela. Pecos, N. Mex., November 14, 1926. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Varela. Los Angeles, Calif. 

Mr. Tavenner. How lon^ have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Varela. For approximately 3i^ years ; September, of 1955. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your edu- 
cational training has been ? 

Mr. Varela. I hold a bachelor of ai^ts degree from the University 
of New Mexico, in education and a master of social work degree from 
the University of Michigan. 

Mr. Tavenner. The University of Michigan ? 

Mr. Varela. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your present occupation ? 

Mr. Varela. Social worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. In Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Varela. In Los Angeles, yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been engaged in that occupar 
tion? 

Mr. Varela. In Los Angeles or in general ? 

Mr. Tavenner. In Los Angeles. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 285 

Mr. Varela. The same time as my residence, approximately three 
and a half years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that period of time, what was your em- 
ployment ? 

Mr. Varela. Prior to that period of time I was a social service 
worker in Detroit, Michigan. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long were you a social worker in Detroit 
Michigan, and between what dates ? 

Mr. Varela. Between March of 1954 and around July of 1955. 

Mr. Tavenner. Prior to that time, how were you employed? 

Mr. Varela. I was also a social worker. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where? 

Mr. Varela. Pittsburgh. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you give us the dates of your employment at 
Pittsburgh? 

Mr. Varela. Approximately between September of 1952 and March 
of 1954. 

Mr. Tavenner. While you were engaged in the work of a social 
worker in Pittsbugh, were you a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Varela. My civic activity has been dedicated to helping dis- 
abled people and the Mexican- American people, of which I am one, 
to assume the full responsibilities of their citizenship and to partici- 
pate more fully in their democracy. However, I find that this type 
of questioning into people's associations and beliefs has been a detri- 
ment to these objectives in the sense that it has created suspicions and 
fears about any type of civic work. 

Furthermore, answer's to questions on associations and beliefs, in 
my opinion, violate the first amendment to the Constitution which 
forbids Congress from legislating in this area and consequently, from 
investigating in this area. 

Therefore, I must also — questions asked at hearings of this type 
can and often have been used against people in future proceedings 
no matter how innocent these people may be, and, therefore, I must 
respectfully decline to answer the question and avail myself of the 
privileges afforded me by the first and fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you referring to that provision of the fifth 
amendment relating to self-incrimination ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Varela. I refer to that part of the fifth amendment which pro- 
vides that no person need be a witness against himself. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Communist Party while 
you were engaged in social work in Detroit between 1954 and 1955 ? 

Mr. Varela. Again, sir, I must respectfully decline to answer the 
question on the same grounds as I have previously stated. 

Mr. Walter. By whom were you employed while in Detroit? 

Mr. Varela. I wonder if the committee at this time would inform 
me as to the subject under inquiry here today and how this subject 
relates to my place of employment. 

Mr. Walter. This is merely a preliminary question. 

Mr. Varela. I would like the — 

Mr. Walter. You have already testified that you were engaged in 
this type of work and I think we have a right to know whether or not 
you were doing it for a private organization, a public organization, 



286 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

or you were doing it as an act of charity yourself. You have opened 
the door for this line of questioning. 

Mr. Varela. I would like to request again that the committee ex- 
plain to me the subject under inquiry and the relevancy of my place of 
employment to the specific subject under inquiry here. 

Mr. Walter. Are you going to answer the question ? 

Mr. Varela. Since I fail to understand the relevancy or the perti- 
nency of the question, I would like to request that it be withdrawn. 

Mr. Walter. The committee is endeavoring to ascertain what the 
objective of the Communist movement is at the moment, and in en- 
deavoring to ascertain these facts, we would like to know just exactly 
what you have been doing, because we have information that you are 
and have been connected with this Communist movement. 

Mr. Varela. Mr. Chairman, my employer in Detroit is engaged in 
providing social service and bringing the name of an employer into 
these types of hearings, I am afraid, might jeopardize the ability of 
these employers to provide the social service. 

Furthermore, the chairman of this committee made it quite clear 
some time ago that he had no intention that these liearings should be 
the cause of people losing their jobs. I am sure that you can api)re- 
ciate the problems that a disabled person like myself would have in 
gaining employment when dismissed under these circumstances and 
combining that with the problems of any disabled persons 

Mr. Walter, I appreciate that very fully and I feel very sympa- 
thetic, and for that reason I cannot understand why you would not lean 
over backward to avoid doing anything that would make your posi- 
tion or any position less secure. 

Mr. Varela. For that reason — that was one of my reasons for re- 
questing that questions as to my employers' identity be withdrawn. 

Mr. Walter. Mr. Tavenner can ask the question, and you can de- 
cline to answer it if you see fit. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. We are merely asking you for whom you were 
working while you were in Michigan. 

Mr. Varela. I would rather not say. 

Mr. Walter. Do you decline to answer that ? 

Mr. Varela. Yes, sir. 

Miss Shandler. That was not a direction, was it? 

Mr. Walter. No. 

Mr. Taa^enner. You mentioned the fact that you were interested 
in Mexican affairs. Have you read the resolution presented at the 
organizational meeting of the District Council of the Communist 
Party for the Southern District of California which was held in 
April of 1957? 

Mr. Varela. Sir, I would like to decline to answer that question, 
respectfully, on the grounds that I have previously stated. 

Mr. Taa^nner. Is there an organization within the Communist 
Party in the Southern District of California which centers upon ac- 
tivities, Communist Party activities, with Mexicans ? 

Mr. Varela. I respectfully decline to answer the question, sir, on 
the grounds that I have previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you currently a member of the Boyle Heights 
Club of the Communist Party ? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA ' 287 

Mr. Varela. Again, sir, I would like to respectfully decline to an- 
swer your question on the grounds I have previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is the Boyle Heights Club within the Zapata Sec- 
tion of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Varela. I decline to answer that question, respectfully, sir, on 
the grounds I have previously stated. 

Mr, Walter. Where is that section ? 

Mr. Wheeler. Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now acting under any assignment from 
the Commmiist Party ? 

Mr. Varela. I respectfully decline to answer the question on the 
gi'ounds I previously stated. 

Mr. JoHANSEN. Mr. Chairman, in that connection I would like the 
record to show very clearly that the witness gave as one of his 
grounds for declining to answer that to do so would involve testifying 
against himself. 

Mr. Walter. I think the record will show that. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what new plans 
have been evolved by the Communist Party with respect to the Mexi- 
can question ? 

Mr. Varela. I respectfully decline to answer the question, sir, on the 
grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Walter. This is particularly important. There has been intro- 
duced in Congre.ss several bills, one by Mr. Celler of New York, im- 
posing a quota on Mexican immigration. Ever since I have been 
chairman of the Immigration and Naturalization Subcommittee, we 
have felt that there ought not to be any quotas in the Western Hemi- 
sphere and there are not any, as you know, and anyone from the 
Argentine all the way from Newfoundland, for that matter, can come 
into the United States. It has proved satisfactory. 

Now, if there is going to be an organization of Communists within 
this Mexican-American group, it may well be that the same thing will 
happen that has happened in other areas, and it would be indeed un- 
fortunate for our diplomatic relations in this hemisphere. So I think 
you ought to consider this very carefully. 

You are employed and you can render a great service to the people 
in whom you say you are interested and, if you are sincerely interested 
in them, I think you will answer these questions. 

Mr. Varela. Sir, it is because of the reasons that I stated previously 
that I do feel that questions into people's associations and beliefs make 
the work of helping people to be good citizens and participate fully 
in the community because I do believe that this type of inquiry does 
violate the first amendment to the Constitution and, also, questions, 
no matter how you answer them, can and have been used in later 
proceedings, and for that reason I must respectfully decline to answer 
on the grounds that I previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

Mr. Varela. Again, sir, I must respectfully decline to answer the 
question on the grounds I have previously stated. 

Mr. Walter. For how long did you state you have been in Cali- 
fornia ? 

Mr. Varela. Approximately three and a half years. 



288 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Walter. Did you come here for the purpose of engaging in 
colonization work among Mexicans or Americans of Mexican 
extraction ? 

Mr. Varela. I must respectfully decline to answer that question on 
the grounds I previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Walter. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 40 a.m., the witness was excused.) 

TESTIMONY OF BEN KARR, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, ESTHER 

SHANDLER 

Mr. Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear that the testimony which you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothmg but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Karr. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please, sir? 

Mr. Karr. Ben Karr. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel identify herself for the record, please? 

Miss Shandler. Esther Shandler, 208 West 8th Street, Los An- 
geles 14. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Karr. May 1, 1916, New York City. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Karr. Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Karr. Since December of 1949. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
educational training has been ? 

Mr. Karr. I have a baccalaureate in education from the City Col- 
lege of New York. 

Mr. Tavenner. When did you receive that degree ? 

Mr. Karr. In 1937. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is yoiu" occupation ? 

Mr. Karr. I am a presser. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that in the needle trade work? 

Mr. Karr. That's right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Your degree is what ? 

Mr. Karr. Bachelor of business administration. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have not, then, followed the particular work 
for which you prepared yourself? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Karr. I am not following it now ; no, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you followed it? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IvARR. I intend to invoke my constitutional privileges in re- 
gard to this question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Karr. In that regard, I would like to say that it is my con- 
sidered opinion that the work of this committee has had the objective 
effect of creating in this country a climate of fear, one which makes 
very difficult, if not impossible, that free exchange of ideas which are 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 289 

SO necessary or which is so necessary to the growth of ourselves as in- 
dividuals and as to the maintenance of our democratic institutions. 

In addition, I feel this committee has used its power for an un- 
warranted invasion of personal privacy and for prosecution by 
exposure. 

For that reason, I feel that aiding or abetting the work of tliis 
committee would not be in the best interests of our country. For the 
above and for the additional protection of myself, I decline to answer 
that question on the constitutional grounds, specifically the first and 
fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you referring to that provision of the fifth 
amendment against self-incrimination ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. KAim. I refer to that provision that no person need bear witness 
against himself. 

