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Austria-Hungary, including Dalmatia, Bosnia, Bucharest, Belgrade, 
and Montenegro. With 33 Mapg and 44 Plans. Tenth edition. 
1905 8 marks 

f ^LU^ 








f&arbarfc €ollt&t ILiftrars 



Class of 1828 

the Moi 



luding the Seven Mountains, 

"annus, the Odenwald and 

Black Forest, etc. With 




Great Britain. England, Wales, and Scotland. W"**> 22 M 
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London and its Environs. With 4 Maps and 24 Plans. Fourtee. 
edition. 1905 6 marks 

Greece, the Greek Islands, and an Excursion to Crete. With 11 Maps, 
25 Plans, and a Panorama of Athens. Third edition. 1905. 8 marks 

Holland see Belgium and Holland. 


/. Northern Italy, including Leghorn, Florence, Ravenna, and Routes 
through Switzerland and Austria. With 30 Maps and 40 Plans. 
Thirteenth edition. 1906 8 marks 

IL Central Italy and Rome. With 14 Maps, 49 Plans, a Panorama 
of Rome, a view of the Forum Romanum, and the Arms of the 
Popes since 1417. Fourteenth edition. 1904 .... 7 marks 50 pf. 

///. Southern Italy and Sicily, with Excursions to the Lipari Islands, 

* Malta, Sardinia, Tunis, and Corfu. With 27 Maps and 24 Plans. 

Fourteenth edition. 1903 6 marks 

Italy from the Alps to Naples. With 26 Maps and 44 Plans. 
1904 8 marks 

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Spitsbergen. With 37 Maps, 22 Plans, and 3 Panoramas. Eighth 
edition. 1903 8 marks 

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potamia and Babylonia. With 20 Maps, 52 Plans, and a Panorama 
of Jerusalem. Fourth edition. 1906 12 marks 

Portugal see Spain and Portugal. 

Riviera see Southern France. 

Russia, in German or French only : 

Rufiland. Europ. Rufiland, Eisenbahnen in Russ.-Asien, Teheran, Pe- 
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Russischer Sprachfilhrer. 4. Aufl. 1903 1 mark 

Russie. Avec 19 cartes et 32 plans. 3 e edition. 1902 .... 15 marks 

Manuel de langue Russe. 3 e edition. 1903 1 mark 

Scotland see Great Britain. 

Spain and Portugal, with Excursions to Tangier and the Balearic 
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Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol. 
With 63 Maps, 17 Plans, and 11 Panoramas. Twenty-first edition. 
1905 8 marks 

Tyrol see The Eastern Alps. 

The United States, with an Excursion into Mexico. With 25 Maps 
and 35 Plans. Third edition. 1904 ^ ... ,12 mar' 

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'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this be thy prayere, 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all.* 

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The Handbook for Southern Germany, which is 
now issued for the tenth time, and corresponds with the 
twenty-ninth German edition, is designed to assist the trav- 
eller in planning his tour and disposing of his time to the best 
advantage, to render him as far as possible independent of 
the services of hotel-keepers, commissionnaires, and guides, 
and thus to enable him the more thoroughly to enjoy and 
appreciate the objects of interest he meets with on his tour. 

The Handbook has been compiled almost entirely from 
the personal observation of the Editor, and most of the country 
described has been repeatedly explored by him with a view 
to procure the latest possible information ; but, as many of 
the data in the Handbook relate to matters which are con- 
stantly undergoing.alteration, he will highly appreciate any 
corrections or suggestions with which travellers may favour 
him. Those already received, which in many instances have 
proved most useful, he gratefully acknowledges. 

In the earlier issues of the Handbook, Southern Germany 
was combined in one volume with Austria, but since 1895 the 
two countries have appeared separately. In the present volume 
special attention has been devoted to the art -treasures of 
Munich and other large cities; and it is believed that the in- 
troductory article upon South German art, by the late Pro- 
fessor Anton Springer, will be welcome to many travellers. 
The Alpine tourist will find the mountainous districts more 
fully described in the Handbook to the Eastern Alps. For 
Baden, Alsace, Lorraine, and Rhenish Bavaria the traveller 
is referred to the Handbook to the Rhine. 

The Maps and Plans, on which special care has been 
bestowed, will, it is hoped, render material service to the 
traveller in planning his tour. 

Time Tables. Information as to the departure of trains, 
steamboats , and diligences is seldom to be relied upon un- 
less obtained from local sources. Full and accurate time- 


tables are contained in the ' Reichs-Kursbuch , published at 
Berlin, and in 'HendscheVs Telegraph 1 , published at Frankfort 
on the Main, both of which are issued monthly in summer. 

Distances by road are given approximately in English 
miles ; but in the case of mountain-excursions they are ex- 
pressed by the time in which they can be accomplished by 
average walkers. Heights are given in the text in English 
feet, on the maps in metres (1 Engl, ft = 0,3048 metre = 0,938 
Parisian ft. = 0,971 Prussian ft.), and the Populations from 
data furnished by the most recent census. 

Hotels. The Editor has endeavoured to enumerate, not 
only the first-class hotels , but others of a less pretending 
kind, which may be safely selected by the 'voyageur en gar- 
9on', with little sacrifice of comfort and great saving of ex- 
penditure. Hotel-charges , as well as carriage-fares and fees 
to guides, are liable to frequent variation, and generally have 
a strong upward tendency ; but these items, as stated in the 
Handbook either from the personal experience of the Editor or 
from data furnished by numerous correspondents, will at least 
afford the traveller an approximate idea of his expenditure. 
The asterisks indicate those hotels which the Editor has 
reason to believe to be provided with the comforts and con- 
veniences expected in up-to-date establishments, and also 
to be well managed and reasonable in their scale of charges. 
Houses of more modest character, when good of their class, 
are described as 'good 1 or 'very fair 1 . At the same time the 
Editor does not doubt that equal excellence may often be 
found in hotels that are unstarred and even unmentioned. 

To hotel-keepers, tradesmen, and others the Editor begs 
to intimate that a character for fair dealing towards trav- 
ellers is the sole passport to his commendation, and that 
advertisements of every kind are strictly excluded from his 
Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned against persons 
representing themselves as agents for Baedeker's Handbooks. 

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I. Language. Money .• • • *i 

II, Passports. Custom Houses . . xii 

III. Conveyances xii 

IV. Excursions on Foot xiii 

V. Cycling and Motoring Notes xiv 

VI. Hotels xiv 

VII. Post and Telegraph Offices xt 

South German Art, by Frofeuor Anton Springer . . . xvii 

Route Wurtemberg. 

1. Stuttgart and Environs 1 

2. From Heidelberg to Stuttgart vU Bruchsal 16 

Maulbronn, 16. — From Znffenhausen to Calw and Horb, 20. 

3. From Stuttgart to Wildbad 21 

From Pforzheim to Calw, 21. — From Pforzheim to Durlach, 
22. — Excursions from Wildbad, 23. 

4. From Stuttgart to Hanau 23 

From Lauffen to Leonbronn, 24. 

5. From Heilbronn to Hessenthal (Nuremberg) via Schwa- 
bisch-Hall 29 

6. From Stuttgart to Nuremberg via Backnang and Grailsheim 31 

From Backnang to Bietigheim, 31. — From Marbach to 
Heilbronn. 31. — From Crailsheim to Lauda and to Golds- 
hdfe, 32, 33. 

7. From Stuttgart to Nordlingen and Nuremberg 34 

From Aalen to Dillingen and to TJlm, 36. 

8. From Stuttgart to Friedrich'shafen 37 

From Sussen to Weissenstein, 39. — FromGeislingen to Wiesen- 
steig, 40. — From Ulm to Kempten. From Laupheim to 
Schwendi, 44. — Veitsburg. Walaburg. Weingarten, 46. 

9. From Stuttgart to Tubingen and Horb 46 

Bebenhausen. Wurmlinger Kapelle, 49, 50. — From Eyach 
to Stetten, 60. 

10. From Stuttgart to Boblingen and Schaffhausen 51 

The Lemberg. From Rottweil to Villingen, 62. — The Baar, 
68. — Hohentwiel. From Eutingen to Hausach, 54. 

11. The Swabian Alb 56 

I. The Eastern Alb 56 

a. Hohen-Eechberg, 57. — b. Hohenstaufen ... 57 

II. The Central Alb 58 

a. Lenifteger-Tal. Teck. Neidlinger-Tal. Neuffen 68 

b. Uracher Alb 60 

c. Achalm. Eailway from Beutlingen to Schelklingen. 

Lichtenstein and its Environs 62 

d. The Alb near Wiesatz and Steinlach 66 

III. The South- Western Alb 67 

12. From Tubingen to Hechingen and Sigmaringen . qdqIc 69 

From Hechingen to Burladingen, 69. — From Sigmaringen 
to Tuttlingen, 72. 


Route Page 

13. From Ulm to Radolfzell and Constance 73 

From Herbertingen to Memmingen, 74. — From Mengen to 
Sigmaringen. From Sohwackenreute to Altshausen. Rei- 
ch enau, 75. 

14. The Lake of Constance 78 

a. Steam> oats on the lake. 79. — b. Railway from Constance 
to Lindau, 81. 


15. From Frankfort to Wurzburg (Munich) 83 

From Frankfort (E. Station) to Hanau, 88. — From Kahl to 
Schollkrippen, 84. — From Aschaffenburg to Mayence direct. 
From Aschaffenburg to Seckach. From Miltenberg to Stadt- 
prozelten, 87. — From Lohr to Wertheim. The Spessart, 88. — 
FromGemiinden to Elm, to Hammelburg, and to Schweinfurt,90. 

16. Wurzburg 91 

17. From Wurzburg to Stuttgart via Heilbronn 99 

From Mockmiibl to Dorzbach, 99. 

18. From Wurzburg (Frankfort) to Ratisbon (Vienna) ... 99 

From Kitzingen to Scbweinfurt, 100. 

19. From Wurzburg to Heidelberg 101 

From Landa to Wertheim, 101. — From Neckarelz to Meckes- 
heim, 102. 

20. From Leipzig to Munich via Hof, Bamberg, and Nuremberg 103 

From Plauen to Wiesau via Eger, 1(3.— The Baths of Steben. 
From Hof to Eger, 104. — Dobraberg. From Hochstadt to 
Saalfeld. 105. — Banz. Vierzehnheiligen. Staffelberg, 106. — 
From Erlangen to Grafenberg, 108. — From Roth-am-Sand 
to Greding, i09. 

21. From *Wurzburg to Bamberg. Kissingen 110 

The Ludwigsbad Wipfeld, 110. — Excursions from Booklet and 
from Briickenau, 113, 114. — From Kissingen to Meiningen, 114. 

22. Bamberg 115 

23. From Neuenmarkt to Weiden. The Fichtel-Gebirge . . 120 

24. Franconian Switzerland 128 

25. Nuremberg . . 131 

26. From Nuremberg to Eger by Schnabelwaid 154 

127. From Nuremberg to Augsburg 156 

Wemding. From Nordlingen to Dombiihl, 157. — From 
Donauwdrth to Neu-Offingen, 158. 

28. Ratisbon and the Walhalla 164 

29. From Ratisbon to Donauworth (and Augsburg) .... 173 

Eelheim and the Befreiungs-Halle. The Altmuhl-Tal, 174. — 
The Danube from Eelheim to Weltenburg. From Abens- 
berg to Eining (Abusina). 175. — The Pfahl-Graben. From 
Ingolstadt to Augsburg, 176. 

30. From Wurzburg to Munich via Ingolstadt 177 

Rothenburg ob der Tauber, 177. — From Eicbstiitt to 
• Kinding, 183. — From Ingolstadt to Riedenburg, 184. 
81. From Stuttgart to Munich 184 

From Mering to Weilheim, 184. 
32. From Leipzig to Munich via Hof and Ratisbon. .... 185 

From Neustadt to Waidhaus, 186. — Burg Landshut. From 

Landshut to Landau, 188. 


Route Page 

33. Munich 180 

Environs of Munich. Grosshesselohe. Nymphenburg. Schleiss- 
heim. Pasing, Pipping, Blutenburg, 256, 256. 

34. TheStarnbergerSeeandAmmersee. TheHohePeissenberg 256 

Schloss Berg. Rottmannshohe, 257. — From Peissenberg to 
Saulgrub. From Munich, to Hen-aching, 258. 

35. From Munich to Lindau . . 259 

From Kaufering to Schongau and to Bobingen, 259. — From 
Augsburg to Buchloe. From Buchloe to Hemmingen, 260. — 
From Kempten to Reutte. The Stuiben, 261. — From Im- 
menstadt to Oberstdorf. Griinten, 231. — From Sonthofen 
to Reutte, 262. — Excursions from Lindau, 263. 

36. From Munich to Fuss en (Hohenschwangau) and Reutte . 264 

Excursions from Hohenschwangau. Jugend. Marien-Briicke. 
Schiitzensteig. Tegelberg Alp,266, 267. — Stuiben Falls. 267. — 
From Reutte to Imst via Lermoos and Nassereit, 268. 

37. From Munich to Partenkirchen and Mittenwald 263 

Excursions from Partenkirchen and Garmisch. Fauken- 
Schlucht. Risser-See. Partnachklamm and Vorder-Gras- 
eck. Eckbauer. Gschwandner Bauer. Badersee. Eibsee. 
Krottenkopf. Schachen, 270, 271. — From Mittenwald via 
Seefeld to Zirl, 272. 

38. From Munich to Ober-Ammergau and via Linderhof to Fussen 272 

a. Vi& Murnau and Kohlgrub to Ober-Ammergau . . . 272 

b. Via Oberau to Linderhof and Fussen 273 

39. From Munich to Mittenwald via Koch el. Walchensee . . 275 

a. Isartal Railway from Munich to Kochel 275 

Schaftlarn, 275. — From Wolfratshausen to the Lake of Starn- 
berg, 276. 
b. From Munich to Kochel and Mittenwald via Tutzing. 276 
Schlehdorf. Herzog3tand, 277. 

40. From Munich to Tolz and Mittenwald 278 

From Tolz to the Walchensee, 278. — From Hinter-Riss to 
the Achensee over the Plumser Joch, 279. 

41 . From Munich to Jenbach (Innsbruck) via Tegernsee, Wild- 

bad Kreuth, and the Achensee 279 

Excursions from Tegernsee, 2S0. — The Unntitz, 2*1. 

42. From Munich to Kufstein via Schliersee and Bayrisch-Zell 282 

From Neuhaus to F ale pp. The Wendelstein, 282. — From 
Bayrisch-Zell to Oberaudorf via the Tatzelwurm, 2?3. 

43. From Munich to Salzburg and Reichenhall 283 

From Munich to Rosenheim via Holzkirchen. From Aibling 
to Feilenbach, 283. — The Chiemsee, 284. — From Prien 
to Nieder-Aschau. The Baths of Adelholzen. Hochfelln. 
From Traunstein to Trostberg. From Traunstein to Reichen- 
hall via Inzell, 285. — Excursions from Reichenhall, 287, 
238. — From Reichenhall to Lofer, 283. 

44. From Reichenhall to Berchtesgaden. Kb'nigs-See .... 288 

From Salzburg to Berchtesgaden, 239. — Excursions from 
Berchtesgaden, 290, 291. — Gotzen-Alm. From Berchtes- 
gaden to Reichenhall. Ramsau. Wimbach-Klamm, 293. — 
Watzmann. From Berchtesgaden to Ober-Weissbactf. Hinter- 
see, 294. — Kammerlinghorn. Seisenberg-Klamm, 295. 

45. From Munich to Linz via Simbach . . . Digitized uyV^OQglC 295 

From Miihldorf to Burghaussn, 295. 


Route Page 

46. From Nuremberg to Furth (Prague) 296 

From Neukirchen to Weiden, 297. — Cham-Hunster. The 
Hohe Bogen. Excursions from Furth, 298. 

47. From Ratisbon to Passau and Linz 299 

From Straubing to Cham, 299. — From Passau to Thyrnau; 
to Breitenberg, 304. — The Danube from Passau to Linz, 906. 

48. From Rosenheim to Eisenstein by Muhldorf and Plattling. 306 

From Neumarkt to Passau, $06. — The Rusel. Metten, 307. — 
Hirschenstein. From Gotteszell to Viechtach. Weissenstein 
am Pfahl. Bischofsmais, 303. — From Eisenstein to Pilsen, 809. 

49. The Bavarian Forest and the adjoining Bohemian Forest . 309 

I. Western Portion : Osser, Eisenstein and Environs. Arber, 310. 

II. Eastern Portion: Rachel, Lusen, Dreisessel, 313. 

Index . . 319 


VI. Southern Germany: before the title-page. 

v 2. The Environs of Stuttgart : R. 1 ; p. 12. 

\ 3. The Envibons op Wildbad: R. 3; p. 22. 

v4. South-Western Part of the Swabian Alb: R. 10; p. 62. 

> 5. Central Part of the Swabian Alb: RR. 8, 9, 11, 12; p. 56. 

♦- 6. The Environs of Eirchheim-unter-Teck : R. 11; p. 58. 

v7. The Environs of Reutlingen: R. 11; p. 62. 

" 8. The Lake of Constance: R. 14; p. 78. 

v 9. The Environs of Constance : RR. 13, 14 ; p. 80. 

v 10. The Island of Hainau : R. 14; p. 80. 

*il. The Spessart: R. 15; p. 88. 

v 12. The Environs of Wubzburg: R. 16; p. 90. 

v 13. The Fichtel-Gebirge : R. 23; p. 124. 

*14. The Franconian Switzerland: R. 24; t). 128. 

V 15. The Environs of Nuremberg : RR. 25, 26 ; p. 154. 

N 16. The Environs of Ratisbon: RR. 28. 29; p. 172. 

\ 17. The Environs of Rothenburg: R. 30; p. 177. 

18. The Environs of Munich: RR. 33, 34, 39; p. 254. 
vl9. The Starnberger See and Ammersee : RR. 34, 39; p. 256. 
' 20. The Environs of Fussen, Rbuttb, Nassereit, Parteneirohen, Hit- 

tenwald, and Walchensee : RR. 36-40; p. 264. 
' 21. The Environs of Hohenschwangau : R. 36; p. 266. 
v 22. The Environs of Partenkirchen and Hittenwald : R. 87 ; p. 268. 
v 23. The Environs of T6lz, Tegernses, and Schlierseb: RR. 40-42; p. 278. 

24. The Environs of the Achensee: RR. 41, 42; p. 280. 
v 25. The Environs of Rosenheim, Kufstein, Traunstein, and Lofer (the 

Chiehsee and Achental): R. 43; p. 284. 
v 26. The Environs of Reichenhall and Salzburg: RR.48, 44; p. 286. 
'• 27. The Environs of Berchtesgaden : R. 44 1 p. 290. 

• 28. The Bavarian Forest : RR. 48, 49 ; p. S08. 

v 29. The Bavarian Forest, W. part: R. 49; p. 312. 

• 30. Railway Hap of Germany: at the end of the book. 


* Aschaffenburg (p. 84); 'Augsburg (p. 159) ; v Bamberg (p. U5);Bayreuth 
(p. 12i)i^Cannstatt (p. 12) /'Constance (p. 76) ; v Furth (p. 154): v Heilbronn 

fp. 24) ;^ohenzollem ' —-"-•■ - '-■ - -^ -- - . 

burg (p. ^^"Maulbrouu 
V Passau (p..300);VRatisbon ( 
gart(p. 1) ; Tubingen (p.4S)*Ueberlingen (p.SOfrUlm (p.41); Wurebu'rg(p.90). 


I. Language. Money. * 

Language. A slight acquaintance with German is very de- 
sirable for travellers who purpose exploring the more remote dis- 
tricts of Southern Germany. ThoBe who do not deviate from the 
beaten track will generally find that English or French is spoken 
at the principal hotels and the usual resorts of strangers. But 
those who are entirely ignorant of the language must be prepared 
frequently to submit 4o the extortions practised by commission- 
naires, waiters, cab-drivers, etc., which even the data furnished 
by the Handbook will not always enable them to avoid. 

Monbt. The German mark (Jl), which is nearly equivalent 
to the English shilling, is divided into 100 pfennigs. Banknotes 
of 5, 20, 60, 100, and 1000 Jl are issued by the German Imperial 
Bank ('DeuUche Rcichsbanti), and others of 100 and 500 Jt, with 
a limited circulation, by the government banks of Baden, Bavaria, 
Saxony, and "Wurtemberg. The current gold coins are pieces of 
10 (''Krone') and of 20 marks ('Doppelkrone 1 ), the intrinsic value 
of which is slightly lower than that of the English half-sovereign 
and sovereign (I I. being worth about 20 Jl 43 pf.). The silver 
coins are pieces of 5, 3 (the old thaler or dollar), 2, 1, and */ 2 m &rk 
(50 pf.). In nickel there are coins of 10 and 5 pfennigs, and in copper 
there are pieces of 2 and 1 pfennig. — In Austria the monetary unit 
is the Krone (K.) = 100 Heller (h.); comp. the Money Table before 
the title-page. 

English sovereigns and banknotes may be exchanged at all the 
principal towns in Germany, and napoleons are also favourably re- 
ceived (20 fr. = 16*. = 16 Jf 20 pf., and often a few pfennigs 
more). Those who travel with large sums should carry them in the 
form of letters of credit or circular notes, rather than in banknotes 
or gold, as the value of circular notes, if lost or stolen, is recoverable. 

The expense of a tour in Southern Germany depends, of 
course, on a great variety of circumstances. It may, however, 
be stated generally that travelling in this region is less ex- 
pensive than in most other European countries. The modest 
pedestrian, who knows something of the language, and avoids the 
beaten track of ordinary tourists as much as possible, may succeed 
in limiting his expenditure to 10*. per diem. Those, on the 
other hand, who prefer driving to walking, frequent hotels of the 
highest class, and employ guides, commissionnaires, etc., must 
be prepared to expend 25-30*. daily. 


II. Passports and Custom Houses. 

Passpobts are now unnecessary in Germany, as in most of the 
other countries of Europe, hut they are frequently serviceahle 
in proving the identity of the traveller, procuring admission to 
collections, and obtaining delivery of registered letters. Cyclists 
and motorists should always carry passports. 

Passports may be obtained direct from the Foreign Office (fee 2*.) or 
through Buss, 4 Adelaide Street, Strant (charge 4*.)-, C. Smith <k Sons, 
23 Craven Street, Charing Cross (4s.), T/ios. Cook A Sons, Ludgate Circus 
(3*. 6&), or Henry Blacklock & Co. ('Bradshaw's Guides'), 59 Fleet Street 
(5*.). — In the Dni ed States application for pa c sports should be made to 
the Passport Bureau, State Department, Washington, D.C. 

Custom House formalities are now almost everywhere lenient. 
As a rule, however, articles purchased during the journey, which 
are not destined for personal use, should be declared at the frontier. 

III. Conveyances. 

Railway Teavblling in Germany is less expensive than in 
most other parts of Europe , and the carriages are generally clean 
and comfortable. The second-class carriages, furnished with 
spring -seats, are sometimes as good as those of the first class in 
England. Smoking is allowed in all the carriages, except those 
'Fiir Nichtraucher' and the coupe's for ladies. The speed seldom 
exceeds 25 M. per hour, and as the railways are generally well 
organised and under the immediate supervision of government, 
accidents are very rare. 

Tickets. No one is admitted to the platform without either a 
railway - ticket or a platform - ticket (Bahnsteigkarte) ; the latter 
(10 pf.) may be obtained from the automatic machines placed for 
the purpose at the stations. — The average fares for the different 
classes in S. Germany are respectively ca. l 1 /^., A /s>d., and y 2 <*. 
per Engl. M. by ordinary trains (Personen-Ziige), and IVsK^i lVd^i 
and 3/ 4 d. by express- trains (Schnell-Ziige). On 1st cl. tickets by 
the express-trains there is a small additional tax. — Travellers 
by the through corridor- trains, marked 'D' in the Reichs-Kursbuch 
(hence called i D-Zuge'\ are bound to take (in addition to the rail- 
way-ticket) special seat-tickets (Platzkartcn ; 1 Jt for any distance 
below 150 Kil. or ca. 93 M., and 2 Jt for any greater distance). — 
Circular Tickets for prolonged tours are issued at considerably re- 
duced rates (see the time-tables). Ordinary return-tickets are valid 
for 45 days and permit the journey to be broken once in each direc- 
tion on application to the station - master at the selected stopping- 
place. — In Wurtemberg season-tickets (Landi$fahrkarten) y valid 
for 15 days and permitting the holder to travel at will over all the 
Wurtemberg state-lines, are issued for 45, 30, or 20 Jt according 
to class. Applications for these must be made at least 1 hr. in ad- 
vance and be accompanied by an unmounted photogTaph of the 
applicant and a deposit of 3 M. 


Luggage. On the S. German lines there is no free allowance 
for luggage, "beyond smaller articles carried in the hand. 'In all 
cases the heavier luggage must he hooked , and a ticket procured 
for it. This being done, the traveller need not look after his lug- 
gage till he arrives at his final destination , where it will be kept 
in safe custody until he presents his ticket (fee 10 pf. per day). 
When a frontier has to be crossed, the traveller is strongly recom- 
mended to take his luggage with him, and to superintend the 
custom-house examination in person. If luggage be sent across 
a frontier by goods-train or diligence, the keys must be sent along 
with it, as otherwise it will be detained at the custom-house; 
but the pecuniary saving effected by such a course is far outweighed 
by the risk of vexatious delays, pilferage, and damage, for which 
it is difficult or impossible to obtain redress. 

The enormous weight of the trunks used by some travellers not un- 
frequently inflicts serious injury on the hotel and railway porters who have 
to handle them. Travellers are therefore urged to place their heayy ar- 
ticles in the smaller packages and thus minimize the evil as far as possible. 

Diligbnces generally carry three passengers only, two in the m- 
tirieur, and one in the coupi. As the latter alone affords a toler- 
able survey of the scenery, it should if possible be secured in good 
time. In much-frequented districts it is frequently engaged several 
days beforehand. The usual amount of luggage carried free by the 
diligence does not exceed 20-30 lbs., over- weight being charged for 
by tariff. Passengers are required to book their luggage two hours 
before the time of starting, and sometimes even on the previous 
evening ; but these rules are seldom rigidly enforced. An 'extra- 
post* conveyance for one or more persons may generally be obtained 
on application at the post-offices. The average tariff is 60 pf. (6<f.) 
per mile for 1-2, and 1 Ji (1*.") per mile for 3-4 persons. Private 
conveyances may be hired at the rate of 10-15 M for a one-horse, 
12-25 Jl for a two-horse carriage per diem. 

IV. Excursions on Foot. 

The pedestrian is unquestionably the most independent of trav- 
ellers, and to him alone the beautiful scenery of some of the more 
remote districts is accessible. For a short tour a couple of flannel 
shirts, a pair of worsted stockings, slippers, the articles of the toi- 
lette, a light waterproof, and a stout umbrella will generally be 
found a sufficient equipment. Strong and well-tried boots are es- 
sential to comfort. Heavy and complicated knapsacks should be 
avoided; a light pouch or game-bag is far less irksome, and its 
position may be shifted at pleasure. A more extensive reserve of 
clothing should not exceed the limits of a small portmanteau, which 
can be easily wielded, and may be forwarded from town to town 
by post. 

Southern Germany comprises many attractive and picturesque 
districts, such as the Swabian Alb (R. 11), the Fichtel-Gebirge 

xiv HOTELS. 

(R. 23), Franconian Switzerland (R. 24), and the Bavarian Forest 
(R. 49). The student of art is strongly recommended to visit Munich, 
Nuremberg, and Stuttgart. By consulting the Handbook the traveller 
will discover many other interesting places, whether the object of 
his tour be amusement or instruction. 

V. Cycling and Motoring Notes. 

Cycles accompanied by their owners are admitted to Germany 
without customs formalities, but a charge of 8-10 Jt is made on 
crated machines if they look new. Each machine must be provided 
with a brake, a bell, and a lamp. In most places local riders must 
have a number-plate attached to their cycles, but through-tourists 
are exempt from this condition. Some of the narrower and steeper 
streets in towns and villages are apt to be closed to the cyclist, and 
restrictions are often made on the use of the wheel in public parks. 
All regulations of this "kind are stringently enforced by the authori- 
ties. The police have the right to demand the exhibition of the 
cyclist's club -ticket or passport. 

The rule of the road is to keep to the right in meeting, and to 
pass on the left in overtaking. Led horses must be met and passed 
on the side on which the man in charge is. 

In Baden, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, and Alsace and Lorraine uncrated 
cycles, accompanied by their riders, are carried as personal luggage on 
the railways and are given in charge of the baggage-master like ordinary 
luggage. In other parts of Germany a cycle-ticket must be purchased and. 
the owner must himself take his wheel to and from the baggage-car. Many 
express trains (especially the D-trains, p. xii) do not carry unpacked cycles. 

Motob-Gabs entering Germany are liable to pay a customs-duty 
of 150 M % which is returned when the car quits the country. In 
populous districts and in darkness the speed-limit is 9 M. (15 Eil.) 
per hr. ; otherwise there is no limit, but driving to the public danger, 
whatever the speed, is an offence. Lamps and brakes are imperative, 
but foreigners are not required to carry number-plates. Passports 
and home-licences (which should be ratified by a German local 
authority) should be carried. For local regulations (which vary) 
motorists should apply to the police. Petrol is easily obtainable, 
except in remote districts. 

Among the best road-maps are those issued by Ravenstein and Liebenow 
and by MitUXbach (both 1:300,000); also 'Eundfahrten in Deutscbland\ 
published by EbhardtA Co. of Berlin in 16 sheets; and Ravenstein's Fiihrer 
fur Bad- und Automobilfahrer. 

VI. Hotels. 

Little variation occurs in the accommodation and charges of 
first-class hotels in the principal towns and watering-places through- 
out Germany ; but it frequently happens that in old-fashioned ho- 
tels of unassuming exterior the traveller finds as much real comfort 
as in the modern establishments, while the charges are lower. The 
best houses of both descriptions are therefore enumerated. 


Where the traveller remains for a week or more at a hotel, it 
is advisable to pay, or at least call for, his account every two or 
three days , in order that errors may be at once detected. Verbal 
reckonings are objectionable. A waiter's arithmetic is faulty, and 
his mistakes are seldom in favour of the traveller. It is also objec- 
tionable to delay paying one's bill till the last moment, when errors 
or wilful impositions must be submitted to for want of time to in- 
vestigate them. . Those who intend starting early in the morning 
will do well to ask for their bills on the previous evening. 

Pedestrians and travellers of moderate requirements will find 
the country inns in Southern Germany very reasonable, 5-6«. a day 
being generally sufficient to include every item. 

Hotel -keepers who wish to commend their houses to British and 
American travellers are reminded of the desirability of providing the bed- 
rooms with large basins , foot-baths , plenty of water , and an adequate 
supply of towels. Great care should be taken to ensure that the sanitary 
arrangements are in proper order, including a strong flush of water and 
proper toilette-paper ; and no house that is deficient in this respect can 
rank as first-class or receive a star of commendation, whatever may be 
its excellencies in other departments. 

The word Pension is used in the Handbook as including board, lodg- 
ing, and attendance. 

VII. Post and Telegraph Offices. 

Postal Bates. Ordinary Letters within Germany and Austria- 
Hungary, 10 pf. per 20 grammes (% oz.) prepaid; for foreign 
countries 20 pf. Registered Letters 20 pf. extra. — Post Cards 5 pf., 
for abroad 10 pf. Reply post-cards 10 pf., for abroad 20 pf. — 
Printed Papers (Drucksachen), up to 50 gr. 3 pf., to 100 gr. 5 pf., 
to 250 gr. 10 pf.; for abroad 5 pf. per 50 grammes. 

Post Office Orders (Postanweisungen) within Germany, not ex- 
ceeding 100 M, 20 pf., not exceeding 200 Jl, 30 pf., not exceeding 
400 Jl, 40 pf. ; for Austria-Hungary, 10 pf . per 20 M (minimum 
20 pf.). The charges for post-office orders for foreign countries 
vary, and may be learned on application at any post-office. 

Telegrams. The minimum charge for a telegram to Great Britain 
or Ireland is 80 pf., to any other European country 50 pf., subject 
to which conditions telegrams are charged at the following rates per 
word : Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Luxembourg 5 pf. ; Belgium, 
Denmark, Holland, and Switzerland 10 pf. ; France 12 pf.; Great 
Britain, Italy, Norway, and Sweden 15 pf.; Greece 30 pf. ; Turkey 
45 pf. ; other European countries 20 pf. — Telegrams despatched 
- and received within the same town are charged 3 pf. per word 
(minimum 30 pf.). 

Urgent telegrams, marked D (i.e. dringend), taking precedence 
of all others, pay thrice the above tariff. 

i by Google 




R. = Room; also Route. 

B. = Breakfast. 

D. = Dinner. 

A. = Attendance. 

L. = Light. 

pens. = pension. 

Bfmts. = refreshments. 

M. = English mile. 

R., L. = right, left. 

ft. = English foot. 
Objects of special interest, and hotels which are believed worthy of 
special commendation are denoted by asterisks. 

The number prefixed to the name of a place on a railway or high-road 
indicates its distance in English miles from the starting-point of the route 
or sub-route. The number of feet given after the name of a place shows 
its height above the sea-level. The letter <2, with a date, after the name 
of a person, indicates the year of his death. 

omn. = omnibus. 

N. = North, northern, etc. 

S. = South, etc. 

E. = East, etc. 

W. *m West, etc. 

c, ca. = circa, about. 

Jf = mark. 

pf. = pfennig. 

K. = krone. 

h. — heller. 

d by Google 

South German Art. 

A Historical Sketch by Profeuor Anton Springer. 

It is neither the function nor the intention of the following 
sketch to divert the traveller's attention from the beauties of nature 
and to direct it instead to the study of art. But the great cities of 
Southern Germany, whether they be the express object of the travel- 
ler's journey or his temporary resting-places on his way elsewhere, 
cannot fail of themselves to inspire him with some interest in the 
art both of the present and of the past; while at numerous other 
points his glance is arrested and his attention excited by ancient or 
modern monuments of art. Interest in such things has widened and 
deepened to a surprizing extent within recent times. A few decades 
ago old-fashioned German furniture was ignored, and German build- 
ings of the 16th and 17th centuries were for the most part passed 
with a contemptuous shrug. Now the 'German Renaissance' is a 
theme of admiration and an object for eager imitation. Then only 
a few mediaeval cathedrals received the meed of general admiration 
or passed muster as true works of artistic genius , while the over- 
whelming majority of mediaeval works remained unknown and un- 
regarded. Now hardly anyone is either wholly indifferent to or wholly 
ignorant of the development of art in the middle ages. The culti- 
vation of the historic sense has largely affected the aesthetic attitude 
in this direction, swelling the aggregate of artistic interest and 
bringing the more remote periods within the limits of intelligent 
comprehension. It is the object of the following lines to support and 
extend this historic sense. 

The civilization and art of Southern Germany reach back to a very 
early period ; they antedate by a thousand years the entrance of the 
North German lands into the light of authentic history. Numerous 
excavations have yielded traces of an early intercourse with Italy, 
carried on to some extent before the Christian era; and not less 
numerous traces have been found of the Roman settlements that 
were established along the great trade-routes and waterways, though 
these Roman discoveries are far inferior both in extent and import- 
ance to those in the valley of the Moselle and elsewhere on the left 
bank of the Rhine. The Roman remains at Treves appeal to the 
imagination of the ordinary traveller, while the Roman remains in 
NoTicum and Rhaetia arrest the attention of the archaeologist only. 
Christianity early made its way into Southern Germany (St. Severin- 
us; 5th cent.), and Frank and Irish missionaries reaped a rich 
harvest. Convent after convent was founded ; and there is probably 
no other district where monastic establishments were so thickly 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 10th Edit. b 


planted about the close of the 10th cent., as the banks of the Danube 
and at the foot of the Alps. Most of these preserved their celebrity and 
their wealth almost down to the nineteenth century, though their im- 
portance as art-monuments has in many instances disappeared with 
the substitution of new buildings for old ones. No considerable art- 
monuments have come down to us even from the Garloyingian 
period, which saw the beginning of Ratisbon's importance, except 
in the domains of the goldsmith's craft and miniature-painting. The 
Reiche Kapelle at Munich contains the finest specimens of the 
former, the libraries at Munich and Vienna of the latter. 

The unbroken chain of artistic activity begins for us about the 
10th century. The art -style which prevailed from the 10th to the 
13th cent, is generally known as the Romanesque. Its characteristics 
find their most distinct expression in ecclesiastical architecture. The 
plan of the Romanesque church was suggested by the Roman basilica 
of early-Christian times, the essence of which consisted in an oblong 
hall, divided into three aisles by two rows of columns. At one end 
of the basilica was a semicircular vaulted recess, known as the Apsis; 
at the other end was a fore-court (Atrium), enclosed by a portico. 
Occasionally a transept was interposed between the three-aisled nave 
and the apse, and thus the whole building gradually assumed the 
clearly marked form of a cross. In the course of centuries and in 
different countries this early-Christian nucleus underwent numerous 
modifications, 6ome due to the use of new building materials, some 
to peculiarities of national customs, but most to the at first slowly 
growing improvement in technical skill. It is apparent from the 
earliest Romanesque edifices, that their builders had difficulty in 
rising to the demands of their task, and that they had but scanty 
notions of measure and proportion. Romanesque architecture did 
not attain an artistic perfection until the 12th century. 

It is not difficult to identify a Romanesque building and at the 
same time to decide with some certainty whether it belongs to the 
earlier or later period (t.e. 11th or 12th cent.). The characteristic 
forms of the Romanesque style are everywhere essentially the same. 
The round arch is used to unite the interior pillars or columns, to 
finish off windows and portals, and to form a continuous frieze on 
the exterior wall ; the columns have either cubical capitals or foliage- 
capitals modelled on the antique ; the ornamentation is predominantly 
either in the geometric style (lozenges; zigzags; checker- work) or 
of conventionalized foliage. In the earlier churches vaulting is used 
only for the crypt, the burial vaults, and the apse, while the nave 
has a flat roof; but by the 12th cent, we find the vault-principle 
triumphant, while the supporting pillars are also more richly articulat- 
ed. At the foot of the columns appears the base-ornament, uniting 
the plinth with the torus of the base. 

Though it is thus easy to recognize the general Romanesque 
character of a building, there are no sufficiently distinctive peculi- 


arities to differentiate the style prevailing in Southern Germany from 
that prevailing elsewhere. Even when we confine ourselves to nar- 
rower limits and enquire whether the Romanesque buildings in 
Southern Germany could be classified into Alemannic, Swabian, 
Bavarian, and Austrian groups, we arrive at no satisfactory result. 
All that we can say is that columns are frequently used to support 
the upper walls (this form being known as the columnar- basilica) 
and that there is a frequent tendency towards a richly decorative, 
and even fantastic arrangement of the interior fittings. No traveller 
in the neighbourhood of the Lake of Constance should omit to visit 
the three churches on the island of Reichenau (p. 75); that at Ober- 
zell, a small columnar basilica, dates back to the 10th cent., while 
the larger church at Mittelzell is probably one of the oldest pillar- 
basilicas in the district. The church of the former Benedictine abbey 
of Alpir$bach (p. 56) in the Kinzig-Tal, founded in the 11th cent., 
surprizes us by its stately proportions and the perspicuous devel- 
opment of the ground-plan; while another Swabian church, at Maul' 
bronn (p. 16), is an excellent specimen of a large mediaeval con- 
ventual edifice. Ratisbon (p. 164) is rich in Romanesque buildings, 
including the Old Cathedral, the Obermunster, the Schotten-Kirche, 
and the church of St. Emmeram. Several of these have been sadly 
disfigured by later decorations; and, indeed, the true Romanesque 
nucleus of many churches can only with difficulty be disentangled, 
from later alterations. The meaning of the chaotic plastic embel- 
lishments on the portal of the Schotten-Kirche will probably excite 
the curiosity of the ordinary traveller even less than the sculptures 
in the spacious crypt of Freising Cathedral (p. 189), which are, at 
any rate, decorative in their general effect. 

The churches above mentioned, some of which lie quite off the 
main lines of communication, appeal on the whole mainly to the 
professional archaeologist or architect. There is, however, at least 
one Romanesque church in Southern Germany which will excite the 
warm admiration of the tourist and yield him unqualified delight — 
viz, the Cathedral of Bamberg (p. 116). The plan of this church in- 
cludes a nave and aisles, an elevated ohoir at each end with a crypt 
below, and a transept between the "W. choir and the nave. In 
comparison with other buildings in the same Style it takes a preem- 
inent place by its imposing dimensions, by its spacious, airy, and 
harmonious proportions, by the elaborate ornamentation of its portals 
(Furstentor), and by the number and variety of its towers. The 
occurrence of the pointed arch must not mislead the visitor into the 
error of taking it as a sign of the admixture of Gothic elements. 
The Gothic style is not characterized by the pointed arch, which 
was also used in earlier times, but by its system of buttresses to 
counteract the thrust of the vaulting, by its abundant use of ar- 
ticulation, and by the rich ornamentation applied to wall-surfaces 
and other non-constructive portions of the building. 



The early-Gothic peiiod is but scantily represented in Southern 
Germany, and it is not till the second half of the 13th oentury that 
the Gothic Style appears here in a developed and victorious form, 
while the building activity of the two following centuries brought 
it to a pitch of great perfection. The number of Gothic edifices on 
South German soil is very large, and the variety they show is very 
remarkable. An imposing series of cathedrals, accompanied by at 
least as many parochial city-churches and conventual churches, 
extends all the way from Alsace to the borders of Hungary. The 
Cathedral of Freiburg (see Baedeker's Rhine') may be coupled with 
Strassburg Cathedral, as among the finest structures of its class, if 
not in unity of style, yet by the completeness of its execution and 
by its imposing tower and airy pyramid of perforated masonry. With 
the exception of Prague Cathedral, the choir of which shows the 
influence of French models, the South German cathedrals testify to 
considerable independence on the part of their architects. The 
French masters were probably not unknown to these, but they did 
not allow themselves to be dominated by foreign ideas. The Cathe- 
dral ofRatisbon (p. 166), begun in 1276 and completed after a long 
interval in the 19th cent., shows neither the marked development of 
the transept nor the rich elaboration of the choir which were custom- 
ary in the cathedrals of Western Europe. The transept does not 
project beyond the aisles, and the nave and aisles each end in a 
separate apse instead of the aisles extending in the form of an 
ambulatory round the choir. Another peculiarity in German cathe- 
drals is that the nave and aisles are occasionally of the same height 
— a peculiarity found nowhere else in cathedral-architecture, the 
beginning and early development of which must be attributed to 
the architects of Northern France. Thus the choir of the Cathedral 
of St. Stephen, at Vienna, a work of the 14th century, has its nave 
and aisles of the same height, while the main nave of the church, 
of a little later date, is but slightly higher than the aisles and is 
united under the same roof with them. The Minster of Vim (p. 42) 
is only a parish-church, and thus lacks the extensive choir necessary 
for the numerous clergy of a cathedral, while it has only one tower 
on the facade ; the ambition of the citizens, however, made it one 
of the largest and loftiest Gothic churches in Germany, and it ranks 
worthily with the cathedrals of Freiburg, Ratisbon, and Vienna. 
The interior originally consisted of a nave and two aisles, all of 
equal breadth ; but at a later period the latter were subdivided by 
rows of round pillars. 

The number of the notable Gothic churches in Southern Germany 
is by no means exhausted by the foregoing list of cathedrals and 
minsters. The towns of Swabia were marked by great zeal and 
activity in building during the later middle ages. In the Liebfrauen- 
Kirche EtsUngen (p. 38) possesses a masterpiece, which, though of 
small dimensions, is rich in ornamentation of every kind, culminat- 



ing in the graceful open-work tower. Similar small towers of open- 
work are found at Bebenhauten, near Tubingen, at Thann, in Alsace, 
and at Marias-Strauengel, in Styria. Among the other fine Gothic V 
churches of Swabia are the minster of Veberlingen, on the Lake of ) 
Constance (p. 80), the church of Omiind (p. 35), the chief church ' 
of Ndrdlingen($.ib7), the church of St. George at2>irifc«k&uM(p.l57), 
and the abbey-church of Tubingen (p. 48). The churches of Nurem- 
berg (p. 131) form a well-known group ; the impression produced by 
the choir and richly decorated bridal door of St. Sebaldus and by the 
facade of St. Lawrence is a very striking one. The small importance 
attached to tradition even in the 14th century is illustrated by the 
way in which the facade of the Frauen-Kirche (p. 137) differs from 
earlier ecclesiastical fronts. In Bavaria our attention and interest are 
mainly excited by a few huge brick edifices, like the Frauen-Eirche 
at Munich (p.»250) and St. Martin's Church at Landshut (p. 187), 
which served as the model of a whole series of churches. The Gothic 
style was also sedulously cultivated in Bohemia from the time of 
Charles IV. onwards. In Prague there are the Cathedral, the Teyn- 
kirche, and the Synagogue, while the bold vaulting of the Karlshof 
Church also excites the interest of the architect ; and there are other 
handsome edifices, some of which recall the earlier cathedral-style, 
in such provincial towns as Eolin, Kuttenberg, Pilsen, and Eger. 

Towards Italy the limits of the spread of the Gothic style is 
marked by the parish-church of BoUen, towards the East by the 
church of St. Elizabeth at Kaschau. Few of the parochial and mon- 
astic churches of the towns are remarkable for their structural forms, 
which are generally of great simplicity, while the original kernel is 
often wholly lost amid alterations and additions. The richness and 
artistic merit of the decoration of their individual parts is, however, 
perhaps all the more striking on this account. The architect is 
thrown into the shade by the sculptor and the stone-carver. The 
mouldings on the walls, the tracery of the windows, the details of 
the buttresses, and the carvings of the doorways are all executed 
with the most admirable care and in the richest and most delicate 
manner, while the interior of the church is filled with works of art 
in metal, stone, and wood. 

Sculpture and Painting both find a favourable soil in Southern 
Germany in the 15th century. The former, in particular, is Indebted 
for its solid foundation and its admirable command of technical 
skill to its diligent practitioners of the Gothic period. It thus does 
not break abruptly with tradition, but gradually fits the new realistic 
features into the frame-work of the old forms. For centuries the 
tasks of the sculptor remain the same ; he has to chisel tombstones 
of stone, to carve altars in wood, to cast fonts in metal. The ap- 
plication of metal to monumental works is of comparatively late 
introduction ; hence in this sphere the deviation from the mediaeval 
style is most striking, while in works of marble, stone, and wood sug- 


gestions of Gothic art may be traced even in the 16th century. Sculp- 
tures in stone and -wood continue to be decidedly the most popular 
branches of art. Wood-carving was diligently practised from the 
earliest times in such Alpine districts as Ammergau, while the wood- 
carvers of the great towns of Southern Germany also found ample 
employment in the preparation of large altars, choir-stalls, and the 
like. The sculptures on the altars were usually painted. This poly- 
chrome decoration was rendered necessary, partly by the nature of 
the material, which possessed no rich colouring of its own, and 
partly by the immediate neighbourhood of the pictures, which were 
generally added as wings to the carved centre of the altar. Altars 
of this kind may be studied either in museums (Bavarian National 
Museum at Munich, Germanic Museum at Nuremberg), or in their 
original positions at Rothenburg, Blaubeuren, Gmund, St. Wolfgang, 
and many other places. A few of their artists are still known by 
name. The two most important are Jorg Syrlin, first heard of in 
1458 and the creator of the choir- stalls of the Minster of XJlm, 
and Veil Stoss (ca. 1450-1533), who is known to us by his works 
in Nuremberg, produced almost wholly towards the close of a long 
life. Ulm and Nuremberg, and next to them Augsburg, are the chief 
centres of South German art in the 15th and 16th centuries. But 
this by no means implies that the other free towns of the empire 
neglected the pursuit of art. On the contrary, local research is con- 
stantly adding new names to the artistic roll of honour. It is, how- 
ever, only in the three towns named that we find anything like 
schools of art or an artistic activity of more than local interest. The 
chief painter atUlm was BartholomausZeitblom, the son-in-law of the 
venerable Hans Schuhlein or Schulin. He flourished in 1484-1517, 
and his works, which may be seen in the galleries of Stuttgart and 
Augsburg and the Pinakothek of Munich, are distinguished by the 
clearness and vigour of their colouring, though the drawing is hard 
and the types of his heads unpleasing and deficient in variety. Of 
his pictures, as of early-German paintings in general, it may be as- 
serted that the colouring is their strongest point, even though lack- 
ing in a delicate graduation of tone. They also succeed better with 
individual figures and quiet groups than with dramatic situations, 
the representation of which often led to exaggerated effects and the 
admixture of coarsely realistic traits. 

The Augsburg school is best represented by Hans Burgkmair 
(1473-1631), a master gifted with a fine sense for landscape beauty, 
and by Holbein the Elder (ca. 1460-1524). The latter in especial, now 
that a number of works formerly ascribed to his son have been ac- 
credited to him, ranks among the most interesting of early-German 
painters. His professional activity may be traced from the last decade 
of the 16th century onwards. For a considerable time his personal 
gifts do not help him to transcend the limits of the prevailing style. 
Even his Madonnas and women are lacking in charm ; in emotional 


scenes, such as the Passion, a tendency to the coarse and common is 
apparent. (This early manner of the painter is best studied at the 
Augsburg gallery.) It was not till towards the end of his career — and 
so far we have not material enough to trace the intermediate devel- 
opment — that the elder Holbein produced in the Altar of St. Sebastian 
(Munich Pinakothek) a work that placed him far above all his contem- 
poraries. He has learned to use the new graces borrowed from Italy, 
he endues his women's heads with elegance and charm, he models 
the nude with surprizing accuracy, he exhibits a vigorous realism 
restrained within due bounds. With the completion of this work in 
1516 he disappears from the scene; and the only later information 
that we possess about him is the news of his death in Alsace some 
time before 1526. The works of his son Ham Holbein the Younger 
(1497-1543) cannot be effectively studied except at Bale, to which 
he migrated at an early age, and in England, where he spent the 
latter part of his life. The South German galleries, however, contain 
a few fine examples of his talent. Thus, at Darmstadt is the Ma- 
donna of Burgomaster Meyer, the original of the celebrated picture 
at Dresden; and in the Pinakothek of Munich are two fine portraits. 
The picture presented by the old, art-loving city of Nuremberg 
is one that takes by storm the fancy of all. Poets and romance-writers 
have celebrated the life and activity of the town in trade and in- 
dustry, science and art, and the spirit of its people, easily moved to 
love or hate; and they, perhaps, exaggerated its importance as the 
beau ideal of a medieval city. As a matter of fact its artistic activity 
began at the close of the mediaeval period, and it was in the 16th 
century that it reached its zenith. The Nuremberg artists are known 
far and wide. The names of Michael Wohlgemut, Veit Stoss, Adam 
Kraft, and Peter Vischer are authoritative even with those who 
know nothing more of early-German art. Wohlgemut (1434-1519) 
generally passes as the type of the respectable and conscientious 
painter, who practises his art with honest simplicity. Adam Kraft, 
the stone-cutter (ca. 1450-1507), whose work may be thoroughly 
studied in his native city, also stands to some extent on the foot- 
ing of the handicraftsman and follows the tracks of the old tradi- 
tion. His religious representations (such as the Schreyer Tomb 
on the outside of St. Sebald's, and the Seven Stations on the way 
to the Cemetery of St. John) show the regular 15th centuTy mix- 
ture of pictorial and plastic elements in the composition, and the 
usual realistic hardness in the individual figures and in the drapery. 
A few of the heads only (such as those of the Dead Christ and of the 
Virgin in the relief of the Seventh Station) are permeated by a finer, 
personal feeling. He shows himself at his highest degree of freedom 
from the traditional limitations in the fresh and true relief on 
the Stadtwage (p. 141) and in the three small and lifelike statu- 
ettes that adorn the large late-Gothic ciborium in the church of 
St. Lawrence. Kraft's works are superior to most of the productions 


of the other Nuremberg sculptors and their oongeners, even to those 
of the diligent Tilman Biementchneider (d. 1531) of Wiirzburg, 
whose masterpiece is in Bamberg Cathedral (p. 117). Nuremberg 
also possesses at least the masterpiece of Peter Vischer (1455-1529), 
the celebrated bronze- founder (St. Sebald's Monument). The 
architectural frame-work enshrining the silver coffin of the saint 
still shows traces of the conflict between Gothic and Renaissance 
forms. The small figures of children, Prophets, and Apostles, on 
the other hand, are creations of a free play of fancy, aiming not 
merely at truth to nature but also at grace and charm or at dignified 
and measured seriousness. Peter Vischer was afterwards joined in 
his foundry by his sons ; but Nuremberg does not afford adequate 
examples of his later development or of the ever stronger infusion of 
the Italian Renaissance in the native style. The Little Goose Man of 
Pancratz Ldbenwolf (1492-1563) is an almost solitary instance of the 
continued lifelike conception of nature coupled with freshness and 
naivete*. A visit to Nuremberg is still less satisfactory for a full ap- 
preciation of Albrecht Durer (1471-1528), the greatest of German 
painters, though the imagination cannot but be pleasantly stimulated 
by lingering on the spot where he lived and worked. In order to form 
an adequate judgment of this many-sided master, remarkable alike 
for the profundity and the richness of his artistic conceptions, we 
must study not only his wood-cuts and engravings, but also his draw- 
ings. The best collection of these last is found in the Albertina at 
Vienna, a visit to which will intensely interest the serious student 
of art. The drawings also afford the only means of uninterruptedly 
tracing Diirer's artistic evolution from his early boyish efforts to the 
products of his closing years. This cannot be said of his paintings, 
which are distributed very unequally among the different periods of 
his life. It is really only twice in his career that his activity in 
' painting is so great as to form the main ground of our judgment 
of him; the first of these periods was during and immediately after 
his visit to Venice (1505-07), the second was at the end of his 
life, after his journey to the Netherlands (1520-21). From the 
Venetians he borrowed certain details of composition and learned 
the secret of his clear, warm, vigorous, and harmonious colouring; 
in the evening of his days he reached a complete plastic command 
of the pithy power of characterization visible in all his figures. 
The South German galleries still contain the most important pro- 
ducts of his art Munich possesses the Paumgartner Altar, one of 
his earliest pictures; the portrait of himself, unfortunately retouch- 
ed, and probably painted somewhat later than the date (1500) on 
the work itself; and, finally, his masterpiece, the double -panels 
known as the Four Temperaments (p. 221), with the heads of SS. 
Peter and John, SS. Paul and Mark. In this work he has, in allusion 
to the religious disorders of his environment, created four permanent 
types of Christian character, the corner-stones of the Reform move" 


ment; he has given pure and lifelike artistic form to the test and 
the defence of truth. Of the numerous Durer treasures once preserved 
in Nuremberg scarcely one remains. The portrait of Hieronymus 
Holzschuher(1526), the most perfect portrait we possess from Durer 's 
hand, formerly in the Germanic Museum, is now at Berlin; 

The South German galleries afford abundant opportunity for a 
study of the painters, who were grouped round Durer and to some 
ex. tent influenced by him, such as Hans von Kulmbaeh (d. 1522), 
Hans Schdufelein (d. 1540), Georg Pern (d. 1550), Hans Belaid 
Beham (d. 1550), Barthel Beham (1502-40), Alb. Altdorfer (d. 1538), 
and Hans Baldung Grien fd. 1645). Numerous specimens of these 
masters will he found in the Pinakothek and the Germanic Museum 
at Munich, and in the galleries of Donaueschingen andJSigmaringen. 
Those who have not the leisure or the inclination to study their 
religious and historical pictures should at least spare a glance for 
their efforts in portraiture. In this field these masters show to the 
best advantage their fresh and vigorous observation of nature, un- 
hampered by the prevalent custom of obscuring the main subject 
by a multiplicity of detail, or by the attempt to create ideal forms 
without the requisite powers. 

A revolution in artistic tendencies is already obvious among the 
masters last named. The traditional style no longer sufficed. The 
knowledge of Italian art, fostered by the custom, which grew up 
towards the end of the 15th century, of the visiting of Italy by 
northern artists, broke through the old barriers and encouraged 
the imitation of the new models. This Italian influence, how- 
ever, did not bring any very desirable fruit to maturity. The 
German masters, like those of the Netherlands, remained essentially 
Northerners; they studied Italian art but could not assimilate the 
Italian nature. Though the Italian painters did homage to the ideal 
in their works, they never disguised their nationality. Even their most 
idealized creations reveal a direct life which smacks of the soil and 
the atmosphere. Foreigners could not inspire their paintings with 
this national trait, and thus, in spite of their personal talents, never 
advanced beyond the out-works of the Italian style. The race of 
artists that flourished in the second half of the 16th century stamped 
the Italian manner still more strongly on their works, aided and 
abetted in this by the gradual change in the patronage of art. "While 
the earlier form of art was most at home in middle-class circles, 
various princely patrons of art, such as the Emp. Rudolph II. and the 
Dukes of Bavaria, now step into the foreground. Wood-cuts still 
remained popular and were widely circulated in the homes of the 
people ; engravings were chiefly sought as patterns for the metal- 
worker and other artistic handicraftsmen ; but painting now solicited 
the favour of the art-loving courts. In these Italian art, like Italian 
culture generally, was strongly in the ascendant. Italian artists and 
Italian works of art began to migrate across the Alps ; and thus the 


native artists, already attracted by the forms of the Renaissance, 
received a new inducement to perfect themselves in the schools of 
Rome, Florence, and Venice. It would he unjust to eliminate en- 
tirely from the lists of northern artists the names of the Dutch and 
German masters who followed this course (such as Bartholomaut 
Spranger, Christoph Schwan, Hans von Aachen, and Johann Rotten- 
hammer) ; and some of them have produced works of considerable 
value, especially as regards technical qualities. But it 'remains 
true that, however great may he our desire to make 'historical 
rescues' by emphasizing their merits, it certainly has not yet gone 
far enough to induce us to profess unqualified pleasure in the works 
of these mannerists. Those who take an interest in the subject 
will find innumerable examples of their art in Vienna and in other 
Austrian galleries. 

The corresponding movement in architecture and the decorative 
arts has, on the other hand, become of late astonishingly popular. 
Even the layman now shows lively interest in the once un- 
regarded and despised buildings of the German Renaissance, 
and considers an inspection of them a worthy object for a tour. The 
name German Renaissance of itself indicates the double root from 
which the style springs. The German Renaissance could not have 
come into being without a knowledge of the architecture, which 
became predominant in Italy through the revived interest in the 
antique in the 15th century. It borrowed from it the columnar 
orders, the pilasters, the varieties of cornice, innumerable ornament- 
al motives, and many other details. It seldom, however, sank to a 
slavish imitation of its Italian models, but remained faithful in 
many points to its native traditions and tried to combine these 
harmoniously with the new forms. It is true that the Gothic tracery, 
mullion8, mouldings, and geometrical patterns had to be given up, 
and that the pointed arch lost its importance. In the constructive 
parts, however, in the articulation and ground-plan old usages still 
generally held their ground. The genesis of the German Renaissance 
is also the best explanation of it. Even in the early years of the 
16th century the German painters and engravers had begun to use 
the graceful schemes of foliage and branches that were characteristic 
of the Renaissance ornamentation of Italy; and a knowledge of the 
different orders of architecture , the rules of which were sought in 
Vitruvius, also quickly penetrated to the N. side of the Alps. The 
masters of decorative sculpture were the next to adapt themselves to 
the new Italian style, which we meet on tombstones, screens, foun- 
tains, and works in wood and metal. Its latest conquest was in the 
sphere of architecture, where it at first appears only in the ornament- 
al parts such as doors, windows, and the articulation of wall-surfaces. 
If the builder wished the work to be erected in a pure Italian style, 
he had to send for an Italian architect; and many Italians crossed 
the Alps and made plans, which they left to be executed by native 


workmen. The traces of this intercourse are distinctly recognizable 
in the German buildings. It was in the sphere of the handicraftsman 
that the new movement and the artistic advance found their greatest 
strength ; no wonder that the forms here created attained a universal 
application and were adopted also by architecture and the monumental 
arts. As a matter of fact we meet numerous suggestions of metal-work 
in architectural ornamentation. The lower parts of the shafts of 
columns appear as if adorned with mountings of metal ; in other 
cases hammered iron-work is imitated or the stone is treated as if 
it were a soft and elastic material. The lofty gable is a distinct 
reminiscence of the mediaeval house, while the Italian Renaissance is 
practically destitute of roof- structures ; the richly decorated balcony 
or oriel is also a northern peculiarity. The manner in which the 
German Renaissance came into existence explains the want of a 
uniform type or a normal style. It assumes a different character in 
each different district. The Renaissance in Northern Germany, so 
brilliantly developed in timber and brick architecture, differs widely 
from the Renaissance in Southern Germany, where the greater proxim- 
ity of Italy exercised a stronger influence. This is especially marked 
in such imposing ecclesiastical edifices as St. Michael's in Munich 
(p. 251). These buildings, erected under the influence of the- order 
of the Jesuits, bear the stamp impressed by the Jesuits on their 
buildings in all countries. But the secular buildings also show the 
influence of the neighbourhood of Italy and of the Italian culture 
predominant in courts and in aristocratic circles generally. Some 
buildings are German only through the soil on which they stand, 
while in style they belong exclusively to the Italian Renaissance ; 
of this number are the so-called Belvedere of Emperor Ferdinand I. 
at Prague and the Fugger Bath Rooms at Augsburg (p. 162). 

The preference for the Italian style is revealed more strongly in 
the chateaux of the noblesse than in the private buildings of the 
towns, the free towns of the empire clinging especially to the older 
traditions. Southern Germany contains a stately series of chateaux, 
which, in giving up the character of castles and assuming that of 
palaces, illustrate in the most signal manner the difference be- 
tween the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. At the head of these 
stands the Otto-Heinrichs-Bau at Heidelberg, the gem of German 
castle-architecture, which is remarkable for its harmonious propor- 
tions and architectonic articulation and still more for its rich and 
well thought-out plastic decoration. When the Friedrichsbau was 
taken in hand a few generations later (1601), the native workmen 
had already become entirely accustomed to the new style. The 
ornamentation of the younger building shows clear traces of its 
Germanic origin. Few of the other princely chateaux can at all com- 
pare with that of Heidelberg. The Schloss of Tubingen (p. 49) 
still suggests the old style of castle-building, while the fresh and 
somewhat coarse strength of the Renaissance is most strikingly 


illustrated in the portals. In the Old Palace of Stuttgart (p. 5), 
the most attractive part is the inner court, with its arcades ; but our 
fancy must lend the colours for a picture of the fitting-up of the 
now somewhat neglected state-rooms. The constantly increasing 
power of the Bavarian dukes is mirrored in the magnificence of their 
Palace at Munich (p. 200). 

It was not always possible to proceed according to a uniform 
plan. The famous Castle ofLandahut (p. 188), for instance, is wholly 
irregular in plan and shows clear traces of the different periods in 
which it was built. The decoration of the rooms is mainly entrusted 
to the painter, — a fact that alone shows the growth of Italian in- 
fluence. The same tendency is seen more clearly in the New Palace 
of Landshut (p. 187), the court of which is articulated and decorated 
exactly in the taste of Italian palaces. A building of great interest 
is the Old Palace of Munich , erected by Elector Maximilian in 
1602-19, planned on an extensive scale, and elaborately adorned 
with plastic and pictorial ornamentation (the latter now sadly faded). 
The group of buildings at Prague is, perhaps, the most interesting 
of the kind on Austrian soil. The new style established itself in the 
Bohemian capital at an astonishingly early date and maintained itself 
in comparative purity down to the 17th century. The large loggia 
on the garden-side of the Wallenstein Palace is the final link of a 
chain of building activity extending across the whole of the country. 
In order to give an adequate idea of the German Renaissance, it 
would be necessary to attempt a full enumeration of the individual 
buildings,, for not only every district, but often each monument in 
each district, shows peculiarities, the study of which affords genuine 
pleasure and reveals the wealth of Renaissance art. Now it is a 
portal, now a balcony, or, again, the arrangement of a court or the 
fitting-up of a room that especially calls for our admiration. 

The lover of the Renaissance is advised not to confine his wander- 
ings to the great cities and the chief lines of communication. The 
keen eye will discover interesting buildings in almost every parish. 
Thus the towns and villages of Tyrol contain many, hitherto neglected, 
examples of the Renaissance. A similar remark may be made about 
many other buildings, not merely with regard to chateaux and manor- 
houses but also, and in a still higher degree, with regard to the resi- 
dences of the ordinary citizen. In most cases, indeed, it will be the bare 
architecture alone that the connoisseur will have a chance to enjoy ; 
the interior fittings, which add so much to the charm of a Renaissance 
house and contribute not a little to its comprehension, have invari- 
ably disappeared — perhaps to satisfy the recent craving of museums 
and collectors. The contents of the older industrial museums were 
mainly drawn from the treasures of the princely collections that came 
into vogue in the 16th century. The predominant objects were works 
of the goldsmith and furniture of costly woods, inlaid with ivory and 
metal. The equipment of the private house of the Renaissance period 


was, naturally, much more simple. The panelling of the walls found 
a counterpart in the well-carved cabinets and coffers; the metal 
utensils were often made of brass, the general appearance of which 
harmonized admirably with the wooden fittings ; the coarse nature 
of the pottery was disguised by colour, plastic ornamentation, and 
variety of form. Where the original furnishing is still in place, the 
eye will easily recognize the perfect harmony subsisting between the 
interior fittings and the architectural plan, and will see how the house 
has, as it were, grown from within outwards. A mere sight of the 
facades is not enough, especially when the Renaissance houses 
occur sporadically among modern edifices. A better idea is gained 
from rows of houses, streets, or squares not yet invaded by the modern 
builder! Nuremberg formerly stood unquestionably at the head of all 
German Renaissance towns. A number of patrician houses of the 
16th and the beginning of the 17th century can, it is true, still be 
cited ; but the general appearance of the town has begun to alter. On 
the other hand Rothenburg ob der Tauber (p. 177), with its Rathaus, 
towers, fountains, and well-preserved houses, still presents an almost 
unimpaired picture of a German town of the Renaissance period. Here, 
as in most of the free towns of the empire, the details of construction 
and ornamentation borrowed from the native traditions or directly due 
to the national spirit are seen in great force, while the Italian influence 
is much slighter than in the case of palaces and chateaux. It is not 
till the 17th century that the Italian style becomes predominant in 
municipal architecture, as in the facade of the Nuremberg Rathaus 
and the splendid interior (Goldner Saal) of the Augsburg Rathaus. 
Owing, however, to its lively intercourse ^ith Venice, the Italian 
style found comparatively ready acceptance at Augsburg and had 
(e.g .) familiarized the Augsburgers with the fashion of painted facades. 
The period of the Thirty Years' War sadly interrupted the evolu- 
tion of German art and broke off many bleeding branches from the 
tree of German culture. Some departments of art did not recover 
for two centuries ; the once so popular work of the wood-carver was 
forgotten ; painting was but scantily cultivated and sank to a greater 
dependence on foreign models than ever before. From this calamitous 
period dates the predominance of the foreigner in all matters of taste. 
Thus the contemplation of the art-life of Germany in the second half 
of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century gives but little 
satisfaction. The greatest activity took place in Southern Germany 
and Austria, and those who can overcome their dislike on general 
grounds to the Baroque Style will find here many and varied proofs 
of a renewed interest in art. In Italy a decided revolution in archi- 
tecture had taken place towards the close of the 16th century. While 
the individual Renaissance forms were retained, a new spirit was 
apparent in their embodiment and combination. The old and genuine 
Renaissance style seemed too cold and too simple, and not sufficiently 
effective. The architectural members were made coarser and more 


massive, the straight line was replaced by curves, the help of light 
and shade was appealed to. The facade assumes a curved form; 
columns are moved towards the front and draw the entire entablature 
with them ; gables and cornices are made to project strongly ; the 
profiles are more accentuated ; ornamentation is used to an exaggerated 
extent, almost obscuring the constructive elements. This baroque style, 
which is at bottom closely akin to the contemporary mannerism and 
the increased realism in painting and sculpture, soon found acceptance 
in Southern Germany. We see it in the numerous churches and 
convents that were rebuilt with increased magnificence after the 
close of the Thirty Tears' War; and we likewise see it in all its 
pomp, but also with all its weaknesses, in the numerous palaces built 
between 1680 and 1740. The Palace of Versailles is imitated in a 
few cases only (Nymphenburg, Mannheim); the predominant style is 
the Italian baroque, especially as it had been developed by Borromini. 
Excellent examples of the baroque style are found in Wurzburg, 
Munich, Vienna, and especially at Prague, where the traveller may 
go through a complete course in baroque architecture and become 
familiar with all its peculiarities. 

Architecture became practically paralysed about the middle of the 
18th century in consequence of the wars between Prussia and Austria. 
On the other hand an attempt was made, without much success, to 
revive the art of painting by the foundation of academies at Vienna 
and Stuttgart (Karlsschule). At the beginning of the 19th century 
the young artists of Germany had still to make the pilgrimage to Rome 
in order to train their eye and taste and to enkindle their imagination 
before the works of classical and old Italian art. More recent events 
must be passed over with a word. In the reign of King Louis I. Munich 
won a European reputation as a school of art through the creations 
of Cornelius and his associates; and after a period of stagnation about 
the middle of last century it has again reached a position of great 
importance. Vienna has been specially distinguished for its successes 
in architecture, while Stuttgart enjoys a well-merited renown in the 
domain of industrial art. 

d by Google 


1. Stuttgart and Environs. 

Bailway Stations. 1. HauptBahnhof or Central Station (PI. E, 3 ; •Re- 
staurant), at the corner of the Schloss-Str. and the Friedrich-Str. — 2. North 
Station (beyond PI. F, 1), on the Prag. — 3. West Station (the former Hasen- 
herg Station), at the W. extremity of the town (see p. 13). — 4. Zahnrad- 
Bahnhof or Mountain Railway Station (PI. I), 7; p. 13), Heusteig Str. 109, 
for the trains to Degerloch, Mohringen, Hohenheim, and Vaihingen on the 
Fild*r (p. 13). — Tramways between toe Central Station and the W. Station 
and between the Central Station and the Mountain Bailway Station see p. 13. 

Hotels. Near the Central Station: ♦HGtbl Mabquardt (PI. a; B. 8), 
with an entrance from Platform IV, E. <fc B. from 3 Jf 90 pf., D. (12.80-3) 
3 Jf; 'Hot. Victoria (PI. g: E, 8), Friedrich-Str. 28, R. 2-5, B. 1, D. 3, 
pens. 5-8 Jf; *H6tel Royal (PI. b; E, 8), Schloss-Str. 5, R. 2-3V2, B. 1 Jf, 
with garden; *H6tkl Dierlamm (PI. e; E,3), Friedrich-Str. 80, R. 2-2*/ 4 .*, 
B. 80 pf., with garden. These four have electric lighting and steam-heat. — 
•Hot. Tbxtok (PI. h ; E, 3), R. 1 Jf 80 pf.-2V» Jf, B. 8U pf , D. 2V« Jf, with 
garden ; Schwabenbbau (PL 8; F, 8), R. from li/a Jf, B. 70 pf. ; "Post (PI. i; 
E, 3), R. IV2-2V2 Jf, B. 70pf.s Bilfinger (PI. n; E,8); Europaischkb Hop 
(Katholischer Verein; PI. o, E, 8), R. IV2-2 Jf; Frank, with garden; all 
these in the Friedrich-Str.; Hot. Ihle (PI. k; E, 3), Schelling-Str. 5; 
Bahnhofs-Hotel Heilbb (PI. f; E. 3), Schlo-s-Str. 7, R 2-3 Jf, B. 80 pf.; 
Zbntral-Hotel (H. 1; E, 3), corner of Schlos^-Str. and See- Str., R. from 
1 Jf 80 pf. — In the Middle of the Town, not far from the Central Station: 
*H6t. 8iLBEB(Pl.d; F,4), Dorotheen-Str. 2, R 2-5, B.l, D. 3, pens 5-10 Jf, 
with electric light, steam-heating, and good cuisine; KOnio von Wurttrm- 
bbrg(P1.c; E,4),Kronprinz Str.26, R.lVz-2.*, B.80pf.; Hebzog Christoph 
(EvangelischerVerein; Pl.m,E,5), Christoph-Str.ll, R. iy A -2y 2 Jf, B.70pf., 
D. I1/2 Jf; Rauh (PI. p; D, 5), Sophien-Str. 35, with garden; Bebteand 
(PI. r; E, 4), Oalwer-Str. 7, R. l»/4-2V2, B. 1/2 •*»' Hilleb, Leder-Str. 6, 
unpretending. — I >eq ginger, Jewish, Ilgen-Str. 11 (PI. E, 5). — Pensions. 
Bader, Kasernen-Str. 10 (PI. C, 4); Bareiss. Konig-Str. 14 (PI. E, F, 3, 4; 
3V2-5 Jf)\ Bunzel, Olga-Str. 10 (PI. G, 4; 4'/s-6 Jf) RWhUng, Urban-Str. 31 
(PI. G,3; 5-6UT); Strieh- Chapelt, Blamen-Sfr. 27 (Pl.G, 3; L-&l*Jf)\ SMtx t 
AUeen-Str. 15 (PI. E, 2, 3 ; 4-5 Jf), and others. 

Oafes-Restanrants. Ca/4 Konigin- Olga-Bau (PI . F, 3), with confectioner's 
and ladies' room; Ca/4 Kdnigsbau, in the Kdnigsbau (p. 4); Cafe" Friedrichi- 
bau, in the Friedrichsbau (PI. E,3); Ca/4 Betold, Buchsen-Str. 26a (PI. D, 
E,3,4); Ca/4 Bachner, Charlotten-«tr 26 (Pl.G, 5); Resident- Ca/4, Friedrich- 
Str. 62 (PI. E, 4); Ca/4 Kaiserho/, Matfen-Str. 10 (PI. D, 5); Oaf* Heinz, Char- 
lotten-Str. 8 (PI. F, 4). — Restaurants. In the above-mentioned hotels. 
Also: Kdnigin-Olga-Bou (see above); Friedrichsbau (see above); Kaisei'hof (see 
above); Lindenhof, Hauptsta»ter-8tr. 86 (PI. D, 6); Koppenhb/er, Btichsen- 
Str. 21 (PI. D, 4); Petersburger Ho/, Eberhard-Str. 28 (PI. E, 5); Schwabische 
Bierhalle (R*sidenz-Cafe\ see abo»e), Kanzlei-8tr. 6 (PI. E, 4); Bachner (see 
above); Old German Beer Room in the Hdt. Hitler, Leder-Str. 6: BUrger- 
halle (PI. G, 2), N«ckar-Str. 56. — Automatic Restaurant, corner of Schloss Str. 
and Friedrich-Str. (PI. E, 3). — Beer Gardens. Near the Central Stat on : 
H6t. Royal, Dierlamm, Textor, Frank, see above; * Stadt-QarUsn (p. 10); 
Liederhalle-Oarten (p. 11), free except on Sun. afternoon and Tnes. evening. In 
the middle of the town: Petersburger Ho/(aee above); Hdt. Rauh (see above); 
Koppenhdfer (see above); Lindenhof (see above). To the K.E.: BUrgerhalle 
(see above). To the S. : Binkelacker, Tubinger-Str. 46 (PI. D, 6). To the N. : 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 10th Edit. 1 

2 Route 1. STUTTGART. Practical 

Englischer Garten, Ludwigsburger-Str. 16 (beyond PI. G, 1). — Wine Rooms. 
Rathauskeller, in the town hall (p. 6)5 Zur Schule, 8chul-8tr. 11 (PI. E,4); 
Ehmann, Hirsch-Str. 36 (PI. E, 5); Alber, Esslinger - Str. 10 (PI. F, 

4, 5); King. Rotebuhl-Str. 4 (PI. D, 5); Zinsmeister , Silberburg-Str. 132 
(PI. C, 4). 

Cabs. Taxameter Cabs 50 pf. per 800 metres (ca. V» M -)» *0pf- for eacl1 
400 metres more; from 8 or 9 p.m. till midnight, 60 pf. per 600m., 10 pf. 
for each 300m. more; after midnight, 50 pf. per 400m., 10 pf. for each 
200m. more •, beyond the city limits, same rate as for the evening. — Or- 
dinary Cabs for lOmin., 1-2 per s. 60, 3-4pers. 80 pf.; 15 min., 80 pf. and 
1 Jt ; 20 min., 1 Jt and 1 Jt 20 pf., etc. — In driving to the railway-station, 
theatre, concerts, or at night, the driver may demand the fare in ad- 
vance. For drives in the environs a bargain should be struck before- 

Electric Tramways (fares 10*20 pf.). Fkom the Schloss-Platz (PI. E, 
F, 3, 4): 1. Schlossgarten-Str. (PI. F, 8)-Neckar-Str. (PI. G, H, 3, 2, 1)-Berg- 
Cannstatt (beyond PI. H, 1)-, comp. $>, 14. — 2. Charlotten -Plate (PI. F, 4)- 
Eugens-Platz (PI. H, 4)-Osthehn (beyond PI. H, 2)- Gablenberg (p. 38). — 
3. Neckar-Str. (PI. G, H, 8,2, l)-St<ickach-Platz-Ostheim (beyond PI. H, 2)- 
Gaisburg. — 4. Friedrich-Str. (PI. E, 3, 2)-Babnhof-Str. (PI. F, 2, 1)- Prog 
(Steinbeis-Str. ; beyond PI. F, 1). — 5. Konig-Str. (PI. E, 4)- TiibingeT-Str. 
(PI. D, C, 5, 6,7) -Karls-Vorstadt Heslach (8chiitzenhaus ; be) ond PI. B, 7). — 

6. Calwer-Str. (PI. E, D, 4)-Rotebiihl-Str. (PI. DA, 5, 6)- West Station (p. 13). — 

7. Schloss-Str. (PI. E-B, 3, 4)-Moltke-Str. (PI. A, I)- Herder- Str. (beyond 
PI. A, 4). — Olga-Btr. (PI. F, 6) -Wilhelms-Platz (PI. E, b)-Kbnig-Str. (PI. E, 

5, 4)-Biichsen-Str. (PI. E, D, O, 4. S)-Liederhalle (PI. C, D, 3)-Hegel-Platz 
(PI. D, 3)-DMmann-Str. (PI. B, A, 2). - Gaisburg-Ostheim (beyond PI. H. 2)- 
Neckar-Str. (PI. G, H, 3, 2, 1)-Esslinger-Str. (PI. F, 4, b)-Eberhard-Str. (Pl.E, 5)- 
Alter Post-Platz (PI. D, 4, b)-Trauben-Str. (PI. C, 2). — Cieculae Line: 
Schloss-Platz (PI. E, F, 3, 4)-Planie (PI. F, 4)-01ga-8tr. (PI. G, F, byZahnrad- 
Bahnhof (Pl.D, 7)-Marien-Platz (PI. C, 7)-Silberburg-Str. (PI. C, 5, 4)-Schloss- 
Str. (PL D, E, 3) -Schloss-Platz; 86 minutes. — Ootee Ring Link: Bopser 
(PL F, 6)-Hohenheimer-Str. (PL F, G, 6, 5) Charlotten-Platz (PL F, 4) Schloss- 
Platz (PL E, F, 8, 4) -Schloss-Str. (PL E, 3)-Keppler-Str. (PL E, 3, 2) -Hegel- 
Platz (PL D, 8, 2)-Rosenberg-8tr. (PL C, B, A, 3, 4)-Schwab-Str. (PL A, B, 4, 
5, Q)-B&bUnger-Str. (beyond PL B, 7). — Feom Bopsee Beunnen (PL F, 6) 
to Degerloch (p. 13), 26 pf., return 30 pf. 

Post & Telegraph Offices in the General Post Office (PL E, 3), Fiirsten- 
Str. 2, opposite the Central Station. — Numerous branch-offices (comp. 
the Plan). 

Enquiry Office of the 'Verein fur Fremdenverkehr' at H. WildVs book- 
shop, Konig-Str. 38 (information of all kinds gratis). 

Baths. 'Stuttgart Swimming Baths (PLC,D,8; p. 11), Bfichsen-Str. 53V2, 
with two large swimming basins, and Turkish and other baths: Charlotten- 
Bad, Charlotten-Str. 15 (PL G, 4); Johannes-Bad, Rotebuhl-Str. 55 (PL C, 6); 
Wilhelms-Bad, Schlosser-Str. 9 (PL E, 6); Turkish baths at all these. — 
Stuttgart Mineral Baths at Berg and Leuzfs Jnselbad at Cannstatt see p. 14. 
River Baths in the Neckar at Berg (p. 14), Cannstatt (p. 14), and tfnter- 
turkheim (p. 37). 

Theatres. Court Theatre (Interims- Theater, p. 4; PL F, 3). daily (box- 
office open 10.30-1.30, tickets also at Wildt's, see above); closed in July and 
August. — Royal Wilhelma Theater, in the Wilhelma Schloss Park (p. 10). — 
Residenz Theatre (PL D, 7), Heusteig Str. 105, at 8 (Sun. 7.30) p.m. (comedies, 
farces, etc.). — Theatre in the Friedrichsbau (PL E, 3), adjoining the station 
(varieties, at 8 p.m.). — Summer Theatre at Berg (p. 14). 

Military Concerts in the Schloss-Platz (p. 4) daily, 12-1; at the Stadt- 
Garten (p. 10) daily in summer and on Wed. & Sun. in winter; at the 
Liederhalle Garden (p. 11); at the Wilhelma- Theater- Garten (p. 10); in the 
garden of the- Slut (garter Mineral-Bad (p. 14), daily in the afternoon in 
summer. — Binkel acker's Garden (see p. 1), etc. 

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Notes. STUTTGART. 1. Route. 3 

Sight* and Collections : 

* Antiquities, Collection of (p. 6), daily 11-1 (San. fill 12) ft 2-4 (from Nov. 

to March 11-1 ft &3h closed on Monday. 
Art Union, Exhibition o/iW(p. 10), week-days 9-6, Sun. 11-4, holidays 11-1 j 

adm. GO pf. •, closed on Saturday. 
Ethnographical Museum (p. 11), weak-days 10-12 and 2-4. Sun. 11-1.30; free. 
•Industrial Museum (p. 11), week-days 10-5, San. 11-1, free; in winter 10-4 

and also on Tues. ft Frid., 6*8 p.m. Library, week-days 10-12 ft 2-6, 

Son. 11-1, Frid. (A Tues. in winter) 8-iQ p.m. 
Lapidarium (p. 7), Sun. 11-1 ; at other times on application to the Keeper 

of the Collection of Antiquities. 
Library (p. 6), week-days 10-12 A 2-6 (20 pf.), reading-room 9-12 A 2-6 (free) ; 

closed on Sat. afternoon. 
Museum of Art (p. 7), Sun. 114. Tues., Wed., A Frid. 10-1 A 2-4 (Nov. to 

April Wed. A Frid. 10-1 A 2-4, San. 11-4) ; at other times, fee (1 pers. V*, 

2-3 pers. 1 Jt). 
National Military Museum (p. 4), week-days 10-1 A San. 11-1, free $ at other 

times gratuity (50 pf.). 
• Natural History, Cabinet of (p. 6), week-days 11-12.90 A 2-4, Sun. 11-4; 

closed on Tues. and on the great festivals. 
Royal Palace (p. 4), on application to the doorkeeper at the entrance op- 
posite the Old Palace; gratuity 7>-l Jt. 
TintrnaiA*. (n lm \ These three are shown in summer (15th April-16th Oct.) 
™, • » , «n ( d » ll y> 9 " 12 C 8 ™- an * holidays 11-12) and 2-6. Tickets 
Villa m Berg (p. 14) > (1 _ 6 per8# 26 pf.) in the Enquiry Office mentioned at 
•Wilhehna (p. 10) ) p. 2. Fees forbidden. 

Principal Attractions (for a visit of two days). First Day. In the 
morning, Sehloss -Platz (p. 4), BtiftsHrche (p. 5), Industrial Museum (p. 11), 
Stadt- Garten fp. 10); afternoon, Sehloss- Garten (p. 9), Bosenstein (p. 10), 
Wilhelma (p. 10). — Second Day. In the morning, Museum of Art (p. 7), 
■ Cabinet of Natural History (p. 6); afternoon, Hasenberg (p. IS). — Any 
additional time may be devoted to the UhlandshOhe (p. IS), Villa in Berg 
(p. 14), and a trip by mountain-railway to Degerloch (p. 18), returning via 
the Schillerhdhe (p. 18) and the Neue Weinsteige. — Excursion to the 
Solitude, see p. 15; to Ludwigsburg, see p. 18. 

British Minister Eesident, F.L. Cartwright, Esq., C.V. O. (see p. 198). — 
British Consul, J. H. Harriss Gastrell, Esq.; vice-consul, B. Ehrenbacher, 
Esq.. — American Consul, Edward H. Ozmun, Esq., Herdweg 11 B. 

English Church (PI. 18; F, 6) in the Olga-Strasse ; services on Sun. at 
8 a.m., 10.80 a.m., and 6 (5.80 in winter) p.m.; on Wed. and Frid. at 
10.30 a.m.; chaplain, Rev. P. WhUefoord, Olga-Str. 69c. — Wesleyan Church, 
Sophien-Str. ; service at 10.80 a.m. — Methodist Chapel at Gannstatt (p. 14). 

Stuttgart (892 ft.), the capital of Wurtemberg and headquarters of 
the 13th German army corps, with 260,000 inhab. (mainly Protestants, 
and including the suburbs and a garrison of 4700 men), is beautifully 
situated in a wide valley near the Neckar, and surrounded by vine- 
clad and wooded hills. The name first occurs in a charter of 1229 ; 
from 1265 onwards it was the favourite residence of the counts of 
Wurtemberg ; it became the capital of the country in 1482 ; and at 
length, in the reigns of Kings Frederick (1797-1816), William I. 
(1816-64), Charles (1864-91), and William II., it attained its 
present dimensions and appearance. In the modern revival of 
Renaissance forms of art, Stuttgart has taken a prominent part 
through its numerous talented architects. 

From the Central Station we proceed to the left along the Schloss- 
Strasse to the *SchloM-Plata (PI. E, F, 3, 4), which is adorned with 


4 Route I. STUTTGART. Royal Palace. 

pleasure-grounds and flower-beds, and is enclosed by the Konigsbau, 
the Konigin-Olga-Bau, and the New and Old Palaces (see below and 
p. 5). On the W. side is the chief station of the electric tramways 
(p. 2). — In the centre of the square rises a Jubilee Column, 98 ft. 
high, erected in 1841 in honour of King William I., and crowned 
-with a Concordia in bronze , 13 ft. high. The genii at the base 
of the two neighbouring fountains (in play 11-1), representing 
the rivers of Wurtemberg, are by Kopp. Band daily in the kiosque 
behind the column, see p. 3. To the N.W. of the column stands the 
Monument of Duke Christopher (d. 1568), who introduced the Re- 
formation and founded the civil code of the country, by PaulMxiller 
(1889) ; the pedestal is adorned with reliefs from his life. At the S. W. 
corner of the square is a Marble Butt of Dannecker (1758-1851), 
the sculptor, by Curfess (1888), crowned by a Gharis in bronze. 

On the W. side of the Schloss-Platz stands the imposing Konigsbau 
(Pl.E, 3), 440 ft. long and 135 ft. wide, erected by Leina in 1857-60. 
In front is an Ionic colonnade, broken by two projecting Corinthian 
porticoes. The lower story contains shops and a caf ^-restaurant 
(p. 1); on the first floor is a large concert hall, — Adjoining the 
Konigsbau on the S. is the Palace of the Crown Prince^ in a Roman 
style (1846-49) ; behind it, at the corner of the Friedrich-Str. and 
the Kanzlei-Str., is an interesting half-timbered house. — On the 
N. side of the square is the Konigin-Olga-Bau (PI. F, 3), erected 
in 1893-95 for theDuchess Vera of Wurtemberg (cafe* in the E. wing, 
see p. 1). Adjacent is the site of the Royal Theatre^ which was 
burned down in January 1902; a little to the E., opposite the Botanic 
Gardens (p. 9), is the Interims-Theater (temporary theatre; p. 2). 

The *Boyal Palace {Rcsidenz-Schlost ; PL F, 4), on the E. side 
of the square, built in 1746-1807 and now seldom occupied, consists 
of a central building, adorned with a gilded crown, and of two wings, 
and contains about 276 apartments. The hall, the staircase, and 
the 'marble', the 'blue', the 'white', and the 'dining' rooms are 
best worth seeing (adm., see p. 3; entrance in the S.W. wing). 

The groundfloor and first floor contain a series of large frescoes by 
Oegenbaur (d. 1876), executed in 183741, chiefly from the history of Count 
Eberhard im Bart (p 5). Among the numerous pictures may be mentioned: 
Pollak, Oriental woman with carrier-pigeon; E. Stickler, Lady of the 
18th cent, (water-colour). Sculptures : Dannecker, Bacchus. Venus. Then 
china from the factories of Ludwigsburg and Meissen, Sevres porcelain 
presented by Napoleon I., Pompeian antiques, etc. A collection of up- 
wards of 500 majolica vases of the 16th cent, (from Faenza and Urbino), 
purchased at Venice in the 18th cent, by Duke Charles Eugene, is not 
usually shown to visitors. 

The Old Palace {Alte Schloss; PI. E, F, 4), on the S. side of the 
Schloss-Platz, erected by Duke Christopher in 1553-78, forms an 
irregular quadrangle, with round towers at three corners and a 
♦Court surrounded on three sides by double arcades. A winding 
inclined plane leads to the second floor of the E. tower, containing 
the National Military Museum (weapons, banners, uniforms , etc. ; 

Stiftskirche. STUTTGART. 1. Route. 5 

adm. see p. 3). On the S. side is the Chapel , restored in the 
Gothic style in 1865; the vaults (adm. on Sun., Tues., & Frid. 
11-12; 25 pf.) contain several royal sarcophagi. In the court rises 
the equestrian Staiue of Count Eberhard im Bart (d. 1496), who 
was created a duke by Emp. Max I., by Hofer (1859). 

To the E. of the Old Palace is the Monument of Emperor 
William I., by Euemann (1898). — To the right of the Old Palace 
are the old Kanzlei, with an elegant corner-tower, and the Prinzen- 
bau. In the Alte Schloss-Platz, to the W. of the Palace, rises a bronze 
Statue of Schiller (PI. E, 4), designed by Thorvaldsen, and erected 
in 1839 by subscriptions from all parts of Germany. 

From the Schloss-Platz we proceed to the S.W. by the K6nig- 
Strassb (Pl.E, 4; p. 12), the chief business- street, among the pro- 
minent buildings in which are the Orosse Bazar (next the Grown 
Prince's Palace, p. 4), the Stock-Oebaude (with government offices), 
and the Foreign Office, The Stift-Strasse, the first turning on the 
E., contains quaint old houses, including the old Rappsche Hans 
at the corner, with a memorial tablet to Goethe and Schiller. 

The *Stiftskirche (PI. E, 4 ; bell at the S. portal; sacristan, Stift- 
Str. 7), with its two towers, founded in the 12th cent., was rebuilt - 
in the late-Gothic style in 1436-95. The early-Gothic choir dates 
from 1330. Reliefs on the S. portal (1494) : Christ bearing the Cross, 
Christ and the Apostles. The church has been used for Protestant 
services since 1534. 

The interior, restored by Heideloff in 1839-43, contains *Stained Olcu* 
of 1848-51, from drawings by Neher : in the choir the Nativity, Crucifixion, 
Resurrection, Pentecost, and the Last Judgment; in the organ-choir King 
David. By the N. wall of the choir, eleven * Stone Figures of Counts of 
Wurtemberg, dating from the close of the 16th century. The chapels to the 
left and right of the choir contain many old monuments, including the 
painted stone monument of Count Albert von Hohenlohe (d. 1575) in the 
urban-Kapelle (left), and sculptures from the former rood-screen (end of 
15th cent.)* Adjacent, at the end of the K aisle, is an old votive relief 
in stone, representing Christ as the Judge of the World (above), and the 
Wise and Foolish Virgins (below). Gothic pulpit in stone, of the be- 

f inning of the 16th cent., with reliefs, disfigured by bronzing. Near the 
. door is the handsome marble monument to Dr. Vergenhans (d. 1513), 
provost of Stuttgart. 

To the S. is the short Kirch-Strasse , leading to the Market 
Place (PI. E, 4), the centre of old Stuttgart, with a few patrician 
dwelling-houses of the 1 6th cent. (e.g. No. 4) and the new Town 
Ball y completed in 1905 (Rathauskeller, see p. 2). — The Markt- 
Strasse leads to the S.E. to the St. Lconhards-Platz, with the late- 
Gothic church of St. Leonhard (PI. F, 5; 1470-74). The 'Calvary' 
outside the choir is a reproduction of an original of 1501, now 
preserved in the Hospital Church (p. 12). The Wdchter-Brunnen, 
close by, is by Fremd (1900). — To the S.E., in the Olga-Strasse, 
is the English Church (Pl.F, 5), built by Wagner (services, see p. 3). 

From St. Leonhard's Church the Esslinger-Strasse leads to the 

6 Route 1. STUTTGART. Library. 

N. to the Charlotten-Platz , in which , at the corner of the Char- 
lotten-Str., is the Kriegs-Minitterhcm or war-office (PI. F, 4). Here 
begins the Nbokar-Strassb , through which runs the tramway to 
Berg and Gannstatt (p. 14). On the right is the Palace of King 
William IL (PI. F, 4), occupied by the royal family. Opposite, at 
the corner of the Planie, are Marble Busts of Bismarck and Moltke, 
by Donndorf (1889). 

No. 4, adjoining the palace , is occupied by the State Archives 
(PI. F, 4). On the middle and upper floors and in the N. wing 
(Neckar-Str. 6) of this building is the extensive and valuable 
♦Cabinet of Natural History (adm., see p. 3). 

The collection* are divided into two sections, the one general, the 
other relating to Wurtemberg only. On the gronndfloor is the Mineralo- 
gieal-Oeognostic-Palaeontological Collection relating to Wurtemberg: miner- 
als from the old Black Forest mines; specimens of the geological formations 
from the earliest to the latest periods \ and prehistoric antiquities down 
to the lake -dwelling era. Observe the numerous saurians (labyrintho- 
don, etc.), the pentacrinites , the group with thirteen mammoth's tusks, 
and the twenty-four lizards from the white sandstone of Stuttgart. — The 
first floor contains the Zoological Museum: in the wing to the right are 
mammalia; in the chief hall to the left are birds (Elliot's collection of 
Himalaya pheasants), fishes, reptiles; also corals and insects, particularly 
from S. Africa. — The second floor, in the wing to the right, contains 
the Zoological and Botanical Collections of Wurtemberg (admirably arranged, 
chronologically, topographically, etc.). The main hall on the left is devoted 
to the general *Palaeontological, Mineralogical, and Oeognostic Collections, an * 
Osteo logical Collection, and the general Botanical Collection, with herbarium, 
fruits, woods, etc. 

The large building opposite, with four wings and three courts, 
is the Academy (PI. F, 4), the seat in 1775-94 of the Karls- 
Schule (p. 16), founded by Duke Charles at the Solitude (p. 15), 
where Schiller received his education as a student of medicine, and 
where he wrote his 'Robbers' in 1777. The former dining-hall, 
with ceiling-paintings by Guibal, Heideloff, and Hetsch, contains the 
King's Private Library. On the groundfloor are guardrooms. — The 
N. wing is occupied by the Private Royal Stables (PL E, 4); the 
large Royal Mews are at the E. end of the Konig-Strasse (PI. F, 3). 

The Boyal Library (PI. F, 0, 4), Neckar-Str. 8, a massive 
Renaissance building by Landauer (1883), contains 500,000 vols., 
6000 MSS., 7400 Bibles in more than 100 different languages, and 
4000 specimens of early printing (adm., see p. 3). 

The groundfloor of this building is occupied by the ^Collection 
of Wurtemberg Antiquities (adm., see p. 3; catalogue ■ 30 pf.). 

To the right of the entrance-hall are objects from Lake Dwellings and 
Pre-Roman TumuH, chiefly found in Wurtemberg. The second compart- 
ment to the right contains articles of special interest in gold, bronze, and 
iron from the royal tombs at Hundersingen (on the Danube), Klein-Aspergle, 
and Belle-Remise (Ludwigsburg), proving a commercial intercourse with 
Italy in the 4th cent. B. G. — Roman Antieagliae. — Objects from Tumuli 
of the Pre-Carlovingian and the Garlovingian periods, including many gold 
ornaments, curious silver damascened work, and weapons ('Helmet from 
Giiltlingen, coffins and household utensils from Oberflacht). — Metal-work 
of more modern times. 8tove-plates of the 16th cent., in cast and forged 
iron; objects in tin, bronze, and copper. — Gold and silver ornaments, 

Museum of Art. STUTTGART. I. Route. 7 

weapons,' and armour, including a curious jousti tig-helmet. Seals. The 
right transverse room in the 3. wing contains the *Royal Cabinet of Art 
and Antiquities, founded by the Dukes of Wurtemberg and specially rich 
in vessels and weapons of the Renaissance. Italian bronzes of the 17th cent- 
ury. In one of the long cased is a pack of cards painted in the 16th century. 
On both sides of this room are reproductions of Renaissance apartments. 
To the left of the entrance-hall are the Industrial Art Collections 
(12- 19th cent.). We first reach the Ceramic Collection, including numerous 
tile-stoves of various periods and styles (late-Gothic stove from Havens- 
burg). The Murschel Collection of Porcelain contains objects chiefly of 
Lndwigsburg manufacture. The Rococo Room is adjoined by one 'fitted 
up in the style of the 17th cent., with guild- vessels and household gear. 
Opposite is the collection of Glass, Articles in Wood and Leather, In- 
strument, Textile Fabrics, and Costumes. The left transverse room con- 
tains the collection of ecclesiastical art, including paintings by Zeitblom 
(altar-piece from Hausen of 1488) and other Swabian masters of the 15- 
16th centuries. Wood- carvings of the 14-18th cent., including specimens by 
Syrlin and Rtemenschneider. Two drawings on parchment (one by J, Syrlin) 
from the architect's office of Ulm cathedral. Fine stained glass. Byzantine 
and Roman vessels. Carpets and embroideries. 

In the basement is the Lapidarium, a collection of Roman and 
Mediaeval Stone Monuments ; adm., see p. 3 ; catalogue (1901), 20 pf. 

Beyond the library are the extensive Law Courts (PI. G, 4), 

. built byLandaucr in 1880, with a fine vestibule and jury court. The 

colossal groups of Law and Justice on the attic-story are by Kopp. 

Farther down the Neckar-Strasse (No. 32) is the Museum of Art 
(PI. G, 3), including a Cabinet of Engravings and Collections of 
Paintings and Sculptures (adm., see p. 3). In the court-yard rises 
an Equestrian Statue of King WiUiam I. (d. 1864), by Hofer (1884). 

On the groundfloor are Casta (catalogue 50 pf.; curator, Prof, von 
Donndorf), the rooms to the left containing those after ancient, the rooms 
to the right those after modern works. Among the latter are numerous 
models and casts of Thorvaldsen^s works, presented by himself (d. 1844). — 
Among the Original Works in the principal room to the right is Dannecker** 
.'Bust of Schiller in marble (hair partially mutilated by the master himself 
in a fit of mental aberration ; 1st section to the right). 

The Picture Gallery is on the upper floor (about 1000 pictures, almost 
all furnished with the name of the subject and painter; catalogue, 1903, 
1 Jff curator, Prof. Lange of Tubingen). We first visit the North Wing 
containing the — 

Works by Old Masters. Room A, the furthest to the left. Paintings 
by German Masters of the 15- 16th. cent, (many freely restored), mainly 
belonging to the older Swabian School. To the left, Barih. Zeitblom, *69. 
Altar-piece from Heerberg (U97-98). — Martin Schaffner, 20-23. Four wings 
of an altar-piece from the Church of the Teutonic Order at Ulm, 24. Six 
worshippers. — Room B. To the right, B. Strigel, 33. Nativity of the 
Virgin, 84. Presentation in the Temple, 35. Visitation, 36. Presentation of 
Christ in the Temple; 26. U. Schaffner. Two portraits; 28. Schaufelein, 
Susanna and the Elders; these two pictures are in frames by Bernhard 
Pankok; 3. H. Baldung Orien, Portrait. — 1, 2. Amber ger, Portraits. 

Boom C. Old German and old Netherlandish paintings of the 16th cen- 
tury. To the right, HI. ifemling(t), Bathsheba. — 5. Lucas Cranach, Judith. 

Boom D. German works of the 17-18th centuries. 

Boom E. Dutch works of the 17th century. To the right, 257, 258. 
C. Netscher, Portraits; y. Molenatr, 249. Bustic Fair, 250. Landscape. 

Boom F. 205. Brekelenkam, Hermit praying. — 265. Rembrandt, St. Paul 
in prison, an early work (162/). — B. Cuyp, Bivouac. 

Boom G. Netherlandish School of the 17th century. 252. Moreelse, 
Venus and Adonis. 

8 Route 1. 


Museum of Art. 

I ^[TiwpJV }j|i|m|xJ^ 
rgrrt" " k " 

Boom H (entrance-room). To the right, 212. G. Dou, Portrait. — 217. 
Everdingen, Norwegian landscape; 210. /. van der Does. Large animal- 
piece. — 163. Jordaent, Vertumnus and Pomona. — *219. Wybrandt de Qeest, 
Dutch family. 

Room I. English, French, Spanish, and Hungarian works. To the 
right, 388. Phil, de Champaign e, Cbrist on the Mt. of Olives. — 396. Gain* 
borough, Portrait of Queen Charlotte, wife of George III. 

Room K. Italian Masters of the 17- 18th centuries 642. Carlo Dolci, 
The Virgin; 670. Guido Beni, Cupid*, 665, 666. P. Mulier (Tempesta), Land- 
scapes; 634-638. Canaletto(1), Views in Venice. — Tiepolo, 586 Finding of 
Moses, 687. Marriage of fiarbarossa (sketch for the ceiling-painting at 

Room L. Venetian School of the 16th century. To the right, 491 
Tintoretto, Portrait of a Venetian senator. 

Room M. Italian Masters of the 16th century. 461. Carpaccio, Thomas 
of Aquinas and two saints. — 462. Carpaccio, Stoning of St. Stephen ; *4^0. 
Giov. Bellini, Pieta. 

Room N con- 
tains the collection 
left to the Museum 
by QueenOlga, con- 
sisting of water- 
colour copies of 
celebrated pictures 
by the old ma ters 
and al*o of a few 

original works. 
Among the latter 
are : fc>95. Spitziceg, 

Alchemist; 716. 
BUchner, Portrait of 
Queen olga; 828. 
Gabriel Max, Study 
of a head; 703. 
BOcklin, Castle on 
the sea. 

Room (ban- 
quet-hall). Marble 
bust of King Wil- 
liam I. of Wurtem- 

berg by Th. von Wagner; bu*ts in plaster of Kins William II. and of Queen 
Charlotte by E. Cur/ess: portrait* of King William II., by Huthtteiner 
(No 777), and King Charles, by Zom (No. 987). The other pictures are 
copies of Italian masters. 

We traverse Coreidoe Z, which is hung with cartoons by Neher, BteinU, 
and Grtinentcald, p st the head of the staircase to the Sooth Winq in 
which the Modern Picture 3 are arranged. 

Room P (the last «n the right). Several works by the Stuttgart artists 
W&hter, Schick, Neher, Bohn, Bentele, and Ley bold. Also, *823. Makart, 
Cleop <tra; 794. /. A. Koch, Landscape after a thunderstorm. 
Through Room Q t > Room R 850- Fr. Preller, l andscape. 
Cobbidoe S. 787. W. von Kaulbach, Battle of Salamis, a sketch in 
colours for the picture in the Maximilianeum in Munich. 

Room T (entrance-room). To the right, 735. Faber du Four, Battle of 
Champ gny. — 87U. Schaumann, p. pular fete at Cannstait. 

Room U. To the right, 690. Fr. Adam, Walla- hian market-scene. 
Room V. To the right, 6£4. Villegat, In church; 706. Bokdmann, At 
the pawnbroker's. 

Room W 678. Thaulow, Moonlit landscape; 707. Braith, Flock of 
sheep returning home; 6 8. Pissarro, Gardener. — 686. A. Aehenbach, 
Dutch landscape; 911. a. von Volkmann, Landscape with sheep. 

Room X. To the right, 689. O. Arhenbach, Storm in the Roman Cam- 
pagna; A. Feuerbach, 738. Portrait, *737. Iphigenia; 686. Zuloaga, Woman 

Sekloss- Garten. STUTTGART. 1. Route. 9 

selling tea in the Pyrenees. — 885. SchOnUber, Canal at Dordrecht * 805. 
Leibl> In the kitchen ; 904. Stuck, Portrait of himself. — 818. Ldfftz, Erasmus 
in his study; 788. Kdckreuth, Gleaner j 907. Thoma, Nymph of the fountain. 
— 807. Lenbach, Emp. William I. 

Boom Y. To the right, Wide, Supper. — 813a. Liebermann, Alms- 
house; b89. Zilgel, Cattle ploughing. 

The Collection of Engravings, also on the upper floor (curator, Prof. 
Kraeutle; adm. Tue*., Wed., Thurs., Frid. 2-4, closed on Frid. from Nov. 
to April), numhers over 300,000 examples; A. DUrer (U71-1528). /. G. 
Matter (L747-188U), and Fr. Mailer (1782-1816) are particularly well re- 
presented. In one room is an exhibition of engravings which is changed 
from year to year. 

Beyond the museum stands a bronze statue of Prince Herrmann 
of Saxe-Weimar (1825-1901), by K. Donndorf the Younger (1904). 

On a height to the right of the museum is the Royal Academy 
of Art (Pi. G, 3). In the Urban-Platz, to the E. of the museum, 
is a Statue of St. Urban, the patron-saint of vine-growers, by Fremd 
(1904). The saint is represented in the ancient costume of a Stutt- 
gart vine-dresser. 

A flight of steps ascends near the museum to the Exjoens-Plattb 
(PI. G, H, 4; 995 ft.), which is adorned with a handsome fountain 
(Galatea) by Rieth and affords a fine view of the town. Below is a 
bronze bust of Duke Eugene of Wurtemberg (d. 1877), by Pelargus. 
To the Uhlandshohe, see p. 13. 

About */j M. beyond the Museum the Neckar-Str. expands into 
the so-called Neckartor, an open space embellished with a Water 
Nymph by Dannecker. To the right, above, is the Romanesque 
Friedens-Kirche (PI. H, 2), built by Dollinger in 1893. A little 
farther on, in the Wera-Strasse, is the' Roman Catholic Nicolaus- 
Kirche, built by Pohlhammer in the early-Gothic style (1896). 

On the W. side of the Neckar-Strasse is the *8chloss-Garten or 
Anlagen (PL F, G, 3-1), laid out in the English style in 1808 
(cycling forbidden). These charming pleasure-grounds, with their 
fine groups of trees, flower-beds, and sheets of water, 200 acres in 
area and extending to a length of 2 M. (nearly to Gannstatt), are 
adorned with modern sculptures in marble (chiefly copies from 
the antique), especially in the so-called Botanic Garden to the E. 
of the upper pond, with its gay carpet-beds. Here, too, is the Karl- 
Olga Monument, by Curfess and Halmhuber, erected in 1&95. Above 
the conduit which feeds the pond, on the side next the palace, is 
a colossal group (PI. F, 3) by Dannecker, representing water and 
meadow nymphs. In the 'Rondel' of the main avenue on the front 
(PI. F, G, 2): Count Eberhard and the Shepherd (from Uhland), 
a colossal group by Paul Miiller (1881). Farther to the N., on the 
left, is a bust of Franz LUzt (by Fremd j 1903), and on the right 
are the remains (erected here in 1904) of a Lusthaus, built by Beer 
at the end of the 17th cent, and pulled down in 1846. On an 
island at the end of the avenue is the Abduction of Hylas (PI. G, 1), 
by Hofer (1850), and a little farther on are two Horse-tamers, also 
by Hofer (1848). Cannstatt (p. 14) may be reached hence In 35 min 

10 Routt l. STUTTGART. Wilhetma. 

xii the Konig Kail Briicke. — From the Horse-tamers an avenue 
of plane-trees leads to the N.E. to the (l 1 ^ M.) main entrance 
of the Rosenstein ; comp. the map, p. 12. 

. The Rosenstein, a royal chateau in an archaistic French style, 
was built by Salucci in 1823-29 (adm., see p. 3). It contains 
numerous sculptures (by Wagner, Wolf, Hoyer, Tcnerani, Hofer, etc.) 
and a collection of pictures with good specimens of Feuerbach and 
Palma Vecchio (catalogue from the keeper). The main apartment 
is decorated with frescoes by Gegenbauer and Dielerich and with 
a frieze by Weitbrecht. — From the back of the chateau walks 
descend through the grounds to the Wilhelma. 

The "Wilhelma, a picturesque edifice in the Moorish style, in 
the midst of well-kept grounds, was erected for King William I. 
in 1842-51 by Zanth (adm., see p. 3). 

The Festsaalbau contains a large hall, sumptuously fitted up and 
connected by means of circular colonnades with two Pavilions (that to 
the right contains a Picture Gallery, of Oriental subjects only) and with 
the Chdteau itself on the upper terrace. In the centre of the latter is the 
audience-chamber, on the right a drawing-room, on the left the king's 
study. There are also bedrooms, dressing-rooms, and a bathroom (with 
a fine stalactite ceiling). At the back of the chateau several other terraces 
rise to the plateau of the hill, on the summit of which is a Belvedere (gener- 
ally closed), also in the Moorish style, commanding a charming view. 
The lower terraces within the colonnades are embellished with flower- 
beds, fountains, and groups of animals in marble and bronze by Gulden- 
stein. Royal Theatre (p. 2) and large Restaurant. 

From the Schloss-Platz we now enter the N.W. quarter of the 
town, and note the fine buildings of the Wurttembergische Vcreins- 
bank and the Rcichsbank, both in the Friedrich-Strasse (Nos. 48, 22). 
The Kriegaberg-Strasse and the Qoethe-8traase contain, perhaps, 
the handsomest new buildings in this quarter. In the Schelling- 
Str. (No. 6) is the Wurtemberg Art Union (Kunstverein; PI. E, 3), 
with a permanent exhibition of modern works of art (adm. , see p. 3). 

The Polytechnic School (PI. E, 3; 760 students), in the Stadt- 
garten-Platz (Alleen-Platz), erected in the Italian Renaissance 
style by Egle in 1860-65, was enlarged by Tritschler in 1879 and 
by Qebhardt in 1900. Between the Corinthian columns on the upper 
story are ten allegorical statues representing the professions for 
which a technical education prepares the student ; to the right and 
left of these are two admirable allegorical representations of Art 
and Science, by Th. Bechlar of Munich. The N. facade bears 
medallion-portraits of celebrated architects and mathematicians. 
The garden in front is adorned with marble busts of Friedrich 
Vischcr (1807-87), the writer on [esthetics, by Donndorf, and of 
Rob. Mayer (1814-78), the physicist, by Kopp. 

The *Stadt-Gaetbn (PI. D, E, 3; adm. 50 pf. ; concerts, see 
p. 3) is a favourite pleasure-resort, with a restaurant. 

On the W. side, at the angle of the Kanzlei-Str. and Schelling- 
Str., is the handsome Architectural School (Baugcwerk-Schule ; PI. 

Industrial Museum. STUTTGART. 1. Route. 11 

D, 3), by Egle (1870); to the S. is the Savings Bank (1900). In 
the Kriegsberg-Str. (No. 37) is the Gbwebbehallb (PI. D, 3), con- 
taining an exhibition of products suitable for exportation. It also 
temporarily accommodates the ^Ethnographical Museum (adm., p. 3). 
This museum, belonging to the Wurtemberg Commercial and Geo- 
graphical Society, is the largest collection of the kind (60,000 articles; 
catalogue 4 Jf) in Germany, nelt to those at Berlin and Leipzig. In the 
African Boom the exhibits from Abyssinia, the Great Lake, the Upper 
Congo, and Madagascar are worthy of note; among the articles from the 
South Sea Islands, the "Dancers' masks from New Pomerania and the 
alarm-drums; in the Asiatic Boom the very ancient silk garments from 
.China and the weapons from the Malay Archipelago and India; in the 
American Boom the pottery and textiles from the graves of Peruvian 
Coast Indians, three Mexican *Feather shields of the time of Montezuma, 
and an *Idol bearing early- Mexican picture-writing. 

The early-Gothic Memorial Church (PI. C, 2) in the HSlderlin- 
Strasse is by Bernhardt (1899). 

In the Linden-Strasse (PI. D, 3) are the Garrison Church, 
a brick edifice in the Romanesque style byDollinger (1875-79), the 
Ministry of Finance (both on the right), and the Chemical Laboratory, 
a Renaissance edifice on the left. 

Near this, in the Hoppenlau-Str., is the Hoppenlau Cemetery 
(PI. O, D, 3), with the graves of the sculptor Dannecker (d. 1841) 
and the authors Wilhelm Hauff (d. 1827) and Gustav Schwab (d. 
1850). — In the Biichsen-Str. are the large *Stuttgart Swimming 
Baths (PI. O, D, 3), erected in the Moorish style in 1888-89 (see 
p. 2). Adjacent, at the corner of the Militar-Str., is the Lieder- 
halle (PI. 0, D, 3), the property of a choral society, with large 
concert-rooms. The hall, built by Leins in 1875, is the largest in 
Germany, having an area of 1600 sq. yds. The garden (restaurant 
and concerts, see pp. 1, 3) contains a colossal-bronze bust of Uhland 
and marble busts of 0. Schwab and Franz Schubert. 

To the £. of the Liederhalle is the *Landesgewerbe-Museum 
(PI. D, E, 3), or Industrial Museum, erected by Neckelmann in an 
elaborate late-Renaissance style (1890-96). The principal facade 
is in the Kanzlel-Strasse. The whole of the building is embellished 
with medallions of famous Swabians and other plastic decoration. 
The chief features of the interior are the grand staircase and the 
*King Charles Exhibition Gallery, the latter adorned with a painted 
frieze 98 ft. long by Ferd. Keller and bronze groups by Hundrieser 
and Eberlein. Adm., see p. 3. 

This museum contains extensive collections of industrial and or- 
namental products, mainly of foreign origin, and also machines, tools, 
patterns, etc. The collection of French and English textile fabrics from 
1849 to the present day includes 800,000 samples*, the Japanese collection 
(1351-1861) has ca. 2000. About 10,000 patterns of French and German 
carpets, and ca. 4000 specimens of the artistic handicrafts of China and 
Japan are also shown. All these objects are labelled. The museum also 
includes a library (74,000 vols.), a collection of patterns (54,000 sheets), a 
collection of educational appliances, etc. — In the left wing is the permanent 
Exhibition of the Society of Arte and Graft* (Kwutgewerbe-Vereinf week-days 
9-12, 2-6, Sun. 11-1). 

12 Routt 1. STUTTGART. Marien-Kirche. 

In the late-Gothic Hospital-Xirche (PI. D, 4,1 erected in 1471-93, 
and restored in 1841, is a model of Dannecker s large marble statue 
of Christ. The cloisters (restored in 1895; entr. at Buchsen-Str. 37) 
contain the tomb of Reuchlin (d. 1522), the erudite friend of 
Melanj^ithon. — A few hundred paces to the S.W. (Hospital- 
Strasse 36) is the Synagogue (PL D f 4), in the Moorish style, with 
two domes, erected in 1860. 

The Konig-Strajbsb (p. 6), forms the main line of communication 
with the S.W. quarters of the town. It ends at the old Legions- 
Kaserne (barracks ; PI. D, E, 6), whence the Marien-Strasse leads 
direct to the Silberburg Gardbn (PI. C, D, 6), belonging to the 
Museum-Gesellschaft, the leading club of Stuttgart (tickets for 
strangers at Kanzlei-Str. 11). In the grounds below the garden, 
between the Morike-Str. and the Silberburg-Str., is a marble bust of 
E. Morike, the poet (d. 1875), by RSsch. In the Silberburg-Str. 
(No. 191) is a Public Library ( VoUcs-Bibliothek). Farther up (S.W. ; 
approached from the Morike-Str.) is the KarUhohe (p. 14), a charm- 
ing point of view. — A little to the E. of the Silberburg, in the 
Tubinger-Str., is the the Roman Catholic *Marien-Kirche (PI. D, 6), 
early-Gothic, with two towers, by Egle (1872-75). The interior 
contains frescoes by pupils of the convent art-school at Beuron 
(p. 72). The adjacent Paulinen-Brunnen is by Donndorf (1898). 

The Tubinger-Str. ends at the Marien-Platz (PI. C, 7). — Farther to 
the S.W. is the KarU- Vorstadt Eeslach, with the Marten-Hospital (1880) and 
the Romanesque Church of St. Matthew (1831). 

In the Reinsburg- Strasse, to the N. of the Silberburg, we may 
note the Life Insurance $ Savings Bank (PI. 0, 5, 6) and the VUla 
Siegle (PI. 0, 6 ), by* Gnauth (1672). At the foot of the Hasen- 
bergsteige (p. 14), 1/2 M. farther on, is the attractive Gdnse-Peter 
Fountain (PI. B, 6), by Th. Bausch (1901). — Farther to the N., 
in the Gutenberg-Str., finely situated on the Feuersee (PI. 0, 5), is 
the handsome Gothic *Church of St. John, by Leins (1866-76), 
with richly painted interior (sacristan, Feuersee-Platz 2). — In the 
Bismarck-Str. are the Olga Hospital (PI. A, B, 4), the Romanesque 
Church of St. Elizabeth (PI. A, 5; 1901), and the early-Gothic Church 
of St. Paul (PI. A, 6; 1898). Farther on, to the right, in the 
Lindenspiir-Str., is the Ludwig Hospital CAartottenftif/fe (PI. B, 9), 
founded by Dr. von Ludwig, physician to King William I. — The 
Schloss- Strasse (PI. B-E, 3, 4) leads to the E. to the rail, station, 
passing the Municipal Grounds in the Seiden-Str. (1.), and the 
Liederhalle Garden (p. 11; 1.). 

In the Fangelsbach Cemetery, to the S.E. of the town, stands the War 
Memorial, designed by Gnauth, representing Germania distributing wreaths. 
— The Central or Prag Cemetery, to the N.W., beyond the Postdffr/le 
(PI. E. F. 1 ; cottages of postal employees, built by Morlok) and the Municipal 
Hospital, contains a Gothic burial-chapel by Beyer (p. 42), a crematorium, 
and several handsome mausoleums. About */* M. higher up, at the K.E. 
end of the Feuerbacher Heide, is the WeUtenhof (1115 ft.), a garden- restaurant 

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E ? ? JQlometer 1 *. 1(J 

'■":''■• l :' 

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Environs. STUTTGART. 1. Route. 13 

(view). — Above the Postdorfle, to the W., is (20 min.) the view-tower 
on the *KrUgeberg (1160 ft.); the tower may he reached from the central 
station in 35 min. via the Schloss-Str., See-^tr., and Panorama- Strasse. 
Charming walk from the 8chloss-Plats through the Planie, Cbarlotten- 
Str., Blumen-8tr., and Alexander-Str. to the (»/» hr.) Bugtne-FlaUe (p. 9), 
and via the Kanonenweg to the p/s hr.) Uhlandshfthe (PI. H. 3 ; 1165 ft. ; 
restaurant), with a series of charming views, the finest points being the 

Savilion at the top and 'Uhland's Lime Tree*. — A similar point is the 
ohillerh6he f on the Bopeer (PI. F, 7; 1310 ft. : Restaurant Schillereiche), 
reached by the New Weinsteige (PI. E, F, 7), commanding varied views 
during its winding ascent from the Olga-Str. to the Bopser-Anlage (park ; 
1056ft; V< hr. from the top). We may return via>the Hohenheimer-Str. 
(PI. F, G. 6, 5) ; or we may continue the excursion through the Bopeerwald 
to (50 mm. ; tramway see p. 2) Degerloch. 

Environs of Stuttgart. 

Electbic Tramways (p. 2) from the Schloss-Plate (PI. E, F, 3, 4) to 
the Station of the Mountain Railway (PI. D, 7), li/aM. iny 4 hr., lOpf.% 
via the Bopser to Degerloch; and to the West Station (Hasenberg; see 
below), No.o, 2V4 M. in 24 min., 15 pf. 

Mountain Railway (Zahnradbahn) from the Filder-Str. (PL D, 7) 
to Degerloch, ii/ 4 M. in 12-17 min. (fare up 30, down 20 pf.); trains 
every 1/2 hr. or oftener ; views on the left. — Walkers to Degerloch 
take 1 hr. via the Bopser (see above). 

Degerloch. — Hotels. Kushotel; Kapff's Pension & Caf£, pens. 
472-67* •<* » — Restaurant!. Bchweizerhaue, Wilhelmsh&he, WerahOhe, all 
witb gardens and views ; CharlotttnhBhe, with garden. — Dr. Kate's Sanatorium, 
46-6372 Jf per week, including medical attendance. 

Degerloch (1540 ft.), with 3200 inhab. and many villas, is a 
favourite resort in summer. Splendid view from the tower (1590ft.; 
20 pf.), 10 min. from the station at the top of the hill. 

From Degerloch a railway ('Filderbahn") runs in 9 min. to (I 8 /* M •) 
M6hringen % where it divides : to tbe W. to Vaihingen (p. 51 ; I 1 /* M. in tO min.) •, 
to tbe E. to Hohenheim fp. 15; 3'/4 M. in 20 min.); to the S.E. to Neuhaveen, 
via Echterdingen and Bernhaueen. About 8 M. to the S. of Bernhauseu 
is the view-tower on the Uhlberg (1540 ft.). 

An *Excuksion to the Belvbderb on the Hasenbero may be 
made by the electric tramway (see above) or by taking tbe Gau Rail- 
way ('Panorama-Bab n'j p. 51) to the (5 M.; in 20 min.) West Sta- 
tion, which is 17 min. walk below the tower. 

On quitting the Central Station, the line (views to the left) runs parallel 
with the Ludwigsburg line, then describes a sharp curve round the brick- 
works on the Prag-Aeckeri and runs S. in the direction of the vine-clad 
Kriegsberg (see above), which juts far into the valley. The gradient is 
steep (1 : 52). Beyond a tunnel, 630 yds. long, we obtain to the left a 
striking 'View of the town, with the dome of the garrison-church in the 
foreground and the picturesque hills opposite. The train continues to as- 
cend the slopes of the valley, through gardens and vineyards, and describes 
a wide circle round the town. The view increases in attraction. After 
20 min. we cross the Vogeltang-Tal by a -viaduct 130 ft. in height, and 
stop at the West Station (1215 ft. above the sea, 425 ft. above the station 
at Stuttgart), which lies at the corner of the wood (Ihle's Hotel). 

From the station, which commands the whole town and the valley of 
the Neckar, we enter the wood, and ascend past the Bismarck Oak to 
the ('/« hr.) J&gerhaue (restaurant), on the Hasenberg. About 200 yds. to 
the right of this is the stone "Belvedere Tower (1475 ft.), 120 ft. in height, 

14 Route 1 . BERG. Environs 

erected by Beyer (p. 42) in 1879 (adm. 20 pf.). The view extends as far 
as the watch* tower at Heilbronn and the Melibokus •, to the 8. the entire 
chain of the Swabian Alb, with the Hohenstaufen, Rechberg, Xeuffen, 
Achalm , and Hohenzoller. Beyond the tower is the Waldhaut (restaurant). 
To the left of the Jagerhaus, on the road, is the Buchenhof, a kind of 
Kurhaus; in the grounds opposite is a bronze bust of the novelist Wil- 
helm Hauff, by Bosch (1882). — From the Jagerhaus to the N.W. through 
the woods to the Gais-Eiche, V« hr.$ to the W. to the deer-park (p. 15), V* hr. 
The RatmbergtUiqt, or direct path from the Jagerhaus to Stuttgart, 
descends to the Beinsburg-Str. (p. 12) in 20 min., passing on the right the 
reservoir of the city aqueduct. Farther on it crosses the tunnel (136 yds. 
long, llVayds. wide, the widest on the continent) connecting the Schwab- 
Strasse with Heslach. Here we may descend to the left to the N. entrance 
of the tunnel and the terminus of the West Station and Schloss-Str. tramway 
(p. 2). Or we may ascend to the right, beyond the tunnel, past the bronze 
bust of the poet /. G. Fiicher (1816-97; by Kiemleo, 1900), to the KarlshShe 
or Reinsburghtigel (1130 ft.; PI. C, 6), with a fine view and a bronie bust 
of King Charles I. (d. 1891), and descend by the Humboldt- 8 tr. and Mdrike- 
Str., with their numerous villas, to the Silberburg (p. 12). 

Feom Sttjttgabt to Oannstatt. The Railway (R. 8 ; 2 1 / 2 M * 
in 6-11 min.) passes beneath the Rosenstein (p. 10) by a tunnel 
400 yds. long, crosses the Ncckar, and reaches the station of Oann- 
statt, on the left hank. — Electric Tramway (p. 2 ; 2 l / 2 M. in 
20 min.) from the Palace at Stuttgart. — Walkers to Oannstatt via 
the Schloss-Garten take about 1 hr. (comp. p. 9). 

Berg (715 ft.), the N.E. suburb of Stuttgart, lies on the left 
bank of the Neckar and is frequented as a health-resort. The Stuttgart 
Mineral Baths, at the beginning of the town, possess a swimming- 
bath (open in winter also), an aquarium, a garden-restaurant, and 
an open-air theatre (p. 2). On a slight eminence above the town rises 
the Gothic church, built hy Gaabin 1855, with open tower. — The 
Sprudel, which hursts from the earth like that of Carlsbad, and 
other mineral springs on the Neckar-lnscl, an island which extends 
from Berg almost to Oannstatt, has given rise to a number of bath- 
houses (*Leuse's Inselbad, with pension ; band plays at 6 a.m. in 

The Villa in Berg (880 ft.), on the top of the hill to the S., a 
modern Renaissance edifice, built by Leins in 1846-53, and sur- 
rounded with beautiful gardens and hot-houses, belongs to the Du- 
chess Vera of Wurtemberg (adm., see p. 3). In the interior are 
pictures hy Nic. de Keyser, Kaminski, Bohn, Karl Mutter, etc., and 
sculptures by Luca delta Robbia (*Bust of a boy), Tenerani, and 
other masters. In the garden are statues of the four seasons by Kopf, 
and busts in bronze of Nicholas, Emperor of Russia, and his consort, 
by Ranch. In front of the villa is a Statue of Duke Eugene (p. 9). 

On the hill to the N. of Berg is the royal chateau of Rosenstein 
(p. 10). 

Cannstatt (Plan, see p. 12). — Hotels: 8t adtischbs Kubhaus (PI. a), 
at the Kursaal, for patients \ Bahnhofs-Hotel (PI. bV Vieb Jahbbszbiten 
(PI. c\ hotel garni), Schmid zum Bahnhof (PI. d), Wubttembebokb Hop 
(PI. e), all four at the station \ Goldeneb Hahs (PI. f); Bab (PI. g), in the 

of Stuttgart. OANNSTATT. /. Route. 15 

market-place. — 'Pension Lieb, Taubenheim-Str. 16, near the Kursaal, 
l l /r5Jf. — Restaurant*: Kursaal; RatttUble; Rose; Schiller ei; Schmid zur 
Pilsner Bierhalle. — Wine-Beoms: Cantz, Karl-Str. 20; Osterlen, Hall-Str.$ 
Pfund zur Kelter; Sehrrtnerei, Muhlgasse 4. 

Baths at the Btadtbad, near the Kursaal, and at the *Neues Cannstatter 
Minsratbad, Bad-Str. (also open in winter). 

Popular Festival, with exhibitions, etc., every year, 27-30th September. 

Cannstatt (720 ft.), with 32,500 inhab., was incorporated with 
Stuttgart in .1905 and is connected with Berg by the *Konig-Karl- 
Briiclee, a railway-bridge with, five arches, 1000 ft. long, erected in 
1891-93 by Leibbrand. It possesses warm saline and chalybeate 
springs which attract a number of patients, but is rapidly becoming 
a manufacturing place. The Kursaal, with the Wilhelmsbrunnen 
(68°. Fahr.), the chief mineral spring, lies on the Sulterrain (view), 
on the N. side of the town. Adjacent are a whey-cure establishment, 
a restaurant, the reading-room, and the pump-room. In front of the 
. Kursaal is a bronze Equestrian Statue of King William I. (d. 1864), 
by Halbig, erected in 1875. — In the Uffkirchhof, near the 
Sulzerrain, is the grave of Ferdinand Freiligrath, the poet (d. 1876), 
with a bronze bust by Donndorf (1878). 

The *Burgholz (1175 ft. ; view-tower), 41/2 M. to the N. of Stuttgart 
and 21/4 M. to the W. of Gannstatt (refreshments at the Burgholz-Hof), 
affords a fine view of Stuttgart and up the valley of the Neckar. At its 
base are traces of a Roman camp (ring at the gate; custodian at the ad- 
jacent Steigfriedhof). From Burgholzhof to the station of Feuerbach 
(p. 20) V* nr. , 

About 6 M to the S. of Stuttgart (railway from Degerloeh via 
Mbhringen in 29 min.; comp. p. 13) lies Schloss Hohenheim 
(1280 ft.), a chateau built by Duke Charles in 1786, now an 
Agricultural School, with a botanicgarden (printed guide 60 pf.) and 
collections interesting to specialists. Fine view from the balcony and 
from the cupola (rfmts.). — Scharnhausen and Weil, with their 
studs, etc., may be visited on the same day as Hohenheim. Per- . 
mission obtained at the Hofkameralamt, Friedrich-Str. 26. Weil 
(IY2 M. from Esslingen, p. 38) also possesses a royal country- 
residence and a race-course. 

Unter- and Ober-Turkheim and the Botenberg t see p. 37. 

The Solitude (1630 ft.), 6 M. to the W. of Stuttgart, on the spur of a 
plateau, built in the rococo style in 1763-67 by Duke Charles, was in 
1773-75 the seat of the Karla-Schule, where Schiller received part of his 
education, before its transference to Stuttgart (p. 6). Schiller's father was 
inspector of the gardens here from 1775 to 1796. The grounds and park 
command a fine view (best from the dome of the Schloss). A whey-cure 
establishment here attracts visitors in summer. A little to the S. is a 

large deer-park, with the 'Barenschl5sschen* and the Bdren-See. Deer fed 
at 11 a.m., wild boars at 6 p.m. (cards of adm. at the Enquiry Office 
mentioned on p. 2 and between 11 and 12 at the office of the royal chasse, 
tfo. 1 Fiireten-Str., Stuttgart). From the deer-park to the Hasenberg, see 
p. 14. — From the Solitude to Leonberg (p. 20), IV2 h r -, to Ludwigsburg 
(p. l$ r by a mathematically straight road (base-line of the ordnance-survey) 
vi& Komtal, 4 hrs. C^ r*r*n\<> 

Digitized by VjOOvlvi 


2. From Heidelberg to Stuttgart by Bruchsal. 

69i/ 2 M . railway. Express in 2i/4 hrs. (fares 10 Jf 95, 7 Jf 65, 6 UT 
45 pf.)i ordinary train in 8y*4i,«hrs. (9 Jf 60, 6 UT 30, 4 Jf 10 pf.). — 
Route via Meciesheim and Jagstfeld, see R. 4. — Steamboats from Heidelberg 
to Seifbronn, see p. 26. 

Heidelberg, see Baedeker's Rhine. — The line traverses a fertile 
plain, within a short distance of the mountains. 3t/ 2 M. Kirchhcim; 
6 M. St. %en; 8 M. WteslocA; 13 1/2 M. Mingolsheim. Nearing (15 M.) 
Langenbrucken (Ochs; Sonne), a small place with sulphur-baths, 
we notice Kislau, once a chateau of the prince-bishops of Speyer, 
now a penitentiary for women, on the right. 

20 1 /2 M. Bruchsal. — Hotels. H6tbl Keller, near the station, R. 2-3, 
B.*/iJf; Post, Kaiser-Str., with wine-restaurant, very fair. — Restaurants, 
"Railway Restaurants Hohenegger. — Local Railways to several places in 
the environs. 

Bruchsal (370 ft.) is the junction of the Bale line (see Baedeker's 
Rhine). The town (14,930 inhab.) was formerly the residence of the 
Prince-Bishops of Speyer, whose *Schlos8, erected in 1727-70 by 
Neumann (p. 93), has a fine old garden and contains an imposing 
staircase and sumptuous state-apartments in the rococo style, with 
frescoes by Zick and stucco-ornamentation by J. M. Feichtmeier. 

Beyond Bruchsal a short tunnel. 28 M. QondeUheim, with the 
ruined castle and modern chateau of Count Langenstein. 

301/2 M. Bretten (658 ft; 'Krone, R. iy 4 -2V 2 *#! *B*U- 
Restaurant), a small town (5000 inhab.) commanded by an ancient 
watch-tower, contains monuments to Melanchthon, Emp. William I., 
and the Grand -Duke Frederick of Baden. In the market-place 
is a memorial house, with a museum opened in 1903, erected on 
the site of the house in which Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560), 
the 'PraBceptor Gcrmani®', was born. On the fountain in the market- 
place is the figure of a knight dating from 1565. Branch-lines to 
Durlach and Beilbronn, p. 22. — Beyond Bretten we quit Baden. — 
361/g M. Maulbronn (Rail. Restaurant). 

From the station a shady road (diligence thrice daily in 26 min., 
fare 30 pf.) leads to the little town of — 

2 M. Maulbronn (Post, good El finger wine ; Riegers Brewery), 
which deserves a visit for its old *Ci6tercian Abbey (comp. p. xix), 
one of the best-preserved mediaeval conventual establishments in 
Germany, recently well restored. It was once the seat of a monastic 
school founded By Duke Christopher in 1556, and is now that of 
a Protestant theological seminary (40 pupils). 

The * Abbey Church, consecrated in 1178, is a fine Romanesque 
basilica with aisles. The late-Gothic chapels on the S. side were 
added in 1421. A Romanesque screen with two doors separates the 
choir of the monks from the nave ; in front of the central niche is 
an altar with a colossal crucifix dating from 1473. The choir, adorned 


2. Route. 17 

with two handsome Gothic windows, contains 92 well-carved stalls 
in the late-Gothic style and the elaborate throne of the Abbot. Each 
of the transepts, on the N. and S. side of the choir respectively, 

\ RonuviLscJu 
1 UbergangsstxZ, 

contains three rectangular chapels. — At the W. end of the church 
is a *Vestibule (Taradies'), 72 ft. long and 25 ft. wide, with 
elegant late-Romanesque arcade-windows and fine vaulting (begin- 
ning of the 13th cent.). 

Bakdbkkr*8 S. Germany. 10th Edit. 2 

18 Route 2. LUDWIGSBtJRG. From Heidelberg 

The ^Cloisters (126 ft. square) on the K. side of the church are 
interesting. The S. walk, in the transition style (ca. 1230), Ib the 
richest; the others, in the Gothic style, are simpler. In front of the 
N. walk is a tastefully-constructed well-house. Beyond it is the 
summer-refectory ('Rebental'), with fine vaulting. — Other apart- 
ments (chapter-house, quarters of the lay-brothers) adjoin the E. side 
of the cloisters. On theN. side is the monks' refectory, with seven 
columns; on the "W. side is the winter or lay refectory, divided 
into two parts by seven double columns. — In the cloister-garth is 
the Eselsbrunnen or Asss Well, connected with the story of the 
foundation of the convent. Here we obtain the best view of the 
romantic Faust-Turm. 

A pleasant road leads by (3 M.; diligence twice daily in »/* hr.) the 
quaint little town of Knittlingm (Krone), the traditional birthplace of 
Dr. Panst, to Brettm (p. 16). 

The train now passes through a tunnel of 315 yds., under the 
watershed between the Neckar and the Rhine. 

40y 2 M. Muhlacker (Rail. Restaurant), junction for Pforzheim 
and CarUruhe (p. 21). 