Mr. Tavenner. You came to California in 1949. Have you been 
engaged in the occupation of a presser during that entire period? 

Mr. Karr. I went into pressing several months after I came here 
and I have been in that occupation ever suice. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you work in that occupation prior to coming 
to California? 

Mr. Karr. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you disclose to your employer in 1949 the fact 
that you had the degree from college that you told us you have? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. IL\RR. I decline to answer that question on the same grounds. 

Mr. Tavenner. Why did you select the position of a presser with 
all the educational qualifications that you had? 

Mr. E^ARR. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you advised in New York to get out into the 
trades for any Communist Party purpose? 

Mr. Karr. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you represent the Needle Trades Section of the 
Communist Pa.rty in the Communist Party organization in this area ? 

Mr. Karr. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner, The committee's information is that you are one 
of the 62 members of the District Council of the Communist Party 
for the Southern District of California. Are you a member of the 
district council? 

Mr. Karr. Same answer. 

Mr. Walter. What comprises the southern district? 

Mr. Tavenner. From the list that we have, there were 28 sections 
south of a certain line drawn through the state. 

Mr. Walter. Is this one of the sections that you are talking about ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. Our testimony back in September showed 
that there is a district council set-up composed of 62 members elected 
from these various sections. I have just asked the witness whether 
he is on the district council. 

This district council also has an exexiutive board composed of ten 
persons, according to the committee's information. Will you verify 
that as being correct? 

Mr. Karr. Same answer. 



290 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee has considerable information re- 
garding the monthly meetings that have been held by this district 
council, but according to our information you have not been in at- 
tendance at many of them. 

Is that because you are working in the labor field and have been 
instructed to stay away from these particular meetings ? 

Mr, Karr. Same answer. 

Mr. TAArENNER. Are you acquainted with Bernard Lusher, the head 
of the Labor Commission of the Communist Party for the Southern. 
District of California? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Karr. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavexner. What are the present plans of tlie Communist Party 
within the field of labor, or in this area? 

Mr. Karr. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not true that a new organizational set-up has 
been resorted to, that of uniting in one group the representatives 
from the field of labor from all of the different sections of the Com- 
^nunist Party? 

Mr. Karr. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your particular assignment at this time in 
the Communist Party ? 

Mr. Karr. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party? 

Mr. Karr. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Waliter. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 47 a.m., the witness was excused.) 

Mr. Walter. The committee will be in recess until 2 o'clock. 

(Whereupon, at 11 : 50 a.m. WednevSday, February 25, the hearing 
in the above-entitled matter was recessed, to be reconvened at 2 p.m. 
of the same day.) 

AFTERNOON SESSION— WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 25, 1&59 

Mr. Walter. The committee will be in session. 

TESTIMONY OF SOPHIE SIMINOSKI, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
WILLIAM B. MURRISH 

Mr. Walter. Do you swear that the testimony which you are about 
to give will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth., 
so help you God ? 

Mrs. SiMiNosKi. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please ? 

Mrs. Siminoski. Sophie Siminoski. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel please identify himself for the record ? 

Mr. MuRRiSH. William Murrish, member of the Los Angeles Bar. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you "Miss" or "Mrs." ? 

Mrs. Siminoski. "Mrs." 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your maiden name ? 

Mrs. Siminoski. S-m-o-r-i-d-o-n. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where were you born ? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 291 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKi. In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKi. 1612 Cerro Gordo Street. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is that G-o-r-d-o ? 

Mrs. SiMiNosKi. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles? 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKi, Approximately 17 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Tell the committee, please, what your educational 
training has been. 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKi. High school. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation ? 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKi. I am a housewife. 

INIr. Tavenner. What is the last occupation you followed other than 
•a housewife ? 

iSIrs. SiMiNOSKi. A stenographer. 

Mr. Tavenner. When were you last working as a stenographer ? 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKi. About 2 years ago. 

Mr. Tam5Nner. The committee has information that the new organ- 
ization of the Communist Party for the Southern District of California 
is comprised of at least 28 sections and that these sections are divided 
into clubs. One of these sections, we are advised, has the name of 
Eclw Park Section. 

Have you been a functionary within the past 2 years in this section 
of tlie Communist Party, the Echo Park Section ? 

ivlrs. SiMiNOSKi. That question violates my rights and my duties 
under the United States Constitution, both in its entirety as a guaranty 
of free, democratic government, and in several of its vital amendments 
and provisions as hereafter stated, and I will, therefore, decline to 
answer that question and all like it upon each and all of the follow- 
ing constitutional legal grounds : 

1. I decline to answer, first, upon the ground of freedom of speech, 
thought, and association under the first amendment, and because this 
committee under that amendment has no authority, power, or jurisdic- 
tion to inquire into my beliefs, speech or associations in this or any 
particular. 

2. I decline to answer, secondly, because this committee in its entire 
proceedings here, and particularly respecting this stated question, is 
without lawful jurisdiction, power or authority under the due process 
claufe of the fifth amendment and under the provisions in whole of the 
Constitution. 

This is so because the authorizing statute and resolution under 
which it operates is unconstitutionally vague and lacking in standards, 
terms or provisions communicating to me or to any witness, or to a 
court or hearing body, any meaningful or definable contents or cri- 
teria, either as a matter of substantive or of procedural law. 

Mr. Tavenner. Don't read quite so rapidly, please. 

Mrs. SiMiNosKi. To the contrary, it is standardless and establishes 
an instrument of arbitrary power only, and of censorship. Further, 
neither said authorizing statute or resolution, nor any statement, act 
or declaration of this committee establishes, evidences or communi- 
cates any manner or respect in which the said stated question is or can 
be pertinent in law and under the Constitution, and particularly under 



292 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

the decision in Watkins v. U.S., to any lawful investigative object or 
purpose of Congress, or of this committee, or at all. 

3'. I decline to answer, thirdly, upon the ground that this committee 
has no jurisdiction in this hearing and as to the stated question be- 
cause the committee, its activities, its autliorizing resolution, and the 
specific question concerned here, all violate the Constitutional separa- 
tion of Congress' legislative power from the judicial power. This is 
contrary to Articles I and III of the Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Slow down in reading, please. 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKi. There is also a viohition of the even more funda- 
mental separation of Congress' legislative power from the sovereign 
power of the people over all the branches of government as secured 
by Articles I, II and III of the Coristitution, the Preamble, the guar- 
anty of republican government secured in Article IV and the provi- 
sions of the whole of the Bill of of Rights Amendments I to X. 

4. Finally, inseparably from the first amendment I will decline to 
answer the stated question under the rights given me by the fifth 
amendment and the decision of the Supreme Court in Quinn v. U.S., 
upon the grounds that the published hearings, reports, releases and 
newspaper declarations of this committee and its officers and its rep- 
resentatives, including the circumstance that it has declared it possesses 
eleven rooms and more of files of accusatory dossiers upon or affecting 
more than a million individuals and more than 1,000 organizations, 
and has denounced as "subversive", "un-American," and "treason- 
able," all of such and all other individuals, causes, groups and ideas 
affecting any and every humanitarian subject or purpose known to 
me — 

Mr. Tavenner. Slow down, please. 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKi. Afford me basis in law for refusing to be a wit- 
ness against myself and for protecting myself in the Supreme Court's 
words against "tyrannous prosecution," under said fifth amendment, 
and under said amendment, I do therefore decline to answer. 

Mr. TA^^NNER. Will you tell the committee, please, whether Eliza- 
beth Spector is section organizer of the Echo Park Section of the Com- 
munist Party ? 

Mrs. SiMixosKi. Under all the grounds previously stated I decline 
to answer. 

^ ^ ^i 7^ Sfs ^ ^ 

Mr. Tavenner. What are the present Communist Party directives 
being carried out by this section of the Communist Party, if you 
know? 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKT. On all the grounds previously mentioned, I de- 
cline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you been a regular attendant at the meetings 
of this section of the Communist Party ? 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKi. On all the grounds previously mentioned, I de- 
cline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member at this time of the Echo Park 
Section of the Communist Party of Los Angeles ? 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKT, On all the grounds previously mentioned, I de- 
cline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. What type of a campaign is being waged now with- 
in that section to maintain its membership ? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 293 

Mrs. SiMiNOSKi, On all the grounds previously mentioned, I de- 
cline to answer. 

Mr. Tavennek. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Walter. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon, at 2 :35 ]D.m,, the witness was excused.) 

TESTIMONY OF HAERY HUNT, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
DANIEL G. MARSHALL 

Mr. Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please. 

Do you swear that the testimony vvhich you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you 
God? 

Mr. Hunt. I do. 

Mr. Ta\t.nner. State your name, please. 

Mr. Hunt. Harry Hunt. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel accompanying the witness please iden- 
tify himself for the record. 

Mr. Marshall. Daniel G. Marshall. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer this question upon the following 
grounds: Primarily, upon my rights under the first amendment to 
the Constitution of the United States, supplemented by the self- 
incriminating clause of the fifth amendment and upon the further 
ground that it lacks pertinency and is beyond the powers of this 
committee. 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer the question, 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer this question upon the following 
grounds : Primarily, upon my rights under the first amendment to the 
Constitution of the United States, supplemented by the self-incrimi- 
nating clause of the fifth amendment and upon the further ground 
that it lacks pertinency and is beyond the powers of this committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you honestly contend that to give this commit- 
tee your address might subject you to criminal prosecution? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer this question upon the following 
grounds: Primarily, upon my rights under the first amendment to 
the Constitution of the United States, supplemented by the self- 
incrimination clause of the fifth amendment and upon the further 
ground that it lacks pertinency and is beyond the powers of this 
committee. 

Mr, Moulder. You are appearing here as a witness in response to a 
subpena ? 

Mr. Hunt. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Moulder. After being directed by (he chairman of our com- 
mittee to answer the question wliich was propounded to you by comi- 
sel, do you realize that you might be making yourself subject to being 
in contempt of Congress and subject to prosecution? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer this question upon the following 
grounds: Primarily, upon my rights under the first amendment to 



294 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

the Constitution of the United States, supplemented by the self- 
incrimination clause of the fifth amendment and upon the further 
ground that it lacks pertinency and is beyond the powers of the 
committee. 

Mr. Marshall. May I address the Chair ? 

In the event that other questions are asked of this witness as to 
which he desires to exercise his privilege, will it be stipulated that 
whenever he states that he declines to answer, that it will be deemed 
that his grounds are the grounds he has stated with respect to the 
questions heretofore asked of him ? 

Mr. Walter. Yes, that will be understood — that when the witness 
declines to answer it will be on the grounds heretofore stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. You stated you are here pursuant to a subpena 
served upon you. Will you examine the paper that is being handed 
to you and state whether or not that appears to be a copy of the sub- 
pena served on you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hunt. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you examine the reverse side of it and see 
whether or not there is a return by the sheriff's office, showing that 
there was service on you ? The name appears at the bottom. 

Mr. Marshall. The witness probably does not comprehend that. 
The endorsement shows the service of this subpena on Harry Hunt 
and it purports to bear the signature of a person whom I take to be a 
deputy sheriff. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you see on the back of the subpena the state- 
ment just read by your counsel ? 

Mr. Hunt. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Does not the return show that service was made on 
you at 824 West T4th Street, Los Angeles ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. That is your correct address, is it not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a subscriber to the Daily People's World ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I call to your attention that you are listed as a sub- 
scriber and that your address is listed as 824 West 74th Street. Does 
that change your answer ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your edu- 
cational training has been ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. AYliat is your jjresent occupation ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a resident of Los Angeles? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Hunt, do you expect us to believe that you are 
acting in good faith in refusing to answer those questions on the 
ground of possible self-incrimination ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. We have shown in evidence, Mr. Hunt, through an 
earlier hearing that upon the reorganization of the Communist Party 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTPIERN CALIFORNIA AREA 295 

for the Southern District of California in 1957 that various meetings 
have been held of the district council of that organization. One of 
those meetings was held on July 27, 1958. 

It is the committee's information that you were present at that 
meeting and took part in the meeting. Did you take part in that 
meeting? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Ta^tinner. Do you recall that at that meeting considerable dis- 
trust was spread of the chairman of the Communist Party for the 
Southern District of California, and that in fact. Max Steinberg of- 
fered a resolution to remove her fi-oni office? 

"Were you present when that motion was made ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not arise and address the gathering and 
state in substance that the suggestion of removing Dorothy Healey 
was no good, in other words, that you opposed the suggestion of her 
removal ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not take the position that her removal would 
not solve the problems with which the Communist Party in this area 
was faced ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, you are on Dorothy Healey 's side? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer^ sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not at that time state that the main problem 
of the party was that the party had been isolated from the masses ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What plans were made by the Communist Party to 
try to solve this problem of isolation from the masses ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the committee's information, the 
monthly meeting of the district council of the Communist Party for 
the month of September was held on September 21, 1958, and you 
were also present at this meeting and participated in it. 

Did you participate as a speaker in that meeting? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the committee's information you also 
participated in the monthly meeting of the district council held on 
November 23, 1958. Did you so participate ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee is informed of the activities at a 
monthly meeting of that organization held as late as January 25, 1959. 
Did you participate at that meeting? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, 

Mr. Tavenner. Was not that meeting of the district council greatly 
divided in its views regarding a report made by Charlene Mitchell 
regarding action taken on the Negro question at the national executive 
committee meeting in New York ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 



296 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not arise and state at this meeting that 
the bringing up of this question at this time had caused a serious split 
in the Commimist Party ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not express at this meeting that the rela- 
tionship of the Communist Party to the Negro people had not been 
good? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Had the relationship of the Communist Party to 
the Negro people been good ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what plan the 
Communist Party has in this area to solve this problem in this dispute 
which has been raised within the party ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you present at the time that Charlene Mitchell 
complained that the white members of the Communist Party were 
discriminating against her by not paying contributions to her but on 
the other hand, paying them to her cotreasurer, a white person? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. With all the talk that goes on by the Comnmnist 
Party about its interest in the Negro people, as a matter of fact, there 
is discrimination against the Negro people within the Commmiist 
Party, is there not ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Walter. Did you not hear the charge coming from this colored 
girl that there was discrimination against Negro people? 

IVIr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are a member of the 62-member District Coun- 
cil of the Conununist Party for the Southern District of California, 
are you not ? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You hold that position today, do you not? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Walter. Are there any questions ? 

Mr. MouiJ)ER. Did you state your occupation? 

Mr. Hunt. I decline to answer, sir. 

Mr. Walter. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon, at 2:55 p.m., the witness was excused.) 

TESTIMONY OF ARTHrR BROWN, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
MORTIMER VOGEL 

Mr. Walter. Will you stand and raise your right hand, please. 
Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give will be 
the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 
Mr. Brown. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. "WTiat is your name, please? 
Mr. Brown. Arthur Brown. 
Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel identify himself for the record, please? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 29? 

Mr. VoGEL. Mortimer Vogel of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. I hand you what purports to be the subpena served 
upon you and will you examine it and state whether or not it appears 
to you to be a copy of the subpena requiring your presence here today ? 

Mr. Brown. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. You will note it is made out in the name of Art 
Brown. You are commonly known by that name of Art Brown, are 
you not ? 

Mr. Brown. Yes, sir. 

^Ir. Tavenner. Where do you live, Mr. Brown ? 

Mr. Brown. 9946 Woodale Avenue, Pacoima, California. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Brown. New York City, November 4, 1915. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in California ? 

Mr. Brown. A little less than 2 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live immediately before coming 
to California? 

Mr. Brown. New Jersey. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where did you live in New Jersey ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I must decline to answer that question on the 
basis of the first and fifth amendment to the Constitution. 

Mr. Walter. Do you honestly feel that if you told where you lived 
in New Jersey you might be subject to criminal prosecution? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Jlr. Brown. I must refuse to answer that question. 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brown. I must refuse to answer the question on the basis of 
the first and fifth amendment and the pertinency of the committee to 
this question. 

Mr. Ta\t]nner. By stating that you rely on the fifth amendment 
are you referring to that part of the fifth amendment relating to self- 
incrimination ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brovv'N. I believe the counsel is fully aware of the importance 
and meaning of the fifth amendment and I have based my refusal to 
answer on tlie fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. There are various parts of the fifth amendment, 
some of which mean one thing and some another, so if you refuse to 
state which part you rely upon, I will again ask the chairman to 
direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. Walter. Yes ; you are directed to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brown. I base my refusal to answer on the basis of the fifth 
amendment and all the parts of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you honestly believe that to answer that question 
might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Brown. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, how long you 
lived in New Jersey ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

]\Ir. Brown. I lived all my life in New Jersey, sir, except for a short 
period as a baby and up until the time I came to California. 



298 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Can you tell us if you served in the Armed Forces 
of the United States ? 

Mr. Brown. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Over what period of time ? 

Mr. Brown. I was in the Armed Forces for just shy of five years. 

Mr. Tavenner. From what date to what date ? 

Mr. Brown. From June, I believe, the 11th — what year was it before 
Pearl Harbor ? 

Mr. Tavenner. 1940 was before Pearl Harbor. 

Mr. Brown. Pearl Harbor was in December. I was drafted June 
before Pearl Harbor and served until the end of the war and was 
separated from service as a first lieutenant in February 1946. 

Mr. Tavenner. In what branch of the service did you serve? 

Mr. Brown. I was in the Adjutant General's division. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Brown. I graduated from high school in New Jersey, in Cran- 
ford. New Jersey, and I attended Union Junior College for two 
years. I attended three years at night and I had two years college 
credit. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your present occupation ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brown. I must refuse to answer on the grounds previously 
stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was your occupation while living in New 
Jersey, say, from the time you got out of the Army up until the time 
you came to California ? 

Mr. Brown. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you have any regular employment at all for 
which you received compensation while in New Jersey between the 
time of your discharge from the Army and the time of your coming 
here? 

Mr. Brown. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you leave the State of New Jersey and come to 
California for any reason related to activities of the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Brown. The same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were an organizer for the Communist Party at 
Middlesex, New Jersey, between 1946 and 1947, were you not ? 

Mr. Brown. The same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's information is that you were a 
delegate to the national convention in New York City but that you 
did not attend. Were you elected as a delegate ? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you attend ? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you in attendance at a New Jersey State 
leadership meeting during the year 1954 ? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I must give the same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not transferred in 1956 from Union 
County, N.J., to Essex County, N.J., for work in the Communist 
Party? 

Mr. Brown. The same answer, sir. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 299 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not active in the raising of funds for the 
Communist Party in New Jersey as late as 1956 ? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. TA^"ENNER. On your arrival in California, did you immediately 
affiliate with a local group of the Communist Party ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. We are informed that there is a section of the Com- 
munist Party known as the "Valley" group. Have you heard of it? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of it now ? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I do not want to leave the inference that I think you 
are a member of it now, but I will ask you whether you were a mem- 
ber of it prior to March 26, 1958. 

Mr. Brown. I must give the same answer, sir. 

Mr. Walter. Before the question is asked, do not tell him, counsel, 
"same answer." Wait until the question is asked before you prompt 
the witness. 

Mr. VoGEL. It is fairly obvious what the question is going to be. 

Mr. Walter. Let us be fair about it and let the question be asked 
before you do the very improper thing of prompting a witness. 