From (47 M.) Vaihingen-Sersheim a branch-line runs to (41/2 M.) 
Enzweihingen, via (3 M.) Vaihingen (Post) , a small town on the 
Enz, with many quaint old buildings and a large chateau, now a 
reformatory. < — On the left rises the Stromberg , a low chain of 
wooded hills. The train traverses the old Kraichgau and Salzgau, a 
fertile, hilly district, and crosses the deep valley of the Enz by a 
* Viaduct, 115 ft. high and 357 yds. long, supported by 21 archeB, 
in two series, one above the other (well seen from the Bietigheim 
station). At (56V2 M.) Bietigheim (Railway Restaurant; Krone) 
the line to Heilbronn and Hall diverges to the N. (see R. 4). To 
Backnang, see p. 31. — Beyond Bietigheim the line presents few 
attractions. To the right, near (58*/2 M.) Asperg, rises a vine- 
clad hill (1165 ft.) crowned by the small fortress of Hohen- Asperg 
(now a reformatory), where Duke Charles confined the poet Schu- 
bart from 1777 to 1787 for having composed a satirical epigram on 
him; fine *View from the view-tower (lOpf.j restaurant at the 

61 M. Ludwigsburg (970 ft. ; ^Railway Hotel, PI. a, A, 3, op- 
posite the station, with a concert-hall and garden ; Wurttemberger 
Hof; Ratskeller Restaurant), a town with 23,000 inhab., including 
a garrison of 5300 men, the military dep6t of Wurtemberg, has 
recently greatly increased its industries and is much visited on ac- 
count of its fine situation and beautiful surroundings. It was founded 
at the beginning of the 18th century by Duke Eberhard Ludwig 
(d. 1733), as a rival of Stuttgart, and was extended by Duke Karl 
Eugen (d. 1793) and King Frederick (d. 1816). The streets are 
broad and regular. The Marble Statue of Schiller in the Wilhelms^ 
Platz (PI. A t 2), by Hofer, was erected in 1882 ; the poet lived at 

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to Stuttgart. LUDWIGSBURG. 2. Route. 19 

Stuttgarter-Str. 26 (PI. B, 3) in 1768-73 and In 1793-94 in the 
house at the comer of the Wilhelm-Str. and the See-Str. (PI. A, 2; 
now a wine-shop). Lndwigshnrg was the birthplace of David Strauss 
(1808-74), the theologian, Justinus Kerner (1786-1862) and Ed. 
Morike (1804-75), the poets, and F. T. Vischer (1807-87), the philo- 

In the Ratskeller are the Collections of the Historical Society 
(adm. free Sun. 11-12.30, at other times on application to the 
attendant, Markt-Platz 12, 50 pf.). — The Town Church (PI. B, 2), 
In the market-place, is a baroque edifice of 1726. 

The Palace (PI. B, 1 j 3/ 4 M. to the N.E. of the station ; castellan 
in the building on the E. side), a handsome rococo building, 
containing 432 rooms, was erected by Duke Eberhard Ludwig in 
1704-33 and is surrounded by extensive, well-kept grounds. The 
charmingly decorated interior (finest decoration in the hunting- 
pavilion at the N. W. corner) contains some French ceiling-paintings 
of the 18th cent., interesting as examples of perspective painting, 
and a gallery of portraits of sovereigns of Wurtemberg. The large 
cask in the cellar holds 19,800 gallons. To the E. lies the Emichs* 
burg, an artificial ruin erected to commemorate Count Emich I. of 
Wurtemberg (1139-54). 

To theW. of theSchlossis the Watcher Organ-Building Establish- 
ment, founded in 1820. -- To the S.E. of the Schloss is the Old 
Cemetery (PI. C, 2), containing Dannecker's monument to Count 
Zeppelin (d. 1801), the minister of King Frederick, and the tomb 
of Princess Marie of Wurtemberg (d. 1882). 

The N. prolongation of the grounds is the Favorite Park (PI. B, 1), 
with the tasteful little Favorite Chdteau, containing a splendid col- 
lection of antlers (tickets of admission, 25 pf. for 1-6 pers., at the 
gatehouse near the entrance or from the castellan of the palace). 
An avenue of poplars leads hence to (2 M.) the hunting-lodge of 
*Monrepo8 (adm. on application to the steward; rfmts.), a graceful 
rococo building with pretty grounds and a large lake with seven is- 
lands, on one of which is a chapel. We may now return to Ludwigs- 
burg via Eglosheim and the royal ViUa Marienwahl (PL A, 1) in 
" r 4 hr. Or we may take the train from the station of Favorite-Park 
" min. j see below). 

Among the chief boasts of Ludwigsburg are the magnificent 
avenues of limes and chestnuts leading from the palace to the 
so-called Salonwald (PL C, 4) and to Kornwestheim (p. 20). Ad- 
jacent in the Karls-Platz stands the Protestant Garrison Church 
(PI. B, 3), in the baroque style by Thiersch (1903). Farther to the 
S. is the Karlshohe (PL O, 4), a school for children and almshouse. A 
little to the W., near the beginning of the straight road to the 
Solitude (PL A, 4; p. 16), are the Bomerhugel and the Kaiserstein. 

Bbamch-linb (13 min.) from LudwigBburg via the station of Favorite- 
Part (see above) to (8 M.) Beihingen (p. 81), on the railway from Backnan* 



20 Route 2. TEINACH. 

to Bietigheim. — Marbach (p. 81; railway in 25 min., can. via Neciar 
weihingen in 1 hr.) and Hohen-Atperg (p. 18} railway in 6 min.) are best 
visited from Ludwigsburg. 

62V2 M. Kornwestheim is the junction of a line via Zatsenhausen 
and Munster to (71/2 M. ; Va nr ) Enter- Turfcfteim (p. 37), crossing 
the Neckar by the Kbnig Wilhelm Viaduct, 720 yds. long. — 66 M. 
Zuffenhausen (Rail. Restaurant). 

Fbom Zuffbnhaubkh to Calw and Hoeb, 6672 M., railway in 3 hrs. — 
27* M. Korntal (Gemeinde-Gasthaus, with wine from Jerusalem) is the 
seat of a sect resembling the Moravians, with several good schools. — 
87s M. Leonberg (Bonn*; pop. 2600), the birthplace of the philosopher 
Schelling (p. 215), possesses an early-Gothic church of the 15th cent., and is 
noted for a fine breed of large dogs resembling the now extinct St. Bernard 
race. The chateau, built by Duke Christopher, now contains the district- 
offices. — 16 M. WeHderetaat (Pott), a quaint little town with 1800 fnhab., 
once a free town of the empire, was the birthplace of the astronomer 
Kepler (1571-1680), a bronze statue of whom, by Kreling (1870), adorns 
the market-place. The late-Gothic Church of St. Peter 6 St. Paul (end of 
15th cent.) contains a beautiful tabernacle of 1611. The new Protestant 
church, in the transition style, was erected in memory of Brenz, the 
reformer (1499-1570), who was born here. — 1$7* M. Schafhausen (1425 ft.). 
The train ascends in a wide curve and traverses the Font Tunnel (760 yds.) 
to (237 2 M.) Althengstett (1676 ft.). It then descends rapidly, passing 
through a second tunnel (to the right below in the valley lies Hirsau, 
p. 22) to (30 M.) Oalw (1140 ft.; Waldhorn, R. iy*-2, pens. 4-6 Jt; Adler; 
Rail. Restaurant), a frequented summer-resort with 5200 inhab., where it 
enters the picturesque Nagold-Tal. The Gothic bridge-chapel and the 
church are interesting. — Railway to Pforzheim in ca. 1 hr., see p. 21. 

The line then leads through the Nagold-Tal (several tunnels and 
bridges), past Keniheim, to (327* M -) Teinach, at the union of the Teinach 
and Nagold. About 2 M. up the valley of the Teinach (omnibus in 25 min.) 
are the charmingly-situated baths of Teinach (1275 ft. ; *Bad-H6tel zur Krone, 
with room for 300 visitors, D. 3, B. 1, pens. 67*-9 A; Hirtch, R. 174-27,, 
pens. 4»/4*6Vs Jt; Zum KUhUn Brunnen). On the hill above is (7s hr.) 
ZaveUtein (1925 ft. ; Lamm, very fair), a summer-resort, with a ruined 
castle, the tower of which is a fine point of view. 

387s M. TahnUMe (inn)*, in the woods near it is Burg Waldeck. 367s M. 
Wildberg (Hirsch), a small and ancient town, is prettily situated on a rock 
washed by the Nagold. — 39 M. Emmingen, >/ 4 hr. to the N.E. of which 
is the KOhleberg (2060 ft.) with a fine view of the distant Swabian Alb. — 
42 M. Nagold (1895 ft. ; Post ; RBule), a little town (3800 inhab.), commanded 
by the ruined castle of Hohen-Nagold, which was destroyed during the 
Thirty Years* War, and possessing a handsome modern Gothic church 
and a Protestant normal school. Branch-line through the upper Nagold- 
Tal to AUentteig (1650 ft. \ 10 M., in 1 hr.). — The train quits the Nagold- 
Tal, which here turns to the W., ascends the S teinach- Tal to Gundringen, 
and passes through the Hochdorfer Tunnel, 1 M. long, to (487* M -) Hoch- 
dorf (1675 ft. ; Inn, plain; see also p. 54), the culminating point of the 
line, with a fine view of the distant chain of the Swabian Alb. (R. 11). — 
Beyond (51 M.) Eutingen, 'the junction for the Gaubahn (p. 51), the train 
passes the ruin of Btauffenberg (on the left) and descends to (567s M.) Borb 
(p. 51). 

67 M. Feuerbach, a manufacturing village (11,600 inhab.). 
67 Y 2 M. Stuttgart North Station, beyond which the train passes 
through a tunnel of 900 yds. under the Prdg. 

69i/ a M. Stuttgart, see p. 1. 

d by Google 


3. From Stuttgart to Wildbad. 

56 M. Railway via Pforzheim. Express in 3 hra. : ordinary train in 
4 hra.-, fares 6 * 80, 4 Jf 50, 2 Jf 86 pf. (via Cato in 4»/s hrs., see 
p. 20 and below). 

From Stuttgart to (29 M.) M iihlacker, see R. 2. Beyond (31 y 8 M.) 
En&bcrg the line enters the Duchy of Baden, and proceeds along 
the left hank of the Enz. — 35 M. Eutingen, near which is a Roman 

36 1 / 2 M. Pforiheim. — Hotels. *Nusskb or Post, R. 2-4, B. 1, 
D. 2'/3 Jff Schwabzsb Abler; Obxbbt; Bahnhofs-Hotel, all four near 
the station. — Railway Restaurant. — Wine at the Rappen. — Hydropathic, 
pens. 3-6 Jf. 

Pforzheim (805 ft.), a busy, manufacturing town (69,300 inhab.), 
the birthplace of Reuchlin (p. 12; b. 1455), lies at the confluence 
of the Enz, the TFurm, and the Nagold. The staple commodities, 
gold and silver wares, employ over 13,000 workmen. The School of 
Industrial Art has over 300 pupils. — In front of the station are 
monuments of Emp. William L and of Bismarck. 

Near the station is the Romanesque and Gothic Schlosskirche, 
erected in the 12-1 5th centuries. 

In the choir (key kept at the district offices, opposite the church) are 
the 'Renaissance monuments of the Margraves Ernest Frederick (d. 1604). 
James (d. 1590). and Charles (d. 1577) of Baden. Charles was the first 
prince of this line who embraced the Reformed faith. Then the statues 
of his wife Kunigunde. Margravine of Brandenburg (d. 1558) ; Countess 
Palatine Anna (d. 1587); Albert Alcibiades of Brandenburg - Bayreuth, 
celebrated for his numerous campaigns, who died here (in 1567) under 
the imperial ban \ also Margrave Bernhard (d. 1563). On a large sarcophagus 
are the recumbent figures of Margrave Ernest (d. 1563) and his wife Ursula 
(d. 1538). Beneath a Gothic covering is the bust of the Grand-Duke Charles 
Frederick (d. 1811). A monument on the wall commemorates the supposed 
death of 400 citizens of Pforzheim in the battle of Wimpffen (1622), but this 
event lacks historical evidence. 

In the market-place rises a Warriors' Monument for 1870-71. 
In the Leopold -Platz is a fountain with a Statue of Margrave 
Ernest (d. 1553), founder of the extinct Baden-Durlach-Ernestine 

About 6 M. to the 8.E. of Pforzheim, in the pleasant WUrmtal, lies 
Tiefenbronn, with an interesting Abbey Church. This contains a fine high- 
altar by Hans Schulin of Ulm (1469; p. 41), four other well-preserved 
altars of the 15-16th cent., the best of which is the one with paintings 
by Lucas Moser (1431), representing the landing of the three Maries ac- 
companied by Maximin, Cedonius, and Lazarus, the first apostles of Gaul, 
at the mouth of the Rhone. 

From Pforzheim to Wildbad vi& the BUchenbronner H&he (2005 ft ; see 
below), 6y* hrs.j beginning of the Hohenweg (p. 23). 

Fkom Pforzheim to Calw, 17 M. (railway in s/4-l hr.). The train di- 
verges to the left from the Wildbad line at BrMtingen, the first station, 
crosses the Enz, penetrates the watershed between the Ens and the Nagold 
by means of a tunnel, 440 yds. long, and enters the beautiful wooded Nagold- 
Tal. Beyond another tunnel is (3 1 /* M.) Weissenstein, with a picturesque 
ruined castle; 3 M. to the S.E. is the Biichenbronner view-tower (see 
above). — Then the Zelgenberg Tunnel, 615 yds. in length. At f7Vi M.) 
Unter-Rekhenhach we cross the Nagold. — 12 M. Liebentell (1115 fi.\ 

22 Route 3. WILDBAD. 

Unteres Bad; Oberes Bad; Adler; Oehs; Hirsch; Pent. Waldheimat), a fre- 
quented watering-place with warm springs (71-81° Fahr.) of old repute, 
pleasantly situated, and overlooked by a ruined castle. — Wfa M. Hirsau 
(Rdssle; Schwan; Klotter Birsau; L&we), a summer-resort with a celebrated 
ruined monastery (Benedictine, founded in 830, at its zenith in the ll-12th 
cent., destroyed by Melac in 1692). The most interesting features of the 
ruins are the Romanesque tower of the church (six stories high), the Gothic 
cloisters, and the facade of a Renaissance building, from which grows the 
elm celebrated by U bland. — • 17 M. Calw. — From Calw to Stuttgart, see 
p. 20; to Horb t see p. 20. 

Fkom Pfobzheim to Dublach (Carlsruhe). 16 M., railway in Vs-l 1 /* hr. 
The line skirts the IT. slopes of the Black Forest Mts. and traverses the 
fertile valley of the Pfinz. Stations /spring en, Ersingen, Kdnigtbach, Witfer- 
dingen (Krone), Kkinsteinbach, Sdllingen t Ber ghaut en, QrtHzingen (junction 
for Bretten and Heilbronn^ p. 24). At Durlach (Karltbwg), a town of 
12,700 inhab., the train reaches the Baden main line (see Baedeker** Rhine). 

The railway to Wildbad continues to follow the pleasant green 
valley of the Enz. 39 M. Brotzingen. — 42 M. EngeUbrand; 3 M. 
to the E. is the Biichenbronner view-tower (p. 21). 

48V*M. Neuenburg (1065 ft.; Bar; Sonne; Bail. Restaurant), 
a picturesquely situated little town (pop. 2400), overlooked by the 
Schloss, erected on a wooded eminence above the Enz by Duke 
Christopher in 1658 (now government offices). Adjacent are the 
ruins of a castle on Roman (?) foundations. 

The train crosses the Enz, passes through a tunnel under the 
Schlossberg, and recrosses the river. 50 '/ 2 Rotenbach, with a large 
saw-mill; 52 M. Hbfen (Ochse, R. li/ 4 -2, pens. 41/2-6 Jl, very 
fair), a summer-resort. Diligence daily to Herrenalb (12 M. ; p. 23). 
— 54 M. Calmbach (Sonne). 

56 M. Wildbad. — Hotels. •KSnigliohbs Bad-Hotkl (PI. a), with 
lift, R. 81/2-61/2,, D. 8V2 Jt; *Kldmpp (PI. b), opposite the Bathing 
Establishment, with lift, R. from 31/2, B. iy 2 , D. at lp.m. SVsUT; *Bkllk- 
vue (PI. c), R. from 3»/2, B. H/4, D. 3»/2.#; Post (PI. d), R. 21/28, B. 1, 
D. 3, pens. 6V2-H Jt; Villa Concobdia; Russischer Hop (PI. e), R. 2-6, 
B. 1, D. 2 3 /4, pens. 6-9*/2 Jt; Pfbiffeb zuh Goldenen Lamm (PI. g), R. 2- 
3V2, B. 1, D. 2, pens 6-8 Jt; Graf Ebbbhabd, in the Kurplate; Schhid 


8tbbn ; Weil (Hebrew), Zub Eisknbahn, the last two by the station, etc. — 
♦Pension Villa Montbbbllo, with d£pendances, pens. G'/r-^/s Jt* — Also 
numerous Hdtels Oarnis and lodging-houses, the best being those above the 
Anlagen. — Restaurants: Bad-Hotel; Qraf Eberhard; Funk; Schmid. etc. 
Post A Telegraph Officb at the station. — Cab (one horse) 1 Jt per 
V4 hr.j to or from the station 2, with two horses 8 Jt. — Visitors' Tax 
4 Jt per week, 12 Jt per month. — English Ghoboh (Holw Trinity); service 
in summer. 

Wildbad (1475 ft.), a celebrated watering-place (3600 inhab.), 
situated in a narrow, pine-clad ravine on both banks of the Enz, 
possesses warm alkaline springs. The main street, with the baths 
and hotels, lies on the right bank, while the station is at the lower 
end of the town on the left bank. In the Kurplatz are the hand- 
some Kurhaus or Bad-Hotel and the large Badgebaude (Alt- Wild- 
bad), with its admirably equipped baths. The Springs (90-100° 
Fahr.) rise in the baths themselves , and their efficacy (for gout, 
rheumatism, etc.) is chiefly ascribed to their being thus used in a 

d by Google 

BESIGHEIM. 4. Route. 23 

fresh and natural condition at the fountain-head. Most of the 
patients (about 13,000 annually) prefei the system of bathing in 
common, as at Leuk in Switzerland. There are three veil-arranged 
public baths for each sex (l*/ 8 Jf), as well as a number of private 
baths (2 Jf). The sumptuous Konig-KarU-Bad, with a dome, 
contains thermal, vapour, and Turkish baths and a reading-room. 
Close by stands the Tririkhalle, a tasteful iron structure in the Re- 
naissance style, with a band-pavilion in the centre. Higher up in 
the grounds is the Theatre. The Katharinenstift, a bath for the 
poor, is a building in the round-arch style. In the lower part of 
the town is Herrenhilf, a sanatorium for children. 

There are pleasant walks and grounds on both sides of the village, 
on the banks of the Enz : on the S. (upper) side past the Roman 
Catholic church as far as the (1 M.) Windhof, a cafe*; on the N. 
(lower) side to the (1 M.) garden l Zum kuhlen Brunnen 1 . 

Excubsions. A road ascends the Enztal via the (3 M.) KalbermithU t 
with the pumping-station of the great reservoir supplying 60 parishes in 
the N. portion of the Black Forest (Wurtemberg), to (TVs M.) EnzkWsterle 
(Waldhorn) and (3 M.} Oompeltchmcr (Lamm); thence to Frettdmttadt (p. 54), 
17 M. — Near the Hot. Bellevue a road (Hobenweg, p. 21) ascends via the 
Fiinf Bdutne to (27* hrs.) the Wild see, which tradition has peopled with 
water-sprites, and thence to the (*/i hr.) KalUnbrorm shooting-lodge (2820 ft. ; 
good inn) and to the (7i hr.) Hohloh (8250 ft.), crowned by a view-tower 
(72 ft. high). Descent via the Latschig to Forbach, 2 hrs. -*- To the (4'/* M.) 
Eyachmilhle, (2y 4 M.) Dob el, and (3 M.) Herrenalb (Hydropathic Establishment 
and several hotels), frequented as a summer-resort, see Baedeker's Rhine. 

The following is a very interesting excursion for a whole day (one- 
horse carr. 14, two-horse ca. 24 Jf). Via Calmbach (see p. 22; also re- 
commended to pedestrians, % hr.) to Reichenbach (Lowe). Thence, leaving 
the main road, by a by-road (Vizinal-Str.) to the right to (6 M.) R&ten- 
bach (view of Hohenzollern from the height as the village is approached *, 
carriages should be sent on from this point to Teinach) and (27i M.) Zavel- 
stein (Lamm), with a picturesque ruined castle. Descent to (17* M.) 
Teinach (p. 20); thence down to the (1 M.) Nagold-Tal, and by Kentheim 
to (3 M.) Galw (p. 20; also railway from this point); then (47s M.) Eirtau, 
and (3 3 A M.) Liebenzell (p. 21). Baok to Wildbad by Schtoriberg and 

4. From Stuttgart to Hanau. 

118 M. Railway. Express in 41/2 hrs. (fares 17 Jf 70, 12 A 50 pf.)i 
ordinary train in 6V« hrs. (15 Jf 50, 11 Jf 30, 6 Jf 60 pf.). This line forms 
the shortest route from Stuttgart to Berlin (157s hrs. \ comp. E. 19). 

From Stuttgart to (I41/2 M.) Bietigheim, see R. 2. The line follows 
the right bank of the Enz for a short way, and crosses it just before 
its influx into the Neckar, near (I81/2 M.) Besigheim (Waldhorn, very 
fair), an antiquated little town with 3200 inhab., very picturesquely 
situated on a rock between the Enz and the Neckar, with two hand- 
some towers of mediaeval castles. The Protestant parish -church 
contains a fine carved altar (beginning of the 16th cent.). The 
town-hall dates from 1459. — The line now follows the left bank 
of the Neckar, passes through a tunnel (640 yds.) beyond (21 Va M 
Kirchheim, and returns to the river at — 

24 Route 4. HEILBRONN. From Stuttgart 

26 M. Lauffen (564 ft. ; Hlrscli), the old castle (now the town- 
hall) and Gothic church of which stand picturesquely on two rocks, 
separated by the river. 

Fbom Lauffkn to Lbonbbonn, 12Vs M., railway in l 1 /* hr. — S*/i M. 
Meimtheim, with an old village lime-tree. — 4 1 /* M. Brackenheim, a small 
town with a town-hall of 1780 and a castle (now district offices) of 1668; 
about 3 M. to the N. lies the picturesque ruined castle of Neipperg (955 ft.). 

— About 8 M. to the S.E. of (6 M.) Fravenrimmern- Cleebronn rises the 
MichaeUberg (1295 ft. j view), with the church of St. Michael (12-13th cent.). 

— 7 1 /* M. OUglingen. — About 2 M. to the 8. of (8 M.) GUglingen-Fibens- 
baeh stands the fine ruined castle of Blankenhorn. — 12 1 /* M - Leonbronn. 

Beyond (28i/ 2 M.)2VbfdAe£m, on a height to the left, is the 
Heuchelberger Warte (1036 ft.). 

33 M. Heilbronn. — Hotels. *Bahnhof8-Hotel Linsenmeter, op- 
posite the railway-station, R. 2»/4-8 Jf. B. 80 pf., D. iy 2 -2V« Jf; Royal j 
•Kkonprinz (PI. d; A, 4), R. lVi-U/s •*» B. 00 pf.; Badischbb Hof (PI. e; 

A, 4), these three also at the station; *Neckae Hotel (PI. a; B, 4), on 
the Neckar, R. & B. 3-4 Jf; Falkjs (PI. b; C, 4), in the Market, well 
spoken of; Krone (PI. c: C, 4), Lohtor-Str., R. 1 Jf 60 pf.- 21/2.*, 

B. 80 pf. ; Tsaobk, Wilhelm-Str. 3 (PI. C, 5, 6). 

Cafes-Restaurants. *Ratskeller ; Harmonic (p. 25) ; Kilianthallen, Fleiner- 
Str. 26 (PI. C, 4, 5); Railway Restaurant. — Wink Rooms. ffolL Kaiser- 
Str. 35 (PI. C, 4); Albrecht, Allee 23; Bauber, Frieden-Str. 44 (PI. D, 4). — 
Bess Rooms. * Pilsner Urqvell, Sulmer-Str. 83 (PI. C, 4, 3); Altdeutsche 
Biers tube, Rathausgasse 5 (PI. B, 4); Geschoitter Grasect, Allee 53; Fischer- 
stube, Lohtor-Str. 22 (PI. B, 4). 

Municipal Baths (PI. C, 5), with swimming-bath, Wollhaus-Strasse. 

Electric Tramways from the Rail. Station to the market-place, Allee, 
and barracks ; from the Eaiser-Str. to the Wollhaus-Str. and the Ost-Str. ; 
from the X. Rail. Station to the Sulmer-Str., S. Rail. Station, and Sont- 
heim (p. 81). 

Heilbronn (518 ft.), formerly a free city of the Empire, now an 
important industrial town with 40,000 inhab., is charmingly situated 
on both banks of the Neckar. The older and more important part 
is on the right bank. Wine is largely produced in the neighbour- 
hood. Heilbronn is connected with Mannheim by chain-towing 
boats for goods traffic. 

From the Railway Station (PI. A, 4) the Bahnhof-Str. leads 
across the Neckar to the old town. [A little to the S. (right), at the 
end of the Olga-Str., is a Statue of Emperor Frederick III.] From 
the bridge we enjoy a fine -view. To the right, before the bridge, 
is a Monument to Bismarck (PI. B, 4); to the left extends the Har- 
bour. On the right bank, to our right, is the Post Office (PI. B, 4). 
In the next side-street to the right, in the old Slaughter House of 
1600, is the Historical Museum (PI. B, 4), comprising prehistoric 
and other antiquities from the environs of Heilbronn (keeper, Eirch- 
brunnen-Str. 13). 

Going straight on, we come to the Market Place (PI. B, O, 4), 
with a Monument to Robert Mayer (1814-78), the founder of the 
mechanical theory of heat, who was a native of Heilbronn. On the 
left rises the *Rathaus, with its lofty flight of steps, an originally 
late-Gothic edifice altered in the Renaissance style in 1680-82, and 

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to Hanau. HEILBRONN. I. Route. 25 

restored in 1897-1903. It possesses a curious clock constructed by 
Habrecht in 1580. In the council-chamber Gotz von Berlichingen, 
immortalised by Goethe, is said to have effectually cured 'headache, 
toothache, and every other human malady', with blows from his 'iron 
hand'. Letters from him, from Gustavus Adolphus, Charles XII., 
the Doke of Alva, Tilly, Prince Eugene, from Schiller, who requests 
permission to reside in the town in 1793, and others are shown in 
the Archives (1765-69) next the Rathaus. — The old-fashioned 
-house at the S.W. corner of the Market (PI. B, 4) is pointed out as 
that in which 'Kathchen of Heilbronn' was born ; but her history is 
purely traditionary. 

The *Church of St. Kilian (PI. C, 4; verger Sulmer-Str. 3), 
begun in 1013, has an early-Gothic nave (13th cent.) with late- 
Gothic vaulting and aisles, a late-Gothic choir (1426-80), and a tower 
(205 ft. high), finished in a remarkable early-Renaissance style in 
1527. The whole building was thoroughly restored in 1886-95 under 
the superintendence of Beyer (p. 42). The choir, with network- 
vaulting, contains an * Altar in carved wood (1498 ; barbarously 
painted to resemble stone), and a fine ciborium (ca. 1500). 

We descend the Klrchbrunnen-Str. to the right, and enter the 
Deutschhof-Str. to the left, with the Deutsche* Haus (PI. B, 4), 
originally an imperial residence, afterwards occupied by the Teutonic 
Order, and now by the courts of law. The Treaty of Heilbronn was 
concluded here in 1633. The oldest part of the building is the 
lowest story, in the Romanesque style, of the tower of the adjacent 
Roman Catholic church, in the picturesque court on the N. side. 
Opposite is the old Schdnthaler Hof, founded in 1314 (now a 
restaurant), where, as a quaint inscription on the gate-way (right 
side) records, Charles V. once spent four weeks and was cured of 
an illness by the Heilbronn waters. 

Nearly opposite the Deutsches Haus is the Allerheiligen-Str. , 
leading to the square Qotten-Turm (PI. B, 5), in which Goethe, 
oontrary to the fact, represents Gotz von Berlichingen as having 
died (whereas he was only imprisoned here for one night in 1619 ; 
comp. p. 26). To the E. of the tower we ascend the Rosenberg- 
Str. to the Alice, a broad avenue with gardens on the site of the old 
fortifications, in which, on the right, rises the Synagogue (PI. C, 5), 
in the Moorish-Byzantine style. Farther on is the Harmonie (PI. C, 4), 
a club-house with the exhibition of the Kunstverein, a theatre, a 
restaurant, and a beautiful garden. In front of it is a Monument to 
Emp. William I., a bust with allegorical figures by Ruemann. Still 
farther on in the Allee is a Bust of Schiller. To the E. of the 
Allee rises the Fricdens-Kirehe (PL D, 4), in the late-Romanesque 
style by Vollmer and Jassoy. 

From the N. end of the Allee the Turm-Str. leads to the W. to 
the Sulmer-Strasse. Here, on the left, rises the simple Gothic Church 
of St. Nicholas (PI. C, 3), where the first Protestant divine service was 

26 Route 4. JAGSTFELD. From Stuttgart 

held in 1525. The SchiUcr-Haus opposite was occupied by the poet 
in the autumn of 1793. Farther on, in the Hafenmarkt, are remains 
of the Franciscan Church (PI. 0, 4), destroyed by the French in 1688. 
The tower has been rebuilt. 

On the frequented *Wartberg (1010 ft. ; an ascent of */« hr. to the K.E.) 
are a stone tower and an inn. Charming view of the Neckar-Tal. Another 
fine point is the (1 hr.) JSgerhaw (good tavern); to the K. of it are large 
keuper-sandstone quarries. — From the Jagerhaus we may walk past the 
KVpferqwlle and through wood to (ty 4 hr.) the tower on the Bchweuuberg 
(1205 ft. *, 1 V* hr. to the S.E. of Heilbronn ; rfmts. in summer), which affords 
a fine 'Panorama, embracing the Alb chain to the 8., the Black Forest and 
Vosges to the S.W., the Haardt Mts. and Donnersberg to the W., the Oden- 
wald and Spessart to theN., and the Lowenstein Mts. to the E. The C&cilim- 
Wiese (iy< M.) presents a lively and picturesque scene at the vintage-season. — 
Another favourite point is the Trappensee (restaurant), i*/i M. to the E. 
of the town. 

About 2 M . to the N. of Heilbronn, opposite the village of Neckargartach, 
lies the rock-salt mine of Salzgrvnd (tickets 3 Jl, 3-4 pers. 6 Jf \ adm. in 
the morning only). 

Steamboat to Heidelberg twice weekly in 6 l /*-9»/4 hrs. 

From Heilbronn to Brettm and CarUrvhe, see p. 22 ; to Schtcdbitch- 
Hall and Hessental, see p. 29; to Marbach, see p. 31. 

The train now crosses the Wilhelms-Canal and the Neckar. To 
the right is the Wartberg (see above). Near (36 M.) Neckarsulm 
(Post), a pleasant little wine-growing town with an old chateau of 
the Teutonic Order, the train returns to the Neckar, and beyond 
(38 1/2 M.) Kochendorf it crosses the Kocher. The small town of 
Kochendorf, with three chateaux and a fine town-hall (a timber 
building of 1587, restored since 1890), lies 1/, M. to the E. — 39V 2 M. 
Jagstfeld (Brduninger's Bad-Hotel, with terrace on the Neckar; 
Rail. Restaurant), a saline bath at the mouth of the Jagst, with a 
sanatory institute for children (Beihesda). Near the station are 
the salt-works of Friedrichshall, ruined by an irruption of fresh 
water in 1896. On the other side of the Neckar(iy 4 M.) lies Wimpfen 
im Tal (p. 27), 

From Jagstfeld to Osterburken and Wiirzburg, see B. 17 ^ to Heidelberg, 
see p. 27. 

The train crosses the Jagst and at (41 Y2 M.) Offenau (Linde), 
with the salt-springs of Clemenshall, enters the charming vine-clad 
Neckar-Tal, with its numerous castles. The village and chateau of 
Heinsheim and the ruined castle of Ehrcnberg (p. 28) are passed on 
the left bank. — 44i/ 2 M. Gundelsheim (Prinz Karl), a small town 
with walls, towers, and the picturesque chateau of Hornegg on an 
ivy-clad rock. The chateau has been fitted up as a hydropathic, 
with a restaurant (pens, from 6 Jf). Opposite, on a hill on the left 
bank, is the ruin of Guttenberg. — The train then passes through 
the Michaelsberg by a tunnel 960 yds. long to (46 M.) Hassmershcim 
(Anker). To the right, above, rises the picturesque castle of Hornberg, 
partly preserved, where Gotz von Berlichingen died in 1662 (comp. 
p. 26). — Then past (left) Hochhausen, where we cross the Eh to 
(6OV2 M.) Neckarelz, the junction of the Wurzburg-Heidelberg and 
Meckesheim railways (p. 102). 

to Hanau. % ERBACH. 4. Route. 27 

Beyond Binau a tunnel 875 yds. long penetrates the Roten- 
berg. — 651/2 M. Neckargerach (Krone), on the left bank ; on the 
hill is the ruined Minneburg, destroyed in the Thirty Years' War. — 
5772 M. Zwingenberg (Anker), with a picturesque castle, now 
restored, the property of the Grand-Duke of Baden. 

63i/ 2 M. Eberbach(430 ft.; Bohrmanri$ Hotel, pens. 41/4-51/2.4?, 
Leininger Hof, pens. 3I/2-4 Jf, both very fair; Rail. Restaurant), 
an old town with 6100 inhabitants. The Katzenbuckel (2053 ft.), 
the highest of the Odenwald Mts., commanding an extensive view, 
may be ascended hence in 2 hrs. — To Heidelberg through the 
Neckar-Tal, see p. 102. 

Our train turns to the right into the grassy and wooded valley 
of the Itterbach. Beyond (6772 M.) Oaimuhle a lofty viaduct. — 
76 M. Schollenbach. The train penetrates the Krahberg by a tunnel 
nearly 2 M. long, descends the Mumling-Tal to (78 M.) Hetzback- 
Beerfelden, and crosses the Himbachel Viaduct, 145 ft. high. 

821/2 M. Erbach(725ft. ; *Schiitzenhof, R. & B. 2-2i/ 2 , D.2, pens. 
4-5 M; Odenwald, pens. 3 1 / 2 -4 1 /2 »^> ver y * air )> * small town with 
3000inhab., is the principal place on the estates of Count Erbach. 
The Schloss contains several interesting collections (armour, weapons, 
etc.). In the chapel, of an earlier date than the Schloss, is shown a 
stone sarcophagus of the 13th or 14th cent., brought from the church 
of Seligenstadt in 1810, and used at one time as the repository of the 
remains of Eginhard (d.840; see below) and his wife Emma (d.836). 

84V2 M. Miehelstadt (685 ft. j *ffitel Friedrich, R. iy 2 -3i/2, 
pens. 31/2-41/2 *M; Br. Scharfenberg's Hydropathic, R. 6-25 M per 
week, pens. 30-60 Jl), a prettily-situated little town, with a late- 
Gothic church (15th cent.) and a quaint Rathaus. Opposite, to the 
left, is Steinbach, with Eginhard's basilica (see below), one of the 
most important relics of the Oarlovingian epoch, founded in 827. 
— We pass Schloss Furstenau (left) and through a long tunnel to 
(96V2M.) Wiebelsbach-Heubach. — 98l/ 2 M. Qross-Umstadt (*Lamm, 
R. ll/a-2, D. 13/ 4 uJT); IO51/2 M. Babenhausen (p. 87). 

112 M. Seligenttadt, with 4600 inhab., is famous for the abbey 
founded here in 828 by Eginhard (or Einhard), the biographer of 
Charlemagne. — The train then crosses the Main and reaches 

Fkom Jagstpbld to Heidelberg, 35 M., railway in 2 hrs. The 
train crosses the Neckar and reaches (1 3 / 4 M.) Wimp fen, the station 
for the two places of that name, which form a Hessian enclave. 

At Wimpfen im Tal, a village 1 1/2 M. to the W. of Jags tf eld (p. 26), 
is the beautiful early-Gothic * Abbey Church of St. Peter, built, partly 
under French influence, on the foundations (rediscovered in 1895-97) 
of a twelve-sided early-Romanesque structure dating from 1260-80. 
The S. transept is especially admired. In the interior, where the 
visitor is struck by the irregularity of the ground-plan, the early- 

28 Route 4. WIMPFEN AM BERG. 

Gothic choir-stalls should be noticed. The Gothic cloisters on the 
N. side of the church date from the beginning of the 14th cent. ; 
they contain half-obliterated Gothic .frescoes and numerous tombs 
of the 14-18th centuries. 

Wimpfen am Berg (3100 inhab.), with the Ludwigshall Salt- 
works and frequented saline baths (Mathilden-Bad, R. l-l 8 /4, pens. 
4-4V2 <#-, Badhotel Ritter, R. 1 A 20-1 A 40 pf., pens. 3Vr4 A; 
Sonne, plain; wine at Maitenhaldefs and Frau SchmitVs), was 
formerly a free town of the empire and contains picturesque old 
houses, towers, and walls. It affords charming views of the valley 
of the Neokar as far as the Katzenbuckel,withthe Wartbergto the S.E. 

The promenade leading from the station to the Mathilden-Bad 
commands the best view of the * Imperial Palace of the Hohen- 
staufens, built about 1200, now much disfigured and degraded to 
the uses of a farm (entrance from the side next the town). The 
remains include the elegant Red Tower, the Chapel, the Talas' or 
residence with its numerous dwarf Romanesque columns, the Stone 
House, and the Blue Tower. The same promenade affords a view 
also of Worm8er Ho /, the former residence of the bishops of Worms, 
rebuilt in the Renaissance style in 1551-66. 

From the Mathilden-Bad we proceed to the left to the town. 
The Protestant Parish Church, with an early- Gothic choir and a 
late-Gothic nave, contains a ciborium executed by Meister Hans 
in 1451, an early-Renaissance altar-screen (1519), a late-Gothic 
winged altar-piece, a mural painting of the Last Judgment (ca. 1600 ; 
restored in 1869), about 26 ft. in height, and stained glass of the 
16th century. The *Mt. Calvary 1 , opposite the S.W. angle of the 
church, dates from the early 16th century. 

From the church we proceed across the market-place to the Lion 
Fountain (16th cent.; to the W., the Eagle Fountain, of 1576) and 
follow the Elostergasse to the Dominican church, now the Roman 
Catholic ParishChurch, rebuilt in the 18th cent, with Gothic cloisters. 
In the church are good wood-carvings and stone monuments of the 
15th century. The house (No. 183) is Romanesque in style. 

From the Mathilden-Bad a pretty route leads via Heinsheim to the 
(i^t hr.) well-preserved ruin of Ehrthberg. 

The railway now traverses a hilly and partly wooded district. 
5V«2M. Rappenau (Saline, very fair; Deutscher Kaiser) has salt- 
springs and baths. — Near (14 M.) Sinsheim Turenne defeated the 
Imperial army in 1674. — The line follows the EUen%-Tal. — 
22 1 /2 M. Meckesheim (Zur Eisenbahn; Railway Restaurant), on the 
Elsenz, is the junction for the line to Neckarelz (p. 102). — 29 M. 
Neckargemund Is the junction of the Wurzburg line (R. 19). Thence 
to (35 M.) Heidelberg, see p. 102. 

d by Google 


5. From Heilbronn to Hessental (Nuremberg) 
vi& Schwabisch-Hall. 

10 M. Railway. Express in 1 hr. (fares b Jf 60. ijf, 2 Jf 80 pf.); 
ordinary train in iy«-2 hrs. (fares 4 UT 90, 3 UT 30, 2 Jf 10 pf.); express to 
Nuremberg by this route in 8V4 hrs. (14 Jf 50, 9 Jf 60, 6 Jf 20 pf.). This 
is the shortest route between Nuremberg and Carltruhe (via Brettm, p. 16). 

Heilbronn, see p. 24. The train crosses the Neckar. To the left 
diverges the line to Hanau (R. 4). Tunnel (976 yds.). 

41/2 M. Weinberg (600 ft. ; •Traube, R. 1 V4-l 8 /4, pens. 3i/ 2 -4 Jf ; 
Sonne), an ancient and historically memorable town (pop. 3100). 
The rained castle of Weibertreu ('women's faithfulness'; destroyed 
in 1526), on a vine- clad hill (900 ft.), was the scene of the events 
on which Burger founded one of his ballads. Justinus Kerner, the 
poet and spiritualist (d. 1862), occupied a house at the foot of the 
hill, still containing many reminiscences of him. Near it is a monu- 
ment to him. The handsome Romanesque Churchy a basilica with 
alternate pillars and columns and an E. tower, contains a small 
picture of 1659, representing the women quitting the castle. The 
choir is late- Gothic. In front of the church is a monument to John 
(Ecolampadhu (1482-1631), the Reformer, who was a native of 
Weinsberg. During the War of the Peasants in 1525 the most 
savage atrocities were committed here. 

We next traverse the fertile and populous Weinsberger-Tal. 
On a hill to the right, near (8 M.) Willsbaeh, is the small town of 
Lowenstein (1260 ft.; Sonne), commanded by the ruined castle of the 
Lowenstein- Wertheim family. In a narrow valley at the N.W. foot 
of the hill lies the Theusser Bad, with springs containing Epsom 
salts and sulphate of lime ; % hr. to the E. is LUMenstern, a reform- 
atory for children, formerly a nunnery. Beyond (10 M.) Eschenau 
the train descends into the valley of the Brettaeh, which it crosses 
near (13 M.) Bretzfeld. 

17 M. Oehringen (770 ft.; Wiirttemberger Hof; pop. 3600) 
is a pleasant town on the Ohm, with a chateau of Prince Hohenlohe- 
Oehringen, a Renaissance building of the end of the 17th cent., 
below which are vast cellars. The late-Gothic Stiftskirche (1454-91) 
containing monuments of the Hohenlohe family and a fine reredos 
(1503), is interesting; it has two towers. Behind the Schloss is a 
fine park. — 21 M. Neuenstein, with a Renaissance chateau of the 
Hehenlohe family (fine portals) containing an interesting collection 
of antiquities (ivory carvings, goblets, wooden statues of the 16th 
and 17th cent.; adm. by ticket obtained gratis at the estate-office 
in Oehringen). 

24M. Waldenburg (Rail. Restaurant) is the junction of a branch- 
line to KupferaeU and (71/3 M.; 60 min.) Kun%eUau (*Glocke), 
pleasantly situated in the Eocher-Tal. The little town of Waldenburg 
(Adler; Ltiwe), situated on a mountain-spur, 2 M. to the S.W. of 


the station, has a chateau of the Hohenlohe family. — • Beyond 
(261/2 M.) Kupfer the train reaches the highest point (1243 ft.) of 
the line, and then descends to (30 M.) Gailenkirchen and the valley 
of the Koeher. 

34 M. Hall or Schwabisch-Hall. — Hotels. ♦Lamm or Post, R. 
iVa-2 JH; *Adleb, in the market-place, B. l l /r2\'iJ[; Zun Eisbnbahk. — 
Bail. Rettaurant. 

Hall (885 ft.), once a city of the empire (pop. 9400), is pictur- 
esquely situated on both banks of the Koeher. The Weil Gate, the 
CraiUheim Gate, the Neue Ban (Buchsenhaus), and other parts of 
the old fortifications are still well preserved. 

From the station we turn to the left, passing the Pulver-Turm 
(now containing a collection of antiquities), and descend the Lange 
Gasse, on the left side of which rises the Gothic *Church of St. 
Catharine (14th cent.) , judiciously enlarged in 1899 and containing 
a fine high-altar (1470). The Heimbacher Strasse, diverging to 
the right a little farther on, leads to the bridge over the Koeher, 
whence the Neue Gasse ascends to (20 min.) the Mabxbt-Plaob. The 
imposing Church of St. Michael, situated on a terrace on the N. side of 
the market-place, was originally Romanesque, but was rebuilt in the 
15th cent, in the Gothic style. The interior, which is structurally 
interesting, contains an Entombment ascribed to Lohkorn (about 
1480) and other good sculptures. The handsome baroque Rathaus 
(1735) contains paintings by L. Retti. The adjacent gabled houses 
once formed the Convent of St.*James. The well-preserved Market 
Fountain is adorned with fantastic sculptures of 1509. The Pillory 
(Pranger) is in the form of a pointed tower with flnials; the mis- 
doers were placed in the niches below the canopy. At Heilbronner- 
Strasse 47 is an old half-timbered house. 

The remarkable old Benedictine abbey (11th cent.) of Xomburg, at 
Steinbach (Traube), i 1 /* M. to the S. of Hall, is now a home for invalid 
soldiers. The gateway is an interesting Romanesque structure. The hexa- 
gonal ante-chapel is of noble purity of design and charming in decoration. 
The main church, with its three towers-, restored in the baroque style, pos- 
sesses an embossed altar-covering (antependium) in gilded copper, of 1130, 
and a huge and richly carved °Candelabrum of the same period (let down for 
inspection for ijf). In the sacristy are two fine bronze candelabra. The 
church is adjoined by old cloisters and two chapels with interesting tomb* 
stones. — Immediately below the abbey is Klein-Kombtarg, with the early- 
Romanesque church of St. ^Egidius (1108; restored 1880). In the choir are 
frescoes of the 12th century. Eomburg and Steinbach are l*/« M. from 
Hessental (see below). 

Beyond Hall the train crosses the Koeher by a viaduct 135 ft. in 
height, passes through two tunnels, and goes on to (38 M.) Hessen- 
tal, junction of the following line (p. 32). 

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6. From Stuttgart to Nuremberg vi& Backnang 
and Crailsheim. 

118V* M. Railway. Express in 8»/4-4 hrs. (faros 17 A 60, 12 Jl 40, 
8 J* 80 pf.)? ordinary train in 7*/ 4 hrs. (fares 15 * 40, 10 «4T 20, 6 JL 
60 pf.). — From Stuttgart to Nuremberg via Ndrdlingen see B. 7. 

From Stuttgart to (8 M.) Waiblingcn, see p. 34. The Mubetal 
Railway here diverges to the left from the Remstal Line, and crosses 
the deep Remstal by a viaduct (150 ft. high") and an iron bridge (260 yds. 
long.) — 10i/ 2 M. Neustadt. Tunnel of 340 yds. — 12 M. Schwaik- 
heim. In the background, to the right, rise the spurs of the Welz- 
heimer Wald (Watch-tower of Burg, Buocher Hohe). — 13i/ 2 M. 
Winnenden (930 ft.; Krone; Hirsch), a little town, with the chateau 
of Winnental, formerly a commandery of the Teutonic Order, now a 
lunatic asylum. Pleasant walk via Buoch (p. 34) to the Remstal 
(to Grunbach 2y 2 hrs.). — 16 M. Nellmersbach. The Murrhardter 
"Wald (with Schloss Ebersberg) appears in the background, to the 
right. 17i/ 2 M. Maubaeh. We now enter the Murrtal' y to the left 
rise the Lowenstein Mts. 

191/2 M. Backnang (910 ft.; Post; Bail. Restaurant), a town 
on the Murr (8300 inhab.) with extensive tanneries. Interesting 
Parish Church of the 12th cent., originally belonging to a canonry, 
with two E. towers and a late-Gothic choir. The Gothic Romanesque 
choir of St. MichaeVs Church is also noteworthy. Late-Renaissance 
Rathaus (17th cent.). 

Fbom Backnang toBietigheim, 16 M., railway in Vi-l'/i hr. (fares 2Jt 10, 
1 Jf 40 pf., 90 pf.). The line follows the Murrtal, passing Bur g stall and 
Kirchberg, to (87s M.) Marbach (Pott, E. lVs-2 1 /*) B - */** P enfl - 4 ' 6 •*•* **"->» 
a small- town (25C0 inhab.) on a height on the right bank of the Neckar, 
with the Stuttgart electric- works. About 7« M ' from the station is the 
Church of St. Alexander (1450-85), with groined vaulting and an elevated 
choir. Marbach was the birthplace of Schiller (b.lOth Nov., 1759; d. 9th May, 
1805). The house in which he was born was purchased by subscription 
in 1859 and restored to its original condition. Close to the" town is the 
(10 min.) Schillerhbhe, a park with a beautiful view, containing a colos- 
sal bronze * Statue of Schiller, by Rau, erected in 1876. Adjacent is the 
* Schiller Museum, opened in 1903, containing reminiscences of Schiller 
and the other poets of Swabia (open all day, on Sun. from. 11 a.m. ; adm. 
80 pf.) ; view from the rotunda on the roof. — The line crosses the Neckar 
by a viaduct 100 ft. high (fine view). — 11 1/1 M. Beihing en- Renting eheim 
(junction for Ludwigsburg, p. 18). Then (16 M.) Bietigheim (p. 18). 

Fbom Marbach to Heilbronn, 21 M.J narrow-gauge railway in 274 hrs., 
via (2 M.) Murr, (Vfa M.) Steinheim an der Murr (with Rathaus of 1686), 
and the pleasant wine-growing Bottwar-Tal, with the chateau of Schau- 
beck ana the villages of Klein-Bottwar and Oross-Bottwar. — 772 M. 
Oberstenfeld (Ochs), with an interesting early-Romanesque church (ca. 1200). 
To the S.E. is the (274 M.) well-preserved castle of IAchtenberg (12th cent). 
— 872 M. Beilttein (Post), a prettily situated little town, at the foot of a 
hill crowned by the ruined castle of Langhans. About 3 M. to the S.W. 
is the Wunnenstein (1285 ft.), with a view-tower (extensive panorama). — 
At (1972 H.) Sontheim (electric tramway to Heilbronn, see p. 24) we reach 
the Neckar-Tul. — 21 M. Heilbronn South Station (p. 24). 

The train crosses the Weissach. — 23 M. Oppenweiler, with 
the chateau of Hr. von Sturmfeder; on the height to the left stands 

32 Route 6. CRAILSHE1M. From Stuttgart 

the chateau of Reichenberg. 25^2 M. Sultbach an der Murr, with 
the mediaeval Schloss Lautercck, now a tannery. The train crosses 
the Murr. 

29 M. Mnrrhardt (950 ft.; Sonne or Post, R. 1-1 % pens. 
31/2-5 Jt ; Stern), an ancient little town (4200 inhab.), in a fine 
situation, once a Benedictine abbey. The late- Gothic Waldcrichs- 
Kirche, in the old cemetery on the hill, and the Stadtkirche (1434), 
formerly the abbey-church, will repay a Tisit. The *Walderichs- 
Kapelle, adjoining the N. tower of the Stadtkirche, is in the late- 
Romanesque style (12th cent.). The Roman castrum lay to the S.E. of 
the town. The Roman 'limes' (p. 36) fromWelzheim to Mainhardt, 
crossing the Murrtal, passes about 8 / € M. to the E. of Mnrrhardt. 

321/2 M. Fornsbaeh. 

A pleasant excursion (road) may be made to the S. to the (6 M.) 
Ebnisee (1566 ft.), a pretty forest-lake. About 1 M. to the 8.B., by the 
Soman 'limes', is Gatwnannsweiler (Inn Znm Ebnisee), a summer-resort. 

The train passes through the ridge called the 'Schanz' by a tunnel 
940 yds. long, and enters the Rottal near (36V2 M.) Fichtenberg. 
Another tunnel leads to the Kocher-Tal and (387s M.) Qaildorf. 
The little town of Qaildorf, with 1800 inhab. and three chateaux, 
lies 8/4 M. to the E. 

From Gaildorf to (12 M.) Unler-Qrtnmgen, branch -line through the 
Kocher-Tal via Gaildorf-Siadt, Sulzbach, Lcwftn, and Wen gen. 

The Kocher is crossed. — 43 M. Wilhelmsgluck, with disused 
salt-works. Yiew of Komburg and Schwablsch-Hall (p. 30) to the 
left shortly before reaching (45*/ 2 M.) Hessental (Restaurant), the 
junction of the line from Heilbronn (p. 30). The station lies at the 
foot of the Einkorn (1675 ft.; V2 nr «» view), a favourite resort from 
Hall (3 4 /2 M. ; p. 30), with a ruined church, view-tower, and pleasure- 
grounds (rfmts.). 

The train now enters the Hohenlohe plain and beyond (49 M.) 
Sulzdorf crosses the Buhler by a viaduct, 145 ft. in height. — 56 M. 

Kirchberg (Adler), a picturesquely situated little town on the Jagst, 
5 M . to the N.E., contains a chateau of Prince Hohenlohe-Oehringen, with 
interesting collections. Opposite is Hornberg, with its chateau. 

From (69 M.) Maulach, with a chalybeate spring, an excursion 
may be made to the top of the (2V4 M.) Burgberg (1765 ft. ; rfmts. 
at the gamekeeper's house), with an ancient earthen rampart and 
an extensive view. 

62 M. Crailsheim (1340 ft.; Lamm, good wine; Faber, R. 1V«- 
1 Z U Jf; Oafi-Restaurant Joos, with garden; Rail. Restaurant), on 
the Jagst, a small town of 5700 inhab., with the Gothic Church of 
St. John (15th cent.) containing a winged altar with paintings by 
Wohlgemut, and a stone ciborium of 1498. On the Wilhelmshbhe, 
l 1 /* M. to the N.E., is the Villa Biezinger, with interesting grounds 
and a geological pyramid (visitors admitted). 

From Cbailsheim to Lauda. 43 M. (railway in about 2 l /4 hrs.). — 9Va M. 
Roth am See (p. 180). — At (18 1 /* M.) Blavfelden a branch-line diverges for 

to Nuremberg. HEILSBRONN. 6: Route. 33 

(7 1 /* M. ; '/* *""•) ^a»jr«n6t/rjr, with a Renaissance chateau of Prince Hohen- 
lohe-Langenburg. — 18 M . Schrozberg (Lamm). — 24 M. NUdersUtUn (1060ft. $ 
Post), an old town with Prince Hohenlohe-Bartenstein's chateau of Halten- 
bergsietien. — 28 M. Laudenbach (Krone), with a well-known mountain 
pilgrim age- church. — 30 M. Weikertheim (7£5ft.{ Krone; Lamm; Hirsch), 
on the Tauber, with the chateau of Prince Hohenlohe-Langenburg, a Renais- 
sance edifice of the close of the 16th century (interesting interior with large 
banqueting -hall; gratuity 50 pf.). To Creglingen and Rothenburg ob der 
Tauber, see p. 1&0. — 337s M. Markelsheim, a wine-growing place. 

SB 1 /? M. Mergentheim (679 ft. $ Hirsch, in the town : DeuUcher Ho/, at 
the station; Rail. Restaurant) is an old town on the Tauber (pop. 4600), 
where the Master of the Teutonic Order resided down to 1806. The large 

Schloss, built in the Renaissance style in 1573, is now partly used as a 
barrack. The Karlsbad (Kurhaus), near the town, has springs containing 
salt and magnesia, efficacious in abdominal and diabetic complaints 
(800 patients annually). — The train goes on via Sdelfingen, Unterbalbaeh, 
and KOnigshofen (p. 101) to (43 M.) Lauda, on the line from Wurzburg to 
Heidelberg (R. 19). 

Fbom Crailshkim to Goldbbofjc, 187» H. (railway in about 1 hr.){ 
to Urn, 687« M. (via Aalen and Heidenheitn, in 2-3 hrs.). The line ascends 
the Jagsttal towards the S., on the left bank of the Jagst. — 8 M. Jagsttell, 
where the Jagst is crossed. Then (13 H.) Ellwangen (1410 ft. ; Adler or 
Post), a little town (pop. 4700) with a castle on a hill, is the seat of the 
district authorities of Jagst, and was a small ecclesiastical principality 
down to 1803. The Sti/tskirche, founded in 746-64 by Hariolf and his 
brother Erlolf, Bishop of Langres, burned down in 1100. and rebuilt in 
the beginning cf the 18th cent., in the Romanesque style, with a crypt 
under the choir, is in admirable preservation. The interior was tastefully 
embellished with stucco -ornamentation in 1738. On the walls are two 
epitaphs in bronze by Peter Vischer of Nuremberg. On the Schonenberg 
(1710 ft.), 7« hr. to the N.E., is the pilgrimage-church of the Holy Virgin, 
with two towers built in 1681, burned down in 1709, and rebuilt in 1729. 
— At (187« II.) Ooldshd/e the train reaches the Remstal Railway (p. 36). 

The train crosses the Jagst and beyond (67 M.) Ellrichihawen 
it crosses the Bavarian frontier. — 76 4 /2 M. Dombukl (Rail. Restau- 
rant, with rooms), the junction for Dinkelsbflhl and Nordlingen 
(p. 157), and for Rothenburg and Steinachfpp. 177, 180). — 91 «/ 2 M. 
Ansbach (p. 180), the junction of the Frankfort and Munich line 
(R. 30). The line runs for a short distance through the Retat-Tal, 
and then turns to the N.E., via Sachaen and Wicklesgreuth (branch- 
line to Windsbaeh, 7i/ 2 M. to the S.E.), to — 

1021/2 M. Heilsbronn (1345 ft.; Adler\ a small market- town 
occupying the site of a famous Cistercian Abbey, of which some Ro- 
manesque and Gothic remains, partly in good preservation , still 
survive. Next the church is the former refectory (? now a Roman 
Catholic chapel), the florid Romanesque portal of which has been 
removed to the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg. The church, a 
Romanesque basilica with timber roof, begun in 1150, with a Gothic 
choir (1263-80 and later) and a Gothic aisle (1430-36, afterwards 
enlarged), has suffered severely from 'restoration' in 1851-66. 

The abbey-church was the burial-place of the Franconian line of the 
Hohenzollems from 1297 to 1625 and contains also the ashes of the first 
Ihree Brandenburg Electors of that house, Frederick I., Frederick II., and 
Albert Achilles. Among tbe finest monuments are those of the Electress 
Anna of Brandenburg (d. 1512), second wife of Albert Achilles: of Margf a ve 
Frederick (d. 1536) and his son George (d. 1543), by Lucas Grunberg; of 

Baedrkrb's 8. Germany. 10th Edit. 3 

34 Route 7. WAIBLINGEN. 

Margrave George Frederick (d. 1603), with eight statuettes of Counts of 
Zollern •, and of the Margrave Joachim Ernest (d. 1625). The church also 
contains many other memorials of the Hohenzollerns and of Franconian 
knights, in the shape of frescoes, portraits on panel, canvas, and glass, 
epitaphs, hatchments, etc. Observe also several winged altar-pieces with 
carvings and paintings of the Nuremberg school of the 15-16th cent., a 
late-Gothic ciborium (1515), and a fine * Crucifix by Veit Stott. — A spring 
rises within the church; and in the cloister-garth was the well of mirac- 
ulous water which gave the abbey its name. 

10972 M. RomtaU, with an old church. The train then crosses 
the Rednitz to (115 M.) Stein, with Faber's celebrated lead-pencil 
factory (founded in 1760 ; shown by special permission only), and 
passing Schweinau reaches — 

II8V2 M. Nuremberg (p. 131). 

7. From Stuttgart to Nordlingen and Nuremberg. 

1337* M. Railway. Remstal Line to (71 '/j M.) Nordlingen: ordinary 
train in 4-5 hrs. (fares 9 J* 40, 6 Jf 30, 4 Jl 10 pf.), express in 2i/s hrs. 
(10 * 80, 7 * 70, 5 jH 50 pf ); thence to (62 M.) Nuremberg (Bavarian Rail- 

. *0UpfJ; 
way), ordinary train in 4V2-5 hrs. (fares 8 Jt, 5 M 30, 3 M 40 pf.), express 
in 21/4 hrs. (9 Jl 20, 6 M 50 pf.). Express from Stuttgart to Nuremberg via 
Nordlingen in 5 hrs. 5 min. (via Crailsheim, comp. R. 6). — Best views to 

the right. 

The Remstal Railway diverges to the left from the Stuttgart and 
TJlm line (R. 8) beyond (2^ M.) Cannstatt (p. 14), and ascends the 
hill which separates the valleys of the Neckar and the Rems. From 
the top a fine view of Stuttgart, the Neckar-Tal, and the Rotenberg 
(p. 37). — To the left is seen the Konig Wllhelm Viaduct (p. 20). 
6 M. Fellbaeh (918 ft. ; Traube) ; 4 M. to the S.E. is the Kernen (p. 37). 

8 M. Waiblingen (886 ft), junction of the Murrtal line (R. 6). 
The small town of Waiblingen (720 ft.; Post; Adler), of great 
antiquity (6000 inhab.), whence the imperial Salic line and the 
succeeding House of Hohenstaufen derived their name of Waiblinger 
(corrupted by the Italians into Ghibellini), lies about 2/3 M. to the 
N.E. below the station. The late-Gothic jEussere Kirche, outside the 
town, erected in 1480-89, was restored in 1866 by Leins. 

The populous, fertile, and picturesque Remstal, enclosed by 
the Schurwald on the right and the spurs of the Welzheimer Wald 
on the left, begins here. Beyond (11 M.) Endersbach we cross the 
Schlierbach. To the right, in the valley of this stream, are BeuteU- 
lach (Lowe) and Schnaith, wine-growing places, the former with a 
very ancient abbey-church, above which once stood a chateau of the 
Wurtemberg princes. On the N. side of the Remstal lies Qross- 
Heppach (Lamm). — Above (13*/2 M.) Grunbach is the village of 
Buoch (1700 ft.; Krone ; comp. p. 34), affording a fine view of the 
Swabian Alb; to the right is the Schbnbuhl, with a reformatory 
for boys. 

• I8I/2 M. Schorndorf (840 ft.; Krone), an old town with many 
industries (6300 inhab.), has a late-Gothic church, with a fine choir 

GMUND. 7. Route. 35 

of 1477. — Near (21 M.) Vrbach the train crosses the Rems. 22i/ 2 M. 
Pliiderhausen (Stern). Above (24 M.) Waldhausen (880 ft.; rail, 
restaurant), to the N., is the Elisabethenberg, a sanatorium. The 
vine-culture ceases. — On the Marienberg, about 8/4 M. to the £. of 
p/j M.) Lorch (920 ft.; H6t. HarmonU, R. H/i-l 8 /* P*™. 3*/*- 
4!/ 2 «4Q, rises the Benedictine monastery of that name, founded by 
the Hohenstaufen in 1102, partly destroyed in the War of the Pea- 
sants, and restored in 1884. It contains several tombs and monu- 
ments of the Hohenstaufen, but none of the more distinguished 
members of the family. In the centre of the nave is a late-Gothic 
cenotaph, erected in 1475 to Duke Frederick of Swabia (d. 1105), 
the founder of the monastery. The unimportant mural paintings 
are of the beginning of the 16th century. 

Lorch was the site of a Roman castrum, and there was, perhaps, 
another on the monastery-hill. Here the Rhine Lime* (boundary) of the 
Romans joins the Rheetian Limes, which extends to the W. reaching the 
Danube at Hienheim (p. 175). — Ascent of the Hohenttattfen, see p. 57. 

We obtain a glimpse of the Hohenstaufen (p. 58) to the right 
just beyond Lorch, and afterwards a glimpse of the double-peaked 
Hohen-Rechberg (p. 57). In the valley lies Schirenhof, a Roman 

31 V2 M. Gmund, or Schw&bisch-Gmund (1053 ft.; Bahn-Hotd, 
Drei Mohren, both very fair; Rail. Restaurant), formerly a free city of 
the Empire (pop. 20,500), possesses many manufactories of gold and 
silver ware, a large industrial museum, and a school of industrial 
art. Gmund was the home of the painter Hans Baldung, surnamed 
Qrien (b. ca. 1475), and of the architects Heinrieh and Peter von 
Gmund. The Gothic Heilig-Kreuzkirche was erected by Heinrieh 
.von Gmund in 1351-77 (completed in 1510); the sculptures of the 
portal date from 1380, and 'the carved altar from the 15th century. 
The late-Romanesque Church of St. John, erected about 1220-30, is 
peculiar in having numerous reliefs of animals on the exterior; the 
handsome tower is worthy of note also. To the W., 10 min. above 
the rail, station, is the pilgrimage-church of St. Salvator, with two 
ehapels hewn in the r.ick. The monastery of Oottes-Zell, 1 M. to the 
&, is now a prison. 

Omnibus from Omiind to SUtsen (p. 39) twice daily in 3 hrs. (fare 
1 A 40 pf.). — Ascent of the Hohen-Rechberg, see p. 57. 

38 M. Unter-Bobingen, with a Roman castrum (covered with 
earth) ; 40*/2 M. Mogglingen (1355 ft.). 

From either of the last two stations an excursion may be made via 
3 M.) Heubach (1530 ft. •, Ros sle) to the (41/2 M.) Rosenstein (2248 ft. ; superb 
view), with a ruined ch&teau, a natural rock-bridge, a rampart, and, on 
Ihe £. side of the hill, caves. From Heubach to Barthotomd (see p. 36), 
4V» M., by a fine road. 

Beyond (43!/ 2 M.) Essingen (1586 ft.) the line runs along the 
steep slope of the Alb, crosses the watershed between the Rems and 
Kocher, and descends into the Kocher-Tal. 

47 M. Aalen (1420 ft.; Krone; Harmonie, at the station; Rail. 


36 Route 7. AALEN. 

Restaurant), from 1360 to 1802 a free imperial town (pop. 10,400), 
lies at the point where the Kocher quits the Alb. It contains a 
monument to tho poet C. F. 2). Schubart (1739-91; see p. 18), 
who spent his childhood here. Near the cemetery is a Roman camp 
(covered). About 4 M. to the S. is the Langert or Aalbdumle (2210 ft.), 
a view-point, with a tower. 

Fkom Aalbn to Dillingen, branch-railway. — 8 K. Unterkocht* (see 
below), beyond which the line ascends to the Alb. — 17 1 /* M. Hereaheim 
(1645 ft.), a small town with 1250 inhab., and a chateau of Prince Thurn 
and Taxis (fine chapel of 1777), is the central point of the well-wooded 
BarU/eld, a part of the Swabian Alb. — SO 1 /* M. Katzenstein has a rained 
castle. — 221/2 M. Di$cMngen y with a chateau of Prince Taxis; 24 M. Ballmerts- 
hofen. — Dillingen, see p. 158. 

Fbom Aalbn to Ulm, UV2 M., railway in lVi-2 hrs. (fares 5 Jf 90, 
3 Jf 90, 2JI 50 pf.). - 21/2 M. Unterkochen (l»/« M. to the £. of which is 
the source of the White Kocher, 1690 ft.). -5K. Oberkochm (IV* H. to 
the 8. of which is the source of the Black Kocher, 1640 ft.). About 4y 2 H. 
to the W. is the Volkmarsberg (2440 ft. ; tower) — 8V2 M. KQnigtbronn 
(Rossle), with iron-works, at the point where the Brent takes its rise in the 
picturesque Quelltopf or Ktnigtbrunnen (1625 ft. ; to the Wental, see below). 
Then through the smiling Brenztal. — 13Vi M. Heidenheim (1617 ft. ; Ochs; 
Bahnhof-Hotel)^ once an important Roman settlement, is now a thriving 
industrial town with 12,200 inhab., commanded by the picturesque hslf- 
ruined Schloss HelUtutein (1986 ft.; view- tower; collection of antiquities). 
A road (diligence twice daily in 1 hr.) leads to the X.W. to (41/2 M.) Stan- 
heim (1770 ft.; Krone), situated in a depression of volcanic origin, whence 
a picturesque route runs through the romantic Wental, passing the impos- 
ing Birschfelte* and a refuge-hut, to (6 M.) Barthclomd (Adler), and thence 
to the N.W. to (41/2 M.) Heubach (p. 35), or to the E. to l h M ) KGnigs- 
brorm (see above). — Beyond (15V2 M.) MergeUtetten, with cement-works, 
the railway temporarily quits the Brena, which here makes a wide curve 
round the so-called Buigen. — 17*/* M. BerbreehUngen (Hirsch ; road to the 
8.E. to Biirben, see below, 3 M.). A pleasant walk may be taken to the W., 
via (l 1 /* M.) Anhatuen, a former Benedictine convent, to the picturesqae 
Brenztal and thence downstream to (1*/* M.) Bulsburg, which is about l 1 /* M. 
from Herbrechtingen, and 1 M. from Hiirben (see below). — 21 V . Qiengen 
(1530 ft.; Rossle), once an imperial town, with mineral baths and a felt- 
factory. — From (23 M.) Hermaringen (1500 ft ) a visit may be paid to the 
*Oharlotten-Hahle, discovered in 1863 near 27flr*e», 3 M. to the W. The 
road* leads via, Bvrgberg. with the picturesquely situated chateau of Count 
Karl von Linden, and the ruin of Kaltenburg ; footpath via the Guttenburg. 
The cave (560 yds. long) lies in the Hilrbe - Tal , a characteristic Jura 
valley, 1/2 M. to the 8. of the village of Hiirben.. It consists of several 
chambers of different and is specially interesting on account of the 
beautiful stalactites pendent from the roof (adm. 1 UP, on Sun. 50 pf. ; 
electric illumination on Sun., Mon , Wed., ft Sat.). Near the mouth of 
the cave is a restaurant. — The train follows the Brenztal to (26 M.) 
Sontheim-Brenz (the latter of which has a fine late-Romanesque church), 
and then turns to the S.W. to (29 M.) Nieder-Btotzingen. Stations Ram- 
mingen; Langenau, a thriving little town with 3600 inhab. ; Unter-Elchingen, 
the scene of the battle (14th Oct., 1805) from which Key acquired his ducal 
title; and Talfingen. The train then skirts the Danube to (44 V2 M.) Vim (p. 41). 

At (48y 2 M.) Wasseralflngen (1374 ft.; *Zum Schlegel, opposite 
the foundry) are extensive iron- works. Above the iron-mine, li/g M. 
to the E., rises the Braunenberg (2260 ft.; view; refuge-hut), 
whence a pretty path leads through the woods to (6 M.) Kapfen- 
burg (p. 37). — The train quits the Kocher- Tal. — 51 1/2 M. 
Goldshdfe (1505 ft.; Rail Restaurant; junction for the Ellwangen 

ROTENBERG. 8. Route. 37 

and Crailsheim line, p. 33), beyond which it turns to the E. again. 
On a hill to the right before reachiDg (57 M.) Lauchheim is Schloaa 
Kapfenburg (2035 ft.), formerly a command ery of the Teutonic 
Order. — At (69i/ 2 M.) Rbttingen the line is carried through the 
watershed (1805 ft.) between the Rhine and the Danube by means 
of deep cuttings and a tunnel (625 yds.), and enters the narrow 
and picturesque Eger-Tal. About 3 M. to the N. E. lies the chateau 
of Hohen-Baldern (2060 ft.), belonging to the Prince of Oettingen- 
Wallerstein, with a lofty tower (fine view). Above Bopflngen the 
Flochberg (1900 ft.), with a ruined castle, is seen on the right ; to 
the left is the bare cone of the /p/*(2190 ft. ; view), with interesting 
prehistoric ramparts on the summit and on the E. slope. 

64 M. Bopflngen (1535 ft. ; Hecht; Konig von Wurttemberg, R. 
lVa *M\ with 1600 inhab., was an imperial town from 1274 till 
1802. The Gothic Church of St. Blasius contains a winged altar- 
piece by F. Herlin (1472) and a ciborium by H. Bobiinger (1510). 

The line quits the E. part of the Alb district and enters the RUs 
(p. 157). 67 M. Trochtelfingen ; 21/4 M. to the S. is the Ohrengipfel 
(2075 ft), with a belvedere. — Beyond (68y 2 M.) Pflaumloch we 
cross the Bavarian frontier. 

711/2 M. Nordlingen, p. 157. Thence to Nuremberg, see R. 27. 

8. From Stuttgart to Friedrichshafen. 

Cotnp. Map, p. 56. 
123 M. Railway. Express to Dim in i»/4-2y4 hrs. (fares 8 * 70. 6 Jl 10, 
4 JH 30 pf.); ordinary train in 2»/4-3 l /4 hrs. (7 J* 60, 5 «4T, 3 Jf 20 pf.) ? to 
Friedrichshafen, express in 3 3 /4hrs. (fares 18 M 10, 12 JC 70 pf., 9 Jf)i 
ordinary train in 6^-7 hrs. (15 J* 90, 10 Jf 50, 6 * 80 pf.). 

To (2Y2 M.) Cannstatt , see p. 14. Looking back , we obtain a 
line view of the Villain Berg, the Rosenstein, and the Wilhelma with 
its gilded dome. The train ascends on the bank of the Neckar as 
far as Plochingen, traversing one of the most beautiful and fertile 
districts in Swabia. 

5 M. Unter-Tiirkheim (Krone), with the works of the Daimler 
Motor Car Co. (1900 workmen), makers of the well-known 'Mer- 
cedes' cars, was incorporated with Stuttgart in 1905. It lies at 
the foot of theBotenberg(1345ft.; *H6tel-Re8taurant Lux), where 
King William I. (d. 1864) erected a Greek chapel on the site of the 
castle of Wittenberg, the old ancestral castle of the princes of Wur- 
temberg, as a mausoleum for his consort Queen Catharine (d. 1819), 
a Russian princess, and himself. In the interior (fee) are marble 
statues of the Evangelists, the St. John by Dannecker. 

Instead of the steep, stony, and shadeless ascent from Unter-Tiirkheim, 
we may choose the pleasanter hut rather longer route from Ober-Tiirkheim 
(p. 38), either by Uhlbach or direct. — A still more extensive prospect 
is obtained from the Kemen Tower (1685 ft. ; 82 ft. high •, open to the puhlic), 
2 M. to the E. Hence we may take a charming walk to gsslihgen (see 

38 Route 8. ESSLINGEN. From Stuttgart 

below), 4Va M. to the S., or we may descend to the B. to (3 M.) Stetten 
end (3 M.) the rail, station of Endersbach. in the Remstal (p. 34). 

About V* M. to the 8.W. of Unter-TtLrkheim and the left bank of 
the Neckar lies Wangen (Krone), incorporated with Stuttgart in 1905, 
with a high-lying church. A path leads from Stuttgart through the woods 
and via Berg (p. 14) and Oablenberg direct to Wangen in l 1 /* hr.; beautiful 
views of the city in ascending, and of the Neckar-Tal in descending. 

Branch-line from Unter-Turkheim to (7 M.) Kornwettheim, see p. SO. 

7 M. Ober-Tiirkheim (Ochs), a fayourite resort from Stuttgart. 

9 M. Esslingen. — Hotels. *Kboke, R.iy^Va.*, B.70pf., D. 2Vs, 
pens. 4»/r6 Jt; Post, 1 J* 20 1 J* 80 pf., D. 60 pf.-iV« *M\ Dkotscbes 
Hacs, opposite the station; Wobttembebgeb Hof$ Palm schbb Bau$ 
Tbaubb. — Wine Rooms. Zur SacritUi, near St. DionyainS} Museum, in 
the market-place. — KugePt Beer Saloon. 

Esslingen (757 ft.), prettily situated on the Neckar, with 30,000 
inhab., was once a free imperial city and is still partly surrounded 
by walls, which were built by Emperor Frederick II. in 1216. 
Sparkling Neckar-wine is largely manufactured here. The engin- 
eering works founded here by Kessler are the largest in Wurtem- 
berg. Other branches of industry also flourish. — The Neckar is 
spanned here by an old stone bridge, 220 yds. in length. 

In the market-place is the church of St. Dionysius (Prot.), a 
flat -roofed basilica in the transition style with interest! pg capitals; 
it was founded in the 11th cent., and partly altered in the 14th 
and 15th, and possesses good stained glass (choir), a late-Gothic 
screen, a ciborium of I486, and choir-stalls of the Ulm school 
(1518). St. Paul's Church (R. O.), also in the market-place, a fine 
early-Gothic edifice of 1233-68, originally belonged to the Domini- 
cans. Opposite the present Rathaus, which was once the palace of 
Count Alexander of Wurtemberg, the poet (1801-44), is the Old 
Rathaus, erected in 1430, and formerly known as the 'Steuerhaus'. 
It is surmounted by the imperial eagle under a gilded canopy, and 
another eagle forms the vane on the turret (1580). On the first 
floor is a large room with Gothic wood- carvings. — The Kitterbau- 
Str. descends to the right from the Old Rathaus, and from it the 
Kufer-Str. diverges to the left leading to the Wolfstor, on which 
are still seen the lions of the Hohenstaufen, hewn in stone. 

The fine Gothic *Frauen-Kirche 1 on the hill, erected in 1324- 
1420, was restored in 1862 and 1884 by Egle (sacristan at No. 9 
Beutau-Str. ; No. 8 is a fine Gothic secular building of 1508). Ad- 
mirable reliefs on the three portals, especially that of the *Last 
Judgment on the S. Portal and the *St. George over the W. Portal. 
The tasteful interior, with its slender pillars, contains fine late- 
Gothic stained-glass windows. Adjoining the organ-loft are the 
tombstones of Hans and Matthaeus Boblinger (p. 42), two of the 
architects of the church. Fine perforated tower, 246 ft. in height, 
completed in 1478; beautiful view from the top (267 steps). Comp. 
p. xx. — On the top of the hill are the remains of the Castle with 
the 'Dicke Turni' and another superb view (restaurant). 

to Friedrichshafen. GOPPINGEN. 8. Route. 39 

About li/ 2 M. to tbe W., in the Neckar-Tal, lies the royal domaia of 
Weil (p. 15). — The •JSgerhau$ (1475 ft.), 3 M. to the E. of Esslingen, 
is frequented as a summer-resort. 

Pleasant excursion from Esslingen to (4Va M.) Dfnhndorf, a little 
village in a fine situation, with a large late-Romanesque church (early 
13th cent.) of a former convent (a Prot. school after tbe Reformation) ; 
interesting vaulted vestibule. 

14*/2 M. Plochingen (813 ft. ; Waldhorn; Rail. Restaurant, 
D. 172~2 «^Q } with a fortified church, lies near the confluence of 
the Fila and Neckar. Upper Neckar Railway to Tubingen and Rott- 
weil, see R. 9 ; to Ober-Lenningen, see p. 59. On the hill to the N.E. 
(1/2 hr.) is a tower, affording an extensive panorama of the Alb. 

The line now follows the Fils (comp. Map, p. 66). On a 
height to the right, near (23 M.) Vhingen, rises the chateau of Filaeek 
(1160 ft.). — 24 M. Faurndau, formerly a Benedictine monastery, 
with an old Romanesque church adorned with fantastic sculptures. 

26 M. Goppingen (1082 ft ; *H6tcl tu den Aposteln, R. 1 Jt 60 pf., 
B. 70 pf., D. l*/ 2 & 21/4 Jt, well spoken of; Sand; Post, plain), a 
flourishing town with 20,800 inhab., was re-erected after a fire in 
1782. The government-buildings were formerly a ducal castle, 
erected by Duke Christopher in 1559-67 with the stones of the 
castle of Hohenstaufen. At the S.W. corner of the court an artist- 
ically-hewn spiral stone staircase ('Traubenstieg', vine -stair) 
ascends to the tower. Mineral springs. 

Excursions. To the N.E. to the Hohentlaufen, see p. 57. — To the 
N.W. lies (4»/2 M.) Adelberg (1545 ft. ; R6sale), a former convent, with a fine 
view. — To the S. we may proceed via (6 V.) the sulphur-baths of Boll 
(1335 ft.) to the (iVs br.) Bonier (2610 ft. ; to the Beussenstein or to Weil- 
heim, see p. 59) or (l»/ 2 br.) Bertabwg-Kornberg (2555 ft.) ; via (lV«br.) 
Eschenbach to the (1 hr.) Fuchseck (2410 ft.) ; or via (I1/2 hr.) Schlath to the 
top of the (1 hr.> Wasserberg (2428 ft.). 

Near (28 l / 2 M.) Eislingen we enjoy fine views to the left of the 
Hohenstaufen and Hohen-Rechberg (p. 57). — 30 M. Salach. — 
31 M. Siissen (1176 ft.), opposite which (to the left) rises the round 
tower of the ruined Staufeneck (1720 ft.). In the old cemetery of 
Gross-Siissen is a curious Mont de Calvaire by Meister Christof 
of Urach(ca. 1520?). 

Excdksions. To the N.E. to the Hohen-Rechberg, see p. 57. — Proceed- 
ing to the S. from the rail. stat. of Siissen through the village to (1 hr.) 
the farm of Qriineriberg (rfmts.), we may thence ascend the (V2 hr.) Burren 
('Glufenkissen' j 2273 ft.), walk along the slope (guide-posts) to the ( 3 A hr.) 
Spitzenberg, ascend to the interesting plateau of the Michelsberg (2370 ft.), 
and traverse the ( 8 /4 hr.) village of Ober-BGhringen, founded in 1793, to the 
(20 min.) ffatuener Felsen, which affords a line view of the 'Gaisen-Tale' 
(p. 40). From the cairn we skirt the verge for 5 min., then follow the 
club-path down to (V» hr.) Vberkingen (p. 40). 

From Sussen to Wkissenstein , 6 M., branch-railway in ca. 35 min., 
to the E. up the valley of the Lauter. — 2 M. Donzdorf (1335 ft.-, Krone), 
with a chateau and park of Count Rechberg. About 8 M. to the E. is 
the Meuelitein (2455 ft.; extensive view), whence we may proceed to 
the 8. to the (U/2 hr.) Kuchalb (p. 40) and to the Eoggen-Tal (p. 40). — 
6 M. Weissenstein (1775 ft. ; Scbloss Brewery, with bedrooms) is a small 
town dominated by the chateau of Count Rechberg. Hence down the 
Roggen-Tal to Geislingen, p. 40. 

40 Route 8. GEISLINGEN. From Stuttgart 

To the right appear the long ranges of the Alb ; to the left, on 
an eminence, are the rugged ruins of Scharfenberg. Farther on is 
the Kuchalb. — 331/2 M. Gingen (1236 ft.). An inscription in the 
church is the earliest (984) to he found in any church in Germany. 

Excursions. To the £. lies the (1 hr.) Kuchalb, a hamlet with an 
inn. Thence we may ascend to the (10 min.) Meierhalde (view) and to 
the 0/ihr.) mountain -spur of the ffoherutein (2303 ft.), which commands 
a splendid view to the W. and of the valley. We descend either by 
a footpath to (V« hr.) Kuchen (hence to Geislingen »/« hr.) or to 0/* hr.) 
Gingen, or via the Kuchalb and through the Langen-Tal to (IV2 hr.) Geis- 
lingen. The Kuchalb may also be reached from Gingen in 11/2 hr. past 
the Schar/enberg (see above) by a good path leading partly through wood. 

— A pleasant hill- walk may be taken from the Kuchalb to the N., via the 
farm of Oberweckerstell, to the (IV2 hr.) top of the Messelstein (p. 39). 

Near Geislingen, to the left, opens the Eybtal; to the right is 
the Upper Filstal (see below). 

38 M. Geislingen (1522ft.; Rail, Restaurant; Sonne, R. l 1 /^, 
pens. 4 J /2-6 •#, very fair; Post, both in the town, ifa M. from the 
rail, station), a town with 8000 inhab. and a large hardware-factory, 
lies at the base of the Alb. The late-Gothic Stadthirche, founded in 
1424, contains choir-stalls carved by Jorg Syrlin the Younger(1512), 
a fine carved altar (ca. 1510), and a handsome late-Renaissance 
pulpit (1621). In front of the church is an Equestrian Statue of 
Emp. William I. Schubart (p. 36) was an usher in the neighbouring 
school in 1763-69 (tablet). To the E. above the town rises the 
Oeden-Turm (2086 ft.; 72 hr.; key at the Rathaus). Opposite, 
beyond the Pavilion, are the remains of the chateau of Helfenstein, 
destroyed in 1552. 

A pleasant excursion may be made to the N.E., passing the pump in g- 
station, either through the woods in 1 hr., or via Wetter and the Felsen-Tal 
in 2 hrs., to Eybach (1525 ft. •, Adler), with a chateau of Count Degenfeld. 
Thence we may ascend the romantic Roggen-Tal (watered by the £yb) y 
the finest point of which is at the P/i hr.) lower Roggen-MuhUs at the 
mouth of the Magen-Talchen \ on the hill to the right is the ruin of Raven- 
stein. From (l'/a hr.) Treffelhausen (2015 ft. : Lamm), with the source of the 
Eyb, we may proceed, either to the N. to (fy« hr.) Weiuenttein (p. 39), or to 
the W. to the (1»A hr.) Messelstein (p. 39). 

Fkom Geislingen to Wib8KN8Tbio, ISM., branch-railway in ca. l»/4hr. 

— Beyond (2 M.) AUenstacU the line turns to the W. and ascends the * Upper 
Filstal CGaisen-TMe"). — 8»/« M. Uberkingen (1495 ft.), with mineral springs \ 
21/4 M. to the N.W. are the Hausener Felsen (p. 39). — 9V2 M. Ditzen- 
bach (1635 ft.), with mineral springs ; 11/2 M. to the 9. is the ruin of HiUen- 
burg (2360 ft.). — About 2 M. to the S. of (10 M.) Gosbach (1700 ft. ; Hirsch) 
lie the prettily-situated villages of Unter- and Ober-Drackenstein, whence 
Wiesenstcig may be reached direct in 1 hr. — 13 M. Wiesensteig (1940 ft. ; 
PosOi a charminglv situated little town with 1300 iDhab., frequented as a 
summer-resort. The Source of the Fits (2050 ft.) lies 2»/4 M. to the 8.W., 
about 21/4 M. from the 8cherteU-Hdhle (key at the schoolmaster's in Wester- 
heim) To the (3M.) Reussenslein, see p. 60. 

The line quits the Filstal and ascends the Oeislinger Steig, a 
wooded limestone hill, rich in fossils, to the table-land of the Swa- 
bian Alb (R. 11), the watershed between the Neckar and the Da- 
nube. The ascent is very considerable (350 ft. in 3 M. ; 1 : 43) ; 
and a second engine is attached to the train at Geislingen. The train 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOO^LVC 

to Fricdrichshafen. ULM. 8. Route. 41 

crosses the Bauhe AW, as this lofty plain is called. — 41i/ 2 M. 

A branch-line rans hence in 65 min. to (U1/2 M.) Laichingen (2510 ft. ; 
Bad; Engel), a linen-weaving village with 2800 inhab., 1 M to the N. of 
which is tbe Steinwoll (2594 ft. ; belvedere), while 4» 4 M. to the S. is the 
BonthHmer HOhle, a stalactite cave, 200 yds. in length (adm. 50 pf). — 
Another branch-line runs to the N. B. from Amstetten to (12 1 /*) Gersletten. 

Beyond (51 M.) Beimeratetten the line descends to the valley of 
the Danube. — The fortifications of Ulm soon become visible. The 
train passes close to the (r.) WUhelmaburg, the lofty citadqj of Ulm, 
where 30,000 Anstrians under General Mack surrendered to the 
French after the battle of Elchingen (p. 36). 

58*/2 M. Ulm. — Railway Restaurant. — Hotels (all with restaurants). 
Near the station: •JHforeTBB Hotkl (PL i; A, 2), E. 2-5, B. 1 M\ *Russi- 
scnjtit Hop (PI. a; A, 2), R. 2»/«-4, B. 1, D. 3Jt; Bahmhofs-Hotkl (PI. f; 

A, 2), R. l*/4-2Vsi B. »/4. f>. 21/2 Jt, with garden. In the town : Bauhstabk 
(PI. d; B, 3), K. IV4-21/2, B. */4, D. 2 Jl 40 pf.; Goldnkr Lowe (PI. e; 

B, 2), B. l'A-a'fa B. »/4 •# ; Goldmkk HiHacH (PI. gj B, 2)j Obkrpollihoeb 
(PL h; B, 2); Kbokpbinz (PL c; D, 3), E. l»/4-3J*. — Beer at the SaaSbau 
Restaurant (PL B, 2); Goldner Hirtch, Bahnhofs-Hotel (see above); ZfccA/, 
Olga-Str. (PL B, 1); Roter Ochse (with rooms), Strauss, Oberpollinger, all 
three in the Hirsch-Str. (PL B, 2); B««r Saloon n>ar the guard-house 
(PL C. 3). — TPtJAdnwAMs Restaurant (PL B, 4), a fine point of view. — 
Cafi TrOglen, MUnsler-Ca/4, both in the Miinster-Platz. 

Hilitary Bands play almost every day in summer at the WUhelmshobe 
(see above), in the Friedrichsau (p. 43), etc. Organ Recital in the Munster, 
see p. 42. 

Electric Tramways (fare 10 pf.). 1. Circular Line: Eailway Station 
(PL A, 2)- Milnster-Platt (PL C, 2) - Frauen-Str. (PL D, 2) - Olga-Str. (PL D-A, 
1. 2) -Station. — 2. Station (PL A, %-MUmter-Platz (PL C, 2) - Lange-Str. 
(PL C, 3) -Market-Place (PL C, D, 3) - Danube-Bridge (PL D, 3)- Marien-Str. 
(PL E, 4)-Ludwig-Str, (PL E, F, 4)- ITeu-Ulm~ Railway Station (PL F, 4). — 
3. Miinster-Platz (PL C, 2)- Platzgasse (PLC, 1, 2)- Syrlin-8tr. (PLC, 1)- 
Bluttgarter Tor (beyond PL C, i). 

Post & Telegraph Office, Bahnhof-Platz (PL A. 2) and Frauen-Str. 
(PL D, 2). 

Vim (1575 ft.), an old-fashioned town with 51,700 inhab., incl. 
a garrison of 7500 men, lies on the left bank of the Danube, which 
is here joined by the Blau and the Uler, and from this point down- 
wards is navigable. The Danube is the boundary between Wurtem- 
berg and Bavaria, to which Neu- Vim on the opposite bank belongs 
(two bridges). 

Ulm* first mentioned in 854 as the seat of a Carlovingian palace, and 
one of the most important free imperial cities in the 14th and 15th cent., 
has belonged to Wurtemberg since 1810. From 1842 to 1866 it was a 
fortress of the Germanic Confederation, and since 1871 it has formed with 
Neu-Ulm a fortress of the German Empire. Towards the close of the 
19th cent, it attained considerable importance as a commercial and in- 
dustrial centre, and room for future development has been secured by the 
purchase by the municipal authorities in 1900 of the former ramparts sur- 
rounding the city. — Ulm was at one time the seat of a school of paint- 
ing, under the influence of the Cologne and Early Flemish Schools. The 
most prominent masters of Ulm are Hans Multscher (ca. 1427-67), Hans 
SchUMein (Schiilin; 1440-1502), his son-in-law Barth. ZeUblo-m (b. 1465, d. 
after 1517), and Martin Schaffner (d. after 1539). Comp. also p. xxii. 

Turning to the right at the station, we follow the Bahnhof-Str. 
and Hirsch-Str. (PL B, 3) to the (10 min.) Miinster-Platz. To the 

42 Route 8. ULM. From Stuttgart 

right, at the beginning of the Hirsch-Str., is the Steinerne Brucke y 
affording a picturesque glimpse of the old timber -houses on 
the Blau. 

The •MtJNSTBB (Prot. ; PI. C, 2), founded in 1377, built at inter- 
vals down to the beginning of the 16th cent., and restored and com- 
pleted in 1844-90 , is the largest Gothic church in Germany next 
to the Cathedral of Cologne, with room for about 58,000 people. 
The sculpturing on the portals is worthy of inspection. On the prin- 
cipal W. portal are the Creation, the Fall, Apostles, etc.; on the S.E. 
side-portal the Last Judgment; on the S. W. side-portal the history 
of Mary. On the roof is the emblem of Ulm: a sparrow with a 
straw in its beak. — The massive and beautifully decorated *Tower 
in the centre of the W. facade, with the magnificent triple vesti- 
bule, was designed and begun by Ulrieh von Ensingen (1392-95), 
the third of the cathedral -architects, erected by his successors 
as far as the top of the square portion (230 ft.) by the end of the 
16th cent., and completed in 1877-90 by Prof. Aug. Beyer by the 
addition of the octagon and pyramid from a sketch left by Mat thaw 
Bollinger (1478-94; comp. p. 38), the eighth of the original archi- 
tects. Being 528 ft. in height, it is one of the loftiest towers in the 
world (Cologne 515 ft., Strassburg 466 ft.; Washington Monument 
556 ft. ; Mole Antonelliana at Turin 545 ft.; Eiffel Tower, in iron, 
986 ft.) and affords a magnificent view. Comp. also p. xx. 

The church is open free, daily 11-12, on Sun. and festivals after 
divine service, incl. *Performance on the organ in summer (entrance 
by the sacristan's office to the right of the right of the W. portal or 
by the 'Brauttor', on the S. side , near the choir). At other times 
visitors require tickets (entr. through the sacristan's office, see above): 
for the nave and aisles 20 pf . ; choir, chapels, and saciisty, with 
guide, 1-4 pers. 1 Jf, each addit. pers. 26 pf. ; extra organ-perform- 
ance 10 Jt. The main tower may be ascended from 7 to 6 in 
summer, 9-3 in winter, and 8-5 in spring and autumn (to the top 
of the square portion 50 pf., to the octagon 1 Jf, children half- 

The Interior originally consisted of a nave with two aisles, all of 
equal breadth, but in 1502-7 the latter were divided by slender round 
pillars and covered with star-vaulting, so as to form four aisles. Length 
140 yds., width 54 yds.; nave 138 ft., aisles 65Vs and 69 ft. in height. 
The magnificent Organ, built in 1856, has 101 stops and 6200 pipes (reci- 
tals, see above). 

On the walls and pillars are numerous escutcheons of Swabian fami- 
lies. — The modern stained-glass windows in the aisles are by Burckhart 
and Zettler, the statues of Apostles in the nave, by G. Federlin. 

By the second pillar of the nave is the * Pulpit, executed by Burkhard 
Engelberg about 15ft3, the *Cover beautifully carved in wood by J. Syrlin 
in 1510. — The octagonal Holy Water Basin round the E. pillar in the 
S. Aisle date? from about 1507. Adjacent is the octagonal Font, with busts 
of prophets, mottoes, and armorial bearings (1470? perhaps by J. Syrlin 
the Elder). — To the left of the entrance to the choir, is the *Oiborium i 
93 ft. in height, beautifully sculptured in stone (1467-71), by the 'Master 
from Weingarten' or Syrlin the Elder (?). Above the choir-arch is a 

to FrUdnchshafen. ULM. 5. Route. 43 

large fresco of the Last Judgment (1171), attributed to Schuhlein, and 
till lately concealed by whitewash. 

The * Choir Stalls, by Jorg Syrlin the Elder, 1469-1174, are among the 
finest works of the kind in Germany. At the W. end are three stalls 
with sibyls (1468) •, on the N. fide, next the ciborium, is a bust of Syrlin 
himself, and beneath the next folding-seat is an old woman, said to 
represent his mother. The busts on the N. side in front embody paganism 
(Ptolemy, Terence, Oioero, etc.); behind, in the upper row are 18 half- 
figures of Apostles and Christian male saints (88. Lawrence, George, 
Damian, etc.), in the lower row, 20 figures of Prophets and heroes of the 
Old Testament (David, Joshua, etc.). — On the S. side are sibyls below, 
with a bust of Syrlin's wife at the W. end; behind, in the upper row are 
St. Luke, Christian female saints (St. Catharine, etc.), and St. Cosmas, in 
the lower row, women of the Old Testament. The ornamental detail 
should not be overlooked. 

The *High Altar is by Martin Schafiner. The paintings and the carved 
figures represent the kindred of the Virgin and form one of the artist's 
chief works (1521). The Last Supper below the altar is also bv M. Schafiner. 
Behind the altar are tombs of bronze (H. Neithart, d. 1500) and marble. 
The fine old Stained Glass, of 1480, is by Hans Wild. 

The Neithart Chapel, to the N. of the choir, contains the original design 
for the tower and paintings of the 15th and 16th centuries ; also two modern 
carved altars (to St. Sebastian and St. Barbara) and an altar-predella with 
saints on the £. wall. 

The S. (Besterer't) Chapel contains a beautiful portrait of Eitel 
Besserer by Martin 8chaffner (1516). In the Sacristy are an elegant little 
•Altar of 1484, with wings copied from engravings of M. Schongauer's 
'Passion', and paintings by B. Zeitblom, H. Malts cher, and M. Schafiner. 

In an old patrician mansion (now the property of the town) at 
Taubengasse 6, to the S. of the minster, is the Industrial and 
Antiquarian Museum (PI. D, 3); adm. 9-5, S«n. 11-1, 60 pf.; at 
other times 1 Jl. 

In the court are stone carvings and works in iron, etc. — Ground 
Floor: Prehistoric antiquities, including a One ichthyosaurus. — First Floor: 
Altar from Hagnau near Meersburg (1518); furniture. — Second Floor: 
Handsome ceilings and doors ; 'tablaturea' (early system of notation) of the 
Meistersinger of Ulm; guild-tablets ; painted terracotta figures by a native 
artist, representing local costumes*, doll's house of 1748; embroideries and 

In the market rises the handsome Rathaus (PI. 0, 3), erected at 
the beginning of the 16th cent, in the transition style from late- 
Gothic to Renaissance, with remains of old frescoes, retouched in 
1906. The Fischkasten, a fine fountain at the S.E. corner, is by 
Syrlin the Elder (1482). Adjacent is a Statue of Emp. William I., 
by M. linger (1900). To the W. is the Neue Ban (PJ. 0, 3), erected 
in 1691 on the site of an ancient imperial palace, now containing 
government offices. The quadrangle contains a fountain with a 
figure of St. Elizabeth. — The Law Courts fPl. 0, 1), in the Olga- 
Strasse, were built by K. von Santer in 1898. The Jury Court is 
adorned with two mural paintings by Fr. Keller. 

Charming walk on the Danube from the Wilhelmshohe (p. 41) 
onwards. The Friedrichsau (beyond PI. F, 1), or public park, also 
repays a visit. About 372 M. to the S. (oron. twice dally) is the old 
Benedictine convent of Wiblingen (now barracks), with an elaborate 
baroque church (1772-81) and an interesting library-hall. 

44 Rovte8. BIBERACH. From Stuttgart 

From TJlm to Kemptkn, 54 M., railway in 2 ! /a hra. Stations Neu-Ulm 
(pp. 41, 184), Senden (junction for Weissenhom). To the right, on the op- 
posite bank of the Iller, lies Ober-Kirchberg, with a chateau of Prince 
Fugger. — As far as Memmingen the lice for the most part follows the 
Iller. At (15 M.) Illertiuen (1685 ft. •, Hirsch) is a well-preserved castle. 
Near Alteustadt the extensive chateau of Jllereiehen rises on the left. — 
22V2 M. KellmQnz, the Roman Celiomonte (branch-line to Babenhausen). 

321/2 M. Memmingen (1970 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant; *Bairischer LTof, R. l»/2-3, 
D. IV2 & %A; Schwarzer Ochse, R. I1/2 A; Adler, Kreuz, plain), junction 
of the lines to Herbertingen (p. 74) and to Buchloe (p. 260), is an old town 
with 11,600 inhab., a free city of the Empire down to 1802, and still partly 
surrounded by walls. The principal church (St. Martin's) contains 65 *Choir 
Stalls, carved in the richest late -Gothic style (end of 15th cent.) by a 
member of the school of Syrlin of Ulm. The 15th cent, frescoes in the 
Frauen- Kirche, discovered in 1890, are among the best of their period. 
Among the mediaeval houses are the Fuggerbau, in which Waller) stein 
received the news of his dismissal in 1630, and the Kramer-Zunft, which 
still retains the Gothic panelled room in which the insurgents' manifesto 
('Bauern-Artiker) in the Peasants' War was drawn up ^n 1525. The Rat' 
haut is also interesting. Branch-line to Leg an, 10 l /2 M. — About 7 M. 
to the S.E. (branch-railway from Ungerhausen, p. 26'J, in 31 min.) is the 
pilgrimage-shrine of Ottobeuren, once a Benedictine Abbey ranking as a 
principality, founded in 764. The church, completed in 1767, is the most 
important rococo building of S. Germany and contains superb paintings, 
fine choir-stalls, and a large organ; it also possesses a rich treasury and 
interesting collections. — 40V« M - Gr8nenbach y with a chateau formerly 
belonging to General Pappenheim. Beyond the large glacier-moraine of 
the Iller a view of the Alps of the Algau is obtained. — 54 M. Kempten 
(p. 280). 

From TJlm to Munich, see R. 81 ; to Aalen, see p. 35 ; to Immendingen 
and Radolfzell, see R. 13. 

Onr line at first ascends the left bank of the Danube, and passes 
the influx of the Iller. — 65 M. Erbach, with a chateau of Baron Ulm. 
The as yet insignificant Danube is now crossed, and we enter Upper 
Swabia, the region to the W. of the lower Iller and the Algau Alps 
and extending S. from the Alb to the Lake of Constance. The rail- 
way traverses a flat district via Risstissen (with a chateau and park of 
Baron Stauffenberg), Laupheim (see below), and Warthausen (with 
a chateau of Herr von Konig) to Biberach. 

Fkom Laupheim to Schwendi, 10 M., railway in S U hr. — 2 M. Laup- 
heim- Stadt. — 5 l /2 M. Burgrieden. The line follows the Rot-Tal, through 
pretty scenery. — 6 M. Orsenhausen y with a chateau of Herr von Hornstein, 
who also owns Schlou Buumannshausen, a little farther on, to the right. — 
10 M. Schwendi (1720 ft.). 

81 i/ 2 M. Biberach (1770 ft.; Wurttembergischer Hof, at the sta- 
tion; Ooldner Lowe; Rad), with 9100 inhab., once a free town of 
the Empire, is still partly surrounded by walls and towers. The poet 
Chr. M. Wielandj who was born in 1733 in the neighbouring village 
of Ober-Holzheim, held a civil appointment here in 1760-69, and is 
said to have collected materials for his 'Abderiten' from among the 
townspeople. A marble bust was erected to him in 1881, near the 
theatre. Biberach possesses a municipal collection of antiquities, 
pictures, and objects of natural history. 

About 2 M. to the S.E. of Biberach station (omnibus several times 
daily) and 1 M. from Ummendorf (p. 45) is the frequented hydropathic 
of Jordanbad (R. 11/4-3, pens., 1st cl., 31/2 A)i pleasantly situated in the 

to Friedrichshafen. RAVENSBURG. 8. Route. 45 

Ri*stal. on the margin of the wood, with a chalybeate spring fKneipp 
Cure 1 5 Dr. Stiitzle). 

A branch-railway runs from Biberach to (I8V2 M.$ I1/4 hr.) Ochsen- 
hausen, a small market- village with a Benedictine abbey founded in 1063 
(now an agricultural school and orphanage) and an elaborately decorated 
baroque church. 

The country becomes more attractive, and woods begin to appear 
on both sides. 84 J /2 M. Vmmendorf, with an interesting Mount 
Calvary. — 94 M. SchussenrUd ('das Ried'), a village known for 
the lake-dwellings discovered near it. The district lunatic asylum 
here, formerly a Praemonstratensian monastery, contains a sumptuous 
library-hall with ceiling-paintings by F. Hermann (1754). The com- 
poser Kreutzer (p. 75) attended the convent-school in 1792-99. 

A branch line runs hence to (572 M. ; V« hr.) Buohau, a little town 
with an ancient nunnery (now a chateau of Prince Taxis), ty» M. to the 
N. of which is the Federtee (ca. 620 acres in extent). 

At (97 M.) Aulendorf (Lowe, very fair; Rail. Restaurant), 
junction of the Herbertingen and Memmingen line (p. 74), is the 
chateau of Count Konigsegg, with a garden commanding a fine view 
of the distant Alps and a well-stocked deer-park. 

The line now follows the small river Schussen to Friedrichshafen. 
— 101 M. Durlesbach. — To the left, beyond (1071/2 M.) Nieder- 
biegen, rises the abbey of Weingarten (see below). Towards the S. 
the mountains of Appenzell come in view. 

1 IOV2 M. Bavensburg (1456 ft. ; Kaiserhof, new ; ^Railway Hotel 
Hildebrand, R. l 1 /^ A; Lamm), an ancient town with 14,800" 
inhab., surrounded by vine-clad heights, once subject to the Quelphs, 
then to the Hohenstaufen, and lastly a free town of the empire, still 
preserves its mediaeval exterior, and is surrounded by walls and a 
dozen towers. The slenderest of the latter is called the Mehlsack 
('sack of flour'). The Protestant Church, formerly belonging to the 
Carmelites and restored in 1862, is a good Gothic structure, with 
fine modern stained-glass windows. The Konzerthaus contains a 
Collection of Antiquities (adm. free). 

The Yeitsburg- (1719 ft. j restaurant), »/« br. from the town, to the 8., 
is surmounted by a view-tower, on the site of a Guelphic castle, which 
commands an extensive view of the Lake of Constance, the Alps of Appen- 
zell, and the Vorarlberg. A still finer point is the *Waldburg (2615 ft.), 
2 brs. to the E., the well-preserved ancestral castle of the family of that 
name ('Truchsess von Waldburg"'). 

From Ravensbnrg a narrow-gauge railway runs to the N.E. in 20 min. 
to (2V2 M.) Weingarten (B8r), a town of 7100 inhab., with an imposing 
Benedictine abbey with three towers, founded by the Guelphs in 1053 and 
now used as barracks. The elaborate baroque church (1715-24) contains 
the mausoleum of the Guelphs (1852) and the Monument of tbe Guelphs, 
by Klenze, erected by King George V. of Hanover in 1869, 

Beyond Ravensburg another glimpse of the Alps is obtained. 
The line traverses parts of the Seewald. — From (116 M.) Mecken- 
beuern an electric railway runs to (^hr.) Tettnang, with the large 
chateau of the extinct Counts of Montfort. The Lake of Constance 
at length becomes visible. 

46 Route 9. METZINGEN. From Stuttgart 

123 M. Friedrichshafen. — Hotel*. Dkctsches Haus, by the sta- 
tion, with garden on the lake, R. 1 ** 60 pf.-3V», B. 1, D, 2»/», pens. 5-15 Jf ;' 
Lamm; 8onkb, R. 1Vs-2>/s, B. »/4, D- l 1 /** 2 •*»' Sekhotkl, at the harbour; 
Drbi Konigb, B. iy*-2, D. l»/a A, B. 80 pf., plain but good; Skbhof, 
with garden. — Railway Restavrtmt, by the lake-station, with a terrace. 

Friedrichihafen (1320 ft.) lies on the Bodentee or Lake of Con- 
stance (p. 78). The train goes on from the station to the quay, 
whence steamers ply 4-5 times daily to the chief places on the lake 
The bnsy little town, with 5000 inhab., and a harbour, was founded 
by King Frederick of Wurtemberg, who connected Buchhorn, the 
smallest of 'imperial cities', with the monastery of Hofen, now the 
palace, and gave the place its modern name. The Schloss contains 
a few pictures by modern Wurtemberg masters (Gegenbaur, Pflng, 
etc.). A pavilion in the Ritdlt Park commands a charming prospect 
of the lake and the Alps. The historical , prehistorical , and 
natural history collections of the Bodensee Verem deserve a visit. 
The lake -baths attract many visitors in summer. Kursaal, with 
terrace on the lake. 

From Friedrichshafen to IXndau end to Constance, fee B. 14 b; steamers 
on the Lake of Constance, see B. 14a. 

9. From Stuttgart to Tubingen and Horb. 

Comp. Map, p. 56, 

64V« M. Bailway in 2-3Va hra. (fares 8 A 40, 5 A 60, 8 A 60 pf.). Best 
views to the left. 

From Stuttgart to (14i/ 2 M.) Phchmgen, see R. 8. — I81/2 M. 
Unter-Boihingen (p. 58). To the right in the valley, near Kong en 
(the Roman Vicus Qrinario; excavated castTum) the Neckar is crossed 
by an ancient stone bridge (restored in 1603 ; obelisk), from which 
Duke Ulrich is said to have leaped in 1519 in order to escape cap- 
ture by the troops of the Swabian League. To the left rise the Teck, 
Hohen-Neuffen, and other Alb Mts. — 21 i/ 2 M. JTurtingen (936 ft. ; 
Krone, ScholL at the station), a manufacturing town (pop. 6750) 
on the right bank of the Neckar. The pretty Prot. parish-church, a 
late- Gothic structure, contains a fine Renaissance choir-screen. 
Branch-line to Neuffen, see p. 60. — 25 M. Neckartailfingen; the 
.village of that name, with an early-Romanesque church (11th cent.; 
frescoes of the 13th cent.), lies 2 M. to the W. — The line now 
quits the Neckar-Tal ; fine view of the Alb to the left. 

From (30y 2 M.) Meteingen (1170 ft. ; *Sprandel, at the station; 
Linde), a small town with 5800 inhab., a branch-line diverges to 
Urach (p. 60). The Erms is crossed here. 

To Neuffen, see p. 59. Fine view from the * Floriansberg (1716 ft.), 
*A hr. to the N.E. ; above it rises the basaltic Jwibtrg (2175 ft.). From 
this point a pleasant walk may be taken along the ridge via the ESrnlt 

re^^s^vjtfsr" of mam "* ****** 

to Horb. REUTLINGEN. 9. Route. 47 

33 4 / 2 M. Sondclfingcn. To the left rises the Achalm (p. 62). 

36 M. Beutlingen. — Hotel*. Keonprinz, at the station, with 
garden, R. 1 M 60 pf.-3, B. */4, D. \>h&h •*; *Ochs, in the marketplace, 
K. 1V2-1 8 A« D - 2 **> B « 70 P f -i Schwan, in the market-place; Hibsob, 
Wilhelm-Str., well spoken of; Bis; Lows, at the station; Falkb, near 
the market-place. — Wine at the Eirsch and Schwan hotels (see above)} 
Authenrieth ; Fa**le. 

Steam Tramway from the station through the town to (20 min.) 
Eningtn (p. 63), on the E. (fare 20 pf.). — light Railway from a terminus 
3 min. to the W. of the railway station, vifi Betting en (p. 48), to (10 M.) 
GOnningen (p. 66), on the S.W. 

Reullingen (1230 ft.), once a free city of the empire, now an 
industrial town with 23,900 inhab., weaving and spinning mills, 
and tanneries, is picturesquely situated on the Echat*. The Qarten- 
Tor and Tubinger-Tor are well-preserved relics of its ancient 
fortifications, but the ramparts and fosses have been converted into 
well-built streets. In front of the station is a monument to Frederick 
List (1789-1846), the political economist, and in the Obere Garten- 
Str. is another to the poet Hermann Kur% (1813-73). Both were 
born in houses in the "Wilhelm-Strasse (now indicated by tablets). 

— From the station we follow first the Karl-Str., then (left) the 
Wilhelm-Strasse. To the right, in the latter, is the St. NikoLaus- 
Kirche (1358), with an interesting high-altar, and farther on, to the 
left, is the Heiliggtist-Kirche or Spital-Kirche. In the market-place is 
the Maximilians-Brunnen, the original of which (1570) is preserved 
in the Spendhaus (3 min. behind the Rathaus), where also are the 
collections of the Natural History Society and the Society of Art and 
Antiquity (Sun. 1-3, free; at other times, fee). The (Prot.) *Church 
of St. Mary, a noble Gothic edifice of the 12-14th cent., with some 
Romanesque remains, was burned in 1726, repaired in 1844, and 
thoroughly restored in 1893-1901. The beautiful tower is 240 ft. 
high. In the interior are frescoes of the early 14th century. The 
octagonal stone *Font of 1499 is admirably and richly sculptured ; 
the reliefs in the niches represent the Baptism of Christ and the 
Seven Sacraments. The *Holy Sepulchre in the choir (about 1480) 
is also very interesting. The handsome modern altar was designed 
by Beisbarth and executed by Lauer (1878). The sacristan's house 
is opposite the W. side of the church. The Marienkirch-Brunnen 
is embellished with a figure of Emp. Frederick II., restored in 1903. 
In the upper Wilhelm-Str. is the late-Gothic Linden-Brunnen (1544). 

— *Lucas's Pomologicat Institution, the Weaving School, the School 
of Women's Work, and the Bruderhaus, a refuge established by Pastor 
Werner (d. 1887), merit a visit. The Cemetery contains a tasteful 
modern chapel in the Gothic style. The Panorama Weg t skirting 
the Honau railway from the station, affords pretty views; the little 
sulphur-bath of Heilbrunnen is 8/4 M. to the N.E. of the station. 
Excursions, see pp. 62, 66. 

From Reutlingen to Schelklingen , 36 M., railway in 3 hrs., via 
Honav y Lichlenstein, and Miinsingen, see p. 63. 

48 Route 9. TUBINGEN. From Stuttgart 

38 M. Bctzingen (Rose), see p. 47. At f40y 2 M.) Kirchentellins- 
furt the line re-enters the Neckar-Tal. 43 M. Lustnau (Ochse), a 
favourite resort of the Tubingen students, with a fine church. 

44V2 M. Tubingen. — Railway Restaurant. — Hotels. Teaube (PI. a; 
C, 3), R. H/a-5, B. »/«, D. 2UU,well spoken of; •Goldnkb Ochse (PI. d; 
1), 5), near the railway-station, R. l*/4-2V4, B. »/«, D. 1V» •*; *Lamm (PI. b; 
B, 4), in the market-place, R. 2-3, B. */« •*» Pbinz Karl (PI. c; C, 3), 
E. IV2-2, B. 8/4, D. l l A & 1 8 A Ulf »• KGniq Kabl (PI. e; C, 4), Miihlgasse, 
R. 1V« •%' — Beer at the Ochse and /Vtn* JfciW hotels (see above); K<m- 
merelVs, near the Stiftskirche ; Ratsstube ; Krone ; Ludwigsbad> by the Neckar 
bridge, with garden; Museum, Wilhelm-Str., with garden; 8ehloss-Oarten y 
near the castle. — Wine at the Forelle, Kronengaase (good cuisine); Seeger"s 
(Ratskeller), Herrenberger-Str. ; Traube^ Lamm (see above). — Post and 
Telegraph Office (PI. C, 8), at the corner of the Neckargasse and the 

Tubingen (1036 ft.), a town with 16,800 inhab., finely situated 
on a ridge on the Neckar, possesses a university, founded by Count 
Eberhard im Bart in 1477, of which the theological and medical 
faculties especially enjoy a high reputation (1600 students). Me- 
lanchthon was a lecturer here (1612-18) before he was summoned 
to Wittenberg. 

From the station (PI. C, 5), which lies to the S. of the town, we 
traverse the beautiful shady promenades of the 'Worth' to a bronze 
Statue of Uhland (PL 3; 0, 5), by Kietz, erected in 1872. In the 
plantation at the W. end of the avenue of planes is a monument to 
the authoress Ottilie Wildermuth (d. 1877; PL 4, A, 5), by Roesch. 

From Uhland's statue we proceed to the right to the bridge over 
the Neckar on which is a Staue of Count Eberhard (see above). 
Immediately beyond the bridge (to the right, at the beginning of the 
Muhl-Strasse) is Uhlantfs House (PL 6; C, D, 4), in which the poet 
died in 1862. The house in which he was born is in the Neckar- 
Halde (tablet; PL 5, B, 4)); his grave in the cemetery is marked by 
a monument of granite. — Farther up the hill are houses belonging 
to student-societies. 

The streets of the old town are narrow and picturesque. The choir 
of the late-Gothic Stiftskirche of St. George (1483-1529; PL C, 4; 
sacristan at Munzgasse 6, to the W. of the church) contains fine old 
•Stained glass, well preserved ; twelve monuments with recumbent 
stone figures, of Wurtemberg princes, including Count Eberhard im 
Bart (d. 1496), and Duke Ulrich (d. 1550) ; and an old German 
winged picture by Schaufelein (1520; Crucifixion, etc.). The organ- 
loft is adorned with a bust of Luther by Donndorf . The choir-stalls 
in carved wood, below the organ, are of the school of Syrlin (early 
16th cent). — Adjoining the Stiftskirche is the old Aula, contain- 
ing the class-rooms of the faculty of arts (art- historical institute, 
adm. Thuis. 9-12 & 2-6, Sun. 10.30-12.30). — The Town Hall 
(PL B, 4), erected in 1435 and enlarged in 1543, was provided with 
a painted facade in 1872. — The Stift (PL B, 4), a Protestant se- 
minary with 140 pupils, founded in 1536 by Duke Ulrich, is estab- 

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lished in an old Augustinian monastery. The Roman Catholic 
Wilhelm88tift (PI. 0, 3), with about 130 students, occupies the old 
Collegium IUustre, founded in 1588 for sons of the nobility. Beyond 
the Wilhelmsstift is the Roman Catholic Church (PI. B, 3), in the 
early-Gothic style, by Egle. 

In the new N. quarter of the town, in the handsome Wilhelm- 
Strasse and to the "W. of it, are a number of imposing buildings 
such as the Museum, the University, various University Institutes 
and several Hospitals, The Aula (PL D, 2), the chief university 
building, contains a picture-gallery (a Correggio, a Cranach, etc., and 
numerous portraits of professors). At the back of the university rises 
an obelisk in memory otSilchcr, the composer (d. 1860; PI. 2, D, 2). 
— The Botanical Garden (PI. 0, 2, 3) of the university contains a 
monument to the poet Holderlin (d.1843), presented by the sculptor 
Andresen in 1881. — The Mineralogical and Zoological Institute 
(PL D, 1) accommodates the Natural History Collections of the uni- 
versity, including a fossil ichthyosaurus 24^ ft* long and a large slab' 
of fossil pentacrinites. 

By the Town Hall (p. 48) the Wiener Gassle, continued by the 
Burgsteige, ascends to the left to the Schloss Hohen- Tubingen 
(1215 ft. ; PI. A, 4), situated on a hill commanding the town, erected 
by Duke Ulrich in the Renaissance style in 1535, with a richly 
decorated outer portal of 1606 and an inner portal of 1538 (restored 
in 1892). It contains the University Library and the Observatory. 
The cellars contain an immense cask (18,700 gallons) and a deep 
well (formerly descending to the level of the Neckar). The attend- 
ant lives in the second archway to the right. Com p. p. xxvii. 

Fine *View from the SchUnzU (PI. A, 4), at the back of the Schloss 
(reached from the court of the Schloss through the low passage beyond 
the well), and from the IAchtenberger ffdhe (beyond PI. A, 4), 20 min. farther 
on. Other good points of view are the Wieland-Bdhe and the Oesterberg (beyond 
PI. D, 4) to the E. On the summit of the Oesterberg (1436 ft. ; 20 min. from 
the town) is the *Kai*er-Wilhelm-Ttirm (adm. 20 pf.), erected in 1893. The 
view extends from the Hohenstaufen to the Plettenberg and the Hornis- 
grinde. — More distant points of view are, to the N., the Waldhduser ffdhe 
(3/ 4 hr.), Eberhards- ffdhe 0/« br.), and Steinenberg (view- tower ; 8 /4 hr.), and 
to the W. beyond the Schloss, Oedenburg, and Wald-Turm on the Suss (Spitz- 
berg; 1540 ft. j 8/4 hr.). 

About 3y 2 M. to the N. of Tubingen (carr. there and back 3 Jf) lies 
the well-preserved old Cistercian monastery of *Bebenhau»en, founded in 
1185, one of the finest mediaeval structures in Swabia and, like Maulbronn, 
one of the most picturesque conventual establishments in Germany. We 
enter by the Schreiber-Turm on the W. side (keeper's room to the left; 
fee). The late -Gothic cloisters, with their interesting well-house, is ad- 
joined on the N. by the Church, which is still partly Romanesque, though 
the choir is Gothic (traces of frescoes) and the nave was rebuilt in -the 
16th century. To the E. of the cloisters are the Chapter Room, the Parla- 
toriumj or audience-room, and a Recreation Room for the lay-brothers, all 
built in the severe transition style affected by the Cistercian order about 
the beginning of the 13th century. To the S. is the large Winter Refectory 
(1335), containing a collection of arms and armour and goldsmiths' work; 
and to the W. is the Summer Refectory, with a late mediaeval fresco of the 
expedition of the Cistercian knights of Calatrava against the Moors. — 

Baedekeb's S. Germany. 10th Edit. 4 

50 Route 9. ROTTENBURG. 

Farther to the E. is the Abbofs House, now a royal shooting-lodge and shown 
only in the absence of the king. Adjacent are the Hirtch and Waldhorn 

On a height (1568 ft.), I 1 A hr. to the W., rises the Wurmlinger Kapelle, 
commanding an extensive view. Its praises have been sung by Uhlan d and 
other poets. (The chapel may be reached by a pleasant path through the 
wood from the Schloss at Tubingen, following the top of the hill, via the 
Schanzle, Lichtenberg, and Buss; see p. 49.) 

From Tubingen to Hohenzollern and Bigmaringen, see B. 12. 

52 M. Rottenburg (1116 ft.; Bar, Romischer Kaiser, both in the 
market-place), an old town (7500 inhab.) picturesquely situated on 
the Neckar, connected by three bridges with the suburb of Ehingen 
(with the rail, station and post-office), is an episcopal see. In the 
market-place are a fine late-Gothic Fountain of 1470, and the late- 
" Gothic Church of St. Martin, with its perforated spire. The Bischofs- 
hof, formerly a Jesuit convent, contains the Diocesan Museum (on the 
2nd floor; ring), comprizing paintings and carvings of the Swabian 
, School of the 15th and 16th cent., nearly all of which are spoiled 
by retouching. In the tithe-barn beside the lower bridge is a col- 
lection of Roman antiquities found here in the old Roman station 
of Sumelocenna (key opposite). Hops abound. 

At the AUstadt (1394 ft.), V« kr. to the S.E., is a late -Roman or 
Frankish camp; */* hr. farther to the 8., beyond the village of Wetter, is 
the Weilerburg or Altrotenburg (1820 ft. ; belvedere). — The Stilchen-Kapelle, 
1 M. to the N.E. of Rottenburg, once the centre of the Siilich-Gau, is the 
burial-church of the Roman Catholic bishops of Wurtemberg. 

The train crosses the Neckar and follows the left bank. Vineyards 
gradually give way to pine-forest. 53*/2 M. Niedernau. The chaly- 
beate and sulphur baths of that name lie in the Eatzenbach-Tal, on 
the opposite bank. — The line crosses the Neckar, and near (55*/ 2 M.) 
Bieringen the Starzel, which descends from Hechingen. To the right, 
beyond a long tunnel, rises Schloss Weitenburg, with its fine pinnacled 
tower, commanding a fine view. On a pine-clad hill to the left of 
(5972 M.) Eyach is the ruin of Frundeck. 

From Eyach to Stetten, 8 M., light-railway up the Eyach-Tal in % hr. 
— 2V« M. Miihringen, with a chateau. — S'A M. Imnau (1295 ft. ; Bad-Hotel, 
R. 1-2 *#, board 2 Jt 10 pf. to 2 Jt 80 pf.), with chalybeate springs, chiefly 
visited by ladies. Good baths (mineral, pine-cone, saline, Turkish, and 
vapour). Pretty situation.. — 6»/ 4 M. Haigerloch (Post), a little Prussian 
town with 13G0 inhab., picturesquely situated on both sides of the Eyach, 
and commanded by a 16th cent. Schloss. A road (diligence) runs hence to 
the E. to Hechingen (p. 69; 9*/2 M.). — From (8 M.) Stetten, with salt-works, 
a road goes on to the S. to Balingen (p. 70; l l lt M.). 

641/2 M. Horb. From Horb to Stuttgart via Boblingen, and to 
Schaffhauscn via Immendingen, see R. 10; to Calw and Pforzheim, 
see p. 20 j to Eutingen and Scherikenzell, see p. 51. 

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10. From Stuttgart to Boblingen and Schaffhausen. 

122Va M. Railway (Gaubahn). Express in 41/4 hrs. (fares 17 A 95, 12 UT 
65 pf.), ordinary train in 8 hrs. (15 uT 90, 10 UT 60, 6 A 80 pf.). This is 
the direct route from Stuttgart to Central Switzerland (express from Stutt- 
gart to Zurich in 0V2-6 hrs. ; through- carriages) and to the Baden Oberland 
(see below). 

From Stuttgart (Central Station) to the (5 M.) West Station 
(1214 ft.), see p. 13. Just beyond' the station the train penetrates a 
spur of the Hasenberg, and then ascends (1:100), high above the sub- 
urb of Heslach and the gradually contracting valley. Pretty views to 
the left. The line runs through wood on the Heslach er Wand, and is 
carried across three deep gorges by lofty embankments. At (9*/2 M.) 
Vaihingen the train reaches the Filder, the fertile upland plain to 
the S. of Stuttgart ; the Swabian Alb rises in the background. — The 
Schonbuchwald is now traversed to (15V2 M.) Boblingen (1436 ft. ; 

Waldhom, or Post, R. i'Vi-l 1 /* P en8 * 4 "& -*)i an old town ( 5700 in- 
hab.), with a castle (now a school), prettily situated on two large 
ponds. The Waldburg, a Kurhaus 10 min. to the N.E. of the town, 
with a wooded park and extensive view, is a favourite resort. 

I872 M. Ehningen, where the Wurm is crossed. — 257 2 M. Herren- 
berg (1413 ft.; Post), an old town (2600 inhab.) in the fertile Qau, 
has an early-Gothic abbey-church (1439) with good choir- stalls. 
The Schlossberg affords a good view. To the S.E. are the hills of the 
Schonbuch and in the distance the Alb. 

36 M. Eutingen (1550 ft. ; Bail. Bestaurant), junction for Pforz- 
heim (p. 21). Branch railway to Freudenstadt and Hausach, see 
p. 54. 

The train descends the narrow valley of Muhlen, with the ruined 
. Stauffenbcrg on the left, threads a tunnel, and crosses the Neckar. 
41 M. Horb (1280 ft.; Zum Kaiser, R. IVrlVfc P ens - 5 " 6 •*> 
Krone ; Bar ; Bail. Bestaurant), a small town with 2500 inhab., in a 
picturesque situation, has an interesting late- Gothic Abbey Church 
(R. C; 15th cent, statue of Christ over the S. portal). The town- 
walls are in partial preservation. On the hill, 1/2 hr. from the station, 
are the old Schihtte-Turm and the Oltilien-Kapelle. Hops abound. 

Berthold Auerbach (1812-82), the«ovelist of the Black Forest, was born 
and is buried at Nordttetten, near. Horb. 

From Horb to Stuttgart via Tubingen and Plochingen, see B. 9. 

The train for a short way traverses Prussian territory. 45V2 M. 
Neckarhdu8en. We return to the left bank. To theE. above Fischingen 
rises the extensive ruin of Wehrstein. — 50 7 2 M. Snlz ami Neckar 
(1410 ft.; Waldhorn, R. 1-1 V* pens, SVr* 1 ^ •*)» a little town with 
a Gothic church and salt springs. Then a tunnel. To the left beyond 
it rises the ruin of Albeck. Near (56 M.) Aistaig pleasant glimpses 
of the valley are enjoyed. — 57 M. Oberndorf (1518 ft. ; Post, 
R. 1-2 M), a little town to the right (pop. 4000). The old Augustine 
monastery is now a gun-factory. — 61 M. Epfendorf. — 64 M. Tal- 


52 Route 10. ROTTWEIL. From Stuttgart 

hausen. The line is carried over four bridges, through four tunnels, 
with various ruins to the right and left, and lastly by a long tunnel 
through the hill on which Rottweil lies. In the valley, to the right, 
is a large Powder Mill. 

681/2 M. Bottweil (1827 ft. : Rottweiler Hof; Wilder Mann or 
AlU Post, R. li/ 2 A, B. 70 pf., D. 1 A 80 pf. ; Lamm; *Rail. Re- 
staurant, D. with wine 2 A 80 pf.), an ancient town (9000 inhab.) 
with partially preserved walls and towers, was a free city of the 
Empire and the seat of an imperial court of justice down to 1802. 
It is finely situated high above the Neckar. The station, with the 
extensive locomotive-factory, is */g M. from the town. To the left 
above the station is the site of a large Roman camp, while the hamlet 
of AlUtadt, 3/ 4 M. to the S., covers the remains of a Roman civil 
colony. The saline springs and baths of Wilhelmshall lie 1/2 M. 
farther to the S. 

The *Hcilige-Kreuz-Kirchc, a fine Gothic structure of 1364-1517, 
with certain portions of an earlier date, was restored by Heideloff in 
1840. The Kapellen-Kirche, with its handsome Gothic tower of 1364, 
was entirely remodelled at the beginning of the 18th century. Some 
good carvings on the S. side and on the panels of the doors are the 
sole relics of the original structure. The Fountain in the market- 
place is quaint The interesting Collection of Antiquities contains 
chiefly Roman relics. The Chapel of St. Lawrence in the old cemetery 
contains a collection of mediaeval wood- carvings and pictures, chiefly 
of the Upper Swabian school. In the centre is a mosaic pavement 
from a Roman bath (Orpheus). The massive Hochturm (177 ft.), in 
the highest part of the town on the W. side, commands an extensive 

The well-wooded *Lemberg (3330ft.), the loftiest summit of the Swabian 
Alb, may be ascended in 3 hrs. from Rottweil; we cross the Neckar by 
the iron footbridge above the station and proceed via Wellendingen and 
Wilflingen (a Hohenzollern 'enclave'). The tower (100 ft. high) on the top 
commands a splendid view of the Swabian Alb, the Black Forest, and the 
Alps. - The Oberkohenberg (3317 ft.), 8 /< br. to the N. of the Lemberg, the 
highest summit of tbe Alb but one, commands a poor view. — From Qosheim 
(2780 ft. ; 8onne). »/« hr. to the 8. of the Lemberg, a fine hill-walk may be 
taken via the Klippeneek (3220 ft) to the (2»/a hrs.) Dretfaltigkeitsberg (see 
p. 58). 

Ascent of the Phttenberg from Bottweil, see p. 70. 

From Rottweil to Villinokn, 17 M., railway in H/4 hr. (fares 2 Jt 20, 
i A 50, 95 pf.). — 7V2 M. Trossingen, whence an electric tramway (2y« M. in 
12 min.) runs to the village of that name, with mouth-organ factories. — 
11 M. Schtoenningen (Rail. Hotel), with 13,000 inhab. and a state technical 
school for the finer kinds of machinery. About 1 M. to the S. is the Source 
of the Jftekar (425 ft.), a reservoir with small gardens and a 'bathing-establish- 
ment; 172 M. to the W. stands the HdlzlekOnig, a fir-tree 140 ft. high dating 
from the middle of the 16th century. — The line traverses a lofty plain, 
the watershed between the Rhine and Danube, and beyond stat. Marbach 
descends the Brigach-Tal to VUUngen (see Baedeker's Rhine). 

The line crosses the Neckar and enters the broad Prhntal. To the 
left, several picturesque glimpses of the Oberkohenberg, Lemberg, 
and other spurs of the Alb. 72 M. Neufra. The line ascends gradu- 

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to Schaffhausen. TUTTLINGEN. 10. Route. 53 

ally, and then traverses a high-lying, well-cultivated plain, forming 
part of the Baar (see below). 74'/2 M. Aldingen. To the left rises 
the long ridge of the Heuberg, a barren plateau 13^2 M. long and 
9Va M. broad, with the Dreifaltigkeitsberg (see below). To the right 
are the flattened cone of the Hohenkarpfen and the coffin-shaped 
Lupfen. — 77i/ 2 M. Spaichingen (2200 ft. ; Krone; *Alte Post, 
R. lV4-l 3 /4 «#> Neue Post), a straggling little town (2700 inhab.). 

The Dreifaltigkeitsberg (8225 ft), a spur of the Heuberg, with a fre- 
quented pilgrimage -church, is ascended from Spaichingen in 1 hr. •, the 
tower on the top (20 pf.) commands a magnificent view. Bfmts. at the 
sacristan's house (also beds). 

Spaichingen is also the starting-point for a visit to the Baar, an 
undulating and fertile plateau (2300-2600 ft.), partly wooded, which extends 
from Rottweil (N.) to Tuttlingen (S.) and is bounded on the W. by the 
spurs of the Black Forest and on the E. by the Heuberg (see above). The 
following is an attractive excursion (to Tuttlingen, 7 hrs.). We proceed 
to the S. to (1 hr.) Hansen ob Verena (2645 ft.), beyond which a road (to 
the left) leads to the (*/« hr.) Hohenkarpfen (2980 ft.), a mountain-cone like 
the Hohenstaufen, with a ruined castle. Thence we proceed to the S.W. to 
the (1 i/i hr.) wooded Lupfen (3205 ft. \ view intercepted by trees), with a 
ruined castle, and then descend to the S. to O/2 hr.) Talheim (2475 ft \ Linde), 
birth-place and burial-place of Max Schneckenburger (1819-49), author of 
the 'Wacht am Rhein\ The Himmelberg (3085 ft.), 1 M. to the S., commands 
a distant view of the Alps. — From Talheim we go on via the Konzenberg 
(2615 ft. ; ruined castle) to the (2 J /4 hrs.) railway - station of MOhringen (see 
below) or to (3 hrs.) Tuttlingen, to which a diligence plies once daily. 

82V2 M. Wurmlingen, a village on the Faulenbach. The line 
describes a long curve, and crosses the Danube by an iron bridge. 

85 M. Tuttlingen (2120 ft. ; *Post, R. 1 y 2 'l*k, B. a/ 4f D. 2 M; 
*Hecht; Schwarzer Bar ; Rail. Restaurant), a thriving town (14,600 
inhab.), lies on the right bank of the Danube. Above it rise the 
ruins of the Honburg (2415 ft.), destroyed during the Thirty Years' 
War. A monument, with a medallion-portrait and a figure of Ger- 
mania, designed by Jahn, was erected in the Bahnhof-Str. in 1892 
to Max Schneckenburger (see above). The Witthoh (2800 ft.), 2 hrs. to 
the S., is a good point of view; descent .thence to Hattingen (see 
below), 8/4 hr., toMohringen (see below), l 1 ^ 1 * — From Tuttlingen 
to Sigmaringen and Vim, see R. 12. 

The line traverses the broad valley of the Danube, and crosses 
the river near (87^2 M.) Mohringen. Some of the Danube water 
filters through the earth here and re-appears in the Aach Spring, 
8 M. to the S. — 91 M. Immendingen (Falke; Rail. Restaurant), 
junction for Donaueschingen and Waldshut (see Baedeker's Rhine). 

The train recrosses the Danube, gradually ascends its S. bank, 
penetrates the watershed between Danube and Rhine by deep cut- 
tings and a tunnel, and descends beyond (94^2 M.) Hattingen 
(2265 ft; Ochs). After a tunnel (986 yds. long) and several lofty 
viaducts, the line runs at a high level along the E. slope of the 
hills. — 98 M. Thalmuhle. We now descend the wooded Engener- 
Tal to (101 M.) Engen (1705 ft. ; Stem; Drei Kronen; 
a small and ancient town, where the mountains are quitted. 

54 Route 10. FREUDENSTADT. 

The train now skirts the volcanic peaks of the Hep au, the highest 
of which, the Neuenhowen (2850 ft.), rises to the W. of (103V 2 M.) 
Welschingcn ; beyond it is the two-peaked Hokenstoffeln. 106 M. 
Muhlhawen, at the foot of the basaltic Magdeberg (2185 ft.). 107 M. 
Hohenkrahen (1450 ft.) lies at the foot of a bold rock (2116 ft.), 
crowned with fragments of an old castle. 

HO 1 ^ M. Singen. — Hotels. Kbone, y 2 M. from the station, an 
old-established unpretentious establishment, R. lVt-iVt, B.2Jf; Ekkehard, 
R. 174*2, B. */<) D - i l /4 Jf; Adleb, nearest the railway -station, plain; 
Schwxizeehof, near the station, R. from 1 JH 60, B. 80pf.. — Railway Restaurant* 

Singen, (1405 ft.), on the Ache, is the station for visitors to the 
Hohentwiely which rises on a lofty isolated rock 3 M. to the N.W. 
About */2 M. beyond the Krone we turn to the right from the Gott- 
madingen road ; 1 M. farther on lies the Inn zum Hohentwiel, whence 
we reach the ruin in 15-18 min. (adm. 20 pf.). 

The fortress of ^Hohentwiel (2253 ft.) , a small 'enclave' of Wurtem- 
berg, was the seat of Alemanian dukes in the 9th and 10th cent., came 
into the possession of the Hobenstaufens in the 11th cent., and has belonged 
to Wurtemberg since 1538. It was successfully defended during the Thirty 
Tears 1 War by the Wurtemberg commandant Widerhold. In 1800 it was 
destroyed by the French. The imposing ruins command a superb view. 
Comp. Scheffers 'Ekkehard'. 

114 M. Gottmadingen ; H71/2M. Thayingen; 120 M. Herblingen. 

123 M. Schaffhausen (1330 ft; *H6tel Muller, B. 2i/ 2 -3V2, 
B. I 1 /*, D. 3^2 Ji ; Rheinischer Hof, similar charges ; *Riest, R. 2-3, 
D. 3 uff, these three at the station ; *National; Schwan, very fair j Rail- 
way Restaurant) is a picturesque old Swiss town (16,000 inhab.) 
on the right bank of the Rhine, formerly a free town of the Empire, 
and now the capital of the canton of that name. The Munster, 
an early - Romanesque basilica of 1052-1101, has recently been 
restored. The massive tower of Munot dates from the 16th century. 
The Imthurneum contains a theatre, music-school, and music-rooms. 
Opposite is the Museum with natural history specimens, antiquities, 
and the town-library. The Fasenstaub, a pleasant promenade, 
commands a fine view of the Rhine and the Alps. 

The 'Falls of the Rhine are most conveniently visited by rail from 
Schaffhausen to stat. Jfeuhausen y 21/2 M. distant. See Baedeker** Switzerland. 