Go ahead, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. While in New Jersey, were you not a member of 
the State Youth Commission of the Communist Party for that State? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not also a member of the State Veterans 
Commission of the Communist Party in New Jersey ? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mv. Tavenner. Did you not arise to the position of a member on the 
State committee of the Communist Party in the State of New Jersey ? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. In New Jersey, were you not veiy active in the work 
of the Civil Rights Congress; in fact, you were its executive secretary ? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. Moulder. Are you responding to all of the questions pro- 
pounded to you by counsel for the committee on advice of your own 
counsel to refuse to answer all questions claiming the privileges under 
the first and fifth amendments, or in good faith ? 

I am asking the witness, not his counsel. I am asking you if all of 
your responses to questions are being answered by you solely by what 
counsel tells you to do, or are you in good faith claiming the privileges 
under the Constitution ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brown. I am claiming the privilege of the first and fifth 
amendment on my own. At the same time I am seeking the advice of 
my counsel. 

Mr. Walter. You have not asked counsel one single question. He 
has, before the question has been completely asked, told you what to 

Mr. VoGEL. Is it not obvious what is going to be asked ? 



300 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Walter. Let us do this right. If there is anything left of 
ethics, let us pay a little more attention to what ought to be. 

Mr. VoGEL. It is obvious what the question is going to be and it 
should be obvious what the answer might hi\ 

jMr. Walter. Go ahead, Mr. Tavenner. 

Mr. Tavenner. I referred a few moments ago to the date of March 
26, 1958. Yv^'e introduced in evidence at an earlier hearing, a letter 
under date of March 26, 1958 referred to as "Healey Exliibit No. 24," 
which purports to set forth reasons why those who signed it were 
resigning from the Communist Party. 

We find one of the signatories is "Art." Does the word "Art," refer 
to you as Art Brown ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brown. Sir, the same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you sign this letter of resignation ? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. You resigned from the Communist Party on March 
26,1958? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Brown, I want to call your attention to one 
rather significant thing in this letter. 

Mr. Walter. Before you do that, Mr. Tavenner, is the witness a 
member or is it evidenced that he was a member of the executive board ? 

Mr. Tav-^enner. Not of the executive board but of the district comi- 
cil. There were 62 persons on the district council and ten of them 
were on the executive board of that council. It is not our information 
that he was a member of the executive board, but it is that he was a 
member of the district council and attended the meetings. 

I will read from the letter of resignation : 

We have no blueprint to offer for the future. We do not believe that conditions 
are yet ripe for the emergence of a definitive program and organization. But we 
do feel that more limited steps can be taken which will help prepare the soil for 
something new * * *. 

What new thing was it that this group desired to promote or to 
advocate? 

Mr. Brown. Sir, I must refuse to answer that question on the basis 
of the first and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you participate in the preparation of that 
letter? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer. 

Mr. Moulder. Do you believe that the Communist Party in the 
United States is part of the international scheme or conspiracy of the 
Communist Party of the Soviet Union ? 

]Mr. Brown. I must refuse to answer that on the basis of the first 
and fifth amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you know who prepared that letter ? 

Mr. Brown. Same answer, 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have a middle initial ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr, Brown. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. You have no middle name or initial ? 

Mr. Brown. No, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 301 

Mr. JoHANSEN. At the time you entered the Armed Forces did you 
take an oath or sign an affidavit under oath to the effect that you did 
not belong- to anj^ organization advocating the overthrow of the Gov- 
ernment by force and violence? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Brown. It is a good many years ago and I don't remember 
what I signed. 

IMr. Walter. The witness is excused. Call your next witness, Mr. 
Tavenner. 

( Wliereupon, at 3 :13 p.m., the witness was excused.) 

TESTIMONY OF EOBERT KLONSKY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

AL WIRIN 

Mr. Walter. Will you stand up, please, and raise your right hand ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth and nothing but the truth, so help you God ? 

Mr. Klonsky. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you state your name, please, sir ? 

Mr. Klonsky. My name is Robert Klonslcy . 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you spell your last name ? 

Mr. Klonsky. K-1-o-n-s-k-y. 

Mr. Tai'enner. Will counsel accompanying the witness please iden- 
tify himself for the record ? 

Mr. WiRiN. My name is Al Wirin. I am an attorney in Los An- 
geles and a member of the State Bar of California. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you reside, Mr. Klonsky? 

Mr. Klonsky. I will avail myself of the constitutional privileges 
and refuse to answer to that under the privileges of the first and firth 
amendments. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you appear liere pursuant to a subpena served 
upon you by the United States marshal on February 11, 1959? 

Mr. Klonsky. That is right, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. The return on the marshal's subpena shows that 
service was made on you at 2105 South Crescent Heights Boulevard, 
Los Angeles, Calif., Apartment #^. Is that your address? 

Mr. Klonsky. I will take the fifth amendment on that, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you believe that an honest answer to that ques- 
tion might tend to incriminate you ? 

Mr. Klonsky. The question I do not believe to be a proper and 
correct statement of the law and, therefore, I will still utilize the 
fifth amendment in refusing to answer that. 

Mr. Walter. I will direct you to answer the question as to your 
residence. It is purely a preliminary question for the purpose of 
identification and I direct you to answer the question. 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Klonsky. I will continue to refuse to answer that question on 
the ground that the question is not pertinent. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born ? 

Mr. Klonsky. The same, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. How are you employed ? 

Mr. Klonsky. I will refuse to answer that under the same condi- 
tions. 



302 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you serve in the Armed Forces of the United 
States ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Klonskt. I will refuse to answer that under the same condi- 
tions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you mean to state in good faith that an honest 
answer to that question might tend to incrimmate you ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Klonsky. The answers to any such questions as you have just 
asked may lead to prosecution in one form or another and, therefore, 
I will refuse to answer that one under the same conditions. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were one of the Smith Act defendants in the 
Philadelphia case, were you not ? 

Mr. Klonsky. I will take the same constitutional privilege. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you personally acquainted with Matthew 
Cvetic? 

Mr. Klonsky. I will take the same constitutional provision. 

Mr. Tavenner. When MattheAv Cvetic testified before this com- 
mittee he identified a number of members of the Communist Party, 
in what is generally referred to as Cvetic Exhibit No. 91. You were 
identified as the secretary of the Eastern Pennsylvania area of the 
Communist Party. Is that identification correct? 

Mr. Klonsky. My answer is the same, the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Tavenner. According to the testimony of Mr. Cvetic, Mr. Bart 
Avas the chairman of the organization of which you were the secre- 
tary. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Klonsky. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Thomas F. Delaney testified before this com- 
mittee in Philadelphia on October 13, 1952, that he had b^.en a former 
member of the Communist Party, and he testified that you were a 
functionary on the district level of the Eastern Pennsylvania District 
of the Coixununist Party. Was that a truthful statement ? 

Mr. IvLONSKY. The answer remains the same. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's investigation indicates that the 
June 21, 191:9, issue of the Daily Worker reports you to have been at 
tliat time the organizational secretary of the Communist Party of 
Eastern Pennsylvania. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Klonsky. The answer remains the same, sir. 

Mr. Taa'enner. The Daily Worker issue of April 25, 1951 shows 
as late as that date that you were secretary of the Communist Party 
of Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Klonsky. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the Abraham Lincoln 
Brigade? 

Mr. Klonsky. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you at one time the circulation manager of 
the Daily Worker? 

Mr. KiONSKY. Same answer, sir. 

yir. Tavenner. Did you also serve as Communist Party organizer 
in the Bronx in the late 30's? 

]SIr. IvLONSKY. The answer is the same, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. As late as 1956, were you the editor of the Pennsyl- 
vania edition of the Daily Worker ? 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 303 

Mr. Klonsky. Same answer. 

Mr. Ta\"enner. According to the committee's information you were 
in the Armed Forces of the United States and served in Korea, is 
that correct? 

Mr. Klonsky. Same answer. 

Mr. Tavenner. I am referring to World War II and not the 
Korean war. 

Mr. Klonsky. The answer remains the same, regardless. 

Mr. Tavenner. You were with the 7l3th Tank Battalion of the 
24th Corps, were you not ? 

]\fr. Klonsky. The answer is the same, sir. 

]Mr. Moulder. Do you receive any financial compensation or as- 
sistance from any foreign country ? 

Mr. Klonsky. I will take the same privilege on that one. 

Mr. Tavenner, You did receive a commendation from the Com- 
munist Party of Korep. written to the Communist Party of the 
United States complimenting you, did you not ? 

Mr. Klonsky. I will take the same privilege, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. While you were in the armed services, did you ever 
confer with Steve Nelson ? 

Mr. Klonsky. I will take the same privilege, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. While you were in the Armed Forces, did you ever 
furnish information to Steve Nelson regarding Army manuals or 
other information regarding U.S. tanks and guns? 

Mr. Klonsky. My answer remains the same, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. While you were serving in the Armed Forces of 
the United States, did you know that Steve Nelson was an espionage 
agent of the Soviet Union ? 

Mr. Klonsky. My answer remains the same, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. This committee has from time to time received 
considerable evidence relating to Alice Hyun, Peter Hyun, and 
Diamond Kim. 

Did you at any time ever confer, either in person or by any 
form of communication, with any one of these three persons? 

Mr. Klonsky. My answer remains the same. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you not meet each of those persons in Korea ? 

Mr. KJLONSKY. My answer remains the same, sir. 

Mr. Taa^enner. Did you attend Communist Party meetings with 
any one of the three in Korea? 

Mr. Klonsky. Same answer. 

Mr. Taaiinner. The committee's investigation does not indicate that 
you have at any time been a member of the District Council of the 
Communist Party for the Southern District of California, but its 
information is that you attended the meetings. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Kjlonsky. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you a member of the Communist Party now ? 

Mr. Klonsky. I will give you the same answer now. 

Mr. Tavenner. Our mformation is that you are not a member at 
this moment. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Klonsky. Same answer, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. What was the date of your last organizational 
effort with the Communist Party of this area ? 



304 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Klonskt. Again, under the first amendment, I will refuse to 

answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I ask for a direction on that ? 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer that. 

Mr. Klonskt. I will utilize the fifth amendment in refusing to 
answer that. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Walter. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon, at 3 :30 p.m., the hearing was recessed, to reconvene 
on the same day.) 

TESTIMONY OF PHILIP RAFALOW, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 

LEO FENSTER 

Mr. Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear the testimony you are about to give will be the truth, 
the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. Eafalow. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wliat is your name, please? 

Mr. Rafalow. Philip Eafalow. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel accompanying the witness please iden- 
tify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Fenster. Leo Fenster, 113G3 Santa Monica Boulevard. 

Mr. Tavenner. When and where were you born, Mr. Rafalow ? 

Mr. Rafalow. 1925, May 17, New York City. 

INlr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside ? 

Mr. Rafalow. 3670 Colonial Avenue, Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you lived in Los Angeles? 

Mr. Rafalow. Approximately 10 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will you tell the committee, please, what your 
formal educational training has been ? 

Mr. Fenster. You are talking about high school and college, for 
example ? 

Mr. Tavenner. Yes, sir. 

Mr. Rafalow. Grade school and in part high school. 

Mr. Ta\'enner. Have you had any educational training in other 
recognized schools? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rafalow. No. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you attended any training classes? 

Mr. Rafalow. I refuse to answer on the basis of self-incrimination 
under the provision of the fifth amendment. 

Mr. Taa'enner. What is your occupation ? 

Mr. Rafalow. Plumber. 

Mr. Tavenner. How long have you been engaged in that occupa- 
tion? 

Mr. Rafalow. Approximately 16 years. 

Mr. Tavenner. You are a plumbing contractor, are you not? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Rafalow. Yes. 

Mr. Tavenner. Have you had any military service in the Armed 
Forces of the United States ? 

Mr. Rafalow. Yes. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 305 

Mr. Tavenner. During what period of time? 

Mr. Kafalow. During World War II. 

Mr. Tavenner. It is the committee's information that you are not 
now a member of the Communist Party. Is that correct ? 

Mr. Kafalow. I refuse to answer on the grounds of self-incrimina- 
tion under the provisions of the fifth amendinent. 

Mr. AValter. You have been told that we have information that 
you are not a member of the Coimnunist Party. Do you honestly 
feel if you answered that you might be confronted with prosecution ? 

Mr. Fenster. You are asking the witness to adjudicate what mem- 
bership is and when he ceased and I do not think it is fair to ask him 
that. That is the venue of this committee. 

Mr. Tavenner. Then your answer must be based on sonie uncer- 
tainty as to whether you are still a member of the Communist Party 
or not. Is that the reason that to give an honest answer to that ques- 
tion might tend to incriminate you? 

Mr. Rafalow. I refuse to answer on the gi'ound of the fifth amend- 
ment dealing with self incrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. I notice by the subpena served on you that you 
were served as Phil Kafalow. Is your middle initial "K", or do you 
have a middle initial ? 

Mr. Kafalow. I do not. 

Mr. Tavenner. Healey Exhibit No. 24 has been mtroduced m evi- 
dence, which consists of a letter bearing the date March 26, 1958, and 
signed by a number of individuals expressing their desire to resign. 
The fact of their resignation from the Communist Party as of that 

date. „ , . , • , .1 ^ 

The name of Phil K. appears as one of the signatories to that 

letter. Did you sign it? , , . <. .1 -j.^i j 

Mr. Kafalow. I refuse to answer on the basis of the ntth amend- 
ment with respect to self incrimination ? 

Mr. Tavenner. In other words, although going through the form 
of a resignation, there is some form of attachment still remaining to 
the Communist Party, is there not? -, , 

Mr. Kafalow. I refuse to answer, based on the fifth amendment 
and self incrimination. „ , o .i ^ ^^J: 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a member of the bouthem Calitornia 
District Council of the Communist Party before March 26, 1958? 

Mr. Kafalow. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 
ment on self incrimination. . ,, ^ , -, ^ 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not a representative on that board trom 
the Western Division of the Communist Party, which is sometimes 
referred to as the Santa Monica-Bay Cities? -,<,., -, 

Mr. Kafalow. I refuse to answer on the basis of the fifth amend- 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you a delegate to the California State con- 
vention on January 29 and 30, 1958 ? r ^, nj-^i J 

Mr. Kafalow. I refuse to answer on the basis of the filth amend- 
ment on self incrimination. • J.- 1 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you not also a delegate to the organizational 
meeting of the Southern District of the Communist Party for the 
State of California? 



306 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Rafalow. I decline to answer on the fifth amendment of self 
incrimination. 

Mr, Tavenner. Have you served in any capacity in the raising of 
funds for tlie Smith Act defendants? 

Mr. Rafalow. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment of 
self incrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. Were you active in behalf of the Communist Party 
in the Independent Progressive Party of California? 

Mr. Rafalow. I decline to answer under the fifth amendment of 
self incrimination. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Walter. The witness is excused. 

TESTIMONY OP SOLOMON MONROY, ACCOMPANIED BY COUNSEL, 
WILLIAM M. SAMUELS 

Mr. Walter. Will you raise your right hand, please ? 

Do you swear that the testimony you are about to give before this 
committee will be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the 
truth, so help you God? 

Mr. MoNROT. I do. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your name, please, sir? 

Mr. MoNROY. Solomon Monroy. 

Mr. Tavenner. Spell your last name, please. 

Mr. MoNROY. M-o-n-r-o-y. 

Mr. Tavenner. Will counsel accompanying the witness please iden- 
tify himself for the record ? 

Mr. Samuels. William M. Samuels. 

Mr. Tavenner. Wlien and where were you born ? 

Mr. MoNROY. Los Angeles, December 31, 1925. 

Mr. Tavenner. Where do you now reside? 

Mr. MoNROY. Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your occupation? 

Mr. MoNROY. Salesman. 

Mr. Tavenner. What is your educational backgi-ound ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Monroy. Grammar school, high school, and some City (college, 
approximately a year. 

Mr. Tavenner. City College of what city ? 

Mr. MoNROY. Of Los Angeles. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Monroy, it is the committee's information that 
you are a member of the District Council of the Communist Party for 
the Southern District of California and that as such a member you 
were in a convention of those members held on the 21st day of Septem- 
ber 1958. I want to ask you several questions about things that occur- 
red at that meeting. 

At that meeting Dorothy Healey, the chairman for this district, 
discussed at length the experience that she had had and the expe- 
rience that other members of the Communist Party had had at the 
hearings that were conducted by this committee in the earlier part of 
September 1958. 

In the course of her discussion, she made reference to the American 
Civil Liberties Union. According to the committee's information she 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 307 

referred to the great advantage or the great aid that was given to the 
Communist Party by the American Civil Liberties Union taking out 
an ad which was carried in many papers. Do you recall that? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNROT. I refuse to answer this question because I feel that this 
committee does not have the power to inquire. 

Mr. Tavenner, May I have a direction ? 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question, basing my refusal on 
the first and fifth amendment of the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall that Dorothy Healey made an ex- 
planation to you and others present at that meeting as to why the 
subpenaed witnesses were called before a meeting sponsored by the 
Citizens Committee to Preserve American Freedoms instead of by a 
meeting called by the Communist Party? Do you remember that? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. MoNROY. I again refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have a direction ? 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. Basing it on the first and supplementing it by the fifth 
amendment of the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Dorothy Healey announce in your presence 
that there would be a meeting under the auspices of the Citizens Com- 
mittee to Preserve American Freedoms at 118 North Larchmont, Octo- 
ber 1, 1958, featuring two speakers, Horace Alexander and Frank 
Wilkinson, to discuss the abolishment of the Committee on Un-Ameri- 
can Activities? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNROY. Sir, I would like to know what is the pertinency of 
these questions that you are asking me in relationship to the nature of 
this committee's investigation. 

Mr. Tavenner. I would be very glad to tell you. The Citizens Com- 
mittee to Preserve American Freedoms, after considerable advertising, 
called a meeting at which the subpenaed witnesses were corraled and 
speeches were made in their presence and they were asked to stand up. 
I want to ask you if it is not a fact that that was done for the purpose 
of encouraging and inducing those subpenaed witnesses to stand to- 
gether and defy this committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNROY. You have asked me two questions. 

Mr. Tavenner. Answer the last one. 

Mr. Monroy. I can't see how this is pertinent to the investigation 
that the committee is conducting. 

Mr, Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. Monroy. I refuse to answer this question as previously stated, 
under the guarantees of the first amendment supplemented by the fifth 
amendment of the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was an announcement made by Dorothy Healey 
that such a meeting would be held under the auspices of the Citizens 
Committee to Preserve American Freedoms ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Monroy. Sir, I cannot see where this is pertinent and I again 
refuse to answer this question. 



308 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have a direction ? 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr, MoNRoY. I refuse to answer this question basing, as formerly 
stated, as I had previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Horace Alexander a member of the District 
Council of the Communist Party for the Southern District of Califor- 
nia at that time ? 

Mr. MoNROT. I still cannot see where this is pertinent to the in- 
vestigation, sir, and I again refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have a direction ? 

Mr. W.vlter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I again refuse to answer this question basing it on the 
previously stated first amendment supplemented by the fifth amend- 
ment. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was Frank Wilkinson known to you to be a member 
of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. MoNROY. I still cannot see where this is pertinent to the inves- 
tigation, sir, and I again refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have a direction ? 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer this question. 

Mr, MoNROT. I refuse to answer this question on the basis of the 
first and fifth amendment, as I do not see where this is pertinent to 
this investigation. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did you at this meeting hear discussed a question 
as to when the next convention of the Communist Party from this 
area would be held ? 