From Eutingbn (p. 51) to Hatjsach, 42 ! /2 M., branch-railway 
in l 3 /4-4V 4 hrs. (from Stuttgart, 31/4-6 hrs.). The line turns to the 
W. and as far as (2*/-2 M.) Hochdorf (1650 ft.) coincides with the 
Nagold railway (p. 20). It then ascends and enters the Black Forest. 
— 15M. Dornstetten (2065 ft.), with 1200 inhab., has a late-Gothic 
church (14th cent.). — Three lofty viaducts. 

18M. Freudenstadt. — The main railway -station (2180 ft.; un- 
pretending inn close by) lies % M. from the town; near the town is a 
second station for the branch-line to Kloster-Reichenbach. 

Hotels (rooms should be engaged beforehand in summer). *Schwabz* 
wald Hotel, in an open situation near the principal station, with large 
garden, R. 2-5, B. ii/4, D. 3»/j, pens. 6-9 JH. — In the town : *Post, R. li/ 2 -3, 
B. a/ 4} D. 2V2, pens. 6-7 Jt, with dependance \ Krone, in a new building, R. 

SCHILTACH. 10. Route. 55 

from I1/2, D. 2, pens. 5-6 M; Happen. R. IVs-Si/g, D. 2, pens, from i l /tJf; 
Linde, pens, from 4V» M; Hebzoo Fbiedbioh: Rosble, pens. 41/2-0 Jl ; 
Schutzen, small. — Kubhaus Waldlust, pens. 6-14 Jl; Eubhads Palhen- 
wald, R. lVs-3, L. ft A. 5o/o of the bill, pens. 5-6 M; Hotel-Cafe Stokingeb ; 
these three above the town, to the 8.E.; Kubhaus Waldkck, R. from 1 M 
80 pf., B. i, D. at 1 p.m. 21/2, pens. 6>/r8>/s, omn. i JC. — Dr. Lieb's Sana- 
torium for nervous patients, pens. 5-7 M. — Pension* and Private Apartment* 
(R. 6-9 JH per week). — VUitor** Tax, 2 J.- Carriage* at all the hotels. 

Freudenstadt (2395 ft.), a town with 7900 inhab., with cloth- 
factories and timber trade, was founded in 1599 by Duke Friedrich L 
of Wurtemberg for Protestant refugees from Salzburg, and is now a 
summer-resort, visited by about 5000 guests annually. The plan of 
the town is peculiar. In the centre is an extensive Platz (now partly 
occupied by gardens), surrounded by arcaded houses, while in and 
near it are the Rathaus, the Schooly the Protestant Churchy the Law 
Court, and the new Post Office. The curious church, built in 1601-8 
and restored in 1887-96, consists of two naves at right angles, one 
set apart for male, the other for female worshippers, while pulpit 
and altar are placed at the apex of the angle. The front of the 
galleries is embellished with stucco-reliefs of Biblical subjects. The 
Romanesque font was brought from the monastery of Alpirsbach; 
the choir-stalls date from 1488; fine Crucifix (sacristan, Trauben- 
Str. 316, behind the church). — Freudenstadt is surrounded by fine 
pine- woods, including the so-called Palmenwald (cafe*). On the 
Kienberg (2525 ft. ; restaurant) is the Herzog Friedrich Tower. 

Branch -railway from Freudenstadt to Kloster- Reich enbach via Baiers- 
bronn, see Baedeker'** Ehine. — Excellent roads lead to the W. via the Kniebi* 
to(12V2M.) Grietbach (one-horse carr. 10, two-horse 18 Ji; diligence daily 
in 2 8 /« hrs.), and to the 8.W. via the Zwieselberg to (7V2 M.) Rippoldtau (carr. 
7 or 12 M). 

The train turns to the S. and beyond (22 M.) Lossburg-Rodt 
T2145 ft.) enters the smiling Kinzig-Tal. — 28*/2 M. AlpirBbach 
(1425 ft.; Lowe, pens. 4-5 Jt> very fair; Schwan), with 1500 inhab., 
has a brisk trade in timber and straw-hats. The large Prot. church 
(recently restored), begun in the 11th cent, as a cruciform Romanesque 
basilica and completed in the Transition style, originally belonged 
to a Benedictine monastery founded in 1095 by a Count of Zollern. 
Over the Romanesque portal is a relief of the founder and his wife 
on each side of a figure of Christ supported by two angels. The ori- 
ginally Romanesque cloisfers have been rebuilt in the Gothic style. 
Comp. p. xix. In the neighbourhood is the Rudolfsbad or Krdhenbad, 
for nervous sufferers. 

31 M. Schenkenzell (1170 ft. ; Ochs; Sonne), at the mouth of the 
KUine Kinzig, in the pretty valley of which lies (ca. 2 M.) Reinerzau 
(Linde). — 331/2 M. Sehiltaeh (1070 ft.; Bahnhof-Hotel, R. 1 uff, 
B.-60 pf. ; Krone; Enget), an old town (1700 inhab.), situated at the 
junction of the Schiltach and Kinzig, is the last station in Wurtem- 
berg. Branch -railway to (5!/ 2 M.) Schramberg, see Baedeker's Rhine. 
— 891/2 M. Wolfach (Salmen ; Krone ; Roter Ochs, etc.). — 42*/2M. 
Hausach, see Baedeker's Rhine. 


11. The Swabian Alb. 

This district, the central part of Swabia and sometimes also called the 
Swabian Jura, is a wooded range of limestone mountains, about 190 M. long 
and 10-25 JL broad, intersected by picturesque valleys, bounded on the 

W. by the Black Forest, on the a. by the valley of the Neckar, and on 
the 8. by the Danube. The hills on the side towards the Neckar are pic- 
turesquely grouped, affording numerous views ; the valleys are luxuriantly 
fertile and partly clothed with fine beech-forest; many of the towns are 
antiquated and interesting. Pedestrians in particular will find many attrac- 
tions. Inns generally good and inexpensive. The best season for a visit 
is spring or autumn. 

The SchtcSbitche Alb-Verein (annual subscription, 2 Jt) has done good 
service in constructing paths, erecting guide-posts, etc., and issues two 
good maps of the district (1 : 50,000 and 1 : 150,000). The elevated reservoirs 
of the Alb Water Works (p. 73) are frequently excellent points of view. — 
A uniform system of way-marks (a red triangle on a white ground) has been 
adopted for the so-called Nord or Neckar Band Wkg, a route which leads 
from Nordlingen (p. 157) via the Ohrengipfel (p. 87), Kapfenburg (p. 87), 
Volkmarsberg (p. 86), Bosenstein (p. 35), Weissenstein (p. 89), Ruohalb 
(p. 40), Bosler (p. 39), Bandecker Maar (p. 59), Teck (p. 58), Hohen-Neuffen 
(p. 60), Urach (p. 61), Uebersberger Hof (p. 61), Lichtenstein (p. 64), Nebel- 
Hohle (p. 64), Dreifurstenstein (p. 66), Jungingen (p. 69), Burgfelden (p. 70), 
Schafberg (p. 70), Plettenberg (p. 70), Ober-Hohenberg (p. 52), Lemberg 
(p. 52), and Dreifaltigkeitsberg (p. 53). to Tuttlingen (p. 53). Outlying points, 
such as the Hohenstaufen, Hohenzoller, etc., are connected with the main 
route by sub-routes. Sub-routes which lead back again to the main route 
are indicated by a horizontal *y* (>-)*> approaches to the main route by 
blue triangles, the apex pointing to the main route. On the main route 
the apexes of the red triangles point in the direction of Tuttlingen. 

Between Hohenstaufen, the Ipf, and Ulm stretches the E. part of the 
Alb, consisting mainly of the Hartsfeld, the Brenztal, the hills of Aalen 
and Heubach, and the Albuch. The Central Alb lies between Hohen- 
staufen and Hohenzollern on one side, and Ulm and Sigmaringen on the 
other. The 8.W. wing of the Alb is formed of the beautiful range of 
hills between Hohenzollern and the Lupfen, the plateau of the Heuberg, 
and the valley of the Danube between Tuttlingen and Sigmaringen. 

Plan of Excubsion. 1st day. Gmilnd, Hohen-Rechberg, Hohenstaufen, 
Obppingen; by rail to Nurtingen. — 2nd day. By rail to Stadt Neuffen; 
Hohen-Neuffen ; descent to Urach; Hohen-Urach; Urach Waterfall; by rail to 
Reutlingen. — 3rd day. Reutlingen, Achalm; in the afternoon, Nebel-Hdhle, 
Lichtenstein. — 4th day. Tubingen ; in the afternoon, Hohenzoller. — 5th day. 
Upper Valley of the Danube (Sigmaringen to Beuron or Tuttlingen). — Trav- 
ellers coming from Stuttgart, whose time is limited, should ascend the 
Hohenstaufen direct from Lorch via the Wascherschlossle. 

Other fine points are the Geislinger- Tal and Upper File- Tal (p. 40), 
the Lenninger-Tal, with the Teck (p. 58), the Qroue Lauter-Tal (p. 65), 
the Rouberg (p. 66), and the Lemberg (p. 52). 

I. The Eastben Alb. 

The finest points in the B. Alb are, besides the Hohenstaufen and 
Hohen-Bechberg, the neighbourhood of Bopfingen with the Ipf, Hohen- 
Baldern, and Kapfenburg (p. 37); the neighbourhood of Aalen, with the 
Braunenberg, and the Source of the Koeher near Unterkochen (p. 86); the 
neighbourhood of Heubach, with the Rosenstein (p. 35); Lauterburg and 
Bernhardt; the Albuch, with the Wental (p. 86); the Brenztal from Konigs- 
bronn to Brenz-Sontheim, the finest part of which, the Buigen, is also not 
far from the Charlotten-Hdhle (p. 36) ; and finally the remarkable Lone-HUrbe- 
Tal (p. 86). 

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HOHENSTAUFEN. 11. Route. 57 

a. Hohen-Rechberg. 

Asobnt op the Hohbn-Rechbbbg fbom GmAnd (p. 35), 13/ 4 hr. 
The road runs to the S. via Strattdorf. "Where it makes a wide 
curve (avoid footpath to the left), a club-path diverges to the right, 
leading across a stone bridge to Schloss Rechberg, the ancestral seat of 
Count Rechberg. The building, struck by lightning and burned 
down in 1865, has been rebuilt and is now occupied by a forester 
(adm. for a fee). — A path, with the Stations of the Gross, ascends 
to the E. from the Schloss in 12 min . to the top of the — 

*Hohen-Eechberg (2318 ft.), on which stands a much frequented 
pilgrimage-chapel (refreshments at the parsonage, but no quarters 
for the night). The view embraces a fertile and undulating land- 
scape, sprinkled with towns and villages, stretching to the N. as far 
as the "Welzheimer Wald and the Waldenburg and Limpurg hills, 
from the old-fashioned town of Gmiind in the foreground to the 
distant Ell wangen. To the W. rise the Hohenstaufen and the Black 
Forest Mts. ; towards the S.W. extend the ranges of the Swabian 
Alb ; and in clear weather the Tyrolese and Swiss Alps may be 
descried towards the S.E. and S. (panorama by E. Werner, 1 J$ 40 pf.). 
A signal is hoisted when the view of the Alps is clear. — About 
V2 hr. to the E. of the Hohen-Rechberg is the Stuifen (2483 ft.), 
with a limited view. 

From the Hohen-Rechberg to the Hohenstaufen (see below), 
IV2 h*. Leaving Schloss Rechberg and Hinterweiler to the left, we 
keep straight on (not to the right) over the crest of the hill (the 
Aasruckeri) to the road leading to the village of Hohenstaufen. From 
a point just beyond the cross-roads and a little short of the village 
a footpath to the right leads direct to the top of the Hohenstaufen 
in 12 minutes. 

From the Hohen-Rechberg to Eislingen (p. 38), via the OttenbaeTier-Tai, 
2y 2 hrs.: to Silssen (p. 39) via the Rehgebirge and the ruin of Staufeneck 
(p. 39), 2 hrs. 

b. Hohenstaufen. 

Ascent or the Hohenstaufen fbom Lobch (p. 85), 3 hrs. 
A pleasant path ascends the Bcuten-Tal via (li/ghx.) the Yfascher- 
schlossle (now a barn) , the seat in the 11th cent, of Friedrich von 
Buren, anoestor of the Hohenstaufens, and the Wdscherhof (inn). 
In 11/4 hr. more we reach the village of Hohenstaufen T1977 ft. ; 
Lamm ; Ochs), whence a footpath ascends to the castle in 20 minutes. 
Beside this path is a small Church, partly restored in 1860 and 
recently adorned with the armorial bearings of the countries oyer 
which the Hohenstaufen once held sway (interior utterly neglected). 

Ascent fbom GSppingbn (p. 39), 13/ 4 hr. The pretty road runs 
largely through wood ; carriage-and-pair to Hohenstaufen village in 


Ascent of the Hohenstaufen from Eitlingen (p. 39), i 1 /* hr. ; from Salach 
(p. 39), via Krummwdldtn, l*/« hr. 

58 Routt 11. TECK. Swabian Alb. 

The "Hohenstaufen (2244 ft.), on -which is a new shelter, 1b the 
most frequented summit of the Alb. From about 1070 until its des- 
truction in the Peasants' War in 1526 it was crowned with the 
ancestral castle of the illustrious family of Staufen or Hohenstaufen, 
which occupied the German imperial throne from 1138 to 1254 and 
became extinct in 1268 by the premature death of the ill-fated Con- 
radin in Italy. The ground-plan of the castle is still distinguishable. 
The view is fine, but less extensive than that from the Hohen- 
Rechberg, which may be reached as indicated on p. 67. 

II. The Central Alb. 

The Danube from Ulm to Sigmaringen is described in E. 18) for the 
Filsffau-Alby comp. p. 40. 

a. Lenninger-Tal. Teck. Heidlinger-Tal. Neuffen. 

From Plochinqkn to Obeb-Lenningen, 15 M., narrow-gauge railway in 
about 1V4 hr. (fares 2 J[, 1 J* 40, 85 pf.). 

Plochingcn, see p. 39. — 3*/2 M - Unter-Boihingcn (p. 46). The 
line follows the valley of the Lenninger Lautcr. 6 M. OeUingen. — 
7V2 M - Xirehheim unter Teek (1010 ft.; Post; Krone; wine at 
Heilemann's and Stohrer's), a town with 8800 inhab., and a Schloss, 
is prettily situated in view of the Alb. "Widerhold (p. 54) and his 
wife are buried near the W. portal of the Gothic Church (busts). To 
the Neidlinger-Tal, see p. 69. 

Beyond this point the valley is known as the Lenninger-Tal. — 
10 M. Dcttingen. The Teck comes in sight on the left, the Hohen- 
Neuffen on the right, while in the rear (E.) are seen the Hohenstaufen 
and Hohen-Rechberg. — The railway now enters the Alb and the 
scenery improves. — 12^2 M. Owen (010 pron. as in cow ; 1285 ft. ; 
Post; rfmts. at the station), a small town with a handsome restored 
Gothic church, burial-place of the Dukes of Teck, containing a 
painting of Owen when it was a fortified place in 1542. 

Ascent op the Teck from Owen, 1 hr. We ascend to the N.E. 
(following the telegraph-posts) for 1/2 nr «> when we join the well- 
shaded club-path to the summit. 

The *Teck (2542 ft.) is crowned by the scanty remains of the 
ancestral castle of the Dukes of Teck. One of the towers has been 
converted into a belvedere (90 ft. in height), in which is the Salz- 
mann-Stubchen (see p. 69 ; rfmts. in good weather). The magnificent 
view includes the neighbouring wooded heights of the Alb and great 
part of the Black Forest chain to the W., while in clear weather the 
Scesaplana group may be descried to the S. and the Sentis group to 
the S.S.W. Visitors should walk round the castle. On the W. verge 
of the castle-rock is the SibyUenloch, a cave in which remains of 
antediluvian animals have been discovered (cave-bears, cave-lions). 

Fbom thjb Teck to Gdtknbzbg ob to Wbilhkim, ca. 2*/* hn., an attrac- 
tive walk. In V« hr* we reach the Oelbe Felstn y under which is the Verena- 

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Swabian Alb. OBER-LENNINGEN. 11. Route. 59 

Beutlins-Hohle; «/4 nr. the Sattelbogm (2010 ft. ; to the left, path to Bissingen, 
to the right to Unter-Lenningen in Vs hr.): then to the 8.E. by a club path 
to (20 min.) the rain of Rauber (2565 ft.); i0 min. the farm of Dupoldsburg 
(rfmts.). A route to the right leads hence via the Engelhof (good rfmts.) to 
the (1 hr.) Widandsteine (2287 ft.), with three rained castles; */« hr. Krebs- 
itein; thence by club-path down to (V«hr.) Gutenberg (see below). — A route 
to the left from Diepoldsburg (see above) leads to the ('A hr.) Breiten- 
ttein (2660 ft.), a massive hill, presenting a sheer precipice to the plain 
beyond tbe Alb. To the S.E. is (1/4 hr.) Ochsenwang (rustic inn), where 
Ed. Morike, the poet, was pastor in lti32-33. In the vicinity is the Randecker 
Maar, the chief crater among the 140 embryo volcanoes of the later tertiary 
period between Eirchheim and Reatlingen, with a monument to Dr. Salz- 
mann (d. 1890), founder of the Swabian Alb Club. Hence we may either 
follow a picturesque dub-path leading to the N., along the Zipfdbach and 
past (V2 hr.) Meptisau, to ( 3 A hr.) Weilheim (see below); or descend to the S. 
across the peat- moors and past the caves mentioned below to (l J /4 hr.) 

The railway goes on to (13 M.) Brucken, above which, on the 
right, is the Brucker FeU (p. 60). — At (13l/ 2 M.) Unter-Lenningen 
(inn at the station) the rain of Salzburg lies to the right and the 
ruined ch&teau of Rauber (see above) rises high above us on the left. 

15 M. Ober-Lenningen (Adler, at the station) has a paper-mill. 
To the left are the Wielandsteine (see above). 

Erkenbrechtsweiier (p. 60), to the N.W. of Ober-Lenningen, may be 
reached either by a route to the right via the Schrifffel-Fels and Eamm-Fels 
in I1/4 hr., or in 2 brs. by a route to tbe left leading through the HirschtcA to 
the basaltic Konrad-FeU, where we join the attractive Rand-Weg. 

About 4 M. from the railway-terminus at Ober-Lenningen, the 
Lenninger-Tal (p. 68) comes to an end at the charmingly situated 
village of Gutenberg (1744 ft.; Lowe; Hirsch). A little to the.S. is 
the ruin of Sperberseck, while to the N. is Krebsstein (see above). 
Above Gutenberg, to the left, in the upper slope of the valley, is 
the (26 min.) * Gutenberg Stalactite Orotto ('Tropfsteinhohle'), dis- 
covered in 1889, where fossil bones, flint implements, etc., were 
found (adm. 50 pf., guide at Gutenberg). About 5 min. to the W. is 
the smaller Gussmanm - Hohle (adm. 40 pf.). — The Romerstein 
(2900 ft), lVghr. to the S. of Gutenberg, commands a distant view 
of the Alps. 

Fbom Gutenbebg to Nbuffen (see p. 60), 3 hrs. Carriages drive via 
GrabensUlten (2380 ft.) with a 'pagan moat', a relic of a Gallic town with 
advanced fortifications. Pedestrians quit the road about 3 M. beyond Graben- 
stetten, at the junction of the Urach road (p. 60). and ascend direct to the 
Hohen-Neuffen. —Fbom Gotenbebg to XJbach (p. 61), 3 hrs. This attractive 
route leads to the 8.W. via Schlaitstali and the Schrffcke (a rocky ravine). — 
Fbom Gutenbebg to Weilheim, see above. 

Kirchheim (p. 58) is also the starting-point for a visit to the 
smiling Neidlinger-Tal, which is watered by the Lindach, an affluent 
of the Lauter (p. 68). We may take the diligence as far as (6 M.) 
Weilheim (1266 ft. ; Post ; Adler), a little town dominated by the 
basaltic Limburg (1960 ft.), on which stood a Schloss of the Zah- 
ringer, since disappeared. 

60 Route 11. . HOHEN-NEOTFEN. Swabian Alb. 

The Boiler (p. 89) may be ascended from Weilheim in 2 hrs. by a 
pretty path to the E. past the DeuUche* Ham Inn. 

To the left of the road, 1 M. farther up the valley, rises the vine- 
clad Lichtenstein, and a little farther on, on the same side, is the 
Erkenberg (2435 ft.). — 8 M. Neidlingen (1490 ft.; Lamm ; Krone) is 
a prettily situated village. About l ! /2 M. to the N. is the picturesque 
ruined castle of "^Reussenstein (2465 ft.), commanding a charming 
view of the valley. Tbence, keeping on the ridge, we round the 
head of the valley to the (Vj hr.) Heimenstein (2605 ft.), a gloomy 
arch of rock affording fine views of the Reussenstein and the valley. 
From the Reussenstein to Wiesensteig (p. 40), 1 hr. ; to the Rosier 
(p. 39) by a club-path, 21/4 *". 

From Nurtingbn (p. 46) a railway runs through the Steinach- 
Tal (the 'T&le' producing the excellent 'Taleswein') to (6V2 M., in 
25 min.) the little town of Neuffen (Ochs ; Hirsch or Post, R. 1-17 2 , 
pens. 3-4 JT) y at the foot of the Hohen-Neuffen. Beside the church 
is a Calvary of 1504, and in the interior is a pulpit of 1618. The 
Rathaus dates from 1657. A good path ascends hence through wood 
to the Hohen-Neuffen (1 hr.). 

Fkom Metzingen (p. 46) to Stadt Neuffen via Kohlberg , U/i hr. 

The "Hohen-Neuffen (2440 ft.), a conical and conspicuous height, 
projecting far into the valley, is crowned by the imposing ruins of 
an ancient stronghold, demolished as unsafe in 1801. Fine view 
with charming foreground. (Refreshments when the flag is hoisted.) 

From the Hohen-Neuffen a pretty path leads to the £. to (1 hr.) Erken- 
brechtsweiler (Krone), whence we may ascend in V« hr. to the Beurener 
Fels (2865 ft.), a bold projecting rock commanding an extensive view 
(Hohen-Rechberg, Hohenstaufen, Black Forest). Thence a picturesque 
club-path leads to the E. to the (1/2 hr.) Brueker FeU (2385 ft.), with 
remains of Roman (?) walls and a charming peep into the Lenninger-Tal 
and view of the hills opposite. We may descend to Owen (p. 58) in 
35 minutes. — From Erkenbrechtsweiler a steep and stony footpath leads 
to (I1/4 hr.) Unter-Lenningen (p. 59)$ to Ober-Lcnningen, see p. 59. 

From the Hohbn - Nbuffbn to Ubach (p. 61), 2 hrs. The 
shady route crosses the plateau, passing the Burrenhof (with the 
pagan moat, p. 69), and, leaving the village of Eiilben on the left, 
descends into the valley. 

b. Uracher Alb. 

Fkom Mbtzinqen to TJrach, 6 M., narrow-gauge railway in V« br. 
(fares 90, 60, 40 pf.). 

Metzingen, see p. 46. — The *Uracher-Tal, up which the 
railway runs alongside of the Erms, surpasses that of Lenningen; 
the slopes are richly clad with beech-forest. Several quarries of tufa. 
iy 4 M. Neuhausen (1207 ft.), 31/2 M. to the N.W. of the Grime 
Felsen (p. 62). — On the right, near (3 M.) Dettingen (1305 ft. ; 
Lowe), rises the conspicuous Dettinger Rossberg (ca. 2625 ft) ; farther 
up, beyond the Uracher Bleiche, the Runderbtrg, in a side-valley 

Swabian Alb. .URACH. Jl. Route. 61 

on the right; then Hohen-Urach and the Tiergartenberg ; on the 
opposite side the Hochberg. 

From Dettingen a fine walk (3Vs hrs.) leads via the Sonnenfels (2650 ft.)i 
the Rulschtn-FeUen (p. 62), and the Urach Waterfall to Urach (see below). 

Some of the trains on the way up the valley halt on request at 
the station of Waaserfall^ at the entrance of the side-valley , 1/2 hr. 
from the waterfall (p. 62). 

6 M. Urach. — Hotels. Post, Haas zub Kbone, both in the market- 

5 lace; Hsbzog Chbistoph; Schonbck. — Beer at Heinzelmantis. — Medical 
oarding House* of Dr. Klfipfel. 

Urach (1515 ft.), an old-fashioned little town (5100 inhab.), 
charmingly situated in the Ermstal, is much frequented as a 
summer-resort. The late-Gothic *Church of St. Amandus, built 
in 147'9-99 and restored in 1896-1901, contains the confessional 
of Duke Eberhard im Bart, adorned with good carving (1472), a 
handsome font, executed in 1518 by Ghristoph of Urach, and a 
beautiful pulpit. Adjoining the church is the Protestant Seminary 
(40 pupils), formerly the canonry. In the Schloss, at the station, 
erected in 1443 and now occupied by officials, is the 'Gtoldne Saal', 
containing reminiscences of Dukes Eberhard and Ulrich, and a 
carved wooden head of Count Henry of Mompelgard, father of Duke 
Ulrich and founder of the reigning line of Wurtemberg ; the 'Weisse 
Saal' contains local collections of natural history and antiquities. 
The fine Gothic Fountain (1518) in the market-place is replaced 
by a copy. 

The upper valley of the Erms, not inferior in beauty to the 
Uracher-Tal, is known as the *Seeburger-Tal. The mountains, 
though not high, are densely wooded, and the Erms flows through 
the narrow green floor of the valley, where there is often scarcely 
room for the road. The journey from Urach to Seeburg (6 M.) 
should be made in an open carriage (there and back, about 4 Jf). 
The road passes numerous mills and a large cotton-factory. To the 
left above the former basalt-works of Georgenau rises the ruined 
Hohen-W titling en (2266 ft.; */2 nr « fr° m tne road, see below), near 
which is the cavern of Schilling sloch. In the most beautiful part of 
the valley, between lofty rocks at the mouth (N.) of the romantic 
Fischburg-Tal, lies the hamlet of Seeburg (Lowe, plain but good). 
On a rock high above it is the little chateau of Uhenfels. The infant 
Erms, though only 50 yds. from its source, most creditably drives 
a mill here. 

A pretty footpath, known as the *Grune Weg% skirting the woods on 
the left bank of the Erms, leads from Urach to Seeburg in 2V4 hrs. 
(disagreeable in wet weather). 

A club-path, diverging to the left from the road to Seeburg about 
IV2M. above Urach, leads through the romantic Wiitlinger Ravine to the 
(V* hr.)ruin of Hohen~Wittlingen y whence we may descend to the Qeorgenau 
(see above) in Vi hr. 

From Seeburg a road leads to the S. through the Seetal to (41/2 M.) 
MUntingen (p. 66); while an attractive footpath, passing the Source of the 
Erms, passes through the Irailfinger Ravine. 

62 Route 11. ACHALM. Swabian Alb. 

The most attractive excursion from Uracil is to Hohen-Urach and 
to the waterfall. A zigzag path ascends through wood to the (1 hr.) 
ruined fortress of Hohen-TJrach (2300 ft.). The shorter, but steeper 
and stony, old path leads to the left at the foot of the hill, then, at 
the cross, to the right. The castle was built in the 11th cent, and 
after undergoing numerous sieges, it was almost entirely pulled 
down at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries. 
The ill-fated poet Frischlin was imprisoned here ; in attempting to 
escape he was dashed to pieces on the rocks below (1590). Charm- 
ing view though limited. 

Various paths (all with way- marks) lead from Hohen-TJrach 
through beautiful beech-wood to ( 3 / 4 hr. ; direct from Urach, to the 
left vi£ Hohen-Urach, in 1 hr.) the Hochwiese (2030 ft.; xefuge- 
hut), where the Bruhlbach rises and forms the Waterfall of Uracil 
(85 ft. high). The best point of view is the 'Olga-Ruhe 7 at the 
foot of the waterfall. 

A beautiful but stony path through the i BolV connects the Urach and 
G literate in waterfalls (see below, 1 hr.). 

From Urach to Reutlingen (p. 47), 4 hrs. There is a choice of routes, 
a. Vid the Rutsehenhof. To the waterfall, see above. Thence we ascend by 
the steep zigzag path to the right. On leaving the wood at the O/2 hr.) top 
of the hill, the path leads straight on past a stone hut called the Rutschen- 
hof. But we first follow the slope to the right as far as the boundary- 
stone on the Rutschen-Felsen (2465 ft.), to obtain a charming view of the 
peaceful valley, with Hohen-Urach, Randerberg, Hohen-Neuffen, and Teck. 
Thence we follow the edge of the Alb to the (1/2 hr.) Fohlenhof (2420 ft.), 
whence we may take either the easy carriage-road in 20 min., or the foot- 
path (guide-post) to the right, vit the * Grilne Felsen (green rock; 2836 ft.), 
in 40 min., to the royal stud-farm of St. Johann (2505 ft. ; clean inn), near 
which is a view-platform. From St. Johann a good road (with short-cuts) 
descends to (1 hr.) Eningen (1520 ft. 5 Post), a handsome little market-town 
at the foot of the Achalm (ascent */< br -K whence a steam-tramway runs 
to (8 M.) Reutlingen (p. 47). — b. Vid GUterstein. On quitting the railway- 
station we turn to the left and return along the railway, beyond a red- 
brick warehouse we follow the 'Siechesgassenweg' to the right through 
orchards to the main road; 100 yds. farther on, at the pointsman's hut, 
we cross the line to the left and follow the road as far as the guide-post 
marked 'Giiterstein'. In 1 hr. more we reach the stud-farm of GUterstein 
(1685 ft. ; xfmts.). Thence a path ascends past the fine Guterstein water- 
falls to the (1 hr.) Fohlenhof. To Reutlingen, see above. 

e. Achalm. Eailway from Reutlingen to 8chelklingen. 
Lichtenstein and its Environs. 

Ascent of thb Achalm from Reutlingbn (p. 47), footpath in 
II/4 hx. From the railway-station we ascend the Garten-Strasse and 
at the end of it turn to the left by the Bnrg-Strasse ; in 20 min. we 
resch the foot of the Achalm and the path passes under a bridge; 
after 3 min. we ascend to the left through vineyards and nurseries 
towards the dairy ; after 7 min. we go straight on, avoiding the path 
to the left, and reach a royal dairy (rfmts.) in 4 /4 &*• more ; thence 
Dy a winding path to the summit in 1/2 h*. The *Achalm (2312 ft.), 
an isolated mountain, planted with vineyards, is crowned by a 

d by Google 

Swabian Alb. HONAU. 11. Route. 63 

ruined castle, one tower of which may he ascended (key at the 
dairy). Admirahle *View: Rossherg, Schloss Lichtenstein, the 
Hohen-Neuffen, Teck, Rechherg, Hohenstaufen, and other peaks of 
the Alh; the cultivated plain as far as Stuttgart; the Black Forest 
from the heights around Triberg and St. Georgen to Pforzheim; 
picturesque foreground ; below us lies Reutlingen, to the E. Eningen, 
to the S. Pfullingen. — To Eningen (p. 62), */ 2 nr - 

From Reutlingen to Schblklingen (p. 73), 36 M., railway in 
2y 2 -3hrs.; toHonau, 6V2 M., in 30-40 min. ; to Lichtenstein, 
8 M., in 1 hr. Best views to the right. 

The train enters the picturesque *Echatz-Tal. — 2 M. Eningen, 
li/4 M. from the village at the foot of the Achalm (p. 62). — 3 M. 
Pfullingen (1395 ft.; Lamm; Hirsch), a town of 7400 inhab., with 
Dr. Flamm's lunatic asylum. — 3^2 M. Pfullingen Paper Mill. 

Fkom Pfullingen Papeb Mill to thb Nebel-Hohlb via the Wanne, ca. 
2V« hrs. From the station we proceed to the highroad, where we turn 
to the left; a little farther on we ascend to the right (guide-posts) skirting 
the railway and in 3/4 hr. we reach the Wanne (2264 ft. ; fine view). Thence 
we proceed, either in 40 min. direct, or in i hr. via the Schdnberg (2600 ft.), 
to the group of rocks called the Waciersiein (2700 ft., fine views), cross 
a rocky ridge passing the (V« hr.) upland pasture of Avf dem Wohn 
(2720 ft.), and reach the O/4 hr.) Nebel-HOhle (p. 64). Thence to the Lichten- 
stein, see p. 64. 

5M. Unterhausen Cotton Mill. — 6M. Vnterhausen, immediately 
to the S. of which is Oberhausen (Hirsch; Krone); thence to the 
Lichtenstein, see helow, to the Nebel-Hohie, p. 64. 

6V2 M. Honan (1850 ft.; Hot-Pens. Echatz; Rossle), with the 
interesting Olga Cavern, smaller than the Nebel-Hohle, hut less 
hlackened by torches and more easily accessible (electric illumina- 
tion, 40 pf. each pers.). At the station is an artificial elfin-grotto 
(adm. 30 pf.). About 1 / 2 M. distant is the Source of the Echatz, with 
the figure of a nymph. — From Honau a rack-and-pinion railway 
(gradient 1:10; length 2300 yds.) ascends the Honauer Steige to 
(8 M.) Lichtenstein (2310 ft. ; Restaurant, with beds). To the Karte- 
ll ohle (p. 65), lV2br. Continuation of the railway to ScheUclingen, 
see p. 65. 

Ascbnt op thb Lichtenstein pbom Honau, 3/ 4 hr. We proceed 
from the rail, station to the village, and traverse this, keeping to 
the right, until we reach the excellent forest-path which ascends to 
the (1 hr.) castle. Another route leads from the Source of the 
Echatz (see above) through the Dobel ravine in 1 */4 u *> 

Ascbnt feom Unthbhausen (see above), 11/4 hr. The route leads to the 
8. via (8 min.) Oberhausen (comp. p. 64) and ascends to the right by a good 
road on the wooded W. slope ; at the first bifurcation we keep to the left ; 
after 7* hr. we leave the road at a cutting in the rock, ascend a few 
steps to the left, and after 8 min. in a straight direction reach the 

Fbom Lichtenstein Station (see above) the route leads past the 
'Schanze' (beautiful view) and through the Dobel Tunnel; a footpath to the 

64 Route 11. LICHTENSTEIN. Swabian Alb. 

right at the upper end of the Dobel ravine then leads via the Old Liechten- 
stein to C/4 hr.) the chateau. 

From Bbutlinokn to Lichtenstbin Station vi! thb MIdohxnfkls and 
Holzxlftnobn, 6 hrs., attractive. We take the steam-tramway to Eningen 
(p. 62), thence walk backjo ( l A hr.) the Sjpitzwieeen, where a guide-post 
indicates the route to the 'Ubersberg', which we follow ; then over pastures 
and a bridge to the highroad, which immediately bends to the left. Beyond 
a second bridge we keep to the left (to the right, path up the TJrtulaberQ, 
2220 ft., in 2 hrs.) and ascend through fine beech- woods to the (l 1 /* hr.) 
Kadchenfels (2540 ft.), commanding good views of the Alb and the plain. 
About 1/4 M. to the S.E. is the Ubersberger Hof (rfmts.). Pleasant paths 
lead hence through meadows and woods, passing the (*/< hr.) Stahleck 
(2330 ft.), the 0/2 hr.) EckfeU, and the (10 min.) ruin of Ordfenitein (2480 ft) 
direct (right*, sbady) in 25 min., or via the Jochimer H&uU (left; view), in 
1/2 hr., to Holzelfingen (Krone). Thence we may either follow the pictur- 
esque route via the Traifelberg-FeUe* (2610 ft.) to the (i hr. ; with a devour 
to the Burgstein, i 1 /* hr.) station of Lichtenttein (p. 63) or proceed in »/«hr. 
to the station of Unterhausen (p. 63) or Honau (p. 63). 

*Schloss Lichtenstein (2985 ft.), or the l Schlos9ehen\ a chateau 
erected in 1842 by Count Wilhelm of Wurtemberg (d. 1869) on an 
isolated rock, 850 ft. above the Honau valley, is one of the most 
attractive points in Swabia. — About 5 min. to the W. is a restau- 
rant (pretty view, see below). 

The chateau is open on week-days 8-12 and 1-6 (in winter 9-12 and 
1-4), on Sun. and holidays 1-5 (14 in winter); adm. 80 pf., or, omitting 
the tower, 40 pf. No admission on Christmas Day, Easter Sunday, Whit- 
Sunday, or Whit-Monday. 

The castle, very skilfully adapted to its site, is approached by a 
drawbridge, by which a cleft in the rock is crossed. The interior is taste- 
fully fitted up in the mediaeval style, and adorned with a number of fine 
old German pictures of the Swabian school, by Wohlgemut, Holbein, 
Schon, etc. There are also numerous antiquities, weapons, suits of 
armour, etc., but the principal attraction is the *View. In fine weather, 
to the S. beyond the plateau of the Alb, the Swiss and Tyrol ese Alps are 
visible; to the N., far below, the picturesque green Honauer-Tal, through 
which the Echatz and the railway wind; beyond it the Achalm and the 
extensive plain. On a projecting rock, to the 8.E., outside the chateau. 
Count Wilhelm (see above) erected a monument to the novelist Hauff 
(1802-27), by whose romance the old castle of Lichtenstein has been im- 
mortalised. Beside it is a geological pyramid. About 10 min. to the S.E. 
is the ruin of Old Lichtenstein. 

A visit to the chateau is usually combined with one to the 
Nebel-Hohle, a stalactite grotto, about 200 yds. long, 80 ft. -wide, 
and 75 ft. high, 2^4 M. from Schloss Lichtenstein (comp. below) 
and as far from Oberhausen (p. 63). The brillancy of the stalactites 
has been sullied by the smoke of the torches ; the massive vault 
of rock is the most interesting feature. Adm. 40 pf. each person, 
guide 1 *l, each torch 40 pf. ; key and guides at the Hirsch at 
Oberhausen; the visit takes 3 / 4 hr. A national festival is held here 
on Whit-Monday, when the cavern is illuminated. 

From the Nebel-Hohle to Schloss Lichtenstein, */< hr. On the plateau, 
5 min. from the cave, we bear to the left, due S. ; we bear to the left 
again at the cross-roads after 5 min. more 5 5 min. farther on, a field, where 
we skirt the wood to the right; 5 min. more, we turn to the left, and 
cross the moor to a group of trees where the tower comes into view. — 
A preferable route leads via the O/2 hr.) Oieutein (2585 ft.) and (*A hr.) 
LvnsenbOM (2680 ft.) to the (1/2 hr.) Lich'etuteto. 

SwabianAVb. MUNSINGEN. 1 1. Route. 65 

The Railway to Sohelklingen proceeds from (8 M.) Lichten- 
stein (see p. 63) across the plateau of the Alb. — 9y 4 M. Klein- 
EngsUngen (Post) is the starting-point for a visit to the Karls-Hohie 
near Erpfingen (keys; adm. 50 pf. and fee to attendant), 4i/ 2 M. to 
the S.W., another and more interesting grotto, the stalactites being 
still uninjured. Some of the stalactites here bear a striking resem- 
blance to Gothic architecture, others to human figures, etc. To this 
cavern from Haidkapelle, see below; from Lichtenstein station, 
see p. 63. 

From Klbin - Engstingkn to Gammebtingen, 12^2 M., narrow-gauge 
railway in 65 minulea. Just beyond (V2 M.) Gross-Engstingen, the first 
station, the line crosses the Prussian frontier. — 2 ! /2 M. Haidkapelle, 2 M. 
to the 8.K. of the Karls-Hohle (see above). — 8 M. Trochtelfingen (Eirsch), 
a quaint little town with 1200 inhab., lty 4 M. to the S.E. of which, at 
Steinhilben, is the Augstberg (2780 ft.), with a belvedere. — The line now 
re-enters Wurtemberg and below (972 M.) M&gtrkingm reaches the valley 
of the Lauchert, which it follows, via (10 M.) Mariaberg and (12 M.) Bronnen, 
to (12V2 M.) Gammertingen (2165 ft.; Post; Hirsch) % a Prussian town with 
1100 inhabitants. Thence the railway is to be continued down the valley 
of the Lauchert. — The Lauchert flows through Prussian territory, and. 
its picturesque valley repays the pedestrian. Below (3% M.) Hetlingen, a 
small town with a chateau, it is joined by the Vehla. Between (3 1 /* M.) 
Veringen-Stadt (Hirach) , with its ruined castle, and (IV2 M.) Veringen-Dorf 
the Lauchert forms a waterfall. From (1 M.) Jungnau (Ochs), with the 
ruins of two castles, a diligence plies to (5 M.) Sigmaringen (p. 71). — 
The prettiest part of the valley is at the (8 M.) point where it is joined 
by the Bitlelschiesser T&lchen, V2 M - to * ne S. of Hornstein, with its imposing 
ruin. — Bingen, a/4 M. to the E., see p. 76. 

Near (14 M.) Offenhausen, where there is a stud-farm, is the 
source of the Grosse Lauter. About 1 M. to the S.E. rises the Stern- 
berg (2770 ft.), with a belvedere. — 16 M. Oomadingen (Lamm) 
lies 4y 2 M. to the S. W. of the Buchhalde (2854 ft. ; view-platform). 
— The line descends the pretty valley of the Lauter to (17 M.) 
Marbach (2115 ft.), with another stud-farm. 

A pleasant excursion may be made from Marbach through the 'Grosse 
Lauter-Tal, with its numerous ruined castles, to (8 hrs.) Unter-Marchtal. 
The route leads past Schlou Qrafeneck (on the left; see below) via (20 min.) 
Dap fen; 26 min. Wasserttetten ; 1 hr. Buttenhausen (road to Miinsingen, see 
below); */» nr * Hundersingen (Lowe); 20 min. Bichishausen (Hirsch; ruins 
at both); 20 min. Qundelfingen (Griiner Baum), with two ruined castles. 
Thence we go on past the ruin of Derneck (on the right) and the Bettel- 
manns-HOhle (on the left) to (1/2 hr.) Weiler; l /*hr. Indelhausen (Schloss 
brewery), with the ruin of Alt-Hayingen and the Gerbers-Hbhle ; and 0A hr.) 
Anhauten. Farther down we pass the ruins of Schillzburg (left), Maisen- 
burg (right), and Wartstein and Monsberg (left). From (IV2 hr.) Unter- 
Wilzingen we proceed via ( 8 /4 hr.) Lau/enmUhle, with the ruins of Reichen- 
stein, and O/2 hr.) Lauterach, to ( 3 /4 hr.) Unter-Marchtal (p. 74). 

The railway now ascends to the N.B. through the Dolder-Tal and 
the Baumtal, passing the chateau of Orafeneck, to (21 M.) Munsingen 
(2319 ft.; Hermann; Post), a town with 2100 inhab. and large 
cement- works, on the plateau of the Alb. About 2*/ 4 M. to the E. is 
the Manoeuvre Ground of the Wurtemberg troops (Hardt Hotel). 
Roads lead from Munsingen to the N. to (4^2 M.) Seeburg (p. 611 
and to the S. to (41/2 M.) Buttenhausen (see above). — At (24 M.) 

Baedbkkb's S. Germany. 10th Edit. 5 

66 RouUll. STEINLACH-TAL. Swabian Alb. 

Ober-Heutal the railway turns to the S. and beyond (25*/ 2 M.) Mehr- 
stetten to the E. Near (30 l / 2 M.) Sondcrnach rises the Schmiech, the 
pretty valley of which we now descend, past the ruin of Justingen 
(on the left) and via (31*/ 2 M.) Hiitten, at the entrance of the wild 
Baren-Tal, and (32 M.) Tal - Steusslingcn, with the chateau of 
Neu-Steusdingen above, on the right, to (35 M.) Schmiechen (p. 73). 
At (36 M.) ScheMingen our line joins the Danube Railway (p. 73). 

d. The Alb near Wiesatz and Steinlach. 

The most attractive point in the Wiesatz district is the Rosaberg, 
reached from Beutlingen in about 2 hrs. A steam-tramway (p. 47) 
runs in 1 hr. to Oonningen (175S ft. ; Schwanen), at the foot of the 
8tofftlbttg (2400 ft. ; ruined castle) and about 1 hr. from the top of 
the Rossberg. — Pedestrians follow the road to the S., passing the 
pomological school (p. 47) and the Oaisbuhl (rfmts.) and proceed 
through the woods in 2 hrs., or by road in l*/4 hr., to the Alteburg- 
hof (rfmts.), behind which rises the Kugelberg (1960 ft.; view); 
thence, keeping to the left, they reach Gonnlngen in i/ 2 hr. 

The R'tsberg is ascended from the Nebel-H hie (p. 64) , from the 
Liechtenstein (p. 64). or from the Wackerstein (p. 63) in I 1 /* or 2 hrs., on 
the W. side, via Omkingen (263J ft. ; Rose). 

The tower (always open) on the *Kossberg (2855 ft.) commands 
a beautiful view of the Alb, the Black Forest, and the Alps. A mon- 
ument on the W. peak commemorates Prof. Quenstedt (d. 1889), 
who devoted himself to the geology of the Alb. We may descend 
on the W. side to (13/ 4 hr.) M5ssingen (p. 69) or (2i/ 4 hrs.) Duss- 
lingen (p. 69). To the Bolberg (see below), li/ 2 hr. via Hirschhausle. 

The Steinlach-Tal, a lateral valley of the Neckar-Tal, displays 
some charming scenery. The central point of the upper valley is 
the village of Mossingen (p. 69; ty 2 hr. from Tubingen by rail), 
whence the chief points may be visited in a single day. Turning to 
the right at the station, we visit the ancient (i/4 hr.) Belsener Kapelle 
(1660 ft.); thence proceed to the left to the (l.i/4 hr.) Dreifursten- 
stein (2800 ft. ; shelter-hut ; path through the woods to Hechingen, 
2 hrs.); ascend the (li/ 2 hr.) Kornbuhl (29 10 ft.), to the S.E., with 
the Salmcndinger Kapelle; descend, either direct in 3 /4hr. or on the 
N. side in H/ 4 hr. via Salmendingen (Adler; on the right, the Kbbele 
2955 ft., with belvedere), to Talheim ; and Anally return to (1 */ 2 hr.) 
Mos8lngen. From Talheim may be made the ascent of the Bolberg 
(2890 ft, in 2*/ 2 hrs.; shelter-hut), whence a descent leads via 
Oeschingen to (1% hr.) Mossingen. — The Farrenberg (2605 ft. ; 
limited view), to the S.E. of Mossingen, may be easily ascended in 
1^2 hr. (turn to the right at the first houses in the village). Thence 
to the Dreifurstenstein (see above), l*/ 2 hr. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Swdbian Alb, 


11. Route. 67 

III. The South- Wbstbbn Alb. 

The S.W. Alb includes not only the Zoller-Alb bat also the Balinger 
Mtt. (p. 70), the Heuberg District (p. 53), and the Boar (p. 53). For the Upper 
Valley of the Danube, see p. 73. 

The Ascent of the Hohenzollern Is made from Zollern Station 
(p. 69) by an easy carriage -road in 1 hr., passing the (5 min.) 
excellent BrUlhof Hotel (R. l 1 /*-^ pens. 5-6 Jt; carriage and pair 
to the castle, 6 Jf and fee). Short-cuts for walkers. — From 
Hechlngen (p. 69) the route leads by the Heilig-Kreuz Strasse, 
passing the post-office, to the water-tower below the castle and 
thence ascends to the (l*/ 2 hr.) castle. 

The castle of "Hohenzollern (2837 ft. ; adm. 25 pf.), grandly 
situated on an isolated wooded eminence of the Alb, was erected 
by Frederick William IV. in 1850-56 as a royal chateau, and com- 
pleted in 1867. The bold and skilful construction is as remarkable 
as the situation. 

The old castle which occupied this site, destroyed in 1423 by Countess 
Henrietta of Wurtemberg, widow of Eberhard IV., was restored for the 
last time in 1454 by the united efforts of the various branches of the 
Zollern family, but at the beginning of the 19th century little of it 
remained except the chapel. An inscription over the 'Adlertor' (PI. 1) 
alludes to the history of the edifice ; above it is the Prussian eagle \ below 
it an equestrian figure representing the Elector Frederick I. 

Passing through the Adlertor, the visitor enters the i Rampenturm\ 
within the narrow limits of which three bold and ingeniously contrived 
curves and a winding tunnel lead to the gate-tower situated 75 ft. higher. 
The balustrade above the entrance to the tunnel is adorned with two men- 
at-arms in stone. The summit of the precipitous rock is enclosed , in ac- 
cordance with the ancient plan of the castle, by walls 45-65 ft. in height, 
in the form of a heptagon, and provided with bastions and corner-turrets. 
Within this enclosure stands the modern castle, a winged edifice with 


68 Route 11. ZELLERHORN. 

five towers, two of which rise to a height of 120 ft. above the external 
walls. The two lowest of the five stories of the building are vaulted and 
designed for purposes of defence. The towers are adorned with the arms 
of the Zollern family. On the tower of^St. Michael is a representation of 
St. Michael and the Dragon in bronze. * The style of the entire structure 
is that of the latter part of the 14th cent., which has been strictly ad- 
hered to, notwithstanding the serious difficulties encountered in construct- 
ing the approach to the castle and providing it with fortifications. The 
garrison consists of a company of infantry. 

To the left in the upper Burghof is the Burg-Garten, adorned with a 
bronze statue of Fred. William IV. beneath a Gothic canopy (PI. 4). Op- 
posite, to the right, is the Wehrhaus, or barrack, containing a restaurant. 
Adjoining it is the Protestant Chapel (PI. 8), in the Gothic style. To the 
left (8.) rises the Michaels - Turm (PL 13) with the relief -portraits and 
armorial bearings of the different lords of the castle. To the E. of it, 
in the direction of the garden, is the Roman Catholic thapel of St. Michael 
(PI. 14). 

A lofty flight of steps (PI. 5) by the Wehrhaus, adorned with a statue 
of the Count Zollern who rebuilt the castle in 1454, leads to the apartments 
of the interior (guide 26 pf.). The Stammbawn- Halle (PI. 6), containing 
genealogical trees, coats-of-arms, etc., is first entered. Then the sumptuous 
*Qrafen-Baal (PI. 7), in the Gothic Btyle, borne by eight columns of red 
marble, and overladen with gilding and painting. On the right of this saloon 
is the Kaiser-Halle (PI. 8), borne by a central pillar, embellished with eight 
painted statues of German emperors by the windows \ opposite it, on 
the W. side of the hall, is the Bischofs-Halle (PI. 9), with two statues and 
28 medallion-portraits of prelates of the house of Zollern. Adjoining the 
Grafen-Saal on the W. is the Library (PI. 10), a low apartment with carved 
bookcases and frescoes by Peters illustrative of the history of the castle. 
From the library we proceed to the right to the Markarafen-Turm (PI. 11), 
which contains the sitting-room and bedroom of the emperor, while to the 
left are the apartments of the empress (PI. 12) in the Michaels-Turm. The 
Roman Catholic Church of St. Michael is the only part of the. earlier structure 
now in existence. It contains some interesting stained glass from the 
monastery of Stetten. 

Another attraction is the very extensive view from the balcony out- 
side the Bischofs-Halle. It embraces the green hills of Swabia*, W. the 
towns of Balingen and Rottweil ; beyond them the Black Forest, with the 
Feldberg, its chief mountain ; S.W. the Jura ; S. and E., in the immediate 
vicinity, the wooded slopes of the Alb. 

Ascent of the Zbllbkhobn fbom Hbchingen (p. 69), 2 hrs. 
The route leads to the S. vi& the ( 4 /| hr.) Heiligkreuz- Kirche and 
the (1 hr.) prettily situated little church of Mariazell, then ascends 
through wood to the P/ 4 hr.) top. — From the Brielhof (p. 67), 
near Zollern station, a footpath leads past the Ziegelbacherhof to the 
Heiligkreuz-Kirche (see above). 

The Zellerhorn (2995 ft. j refuge-hut), a spur of the Alb plateau 
in Wurtemberg, commands a good view. About 10 mln. below the 
summit is the Zollersteighof (itmis.'). A pleasant path leads to the 
E. along the Trauf, as the crest of the wooded hill is called, via the 
Raichberg (3130 ft. ; view) with the 'Hanging Rock', in 2V2 hrs. to 
Jungingen or to Starzeln (p. 69). 

d by Google 

12. From Tubingen to Hechingen and Sigmaringen. 

541/j M. Eailwat in 2»/ 4 -3V4 brs. (fares 7 Jf 10, 4 Ul 70 pf., 3 UT). 

Tubingen, see p. 48. The railway diverges to the left, de- 
scribes a wide curve, and enters the Steinlach-Tal, noted for its 
thriving villages. H/4 M. Derendingen. To the left are the Wold- 
hornle brewery and, farther on, the small Blasibad and the round 
Blasiberg (1462 ft.), with an old chapel of St. Blasins. The Stein- 
lach is crossed. 5 M. Dusslingen (1270 ft.; Steinlachburg brewery). 
The picturesque hills of the Swabian Alb on the left are now 
approached : the Rossberg (p. 66), the broad-backed Farrenberg, 
and the precipitous Dreifiirstenstein (comp. p. 66). — The Stein- 
lach is again crossed. 10 M. Mossingen (1512 ft.; Post), a village 
with 3700 inhabitants. Excursions, see p. 66; about l 1 ^ M. to the 
W. are the sulphur -baths of Sebastiansweiler. — On a hill to 
the left stands the ancient BeUener Chapel (p. 66). — Beyond 
(13 M.) Bodelshausen the train crosses the Prussian frontier and 
descends into the Starzel-Tal. 

15Y2 M. Hechingen. — Hotels. *Linde or Post, R. 1-3 Jt, B. 80 pf., 
D. i Jf 80 pf., pens. 31/2-5 Jf, omn. 50 pf., car?, and pair to Hohenzollern 
Castle §Jt and gratuity; *Rad, R. iVi-i 1 /* D. ii/s-2, pens. 3-5 Mi Lowe, 
nearest the station, R. I-I1/2 Jt, B. CO pf. — Railway Restaurant; beer at 
the Museum. 

Hechingen (1640 ft.), formerly the residence of the Princes of 
Hohenzollern-Hechingen, was acquired by Prussia in 1850. It is an 
old town with 4600 inhab., situated on the abrupt slope of the 
valley of the Starzel. The Parish Church, erected in 1783, contains 
a relief by Peter Vischer (beside the high-altar), representing Count 
Eitel Friedrich II. of Zollern (d. 1512) and his wife Magdalena of 
Brandenburg (d. 1496). The Protestant Church on the S. side of 
the town (1 M. from the station) is a tasteful modern structure in 
the pointed style. Near it is the Villa Eugenia, with a park (open 
to visitors), the property of Prince Hohenzollern. About 1 M. farther 
on is the Brielhof Inn fp. 67). 

About 2V« M. to the N.W. of Hechingen rises the Martinsberg (1770 ft.), 
with a view-tower, and •/< M. farther to the W. is the little chateau of 
Lindich. with a ptfrk (rfmts. in summer). — Ascent of the Hohenzollern, 
see p. 67; of the Zellerhorn, p. 68. 

From Hechingen to Bubladingen, 9V2 M., light railway in about 
3 /4 hr. This line follows the well-wooded upper valley of the Starzel, 
usually known as the Killer-Tal after the village of Killer. 4V« M. Jungingen 
(1960 ft.; Post, R. I-I1/2, pens. 3-6 Jt) h 5V* M. Killer. — Near (7 M.) 
Star ze in- Hansen (Htifle) rises the Starzel. — The line then ascends a side- 
valley to ft 1 /? M.) Burladingen (2366 ft.). Hence to Oammertingen (p. 65), on 
the S.E., li/f hr., via (s/ 4 hr.) Oauselfingen and (V« hr.) Bronnen. 

The train crosses the Starzel, passes (r.) Stetten in the Gnaden- 
Tal, the ancestral burial-place of the Zollern family, and reaches 
(19M.) Zollern (1798ft.). To the castle of Hohenzollern, seep. 67. 

The Zollern long remains in sight. — 21 M. BUingen ; 24 M. 
Engstlatt (interesting painting of the Ulm school in the church), 
whence the Hund$riick (3064 ft. ; sub-alpine flora) may be ascended 

70 Route 12. EBINGEN. From Tiibwgen 

in li/ 4 nr.—- 26 M. Balingen (1706 ft. ; Schwan; Roller, etc. ; Bail. 
Restaurant), a manufacturing town on the Eyach, with sulphur-baths, 
has been repeatedly burned down (last fire in 1809). 

An attractive excursion may be made hence (comp. toe Map p. 52; take 
provisions) to the (2 hrs.) Lochcnttein (3160 ft. ; refuge-hut ; splendid view), 
an ancient pagan place of sacrifice ; and thence via the Bchafberg (3265 ft. ; 
with the ruin of Wenzelstein, rock-chasms, etc.) down to the Waldhavthof 
for the (IV2 hr.) ascent of the Pleitenberg (3285 ft ; extensive view). Thence 
we may either descend to the 8. via (IV2 hr.) SchGniberg to (2 1 /* hrs.) 
Rottweil (p. 52), or continue the walk via Ratthausen (2220 ft; Sonne) 
and Deilingen (2710 ft. ; Krone) to the (2 hrs.) Oberhohenberg and (*/ 4 hr.) 
Lemberg (p. 52). — To Burgfelden and the Schalktburg, see below. 

The line now turns to the S.E. and enters the highest part of the 
Swabian Alb. To the right rise the Pleitenberg, the Schafberg, and 
the bold Lochenstein (see above). —At (29 M.) Frommern (1865 ft.) 
begins the hilly part of the railway, the gradients varying from 
1 : 60 to 1 : 45. To the right rise the Lochenhornlt, the Orat, and 
the Qrabelesberg, to the left the crags of the Schalksburg (see below). 
— 31 M. Laufen an der Eyach (2020 ft. ; Ochs ; rail. stat. 1/2 M. to 
the N.W. of the village). 

Excubbions (Map, p. 56). To the S., the attractive ascents of the 
Lochenhdmle (3135 ft.; lV 2 hr.) and the GrSbeletberg (2940 ft.; */< hr.; with 
an entrenchment). — To the N. to the (1 hr.) scanty remains of the 
Schalktburg (2990 ft.), supposed to be the original seat of the Zollerns ; 
and thence by the narrow ridge to (1 M.) Burgfelden (2990 ft. ; Post) , 
with an ancient Romanesque church (frescoes of ca. 1050), which was 
perhaps the burial-place of the early Zollerns. About ty* M. to the W. is the 
Bdllat/elsen (3020 ft.). From Burgfelden we may descend to the K.W., 
via the farm of Wannental (rfmts.) and Zillhausen, to (2% hrs.) Balingen 
(see above). 

The train passes through a cutting in the rock, with the Tier- 
berg on the right and the Heersberg on the left. — Beyond 
(3372 M.) Lautlingen the line reaches its highest point (2420 ft.), 
the watershed between the Rhine and the Danube. It then descends 
gradually to — 

371/2 M. Ebingen(2375 ft.; Post; Adler, B. iy«-l ! /s. D. i*UJl; 
Krone j Bahnhofs- Hotel), an ancient industrial town (pop. 10,000), 
prettily situated among hills. The tower on the Schlossfelsen 
(3126 ft. ; good path, 3 / 4 hr.) commands a superb survey of the Alps 
from the Zugspitze to the Bernese Oberland. 

A branch-railway runs hence, via Truchtelflngen and Tailfingen, two 
villages with hosiery- manufacture*, to (5 M.) Opstmettingen (2660 ft. ; Sonne), 
near the chief source of the Schmiecha, known as the Schmeie. To the 
S.E. is the (1/2 hr.) Linienbolde-BOhU (240yds. in length; adm. 50 pf.); to 
the N. the (»/« hr.) Raichberg (p. 68). 

The train descends the winding 8chmeien-Tal and crosses the 
Prussian frontier. 41 M. Strassberg ; on a bold rock to the left is 
the chateau of that name. Below Strassberg the valley is wild and 
impracticable, and presented great engineering difficulties. 

45^2 Storzingen. Tho train passes through several defiles (the 
'DreiBurgen', 'Hexen-Kuche', 'Bettel-Kuche'). Beyond (48*/2 M.) 
Oberschmeien (1946 ft.; 3/ 4 M. to the N.E. is the *Funtenhdhc, 
2596 ft., with blockhouse and view of the Bavarian, Tyrolese, and 

to Sigmaringen. SIGMARINGEN. 12. Route. 71 

Swiss Alps from the Zugspitze to the Balmhorn) the line is carried 
through two tunnels, and beyond the ruins of Gebrochen-Qutenstein 
enters the valley of the Danube. 

61 M. Inzigkofen (1910 ft.). The way to the village (Erbprinz; 
Kreuz), 1 M. to the S.E., passes a beautiful park of Prince Hohen- 
zollern on the steep and wooded S. bank of the Danube, rendered 
accessible by flights of steps, and containing several natural grottoes. 
The Danube flows so slowly here as to resemble a small lake. — Fine 
walk by Laiz (Adler) to (l 1 ^ hr.) Sigmaringen. 

Sigmaringen now comes in sight. The train runs direct towards 
the Miihlberg (p. 72), passes through a cutting, crosses the Danube, 
and reaches — 

54 M. Sigmaringen. —Hotels. Dkumchks Haus, E. iVs-2 Jf , B. 70pf., 
D. 2 Jf; Lowe. E. IVs, D. 2 Jf, B. 70 pf., both very fair; Adlke, E. 1V»- 
l»/2, pens. 3V2-4 Jf ; Kbonpbinz ; Tbaubb. — Rail. Restaurant. 

Sigmaringen (1860 ft.) is a handsome little town with 4600inhab., 
the residence of Prince Hohenzollern, and seat of the Prussian 
administrative authorities. 

The handsome Sonxoss, on a rock rising abruptly from the Da- 
nube, contains a *Museum , chiefly formed by Prince Karl Anton 
(d. 1885), and surpassing most collections of the kind both in 
extent and choiceness. It is admirably arranged in a fine Gothic 
hall, with frescoes by Muller of Dusseldorf, and in two cabinets. 
Excellent catalogues by Hofrat Lehner. The museum (adm. 40 pf.) 
is open daily from 10 to 12 and 2 to 4, on Sun. and festivals not 
till after high mass. 

The Collection op Pictures (230 works) chiefly illustrates the early 
German school, the Swabian masters being particularly well represented. 
Nos. *81-86. Wings of a large altar-piece: Annunciation, Nativity, Circum- 
cision of Christ , Adoration of the Magi, and the Procession to Calvary, 
by J6rg Blocker and M. Bchaffntr (1496); *132-189. Scenes from the life 
of the Virgin, by Barth. Zeitblom; 168-164. Seven scenes from the history 
of the Virgin, by Earn Schillein (all masters of Ulm, see p. 41) ; 3. Altdorfer, 
Adoration of the Magi; *Amb*rger(1), Portraits of a man and woman. The 
Lower Rhenish School, especially that of Cologne, is also numerously re- 
presented {e.g. *91. B. Bruyn, Crucifixion, in an appropriate landscape). The 
best of the early- Flemish works are: *2 and 4. Annunciation, by Gerard 
David; 5. Herri met de Bles, Adoration of the Magi; 29. Virgin Mary, with 
a background of tapestry, and *38. Virgin Mary, in a landscape, by Rogier 
tan der Weyden{1)\ 61. Oerritt van Haarlem, Crucifixion; 129. Lucae van 
Leyden, Adoration of the Magi. — The other sections of the museum contain 
specimens of mediaeval and Renaissance carved work (statuettes, reliefs, 
furniture, especially numerous sculptures of the Lower Rhenish School, 
ca. 1000; small winged altar with paintings by B. Beham, etc.), •Metal- 
work, especially Romanesque candelabra, aquamaniles, goblets, ciboria, etc-., 
glasses, 'Enamels and terracottas (Italian and French majolica, Dutch. 
Rhenish, and Swiss pottery); jewelry, *Textile works, including a series or 
excellently preserved Gobelins of the 14th and 15th cent., mostly with 
scenes from romances of the period. — In the upper rooms is an extensive 
Palaeontological Collection (2000 objects). 

The Library, with its valuable books, incnnabnla, and MSS., 
the Armoury, and the other richly furnished rooms of the palace 
are also worth seeing. 

72 Route 12. BEURON. 

In front of the Schloss is a Statue of Prince Karl Anton (p. 71), 
by Donndorf. In the Karls-Platz are the Prinzenbau and a bronze 
bnst of Prince Karl (d. 1853). 

On the Brentkofer Berg (2140 ft.; V» hr.), on the opposite (N.) bank 
of the Danube, is the War Monument, in memory of the Hohenzollerns who 
fell in the campaigns of 1866 and 1870-71. It represents Germania, on a 
lofty pedestal, holding an oak-wreath. The platform commands a charming 
view of the town and environs, with the distant Alps. At the foot of the 
hill, V* H. to the W., is the Zollersche Hof, a favourite restaurant, with 
a garden; and near it stands the pretty Villa Leibbrand. — The MUhlberg 
(easy path to the summit) is another fine point of view. — To the S.W. 
to Iruigkofen, see p. 71. 

Fbom Sigmaringen to Tuttlingen, 26 1 /* M., railway via the pictur- 
esque winding •Valley of the Danube (com p. the Map, p. 156), which is 
recommended to cyclists and will even repay pedestrians (to Beuron 6 hrs., 
thence to Tuttlingen 4 hrs.)- — S 1 /* M. Jnzigkofen (p. 71). The line crosses 
the Schmeie and the Danube, passes the ruin of Dietfwt, situated on a 
rock, and beyond a sbort tonnel reaches (6 M.) Outenetein (Sonne), a 
picturesque village with a little chateau belonging to Count Douglas. 
— Above the Danube tower the rocks of Raben/els and HeidenfeU. Travers- 
ing another tunnel (300 yds. long), the train halts at (lO'/z M.) Tiergarten 
(1965 ft.; Hammer), with disused iron-works; and then, beyond the 
ruin of Faikenttein (on the right) and the village of Neidingen, at (H1/2 H.) 
Hansen im Tal (1965 ft. ; beer at the Adler), with a lofty ruin near it. In 
front rises the conspicuous old chateau of Werenwag> the property of Prince 
Fiirstenberg, a splendid point of view (fine echo; good inn at the top). 
At the foot of the castle-rock lies the hamlet of Lang enbr win. — The rail- 
way leads through a narrow and romantic part of the valley. Above, on 
the left, is seen the handsome castle of Wildenstein (2590 ft. ; now used 
as a forester's house; l 1 /* hr. from Beuron), with interesting defensive 
works, partly hewn in the rock. The line follows the windings of the 
Danube. To the right, on the high-road, beyond the Kapfie Tunnel (200 yds.), 
is the pretty Chapel of St. Mauvus, erected in 1868-71; and close to it, on 
the left, lies the dairy-farm of St. Jfaurue im Feld. 

i572 M. Beuron (2035 ft.; Broghammer; Pelikan; Stern; Sonne), a 
charmingly situated village, contains an old Augustine monastery, founded 
in the 11th cent., suppressed in 1802, and made over to the Benedictines 
in 1887 (admission seldom granted). The handsome church (restored 
1874-75) contains good ceiling-paintings by Wegscheider and altar-pieces 
by Beuron artists. The new refectory is a fine room. A footpath to the 
left in the neighbouring wood leads to the (20min.) Peters-Hohle t a spacious 
grotto entered by wooden steps. — About H/* M. to the 8. of Beuron, on 
a wooded rock rising over the Danube, is the well-preBerved chateau of 
Bronnen (2600 ft.), whence an attractive path descends via the Scheuerlehof 
(below the ruin of Kallenberg) to (IV2 hr.) Fridingen (see below). 

Beyond Beuron the railway ascends the left bank of the Danube, 
then diverges to the right, through a tunnel (750 yds.) and over the Bera, 
to (18 M.) Fridingen, 1 M. to the N. of the little town (1000 inhab.) of that 
name (Bar; Lowe). Farther on we twice cross the Danube. On the 
wooded heights of the right bank are the ruin of Alt-Fridingen and the 
ruined pilgrimage-church of Maridhilf. — 21 M. Mtihlheim. The town 
(Krone; Hirsch) is picturesquely situated on an eminence to the left, with 
a chateau of Baron Enzberg. Numerous Roman remains have been dis- 
covered near the station. 

Beyond (23 M.) Nendingen, a considerable village with an elegant new 
church and the ancient chapel of St. Blasius, and the royal foundry of 
Ludwigetal, the train passes through a deep cutting and crosses the Danube 
to (26V2 M.) Tuttlingen (see p. 53). Hence to (6 M.) Immendingen, see p. 58. 

From Sigmaringen to Ulm and Radolfzell, see E. 13. 

Digitized by V^iOOQlC 


13. From Ulm to Radolfzell and Constance. 

Railway from Ulm to (86 M.) Radolfzell in 41/2-6 brs. (fares 11 Jt 30, 
7 UT 50, 4 Jt 90pf.)i from Radolfzell to (12»/2 M.) Constance in Vr 8 A br. 

UJm, see p. 41. The line diverges to the left from the Stutt- 
gart railway (R. 8) and at (l 1 /^ M.) 8'6flingen, incorporated with 
Ulm in 1905, enters the smiling valley of the Blau. 3 4 /2 M. Ehr en- 
stein. On the left, near (472 M.) Herrlingen, lies Klingenstein, with 
a chateau of Dr. Leube. From Herrlingen a pleasant excursion 
leads via Schloss Ober-Herrlingen to (l^hr-J Lautern (Krone). — 
The weather-beaten rock protrudes at various points in fantastic 
forms from the wooded sides of the valley. The train crosses the 
Blau. On the right is the Frauenberg, with the ruined castle of 
Hohen^QerTiausen or Busenschloss (2020 ft.) ; opposite to it the ruin 
of Buck, 

10 M.. Blaubeuren (1696 ft. ; *Bahnhof-Hotel; Post, R. l-H/2, 
pens. &-6jt; Ochs ; Bail. Bestaurant), an old town with 3300 inhab., 
lying picturesquely in a basin 1 M. to the right of the station. The 
late-Gothic church of the old Benedictine Abbey (founded in 1095), 
now a theological seminary, contains carved choir-stalls, a ♦High- 
altar, with statues by Jorg Syrlin the Younger (1493), and paintings 
(history of John the Baptist) of the Swabian school (Zeitblom?). 
The *Blautopf, a pale-blue pool (65 ft. deep, 125 yds. in circum- 
ference), behind the abbey, is the source of the Blau. Beside it is 
a monument to King Charles I. (d. 1891). 

Be-ide the Blautopf is situated one of the pumping-stations of the Alb 
Water Works (Albioauerversorgung), begun in 1870 and constructed mainly 
under the direction of the late Dr. von Ehmann, which extend over nearly 
the whole of the Rauhe Alb and supply drinking-water to the numerous 
communities situated on its arid plateau. The water is pumped up through 
cast-iron pipes from springs lying nearly 700 ft. below the level of the 
plateau, while the motive power is afforded by a few small tributary- 
brooks of the Neckar and the Danube, assisted only slightly by steam- 
power. There is another pumping- station at Eybach near Geislingen (p. 40), 
which may be conveniently visited by tourists. 

Tourists who desire to explore the plateau of the Alb may follow the 
somewhat monotonous route from Blaubeuren to (22'/* M.) Urach (p. 61), via 
Sttppingen, Feldstetlen (Post), Zainingen, and Bbhringen (Lamm). 

The line leads through the valley of the Aach, passing the Hohle- 
/W«(on the left), a prehistoric habitation, to (^^M.) Schelklingen 
(1745 ft.; Sonne; Post; pop. 1600), a small town with a ruined 
castle, 1 M. to the N.W. of which is the prettily situated nunnery 
of Urspring (1920 ft.; now a cotton- factory). Branch railway from 
Schelklingen to (36 M.) Beutlingtn, see p. 47. — At (1 6 M.) Schmiechen 
(Sonne) the line enters the valley of the Schmiech (p. 66), a stream 
descending on the right from the Mftn singer Alb. About 1 M. to 
the S.E. is the marshy Schmiecher See (1748 ft.). — 17i/ 2 M. Allmcn- 
dingen (1700 ft.), with cement-works and a chateau. — 20^2 M. 
Ehingen (1680 ft.; Traube; Wurttemberger Hof, at the station; 
Krone), an old town with 4800 inhab., near the confluence of the 

74 Route 13. HERBERTINGEN. From Vim 

Schmiech and the Danube. The Church of St. Blasius, in a debased 
style, has an old Gothic tower. The Kaiser-Wilhclms-Turm on the 
Wolfert (1800 ft.) commands a fine view. 

The line traverses the broad valley of the winding Dannbe. — 
28 M. Kunderkingen (1656 ft.; Post), a small and ancient town 
(pop. 2000) on a rock encircled by the river. The new bridge over 
the Danube here has the largest stone-arch in Germany (164 ft.). — 
From (30M.)Untcr-JtfarcMaJ(Adler; Hirsch) the excursion through 
the Grosse Lauter-Tal, described on p. 66, may be made. — We 
cross the Grosse Lauter (p. 66), near its mouth. To the left are the 
imposing buildings of the old Praemonstratensian monastery of Obcr- 
Marchtal, the property of the Prince of Thurn and Taxis; the 
fine baroque church (end of the 17th cent.) contains an interesting 
choir-screen (1690). — 32i/ 2 M. Bechtenstein (1695 ft.; Bar), 
with the ruined castle of the Steins of Rechtenstein, is the prettiest 
point on the railway. The train crosses to the right bank of the 
Danube, and recrosses the river both before and beyond (36 M.) 
Zwiefaltendorf (1720 ft.), with a stalactite cavern. 

A road ascends the Aachtal hence to (8 M.) Zwiefalten (1930 ft.), a 
former convent (now a lunatic asylum), with a fine church, built in 1738-52. 
Thence to the Witnsener HOhle (entered in a boat), •/* tr - \ ▼** Count 
Normann's chateau of Ekrenfels and the ruin of AU-EhrenfeU to the romantic 
Gkutal, I1/2 hr. 

38y 2 M. Unlingen. The village lies 1 M. to the S.E., at the foot 
of the Bus sen. 

The *Bussen (2515 ft.), an isolated hill commanding a view of the whole 
of Upper Swabia and of the Alps, is ascended from Unlingen in l 1 /* hr. 
(also road via Hailtingen and O/Jlngen). On the hill are a ruined castle 
and a pilgrimage-church, containing a fine figure of Christ by J. von Kopf, 
a native of Unlingen. 

401/2 M. Riedlingen (1735 ft.; Post), a small and ancient town 
3/4 M. to the W. of the railway, with 2400 inhabitants. — 42 M. 
Neufra, with a chateau. -— 47 M. Herbertingen (1794 ft.; Rail. 
Restaurant). About 2 M. to the N. is the Donau-Heuneburg, near 
Talhof; at the neighbouring villages of Pflummern, Langenem- 
lingen, and Heudorf are other Huns' forts ('Heuneburgen'). 

From Hebbektingen to Memmingen, 62 M., railway in SVr^/i hrs. — 
6'/» M. Saulgau, a little town with an interesting Gothic church. — 12 H. 
AlUhatuen (to Pfullingen and Schwackenreute, see p. 75). — 17V* M. Aulen- 
dorf (p. 45), junction of the Ulm-Friedrichsbafen line. — 23 M. Waldsee 
(Post), prettily situated between two lakes, with a Schloss and a 15th cent. 
Gothic church (pop. 30' 0). — 28 M. Rossberg, junction for a branch-line 
(7 M.) to the little town of Wvrtach (5140 ft.), with a chateau built in 1721. 
— 32 M. Wolf egg. with the 8chloss of Prince Waldburg-Wolfegg-Waldsee. 

86V2 M. Kissleg (Port), on the small Zeller See, with two interesting 
old castles and a remarkable rococo church ; branch-line to (12 H.) Hi-rgatz 
(p. 263), via Wongen im Allgdu (Alte Post), an old free town (4400 inhab.), 
picturesquely situated on the Argen. 

43 M. Leutkirch (216<» ft. •, Post: Railway Restaurant), a busy town with 
3600 inhab., on the W. riope of tbe WilheimshVhe (-810 ft. ; views). [Branch- 
line hence to (10 M.) Isny (Pott), the seat of Prince Quadt-Wykradt-lsny, 
prettily situated on the Argen. A fine carved altar in the Prot. church of 
8t. Nicholas. The *Sehwarse Grot (3670 tt.), 2 hrs. to the E, command* a 
splendid view of the Alps and Lake of Constance.] 

to Constance. RADOLFZELL. 13. Route. 75 

Pretty scenery, bat unimportant stations. IVJ2HL. Unterzeil (with a 
chateau on the hill above it). 59 1 /? M. Bvzheim, once a Carthusian mon- 
astery, now a chateau of Count Waldbott-Bassenheim. — 64 M. Memmingen, 
see p. 44. 

51 M. Kengen (H6t. Baier; Bail. Bestaurant), on the Ablach, 
occupies the site of a Roman 'cast rum'. 

Fbom Mengbx to 8igmabikgbn, 6M. (railway in 24 min.). Near $72 if.) 
Scheer the train passes through a short tunnel and crosses to the left 
bank of the Danube. From (4 1 /* M.) Sigmaringendorf, at the mouth of 
the Laucheri (p. 66), a branch-line runs in 1/4 hr. to (4*/« H.) Bingen-Hitt~ 
to/en. — We recross the Danube. 6 M. Sigmaringen (see p. 71). 

The line follows the Ablach-Tal. 64 M. Zielfingen. — 56^/2 M. 
Kraucnenwies (Ooldner Adler; Bail. Bestaurant), with an old 
castle, the summer-residence of the Prince of Hohenzollern ; inter- 
esting erratic boulders on fheAndelsbach, in the park. (Branch-line 
to Sigmaringen via Josephslust, 5^2 M., in 19-23 min?). 

63 M. Messkirch (*Lowe; Sonne), a little town with a chateau 
of Prince Furstenberg. A monument has been erected to Eonradin 
Kreutzer, the composer, born here in 1780 (d. 1849). The old 
church contains an altar-piece by H. Schaufelein (?) and monu- 
ments of the 16th cent, (epitaph of Count von Zimbern by Laben- 
wolf). Traces of a Roman settlement have been found in the old 
town. — 69 M. Schwackenreuthe (Rail. Restaurant). 

Fbom Schwackenreothe to Altbhausbn, 25*/a M.. railway in l*/4-2V» hrs. 

— 10 M. PfuMen&orf (Schwan; Restaurant in the Rothe Ochs), a very ancient 
town (charming excursion to Eeiligenberg, see p. 82} 21/4 hrs.; diligence 
l>/2, carriage 12 Jt). — Stations Burgweiler, Ottrach, Hosskirch-Kdnigsegg 
(IV2 M. to the 8.E. is the partly preserved castle of KSnigsegg), Kremried. 

— 25'/2 M. AUthausen (Hirsch ; Bail. Restaurant) is the junction of the 
Herbertingen and Memmingen line (p. 74). 

At (71 M.) Muhlingen we enter the wooded ravine of the 
Stockaeh. 76 M. Stockach (Post), prettily situated, near which the 
French under Jourdan were defeated by Archduke Charles in 1799 ; 
fine view from the (V2 hr.) ru" 1 of Nellenburg. Then through smil- 
ing green valleys, via (82 M.) Stahringen (p. 821, to (86 M.) 
Radolfiell (Schiff, very fair; Krone; Sonne, plainer), an old town 
of 5200 inhab., with walls and gates, situated on the Unter-See, 
where the line unites with the Bale and Constance railway. The 
Gothic church of 1436 contains the tomb of St. Radolf and a fine 
reliquary dating substantially from the 9th century. At the VUla 
Seehalde is a monument to its former proprietor, the poet Victor 
von Scheffel (d. 1886). 

The railway from Radolfzell to Constance intersects the neck of 
land between the Unter-See and the Ueberlinger See (p. 82). — 
11/2 M. Markelfingen; 41/2 M. Allensbachi 61/2 M. Hegne. — 8i/ 2 M. 
Beichenau, station for the island in the Untersee, to the right, con- 
nected with the shore by a causeway (1 M.). 

The island of Beiehenau (3 M. long, 1 M. wide), now belonging to 
Baden, was formerly the seat of a celebrated Benedictine abbey, founded 
in 724 and secularized in 17; 9. It may be visited also by rowing-boat 
from Hegne or Allensbach O/4 hr.) or by steamer from Constance. — Ap- 

76 Route 13. CONSTANCE. From Ulm 

pro aching from the causeway, we pass the rained tower of Schdpfeln, the 
abbot's residence, and reach Oberzell, a hamlet with a Romanesque church 
of the 9-10th cent., containing the oldest extant church-frescoes in Germany 
(10th cent ). — In the middle of the island lies its largest village (lOOOinhab.), 
Mitteltell or M&nster (Mohr j Bar), the church of which, consecrated in 806 
and dating in its present form from the 11- 12th cent, (choir, late-Gothic, 
1418-1551), was the church of the above mentioned abbey. Charles the 
Fat, great-grandson of Charlemagne, who was dethroned in 887^ was inter- 
red in this church. The sacristy contains some fine reliquaries. A fine 
view is obtained from the W. tower of the KOnigsegg, a 16th cent, chateau, 
recently restored. — The church of UnterzeU, at the N.W. end of the 
island, is another columned basilica of the 9-12th centuries. In the apse 
are some frescoes of the 11th cent., discovered in 1900. — Fine view from 
the belvedere on the FriedrichsMhe (key kept at the Mohr inn at Hittelzell). 

The train passes the large barracks of Petershausen, and crosses 
the Rhine by an iron bridge embellished with statues. 

12^2 M. Constance. — Hotels. *Insel-Hotel (PI. a ; C, 3), of the very 
first class, in the old Dominican monastery (modern frescoes in the Roman- 
esque cloisters ; church converted into the dining-room), superbly situated 
right on the lake, with garden and restaurant (in the refectory), R. 8-6, 
B. l»/4, D. 4, 8. 8V«, pens, from 8 Jf, closed Nov. lst-April 1st. — •Halm 
(PI. c; C,5), R. from 2»/», B. 1, J>. SJf, *8chonebeck (PI. e; C, 5), R. 
2-4, B. 1, D. 2-3 Jf, both opposite the station; *Hecht (PL d; C, 4), to 
the N. of the station, R. 2-3, B. 1, D. 3, pens. 61/2-71/2 Jf* with wine-room, 
good cuisine. — Kbone (PI. g; C, 4), R. 2-2»/2 , B. 1, D. 3, pens. 6-7 Jf, 
Schnktzer (PI. h ; B, 4), both in the market-place, very fair. — Badischek 
Hop (PI. f; B, 5), Husen-Str. 13, R. l 3 A-2, D. 2Jt; Babbakossa (PI. i; 
B, 4), Oberer Markt, plain but good ; Schlussel (PL s: B, 5), Sigismund- 
Str. 14-, Bavrischer Hop (PL r; B, 5), Rosgarten-Str. 30, R. I1/2-21/2, B. »/«, 
D. lVz-2 Jf; H0HB8 Haus, Zollern-Str. 29; Ehben, Wessenberg-Str. 29$ 
False (PL t; A, 6), Kreuzlinger-Str. 13, with beer-garden; Katholiscbbb 
Vereinshaus St. Johann (PL v, B, 8), R. lV«-2> pens. 31/2 Jf. 

Restaurants. At the hotels; also, Victoria, opposite the station ; Ca/4 
Maximilian, Bahnhof-Str. 4; Cafi Hieoer, Paradies-Str. 5. 

Boats (PL C, 4). Per hr. 1-2 pers. 40, each addit. pers. 20 pf., with 
a sail 80 & 20 pf., 1 Jf additional to the boatman. — Stemming and Other 
Baths in the lake (bath 40 pf. ; ferry 10 pf.). — English Church Service in 

Constance (1335 ft.), a town of Baden with 24,800 inhab., has 
manufactures of iron and textiles. It is situated at the N.W. ex- 
tremity of the Lake of Constance, or Bodensce, at the point where 
the Rhine emerges from it. 

Constance, which ascribes its origin to Cons (an this Chlorus (3rd cent.), 
became au episcopal see in the 6th cent, and was a free town until 1548, 
when it was made subject to Austria. Since 1809 it has belonged to 
Baden. After the Reformation the bishops resided at Meersburg, and in 
1827 the bishopric was merged in the archbishopric of Freiburg. The 
great Council of Constance, held in 1414-18 at the instance of the Emp. 
Sigismund, supp ressed the schism of the anti-popes John XXHI.,Gregory XII., 
and Benedict XIII., and condemned the teaching of John Huss (p. 77). 

The *Oathbdsal (PI. 4; B,3\ founded in 1052, was rebuilt in 
its present form in 1435 and 1680. Gothic tower erected in 1850-57; 
the perforated spire is of light grey sandstone ; on either side is a 
platform commanding a charming view (adm. 20 pf.). 

On the Door* of the principal portal are + Bos-Relief 9, in 20 compart- 
ments, representing scenes from the life of Christ, carved in oak by Sim. 
Haider in 1470. The * Choir Stalls, with grotesque sculptures, are of the 
same date. The organ-loft, richly ornamented in the Renaissance style, 

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to Constance. CONSTANCE. 13. Route. 77 

dates from 1680. In the nave (Romanesque), the arches of which are sup- 
ported by 16 monolithic pillars (28 ft. high, 3 ft. thick), sixteen paces 
from the principal entrance, is a large stone slab, a white spot on which 
always remains dry, even when the remaining portion is damp. Huss is 
said to have stood on this spot when the Council of 6th July, 1415, sentenced 
him to be burnt at the stake. The pulpit dates from the 17th century. — 
In the choir is the tomb of Robert Hallum, bishop of Salisbury (d. 1417). 
The late-Gothic choir- stalls are by Simon Haider (see p. 76). In the N. 
chapel, adjoining the choir, is a Death of the Virgin, coloured stone figures 
lifesize, 1460. Adjacent is an elegant spiral staircase (1484?). — In the 
last chapel of the N. aisle is a large winged altar-piece of the Swab) an 
School. — The Treasury (custodian l /z-l Jf) contains an illuminated missal 
(1426); and in the Chapter Mouse is a collection of .antiquities. — On the 
£. side is a crypt, containing the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, with a 
representation of the sepulchre in stone. 20 ft. high, dating from the 
13th century. On the exterior of the N. side stand two aisles of the once 
handsome * Cloisters, erected about 1480 in the Gothic style. 

The Wessenberg Haus (PI. 15; B, 3), now the property of the 
town, contains the public library (daily 9-12 and 2-6) and the col- 
lections, bequeathed by the late proprietor, Hr. Wessenberg (d. 1860), 
who for many years was the chancellor of the diocese. 

The Church of St. Stephen (PI. 6; B, 4), a late-Gothic building 
of the 15th cent., with a slender tower, but disfigured externally, 
contains some interesting reliefs by H. Morink (16th cent. ; in 
the choir). 

The Wessenberg-Strasse leads hence to the S. to the Obere Markt, 
at the corner of which stands the house 'Zum Hohen Haferi (PI. 2; 
B, 4), where Frederick VI., Burgrave of Nuremberg, was created 
Elector of Brandenburg by Emp. Sigismund, 30th April, 1417. 
Adjacent to it is an ancient building with arcades (now the Hot. 
Barbarossa), styled by an inscription ' Curia Paris', in which Emp. 
Frederick I. concluded peace with the Lombard towns in 1183. 

The Stadt-Kanzlei, or Town Hall (PI. 12; B.4, 5), rebuilt in 
the Renaissance style in 1593, was decorated in 1864 on the exterior 
with frescoes illustrative of the history of Constance. The apart- 
ments of the groundfloor contain the valuable Municipal Archives, 
comprising 2800 documents, the most Interesting of which date 
from the period of the Reformation. Fine inner court. In the lobby 
of the second floor are five frescoes by Haberlin (1898), also relating 
to the town's history. — In the Rosgabtbn (PI. 8; B, 5), once 
the guild-house of the butcherB, is the Rosgarten Museum, a good 
collection of local antiquities (from lake-dwellingB, etc.) and of ob- 
jects of natural history (adm. 50 pf. ; free on Wed., 2-5, & Sun., 
10.30-12). — In the market-place stand a War Monument by Bauer 
(PI. 10) and the Kaiser- Brunnen (1897). 

The Kaxjphaus, or Merchants' Hall (PI. 1 ; C, 4), hy the lake, 
erected in 1388, contains the great Council Chamber, supported by 
massive oaken pillars, where the conclave of cardinals met at the 
time of the Great Council (1414-18). The hall was decorated in 1876 
with frescoes illustrating the history of the town, by Pecht and 


The ancient Dominican Monastery (PI. a; C, 3), in which Huss 
was confined in 1414-15, on an island in the lake, is now the 
Insel-Hotel (see p. 76). The well-preserved Romanesque cloisters 
(with modern historical frescoes by Haeberlin) repay inspection ; 
the former church is now the dining-room of the hotel. — Pleasant 
promenade in the Stadt-Qarten on the lake (PI. C, 3, 4 ; band every 
evening in summer). 

The house in which Huss was arrested, Husen-Strasse 64, near 
the Schnet*-Tor (PI. A, 6), bears a memorial tablet with his effigy, 
put up in 1878. Adjoining it is an old relief, dated 1415, with 
satirical verses. Some houses farther on, at the 'Obere Laube', a 
bronze tablet with an inscription marks the spot where Jerome of 
Prague was imprisoned in .1415-16. — In the Bruhl, V2M. to the 
W. of the town (PI. A, 4), is the spot where Huss and Jerome suf- 
fered martyrdom, indicated by a huge mass of rock with inscriptions 

A fine view of the lake and of the Vorarlberg and Appenzell Alps is 
obtained from the P/ 2 br.) FriedrichsMhe (1158 ft) and the (<A hr.) *AUmanns- 
h&he (1513 ft.), with belvedere, 5 min. above the village of Allmantudorf y 
on the road to the Mainan. — Among other pleasant objects for a walk 
may be mentioned the Loretto-Kapelle at Stood (Vs br.)j the Jacob, a 
restaurant with a fine view (Vs hr.); and the abbey of Kreuslingen 
(Ldwe; Schweizerhof; Bellevue), on Swiss territory, «/< M. beyond the S. gate, 
now a normal school. The church contains a curious piece of wood- 
carving, with about 1000 small figures, executed in the 18th century. The 
Kleine Rigi, above Miinsterlingen, is about */« hr. beyond Kreuzllngen. 

Railway from Constance to Schaffhaneen and B&U, see Baedeker" $ Rhine 
or Baedeker's Switzerland. 

14. The Lake of Constance. 

The banks of the lake belong to five different states : Baden, Wurtem- 
berg, Bavaria, Austria, and Switzerland. The Swiss bank, the principal 
steamboat-centre on which is Rorschach, is described in Baedeker e Sieitzer- 
land. — The Untersee, with the island of Reiehenau t is described on p. 75. 

In the following description steam-boat stations are indicated by P., 
railway-stations by R. 

The Lake of Constance (Germ. Bodensee-, 1295 ft.), the Locus 
BrigantinuB of the Romans, is about 40 M. long, 7 4 /2 M. in width, 
and at the deepest place, between Friedrichshafen and Uttwil, 826ft. 
in depth. Its principal feeder is the Rhine, the deposits of which 
have formed a broad delta at its influx between Bregenz and Ror- 
schach. This vast sheet of water, with its well-peopled banks, its 
high, wooded hills on the S. side, above which rise the distant 
Appenzell chain of the Alps, with the generally snow-clad Sentis 
and, in clear weather, the snow-peaks of the Vorarlberg Alps to the 
S.E., presents a scene of great beauty. The £. and W. banks are 
almost entirely flat, while on the N. wooded mountains may be de- 
scried in the distance, on which Schloss Heiligenberg (p. 82) is 

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MEERSBURG. 14. Route. 79 

conspicuous. The climatic conditions are extraordinarily favourable. 

— The best fish are 'Felcheri and trout, and the best wine grown 
on the banks is the i Meer8burger\ 

a. Steamboats on the Lake. 

Steamboats (2-6 times daily): From Constance to (Meersburg) Fried- 
richihafen in H/s hr. (fares 2 Jt 35, 1 Jt 55 pf.); direct to Lindau in 
3 hrs. (8 Jt 96, 2 Jt 60 pf.)- — From Fbiedeich shaken to Romanshom 
in 3/ 4 -l hr. (1 Jt 20, 80 pf); to Rorschach in li/« hr. (2 .J, 1 .J 35 pf.). 

— From Lindau to Romanshom in 1 hr. 10 min. (2 Jt 25, 1 UK 50 pf.) ; 
to Rorschach in 1 hr. (1 Jt 65, 1 Jt 10 pf). — Between the chief places 
on the lake, Schaffhausen, Constance, Meersburg, Ueberhnyen, Ludwigshafen, 
FHedHchshafen, Lindau, Bregenz, Rorschach, and Romanshom, the steamers 
ply at least once daily. Tickets for the steamboat lines skirting the 
shores of the lake are available in part for the railway also (and vice- 
versa, see p. 82). Return -tickets are valid for 45 days. The so-called 
'kilometre tickets 1 ( Kilometer- Ear ten) are convenient for those making a 
long stay: ticket with 200 coupons (each representing one kilometre), 
1st class 9, 2nd class QJt; family-ticket with 800 coupons, 1st class 13V2> 
2nd class 9 Jt; on embarking the required number of coupons is de- 
tached. — The lake is neutral, but passengers* luggage is examined only 
on proceeding from Switzerland to Germany or Austria or vice-versd; pas- 
sengers from one German port to another, e. g. from Constance to Lindau, 
can have a custom-house label (gratis) pasted on their luggage before 
embarkation by which all trouble is avoided on landing. 

Constance, see p. 76. The chief charm of the N.W. arm of 
the Lake of Constance, known as the Ueber linger See, is the attrac- 
tive island of — 

•Hainan (Plan see p. 80), formerly the seat of a lodge of the 
Teutonic Order, as a cross on the S. side of the chateau (1746) indi- 
cates. Since 1853 it has been the property of the Grand-Duke of 
Baden , who refurnished the chateau (adm. to the interior in the 
absence of the family only). The island is l 1 ^ M. in circumference 
and is connected with the mainland by an iron bridge 650 paces 
long. It rises in terraces from the lake and is covered with charm- 
ing pleasure-grounds in which favourite spots are marked with in- 

Steamboat from Constance via Meersburg, on the N. bank, in 1 hr. 
RowiNG-Boat (in 1 hr., a pleasant trip) 5 Jt and gratuity. Pedestbians 
(Map. see p. 80) may either follow the road (one-horse carr 5-6, two- 
horse 10 Jt), a walk of l 1 /* hr., or take the shorter footpaths (1 hr.). 
We go straight on along the Wilhelm-Str. (PI. C, 1) to Q/% M.) a guide- 
post where we diverge to the right and pass the military hospital ; about 
Va M. farther on we reach another guide-post whence we may either go 
straight on skirting the wood and soon joining the. road, or take the pre- 
ferable route to the left ('Privatweg Liitzelstatten') through wood and past 
the St. Katharina tavern. 

On the N. bank of the Ueberlinger See lie Meersburg (P. ; see 
below), Vnteruhldingen (P. & R. ; p. 82), Seefelden, Nussdorf (R. ; 
p. 83), Veberlingen (P. & R. ; p. 8U), Sipplingen (R. j p. 82), and, 
at the N. end of the lake, Ludwigshafen (P. & R. ; p. 82). 

Meersburg. — Hotels. *Seehof, at the steamboat -pier; Sohipf, 
Hecht, Wilder Mann, all three on the lake; Lowe; Pension zom Fbieden. 
— Good Meersburger wine at the Weinstube des Winzervereins. — Lake' 
Baths near the quay. 

80 Route 14. UEBERLINGEN. Lake of 

Meersburg (1465 ft.), a little town of 1900 inhab., with many 
old houses, lies picturesquely on a steep slope. The Old Chateau, 
on a promontory, with the ancient Dagobert Tower, is said to have 
once been a seat of the Hohenstaufen. The old mill in the adjacent 
ravine (artificially made) is highly picturesque. The New Chateau 
is now a deaf-and-dumb asylum. Near it is a bust of the poetess 
Annette von Droste-Hiilshoff (d. 1848), by Stadelhofer (1898). The 
churchyard contains the tomb of Mesmer (d. 1815), the discoverer 
of mesmerism. Fine views from the Kdnzeli, near the normal school, 
and (more extensive) from the *Edelstein, 1 M. from the harbour 
and i/ 4 M. to the W. of the church. 

Ueberlingen. — Hotels. *Stadtisches Bad -Hotel (PI. A, 2), with 
garden, pens. 5 JH\ *L6we (PI. ft-, C, 2), R. 1 Jf 60 pf.-2 J[, pens. 5»/4- 
6 Ji\ Bahnhofs-Hotel, near the W. station (p. 82), these three on the 
lake; Krone (PI. c$ B, 2); Schifp (PL b ; 0, 2)$ £ngel (PI. d; C, 2); Adler 
(PI. f $ B, 2) Zahrikgbr Hof (PI. e; B, 2). — Lodgings. — Wine-Booms. 
Hecht; Sch&pfUt; Anker; Sdlie; Editor . — Restaurants. Salmansweiler 
Hof; Ghristophskeller; Seegarten; Birkenmaier ; Ochse; Babe, etc. 

Ueberlingen (1345 ft.), an ancient town with 4400 inhab., fre- 
quented for its lake-baths and mineral spring, was once a free town 
of the Empire. Considerable remains of the old fortifications have 
been preserved as well as numerous mediaeval buildings, including 
the richly-decorated Gothic Rathaus (PI. O, 2). The early-German 
hall in the last , with its carved *Woodwork, is an object of great 
interest. The 60 statuettes on the walls (about 1 ft. high), present- 
ing the various elements of the German Empire, are by Jakob Rues 
(1491) ; the modern stained -glass is by Geiges. 

The adjacent Minster (PI. B, 2), of the second half of the 14th 
cent., with double aisles, contains a carved * Altar (early 17th cent.), 
with many figures, and a fine ciborium of limestone. In the rich 
treasury are a fine pax of ebony and silver (early 17th cent.) and 
two Romanesque bronze candelabra. Tickets (50 pf.) of adm. to the 
choir are obtained from the sacristan, Turmgasse 283. 

The Stadt-Kantlei (PI. C, 2), in the Miinster-Platz, has a fine 
doorway of the end of the 16th century. — The Steinhaus Musbum 
(PI. B, 2) contains a Historical Collection and a Cabinet of Natural 
History, founded in 1870. — The municipal pleasure-grounds (PL 
A, 2, 1), with the Uhland-Hohe and the Galler-Turm, are worth 
a visit. 

Excursions. To the W. to the old Silvester -Kirchlein (frescoes of the 
10th cent.), near Goldbach. Farther to the W. to the (V2 hr.) Heiden- 
hOhlen, mentioned in ScheffePs novel 'Ekkehard' ? on the hill (1740 ft.) is 
Sehloss Spetzgart, now a hydropathic establishment, near which is a 
Glacier Mill. — To 0/2 hr.) the Spetzgarler Tobel. — To ( 3 /« hr.) the Hd- 
dinger Tobel. a picturesque ravine with waterfalls, near the station of 
SiissenmuMe (p. 82). — To Bodman (Linde), at the N. W. end of the lake, 
with a view-tower and the ruin of an imperial residence from which the 
lake (Bodensee) took its name. 

Railway from Ueberlingen to Constance or Lindau, see p. 82. 

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Constance. . BREGENZ. 14. Route. 81 

On the steamboat-journey from Gonstancb to Friedkichshafen 
(l l /2 nl we see > on tne Ueberlinger See, the picturesque little 
town of Meersburg (P ; p. 79), then the island of Mainau (p. 79), 
and in the distance Ueberlingen (p. 80). Farther on, on the N. bank, 
appear the village of Hagnau (P.), the chateaux of Kirchberg and 
Herrsberg, and the village of Immenstaad (P.). 

Friedrichshafen (P. & R.), see p. 46. 

Steamers to Romanshorn and Rorschach^ see p. 79. 

The steamer to Lindau (1-1 ^2 nr passes Eriskirch (P. & R. ; 
p. 82) and the mouth of the Schussen to Langenargen, with the 
chateau of Montfort (P. & R. ; p. 82). Soon Kressbronn (P.) appears 
on the left; I1/4 M. to the E. lies Nonnenhorn (R. ; p. 82). We 
next pass Wasserburg (P. & R. ; p. 263) and the finely situated baths 
of Schachen (P.; p. 263), and reach — 

Lindau (P. & R.), see p. 263. 

Steamers to Rorschach) Romanshorn, and Constance^ see p. 79. 

Picturesquely situated at the E. end of the lake (steamer from 
Lindau in 15-25 min.) lies — 

Bregenz (P. & R.). — Hotels. *H6t. Montfobt, *H6t. de l'Europe, 
both at the station; * Osteebeichischeb Hof, at the harbour; Weisses 
Kredz, Rdmer-Str. ; Post; Krone. Lowe. — *Railvay Restaurant; wine 
at F. JKinz^iy Kirchgasse; beer at the Hir$ch, at For tier's, etc. 

Bregenz (1300 ft. ; 7600 inhab.), the Brigantium of the Romans, 
is the capital of the Voralberg. The Old, or Upper Town , of irre- 
gular quadrilateral shape, situated on a hill, occupies the site of 
the Roman Castrum. The Harbour Promenade commands a good 
survey of the lake and the Appenzell Mts. (Sentis). The District 
Museum (adm. 50 A.) contains natural history specimens, Roman 
antiquities, etc. 

The *Gebhardsberg (1970 ft.), with the ruins of the old castle of 
Hohen-Bregenz, a small church, and an inn, is reached by road in 85 min. 
(two-horse carr. there and back 8 UK). It commands a fine view, embrac- 
ing the Lake of Constance as far as the t< wn of Con>tan -e, the valleys 
of 1 he Bremen zer Ach and the Rhine, and 1 he Alps of Appenzell and Glarus. 

The *Pfander (34E0 ft.), to the E. of Bregenz, commands a more ex- 
tensive view. The most convenient route (l 3 /4-2 hrs.) leads past Berg Isel 
(rifle-ranjte) and then to the left to Weisxenreute \ it then a«cends to the 
right (white way rr arks) thro> gh wood via Hintermoos to the *Hdt.-Pens. 
Pf&nder, 5 min. below the summit. The carriage-road is rather longer 
(2-2Va hrs.; two-horse carr. there and back 'M Jt). 

Railway to (6 M.) Lindau (p. 263) via Lo-hau in 20 min. (fares i K. 
SO, 84, CO h.). From Bregenz to Landed (Voralberg Railway), see Baedeker's 
Eastern Alps. 

b. Bail way from Constance to Lindau ( Bodensee-Ourtelbahn). 

64 M., express in 3 hrs. — Railway - tickets are "partially valid by 
steamer, and tice-versd (see p. 79). 

From Ccnstance to Radolfzell (12i/ 2 M.), see pp. 76,76. — 17 M. 
Stahrinyen (p. 75). — Beyond (20 M.) Espasingen the line approach- 
es the Ueberlinger See (opposite, on the S.E. bank, is the old 
market-town of Bodman, p. 80) and skirts the precipitous shore 

Baedkkisb's S. Germany. 10th Edit. 6 


via (211/a M.) Ludwigahafen to (24 M.) Sipplingen, a finely situated 
market-town, with the ruin of Hohenfels and the view-point of 
Haldenhof (2215 ft. ; rfmts.). — 25^2 M. Sussenmuhle is the station 
for the romantic H'6 dinger Tobcl (near the village oi Hbdingen, 1 /2 nr 
and the Heidenhohlen (p. 80). 

The rail, station of (28 M.) Ueberlingen (p. 80) lies i/ 2 M. to the 
W. of the town, opposite the new harbour (steam-ferry across). 

The line now traverses a tunnel over 1 M. long to (29 M.) 
Ueberlingen East Station and skirts the lake to (30*/* M.) Nussdorf.. 
— 33V2 M. Oberuhldingen, whence a branch-line runs to (2 M. , in 
6 min.) Vnteruhldingen (P.). — 37*/2 M. Mimmenhausen-Neufrach. 

Fkom Mimmesthausbn-Neofrach to Fbickingbh, 5 M., branch railway 
in 26 minutes. — 2 M. Salem (1445 ft. ; Schwcm), a suppressed Cistercian 
convent, now partly occupied by Prince Max of Baden, with large halls 
(the finest of which is the 'Kaiser-Baal', in the rococo style), a collection of 
paintings, etc. The Gothic * Church of the 14th cent is lavishly adorned 
within with sculptures in marble (23 altars), dating from the late-Renais- 
sance period; fine late-Gothic ciborium. 

8V2 M. Lemtetien is the station for the village of Heiligenberg, 5 M. 
to the E. — Heiligenberg (*BUcheler tur Post, R. 1V4-2 1 /* P« n8 « 4yt-6 •* » 
Winter, pension 4 , /2-5 Jf), with the extensive chateau and park 01 Prince 
Furstenberg, lies picturesquely on a rocky terrace 1000 ft. above the 
Lake of Constance. The chateau contains a magnificent Renaissance hall, 
115 ft. long and 43 ft. broad, with a beautifully-carved wooden ""Ceiling (16th 
cent.), probably the finest in Germany. The 'Chapel (begun in 1636* re- 
stored) is also noteworthy. The ""View from the chateau is strikingly beauti- 
ful: it embraces the Lake of Constance, and the entire chain of the Vorarl- 
berg and Swiss Alps, from the Hochvogel to the Jungfrau *, still better from 
the 'Sieben Linden 1 (seven lime-trees), */« M. from the village. — A similar 
view is enjoyed from several parts of the flower-garden, on the left of 
the road to the castle \ also from the Freundschafls-Hdhlen, a number of 
grottoes, with seats, V« hr. to the N.W. of the inn. — From Heiligenberg 
to Pfullendorf (2 hrs. \ carr. & pair 10 Jt), see p. 75. — 5 M. Frickingm. 

43 M. Markdorf, a small town with 2060 inhab., 1 hr. to the 
N. of which is the Oohrenberg (2475 ft. ; view). — 46 M. Fischbach, 
near which are remains of lake- dwellings. 

49 M. Friedrichshafen, see p. 46. 

The line skirts the lake, affording fine glimpses of the Appen- 
zell mountains, to Eriskirch, beyond which it crosses the Schussen, 
and (56V2 M.) Langenargen. On a tongue of land to the right stands 
the chateau of Montfort. — The Argen is crossed. 58 M. Hemig- 
kofen-Nonnenbach; 59 M. Nonnenhorn (Engel), a prettily-situated 
little Bavarian town ; 60 M. Wasser burg, the station for the village 
lying to the right on a peninsula (p. 81). 

64 M. Lindau, see p. 263. 

d by Google 


15. From Frankfort to Wurzburg (Munich). 

8V/2 M. Railway. Express in 21/4-3 hrs. (fares 12 Jt 40, 8 Jf 90, 6 Jf 
30 pf.), ordinary train in ca. 5 hrs. (10 Jf 90, 7 Jf 60 pf., 5 Jf). To Munich, 
see p. 177. As far as Aschaffenburg we travel by Prussian State Railway, 
beyond that by Bavarian State Railway. — Trains for Hanau start from 
the Central Station, on the left bank, of the Main, as well as from the E. 
or Hanau Station, outside the Allerheiligen-Tor, */« M. from the Zeil. 

Frankfort, see Baedekers Rhine. The train crosses the Main 
below Frankfort. WfeM.. Sachsenhausen , a suburb of Frankfort; 
41/4M. Oberrad.— -6 M. Offenbach (Kaiser Friedrich; Stadt Kassel), a 
manufacturing town with 59,800 inhab., founded by French refugees 
at the end of the 17th century. Its leather goods rival those of Paris, 
Vienna, and Berlin. There are also important engine-factories, 
foundries, etc. The town is commanded by a castle of Count Isen- 
burg, built in the Renaissance style in 1664-72. — 10 M. Muhl- 
heim; to the left, on the Main, is the village of Rumpenheim, with 
a chateau of the Landgrave of Hesse. 13 M. Klein-Steinheim. The 
train then crosses the Main. — 1474 M. Hanau, East Station. 

Fbom Feankfokt East Station to Hanau, 11 M., in 26-40 minutes. 
Soon after starting we pass Bornheim on the left; Offenbach (see above) 
lies to the right, on the opposite bank of the Main. 3 M. Maintur; 6 M. 
Hochttadt-Ddrnigheim; 9 M. Wilhelmebad, with pleasant promenades: all 
resorts of the Frankforters. On the Main, i/> M - to the S., is Philippsruhe, 
the seat of the Landgrave of Hesse, with extensive orangeries. Near 
(10 M.) Hanau West Station the train crosses the Kintig. 11 H. Hanau 
East Station. 

Hanau (315 ft.; *Adler, R. 21/2-6, B. 1, D. 2^ 2 •#; **«*> R- 
li/s-21/2, D. 2 Jf), a town, with 31,600 inhab., lies in the fertile 
region of the Wetterau. The modern part of the town , with its 
straight, regular streets , owes its origin to Flemish and Walloon 
Protestants, who were banished from the Netherlands in 1597 on 
account of their creed. Of their handicrafts, the manufacture of 
gold and silver trinkets still nourishes; large diamond-cutting 
works. In the market-place of the new town is a monument to the 
brothers Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786-1859), by 
Eberle (1896). 

Near Hanau, on 30th and 31st Oct., 1813, Napoleon with 80,000 men 
who had retreated from Leipzig defeated Marshal Wrede with 40,000 Ba- 
varians and Austrians. 

From Hanau to Eberbach and Stuttgart, see B. 4 ; to Fulda and Bebra 
(for Leipzig and Berlin), see Baedeker's Northern Germany . 

To the right lies Steinheim, a small town on the left bank of 
the Main, with a conspicuous watch tower with five turrets. 1772 M. 
Qross-Krotzenburg, to the right on the Main, occupies the site of a 


84 Route 15. ASCHAFFENBURG. From Frankfort 

fort on the Pfahlgraben (p. 175), with remains of the Roman ramp- 
arts. The ridge to the left is the Hahftenkamm (see below). 

I8Y2 M. Kahl (367 ft.; Krone; Lambcrtus), a manufacturing 

From Kahl to Sch6llkrifp£H, 14 M., railway in ca. IVi hr. — 3 M. 
Alzenau (410 ft. ; Bayrischer Hof), a small town (1800 inhab.) with a chateau 
now occupied by the district officials, and a ruined castle. Ascent of the 
Lvduriffs-Turm on the Hahnmkamm (1433 ft.; rfmts.), a fine point of view, 
1 hr. — The line now enters the Xahlgrund, a pretty wooded pastoral valley, 
the most populous in the Spessart (p. 88). — 5 M. Michelbach, where wine 
is produced; 9 1 /* H. Mdmbris-J/etuengetau (Karpfen; Kempf); 10 l /2 M. 
Schimborn (Rosenberger). — Beyond (11 M.) KOnigthofen the Klosterberg 
(1260 ft.; fine view) appears on the right. — 14 M. SchSllkrippen (Flecken- 
stein; Bteigertcald ; M&hler) is a prettily situated village, whence a dili- 
gence plies daily to Gelnhausen in 4 hrs. From Schollkrippen a pleasant 
walk (3 hrs.) may be taken via Vormwald to the (I72 hr.) forester's 
house l Zum Englcindei'" (rfmts. on Sun. and Thurs.), descending to Jakobstal 
and through the Lohrbach- Tal to the station of (l l /< hr.) Heigeribriicken (p. 88). 
About 20 min. to the 8. of the forester's house is the Steigkoppe (low ft.), 
with a platform which affords a fine view. 

At (2iy 2 M.) Dettingen, 41/2 M. to the S.W. of Alzenau (see 
above), the British, Hanoverian, Austrian, and Hessian troops, 
commanded by George II. of England, defeated the French on 27th 
July, 1743: the first decisive success of Austria in the "War of 

281/2 M. Aschaffenburg. — Hotels. *Adler (PI. b ; B, 2), Stricker- 
gasse, E. 1V2-3, B. 1, D. 21/2, pens. 4V2-6, omn. 1/2 Jd ; *H6t. Luitpold 
(PI. a; B, C, 1), Ludwig-Str., at the station, B. 2-4, B. ty 4 , pens, from 5 JH\ 
Kaisebhof (PI. f; C, 1), Erthal-Str., E. 2-3, B. */«, pens. 41/26 JH\ Hot. 
Geobgi (PI. d; B,l), Ludwig-Str. ; Hotel Diana (PI. e; B, 1), Ludwig-Str., . 
E. 1V2-3, these four with beer-restaurants ; Goldnes Fass (PI. c ; C, 8), 
Sandganse. — Rail. Restaurant. — Beer. *Caf& Schdnthal y corner of Erthal- 
Str. and Weissenburger-S'r. ; Bavaria Brauerei, Weissenburger-Str. ; Qeiger, 
Eossmarkt, (PI. D, 3). — "Wine. * Wetoi, at the 'Eiese', Herstall-Str. (PL C, 3) ; 
DSrmUhl, Sandgasse ; Zimmermann, by the abbey-church. 

Aschaffenburg (462 ft.), with 25,300 inhab., pleasantly situated 
on the lofty right bank of the Main at the W. verge of the Spessart 
(p. 88), belonged to the Archbishops of Mayence since about 982, 
but in 1814 was annexed by Bavaria. It is the seat of an academy 
of forestry founded in 1807 and of a technical school, and has large 
manufactories of coloured papers and clothing. 

From the station we proceed to the Market Place (PL B, 3), 
via the Erthal-Str. and the Strickergasse, the former of which passes 
(right) the new Law Courts (PI. 0, 2) and (left) the late-Gothic 
Church of St. Agatha (PL 10; B, 2), with a Romanesque portal of 
the 12th century. — In the Schloss-Platz, adjoining the Market 
Place on the W., rises the — 

*Royal Palace (PI. B, 2, 3), a quadrangle over 100 yds. in 
length on each side, with four corner - towers 170 ft. in height. 
This castle, originally known as the Johannisburg , was built in 
1605-13 by Georg Riedinger in the Renaissance style and was for 
two centuries a favourite residence of the Electors of Mayence. 
It now accommodates the Library and Picture Gallery. On the 

^r-r^ -*---_•■. =3 Eyas's' # "^fc^^Jl 

d by Google 

to Wurzburg. ASOHAFFENBURQ. 15. Route. 85 

N.W. side of the fine courtyard is a watch-tower of the 14th cent. ; 
the corner turrets contain elegant winding staircases ascending to 
the upper floors. 

Thk Library (open on Taes. & Thurs. 11-1&; librarian, Prof. Hart) 
contains about 30,0OJ printed vols., 54 MSS., and a collection of 20,000 
engravings. Among the MSS. are the *Mayence Book of the Gospels (13th 
cent.) with famous miniatures ; the Halle Book of Saints (1520) with 344 
illustrations \ the missal (1524) and 'Prayer-book (1531) of Elector Albert 
of Brandenburg (p. 86) , the former with miniature** by Niklas Glockendon 
(p. 135), the latter illuminated by Glockendon and Hans Sebald Beham; the 
MS. of Schiller's William Tell with his autograph dedication to the imperial 
chancellor Karl von Dalberg (1804). The most valuable of the 165 incu- 
nabula are Gutenberg's 42-line Bible and the Mayence Gatholicon of 1460. 

The *Pictdbe Gallery (ca. 300 paintings), founded in the 18th cent., 
contains excellent works of the Netherlands School and a few good 
examples of the Early German School. Adm. 9-12 & 2-6, 50pf., incl. 
adm. to the Pompeianum (p. 86); bell in the court-yard, beside the S.E. 
archway. Visitors are escorted by an attendant (adm. for purposes of study 
by permission of the steward of the Schloss only). Catalogue (1902) 30 pf. 

Room I. Early German Schools. To the right, Bavarian School, 
1. Annunciation, 2. Presentation in the Temple (1444); 32. Michael Pacher, 
Stoning of St. Stephen (school-piece); 17. L. Cranach the Elder, Ghiist and 
the adulteress (studi >-piece). — L. Cranach the Elder (the so-called Pseudo- 
Grtinewald), 19, 20 Mass of St. Gregory, 24. Mary Magdalen, 26. St. Eras- 
mus; *15. Hans Baldung Grien, Nativity (1520). — L. Cranach C-Pseudo- 
Griinewald), 25. St. Martin, 23. St. Maurice, 18. Martyrdom of St. Erasmus 
(1516), 22. The family of Jesus, *21. Madonna and Chid on the crescent 
moon. All these pictures are from the abbey church, some of them 
bearing the arms of Elector Albrecht von Brandenburg. 16. Hans Bah 
dung Grien. Crucifixion. 

Boom II. Flemish, Dutch, and late-German masters. To the right, 
128, 129. Corn. Huysmans, M untain scenery; 132. Jac. Jordaens, St. Augu- 
stine; 218. P. Lastman (Rembrandt's teacher), Daughter of Herod i as 
(showing the influence of Caravaggio); 209, *203. Corn, de Heem % Fruit; 
188. A. Cuyp, Cavalier. — 232. K. Neither, Young cavalier (1*0); 239. 
Rembrandt, Resurrect on (original in Mmich); 179. Nic. Berchem, Gipsy 
camp; 192. /. A. Duck(t), Looting a house; *206. Jan van Goyen, The 
Valkhof in Nymweg^n (1,46). — 164, 165. Cum. de Vox, Man and wife; 
217. W. Kalf, Still-1 fe. — Also, distributed on the walls, 196-205. A. de 
G elder, Scenes from the Passion. 

Room III. Chie 'y Italian masters. 273. Bartolomi o Manfredi, Tomyris ; 
281. Sebastiano Ricci, Assumption. — Room IV. Various schools. 242. 
H. Saftleoen, Landscape (1641); 248. Adr. van de Velde, Two horsemen; 
Pauwel de Vos, 167. Bear-hunt, 168. Boar hunt; 147. Rubens, Boar-hunt 
(original in Dresden). 

Room V (<fc VI). Netherlands School. 2^2. P. Molyn, Rustic festivities; 
*252. Ph Wouverman, Horseman at a tavern (youthful work); 159. D. 
Tenters the Elder, Guardroom (copy ?) ; A. van der Neer, *228. Sunset, *227. 
Landscape; 107. Fr. Francken the Youngen, Bearing of the Cross; 2u7. J. D. 
de Heem, Still-life; *181. N. Berchem, Sunnv landscape; 257. Jan Wynants, 
Road across the dunes; 233. A. van Ostade, Cottage interior (1639); 190. 
G. Dou(f). Denti t; 246. Jan Steen(f), The young savant (1653). 

Room VI. 231. Eglon van der Neer^ Conver-ation-piece; 144. P. Neefs 
the Younger, Church-interior; 193. A. von Everdiage", Landscape; 253. Ph. 
Wouverman, The fight; 226/P. Moree'se, The flute player (1636); 216. L. de 
Jongh, Man reading by the fire; '43. Ad. Elsheimer, Evening landscape 
with Christ on the wav to Emmans; *23^. Rembrandt, Ecce Homo (1661); 
65. Matthias Scheits, Midday meal. — Room VII. Chieljy Netherlands 
masters. *241. S. van Ruysdael, Landscape (1639); 117. W. Gubron (CI. 
Hedat), Still-life; 230. Jan Pynas, Raiding of Lazarus (1609); lt»8. Seb. 
Vrancx, 8oldiers plundering; 2ri2. Salvator Rosa, Warriors re ting. 

Adjoining Room I of the Picture Gallery is the Large Banquetino 

86 Route 15. ASCHAFFENBURG. From Frankfort 

Hall with pictures by SchUtx (views of Mayence) and J. Courtois (battle 
and siege). — The Small Banqueting Hall contains pictures by Paolo de 
Matter's and others. — In the Corner Room (view of the Main) are four views 
of Mayence (intl. the former electoral chateau Favorite) by Behatt. — The 
Chapel contains an alabaster altar and pulpit in the late-Renafesance style. 

To the W., on the bank of the Main beyond the Schloss-Garten, 
stands the Pompeianum (PI. A, 2; adm. 8.30-12 and 2-6.30, 
50 pf. ; comp. p. 85), a villa erected by King Louis I. in 1824-49 
in imitation of the 'House of Castor and Pollux' at Pompeii , and 
adorned with mural pointings. Fine view from the platform. 

In the Schlossgasse, to the S. of the Schloss, is the Church of 
Our Lady (PL 11; B, 3), a baroque edifice of the 18th cent., with 
ceiling-paintings. The late-Romanesque tower (1183-90), topped 
by a late- Gothic lantern, is the only relic of the original church on 
this site. 

The Dalberg-Strasse leads to the left from the end of the Schloss- 
Gasse to the picturesque Stifts-Platz, whence a double flight of 
steps (16th cent.) ascends to the *Stift8kiilchb, or Abbey Church 
of 88. Peter $ Alexander (PL 14; 0, 31 a Romanesque basilica, 
founded in 973 and rebuilt in 1106-20. The church possesses a 
beautiful late -Romanesque W. gallery and Gothic transepts and 
choir of the 14th century. Adjoining, on the N. side, are cloisters 
in the transition style (after 1200) and the late -Gothic Maria- 
Schnee-Eapelle, dedicated in 1616. Above the main portal is a 
late-Romanesque relief, representing Christ between SS. Peter and 
Alexander (13th cent.). The sacristan lives at No. 1, Stiftsgasse, 
on the N. side of the church. 

The Interior was skilfully restored in 1870-81. In the Nave are 
a handsome late-Renaissance pulpit (1602) and several Renaissance tombs, 
incl. (left) the tomb of Georg von Liebenstein (d. 1533) and a brass to 
Helchior von Grainroth by Eieron. Hack (1584). — At the W. end of the 
Left Aisle (N.), above the steps leading to the Haria-Schnee-Eapelle, is 
a late-Romanesque painted wooden Crucifix (13th cent.) ; the Chapel itself 
contains a Christ in Hades and Resurrection by L Cranach the Elder s and, 
behind the altar, two wings (SS. Martin and George) and the base of the 
original altar-piece (1519) by M. OrHnewald, who was probably a native 
of Aschaffenburg. — In the 2nd chapel on the left is a bronze canopy by 
Hans Vischer of Nuremberg (1536) on which stands the gilded coffin of 
St. Margaret. — At the W. end of the Right Aisle (S.) is the large monu- 
ment of Frederick Charles Joseph of Erthal, Elector of Mayence (1774-1802) ; 
farther on, by the last pillar are a St. Valentine by L. Cranach the Elder 
OPseudo-GrunewaldO and, opposite on the right, a Pieta by M. Grttne- 
wald (p red el la, ca. 1518-20). — In the Choir is the Renaissance monument 
of Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg (d. 1545), Elector of Mayence, oast in 
1525 during his lifetime by P. Vischer the Younger (p. 135), and opposite 
to it a bronze tablet to Margarete Riedinger, with a relief of the Madonna 
by Hans Vischer (1530). 

The old abbey-buildings now contain the Municipal Collections 
(open in summer, Sun. 10-12 and Thurs. 2-3.30; at other times on 
application to Hr. Friedrich, the curator, at No. 19, Herstall-Strasse) : 
minerals, Roman and Frankish antiquities found near Aschaffen- 
burg, mediaeval and modern objects of art (guild-banners, pic- 
tures, COinS, etc.). igitizedby^OOglC 

to Wurzbwg. MILTENBERG. 15. Route. 87 

Pleasant walk through the SchOntal (PI. D, 3) and the ('/ 4 hr.) Fasanerie 
to the Schmerlenbacher Wald. Another may be taken through the Schontal 
and the Ludwigs-AlUe to the (>/* hr.) Buchelberg (836 ft. ; view-tower: accom- 
modation). — On the left bank of the Main, 2 M. to the W., where the 
river is crossed by a bridge affording a fine view of the Schloss and the 
Pompeianum, is the SchOnbtiseh (comp. the Plan), a royal park with a 
chateau, orangery, and inn. — Another pleasant walk is by the (i 1 /* hr.) 
Johannetberg (1253 ft.), with its belvedere, to the (l 1 /* hr.) Ludurigsturm 
on the Hahnenkamm (p. 84). Then down to (V* hr.) Alzenau (p. 84). — 
Other excursions, see p. 89. 

From Abghaffbnburg to Matencb, 47 M., railway in l^-SVs hrs. 
Stations: Btockstadt, on the site of a fort on the Pfahlgraben (p. 175); 
BabenhauseUy the junction for Hanau and Eberbach (p. 27). 26 H. Darm- 
stadt and thence to (47 M.) Mayence, see Baedeker" s Rhine. 

From Aschaffenburg to Sbgkach, 44 M., railway in ca. 372 hrs.. The 
line sweeps round the town in a wide curve, passing the Fasanerie (see 
above) on the left, and follows the right bank of the Main as far as 
Worth, through a fertile region rich in vines and fruit-trees. — 672 M. 
Sulzbach, the station for the picturesque baths of Sodenthal (470 ft. ; Dr. 
HoftVs Kurhaus; season 1st May -15th Oct.), 3 M. to the E., with springs 
containing iodine and bromine. — 11 M. Obernburg, near the foot of the 
Eltawa-Tal (omn. to Eschau, p. 89); opposite, on the other side of the 
river, is the little town of that name (Hirsch), on the site of a fort on 
the Pfahlgraben, still surrounded by walls, with a busy trade in timber 
and wine. At (15 M.) Wffrth the train crosses the Main. — 16 M. Klingenberg 
(335 ft.; Ochs; Frankischer Hof); the small town, noted for its excellent 
red wine and its fire-proof clay, lies on the opposite bank, with a rained 
castle. Excursions, see p. 89. — 187s M. Lavderibach, with a Schloss 
and park of Baron von Fechenbach. — 207» M. Klein-Heubach, with a 
ch&teau and park of Prince Lowenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg (chapel with 
*Frescoes by E. Steinle). On the opposite bank lies Gross-Heubach, 1 M. to 
the S.E. of which is the high-lying Franciscan monastery of Engelsberg, 
with a pilgrimage-church (view), where Dom Miguel of Braganza (d. 1866), 
pretender to the throne of Portugal, is buried. In a wood 172 M. to the 
8. of Klein-Heubach are the so-called Bain- or Heunen-Sdulen, huge columns 
of sandstone, remains of an ancient quarry of the Roman period, which 
seems to have been suddenly abandoned. A marked path leads via" these 
columns from Miltenberg to Miehelstadt (p. 27). 

2272 M. Miltenberg (425 ft. ; Engel y very fair ; Riese\ a thriving little 
town of 3900 inhab., in a charming situation, stretches for a considerable 
distance between the river and the wooded height on its bank. Its 
quarries of variegated sandstone were known in the time of the Romans. 
Above the town is the old Schloss of the Electors of Mayence, built in 
the 15th cent., destroyed in 1552, and rebuilt in recent times. In the 
town are several interesting timber-built houses and gate-towers. — 
Farther on in the Mudbach- Tal are Weilbach and (28 M.) Amorbach (545 ft. \ 
Badischer Hof; Pott), a small town with 2260 inhab. and mineral baths. 
seat of the Prince of Leiningen, whose new English-Gothic chateau of 
Wald-Leiningen lies 6 M. to the S. on a wooded height. The old abbey- 
church, with two Romanesque towers and a nave sumptuously rebuilt 
in the rococo style in the 18th cent., is now used for Protestant services 
(fine organ). The abbey-mill and other Gothic edifices in the town, and 
the rococo library-hall in the former chapter-house should be noticed. 
Hence to the Odenwald, see Baedeker's Rhine. — 44 M. Seckach (p. 102). 

Fbom Miltenberg to Stadtprozelten, railway under construction. 
The new line crosses the Main and follows its right bank through the 
fertile and well-wooded valley, dotted here and there with ruined castles. 
Stations: Btirgstadt (near which, on the Wanneriberg, are an ancient Ger- 
manic rampart and a deserted Roman quarry). — Freudenberg. The 
town (Rose), a picturesque little place, with the ruins of a castle of the 
12-15th cent, destroyed in the Thirty Tears' War. lies on the left bank 
(bridge). — Reisienhausen-Fechenbach, with large sandstone quarries, beyond 

88 Route 15. WERTHEIM. From Frankfort 

which is the rained Kollenberg. — Dorfprozelten. — Stadtprotelten (Adler), 
with a castle of the now extinct Schenks of Klingenberg, destroyed by the 
French in 1688. The line is to be continued to Wertheim (see below). 

Beyond Aschaffenburg the line to Wiirzburg passes a monument 
(r.) to the Austrians who fell in 1866, and ascends by (33 M.) 
Hosbach and (35 V2 M.) Laufach to the tunnel (1 M. long) which 
penetrates the Schwarzkopf before (39 l /2 M.) Heigenbriicken (910 fU ; 
Hochspessart, Lowengrube, for summer visitors, both at the station). 
About 3^2 M. to the N., above Jakobsthal, is the Stcigkoppe (p. 84). 
The line here enters the higher regions of the Spessart (see below), 
winds through the wooded and grassy Lohrbach-Tal, and runs across 
numerous bridges and through many cuttings in the red sandstone 
to (48^2 M.) Partenstein and (62 M.) Lohr station (rail, restaurant), 
on the Main. About 1 M. to the S. is Lohr (560 ft. ; Krone ; Schuller ,• 
Hirsch, R. i-1 i/ 2 M ; Post, R. 1 Vf-2 1 /* *#> B - 60 pf.), a prettily situa- 
ted little town. The Rathaus and the parish church are interesting. 
Excursions, see p. 89. 

Fkom Lohk to Weutheim, 23 M. (railway in lVi-l'A Q r.). The train 
ascends the pleasant valley of the Main, following the right bank of the 
winding river. 1 M. Stadt Lohr (see above); 5 1 /* M. Neustadt am Main 
(575 ft. ; Brand; HiLller), with a well-restored church (Romanesque basilica), 
dating from a Benedictine monastery founded in the 8th century. — 9 l /2 M. 
Rothen/els (710 ft. ; Anker, good wine), with large quarries and a chateau of 
Prince Lowenstein- Wertheim- Rosen berg. — 12 V2 M. Marktheidenfeld (510 ft. ; 
■^Post), with a handsome bridge over the Main and near a large trout- 
breeding establishment. To AschafFenbarg, see p. 89. — bearing (16 M.) 
Trennfeld, we observe on the right Schloss Triefenstein (585 ft.), once an 
Augustinian abbey, now the property of Prince Lowenstein- Wertheim- 
Freudenberg. On the left bank are Hamburg, with an old castle on a 
rock, and the Bur tardus- HoWe, the cave in which St. Burkhard (p. 92) 
died in 754. Beyond two tunnels is (21 M.) Kreuz -Wertheim (ferry to 
Wertheim), with the Renaissance chateau of Prince Lowenstein- Wertheim- 
Freudenberg. — 23 M. Wertheim (475 ft. ; *Badischer Ho/, in the town ; 
*Held, on the Main, with garden; * Lowensteiner Hof, at the station, R. lVi-2, 
pens. &jir&Jl; Krone, Ldwe, unpretending), an old town with 3300inhab., 
with two chateaux belonging to Prince Lowenstein, is prettily situated at 
the influx of the Tauber into the Main, at the foot of a wooded hill, 
crowned by the extensive and partially preserved ruins of a castle destroyed 
in the Thirty Years' 1 War (rfints. ; fine view). Several quaint houses of 
the 16th century. The situation of the town, with the imposing red 
sandstone ruin above it, somewhat resembles that of Heidelberg. The 
church (1384; Prot.) contains fine monuments of the Counts of Wertheim 
(15th and 16th cent.); on the tower is a handsome oriel- window; in front 
of the church is the old Engel-Brunnen. Adjaceat is the late-Gothic St. 
Kilians-Kapelle (1462). Excursions, see p. 89. — Branch-line to the S. from 
Wertheim to Laud a ^ see p. 101. 

The Spessart. 
The Spessart, one of the finest and most extensive forest-districts in 
Germany, noted for its gigantic oaks and beeches, lies within the bend 
made by the Main between Gem tin den and Hanan, and is bounded on 
the N. by the Kinzig and on the N.B. by the Sinn, both tributaries of the 
Main. The S. part of this region (see the adjoining map) i3 especially 
worth a visit. Almost in the centre of this district rises the Qeyersberg 
(1920 ft.), from which long hills radiate to the W., 8., and E., on the crests 
of which we may walk in the delicious leafy shade for hours at a time. — 

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to Wurzburg. SPESSART. 16. Route. 89 

The Verein der Spessart- Freunde, which maintains and marks the various 
paths, has published a map of the district, with a key to the marking of 
the various tourist-routes (1*/* Jf). Oomp. Schober's Fuhrer durch den 
Spessart, 4th edit , Aschaffenbarg, 1905. 

From Lohb (p. 88) to Rohbbbunn, 4 hrs. A path (yellow way- 
marks) leads through wood via the Valentin usberg and Schwarzkopf to 
(l*/4 hr.) Lohrerstrasst (inn); descends thence (red way-marks) to the S. 
through forest to Lichtenau (786 ft.; good inn), a summer-resort prettily 
situated in the wooded valley of the Hafenlohr\ and finally leads to the 
S. W. vift (U/4 hr.) the foresters house of Jdgerverein (1680 ft.) to (1 hr.) Rohr- 
brunn. — From Lichtenau pleasant paths (white marks) lead to the N. to 
(3 hrs.) HeigenbrUcken (p. 88), and to the S.B. to (3 l A hrs.) Roihenfels (p. 88). 

Fbom Wkbtheim (p. 88) to Rohbbbonn, & hrs. We ferry across the 
Main to Ereuz-Wertheim (p. 88) and turn to the left to the carriage-road; 
in 1/4 nr * we take the footpath to the left, which returns to the road in 
V4 hr. more. Beyond (7* hr.) Hassloch (453 ft.) we ascend the right bank 
of the Hassloch-Bach, passing a powder-mill and some iron-works, beyond 
the latter of which we cross to the left bank and thence follow the high- 
road to (4 hrs.) Rohrbrunn. 

Fbom Aschaffbnbubo (p. 84) to Rohbbbonn, 6 hrs. We proceed either 
via Schweinheim and Bodenthal (p. 87 ; path indicated by red rings), or by 
following the Wurzburg road for 2 M. and thence taking the footpath 
(white marks) to the right to (ca. 8»/« hrs.) the forester's house of Hohe 
Warte (1300 ft. \ rfmts. on Sun ). Thence we descend to the 8.E. to (*/4 hr.) 
Neudorf { l fc hr. to the N. of which is Hessenthal, see below) and past 
the mortuary chapel of the Counts Ingelheim, to (74 hr.) the charmingly 
situated Mespelbrunn (935 ft. ; rfmts. at the forester's), the ancestral castle 
of the founder of Wurzburg University (p. 92). A path now ascends to 
the N.E. to the (Vs hr.) forester's house of Echterspfahl ('Jocke!'; no rfmts.), 
whence the highroad runs to the 8.E. to (3 M.) Rohrbrunn. — From 
Echterspfahl a path (blue marks) leads uninterruptedly through the woods 
to (3i/4 hrs.) HeigenbrUcken (p. 83). 

Fbom Aschaffbnbubo to Mabktheidrxfbld (p. 88), 26 M. A carriage- 
road leads through the centre of the Spessart via (9 1 /-; M.) Hessenthal, a 
pilgrim-resort with a church containing the fine 16th cent, tombs of the 
Echter von Mespelbrunn family, (16 M.) Rohrbrunn (see below), to which 
a diligence plies daily in 4% hrs., and Esselbach. 

Fbom Klingenbebg (p. 87) to Rohbbbunn, 4V4-5V4 hrs. We follow the 
road to the N.E. via Streit to (4»/2 M) Eschau (580 ft.; Krone). Thence 
we may take the road (to the left) ascending the Eltawa-Tal via (2 M.) 
Hobbach (Villa Elsawa, R. l>/ 2 -2 Jt t B. 60-30 pf., pens. 4-5 Jf) and (41/2 M.) 
Mespelbrunn (see above) to (11 M.) Rohrbrunn. Or we may follow the 
paths (to the right; red way- marks) via the ruin of Wildenstein, the 
(II/4 hr.) Qeishbhe (1705 ft.; belvedere), and O/2 **r.) Krausenbach (750 ft.; 
inn), and through the DammbachTal to (2*/4 hrs.) Rohrbrunn. 

Rohrbrunn (1522 ft.), situated in the centre of the S. Spessart on the 
W. slope of the Geyersberg (p. 88), is a summer-resort consisting of two 
forester's houses and the Qasthof turn Hoehspessart (R. I1/2, B. 1/2, pens. 3- 
4 M, very fair), and a good centre for exploring the Spessart. It is 
mentioned in a tale by Hauff. About V2 M. oil is a hunting-lodge of Prince 
Luitpold, behind the forester's house of Diana, where the wild swine are 
fed in the afternoon. To the N.E. (20 min.) is the Luitpold-fflhe^ with view- 
tower, whence we survey the vast leafy ocean of the Spessart. We may 
also visit a venerable oak, 1000 years old, 8-10 min. to the S.W. amidst 
splendid oaks and beeches. — To Mespelbrunn, see above. 

58 M. Langenprozelten. We cross the Frankische Saale, which here 
falls into the Main. — 61 M. Gemunden (Rail. Restaurant; Koppen, 
R. l-li/ 2 ,B. V 2 ur; Lowe; Kaiser, at the station), a little town ^2400 
inhab.) lying picturesquely at the foot of wooded hills, is commanded 
by the ruins of the Scherenburg (fine view; keys at the inns). 