Mr. Monroy. I cannot see where this is pertinent to this investi- 
gation and I again refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer that question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question on the previously 
stated grounds. 

Mr. Walter. Is this man a member of the council ? 

Mr. Ta^'enner. Yes, sir ; according to the committee's information. 

Did you at this meeting make a motion as a representative from 
Zapata Section of the Communist Party that there be a guarantee 
that the Mexican work would be on the convention agenda? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNROY. Sir, I again refuse to answer the question. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have a direction ? 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. Again I refuse to answer this question based on my 
previous statement. 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. Monroy, what Mexican work was it that the 
Communist Party had planned to engage in? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner, May I have a direction ? . 

Mr. Walter. On what grounds do you refuse to answer the question ? 

(The witness consulted with his counsel.) 

Mr. Monroy. Sir, I do not feel that this committee has the power 
to inquire and also I feel it is not pertinent to the investigation that 
the cDnunittee is conducting. 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 309 

Mr. MoNROY., Sir, I must then refuse to answer under the guaran- 
tees of the first amendment supplemented by the fifth amendment of 
the United States Constitution. 

Mr. Walter. Do you honestly feel that if you answered a question 
as to activities in connection with Mexican work you might be prose- 
cuted criminally ? 

( The witness conferred with his counsel. ) 

Mr. MoNROY. Sir, I again must refuse to answer this question 
which was put to me on the same gromids as I have previously stated. 

Mr. Walter. You are not under any compulsion. You say "I 
must." 

Mr. Tavenner. Mr. IMonroy, the committee has information that 
you also attended as a delegate the nieetii)^ of the District Council 
of the Communist Party of the Southern District of California held 
on November 23, 1958. At that meeting did Dorothy Forest make 
a report to you and the others present regarding the plans to abolish 
the Un-American Activities Committee ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. On the grounds of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. MoNROY. The first supplemented by the fifth. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did not Dorothy Forest aimounce in your presence 
that the main way to express opposition to this committee was 
through petitions which are now being circulated by the American 
Civil Liberties Union ? 

(The witness confeiTcd with his counsel.) 

Mr. Monroy. Sir, I would like to know what is the pertinency of 
the questions you are putting to me with respect to the investigation 
the committee is conducting? Particularly the last question. 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did not Dorothy Forest also state in your presence 
that this was the first time in the history of the American Civil Lib- 
erties Union that there has been a petition of this character circu- 
lated by them ? 

Mr. Monroy. I would again like to ask, sir, wliat is the pertinency 
of this question you are putting to me to the investigation that the 
committee is conducting. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have a direction ? 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer the question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated, and also the lack of pertinency. 

Mr. Tavenner. Is it not a fact that Dorothy Forest stated in your 
presence and to those assembled that the Conmiunist Party has been 
officially delegated to circulate this petition for signatures? 

Mr. Walter. Officially delegated by whom ? 

Mr. Tavenner. It does not say. 

(The witness conferred with his comisel.) 

Mr. Tavenner. Please answer the question. 

Mr. Monroy. I cannot see the pertinency of this question to the 
investigation that this committee is conductmg. 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 



310 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question on the first and sup- 
plementing it by the fifth amendment of the United States Consti- 
tution and also the lack of pertinency. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was not Dorothy Forest the liaison between the 
American Civil Liberties Union and the Communist Party on this 
question ? 

Please answer the question. 

]SIr. MoNROY. I cannot see the pertinency of this question in rela- 
tionship to the investigation that this committee is conducting and I 
refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did not Dorothy Forest state that the Communist 
Party had been delegated to play a role in getting the signatures 
on this petition and that the Communist Party had been assigned the 
specific job of covering the Negro churches in the Los Angeles area 
on November 30 and December 6 ? 

Mr. MoNROY. I cannot see the pertinency of this question to the 
investigation that this committee is conducting and I refuse to answer 
this question. 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question based on the pre- 
viously stated — on what I have previously stated. 

Mr. Ta\^nner. Did not Dorothy Forest further state that a letter 
had gone out to the Negro ministers of these churches advising them 
that a person would be there to get persons to sign these petitions? 

Mr. Monroy. I cannot see the pertinency of this question that you 
are putting to me, sir, the investigation of this conmiittee is conduct- 
ing, and I refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question based on the previous 
statement that I have made, that I refuse to answer on the first amend- 
ment supplemented by the fifth and the lack of pertinency. 

Mr. Tavenner. Was it not openly stated at the meeting that all 
tlie petitions which are being circulated by the Communist Party 
members should be turned into the Comminiist Party so that the 
ACLU can see what a good job the Communist Party w^as doing on 
these petitions? 

Please answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question. I cannot see the 
pertinency of it to the investigation that the committee is conducting. 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question as previously stated 
on the basis of the first and supplemented by the fifth amendment 
and also the lack of pertinency. 

Mr. Tavenner. The committee's information is that you were also 
in attendance at the meeting of December 21, 1958, at which Charlene 
Mitchell made her report regarding the Negro question. Do you 
recall that discussion? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question, sir. 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer that question. 



COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 311 

Mr. MoNROT. On the same grounds as previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did not Charlene Mitchell state in your presence 
and the other members of the district council, that the resolution 
changing the Communist Party line with regard to the Negro 
question was introduced at the national committee meeting by a new 
comrade from the South who is field secretary for the Communist 
Party in the South by the name of Comrade Charles ? 

Please answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. On the ground of the fifth amendment ? 

Mr. Walter. I direct you to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you recall Charlene Mitchell, in opposing the 
change of the Communist Party line, asking the question : "Does a 
nation stop being a nation because of the Negro migration to the north 
or because many of the Negroes have now gone from peasantry to 
industrial jobs?" 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question, sir. I cannot see 
the pertinency of this question to the investigation that the committee 
is conducting. 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. Sir, I refuse to answer this question on the grounds 
previously stated. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Cyril Briggs disagree with the action taken by 
the national committee on the Negro question ? 

Mr. Monroy. I refuse to answer this question, sir, as I cannot clearly 
see the pertinency of this question to the investigation that this com- 
mittee is conducting. 

Mr. Walter. Now, you said you cannot clearly see. By that I 
gather that you have an impression about the pertinency. Can you 
tell us what you think the pertinency is ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNROY. I have been advised by my counsel that it is my legal 
right that the committee show me the pertinency of this question to 
the investigation that they are conducting. 

Mr. Walter. You said that you could not clearly see the perti- 
nency and that is why I asked the question. 

If I told you that we were deeply concerned over the attempts being 
made by this group, of which you were a member, to influence low- 
income groups toward being disloyal to the United States, would that 
give you some idea of what we are driving at ? 

Mr. MoNROY. I cannot see the pertinency at all, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have a direction that he answer? 

Mr. Walter. Ask another question. That does not matter. 

Mr. Tavenner. Did Pettis Perry, Bill Taylor, Herschel Alexander, 
and Shirley Taylor all oppose the change of the Communist Party 
line and argue against it from the floor of the meeting? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Monroy. I refuse to answer this question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have a direction that he answer? 



312 COMMUNISM IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA AREA 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. . 

Mr. Tavenner. Do you have a particular assignment m the Com- 
munist Party with regard to work among Mexican people? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNROT. I refuse to answer this question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. May I have a direction ? 

Mr. Walter. You are directed to answer the question. 

Mr. MoNROT. I refuse to answer this question on the grounds pre- 
viously stated. . 

Mr. Tavenner. Are you now a member of the Communist Party ? 

Mr. MoNROY. I refuse to answer this question, sir. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions, Mr. Chairman. 

Mr. Walter. We have information that you are the one who has 
been selected by this district council to prepare the program or 
the membership drive among Mexicans and Negroes. Is our informa- 
tion correct ? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. MoNROY. Sir, I would like to ask you what information there 
is and if I might see it. 

Mr. Walter. We have sworn testimony to that effect, and we 
have sworn testimony as to the meetings that were discussed. I am 
asking you whether or not it is the fact. Have you been selected as 
the representative from the district council to prepare the program 
for the drive with the Mexicans and Negroes? 

(The witness conferred with his counsel.) 

Mr. Monroy. Sir, I refuse to answer this question. 

Mr. Tavenner. I have no further questions. 

Mr. Walter. That is all. The witness is excused. 

(Whereupon, at 4 :20 p.m., Wednesday, February 25, 1959, the com- 
mittee recessed.) 



INDEX 

Individuals 

A 

Page 

Abowitz, Murray 265, 266 

Alexander, Charlene. (See Mitchell, Charlene.) 

Alexander, Herschel (William) 311 

Alexander, Horace V 64, 68-73 (testimony), 244, 265, 307, 308 

AUen 170 

Allen, James (S.) 45 

Alvarez, Ida 70 

Arkin, David Francis 5S-63 (testimony) 

Aspiz, Jacob 266 

Atinsky, Jerry (Julius) 214-218 (testimony) 



Baefsky, Leo 230-232 (testimony) 

Baron, Louis 43 

Bart (Philip Abraham) 302 

Baskin, Dorothy Rose. [See Forest, Dorothy Rose.) 

Bass, Charlotta A 70 

Benson, Elizabeth. {See Spector, Elizabeth Leach Glenn.) 

Berman, Jack 265 

Berry, Matilda. ( See Tolly, Matilda. ) 

Biber, Stella (Mrs. Henry J. Biber; nee Choyke) 99-102 (testimony) 

Biskar, Ethel (Mrs. Herbert Morris Biskar; nee Hoffman) 241, 

267-270 (testimony), 273 

Biskar, Herbert (Morris) 84^90 (testimony), 93 

Biskar, Marvin 90-93 (testimony) 

Blair, Harriet (nee Lewis) 137-140 (testimony) 

Blair, Helen (formerly Mrs. Helen B. Stewart) 263-267 (testimony) 

Blair, Naomi Claire ("Nan") 196-201 (testimony) 

Boags, Robert L 220, 222 

Borough, Reuben W 70 

Brahm, Mary Lois. {See Newman, Mary Lois.) 

Bridges, Harry 39 

Briggs, Cyril Valentine 75-82 (testimony), 311 

Brodsky, Seymour (Douglas) 254-255 (testimony) 

Browder (Earl) 28 

Brown, Arthur "Art" 296-301 (testimony) 

Burton, Bernard 118-136 (testimony) 

Byler, Margarete Ann (Mrs. Albert E. Byler ; nee Haller)__ 218-219 (testimony) 

C 

Campbell, Bernie Christopher 91 

Carlson, Frank (born Soloman Scolnic) !__! 42, 87, 269 

Carlson, Lillian (Mrs. Frank Carlson; nee Lillian Dinkin^ 42 

Celler, Emanuel 287 

Chelnick, Sophie. (See Silver, Sophie.) 
Choyke, Stella, (fifee Biber, Stella.) 

Clark, Joseph 27 

Clark, Tom C 1_„ ~I_II___I__ 62. 183 

Connelly, Philip__ IP 

Connelly, Mrs. Philip Marshal. (See Healey, Dorothy Bay?) 

i 



U INDEX 

Page 

Correa, Anna 50 

Creed, Thomas D 36,63-67 (testimony), 244 

Crowe, Cornelius Charles "Neil" 36, 244 

Crystal, Frances 91 

Cvetic, Matthew 302 

D 
Davis, Benjamin 35, 46, 52, 53 

Davis, Dave 50 

Dawson, Admiral George 242, 255-258 (testimony), 259, 273 

Debs, Eugene 131 

Delaney, Thomas F 302 

Dennis, Eugene 35, 45, 49, 50, 53, 202, 250 

Dobbs, Ada (Mrs. Ben Dobbs; nee Martin) 42 

Dobbs, Ben 36, 49, 50, 52, 64, 245, 252 

Duclos, Jacques 28, 32, 33, 134 

Dulles, John Foster 27 

E 
Edney, Steve 98 

Einstein, Albert 60 

Ende, Alexander 82-84 (testimony) 

Enfiajian, Edward M 242, 270-272 (testimony), 273 

Esterman, William (B.) 265 

F 

Falk, Moe 91 

Faubus (Orval) 81, 243 

Fenster, Leo 254, 304 

Forest, Dorothy Rose (Mrs. James Frederick Forest; nee Dorothy 

Rose Baskin) 309. 310 

Forest, James Frederick 36, 50, 64 

Foster, William Z 22, 26-29, 31, 33, 35, 41, 45, 53, 65, 135 

Frankel, J 263 

O 
Galpert, Ida 91, 92 

Garrett, Jane. (See Swanhuyser, Jane.) 

Gates, John 22, 26, 27, .30, 32, 35, 124-126 

Gavron, Joseph I 42, 102-110 (testimony) 

Gerson, Simon (W.) 50 

Gilels (Emil) 177, 178 

Goldman, Shifra (Mrs. Albert Goldman; nee Meyerowitz; also known 

as Shifra Meyers) 241,273,274-278 (testimony) 

Goldstein, Beatrice ("Bebe") 42 

Goldstein, Morty 91 

Goodman, EUie. (See Henrickson, Ellie.) 

Gosman, Lorris 140-142 (testimony) 

Gosman (Mollie) (Mrs. Lorris Gosman; nee Wilinsky) 141 

Green ( Sidney) 161 

Greenhill, Jack 200 

Gntman, Ellie. (See Henrickson, Ellie.) 



Haller, Marga rete Ann. ( See Byler, Margarete Ann. ) 

Hartle, Barbara 156, 157 

Haskell, Rosemary. {See Lusher, Rosemary Haskell.) 

Healey, Don 20 

Healey, Dorothy Ray (Mrs. Philip Connelly; nee Dorothy Rosenblum ; 

also known as Dorothy Ray) 17-53 (testimony), 

63-65, 73, 81, 88, 92, 93, 95, 101, 102, 104, 106, 114, 118, 132, 133, 
134, 139, 141, 147, 150, 161, 171, 188, 189, 194, 202, 205, 207, 215, 
221, 225, 228, 230, 231, 235, 241, 245, 246, 249-251, 255, 257, 264, 
271, 273, 277, 283, 295, 300, 305-307. 

Hearst (William Randolph, Jr.) 170 



INDEX lU 

Page 
Henrickson, EUie (Mrs. Stanley William Henrickson, nee Gutman, alias 

Ellie Groodman) 152-159 (testimony) 

Henrickson, Stanley William 156-158 

Hillman, Sidney 122 

Hinshaw (Carl) 24 

Hoover, J. Edgar 45 

Hunt, Harry (Simon) (born Harold Schlasberg) 247, 293-296 (testimony) 

Hyun, Alice 303 

Hyun, Peter 303 



Ishihara, Sakae 114-118 (testimony) 



Jackson, Elizabeth Ricardo (nee Smith) 42,220-222 (testimony) 

Jackson, James E 35, 45, 253 

Josephson, Jessie (Eileen) 203-205 (testimony) 

Josephson, Julius 204 



Kaplan, Celeste Strack (Mrs. Leonard Kaplan) 42 

Kaplan, Leonard (Kappy) 42 

Karr, Ben 288-290 (testimony) 

Karson, Morris R. "Red" (born Moishe Karszon) 54 

Katz, Eli 210-212 (testimony) 

Kenny, Robert W 263 

Khrushchev (Nikita) 124, 134 

Kidwell, Jean 237 

Kim, Diamond 303 

Kishner, Sophie 43, 93-96 (testimony) 

Klonsky, Robert 301-304 (testimony) 

Knox, Hilda. ( See Tolly, Matilda Berry. ) 

Kogan (Leonid) 178 

Kovner, Fay. ( See Mukes, Fay. ) 

Kovner, Julius 144-148 (testimony), 160, 161 

Kuppersmith, Bertha. ( See Marshall, Bertha. ) 
Kurland, Estelle ( Shirley ) . ( See Parness, Estelle. ) 

Kurrier, Chester 91 

Kushner, Sam 52 

L 

Lancaster, Dennis 205 

Lawson, John Hovpard 265 

Levine, Robert 98 

Lewis, Harriet. (See Blair, Harriet.) 

Lewis, Walter K 24, 47, 244 

Lima, Mickey 50 

London, Sidney (Sid) 43 

Lusher, Bernard 36, 64, 65, 163, 206, 245, 248, 283, 290 

Luslier, Rosemary Haskell (Mrs. Bernard Lufiher, nee Wylde) 162- 

180 (testimony) 

M 

MacNair, Archibald, Jr 205-207 (testimony) 

Majchrzyk, Eddie 91 

Mandel, Seymour 214, 218 

Manes, Hugh R 187, 192 

Margolis, Ben 18, 49, 54, 63, 75, 82, 84, 90, 227, 230, 232, 233, 235 

Markward. Mary Stalcup 91, 92, 123 

Marshall, Bertha (nee Kuppersmith) 148-152 (testimony), 159 



iv " INDEX 

Jr'age 

Marahall, Daniel G 55,68,93,148,152.159,293 

Martin, Ada. (See Dobbs, Ada.) 

Maymudes, August 242, 273-274 (testimony) 

McGratli, J. Howard 86, 240 

McTernan, John T 162, 180, 196, 201, 203, 209, 210, 267, 270, 273, 279, 282 

Meany, George 39 

Meyerowitz, Vivian. ( See Vallens, Vivian. ) 

Miller, Loren 54, 55, 99 

Mitchell, Charlene (Mrs. William H. Mitchell, nee Alexander) 36, 

49, 50, 64, 237-253 (testimony) , 273, 295, 296, 310, 311 
Molina, Matilda. ( See Tolly, Matilda Berry. ) 

Monroy, Solomon (P.) 306-312 (testimony) 

Moos, Elizabeth 185 

Morel (William) 98 

Mosley, Charles H., Jr. ("Chuck") 207-208 (testimony) 

Mucha, Peter 180 

Mucha, Reva. ( See Zwolinski, Reva. ) 

Mukes, Fay (Mrs. Richard Mukes, nee Kovner) 159-162 (testimony) 

Munoz, Frank (E.) 75, 82, 205, 207 

Murrish, William B .___ 290 

N 

Nagy (Imre) 40, 50, 53, 101, 134, 138, 250, 252 

Nelson, Steve 33, 34, 50, 303 

Newman, Horace Morton (Mort) 43,57 

Newman, Mary Lois (Mrs. Horace Morton Newman, nee Brahm) 43, 

55-58 (testimony) 
O 
Omltz, Samuel 265 



Pacifico, Ola (Mrs. Laurence M. Pacifico; nee Roes) 222-224 (testimony) 

Padilla, Felix 209-210 (testimony) 

Pape, Edith (Mrs. Leon Pape; nee Weiner) 192-196 (testimony) 

Pape, Leon 186, 187-192 (testimony) 

Pamess, Estelle (Shirley) (Mrs. Jacob Parness; nee Kurland) 232- 

233 (testimony) 

Patterson, Haywood 80 

Perry, Pettis 49, 50, 53, 73, 205, 221, 226, 250, 311 

Phillips, Howard 91 

Phillips, Robert 91 

R 
Rachlin, Carl 47, 244 

Rafalow, Philip 43, 304-306 (testimony) 

Ray, Dorothy. ( See Healey, Dorothy. ) 

Remington, William 185 

Reno, Earl 122 

Richmond, Al 50, 124 

Robello, Helen 98 

Roberts, Joe 50 

Robinson, James Roger 282 

Robinson, Mark 282-284 (testimony) 

Roosevelt (Franklin D.) 173 

Rosenberg, Ethel (Mrs. Julius Rosenberg) ^ 217,265 

(Rosenberg. Julius 217, 265 

Rosenberg, Rose S 222, 224 

Rosenblum, Dorothy. ( See Healey, Dorothy Ray. ) 
Ross, Ola . (See Pacifico, Ola. ) 

S 

Samuels. William M 306 

Santo, Johnny 126, 127, 129, 130 

Sarnoff, Irving 233-235 (testimony) 



INDEX ' 

Page 

Sazer, Henry 224-227 (testimony) ; 247 

Schlasberg, Harold. (See Hunt, Harry.) 