90 Route 15. KARLSTADT. 

From GemOndbn to Elm, 28 ! /2 M. (railway in I-I1/2 hr.). The line 
runs through the pleasant Sinntal. Stations Rieneck, Burgsinn, Mittelsinn, 
Jossa (to Briickenau, see p. 114), &terbfritz y Vollmers (near it, to the E., 
the ruins of the Steckelburg, once the seat of Ulrich von Hutten) ; then Elm, 
a station on the Bebra-Hanau Railway (see Baedeker's Northern Germany ; 
shortest route from Cassel, Hanover, etc. to Munich). 

Fbom Gemunden to Hammelburg (17V2 M.), railway in iy 2 hr. 
through the pretty Saale-Tal with its vines. 8 M. ScMnau, with a secularized 
convent; 7V« M. Grtifendorf (Anker). — Hammelburg (595 ft. 5 Post; 
Schwarzer AdUr)* an ancient town (pop. 3000), picturesquely situated on 
the right hank of the Saale, was presented by Charlemagne to the abbey 
of Fulda. The late-Gothic parish-church has an elaborate vaulted gallery. 
On the opposite bank, on a wooded hill, rises Bchlots Saaleck (925 ft.). — 
From Hammelburg to (13 1 /* H.) Kitting en (p. Ill), diligence twice daily 
in 3 hrs., via Fuehsstadt , Trimberg, with a ruined castle, and Euerdorf 
(Stern). The following is an attractive walk of I hrs. : from Hammelburg 
aloug the right bank of the Saale to Elfershausen and (2>/s hrs.) Aura, 
with the ruins of a Romanesque convent (rfmts.); then up to the left, 
through wood and over the hill, to (l 1 /* hr.) Oariiz (Kurhaus and Cafe*- 
Restaurant), with a dilapidated church (17th cent.) and a view*,' finally 
down to O/4 hr.) Eissingen. 

Fbom Gkmondkn to Schwsinfubt (Eissingen), 31 1 /b M., railway in 
IV2-2 hrs. — From (2 M.) Wernfeld (see below) the line ascends the fertile 
and smiling Werntal. — 41/2 M. Gossenheim, 2 l fa M. to the N. of which 
is the ruined castle of Homburg. — 12 M. ThUngen, with a chateau. — 
17 ! /2 M. Arnstein, with an old chateau. — 21 M. Milhlhausen. — The line 
quits the Werntal, passing Schloss Werneck (p. 110) on the N.E., and at 
(25 M.) Weigolshausen joins the railway from Wiirzburg to (31 V2 M.) 
Schweinfurt (p. 110). 

6^/2 M. Wernfeld (see above). — 69 M. Karlstadt (535 ft. ; 
Bissing; Anker; Hofmanris Restaur ant^ by the station, well spoken 
of), a small town (3100 inhab.) still surrounded with walls and 
towers, is said to have been founded by Charles Martel. Professor 
Bodenstein, the instigator of the Puritanical iconoclasm, was 
born here, and has thence been surnamed 'Karlstadt' (d. 1641). 
The interesting Gothic town-hall has a large hall on the first floor ; 
the council-room has elaborate panelling and carved cupboards 
(17th cent.). The Gothic parish-church has an imposing Roman- 
esque tower. On the opposite hill, on the left bank of the Main, is 
the ruined Karlburg ; and farther on, at Laudenbach, is a chateau 
of Prince Wertheim, destroyed during the War of the Peasants. 

80 M. Veitshochheim, with a small royal chateau (opposite the 
station, erected in 1680-82 by Jos. Greising?) and gardens laid out 
on the model of those at Versailles (1765-79; restaurant; sculptures 
by J. P. Wagner and others). 

81*/2 M. Zell am Main. The village (Rose; Brewery) lies on 
the opposite (left) bank of the Main. Beside it is the old Prsemon- 
stratensian convent of Oberzell, founded in 1128, with an originally 
Romanesque church and fine abbey-buildings erected by J. B. Neu- 
mann (p. 92; noteworthy staircase). — To the left as we approach 
Wiirzburg we notice Konig & Bauer's well-known manufactory of 
printing-presses, and farther on the vine-clad Steinberg (p. 96). 

84V2 M. Wiirzburg. Continuation of the railway via Ansbach 
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16. Wiirzburg. 

Railway Stations. 1. Central Station (PI. D, 1 ; restaurant) , for all 
trains. — 2. Banderau Station (PI. E, 4), a second station for trains to 
Munich (R. 80), Heidelberg (B. 19), and Stuttgart (R. 17). 

Hotels. 'Kbonpbinz yon Bateen (PI. b; D, 3), Residenz-Platz, R. 
fromS, B. 1, D. 8 1 /*, omn. */a A; *Cbntbal (PI. ej C, 2), Schonborn-Str. 8, 
with lift, R. 3, B. 1, D. frfa omn. i/ 2 A; *Swan (PI. c; C, 3), Oberer 
Main-Quai, with view, R. 2-5, B. 1. D. 2V2, omn. VtA; *Bahnhop (PI. k; 
D, 1), at the central station, R. 2-31/2, B. 1, D. li/ 2 -2V«, pens. 5V*-7y 2 A; 
Russischbb Hop (PI. a; D, 2), Theater-Str. 1, with wine and beer restau- 
rant and small garden, R. 3-4, B. 1, D. 2 & 3, omn. V* A; R6gmeb (PI. d; 
d j 3), by the theatre, with wine-restaurant, R. 2-4, B. 1, pens. 5-8 A; 
Deutsche* Kaisbb (PI. n; D, 1), R. I1/2-8 A; National (PI. 1; D, 1), 
with cafe*-restaurant, R. V/s-frfa B. »/4, pens. 5-7 A; Victobia (PI. m; 
D, 1), these three near the central station; Wittblbbaoheb Hop (PI. h; 
G, 3), Markt-Platz 1; Fbankischeb Hop (PI. f; D, 2), £ichhorn-Str. 21, 
unpretending, R. IV2-2V2 A; Sonne (PI. g; D, 2), BahnhofStr. 5, plain 
but good. — Pension. Zink, Bibra-Str. 8. 

Cafes - Restaurants. WUtelsbaeh, corner of Kaiser- 8tr. and Julius 
Promenade (PI. D, 2); Alhambra, Franziskaner-Platz, to the N. opposite 
the Franciscan monastery (PI. C, 3, 4); Theatre Restaurant, in the theatre 
(PI. D, 2). — Wine. Ruseiseher Hof- Keller (see above) ; Sandhof (p. 95), 
Schonborn-Str. 3; Kette, Kettengasse A (PI. D, 3, 4), near the Residenz- 
Platz; Drei Kronen, Zeller-Str. 7, on the left bank of the Main; wine-, 
rooms in the BUrgerspital (PI. D, 2; p. 93), Semmels-Str., and the Julius' 
spital (PI. C, D, 2; p. 96; to the left of the entrance), Julius-Promenade, 
both closed after 8 p.m. Good wine in open bottles at many baker's 
shops, such as: BrUckevibdck, Alte Main-Brticke 9 ; Fiskalback, Sander-Str. 8. 
The best known Wiirzburg wines are Leisten, from (he Marienberg (p. 98), 
Stein, from the Steinberg (p. 96), and Schalksberg. The best sorts are sold 
in low bulged bottles called 'Bocksbeuteln\ — Beer. H6t. Deutscher Kaiser, 
E6t. National, see above; Theatre Restaurant, see above; Sanderbrauerei, 
Munzgasse (PI. D, 4); Hofmann, Martin-8tr. 21 (PI. C, D, 3); Deppiseh, Stern- 
gasse 5 (PI. C. 3); Kdhler^s Keller, Rennweg (in summer only); JSofbrdvhaus- 
Keller, Hochberger Str. 6; Hutlen" scher Garten (PI. C, 5), Sander- Glacis, 
concerts several times weekly; Letzter Hieb (PI. G, 3), Rottendorfer-Str., 
with view; Niiolausburg (p. 98); Steinburg (p. 96). 

Gabs. For each V* hr., 1-2 pers. 40, 3-4 pers. 50 pf., with two horses 
50 and 60 pf. From the central station to the town, with one horse : 
1-2 pers. 60, 3-4 pers. 80 pf. ; from the town to the station 50, 70 pf.; to 
the Marienberg 1 A 40, 1 A 60 pf., with two horses 1 A 60, 1 A 80 pf. 

Electric Tramways (fare 10-15 pf. incl. one change ; no conductor, 
money placed in box in the front of the car.). 1. From the central station 
(PI. D, 1) vi& the Kaiser-Str., Dom-Str., Sander-8tr., and Weingarten-Str. 
(PI- D, 5) to the Heidingsfelder-Str. — 2. From the central station via the 
Kaiser-Str., Theater-Str., Residenz-Platz, and Rennweg to the Sander- 
Glacis-Str. (PI. D, 5). — 3. From the Cemetery (PL F, G, 2) via the 
Semmels-Str., Eichhorn-Str., Julius Promenade, Luitpold Bridge, and 
Frankfurter-Str. (PI. A, 3) to Oberzell (p. 90). — 4. From the Sander-Ring 
(PI. C, 5) via the Ludwigs-Briicke, Mergentheimer-Str. (PI. B, 6), and the 
Steihbach-Tal to the Guttenberger Wald. 

Post ft Telegraph Offices in the Schonborn-Str. (PI. C, 2), the Parade- 
Plat/; (PI. D, 3), and at the central station (PI. D, 1). 

Theatre (PI. D, 2), fitted up in 1804; performances in winter only' 
(operas and plays). — Variety Theatre: Odeon, Augustinergasse 18. 

River Baths. On the left bank : HUgeVs Schwimmb&der (PI. B, 5), above 
the Ludwigs-Briicke; BraurCs Damenbad (PI. B, 3), above the old bridge. 
On the right bank: Wellenbad (PI. C, 3), just below the old bridge (with 
warm baths). 

92 Route 16. WtJRZBtJKG. History. 

Principal Attractions (1 day). In the morning: the Palace (p. 93); 
Cathedral (p. 94); Marien - Kapelle (p. 95). In the afternoon: Old Main 
Bridge (p. 97); Kappele and Frankenwarte (p. fc8) or Marienberg (p. 98), 
returning by the Ludwigs-Brucke and through the gardens to the station. 

Wiirzburg (575 ft. ; 80,300 inhab., 14,000 Prot.), the ancient 
capital of an episcopal principality, and now that of the Bavarian 
province of Unterfranken or Lower Franconia, is the seat of an 
university (ca. 1300 students) and of a bishop, and the headquarters 
of the 2nd Bavarian army-corps. It is charmingly situated in the 
vine-clad valley of the Main, and is the centre of the Franconian 
wine-trade, with considerable manufactures of sparkling wine. The 
inner and older part of the town, of which churches and ecclesiastical 
buildings form the chief feature, is encircled with well-kept promen- 
ades, nearly 3 M. in length, occupying the site of the fortifications 
removed in 1869-74. 

Wiirzburg, first mentioned as Castellum Virleburch in a document of 
704, has been the seat of a bishop since 741, when St. Burkardus (d. 754), 
the first bishop, was consecrated by St. Boniface. The bishops soon 
attained to great wealth and power, and were created dukes of Franconia 
in 1120, a dignity confirmed to Bishop Herold by Emp. Frederick I. iu 
1168. The efforts of the citizens to shake off the authority of the bishops 
were in vain, and although Wiirzburg was recognized by King Wcnzel in 
1397 as a free city of the empire, their hopes were finally shattered by 
the battle of Bergtheim in 1400. Their participation in the Peasant*' War 
(1524-25), during which the Marienberg was several times assaulted in vain 
by the insurgents, led to the extinction of the last vestiges of liberty. 
Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn (1573-1617), the most famous of the prince- 
bishops, distinguished hiu^elf by establishing the Julius Hospital in 1576 
and by refounding (in 1582) the university, which had previously existed 
from 1402 to 1413, but he is less honourably known as an ally of the 
Jesuits in the relentless extermination of Protestantism in 1584-86. Wiirz- 
burg was occupied by the Swedish in 1632-34. During the 18th cent, the 
bishops, whose sway often included the see of Bamberg also, a<1ded many 
new buildings; an 1 the city is especially indeb ed to the brother* Schbn- 
bom (Johann Philipp Franz, 1719-24; Friedrich Karl, 1729-46), under whom 
flourished the celebrated architect Johann Balthasar Neumann (1687-1753), 
a native of Eger. The victory of the Archduke Charles in 1796 freed 
Wiirzburg only temporarily from the French invasion; the bishopric was 
incorporated with the Bavarian Palatinae in 1803, and from 180b to 1813 
Wiirzburg was the capital of a grand-duchy of the Rhenish Confederal ion, 
under Ferdinand, previously Grand-duke of Tuscany. In 1866 the campaign 
of the Prussian army of the Main concluded here with the bombardment 
of the Marienberg (July 27th). 

a. Bight Bank of the Main. 

From the Bahnhof-Platz (PI. D, 1), where the Kilian Fountain 
was erected in 1895 and a Statue of Prince Regent Luitpold in 
1903, the Kaiser-Strasse (PI. D. 1, 2) and Theater-Strasse (PI. D, 
2, 3) lead to the (10 min.) Residenz-Platz. 

The Hauger Pfarrgasse, diverging to the left opposite the Julius 
Promenade (p. 96), about halfway, leads to the Stifthauger Church 
(PL D, 2), with two towers and a lofty dome, built in 1670-91 in 
the baroque style by Antonio Petrini, who has obviously heen in- 
fluenced by the church of the Gesu at Rome^^^the Theater- 

Palace. WURZBURG. 16. Route. 93 

Strasse, to the left, at the comer of the Semmels-Strasse, is the 
Burgerspital (PI. D 2), with its popular wine-room (p. 91), supplied 
from its own vineyards. 

The quiet and spacious Residenz Pjsatz (PI. D, E, 3) is em- 
bellished by the Luitpold or Franconia Fountain, erected in 1893 
on the 70th birthday of the Prince Regent Luitpold. The fountain, 
designed by F. von MUler, is surmounted by a figure of Franconia, 
' with a portrait-medallion of Prince Luitpold below ; still lower are 
lifesize figures of Tilman Riemenschneider , Matthias Griinewald, 
and Walther von der Vogelweide. 

The extensive royal, formerly episcopal, * Palace (Resident), 
one of the grandest and most effective of 18th cent, edifices of the 
kind, was erected in 1720-44 in the rococo style from Neumann's 
designs. It is 550 ft. long, 290 ft. deep, and 70 ft. high, and con- 
tains 7 courts, 5 halls, 312 rooms, a chapel, and a theatre. The 
frescoes of O. B. Tiepolo of Venice, dating from 1751-53, mark the 
end of the period of florid rococo decoration; the staircase and 
some of the rooms are in the style of Louis XVI ; while other rooms 
were redecorated in the Empire style by N. A. de Salim in 1807-14. 
-— The palace is shown daily from 10-12 (Sun. 9-12) and 2-3 for 
a fee of 50 pf. each , at other times for 1 Jl. The visit takes 
V2" 3 /4 ^ r » Visitors ring for the castellan in the back-court, to 
the right. 

From the back-court of the left (N.) wing we enter the spacious Hall 
of the central edifice and reach the principal 'Staircase (always acces- 
sible), the lofty ceiling of which is adorned with a fresco by G. B. Tiepolo, 
representing Olympus and the four quarters of the globe (1752-53). The 
garden -saloon, behind the central edifice, has a ceiling -painting by 
Joh. Zick. 

From the staircase we are conducted to the apartments on the upper 
floor. The White Boom, with elaborate stucco ornamentation in the 
rococo style, is followed by eight rooms in the elegant Empire style. — 
From the corridor we obtain a view of the sumptuous Palace Chapel, 
which contains two alt tr pieces by Tiepolo (Assumption and Fall of the 
Rebel Angels). — Next come the Banquet Hall and a number of apart- 
ments in the Empire style, then the *Mibbob Booh, the Thbone Boom, 
and the Reception Booh, all in the rococo style, with J-rench tapestry 
(Battle of Alexander). — The octagonal Kaiser -Saal, overlooking the 
gari en, contains three *Fre«coe* by Tiepolo (1751-52): Marriage of Emp. 
Frederick J. and Beatrix of Burgundy, which took place at Wuizburg in 
1156; Investiture of Bishop Herold (v. 92); on tbe ceiling, Apollo in the 
chariot of the fun conducting the bride to the emperor. — After visiting 
several rococo rooms with tape tries and the magnificent Cabd Booh, we 
reach the four rooms containing the — 

Picture Gallery (catalogue of ii)02, 30 pf.). B. I. Unimportant German 
works. — B. II. Still-life and animal pieces by EL Vonck (No. 78), Barend 
van der Meer (68). Adr'. van Utre-ht (49), J. B. Weenix (79), and other Nether- 
landish masters. — B. HI. Netherlandish Master*: 67. A. de Lorme, Church- 
interior i 76. Dirk Stoop (?), Soldiers plundering; 62. Q. van den Erckhout, 
The tribute-money (1674). — B. IV. Netherlandish and Italian Masters : 
77. /. Verkolje, Dinner-party; 69. B. van der Meer, Fruit (1689); 45. Rubens, 
Devot'on of Uecius Mus (studio-replica of the original in the Liechtenstein 
Gallery at Vienna). 

The Palace Cell ass, beneath the Schlo*s, contain Franconian wine 
produced by the royal vineyards (adm. on application; fee). 

94 Route 16. WURZBURG. Cathedral. 

The left (N.) wing of the palace contains the Collection of 
the Historical Society (open on Sun. in summer, 10-12, 20 pf. ; at 
other times 60 pf. each pers.), including sculptures by Tilman 
Riemenschneider, who worked in Wiirzburg in 1483-1631 (Adam 
and Eve, 1491-93, from the Marien-Kapelle, etc.). — In the right 
wing is the Picture Gallery of the Kunstverein (daily, except Tues., 
10.30-3, Sun. 10-3: 50 pf .). — The Hof-Qarten, at the back of the . 
palace, laid out in 1720, has fine wrought-iron gates. and contains a 
large Orangery (adm., in winter, 20 pf.), some pieces of sculpture, 
and fountains. Military band in summer: Sun. 11.30-12.30, Tues. 
& Thurs. 6-7 p.m. 

In the broad Hof-Stbassb (PL D, 3), leading to the W. from the 
palace to the cathedral, is the Clio Fountain, by J. P. Wagner. At 
No. 4 in the adjoining Max-Strasse are the collections of the pro- 
vincial Art $ Antiquarian Society (adm. 9-1 & 3-6, 50 pf. ; Sun. in 
summer, 10-1, free; no catalogue). 

Fibst Floor. To the right, Cabinet 1. Kitchen utensils. — Cab. 2. 
Engravings. — Room I. Coins. — R. II. Sculptures by T. Riemenschneider 
(statues in wood of St. Barbara, two groups of St. Anna with the Madonna 
and Child, etc.). — Rooms III, IV. Picture?; wood -carvings; glass. — 
Cab. 3. Room from the Zellerhof (Bronnbacher Gasse). — R. V. Objects 
from churches. — R. VI. Armour. — R. VII. Von Siebold's (p. 97) Japanese 
collection. — In the passage round the staircase are guns, sabres, etc. In 
a side-cabinet, stucco ceilings from the Sandhof (p. 95). 

Second Floob. Suite? of furniture; costumes; wrought iron work; 
German stone-ware; fayence. 

In the Gakden a portion of the cloisters of the Neumiinster-Kirche 
(p. 95) has been re-erected. 

We cross the Parade -Platz (PI. D, 3), to the KUrschnbrhof 
(PI. C, 3), in which stand the cathedral and the Neumiinster-Kirche. 

The Cathedral (PI. O, D, 3), a cruciform basilica in the Roman- 
esque style, begun in 1042, was materially altered in 1133-39 and 
1184-89, while the E. towers and the apse are of later date. The 
exterior was restored in 1882-83. 

The Intekiob, marred by 18th cent, restoration, is open until noon 
only; after that visitors apply to the sacristan is the annexe next the 
Schonborn chapel (fee V* **0« I Q a recess at the end of the right aisle, 
near tbe entrance, is a group in sandstone of the Death of the Virgin, 
dating from ca. 1460; in front are two Romanesque columns of the lith cent- 
ury. By the second pillar is the Renaissance tomb of the jurist Sebastian 
Echter von Mespelbrunn (1546-77). — The bronze font in the nave is by 
Eckhard of Worms (1279) ; by the two first pillars on each side are statues 
by Tilman Riemenschneider, from the Marien-Kapelle (p. 95): Christ, St. 
Peter, St. Andrew, and St. John tie Evangelist. — The church contains 
no fewer than 28 sumptuous tombs of bishops, of which we may specially 
mention those of Bibra (d. 1519) and "Scherenberg (d. 1495), by the 6th and 
7th pillars on the right, both executed by Riemenschneider, and that of 
*Konrad von ThtLngen (d. 1540), on the wall of the choir, by Loy Bering. — 
In the richly decorated choir (elegant rococo screen) are beautiful rococo 
stalls ; from the roof hangs a large crucifix by Riemenschneider. 

From the S. transept we enter the Cloisters (ca. 1428-53), with the 
alabaster tomb of Col. von Eiseneck (d. 1621) by M. Kern, and the late- 
Gothic Sepultur (closed), containing tombs of canons. — Adjoining the H". 
transept is the Schdnborn Mortuary Chapel (1720-36), a good baroque structure 
by J. B. Neumann (p. 92). ^ 

Marien-KapelU. WCRZBURG. 16. Route. 95 

The tombstone of Riemenschneider, with his portrait in relief {half- 
length), may be Been on the exterior wall of the K. aisle. 

Adjoining the cathedral on the N. rises the Neumunster Chnrch 
(PL C, D, 3), founded about 1010, but rebuilt in the transition 
style ca. 1213-47, with a fine Romanesque tower. The red rococo 
facade towards the Kurschnerhof was constructed in 1711-19 by 
Pezani; the dome was added in 1731 (sacristan, Parade-Platz 2). 

The well-proportioned Intebiob was altered in the 18th century. It 
contains a charming sandstone figure of the Madonna (1498) and (to the 
right of the main entrance) the tomb of Abbot Trithemias (d. 1516), the 
celebrated humanist, both by Riemenschneider. — The Romanesque East 
Cbtpt dates from the 11th cent.; the West Gbtpt (always open), beneath 
which SS. Kilian, Kolonat, and Totnan, the three apostles of Franconia, 
are said to be interred, contains busts of the three saints by Riemen- 
schneider (badly lighted). Festival, July 8th. 

On the choir, facing the cathedra], is a tablet with a Latin and a German 
inscription (the latter by King Louis I.), erected in 1843 to the memory 
of WcUiher von der Vogelweide (d. about 1280), the greatest of the mediaeval 
German poets, who was interred in the old cloisters (pulled down in 1833.) 
A sum of money was left by the poet for purchasing food for the birds, and 
a vase was placed on the top of the original tomb for this purpose. The 
new monument is similarly provided, but the bequest has long since been 
diverted to the use of the canons themselves. 

At Herren-Str. No. 8 is the Canonry, rebuilt in the Renaissance 
style in 1594, with a tasteful oriel-window. Since 1817 the build- 
ing has been occupied as the Bishop's Palace (PI. D, 3). The chapel 
contains an alabaster altar by M. Kern. 

The busy Dom-Strasse (PI. 0, 3), with quaint houses, leads 
from the cathedral W. to the Old Main Bridge (p. 97). At the end, 
to the right, ^opposite the Vierrohren-Brunnen (1733), rises the 
Old Bathaus (PI. 0, 3), the oldest part of which, the so-called 
Grafen-Eckards-Turm , dates from the Romanesque period. The 
Council Room, or King Wenzel's Room, in the interior, an important 
monument of mediaeval secular architecture, has been completely 
altered. — Behind, in the Karmelitergasse, is the imposing new 
Rathaus, in the Renaissance style (1898-99). 

In the Fischmarkt (PI. 0, 3), a few paces to the N., is a Foun- 
tain by M. D. Kohler (d. 1778); and on the right (No. 20) is the 
imposing haroque Hofzum Ruckermain, built in 1716-20 by Jos. 

Hence we proceed to the E. to the Mabxt (PI. C, 3), in which 
rises the elegant Gothic *Marien-Kapelle, erected in 1377-1447, 
and restored in 1856, when the perforated spire was added. 

The reliefs on the three portals (Annunciation, Last Judgment, Virgin 
enthroned) are coeval with the church. The 14 statues on the buttresses 
(four replaced by copies; comp. p. 94) are from Riemenschneider' s Studio 
(1500-1506). In the interior are the tombstone of a knight (1499) and 
wooden *Statues (SS. Dorothea and Margaretha) by Riemenschneider. 

To the E. of the Marien-Eapelle is the Haus zum Falken, with 
graceful rococo decoration (ca. 1735). 

From the Markt we follow the handsome modern Sch5nboen- 
Stbasse (PI. 0, 2) to the N. The Sandhof, to the left, behind the 

96 Route 16. WURZBURG. Julius Hospital. 

post- office, retains its picturesque Renaissance interior of a*bout 
1600. In the Dominikaner-Platz rises the — 

Dominican Church (PI. C, D, 2), rebuilt in 1741-43 hy Neu- 
mann, with elaborate altars, and stucco embellishments and rococo 

In the Julius Pbomenade (p. 92), behind the bronze statue 
(by M. Widnmann ; 1845) of Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn 
(p. 92), lies the extensive and admirably organised Julius Hospital 
(PL C, D, 2; wine-room, seep. 91), a pile of buildings dating from 
the 16-18th cent, (visitors admitted). The rear-building to the 
right, completed in 1704 from Petrini's design, contains the quaint 
old Apotheke. The central corridor contains an interesting relief 
from a portal of 1580. In the garden beyond are two large fountain- 
groups and a tasteful Pavilion, erected in 1705 and used as an ana- 
tomical theatre from 1724 to 1863. 

From the W. end of the Julius Promenade the Kbahnen-Quai 
(PI. B, C, 2) descends the bank of the Main to the Luitpold Bridge 
(PI. B, lj 1886-87), passing the old crane ('Mainkrahn' ; ca. 1765), 
bearing the well-preserved arms of the prince-bishops. — In the 
Pleicheh Ring (PI. O, D, 1), leading to the E. from the bridge to the 
Kaiser-Platz and the railway-station, are most of the Medical Insti- 
tutes of the university, the Physical Institute (With a tablet to Prof. 
Rontgen, discoverer of the X-rays), and the Botanical Garden (in- 
teresting glass-houses). 

An excellent view of the town and vicinity is obtained from the 
Steinberg (940 ft. ; Steinbwg Restaurant, p. 91), which is ascended in y 2 hr. 
hy crossing the railway to the N. of the Pleicher Eing -and following a 
good path leading to the W. past the gas-works. We may descend on 
the N. to (10 min.) Unter-DGrrbaeh (616 ft.; Adler; Stern), situated in the 
charming valley of the Durrbach and much frequented in the vintage- 
season. Hence back to (3 M.) Wiirzburg by road. 

From the Dom-Strasse (p. 95) the Augustinergasse (PI. 0, 3, 4), 
passing the Ehemann'sche Haus (No. V2; half-timbered edifice of 
1547 in the court), leads to the S. to the Neubau-Stbasse (PI. 0,D,4), 
which also contains some ancient houses (e.g. No. 2, on the right, 
with an early 17th cent, timber facade; No.-7, on the left, with 
rococo decorations). — On the left, farther on, is the — 

Old University (PI. D, 4; entrance, Domerschulgasse 16), built 
by Adam Kahl in 1582-91, with a fine Renaissance quadrangle. 
The University Church or Neubau-Kirche, restored after 1695, in a 
curiously mixed Gothic and Renaissance style, contains a fine pulpit 
and triple galleries. The tower (272 ft. ; added in 1711) is used 
as an Observatory (Sat., 2-4). The Old University now contains the 
Museum of Historical Art (open Tues. & Frid. , 10-12 ; at other times 
on application) and the University Library. 

The Pictubje Gallebt (artists' names not all authenticated), on the first 
floor, contains chiefly second-rate works. Boom XX (at the end of the 
second corridor). 175. Spinello Aretino, Madonna enthroned with angelic 

University. WURZBURG. 16. Route. 97 

musicians and four saintf . — XXI. M. Schongauer (?), 180. St. John the 
Evangelist, 181. Baptism of Christ. — XXII. Pieta and two Madonnas, 
carved by Riemenschneider ; 130. Old Copy of Diirer, Portrait of Sixtus 01- 
hafen (1503; original lost). — XXIII. Old Copies of Raphael, 534. Madonna 
of Loreto, 203. Madonna with the carnation; 192. Stifle of Andrea del 
SartOy Holy Family; 168. Copy of Boltrofflo, Madonna; 190. School of 
Bellini, Best on the Flight into Egypt. — XXIV. Tiepolo, 87. Head of an 
Oriental, 594. Alexander the Great and the family of Darius, 593. Muciua 
Scaevola. — XXVI. 317. Rubens, Roman battle; 318. Jan van Ravenstein 
the Younger, Portrait; 478, 479. Van Voorst, Portraits. — XXVII. 113. EU- 
heimer (?), Lot and his daughters. — XXVIII. 517, 578, 239. Skreta, Por- 
traits. — Corridor II., opposite the end of Corridor I., 290. Pieter Claesz % 
Still- life (1610); farther on to the right, 2. Aart van der Neer, Landscape 
by moonlight. — Corridor I. At the end, to the left, 247. Pouesin, Bac- 
chanalian scene. 

On the Second Floor are Plaster Casts and some good antique Sculptures ; 
on the Third Floor Egyptian Antiquities; Prehistoric Collection (Troy, 8wiss 
lake-dwellings, Hallstatt tombs from Estenfeld); Art- Industrial Collection 
(glass, fayence); in the so-called Antiquarium a good collection of Greek 
Vases and Terracottas; tbe Cabinet of Cotws, rich in Wurzburg coins. 

The University Libraby (entr. at the back of the court) possesses 
about 350,000 vols. An important collection of MSS. of the 5th cent, 
onwards (some with admirable ivory-carving*), early specimens of printing, 
book-bindings, and book-plates is exhibited on the groundfloor. Adm. on 
application at the office. 

From the Neubau-Strasse the Peter-Strasse leads to the S. to the 
Peterskirche (PI. D, 4), originally Romanesque but in its present 
form baroque (1717), with a Gothic choir. Within is a fine rococo 
pulpit, by Balth. Esterbauer. On the E. side of the Platz is the 
Regierungs-Gebaude (PI. D, 4), or government offices, once a Bene- 
dictine abbey, the church of which, now Protestant, was tastefully 
decorated in the interior in the rococo style in 1782-89. 

From this point the Peterspfarrgasse and the Munz-Strasse lead 
to the S. to the Sander Ring-Strasse, on the left side of which rises 
the New University (PI. D, 4), commonly known as the 'Neue 
Kollegienhaus', a modern Renaissance edifice by Horstig (1892-96). 
— In the garden between this building and the Justiz-Gebaude 
(PI. D, 4; law-courts), buijt in 1892-95, is a bust of P. F. von 
Siebold, the naturalist and traveller (1796-1866). 

The HuttenSchltfsschen, Schiess-Haus-Str. 5 (PI. C, 5), an elegant little 
palace built by Neumann in 1725 for Bishop von Hutten, now belongs to 
the University society 'Rhenania'. 

From the Sander-Ring we may return to the railway-station via 
the pretty gardens on the *Rennweger Ring (PI. E, 2, 3) and the 
Hauger Ring (PI. D, E, 1). In the former are two Hercules Groups 
by J. W. van der An vera (d. ca. 1760) and a bust of the composer 
Vali Becker (1840-90) of Wurzburg. 

b. Left Bank of the Main. 

The Dom-Strasse (p. 95) leads to the Old Main Bridge (PI. B, 
C, 3), 644 ft. in length, constructed in 1474-1607, and adorned 
with statues of saints. On the left bank, immediately to the right 
is the small Hofspitcd-Kirche (PI. B, 3), containing the '14 helpers 

Baxdskxr'b S. Germany. 10th Edit. 7 

98 Route 16. WIJRZBURG. 

in time of need' carved abont 1530. The Gothic DeuUchhaus-Kirche 
(PI. B, 3), in the Zeller-Str., now used for military purposes, was 
built in 1287-1303. 

A pleasant walk may be taken hence down the Main to Ihe Zeller 
Waldtpitze and the (i hr.) KUnig^tche Park (views). 

The 'Erste Schlossgasse', a few paces to the right of the Hof- 
spital-Kirche, ascends in 12 min. to the former fortress of Marien- 
berg (1016 ft. ; PL A, B, 4), 425 ft. above the river. This was the 
earliest settlement at Wurzburg (comp. p. 92), and from 1261 till 
the completion of the palace was the residence of the prince- 
bishops. Visitors obtain tickets (20 pf.) from the sentry. 

The Chapel of St. Barbara, a round edifice dating perhaps as far 
back as the 8th cent., is the oldest part of the castle. Originally Roman- 
esque, it was rebuilt in the Gothic style. Gothic are also the Scheren- 
berger Tor, built by the bishop of that name (p. 94), and a winding stair- 
case. The Renaissance Echter Tor (16C6) was built by Bishop Julius 
Echter von ffle^pelbrunn (p. 92). The handsome New-Tor belongs to the 
fortifications added by Bishop Joh. Philip von Schonborn (1642-78). — The 
terrace commands a good view of the town. 

In the Burkarder-Strasse, to the left, 5 min. above the bridge, 
rise the grey towers of St. Burkard (PL B, 4), the only old church 
in Wurzburg of intact exterior, erected in 1033-42 (?) in the Ro- 
manesque style and restored in 1168, with a late-Gothic choir of 
1494-97, beneath which the street runs. The N. transept con- 
tains a late-Romanesque offertory-box in sandstone, and the S. 
transept a bust of the Madonna by Riemenachneider and a carved 
altar of 1590. 

The Nikolaus - Strasse, the second street to the right outside 
the Burkarder Tor (PL B, 4), ascends in a curve to the (8 min.) 
garden-restaurant of Nikolausburg, whence a Station Path, with 
good sculptures by J. P. Wagner and Auvera, goes on to the octa- 
gonal Kappele (PL B, 5) on the Nikolausberg, a pilgrimage-chapel, 
built in 1747-92. Beautiful view of the town and its lights in the 

On the top of the Nikolausberg (1090 ft. ; 25 min. from the 
chapel) is the Trankenwarte, a view-tower 90 ft. high, erected in 
1894 and commanding a fine view of the valley of the Main; the 
Frankenwald, Steigerwald, Spessart, andRhon (adm. 10 pf., rfmts.). 
We may return by a good path through the Anna-Schlucht to the 
Steinbach-Tal (electric tramway, p. 91) and so back to (1 hr.) the 
town, crossing the Ludwigs Briicke (PL B, O, 5 ; 1892-96), with two 
bronze lions at each end. 

About 10 min. to the S. of the Kappele (footpath along the ridge, 
with beautiful views) is the SchUtzenhof Restaur ant ^ whence we regain the 
town in */4 hr. 

From Wurzburg to Bamberg, see R. 21; to Nuremberg, R. 18; to 
Heidelberg, R. 19; to Stuttgart, R. 17; to Munich via Ansbach, R. 90; to 
Frankfort, R. 15. 

d by Google 


17* From Wurzburg to Stuttgart via Heilbronn. 

112 M. Railway in 3»/ 2 -7 hrs. (fares 12 .* 40, 9 .# 30, 6 * 20, express 
16 .* 60, 12 A 60, 8 .* 30 pf.). 

From Wurzburg to (4872 M.) Osterburken, see pp. 101, 102. 
— The line crosses the Kirnach and ascends its valley. 51 M. 
Adelsheim, a little town on the E. spurs of the Odenwald. We pro- 
ceed through the Seckaeh-Tal. 

58 M. Mockmuhl ( Wurttemberger Eof), an old town at the influx 
of the Seckach into the Jagst, was stoutly defended by Gotz von 
Berlichingen against the Swabian League in 1519. At the N. end 
is the castle (restored in 1902), with the 'Gbtzen-Turm'. 

Fbom Hockhuhl to DorzBACH, 24 M., railway in ca. 2 1 /* hrs. — 5 M. 
Widdern; 8 l /a M. Jagtthausen, with a castle supposed to be the birthplace 
of Gotz von Berlichingen ; 11 M. Berlichingen. — 13 M. Bch&ntal (Post) has 
a theological seminary in an old Cistercian monastery founded in 1158. 
The Bom. Cath. Church, huilt in 1702-28 by Neumann (p. 92), has an ef- 
fective interior, and a fine staircase with an artistic iron railing on the 
first landing. — 24 M. Ddrzbach. 

We cross the Jagst, and follow its valley. — 61*/2 M. Zuttlingen, 
opposite which lies Assumstadt, with a chateau. 

73 M. Jagstfeld and thence via (7972 M.) Heilbronn to (112 M.) 
Stuttgart, see R. 4. 

18. Erom Wurzburg (Frankfort) to Eatisbon (Vi&rma). 

125V* M. Railway in 4-7Va hrs. (fares 16 .* 25, 10 .* 75, 6 .* 90 pf., 
express 18 * 50, 13 Jt, 9 * 15 pf). — From Frankfort to Ratitbon, 210 M., 
in 63/ 4 .i4i/ 2 hrs. (fares 27 j*, 18 j* y 11 .* 90 pf. ; express 31 UT10, 22 JH 10, 
15 JH 50 pf.) This is the quickest route from Frankfort (Ostend) to Vienna 
(express in 14-15 hrs.). — From Frankfort to Wiirzburg, see R. 15. 

Wurzburg, see p. 91. — The railway runs parallel with the Bam- 
berg line (R. 21) as far as (6 M.) Rottendorf, and then turns to the , 
S.E. — From (8V2 M.) Dettelbach a branch-line runs in 20 min. 
to Dettelbach (Adler), a small town on the Main, S^feM. to the E., 
with 2100 inhab. and a Gothic Rathaus. The Capuchin pilgrimage- 
church, outside the Falter- Tor, is a handsome late - Renaissance 
edifice of 1613. — We proceed along the ridge on the right bank 
of the Main. 

14^/2 M. Kitzingen (625ft.; *Rotes Ross; Schwan; Stern), a 
trading town on the Main (8900 inhab.), noted for its beer, is con- 
nected by an ancient stone bridge, 886 ft. long, with the suburb 
of Etwashausen on the left bank. The Rathaus is in the German 
Renaissance style (restored); the Parish Church is late-Gothic. The 
town extends up the slope from the river to the Station, V2M. to 
the S.W., near which, on the W. ridge, are the Water Works, 
supplied from the Main by steam-power. Above the station is the 
Neue Schiesshaus, which affords a fine view of the vine-clad hills of 
the Main and of the Steigerwald (Schwanberg). — Sulzfeld, 2 M. 
below Kitzingen, has picturesque gate-towers and ancient houses. 


100 Route 18. NEUMARKT. 

From Kitzingen to Schweinfdbt, 31 M., railway in 3-4 hrs. — The 
line diverges to the left from that to Ratisbon and runs towards the 
N.E. — 7 M. KleinlangTieim; about Vfa M. distant (diligence twice daily 
in 2 J /2 hrs) lies the pleasantly situated village of Caatell (OrUner Baum; 
Krone), with a chateau and park of Prince Gastell-Castell. — From (10 M.) 
Wiesentheid a diligence runs daily to (9 l /2 M.) Ebrach (Leichtj Zum Steiger- 
wald), with a celebrated Cistercian Abbey (now a penitentiary) and an 
interesting church in the 13th cent, transitional style. — I8V2 M. Gerolz- 
hofen (720 ft.; Stern) is a small and ancient walled town. A charming 
excursion may made via HundeUhausen to the (2 hrs.) ruin of Zabelilein 
(1580 ft.), situated at the N.W. corner of the Steigerwald and affording a 
wide and beautiful view. — 31 M. Schweinfurt, see p. -110. 

The line crosses the Main by a handsome "bridge, 290 yds. long. 
From (20 M.) Iphofen (Hirsch), a small town with walls, towers, 
old town-gates (the finest being the Rodelseeer-Tor on the N.W.), 
and a Gothic church, the Schwariberg (1560 ft. ; view) may be as- 
cended in 1 hr. — To the left immediately beyond (28 y 2 M.) MarkU 
Bibart we see Schloss Schwarzenberg , the ancestral seat of the 
princes of that name. — 38 M. Nenstadt an der Aisch (945 ft. ; Rail. 
Restaurant), a hop-trading place, with remains of old walls and 
towers (4100 inhab.), is the junction of branch-lines to the N.E. 
to (11 M.) Demansfurth-Uhlfcld, and to the S.W. to Steinach, see 
p. 177. — Beyond (43V2 M.) Emskirchen we cross the Aurach by a 
fine viaduct, 131 ft. high. — 63 M. Siegelsdorf (branch-line to the 
W. to Markt Erlbach) ; 55y2 M. Burgfarrnbach, with a chateau of 
Count Piickler. The line joins the Bamberg railway (p. 108) and 
crosses the Rednitz. On the right the Alte Veste (p. 154). 

68 M. Furth, see p. 164. — Near (60 M.) Doos we cross the 
Ludwigs-Kanal (p. 115). 

63 M. Nuremberg, see p. 131. The line runs through wood. — 
65 M. Lutzendteich, see p. 154. 

From (71 M.) Feucht (1185 ft. ; Kurhotel Waldschlosschen) 
branch-lines diverge to the E. to . (7^2 M.) Altdorf, a quaint little 
town that has belonged to Nuremberg since 1505 and was the seat 
of a university in 1623-1806 j and to the W. to (3 M.) Wendelstein. 
— From (73 M.) Ochenbruck , a pleasant walk leads into the ro- 
mantic Schwarzach - Tal , IV2 M. to the W., by Schwarzenbruck. 
Branch-line to Allersberg (I21/2 M. in 1 hr. 10 min.). — 75V2 M. 
Postbauer, To the left rises the Dillberg (1945 ft.), to the right 
the TyroUberg (1880 ft). The line crosses the Lud wigs-Canal. 

86 V2 M - Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz (1385 ft. ; Egner , near the 
station 5 Qans), a prettily - situated town of 6400 inhab., on the 
Sulz, with chalybeate and sulphureous springs. The late-Gothic 
Church (ca. 1404-34) and the 15th cent. Rathaus are interesting. 
The Schlo88 contains the law-courts. Fine views from the (1 M.) 
Mariahilfberg (1918 ft ) and the (3 M.) ruins of Wolfstein (1905 ft.). 

Branch-lines to Freystadt, IOV2 M. to the S.W., and to Beilngries (Post : 
Schattenhofer), 17 M. to the S. 

The line traverses the broad Sulztal and enters a wooded and 
hilly region. Beyond (92 M.) Deining it crosses the Laber near 

KONIGSHOFEN. 19. Route. 101 

its source. From (98 M.) Seubersdorf a diligence plies twice daily 
to (5 M.) Velburg (1100 inhab.), near which are two stalactite 
caverns. — 103 M. Parsberg, picturesquely situated on the slope 
of a hill, which is crowned by an old chateau, now the district tri- 
bunal. The church contains a late-Gothic font of the 15th century. 

Immediately beyond (109 M.) Beratzhausen the train crosses 
the Schwarze Laber, the valley of which offers numerous pictur- 
esque views as we proceed. — 120 M. Etterzhausen, picturesquely 
situated in the Naab-Tal, is much visited from Ratisbon; near it 
is the 'Robbers' Cave\ a lofty dome-shaped cavern in the rock. 

The line enters the pretty Naab-Tal and crosses the Danube 
above the influx of the Naab. At (12372 M.) Prufening is the sup- 
pressed monastery of the same name , with a frequented open-air 

12672 M. Katisbon (^Railway Restaurant), see p. 164. 

19. From Wiirzburg to Heidelberg. 

99 M. Railway ; express in 3-3V4 bra. t ordinary train in 6 hrs. (fares 
12 Jt 80, 8 .* 60, 5 * 50 pf). 

The line coincides with the Munich line as far as (2 M.) Kei- 
dingsfeld (p. 177), diverges to the right, and ascends through a 
monotonous hilly region. 7 M. Reichenberg ,- the village, in the 
valley to the left, is overlooked by a handsome Schloss on the hill 
above. — Beyond (14 M.) Kirchheim we cross the Baden frontier. 
The line now descends. Beyond (I6I/2 M.) Wittighausen several 
deep cuttings and a tunnel. Then through the wooded and grassy 
valley of the Oriinbach to (2072 M.) Zimmern, where the vine-culture 
begins. 2272 M. Grunsfeld, an old town, with a pretty Rathaus and 
a Gothic church containing a good monument to Countess Dorothea 
von Wertheim (d. 1503) by Tilman Riemenschneider. 2572 M. 
Gerlachsheim, with a church in an exaggerated baroque style. — 
The train crosses the Tauber, and turns to the left to (2672 M.) 
Lauda (595 ft. ; *Rail. Restaurant). 

From Ladda to Wertheim, 19 1 /* M., railway in 50 min. through the 
smiling Tanber-Tal, which produces an agreeable light wine. — 5 M. 
Tauberbischofsheim (585 ft. ; Bahnhofs- Hotel \ Badischer Hof ; 3400 inhab.), 
a pleasantly situated little town, the scene of an engagement between the 
Prussian and Wurtemberg troops in 1866, with interesting Gothic castle, 
church, and chapel. — 12 M. Oamburg, with an old castle. Two bridges 
and two tunnels. — 15 M. Bronribach (inn) *, the old Cistercian abbey, with 
a transition-church of the 13th cent., now belongs to Prince Lowenstein. 
The picturesque little town of KiiUheim, 3 3 /< M. to the S., possesses a chateau 
of the 12-16th centuries. — 17 M. Reicholzheim. Tunnel. 19'/4 M. Wert- 
heim (p. 88). - 

From Lauda to CraM$heim> see p. 82. 

2872 M. Konigshofen (660 ft. ; Zur Eisenbahn, at the station), 
a small and ancient town at the confluence of the Vmpfer and the 
Tauber, where the insurgent peasants were defeated in 1525. 

102 Route 19. NEOKARELZ. 

The line quits the Tauher, and turns to the S.W. into the 
Umpfer-Tal. — 34 M. Boxberg- Wolchingen. The recently restored 
church of "Wolchingen, in the transition style of the 13th cent., has 
handsome portals and interesting Romanesque capitals and contains 
Romanesque and Gothic tombs. 

From Boxberg a diligence plies twice daily to Krautheim, on the Jagst, 
12 M . to the S., which has a chateau and a fine castle-chapel in the transition 
style of the early 18th century. 

We proceed along high embankments and through a tunnel. 
41 M. Eubigheim. Then through the Kirnach-Tal to Eirschlanden, 
Rosenberg, and (4872 M".) Osterburken (Kanne, at the station, R. l*/4- 
1 1/2 *#, B. 60 pf. j Rail. Restaurant), an ancient town (1400 inhab.) 
on the site of a Roman camp. Branch-line to Jagst f eld, see p. 99. 

The Baden railway diverges to the right from the Wurtemberg 
line, passes through a tunnel, and traverses pleasant wooded and 
grassy valleys on the S.E. fringe of the Odenwald. 6OY2 M. Adds- 
heim; the little town is 3 / 4 M. distant (see p. 99). The line now runs 
through the Seckach-Tal. Two tunnels. 53 M. Seckach. Branch- 
line to Asohaffenburg, see p. 87. — Near (62 M.) Dallau we tra- 
verse a tunnel beyond which the Elz is crossed. — 66 M. Mosbach 
(Print Karl ; Badischer Hof; Rail. Restaurant), a small and ancient 
town on the Elz, with 4000 inhabitants. In the parish-church is 
the bronze monument of the Countess-Palatine Johanna (d. 1444). 
Branch-line to the N. to fl7y 2 M.) Mudau. 

67 i/ 2 M. Neckarelz (435 ft. ; Klingenburg; Rail. Restaurant), at 
the influx of the Elz into the Neckar, is the junction of the Stuttgart 
and Hanau line (p. 26). 

Fkom Neckarelz to Mecxesheim, 20 M., railway in 1 honr. The train 
crosses the Neckar. Beyond a short tunnel is the little chateau of Neuberg 
on the right. Two tunnels. Stations Asbach, Aglasterhavsen, Helmstadt, 
Neckarbuchofsheim (branch-line to HVffenhardt, 10 1 /* M.), Waibstadt (with 
a Gothic church). We next follow the Schwarzbach-Tal. 15 l fc M. Neiden- 
stein, with a chateau ; 20 M. Meckesheim, junction of the Heilbronn and 
Heidelberg railway (see p. 28). 

From Neckarelz to (79 Y2 M.) Eberbach, junction for Darmstadt 
andHanau, seep. 27. Beyond the next tunnel is (85 M.) Eirschhorn 
fZum Naturalisten, with a collection of antiquities; Erbach- 
Fiirstenauer Hof), picturesquely situated at the foot of the castle of 
that name. — 89*/ 2 M. Neckarsteinach (*Harfe, with a garden 
on the Neckar, R. i 1 /^, pens. 4-6 M), with 1600 inhab. and four 
old castles of the knigh's of Steinach, surnamed the Landschaden 
('land-scourges'). The Mittelburg, one of these castles, has been 
restored in the medieval style. The church of the little town con- 
tains monuments to various members of the family, some dating 
from the 14th century. On the opposite side of the river, on a 
wooded hill, rises the ancient castle of Dilsberg. Beyond a tunnel 
the train crosses the Neckar. 

93 M. Neckargemund {Kredell; Pfalz, R. iy 2 -2, B. 3/ 4 , pens. 
3l/2-4i/2 Jt; Hirsch; 2200 inhab.), where the Neckar receives the 

PLAUEN. 20. Route. 103 

Elsenz, is the junction of the line to Meckesheim and Neckarelz (see 
p. 102). Opposite (951/2 M.) Schlierbach is the abbey of Neuburg. 
— A number of villas are passed as we near Heidelberg. The train 
stops first at the Karlstor station (for the upper town), and then 
passes through a tunnel over 1 M. long below the castle to the (99 M.) 
principal station (see Baedeker's Rhine'), 

20. From Leipzig to Munich vi& Hof, Bamberg, and 
Nuremberg. ^ 

343 M. Railway, express in 9-12 hrs. (fares 44 J$ 20, 31 JH 70, 22 * 
80 pf.); to Nuremberg, express in 6 8 hrs. (fares 29 JH 50, 21 J* 40, 15 Jt 
10 pf.) 1 to Lindau by Nordlingen and Augsburg in 15 hrs. (fares 62 A 40, 
44 JH 60, 31 JH 40 pf.). — The expresses from Berlin to Nuremberg and 
Munich run via Halle, Gross-Heringen, and Saalfeld, or via Halle,Weissen- 
fels, Zeitz, Gera, Saalfeld, Probstsella, and Hochstadt (see p. 105) in 10 1 /?- 
14 hrs., and are joined at Gorbetha or Zeits by the trains from Leipzig, 
starting from the Thuringian Station. — The express from Berlin to Munich 
via Leipzig, Hof, and Wiesau takes 9 3 /< 11 hrs. 

Leipzig, see Baedeker's Northern Germany. We start from the 
Bavarian Station. 51/2 M. Oaschwitz; 9V 2 M. Bbhlen; 13 M. 
Kieritzsehy where a branch diverges to Chemnitz. 

23V2M. Altenburg (Wettiner Hof; Edtel del Europe, at the 
station), with 38,800 inhab., capital of the Duchy of Sachsen- 
Altenburg, is overlooked by the ducal Schloss with a late-Gothic 
church (1410), and fine park. 

33 M. Gossnitz, junction for Olauchau and Chemnitz to the 
E., and Oera to the W. ; 39 M. Crimmitzschau ; 46 M. Werdau 
Q unction for Zwiekau), all with spinning and weaving factories. 
To the left, on a wooded hill, Schloss Schonfels. — 51 M. Neumark, 
junction for Oreitz. — 5672 M. Keichenbach (1310 ft. ; Lamm), 
a manufacturing town with 24,900 inhab., is the junction of the 
Dresden line. 

The train crosses the deep Qoltzsch-Tal by a grand viaduct with 
four rows of arches one above the other, 633 yds. in length and 
256 ft. high. — 62 1 / 2 M - Herlasgrun (branch-line by Auerbach 
and Falkenstein to Oelsnitz, see below). Then another lofty viaduct 
(306 yds. long, 256 ft. high) across the deep, wooded Elster-Tal. 

72 M. Plauen (1230 ft. j Wettiner Hof; Deil's Hotel; Blauer 
Engel; American Consul, Hugo Muench), a manufacturing town on 
the Weisse Elster (105,400 inhab.), is the capital of the Vogtland, 
overlooked by the old castle of Hradschin, anciently the seat of the 
Vogt or governor. 

Fbom Placbn to Wiksau via Eoek, 62 M., railway in 3*/4 hrs. The 
line leads through the picturesque Elster-Tal, a hilly district with numerous 
factories. — 5$ M. Weischlitz (junction for the EUtertal Railway to Greitz 
and Gera). — 12 M. Oelsnilz (branch to Auerbach and Zwickau) \ 20y 2 M. 
Adorf (branch to Chemnitz). Then (22i/« M.) Elster (Kurhaus; Wettiner Hof; 
Hdtei de Saze, etc.), a pleasantly situated watering-place, with alkaline 
and saline springs. 

104 Route 20. HOF. From Leipzig 

The train quits the Elster and crosses the watershed between the 
Elster and the Eger. — At (37 1 /* M.) Voitersreuth, the Austrian frontier- 
station, luggage is examined; 42 M. Franaenabad (1475 ft.; *KbnigstUla; 
•Grand Hdtel; •Pott; *Park Hotel; *Hdt. Bristol; BuberVs H6t. Ertherzogin 
Gisela, opposite the station, etc.), a watering-place frequented chiefly by 
ladies, with twelve mineral springs for drinking and bathing, is the 
junction for Ho/ (see below) and for Tirsehnitz. — 46 M. Eger (WelzeVs 
H6t. turn Kaiser Wilhelm, at the st at ion, very fair; Zwei Eriherzoge, in the 
town; Neuberger; Goldner Stern; Rail. Restaurant), on a hill on the right 
bank of the Eger, is known as the scene of Wallenstein's assassination 
on Feb. 25th, 1634, in the present town-hall. The Kaiserburg has been 
in rains since 1742. Description of the town, and routes hence to Carlsbad, 
Prague, and Vienna, see Baedeker's Austria. From Eger to Nuremberg 
see R. 26. 

Beyond Eger the train quits the Austrian territory. — 53 l /z M. Wald- 
sassen (Lamm ; Kloster-Gasthof), a market-village with a Cistercian abbey, 
founded in 1128, suppressed in 1803; handsome church in the baroque style; 
fine carving in the library-hall. — 581/2 M. Mitterteich. To the right is the 
Kdsseine, p. 128. At (62 M.) Wiesau (p. 186), the line unites with that via 
Hof to Munich. 

The line via Hof proceeds E. in long curves. — 79 M. Mehl- 
theuer, whence a branch-line runs to Weida. — From (82 1 /2 M.) 
Schonberg, branch-lines run to Schleitz on the N.W. and to Hirsch- 
berg an der Saale on the S. — Beyond (87 V2 M.) Reuth the train 
enters Bavaria. The blue outlines of the Fichtel-Gebirge (see Map. 
p. 124) become visible on the left. 

102^2 M. Hof. — Hotels. *Kaiserhof, R. 2»/2-7 Jt, *Wittelsbach, 
both at the station; Weisses Lamm, Altstadt 8, R. V/t&fiJl 9 B. 80 pf., 
D. 2J(; Pbjnz-Regent ; Goldnek Lowe; Oettebich, Bismarck-Str. 21, R. 
IV2-21/2 Jt, B. 70 pf. ; Dbei Eaben, R. from 1 Jt 30 pf. — Railway Restaurant. — 
Electric Tramway from the station through the town. 

Hof (1656 ft.), an industrial town on the Saale, with 36,300 in- 
hab., is the junction of the Munich line via Wiesau and Ratisbon 
(R. 32). The Gothic Rathaus of 1563 and the fine Michaels- Kirche, 
consecrated in 1299, have both been subsequently altered. On the 
Theresienstein (good restaurant), 2 M. to the E. of the station, is the 
pretty public park ; Y2 M. farther off is the Labyrinthenberg (1866 ft.), 
with a ruin and a belvedere : view of the rounded summit of the 
Dobraberg (p. 105) to the W., in the Franconian forest. 

Bbanch Railway, 17 M., in lVsbr., to Steben (1905 ft.; •Park Hotel, 
with the dependance Park-Bchloss; Bayrischer Hof; lodging-houses: 
Humboldthaus; Park-Villa; Kl&sterl; Villa Charlotte; ViUa Louise), a loftily 
situated chalybeate and mud bath, managed by government and well 
fitted up. Beside the two drinking-springs is a colonnade 164 yds. long. 
The little town (800 inhab.t was almost entirely burned down in 1877 
and has been handsomely rebuilt. In 1796-97 Alexander von Humboldt 
was mining superintendent here (tablet). Excursions to the (l l /« M.) 
Htillen-Tal (Adam's Inn), which extends for over 2M., almost to the little 
town of Lichtenberg; to the Langenauer-Tal (good accommodation at the 
forester's) ; and to (4V2M.) Blankenberg, prettily situated on the Saale. 

From Hof to Egeb, 37»/2 M., railway in ca. 2 hrs. 8V2 M. Oberkotzau 
(p. 105) ; 8V2 M. Rehau (on the right the Grosse Romberg, p. 183). — 
201/2 M. Asch (21C0 ft. ; Geyer, R. 1 K. 60 2 K. 40 h., pens. 7-10 K. ; Post), 
a Bohemian manufacturing town, with 18,700 inhab., contains monuments 
to Luther and Joseph H. Fine view of the Fichtel-Gebirge, the Bohemian 
Forest, etc. from the Hainberg (2455ft.; accommodation; tower 115 ft. 
high), V2 br. to the N., the highest point of the Elster-Gebirge. Omn. 

to Munich. KULMBAOH. 20. Route. 105 

to Bad EUter (p. 103) twice daily, 1 K. 20 ft. [A branch-line runs from 
the station, which is I1/4 M. to the S. of the town, by Asch-Siadi to 
(9 1 /* M.) Rotibach, with considerable manufactories.] — Then stat. ffatlau, 
ArOonimMhe-SWckermUhle, Franzensbad (p. 104), and (OT/sH.) Eger (p. 104). 

Tlie line traverses a hilly district, running near the winding 
Saale. 105 1 /2 M. Oberkottau (Rail. Restaurant), junction of the line 
to (left) Ratisbon and Munich (R. 32). 

117M. Munchberg (1814 ft.; *Rail. Restaurant; H6tel Harttig; 
Bayrischer Hof), an industrial town with 6200 inhabitants. 

A branch-line runs in 1/2 hr. to (6 M.) Helmbrechti (2020 ft.; inn), 
whence the *D5braberg (2605 ft.), the highest point of the Frankenwald, may 
be ascended in IV2 hr. (extensive panorama). The descent may be made 
on the N.W. side to Schwarzenbaeh am Walde (Lamm; Hirsch), whence a 
picturesque wood-path leads via OeroldsgrUn to (2*/ 2 hrs.) Steben (p. 104). 

Another branch-line runs to the S., via (872 M.) Spameek and (5 M.) 
Reinersreuth, to (6 M.- in 40 min.) Zell in Oberfranken (2020 ft.: Ross; 
Leupold), a village with 1000 inhab., whence the "Waldstein (p. 127) may 
be ascended direct in 1 hr., or in IV2 hr. (guide convenient; 1 JO by a 
route passing the Source of the Saale (2315 ft.) and the B&renfang (17th. cent.). 

123V2 M. Stammbach (1945 ft.). On the left rise the Waldstein, 
Schneeberg, and Ochsenkopf, the highest points of the Fichtel- 
Gebirge. — From (128 M.) Falls-Qefrecs a branch-line runs in 
18 min. to Oefrees (p. 125), 3 M. to the E. — 1301/2*1 Markt- 
Schorgast (1660 ft. ; Goldner Lowe) lies in the valley to the right. 
Road through the Knoden-Tal to Berneck (p. 125; 3 l /2 M. ; carr. 
3-4 Jf). — The engineering of the line here is interesting (gradient 
at first 1 : 40 ; descent to Neuenmarkt 512 ft.) : cuttings, embank- 
ments, and dark pine-clad valleys in rapid succession. To the left in 
the distance is the abbey of Himmelkron (p. 124). 

13672 M. Neuenmarkt (1150 ft. ; Hot. Pastor; Rail. Restaurant; 
junction for Bayreuth and Bisehofsgrun, see pp. 120, 125); IV2M. 
to the N.E. is Wirsberg (1470 ft. ; *H6t. Werner, etc.), a health- 
resort, with pretty walks. — 139 M. Unter-Steinach ; 3 M. to the 
N. lies Stadt-Steinach (1155 ft.), a summer-resort. — Country 
picturesque. — 143 M. Kulmbach (1075 ft. ; *Goldner Hirsch, R. 
11/2-^) B. % jf; Bahnhofs- Hotel; Krone; Rail. Restaurant, very 
fair), a town with 10,600 inhab., famed for its beer, formerly the 
residence of the Margraves of Brandenburg-Eulmbach, on the Weisse 
Main, commanded by the Plassenburg (1390 ft. ; picturesque inte- 
rior court), now a prison. 

Near (1461/2 M.) M ainleus (995 ft), by Schloss Steinenhausen, 
the Weisse and Rote Main unite to form the Main. — 153 M. Burg- 
kundstadt (920 ft.), a little town with an old Rathaus and Schloss. 
— We cross the Main. — 156V 2 M. Hochstadt-Marktzculn (885 ft. ; 
rail, restaurant), junction of the Probstzella, Saalfeld, and Berlin 
line (p. 100). 

From Hochstadt to Saalfeld, 49V2 M., railway in 2'/4-3 hrs. through 
the pretty Rodach-Tal. — 6 M. Kiips, a considerable village with a por- 
celain-factory and a chateau of Herr von Redwitz. — 10 M. Kronach 
(1000 ft.; Sonne, R. iy*-2 Jl, B. 70 pf.; Ooldener Wagen), a small town 
(5200 inhab.) on a terrace at the confluence of the Haalach and Rodach, 

106 Route 20. LIOHTENFELS. From Leipzig 

was the birthplace of the painter Lucas Miiller, known as Granach (1472- 
1658). The Gothic church (14-lTtb cent.) stands at the S. end of the town, 
near the rail, station. On a lofty rock at the N. end of the town rises the 
imposing and well-preserved fortress of Rosenberg (1240 ft.; 16th cent.), now 
a pleasure-resort, with restaurant and a small historical museum. 

Thence through the Hasslach-Tal by stat. OundeUdorf to (15 l /s M.) Stock- 
helm, with valuable coal-mines in the vicinity. The line now ascends T>y 
Rothenkirchen and Fdrtschendorf to (26 H.) Steinbach (1960 ft.), on the water- 
shed between the Rhine and the Elbe, and descends into the Loquitz-Tal 
to (30 H.) Ludtrigsstadt (branch-line in 35 min. to Lehesten, with extensive 
slate-quarries). — 31 V2 M. Lauenstein, near which is the well-preserved 
castle of the same name (adm. l Jz M). — The train quits Bavaria, enters 
Saze-Heiningen, and reaches (34 M.) Probstiella (Rail. Restaurant), where 
it joins the Prussian State railway. — 49V« M. Baal/eld, junction of the 
lines to Jena, Gross-Heringen, Halle, and Berlin, and to Weida, Zeits, and 
Weissenfels or Leipzig: see Baedeker's Northern Germany. 

161 M. Lichtenfels (880 ft.; Krone, In the market j Bahnhoft- 
Hotel, R. 11/4-2, B. 8/ 4- jf, with garden; Anker, B. VU-i^Jf; 
^Railway Restaurant), with. 4200 inhab. and a basket-weaving 
school, is the junction of the Werra line (see Baedekers N. Ger- 
many). Schloss Banz on the right (iy 4 hr. from Lichtenfels) and 
Vierzehnheiligen on the left (1 hr.) are conspicuous objects. Plea- 
sure-grounds on the Burgher g. 

Carriage to Vierzehnheiligen 41/21 to Banz 6 Jt (return included). — 
Both these points and the Staffelberg may be visited on foot by going from 
Lichtenfels to Vierzehnheiligen (1 hr.), thence ascending the Staffelberg 
(l»/2 hr.), and descending via (1 hr.) Staffelstein to (»/4 nr.) Banz, which 
is 1 hr's. walk from Lichtenfels. Or we may drive to Vierzehnheiligen, 
send the carriage on to Staffelstein, where we rejoin it after ascending 
the Staffelberg on foot (as above), and drive back to Lichtenfels via Banz 
(carr. and pair 12 fr.). — The visit to Vierzehnheiligen after that to Banz 
is recommended only to those who wish to proceed along the ridge to the 
Staffelberg. — By the direct road Banz is l 1 /* hr. from Lichtenfels: we 
proceed towards the S., leaving the railway to the right, take the field- 
path at the finger-post, cross the Main by the bridge at Hansen, and then 
ascend through wood. 

The once celebrated Benedictine Abbey of Banz (1380 ft. ; *Inn, pens. 
372-4 M), founded in 1096, was dissolved in 1803. The extensive buildings 
on a wooded height, 400 ft. above the Main, now belong to Duke Charles 
Theodore of Bavaria. Delightful view from the terrace. Valuable col- 
lection of fossils found in the lias of the neighbourhood (fine saurians, 
ammonites, etc.). A Descent from the Cross, a relief in silver, presented 
by Pope Pius VI. to his godson Duke Pius of Bavaria, is erroneously 
attributed to Benv. Cellini. The altar in the baroque abbey-church (con- 
secrated in 1719) is surrounded with an /Open colonnade. 

Opposite Banz is Vierzehnheiligen (1270 ft. \ Hirsch, B. 17*-2 J(), the 
most frequented shrine in Franconia, visited by about 50,000 pilgrims an- 
nually. The church, with its two towers, was built in the rococo style in 
1743-72 by J. B. Neumann (p. 92). An altar in the centre of the nave 
marks the spot, where, according to the legend, the 14 'Nothelfer' ('helpers 
in need') appeared to a shepherd-boy in 1446, and gave rise to the found- 
ation of the church. The two W. chapels contain numerous thank-offer- 
ings, such as figures in wax, etc. 

Farther to the S. rise the precipitous limestone cliffs of the Staffelberg 
(1770 ft.), ascended from Vierzehnheiligen in l l /«, from Staffelstein (p. 107) 
in IV4 hr. by a somewhat steep and rough path. It is noted for its 
fossils and is surmounted by a chapel of St. Adelgundis and a hermitage 
(rfmts.). The fine view has been celebrated by Victor von Scheffel : to 
the N. lie the Thuringian Forest, with the fortress of Cobarg in the fore- 
ground, and the Franconian Forest; to the E. stretch the Fichtel Gebirge 

to Munich. FORCHHEIM. 20. Route. 107 

(with the Schneeberg and Ochsenkopf) and the Franc on ian Jura; to the 
S. we flee the Altenburg near Bamberg, with the Steigerwald behind itj 
and to the W., at our feet, is the valley of the Main, with Banz opposite 
to us, and the Grabfeldgau and Rhon-Gebirge beyond. 

166 M. StaffelBtein (892ft.; Post, at the rail, station, good; 
Bear, Oruner Bourn, ife M. to the S.E.), a small and ancient town 
(1800 inhab/) at the foot of the Staffelberg (p. 106). The Rathaus 
dates from 1687. A path (white way-marks) leads hence in 3/ 4 hr. 
to Bans (p. 106). — To the left, at (169 M.) Ebensfeld, rises the 
Veitsberg (1516 ft.), with a chapel and ruined castle. From (177 M.) 
Breiten-Gussbach (to the left, Schloss Oiech) a branch -line runs 
to (21 M.) Maroldsweisach. 

181 M. Bamberg (Rail. Restaurant), see R. 22. — The line 
from Schweinfurt (KUsingen, etc. ; R. 21) joins ours on the right. 

The environs of Bamberg form a vast orchard and market-garden, 
of which, however, little is seen from the train. Pine-plantations 
and hop-gardens are traversed. The railway, highroad, Regnitz, 
and Ludwigs-Canal run parallel. — 186 J /2 M. Strullendorf. 

A branch-railway runs hence via (5 M.) Frensdorf (branch to Ebrach, 
p. 100) and (10 H.) Steppach-Pommers/elden to (20 M.; 2hrs.) Schluseel/eld. 
At the village of Pommersfelden is Count Schonborn's beautiful chateau of 
*Weissenstem, built in 1711-18 in the baroque style by J. L. Dientzenhofer 
for the prince bishop Lothar Franz von Schonborn ; it possesses a magnificent 
staircase and banqueting-hall, a picture-gallery, and large park (accommo- 
dation at the Schloss Inn). 

192 M. Eggolsheim. To the left on the height rises the Jagersburg 
(1184 ft. ; view), once a hunting-lodge of the bishops of Bamberg. 

196 M. Forchheim (870 ft.; Hirseh; Zettelmaier, Zur Eisenbahn, 
R. Ufa Jl, both at the station), an industrial town with 8400 inhab., 
was a place of some importance as far back as the time of Charle- 
magne. Remains of the fortifications (17th cent.) are still extant. 
The Gothic Church contains twelve scenes from the Passion, of 
Wohlgemuth school, and wood-carvings and reliefs by Adam Krafft 
and Veit Stoss. The spacious Schloss, of the 14th cent., occupies 
the site of the Garlovingian palace, destroyed in 1246 (old frescoes in 
the chapel). — Excursion to the Franconian Switzerland, see p. 128. 

A branch-railway runs to the W. in 1V 4 hr. to (14»/* M.) Hdchstadt an 
der Aisch, an old walled town (1900 inhab.), with a Schloss (now district- 

Be"yond a tunnel of 370 yds. the Regnitz-Tal and Ludwigs-Canal 
(p. 115) are seen on the right. 

205 1 /2 M. Erlangen. — Railway Restaurant. — Hotela. *Schwan, 
*Blaub Glocke, in the main street (Nos. 12 and 46); Kaiskrhof, Spital- 
Str. , Walfibch, Walfisch - Str. , both near the station; Erlangkr Hof, 
R. li/i'l 1 /* Jt, B. 80 pf., Zor Eibenbahn, both at the station. — Beer. Quit 
Quelle; Opelei; Wolfe; Schmidt's, etc. 

Erlangen (920 ft.), with 23,700 inhab. (7300 Rom. Cath.), owes its 
prosperity mainly to French Protestants, exiled by the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes (1685), who transferred their industries hither, 
and also to German Protestants who took refuge here when the 

108 Route 20. ERLANGEN. From Leipzig 

French devastated the Palatinate. The University (1000 students, 
chiefly of medicine and theology), was founded in 1743 by Margrave 
Frederick Alexander of Brandenburg-Bayreuth. 

From the Bahnhof-Platz, which is embellished with a bronze 
fountain, we proceed straight on, passing the French Reformed 
Church, to the Luitpold-Platz, with the Post Office (on the right) 
and a monument to Prof. Herz (1816-71). To the left the main 
street, which intersects the square, leads to the former Palace of the 
margraves, built in 1700-63. In front of the building is a Statue of 
the founder of the university (see above) by Schwanthaler (1843). 
In the market-place opposite rises the modern PauU Fountain, with 
Tritons, Nereids, and bronze figures of Erlanga and Alma Mater. 
The Library, in the Palace, contains ca. 218,000 vols, and several 
rarities, including a manuscript Bible of the 12th cent, and a valuable 
collection of drawings by Netherlandish and German masters of the 
15-1 6th cent, (perhaps originally collected by Sandrart, p. 153), 
including sketches by Diirer (about 20) and Peter Flotner. The 
beautiful Palace Garden, behind the library, contains an unfinished 
statue in sandstone of the Great Elector and a fountain with 45 
statuettes, said to be portraits of the first French refugees who settled 
here. The garden is surrounded by handsome buildings, mainly 
university institutions, chief of which is the KolLegitnhaus, to the W. 
on the S. side of the garden, erected by Scharf in 1889. The stair- 
case, the aula, and the University Art Museum (plaster-casts, etc.), 
in the interior of the Kollegienhaus, deserve notice. On the N. side 
of the garden is the Botanic Garden, and farther on the Old Orangery, 
with the royal picture-gallery and the Theatre. — In the Altstadter 
Holzmarkt is a War Monument , in the Kaiser-*Wilhelm-Platz an 
Emp. William Memorial. 

Pleasant walks on the Rattberg (belvedere and restaurant), to the N.E., 
and the Burgberg, to the N. of the Altstadt, a spur of the Jura, at the foot 
of which a fair is held at Whitsuntide. On the W. slope, J /4 hr. from the 
Altstadt, is the Canal Monument, by Schwanthaler, erected by Ludwig I. in 
memory of the completion of the Lud wigs- Canal, with figures of the Danube 
and Main, Navigation and Commerce (Windmtihle garden-restaurant). 

Bkanch Railway (171/z H., in 2*/4 hrs.) to the E. to Grftfenberg (1245 ft. \ 
WeusesRou; Stadelmann), a little town with a Schloss, prettily situated at 
the foot of the Eberhartiberg, a fine point of view. (Entrance to Franconian 
Switzerland by the EglofftUin, p. 129, ii/ 2 hr. to the N.) — Another branch- 
railway runs to the W. from Erlangen to (J 1 1 2 M., in 37 min.) Herzogen- 
Aurach, near which is MUnch-Aurach, with an interesting church. 

Near (20872 M.) Eltersdorf, to the left, lies the chateau of Qross- 
griindlach (formerly the Himmelsthron Convent, burial-place of the 
'White Lady', p. 124). The line crosses the Ludwigs-Canal (p. 115) 
to (211 M.) Vach and then crosses the Regnitz. — Before reaching 
the bridge over the Rednitz it joins the Wurzburg rail way (see p. 100) ; 
to the right rises the Alte Veste (p. 154). — 215y 2 M. Furth, see 
p. 154. — 2I6V2M. Doos. 

220 M. Nuremberg, see p. 131. 

to Munich. SCHWABACH. 20. Route. 109 

The railway to Munich again crosses the Ludwigs-Canal, separ- 
ates from the Ansbach and Stuttgart line (on the right), and turns 
towards the S. — Beyond (225V2 M ReicheUdorf, with a large 
summer beer-garden, the Rednitz is crossed , 

230 M. Schwabach (1075 ft. ; Ooldner Engel, R. it/ 4 -18/ 4 J^ 
B. 60 pf.; Rose; Stern, unpretending), an old town with 10,300 in- 
habitants. The late-Gothic church of St. John, erected in 1469-95, 
contains a grand altar-piece with *Carving by Veit Stoss and paint- 
ings from Wohlgemuth studio (1507); in the Rosenberg chapel are 
paintings by Martin Schaffner (?; Virgin in a garland of roses) and 
others, and a Gothic ciborium, 42 ft. high, in the style of A. Krafft 
(1505), to whom a monument was erected in the church in 1889. 
(The sacristan lives in the Kirch-Platz, in a small house to the left 
of the bookseller's.) The Schone Brunnen in the market-place, 
erected in 1716, was restored in 1856. 'Schwabach type' is an old 
German text lately revived. The 'Articles of Schwabach' form the 
Protestant creed adopted in 1528-29. 

The railway ascends the valley of the Rednitz. — Near (236 M.) 
Roth-am-Sand (1 108 ft. ; Post) is the old chateau of Ratibor (1535). 

Feom Both -am -Sand to Gbedino, 24y 2 M., railway in 2 hrs. — The 
line leads through the Rot- Tal to EcJtertmilhlen and ft M.) Hilpoltstein 
(1266 ft.), a prettily situated little town with 1530 inhabitants. It then 
ascends circuitously through a wooded hill - country. Beyond (21 M.) 
Hbbing the train follows the valley of the Schwarzach to (2472 M.) Qreding, 
a pleasant village 5 M. to the W. of Beilngries (p. 100). 

About 6 M. to the W. of Roth (diligence twice daily in iy 2 hr.) lies 
Abenberg(1440ft.; Pott), a picturesque little town, with a restored chateau. 

A little farther on the Swabian and Franeonian Rezat unite to 
form the Rednitz. From (24i M.) Oeorgensgmund a branch-line 
leads in 25 min. to (4y 2 M.) Spalt (1170 ft.), a small town (1800 
inhab.) prettily situated on the Swabian Rezat, the birthplace of 
G. Spalatin (1484-1545), the friend of Luther and Melanchthon. — 
The line now ascends the course of the Swabian Rezat. 

247 M. Pleinfeld (1215 ft. ; Railway Restaurant) is the junction 
of the Augsburg and Nuremberg line (R. 27). On a wooded emin- 
ence to the E. rises Schloss Sandsee (1490 ft.), the property of 
Prince Wrede. — 250 M. Ellingen (Romischer Kaiser), an old town 
with 1700 inhab., formerly a commandery of the Teutonic Order, 
contains a large Chdteau of Prince Wrede, built by J. B. Neumann 
(p. 92), a handsome Rathaus of 1746, and other rococo edifices. 

253 M. Weissenburg-am-Sand (1330 ft.; *Rose, R. iy 2 -2 Jl, 
B. 70 pf., D. 1 Jl 80 pf. ; Post), a picturesque old town (6700 in- 
hab.) on the W. slope of the Franeonian Jura, was a free city of 
the empire from 1306 to 1806. We follow the Schanz-Str. and then 
the Spital-Str. (to the left), with the Spital-Tor, to the market- 
place, in which rises the handsome late -Gothic Rathaus (1476). 
About 100 paces to the right is the late-Gothic Carmelite Church « 
and 100 paces to the left the Church of St. Andrew (1466), with 
early-Gothic remains on the S. portal, etc. The adjacent EUinger* 

110 Route 2/. SCHWEINFURT. 

Tor has a well-preserved keep. The Roman Castrum, exhumed 
immediately behind the railway-station, and the Collection of Anti- 
quities in the grammar-school deserve notice. — On a mountain- 
spur 2V4 M. to the E. is the old fortress of Wulzburg (2060 ft. ; 
rfmts.), commanding a fine view of the town and its environs. 

256 M. Qronhard. To the right of the station is the Fossa Caro- 
lina, the remains of a canal begun by Charlemagne. 

268M. Treuchtlingen, the junction of the Wurzburg and Munich 
line, and thence to (343 M.) Munich, see pp. 182-184. 

21. From Wurzburg to Bamberg. Kissingen 

(Booklet, Briickemm). 

Expbkss to (62 M.) Bamberg in l*/ 4 -2 hrs. (fares 9 A 30, 6 A 60 pf.)-, 
ordinary train in 8 hw. (8 A 10, 5 A 40, 3 A 50 pf.). From Schweinfurt 
to Kissingen, see p. 111. 

Wurzburg 7 see p. 91. The Bamberg line runs E. to (5 M.) Rotten- 
dor/(p. 99), beyond which it turns towards the N.E. — 14 4 /2 M. 
Bergtheim (watershed, 994 ft.). — 20 M. Weigolshausen, where the 
direct line to Gemunden (p. 90) diverges (to the left Schloss Werneck, 
now a lunatic asylum). — 26y 2 M. Schweinfurt -Haupt-Bahnhof 
(Rail. Restaurant; tramway to the town), junction for the Gemunden 
(p. 90) and the Ritschenhausen and Kissingen lines (p. 111). 

To the S.E. of Weigolshausen, prettily situated on the Main, lies 
(5 1 /* M.) Ludwigsbad Wipfeld (Kurhau*, pens. 4 A), with sulphur-springs 
and peat -baths. Omnibus from Weigolshausen or Schweinfurt - Haupt- 
Bahnhof in lVs hr. \ one-horse carr. 41/2 A. 

28 M. Schweinfurt. — Hotels. *Rabe, R. iy 4 -2V*, B. 80 pf. 5 D. 2 A 
80 pf. ; *Kbone, R. iV«-8, B. «/ 4 -i, pens. 5-10 A; *Dkutsches Hads, R. iVr 
2Va •*, B. 60 70pf., D. 1 U* 60 pf.* Ross, R. 1-iV*, pen*. 3-4 .*. — Oaie- 
Restaurants. Victoria, Post. 

Schweinfurt (735 ft.), with 18,400 inhab., was a free town of the 
Empire until 1803. Engine-works, dye-works, sugar-factories, etc., 
flourish here, and a large cattle-market is held every fortnight. In 
the market-place is a *8tatue of Ruckert, the poet (1788-1866), by 
Thiersch and Ruemann. The house in which Ruckert was born, at 
the corner of the Ruckert-Str., is indicated by a relief. The hand- 
some Rathaus of 1570-72 contains the municipal library (over 
10,000 vols.) and the Museum of mediaeval art and historical relics 
(adm. 9-12 and 2-5). The Protestant church of St. Johann (recently 
restored) dates from the 14th century. The Old Gymnasium, or 
grammar-school, founded in 1631 by Gustavus Adolphus, now ac- 
commodates the Ruckert Museum, with mementoes of the poet; the 
new gymnasium lies to the N. of the town. War Monument for 
1870-71. Pleasant walks to the chief Reservoir of the water- works 
m (fine view), to the Wehrwaldchen, and to the Wilhelmsruhe (the latter 
" two on the left bank). On the (V4 hr.) Peterstime (N.E.) is a belve- 
dere built in 1872, with a collection of weapons and fresco-paintings. 

HASSFURT. 21. Route. Ill 

About V2 hr. farther on, on the W. side of the Hainwald, is a view- 
tower commanding an extensive panorama. — From Schweinfurt to 
Kitzingen see p. 100 j to Qemiinden, p. 90. 

The line follows the Main as far as Bamberg. On the hill to the 
left is the chateau of Mainberg. 31 Y2 M. Schonungen; 39 M. Ober- 
Theres. To the left rises the old chateau of Theres, founded as a seat 
of the Babenberg family before 900, converted into a monastery in 
1043, and dissolved in 1803. Adjacent is a modern chateau. 
, 42 M. Hassfart (740 ft. ; Post, R. 13/ 4 -2y 2 Jl, B. 60 pf. ; Rose\ 
an old town (2700 inhab.) with walls and massive gate -towers, 
possesses a fine Gothic chapel, the *Markn-KapelU or Ritter-KapelU 
(middle of 16th cent.), restored by Heideloff. On the outside of the 
choir is a triple row of the armorial bearings of the members of an 
ecclesiastical brotherhood of ntbles, founded in 1413, which con- 
tributed to the cost of building the chapel. Others are carved on the 
pillars and on the vaulting in the interior (in all 248). 

Branch Railway in 8/4 hr. to (9 1 /* M.) Hofheim, via (5 M.) K&nigsberg 
(Stern), in the Duchy of Coburg, with 860 inhab., birthplace of the famous 
mathematician Johann Miiller, surnamed Regiomontanus (1436-76), to whose 
memory a fountain was erected here in 1871. 

On a hill to the left of (46i/ 2 M.) Zcil, another walled town, rises 
the ruined fortress of Schmachtenberg, erected in 1438, destroyed by 
Albert of Brandenburg in 1552. On the left bank, opposite (49 V2 M 
EbeUbachj lies the small town of Eltmann, commanded by the an- 
cient watch-tower of the castle of Waldburg, a thousand years old. 
— 58 M. Oberhaid. To the right the towers of St. Michael's, the 
Altenburg, and lastly Bamberg with the four cathedral-towers be- 
come visible. The Main is then crossed. 

62 M. Bamberg, see p. 115. 

From Sohwbinfurt to Kissingen, 14 ! /2 M., railway in i/ 2 -l hr. 
— IV2M. Schweinfurt-Haupt-Bahnhof ($. 110). — 8y 2 M. Eben- 
hausen (Bahnhofs- Hotel, R. 1-1 1/2 *#)> where the line to Mei- 
ningen (p. 114) diverges. We skirt wooded hills, pass the ruin of 
Bodenlaube (p. 113), and enter the valley of (1472 M.) Kissingen. 

Kissingen and its Environs. 

Hotels. *Kuehads (PI. C, 3), with baths, R. from 31/2? pens, from IOV2 Jt > 
Hotel db Russib (PI. a 5 C, 4), R. from 4, pens, from 10 Jt; *H6tel Vic- 
tobia <fe Kaisebhop (PI. b; C, 4), R. 4-14, B. H/2, D. (t-30) 3»/2, S. 21/2.*; 
H6t.-Pe»s. Sannbb (PL d$ O, 6), R. from 3, B. I1/2, D. 31/2, pens, from 9 Jt ; 
all in the Kurhaus-Strasse. — *Englischbb Hof (PI. e j G, 0), Theater-Str., 
R. 21/2-6, B. 1 Jt ; *H6t. & Villa Diana, pens, from 10 Jt; *Bbistol (PI. i) ; 
•Mbtbopole (PL m), R.3-10, B. 11/4, pens. Vh-ibJt-, Schmitt-Hecht (PI. k), 
R. from 8 Jt, D. 21/2 Jt ; all on the opposite bank of the Saale (PL A, 8, 4) \ 
•Zapf (PI. 1; D, 4), at the station, R. 3-5, pens. 6-9 Jt. — Second-class: 
HdT. Wittelsbach (PI. f), R. from 2, B. 1, D. 2*/4 Jl; Hot.-Restaubant 
BCdel (PI. n; C, 3), Prinzregenten - Str. % R. 2-4, pens. 6V2-8 Jt; Pbeus- 
bibcheb Hop (PI. h), R. 2 -31/2, B. 1, D. 2V«, pens. 6V«-7V« Jt; Wubttbm- 
bbbgeb Hop (PL g) % ♦Centbal - Hotel (PL cj C, 3), all five in the town, 

112 Route 21. KISSINGEN. Kur-Garten. 

and open in winter also. Hot. Hebzfeld, Max-Str., Jewish. — Hotels 
Garnis: Grand Hdtel Garni, by the Kur-Garten. On the other side of the 
Saale: *Ftirstenhof, Dr. E dmund Diruf (Bismarckhaus , see below); Berg- 
/Schlosschen, on the Altenberg. In the town: Balling, with garden; Villa 
Elsa; Eerramhof\ Bauer; Fr. Weinberger ,. Ring-Str. 8 (PI. D, 4). In the 
Kurhaus-Str. : Villa Krampf; Hdtel Rieger, and many others. 

Restaurants. Casino (see below); Kursaal; Messerschmitt, near the 
Kur-Garten; Federbeck, Hartmann-Str.; Budel (p. ill); Fr&hling's-Garten, 
Theater-8tr. ; Restaurant -Hdtel Luitpold, Obere Markt-Str. ; Schweizerhaus 
(Pi. A, 2), Schweieerh&uschen, on the Altenberg (PI. A, 5); wine at Hoik'*, 
WeigancTs, Rheinische Wemhalle (D. l»/4 .40, Dauch^s, Karens, Frankuche 
WeinTialle, Ratskelkr, all in the market-place. 

Post ft Telegraph Office (PI. C, 2, 3), in the Ludwig-Strasse. 

Carriage with two horses to the salt-baths 1 Va Jt, to Bocklet (incl. fee) 13, 
Hammelburg 23, Brttckenau 30 JH; with one horse one-third less. 

Reading Rooms at the Casino by the royal Badhaus. 

Theatre (PI. C, 3), performances of operas and plays. 

Tax payable by patients whose stay exceeds a week : 30 JH for the 
head of a family, and- 10 JH for each additional person, or 20 and 6*l 1( 
or 10 and 8 JH respectively, according to the rank of the parties. Children' 
under fifteen and servants pay one-half less. 

Baths at the Kurhaus, at the Royal Badhaus (see below), and in the 
Salinen-BadeanstaU. — Pneumatic Institute (Dr. Dietz), with large inhaling- 
room, etc., Schloss-Str. 6. 

English Ohurch (PI. D, 1); service during the summer. 

Kissing tn (660 ft.), the most frequented watering-place in Ba- 
varia (5200 inhab.), lies picturesquely in the valley of the Frdnk- 
ische Saale, enclosed by wooded hills. The sanatory properties of 
the waters were known as early as the 16th cent., and the Prince 
Bishops of Wiirzburg took the place under their protection ; but at 
the beginning of the 19th century it was still a mere village. The 
growing repute of the springs and increasing number of visitors have 
now converted the place into a handsome and well-built little town, 
which is visited by over 25,000 patients annually, many of whom 
are English and Russians. 

The extensive Kur-Garten (PI. B, C, 3, 4) between the Kurhaus 
and Conversationssaal, the principal promenade, is embellished with 
a marble *Statue of King Lewis I., by Knoll (1891), a Hygieia im- 
parting to the Rakoczy and Pandur their healing influence, and a 
statue of King Maximilian II., both in marble, by Arnold, a native 
of the place. On the S. side, under an iron colonnade, are the chief 
drinking-springs, the Rakoczy (300,000 bottles of which are annually 
exported) and the Pandur, which is also used for baths. On the N. 
side is the Maxbrunnen, resembling Selters water. From 6 to 8 a.m., 
the hours for drinking the waters, the Kur-Garten presents a lively 
scene, .and a good band plays. From 5 to 7 p.m. the band again 
plays, and the fashionable world reassembles. 

Opposite the garden , on the right bank of the Saale , stands the 
Royal Badhaus (PI. B, 4), a large edifice of red sandstone, with two 
wings (left, baths for ladies; right, for gentlemen). Adjacent is the 
Casino, with reading-room, restaurant, etc. — A tablet on the 
house of Dr. Diruf, also on the right bank (PI. A, 3), con 
the attempted assassination of Prince Bismarek in : 

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Saline Springs. KISSINGEN. " 21. Route. 113 

Pretty walk, past the new Theatre, through the Von-der-Tann- 
Strasse and by the Stationsberg, or by the path (PI. D, 5) to the 
left, above the Hotel Zapf, to the ruins of (25 min.) Bodenlaube 
(1128 ft.), the N. tower of which commands a fine view (restaurant, 
below the ruin). We may return by the road leading through Unter- 
Bodenlauben, with its Interesting old lime-tree. Above the station, 
on the E., is the BaUings-Hain, with a monument to Dr. Balling 
(d.1875). Well-kept walks lead to the Lmdcs-Muhle (10 min. to the 
S.), the Altenberg (i/ 4 hr. to the S.W.), Qarilz (p. 90; 1/4 hr - to the 
S.W.) and the monastery of Aura (p. 90; H/4 hr. farther on), the 
Jagdhaus p/ 2 hr. to the N.W.), the Staffelshohe (1260 ft. ; 3/ 4 hr. to 
the N.W. ; fine view from the Ludwig Tower), the Kaskaden-Tal and 
Allenburger Haus (3/ 4 hr. to the N.), the Klaushof (Restaurant, with 
three beds), and the Klamhohe (1340 ft. ; 1-1 i U nr « > omn * ^ ve times 
every afternoon, 1 J(, there and back H/2 JV). 

On 10th July, 1866, Kissingen was the scene of a sharp engagement 
between the Prussians and Bavarians. The latter were, however, even- 
tually obliged to yield. Near the cemetery. V* M - from the Kur-Garten, is 
a handsome monument in memory of the fallen, by Arnold. 

The Saline Springs with the extensive evaporating-sheds, situat- 
ed on the Saale, 1^2 M - to the N,, are reached by walks on both 
banks. A small steamboat plies on the Saale to the springs every 
20 min. (fare 30, return -fare 50 pf.). A handsome bath-house 
(Salinenbad) has been erected over the ^Artesian Well, which is 
330 ft. in depth (containing two per cent of salt ; temperature 64° 
Fahr.) and frequently rises to a height of 10 ft. in its covered reser- 
voir. Beside it is a cafe-restaurant. Near it is a Statue of Prince 
Bismarck, who frequently visited the Obere Saline, l /^ M. farther on. 

At the village of Hansen, s/4 M. farther on, is the Bch5nbornsprudel, a 
shaft upwards of 2000 ft. in depth, by which it was intended to reach an 
extensive stratum of salt. The work has, however, been given up, as it * 
injured the other mineral springs at Kissingen. A square tower, 100 ft. 
in height, built over the shaft, is open to visitors from 4 to 6 p.m. 

Booklet (690 ft.), another watering-place with powerful chaly- 
beate springs and mud-baths (about 150 patients annually), is pret- 
tily situated on the Saale, 7 M. to the N. of Kissingen (diligence 
twice daily in 1 ^4 hr. ; fare 1 .40, * n a green valley surrounded by 
wooded hills. Rooms at the Kurhaus, in *Plank?s Inn, various villas 
(Arnold, Qleichmann), etc. Between the Kurhaus and the Badhaus 
with its Trinkhalle are pleasant grounds with fine old trees. 

*Schlou Asehaeh, on the Saale, «/ 4 M. to the S. of Bocklet, restored in 
the medieeval style, the property of Count Luxburg, contains a collection 
of old goblets, carving, etc. (fee). — Attractive excursion through the Saale- 
tal to (9 H.) Neustadt (p. 114). 

The third of these Franconian baths (18 l /2 M. from Kissingen ; 
diligence twice daily from the station in 5hrs. ; fare 3 M 30 pf.) is — 

Bad Bruckenau. — Hotels. *Rotal Kur-Ho*el, R. l 3 /4-4, pens. 5y 2 - 
8 U* ; •Schloss-Hotel, R. tV2-8V2 .*, B. 90 pf.. 1). 2 M 40 pf., pf n«. 5«/2-7 A; 
*HdT. Fogleik, R. from 1 M 20, D. 1 Jt 80 pf.j Baybischer Hof; Villa 
Knell; Villa Heil; Sinntalhof. 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 10th Edit. g 

114 Route 21. BRUCKENAU. 

Bad Bruckenau (985 ft.) lies in the grassy yalley of the Sinn, 
enclosed by wooded hills, 2 M. to the W. of the little town of Brucke- 
nau (Post). Handsome Kursaal in the Italian style, built in 1827-33, 
with restaurant. In front is a seated bronze *Statue of King Louis I., 
by Ferd. von Miller (1897). The Stahl, Wernarzer, and Sinnbcrgcr 
Springs, impregnated with carbonic acid, are beneficial in cases of 
poverty of blood, gout, kidney disease, etc. About 3400 patients 
annually. Visitors' tax (for more than a week's stay) 16 M, members 
of a family 5 Jl each. 

Beautiful walks in the environs. Shady paths with views (Ludwigs- 
Platz, Washington- Platz , AmaUenruhe, etc.) lead to the N. through the 
Harthwald to (IV2 hr.) Kloster Volkersberg; to the W. to (2 hrs.) Sehwarzen- 
fels, with its old castle ; to the S. by the Sinnberg to the (2 hrs.) Drei- 
stelzberg (2165 ft.), with belvedere tower. — Finest of all the excur- 
sions is the ascent of the Kreuzberg (3060 ft.), the highest but one of the 
BMn Mts., crowned with a Franciscan monastery (to the N.E., 4 hrs.). Road, 
following the Sinn, as far as (J}h'M..) WUdflecken; thence to the top (with 
guide) in H/2 hr. Extensive view of N. Franconia as far as the Fichtel- 
Gebirge, and W. as far as the Taunus. The hills around Wurzburg and 
the Steigerwald close the view towards the S., and the Thuringian Forest 
and the hills of Fulda to the N. — For details of the Bhon district see 
Baedeker's Northern Germany. 

From Bruckenau to Jossa, IOV2 M., local railway in 1 hr. (fares 1 Jd, 
65 pf.)- Stations: Stadt BrUckenau (see above): iy 4 M. Sinnthalhof (see 
p. 118); l 8 /« M. Bad BrUckenau (see above). Then along the Sinn, via 
Eckarts, Zeitlofs, and AUengronau to (IO1/2 M.) Jossa (p. 90). 

From. Kissingen to Meiningen, 46 M., railway in ca. 3 hrs. — 6V2 M. 
Ebenhausen (p. Ill); the line diverges here to the N. from the Schweinfurt 
railway, and leads via (972 H.) Rottershausen (branch-line to Stadtlauringen, 
lO'/s M.) to (15 M.) Munnerstadt (*Frankiseher Ho/; Qreif; good wine at 
Wittwe DdmUeVs), a neat little town (2200 inhab.) on the Lauer> with old 
gate-towers and an interesting church in the transition style. The church 
contains fragments of an altar-piece, carved by T. Biemenschneider in 
1493-92. — l&Vt M. Niederlauer. — 2I1/2M. Neustadt (*Goldner Mann, B. I1/2- 
2 A; Schwan A Post; Lowe), an antiquated town of 2200 inhab., prettily 
situated high above the Baale and enclosed by a wall with lofty towers. 
On the hill to the E. is 0/2 hr.) the * Salzburg, an ancient palace in the 
Romanesque style, said to have been built before Charlemagne, now one 
of the largest ruins in Germany. At the foot of the hill lies Bad Neuhaus 
(Kurhaus), with salt and carbonic acid springs. 

[Feom Neustadt to Bischofsheim, 12 M., local railway in l 1 /* hr. — 
The line traverses the wooded Brendtal, passing Brendlorenzen (with a 
venerable church, said to have been erected by King Carloman in 770), 
Schonau, and Wegfurt. Bischofsheim *vor der Bh5n' (RMnlust; Stern; Lowe), 
an ancient town with 1350 inhab., lies at the N. foot of the Kreuzberg (see 
above), which may be ascended hence via Haselbach in l 3 A-2 hrs.] 

|Feom Neustadt to Konigshofen, 1472 M. , local railway in 173 hr., 
through the attractive valley of the Frankische Saale via HoUetadt, WMfers- 
haiuen, Saal, KUin-Eibstadt, and Gross-Eibstadt. — K6nigshofen (Schlundham) 
in the Grab/eld is a quaint old town with 1800 inhab., a late-Gothic Bat- 
haus with a Benaissance oriel, and a late-Gothic church with good sculp- 
tures and a curious double winding stair.] 

A little beyond Keustadt the line quits the Saale-Tal and turns to the 
left into the valley of the Siren. Stations: Heustreu; Unsleben; Mellrich- 
stadt, with an old church disfigured by restoration. 3672 M. RentwerU- 
hausen. The train here crosses the low watershed between the Saale and 
the Werra, and descends to (41 M.) Ritechenhaueen and (46 M.) Meiningen 
(see Baedeker's Northern Germany). 

From Kissingen to Gemiinden via Hammelburg, see p. 90. 

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22. Bamberg. 

Hotels. Bamberger' Hof (PI. a ; B, 2), Gruner Markt 25, R. 27s-4Vz, 
B. 1, D. (I p.m.) 2»/2 J* ; Belusvub (PI. e; C, 8), Sch6nleins-Platz 4. — Daai 
Kkokkn (PI. A; B, 3), Lange-Str. 12-14, R. 2i/*-3, B. 1, D. (12.30) 2\' 2 M; 
Eillakgee Hof (PI. c; C, 1), Laitpold-Str. 51, near the station, B. lV2-2'/v, 
B. */u D. 2Va Mi Dbctschbs Haus (PL b* 0, 2), Obere Konig-Str. 4, R. ii/ 4 - 
1V«, D. IV4 A; H6t.-Bjsstauiu.nt Luitpold, Lnitpold-Str. 11. — Pennon 
Altenbura (p. 120). 

Restaurants. Wins : Messerschmitt, corner of the Langen-Str. and Pro- 
menaden-Str. (PI. C, 3); Ratskeller, Kessler-Str. 19 (PL B, C, 2, 8). — Bkkb: 
Deutsche* Haus, see above ; Munchener ifo/, Hauptwach-Str. 4 (PL C, 2) ; 
Sehdnlein^ Friedrich Str. 6 (PL C,3); Cafi Monopoly at the Sophien-Briicke 
(PL C, 2)^ Theater-Restaurant, Schiller-Platz 7* Villa Remeis, with view 
(p. 119). — Bekb Gardens : Hofbriiukeller, Polarbdr> on the Stephansberg ; 
others on the Eaulberg and Jakobsberg, some with fine views. — Cafe: 
Schuberth, Promenaden-Str. 13 (PL C, 2). 

Cab into the town, with one horse 75 pf., with two horses l ! /s Jf; 
to the Jakobsberg 1 or 2 UK, to the Michaelsberg V/2 or 2 x liJl; to the 
Altenbarg 6 A (two horses). Within the town : V* nr « °U P f « or 1 J(. 
1/2 hr. 1 or2uT, 1 hr. 2 or 3uSf. 

Eleetrie Tramways (comp. the Plan ; fare 10 pf.). From the Infantry 
Barracks (PL E, 1) via the Podeldorfer-Str., Railway Station, and Haupt- 
wach-Str. to theKaulberg. — From the Railway Station via the Luitpold-8tr. 
and Sophien-Str. to the 8chweinfurter-Str. (PL A, 1). — From the Hain Str. 
via the Grime Markt to the Hallstatter-Str. (PL B, 1). 

Post Office (PL C, 3), Schiller-Plate. — Telegraph Office (PL 10? B, 3), 
at the lower bridge. 

Baths at the Siadlbad, Geiersworth-Str. 3; swimming baths at the There- 
sienhain (p. 120), above the town. 

American Consul, William Bar del, Esq. 

Principal Attractions (5-6 hrs.) y Rathaus; Cathedral; Palace $ Michaels- 
berg with the abbey-garden; Obere Pfarrkirche; Altenburg ; Theresienhain \ 
through the Hain Str. and across the Schonleins-Platz back to the station. 

Bamberg (785 ft.) , a town with 45,300 iuhab., lies in a very 
fertile district on both banks of the Regnitz (here separated into 
several branches), at its junction with the Ludwigs- Canal (connect- 
ing the Main and the Danube, little used) and 3 M. above its con- 
fluence with the Main. The town already enjoyed municipal privi- 
leges in 973, was erected into a bishopric by Emp. Henry II. in 
1007, and since 1802 has belonged to Bavaria. About half of the 
town is built upon a chain of hills, crowned with churches. Busy 
industries have sprung up here of late years (cotton-spinning, weav- 
ing, rope-making, brewing, etc.). 

The Luitpold-Strasse leads from the station to the town (to the 
cathedral V/ 2 M.). In the St, Gangolphs-Platz, on the left, is the 
church of St. Oangolph (PI. 0, 1, 2), founded in 1063, originally 
Romanesque, with a Gothic choir, but disfigured by alterations. 

The E. branch of the Regnitz is crossed by three bridges, the 
8ophien-Bruekc (PL C, 2; 1867), the Luitpold- Briickc (PI. D, 3), 
and the Ludwigs- Briickc (PI. 0, 2). The chief traffic crosses the last, 
from which the Hauptwach-Strasse leads to the S. to the Maximilians- 
Platz and the Grune Markt. 

In the Maximilian s-Platz (PI, B, C, 2), on the right, is the 
PriesUr-Seminar (PI. 3). In the centre rises the imposing Maximilian 


116 Route 22. BAMBERG. Rathaus. 

Fountain (PI. 13), executed in 1880 by Miller of Munich, with 
bronze statues of Maximilian I. of Bavaria, Emp. Henry II., his wife 
Kunigunde, Bishop Otho the Saint, and King Conrad III. 

Farther on is the GrCnb Markt (PL B, 2, 3), where the well- 
stocked vegetable-market is held in the forenoon. On the right is 
the church of. St. Martin (PI. 1), designed by Andr. Pozto in the 
baroque style in 1686-1720; the tower, 180 ft. high, affords a good 
survey of the town. Adjoining the church is the Royal Lyceum (PI. 4 ; 
with the philosophical and theological faculties), formerly a uni- 
versity and Jesuit college. The entrance, Jesuiten-Str. % leads into 
a court, in the arcades at the back of which are the entrances to the 
hinder Cabinet of Natural History (on the right; parties conducted 
at 10 & 11 on Sun. ; gratuity) and to the *Boyal Library (PI. 5, B 2 ; 
on the left). The latter, formed by the union of the Jesuits' library 
with collections from several convents, now contains ca. 300,000 vols., 
3000 incunabula, and 4500 MSS. Librarian, Joh. Fischer, 

The library is open daily (except Sun., holidays, and Sat. afternoons), 
9-12 and 2-4; during the summer-holidays (16th Aug. -15th Oct.) visitors are 
admitted from 11 to 12. Some of its most interesting contents are exhibited 
under glass in the principal hall (open in summer 10-12) : fine parchments 

from the library bequeathed by the Emp. Henry II. to the chapter of Bam- 
■" a6th( ........ ...,-...-..., 

...""' "~ iryll. 
gunde, with fine Byzantine ivory diptychs of the 11th cent. \ also numerous 

berg (from the 6th cent, onwards), including the so-called * Bible of Alcuin, 
probably written at Tours ; prayer-books of Henry II. and his wife Kuni- 

miniatures, rare printed works, interesting drawings, water-colours, etc. 

The Grune Markt, in which rises the Neptune Fountain ('Gabel- 
mann'; PI. 14), erected in 1698, and the Obstmarkt lead to the 
Obere Brucke (PI. B, 3), a bridge over the left arm of the Regnitz, 
completed in 1455, with a stone Crucifix of 1715. On an artificial 
island halfway across stands the Rathaus (PI. 7), rebuilt in 1744- 
56, and adorned externally with allegorical frescoes. The old tower 
covering the entrance to the bridge is adorned with rococo balconies. 
— A little lower down (right) is the Untere Brucke, an iron bridge 
constructed in 1858. Above (left) is another iron bridge crossing 
from the right bank to the Gciersworth, an island with an old epis- 
copal palace, now municipal offices. The two chief bridges afford 
fine views of the river and the picturesque houses on its banks. — 
From the Upper Bridge the Karolinen-Str. ascends to the Kabo- 
linbn-Platz, a square enclosed by the cathedral, the old palace, 
and the new palace. At the E. end of the cathedral stands a good 
bronze equestrian statue of Prince-Regent Luitpold (1899), designed 
by Miller. In front of the old palace is a bronze statue of Franz 
Ludwig von Erthal (d. 1797 ; PL 15), the meritorious prince-bishop, 
by Widnmann (1865). 

The "Cathedral (PI. B, 3) with its four handsome and con- 
spicuous towers, one of the grandest Romanesque edifices in Ger- 
many (312 ft. long, 93 ft. wide, and 86 ft. high), was founded by 
Emp. Henry II. in 1004. The original building was a flat-roofed 
basilica, but in its present form it dates from the close of the 12th 

Cathedral. BAMBERG. 22. Route. 117 

and the "beginning of the 13th century. A consecration is mentioned 
in 1237. The four eight-storied towers are 265 ft. in height; the 
two at the E. end are in pure Romanesque , hut the open-work 
turrets on the "W. towers reveal the influence of the early French- 
Gothic style, which is also apparent in the W. choir and the transept 
in front of it. The *Sculptures are among the hest examples of Ger- 
man plastic art between the late-Romanesque and the early-Renais- 
sance periods. Gomp. also p. zix. 

The sculptures on the recessed Principal Pobtal (Fiirstentilr ; 27. W., 
facing the Karolinen-Plata), which resembles the 'Goldene Pforte' of Frei- 
berg Cathedral, represent the Last Judgment (above the architrave), the 
Apostles standing on the shoulders of the Prophets, and symbolical figures 
of Church (1) and Synagogue (r ; the last with its eyes bandaged). The 
two smaller portals to the right and left of the E. Choib, approached by 
a flight of steps, are also embellished with sculptures: on the S.B. portal 
(the 'marriage-door'), the usual entrance to the cathedral, are figures of 
Adam and Eve, S3. Peter and Stephen, and the Emp. Henry II. and his 
consort Kunigunde; the U.E. door (the 'Mother of God' or 'Grace' door) 
has fine columns with elaborate capitals ; above the architrave, the Virgin 
worshipped by saints. 

The 'Interior (open 5.30-12 and from 2 till the evening-service) was 
restored by King Lewis I. in 1828-37. (The sacristan, who shows the choirs, 
crypt, and treasury, lives to the 8. of the W. choir by which we enter 
the church; fee »/rl UK.) 

In the centre of the Nave is the * Sarcophagus of the founder Henry II. 
(d. 1024) and his consort Eunigunde (d. 1068), executed, in a fine-grained 
limestone resembling marble, by Tilman Riemenschneider (p. 95). On the 
highly ornate sarcophagus repose the emperor and empress, over lifesixe, 
in the fantastic costumes of the 15th century. The reliefs on the sides re- 
present Bcenes from their lives: 1. The Empress proves her innocence by 
walking over red-hot ploughshares*, 2. She deals with a request for higher 
wages from the workmen who erected the church founded by her ; 3. The 
Emperor cured of an illness by St. Benedict*, 4. The Archangel Michael 
weighing the soul of the Emperor; 5. Death of the Emperor. 

By the pillar to the left of the approach to the St. George's or E. Choir 
is an Equestrian Figure of Emp. Conrad III., who died at Bamberg in 1152 
and was buried in the cathedral (or perhaps of Stephen, King of Hungary, 
who is said to have been baptized here). — The stone screens separating 
the E. choir from the aisles are adorned with interesting sculptures, twelve 
reliefs representing the Apostles and Prophets (in pairs) and the Annun- 
ciation, all of the loth cent, and clearly revealing French influence-, between 
these, on the N. side, are three fine statues (Madonna, Sibyl, an angel). 
Adjacent is the monument of the last prince-bishop (d. 1808). — The E. 
Choir contains, on the right, the monument of the prince-bishop George II. 
(d. 1505), from Peter Vischer's studio, and the sarcophagi of Bishop Otho II. 
(d. 1196; Romanesque) and Bishop GUnther (d. 1066; 13th century). The 
figure of Christ, in bronze, over the altar, was designed by Schwanthaler, 
as were also the 22 reliefs of saints on the altar. The choir-stalls are 
modern. — The Crypt, below the E. choir, is severely Romanesque; the 
vaulting is borne by 14 round and octagonal columns. It contains the 
simple sandstone sarcophagus of Emp. Conrad III. and a well. 

In the St. Peter's or W. Choir is the low marble sarcophagus of Pope 
Clement II. (d. 1047), once Bishop of Bamberg, with reliefs probably of 
the 13th century. On the walls are the monuments of the prince-bishops 
Sehawnburg (d. 1475), Gross- Troekau (d. 1501), Pommersfelden (d. 1503), 
the last two being from Peter Vischer's studio, and George III. of Lim- 
burg (d. 1522), by Loyen Hering, in marble. The choir-stalls are of the 
Gothic period. 

In the 8. Transept, to the left of the W. choir , is an ivory crucifix 
said to date from the 4th cent., and presented to the church by Emp. 

118 Route 22. BAMBERG. MichaeUherg. 

Henry II. in 1008. — The two doors in the S. transept (when closed opened 
by the sacristan) lead to the sacristy and to the Nagel-Kapkllk (Chapel 
of the Nail), added in the 15th cent., which contains 64 monumental 
brasses of canons (16-17th cent.), a carved reredos of the 15th cent., and 
an Entombment after Ann. Carracci ; it is divided into two aisles by three 
columns and two pillars. The adjacent Antonics-Kapelle contains an 
altar-piece by Lucas Cranaeh the Elder representing the Madonna with the 
rosary, with saints and portraits of Emp. Max I., Pope Leo X., and other 
princes of that period. — The Treasury contains, among other curiosities, 
a nail of the True Gross in a mounting of the 15th cent., the skulls of 
Emp. Henry II. and Eunigunde, the Emperor's crown, his sword, mantle, 
drinking-horn, and knife, combs of the Empress, a chasuble embroidered 
by her, the enamelled head of St. Otho's crozier, and a tall Romanesque 
candlestick in bronze. 

From the cathedral we may cross over to the Obere Pfarrtirche (p. 119) 
in 2 min., through the 'Vordere and Hintere Bach\ 

The "W. side of the Karolinen-Platz is bounded l>y the pictur- 
esque Alte HofhaUung or Alte Resident: (PI. A, B, 3), with a lofty 
gable and handsome jutting window and portal (by which the quaint 
and roomy court is entered), built in 1591 on the site of an older 
palace of the Counts of Babenberg, in which King Berengarius II. 
of Italy died in captivity in 966, and Count Palatine Otho of Wittels- 
bach slew Emp. Philip of Swabia in 1208. 

The N. and half of the E. side of the Karolinen-Platz are occu- 
pied by the Neue Besidenz (adm. 10-11 and 2-4; on Sun. and 
holidays 10.30-12 and 2-3; 50 pf.), or New Palace, erected by 
Bishop von Schonborn in 1698-1704. Here, on 6th Oct., 1806, Na- 
poleon issued his declaration of war against Prussia. From 1806 to 
1837 this palace was the residence of Duke "William of Bavaria, 
father-in-law of the French Marshal Berthier, Prince of Neuchatel. 
On 1st June, 1815, the marshal, whose mind had been unhinged 
by the return of Napoleon from Elba, threw himself from one of the 
windows on the E. side and was killed. Ex-King Otho of Greece 
(d. 1867) and his wife Amelia (d. 1875) lived and died here. 

The Obere Karolinen-Strasse, between the two palaces, leads from 
the Karolinen-Platz to the Jakobsberg and the St. Jakobs-Kirche 
(PI. A, 3), a flat-roofed Romanesque church of the 11th cent., with a 
Gothic W. choir and an E. choir which was transformed in 1771 into 
a rococo facade, all recently tastefully restored. 

A little to the N. of St. Jakob's is the Michaelsberger-Str., by 
which we ascend to the *Michaelsberg (PI. A , 2), with its con- 
spicuous church and other buildings of a Benedictine abbey founded 
by Emp. Henry H. The court, which we enter by the W. gateway, 
affords a good picture of a medieval convent on a large scale, though 
most of the present buildings date only from 1724. 

A staircase ascends to the Church of St. Michael, a Roman- 
esque edifice of the 12th cent., with Gothic additions, restored in 
1722-23 in the baroque style, and recently entirely renovated in the 
interior j it has two towers. 

The Interior contains many monuments of bishops (16-18th cent.), 
Of little artistic value, transferred hither from the cathedral. Behind the 

Museum. BAMBERG. 22. Route. 119 

Otto-altar, at tbe end of the nave, in a sort of crypt, is that of St. Otho 
(d. 1139), dating from the 14th cent. *, at the back is a painted statue of 
the saint, probably a relic of an earlier monument. The altar contains 
his pastoral staff, mitre, and chasuble. Handsome rococo choir* stalls of 
the 18th century. 

The S.E. wing of the abbey-building now contains tbe 'Museum' 
or Municipal Gallbry op Art (open on Sun., 10-12, free ; week- 
days, all day except 12-1, adm. 60 pf. ; catalogue 1 Jf). 

The Picture Gallery begins to the right of the entrance. Boom I. 
Portraits. — R. II. Handsome tapestry of the end of the 15th cent., with 
scenes from the Passion. — B.III. Works by early masters; miniatures. 
— B. IV. German Masters of 1580-1780. — B. VIII. Model of the cathe- 
dral. — B. VII. Small art-objects. — BB. X, XI. Early-German Masters: 
paintings by M. Wohlgemuth Hans von Kulmbach, Hans Baldung Grien, 
B. Slrigel, H. SchSufelein, Lucas Cranaeh the Elder (57. 88. Willibald and 
Walburg adored by Bishop Eib of Eichstatt), and others. — B. XII. con- 
tains pictures by Italian masters (1450-1680). — R. XIII. Works by Ribera 
and other Spanish painters. — BR. XIV, XV, XVI. Dutch and Flemish 
Masters of the 16th and 17th centuries. — B. XVII. French School. — 
R.XVI1I. Heller Collection: 322. A. Dilrer, Head of St. Paul, a study. — 
RR. XIX-XXVIH. contain modern works. — The following rooms contain 
the Ethnographical Collection, the most interesting objects in which are 
those from Japan. — On the ground-floor is the Collection of Prehistoric 
Objects of the historical society. — In the W. wing of the abbey is the 
Library of the Historical Society. 

On tbe W. side of tbe church is tbe old abbey, now tbe Burger- 
spital or poor-bouse. To tbe left are tbe secular buildings, now a 
brewery and restaurant. Passing tbe terrace of the restaurant, we 
reach tbe Monastery Garden, laid out in tbe early 18th cent., where 
an avenue of limes affords charming *Views of tbe town (cafe*, much, 
frequented in the afternoon). 

From the Michaelsberg we may go to the W., past tbe little 
church of St. Qetreu and the Lunatic Asylum (PI. 8), to the Villa 
Remeis, now the property of the town, which commands a fine 
panorama (restaurant). — From the St. Jakobs-Kirche the Aufsess- 
Str., Elisabeth-Str., and Obere Sand-Str. descend to the Untere 
Brucke, passing a series of Stations of the Cross, by a sculptor not 
much inferior to Adam Krafft. 

To the W. of the Upper Bridge (p. 116), at the corner of the 
Karolinen-Str. , the Lugbank ascends to the left to the Pfahl-Platz 
and the Kaulberg. On the Untere Kaulberg, to the left, stands the 
Gothic *Obere Pfarrkirche zu Unserer Lieben Frauen (PI. 2; B, 3), 
erected in 1320-87, rebuilt in the baroque style in the 18th cent., 
but of late thoroughly restored. Good wood-carving by Veit Stoss 
(1523) behind the high-altar, in the passage round the Gothic choir. 
On the W. side is the Ehetiir ('wedding-gate') , with an elegant 
porch borne by two slender columns and containing figures of the 
Wise and Foolish Virgins. 

From the Pfahl-Platz (see above) we may go to the S. through 
the Alte Juden-Str., which contains the former Prell'sche Haus 
(No. 14), in the richest baroque style, to the Concordia, a pictur- 
esque building on the river, with terraces, by J. B. Neumann of 

120 Route ??. BAMBERG. 

"Wurzburg (p. 92). We then ascend the Stephansberg, with its beer- 
gardens among the rocks, to the Observatory ( < Sternwarte , * ) PL B, 4), 
with its two towers (fine view). It was built with a bequest of the 
late Dr. Remeis (p. 119) and possesses the largest heliometer in 
Europe (director, Dr. Ernst Hartwig). 

Beautiful walk up the Kaulberg, past the former Carmelite Con- 
vent (PL A, 4; fine cloisters with fantastic capitals and Roman- 
esque portal), then down a little to the right, and lastly to the left 
(blue notice-boards) straight up the hill to the (40 min.) *Alten- 
burg (1265 ft.). The castle, probably founded in the 10th cent., 
was a stronghold of the prince-bishops from 1251, and was destroyed 
in 1553 by Margrave Albert of Bayreuth, but afterwards partly re- 
stored. The new building of 1902 is occupied by a hotel-restau- 
rant. Fine view from the tower (162 steps ; afternoon light best). 
The chapel, restored in 1834, contains monuments of the 16th cent, 
and old stained glass. 

The *Theresienhain and Luisenhain (PL C, 4), with their -pro- 
menades skirting the Regnitz for l*/ 2 M., afford pleasant walks, 
especially along the embankment beside the river (bathing-establish- 
ments). They are reached from the new town in 10-15 min. via the 
Sophien-Brucke, the Sophien-Str., the Schonleins-Platz, and the 
Hain-Str. ; and from the old town via the Geiersworth-Str. and the 
Muhlendamm. Near the centre of the park is a cafe*, and there is 
another at the end of it, 2 M. from the town, in the little village 
of Bug (pron. 'book'). — On the right bank of the Regnitz, to the 
S. of the station, lies the suburb of Wunderburg, with its extensive 

Interesting excursion to Bant and Vierzehnheiligen, see p. 106. — Fran- 
conian Switzerland, see R. 24. 

Abont 8 H. to the V.E. of Bamberg lies Peulendorf (1810 ft.), with 
the large episcopal hunting-seat of Oiech, now a Eurhaus (pens, from 
5 Jt) frequented in summer. Excursions may be made hence to the ruin 
of Oiech (1745 ft.), on a steep hill; to Weingarten and the pilgrimage-chapel 
of GUgel; to PUntztndorf and the PUnlzendorfer Felsen; and to the Statnm- 
berg (1836 ft.), a plateau with a forester's house (rftnta.; views). A day 
may be pleasantly spent by proceeding from Bamberg towards the E., via 
Kunigundenruhe, POdeldorf, Litzendorf, and Lohndorf to the Stammberg, 
descending by Peulendorf to Schesslitz (Schwan), and taking the diligence 
thence back to (2 hrs.) Bamberg. 

From Bamberg to Leipzig via Hof or via Probttzella, see R. 20; to 
Nuremberg and Munich, see R. 20; to WUrzburg, see R. 21. 

23. From Neuenmarkt to Weiden vi& Bayreuth. 
The Fichtel-Gebirge. 

49 M. Railway to (13 M.) Bayreuth in i/HA hr. ; from Bayreuth to (36 M.) 
Weiden in l*/4-2 hrs. Express from Bayreuth to Munich, 6 hrs. 

Neuenmarkt -Wirsberg, see p. 105. — 3 M. Trebgast, on the 
Weisse Main. — 10^2 M. Bindlaeh has a tasteful church, illustrating 
the transition from the rococo to the classical style. Near Bayreuth 

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BAYREUTH. 23. Route. 121 

the Wagner Theatre (p. 122) and the large lunatic asylum on the 
right are conspicuous. The suburb- of St. Qeorgen (p. 123) is passed. 
At the station is a large cotton-factory. 

13 M. Bayreuthi — Rail. Restaurant. — Hotels. *Reichsadler 
(PI. b ; B, 4), Maximilian-Str., R. 2-3 M, B. 80 pf. \ *Goldknke Ankeb (PI. d \ 

C, 4), Opern-Str. \ *Post (PI. g$ C, 8), opposite the station, B. li/a-2, B. ty 4 , 

D. 11/2 JH\ Bahnhop-Hotel (PI. c; C, 3), R. iyt-WhJt; Schwarzbs Ross 
(PL e; B, 4), Ludwig-Str. ; Traube (PI. f $ C, 4), Richard-Wagner-Strasse 11, 
R. I-IV2 -#• — During the "Wagner Performances all prices are raised. 
Rooms may be advantageously obtained through the 4 Wohnungs-Comite'\ 

Restaurants. Feslspielhaus, D. iyt-WhJl; Riebenstahl, opposite the Villa 
Wahnfried (see below) tasteful rooms, charges rather high ; these two open 
during the Wagner Performances only. — Beeb at the BahnTiof, Post, and 
Schwarze* Rots Hotels ; Vogel^ Luitpold-Platz 11 ; Ratskeller, at theW. end of 
the Maximilian-Str. ; Kolbthannickel, Luitpold-Platz ; Eule, Kirchgasse. — 
Wine. Baierlein, Luitpold-Platz 2 (PI. B, 4); Parsifal, Maximilian-Str. 15; 
Barenhauter, Bad Str. 8 (PI. C, 4). — Cafes. Ca/4 Sammet, Harmonie-Briicke, 
with the 'Wagner Room 1 and garden; Cafi Hahsburg, Luitpold-Platz, etc. 
— Restaurant in the Rbhrensee-Anlagen (PI. B, 5). 

Baths. Bad Rosenau, Stadtische Bade- und -Schivimmanstali, both in 
the Bade-Strasse. 

Post ft Telegraph Office (PI. B, 4) in the Eanzlei-Str. and (PI. G, 8) at 
the railway-station. 

Cabs. Per drive in the town ( l A hr.) , with one horse, 1-2 pers. 40, 
34 pers. 60 pf. ; with two horses 50 or 75 pf. To the Wagner Theatre 
2 «#, with two horses 3 JH ; to the Burgerreut, Rollwenzelei, Oberkonners- 
reut, or Geigenreut (a dairy adjoining the Fantaisie Park) 2 or 3 Jt ; to 
the Eremitage 3 or 4-5 JL ; to the Fantaisie 4-6 UP. Gratuities included in 
these fares. 

Porter in the town or to the station, for 33 lbs. 15 pf., for 110 lbs. 20 pf. 

Bayreuth (1120 ft.), with 32,000 inhab., the capital of Upper 
Franconia, residence of the Margraves of Brandenburg -Kulmbach 
from 1603 to 1769, and Bavarian since 1810, is mainly indebted for 
its present appearance to Margrave Christian (d. 1655), who trans- 
ferred his seat from Kulmbach hither, to George William (d. 1726), 
and to Frederick (d. 1763), husband of Wilhelmine, the talented 
sister of Frederick the Great. Under the last-named prince many 
handsome freestone buildings were erected. 

At the end of the street ascending to the right as we quit the 
station is seen the Richard Wagner Theatre ('Festspielhaus j p. 122). 
To the left the Bahnhof-Str. and the Ludwigs-Briicke (1905) lead 
to the Luitpold-Platz, in which (to the right) rises the former Palace 
of Duke Alexander of Wurtemberg (PI. 5; No. 16). Farther on, to 
the left, is the Opern-Strasse, with the Opera House (PI. C, 4), a 
sumptuous building erected by Margrave Frederick in 1748, and 
richly decorated in the interior in the rococo style. At the end of 
the Opern-Str. is the Maximilian-Platz, whence the Maximilian-Str. 
diverges to the W., the Ludwig-Str. to the S., the Bad-Str. and the 
Richard -"Wagner - Str. to the E. The House of Richard Wagner, 
Richard-Wagner-Strasse 48, built in 1873-74 by Wolfel, bears the 
inscription : 'Hier wo mein Wahnen Frieden fand, Wahnfried sei 
dieses Haus von mir benannt'. Above is a sgraffito by Krausse, 
representing Wotan as a wanderer. In front of the house is a bust 

122 Route 23. BAYREUTH. From Neucnmarkt 

of King Louis II. Wagner (d. 1883) is buried in the garden. At 
the corner of Wahnfried-Str. and Liszt-Str., to the S.E. of the Villa 
Wahnfried, is the house in which Franz Liszt died in 1886. 

The Ludwig-Str. (see p. 121) leads to the Residenz-Platz , in 
which is the New Palace (PI. 9), now a royal residence, erected in 
1754-73 in the baroque style. The left wing now contains the 
picture-gallery of the Kunst-Verein and the collections of the 
Historical Society (shown on application). The Palace Garden and 
Park, laid out in the French style, are used as public promenades 
(military band on Sun. and holidays). The large Fountain in front 
of the Palace bears an equestrian Statue of Margrave Christian 
Ernest (d. 1712), a marshal in the imperial service, erected in 1700. 
The new building opposite the palace contains the District Govern- 
ment Offices (PL B, 4). 

At the S. end of the Ludwig-Strasse rises Schwanthaler's Statue 
of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter (d. 1825 ; PL 2) whose house is in 
the Friedrich-Strasse (No. 5). 

From the N. end of the Friedrich-Str. the Kanzlei-Str. leads to 
the right to the Maximilian-Str. and the old palace. The Gothic 
Stadt-Pfarrkirche (Prot. ; PL 7), built in 1439-46, contains several 
pictures by Aug. Heinr. Riedel, a native of Bayreuth (incl. Peter 
healing the lame, 1829). Beneath the church is the Furstengruft, 
in which most of the princes from the 17th to the 18th cent, are 

The Old Palace (PL 8), begun in 1454, burned down in 1758, and 
soon after rebuilt, is now occupied by public offices. The octagonal 
Tower in the inner court (1603), with a spiral staircase and fine 
balustrade, affords a good survey of the town and environs; key in 
the sacristy of the Rom. Cath. church (PL 6j B, 4) or in the Rom. 
Cath. clergyhouse (PL 0, 4; fee). In front of the Old Palace rises 
a Statue of Maximilian II. (PL 3) in bronze, by Brugger (1860). 

The Roman Catholic Church (PL 6) beside the palace (formerly 
the palace-church) contains the tombs of Margrave Frederick and 
his consort Wilhelmine (p. 121 ; under the organ). — The Maxi- 
milian-Str. (market-place) is embellished with several fountains. 
Many of the houses possess tasteful oriel windows. In the Schul- 
Str., which diverges to the right, is the handsome school, in front 
of which is a bronze bust of J. B. Graser (d. 1841 ; PL 1), the 
schoolmaster, by Zumbusch. — In the cemetery to the W. of the town 
(Erlanger-Str.) are the graves of Jean Paul Richter (see above), Franz 
Liszt (see above), and Duke Alexander of Wurtemberg (d. 1881). 

To the N. of the town , 1 M. from the station , on the hill 
below the Burgerreuth, stands the Wagner Theatre (Festspiel- 
haus; PL G, 2; 1246 ft.), where the 'Nibelungen-Ring' was first 
performed in 1876 and 'Parsifal' in 1882. The theatre, built by 
Bruckwald, contains 1650 seats. Higher up is the Burgerreuth, 
a restaurant which commands a fine view. About 1/4 hr. above the 

to Weiden. BAYREUTH. 23. Route. 123 

Burgerreuth towers the Hohe Warte (1525 ft.), on which rises the 
Siegesturm (66 ft.) in memory of the war of 1870-71, commanding 
an extensive view. 

St. Georgen, commonly called the i Brandenburger\ situated on a 
hill to the N.E., is a suburb of Bayreuth, founded by Margr. George 
William (d. 1726) at the beginning of the 18th century. The road 
to it passes through a tunnel below the railway, beyond which it 
forks at the large Cotton Factory mentioned at p. 121. Two avenues 
lead hence to the right to St. Georgen: the Brandenburger-Strasse, 
on the right, and the Markgrafen-Alle*e, to the left, a linden avenue 
planted in 1723. The latter leads past the District Prison (right), 
and the St. Georgen House of Correction (left), and the former 
Chapter House of the knights of an l Ordre de la 8inc£ritS\ instituted 
in 1712 by George William and changed to the Order of the Red 
Eagle (Roter Adler-Orden) in 1734 by Margrave George Frederick 
Charles. The meetings of the order were held in the church of 
St. Georgen (still called ' Ordenskirche^ , built in 1705-18. The 
balustrade of the gallery is adorned with the arms of the knights 
down to 1767. — At the other end of the principal street is the 
Abbey Church y wedged between two houses. 

The Eremitage, 3 M. to the £. of Bayreuth, a chateau with gardens, 
fountains, artificial ruins, etc., was erected by George William in 1715 
(adm. to the building* and to see the fountains, 10-11 and 3-5, 50 pf.). 
The upper Schloss (1250 ft.) contains a number of family-portraits, including 
Frederick the Great, as a child, and as king, and his sister the Margravine 
Wilhelmine, who wrote her memoirs here; among those in the lower 
Schloss, the so-called Sonnen-Tempel (temple of the Sun), is that of the 
Countess Orlamunde (the 'White Lady", p. 124) In the vicinity is the 
'Grosse Bassin/ an imitation of that at Versailles, surrounded by the 
temple of the Sun and its two wings. The walls of these buildings are 
fantastically inlaid with coloured stones, rock-crystal, etc. The interior of 
the temple is sumptuously fitted up, and contains handsome columns of 
striped marble. Between the upper Schloss and the offices is a pretty 
garden (Restaurant; band on Sun. afternoon in summer). Adjacent are 
the Roman Theatre and the large water-tower, containing water for the 
fountains. These play on Sundays in summer about 5 p.m. (adm. gratis; 
notice is given by the sound of a bell) and may be seen at other times 
for a fee of 2 Jt. 

About halfway to the Eremitage, at the point where the road turns 
at a right angle to the N., is a small inn, called RollwenzeVs Eaus> with 
a room where Jean Paul Richter used to write, containing some memorials 
of him. 

The Fantaisie, a chateau 31/2 M. to the W. of Bayreuth, built in 1758 
and tastefully fitted up , the seat of Duke Alex, of Wurtemberg (d. 1881) 
from 1828 to 1881 r is charmingly situated on a richly wooded hill, near 
the village of Eckersdorf (Pfau, well spoken of). The gardens and park, 
with bath-house, pheasantry, fountains, etc., are kept in excellent order. 
The grounds attract numerous visitors from Bayreuth (H&tel Fantaisie). — 
In the vicinity is 81. Gilgenberg, a lunatic asylum, prettily situated. 

From Baybeuth to Hollfeld, 20V2 M., branch-railway in 2 hrs. — 
From (9'/2 M.) Mistelgau a pleasant route for pedestrians leads via Olas- 
hiltten, Volsbach, and Kirchahorn to Rabenstein (p. 181; 3 hrs.). Or we 
turn to the right at Volsbach and follow the Waischenfeld road for 
I74 M ., ascending to the left at a lime-tree, just before it dips into the 
Zenbach-Tal. From the top of the ridge we have a fine view of the 
whole Franconian Switzerland. Thence to Waischenfeld (p. 181) via Hann* 

124 Route 23. FICHTEL-GEBIRGE. 

berg. — 1572 M. Plankenfelt. A road runs hence to the 8. to (4V2 M.) 
Waischenfeld (p. 113). — 20y 2 M. Hollfeld. 

From Bayreuth to Warmensteinach, 14i/jM., local railway in l 1 /* hr. 
through the Steinach-Tal , passing Weidenberg (1423 ft.), at the foot of 
the Bocksleite (1873 ft. ; V* hr. ; view), and other stations. — Warmen- 
steinach, see p. 126). 

To the left, as Bayreuth is quitted, are St. Georgen and the Ere- 
mitage, to the right wooded hills. — 25 M. Kirchenlaibach (Rail. 
Restaurant; junction for the Nuremberg and Eger Railway, p. 156). 
29 M. Kemnath-Neustadt (1470 ft.); on the right the Rauhe Kulm 
(2240 ft. ; view-tower), to which beautiful wood-paths ascend in 
3/ 4 hT., on the left the S. spurs of the Fichtel-Gebirge. We follow 
the valley of the Haidnaab. — 36 M. Pressath; branch-line to the 
W. to (13 M.) Kirchenthumbach. — 39*/2 M. Schwarzenbach, in the 
Upper Palatinate. — Thence through extensive pine-forests (Park- 
steiner and Mantler Wald) to (42 M.) Parksteinhutten, l 1 ^ hr. to 
the N.E. of which lies the market-town of Parkstein (1950 ft.), 
situated round the summit of a hill of beautifully formed columnar 
basalt. — 49 M. Weiden (p. 186). 

The Fichtel-Gebirge. 

The Fichtel-Gebirge, a mountain-system in Upper Franconia, consists 
principally of granite, syenite, gneiss, and crystalline slates, and forms a 
watershed between the affluents of the Elbe (Eger, Saale), the Rhine (Weisse 
Main), and the Danube (Naab). It abounds in pleasant valleys, massive 
crags amidst fine forest-scenery, and heights commanding beautiful views. 

The most convenient approaches to this district are those from Neuen- 
marktWirsberg (p. 105; branch- railway to Bischofsgrtin), Bayreuih (p. 121; 
branch-line to Warmensteinach), and Eof (p. 104; railway to JfUnchberg, 
Weissenstadt, and Wunsiedel). — Two days, starting from Neuenmarkt, 
may be spent as follows : 1st Day. By rail to Berneck and (l 1 /* hr.) 
Bischo/sgriin ; then on foot over the Ochsenkopf and Schneeberg to Weissen- 
stadt in 6 hrs. [Or we may go by train from Bayreuth to Warmensteinach 
in IV2 hr., and walk by the Ochsenkopf and Schneeberg to Weissenstadt 
in 6 hrs.]. — 2nd Day. Walk to the top of the Waldstein and back (2V2 hrs.) ; 
by rail from Weissenstadt via* Kirch enlamitz to Wunsiedel in IV2 hr. ; 
ascend the Luisenburg with guide and descend to Alexanderbad (2 J /2 hrs.). 
Diligence or carriage in 1 hr. from Alexandersbad to Markt-Redwitz, a 
station on the Hof and Weiden railway (p. 186), or return via the Kaiha- 
rinenberg to (40 min.) Wunsiedel. 

Carriage and pair from Berneck to Alexandersbad by Silberhaus, 
Trostau, Schonbrunn, and Wunsiedel in 8-9 hrs., 25-30 Jt. — The paths 
and routes are practically throughout well provided with guide-posts. 
The Fuhrer durch das Fichtelgebirge (Wunsiedel; 1904, 21/2 Jt\ published 
by the Fichtelgebirgs-Verein, may be recommended. 

From Neuenmarkt- Wirsberg (p. 105) to Bischofsgriin, 13 M., rail- 
way in li/ 4 hr. (fares 1 M 20, 75 pf.). — The railway diverges to 
the left from the Bayreuth line and enters the valley of the Weisse 
Main at (3 M.) ffimmelkron (1092 ft.) , with a former Cistercian 
convent, known for the legend of Countess Kunigunde of Orlamunde 
(d. ca. 1350 ; see p. 108), the 'White Lady'. Remains of Gothic cloi- 
sters and the burial-vaults of the counts. 

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BERNECK. 23. Route. 125 

7 M. Beraeck. — Hotels. *Hirsch, R. l»/ 4 -2V2 Jt, B. 80 pf.* Post, 
R. 1-1 V2 *l, D. 1 Ji 40 pf. 5 Stadt Baybeuth, moderate charges ; Bube, 
with gar den -restaurant; Hot. Villa Berg. — Restaurants. Kurhaut, see 
below; Schmidt'*, in the market-place $ Bdveneck, with pretty view. 

2?€rn«cfe (1276 ft.), a small town (1700 inhab.) picturesquely 
situated in a narrow valley watered by the Oelsnitz, is a favourite 
summer-resort. In the main street is the small Kurhaus, with 
reading-room, garden, and restaurant. On the Oelsnitz, at the foot 
of the Schlossberg, is the *Kur-Colonnade y where a band plays 
several times a week. (Visitors* tax for a stay of more than Ave 
days, 4 *4f, two pers. 6 Jt, etc.) On the steep hill above the town 
are the ruins of two castles and of a chapel. A pleasant path along 
the Oelsnitz gradually ascends the wooded hill in 20 min. to the 
Obere Burg (1548 ft), destroyed by the Hussites in 1430. Fine 
view hence ; still finer from the Engelsburg, 10 min. farther on, and 
the adjacent Kirchleite (1935 ft.; belvedere). 

Another excursion is to ( 3 /4 hr.) the ruined castle of Stein (1765 ft.), 
romantically situated in the valley of the Oelsnitz. Thence we may walk 
through the valleys of the Oelsnitz and the Lilbnitz, past the ruin of 
QrUnttein, to ( s /4 hr.) Gefree* (p. 105). — Pearl-mussels (Unio margaritifer) 
are found in the Oelsnitz in considerable quantities *, the shells are opened 
and the pearls removed every 6-7 years by a government official. 

The railway (also fine drive) crosses the Oelsnitz. (On the hill- 
side is the arboretum Bluchersruhe, with its belvedere.) It then 
follows the pretty Qoldmuhl-Tal, or valley of the Weisse Main, to 
(8M.) Ooldmuhl (1350 ft ; Heisinger ; Zapf; Schwarzes Ross); 
hence to Warmensteinach, see below. — The line ascends past the 
Glaser-Muhle to (13 M.) Bischofsgrun (station 2125ft, village 
2230 ft.; Schmidt zum Ooldnen Lowen, R. 1-1 i/ 2l pens. 3-4 *#, 
plain but good; Maienthal, at the station; Puchtler; Pension Villa 
Helene), conspicuously situated at the N. base of the Ochsenkopf, 
almost entirely rebuilt since a great fire in 1887, with manufactories 
of beads, a very ancient industry here. 

The Schneeberg (p. 126) may be ascended from Bischofsgrun in 2 hrs., 
via Frffbershammer (numerous guide-posts). 

The path to the Ochsenkopf (3360 ft. ; ascent 1 Y4 hr. ; guide not 
indispensable : Ochsenkopf 2 dt, Ochsenkopf and Schneeberg 4 Jf) 
leads through wood, and, except at one place, the ascent is gradual. 
At the top it traverses blocks of granite and passes the Schneeloch, 
a hollow (deserted shaft; 16 ft. deep) where snow lies till June. 
From the View Tower we gain an extensive view of the Fichtel- 
Gebirge, including the Thuringian Forest. About 5 min. to the S. 
of the tower is a spot known as the *Aussicht' (view), commanding 
a picturesque glimpse. 

The route by Warmensteinach to Bischofsgrun and the Ochsenkopf, 2 hrs. 
longer than the above, is preferable. The road quits the valley of the Main 
beyond Goldmiihl, and ascends to the right in the valley of the Zoppatenbach 
to (20 min.) Brandholz (1710 ft.). The gold, antimony, lead, and silver 
mines once largely worked here, as numerous heaps of rubbish still testify, 
are now exhausted, as is the case in other parts of the Fichtel-Gebirge. 
About 8 /* hr. beyond Brandholz we ascend the road to the right. In a 

126 Route 23. SCHNEEBERG. Fichtel-Qebirge. 

few minutes more, where the path divides, the branch to the left leads 
via the Eohe Wacht (view) to (1 hr.) Warmensteinach (2065 ft. ; Krug, 
above the station; Weittmapr, at the station • 2Vo*ti, below the church), 
prettily situated, the terminus of a railway from Bayrenth (see p. 124). 
The shingle-roofed bosses lie picturesquely scattered along the slopes of the 
upper valley of the Suinach. Bead-making and glass-polishing are the 
ehlef industries. Fine walks on the steep slopes. 

The summit of the Ocbsenkopf may be reached hence either by the 
direct path via Fleetl (2 hrs.), or through the Lochle-Tal, a narrow wooded 
ravine (tavern), to (1 hr.) Grassemann (2405 ft.; inn), a former mining 
settlement, situated on an open plateau. Before the village we pass the 
Lud wipe -Quelle on the left. Thence to the (iy 4 hr.) summit of the Ochsen- 
kopf (P* 125; path indicated by white marks). 

From Warmensteinach a road leads to the E. to (6 M.) Fichtelberg 
(2243 ft.; Krug; Reicheriberger), the terminus of a branch-line from Neusorg 
(p. 156). An attractive route leads hence to the (l»/a-2 hrs.) Ochsenkopf 
via Neubau, the Weissmainfelsen, and the Weissmainquelle (see below). 

From thb Ochsenkopf to the Schneeberg, 2*/ 4 hrs. We 
descend the saddle to the E., which connects the Ochsenkopf and 
Schneeberg ; 20 min . , Source of the Main ( Weissmainquelle ; 2910 ft.), 
with its stone parapet, above which is a portion of the earlier parapet 
with the arms of the Bavarian Electors ; this excellent spring is the 
only one for along distance (benches ; inscription); 10 min., the 
Weissmainfelsen (3050 ft), a group of rocks which has been made 
accessible and affords a *View of the Schneeberg and Nusshardt, etc. 
We then descend the valley which separates the Schneeberg from the 
Ochsenkopf to (1 M.) Karches (2410 ft. ; rfmts.), near which is the 
peat-moor otSeelohe, occupying the site of the vanished Fichtel Lake. 

From Karches roads lead to theN.W. to (8V2 M.) BUehofsgrUn (p. 125), 
to the S.E. to (4V2 M.) Silberhaus (p. 128), and to the S. to (8V2M.) Fichtel- 
berg (see above). 

We here enter the wood to the left, and ascend to (1 hr.) the 
*Nu8shardt (3190 ft.), a group of huge blocks of granite. The nine 
round hollows on the top are called the 'Druids' Dishes'. The (V2 «r. 
to the N.) Schneeberg (3454 ft.), the highest summit of the Fichtel- 
Gebirge, is crowned with a group of rocks, 23 ft. high, named the 
Backbfele ('oven'). On the top is a hut (no inn). *Panorama unin- 
terrupted, except towards the S.W. by the Ochsenkopf: to the S.E. 
is the Kosseine, to the left the Luisenburg; N.E. the Erzgebirge 
in the distance; N. the Rudolf stein, Weissenstadt, and the Wald- 
stein; N.W. the Thuringian Mts. and the Gleichberge. 

From thb Sohnbebbeo to Wbissenstadt, l 3 / 4 hr. We descend 
to the N.E. through wood to (40 min.) the 'Drei Briider' (2736 ft), 
three lofty groups of granite slabs ; 7 min . , the *Rudolfstein (2840 ft.), 
a huge group of granite slabs, the highest point commanding a 
superb view. We descend for 1/2 hr. more through wood, passing 
near a spring, then follow a path to the right, past several rock- 
cellars, to (V2 hr.) Weissenstadt (2070 ft. ; Reichsadler or Alte 
Post; Lowe; Blechschmidt\ a small town with 2700 inhab., on the 
Eger, which rises 2 M. to the S.W. At the S. end of the town are 
Ackermann's stone-polishing works. — Railway in 51 min. to Kir- 
chenlamitz (p. 186). To Wunsiedel and Alexandersbad, see p. 186. 

Fichtel-Qebirge. WUNSIEDEL. 23. Route. 127 

Ascent op the Waldstein from Wbissenstadt, l 1 /^ hr. The 
road diverges to the left at the railway- station and leads into the 
wood to a (2 M.) finger-post on the left, 'zum Waldstein' ; hence to 
the top V4 nr » more. A footpath (shorter) leads from the W. end of 
the village, traversing damp meadows at first. 

Ascent of the Waldatein from MUnchberg via Zell, see p. 105. 

The *Orosse Waldstein (2880 ft.) is another group of granite 
rocks, made accessible by paths and steps, and crowned with a pavi- 
lion (on the highest point, to the S.E.) ; extensive panorama. The 
castle of Waldstein, of which fragments remain , a robbers* strong- 
hold, was destroyed by the Swabian League in 1523. Adjacent is 
the finely situated Waldhaus (2830 ft. ; inn). About 200 paces to 
the N.W. is the Barenfang, on the way to Zell (p. 105). 

A marked path, running first to the N.W., then to the E., and 
crossing the road from Weissenstadt to Sparneck, leads through 
wood from the Waldhaus to the (1% hr.) Epprechtstein (2620 ft. ; 
no inn), with a ruined castle and a beautiful view; thence to the 
railway-station of Markt Kirchenlamitz or to Buchhaus (p. 186), 1 /2 ar - 

The shadeless road from Weissenstadt to (7 M.) Wunsiedel is 
unattractive to walkers. (Oarr. and pair to Alexandersbad in li/a &*., 
7-8 Jl ; diligence to Roslau, p. 186, 6 M., twice daily in li/ 2 hr.). 
— Fbom Holenbeunn, a station on the railway from Hof to Wiesau 
(p. 186), to Wunsiedel, 2^4 M., branch-line in 10 minutes. 

Wunsiedel. — Hotels. *Kkonpkinz von Bateen, R. I74-I 1 /* M, B. 
70 pf., D. 1V« M\ *Einhorn, R. i-li/2 JH, B. 50 pf.; Grunek Badm, with 
garden, R. 1-1 y 2 Jt. — Wine at 0. Mttller't; beer at Porsches; Wartimrg 
Garden Restaurant. — One-horse carr. to Alexandersbad 3, two-horse 5 JC. 

Wunsiedel (1800 ft.), a town with 5600 inhab., on the Rosla or 
Roslau, was the birthplace of Jean Paul Friedrich Richter (p. 122), 
whose bust by Schwanthaler has been placed in front of the house 
where he was born, adjoining the church. The Katharinenberg 
(2020 ft.), 1 M. to the S.E., with a ruined church, commands a 
pretty view. — An avenue flanked with lime-trees and chestnut- 
trees leads to the S.E. to (1^/4 M. ; diligence twice daily) — 

Alexandersbad (1935 ft. ; ^Chalybeate Baths and Kurhaus, open 
in summer, pens. 6-872 Jl V QI day, visitor's tax 5-8, music 3-6 M; 
*H6tel Weber; *Rogler; Lang), which is named after the last Mar- 
grave of Ansbach-Bayreuth (1783). The chalybeate springs and 
the pine-cone and mud baths, combined with the pleasant scenery, 
attract numerous visitors. 

The "Luisenburg (2568 ft.), the most striking point in the environs, 
so named after the visit of Queen Louisa of Prussia in 1805, formerly called 
Luchsbwg, with a few traces of an old castle, lies IV2 M. to the W. of the 
Alexandersbad and 2 M. to the S. of Wunsiedel, and was first made 
accessible in 1790. (Guide, not indispensable for those who do not wish 
to make a very thorough investigation, to be had at the restaurant, 2 Jl.). 
The Luisenburg is, as it were, a mountain in ruins. Huge masses of 
granite of fantastic form are piled together in wild confusion, the result 
of disintegration \ they are partly overgrown with thick moss, interspersed 

128 Route 23. ALEXANDERSBAD. 

with pines and bushes, and are rendered accessible by steps, bridges, etc. 
At the entrance to the labyrinth is the Ge$elltchaft$- Platz, with a hotel- 
restaurant (2256 ft.). Numerous inscriptions on the rocks. This rocky 
labyrinth affords a beautiful walk, ascending in about 1 hr. to the Kaiter- 
Wilhelm-Felsen (2675 ft). The finest point is the *Burgstein (2868 ft.), 
20 min. farther on, a group of rocks on the top of the hill, with an open 
view towards the E., N., and W. 

The *Jffabenleine (2786 ft.), V< hr. farther on, consists of four lofty rocks, 
of which two form the Grosse Haberstein and two the Kleine Haberstein 
(the latter inaccessible); the view is similar to that from the Burg&tein 
(magnificent woods). The *Kftueine (3084 ft.), 3 /« hr. from the Haber- 
steine (I1/2 hr. direct from Alexandersbad). commands the finest and most 
extensive view in the Fichtel-Gebirge, embracing the greater part of the 
Upper Palatinate towards the S. (temple at the top; a little below it is 
a shelter with five beds ; good water 10 min. below the summit on the E. 
side). — From this point a path leads by the M&tze (2666 ft.) and the 
Girgelstein (2485 ft.) to the (2 hrs.) Silberhaus (2330 ft. ; rfmts. 5 comp. p. 126), 
whence we may ascend by the forester's house of (1 hr.) Seehaus (3120 ft. ; 
rfmts.) to the Nusshardt and tho (1 hr.) Schneeberg (p. 126). — From the 
K6sseirio a path (white marks) descends in 2 hrs. to Neusorg (p. 166). 

Diligence from Alexandersbad twice daily in 1 hr„ vU Sichers- 
reuth, to (31/2 M.) Markl-Redwitz on the railway from Hof to Munich 
and Nuremberg (p. 186). The footpath (not much shorter) leads 
partly through wood. 

24. Franconian Switzerland. 

The small hilly district dignified with this title (1600-1900 ft above 
the sea-level), with its pretty valleys watered by the Wiesent, its wooded 
heights, forming the N.E. spurs of the Franconian Jura, and lying 
nearly in the centre of a triangle formed by Nuremberg, Bamberg, and 
Bayreuth, owes its reputation chiefly to its Stalactite Cavebns, containing 
remains of antediluvian animals, specimens of which are preserved in 
almost every museum in Europe. These wild beasts probably lived in the 
caves, to which they brought their prey and where they afterwards them- 
selves died. Though all the caverns will be found instructive by pale- 
ontologists, the ordinary tourist will probably be satisfied with the 
Sophien-Bdhle (p. 181) or the Bing-Hdhle (p. 129). The 'Jura 1 limestone 
and dolomite rock-formations are also picturesque, occasionally assuming 
the most grotesque shapes. 

Carriage with one horse, 10-12 M per day, 6-8 A per half-day; with 
two horses, 20 and 10 Jt- — Guides (unnecessary), 2-3 M per day. — The 
palhs are maintained and provided with guide-posts by the Prankische- 
Schweiz Verein. 

The following excursion of two days from Forchheim is recommended. 
1st Day. By rail to Ebermannstadt,' thence via (H/4 hr.) Muggendorf to the 
(lVx hr.) Stempfer-Miilile (with a deviation of V* hr. to GGssweinstein and 
back) and on to Q/a hr.) Behringers-Milhle and (l'/z hr.) Pottenstein. — 2nd 
Day. Cross the plateau to (2 hrs.) Rabenstein (comp. p. 131), vi3iting the 
Sophien-IIVhle (1 hr.); thence proceed to (1 hr.) Rabeneck and ( 3 A hr.) Loos, 
and via the Riesehbuvg to (2 hrs.) Muggendorf, whence we return by car- 
riage or omnibus to (IV4 hr.) Ebermannstadt. Tourist- ticket from ^Nurem- 
berg to Forchheim and Ebermannstadt, and back from Pegnitz (reached 
on foot from Ebermannstadt) to Nuremberg : 2nd cl. 6 M 10, 3rd cl. 3 M 
40 pf. — A good run for cyclists is from Ebermannstadt to (15 M.) Potten- 
stein and (9»/2 M.) Pegnitz. 

From Forchheim (see p. 107) to Ebermannstadt, %y 2 M. , railway 
In 46 min (fares 80, 55 pf.). — The line leads in a wide curve to the 

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Digitized by VjOOQlC 

STREITBEKG. 24. Route. 129 

E. into the pleasant Wiesent-Tal. 2 M. Pinzberg (Terrasse Inn, 
V2 M. from the station, very fair, R. 1-172? pens, 37a~472 Jt). — 
27-2 M. Oosberg. Beyond (3 3 /4 M.) Wiesenthau, to the right, is the 
Ekrenburg or Walberla, a view-point with a chapel. — 6V2 M. 
Kirchehrenbach (Frey, pens, from 5 M)\ 7*/ 2 M. Pretzfeld. — 9l/ 2 M. 
Ebermannstadt (957 ft. j ZurEisenbahn; Mullens Restaurant), a little 
town with 800 inhabitants. 

Post Omnibus from Ebermannstadt via Streitberg, Muggendorf, and 
Behringersmuhle to Pottenstein (15 M.) in 4 hrs.j to Waischenfeld (lVfe M.) 
in 4 1 /* hrs.j from Pottenstein to Pegnilz, twice daily in 2 l /4 hrs. 

From Ebermannstadt the road leads along the right bank of the 
Wiesent, via Gaueldorf, in B/ 4 hr. to — 

2^4 M. Streitberg. — ^Hotels. *Kubhads zum Goldnen Kredz, R. 
572-20 jH per week, D. i Jt 70 pf. ; *Golde»eb Lowe, with garden, E. 1V4-2, 
B. \/iy D. {1/2, pens. 4 Jt; Altes Kukhadsj Brandenbdkgks Haus; Adler, 
plain. — Visitors' tax 2, families 4 Jl. 

Streitberg (1045 ft.), a picturesquely situated village, is frequented 
as a summer-resort. The Bing-Hohle, a cavern discovered in 1905, 
is worth a visit (adm. 1 J£). Pretty walk to the (74 hr.) Muachel- 
quelle, and to the Schauer- Tal, 10 min. to the N.E. Fine views from 
the (74 hr.) ancient Streitburg and the (72 nr ruin of Neudeck, 
opposite ; still finer from the Hunmnstein, 3 / 4 hr. to the W., and 
from the Guckkull, 72 hr. to the N.E. Pleasant excursions through 
the *Lange-Tal and the 'FelsenschluchV to the (1 hr.) Schomtein- 
Hokle, a grotto with fine stalactites (guide luff, for a party 40 pf. 
each), and the Brunnenstein-Hohle, and through the Lcinleiter-Tal 
to (1 hr.) Unter-Leinleiter, with a fine park of Baron Seckendorf. 

The road goes on from Streitberg, on the right bank of the 
Wiesent, to (27 2 M.) Muggendorf (1060 ft.; *Kurhaus & Hot. 
Schiller; ""Stern, R. 1-1 74, T>.iJH GOpf., with reading-room ; Schwan, 
R. 1-1 74 , D. I74 Jt; Sonne, Turkei, less pretending; restaurants 
Rosenau and Kohlmann-, wine-room and cafe* Feiler), a pleasant 
market-town, frequented in summer, and a good centre for excur- 
sions (visitors' tax 2, families 4 Jl). Shady promenades on the 
opposite bank of the Wiesent. 

To the W. of Muggendorf (1/2 hr.) is the RosenmUllers-Hohle, the en- 
trance to which is visible to the left from the road (guide lives below 
the Stern Hotel, for 1-6 pers. 2 Jt). It contains fine stalactites and fossil 
remains of animals. The Oswalds-Hbhle (1/2 hr. to the E.) may be visited 
also, if time permit. Near it are the Wunders-HVhle and Wttzen-HbMe. The 
latter is said to contain a heathen altar (?). The Kuppenburg, near the 
Rosenmiillers-Hohle, the Hohemtetn, and the *Hohe Wacht, above the 
Oswalds -Hohle, are good points of view. The village of Wichsenstein 
(1925 ft.), commanding an extensive panorama, may be reached from 
Muggendorf in 21/2 hrs., via Wmditch- Gailenreuih. In the Trubach-Tal, 
3 M. to the S., is the picturesque chateau of Egloffttein (p. 106). 

From Muggendorf via the Riesenburg to Dwu y see p. 180. 

Fbom Mdggendobf to Bubo Gailenbeuth , ity hr. We follow the 
Behringersmuhle road (see p. 130) for */« hr., cross the Wiesent, and take 
the road ascending the hill, whence a footpath, diverging to the left, leads 
to Burg Gailenreuth (1568 ft.), belonging to Baron Horneck. The forester 
here dispenses modest refreshments and shows the adjoining Gailenreuther 
Zoolithen-Hdhle (1-3 pers. 1 Jt each, 4-6 pers. 50 pf. each, larger parties 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 10th Edit. " 9 

130 Route U. GOSSWfilNSTElN. 

25 pf. each; light 10 pf. for each pers.), which has attained a European 
celebrity owing to the investigations of Esper, Rosenmuller, Cuvier, and 
Goldfuss, but is now little visited by tourists. It consists of four stories, 
one above the other, each containing chambers filled with numerous re- 
mains of bears, lions, wolves, hyaenas, etc. There are several other caverns 
here of the same character, such as the Kappg-B&hle (difficult of access), 
containing beautiful stalactites, and the Esptr~H8hU. — From Burg Gailen- 
reuth to GOsiieeinstein (see below), IV2 hr. j to Wichserutein (p. 129), l'/i hr. 
(marked path). 

From Muggendorf the road leads to the S.E. through the Wiesent- 
Tal, past Burg Qailenreuth (p. 129 ; to the right, on the hill) and 
the (4^2 M.) Stempfer-Muhlc (restaurant), with the Drei Quelten, 
whence Gossweinstein (see below), on the height to the right, 
may be reached in 1/4 hr. About % M. farther on is Behringers- 
muhle (1120 ft. ; Post ; Heinlein; Hot, Livonia, all three fair), a 
village much frequented as a summer-resort, charmingly situated at 
the junction of the Wiesent-Tal, the Allsbach-Tal, and the Puttlach- 
Tal. The Pfaffenstein, y 2 nr « to th© W., commands a fine view. To 
Doos, p. 131 ; to Rabenstein, p. 131. 

The road crosses the Wiesent and divides, the left branch leading 
to Eottenstein (com p. below). The road to the right ascends rapidly 
to (*/2 hr.) Gossweinstein (1617ft.; Distler, with garden, R. 1, pens. 
S l /^Jf; Amschler 'zur Frank. Schweiz' ; Lowe; Rose; Sonne), a small 
market- village with 600 inhab., a large rococo pilgrimage-church, 
and a Castle (on a high rock), completely restored in the Gothic 
style (visitors admitted in the absence of the family ; fee 40 pf.). 
The castle, the Kreuz behind the church, and the Wagnershohe, 
all command a *View of the greater part of the Franconian Switzer- 
land, including the valleys of the Ailsbach, Wiesent, and Puttlach, 
which converge at Behringersmuhle. Through the grounds in the 
government-forest we descend in J / 2 nr - to the Stempfer-MQhle 
(see above). About l 1 ^ hr. to the "W. of Gossweinstein is the Gailen- 
reuther ffihle (p. 129). 

From Behrinoersmuhlb to Pottenstein, l 1 ^ hr. The road 
(see above) leads through the romantic *Puttlach-Tal to (l 1 ^ M.) 
Tuchersfeld (two plain Inns), a most picturesque village, com- 
manded by lofty pinnacles of rock. Thence to Pottenstein (1425 ft. ; 
Distler; Anker; Krone; Schmitt), a beautifully situated little town, 
with a chateau. Diligence twice daily in 2 1 /* hrs. to Pegnilx (p. 155) ; 
to Rabenstein, see p. 131. 

Pleasant excursion to the 8. through the romantic Schutter-Tal or 
Kuhlenfelser-Tal, oast the (*/< hr.) Sehiitter-Miihle (good inn; close by are 
the Teu felt- Ho hie, 380 ft. long, and the beautifully situated forester's house 
of AUenhof, rfmts), to ( 3 A br.) Kilhlmfelt. Back by Kirehenbirkig to (3V».M.) 
Pottenstein. — From Pottenstein we may reach Gossweinstein (see above) in 
IV4 hr., by the road via, Siegmanntbrunn. Fine view from the Kalvarienberg. 

From Muggendorf to Doos, li/ 4 hr. The road, to the left, 
crosses the hills towards the E. From this road another leads to the 
right, just beyond Muggendorf, to (2 M.) Engelhardsberg (Wunder; 
key of the Riesenburg, see p. 131). 

NUREMBERG. 25. Route. 131 

About V* M. to the S. rises the bold Adlenttin (1740 ft.), commanding 
an extensive 'View, and 1/2 H. farther on is the Ojuakensehloss, a jagged 
grauwaeke rock. 

The road leads on towards the N. to (8/4 M.) the *Riesenburg f a 
wild group of dolomite rocks with natural arches and towers, ren- 
dered accessible by paths and bridges (adm. 50 pf., 2 pers. 35 pf. 
each, 3-4 pers. 25 pf. each, 5 or more pers. 20 pf. each). Charming 
view of the Schotter-Tal (see below). We descend into this valley, 
turn to the left, and in */4 hr. reach the Doos or Toos Inn (1118 ft.), 
where also a key of the Riesenburg is kept. 

Fbom BbhbingbrsmOhle (p. 130) to Doos, 3 M. The road leads 
to the N. through the Schottcr- Tal or Schaudcr - Tal, one of the 
most beautiful valleys in this district It is watered by the Wiesent. 
Halfway is the Schotter-Muhlc (inn). — Doos, see above. 

At Doos begins the picturesque Rabenecker-Tal, watered by the Wiesent. 
We quit the road (which goes on to Waischenfeld, see below, 2 M.) at a 
mill (1*A M.), and beyond the Wiesent aseend to the right, past the 
partly preserved Burg Rabmech, to a lofty plain; we then take the path to 
the left by the wood, turning off to the right after a few yards, and 
passing (26 min.) SchCnhof, reach (Va hr.) Burg Babenstein (1456 ft.), a 
pinnacled castle belonging to Count Schdnbora and partly restored, looking 
down upon the Ahorn-Tal, 160 feet below. In the latter, at the foot of the 
hill, lies the NeumUhle (restaurant). The custodian conducts the visitor to 
the (10 min.) Sophien-Hdhle or Babenitein Oavern, the most interesting 
in the district owing to the abundance of the fossil bones and the per* 
fection of the stalactites it contains. An hour is required to explore it 
(fee 2-4 Jf; full illumination ±QJ(; magnesium wire 40 pf. extra for each 
of the three chambers). The Ludwigs-Hdhle on the opposite side of the 
Ahorn-Tal hardly merits a visit. From Rabensteih to Pottenstein and 
Beringertmiihle, see below; to Bayreuth, see p. 128. 

Those whom time permits may now cross the hill to the N.W. separat- 
ing the Ahorn-Tal and Wiesent-Tal and descend via Langenloh to ( 3 /< hr.) 
Waischenfeld (1137 ft. ; Hofmann), pleasantly situated on the Wiesent, and 
environed with watch-towers and ruined castles. The Fdrsters-Hohle 
(20 min.; key at Lang's; one pers. 1 Jf, each additional visitor 50 pf.), 
a dome-shaped vault (65 ft. high , 86 ft. long, 33 ft. wide), contains fine 
stalactites. — From Waischenfeld to Bayreuth, see p. 123). 

Walkers may go from Babenstein across the tableland direct in 2 hrs. 
to Pottenstein (p. 130): by the Neumiihle (see above) we cross the bridge 
and ascend to the left to Zaupenberg; then, leaving the village of Eleinlesau 
on the right (see finger-posts), we reach, beyond Weidmannsgesees, the road 
leading from Ober-Ailsfeld to Pottenstein. — To reach (2 hrs.) Behringers- 
mUhle we proceed through the pretty valley of the Ailsbach via Ober-Ails- 
feld and Unter-Ailsfeld (whence a direct path leads to Tuchersfeld, p. 130). 
From Behringersmuhle to Tuchersfeld and Gossweinstein, see p. 130. 

25. Nuremberg. 

Railway Stations. 1. Central Station (Pi. D, E, 4; restaurant), on the 
S. side of the old tov n. — 2. East Station, at St. Jobst (p. 164), to the 
N.E. of the town, of no importance to tourists. — 3. Ludtrigs-Bahnhof 
(PI. A, B. 3), on the Plarrer, for the local line to Furth, the oldest rail- 
way in Germany (1835). — Porter to the town, 33 lbs. 35 pf., 110 lbs. 50 pf. 

Hotels, *W&bttkubebgkb Hop (PI. d; D, 4), Bahnhof-Platz, B. from 3, 
B. H/4, D. 4, pens, from 8 1 /* Jf; *Gband H6tel (PI. m; E, 8), Bahnhof- 
Str., B. 2 l /«-4, D. 8, pens. 8-10 Jf; *Goldneb Adleb (PI. b; D, 2), Adler- 
Str. 15, in a quiet situalion, R. from 2»/«, B. 1, D. 3 Jf, omn. 60 pf., these 


132 BoutcZd. NUREMBERG. ' Practical 

three of the first class, with lift. — *Wittjcijsbaoh (PI. f 5 D, 3), Pfannen- 
schmiedgasse 22, with lift, cafe', and theatre of varieties (p. 133) ; 'Victoria 
(PL n; D, 3), at the Frauen-Tor, near the central station, B. 3-4, B. 1, 
D. 1V«-2V« M; *Kaisebhop (PI. k; D, 3), KSnig Str., B. li/z-8, B. i Jf; 
•Bote* Hahn (PI. i; D, 3), Konig-Str., with lift, these two with restau- 
rants; *Deutschbb Kaibbb (PI. g; D, 3), B. 2-5, B. 1, D. I 1 /*, pens, from 
6 Jf; Monopol (PI. h; D, 3); Bambbbobb Hob (PI. o; D, 8), these three 
also in the Konig-Str. — Maximilian (PI. e ; E, 3), Lorenzer-8tr. 81, R. 2-3, 
B. •/«, D. 11/2-2 J ; NfiRNBEKOEB Hop (PI. 1 ; D, 3), B. iV«-2Vi Jt, B. 80 pf. ; 
H£jJE£ttingbb (PL pTP , 3) 7 Rr**/»- 4 •*> B - 80 pf.; Hbbzoo Max (PL q; 
iJT^rBnFDTIhiy* Jf; Bheinischbr Hop (PL s; D, 3), these four in the 
Konig-Str., near the central station; Pbinz Lbitpold (PL r; D, 8), Luit- 
pold-8tr. 3, B. 2-3 Jf; Wbisseb Hahn (PL u; D, 3), near the Boter Hahn; 
National (PI. t ; D, 3), Hallplatz 8. — Chbistliches Hobpiz : Martha- 
Haus, Wolfsgasse (PL E, 1). — Hotel Garni : Stauffer, Bahnhof Str. 13 
(PL E, 3). 

Restaurants. Wine. *Rathaus-Keller, in the municipal court-house 
(p. 139), entrance from the Bathausgasse or the Obstmarkt, D. I1/2 Jf; 
Nassauer Keller, in the Nassau er Haus (p. 187), D. \>\zJl; Goldenes Pot thorn, 
GISckleingasse 4, near the chapel ef St. Maurice (PL D, 1): Waizen-Stiiblein, 
Bathausgasse 4 (PL D, 2); Eerrenkeller , Theatergasse 19 (PL D, 3). — 
Beer. H6t. Victoria (see above; in the cellar only Pilsener beer); * Boter 
Hahn, Kaiserhof, Witlelsbach. Bamberger Eo/^Deutscfier Kaiser, see above; 
Krokodil, Weintraubengasse 2, D. 1 Jt 20 pf. Excellent beer also in several 
less pretentious houses, generally crowded in the evening : Zum Kranich, 
Karolinen-Str. 15; Mohrenkeller , Konig-Str. 34 (PL D, 8); Sebaldus k I awe, 
Schulgasschen 1, near the Sebaldus -Kirche; Historischer Hof (p. 144), 
Tucher Sir. 20; Leistlein, Karl-Str. 14 (PL C,2); Martin Behai m, Theresien- 
Str. 23 (PL D, 1); Bratwurst-Gl&cklein (p. 141), at the back of the Moritz- 
Kapelle, quaint; Bratwurst-fferzle, Herzgasse 9 (PL D, 2); Bratwurst-Rds- 
lein. Obstgasse 3, 5, 7 (PL D, 2). — Automatic Restaurant, Konig-Str. 51 & 
70 (PL D, 8). — Popular Resorts. *8tadt'Park (p. 127), D. iy«-3 Jf, con- 
certs in the afternoon and evening on Sun., Tues., & Thurs. ; *Rosenau 
(PL B, 3; p. 153) ; Ludwigstorzwinger, at the Ludwigs-Tor (PL B, 3). Bestau- 
rants at Dutzendteich and Schmausenbuck, see p. 154. 

Cafes. Imperial, Konig-Str. 70 (PL D, 3); Bristol, entr. Josephs-Platz 19 
(PLC, 2); Wittelsbach (see above), Pfannenschmiedgasse 22; Central, Karo- 
linen-Str. 23 (PL C, D, 3); Babsburg, Konig-Str. 72, 1st floor (PL D, 8); 
Theater-Oaf 4 , Lorenzer-PJatz 14 (PL D, 3). — Confectioners. Eisenbeiss, 
K6nig-8tr. 2 (PL D, 3), near the Museum Bridge, and Bayreuther-Str. 33, 
at the Stadt-Park (comp. PL F, 1); Autenrieth, Bathausgasse 10 (PL D, 2); 
Scheuermann, Schustergasse 3, behind the Sebaldus church ; Gossner, Konig- 
Str. 76 (PL D, 3). 

Baths. Ludwigsbad, Breitegasse 91 (PL C, 3); Badeanstalt zum Wild* 
bad, Hintere Insel Schutt 15 (all kinds of baths); Ottobad, Otto-Str. 18 
(no swimming-bath). — River Baths in summer at the Wohrder Wiese, 
to the E. of the old town. 

Gabs. Taxameter: With one horse inside the town, 1-2 pers. 1003 metres 
50 pf.; each addit. 5C0m. 10 pf . ; 3-4 pers. 750m. 50 pf.; each addit. 375m. 
10 pf. ; at night (9-6) 1-4 pers. 500m. 50 pf. ; each addit. 250m. 10 pf. Ordinary 
Cabs CFiakef) : For 1/4 hr. 1-2 pers. 60 pf., 3-4 pew. 70 pf. ; each addit. »/4 br., 
60 or 60 pf. ; two-horse cab 80 pf., 1 Jf, 60, or 70 pf. ; small articles free, box 
20 pf. — Drive through the Town, starting from Hall-Platz 3 (PL D, 8), at 
9.80 & 3, 3 hrs., 4 Jf. 

Tramways (fare within the city 10 pf., incl. two changes of cars; cars 
run till midnight). 1. Max/eld (Stadt-Park; comp. PL F, l)-Laufer-Tor 
(PL F, l)-Marien-Tor (PI. E, 3)-Central Station (PL D, E, 4) Lorenz-Kirche 
(PL D, 8)-Plarrer (PL B, 9)-FUrth (p. 154; 20 pf.). — 2. New Barracks (to 
the N.W. of PL A, 8)-Plarrer (PL B. 3) Lorenzer-Platz (PL D, 8)-Marien- 
Tor (PL E, 8)-DuUendleich (p. 154; 10 pf.). — 3. Aeussere Baureuther Str. 
(beyond PL F, 1)-Maxfeld (Stadt-Park; comp. PL F, 1)-Bathaus-Platz 

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Notes. NUREMBERG. 25. Route. 133 

(PL D, 1, 2)-8chlachthof (comp. PI. A, Q-Schweinau (p. 34). — 4. Lorenz- 
Kirche (PI. D, 3)- Central Station-Aufseaa-Platz (S. of PL C, l)-Luilpoldhain. 
— 5. (circular route)- Max/eld to the Central Station aa in No. 1-8 tad t- 
Theater (PI. D, 4)-Piarrer (PI. B, 3)-Haller-Tor (PI. C, 2)-Pirkheimer-Str.- 
Max/eld. — 6. West Cemetery (p. 158) Johannia-Kirchhof (PL A, l>Haller- 
Tor (PL C, 2)-Rathaus-Platz (PL D, 1, 2)-Laufer-Tor (PL P, 1)-St. Jobst- 
Eaat Station (p. 154) Erlenstegen. — 7. Central Station -St. Yetev-LuUpold- 
hain. — 8. Lessing-Str. (PL C, 4>Christus-Kirche-Gugel-8 tr. -Franken-Stratse. 

Post Offices. Bahnhofs-Platz 1 (PL E, 4; poate restante); Karolinen- 
Str. 86 (PL C, 2, 8); Theresien-Str. 2 (PL D, 1)-, etc. — Telegraph Offices. 
Bahnhofs-Plats 7, Karolinen-Str. 36, and at most of the post-offices. 

Theatres. Stadt- Theater (PL C, D, 4), on the Frauen-Tor-Graben, for 
operas, operettas, and plays (closed in summer)-, Intimes Theater (PL D, 3), 
corner of Johannesgasse , for modern pieces (closed in summer) ; Apollo 
Theatre at the Hot. Wittelsbach (p. 18*2), Pfannenschmiedgasse 22 (operettas 
in summer, variety entertainments in winter). 

Shops. Nuremberg Toys: Wahnschaffe, Josephs-Platz 18; C. Quehl, 
Kaiser-Str. 5, at the corner of the Fleisch-Brucke, etc. — Artistic Goods: 
Eysser, in the Peller House (p. 144); Leykauf, corner of Konig-8tr. and 
Karolinen-Str.; Ostermayr, Konig-Str. 33. — Antiquities: Pickery Diirer- 
Platz 10; HeMng, Karl-Str. 2; Wohlbold, Augustiner-Str. 11; F. Neumann, 
Trddelmarkt 31. — Ivory Carvings : F. Q. Behl, Kaiser-Str. 87. — Books : 
Schrag, Konig-8tr. 15 ; Edelmann, Hanpt-M arkt 3 (old engravings). — Leb- 
kuohen (a kind of gingerbread). Metzger, Josephs-Platz 6. Konig-Str. 56, 
Hauptmarkt 28, and Rathausgasse 6; ffiberlein, Konig-Str. 6 and 53, Wink- 
ler-Str. 35, and Ludwig-Str. 34; Ooess, Ludwig-Str. 75, ete. 

English Church Service in summer at the Grand Hotel. 

British Vice-Consul, S. Ehrenbacher. — American Consul, George E. 
Baldwin; vice-consul, Oscar Bock. 

Collections and Objects of Interest. 
Atbrecht DUrer's Bouse (p. 141), week-days 9-1 and 2-6, Sun. 9-12; 50 pf. 
Germanic Museum (p. 147) : Library, archives, and cabinet of engravings, 

weekdays 8-12 and 2-4; Collections, daily 10-1 and 2-4 (4.80 in summer), 

1 1#, 4-5 pers. 3 Ji, free on 8un. (and Wed. in winter). A member's 

ticket (3-0 jf) admits at any time with family. Closed on New Year's 

Day, Good Friday, Easter Sunday, Whit Sunday, Ascension Day, and 

Christmas Day. 
Industrial Museum (p. 145): Industrial products, week-days 9-12 and 2-5 

(4 in winter), Sun. 10-12.30; adra. 50 pf. on Tues. & Frid., other days 

free; Collection of Models and Library, week-days 8-12 and 2-6, Sun. 

Municipal Library (p. 141), daily 9-12 and 8-5. 
Natural History Museum (p. 143), Sun. 10-12.80 & Wed. 2 4, free; other 

days 10-4, 30 pf. 
Permanent Exhibition of the Durer Association (modern paintings), in the 

building on the 8. side of the Frauen-Kirche (PL 7 ; D, 2), daily 10-3 

(closed on Sat.) ; adm. 80 pf. 
Railway Museum (p. 145), Tues., Thurs., A Sat. 9-12 and 8-5 (in winter 10-1), 

Sun. 10-12; adm. free. 
Rathaus (p. 188), Sun. 10.30-12.80, free ; at other times, fee. 

The Churches may be visited at any time except during service. 
Egidien-Kirche (p. 148), gratuity 30 pf. ; ring at the Tetzel-Eapelle at the 

back of the church. 
Frauen-Kirche (p. 137), open 7-10 a.m., adm. at other times by ticket (20 pf.) 

obtained in the sacristy at the S.E. corner of the church; sacristan 

at Vordere Spitalhof 9, 2nd floor. 
Beiliggeist-Kirche (p. 144), gratuity 30 pf. ; sacristan at Spital-Platz 1. 
Heiligkreut-Kapette (p. 153), gratuity 30 pf. 
Jakobs-Kirche (p. 148), gratuity 30 pf. ; ring at the N.W. door. 
Katharinen-Kirche (p. 145), gratuity 80 pf. ; key at Katharinen-Kloster 7, 

on the $. side of the church. 

134 Route 25. NUREMBERG. History. 

Lorenz-Kirche (p. 196), adm. 20, for 3-4 pers. 50 pf. ; knock at the 8. or 

N. door-, sacristan at Lorenzer-Platz 7. 
Sebaldus-Kirche (p. 133), adm. 20, 34 pers. 60 pf.-, knock at the W. north 

portal; sacristan at Burg-Str. 6. 

Principal Attractions (ly> day) : 1st Day. Morning : St. Lawrence (p. 136), 
Frauen-Kirche (p. 137), market-place (p. 187), St. Sebaldns (p. 139); after- 
noon : Burg (p. 142), walk round the town walls (p. 152), 8tadt-Park (p. 153). 
2nd Day: Germanic Museum (p. 147). 

Kuremberg, Germ. Nurnberg (1148 ft.), pop. 294,000 (86,900 
Rom. Cath., 6800 Jews), a free city of the Empire down to 1806, 
has since belonged to Bavaria. It is the headquarters of the 3rd Ba- 
varian army-corps. The Pegnits divides the old town into two nearly 
equal parts, the Lawrence and the Sebald sides, the latter being 
the older and more interesting. There is probably no town in Ger- 
many still so mediaeval in appearance, or so suggestive of the 
wealth, importance, and artistic taste of a 'City of the Empire'. 

History. The first historical mention of the castle of Nuremberg 
occurs in a document of 1050. In 1105 the fortress afforded protection 
for two months to Emp. Henry III., against his rebellious son, afterwards 
Emp. Henry IV. It subsequently passed by inheritance to the Hohen- 
staufens, Friedrich and Conrad, and in. 1127 successfully defied the attacks 
of the Emp. Lothair. Since that date, with the exception of a brief 
period under the rule of Henry the Proud (1130-38), Nuremberg maintained 
its independence as a free city of the Empire down to the year 1806. 
Conrad III. and Frederick Barbarossa frequently occupied the castle, and 
the privileges accorded to the town by these and other emperors greatly 
promoted its progress, which was accelerated by its adherence to the 
League of Rhenish Towns. From the 8. slope of the castle-hill it gra- 
dually extended down to and beyond the Pegnits. The government was 
originally vested in the patrician families ('Geschlechter'), and though 
these were expelled by the civic guilds in 1348 they returned in the fol- 
lowing year and with the aid of Charles IV. obtained a firmer grasp of 
power. That emperor cherished a special affection for Nuremberg, and 
in his Golden Bull of 1856 ordained that every emperor should hold 
his first diet in the ancient city. In 1424, during the Hussite war in 
the reign of his son the Emp. 8igismund, the imperial regalia were trans- 
ferred to Nuremberg, whence they were removed to Vienna in 1796. 

The early history of Nuremberg is closely interwoven with that of 
the Hohenzollern family. The office of Burgrave, originally a deputy 
governing in the name of the emperor, was first held by Frederick I. 
(d. 1218) of this family. About 1227 the Hohenzollerns divided into the 
Franconian and the Swabian lines, and after the 13th cent, the chief resi- 
dence of the family was at Eadolzburg (p. 151), and after 1363 at Ans- 
bach. When Frederick VI. was invested by the Emp. Sigismund with the 
Mark of Brandenburg in 1415, the Hohenzollerns formally ceded to the 
town their castle, which stood near the imperial castle, but they endeav- 
oured to retain their other rights in Nuremberg. The bitter feuds with 
the Margraves of Ansbach, Albrecht Achilles (1449), Frederick (1502), and 
Albrecht Alcibiades (1552), did not prevent the continuous growth of the 
town, which at the beginning of the 16th eent. had become, like Augs- 
burg, one of the chief depots of the trade between Germany, Venice, and 
the East. At this period, too, it wa* eminent as a centre of learning and 
took an active part in the introduction of the Reformation. Segionumtanus. 
the mathematician (p. Ill), Martin Behaim, the explorer, Cfirisioph Schevrl 
and WUlibald Pirkheimer, the scholars, and Hans Sachs the poet, all resided 
at Nuremberg. 

The discovery of the sea-route to India somewhat impaired the pros- 
perity of the town •, it suffered still more severely during the Thirty Years' 
War and during the 18th cent, its decline was hastened by the feeble 

Art History. NUREMBERG. 25. Route. 135 

rule of the patrician families. Since 1806, however, when Nuremberg 
became a Bavarian city, it has prospered greatly, and it is now the most 
important commercial and manufacturing town in Southern Germany. 
Machinery, toys, metal-wares, lead-pencils, and beer are amongrt its chief 
manufactures; and it is famous also for its gingerbread (Lebkuchen). It 
carries on a large trade in hops. 

Art History (com p. pp. xxiii-xxv). The principal churches, built of 
red sandstone, date from the 13- 15th cent., but the Secclab Buildings, 
which render Nuremberg so quaint and picturesque, were erected mainly 
in the 16th and early 17th cent., with the exception of a few older houses 
of rtone (e.g. the Nassauer Hans) and a number of half-timbered edifices 
with wooden galleries. In the domestic architecture of Nuremberg, one 
of the most characteristic expressions of the German Renaissance, special 
attention is given to the elegant oriel-windows ( l Chorlein') and to the 
artistic embellishment of the interior courts. 

The zeal with which the art of Sculpture was cultivated at a very 
early period is exemplified by the astonishing wealth of carving in the 
churches and by the beautiful fountain-figures (e.g. the Schone Brunnen), 
as well as by the numerous interesting signs and figures of saints, of the 
14-16th cent., with which the houses are embellished. Few authenticated 
names of artists have come down to us, none of the earlier period except 
that of Hans Decker; and for a long time it was customary to refer all 
work* of art to one or other of the three great matters Adam Kraft (ca. 
1450-1509), the 'stone-mason\ Veit Stoss (ca. 1450-1533), the wood-carver, 
and Peter Vischer the Elder (ca. 1455-1529), the brass -founder. Krafts 
principal works are the Stations on the way to St. John's Cemetery, the 
tasteful tabernacle in St. Lawrence's, and the Schreyer monument in the 
St. Sebaldus-Eirche. The best works of Veit Stoss are to be sought for 
in Cracow. Both of these masters are rooted in the traditions of me- 
diaeval art, and of conservative tendencies. Peter Vischer, on the other 
hand, endowed with a delicate sense of form, illustrates in the Shrine 
of St. Sebald the triumph of the spirit of the Renaissance, to which he 
was probably introduced by his pons, Peter Vischer the Younger (1503-28), 
an artist of versatile imagination, and Hermann (d. 1516), who was in Rome 
the year before his death. The foundry of the Vischer* was the most 
famous in Germany, and after it closed much meritorious work was pro- 
duced by Pancratz Labenwolf (1492-1563), a pupil of the elder Vischer 
(Gansemannchen and other popular fountain-figures). 

Tbe Nuremberg school ot Painting, influenced at first by the early 
masters of Prague and later by the Netherlandish schools, finds its first 
important representatives in the anonymous painters of thelmhoff, Tucher, 
and Loffelholz a'tar-pieces, dating frt m the beginning of the 15th century. 
In the latter half of the same century Ham Pleydenwurff (d. 1472; influenced 
by Roger van der Weyden) and Michael Wohlgemut (1434-1519) were the 
most prominent of Nuremberg painters. In order to understand the wide- 
spread fame of the Nuremberg school we must keep in mind that printing 
had recently been invented, engendering a taste for illustrated books, 
engravings, and wood-cuts; for the importance of Nuremberg art lies less 
in the products of the paint-brush than in the humorous and thoughtful 
creations embodied by means of the burin and the chisel. The charac- 
teristic tendency to depth of meaning shows itself in the pictures of Albreeht 
DUrer (1471-1528), a pupil of Wohlgemut, and the greatest painter whom 
Nuremberg has produced. Nuremberg itself, however, now possesses few 
products of his fertile genius; the only certified examples of his brush 
in his native town are the 'Hercules' (an early work), portraits of Emp. 
Charlemagne and Emp. Sigismund, and a Pieta, all in the Germanic Mu- 
seum. His best works are to be seen at Vienna, Munich, and Berlin. The 
most important of Durer's numerous pupils, the so-called 'little masters', 
Georg Pent (ca. 1500-60), Hans Sebald Beham (1500 50), and Barthel Beham 
(1502-40), were also prominent as engravers. In other departments of art 
the most famous names are those of Ve't Hirschvogel the Elder and the 
Younger, painters upon glass, the versatile Auguttin Hirschvogel, and Albreeht 
and Nikolaus Glockendon, the book-illustrators. 

136 Route 25. NUREMBERG. St. Lawrence. 

Painting now rapidly declined in Nuremberg. On the other hand the 
Artistic Handicrafts flourished here till far on in the 18th century. 
Among the specialities of Nuremberg in this direction were the production 
of artistic cabinets, pottery, and iron- work, pewter -work (Sans Lob- 
tinger; Kaspar Enderlein), and. above all, the casting of medals and gold- 
smiths 1 work. The mo c t celebrated die-cutters were Ludwig Krug (d. 1532) 
and the versatile Peter FIStner (d. 1546) ; the most renowned goldsmiths 
WentelJamntizer (1508-85), Bans Lenker (d. 1585), and Elias Zenker (d. 1591). 

Gomp. The Story of Nuremberg, by Cecil Meadlam, in the Mediaeval 
Towns Series (London; """** 

a. From the Bail way Station to the Castle Hill. Centre of 
the Town. 

From the new Central Station (PI. D, E, 4), in front of which 
stands an Equestrian Statue of Prince - Regent Luitpold, by Rue- 
mann (1901), we enter the town by the Frauen-Tor (p. 152), and 
reach the Konig-Stbasse (PL D, 3, 2), the busiest street in Nurem- 
berg, traversing the entire 'Lawrence side' (p. 134). 

To the left rises the Church of St. Clara (PI. D, 3; Rom. Oath.), 
an elegant early-Gothic structure, dedicated in 1274 but rebuilt 
in 1428-34. — Farther on, on the same side, is the late-Gothic 
Custom House (Mautgebaudt ; PI. D, 3), originally a corn-magazine, 
erected in 1498-1502 above the inner town-moat and now a ware- 
house. The relief above the portal, from Adam Kraft's workshop, 
and the lofty gable should be noticed. No. 32, the Mohren-Apotheke 
(druggist's shop), has a brick gable and a statue of the Madonna 
(15th cent.). 

In the Lorenzer P/ate(Pl. D, 3), 5 min. from the railway-station, 
rises the Gothic church of *St. Lawrence (PI. D, 3 ; Prot.), the finest 
in Nuremberg. It was begun about 1274 (?) on the site of a small 
Romanesque chapel. In 1403-45 the nave was widened, and in 
1439-77 the choir was rebuilt on a larger scale by Konrad Roritzer 
of Ratisbon. The whole edifice was carefully restored in 1824 by 
Heideloff. Above the W. Portal (14th cent.) with numerous sculp- 
tures is a superb rose window, 30 ft. in diameter. The N. Tower, 
with its roof of gilded copper, 233 ft. in height, has been re-erected 
in its original form since a fire in 1865. 

Interior (adm. see p. 184). The numerous Altars of the 15 -16th 
cent, afford an interesting survey of the development of art in Nurem- 
berg. In the gallery (usually closed) over the N. entrance id the Imhoff- 
Altar (ca. 1420), with the Coronation of the Virgin as altar-piece. The 
Wolfgang's Altar (No. 88), in the last chapel, also dates from about the 
same period. On the pillar opposite is the large Deokarus- Altar (No. 42), 
with animated figures of the Apostles (1406). Behind it is (No. 1) an Ado- 
ration of the Magi, which, along with the four fine winged pictures (Nos. 2, 
8) on the pillar opposite (Annunciation, Adoration of the Child, Flight 
into Egypt, and Massacre of the Innocents), is by the Master of the Lflffel- 
holz-Allar (p. 139). Near the latter, close to the fine two-storied sacristy 
(1483) and the tower with the spiral staircase (1519), which ascends to the 
gallery, are three allars ascribed to the studio of WoMgemut: No. 16. St. 
Catharine, No. 12. St. Rochus (1499), No. 18. 8t. Martha. The Krell Altar 
rNo. 5 ; end of the 15th century), behind the high-altar, bears the earliest 
:nown representation of the town; the St. Anna Altar (No. 4; 1521) in the 
J. ambulatory has winged paintings by Sans von £ulmbach. 

Frauen-Kirche. NUREMBERG. 25. Route. 137 

The Choir, like the chapels, is hung with the epitaphs of patrician 
families. The Gothic brass candelabrum is by P. Vischer the Elder (1439), 
and the Renaissance brass (1513) of Provost Anton Kress is from his 
foundry also. The finest work of art in the church is the *Ciboeium, or 
receptacle for the host, in the choir, beautifully and elaborately executed 
in stone, in the form of a tower, 65 ft. in height, and enriched with many 
sculptures of scenes from the life of Christ. The apex of the tower is bent 
like a bishop's staff. It rests upon the three kneeling * Figures of the 
sculptor Adam Kraft and his two assistants, who were engaged in the work 
from 1493 to 1600. In front of the altar (1839), suspended from the roof, 
is a curious *Work in carved wood with numerous figures, by Veit 8 toss, 
representing the Salutation. Seven of the beautiful stained-glass 'Windows 
in the choir date from the 15-17th cent. ; the finest are the 1st to the right, 
or *Tucher window', by Jak. Bpringlin of Ztirich (1601), and the 4th or 
'Volkamer window', representing the genealogy of Christ with the portrait 
of the donor (1493). The four Apostles (after Diirer; comp. p. 221) in 
the 3rd window are modern, as also the 2nd ('Kaiserfenster'), put up 
in 1881 in memory of the 84th birthday of Bmp. William I. 

The Tugcndbrunnen, a fountain on the N.W. side of the church, 
with numerous figures In bronze, was executed in 1589 by Benedlkt 
Wurzelbauer. To the left of it, at the corner of the Karolinen-Str. 
(p. 146), is the so-called *Nassauer Haus, erected In the Gothic 
style in the first third of the 15th cent., with a tasteful oriel, a gal- 
lery with coats of arms, and corner turrets. 

Farther on the Konig-Strasse descends to the Pegnitz, passing 
the Adler-Strasse (left) and Kaiser-Strasse, and (right) the Museum 
(PI. 4, D, 2 ; a private club). The Museum Bridge (PI. D, 2), rebuilt 
in 1700, commands a picturesque view of both banks. Thence the 
short Plobenhof-Strasse leads to the quaint old — 

Mabkbt-Placb (PI. D, 2), the centre of traffic on the 'Sebald 
side' (p. 134). This market and the adjacent fruit-market (see 
p. 138) occupy the site of the old Jews' quarter pulled down after 
a persecution about 1349. 

The Gothic Trauen-Kirche or Church of Our Lady (PI. D, 2; 
Rom. Gath. since 1816), on the E. side of the market-place, was 
erected in 1355-61 on the site of the synagogue. It was restored in 
1878-81 by Essenwein. Fine facade. Over the portal of the W. 
portico, with its rich sculpturing, on the wall of St. Michael's 
chapel (1411?), is a curious old clock, known as the 'MSnnlein- 
laufen', skilfully reconstructed in 1506-9 by G. Heuss and Seb. 
Lindenast, with moving figures of the seven German electors around 
the Emp. Charles IV. (seen daily at noon). The clock commemorates 
the 'Golden Bull' (p. 134) of the emperor. 

The Imtebiob (a dm., see p. 133) has recently been redecorated. At 
the end of the N. aisle is the *Tomb of the Peringsdorfer family of 
1498(7), by A. Kraft, with a relief of the Madonna a9 Mother of Mercy, 
formerly in the Augustinian monastery (p. 141). Adjacent is the *Tucher 
Altar, with a winged picture on a gold ground, one of the finest works 
of the Nuremberg school about 1440-60. To the right of the latter, beside 
the triumphal arch, is the *Tomb of Hans Rebeck (d. 1600), by A. Kraft, 
formerly in the Dominican monastery. At the sides, 14th cent, frescoes. 
Old stained glass in the choir, with the armorial bearings of many 
Nuremberg families. 

138 Route 25. NUREMBERG. Rathaus. 

In the G'ansemarkt, behind the Frauen-Kirche, is a quaint foun- 
tain-figure in bronze, by Pancratz Labenwolf (p. 135), called the 
*Gdnsemannchen ('little goose-man'; PI. 2), a peasant carrying a 
goose under each arm. — Fruit Market (Obst-Markt), see p. 144. 

The centre of the market-place is occupied by a copy (by Chr. 
Lenz ; 1902) of the Neptune Fountain, designed by the goldsmith 
Chr. Bitter. The original, though completed in 1652-60, was never 
erected in Nuremberg and having been sold in 1797 now graces 
the Peterhof near St, Petersburg. The carvings, by G. Schweiger, 
represent Tritons, nereids, sea-monsters, etc., while at the top is 
a colossal statue of Neptune. 

The *Schone Brunnen (PI. D,2), on the N. side of the market- 
place, erected in 1385-96 by Meister Heinrich, the l Palier\ and 
'restored in 1821-24, was once more thoroughly restored in 1902-3 
by H. Wallraff and painted according to a coloured drawing of the 
original by G. Penz (1541). The Gothic pyramid, 63 ft. in height, 
is adorned with numerous figures. The *Statues below represent 
seven electors and the nine worthies (vt*. Charlemagne, Godfrey 
de Bouillon, Glovis, the Christian worthies ; Judas Maccabseus, Joshua, 
David, the Jewish worthies ; Caesar, Alexander, Hector, the pagan 
worthies); those above, Moses and the seven prophets (originals in 
the Germanic Museum, p. 149). There are other seated figures of 
the Evangelists, Church Fathers, etc. The bronze railing round the 
fountain is Gothic in its lower part ; the upper part, in the Renais- 
sance style, is a replica of an addition (now lost) made in 1587 by 
Paulus Kuhn, a blacksmith of Augsburg. 

The long Gothic House, to the N. of the Schone Brunnen, is 
said to date from the 14th century. — No. 19, Hauptmarkt(Pl.D, 2 ; 
tablet), was the residence of the celebrated humanist Pirhheimer 
(1470-1530; p. 183). No. 15, adjacent, adorned with frescoes de- 
signed by "Wanderer (1886), is the house in which Martin Behaim, 
the cosmographer T1459-1506), was born. Until 1523 the crown- 
jewels (comp. p. 134) were exhibited annually in front of this house, 
known as the 'Heiltums-Kammer'. — The attractive Relief of the 
Madonna on the house No. 11, is attributed to Adam Kraft. 

A few yards to the N.W. of the market-place lies the Rathaus- 
Platz (PI. D, 1, 2), with the Rathaus and the church of St. Sebaldus. 
A band plays here on Sun. at noon. 

The *Rathaus was originally a Gothic edifice of 1332-40, but 
of this only the Saalbau on the S. with the skilfully restored lofty 
E. gable in the Rathaus-Gasschen now remains. Hans Behaim the 
Elder erected a late-Gothic addition in the rear in 1615; and in 
1616-22 the whole structure was practically rebuilt in the Italian 
Renaissance style by Jacob Wolf the Younger. The facade, 280 ft. 
* in length, has three fine portals with sculptures designed by Christoph 
Jamnitzer. The tasteful bronze fountain in the interesting old court 
is by Pancratz Labenwolf (1567). In the S.E. corner of the court, 

St. Sebaldus. NUREMBERG. 25. Route. 139 

on Behaim's addition, is a gallery with Gothic balustrades, resting 
upon curious carved brackets. The late -Gothic part of the build- 
ing to the E., with a fine facade towards the Theresien-Str., was 
added by Essenwein in 1885-89. In the small court is a bronze 
figure of Apollo, from a fountain, by Hans Vischer (1632). 

Intsbiob (adm., see p. 133; entrance opposite St. Sebald's; bell for 
the custodian on the first floor, to the right). The chief attraction is the 
Great Hall, on the first floor, 128 ft. long and 36 ft. broad, with its 
timber roof. The decoration of this hall, which has recently been thoroughly 
restored, dates from the 1617th cent., with the exception of two early- 
Gothic reliefs on the E. wall (Emp. Lewis the Bavarian enthroned; Alle- 
gorical representation of the commercial league between Nuremberg and 
the Flemish cities). Only three of the famous frescoes executed here in 
1522 by O. Pen* (?) from Dtirer** designs have survived, and these were 
retouched in 1613, viz. (on the N. wall), Triumphal procession of the Emp. 
Maximilian, Town Musicians, and Calumny (after Apelles). Above the 
door under the first of these is the motto 'Eins manns red 1st ein halbe 
red, man soil die teyl verhoren bed 1 . In the centre of the 8. wall is a 
mural painting, executed in 1613 (restored in 1824), representing an execu- 
tion by the 'falling* axe\ a rudimentary kind of guillotine.^ 

On the wall of the staircase to the second floor is a large painting by 
Paul Bitter (1883) : The representatives of Nuremberg entering the town 
in triumphal procession with the imperial regalia in 1424. — The ceiling of 
the long corridor in the second floor is adorned with a relief in stucco 
representing a tournament held at Nuremberg in 1446, executed by Ban* 
and Heinrich Kuhn in 1621 (restored in 1891). — The so-called Small Hall 
has a timber-ceiling by Ban* Wilh. Behaim (d. 1619), «nd contains paint- 
ings by Wanderer and a reproduction of Wenzel Jamnitzer"* famous table- 
service (now in Paris). — The court-room, with a portal of 1622, has 
(left side) a tasteful Renaissance door, by Peter Fldtner, from a house he- 
longing to the Imhoff family. 

On the 3rd floor is the Municipal Picture Gallery (chiefly modern 
paintings). Boom I. J&ger, Emp. Maximilian I. visiting A. Diirer in 1518) 
Ant. Feuerbach, *Battle of Amazons $ Bauer, Body of Emp. Otho III. being 
brought across the Alps. — R. II. Joachim von Bandrart, Banquet in the 
Bathaus in 1649: Maar, The Schone Brunnen, 1424; Mayer, Interior of St. 
Sebald's. — R. ill. Kreling, Magdeburg era besieged by Tilly receiving the 
Sacrament; also portraits of distinguished Nurembergers. 

Beneath the small court-yard are some old Dungeon* (Loch-Qefang- 
nuse), of the 14th century. Subterranean Postages, once used for the 
water-supply, lead hence in various directions. The passage leading to 
the casemates beneath the imperial castle was constructed for defensive 
purposes in 1543. 

An arcbway connects the Rathaus with the Municipal Court 
(PL D, 2), a modern Renaissance edifice (1896-99) in the Funfer- 
Platz (p. 144). The court-room is frescoed by Heim and others. — 
Rathaus- Keller, see p. 132. 

The church of *St. Sebaldus (PI. D, 2; Prot.), dedicated in 1274, 
occupies the site of an early-Romanesque chapel of St. Peter. The 
elevated W. choir with the Loffelholz Chapel, above St. Peter's 
crypt (rediscovered in 1899), and the nave, which was widened 
by a Gothic architect in 1309, date from this first church, which 
was in the transition style. The towers, begun respectively in 
1300 and 1345, were not completed until 1483. In 1361-79 the 
church was provided with a Gothic J5. choir, an imposing erection 

140 Route 25. NUREMBERG. St. Sebaldus. 

with aisles and an ambulatory. The exterior of the church, care- 
fully restored in 1894-1902 by O. Hauberrisser (p. 199) and Schmtt%, 
is distinguished by an unusual wealth of decorative sculptures. 
Over the S.W. portal (14th cent.) is the Last Judgment, and at the 
sides are fine statues of SS. Peter and Catharine. At the S.E portal 
(the 'Schau-Tur'Y is another representation of the Last Judgment, 
\>yVeit Stoss (1486). By the N.E. portal ('Bride's Door') appear the 
Wise and Foolish Virgins ; and by the N.W. portal ('Anschreibe- 
Tur) are reliefs of the Death, Burial, and Coronation of the Virgin, 
all dating from the middle of the 14th century. The colossal statue 
of St. Christopher (1442), on the W. choir, is ascribed to Hans 
Decker (p. 135). The 'Schreyer Monument', on the E. choir, with 
numerous llfesize figures in stone, representing the Bearing of the 
Cross, the Entombment, and the Resurrection, executed in 1492 by 
Adam Kraft, is one of the richest and most important of his works. 

The Interior (adm., see p. 134) has been under restoration since 1903, 
and in consequence the positions of some of the works of art are tempo- 
rarily altered. The W. Choir contains a Gothic bronze font, at which the 
future Emp. Wenzel was baptized in 1361. The beautiful Loffelholz 
Altar, with carvings and paintings betraying Netherlandish influence, dates 
from 1453. 

On the pillars of the Nave are numerous statues of the 14th century. 
The Haller altar-piece , by the 2nd pillar on the left, is an early work by 
the Master of the Tucher Altar (p. 137). The sandstone relief of the Bear- 
ing of the Cross, by the 2nd pillar on the right, is by Adam Kraft (1496). 
Beside the 6th pillar on the left is a wooden 'Statue of the Madonna 
(ca. 1450). under its original canopy, with admirably preserved gilding 
and painting. — Over the Schau-Tiir (see above), near the modern late- 
Gothic pulpit (1859), is a relief of the Madonna, retaining the original 
colouring, perhaps an early work from the studio of Wohlgetnut. 

East Choib. **St. Sebalds Shrine ('Sebaldus-Grab'), the master- 
piece of Peter "Fischer, the celebrated artist in bronze, was completed by 
him with the aid of his five sons in 1519, after eleven years'* labour. This is 
one of the most important monuments of German art, in which ancient 
traditional German conceptions and ideas. are blended with elements sug- 
gested by the humanists of Nuremberg or borrowed from the Lombard 
sculptors of the Renaissance. From a platform borne by twelve snails rises 
a Gothic canopy surmounted by three domes and enclosing the Gothic silver 
sarcophagus (restored in 1506) in which are preserved the relics of the 
saint. On the sides of the sarcophagus are four 'Reliefs, representing the 
miracles of St. Sebald and heads in the antique style; at the W. end is 
St. Sebald, at the E. end Peter Vischer with apron and chisel, two beau- 
tiful statuettes. The canopy displays an astonishing wealth of charming 
Renaissance ornamentation and carving of every description $ pagan deities 
(Zeus, Venus, etc.) and other figures of classical mythology (centaurs, tritons, 
nereids, sirens) appear side by side with putti playing with lions and dogs 
and with representations of the four Christian cardinal virtues (between the 
central pillars); in niches round the sarcophagus are the twelve * Apostles; 
on the top are statuettes of prophets of the old dispensation; and on the 
central dome appears the Infant Christ with tbe terrestrial globe. — Over 
the late-Gothic high- altar is a "Crucifixion by Veit Stoss, said to be his 
latest work (1526). By one of the pillars is a statuette of the Madonna, by 
Stephan Godl (ca. 1520). 

In tbe Ambulatory are numerous 15th cent, statues of saints, including 
several by Veit Stnss. To tbe left is the 'Tucher Altar-piece, painted in 
1513 by Hans von Kulmoach, from drawings by DUrer; the central painting, 
the Virgin enthroned, with SS. Catharine and Barbara and angelic music- 
ians, breathes quite a Venetian spirit. Farther on are a richly sculptured 

Durer's House. NUREMBERG. 25. Route. 141 

ciborium (after 1400) and three reliefs by Veit Stost (1449) : Last Sapper, 
Christ on the Mt. of Olives, and the Kiss of Judas. — The stained-glass 
windows, the earliest of which date from the 14th cent., are, like those in 
St. Lawrence's church, among tbe finest in Germany. Over the central 
altar is the 'Maximilian Window, by Veit Hirtchvogd (1514), with portraits 
of Emp. Maximilian, the donor, his first wife Maria of- Burgundy (d 1482), 
his son Philip the Fair, and Joanna of Castile. To the right are the Bam- 
berg Window, designed by Wolfgang KaizhHmer (1501) $ the * Margrave 
Window (designed by Bans von Kulmbach) presented by Margrave Frederick 
of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and the Pfinzing Window, boih executed by 
Veit Eirtchvogel (1515) j and the Volkamer Window (ca. 1495), perhaps an 
early work of Hirschvogel. 

The Parsonage of St. Sebald, on the N. side of the church, has 
a fine Gothic 'Chorlein' (oriel; p. 136), restored in 1902 by Schmitz 
(the original, of the 14th cent., is now in the Germanic Museum, 
p. 149). The house was once occupied by Melchior Pfinzing (d. 1535), 
provost of St. Sebald, and author of the 'Teuerdank', an allegorical 
narrative of the wooing of Mary of Burgundy by Emp. Maximilian I. 
— Opposite St. Sebald's, on the N., is the Gothic Chapel of St. Moritz 
(PI. D, 1), built in 1313, and restored in 1829. Adjoining is the 
Bratwurst-GlockUin (p. 132), mentioned as early as 1519. 

To the S.W. of St. Sebald's, Winkler-Str. 29, is Palm's House 
(PI. 5 ; C, D, 2) , with the inscription : 'Here dwelt John Palm, 
bookseller, who fell a victim to the tyranny of Napoleon in 1806'. 
The patriotic Palm had published a pamphlet on the 'Degradation 
of Germany', written in a tone derogatory to France, for which the 
Emperor caused him to be condemned by a court-martial and shot 
(p. 296). — At the corner of the adjacent Augustiner-Strasse, on 
the site of an Augustinian monastery, stand the Courts of Law 
(PI. 3 ; C, D , 2), erected by Solger in 1877. In the hall are marble busts 
of the jurists Anselm von Feuerbach and Rud. von Holzschuher ; 
the Commercial Court contains a large painting by A. Feuerbach. 

Opposite Palm's house, over the gateway of the Stadtwage, is a 
good relief by Kraft (1497), who executed also the Annunciation 
(1504) on No. 24. Near this (Winkler-Strasse 20) is the house in 
which Durer was born, with an inscription. The houses Nos. 5 and 
1 have tasteful court-yards, dating respectively from 1496 and 1516. 

We now cross the Weinmarkt (PI. C, 1, 2) to the N.W., noting 
the line Statues of the Madonna on Nos. 12a and 12, and enter the 
Albrecht- Durer -Strasse. No. 39 in this street, near the Tier- 
gartner-Tor, is Durer's House (PL 1 ; C, 1), the property of the city. 
It contains a collection of antique furniture and utensils, and also 
numerous copies of Durer's paintings. Adm., see p. 133. 

We return to the Rathaus (p. 138), on the S.E., via the Berg- 
Strasse and the Albrecht-Durer-Platz (PI. D, 1), in which are 
Rauch's Statue of Durer (1840) and an attractive statue of the Ma- 
donna of 1482 (on No. 4). 

On the right side of the Burg-Steassb is the old Dominican 
monastery, containing the Municipal Archives on the groundfloor. 
The upper floor contains the Municipal Library (PI. D, 1; adm., 

142 Route 25. NUREMBERG. • Castle. 

see p. 133), of 100,000 vols, and !2000MSS., including a missal with 
fine miniatures by the brothers Glockendon (p. 135) ; also early spec- 
imens^ typography, e.g. the Rationale of Durandus (1459), printed 
by Fust atMayence; autographs of Luther, Melanchthon, Ulrich von 
Hutten, Hans Sachs, etc. 

No. 15 in the Burg-Strasse, is the Fembo-Haus, a Renaissance 
edifice of the early 17th cent. 5 No. 21 was Wohlgemuth House-; No. 10, 
the Scheurl Eaus (1482), has a room with fine Gothic panelling. 

The Burg-Strasse ascends the Burg Hugel or Castle Hill 
(1164 ft. ; PI. C, D, 1) to the N., a sandstone rock on the N.W. side 
of the town, on which stand the Imperial Castle, the remains of the 
small Burgraves' Castle (p. 134), destroyed in the war of 1420, and 
two municipal edifices. Three routes lead to the top : the 'Himmels- 
Weg', to the left, leads via the Hasenburg (a small outwork sold to 
the town in 1432) direct to the Kaiserburg (see below) ; the path 
to the right leads to the imperial stables (p. 143); that in the 
centre ascends to the — 

Burggrafenburg, or Bur grave' 8 Castle. Of this stronghold the 
only remains are the Pentagonal Tower (' Alt-Numberg'), the oldest 
building in the town (11th cent. ; upper parts of the 14th or 15th 
cent.); the St. Ottmar's or Walpurgis Chaptl, a Romanesque struc- 
ture rebuilt after 1420; and the Amlmanris Wohnung, probably 
erected as early as 1273 as a guard for the Kaiserburg. 

The tower (adm. 80 pf.) contains a torture-chamber with the 'Iron 
Virgin 1 , a hollow figure with iron spikes in the interior, into which the 
victim was thrust, and' a collection of antiquities. From beside the 
tower we command a view of the wide moat and the N. suburbs. On 
the parapet are shown two hoof-shaped impressions, which are said to 
have been left by the horse of a captive robber-knight (Eppelein von 
Gailingen) in the 16th cent., who escaped by leaping over the moat. 
This incident gave rise to a sarcastic proverb : 'The Nurembergers hang no 
man, unless they have caught him\ — We then pass through the W. 
gate to the Fretting or 'Liberty', so called from the right of asylum exer- 
cised by the burgraves, commanding a view of the old town surrounded 
by a girdle of factory-chimneys in the newer suburbs. — Another gateway 
brings us to the Sinwell or Vettner-Turm with a cornice and roof dating 
from 1562 (view from the top; 10 pf.), and farther on is the Deep Well, the 
depth of which is shown by lowering candles into it, or by reflecting the 
daylight upon the surface of the water by means of a mirror (10 pf.). 

Straight on is the Kaiserburg, or Imperial Castle f founded in 
the 11th cent, and enlarged by Frederick Barbarossa in the 12th. 
It was restored in the Gothic style and fitted up as a royal resi- 
dence in 1854-66, and since 1866 has belonged in common to the 
Bavarian and Prussian royal families (ring at the gate ; fee 1 /2-l Jt\ 

The Inner Gateway, adjoining the Heidenturm (p. 148) is a Renais- 
sance building of 1562. The venerable Lime Tree in the court, said to have 
been planted by the Empress Eunigunde, wife of Emp. Henry II. (1002-24), 
died in 1893. In the old Palat the only points of interest are the chapel, 
built into the Heidenturm, and the royal apartments. The Chapel is a 
double Romanesque structure of the 12th cent. ; above is the Kaiser- Kapelle, 
with some fculptures and paintings, below is St. Margaret's Chapel, pro- 
bably originally used as a burial-vault. The Royal Apartments, fitted up 
in the late-Gothic style in 1854-56, contain several Renaissance tile -stoves. 

Church of St. Mgidius. NUREMBERG. 25. Route . 143 

The ceiling of the audience-chamber, painted in 1520 by Hans Springinklee, 
a pupil of Diirer, shows coats of arms with the motto of Charles V. ; on 
the timber ceiling of the study (14th cent.) appears the imperial eagle. — 
The modern balcony on the W. side of the castle afford splendid views of 
the city and environs. — The castle- enclosure (now a royal garden), on 
the W. side of the castle-hill, is open to the public. 

Next the Pentagonal Tower (p. 142), on the right, is the old gran- 
ary, built by Hans Behaim the Elder in 1494-95, now known as the 
Kaiseb-Stallung (PI. D, 1 ; 'imperial stables'), with a coat-of-arms 
by A. Kraft. To the E. of this is the Luginsland, with turrets at its 
four corners, said to have been built by the townsfolk in 1367 in 
order to watch the burgrave's castle. 

b. The E. Quarters of the Old Town. 

In the Paniers-Platz (PL D, 1), a few paces to the E. of the 
castle Mil, rises the Toppler House (PI. 8), a Renaissance edifice of 
1590-97. No. 9 in the same square, has a Gothic tower with a spiral 
staircase j No. 20 is a Gothic timber-framed building. 

At No. 12 Schildgasse, farther down, in the house known as 
'Zur Blame', is the Natural History Museum (adm. see p. 133). At 
the House with the Golden Shield, opposite (No. 23), the first twenty- 
three articles of the Golden Bull (p. 134) were composed in 1356. 

Turning to the E. out of the Paniers-Platz we pass the former 
Max-Tor and traverse the Sieben Zeilen (PI. E, 1), i.e. seven rows 
of weavers' houses, erected in 1488 on the site of the old town- 
moat, to the Hibschblgassb (PI. E, 1). No. 11, on the left, is the 
Tucher Landhaus, erected in 1533-34 and tastefully restored by 
Gabr. Seidl, with an interesting courtyard. — The Hirschvogel House 
(No. 21 ; since 1905 the property of the town), farther on, contains 
at the back a beautiful hall in the early -Renaissance style by 
P. Flotner (1534; ring at the gate). 

Retracing our steps, we cross the Webers-Platz to the Landauer 
Bruder-Kloster (PI. E, 1), now the Real-Gymnasium (boys' school). 
The fine vaulting of the late-Gothic chapel (1506; gratuity 30 pf.) 
is borne by two spiral columns. For this chapel, in 1511, Durer 
painted his celebrated All Saints altar-piece, now at Vienna. — A 
few paces lower down is the Lauferschlag-Turm (reconstructed in 
1508 and 1561), a remnant of the second town-wall (p. 152). 

In the Egidibn-Platz (PI. D, E, 1), to the W. of the Landauer 
Kloster, rises the Protestant Church of St. JEgidius (adm. see 
p. 133), originally a Romanesque basilica belonging to the Schotten- 
Kloster, the oldest monastery in the town; the cfrurch was burned 
down in 1696 and rebuilt in 1711-18 from designs by J. Trost. 

Three chapels dating from the original church have been preserved: 
the Gothic Tetzel-Kapelle (1345), containing numerous hatchments of the 
Tetzel family, and the tomb (injured in the fire) of the Landauer family, 
by Adam Kraft y and adorned on the exterior with a statue of the Virgin, 
perhaps an early work by Adam Kraft (?); the Romanesque Eucharins 
Chapel (12-i3th cent.); and the Gothic Wolfgangs-Kapelle, with a large 
group of the Entombment by Ham Decker (V; 1446). 

144 Route 25. NUREMBERG. Heiliggeist-Kirche. 

The church is peculiar in having an oval nave. The decoration 
illustrates the transition from the baroque to the rocuco style. To the left 
behind the high-altar is the brass of the Eisen family, in the Renaissance 
style, with a Pieta in relief, by Peter Vischer (1522). 

On the W. side of the church stands a bronze Equestrian Statue 
of Emp. William /., by Ruemann (1905). — The *Peller House 
(No. 23; PL 6), now the property of Eysser, the art-dealer (p. 133), 
on the N. side of the Platz, was erected in 1605 by Jakob Wolf the 
Elder. It is the finest late -Renaissance building in Nuremberg, 
with a beautiful three - storied court and a handsomely fitted up 
interior (gratuity). 

No. 13 Egidien-Platz, on the W. side, was the house of the 
famous printer Anton Koberger (ca. 1440-1513). — Opposite is a 
Statue of Melanchthcn, by J. D. Burgschmiet (18*26), in front of the 
Oymnasium organized by him in 1526. 

Adjoining on the S.W . is the little Theresibn- Platz (PI. D, 1, 2), 
with a bronze statue of Martin Behaim (p. 138), by Ressner (1890), 
whence the Bindergasse and the Theresien-Str. lead to the W. to 
the Rathaus (p. 138). Bindergasse No. 20 and Theresien-Str. No. 23 
are adorned with ^Reliefs by A. Kraft (Joshua and Caleb, and 
St. George and the Dragon). — Kraft's House, Theresien-Str. 7, 
probably erected by Hans Behaim the Elder about 1510, has a fine 
two-storied court containing a statuette of St. Maurice, by Peter 
Vischer the Elder. 

Adam Kraft's Statue of the Virgin at Bindergasse 1, corner of 
the FBnfer-Platz, and the Statue of the Madonna at Obst-Markt 16 
have been disfigured by painting. — Close by, at the back of the 
municipal court (p. 139), is a fine Statue of St. Helena (15th cent.). 

The Tuchbr-Strasse (PL D, E, 2), to the E. of the Obst-Markt, 
possesses three of the finest Courts in Nuremberg, at Nos. 15, 20 
('Historischer HoP , p. 132), and 21. — At the corner of this street 
and the Neue Gasse is the Grubel Fountain (PI. E, 2), by "Wanderer 
(1881), with a figure of Konrad Grubel (1736-1809), a popular poet 
of Nuremberg. — Not far to the W., at the corner of the Ebners- 
gasse and the Heugasschen, is the bronze Bagpiper Fountain, a 
copy of a Renaissance model in the Germanic Museum. 

The Spital-Platz (PI. D, 2), the E. side of which is occupied 
by the Synagogue, built in 1869-74 in the Moorish style, by 
A. Wolff, is adorned with a bronze Statue of Hans Sachs (1494- 
1576), by J. K. Krausser (1874). The house in which the poet was 
born is in the adjacent Hans-Sachs-Gasse (PI. 9; No. 17). 

On the S. side of the Spital-Platz stands the Protestant Heilig- 
geist-Kirche (PI. D, 2; adm. see p. 133), a Gothic structure (1331- 
41) belonging to the neighbouring hospital, and formerly the de- 
pository of the imperial regalia (p. 134). The interior, modernized 
in 1662-63 and restored in 1902, contains a fine crucifix, in the 
style of Veit Stoss, and old frescoes (1420) in the aisles and at the 

entrance to the chapel to the left of the choir, in which is the tomb 

Industrial Museum. NUREMBERG. 25. Route. 145 

of Konrad Grose (d. 1356), the founder of the hospital. — In the 
anterior court of the Hospital is the curious Hansel Fountain, with 
a Renaissance railing, and in an adjoining court ( the E. 
through the Noris-Stift) is a Chapel built in 1459 on the model of 
the Holy Sepulchre. 

Turning to the S. from the Spital-Platz we cross the Heu-Brueke 
to the island of Schutt (Pi. D, E, 2), with the Manner schuld-Twrm, 
a relic of the secoiid town-wall (p. 152); view to the left of the 
picturesque row of houses on the Pegnitz. Thence the Schuld-Brucke 
leads to the Nonnengasse, to the left from which runs the Peter- 
Vischer-Gasse, containing the house in which Peter Viseher the Elder 
lived (PI. 10, D, 3; No. 23, left side). 

Retracing our steps we turn to the right via the Eatharinengasse 
to the Gothic Chubch op St. Catharine (PI. E, 2; adm. see p. 133), 
of the beginning of the 14th cent, used by the Meistersingers as 
their school from 1620 onwards. It contains a painting by W. Hitter, 
representing the town and castle of Nuremberg in the 17th century. 

— To the left, at the end of the street, rises the — 

Bavarian Industrial Museum (PL E, 2, 3), consisting of a main 
building (1894-96), in the baroque style, and an addition of 1900. 
Adm. see p. 133; director, Th. von Kramer. 

Main Building. On the groundfloor, to the right, are modern in- 
dustrial art exhibitions; the first floor contains ancient and modern patterns 
for industrial art (principally fayence, stoneware, and porcelain) ; and on 
the second floor are a collection of specimens selected as models and the 
library (librarian, Dr. Paul R4e). Fine view of the old town from the 

New Building (opposite). On the groundfloor are two halls containing 
machinery, while the upper floor contains machine-tools and the electro- 
technical section. 

. A few paces to the E., at No. 8 Marientorgraben, is the Bavarian 
Railway ft Postal Museum {Verkehrs-Museum; PI. E, 2), opened 
in 1899. Adm. see p. 133. 

The Gbouhdploob contains the railway section. Booms I. ft II. Models 
of engines and railway-carriages; in tbe passage to the left. Bismarck's 
saloon-carriage — Room V. Models of bridges. — Boom VII. Models of 
steam ferry-boats, chain-towing steamers (from the Main), and steamers 
from Lake Constance. — Room IX. Engine- boilers and fire-boxes. 

On the Fibst Floob is the postal and telegraphic section, including 
telephonic and telegraphic apparatus; pneumatic post; models of mail- 
coaches; and a collection of postage-stamps. 

c. The S.W. Quarters of the Old Town. 

The main thoroughfares between the Lorenzer-Platz (p. 136) and 
the Spittler-Tor (p. 152) are the Karolinbn-Steassb (PI. D, C, 3) 
and the Ludwig-Stbasse (PI. 0, B, 3). 

No. 30 Karolinen-Str. has a graceful oriel window (ChSrlein ; after 
1700), and No. 34 has a Renaissance gable and court (16th cent.). 

— In the Hefners-Platz (PI. C, 3) stands a monument (1905 j by 
M. Meissner) to Peter Henlein (1480-1642), who is supposed to 
have been the intentor of watches ('Nuremberg eggs'). 

Baxdbkkb'b 8. Germany. 10th Edit. 10 

146 Route 25. NUREMBERG. St. Jakob s-Kirche. 

The Ludwig-Strasse leads past the Weisse Turm, a relic of the 
second town-wall (p. 152), to the — 

Jakobb-Platz (PI. C, B, 3), where, on the right, stand the old 
Deutsche Hans, or Teutonic Lodge, now the office of the command- 
ing general, and the Roman Catholic Church of St. Elizabeth, built 
in 1785 by the Knights of the Teutonic Order in a classical style, 
but left unfinished, and restored in 1902-04. — In the middle of 
the Platz rises the — 

St. Jakobs-Xirche (PI. B, C, 3; Prot.), founded in 1209 as the 
church of the Teutonic Order, rebuilt in the 14-16th cent., partly 
restored by Heideloffin 1824-26, and reconstructed by Eyrich in 1892. 

The Interior (adm., see p. 133) contains many fine sculptures in wood 
and stone (14-16th cent.). Near the W. portal, The Virgin and St. John, 
figures from a group of the Crucifixion in the style of Veit Stots. — In the 
N. aisle, 'Lamentation for Christ (Virgin, with the body of Christ, and 
St. John), a large group by Veit Slots, to whom also is ascribed the group 
of St. Anna, the Virgin, and Child, on a winged altar in the Dillherr 
Chapel. This aisle contains also remains of frescoes (1510), and a famous 
♦Pieta (the Virgin kneeling before the body of Christ), a group clo ely 
allied in style to tbe Nuremberg Madonna (p. 149). — In the S. aisle is a 
small statue of the Virgin by Veit Slots, who executed also the relief of 
the Last Judgment In the Egloflstein Chapel. — The fine choir, adorned 
with many hatchments of Teutonic Knights, contains good statues of 
saints (14th cent.) and a Gothic high-altar (ca. 1400) with winged paintings 
(retouched) and four admirable figures of Apostles in terracotta (six others 
of the series being now in the Germanic Museum, p. 149). 

From the Jakobs-Platz we may follow the Jakob-Str. to the E. 
to the Corn Market (PI. C, D, 3), to the left of which, along the 
inner town-wall, are a row of Corn Magazines, now used by the hop- 
merchants, and the old Arsenal, with a portal of 1588. From the 
Corn Market the Vordere Kartausergasse leads to the right to the 
Germanic Museum (p. 147). 

We turn to the N.E., in the direction of the inner town-wall, 
and follow the Weizen-Str. (PI. C, 3, 2) past the Weizen-Oebaude, 
an extensive baroque building of 1672 (now the Tucher brewery), 
to the Unschlitt-Platz (PI. C, 2), with the old Unschlitt-Haus (1490- 
91), originally a granary, now a pawn-broking office. 

Superb *Views of the town (particularly fine by moonlight) are 
afforded by the four lower Bridges over the Pegnitz (comp.Pl. C, 2): 
the Max-Briicke, rebuilt in 1852-63 by B. Solger; the Kettensteg 
(1824), one of the first suspension-bridges in Germany, beside the 
present town-wall (p. 162); the iron Henkersteg, and the Derrer- 
Briicke (1486), between theTrodelmarkt Island and the Karl-Strasse. 

In the grounds of the Max-Platz (PI. C, 2), near the Henkersteg, 
is the Triton Fountain, by Bromig (1687). — In the court of No. 23 
Karl-Str. are some realistic Carvings, in the style of Hans Sebald 
Beham (p. 135), representing a village church-festival, etc. — The 
one- arched Fleisch-Brucke (PI. D, 2), rebuilt in 1596-98, near the 
central market-place (p. 137), is a copy of theRialto bridge in Venice. 

In the Adlbk-Steassb (PI. C, D, 2), in the centre of which 

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stands a Warriors' Monument (1876), the facades of Nos. 21 and 25 
should be noticed, the former with rococo decoration (18th cent.), 
the latter in the Renaissance style (16th cent.). In the Gothic court 
of No. 19 is a small relief (Adoration of the Child) by Adam Kraft 
(1498) ; and on No. 28 is one of the earliest Statues of the Madonna 
in the town (14th cent.). 

d. The Germanio Museum. 

The *Germanio National Museum (PI. 0, D, 3; adm., see 
p. 133), an institution founded in 1852 by Baron von Aufsess for 
the illustration of German historical research, consists of collections 
hearing on the history of art and of civilization (entr., Kart'auser- 
gasse 7), a library, archives, and a cabinet of engravings (entr., 
Untere Grasersgasse 18). Since 1857 it has been established in a 
suppressed Carthusian Monastbry, a Gothic structure founded in 
1380 and enlarged in the 15th cent. , with a church and two cloistered 
courts. The building has been repeatedly extended by A. von Essen- 
wein (1866-92) and Dr. von Bezold, the present director (the 
latest addition being the Sudwestbau, or S.W. wing, completed in 
1902), and owing to the munificence of private donors the museum 
has become one of the finest in Germany. The objects of general 
interest are exhibited in a series of rooms open to the public, while 
others are reserved for the use of artists and students (adm. on ap- 
plication to the directors of the various sections). The rooms are 
very cold, particularly those on the groundfloor (stone floors every- 
where), and for the most part badly lighted. In addition to the 
excellent general guide ('Wegweiser' ; 1906 ; 50 pf.), there are fifteen 
separate catalogues . There is a refreshment-room in Cloister Wing 30. 

Groundfloor. — Immediately to the left, in Rooms 1 & 2, are 
the prehistoric collections. R. 1. Articles of the stone age; model 
of a lake dwelling; copy of a so-called 'Hun's grave' (sepulchral 
mound), etc. R. 2. Antiquities of the bronze and iron ages (Hail- 
statt and La Tene periods). 

Cloister 3 (the front portion of the N. walk of the main cloistered 
court) and the adjoining Halls 4 & 5 contain Roman antiquities 
found in Germany. In the cloister, Casts of sepulchral monuments 
(lst-4th cent. A.D.)» Hall 4. Two beams from the bridge over the 
Rhine at Mayence; glass vessels, etc. — Room 6 (to the left). 
Recent acquisitions. 

Passagb 7 (r.) and Room 8 (1.) contain Germanic antiquities 
(4-10th cent.). R. 8. Copy of the 'Treasure of Athanarich', King of 
the Visigoths (d. 381 ; original at Bucharest) ; gold ornaments of the 
Ostrogoths from Ravenna; early-Germanic helmet, from Pfersee 
near Augsburg, and Frankish weapons; objects from tombs in Thai- 
massing; gold and bronze coins ; damascened belt-hooks ; works of 
art of the Carolingian period. 


' 148 Route 25. NUREMBERG. Germanic Museum. 

Cloistbr Wing 9. Casts of mediaeval sepulchral monuments 
(down to the 14th cent.). — Booms 10-13 (on the left). Stoves and 
stove-tiles. — Booms 14 & 15. Work in wrought iron and tiles. 

East Cloister Wing 17. Casts of sepulchral monuments (14th 
cent.) and seals (12-1 9th cent.). — Adjoining, in Halls 19, 20, 24, 
& 25 and in the new Romanesque Cloistbr (18, 21-23), are casts 
of sculptures of the 10- 16th centuries. Court D. Copy in cement 
of the Roland Column at Bremen. 

The South Wing (26) of the large cloistered court contains casts 
of tombstones (15- 16th cent.) and *Stained glass (12-16th cent.). 

The finest specimens of stained glass are : Frames i 6 2. Romanesque 
windows of French origin (ca. 1200) ; 7. Early-Gothic panes from Cologne $ 
16. Windows from the Frauen - Kirche, with the Scourging of Christ, 
executed by Nuremberg artists of the 15th cent. ; 19-22. Windows with 
coats of arms from Nuremberg; 23. Half-length portrait of a married couple 
(Swabian, ca. 1500), *8t. Fridolin and Death; 24. Death and a canon 
(Nuremberg work), Virgin with angels (Nuremberg, ca. 1600); 25. Christ 
with three martyred saints (Swiss; 1517). 

Hall 27 (to the left at the end of the S. wing). Judicial ex- 
hibits; instruments of torture; headsmen's swords (17-18th cent.); 
falling-axe (18th cent.). — From the S. wing we pass straight 
on into — 

Rooms 28 & 29, containing majolica, porcelain, stoneware, glass, 
and tin utensils. 

R. 28. Cab. 1. Spanish- Hauresque majolica; Cab. 2 A 8. Italian majolica 
(15-1 8th cent.); 9-11. German and Swiss fayence; 12. Oriental vessels; 
13, 14. Delft and French fayence; 15, 16 Nuremberg fayeme; 17. Oriental 
and Dresden (Meissen) porcelain; 18. Porcelain from Frank en thai (Apo- 
theosis of Elector Charles Theodore of Bavaria); 19. Porcelain from Fulda 
and *H6chst; 20. Viennese porcelain. — The central cabinets contain 
German. Bohemian, and Venetian glass. 

B. 29. C-b. 4. Pewter-work by Katpar Enderlein (d. 1633; p. 136) and 
others; 6. English stoneware by Wedgwood (1730-96); 8, 9. Bhenish, Prankish, 
and Saxon stoneware. — In the centre, glass. 

Small Oloistbbbd Court (30-32). Section 30. Bronze tablets 
from Nuremberg tombs of the 16-18th cent.; Sec. 31. Casts of 
ecclesiastical implements ; Sec. 32. Casts of sepulchral monuments 
of the 16-17th centuries. Thence we pass into the former — 

Chubch (33), with original *Sculptures (mostly of the 1 5-1 6th 
cent.), ecclesiastical implements, etc. 

We mention some of the larger sculptures. On the N. wall (where 
there is also a picture by U. Wohlgemuth St. Anna, the Virgin, and C hild, 
ca. 1510), Nuremberg School, Mourning Madonna, from a group of the 
Crucifixion (ca. 1400); Veit Slots (?), Three figures (Virgin kneeling, etc.) 
from Heilsbronn; Style of Michael Packer, 'Wooden figures of SS. Leonard 
and Stephen (ca. 1480); Tilman Riementchneider, *8t. Elizabeth (restored); 
Veit Slots. *Cructfix, from the Heiliggeist-Spital. In the apse, Upper portion 
of a late-Gothic carved altar. On the 8. wall, Nuremberg School, St. Bar- 
bara, St. Lawrence; Swabian School, Two 'Groups in relief (ca. 1525), each 
representing a male saint standing with a kneeling woman. 

Cabinets 1-3 (under the gallery). Vestments; 4. Scourges; 6. Copies of 
German imperial seals; 9-12. Church utensils; 13. Ivory carvings, incl. a 
costly book-cover (14th cent.) and the sumptuous binding of a lectionarium 
(1506); 14. Belief of the Annunciation, in wood (ca. 1500); 15. Carvings 
in alabaster; 16. Gothic chalices and mediaeval altar-candlesticks j 16a. 

Germanic Museum. NUREMBERG. 25. Route. 149 

Silver 'Reliquary in the shape of a bust of St. Zeno (Augsburg; 1467); 
17. Monstrances, ostensoria, etc.; 19. Reliquary; 21, 22. Aqua man ilea (mostly 
of the 14-I5th cent.); among these, Silver- mounted casket in which the 
imperial jewels of the Holy Roman Empire were formerly kept (p. 134; 
15th cent.). — Above, on the walls, Funeral hatchments, battle-flags, etc. 

We turn to the left from the N. side of the church into Covered 
Court 34, containing mediaeval sculptures in stone and terracotta, 
mostly executed in Nuremberg : *Oriel Window from the parsonage 
of St. Sebald's (p. 141); architectural fragments and ^Sculptures 
from the Schone Brunnen (p. 138); six seated terracotta statues of 
Apostles, from the St Jakobs - Kirche (p. 146); Mary Magdalen 

Coybred Court 85 (entr. from Passage 7, p. 147) contains the 
•Sculptures, mostly in wood, belonging to the town. 

On the N. and E. walls, Veit Stoss, Statue of the Madonna, from the 
artist's house in the Judengasse; Statue of St. Wenzel, wooden model for 
the bronze statue in the cathedral of Prague cast in Vischer's foundry; 
wooden model of the Gansemannchen (p. 138); funeral tablet with the 
figure of a female saint in relief (ca. 1490); bronze mask from a fountain, 
the earliest Nuremberg work cast in bronze which has been preserved 
(ca. 1300). — On the 8. wall, Veit Stott, The rosary, a wooden tablet with 
reliefs (ca. 1500); frame of the All Saints' picture (p. 143), from a design 
by DUrer, with a *Frieze (Last Judgment) full of life; Peter Vischer the 
Younger (?), So-called 'Nuremberg Madonna, the most important work of 
the Nuremberg School. — On the W. wall, • Veit Stoss, Justice (judge with 
the poor and the rich man), from the Rathaus, Coronation of the Virgin, 
in high relief. 

In tbe former Sacristy (36) are several carved altars (15- 
16th cent.), figures of a canonized bishop (ca. 1480) and a recum- 
bent St. Catharine (Nuremberg, ca. 1500), etc. — On the S. side of 
the church, to the left, is the former Chapel (37), containing eccle- 
siastical antiquities. — Straight on is Room 38, with mediaeval 
household utensils. — We return to Cloister Wing 26 (p. 148) and 
at the end turn to the right into — 

Hall 39, with a late-Romanesque portal from Heilsbronn (after 
1200). In front are two pieces of tapestry of the 15th cent., repre- 
senting Indoor amusements and the Last Judgment ; above, fine tiled 
stoves; table of wines of a Nuremberg landlord of the 17th cent.; 
chests from Lower Saxony, etc. — We now enter ■ the picturesque 
Modern Gothic Fountain Court (F), on the W. side of which, by 
the Augustinerbau (rebuilt in 1872-75), are a modern spiral stair- 
case, in the so-called 'Reckentiirmchen', and a 'Beischlag', or bal- 
cony, from Dantsic (17th cent.). From this court we ascend the steps 
to the — 

Kitchen (40), with utensils of the 17th cent., and to Rooms 41- 
47. R. 41. Gothic peasant's room from Tyrol (ca. 1500); R. 42. 
Room from Cologne (after 1600); R. 43. Swiss room (ca. 1700); 
R. 44. Tyrolese room ; RR. 45 & 46. Nuremberg rooms (17th cent.). 
— We return to Hall 39 and turn to the left by the staircase into — 

Room 48, containing furniture and household utensils (16- 
18th cent.). 

150 Route 25. NUREMBERG. Germanic Museum. 

In the middle, Sumptuous ebony bedstead inlaid with alabaster (Nurem- 
berg, ca. 1600), and two richly ornamented cabinets (17th cent.); by the 
exit, Ornamented cabinet (Nuremberg, 17th cent.). Gases 8 & 5. Gold- 
smiths' work •, among the Nuremberg work in Case 8 are a double goblet 
by Peter Wiber (after 1600), a nautilus goblet by F. Bildebrand (1595), the 
goblet of the Von Pfinsing family (1536), the *Cocoanut goblet with bacchic 
scenes, by Peter FlCtner, and the Holzschuh goblet, by Eliat Lenker (p. 136). 

— Chest 6. Silver travelling-service, adorned with agate (Augsburg; ca. 
1710); 7. Enamelled vessels from Limoges. 

The adjoining Gloister Wing (49-51) of the Aogustinerbau con- 
tains casts of sepulchral monuments, stained glass (16-1 7th cent.), 
and mediaeval fire-arms. 

Stained glass in the West Wing (51) : Frame 37. Aristotle and Phyllis 
(ca. 1510), pane with a coat of arms (Swiss; 1548); 38. Three Swiss win- 
dows, incl. the pane of Hans Gross (1599), probably by Chr. Maurer (d. 1614) ; 
•41, 42. Four allegories of good government, by Chr. Maurer; 50-56. Me- 
dallions with coats of arms (Nuremberg; 16-17th cent.). 

The collection of fire-arms in Wing 50 includes blunderbusses (14th cent.), 
old cannon, and breechloading cannon of the 15th century. 

On the left, adjoining Wing 50, are Rooms 52-54, containing 
portable fire-arms. Hall 55, in the S.W. wing, contains armour, 
staff-weapons (pikes, etc.), swords and daggers, shields, helmets, 
and cross-bows (15-19th cent.). — In Rooms 56-58 and in the Wbst 
Coubt (L), Cannon and models of cannon. — From Cloister Wing 51 
(see above) we ascend to the — 

First and Second Floors. — Room 59. Costumes and ornaments. 

— Room 60. Peasants' utensils. — Room 61. Peasants' costumes 
and ornaments. — Room 62. Peasants' rooms. — Rooms 63-65. 
Furniture (18th cent.). — Room 67. Panelling from a house in the 
Tetzelgasse (18th cent.). — Room 68. *Tapestried room from the 
Wespien House at Alx-la-Chapelle, in the rococo style (ca. 1740). 

Room 69 (on the next floor). Museum of commerce (models of 
ships and waggons, etc.). In the Galleby of the Chueoh (70), 
Weights and measures. 

Room 71 & Hall 77. Scientific instruments. — Hall 72 & 
Rooms 73-76. Pharmaceutical collection (76. Laboratory). — 
Room 78. Technical models and tools. — From Hall 77 we turn to 
the right into — : 

Chapel 79. Ecclesiastical objects (17-18th cent.). — Room 80 
(on the left). Guild antiquities. — Room 81. Toys, incl. a rococo 
puppet-theatre and Nuremberg dolls' houses. 

Rooms 82-89 contain casts of sculptures of the 16-18th cent. 
(R. 87), small sculptures, and the *Picture Gallery (ca. 450 pic- 
tures), in which the masters of the upper German Schools of the 
15-16th cent, are well represented (catalogue, 1893, H/2 Jt). 

Gallery 82. Sections I. & II. (Rhenish and Early-Netherlandish Schools 
of the 14-16th cent.): To the right, 7. Style of Meister Wilhelm of Cologne, 
Madonna with the pea-blossom ; to the left, Stephan Lochner, 11. Crucifixion, 
with saints, 12. St. Gereon (studio-piece); to the right, Matter of the Life 
of the Virgin. 24, 25. Presentation in the Temple and Death of the Virgin 
(1473), 26. Adoration of the Magi 5 22. Netherlandish School (ca. 1480), Coro- 
nation of Emp. Frederick III. — Sec. II. : To the left, 63, 64. Matter of the 

Germanic Museum. NUREMBERG. 2$. Boute: 151 

Death of the Virgin, Portraits ; *19. French School, Cardinal Bourbon ; 60. 
H~ Bosch, Scene in the infernal regions', no number, Lucas van Ley den, 
*Moses smiting the rock. — Sec. III. (Frankish Schools of the 15th cent.) : 
To the right, 96. Master of the Imhof Altar-piece, Pieta (the back of the 
altar-piece mentioned on p. 136); to the left, 95. Nuremberg School, Epitaph 
of Walpurg Prunsterin (1434); Hans Pleydenwurff, 101. Portrait of Canon 
Schonborn of Wiirzburg, 100. Crucifixion; on the right, H. Pleydenwurff, 
102. St. Thomas Aquinas, 103. St. Dominic; M. Wohlgemut, no number, 
Portrait of Hans Perckmeister (1496), 115. Epitaph of Haller (1487). Also, 
on the left, 135. Upper German School, Allegory of Life and Death (ca. 1480). 
— Sec. IV. (upper German Schools of the 15th cent.) : To the right, 113, 
114. M. Wohlgemut, SS. Cosmas and D ami an, panels of the Peringsdorfer 
altar-piece (see below); 164-167. Hans Holbein the Elder, Martyrdom of SS. 
Thorn ag, the two Jameses, and Andrew; 247. 248. A. Altdorfer, Scenes from 
the legend of St. Quirinus; 253. Style of M. GrUnewald, Last Judgment; 
no number, Wolf Traut, Baptism of Christ. Also, paintings on glass (eglo- 
raise's), enamels, and a German bronze (Neptune; 17th cent.). 

Booh 83 (upper German works of the 16th cent.). To the left, 171. 
Hans Burgkmair, Madonna (1510); 162, »163. Hans Holbein the Elder, Ma- 
donnas (No. 163 of 1499): 262, Lucas[Granach the Elder, Portrait of Luther 
(1533); on the right, 194, 195. Hans Baldung Grien, Two nude allegorical 
female figures; DUrer, *205. Hercules fighting with the Stymphalian birds 
(1500), 209. Emp. Maximilian I. ; on the end-wall, 210. Copy of Dilrer^s 
All Saints picture (p. 149) ; 185, 186. B. Strigel, Portraits. — In the centre 
are bronzes and wood-carvings. 

Room 84 (upper German works of the 15-16th cent.). On the end-wall 
to the left, *107-110. M. Wohlgemut, Four wings from the Peringsdorfer 
altar-piece, with the legend of St. Vitus and saints (from tbe Augustinian 
church; ca. 1488); on the E. wall, M. Wohlgemuth), *124. Annunciation, 
*125. Adoration of the Magi; between these, 206. DUrer, Pieta, the so-called 
Holzschuher panel (a replica with variations of the picture in Munich, 
p. 222) ; Hans von Kulmbach, 213. St. Cosmas, 214. St. Damian; H. L. Schaufe- 
lein, 225. Liberation of St. Peter, 226. Burial of the Virgin ; between these, 
Hans Burgkmair, 168. St. Sebastian before the Emp. Constantine (back- 
ground repainted), •110. Madonna (1509) ; opposite, 207, 208. A. DUrer, Em- 
perors Charlemagne and Sigismund, executed in 1510-12 for the 'Heiltums 
Rammer (p. 138; freely retouched); 2£3, 284. /. G. Fischer, Copies of Durer's 
Four Apostles (p. 221), with the old original inscriptions; between these, 
145. B. Zeitblom, Pieta. — In the centre are Italian and German 'Medals. 
Hall 85 (German and Netherlandish Masters of the 16- 17th dent.). En- 
trance-wall, *272. G. Pencz, Captain Sebald Schirmer (1545); 362. Ad. Els- 
heimer, Biblical scene ; 291. J. de Momper, View of Antwerp (the figures by 
Jan Brueghel). In the cases are dies for coins and medals, and miniature por- 
traits. — Hall 86 (pictures of the 17-I8th cent.). 360. Joh. Lingelbach, Scene 
in an Italian park; 371. Joh. Kupetzky, Portrait of himself. — Galleby 88 
(modern pictures). No number, Lenbach, Bismarck (1894); 433. /. Lunte- 
sehiltz, Schopenhauer; 434. A. Feuerbaeh, Sketch. In the centre is an old 
wooden model of Nuremberg, probably by W. Behaim (ca. 1615). 

Room 89 (paintings of the 17- 18th cent., chiefly Netherlandish). To the 
right, 323. M J. Mierevelt, Portrait of an old man ; 335. Jan Both, Southern 
landscape; 839. W. van de Velde the Younger, Sea-piece; 331. P. de Hooch, 
Party; 334. /. van Ruysdael, Land c cape; Rembrandt, *325. Portrait of himself 
(ca. 1629), *326. St. Paul in prison (ca. 1628); no number, G. Terburg, 
Portrait; opposite, 330. Corn. Bega, Tavern-scene; 333. Sal. van Ruysdael, 
Landscape; 869. W. Tamm, Still-life. — In the centre are sculptures in 
bronze (Hunting-dog, Peasant, etc., from Peter Vischer's foundry), reliefs 
in lead (plaquettee) , 'Reliefs in box -wood, by Peter FlOtner and others 
(»ix allegorical female figures, representing the cardinal sins, ca. 1540), 
a dagger-sheath (Nuremberg ; 16th cent.), turner's work, portraits in wax, etc, 

GUijiBRY 90. Pictures of costumes. — Room 91 (to the left). 
Monuments of medical science. — Room 92 (to the right). Musical 

152 Boute25. NUREMBERG. Fortifications. 

instruments. — Gallery 93. Weaving, incl. a piece of Flemish 
tapestry representing the Garden of Love (after 1500). — Room 94 
(to the left). Book-bindings. — Rooms 95 & 96. Collection illustra- 
tive of the arts of writing and printing ; graphic arts. 

e. The Town- Wall and Outer Quarters. 

The *Fortifioations, built about 1345-62, form the most inter- 
esting feature of the town, but they have unfortunately been remov- 
ed at places since the middle of the 19th century. The existing 
wall takes the place of earlier fortifications, not completed until 
1322, which have practically vanished, with the exception of the 
Tiergartner-Torturm and one or two other towers. A walk or drive 
round the walls will reveal the variety and beauty of their archi- 
tectural effects, the most picturesque portion being between the 
Spittler-Tor (PI. B, 3) and the Max-Tor (PI. D, E, 1). 

The earliest fortifications consisted of a wall averaging 22 ft. in height 
with a protected passage, strengthened with a fort (now almost vanished) 
56 ft. broad and numerous square tov rs placed at intervals of 50 yards. 
Outside was a dry moat, SO ft. deep and 90 ft. broad. Four main gates 
(Frauen-Tor, Spittler-Tor, Neues Tor, and Laufer-Tor) and four smaller 
gates (Haller-Tor, Tiergartner-Tor, Vestner-Tor, and WSbrder Tor) led into 
tiie town; the former were defended by strong outworks and tall towers 
originally square in plan. After about the middle of the 15th cent, a number 
of smaller forts were erected so as to enfilade the moat, and these were 
soon reinforced by escarp-galleries and, after 1500, by round forts with 
cannon ('Streichwehre') in the Vestnertor-Graben and at the points where 
the Pfgnitz entered and quitted the town (PI. E. 2 and C, 2). The two last 
additions were made in conformity with the theory of fortification propound- 
ed by Durer. The earliest round bastions (Kochert-Zwioger and Kappen- 
zipfej) date from about 1527, and in 1538-45 Antonio Fazuni of Malta erected 
the great polygonal *£urgbastei (PI. G, 1), with two casemated side-bastions 
for the defence of the Tiergartner-Tor and Vestner-Tor. In 1556-64 the 
'Towers of the four main town-gates received their present circular shape 
(walls, 19 ft. ihick), from the designs of Oeorg Unger (d. 1559). Compara- 
tively recent times have seen the destruction of the Wohrder Bastion (built 
in 1618-14), of all the outworks dating from the period of the Thirty Tears' 
War, and of the Max-Tor and Laufer-Tor \ while the requirements of mo- 
dern traffic have led to other breaches in the old wall. 

In the Frauentor-Graben, between the Frauen-Tor and Spittler- 
Tor) and opposite the Germanic Museum, is the New Municipal 
Theatre (PI. C, D, 4), built in 1902-5. 

In the Plarrer (PI. B, 3), between the Spittler-Tor and the 
Ludwigs - Bahnhof (PI. A, B, 3), a Monumental Fountain (1890) 
commemorates the opening of the first German railway (1835 ; p. 131). 

In the Rothenburger-Str., to the S.W. of the Plarrer, is the old 
Cemetery of St. Eochus (PI. A, 3), with the grave of Peter Vischer 
the Elder (d. 1529) and his sons Hermann and Peter (No. 90, ninth 
stone on the right). The Rochus-Kapelle, erected in 1519-21 by 
Hans Behaim the Elder, contains stained-glass windows from the 
workshop of Veit Hirschvogel, resembling Durer's work. — A little 
to the S.W. Is the Harbour of the Ludwigs-Oanal (p. 115), 370 yds. 

l ong Digitized By V^iOOgie 

St. John's Cemetery. NUREMBERG. 26. Route. 153 

To the W. of the Spittler-Tor-Graben lies the Bosenau (PI. A, 
B, 2, 3), with the restaurant mentioned on p. 132. — In the 
Prater- Anlage (PI. B, 2) is the Minnesanger-Brunnen, by Eittler 

Outside the Neu-Tor, in the Johannis-Strassb (tramway No. 6, 
see p. 133), which leads to the cemetery of St. John (see below), is 
the graceful Heiligkreuz-Kapelle (PI. B, 1; No. 24, on the right; 
adm. see p. 133), containing numerous hatchments of the Haller 
family and a large altar from Wohlgemuth workshop, with a group 
of the Descent from the Gross, and painted double wings. 

In the Burgschmiet-Str., which runs from the Tiergartoer-Tor 
(p. 152) to St. John's Cemetery, stands on the right the Bronze 
Foundry of Prof. Lens (formerly Burgschmlet; PI. 1), with a col- 
lection of models (visitors admitted). — The road leads on past the 
Stations of the Cross, consisting of seven sandstone pillars (1490) 
with reliefs of the Passion, and, in the cemetery of St. John, the 
Kalvarienberg, all by Adam Kraft (the latter now mostly replaced 
by copies; originals in the Germanic Museum). 

St. John's Cemetery (PI. A, 1), first laid out in 1518 and con- 
taining fine brasses, is well worth a visit (the wife of the chief 
sexton affords all information and also opens the Holzschuher 
Chapel; 50 pf.). 

The late-Gothic Holzschuher Chapel^ to the left of the entrance near the 
Kalvarienberg (see above), contains a large Entombment, Adam Kraft's 
last work (1606). — In the 6th row from the entrance, five graves to the 
2T.E. of the Holzschuher chape), is Pirkheimer^t tomb (No. 1414 ; p. 188). On 
the path leading to the church of 8t. John (see below) rises the Miintzer Tomb 
(1560; 25 ft. in height). In the 6th row behind it is the grave* of Albrecht 
DUrer (No. 649, ihe 11th stone to the left of the path; *quicquid Albert! 
Dureri mortale fuit, sub hoc conditur tumulo; emigravit VIII Idus Aprilis 
1528\ i.e. 6th April, 1528). About 50 paces to the 8. of Diirer s grave is 
that (No. 508) of the confectioner Hans Sachs and his descendants, perhaps 
including the poet Han* Bach* (p. 144). A few paces to the right (N E) 
of Durer's grave is that of Wenzel Jamnitzer (d. 1585; No. 665), with a fine 
epitaph by Jost Amman. In the row in front lie the painter Antelm Feuer- 
bach (d. 1880; No. 715) and A. von Essmwein (p. 147; No. 720). Eight rows 
to the W. of Diirer, in the direction of the church, rests Veit Sios* (d. 1533; 
"No. 268), and farther on lies the popular poet OrUbel (p. 144 ; No. 200) Four 
rows farther to the N.W., opposite St. John's church, is Paumgdrtner* grave 
(d. 1679), with a large bronze skull; and in the second row to the N.W., 
on the paved side-walk a little to the right of the church, is that of Joachim 
von Sandrart the painter (d. 16S8), with the order of the 'Fruit- Bringing 
Society". — The Gothic Church of St. John (14-15tb cent.; opened by the 
town-sac istan, 80 pf.), completely spoiled, contains a winged altar by the 
Master of the Tncher Altar (p. 137; on the- left); the main altar is by Durer's 
contemporary Wolf Traut. 

The Western Cemetery (comp. PI. A, 1), to the N.W., also in the Jo- 
hannis suburb, has a fine portal by Hase (1879). 

The most popular pleasure-ground at Nuremberg is the *Stadt- 
Park or Maxfeld, on the N. side (restaurant; music frequently; 
tramways Nos. 1, 3, and 5 ; p. 132). 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

154 Route 25. NUREMBERG. 

f. Environs of Nuremberg. Forth. 

A tramway (No. 2, p. 132; overcrowded on Sun.) runs to the 
N.W. from Nuremberg to Dutzendteich (Dutzendteich, Bellevue, and 
Waldlust Restaur ants), with a large pond for bathing and boating, 
gardens, etc. This was the site of the Bavarian Exhibition of 1906. 
Thence a beautiful walk through wood leads via the Falzner Wether 
(restaurant) snUSchmausenbuck (1275 ft. ; restaurant), with its view- 
tower (20 pf.), to Mbgeldorf (station ; see p. 296). 

Excursion to the Nuremberg Switzerland, see p. 155. 

For an excursion to Furth we may use either the state-railway 
(p. 100), the local Ludwigs-Bahn (p. 131), or the tramway (No. 1 : 
p. 132). 

Furth (964 ft. ; Hdtel National, HOtel Kiitt, both at the railway- 
station; Schwarzes Kreuz, in the town , plainer; Restaurant Tauber, 
Niirnberger-Strasse), a busy town with 60,600 inhab., vies with 
Nuremberg in its staple commodities of toys and fancy-articles, 
and possesses very extensive manufactories of gold-leaf and of 
mirrors. Conspicuous among the buildings is the modern Rathaus 
with its lofty tower. The Gothic Church of St. Michael (14th cent.) 
contains a beautiful late-Gothic *Ciborium, 25 ft. high. In the 
Hall-Platz is the new Theatre (1902). The Rednitz, which joins the 
Pegnitz below the town to form the Regnitz, is crossed by a railway 
and a suspension bridge. 

Feom Fukth to Kadolzbukg, 8 If., local railway in 1/2 h*. — 2 1 /* M. AUe 
Veete. At the Alte Veste (1184 ft.), on a hill on the Rednitz, the battle 
between Gustavus Adolphus and W aliens tein, which compelled the Swe- 
dish monarch to retreat, was fought on 4th Sept., 1632. The headquarters 
of Gustavus were at the inn 'Zum Grunen BaunT, in the street now 
named after him. Six attacks on the intrenched camp of Wallenstein 
had proved unsuccessful. Extensive view from the tower. The adjoining 
restaurant is a favourite resort of the Hurembergers. — The line proceeds 
via Zirndorf, Weiherhof, and Egertdorfto (8 M.) Kadolxburg (1746 ft. ; Feier* 
abend Jnn\ a market-village with 1200 inhab. and a well-preserved Cattle 
held by the Burgraves of Nuremberg (p. 134) since the 13th century. The 
oldest part of the castle dates from the 9th cent., the newer parts from 
1410. On the outer gate appear the armorial bearings of the Hohenzollerns. 
Fine view from the belvedere (5 min. ; key at the first gate- tower of the 

26. From Nuremberg to Eger by Schnabelwaid. 

94 M. Railway in a 1 /*-*) 1 /* hrs. (express to Prague in 9 hrs.). 

Nuremberg, see p. 131. Soon after leaving tbe station the train 
diverges to the left from tbe lines to Ratisbon and Amberg, and 
crosses tbe Pcgnitz-Tal by means of a long embankment and several 
bridges to (21/2 M.) Nuremberg East Station. It then skirts the hills 
on the N. side of the Pegnitz-Tal, running parallel with the Amberg 
railway (p. 296) on the S. side, V*-li/ 4 M - <> ff - — 8 M. Ruckersdorf 
(3 M. to the N. is the Ludwigshohc, a summer-resort with view- 
tower); IOV2M. Lauf (Rail. Restaurant), with a chateau, on the 

d by Google 

VELDEN. 26. Route. 155 

Pegnitz (^2 M. to the S. is the station of the Amherg line, p. 296); 
121/2 M. Schnaittach. 

Branch-line to the N. via (3 M.) Markt Schnaittach, with the ruin of 
Rottenberg (1825 ft. ; view) rising above it, to (6 M.) SxmmeUdorf-HUttenbach. 

15 M. Beichenschwand, at the base of the Hansgorgl-Berg (see 
below), with a chateau and park. 

171/2 M. Hersbruck (1100 ft.; *Post, at the N. end of the town ; 
*Traubc y in the market-place; Boter Hahn), a prosperous little town 
(4300 inhab.) at the foot of the Miehelsberg, surrounded by hop- 
gardens. The station on the right bank of the Pegnitz {Heissmanns 
Restaurant, close by) lies on the N.W. side of the town, II/2M. from 
the station on the left bank of the Pegnitz (p. 297). 

The Miehelsberg (1420 ft.), ascended from the right bank station in 
1/4 hr., affords an admirable survey of the town and district. A still 
finer point of view is the *Hansgdrgl-Berg (1975 ft.), 1 hr. from Reichen- 
tchwand (see above), or 11/2 hr. from Hersbruck. On the top is an iron 

At (2OY2M.) Hohenstadt the line turns to the N. and enters 
the narrow and tortuous Upper Pegnitz - Tal ; to the right, prettily 
situated at the mouth of the Hirschbach-Tal, lies the summer-resort 
of Eschenbach (1 140 ft.), with a Schloss. — We cross the Pegnitz 
twice, and pass Alfalter on the left. 25 M. Vorra (1160 ft.) ; 1/2 M - 
up the valley lies AsJeJaAo/fenfHirsch), in a magnificent situation. — 
Then five bridges and two short tunnels. — 271/2 M. Eupprechtstegen 
(1184 ft. ; Inn l Zur Frankischen Schweiz\ with a huge lime-tree), 
the centre of the 'Nuremberg Switzerland'. The imposing *Kur- 
Hotel Eupprechtstegen (pens. 6-6 Jf), pleasantly situated on the 
slope to the left, is a favourite resort in summer. 

The *Anka-Tal, to the W., with its beautiful woods and picturesque 
groups of rocks (including the Andreas- Kirche), affords a pleasant walk. The 
path then crosses a lofty plain to (I1/2 hr.) the ruin of Bohenstein (2080 ft.), 
rising above the village of that name (Inn zur Felsburg •, beer at Maier's) •, 
fine view from the wooden belvedere (key at the village). — Walk to 
the E. to the (1 hr.) ruin of Hartenstein (1845 ft.), mentioned in the 'Parzival' 
of Wolfram von Eschenbach. 

Ten bridges and five tunnels in rapid succession. The walk 
through the Pegnitz-Tal to Velden is interesting. — 29 M. Velden, 
a picturesquely-situated town (1235 ft. ; Krone"), with an ancient gate, 
lies 1/3 M. to the N.W. of the station. The valley now expands. — 
3I1/2 M. Neuhau8 an der Pegnitz (Rossbach's Inn, at the station, 
R. i-l 1 /** pens. 3-3i/ 2 Jl; Wilder Mann), commanded by the 
watch-tower of the old castle of Veldenstein (1423 ft.) on a lofty 
conical hill. 

Near the village of Krotteruee (Zur Grotte), about l 1 /* M. to the E., 
is the •Maximilians-Grotte, a large stalactite grotto, made accessible in 1878 
(adm. 1 pers. 75 pf., 2 pers. 1 JH y etc. \ guide necessary^ magnesium wire 
75 pf. extra). The most beautiful part is called the 'Crystal Palace". 

We cross andrecross the Pegnitz several times. 331/2 M. Banna; 
branch-line to (5 M.) Auerbach. — 4iy 2 M. Pegnitz (1380 ft.; 
*Lamm; Boss, well spoken of), a district- town on the Pegnitz, which 
rises at Lindenhardt, 9 M. to the N. (diligence twice daily in 4 hrs. 

156 Route 26. KIROHENLAIBACH. 

vi& Pottenstein to Qossweinatein, p. 130). — The train now ascends 
to (46i/ 2 M.) Sohiiabelwaid (1466 ft.). 

Branch Railway to Baykbuth (11 M., in 40 min.) via (81/2 M.) Kreussen, 
an old town in the valley of the Rote Main, noted for its earthenware, 
and (6 M.) Neuenreuth. 11 H. Bayreuth (see p. 121). 

The train turns to theE., and near (49^2 M.) Engelmannsreuth 
(1610 ft.) passes through the watershed between the Pegnitz and 
the Naab by a catting 875 yds. long. Beyond (53*/2 M.) Vorbaeh 
the Hard is penetrated by a tunnel of 490 yds. 

587 2 M. Kirchenlaibach (1610 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant), the junction 
for the Neuenmarkt and Weiden line (p. 124). The train pursues a 
N.E. direction. Near (63i/ 2 M.) Immenreuth it crosses the Haid- 
naab by a bridge 56 ft. high, and at Oberwappenost (1900 ft J it 
passes under the watershed between the Haidnaab and the 
Fichtelnaab by a tunnel of 930 yds. The valley of the latter stream 
is crossed near Riglasreuth by an iron viaduct 130 ft. high. 70 M. 
Neu8org (1827 ft.) ; branch hence to (9 ! /2 M.) Fichtelberg, see 
p. 126. Near Langentheilen the watershed between the Naab 
and the Roslau is pierced by another long tunnel. 75 M. Walders- 
hof(i80b ft.); 2 hrs. to the W. is the Kosseine (p. 128). 

77 M. Markt-Redwitz (1765 ft.; Anker, at the station, R. 1 M 
80 pf.-2 M, B. 60 pf. ; Kaiserhof; Weisses Ross), a busy little town 
ou the Kbssein , with a Protestant church in the transition style ; 
junction of the line from Hof to Wiesau (p. 186). 

The line now turns to the N.E. and follows the Roslau, which 
it crosses twice. 81 V2 M. Seussen; 83*/2 Arzberg; 86 M. Schirnding. 
Before reaching (88V2 M.) Muhlbach we enter Austrian territory. 
The train now follows the Eger, intersects the plateau to the S. of 
Eger at a depth of 56 ft., and, curving to the N., enters the station 
of (94 M.) Eger (see p. 104). 

27. From Nuremberg to Augsburg. 

106 M. Railway ; express in 3^4 4 3 A hrs. (fares I6V2, 11 *#)■> ordinary train 
in 6 hrs. (13 •# 60, 9 •#, 5 J* 80 pf.). 

Nuremberg, see p. 131. Thence to (28 M.) Pleinfeld (Rail. Re- 
staurant), the junction of the line to Munich vtt Treuchtlingen, 
see pp. 108, 109. — 33 M. Langlau. 

37 M. Gunxenhausen (795 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant), on the Altmuhl, 
junction of the Wurzburg and Munich line (see p. 182). Beyond 
(42 M.) Kronheim the line reaches the Wornitz. To the right of 
(46 M.J Wassertriidingen rises the long HesseVberg (2270 ft.), with 
prehistoric dykes and moats ; a stone commemorates its ascent by 
Gustavus Adolphus in 1632 and by Frederick William III. in 1833. 
— 54 M. Oettingen, a small town with 2900 inhab., on the Wornitz, 
residence of the Prince of Oettingen-Spielberg. Beyond (57 M.) 
Durrentimmern , the Ipf (p. 37) becomes conspicuous on the W. 

NORDLINGEN. Route 27. 157 

The village on the right near Nordlingen is WaUerstein (see below), 
with a rained castle. 

62 M. Kordlingen (1410 ft.; Krone, in the Holzmarkt, R. 
13/ 4 -3 Jl, B. 70 pf., D. 2 Jl 60 pf. ; Bahnhofs-Hotel, at the station, 
R. 1 V2-2 Jt, B. 60 pf. ; Deutsches Haus ; Weisses Ross; beer at the 
Sonne), formerly an imperial town, is still surrounded with walls 
and towers. Pop. 8500. In the gardens outside the station is a bronze 
bust of the poet Melchior Meyr (d. 1871), author of 'Erz'ahlungen aus 
dem Ries\ The Gothic *St. George's Church, erected in 1428-1505, 
contains a fine late-Gothic ciborium (1511-25), a good stone pulpit 
of the same period, a curious winding staircase to the organ-loft, 
paintings by Schaufelein (Mourning for Christ, in the Baptistery) 
and Merlin (behind the high-altar), and good stained glass. Fine 
prospect from the tower (290 ft. in height), extending over the Ries 
with its numerous villages, of which 99 are said to be visible. The 
late-Gothic Rathaus contains a large mural painting by Schaufelein 
(1515), of the history of Judith and Holofernes ; on the upper floor 
Is a collection of old German pictures (chiefly by Schaufelein and- 
Herlin), autographs, coins, local antiquities, etc. (Apply to custodian 
on first floor.) 

During the Thirty Years' War the Imperial Generals Ferdinand of Hungary 
and the Cardinal Infante Don Fernando gained a signal victory here over 
the Swedes under Bernhard of Weimar and Horn, 27th Aug., 1634. 

A branch-railway runs from Nordlingen via (10 M.) Wildbad Wemding 
(new bath-house), with a sulphurous spring, to (iO 1 /* M.) Wemding (1480 ft. $ 
Kreuz; Sonne), on the Dosbach. 

Remsial Railway from Nordlingen to Stuttgart, see R. 7. 

Fbom Nobdlingkn to Dombuhl, 33 ! /2 M. (railway in2-37 4 hrs.). — 2V«M. 
WaUerstein, with a picturesque ruined castle; b l J% M. Marktoffingen, 1 M. to 
theE. of which lies Maihingen, formerly a convent, with the valuable library, 
armoury, and other collections of Prince Oettingen-Wallerstein. 15 M. 
Wilburgstetten. In the woods between this village and (l 1 /* M.) Weiltingen, the 
Pfahl-Graben (p„176) is in good preservation. — 18'/a M. Dinkelsbiihl(1445 ft. $ 
Qoldne Rose, R. lVs-2 Jf), an old imperial town on the WUrnitz, still sur- 
rounded with walls and towers (4560 inhab.), was the birthplace of Chr. 
von Schmid (1768-1854), a popular writer for the young, to whom a statue 
has been erected in the market-place. The late-Gothic Church of St. George 
(built in 1444-99), with its handsome ciborium and carved altars, and the 
Deutsche Haut (15th cent. •, now an inn) are interesting. The old Mill at 
the Nordlinger-Tor dates from 1490. The Old Rathaus, now a school, 
contains a collection of antiquities. Fine view from the Oalgenberg. — 
27 M. Feuchtwangen (Post), an old town of 2400 inhab., with a Gothic abbey- 
church. — 33'/2 M, DombUhl, see p. 83. 

67i/ 2 M. Mbttingen; to the left, the Lierhcimer Schloss. Beyond 
(70 M.J Hoppingen we enter tbe Ries, a remarkably fertile tract, 
doubtless once tbe bed of a lake ; eruptive and volcanic rocks occur 
on its margins. 72 M. Harburg, a little town belonging to Prince 
Wallerstein, witb a well-preserved castle, picturesquely perched on 
a rock. 751/2 M. Wornitzstein. The train follows the fertile valley 
of the winding Wbrnitz. 

791/2 M. Donauworth (1320ft; Krone; Krebs), an old town on 
the Danube, has 4700 inhabitants. The Gothic Town Church contains 

158 Route 27. DONAUWORTH. From Nuremberg 

a fine ciborium. The buildings of the suppressed Benedictine Abbey 
of the Holy Cross, at the W. end of the town, now contain the 
Cassianeum, an institution for the improvement of Roman Catholic 
education, with a boys' school, a library of 60,000 vols., various col- 
lections, and a printing and publishing office. In the baroque Abbey 
Church, which has been judiciously restored, is the sarcophagus of 
the ill-fated Mary of Brabant, consort of Duke Louis of Bavaria, by 
whose order she was beheaded in 1256 on a groundless suspicion of 
infidelity. The tasteful iron railing enclosing it is modern. The 
fortress of Mangoldstein, where the execution took place, at the N.E. 
angle of the Promenade, % M. from the station, was destroyed by 
Emp. Albert I. in 1301, and the ruins were removed in 1818. A 
tablet in the rock, bearing the words 'Castrum Woerth', now marks 
the site of the castle. The Schellenberg (1623 ft.), above the station, 
was stormed with severe loss by the Duke of Marlborough and 
Margrave Louis of Baden in 1704. Its capture formed a prelude to 
the disastrous battle of Hochstadt (see below). 

Fbom Donauwobth to Kkd-Offingen, 271/2 M., railway in l l /z hr. (to 
TJlm in 3 hrs.). The line skirts the N. side of the town, turns to the 
S.W., and traverses the valley of the tortuous Danube. — 9 M. Blenheim, 
or Blindheim; 12 H. Hdchet&dt. Each of these names recalls more than 
one fiercely contested battle. Here in 1063 Guelph I. of Bavaria was de- 
feated and deprived of his duchy by Emp. Henry IV. In 1708 Elector 
Max Emanuel of Bavaria and Marshal Villars gained a victory at Hochstadt 
over the Imperial troops under Count Styrum \ but the Elector and Marshal 
Tallard were signally defeated, at Blenheim, by Prince Eugene and the Duke 
of Marlborough, on 13th Aug., 1704. Nearly a century later, on 19th June, 
1800, the Austrians under Kray engaged the French under Moreau at 
Hochstadt. — 16 M. Dillingen (BayrUcher Hof; Stern, E. iy 2 -2 UT ; Sonne), 
a thriving town of 6200 inhab., which has belonged to Bavaria since 1806, 
was formerly the seat of a university, suppressed in 1804. The old chateau 
once belonged to the bishops of Augsburg. Branch-line to Aalen, see 
p. 36. — 19 M. Lauingen (1423 ft.; Drei Jfohren), a busy town of 4100 in- 
hab., the residence during the middle ages of the Bavarian dukes of 
Pfalz-Neuburg, whose burial-vault is below the Roman Catholic church. 
The isolated Hof-Turm, 180 ft. high, in sixteen stories, was erected in 
1478. A bronze statue (by F. von Miller) of the celebrated scholar Albertu* 
Magnus (Count Albert of Bollstadt; 1193-1280), a native of Lauingen, stands 
in the market-place. At Fainingen, 1 M. to the W.,a well-preserved 
Roman hypocanstum was discovered in 1896. — 23 ! /s M. Gundelfingen, a 
small town (2830 inhab.) on the Brent. The line turns towards the S., 
crosses the Danube, and joins theUlm and Augsburg line (p. 186) at (27 1 /«M.) 

From Donauworth to Ingolstadt and Ratitbon, see B. 29. 

The train crosses the Danube, and then the Sehmutter. From 
(841/2 M.) Mertingen a branch-line (KM/2 M.) runs to Wertingen. — 
88 M. Nordendorf (right, the chateau of Count Fischler-Treuberg); 
91 M. Meitingen (right, on the height, the castle of Markt, once a 
Roman fort, the property of Prince Fugger). — 104 M. Oberhausen 
(to Vim, see p. 185). We cross the Wertach, near its union with 
the Lech. 

105 M. Augsburg. —Hotels. *Drki Mohken (PI. a ; C, 4), Maximilian- 
Str., one of the oldest hostelries in Germany, but lately rebuilt, with lift, 

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to Augsburg. AUGSBURG. 27. Route, 159 

Jtric light, large covered court, and restaurant, B. 2 l /»-8, B. IV4, D. 3-4, 
n. 8 /* Jt ; *Kaisebhof (PI. i ; B, 4), Halder-Str., 7 min. from the etation,with 
juented restaurant, R. 27 4 -4, B. 1, D. lJ/ 4 2V«, omn. »/« **»' *Batbischeb 

Drive C 1 /* hr.), i-2 pers. 50 pf., 3 pers. 80pf.j for lights in the 
till 10 p.m. 10 pf. per 1/4 hr. At night (10 to 6) douhle fares, 
of less than 65 lbs. 20 pf., over 56 lbs. 40 pf. 

electric ' 
omn. 3/4 . 

frequented! .-.-.-. . - ,-, 

Hof (PI. d; B, 4), R. 1 JL 30 pf.-2 Jt, B. 70 pf., Dbki Kbonen (PI. e-, B, 4), 
with garden, R. 1-2 Jt, both in the Babnhof-Str. ; Augusta, Fugger-Str. 3 
(PI. B, 4); Bambebgeb Hof (PI. h; B, 4), Halder-Str., well spoken of; 
WEI88E8 Lamm (PI. c, B, 3), Ludwig-Str., good cuisine; Eisenhdt (PI. g; 
C, 3), Obstmarkt, R. i-ii/i .*. 

Restaurant* and Oafes. * Kaiser ho/, see above ; *Drei Mohren (see above) ; 
•Kernstock, Steingasse (PI. C, 3, 4), D. 1 Jt 20 pf.-, 'Restaurant in the Stadt- 
Garten(t>. 164); Gafl-Rcstaurant Central, Caff Augusta, both in the Fugger- 
Str. (PI. B,4); *Cafi Maximilian, Bavaria, Maximjlian-Str. (PI. C,4); Ca/4 
Luitpold, Bismarck-Str. (PI. C, 5, 6). — Wine. *Hofmann (GrUnes Ham), 
Anna-Str., 1st floor (PI. B,C, 4), much frequented at midday (D. X>\*% JK)\ 
Deidesheimer Apostelkeller, felinkerberg 4 (PI. A, B, 3) ; Lamberger tur Weiber- 
schule, Hinter der Metzg (C, 182) ; Eisenhut, see above ; Ratskeller, Eisenberg 
(G, 323). — Beer. Earing, at the Schmiedberg *, Kohkis (Reiehskrone), Burger- 
gasschen, Bei der Metzg (PI. G, 3) •■> Stoekhauskeller Beer Garden, Eserwall- 
Str. (PI. C, 6). 

Baths. OWsche Badeanstalt, Baumgartner-Str., outside the Rote Tor 
(cold, warm, and vapour baths) ; Augustusbad, at the Katzenstadel (F, 152). 
Municipal Swimming Bath (PI. D, 6); Swimming School (PI. A, 3). 

Post ft Telegraph Office (PI. B, 3, 4), Grottenau, at the corner of the 
Ludwig-Str. j also at the railway-station. 

evening till 
Each box of 

Electric Tramways (com p. Plan): from the Ludwigs-Platz (Perlach; 
PI. G, 4) to Oberhausen 10 pf., the railway-station 10 pf., Pfersee 10 pf., 
Goggingen (p. 164) 16 pf., Lechhausen 10 pf. 

American Commercial Agent, G. Oberndorf. 