Schmorleitz, Robert J 27 

Schwartz, Harry ~274~284 288 

|uver,topm?(n;;-6L7l^^^^^ 

Siminoski, Sophie (Mrs. Abe Siminoski; nee Smoridon or Smorodin)—- ^JU- 

293 (testimony) 

Simmons, Herbert W. Jr """7 ^^ — :~" ^^' ^^'oa9 

Smith, Eleanor (Mrs. Ernest Carl Smith; nee Ruth Kenegsberg)— _ ^4^ 

^ ' 258-260 (testimony), 273 

Smith, Elizabeth. (See Jackson, Elizabeth Ricardo.) 
Smoridin, or Smorodin. (See Siminoski, Sophie.) 

Sobell, Morton ZZ7r::':Z'7r"4.~ ^ 3\ 

Sokolow, Esther Goldie ^^tMt testimony) 

Solomon, Joseph 96-99 (testimony) 

Sparks, Nemmy (born Nehemiah Ish-Kishor) db, b4, -i4t> 

Spector, Elizabeth Leach Glenn (Mrs. Frank Spector; nee Benson) __ 42, 171, 292 

Spector, Frank (born Frank Efrion Spector) . ^ oIq 

Stalin 24, 249 

Starobin (Joseph) ^o 

Steinberg, Henry (Carl) ^ 

Steinberg, Max (born Max Steinberger) 43,250,251,295 

Stone, Martha ^ 

Strack, Celeste. (See Kaplan, Celeste.) 

Swanhuyser, Jane (nee Garrett) 142-144 (testimony) 

T 

Talbot, William (Wallace)— 235-236 (testimony) ; 247 

Taylor, Shirley 311 

Taylor, William (BiU) 36, 50, 72, 245, 311 

Tenner, Jack . — ,: 140 

Thompson, Bob 35, 49-52, 202, 250 

Timofeyev, T — 29 

Togliatti (Palmiro) 125 

Tolly, Matilda Berry (Mrs. Joe Tolly; nee Molina; also known as Hilda 

Knox) 27^281 (testimony) 

Towbin, Cyril 185, 186 

Truman (Harry S.) -. — 172 



Vallens, Vivian (Mrs. Leon Vallens; nee Meyerowitz) 227-229 (testimony) 

Varela, Delfino 284r-288 (testimony) 

Vickers, Elmo 137 

Vogel, Mortimer 142, 144, 296 

W 

Weiner, Edith. ( See Pape, Edith. ) 

Wheeldin, Donald C 35, 54, 55, 73, 171, 219, 244-246 

Wheeler, William A 213-214 (testimony) 

Wilkinson, Frank 246, 307, 308 

Wilson, E. Raymond-- 191 

Wirin, A. L. (Al) 54, 58, 96, 110, 114, 118, 301 

Wright, William 98 

Wylde, Rosemary. (See Lusher, Rosemary Haskell.) 

Y 

Young, Clarence George (alias Clay) 260-263 (testimony) 

Z 
ZwolinskI, Reva (Mrs. Eugene Zwolinski, nee Mucha)- 166, 180-186 (testimony) 



vi INDEX 

Oboanizations 

Admiral Dawson Group 257 

American Civil Liberties Union 307, 309, 310 

American Youth for Democracy 104 

Four Freedoms Club (UCLA) 231 

American Jewish Labor Council 227 

American Russian Institute of Southern California (Los 

Angeles) 166, 168, 169, 177, 179, 181-186 

Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, 

Local 230 66 

B 
Bethlehem Steel Corp 123 



California Emergency Defense Committee 210 

Camp Beacon 120 

Carpenters and Joiners of America, United Brotherhood of, AFL : Local 

1913 (Van Nuys, Calif.) 144 

Citizens Committee To Preserve American Freedoms 246, 307 

Civil Rights Congress (Southern California) 170 

Echo Park Branch 161 

Civil Rights Congress, New Jersey 299 

Communist Party, Soviet Union 27,32 

Twenty-first Party Congress, January 27-February 5, 1959, Moscow— 253 
Communist Party, USA : 
National Structure: 

National Committee 21, 34, 41, 48-50, 52, 53, 120, 135, 225, 240, 253 

Executive Committee 34, 35, 52 

National Training School 120 

Sixteenth National Convention, February 9-12, 1957, New York 

City 22, 24, 26, 29, 45, 53, 105, 298 

District Organization : 

Eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware (District 3) 302 

Northern California District 35 

Southern California District 17-312 

Boyle Heights-City Terrace Section 42 

Building Trades Section 43, 83 

Convention, April 13-14, 1957, Los Angeles 37, 38, 64, 65 

District Council 36, 43, 45, 49-53, 83, 101, 104, 186, 197, 202, 

204, 211. 215, 223, 228, 234. 244, 263, 289. 296, 300, 305, 306, 308 

Executive Board 36, 64, 72, 73. 244, 245 

Echo Park Section 42, 291, 292 

Labor Commission 64, 65, 248, 283, 290 

Miscellaneous Industrial Section 42, 43, 206 

Moranda Smith Section 42, 221 

Needle Trades Section 289 

San Gabriel Section 43, 57 

Valley 21st Section 299 

Valley 22d Section 42, 106 

Youth Commission 241, 242, 244, 257, 268, 271, 274, 277 

Zapata Section 42, 80, 157, 197, 308 

Boyle Heights Club 286, 287 

Highland Park Club 60 

State Organization : 
California : 

Juarez Division, Review Commission 202 

Los Angeles County 21 

Belmont-Temple Club 281 

Eastern Division 99 

Haywood Section 67 

Juarez Club 76, 78, 79 

Mid Town Section 151 



INDEX vll 

Communist Party, USA — Continued 
State Organization — Continued 
Ca Tif ornia — Continued 

Los Angeles County — Continued Page 

62d Assembly District 100 

22d Congressional District 109, 110 

Van Nuys Club 143 

West Adams Club I_I 43 

Western Division ~~43~i43~254, 305 

Wiggins Club 101 

State Convention, January 19-20, 1957, Los Angeles 35 

District of Columbia, Students Club 91 

Maryland : 

Baltimore 122, 123 

Steel Club 123, 124 

New Jersey: 

State Committee 299 

Veterans Commission 299 

Youth Commission 299 

New York State 27 

Washington State, Everett Section 156 

Communist Political Association, San Pedro Club 98 

Community Service Organization (East Los Angeles) 204 

D 

Downtown Club 199, 200 

E 

Eastside Defense Committee 205 

Emergency Free Press Committee 71, 72 

F 

Federation of American Scientists 189, 190, 191 

Ford Foundation 130 

Friends Committee on Legislation 191 

G 

George Washington University 91, 92 

H 

Howard University 91 

I 

Independent Progressive Party : 

Central Committee 70, 97, 98, 139, 145, 199, 208 

Downtown Club 199, 200 

East Los Angeles Club 138 

Students Organizing Committee (UCLA) 229 

Institute of Pacific Relations 183 



Labor Youth League (Los Angeles Coimty) , 8&-88 

105, 211, 235, 240, 256, 257, 262 
UCLA Chapter 233 

Los Angeles Board of Education 58, 59 

Los Angeles County Progressive Youth League 88 

Los Angeles Housing Administration 161 

H 

Marxist Institute of Los Angeles County 210 



yjH DSTDEX 

N 

Page 

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) — 47, 

71, 243, 244 
National Council of the Arts, Sciences, and Professions, Southern Cali- 
fornia Chapter, Executive Board 264 

National Negro Labor Council, Los Angeles 67 

National Urban League 47, 244 

Nisei Progressives ^^^ 

P 

Progressive Forum ^^^> 201 

S 

Servicemen's Defense Committee — - — — ^Z^'n rr o^o 

Shifra Goldman Study Group T:;;.n7r"^- ' ' tIo 

Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries (VOKS)__ 183 

Southern California Committee Against Re-Nazification of Germany 224 

Southern California Committee To Repeal the Smith Act and Other Anti- 
Labor Legislation 1J2 

Students for Wallace ^9 

T 

Textile Workers Organizing Committee, CIO 121 

Trade Union Action Conference for Peace (Los Angeles) 209,210 

U 

University of California at Los Angeles 228-231,233 

y 

VOKS. ( See Society for Cultural Relations with Fordgn Countries. ) 

W 
Wells Defense Committee 205 

Y 

Young Citizens' League 91 

Publications 

American Socialist 131 

California Eagle (newspaper) 76 

Communist, The 80 

Daily People's World 50, 72, 124, 127-129, 171, 221, 252 

Daily Worker 27, 80, 119, 124, 126-129, 302 

Defender, The 170, 175 

Downtown Club News 200 

Labor Defender 80 

Los Angeles Times . 127-129 

National Discussion Bulletin of the Communist Party 125, 133 

National Guardian 131 

New Reasoner 131 

Pacific Coast Youth Recorder — ^— .> ' 262 

Partinaya Zhizn 27 

Party Forum, The 79 

Progressive News 200 

Roots of American Communism, The 130 

Sovetskaya Rossiya -. 27 

University and Left Review 131 



jlilifft-, 

3 9999 05706 oioi 



This book should be returned to 
the Library on or before the last date 
stamped below. 

A fine is incurred by retaining it 
beyond the specified time. 
Please return promptly.