Augsburg (1625 ft.), with 94,500 inhab. (1/3 Prot.), the Roman 
Augusta Vindelicorum, situated at the confluence of the Wertach 
and the Lech, is one of the most important towns in S. Germany. 
Its abundant water-power, utilised by canals traversing the town, has 
given rise to various industries (weaving, cotton-spinning, machine- 
factories, chiefly outside the town). 

In the middle ages (from 1268) Augsburg was a free imperial city, and 
the great centre of the traffic between N. Europe, Italy, and the Levant. 
It reached the height of its prosperity in the 15th and 16th centuries, 
and several of its citizens enjoyed princely wealth and power. Three 
daughters of Augsburgers were married to princes: Clara von Detten to 
Elector Frederick the Victorious of the Palatinate; Agnes Bernauer, the 
beautiful daughter of a barber, to Duke Albert III. of Bavaria (p. 289) ; 
and Philippina Welser to Archduke Ferdinand of Austria. Bartholomew 
Welser, another citizen, fitted out a squadron to take possession 
of Venezuela, which had been assigned to him as a pledge by Emp. 
Charles V. The Fugger family raised themselves within a century from 
the condition of poor weavers to that of the wealthiest merchants at 
Augsburg, or perhaps in Europe. They were the Rothschilds of their age, 
and like them ennobled; and they frequently replenished the exhausted 
coffers of the emperors Maximilian I. and Charles V. — At Augsburg 
Charles V. held his famous diets ; that of 1530, at which the Protestant 
princes presented to the Emperor and the estates the 'Augsburg Confession', 
a reformed creed framed by Melanchthon; and that of 1555, by which a 
religious peace was concluded. The delivery of the Confession took place 
in a hall of the episcopal palace, which is now a royal residence. — Hans 
Bolbein the Elder and Hans Burgkmair the Elder flourished at Augsburg 
about 1600; comp. also p. xxii. 

160 Route 27. AUGSBURG. Cathedral. 

The present appearance of Augsburg still recalls its ancient 
importance. A few of the houses are Gothic hut most are in the 
Renaissance style of the 16th and 17th cent., and several are still 
adorned with well-preserved frescoes. The inner town is encircled 
by a promenade. . 

The principal street is the broad MaximiUan-Strasse (PI. 0, 4), 
between the Maximilians-Platz and the Ludwigs-Platz, with its 
continuation, the Karolinen-Strasse (PI. C, 3). At the N. end of the 
latter rises the Cathedral (PI. B, G, 3), an irregular Gothic pile, 
originally a Romanesque basilica, begun in 995, consecrated in 1006, 
and altered in 1321-1431. It now consists of a nave with low vault- 
ing, borne by square pillars, double aisles separated by slender columns 
with foliage-capitals, an E. and a W. choir, and a chevet of chapels. 
The bronze doors of the S. aisle, dating from about 1050, contain 
representations of Adam and Eve, the Serpent, Centaurs, etc., in 
thirty-five sections. The N. and S. portals of the E. choir, with 
sculptures of the 14th cent., are fine also. 

The W. choir contains a very ancient episcopal throne in stone and 
an ancient Gothic altar in bronze. In the nave hangs a fine bronze candel- 
abrum of the 14th century. The richly carved Gothic pulpit and the high- 
altar in the E. choir are modern. Fine stained glass, ancient and modern; 
the S. Romanesque windows of the nave (11th cent.) are among the oldest 
in existence. The altar-pieces of the first four side-altars are by Holbein 
the Elder (1498; scenes from the Life of the Virgin); those of the other 
four belong to the School of Zeitblom. In the ambulatory, in the Ohapel 
of St. Wolfgang (1st on the left), is a fine altar-piece by Amberger (Madonna 
and Child and angels, with 88. Ulrich and Afra on the wings; 1564). On 
the back-wall of the 2*. aisle are portraits of all the bishops from 606 to 
the present day. The choir- chapels, containing the tombs of many bishops, 
are separated from the choir by tasteful iron screens. The fine cloisters 
on the N. side (late- Gothic, 1474-1510) contain tombstones, some of them 
very old. The old hall of the chapter, on the N. side, contains the 
Episcopal Miueum (adm. at any time, Sun. only 11-12, on application to 
the sacristan, D 110 by the N. portal 5 gratuity). 

To the W. of the cathedral, in the Fronhof, with its War Monu- 
ment hy Zumbusch (1876), is the Royal Palace (PI. B, 3), now 
government-offices ; to the E., in the Karolinen-Platz, the Episcopal 
Palace fPl. O, 3). 

On the right, in the Karolinen-Str. (D, 83), is the Riedinger 
House, the court of which is fitted up as a winter-garden. At the 
S. end of the street is the Ludwigs-Platz (PL C, 4 ; usually called 
'Eiermarkt' or Terlach'), the busiest part of the town, in the centre 
of which rises the ^Fountain of Augustus, the founder of the city, 
whose statue was cast hy the Dutch master Gerhard in 1594. On 
the right is the Exchange; on the left the Perlach-Turm (256 ft. 
high), erected in 1063 as a watch-tower, heightened in 1615 and 
converted into a belfry, and now a fire-station (fine view from the 
top). — To the E. of the Perlach-Turm is the Mbtzg-Platz, ad- 
joining which on the N. is the Mctzg (PI. C, 3), the Butchers' 
House, erected in 1609 hy Elias Holl, and restored in 1643 after a 
fire. Farther to the E. , in the Barf ussergasse, rises the Barf&flser- 

Rathatu. AUGSBURG. 27. Routt. 161 

EjLrche(Pl. C, 4; Prot.), containing pictures by N. German masters 
of the 17th and 18th cent, and an excellent organ. — The Jdkobcr- 
Strasse, the E. continuation of the Barfussergasse, Is still one of 
the most mediaeval-looking streets in existence. Farther on, to the 
right is the entrance to the Fuggerei, a separate quarter of Augs- 
burg founded by Jakob Fugger 'the Rich (d. 1519) in 1519, closed 
by its own gates, and consisting of fifty- three small houses, tenanted 
at a merely nominal rent by -indigent citizens. 

The Rathaus [PI. 0, 4 ; adm. on weekdays 8-12 & 1-6, in winter 
9-12 & 1-4, Sun. 10-12; 1-2 pers. 1/2 •*, 3 or more pers. 25 pf. 
each), a handsome Renaissance edifice with no exterior ornamentation, 
was erected in 1616-20 by Elias Holl. On the gable in front is a 
large pine-cone in bronze, the heraldic emblem of the city. The 
lower vestibule contains an eagle, with gilded beak and claws (1606), 
and busts of Roman emperors; on the back-wall is a bust of Emp. 
Frederick III., who commanded the Bavarian troops in the war of 
1870-71. An antechamber on the first floor, borne by eight columns 
of red marble, has a fine wooden ceiling and a statue of Ghr. von 
Schmid (d. 1854; see p. 157), the educational writer. On the 
second floor is the *' Golden HaU\ 118 by 62 ft., and 56 ft. in height, 
one of the finest halls in Germany, with rococo decorations in the 
Italian style, compared with which the paintings by Eager (after 
designs by Peter Candid) seem somewhat ineffective. The adjoining 
Furstenzimmer also have fine wooden ceilings, wall-panelling, artistic 
stoves, a few pictures, and copies of painted facades in Augsburg. 
On the third floor is a collection of models. 

To the S.W., in the Ludwigs - Platz , opens the Philippine- 
Welser-Strasse, in which a Statue ofJoh. Jac. Fugger (1516-1575) 
was erected in 1857. To the E. of the monument is the handsome 
house in which Philippina Welser lived from 1530 to 1550. To the 
W. is the Maximilians-Museum (PI. B, G, 4), a Renaissance edifice 
of the 16th cent., containing the collections of the Historical and 
Natural History Society (open on weekdays, except Sat. afternoon, 
10-1 and 2-5; Oct.-March, 10-12 and 2-4; 50 pf.). On the ground- 
floor are Roman antiquities from the neighbourhood of Augsburg 
and, in the wing, medieval sculptures (lncl. fine alabaster reliefs 
of the Renaissance period); on the first floor the mediaeval col- 
lections, including wood-carvings, weapons, seals, coins, drawings, 
etc. The pictures include portraits by Amberger, and an Adoration 
of the Magi by Oumpolt Oiltlingcr, a rare contemporary of Holbein. 
Another room contains Celtic, Roman, and Frankish antiquities. 
The natural history department embraces valuable collections of 
zoology, botany, mineralogy, paleontology, ethnography, etc. 

In the neighbouring St. Anna-Strasse is the church of St. Anna 
(?1.B, 4; Prot.), built in 1472-1510 in the late-Gothic style, with 
a central part altered to the Renaissance style. 

In the interior are a fine pulpit and brass candelabrum of i 

Bawhu's S. Germany. 10th Bait. 11 

162 Route 27. AUGSBURG. St. Ulrich. 

altar-piece (Jesus receiving little children), and portraits of Luther and 
Elector John Frederick of Saxony, by Cranaeh the Younger; the Wise and 
Foolish Virgins, by Amber ger (1560), who probably also painted the Trans- 
figuration in the S. aisle-, Feeding of the four thousand, by Roitenhammer ; 
Portrait of the Patrician von Oestreicher, by Van Dycl (?) •, Christ in Hades, 
by Burgkmair the Younger (1534), etc. To the left of the altar is a fine 
relief in stone of the Raising of Lazarus (16th cent.). The paintings on 
the wings of the large organ are perhaps by Burgkmair the Younger ; those 
on the small altar are attributed to Holbein the Younger. At the W. end 
is the elaborate burial-chapel of the Fugger family, the earliest Renaissance 
architectural monument in Germany, built by Jacob Fugger the Rich 
(p. 161) in 1509-12, in a Venetian style. On the N. side is the Gold- 
smiths' Chapel, with frescoes of the 15-16th centuries. Numerous tomb- 
stones in the cloisters. 

We return hence to the Maxlmilian-Strasse, where there are two 
fountains, the Mercury and the Hercules, by Adr. de Vriea, ereeted 
. in 1599 and 1602. — On the right is the Puggerhaui (PI. 0,4), the 
property of Prince Fugger-Babenhausen, adorned with frescoes by 
F. Wagner in 1860-63. The 'Damenhof ' was adorned by Burgkmair 
the Elder in 1615 with frescoes of which scanty remains are still 
visible. The Drei Mohren hotel (p. 158) was formerly one of the 
Fugger houses. 

In the Zeug-Platz, at the corner of the Apothekergasschen, are 
the so-called *Tugger Bath Booms, two sumptuous apartments in 
the Italian Renaissance style (1570-72), restored in 1906 and fitted 
up for the accommodation of the Fugger Museum. — Opposite is the 
Arsenal (PI. O, 4), an imposing edifice with a Renaissance facade 
by Elias Holl (p. 161 ; 1602). Above the portal, which bears the 
inscription 'pacis firmament o, belli instrumento\ is a bronze group, 
by Reichel, of St. Michael smiting Satan (1607). 

At the S. end of the Maximilian-Strasse are the two churches 
of St. Ulrich (PI. O, 5), one Protestant, the other, the interesting 
old conventual *Church of St. Ulrich and St. Afra t Roman Catholic. 
The lofty nave of the latter was erected in 1467-99 by Burkard 
Engelberger, and in 1500 the foundation of the choir was laid by 
Emp. Maximilian I. The tasteful pentagonal porch of the N. portal 
was added in 1881. The tower (305 ft.), completed in 1594, com- 
mands a fine view (adm. 20 pf.). 

Interior (always open). The nave and aisles are shut off by a highly 
elaborate iron screen, of the 16th cent., which when seen from the choir 
produces a striking effect of perspective. The Fugger Chapel, between 
the 2nd and 3rd pillar on the left, with its fine iron railing of 1668, 
contains the *Tomb of Hans Fugger (1589), a marble sarcophagus with 
recumbent figure by A. Collins of Malines, transferred from Schloss Kirch- 
heim in 1877; also an altar with fine early-German carvings (14th cent.), 
recently erected. In the chapel of St. Bartholomew (left aisle) is a Roman 
sarcophagus, said to be that of St. Afra. The three handsome 'Baroque 
Altars date from 1604. Below that to the right is a vault with the marble 
sarcophagus of Bishop Ulrich (10th cent.), patron of the see of Augsburg. 
Finely carved confessionals of the beginning of the 17th century. In the 
nave is a Crucifixion in bronze by Reichel and Neidhardt, cast at the 
beginning of the 17th century. The 16th cent, paintings above the choir- 
stalls represent the foundation of the choir and the procession of the 
emperor and estates. The sacristy, in the Renaissance style, contains 
good stained glass of the 15th century. 

Picture GdUery. AUGSBURG. 27. Route. 163 

To the W. of the Hercules Fountain opens the Katharinengasse, 
at the corner of which stands the Schdtler-Palais (numbered B 16), 
with a fine rococo hall of 1770 (opened by the steward ; 50 pf.). In 
the Katharinen-Str. is situated the Eoyal Picture Gallery (PI. B, 
0, 4), in the old monastery of St. Catharine (open daily from 9 to 1, 
and for strangers at other times; fee V2-I *#» catalogue, 1899, 
V2 Jt\ Tn © collection is chiefly interesting for its early-German 
masters, in particular the works of Hans Holbein the Elder and 
H. Burgkmair, whose names mark the zenith of art in Augsburg 
(beginning of 16th cent.). Many of the pictures are from the sup- 
pressed churches and convents of Augsburg. Good photographs by 
Hoefle sold by the attendant. 

Vestibule. 265. /. A. Koch. Heroic landscape, with St. George and 
the Dragon: 0. Ph. Rugendas, 272. Riding-school, 273. Horse-market at 
Rome. — To the right is Room I. In the centre, marble bust of the 
younger Holbein after his portrait of himself at Bale, executed by Lossow. 
To the right of the entrance : H. Burgkmair the Elder, *85, 86-88 (over the 
door), 8t. Peter's (1601) and San Giovanni in Laterano (1502). To the left 
of the entrance : Master L. F. (?), 82-84. San Lorenzo and San Sebastiano 
(1502). These form part of a cycle of 16 paintings belonging to the old 
convent of St. Catharine, relating to an indulgence granted to its inmates 
and representing the seven principal churches of Rome, with legendary 
scenes connected with them (others in Cab. 2 A 8). To the right, farther 
on: *52-49. Zeitblom, Legend of St. Valentine ; Ulrich Apt, 103-106. Crucifixion, 
106, 107. (above; grisaille) Annunciation; between these two, 102. Oililinger 
(comp. p. 161), Adoration of the Magi ; 61. Holbein the Elder, Passion, in 
13 sections. — On the N. wall, to the right and left and between the 
windows, *99-95. Burgkmair the Elder, Altar-piece for the Convent of St. 
Catharine (1519), with St. George, Emp. Henry II., Christ on the Cross 
and the two malefactors. In the niches, 60-57. M. Schaffner, Scenes from 
the Passion ; 168-178. H. torn Ring, Sibyls and Prophets. — On the exit- 
wall: *89-91. Burgkmair the Elder, Santa Croce (1504; comp. No. 85). Above 
(145-150) are six paintings by a Tyroleee Master of about 2480 (Michael 
Hans Packer f), representing SS. Jerome and Ambrose (wings of an altar) 
and the legend of St. Nicholas of Cusa. 130, 131. H. Pleydenwurff ( Wohl- 
gemutt), Crucifixion, Resurrection. 

Room II, chiefly Italian artists. First partition, on the front: 309. 
Tintoretto, Christ at the house of Mary and Martha; 405. Rosalba Carriera, 
Head of a child; on the back, *291. Dutch Imitator of Leonardo da Vine*. 
Head of a girl; 411. Spanish School (ca. 1670), St. Francis; 288. Jacopo de* 
Barbari, Still-life (150i); 409. Early copy of Ribera, Martyrdom of St. Se- 
bastian. Second partition: on the back, *298. Parmigianino, Madonna 
and St. Bruno. — Above, beside the door to the left, 308. Fr. Torbido, 

Room III. Netherlandish Schools. Entrance-wall: 574. Ben. Cuyp, Cir- 
cumcision; %bove, 638. A. Cuyp, Pastoral scene. — First partition: 578. 
<7. Schalcken, Mocking of Christ; *592. Jan Steen, Merry-makers; on the 
back, 611. Berchem, Evening-scene, with cattle; above, 612. Pynacker, A 
wanderer under a bridge; 561. Pieter Lastman (teacher of Rembrandt), 
Odysseus and Nausicaa (1619); 435. Jan Brueghel the Elder, Landing-place 
(1615); 622. Jan van Ooyen, Village; 585. Isaac van Ostade, Cottage. — 
Central partition : 605. Poelenburg, Waterfall; above. 476, 477. A. van Dyck, 
Sketches (grisaille) for engravings; on the back, 623. Van Ooyen, Farm- 
yard; 475. Kneller (after Van Dyck), Queen Henrietta Maria; »620. Van 

XJ: uthtt rt, Bear-hunt; above, 208. /. Sandrart, Miraculous Draught of Fishes 
11646); 593. Jf. Sweertstf), Concert. — On the left wall (in returning): 645. 


164 Route 28. RATISBON. 

ScheUineks, Sea-piece; 462. Rubens, Arabs fighting with crocodiles and hippo- 
potamus (studio-piece); 596. Ph. Wouverman, Hawking. — Adjoining is — 
Cabinet 5. 204. Chr. Paudiss, St. Jerome. — Gab. 4. 159. Cranach the 
Elder ; Pharaoh and 'his host overwhelmed in the Bed Sea; 163. L. Cranach, 
Elector Albert of Mayence adoring the Crucified Christ; 92-94. Burgkmair 
the Elder, Christ and Mary enthroned, with saints (1507). — Cab. 3. *ti2-64. 
Holbein the Elder, Santa Maria Maggiore (1499; comp. No. 85, Boom I); 
•142. Altdorfer, Birth of the Virgin; 71-73. Holbein the Elder, Crucifixion, 
Descent from the Cross, Entombment. — Cab. 2. Holbein the Elder, *68-70. 
San Paolo (comp. No. 85); 74. Legend of St. Ulrich; 75. Martyrdom of 
8U Catharine; 7b. Madonna, St. Anna, and the Infant Christ: 77. Crucifixion 
of St. Peter (1493). Zettblom, 53. SS. Eretius and Theodule, 54. St. Alexandra. 
— Cab. 1. 65-67. Holbein the Elder, Miracles of Christ; 55, 56. B. Strigel, 
Zachariah and Isaiah ; Dtirer, 133. Virgin with the pink (1516), 134. The 
Virgin as mediatrix (1497); *138. Battel Beham, Portrait; 120. Amberger, 
Madonna ; 12. Cologne Matter of St. Severin, Assumption. 

The W. quarters near the railway-station contain several hand- 
some modern buildings': in the Fugger-Strasse the Courts of Law 
(PL B, 4; built 1871-75) and the fine Theatre (PI. B, 3; built 1876- 
77) ; in the Prinz-Regenten-Str., which opens between the Law- 
Courts and the Theatre, the Prince Regent Fountain (PI. B, 4; erected 
1903), by Franz Bernauer, with a bronze figure of the Prince Regent 
in the uniform of the Knights of St. Hubert and, on the pedestal, 
busts in relief of Maximilian I. Joseph, Louis L, Maximilian II., 
and Louis II.; in the Schazler - Strasse the Municipal Library 
(PI. B, 3, 4 ; built 1893), with upwards of 160,000 volumes. Farther 
to the S.W., beyond the railway, is the Stadt-Garten (PI. B, 5), a 
tastefully laid out pleasure-ground with a cafe-restaurant, a large 
concert-hall, etc. 

On the E. side of the town extends the public Park , at the 
upper end of which are the large water-works in the Lech called 
the 'Ablass', for conveying water to the town (* Restaurant). Ad- 
jacent are the Water Works for supplying the town with drinking- 
water. — In the Wertach-Thal, 2V 2 M. to the S.W. (tramway, see 
p. 159), is Ooggingen (Fr. Hessing's Kuranstalt), with a church, 
palm-house, summer-theatre, concerts, etc. 

From Augsburg to Stuttgart and to Munich, see R. 31; to IngoUtadt, 
see p. 176; to Buchloe, p. 260. — A branch -line runs to the N.W. to 
(15 M.) Welden. 

28. Ratisbon and the Walhalla. * 

Hotels. *Gbuneb Kbanz (PI. b; 0,3), Obermunster-Str., R. l 8 /4-4, B. 1, 
D. 3, pens. 7-9, omn. V« J*i 'Maximilian (PI. c; D, 4), Maximilian-Str. 162- 
164, near the station, with restaurant and garden, R. l>/4-4 Jl, B. 80 pf., 
D. 2 Jf; 'National (PI. e; D, 4), with popular restaurant, R. iV«-2V** 
pens. 3-5 Jf; Weidsnhof (PI. f; D, 3), R. 1 A 20 pf.- 21/2 A, these two in 
the Maximilian-Str.; MCncheneb Hop, Kramgasse (PI. C, 2); Kabkeliten- 
bbau (PI. h; D, 8), Maximilian-Str.,- R. 1-2 JH, much frequented, plain but 
good; WBIS8EK Hahh (PI. d; D, 2), Weisse Hahnengasse, near the bridge, 
R. from 1 JH; Zoic Stebn, Maximilian-Str., plain but good. 

Restaurants. *Rail. Restaurant; m H0L National, Munehener Ho/, see 
above; Neues Hans {Theatre Restaurant; closed in summer), Bismarck- 
Platz 7 (PI. B, 3); Velodrom, Arnulfs- Plate (PI. B, 2); Caft- Restaurant 




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^'jjSfTOOtJf; - ;^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


28. Boute. 165 

Central, Pfauengasse, a little to the 8. of the cathedral (Pl.D, 2); Von der 
Tann, Von der Tann-Str. (PI. D, E, 8). — WurstkHche (PI. D, 2), /quaint, 
below the stone bridge (open 6-11 a.m.; beer). — Schillfisch and Scheid- 
flsch, or Waller, are good kinds of fish. 

Wine. Weitse lAlie % Frohliche Turken-Str. (PL D, 3); Baumgarlen, 
Von der Tann-Str. 24 (Hungarian wines); Diem, Ludwig-Str. 16; Wellhdfer, 
8chaffner-Str. (PI. D, 8). — Beer. At the Bischofshof, in the Krauterer- 
Markt (PI. C, 2); Augustintrbr&u, entr. from the Neupfarr-Platz, opposite 
the Wahlen-Str. (PI. C, 3); Jeeultenbr&u , Obermunster-8tr. (PI. C, 3); 
Karmelitenbrdu (p. 164); at the Beer Gardens beyond the railway; all these 

Foat ft Telegraph Office (PI. C, D, 3) in the Dom-Platz. 

Oaba. (Stands at the station, in 
the Dom-Platz, and the Haid-Platz.) 

To or from the station . . . 
In the town, V< hr 

„ „ » Vtl» 

» . » »/4hr 

» » » J hr 

» , . 2hrs 

To the Walhalla . . , . . 

To the Walhalla and back 

lVahr's. stay 



1 2- horse 

l-2pers.f Spers. 

1 (Fiaker) 1-4 pew. 




-.80 (3-4 pers. 1 Jt) 





















8.25(3 4pers.9^75) 

Luggage up to 22 lbs. free; over 22 lbs. each article 20 pf. — The 
hirer should insist on being driven up to the Walhalla, as the drivers 
are apt to stop at the foot of the hill. 

Electric Tramways (6-10 a. m. every 12 min., after 10 every 6 min.). 
1. Station (PL D. 4)-Moltke-Pla<z-Dom-Platz (PL C, 2)-Stone Bridge-Stadf- 
am-Hof (station for the Walhalla line; C, 1). — 2. PrU/ming (comp. PL 
A, 8)-Arnulfs-Platz (PL B, 2)-Haid-Pl*tz-Dom-Platz-Moltke-Platz.Ostengasse 
(PL E, 2, ^Slaughter Howe (to the E. of PL F, 3). 

Steam Tramway from Stadt-am-Hof (PJ. C, 1; p. 112) vi& Donauslauf, 
Walhalla Station, and Sulzbach, to (14 V* M.) Worth an der Donau; to 
(6 M.) the Walhalla in 50 min. (fare 80 or 50 pf., return 1 Jt 20 pf. or 75 pf.). 

Steamboat to Donaustauf (Walhalla) from the Untere Worth (PL D, 2), 
from June 25th till Sept. 8lh once daily, from Hay 1st till June 24th and 
from Sept. 6th to 30th on Sun. and holidays, in y 2 hr. (back in l-H/4 hr.); 
return-fare 1st cl. 1 A 20 pf., 2nd el. 80 pf. The boat leaves at 2.15 p. m. 
returning at 6 (9-30th Sept. at 5.80). 

Baths. Otto-Bad, Eepler-Str. and Fischmarkt (swimming-bath also). 

— River-baths : Hddtitche Schwimnuchule (PL B, 1), at the Obere Worth ; 
Regenbdder (PL D, E, 1), at the mouth of the Regen. 

Principal Attractions (1-1 Va day). * Cathedral (p. 166); Porta Praetoria 
(p. 167); the •AdeUburgtn (p. 166); Rathaw (p. 169); Jakobs-K.rche (p. 169; 
portal); m St. Emmeram (p. 170); Stone Bridge (p. 172); • Walhalla (p. 172). 

— "Excursion to Kelheim> see p. 174. 

Ratisbon, Germ. Regensburg (1116 ft.), situated at the con- 
fluence of the Danube and Regen, with 48,500 inhab. (6000Prot.) f 
the Regina Castra of the Romans, the Celtic Ratiabona, and since 
the 8th cent, the seat of an episcopal see founded by St. Boniface, 
was from the 11th to the 14th cent, one of the most flourishing 
and populous cities of S. Germany. At an early period it was a free 
town of the Empire, and from 1663 to 1806 the permanent seat of 
the Imperial Diet. By the Peace of Luneville it was adjudged to 
the Primate Dalberg ; and in 1810 it became Bavarian, after the 
disastrous defeat of the Austrians beneath its walls the preceding 
year, when part of the town had been reduced to ashes. 

166 Route 28. RATISBON. Cathedral. 

Of the extant remains of Begina Castra, which occupied a rectangle 
686 yds. long by 480 yds. broad, the most important are the Porta Praeioria 
and a considerable fragment of the walls preserved in the garden of the 
Vereinshaus St Erhard (p. 168). The foundations of an earlier Roman 
building, dating from the reign of Domitian (81-96 A.D.), were excavated 
in 1886 to the W. of the railway station. During the construction of the 
station and in the Straubinger Strasse Roman and Merovingian graves 
were discovered, the objects found in which are now in the museum of 
the Historical Society. 

Tbe oldest Christian structures in Eatisbon date back to the late Car- 
lovingian period, and for the student of the art-history of the early middle 
ages Ratisbon is almost as important as Nuremberg is for the study of 
the subsequent centuries (comp. also p. xix). Some of the numerous 
medieeval houses still display the armorial bearings of their ancient 
owners; and the Adtlsburgen, or mansions of the old patrician families, 
with their towers of defence, dating from the 13th cent., are a remini- 
scence of early-German civic life now preserved at Ratisbon alone. The 
town-wall was pulled down in 1858-68, with the exception of three of the 
gateways — the Prebrunn-Tor, St. JSmmerams-Tor y and Osttn-Tor. 

The traffic of the town centres in the Dom-Platz (P1.C,2) and 
the Dom-Freihelt, to the S.E., in which is an equestrian Statue of 
Louis I., by F. von Miller (1902). 

The 'Cathedral (PI. D, 2) of St. Peter was begun by Bishop Leo 
Thundorffer on the site of an earlier edifice in 1275, and completed 
daring the following centuries (down to 1534), with the exception 
of the towers. The material is greenish-yellow sandstone from 
Kapfelberg (p. 174). Of the architects employed the best-known 
are Konrad Roritzer (after 1451) and his sons Matthaew (after ca. 
1480) and Wolfgang, the last of whom was beheaded in 1614 for 
'rebellion against the imperial authority'. The W. facade, with 
the chief portal and a curious triangular *Poroh, is due to M. 
Roritzer (1482-86). A gallery, with open stone balustrade, is car- 
ried round the roof, and affords a good survey of the town. On 
the N. side of the transept rises the EseUturm, or Asses' Tower, 
a relic of the original Romanesque edifice, containing a winding 
inclined plane. The elegant open Towers were completed in 1859- 
69 by Denzinger. Length of interior 306 ft., breadth 125 ft. ; nave 
132 ft. high. — Admission from 10 a. m. on week-days, from 11 
a. m. on Sun., by the N.E. portal in the Domgarten ; the sacristan's 
house is Domgarten 125, at the back of the choir. Good music on 
Sun. and festivals, 9-10.30 a.m. 

. Interior. The symmetrical proportions recall St. TJrbain at Troyes or 
Strassburg Cathedral. Peculiarities of construction are that the transept 
does not project beyond the sides of the aisles, and that the choir is desti- 
tute of the ambulatory and chapels usual in Gothic churches. The choir 
has a triforium-gallery, which is continued round the entire church. The 
stained-glass windows in the transepts, the right aisle, and over the W. 
portal are modern. 

Nave. On the W. wall, next the portal, are early-Gothic equestrian 
statues of SS. Maurice and Martin (early 14th cent.). The late-Gothic 
pulpit (canopy modern) dates from 1482. The nave contains also the bronze 
monument of Bishop and Cardinal Philipp (1579-b8), son of Duke William 
of Bavaria. — In the Aisles are five Gothic altars with modern paintings, 
the finest in the N. aisle, with statues of Emp. Henry II. and Empress 
Kunigunde. In a niche in the N. aisle, partly concealed from view, is 

Church of St. Vlrich. RATISBON. 28. Route. 167 

the monument of the Primate Prince Dalberg (d. 1817), designed by Ca- 
nova, and executed in white marble. Opposite is the beautiful Renais- 
sance tomb of Ursula Aquila (d. 1547). 

Choib. On the N. side, to the left, is the "Monument of Margaretha 
Tucher in bronze, by P. Vischer (1521), representing Christ with the 
sisters of Lazarus. The high -altar, presented in 1785 by the Prince- 
Bishop Count Fugger, is entirely covered with silver plating ; adjoining it 
is the elegant *Cibonum, 56 ft. in height, with numerous statuettes, begun 
in 1498 by M. Rorilzer and completed in 1510-14 by his brother Wolfgang. 
The stained-glass windows date from the 13-14th centuries. 

The Right Transept contains the tomb of Bishop M. von Sailer 
(p. 110), by K. Ebtrhard. Near it is a well 66 ft. in depth, with an ele- 
gant covering sculptured in stone, executed in 1501 by Wolfgang Roritzer. 

The Treasury (shown by the sacristan) contains valuable church- 
plate, etc., including an early-Gothic "Altar Cross, originally in the 
possession of King Ottocar of Bohemia (d. 1278), a silver-gilt statuette of 
St. Sebastian (after 1500), and the 'rationale 1 or stole of Bishop Berthold 
von Eicbs«att (1351-65). 

The 'Cloisters on the X.E. side of the cathedral (shown by the sacris- 
tan; fee Vs A) date in their present form mainly from the 14-16th cen- 
turies. The central hall contains beautifully - sculptured windows dis- 
playing a union of Gothic and Renaissance forms*, the pavement is formed 
by the tombstones of canons and patricians of Ratisbon. — Adjoining this 
hall on the B. is the Romanesque All Saints' Chapel, erected in 1164. with 
the remains of early frescoes and an interesting antique altar. — On the 
N. side of the cloisters is *8t. Stephen 1 * Ohapel, erroneously known as the 
Old Cathedrah probably built at the end of the 10th cent, as the chapel 
of the Bischofshof (see below). It forms a vaulted rectangle, with apsidal 
recesses in the sides and a W. gallery. The early-Romanesque altar is 
a block of stone partly hollowed out, with elegant little round-arched 
windows, in which the relics of St. Wolfgang (p. 171) were formerly 
preserved. — St. Michael" $ Chapel^ on the S. side of the cloisters, has 
interesting vaulting. 

On the N. side of the cathedral, next the Church of St. John, is 
the foimer Bischofshof (PI. 8; C, D, 2), or Episcopal Palace, built 
about 975 by St. Wolfgang (p. 171), rebuilt in the 13th and 16th cent., 
and frequently occupied by the emperors on their visits to Ratisbon. 
— In the street 'Unter den Schwibbogen', built into the N. side of 
the Bischofshof, is the ancient Porta Pb^etobia (PI. 7, D, 2; p. 
166), of which the archway of massive limestone blocks and the E. 
tower are preserved. 

Since 1821 the Bishop's Residence (PI. D, 2) has been in the former 
nunnery of NiedermOnstbr, between the above-mentioned street 
and the Domgarten, founded in the 10th century. The Parish Church, 
restored after the fire of 1152 and now almost entirely modernized, 
has a Romanesque portal in the vestibule and a late-Romanesque 
Crucifixion (12th cent.) ; in the left aisle are three Gothic ciborium- 
altars, and in the W. gallery is an organ in the rococo style. — The 
little Crypt of St. Erhard, in the Niedermunstergasse, behind the 
church, dates from the 11th cent, (key kept by the caretaker of the 
R. C. Vereinshaus, p. 168; gratuity 30 pf.). 

On the S. side of the Domgarten, just beyond the cathedral, is 
the Church of St. Ulrica or the Alte Pfarre (PI. 1 ; D, 2), an early- 
Gothic rectangular building, with reminiscences of the Romanesque 
style (ca. 1250), surrounded by galleries. It contains the most im- 

168 Route 28. RATISBON. Moltkc-Flatz. 

portant part (comp. below) of the collections of the Historical Society 
(adm. all day in summer, 20 pf.; catalogue 30 pf.). 

Navb. In front are sculptures of the Merovingian period (?), and 
mediaeval sculptures and architectural fragments (3. Romanesque astrolabe 
from St. Emmeram's, ca. 1200 •, 157. Small stone figure from the Stone 
Bridge; 194. Catapult from a tower of defence). Farther on are Roman 
monuments in stone, dedication - stones (No. 12), sarcophagi, etc.; on the 
Wall to the left are remains of the inscription on the Porta Principalis 
D extra, of 179 A.D. — In the Gallebies are valuable prehistoric and Ger- 
manic objects from tombs, and (W. side) Roman *Glass mirrors, greaves, 
gold coins, etc. 

The Moltkb-Platz (PI. D, 3 ; formerly the old corn-market), a 
few paces to the S.E. of the church of St. Ulrioh, is surrounded by 
quaint buildings. On the W. side are the Herzogshof (now occupied 
by officials), mentioned as early as 988, and the so-called Rb'mer- 
turm r an early-medisval tower with a Romanesque upper story; on 
the S. side, beside the Maximilian-Str., which leads to the railway 
station, is the Alte Kapelle (founded in the 9th cent.), originally a 
Romanesque church with a Gothic choir (1441) and a detached belfry 
built of Roman freestone, modernized in the interior in 1748 in a 
sumptuous baroque style; on the E. side is the Carmelite Church 
(1641-60), in the Ital. baroque style. — Beyond it, in the Minoriten- 
Platz, rises the Gothic Minorite Church, of the 13-14th cent., with 
a fine lofty choir. It is now used as a military gymnasium, and the 
adjacent monastery is now a barrack. 

On the left side of the Kallmiinzergasse, which diverges to the 
N. from the Minoriten-Platz, is the new Roman Catholic Vbreins- 
haus St. Erhabd, with a fine Gothic hall from the former Dollinger- 
Haus (ca. 1300), containing some curious reliefs (Dollinger's battle 
with the giant Krako, etc.). On the upper floor are some of the 
collections (comp. above) of the Historical Society (adm. Wed. 11-12 
& 3-5, Sat. 3-5; apply to the society's attendant in St. TJlrlch's 

Near the entrance are old plans of Ratisbon (1614 and 1645). Farther 
to the left, Work in iron; imtruments of torture; tilting -sad dies of the 
Paalsdorfer family (15th cent.). Among the pictures: Lucas Cranach the 
Elder. Piela; remains of frescoes (Susanna at the bath, Lovers, etc.) from 
a bathroom in the emperor's apartments at the BIschofshof (16th cent.) ; 
Alb. AUdorfer* David and Bathsheba, a winged altar-piece (1517); Mich. 
Ostendorfer, Altar-piece (1555) and Portrait (1533); three portraits of the 
Memminger family (1642). Alfo, fine stained glass (15-I6th cent.); three 
stoves in the Empire style from the Elefanten-Apotheke, etc. 

In the court are remains of Ihe walls of Begina Gastra (comp. p. 166). 

From the N. end of the Kallmiinzergasse the Ostengasse leads to 
the Osten-Tor (PI. E, 3; 14th cent.) and the Royal Villa (PI. E, F, 
2, 3), the latter built in 1853, in the modern Gothic style, on an 
old bastion commanding a fine view. — In the Reich s-Str., beside 
the Church of St. Cecilia (PL F, 3), is a noted Roman Catholic 
School of Church Music. 

A few paces to the N.W. of the Dom-Platz, in the street 'Beim 
Goliath' and in the Wat-Markt (PI. C, 2), is situated the Thundorfcr- 

Eathaw. RATISBON. 28. Route. 169 

Haus (reconstrncted in 1897), with a fresco (David and Goliath) and 
an old tower of defence (p. 166). — In the Wahlen-Str. (PL C, 
2, 3), which runs to the S. from the adjacent coal-market, rises the 
Qoldene Turm (175 ft.), the highest of the characteristic towers of 
Katishon. — In the opposite direction we reach the fish-market 
and (left) the quaint Kepler-Str. (PI. C, 2), with the house (D 145, 
on the right) in which Kepler the astronomer (b. 1571) died in 1630. 
The Haus zum Pelikan (D 103), on the left, with a tower, has an 
interesting courtyard. 

The Eathaus(Pl. C, 2) is a picturesque, irregular pile. The older 
or W. portion, dating from the 14th cent., presents a Gothic facade 
towards the Rathaus-Platz, with an elegant oriel-window and a flue 
portal ; the newer portion, extending to the coal-market, was erected 
in 1660-1721. Open daily (incl. Sun.) 8-12 & 2-6 (2-4 in winter); 
cards of admission (50 pf.) at the police guard- room (in the new wing). 

The large Ball of the Imperial Diet, in which the German Parliament met 
from 1663 to 1806, contains frescoes by Boxberger (1564), and a loth cent, 
wooden ceiling. Tie stained glass in the oriel exhibits the armorial bear- 
ings of Emp. Charles V. — The Fitrsten- Collegium contains a model of the 
Walhalla. Here also is preserved some very valuable 'Tapestry of the 14- 
16th cent. : Twenty-fonr pairs of lovers (14th cent.), Contest of the vir- 
tues and the vices (15th cent), etc. — The Fiir$ilic7u Nebemimmer contains 
old flags, portraits of patricians, the canopy under which Emp. Matthias 
entered Ratisbon in 16l3, a rich collection of Ratisbon coins, etc. — In 
the Model Room are models of buildings in Ratisbon (incl. a model for the 
Kapelle zur schonen Maria, p. 171, showing a curious blending of Gothic 
and Renaissance forms, by Hans Hiiber of Augsburg. 1519), guild antiqui- 
ties, etc. — On the ground-floor are old cannon, two dungeons, the torture- 
chamber, with the judge's seat behind a lattice, and the condemned cell. 

Farther to the W. is the Haid-Platz (PI. 0, 2), with the crenel- 
lated *Krafft House (formerly the Goldnes Kreuz Hotel ; PI. a). 
The massive tower of defence bears a medallion-portrait of Don John 
of Austria (modern). 

Don John of Austria, a natural son of Emp. Charles V. and Barbara 
B lorn berg, was born at Ratisbon on 25th Feb.. 1547 (d. 1678). Charles V. 
lodged, during the diet of 1546 (also previously in 1532 and 1541), at the 
house of Bernard Krafft auf der Haid, but that Don John was born there 
is a fiction. 

Going hence through the Ludwig-Str. to the Arnulfs-Platz, and 
turning to the left, past the Neue Haw with the Theatre (PI. B, 2), 
we reach — 

St. Jakobs-Xirche or the Schotten-Kirche (PI. B, 3), a Roman- 
esque basilica consecrated in 1110, reconstructed about 1162-84, 
and restored in 1871-73. The North Portal is adorned with curious 
and fantastic sculptured figures of men and animals, perhaps sym- 
bolical of the victory of Christianity over paganism ; above are figures 
•of Chri6t and the Twelve Apostles. The monastery, founded by 
Scottish or Irish monks, was suppressed, in 1862 and is now a 
8eminary for PtiesU. — In the vicinity, outside the new Jakohs-Tor, 
is a riehly carved Gothic Column of 1459, restored in 1855. 

To the/N.W., in the former Westner suburb, are the HeUigkreuz-Klotter 
(PI. A, 2; no adm.), a Dominican nurnery of the 18th cent., the Church of 

170 Route 28. RATISBON. St. Emmtram. 

St. Leonard (PL A, 2), in the transition style (13th cent.), with a good 
carved altar (1601), and the Prebrunn-Tor (13th cent.) in the garden of the 
Duchess of Wurtemberg's palace. 

To the E. of St. Jakobs-Kirche is the Bjsmarok-Platz (PI. B, 3 ; 
formerly the Jakobs-Platz), on the S.E. side of which rises the early- 
Gothic ^Dominican Church (PI. B, 3 ; St. Blasius) y begun in 1273 
but not completed till about 1400. By the central pillars to the 
left in the interior, which is notable for the elegance of its pro- 
portions, are the admirable tombstones of Jorg Schenk von Neideck 
(d. 1504; Gothic) andFuchs von Schneeberg (d. 1526 ; Renaissance). 
The sacristan (Am Olberg 016, to the right behind the church) 
shows the Cloisters (15th cent.), the "W. walk of which is adjoined 
by the Albertus KapeUe, the so-called Schola Alberti Magni, in which 
Albert (p. 168), afterwards Bishop of Ratisbon (1260-62), is said 
to have lectured about 1236. It is really a lecture -room of the 
15th cent., afterwards converted into a chapel, and contains an old 
professorial chair. The monastery now accommodates the Lyceum, 
with philosophical and theological faculties ; the Collections of the 
Natural History Society (open Sun. 10-12 in summer ; key with the 
caretaker at the Lyceum), which are preserved here, include a 
noteworthy geological section. 

The Gesandten-Strassb (PI. B, C, 3) leads to the E. from the 
Bismarck- Platz to the Neupfarr-Platz (p. 171), passing on the right 
the Prot. Drbieinigkeits-Kirohe (Trinity Church), consisting of a 
nave with massive barrel-vaulting and a lofty gable but without 
aisles or columns (key next door, C91). Behind it, in the former 
graveyard, a number of interesting tombstones, including some of 
representatives to the imperial diet, are built into the wall (visible 
from the street). 

The Bereiterweg leads to the S. from tho Bismarck-Platz, passing 
the Prdsidial- Gebaude (PI. 4; B, 3), formerly the palace of the 
•French ambassador, to the — 

tEgidi en- Platz (PI. B, 3), where is situated the Gothic ALgidven- 
Kirche or St. Gilgen-Kirche of the 13-14th cent., till 1809 the church 
of the Teutonic Order, and recently restored. — The Marschall-Str. 
to the left leads thence past the Regierungs-Qebdude to the Emmb- 
rams-Platz (PI. O, 3), embellished with a statue of Bishop M. von 
Sailer (1829-1832), in bronze, by M. Widnmann (1868). 

The old Benedictine abbey of St. Emmeram (PI. C, 3, 4), one 
of the oldest in Germany, was founded in the 7th cent, and sup- 
pressed in 1803. The Romanesque church, with two choirs and 
crypts, was reconsecrated in 1052, rebuilt after the fires of 1163 
and 1189, and modernized in 1731-33 largely in the baroque style. 
It is adjoined on the N. by the late-Gothic St. Rupert-Kirche (now 
a parish- church), which was completed in'1501. St. Emmeram's is 
open only during divine service ; the bell for the sacristan (gratuity 
50 pf.) is to the left, beside the belfry (restored in 1576-79). 

Oberrmnstcr. BATISBON. 28. Boute. 171 

In the Anterior Coubt, which occupies the site of the vestibule ('Para- 
dise')) destroyed all but two bays, is a Mount of Olives (1513). — The 
Double Postal of the church, with two semi-circular niches in an antique 
style, is adorned with stiff figures in relief of Christ and SS. Emmeram 
(left) and Dionysius (right) \ on Christ's footstool is the bust of the builder 
of the church, the Abl-ot Reginward (1049-64). 

Interiob. The principal allar-piece is a painting by Joachim von Sand- 
raft, representing the martyrdom of St. Emmeram (d. 716?). Two slabs in 
the pavement in front mark the tombs of the emperors Arnulf (887-899) and 
Lewis the Child (900-911). Beneath the high-altar is the silver sarcophagus 
of St. Emmeram (1423). — The chief objects of interest are the tombstones, 
which were mostly restored in the 13th & 14th centuries. Left aisle, beside 
the altar of St. Ifnximanius, 'Tombstone of Empress Uta, wife of Arnulf j 
farther on, in front of the entrance to the St. Rupert-Kirche. the alleged 
grave of Count Warmund of Wasserburg (d. 1010) ; in the chapel to the 
left of the choir, Monuments of Duke Henry the Quarrelsome of Bavaria 
(d. 995), and St. Aurelia (d. 1027), said to be a daughter of Hugh Capet 
(erected in 1835); opposite, at ihe entrance lo the choir, Tombstone of Duke 
Arnulf (d. 637); in the chapel on the right of the choir, Large Gothic 
monument of St. Emmeram, in red marble; in the 8. aisle, beside the 
altar of St. Calcedonius, "Monument of St. Wolfgang (d. 994; beneath an 
iron grating), and the simple tombstone of Bishop Tuto (d. 930). — The 
modernized E. crypt contains the stone coffin of the builder, St. Ramwold 
(975-HX)l). — The interesting W. crypt, with its double aisles, wall-niches, 
and columns, dates from lUo2 and was restored in 1878. On the altar is a 
modern shrine, containing the relics of St. Wolfgang. In the central niche 
is an ancient stone seat, known as the Heinrichs-Stuhl. 

The Residence of the Princes of Thnrn and Taxis (PI. B, C, 4), 
which has occupied the site of the abbey-buildings since 1812, en- 
closes the fine Cloisters on the S. side of the church of St. Emmeram. 
The cloisters (open daily, 11-12), erected after 1250 in the transi- 
tion style, with a fine N. portal and a modern-Gothic mausoleum 
(1835-41), are reached by turning to the right from the church, 
past the royal Reitbahn, or riding-school (with reliefs by Soh wan- 
thaler) ; then through a portal to the left into the large court, with 
the so-called Kaiserbrunnen (1694), and again to the left where we 
find the porter (gratuity 50 pf.). 

The adjacent abbey-church of Obennunster (PI. C, 3), a few 
paces to the S. of the Obermtinster-Str., is a Romanesque basilica 
of the 11th cent. , resembling St. Emmeram's, but like it completely 
remodelled in the baroque style with the exception of the detached 
belfry. It contains a Mount of Olives (15th cent.) in the vestibule, 
a fine Renaissance altar (ca. 1540) in the N. aisle, and tombstones 
of abbesses in the S. aisle. The convent, till 1803 subject to the 
emperor alone, dated from the Carlovingian period ; it is now an 
episcopal School for Boys. 

The Maler - Str. leads hence to the N. , past the completely 
modernized church of St. Cassian (10th cent.?), to the Neupfabr- 
Platz (PI. 0, 3), constructed in 1519 on the site of the former 
Jewish quarter. In it stands the Protestant Neupfarr-Kirche, erected 
in 1619-38 as the 'Kapelle zur schonen Maria'. — We may return 
to the Dom-Platz, on the N.E., past the former residence of Prince 

172 Route 28. RATISBON. Donawttauf. 

The Anlagen, or pleasure-grounds, laid out on the site of the 
old ramparts, are embellished with an Obelisk, erected in 1806 to 
the 'first founder', Prince Charles Anselm of Thurn and Taxis, the 
Prediger - Sdule Opreacher's column , ; PI. D, 4), a Romanesque 
column of the loth cent, (restored in 1858), a circular temple, 
erected in 1808, with a bust of Kepler (p. 169), and other monuments. 

The Stone Bridge over the Danube (PI. 0, 2, 1 ; tramway see 
p. 165), 3§0 yds. long and 23 ft. wide, with sixteen arches, dates from 
1135-46 (the only remaining S. tower was restored in 1648) and 
was much admired in the middle ages. It connects Ratisbon with 
Stadt-am-Hof, an ancient Bavarian town on the left bank, which 
was destroyed by the Swedes in 1633, and almost entirely burned 
down by the Austrians in 1809. Below Stadt-am-Hof the Begen 
empties its turbid water into the Danube. 

Pleasant walk across the stone bridge and to the N. through Stadt-am- 
Hof to the (20 min.) DretfulligkeUtberg, :nd then to the N.W. across the 
ravine to the (20 min.) Seidenplantage (restaurant; fine view, best by evening- 

To the Walhalla, a most attractive excursion ; there and back 
in 21/2-3 hrs. (steam-tramway, steamboat, or carriage, see p. 165). 
The Walhalla-Bahn traverses Stadt-am-Hof, crosses the Reg en, 
and intersects the railway (p. 187 j passenger-station) at the station 
of Walhalla-StraMe. Thence it crosses the plain of the Danube, 
via Schwabelweis and Tegernheim, to (6^/2 M.) Donaustauf or Stauf 
(1068 ft. ; Restaurant zur Walhalla, at the upper end). On a lime- 
stone rock above the long village rise the ruins of the castle of Stauf 
(1385 ft.), said to have been founded by St. Tuto (p. 171) and 
destroyed by the Swedes in 1634, with pleasure-grounds (view finer 
than from the Walhalla). — The tramway skirts the S. side of the 
village. — 61/2 M. Walhalla Station. 

Two routes ascend from the tramway-terminus to the Walhalla. The 
one to the left, diverging to the W. (guide-post) from the highroad in 
3 min., below the Salvator-Kirche, and running through wood (at first a 
carriage-road, then ascending in steps and by a footpath to the right, past 
the house of the custodian), is easier (12 min.) and preferable for the 
view suddenly disclosed. The other (8 min.), a footpath, ascends direct 
to the grand flight of 240 steps, divided into terraces (the lower ones with 
Pelasgian polygonal masonry), by which the edifice is approached from 
the Danube. The sculptures in the 8. tympanum are seen to advantage 
only from the upper part of the flight. 

Travellers arriving by steamer do not enter the village, but turn to 
the right through the park of Prince Thurn and Taxis, and tben, beyond 
the tramway-lines, strike one of the above-mentioned routes (20-25 minutes 
in all). 

The *Walhalla (i.e. 'Hall of the Chosen 1 , the Paradise of the an- 
cient Germanic tribes), a German 'Temple of Fame', stands very con- 
spicuously on a hill planted with trees 315 ft. above the Danube 
(1348 ft. above the sea-level). This magnificent edifice, founded 
by King Louis I. in 1830, and designed by Klenze, was completed 
in 1842. Admission daily from April 1st to Sept. 1st, 8-12 and 

v^: * H$C ' j ■ 3 .' T' ,• i' J ivt * "" i_i J 1 * * 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

WalhaUa. RATISBON. 28. Route. 173 

1-7; in March and Sept. 8-12 and 1-6, in Oct. 8-12 and 1-5; 
other months 9-12 and 1-4 (free j on general holidays not open till 
10 a.m.). 

The Exterior (220 ft. long . 105 ft. broad, 65 ft. high) , surrounded 
by fifty-two fluted columns 80 ft. In height, a fine example of the purest 
Doric order, closely resembling the Parthenon at Athens, is massively con- 
structed of unpolished grey marble (most of it quarried at the Untersberg ; 
some of the blocks about fifteen tons in weight). The Pediments both 
in front and at the back contain groups in marble: 8., towards the Danube, 
Germania, regaining her liberty after the battle of Leiprig-, N. the *'Her- 
mannschlachf , or Battle of Arminius, both by JSchteanthaler. The roof is 
of iron, covered with plates of copper. 

The Interior, of the Ionic order, consists of a superb hall 157 ft. long, 
46 ft. broad, and 52 ft. high, with a coffered bronze ceiling, richly de- 
corated and gilded (the compartments painted blue with stars of platinum), 
and lighted from above. The pavement is of marble-mosaic. The lateral walls 
are divided into six sections by means of projecting buttresses, two on each 
side, and are lined with reddish-brown marble. Vertically the four walls 
are divided into two sections by a cornice; the richly adorned architrave 
is supported by 14 painted Walkyries (warrior-virgins of the ancient Ger- 
man Paradise), by JSchteanthaler. Around the entire hall runs a frieze, 
executed by Wagner, representing in 8 sections the history and life of the 
Germanic race down to the introduction of Christianity. Above the cor- 
nice are 61 marble tablets bearing the names of famous Germans of whom 
no portrait has been preserved, and three commemorating celebrities whose 
names even are unknown (the Writer of the Nibelungen Lied, the Archi- 
tect of Cologne Cathedral, the Three Hen of the Rutli). Marble busts 
(102 at the present time), by Tieck, Bchadow, Ranch, and others, represent 
celebrated Germans who were deemed worthy by the illustrious founder 
to grace his temple of fame. Emp. William I. 'the Victorious* was added 
in 1898. Some of the busts have curious inscriptions chosen by King 
Louis. In the centre of each of the six sections of the walls is a "Goddess 
of victory by Ranch. Bound the walls are twelve marble seats and eight 
candelabra. In front of the small square chamber ('opisthodomos") at the 
N. end, opposite the entrance, is a seated marble statue of King Louis I., 
by F. von Muter (1890). The general effect of the interior is grand and 
impressive, although the association of classical Greek architecture with 
an ancient barbarian Paradise and modern German celebrities may appear 
Bomewhat incongruous. 

•View of the dark slopes of the Bavarian Forest ; below flows 
the Danube ; beyond it the fertile plain of Straubing; right, Donau- 
stanf and Ratisbon. 

The fine Deer-Park of Prince Thurn and Taxis, with its numerous red- 
deer and a new hunting-lodge, is best visited from Sulzbach (p. 165) ; adm. on 
application at the forester's house. From 15th Hay to 15th Aug. visitors 
are restricted to the carriage-road. 

29. From Ratisbon to Donauwdrth (and Augsburg). 

Railway to (18 M.) Kelheim, ca. 1 hr. ; to (46 H.) Ingolstadt, 2 hrs.s 
to (79 M.) Donanwifrth, 3»/2 hrs.; to (87»/s M.) r Augsburg, 4-6 hrs. 

The line passes under the Nuremberg and Ratisbon railway 
at Prufening (p. 101) and crosses the Danube (bridge 295 yds. 
long), which is here flanked by the spurs of the Franconian Jura. — 
3^2 M. Sinzing, at the mouth of the Schwarze Laber (branch-line 
in 1/4 hr. to Ailing, with paper-mills). Then on the left bank of 

174 Route 29. KELHEIM. From RatUbon 

the Danube ; pretty scenery. — Opposite (91/2 M.) Oundelshausen 
lies Oberndorf, where Count Palatine Otho of Wittelsbach, the 
murderer of the German Emperor Philip (p. 118), was overtaken 
and slain in 1208. Farther on is the market -village of Abbach 
(1215 ft.; Kurhaus), the birthplace of Emperor Henry the Saint 
(1002-24), with sulphur-baths and a ruined castle. We then cross 
the Danube (to the left are two stone lions commemorating the 
making of the road in 1794) to (12 M.) the station of Abbach, 2M. 
from the village; opposite, on the left bank, is Kapfelbcrg, with 
large limestone quarries. — The train skirts the TcufelsfeUen, 
where many Roman coins were found during the construction of 
the railway in 1873. The Befreiungs-Halle is visible to the left. 
On the Ringberg (left) is an extensive circular rampart. — 15 1 /2 M. 
Saal (1130 ft.). 

To Kblhbim (3 H.), branch-railway in 1/4 hr. The terminus lies on 
the right bank of the Danube, which is crossed by a fine new bridge. On 
the left bank are the government-offices, in an old Schloss of the Dukes 
of Bavaria; in the garden are the remains of a Roman watch-tower. 

Kelheim (1150 ft.; *Ehrenthaller, at the Donautor; Ooldenet Kreut ; Rosen- 
garien, unpretending; Klosterbrdu, Lang, restaurants with gardens; carr. with 
one horse to the Befreiungs-Halle and back to the station, I1/2 hr., 8 Jf) 
is a busy little town (3800 inhab.) with partly preserved walls and gates, 
at the influx of the AltmUhl, and through it of the Ludwigs-Canal (p. 115), 
into the Danube. The market is adorned with a Marien-Sanle of 1700 and 
with statues of Louis I. and Maximilian II. by HaXbig. The late-Gothic 
Church (1468), lately restored and adorned with polychrome painting, con- 
tains altars of white Kelheim limestone. The flue group (Coronation of 
the Virgin) on the high-altar is by Obermeyer; on the altar to the left is 
a Pieta by Veit Stoss, on that to the right a St. Anna by Knabl. The 
choir-frescoes are from drawings by Prof. Klein of Vienna. 

The *Befreiungs-Halle ( 4 Hall of Liberation'; 1480 ft), on the Michaels- 
berg, to the W. of the town, a magnificent classical edifice, designed by 
Gartner and Klenze, was founded by Louis I. in 1842, and inaugurated on 
18th Oct., 1863. the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Leipsic. A rotunda, 
193 ft. in height, is borne by a substruction 26 ft. high, and is reached by 
a flight of 84 steps. On the exterior are 18 colossal female figures, emble- 
matical of different German provinces; in front of, and below these, 
18 candelabra; on the coping above the external arcade, 18 trophies. The 
interior, which is entirely lined with coloured marble, contains *34 Vic- 
tories in Carrara marble by Schwanthaler ; between these are 17 bronze 
shields made of the metal of captured French guns, bearing names of vic- 
tories. Above the arcades are the names of 16 German generals on white 
marble tablets ; higher up , the names of 18 captured fortresses. Below 
these is a gallery borne by 72 granite columns, 20 ft. in height, with bases 
and capitals of white marble. The richly-fretted dome , 70 ft. in height 
and 105 ft. in width, is lighted by a cupola 19 ft. in diameter. Opposite 
the portal is a staircase (opened by the custodian; fee) ascending to the 
inner gallery, which affords a good survey of the interior (fine echo). A 
narrow staircase leads thence to the outer gallery, where a view of the 
valleys of the Danube and Altmuhl is enjoyed. — Admission daily 8-12 
and 2-6 o'clock (in winter 10-12 and 2-4), free (adm. to the gallery, 20 pf.). 
Visitors knock at the door. 

Pleasant excursion from Kelheim up the Altmuhl-Tal to (IO1/2 H.) 
Riedenburg (diligence twice daily, 1 A 40 pf.; carr.. in l«/4 hr., 6 JK, with 
two horses 9 Jt). The road follows the left bank or the Altmuhl, skirting 
a bare slope, with Neu- Kelheim and the extensive Kelheim Quarries, and 
passes Qrorudorf and $1/2 M.) Oberau. To the right, halfway up the hill, 

to Donauworih. ABENSBERG. 29. Route. 175 

is the SchuUerloch, a large cavern affording a fine view of the valley* of 
the Altmiihl and the Danube (restaurant). [Pedestrians should follow the 
road to the Befreiungs-Halle on the right bank of the Altmfihl, as far as 
the first kilometre-stone, and take the path to the right, skirting the wood, 
to the Bchottmhof, above which, at the Hesselberger in the Au y is a ferry to 
the Schullerloch.] 4>/s M. Neu-Essi*g (Graf's Brewery), commanded by the 
ruin of Randeek. 7»/2 H. Nusshausen (brewery) \ to the right, on a precipi- 
tous and isolated rock, the chateau of Prunn. To the left diverges a footpath 
to the Klomm^ a mass of rock towering amid the woods on the hillside to the 
right, and affording a good survey of the Altmuhl-Thal (direct and shady 
footpath hence to Riedenburg). — 10 1 /* M. Riedenburg, see p. 184. 

The *Valley of the Danube between Kelheim and (3 M.) Weltenburg is 
very picturesque. The barren and rugged rocks, the gorges and summits 
of which are wooded, rise abruptly from the river to a height of 300400 ft. 
Each of the more conspicuous rocks is named from some fanciful resem- 
blance or from some legend, such as the Three Brothers , Maiden, Peter 
and Paul, Pulpit, Napoleon, etc. The Benedictine Abbey of Weltenburg, 
founded by Duke Tassilo III. of Bavaria in 775 and rebuilt in the 18th cent., 
lies at the foot of a strongly-fortified Soman station. The present church 
is a neat rococo structure. Three so-called 'Roman Walls', probably of pre- 
Roman origin, cross the ridge between the valleys of the Danube and the 
Altmuhl \ one of them is upwards of 2 M. long. The best plan is to follow 
the good forest-path (red marks) from the custodian's coltage behind the 
Befreiungs-Halle, passing the Roman walls (tablets) and reaching the Danube 
opposite (1 hr.) Weltenburg. Ferry hence to the Abbey (restaurant). We 
then descend the river in a small boat (1-6 pers. to the Klosterl 3, to Kel- 
heim 31/2 *4) to the monastery fKWsterr), romantically situated on the left 
bank (pleasant garden - restaurant) , whence a walk of 20 min. through 
wood brings us to the Befreiungs-Halle or to Kelheim. 

The line quits the Danube and runs to the S.W. through a 
wooded and hilly district to the valley of the Hopfenbach. 20 M. 
Thaldorf. Then through the N. part of the Holledau, an extensive 
hop-growing district. — 25 M. Abensberg (1213 ft. ; Kuchlbauer), 
a town of 2300 Inhab. on the Abensfluss, with an old castle (now 
containing the local court of justice) and an interesting Carmelite 
church in the Gothic style, was the birthplace of the Bavarian 
historian Johann Thunnayer, surnamed Aventinus (1477-1534), to 
whom a monument has been erected in front of the Schloss. Napo- 
leon defeated Archduke Charles here in 1809. To the S. are the 
pilgrimage-church of AUersdorf and the Romanesque abbey-church 
of Biburg (1125-50). 

From Abensberg a road leads to the N.W. to (4 1 /* M.) Eining, on the 
Danube, near which are the interesting remains of a Roman frontier- 
station, considered to be Abusina, one of the chief Roman military posts 
in Bavaria. [Eining is 6 M. from Neustadt (p. 176), from which it may 
be reached by a foot-path via Qdgging, a village with a strong sulphur- 
spring and an old Romanesque church-portal.] The Romans recognised the 
importance of this spot as the junction of the military roads connecting the 
Danube territories with the Rhine and with Gaul, and as soon as they 
had conquered the district (B. G. 15) they established a station here, which 
they maintained, with three interruptions, down to the end of their sway 
(5th cent.). The remains, excavated and partially restored since 1879, lie 
to the 8. of the village (key kept by the schoolmaster^, and include the 
prsetorium and a bath, with a hypocaust in still usable condition. 

From Eining (inn; better, 8 tipberger's Brewery, in Hienheim, opposite) 
we may ascend the Danube by boat to (5 M.) Weltenburg (1-6 pers. 5 M r 
each addit. pers. 60 pf.) and Kelheim. On the left bank, about \>h M. below 
Hienheim, begins the Pfahl-Graben (Limes Komanvs) y a frontier-rampart 
with forts and ditch, 170 M. long, constructed in the 2nd or 3rd cent. A.D, 

176 Route 29. NEUBUBG. 

to protect the Roman Empire against the incursions of the Germans. This 
rampart, under the name of the Rhaetian or Danube Limes, extended west- 
wards from the Danube, past Weiss en burg am Sand (p. 109), to Lorch (p. 35), 
and thence, as the Germanic or Rhenish Limes, was carried to the N.W. 
through the hilly districts of the Neckar and the Odenwald to the Main 
near Miltenberg, and finally, crossing the Wetterau and the Taunus, de- 
scended to the Rhine near Rheinbrohl. — Pleasant walk from Hienheim 
across the Pfahl-Graben through the Hienheimer Forest, with its huge 
oaks, and past Schlott, to the Klamm and (3 1 /* hrs.) Riedenburg or (3 hrs.) 
Neu-Essing in the Altmiihl-Tal (p. 175). 

About 8i/ 2 M. to theS.E. of Abensberg (diligence daily in l«/4 hr.) lies 
Bohr (Inn), with an interesting abbey-church in an elaborate baroque style. 

Beyond (28y 2 M.) Neustadt an der Donau (1165 ft.) the country 
becomes natter. The train skirts the extensive forest of Durnbuch. 
SSifaM. Munchsmunster, on the llm, formerly a Benedictine abbey. 
37*/2 M. Vohburg; the village, with an extensive ruined castle, the 
ancestral seat of the Margraves of Vohburg, lies on the Danube, 3 M. 
to the N.E. — 46 M. Ingolstadt (central station; p. 183). 

Fsom Ingolstadt to Augsbcrg, 41 1 /* M., railway in 2 hrs. 16 M. 
Schrobenhausen (1345 ft;), a town on the Paar, with a late-Gothic brick 
church of the 15th century. — Near (257a M.) Aichach, to the N.E., is the 
ruined castle of Wittelsbach, the ancestral seat of the reigning house of 
Bavaria,*, destroyed in 1209, with an obelisk (50 ft. high) erected in 1832. 
367s M. Friedberg, an ancient little town on the Ach, with a modern 
church, decorated with^frescoes by F. Wagner*, 387* M - Bochzoll (p. 184). 
The train then crosses^the Lech and reaches Augsburg (p. 158). 

The railway . to Donauworth traverses the Donaumoos , an 
extensive marshy district, partly drained and rendered cultivable 
during the 19th century. 

58y 2 M. Beuburg(1320 ft. ; Po8t), a pleasant town with 8600 
inhab., on the slope of a hill rising from the Danube. The older 
part of the large Schloss of the Dukes of Pfalz-Neuburg is now a bar- 
rack. The W. wing, in the Renaissance style, added by Elector Otho 
Henry in 1538, is in better preservation and contains the district- 
archives. Fine vaulted gateway and two rooms with rich timber 
ceilings. The Historical Society possesses four pieces of tapestry 
of the 16th century. The Hofkirche, adjoining the chateau, con- 
tains a valuable collection of ecclesiastical vestments (18th cent.). 
Herr Grasegger has a collection of antiquities found in the duchy 
of Neuburg. The town -library and the old throne -room in the 
town-hall are also interesting. The (1 M.) Schlossle, beyond the 
Danube, commands a good view of the town and river. 

The line now traverses an uninteresting district, running 1-3 M. 
from the right bank of the Danube. From (62 Y2 M.) Unterhausen 
Count Arco-Steppberg's chateau of Steppberg is seen in the distance 
to the right , on the wooded left bank of the river. Farther on is 
Bertholdsheim, the Schloss of Count Dumoulin. 71 M. Bain, where 
Tilly, at the age of 73, was mortally wounded in 1632 while de- 
fending the passage of the Lech against Gustavus Adolphus (see 
p. 184). The line crosses the Lech to (72V2 M Oenderkingen, and 
crosses the Danube and the 2)anuoe C«na*|o z — GoOQk 

79 M. Donauworth (p. 167). 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

Geogr. Aast. v. Wagner & Debt's , Leipzig 

30. From Wurzburg (Frankfort) to Munich vi& Ansbach. 

172 M. Railwat. Express in 4V*-5»/t hrs. (fares 25 * 40, 17 A 90, 
12 UK 60 pf.); ordinary train in 7V*-8 hrs. (fares 22 A 20, 14 ** 70, 
9 A 50 pf.). — ^Voro Frankfort to Munich, 256 l /t M. •, express in 7-8 hrs. 
(fares 38 JK, 26 JK 80, 18 JK 90 pf.); ordinary train in 10-11 hrs. (fares 
32 * 80, 21 A 80 pf., 14 A). As far as (184y 2 M.) WUrzburg, see B. 15. 

Wurzburg , see R. 16. The Munich line skirts the S. side of 
"Wurzburg, passing (IV4M.) Sanderau, and crosses the Main before 
reaching (3 1 /* M.) Heidingsfeld, a small town (4500 Inhab.) with 
a well-preserved wall. (The Heidelberg line diverges to the right, 
see p. 101.") On the opposite bank lies EibelstadL — 8 M. Winter- 
hausen, opposite which is Sommerhau8tn y with its castle, wall, and 
towers. — 13M. Ochsenfurt (545 ft. ; Schnccke), a quaint town (3300 
inhab.) with a Gothic church of 1370-1400; opposite, the late- 
Gothic chapel of St. Michael (1440), with a fine portal. The old forti- 
fications, with their numerous towers, are well preserved. Branch- 
line to Rottingen (p. 37) under construction. — 16 M. Xarktbreit 
(Lowe), with its old watch-towers, contains an interesting Rathaus 
In the German Renaissance style (1579 and 1600), with a large hall 
and a panelled council-chamber. The adjoining Main-Tor is in good 
preservation. — We now quit the Main and approach the W. slopes 
of the Steiger Wald. — 36 V2 M. Steinach ( Golden es Kreu%, un- 
pretending but good; Rail. Restaurant). A branch- railway runs to 
theN.E., via the old town of Windsheim, to (18 M. in l 1 /) hr.) 
Neustadt an der Aisch (p. 100). 

Bbanoh Railwat via Hartershofen in 35 min. to (7 M.) — 
Rothenburg ob der Tauber. — Hotels. EismIhut (Pi. b; B, 2), 

Herren-Str., with wine-room, B. i»/r3 .*, B. t:0 pf.-l .*, D. li/« ft 2V«, 
pens. 5-7 A; Goldbnkk Hiesch (PI. a; C, 3), Schmied-Str., charming view 
irora the windows overlooking the Taubergrund, B. 2-3, B. 1, D. 2, pens. 
6-7»/3, omn. V 2 A, both very fair; Bin (PI. c; B, 2), Hofbronnengasse, 
B. lV*-2 Jt, B. 80 pf.; Zom Mabkjjstokm (PI. dj C, 2), Boder-Str.. un- 
pretending; Prns. Bkonnkhmdhlk (p. 1F0), in the Tauber-Tal, pens. 4-5 A. 
For Whitmonday, when the play of 'Der Meiai erf rank" is annually per- 
formed, all available accommodation is usually engaged long beforehand. 

Restaurants. Wine at. the piettily fitted up Meistertrunk , KapelJen- 
Platz (PI. C, 2). Beer at Eopf $, Herren-Str. 6; Kern, Beck, both in the 
Wunburger-8tr. (PI. C, D, 1). — Confectioner. W. Breyer. — Shops. Water- 
colours and Drawings, Frl. Elite Mahler, in the Spitalhof (PJ. C, 4). Photo- 
graphs, etc. Albrecht, Herren-Str. 45; Herbert, Cntere Schmied-Str. 122. 

Rothenburg ob der Tauber (1396 ft.) is a charming mediaeval 
town (8400 inhab.), with red-tiled, gabled houses and well-preserved 
fortifications. As in Nuremberg the churches are Gothic, the secular 
buildings Renaissance. Rothenburg is already spoken of as a town 
in a document of 942, and from 1172 to 1803 it was a free city of 
the Empire. In the 14th and 16th cent, it was an energetic member 
of the Franconian League, in 1626 it joined the insurgent peasantry, 
and in 1644 embraced the Reformatlen. During the Thirty Years' 
War the town was repeatedly besieged and tafcen. 

Babdbkkb's S. Germany. 10th Bdit. 12 

178 Route 30. ROTHENBURG. From Wurzhurg 

In its wealth of architectural beauties and in its abundance of picturesque 
mediaeval streets Rothenburg is unapproachedby any other town in Germany. 
Among the most characteristic points may be mentioned the Udder-Tor, with 
the view of its enclosure ; the Rtider-Bogen and Markut - Tvrm (from both 
sides) ', the view from the market-place of the Hcrren-Strasse, Schmied- Sir cuss. 
and Hofbronnengasse ; theE. choir of the Jakobs-Kirche, the Gymnasium, and 
the Clergy House; the passage through the Jakobs-Kirche, with view of the 
Klostergasse and Ktingen-Strasse; the Klingen-Turm and the Btraf-Turm; the 
rotunda of the KHngen-Bastei; the Weiss e Tvrm with the Stein House and 
the Sieters-Turm; Pl&nlein with the Cobolsejler-Tor; the Spilalhcf; and 
the Bpital-Bastei. — The tower beside the former Ross-MUhle commands a 
view of the town from the S M specially fine in the evening or by moonlight. 

From the railway-station we proceed to (6 min.) the Roder-Tor 
(PI. D, 2), the E. entrance of the town, and thence follow the 
picturesque Roder-Strasse and Hafengasse to (5 min.) the Mabxet 
(PI. B, 0, 2). On the way we pass under the Roder-Bogen, beside 
the Markus - Turm , a relic of the earliest town- wall, pulled down 
in the 13th century. In front of us is the broad Herren-Strasse; to 
the left diverges the Schmied-Strasse (p. 179). At the beginning of 
the latter, to the left, is the Fountain of St. George, or Herterich- 
Brunnen, erected in 1608 (restored in 1886), behind which (No. 75) 
rises the so-called Fleisch-Haus or Tanz-Haus, occupying the site 
of the original Rathaus, which was burned down in 1240. The 
building now contains a small collection of antiquities (ring). No. 74 
in this street, the old Jagstheimer Haw (now a chemist s shop), dates 
from 1488. To the right rises the handsome — 

*Rathaus (PI. B, 2), the older part of which is in the Gothic 
style (1240-60) with a tower 165 ft. high, while the original E. wing, 
burned down in 1501, was replaced in 1572-75 by a beautiful Re- 
naissance structure, with a projecting rustica portico and balcony 
(both of 1681), an oriel, and an elaborate spiral staircase. 

The staircase in the interior of the newer building ascends to a ves- 
tibule with a fine timber-roof supported by Ionic columns. Beyond this is 
the spacious Court Boom (now 'Kaisersaal*), in which an annual festival 
at Whitsuntide (comp. p. 177) commemorates the capture of the town by 
Tilly in 1631. (Paintings by Birkmeyer and by Schuch in the Council Room, 
on the upper floor of the new Rathaus, refer to the same event.) In the 
cellars are torture-chambers and dungeons, where, among others, the 
burgomaster Toppler, accused of treason, perished in 1408. The court con- 
tains an antique Renaissance portal. — The tower of the old Ratbaus 
(193 steps) commands a splendid view of the town and the Tauber-Tal. 

The neighbouring church of *St. James (Jakobs-Kirche; PL B, 1), 
with its towers and a choir at each end, built in 1373-1471, is re- 
markable for its fine proportions and the purity of its style (restored 
in 1856). The sacristan (Stadtkirchner'), who also opens the Chapel 
of the Holy Blood (p. 179), lives opposite the E. choir (fee 60 pf.). 

Intekior. In the £. choir is the *High Altar 'of the twelve messengers', 
with carvings of the Crucifixion with six saints and four hovering angels, 
etc., by an unknown Swabian master; on the exterior of the wings are 
scenes from the life of the Madonna, by Friedrich Berlin (1466). Below are 
Christ and the Twelve Apostles. The ciborium, to the left, bears a re- 
markable representation of the Trinity. The stained-glass *Windows of 
the choir date from the end of the 14th cent, and were restored in 1856 
(scenes from the life of Christ and from the Old Testament). To the 

to Munich. ROTHENBURG. 30. Routt. 179 

right of the choir is the * Altar of the Holy Blood, with carvings by 
Tilman Riemen Schneider (Last Supper, Enlry into Jerusalem, Christ on the 
Mount of Olives), which was dedicated in 1478. To the left is the Altar 
of the Virgin, from the Spifal Kirche, carved by an unknown Fr; nconian 
master (not before 15C0). — In the 1st chapel of the S. aisle is a statue 
of the Madonna dating from ca. 1480-90, and in the 2nd or Toppler Chapel 
is the tomb of the burgomaster mentioned on p. 178. 

The Gymnasium (PL B, 1), in the Klrch-Platz, was built In 
1689-92. — Beyond the Klingen-Strasse, which passes beneath the 
W. choir of St. James's church , is the Gothic Chapel of the Holy 
Blood (PI. B, 1), rebuilt after 1453, with a Mount of Olives 
(1506-7j, three paintings by Fr. Herlin, etc. — Close by, at the 
comer of the Klostergasse, is the Von Kockert Haus (now the par* 
sonage), an ancient patrician mansion with a Renaissance oriel and 
handsome stucco ceilings. 

In the N.W. part of the town, in the Klosterhof, is the former Domini- 
can Nunnery (PI. B, 1; now a fiscal office) founded in 1253, with a me- 
diaeval kitchen (seldom shown). — The Klingen-Strasse ends, to the N., 
at the Klingen-Tov (PI. B, 1), the tower of which was once used as a 
reservoir. Beyond is the small Gothic Church of St. Wolfgang (PI. B, 1), 
or Sch&fer- Kirche, of 1473-83, the N. side of which forms part of the town- 
wall. — A pleasant promenade outside the wall leads to the left, past the 
Straf-Turm (PI. A, B, 1), to the (8 min.) Burg-Garten (see below). 

The Georgen-Strasse runs to the E. from the church, passing the 
Bchmidt Haus (1550; restored 1902), to the Weisse Turm (PI. C. 1), a survi- 
val from the earliest town -wall, and the Stein Haus. In the Eapellen- 
Plata (PI. C, 2), a little to the S., is the Seel Fountain (1626). 

From the Market-Place (p. 178) the Schmied-Strasse (PI. 0, 2, 3) 
descends to the S. part of the town , known as the KappentipfeL 
Immediately on the left (No. 343) is the so-called Haws de$ Bau- 
meisters ('Architect's House 1 j 1596), with a handsome facade ad- 
orned with Caryatides and an interesting court. The Ooldene Oreif, 
adjoining (No. 342) , was the house of Burgomaster Toppler. On 
the right is the Gothic Church of St. John (PI. C, 2; Rom. Oath.), 
dating from 1393-1403, with the Johanniierhof (now district offices). 

Beyond the Plonlein and the Siebers-Turm (PI. 0, 3), in the 
Spitalgasse, rises the Hospital (PI. 0, 4), rebuilt in 1574-78, with 
an early-Gothic Church (1280-1300), containing a beautiful cibo- 
rium. In the court stands the old Hegereiter-Hauschen. — Outside 
the SpitaUTor (PI. 0, 4) projects a circular bastion (1672-86), still 
mounting some ancient cannon. 

From this gate we may return to the Roder-Tor (p. 178), by skirting 
the old Moat and passing the Faul-Tor. — On the slope ahove the Tauber 
lies the old Wildbad (PI. C, 4), now a hydropathic establishment. 

From the Spital-Tor we proceed to the W. to the Essigkrug (PI. 
B, 4), a projecting hill, on which rises the Wildbad-Turm (PI. B, 4), 
the only relic of a castle destroyed by an earthquake in 1356. 
Thence, skirting the town-wall, we reach the (10 min.) — 

Btjrg-Gabten (PI. A, 2), laid out on a hill once occupied by a 
Castle of the Hohenstaufen, built in 1146 to replace the stronghold 
of the Counts of Rothenburg, who became extinct in 1108. The 
Cas'.le Chnpel, dedicated to St. Blasius, was almost totally destroyed 

12 # 

180 Route 30. ROTHENBURG. From Wursiburg 

by the earthquake of 1356. The gardens command a fine view of 
the town and of the deep Tauber-Tal. Below, to the N.W., is the 
white castellated Toppler-Schlosschcn (also called Kaiserstuhl), built 
in 1388 by Burgomaster Toppler. 

We now return through the Outer Burg-Tor (PI. A, 2) to the 
Herren-Strasse which leads back to the market-place (p. 178). This 
street passes the early-Gothic Franciscan Ohtjkch (PI. B, 2 j Prot.) 
built in 1281-1309 (keys kept by the 'Stadtkirchner', see p. 178; 
adm. 40 pf., a party 20 pf. earh). 

iNTKBtoB. Many interesting tombs. In the left aisle, beneath a Gothic 
statue of the Madonna, is the tomb of Peter von Creglingen (d 140 1); by 
a round pillar in front of the choir-screen is that of Hans von Beulen- 
dorf (d. 1504) and bis wife (d. 1496) ; and to the Tight of the entrance to 
the cboir is the monument of Dietrich von Berlichiogen (d. 1484), grand- 
father of Ootz. Tbe statue of St. Liborius on tbe choir-screen is from 
the studio of Riementehneider (1492). 

Among the many houses of patricians of Rothenburg in this 
street we may mention the Staudt'sche Eaus (No. 19, on the left), 
with a curious old court. The Btrmtttr'sche Haua (No. 44, on the 
right) has a lofty Gothic gable. 

Environs. The following walk (ca. V/4 br.) is recommended. From 
the Essigkrug (p. 179) we descend the Neue Steig (views) into the Tauber- 
Tal, where we reach the late-Gothic Coboleetter Kirche of 1472-79 (PI. B, 8 \ 
Bom. Cath.; shut), and the old double bridge (1330) over the Tauber 
(beyond the bridge two taverns). We continue to follow tbe Tauber -TaJ to 
the Toppler-Schldeschen (see above) and the old village of Dettwang (Lamm, 
wine), with a very fine carved *Altar (c. 1500) by Riemenachneider (key kept ' 
by the schoolmaster, opposite the church), and return to the Klingen-Tor. 

A visit to the hill to the W., beyond the Tauber, commanding fine 
views of the town (best in the afternoon), may easily be combined with 
the preceding walk. From the old castle (p. 179) we follow the promenade 
to the N., descend the Kurze Sleig (PI. A, 1), cross the Tauber near an 
old mill and then the romantic Vorbach Valley, and ascend the Engeltburg 
by woodland paths. At the top we proceed to the S., either by the road or 
by easily found paths through the woods, to the above-mentioned double 

Diligence twice daily in 2»/ 4 hrs. from Rothenbnrg, via Tauber- 
scheckenbach (below tbe Burgstall , with Celtic fortifications) , to (UV2 H.) 
Creglingen {Lamm, R. l-l 1 /** pens. 8-4 Vi M). The adjacent Hergotte- Kirch* 
(1/4 hr.) contains a celebrated carved *Altar (uncoloured) by Riementehneider 
(after 1500). (The old road to Creglingen commands, near Schtoarzenbronn^ 
charming surveys of Rothenburg.) From Creglingen diligence four times 
daily in Vh hrs. to (11 M.) Weikersheim (p. 33; carr. and pair from Rothen- 
burg in 3-3 l/ 2 hrs.). — A diligence also runs from Rothenburg daily in 
3 hrs. to (13 M.) Roth am See (p. 32). 

A narrow-gauge railway runs via (11 M.) Schilling sfilrtt (Stein, R. 1-2 UF), 
with a chateau of Prince Hohenlobe, to (l&V* M.) Dombiihl (p. 33). 

Railway to Munich (continued). — 37 l / 4 M. Burgbernheim ; 
1^2 M. to the S.W. lies Wildbad, an unpretending little watering- 
place. At (43 M.) Oberdachstetten we enter the valley of the Fran- 
conian Rezat. The Lerchenberg (1660 ft.), visible to the left, may be 
ascended hence by shady paths in I-IV4 hr. (view). 

541/2 M. Ansbach. — Hotels. * Stern, corner of the Promenade 
and Karl-Str., R. l»/4-2V», pens. 4Vs-5 **i wit h garden ; Zibkel, Maximilian- 
Str. •, Dbutbchbb Kaiser, Karl-Str., R. 1-1 1/4 Jf; Kbonk, Lntere Markt; 

to Munich. ANSBAOH. 30. Route. 181 

Batebibohbb Hof, opposite the station, plain but good. — Restaurants. 
Schwarxer B&r, Uz-Str. 21; Schwarxer Bock, Pfarr-Str. 31; Go I dene Gems, 
Enderer-Str. 14 ; DrechseVs Garden, 1 M. from the 8chloss (across the Schloss- 
Brucke and up the Schlossgasse and then to the right), with view of the 
town and environs; Railway Restaurant. Wine Rooms. Benkher, Butten- 
Str. 20} WedeLProbst, Uz-Str. 19 (also hot me*ls); K&nig-Holxinger , Bau- 
Str. 2. — Ca/4 Roth* Untere Markt 10. — Post & Tklbgbaph Offices 
near the station and in the Obere Markt. — Municipal Baths near the Eezat. 
— About 5 hrs. is safneient to see the principal sights of the town. 

Ansbach (1348 ft.), with 18,500 inhab., the capital of Central 
Franconia, is situated on the Rezat, amidst park-like woods. From 
1363 it belonged to the Burgraves of Nuremberg (p. 134), in 
1603-1791 it was the seat of the Margraves of Brandenburg- Ans- 
bach, and since 1806 it has belonged to Bavaria. — Quitting the 
station we turn to the right, then to the left, and follow the The- 
resien-Str&sse (passing an entrance to the Hof-Garten, see below) to 
the (5 min.) Schloss, in front of which is a Statue of August von 
Platen (p. 182). 

The *Sckloss, built in the baroque style in 1713-32 by Gabriel 
de Gabrielis, is a veritable treasure-house of baroque and rococo 
art (open 8-6; tickets, 60 pf M to the right in the gateway). 

The FCrsten-Zimmer, on the iirst floor, are decorated in the most 
beautiful and purest rococo style. The stucco embellishments are by 
Diego Carlone and Joh. Schnell of Brussels; the frescoes mainly by Carlo 
Cartons. The visit occupies about half-au-hour. — The following apart- 
ments are especially worthy of note: the bedroom, wi h fine stucco orna- 
mentation; the ancestral hall, with portraits of King Frederick William I. 
of Prussia and his family; the porcelain- oom, with fayence-panelling \ the 
picture-gallery (the actual pictures of no importance); the portrait-room, 
with portraits of the margraves; the Large Hall, with a superb ceiling; 
the White Boom ; the library; the marble cabinet: the *Mirror-room, with 
old Dresden and Berlin porcelain; the audience-chamber of the margrav- 
ine, with a fine porcelain candelabrum (Berlin; 1772). 

The N. wing of the chateau contains the Collections of the Histor- 
ical Society of Middle Fbawconia (adm., Sun. 11-12. 30, 30 pf., at other 
times 60 pf); here also are numerous portraits of margraves and Branden- 
burg rulers. 

The Hof-Garten, to the E. of the Schloss, a well-kept park with 
a double avenue of lime-trees, contains an old orangery, in which 
are a restaurant and a room with ten frescoes by Heideloff (1827), 
a monument to the poet Uz (d. 1796), and another marking the spot 
where Caspar Hauser was found dead, with the inscription : l Hic 
oecultus occulto occisus 14, Dec. 1S33\ 

Caspar Hauser s tombstone in tbe churchyard of St. John's Church is 
inscribed, i Eie jacet Casparus Hauser aenigma sui temp oris, ignota nativitas, 
occulta mors 1833\ It was long believed that thii mysterious foundling 
was a victim, throughout his life and in his death, to tbe unscrupulous 
ambition of some noble family to whose dignities he was tbe lawful heir. 
It is more probable that he was a half-lunatic impostor, and accidentally 
killed himself in an effort to rekindle public sympathy. 

From the Schloss we proceed to the W. vi& the Promenade, 
No. 20 in which contains the Municipal Collections of Coins, En- 
gravings, and Antiquities (adm., May-Oct., 20 pf. ; Sun. free). The 
Uz-Straase leads to the right from the Promenade to the (10 min.) 

182 Route 30. PAPPENHEIM. From Wurzbwg 

Untere Markt, on the N. side of which rises the Protestant Gum- 
bebtub-Kibohe, with three Gothic W. towers (1483-93 and 1597) 
and a late-Gothic choir (1523). The nave dates from 1732-34. 

The choir, known as the 'Schwanritter-Kapelle', contains stone monu- 
ments of knights of the Order of the Swan, transferred in 1826 from a 
now partly walled-up chapel of St. George, which the Elector Albert 
Achilles meant to make the central point of the order in S. Germany. 
The chief of these is the High Altar, erected by Albert Achilles in 1486 
and restored at the instance of Emp. Frederick III., with carving's and 

Saintings of the school of Wohlgemut. On the walls are hatchments of 
[nights of the Swan and an altar-piece (Christ ia the Wine-press), per- 
haps by H. Baldnng Grien. The stained glass dates from the 16-l6th 
centuries. — The sacristan's house is to the left of the Hofkanzlei (see below). 

On the N. side of the church is the Hofkanxlei, now law-courts, 
a handsome gabled edifice of 1563. — In the Ohere Markt is the 
Protestant *8t. Johannis-Kirche, a Gothic structure of 1441, with two 
towers of unequal height. Below the choir is the burial-vault of 
the Margraves, originally constructed in 1660. — Between the two 
churches is the old Landhaus (now a druggist's), a Renaissance edi- 
fice of 1531, retaining some curious survivals of Gothic. Adjacent 
is a fountain with a statue of Margrave George the Pious (d. 1543), 
who introduced the Reformation into Franconia. At Platen-Str. 20, 
near the St. Johannis-Kirche, is the house In which Aug. von Platen 
(1796-1835), the poet, was born ; it is indicated by a tablet with an 
inscription, above which is an old coat-of-arms (1696), an eagle 
gazing at the sun, with the motto, 'Phoebo auspice surgW. 

From Ansbach to Heilsbronn and Nuremberg, see p. 33 ; to Crailthelm 
and Stuttgart, see p. 83; to Rothenburg (via Steinaeh), see p. 180. 

64^2 M. Triesdorfj a former chateau of the margraves, with a fine 
park. About 3 M. to the N.E. is Etchenbach, a small town with a 
fountain monument (1861) to the poet Wolfram von Eschenbach 
(d. ca. 1220), who is buried here. — 72 M. Gunzenhauaen (p. 156; 
Rail. Restaurant ; Post), junction for Augsburg and Nuremberg (R. 27). 
The line crosses the Altmuhl and follows its valley to Eichstatt. — 
87 M. Trench tlingen (1030 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant), junction of the line 
from Munich to Nuremberg (p. 110). — The Altmuhl is crossed twice. 

90 l /2M. Pappenheim (1330 ft.; Eisenbahn-Hotel, R. i^/ 2 Jf; 
DeuUches Haw ; Krone), charmingly situated, is commanded by the 
extensive ruins of a castle of the ancient counts of that name (view; 
key with the overseer at the * monastery'). The town contains two 
chateaux of Count Pappenheim, the more modern one a fine building 
by Klenze (1820). — Beyond a tunnel the line crosses and recrosses 
the Altmuhl. 

94 M. Solnhofen, pleasantly situated on both sides of the river. 
In the main street is a monument, by H. Maidron (1904), to Aloys 
Senefelder (1771-1834), the inventor of lithography. About 1 M. 
to the S. of the station are extensive slate-quarries, once worked 
by the Romans, where upwards of 3000 workmen are employed. The 
slate, used for lithographing purposes, table-slabs, etc., is largely 

to Munich. EIOHSTATT. 30. Route. 183 

exported. Numerous fossils. — A long tunnel. Then (98 1/ 2 M.) 
DoUnstein, a small and old town, still surrounded by walls. On the 
left bank of the Altmuhl, rises the conspicuous, serrated Burgstcin. 
Farther on is the pretty village of Ober-Eichatatt. The line quits the 
valley of the Altmuhl and reaches the (105 M.) station of Eichstdtt 
(Rail. Restaurant), whence a branch-line runs in 20 min. to (3 M.) — 

Eichitttt(1270ft.;*Scfoi>ar*eT Adler, Travbc, well spoken of, 
both in the market-place, R. lifaJt; Schwarzer Bar, Grosse Markt- 
gasse, R. 1-1 V2 **)» a *mall town with 7900 inhab., seat of an ancient 
episcopal see founded in 741 by St. Willibald, a companion of 
St. Boniface. In the handsome Residenz-Platz are a l MariensauW 
of 1777, 60 ft. high, with a gilded figure of the Virgin, the imposing 
Law Courts , completed in 1730, formerly the residence of the arch- 
bishops and in 1817-55 of the Dukes of Leuchtenberg, and the 
government-office. The Cathedral, begun in 1042, with Roman- 
esque towers, the choir of St. Willibald in the transition-style (1269), 
Gothic nave and E. choir of 1365-96, has recently been tastefully 
painted. It contains the tomb of St. Willibald with his statue, and 
tombstones of bishops. Good relief (1396) on the N. Portal (Death 
of Mary), and fine stained glass (Life of the Virgin) in the choir. 
Beautiful cloisters with Romanesque columns ; the late-Gothic portion 
and the burial-chapel of the canons date from 1496. The fountain 
in the market-place, to the N. of the cathedral, is adorned with an 
admirable bronze statue of St. Willibald (1695). The Walpurgis- 
Kirche (1631), containing the tomb of St. Walpurgis, from which a 
'miraculous oil' exudes, is visited by numerous pilgrims on 1st May 
(St. Walpurgis's Day). The barrel-vaulting of the Jesuits' Church 
(1630) is fine. Willibald Pirkheimer (p. 138) was born at No. B 218, 
Westen-Str. (tablet). — Above the town rises the extensive but 
dilapidated Willibaldsburg, the residence of the bishops down to 
1730; the newer part was built in 1609-19 by Elias Holl. The 
tower commands a striking view, best in the evening (apply to 
the castellan) ; the ascent is difficult and not recommended to ladies. 
The well is 295 ft deep. On the Blumenberg, to the N.W., numerous 
rare fossils (pterodactyl, archaopterix) have been found. 

From EiohstItt to Kinding, 21V>M., railway in 2»/a hrs.— 7»/*M. P/Uns, 
with extensive remains of the Roman Vetonianit, a fort on the Pfahl-Graben 
(p. 175); 15 M. Arnsberg, with a ruined chateau (view)-, 18 M. Kipfenberg 
(Post; B611), a picturesque little town, with a ruined castle on a lofty 
rock, situated at the point where the Roman 'limes' crosses the Altmuhl. 
— 2ii/2 M. Kinding (Alte Post, Frey, both plain) has an ancient fortified 

Beyond the (119 M.) Nord-Bahnhof(i.e.N. Station) the line skirts 
the fortifications of Ingolstadt and crosses the Danube. 

122 M. Ingolstadt. —Hotels. Adlbb; ♦WittelsbachebHof, R. lutf- 
1 Jf 70 pf., B. 70 pf. 5 Bab, commercial; Uhlmann, near the station, 
plain. — Railway Restaurant. — Tramway to the town (l 8 /4 M. ; 20 pf.). 

Ingolstadt (1197 ft.), with 23,500 inhab., a strongly fortified 
town on the Danube, once the seat of a famous university, founded 

184 Route 30. INGOLSTADT. 

in 1472 by Duke Lewis the Rich, and transferred to Landshut in 
1800 and to Munich in 1826 (p. 214). At the end of the 16th cent, 
it was attended by 4000 students. The Jesuits' College, founded in 
1555, was the first established in Germany. The town was besieged 
by Gustavus Adolphusin 1632, while his antagonist Tilly lay mortally 
wounded within its walls (see p. 176). The fortifications, which were 
dismantled in 1800 by the French General Moreau,were reconstructed 
after 1827, and since 1872 the town has been converted into a 
fortress of the first class, defended by a wide girdle of forts. On the 
right bank of the Danube are strong tetes-de-pont with round towers 
of solid masonry and the Redoubt Tilly. — In the Kreuz-Str. , at 
the tramway-terminus, is the Gothic Frauen-Kirchc of 1439, with, 
two massive towers in front. It contains the tomb of Dr. Eck (d. 1543), 
the opponent of Luther, and monuments to Tilly, who was buried at 
Alt-Oetting (p. 295), and the Bavarian General Mercy, who fell at 
Allersheim in 1645. The stained glass in the upper windows dates 
from the 16th century. 

Fboh Ingolstadt to Rikdenbdko, 26 M., railway in oa. 2 l ft hrs. — 
Beyond (18 H.) Sandersdorf the line follows the charming Schamboch-Tdl. — 
26 M. Biedenbnrg (Post; Riemhofer; Schlittenbauer), a small town with 
three castles ( Rosetiburg, Rabenstein, and Tachenttein) on projecting rocks, 
which seem to close the Altmiihl-Tal. Hence we descend the AltmUhl-Tal 
to Kehlheim, see p. 1(5. 

Railway to Donauwdrth, Augsburg, and Ratisbon, see R. 29. 

From (134 M.) Wolnzach a branch-line runs to Mctiriburg (14*/2 M.). 
— 141 M. Pfafferihofen, a small town with 3300inhab., on the Jim, 
which the line now follows. — 144^2 M. ReicherUhausen. The neigh- 
bouring chateau contained the famous library of romances of chivalry 
collected by Jacob Puterich of Reichartshausen in the 15th century. — 
The line now reaches the Ohn, an affluent of the Amper. 149 M. 
Petershausen. — 15472 M. Rohrmoos. Then down the Amper-Tal, 
crossing the river, to (161 M.) Dachau (1655 ft.*; Ziegler, R. 1 A ; 
Moorbad Dachau), a small market-town with 5000 inhab., in an 
elevated situation commanding a splendid view of the plain and the 
Alps. The royal chateau contains the district museum. — The rail- 
way intersects the extensive Daehauer Moos, crosses the Wurm 
(p. 186) at (166 M.) Allach (Altwirt), skirts the Park of Nymphcn- 
burg (p. 255), and reaches — 

172 M. Munich (p. 189). 

31. From Stuttgart to Munich. 

149 M. Railway. Express in 4-4*A hrs. (fares 22.1 10, 15.1 70, 10 Jf 
80 pf.) ; ordinary train in V/rd hrs. (fares 19 Jf 30, 12 Jf 90, 8 Jf 30 pf.). 

From Stuttgart to (58i/ 2 M.) Vim, seeR.8. The line here crosses 
the Danube, and enters the Bavarian dominions, to which (59% M.) 
Neu-Vlm belongs. 64 */j Burlaflngen. Near (67 M.) Nersingen the 
town and abbey of Elchingen are seen on the opposite bank, the 

GflNZBURG. 31. Route. 185 

heights of which, were occupied by the Austrians under Laudon, 
14th Oct., 1805, hut were stormed by the French under Ney. From 
this victory the marshal derived his title of Dnc d'Elchingen (comp. 
p. 36). 69V2 M. Leipheim. 

74 M. Gftn*Durg (Bar, R. li/ 4 -2 A ; Bail. Restaurant), the Rom. 
Quntia, a town (pop. 5200) with a Schloss, lies picturesquely on a 
hill, at the confluence of the Qiint and Danube. Branch-line to 
Krumbachy tfifa M. to the S. — We next notice a range of wooded 
hills to the right, crowned by the castle of ReUensburg. — 79 M. 
Neu-Offlngen (Rail. Restaurant) is the junction for DonauwSrth and 
Ratisbon (p. 158). 

The train quits the Danube. Near (8O72 M.) Offingen It crosses 
the Mindel. 83 M. Burgau, with an old and a new chateau. — From 
(94^2 M.) Dinkclschcrben, where we cross the Zusam, a branch- 
line runs to (8 1 /} M. in 1 hr.) Thannhausen, on the Mindel, with an 
interesting late-Gothic church. — Stations Mbdishofen (beyond it 
across the Schmutter), Gessertshausen, Diedorf, Westheim. — 109 M. 
Oberhausen is the junction of the Nuremberg line (p. 158). The 
train then crosses the Wertach and reaches (HOV2 M.) Augsburg 
(p. 158> 

Beyond Augsburg (to the right, the Protestant Cemetery) the line 
crosses the Lech and traverses a sterile plain. 11372 M. Hochzoll, 
junction for Ingolstadt (p. 176). To the left lies the small town of 
Friedberg (p. 176). The Lech is now quitted. — 120 M. Mering. 

Fbom Merino to Weilheim, 84 M., railway in 2*/4-3 hrs. — The line 
runs through the smiling Paar-Tal. At (13 M.) Geltmdorf(-p. 259) it crosses 
the line from Munich to Lindau. At (17 1 /* M.) Greifenberg the train reaches 
the Ammersee (p. 253). the left bank of which it then skirts. I81/1 M. Schon- 
dorf (p. 259) ; f 2&h M. Dieum (p. 268). Then through the Ammer-Tal to 
(31 M.) Weilheim (p. 257). 

Stations Althegnenberg (with chateau), Haspelmoor, Nannhofen, 
Maisaeh, Olching (where the Amper, the discharge of the Ammersee, 
is crossed), Lochhausen. The Daehauer Moos is then traversed. At 
(144 ! /2 M.) Pasing the train crosses the Wurm, by which the Lake 
of Starnbergis drained. Near Munich the park and palace of Nymphen- 
burg (p. 256) are seen on the left ; then the Marsfeld, or military 

149 M. Munich, see p. 189. 

32. From Leipzig to Munich vi& Hof and Ratisbon. 

299 M. Railway. Express in 8-9Vahr8. (fares 44 Jf 20, 81 Jf 70 pf., 
24 Jiy, ordinary train ia i6V 2 hrs. (fares 89 UT, 27 Jf, 17 Jf 70 pf.) The 
'Nord-8ud n express accomplishes the distance in 7 l /a hrs. (1st cl. only; 
20-25 per cent higher fares). — From Leipzig to Munich via Nuremberg. 
see R. 20. 

From Leipzig to (1021/2 M.) Hpf, see R. 20. Beyond Hof the line 
traverses a hilly district, running near the winding Saale, 106 M. 

186 Route 32. WEIDEN. From Leipzig 

Oberkotzau (Bail. Restaurant), junction for Eger (p. 104) to the left, 
and Nuremberg (R. 20) to the right. — 11372 M. Kirchenlamitz 
(1834 ft.). 

A branch-line runs hence to (J 1 ft M. in 51 min.) Weissemtait (p. 126) 
via (2»A M.) Markt Kirchenlamitz (1965 ft. ; Lowe ; Post), whence the Epprecht- 
$Mn (p. 127) may be ascended in */< hr., and (3J/ 2 M.) Buchhaus. 

The Grosse Romberg (2715 ft. 5 belvedere) rises 3 M. to the E. of the 
station of Kirchenlamitz. 

At (117 M.) Marktleuthen the train crosses the Eger. 121 M. 
Boslau (1916 ft.). From (123 V 2 M.) Holenbrunn (1846 ft.) a branch- 
line runs to (2'/2 M.) Wunsiedel (p. 127). — At Untertholau we 
cross the valley of the Boslau by a viaduct 115 ft. high. 

128*/2 M. Xarkt-Redwitz, junction of the Nuremberg- Eger line 
(p. 156). To Alexandersbad, see p. 127. 

140 M.Wietau (1730 ft. ; Bail. Restaurant ; BayrUcherHof), with 
a chalybeate spring (K'onig Otto-Bad), junction for Eger (p. 104). 
Branch-line to Barnau (15 M.). — 145 M. Beuth. — Then through 
the valley of the Fichtelnaab to (150 l /2 M.) Windisch - Eschenbach 
and (1567 2 M.)Neustadt an der Waldnaab (1375 ft.; good inns), a 
prettily situated little town in a well- wooded neighbourhood. On a 
hill to the right is the ruin of Parkstein. 

From Nkustadt to Waidhaus, 26 M. t local railway in 2 3 /« hrs. — 
6M. Flos* (DreiKdnige; Lowe), 4»/» M. to the E. of which is Flouenburg, 
with a ruined castle. 10 M. Waldthum, 8 M. to the W. of the Fahren- 
berff (view; pilgrimage-church). — ib l fc M. Vohensirauss (Drei Lilien ; Wilder 
Mann), with a chateau. The loftily situated ruin of Leuchtenberff, aVs H. 
to the S.W., was the ancestral seat of the landgraves of that name. — 20 1 /* M. 
PleytUin (Goldnes Ereuz). — 26 M. Waidhaus. 

160 M. Weiden (1300 ft; *Post, R. 1 A 20-1 A 50 pf., B. 
60 pf.), a pleasant little town (12,400 inhab.), junction for Neuen- 
markt via Bayreuth (p. 124) and for Neukirchen (p. 297). — At 
(165 M.) Luhe-Wildenau (1270 ft.) the Haidenaab and Waldnaab 
unite to form the Naab. 171 M. Wernberg (to the left the village, 
with an old castle). — 17472 M. Pfrehnd (Schwan ; Wilder Mann). 
About 5 M. to the N.E. are the village and castle of Trausnit*, 
where Frederick the Handsome was a prisoner in 1322-25. — 
17772 M. Nabburg (Hecht; Schwan), a quaint little town (2050 
inhab.) with a Gothic ohurch (ca. 1400). Narrow-gauge line to Ober- 
viechtach (18 M. in l'/ 2 hr.). — 185 M. Irrenlohe (Rail. Restaurant), 
junction for Nuremberg (see p. 297). — The train now crosses the 
Naab to (18772 M.) Schwandorf (1204 ft.; Bail. Restaurant; 
Bahnhofs-Hottl; Bar; Kloster, R. at either 1-172 •*)> a prettily 
situated little town (6600 inhab.), the junction forFurth and Prague 
(R. 46). From (197 M.) Haidhof a branch-line runs vial the rail- 
factory of Maximilianshutte to (472 M.) Burglengenfeld, with a 
picturesque ruined castle. — To the right beyond (199 M.) Ponholz 
rises Schloss Birkensee. Near (204 M.) Begenstauf the Begen is 
crossed. Beyond (211 M.) Walhalla-Strasse (p. 172) the train crosses 
the Danube by an iron bridge, 775 yds. long; on the left the Wal- 
halla comes in sight. 

to Munich. LANDSHDT. 32. Route. 187 

213 M. Ratisbon (Rail. Restaurant), see p. 164. 

Backing out of Ratisbon station, the Munich train traverses an 
uninteresting district. 218 l /a M. Obertraubling (to Passau, see 
R. 47); 229 M. Eggmuhl, where the French under Davoust (Prince 
d'Eckmuhl) defeated the Austrian a, on 22nd April, 1809. Branch- 
line to Langquaid (6 M.). — The Qrosse Laber is crossed. — 238 M. 
Neufahrn, on the Kleine Laber (branch via Oeiselhoring to Strau- 
bing, p. 299). 

252 M. Landshut. — Hotels. DbIxlmbieb, R. 1 Jf 60 pf -2»/s Jft 
Dbki Mohben, Altstadt 69. B. l l /2-3 A, B. 60 pf. j Kbonpbinz, Altstadt 29, 
R. 11/2-3 A, B. 80 pf.,; Dkdtbchjbr Kaisbb, near the station, R. i-iy 2 Jl; 
Ainhillbb; Bbbnlochneb. — *2taft. Restaurant. — Horse-tramway from the 
station to the town, l»/t M., 10 pf. 

LandsAut (1290 ft), with 24,100 inhab., the capital of the 
district of Lower Bavaria, with wide streets and gabled houses, lies 
picturesquely on the Isar, which forms an island within the town. 
The quarter on this Island is called Zwischen den Brucken. The 
chief attractions are in the broad main street, named the 'Altstadt'. 
The three principal churches are fine structures in brick, adorned 
with sculpturing in stone. 

♦St. Martin's (after 1407-1478), nearly opposite the Theater- 
ga88e, has slender columns, and is noted for its tower (432 ft.) and 
for its boldness of construction (comp. also p. xxi). The late- Gothic 
pulpit, of limestone, dates from 1422. Beautiful late-Gothic high- 
altar (1424), the back of which is also interesting. The lofty choir- 
windows (76 ft. high) contain fine modern stained glass. — Among 
the numerous tombstones on the outer walls of this church is (on 
the S. side, protected by a railing) that of Stettheimer (Hans der 
Stejnmetz, d. 1432), the builder of this church and the Hospital 
Church, with his bust and a half-length figure of the Saviour. 

The Post Office (formerly House of the Estates'), almost opposite 
St. Martin's, is decorated with old frescoes (restored in 1860) of the 
sovereigns of Bavaria from Otho I. to Maximilian I. — In front of 
the law-courts, farther to the S.W., is a bronze statue of Duke 
Lewis the Rich (d. 1479), founder of the university (p. 184), by 
Fr. Brugger (1868; the statue is a portrait of Albert IV. the Wise). 
— To the left of the Theatergasse is the Rathatjs, originally erected 
in 1446, but entirely restored and furnished with a modern-Gothic 
facade in 1860-61. The *Council Chamber (apply at the Registry 
Office on the first floor), with its fine timber ceiling and chimney- 
pieces, is adorned with mural paintings by Seitz, Spiess, and 
other artists. In front of the Rathaus stands a bronze Statue of 
Maximilian II. , by Bemhard (1868). 

The *Palaoe (1636-43), almost opposite the Rathaus, was 
begun by German, and completed by Italian architects, and ex- 
hibits features both of the German and Italian Renaissance. Its 
columned court and fine upper rooms, with beautiful ceiling-paint- 

188 Route 32. FREISING. 

ings and friezes, are among the best Renaissance works in Ger- 
many. (Custodian in the portal, to the right) On the groundfloor is 
a collection of industrial models, established by Dr. Gehring (Sun., 
10-1, Wed., 1-5 ; at other times on application). 

Farther to the left, at the N. end of the Altstadt, stands the 
Ohubch op thb Holt Ghost, or Hospital Church (1407-61 j see 
p. 187), with frescoes above the vestibule and handsome modern 
pulpit and altar. — In the 'Obere Freyung', the next parallel street 
on the E. but one, is (left; N.) the Church of St. Jodok, rebuilt in 
1447, with good stained glass. To the right is the approach to the 
Hof-Qarten, with its pleasant promenades on the castle- hill. — In 
the suburb of St. Nicola, to the N.W., is a War Monument for 
1870-71, in the Obelisken-Platz, in the street leading to the 

•Burg Landshut or Trausnitz (1520 ft.), an old castle rising above the 
town ( 3 /4 hr. from the station), formerly the residence of the Dukes of Lower 
Bavaria, begun by Dnke Lad wig of Kelheim in 1204,- was frequently altered; 
comp. p. xxviii. Approach immediately to the S.W. of the law-courts (see 
p. 187). The porter who shows the castle and the royal apartments is to 
be found at the second gate, to the left O/z-l M). The Chapel (1183-1231 ?), 
which lately underwent thorough renovation, is the only part remaining 
of the original structure. The balustrade of the gallery, decorated with 
stone figures, the large relief of the Annunciation, the mural paintings of 
the altar-recess, and the ciborium (1471) are worthy of notice. Some of the 
apartments are finely painted in the Renaissance style (1576-80), and others 
contain handsome wooden ceilings and panelling. The mural paintings 
on the Fools" Staircase represent scenes from Italian comedies. Part of 
the upper floor has been sumptuously fitted up for the reception of the 
King of Bavaria. In the court is a well, surmounted by a fine wrought- 
iron framework ; the pails in bronze (executed, according to the inscription, 
in 1558) are now kept inside the castle. Conradin, the last of the Hohen- 
staufen, was born at the neighbouring castle of Wolfstein (now a ruin) in 
1252 and spent a great part of his childhood at the Trausnitz. — Beyond 
the Trausnitz lies the village of Berg (good hotels), visited as a summer- 
resort, wi h an early-Gothic parish church. It is separated from (l»/4 M.) 
Landshut by the Hof-Garten. — From the garden-restaurant on the (H/4 M. 
to the S.) Klausenberg a fine view is obtained of the town, the castle, and 
the valley \ it is reached by following the Freisinger highroad to the flood- 
arch of the Roit-Tal railway (see below), and ascending to the left im- 
mediately beyond it. 

Fbom Landshut to Landau, 28 M., railway in 1-2 hrs., the shortest 
route from Munich to Eisenstein, Pilsen, and Prague. The train follows 
the left bank of the Isar. 18 M. Mngolflng, an old town (3400 inhabj on 
the right bank of the Isar. Then across a tract of moorland. 28 H. 
Landau (p. 907). 

A railway also runs from Landshut, via (8M.) 0eto»Aatfsa»and(137iM.) 
Viltbiburg, to (24 M.) Neumarkt an der Rott (p. 906). — Another runs to 
(17 M.) Roltenburg, on the Orosse Laber. 

The railway ascends the left bank of the Isar. 257 M. Qundl- 
kofen ; to the left, Schloss Kronwihkel. 259 M. Bruckbcrg, with a 
small chateau to the right of the line ; then on the right Schloas 
Isareck. The Amper is crossed. — 26372 M. Moosburg (1380 ft.), 
a very ancient town (pop. 3200) on the Isar ; the Romanesque church 
contains a fine old carved altar. The Alps soon become visible on 
the left. 

MUNICH. 33. Route. 189 

274 M. Treising (1380 ft. j *Bayerischer Hof; Fwtnerbrau; 
Rail. Restaurant; omn. into the town 20 pf.), a town with 13,600 in- 
hah., on the left bank of the Isar, and partly on a hill (Domberg), 
has been the seat of an episcopal see (now Munich-Freising and 
located in Munich) from the 8th cent, to the present day. Otto 
von Freising, the historian, grandson of King Henry IV., was bishop 
here from 1137 to 1158 (statue in the Domhof). The Romanesque 
Cathedral (1161-1205), with its two towers, double aisles, and 
galleries (screen), was marred by internal alterations in the early 17th 
century. We should notice the late-Romanesque portal (partly dis- 
figured) and the curious quadruple crypt, the vaulting of which rests 
on short round and polygonal columns , with rich capitals. In the 
raised vestibule, to the left on entering, are statuettes of Frederick 
Barbarossa and his wife Beatrix (?), of 1161. Gothic choir-stalls. The 
cloisters contain some fine tombstones. The Church of St. Benedict, 
connected with the cathedral by cloisters, contains a fine old stained- 
glass window. The Clerical Seminary, opposite the cathedral, con- 
tains early-German paintings, sculptures, etc. — To the W. lies 
(1 M.) the loftily -situated Weihenstephan (1626 ft.) formerly an 
abbey, now an agricultural college and brewery (restaurant). 

2871/a M. Schleissheim (p. 255). — 299 M. Munich. 

33. Munich. 

Railway Stations. 1. Central Railway Station (PI. C, 4; 'Restaurant), 
a large building erected in 1876-84, forming a terminus for most of the 
lines. The omnibuses of the larger hotels meet the trains here. — 2. Starn- 
berg Station (PI. B, 4), to the N. of the Central Station, for the trains to 
Starnberg, Murnau-Partenkirchen, and Eochel. — 3, 4. Southern Station 
(PI. B, 9) and Eastern Station (PI. I, 7, 8; in the suburb of Haidhausen), 
supplementary stations of the Rosenheim and Simbach lines (R. 45), without 
importance for the ordinary tourist. — 5. hartal Railway Station (PI. B, 
10, 11), for the local line to Beuerberg, Bichl, and Kochel (R. 89a). — 
Porter from the station to a cab, 20 pf. up to 110 lbs., 40 pf. up to 220 lbs. ; 
from the central station into the town, small articles 20 pf., trunk under 
110 lbs. 40 pf., under 220 lbs. 80 pf., etc. — Cab from the station to the 
town, see p. 193. A fee of 20 pf. extra is charged for drives from the Central 
Railway Station. Luggage, see p. 193. 

Hotels (rooms should be engaged beforehand in the season). *Vieb 
Jahbeszeiten (Four Seasons; PI. a*, F, 4, 5), Maximilian-Strasse 4, with 
modern improvements, high-class restaurant (p. 192), and American bar, 
R. from 3, B. H/2, dej. 4, D. 4, pens, (only in winter) from 8, omn. 1 Jl; 
*Batbi8cheb Hof (Bavarian Hotel ; PI. b, K, 4), Promenade-Platz 19, with 
winter-garden, R. & B. from 51/2, D. 4, pens. 9-14 Jl; *Ressischbr Hop 
(PI. a; D, 4), Otto-Str. 4, with winter-garden, American bar, and wine- 
restaurant, R. 4-8, B. J l /2, D- 5, omn. 1 Jit "Gkand Hotel Continental 
(PI. e; D, 3, 4), Otto-Str. 6, with American bar, R. 3V2-10, B. l»/i, lunch 3, 
D. 4-5, pens, (except, in Aug. & Sept.) 8-12 Jd; these four of the very 
first class. — Also first-class: *Geand H6tel Lbinpbldeb (PI. g; D, 4), 
Lenbach-Platz 9, R. 3-6, B. 1, D. 3-4, pens. 8V«-12 •#, rmn. 80pf.s *Enq- 
lischbh Hop (PI. P, E, 5), Diener-Str. 11, R. 2»/«-5, B. H/4, D. 8-31/2, pens. 
7V2-10y2 A, omn. 80 pf.; Bellbvce (PI. c; C, 4), Karls-Platz 25, R. from 
8V2, B. IV2, D. 4, pens, from 10.*, omn. 80 pf.; *Kheinischer Hop (PI. d; 
C, 4, 5), Bayer-Str., near the central station, R. 3-6, B. H/4, dej. 2V2, D. *, 

Key to the Plan of Munich. 

Academy of Art. . F, 1 

„ of Science D, 5 

Anatomie ....". C, 6 

Archiepis. Palace . E, 4 

Art Union F, 3 

Bavaria A, 7 

Blind Asylum . . . F, 2 
Botan. Garden . . C,8,4 
Bronze Foundry . . B, 1 
Cadets, Corps of. . A, 2 
Cemetery, old C,D,7, 8 
— , new (8.) .... C, 8 
— , Northern . . . . D, 1 
Cham, of Commerce D, 4 
Chem. Laboratory C, 8, 4 

(Court-) Chapel F,4 

St. Anna a, 4 

Auer (Maria- 
hilf) Kirche . . F. 8 

BasiHca C, 3 

St. Benno .... B, 1 
Carmelite .... D, 4 
Fran en-Kirch e . . E, 5 
Heiliggeist .... B, 5 

St. John D, 6 

LudWigs-Kirche . F, 2 
St. Luke (Prot.)G,5,6 
St. Mark (Prot.) . E,3 
St.Matthew(Prot.) C, 5 
Mas imilians-Kirch eE,8 
St. Michael . . . D. 6 
St. Paul. . . . A,B,5 

St. Peter E, 5 

Theatine Ch. . , E, 4 
Civic Arsenal . . . E, 6 
Clinical Inst. D, 5, C, 6 

Residence . . . F, 3 
Corn Hall ... D, E, 6 
Crystal Palace . . . C, 4 
Deaconess Institute D, 1 
Exhibition Building C,3 
Feldherrn-Halle . . E, 4 
Fountain, Gasteig . C, 5 
— , Wittelsbach. . . D, 4 
General Hospital . C, 6 
Glyptothek . 0,0,2,3 

Buildings. . . . G,6 
Herzog Max Burg . D, 4 
Hofbrauhaus .... F, 5 
Hospital of St. 

Elizabeth .... C, 6 
Hygienic Institute . B, 6 
Industrial Art 

School C, 2 

IndustrialExhibitionD, 4 
Isartor F, 6 

Kaim-Saal D, 3 

Karlstor D, 4, 5 

Kiinsflerhaus . . . D, 4 
Law Courts . . . C, D, 4 

Library F, 2 

Lotzbeck Collection D, 3 
Lunatic Asylum . . H, 8 
Maximilianeum . . H, 5 
Max-Joseph Inst. . F, 1 
Military Academy . A, 2 
Military School . . A, 2 
Ministry of Finances F,8 
„ of For- 
eign Affairs E, 4 
„ of the In- 
terior . . . E. 4 

Mint F, 4, 5 

Deroy, Schel- 
ling, Rumford, 
Fraunhofer . F, G, 5 
Elector Maximi- 
lian I E, 3 

— Max Emanuel E, 4 
Emp. Ludwig . B, 6, 7 
Gabelsberger . . D, 4 
Gsertner, Elenze E, 6, 7 

Goethe D, 4 

King Louis I. . . E, 3 

„ Max I. ... E, 4 
- Max II. . . G, 5 

LieWg D, 4 

Nussbaum .... C, 6 

Schiller E, 3 

Senefelder .... D, 6 
Gluck, Kreit- 
mayr, Orlando E, 4 
National Museum . G, 3 

Odeon E, 3 

Duke Max .... E, 3 

— Ludwig . . G, H, 6 
Prince Luitpold . E, 3 
Prince Ludwig 

Ferdinand . . . E, 3 
Wittelsbach . . . E, 3 
Pathological Inst. . C, 6 

Inst C, 6 

Physiological Inst. C, 6 
Pinakothek, Old . D.2 

— , New D, 2 

Police Office .... E, 6 
Polytechnic School D, 2 
Post Office .... E, 4, 5 

Propyleea C, 3 

Railway Station, 

Central C, 4 

Rathaus E, 5 

Reichshank . . . . F, 3 
Royal Palace . E, F, 4 

— Stables F, 4 

Schack's Gallery. . C, 3 

Museum .... C, 5 

Siegestor F, 1 

Slaughter House. . B, 8 

Synagogue D, 4 

Telegraph Office . C, 4 

Hof-Theater . . . F, 4 

Residenz-Theat. . F, 4 

Theater .... J, 4 

Gartner- Platz- 
Theater . . . . E, 7 

Miinchner Schau- 
spielhaus . . . F, 6 

Volks-Theater C, D, 6 

Turnhalle B, 1 

University F, 1 

Veterinary8choolF,G, 1 
War Office. ... F, 2, 3 

a Four Seasons F, 4, 5 

b Bavaria E, 4 

c Bellevue C. 4 

d RheinischerHof C.4,5 
e Continental . D, 8, 4 
f Englischer Hof . E, 5 
g Leinfelder .... D, 4 
h Marienbad . . . D,3 
i Maximilian . . . F, 6 
k Max-Emanuel . . E, 4 
1 H6t.derEuropeC,4, 6 
m Stachus C, 5 

Bamberger Hof D, 5 
p Kaiserhof .... C, 4 
r Deutscher Kaiser C, 4 
s Savoy-Hot. Roth F, 5 
t Deutscher Hof . D, 5 
u Reichshof .... C, 6 
w Grfinwald .... C,4 
x Schweizer Hof . C,4 
y Roter Hahn . . . D, 5 
z Kronprinz .... C, 5 

a National B, 4 

b Wolff C, 4 

c Gas8ner C, 6 

d Metropol .... B, 5 

s Post B, 5 

/ Wittelsbach . . B, 6 
g Russischer Hof . D, 4 

h Central B, 4 

i Sachsischer Hof B, 4 
* Park D, 4 

1 Habsburg .... C, 5 

m Ring D, 6 

n Trefler C, 6 

Practical Notes.' MUNICH. 33. Route. 191 

pens, from 8 A; Mabibnbad (PL h; D, 3), Barer-Str. 11 A 20, an old 
family hotel with garden and baths, E. 3-5, B. I1/4, D. 3i/ 8 , pens. 8V2-IO A. 
Second Glass: *HdTKLDB l'Eubope (PI. 1; C, 4, 5), Bayer-Str., opposite 
the Central Station, R. 3-4, B. 1, D. 8 A; *Pabk Hotel (PI. k; D, 4), 
Maximilians- Plata 24, R. 81/2-8, B. 1, D. 4, pens, from 8 A; 'Gband Hot. 
Geunwald (PI. w; C, 4), Birten-Str. 25, near the Central Station, R. 2-4, 
B. 1, D. 27s, pens, from 7 A; Kaisebhop (PI. p; C, 4), 8chutzen-8tr. 12, 
R. 2-4, B. 1 A; Roteb Hahn (PI. y; D, 5), Karls-Platz 11, R. 2-5 A, 
B. 80 pf.; Hot. Tbbfleh (PI. n; C, 5), Sonnen-Str. 21, R. l»/4-8V» **, 

B. 90 pf., D. from iy« Jf, omn. 60 pf. ; H6t. Tebminus, Bayer-Str., near the 
central station, R. 3^5, B. IV4, D. 2-5, pens. 7-9 Jf; Rxiohbhof (PI. u; C, 6), 
Sonnen-Str. 15, R. 2-4, B. i, D. U/ 4 -3, pens. 6-10 Jf; Savoy-H6tbl Roth 
(PL s; F, 5), Neuturm-Str. 5; H6t. Stachus (PL m; C, 6), Karls-Platz, 
R. 2V2-4, B. 1, D. in the restaurant V/rS, pens. 7-10 A, very fair; H6t. 
Max. Emanuel (PL k; E, 4), Promenade-Plats, R. 2-4 Jf, B. 90 pf., D. lVs- 

3 Jf, omn. 60 pf. -1 Jf ; Pbtbbhof, Marien-Platz, opposite the Rathaus, R. 2- 

4 Jf, B. 80 pf.; Dbutschbb Hop (PI. t; D, 5). Neuhanser-Str. 40; Bam- 
bbbobb Hop (PL o; D, 5), Neuhauser-Str. 26, R. iy*4 Jf, B. 70 pf.; 
Dbei Raben. Scbiller-Str. 6 (PL C, 5, 6), well spoken of. — At the Central 
Station: H6t. National Simmen (PL a; B, 4), Arnulf-Str., R. 2-4, B. 1, 
D. 2-3, in the restaurant lVs-2 Jf, well spoken of; Dbutschbb Kaiser (PL r; 
C,4), Arnulf-Str., R. 2-47*, B. »/4 Jf, well spoken of; Wolff (PL b; C, 4), 
Arnulf-Str., R. 27*41/2, B. 11/4 At H6t. Central (PL h; B, 4), Arnulf-Str. 16, 
R. 2-4, B. 1, D. 2 Jf ; Sachsischbb Hop (PL i; B, 4), Arnulf-Str. ; H6t. Habs- 
bubg (PL I; C, 5), Gassneb (PL e; C, 5), Wittelsbaoh (PL/; B, 5), Mbtbo- 
pol (PL d; B, 5), R. 27«-5, B. »/ 4 , D. in the res'aurant iy 4 -2 Jf, Hot. zck 
Post (PL e; B, 5), these five in the Bayer-Str.; Hot. Maximilian (PL i; 
F, 6), Maximilian-Str. 44, R. 2-3, B. »/ 4 , D. 174, omn. */4 Jf; Ring-Hotel 
(PL m; D, 6), Sendlinger Tor-Platz, R. I 1 /*®/* Jf; Sohwbizbrhof (PL x; 

C, 4), Luisen-Str. 1, R. lVt-S 1 /* Jf i Kollebgabten , Schwanthaler-Str. 28 
(PL B, C, 5), R. from l»/4 A; Stuttgabtbb Hop, Marg-Str. 2 (PL B, 8), 
R. from 172 Jf; Hot. Kbokpbinz (PI. z\ C, 5), Zweig-Str. 10. — Chbist- 
liches Hospiz (PL C, 5, 6), Mathilden-Str. 5, R. 174-27*, B. */4 Jf, recom- 

Pensions. Bellevue, TheresienStr. 30 (4-6 Jf)-, Quisisana (Frau Mar- 

fsrethe Baer), Theresieu-Str. 82 (5-7 Jf)-, Hordland, Schelling-Str. 3 (47*- 
74 Jf); Washeim, Turken-Str. 6 (47^6 UT>, Egtr, Turken-Str. 98 (from 
47« Jf); Waltenberg, Hfss-Str. 28 (V/rl A): Finckh, Barer-Str. 38 (5-8 U&); 
Bickel, Kanal-Str. 49 (7-10 Jf); Beckenbauer, Prinz Ludwig-Str. 5 (472-8 Jf); 
Fischer. Wittelsbacher PJatz 2 (4-67* Jf); P/armer } Finken-Str. 2 (4V2-10 Jf); 
Bristol, Jager-Str. 9b (5-7 Jf); Odeon, Jager-frtr. 2 (4-7 A); Amalia, Theresien- 
Str. 19 (372-4 Jf); Roth, Gatelsberger-Str. 21 (2-6 Jf); PeU, Gabelsberger- 
Str. 1 (4»/2-6 Jf) ; Grvber, Hess-Str. 24 (4-8 A)\ Sussner, Hess-Str. 82 (4-6 A) ; 
Hama, fccheliing-Str. 78 (33/ 4 -5 A); Zierhut, Schelling-Str. 54 (4-6 A); 
BrUmmer, Schelling-Str. 87 (4-6 A)\ Corona, Adalbert-Str. 40 (372-4 J£); 
Thurner, Schelling-Str. 41 (37*-4 A); Berg, 8chelling-Str. 1 (472-8 .40 ; 
Stella, Adalbert-Str. 4S (4-7 Jf); Cortin-Qehr, Kaulbach-Str. 47 (5-67 8 A); 
BUrger, Luisen-Str. 50 (4-6 A); Schwarz, Karl-Str. 1 (4-7 A) ; Bvcher, Karls- 
Platz 8; Zenlral, Prielmayer-Str. 8 (372-6 A); Fontana (Frau B. Eckart), 
Maximilians-Platz 6 (6-10 A); Liesecke, Maximilians-Platz 8 (6-10 Jf); Elite, 
Maximilians-Platz 18; Podleeh, Galerie-Str. 11 (5-7 A); Gloeker, Maximilian- 
Str. 5 (472-8 A); Christiana, Maximilian-Str. 2 (6-8 A); Meister, Herzog 
Rudolf-Str. 4 (47t-5 A)\ Austria, Herzog Wilhelm-Str. 22; Savoy, Hereog 
Wilhelm-Str. 82; Home, Ludwig-Str. 3 (0-8 A); Reictihard, Brienner Str. 47 
(5-7 A); Wild, Luitpold-Str. 14; KUhne, Fiirsten-Str. 8. 

Oafea-Restaurants (beer in all) at many of the Hotels (see above) and 
Wime Saloons (seep. 192). Alfo: Luitpold, Brienner-Str. 8, near the Wittela- 
bacher-Platz (PL B, 3), D. from 172 A; Thomasbrtoi (Domhof), Kau6nger- 
Str. 15 (PL D, E, 5); Ho/theater, Besidenz-Slr. 12 (PL E, 4), D. from 17 2 A; 
Kaiserhof, in the hotel (p. 189), D. from 17 2 .4f; Maximilian (Viennese beer), 
in the hotel (see fcbove), de VOpira, Victoria (at the corner of Tbiersch-Str.), 
these three in the Maximilian-Str. (PL F, G. 5) ; Heck, Galerie-Str. 2 (PL F, 8), 

192 Route 33. MUNICH. Practical 

by the Hof-Oarten ; Neu* BSrse, Maximilian s-Platz 8 (with frescoes by Vols), 
D. iy«-3 U* ; Kaiser Franz-Joseph, Maximilian s-Plalz 15 (PI. D. E, 4), D. VL- 
3 Jf; Peterho/, in the hotel (p. 191); Deutscher Bo/, in the hotel (p. 191); 
Wittelebach* Hereog-Wilhelm-btr. 32, corner of Herzogspiral-Str. (see p. 194) ; 
Deutsche* Theattr, Schwanthaler - Str. 13 (Fl. C, 5); K aim -Sale (p. 194), 
Mirabelh Turken-Str. (Nos. 7, 6; PI. E, 2, «), corner of Gabelsherger-8tr., 
D. 1-2 Jf ; Deutsche* Sous, Sophien-Str. la (PI. C, D, 4), corner of Lenbach- 
Platz; Jsarlust (p. 216), on the Isar island, above the Maximilians-Brucke, 
pleasant on warm evening?. — Automatic Restaurants, Bayer- Str. 7a (PI. A, 
B, 5), Neuhauser-Str. 3 (PI. D, 5). — Vegetarian Restaurants. Vegetarier- 
heim, Turken-Str. 24; Ceres, Lowengrube 8 (PI. D, E, 4, 5). — Temperance 
Restaurant. Jungbrunnen, Arco-6tr. 3. 

Wine Saloons (also restaurants). Firf-t class : *Vier Jahreszeiten (p. 189 ; 
entr. from Mar«tall-Str.), restaurant (elegantly fitted tip; lunch or rpera- 
supper 3 Jf) and American bar; "Bayrischer Hof (p. 180, *Rvssischer Ho/ 
(p. 189), restaurant and American bar; *Schleich, Brienner-Str. 6 (PI. C, D, 
2, 3), with the Odeon Bar (art it tic ally fitted up), D. (12-3) 8 & 6. 8. (7-11) 
3 Jf; * Restaurant Francois (wine-iestanrant of the Cafe* Luitpold, p. 191), 
D. (124) 2, 8, & 5 Jf. — Le?s pretending but good: KOnsUerhaus (p. 251), 
Lenbach -Platz 8, D. 2 6 3 Jt (beer also); RatskeUer (p. 250), entr. fr m 
Diener-Str.; Kunstgewerbehaus, see p. 249; Eckel, Burg-Str. 17 (PI. E, 5); 
Kurtt, Augustiner-Str. 1 (PJ. D, E ? 5), D. iy 8 & 2 Jf; RUdesheimer Wein- 
stube, Promenade -Platz 15 (PI. E, 4); D'Orvitte, Marten - Plat* 21, 1st floor 
(PI. E, 5); Michel, Ro«en-Slr. 11, 1st floor (PI. E, 5; Hungarian wines); 
Ifeuner (old- German wine-room), Herzogspital-Str. 20 (PI. L>, 4); Torggel- 
stnbe, near the Hof brauhaus ; Continental Bodega, Theatiner-8tr. 47 (PI. E, 4) ; 
Osteria Bavaria, Schelling-Str. 82 (PI. D, E, 1). 

Beer (comp. above under cafg-restaurants). The Bo/br&uhaus (PI. F, 5), 
in the Platz J, famous among Bavarian beer-houses, and one of the sights 
of Munich, occupies a building decorated with frescoes by Ferd. Wagner 
in the hall on the first floor. Bilrgerbrau, Kaufin^er-Str. 6 (PI. D, E, 5); 
Augusttnerbrdu, Pschorrbrdu-BierhaUen, Bamberger Bo/{D. iifajf), Xeuhauser- 
8tr. (Nos. 16, 11, 2tt; PI. D, 5); Atathaser Bierhallen, at the E. end of the 
Bayer-Str. (No. 5; PI. B, C, 4, 6); Bauemgirgl, Residenz-Str. 20 (PI. E, 4); 
Pilsner Bierhalle, Sporer-Str. 2 (PJ. E, 5). Near the Pinakotheken (PI. D, 2) : 
Lohengrin, Turken-Str. 50; Wittelsbacher-Garten, Theresien-Str. 38, D. »/ 4 - 
l 1 /* Jf; Print Karl, Theresien-Str. 41, similar charges. — The large 'Bier- 
keller' outside the gates also attract numerous visitors in summer; they 
generally possess gardens and fair restaurants. LdwenbrawKeUer (PI. B, 2; 
p. 194), Stiglmayer- Platz. with a terraced garden and a large concert- 
room, often crowded ; Bo/brauhaus-KeUer (PI. H, 6), Wiener-Stir., near the 
Maximilianeum ; Franziskaner-KeOer (PI. G, 8), Hoch-Str. 7, with view- 
terrace; M&nchner Kindl-Keller (P). G, 7), Kosenheimer-Str. 15, with large 
concert-room : Btirgerbrau-KeUer (PI. G, H, 7 ; p. 194), Rosenheimer-Str. 29 ; 
Sternecker-Kelkr, Gaste ; g 1, these five on the right bank of the Isar (p. 253) ; 
AvgvsHner-KellerQH. A. B, 3). Arnulf-Str.; Spatenbrau-KeUer (PI. A, 5), Bayer- 
Str. m,Baekerbrau-KelUr (PI. A, 4), Bavaria-Keller (PI. A, 5), Theresienhohe. 
— In the breweries and beer-gardens the beer is served only in earthenware 
mugs holding a litre ('Maass ), but in the restaurants glasses or mugs con- 
taining V* litre only may also be had. The following kinds of beer are 
drunk in spring only: Salvator (strong), at the Zacherl-Keller, Au suburb 
(PI. F, 9), for about a week from the Sun. before 19th March; Bock (first 
introduced from Eimbeck in the 16th cent.), in the beginning of May, and 
at the festival of Corpus Ghristi in June (usually from 7-9.30 a.m.), at the 
Bo/brauhaus (see above). 

Oafes (most, with the exception of the cafe*s-restaurants mentioned 
above, closed in the evening). Print-Regent, Prinz-Regenten-Str. 4 (PI F, 
G, 3); Dom~Ca/t, on the 8. side of ihe * rauen-Piatz (PI. E, 6); Baukneeht, 
Helbig, in Ihe Hof-Garten (PI. E, F, 3), seats outside In summer; Orlando 
di Lasso (Vienna Cafe"), Platzl 4 (PI. F, 5); Slefanie, corner of Theresien- 
Str. and Amalien-8ir. (PI. E, 2); Ctnttal, Odeons-Platz 1 (PI. E, 3), entr. 
from the Brienner-Str.; Bdrsen-Ca/i, Maffei-Str. 3 (PI. E, 4); Pakut-Cafi, 

Notes. MUNICH. 33. Route. 193 

Theatiner-Str. 16 (PI. E, 4); Perzel, Marien-Platz 18 (p. 249); KarUtor, Neu- 
hauser-Str. 34 (PJ.D, 5); Union, Herzogspital-Str. 12 (PI. D, 5); Schilling, 
Schelling-Str. 56, near the New Pinakothek (PI. D, 2) ; Nepiun, Steinsdorf- 
Str. 21, near the Isar-Brucke (PI. G, 6)* Gasleig, Innere Wiener-Str. 31 
(PI. H, 6). 

Confectioners. Trautmann & Vokt, Promenaden - Platz 14 (PI. E, 4); 
Griebel, Residenz-Str. 26 (PI. E, 4) ; Brienner Bdckerei, Odeons- Platz 1 (PI. 
E, 3) ', Eyerich, Maffei-Str. 2, corner of Theatiner-Str. (PI. E, 4) ; Bernhard, 
Theresien-Str. 25 (PI. C-E, 1, 2); Cocht, Maximilian-Str. 32 (PI. F, G, 5 ; with 

Baths. •MiUler'sche* Volksbad (PI. G, 6; p. 253), near the Ludwigs- 
Briicke, with vapour-baths and swimming-baths (open summx rand winter); 
*Konigliches So/bad or Maximiliansbad (PI. F, 5), Kanal-Str. 19, with 
swimming-bath (open summer and winter); Luisenbad, Luisen-Str. 67 
(PI. C, 4, 3); Kai»er-Wilhebn-Bad, Lindwurm-Str. 70a (PI. B, C, 8,7), with 
garden and restaurant; Bavariabad, Tiirken-Str. 70 (PI. E, 1-3); Centralbad 
(PI. C, 4), Lammer-Str. 3; Marienbad (see p. 191) ; GUelabad, Miiller-Str. 2 
& 4 (PI. D, E, 6, 7). — Baths in the Wilrm, at Schwabing (p. 214 ; tram- 
way-line No. 3) : *Ungei'er, with garden, etc. ; Oermania-Bad. Also at Qern^ 
near the Nymphenburg road. — Steiner Bad at Pasing (p. 256). 

Cabs (all provided with Hexameters'). Tariff 1 (red), 1-2 pers., by day, 
800 metres 50 pf., each 400 metres more 10 pf. Tariff 2 (black), 3 pers., 
by day, 600m. 50 pf., each 300m. more 10 pf. Tariff 3 (blue), 1-3 pers., by 
night (10-6) or beyond the boundary (41/2 kilometres = ca. 2 3 /« M., from 
the Marien-Platz), 400m. 50 pf., each 200m. more 10 pf. Waiting for 8 min. 
before the start 50 pf.,'each 4 min. thereafter 10 pf., per hour li/z M. A 
fee of 20 pf. extra is charged for drives from the Central Railway Station. 
Luggage up to 22 lbs. free, above that 20 pf. for every 55 lbs. — Drive through 
the Town, in brakes starting from the Maximilians-Platz (PI. D, E, 4) at 10 
and 3.30, 3 hrs., 4 Jl. 

Tramways (electric; fare 10-20 pf.). — 1. From the E. Railway Station 
(PI. I, 7) by the Ludwigs-Briicke, Marien-Platz (PI. E, 5), Neuhauser-Str., 
Bahnhof- Platz (PI. C, 4), and Stiglmayer -Platz to Nymphenburg (beyond 
PI. A, 2; white and blue light). — 2. Ring Line: From the Central Station 
(PI. C, 4) by the Sendlingertor-Platz (PI. D, 6), Isartor-Platz (PI. F, 6), 
Maximilian Monument (PI. G, 5), Galerie-Str. (PI. F, 3; National Museum), 
Ludwig-Str., Theresien-Str. (Pinakotheken), and Augusten-Str. (PI. C, 1-3), 
back to the Central Station (red). — 3. From the Arnulf-Str. (PI. B, 4) by 
the Central Station and Scback-Str. (PI. F, 1) to Schwabing (beyond PI. F, 1 ; 
green). — 4. From the E. Railway Station (PI. I, 7, 8) by the Maximilian- 
Str., Promenade-Platz (PI. E, 4), Central Station, and Stiglmayer - Platz 
(PI. B, C, 2) to Neuhausen (beyond PI. A< 1; yellow and red). — 5. From 
the Marien-Platz (PI. E, 5) by the Gartner-Platz (PI. E. 6, 7) and the Reichen- 
bach Bridge to the Freibad-Str. at Gieeing (PI. E, 10; green). — 6. From 
Schwabing by the Hohenzollern-Str., Karolinen-PJatz, Barer-Str. (Pinako- 
theken), Otto-Str. , Lenbach -Platz, Karls-Platz, Sendlingertor-Platz, and 
Lindwurm-Str. to Neuhofen (blue). — 8. From the Georgen-Sir. (PI. C. D, 
1, 2) to Milbertshofen (yellow). — 9. From the Landtberger-Str. (PI. A, 4, 5) 
by the Central Station, Marien-Platz, Ludwig Bridge, and the Prinz-Regent- 
Theater (PI. I, 4) to Bogenhausen (yellow). — 10. From Neuhawen to the 
W. Cemetery (red and yellow). — 11. From the Marien-Platz (PI. E, 5) to 
the frarlal Railway Station (PI. B, 11; green). — 12. Fiona the Schleietheimer- 
Str. (PI. A, B, 4, 5) by the Central Station and Goethe-Platz (PI. B, 7) to 
Qieting (E. cemetery, PI. G, H, 10; red and blue). — 13. From Sendling to 
Eolzapfelkreuth (white). — 14. From the MariahUf-Platz (PI. F, 8) by the 
E. Cemetery to the Rosenheimer-Str. (PI. H, 7, 8; green). 

Post Office in the Max-Joseph-Platz (PI. E, 4, 5; poste restante). Bianch- 
of flees at Bayer-Str. 12, the Central Railway Station (S. side), at Thekla- 
Str. 2, Zweibrucken-Str. 37, Theresien-Str. 31 and 43, Neuhauser-Str. 51, 
Adalbert-Str. 9, Leopold-Str. 57 (Schwabing), etc. — Telegraph Office (PI. 
C, 4), Bahnhof-Platz 1; also at the post-offices. — Telephone Offices at 
the telegraph-office, at the Central Station, and at the post-offices. 

Baedekers S. Germany. 10th Edit. 13 

194 Route 33. MUNICH. Practical 

Tourist Agents. Schenker is Co., Promenade-Platz 16. — Intelligence 
Of floe for strangers (information gratis), in the new Bathaus (p. 249), beside 
the guard-house. 

Porters. For an errand of V« M. within the city with 33 lbs. of luggage 
25 pf., each addit. V* M. 15 pf. ; for a message without luggage 15 pf. per 

5 minutes. The porter's number should be taken. 

Theatres. Hof- und -National-Theater (PI. F, 4; p. 203), performances al- 
most daily (closed in July). Ordinary charges for operas : dress-circle (bah 
ton) 1st row 7-10, 2nd row 5-8 Jl; parquet (i.e. reserved seats in the par- 
terre or pit) 5-8 Jl; dress-circle-boxes front seat 5V2-8, back seat 5-6 Jl; 
Erster Bang or gallery above the dress-circle front seat 51/2-S, back seat 
5-6 Jl; Zweiter Rang front seat 1-6, back seat 4-5 Jl; standing-room in 
the pit 1 JH 40pf.-3«l. Charges for plays: dress-circle 6 & iJl; parquet 
4 Jl; dress-circle boxes and Erster Rang 4*/2 & 4 JH; Zweiter Bang 8V2 

6 2'/2 Jl; standing-room in pit 1 JH 40 pf. Performances usually begin at 

7 p.m. (long operas at 6 p.m.). Performances at reduced prices are given 
occasionally. Box-office open 10- 1 and 4-5 o'clock ; entrance in the Maximi- 
lian-Str. ; booking-fee for next day 30 pf. ; tickets also sold (fee 10 pf.) in 
the Old Academy Building, Neuhauser-Str 51, floor of Postamt 6 (open 
8-4), and in the kiosk on the Maximilians-Platz, by the Herat g Max Burg 
(PI. D, 4; open 8-5.80). — Resident- Theater (PI. F, 4; p. 203), where plays 
and ballad operas are performed 3-4 times weekly: parquet 4 Jl; pit-boxes 
3-4 Jl ; Erster Rang 8V2-5 Jl ; standing-room in pit 1 Jl 40 pf. Opera 
charges: parquet 5-10 Jl; pit-box 5-6 Jl; Erster Rang 6-8 Jl; standing- 
room in pit 2 Jl. Tickets as above. Performances begin at 7 p.m. — 
Prinz Regent en- Theater (PI. I, 4; p. 205), in Aug. A Sept. performances in 
the Bayreuth manner, with concealed orchestra and amphitheatrical audi- 
torium; seat 20 JH. Tickets at the box-office of the Ho f- Theater and at 
Schenker s Tourist Agency. Begins at 4 or 5 p.m. — Q&rtner-Platz Theatre 
(PI. E, 7 ; p. 254), for comedies, operettas, and popular pieces : front row 
of first gallery 4, parquet 1 1/2-3 Jl. Tickets at the box-office (open 9-5.30), 
in the kiosk on the Maximilians Plata, and at Hieber's music-shop, Marien- 
Platz 3. Performances begin at 7.30 p.m. — MUnchner Schauspielhaus (PI. 
F, 5; p. 215), Maximilian-Str. 34 ; parquet 11/2-4 Jl. Tickets as at the Gart- 
ner-Platz Theatre. — Voiles- Theater (PLC, D, 5* p. 252), Sonnen-Str. 5. — 
Summer Theatre in the Kaim-Saal (p. 217), several times a week. — Mario- 
nette Theatre, Blumen-Str., on Sun. A Wed. afternoons. — Variety Theatres 
(with restaurants): Deutsche* Theater (PI. C, 5; p. 252), Schwanthaler- 
Paesage; parquet 2 -2»/2 Jl; B lumens die (PI. D, 7), Blumen-Str. 29; Kit's 
Colosseum (PI. D, 7), Culosseum-Str. 4 ; Monachia, Singspielhalle Witteltbach, 
Herzog-Wilhelm-Str. 33 £32, near the Karlstor; Apollo Theatre, Dachauer- 
Str. 21, etc. 

Concerts. Kaitn-BWe (with restaurant; pp. 191, 217), Tiirken Str. 7 (con- 
cert in winter at 8 p.m.); Ldwenbr&u-Keller (p. 192; military band every 
evening) ; Jsarlust (p. 192) ; Thomasbr&u-Keller (PI. C, 8), Kapuziner-Platz 5 ; 
Mfinchner Kindl- Keller, Bilrgerbrdu- Keller (PI. G, H, 7), both in the Rosen- 
heimer-Str.; Trefier (p. 191); V oiks g art en at Nymphenburg (p. 256). — High- 
class concerts in winter at the Kaim Saal (see above), the Odeon (PI. E, 3; 
p. 212), the Vier Jahresseiten, the Bayerischer Hof (p. 189), and the Museum, 

Military Band daily at 12 at the guard-house, Marien-Platz (PI. E, 5; 
p. 249), and on Tues., Thurs., Frid. % and Sun. in the Feldherrnhalle (PI. E, 4; 
p. 211) at the same hour. In summer in good weather also every Mon. & 
Wed. afternoon, 5-6, in the Hof-Garten (p. 203), and on Sat. near the Chin- 
ese Tower in the English Garden (p. 254) at the same hour. 

Church Festivals. Music at the Court Church of St. Michael (p. 251) on 
Sun. at high mass, 9 a.m. ; on the Sundays of Advent and Lent, and during 
Passion Week, vocal only; on Holy Thursday and Good Friday at 7 p.m. 
a grand Miserere (by Allegri, etc.), when the church is illuminated by 
a cross composed of 800 flames ; military mass with military music in the 
same church at 11 (only when the court is present). — Church-music in the 
Frauen-Kirche (p. 250) at 9, in the Allerheiligen-Kirche (p. 203; only when 

tiotes. MUNICH. 33. Route. 195 

the court is present) at 11 a.m. — On the morning of Corpus Christi Day 
(2nd Thurs. after Pentecost) a great procession, shared in by the court and 
the chief officials, wends from the Frauen-Kirche through the chief streets 
of the city. — On St. George's Day (23rd April) at 11 a.m. procession of the 
Knights of St. George in the uniform of their order, through the Kapellen- 
hof of the Besidenz to the old court-chapel, and back at 12.90 ; at 1 p.m. 
banquet of the order in a room in the Residenz through which strangers 
may pass. 

Popular Festivals. During the Carnival (7th Jan. -Shrove Tues.) large 

?ublic masked balls ('Redouten') are held at the Deutsche Theater, Hot. 
'refler, and Kirs Colosseum. The so-called Dult (rag-fair) is held on the 
first Sun. in Hay and the 3rd Sun. in Oct. in the suburb of Au (p. 263), 
in July in the suburb of Haidhausen (p. 217). At Whitsuntide a church- 
wake takes place at Grosshesselohe (p. 255). The Magdatenen - Fett in 
Nymphenburg (p. 255) lasts from July '22nd to 29th. The Sch&fflertanx 
('Coopers 1 Dance") is celebrated every seven years. The October Festival, 
founded in 1810 by King Ludwig I. and celebrated on the Theresienwiese 
(p. 252) from the end of Sept. to the middle of Oct., attracts large crowds 
of peasants from Upper Bavaria ; it includes an agricultural show, horse- 
races, etc. 

Shops* Specimens of the products of the arts and crafts of Munich 
are exhibited and sold at the Bayerischer Kunstgewerbe-Verein (p. 219), the 
Vereinigte Werkstatten fUr Kunst im Handwerk, Herzog Budolf-Str. (adm. 
50 pf.), the Werkstdtion filr Wohnungseinrichtung, Arcis-Str. 85, and the Qe- 
werbehalle, Farbergraben l l /2. — Among the best shops are the following. 
Furniture and decorations: Bernheimer s Lenbach-Platz 3; Hahn <& Bach, 
Kauflnger-Str. 14; Pdssenbacher, Wittelsbacher Flatz. — Antiquities: Jul. 
Bdhler, Brienner-Str. 12; J. Drey, Maximilians - Platz 18; Einstein A Co., 
Maximilian-Str. 7 ; Rosenau A Co., Maximilian-Str. 12 ; Schallmayer, Maximi- 
lian- Str. 37; Bteinharter, Residenz-Str. 25. — Paintings, see Art Exhibitions 
(below). — Second-hand Booksellers (old engravings, etc.) : /. Halle, Otto- 
Str. 3a; H. Helbing, Liebig-Str. 21; /, Rosenthal, KarlStr. 10. — Coins: 
0. Helbing, Maximilian-Str. 13; Dr. Jak. Hirsch, Arcis-Str. 17. — Jewellers: 
CarlMerk, Odeons-Platzl3; M. -ffottmanner, Theatiner-Str. 8 1 ; C.Thomassjun., 
Marien-Platz 1; Th. Heiden, Odeons-Platz 18; P. Rath, Theatiner-Stp. 37. 
— Silversmiths: Ed Wollenweber, Theatiner-Str. 36; C. Weishaupt, Marien- 
Platz 29. — Ivory Carvings: A. Diessl, Pfarr-Str. 2; J . Zimtnermann, Perusa- 
Str. 1. — Stained Glass: F. X. Zettler, Brienner-Str. 23; BoucU, Ainmiller- 
Str. 8a Uhle, Schelling-Str. 12. — Bronzes: E. Tomschits, Theatiner-Str. 32 ; 
E. Meter, Promenade-Platz 16. — Pewter Articles: Jos. Lichtinger, Knobel- 
Str. 14; Briider Thannhauser, Kauflnger-Str. 7. — Church Ornaments: 
Mayer* sche Hofkunstanstalt, Stiglmayer-Platz 1 ; J. Q. Schreibmayr, Frauen- 
Platz 5. -— Porcelain : Depot of the Nymphenburg Factory (p. 265), Diener- 
Str. 8. 

Collections, ete. (adm. free unless the contrary is stated) : — 

Academy of Science (p. 251), palaeontological, mineralogical. zoological, 
and prehistoric collections, Sun. 10-12, Wed. and Sat. 2-4 in summer 
(in winter the mineralogical collection only, Sun. 10-12, Sat. 2-4). 

Anatomical and Pathological Collections (p. 252), on week-days, 12-2 (adm. 
by ticket, 50 pf.. obtained in the Academy, Neuhauser-Str., between 
10 A 12). 

Antiquarium (in the New Pinakothek, p. 239), Tues., Thurs., and Sat,, 
9-1; Oct.-March 10-12, April 10-1. 

Arco-Zinneberg Collection of Antlers (p. 217), daily on application (fee). 

Art Exhibitions. — Annual Exhibition in the Crystal Palace (p. 248), from 
1st June to 81st Oct., daily 9-6, 1 Jf. - Exhibition of the MUnchener 
Kunstlergenossenschaft in the Old National Museum (p. 215), daily 9-6 
(Nov.-Feb. 9-4), Sun. 10-1 ; 50 pf . — Exhibition of the Verein Bildender 
KUnstler (the so-called 'Secession*), at the Exhibition Building (p. 245), 
daily from 1st May to the end of Sept., 9-6; 1 M. — Other exhibi- 
tions: Fleischmann, Maximilian-Str. 1; Heinemann, Lenbach-Platz 5 


196 Route 33. MUNICH. Practical 

(1.40; Erause, Brienner-Str. 7; Liitauers Kunst-Salon, Odeons-Platz 2 ; 
Wimmer A Co., Brienner-Str. 3; Windhagers, Maximilians-Platz 19, etc. 
— Society for Christian Art, Karl-Str. 6, 8-7, Sun. 10-1. — Kunstgewerbe 
see p. 195. 

Art Union or Kunstverein (p. 204), daily (except Sat.), 10-6. Strangers are 
admitted gratis once, when introduced by a member or the secretary 5 
ticket for four weeks 2 Jt on application to the secretary (first floor). 

Bavaria and Ruhmeshalle (p. 252), 8-12 and 2-7, in winter 10-12 and 24) 
adm. 40 pf. 

Botanical Garden (p. 248), all day till dusk ; palm-house 10-11.45 and 1-3. 

Bronze Foundry (p. 247), week-days 1-6, Sun. 12-2, adm. 40 pf. 

Cabinet of Coins (at the Academy, p. 251), by special permission. 

Cabinet of Drawings and Engravings (Old Pinakothek, p. 282), Hon., Tues., 
Thurs., A Frid. 9-1, Sun. and holidays 10-12. 

Cabinet of Fossils (p. 251), see Academy. 

Cabinet of Vases (Old Pinakothek, p. 232), Mon., Tues., Thurs., A Frid. 
9-1, Sun. and holidays 10-1; free. 

Educational Exhibition, in the S. pavilion of the Schrannenhalle (p. 253), 
Wed. 8-6 (in winter 24) and Sat. 9-12. 

Frauen-Kirche, N. tower (p. 250), daily, tickets from the sacristan, 40 pf. 

Gewerbehalle, Farbergraben IV2, daily (objects for sale). 

Glass Painting (F. X. Zettler), Brienner-Str. 23; show-room weekdays, 

9-12 A 3-5. 
•Glyptothek (p. 240), free on Mon., Wed., and Frid. 9-2 (Nov.-April 10-1). 
On other days 9 or 10 4 (Sun. 11-1) 1 Jt. Closed during the 'October 
Festival* (see p. 195). 

Hof-Theater (p. 208), arrangements of the interior, Mon., Wed., A Sat. at 
2 p.m. precisely; 50 pf. 

Hoftcagenburg {Royal Coach Houses; p. 203), week-days 9-12 and 24, Sun. 
and holidays 9-12 (50 pf.); Wed., 24, free. 

Kunstgtwerbe-Hans (p. 249), Pfandhaus-Str. 7, exhibition and sale of art- 
industrial objects, week-days 8-7, Sun. and holidays 11-1. 

Kunstlerhaut (p. 251), Maximilians-Platz 24 ; reception rooms shown daily, 
10-6 or 5; adm. 1 Jt (see below under Villa Lenbach). 

Kunstverein, see Art Union. 

Law Courts (p. 251), daily during the sittings ; jury-court and library hall, 
Wed., 12.30-2.30. 

Lenbach, Villa (p. 240), Luisen-Str. 33-, weekdays 24, Sun. 10-12; adm. 1 Jt 

(the tickets admit also to the Kunstlerhaus). 
• Library (p. 212), for readers on week-days 8-1 A 3-6 (Sat. 8-1 ; closed dur- 
ing Easter week and in the afternoon in Aug. A Sept.) : for visitors 
eCimelien'), weekdays 9.30-12.30. 

LotzbccVs Collection (p. 217), Tues. and Frid., 9-3; gratuity. 

Mailling er Collection (p. 253), Sun., Tues., A Thurs., 9-1. 

Maximilianeum (modern historical paintings, p. 216), Wed. and Sat., 10-12 
(July-Sept. Mon. also; closed from Nov. 1st to March 1st.). 

Mayer's Exhibition of Ecclesiastical Ornaments, Stiglmayer-Platz 1, daily. 

Military Museum (p. 204), in summer, on weekdays except Sat. 9.30-12.30 
and 2.30-5 (in winter 10-1), Sun. and holidays 10-1 (in winter 14) ; 
Tues., Frid., Sun. free, at other times 1 Jt. Ascent to the gallery of 
the dame, Tues., Frid., Sun. 50 pf. 

Minerals, Collection of, see Academy of Science. 

Models, Collection of (p. 253), Sun., Tues., A Thurs., 9-1. 
* Museum, National (p. 205), Tues., Thurs., Frid., A Sat., 9-4 (Dec. A Jan. 
3.30), 1 Jt; Wed. 94 or 3.30, Sun. and holidays 10-3, All Saints* Day 
11-2, Shrove Tuesday 9-1, Sun. in the 'October Festival 1 9-12, free; 
closed on Mon. (when it is a holiday Tues.), Christmas Day, Qood Fri- 
day, Easter Sunday, Whitsunday, Corpus Chrisli Day, and for three 
weeks in October. The gardens and courts are open from May to Sep- 

Museum of the City of Munich, Historical (p. 253), Sun., Tues., A Thurs., 9-1. 

Museum, Ethnographical (p. 204), Wed. and Sun., 9-1; 1st No v.-3 1st April, 
Sun. only, 10-12. 

Notes. MUNICH. 33. Route. 197 

Museum of Plaster Casts (p. 204), Mon., Wed., and Frid., 2-5, Oct. -March. 

2-4 ; Sun. 1012. 
Natural History Collections, see Academy. 
Observatory (p. 254), Taes. & Frid., 8-11 £ 2-5. 

Palace (p. 200) : *Festsaalbau (p. 201) and *Nibelungen Saloons (p. 202) daily 
at 11 a.m. precisely, except Sun. ; tickets 1 M (obtained at the approach 
to the broad flight of steps, to the left in the passage, by the 'Herzog 
Christophs-Stein\ at 10.45 a.m.). The Odyssey Saloons are at present 
closed. The * Treasury (p. 201; June to Sept., Mon., Wed., and Frid., 
9-11 a.m., 15th March-31st May and in Oct., Wed.. 10-11) and the 
*Reiche Kapelle (p. 201 ; June to Sept.. Mon. & Thurs., 9-11 a.m.) 
are shown by tickets, which are issued between 9 and 10.30 a.m. at 
the Grottenhof, adjoining the Gensdarmes' Guard-room (Treasury 1 Jt, 
Kapelle 2 Jf). 
Panorama, Theresienhobe 2a: Battle of the Feasants at Sendling, 1705*, 

80 pf. ; Sun. and holidays 50 pf. 
St. Peter's Church, tower (p. 250), daily, tickets from attendant, 40 pf. 
"Pinakothek, Old (p. 218), Mon., Tues., Wed., Thurs., and Frid., 9-4 (Oct.- 

March 9-3); Sun. and holidays 10-3; closed on Saturday. 

•Pinakothek, New (p. 233), Tues., Thurs., 6 Sat., 9-4, Sun., 9-2 (Nov.-April, 

Tues., Thurs., Sat., & Sun., 10-1), free; the upper rooms also on Mon., 

Wed. & Frid., 9-2 or 10-1, 1 Jt ; porcelain-paintings, same days and hours. 

Porcelain Paintings (New Pinakothek, p. 233), see above. 

Rathaus, New (p. 250) : admission to the council-rooms 2-3 (Sun. 10-12), 

on application to the custodian (fee). 
•Schack Picture Gallery (p. 245), daily 2-5 (in winter 2-4), Sun. and holi- 
days 10-12. 
Schwanthaler Museum (p. 252), Mon., Wed., Frid., 9-2*, at other times, adm. 

35 pf. 
Slaughter Houses and Cattle Market (p. 252), week-days 8-5 (20 pf.), Sun. 

and holidays 8-12. 
Synagogue (p. 251), daily, except Sat., 9-12 and 24 (40 pf.). 
Treasury (p. 201), see Palace. 

Ohurohea. The Frauen-Kirche (p. 250) is open all day (best seen 12-4), 
the Mariahilf-Kirche (p. 253) all day except 11-1, the Basilica (p. 248) 
except 12-1. The Theatiner- Kirche (p. 212), the Ludwigs-Kirche (p. 214), and 
the Court Church of St. Michael (p. 251) are closed after 12 noon. The 
Atterheiligen-Hofkirche (p. 203 ; entr. usually from the Brunnenhof ) is open 
after midday (in July, Aug., & Sept. after 10.30 a.m.); after 2 p.m. tickets 
are necessary (20 pf.; obtained in the sacristy). 

Diary (summer). Daily : Botanical Garden till dusk ; Kunstgewerbe- 
Haus8-7, Sun. and holidays 11-1; Library 8-1, exc. Sun.; Old Pinakothek 
9-4 (Sun. 10-3), closed on Sat.; National Museum 9-4 (Sun. 10-3; closed on 
Mon.); New Pinakothek, Tues., Thurs., & Sat. 9-4, Sun., Mon., Wed., & 
Frid. 9-2 (see above also); Glyptothek 9 2 (see above also); Military 
Museum Sun. 10-1, weekdays 9.80-12.30 & 2.30-5, closed on Sat. (see above 
also); Hofwagenburg 9-12 and 2-4, Sun. 9-12; Exhibitions of Art in the 
Crystal Palace, 9-6, in the Kunstausstellungs-Gebaude ('Secession"), 9-6, 
and in the Old National Museum, 9-6, Sun. 10-1; Bavaria and Ruhmes- 
halle 8-12 and 2-7; Palace at 11, exc. Sun.; Anatomical & Pathological 
Collections 12-2; Bronze Foundry 1-6, Sun. 12-2; Rathaus 2-3, Sun. 10-12; 
Schack's Gallery 2-5, Sun. 10 12. 

Sundays : Military and Church Music, see p. 194. New Pinakothek and 
porcelain-paintings 9-2. Cabinet of Drawings and Engravings 10-12. Mili- 
tary Museum 10-1. City of Munich Museum, Maillinger Collection, and 
Collection of Models 9-1. Ethnographical Museum 9-1. Cabinet of Vases 
10-1. Mineralogical and Paleeontological Collections 10-12. — Mondays : 
Glyptothek 9-2. Treasury and Reiche Kapelle 9-11. Cabinet of Drawings 
and Engravings 9-1. Cabinet of Vases 9-1. Schwanthaler Museum 9-2. 
Hof-Theater (interior) 2. Plaster Caste 2-5. — Tuesdays : New Pinakothek 
and porcelain-paintings 9-4. Antiquarium 9-1. Observatory 8-11 and 2-5. 
Military Museum 9.30*12.80 & 2.30-5, Cabinet of Vases 9-1, Cabinet of 

198 Route 33. MUNICH. History. 

Drawings and Engravings 9-1. Munich Museum, Maillinger Collection, 
and Collection of Models 9-1. Lotzbeck Collection 9-3. — Wednesdays : 
Glyptothek 9-2. Ethnograph. Museum 9-1. Schwanthaler Museum 9-2. 
Treasury 9-11. Maximilianeum 10-12. Hof- Theater (interior) 2. Mineralog. 
and Palreont. Collections 2-4. Plaster Casts 2-5. Military music in the 
Hof-Garten b-6. — Thubsdats: New Pinakothek and porcelain-paintings 
94. Reiche Kapelle 9-11. Cabinet of Drawings and Engravings 9-1. 
Antiquarium 9-1. Cab. of Vases 9-1. Munich Museum, Maillinger Col- 
lection, and Collection of Models 9-1. — Fridays: Glyptothek 9-2. Ob- 
servatory 8-11 and 2-5. Treasury 9-11. Military Museum 9.30-12.30 & 
2.30 5. Cabinet of Vases 9-1. Drawings and Engravings 9-1. Schwan- 
thaler Museum 9-2. Lotzbeck Collection 9-3. — Saturdays: Old Pina- 
kothek closed. New Pinakothek and porcelain-paintings 9-4. Antiquarium 
9-1. Maximilianeum 10-12. Hof-Theater (interior) 2. Mineralog. and 
Paleeont. Collections 2-4. Military Music, at the Chinese Tower in the 
Engl. Garden 5-6. — A ""Drive (cabs see p. 193) in the English Garden 
(p. 254) or in the Gasteig Grounds (p. 216) is recommended after a morn- 
ing of sight -seeing; also excursions by the Isartal railway (p. 275) or 
on the Starnberger-See (p. 256). 

Greatest Attractions: Old Pinakothek (p. 218), New Pinakothek 
(p. 233), National Museum (p. 205), Basilica (p. 248), Palace (p. 200), Glypto- 
thek (p. 240), Schack Gallery (p. 245). 

English Church Service at No. 2, Von-der-Tann-Strasse (Sun. 11 a.m. A 
6 p.m.) ; chaplain, Rev. W. J. 8. Emery , M. A., Akademie-Str. 1 (4th floor). 

— American Church, Theatiner-Str. 23, opposite the Royal Palace (Sun. 11 
a.m. and 5 p.m.); chaplain, Rev. J. H. McOrackan M. A., 28 Gisela-Str. 

— Wesleycm Church, Muller-Str. 33. 

British Minister Resident : F.L. Cartwight, Esq., C.V.O., Barer-Str. 15, 
11-2; Consul, Lucien Buchmaim, Esq., Barer-Str. 14, 11-1. — American 
Consul- General: William F. Wright, Esq. 

Munich (1703 ft.), the capital of Bavaria and the residence of 
the Bavarian court, with 540,000 inhab., lies on the S. side of a 
sterile plain, chiefly on the left hank of the Jsar, which emerges 
from a narrow gorge (10 M. long) about 4^/2 M. above the city. The 
largest city in the German Empire hut two, it is the headquarters 
of the 1st Bavarian army-corps, the seat of a university and a tech- 
nical college, and one of the chief centres of art in Germany. The 
lofty situation of the city and its proximity to the Alps render it 
liable to sudden changes of temperature, against which visitors 
should be on their guard, especially towards evening. The high 
mountains, about 25 M. to the S. of the city, become very distinct 
after a thunder-storm or on the approach of bad weather. 

History. Munich was founded by Henry the Lion, who constructed a 
bridge over the Isar, a custom-house, a mint, and a salt-depot on the site of 
the present city in 1158. The land is said to have belonged to the monks 
of Schaftlarn or Tegernsee, whence the name of Forum ad Monachos, Muniha, 
or Munich. Under the Wittelsbach princes the town prospered. Otho the 
Illustrious (1231-53) transferred his residence to Munich, and his son Lewis 
the Severe (1253-94) built the Alte Hof (p. 215). Emp. Louis the Bavarian 
(1294-1347) almost entirely re-erected the city, which was loyally attached 
to him, after a fire in 1327 (his tomb in the Frauen-Eirche, see p. 251). Duke 
Albert V. (1550-79) founded the Library and the Kunstkammer, to which the 
Antiquarium, cabinet of coins, and part of the National Museum owe their 
origin. Elector Maximilian I. (1597-1651) erected the Arsenal and the Old 
Palace. Elector Maximilian III. Joseph (1745-77) founded the Academy 
(p. 251) in 1759, and his successor Charles Theodore of the Palatinate 
(1777-99) removed the old fortifications. King Maximilian I. Joseph (1799- 
482$) contributed materially to the improvement of the city by the dipso- 

History of Art. MUNICH. 33. Route. 199 

lution of the religious houses and the erection of new buildings, but for 
its modern magnificence Munich is chiefly indebted to his son Louis I. 
(1825-48; d. 1868), who built the Glyptothek and the Old and New Pina- 
kotheks and raised the city to the foremost rank as a school of German art. 
The twin tendencies of the age found expression here also; the 'classi- 
cist* school is represented in the secular buildings of Leo von Klenze 
(1784-1864), for which the indefatiguable L. von Schwanthaler (1802-48) 
provided the plastic embellishment, while the influence of the romantic 
school produced the modern-Romanesque and Gothic churches by Gartner, 
Ohlmilller, and Ziebland. The Maximilian-Strasse, with the National- 
Museam and with the M-eximilianeum filling in the vista at the end, was 
laid out by Max II. (1848-64) as a pendant to the Ludwig-Strasse. Louis II. 
(1864-86) displayed his love of art, so far as architecture was concerned, 
mainly in the building and embellishment of royal palaces (pp. 266, 274. 
284). In consequence of the rapid growth of the town, the reign or 
Prince-Regent Luitpold (since 1886) has coincided with a fresh architec- 
tural impulse, which has displayed a certain homogeneity of character 
and a harmonious adaptation of the new structures to the existing conditions 
such as has probably never been excelled in any city. The majority of 
the new buildings are elaborate structures in a style developed from 
Renaissance and baroque models; others display a development of Roman- 
esque, Gothic, or classic forms; while a third group betrays the en- 
deavour to take into account modern requirements and materials in modern 
forms and decoration. Among the best-known architects are G. Neureuther 
(d. 1887; Technical College, Academy of Fine Art); G. Hauberriuer (Rat- 
nans ; St. Pauls Church) ; Fr. Thiersch (Palace of Justice); H. von Schmidt 
(St. Maximilians Church); Gabr. Seidl (National Museum; Kiinstlerhaua ; 
St. Anna's Church); Em. Seidl (Augustiner Ausschank; Palais Matuschka, 
Brienner Str. 46); Horheder (Miillersches Volksbad ; School, Bavaria-Bine 40) ; 
Littmann (Prince Begent Theatre; Hofbrauhaus; Schau?pielhau»); DUlfer 
(Kaim-Sale; Of Aces of the Allgemeine Zeitung, Bayer-Str. 57); GrUttel 
(Cemeteries of Schwabing and Giesing; Orphanage at the Griinwald Park); 
Th. Fitcher (Schools and Church of the Bedeemer at Schwabing; Bismarck 
Column on the Starnberger-See). 

In the domain of Painting Munich has seen, perhaps more markedly 
than any other art-centre, the most diverse tendencies in German art 
expressing themselves side by side. The masters of the 'classic' period 
{Peter von Cornelius, Buonaventura GeneW, Karl Rottmann. the landscape- 
painter), who cheerfully neglected all the technical achievements of the 
past, and (he k Na« a rones'*, who were characters' ically represented at Munich 
for a brief period only, by L. Schnorr von Car oh/eld, were succeeded by 
the school of W. von Kaulbach (1805-74), who«e clever art long enjoyed an 
undeserved reputation. Moritz von Schwind (1804-71; b. at Vienna), who 
drew his inspiration from popular tales, was a genuine German painter. 
Historical painting, introduced into Germany from Belgium only in 1842, 
found one of its most influential champions in Karl von Piloty (1826-86), 
for many years the head of the Munich School, which fixed its attention 
on the lost art of colouring, ba«ed on the study of the old masters. At 
the same time Munich rivalled D'usseldorf in the development of genre- 
paintings. The best-known masters of this period are W. Diet (b. 1839), 
the painter of 'historical genre scenes ; Franz Defregger (b. 1835), the creator 
of idealized scenes of peasant-life; GriUzner. whose works display a marked 
'literary' interest; and Gabriel Max (b. 1840 in Prague), noted for his in- 
clination towards mysticism. The celebrated portrait -painter Franz von 
Lenbach (1886-1904) elaborated a scheme of colouring of his own, from the 
study of Titian, Bembrandt, and Velazquez. The stern realist W. Leibl 
(1844-1900) occupies a place by himself. The modern tendency, introduced 
into Munich from Paris by Fritz von Uhde (b. 1848), which lay9 special 
stress upon technical perfection while recognizing the full individual liberty 
of each artist, found eager support in the 'Secession' at Munich in 1892; 
the artists' colony at Dachau (p. 184) owes its existence to the preference 
for landscape. Among the numerous younger artists we may note Ludwig 
DUl (b. 1848; now in Carlsruhe), the landscape-painter; H. ZUgel (b. 1860) 

200 Route 33. MUNICH. Alte Residenz. 

and Vlkt. Weishaupt (1848-1905), the animal-painters*, Count Leopold von 
Kalckreuih (b. 1866 ; now in Stuttgart); Julius Exter (b. 1863)-, and the 
'modern idealist' Franz Stuck (b. 1863), who is also a sculptor. 

Industrial Abt at Munich, after adopting the various historical styles 
in turn, has struck out a line for it itself; its aim now i* the creation of 
a German home, founded on the practical and aesthetic requirements of the 
present. Comp. the 'United Studios for Artistic Handiwork 1 (Vereinigte 
Werkstatten fdr Kunst im Handwerk) and their circle: Riemerschmid, 
Pankok, Bruno Paul, W. von Beckerath, Obritt, and others. 

a. N.E. Quarters of the City. Boyal Palace. National Museum. 
Ludwig-Strasse. Maximilian-Strasse. 

The Max-Joseph-Platz (PI. E, 4), the centre of the city and 
its traffic, situated between the old quarters and the new, is adorned 
with the "Monument of King Max Joseph (d. 1825), modelled by 
Ranch of Berlin (1835). The colossal statue in a sitting posture 
rests on a pedestal adorned with reliefs emblematical of Agriculture, 
Art, the Constitution, and Religious Toleration. 

The N. side of the Max-Joseph-Platz is bounded by the Boyal 
Palace (PI. E, F, 4), which consists of three parts : on the S. side 
towards the Platz the Konigsbau , N. towards the Hof-Garten the 
FestsaaVbau, and between these the Alte Residenz, or old palace, 
facing the Residenz-Str. 

The Alte Besidenz, built by Hans Reifenstuel in 1596-1619, 
under Elector Maximilian I., comprises four courts, Eaiserhof, 
Kuchenhof, Brunnenhof, and Kapellenhof (i. e. courts of the em- 
peror, kitchen, fountain, and chapel). The simple facade is embel- 
lished with two handsome bronze doors and a bronze statue of the 
Virgin by Hans Krumper. By the door to the right we enter the 
Kapellenhof. The passage thence to the Brunnenhof contains l Duke 
Christopher's Stone' (an inscription on the wall). A staircase to the 
left ascends to the Hercules Saloon , where visitors to the palace 
assemble at 11 o'clock sharp (the visit takes 1 hr. ; comp. p. 197). 
To the right of the Kapellenhof is the Grottenhof, with a small 
garden and a fantastic shell-grotto ; in the centre a bronze Perseus, 
after B. Cellini. From tbe S.E. corner a passage leads to a larger 
court, with fountain-figures of Neptune, etc. , from which the Nibe- 
lungen Saloons in the Konigsbau are entered (p. 202). The Brun- 
nenhof, to the E. of the Kapellenhof, is embellished by a fountain 
with a statue of Otho of Wittelsbach and other figures in bronze by 
P. Candid. The Allerheiligen-Kirche (p. 203) adjoins this court 
on the E. ; to the S. a passage leads to the Hof-Theater (p. 203). 

The apartments of the Alte Residenz are sumptuously fitted up 
in 17th cent, style. Visitors are first conducted to the Kaiserzimmer 
or Rbichen Zimmeb, which include the Ante-Room, with a portrait 
of King Louis II. by Piloty ; the Audience Chamber, with twelve 
Roman emperors by an unknown Venetian painter; the Throne 
Room, occupied in 1809 by Napoleon I. ; the Oreen Gallery, con- 
taining Italian and Dutch pictures of little value; the Bed Chamber, 

Alte Resident. 


33. Route. 201 

with a richly-gilded bed ; the Mirror Cabinet, with valuable crystal ; 
the Miniature Cabinet, with miniatures. — The Tbeerzimmeb (for 
royal guests) and the Papstzimmee, occupied in 1782 by Pope 
Pius VI., with furniture, tapestry, etc., of the 17th and 18th cent., 
are now usually shown after the visit to the Festsaalbau (see below). 
The *Treasnry (admission, see p. 197) contains jewels and precious 
trinkets, including the Bavarian 'Hausdiamanf, a magnificent blue dia- 
mond, and the 'pearl of the Palatinate 1 , half black ; goblets, orders, regalia, 
including the Bohemian crown of Frederick V. of the Palatinate, captured 

at Prague in 1620, and the crowns of Emp. Henry II. (Hhe Saint') and his 
wife Kunigunde, of the year 1010 \ group of St. George and the Dragon, 
with the knight in chased gold, the dragon of jasper, and the whole 
adorned with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and pearls \ model of Trajan's 
Column, executed by the goldsmith Valadier (1763-83}$ violin of tortoise-shell. 
The *Beiehe Kapelle (adm., see p. 197) contains costly objects in gold 
and silver, many of them of high artistic worth; the enamelled pocket- 
altar of Mary, Queen of Scots, about 6 in. in length, a Descent from the 
Gross in wax by Michael Angelo (?), etc. 

The* Festsaalbau (facade towards the Hof-Garten, 255 yds. long), 
a 'building of festive halls', erected in 1832-42 by Klenze in the 
later Italian Renaissance style , possesses a handsome porch of 10 
Ionic columns, surmounted by two lions, between which are 8 alle- 
gorical figures in marble-limestone by Schwanthaler , representing 
the different provinces of the kingdom. The six saloons of the 

202 Route 33. MUNICH. FesUaalbau, 

groundfloor are decorated with encaustic Mural Paintings from 
the Odyssey, by Hiltensperger, from designs by ScktoanthaUr (closed 
at present; see p. 197). 

A broad marble staircase ascends to the first floor from the 
passage on the E. side of the Kiichenhof. Visitors, however, are 
usually conducted from the Hercules Saloon to the ante-chambers 
by a long corridor. 

Staibcase, with six handsome columns of marble from the Untersberg. 
Ante-Chamber, with reliefs by Schwanthaler ; 2nd ante-chamber decorated 
in the Pompeian style by Biltensperger. — Ball Room, with galleries 
supported by Ionic columns and bearing Caryatides of papier-mache' by 
Fleischmann of Nuremberg ; coloured reliefs (dancing amazons and bac- 
chantes) by Schwanthaler. Two Cabd Rooms with thirty-six • Portraits of 
Beautiful Women by Stieler. — Banquet Hall or Battle Saloon : Fourteen 
large pictures representing scenes from the wars in 1805-15. — *Hall 
of Chablemagne, with six large encaustic paintings (mural paintings 
on wax ground) designed by Schnorr. Charlemagne anointed by Pope 
Stephen II. as Defender of the Church ; Charlemagne entering Pavia after 
his victory over the Lombard king Desiderius ; victory over the Saxons ; felling 
of the sacred oak, and erection of the cross ; synod at Frankfort ; coronation ; 
also twelve smaller scenes from the emperor's life. Between the windows : 
Alcuin, Arno, and Eginhard. — *Babbabossa Hall, with six mural paint- 
ings by the same masters : election as emperor, entry into Milan, reconcilia- 
tion with Pope Alexander III. at Venice, imperial festival at Mayence, 
battle at Iconium, death. Reliefs above by Schwanthaler. — *Hapsbubg 
Saloon, with four paintings, mainly by Schnorr: Rudolph's meeting with 
the priest; his acceptance of the imperial sceptre; victory over Ottocar of 
Bohemia on the tfarchfeld; Rhenish robber-knights summoned before his 
tribunal. Frieze by Schwind, groups of children representing the Triumph 
of the Arts, etc. — *Thbone Saloon. Twelve gilded bronze statues, over 
life-size, by Schwanthaler, of the ancestors of the House of Wittelsbach, 
from Otho the Illustrious to Charles XII. of Sweden. 

The Konigsbau (facade towards the Max-Joseph-Platz , 136 
yds. long'), erected in 1826-35 by Klenze in imitation of the Pitti 
Palace at Florence, is adorned in the interior with sculptures, 
frescoes, and other works of art (not accessible). 

The S.W. apartments on the groundfloor (entered from the Grotten- 
hof, p. 200) are adorned with the magnificent *Nibelun gen Frescoes 
by Schnorr, begun in 1861 . Five saloons with nineteen large pain- 
tings ; in the lunettes, numerous smaller paintings. 

Entrance Hall : the principal persons of the poem, right, Siegfried and 
Chriemhild ; then Hagen, Volker, Dankwart ; above , the dwarf Alberich, 
keeper of the tfibelungen treasure, and Eckewart, Chriemhild's messenger ; 
left, Gunther and Brunhild ; Queen Ute (Gunther's mother) with her sons 
Gemot and Giselher \ Siegmund and Siegelinde , Siegfried's parents \ next, 
KingAttila and Rudiger, Dietrich of Bern and Meister Hildebrand. Habbiagb 
Hall : Siegfried's return from the war against the Saxons ; Brunhild's arrival 
at Worms ; Siegfried and Chriemhild's nuptials ; opposite, by the window, 
the delivery of the girdle. Hall op Tbeacheby : (by the window) quarrel 
of the queens Chriemhild and Brunhild in front of the cathedral at Worms. 
Siegfried murdered by Hagen at the well ; Chriemhild finds Siegfried's corpse 
at the door of the cathedral: Hagen proved to be the murderer by the 
corpse beginning to bleed afresh. Over the door: Hagen throwing the 
Nibelungen treasure into the Rhine. Hall of Revenge: Fall of the 
heroes (by the window) ; Chriemhild expostulates with Volker and Hagen ; 
combat on the staircase of the burning palace; Dietrich conquers Hagen; 
Chriemhild's death. Over the doors : the last combat of the heroes ; Hagep 

Allerh.-Hofkirche. MUNICH. 33. Route. 203 

brought before Chriemhild by Dietrich •, Attila's lament. Hall of Mourning : 
Burial of the fallen heroes ; the sad tidings conveyed to Burgundy ; Bishop 
Pi 1 gram of Passau causes mass to be sung for the repose of the dead (by 
Bchnorr's pupils). 

The Hof-und-National-Theater (PL F, 4* performances, see 
p. 194), on the E. side of the Max-Joseph-Platz, one of the largest 
in Germany, accommodating 2200 spectators, was erected by Fischer 
(d. 1822) in 1818, but was bnrned down in 1823 and re-erected in 
its original form by Klenze within eleven months. Handsome portico 
of eight Corinthian columns. The pedimental frescoes designed by 
Schwanthaler (Pegasus and the Horse, Apollo and the Muses) were 
replaced in 1894 by glass mosaics. The interior deserves a visit 
(which takes an hour; adm., see p. 196); fine view of the Alps from 
the roof. « — Between the Hof-Theater and the Allerheiligen-Kirche 
is the Eesidenz-Theater, built in 1752-60 and restored in 1857, 
richly decorated in the rococo style (room for 800 spectators). 

The *AUerheiligen-Hofkirche (All Saints' Church), or Court 
Chapel (adm., see p. 197 ; music, see p. 194), on the E. side of the pal- 
ace, erected in 1826-37 by Klenze in the Byzantine-Romanesque 
style, with details borrowed from St. Mark's at Venice and the 
Cappella Palatina at Palermo, is sumptuously fitted up. The arches - 
rest on columns of variegated marble with gilded capitals, the walls 
are covered with different coloured marbles ; and the vaulting, win- . 
dow-arches, and choir are adorned with frescoes on a gold ground by 
Hess, Schraudolph, and Koch. The concealment of the windows 
causes the light to enter in a very effective manner. 

At the back of the Alte Residenz , in the Marstall-Platz, are 
the Royal Coach Houses and Harness Booms (Hofwagenburg, 
Geschirr- und Sattel-Kammer; PL F, 4; adm., see p. 196), con- 
taining an extensive collection of vehicles belonging to the rulers 
of Bavaria in the l7-19th centuries. Among the most noteworthy 
objects are the *State Coaches and Sleighs of Elector Max Emma- 
nuel and of King Louis II. On the upper floor are saddles, trap- 
pings, harness, etc. 

Adjoining the Festsaalbau on the N. is the Hof-Garten (PL E, 
F, 3, 4), or palace-garden, laid out in 1614, a square planted with 
trees, and bounded on two sides by open Arcades, which are adorn- 
ed with frescoes of landscapes and historical subjects, painted in 

By the entrances next to the Palace are three frescoes by Kaulbach, 
representing Bavaria and the rivers Danube, Rhine, Isar, and Main. The 
historical frescoes on the W. side, of events from the history of Bavaria, 
were executed by pupils of Cornelius (most of them restored); beyond 
them are landscapes from Italy and Sicily (now much faded) by Karl 
Rottmann (p. 199). Each scene has its name annexed. The distichs above 
the pictures are by King Louis I. On the N. side, at the top, are thirty- 
nine small encaustic paintings from the Greek War of Independence, 
from sketches by P. Hess. — In the seven niches at the N.E. end are the 
labours of Hercules in colossal wooden groups, executed by R. Boos (1730- 
1810) and restored in 1852. — In the middle of the Hof-Garten is the 
Diana Temple, restored in 1896-97. 

204 Route 33. MUNICH. Military Museum. 

The groundfloor of the N. wing contains the Museum of Plaster 
Casts of classic sculptures (adm., see p. 197), affording a good survey 
of the development of the plastic art of antiquity. Director, Prof. 
Furtwangler. Catalogue 40 pf. — The extensive Ethnographical 
Museum occupies seven rooms on the upper floor (adm., seep. 196). 
Conservator, Dr. Buchner. Catalogue 50 pf. — Opposite, to the 
right of the exit, is the Art Union, or Kunstverein (PL F, 3 ; en- 
trance in the Arcades; adm., see p. 196), containing paintings 
and sculptures by living artists, some of them the property of the 
society, others for sale. 

On the E. side of the Hof-Garten rises the 'Bavarian Military 
Museum, an Italian Renaissance building by Mellinger, erected in 
1901-05. It contains also the Military Archives and the Military 
Library. In front of the building are a number of cannon and mor- 
tars, several of them with elaborate ornamentation. Adm., see 
p. 196 ; catalogue 50 pf. (on loan, 10 pf.). 

In the Vestibule are eight statues of Bavarian rulers, and old cannon, 
incl. a so-called leather cannon (No. 7) used in the Thirty Years' War. 
Above the vestibule, on the first floor, is the fine Domed Hall, 105 ft. 
high, which is adorned with captured flags, the flags of now disbanded 
regiments, etc. We return to the vestibule and on the right enter — 

Rooms I- VI , containing the Early Collections (1500-1806). — Room I. 
Weapons of the end of the 15th cent., incl. the first muskets (match-locks; 
Nos. 155-167). — Room II shows the equipment of the mercenary soldier 
(Landsknecht) of the 16th century. Besides the traditional cutting and 
thrusting weapons (incl. two particularly finely worked parade-halberds, 
Nos. 149 & 16a) there is a large number of improved muskets (Nos. 13, 14) 
and wheel-lock fire-arms (No. 5fc). — Room III illustrates the period of the 
Thirty Years' War. Nos. 25, 26. Armour of Pappenheim's cuirassiers; 
417. Standard of a cavalry-squadron of 1661-64. — Room IV illustrates 
the period of Elector Max Emmanuel (1679-1726), which was important 
for the Bavarian army on account of the Turkish wars, in which the 
audience-tent of Grand-Vizier Suleyman (No. 189) was captured, and the 
war of the Spanish Succession. — Rooms V & VI. Objects of the 18th 
century. — We traverse the vestibule and enter — 

Rooms VII-X1V, containing the Modem Collections (1806-1S06).— Room VII. 
Memorials of the wars of 1£05-12. — Room VIII. Period of King Max I. 
Joseph (1813-25). — Rooms IX <fc X. Period of Louis I. (1825-48), when 
percussion-caps (Nos. 75 , 83) superseded flint-locks. — Room XI. Period 
of MaximilL n II. (1848-64) and the first years of the reign of King Louis II., 
when rifled barrels (Nos. 31-35) and the first breech-loaders (137. Werder rifle) 
were introduced. — Room XII. Memorials of the Franco-German war of 
1870-71. No. 90. The first mitrailleuse captured at Worth. — Rooms XILI 
& XIV. Period from 1871 to 1906. To the left in the corner of R. XIV., 
54. Captured Chinese weapons. — From the vestibule we turn to the right 
into the lower story. 

Lowest Floob. The vestibule contains cannons. To the right, in the 
N. wing, is the Artillery Museum; to the left, in the S. wing, are the Col- 
lections in Special Branches (models, experimental weapons, etc.). 

From this point the Pbinz-Regenten-Stbassb (PI. F, G, H, 3, 4) 
leads to the N.E. to the Luitpold-Brucke (PI. H, 4), skirting the S. 
margin of the English Garden (p. 254) and passing the Bavarian 
National Museum (left; p. 205). The bridge has been rebuilt 
since its destruction by a flood in 1899. On the right bank of the 
Isar are gardens with a pretty fountain, whence flights of steps and 

d by Google 

National Museum. MUNICH. 33. Route. 205 

inclined driveways ascend to the Feaee Monument, a column with 
the Genius of Peace, by Petzold, DulL and Heilmaier, erected in 
1898 to commemorate the peace of 1871. The Prinz-Regenten- 
Strasse is continued, passing the Villa Stuck (r.), to the Prinz- 
Regenten-Theater (PL I, 4; p. 194), erected in 1901. 

The "Bavarian National Museum (PI. G, 3 ; adm., see p. 196), 
founded by King Max II. in 1855 and formerly exhibited in the 
Maximilian-Str., was transferred in 1900 to an extensive building 
in the Prinz-Regenten-Str., erected in 1894 et seq. from the de- 
signs of Gabriel Seidl. The exterior, by a skilful blending of forms 
characteristic of the various styles or stages in the development of 
German architecture, suggests the scope and nature of the museum. 
The interior also has been skilfully adapted to the nature of the 
collections. In the historical section each room reflects in its fit- 
ting up the period to which its contents belong, while the special 
collections ('Fachsammlungen') of objects of industrial art are ex- 
hibited in well-lighted rooms in a modern style. The various original 
ceilings, from many different centuries, deserve special attention. 

The 48 rooms of the Ground Floob contain chronologically arranged 
collections of works of art from prehistoric times to the present day, 
representing Germany, with special reference to Bavaria. On the Fibst 
Floor (34 rooms) are the special collections. In a large room on the 
Second Floob is the Collection of l Cricket' or i Presepes" (i.e. representa- 
tions of the Infant Christ in the manger). On the left side of the Base- 
ment are the Torture Room, the Leaden Coffins from the Laningen 
Vault (p. 158), the Collection of Carriages, and Peasant Interiors of the Olden 
Time. To the right is a Buffet. The books of the extensive Library of 
Technical Works and the plates of the graphic collections are shown to 
students and artists on application in the Reading and Copying Rooms on 
the first floor. The Coubts to the right of the vestibule contain, inter- 
spersed among the flower-beds, Roman, early-Christian, and mediaeval 
sculptures and architectural fragments, including the so-called Huns' 
Column of Miltenberg (1st court). In the courts to the left are works of 
the Renaissance, including a fine colossal *Bronze Group by Hubert Gerhard 
(ca. 1590). The court in front of the baroque chapel (No. 82 on the plan 
of the groundfloor) contains rococo works. — The present director of the 
National Maseum is Dr. H. Graf. Guide, 50 pf. (1905). — The briefest visit 
to the whole museum takes three hours. Those who are pressed for time 
should confine themselves to the groundfloor. 

Ground Floob: Historic Collection of Industrial Art. 
From the vestibule we enter a hall containing several sepulchral 
monuments. To the left is the stone monument of a Count of Hag 
(d. 1566), with a recumbent figure. Adjacent is the tombstone of 
Orlando di Lasso (1595), the composer (p. 249). 

Room 1 (right) contains the Prehistoric Antiquities, chiefly 
from tumuli in different parts of Franconia. Weapons, utensils, and 
ornaments of the flint age (before 1400 B. C), the older and later 
bronze periods (ca. 1400-90 J B.C.) , the earlier iron period (ca. 
900-400 B.C.), and the later iron period (from ca. 400 B. C. to the 
Roman period; Celtic antiquities). To the right, in Case 7, are a 
bronze helmet and the so-called 'Golden Hat' of Schifferstadt. In 
Table Case 9 is a chronologically arranged series of buckles and 

206 Route 33. MUNICH. National Museum. 

clasps (fibula). — Room 2, separated by a row of columns from R. 1, 
contains Roman Antiquities, including altars, milestones, tomb- 
stones, tiles, vases, utensils, and ornaments. In the middle are a 
large 'Mosaic Pavement from Westerhofen, near Ingolstadt, an altar 
from Rheinzabern, and a forge, with its tools, from Griinwald near 

Rooms 3-19 contain Works ofMedleval Art, from the early- 
Christian period to the beginning of the 16th century. R. 3: Ob- 
jects of the Merovingian period (6-8th cent. A. D.), including 
the antiquities of Wittislingen and an ivory carving (central case) 
of the Resurrection and Ascension (6th cent.). The stained-glass 
windows are from the Minorite church of Ratisbon (ca. 1400; 
others in RR. 4 & 5). — RR. 4& 5. Small Romanesque works of art 
and sculptures. Among the ecclesiastical objects (crosses, book- 
covers, aquamaniles, goblets) in the glass cases in R. 4 may be 
specified the enamelled work on metal (12-13th cent.) and the 
jewel-box of St. Kunigunde (from Bamberg cathedral) in the 2nd 
case, and the embroidered dalmatic of Emp. Henry IL (d. 1024) in 
the 4th case. Some late- Byzantine and Russian works are added 
for comparison. The most noteworthy of the Romanesque sculptures 
in R. 5 are the stone carvings from Wessobrunn (ca. 1250; main 
wall), the wooden crucifixes above, the cast of the Crucifixion group 
in Wechselburg (in the niche), and the Madonnas with donors of 
the 13th cent, (in the arcade, to the left of the entrance). From 
the apse we enter — 

Room 6*, with the earliest specimens of painting (12-14th cent.) 
These include miniatures from missals and antiphonies and panel 
paintings in the style of book-illuminations. Tempera painting is 
illustrated by an altar-piece from Rosenheim (to the left. No. 3), 
the earliest Bavarian panel-painting (beginning of the 14th cent.), 
and by various reliquary- altars in the lower Rhenish style (ca. 1350). 
No. 6 is a mural painting from the monastery of Rebdorf near Etch- 
statt (ca. 1285-1300). — Room 7. Sculptures and four panel-paint- 
ings of the time of Emp. Louis the Bavarian (1314-47). Through 
an ante-room (No. 7a) we reach — 

Rooms 5-79, devoted to the Gothic section of the Museum. 
Room 8 contains paintings and sculptures from about 1350 to 1460. 
To the left, 1. Large triple altar from the old Franciscan church at 
Bamberg (perhaps by Meister Berthold of Nuremberg; 1429); 15. 
Winged altar from Pahl near Weilheim, a tempera (ca. 1380-1420) ; 
19. Votive picture dedicated by Gerhaus Ferin, a nun of Bamberg 
(1443) ; 14. Figures of the twelve Apostles in oak from Lfibeck (15th 
cent.), originally coloured. In the table-case, early- Gothic carvings. 
Stained glass from Seligenthal , near Landshut (ca. 1300). In the 
middle, St. George, a carved wooden figure from Nuremberg 
(14th cent.) ; 20. Riohly carved domestic altar. — Room 9. Ceiling 
and panelling from the old Weavers' Hall at Augsburg (1457); bridal 

National Museum. MUNICH. 33. Route. 207 

coffers, cabinets, late - Gothic carvings in wood and alabaster; 
stained glass of 1472. — Room 10. Rich Gothic ceiling in lime-wood 
from the castle of Oberhaus nearPassau; to the left, tapestry of 
1500 (St. Lawrence); tester bedstead of 1470; sculptures, carved 
furniture, pictures, and stained glass from the end of the 15th and 
the beginning of the 16th century. — Room 11, with a vaulted 
Gothic timber ceiling, contains similar objects ; also various wood- 
carvings and paintings of the Madonna and the Circumcision 
(Nos. 10 & 11, by the exit) by Fr. Herlin (p. 157). — - Room 12. 
Staircase and gallery from Alt-Otting (15th cent.); altar of the 
Virgin from Weissenburg (15th cent.); model (No. 7, by the 
window) of the intended tomb of Duke Louis the Bearded of 
Ingolstadt (d. 1447) ; collection of Gothic caskets in wood. — 
Room 13. On the N. and S. walls are six paintings of scenes from 
the lives of SS. Peter and Paul, from Upper Bavaria (beginning of 
the 16th cent.) ; laTge piece of Flemish tapestry representing the 
Nativity and the Adoration of the Magi (ca. 1500); coffers, models, 
carvings ; in the gla?s-case, Gothic miniatures from missals and a 
calendar. Stained glass from Upper Bavaria (1462). — Room 14, 
with 14 ancestral portraits (ca. 1470), mural paintings from the 
Alte Hof (p. 215), and wood-carvings. — Room 15 ('Kirchensaal', 
in eight sections). In the elevated vestibule : to the left, man with 
a scythe for striking the hours, from the convent of Heilsbronn 
(1513) ; tombs, banners, crucifix of 1520. Sec. 1 (r.) : Gothic church- 
vessels of metal (15th cent.). Sec. 2 (opposite) : Altar-piece (No. 3) 
by Wohlgemut(?) and reliquaries in the shape of busts. Sec. 3 & 4: 
Monuments of 1458 and 1452 and a 'Palmesel' (wooden ass used on 
Palm Sunday; early 16th cent.). Sec. 7 &8 : Tomb of Bp. Simpertfrom 
St. Ulrich's at Augsburg; church-benches of 1513 with procession- 
poles of the Fishermen's Guild of Ingolstadt (1509); in Sec. 7 
(4th to the right), above the altar (No. 18), wooden figure of 
St.Willibald, from Eichstatt; opposite, winged altar (No. 19) from 
Tramin, with paintings of the school of Michael Pacher (ca. 1500). 
In the apse, high-altar from the former Franciscan church at Munich 
(1492 ; perhaps by H. Olmendorf). — To the right is Room 16, 
containing the Twelve Apostles (Wurzburg; 1490; right), a winged 
altar from Gerolzhofen (p. 100; 1515; No. 2, on the left), coloured, 
and other wood-carvings by Tilman Riemen Schneider of Wurzburg 
(p. 94). — Room 17. To the left, fine Gothic gate; winged altar 
carved in oak, from Calcar (ca. 1520; No. 3, to the left of the exit) ; 
works in leather (Cases 8 and 8a) ; painting of the Madonna on silk 
(end of the 15th cent ) and two small works by Hans Memling 
(1495; Wall-Case 11, by the window to the right of the exit). — 
'Room 18. No. 1 (to the left of the entrance) , Death of the Virgin, 
group in carved wood from Ingolstadt (ca. 1500) ; fine Gothic gold- 
smith's work (case by the window); carvings in mother-of-pearl (No.7, 
adjacent). Here and in Room 1 9, Franconian sculptures and paintings. 

208 Route 33. MUNICH. National Museum. 

*Boom 20 (Hall of Armour). To the left of the entrance, 15. 
Small breech-loading cannon that belonged to Gustavus Adolphns ; 
to the right, 3, 4. Models of tournament and field armour. By the 
-wall, halberds; in the glass-case at the window, ornamented 
dagger-sheaths and gun-locks. By the central pillar, two suits of 
armour for man and horse, the gilded suit by the armourer Pic- 
cinino of Milan (ca. 1600). Above, targes (cavalry shields with a 
hole for the lance), cross-bows, and saddles. On the N. wall, ar- 
mour of 1470-1640, beginning on the right with a Gothic suit and 
including a fluted suit of the kind known as 'Maximilian' armour. 
In front of the N. wall, (r.) blunderbusses and (1.) case with swords 
(1460-1660). By the exit-wall, two-handed swords (1680-1660) 
and muskets (No. 21). On the left wall, powder-horns and pieces of 
armour. Case 1 9 contains Swiss swords and Italian and Spanish dress- 
rapiers ; above are helmets. In and behind Case 6 are portions of armour 
and cross-bows j in and above Case 1 are armour, helmets, shields, 
and quivers. On the upper part of the walls, weapons, hatchments, 
and banners. — Room 27, with the collection of arms and armour 
from the old Munich Arsenal. Models of cannon, prepared in 1631 for 
Gustavus Adolphns. To the right, in Case 8, state sword of Elector 
Maximilian I. ; to the left, in Case 12, dress-swords, sword worn by 
Napoleon at the battle of Ulm; in Case 11, presentation swords. 

Rooms 22-48 contain works of art of the Renaissance and Modern 
Times. The rooms are provided with original ceilings from chateaux 
and other Renaissance buildings at Dachau, Neuburg, Donau worth, 
and Nuremberg, and from the Frauen-Kirche and the Royal Palace 
at Munich. The walls are hung with tapestry from Brussels, 
Lauingen, Munich, and Paris. — Room 22, with gold-thread tapestry 
after Heemskerk and objects of the first half of the 16th century. To 
the left (No. 1) are two bronze statues by Peter Vischer (a kneeling 
man and a yeoman). The figure of a youth and the relief of Christ's 
meeting with Martha and Mary (1643; No. 2, by the staircase) are 
probably by his son, Hans Vischer. The glass-cases in the middle 
contain reliefs in wood representing the ten commandments (l r )24), 
draughtsmen with portrait-medallions, an inlaid chess-board, and 
other small works of art. No. 7. Winged altar by Wolf Traut (1514), 
from Artelshofen; behind it, 18. Pieta, predella in the style of M. 
Griinewald (1521). On the cornice is a Milanese coat-of-arms 
from the chateau of Oberhaus, near Passau. — *Room 23 (Italian 
Room). Ceiling and chimney-piece from N. Italy ; Italian fayence, 
fragments of mosaics, small sculptures; to the left of the entrance, 
bridal casket of Duchess Jacobaea of Bavaria (No. 5), with beautiful 
Italian intarsia ; carved chests and chairs. — Rooms 24-26. Works 
of the time of Count Palatine Otho Henry (1502-69). In R. 24: 
No. 1. Bedstead of Countess Palatine Susanna; 2. Table of Kelheim 
stone, elaborately engraved with portraits, arms, and perpetual calen- 
dar (1597); 3. Domestic altar, with carvings by G. Bockschutz (1561). 

National Museum. MUNICH. 33. Route. 209 

In Case 6, miniature portraits on copper, wax, mother-of-pearl, and 
stone. In R. 25 : carved furniture, inlaid work,- etchings on litho- 
graphic stone. Cases 9 & 10 contain knives, forks, and spoons from 
the Gothic period to the present day. In R. 26 (r.) : cabinets with 
intarsia and carvings. The Lauingen tapestry represents Otho Henry's 
pilgrimage to Jerusalem. — Room 27, adjoining, consists of a com- 
plete boudoir richly carved, of a Countess Fugger, from the chateau 
at Donauworth (1546). — From R. 26 we proceed into Room 2£, 
illustrating the period of Elector Maximilian I. (1697-1651). The 
gold-thread Brussels tapestry represents the planets. Carved furni- 
ture : 1 & 2. Cabinets of ivory, silver, enamel, and lapis lazuli, by 
Chr. Angermaier of Weilheim. Ivory carvings by Elector Maxi- 
milian I. (Case 22); ivory casket with portraits of the Elector and 
his sister Christina when children. Bedsteads and cabinets with 
carved and inlaid work; clocks, tables inlaid with metal and 
mother-of-pearl. The cases contain vessels of rock crystal set in 
gold and enamel; vessels in Limoges enamel, including eight by 
P. Reymond; an elaborate reliquary; the gold goblet of the Augs- 
burg Butchers' Guild (Case 21) and other plate ; a silver-gilt hammer 
designed for the use of Pope Julius III. at the opening of the Jubilee 
Festival of 1660. — Rooms 29 $30 (time of Elector Ferdinand Maria, 
1651-79). Gilded ceiling from the palace at Munich. In R. 29: 
cabinets inlaid with tortoise-shell and mother-of-pearl; large silver 
watches from Augsburg; Buhl furniture; fine bronzes by Giov. da 
Bologna and others; miniature - paintings ; to the right of the 
exit, portrait of Electress Adelheid (d. 1676), ascribed to Kneller. 
In R. 80 : bronze model of the statue of Louis XIV. by Desjardins 
(destroyed in 1792), placed on an inlaid table; carved furniture; 
works in amber and agate. — To the right is Room 31 (ante-chapel), 
with votive objects and pictures , 'Totenbretter' (p. 309) , etc. — 
Room 32 is a chapel in the baroque style, with rococo fittings, (1.) 
a large copy of Michael Angel o's Last Judgment by Mielich (d. 1573), 
and paintings by P. Candid (d. 1628), two court-painters of Munich. 
A flight of steps descends hence to the rococo court (p. 205). — We 
return to R. 30 whence we pass straight into Rooms 33 $ 3d 
(time of Max Emmanuel, 1679-1726), with utensils and furniture 
belonging to the Elector. In R. 34 (raised) are Oriental weapons, 
saddles, and a tent captured by Max Emmanuel at Belgrade (1688). 
— Room 35. Miniature-portraits on ivory, parchment, paper, copper, 
and enamel; crayon drawings. — * Rooms 36 #• 37 (time of Elector 
Charles Albert, 1726-45), with handsome rococo furniture and 
decorations from a Munich palace. In R. 36 are early Dresden and 
Nymphenburg porcelain and carvings in ivory. In R. 37 are paint- 
ings of Bavarian chateaux and of the state-galley Bucentaur; col- 
lection of intaglio -portraits of Bavarian rulers; Japanese and 
Chinese porcelain of the 15 - 18th centuries. — Room 38 (time of 
Elector Max Joseph III., 1746-77), with the old book-cases of the 
Baxdekeb's S. Germany. 10th Edit. 14 

210 Route S3. MUNICH. National Museum. 

Academy (1768) and a collection of old scientific instruments, con- 
tinned in Boom 39. — *Room 40. Rococo room from Landshut, with 
fans and chessmen. — Room 41. *Ivory carvings, several by El- 
hafen (ca. 1720) and Simon Troger (d. 1769). No. 1 on the window- 
side is the much admired cabinet for coins by Angermaier of Weil- 
heim (1624). — Room 42. Models of towns, fortresses, and churches, 
five of Bavarian towns executed in the 16th cent. (incl. Munich ; in 
the tower-room to the right is a modem model of Munich); ship- 
models of the 16-19th cent. ; plans and views of towns. — Room 43. 
Schiller's writing-table, a lottery-wheel, an early velocipede (Drai- 
sine'), and other relics and curiosities. — Rooms 44 fy 45 (time of 
Charles Theodore, 1777-99), with late-rococo fittings and orna- 
ments. — Rooms 46 $ 47 contain personal relics of Kings Max I. 
(1799-1825), Louis I. (d. 1848), and Max II. (1864). R. 46 con- 
tains two pieces of Gobelins tapestry, and R. 47 is fitted up in the 
Empire style. — Room 48. State bed from the chateau of Linder- 
hof , prayer-book illustrated in colours in 1864-65 by Seitz and 
Lossow and other reminiscences of King Louis II. (1864-86). — 
The ceiling and panelling of the staircase ascending to the first floor 
are from the Chateaux of Dachau and Don au worth. 

First Floor. Special Collections. — Room 49 (to the right). 
Smith's work from the 15th cent, downwards , including a superb 
iron grille from the Dominican church at Ratisbon (1724). — 
Room 50. Seals of German sovereigns, beginning with that of 
Charlemagne. Heraldic paintings. — Rooms 51, 52, 52a. Works 
in the precious metals, copper, lead, bronze, brass, and zinc. 
Case 9 (to the right in R. 51) contains tinsmith's work of the 16- 
17th centuries. In R. 62a are clocks, watches, and brazier's work 
from Nuremberg. R. 52 is hung with fine Brussels *Tapestry, with 
the battles of Hannibal after Giulio Romano ; and there is similar 
tapestry in RR. 53 & 58. — Room 53. Coins and medals from the 
Roman period onwards. — Rooms 54-56. Wood-carvings for decora* 
tions and furniture. In R. 66 (Cases 3-5) are examples of Nurem- 
berg bismuth-painting, moulds for calico-printing, pastry, and ob- 
jects in wax, wooden blocks for playing-cards and book-illustrations. 

— Room 57. Musical instruments of 1450-1800. 

Rooms 58-69 contain the Textile Collections. — Rooms 58-60. 
Lace and embroideries. — Rooms 61 $62. Egypto-Roman, Coptic 
(5-8th cent.), Byzantine, Oriental, and Occidental dress-materials. 

— Room 63. Embroideries and leathern wall-hangings. — Room 64. 
Old costumes. Case 1 (right), municipal robes of the 17th cent. ; 
Case 2 (left), wedding-mantle of Duke William V. of Bavaria (1568); 
Case 4 and Table-Case 5 (by the 2nd window), articles of dress and 
jewelry, chiefly from the vault of the Counts Palatine of Neuburg at 
Lauingen ; Table-Case 6 (by the 2nd window), silver ornaments of 
patrician ladies (16-1 7th cent.); Cases 7-10, collection of shoes 
from the Roman period to the present day; Case 11, gloves, pockets, 

Feldherrn-HaUe. MUNICH. 33. Route. 211 

and stockings. — Room 65. Costumes of the 17-18th centuries. 
Cases 5-7, clothes of kings and queens of Bavaria; Case 8, clothes of 
King Otho of Greece ; Case 10 (in the middle), clothes of Frederick 
the Gieat ; Cases 2 & 3, Bavarian national costumes. — Through the 
passage (Room 66) and past the staircase we reach (r.) Room 67 
(embroideries) and Rooms 68 fy 69, containing ecclesiastical vest- 
ments from the 11th cent, onwards. — Room 70 is a reproduction 
of the audience chamber in the castle of Trausnitz, near Lands hut 
(middle of the 16th cent.). — Room 71, to the right of it, is empty. 
— Room 72 is hung with Brussels tapestry illustrating the story of 
the Creation, after Raphael. Cases 1-6, toys of the 16-19th cent. ; 
Cases 3-11, objects used in the Jewish divine service ; Case 7; Munich 
marionettes; Case 8, curiosities. 

Room73. Examples of writing, printing, and illustration. Table- 
Case 2 (to the left of the entrance), three MSS. of the 13-1 6th cent. ; 
Cases 4-11, incunabula ; Case 15, two prayer-books with coloured 
illustrations by Flemish artists of the beginning of the 16th cent., etc. ; 
Cases 17-19, examples of the development in the art of writing and 
engrossing documents. — Room 74. Book- bindings and playing- 
cards. — Room 75. Hunting Room, with trophies of the chase and 
collections of ornamental guns, hunting-knives, boar-spears, and 
other objects connected with hunting. — A staircase to the right of 
the exit ascends to — 

Room 76, which contains the ^Collection of Cbbohbs, or re- 
presentations of the Nativity. Cabinet I. (to the right of the entrance) 
& II. Examples from Tyrol. Cab. Ill- VI. Creches from Munich, 
with the carvings belonging to them. Cab. XII-X. Creches from 
Naples and Sicily with figures and often a beautiful landscape. — 
We return to the first floor. 

Room 77. Ceramic Collection. By the walls are stoves and 
stove-tiles. Cases 1 & 2, tiles ; Case 3, in the tower-room, fayence 
by Hlrschvogel of Nuremberg (d. 1560); Cases 7-19, fayence and 
stoneware, arranged according to the place of manufacture. — Room 78, 
adjoining. Guild Room,with insignia, goblets, and tools of the Munich 
and other guilds. We pass through RR. 77- & 79. — .Room* 80-82. 
Porcelain Collection, the most interesting part of which is the Bavarian 
section, Including the Nymphenburg work In R. 82. — Room 83. 
Glass. Cases 1, 1 a, & lb, Roman and early- Christian glass; Cases 6-8, 
Venetian glass. _^ 

Most of the buildings in the handsome Lvdwig-Strasse (PI. 
E, F, 4-1; tramway-line 3, p. 193), originated by King Louis I., 
nearly ^M. in length, and 40 yds. in width, are in the round- 
arched style of architecture. 

The Feldherrn-HaUe (PI. E, 4), or Ball of the Generals, at the 
S. end, a copy of Orcagna's Loggia del Lanzi at Florence (1376), 
erected in 1841-44 by Gartner, is 66 ft. high, 112 ft. broad, and 


212 Route 33. MUNICH. Royal Library. 

36 ft. deep. It contains the Bavarian Military Monument, by 
F. von Miller (unveiled in 1892), statues of the Bavarian generals 
Tilly and Wrede, by Schwanthaler, and two marble lions, by 
Ruemann (1906). 

Opposite is the Church of the Theatines (PI. E, 4; 82 yds. long, 
40 yds. wide), erected by Barelli in 1662-75 in the debased Italian 
baroque style, overladen with decoration, with a lofty dome, two 
towers, and three aisles. Facade of 1767. The interior (restored in 
1856; adm. see p. 197) contains pictures by Tintoretto, Zanchi, 
Karl Loth, Cignani, and others, and the Royal Vaults, in which Emp. 
Charles VII. (d. 1746) is also buried. To the right is the mortuary 
chapel of King Maximilian II. (d. 1864) and Queen Marie (d. 1889). 
In the sacristy, on the left, is an Entombment by H. Hess. 

In the Odeons-Platz (PI. E, 3) rises the equestrian Statue of 
Louis L (d. 1868), by Widnmann, erected in 1862; the two pages 
at the side display the king's mottos: * Justice' and 'Perseverance'. 
— To the left is the Odeon, erected in 1828 by Klenze, and destined 
for concerts and the Academy of Music. The ceiling of the large 
hall is decorated with frescoes by W. von Kaulbach, Eberle, and 
Ansehutz, the orchestra with busts of celebrated composers (partly 
concealed by the organ). — On the N. side of the square, on the 
left, stands the Palace of Prince Luitpold, erected by Klenze (now 
occupied by Prince Rupert of Bavaria). Opposite (Fursten-Str. 1) 
is the Palace of Prince Ludwig Ferdinand. 

Then, farther to the N., in the Ludwig -Strasse (left), the 
Palace of Duke Max (PI. E, 3), by Klenze, with frescoes by Langer, 
Kaulbach, and Zimmermann , and a marble frieze representing the 
myth of Bacchus, by Schwanthaler. It now belongs to Duke Charles 
Theodore. On the right is the War Office (PI. F, 2, 3), also by 

The *Royal Library (PI. F, 2; adm., see p. 196), was built in 
1832-43 by Gartner in the Florentine style. The steps are adorned 
with colossal seated figures of Aristotle, Hippocrates, Homer, and 
Thucydides, in limestone, by Sanguinetti and Mayer. In the vaults 
of the groundfloor are the National Archives of Bavaria. Fine *Stair- 
case with broad marble flight of steps ; above, on each side, is a gallery, 
borne by 16 marble columns; on the walls are medallion -portraits 
of celebrated poets and scholars. At the entrance to the library are 
statues of Albert V., the founder, and Louis I., the builder of the 
library, both by Schwanthaler. The library (Director, Dr. von 
Laubmann) comprises upwards of 1,300,000 vols, and 40,000 MSS., 
and is especially valuable for its theological and Biblical literature, 
German MSS., early examples of French and Italian printing, and 
works on art and architecture. The most interesting rarities 
('Cimelien', from the Greek xeifi/if)Xiov, a treasure) are exhibited in 
the Fursten-Saal. 

Royal Library. MUNICH. 33. Route. 213 

First Section : Specimens of substances used to write on before tbe 
invention of paper: wax tablets, papyrus, parchment, cotton and linen 
paper, palm-leaves, bark, woven materials. Specially noteworthy are the 
Codex Purpureus, a Latin Book of the Gospels of the 9th cent., written on 
purple vellum with gold and silver letters, and the Egyptian papyri of the 
3rd cent. B.C. — Second Section : Manuscripts showing the development 
of writing from the 6th to the 16th century. The oldest is the Breviarium 
Alarici, an extract from the Code of Theodosius the Great, made in Spain 
by order of Alaric, King of the Visigoths, 484-506. Earliest German MSS. : 
the Wessobrunner Oebet, a fragment of an alliterative epic with a prayer 
in prose, written before 814, from the monastery of Wessobrunn in Upper 
Bavaria *, Muspilli, a poem in Old High German describing the destruction 
of the world, written in Bavaria about 830; Heliand, a harmony of the 
Gospels in early Low German (the Gospels in alliterative verse), written 
about 830 by a Saxon ecclesiastic: Ot/rid of Weissenburtfs Gospel inverse, 
composed between 863 and 871 and copied at Freising about 900; 13th cent. 
MS. of the Nibelungen Lied, from the chateau of Hohenems near Bregenz *, 
Carmina Bur ana, a famous MS. collection of mediaeval wanderers' songs, 
from the monastery of Benediktbeuern (p. 276), dating from about 122o; 
Tristan and Isolde, poem by Godfrey of Strassburg, MS. of 1240, with 
paintings \ Parcival and Titurel by Wolfram von Eschenbach, with paint- 
ings. Among the Oriental MSS. several Arabic specimens are remarkable 
for their splendour and beautiful writing ; among the modern MSS. a copy 
of Petrarch with graceful marginal drawings and a manuscript of Calderon 
with a final note from the author's own hand may be mentioned. Then 
follow a number of valuable early-Greek and Slavonic MSS. — Third 
Section: Sumptuous old bindings. • Codex Aureus, the Gospels written 
in gold uncial letters in 870 by order of Emp. Charles the Bald, and 
sent from the abbey of St. Denis in Paris to the abbey of St. Emmeram 
. in Batisbon in 888 as a present from Emp. Arnulf ; the cover consists of 
a plate of embossed gold, with jewels and pearls. *Four Books of Gospels 
and a Missal presented by Emp. Henry II. to the cathedral of Bamberg in 
1024. Prayer book of Emp. Louis the Bavarian with a silver gilt and 
enamelled binding. Bindings from the 11th to the 17th cent, and a series 
of ivory covers, showing the development of ivory carving from the Roman 
period to the end of the 15th century. — Fourth Section: Illuminated MS. 
•Prayer-book of Emp. Maximilian I., printed by Schonsperger, with marginal 
drawings by Albert Diirer and Cranach. Latin prayer-book with miniatures 
by Memling (?). The Jewels of Anne of Austria, consort of Duke Albert V. 
of Bavaria, miniature-paintings by Hans Muelich. Prayer-book of Duke 
Albert V. of Bavaria, with miniatures by an admirable though unknown 
artist, formerly attributed to Giulio Clovio. Calendarium of the 16th cent, 
by Brueghel (?). *Livre de Jehan Bocace des cas des nobles homines et 
femmes, translation made in 1458 for Estienne Chevalier, with miniatures 
by Foucquet and his pupils. Latin prayer-book with illustrations by Sini- 
baldi of Florence (1485), richly bound. Several books of arms and weapons, 
among them the tournament book of Duke William IV. of Bavaria, painted 
in 1541-44 by Ostendorfer. — Fifth Section : Typographical specimens in 
illustration of the history of printing. Block-books (i.e. books printed from 
carved blocks of wood) of the 15th century. Then the earliest printed 
books, including Gutenberg's 42 -line Bible, a unique copy of the so- 
called 'Warning to Christendom, and a Donatus issued by his press. Then 
Aldine and Elzevir editions. Diirer's Greater Passion of 16ll, the first 
edition of Holbein's Dance of Death, Sandro Botticelli's engravings (Florence, 
1481). the first editions of Columbus* and Amerigo Vespucci's letters on 
the TSew World; broadsides and title-pages, etc. Collection of the first 
books printed in various Bavarian towns. — Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth 
Sections: Early maps x autograph writings of celebrated men ; book-plates 
('Ex-libris') from the loth cent, to the present day. 

The National Archives of Bavaria (see p. 212), in thirty rooms, contain 
about 500,000 documents and include an interesting collection of medals and 
of impressions of the seals of German emperors , princes , and noblemen 
(shown on application). Archivist, Dr. Baumann (offlce-hours 9-2J1 

214 Route 33. MUNICH. Siegestor. 

The *Ludwigs-Kirche (PI. F, 2; adm., see p. 197), erected in 
1829-44 in the Italian Romanesque style by Gartner, is 73 yds. 
long, 48 yds. broad, and 85 ft. high. Facade flanked with two towers 
210 ft. in height. Mosaic roof of coloured tiles. Above the portal, 
colossal statues of Christ and the Evangelists, by SchwanthaUr. 

Intebiob (dark ; best light in the afternoon). The entire wall at the 
back of the high-altar is covered with the Last Judgment, the largest of 
the frescoes of Cornelius (1836-40), 60 ft. high, 36 ft. broad. The other fres- 
coes, designed by Cornelius, were executed by his pupils (God the Father, 
the Nativity and Crucifixion, Patriarchs, Prophets, Martyrs). — In the ad- 
jacent grounds are frescoes by Fortner at fourteen Stations of the Cross. 

Opposite is the Blind Asylum (PL F, 2), erected by Gartner in 
1834-38 in the Florentine style. The portals are embellished with 
statues of the four patron-saints of the blind, by Eberhard. 

The University (PI. F, 1) on the left, the Priests' Seminary 
(Georgianum), opposite, and the Max-Joseph School form a large 
square, intersected by the Ludwig-Strasse, and adorned with two 
Fountains copied from those by Bernini in the piazza of St. Peter 
at Rome. The university (over 5000 students), founded in 1472 at 
Ingolstadt, was transferred to Landshut in 1800, and thence to Munich 
in 1826. The University Library, on the second floor, contains 
460,000 vols, (open on weekdays 8-1 & 3-6, Sat. 8-1 only). 

The *8iegestor (85 ft. wide, 75 ft. high), or Gate of Victory, 
erected by Louis 1. 'to the Bavarian army', begun by Gartner in 
1843 and completed by Metzger in 1850, is an imitation of the trium- 
phal arch of Constantino at Rome. It is crowned with 'Bavaria 1 
(18 ft. high) in a quadriga drawn by lions, designed by Wagner. 
Over the Corinthian columns at the sides are figures of Victory ; on 
the walls reliefs representing warlike exploits (below) and the 
different provinces of the kingdom (above). This fine arch terminates 
the Ludwig-Strasse. 

Beyond the Siegestor, to the left, in the Akademie-Str., is the 
* Academy of Art (PI. F, 1), in the Italian Renaissance style, erected 
by Neureuther (1874-85). The central portion is 610 ft. long, while 
the wings at the ends project 105 ft. On the flight of steps in front 
of the main entrance are mounted figures of Castor and Pollux, by 

From the Siegestor the Leopold- Stbasse leads past the Palace 
of Prince Leopold, on the left, and several villas to the suburb of 
Schwabing, which was incorporated with Munich in 1891. Besides 
the numerous villas and private houses (in the Franz Joseph-Str., 
Friedrich-Str., and Ainmiiller-Str.) which have sprung up here in 
the last few years, the following buildings may be mentioned : the 
Prot. Erloscr-Kirche, in the German-Romanesque style, by Th. 
Fischer, at the bifurcation of the Schwabinger Landstrasse and 
the Ungerer-Str. } the St. Ursula- Kirche in the, Kaiser-Str., in the 
Italian early-Renaissance style, by A. Thiersch ; the curious, simple 
School-Bouses at Haimhauser-Str. 5 and in the Elisabeth-Platz, 

MaximiUan-Strassc. MUNICH. S3. Route. 215 

by Th. Fischer; and the Schwdbing Cemetery (beyond the large bath- 
establishments mentioned on p. 193; terminus of tramway-line No. 3), 
with a large central hall in the early-Christian style, by Grassel. 

On the S. side of the Max-Joseph-Platz (p. 200) is the Post Office 
(PI. E, 4, 6), in the former Torring Palace. The facade towards the 
Platz was constructed by Klenze in 1836 ; it is 290 ft. long with an 
open arcade containing six paintings on the inner wall of horse- 
tamers on a red ground in the Pompeian style, by Hiltensperger. The 
original facade towards the Residenz-Str. is in the Italian palatial 
style (1740). — To the right a short street leads to the Alte Hof, 
the oldest palace of the Dukes of Bavaria, erected in 1253-56, and 
restored byEmp. Louis the Bavarian in 1324-27. It is now occupied 
by public offices. 

The *Maximilian-Strassb (PI. F, G, H, 5; tramway-line 4, 
p. 193), 1 M. in length and 25 yds. in breadth, was constructed 
by King Max II. in 1854 and is much frequented in the afternoon. 
First, on the right, opposite the Hof- Theater, is the Mint (PI. F, 5), 
a building of the 16th cent., remodelled by Gartner in 1809, with 
arcades embellished with statues. The old court, in the Renaissance 
style, is surrounded by three tiers of arched galleries, and was 
formerly the Tilt- Yard. About 200yds. farther on across street 
leads to the right to the Platzl with the Hofbrauhaus, or * Court 
Brewery' (PI. F, 6), reconstructed by Heilmann and Littmann, the 
Cafe Orlando di Lasso, four Students' Clubs, and other new build- 
ings in the Renaissance style. Farther on, Maximilian-Str. 34, is 
the Munchener Schauspielhaus, erected by Heilmann and Littmann 
in 1901 and fitted up in a modern style by R. Riemerschmid. Im- 
mediately beyond it the street expands into a square ('Forum'), re- 
lieved with pleasure-grounds ; on the left the Government Buildings 
(PI. G, 5; 1858-64), on the right the Old National Museum, with 
rooms adorned with frescoes (art-exhibition, see p. 195), in which 
the German Museum, with achievements in science and the technical 
arts, is to be opened in 1907. In the centre rise four monuments : 
to the left a Statue of General Deroy (killed at Poloczk in 1812), 
by Halbig (1856); adjoining it, that of Count Rumford (d. 1814), 
the philanthropist and founder of the English Garden, by Zumbusch 

SI 868). Opposite are the statues of Schelling, the philosopher 
d. 1854), by Brugger(1861), and Fraunhofer, the optician (d. 1826), 
by Halbig (1861). 

At the E. end of the Platz rises the bronze "Monument of King 
Maximilian II. (d. 1864), by Zumbusch (1875). The colossal figure 
of the king in his coronation robes, 16 l / 2 ft. high, stands upon a 
lofty granite pedestal (26 ft. high). At the base of the pedestal sit 
allegorical figures o£ Peace, Enlightenment, Strength, and Justice. 
The Thiersch-8tr. and the Pfarr-Str. lead hence to the N. to the St. 
Anna-Platz, with the St. Anna-Kirohe (PL G, 4), a Romanesque edifice 
built in 1892-94 from the designs of Gabriel Seidl. 

216 Route 33. MUNICH. Maximilianeum. 

Just beyond the monument the Maximilian - Str. reaches the 
Isar. The Steinsdorf-Strasse (PI. G, 5, 6), a wide quay, ascends 
hence to the S.W., along the left hank, to the Zweibrucken-Str. and 
the Ludwigs-Brucke (p. 253). In the Mariannen-Platz stands the 
Protestant Church of St. Luke (PL G, 6, 6), in the transition style, 
with dome and towers, completed in 1896 from the plans of Alb. 
Schmidt. The altar-piece is a Descent from the Gross, by Goldberg. — 
Opposite, in the river, are two islands united by the 'Muffatwehr'; 
the lower or Prater-Insel is prettily laid out and contains the Isar- 
lust Restaurant (p. 192). 

The Maximilian-Str. crosses the river and the Prater-Insel by 
the Maximilians -Briicke, 535 ft. long, which was constructed by 
Zenetti in 1859-64 and has recently been embellished with a 
monument to Burgomaster von Ehrhardt (d. 1888). In the grounds 
below the bridge is a monument to M.vonSchwind, the painter, with 
figures of Legend and Poesy by Hahnel (1893). On the right bank 
the street ascends the Oasteighbhe in two branches. On the slope, 
forming a suitable termination to the grand street, rises the — 

Maximilianeum (PL H, 5), founded by King Max II. for the 
instruction of the royal pages and other students. The architect was 
Burklein. Admission, see p. 196. Abroad circular approach ascends 
to the facade, which ri6e3 in two series of arches on a lofty terrace, 
hiding the square main building from the town. The slightly curved 
central part of the structure Is adjoined by open arcades on each 
side, flanked with corner- towers. 

At the top of the handsome staircase are the sketches in oil for the 
paintings by K. von Piloty on the facade (replaced by glass mosaics in 1902): 
in the middle, Emp. Louis the Bavarian founding the monastery of Ettal 
(1330) ; to the right, Wolfram of Eschenbach at the 'Sangerkrieg' in the 
Wart burg} to the left, Duke Louis the Rich founding the University of 
Ingolstadt. — Three rooms on the upper floor contain thirty large oil- 
paintings, illustrative of momentous events in the world's history; ad- 
joining these on the right and left are two saloons adorned with frescoes. 

Entrance Hall : left, 1. Cabanel, Fall of man ; right, 2. A. Milller, 
Mahomet's entry into Mecca. — Boom to the left. To the right: *3. Q. 
Richter, Construction of the Pyramids. To the right : 4. Otto, Belshaszar's 
banquet at Susa; *5. Kaulbach, Battle of Salamis; 6. Foltz, Age of Pericles; 
7. Eiltensperger, Olympian Games; 8. A. MUlUr, Wedding of Alexander 
the Great at Susa; 9. Conr&der, Fall of Carthage; 10. Joh. Schraudolph, 
Nativity ; 11. Gunkel, Battle of Arminius ; 12. Hiltensperger, Age of Augustus ; 
13. Bauschild, Crucifixion ; 14. Deger, Resurrection. — Room to the right. 
To the right: 15. Kifckert, Haroun al-Raschid. On the left: 16. F. Kaulbach, 
Coronation of Charlemagne ; 17. Echter, Battle on the Lech f eld ; 18. Schtooiser, 
Henry IV. at Canossa ; 19. Piloty, Godfrey de Bouillon ; 20. Foltz, Frederick 
Barbarossa and Henry the Lion ; 21. Romberg, Emp. Frederick II. at Palermo ; 
22. Kreling, Coronation of Louis the Bavarian; 23. Schnorr, Luther at 
Worms; 24. Piloty, Queen Elizabeth of England; 25. Piloty, Elector 
Maximilian I. founding the Catholic League ; 26. Kotzebue, Peter the Great 
founding St. Petersburg; 27. A. Adam, Battle of Zorndorf; 28. Pauwels, 
Louis XIV. receiving a Genovese embassy ; 29. E. Hess, Washington ; 30. 
P. Hess, Battle of Leipzig. 

The 'loggie' and side-rooms contain busts and portraits of great men. 

On both sides of the Maximilianeum lie the *Gasteig Pro- 
menades, laid out under King Max II. from the designs of Effner, 

WitteUbach Palace. MUNICH. 33. Route. 217 

and commanding beautiful views. They extend- up the Isar ('Am 
GaaUig') to the Ludwigs-Briicke (p. 253), and down (* Maximilians- 
Anlageri), past modem villas and the Peace Monument (p. 205), to 
Brunnthal and Bogenhausen (p. 264). — To the E. of the Maxi- 
milianeum is the suburb of Haidhausen, with the Gothic Church 
of St. John (PI. H, 6), erected in 1852-74 from designs by Berger; 
central tower, 286 ft. high. The interior, without aisles, has groined 
vaulting, marble altars, and stained-glass windows in the choir. 

b. N. W. Quarters of the City. Old and New Finakothek. 

The handsome Brienner-Strasse, over 3 /4M. long, leads to the W. 
from the Odeons-Platz (p. 212) to the Propylaea and the Glyptothek. 
TheWittelsbacher-Platz(Pl. E, 3), on the right, is adorned with the 
equestrian *Statue of Elector Maximilian I. (PI. E, 3 ; d. 1651), 
victor at the Weisse Berg hear Prague in 1620, by Thorvaldsen (1839). 
— Count Arco-Zinneberg's Palace, Wittelsbacher-Platz 1, contains 
a rare and interesting Collection of Antlers (adm., see p. 195). 

At the E. end of the Maximilians-Platz (p. 248) is a Statue of 
Schiller by Widnmann (1863). To the right, farther on, is the red 
Wittelsbach Palace (PI. E, 3), in the mediaeval English pointed 
style, built in 1843-50 from plans by Gartner, the residence of 
Louis I. in 1848-68, now that of Prince Ludwig, the present heir 
to the throne, and Prince Arnulf . Part of it is shown on application 
to the castellan (to the right in the court). Fine court and staircase. 

Opposite, in the Tiirken-Str., are the Kaim-S&le (Tonhalle), built by 
Diilfer in 1895, with concert-rooms (the large hall a fine apartment), club- 
rooms, a cafd-restaurant, etc. (p. 191). — In the Gabelsberger-Str., a little 
to the N.E., is the Protestant Church of St. Mark (PI. £, 3), erected by 
Oottgetreu in the Gothic style in 1873-77. 

In the Karolinen-Platz (PI. D, 3) rises an Obelisk, 105 ft. in 
height, cast almost entirely of the metal of captured guns, and 
erected by Louis I. in 1833 to the memory of 30,000 Bavarians who 
had perished in the Russian war. 

At No. 3, Karolinen-Platz, in the garden-building, to the right, 
is the Lotzbeck Collection of Sculptures and Paintings (adm., see 
p. 196; catalogue 30 pf.). 

Central Saloon. Sculptures: 1. HaXbig , King Louis I. ; 2. Thor- 
valdsen, Venus-, 3. Hjoyer, Psyche; 7-10. Ti'oschel, Four reliefs. Paintings: 
11. Riedel, Sakuntala; Ary Scheffer, 16. Faust and Gretchen, 17. Walpurgis- 
nacht; B. and F. Adam, 21. Stable, 24. Hunt ;' 25. Qail, Storming of a 
Spanish monastery. — Left Wing. Modern pictures : 30. Manuel, Baron C. L. 
von Lotzbeck; Rottmann, 37. Untersberg, 38. Perugia; Bilrkel, 41. Village- 
smithy, 49. Mountain-pasture ; 45-48. Kunt, Cattle. Old pictures : 97. Antonello 
da Messina, Portrait of a man; 8. Lor. Lotto (7), Best on the Flight into 
Egypt; 99. Aug. Bronzino (?), Portrait of a woman; 101. Jac. Bassano, 
Portrait of a woman. — Right Wing. Modern pictures : 60. Riedel, Medea; 
61. Morgenstern, Rorschach; 64. A. Adam, Arabian horses; 68. Diaz, Girl 
in a landscape ; P. Hess, 78. Engagement between French and Cossacks, 
79. Scene on the Loire. Old pictures : 89. Cologne School (ca. 1530), Portrait 
of a man; 94. Listens, Portrait of a boy; 93. Tenters the Younger, Peasant 
with a hare; 96. School of Giotto (ca. 1360), St. Peter. 

218 Route S3. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

The Barer-Strasse on the right leads to the — 

**01d Pinakothek ('Repository of Pictures 1 , from the Greek; 
PI. D, 2 ; adm., see p. 197 ; entr. from Barer-Str. ; reached by tram- 
way-lines 2 & 7, p. 193), erected In 1826-36 by Klenzc In the 
Renaissance style. The building is 500 ft. long, 90 ft wide, and 
90 ft. high. On the S. side, on the attic story above, are twenty-four 
statues of celebrated painters from sketches by Schwanthaler. It 
contains upwards of 1400 pictures, arranged in periods and schools, 
in twelve saloons and twenty-three cabinets . Each picture is labelled. 
Catalogue (1904) 1 Jt, or bound with 200 illustrations 4i/ 2 Jf. The 
cabinets should be visited immediately after the rooms to which 
they belong, in order to preserve the historical sequence. Director, 
Professor von Reber. 

Origin op thb Collection. This fine picture gallery has been form- 
ed by the union of three different collections. As early as the 16th 
and 17th centuries the Bavarian princes were noted for their love of art. 
Elector Maximilian I. in particular was an enthusiastic admirer of Dtirer, 
and secured at Nuremberg several of that master's finest works. In 1805 
this collection was enriched by the removal to Munich of the celebrated 
Diisseldorf Gallery, founded by the Electors of the Palatinate. This was 
done to save the collection from being carried off to Paris, and it was 
afterwards regarded as part of the inheritance of the Palatinate which 
fell to Bavaria. The numerous examples of Netherlandish masters of the 
17th cent., including the fine Rubens collection, formed part of the Diissel- 
dorf Gallery. The third constituent part of the Pinakothek is the Boistertt 
Collection, being works of the Lower Rhenish School rescued by the brothers 
Sulpice and Melchior Boisseree and their friend Bertram from churches 
and monasteries suppressed at Cologne in 1805-1810. The addition of this 
valuable collection to the Pinakothek in 1827 placed it in the foremost 
rank as a gallery for the study of northern art. Under King Louis I. 
the gallery was further extended by the addition of the Wallerstein col- 
lection in 1828, and of several valuable works purchased at different times 
in Italy. 

The pre-Raphaelite Italian schools are scantily represented In 
the Munich Gallery ; probably the most important examples are the 
Annunciation by Fra FUippo Lippi (Room VIII, No. 1005); Sandro 
Botticelli's Pieta (R. VIII, 1010); an altar-piece by Ghirlandaio 
(R. VIII, 1011-1013); the Madonna by Signorelli (R.VIII; 1026a); 
Cima da Conegliano's Madonna (R. VIII; 1033); the Madonna by 
Francesco Francia (R. VIII, 1039) ; and Pcrugmo's Vision of 
St. Bernard (R. VIII, No. 1034). The finest of the works by Raphael 
is undoubtedly the Madonna of the Tempi family (Cab. XIX, 1050), 
painted in his Florentine period ; the contemporary Holy Family 
of the Canigiani family (R. VIII, 1049) has suffered greatly from 
cleaning, the angels at the top having entirely vanished. There exist 
several replicas of the Madonna della Tenda (Cab. XIX, 1051 ; Roman 
period) at Turin and elsewhere, but the Munich example is con- 
sidered the best. Not one of the works ascribed to Correggio is in- 
disputably authenticated. The best of the many examples of the 
Venetian school are Titian's Emp. Charles V. (R. IX, 1112) and 
his Christ crowned with thorns (R. IX, 1114), and Palma Vccchio's 
Portrait of himself (R. IX, 1107). Murillo's exquisite Beggar Boys 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 38. Route. 219 

(It. XI) are sure of attention. Early Flemish painting is seen to the 
greatest advantage in Rogier van der Weyderis Triptych (R. II, 
101-103) and St. Luke (R. II, 100), Mending's Seven Joys of Mary 
(Cab. Ill, 116), and the winged altar-pieces and the triptych by 
Vierick Bouts (Cab. HI, 107-111). The Cologne works of the 15th 
and 16th centuries will chiefly attract the professional eye, while 
several works of the Swabian and Franconian schools are of general 
interest and high artistic importance. Prominent among these German 
masters' stands Holbein the Elder, to whom the altar-piece with 
St. Sebastian (R. Ill, 209-211) is now rightly ascribed. Diirer's Four 
Apostles, or the 'Four Temperaments' (R. Ill, 247, 248), deserve 
the closest study, especially the magnificent St. Paul in the famous 
• white robe, unrivalled in its plastic modelling. Other important 
works by Diirer are his Portrait of himself (Cab. V, 239), the Portrait 
of 0. Krell (Cab. V, 236), and the Baumgartner altar-piece (R. Ill, 
240-242). The Battle of Arbela(Cab. IV, 290) by Albrecht Altdorfer, 
the Finding of the Cross (R. Ill, 267) by the rare master Barthel 
Beham (d. 1640), and the Portrait (Cab. IV, 286) by Hans Baldung 
Grien&iQ also worthy of notice. Of the altar-piece formerly attributed 
to Qrunewald (R. Ill, 281 et seq.) No. 281 alone is by this artist, 
while the wings are in the style of Cranach. 

Next to Antwerp and Vienna, Munich best shows the versatility 
of Rubens. Among the eighty-nine pictures formerly catalogued 
here under his name are many school-pieces and mediocre works, 
but they also include several of his finest creations. The vast range 
of his genius may be estimated by glancing from the stupendous 
Last Judgment to the Lion Hunt, from the Battle of the Amazons 
to the Children with garlands of fruit, from the sketches for the 
Medici pictures in the Louvre to the Bacchanalian scenes. Rubens's 
best pupil, Van Dyck, is also well represented by several portraits 
(R. VII). The Descent from the Cross (Cab. VIII, 326) Is the 
finest of the numerous examples of Rembrandt. The canvases of 
Adrian Brounoer (Cab. XV), notable partly for their rarity, the 
genre-pieces of Terburg and Met&u, and the humorous subjects of 
Jan Steen also deserve attention. The works of the Italian painters 
of the 17th cent, generally meet with scant notice, but the Assump- 
tion and the Marsyas (R. X) of Quido Reni, at least, do not merit 
this fate. The Mourning over the body of Christ, by N. Poussin 
(R. XII, 1321), is a work of great beauty. 

Room op the Founders. Portraits of the founders and enrichers 
of the gallery from Elector Maximilian I. (d. 1661) to King Louis I. 
(d. 1868). — We pass straight into Room I. 

Lower Rhenish and Eably Netherlandish Schools (Rooms I, 
II; Cab. I-III). — I. Room. To the left: *i. Meister Withelm of 
Cologne (?), St. Veronica with the napkin ; 3, 4. In the style of 
Stephan Lochner, Saints ; 31-33. Master of the Life of Mary, The 

220 Route 33. 


Old Pinakothek. 

Twelve Apostles ; 9-18. School of Stephan Lochner, Wings of a 
shrine from Heisterbach, with scenes from the Annunciation to the 
Gift of Tongues and Death of the Virgin, and figures of saints. 

II. Room. To the right (S. wall): *67, 66, 56. Master of the 
Death of the Virgin, Triptych, in the centre Death of the Virgin, 
on the wings the donors with their patron-saints. — E. wall: 98, 
97. Coxie, John the Baptist, The Virgin Mary (copies of figures in 
the Ghent altar-piece by Hubert van Eyck); *la4. Quentin Matsys, 
Pieta. — W. wall : *10i, 102, 103. Bogier van der Weydeh, Trip- 
tych, in the centre Adoration of the Magi, on the wings An- 
nunciation and Presentation. 

'No picture of the master is more imbued with religious feeling; 
uone is more happily arranged and carried out/ — 'The Early Flemish 
Painter** by Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 






28 | 22 | 21 

2o|l»|l8|n|l«|l&|l4 1 IS | 12 1 11 1 19 | 9 | S 1 7 | «| 6 | 4 1 S | 2 | 1 


of the 




Italian iFlemishl Rubens 1 Flemish 1 Dutch 1 Upper 

. School. . School. . Saloon. . School. . School. Germ. 

I l l l l r 


1 Ves- 

Neap. & 
8p. Sch. 



*100. Rogier van der Weyden, St. Luke painting a portrait of the 
Virgin; above, 139. Marinus van Roymersxtale, A tax-gatherer in 
his office (1642). — S. wall : *50, 48, 49. The so-called Master of 
St. Bartholomew, Triptych: in the centre SS. Bartholomew, Agnes, 
and Cecilia; on the wings SS. John, and Margaret, Christina and 

Cabinet I. To the right (W.) : Master of the Life of Mary, 28. 
Assumption, 27. Visitation. — S. wall: 29. Master of the Life of 
Mary, 26. Annunciation, 29. Coronation of the Virgin, 26. Marriage 
of the Virgin, above, 34. Crucifixion. — E. wall : Master of the Life 
of Mary, 24. Purification in the Temple, 23. Nativity of the Virgin, 
22. Meeting of Joachim and Anna. 

Cabinbt II. To the left (E.): Flemish School (ca. 1510), 125. 
Madonna, 126. St. George; 91. Hans van Melem, Portrait of him- 
self; 140. Patinir, Crucifixion; 161. Flemish Master (ca. 1530), 
Nativity. — S. wall : 68. Master of the Death of the Virgin, Cruci- 
fixion; 122. Netherlands School (ca. 1500), Madonna; 133. Quentin 
Matsys, Portrait of Jehan Carondelet; 68-72. B. Bruyn, Altar-piece. 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 33. Route. 221 

Cabinbt III. To the left (E.): *U0, *111. Dierick Bouts, Two 
wings belonging to the Last Supper in the church of St. Peter at 
Louvain: Abraham and Melchisedech , and Gathering manna; 
♦107-109. Dierick Bouts, Triptych, in the centre Adoration of the 
Magi, at the sides SS. John the Baptist and Christopher; *115. 
Mending, John the Baptist. — S. wall : 146. Herri met de Bles, 
Adoration of the Magi; 156. Jan Oossaert, surnamed Mabuse, 
Danae; Lucas van Leyden, *148. Virgin with Mary Magdalen and 
the donor as St. Joseph, 149. Annunciation (centre part restored). 

— W. wall: 117. Gerard David, Marriage of St. Catharine; *116. 
Memling, The seven Joys of Mary. 

'We feel at once, in looking at this picture, the absence of linear per- 
spective and atmosphere; yet the episodes are so complete in themselves, 
and so cleverly arranged and executed, that they produce a deep im- 
pression; and the colours are so bright, so clear, and so admirably con- 
trasted, that we necessarily yield to a grateful sense of rest\ — C. & C. 

Above, 114. Hugo van der Qoes (?), Annunciation; 145. Herri 
met de Bles, Annunciation; above the door, 138. M. vanRoymcrs- 
voale (after Matsys), Money-changer and his wife (1538); 

Uppbb German Schools (R. Ill; Cab. IV, V). — III. Room. 
E. wall : *240, *241, *242. Durer, The Paumgartner altar-piece (ca. 
1503), a triptych, in the centre the Nativity, on each side the donors, 
Stephan and Lucas Paumgartner, in armour (repainting removed in 
1902; on the back of the wing, 241. Figure of the Virgin, in grey 
and white); above, 278. Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Woman 
taken in adultery (half of it a later enlargement); 197, 198, 199, 
200. Holbein the Elder, Crown of Thorns, Ecce Homo, Bearing of 
the Cross, Resurrection. — S. wall : M. Schaffner, 214. Annunciation, 
215. Presentation in the Temple ; between these two, 231. Af. Wol- 
gemut, Crucifixion ; M. Schaffner, 216. Pentecost, 217. Death of 
the Virgin; between these two, 229. Af. WolgemuL Resurrection.. 

— W. wall: 209, *210, •211. H.Holbein the Elder, Triptych: centre, 
Martyrdom of St. Sebastian; at the sides, SS. Barbara and Elizabeth 
(on the backs of the wings, *Annunciation). 

This work may be styled the artist's master-piece, and far transcends 
any of his previous efforts. Without excessive or violent motion, the 
picture is full of dramatic power. The head of the saint is well in- 
dividualised and expressive of a high degree of patient suffering, while 
the nude body shows careful observation of nature. See * Holbein und seine 
Zeit\ by Professor Alfred Woltmann. 

225 (above No. 209). H. Burgkmair } Esther before Ahasuerus; 
Holbein the Elder, 201. Purification in the Temple, 204. Nativity, 
202 (high up). Annunciation, 203. Visitation; 254-257. H. von 
Kulmbach, Saints ; in the middle, 238. Durer, Pieta (1500) ; above, 
267. Barthel Beham, Invention of the Cross; 205, 206, 207, 208. 
Works by Holbein the Elder. — N. wall: Durer, **247. SS. Peter and 
John, **248. SS. Paul and Mark (completed in 1526; see p. 219). 

The four Apostles are at the same time prototypes of the four 'Com- 
plexions', St. John representing the melancholic, St. Peter the phlegmatic, 
St. Paul the choleric, and St. Hark the sanguine temperament. The pane} 

222 Route 33. MUNICH. Old Pindkothek. 

with S8. Paul and Mark is the finer of the two. St. Paul is one of the 
most majestic figures ever conceived by the master, and appears as if 
just on the point of battling for his faith with word or blow. A great 
deal more labour in the details has been bestowed upon St. Paul than 
upon the other figures, and it is also the best -preserved. The white 
mantle is a marvel of plastic painting, and is admirably shaded. — i DUrer > , 
by Pro/. Mori* Thawing. 

Between these two, 233. Hans Pleydenwurff, Crucifixion ; above 
the door, 298a, 298b. Tyrolese Master of about 1480 (M. Packer?), 
SS. Gregory and Augustine; 188, 189. B. 8 trig el, Portraits of the 
Rehlingen family, patricians of Augsburg ; between these two, *281. 
Matthias Qrunewald, SS. Mauritius and Erasmus; 282-285. Four 
altar- wings belonging to the last, with SS. Mary Magdalen, Lazarus, 
Chrysostom, and Martha, by an unknown master (the last two above 
No. 233; see p. 226); Hans Pleydenwurff, 234a. Nativity, 234. 
Marriage of St. Catharine. — E. wall: 271. L. Cranach the Elder, 
Death of Lucretia; *244. Durer, Same subject (1518); in the 
middle, 222. Burgkmair, St. John in Patmos; above, 193-196. 
Works by Holbein the Elder. 

CabinbtIV. To the left(E.): 295. M. Feselen, Siege of Alesia 
(Burgundy) by Julius Caesar; 221. H. Burgkmair, SS. Liborlus and 
Eustace. — S. wall: A. Durer , 250. Mater dolorosa (1515), *249. 
Jacob Fuggei the Rich ; above, 177. Zeitblom, St. Bridget. — W. 
wall : *290. A. Altdorfer, Alexander's victory at Arbela ; H. Baldung 
Orien, 286. Count Palatine Philip the Warlike, 287. Margrave Bern- 
hard III. of Baden; 220. H. Burgkmair, Portrait of M. Schongauer, 
tne painter. 

Cabinet V. To the left (E.): 245. A. Durer, SS. Joachim and 
Joseph (from the so-called Jabach altar-piece) ; *213. H. Holbein the 
Younger, Portrait of Sir Bryan Tuke, treasurer of King Henry VIII. ; 
A. Durer, **239. Portrait of himself (dated 1500, but shown by the 
' style of execution to be partly of later date), *236. Portrait of Oswolt 
Krell (1499); 294 (above No. 239). M. Feselen, Siege of Borne by 
Porsenna; 246. A. Durer, SS. Simeon and Lazarus (from the Jabach 
altar-piece). — S. wall: B. Zeitblom, 175. St. Margaret, 176. 
St. Ursula; between these two, 292a. Vlrich Apt, Triptych: in the 
centre, SS. Narcissus and Matthew in a landscape; at the sides, 
Virgin and Child and St. John. — W. wall: 292. Ulrich Apt, Pieta; 
293. A. Altdorfer, Mountain- land scape; above, 275. L. Cranach 
the Elder, Moses with Aaron and two Prophets; 222. Burgkmair, 
St. John in Patmos ; *243. A. Durer, Portrait of his teacher Wohl- 
gemut(1516); 272. L. Cranach the Elder, Madonna; 213a.fT.HoJ- 
bein the Younger, Portrait; *237. A. Durer, Portrait of a young man 
(Hans Durer?); above, *212. H. Holbein the Younger, Half-length 
of Derich Born (1630); 288. A. Altdorfer, St. George fighting the 
dragon, in a wooded landscape; above, 174. M. Schongauer, Nati- 
vity; 291. A, Altdorfer, Virgin and Child, with angels playing on 
musical instruments. 

Dutch School (R. IV ; Cab. VI-X1). — IV. Room. To the left 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 33. Route. 223 

(E.): 640,641. Weenix, Still-life; between these two, 317. Nic. 
Eliast Pickenoy, Admiral Tromp; above No. 640, 335. Lievens, 
Portrait of an old man. — S. wall: 315, 316. B. van der Heist, 
Portraits ; between these two, *579. Jan Wynants, Landscape by 
morning-light, accessories by A. van de Velde; *359. Frans Hals (?), 
Family-portraits; 319, /. van Ravesteyn, Portrait; above, 313. M. J. 
Mierevelt, Portrait; *680. Wynants, Landscape by evening-light, 
accessories by A. van de Velde ; above, 307. Bloemaert, Raising of 
Lazarns ; 320. /. van Ravesteyn, Portrait ; above, 322. De Vries, 
Portrait. — W. wall: 338, 339. F.Bol, So-called portrait of Govert 
Flinck and his wife; 343. Q. Flinch, Soldiers gaming; above, 
Honthont, 312. Gimon and Pera, 310. St. Peter liberated from 
prison; above the door, 646. Weenix, Boar- hunt; Rembrandt, 333. 
Portrait of himself (1655; copy), above, 345. Portrait of a young 
man; 487. A. van de Velde, Landscape with cattle by evening-light ; 
above, 350. O. van den Eeckhout, Isaac blessing Jacob ; 325. Rem* 
brandt, Portrait of a man in Turkish costume (1633) ; above, 336. 
Lievens, Portrait of an old man. — N. wall : 647. M. de Honde- 
coeter, Cook-flght; 332. Rembrandt, Abraham's sacrifice (studio- 
copy) ; 594. N. Berchem, Landscape with ruins ; *324. Rembrandt, 
Holy Family (1631); above, 644. Weenix, Game; 688. J. Both, 
Autumnal scene in Italy; 648. Hondeeoeter, Poultry-yard; above, 
609. Beerstraten, Storm at sea. — E. wall: 666. A, van Everdingen, 
Norwegian landscape with waterfall ; 547. /. van Ruysdael, Land- 
scape with waterfall. 

Cabinbt VI. To the left (E.) : A. Cuyp, 476. Landscape, 474. 
Officer with a grey horse; between these two, 389a, 389b. Q. Ter- 
burg, Portraits. — - S. wall: *359a. Frans Hals, Portrait of Willem 
Croes; 491. A. van de Velde, Cattle; 471. P. Potter, Cows and 
goats ; A. van Ostade, 370. Merry peasants, 371. Peasants quar- 
relling; 321. /. van Ravesteyn, Portrait; 314. M. J. Mierevelt, 
Portrait; 490. A. van de Velde, Shepherd at a well. — W. wall: 
541. 8. van Ruysdael, Landscape; *472. PauJ Potter, Cattle; above, 
379. Isaac van Ostade, Peasants in front of the village tavern ; 637. 
J. van Gfoycn, View of Leyden; 540. 8. van Ruysdael, Landscape. 

Cabinet VII. To the left (E.): *544. Jac. van Ruysdael, The 
sandy road (1667); *424. Gabr. Metsu, Twelfth Night; 551. Jac. 
van Ruysdael, Group of oaks and a torrent. — S. wall: 597. 
N. Berchem, 687. J. Both, Landscapes. — W. wall: *648. Jac. 
van Ruysdael, Marshy forest; *478. K. du Jardin, The sick goat; 
above, 610. L. Bakhuysen, Amsterdam harbour; *542. Sal. van 
Ruysdael, River-scene. 

Cabinbt VIII. To the left (E.): Rembrandt, *331. Adoration 
of the Shepherds (1646), *327. Raising of the Cross (1633), *326. 
Descent from the Cross; 348 (above 331). Q. van den Eeckhout, 
Jesus teaching in the Temple. — S. wall: *583. J. Both, Land- 
scape with Mercury slaying Argus ; J. de Heem, *623. Fruit, 624. 

224 Route 33. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

Bouquet of flowers; 629. A. van Beyeren, Still-life; 635. J. van 
Qoyen, Landscape. — W. wall : Rembrandt, *328. Ascension (1636), 
*329. Resurrection, *330. Entombment (1639). 

This remarkable series of scenes from the history of Christ (Nos. 326- 
331) was executed in 1633-39 for Prince Frederick Henry, Stadtholder of 
the Netherlands. The finest of the series is the Entombment, which is 
painted with a broad and vigorous touch, and is of ample, dry, and gran- 
ulated impasto. The colouring in general is sombre, and in the back- 
ground and the figures in the foreground there are shades of brown which 
recall the Spanish colourists. A powerful effect is produced by the group 
on which the high light falls, where the colours have been laid on with 
great freedom. — 'Rembrandt; sa Vie et set (Buvre*\ by C. Vosmaer. 

Cabinbt IX. To the left (E.) : *545. Jac. van Ruysdael, Forest- 
scene; 372. A.vanOstade, Merry peasants ; *409. F. van Mieris 
the Elder, Oyster-breakfast ; 403. Q. Dou, Old woman saying grace ; 
above, 392. J. 8teen y Physician feeling the pulse of a patient; 402. 
O. DoUj Old woman at a window; 373. A, van Ostadc, Peasants 
drinking; 546. J. van Ruysdael, Forest-scene. — S. wall: 376. 
Isaac van Ostade, Interior of a cottage ; 353. S. de Koninck, Jesus 
teaching in the Temple ; 377. Isaac van Ostade, Scene on the ice. 
— W. wall: 477. K. du Jardin, Sheep and goats; 425. O. Mctsu, 
Cook in the larder ; above, *388. O. Terburg, Trumpeter bringing 
a love-letter; 539. Isaac van Ruysdacl, Landscape; *389. Q. Ttr- 
burg, Boy with a dog; 530. Es. van de Velde, Amusements on the 
ice; above, *397. 0. Dou, Portrait of himself. 

Cabinbt X. To the left (E.) : F. van Mieris, *423. Lady at her 
mirror, *420. Officer asleep; 407. O. Dou, Lady at her toilet; 
F. van Mieris, *415. Lady playing the lute, *417. Lady in a swoon, 
♦414. Lady with a parrot; 391. J.Stecn, Card-players quarrelling; 
614. J. van der Heyden, Street-scene; G. Dow, 393. Old painter 
at an easel, 399. Hermit; 427. Sling eland, Cradle. — S. wall: 
395. Q.Dou, Old market-woman; *628. A. van Beyercn, Still-life; 
above, *361. Th. de Keyser, Man and wife. — W. wall : 374. A. van 
Ostade, Man drinking; 625. /. de Heem, Still-life; O. Dow, *405. 
Girl emptying a can, *394. Quack, 396. Girl with a light ; 626. 
J. de Heem, Fruit. 

Cabinbt XI. To the left(E.): Ph. Wouverman, 503. Horse- 
pond, 501. Stable; 488. A. van de Velde, Ferry; 652, 653. J. 
van Huysum, Fruit and flowers ; between these, *582. J. Wynants, 
Landscape; Ph. Wouverman, *496. Deer-hunt, 499. Leaving the 
stable, 513. Draught of fishes. — S. wall: 508. Ph. Wouverman, 
Sportsmen resting; 436. Eglon van der Necr, Lady in a faint; 505. 
Ph. Wouverman, Scene on the ice. — W. wall : 506. Ph. Wouvcr- 
man, Battle of No rdl in gen, 1634; *426. Pieter de Hooch, Interior 
with woman reading; above, *651. J. van Huysum, Fruit; 500. 
Ph. Wouverman, Waggoners at a ferry; 401. O. Dou, Old woman 
cutting bread ; 502. Ph. Wouverman, Watering horses. 

Flemish School (RR. V-VII. ; Cab. XH-XVI). — V. Room. 
J3, wall : 786. Rubens , Portrait of a young man (after Joos van 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 33. Route. 225 

CUve); *813. /. Jordaens, The satyr and the peasant; 871. 0. de 
Grayer, Portrait. — S. wall: *663. Neufchatel, Neudorfer, the 
mathematician, and his son; 934. K. E. Biset, Picture-gallery 
(the pictures on the walls by various Antwerp artists) ; 869. O. de 
Crayer, Madonna enthroned with saints; 664, 665. Neufchatel, 
Portraits ; between these two, 944. F. MiUet, Landscape; 961. P. de 
Vos, Bear-hunt. — W. wall: 673. H. Qoltziusf?), Ensign; Frans 
Snyder 8, 967. Two young lions pursuing a roe-deer, 956. Lioness 
killing a wild boar; above, 969. P. Boel, Still-life. — N. wall: 
812. C. de Vos, Family von Hutten ; above, *814. J. Jordaens, As 
the old cock crows, the young one learns; 925. D. Tamers the 
Younger, Fair at Florence (after Callot) ; *955. Snyder s, Kitchen- 
piece. — E. wall : *729. Rubens and J. Brueghel, Madonna in a 
garland of flowers ; above the E. door, 954. Snyders, Fruit-seller. 

VI. Room, with the adjoining Cabinet XII. (see below), con- 
tains exclusively works by Rubens or from his studio. To the left 
(E.): **734. Lion-hunt. — S. wall: **737. Perdition of lost souls; 
♦752. Meleager and Atalanta; **782. Portraits of Rubens and his first 
wife, Isabella Brant ; above, 726. Martyrdom of St. Lawrence ; *735. 
The Last Judgment (the large picture); *754. Drunken Silenus; 
above, 750. SS. Peter and Paul; *784. Earl and Countess of 
Arundel ; above, 755. War and Peace ; *794. Portrait of his second 
wife, Helena Fourment ; above, 724. The dying Seneca. — W. wall : 
796. Portrait of Helena Fourment; *728. Seven children with 
festoons of fruit; *795. Portrait of Helena Fourment; 749. The 
Trinity; *800. Portrait of Dr. van Thulden; 798. Rubens and 
Helena Fourment in a garden ; 799. Portrait of Jan Brant, father 
of Rubens first wife. — N. wall : *797. Helena Fourment and her son ; 
760. Landscape with cattle pasturing ; *745. Susanna at the bath ; 
•761. Landscape with a rainbow; 739. The woman of the Apoca- 
lypse; *746. Christ and the penitents ; *759. Pastoral scene; *791. 
Franciscan; 748. Crucifixion; 790. Cardinal Don Ferdinand of 
Spain; 736. Fall of the Angels; **727. Rape of the daughters of 
Leucippus by Castor and Pollux ; 726. Drunkenness and Wanton- 
ness overcome by Virtue. — E. wall: * # 757. Massacre of the 
Innocents ; 753. Reconciliation of the Romans and the Sabines. 

Cabinbt XII. To the left of the entrance (S.) : 730. Sleeping 
Diana espied by satyis; 732. Destruction of Sennacherib's army ; 
Diana resting after the hunt. — W. wall : *793. Portrait of a girl. 
— **742. Battle of the Amazons. 

'The admirable effect of the whole is increased by a decided and 
masterly arrangement of the light ; the colouring is forcible without being 
overcharged, and the execution of the principal parts must be called 
cartful for Rubens. In the whole range of modern art there exists no 
other historical battle-piece worthy of being compared with Raphael's 
Battle of Constantino ; and in fact it has the advantage over the latter in 
the well-planned concentration of interest, and in the contrast afforded 
by the male and female figures, which is admirably employed/ — Waagen. 

Above, *780. Mourning for Decius (sketch for a picture in the 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 10th Edit. 15 

226 Route 33. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna) ; 792. Old woman ; above the door, 
788. Elizabeth of Bonrbon, first wife of Philip IV. of Spain. — E. 
wall: above the door, 787. Philip IV. of Spain; 783. Portrait of 
Rubens's brother. — 738. The Last Judgment (the small picture). 
'Very happily and with a proper feeling of his own powers, Rubens 
has here given only a corner in the background to the Blessed, whose 
heavenly calm and ethereal existence he was incapable of expressing ; and 
he has devoted the whole of the remaining space to the fall of the 
Damned, his true sphere. . . . The whole produces an admirable effect 
by the broad manner in which the light is managed. The colouring is 
powerful, but not extravagant} the treatment particularly easy and clever". 

— 'Ltfe of Rubens", by Prof. Waagen. 

786. Portrait (Hugo Grotlus?). — S. wall: 762. St. Christopher} 
*744. Capture of Samson j above, 733. Conversion of Paul; 743. 
Two satyrs; 758. Entombment. — Also, *764-779. Sketches of 
events in the life of Maria de' Medici, for the pictures painted in 
1622-25 for the Luxembourg in Paris, now in the Louvre. 

VII. Room. To the left (E.) : A. van Dyck, 848. The organist 
Liberti of Antwerp, *827. Rest on the Flight into Egypt, 836. Portrait 
of Marchese Spinola (unfinished) ; above, 939. J.vanArthois, Land- 
scape. — S. wall : Van Dyck, 828. SS. Mary and John with the body 
of Christ, 834. Petel, the sculptor, *843. Portrait ; 781. Snyders, 
Boar-hunt, the figures by Rubens; 832. A. van Dyck and P. Snayers, 
Henri IV of France defeating the Catholic League; A. van Dyck, 
•837. Duke Wolfgang Wilhelm of the Palatinate, *833. Portrait of 
himself, 866. Portrait of Queen Henrietta Maria of England (studio- 
piece). — W. wall : 868. Q. Kneller (after Van Dyck), Queen Hen- 
rietta Maria of England ; A. van Dyck, *846. The painter Jan de 
Wael and his wife, 849. Portrait of Mary Ruthven, Van Dyck's wife; 
above, 964. J. Fyt, Bear-hunt; VanDyck, 847. Malery the engraver, 
♦830. Pieta, 835. Portrait of Marchese Mirabella; above, 965. /. Fyt, 
Boar-hunt. — N. wall : A. van Dyck, 842. Duchess of Croy, *822. 
Susanna at the bath, *841. Duke of Croy ; above, 963. Fyt, Roe pur- 
sued by dogs ; *824. Van Dyck, St. Sebastian ; above, 968. P. Boel, 
Dog watching dead game ; Van Dyck, *839, 840. Sebastian Leerse, 
a merchant of Antwerp, and his wife, between these, 823. St. Se- 
bastian; above, *966. /. Fyt, Still-life. — E. wall: A. van Dyck, 
*844, *845. The sculptor Colyn de Nole and his wife, between these, 
♦826. Holy Family; above, 940. Arthois, Landscape. 

CabinbtXIH. To the left (E.): Van Dyck (sketches), 851. 
Maria de' Medici, 860. Van Uden, the painter, 858. Cesar Alexander 
Scaglia ; in the upper row, 708, 709. H. van Balen and J. Brueghel, 
Spring, Summer. — S. wall: A. van Dyck, 856. Wallenstein, 854. 
Gustavus Adolphus, 831. Pieta; above, 719. D. Vinkboons, Bear- 
ing of the Cross ; Van Dyck, 856. Tilly, 857. Count John of Nassau. 

— W. wall : A. van Dyck, 853. Princess Margaret of Lorraine, 859. 
Palamedesz, the painter, 852. Prince Thomas of Carignan ; in the 
upper row, 710, 711. Van Balen and Brueghel, Autumn, Winter. 

Cabinbt XIV. To the left (E.) : 682, 689. J. Brueghel the Elder, 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 33. Route. 227 

Landscapes; *909. Tenters the Younger, Violin-player; 860. Van 
Dyck, Snayers, the painter; 675. Brit, Landscape; 620. Teniers, Oats' 
concert. — S. wall: 921. D. Teniers the Younger, Apes carousing; 
713, 712. Balen and Brueghel, Nymphs fishing, Nymphs and 
game ; between these two, 705. Brueghel and Rubens, Flora. — W. 
wall: Teniers, 917. Lot and his daughters, 912. Village-concert; 
J. Brueghel, 704. Madonna in a garland of flowers, 684. Fish-market 
at the harbour. 

Cabinbt XV. To the left (E.): Teniers, 902, 903. Tavern- 
scenes, 926-929. Old picture-gallery at Brussels; 894. A. Brouwer, 
Peasants singing. — S. wall : 941 . Sibercchts, Cows pasturing. — 
W. wall: 916. Teniers, Municipal guard-room; *880. Brouwer, 
Village barber-surgeon; 911, 905. Teniers, Scenes of peasant-life. 

Cabinbt XVI. To the left (E.): *879. Brouwer, Card-players 
quarrelling ; above, *907. Teniers the Younger, Boors drinking ; 887, 
889, 890, 895, 896. Brouwer, Tavern-scenes; 945. Millet, Italian 
coast-scene. — S. wall: 946. Millet, Italian landscape; Brouwer, 
•885. Village-surgeon, 892, 891, 884, 883, 882. Scenes of peasant- 
life. — • W. wall: 904. Teniers, Village-tavern ; 888. Brouwer, Card- 
players; 825. A. van Dyck, Crucifixion; *910. Teniers, Cottage-in- 
terior ; *893. Brouwer, Soldiers gaming. 

Italian School (RR. VIII-X; Cab. XVII-XX). — VIII. Room. 
To the left (E.): *1033. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna with Mary 
Magdalen and St. Jerome ; 1044. School of Leonardo da Vinci, Ma- 
donna ; 1016a. Lorenzo di Credi, Virgin and Child, with an angel, 
an early work; *1083. Lor. Lotto, Marriage of St. Catharine; in the 
upper row, 987, 988. SpineUo Aretino (?), Two winged altar-pieces 
with five saints in each ; between these, 1008. Filippino Lippi, Christ 
appearing to the Virgin. — S. wall: Dom. Ohirlandaio, *1013. St. 
Catharine, 1011. Madonna, 1012. St.Lawrence; 1057 (above 1011). 
Mariotto Albertinelli, Annunciation; 1010. Sandro Botticelli, Pieta; 
above, *1080. Oarofalo, Pieta; *1026. Marco Palmezzano, Madonna 
and Saints. — W. wall: *1026a. Luca SignorelU, Madonna; 1022a. 
Liberate da Verona } Pieta; above, 1085. Rocco Marconi, St. Nicholas 
with John the Baptist and St. Philip ; 1017. Lorenzo di Credi, Holy 
Family; *1066. A. del Sarto, Holy Family; 1095. Correggio, Ma- 
donna with SS. Ildefonso and Jerome. — N. wall : Perugino, **1034. 
The Virgin appearing to St. Bernard, 1036. Virgin adoring the Holy 
Child ; *1052, Raphael, Portrait of Bindo Altoviti, probably paint- 
ed in Rome about 1512; above, 1045. Bern. Luini, St. Catharine; 
*1049. Raphael, Holy Family, of the Canigiani family ; above, 1060. 
Innocenzo dalmola, Virgin and saints; 1087. Seb. del Piombo(?\ 
Portrait of a priest; above, 1073. Sodoma, Madonna. -— *1039. 
Francesco Francia, Madonna in a bower of roses. 

This panel 'affords a rare example of dignity in Francia" s works ; it 
is also distinguished by a more tender blending and harmony of silvery 
tone than any we have hitherto met with'. — 'History of Painting in 
North Italy"*, by Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 


228 Route 33. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

1009. FUippino Lippi (?), Pieta. — E. wall: 1006. FraFilippo 
Lippi, Madonna; 1040. F. Francia, Madonna and Child with two 
angels; in the upper row, 984a, 984b. Agnolo Oaddi, SS. Nicholas 
and Julian; between these, 1005. Fra Filippo Lippi, Annunciation. 

IX. Room. To the left (E.): 1127. Jac. Tintoretto (?), Vesalius, 
the anatomist; above, 1140. PaoloVeronese, Cleopatra (studio-piece), 
♦1112. Titian. Charles V. (1548); 1147. Jac.Bassano, Entombment. 

— S. wall : 1117. Franc. Vectllio, Madonna and saints ; Paolo Vero- 
nese, 1135. Portrait of a lady in brown silk, 1134. Cupid with two 
tiger-hounds ; 1116. Titian, Venus initiating a girl in the service 
of Bacchus (studio-piece) ; 1128. Jac. Tintoretto (?), Nobleman in- 
troducing his son to the Doge. — W. wall : 1152. Leandro Bassano, 
Christ with Mary and Martha; 1113. Titian, Madonna (injured) ; 
1149. Jac. Bassano, Moses smiting the rock. — *1109. Titian, Ma- 
donna with John the Baptist. 

'The head and foot of 8t. John, and the head of the Virgin are damaged 
by abrasion and retouching ; yet the -picture is still a lovely one of Titian, 
and the landscape to the right, with blue mountains and nearer ranges 
dotted wUh church and campanile, is beautifully painted'. — l Titian*, by 
Crewe and Cavaleaselle. 

Above, 1124. Moroni, Portrait; 1115. Titian (?), Venetian noble. 

— 1108. Palma Vecchio, Holy Family. 

'The flesh tints are flayed, and there is some retouching in this little 
picture, but the figures and action are still attractive by their grace ; and 
the colours almost equal those of Titian in richness and power 4 . C. A C. 

N. wall: *1123. Moretto (more likely Moroni?), Priest; 1132, 
Nice. Renieri (Rignier), Portrait of Lazaro Mocenigo, Venetian 
admiral; above, 1129. 8chool of Jac. Tintoretto, Annunciation; 
*1110. Titian. Vanity of earthly things (an early work, damaged); 
above the door, 1239. B. Strozzi, The Tribute Money; 1111. Titian, 
Portrait of a man ; above, 1156. Palma Giovane , Adoration of the 
Shepherds. — *1114. Titian, Christ crowned with thorns (of his 
latest period). 

'It is impossible to conceive better arrangement, greater harmony of 
lines, or more boldness of movement. Truth in the reproduction of na- 
ture in momentary action is combined with fine contrasts of light and 
shade, and an inimitable richness of tone, in pigment kneaded, grained, 
and varied in surface beyond anything that we know of this time 1 . C. A C. 

Above, 1136. P. Veronese, The Centurion of Capernaum ; 1121. 
Paris Bordone, Man offering jewels to a woman ; above, 1155. Palma 
Oiovane, Entombment. — E. wall: 1120. P. Bor done (?), Portrait. 

— *1107. Palma Vecchio, Portrait of himself. 

'A noble portrait by Palma Vecchio', probably of the painter himself. 
'Whoever he may be, the man is of strong and energetic mould; the 
glance of his eye is so rapid, open , and expressive as to convey the best 
impression of nature's instant action ; there is a breadth of modelling and 
a variety of toning beyond measure telling and truthful ; and the play of 
the features is admirable 1 . C. A C. 

1137. P. Veronese, Holy Family (copy ?) ; above the entrance, 
1271. Oiov. Batt. Tiepolo, Adoration of the Magi (1763). 

X. Room. To the left(E.): *1211. Camillo Procaccini , Holy 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 33. Route. 229 

Family; 1170. Guido Rem, Assumption; 1194. Cagnacci, Mary 
Magdalen borne to Heaven by angels; 1215. Cavaliert d'Arpino, 
Madonna. — S. wall: 1174. G. Reni, St. Jerome; above, 1197. 
A. Turchi, Hercules and Omphale; 1171. G. Rem, Apollo flaying 
Marsyas. — W. wall: 1259. Cignani, Assumption. — N. wall: 
1105. Fed. Baroccio, Mary Magdalen receiving the Eucharist; 1165. 
Lod. Carracci, Angel appearing to the sleeping St. Francis; 1054. 
After Raphael, St. Cecilia (original at Bologna). — E. wall : 1164. 
Lod. Carracci, Entombment; 1104. Baroccio, Christ appearing to 
Mary Magdalen. 

Cabinbt XVI*. To the left (E.): 1023. Ferrarese School (about 
1480), Madonna enthroned ; 1029a. Antonello da Messina, The Vir- 
gin; *989-991. Fra Angelico, Legend of SS. Cosmas and Damianus; 
1040a. Leonardo daVinci, Madonna and Child; above, 1000. Floren- 
tine School (about 1400), St. Jerome ; 992. Fra Angelico, The dead 
Christ; 983. Giotto, Last Supper. — S. wall: 1022. Francesco di 
Giorgio, Miracle of St. Anthony ; 1029b. Ant. da Messina, Pieta; 
993, 994. School of Fra Angelico, Annunciation; 1007. FraFilippo 
Lippi, Annunciation. — W. wall: Giotto, 982. Christ in Hades, 
981. Crucifixion; between these two, 986. Lippo Memmi (?), As- 
sumption; 996, 997. Florentine School, Portraits; 1030. School of 
Gentile Bellini, Portrait. 

Cabinbt XVHI. To the left (E.): 1053. Raphael (?), Head of 
St. John on a tile ; 995. School of Fra Angelico, Head of a monk 
(in fresco). — S. wall: 1022b-1022g. School ofMantegna, I trionfl 
di Petrarca ; 1075. A. del Brescianino, Holy Family. — W. wall : 
1032. Af. Bqsaiti, Descent from the Cross. 

Cabinbt XIX. To the left (E.) : 1078. Umbr ian- Bolognese School 
(about 1510), Portrait of a young man ; 1242. Salvator Rosa, The 
troops of Gideon; 1059. Girolamo del Pacchia, St. Bernardino. — 
**1050. Raphael, Madonna Tempi (so named from the Oasa Tempi 
at Florence, where it was purchased by Lewis I. in 1828). 

Both in tone and execution this beautiful work is closely allied to 
the celebrated Madonna of the House of Orleans. The colours are laid on 
thinly, with a somewhat fuller impasto in the whitish light. It is a true 
touch of nature which makes the mother accompany the close embrace 
with a look of tender affection , while the child receives the caress more 
mechanically and gazes straight out of the picture. — i Raffael und 
Michelangelo*, by Pro/. Anton Springw. 

1058. Pacchia, Madonna and angels; 1186. Franc. Atbani, Venus 
and Adonis. — S. wall: 1037, 1038. Raphael, Baptism and Resur- 
rection of Christ ; between these two, *1094. Correggio, Faun play- 
ing the flute, early work ; 1074. Sodoma, Archangel Michael. — W. 
wall: 1184. B. Gennari, Salvator Mundi ; *1051. Raphael, Madonna 
della Tenda (so named from the green curtain); 1227. Carlo Dolci, 
Mary Magdalen. 

Cabinbt XX. To the left(E.): Bern. Belotto (Canaletto), 1268. 
The Piazzetta, 1270. Grand Canal near the vegetable -market at 

230 Route 33. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

Venice; between these two, *1133. Paolo Veronese (?), Jupiter and 
Antiope; above No. 1133, 1145. Paolo Veronese, Adoration of the 
Magi (studio-piece). — S. wall: 1168. Ann. Carracci, Pieta; 1099. 
Lelio Orsi, Portrait ; 1100. Santi di Tito, Portrait. — W. wall : 1267, 
1269. Belotto (Canaietto), Canal Grande at Venice; 1148. Qiac. 
Bassano, St. Jerome. 

Spanish Mastebs (chiefly). — XI. Room. To the left (N.): 1292. 
Velazquez (?), Portrait of himself (injured); *1308. Murillo, Old 
woman cleansing a boy's head ; 1291. Zurbaran, St. Francis of As- 
sisi; upper row, L. Giordano, 1254. The father of the artist, 1253. 
Portrait of himself. — E. wall: 1309. aodto Coello, St. Peter of 
Alcantara walking on the sea; 1280. Ribera, Body of St. Andrew 
removed from the cross ; 1298. Ant. Pereda, Portrait ; 1281. Ribera, 
Death of Seneca. — S. wall: 1310. Jose Antolinez, The Immacu- 
late Conception; Murillo, *1306. Beggar-boys gambling, 1303. St. 
Thomas of Villanueva healing a paralytic, *1307. Children selling 
fruit; 1279. Franc. Ribalta, The Virgin and St. John returning 
from the Sepulchre. — W. wall : Ribera, 1285. St. Onuphrius, 1282. 
Egg-dealer; above, 1300. Pedro de Moya, Conversation-piece; 
•1305. Murillo, Two beggar-boys with a puppy; 1284. Ribera, 
St. Bartholomew; *1293. Velazquez, Portrait of a young man ; above, 
1299. P. de Moya, Fortune-teller; 1302. Careno, Donna Maria Anna 
de Austria. — 1283. Ribera, Peter's repentance; **1304. MuriUo, 
Two beggar-boys eating grapes and melons ; above, 1301. Alonso 
Cano, Vision of St. Anthony; 1295. Del Mazo, Half-length portrait. 

XII. Room. Fbench and Lateb German Mastebs. To the left 
(N.): 1327, *1326. Claude Lorrain, Landscapes; between these two, 
1346. Monnoyer, Flowers. — W. wall : 1322. N. Poussin, Midas and 
Bacchus ; above, 1374. J. Vernet, Storm at sea ; 1340. Ph. de Cham- 
paigne, Turenne ; *1325, *1324. Claude Lorrain, Landscapes ; *1321. 
N. Poussin, Entombment. — S. wall: 1330. he Sueur, Christ with 
Martha and Mary. — E. wall: 1433. Ant. Qraff, Portrait of himself; 
1425. J.Kupetzhy(?), Portrait of a woman; Chr. Schwarz, 1380-82. 
Madonna in clouds, at the sides SS. Jerome and Catharine, 1379. 
Family of the artist. 

CabinbtXXI. To the left(E.): 1376. Chardin, Cook paring 
turnips; 1316. A. Crabeth (?), Portrait of a young lady ; 1368. C.J. 
Vernet, Morning by the sea; 1366. Ant. Pesne, Girl with straw-hat ; 
1369. Vernet, Evening near Rome. — S. wall: 1353. J. Jouvenet, 
Pater L. Bourdaloue; 1339. Le Nain, The portrait- painter; 1341. 
Ph. de Champaigne, Madonna. — "W. wall : 1314. J. Clouet, Portrait 
of a young man; 1377. Qreuze, Portrait of a girl; 1315. Francois 
Clouet, Claudia, daughter of Henry II. of France. 

Cabinbt XXII. German Mastebs, chiefly 17th century. — To 
the left (E.): Cdsp. Netscher, 1398. Musical entertainment, 1399. 
Lady with parrot; Rottenhammer, 1383. Judgment of Paris, 1384. 

Old Pinahothek. MUNICH. 33. Route. 231 

Last Judgment, 1385. Diana and Act»on; 1426, 1427. Denner, Old 
man and old woman ; 1416. J. H. Roos, Starting from camp ; Netaeher, 
1400. Bathsheba at the bath, 1402. Pastoral scene. — S. wall: 
•1391. Ehheimer, Moonlight scene, with the Flight to Egypt as ac- 
cessory; 1401. Netschcr, Boy playing the flute in artificial light; 
Rottenhammer, 1386. Holy Family in a landscape, 1387. Children 
dancing j 1405. Mignon, Fruit and flowers. — W. wall : 1388. Rotten- 
hammer, Marriage at Cana; 1403. Lingelbach, Hay-harvest; 1390. 
EUheimer, Destruction of Troy ; 1415. Roos, Landscape with cattle. 

Cabinbt XXIII contains a series of religious pictures painted, 
for Elector Palatine Johann Wilhelm by Adrian van der Werff, and 
a few portraits by Mengs and Edlinger. 

On the S. side are the Loggie, an arcade in twenty-five sections, 
with frescoes designed by Cornelius, illustrating the history of paint- 
ing, the first thirteen relating to Italian art , the remaining twelve 
to art in Germany, the Netherlands, and France. 

E. Semes: 1. Dome: Religion in union with the Art*. Arabesques ; 
King David (lyric poetry), Solomon (architecture), St. Luke (painting), 
St Cecilia (music). King Louis conducted by his genius into the grove 
of poets and artists; the three heads to the right on the outer arch are 
Klenze, Cornelius, and Zimmermann. — 2. The Crusade* awaken Art, 
Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Crusade. Battle of Iconium. Giov. 
Pisano shows the magistrates of Pisa his design for the Campo Santo. — 
3. Cimabue{&.. 1900). He is taughtby Byzantine painters; his Madonna brought 
into the church. — 4. Giotto (d. 1837), when a shepherd-boy, becomes Cimabue's 
pupil ; shows his pictures to Pope Benedict XI. ; King Robert of Naples 
visits Giotto; the painter accompanies Pope Clement V. to Avignon. — 
5. Fra Angelico da Fiesole (d. 1456). Ordination as Dominican; he paints 
in the cells of the monastery ; receives the blessing of Pope Martin V. 
after having painted a chapel in the Vatican; shows Duke Cosimo de* 
Medici at Florence the plan of the monastery of St. Mark : he declines 
an archiepiscopal see. — 6. Masaccio (d. 1443) shows his designs to a car- 
dinal ; paints in the church del Carmine at Florence. — 7. Pervgino (d. 
1524), Raphael's teacher. — 8. Predecessors and Contemporaries of Raphael. 
Signorelli's Vision of the Last Judgment — 9. Leon, da Vinci's birth (d. 
1519); Leonardo as a teacher and a portrait-painter; his death in the 
presence of Francis I. of France. — 10. Correggio (d. 1534) among his 
pupils ; allegories. — 11. Venetian School. Diirer visits Bellini ; Bellini at 
Constantinople paints the Sultan and his mistress; Titian paints Emp. 
Charles V. ; the heads of the School visit Titian. — 12. Michael Angelo (d. 
1663). Allegory in allusion to his threefold capacity as painter, sculptor, 
and architect; he paints the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; works as a 
sculptor at night ; designs the dome of St. Peter's. — 13. Raphael (d. 1520) 
when a boy in his father's studio; enters the school of Perugino; is 
introduced to Pope Julius II. ; paints in the Stanze of the Vatican. 

W. Series (beginning at the end) : 1. Allegories similar to those in the 
first loggia on theE. — 2. Charles Martel's victory over the Saracens at Tours 
(732). Boniface preaches Christianity. Charlemagne surrounded by scholars, 
bards, and poets. — 3. Emp. Henry, the * founder of cities 1 . The architect 
Meister Gerhardt delivers the model of Cologne cathedral to Bishop Conrad ; 
relics of the Magi ; death of St. Gereon and St Ursula. — 4. Meister Wilhelm 
of Cologne (d. 1380). Vision of the Virgin ; his death. Influence on the pic- 
tures of Holbein and other masters. — 5. John (d. 1442) and Hubert (d. 
1426) van Eyck: the latter invents oil-painting; teaches his brother and 
Sister ; shows Philip the Good of Burgundy his pictures ; instructs Anto- 
nello of Messina in the art of oil-painting. Allusions to their celebrated 
4 Immaculate Lamb'. — John Memling (d. 1499) paints in St. John's Ho- 

232 Route 33. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

pital at Bruges ; his death-, vision of the Last Judgment — 7. Lucas van 
Leyden (d. 1533) : drawing on his death-bed. — 8. Hans Holbein (d. 1543) : 
the Virgin appears to him (allusions to his Dresden Madonna) •, he receives 
letters of introduction from Erasmus for England ; paints Sir Thomas More 
and his family; introduction to Henry VIII.; he draws the Dance of 
Death. — 9. Albrecht DUrer (d. 1528), pupil of Wohlgemuth his friend Pirk- 
heimer reads to him; Emp. Maximilian holds the ladder for him; his 
flattering reception among the painters of Antwerp. — 10. Rembrandt (d. 
1669); on the dome Claude Lorrain (d. 1682). — 11. Le Sueur (d. 1655) 
working at night, among the Carmelites; Nic. Poussin and his School at 
Rome ; protection from envy. — 12. Rubens (d. 1640) at his easel , sprinkled 
with flowers by the goddess of fortune ; at his feet Cupid and Bacchantes ; 
allusions to the tendency of his pictures ; the master in the presence of 
Maria de' Medici ; ambassador in England. 

Ground Floob of the Pinakothek. On the N. side are the Cabi- 
net of Engravings (adm., see p. 196), upwards of 300,000 in number 
(Dutch and German well represented), and the Cabinet of Drawings 

!adm., see p. 196), containing 22,000 by old and modern masters 
four by Raphael, ten by Fra Bartolomeo, seal of the academy of 
Florence by Benvenuto Cellini, with explanation in his own hand- 
writing, sketches by Rembrandt and Durer, portraits by Holbein, etc.). 
Good reproductions (photographs, photo-lithographs, etc.) of rare en- 
gravings, etchings, and drawings are sold by the attendants in the Cabi- 
net of Engravings. Prices 25 pf . to 3 Jf. 

The Cabinet of Vases (adm., see p. 196 ; catalogue 80 pf.), occu- 
pying five rooms in the W. wing of the groundfloor of the Old 
Pinakothek, comprises about 2300 specimens, obtained by King 
Louis I. from the Candelori (from Vulci), Ganino (Etruscan), Dod- 
well (Greek), Panettieri and Politi (Sicilian), and Lipona (Lower 
Italian) collections. 

I. Room. Centre-table (large Attic • Amphorae of the 2nd half of the 
6th and beginning of the 5th cent. B. C, red figures on a black ground 
or vice versa) : 411 (in the middle). Departure of a youthful warrior ; 374, 
378. Arming of a youthful hero (painted by Euthymides) ; 410. Theseus 
carrying off Helen ; 388. Hercules and Athena at a banquet ; 405. Assembly 
of the Gods ; 406. Hercules and Cerberus ; 380. Peleus wrestling with Thetis. 
Left wall (hydriae of the 6th and 5th cent. B. C ; black figures) : 125. 
Chalcidian hydria with Peleus and Atalanta; 120, 122, 116. Water-bearers; 
409. Ajax with the body of Achilles; ten vases with the Labours of Her- 
cules ; in the row above, Chariot-scenes. At the right end of the lowest 
row are six red-figured hydrice, the best of which are Nos. 4. Amazons, 
and 6. A lesson on the lyre, by Hypsis and Euthymides. Right Wall : 
black-figured Attic amphoree of the 2nd half of the 6th cent. B. C. Those 
in the lower row represent the Labours of Hercules, Conflicts with the 
Giants, and Assemblies of the Gods. In the upper row : 619. Perseus after 
slaying the Gorgon; 728. Sisyphus. 

II. Room. 1st Table (continuation of the black - figured Attic am- 
phoree): 611. Hermes; 698. Chalcidian amphora with chariot and elabo- 
rate ornamentation; 476. Attic imitation, with runners; 153. Sisyphus. 
— 2nd Table : Attic amphoree in the earlier style : 126. Hercules killing 
tfessus; 124. Achilles attacked by Hector, <£neas, and Deiphobus after 
the death of Troilus. On the small table to the right: 645. Birth of 
Athena. Small table to the left (amphoree in an affected style): 77. Sa- 
crificial procession; 84. Nessus and Dejaneira. — Room III (r.) is reserved 
for students. 

IV. Room (left from II. Room). The nine tables round the walls bear 
nothing of importance. Near the pillars stand Athenian prize amphoree, 
the pattern of which was imported into Italy in oil -jars, e.g. 449, 498, 

New Pinakothek. MUNICH. 33. Route. 233 

544, with representations of Athena and warlike sports. On the windows : 
wire-cages with specimens of small vessels . some of them of very hand- 
some shape. On the table (No. 10) nearest the entrance : *745. The contest 
between Idas and Apollo forMarpessa; *753. (flower-pot or wine-cooler?), 
Alceeus and Sappho. Eleventh table (towards the window): S76. Boreas 
pursuing Orithyia ; 776. Hephaestus intoxicated, surrounded by Bacchantes. 
Twelfth table (in a line with No. 10): *805. Scenes from the Argonautic 
expedition; 807. Peleus pursuing Thetis; *810. Large coloured amphora 
from Ganosa in Apulia : Vengeance of Medea, death of Oreusa in the poi- 
soned garment, Medea slays her children and departs in the chariot drawn 
by dragons. At the end, to the right, 863. Lycurgus and Dionysus, beau- 
tifully ornamented, Apulian, from the same tomb as Nos. 810 and 849. — 
Thirteenth table: *849. Large amphora, Orpheus in Hades, companion 
vase to the beautiful No. 810 and like it found at Ganosa. 

V. Room. On Table I, left : Old Etrurian utensils in black clay with 
stamped figures \ on Table II some very ancient yellow ones with animals. 
On Table III: 1035. Large vase with combats between war-chariots. 
Table IV, right: Plain Gyprian vessels. Table V: Aitic drinking-vessels 
and lecythi. Tables VI- VIII : Black-figured Attic vases. On the floor a 
large antique 'Mosaic, Gsea, goddess of the earth, surrounded by the 
seasons, also Helius in the zodiac, found in the Romagna. 

The *New Pinakothek (PI. D, 2; tramway-lines 2 & 7, p. 193 ; 
adm., see p. 197; catalogue 1 Jf> with illustrations 2 M\ erected 
by Voit in 1846-53, contains exclusively Modern Pictures (over 
900 works, in eleven rooms and fouiteen cabinets on the first floor 
and three rooms on the groundfloor). The frescoes on the exterior, 
which have suffered from exposure on the W. and S. sides, were 
executed by Nilson from Kaulbach's designs (Nos. 373-391, in the 
cabinets; p. 236). In the entrance-hall is the model of Wagner's 
Quadriga on the Siegestor (p. 214). Near it, to the left, is the 
entrance to two rooms containing Paintings on Porcelain (adm., see 
p. 197 ; catalogue, see above), copies of the best pictures in the 
OJd Pinakothek, and of the gallery of beauties in the Palace. Be- 
hind the Quadriga, to the left, is the entrance to the Antiquarium 
(p. 239) ; to the right is that to the three rooms of the picture gallery 
mentioned at p. 238. 

I. Room: *394. W. von Kaulbach, Portrait of King Louis I.; (r.) 
393. Kaulbach, Portrait of King Maximilian II. ; (1.) 342. Holmberg, 
293. Herkomer, Prince Regent Luitpold. In the middle, marble bust 
of Luitpold, by Wadere. 

II. Room. *604. K.vonPUoty, Sen! before the corpse ofWallen- 
stein. — Right wall : 418. J. A. Koch, 639. Chr. Reinhart, Histor- 
ical landscapes; 760. Schorn, Deluge (unfinished) ; 151. Fr. Diday, 
Wetterhorn. — Exit-wall: 263. L. von Hagn, Al fresco music; 
304. H. von Hess, Madonna enthroned ; 904. A. Zimmermann, Moun- 
tain-scene; 921. A. Zwengauer, Sunset on the Benediktenwand ; 
652. A. Riedel, Mother and Child; 895. Winkler, Mountain-scene 
by moonlight; 771. J. von Schraudolph, Ascension. — Left wall: 
366. Angelica Kauffmann, Christ and the Woman of Samaria; 
*605. K. von Piloty, Thusnelda in the triumphal procession of Ger- 
manicus ; *2. Andreas Achenbach, Storm at sea. This and the follow- 

234 Route 33. 


2V«U> Pindkothek. 

ing three rooms also contain (above) cartoons for windows in the 
cathedral of Cologne and the Auer-Kirche at Munich (p. 253), by 
J. A. Fischer and J. von Schraudolph. 

III. Room. Entrance-wall : 309, 310. P. von Hess, King Otho 
entering Nauplia (1833) and Athens (1835); above the door, 920. 
Zwengauer, Sunset on a moor; 905. A. Zimmermann, Heroic land- 
scape. — Right wall: 216. 0. Fluggen, Ante-room of a prince; *370. 
W. von Kaulbach, Destruction of Jerusalem (which suggested the 
cycle of frescoes in the New Museum at Berlin) ; 140. Coroenne, 
The Dauphin taking leave of his mother Marie Antoinette in 1793. 
— *611, 512. Makart, Gifts of earth and water (Abundantia) ; 305. 

Ground Plan of the Upper Floor. 


14 |13 














S 1 

iv m n 









II. von Hess, Apollo and the Muses ; 650. Riedel, Family of a Nea- 
politan fisherman. — 288. Heinlein, Waterfall near Salzburg; *723. 
E. Schleich the Elder, Bed of the Isar near Munich. 

IV. Room. *187. Anselm Feuerbach, Medea; 626. W. Rauber, 
The conversion of St. Hubert. — Right wall: 172. Echtler, Ash 
Wednesday; 564. V. Muller, Romeo and Juliet; 368. Ft. August 
von Kaulbach, Entombment; 765. Schraudolph, Christ healing the 
sick; *92. A. Bocklin, Pan among the reeds; 171. Echtler, Fallen. 
— *395. A. von Keller, Jairus's Daughter; 473. B. A. Liljefors, 
Heathfowl; above the door, 602. Piglhein, Entombment; »278. 
K. Heffner, Isola Sacra at Rome; 218. O. Frenzel, The favourite. — 
136a. O. von Cederstrom, Before the battle; 887, *886. Wenglein, 
Landscapes ; between these two, 476. W. Undenschmit the Younger, 
Venus and Adonis; 440. Ed. Kurzbauer, Rustic holiday ; above, 302. 
H. von Hess, Last Sapper (unfinished). 

V. Room. To the right : 700. Fr . Roubaud, In the Caucasus ; 
430. Kroyer, Beach at Skagen. — 721. Schindler, Saw-mill; 586a. 
A. Oberldnder, Resignation; 586. Luigi Nono, Vegetable -seller; 
826. F. Stuck, War; 43. H. Baisch, Dutch pasture- land; 297. L. 
Herterich, Knight. — 698. H. Petersen, Sea; 142. Fr. Courtens, 
Autumn ; 331a. Hicrl-Deronco, At the theatre. — *758. O. Scfion- 
leber, Punta da Madonetta; 789. O. Sinding, Boys bathing; *183. J. 
Exter, Good Friday; *842. F. von Uhde, Ascension; 603. PigUieim, 

New Pinakothek. MUNICH. 33. Route. 235 

Blind woman; 824. 0. Strutzel, Environs of Munich; above the 
door, 335. P. Hocker, Madonna; 891. L. WiUroider, At Furstenfeld- 
Bruck. — 699. Roubaud, Wounded; 295. L. Herterich, St. George; 
50. H. van Bartels, Moonlight on the Zuydersee; above the door, 
855. Viniegra, Before the bull-fight ; 196. J. A. Fischer, Entombment. 

VI. Room. *Rottmann, Twenty-three Greek landscapes (1845-50), 
encaustic paintings lighted from above. 

Smaller Rooms (beginning from the large Room V). 

I. To the right: Fr. von Lenbach, *459. Prince Bismarck; 461. 
Daughter of Herodias; *457. Pope Leo XHI.; 460. Dr. Dollinger; in 
the upper row, 638. Reid, An unpleasant customer; 190. A. Fink, 
Winter's morning in the mountains. — 353. Jansen, Harbour of 
Hoorn in Holland; 831. Tholen, Sand-pits in the Dunes; 462. Len- 
bach, Prof, von Bayer; 515. /. Maris, Dutch landscape; *146. J. E. 
Vantan, Potters; 480. L. von Lofftz, Orpheus and Eurydice; 463. 
Lenbach, Herm. Lingg; 259. J. H. de Haas, Cattle. — 86. K. Bios, 
Cradle; above the door, 720. E. J. Sehindler, March; *840. Vhde, A 
painful walk. — 268. Edm. Harburger, Beaux restes ; 822. Stott, 
Grandfather's work-room; 649. A. Milesi, Twilight; 898, 897. Olga 
Wisinger-Florian, Flowers ; between these, 458. Lenbach, Prince- 
Regent Luitpold; 298. L. Herzog, Noonday heat; 841. Vhde, Noli me 
tangere; 156. L. Bill, Ponte Sant' Andrea at Chioggia. 

II. To the right: 270. K. Hartmann, Adam andEve; 116. F. Brutt, 
Scene in a court of justice; 563. P. P. MuUer, At the pond; *527. 
G. Max, Catharine Emerich in aneetasy; 859. A, Vollon, Still-life; 
553. O. Modersohn, Storm on the Teufelsmoor; 526. A. Mauve, Cattle 
at pasture; 396. A. von Keller, The artist's wife; 112. Austen 
Brown, Evening; 507. H. Luyton, Mending nets; *144. Dagnan- 
Bouveret, Virgin and Child ; 448. A. Langhammer, Supper ; *275. 
R. Haug, Leave-taking; 893. L. WiUroider, At dusk. — 296. 
Herterich, Summer-evening; 334. P. Hocker, Dutch girl; above the 
door, 453. John Lavery, Tennis-court; 349. J. Israels, Grannie's 
comfort; 804. J. B.Steffan, Mountain-scene. — 462. A. Laupheimer, 
Cardinal; 839. H. Scott Tuke, Sailors playing cards; 514. C. F. Mali, 
Cows on the Alp; 137. J. P. Clays, Open sea; 424. J. Kombeck, 
Forest-stream in late autumn; *781. G. Segantini, Ploughing; 355. 
O. Jernberg, In the fields; 49. Bartels, Full speed ahead; 256. Nic. 
Qysis, Carnival in Greece; 39. A. Anderson-Lundby, Winter's day; 
236. E.von Gebhardt, Crucifixion.— 366. A.Kampf, Emp. William I. 
lying in state; 141. Fr. Courtens, Hyacinths; above the door, 400. 
F. Khnopff, Hopeless. 

III. To the right: *431. G. Kuehl, Sunday afternoon in "Holland; 
477. L. Linder, Baking. — 911. E. 7Ammermann, Adoration of the 
Shepherds; 892. WiUroider, The Deluge; 369. H. Kaulbach, At a 
friend's grave. — 46. Van de Sande-BakhuUen, Village on the 
dunes ; 127. Q. von Canal, Old chateau in Westphalia. — 620a. 
C. Marr, Madonna; 76. J. BenUiure, St. Francis; 478. Loefftz, 

236 Route 33. MUNICH. New Pinakothek. 

Body of Christ; 546. H. W. Mesdag, November day. — 148. Def- 
regger, A visit; 113. Austen Brown, Mile. Plume Rouge; 777. 
Schuster-Woldan, Sea-beach. 

IV. To the right: 795. Splitgerber, Evening; 630a. Raupp, 
• Chiemsee; 790. Skarbina, Farm in Picardy. — 245. Gierymski, The 

Wittelsbacher-Platz in Munich; *107. J. von Brandt, Defence; 919. 
H. Ziigel, Sheep; 147. Defregger, Storming the Red Tower at Mu- 
nich in 1705; 533. Le Mayeur, High-tide; 106. Jos. von Brandt, 
Cossack horses in a snow-storm ; 640. Oari Melchers , Girl reading. 
— 584. A. Newhuys, Spring; 98. H. Borchardt, The letter; 361. 
Viggo Johansen, Social evening ; above the door, 271 . L. Hartmann, 
In the fields; *544. A. Menzel, Contribution; 433. L. A. Kunz, Still- 
life; *229. A. Gobi, Vaccination in Tyrol. — 757. G. Schonleber, 
Dutch village; 877. V. Weishaupt, Cattle; *83. Chr. Bisschop, Sun- 
shine in house and heart; *192. W.FvrU, Lord's Prayer (triptych); 
522. h, Massaux, Pasture; 832. Hans Thoma, Scene in the Taunus; 
510. G. von Maffei', Dachshunds and badger. — *902. Wopfner, 
Fishingin the Chiemsee; above the door, 569b. H. Morley, Cock-fight. 

V. To the right: 738. R.Schleich, On the highroad; 429. K. Kron- 
berger, Content; *538. Meissonier, Bravoes (1852); 368c. F. A. von 
Kaulbach, Pettenkofer. — 154b. W. von Diez, Croats; *76. Ben- 
Mure, May in Valencia; 368a. F. A. von Kaulbach, Portrait of the 
artist's wife; 912. E.Zimmermann, Fish; *96. Bocklin, Waves; 368b. 
F. A. von Kaulbach, Portrait of children; 528. Gabriel Max, The 
connoisseurs; 830a. H. Thierot, The springs. — 149. Defregger, 
Council of war in 1809; 471. A. Lier, Theresienwiese at Munich; 
629. A. von Romberg, After dinner. —290. J. Henderson, Still-life; 
844. B. Vautier, Rustic feast; 237. F. O. Gablcr, Reynard's end; 
262. Ed. Grutzner, Convent-scene. — W. Leibl, 454. Man at the 
window, 456b. Portrait of J. P. Selinger, 456a. Study. 

We now pass through Room I to the Cabinbts (chronologically 

1. Cabinet. 808-816. Stieler, 772-774. Schrotzberg, Portraits of 
the Bavarian royal family. On the S. wall, 306. H. von Hess, Thor- 
valdsen ; 818. Stieler, Goethe (1828). — 819. Stieler, Emp. Fran- 
cis 1. of Austria. — 392. W. von Kaulbach, King Louis I. — 27. 
M. E. Ainmiller, Interior of Westminster Abbey. 

2. Cabinet. To the right, Rottmann, 670. Eibsee, 666. Acropolis 
of Sicyon; 419. J, A. Koch, Italian vintage feast; 129. Catel, Crown- 
prince Lewis in the Spanish artists' tavern on the Ripa Grande at 
Rome. — 314. P. von Hess, Greek peasants by the seashore; 17. 
B. Adam, Cattle-market in the Bavarian mountains. — 316. P. von 
Hess, Capturing horses in Wallachia. This and the following ca- 
binets contain a series of oil-sketches (373-391) by W. von Kaul- 
bach for the frescoes outside the building (p. 233), representing the 
artistic activity of King Louis 1. at Rome and Munich, with nume- 
rous portraits. 

New Pinakothek. MUNICH. 33. Route. 237 

3. Cabinet, To the right, 753. J. Schnorr, Scene from the Nibe- 
lungen-Lied ; 636. Regemorter , Dutch room ; *242. J. Geyer, Con- 
cilium Medicum. — *890. Sir David WiUcie, Opening the will; 
249. A. Graff, Chodowiecky. 

4. Cabinet To the right, 608. J. W. Pteyer, Still-life; *660. 
L. Robert, Woman of Procida; 243. L. Geyer, Return from the mask- 
ed ball; 18. A. and B. Adam, Stable. — 556. H. Monten, Recon- 
naissance by Napoleon; 801. B. Stange, Shipping in the Lagoons 
of Venice; J. P. Hasenclever, *272. Jobs (a dunce) at an examination, 
273. Sulky spouses; *666. Rottmann, Monte Pellegrino at Palermo. 

5. Cabinet. To the right, 756. F. W. Schbn, Eavesdropper; 284. 
Heideck, Approach to the Acropolis; *778. M. von Schwind, A 
symphony; 409. J. Kirner, Fortune-teller. Opposite, 318-321. 
P. von Hess, Sketches for the scenes from the Greek War of In- 
dependence in the Arcades (p. 203) ; 583. Neureuther, Daughter of 
the pastor of Taubenhain; 671. Rottmann, Hintersee, near Berchtes- 
gaden. — 323. P. von Hess, KingOtho of Greece with the members of 
the regency ; 238. E. Gerhardt, Court of the Lions in the Alhambra. 

6 . Cabinet. To the right, 611. D. Quaglio, Church of St. Sebaldus 
at Nuremberg; 847. Verboeckhoven, Sheep; 399. iV. de Keyser, Monk 
and alms-box. — 716. P. van Schendel, Night-view of Antwerp 
market-place; 311. P. von Hess, Italian locanda. — 627. D. Raffet, 
Soldiers of the First Republic. 

7. Cabinet. To the right, 23. Fr. Adam, French cuirassiers at 
the burning of Moscow. — 3. A. Aehenbach, Autumn-morning in 
the Pontine Marshes. — 119. H. Burkel, Winter-scene. 

8. Cabinet. To the right, *668. Rottmann, Taormina and Mt. 
Etna; 468. Lichtenheld, Castle-court by moonlight; 169. Eberle, 
Sheep and shepherd. — 281. Heideck, Bridge of Cuenca in Spain. 
— 612. D. Quaglio, Orvieto Cathedral. 

9. Cabinet. To the right. 467. Lichtenheld, Moonlight. — 793. 
Spitzweg, The hermits; 561. K. F. M. Muller, Bavarian country- 
wedding; Spitzweg, 791. The poor poet, 792. In the attic. 

10. Cabinet. To the right, 87a. Bios, Portrait of the artist's 
wife; 267a. Gysis, Fortune-teller. — 754. Schodl, Still-life; 593a. 
Papperitz, Lady in furs; 163. Diez, Magnate on a journey. 

11. Cabinet. To the right, 423. Konig, On the tower of St. 
Peter's, Munich; 431a. Kuhles, Old farm; 261b. Habermann, Por- 
trait. — 919a. Zugel, Dogsf 291b. Hengeler, Peasant; 784a. Seiler, 
Church-interior; 796a. Stabrowshy, Before parting. 

12. Cabinet. To the right, 363. Count von Kalckreuth, Rainbow ; 
261. Gruttner, Silesian toper and the devil; no number, Lenbach, 
Emp. William I. ; 337. Hoch, Landscape. — 706b. Samberger, Por- 
trait; 862. Vriendt, Bruges. — 806. E. von Steinle, The Parsifal 
legend (water-colour). 

13. Cabinet. To the right, 150a. E. Dekkert, 'Scottish fishing- 
village; 787. F. Simm, Painting-lesson; 825. Stuck, Sin; 97. Giqv x 

238 Route 33. MUNICH. New Pinakothek. 

Boldini, Two friends. — 827. K. Sundt-Hansen, Village virtuoso ; 
164a. W. von Dies, St. George; 833. Thoma, Solitude; 659a. H. 
Morley, Cattle pasturing; 545. Menzel, Study of ahead; 262. Q. 
MacU, First quarters in 1812. 

Id. Cdbinet. 53-67. Bauernfeind, Oriental scenes in water- 
colours. — 154. W. von Dicz, The good old days. — 517-619. L. 
Marold, Parisian life; 427. Kowalsky-Wierusz, In February. — 
778b-h. M. von Schwind, Sketches for the frescoes in the Vienna 
Opera House. 

We now descend to the three Gboundfloob Rooms entered 
from behind the Quadriga (see p. 233). 

I. Section 1. To the right, *588. Overbeck, Mary and Elizabeth, 
with the Child Christ and the young Baptist (1825); 568. F. J. 
Navez, Spinners of Fondi; 907. M. Zimmermann, Oak-wood; 136. 
Catel, Garden of the Capuchins at Syracuse; above, 709. F. W.von 
Schadow, Holy Family. On the partition- wall, 26, 26. H. Adam, 
Views of Munich; 350. Jacobs, Shipwreck. — Sec. 2. To the right, 
615-625. Quaglio, Views of Munich; 689. Overbeck, Italia and Ger- 
mania; 802. Stange, Italian villa. — Sec. 3. To the right, 766. 
Schraudolph, Miraculous Draught of Fishes; 630. Bamberg, Alpine 
girl at her prayers; Schraudolph, 764. St. Agnes, 763. Madonna 
with Jesus and John the Baptist; 889. A. Wichmann, Venetian 
woman ; 239. Oerhardt, Interior of St. Mark's at Venice. 

II. Section I. To the right, 851. J. Vermeersch, Canal Grande at 
Venice; 219. J. J. Frey, Columns of Memnon at Thebes. — Sec. 2. 
To the right, 724-734. E. Schleich the Elder, Landscapes, 123. 
Burkel, Leaving the Alpine pasture; 794. Spitzweg, Hermit. — 
Sec. 3. To the right, 446. J. Lange, Gosau Lake at sunset; 570. 
M. Neher, Trausnitz Chapel, near Landshut ; 645. Fr. von Bhoden, 
Holy Family ; 798. A, Stademann, Winter-scene ; 446. Lange, Gosau 
Lake in the morning. To the left, 743. W. H. Schmidt, Dutch sohool; 
513. Mali, Verona. 

III. Section 1. To the right, 308. P. von Hess, Battle of Auster- 
litz; 417. W. von Kobell, Battle of Hanau (1813). To the left, 609. 
L. Putz, Bavarian rifles at the battle of Bazeilles (1870). — Sec. 2. 
To the right, 22. Fr. Adam, Attack at Mars-la-Tour. To the left, 
89. Fr. BodenmiUler, Battle of Worth. — Sec. 3. To the right, 
21. Fr. Adam, Battle of Orleans (1870). To the left, Adam, 7. Storm- 
ing of the Intrenchments of Dfippel (1849), 8. Battle of Custozza 
(1848), 9. Battle of Novara (1849). 

We now return along the S. walls of the three rooms. III. 444. 
H. Lang, Passage of the Marne (1870); 24. Fr. Adam, Attack at 
Floing (1870; grisaille); 443. H. Lang, Storming of Froschweiler; 
193. J. Fischbach, Convent-garden. — II. 126. W. Camphausen, In 
the days of Cromwell ; 90. Bodenmuller, Episode in the battle of 
Sedan; 217. Ph. Foltz, The minstrel's curse. — I. 481-602. A. 
Loffler, Oriental sketches; 31. J. C. Aiwasowski, Near St. Peters- 

New Pinakothek. MUNICH. 33. Route. 239 

burg ; 767. Schraudolph, The Virgin, Mary Magdalen, and John the 
Baptist at Golgotha. 

The Antiquarinm, on the groundfloor of the New Pinakothek, 
contains the smaller Greek and Roman and a few Egyptian antiquities, 
including some fine terracottas and bronzes (adm., see p. 195 ; cata- 
logue, 1901, 1 uT.). 

I. Boom. Cork models of the Pantheon and the so-called temples of 
Vesta at Borne and Tivoli. Ancient terracottas mostly of Italian, some of 
Greek origin, some of them reproductions of celebrated works in bronze 
or marble. Cabinet to the left of the entrance: *258. Winged Victory, a 
Roman work after the Kike of Paionios at Olympia; Venus in the shell; 
Etruscan portrait-heads. Case in front: Greek terracotta figures of the 
4-5th cent. B. C: 654a. Youth wrapped in his mantle; 986. Dancing girl 
kneeling; 790. Votive relief; at the back, Casts from Greek terracotta 
moulds. Case to the right of the entrance: 662. Diomede with the Palla- 
dium; 669. Funeral feast (5th cent.); *777. Perforated glass goblet, with 
an inscription, from a Roman sarcophagus at Cologne; 775. Painted and 
ornamented terracotta goblet in tbe form of a bead: fragments of care- 
fully modelled Boman slabs in relief; on the top, *259. Head of Jupiter, 
from an Etruscan type of the 4th cent.; 110. Realistic portrait-busts; 
behind, fragments of Greek (Sicilian) and Boman vessels with reliefs, 
Pompeian frescoes, mosaics. Glass case by the right wall (W.) : to the left, 
847, 849. Etruscan heads (3rd cent.) ; to the right, 907. Italian horse ; 505. 
Greek statuette of an athlete (4th cent.). Glass case by the left wall: on 
the left, archaic terracotta figures ; above, early-Etruscan reliefs ; on the 
right, above, *846. Attic girl; *978. Girl before a small temple; 860. Girl 
standing; 906. Girl dancing; 908. Leda; all Greek works of the 4th cen- 
tury. — II. Boom. Models in cork of the Basilica of Constantine, the 
Temple of Neptune at Peestum, etc. The Wall Casee contain small anti- 
quities of the most diverse nature; opposite, Hellenistic and Boman tomb- 
reliefs; in the window-niches, antique glass-paste and (921) a Hellenistic 
fragment in relief with three old men. — III. Boom. Cork and plaster 
models (Colosseum, House of Sallust at Pompeii, etc.). The Round Case in 
the centre contains gold and silver ornaments (shelf 1, Gold trinkets of an 
early date from Greece, Cyprus, and Etruria; shelves 2 & 8, Gold trinkets 
from Etruria; shelf 4, *Gold wreath from a Greek tomb at Armento, S. 
Italy; shelf 5, Admirable gold ornaments from Greece and Etruria; shelf 6, 
Egyptian gold ornaments from the great Pyramid of Heroe), silver vessels 
from Pompeii (shelf 7), and works in ivory (shelf 8). In the Wall Casee 
are Boman lamps, bronze ornaments and utensils, etc. — IV. Boom. In 
the Centre, Ancient weapons and armour, including a handsome suit of 
bronze armour from the tomb of a Greek warrior in S. Italy. Among 
the small bronze figures in the Case to the left of the entrance are: *363. 
Discobolus, after Myron; 372. Hercules, probably after Lysippus; 369. 
Pallas Athena; 357. Youthful Mars; *361. Venus loosening her sandal; 
373. Zeus; the case also contains some Etruscan mirrors. Case to the 
right of the entrance: 647. Silver goblet with representations of the de- 
struction of Troy, by a Greek master; 652. One-handled silver pitcher 
with reliefs of Lapithse and Centaurs; 666. Marble disk with representations 
of Hercules ; 671. Early-Greek standing mirror from Hermione, in Argolis 
(5th cent. B.C.). The early-Etruscan bronze reliefs by the 27. Wall belong to 
the same series as Nos. 67-73 in the Glyptothek (p. 241). By the middle 
window of the N. Wall: 920. Cist from Preeneste. In front of the win- 
dow on the right are copies of Myceneean antiquities. — Egyptian Boom (to 
the left of Boom I). Egyptian collection : sarcophagi, mummies, cippi, etc. 

In the Schelling-Strasse (Nos. 83-93), near the New Pinakothek, 
are the so-called Fiirstenhauser, a row of private residences elab- 
orately adorned with frescoes by Ferd. Wagner j in the court of No. 
87 is the kiosque from the old winter-garden of Louis II. A little 

240 Route 33. MUNICH. Qlyptothek. 

to the N., in the Arcis-Str., lies the new Northern Cemetery (PI. D, 
1; p. 254). Opposite the W. side of the Old Pinakothek rises the 
Polytechnic School (PI. D, 2; 1866-68; 765 ft. long), a handsome 
hrick edifice in the Italian Renaissance style of the 16th cent, 
with ornamentation in granite and sandstone, by Neureuther (d. 
1887). The cornice is adorned with seventy- two medallion-portraits 
of celebrated architects, mathematicians, and naturalists. *Staircase 
worthy of inspection. The valuable technical collections are shown 
during the vacations only, and occasionally on Sundays (apply to 
the custodian, groundfloor). In front of the right wing is a seated 
marble statue of Q. &. Ohm (d. 1864), the physicist, by Buemann 
(1895). — In the neighbouring Luisen-Strasse are the School of 
Industrial Art (PI. 0, 2) and, a few houses farther on (No. 33), the 
Villa Lenbach (adm. see p. 196), in the Italian Renaissance style. 
The *Glyptothek (PI. C, D, 2, 3; adm., see p. 196), or 'Repo- 
sitory of Sculptures', in the Konigs-Platz, contains ancient sculp- 
tures collected chiefly by Louis I. when crown-prince, in 1805-16. 
The building, erected by Klenze in 1816-30, is externally in the 
Ionic style, with a porch of eight columns; the interior is vaulted, 
and tends to the Roman style. The group in the tympanum, 
designed by Wagner, and executed by Schwanthaler and others in 
marble , represents Minerva as protectress of the plastic art. The 
niches in front and on the sides contain marble statues of famous 
sculptors. The rooms are not heated in winter. Short guide 1 /2 UP, 
catalogue (1900) 2 jjf, book with 100 plates and 157 wood cuts 
(1903) 2 Jf. Director Prof. A. Furtwangler. 

I. A$syrian Hall. At the entrance, two colossal lions with human 
heads, casts of the originals from the palace of Sardanapalus III. at 
Kalah (Larissa; 884-859 B.C.), now in the Louvre. In the hall, seven 
reliefs in alabaster (1-7), originally coloured, with winged genii, etc., 
and cuneiform inscriptions. 

II. Egyptian Hall. At the entrance, 20. 21. Statues of black 
marble in the style of Egyptian kings, of the time of Hadrian. 23, 

24. Recumbent sphinxes, in basalt, of Egyptian workmanship ; be- 
tween them, 22. Obelisk in syenite, of Roman origin. To the left, 

25. Statue of Horus, the god of the sun, with the head of a hawk, 
in black granite, early Egyptian; 26. Portrait- statue of a man 
(Graeco-Roman period) ; 27. Antinous as Osiris, in rosso antico, of 
Hadrian's time; 29. Isis, a Roman figure with an early-Egyptian 
head; 31. Delicate relief with the figure of a man (3rd millennium 
B. C); *28 and 37. Groups of husband and wife in a sitting posture, 
in sandstone, the former with traces of painting (New Empire; ca. 
1600-1100 B.C.); between these, 34. Portrait statue in basalt, of the 
Middle Empire (2200-1700 B.C.); 42. Quadruple head of Brahma, 43. 
Jlead of Buddha (specimens of Indian art from Java) ; *45. Sitting statue 
of a high priest, in limestone, early Egyptian (c. 1300 B.C.) ; 46b. Head 
of a statue in dark granite, a Greek work of the Ptolemaic period. 



33. Route. 241 


III. Hall of the Incunabula (Greek and Etruscan art, l in cuna- 
bulis', i.e. l in its cradle 1 , and copies). 67-73. Fragments of a large 
bronze relief in the archaic Greek style a chariot, found 
at Perugia and perhaps made there (6th or 7th cent. B. C). 46. 
Upper part of a statue of a warrior, in sandstone, an archaic Greek 
work, probably from near Mycenae (end of the 7th cent. B. C.) ; 
*47. So-called Apollo of Tenea, an archaic Greek tomb-figure (ca. 
600 B. 0.; found at the foot of the Aero-Corinth); 48. Archaic 
head (unfinished); 49. Tyche (Fortuna) with the cornucopia, a 
Roman reproduction of an archaic Greek original; 61. Spes, Roman, 
a similar work; 66. 
Head of Eros(?), Ro- 
man copy of a Greek 
original ; 53, 64. Etrus- 
can cinerary urns (3rd 
cent. B.C.); 63a. Her- 
mes of Aphrodite, per- 
haps after a work by 
Phidias; *65. Head of 
a youth, a copy in 
marble of a bronze ori- 
ginal; 57.Bearded Bac- 
chus, head modern; 
60. Triangular base of 
a censer, a fineEtruscan 
work 'of the 6th cent. 
B.C., found at Perugia 
along with Nos. 67-73; 
60a. Head of a youth, 
after an original of the I— ....^J 

Phidian period. 

IV. **J£ginctanHall. Sculptures in marble from a Temple of 
Minerva in the island of ^Egina, found in 1811, purchased by Crown- 
Brince Louis in 1812, and restored with the aid of Thorvaldsen. 
These are of great importance in the history of art. They consist of 
two pediment groups from the temple erected by the ^Eginetans 
after the Persian wars, and commemorate the exploits of their heroes, 
Telamon and his sons Ajax and Teucer, in the war against the 
Trojans. The first group (E. pediment) consists now of five figures 
only ; the other (W. pediment) has ten. The figures are somewhat 
thickset, with mask -like heads and open mouths. On the wall 
opposite the window are coloured reproductions of the temple- 
facades. Group on the right : Telamon and Hercules fighting over 
the body of Oicles against Laomedon, the perjured King of Troy. 86. 
Telamon (?), 87. Dying Trojan, 88. Youth bending forwards, *85. 
Fallen warrior, *84. Hercules. Group on the left: Greeks fighting 
against the Trojans around the body of Patroclus (or Achilles). 

Bakdkkek's S. Germany. 10th Edit. 16 

Hall of 

VIH. | Small I IX. 
Hall of Ves- Trojan 
Gods. 1 tibule. I Hall. 

HaU of 

Hall of 

Hall of 







L Aaayr. 

Hall of 

I HaU . 

■ tibule. 



242 Route 33. MUNICH. Qlyplothek. 

74. "Athena, 75. Patroclus, 76. Ajax Telamonius, 77. Teucer, 78. 
Greek combatant (Ajax , son of Oileus ?) , 79. Wounded Greek, 
80. Hector, 81. Trojan archer (Paris?), 82. Trojan fighting, 83. 
Wounded Trojan. By the walls are smaller fragments, and in the 
recesses are casts of the heads discovered near the temple in 1901. 
Y. Hall of Apollo. 208. Draped statue of a Roman lady of the 
reign of Claudius (head ancisnt, but not belonging to this statue) ; 
209. Attic cinerary urn, with relief (ca. 400 B. C); *210. Girl's 
head (Muse?), an admirable original of the Attic School (4th 
cent. B.C.); *211. Colossal statue of Apollo Citharoedus (Winckel- 
mann's 'Barberini Muse'), a copy "of a statue of the school of Phidias, 
found at Tivoli near Rome; 212. Head of Mars; *213. Athena, 
Roman copy of a bronze original of the time of Pericles; 213a. 
Dancing muse(?), in the style of the 4th cent. B. C. ; *214. Statue 
. of Diana, Roman, perhaps after a Greek original of the close of the 
5th cent. B.C.; 197. Roman lady as Ceres; 199. Tomb-relief of 
Plangon, a little Athenian girl (4th cent. B.C.); 206a. Statuette 
of a goddess enthroned, a well-preserved example of a temple- 
image,, of the period of Hadrian ; 206. Greek votive relief, with the 
worship of a hero (time of Alexander the Great); 207. Athena 
(head older than the body). 

VI. Hall of Bacchus. In the centre : **218. Sleeping satyr, the 
'Barberini Faun', a Greek original (ca. 300 B.C.; partly restored); 
234. Colossal head of a goddess, a Hellenistic original (1st or 2nd 
cent, B.C.); to the left, *219. Eirene and Plutus, a copy of the 
bronze original by Cephisodotus the Elder, an elder contemporary 
of Praxiteles (beginning of the 4th cent. B. C.) ; 221. Silenas, 
•copy from a Greek original in bronze ; 222. Head of a young centaur, 
after a bronze original of the 1st or 2nd cent. B.C. ; 223. Bacchanal- 
ian sarcophagus; upon it, 221. Drunken satyr, Roman copy of a 
Greek work in marble ; *225. Head of Jupiter Ammon, with horns ; 
226. Bacchus resting; 227. Artemis-Tyche, with the cornucopia, 
head restored by Thorvaldsen; *228, 229. Satyrs, probably after 
Praxiteles; 231. Bacchus, late-Roman; 232. Satyr with a wine- 
skin; 236. Nymph; *238. Silenus with the young Bacchus, freely 
restored. By the wall to the left, 239. Nuptials of Neptune and 
Amphitrite, a Greek relief of the 1st cent B. C. 

VII. Hall of the Children of Niobe. In the doorway, 246. Head 
of the yoathful Hercules, perhaps a copy after Lysippus. 246. 
Girl's head, of the Hellenistic period; 248, 253. Two fine ancient 
heads; 250. Isis and Harpocrates; 250a. Small head (Eros?), of the 
Hellenistic- Roman period; 251. Rustic s^ene, a relief of the 
Augustan period ; *252. Head of Medusa ('Medusa Rondanini'), alto- 
relief, Roman copy of a Greek original of the end of the 5th cent. 
B. C; *258. Venus of Cnidos, after Praxiteles ; 261. Head of the 
young Pan, with homs ('Winckelmann's Faun') ; 263. Head of Paris; 
264. Decoration of ahermes, relief; 266. Draped figure, restored by 

Qlyptothek. MUNICH. 33. Route. 243 

Thorvaldsen as Clio. In the centre, 268. Boy struggling with a 
goose, a Roman copy of the bronze original of Boethus; 269. Dying 
son of Niobe; *270. Torso of a youth, an admirable copy of a Greek 
work of the school of Praxiteles (4th cent. B. 0.), known as llioneus. 

VIII. Hall of the Gods. This and the next two rooms are adorned 
with beautiful *Frescoes by Cornelius, executed in 1820-30. The 
principal scenes are: 1. The infernal regions, Orpheus entreating 
Pluto and Proserpine to restore him his wife Eurydice ; 2. Marriage 
of Neptune and Amphitrite ; Arion; Thetis; 3. Olympus; Jupiter 
and Juno ; Hercules receiving the cup of nectar from Hebe ; Gany- 
mede and the eagle. On the vaults are the four Elements, the Seasons, 
and the Quarters of the Day. Opposite the window, Water, Spring, 
Morning; to the right of the window, Fire, Summer, Noon; above 
the window, Air, Autumn, Evening; to the left of the window, 
Earth, Winter, Night* Over the doors are reliefs by Schwanthaler. 
— In the niches, 271. Head of Hercules ; 272. Head of Mars, replica 
of the Mars Ludovisi at Rome (by Scopas); 273. Head of Homer, ' 
after an original of the 5th cent. B.C. 

Small Vestibule. Frescoes : Minerva imparts a soul to the man 
formed by Prometheus ; Prometheus released by Hercules ; Pandora 
opens her casket. In the niches are Roman busts ; to the left, 276. 
Head of Marcus Aurelius, in peperino, 

IX. Hall of the Trojans. Frescoes : 1. Quarrel of Achilles and 
Agamemnon over the abduction of Briseis ; 2. Contest for the body 
of Patroclus ; 3. Destruction of Troy, with Priam, Hecuba, Cassandra, 
jEneas, and Anchises. The nine smaller paintings on the ceiling 
represent episodes before and during the Trojan war. — In the 
niches, 283. Statuette of Hercules, after an original of the school 
of Lysippus; 284. Statuette of a dancer (Attic; 1st cent. B. C.) 

X. Hall of the Heroes. In the entrance : 292. Head of Demos- 
thenes. On the left: 294. ^Esculapius ; *295. Statue of a god (Vul- 
can '/) or hero, after an an early Argive bronze (ca. 460 B. 0.) ; 297. 
Chrysippus (?) ; *298. Alexander the Great, Roman copy of a work 
by a contemporary of Alexander (both arms and right leg restored) ; 
299. Head of a Greek general of the time of Pericles ; 300. Hermes ; 
301. Head of a Greek general of the time of the Peloponnesian 
War; *302. Athlete, a copy of an early- Attic original in the style of 
Myron ; 304. Diomedes carrying off the Palladium, after a Greek 
original in bronze (the Victory not part of the original); beside it, 
304a. Hand with part of the Palladium , from a replica; 291. So- 
crates. In the centre, *287. Mercury, after a bronze original of the 
school of Lysippus (head not belonging to the statue). 

XI. Hall of the Romans (in three sections), with a valuable col- 
lection of busts, chiefly of the Roman Empire. By the doors : 305, 
306, 371, 372. Four Caryatides, Roman. Section 1: to the left, 
♦309. Head of a Roman of the Republican period; 311. Statue of a 
Roman lady of the time of Claudius. Busts : 314. Tiberius; 316. The 


244 Route 33. MUNICH. Olyptothek. 

Younger Agrippina; *317, 318. Augustus; *319. So-called Marius, 
320. Old Roman, both of the Republican period; *321. Nero; 324. 
So-called Maecenas. Over these busts: 328. Roman sarcophagus- 
relief with Luna and Endymion; below, 326. Sarcophagus-relief 
with the Muses, Apollo, and Athena. Below the window: 413. 
Portrait-head (late Republican period) ; *417. Son of Constantino 
the Great. — Sec. 2: to the left, 331. Statue *ith the head of Sep- 
timius Severus. Busts: 334. Apollodorus, probably Trajan's architect 
of that name ; *335, 336. Trajan; *337. Antoninus Pius; 338. Ti- 
tus; 339. Unknown; 344. Erroneously named Marcus Aurelius. 
Over the busts, 348. Frieze, with Victories sacrificing; below, 346. 
Sarcophagus-relief with the Niobides; upon it, 338a. Portrait-head 
of a child. 346, 347. Two pulvinaria (seats of the gods), with ap- 
propriate attributes. In the middle, several Candelabra. On the 
other side are less important busts, including Antinous (400) and 
Lucius Verus (399). — By the pillars : Statues of Augustus (350) 
'and Nero (? 394). In the middle, 437. Drunken woman (after a 
Pergamenian bronze). — Sec. 3: to the left, 353. Septimius Se- 
verus; 354. Julia Domna, wife of Severus; 356. Otacilia Severa, 
wife of Philippus Arabs; 367. Septimius Severus; 368. Commodus; 
360. Philip the Younger; 362. Portrait, of the 3rd cent. A. D. Over 
the busts, 366. Sarcophagus-relief with a Bacchic procession; be- 
low, 363. Sarcophagus-relief with Orestes and lphigeneia. On the 
other side, less interesting busts. At the end of the room : 367. 
Livia Drusilla, wife of Augustus, statue; 376. Bust of Lucius 
Verus; 377. Statue of Matidia(?), niece of Trajan, as Ceres. In the 
centre: 439. Sacrificial altar, with Mercury; 440. Funereal urn. 

XII. Hall of the Coloured Sculptures. In the centre, 441. 
Roman mosaic ; upon it, 447. Archaic candelabrum. To the left, 449. 
Goddess, in black and white marble, freely restored; *450. Head 
of a satyr, in bronze; 453. River-god, in black marble; 455. Good 
Roman relief'of a rustic scene (Augustan period); 456. Greek votive- 
relief dedicated to Pan (Roman period) ; **467. Bronze head of a 
youth, a Greek work of the 5th cent. B.C. ; 458. Statue of an athlete, 
in black marble; 469. Girl loosening her robe, fountain figure in 
black and white marble, a good Roman work ; 448a. Head of a laugh- 
ing satyr, in green basalt (late-Hellenistic); 463. Bronze statue of 
the young Zeus (Etruscan work of the 2nd or 3rd cent. B. C); 441. 
Tripod with a statuette of Silenus in bronze (Etruscan ; 4th or 5th 
cent. B.C.); 466. Young satyr, in black marble; 444. Bronze statue 
of a lady, a good early Roman work (head modern); 448. Head of 

XHI. Hall of Modern Masters. To the left, *484. Canova, 
Paris; 486. JR. Schadow, Woman fastening her sandal; 478. Wolff, 
Bust of Gen. von Hey deck; 486. Spalla, Bust of Napoleon (1808); 
487. Thorvaldsen, Bust of Louis I. when crown-prince (1821); 488. 
Canova, Bust of Paris ; 489. Eberhardt, Cupid and Muse ; 492. Wind, 

Schack Gallery. MUNICH. 33. Route. 245 

Boy with canopic vase; 501. Wrba, Bust of a woman; 491c. C. Meu- 
nier, The puddler, bronze head; 490. flahn, Eve; 493. Hirt, Are- 
thusa; 494. Dittler, Archer; 489a. Wrba, Diana on the stag — To 
the right of the exit: 497. Taschner, Parsifal; no numbers, Stuck, 
Athlete, Qaul, Goats resting; 499. Hermann, Bust of F. von Len- 
bach ; 472. Head of a young man (not Raphael), a good Floren- 
tine terracotta of the 15th cent. ; 476. Flossmann , Motherhood , a 
group. Busts : 477. Dannecker, Elector Palatine Frederick the Vic- 
torious; 491. Eberhardt, The Russian marshal Munnich; *496. 
Rauch, Admiral Tromp ; 479. Freund, Count Stolberg; 475. Schadow, 
Iffland; 471. Tieck, Barbarossa; 481. Butch, Catharine II. of Russia; 
482. Tenet ani, Vesta, marble statue; no number, Hildebrand, *Bust 
of a girl; 483. Thorvaldsen, Statue of Adonis. In the centre: 469. 
Carles, Abel, bronze ; 470. Rucmann, Ludovica, Duchess of Bavaria, 
monumental figure; 474. Algardi (1602-64), Christ as a child. 

The Exhibition Building (PI. C, 3), opposite the Glyptothek, in 
the Corinthian style, with a porticus of eight columns , was com- 
pleted by Ziebland in 1845. In the tympanum is Bavaria, bestow- 
ing wreaths on artists, by Schwanthaler. It contains the permanent 
exhibition of works by the members of the Munich 'Secession' 
(p. 195). 

The handsome Eonigs-Platz is appropriately terminated by the 
*Propylsea (PL C, 3), a magnificent gateway , with Doric columns 
ontside, and Ionic inside, designed by Klenze , and completed in 
1862. The reliefs by Schefzky (after Hiltensperger) represent scenes 
from the Greek War of Independence and the re*gime of King Otho. 
On the inner walls are inscribed the names of the heroes of the war 
and of famous philhellenists. — On the day after its inauguration 
(30th Oct., 1862) the ex-monarch of Greece (d. 1867) returned to 
his native city. — From the Propylaea to the Basilica and to the 
Crystal Palace, see p. 248. 

The '"Schack Picture Gallery, Aeussere Brienner-Str. 19 (PI. 
C, 3; adm., see p. 197; illustrated catalogue, 1905, 50 pf., bound 
1 M\ bequeathed by Count Adolf von Schack (d. 1894), the poet, 
to the German Emperor, consists of choice modern works of German 
masters, 6uch as Genelli, Schwind, Feuerbach, and Bocklin, and of 
copies (often admirable) of the great Italian and Spanish masters by 
Lenbach and others. It forms a valuable complement to the New 

Ground Floor. Opposite the entrance: Seeboeck, Bust of Count 
Schack. — Room I. To the left: Bocklin, 12. Ideal landscape, *18. 
Murderer pursued by the Furies, 14. Pan frightening a shepherd, 
25. Autumn-landscape, with Death on horseback, 19. The dragon's 
cave, *17. The shepherd's complaint, *15. Villa on the sea, 24. 
A Roman tavern in spring. *71. Lenbach, Shepherd-boy; 16. Bocklin, 
Italian villa; 1. Bamberger, Gibraltar; 164. Spitzweg, Hypochon- 
driac; 3. Bamberger, The bridge of St. Miguel, near Toledo; 93, 

246 Route 33. MUNICH. Schack Gallery. 

Feuerbach, Laura at mass at Avignon, watched by Petrarch; 172. 
Steinle, The watchman; 31. Dreber, Sappho. — 104. Pteller, Ulysses 
and Leucothea; above the door, *78. Lenbach, Portrait of Count 
Schack ; 103. Piloty, Columbus discovering the New World. — 42. 
Feuerbach, Idyll from Tivoli; 72. Lenbach, Portrait of a lady; 117. 
Rottmann, Greek coast with rising storm; Feuerbach, *40. Haflz at 
the fountain, 32. Garden of Ariosto; 61. Henneberg, The Wild 
Huntsman ; Feuerbach, 37. Children bathing, 36. Francesca da Ri- 
mini and Paolo, *34. Pieta'. *22. Bocklin, Ideal landscape with the 
journey to Emmaus; above, Feuerbach , 33. Roman woman, 36. 
Nymph listening to children performing music; Bocklin, 13. The an- 
chorite, 27. Nereid and Triton, 21. Ideal landscape in spring, 20. 
Shepherdess with her flock; 41. Feuerbach, Mother and children at a 

Room n. Copies from Giov. Bellini, Titian, Palma Vecchlo, Ve- 
ronese, etc., by A. Wolf. . 

Fibst Floob. Room I. M. von Schwind (to the left), 137. The 
Erl-King; 143. Forest-chapel; 140. Morning; (to the right) 151. 
Number Nip. *139. The wedding-trip; 158. The captive's dream; 
135. Nymphs watering a stag. — To the right, Room II. (right), 
M. von Schwind, 147. Duel by night, 160. Hero and Leander, *129. 
Count Gleichen returning from the Crusades. — M. von Schwind, 
141. Youth on his travels, 153 (above), Father Rhine, 156. The 
Jungfrau. — 48. Oenelli, Ezekiers vision. — We return to R. I. and 
enter — 

Room III. M. von Schwind, 130-133. Morning, Noon, Evening, 
Night, 160. Wieland the Smith, 161. Hermit in a rock-grotto. 

Room IV. *Copies from Titian, Giorgione, Mnrillo, Velazquez, 
Rubens, etc., by Lenbach; to the left of the door, 73. Lenbach, Por- 
trait of himself. 

Room V. Left wall : 176. Steinle, Lorelei ; 84. H. von Maria, 
Watering horses ; 173. Steinle, Tartini playing the violin on a tower 
of Padua; 185. Zimmermann, Brocken scene from Goethe's Faust 
(figures by Schwind) ; Oenelli, *49. Rape of Europa, *62. Lycurgus 
fighting with Bacchus and Bacchantes ; 115. Rottmann, Greek land- 
scape; 182. A. Wolf, Lovers in a garden at Venice. — End-wall: 
80. Lenbach, Study of a head; 70. Larson, Norwegian harbour under 
the midnight sun. — Right wall : 163. Spitzweg, Serenade (from 
the Barber of Seville); above, *62. Hess, Thorvaldsen; 61. Oenelli, 
Abraham receiving the news of Isaac's birth ; 2. Bamberger, Toledo ; 
Lenbach, 75. View of the Alhambra, 74. View of the Vega, from 
the Torre de las Infantas at Granada; *60. Oenelli, Hercules and 
Omphale; *81. W. Lindenschmit , The fisherman (Goethe); *63a. 
Oenelli, Composition for the curtain of a theatre ; 76. Lenbach, The 
Tocador de la Reina at the Alhambra; above, 176. Steinle, Adam 
and Eve; 167. Spitzweg, Hermit; 114. Rottmann, The Hintersee, 
near Berchtesgaden ; above, 53. Oenelli, Bacchus and the Muses; 

Bronte Foundry. MUNICH. 33. Route. 247 

116. Rottmann, The spring of CaJirrhoe, near Athens; 166. Spitz- 
weg, Turkish coffee-house; 126. Schnorr von Carols feld, The Erl- 
King; 66. L. von Klenze, Interior of a Saracenic chateau near Amalfl ; 
♦168. Spitzweg, Herd-girls on an alp; *30. P. von Cornelius, Flight 
into Egypt (of his early Roman period ; the landscape in the back- 
ground is painted by J. A. Koch); 79* Lenbach, Portrait of Count 
Schack; 67 J. A. Koch, Lime-kiJn near Olevano. 

Room VI. Copies from Bellini, Titian, Michael Angelo, Velaz- 
quez, etc., by Liphart, Maries, Schwarzer, Wolf, and others. — 
We now return to Room Y and descend the stairs to the right. 

Ground Floor. — Room I. (to the left) 94. Naue, Return of 
K alii as and Arete .from the battle of Salamis (after Count Schack's 
poem 'The Pleiades'); Neureuther, 97. The nun (from Uhland), 
101. Dream of Rezia (from Wi eland's Oberon); 46. Fiihrich, Intro- 
duction of Christianity into ancient Germany. Copies of Titian, 
P. Veronese, Correggio, and Seb. del Piombo, by Wolf. 

Room II. (to the left), 184. A. Zknmermann, Golgotha at the 
time of the Crucifixion; 102. Neureuther, Reminiscence of the Villa 
Malta at Rome; 181. Wolf, Venetian banquet; 10. Bode, Alpine 
fay ; landscapes by Bamberger (4), Max Schmidt (124). Copies from 
Venetian masters, by Wolf and others. 

The Bronze Foundry (PI. B, 1 ; adm., see p. 196 ; tramway-lines 
1 & 4, p. 193), in the Erzgiesserei-Str., enjoys a high reputation. 
Founded in 1825 by Stiglmayer (d. 1844), it was afterwards managed 
by his nephew Ferd. von Miller'(&. 1887), and now belongs to the 
sons of the latter. The Museum contains the original models of most 
of the statues cast here, including the head of the Germania on the 
Niederwald Monument. Visitors are not admitted to the workshops. 
— A few paces to the N.W., in the Ferdinand-Miller-Platz (PI. B, 
1), is the Church of St. Benno. in the Romanesque style. 

Beyond the Arsenal lie the Military Hospital, the Maximilian Bar~ 
racks, and the Artillery Workshops. — Other large military struc- 
tures have recently been erected in the Marsfeld (PI. A, 2, 3), to 
the W. of the Stiglmayer-Platz. Among these are the buildings of 
the Corps of Cadets (facade 736 ft. long), in the Mars-Platz; the 
Military School (facade 465 ft. long), in the Blutenburger-Str. ; and 
the Military Academy, in the Pappenheimer-Str. , the last with a 
collection of weapons and models on the first floor. 

Farther to the N.W. is the Oriinwald-Park (garden-restaurant; tramway- 
lines 1 & 4), in the Nymphenburg hollow at the E. end of the Scbloss 
Canal, along which avenues lead to (1 M.) Nymphenburg (p. 255). By the 
hollow is the handsome new Orphanage, in the German baroque style by 
Grassel, and to the £. of it, in the Dom Pedro-Plate, rises the Prot. 
Christus-Kirche, in the Gothic style by Th. Fischer. A branch-line of the 
tramway runs to the N. from the Grunwald-Park to the new Mootach 
Cemetery, with a porticus in the Italian Renaissance style and Lenbach's 
grave (d. 1904), the monument by G. Seldl. 

d by Google 

248 Route 33, MUNICH. Basilica. 

The *Basilica of St. Boniface (PI. 0, 3 ; adm., see p. 197), in the 
Karl-Str., 2 min. to the S. of the Propylasa (p. 245), is an admirable 
imitation of an early-Christian Italian basilica of the 5th or 6th cent., 
designed by Ziebland (completed in 1850). Nave 75 ft., four aisles 
41 ft. in height. The sixty-six columns are monoliths of grey Tyrolese 
marble with bases and capitals of white marble. Open timber roof 
with gilded beams. 

On the right of the entrance is a sarcophagus of gray marble, the 
burial-place of Louis I. (d. 1868) and his queen Theresa (d. 1854). The 
choir, the side-altars, the spaces between the windows; and the walls of the 
nave are decorated with fine frescoes by H. von Heti and his pupils Schrau- 
dolph and Koch: scenes from the life of St. Boniface and Bavarian saints, 
Madonna enthroned, Stoning of St. Stephen, etc. Above the columns in 
the nave, are thirty-four medallion-portraits of the popes from Julius III. 
to Gregory XVI. — Adjoining the choir of the church is a Benedictine 
monastery, with a fine fresco of the Holy Eucharist, by H. von Hess, in 
the refectory. 

The Botanic Garden (PI. C, 3, 4; adm., see p. 196 ; also entered 
from the Sophien-Str.)), opposite the Basilica, contains a large fresh- 
water aquarium (Victoria Regia, etc.), a palm-house with a lofty 
glass dome, a botanical museum, etc. At the S.W. corner of the 
garden, almost opposite the girls' school (Luisen-Str. 9) erected by 
Th. Fischer (comp. p. 214), is the Qermania Fountain by Bernauer. 
— In the Sophien-Str. is the Crystal Palace (PL 0, 4; 255 yds. 
long ; central part 75 ft. high), erected in 1854 entirely of glass 
and iron, under Voit's direction, for exhibitions. Since 1888 it has 
been used for the Annual Exhibition of Art (see p. 195). — A little 
to the S. are the Courts of Law and the Earls-Platz (p. 251). To 
the E., at the corner of the Aroo-Str. and the Barer-Str., is the 
bronze ^Monument of F. X. Oabelsberger (d. 1849; PL D, 4), in- 
ventor of a well-known system of stenography, by Eberle (1890). 
From this point we proceed to the E. to the — 

Maximelians-Platz (PI. D, 4), the pleasure-grounds of which 
were laid out by K. von Effner. In the middle stands the *Liebig 
Monument, by Wagmuller and Rucmann, erected in 1883. The 
seated marble figure of the great chemist (1803-73) rests upon a 
pedestal of grey granite with laurel-wreaths and marble reliefs. 
Adjacent Is a marble bench with a Bust of Effner (1886). Opposite 
rises the polychrome new building of the Exchange & Chamber 
of Commerce ( i Haus fur Handel und Gewerbe'), designed by F. 

At the S.W. end of the grounds rises the handsome *Wittelsbach 
Fountain by Hildebrand (1895), with groups emblematical of the 
destructive and fertilizing powers of water and masks symbolizing 
its different 'temperaments'. — To the W., opposite the fountain, 
is the Bernheimer Haus, a baroque edifice by Thiersch (1890), with 
the German Bank, in the Lenbach-Platz, on one side of it, and the 
Bavarian Bank on the other, both erected by A.Schmidt in 1901-02. 
To the S., at the corner of the Pfandhaus-Str., is the Herzog-Max- 

Rathaus. MUNICH. 33. Route. 249 

Burg, built after 1678 by Duke William V., now occupied by the 
military authorities and the Commission foi Extinguishing the Na- 
tional Debt. Farther to the S.W. is the Kunstlerhau* (p. 251). 

To the E. of the Liebig Monument (Pranner-Str. 20) is the Land- 
tagsgebaude (PI. E, 4), or House of the Diet, remodelled in 1886 in 
the German Renaissance style. Farther on, at No. 7 Promenade-Str., 
is the Archbishop's Palace (PI. E, 4), a handsome baroque edifice of 
1720, and facing the N. end of the street is the Greek Church 
(St. Salvator's), built in the Gothic style in 1904. — In the Pfand- 
haus-Str. (see above; No. 7) is the Kunstgewerbe-Haus (PI. D, 4; 
adm., see p. 196), built in 1877 in the Renaissance style, with a 
facade by Knabl and Voit and a fine exhibition-hall (exhibits all for 
sale). The handsome banquet-hall, designed by B. Qedon, is adorned 
with paintings by F. A. Kaulbach. — The Pfandhaus-Strasse ends 
at the Pbombnadb-Platz (PI. D, E, 4), in which are five bronze 
statues. In the middle is Elector Max Emmanuel (1679-1726), con- 
queror of Belgrade, by Brugger (1861). To the right are Westen- 
rieder (1748-1829), the historian, by Widnmann (1854), and Oluck 
(1714-87), the composer, by Brugger; to the left are Kreittmayr 
(1705-90), the statesman, by Schwanthaler (1846), and Orlando 
di Lasso (1620-94), the composer (properly Roland de Lattre, of the 
Netherlands), by Widnmann. — The Maffei-Str. leads to the E. from 
the Promenade-Platz to the busy Theatiner-Str., whence we may 
follow either the Perusa-Str. to the N.E. to the Max-Joseph-Platz 
(p. 200), or the Wein-Str. to the S. to the Marien-Platz. 

c. The Inner, W., and 8. Quarters of the City. 

The Marien-Platz (PI. E, 5; formerly called the Schrannen- 
Platz), the centre of old Munich, is adorned with a Column of the 
Madonna, erected in 1638 by Elector Maximilian I. from a design 
by Peter Candid, to commemorate the victory on the Weisse Berg 
near Prague (1620). Enthroned on the column is the Virgin, the 
tutelary saint of Bavaria ; four genii at the corners contend against 
a viper, a basilisk, a lion, and a dragon (plague, war, famine, and 

The Old Rathaus (PI. E, 5), on the E. side of the Platz, dates 
from the 14th cent, and was restored in 1865. The tower, under 
which runs the road to the Tal (p. 253), is adorned with paintings 
by F. Seitz. The gables in front bear zinc statues of Henry the Lion 
and Louis the Bavarian by Knoll. The great hall, restored in 1898, 
has a vaulted wooden ceiling and frieze with coats of arms and good 
figures of dancers carved in wood (16th cent.) ; on the walls are 
23 standards of the Munich guilds (17-18th cent). — On the N. 
side of the Platz is the *New Rathaus. a handsome Gothic edifice 
by Hauberrisser. The E. portion was completed in 1874, the W. 
portion, with a tower 246 ft. high, in 1906. The facade towards 
the Marien-Platz has a balcony in three sections on the right, 

250 Route 33. MUNICH. Frauen-Kirche. 

terminating in a lofty gable; to the left of it, under a canopy, is 
a bronze equestrian statue of Prince-Regent Luitpold, by F. von 
Miller (1906). 

Below the portal of the E. wing, to the left, are two tablets, with 
handsome bronze trophies, in memory of citizens who fell in the war of 
1870-71. On the second floor are the Council Chambers, on the left that of 
the town-council, on the right that of the magistrates (adm., see p. 197). 
In the former, filling the whole wall, is a large allegorical painting of 
'Munichia' by K. von Piloty, illustrating the history of Munich (explanation 
of the portraits on the table) ; also portraits of Louis II. by F. Piloty and 
Prince Regent Luitpold by Kaulbach. The *MagUlratu" Boom is adorned with 
a mural painting by W. Lindmschmit (progress of Munich under Louis L) 
and admirable stained-glass windows by R. Seiiz (nine departments of civic 
administration). Portraits of Prince - Regent Luitpold by Holmbtrg and 
Louis II. by Lenbach. Bust of Burgomaster yon Ehrhardt (d. 1888), by 
F. von Miller. Splendid carved timber ceiling*, fine mantelpiece and chan- 
delier. — To the left of the portal is the Hauptwache or guard-house. In 
the sunk-floor (entrance in the Diener-8tr.) is the Rattktller (p. 192). 

A room in the W. wing contains a collection of arms of Bavarian 
veterans (open on week-days except Sat., 2-3., free). 

At the N.E. corner of the Marien-Platz rises the *Fitchbrunenn y 
in bronze, designed by Knoll (1866). The figures allude to an old 
Munich custom called the 'Metzgersprung'. 

A few yards to the S.E. of the Marien-Platz is the Church of 
St. Peter, of 1170, the oldest in Munich, but repeatedly restored 
and modernized. To the original building belongs the Romanesque 
tower (p. 197; fine view from the gallery; a white flag signifies 
that the Alps are visible). Altar-pieces by Sandrart, Loth, etc. ; 
fine organ by Abt Vogler. 

The Tal (p. 253) leads from the Marien-Platz to the S.E. to the 
Ludwigs-Brucke and the suburbs of Haidhausen and Au (pp. 217, 
253), while the Kauflnger-Str. and Neuhauser-Str. (with handsome 
new buildings in the modern baroque and Renaissance styles) lead 
to the N.W. to the Karlstor and the Central Railway Station (tram- 
way-lines 1 & 9, p. 193). — To the right is the Fraucn-Plat*, 
with the — 

*Frauen-Kirche (PI. E, 5), or Church of Our Lady, the cathedral 
of the Archbishopric of Munich and Freising, a brick edifice (320 ft. 
long, 118 ft. broad; vaulting 108 ft. high) in the late-Gothic style, 
erected by J org Oangkofer in 1468-88 and restored in 1858-68. The 
two uncompleted towers, 318 ft. high, were covered at the begin- 
ning of the 16th cent, with clumsy helmet-shaped roofs (ascent, see 
p. 196). On the outside walls of the church are many ancient tomb- 

Intsbiob (adm., see p. 197; music, see p. 194). The nave and aisles 
are of equal height, borne by twenty-two slender octagonal pillars; rich 
groined vaulting. The windows, each 65 ft. high, are filled with fine stained 
glass, including the remains (sometimes wrongly arranged) of the old glaz- 
ing of the 15-16th centuries. The high-altar-piece shows the Coronation of 
Mary, in carved wood, by Knabl, and paintings on the wings by Schwind. 
The archiepiscopal throne and pulpit, a modern continuation of the ancient 
choir-stalls (see below), are by Knabl. Most of the modern side-altars are by 
SicHnger, the statues by L. FoUz. Above the choir-ftalls are carved wooden 

Acad, of Science. MUNICH. 33. Route. 251 

figures of the 15th cent. (Apostles and Prophets). — The large Turkish 
flag on a pillar of the nave (1.) was captured by Elector Max Emmanuel at 
Belgrade in 1688. — At the W. end of the nave, under the organ-loft, is 
the * Monument of Emp. Louis the Bavarian (d. 1347), erected in 1622 by 
Elector Maximilian I. (designed by P. Candid, cast by H. Krumper), a cata- 
falque in dark marble, with figures and decorations in bronze •, four knights 
at the corners guard the tomb; at the side are statues of the Wittelsbach 
princes Albert V. and William V. \ an admirable brass of the 15th cent, is 
inserted in the pedestal, which is open at the sides. Behind this mon- 
ument, opposite a relief-monument of Bishop Gebsattel (d. 1846) by 8chwan- 
thaler, is a spot from which none of the thirty windows of the church are 
visible except the great window behind the altar. 

At the corner of the Neuhauser-Str. and the Ett-Str. rises the 
Church of St. Michael [Ho fkirchc; PL D, 5; adm., see p. 197), 
formerly a church of the Jesuits, erected in 1583-97 in the Roman 
baroque style, with grand barrel-vaulting. The front is adorned 
with a St. Michael in bronze, by Hubert Gerhard. The left transept 
contains the 'Monument of Eugene Beauharnais (d. 1824), Duke of 
Leach tenberg, and once vice-king of Italy, by Thorvaldsen. In the 
royal burial-vault under the choir reposes King Louis II. (d. 1886). 
Church-music, see p. 194. 

The old Jesuits' College, adjoining St. Michael's, contains the 
Academy of Science (PL D, 5), with its valuable collections (adm., 
see p. 195). 

The *Palaeontological Collection, under the direction of Prof. Dr. Zittel, 
Is probably the most complete in Europe (nine rooms)*, the specimens 
from the animal kingdom are arranged zoologically, those of plants geo- 
logically. — The Prehistoric Collection contains many objects of the stone 
period and interesting relics of lake-dwellings from the Starnberger-See and 
Robenhausen. — The * Collection of Minerals is unequalled in the world 
for its complete representation of Alpine minerals. Special collections 
illustrate the characteristics and crystalline formations of minerals (by the 
windows), their chemical formation (in the central glaps-cases), their origin 
(wall-ca«es to the right of the door), and their industrial uses (to the left 
of the door). — The Zoological- Zoo tomical Collection is hampered for want 
of suitable accommodation. — Of ancient Greek coins alone the Cabinet of 
Coins (adm. p. 196) contains 20,000. 

The narrow Herzog-Max-Strasse, at the end of the Neuhauser- 
Strasse, leads to the right to the Synagogue (PL D, 4; adm., see 
p. 197), built in the Romanesque style by Alb. Schmidt in 1884-87. 
Adjacent, to the right, is the Kunstlerhaus (PL D, 4), built from 
Seidl's designs in 1896-1900 and artistically fitted up in the in- 
terior (adm., see p. 196; restaurant). — The Neuhauser-Str. ends 
in the KarUtor (PL D, 5). Outside the gate is the Karls-Platx, 
with the Courts of Justice (PL C, D, 4), an imposing baroque build- 
ing by Thiersch (1897; adm., see p. 196). The most noteworthy 
parte of the interior are the 'Central Hall, with its huge dome of 
glass, the High Court, the Jury Court, and the Library. The New 
Courts of Justice (1905), by the same architect, are Gothic with 
mouldings and other details of coloured tiles. — Nearly opposite, 
at the corner of the Maximilians-Platz, is a Statue of Goethe, by 
Widnmann (1869). — Botanic Garden, see p. 248, 

252 Route 33. MUNICH. Bavaria. 

From the Karls-Platz the broad Sonnen-Strasse , planted with 
trees, runs to the S. to the Sendlinger-Tor-Platz. In the grounds 
at the beginning of it is the pretty Gasteiger Fountain. Farther on 
is the Protestant Chur ch of St. Matthew (PI. C, 5; 1827-32). 

The Sen wanthaler Museum (PLC, 5 ; adm., see p. 197), Schwan- 
thaler-Str. 90, contains models of almost all the works of the talented 
and prolific sculptor Ludwig von Schwanthalcr (d. 1848). Catalogue 
30 pf. — Adjacent, in the Schwanthalcr Passage, is the elaborately 
decorated Deutsches Theater (p. 194). 

In the Sonnen-Strasse are the new building of the Volks-Thcatcr 
(PL C, D, 6; p. 194), ReisingerUmum (University Clinical Institute; 
No. 17, to the right), and the FraucnklinUc or Gynaecological In- 
stitute (PL C, 6; No. 16). 

In the Sbndlingeb-Tor-Platz (PL C, 6) are the old Send- 
linger Tor (14th cent.) and a colossal bust of Alois Senefelder 
(d. 1834), the inventor of lithography, by Zumbusch (1877). — 
The busy Sendlinger - Strasse leads hence to the N., passing the 
St. Johannis-Kirche (PL D, 6 : 1733-46) and the Singlspielerhaus, to 
the Marien-Platz (p. 249), while the Thalkirchner-Strasse (tramway 
No. 11, p. 193) runs to the S. to the Southern Cemetery (p. 254) and 
to the large municipal Slaughter House and Cattle Market (PL B, 
C, 8; adm., p. 197), erected by Zenetti in 1876-78. Beyond these 
are the South Railway Station (PL B, 9) and the Isar Railway Station 
(P1.B, 10,11; p. 189). 

To the S.W. of the Sendlinger-Tor-Platz are the large General 
Hospital (1813) and the Institute of Clinical Medicine. In the 
grounds in front is a marble bust of J. N. von ftussbaum, the 
surgeon (1829-90). — Adjacent, in the Nussbaum-Str., are the new 
Clinical Institute of Surgery (PL C, 6) and the Pathological and 
Pharmacological Institutes. — To the N. (Schiller-Str. 26) is the 
Anatomical Institute, with important anatomical and pathological 
collections (adm., see p. 195). In the Pettenkofer-Str. (Nos.12 & 34) 
are the Physiological and Hygienic Institutes. The Kaiser-Ludwig- 
Platz (PI. B, 6, 7) is embellished with a bronze equestrian Statue 
of Emperor Louis the Bavarian (d. 1347), by F. von Miller (1905). 

The Pettenkofer-Str. ends at the Thbresienwibsb (PL A, 6, 7), 
the scene of the October Festival (p. 195), which has recently been 
much diminished by the construction of new streets. On the N.E. 
side is the Church of St. Paul (PL A, B, 5), in the Romanesque 
style. Prof. SeidVs House, Bavaria- Ring 10, and the attractive 
School, in the German baroque style, at Bavaria-Ring 40, may be 
mentioned also among the fine buildings of this region. 

The *Bavaria and Hall of Fame (Ruhmcshalle ; PL A, 7) lie on 
the W. side of the Theresienwiese, li/ 4 M. to the S.W. of the Karls- 
tor (tramway-line 3, p. 193 ; adm., see p. 196). The colossal statue 
of Bavaria, in bronze, designed by Schwanthaler, measures 62 ft. to 
the top of the wreath which the figure holds aloft The ascent, by 

Mariahilf-Kirche. MUNICH. 33. Route. 253 

an iron spiral staircase of sixty steps, is most comfortably, made 
early in the morning, before the metal has been heated by the sun. 
•View in clear weather throngh apertures in the head (room for 5 
persons). — The Hall of Fame, a Doric colonnade with projecting 
wings, designed byKlenze, and completed in 1853, contains busts of 
eighty Bavarian notabilities, among them Francis von Sickingen, 
Jean Paul Richter, Schwanthaler, the philosopher Schelling, Klenze, 
Cornelius, etc. (custodian's fee for the statue and the hall, 40 pf.). 
Adjoining the Ruhmeshalle is a public Park. 

Towards the E. from the Marien-Platz (p. 249) we pass through 
an archway under the tower of the Old Rathaus, and enter the broad 
street called the Tal. On the right, at the beginning of it, rises the 
baroque Church of the Holy Okost, rebuilt in 1885-87, beyond which 
lies the Provision Market (PI. E, 5, 6). Beyond the latter is the . 
spacious Corn Hall (Schranne; Pl.D, E, 6), builtin 1853. No.l in 
the St. Jakobs-Platz (PI. D, E, 6) is a building containing the 
Historical Museum, the Maillinger Collection, illustrative of the 
history of Munich, and a Co llection of Models (adm., seep. 196), 
all three belonging to the city. 

At the E. end of the Tal is the Isartor (PI. F, 6), erected at 
the beginning of the 14th cent, and restored by Louis I. in 1835. 
The pediment is adorned with a fresco by Neher, representing the 
Entry of Emp. Louis the Bavarian after the Battle of Ampflng (1831 ; 
spoiled in 1881 by an attempt at restoration). In the Zweibriicken- 
Str., beyond the gate, on the right, are tho.Heavy Cavalry Barracks, 
on the bank of the Isar. Opposite is the Steinsdorf-Strasse (see 
p. 216). The *Ludwigs-Brucke (PI. G, 6, 7), farther on, affords a 
good survey of the Maximilians-Briicke and the Maximilianeum. 
The bridge was remodelled in 1891-94 and furnished with allegorical 
figures of industry and trade (by Eberle), fishing (by Hahn), and 
art (by Kaufmann). The imposing *Public Baths (Stddtische Volks- 
bad; PI. G, 6; p. 193), immediately to the left of the bridge, 
endowed by Karl Miiller, the engineer, were erected in 1901 by 
Hocheder in the German baroque style (may be viewed on Tues., 
Wed., & Frid., 1-2.15, 25 pf.). 

In the suburb of Au (PI. F, G, 7, 8) are numerous beer-gardens 
(comp. p. 192). The Mariahilf-Kirche (PI. F, 8; adm. p. 197), or 
Auer-Kirche, was erected in 1830-39 by Ohlmuller and Ziebland 
in the earliest Gothic style. Tower 260 ft. high. *Stained glass 
designed by Schraudolph, Fischer, and others. The picturesque little 
old houses in the neighbourhood, known as 'Herbergen', usually 
belong to more than one proprietor. — Farther to the S., in the 
suburb of Giesing, is the *Giesinger Kirche (PI. E, 11), a Gothic 
building erected by Dollmann in 1866-84, with a tower 315 ft. 
high and an elaborately decorated interior. A little to the E. is the 
Oiesing or East Cemetery (PL G, 10), with the grave of the poet 

254 Route 33. MUNICH. Environs. 

Hermann von Schmid (d. 1880). The rotunda in the colonnade 
erected here by Qrasul has ceiling-paintings by Guntermann. 

From the Auer-Kirche we return into the town by the Reichen- 
baeh Bridge (PI. E, 8; tramway-line 5, p. 193). The H&ximilians- 
Xirche (PI. E, 8), about 200 yds. to the left of the bridge, was 
completed by H. von Schmidt in 1901. In the Gartner-Platz (PL E, 
6, 7), with statues of Gartner (d. 1847) and Klenze (d. 1864), the 
architects, is the Gartner-Platz Theatre (p. 194). — With a visit 
to Giesing may be combined an excursion to the Isar-Auen (p. 255), 
or we may drive hence via the Wittel$bach Bridge (PL D, 9) to the 
Southern Cemetery (tramway-Une 12, p. 193). 

The *Southern Cemetery (PL 0, D, 7, 8) of Munich, outside 
the Sendlinger-Tor (p. 252), contains the finest and most artistic 
tombstones in Germany. 

Among the illustrious dead may be mentioned Fraunhofer, the astro- 
nomer (d. 1826; arcade, W. side), Sen* f elder, inventor of lithography (d. 
1834; E. side, by the wall), Neumann, the historian (d. 1870; central 
walk), and P. von Hess y the painter (d. 1871; central walk). 

On the S. side, from the arcades, we enter the New Cemetery 
(PL C, 8), inclosed with arcades in red brick. The first graves on 
the right and left are those of Ludwig von Schwanthaler (d. 1848) 
and JV. von Gartner (d. 1847), the two greatest contributors to the 
splendour of modern Munich. Many other eminent men are also 
interred here. The centre *Cruciflx is by Halbig. 

The Old Northern Cemetery, in the Arcis - Strasse (p. 240; 
PL D, 1), not far from the New Pinakothek, laid out by Zenetti in 
1866-69, contains a monument erected by the city to the German 
soldiers who died of their wounds at Munich in 1870-71, and also 
a monument to French prisoners buried here during the same 
period. In the centre is another marble *Cruciflx by Halbig. 

d. Environs of Munich. 

The ""English Garden (PL F, G, H, 1, 2, 3), a park of 600 acres, 
originally laid out about 1800, with fine old trees, and watered by 
two arms of the Isar, affords delightful walks in summer. From 
the corner of the Prinz-Regenten-gtr. and the Konigin-Str. (PL F, 3; 
p. 204) a walk leads along the river to an artificial cascade beside 
the Brunnhaus. Farther on we pass the Dianabad (to the right 
beyond the stream; cafe*) to the Monopteros y a small temple designed 
by Klenze (to the left, on a height) ; then the Chinese Tower (cafe*) 
and the little lake of Kleinhesselohe (restaurant), used for boating. 
The Milchhausl and the Tivoli, farther on, are both cafes. At the 
N. end is the Aumeister, a forester's house with a restaurant. 

To the £. of the park is the Max- Joseph- Briicke, leading across 
the Isar Canal and the Isar to Bogenhausen (PL I, 2), on the right 
bank of the Isar, near which is the Observatory (adm., see p. 197). 
From *Bad Brunnthal, a health institute with a shady garden, to 

d by Google 

Environs. MUNICH. 33. Route. 255 

the right of the bridge, the charming Maximilians- Anlag en extend 
to the Ludwigs-Briicke (comp. p. 217). 

On the right bank of the Isar, above the Reichenbach bridge (PI. E, 8 ; 
p. 251), begin the pretty Itar-Auen, through which roads lead up the river 
past the Wittelsbach bridge (PL D, 9) and under the railway (fine view of 
the charmingly situated ThaUeirchen, p. 275). Then, to the right, we enter 
the Marienklause, ascend the steps, and follow the bank through fine 
wood to the (lVs hr.) Menterschwaige and to Qrosshesselohe. 

Grosshesselohe (p. 278), 7 M. from Munich, is reached by railway in 22- 
26 min. \ it is also a station of the Isartal Railway (see p. 275). From the 
Central Railway 8tation (p. 189) we cross the handsome bridge over the Isar 
to (1 M.) the Menterschwaige (restaurant). The bridge affords a good view 
of Munich, with the deep and broad valley of the Isar below. — Pleasant 
walk to the Grosshesselohe Restaurant, ascending from the station by a 
path to the left on the left bank (10 min.); thence through wood past the 
little chateau of Schwaneck, erected by Schwanthaler (not accessible), to 
(25 min.) Pullach (p. 275). We now descend to (i/s M.) Bad Pullach (restau- 
rant), on the Isar, and return by the romantic lower path along the river 
(not advisable in wet weather), traversing fine beech-woods and ascending 
to the station near the Grosshesselohe bridge. Or from Bad Pullach we 
may ascend the Isar to (20 min.) Hdllriegelsgereuth (inn), cross the river 
by a wire-rope ferry to the (20 min.) old ducal hunting-lodge of OrUnwald 
(Schlosswirt, with view, best from the tower, 10 pf. ; Lindenwirt), and 
follow the right bank to (1 hr.) the bridge. There is also a ferry at Bad 
Pullach, by which route Grtinwald is reached in »/* nr » 

Hymphenburg, begun in 1668 by Elector Ferdinand Maria, and once 
a favourite chateau of Max Joseph I., 3 M. to the W. of Munich (tramway 
No. 1, see p. 198), has tasteful old grounds, two fountains 100 ft. high, and 
fine hot-houses (numerous Brazilian plants). In the central part of the 
chateau tickets are issued (9-11 and 1-5) for the hymphenburg itself (un- 
interesting), and for the Pagodenburg, Amalienburg, and Badenburg (50 pf. > 
park free). In the nearer part of the park are the Magdalen Chapel, built 
to imitate a ruin, and the Pagodenburg, farther to the W., on a small 

Eond. In the farther part of the park are the pretty Amalienburg erected 
y Cuvillie's (1737), the Badenburg (1718), on a large pond, and a circular 
Corinthian temple. — Concerts in the Volksgarten, a large popular resort, 
at the terminus of the electric tramway, with a garden, hippodrome, view- 
tower etc., and in the Rurgarten. Near the chateau, on the left, is the 
Restaurant turn Controlor. On the tf.E. side of the chateau is a Porcelain 
Manufactory (adm. on week-days exc. Sat. afternoon, 9-12 A 2-6, 1 **), 
founded in 1754, formerly belonging to the king, now in private hands. 
In the (»/« M.) Deer Park (restaurant), to the S.E., are kept tame stags 
and white deer. 

The chateau of Schleissheim (Schlosswirth ; Blauer Karpfen ; Traveller's 
Home; Restaurant sum Bergl % l 1 /* M. from the 8chloss), a station on the 
Ratisbon railway (p. 189. reached in 20-30 min.), was erected for Elector 
Max Emmanuel in 1701-4 by Enrico Zuccali, in a style recalling that of 
Versailles. The interior admirably illustrates the transition from the 
baroque to the German rococo style; most of the ceiling-paintings are by 
Amigoniy the stucco embellishments of the fine staircase by Dubut. The 
extensive Pictdbb Gallkbt is open daily, except Mun., from Easter till 
Oct. 80th (ground-floor 9.8012, upper floor 2-6; on Sun. both open 9.30-6), 
and from Nov. till Easter on application to the custodian. Catalogue (1905), 
IV* Jf. On the groundfloor are the paintings of the Italian (including the 
'Gonzaga Cycle" by Tintoretto), and early German and Dutch schools; on 
the first floor are the later German. Butch, and Flemish works, portraits, 
and the Wittelsbach ancestral gallery. The 8. pavilion contains modern 
paintings, including 24 works by H. von Maries (d. 1887). Pleasant garden. 

Fating, the first station on the Starnberg, Lindau, and Augsburg lines 
(see pp. 256, 259, and 185; 41/2 M., in 11-16 min.), is the starting-point 
for a visit to the churches of Pipping and Blutenburg, which possess con- 


256 Route 34. STARNBERG. 

siderable artistic interest. The church of Pipping, »/ 2 M. to the N. of 
Pasing, was built in 1478-79. The interior has remained unchanged, and, 
with its old stained glass, altars, choir-stalls, and frescoes, affords a charm- 
ing picture of a late-Gothic country-church of the 15th century. — A few 
hundred yards to the N. of this lies Blutenburg, now a school of English 
nuns. The church (fee 50 pf.), built in 1490 by Duke Sigismund as a court- 
chapel, contains a high-altar and two side-altars of 1491, with paintings 
of the Munich school; fine 'Wooden figures of the Apostles, the Virgin, 
and the Risen Christ, of the same period ; and stained-glass windows of 
1497 with scenes from the Passion and coats of arms of the "Wittelsbach 
family. — Local railway from Pasing to H err acting, see p. 258. 
Excursion to Dachau, see p. 184. 

34. The Starnberger-See and Ammersee, 
The Hohe Peissenberg. 

Railway from Munich (Sternberg Station, p. 189) to Starnberg (17»/« M.) 
in 32-56 min. ; to Peissenberg (38 l /2 M.) in 2-272 hrs. — Steamboat from 
Starnberg to Seeshaupt and back (round the whole lake), 10 times daily 
in summer (oftener on Sundays) in 3 hrs. Steamboat-tickets may be pur- 
chased at the railway-station in Munich as well as on board the steamers. 
A circular ticket (2 A 80, 1 A 60 pf.) entitles the holder to break the 
journey twice. 

Munich, see p. 189. The train quits the Lindau line (p. 259) at 
L /2 M.) Posing. 8i/ 2 M. Planegg (Schlosswirt, with garden). — 
12 M. Oauting (Railway Hotel, with garden; Post), with a sulphur- 
spring and well appointed Kurhaus (pens., incl. baths, 4 Jf). — 
15 M. Miihlthal. 

1772 M. Starnberg. — Hotels. Baybischer Hof, R. S'/a-SVs, pens. 
6-8 A ; Bellevue, R. from IV2, pens, from 6 A ; Pellet-Mates, well spoken 
of; Deotschbe Kaiser, R. 172-3, pens. 5-7 A; Peoschek, plain but good; 
Sigl's Bail wat Hotel; Tutzingee Hof. — Muhlbebg's Kdeanstalt Stabn- 
beeg, pens. 6-9 A. — See-Restaurant, by the Wellen-Bad; Restaurant See- 
hof; Riidesheimer Weinstube. — Seebad EOrner, with swimming-baths; 
Undosa- Wellen-Bad, with artificial waves. — Rowing Boats, V2-I A per hour. 

Starnberg (1925 ft.), a considerable place (3300 inhab.) at the 
N. end of the Wurmsee, dominated by its old castle, is much fre- 
quented as a summer-resort. 

The "Lake of Starnberg, or Wurmsee (1920 ft.), 12'/ 2 M. long, 
174-3 M. in width, and 370 ft. deep, is enclosed by banks of moderate 
height, which are covered with villas and parks. The principal 
charm of the scenery is the view of the distant mountains to the S. 
The following are the conspicuous peaks, from E. toW.: Wendel- 
stein, Brecherspitze , Kirchstein, Benediktenwand , Karwendel- 
Gebirge, Jochberg, Herzogstand, Heimgarten, Krottenkopf, Wetter- 
stein range with the Zugspitze, and Ettaler Mandl. 

Steamboat Journey (different stations are stopped at on the 
different down and up trips). On the hill to the right, beyond 
Starnberg, rises the villa of Count Almeida. On the bank, farther 
on, are a number of other villas. Stat. Niederpoeking. Possenhofen 
(Schauer) lies about V2 M. from the railway- station of that name 
(p. 257). Duke Charles Theodore of Bavaria has a chateau here. The 

d by Google 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

FELDAFING. 34. Route. 257 

garden, enclosed by a high wall, is not shown ; but the park, about 
2^2 M. in length, is open to the public; a fine road leads through 
it along the shore to (4*/4 M.) Tutzing (see below). Pleasant walk 
through wood, ascending to the right (way- posts), to (1 M.) Feldafing 
(see below). In the lake below lies the Rosen-Intel, a wooded is- 
land with a royal cottage (reached by boat in 10 min. ; admission free). 

The first station on the E. bank is Schloss Berg {^ Hotel am See, 
with terrace; Hotel Schloss Berg, J / 4 M. from the lake). 

About X U M. from the pier is Bchlois Berg (adm. daily in summer, 8-11 
and 12-7; 50 pf.), a royal chateau with a large park, where King Louis II. 
of Bavaria perished in the lake on June 13th, 1836. The chateau is plainly 
fitted up, and contains paintings and statuettes, for the most part of scenes 
and characters from Wagner's operas. — A road leads through the park to 
(1 M.) Leoni (see below) passing the spot where the bodies of King Louis II. 
and Dr. von Oudden were found (indicated by a stone column with a 
cross). Opposite is a Romanesque memorial chapel (1901)1 

Farther on, opposite Possenhofen, lies the neat little village of 
Leoni (*H6tel Leoni, R. iy 2 -2ujf; Bayrisches Haus, li/ 2 M. to the S.). 
On the hill above it rises the church of Aufkirchen. 

Bottmannshdhe (2166 ft,). A cable-railway (fare 30, down 20 pf.) ascends 
in 7-8 min. from the landing-place to (*/4 M.) the *Holel-Restavrant, the 
veranda of which commands a beautiful survey of the lake and Alps. On a 
platform in front of the hotel-veranda stands a simple monument erected 
by the artists of Munich to Karl Rottmann (d. 1860), the famous landscape- 
painter. About 1/2 M. to the 8. of the hotel is the Bismarck Tower (view), 
completed in 1899. — To WolfraUhausen, see p. 276. 

On the W. bank a number of parks and gardens extend from 
Possenhofen to (21/4 M,) Oaratshavsen (Dusold), with a chateau of 
Prince Thurn and Taxis. Next stat. Tutring (*H6tel Simson, at the 
station, 1/3 M. from the lake, R. lty'&k Jl; *Seehof, with garden 
on the lake, R. from 2 UjQ, with the chateau of Count Landberg- 
Hallberger and a nunnery. — The Johanneshiigel, % M. to the S., 
commands a charming view; a still finer one is enjoyed from the 
•Ilkahohe (2390 ft.), near Oberzeismering (3/ 4 hr.). The lake, which 
forms a bay here towards the W., called the fcarpfenwinkel, has now 
attained its greatest width (3 M.). 

Stat. Bernried (Altwirt; Neuwirt), with a chateau of Baron 
von Wendland and a fine park, open to the public (good beer at the 
beer-garden). On the E. bank are the steamboat-stations of Am- 
merland, with the chateau of Count Pocci, opposite Tutzing, and 
Ambadj opposite Bernried. The banks become flatter and the Alps 
more conspicuous. Stat. Beeshaupt (H6t. Sccshaupt, Tost, both very 
fair) lies at the S. end of the lake. 

Railway Journey (views to the left). — 20*^ M. Possenhofen. 
— 211/2 M. Feldaflng (*Kaiserin Elisabeth; *Neuschwanstein), 1 M. 
from the lake. — Before reaching (25 M.) Tutzing (Rail. Restaurant; 
to Kochel, see p. 276) we have a superb view of the lake and mountains 
to the left. The line turns towards the S.W. — 33i/ 2 M. Weilheim 
(1846 ft.; *Brduwastl, with garden; *Post; Railway Restaurant 
& Paulfs Hotel), a small town (4900 Inhab.) on the Ammer, with 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 10th Edit. 17 

258 Route 34. AMMERSEE. 

& municipal museum. (Route to Murnau and Partenkirchen, see 
p. 268 ; to the Ammersee, see below.) — 38 1/2 M. Peissenberg (1930 ft.). 
About 1/4 M. from the station is Bad Sulz (2020 ft. ; 'Hotel, U. 1 1/4- 
21/2, pens. 4-5 M\ with sulphur and mineral springs, a hydropathic, 
and shady walks. 

The best Route to the Hohb Peissenbebq from Bad Sulz is either 
by the easy and well-shaded path (indicated by blue and white marks), 
which diverges to the left from the road beyond the restaurant and leads 
via the Sulzbach Waterfall, the Qvellenhaue, and the Sch&ne Aussicht (to the 
top i 1 /* hr.); or by the shorter but steeper path (red and white marks) 
diverging to the right beyond the restaurant and ascending via the Eberl- 
bauer and Schwabheiu in 1 hr. The descent (blue marks) may be made 
to the 8.E., across the ridge (fine views) to the Weinbauer (inn, good wine), 
and thence in windings to (1 hr.) the railway-station of Peissenberg. 

The *Hohe Peissenberg (3245 ft.) affords a remarkably extensive 
panorama owing to its isolated position opposite the centre of the 
Bavarian Alps. On the summit are a pilgrimage-church, a school 
(with an observatory on the roof; adm. 20 pf.), and a plain Inn, 

♦View. The principal mountains visible are, from E. to W., the Wen* 
delstein, Benediktenwand, Jochberg (beyond which in the extreme distance 
peep 8 the snowy Venediger), Herzogstand, Heimgarten (in front of which 
lies the Staffelsee), Karwendel-Gebirge, Kistenkopf, Krottenkopf, Dreitor- 
spitze, Wetterstein range (with the Zugspitze), Daniel, Hochplatte, Hohe 
Bleiche, Gabelschroffen, 8auling, Griinten, and Stuiben. To the U. an 
extensive survey of the plain, embracing the Ammersee, Stamberger-See, 
and innumerable towns and villages as far as Munich and Augsburg. 

Fboh Peissenberg to Saulgeob. A carriage-road (diligence daily to 
Bayeraoien in 2 1 /* hrs.) leads round the E. flank of the Hohe Peissenberg 
via BSbing to (9 M.) Rottenbuch (Post), with its interesting church (14th cent)., 
picturesquely situated on the left bank of the deep Ammer-Tal. Thence 
past (4Vs M.) Bayersoien (inn), near the little Soien Lake, to (3 M.) Saul- 
grvb (p. 273). 

The Ammersee (1750 ft.), 10 M. long, 33/ 4 M. broad, and 255 ft. 
deep, like the Starnberger-See commands a fine view of the Alps 
from the Watzmann to the Algau mountains, with the Zugspitze 
group in the middle. The lake is most easily reached from Munich 
by the local railway to Herrsching (see below). Steamboat on the 
lake, see below. 

FromWeilheim a railway (Weilheim to Mering, see p. 185) runs 
in 35 min., via WitUnbach and Baisting, to (8 M.) Diessen, or 
Bayer diessen (*Qattinger; Ammersee; Schlossbrauerei Spann, with 
garden; Tutzinger Hof; Pens. Seerichterhaus), a market-town (1300 
inhab.) and summer-resort at the S.W. end of the lake, with a hand- 
some abbey-church in the baroque style (1739). Baths in the lake 
(20 pf.), and at St. Allan, 3/ 4 M. to the N. 

Steamboat (in summer 4 times daily, on Sun. and 7 holidays 
6 times; fares 2 M 40, 1 Jt 80 pf.) from Diessen to Stegen in li/ 2 - 
1% hr. The boat crosses the lake to Fischen, and then skirts the 
E. bank to Muhlfeld and Herrsching (Post; Reiner; Seehof). 

Fbom Munich to Hebrbching, 23y*M., local railway in i 1 /* hr. vii 
Pating (p. 259), Wesiling (16 M.), on the small Wesslinger See, (i8»/* M.) 

LANDSBERG. 35. Route. 259 

Sleinebach, on the Worth-See (1835 ft. ; 2 M. long, iy 4 M. broad, 110 ft. 
deep), wifh a small island, and (20 M.) Seefeld-Hechendorf, on the pretty 
Pilsen-See, dominated by Schloss Seefeld (Count TSrring), which lies op- 
posite, near the village (Post). 

Herrsching is the station also for (3 M.) Andechs (2336 ft; inn), 
once the seat of the powerful counts of that name, and now a 
Benedictine monastery, with a favourite pilgrimage-church. The 
next stations are Ried on the E. bank, Holzhausen (H6t. Panorama) 
and Vtting (inn) on the W. bank, and Breitbrunn (Belle), on the 
E. bank. Then, on the W. bank, Unterschondorf (Hotel, on the 
lake; rail, station, see p. 185), above which, to the left, are the 
village and chateau of Qrtifenberg (1920 ft.; Post); at the foot of 
the hill, in the pleasant Windach-Taly are the chalybeate and peat 
baths of There8ienbad. The Amper emerges from the lake near stat. 
Stegen (inn), at the N. end. A small steamboat plies on the Amper 
(i/ 2 hr. ; fares 90, 60 pf.) to Grafrath (inn), 1 M. from the railway* 
station of the same name (see below; omnibus 30 pf.). 

35. From Munich to Lindan. 

137 M. Railway. Express in 4-5 hrs. (fares 20 Jf 20, 14 Jf 20, 10 Ut 
10 pf.); ordinary train in 7-8 hrs. (17 Jf 70, HJf 80, 7 Jf 60 pf.). Views 
to the left. 

Munich, see p. 189. Soon after leaving the station we see on the 
right the park of Nymphenburg (p. 255). 4i/ 2 M. Paring f 7500 inhab.), 
a town since 1904, is the junction for Augsburg (R. 31) and Starn- 
berg (R. 34). After crossing the Wurm (p. 185) and passing (7 M.) 
AuUng y the train enters the boggy Dachauer Moos (p. 185). — 14i/ 2 M. 
Brack bei Munchen, or Furstenfeld-Bruck (Post; Marthabrau), a 
market- town pleasantly situated on the Amper, with a museum of 
antiquities.* To the right beside the railway is the old Cistercian 
abbey of Furstenfeld,, now a school for non-commissioned officers, 
with a baroque church of 1716. — Then across the Amper to (20 M.) 
Qrafrath. station for the Ammersee (see above). — 26 M. Qclten- 
dorf (p. 185) ; 3IV2 M. Epfenhausen. The train crosses the Lech 
to (35 M.) Xaufering. 

Fbom Kaufering to Schohgau, 2OV2 M., railway in l«/4 hr. — 8 M. 
Landsberg (2075 ft.-, *Zederbrdu; *Goggl; Post, a quaint old town on the 
Lech (6500 inhab.), with the late-Gothic Liebfrauen-Kirche (15th cent). The 
Rathau*, recently restored, contains frescoes by Piloty and Schwoiser and an 
excellent painting , by Hubert Herkomer, of a "Sitting of the Landsberg 
Magistrates. Herkomer, who is a native of Waal, 6 M. from Landsberg, 
has built the so-called i Mvtkrtvrm\ in the English castellated style, ad- 
joining the house at Landsberg in which his mother died (fine views of the 
town and valley). Outside the town the Lech falls over a weir 10 ft. high. 
On the hill is the Baytrior, a picturesque Gothic gate-tower, with carvings 
in wood. The treasury of the Malteter-Kirche is interesting. — 20>/2 M. 
Schongan (Post; Stern), an ancient little town with an old chateau, lies 
picturesquely on a hill on the Lech. The Johannisbad (restaurant and 
pension) here is well fitted up. 

Fbom Kaufbbino to Bobingbn (Augsburg), 14V* M., railway in 50 min 
crossing the Udtfeld. W/ % M. Bobingcn, see p. 2&. 


260 Route 35. BUCHLOE. From Munich 

421/2 M. Bnchloe (2030 ft.; Rail. Restaurant; Hdtel Ensslin, 
near the station), the junction of the lines to Augsburg and Mem- 

From Augsburg to Buchlob , 25 M. , railway in 1/2-! hr. (from Augs- 
burg to Lindau in 4-7 hrs.). The line traverses the Lechfeld, the plain be- 
tween the Wertach and Lech, where Otho I. defeated the Hungarians in 
956. Near (41/2 M.) Inning en, to the right, beyond the Wertach, rises the 
Wellenburg, a chateau of Prince Fugger. Vfc M. Bobingen (branch-line to 
Eaufering, seep. 259); 147s M. Schtoabmlinchen, a manufacturing place.— 
The line thea crosses the Gennach, and reaches Buchloe. 

From Buchloe to Memmingen, 28 1 /* M., railway in 174 hr. Beyond 
(2V2 M.) Wiedergeltxngen the train crosses the Wertach. From (5 M.) 
Tilrkheim ("Krone; Weisses Boss, etc.), a pleasant little market -village 
on the Wertach, an electric tramway plies to (2'/2 M. ; 1/4 hr.) W&xishofen 
(2086 ft. 5 Kurhotel Kreuzer, Vikloria, Bellevue, GeromUler, all with baths ; 
Luitpold; Rdule; Adler; Krone; Sonne; numerous Pension*), a large village 
(2470 inhab.) on the Wettbach, noted for the hydropathic establishment 
founded by the Rev. Sebastian Kneipp (d. 1897). For lodgings apply to the 
Enr-Verein in the Casino. Opposite the Casino is the Eurhaus Sebastianeum, 
conducted by monks; to the 8. of it stands the Kneipp Monument, and 
to the W. lie the Children's Home and the Eneippianum hospital. — 12 M. 
Mindelheim (1970 ft. ; Post ; Mohren). an old town (4400 inhab.) situated 
among woods and frequented in summer; in the church is the tomb of - 
Oeorg von Frundsberg (d. 1528), a distinguished general. Near it is the 
Maym-Bad with a mineral spring and a medical establishment. — 23V2M. 
Ungerhausen, whence a branch -line runs to Ottobeuren (see p. 44). — 
281/2 M. Memmingen (p. 44). 

The train enters the broad valley of the Wertach. — 50 M. 
Pforzen. The background of the landscape is here formed by the 
Zugspitze, the Hochplatte, the S'auling, and other mountains. — 
The line crosses the Wertach. At (5472 M.) Kaufbeuren (2230 ft. ; 
Sonne; Hirsch; Rose), a picturesque old town (8900 inhab.) still 
partly surrounded by walls and towers, is the interesting Chapel of 
St. Blasius, with altar-pieces and paintings of 1480-1515 (restored 
in 1896). The Church of St. Martin and the Protestant garish Church 
(both restored), the municipal Historical Museum, and the Museum 
of Domestic Art are also worth a visit. New Gothic Rathaus by 

The line now winds between densely wooded hills. — 58 l /2 M. 
Biessenhofen (Post; branch-line to Fiissen, see p. 264); 63 l /2 M. 
Aitrang. A deep cutting penetrates the watershed between the 
Wertach and the Iller. — 69 '^ M. Gunzach, with an old monastery, 
now a brewery, is the highest point (2630 ft.) of the line ; fine view 
of the Gunztal; to the right Obergunzburg, — 777a M. Betzigau. 
The Iller is crossed. 

8II/2 M. Kempten. — Hotels. AlgaueeHof, Bahnhofb- Hotel, at 
the station \ *Ebohe, Post, in the new town ; Hase, in the old town. — 
De CrignCs and Fromlefs wine-rooms; *Rail. Restaurant. 

Kempten (2220 ft.), the capital of the Algau, with 20,500 inhab., 
picturesquely situated on the Iller, which here becomes navigable 
for rafts, consists of two parts, the Neustadt, on the high ground, 
and the Altstadt on the Iller. In the Residenz-Platz in the Neustadt 
are a pretty fountain with a statue of Empress Hildegard and the 

to Lindau. IMMENSTADT. 35. Route. 261 

old Palace of the once powerful Prince- Abbots of Kemp ten, built in 
1656-74 and now partly used as barracks. Adjacent is the handsome 
Abbey Church, with a dome in the Italian style (1652). In front of 
the Real-Schule is a fine War Monument for 1870-71. In the Altstadt 
are the Rathaus and the Protestant Church in the St. Mang-Platz. 
The pretty St. Magnus Fountain (1905) and the Historical Museum 
are also interesting. 

To the S. of the town, 10 min. from the station, rises the *Burghalde, 
& hill with promenades (restaurant) and remains of old walls and towers. 
Splendid view of the Algau Alps. Still finer from the *Mariaberg (3036 ft. ; 
inn), 174 hr. to the W., hest reached via Feilberg and Eggen. 

From Kempten to Reotte, 30»/» M., branch-railway in 8 hrs. The 
line diverges to the right from the main line beyond the bridge over the 
Iller (p. 260) and rapidly ascends, via Durach^ Sultberg, and the iodine baths 
of (5 M.) Sulzbrunn (2685 ft), to (it M.) Oy (2980 ft.). At (IS*/* M.) Maria- 
Rain the Werlach is crossed. — 15 M. JftntVmang (2845 ft; Post; Krone, 
etc.; Rail. Restaurant), a large village, is pleasantly situated at the base 
of the Edehberg (5330 ft.), the easy and attractive ascent of which may 
be made in 2 hrs. 17 M. Kappel belongs to the parish of Pfronten (Front 
Rhaetiae), which consists of thirteen villages. 187* M. Pfronten- Weiubach 
(Haf ; Post). — 191/2 M. Pfronten-Ried (*870 ft. $. • Bahnhofs-Hotel turn Falken- 
atein) is pleasantly situated on the left bank of the Vils. With the adjoining 
villages of Heitlem (Adler) and Dor/ (Krone ; Trenkle) it is visited as a 
summer-resort. The attractive ascent of the *Falkenstein (4160 ft. ; hotel 
and fine view), at the top of which is a ruined castle, may be made by 
road in 17s hr. — The train follows the valley of the ViU and crosses the 
Austrian frontier to (23'/ 2 M.) SchOnbichl (inn), at the base of the Falken- 
atein (see above). — 26 M. Vils, the smallest town in Tyrol (491 inhab.), 
whence a road runs via the Ulrichs-Briicke to Ftissen (l 1 /? hr.; p. 264). — 
The railway now follows the left bank of the Lech to (28J/2 M.) Musau 
<p. 267), beyond which it crosses the river and reaches (29 M.) Pflach 
(p. 267). — 307* M. Reutte (p. 267). 

From Kempten to Ulm, see p. 44. 

Beyond Kempten, from which the train backs out, the line fol- 
lows the left bank of the Iller. Finest views to the left. Beyond 
(85 M.) Waltenhofen the Nieder-Sonthofen Lakes (2310 ft.) are seen 
on the right, at the foot of the Stoffelberg (3490 ft.). — The line 
approaches the Iller. To the left is the green and sharp - edged 
Orunten (see below). 

941/2 M. Immenetadt (2390 ft. ; *Bayerischer Hof; Kreuz or 
Post; Hirsch; Drei Kbnige; Traube; *Friedrichsbad Hydropathic, 
pens. 4 ! /2-8 Jl\ a busy town of 4600 inhab., lies picturesquely on 
both banks of the Steigbach, near the confluence of the Konstanzer 
Ach and the Iller, at the foot of the Immenstadter Ho*rn (4890 ft.) 
and the Mittag (4730 ft.). 

Fine views from the Kalvarienberg (7« hr. to the If.) and from the 
Rotenfels (iA hr. to the K.W., near the E. extremity of the Alpsee, see 
p. 262). — The ascent of the 'Stuiben (5740 ft.; 37a brs., guide unneces- 
sary) is recommended. We ascend the Bteigbach - Tal to the (I72 hr.) 
Almagtnach /*», whence a good footpath leads to the (I72 hr.) Btuiben- 
Haus (6205 ft. ; inn), about 7» hr. below the summit, which commands a 
splendid view. 

Fbom Immenstadt to Obebstdokf, 13 M., railway in I74 hr. — 272 M. 
Blaichach; 5 M. Bonthofen (2440ft.; "Deutsche* Haw, at the rail, station; 
Engel), an imposing market-town with 3900 inhab., pleasantly situated in 
the broad green valley of the Iller. The *Grunten (5700 ft.) may be ascended 

262 Route 35. OBERSTDORF. From Munich 

hence via (&L M.) Burgberg (2465 ft. •, Kreuz), at the S.W. base of the bill, 
li/s M. from Blaichach (see p. 261), in 21/2-3 bra. The bridle-path is easily 
found (guide unnecessary; horse 12 Jl). About 1/2 br. below the summit 
is the Qrilnten-Haus (4945 ft. ; bed iy 2 Jf). The view (best by evening light) 
embraces the E. half of the Lake of Constance and the Sentis. — The train 
proceeds through the pleasant valley of the Iller. 13 M . Oberstdorf (2665 ft. ; 
Luitpold; Mohr; LiHce; Sonne, etc.), a favourite summer-resort, beautifully 
situated in the midst of the Algau Alps, near the confluence of the Tretiach. 
Stillach, and Breitach, the valleys of which with their ramifications afford 
a great variety of excursions: To the Faltenbach Waterfall, 25 minutes. — 
Hoffmanneruhe (2965 ft.), V* hr., via St. Loreito (fine view from the hill; 
Alpenrose Inn). — *Wa*ach, 1 hr. Beyond the Breitach bridge we ascend 
to the left (inn); beautiful view (best by evening-light). We may return 
via Tiefenbach (iy 4 hr.). — *Freiberg-See (3050 ft. ; 1 hr.) ; beyond St. Loretto 
a footpath diverges to the right through meadows, crosses the Stillach, and 
ascends to the dark~green lake (inn). — Spielmannaau (Trettach Valley), 
2 hrs., carriage-road via St. Loretto, skirting the N. foot of the Himmel- 
echroffen, to the hamlet of Spielmannsau (3085 ft. ; inn), amid grand scenery 
(Trettachspitze, Kratzer). — *Ht)lUobel, in the Dietersbach valley (a side- 
valley of the Spielmannaau), l l /2 hr.; a fine waterfall in a picturesque 
ravine. — Oytal (to the Stuiben Fall 3 hrs.), repaying; road to the inn, 
about halfway. — Zwingsteg and Walter Schanze, H/s hr. A carriage-road 
crosses the Stillach to the W- and leads over the ridge to the WaUer Sehanze 
(inn), just beyond the Austrian frontier, in the valley of the Breitach or 
Kleine Walser-Tal. About 8 min. before it is reached, a path descends 
to the right past the ZwingsUg, a wooden bridge 200 ft. above the Breitach, 
and through the deep and narrow Gorge of the Breitach (adm. 50 pf.) to a 
(3/4 hr.) restaurant ; thence to Oberstdorf, I1/4 hr. — Birgsau (Stillach Valley), 
repaying, by road 6 M. ; new road thence to (40 min.) Einddsbach, at the 
mouth of the Backer Loch, a huge gorge on the W. side of the Madelegabel 
(V2 hr. to the waterfall). — For details, mountain- ascents (Ifebelhorn, M&dele- 
gabel, etc.) and the passes to the Schrtieken, the Lech Valley, etc., see 
Baedeker's Eastern Alpt. 

Fkom Sonthofen to Beutte, 33V2 M. From Sonthofen to (5 M.) 
Hindelang, motor diligence in ca. V* br.; from Hindelang to Schattwald, 
diligence daily in summer in V/z hr. ; from Schattwald to Beutte, daily in 
4V« hrs. Carriage from Sonthofen to Hindelang 5, with two horses 7 Jl; 
to Schattwald, 12 or 18 Jl ; to (8 hrs.) Beutte, 24 or 40 Jl. — The road 
follows the valley of the Osteraeh to (5 H.) the large village of Hindelang 
(2705 ft. ; Sonne; Adler), whence it ascends in curves to the (3 1 /* M ) Vorder- 
joch (3770 ft.). It then traverses a monotonous plateau and descends to 
(3 l /2 M.) Vilsrein, with- the Austrian custom-house, in the upper valley of the 
Ft/*, 1/2 M. from Schattwald (3516 ft.; *Traube: Sonne), with its sulphur- 
baths. In 4 M. more we reach Tannheim (3600 ft.; Oche), the capital of 
the valley, whence we proceed past C&fa M.) the Haldeneee (inn) to (3 l /2 M.) 
Nestelw&ngU (3720 ft. ; Kreuz), at the highest point of the road. We then 
descend through the Pate Qacht, the finely wooded gorge of the Weieten- 
bach y to (4 l /2 M.) Weittenbach, in the Lechtal, and to (672 M.) Beutte (p. 267). 

The train now turns to the W. into the valley of the Ach, 
reaches the village of Buhl, on the Alpsee (2375 ft. ; 2M. long), and 
runs through the pleasant Konstanzer-Tal, flanked with green hills, 
to (IO21/2 M.) Thalkirehdorf. It then ascends to (105 M.) Ober- 
Btaufen (2600 ft. ; Buttner; Krone; Adler), a summer- resort on 
the watershed between the Danube and the Rhine. At the end of 
a short tunnel, just before Oberstaufen is reached, and at several 
points beyond it, we obtain striking views of the deep Weissach- 
Tal, the wooded mountains of Bregenz, and the Sentis chain beyond. * 

Before we reach (113 M.) Rothenbach (2300 ft.) the valley is 
crossed by the Rentershofer Damm, an embankment 656 yds. in 

to Lindau. LINDAU. 35. Route. 263 

length and 174 ft. in height. 123 M. Hergatz (1816 ft.; branch- 
line to Kisslegg, p. 74). — 132 M. Oberreitnau. The line skirts the 
Hoierberg (see below), then turns to the S.E., and crosses an em- 
bankment 600 yds. long into the station of — 

137 M. Lindau (Plan on the Map, p. 78). —Hotels. *Baybischm 
Hop, on the lake, near the station, R. 3-5, B. ityi, D. 31/4, pens. 6Va-i0 Jf. 
— H6t. Rbutbmann, R. 2-4, D. 2 1 /*, pens. 5-7 Jt; Lindaueb Hof, R. 
1 JL 60 pf.-3 Jf, B. 80 pf.* Helvetia, R. iVa-i'A, »• g A **; Kbone, R. 2- 
27*1 pens. 5-6 Jf, all by the quay \ • Cheistliohes Vkeeinshaus, Paradies- 
Platzj Sonne, near the Rathaus, well spoken of. — Restaurants. Seegarten, 
next the Bayrischer Hof (with rooms) ; Schiitzengarten,on the ramparts by 
the Romer-Turm, with view$ Rail. Restaurant. — Wine at Frey^s and 
Zum Bteinacher. — Lake Bath* on the N.W. side of the town on the inner 
arm of the lake (30 pf.K and in the military baths on the E. side in the 
open lake. — English Church Service in summer. 

Lindau (1310 ft.; pop. 6600), formerly a free imperial town 
and fortress, and in the middle ages a busy trading place , lies on 
an island in the Lake of Constance (p. 78), 355 yds. from the main- 
land, with which it is connected by the railway-embankment and a 
wooden bridge. On the quay is a Statue of King Max II. (d. 1864) 
in bronze, by Halbig (1856). At the end of the S. pier is a large 
lion (21 ft. high) in marble, also by Halbig, and on the opposite 
pier a lighthouse (108 ft. high). The harbour is adjoined to the S. 
by the Alte Schanz, which commands a view of the Alps from the 
Scesaplana to the Sentis (nTOuntain-indicator). In the neighbouring 
Reichs - Platz is the Reichsbrunnen, erected in 1884 from a design 
by Thiersch and Ruemann, with a bronze statue of 'Lindauia' and 
other allegorical figures. The handsome Rathaus, painted in front 
and behind, was erected in 1422-36, and restored in 1885-87 ; it 
contains a collection of antiquities (open 9-12 & 3-5: 30 pf.). 
Pleasant grounds by the Landtor, with a monument for 1870-71. 

Excursions. Beautiful view from the ( 3 / 4 hr.) Hoierberg (1496 ft.), 
reached either by the path parallel with the railway, or by the road from 
the Landtor through Aeschaeh (Schlatter) to the hamlet of Hoiren at the 
foot of the vine-clad hill. Inn and a belvedere at the top. Return via 
Enzisweiler (Pens. Schmid) and Schachen (Schlossle). — Pleasant walk on 
the W. bank of the lake (crossing the railway-embankment, and turning 
to the left), to the (2 M.) charmingly situated Bad Schachen (crowded 
in summer; pens. 24-32 J(, board 20 Jf, per week ; rooms in private houses, 
5-7 Jf per week), with mineral and lake baths. Near it OA M.) is the 
Lindenhof, or Villa Oruber^ with a beautiful park, hot-houses, etc. (adm, 
Frid., 2-7, free, on other days on application to the gate-keeper 1 Jt per 
pers., for charitable purposes). Thence along the bank of the lake, by 
Tegelttein (to the right the finely situated Sehloss Alwind) and Mitten, to 
(2 M.) Wasserburg (Aieheler Garden-Restaurant, on the lake), a small town 
with a ch&teau and church, situated on a peninsula. Return by steamer or 
railway (p. 82). 

Railway from Lindau to Constance, see p. 82 j to Bregenz (the Qebhards* 
terff, Pf Under, etc.), see p. 81 ; steamboats on the Lake of Constance, see p. 79. 

d by Google 


36. From Munich to Fuseen (Hohenschwangau) 
and Reutte. 

90 M. Railway to Biessenhofen, 58Vz M., in lty 4 -3V« hrs. (fares 7 Jl 
60, 5 JT, 8 JT 20 pf.)$ from Biessenhofen to Fussen, 23 M., local railway 
in l»/« hr. — Diligence from Fussen to Reutte (B 1 /* *•) twice daily in IJ/4 hr. * 
from Reutte to Imst (34 M.) thrice daily in 8-9 hrs. — Omnibus from Fussen 
to Hohenschwangau in connection with the trains in 3 /< hr. (70 pf. ; there 
and back 1 Jl 20 pf.); also omnibuses of the Hohenschwangau hotels 
(1 «#)• — Cabeiaok from Fussen to Hohenschwangau with one horse 4, 
with two horses 6 «#, there and back with 1 hr*s. stay 5 or 8 «#, half-a- 
dav 6 or iQJl; to Neu-Schwanstein 6 or 9 Jl, there and back 8 or 12 Jl ; 
to 'Reutte 8 or 12 Jl; to Lermoos 20 or 30 Jl; to Linderhof 18 or 30 Jt; 
to Oberau 36 or 50 Jt ; to Imst 60 or 70 Jl. Driver's fee 10 per cent, of 
the fare. 

From Munich to (68i/ 2 M.) Biessenhofen, see pp. 259, 260. A 
branch-railway runs hence through the valley of the Wertach to 
(4M.) Oberdorf (2390 ft. ; Post"), a market-town with an old chateau 
(branch-line to Lechlruck, 1372 M. in IV4 hr.). — The branch- 
railway to Fussen runs to the S.E., via Weizern-Hopferau. To the 
left appears the Hop f msec. 

23 M. Fussen. — The Railway Station lies a short distance from the 
town, 1/3 M. from the bridge over the Lech. — Hotels. Baybibchek Hof 
(Post), at the station, R. 2-1, B. 1 Jl; Hiascn; AltePost; Mohken; Nece 
Post j Neu-Schwanstbin \ Lowe; Sonne •, Baumoarten; Sghipf. 

Fussen (2615 ft.), a small town (4500 inhab.) pleasantly situated 
on the Lech, and dominated by a castle erected by the bishops of 
Augsburg in 1322, restored by King Max II., and now occupied by 
the district-court, is a frequented summer-resort. Below the castle 
are the suppressed Benedictine abbey of St. Mang, founded in 629 
(now private property), and the Church of St. Magnus, erected in 
1701 on older foundations. The gate in the town-wall between the 
castle and the church commands a fine view. — On the Lech, about 
l fe M. above Fussen, is the small sulphur bath of Faulenbach. 

On the right bank of the Lech, a few hundred paces above the bridge, 
a path with pilgrimage-stations ascends from the church to O/s hr.) the 
*Kalvarienberg (3130 ft.), commanding a beautiful view of the valley of 
the Lech and Fussen, Hohenschwangau, and Neu-Schwanstein. A footpath 
leads hence, skirting the 8 ch wan see, direct to (1 hr.) Hohenschwangau. 

The Road fromFOssbn to Hohenschwangau (3M.) crosses the 
Lech, turns to the left, and descends the right bank of the Lech. It 
then turns to the right, passing the (IV2 M.) Altersehrofen Inn and 
the Cafe* Luitpold, and leads through the park, skirting the Schloss- 
berg, to (1^2 M.) Hohenschwangau. — Pedestrians (IV4 hr.) follow 
the road to Reutte (p. 267), to the right beyond the bridge, for 
5min., then ascend the path to the left on the slope of the Kalvarien- 
berg, which leads past the (7 min.) view-point known as the 'Kanzel', 
crosses a cart-track, and passes through wood to (6 min.) the saddle 
between the Kalvarienberg and the Schwarzenberg (to the right, an 
approach to the Alpenrosen-Weg, see p. 265). In 2 min. more we 
reach the so-called 'Konigstrasse' (driving forbidden), which we 


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JjM* ili]iU>m K 4 

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d by Google 

HOHENSCHWANGAU. 36. Route. 265 

descend to the left, through wood, with a view ofNeu-Schwanstein 
and of Hohenschwangau. Before reaching the (18 min.) Schwansee 
we take the footpath to the right across the (25 min.) ridge, where 
the 'Alpenrosen-Weg' (see below) joins our route, to (12 min.) the 
village of Hohenschwangau. — A longer but finer route (l 1 ^ h r is 
offered by theAlpenrosen- Weg> which begins at the Weisshaus (p. 267) 
and winds along the wooded slope of the Schwarzenberg, commanding 
beautiful views. This route may be joined from the Schwarz-Briioke 
or from the saddle between the Kalvarienberg and the Schwarzenberg 
(see p. 264). 

Hohenschwangau. — Hotels. *Hot.-Pbnb. Alpbnkobe, beautifully 
situated on the Alpsee, R. 31/2-6 Jt, B. i Jf 80 pf., pens. 8-10 JH (in June 
and Sept. 6V2-8 J*)\ *H6t.-Pens. Schwansee, 7* M. from the Alpsee, in 
a quiet situation, similar charges; Zdb Liksl, B. 2-4 Jf. 

The castles of Hohenschwangau and Neu-Schwanstein are open from 
May Uth to Oct. 15th, week-days 9-12 and 2-5, Sun. and holidays 10-12 
and 2-5; closed on June 13th, the anniversary of Kin? Louis II.'s death. 
Adm. to Schloss Hohenschwangau 50 pf., to Schloss Neu-Schwanstein 3, 
Sun. I1/2 Jt. 

Hohenschwangau (2690 ft.), a small village at the foot of a wooded 
hill crowned by the castle of the same name, is a pleasant summer- 
resort with numerous attractive walks in the vicinity. It lies near 
the beautiful bluish-green • Alpsee, which is girdled with fine woods, 
while the steep crags of the Pilgerschroffen rise above its S. end. 
Opposite the Alpenrose Hotel begins the l Fursten-Strasse' (open to 
pedestrians only), from which (3 min.) a road to the right to Schloss 
Hohenschwangau and (8 min.) the above-mentioned footpath to 
Fiissen diverge. About 40 paces farther on a footpath leads to the 
left to the Tindar-Platz', a rocky projection with a fine view of the 
lake (p. 267). Well-made paths make the entire circuit of the lake 
(I1/4 hr.). — The footpath to the old Schloss ascends opposite the 
Liesl Inn (5 min.). Admission, see above. 

*Schloss Hohenschwangau (2840 ft), formerly called Schwan- 
stein, originally belonged to the house of Guelph, but in 1291 came 
into the possession of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia and in 
1567 passed to the dukes of Bavaria. In the 17th and 18th cent, it 
was several times besieged and captured, for the last time in 1809. 
It was sold for a trifling sum in 1820, and in 1832 purchased by 
King Max II. of Bavaria, then crown-prince, who caused the ruin to 
be entirely reconstructed and decorated in the interior with frescoes 
from German legend and history bySchwind, Lindenschmit, and other 
artists. The castle commands charming views of the plain, the Alp- 
see, and Neu-Schwanstein. It was the favourite residence of King 
Max II. and Louis II., the latter of whom spen